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Full text of "Catena aurea : commentary on the four Gospels, collected out of the works of the Fathers"

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in 2011 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/catenaaureacomm02thom 



I 



Catena Hurca. 



Catena $Uirca. 



COMMENTARY 



ON THE 



FOUR GOSPELS, 



COLLECTED OUT OF THE 



WORKS OF THE FATHERS 



BY 



S. THOMAS AQUINAS, 



VOL. IT. 
ST. MARK. 



OXFORD, 

JOHN HENRY PARKER ; 

J. G. F. AND J. RIVINGTON, LONDON. 

MDCCCXLII. 




KQV 1 2 1934 

73 2. 



I 



BAXTER, PRINTER, OXFORD. 



PREFACE. 



The Remarks prefixed to the first volume of this Trans- 
lation of the Aurea Catena, apply in their substance to the 
following portion of it, which contains the Commentary on 
S. Mark. Wherever the variations from the original writers 
were such as to destroy the sense of the passage, the true 
reading has been followed, and has been placed in the margin. 
In other cases the text has been translated, as it is found in 
S. Thomas. 

Many of the passages ascribed to S. Chrysostom are not 
found in the works of that Father. Most of these occur also 
in a Greek Catena on S. Mark, published by Possinus, from 
a MS. in the Library of the Archbishop of Tolouse, and still 
more of them in the Edition which has been recently printed 
by the Oxford University Press, from a MS. in the Bodleian. 
A Latin Version of this Catena or Commentary had previously 
been published by Peltanus, and is found in the Bibliotheca 
Patrum; and contains far the greater number of the same 
passages marked as S. Chrysostom's in the Catena Aurea. It is 
commonly ascribed to Victor of Antioch; though by some, with 
little probability, to S. Cyril of Alexandria. A Commentary 
on a portion of S. Mark published by Waste], who gives the 
authorship of it and of the Opus Imperfectum in Matthaeum 
to John of Jerusalem, also contains a number of the same 
passages which S. Thomas ascribes to S. Chrysostom. 

Some of the extracts marked " Cyril" are found in a Com- 
mentary of S. Cyril of iUexandria on S. Luke, lately published 
by Mai. 



vi PREFACE. 

The passages ascribed to S. Jerome, are taken from a 
Commentary found among his works, but universally pro- 
nounced to be spurious. It has been ascribed to Pelagius, 
but with more probability to Philippus Presbyter, a friend 
and disciple of S. Jerome. It is entirely mystical, and is in 
many places hopelessly obscure. 

For the translation of the Volume now presented to the 
reader, the Editors have to make their acknowledgments to 
John Dobree Dalgairns, M. A. of Exeter College. 

J. H. N. 



ERRATUM. 

P. 184. note \. for A.D. 1417. read Paris 1517. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

The following Compilation not being admissible into the 
Library of the Fathers from the date of some few of the 
authors introduced into it, the Editors of the latter work 
have been led to publish it in a separate form, being assured 
that those who have subscribed to their Translations of the 
entire Treatises of the ancient Catholic divines, will not feel 
less interest, or find less benefit, in the use of so very 
judicious and beautiful a selection from them. The Editors 
refer to the Preface for some account of the natural and 
characteristic excellences of the work, which will be found 
as useful in the private study of the Gospels, as it is well 
adapted for family reading, and full of thought for those who 
are engaged in religious instruction. 

Oxford, May 6, 1841. 






PREFACE 

TO THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 

ST. MARK. 



Tsaiah xlix. 5, 6. 

My God shall be my strength. And he said, It is a light 
thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the 
tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I 
will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou 
mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth. 

The Prophet Isaiah foretells in a clear prophecy the 
calling of the Gentiles, and the cause of their salvation, 
saying, My God shall be my strength. And he said, fyc. 
Jkrome ; In which words, it is shewn that Christ is called aHier. 
servant, because He is formed from the womb. For, before { n °E™' 
these words it is said: Thus saith the Lord, that formed 
me from the womb to be his servant. It had indeed been 
the will of the Father, that the wicked tillers of the vineyard 
should receive the Son whom He had sent; wherefore Christ 
says of them to His disciples, Go not into the way of theM*\.\o, 
Gentiles, but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 6 * 
Because then Israel was not brought back to God, for that 
reason the Son of God speaks to the unbelieving Jews, 
saying, My God shall be my strength, who also has consoled 
me on the casting away of my people. And he hath said to 
me, // is a small thing that thou shouldest be my servant to 
raise up the tribes of Jacob, which have fallen by their own 
wickedness, and to restore the preserved, or remnant of Israel. 

VOL. II. B 



2 PREFACE TO THE GOSPEL 

For instead of them, / have given thee for a light to all the 
Gentiles, that thou shouldest illuminate the whole world, 
and shouldest cause my salvation, by which men are saved, 
to reach to the ends of the world. 
Gloss. Gloss. From the words then, which have been quoted, we 

non occ. , ',.. . . , . . 

can infer two things; first, the divine virtue which was in 
Christ, by which Fie was able to lighten the Gentiles ; for it 
2 Cor. 5, is said, My God shall be my strength. God therefore was in 
Christ, reconciling the world to himself, as the Apostle says 
Rom. l, to the Corinthians; whence also the Gospel, by which 
believers are saved, is the power of God unto salvation, to 
every one who believeth, as the same Apostle says to the 
Romans. The second thing is, the enlightening of the Gen- 
tiles, and the salvation of the world, fulfilled by Christ, 
according to the will of the Father ; for it is said, I will 
also give thee for a light to the Gentiles. Wherefore the Lord 
after His resurrection, that He might fulfil the will of the 
Father, sent His disciples to preach, saying, Go ye, and 
teach all nations; some He sent to the Jews, some received 
the ministry of preaching to the Gentiles. But because 
it was right ihat the Gospel should not only be preached for 
those who then lived, but also be written for those who were 
to come, the same distinction is observed in the writers of 
the Gospel. For Matthew wrote the Gospel to the Jews in 
Hebrew, and Mark was the first to write a Gospel amongst 
Euseb. the Gentiles. Euseb. For when the glorious light of the 
Eccles. word of God had arisen over the city of Rome, the doctrine 
ii. 15. f truth and of light, which Peter was then preaching to 
them, so shone upon the minds of all, by their patience in 
listening, that they heard him daily without ever being 
weary. Whence also they were not content with hearing 
only, but they earnestly beg of Mark his disciple, to commit 
to writing those things which he preached by word of mouth, 
that they might have a perpetual memorial of them, and 
might continue both at home and abroad in meditations of 
this sort upon the word. And they did not leave off their 
importunities, till they obtained what they had requested. 
This then was the cause of the writing of the Gospel of 
Mark. But Peter, when by the Holy Ghost he discovered 
the pious theft which had been put upon him, was filled 



ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. 3 

with joy, for he saw by this, their faith and devotion ; and \w 
gave his sanction to what was done, and handed down the 
writing to the Churches, to be read for ever. Pseudo-Jerome ; Pseudo- 
He begins at once with the announcement of the more perfect sup 
age of Christ, nor does he spend his labour on the birth Marc, in 
of Christ as a little child, for he speaks of his perfection as 
the Son of God. Chrys. But he makes a compendious andChrys. 
brief beginning, in which he has imitated his master Peter, j n mW. 
who was a lover of brevity. Aug. Matthew, who hadAug.de 
undertaken to relate what concerned the kingly person of Evan. i. 
Christ, had Mark assigned to him for a companion and an 3 - 
abbreviator, who was to attend upon his steps. For it 
belongs to kings not to be without a train of attendants. 
Since again the priest used to enter alone into the Holy of 
Holies, Luke, whose design had regard to the priesthood of 
Christ, had no companion to follow his steps, and in a 
manner to abbreviate his narration. 

Bede ; It is also to be observed, that the holy Evangelists Bede in 
have each fixed upon a different commencement for their Marc - u 
narration, and each a different ending. For Matthew, setting 
out from the beginning of the preaching of the Gospel, has 
carried on the thread of his narrative up to the time of our 
Lord's resurrection. Mark, beginning with the first preaching 
of the Gospel, goes on to the ascension of the Lord, and the 
preaching of His disciples to all nations throughout the 
world. But Luke, commencing with the birth of the 
Forerunner, has ended with our Lord's ascension. John, 
taking his beginning from the eternity of the Word 
of God, reaches in his Gospel up to the time of the 
Lord's resurrection. Ambrose; Because then Mark began Aminos. 
with expressing the divine power, he is rightly repre- J" p"£'_ 
sented under the figure of a lion. Remig. Mark is sig- Mi- 
nified by the lion ; for as a lion sends forth his dread- p *. v iij'. 
ful voice in the wilderness, so Mark begins with the 
voice in the wilderness, saying, The voice of one crying 
in the wilderness. Aug. Although the figure might also Aug. de 
be otherwise interpreted. For Mark did not wish to relate e° 
either his kingly race, as Matthew did, who for this is e - 
figured by a lion, or his priestly kindred, or consecration, 
as Luke, figured by a calf; yet he is shewn to have had for 

B 2 



jvan.i. 



4 PREFACE TO THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. 

his subject the things which the man Christ did, and 

therefore appears to be signified by the figure of a man, in 

Theoph. the four animals. Theophylact ; Or, the eagle points out 

i f| jyr ft re 

in Prse-* the Gospel according to Mark, for it begins with the pro- 
fat, phecy of John; for prophecy views with acuteness things 
which are afar, as an eagle. 



COMMENTARY 

ON THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 

ST. MARK. 



CHAP. I. 

Ver. I. The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ, the Son of God. 

Jerome; Mark the Evangelist, who served the priest- Jeiom. 
hood in Israel, according to the flesh a Levite, having j" r( 
been converted to the Lord, wrote his Gospel in Italy, 
shewing in it how even his family benefited Christ. For, 
commencing his Gospel with the voice of the prophetic 
cry, he shews the order of the election of Levi, declaring 
that John the son of Zachariah was sent forth by the voice 
of an angel, and saying, The beginning of the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God. 

Pseudo-Jerome; The Greek word ' Evangelium' means 
good tidings, in Latin it is explained, * bona annunciatio,' or, 
the good news ; these terms properly belong to the kingdom 
of God and to the remission of sins ; for the G ospel is that, 
by which comes the redemption of the faithful and the 
beatitude of the saints. But the four Gospels are one, 
and one Gospel is four. In Hebrew, His name is Jesus, 
in Greek, Soter, in Latin, Salvator; but men say Christus 
in Greek, Messias in Hebrew, Unctus in Latin, that is, King 
and Priest. Bede; The beginning of this Gospel should beBedein 
compared with that of Matthew, in which it is said, The ™ Arc - '• 
book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the Son of David, 
the Son of Abraham. But here He is called the Son of 
God. Now from both we must understand one Lord Jesus 
Christ, Son of God, and of man. And fitly the first 
Evangelist names Him Son of man, the second, Son of 



GOSPEk ACCORDING TO CHAP. I. 

God, that from less things our sense may by degrees mount 
up to greater, and by faith and the sacraments of the human 
nature assumed, rise to the acknowledgment of His divine 
eternity. Fitly also did He, who was about to describe His 
human generation, begin with a son of man, namely, David 
or Abraham. Fitly again, he who was beginning his book 
with the first preaching of the Gospel, chose rather to call 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God ; for it belonged to the human 
nature to take upon Him the reality of our flesh, of the race 
of the patriarchs, and it was the work of Divine power to 
Hilar, preach the Gospel to the world. Hilary ; He has testified, 
iii. 11. that Christ was the Son of God, not in name only, but by 
His own proper nature. We are the sons of God, but He 
is not a son as w r e are ; for He is the very and proper Son, 
by origin, not by adoption ; in truth, not in name ; by birth, 
not by creation, 

Mai. 3, 2. As it is written in the Prophets, Behold, I send 
my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare 
thy way before thee. 

3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 

isa. 40, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths 
straight. 

Bede Bede ; Being about to write his Gospel, Mark rightly puts 

ubi sup. £ rst ^g testimonies of the Prophets, that he might notify 

to all, that what he should write was to be received without 

scruple of doubt, in that he shewed that these things were 

beforehand foretold by the Prophets. At once, by one and 

the same beginning of his Gospel, he prepared the Jews, who 

had received the Law and the Prophets, for receiving the 

grace of the Gospel, and those sacraments, which their own 

prophecies had foretold ; and he also calls upon the Gentiles, 

who came to the Lord by publishing of the Gospel, to 

receive and venerate the authority of the Law and the 

Hierom. Prophets ; whence he says, As it is written in the prophet 

mach. Isaiah, Behold, fyc. Jerome; But this is not written in 

Epist. X S aiah, but in Malachi, the last of the twelve prophets. 

Vict. Pseudo-Chrys. But it may be said that it is a mistake of the 

Cat e Writer, Otherwise it may be said, that he has compressed 

Marc. 



VER. 2, 3. ST. MARK. 7 

into one, two prophecies delivered in different places by 
two prophets ; for in the prophet Isaiah it is written after 
the story of Hezekiah, The voice of one crying in the 
wilderness ; but in Malachi, Behold, I send mine angel. 
The Evangelist therefore, taking parts of two prophecies, has 
put them down as spoken by Isaiah, and refers them here to 
one passage, without mentioning, however, by whom it is said, 
Behold, I send mine angel. Pseudo-Aug. For knowing that Pseudo- 
all things are to be referred to their author, he has brought Q u ^' st> 
these sayings back to Isaiah, who was the first to intimate nov.et 

vet 1 est 

the sense. Lastly, after the words of Malachi, he im- i v ji. 
mediately subjoins, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 
in order to connect the words of each prophet, belonging as 
they do to one meaning, under the person of the elder 
prophet. Bede ; Or otherwise, we must understand, that, Bede 
although these words are not found in Isaiah, still the sense u ' sup * 
of them is found in many other places, and most clearly in 
this which he has subjoined, The voice of one crying in the 
ivilderness. For that which Malachi has called, the angel 
to be sent before the face of the Lord, to prepare His way, 
is the same thing as Isaiah has said is to be heard, the voice 
of one crying in the wilderness, saying, Prepare ye the way 
of the Lord. But in each sentence alike, the way of the 
Lord to be prepared is proclaimed. It may be, too, that 
Isaiah occurred to the mind of Mark, in writing his Gospel, 
instead of Malachi, as often happens; which he would, 
however, without doubt correct, at least when reminded by 
other persons, who might read his work whilst he was yet 
in the flesh ; unless he thought, that, sii.ee his memory was 
then ruled by the Holy Spirit, it was not without a purpose, 
that the name of one prophet had occurred to him instead of 
another. For thus whatsoever things the Holy Spirit spoke 
by the prophets, are implied each to have belonged to all, 
and all to each. Jerome ; By Malachi, therefore, the voice 
YlvevfxuTos "Ayiov of the Holy Spirit resounds to the Father 
concerning the Son, who is the countenance of the Father 
by which He has been known. 

Bede; But John is called an angel not by community of Bede 
nature, according to the heresy of Origen 3 , but by the dignity up * 

a Origen taught that all rational of one nature, differing only in rank 
beings, angels, devils, and men, were and condition, according to their de- 



8 



GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. I. 



of his office; for angel in Greek is in Latin, nuntius, 
(messenger,) by which name that man is rightly called, 
who was sent by God, that he might bear witness of the 
light, and announce to the world the Lord, coming in the 
flesh; since it is evident that all who are priests may by 
their office of preaching the Gospel be called angels, as the 
Mai. 2, prophet Malachi says, The lips of the priest keep knowledge, 
and they seek the law at his mouth, because he is the Angel 
of the Lord of hosts. 

Theophylact; The Forerunner of Christ, therefore, is 
called an angel, on account of his angelic life and lofty 
reverence. Again, where he says, Before thy face, it is as if 
he said, Thy messenger is near thee : whence is shewn 
the intimate connection of the Forerunner with Christ ; for 
those walk next to kings, who are their greatest friends. 
There follows, Who will prepare thy way before thee. For 
by baptism he prepared the minds of the Jews to receive 
Christ. Pseudo-Jerome; Or, the way of the Lord, by which 
He comes into men, is penitence, by which God comes down 
to us, and we mount up to Him. And for this reason the 
Bede beginning of John's preaching was, Repent ye. Bede; But 
* as John might be called an angel, because he went before 
the face of the Lord by his preaching, so he might also be 
rightly called a voice, because, by his sound, he preceded 
the Word of the Lord. Wherefore there follows, The voice 
of one crying, fyc. For it is an acknowledged thing that 
the Only-Begotten Son is called the Word of the Father, 
and even we, from having uttered words ourselves, know 
that the voice sounds first, in order that the word may after- 
wards be heard. Pseudo-Jerome; But it is called the voice 
of one crying, for we are wont to use a cry to deaf persons, 
and to those afar off, or when we are indignant, all which 
things we know applied to the Jews ; for salvation is far 
from the wicked, and they stopped their ears like deaf adders, 
and deserved to hear indignation, and wrath, and tribulation 
vic, « from Christ. Pseudo-Chrys. But the prophecy, by saying, 
Cat." in In the wilderness, plainly shews that the divine teaching was 
Marc - not in Jerusalem, but in the wilderness, which was fulfilled to 

serts, (in Joan. torn. ii. 17.) and capa- was an angel, quoting this text, (in 

ble of change: that men had once been Joan. ii. 25.) v. Huet. Orig. II. qu. 5. 

angels: that angels took human nature No. 14, 24, 25. 
to serve man, and that St. John Baptist 



VKR. 2, 3. ST. MARK. 9 

the letter by John the Baptist in the wilderness of Jordan, 
preaching the healthful appearing of the Word of God. 
The word of prophecy also shews, that besides the non occ. 
wilderness, which was pointed out by Moses, where he 
made paths, there was another wilderness, in which it pro- 
claimed that the salvation of Christ was present. Pseudo- 
Jerome ; Or else the voice and the cry is in the desert, 
because they were deserted by the Spirit of God, as 
a house empty, and swept out ; deserted also by prophet, 
priest, and king. Bede ; What he cried is revealed, in Bede 
that which is subjoined, Prepare ye the ivay of the Lord, 
make his paths straight. For whosoever preaches a right 
faith and good works, what else does he but prepare the 
way for the Lord's coming to the hearts of His hearers, that 
the power of grace might penetrate these hearts, and the 
light of truth shine in them ? And the paths he makes 
straight, when he forms pure thoughts in the soul by the 
word of preaching. Pseudo-Jerome; Or else, Prepare ye 
the way of the Lord, that is, act out repentance and preach it; 
make his paths straight, that walking in the royal road, we 
may love our neighbours as ourselves, and ourselves as our 
neighbours. For he who loves himself, and loves not his 
neighbour, turns aside to the right; for many act well, and 
do not correct their neighbour well, as Eli. He, on the other 
hand, who, hating himself, loves his neighbour, turns aside 
to the left ; for many, for instance, rebuke well, but act not 
well themselves, as did the Scribes and Pharisees. Paths 
are mentioned after the way, because moral commands are 
laid open after penitence. Theophylact ; Or, the way is 
the New Testament, and the paths are the Old, because it is 
a trodden path. For it was necessary to be prepared for the 
way, that is, for the New Testament ; but it was right that 
the paths of the Old Testament should be straightened. 

4- John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach 
the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins. 

5. And there went out unto him all the land of 
Judaea, and they of Jerusalem, and were all baptized 
of him in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins. 

6. And John was clothed with camel's hair, and 



10 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. I. 

with a girdle of a skin about his loins ; and he did 
eat locusts and wild honey ; 

7. And preached, saying, There cometh one mightier 
than I after me, the latchet of whose shoes I am not 
worthy to stoop down and unloose. 

8. I indeed have baptized you with water : but he 
shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost. 

Pseudo-Jerome ; According to the above-mentioned pro- 
phecy of Isaiah, the way of the Lord is prepared by John, 
through faith, baptism, and penitence ; the paths are made 
straight by the rough marks of the hair-cloth garment, the girdle 
of skin, the feeding on locusts and wild honey, and the most 
lowly voice ; whence it is said, John was in the wilderness. 
For John and Jesus seek what is lost in the wilderness ; 
where the devil conquered, there he is conquered; where 
man fell, there he rises up. But the name John means the 
grace of God, and the narrative begins with grace. For it 
goes on to say, baptizing. For by baptism grace is given, 
seeing that by baptism sins are freely remitted. But what is 
brought to perfection by the bridegroom, is introduced by 
the friend of the bridegroom. Thus catechumens, (which 
word means persons instructed,) begin by the ministry of the 
priest, receive the chrism b from the bishop. And to shew this, 
it is subjoined, And preaching the baptism of repentance ', fyc. 
Bede in Bede ; It is evident that John not only preached, but also 
2. gave to some the baptism of repentance ; but he could not 

give baptism for the remission of sins c . For remission of 
sins is only given to us by the baptism of Christ. It is 
therefore only said, Preaching the baptism of repentance 
for the remission of sins; for he preached a baptism 
which could remit sins, since he could not give it. Where- 
fore as he was the forerunner of the Incarnate Word 
of the Father, by the word of his preaching, so by his bap- 
tism, which could not remit sins, he preceded that baptism, 

b u Chrismantur." Chrism in the Church, it was given once, usually at 
Roman Church, was applied twice ; at Baptism, by the Priest, but if for any 
Baptism, and more solemnly to the reason omitted, hy the Bishop at Con- 
forehead hy the Bishop at Confirma- nrmation. v. Bingham Antiq. b. xii. c. 
tion. In the Eastern Church, it was 2. §. 2. 
only given once, at Confirmation, and c v. vol. i. p. 97. note a. 
by the Bishop only. In the French 



VER. 4 — 8. ST. MARK. 11 

of penitence, by which sins are remitted. Theophylact ; 
The baptism of John had not remission of sins, but only 
brought men to penitence. He preached therefore the baptism 
of repentance, that is, he preached that to which the baptism 
of penitence led, namely, remission of sins, that they who in 
penitence received Christ, might receive Him to the remission 
of their sins. Pseudo-Jerome ; Now by John as by the bride- 
groom's friend, the bride is brought to Christ, as by a servant 
Rebecca was brought to Isaac ; wherefore there follows, And Gen.24, 
there went out to him all, fyc. For confession and beauty p s 95 g 
are in his presence, that is, the presence of the bridegroom. Vulg. 
And the bride leaping down from her camel signifies the 
Church, who humbles herself on seeing her husband Isaac, 
that is, Christ. But the interpretation of Jordan, where sins 
are washed away, is ' an alien descent.' For we heretofore 
aliens to God by pride, are by the sign of Baptism madesymbo- 
lowly, and thus exalted on high' 1 . 

Bede; An example of confessing their sins and of pro-Bede 
mising to lead a new life, is held out to those who desire to 11 ' sup * 
be baptized, by those words which follow, confessing their 
sins. Chrys. Because indeed John preached repentance, 
he wore the marks of repentance in his garment and in 
his food, wherefore there follows, And John was clothed in 
cameVs hair. Bede; It says, clothed in a garment of hair, 
not in woollen clothes ; the former is the mark of an austere 
garb, the latter of effeminate luxury. But the girdle of 
skins, with which he was girt, like Elias, is a mark of morti- 
fication. And this meat, locusts and wild honey, is suited 
to a dweller in the wilderness, so that his object in eating 
was not the deliciousness of meats, but the satisfying of the 
necessity of human flesh. Pseudo-Jerome ; The dress of 
John, his food, and employment, signifies the austere life of 
preachers, and that future nations are to be joined to the 
grace of God, which is John, both in their minds and in ex- 
ternals. For by camel's hair, is meant the rich among the 
nations ; and by the girdle of skin, the poor, dead to the 
world ; and by the wandering locusts, the wise men of this 
world; who, leaving the dry stalks to the Jews, draw off 
with their legs the mystic grain, and in the warmth of thi 
4 v. S. Cyril of Jems. Cat. xx. 4—7. >**tf^ ^ 




12 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. I. 

faith leap up towards heaven ; and the faithful, being 
inspired by the wild honey, are full-fed from the untilled 
wood. Theoph. Or else ; The garment of camel's hair 
was significative of grief, for John pointed out, that he who 
repented should mourn. For sackcloth signifies grief; but 
the girdle of skins shews the dead state of the Jewish 
people. The food also of John not only denotes abstinence, 
but also shews forth the intellectual food, which the people 
then were eating, without understanding any thing lofty, but 
continually raising themselves on high, and again sinking 
to the earth. For such is the nature of locusts, leaping 
on high and again falling. In the same way the people ate 
honey, which had come from bees, that is, from the prophets; 
it was not however domestic, but wild, for the Jews had the 
Scriptures, which are as honey, but did not rightly under- 
stand them. 
£j re g- Gregory ; Or, by the kind itself of his food he pointed 
xxxi. 25. out the Lord, of whom he was the forerunner ; for in that 
our Lord took to Himself the sweetness of the barren Gentiles, 
he ate wild honey. In that He in His own person partly 
converted the Jews, He received locusts for His food, which 
suddenly leaping up, at once fall to the ground. For the 
Jews leaped up when they promised to fulfil the precepts of 
the Lord ; but they fell to the ground, when by their evil 
works they affirmed that they had not heard them. They 
made therefore a leap upwards in words, and fell down by 
Bede their actions. Bede ; The dress and food of John may also 
express of what kind was his inward walk. For he used 
a dress more austere than was usual, because he did not 
encourage the life of sinners by flattery, but chid them by 
the vigour of his rough rebuke ; he had a girdle of skin round 
Gal. 5, his loins, for he was one, who crucified his Jlesh with the 
2 affections and lusts. He used to eat locusts and wild honey, 

because his preaching had some sweetness for the multitude, 
whilst the people debated whether he was the Christ 
himself or not; but this soon came to an end, when his 
hearers understood that he was not the Christ, but the 
forerunner and prophet of Christ. For in honey there is 
sweetness, in locusts swiftness of flight ; whence there fol- 
lows, And he preached, saying, there cometh one mightier 



VER. 4 — 8. ST. MARK. 13 

than I after me. Gloss. He said this to do away with Gloss, 
the opinion of the crowd, who thought that he was non occ " 
the Christ; but he announces that Christ is mightier 
than he, who was to remit sins, which he himself could 
not do. Pseudo-Jerome ; Who again is mightier than the 
grace, by which sins are washed away, which John signi- 
fies ? He who seven times and seventy times seven remits Mat. 18 7 

. . 22. 

sin. Grace indeed comes first, but remits sins once only 

by baptism, but mercy reaches to the wretched from Adam 
up to Christ through seventy-seven generations, and up to 
one hundred and forty-four thousand. Pseudo-Chrys. But Vict, 
lest he should be thought to say this by way of comparing c ^ t ' * n 
himself to Christ, he subjoins, Of whom I am not worthy, fyc. Marc. 
It is not however the same thing to loose the shoe-latchet, 
which Mark here says, and to carry his shoes, which Matthew 
says. And indeed the Evangelists following the order of the 
narrative, and not able to err in any thing, say that John 
spoke each of these sayings in a different sense. But com- 
mentators on this passage have expounded each in a different 
way. For he means by the latchet, the tie of the shoe. He non occ. 
says this therefore to extol the excellence of the power of 
Christ, and the greatness of His divinity ; as if he said, Not 
even in the station of his servant am I worthy to be reckoned. 
For it is a great thing to contemplate, as it were stooping- 
down, those things which belong to the body of Christ, and 
to see from below the image of things above, and to untie 
each of those mysteries, about the Incarnation of Christ, 
which cannot be unravelled. Pseudo-Jerome ; The shoe is 
in the extremity of the body ; for in the end the Incarnate 
Saviour is coming for justice, whence it is said by the prophet, 
Over Edom will I cast out my shoe. Ps.60,9. 

Gregory; Shoes also are made from the skins of dead Greg, 
animals. The Lord, therefore, coming incarnate, appeared Evan. m 
as it were with shoes on His feet, for He assumed in His vn « 
divinity the dead skins of our corruption. Or else ; it was a 
custom among the ancients, that if a man refused to take as 
his wife the woman whom he ought to take, he who offered 
himself as her husband by right of kindred took off that 
man's shoe. Rightly then does he proclaim himself unwor- 
thy to loose his shoe-latchet, as if he said openly, I cannot 



14 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO (HAH. I. 

make bare the feet of the Redeemer, for I usurp not the 
name of the Bridegroom, a thing which is above my deserts. 
Theoph. Some persons also understand it thus; all who came 
to John, and were baptized, through penitence were loosed 
from the bands of their sins by believing in Christ. John 
then in this way loosed the shoe-latchet of all the others, 
that is, the bands of sin. But Christ's shoe-latchet he was 

Bede not able to unloose, because he found no sin in Him. Bede; 

ubi sup. ^us ^ en T h n proclaims the Lord not yet as God, or the 
Son of God, but only as a man mightier than himself. For 
his ignorant hearers were not yet capable of receiving the 
hidden things of so great a Sacrament, that the eternal Son of 
God, having taken upon Him the nature of man, had been 
lately bom into the world of a virgin ; but gradually by the 
acknowledgment of His glorified lowliness, they were to be 
introduced to the belief of His Divine Eternity. To these 
words, however, he subjoins, as if covertly declaring that he was 
the true God, / baptize you with water, but he shall baptize 
you with the Holy Ghost. For who can doubt, that none 
other but God can give the grace of the Holy Ghost. 
Jerome ; For what is the difference between water and the 
Holy Ghost, who was borne over the face of the waters ? 
Water is the ministry of man ; but the Spirit is ministered 

Bede by God. Bede ; Now we are baptized by the Lord in the 

u i sup. jj iy Ghost, not only when in the day of our baptism, we are 
washed in the fount of life, to the remission of our sins, but 
also daily by the grace of the same Spirit we are inflamed, to 
do those things which please God. 

9. And it came to pass in those days, that Jesus 
came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of 
John in Jordan. 

10. And straightway coming up out of the water, 
he saw the heavens opened, and the Spirit like a dove 
descending upon him : 

11. And there came a voice from heaven, saying, 
Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 

Pseudo-Jerome; Mark the Evangelist, like a hart, longing 



VER. 9 — 11. ST. MARK. 15 

after the fountains of water, leaps forward over places, smooth 
and steep ; and, as a bee laden with honey, he sips the tops 
of the flowers. Wherefore he hath shewn us in his nar- 
rative Jesus coming from Nazareth, saying, And it came to 
pass in those days, fyc. Pseudo-Chrys. Forasmuch as He was Vict, 
ordaining a new baptism, He came to the baptism of John, cat'in 
which, in respect of His own baptism, was incomplete, but Marc- 
different from the Jewish baptism, as being between both. 
He did this that He might shew, by the nature of His 
baptism, that He was not baptized for the remission of sins, nor 
as wanting the reception of the Holy Ghost: for the baptism of 
John was destitute of both these. But He was baptized that 
He might be made known to all, that they might believe on 
Him and fulfil all righteousness, which is keeping of the 
commandments : for it had been commanded to men that 
they should submit to the Prophet's baptism. Bede ; HeBedein 
was baptized, that by being baptized Himself He might 4 arc ' *' 
shew His approval of John's baptism 6 , and that, by sanctify- 
ing the waters of Jordan through the descent of the dove, 
He might shew the coming of the Holy Ghost in the laver 
of believers; whence there follows, And straightway coming 
up out of the water, he saw the heavens opened, and the 
Holy Spirit like a dove descending, and resting upon him. 
But the heavens are opened, not by the unclosing of the 
elements, but to the eyes of the spirit, to which Ezekiel in Ezek. 1. 
the beginning of his book relates that they were opened ; or 
this His seeing the heavens opened after baptism was done 
for our sakes, to whom the door of the kingdom of heaven is 
opened by the laver of regeneration. 

Pseudo-Chrys. Or else, that from heaven sanctification vict. 
might be given to men, and earthly things be joined to heavenly. £ nL . e 
But the Holy Spirit is said to have descended upon Him, Marc. 
not as if He then first came to Him, for He never had left 
Him ; but that He might shew forth the Christ, Who was 
preached by John, and point Him out to all, as it were by 
the finger of faith. Bede; This event also, in which the Bede 
Holy Ghost was seen to come down upon baptism, was a Sl,p ' 
sign of spiritual grace to be given to us in baptism. Pseudo- 
Jerome ; But this is the anointing of Christ according to 

e Vol. i. p. J09, note h. 



16 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. I. 

the flesh, namely, the Holy Ghost, of which anointing it is 
Ps. 45, said, God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of 
'* , gladness above thy fellows. Bede: Well indeed in the 

Bede •' * 

ubi sup. shape of a dove did the Holy Ghost come down, for it is 
an animal of great simplicity, and far removed from the 
malice of gall, that in a figure He might shew us that He 
looks out for simple hearts, and deigns not to dwell in the 
minds of the wicked. Pseudo- Jerome; Again, the Holy Ghost 
Cant, came down in the shape of a dove, because in the Canticles it 
passim. j s sun g f tne (Jhurch : My bride, my love, my beloved, my 
dove. Bride in the Patriarchs, love in the Prophets, near 
of kin in Joseph and Mary, beloved in John the Baptist, 
Mat. 10, dove in Christ and His Apostles : to whom it is said, Be 
Bede & e w ^ se as serpents, and harmless as doves. Bede ; Now 
ubi sup. the Dove sat on the head of Jesus, lest any one should think 
that the voice of the Father was addressed to John and not 
to Christ. And well did he add, abiding on Him ; for this 
is peculiar to Christ, that the Holy Ghost once filling Him 
should never leave Him. For sometimes to His faithful 
disciples the grace of the Spirit is conferred for signs of 
virtue, and for the working of miracles, sometimes it is 
taken away ; though for the working of piety and righteous- 
ness, for the preservation of love to God and to one's 
neighbour, the grace of the Spirit is never absent. But 
the voice of the Father shewed, that He Himself, who came 
to John to be baptized with the others, was the very Son of 
God, willing to baptize with the Holy Spirit, whence there 
follows, And there came a voice from heaven, Thou art 
my beloved Son, in thee I am well pleased. Not that 
this informed the Son Himself of a thing of which He 
was ignorant, but it shews to us what we ought to believe. 
Aug. de Aug. Wherefore Matthew relates that the voice said, This is 

£°°?\ A my beloved Son ; for he wished to shew that the words, 
Ev.n.14. J m 7 

This is My Son, were in fact said, that thus the persons who 
heard it might know that He, and not another, was the Son 
of God. But, if you ask, which of these two sounded forth 
in that voice, take which you will, only remember, that the 
Evangelists, though not relating the same form of speak- 
ing, relate the same meaning. And that God delighted 
Himself in His Son, we are reminded in these words, In 



VER. 12, 13. ST. MARK. 17 

thee I am well pleased. Bede; The same voice hasBedo 
taught us, that we also, by the water of cleansing, and u ' 8up ; 
by the Spirit of sanctification, may be made the sons of 
God. The mystery of the Trinity also is shewn forth in 
the baptism ; the Son is baptized, the Spirit comes down 
in the shape of a dove, the voice of the Father bearing 
witness to the Son is heard. Pseu do- Jerome ; Morally also 
it may be interpreted; we also, drawn aside from the 
fleeting world by the smell and purity of flowers, run v. Cant. 
with the young maidens after the bridegroom, and are 
washed in the sacrament of baptism, from the two fountains 
of the love of God, and of our neighbour, by the grace of 
remission, and mounting up by hope gaze upon heavenly 
mysteries with the eyes of a clean heart. Then we receive 
in a contrite and lowly spirit, with simplicity of heart, the 
Holy Spirit, who comes down to the meek, and abides in 
us, by a never-failing charity. And the voice of the Lord 
from heaven is directed to us the beloved of God ; Blessed Matt. 5, 
are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the sons of 
God; and then the Father, with the Son and the Holy 
Spirit, is well-pleased with us, when we are made one spirit 
with God. 

12. And immediately the spirit driveth him into 
the wilderness. 

13. And he was there in the wilderness forty days, 
tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and 
the angels ministered unto him. 

Chrys. Because all that Christ did and suffered was forChrys. 
our teaching, He began after His baptism to dwell in the M °™ ,n 
wilderness, and fought against the devil, that every baptized *»». 
person might patiently sustain greater temptations after His 
baptism, nor be troubled, as if this which happened to Him 
was contrary to His expectation, but might bear up against 
all things, and come off conqueror. For although God 
allows that we should be tempted for many other reasons, 
yet for this cause also He allows it, that we may know, 
that man when tempted is placed in a station of greater 
honour. For the Devil approaches not save where he has 

vol. it. c 



18 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. I. 

beheld one set in a place of greater honour ; and therefore 
it is said, And immediately the Spirit drove him into 
the wilderness. And the reason why He does not simply 
say, that He went into the wilderness, but was driven, 
is, that thou mayest understand that it was done ac- 
cording to the word of Divine Providence. By which also 
He shews, that no man should thrust himself into tempt- 
ation, but that those who from some other state are as 
Bede in it were driven into temptation, remain conquerors. Bede; 
1 a 5 rc * And that no one might doubt, by what spirit he said that 
Christ was driven into the wilderness, Luke has on purpose 
Luke 4, premised, that Jesus being full of the Spirit returned from 
Jordan, and then has added, and was led by the Spirit 
into the wilderness ; lest the evil spirit should be thought to 
have any power over Him, who, being full of the Holy Spirit, 
departed whither He was willing to go, and did what He 
Chrys. was willing to do. Chrys. But the Spirit drove Him into 
in Mat. t ^ e wilderness, because He designed to provoke the devil to 
xii. tempt Him, and thus gave Him an opportunity not only by 
hunger, but also by the place. For then most of all does 
the devil thrust himself in, when he sees men remaining 
solitary. 
Bede Bede ; But He retires into the desert that He may teach 

ubisup. ug fljg^ leaving the allurements of the world, and the 
company of the wicked, we should in all things obey 
the Divine commands. He is left alone and tempted by 
2Tim.3,the devil, that He might teach us, that all that will live godly 
in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution ; whence it follows, 
And he was in the ivilderness forty days and forty nights, 
and was tempted of Satan. But He was tempted forty days 
and forty nights, that He might shew us, that as long as we 
live here and serve God, whether prosperity smile upon us, 
which is meant by the day, or adversity smite us, which 
agrees with the figure of night, at all times our adversary 
is at hand, who ceases not to trouble our way by temptations. 
For the forty days and forty nights imply the whole time of 
this world, for the globe in which we are serving God is 
divided into four quarters. Again, there are Ten Command- 
ments, by observing which we fight against our enemy, but 
four times ten are forty. 



VER. 14, 15. ST. MARK. 19 

There follows, and he was with the wild beasts. Pseudo- Vict. 
Chrys. But He says this to shew of what nature was the c ^".* 
wilderness, for it was impassable by man and full of wild Marc, 
beasts. It goes on; and angels ministered unto him. For 
after temptation, and a victory against the devil, He worked 
the salvation of man. And thus the Apostle says, Angels are Heb. 1 , 
sent to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation. 
We must also observe, that to those who conquer in tempta- 
tion angels stand near and minister. Bede ; Consider also Bede 
that Christ dwells among the wild beasts as man, but, as sup ' 
God, uses the ministry of Angels. Thus, when in the 
solitude of a holy life we bear with unpolluted mind the 
bestial manners of men, we merit to have the ministry of 
Angels, by whom, when freed from the body, we shall be 
transferred to everlasting happiness. Pseudo-Jerome ; Or, 
then the beasts dwell with us in peace, as in the ark 
clean animals with the unclean, when the flesh lusts not 
against the spirit. After this, ministering Angels are sent 
to us, that they may give answers and comforts to hearts 
that watch. 

14. Now after that John was put in prison, Jesus 
came into Galilee, preaching the Gospel of the 
kingdom of God, 

15. And saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom 
of God is at hand : repent ye, and believe the Gospel. 

Pseudo-Chrys. The Evangelist Mark follows Matthew in Vict. 
his order, and therefore after having said that Angels minister, cat.i 
he subjoins, But after that John was put into prison, Jesus Marc - 
came, fyc. After the temptation and the ministry of Angels, He 
goes back into Galilee, teaching us not to resist the violence 
of evil men. Theophyl. And to shew us that in persecutions 
we ought to retire, and not to await them; but when we fall into 
them, we must sustain them. Pseudo-Chrys. He retired also Vict. 
that He might keep Himself for teaching and for healing, cat.' in 
before He suffered, and after fulfilling all these things, might Marc, 
become obedient unto death. Bede ; John being put in Bede 
prison, fitly does the Lord begin to preach : wherefore there u ! SU|J ' 
follows, Preaching the Gospel, fyc. For when the Law 
ceases, the Gospel arises in its steps. 

c 2 



20 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. I. 

Pseu do- Jerome; When the shadow ceases, the truth comes 
on ; first, John in prison, the Law in Judaea; then, Jesus in 
Galilee, Paul among the Gentiles preaching the Gospel of 
the kingdom. For to an earthly kingdom succeeds poverty, 
to the poverty of Christians is given an everlasting kingdom ; 
but earthly honour is like the foam of water, or smoke, or 
Bade sleep. Bede : Let no one, however, suppose that the 
putting of John in prison took place immediately after the 
forty days' temptation and the fast of the Lord ; for whoso- 
ever reads the Gospel of John will find, that the Lord taught 
many things before the putting of John in prison, and also 
John 2, did many miracles ; for you have in his Gospel, This 
John 3 beginning of miracles did Jesus ; and afterwards, for John 
24 - was not yet cast into prison. Now it is said, that when John 
read the books of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, he approved 
indeed the text of the history, and affirmed that they had 
spoken truth, but said that they had composed the history of 
only one year after John was cast into prison, in which year 
also he suffered. Passing over then the year of which the 
transactions had been published by the three others, he 
related the events of the former period, before John was cast 
into prison. When therefore Mark had said that Jesus 
came into Galilee, preaching the Gospel of the kingdom, he 
subjoins, saying, Since the time is fulfilled, fyc. 
Vict. Pseudo-Chrys. Since then the time was fulfilled, when the 

CM in f u ^ nesso fti mc W( xs come, and God sent his Son,'\t was fitting 
Marc, that the race of man should obtain the last dispensation of 
God. And therefore he says, for the kingdom of heaven is at 
Orig. in hand. But the kingdom of God is essentially the same 
tom x as ^e kingdom of heaven, though they differ in idea. 
14. For by the kingdom of God is to be understood that in 
v°o°v C ' wn ich G°d reigns ; and this in truth is in the region of 
de Orat.the living, where, seeing God face to face, they will abide 
fn Matt * n tne & 00 ^ tn i D o s now promised to them ; whether by this 
1. 12:14. region one chooses to understand Love, or some other 
confirmation e of those who put on the likeness of things 

e By ' confirmatio/ seems to be as used by S. Basil, (de Sp. S. 16.) 

meant the perfecting of spiritual natures. l Cceli' is commonly interpreted of the 

v. S. Thomas Aq. Summa, Theol. p. 1. Angels, by the Fathers. 
qu. lxii. Art. 1. It answers to trrt^iufis 



VER. 16 — 20. ST. MARK. 2l 

above, which are signified by the heavens. For it is clear y.Chrys. 
enough that the kingdom of God is confined neither by H om .i9. 
place nor by time. Theophyl. Or else, the Lord means inc. 6,9. 
that the time of the Law is completed ; as if He said, Up to 
this time the Law was at work ; from this time the kingdom 
of God will work, that is, a conversation according to the 
Gospel, which is with reason likened to the kingdom of 
heaven. For when you see a man clothed in flesh living 
according to the Gospel, do you not say that he has the 
kingdom of heaven, which is not meat and drink, but Rom. 
righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Ghost ? ' 

The next word is, Repent. Pseudo-Jerome ; For he must 
repent, who would keep close to eternal good, that is, to the 
kingdom of God. For he who would have the kernel, breaks 
the shell ; the sweetness of the apple makes up for the bitter- 
ness of its root; the hope of gain makes the dangers of the 
sea pleasant; the hope of health takes away from the 
painfulness of medicine. They are able worthily to proclaim 
the preaching of Christ who have deserved to attain to the 
reward of forgiveness ; and therefore after He has said, 
Repent, He subjoins, and believe the Gospel. For unless 
ye have believed, ye shall not understand. Bede; Repent, Bede 
therefore, and believe; that is, renounce dead works; for u>l sup " 
of what use is believing without good works? The merit 
of good works does not, however, bring to faith, but faith 
begins, that good works may follow. 

16. Now as he walked by the sea of Galilee, lie 
saw Simon and Andrew his brother casting a net into 
the sea : for they were fishers. 

17. And Jesus said unto them, Come ye after me, 
and I will make you to become fishers of men. 

18. And straightway they forsook their nets, and 
followed him. 

19. And when he had gone a little farther thence, 
he saw James the son of Zebedee, and John his 
brother, who also were in the ship mending their 
nets. 

20. And straightway he called them : and they 



22 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. I. 

left their father Zebedee in the ship with the hired 
servants, and went after him. 

Gloss. Gloss. The Evangelist, having mentioned the preaching 
'of Christ to the multitude, goes on to the calling of the 
disciples, whom he made ministers of his preaching, whence it 
follows, And passing along the sea of Galilee, fyc. Theophyl. 
As the Evangelist John relates, Peter and Andrew were 
disciples of the Forerunner, but seeing that John had borne 
witness to Jesus, they joined themselves to him; afterwards, 
grieving that John had been cast into prison, they returned 
to their trade. Wherefore there follows, casting nets into 
the sea, for they were fishers. Look then upon them, living 
on their own labours, not on the fruits of iniquity ; for such 
men were worthy to become the first disciples of Christ; 
whence it is subjoined, And Jesus said unto them, Come ye 
after me. Now He calls them for the second time ; for this 
is the second calling in respect of that, of which we read in 
John. But it is shewn to what they were called, when it is 
added, / will make you become fishers of men. Remig. For 
by the net of holy preaching they drew fish, that is, men, 
from the depths of the sea, that is, of infidelity, to the light of 
faith. Wonderful indeed is this fishing! for fishes when they 
are caught, soon after die ; when men are caught by the 
Bedein word of preaching, they rather are made alive. Bede; Now 
Marc. nsners arjc l unlettered men are sent to preach, that the faith 
of believers might be thought to lie in the power of God, not 
in eloquence or in learning. It goes on to say, and imme- 
diately they left their nets, and followed him. Theophyl. For 
we must not allow any time to lapse, but at once follow the 
Lord. After these again, He catches James and John, because 
they also, though poor, supported the old age of their 
father. Wherefore there follows, And when he had gone a 
little farther thence, he saw James the son of Zebedee, fyc. 
But they left their father, because he would have hindered 
them in following Christ. Do thou, also, when thou art 
hindered by thy parents, leave them, and come to God. It is 
shewn by this that Zebedee was not a believer ; but the 
mother of the Apostles believed, for she followed Christ, 
when Zebedee was dead. 



VER. 16 20. ST. MARK. 23 

Bedb; It may be asked, how he could call two fishers from Bede 
each of the boats, (first, Peter and Andrew, then having 11 ' * U1> * 
gone a little further, the two others, sons of Zebedee,) when 
Luke says that James and John were called to help Peter 
and Andrew, and that it was to Peter only that Christ said, 
Fear not, from this time thou shalt catch men ; he also says, Luke 5, 
that at the same time, when they had brougJd their ships to ' 
land, they followed him. We must therefore understand 
that that transaction which Luke intimates happened first, 
and afterwards that they, as their custom was, had returned 
to their fishing. So that what Mark here relates happened 
afterwards ; for in this case they followed the Lord, without 
drawing their boats ashore, (which they would have done had 
they meant to return,) and followed Him, as one calling them, 
and ordering them to follow. Pseudo-Jerome ; Further, we 
are mystically carried away to heaven, like Elias, by this 
chariot, drawn by these fishers, as by four horses. On these 
four corner-stones the first Church is built; in these, as in the 
four Hebrew letters, we acknowledge the tetragrammaton, m!T 
the name of the Lord, we who are commanded, after their 
example, to hear the voice of the Lord, and to forget the Ps- 45, 
people of wickedness, and the house of our fathers' 1 conversa- 
tion, which is folly before God, and the spider's net, in the 
meshes of which we, like gnats, were all but fallen, and were 
confined by things vain as the air, which hangs on nothing ; 
loathing also the ship of our former walk. For Adam, our 
forefather according to the flesh, is clothed with the skins 
of dead beasts; but now, having put off' the old man, with 
his deeds, following the new man we are clothed with those 
skins of Solomon, with which the bride rejoices that she Cant - , » 

. .4. Vultr. 

has been made beautiful. Again, Simon, means obedient ; 
Andrew, manly; James, supplanter f ; John, grace; by 
which four names, we are knit together into God's host 8 ; by 
obedience, that we may listen ; by manliness, that we 
do battle ; by overthrowing, that we may persevere ; by supplan- 
grace, that we may be preserved. Which four virtues are 
called cardinal ; for by prudence, we obey ; by justice, 
we bear ourselves manfully ; by temperance, we tread the 
serpent underfoot ; by fortitude, we earn the grace of 

f Cf. vol. i. 139, 140, 364. 'I Al. l in imaginem.' 



'24 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO (HAP. I. 

God. Theophyl. We must know also, that action is first 
called, then contemplation; for Peter is the type of the active 
life, for he was more ardent than the others, just as the active 
life is the more bustling ; but John is the type of the con- 
templative life, for he speaks more fully of divine things. 

21. And they went into Capernaum; and straight- 
way on the sabbath day he entered into the syna- 
gogue, and taught. 

22. And they were astonished at his doctrine : for 
he taught them as one that had authority, and not as 
the Scribes. 

Pseudo-Jerome; Mark, arranging the sayings of the Gospel 
as they were in his own mind, not in themselves, quits the order 
of the history, and follows the order of the mysteries. Where- 
fore he relates the first miracle on the sabbath day, saying, 
And they go into Capernaum. Theophyl. Quitting Nazareth. 
Now on the sabbath day, when the Scribes were gathered 
together, he entered into a synagogue, and taught. Where- 
fore there follows, And straightway on the sabbath day, having 
entered into the synagogue, he taught them. For for this 
end the Law commanded them to give themselves up to rest 
on the sabbath day, that they might meet together to attend to 
sacred reading. Again, Christ taught them by rebuke, not by 
flattery as did the Pharisees ; wherefore it says, And they 
were astonished at his doctrine ; for he taught them as one 
having power, and not as the Scribes. He taught them also 
in power, transforming men to good, and He threatened 

Bede punishment to those who did not believe on Him. Bede ; 

ubi sup. ^he Scribes themselves taught the people what was written 
in Moses and the Prophets : but Jesus as the God and Lord 
of Moses himself, by the freedom of His own will, either 
added those things which appeared wanting in the Law, or 
altered things as He preached to the people ; as we read in 

Mat. 6, Matthew, It was said to them of old time, but I say unto you. 



27. 



23. And there was in their synagogue a man with 
an unclean spirit ; and he cried out, 



VER. 23 — 28. ST. MARK. 25 

24. Saying, Let us alone ; what have we to do 
with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth ? art thou come to 
destroy us ? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One 
of God. 

25. And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy 
peace, and come out of him. 

26. And when the unclean spirit had torn him, and 
cried with a loud voice, he came out of him. 

27. And they were all amazed, insomuch that they 
questioned among themselves, saying, What thing is 
this ? what new doctrine is this ? for with authority 
commandeth he even the unclean spirits, and they do 
obey him. 

28. And immediately his fame spread abroad 
throughout all the region round about Galilee. 

Bede; Since by the envy of the devil death first entered Bede in 
into the world, it was right that the medicine of healing | # 7/' 
should first work against the author of death ; and therefore 
it is said, And there was in their synagogue a man, fyc. 
Pseudo-Chrys. The word Spirit is applied to an Angel, the Vict. 
air, the soul, and even the Holy Ghost. Lest therefore by the e Ca * ( in 
sameness of the name we should fall into error, he adds, unclean. Maic. 
And he is called unclean on account of his impiousness and far 
removal from God, and because he employs himself in all 
unclean and wicked works. Aug. Moreover, how great isAug.de 
the power which the lowliness of God, appearing in the 21. 
form of a servant, has over the pride of devils, the devils 
themselves know so well, that they express it to the same 
Lord clothed in the weakness of flesh. For there follows, 
And he cried out, saying, What have we to do with thee, 
Jesus of Nazareth, fyc. For it is evident in these words that 
there was in them knowledge, hut there was not charity; 
and the reason was, that they feared their punishment from 
Him, and loved not the righteousness in Him. Bede; For Bede 
the devils, seeing the Lord on the earth, thought that they were u sup ' 
immediately to be judged. Pseudo-Chrys. Or else the devil so Vict, 
speaks, as if he said, l by taking away uncleanness, and giving Cat ' in 

Marc. 



26 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. I. 

to the souls of men divine knowledge, Thou allowest us no 
place in men.' Theophylact; For to come out of man 
the devil considers as his own perdition ; for devils are 
ruthless, thinking that they suffer some evil, so long as they 
are not troubling men. There follows, / know that thou art 
Vict - the Holy One of God. Pseudo-Chrys. As if he said, Methinks 
Cat* in that Thou art come; for he had not a firm and certain know- 
Marc, ledge of the coming of God. But he calls Him holy not as one 
of many, for every prophet was also holy, but he proclaims 
that He was the One holy; by the article in Greek he shews 
Him to be the One, but by his fear he shews Him to be Lord 
Aug. of all. Aug. For He was known to them in that degree in 
sup ' which He wished to be known ; and He wished as much as 
was fitting. He was not known to them as to the holy 
Angels, who enjoy Him by partaking of His eternity accord- 
ing as He is the Word of God; but as He was to be 
made known in terror, to those beings from whose tyran- 
nical power He was about to free the predestinate. He 
was known therefore to the devils, not in that He is eternal 
l John Life, but by some temporal effects of His Power, which might 
John 17 ^ e more clear to the angelic senses of even bad spirits than to the 
3. weakness of men. Pseudo-Chrys. Further, the Truth did not 

T 1 ^* wish to have the witness of unclean spirits; wherefore there 
Cat. in follows, AndJesusthreatenedhim, saying, fyc. Whence ahealth- 
arc * ful precept is given to us ; let us not believe devils, howsoever 
they may proclaim the truth. It goes on, And the unclean 
spirit tearing him, fyc. For, because the man spoke as one in 
his senses and uttered his words with discretion, lest it should 
be thought that he put together his words not from the devil 
but out of his own heart, He permitted the man to be torn 
by the devil, that He might shew that it was the devil who 
spoke. Theophyl. That they might know, when they 
saw it, from how great an evil the man was freed, and on 
Be . de account of the miracle might believe. Bede ; But it may 
appear to be a discrepancy, that he should have gone out of 
him, tearing him, or, as some copies have it, vexing him, 
when, according to Luke, he did not hurt him. But Luke 
Luke 4, himself says, When he had cast him into the midst, lie came 
out from him, without hurling him. Wherefore it is inferred 
that Mark meant by vexing or tearing him, what Luke ex- 



VER. 29 — 31. ST. MARK. 27 

presses, in the words, When he had cast him into the midst; so 
that what he goes on to say, And did not hurt him, may be 
understood to mean, that the tossing of his limbs and vexing, 
did not weaken him, as devils are wont to come out even 
with the cutting off and tearing away of limbs. But 
seeing the power of the miracle, they wonder at the newness 
of our Lord's doctrine, and are roused to search into what 
they had heard by what they had seen. Wherefore there 
follows, And they all wondered 8$c. For miracles were done 
that they might more firmly believe the Gospel of the 
kingdom of God, which was being preached, since those 
who were promising heavenly joys to men on earth, were 
shewing forth heavenly things and divine works even on 
earth. For before (as the Evangelist says) He was teaching 
them as one who had power, and now, as the crowd 
witnesses, with power He commands the evil spirits, and 
they obey Him. It goes on, And immediately His fame 
spread abroad, 8$c. Gloss. For those things which men Gloss, 
wonder at they soon divulge, for out of the abundance of the Mat. 12, 
heart the mouth speaketh. Pseudo- Jerome ; Moreover, Caper- 24# 
naum is mystically interpreted the town of consolation, and the 
sabbath as rest. The man with an evil spirit is healed by 
rest and consolation, that the place and time may agree with 
his healing. This man with an unclean spirit is the human 
race, in which uncleanness reigned from Adam to Moses; v. Rom. 
for they sinned without law, and perished without law. 2 ' 12 * 
And he, knowing the Holy One of God, is ordered to hold his 
peace, for they knowing God did not glorify him as God, 1,21.25. 
but rather served the creature than the Creator. The spirit 
tearing the man came out of him. When salvation is 
near, temptation is at hand also. Pharaoh, when about to let 1 
Israel go, pursues Israel ; the devil, when despised, rises up 
to create scandals. 

29. And forthwith, when they were come out of the 
synagogue, they entered into the house of Simon and 
Andrew, with James and John. 

30. But Simon's wife's mother lay sick of a fever, 
and anon they tell him of her. 

h Cf. vol. i. p. 132. ' At. <■ dimissus ab Israel.' 



28 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. I. 

31. And he came and took her by the hand, and 
lifted her up ; and immediately the fever left her, and 
she ministered unto them. 

Bedein Bede ; First, it was right that the serpent's tongue should 
l. 7. be shut up, that it might not spread any more venom ; then 
that the woman, who was first seduced, should be healed 
from the fever of carnal concupiscence. Wherefore it is said, 
And forthwith, when they were come out of the synagogue, 
8$c. Theophyl. He retired then as the custom was on the 
sabbath-day about evening to eat in His disciples' house. But 
she who ought to have ministered was prevented by a fever. 
Wherefore it goes on, But Simon's wife's mother it as lying 
v. Vict. sicJ c f a fever. Pseudo-Chrys. But the disciples, know- 
Cat, in ing that they were to receive a benefit by that means, without 
Mj j rc - waiting for the evening prayed that Peter's mother should 
be healed. Wherefore there follows, who immediately tell 
Bede him of her. Bede ; But in the Gospel of Luke it is written, 
LukeT that they besought him for her. For the Saviour sometimes 
38 - after being asked, sometimes of His own accord, heals the 
sick, shewing that He always assents to the prayers of the 
faithful, when they pray also against bad passions, and some- 
times gives them to understand things which they do not 
understand at all, or else, when they pray unto Him dutifully, 
forgives their want of understanding ; as the Psalmist begs of 
Ps. 19, God, Cleanse me, O Lord, from my secret faults. Where- 
fore He heals her at their request; for there follows, And 
he came and took her by the hand, and lifted her up. 

Theophyl. By this it is signified, that God will heal 

a sick man, if he ministers to the Saints, through love to 

Bede in Christ. Bede ; But in that He gives most profusely His 

1.6.' gifts of healing and doctrine on the sabbath day, He 

teaches, that He is not under the Law, but above the Law, 

and does not choose the Jewish sabbath, but the true 

sabbath, and our rest is pleasing to the Lord, if, in order 

to attend to the health of our souls, we abstain from slavish 

work, that is, from all unlawful things. It goes on, and 

in Mm* immediately the fever left her, fyc. The health which is 

conferred at the command of the Lord, returns at once 

entire, accompanied with such strength, that she is able to 



VER. 3*2 34. ST. MARK. 29 

minister to those, of whose help she had before stood in need. 
Again, if we suppose that the man delivered from the devil 
means, in the moral way of interpretation, the soul purged from 
unclean thoughts, fitly does the woman cured of a fever by 
the command of God mean the flesh, restrained from the heat 
of its concupiscence by the precepts of continence. Pseudo- 
Jerome ; For the fever means intemperance, from which, 
we the sons of the synagogue", by the hand of discipline, 
and by the lifting up of our desires, are healed, and 
minister to the will of Him who heals us. Theophyl. But 
he has a fever who is angry, and in the unruliness of his 
anger stretches forth his hands to do hurt; but if reason 
restrains his hands, he will arise, and so serve reason. 

32. And at even, when the sun did set, they 
brought unto him all that were diseased, and them 
that were possessed with devils. 

33. And all the city was gathered together at the 
door. 

34. And he healed many that were sick of divers 
diseases, and cast out many devils ; and suffered not 
the devils to speak, because they knew him. 

Theophyl. Because the multitude thought that it was not 
lawful to heal on the sabbath day, they waited for the 
evening, to bring those who were to be healed to Jesus. 
Wherefore it is said, And at even, when the sun had set. 
There follows, and he healed many that were vexed with 
divers diseases. Pseudo-Chrys. Now in that he says many, Vict. 
all are to be understood according to the Scripture mode of(< at ' m 
expression. Thkophyl. Or he says many, because there were Mar( • 
some faithless persons, who could not at all be cured on 
account of their unfaithfulness. Therefore He healed many 
of those who were brought, that is, all who had faith. It 
goes on, and cast out many devils. 

Pseudo-Aug. For the devils knew that He was the Christ, P^" J o- 

Aug. 

who had been promised by the Law : for they saw in Him all Q U£e st.e 

Yet. et 
k See S. Aug. on Ps. 72, no. 4, 6. p. 19.) The word' synagogue' is applied Nov. 
" Ecclesia Socrus Synagogae." The to the Church by Justin M. Dial. c. Test.xvi. 
Church is called the daughter of the Tryph. p. 160. (Ben.) Clem. Alex. Str. 
Synagogue in the spurious ' Altercatio vi. 633. 
Eccles. et Synagog.' (Aug. Opp. t. viii. 



30 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. I. 

the signs, which had been foretold by the Prophets ; but they 
were ignorant of His divinity, as also were their princes, 
iCox.1, for if they had known it, they would not have crucified, 
Bede ine Lord of glory. Bede; For, Him whom the devil 
ubijsup. had known as a man, wearied by His forty days' fast, 
without being able by tempting Him to prove whether He 
was the Son of God, he now by the power of His miracles 
understood or rather suspected to be the Son of God. The 
reason therefore why he persuaded the Jews to crucify Him, 
was not because he did not think that He was the Son of 
God, but because he did not foresee that he himself was to 
be condemned by Christ's death. Theophyl. Furthermore, 
the reason that He forbade the devils to speak, was to 
teach us not to believe them, even if they say true. For if 
once they find persons to believe them, they mingle truth with 
Vict, falsehood. Pseudo-Chrys. And Luke does not contradict 
Ant. e this, when he says, that devils came out of many, crying out 
Marc, and saying, Thou art Christ the Son of God: for he subjoins, 
J? e ' And he rebuking them, suffered them not to speak ; for 
Mark, who passes over many things for the sake of brevity, 
speaks about what happened subsequently to the above- 
Bede mentioned words. Bede; Again, in a mystical sense, the 
ubi sup. getting of the sun signifies the passion of Him, who said, 
John 9, As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the ivorld. 
And when the sun was going down, more demoniacs and 
sick persons were healed than before : because He who living 
in the flesh for a time taught a few Jews, has transmitted the 
gifts of faith and health to all the Gentiles throughout the 
world. Pseu do- Jerome ; But the door of the kingdom, 
morally, is repentance and faith, which works health for 
various diseases; for divers are the vices, with which the 
city of this world is sick. 

35. And in the morning, rising up a great while 
before day, he went out, and departed into a solitary 
place, and there prayed. 

36. And Simon and they that were with him 
followed after him. 

37. And when they had found him, they said unto 
him, All men seek for thee. 



VER. 35 — 39. ST. MARK. 31 

38. And he said unto them, Let us go into the 
next towns, that I may preach there also : for there- 
fore came I forth. 

39. And he preached in their synagogues through- 
out all Galilee, and cast out devils. 

Theophyl. After that the Lord had cured the sick, He 
retired apart. Wherefore it is said, And rising very early 
in the morning, he went out and departed into a desert 
place. By which He taught us not to do any thing for 
the sake of appearance, but if we do any good, not to publish 
it openly. It goes on, and there prayed. Pseudo-Chrys. Vict. 
Not that He required prayer ; for it was He who Himself c a t."in 
received the prayers of men ; but He did this by way of an Marc - 
economy, and became to us the model of good works. 
Theophyl. For He shews to us that we ought to attribute 
to God whatever we do well, and to say to Him, Every James I, 
good gift comelh down from above, from Thee. It continues: 
And Simon followed him, and they that were with him. 
Pseudo-Chrys. Luke however says, that crowds came to Vict. 
Christ, and spoke what Mark here relates that the Apostles ca\. in 
said, adding, And when they came to him, they said to him, Marc. 
All seek thee. But they do not contradict each other ; for 4 £ e ' 
Christ received after the Apostles the multitude, breath- 
lessly anxious to embrace His feet. He received them 
willingly, but chose to dismiss them, that the rest also 
might be partakers of His doctrine, as He was not to 
remain long in the world. And therefore there follows : 
And he said, Let us go into the neighbouring villages and 
towns, that there also I may preach. Theophyl. For He 
passes on to them as being more in need, since it was not 
right to shut up doctrine in one place, but to throw out his 
rays every where. It goes on : For therefore am I come. 
Pseudo-Chrys. In which word, He manifests the mystery of vict. 
His emptying himself, that is, of His incarnation, and the£ nt, . e 
sovereignty of His divine nature, in that He here asserts, that Marc. 
He came willingly into the world. Luke however says, To J hl1 - 2, 
this end was I sent, proclaiming the Dispensation, and the 
good pleasure of God the Father concerning the incarnation 



8*2 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. I. 

of the Son. There follows: And he continued preaching in 

their synagogues, in all Galilee. 

Aug. de Aug. But by this preaching, which, he says, He con- 

Evan ii. ^ nue< ^ i* 1 a -M Galilee, is also meant the sermon of the 

19- Lord delivered on the mount, which Matthew mentions, 

and Mark has entirely passed over, without giving any 

thing like it, save that he has repeated some sentences 

not in continuous order, but in scattered places, spoken 

by the Lord at other times. Theophyl. He also mingled 

action with teaching, for whilst employed in preaching, 

He afterwards put to flight devils. For there follows : And 

casting out devils. For unless Christ shewed forth miracles, 

His teaching would not be believed ; so do thou also, after 

teaching, w r ork, that thy word be not fruitless in thyself. 

Bede Bede ; Again mystically if by the setting of the sun, the 

sup ' death of the Saviour is intended, why should not His 

resurrection be intended by the returning dawn ? For by 

its clear light, He went far into the wilderness of the 

Gentiles, and there continued praying in the person of His 

faithful disciples, for He aroused their hearts by the grace 

of the Holy Spirit to the virtue of prayer. 



40. And there came a leper to him, beseeching 
him, and kneeling down to him, and saying unto 
him, If thou wilt, thou canst make me clean. 

41. And Jesus, moved with compassion, put forth 
his hand, and touched him, and saith unto him, 
I will ; be thou clean. 

42. And as soon as he had spoken, immediately 
the leprosy departed from him, and he was cleansed. 

43. And he straitly charged him, and forthwith 
sent him away ; 

44. And saith unto him, See thou say nothing 
to any man : but go thy way, shew thyself to 
the Priest, and offer for thy cleansing those things 
which Moses commanded, for a testimony unto 
them. 



VER. 40—45. ST. MARK. 3 C .) 

45. But he went out, and began to publish it 
much, and to blaze abroad the matter, insomuch 
that Jesus could no more openly enter into the 
city, but was without in desert places : and they 
came to him from every quarter. 



Bede; After that the serpent-tongue of the devils was Bede in 
shut up, and the woman, who was first seduced, cured of ,- " c * 
a fever, in the third place, the man, who listened to the 
evil counsels of the woman, is cleansed from his leprosy, 
that the order of restoration in the Lord might be the same 
as was the order of the fall in our first parents; whence 
it goes on : And there came a leper to him, beseeching him. 
Aug. Mark puts together circumstances, from which one Aug. de 
may infer that he is the same as that one whom Matthew EvA ' a ^ 
relates to have been cleansed, when the Lord came down 19 

-r» Matt. 8, 

from the mount, after the sermon. Bede; And because the 2. 
Lord said that He came not to destroy the Law but to fulfill,^ 

Matt. 5 



' Marc. i. 



he who was excluded by the Law, inferring that he was 9. 
cleansed by the power of the Lord, shewed that that grace, ]7 
which could wash away the stain of the leper, was not from 
the Law, but over the Law. And truly, as in the Lord autho- 
ritative power, so in him the constancy of faith is shewn ; for 
there follows, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean. 
He falls on his face, which is at once a gesture of lowliness 
and of shame, to shew that every man should blush for 
the stains of his life. But his shame did not stifle con- 
fession ; he shewed his wound, and begged for medicine, 
and the confession is full of devotion and of faith, for 
he refers the power to the will of the Lord. Theophyl. 
For he said not, If thou wilt, pray unto God, but, Lf thou 
wilt, as thinking Him very God. Bede ; Moreover, he Bede 
doubted of the will of the Lord, not as disbelieving His ublsup ' 
compassion, but, as conscious of his own filth, he did not 
presume. It goes on ; But Jesus, moved with compassion , 
put forth his hand, and touched him, and saith unto him, L 
will, be thou clean. It is not, as many of the Latins think, 
to be taken to mean and read, I wish to cleanse thee, but 



that Christ should sav separately, / will, and then^T5j5r Qp MEO/Tic- 



VOL. II. D 



N / ST. MICHAEL'S ' -T. 



34 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. I. 

Chrys. mand, he thou clean. Chrys. Further, the reason why 
25. in He touches the leper, and did not confer health upon him 
Matt, Dv worc i alone, was, that it is said by Moses in the Law, that 
he who touches a leper, shall be unclean till the evening ; 
that is, that he might shew, that this uncleanness is a 
natural one, that the Law was not laid down for Him, 
but on account of mere men. Furthermore, He shews that 
He Himself is the Lord of the Law ; and the reason 
why He touched the leper, though the touch was not 
necessary to the working of the cure, was to shew that 
He gives health, not as a servant, but as the Lord. 
Bede Bede; Another reason why He touched him, was to 
prove that He could not be denied, who free 1 others 
from pollution. At the same time it is remarkable, that 
He healed in the way in which He had been begged to heal. 
If thou wilt, says the leper, thou canst make me clean. 
I will, He answered, behold, thou hast My will, be clean ; 
Chrys. now thou hast at once the effect of My compassion. Chrys. 
25°"^ Moreover, by this, not only did He not take away the opinion 
Matt, of Him entertained by the leper, but He confirmed it; for He 
puts to flight the disease by a word, and what the leper had 
said in word, He filled up in deed ; wherefore there follows, 
Bede And when he had spoken, immediately, 8$c. Bede ; For 
there is no interval between the work of God and the com- 
Ps. 148, mand, because the work is in the command, for He com- 
manded, and they were created. There follows: And he 
siraitly charged him, and forthwith, fyc. See thou tell 
Chrys. no man. Chrys. As if He said, It is not yet time that 
25. My works should be preached, I require not thy preaching. 
By which He teaches us not to seek worldly honour as a 
reward for our works. It goes on : But go thy way, shew 
thyself to the chief of the priests. Our Saviour sent him 
to the priest for the trial of his cure, and that he might 
not be cast out of the temple, but still be numbered with 
the people in prayer. He sends him also, that he might 
fulfil all the parts of the Law, in order to stop the evil- 
speaking tongue of the Jews. He Himself indeed com- 
Bede pleted the work, leaving them to try it. Bede ; This He 
ubi sup. ^-^ j n or( j er that the priest might understand that the leper 
was not healed by the Law, but by the grace of God above 



VER. 40 — 45. ST. MARK. 35 

the Law. There follows: And offer for thy cleansing what 
Moses, §c. Theophyl. He ordered him to offer the gift 
which they who were healed were accustomed to offer, as if 
for a testimony, that He was not against the Law, but rather 
confirmed the Law, inasmuch as He Himself worked out 
the precepts of the Law. Bede ; If any one wonders, how Bede 
the Lord seems to approve of the Jewish sacrifice, which u ' sup ' 
the Church rejects, let him remember, that He had not 
yet offered His own holocaust in His passion. And it was 
not right that significative sacrifices should be taken away, 
before that which they signified was confirmed by the 
witness of the Apostles in their preaching, and by the 
faith of the believing people. Theophyl. But the leper, 
although the Lord forbade him, disclosed the benefit, 
wherefore it goes on : But he having gone out, began to 
publish and to blaze abroad the tale ; for the person bene- 
fited ought to be grateful, and to return thanks, even though 
his benefactor requires it not. Bede ; Now it may well Bede 
be asked, why our Lord ordered His action to be concealed, v# q"^' 
and yet it could not be kept hid for an hour ? But it is to be Moral. 

19 22. 

observed, that the reason why, in doing a miracle, He ordered 
it to be kept secret, and yet for all that it was noised abroad, 
was, that His elect, following the example of His teaching, 
should wish indeed that in the great things which they 
do, they should remain concealed, but should nevertheless 
unwillingly be brought to light for the good of others. Not 
then that He wished any thing to be done, which He was 
not able to bring about, but, by the authority of His 
teaching, He gave an example of what His members ought 
to wish for, and of what should happen to them even against 
their will. Bede ; Further, this perfect cure of one man 
brought large multitudes to the Lord ; wherefore it is added, 
So that he could not any more openly enter into the city, but 
could only be without in desert places. Chrys. For the Chrys. 
leper every where proclaimed his wonderful cure, so that non occ ' 
all ran to see and to believe on the Healer; thus the Lord 
could not preach the Gospel, but walked in desert places; 
wherefore there follows, And they came together to him from 
all places. Pseudo-Jerome ; Mystically, our leprosy is the 
sin of the first man, which began from the head, when he 

d 2 



36 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. CHAP. I. 

desired the kingdoms of the world. For covetousness is the 
root of all evil; wherefore Gehazi, engaged in an avaritious 
Bede pursuit, is covered with leprosy. Bede; But when the 
hand of the Saviour, that is, the Incarnate Word of God, is 
stretched out, and touches human nature, it is cleansed 
from the various parts of the old error. Pseudo-Jerome ; 
This leprosy is cleansed on offering an oblation to the 
true Priest after the order of Melchisedec ; for He tells 
Lukell,us, Give alms of such things as ye have, and, behold, 
41 * all things are clean unto you. But in that Jesus could 
not openly enter into the city, it is meant to be conveyed, 
that Jesus is not manifested to those, who are enslaved to the 
love of praise in the broad highway, and to their own wills, 
but to those who with Peter go into the desert, which the 
Lord chose for prayer, and for refreshing His people ; that is, 
those who quit the pleasures of the world, and all that they 
possess, that they may say, The Lord is my portion. But 
the glory of the Lord is manifested to those, who meet 
together on all sides, that is, through smooth ways and 
Rom. 8, steep, whom nothing can separate from the love of Christ. 
Bede in Bede ; Even after working a miracle in that city, the Lord 
Marc. i. re tires into the desert, to shew that He loves best a quiet 
life, and one far removed from the cares of the world, and 
that it is on account of this desire, He applied Himself to 
the healing of the body. 



CHAP. It 

1. And again he entered into Capernaum after 
some days ; and it was noised that he was in the 
house. 

2. And straightway many were gathered together, 
insomuch that there was no room to receive them, no, 
not so much as about the door : and he preached the 
word unto them. 

3. And they came unto him, bringing one sick of 
the palsy, which was borne of four. 

4. And when they could not come nigh unto him 
for the press, they uncovered the roof where he was : 
and when they had broken it up, they let down the 
bed wherein the sick of the palsy lay. 

5. When Jesus saw their faith, he said unto the 
sick of the palsy, Son, thy sins be forgiven thee. 

6. But there were certain of the Scribes sitting 
there, and reasoning in their hearts, 

7. Why doth this man thus speak blasphemies ? 
who can forgive sins but God only ? 

8. And immediately when Jesus perceived in his 
spirit that they so reasoned within themselves, he 
said unto them, Why reason ye these things in your 
hearts ? 

9. Whether is it easier to say to the sick of the 
palsy, Thy sins be forgiven thee ; or to say, Arise, 
and take up thy bed, and walk ? 

10. But that ye may know that the Son of man 
hath power on earth to forgive sins, (he saith to the 
sick of the palsy,) 



38 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. II. 

11. I say unto thee, Arise, and take up thy bed, 
and go thy way into thine house. 

12. And immediately he arose, took up the bed, 
and went forth before them all ; insomuch that they 
were all amazed, and glorified God, saying, We never 
saw it on this fashion. 



Bede in Bede ; Because the compassion of God deserts not 
l To" even carnal persons, He accords to them the grace of His 
presence, by which even they may be made spiritual. After 
the desert, the Lord returns into the city; wherefore it is 
Aug. de said, And again he entered into Capernaum, 8$c. Aug. But 
£ on - .. Matthew writes this miracle as if it were done in the city of 

Evan. n. . u 

25. the Lord, whilst Mark places it in Capernaum, which would 
be more difficult of solution, if Matthew had also named 
Nazareth. But seeing that Galilee itself might be called 
the city of the Lord, who can doubt but that the Lord 
did these things in His own city, since He did them in 
Capernaum, a city of Galilee; particularly as Capernaum 
was of such importance in Galilee as to be called its 
metropolis ? Or else, Matthew passed by the things which 
were done after He came into His own city, until He came 
to Capernaum, and so adds on the story of the paralytic 
healed, subjoining, And, behold, they presented to him a 
man sick of the palsy, after he had said that He came into 
Vict. His own city. Pseudo-Chrys. Or else, Matthew called 
A jjv Capernaum His city because He went there frequently, and 
in Marc, there did many miracles. It goes on : And it was noised that 
he was in the house, fyc. For the desire of hearing Him was 
stronger than the toil of approaching Him. After this, 
they introduce the paralytic, of whom Matthew and Luke 
speak ; wherefore there follows : And they came unto him 
hearing one sick of the palsy, who was carried by four. 
Finding the door blocked up by the crowd, they could not 
by any means enter that way. Those who carried him, 
however, hoping that he could merit the grace of being 
healed, raising the bed with their burden, and uncovering 
the roof, lay him with his bed before the face of the Saviour. 
And this is that which is added : And when they could not 



VER. 1 12. ST. MARK. 39 

lay him before him, 8$c. There follows : But when Jesus 
saw their faith, he said to the sick of the palsy, Son, thy 
sins be forgiven thee. He did not mean the faith of the 
sick man, but of his bearers ; for it sometimes happens, 
that a man is healed by the faith of another. Bede ; ItBede 
may indeed be seen, how much each person's own faith u l sup * 
weighs with God, when that of another had such influence 
that the whole man at once rose up, healed body and soul, 
and by one man's merit, another should have his sins 
forgiven him. Theophyl. He saw the faith of the sick 
man himself, since he would not have allowed himself to 
be carried, unless he had had faith to be healed. 

Bede ; Moreover, the Lord being about to cure the man Bede 
of the palsy, first loosed the chains of his sins, in order to u 1 sup * 
shew that he was condemned to the loosening of his joints, 
because of the bonds of his sins, and could not be healed 
to the recovery of his limbs, unless these were first loosened. 
But Christ's wonderful humility calls this man, despised, 
weak, with all the joints of his limbs unstrung, a son, when 
the priests did not deign to touch him. Or at least, He 
therefore calls him a son, because his sins are forgiven him. 
It goes on : But there were certain of the scribes sitting 
there, and reasoning in their hearts, Why doth this man 
speak blasphemies ? 

Cyril a ; Now they accuse Him of blasphemy, anticipating 
the sentence of His death : for there was a command in the 
Law, that whosoever blasphemed should be put to death. 
And this charge they laid upon Him, because He claimed 
for Himself the divine power of remitting sins : wherefore 
it is added, Who can forgive sin, save God only ? For the 
Judge of all alone has power to forgive sin. Bede ; Who Bede 
remits sin by those also to whom He has assigned the power 11 l SU1) * 
of remitting, and therefore Christ is proved to be very God, 
for He is able to remit sins as God. The Jews then are in 
error, who although they hold the Christ both to be God, and 
to be able to remit sins, do not however believe that Jesus is 
the Christ. But the Arians err much more madly, who 

a Nicolai observes on this passage, Christo meminit in Johannem. Lib. ii. 
Nihil tale oecurrit in Cyrillo, tametsi c. 3. 
blasphemiue ideo a Judseb imnroperatse 



40 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. II. 

although overwhelmed with the words of the Evangelist, 
so that they cannot deny that Jesus is the Christ, and can 
remit sin, nevertheless fear not to deny that He is God. But 
He Himself, desiring to shame the traitors both by His know- 
ledge of things hidden and by the virtue of His works, 
manifests Himself to be God. For there follows : And im- 
mediately when Jesus perceived in his spirit that they so 
reasoned, he said unto them, Why reason ye these things 
in your hearts? In which He shews Himself to be God, 
since He can know the hidden things of the heart ; and in 
a manner though silent He speaks thus, With the same 
power and majesty, by which I look upon your thoughts, 
I can forgive the sins of men. Theophyl. But though their 
thoughts were laid bare, still they remain insensible, refusing 
to believe that He who knew their hearts could forgive sins^ 
wherefore the Lord proves to them the cure of the soul by 
that of the body, shewing the invisible by the visible, that 
which is more difficult by that which is easier, although they 
did not look upon it as such. For the Pharisees thought it more 
difficult to heal the body, as being more open to view; but the 
soul more easy to cure, because the cure is invisible ; so that 
they reasoned thus, Lo, He does not now cure the body, but 
heals the unseen soul ; if He had had more power, He would 
at once have cured the body, and not have fled for refuge to 
the unseen world. The Saviour, therefore, shewing thatHe can 
do both, says, Which is the easier? as if He said, I indeed 
by the healing of the body, which is in reality more easy, but 
appears to you more difficult, will prove to you the health 

victt of the soul, which is really more difficult. Pseudo-Chrys. 

Ant. e And because it is easier to say than to do, there was still 

Cat. in . r . . . . . . n 

Marc, manifestly something to say m opposition, tor the work was 
not yet manifested; wherefore He subjoins, But that ye may 
know, fyc. as if He said, Since ye doubt my word, I will bring 
on a work which will confirm what was unseen. But He 
says in a marked manner, On earth to forgive sins, that He 
might shew that He has joined the power of the divinity to 
the human nature by an inseparable union, because although 
He was made man, yet He remained the Word of God ; and 
although by an economy He conversed on the earth with 
men, nevertheless He was not prevented from working 



VER. 1 12. ST. MARK. 41 

miracles and from giving remission of sins. For His human 
nature did not in any thing take away from these things 
which essentially belonged to His Divinity, nor the Divinity 
hinder the Word of God from becoming on earth, according 
to the flesh, the Son of Man without change and in truth. 
Theophyl. Again, He says, Take up thy bed, to prove the 
greater certainty of the miracle, shewing that it is not a mere 
illusion ; and at the same time to shew that He not only 
healed, but gave strength ; thus He not only turns away souls 
from sin, but gives them the power of working out the com- 
mandments. 

Bede ; A carnal sign therefore is given, that the spiritual Bede 
sign may be proved, although it belongs to the same power" l sup * 
to do away with the distempers of both soul and body; 
whence it follows : And immediately lie arose, took up the 
bed, and, went forth before them all. Chrys. Further, He Chrys. 
first healed by the remission of sins that which He had come non occ ' 
to seek, that is, a soul, so that when they faithlessly doubted, 
then He might bring forward a work before them, and in this 
way His word might be confirmed by the work, and a hidden 
sign be proved by an open one, that is, the health of the soul 
by the healing of the body. 

Bede ; We are also informed, that many sicknesses of body i3 e de 
arise from sins, and therefore perhaps sins are first remitted, ubl SU P* 
that the causes of sickness being taken away, health may be 
restored. For men are afflicted by fleshly troubles for five 
causes, in order to increase their merits, as Job and the 
Martyrs ; or to preserve their lowliness, as Paul by the 
messenger of Satan ; or that they may perceive and correct 
their sins, as Miriam, the sister of Moses, and this paralytic ; 
or for the glory of God, as the man born blind and Lazaius; 
or as the beginnings of the pains of damnation, as Herod and 
Antiochus. But wonderful is the virtue of the Divine power, 
where without the least interval of time, by the command of 
the Saviour, a speedy health accompanies His words. Where- 
fore there follows: Insomuch that they were all amazed. 
Leaving the greater thing, that is, the remission of sins, they 
only wonder at that which is apparent, that is, the health of 
the body. 

Theophyl. This is not however the paralytic, whose cure 



42 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. II. 

John 5. is relatedjby John, for he had no man with him, this one 
had four ; he is cured in the pool of the sheep market, but 
this one in a house. It is the same man, however, whose 

Matt. 9. cure is related by Matthew and Mark. But mystically, 
Christ is still in Capernaum, in the house of consolation. 

ubfsV Bede » Moreover, whilst the Lord is preaching in the house, 
there is not room for them, not even at the door, because 
whilst Christ is preaching in Judaea, the Gentiles are not yet 
able to enter to hear Him, to whom, however, though placed 
without, he directed the words of His doctrine by His preachers. 
Pseudo- Jerome ; Again, the palsy is a type of the torpor, in 
which man lies slothful in the softness of the flesh, though 
desiring health. 

Theophyl. If therefore I, having the powers of my mind 
unstrung, remain, whenever I attempt any thing good 
without strength, as a palsied man, and if I be raised on 
high by the four Evangelists, and be brought to Christ, and 
there hear myself called son, then also are my sins quitted 
by me; for a man is called the son of God because he 
works the commandments. Bede; Or else, because there 
are four virtues, by which a man is through an assured 
heart exalted so that he merits safety; which virtues some 
call prudence, fortitude, temperance, and justice. Again, they 
desire to bring the palsied man to Christ, but they are 
impeded on every side by the crowd which is between 
them, because often the soul desires to be renewed by the 
medicine of Divine grace, but through the sluggishness of the 
grovelling body is held back by the hindrance of old custom. 
Oftentimes amidst the very sweetnesses of secret prayer, 
and, as it may be called, the pleasant converse with God, a 
crowd of thoughts, cutting off the clear vision of the mind, 
shuts out Christ from its sight. Let us not then remain in the 
lowest ground, where the crowds are bustling, but aim at the 
roof of the house, that is, the sublimity of the Holy Scripture, 
and meditate on the law of the Lord. Theophyl. But how 
should I be borne to Christ, if the roof be not opened. 
For the roof is the intellect, which is set above all those 
things which are within us ; here it has much earth about 
it in the tiles which are made of clay, I mean, earthly things: 
but if these be taken away, the virtue of the intellect within 



VER. 13 — 17. ST. MARK. 43 

us is freed from its load. After this let it be let down, that is, 
humbled. For it does not teach us to be puffed up, because 
our intellect has its load cleared away, but to be humbled 
still more. 

Bede ; Or else, the sick man is let down after the roof isBede 
opened, because, when the Scriptures are laid open to us, u lsup * 
we arrive at the knowledge of Christ, that is, we descend 
to His lowliness, by the dutifulness of faith. But by the sick 
man being let down with his bed, it is meant that Christ 
should be known by man, whilst yet in the flesh. But by 
rising from the bed is meant the soul's rousing itself from 
carnal desires, in which it was lying in sickness. To take 
up the bed is to bridle the flesh itself by the bands of 
continence, and to separate it from earthly pleasures, through 
the hope of heavenly rewards. But to take up the bed and 
to go home is to return to paradise. Or else the man, now 
healed, who had been sick carries back home his bed, when 
the soul, after receiving remission of sins, returns, even 
though encompassed with the body, to its internal watch over 
itself. Theophyl. It is necessary to take up also one's bed, 
that is the body, to the working of good. For then shall we 
be able to arrive at contemplation, so that our thoughts 
should say within us, never have we seen in this way before, 
that is never understood as we have done since we have been 
cured of the palsy; for he who is cleansed from sin, sees 
more purely. 

13. And he went forth again by the sea side ; 
and all the multitude resorted unto him, and he 
taught them. 

14. And as he passed by, he saw Levi the son of 
Alphseus sitting at the receipt of custom, and said 
unto him, Follow me. And he arose and followed him. 

15. And it came to pass, that as Jesus sat at meat 
in his house, many Publicans and sinners sat also 
together with Jesus and his disciples ; for there were 
many, and they followed him. 

16. And when the Scribes and Pharisees saw him 



44 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. II. 

eat with Publicans and sinners, they said unto his 
disciples, How is it that he eateth and drinketh with 
Publicans and sinners ? 

17. When Jesus heard it, he said unto them, They 
that are whole have no need of the physician, but they 
that are sick : I came not to call the righteous, but 
sinners to repentance. 



Bede Bede ; After that the Lord taught at Capernaum, He went 

ubi sup. ^ Q t j ie sea ^ tnat jj e m ight no i on \y se t i n order the life of 

men in towns, but also might preach the Gospel of the 
kingdom to those who dwelt near the sea, and might teach 
them to despise the restless motions of those things which 
pass away like the waves of the sea, and to overcome them 
by the firmness of faith ; wherefore it is said, And he went 
forth again to the sea, and all the multitude, 8$c. Theophyl. 
Or else, after the miracle, He goes to the sea, as if wishing 
to be alone, but the crowd runs to Him again, that thou 
mightest learn, that the more thou fiiest from glory, the more 
she herself pursues thee ; but if thou followest her, she 
will fly from thee. The Lord passing on from thence 
called Matthew ; wherefore there follows, And as he passed 

Chns. }jy^ ], e saw Levi the son of Alphceas sitting, 8$c. Chrys. 
Now this is the same publican who is named by all the 
Evangelists; Matthew by Matthew; simply Levi by Luke ; 
and Levi, the son of Alphseus, by Mark ; for he was the son 
of Alphasus. And you may find persons with two names in 
other parts of Scripture ; as Moses' father in law is sometimes 
called Jethro, sometimes Raguel. 

Bede i. Bede ; So also the same person is called Levi and Matthew; 

Marc, but Luke and Mark, on account of their reverence and the 
honour of the Evangelist, are unwilling to put the common 

Prov.l8. lia me, while Matthew is a just accuser of himself, and calls 
himself Matthew and publican. He wishes to shew to his 
hearers that no one who is converted should despair of his sal- 
vation, since he himself was suddenly changed from a publican 
into an Apostle. But he says that he was sitting at the ' telo- 
neum,' that is, the place where the customs are looked after 



VER. 13—17. ST. MARK. 45 

and administered. For ' telos' in Greek is the same as 
6 vectigal,' customs, in Latin. Theophyl. For he sat at the 
receipt of custom, either, as is often done, exacting from 
some, or making up accounts, or doing some actions of that \ oya . 
sort, which publicans are wont to do in their abodes, yea*W"» 

1 . apud 

this man, who was raised on high from this state of life that Theo. 
he might leave all things and follow Christ. Wherefore it 
goes on, And he saith to him, Follow me, fyc. 

Bede; Now to follow is to imitate, and therefore in order Bede 
to imitate the poverty of Christ, in the feeling of his soul u ' sup * 
even more than in outward condition, he who used to rob his 
neighbour's wealth, now leaves his own. And not only did 
he quit the gain of the customs, but he also despised the 
peril, which might come from the princes of this world, 
because he left the accounts of the customs imperfect and 
unsettled. For the Lord Himself, Who externally, by human 
language, called Him to follow, inflamed him inwardly by 
divine inspiration to follow Him the moment that He called 
him. Pseudo-Jerome ; Thus then Levi, which means Ap- 
pointed, followed from the custom-house of human affairs, 
the Word, Who says, He who doth not quit all that he has, 
cannot be my disciple. Theophyl. But he who used to plot 
against others becomes so benevolent, that he invites many 
persons to eat with him. Wherefore it goes on ; And it 
came to pass, that as Jesus sat at meat in his house. 
Bede ; The persons here called publicans are those who Bede in 
exact the public customs, or men who farm the customs of j ^ 
the exchequer or of republics; moreover, those also, who 
follow after the gain of this world by business, are called by 
the same name. They who had seen that the publican, con- 
verted from his sins to better things, had found a place of 
pardon, even for this reason themselves also do not despair 
of salvation. And they come to Jesus, not remaining in 
their former sins, as the Pharisees and Scribes complain, but 
in penitence, as the following words of the Evangelist shew, 
saying, For there were many who followed him. For the 
Lord went to the feasts of sinners, that he might have an 
opportunity of teaching them, and might set before his enter- 
tainers spiritual meats, which also is earned on in mystical 
figures. For he who receives Christ into his inward habita- 



46 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. II. 

tion is fed with the highest delights of overflowing pleasures. 
Therefore the Lord enters willingly, and takes up His abode 
in the affection of him who hath believed on Him ; and this is 
the spiritual banquet of good works, which the rich cannot 
have, and on which the poor feast. Theophyl. But the 
Pharisees blame this, making themselves pure. Whence 
there follows : And when the Scribes and Pharisees saw him 
eat, 8$c. 
Bede Bede ; If by the election of Matthew and calling of the 

p * publicans, the faith of the Gentiles is expressed, who formerly 
were intent on the gains of this world ; certainly the haugh- 
tiness of the Scribes and Pharisees intimates the envy of the 
Jewish people, who are vexed at the salvation of the Gentiles. 
It goes on : When Jesus heard it, he saith unto them, They 
that are whole need not the physician, but they that are 
sick. He aims at the Scribes and Pharisees, who, thinking 
themselves righteous, refused to keep company with sinners. 
He calls Himself the physician, Who, by a strange mode of 
healing, was wounded on account of our iniquities, and by 
His wound we are healed. And He calls those whole and 
righteous, who, wishing to establish their own righteousness, 
are not subject to the righteousness of God. Moreover He 
calls those rich and sinners, who, overcome by the conscious- 
ness of their own frailty, and seeing that they cannot be 
justified by the Law, submit their necks to the grace of Christ 
by repentance. Wherefore it is added, For I came not to 
call the righteous, but sinners, fyc. Theophyl. Not indeed 
that they should continue sinners, but be converted to that 
repentance. 

1 8. And the disciples of John and of the Pharisees 
used to fast : and they come and say unto him, Why 
do the disciples of John and of the Pharisees fast, but 
thy disciples fast not ? 

19. And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of 
the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with 
them? as long as they have the bridegroom with 
them, they cannot fast. 

20. But the days will come, when the bridegroom 



VER. 18 — 22. ST. MARK. 47 

shall be taken away from them, and then shall they 
fast in those days. 

21. No man also seweth a piece of new cloth on 
an old garment : else the new piece that filled it up 
taketh away from the old, and the rent is made 
worse. 

22. And no man putteth new wine into old bottles : 
else the new wine doth burst the bottles, and the wine 
is spilled, and the bottles will be marred : but new 
wine must be put into new bottles. 



Gloss. As above, the Master was accused to the disciples Gloss. 
for keeping company with sinners in their feasts, so now, non occ * 
on the other hand, the disciples are complained of to the 
Master for their omission of fasts, that so matter for dis- 
sension might arise amongst them. Wherefore it is said, 
And the disciples of John and the Pharisees used to fast. 
Theophyl. For the disciples of John being in an imperfect 
state, continued in Jewish customs. Aug. But it may be Aug. de 
thought that He added Pharisees, because they joined with 2^ n 
the disciples of John in saying this to the Lord, whilst ii. 27. 
Matthew relates that the disciples of John alone said it : but 
the words which follow rather shew that those who said it 
spoke not of themselves, but of others. For it goes on, And 
they come and say unto him, Why do the disciples, 8$c. For 
these words shew, that the guests who were there came to 
Jesus, and had said this same thing to the disciples, so that 
in the words which he uses, they came, he speaks not of 
those same persons, of whom he had said, And the disciples 
of John and the Pharisees were fasting. But as they 
were fasting, those persons who remembered it, come to 
him. Matthew then says this, And there came to him the 
disciples of John, saying, because the Apostles also were 
there, and all eagerly, as each could, objected these things. 

Chrys. The disciples of John, therefore, and of the Chrys. 
Pharisees, being jealous of Christ, ask Him, whether He alone 
of all men with His disciples could, without abstinence and 
toil, conquer in the fight of the passions. Bede ; But John 



non occ. 



48 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. II. 

did not drink wine and strong drink, because he who has no 
power by nature, obtains more merit by abstinence. But 
why should the Lord, to whom it naturally belonged to for- 
give sins, shun those whom he could make more pure, than 
those who fast ? But Christ also fasted, lest He should break 
the precept, He ate ivith sinners, that thou mightest see His 
grace, and acknowledge His power. It goes on ; And Jesus 
said unto them, Can the children, fyc. 
Aug. Aug. Mark here calls them children of the nuptials, whom 

Matthew calls children of the bridegroom ; for we understand 
the children of the nuptials to be not only those of the bride- 
Vict. groom, but also of the bride. Pseudo-Chrys. He then calls 
Cat. in Hi mse lf a bridegroom, as if about to be betrothed to the 
Marc. Church. For the betrothal is giving an earnest, namely, that 
of the grace of the Holy Ghost, by which the world believed. 
Theophyl. He also calls Himself a bridegroom, not only as 
betrothing to Himself virgin minds, but because the time of 
His first coming is not a time of sorrow, nor of sadness to 
believers, neither does it bring with it toil, but rest. For it is 
without any works of the law, giving rest by baptism, by 
which we easily obtain salvation without toil. But the sons 
of the nuptials or of the Bridegroom are the Apostles; 
because they, by the grace of God, are made worthy of every 
heavenly blessing, by the grace of God, and partakers of every 

joy- 

Vict. Pseudo-Chrvs. But intercourse with Him, He says, is far 

Cat. in removed from all sorrow, when He adds, As long as they have 
Marc, the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast. He is sad, from 
whom some good is far removed ; but he w r ho has it present 
with him rejoices, and is not sad. But that He might destroy 
their elation of heart, and shew that He intended not His own 
disciples to be licentious, He adds, But the days will come 
when the bridegroom shall be taken, 8$c. as if He said, 
The time will come, when they will shew their firmness ; for 
when the Bridegroom shall be taken from them, they will fast 
as longing for His coming, and in order to unite to Him their 
spirits, cleansed by bodily suffering. He shews also that 
there is no necessity for His disciples to fast, as having pre- 
sent with them the Bridegroom of human nature, Who every 
where executes the words of God, and Who gives the seed 



VER. 18 — 22. ST. MAUK. 49 

of life. The sons of the Bridegroom also cannot, because 
they are infants, be entirely conformed to their Father, the 
Bridegroom, Who, considering their infancy, deigns to allow 
them not to fast : but when the Bridegroom is gone, they will 
fast, through desire of Him ; when they have been made per- 
fect, they will be united to the Bridegroom in marriage, and 
will always feast at the king's banquet. Theophyl. We must 
also understand, that every man whose works are good is the 
son of the Bridegroom; he has the Bridegroom with him, 
even Christ, and fasts not, that is, does no works of repent- 
ance, because he does not sin : but when the Bridegroom is 
taken away by the man's falling into sin, then he fasts and is 
penitent, that he may cure his sin. Bede ; But in a mystical Bede 
sense, it may thus be expressed ; that the disciples of John ubl SU P- 
and the Pharisees fast, because every man who boasts of the 
works of the law without faith, who follows the traditions of 
men, and receives the preaching of Christ with his bodily ear, 
and not by the faith of the heart, keeps aloof from spiritual 
goods, and wastes away with a fasting soul. But he who is 
incorporated into the members of Christ by a faithful love 
cannot fast, because he feasts upon His Body and Blood. It 
goes on, No one seweth a piece of rough, that is, new, cloth 
on an old garment : else the new piece that fillet h it up 
taketh away from the old, and the rent is made worse. 

Pseudo-Chrys. As if He said, because these are preachers vict. 
of the New Testament, it is not possible that they should serve p nt \ e 
old laws ; but ye who follow old customs, fitly observe the fasts Marc, 
of Moses. But for these, who are about to hand down to 
men new and wonderful observances, it is not necessary to 
observe the old traditions, but to be virtuous in mind ; some 
time or other however they will observe fasting with other 
virtues. But this fasting is different from the fasting of the 
law, for that was one of restraint, this of goodwill; on account 
of the fervour of the Spirit, Whom they cannot yet receive. 
Wherefore it goes on, And no one putteth new wine into old 
bottles: else the new wine doth burst the boitles, and the 
wine is spilled, and the bottles will be marred : but new 
wine must be put in new bottles. 

Bede ; For He compares His disciples to old bottles, who Bede 
would burst at spiritual precepts, rather than be held in ubl SU P- 

VOL. II. e 



50 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. II. 

restraint by them. But they will be new bottles, when after 
the ascension of the Lord, they are renewed by desiring 
His consolation, and then new wine will come to the new 
bottles, that is, the fervour of the Holy Ghost will fill the 
hearts of spiritual men. A teacher must also take heed not 
to commit the hidden things of new mysteries to a soul, 
hardened in old wickedness. Theophyl. Or else the disciples 
are likened to old garments on account of the infirmity of 
their minds, on which it was not fitting to impose the heavy 
Bede command of fasting. Bede ; Neither was it fitting to sew on 
p * a new piece ; that is, a portion of doctrine which teaches a 
general fast from all the joy of temporal delights ; for if this 
be done, the teaching is rent, and agrees not with the old 
part. But by a new garment is intended good works, which 
are done externally, and by the new wine, is expressed the 
fervour of faith, hope, and charity, by winch we are reformed 
in our minds. 

23. And it came to pass, that he went through the 
corn fields on the sabbath day ; and his disciples 
began, as they went, to pluck the ears of corn. 

24. And the Pharisees said unto him, Behold, why 
do they on the sabbath day that which is not lawful ? 

25. And he said unto them, Have ye never read 
what David did, when he had need, and was an 
hungred, he, and they that were with him ? 

26. How he went into the house of God, in the 
days of Abiathar the High Priest, and did eat the 
shewbread, which is not lawful to eat but for the 
priests, and gave also to them which were with him ? 

27. And he said unto them, The sabbath was made 
for man, and not man for the sabbath : 

28. Therefore the Son of man is Lord also of the 
sabbath. 

Vict. Pseudo-Chrys. The disciples of Christ, freed from the 
Cat. in figure, and united to the truth, do not keep the figurative 
Marc. f eas t f the sabbath, wherefore it is said, And it came to pass, 



VER. 23 — 28. ST. MARK. 51 

that he went through the corn fields on the sabbath day ; 
and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of 
corn. 

Bede; We read also in the following part, that they whoBedein 
came and went away were many, and that they had not time l ^ 
enough to take their food, wherefore, according to man's 
nature, they were hungry. Chrys. But being hungry, they non occ. 
ate simple food, not for pleasure, but on account of the^ e Ch 
necessity of nature. The Pharisees however, serving theHom. 
figure and the shadow, accused the disciples of doing wrong. Matt. 
Wherefore there follows, But the Pharisees said unto him, 
Behold, why do they on the sabbath day that which is not 
lawful. 

Aug. For it was a precept in Israel, delivered by a written Aug. 
law, that no one should detain a thief found in his fields, Monach. 
unless he tried to take something away with him. For the 23. 
man, who had touched nothing else but what he had 
eaten, they were commanded to allow to go away free 
and unpunished. Wherefore the Jews accused our Lord's 
disciples, who were plucking the ears of corn, of breaking the 
sabbath, rather than of theft. Pseudo-Chrys. But our Lord Vict, 
brings forward David, to whom it once happened to eat^"*'^ 
though it was forbidden by the law, when he touched the Marc 
Priest's food, that by his example, he might do away with 
their accusation of the disciples. For there follows, Have ye 
never read, fyc. 

Theophyl. For David, when flying from the face of Saul, l Sam. 
went to the Chief Priest, and ate the shew-bread, and took 
away the sword of Goliath, which things had been offered to 
the Lord. But a question has been raised how the Evangelist 
called Abiathar at this time High Priest, when the Book of 
Kings calls him Abimelech. Bede ; There is, however, no Bede 
discrepancy, for both were there, when David came to ask p ' 
for bread, and received it: that is to say, Abimelech, the 
High Priest, and Abiathar his son ; but Abimelech having 
been slain by Saul, Abiathar fled to David, and became the 
companion of all his exile afterwards. When he came to the 
throne, he himself also received the rank of High Priest, and 
the son became of much greater excellence than the father, 
and therefore was worthy to be mentioned as the High Priest, 

E 2 



52 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. II. 

even during his father's life-time. It goes on : And he said 
to them, The sabbath was made for man, and not man for 
the sabbath. For greater is the care to be taken of the health 
and life of a man, than the keeping of the sabbath. There- 
fore the sabbath was ordered to be observed in such a way, 
that, if there were a necessity, he should not be guilty, who 
broke the sabbath-day ; therefore it was not forbidden to cir- 
cumcise on the sabbath, because that was a necessary work. 
And the Maccabees, when necessity pressed on them, fought on 
the sabbath-day. Wherefore, His disciples being hungry, what 
was not allowed in the law became lawful through their 
necessity of hunger ; as now, if a sick man break a fast, he is 
not held guilty in any way. It goes on: Therefore the Son 
of man is Lord, fyc. As if he said, David the king is to be 
excused for feeding on the food of the Priests, how much 
more the Son of man, the true King and Priest, and Lord of 
the sabbath, is free from fault, for pulling ears of corn on the 
Vict, sabbath-day. Pseudo-Chrys. He calls himself properly, Lord 
Cat. ?n °f the sabbath, and Son of man, since being the Son of God, 
Marc. ne deigned to be called Son of man, for the sake of men. 
Now the law has no authority over the Lawgiver and Lord, 
for more is allowed the king, than is appointed by the law. 
The law is given to the weak indeed, but not to the perfect 
and to those who work above what the law enjoins. 
Bede Bede ; But in a mystical sense the disciples pass through 

1 sup * the corn fields, when the holy doctors look with the care of a 
pious solicitude upon those whom they have initiated in the 
faith, and who, it is implied, are hungering for the best of all 
things, the salvation of men. But to pluck the ears of corn means 
to snatch men away from the eager desire of earthly things. 
And to rub with the hands is by examples of virtue to put 
from the purity of their minds the concupiscence of the flesh, 
as men do husks. To eat the grains is when a man, cleansed 
from the filth of vice by the mouths of preachers, is incor- 
porated amongst the members of the Church. Again, fitly are 
the disciples related to have done this, walking before the face 
of the Lord, for it is necessary that the discourse of the doctor 
should come first, although the grace of visitation from on 
high, following it, must enlighten the heart of the hearer. 
And well, on the sabbath-day, for the doctors themselves in 



VER. 23 — 28. ST. MARK. 53 

preaching labour for the hope of future rest, and teach their 
hearers to toil over their tasks for the sake of eternal repose. 
Theophyl. Or else, because when they have rest from their 
passions, then are they made doctors to lead others to virtue, 
plucking away from them earthly things. Bede ; Again? Bede 
they walk through the corn fields with the Lord, who rejoice p 
in meditating upon His sacred words. They hunger, when 
they desire to find in them the bread of life; and they hunger 
on sabbath days, as soon as their minds are in a soothing rest, 
and they rejoice in freedom from troubled thoughts; they 
pluck the ears of corn, and by rubbing, cleanse them, till they 
come to what is fit to eat, when by meditation they take to 
themselves the witness of the Scriptures, to which they 
arrive by reading, and discuss them continually, until they 
find in them the marrow of love; this refreshment of the 
mind is truly unpleasing to fools, but is approved by the 
Lord. 



CHAP. III. 

1 . And he entered again into the synagogue ; and 
there was a man there which had a withered hand. 

2. And they watched him, whether he would heal 
him on the sabbath day; that they might accuse him. 

3. And he saith unto the man which had the 
withered hand, Stand forth. 

4. And he saith unto them, Is it lawful to do good 
on the sabbath days, or to do evil ? to save life, or to 
kill ? But they held their peace. 

5. And when he had looked round about on them 
with anger, being grieved for the hardness of their 
hearts, he saith unto the man, Stretch forth thine 
hand. And he stretched it out : and his hand was 
restored whole as the other. 

Theophyl. After confounding the Jews, who had blamed 

His disciples, for pulling the ears of corn on the sabbath day, 

by the example of David, the Lord now further bringing them 

to the truth, works a miracle on the sabbath ; shewing that, if 

it is a pious deed to work miracles on the sabbath for the 

health of men, it is not wrong to do on the sabbath things 

necessary for the body: he says therefore, And he entered 

again into the synagogue ; and there was a man there which 

had a withered hand. And they watched him, whether he 

would heal him on the sabbath-day ; that they might accuse 

Bedein him. Bede; For, since He had defended the breaking of 

Marc. t h e sabbath, which they objected to His disciples, by an 

approved example, now they wish, by watching Him, to 



Ant. e 
at. in 



VER. 1 5. GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. 55 

calumniate Himself, that they might accuse Him of a trans- 
gression, if He cured on the sabbath, of cruelty or of folly, if 
He refused. It goes on: And he saith unto the man which had 
the withered hand, Stand in the midst. Pseudo-Chrys. He Vict. 
placed him in the midst, that they might be frightened at the c 
sight, and on seeing him compassionate him, and lay aside their Marc. v. 
malice. Bede ; And anticipating the calumny of the Jews, Hom?in 
which they had prepared for Him, He accused them of violating Matt - 
the precepts of the law, by a wrong interpretation. Where- Bede 
fore there follows: And he saith unto them, Is it lawful ^ ublsu P* 
do good on the sabbath-day, or to do evil f And this He asks, 
because they thought that on the sabbath they were to rest 
even from good works, whilst the law commands to abstain 
from bad, saying, Ye shall do no servile work therein; thatLevit. 
is, sin: for Whosoever commit teth sin is the servant of sin.% 3 i^' 

John 8, 

What He first says, to do good on the sabbath-dag or to do 34. 
evil, is the same as what He afterwards adds, to save a life or 
to lose it; that is, to cure a man or not. Not that God, Who 
is in the highest degree good, can be the author of perdition 
to us, but that His not saving is in the language of 
Scripture to destroy. But if it be asked, wherefore the Lord, 
being about to cure the body, asked about the saving of the 
soul, let him understand either that in the common way of 
Scripture the soul is put for the man; as it is said, ^//Exodus 
the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob ; or because ' 
he did those miracles for the saving of a soul, or be- 
cause the healing itself of the hand signified the saving of the 
soul. Aug. But some one may wonder how Matthew could Aug. de 
have said, that they themselves asked the Lord, if it was E °" n 
lawful to heal on the sabbath-day; when Mark rather relates"- 35 * 
that they were asked by our Lord, Is it lawful to do good on 
the sabbath-dag, or to do evil? Therefore we must under- 
stand that they first asked the Lord, if it was lawful to heal 
on the sabbath-day, then that understanding their thoughts, 
and that they were seeking an opportunity to accuse Him, He 
placed in the middle him whom He was about to cure, and 
put those questions, which Mark and Luke relate. We must 
then suppose, that when they were silent, He propounded the 
parable of the sheep, and concluded, that it was lawful to do 
good on the sabbath-day. Tt goes on: But theg were silent. 



56 uosPel according to CHAP. III. 

Vict. Pseudo-Chrys. For they knew that He would certainly cure 
Q U }'- e him. It goes on : And looking round about upon them with 
Marc, anger. His looking round upon them in anger, and being 
saddened at the blindness of their hearts, is fitting for His 
humanity, which He deigned to take upon Himself for us. 
He connects the working of the miracle with a word, which 
proves that the man is cured by His voice alone. It follows 
therefore, And he stretched it out, and his hand was restored. 
Answering by all these things for His disciples, and at the 
same time shewing that His life is above the law. 
H ede Bede ; But mystically, the man with a withered hand 

ubi sup. shews the human race, dried up as to its fruitfulness in good 
works, but now cured by the mercy of the Lord ; the hand 
of man, which in our first parent had been dried up when he 
plucked the fruit of the forbidden tree, through the grace of 
the Redeemer, Who stretched His guiltless hands on the tree 
of the cross, has been restored to health by the juices of good 
works. Well too was it in the synagogue that the hand was 
withered; tor where the gift of knowledge is greater, there also 
the danger of inexcusable guilt is greater. Pseudo-Jerome ; 
Or else it means the avaricious, who, being able to give had 
rather receive, and love robbery rather than making gifts. And 
they are commanded to stretch forth their hands, that is, let him 
28. ' that stole steal no more, hut rather let him labour, working 
with his hand the thing which is good, that he may have to 
give to him that needeth. Theophyl. Or, he has his right hand 
withered, who does not the works which belong to the right 
side ; for from the time that our hand is employed in forbidden 
deeds, from that time it is withered to the working of good. But 
it will be restored whenever it stands firm in virtue; wherefore 
Christ saith, Arise, that is, from sin, and stand in the midst; 
that thus it may stretch itself forth neither too little or too much. 

6. And the Pharisees went forth, and straightway 
took counsel with the Herodians against him, how 
they might destroy him. 

7. But Jesus withdrew himself with his disciples to 
the sea : and a great multitude from Galilee followed 
him, and from Judsea, 



VEK. 6—12. ST. MARK. 57 

8. And from Jerusalem, and from Idumaea, and 
from beyond Jordan ; and they about Tyre and Sidon, 
a great multitude, when they had heard what great 
things he did, came unto him. 

9. And he spake to his disciples, that a small ship 
should wait on him, because of the multitude, lest 
they should throng him. 

10. For he had healed many ; insomuch that they 
pressed upon him for to touch him, as many as had 
plagues. 

11. And unclean spirits, when they saw him, fell 
down before him, and cried, saying, Thou art the Son 
of God. 

12. And he straitly charged them that they should 
not make him known. 

Bede ; The Pharisees, thinking it a crime that at the word Bede in 
of the Lord the hand which was diseased was restored to a j i™ # * 
sound state, agreed to make a pretext of the words spoken by 
our Saviour ; wherefore it is s&id, And the Pharisees went forth, 
and straightway took counsel with the Herodians against him, 
how they might destroy him. As if every one amongst them 
did not greater things on the sabbath day, carrying food, 
reaching forth a cup, and whatever else is necessary for meals. 
Neither could He, Who said and it was done, be convicted 
of toiling on the sabbath clay. 

Theophyl. But the soldiers of Herod the king are called 
Herodians, because a certain new heresy had sprung up, 
which asserted that Herod was the Christ. For the prophecy 
of Jacob intimated, that when the princes of Judah failed, 
then Christ should come ; because therefore in the time of 
Herod none of the Jewish princes remained, and he, an alien, 
was the sole ruler, some thought that he was the Christ, and 
set on foot this heresy. These, therefore, were with the 
Pharisees trying to kill Christ. Bede ; Or else he calls Bede 
Herodians the servants of Herod the Tetrarch, who on account u sup * 
of the hatred which their lord had for John, pursued with 
treachery and hate the Saviour also, Whom John preached. 



58 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. III. 

It goes on, But Jesus withdrew himself with his disciples to 
the sea ; He fled from their treachery, because the hour of His 
passion had not yet come, and no place away from Jerusalem 
was proper for His Passion. By which also He gave an example 
to His disciples, when they suffer persecution in one city, to flee 
to another. Theophyl. At the same time again, He goes 
away, that by quitting the ungrateful He might do good to 
more, /or many followed him, and he healed them. For there 
follows, And a great multitude from Galilee, fyc. Syrians and 
Sidonians, being foreigners, receive benefit from Christ ; but 
His kindred the Jews persecute Him : thus there is no profit 
in relationship, if there be not a similarity in goodness. 

Bede Bede ; For the strangers followed Him, because they saw 
sup * the works of His powers, and in order to hear the words ot 
His teaching. But the Jews, induced solely by their opinion 
of His powers, in a vast multitude come to hear Him, and to 
beg for His aiding health ; wherefore there follows, And he 
spake to his disciples, that they should wait, fyc. 

Theophyl. Consider then how He hid His glory, for He 
begs for a little ship, lest the crowd should hurt Him, so that 
entering into it, He might remain unharmed. It follows, 
As many as had scourges, Sfc. But he means by scourges, 
diseases, for God scourges us, as a father does His children. 

Bede Bede ; Both therefore fell down before the Lord, those 

ubi sup. w h h ac i the plagues of bodily diseases, and those who were 
vexed by unclean spirits. The sick did this simply with the 
intention of obtaining health, but the demoniacs, or rather 
the devils within them, because under the mastery of a fear 
of God they were compelled not only to fall down before 
Him, but also to praise His majesty ; wherefore it goes on, 
And they cried out, saying, Thou art the Son of God. And 
here we must wonder at the blindness of the Arians, who, 
after the glory of His resurrection, deny the Son of God, 
Whom the devils confess to be the Son of God, though still 
clothed with human flesh. There follows, And he slraitly 
charged them, that they should not make him known. For 

Ps.50, God said to the sinner, Why dost thou preach my laws? 
A sinner is forbidden to preach the Lord, lest any one 
listening to his preaching should follow him in his error, for 
the devil is an evil master, who always mingles false things 



VKR. 13 — 19. ST. MARK. 59 

with true, that the semblance of truth may cover the witness of 
fraud. But not only devils, but persons healed by Christ, and 
even Apostles, are ordered to be silent concerning Him before 
the Passion, lest by the preaching of the majesty of His 
Divinity, the economy of His Passion should be retarded. 
But allegorically, in the Lord's coming out of the synagogue, 
and then retiring to the sea, He prefigured the salvation of 
the Gentiles, to whom He deigned to come through their 
faith, having quitted the Jews on account of their perfidy. 
For the nations, driven about in divers by-paths of error, are v.Cypri- 
fitly compared to the unstable sea. Again, a great crowd i x iii. 
from various provinces followed Him, because He has received c Ug ff^ 
with kindness many nations, who came to Him through the 20, 16. 
preaching of the Apostles. But the ship waiting upon the 
Lord in the sea is the Church, collected from amongst the 
nations ; and He goes into it lest the crowd should throng 
Him, because flying from the troubled minds of carnal per- 
sons, He delights to come to those who despise the glory of 
this world, and to dwell within them. Further, there is a 
difference between thronging the Lord, and touching Him ; 
for they throng Him, when by carnal thoughts and deeds 
they trouble peace, in which truth dwells ; but he touches 
Him, who by faith and love has received Him into his heart; 
wherefore those who touched Him are said to have been 
saved. 

Theophyl. Morally again, the Herodians, that is, persons 
who love the lusts of the flesh, wish to slay Christ. For the 
meaning of Herod is, ' of skin.' But those who quit their P elli c«- 
country, that is, a carnal mode of living, follow Christ, Hier. de 
and their plagues are healed, that is, the sins which wound S°P; 
their conscience. But Jesus in us is our reason, which 
commands that our vessel, that is, our body, should serve 
Him, lest the troubles of worldly affairs should press upon our 
reason. 

13. And he goeth up into a mountain, and calleth 
unto him whom he would : and they came unto him. 

14. And he ordained twelve, that they should be 
with him, and that he might send them forth to 
preach, 



00 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. III. 

15. And to have power to heal sicknesses, and to 
cast out devils : 

16. And Simon he surnamed Peter; 

17. And James the son of Zebedee, and John the 
brother of James ; and he surnamed them Boanerges, 
which is, The sons of thunder : 

18. And Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, 
and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of 
Alphseus, and Thaddseus, and Simon the Canaanite, 

19. And Judas Iscariot, which also betrayed him. 



Bede in Bede ; After having forbidden the evil spirits to preach 
! ^6. Him, He chose holy men, to cast out the unclean spirits, and 
Luke 6. to preach the Gospel ; wherefore it is said, And he went up 
into a mountain, 8$c. Theophyl. Luke, however, says that 
He went up to pray, for after the shewing forth of miracles He 
prays, teaching us that we should give thanks, when we obtain 
Vict, any thing good, and refer it to Divine grace. Pseudo-Chrys. 
Cat in ^ e a ^ so instructs the Prelates of the Church to pass the 
Marc, night in prayer before they ordain, that their office be not 
impeded. When therefore, according to Luke, it was day, 
He called whom He would ; for there were many who 
Bede followed Him. Bede ; For it was not a matter of their 
ubi sup. cno j ce an( j Z eal, but of Divine condescension and grace, that 
they should be called to the Apostleship. The mount also 
in which the Lord chose His Apostles, shews the lofty righ- 
teousness in which they were to be instructed, and which 
they were about to preach to men. 

Pseudo- Jerome ; Or spiritually, Christ is the mount, from 

which living waters flow, and milk is procured for the health of 

infants; whence the spiritual feast of fat things is made known, 

and whatsoever is believed to be mosthighly good is established 

by the grace of that Mountain. Those therefore who are highly 

exalted in merits and in words are called up into a mountain, 

that the place may correspond to the loftiness of their merits. 

Ps. 46. It goes on : And they came unto him, fyc. For the Lord 

Mau l° ve d the beauty of Jacob, that they might sit upon 

19, 28. twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel, who also 



VER. 13 19. ST. MARK. 61 

in bands of threes and fours watch around the tabernacle of 
the Lord, and carry the holy words of the Lord, bearing them 
forward on their actions, as men do burdens on their shoulders. 
Bede ; For as a sacrament of this the children of Israel Bede 
once used to encamp about the Tabernacle, so that on each u 
of the four sides of the square three tribes were stationed. 
Now three times four are twelve, and in three bands of four 
the Apostles were sent to preach, that through the four 
quarters of the whole world they might baptize the nations 
in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. 
It goes on : And he gave them power ', fyc. That is, in order 
that the greatness of their deeds might bear witness to the 
greatness of their heavenly promises, and that they, who 
preached unheard-of things, might do unheard-of actions. 
Theophyl. Further, He gives the names of the Apostles, that 
the true Apostles might be known, so that men might avoid the 
false. And therefore it continues : And Simon he surnamed 
Cephas. Aug. But let no one suppose that Simon now received Aug. de 
his name and was called Peter, for thus he would make Mark £ on * .. 

Evan. ii. 

contrary to John, who relates that it had been long before 17. 
said unto him, Thou shalt be called Cephas. But Mark gives j Q hn 
this account by way of recapitulation; for as he wished to 1 ' 42, 
give the names of the twelve Apostles, and was obliged to 
call him Peter, his object was to intimate briefly, that he 
w r as not called this originally, but that the Lord gave him that 
name. Bede ; And the reason that the Lord willed that he Bede 
should at first be called otherwise, was that from the change up * 
itself of the name, a mystery might be conveyed to us. 
Peter then in Latin or in Greek means the same thing as 
Cephas in Hebrew, and in each language the name is drawn 
from a stone. Nor can it be doubted that is the rock of 
which Paul spoke, And this rock was Christ. For as Christ l Cor. 
w T as the true light, and allowed also that the Apostles should ' 
be called the light of the world, so also to Simon, who Matt. 5, 

. 14. 

believed on the rock Christ, He gave the name of Rock. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; Thus from obedience, which Simon signifies, 
the ascent is made to knowledge, which is meant by Peter. It 
goes on : And James the son of Zebedee, and John his 
brother. Bede; We must connect this with what went Bede 
before, He goeth up into a mountain, and calleth. Pseudo- u lsup * 



62 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. III. 

Gen. 27, Jerome ; Namely, James who has supplanted all the desires of 
v. Aur. the flesh, and John, who received by grace what others held by 
Cat. m labour. There follows : And he surnamed them, Boanerges. 
10, 2. Pseudo-Chrys. He calls the sons of Zebedee by this name, 
Ant. e Decaus e they were 1o spread over the world the mighty and 
Cat. in illustrious decrees of the Godhead. Pseudo-Jerome : Or by 

Marc. ... 

this the lofty merit of the three mentioned above is shewn, who 

merited to hear in the mountain the thunders of the Father, 

when he proclaimed in thunder through a cloud concerning 

Matt, the Son, This is my beloved Son ; that they also through 

» verbi the cloud of the flesh and the fire of the word 1 , might as it 

apud were scatter the thunderbolts in rain on the earth, since 

Pseudo- . 

Hier. the Lord turned the thunderbolts into rain, so that mercy 
extinguishes what judgment sets on fire. It goes on : And 
Andrew, who manfully does violence to perdition, so that he 

l Pet. had ever ready within him his own death, to give as an 

PsVi9 answer > an( i bis sou l was ever m his hands. Bede ; For 

109. Andrew is a Greek name, which means c manly,' from av^, that 

ubi sup. 1S > man > f° r ne manfully adhered to the Lord. There follows, 

And Philip. Pseudo-Jerome ; Or, ' the mouth of a lamp,' 

that is, one who can throw light by his mouth upon what he has 

conceived in his heart, to whom the Lord gave the opening 

of a mouth, which diffused light. We know that this mode 

of speaking belongs to holy Scripture ; for Hebrew names 

are put down in order to intimate a mystery. There follows : 

And Bartholomew, which means, the son of him who suspends 

Is. 6, 6. the waters ; of him, that is, who said, / will also command 

the clouds that they rain no rain upon it. But the name 

of son of God is obtained by peace and loving one's enemy ; 

Matt, for, Blessed are the peacemakers, for they are the sons of God. 

45 # ' 'And, Love your enemies, that ye may be the sons of God. 

There follows : And Matthew, that is, ' given,' to whom it is 

given by the Lord, not only to obtain remission of sins, but 

to be enrolled in the number of the Apostles. And Thomas, 

which means, ' abyss ;' for men who have knowledge by the 

power of God, put forward many deep things. It goes on : 

And James the son of Alphceus, that is, of ( the learned' or c the 

Ps. 91, thousandth,' beside whom a thousand will fall. This other 

Eph 6 J ames i s ne > whose wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but 

12. against spiritual wickedness. There follows, An dlliaddaus, that 



VER. 19 22. ST. MARK. 63 

is, ' corculum,' which means * he who guards the heart,* one who qu. cor- 
keeps his heart in all watchfulness. Bede ; But Thaddaeus is J* cul " 
the same person, as Luke calls in the Gospel and in the Acts, Bede 
Jude of James, for he was the brother of James, the brother of u 
the Lord, as he himself has written in his Epistle. There follows, 
And Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who be- 
trayed him. He has added this by way of distinction from 
Simon Peter, and Jude the brother of James. Simon is 
called the Canaanite from Cana, a village in Galilee, and 
Judas, Scariotes, from the village from which he had his origin, 
or he is so called fiom the tribe of Issachar. Theophyl. 
Whom he reckons amongst the Apostles, that we may learn 
that God does not repel any man for wickedness, which is 
future, but counts him worthy on account of his present virtue. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; But Simon is interpreted, c laying aside 
sorrow ;' for blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be Matt. 6, 
comforted. And he is called Canaanite, that is, Zealot, 
because the zeal of the Lord ate him up. But Judas Iscariot 
is one who does not do away his sins by repentance. For 
Judas means ' boaster,' or vain -glorious. And Iscariot, ' the 
memory of death.' But many are the proud and vain-glorious 
confessors in the Church, as Simon Magus, and Arius, and 
other heretics, whose deathlike memory is celebrated in the 
Church, that it may be avoided. 



19. And they went into an house. 

20. And the multitude cometh together again, so 
that they could not so much as eat bread. 

21. And when his friends heard of it, they went 
out to lay hold on him : for they said, He is beside 
himself. 

22. And the Scribes which came down from Jeru- 
salem said, He hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of 
the devils casteth he out devils. 



Bede; The Lord leads the Apostles, when they were Bede 
elected, into a house, as if admonishing them, that after 



64 GOSPEL ACCORDINO TO CHAP. III. 

having received the Apostleship, they should retire to look on 
theirown consciences. Wherefore itis said, And they came intoa 
homeland the multitude came together again ,so that they could 
Vict, not eat bread. Pseudo-Chrys. Ungrateful indeed were the 
Cat. in multitudes of princes, whom their pride hinders from knowledge, 
Marc, but the grateful multitude of the people came to Jesus. Bede ; 
ubi sup. And blessed indeed the concourse of the crowd, flocking toge- 
ther, whose anxiety to obtain salvation was so great, that they 
left not the Author of salvation even an hour free to take food. 
But Him, whom a crowd of strangers loves to follow, his rela- 
tions hold in little esteem : for it goes on : And when his friends 
heard of it, they went out to lay hold upon him. For since they 
could not take in the depth of wisdom, which they heard, 
they thought that He was speaking in a senseless way, where- 
fore it continues, for they said, He is beside himself. The- 
ophyl. That is, He has a devil and is mad, and therefore they 
wished to lay hold upon Him, that they might shut Him up 
as one who had a devil. And even His friends wished to do 
this, that is, His relations, perchance His countrymen, or His 
1 Vict, brethren. l But it was a silly insanity in them, to conceive 
Cat in tnat ^ ne Worker of such great miracles of Divine Wisdom had 
Marc, become mad. Bede; Now there is a great difference be- 

Bede 

ubi sup. tween those who do not understand the word of God from 
slowness of intellect, such as those, who are here spoken of, 
and those who purposely blaspheme, of whom it is added, 
And the Scribes which came down from Jerusalem, 8$c. For 
what they could not deny, they endeavour to pervert by a 
malicious interpretation, as if they were not the works of God, 
but of a most unclean spirit, that is, of Beelzebub, who was 
the God of Ekron. For ' Beel' means Baal himself, and c zebub' 
a fly ; the meaning of Beelzebub therefore is the man of flies, 
on account of the filth of the blood which was offered, from 
which most unclean rite, they call him prince of the devils, 
adding, and by the prince of the devils casteth he out devils. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; But mystically, the house to which they 
came, is the early Church. The crowds which prevent their 
eating bread are sins and vices; for he who eateth unworthily, 
l Cor. eateth anddrinketh damnation to himself Bede; The Scribes 
g e ' d g " also coming down from Jerusalem blaspheme. But the multi- 
ubi sup. tude from Jerusalem, and from other regions of Judaea, or of the 



VER. 23 30. ST. MARK. 65 

Gentiles, followed the Lord, because so it was to be at the 
time of His Passion, that a crowd of the people of the Jews 
should lead Him to Jerusalem with palms and praises, and 
the Gentiles should desire to see Him ; but the Scribes and 
Pharisees should plot together for His death. 

23. And he called them unto him, and said unto 
them in parables, How can Satan cast out Satan ? 

24. And if a kingdom be divided against itself, 
that kingdom cannot stand. 

25. And if a house be divided against itself, that 
house cannot stand. 

26. And if Satan rise up against himself, and be 
divided, he cannot stand, but hath an end. 

27. No man can enter into a strong man's house, 
and spoil his goods, except he will first bind the 
strong man ; and then he will spoil his house. 

28. Verily I say unto you, All sins shall be for- 
given unto the sons of men, and blasphemies where- 
with soever they shall blaspheme : 

29. But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy 
Ghost hath never forgiveness, but is in danger of 
eternal damnation : 

30. Because they said, He hath an unclean spirit. 

Pseudo-Chrys. The blasphemy of the Scribes having been Vict. 
detailed, our Lord shews that what they said was impossible, ^ nt, . e 
confirming His proof by an example. Wherefore it says, Marc. 
And having called them together unto him, he said unto them 
in parables, How can Satan cast out Satan? As if He had 
said, A kingdom divided against itself by civil war must be 
desolated, which is exemplified both in a house and in a 
city. Wherefore also if Satan's kingdom be divided against 
itself, so that Satan expels Satan from men, the desolation of 
the kingdom of the devils is at hand. But their kingdom 
consists in keeping men under their dominion. If therefore 
they are driven away from men, it amounts to nothing less 

VOL. II. F 



()(> GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. III. 

than the dissolution of their kingdom. But if they still hold 
their power over men, it is manifest that the kingdom of evil 
is still standing, and Satan is not divided against himself. 

Gloss. Gloss. And because He has already shewn by an example 
' that a devil cannot cast out a devil, He shews how he can 
be expelled, saying, No man can enter into a strong man's 
house, fyc. Theophyl. The meaning of the example is this : 
The devil is the strong man ; his goods are the men into whom 
he is received ; unless therefore a man first conquers the 
devil, how r can he deprive him of his goods, that is, of the 
men whom he has possessed ? So also I who spoil his goods, 
that is, free men from suffering by his possession, first spoil 
the devils and vanquish them, and am their enemy. How 
then can ye say that I have Beelzebub, and that being the 

Bede in friend of the devils, I cast them out ? Bede ; The Lord has 

IVTcirc 

i if t ' also bound the strong man, that is, the devil: which means, 
He has restrained him from seducing the elect, and entering 
into his house, the world ; He has spoiled his house, 
and his goods, that is men, because He has snatched them 
from the snares of the devil, and has united them to His 
Church. Or, He has spoiled his house, because the four parts 
of the world, over which the old enemy had sway, He has 
distributed to the Apostles and their successors, that they 
may convert the people to the way of life. But the Lord 
shews that they committed a great sin, in crying out that that 
which they knew to be of God, was of the devil, when He 
subjoins, Verily I say unto you, All sins are forgiven, fy c. 
All sins and blasphemies are not indeed remitted to all men, 
but to those who have gone through a repentance in this life 
sufficient for their sins ; thus neither is Novatus m right, who 
denied that any pardon should be granted to penitents, who 
had lapsed in time of martyrdom ; nor Origen, who asserts 
that after the general judgment, after the revolution of ages, 
all sinners will receive pardon for their sins, which error the 
following words of the Lord condemn, when He adds, But 
he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost, 8$c. 

m Novatus was a Carthaginian pres- 251. His error, which is here opposed 

byter, who, after having abetted Feli- to Origen's, consisted in denying that 

cissimus in his schism against St. Christ had left with His Church the 

Cyprian, came to Rome and joined power of absolving from certain sins, 

Novatian against Pope Cornelius, A.D. especially from apostasy. 



VER. 23 30. ST. MARK. 67 

Pseudo-Chrys. He says indeed, that blasphemy concerning Viet. 
Himself was pardonable, because He then seemed to be a man c ^ ? 
despised and of the most lowly birth, but, that contumely Marc, 
against God has no remission. Now blasphemy against the Holy 
Ghost is against God, for the operation of the Holy Ghost 
is the kingdom of God ; and for this reason, He says, that 
blasphemy against the Holy Ghost cannot be remitted. In- 
stead, however, of what is here added, But will be in danger 
of eternal damnation, another Evangelist says, Neither in 
this world, nor in the world to come. By which is under- 
stood, the judgment which is according to the law, and that 
which is to come. For the law orders one who blasphemes 
God to be slain, and in the judgment of the second law he has 
no remission. "However, he who is baptized is taken out of 
this world; but the Jews were ignorant of the remission 
which takes place in baptism. He therefore who refers to 
the devil miracles, and the casting out of devils which belong 
to the Holy Ghost alone, has no room left him for remission 
of his blasphemy. Neither does it appear that such a blas- 
phemy as this is remitted, siuce it is against the Holy Ghost. 
Wherefore he adds, explaining it, Because they said, He 
hath an unclean spirit. Theophyl. We must however 
understand, that they will not obtain pardon unless they 
repent. But since it was at the flesh of Christ that they 
were offended, even though they did not repent, some excuse 
was allowed them, and they obtained some remission. 
Pseudo- Jerome ; Or this is meant; that he will not deserve to 
work out repentance, so as to be accepted, who, understand- 
ing who Christ was, declared that He was the prince of the 
devils. Bede; Neither however are those, who do not be-Bede 
lieve the Holy Spirit to be God, guilty of an unpardonable" ,sup ' 
blasphemy, because they were persuaded to do this by human 
ignorance, not by devilish malice. 

Aug. Or else impenitence itself is the blasphemy against the Aug. 
Holy Ghost which hath no remission. For either in his thought 7^"^ 



22. 



n A few words are left out in the C ate- tism is as it were a space between the 

na, which occur in Victor, and which do two worlds, where remission can be 

away with the obscurity of the passage, obtained. The reason, therefore, why 

The meaning of the whole is, that this blasphemy could not be remitted, 

though there is no remission either in was, because the Jews would not come 

this world or in the next, yet that bap- to Christ's baptism, 

F 2 



7, 20. 



()8 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO (HAP. HI. 

or by his tongue, he speaks a word against the Holy Ghost, 
the forgiver of sins, who treasures up for himself an im- 
penitent heart. But he subjoins, Because they said, He hath 
an unclean spirit, that he might shew that His reason for say- 
ingit, was their declaring that He cast out a devil by Beelzebub, 
not because there is a blasphemy, which cannot be remitted, 
since even this might be remitted through aright repentance; 
but the cause why this sentence was put forth by the Lord, after 
mentioning the unclean spirit, (who as our Lord shews was 
divided against himself,) was, that the Holy Ghost even 
makes those whom He brings together undivided, by His 
remitting those sins, which divided them from Himself, which 
gift of remission is resisted by no one, but him who has the 
John hardness of an impenitent heart. For in another place, the 
Jews said of the Lord, that He had a devil, without however 
His saying any thing there about the blasphemy against the 
Spirit ; and the reason is, that they did not there cast in His 
teeth the unclean spirit, in such a way, that that spirit could 
by their own words be shewn to be divided against Himself, 
as Beelzebub was here shewn to be, by their saying, that it 
might be he who cast out devils . 

31. There came then his brethren and his mother, 
and, standing without, sent unto him, calling him. 

32. And the multitude sat about him, and they 
said unto him, Behold, thy mother and thy brethren 
without seek for thee. 

33. And he answered them, saying, Who is my 
mother, or my brethren ? 

34. And he looked round about on them which sat 
about him, and said, Behold my mother and my 
brethren ! 

35. For whosoever shall do the will of God, the 
same is my brother, and my sister, and mother. 

St. Augustine explains his meaning was rending the unity of the Church, 

by going on to say, that as the Devil without which there is no remission, 

was proved by the words of the Jews to be St. Ambrose, something in the same 

the author of division, so the Holy Ghost way, applies the text to the Arians, as 

was the author of unity, so that one dividing the Holy Trinity, de Fide, 

form of blasphemy of the Holy Ghost i. 1. 



VER. 31—35. ST. MARK. 69 

Theophyl. Because the relations of the Lord had come to 
seize upon Him, as if beside Himself, His mother, urged by 
the sympathy of her love, came to Him ; wherefore it is said, 
And there came unto him his mother, and, standing without, 
sent unto him, calling him. 

Chrys. From this it is manifest that His brethren and His Chrys. 
mother were not always with Him; but because He was nonocc * 
beloved by them, they come from reverence and affection, 
waiting without. Wherefore it goes on, And the multitude 
sat about him, 8$c. Bede; The brothers of the Lord mustBede 
not be thought to be the sons of the ever-virgin Mary, as lsup * 
Helvidius says p , nor the sons of Joseph by a former marriage, 
as some think, but rather they must be understood to be His 
relations. 

Pseudo-Chrys. But another Evangelist says, that His Vi ^t. 
brethren did not believe on Him. With which this agrees, Cat.' in 
which says, that they sought Him, waiting without, and with ? r ? rc * 

1 • • 1 T 1 1 1 , • j0hl1 7 > 

this meaning the Lord does not mention them as relations. 5. 
Wherefore it follows, And lie answered them, saying, Who is 
my mother or my brethren f But He does not here mention 
His mother and His brethren altogether with reproof, but 
to shew that a man must honour his own soul above all 
earthly kindred; wherefore this is fitly said to those who called 
Him to speak with His mother and relations, as if it were 
a more useful task than the teaching of salvation. 

Bede ; Being asked therefore by a message to go out, He Ambr. 
declines, not as though He refused the dutiful service of ™ 3 6 uc ' 
His mother, but to shew that He owes more to His Father's Bede 
mysteries than to His mother's feelings. Nor does He 
rudely despise His brothers, but, preferring His spiritual 
work to fleshly relationship, He teaches us that religion 
is the bond of the heart rather than that of the body. 
Wherefore it goes on, And looking round about on them 
which sat about him, he said, Behold my mother and my 
brethren. Chrys. By this, the Lord shews that we should Chrys 
honour those who are relations by faith rather than those 



ubi sup. 



non occ. 



P The perpetual virginity of the Mo- an account of the heretics who denied 

ther of God is reckoned by "White, it, v. Bp. Pearson on the Creed, Art. iii. 

Bramhall, Patrick, and Pearson, a- p. 272, note x. v. also Aur. Cat. in 

mongst the traditions which have ever Matt. p. 58, note c. 
been held in the Catholic Church. For 



70 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. CHAP. III. 

who are relations by blood. A man indeed is made the 
mother of Jesus by preaching Him*; for He, as it were, 
brings forth the Lord, when he pours Him into the heart 
of his hearers. Pseudo-Jerome ; But let us be assured that 
we are His brethren and His sisters, if we do the will 
of the Father ; that we may be joint-heirs with Him, for He 
discerns us not by sex but by our deeds. Wherefore it goes 
on : Whosoever shall do the will of God, 8$c. Theophyl. 
He does not therefore say this, as denying His mother, but 
as shewing that He is worthy of honour, not only because 
she bore Christ, but on account of her possessing every other 
Bede virtue. Bede ; But mystically, the mother and brother of 
p * Jesus means the synagogue, (from which according to the 
flesh He sprung,) and the Jewish people who, while the 
Saviour is teaching within, come to Him, and are not able to 
enter, because they cannot understand spiritual things. But 
the crowd eagerly enter, because when the Jews delayed, the 
Gentiles flocked to Christ ; but His kindred, who stand with- 
out wishing to see the Lord, are the Jews who obstinately 
remained without, guarding the letter, and would rather 
compel the Lord to go forth to them to teach carnal things, 
than consent to enter in to learn spiritual things of Him. 
Ambr. If therefore not even His parents when standing without are 
j? ^ 7 UC * acknowledged, how shall we be acknowledged, if we stand 
without ? For the word is within and the light within. 

i Nearly the same idea occurs in St. Ambrose, in Luc. 2, 8. 



CHAP. IV. 

1. And he began again to teach by the sea side: and 
there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so 
that he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea ; and 
the whole multitude was by the sea on the land. 

2. And he taught them many things by parables, 
and said unto them in his doctrine, 

3. Hearken ; Behold, there went out a sower to 
sow : 

4. And it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell by 
the way side, and the fowls of the air came and 
devoured it up. 

5. And some fell on stony ground, where it had 
not much earth ; and immediately it sprang up, 
because it had no depth of earth : 

6. But when the sun was up, it was scorched ; and 
because it had no root, it withered away. 

7. And some fell among thorns, and the thorns 
grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 

8. And other fell on good ground, and did yield 
fruit that sprang up and increased ; and brought 
forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some an 
hundred. 

9. And he said unto them, He that hath ears to 
hear, let him hear. 

10. And when he was alone, they that were about 
him with the twelve asked of him the parable. 

11. And he said unto them, Unto you it is given 
to know the mystery of the kingdom of God : but 
unto them that are without, all these things are done 
in parables : 

12. That seeing they may see, and not perceive; 
and hearing they may hear, and not understand ; 



72 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IV. 

lest at any time they should be converted, and their 
sins should be forgiven them. 

13. And he said unto them, Know ye not this 
parable? and how then will ye know all parables? 

14. The sower soweth the word. 

15. And these are they by the way side, where 
the word is sown ; but when they have heard, Satan 
cometh immediately, and taketh away the word that 
was sown in their hearts. 

1 6. And these are they likewise which are sown on 
stony ground ; who, when they have heard the word, 
immediately receive it with gladness ; 

17. And have no root in themselves, and so endure 
but for a time : afterward, when affliction or per- 
secution ariseth for the word's sake, immediately they 
are offended. 

18. And these are they which are sown among 
thorns ; such as hear the word, 

19. And the cares of this world, and the deceit- 
fulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering 
in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful. 

20. And these are they which are sown on good 
ground ; such as hear the word, and receive it, and 
bring forth fruit, some thirty-fold, some sixty, and 
some an hundred. 

Theophyl. Although the Lord appears in the transactions 
mentioned above to neglect His mother, nevertheless He 
honours her ; since on her account He goes forth about the 
borders of the sea : wherefore it is said, And Jesus began to 
Bedein teach again by the sea-side, fyc. Bede ; For if we look into 
J 1 jg C * the Gospel of Matthew, it appears that this same teaching of 
the Lord at the sea, was delivered on the same day as the 
former. For after the conclusion of the first sermon, Mat- 
thew immediately subjoins, saying, The same day went Jesus 
out of the house, and sat by ike sea-side. 

Pseudo-JePvOME; But He began to teach at the sea, that the 



VER. 1 — 20. ST. MARK. 73 

place of His teaching might point out the bitter feelings and 
instability of His hearers. Bede ; After leaving the house Bede 
also, He began to teach at the sea, because, quitting the" up * 
synagogue, He came to gather together the multitude of the 
Gentile people by the Apostles. Wherefore it continues: 
And there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that 
he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea. Chrys. Which Chrys. 
we must understand was not done without a purpose, but Matt, 
that He might not leave any one behind Him, but have all 44, 
His hearers before His face. Bede ; Now this ship shewed Bede 
in a figure the Church, to be built in the midst of the nations, hUp * 
in which the Lord consecrates for Himself a beloved dwell- 
ing-place. It goes on : And he taught them many things by 
parables. Pseudo-Jerome; A parable is a comparison made 
between things discordant by nature, under some similitude. 
For parable is the Greek for a similitude, when we point out 
by some comparisons what we would have understood. In 
this way we say an iron man, when we desire that he should 
be understood to be hardy and strong; when to be swift, 
we compare him to winds and birds. But He speaks to the 
multitudes in parables, with His usual providence, that those 
who could not take in heavenly things, might conceive what 
they heard by an earthly similitude. Chrys. For He rouses Chrys. 
the minds of His hearers by a parable, pointing out objects to sup * 
the sight, to make His discourse more manifest. Theophyl. 
And in order to rouse the attention of those who heard, the 
first parable that He proposes is concerning the seed, which 
is the word of God. Wherefore it goes on, And he said to 
them in his doctrine. Not in that of Moses, nor of the 
Prophets, because He preaches His own Gospel. Hearken : 
behold, there went out a sower to sow. Now the Sower is 
Christ. Chrys. Not that He went out in space, Who is Chrys. 
present in all space, and fills all, but in the form and ubisu P* 
economy by which He is made more near to us through the 
clothing of flesh. For since we were not able to go to Him, 
because sins impeded our path, He went out to us. But 
He went out, preaching in order to sow the word of piety, 
which He spake abundantly. Now He does not needlessly 
repeat the same word, when He says, A sower went out to 
sow, for sometimes a sower goes out that he may break up 



74 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IV. 

land for tillage, or to pull up weeds, or for some other work. 

Bedein But this one went out to sow. Bede ; Or else, He went out 

l 19. to sow, when after calling to His faith the elect portion of 
the synagogue, He poured out the gifts of His grace in order 

Chrys. to call the Gentiles also. Chrys. Further, as a sower does 
p * not make a distinction in the ground which is beneath him, 
but simply and without distinction puts in the seed, so also 
He Himself addresses all. And to signify this, He says, 
And as he sowed, some fell by the way-side. Theophyl. 
Take notice, that He says not that He threw it in the way, 
but that it fell, for a sower, as far as he can, throws it into 
good ground, but if the ground be bad, it corrupts the seed. 
Now the way is Christ ; but infidels are by the way-side, 

Bede that is, out of Christ. Bede ; Or else, the way is a mind 
which is a path for bad thoughts, preventing the seed of the 
word from growing in it. And therefore whatsoever good 
seed comes in contact with such a way, perishes, and is 
carried off by devils. Wherefore there follows, And the 
fowls of the air came and devoured it up. And well are the 
devils called fowls of the air, either because they are of a 
heavenly and spiritual origin, or because they dwell in the 
air. Or else, those who are about the way are negligent and 
slothful men. It goes on : And some fell on stony ground. 
He calls stone, the hardness of a wanton mind ; He calls 
ground, the inconstancy of a soul in its obedience ; and sun, 
the heat of a raging persecution. Therefore the depth of 
earth, which ought to have received the seed of God, is the 
honesty of a mind trained in heavenly discipline, and regu- 
larly brought up in obedience to the Divine words. But the 
stony places, which have no strength for fixing the root 
firmly, are those breasts which are delighted only with the 
sweetness of the word which they hear, and for a time with 
the heavenly promises, but in a season of temptation fall 
away, for there is too little of healthful desire in them to 
conceive the seed of life. Theophyl. Or, the stony persons 
are those who adhering a little to the rock, that is, to Christ, 
up to a short time, receive the word, and afterwards, falling 
back, cast it away. It goes on : And some fell among thorns ; 
by which are marked souls which care for many things. For 
thorns are cares. 



VER. 1 20. ST. MARK. 75 

Chrys. But further He mentions good ground, saying, Chrys. 
And other fell on good ground. For the difference of the 8Up * 
fruits follows the quality of the ground. But great is the 
love of the Sower for men, for the first He commends, and 
rejects not the second, and gives a place to the third. 
Theophyl. See also how the bad are the greatest number, 
and the few are those who are saved, for the fourth part of 
the ground is found to be saved. 

Chrys. This, however, the greater portion of the seed is Chrys. 
not lost through the fault of the owner, but of the earth, 
which received it, that is, of the soul, which hears. And 
indeed the real husbandman, if he sowed in this way, would 
be rightly blamed ; for he is not ignorant that rock, or the 
road, or thorny ground, cannot become fertile. But in 
spiritual things it is not so ; for there it is possible that stony 
ground may become fertile ; and that the road should not be 
trodden down, and that the thorns may be destroyed, for if 
this could not take place, he would not have sown there. By 
this therefore He gives to us hope of repentance. It goes on, 
And he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let him 
hear. Bede; As often as this is inserted in the Gospel orBede 
in the Apocalypse of John, that which is spoken is mystical," lsup * 
and is pointed out as healthful to be heard and learnt. For 
the ears by which they are heard belong to the heart, and the 
ears by which men obey and do what is commanded, are 
those of an interior sense. There follows, And when he was 
alone, the twelve that were with him asked of him the parable; 
and he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the 
mystery of the kingdom of God, but to them that are without 
all things are done in parables. Pseudo-Chrys. As if He Vict. 
said unto them, You that are worthy to be taught all things £" t# . e 
which are fitted for teaching, shall learn the manifestation of Mare, 
parables ; but I use parables with them who are unworthy 
to learn, because of their wickedness. For it was right that 
they who did not hold fast their obedience to that law which 
they had received, should not have any share in a new 
teaching, but should be estranged from both ; for He shewed 
by the obedience of His disciples, that, on the other hand, 
the others were become unworthy of mystical doctrine. But 
afterwards, by bringing in a voice from prophecy, He con- 



76 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IV. 

founds their wickedness, as having been long before reproved; 
Isa. 6, 9. wherefore it goes on, that seeing they might see, and not 
perceive, 8$c. as if He said, that the prophecy might be 
fulfilled which foretells these things. Theophyl. For it was 
God Who made them to see, that is, to understand what is 
good. But they themselves see not, of their own will making 
themselves not to see, lest they should be converted and 
correct themselves, as if they were displeased at their own 
salvation. It goes on, Lest at any time they should be con- 
Wet, verted, and their sins be forgiven them. Pseudo-Chrys. Thus, 
Cat. in therefore, they see and they do not see, they hear and do not 
Marc, understand, for their seeing and hearing comes to them from 
God's grace, but their seeing and not understanding comes 
to them from their unwillingness to receive grace, and closing 
their eyes, and pretending that they could not see ; neither 
do they acquiesce in what was said, and so are not changed 
as to their sins by hearing and seeing, but rather are made 
worse. Theophyl. Or we may understand in a different 
way His speaking to the rest in parables, that seeing they 
might not perceive, and hearing, not understand. For God 
gives sight and understanding to men who seek for them, 
but the rest He blinds, lest it become a greater accusation 
against them, that though they understood, they did not 
choose to do what they ought. Wherefore it goes on, Lest 
Aug. at any time they should be, 8$c. Aug. Or else they deserved 
Queest. ^j^ their not understanding, and yet this in itself was done 
Matt, in mercy to them, that they might know their sins, and, being 
Bede converted, merit pardon. Bede ; To those then who are 
ublsu P- without, all things are done in parables, that is, both the 
actions and the words of the Saviour, because neither in those 
miracles which He was working, nor in those mysteries 
which He preached, were they able to acknowledge Him as 
God. Therefore they are not able to attain to the remission of 
Vict, their sins. Pseudo-Chrys. But His speaking to them only 
Cat. in m parables, and yet not leaving off speaking to them entirely, 
Marc, shews that to those w r ho are placed near to what is good, 
though they may have no good in themselves, still good is 
shewn disguised. But when a man approaches it with reverence 
and a right heart, he wins for himself an abundant revelation of 
mysteries; when on the contrary his thoughts are not sound, 



VER. 1 — 20. ST. MARK. 77 

he will be neither made worthy of those things which arc easy 
to many men, nor even of hearing them. There follows, And 
he said unto them, Know ye not this parable, how then shall 
ye know all parables? Pseudo- Jerome; For it was necessary 
that they to whom He spoke in parables should ask for what 
they did not understand, and learn by the Apostle whom they 
despised, the mystery of the kingdom which they themselves 
had not. Gloss. And for this reason, the Lord in saying Gloss, 
these things, shews that they ought to understand both this nonocc * 
first, and all following miracles. Wherefore explaining it, 
He goes on, The sower soweth the word. Chrys. And Chrys. 
indeed the prophet has compared the teaching of the people H om * ' 
to the planting of a vine; in this place however it is compared 44 - 
to sowing, to shew that obedience is now shorter and more 
easy, and will sooner yield fruit. Bede ; But in this exposition Bede 
of the Lord there is embraced the whole range of those who sup * 
might hear the words of truth, but are unable to attain to 
salvation. For there are some to whom no faith, no intellect, 
nay no opportunity of trying its usefulness, can give a per- 
ception of the word which they hear ; of whom He says, And 
these are by the wayside. For unclean spirits take away at 
once the word committed to their hearts, as birds carry away 
the seed of the trodden way. There are some who both expe- 
rience its usefulness and feel a desire for it, but some of them 
the calamities of this world frighten, and others its prosperity 
allures, so that they do not attain to that which they approve. 
Of the first of whom He says, And these are they who fell 
on stony ground; of the latter, And these are they which are 
sown among thorns. But riches are called thorns, because 
they tear the soul with the piercing of its own thoughts, and 
after bringing it to sin, they, as one may say, make it bleed 
by inflicting a wound. Again He says, And the toil of this 
world, and the deceitfulness of riches ; for the man who is 
deceived by an empty desire of riches must soon be afflicted 
by the toils of continual cares. He adds, And the lusts of other 
things; because, whosoever despises the commandments of 
God, and wanders away lustfully seeking other things, is 
unable to attain to the joy of beatitude. And concupiscences 
of this sort choke the word, because they do not allow a good 
desire to enter into the heart, and, as it were, stifle the 



7$ GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IV. 

entrance of vital breath. There are, however, excepted from 
these different classes of men, the Gentiles who do not even 
have grace to hear the words of life. Theophyl. Further, 
of those who receive the seed as they ought there are three 
degrees. Wherefore it goes on, And these are they who 
are sown on good ground. Those who bear fruit an hundred- 
fold are those who lead a perfect and an obedient life, as 
virgins and hermits. Those who bear fruit sixty-fold are 
those who are in the mean as continent persons r and those 
who are living in convents. Those who bear thirty-fold 
are those who though weak indeed, bear fruit according to 
Bede their own virtue, as laymen and married persons. Bede ; 
isup. Q r ^ e Yy e3iYS thirty-fold, who instills into the minds of the 
elect faith in the Holy Trinity; sixty-fold, who teaches the 
perfection of good works ; a hundred-fold, who shews the 
rewards of the heavenly kingdom. For in counting a hundred, 
we pass on to the right hand 5 ; therefore that number is fitly 
made to signify everlasting happiness. But the good ground 
is the conscience of the elect, which does the contrary to all 
the former three, which both receives with willingness the 
seed of the word committed to it, and keeps it when received 
up to the season of fruit. Pseudo-Jerome; Or else the fruits 
of the earth are contained in thirty, sixty, and a hundred-fold, 
that is, in the Law, the Prophets, and the Gospel. 

21. And he said unto them, Is a candle brought to 
be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to 
be set on a candlestick ? 

22. For there is nothing hid, which shall not be 
manifested ; neither was any thing kept secret, but 
that it should come abroad. 

23. If any man have ears to hear, let him hear. 

r The word translated continentes, s " He alludes to the mode of counting 

is fuyabit in the Greet ; it means among the ancients. All numbers were 

ascetics, who mix in the affairs of the signified by fingers of the left hand, 

world ; whereas hermits lived quite out either straight or variously bent, up to 

of them, and gave themselves up to a hundred ; and then they changed to 

contemplation ;csenobites came between the right. Consult Caelius Rhodiginus, 

the two, living together in convents, Lectionum Antiq. lib. 23. cap. 11, 12." 

and combined both the practical and Benedictine note on Greg. Horn, in 

contemplative life. v. Greg. Naz. Or. Ezec. lib. 2. Horn. 5. 
43, 62. 



VER. 21 — 25. ST. MARK. 79 

24. And he saith unto them, Take heed what ye 
hear : with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured 
to you : and unto you that hear shall more be given. 

25. For he that hath, to him shall be given : and 
he that hath not, from him shall be taken even that 
which he hath. 

Chrys. After the question of the disciples concerning the Chrys. 
parable, and its explanation, He well subjoins, And he said non( * 
unto them, Is a candle brought, 8$c. As if he said, A parable 
is given, not that it should remain obscure, and hidden as if 
under a bed or a bushel, but that it should be manifested to 
those who are worthy. The candle within us is that of our 
intellectual nature, and it shines either clearly or obscurely 
according to the proportion of our illumination. For if 
meditations which feed the light, and the recollection with 
which such a light is kindled, are neglected, it is presently 
extinguished. Pseudo-Jerome ; Or else the candle is the dis- 
course concerning the three sorts of seed. The bushel or the 
bed is the hearing of the disobedient. The Apostles are the 
candlestick, whom the word of the Lord hath enlightened ; 
wherefore it goes on, For there is nothing hidden, $c. The 
hidden and secret thing is the parable of the seed, which comes 
forth to light, when it is spoken of by the Lord. Theophyl. 
Or else the Lord warns His disciples to be as light, in their life 
and conversation ; as if He said, As a candle is put so as to 
give light, so all will look to your life. Therefore be diligent 
to lead a good life ; sit not in corners, but be ye a candle. 
For a candle gives light, not when placed under a bed, but 
on a candlestick ; this light indeed must be placed on a 
candlestick, that is, on the eminence of a godly life, that 
it may be able to give light to others. Not under a bushel, 
that is, in things pertaining to the palate, nor under a bed, 
that is, in idleness. For no one who seeks after the delights 
of his palate and loves rest can be a light shining over all. 

Bede; Or, because the time of our life is contained under Bede in 
a certain measurement of Divine Providence, it is rightly j 20 * 
compared to a bushel. But the bed of the soul is the body, 
in which it dwells and reposes for a time. He therefore who 



80 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IV. 

hides the word of God under the love of this transitory life, 
and of carnal allurements, covers his candle with a bushel or 
a bed. But he puts his light on a candlestick, who employs 
his body in the ministry of the word of God ; therefore 
under these words He typically teaches them a figure of 
preaching. Wherefore it goes on, For there is nothing 
hidden, which shall not be revealed, nor is there any thing 
made secret, which shall not come abroad. As if He said, 
Be not ashamed of the Gospel, but amidst the darkness of 
persecution raise the light of the word of God upon the 
candlestick of your body, keeping fixedly in your mind that 
day, when the Lord will throw light upon the hidden places 
of darkness, for then everlasting praise awaits you, and ever- 
lasting punishment your adversaries. 
Chrys. Chrys. Or else, There is nothing hid; as if He said, If ye 
Hom. conduct your life with care, accusation will not be able to 
15 * obscure your light. Theophyl. For each of us, whether he 
have done good or evil, is brought to light in this life, much 
more in that which is to come. For what can be more hidden 
than God, nevertheless He Himself is manifested in the flesh. 
It continues, If any man have ears to ear, let him hear. 
Bede Bede ; That is, if any man have a sense for understanding 
u isup. ^ e wor( j Q f Goq^ i e t hi m no t withdraw himself, let him not 

turn his ear to fables, but let him lend his ear to search those 
things which truth hath spoken, his hands for fulfilling them, 
his tongue for preaching them. There follows, And he said 
unto them, Take heed what ye hear. Theophyl. That is, 
that none of those things which are said to you by me should 
escape you. With what measure ye mete, it shall be 
measured to you, that is, whatsoever degree of applica- 

Bede tion ye bring, in that degree ye will receive profit. Bede ; 

ubisup. Q r e ] se? if y e diligently endeavour to do all the good which 
ye can, and to teach it to your neighbours, the mercy of God 
will come in, to give you both in the present life a sense to 
take in higher things, and a will to do better things, and will 
add for the future an everlasting reward. And therefore it is 
subjoined, And to you shall more be given. 

Pseudo-Jerome ; According to the measure of his faith the 
understanding of mysteries is divided to every man, and the 
virtues of knowledge will also be added to them. It goes on: 



s. 

1 occ. 



VER. 26 29. ST. MARK. 81 

For he that hath, to him shall be given ; that is, he who hath 
faith shall have virtue, and he who hath obedience to the word, 
shall also have the understanding of the mystery. Again, 
he who, on the other hand, has not faith, fails in virtue ; and 
he who has not obedience to the word, shall not have the 
understanding of it; and if he does not understand, he might 
as well not have heard. Pseudo-Chrys. Or else, He who Vict. 
has the desire and wish to hear and to seek, to him shall be qJJ'jL 
given. But he who has not the desire of hearing divine things, Marc, 
even what he happens to have of the written law is taken 
from him. Bede; For sometimes a clever reader by neglect- -Q e ^ e 
inghis mind, deprives himself of wisdom, of which he tastes the ubi SU P 
sweetness, who, though slow in intellect, works more diligently. 
Chrys. Again it may be said, that he hath not, who has not chryf 
truth. But our Lord says that he hath, because he has a lie, 
for every one whose understanding believes a lie, thinks that 
he has something. 

26. And he said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a 
man should cast seed into the ground ; 

27. And should sleep, and rise night and day, and 
the seed should spring and grow up, he knoweth not 
how. 

28. For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; 
first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn 
in the ear. 

29. But when the fruit is brought forth, imme- 
diately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest 
is come. 

Pseudo-Chrys. A parable occurred, a little above, about the Vict 
three seeds which perished in various ways, and the one Ant - « 
which was saved; in which last He also shews three differ- Marc, 
ences, according to the proportion of faith and practice. Here, 
however, He puts forth a parable concerning those only who 
are saved. Wherefore it is said, And he said, So is the king- 
dom of God, as if a man should cast seed into the ground, fyc. 

Pseudo-Jerome ; The kingdom of God is the Church, which 
is ruled by God, and herself rules over men, and treads down 

VOL. II. G 



82 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IV. 

the powers which are contrary to her, and all wickedness. 
Vict. Pseudo-Chrys. Or else He calls by the name of kingdom of 
Ant. e Qq^ faith in Him, and in the economy of His Incarnation; 
Marc, which kingdom indeed is as if a man should throw seed. For 
He Himself being God and the Son of God, having without 
change been made man, has cast seed upon the earth, that is, 
He has enlightened the whole world by the w r ord of divine 
knowledge. Pseudo- Jerome ; For the seed is the word of life, 
the ground is the human heart, and the sleep of the man means 
the death of the Saviour. The seed springs up night and day, 
because after the sleep of Christ, the number of Christians, 
through calamity and prosperity, continued to flourish more 
Vict - and more in faith, and to wax greater in deed. Pseudo-Chrys. 
Cat. in Or Christ Himself is the man who rises, for He sat waiting with 
Marc, patience, that they who received seed should bear fruit. He 
rises, that is, by the word of His love, He makes us grow to the 
2 Cor. bringing forth fruit, by the armour of righteousness on the right 
hand, by which is meant the day, and on the left, by which 
is meant the night of persecution ; for by these the seed 
springs up, and does not wither. Theophyl. Or else Christ 
sleeps, that is, ascends into heaven, where, though He seem 
to sleep, yet He rises by night, when through temptations 
He raises us up to the knowledge of Himself; and in the 
day time, when on account of our prayers, He sets in order our 
salvation. Pseudo-Jerome ; But when He says, He knowcth 
not how, He is speaking in a figure ; that is, He does not make 
known to us, who amongst us will produce fruit unto the end. 
Vict. Pseudo-Chrys. Or else He says, He knoweth not, that He may 
Cat in shew the free-will of those who receive the word, for He commits 
Marc, a work to our will, and does not work the whole Himself 
alone, lest the good should seem involuntary. For the earth 
brings forth fruits of its own accord, that is, she is brought to 
bear fruit without being compelled by a necessity contrary to 
her will. First the blade. Pseudo-Jerome; That is, fear. For 
Ps. 11 1 the fear of God is the beginning of wisdom. Then the full corn 
* 0, in the ear ; that is, charity, for charity is the fulfilling of the 
13, 8. Law. Pseudo-Chrys. Or, first it produces the blade, in the law 
Y 1 ^* of nature, by degrees growing up to advancement; afterwards it 
Cat. in brings forth the ears, which are to be collected into a bundle, 
rc ' and to be offered on an altar to the Lord, that is, in the law 



VER. 30—3-1. ST. MARK, 83 

of Moses; afterwards the full-fruit, in the Gospel. Or because 
we must not only put forth leaves by obedience, but also learn 
prudence, and, like the stalk of corn, remain upright without 
minding the winds which blow us about. We must also take 
heed to our soul by a diligent recollection, that, like the ears, we 
may bear fruit, that is, shew forth the perfect operation of vir- 
tue. Theophyl. For we put forth the blade, when we shew 
a principle of good ; then the ear, when we can resist 
temptations; then comes the fruit, when a man works some- 
thing perfect. It goes on : and when it has brought forth 
the fruit, immediately he sendeth the sickle, because the 
harvest is come. Pseudo-Jerome ; The sickle is death or the 
judgment, which cuts down all things ; the harvest is the end of 
the world. Gregory; Or else; Man casts seed into the Greg, in 
ground, when he places a good intention in his heart; and he 2 Z jj om 
sleeps, w r hen he already rests in the hope which attends on a 3. 
good work. But he rises night and day, because he advances 
amidst prosperity and adversity, though he knows it not, for 
he is as yet unable to measure his increase, and yet virtue, 
once conceived, goes on increasing. When therefore we 
conceive good desires, we put seed into the ground ; when 
we begin to work rightly, we are the blade. When we 
increase to the perfection of good works, we arrive at the 
ear; when we are firmly fixed in the perfection of the same 
working, we already put forth the full corn in the ear. 



30. And he said, Whereunto shall we liken the 
kingdom of God ? or with what comparison shall we 
compare it ? 

31. It is like a grain of mustard seed, which, when 
it is sown in the earth, is less than all the seeds that 
be in the earth : 

32. But when it is sown, it groweth up, and be- 
cometh greater than all herbs, and shooteth out great 
branches; so that the fowls of the air may lodge 
under the shadow of it. 

33. And with many such parables spake he the 
word unto them, as they were able to hear it. 

g 2 



84 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IV. 

34. But without a parable spake he not unto 
them : and when they were alone, he expounded all 
things to his disciples. 

Gloss. Gloss. After having narrated the parable concerning the 
non oce. comul g forth of the fruit from the seed of the Gospel, he here 
subjoins another parable, to shew the excellence of the doc- 
trine of the Gospel before all other doctrines. Wherefore it 
is said, And he said, Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom 
of God? Theophyl. Most brief indeed is the word of faith ; 
Believe in God, and thou shalt be saved. But the preaching 
of it has been spread far and wide over the earth, and in- 
creased so, that the birds of heaven, that is, contemplative 
men, sublime in understanding and knowledge, dwell under it. 
For how many wise men among the Gentiles, quitting their 
wisdom, have found rest in the preaching of the Gospel ! Its 
preaching then is greater than all. 
Chrys. Chrys. And also because the wisdom spoken amongst the 
leg. ap? perfect expands, to an extent greater than all other sayings, 
Possin. that which was told to men in short discourses, for there 

Cyril. . _. . . 

is nothing greater than this truth. Iheophyl. Again, it put 

forth great boughs, for the Apostles were divided off as 

the boughs of a tree, some to Rome, some to India, some to 

other parts of the world. Pseudo-Jerome ; Or else, that seed 

is very small in fear, but great when it has grown into charity, 

1 John which is greater than all herbs ; for God is love, whilst all flesh 

h l6 ' is grass. But the boughs which it puts forth are those of mercy 

o. and compassion, since under its shade the poor of Christ, who 

aremeantby theliving creatures of the heavens, delight to dwell. 

Bede Bede ; Again, the man who sows is by many taken to mean 

ubi sup. |j ie g av i our Himself, by others, man himself sowing in his 

Chrys. own heart. Chrys. Then after this, Mark, who delights in 

sedv CC brevity, to shew the nature of the parables, subjoins, And 

Cat. in with many such parables spake he the word unto them as 

they could hear him. Theophyl. For since the multitude 

was unlearned, he instructs them from objects of food and 

familiar names, and for this reason he adds, But without a 

parable spake he not unto them, that is, in order that they 

might be induced to approach and to ask Him. It goes on ; 



VER. 35 — 41. ST. MARK. 85 

And when they were alone, he expounded all things to his 
disciples, that is, all things about which they were ignorant and 
asked Him, not simply all, whether obscure or not. Pseudo- 
Jerome; For they were worthy to hear mysteries apart, in the 
most secret haunt of wisdom, for they were men, who, removed 
from the crowds of evil thoughts, remained in the solitude of 
virtue ; and wisdom is received in a time of quiet. 

35. And the same day, when the even was come, 
he saith unto them, Let us pass over unto the other 
side. 

36. And when they had sent away the multitude, 
they took him even as he was in the ship. And there 
were also with him other little ships. 

37. And there arose a great storm of wind, and 
the waves beat into the ship, so that it was now full. 

38. And he was in the hinder part of the ship, 
asleep on a pillow : and they awake him, and say 
unto him, Master, carest thou not that we perish ? 

39. And he arose, and rebuked the wind, and said 
unto the sea, Peace, be still. And the wind ceased, 
and there was a great calm. 

40. And he said unto them, Why are ye so fear- 
ful? how is it that ye have no faith ? 

41. And they feared exceedingly, and said one to 
another, What manner of man is this, that even the 
wind and the sea obey him ? 

Pseudo-Jerome ; After His teaching, they come from that 
place to the sea, and are tossed by the waves. Wherefore it is 
said, And the same day, when the even was come, $c. Remig. 
For the Lord is said to have had three places of refuge, 
namely, the ship, the mountain, and the desert. As often as 
He was pressed upon by the multitude, he used to fly to one 
of these. When therefore the Lord saw many crowds about 
Him, as man, He wished to avoid their importunity, and 
ordered His disciples to go over to the other side. There 
follows : And sending away the multitudes, they took him, 8fc, 



86 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IV. 

Chrys. Chrys. The Lord took the disciples indeed, that they 
Horn, m m jg n t b e spectators of the miracle which was coming, but He 
28. took them alone, that no others might see that they were of 
such little faith. Wherefore, to shew that others went across 
separately, it is said, And there were also with him other 
ships. Lest again the disciples might be proud of being 
alone taken, He permits them to be in danger ; and besides 
this, in order that they might learn to bear temptations 
manfully. Wherefore it goes on, And there arose a great 
storm of wind; and that He might impress upon them a 
greater sense of the miracle which was to be done, He gives 
time for their fear, by sleeping. Wherefore there follows, 
And he teas himself in the hinder part of the ship, fyc. For if 
He had been awake, they would either not have feared, nor have 
asked Him to save them when the storm arose, or they would not 
have thought that He could do any such things. Theophyl. 
Therefore He allowed them to fall into the fear of danger, 
that they might experience His power in themselves, who 
saw others benefitted by Him. But He was sleeping upon the 
Chrys. pillow of the ship, that is, on a wooden one. Chrys. Shew- 
Hom. in j n g pj| s h um ility ? and thus teaching us many lessons of wisdom. 
28. But not yet did the disciples who remained about Him know 
His glory ; they thought indeed that if He arose He could 
command the winds, but could by no means do so reposing or 
asleep. And therefore there follows, And they awake him, 
and say unto him, Master, carest thou not that we perish ? 

Theophyl. But He arising, rebukes first the wind, 
which was raising the tempest of the sea, and causing the 
waves to swell, and this is expressed in what follows, And he 
arose, and rebuked the wind; then He commands the sea; 
wherefore it goes on, And he said to the sea, Peace, be still. 
Gloss. Gloss. For from the troubling of the sea there arises a cer- 
tain sound, which appears to be its voice threatening danger, 
and therefore, by a sort of metaphor, He fitly commands 
tranquillity by a word signifying silence : just as in the 
restraining of the winds, which trouble the sea with their 
violence, He uses a rebuke. For men who are in power are 
accustomed to curb those, who rudely disturb the peace of 
mankind, by threatening to punish them ; by this, therefore, 
we are given to understand, that, as a king can repress violent 



non occ. 



VEIL 35 — 41. ST. MARK. 87 

men by threats, and by his edicts sooth the murmurs of his 
people, so Christ, the King of all creatures, by His threats 
restrained the violence of the winds, and compelled the sea 
to be silent. And immediately the effect followed, for it 
continues, And the wind ceased, which He had threatened, 
and there arose a great calm, that is, in the sea, to which 
He had commanded silence. Theophyl. He rebuked His 
disciples, for not having faith ; for it goes on, And he said unto 
them, Why are ye so fearful ? How is it that ye have not faith ? 
For if they had had faith, they would have believed that even 
when sleeping, He could preserve them safe. There follows, 
And they feared with a great fear, and said one to another, 
8$c. For they were in doubt about Him, for since He stilled 
the sea, not with a rod like Moses, nor with prayers as Elisha at 
the Jordan, nor with the ark as Joshua, the son of Nun, on this 
account they thought Him truly God, but since He was asleep, 
they thought Him a man. Pseudo-Jerome ; Mystically, 
however, the hinder part of the ship is the beginning of the 
Church, in which the Lord sleeps in the body only, for He 
never sleepeth who keepeth Israel ; for the ship with its 
skins of dead animals keeps in the living, and keeps out the 
waves, and is bound together by wood, that is, by the cross 
and the death of the Lord the Church is saved. The pillow 
is the body of the Lord, on which His Divinity, which is as His 
head, has come down. But the wind and the sea are devils and 
persecutors, to whom He says Peace, when He restrains the 
edicts of impious kings, as He will. The great calm is the peace 
of the Church after oppression, or a contemplative after an active 
life. Bede ; Or else the ship into which He embarked, is taken Bede 
to mean the tree of His passion, by which the faithful attain ubl sup * 
to the security of the safe shore. The other ships which are 
said to have been with the Lord, signify those, who are 
imbued with faith in the cross of Christ, and are not beaten 
about by the whirlwind of tribulation ; or who, after the 
storms of temptation, are enjoying the serenity of peace. 
And whilst His disciples are sailing on, Christ is asleep, 
because the time of our Lord's Passion came on His faithful 
ones, when they were meditating on the rest of His future 
reign. Wherefore it is related, that it took place late, that 
not only the sleep of our Lord, but the hour itself of depart- 



88 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. CHAP. IV. 

ing light, might signify the setting of the true Sun. Again, 
when He ascended the cross, of which the stern of the 
ship was a type, His blaspheming persecutors rose like the 
waves against Him, driven on by the storms of the devils, by 
which, however, His own patience is not disturbed, but His 
foolish disciples are struck with amazement. The disciples 
awake the Lord, because they sought, with most earnest 
wishes, the resurrection of Him whom they had seen die. 
Rising up, He threatened the wind, because when He had 
triumphed in His resurrection, He prostrated the pride of 
the devil. He ordered the sea to be still, that is, in rising 
again, He cast down the rage of the Jews. The disciples are 
blamed, because after His resurrection, He chid them for 
their unbelief. And we also when being marked with the 
sign of the Lord's cross, we determine to quit the world, 
embark in the ship with Christ ; we attempt to cross the sea ; 
but, He goes to sleep, as we are sailing amidst the roaring 
of the waters, w T hen amidst the strivings of our virtues, or 
amidst the attacks of evil spirits, of wicked men, or of our 
own thoughts, the flame of our love grows cold. Amongst 
storms of this sort, let us diligently strive to awake Him ; He 
will soon restrain the tempest, pour down peace upon us, 
give us the harbour of salvation. 



CHAP. V. 

1 . And they came over unto the other side of the 
sea, into the country of the Gadarenes. 

2. And when he was come out of the ship, imme- 
diately there met him out of the tombs a man with an 
unclean spirit, 

3. Who had his dwelling among the tombs ; and 
no man could bind him, no, not with chains : 

4. Because that he had been often bound with 
fetters and chains, and the chains had been plucked 
asunder by him, and the fetters broken in pieces : 
neither could any man tame him. 

5. And always, night and day, he was in the 
mountains, and in the tombs, crying, and cutting 
himself with stones. 

6. But when he saw Jesus afar off, he ran and 
worshipped him, 

7. And cried with a loud voice, and said, What 
have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of the most 
high God ? I adjure thee by God, that thou torment 
me not. 

8. For he said unto him, Come out of the man, 
thou unclean spirit. 

9. And he asked him, What is thy name ? And he 
answered, .saying, My name is Legion : for we are 
many. 

10. And he besought him much that he would not 
send them away out of the country, 



90 GOSrEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. V. 

11. Now there was nigh unto the mountains a 
great herd of swine feeding. 

12. And all the devils besought him, saying, Send 
us into the swine, that we may enter into them. 

13. And forthwith Jesus gave them leave. And 
the unclean spirits went out, and entered into the 
swine : and the herd ran violently down a steep place 
into the sea, (they were about two thousand ;) and 
were choked in the sea. 

14. And they that fed the swine fled, and told it in 
the city, and in the country. And they went out to 
see what it was that was done. 

15. And they come to Jesus, and see him that was 
possessed with the devil, and had the legion, sitting, 
and clothed, and in his right mind : and they were 
afraid. 

16. And they that saw it told them how it befell 
to him that was possessed with the devil, and also 
concerning the swine. 

17. And they began to pray him to depart out of 
their coasts. 

18. And when he was come into the ship, he that 
had been possessed with the devil prayed him that he 
might be with him. 

19. Howbeit Jesus suffered him not, but saith unto 
him, Go home to thy friends, and tell them how great 
things the Lord hath done for thee, and hath had 
compassion on thee. 

20. And he departed, and began to publish in 
Decapolis how great things Jesus had done for him : 
and all men did marvel. 

Theophyl. Those who were in the ship enquired among 
themselves, What manner of man is this ? and now it is made 
known Who He is by the testimony of His enemies. For the 
demoniac came up confessing that He was the Son of God. 



VER. 1 20. ST. MARK. 91 

Proceeding to which circumstance the Evangelist says, And 
they came over unto the other side, fyc. Bede; Geraza is aBedein 
noted town of Arabia, across the Jordan, near mount Galaad, ^arc.2, 
which the tribe of Manasseh held, not far from the lake of 
Tiberias, into which the swine were precipitated. Pseudo- Vict. 
Chrys. Nevertheless the exact reading contains neither Gada- c ££ ^ 
renes, nor Gerasines, but Gergesenes. For Gadara is a city of Marc. 
Judaea, which has no sea at all about it; and Geraza is a city 
of Arabia, having neither lake nor sea near it. And that the 
Evangelists may not be thought to have spoken so manifest a 
falsehood, well acquainted as they were with the parts around 
Judaea, Gergese, from which come the Gergesenes, was an 
ancient city, now called Tiberias, around which is situated a 
considerable lake *. It continues, And when he was come out of 
the ship, immediately there met him, fyc. Aug. Though Aug. de 
Matthew says that there were two, Mark and Luke mention one, £ on ' rt 

J ' ' Evan. 2, 

that you may understand that one of them was a more illus- 24. 
trious person, concerning whose state that country was much 
afflicted. Chrys. Or else, Mark and Luke relate what v ict. 
was most worthy of compassion, and for this reason they putcat. in 
down more at length what had happened to this man; for Marc - et 

i . „ ,17.77. • 7 , • v.Chrys. 

there follows, no man could bind him, no, not with chains. Hom. in 
They therefore simply said, a man possessed of a devil, Mat - 28 - 
without taking heed to the number ; or else, that he might 
shew the greater virtue in the Worker ; for He who had 
cured one such, might cure many others. Nor is there any 
discrepancy shewn here, for they did not say that there 
was one alone, for then they would have contradicted Matthew. 
Now devils dwelt in tombs, wishing to convey a false opinion 
to many, that the souls of the dead were changed to 
devils. Greg. Nyss. Now the assembly of the devils had Greg, 
prepared itself to resist the Divine power. But when He was 
approaching Who had power over all things, they proclaim 
aloud His eminent virtue. Wherefore there follows, But 
when he saw Jesus afar off, he ran and worshipped him, 
saying, fyc. Cyril; See how the devil is divided between Cyril 
two passions, fear and audacity ; he hangs back and prays, as 

1 Reland seems to feel the same dif- Gadara in Percea, though the town 

ficulty about Gadara as the author of itself was not on the lake. Reland. 

this comment ; but he reconciles it by Palses. vol. 2. p. 774. see also Lightfoot 

saying that the whole region might Horse Hebr. in locum, 
have been so called from the town of 



non occ. 



non occ. 



92 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. V. 

if meditating a question; he wishes to know what he had to 

do with Jesus, as though he would say, Do you cast me out 

Bede from men, who are mine? Bede ; And how great is the 

sup ' impiety of the Jews, to say that He cast out devils by the 

prince of the devils, when the very devils confess that they have 

Vict, nothing in common with Him. Chrys. Then praying to 

Cat 'in Him, he subjoins, / adjure thee by God, that thou torment 

Marc, me not. For he considered being cast out to be a torment, 

Chrys. or e ^ se ne was a ^ so invisibly tortured. For however bad the 

Hom. in^ ev i} s ave? they know that there awaits them at last a punish- 

1VI 3 it . 

28. ment for their sins ; but that the time of their last punishment 
was not yet come, they full well knew, especially as they 
were permitted to mix among men. But because Christ had 
come upon them as they were doing such dreadful deeds, 
they thought that, such was the heinousness of their crimes, 
He would not wait for the last times, to punish them ; for 
this reason they beg that they may not be tormented. 

Bede Bede ; For it is a great torment for a devil to cease to hurt a 

ubi sup. . 

man, and the more severely he possesses him, the more 

reluctantly he lets him go. For it goes on, For lie said unto 

Cyril him, Come out of the man, thou unclean spirit. Cyril ; 

'Consider the unconquerable power of Christ; He makes 

Satan shake, for to him the words of Christ are fire and flame; 

Ps.97,5. as the Psalmist says, The mountains melted at the presence 

of the Lord, that is, great and proud powers. There follows, 

And he asked him, What is thy name? Theophyl. The 

Lord indeed asks, not that He Himself required to know, 

but that the rest might know that there was a multitude of 

Vict, devils dwelling in him. Pseudo-Chrys. Lest he should not be 

Cat. in believed, if He affirmed there were many, He wishes that they 

Marc, themselves should confess it ; wherefore there follows, And 

he saith unto him, Legion, for we are many. He gives not a 

fixed number, but a multitude, for such accuracy in the number 

Bede would not help us to understand it. Bede ; But by the public 

ubi sup. declaration of the scourge which the madman suffered, the 

virtue of the Healer appears more gracious. And even the 

priests of our time, who know how to cast out devils by the 

grace of exorcism, are wont to say that the sufferers cannot 

be cured at all, unless they in confession openly declare, as 

far as they are able to know, what they have suffered from 

the unclean spirits in sight, in hearing, in taste, in touch, or 



VER. 1 20. ST. MARK. 93 

any other sense of body or soul, whether awake or asleep. 
It goes on, And he besought him much that he would not send 
them away out of the country. Pseudo-Chrys. Luke, however, vict. 
says, into the abyss. For the abyss is the separation of this ^5 
world, for devils deserve to be sent into outer darkness, pre- Marc, 
pared for the devil and his angels. This Christ might have 3 jU e ' 
done, but He allowed them to remain in this world, lest the 
absence of a tempter should deprive men of the crown of 
victory. Theophyl. Also that by fighting with us, they may 
make us more expert. It goes on, Now there was there 
about the mountain a great herd of swine feeding. 

Aug. What Mark here says, that the herd was about the Aug. de 
mountain, and what Luke calls on the mountain, are by noE va n.ii. 
means inconsistent. For the herd of swine was so large, that 24 - 
some part were on the mountain, the rest around it. It goes 
on: And the devils besought him, saying, Send us into the 
swine, that we may enter into them. Remig. The devils Remig. 
entered not into the swine of their own will, but their <2 at " r * 
asking for this concession, was, that it might be shewn Matt p, 
that they cannot hurt men without Divine permission. 
They did not ask to be sent into men, because they saw that 
He, by whose power they were tortured, bore a human form. 
Nor did they desire to be sent into the flocks, for they are 
clean animals offered up in the temple of God. But they 
desired to be sent into the swine, because no animal is more 
unclean than a hog, and devils always delight in frith iness. 
It goes on: And forthwith Jesus gave them leave. BEDE;Bede 
And He gave them leave, that by the killing of the swine, u l sup ' 
the salvation of men might be furthered. Pseudo-Chrys. vj cr . 
He wished to shew publicly the fury which devils enter- « nt, . e 
tain against men, and that they would inflict much worse Marc 
things upon men, if they were not hindered by Divine power; 
because, again, His compassion would not allow this to be 
shewn on men, He permitted them to enter into the swine, 
that on them the fury and power of the devils might be made 
known. There follows : And the unclean spirits went out. 
Titus; But the herdsmen also took to flight, lest they 
should perish with the swine, and spread the same fear 
amongst the inhabitants of the town. Wherefore there 
follows : And they that fed them, fyc. The necessity of 
their loss, however, brought these men to the Saviour; for 



94 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. V. 

frequently when God makes men suffer loss in their posses- 
sions, he confers a benefit on their souls. Wherefore it goes 
on : And they came to Jesus, and see him that was tormented 
by the devil, fyc. that is, at the feet of Him from whom he 
had obtained health; a man, whom before, not even chains 
could bind, clothed and in his right mind, though he used to be 
continually naked; and they were amazed ; wherefore it says, 
And they were afraid. This miracle then they find out 
partly by sight, partly by words ; wherefore there follows : 
And they that saw it told them. Theophyl. But amazed at 
the miracle, which they had heard, they were afraid, and for 
this reason they beseech him to depart out of their borders ; 
which is expressed in what follows : And they began to pray 
him to depart out of their coasts ; for they feared lest some 
time or other they should suffer a like thing: for, sad- 
dened at the loss of their swine, they reject the presence of 
Bede the Saviour. Bede; Or else, conscious of their own frailty, 
u i sup. ^ e y j U( jg e( j themselves unworthy of the presence of the Lord. 
It goes on : And when he was going to the ship, he that had 
been tormented, 8$c. Theophyl. For he feared lest some time 
or other the devils should find him, and enter into him a second 
time. But the Lord sends him back to his house, intimating 
to him, that though He Himself was not present, yet His power 
would keep him ; at the same time also that he might be of 
use in the healing of others ; wherefore it goes on : And he 
did not suffer him, and saith unto him, Go home to thy 
friends, 8$c. See the humility of the Saviour. He said not, 
Proclaim all things which I have done to you, but, all that 
the Lord hath done ; do thou also, when thou hast done any 
Chrys. good thing, take it not to thyself, but refer it to God. Chrys. 
non occ. -q^ although he bade others, whom he healed, to tell it to no 
one, he nevertheless fitly bids this one proclaim it, since all 
that region, being possessed by devils, remained without God. 
Theo. Theophyl. He therefore began to proclaim it, and all won- 
non occ. ^^ w j 1 j c j 1 j s fa^ which follows : And he began to publish. 
Bede Bede; Mystically, however, Gerasa or Gergese, as some read 
u i sup. .^ j g i n terpreted casting out a dweller or a stranger approach- 
ing, because the people of the Gentiles both expelled the 
enemy from the heart, and he who was afar off is made near. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; Here again the demoniac is the people of 
the Gentiles, in a most hopeless case, bound neither by the 



VER. 21 — 34. ST. MARK. 95 

law of nature, nor of God, nor by human fear. Bede; Who Bede 
dwelt in the tombs, because they delighted in dead works, ttfat up ' 
is, in sins; who were ever raging night and day, because whe- 
ther in prosperity or in adversity, they were never free from the 
service of malignant spirits : again, by the foulness of their 
works, they lay as it were in the tombs, in their lofty pride, 
they wandered over the mountains, by words of most hard- 
ened infidelity, they as it were cut themselves with stones. 
But he said, My name is Legion, because the Gentile people 
were enslaved to divers idolatrous forms of worship. Again, 
that the unclean spirits going out from man enter into swine, 
which they cast headlong into the sea, implies that now that 
the people of the Gentiles are freed from the empire of 
demons, they who have not chosen to believe in Christ, work 
sacrilegious rites in hidden places. 

Theophyl. Or by this it is signified that devils enter 
into those men, who five like swine, rolling themselves 
in the slough of pleasure ; they drive them headlong into the 
sea down the precipice of perdition, into the sea of an evil life 
where they are choked. Pseudo-Jerome ; Or they are choked 
in hell without any touch of mercy by the rushing on of an 
early death ; which evils many persons thus avoid, for by the 
scourging of the fool, the wise is made more prudent. Bede; Bede 
But that the Lord did not admit him, though he wished to be with ubl sup 
Him, signifies, that every one after the remission of his sins 
should remember that he must work to obtain a good con- 
science, and serve the Gospel for the salvation of others, that 
at last he may rest in Christ. Greg. For when we have Greg, 
perceived ever so little of the Divine knowledge, we are at gi or ' C ' 
once unwilling to return to human affairs, and seek for the 
quiet of contemplation ; but the Lord commands that the 
mind should first toil hard at its work, and afterwards should 
refresh itself with contemplation. Pseudo-Jerome ; But the 
man who is healed preached in Decapolis, where the Jews, 
who hang on the letter of the Decalogue, are being turned 
away from the Roman rule. 

21. And when Jesus was passed over again by 
ship unto the other side, much people gathered unto 
him : and he was nigh unto the sea. 



96 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. V. 

22. And, behold, there cometh one of the rulers of 
the synagogue, Jairus by name ; and when he saw 
him, he fell at his feet, 

23. And besought him greatly, saying, My little 
daughter lieth at the point of death : I pray thee, 
come and lay thy hands on her, that she may be 
healed ; and she shall live. 

24. And Jesus went with him ; and much people 
followed him, and thronged him. 

25. And a certain woman, which had an issue of 
blood twelve years, 

26. And had suffered many things of many phy- 
sicians, and had spent all that she had, and was 
nothing bettered, but rather grew worse, 

27. When she had heard of Jesus, came in the 
press behind, and touched his garment. 

28. For she said, If I may touch but his clothes, I 
shall be whole. 

29. And straightway the fountain of her blood was 
dried up ; and she felt in her body that she was 
healed of that plague. 

30. And Jesus, immediately knowing in himself 
that virtue had gone out of him, turned him about in 
the press, and said, Who touched my clothes ? 

31. And his disciples said unto him, Thou seest 
the multitude thronging thee, and sayest thou, Who 
touched me ? 

32. And he looked round about to see her that had 
done this thing. 

33. But the woman fearing and trembling, knowing 
what was done in her, came and fell down before him, 
and told him all the truth. 

34. And he said unto her, Daughter, thy faith hath 
made thee whole ; go in peace, and be whole of thy 
plague. 



VER. 21 — 34. ST. MARK. 97 

Theophyl. After the miracle of the demoniac, the Lord 
works another miracle, namely, in raising up the daughter of 
the ruler of the synagogue ; the Evangelist, before nar- 
rating this miracle, says, And when Jesus ivas passed over 
again by ship unto the other side, much people gathered 
unto him. Aug. But we must understand, that what is Aug. de 
added of the daughter of the ruler of the synagogue, took Evan. 2. 
place when Jesus had again crossed the sea in a ship, 28 - 
though how long after does not appear; for if there were not 
an interval, there could be no time for the taking place of 
that which Matthew relates, concerning the feast at his own 
house ; after which event, nothing follows immediately, except 
this concerning the daughter of the chief of the synagogue. 
For he has so put it together, that the transition itself shews 
that the narrative follows the order of time. It goes on, 
There cometh one of the rulers of the synagogue, fyc. Pseudo- Viet. 
Chrys. He has recorded the name on account of the Jews C at. fn 
of that time, that it might mark the miracle. It goes Marc, 
on, And when he saw him, he fell at his feet, and be- 
sought him greatly, fyc. Matthew indeed relates that the 
chief of the synagogue reported that his daughter was dead, 
but Mark says that she was very sick, and that afterwards it 
was told to the ruler of the synagogue, when our Lord was 
about to go with him, that she was dead. The fact then, 
which Matthew implies, is the same, namely, that He raised her 
from the dead ; and it is for the sake of brevity, that he says 
that she was dead, which was evident from her being raised. 
Aug. For he attaches himself not to the words of the father, Aug. 
but to what is of most importance, his wishes ; for he u l 6up ' 
was in such despair, that his wish was that she should return 
to life, not thinking that she could be found alive, whom he 
had left dying. Theophyl. Now this man was faithful in part, 
inasmuch as he fell at the feet of Jesus, but in that he 
begged of Him to come, he did not shew as much faith as he 
ought. For he ought to have said, Speak the word only, and 
my daughter shall be healed. There follows, And he went 
away with him, and much people folloived him, and thronged 
him ; and a woman, which had an issue of blood twelve years, non oce 
fyc. Chrys. This woman, who was celebrated and known^edv. 
to all, did not dare to approach the Saviour openly, nor tOHom.in 

VOL. II. H Mat.31. 



98 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. V. 

come to Him, because, according to the law, she was unclean; 
for this reason she touched Him behind, and not in front, for 
that she durst not do, but only ventured to touch the hem 
of His garment. It was not however the hem of the garment, 
but her frame of mind that made her whole. There follows, 
For she said, If I may but touch his clothes, I shall he whole. 
Theophyl. Most faithful indeed is this woman, who hoped 
for healing from His garments. For which reason she obtains 
health; wherefore it goes on, And straightway the fountain 
of Iter blood was dried up, and site felt in her body that she 
Vict, ivas healed. Pseudo-Chrys. Now the virtues of Christ are 
Ant. e by jjj s own w \i\ i m p ar ted to those men, who touch Him 
Marc, by faith. Wherefore there follows, And Jesus, immediately 
knowing in himself that virtue had gone out of him, turned 
him about in the press, and said, Who touched my clothes f 
The virtues indeed of the Saviour do not go out of Him 
locally or corporally, nor in any respect pass away from 
Him. For being incorporeal, they go forth to others and 
are given to others ; they are not however separated from 
Him, from whom they are said to go forth, in the same way as 
sciences are given by the teacher to his pupils. Therefore it 
says, Jesus, knowing in himself the virtue which had gone 
out of him, to shew that with His knowledge, and not with- 
out His being aware of it, the woman was healed. But He 
asked, Who touched me? although He knew her who touched 
Him, that He might bring to light the woman, by her coming 
forward, and proclaim her faith, and lest the virtue of His 
miraculous work should be consigned to oblivion. It goes 
on, And his disciples said unto him, Thou seest the multitude 
thronging thee, and sayest thou, Who touched me? But the 
Lord asked, Who touched me, that is in thought and faith, 
for the crowds who throng Me cannot be said to touch Me, 
for they do not come near to Me in thought and in faith. 
There follows, And he looked round about to see her that had 
done this thing. Theophyl. For the Lord wished to declare 
the woman, first to give His approbation to her faith, secondly 
to urge the chief of the synagogue to a confident hope that 
He could thus cure his child, and also to free the woman 
from fear. For the woman feared because she had stolen 
health ; wherefore there follows, But the woman fearing 



VER. 21 34. ST. MARK. 99 

and trembling, fyc. Bede; Observe that the object of His Bede in 
question was that the woman should confess the truth of her 2 2. 
long *want of faith, of her sudden belief and healing, and soHnfirmi- 
herself be confirmed in faith, and afford an example to others. Bg^ e * p ' 
But he said to her, Daughter, thy faith hath made thee whole; 
go in peace, and be whole of thy 'plague. He said not, Thy 
faith is about to make thee whole, but has made thee whole, 
that is, in that thou hast believed, thou hast already been 
made whole. Chrys. He calls her daughter because shevict. 
was saved bv her faith ; for faith in Christ makes us His £ n ** . e 

Cat. in 

children. Theophyl. But He saith to her, Go in peace, M arc. v. 
that is, in rest, which means, go and have rest, for up to this HomJn 
time thou hast been in pains and torture. Pseudo-Chrys. Or Mat. 31. 
else He says, Go in peace, sending her away into that which is Ant. e 
the final good, for God dwells in peace, that thou mayest M at ^ m 
know, that she was not only healed in body, but also from the 
causes of bodily pain, that is, from her sins Pseu do- Jerome ; 
Mystically, however, Jairus comes after the healing of the 
woman, because when the fulness of the Gentiles has come v. Rom. 
in, then shall Israel be saved. Jairus means either illumi- 
nating, or illuminated, that is, the Jewish people, having cast 
off* the shadow of the letter, enlightened by the Spirit, and 
enlightening others, falling at the feet of the Word, that is, 
humbling itself before the Incarnation of Christ, prays for 
her daughter, for when a man lives himself, he makes others 
live also. Thus Abraham, and Moses, and Samuel, intercede 
for the people who are dead, and Jesus comes upon their 
prayers. Bede ; Again, the Lord going to the child, who is Bede 
to be healed, is thronged by the crowd, because though He 8up * 
gave healthful advice to the Jewish nation, he is oppressed 
by the wicked habits of that carnal people; but the woman 
with an issue of blood, cured by the Lord, is the Church 
gathered together from the nations, for the issue of blood 
may be either understood of the pollution of idolatry, or of 
those deeds, which are accompanied by pleasure to flesh and 
blood. But whilst the word of the Lord decreed salvation 
to Judaea, the people of the Gentiles by an assured hope 
seized upon the health, promised and prepared for others. 
Theophyl. Or else, by the woman, who had a bloody flux, 
understand human nature; for sin rushed in upon it, which 

h 2 



ubi sup 



100 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. V. 

since it killed the soul, might be said to spill its blood. 
It could not be cured by many physicians, that is, by the 
wise men of this world, and of the Law and the Prophets; 
but the moment that it touched the hem of Christ's garment, 
that is, His flesh, it was healed, for whosoever believes the 
Son of man to be Incarnate is he who touches the hem of 
Bede His garment. Bede ; Wherefore one believing woman 
touches the Lord, whilst the crowd throngs Him, because He, 
who is grieved by divers heresies, or by wicked habits, is 
worshipped faithfully with the heart of the Catholic Church 
alone. But the Church of the Gentiles came behind Him ; 
because though it did not see the Lord present in the flesh, 
for the mysteries of His Incarnation had been gone through, 
yet it attained to the grace of His faith, and so when by 
partaking of His sacraments, it merited salvation from its 
sins, as it were the fountain of its blood was dried up by the 
touch of His garments. And the Lord looked round about 
to see her who had done this, because He judges that all who 
deserve to be saved are worthy of His look and of His pity. 

35. While he yet spake, there came from the ruler of 
the synagogue's house certain which said, Thy daughter 
is dead : why troublest thou the Master any further ? 

36. As soon as Jesus heard the word that was 
spoken, he saith unto the ruler of the synagogue, Be 
not afraid, only believe. 

37. And he suffered no man to follow him, save 
Peter, and James, and John the brother of James. 

38. And he cometh to the house of the ruler of the 
synagogue, and seeth the tumult, and them that wept 
and wailed greatly. 

39. And when he was come in, he saith unto them, 
Why make ye this ado, and weep ? the damsel is not 
dead, but sleepeth. 

40. And they laughed him to scorn. But when 
he had put them all out, he taketh the father and the 
mother of the damsel, and them that were with him, 

reth in where the damsel was lying. 



^ ( ST. MICHAEL'S 

COLLEGE 



VER. 35 43. ST. MARK. 101 

41. And he took the damsel by the hand, and said 
unto her, Talitha cumi ; which is, being interpreted, 
Damsel, I say unto thee, arise. 

42. And straightway the damsel arose, and walked ; 
for she was of the age of twelve years. And they 
were astonished with a great astonishment. 

43. And he charged them straitly that no man 
should know it ; and commanded that something 
should be given her to e,at. 

Theophyl. Those who were about the ruler of the syna- 
gogue, thought that Christ was one of the prophets, and for 
this reason they thought that they should beg of Him to 
come and pray over the damsel. But because she had 
already expired, they thought that He ought not to be asked 
to do so. Therefore it is said, While he yet spake, there 
came messengers to the ruler of the synagogue, which said, 
Thy daughter is dead; why troublest thou the Master any 
further ? But the Lord Himself persuades the father to have 
confidence. For it goes on, As soon as Jesus heard the 
word which was spoken, he saith to the ruler of the synagogue, 
Be not afraid; only believe. Aug. It is not said that he Aug. 
assented to his friends who brought the tidings and wished sup 
to prevent the Master from coming, so that our Lord's saying, 
Fear not, only believe, is not a rebuke for his want of faith, 
but was intended to strengthen the belief which he had already. 
But if the Evangelist had related, that the ruler of the syna- 
gogue joined the friends who came from his house, in saying 
that Jesus should not be troubled, the words which Matthew 
relates him to have said, namely, that the damsel was dead, 
would then have been contrary to what was in his mind. 
It goes on, And he suffered no man to follow him, save 
Peter, and James, and John the brother of James. 
Theophyl. For Christ in His lowliness would not do any 
thing for display. It goes on, And he cometh to the house of 
the ruler of the synagogue, and seeth the tumult, and them 
that wept and wailed greatly . Pseudo-Chrys. But He Him- Viet, 
self commands them not to wail, as if the damsel was not dead, catiu 

Marc. 



102 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. V. 

but sleeping; wherefore it says, And when he was come in, he 
saith unto them, Why make ye this ado, and weep ? the damsel 
is not dead, but sleepeth. Pseudo-Jerome ; It was told the 
ruler of the synagogue, Thy daughter is dead. But Jesus 
said to him, She is not dead, but sleepeth. Both are true, 
for the meaning is, She is dead to you, but to Me she is asleep. 
Bede Bede ; For to men she was dead, who were unable to raise 
u ' sup * her up ; but to God she was asleep, in whose purpose both 
the soul was living, and the flesh was resting, to rise again. 
Whence it became a custom amongst Christians, that the dead, 
who, they doubt not, will rise again, should be said to sleep. 
It goes on, And they laughed him to scorn. Theophyl. But 
they laugh at Him, as if unable to do any thing farther ; and 
in this He convicts them of bearing witness involuntarily, 
that she was really dead whom He raised up, and therefore, 
Bede that it would be a miracle if He raised her. Bede; Because 
ubi sup. ^v chose rather to laugh at than to believe in this saying 
concerning her resurrection, they are deservedly excluded 
from the place, as unworthy to witness His power in raising 
her, and the mystery of her rising; wherefore it goes on, 
But when he had put them all out, he taketh the father and 
the mother of the damsel, and them that were with him, and 
Chrys. enter eth in where the damsel was lying. Chrys. Or else, to 
non occ. ta ^ e awav a u display, He suffered not all to be with Him ; 
that, however, He might leave behind Him witnesses of His 
divine power, He chose His three chief disciples and the 
father and mother of the damsel, as being necessary above all. 
And He restores life to the damsel both by His hand, and 
by word of mouth. Wherefore it says, And he took the dam- 
sel by the hand, and said unto her, Talitha cumi ; which is, 
being interpreted, Damsel, I say unto thee, Arise. For the 
hand of Jesus, having a quickening power, quickens the dead 
body, and His voice raises her as she is lying ; wherefore it 
follows, And straightway the damsel arose and walked. 
Hier. ad Jeromk ; Some one may accuse the Evangelist of a falsehood 
^ m 5 * 7 in his explanation, in that he has added, / say unto thee, 
when in Hebrew, Talitha cumi only means, Damsel, arise ; 
but He adds, I say unto thee, Arise, to express that His mean- 
ing was to call and command her. It goes on, For she was of 
Gloss, the age of twelve years. Gloss. The Evangelist added this, 

non occ. 



VER. 35 — 43. ST. MARK. 103 

to shew that she was of an age to walk. By her walking, 
she is shewn to have been not only raised up, but also 
perfectly cured. It continues, And they were astonished 
with a great astonishment. Chrys. To shew that He had Chrys. 
raised her really, and not only to the eye of fancy. Bede;^™'* 11 
Mystically ; the woman was cured of a bloody flux, and Bede 
immediately after the daughter of the ruler of the synagogue 
is reported to be dead, because as soon as the Church of the 
Gentiles is washed from the stain of vice, and called daughter 
by the merits of her faith, at once the synagogue is broken up 
on account of its zealous treachery and envy ; treachery, 
because it did not choose to believe in Christ; envy, 
because it was vexed at the faith of the Church. What the 
messengers told the ruler of the synagogue, Why troublest 
thou the Master any more, is said by those in this day who, 
seeing the state of the synagogue, deserted by God, 
believe that it cannot be restored, and therefore think that 
we are not to pray that it should be restored. But if the 
ruler of the synagogue, that is, the assembly of the teachers 
of the Law, determine to believe, the synagogue also, which 
is subjected to them, will be saved. Further, because the 
synagogue lost the joy of having Christ to dwell in it, as its 
faithlessness deserved, it lies dead as it were, amongst persons 
weeping and wailing. Again, our Lord raised the damsel by 
taking hold of her hand, because the hands of the .Tews, 
which are full of blood, must first be cleansed, else the 
synagogue, which is dead, cannot rise again. But in the 
woman with the bloody flux, and the raising of the damsel, is 
shewn the salvation of the human race, which was so ordered 
by the Lord, that first some from Judaea, then the fulness of 
the Gentiles, might come in, and so all Israel might be saved. 
Again, the damsel was twelve years old, and the woman had 
suffered for twelve years, because the sinning of unbelievers 
was contemporary with the beginning of the faith of believers; 
wherefore it is said, Abraham believed on God, and it was Gen.i5, 
counted to him for righteousness". 

Bede's own words are rather more world the synagogue began to arise 

clear than those in the Catena; "That amongst the patriarchs, and the race 

is, the woman began to be afflicted at of Gentiles throughout the world to be 

the same time as the damsel was born ; polluted with idolatry." 
for nearly at the same period of the 



104 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. CHAP. V. 

Greg. Greg. Morally again, our Redeemer raised the damsel in 
27. ' ' the house, the young man without the gate, Lazarus in the 
tomb ; he still lies dead in the house, whose sin is concealed ; 
he is carried without the gate, whose sin has broken forth into 
the madness of an open deed; he lies crushed under the 
mound of the tomb, who in the commission of sin, lies power- 
Bede less beneath the weight of habit. Bede ; And we may remark, 
i bup. t ^ at lighter and daily errors may be cured by the remedy of 
a lighter penance. Wherefore the Lord raises the damsel, 
lying in the inner chamber with a very easy cry, saying, 
Damsel, arise; but that he who had been four days dead 
might quit the prison of the tomb, He groaned in spirit, He 
was troubled, He shed tears. In proportion, then, as the 
death of the soul presses the more heavily, so much the more 
ardently must the fervour of the penitent press forward. But 
this too must be observed, that a public crime requires a 
public reparation ; wherefore Lazarus, when called from the 
sepulchre, was placed before the eyes of the people : but 
slight sins require to be washed out by a secret penance, 
wherefore the damsel lying in the house is raised up before 
few witnesses, and those are desired to tell no man. The 
crowd also is cast out before the damsel is raised ; for if a 
crowd of worldly thoughts be not first cast out from the 
hidden parts of the heart, the soul, which lies dead within, 
cannot rise. Well too did she arise and walk, for the soul, 
raised from sin, ought not only to rise from the filth of its 
crimes, but also to make advances in good works, and soon 
it is necessary that it should be filled with heavenly bread, 
that is, made partaker of the Divine Word, and of the Altar. 



CHAP. VI. 

1. And he went out from thence, and came into 
his own country ; and his disciples follow him. 

2. And when the sabbath day was come, he began 
to teach in the synagogue : and many hearing him 
were astonished, saying, From whence hath this man 
these things ? and what wisdom is this which is given 
unto him, that even such mighty works are wrought 
by his hands ? 

3. Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the 
brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon? 
and are not his sisters here with us ? And they were 
offended at him. 

4. But Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not 
without honour, but in his own country, and among 
his own kin, and in his own house. 

5. And he could there do no mighty work, save 
that he laid his hands upon a few sick folk, and 
healed them. 

6. And he marvelled because of their unbelief. 

Theophyl. After the miracles which have been related, 
the Lord returns into His own country, not that He was 
ignorant that they would despise Him, but that they might 
have no reason to say, If Thou hadst come, we had believed 
Thee ; wherefore it is said, And he went out from thence, and 
came into his own country. Bede ; He means by His Bede in 
country, Nazareth, in which He was brought up. But how J 1 * 1 "® • 
great the blindness of the Nazarenes ! they despise Him, Who 



106 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VI. 

by His words and deeds they might know to be the Christ, solely 

on account of His kindred. It goes on, And when the sabbath 

day was come, he began to teach in the synagogue : and 

many hearing him were astonished, saying, From whence 

hath this man these things? and what wisdom is this which 

is given unto him, that even such mighty works are wrought 

by his hands? By wisdom is meant His doctrine, by powers, 

the cures and miracles which He did. It goes on, Is not 

Aug. dethis the carpenter, the son of Mary? Aug. Matthew indeed 

Evan, says that He was called the son of a carpenter; nor are we to 

11. 42. wonder, since both might have been said, for they believed 

Him to be a carpenter, because He was the son of a carpenter. 

Pseudo-Jerome ; Jesus is called the son of a workman, of that 

one, however, whose work was the morning and the sun, that is, 

the first and second Church, as a figure of which the woman 

B L e . de and the damsel are healed. Bede ; For although human 

SU P* V • -11 

things are not to be compared with divine, still the type is 
complete, because the Father of Christ works by fire and 
spirit. Tt goes on, The brother of James, and Joses, of 
Jude, and of Simon. And are not his sisters here with us ? 
They bear witness that His brothers and sisters were with 
Him, who nevertheless are not to be taken for the sons of 
Joseph or of Mary, as heretics say, but rather, as is usual in 
Scripture, we must understand them to be His relations, as 
Abraham and Lot are called brothers, though Lot was 
brother's son to Abraham. And they were offended at him. 
The stumbling and the error of the Jews is our salvation, and 
the condemnation of heretics. For so much did they despise 
the Lord Jesus Christ, as to call Him a carpenter, and son of 
a carpenter. It goes on, And Jesus said unto them, A 
prophet is not without honour, but in his own country. 
Even Moses bears witness that the Lord is called a Prophet 
in the Scripture, for predicting His future Incarnation to the 
Acts 7, Sons of Israel, he says, A Prophet shall the Lord raise up 
3 ^' unto you of your brethren. But not only He Himself, Who is 
Lord of prophets, but also Elias, Jeremiah, and the remaining 
lesser prophets, were worse received in their own country 
than in strange cities, for it is almost natural for men to envy 
their fellow-townsmen ; for they do not consider the present 
works of the man, but they remember the weakness of His 



VER. 6 — 13. ST. MARK. 107 

infancy. Pseudo-Jerome; Oftentimes also the origin of a man 
brings him contempt, as it is written, Who is the son of\ Sam. 
Jesse? for the Lord hath respect unto the lowly; as to the¥?' }?g 
proud, He beholdeth them afar off. Theophyl. Or again, 6. 
if the prophet has noble relations, his countrymen hate 
them, and on that account do not honour the prophet. 
There follows, And he could there do no mighty work, fyc. 
What, however, is here expressed by He could not, we 
must take to mean, He did not choose, because it was 
not that He was weak, but that they were faithless ; He does 
not therefore work any miracles there, for he spared them, lest 
they should be worthy of greater blame, if they believed not, 
even with miracles before their eyes. Or else, for the work- 
ing of miracles, not only the power of the Worker is necessary, 
but the faith of the recipient, which was wanting in this case: 
therefore Jesus did not choose to work any signs there. 
There follows, And he marvelled at their unbelief. BEDE;Bede 
Not as if He Who knows all things before they are done, u l sup ' 
wonders at what He did not expect or look forward to, but 
knowing the hidden things of the heart, and wishing to 
intimate to men that it was wonderful, He openly shews that 
He wonders. And indeed the blindness of the Jews is 
wonderful, for they neither believed what their prophets said 
of Christ, nor would in their own persons believe on Christ, 
Who was born amongst them. Mystically again ; Christ is 
despised in His own house and country, that is, amongst the 
people of the Jews, and therefore He worked few miracles 
there, lest they should become altogether inexcusable. But 
He performs greater miracles every day amongst the Gentiles, 
not so much in the healing of their bodies, as in the salvation 
of their souls. 



6 # Arid he went round about the villages, 

teaching. 

7. And he called unto him the twelve, and began 
to send them forth by two and two ; and gave them 
power over unclean spirits ; 

8. And commanded them that they should take 



108 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VI. 

nothing for their journey, save a staff only ; no scrip, 
no bread, no money in their purse : 

9. But be shod with sandals ; and not put on two 
coats. 

10. And he said unto them, In what place soever 
ye enter into an house, there abide till ye depart 
from that place. 

1 1. And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear 
you, when ye depart thence, shake off the dust under 
your feet for a testimony against them. Verily I say 
unto you, It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and 
Gomorrha in the day of judgment, than for that 
city. 

12. And they went out, and preached that men 
should repent. 

13. And they cast out many devils, and anointed 
with oil many that were sick, and healed them. 

Theophyl. The Lord not only preached in the cities, but 
also in villages, that we may learn not to despise little things, 
nor always to seek for great cities, but to sow the word of the 
Lord, in abandoned and lowly villages. Wherefore it is said, 
Bede in And he went round about the villages, teaching. Bede ; Now 
Marc. our ki n( j an d merciful Lord and Master did not grudge His 
servants and their disciples His own virtues, and as He Him- 
self had healed every sickness and every infirmity, so also He 
gave the same power to His disciples. Wherefore it goes on: 
And he called unto him the twelve, and began to send them 
forth by two and two ; and gave them power over unclean 
spirits. Great is the difference between giving and receiving. 
Whatsoever He does, is done in His own power, as Lord; if 
they do any thing, they confess their own weakness and the 
power of the Lord, saying in the name of Jesus, Arise, and walk. 
Theophyl. Again He sends the Apostles two and two that they 
Eccl.4, might become more active; for, as says the Preacher, Two are 
better than one. But if He had sent more than two, there would 
not have been a sufficient number to allow of their being 



VER. 6 13. ST. MARK. 109 

sent to many villages. Greg. Further, the Lord sent the Greg. 
disciples to preach, two and two, because there are two pre- £ om m 
cepts of charity, namely, the love of God, and of our neighbour ; 17. 
and charity cannot be between less than two ; by this there- 
fore He implies to us, that he who has not charity towards his 
neighbour, ought in no way to take upon himself the office of 
preaching. There follows, And he commanded them, that 
they should take nothing for their journey, save a staff only ; 
no scrip, no bread, no money in their purse : but be shod 
with sandals ; and not put on two coats. Bede ; For such Bede 
should be the preacher's trust in God, that, though he takes ubisu P* 
no thought for supplying his own wants in this present world, 
yet he should feel most certain that these will not be left unsa- 
tisfied, lest whilst his mind is taken up with temporal things, he 
should provide less of eternal things to others. Pseudo-Chrys. Vict. 
The Lord also gives them this command, that they might shew Ant * . e 

i* v^at. in 

by their mode of life, how far removed they were from the desire Marc, 
of riches. Theophyl. Instructing them also by this means not 
to be fond of receiving gifts, in order too that those, who saw 
them proclaim poverty, might be reconciled to it, when they saw 
that the Apostles themselves possessed nothing. Aug. Or Aug. de 
else ; according to Matthew, the Lord immediately subjoined, Evan. 
The workman is worthy of his meat, which sufficiently proves^ 30. 
why He forbade their carrying or possessing such things ; not 10, 19. 
because they were not necessary, but because He sent them 
in such a way as to shew, that they were due to them from 
the faithful, to whom they preached the Gospel. From this 
it is evident, that the Lord did not mean by this precept 
that the Evangelists ought to live only on the gifts of 
those to whom they preach the Gospel, else the Apostle 
transgressed this precept, when he procured his livelihood, 
by the labour of his own hands, but He meant that He had 
given them a power, in virtue of which, they might be assured, 
these things were due to them. It is also often asked, how 
it comes that Matthew and Luke have related that the Lord 
commanded His disciples not to carry even a staff, whilst 
Mark says, And he commanded them that they should take 
nothing for their journey, save a staff only. Which question 
is solved, by supposing that the word ' staff' has a meaning in 



110 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VI. 

Mark) who says that it ought to be carried, different from that 
which it bears in Matthew and Luke, who affirm the contrary. 
For in a concise way one might say, Take none of the neces- 
saries of life with you, nay, not a staff, save a staff only ; so that 
the saying, nay not a staff, may mean, nay not the smallest 
thing ; but that which is added, save a staff only, may mean 
that, through the power received by them from the Lord, of 
which a rod is the ensign, nothing, even of those things which 
they do not carry, will be wanting to them. The Lord 
therefore said both, but because one Evangelist has not given 
both, men suppose, that he who has said that the staff, in one 
sense, should be taken, is contrary to him who again has 
declared, that, in another sense, it should be left behind: 
now how T ever that a reason has been given, let no one think 
so. So also when Matthew declares that shoes are not to be 
worn on the journey, he forbids anxiety about them, for the 
reason why men are anxious about carrying them, is that 
they may not be without them. This is also to be understood 
of the two coats, that no man should be troubled about having 
only that with which he is clad, from anxiety lest he should 
need another, when he could always obtain one from the power 
given by the Lord. In like manner Mark, by saying that 
they are to be shod with sandals or soles, warns us that this 
mode of protecting the feet has a mystical signification, that 
the foot should neither be covered above nor be naked on the 
ground, that is, that the Gospel should neither be hid, nor rest 
upon earthly comforts; and in that He forbids their possess- 
ing or taking with them, or more expressly their wearing, two 
coats, He bids them walk simply, not with duplicity. But 
whosoever thinks that the Lord could not in the same discourse 
say some things figuratively, others in a literal sense, let him look 
into His other discourses, and he shall see, how rash and 
Bede ignorant is his judgment. Bede ; Again, by the two tunics 
ubi sup. jj e seerns ^0 me to mean two sets of clothes ; not that in 
places like Scythia, covered with the ice and snow, a man should 
be content with only one garment, but by coat, I think a suit 
of clothing is implied, that being clad with one, we should not 
Vict, keep another through anxiety as to what may happen. Pseudo- 
Cat.'in Chrys. Or else, Matthew and Luke neither allow shoes nor 

Marc 



VER. 6 — 13. ST. MARK. Ill 

staff, which is meant to point out the highest perfection. But 
Mark bids them take a staff and be shod with sandals, which 1 Cor. 
is spoken by permission. 

Bede; Again, allegoric ally ; under the figure of a scrip is Bede 
pointed out the burdens of this world, by bread is meant u ip * 
temporal delights, by money in the purse, the hiding of 
wisdom; because he who receives the office of a doctor, 
should neither be weighed down by the burden of worldly 
affairs, nor be made soft by carnal desires, nor hide the talent 
of the word committed to him under the ease, of an inactive 
body. It goes on, And he said unto them, In what place 
soever ye enter into an house, there abide till ye depart from 
that place. Where He gives a general precept of constancy, 
that they should look to what is due to the tie of hospitality, 
adding, that it is inconsistent with the preaching of the 
kingdom of heaven to run about from house to house. 
Theophyl. That is, lest they should be accused of gluttony 
in passing from one to another. It goes on, And whoever 
shall not receive you, fyc. This the Lord commanded them, 
that they might shew that they had walked a long way for 
their sakes, and to no purpose. Or, because they received 
nothing from them, not even dust, which they shake off, that 
it might be a testimony against them, that is, by way of con- 
victing them. v Pseudo-Chrys. Or else, that it might be ayict. 
witness of the toil of the way, which they sustained for them; ^ nt \ e 
or as if the dust of the sins of the preachers was turned Marc, 
against themselves. It goes on, And they went and preached 
that men should repent. And they cast out many devils, 
and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them. 
Mark alone mentions their anointing with oil. James how- 
ever, in his canonical Epistle, says a thing similar. For oil 
both refreshes our labours, and gives us light and joy; but 
again, oil signifies the mercy of the unction of God, the 
healing of infirmity, and the enlightening of the heart, the 
whole of which is worked by prayer. Theophyl. It also 
means, the grace of the Holy Ghost, by which we are eased 
from our labours, and receive light and spiritual joy. Bede ;Bede 
Wherefore it is evident from the Apostles themselves, that it ublsu P- 

v The first words of the comment occur in Chrys. Horn. 32. in Matt. 



112 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VI. 

is an ancient custom of the holy Church that persons 
possessed or afflicted with any disease whatever, should be 
anointed with oil consecrated by priestly blessing. 

14. And king Herod heard of him ; (for his name 
was spread abroad :) and he said, That John the 
Baptist was risen from the dead, and therefore mighty 
works do shew forth themselves in him. 

15. Others said, That it is Elias. And others 
said, That it is a prophet, or as one of the prophets. 

16. But when Herod heard thereof, he said, It is 
John, whom I beheaded : he is risen from the dead. 

Gloss. Gloss. After the preaching of the disciples of Christ, and 
nonocc 'the working of miracles, the Evangelist fitly subjoins an 
account of the report, which arose amongst the people; where- 
Vict. fore he says, And king Herod heard of him. Pseudo-Chrys. 
Art. e This Herod is the son of the first Herod, under whom Joseph 
Marc, had led Jesus into Egypt. But Matthew calls him Tetrarch, 
and Luke mentions him as ruling over one fourth of his 
father's kingdom ; for the Romans after the death of his 
father divided his kingdom into four parts. But Mark calls 
him a king, either after the title of his father, or because it 
was consonant to his own wish. Pseudo-Jerome ; It goes on, 
For his name was spread abroad. For it is not right that a 
candle should be placed under a bushel. And they said, 
that is, some of the multitude, that John the Baptist was 
risen from the dead, and therefore mighty works do sheiv 
Bedein themselves forth in him. Bede; Here we are taught how 
J /I ^ rc# great was the envy of the Jews. For, lo, they believe that 
John, of whom it was said that he did no miracle, could rise 
from the dead, and that, without the witness of any one. 
But Jesus, approved of God by miracles and signs, whose 
resurrection, Angels and Apostles, men and women, preached, 
they chose to believe was carried away by stealth, rather than 
suppose that He had risen again. And these men, in saying 
that John was risen from the dead, and that therefore mighty- 
works were wrought in him, had just thoughts of the power of 



in 



VEK. 17 29. ST. MARK. 113 

the resurrection, for men, when they shall have risen from the 

dead, shall have much greater power, than they possessed, 

when still weighed down by the weakness of the flesh. 

There follows, But others said, that it is Elias. Theophyl. 

For John confuted many men, when he said, Ye generation 

of vipers. It goes on, But others said, that it is a prophet, 

or as one of the prophets. Pseubo-Chrys. It seems to me Vict. 

that this prophet means that one of whom Moses said, God c ^' ' 

will raise up a prophet unto thee of thy brethren. They Marc. 

were right indeed, but because they feared to say openly, This 15 * ' 

is the Christ, they used the voice of Moses, veiling their own 

surmise through fear of their rulers. There follows, But 

when Herod heard thereof, he said, It is John, whom I 

beheaded: he is risen from the dead. Herod expressly 

says, this in irony. Theophyl. Or else, Herod, knowing 

that he without a cause had slain John, who was a just man, 

thought that he had risen from the dead, and had received 

through his resurrection the power of working miracles. Aug. ^ug. de 

But in these words Luke bears witness to Mark, to this point £ on - 

at least, that others and not Herod said that John had risen ; 43. 

but Luke had represented Herod as hesitating, and has put 

down his words as if he said, John have I beheaded, but who Luke 9 > 

7 
is this of whom I hear such things? We must however suppose, 

that after this hesitation, he had confirmed in his own mind 

what others had said, for he says to his children, as Matthew 

relates, This is John the Baptist, he has risen from the dead. 

Matt. 

Or else these words are to be spoken, so as to indicate that 14, 2. 
he is still hesitating, particularly as Mark who had said 
above that others had declared that John had risen from the 
dead, afterwards however is not silent as to Herod's plainly 
saying, It is John, whom I beheaded: he is risen from the 
dead. Which words also may be spoken in two ways, either 
they may be understood as those of a man affirming or 
doubting. 

1 7. For Herod himself had sent forth and laid hold 
upon John, and bound him in prison for Herodias' 
sake, his brother Philip's wife : for he had married 
her. 

VOL. II. I 



114 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHA1\ VI. 

18. For John had said unto Herod, It is not lawful 
for thee to have thy brother's wife. 

19. Therefore Herodias had a quarrel against him, 
and would have killed him ; but she could not ; 

20. For Herod feared John, knowing that he was 
a just man and an holy, and observed him ; and 
when he heard him, he did many things, and heard 
him gladly. 

21. And when a convenient day was come, that 
Herod on his birthday made a supper to his lords, 
high captains, and chief estates of Galilee ; 

22. And when the daughter of the said Herodias 
came in, and danced, and pleased Herod and them 
that sat with him, the king said unto the damsel, 
Ask of me whatsoever thou wilt, and I will give it 
thee. 

23. And he sware unto her, Whatsoever thou shalt 
ask of me, I will give it thee, unto the half of my 
kingdom. 

24. And she went forth, and said unto her mother, 
What shall 1 ask ? And she said, The head of John 
the Baptist. 

25. And she came in straightway with haste unto 
the king, and asked, saying, I will that thou give me 
by and by in a charger the head of John the Baptist. 

26. And the king was exceeding sorry ; yet for his 
oath's sake, and for their sakes which sat with him, 
he would not reject her. 

27. And immediately the king sent an executioner, 
and commanded his head to be brought : and he went 
and beheaded him in the prison, 

28. And brought his head in a charger, and gave it 
to the damsel : and the damsel gave it to her mother. 

29. And when his disciples heard of it, they came 
and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb. 



VER. 17 29. ST. MARK. 115 

Theophvl. The Evangelist Mark, taking occasion from 
what went before, here relates the death of the Forerunner, 
saying, For Herod himself had sent forth and laid hold upon 
John, and bound him in prison for Herodias^ sake, his 
brother Philip's wife : for he had married her. Bede ; Bede 
Ancient history relates, that Philip, the son of Herod the u sup * 
great, under whom the Lord fled into Egypt, the brother 
of this Herod, under whom Christ suffered, married Herodias, 
the daughter of king Aretas ; but afterwards, that his father- 
in-law, after certain disagreements had arisen with his son- 
in-law, had taken his daughter away, and, to the grief of her 
former husband, had given her in marriage to his enemy ; 
therefore John the Baptist rebukes Herod and Herodias for 
contracting an unlawful union, and because it was not 
allowed for a man to marry his brother's wife daring 
his lifetime. Theophyl. The law also commanded a 
brother to marry his brother's wife, if he died without 
children ; but in this case there was a daughter, which made 
the marriage criminal : there follows, Titer ef ore Herodias 
had a quarrel against him, and would have killed him; 
but she could not. Bede ; For Herodias was afraid, lest Bede 
Herod should repent at some time, or be reconciled to his u 18Up ' 
brother Philip, and so the unlawful marriage be divorced. It 
goes on, For Herod feared John, knowing that he was a just 
man, and an holy. Gloss. He feared him, I say, because he Gloss, 
revered him, for he knew him to be just in his dealings with 
men, and holy towards God, and he took care that Herodias 
should not slay him. And when he heard him, he did many 
things, for he thought that he spake by the Spirit of God, 
and heard him gladly, because he considered that what 
he said was profitable. Theophyl. But see how great is the 
fury of lust, for though Herod had such an awe and fear of 
John, he forgets it all, that he may minister to his forni- 
cation. Remig. For his lustful will drove him to lay hands 
on a man, whom he knew to be just and holy. And by this, 
we may see how a less fault became the cause to him of a 
greater; as it is said, He which is filthy, let him be filthy Rev. 22, 
still. It goes on, And when a convenient day was come, that ' 
Herod on his birthday made a supper to his lords, high 
captains, and chief estates of Galilee. Bede; The only men Bede 

ubi sup, 



116 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VI. 

whom we read of, as celebrating their birthdays with festive 
joys are Herod and Pharaoh, but each, with an evil presage, 
stained his birthday with blood ; Herod, however, with so 
much the greater wickedness, as he slew the holy and guilt- 
less teacher of truth, and that, by the wish, and at the instance 
of a female dancer. For there follows, And when the daughter 
of the said Herodias came in, and danced, and pleased Herod 
and them that sat with him, the king said unto the damsel, 
Ask of me whatsoever thou will, and I will give it thee. 
Theophyl. For during the banquet, Satan danced in the 
person of the damsel, and the wicked oath is completed. 
For it goes on, And he sware unto Iter, Whatsoever thou 
shall ask of ?ne, I will give it thee, unto the half of my king- 
dom. 

Bede Bede; His oath does not excuse his murder, for per- 

chance his reason for swearing was, that he might find an 
opportunity for slaying, and if she had demanded the death 
of his father and mother, he surely would not have granted it. 
It goes on, And she went forth, and said unto her mother, 
What shall I ask ? And she said, The head of John the 
Baptist. Worthy is blood to be asked as the reward of such a 
deed as dancing. It goes on, And she came in straightway 
with haste, tyc. Theophyl. The malignant woman begs 
that the head of John be given to her immediately, that is, 
at once, in that very hour, for she feared lest Herod should 
repent. There follows, And the king was exceeding sorry. 

Bede Bede ; It is usual with Scripture, that the historian 
sup. gjjQjjjjj re i a te events as they were then believed by all, thus 
Joseph is called the father of Jesus by Mary herself. So now 
also Herod is said to be exceeding sorry, for so the guests 
thought, since the hypocrite bore sadness on his face, when 
he had joy in his heart; and he excuses his wickedness 
by his oath, that he might be impious under pretence of 
piety. Wherefore there follows, For his oath's sake, and for 
their sakes who sat with him, he would not reject her. 
Theophyl. Herod not being his own master, but full of lust, 
fulfilled his oath, and slew the just man ; it would have been 
better however to break his oath, than to commit so great 

Bede a sin. Bede; In that again which is added, And for their 

«bi sup. sa k es wn0 sa ( w ith him, he wishes to make all partakers in 



VER. 17 29. ST. MARK. 117 

his guilt, that a bloody least might be set before luxurious 
and impure guests. Wherefore it goes on, But sending an 
executioner, he commanded his head to be brought in a 
charger. Theophyl. ' Spiculator' is the name for the public 
servant commissioned to put men to death. 

Bede; Now Herod was not ashamed to bring before hisBede 
guests the head of a murdered man ; but we do not read of ubi SU P* 
such an act of madness in Pharaoh. From both examples, 
however, it is proved to be more useful, often to call to mind 
the coming day of our death, by fear and by living chastely, 
than to celebrate the day of our birth with luxury. For man 
is born in the world to toil, but the elect pass by death out 
of the world to repose. It goes on, And he beheaded him in 
prison, fyc. Greg. I cannot, without the greatest wonder, Greg, 
reflect that he, who was filled even in his mother's womb ^ or# 3 ' 
with the spirit of prophecy, and who was the greatest that had 
arisen amongst those born of women, is sent into prison by 
wicked men, is beheaded for the dancing of a girl, and though 
a man of so great austerity, meets death through such a foul 
instrument. Are we to suppose that there was something evil 
in his life, to be wiped away by so ignominious a death ? When, 
however, could he commit a sin even in his eating, whose 
food was only locusts and wild honey? How could he 
offend in his conversation, who never quitted the wilderness? 
How is it that Almighty God so despises in this life 
those whom He has so sublimely chosen before all ages, 
if it be not for the reason, which is plain to the piety of 
the faithful, that He thus sinks them into the lowest place, 
because He sees how He is rewarding them in the highest, 
and outwardly He throws them down amongst things despised, 
because inwardly tie draws them up even to incomprehensible 
things. Let each then infer from this what they shall suffer, 
whom He rejects, if He so grieves those whom he loves. Bede ; Bede 
There follows, And ivhen his disciples heard of it, they came 11 lsup * 
and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb. Josephus 
relates, that John was brought bound into the castle of 
Macheron, and there slain ; and ecclesiastical history says xheo- 
that he was buried in Sebaste, a city of Palestine, once called d° ret - 
Samaria. But the beheading of John the Baptist signifies the Eccles. 
lessening of that fame, by which he was thought to be Christ 3 ' 3 ' 



118 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP- VI. 

by the people, as the raising of our Saviour on the cross 
typifies the advance of the faith, in that He Himself, who was 
first looked upon as a prophet by the multitude, was recog- 
nised as the Son of God by all the faithful; wherefore John, 
who was destined to decrease, was born when the daylight 
begins to wax short ; but the Lord at that season of the year 
in which the day begins to lengthen. Theophyl. In a mys- 
tical way, however, Herod, whose name means, e of skin,' is the 
people of the Jews, and the wife to whom he was wedded 
means vain glory, whose daughter even now encircles the Jews 
with her dance, namely, a false understanding of the Scriptures; 
they indeed beheaded John, that is, the word of prophecy, 
and hold to him without Christ, his head. Pseudo-Jerome; 
Or else, The head of the law, which is Christ, is cut off from 
his own body, that is, the Jewish people, and is given to a 
Gentile damsel, that is, the Roman Church, and the damsel 
gives it to her adulterous mother, that is, to the synagogue, 
who in the end will believe. The body of John is buried, his 
head is put in a dish ; thus the human Letter is covered over, 
the Spirit is honoured, and received on the altar. 

30. And the apostles gathered themselves together 
unto Jesus, and told him all things, both what they 
had done, and what they had taught. 

31. And he said unto them, Come ye yourselves 
apart into a desert place, and rest a while : for there 
were many coming and going, and they had no lei- 
sure so much as to eat. 

32. And they departed into a desert place by ship 
privately. 

33. And the people saw them departing, and many 
knew him, and ran afoot thither out of all cities, and 
outwent them, and came together unto him. 

34. And Jesus, when he came out, saw much peo= 
pie, and was moved with compassion toward them, 
because they were as sheep not having a shepherd : 
and he began to teach them many things. 



VER. 30 — 34. ST. MARK. 119 

Gloss. The Evangelist, after relating the death of John, Gloss, 
gives an account of those things which Christ did with His dis- 
ciples after the death of John, saying, And the Apostles gathered 
themselves together unto Jesus, and told him all things ,both what 
they had done, and what they had taught. Pseudo-Jerome; 
For they return to the fountain-head whence the streams flow; 
those who are sent by God, always offer up thanks for those 
things which they have received. Theophyl. Let us also 
learn, when we are sent on any mission, not to go far away, 
and not to overstep the bounds of the office committed, but to 
go often to him, who sends us, and report all that we have done 
and taught ; for we must not only teach but act. Bede ; Not Bede 
only do the Apostles tell the Lord what they themselves had u l sup * 
done and taught, but also his own and John's disciples together 
tell Him what John had suffered, during the time that they 
were occupied in teaching, as Matthew relates. It goes on : 
And he said to them, Come ye yourselves apart \ fyc. Aug. This Aug. de 
is said to have taken place, after the passion of John, there- £ on * 
fore what is first related took place last, for it was by these 2, 45. 
events that Herod was moved to say, This is John the 
Baptist, whom I beheaded. Theophyl. Again, He goes 
into a desert place from His humility. But Christ makes 
His disciples rest, that men who are set over others may 
learn, that they who labour in any work or in the word 
deserve rest, and ought not to labour continually. Bede ; Bede 
How arose the necessity for giving rest to His disciples, ubl sup * 
He shews, when He adds, For there were many coming 
and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat ; we 
may then see how great was the happiness of that time, 
both from the toil of the teachers, and from the diligence 
of the learners. It goes on, And embarking in a ship, they 
departed into a desert place privately. The disciples did not 
enter into the ship alone, but taking up the Lord with them, 
they went to a desert place, as Matthew shews. Here He M att< 
tries the faith of the multitude, and by seeking a desert place 14 * 
He would see whether they care to follow Him. And they 
follow Him, and that not on horseback, nor in carnages, but 
laboriously coming on loot, they shew how great is their 
anxiety for their salvation. There follows. And the people 
saw them deporting, and many knew him, and ran aj'ool 



120 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VI. 

thither out of all cities, and outwent them. In saying that 
they outwent them on foot, it is proved that the disciples 
with the Lord did not reach the other bank of the sea, or of 
the Jordan, but they went to the nearest places of the same 
country, where the people of those parts could come to them 
on foot. Theophyl. So do thou not wait for Christ till He 
Himself call you, but outrun Him, and come before Him. 
There follows, And Jesus when he came out saw much people, 
and was moved with compassion towards them, because they 
were as sheep having no shepherd. The Pharisees being 
ravening wolves did not feed the sheep, but devoured them ; 
for which reason they gather themselves to Christ, the true 
Shepherd, who gave them spiritual food, that is, the word of 
God. Wherefore it goes on, And he began to teach them 
many things. For seeing that those who followed Him on 
account of His miracles were tired from the length of the 
way, He pitied them, and wished to satisfy their wish by 
Bedein teaching them. Bede; Matthew says that He healed their 
2 26: sick, for the real way of pitying the poor is to open to them 
the way of truth by teaching them, and to take away their 
bodily pains. Pseudo-Jerome ; Mystically, however, the 
Lord took apart those whom He chose, that though living 
amongst evil men, they might not apply their minds to evil 
things, as Lot in Sodom, Job in the land of Uz, and Obadiah 
in the house of Ahab. 
Bede in Bede ; Leaving also Judaea, the holy preachers, in the 
2 25 desert of the Church, overwhelmed by the burden of their 
tribulations amongst the Jews, obtained rest by the imparting 
of the grace of faith to the Gentiles. Pseudo- Jerome; Little 
indeed is the rest of the saints here on earth, long is their labour, 
but afterwards, they are bidden to rest from their labours. 
But as in the ark of Noah, the animals that were within 
were sent forth, and they that were without rushed in, so is 
it in the Church, Judas went, the thief came to Christ. But 
as long as men go back from the faith, the Church can 
have no refuge from grief; for Rachel weeping for her 
children would not be comforted. Moreover, this world is 
not the banquet, in which the new wine is drank, when the 
new song will be sung by men made anew, when this mortal 
Bedein sna n have put on immortality. Bede; But when Christ 

Marc. ' J 

2, 26. 



VEK. 35 44. ST. MARK. 121 

goes to the deserts of the Gentiles, many bands of the faith- 
ful leaving the walls of their cities, that is their old manner 
of living, follow Him. 

35. And when the day was now far spent, his 
disciples came unto him, and said, This is a desert 
place, and now the time is far passed : 

36. Send them away, that they may go into the 
country round about, and into the villages, and buy 
themselves bread : for they have nothing to eat. 

37. He answered and said unto them, Give ye 
them to eat. And they say unto him, Shall we go 
and buy two hundred pennyworth of bread, and give 
them to eat ? 

38. He saith unto them, How many loaves have 
ye ? go and see. And when they knew, they say, 
Five, and two fishes. 

39. And he commanded them to make all sit down 
by companies upon the green grass. 

40. And they sat down in ranks, by hundreds, and 
by fifties. 

41. And when he had taken the five loaves and the 
two fishes, he looked up to heaven, and blessed, and 
brake the loaves, and gave them to his disciples to 
set before them ; and the two fishes divided he among 
them all. 

42. And they did all eat, and were filled. 

43. And they took up twelve baskets full of the 
fragments, and of the fishes. 

44. And they that did eat of the loaves were about 
five thousand men. 

Theophyl. The Lord, placing before them, first, what is 
most profitable, that is, the food of the word of God, after- 
wards also gave the multitude food for their bodies; in be- 
ginning to relate which, the Evangelist says, And when (he 



122 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VI. 

day was now far spent , his disciples came unto him, and 
Bede said, This is a desert place. Bede; The time being far 
u lsup " spent, points out that it was evening. Wherefore Luke says, 
But the day had begun to decline. Theophyl. See now, 
how those who are disciples of Christ grow in love to man, 
for they pity the multitudes, and come to Christ to intercede 
for them. But the Lord tried them, to see whether they 
would know that His power was great enough to feed them. 
Wherefore it goes on, He answered and said unto them, 
Bede Give ye them to eat. Bede; By these words He calls on 
p * His Apostles, to break bread for the people, that they might 
be able to testify that they had no bread, and thus the 
greatness of the miracle might become more known. 
Theophyl. But the disciples thought that He did not know 
what was necessary for the feeding of so large a multitude, 
for their answer shews that they were troubled. For it goes 
on, And they said unto him, Let us go and buy two hundred 
Aug ^pennyworth of bread, and give them to eat. Aug. This in 
£ on - the Gospel of John is the answer of Philip, but Mark gives 
2, 46. it as the answer of the disciples, wishing it to be understood 
that Philip made this answer as a mouthpiece of the others; 
although he might put the plural number for the singular, as 
is usual. It goes on, And he saith unto them, How many 
loaves have ye? go and see. The other Evangelists pass over 
this being done by the Lord. It goes on, And when they 
knew, they say, Five, and two fishes. This, which was 
suggested by Andrew, as we learn from John, the other 
Evangelists, using the plural for the singular, have put into 
the mouth of the disciples. Tt goes on, And lie commanded 
them to make all sit doun by companies upon the green grass, 
and they sa! down in ranks by hundreds and by fifties. 
But we need not be perplexed, though Luke says that they 
were ordered to sit down by fifties, and Mark by hundreds 
and fifties, for one has mentioned a part, the other the whole. 
Mark, who mentions the hundreds, fills up what the other 
has left out. Theophyl. We are given to understand 
that they lay clown in parties, separate from one another, for 
what is translated by companies, is repeated twice over in the 
Greek, as though it were by companies and companies. 
If goes on. And when, he hod taken the f>'c too res and the 



VER. 35 — 44. ST. MARK. 1^3 

two fishes, he looked up to heaven, and blessed, and brake the 
loaves, and gave them to his disciples to set before them: 
and the two fishes divided he among them all. Chrys. Now Vict, 
it was with fitness that He looked up to heaven, for the Jews, c ™t'\ a 
when receiving manna in the desert, presumed to say of God, Marc. 

v.Chrys. 

Can he give bread? To prevent this therefore, before HeH ora , n 

performed the miracle, He referred to His Father what He^ att - 

was about to do. Theophyl. He also looks up to heaven, Vs. 78, 

that He may teach us to seek our food from God, and not ' 

from the devil, as they do who unjustly feed on other men's 

labours. By this also He intimated to the crowd, that He 

could not be opposed to God, since He called upon God. 

And He gives the bread to His disciples to set before the 

multitude, that by handling the bread, they might see that it 

was an undoubted miracle. It goes on : And they did all 

eat, and were filled : and they took up twelve baskets full of 

the fragments. Twelve baskets of fragments remained over 

and above, that each of the Apostles, carrying a basket on 

his shoulder, might recognise the unspeakable wonder of the 

miracle. For it was a proof of overflowing power not only to 

feed so many men, but also to leave such a superabundance 

of fragments. Even though Moses gave manna, yet what 

was given to each was measured by his necessity, and what 

was over and above was overrun with worms Elias also fed 

the woman, but gave her just what was enough for her; but 

Jesus, bring the Lord, makes his gifts with superabundant 

profusion. Bede ; Again, in a mystical sense, the Saviour re- Bede 

freshes the hungry crowds at the day's decline, because, either ubi SU P- 

now that the end of the world approaches, or now that the Sun 

of justice has set in death for us, we are saved from wasting 

away in spiritual hunger. He calls the Apostles to Him at 

the breaking of bread, intimating that daily by them our 

hungry souls are fed, that is, by their letters and examples. 

By the five loaves are figured the Five Books of Moses, bv the 

two fishes the Psalms and Prophets. Theophyl. Or the two 

fishes are the discourses of fishermen, that is, their Epistles and 

Gospel. Bedi;; "There are five senses in the outward man, Bede 

ubi sup, 

w The same application to the five The latter, probably, was the source 
senses is found in Origpn in Matt. 14, from which Pede borrowed it, as in both 
17, and St. Ambrose in Luc. lib, H, 80. it forms a portion of a comparison be- 



124 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VI. 

which shews that by the five thousand men are meant those 

who, living in the world, know how to make a good use of 

Greg, external things. Greg. The different ranks in which those 

Mor. . 

16, 55. wno a t< e lie down, mark out the divers churches which make 

up the one Catholic. x But the Jubilee rest is contained in 

the mystery of the number fifty, and fifty must be doubled 

before it reaches up to a hundred. As then the first step is 

to rest from doing evil, that afterwards the soul may rest 

more fully from evil thoughts, some lie down in parties 

™ e of fifty, others of a hundred. Bede ; Again, those men lie 

down on grass and are fed by the food of the Lord, who 

have trodden under foot their concupiscences by continence, 

and apply themselves diligently to hear and fulfil the words 

1 v. Aur. of God. l The Saviour, however, does not create a new 

Matt. sor t °f food ; for when He came in the flesh He preached no 

p. 537. other things than were predicted *, but shewed how pregnant 

dicata with mysteries of grace were the writings of the Law and the 

ap. Bed. p m phets. He looks up to heaven, that He may teach us that 

there we must look for grace. He breaks and distributes 

to the disciples that they may place the bread before the 

multitudes, because He has opened the mysteries of prophecy 

to holy doctors, who are to preach them to the whole world. 

What is left by the crowd is taken up by the disciples, because 

the more sacred mysteries, which cannot be received by the 

foolish, are not to be passed by with negligence, but to be 

inquired into by the perfect. For by the twelve baskets, the 

Apostles and the following Doctors are typified, externally 

indeed despised by men, but inwardly full of healthful food. 

For all know that carrying baskets is a part of the work of 

slaves. Pseudo-Jerome; Or, in the gathering of the twelve 

baskets full of fragments, is signified the time, when they 

shall sit on thrones, judging all who are left of Abraham, 

Isaac, and Jacob, the twelve tribes of Israel, when the 

remnant of Israel shall be saved. 



tween this miracle and that of the four - x The number fifty is connected with 

thousand being fed with seven loaves, rest from sin, or remission, with an 

in which the latter are said to be a type allusion to the Jubilee and to Pentecost 

of the Christian, who has given up ex- by Origen in Matt. Tom. xi. 3. and by 

ternal things. Origen, Horn. 3. in Levit. St. Ambrose Ap. David 8. On number 

lays it down as a principle, that the a hundred, as the recognised symbol of 

number five is almost always taken for perfection, v. Benedictine Note t on 

the five senses in Scripture. Origen in Matt. Tom. xi. 3. 



VER. 45 52. ST. MARK. 125 

45. And straightway he constrained his disciples 
to get into the ship, and to go to the other side before 
unto Bethsaida, while he sent away the people. 

46. And when he had sent them away, he departed 
into a mountain to pray. 

47. And when even was come, the ship was in the 
midst of the sea, and he alone on the land. 

48. And he saw them toiling in rowing ; for the 
wind was contrary unto them : and about the fourth 
watch of the night he cometh unto them, walking 
upon the sea, and would have passed by them. 

49. But when they saw him walking upon the sea, 
they supposed it had been a spirit, and cried out : 

50. For they all saw him, and were troubled. And 
immediately he talked with them, and saith unto 
them, Be of good cheer : it is I ; be not afraid. 

51. And he went up unto them into the ship; and 
the wind ceased : and they were sore amazed in them- 
selves beyond measure, and wondered. 

52. For they considered not the miracle of the 
loaves : for their heart was hardened. 



Gloss. The Lord indeed by the miracle of the loaves Gloss. 
shewed that He is the Creator of the world : but now by walk- 
ing on the waves He proved that He had a body free from the 
weight of all sin, and by appeasing the winds and by 
calming the rage of the waves, He declared Himself to be the 
Master of the elements. Wherefore it is said, And straight- 
way he constrained his disciples to get into the ship, and to 
go to the other side before unto Bethsaida, while he sent away 
the people. Pseudo-Chrys. He dismisses indeed the people Vict. 
with His blessing and with some cures. But He constrained c *l'* n 
His disciples, because they could not without pain separate Marc, 
themselves from Him, and that, not only on account of the 
very great affection which they had for Him, but also because 
they were at a loss how He would join them. Bede ; But it?/ in 

J J Marc. 

2,27. 



126 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO (HAP. VI. 

is with reason that we wonder how Mark says, that after the 
miracle of the loaves the disciples crossed the sea of Beth- 
saida, when Luke relates that the miracle was done in the 

Luke 9, parts of Bethsaida, unless we understand that Luke means by 
the desert which is Bethsaida not the country immediately 
around the town, but the desert places belonging to it. But 
when Mark says that they should go before unto Bethsaida, 
the town itself is meant. It goes on : And when he had sent 

Vict, them away, he departed into a mountain to pray. Pseudo- 

£ n *' . e Chrys. This we must understand of Christ, in that He is man ; 
Cat. in . 

Marc. He does it also to teach us to be constant in prayer. Theophyl. 
But when He had dismissed the crowd, He goes up to pray, 
Bedein for prayer requires rest and silence. Bede ; Not every man, 
2 28. however, who prays goes up into a mountain, but he alone 
prays well, who seeks God in prayer. But he who prays for 
riches or worldly labour, or for the death of his enemy, sends 
John 6, up from the lowest depths his vile prayers to God. John 
15 ' says, When Jesus therefore perceived that they would come 
and take him by force and make him a king, he departed 
again into a mountain himself alone . It goes on : And when 
even was come, the ship was in the midst of the sea, and he 
alone on the land. Theophyl. Now the Lord permitted 
His disciples to be in danger, that they might learn patience; 
wherefore He did not immediately come to their aid, but al- 
lowed them to remain in danger all night, that He might 
teach them to wait patiently, and not to hope at once for 
help in tribulations. For there follows, And he sau- them 
toiling in rowing, for the wind was contrary unto them : 
and about the fourth watch of the night, he cometh unto them 
Vict, walking upon the sea. Pseu do -Chrys. Holy Scripture reckons 
Ante f our watches in the night, making each division three hours; 

V^£LC» 111 

Marc, wherefore by the fourth watch it means that which is after the 

ninth hour, that is, in the tenth or some following hour. 

Aug. There follows, And would have passed them. Aug. But how 

de Con. C0U ](J they understand this, except from His going a different 

2, 47. way, wishing to pass them as strangers; for they were so far 

from recognising Him, as to take Him for a spirit. For it 

goes on : But when they saw him walking upon the sea, they 

supposed it had been a spirit, and cried out. Theophyl. 

See again how Christ, though He was about to put an end to 



VER. 45 — 52. ST. MARK. 1*27 

their dangers, puts them in greater fear. But He immediately 
reassured them by His voice, for it continues, And immedi- 
ately he talked xcith them, and said unto them, It is I, be not 
afraid. Chrys. As soon then as they knew Him by His v -Chry8. 
voice, their fear left them. Aug. How then could He wish to Matt! 

pass them, whose fears He so reassures, if it were not that His 5 A °- 

Aug. 
wish to pass them would wring from them that cry, which ubi sup. 

called for His help ? Bede ; But y Theodorus, who was Bede 
Bishop of Phanara, wrote that the Lord had no bodily weight ubl * up * 
in His flesh, and walked on the sea without weight; but the 
Catholic faith declares that He had weight according to the 
flesh. For Dionysius says, We know not how without plunging 
in His feet, which had bodily weight and the gravity of mat- 
ter, He could walk on the wet and unstable subtance. The- 
ophyl. Then by entering into the ship, the Lord restrained the 
tempest. For it continues, And he went up unto them into 
the ship, and the wind ceased. Great indeed is the miracle 
of our Lord's walking on the sea, but the tempest and the 
contrary wind were there as well, to make the miracle 
greater. For the Apostles, not understanding from the 
miracle of the five loaves the power of Christ, now more 
fully knew it from the miracle of the sea. Wherefore it goes 
on, And they were sore amazed in themselves. For they 
understood not concerning the loaves. Bede; The disciples Bede 
indeed, who were still carnal, were amazed at the greatness" lsup * 
of His virtue, they could not yet however recognise in Him 
the truth of the Divine Majesty. Wherefore it goes on, For 
their hearts were hardened. But mystically, the toil of the 
disciples in rowing, and the contrary wind, mark out the 
labours of the Holy Church, who amidst the beating waves 
of the world, and the blasts of unclean spirits, strives to reach 
the repose of her celestial country. And well is it said that 
the ship was in the midst of the sea, and He alone on land, 
for sometimes the Church is afflicted by a pressure from the 



y The opinion with which Theodorus His Divinity P Theodorus was Bp. of 

is charged, was one held by the Phan- Pharan, in Arabia, and was condemned 

tasiasts, a sect of the Monophysites. as the author of the Monothelite heresy 

The denial of a human body to our in the Lateran Council under Pope 

Lord, was a natural consequence of Martin I, A.D. 649. The passage from 

denying Him a human soul, for how Dionysius is quoted in Actio 3 of the 

could a human body inclose, so to speak, Council, and occurs de Div. Norn. c. 1. 



128 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VI. 

Gentiles so overwhelming, that her Redeemer seems to have 

entirely deserted her. But the Lord sees His own, toiling on 

the sea, for, lest they faint in tribulations, He strengthens 

them by the look of His love, and sometimes frees them by 

a visible assistance. Further, in the fourth watch He came 

to them as daylight approached, for when man lifts up his 

mind to the light of guidance from on high, the Lord will be 

with him, and the dangers of temptations will be laid asleep. 

Vict. Pseudo-Chrys. Or else, the first watch means the time up 

Cat. in to the deluge; the second, up to Moses; the third, up to the 

Marc, coming of the Lord ; in the fourth the Lord came and spoke 

Bede to His disciples. Bede ; Often then does the love of heaven 

11 lsup ' seem to have deserted the faithful in tribulation, so that it 

may be thought that Jesus wishes to pass by His disciples, 

as it were, toiling in the sea. And still do heretics suppose 

that the Lord was a phantom, and did not take upon Him 

1 v. sup. real flesh from the Virgin 1 . Pseudo-Jerome; And He says 

e y * to them, Be of good cheer, it is /, because we shall see Him 

asJHe is. But the wind and the storm ceased when Jesus 

sat down, that is, reigned in the ship, which is the Catholic 

Bede Church. Bede; In whatsoever heart, also, He is present by 

ubi sup. . ... . 

the grace of His love, there soon all the strivings of vices, 
and of the adverse world, or of evil spirits, are kept under and 
put to rest. 

53. And when they had passed over, they came 
into the land of Gennesaret, and drew to the shore. 

54. And when they were come out of the ship, 
straightway they knew him, 

55. And ran through that whole region round 
about, and began to carry about in beds those that 
were sick, where they heard he was. 

56. And whithersoever he entered, into villages, or 
cities, or country, they laid the sick in the streets, 
and besought him that they might touch if it were but 
the border of his garment : and as many as touched 
him were made whole. 

Gloss. Gloss. The Evangelist, having shewn the danger which 



non ooc. 



VER. 53 — 56. ST. MARK. 129 

the disciples had sustained in their passage, and their 
deliverance from it, now shews the place to which they 
sailed, saying, And when they had passed over, they came 
into the land of Qennesaret, and drew to the shore. 
Theophyl. The Lord remained at the above-mentioned 
place for some time. Therefore the Evangelist subjoins, 
And when they had come out of the ship, straightway 
they knew him, that is, the inhabitants of the country. Bede ; Bede 
But they knew Him by report, not by His features; r ublsu P* 
through the greatness of His miracles, even His person 
was known to some. See too how great was the faith of 
the men of the land of Gennesaret, so that they were not 
content with the healing of those who were present, but 
sent to other towns round about, that all might hasten to the 
Physician ; wherefore there follows, And ran through the 
whole region round about, and began to carry about in beds 
those that were sick, where they heard he was. Theophyl. 
For they did not call Him to their houses that He might 
heal them, but rather the sick themselves were brought to 
Him. Wherefore it also follows, And whithersoever he 
entered into villages, or cities, or country, tyc. For the 
miracle which had been wrought on the woman with an issue 
of blood, had reached the ears of many, and caused in 
them that great faith, by which they were healed. It goes 
on, And as many as touched him were made whole. Bede ; Bede 
Again, in a mystical sense, do thou understand by the hem ubl sup * 
of His garment the slightest of His commandments, for who- 
soever shall transgress it shall be called the least in the Matt. 
kingdom of heaven, or else His assumption of our flesh, by 5 ' 19, 
which we have come to the Word of God, and afterwards, 
shall have the enjoyment of His majesty. Pseudo-Jerome ; 
Furthermore that which is said, And as many as touched him 
were made whole, shall be fulfilled, when grief and mourning 
shall fly away. 



vol. n. k 



CHAP. VII. 

1 . Then came together unto him the Pharisees, 
and certain of the Scribes, which came from Je- 
rusalem. 

2. And when they saw some of his disciples eat 
bread with defiled, that is to say, with unwashen, 
hands, they found fault. 

3. For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they 
wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the tradition of 
the elders. 

4. And when they come from the market, except 
they wash, they eat not. And many other things 
there be, which they have received to hold, as the 
washing of cups, and pots, brasen vessels, and of 
tables. 

5. Then the Pharisees and Scribes asked him, Why 
walk not thy disciples according to the tradition of 
the elders, but eat bread with unwashen hands ? 

6. He answered and said unto them, Well hath 
Esaias prophesied of you hypocrites, as it is written, 
This people honoureth me with their lips, but their 
heart is far from me. 

7. Howbeit in vain do they worship me, teaching 
for doctrines the commandments of men. 

8. For laying aside the commandment of God, ye 
hold the tradition of men, as the washing of pots and 
cups : and many other such like things ye do. 



VER. 1 — 18. GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. 1 .'3 1 

9. And he said unto them, Full well ye reject the 
commandment of God, that ye may keep your own 
tradition. 

10. For Moses said, Honour thy father and thy 
mother ; and, Whoso curseth father or mother, let 
him die the death : 

1 1 . But ye say, If a man shall say to his father or 
mother, It is Corban, that is to say, a gift, by what- 
soever thou mightest be profited by me ; he shall be 
free. 

12. And ye suffer him no more to do ought for his 
father or his mother ; 

13. Making the word of God of none effect through 
your tradition, which ye have delivered : and many 
such like things do ye. 

Bede ; The people of the land of Gennesareth, who seemed BeJe m 
to be unlearned men, not only come themselves, but also bring _ ^ij' 
their sick to the Lord, that they may but succeed in touching 
the hem of His garment. But the Pharisees and Scribes, 
who ought to have been the teachers of the people, run 
together to the Lord, not to seek for healing, but to move 
captious questions; wherefore it is said, Then there came 
together unto him the Pharisees and certain of the Scribes, 
coming from Jerusalem ; and when they saw some of his 
disciples eat bread with common, that is, with unwashen 
hands, they found fault. Theophyl. For the disciples of the 
Lord, who were taught only the practice of virtue, used to 
eat in a simple way, without washing their hands ; but the 
Pharisees, wishing to find an occasion of blame against 
them, took it up ; they did not indeed blame them as trans- 
gressors of the law, but for transgressing the traditions of the 
elders. Wherefore it goes on: For the Pharisees and all the 
Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the 
tradition of the elders. Bede ; For taking the spiritual 
words of the Prophets in a carnal sense, they observed, by p ec | e 
washing the body alone, commandments which concerned ubl BU P* 
the chastening of the heart and deeds, saying, Wash lsa. i , 

K2 ,C - 



132 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VII. 

Isa. 52, you, make you clean ; and again, Be ye clean that bear the 
11 ' vessels of the Lord. It is therefore a superstitious human 
tradition, that men who are clean already, should wash 
oftener because they eat bread, and that they should not eat 
on leaving the market, without washing. But it is necessary 
for those who desire to partake of the bread which comes 
down from heaven, often to cleanse their evil deeds by alms, 
by tears, and the other fruits of righteousness. It is also 
necessary for a man to wash thoroughly away the pollutions 
which he has contracted from the cares of temporal business, 
by being afterwards intent on good thoughts and works. 
In vain, however, do the Jews wash their hands, and cleanse 
themselves after the market, so long as they refuse to be 
washed in the font of the Saviour ; in vain do they observe 
the washing of their vessels, who neglect to wash away the 
filthy sins of their bodies and of their hearts. It goes on: 
Then the Scribes and Pharisees asked him, Why walk not 
thy disciples after the tradition of the elders, but eat bread 
Hier. m w ^ 1 comm °n hands? Jerome; Wonderful is the folly of 
Matt, the Pharisees and Scribes; they accuse the Son of God, 
because He keeps not the traditions and precepts of men. 
But common is here put for unclean ; for the people of the 
Jews, boasting that they were the portion of God, called 
those meats common, which all made use of. Pseudo-Jerome; 
He beats back the vain words of the Pharisees with His argu- 
ments, as men drive back dogs with weapons, by interpreting 
Moses and Isaiah, that we too by the word of Scripture may 
conquer the heretics, who oppose us; wherefore it goes on: 
Tsa.29 Well hath Esaias prophesied of you hypocrites ; as it is 
13. written, TJiis people honoureth me with their lips, but their 
Vict heart is far from me. Pseudo-Chrys. For since they unjustly 
Ant. e accused the disciples not of transgressing the law, but the 
Marc. D commands of the elders, He sharply confounds them, calling 
them hypocrites, as looking with reverence upon what 
was not worthy of it. He adds, however, the words of Isaiah 
the prophet, as spoken of them; as though He would say, 
As those men, of whom it is said, that they honour God with 
their lips, whilst their heart is far from him, in vain pretend 
to observe the dictates of piety, whilst they honour the 
doctrines of men, so ye also neglect your soul, of which ye 



VER. 1 — 13. ST. MARK. 183 

should take care, and blame those who live justly. Pseudo- 
Jerome ; But Pharisaical tradition, as to tables and vessels, is 
to be cut off, and cast away. For they often make the com- 
mands of God yield to the traditions of men; wherefore it 
continues, For laying aside the commandments of God, ye hold 
to the traditions of men, as the washing of pots and. cups. 
Pseudo-Chrys. Moreover, to convict them of neglecting the Vict, 
reverence due to God, for the sake of the tradition of the elders, c"t.'in 
which was opposed to the Holy Scriptures, He subjoins, Forgave. 
Moses said, Honour thy father and thy mother ; and, Whoso 21, if. 
curseth father or mother, let him die the death. Bede ; The Bede 
sense of the word honour in Scripture is not so much the sa- u * sup * 
luting and paying court to men, as alms-giving, and bestowing 
gifts ; honour, says the Apostle, widows who are widoivs indeed. 1 Tim. 
Pseudo-Chrys. Notwithstanding the existence of such a vj c i. 
divine law, and the * threats against such as break it, ye lightly ^ nt *. e 
transgress the commandment of God, observing the traditions Marc, 
of the Elders. Wherefore there follows, But ye say, If a man a a ™ x, [ f 
shall say to his father or mother, It is Corban, that is to say, 
a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; under- 
stand, he will be freed from the observation of the foregoing 
command. Wherefore it continues, And ye suffer him no 
more to do ought for his father or his mother. Theophyl. 
For the Pharisees, wishing to devour the offerings, instructed 
sons, when their parents asked for some of their property, to 
answer them, what thou hast asked of me is corban, that is, a 
gift, I have already offered it up to the Lord; thus the 
parents would not require it, as being offered up to the 
Lord, z (and in that way profitable for their own salvation). 
Thus they deceived the sons into neglecting their parents, 
whilst they themselves devoured the offerings; with this 
therefore the Lord reproaches them, as transgressing the 
law of God for the sake of gain. Wherefore it goes 
on, Making the word of God of none effect through your 
traditions, which ye have delivered: and many such like 
things do ye; transgressing, that is, the commands of God, 
that ye may observe the traditions of men. Pseudo-Chrys. Vict. 
Or else it may be said, that the Pharisees taught young persons, ^ n t t# . e 
that if a man offered a gift in expiation of the injury done to his Marc, 

1 The words in the parenthesis are not in Theophylact. 



134 (jOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VII. 

father or mother, he was free from sin, as having given to 
God the gifts which are owed to a parent; and in saying 
Bede this, they did not allow parents to be honoured. Bede ; 
v. Hier. The passage may in a few words have this sense, Every gift 
in Matt. wn i c h. T have to make, will go to do you good; for ye compel 
Orig.in children, it is meant, to say to their parents, that gift which I 
Tom." was going to offer to God, I expend on feeding you, and 
xi - 9. does you good, oh father and mother, speaking this iron- 
ically. Thus they would be afraid to accept what had been 
given into the hands of God, and might prefer a life of 
poverty to living on consecrated property. Pseudo-Jerome; 
Mystically, again, the disciples eating with unwashed hands 
signifies the future fellowship of the Gentiles with the 
Apostles. The cleansing and washing of the Pharisees is 
barren ; but the fellowship of the Apostles, though without 
washing, has stretched out its branches as far as the sea. 

14. And when he had called all the people unto 
him, he said unto them, Hearken unto me every one 
of you, and understand : 

15. There is nothing from without a man, that 
entering into him can defile him : but the things 
which come out of him, those are they that defile the 
man. 

16. If any man have ears to hear, let him hear. 

17. And when he was entered into the house from 
the people, his disciples asked him concerning the 
parable. 

18. And he saith unto them, Are ye so without 
understanding also ? Do ye not perceive, that what- 
soever thing from without entereth into the man, it 
cannot defile him ; 

19. Because it entereth not into his heart, but into 
the belly, and goeth out into the draught, purging all 
meats ? 

20. And he said, That which cometh out of the 
man, that defileth the man. 



VKR. 14 23. ST. MARK. 135 

21. For from within, out of the heart of men, 
proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, mur- 
ders, 

22. Thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, las- 
civiousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness: 

23. All these evil things come from within, and 
defile the man. 

Pseudo-Chrys. The Jews regard and murmur about only Vict. 
the bodily purification of the law; our Lord wishes to bring in c ^'£ 
the contrary. Wherefore it is said, And when he had called Marc. 
all the people unto him, he said unto them, Hearken unto 
me every one, and understand ; there is nothing from without 
a man, that entering into him can defile him, but the things 
which come out of a man, those are they whicli defile a man ; 
that is, which make him unclean. The things of Christ 
have relation to the inner man, but those which are of 
the law are visible and external, to which, as being- 
bodily, the cross of Christ was shortly to put an end. 
Theophyl. But the intention of the Lord in saying this 
was to teach men, that the observing of meats, which 
the law commands, should not be taken in a carnal 
sense, and from this He began to unfold to them the 
intent of the law. Pseudo-Chrys. Again He subjoins, If any y\ c l 
man have ears to hear, let him hear. For He had not clearly ^ nt - . e 
shewn them, what those things are which proceed out of a Marc, 
man, and defile a man ; and on account of this saying, the 
Apostles thought that the foregoing discourse of the Lord 
implied some other deep thing; wherefore there follows: 
And when he was entered into the house from the people, 
his disciples asked him concerning the parable; they 
called it parable, because it was not clear. Theophyl. The 
Lord begins by chiding them, wherefore there follows, Are 
ye so without understanding also ? Bede ; For that man is a Bede 
faulty hearer who considers what is obscure to be a clear ubl sup * 
speech, or what is clear to be obscurely spoken. The- 
ophyl. Then the Lord shews them what was hidden, saying, 
Do ye not perceive, that whatsoever thing from without 
entereth into the man, it cannot make him common? Bede ; Bede 

ubi sup. 



136 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VII. 

For the Jews, boasting themselves to be the portion of God, 
call common those meats which all men use, as shellfish, hares, 
and animals of that sort. Not even however what is offered 
to idols is unclean, in as far as it is food and God's creature ; 
it is the invocation of devils which makes it unclean ; and 
He adds the cause of it, saying, Because it eniereth not into 
his heart. The principal seat of the soul according to Plato 
is the brain, but according to Christ, it is in the heart. Gloss. 8 
It says therefore into his heart, that is, into his mind, which 
is the principal part of his soul, on which his whole life de- 
pends; wherefore it is necessary, that according to the state 
of his heart a man should be called clean or unclean, and thus 
whatsoever does not reach the soul, cannot bring pollution to 
the man. Meats therefore, since they do not reach the soul, 
cannot in their own nature defile a man ; but an inordinate use 
of meats, which proceeds from a want of order in the mind, 
makes men unclean. But that meats cannot reach the mind, 
He shews by that which He adds, saying, But into the belly, 
and goeth oat into the draught, purging all meats. This how- 
ever He says, without referring to what remains from the food 
in the body, for that which is necessary for the nourishment and 
growth of the body remains. But that which is superfluous 
goes out, and thus as it were purges the nourishment, which 
Aug. remains. Aug. For some things are joined to others in such 

Oiue° Ct * a wa ^ as Dotn to cnan g e ar, d De changed, just as food, losing 
73. its former appearance, is both itself turned into our body, and 
we too are changed, and our strength is refreshed by it. 
b Further, a most subtle liquid, after the food has been prepared 
and digested in our veins, and other arteries, by some hidden 
channels, called from a Greek word, pores, passes through us, 
and goes into the draught. Bede ; Thus then it is not meat 
that makes men unclean, but wickedness, which works in us 



a It is probable that most, if not all not in St. Augustine, but in Bede, who 

the Glosses which cannot be found, are took them originally from St. Jerome's 

from St. Thomas himself, and this one Commentary on Matthew, from whence 

is especially like his language, as may most of Bede's remarks on this passage 

be seen by referring to Summa, 2, 2. are taken word for word. As the sen- 

Qu. 148. Art. 1. and 1. Qu. 119. Art. 1. tence marked Bede is not found in him, 

in both of which places also he quotes it probably belongs to the Gloss, and 

♦ he passages in St. Matthew parallel to his name has been transferred from the 

this part of St. Mark. former sentence. 

b The last words of this comment are 



VER. "24 30. ST. MARK. 1-37 

the passions which come from within; wherefore it goes on : 
And he said, That which cometh out of a man, that defileth a 
man. Gloss. The meaning of which He points out, when Gloss. 
He subjoins, for from within i, out of the heart of men, proceed* 011 occ " 
evil thoughts. And thus it appears that evil thoughts belong 
to the mind, which is here called the heart, and according to 
which a man is called good or bad, clean or unclean. BEDE;Bede 
From this passage are condemned those men who suppose" lsup# 
that thoughts are put into them by the devil, and do not 
arise from their own evil will. The devil may excite and 
help on evil thoughts, he cannot be their author. Gloss, non in 
From evil thoughts, however, evil actions proceed to greater f£ s *' 
lengths, concerning which it is added, adulteries, that is, actsde Lyra 
which consist in the violation of another man's bed ; fornica- 1 
lions, which are unlawful connexions between persons, not 
bound by marriage; murders, by which hurt is inflicted on the 
person of one's neighbour; thefts, by which his goods are 
taken from him : covetousness, by which things are unjustly 
kept; wickedness, which consists in calumniating others; 
deceit, in overreaching them ; lasciviousness, to which belongs 
any corruption of mind or body. Theophyl. An evil eye, 
that is, hatred and flattery, for he who hates turns an evil and 
envious eye on him whom he hates, and a flatterer, looking 
askance at his neighbour's goods, leads him into evil ; blas- 
phemies, that is, faults committed against God ; pride, that is, 
contempt of God, when a man ascribes the good, which he 
does, not to God, but to his own virtue; foolishness, that is, an 
injury against one's neighbour. Gloss. Or, foolishness con- Gloss, 
sists in wrong thoughts concerning God ; for it is opposed to no " occ « 
wisdom, which is the knowledge of divine things. It goesSumma 
on, All these evil things come from ivithin, and defile thc^'Q"' 
man. For whatsoever is in the power of a man, is imputed 1,2. Qu. 
to him as a fault, because all such things proceed from the ' 
interior will, by which man is master of his own actions. 



24. And from thence he arose, and went into the 
borders of Tyre and Sidon, and entered into an house, 
and would have no man know it : but he could not 
be hid. 



138 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VII. 

25. For a certain woman, whose young daughter 
had an unclean spirit, heard of him, and came and 
fell at his feet : 

26. The woman was a Greek, a Syrophenician by 
nation; and she besought him that he would cast 
forth the devil out of her daughter. 

27. But Jesus said unto her, Let the children first 
be filled : for it is not meet to take the children's 
bread, and to cast it unto the dogs. 

28. And she answered and said unto him, Yes, 
Lord : yet the dogs under the table eat of the chil- 
dren's crumbs. 

29. And he said unto her, For this saying go thy 
way ; the devil is gone out of thy daughter. 

30. And when she was come to her house, she 
found the devil gone out, and her daughter laid upon 
the bed. 



Theophyl. After that the Lord had finished His teaching 
concerning food, seeing that the Jews were incredulous, He 
enters into the country of the Gentiles, for the Jews being 
unfaithful, salvation turns itself to the G entiles ; wherefore it 
is said, And from thence he arose, and went into the borders 
Vict, of Tyre and Sidon. Pseudo-Chrys. Tyre and Sidon were 
Cat in pl aces °f the Canaanites, therefore the Lord comes to them, 
Marc, not as to His own, but as to men, who had nothing in com- 
mon with the fathers to whom the promise was made. And 
therefore He comes in such a way, that His coming should not 
be known to the Tyrians and Sidonians. Wherefore it con- 
tinues : And entered into a house, and would have no man know 
it. For the time had not come for His dwelling with the Gen- 
tiles and bringing them to the faith, for this was not to be, till 
after His cross and resurrection. Theophyl. Or else His 
Pseudo- reason for coming in secret was that the Jews should not find 
Q Ug ' t occasion of blame against Him, as if He had passed over to 
e Vet. the unclean Gentiles. It goes on, But he could not he hid. 
T est .°j7 t Pseudo- Aug. But if He wished to do so and could not, it ap- 



VER. 24, 30. ST. MARK. 139 

pears as if His will was impotent ; it is not possible however 
that our Saviour's will should not be fulfilled, nor can He will 
a thing, which He knows ought not be. Therefore when a thing 
has taken place, it may be asserted that He has willed it. But 
we should observe that this happened amongst the Gentiles, 
to whom it was not time to preach ; nevertheless not to receive 
them, when they came to the faith of their own accord, would 
have been to grudge them the faith. So then it came to pass 
that the Lord was not made known by His disciples; others, 
however, who had seen Him entering the house, recognised 
Him, and it began to be known that He was there. His will 
therefore was that He should not be proclaimed by His own 
disciples, but that others should come to seek Him, and so it 
took place. Bede ; Having entered also into the house, He Bede in 
commanded His disciples not to betray who He was to any one 2 g™ ' 
in this unknown region, that they, on whom He had bestowed 
the grace of healing, might learn by His example, as far as 
they could, to shrink from the glory of human praise in the 
shewing forth of their miracles ; yet they were not to cease 
from the pious work of virtue, when either the faith of the 
good justly deserved that miracles should be done, or the un- 
faithfulness of the wicked might necessarily compel them. 
For He Himself made known His entry into that place to the 
Gentile woman, and to whomsoever He would. Pseudo-Aug. p se udo- 
Lastly, the Canaanitish woman came in to Him, on hearing A ^S- 
of Him; if she had not first submitted herself to the God of 
the Jews, she would not have obtained their benefit. Con- 
cerning her it continues : For a woman, whose daughter had an 
unclean spirit, as soon as she had heard of him, came in and 
fell at his feet. Pseudo-Chrys. Now by this the Lord wished vict. 
to shew His disciples that He opened the door of faith even to £ nti . e 

_ *_/ sit* l n 

the Gentiles, wherefore also the nation of the woman is Marc, 
described when it is added, The woman was a Gentile, a 
Syrophenician by nation, that is, from Syria of Phaenice. 
It goes on : And she besought him that he would cast forth 
the devil out of her daughter. Aug. It appears however Aug. 
that some question about a discrepancy may be raised, be- Evan"' 
cause it is said that the Lord was in the house when the 2, 49. 
woman came to her, asking about her daughter. When, how- 
ever, Matthew says that His disciples had suggested to Him, 



140 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VII. 

Matt. Send her away, for she crieth after us, he appears to imply 
' * nothing less than that the woman uttered supplicating cries 
after the Lord, as He walked. How then do we infer that 
she was in the house, except by gathering it from Mark, who 
says that she came in to Jesus, after having before said that 
He was in the house ? But Matthew in that he says, He 
answered her not a word, gave us to understand that He went 
out, during that silence, from the house ; thus too the other 
events are connected together, so that they now in no way dis- 
agree. It continues ; But he said unto her, Let the children 
Bede be first filled. Bede; The time will come when even you 
u lsup * who are Gentiles will obtain salvation; but it is right that 
first the Jews who deservedly are wont to be called by the 
name of children of God's ancient election, should be 
refreshed with heavenly bread, and that so at length, the food 
of life should be ministered to the Gentiles. There follows : 
For it is not meet to take the children } s bread, and to cast it 
Vict, to the dogs. Pseudo-Chrys. These words He uttered not that 
£ nt - f there is in Him a deficiency of virtue, to prevent His ministering 
Marc, to all, but because His benefit, if ministered to both Jews and 
Gentiles who had no communication with each other, might be 
a cause of jealousy. Theophyl. He calls the Gentiles dogs, 
as being thought wicked by the Jews; and He means by 
bread, the benefit which the Lord promised to the children, 
that is, to the Jews. The sense therefore is, that it is not 
right for the Gentiles first to be partakers of the benefit, 
promised principally to the Jews. The reason, therefore, why 
the Lord does not immediately hear, but delays His grace, is, 
that He may also shew that the faith of the woman was firm, 
and that we may learn not at once to grow weary in prayer, 
Vict, but to continue earnest till we obtain. Pseudo-Chrys. In 
^ n . t * . e like manner also to shew the Jews that He did not confer heal- 

Cat. in 

Marc, ing on foreigners in the same degree as to them, and that by the 
discovery of the woman's faith, the unfaithfulness of the Jews 
might be the more laid bare. For the woman did not take it 
ill, but with much reverence assented to what the Lord had 
said. Wherefore it goes on, And she answered and said unto 
him, Truth, Lord, but the dogs under the table eat of the 
children' 's crumbs. Theophyl. As if she had said, The Jews 
have the whole of that broad which comes down from heaven. 



VKR. 31 — 37. ST. MARK. 141 

and Thy benefits also ; I ask for the crumbs, that is, a 
small portion of the benefit. Pseudo-Chrys. Her placing Vict, 
herself therefore in the rank of dogs is a mark of herc"t.in 
reverence; as if she said, I hold it as a favour to be even in Marc. 
the position of a dog, and to eat not from another table, but 
from that of the Master himself. Theophyl. Because there- 
fore the woman answered with much wisdom, she obtained 
what she wanted; wherefore there follows, And he said unto 
her, fyc. He said not, My virtue hath made thee whole, but 
for this saying, that is, for thy faith, which is shewn by this 
saying, go thy way, the devil is gone out of thy daughter. It 
goes on, And when she was come into her house, she found 
her daughter laid upon the bed, and the devil gone out. 
Bede ; On account then of the humble and faithful saying of Bede 
her mother, the devil left the daughter; here is given a pre- u lsup * 
cedent for catechising and baptizing infants, seeing that by 
the faith and the confession of the parents, infants are freed 
in baptism from the devil, though they can neither have 
knowledge in themselves, or do either good or evil. Pseudo- 
Jerome ; Mystically however the Gentile woman, who prays 
for her daughter, is our mother the Church of Rome. Her 
daughter afflicted with a devil, is the barbarian western race, 
which by faith hath been turned from a dog into a sheep. She 
desires to take the crumbs of spiritual understanding, not the 
unbroken bread of the letter. Theophyl. The soul of each 
of us also, when he falls into sin, becomes a woman; and 
this soul has a daughter who is sick, that is, evil actions; this 
daughter again has a devil, for evil actions arise from devils. 
Again, sinners are called dogs, being filled with unclean- 
ness. For which reason we are not worthy to receive the 
bread of God, or to be made partakers of the immaculate mys- 
teries of God; if however in humility, knowing ourselves to 
be dogs, we confess our sins, then the daughter, that is, our 
evil life, shall be healed. 

31. And again, departing from the coasts of Tyre 
and Sidon, he came unto the sea of Galilee, through 
the midst of the coasts of Decapolis. 

32. And they bring unto him one that was deaf, 



142 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VII. 

and had an impediment in his speech ; and they 
beseech him to put his hand upon him. 

33. And he took him aside from the multitude, 
and put his fingers into his ears, and he spit, and 
touched his tongue ; 

34. And looking up to heaven, he sighed, and 
saith unto him, Ephphatha, that is, Be opened. 

35. And straightway his ears were opened, and the 
string of his tongue was loosed, and he spake plain. 

36. And he charged them that they should tell no 
man : but the more he charged them, so much the 
more a great deal they published it ; 

37. And were beyond measure astonished, saying, 
He hath done all things well : he maketh both the 
deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak. 

Theophyl. The Lord did not wish to stay in the parts of 
the Gentiles, lest He should give the Jews occasion to say, 
that they esteemed Him a transgressor of the law, because He 
held communion with the Gentiles, and therefore He immedi- 
ately returns ; wherefore it is said, And again departing from 
the coasts of Tyre, he came through Sidon, to the sea of 
Bede in Galilee, through the midst of the borders of Decapolis. Bede ; 

IVlarc. 

2 3i. Decapolis is a region of ten cities, across the Jordan, to the 
east, over against Galilee . When therefore it is said that the 
Lord came to the sea of Galilee, through the midst of the 
borders of Decapolis, it does not mean that He entered the 
confines of Decapolis themselves; for He is not said to have 
crossed the sea, but rather to have come to the borders 
of the sea, and to have reached quite up to the place, 
which was opposite to the midst of the coasts of Decapolis, 
which were situated at a distance across the sea. It goes on, 
And they bring him one that was deaf and dumb, and they 
besought him to lay hands upon him. Theophyl. Which 
is rightly placed after the deliverance of one possessed with a 

c It appears, however, from Beland, Scythopolis, was on this side Jordan, 
Palses. vol. i. p. 198. that a portion of and therefore this text of St. Mark 
Decapolis, including its metropolis, may be taken literally. 



VER. 31 — 37. ST. MARK. 143 

devil, for such an instance of suffering came from the devil. 
There follows, And he took him aside from the multitude, 
and 'put his fingers into his ears. Pseudo-Chrys. He takes Vict, 
the deaf and dumb man who was brought to Him apart from Cat. in 
the crowd, that He might not do His divine miracles openly ; Mare, 
teaching us to cast away vain glory and swelling of heart, for 
no one can work miracles as he can, who loves humility and 
is lowly in his conduct. But He puts His fingers into his 
ears, when He might have cured him with a word, to shew 
that His body, being united to Deity, was consecrated by 
Divine virtue, with all that He did. For since on account of 
the transgression of Adam, human nature had incurred much 
suffering and hurt in its members and senses, Christ coming 
into the world shewed the perfection of human nature in 
Himself, and on this account opened ears with His fingers, 
and gave the power of speech by His spittle. Wherefore it 
goes on, And spit, and touched his tongue. Theophyl. That 
He might shew that all the members of His sacred body are 
divine and holy, even the spittle which loosed the string of 
the tongue. For the spittle is only the superfluous moisture 
of the body, but in the Lord all things are divine. It goes 
on, And looking up to heaven, lie groaned, andsaith unto him, 
Ephphatha, that is, Be opened. Bede ; He looked up toBede 
heaven, that He might teach us that thence is to be procured" up ' 
speech for the dumb, hearing for the deaf, health for all who 
are sick. And He sighed, not that it was necessary for Him 
to beg any thing from His Father with groaning, for He, 
together with the Father, gives all things to them who ask, 
but that He might give us an example of sighing, when for 
our own errors and those of our neighbours, w r e invoke the 
guardianship of the Divine mercy. Pseudo-Chrys. He at the Vict, 
same time also groaned, as taking our cause upon Himself, ^ nt * e 
and pitying human nature, seeing the misery into which it Marc, 
had fallen. Bede; But that which He says, Ephphatha, Bete 
that is, Be opened, belongs properly to the ears, for the ublsup * 
ears are to be opened for hearing, but the tongue to be 
loosed from the bonds of its impediment, that it may be able 
to speak. Wherefore it goes on, And straightway his ears 
were opened, and the string of his tongue was loosed, and he 
spake plain. Where each nature of one and the same Christ 



144 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VII. 

is manifestly distinct, looking up indeed into Heaven as man, 
praying unto God, He groaned, but presently with one word, 
as being strong in the Divine Majesty, He healed. It goes on, 
Vict. And he charged them that they should tell no man. Pseudo- 
Cat. in Chrys. By which He has taught us not to boast in our powers, 
Marc, Du j. m ^ e cross an( j humiliation. He also bade them conceal 
the miracle, lest He should excite the Jews by envy to kill Him 
before the time. Pseudo-Jerome; A city, however, placed on 
a hill cannot be hid, and lowliness always comes before glory. 
Wherefore it goes on, But the more he charged them, so 
much the more a great deal they published it. Theophyl. 
By this we are taught, when we confer benefits on any, by no 
means to seek for applause and praise ; but when we have 
received benefits, to proclaim and praise our benefactors, 
ap.Aug. even though they be unwilling. Aug. If however He, as 
ped apf one Who knew the present and the future wills of men, knew 
Bed. that they would proclaim Him the more in proportion as He 
' forbade them, why did He give them this command? If 
it were not that He wished to prove to men who are idle, 
how much more joyfully, with how much greater obedience, 
they whom He commands to proclaim Him should preach, 
when they who were forbidden could not hold their peace. 
Gloss. Gloss. From the preaching however of those who were 
'healed by Christ, the wonder of the multitude, and their 
praise of the benefits of Christ, increased. Wherefore it goes 
on, And they were beyond measure astonished, saying, He 
hath done all things well; he maketh the deaf to hear, and the 
dumb to speak. Pseudo-Jerome ; Mystically, Tyre is inter- 
preted narrowness, and signifies Judaea, to which the Lord said, 
v. Isa. " For the bed is grown too narrow," and from which he turns 

28 20 

himself to the Gentiles. Sidon means ' hunting,' for our race 
is like an untamed beast, and ' sea,' which means a wavering 
inconstancy. Again, the Saviour comes to save the Gentiles in 
the midst of the coasts of Decapolis, which may be interpreted, 
as the commands of the Decalogue. Further, the human 
race throughout its many members is reckoned as one man, 
eaten up by varying pestilence, in the first created man ; it is 
blinded, that is, its eye is evil ; it becomes deaf, when it listens 
to, and dumb when it speaks, evil. And they prayed Him 
to lay His hand upon him, because many just men, and 



VER. 31 — 37. ST. MARK. 145 

patriarchs, wished and longed for the time when the Lord 
should come in the flesh. Bede ; Or he is deaf and dumb, Bede 
who neither has ears to hear the words of God, nor opens his up ' 
mouth to speak them, and such must be presented to the Lord 
for healing, by men who have already learned to hear and speak 
the divine oracles. Pseudo-Jerome ; Further, he who obtains 
healing is always drawn aside from turbulent thoughts, disorderly 
actions, and incoherent speeches. And the fingers which are put 
into the ears are the words and the gifts of the Holy Ghost, of 
whom it is said, This is the finger of God. The spittle is Exod. 8, 
heavenly wisdom, which loosens the sealed lips of the human Cf * Mat 
race, so that it can say, I believe in God, the Father Almighty, !2, 20. 
and the rest of the Creed. And looking up to heaven, he\\ 20. 
groaned, that is, He taught us to groan, and to raise up the 
treasures of our hearts to the heavens ; because by the groan- 
ing of hearty compunction, the silly joy of the flesh is purged 
away. But the ears are opened to hymns, and songs, and 
psalms ; and He looses the tongue, that it may pour forth 
the good word, which neither threats nor stripes can restrain. 



VOL. 11. 



CHAP. VIII. 

1. In those days the multitude being very great, 
and having nothing to eat, Jesus called his disciples 
unto him, and saith unto them, 

2. I have compassion on the multitude, because 
they have now been with me three days, and have 
nothing to eat : 

3. And if I send them away fasting to their own 
houses, they will faint by the way : for divers of them 
came from far. 

4. And his disciples answered him, From whence 
can a man satisfy these men with bread here in the 
wilderness. 

5. And he asked them, How many loaves have ye ? 
And they said, Seven. 

6. And he commanded the people to sit down on 
the ground : and he took the seven loaves, and gave 
thanks, and brake, and gave to his disciples to set 
before them ; and they did set them before the 
people. 

7. And they had a few small fishes : and he blessed, 
and commanded to set them also before them. 

8. So they did eat, and were filled : and they took 
up of the broken meat that was left seven baskets. 

9. And they that had eaten were about four 
thousand : and he sent them away. 

Theophyl. After the Lord had performed the former 
miracle concerning the multiplication of the loaves, now 
again, a fitting occasion presents itself, and He takes the 
opportunity of working a similar miracle ; wherefore it is said, 



VER. 1 — 9. GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. 147 

In those days, the multitude being very great, and having 
nothing to eat, Jesus called his disciples unto him, and 
saith unto them, I have compassion on the multitude, be- 
cause they have now been with me three days, and have 
nothing to eat. For He did not always work miracles con- 
cerning the feeding of the multitude, lest they should follow 
Him for the sake of food ; now therefore He would not have 
performed this miracle, if He had not seen that the multitude 
w T as in danger. Wherefore it goes on : And if I send 
them away fasting to their own houses, they will faint by 
the way: for divers of them came from far. Bede; WhyBedein 
they who came from afar hold out for three days, Matthew 2 32°. 
says more fully: And he went up into a mountain, and v . Matt. 
sat down there, and great multitudes came unto him, 15} 29, 
having with them many sick persons, and cast them 
down at Jesus' feet, and he healed them. Theophyl. The 
disciples did not yet understand, nor did they believe in His 
virtue, notwithstanding former miracles; wherefore it con- 
tinues, And his disciples said unto him, From whence can 
a man satisfy these men with bread here in the wilderness ? 
But the Lord Himself does not blame them, teaching us that 
we should not be grievously angry with ignorant men and 
those who do not understand, but bear with their ignorance. 
After this it continues, And he asked them, How many loaves 
have ye? and they answered, Seven. Remig. Ignorance 
was not His reason for asking them, but that from their 
answering seven, the miracle might be noised abroad, and 
become more known in proportion to the smallness of the 
number. It goes on : And he commanded the people to sit 
down on the ground. In the former feeding they lay down 
on grass, in this one on the ground. It continues, And he 
took the seven loaves, and gave thanks, and brake. In giving 
thanks, He has left us an example, that for all gifts conferred 
on us from heaven we should return thanks to Him. And it 
is to be remarked, that our Lord did not give the bread to 
the people, but to His disciples, and the disciples to the people ; 
for it goes on, and gave to his disciples to set before them; 
and they did set them before the people. And not only the 
bread, but the fish also He blessed, and ordered to be set before 
them. For there comes after, And they had a few small fishes : 

l 2 



148 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VII f. 

and he blessed, and commanded to set them also before them. 
Bede Bede; In this passage then we should notice, in one and the 
same, our Redeemer, a distinct operation of Divinity and of 
i i. e . Manhood ; thus the error of Eutyches 1 , who presumes to 
noth^° ^ d° wn ^ ne doctrine of one only operation in Christ, is to be 
lites cast out far from the Christian pale. For who does not here 
see that the pity of our Lord for the multitude is the feeling 
and sympathy of humanity; and that at the same time His 
satisfying four thousand men with seven loaves and a few 
fishes, is a work of Divine virtue ? It goes on, And they took 
up of the broken meat that was left seven baskets. Theo- 
phyl. The multitudes who ate and were filled did not take 
with them the remains of the loaves, but the disciples took 
them up, as they did before the baskets. In which we learn 
according to the narration, that we should be content with 
what is sufficient, and not look for any thing beyond. 
The number of those who ate is put down, when it is said, 
And they that had eaten were about four thousand : and he 
sent them away ; where we may see that Christ sends no 
one away fasting, for He wishes all to be nourished by His 
Bede grace. Bede; The typical difference between this feeding 
ubi sup. an( j foe other of the five loaves and two fishes, is, that there the 
letter of the Old Testament, full of spiritual grace, is signified, 
but here the truth and grace of the New Testament, which is to 
be ministered to all the faithful, is pointed out. Now the multi- 
tude remains three days, waiting for the Lord to heal their 
sick, as Matthew relates, when the elect, in the faith of the 
Holy Trinity, supplicate for sins, with persevering earnest- 
ness ; or because they turn themselves to the Lord in deed, 
in word, and in thought. Theophyl. Or by those who wait 
for three days, He means the baptized ; for baptism is called 
Greg, illumination, and is performed by trine immersion. Greg. 
19 ° r ' ' He does not however wish to dismiss them fasting, lest they 
should faint by the way; for it is necessary that men should 
find in what is preached the word of consolation, lest hun- 
gering through want of the food of truth, they sink under 
Ambr. the toil of this life. Ambrose; The good Lord indeed 
g n i, 11c ' whilst He requires diligence, gives strength; nor will He dis- 
miss them fasting, lest they faint by the way, that is, either in 
the course of this life, or before thev have reached the fountain- 



VER. 1 — 0. ST. MARK. 149 

head of life, that is, the Father, and have learnt that Christ is 
of the Father, lest haply, after receiving that He is born of a 
virgin, they begin to esteem His virtue not that of God, but 
of a man. Therefore the Lord Jesus divides the food, and His 
will indeed is to give to all, to deny none; He is the Dis- 
penser of all things, but if thou refusest to stretch forth 
thy hand to receive the food, thou wilt faint by the way, nor 
canst thou find fault with Him, who pities and divides. 
Bede; But they who return to repentance after the crimes Bede 
of the flesh, after thefts, violence, and murders, come to ublsu P- 
the Lord from afar; for in proportion as a man has wandered 
farther in evil working, so he has wandered farther from 
Almighty God. The believers amongst the Gentiles came 
from afar to Christ, but the Jews from near, for they had been 
taught concerning Him by the letter of the law and the 
prophets. In the former case, however, of the feeding with 
five loaves, the multitude lay upon the green grass; here, 
however, upon the ground, because by the writing of the 
law, we are ordered to keep under the desires of the flesh, 
but in the New Testament we are ordered to leave even the earth 
itself and our temporal goods. Theophyl. Further, the 
seven loaves are spiritual discourses, for seven is the number, 
which points out the Holy Ghost, who perfects all things; 
for our life is perfected in the number of seven days d . 
Pseudo-Jerome ; Or else, the seven loaves are the gifts of 
the Holy Spirit, the fragments of the loaves are the mystical 
understanding of the * first week. Bede ; For our Lord's break- 1 1)r j mse 
ing the bread means the opening of mysteries; His giving of a P- 
thanks shews how great a joy He feels in the salvation of theHier. 
human race ; His giving the loaves to His disciples that they B , e . de 
might set them before the people, signifies that He assigns 
the spiritual gifts of knowledge to the Apostles, and that it 
was His will that by their ministry the food of life should be 
distributed to the Church. Pseudo-Jerome ; The small fishes 
blessed are the books of the New Testament, for our Lord 
when risen asks for a piece of broiled fish ; l or else in these , Bed 

nbi sup. 
d The number seven seems to be in Luc. 7, 95. Theophylact here alludes 
taken in the Fathers to mean a whole, to the seven ages of man's life ; a very 
from the world having been completed similar passage is found in St. Ambrose's 
in seven days ; and St. Ambrose lays 44th Letter, where the whole subject is 
it down as a principle of interpretation, discussed. 



150 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VIII. 

little fishes, we receive the saints, seeing that in the Scriptures 
of the New Testament are contained the faith, life, and suffer- 
ings of them who, snatched away from the troubled waves of 
this world, have given us by their example spiritual refresh- 
Bede ment. Bede ; Again, what was over and above, after the 
SU P« mu ititude was refreshed, the Apostles take up, because the 
higher precepts of perfection, to which the multitude cannot 
attain, belong to those whose life transcends that of the 
generality of the people of God; nevertheless, the multitude is 
said to have been satisfied, because though they cannot leave 
all that they possess, nor come up to that which is spoken 
of virgins, yet by listening to the commands of the law of 
God, they attain to everlasting life. Pseudo-Jerome; Again, 
the seven baskets are the seven Churches. By the four thousand 
is meant the year of the new dispensation, with its four seasons. 
Fitly also are there four thousand, that in the number itself 
it might be taught us that they were filled with the food of the 
Gospel. Theophyl. Or there are four thousand, that is, men 
perfect in the four virtues ; and for this reason, as being more 
advanced, they ate more, and left fewer fragments. For in this 
miracle, seven baskets full remain, but in the miracle of the five 
loaves, twelve, for there were five thousand men, which means 
men enslaved to the five senses, and for this reason they could 
not eat, but were satisfied with little, and many remains of 
the fragments were over and above. 

10. And straightway he entered into a ship with 
his disciples, and came into the parts of Dalmanutha. 

11. And the Pharisees came forth, and began to 
question with him, seeking of him a sign from heaven, 
tempting him. 

12. And he sighed deeply in his spirit, and saith, 
Why doth this generation seek after a sign ? verily I 
say unto you, There shall no sign be given unto this 
generation. 

13. And he left them, and entering into the ship 
again departed to the other side. 

14. Now the disciples had forgotten to take bread, 



VER. 10 21. ST. MARK. 151 

neither had they in the ship with them more than one 
loaf. 

15. And he charged them, saying, Take heed, 
beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, and of the 
leaven of Herod. 

16. And they reasoned among themselves, saying, 
It is because we have no bread. 

17. And when Jesus knew it, he saith unto them, 
Why reason ye, because ye have no bread ? perceive 
ye not yet, neither understand ? have ye your heart 
yet hardened ? 

18. Having eyes, see ye not? and having ears, 
hear ye not ? and do ye not remember ? 

19. When I brake the five loaves among five 
thousand, how many baskets full of fragments took 
ye up ? They say unto him, Twelve. 

20. And when the seven among four thousand, how 
many baskets full of fragments took ye up ? And 
they said, Seven. 

21. And he said unto them, How is it that ye do 
not understand ? 

Theophyl. After that our Lord had worked the miracle of 
the loaves, He immediately retires into another spot, lest on 
account of the miracle, the multitudes should take Him to 
make Him a king ; wherefore it is said, And straightway he 
entered into a ship with his disciples, and came into the 
parts of Dalmanutha . Aug. Now in Matthew we read that Aug. de 
He entered into the parts of Magdala 1 . But we cannot doubt £° n * 
that it is the same place under another name; for several 51. 
manuscripts even of St. Mark have only Magdala. It d^^uf " 
goes on, And the Pharisees came forth, and began to question textu 
with him, seeking of him a sign from heaven, tempting him. 
Bede ; The Pharisees, then, seek a sign from heaven, thatBedein 
He, Who had for the second time fed many thousands of^ 3*3°' 
men with a few loaves of bread, should now, after the example 
of Moses, refresh the whole nation in the last time with mairiflp* 

BT. MICHAEL'S \ ,__ 



college y^>A 



Ji 



152 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VIII. 

sent down from heaven, and dispersed amongst them all. 
Theophyl. Or they seek for a sign from heaven, that is, they 
wish Him to make the sun and moon stand still, to bring down 
hail, and change the atmosphere ; for they thought that He 
could not perform miracles from heaven, but could only in 
Bede Beelzebub perform a sign on earth. Bede ; When, as related 
up * above, He was about to refresh the believing multitude, 
He gave thanks, so now, on account of the foolish petition of 
the Pharisees, He groans ; because, bearing about with Him 
the feelings of human nature, as He rejoices over the sal- 
vation of men, so He grieves over their errors. Wherefore it 
goes on, And he groaned in spirit, and saith, Why doth this 
generation seek after a sign ? Verily I say unto you, If a 
sign shall be given to this generation. That is, no sign 
Ps. 89, shall be given ; as it is written in the Psalms, / have 
JJj sworn once by my holiness, if I shall fail David, that is, 
ubi sup. I will not fail David. Aug. Let no one, however, be per- 
plexed that the answer which Mark says was given to them, 
when they sought a sign from heaven, is not the same as that 
which Matthew relates, namely, that concerning Jonah. 
He says that the Lord's answer was, that no sign should be 
given to it ; by which we must understand such an one as 
they asked for, that is, one from heaven ; but he has omitted 
to say, what Matthew has related. Theophyl. Now the rea- 
son why the Lord did not listen to them was, that the time of 
signs from heaven had not arrived, that is, the time of the 
second Advent, when the powers of the heaven shall be 
shaken, and the moon shall not give her light. But in the time of 
the first Advent, all things are full of mercy, and such things 
Bede do not take place. Bede ; For a sign from heaven was not to 
1 l sup 'be given to a generation of men, who tempted the Lord ; but to 
a generation of men seeking the Lord, He shews a sign from 
heaven, when in the sight of the Apostles He ascended into 
heaven. It goes on, And he left them, and entering into a 
ship again, he departed to the other side. Theophyl. The 
Lord indeed quits the Pharisees, as men uncorrected ; for 
where there is a hope of correction, there it is right to remain; 
but where the evil is incorrigible, we should go away. There 
follows : Now they had forgotten to take bread, neither had 

Bede they in the ship with them more than one loaf Bede ; 
ubi sup. 



VER. 10 — 21. ST. MARK. 153 

Some may ask, how they had no bread, when they had 
filled seven baskets just before they embarked in the ship. 
But Scripture relates that they had forgotten to take them 
with them, which is a proof how little care they had for the 
flesh in other things, since in their eagerness to follow the 
Lord, even the necessity of refreshing their bodies had escaped 
from their mind. Theoph yl. By a special providence * also the ■ «'*«„ . 
disciples forgot to take bread, that they might be blamed by '"*"* 
Christ, and thus become better, and arrive at a knowledge of 
Christ's power. For it goes on, And he charged them, saying, 
Take heed, and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and 
of the leaven of Herod, Pseudo-Chrys. Matthew says, of the Vict. 
leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees; Luke, however, £°J* j e n 
of the Pharisees only. All three, therefore, name the Pharisees, Marc, 
as being the most important of them, but Matthew and Mark 
have each mentioned one of the secondary sects; and fitly 
has Mark added of Herod, as a supplement to Matthew's nar- 
rative, in which they were left out. But in saying this, He 
by degrees brings the disciples to understanding and faith. 
Theophyl. He means by leaven their hurtful and corrupt 
doctrine, full of the old malice, for the Herodians were the 
teachers, who said that Herod was the Christ. Bede ; Or, Bede 
the leaven of the Pharisees is making the decrees of the U P # 
divine law inferior to the traditions of men, preaching the law 
in word, attacking it in deed, tempting the Lord, and disbe- 
lieving His doctrine and His works ; but the leaven of Herod 
is adultery, murder, rash swearing, a pretence of religion, 
hatred to Christ and His forerunner. Theophyl. But the 
disciples themselves thought that the Lord spoke of the leaven 
of bread. Wherefore it goes on, And they reasoned amongst 
themselves, saying, it is because we have no bread ; and this 
they said,i as not understanding the power of Christ, who 
could make bread out of nothing ; wherefore the Lord reproves 
them; for there follows, And when Jesus knew it, he said 
unto them, Why reason ye because ye have no bread? Bede ; Bede 
Taking occasion then from the precept, which He had com- ubl sup * 
manded, saying, Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of 
the leaven of Herod, our Saviour teaches them what was the 
meaning of the five and the seven loaves, concerning which 
He adds, And do ye not remember, when I brake the five 



154 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VIII. 

loaves amongst five thousand, and how many baskets full of 
fragments ye took up? For if the leaven mentioned above 
means perverse traditions, of course the food, with which 
the people of God was nourished, means the true doc- 
trine. 



22. And he cometh to Bethsaida ; and they bring 
a blind man unto him, and besought him to touch him. 

23. And he took the blind man by the hand, 
and led him out of the town ; and when he had spit 
on his eyes, and put his hands upon him, he asked him 
if he saw ought. 

24. And he looked up, and said, I see men as trees, 
walking. 

25. After that he put his hands again upon his 
eyes, and made him look up : and he was restored, 
and saw every man clearly. 

26. And he sent him away to his house, saying, 
Neither go into the town, nor tell it to any in the 
town. 



Gloss. Gloss. After the feeding of the multitude, the Evangelist 

non occ. . . . _ . . . ' 

proceeds to the giving sight to the blind, saying, And they 

come to Bethsaida, and they bring a blind man to him, and 

Bede in besought him to touch him. Bede ; Knowing that the touch 

2, 34. of the Lord could give sight to a blind man as well as cleanse 

a leper. It goes on, And he took the blind man by the hand, 

and led him out of the town, Theophyl. For Bethsaida 

appears to have been infected with much infidelity, wherefore 

Matt, the Lord reproaches it, Woe to thee, Bethsaida,for if the mighty 

' 2 ' works which were done in you had been done in Tyre and 

Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and 

ashes. He then takes out of the town the blind man, who 

had been brought to Him, for the faith of those who brought 

him was not true faith. It goes on; And when he had spit in 

Vict. ^** ey es > ana * P u t h™ hands upon him, he asked him if he saw 

^ nt \ e ought. Pseudo-Chrys. He spat indeed, and put His hand 

Marc. 



VER. 22 — 26. ST. MARK. 155 

upon the blind man, because He wished to shew that wonderful 
are the effects of the Divine word added to action ; for the 
hand is the symbol of working, but the spittle, of the word 
proceeding out of the mouth. Again He asked him whether 
he could see any thing, which He had not done in the case of 
any whom He had healed, thus shewing that by the weak faith of 
those who brought him, and of the blind man himself, his eyes 
could not altogether be opened. Wherefore there follows : And 
he looked up, and said, I see men as trees walking ; because 
he was still under the influence of unfaithfulness, he said that 
he saw men obscurely. Bede; Seeing indeed the shapes ofBede 
bodies amongst the shadows, but unable to distinguish the u l sup ' 
outlines of the limbs, from the continued darkness of his sight; 
just as trees standing thick together are wont to appear to 
men who see them from afar, or by the dim light of the night, 
so that it cannot easily be known whether they be trees or 
men. Theophyl. But the reason why he did not see at once 
perfectly, but in part, was, that he had not perfect faith ; for 
healing is bestowed in proportion to faith. Pseudo-Chrys. Vict. 
From the commencement, however, of the return of his£ n . t *. e 
senses, He leads him to apprehend things by faith, and Marc, 
thus makes him see perfectly ; wherefore it goes on, After 
that, he put his hands again upon his eyes, and he began to 
see, and afterwards he adds, And he was restored, and saw 
all things clearly; that is, being perfectly healed in his 
senses and his intellect. It goes on : And he sent him away 
to his house, saying, Go into thy home, and if thou enter into 
the town, tell it not to any one. Theophyl. These precepts 
He gave him, because they were unfaithful, as has been said, 
lest perchance he should receive hurt in his soul from them, 
and they by their unbelief should run into a more grievous 
crime. Bede ; Or else, He leaves an example to His dis- Bede 
ciples that they should not seek for popular favour by ublsup * 
the miracles which they did. 1 Mystically, however, 'Pseudo- 
Bethsaida is interpreted ' the house of the valley,' that is, Jerome - 
the world, which is the vale of tears. Again, they bring to the 
Lord a blind man, that is, one who neither sees what he has 
been, what he is, nor what he is to be. They ask Him to 
touch him, for what is being touched, but feeling com- 
punction ? Bede; For the Lord touches us, when He en- Bede 

ubi sup. 



156 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VIII. 

lightens our minds with the breath of His Spirit, and 
He stirs us up that we may recognise our own infirmity, 
and be diligent in good actions. He takes the hand of 
the blind man, that He may strengthen him to the practice 
of good works. Pseudo-Jerome; And He brings him out of 
the town, that is, out of the neighbourhood of the wicked ; and 
He puts spittle into his eyes, that he may see the will of God, 
by the breath of the Holy Ghost; and putting His hands 
upon him, He asked him if he could see, because by the 
Bede works of the Lord His majesty is seen. Bede; Or else, 
ubi sup. p U tting spittle into the eyes of the blind man, he lays His 
hands upon him that he may see, because He has wiped 
away the blindness of the human race both by invisible gifts, 
and by the Sacrament of His assumed humanity ; for the 
spittle, proceeding from the Head, points out the grace of the 
Holy Ghost. But though by one word He could cure the man 
wholly and all at once, still He cures him by degrees, that He 
may shew the greatness of the blindness of man, which can 
hardly, and only as it were step by step, be restored to light; 
and He exhibits to us His grace, by which He furthers each 
step towards perfection. Again, whoever is weighed down by 
a blindness of such long continuance, that he is unable to dis- 
tinguish between good and evil, sees as it were men like trees 
walking, because he sees the deeds of the multitude without 
the light of discretion. Pseudo-Jerome ; Or else, he sees men 
as trees, because he thinks all men higher than himself. But 
He put His hands again upon his eyes, that he might see all 
things clearly, that is, understand invisible things by visible, 
and with the eye of a pure mind contemplate, what the 
eye hath not seen, the glorious state of his own soul after the 
rust of sin. He sent him to his home, that is, to his heart; 
that he might see in himself things which he had not seen 
before; for a man despairing of salvation does not think 
that he can do at all what, when enlightened, he can easily 
accomplish. Theophyl. Or else, after He has healed him He 
sends him to his home ; for the home of every one of us is 
heaven, and the mansions which are there. Pseudo-Jerome ; 
And He says to him, If thou enter into the town, tell it not to 
any one, that is, relate continually to thy neighbours thy blind- 
ness, but never tell them of thy virtue. 



VER. 27 — 83. ST. MARK. 157 

27. And Jesus went out, and his disciples, into the 
towns of Caesarea Philippi : and by the way he asked 
his disciples, saying unto them, Whom do men say 
that I am ? 

28. And they answered, John the Baptist : but 
some say, Elias ; and others, One of the prophets. 

29. And he saith unto them, But whom say ye 
that I am? And Peter answereth and saith unto him, 
Thou art the Christ. 

30. And he charged them that they should tell no 
man of him. 

31. And he began to teach them, that the Son of 
man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the 
elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be 
killed, and after three days rise again. 

32. And he spake that saying openly. And Peter 
took him, and began to rebuke him. 

33. But when he had turned about and looked on 
his disciples, he rebuked Peter, saying, Get thee be- 
hind me, Satan: for thou savourest not the things 
that be of God, but the things that be of men. 

Theophyl. After taking His disciples afar from the Jews, 
He then asks them concerning Himself, that they might 
speak the truth without fear of the Jews; wherefore it is said, 
And Jesus entered, and his disciples, into the towns of 
Cccsarea Philippi. Bede ; Philip was that brother of Herod, ^ede in 
of whom we spoke above, who in honour of Tiberius Caesar Marc. 

2 35. 

called that town, which is now called Paneas, Caesarea ' 
Philippi. It goes on, And by the way he asked his disciples, 
saying unto them, Whom do men say that I am? Pseudo- y ict 
Chrys. He asks the question with a purpose, for it was right Ant - ? 
that His disciples should praise Him better than the crowd. Marc. 
Bede; Wherefore He first asks what is the opinion of Bede 
men, in order to try the faith of the disciples, lest their ubisu P- 
confession should appear to be founded on the common 
opinion. It goes on, And they answered, saying, Some 



158 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VIII. 

say John the Baptist, some JElias, and others, One of the 
prophets. Theophyl. For many thought that John had 
risen from the dead, as even Herod believed, and that he 
had performed miracles after his resurrection. After how- 
ever having enquired into the opinion of others, He asks 
them what was the belief of their own minds on this point; 
wherefore it continues, And he saith unto them, But whom 
Chrys. say ye that I am ? Chrys. From the manner, however, itself 
Mat.54. °^ ^ ne question, He leads them to a higher feeling, and to 
higher thoughts, concerning Him, that they might not agree 
with the multitude. But the next words shew what the 
head of the disciples, the mouth of the Apostles, answered; 
when all were asked, Peter answer eth and saith unto him, 
Thou art the Christ. Theophyl. He confesses indeed that 
He is the Christ announced by the Prophets ; but the 
Evangelist Mark passes over what the Lord answered to 
his confession, and how He blessed him, lest by this way 
of relating it, he should seem to be favouring his master 
Peter; Matthew plainly goes through the whole of it. 
Orig. Origen ; Or else, Mark and Luke, as they wrote that Peter 
Tom* answere d> Thou art the Christ, without adding what is put 
12, 15. down in Matthew, the Son of the living God, so they 
omitted to relate the blessing which was conferred on this con- 
fession. It goes on, And he charged them that they should 
tell no man of him. Theophyl. For He wished in the mean 
time to hide His glory, lest many should be offended because 
Chrys. of Him, and so earn a worse punishment. Chrys. Or else, 
sup ' that He might wait to fix the pure faith in their minds, till 
the Crucifixion, which was an offence to them, was over, for 
after it was once perfected, about the time of His ascension, 
He said unto the Apostles, Go ye and teach all nations. 
Theophyl. But after the Lord had accepted the confession 
of the disciples, who called Him the true God, He then 
reveals to them the mystery of the Cross. Wherefore it goes 
on, And he began to teach them that the Son of man must 
suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and of the 
chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three 
days rise again ; and he spake that saying openly, that is, 
concerning His future passion. But His disciples did not 
understand the order of the truth, neither could they com- 



VER. 34 — 38. ST. MARK. 159 

prehend His resurrection, but thought it better that He 
should not suffer. Chrys. The reason, however, why the Vict. 
Lord told them this, was to shew, that after His cross and £ n . t# e 

\s- tit • i n 

resurrection, Christ must be preached by His witnesses. Marc. 
Again, Peter alone, from the fervour of his disposition, had u' bi JJ^' 
the boldness to dispute about these things. Wherefore it 
goes on, And Pete?* took him up, and began to rebuke him e . 
Bede ; This, however, he speaks with the feelings of a man Bede 
who loves and desires; as if he said, This cannot be, neither chrys P * 
can mine ears receive that the Son of God is to be slain, ubi sup. 
Chrys. But how is this, that Peter, gifted with a revelation 
from the Father, has so soon fallen, and become unstable? 
Surely, however, it was not wonderful that one who had 
received no revelation concerning the Passion should be 
ignorant of this. For that He was the Christ, the Son of 
the living God, he had learnt by revelation ; but the mystery 
of His cross and resurrection had not yet been revealed 
to him. He Himself, however, shewing that He must come 
to His Passion, rebuked Peter; wherefore there follows, 
And when he had turned about and looked on his disciples, 
he rebuked Peter, fyc. Theophyl. For the Lord, wishing to 
shew that His Passion was to take place on account of the 
salvation of men, and that Satan alone was unwilling that 
Christ should suffer, and the race of man be saved, called 
Peter Satan, because he savoured the things that were 
of Satan, and, from unwillingness that Christ should suffer, 
became His adversary; for Satan is interpreted ' the adversary.' 
Pseudo-Chrys. But He saith not to the devil, when tempting vi c t. 
Him, Get thee behind 9ne,but to Peter He saith, Get thee behind f; nL . e 
me, that is, follow Me, and resist not the design of My Marc, 
voluntary Passion. There follows, For thou savour est not the 
things which be of God, but which be of men. Theophyl. 
He says that Peter savours the things which be of men, in 
that he in some way savoured carnal affections, for Peter 
wished that Christ should spare Himself and not be crucified. 

34. And when he had called the people unto him 
with his disciples also, he said unto them, Whosoever 
will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up 
his cross, and follow me. 

e The text has here, Domine, Propitius esto tibi : nam hoc non erit. 



160 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VIII. 

35. For whosoever will save his life shall lose it ; 
but whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the 
Gospel's, the same shall save it. 

36. For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain 
the whole world, and lose his own soul ? 

37. Or what shall a man give in exchange for his 
soul? 

38. Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me 
and of my words in this adulterous and sinful 
generation ; of him also shall the Son of man be 
ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father 
with the holy angels. 

Bede in Bede ; After shewing to His disciples the mystery of His 

2, 36. passion and resurrection, He exhorts them, as well as the 

multitude, to follow the example of His passion. Wherefore 

it goes on ; And when he had called the people unto him with 

his disciples also, he said unto them, Whosoever wishes to 

Chrys. come after me, let him deny himself. Chrys. As if He would 

Matt! say to Peter, Thou indeed dost rebuke Me, who am willing to 

55, undergo My passion, but I tell thee, that not only is it wrong 

to prevent Me from suffering, but neither canst thou be saved 

unless thou thyself diest. Again He says, Whosoever wishes to 

come after me; as if He said, I call you to those good things 

which a man should wish for, I do not force you to evil and 

burdensome things ; for he who does violence to his hearer, 

often stands in his way ; but he who leaves him free, rather 

draws him to himself. And a man denies himself when he 

cares not for his body, so that whether it be scourged, or 

whatever of like nature it may suffer, he bears it patiently. 

Theophyl. For a man who denies another, be it brother 

or father, does not sympathize with him, nor grieve at 

his fate, though he be wounded and die ; thus we ought to 

despise our body, so that if it should be wounded or hurt in 

Chrys. any way, we should not mind its suffering. Chrys. But 

u i sup. jj e sa y g nQ ^ a man gjjQyjd not S p are himself, but what is 

more, that he should deny himself, as if he had nothing in 
common with himself, but face danger, and look upon 
such things as if another were suffering ; and this is 



VER. 34 — 38. ST. MARK. 161 

really to spare himself; for parents then most truly act kindly 
to their children, when they give them up to their masters, 
with an injunction not to spare them. Again, He shews the 
degree to which a man should deny himself, when He says, 
And take up his cross, by which He means, even to the most 
shameful death. Theophyl. For at that time the cross 
appeared shameful, because malefactors were fixed to it. 
Pseudo-Jerome; Or else, as a skilful pilot, foreseeing a storm 
in a calm, wishes his sailors to be prepared; so also the Lord 
says, If any one will follow me, fyc. Bede; For we denyBede 
ourselves, when we avoid what we were of old, and strive to u ! sup " 
reach that point, whither we are newly called. And the 
cross is taken up by us, when either our body is pained by 
abstinence, or our soul afflicted by fellow-feeling for our 
neighbour. Theophyl. But because after the cross we 
must have a new strength, He adds, and follow me. Chrys. chrys. 
And this He says, because it may happen that a man may ubisup * 
suffer and yet not follow Christ, that is, when he does not 
suffer for Christ's sake ; for he follows Christ, who walks 
after Him, and conforms himself to His death, despising 
those principalities and powers under whose power, before 
the coming of Christ, he committed sin. Then there follows, 
For whosoever will save his life shall lose it ; but whosoever 
shall lose his life for my sake and the Gospel's, the same 
shall save it. I give you these commands, as it were to 
spare you ; for whosoever spares his son, brings him to 
destruction, but whosoever does not spare him, saves him. 
It is therefore right to be always prepared for death ; for if 
in the battles of this world, he who is prepared for death fights 
better than others, though none can restore him to life after 
death, much more is this the case in spiritual battle, when so 
great a hope of resurrection is set before him, since he who 
gives up his soul unto death saves it. Remig. And life is to be 
taken in this place for the present life, and not for the sub- 
stance itself of the soul. Chrys. As therefore He had said, chrya. 
For whosoever will save his life shall lose ^,lest any one should ubi 8U P- 
suppose this loss to be equivalent to that salvation, He adds, 
For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole 
world, and lose his own soul, Sfc. As if He said, Think not 
that he has saved his soul, who has shunned the perils 

VOL. IT. M 



162 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. VIII. 

of the cross; for when a man, at the cost of his soul, 
that is, his life, gains the whole world, what has he besides, 
now that his soul is perishing? Has he another soul to give 
for his soul ? For a man can give the price of his house in 
exchange for the house, but in losing his soul, he has not 
another soul to give. And it is with a purpose that He says, 
Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul? for God, 
in exchange for our salvation, has given the precious blood 
Bede in f Jesus Christ. Bede ; Or else He savs this, because in 

Marc.2 . . 

36. 'time of persecution, our life is to be laid aside, but in time of 
peace, our earthly desires are to be broken, which He implies 
when He says, For what shall it profit a man, 8$c. But we 
are often hindered by a habit of shamefacedness, from ex- 
pressing with our voice the rectitude which we preserve in 
our hearts; and therefore it is added, For whosoever shall 
confess me and my words in this adulterous and sinful 
generation, him also shall the Son of man confess, when 
he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels. 
Theophyl. For that faith which only remains in the mind is 
not sufficient, but the Lord requires also the confession of 
the mouth ; for when the soul is sanctified by faith, the body 
Vict, ought also to be sanctified by confession. Pseudo-Chrys. 
Cat. in He then who has learned this, is bound zealously to confess 
Marc. Christ without shame. And this generation is called adul- 
terous, because it has left God the true Bridegroom of the 
soul, and has refused to follow the doctrine of Christ, but 
has prostrated itself to the devil and taken up the seeds of im- 
piety, for which reason also it is called sinful. Whosoever 
therefore amongst them has denied the kingdom of Christ, 
and the words of God revealed in the Gospel, shall receive 
a reward befitting His impiety, when He hears in the second 
Matt. 7, advent, / know you not. Theophyl. Him then who shall 
have confessed that his God was crucified, Christ Himself 
also shall confess, not here, where He is esteemed poor and 
wretched, but in His glory and with a multitude of Angels. 
Gre g« Greg. There are however some, who confess Christ, because 
32. in they see that all men are Christians ; for if the name of 
Evang. c m .j s t were not at this day in such great glory, the Holy 
Church would not have so many professors. The voice of 
profession therefore is not sufficient for a trial of faith 






VER. 34—38. ST. MARK. 163 

whilst the profession of the generality defends it from 
shame. In the time of peace therefore there is another way, 
by which we may be known to ourselves. We are ever 
fearful of being despised by our neighbours, we think it 
shame to bear injurious words; if perchance we have 
quarrelled with our neighbour, we blush to be the first to 
give satisfaction ; for our carnal heart, in seeking the glory 
of this life, disdains humility. Theophyl. But because He 
had spoken of His glory, in order to shew that His promises 
were not vain, He subjoins, Verily I say unto you, That 
there be some of them that stand here who shall not taste 
of death, till they have seen the kingdom of God come with 
power. As if He said, Some, that is, Peter, James, and John, 
shall not taste of death, until I shew them, in my transfigura- 
tion, with what glory I am to come in my second advent; 
for the transfiguration was nothing else, but an announce- 
ment of the second coming of Christ, in which also Christ 
Himself and the Saints will shine. Bede ; Truly it was done Bede in 
with a loving foresight, in order that they, having tasted for a ^" c * 
brief moment the contemplation of everlasting joy, might 
with the greater strength bear up under adversity. Chrys. Chrys. 
And He did not declare the names of those who were about M ^ in 
to go up, lest the other disciples should feel some touch of 56 « 
human frailty, and He tells it to them beforehand, that they 
might come with minds better prepared to be taught all that 
concerned that vision. Bede ; Or else the present Church is Bede 
called the kingdom of God; and some of the disciples were to bup * 
live in the body until they should see the Church built up, and 
raised against the glory of the world ; for it was right to 
make some promises concerning this life to the disciples who 
were uninstructed, that they might be built up with greater 
strength for the time to come. Pseudo-Chrys. But in a mys- Orig. in 
tical sense, Christ is life, and the devil is death, and he tastes of to ^ U \ 2 
death, who dwells in sin; even now every one, according as 33 , 35. 
he has good or evil doctrines, tastes the bread either of life or 
of death. And indeed, it is a less evil to see death, a 
greater to taste of it, still worse to follow it, worst of all to be 
subject to it. 



M 2 



CHAP. IX. 

1. And he said unto them, Verily I say unto you, 
That there be some of them that stand here, which 
shall not taste of death, till they have seen the king- 
dom of God come with power. 

2. And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, 
and James, and John, and leadeth them up into an 
high mountain apart by themselves : and he was 
transfigured before them. 

3. And his raiment became shining, exceeding 
white as snow ; so as no fuller on earth can white 
them. 

4. And there appeared unto them Elias with 
Moses : and they were talking with Jesus. 

5. And Peter answered and said to Jesus, Master, 
it is good for us to be here : and let us make three 
tabernacles ; one for thee, and one for Moses, and 
one for Elias. 

6. For he wist not what to say ; for they were sore 
afraid. 

7. And there was a cloud that overshadowed them; 
and a voice came out of the cloud, saying, This is my 
beloved Son : hear him. 

8. And suddenly, when they had looked round 
about, they saw no man any more, save Jesus only 
with themselves. 

Pseudo- Jerome ; After the consummation of the cross, the 
glory of the resurrection is shewn, that they, who were to see 
with their own eyes the glory of the resurrection to come, might 
not fear the shame of the cross ; wherefore it is said, And after 
six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, 
Chrys. and led them up into an high mountain apart by themselves, 
Matt! ™ and he was transfigured before them. Chrys. Luke in say- 

G5. 



VER. 1 8. GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. 165 

ing, After eight days, does not contradict this ; for he reckoned 
in both the day on which Christ had spoken what goes 
before, and the day on which he took them up. And the 
reason that he took them up after six days, was that they 
might be filled with a more eager desire during the space of 
these days, and with a watchful and anxious mind attend to 
what they saw. Theophyl. And He takes with Him the 
three chiefs of the Apostles, Peter, as confessing and loving 
him, John, as the beloved one, James, as being sublime 
in speech and as a divine ; for so displeasing was he to the 
Jews, that Herod wishing to please the Jews slew him. Pseudo- Vict. 
Chrys. He does not however shew His glory in a house, but Cf " t 'f n 
He takes them up into a high mountain, for the loftiness of the Marc 
mountain was adapted to shewing forth the loftiness of His glory. 
Theophyl. And He took them apart, because He was about 
to reveal mysteries to them. We must also understand by 
transfiguration not the change of His features, but that, 
whilst His features remained as before, there was added unto 
Him a certain ineffable brightness. Pseudo-Chrys. It is not Vict, 
therefore fitting that in the kingdom of God any change of Cat. in 
feature should take place, either in the Saviour Himself, or Marc. 
in those who are to be made like unto him, but only an ad- 
dition of brightness. Bede ; Our Saviour then when trans- BeJu in 

Marco. 

figured did not lose the substance of real flesh, but shewed 37. 
forth the glory of His own or of our future resurrection ; for 
such as He then appeared to the Apostles, He will after the 
judgment appear to all His elect. It goes on, And his rai- 
ment became shining. Greg. Because, in the height of the Greg, 
brightness of heaven above, they who shine in righteousness 32 \ 
of life, will cling to Him; for by the name of garments, He 
means the just whom He joins to Himself. There follows, 
And there appeared unto them Elias with Moses, and they 
were talking with Jesus. Chrys. He brings Moses and Chrys. 
Elias before them ; first, indeed, because the multitudes M °™' in 
said that Christ was Elias, and one of the Prophets, He shews 56. 
Himself to the Apostles with them, that they might see the 
difference between the Lord, and His servants. And again 
because the Jews accused Christ of transgressing the law, and 
thought Him a blasphemer, as if He arrogated to Himself the 
glory of His Father, He brought before them those whojjli*HW~"^ 






166 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IX. 

conspicuous in both ways ; for Moses gave the Law, and 
Elias was zealous for the glory of God ; for which reason 
neither would have stood near Him, if He had been opposed 
to God and to His law. And that they might know that He 
holds the power of life and of death, He brings before them both 
Moses who was dead, and Elias who had not yet suffered death. 
Furthermore He signified by this that the doctrine of the 
Prophets was the schoolmaster to the doctrine of Christ. He 
also signified the junction of the New and Old Testament, 
and that the Apostles shall be joined in the resurrection 
with the Prophets, and both together shall go forth to meet 
their common King. It goes on, And Peter answered 
and said to Jesus, Master, it is good for us to be here ; and let 
us make three tabernacles, one for thee, and one for Moses, 
Bede and one for Ellas, Bede; If the transfigured humanity of 

ubi sup. _. . . . . _ 

Christ and the society ot but two saints seen for a moment, 
could confer delight to such a degree that Peter would, even 
by serving them, stay their departure, how great a happiness 
will it be to enjoy the vision of Deity amidst choirs of Angels 
for ever? It goes on, For he wist not what to say ; although, 
however, Peter from the stupor of human frailty knew not 
what to say, still he gives a proof of the feelings which were 
within him; for the cause of his not knowing what to say, was 
his forgetting that the kingdom was promised to the Saints 
by the Lord not in any earthly region, but in heaven ; he did 
not remember that he and his fellow-Apostles were still 
hemmed in by mortal flesh and could not bear the state of 
immortal life, to which his soul had already earned him 
away, because in our Father's house in heaven, a house 
made with hands is not needed. But again even up to 
this time he is pointed at, as an ignorant man, who wishes to 
make three tabernacles for the Law, the Prophets, and the 
Gospel, since they in no way can be separated from each 
other. Chiiys. f Again, Peter neither comprehended that 
the Lord worked His transfiguration for the shewing forth 
of His true glory, nor that He did this in order to teach men, 
nor that it was impossible for them to leave the multitude 

1 This passage is found neither in St. Mark, edited by Dr. Cramer. As it 

St. Chrysostom, nor in Possinus' Ca- stands in the text, a part of it is so un- 

tena, nor in Peltanus' translation of intelligible, that recourse has been had 

Victor; it i« however in the Catena on to thf 3 Greek. 



VER. 1 — 8. ST. MARK. 167 

and dwell in the mountain. It goes on, For they were 
sore afraid. But this fear of theirs was one by which 
they were raised from their usual state of mind to one higher, 
and they recognised that those who appeared to them 
were Moses and Elias. The soul also was drawn on to a 
state of heavenly feeling, as though carried away from human 
sense by the heavenly vision. Theophyl. Or else, Peter, 
fearing to come down from the mount because he had now a 
presentiment that Christ must be crucified, said, It is good for 
us to be here, and not to go down there, that is, in the midst 
of the Jews; but if they who are furious against Thee come 
hither, we have Moses who beat down the Egyptians, we 
have also Elias, who brought fire down from heaven and 
destroyed the five hundred. Origen ; Mark says in his own Orig. in 

. Matt 

person, For he wist not what to say. Where it is matter for tom# * 12 . 
consideration, whether perchance Peter spoke this in the con- 40 * 
fusion of his mind, by the motion of a spirit not his own; 
whether perchance that spirit himself who wished, as far as in 
him lay, to be a stumbling-block to Christ, so that He might 
shrink from that Passion, which was the saving of all men, 
did not here work as a seducer and wish under the colour 
of good to prevent Christ from condescending to men, from 
coming to them, and taking death upon Himself for their sakes. 
Bede ; Now T because Peter sought for a material tabernacle, Bede 
he was covered with the shadow of the cloud, that he might ubl sup * 
learn that in the resurrection they are to be protected not by 
the covering of houses, but by the glory of the Holy Ghost ; 
wherefore it goes on, There was a cloud that overshadowed 
them. And the reason why they obtained no answer from 
the Lord was, that they asked unadvisedly; but the Father 
answered for the Son, wherefore there follows, And a voice 
came out of the cloudy saying ', This is my beloved Son, in whom 
I am well pleased. Chrys. The voice proceeded from aChrys. 
cloud in which God is w T ont to appear, that they might believe M °"|* m 
that the voice was sent forth from God. But in that He says, 56. 
This is my beloved Son, He declares that the will of the 
Father and the Son is one, and that, save in that He is the 
Son, He is in all things One with Him who begot Him. Bede ; Bede 
He then whose preaching, as Moses foretold, every soul sup# 
that wished to he saved should hear when He came in the 



168 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IX. 

flesh, He now come in the flesh is proclaimed by God the 
Father to the disciples as the one whom they were to hear. 
There follows, And suddenly, when they had looked round 
about, they saw no man any more, save Jesus only ivith 
themselves ; for as soon as the Son was proclaimed, at once 
the servants disappeared, lest the voice of the Father should 
seem to have been sent forth to them. Theophyl. Again mys- 
tically; after the end of this world, which was made in six 
days, Jesus will take us up (if we be His disciples) into an high 
mountain, that is, into heaven, where we shall see Hisexceed- 

Bede ingglory. Bedk ; And by the garments of the Lord are meant 

iMap. jj^ s gam ^ w h w {\\ s hine with a new whiteness. By the 

fuller we must understand Him, to whom the Psalmist says, 

Ps. 5 1 . Wash me throughly from my wickedness, and cleanse me from 
my sin ; for He cannot give to His faithful ones upon earth 
that glory which remains laid up for them in heaven. Re- 
mig. Or else, by the fuller are meant holy preachers and 
purifiers of the soul, none of whom in this life can so live as 
not to be stained with some spots of sin ; but in the coming 
resurrection all the saints shall be purged from every stain 
of sin. Therefore the Lord will make them such as neither they 
themselves by taking vengeance on their own members, nor 
any preacher by his example and doctrine, can make. Chrys. 
Or else, white garments are the writings of Evangelists and 

Orig. in Apostles, the like to which no interpreter can frame. Origen ; 

tom. Or else, fullers upon earth may by a moral interpretation be 

12. 39. considered to be the wise of this world, who are thought to 
adorn even their foul understandings and doctrines with a 
false whitening drawn from their own minds. But their skill 
as fullers cannot produce any thing like a discourse which 
shews forth the brightness of spiritual conceptions in the 
unpolished words of Scripture, which by many are despised. 

Bede Bede ; Moses and Elias, of whom one, as we read, died, the 
sup. fa eT was carr i e( j away to heaven, signify the coming glory 
of all the Saints, that is, of all who in the judgment-time are either 
to be found alive in the flesh, or to be raised up from that 
death of which they tasted, and who are all equally to reign 
with Him. Theophyl. Or else it means, that we are to see 
in glory both the Law and the Prophets speaking with Him, 
that is, we shall then find that all those things which were 



sup. 



VER. 9 — 18. ST. MARK. 169 

spoken of Him by Moses and the other prophets agree with 
the reality ; then too we shall hear the voice of the Father, 
revealing to us the Son of the Father, and saying, This 
is my beloved Son, and the cloud, that is, the Holy 
Ghost, the fount of truth, will overshadow us. Bede: And Bed 
we must observe, that, as when the Lord was baptized in u 
Jordan, so on the mountain, covered with brightness, the 
whole mystery of the Holy Trinity is declared, because we 
shall see in the resurrection that glory of the Trinity which 
we believers confess in baptism, and shall praise it all 
together. Nor is it without reason that the Holy Ghost 
appeared here in a bright cloud, there in the form of a dove ; 
because he who now with a simple heart keeps the faith 
which he hath embraced, shall then contemplate what he had 
believed with the brightness of open vision. But when the 
voice had been heard over the Son, He was found Himself 
alone, because when He shall have manifested Himself to 
His elect, God shall be all in all, yea Christ with His own, as l Cor. 

.16 28. 

the Head with the body, shall shine through all things. 

9. And as they came down from the mountain, he 
charged them that they should tell no man what 
things they had seen, till the Son of man were risen 
from the dead. 

10. And they kept that saying with themselves, 
questioning one with another what the rising from the 
dead should mean. 

11. And they asked him, saying, Why say the 
Scribes that Elias must first come ? 

12. And he answered and told them, Elias verily 
cometh first, and restoreth all things ; and how it is 
written of the Son of man, that he must suffer many 
things, and be set at nought. 

13. But I say unto you, That Elias is indeed come, 
and they have done unto him whatsoever they listed, 
as it is written of him. 

Origen ; After the shewing of the mystery on the mount, the 0ri g- in 
Lord commanded His disciples, as they were coming down from tom. 

12, 43. 



170 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IX. 

the mount, not to reveal His transfiguration, before the glory 
of His Passion and Resurrection ; wherefore it is said, 
And as they came down from the mountain, he charged them 
that they should tell no man what things they had seen, till 
Chrys. fj w $ on f man were risen from the dead. Chrys. Where 

Horn, in * . 

Matt. He not only orders them to be silent, but mentioning His 
Passion, He implies the cause why they were to be silent. 
Theophyl. Which He did lest men should be offended, 
hearing such glorious things of Him Whom they were about 
to see crucified. It was not therefore fitting to say such 
things of Christ before He suffered, but after His resurrection 
Vict, they were likely to be believed. Pseudo-Chrys. But they, 
Cat. in being ignorant of the mystery of the resurrection, took hold of 
Marc, that saying, and disputed one with another ; wherefore there 
follows, And they kept that saying with themselves, ques- 
tioning one with another what the rising from the dead should 
mean. Pseudo-Jerome ; This, which is peculiar to Mark, 
means, that when death shall have been swallowed up in vic- 
tory, we shall have no memory for the former things. It goes 
on, And they asked him, saying, Why say the Scribes that Elias 
Chrys. must first come. Chrys. The design of the disciples in 
non occ. as k m g this question seems to me to be this. We indeed 
have seen Elias with Thee, and have seen Thee before seeing 
Elias, but the Scribes say that Elias cometh first ; we there- 
Bede fore believe that they have lied. Bede; Or thus; the 
isup. ^j sc jpj es thought that the change which they had seen in 
Him in the mount, was His transformation to glory; and 
they say, Tf Thou hast already come in glory, wherefore doth 
not Thy forerunner appear ? chiefly because they had seen 
Chrys. Elias go away. Chrys. But what Christ answered to this, 
M ° tt * i ,s seen by what follows, And he answered and told them, 
5 7- Elias verily cometh first, and restoreth all tilings; in which 
He shews that Elias will come before His second advent. 
For the Scriptures declare two advents of Christ, namely, one 
which has taken place, and another which is to come ; but 
the Lord asserts that Elias is the forerunner of the second 
Bede advent. Bede ; Again, He will restore all things, that is to 
jjf 1 , 8 "?" say, those things which Malachi points out, saying, Behold, I 
5. 6. ' will send you Elijah the prophet, and he shall turn the heart 
of the fathers to the children^ and the heart of the children 



VER. 9 13. ST. MARK. 171 

to their fathers; he will yield up also to death that debt, which 
by his prolonged life he has delayed to render. Theophyl. 
Now the Lord puts this forward to oppose the notion of the 
Pharisees, who held that Elias was the forerunner of the first 
advent, shewing that it led them to a false conclusion; 
wherefore he subjoins, And how it is written of the Son of 
man, that he must suffer many things, and be set at nought. 
As if He had said, When Elias the Tishbite cometh, he will 
pacify the Jews, and will bring them to the faith, and 
thus be the forerunner of the second advent. If then 
Elias is the forerunner of the first advent, how is it written 
that the Son of man must suffer ? One of these two things 
therefore will follow ; either that Elias is not the forerunner of 
the first advent, and thus the Scripture will be true ; or that 
he is the forerunner of the first advent, and then the Scrip- 
tures will not be true, which say that Christ must suffer ; for 
Elias must restore all things, in which case there will not be 
an unbelieving Jew, but all, whosoever hear him, must believe 
on his preaching. Bede ; Or this, And how it is written : Bede 
that is, in the same way as the prophets have written u x sup ' 
many things in various places concerning the Passion of 
Christ, Elias also, when he comes, is to suffer many things, 
and to be despised by the wicked. Chrys. Now as the Chrys. 
Lord asserted that Elias was to be the forerunner of the second ubl sup * 
advent, so consequently He asserted that John was the fore- 
runner of the first; wherefore He subjoins, But I say unto 
you, that Elias is indeed come. Gloss. He calls John Elias, n°n in 
not because he was Elias in person, but because he fulfilled S ed°ap. 
the ministry of Elias; for as the latter will be the forerunner Ch . r ys. 
of the second advent, so the former has been that of the first. " P 
THEorHYL. For again, John rebuked vice, and was a zealous 
man, and a hermit like Elias; but they heard him not, as 
they will hear Elias, but killed him in wicked sport, and cut 
off his head ; wherefore there follows, And they have done 
unto him whatsoever they listed, as it is written of him. 
Pseudo-Chrys. Or else, the disciples asked Jesus, how it was y ict 
written that the Son of man must suffer? Now in answer to Ant. e 
this, He says, As John came in the likeness of Elias, and they Marc. 
evil intreated him, so according to the Scriptures must the 
Son of man suffer. 



172 GOSPEL ACCOKDING TO CHAP. IX. 

14. And when he came to his disciples, he saw a 
great multitude about them, and the Scribes ques- 
tioning with them. 

15. And straightway all the people, when they 
beheld him, were greatly amazed, and running to him 
saluted him. 

16. And he asked the Scribes, What question ye 
with them ? 

17. And one of the multitude answered and said, 
Master, I have brought unto thee my son, which hath 
a dumb spirit ; 

18. And wheresoever he taketh him, he teareth 
him : and he foameth, and gnasheth with his teeth, 
and pineth away : and I spake to thy disciples that 
they should cast him out ; and they could not. 

19. He answereth him, and saith, O faithless 
generation, how long shall I be with you ? how long 
shall I suffer you ? bring him unto me. 

20. And they brought him unto him : and when 
he saw him, straightway the spirit tare him ; and he 
fell on the ground, and wallowed foaming. 

21. And he asked his father, How long is it ago 
since this came unto him ? And he said, Of a child. 

22. And ofttimes it hath cast him into the fire, and 
into the waters, to destroy him : but if thou canst do 
any thing, have compassion on us, and help us. 

23. Jesus said unto him, If thou canst believe, all 
things are possible to him that believeth. 

24. And straightway the father of the child cried 
out, and said with tears, Lord, I believe ; help thou 
mine unbelief. 

25. When Jesus saw that the people came running 
together, he rebuked the foul spirit, saying unto him, 
Thou dumb and deaf spirit, I charge thee, come out 
of him, and enter no more into him. 



VKR. 14 — 29. , ST. MARK. 173 

26. And the spirit cried, and rent him sore, and 
came out of him : and he was as one dead ; insomuch 
that many said, He is dead. 

27. But Jesus took him by the hand, and lifted 
him up ; and he arose. 

28. And when he was come into the house, his 
disciples asked him privately, Why could not we cast 
him out ? 

29. And he said unto them, This kind can come 
forth by nothing, but by prayer and fasting. 

Theophyl. After He had shewn His glory in the mount 
to the three disciples, He returns to the other disciples, who 
had not come up with Him into the mount; wherefore it is 
said, And when he came to his disciples, he saw a great 
multitude about them, and the Scribes questioning with them. 
For the Pharisees, catching the opportunity of the hour when 
Christ was not present, came up to them, to try to draw them over 
to themselves. Pseudo-Jerome ; But there is no peace for man 
under the sun ; envy is ever slaying the little ones, and lightnings 
strike the tops of the great mountains. Of all those who run to 
the Church, some as the multitudes come in faith to learn, others, 
as the Scribes, with envy and pride. It goes on, And straight- 
way all the people, when they beheld Jesus, were greatly amazed, 
and feared, Bede ; In all cases, the difference between the Bede 
mind of the Scribes and of the people ought to be observed; l £ 38 arc * 
for the Scribes are never said to have shewn any devotion, 
faith, humility, and reverence, but as soon as the Lord was 
come, the whole multitude was greatly amazed and feared, 
and ran up to Him, and saluted Him; wherefore there 
follows, And running to him, saluted him. Theophyl. For 
the multitude was glad to see Him, so that they saluted Him 
from afar, as He was coming to them; but some suppose 
that His countenance had become more beautiful from His 
transfiguration, and that this induced the crowd to salute 
Him. Pseudo-Jerome; Now it was the people, and not the 
disciples, who on seeing Him were amazed and feared, for there 
is no fear in love ; fear belongs to servants, amazement to fools. 



174 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IX. 

It goes on : And he asked them, What question ye with 
them. Why does the Lord put this question ? That con- 
fession may produce salvation, and the murmuring of our 

Bede hearts may be appeased by religious words. Bede ; The 
p ' question, indeed, which was raised may, if I am not deceived, 
have been this, wherefore they, who were the disciples of the 
Saviour, were unable to heal the demoniac, who was 
placed in the midst, which may be gathered from the 
following words; And one of the multitude answered 
and said, Master, I have brought unto thee my son, 
which hath a dumb spirit; and wheresoever he taketh 
him, he teareth him : and he foameth, and gnasheth with his 

Chrys. teeth, and pineth away. Chrys. The Scriptures declare 

ubi SUp. ■, • r • i r 4~*t • r\ y • 

that this man was weak in faith, lor Christ says, (J J ait h- 
less generation : and He adds, If thou canst believe. 
But although his want of faith was the cause of their not 
casting out the devil, he nevertheless accuses the disciples ; 
wherefore it is added, And I spake to thy disciples that they 
should cast him out; but they could not. Now observe his 
folly; in praying to Jesus in the midst of the crowd, he 
accuses the disciples, wherefore the Lord before the multi- 
tude so much the more accuses him, and not only aims 
the accusation at himself, but also extends it to all the 
Jews; for it is probable that many of those present had been 
offended, and had held wrong thoughts concerning His dis- 
ciples. Wherefore there follows, He answereth them and 
saith, O faithless generation, how long shall I be with you ? 
how long shall I suffer you ? By which He shewed both that 
He desired death, and that it was a burden to Him to converse 
Bede Wltn them. Bede ; So far, however, is He from being angry 
ubi sup. w ith the person, though He reproved the sin, that He imme- 
diately added, Bring him unto me; and they brought him 
unto him. And when he saiv him, straightway the spirit 
tare him, and he fell on the ground, and wallowed foaming . 
Chrys. Chrys. But this the Lord permitted for the sake of the 
u l sup * father of the boy, that when he saw the devil vexing his 
child, he might be brought on to believe that the miracle 
was to be wrought. Theophyl. He also permits the child 
to be vexed, that in this way we might know the devil's 
wickedness, who would have killed him, had he not been 



VER. 14 — *29. ST. MARK. 175 

assisted by the Lord. It goes on: And he asked his father, 
How long is it ago since this came unto him ? And he said, 
Of a child ; and ofttimes it has cast him into the fire and 
into the waters to destroy him. Bede; Let Julian g blush, 
who dares to say that all men are born in the flesh, without 
the infection of sin, as though they were innocent in all re- 
spects, just as Adam was when he was created. For what 
was there in the boy, that he should be troubled from 
infancy with a cruel devil, if he were not held at all by the 
chain of original sin ? since it is evident that he could not yet 
have had any sin of his own. Gloss. Now he expresses in the Gloss. 
words of his petition his want of faith ; for that is the reason non occ * 
why he adds, But if thou canst do any thing, have compassion 
on us, and help us. For in that he says, If thou canst do 
any thing, he shews that he doubts His power, because 
he had seen that the disciples of Christ had failed in curing 
him ; but he says, have compassion on us, to shew the 
misery of the son, who suffered, and the father, who suffered 
with him. It goes on: Jesus said unto him, If thou canst 
believe, all things are possible to him that believeth . Pseudo- 
Jerome; This saying, If thou canst, is a proof of the freedom 
of the will. Again, all things are possible to him that believeth, 
which evidently means all those things which are prayed for with 
tears in the name of Jesus, that is, of salvation. Bede ; The Bede 
answer of the Lord was suited to the petition ; for the man said, l sup * 
If thou canst do any thing, help us ; and to this the Lord 
answered, //' thou canst believe. On the other hand, the 
leper who cried out, with faith, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst Matt. 
make me clean, received an answer according to his faith, 8 > 2 - 3 - 
I will, be thou clean. Chrys. His meaning is; such ayict. 
plenitude of virtue is there in Me, that not only can I do £ nt - e 

i • 1 T -n i i , " , , Cat. in 

this, but I will make others to have that power ; where- Marc, 
fore if thou canst believe as thou oughtest to do, thou^ r v * 

ubi sup. 

8 Julian was bishop of Eclanum in now extant. The opinion specially 

Campania; he was well known to referred to in the text was, that Adam 

St. Augustine, who before his fall would have died, even though he had 

speaks of him with great affection. On remained innocent, and therefore that 

refusing however to agree to Pope Zosi- death and sickness are not the con- 

mus' condemnation of Pelagius, he was sequences of original sin. He died in 

deposed, and expelled from Italy. He Sicily in great poverty, about A. D. 

wrote a great deal against St. Augus- 453. 

tine, by whom he was refuted in works • 



176 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IX. 

shalt be able to cure not only him, but many more. In this 
way then, He endeavoured to bring back to the faith, the 
man who as yet speaks unfaithfully. There follows, And 
straightway the father of the child cried out, and said with 
tears. Lord, I believe; help thou mine unbelief. But if he 
had already believed, saying, / believe, how is it that he 
adds, help thou mine unbelief? We must say then that faith 
is manifold, that one sort of faith is elementary, another 
perfect; but this man, being but a beginner in believing, 
prayed the Saviour to add to his virtue what was wanting. 
Bede Bede ; For no man at once reaches to the highest point, but 
1 sup * in holy living a man begins with the least things that he 
may reach the great; for the beginning of virtue is dif- 
ferent, from the progress and the perfection of it. Because 
then faith mounts up through the secret inspiration of grace, 
by the steps of its own merits' 1 , he who had not yet believed 
perfectly was at once a believer and an unbeliever. Pseudo- 
Jerome ; By this also we are taught that our faith is tottering, 
if it lean not on the stay of the help of God. But faith by its 
tears receives the accomplishment of its wishes; Wherefore 
it continues, When Jesus saw that the multitude came run- 
ning together, he rebuked the foul spirit, saying unto him, 
Thou dumb and deaf spirit, 1 charge thee come out of him, 
and enter no more into him. Theophyl. The reason that 
He rebuked the foul spirit, when He saw the crowd running 
together, was that he did not wish to cure him before the 
multitude, that He might give us a lesson to avoid ostentation. 
Vict. Pseudo-Chrys. And His rebuking him, and saying, I charge 
Cat. in thee, is a proof of Divine power. Again, in that He says not 
Marc, only, come out of him, but also enter no more into him, He 
shews that the evil spirit was ready to enter again, because the 
man was weak in faith, but was prevented by the command of 
the Lord. It goes on, And the spirit cried, and rent him sore, 
and came out of him ; and he was as one dead, insomuch that 

h This sentence of Bede may be Thomas, their faithful disciple. He 

considered to be an exposition of our defines a meritorious operation to be one 

Lord's words: " for he that hath to him the reward of which is beyond the 

shall be given ; and he that hath not nature of the worker ; so that merit 

from him shall be taken even that implies the infusion of a supernatural 

which he hath." The connection be- habit, that is, of grace, not only as its 

tween grace and merit, as used by the efficient, but as its formal cause. 

"Fathers, may be illustrated from St. Summa 1. Qu 62. Art. 4. 



VER. 14 — 29. ST. MARK. 177 

many said, He is dead. For the devil was not able to inflict 
death upon him, because the true Life was come. Bede; Bede 
But him, whom the unholy spirit made like unto death, the u ' S " IV 
holy Saviour saved by the touch of His holy hand ; where- 
fore it goes on, But Jesus took him by the hand, and lifted 
him up, and he arose. Thus as the Lord had shewn Him- 
self to be very God by the power of healing, so He 
shewed that He had the very nature of our flesh, by the 
manner of His human touch. The Manichgean 1 indeed madly 
denies that He was truly clothed in flesh ; He Himself, 
however, by raising, cleansing, enlightening so many afflicted 
persons by His touch, condemned his heresy before its 
birth. It goes on: And when he was come into the house, 
his disciples asked him privately, Why could not we cast him 
out? Ckrys. They feared that perchance they had lost the chrys. 
grace conferred upon them; for they had already received umsu P- 
power over unclean spirits. It goes on : And he said unto 
them, This kind can come forth by nothing but by prayer 
and fasting. Theophyl. That is, the whole class of lunatics, 
or simply, of all persons possessed with devils. Both 
the man to be cured, and he who cures him, should fast ; 
for a real prayer is offered up, when fasting is joined 
with prayer, when he who prays is sober and not heavy with 
food. Bede; Again, in a mystical sense, on high the Lord Bede 
unfolds the mysteries of the kingdom to His disciples, but " p * 
below He rebukes the multitude for their sins of unfaithful- 
ness, and expels devils from those, who are vexed by them. 
Those who are still carnal and foolish, He strengthens, 
teaches, punishes, whilst He more freely instructs the perfect 
concerning the things of eternity. Theophyl. Again, this 
devil is deaf and dumb ; deaf, because he does not choose to 
hear the words of God ; dumb, because he is unable to 
teach others their duty. Pseudo- Jerome; Again, a sinner 
foameth forth folly, gnash eth with anger, pineth away in 
sloth. But the evil spirit tears him, when coming to salvation, 
and in like manner those whom he would drag into his maw 

1 " Their fundamental maxim of the of the Incarnation of our Lord, and as 

intrinsic evil of matter and the de- a consequence of the reality of his 

graded state of mind, which their whole life." Note a, upon St. Augus- 

speculations on the birth after the flesh tine's Confessions, Oxf. Tr. p, 325. 
brought with it involved the denial 

VOL. II. N 



178 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IX. 

Bede he tears asunder by terrors and losses, as he did Job. Bede; 
sup ' For oftentimes when we try to turn to God after sin, our old 
enemy attacks us with new and greater snares, which he does, 
either to instil into us a hatred of virtue, or to avenge the 
Greg, injury of his expulsion. Greg. But he who is freed from 
30. the power of the evil spirit is thought to be dead; for 
whosoever has already subdued earthly desires, puts to death 
within himself his carnal mode of life, and appears to the 
world as a dead man, and many look upon him as dead ; for 
they who know not how to live after the Spirit, think that he 
who does not follow after carnal pleasures is altogether dead. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; Further, in his being vexed from his infancy, 
the Gentile people is signified, from the very birth of whom the 
vain worship of idols arose, so that they in their folly sacri- 
ficed their children to devils. And for this reason it is said 
that it cast him into the fire and into the water ; for some of the 
Bede Gentiles worshipped fir§, others water. Bede; Or by this 
1 sup * demoniac are signified those, who are bound by the guilt of 
original sin, and coming into the world as criminals, are to 
be saved by grace ; and by fire is meant the heat of anger, 
by water, the pleasures of the flesh, which melt the soul by 
their sweetness. But He did not rebuke the boy, who 
suffered violence, but the devil, who inflicted it, because he 
who desires to amend a sinner, ought, whilst he exterminates 
his vice by rebuking and cursing it, to love and cherish the 
man. Pseudo-Jerome ; Again, the Lord applies to the evil 
spirit what he had inflicted on the man, calling him deaf 
and dumb spirit, because he never will hear and speak what 
the penitent sinner can speak and hear. But the devil, 
quitting a man, never returns, if the man keep his heart with 
the keys of humility and charity, and hold possession of 
' muni- the gate of freedom ', The man who was healed became as 
tatis < of one d ea d for it is said to those who are healed, Ye are dead, 

fastness »./..»•» *** • 

an. and your life is hid with Christ in God. Theophyl. Again, 

filer °" wnen Jesus, that is, the word of the Gospel, takes hold of the 

Col.8,3. hand, that is, of our powers of action, then shall we be freed 

from the devil. And observe that God first helps us, then it is 

required of us that we do good; for which reason it is said that 

Jesus raised him, in which is shewn the aid of God, and that he 

Bede arose, in which is declared the zeal of man. Bede; Further, 

ubi sup. 



VKR. 30 37. ST. MARK. 179 

our Lord, while teaching the Apostles how the worst devil is 
to be expelled, gives all of us rules for our life ; that is, He 
would have us know that all the more grievous attacks of evil 
spirits or of men are to be overcome by fastings and prayers; 
and again, that the anger of the Lord, when it is kindled for 
vengeance on our crimes, can be appeased by this remedy 
alone. But fasting in general is not only abstinence from 
food, but also from all carnal delights, yea, from all vicious 
passions. In like manner prayer taken generally, consists 
not only in the words by which we call upon the Divine 
mercy, but also in all those things which we do with the 
devotedness of faith in obedience to our Maker, as the Apostle 
testifies, when he says, Pray without ceasing. Pseudo- i Thess. 
Jerome ; Or else, the folly which is connected with the soft- ' 
ness of the flesh, is healed by fasting ; anger and laziness 
are healed by prayer. Each wound has its own medicine, 
which must be applied to it ; that which is used for the heel 
will not cure the eye ; by fasting, the passions of the body, 
by prayer, the plagues of the soul, are healed. 

30. And they departed thence, and passed through 
Galilee ; and he would not that any man should know 
it. 

31. For he taught his disciples, and said unto 
them, The Son of man is delivered into the hands of 
men, and they shall kill him ; and after that he is 
killed, he shall rise the third day. 

32. But they understood not that saying, and were 
afraid to ask him. 

33. And he came to Capernaum : and being in the 
house he asked them, What was it that ye disputed 
among yourselves by the way ? 

34. But they held their peace : for by the way 
they had disputed among themselves, who should be 
the greatest. 

35. And he sat down, and called the twelve, and 
saith unto them, If any man desire to be first, the 
same shall be last of all, and servant of all. 

N 2 



180 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IX. 

36. And he took a child, and set him in the midst 
of them : and when he had taken him in his arms, he 
said unto them, 

37. Whosoever shall receive one of such children 
in my name, receiveth me : and whosoever shall 
receive me, receiveth not me, but him that sent me. 

Theophyl. It is after miracles that the Lord inserts a dis- 
course concerning His Passion, lest it should be thought that 
He suffered because He could not help it ; wherefore it is 
said, And they departed thence, and passed through Galilee: 
and he would not thai any man should know it. For he taught 
his disciples, and said unto them, The Son of man is delivered 
Bede in into the hands of men, and they shall kill him. Bede ; He 

IMF 3XC 

3 39. always mingles together sorrowful and joyful things, that 

sorrow should not by its suddenness frighten the Apostles, 

but be borne by them with prepared minds. Theophyl. 

After, however, saying what was sorrowful, He adds what 

ought to rejoice them; wherefore it goes on: And after 

that he is killed, he shall rise the third day ; in order that 

we may learn that joys come on after struggles. There 

follows: But they understood not that saying, and were 

Bede afraid to ask him. Bede; This ignorance of the disciples 

8up * proceeds not so much from slowness of intellect, as from love 

for the Saviour, for they were as yet carnal, and ignorant of 

the mystery of the cross, they could not therefore believe 

that He whom they had recognised as the true God, was about 

to die; being accustomed then to hear Him often talk in 

figures, and shrinking from the event of His death, they 

would have it, that something was conveyed figuratively in 

those things, which he spoke openly concerning His betrayal 

and passion. It goes on: And they came to Capernaum. 

Pseudo-Jerome ; Capernaum means the city of consolation, 

and agrees with the former sentence, which He had spoken : 

And after that he is killed, he shall arise the third day. 

There follows : And being in the house he asked them, What 

Vict, was it that ye disputed among yourselves by the way? But 

Cat.' in they held their peace. Pseudo-Chrys. Matthew however says, 

Marc. t | iat t h e disciples came to Jesus, saying, Who is the greatest in 

Matt. 
18, I. 



VER. 30 — 37. ST. MARK. 181 

the kingdom of heaven ? The reason is, that he did not begin 
the narrative from its commencement, but omitted our Saviour's 
knowledge of the thoughts and words of His disciples; unless 
we understand Him to mean, that even what they thought 
and said, when away from Christ, was said unto Him, since 
it was as well known to Him as if it had been said to Him. 
It goes on : For by the way they had disputed among them- Luke 
selves, who should be the greatest. But Luke says, that " the y ulg ' 
thought entered into the disciples which of them should be 
the greatest ;" for the Lord laid open their thought and intention 
from their private discourse 1 according to the Gospel narrative. ' \* *nt 
Pseudo- Jerome; It was fit also that they should dispute con- x ^ tus 
cerning the chief place by the way ; the dispute is like the place 
where it is held; for lofty station is only entered upon to be quit- 
ted : as long as a man keeps it, it is slippery, and it is uncertain 
at what stage, that is, on what day, it will end. Bede; TheBede 
reason why the dispute concerning the chief place arose amongst u lsup ' 
the disciples seems to have been, that Peter, James, and John, 
were led apart from the rest into the mountain, and that 
something secret was there entrusted to them, also that the 
keys of the kingdom of heaven were promised to Peter, 
according to Matthew. Seeing however the thoughts of the 
disciples, the Lord takes care to heal the desire of glory by 
humility ; for He first, by simply commanding humility, admo- 
nishes them that a high station was not to be aimed at. 
Wherefore it goes on : And he sat down, and called the twelve, 
andsaith unto them, If any man desire to be first, the same shall 
be last of all, and servant of all. Jerome; Where it is to 
be observed, that the disciples disputed by the way concern^ 
ing the chief place, but Christ Himself sat down to teach 
humility; for princes toil while the humble repose. Pseudo- Vict. 
Chrys. The disciples indeed wished to receive honour at the c ^t. i n 
hands of the Lord; they also had a desire to be made great by Maro. 
Christ, for the greater a man is, the more worthy of honour 
he becomes, for which reason He did not throw an obstacle 
in the way of that desire, but brought in humility. Theo- 
phyl. For His wish is not that we should usurp for ourselves 
chief places, but that we should attain to lofty heights by 
lowliness. He next admonishes them by the example of 
a child's innocence ; wherefore there follows : And he took 



182 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IX. 

Vict, a child, and set him in the midst of them. Chrys. By the 
Cat. in verv sight, persuading them to humility and simplicity ; for 
Marc, this little one was pure from envy and vain glory, and from a 
Chrys. desire of superiority. But He does not only say, If ye 
Horn, in Decome such, ye shall receive a great reward, but also, if ye 
58. will honour others, who are such for my sake. Wherefore 
there follows : And when he had taken him in his arms, he 
said unto them, Whosoever shall receive one of such 
Bede children in my name, receiveth me. Bede ; By which, He 
11 lsup * either simply shews, that those who would become greater 
must receive the poor of Christ in honour of Him, or 
He would persuade them to be in malice children, to keep 
simplicity without arrogance, charity without envy, devoted- 
ness without anger. Again, by taking the child into His 
arms, He implies that the lowly are worthy of His embrace 
and love. He adds also, In my name, that they might, with 
the fixed purpose of reason, follow for His name's sake that 
mould of virtue to which the child keeps, with nature for his 
guide. And because He taught that He Himself was re- 
ceived in children, lest it should be thought that there was 
nothing in Him but what was seen, he added, And whosoever 
shall receive me, receiveth not me, but Him that sent me; 
thus wishing, that we should believe Him to be of the same 
nature and of equal greatness with His Father. Theophyl. 
See, how great is humility, for it wins for itself the indwelling 
of the Father, and of the Son, and also of the Holy Ghost. 



38. And John answered him, saying, Master, we 
saw one casting out devils in thy name, and he fol- 
loweth not us : and we forbad him, because he follow- 
eth not us. 

39. But Jesus said, Forbid him not : for there is 
no man which shall do a miracle in my name, that 
can lightly speak evil of me. 

40. For he that is not against us is on our part. 

41. For whosoever shall give you a cup of water to 
drink in my name, because ye belong to Christ, verily 
I say unto you, he shall not lose his reward. 



VER. 38 42. ST. MARK. 183 

42. And whosoever shall offend one of these little 
ones that believe in me, it is better for him that a 
millstone were hanged about his neck, and he were 
cast into the sea. 

Bede ; John, loving the Lord with eminent devotion, Bede 
thought that He who performed an office to which He had u ' sup * 
no right was to be excluded from the benefit of it. Where- 
fore it is said, And John answered him, saying, Master, we 
saw one casting out devils in thy name, and he followeth not 
us: and we forbad him, because he followeth not us. Pseudo- "Vict. 
Chrys. For many believers received gifts, and yet were c°t. in 
not with Christ, such was this man who cast out devils ; Marc - 
for there were many of them deficient in some way ; some 
were pure in life, but were not so perfect in faith ; others again, 
contrariwise. Theophyl. Or again, some unbelievers, seeing 
that the name of Jesus was full of virtue, themselves used 
it, and performed signs, though they were unworthy of Divine 
grace; for the Lord wished to extend His name even by the 
unworthy. Pseudo-Chrys. It was not from jealousy or envy, Vict. 
however, that John wished to forbid him w T ho cast out devils, cat in 
but because he wished that all, who called on the name of Marc. 
the Lord, should follow Christ, and be one body with His 
disciples. But the Lord, however unworthy they who per- 
form the miracles maybe, incites others by their means to be- 
lieve on Him, and induces themselves by this unspeakable grace 
to become better. Wherefore there follows : But Jesus said, 
Forbid him not. Bede; By which He shews that no one is Bede 
to be driven away from that partial goodness which he lllsup ' 
possesses already, but rather to be stirred up to that which 
he has not as yet obtained. Pseudo-Chrys. In conformity Vict, 
to this, He shews that he is not to be forbidden, adding im- £ n ** „ e 

7 . Cat. in 

mediately after, For there is no man which shall do a miracle Marc. 
in my name, that can lightly speak evil of me. He says 
lightly, to meet the case of those who fell into heresy, such as 
were Simon and Menander, and Cerinthus k ; not that they did 
miracles in the name of Christ, but by their deceptions had the 
appearance of doing them. But these others, though they do 

k Irensus, cont. Ha^r. 2, 31. seems were done by magic through the aid of 

to imply that the early heretics actually the devil, and were not works of 

worked wonders, but that these differed mercy ; he contrasts with these the 

from Christian miracles in that they ecclesiastical miracles of his day. 



184 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IX. 

not follow us, cannot however set themselves to say any thing 
against us, because they honour My name by working miracles. 
Theophyl. For how can he speak evil of Me, who draws glory 
from My name, and works miracles by the invocation of this 
very name. There follows, For he that is not against you is on 
Aug.de your part. Aug. We must take care that this saying of the 
Evan. Lord appear not to be contrary to that, where He says, He who 
h b - is not with me is against me. Or will any one say that the dif- 
23. ' ference lies in that here He says to His disciples, For he that 
is not against you is on your part, but in the other He speaks 
of Himself, He who is not with me is against me? As if 
indeed it were possible 1 that he who is joined to Christ's dis- 
ciples, who are as His members, should not be with Him. How 
Matt, if it were so, could it be true that he that receiveth you 
receiveth me f Or how is he not against Him, who is against 
Lukeio, His disciples ? Where then will be that saying, He who despiseth 
you, despiseth me ? But surely what is implied is, that a man 
is not with Him in as far as he is against Him, and is not 
against Him in as far as he is with Him. For instance, he 
who worked miracles in the name of Christ, and yet did not 
join himself to the body of His disciples, in as far as he 
worked the miracles in His name, was with them, and was not 
against them: again, in that he did not join their society, 
he was not with them, and was against them. But be- 
cause they forbade his doing that in which he was with 
them, the Lord said unto them, Forbid him not ; for they 
ought to have forbidden his being without their society, and 
thus to have persuaded him of the unity of the Church, but 
they should not have forbidden that in which he was with them, 
that is, his commendation of the name of their Lord and Master 
by the expulsion of devils. Thus the Church Catholic does 
not disapprove in heretics the sacraments, which are com- 
mon, but she blames their division, or some opinion of 
theirs adverse to peace and to truth ; for in this they are 
Vict, against us. Pseudo-Chrys. Or else, this is said of those 
Cat. in wno believe on Him, but nevertheless do not follow Him from 
Marc, the looseness of their lives. Again, it is said of devils, 
who try to separate all from God, and to disperse His 

1 St. Augustine has here quasi vero also been found in an old edition of 
instead of quasi non, which hardly the Catena Aurea, A.D. 1417. 
makes sense ; the latter reading has 



VER. 38 42. ST. MARK. 185 

congregation. There follows, For whosoever shall give 
you a cup of cold ivater to drink in my name, because 
ye belong to Christ, verily I say unto you, he shall not 
lose his reward. Theophyl. Not only will I not forbid 
him who works miracles in My name, but also whosoever 
shall give you the smallest thing for My name's sake, and 
shall receive you, not on account of human and worldly favour, 
but from love to Me, shall not lose his reward. Aug. By Aug. de 
which He shews, that he of whom John had spoken was not so Evan. 4 
far separated from the fellowship of the disciples, as to reject 6 * 
it, as a heretic, but as men are wont to hang back from receiv- 
ing the Sacraments of Christ, and yet favour the Christian name, 
so as even to succour Christians, and do them service only 
because they are Christians. Of these He says they shall not 
lose their reward ; not that they ought already to think them- 
selves secure on account of this good will which they have 
towards Christians, without being washed with His baptism, 
and incorporated in His unity, but that they are already so 
guided by the mercy of God, as also to attain to these, and thus 
to go away from this life in security. Pseudo-Chrys. And Vict, 
that no man may allege poverty, He mentions thatcat'in 
of which none can be destitute, that is, a cup of cold Marc, 
water, for which also he will obtain a reward ; for it is 
not the value of the gift, but the dignity of those who receive 
it, and the feelings of the giver, which makes a work worthy 
of reward. His words shew that His disciples are to be 
received, not only on account of the reward, which he who re- 
ceives them obtains, but also, because he thus saves himself 
from punishment. There follows: And whosoever shall offend 
one of these little ones that believe in me, it is better for him 
that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he were 
cast into the sea: as though He would say, 1 All who honour you ! vid. 
for My sake have their reward, so also those who dishonour Hom!in 
you, that is, offend you, shall receive the worst of vengeance. Matt. 
Further, from things which are palpable to us, He describes 
an intolerable torment, making mention of a millstone, and 
of being drowned ; and He says not, let a millstone be 
hanged about his neck, but, it is better for him to suffer this, 
shewing by this that some more heavy evil awaits him. But 
He means by little ones that believe on Me, not only those 



186 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IX. 

who follow Him, but those who call upon His name, those also 
who offer a cup of cold water, though they do not any greater 
works. Now He will have none of these offended or plucked 
away; for this is what is meant by forbidding them to call 
Bede upon His name. Bede ; And fitly the man who is offended is 
sup * called a little one, for he who is great, whatever he may suffer, 
departs not from the faith ; but he who is little and weak in 
mind looks out for occasions of stumbling. For this reason 
we must most of all look to those who are little ones in 
the faith, lest by our fault they should be offended, and go back 
Greg, in from the faith, and fall away from salvation. Greg. We 
i. Z Hom. must observe, however, that in our good works we must 
7. sometimes avoid the offence of our neighbour, sometimes 

look down upon it as of no moment. For in as far as we can 
do it without sin, we ought to avoid the offence of our neigh- 
bour; but if a stumblingblock is laid before men in what 
concerns the truth, it is better to allow the offence to arise, 
Greg.de than that the truth should be abandoned. Greg. Mystically 
past. by a millstone is expressed the tedious round and toil 
p. i.e. 2. f a secu l ar life, and by the depths of the sea, the worst 
damnation is pointed out. He who therefore, after having 
been brought to a profession of sanctity, destroys others, 
either by word or example, it had been indeed better for 
him that his worldly deeds should render him liable to 
death, under a secular garb, than that his holy office should 
hold him out as an example for others in his faults, because 
doubtless if he had fallen alone, his pain in hell would have 
been of a more endurable kind. 

43. And if thy hand offend thee, cut it off: it is 
better for thee to enter into life maimed, than having 
two hands to go into hell, into the fire that never 
shall be quenched : 

44. Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not 
quenched. 

45. And if thy foot offend thee, cut it off: it is 
better for thee to enter halt into life, than having two 
feet to be cast into hell, into the fire that never shall 
be quenched: 



VER. 43 — 50. ST. MARK. 187 

46. Where their worm dieth not,, and the fire is not 
quenched. 

47. And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out : it 
is better for thee to enter into the kingdom of God 
with one eye, than having two eyes to be cast into 
hell fire : 

48. Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is 
not quenched. 

49. For every one shall be salted with fire, and 
every sacrifice shall be salted with salt. 

50. Salt is good : but if the salt have lost his 
saltness, wherewith will ye season it ? Have salt in 
yourselves, and have peace one with another. 

Bede ; Because the Lord had taught us not to offend Bede 
those who believe on Him, He now as next in order warns ubisup * 
us how much we should beware of those who offend us, 
that is, who by their words or conduct strive to drag us into 
the perdition of sin ; wherefore He says, And if thy hand offend 
thee, cut it off. Chrys. He says not this of our limbs, but of Chrys. 
our intimate friends, whom as being necessary to us we look JJ°™' in 
upon as our limbs ; for nothing is so hurtful as mischievous 59 - 
society. Bede ; That is, He calls by the name of hand, our Bede 
intimate friend, of whose aid we daily stand in need ; but if ubl sup * 
such an one should wish to do us a hurt in what concerns 
our soul, he is to be driven away from our society, lest by 
choosing a portion in this life with one who is lost, we should 
perish together with him in that which is to come. Where- 
fore there follows, It is better for thee to enter into life 
maimed, than having two hands to enter into hell. Gloss. Gloss. 
By maimed He means, deprived of the help of some friend, nor 
for it is better to enter into life without a friend, than to go with 
him into hell. Pseudo-Jerome; Or else, It is better for thee 
to enter into life maimed, that is, without the chief place, 
for which you have wished, than having two hands to go into 
eternal fire. The two hands for high station are humility and 
pride; cut off' pride, keeping to the estate of lowliness. Vict. 

Pseudo-Chrys. Then He introduces the witness of pro- ^t' e 

Marc. 



188 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IX. 

isa. 66 phecy from the prophet Isaiah, saying, Where their worm 
24. dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. He says not this of a 
visible worm, but He calls conscience, a worm, gnawing the 
soul for not having done any good thing; for each of us shall 
be made his own accuser, by calling to mind what he has done 
Bede in this mortal life, and so their worm remains for ever. Bede ; 
And as the worm is the pain which inwardly accuses, so the 
fire is a punishment which rages without us; or by the 
worm is meant the rottenness of hell, by the fire, its heat. 
Aug. de Aug. But those who hold that both of these, namely, the 
pj' fire and the worm, belong to the pains of the soul, and not 
xxi. 9. of the body, say also that those who are separated from the 
kingdom of God are tortured, as with fire, by the pangs of a 
soul, repenting too late, and hopelessly ; and they not unfitly 
contend that fire may be put for that burning grief, as says the 
2 Cor. Apostle, Who is offended, and I burn not ? They also think 
11,29. th a t by the worm must be understood the same grief, as is 
p rov# said: As a moth destroys a garment, and a worm wood, so 
25,20. grief tortures the heart of man. All those who hesitate not to 
affirm that there will be pain both of body and soul in that 
punishment, affirm that the body is burnt by the fire. But 
although this is more credible, because it is absurd that there 
either the pains of body or of soul should be wanting, still I 
think that it is easier to say that both belong to the body 
than that neither ; and therefore it seems to me that Holy 
Scripture in this place is silent about the pains of the soul, 
because it follows that the soul also is tortured in the pains 
of the body. Let each man therefore choose which he will, 
either to refer the fire to the body, the worm to the soul, the 
one properly, the other in a figure, or else both properly to 
the body; for living things may exist even in fire, in burnings 
without being wasted, in pain without death, by the won- 
drous power of the Almighty Creator. It goes on : And 
if thy foot offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to 
enter halt into life, than having two feet to be cast into 
hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched; where their 
Bede worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. Bede; A 
sup. f r j en( j j s ca i] e d a foot, on account of its service in going 
about for us, since he is as it were ready for our use. It goes 
on: And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out: it is better 



VER. 43 50. ST. MARK. 189 

for thee to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye, than 
having two eyes to be cast into hell fire; ivhere their worm 
dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. A friend who is 
useful, and anxious, and sharp in perception, is called an eye. 
Aug. Here truly it appears that they who do acts of Aug. de 
devotedness in the name of Christ, even before they have E °"„ 
joined themselves to the company of Christians, and have 4 ) 6 - 
been washed in the Christian Sacraments, are more useful 
than those who though already bearing the name of Chris- 
tians, by their doctrine drag their followers with them- 
selves into everlasting punishment ; whom also under the 
name of members of the body, He orders, as an offending 
eye or hand, to be torn from the body, that is, from the fel- 
lowship itself of unity, that we may rather come to ever- 
lasting life without them, than with them go into hell. 
But the separation of those who separate themselves from 
them consists in the very circumstance of their not yielding 
to them, when they would persuade them to evil, that is, offend 
them. If indeed their wickedness becomes known to all the 
good men, with whom they are connected, they are al- 
together cut off from all fellowship, and even from partaking 
in the heavenly Sacraments. If however they are thus known 
only to the smaller number, whilst their wickedness is un- 
known to the generality, they are to be tolerated in 
such a way that we should not consent to join in their 
iniquity, and that the communion of the good should not be 
deserted on their account. Bede; But because the LordBede 
had three times made mention of the worm and the fire, that ubl sup * 
we might be able to avoid this torment, He subjoins, For 
every one shall be salted with fire. For the stink of worms 
always arises from the corruption of flesh and blood, and 
therefore fresh meat is seasoned with salt, that the moisture of 
the blood may be dried off, and so it may not breed worms. 
And if, indeed, that which is salted with salt, keeps off 
the putrefying worm, that which is salted with fire, that is, 
seasoned again with flames, on which salt is sprinkled, not 
only casts off worms, but also consumes the flesh itself. 
Flesh and blood therefore breed worms, that is, carnal 
pleasure, if unopposed by the seasoning of continence, pro- 
duces everlasting punishment for the luxurious; the stink of 



190 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. IX. 

which if any man would avoid, let him take care to chasten 

his body with the salt of continence, and his mind with the 

seasoning of wisdom, from the stain of error and vice. For 

salt means the sweetness of wisdom, and fire, the grace of 

the Holy Spirit. He says therefore, Every one shall be 

salted with fire, because all the elect ought to be purged by 

spiritual wisdom, from the corruption of carnal concupiscence. 

Or else, the fire is the fire of tribulation, by which the 

patience of the faithful is proved, that it may have its perfect 

Vict. work. Pseudo-Chrys. Similar to this is that which the Apostle 

Cat" in says, And the fire shall try every man's work of what sort it 

Marc. is. Afterwards he brings in a witness from Leviticus : which 

3 13. sa y s ? And every oblation of thy meat offering shalt thou 

Lev. 2, se ason with salt. Pseu do -Jerome ; The oblation of the Lord 

is the race of man, which is here salted by means of wisdom, 

whilst the corruption of blood, the nurse of rottenness, and 

the mother of worms, is being consumed, which there also shall 

Bede be tried by the purgatorial fire m . Bede; We may also under- 

sup * stand the altar to be the heart of the elect, and the victims 

and sacrifices to be offered on the altar are good works. 

But in all sacrifices salt ought to be offered, for that is not a 

good work which is not purged by the salt of wisdom from 

all corruption of vain glory, and other evil and superfluous 

v. Vict, thoughts. Pseudo-Chrys. Or else it is meant, that every gift 

Cat in °f our victim, which is accompanied by prayer and the assisting 

Luke of our neighbour, is salted with that divine fire, of which it 

]() AQ . m 

is said, / am come to send fire on earth. Concerning which 
it is added: Salt is good; that is, the fire of love. But if 
the salt have lost his saltness, that is, is deprived of itself, 
and that peculiar quality, by which it is called good, where- 
with ivill ye season it? For there is salt, which has saltness, 
that is, which has the fulness of grace; and there is salt, 
which has no saltness, for that which is not peaceful is salt 
Bede unseasoned. Bede; Or the good salt is the frequent hearing 
ubi sup. Q f Q 0( j' s WO rd, and the seasoning the hidden parts of the 
heart with the salt of spiritual wisdom. Theophyl. For as 
salt preserves flesh, and suffers it not to breed worms, so also 
the discourse of the teacher, if it can dry up what is evil, 

01 On the subject of the purgatorial note i, and Chrysost. de Statuis, vi. 15. 
fire, vid. Fleury's Hist. xix. 31. p. 102. p. 130. note c. Oxf. tr. 



VER. 43 50. ST. MARK. 191 

constrains carnal men, and suffers not the undying worm to grow 
up in them. But if it be without saltness, that is, if its virtue of 
drying up and preserving be gone, with what shall it be salted ? 
Pseudo-Chrys. Or, according to Matthew, the disciples of v. Vict. 
Christ are the salt, which preserves the whole world, resisting cat. 
the rottenness which proceeds from idolatry and sinful fornica- 
tion. For it may also be meant, that each of us has salt, in as 
far as he contains in himself the graces of God. Wherefore also 
the Apostle joins together grace and salt, saying, Let your Col.4,6. 
speech be always with grace, seasoned with salt. For salt 
is the Lord Jesus Christ, Who was able to preserve the whole 
earth, and made many to be salt in the earth : and if any of 
these be corrupted, (for it is possible for even the good to be 
changed into corruption,) they are worthy to be cast out. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; Or otherwise ; That salt is saltless which 
loves the chief place, and dares not rebuke others. Where- 
fore there follows, Have salt in yourselves, and have peace one 
with another. That is, let the love of your neighbour 
temper the saltness of rebuke, and the salt of justice season 
the love of your neighbour. Greg. Or this is said against Greg, 
those whom greater knowledge, while it raises above their pa g t cura 
neighbours, cuts off from the fellowship of others; thus theiii-c.22. 
more their learning increases, the more they unlearn the virtue 
of concord. Greg. He also who strives to speak with wisdom Ibid. ii. 
should be greatly afraid, lest by his eloquence the unity of 
his hearers be thrown into confusion, lest, while he would 
appear wise, he unwisely cut asunder the bonds of unity. 
Theophyl. Or else, he who binds himself to his neighbour by 
the tie of love, has salt, and in this way peace with his neigh- 
bour. Aug. Mark relates that the Lord said these thingsAug.de 
consecutively, and has put down some things omitted by;^"^ 
every other Evangelist, some which Matthew has also 
related, others which both Matthew and Luke relate, but on 
other occasions, and in a different series of events. Where- 
fore it seems to me that our Lord repeated in this place dis- 
courses which He had used in other places, because they 
were pertinent enough to this saying of His, by which He 
prevented their forbidding miracles to be wrought in His 
name, even by him who followed Him not together with 
His disciples. 



CHAP. X. 

1. And he arose from thence, and cometh into the 
coasts of Judaea by the farther side of Jordan : and 
the people resort unto him again ; and, as he was 
wont, he taught them again. 

2. And the Pharisees came to him, and asked him, 
Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? tempting 
him. 

3. And he answered and said unto them, What did 
Moses command you? 

4. And they said, Moses suffered to write a bill of 
divorcement, and to put her away. 

5. And Jesus answered and said unto them, For 
the hardness of your heart he wrote you this precept. 

6. But from the beginning of the creation God 
made them male and female. 

7. For this cause shall a man leave his father and 
mother, and cleave to his wife ; 

8. And they twain shall be one flesh : so then they 
are no more twain, but one flesh. 

9. What therefore God hath joined together, let 
not man put asunder. 

10. And in the house his disciples asked him again 
of the same matter. 

11. And he saith unto them, Whosoever shall put 
away his wife, and marry another, committeth adultery 
against her. 



VER. 1 — 12. GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. 193 

12. And if a woman shall put away her husband, 
and be married to another, she committeth adul- 
tery. 

Bede; Up to this time Mark hath related what our Lord^ ed e 
said and did in Galilee ; here he begins to relate what He 3, 40. 
did, taught, or suffered in Judaea, and first indeed across the 
Jordan on the east; and this is what is said in these words: 
And he arose from thence, and cometh into the coasts of 
Judcea, by the farther side of Jordan ; then also on this 
side Jordan, when He came to Jericho, Bethany, and Jerusa- 
lem. And though all the province of the Jews is generally 
called Judaea, to distinguish it from other nations, more 
especially, however, its southern portion was called Judaea, to 
distinguish it from Samaria, Galilee, Decapolis, and the other 
regions in the same province. Theophyl. But He enters 
the region of Judaea, which the envy of the Jews had often 
caused Him to leave, because His Passion was to take place 
there. He did not, however, then go up to Jerusalem, but 
to the confines of Judaea, that He might do good to the multi- 
tudes, who were not evil; for Jerusalem was, from the malice 
of the Jews, the worker of all the wickedness. Wherefore it 
goes on : And the people resort unto him again, and, as he was 
wont, he taught them again. Bede; Mark the difference of Bede 
temper in the multitude and in the Pharisees. The former meet u 1 sup * 
together, in order to be taught, and that their sick may be 
healed, as Matthew relates ; the latter come to Him, to Matt. 
try to deceive their Saviour by tempting Him. Wherefore 19 ' 2 * 
there follows, And the Pharisees came to him, and asked him, 
Is it lawful for a man to put aw ay his wife? tempting Him. 
Theophyl. They come to Him indeed, and do not quit Him, 
lest the multitudes should believe on Him; and by continually 
coming to Him, they thought to bring Him into difficulty, 
and to confuse Him by their questions. For they proposed 
to Him a question, which had on either side a precipice, so 
that whether He said that it was lawful for a man to put away 
his wife, or that it was not lawful, they might accuse Him, 
and contradict what He said, out of the doctrines of Moses. 
Christ, therefore, being Very Wisdom, in answering their 

vol. 11. o 



194 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. X. 

vi ct. question, avoids their snares. Chrys. For being asked, 
Cat. in whether it is lawful, he does not immediately reply, it is not 
Marc, lawful, lest they should raise an outcry, but He first wished 
Chrys. them to answer Him as to the sentence of the law, that they 
62° m Dv their answer might furnish Him with what it was right to 
say. Wherefore it goes on, And he answered and said unto 
them, What did Moses command you? And afterwards, And 
they said, Moses suffered to write a bill of divorcement, and 
to put her away. They put forward indeed this that Moses 
had said either on account of the question of our Saviour, or 
wishing to excite against Him a multitude of men. For di- 
vorce was an indifferent thing among the Jews, and all prac- 
Aug. tised it, as though it were permitted by the law. Aug. It 
de Con. ma k es nothing, however, to the truth of the fact, w r hether, as 

Evan. 11. ° 7 7 

62. Matthew says, ' they themselves addressed to the Lord the 
ap^Auff. question concerning the bill of divorcement, allowed to them 
by Moses, on our Lord's forbidding the separation, and 
confirming His sentence from the law, or whether it was in 
answer to a question of His, that they said this concerning the 
command of Moses, as Mart here says. For His wish was to 
give them no reason why Moses permitted it, before they 
themselves had mentioned the fact; since then the w r ish of the 
parties speaking, which is what the words ought to express, is in 
either way shewn, there is no discrepancy, though there be a 
difference in the way of relating it. It may also be meant 
that, as Mark expresses it, the question put to them by the Lord, 
What did Moses command? was in answer to those who had 
previously asked His opinion concerning the putting away 
of a wife ; and when they had replied that Moses permitted 
them to write a bill of divorcement, and to put her away, 
Matt. His answer was concerning that same law, given by Moses, 
how God instituted the marriage of a male, and a female, 
saying those things which Matthew relates; on hearing which 
they again rejoined what they had replied to Him when He 
Aug first asked them, namely, Why then did Moses command? Aug. 
F au g t Moses, however, was against a man's dismissing his wife, for he 
xix. 26. interposed this delay, that a person whose mind was bent on se- 
paration, might be deterred by the writing of the bill, and desist ; 
particularly, since, as is related, among the Hebrews, no one 
was allowed to write Hebrew characters but the scribes. The 



VER. 1 — 12. ST. MARK. 195 

law therefore wished to send him, whom it ordered to give a 
bill of divorcement, before he dismissed his wife, to them, 
who ought to be wise interpreters of the law, and just oppo- 
nents of quarrel. For a bill could only be written for him 
by men, who by their good advice might overrule him, since 
his circumstances and necessity had put him into their 
hands, and so by treating between him and his wife they might 
persuade them to love and concord. But if a hatred 
so great had arisen that it could not be extinguished 
and corrected, then indeed a bill was to be written, that he 
might not lightly put away her who was the object of his 
hate, in such a way as to prevent his being recalled to the 
love, which he owed her by marriage, through the persuasion 
of the wise. For this reason it is added, For the hardness 
of your heart, he wrote this precept ; for great was the 
hardness of heart which could not be melted or bent to the 
taking back and recalling the love of marriage, even by the 
interposition of a bill in a way which gave room for the just 
and wise to dissuade them. Pseudo-Chrys. Or else, it is said, Cat. in 
For the hardness of your hearts, because it is possible for a J?? rc * 
soul purged from desires and from anger to bear the worst 
of women; but if those passions have a redoubled force over 
the mind, many evils will arise from hatred in marriage. 
Thus then, He saves Moses, who had given the law, from Chrys. 
their accusation, and turns the whole upon their head. sup ' 
But since what He had said was grievous to them, He 
at once brings back the discourse to the old law, saying, 
But from the beginning of the creation, God made them 
male and female. Bede ; He says not male and females, Bede 
which the sense would have required had it referred to the ubl sup * 
divorce of former wives, but male and female, so that they 
might be bound by the tie of one wife. Chrys. If however Chrys. 
he had wished one wife to be put away and another to be brought sup * 
in, He would have created several women. Nor did God only 
join one woman to one man, but He also bade a man quit his 
parents and cleave to his wife. Wherefore it goes on : And 
he said, (that is, God said by Adam,) For this cause shall a 
man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife. 
From the very mode of speech, shewing the impossibility of 
severing marriage, because He said, He shall cleave. Bede; Bede 

o 2 ubi SU P- 



196 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. X. 

And in like manner, because He says, he shall cleave to his 

wife, not wives. It goes on : And they twain shall be one 

Chrys. flesh. Chrys. Being framed out of one root, they will join 

u 1 sup ' into one body. It goes on : So then they are no more twain, 

Bede & u t one flesh. Bede ; The reward then of marriage is of 

ubi sup. £ W0 to become one flesh. Virginity being joined to the 

Chrys. Spirit, becomes of one spirit. Chrys. After this, bringing 

ubi sup. f orwar d an awful argument, He said not, do not divide, 

but He concluded, What therefore God hath joined to- 

Aug. gether, let not man put asunder. Aug. Behold the Jews 

p nt * are convinced out of the books of Moses, that a wife is 

xix. 29. not to be put away, while they fancied that in putting her 

away, they were doing the will of Moses. In like manner 

from this place, from the witness of Christ Himself, we 

know this, that God made and joined male and female, 

for denying which the Manichees are condemned, resisting 

now not the books of Moses, but the Gospel of Christ. 

Bede Bede ; What therefore God hath conjoined by making 

up * one flesh of a man and a woman, that man cannot separate, 

but God alone. Man separates, when we dismiss the first 

wife because we desire a second; but it is God who 

l Cor. 7 separates, when by common consent, for the sake of 

5. 29. serving God, we so have wives as though we had none. 

Chrys. "Chrys. But if two persons, whom God has joined together, 

non occ. are no ^ ^ ^ e separated ; much more is it wrong to separate 

from Christ, the Church, which God has joined to Him. 

Theophyl. But the disciples were offended, as not being 

fully satisfied with what had been said ; for this reason they 

again question Him, wherefore there follows, And in the 

house, his disciples asked him again of the same matter. 

Pseudo-Jerome; This second question is said to be asked 

again by the Apostles, because it is on the subject of w T hich 

Gloss, the Pharisees had asked Him, that is, concerning the state of 

non occ. ma rriage ; and this is said by Mark in his own person. Gloss. 

Ecclus. For a repetition of a saying of the Word, produces not weari- 

24, 29. uesSj biit thirst and hunger; wherefore it is said, They that eat 

me shall yet be hungry, and they that drink me shall yet be 

p The same sort of comment is to be 9. Auct. Op. Imperfecti inloc. Theo- 
found in Origen, in Matt. torn. 14, 17. phyl. in Matt. 19. 
Hil. in Matt. 19. Amor, in Luc. 8, 



VER. 13 — 16'. ST. MARK. 197 

thirsty ; for the tasting of the honied words of wisdom 
yields all manner of savour to them who love her. Wherefore 
the Lord instructs His disciples over again ; for it goes on, 
And he saith imto them, Whosoever shall put away his wife 
and marry another, committeth adultery upon her. Pseudo- Vict. 
Chrys. The Lord calls by the name of adultery cohabitation c "t.' in 
with her who is not a man's wife ; she is not, however, a wife, Marc, 
whom a man has taken to him, after quitting his first; and for this 
reason he commits adultery upon her, that is, upon the second, 
whom he brings in. And the same thing is true in the case of the 
woman ; wherefore it goes on, And if a woman shall put away 
her husband, and marry another, she committeth adultery ; 
for she cannot be joined to another as her own husband, if she 
leave him who is really her own husband. The law in- 
deed forbade what was plainly adultery; but the Saviour forbids 
this, which was neither plain, nor known to all, though it was 
contrary to nature. Bede ; In Matthew it is more fully ex- Bede 
pressed, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for Vatt UP ' 
fornication. The only carnal cause then is fornication ; the 19 > 9 - 
only spiritual cause is the fear of God, that a man should 
put away his wife to enter into religion , as we read that many 
have done. But there is no cause allowed by the law of God 
for marrying another, during the lifetime of her who is quitted. 
Pseudo-Chrys. There is no contrariety in Matthew's relating Vict, 
that He spoke these words to the Pharisees, though Mark says cat'in 
that they were spoken to the disciples ; for it is possible that Marc. 
He may have spoken them to both. 

13. And they brought young children to him, that 
he should touch them : and his disciples rebuked 
those that brought them. 

14. But when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, 
and said unto them, Suffer the little children to come 
unto me, and forbid them not : for of such is the 
kingdom of God. 

Husbands and wives have never dentally given many instances of 

been allowed to take monastic vows married persons thus giving up the 

without mutual consent, v. Bingham, world, 
book 7. c. 3. where also are inci- 



198 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. X. 

15. Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not 
receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall 
not enter therein. 

16. And he took them up in his arms, put his 
hands upon them, and blessed them. 

Theoppiyl. The wickedness of the Pharisees in tempting 
Christ, has been related above, and now is shewn the great 
faith of the multitude, who believed that Christ conferred a 
blessing on the children whom they brought to Him, by the 
mere laying on of His hands. Wherefore it is said : And they 
brought young children to him, that he might touch them. 
Chrys. Chrys. But the disciples, out of regard for the dignity of Christ, 
ubi sup. forbade those who brought them. And this is what is added : 
And his disciples rebuked those tvho brought them. But our 
Saviour, in order to teach His disciples to be modest in thei r 
ideas, and to tread under foot worldly pride, takes the 
children to Him, and assigns to them the kingdom of God : 
wherefore it goes on : And he said unto them, Suffer little 
Orig. m children to come unto me, and forbid them not. Origen ; 
tom! xv. If an y of those who profess to hold the office of teaching 1 in 
7- t the Church should see a person bringing to them some of 
x „ nv the foolish of this world, and low born, and weak, who for 
ap.Ong. tbis reason are called children and infants, let him not 
forbid the man who offers such an one to the Saviour, as 
though he were acting without judgment. After this He 
exhorts those of His disciples who are already grown to full 
stature to condescend to be useful to children, that they may be- 
\ Cor. come to children as children, that they may gain children ; 
9,22. f or n e Himself, when He was in the form of God, hum- 
bled Himself, and became a child. On which He adds : 
Chrys. For of such is the kingdom of heaven. Chrys. For 
^' indeed the mind of a child is pure from all passions, for 
which reason, we ought by free choice to do those works, 
which children have by nature. Theophyl. Wherefore He 
says not, for of these, but of such is the kingdom of God, 
that is, of persons who have both in their intention and their 
work tbe-harmlessness and simplicity which children have by 
nature For a child floes not hate, does nothing of evil 



VER. 17 — 27. ST. MARK. 199 

intent, nor though beaten does he quit his mother; and 
though she clothe him in vile garments, prefers them to 
kingly apparel; in like manner he, who lives according to the 
good ways of his mother the Church, honours nothing before 
her, nay, not pleasure, which is the queen of many; where- 
fore also the Lord subjoins, Verily I say unto you, Whoso- 
ever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, 
he shall not enter therein. Bede; That is, if ye have notBede 
innocence and purity of mind like that of children, ye cannot u ! sup * 
enter into the kingdom of heaven. Or else, we are ordered to 
receive the kingdom of God, that is, the doctrine of the 
Gospel, as a little child, because as a child, when he is 
taught, does not contradict his teachers, nor put together 
reasonings and words against them, but receives with faith 
what they teach, and obeys them with awe, so we also are to 
receive the word of the Lord with simple obedience, and 
without any gainsaying. It goes on : And he took them 
up in his arms, put his hands upon them, and blessed them. 
Pseudo-Chrys. Fitly does He take them up into His arms to vict. 
bless them, as it were, lifting into His own bosom, andrecon- £ nt, . e 

. ,- T . . • . Cat. in 

cilmg Himself to His creation, which in the beginning fell Marc, 
from Him, and was separated from Him. Again, He puts 
His hands upon the children, to teach us the working of His 
divine power ; and indeed, He puts His hands upon them, 
as others are wont to do, though His operation is not as that of 
others, for though He was God, He kept to human ways 
of acting, as being very man. Bede; Having embraced Bede 
the children, He also blessed them, implying that the lowly ubi SU P* 
in spirit are worthy of His blessing, grace, and love. 



17. And when he was gone forth into the way, 
there came one running, and kneeled to him, and 
asked him, Good Master, what shall I do that I may 
inherit eternal life ? 

18. And Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou 
me good ? there is none good but one, that is, God. 

19. Thou knowest the commandments, Do not 
commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not 



200 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. X. 

bear false witness, Defraud not, Honour thy father 
and mother. 

20. And he answered and said unto him, Master, 
all these have I observed from my youth. 

21. Then Jesus beholding him loved him, and said 
unto him, One thing thou lackest : go thy way, sell 
whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou 
shalt have treasure in heaven : and come, take up 
the cross, and follow me. 

22. And he was sad at that saying, and went away 
grieved : for he had great possessions. 

23. And Jesus looked round about, and saith unto 
his disciples, How hardly shall they that have riches 
enter into the kingdom of God ! 

24. And the disciples were astonished at his words, 
But Jesus answereth again, and saith unto them, 
Children, how hard is it for them that trust in riches 
to enter into the kingdom of God ! 

25. It is easier for a camel to go through the eye 
of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the 
kingdom of God. 

26. And they were astonished out of measure, 
saying among themselves, Who then can be saved ? 

27. And Jesus looking upon them saith, With men 
it is impossible, but not with God : for with God all 
things are possible. 

Bede Bede ; A certain man had heard from the Lord that only 

Slip ' they who are willing to be like little children are worthy to 
enter into the kingdom of heaven, and therefore he desires 
to have explained to him, not in parables, but openly, by the 
merits of what works a man may attain everlasting life. 
Wherefore it is said : And when he was gone forth into the 
way, there came one running, and kneeled to him, and asked 
him, Good Master, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal 
life f Theophyl. I wonder at this young man, who when 
all others come to Christ to be healed of their infirmities, 



VEIL 17 27. ST. MARK. 201 

begs of Him the possession of everlasting life, notwithstanding 
his love of money, the malignant passion which afterwards 
caused his sorrow. Chrys. Because however he had come Chrys. 
to Christ as he would to a man, and to one of the Jewish doctors, M °™' in 
Christ answered him as Man. Wherefore it goes on: And®$- 
Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is 
none good but the One God. In saying which He does 
not exclude men from goodness, but from a comparison with 
the goodness of God. Bede; But by this one God, who is Bede 
good, we must not only understand the Father, but also the sup * 
Son, who says, / am the good Shepherd; and also the Holy John 
Ghost, because it is said, The Father which is in heaven will Ll J ke ' 
give the good Spirit to them that ask him. For the One and 2, 10- 
Undivided Trinity itself, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, is 
the Only and One good God. The Lord, therefore, does not deny 
Himself to be good, but implies that He is God; He does 
not deny that He is good Master, but He declares 
that no master is good but God. Theophyl. There- 
fore the Lord intended by these words to raise the mind of 
the young man, so that he might know Him to be God. 
But He also implies another thing by these words, that 
when you have to converse with a man, you should not 
flatter him in your conversation, but look back upon God, 
the root and fount of goodness, and do honour to Him. 
Bede ; But observe that the righteousness of the law, when Be . tle 
kept in its own time, conferred not only earthly goods, but 
also eternal life on those who chose it. Wherefore the 
Lord's answer to one who enquires concerning everlasting- 
life is, Thou knowest the commandments, Do not commit 
adultery, Do not kill ; for this is the childlike blamelessness 
which is proposed to us, if we would enter the kingdom of 
heaven. On which there follows, And he answered and 
said unto him, Master, all these have I observed from my 
youth. We must not suppose that this man either asked 
the Lord, with a wish to tempt him, as some have fancied, 
or lied in his account of his life ; but we must believe 
that he confessed with simplicity how he had lived; which 
is evident, from what is subjoined, Then Jesus beholding him 
loved him, and said unto him. If however he had been 
guilty of lying or of dissimulation, by no means would Jesus, 



t>02 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. X. 

after looking on the secrets of his heart, have been said to 

Orig. in love him. Okigen ; For in that He loved, or kissed him p , 

tom. xv. He appears to affirm the truth of his profession in saying that 

14, he had fulfilled all those things ; for on applying His mind 

to him, He saw that the man answered with a good conscience. 

Cat. in Pseudo-Chrys. It is worthy of enquiry, however,how He loved 

Oxon. a man, who, He knew, would not follow Him ? But this is so 

much as to say, that since he was worthy of love in the 

first instance, because he observed the things of the law from 

his youth, so in the end, though he did not take upon himself 

perfection, he did not suffer a lessening of his former love. 

For although he did not pass the bounds of humanity, nor follow 

the perfection of Christ, still he was not guilty of any sin, 

since he kept the law according to the capability of a man, 

Bede and in this mode of keeping it, Christ loved him i. Bede ; 

" For God loves those who keep the commandments of the 

law, though they be inferior ; nevertheless, He shews to those 

Matt. wno would be perfect the deficiency of the law, for He came 

5 > l7 - not to destroy the law, but to fulfil it. Wherefore there 

follows : And said unto him, One thing thou lackest : go thy 

way, sell whatsoever thou, hast, and give to the poor, and 

thou shall have treasure in heaven: and come, follow me; 

for whosoever would be perfect ought to sell all that he has, 

not a part, like Ananias and Sapphira, but the whole. Theo- 

phyl. And when he has sold it, to give it to the poor, not to 

Chrys. stage-players and luxurious persons. Chrys. Well too did 

sup. jj e ga ^ nQ j. e j- erna i ]if e? b U | treasure, saying, And thou shall 

have treasure in heaven; for since the question was con- 
cerning wealth, and the renouncing of all things, He shews 
that He returns more things than He has bidden us leave, in 
proportion as heaven is greater than earth. Theophyl. But 
because there are many poor who are not humble, but are 
drunkards or have some other vice, for this reason He 
Bede says, And come, follow me. Bede; For he follows the Lord, 
u • sll P- wno imitates Him, and walks in His footsteps. It goes on : 
And he was sad at that saying, and went away grieved. 

p Osculatus est ap. vet. interp. in Gospel precepts, without going on to 

Ed. Ben. counsels of perfection ; but the sense of 

q The general meaning corresponds the Greek has been missed by the Latin 

with the original, and is, that the young translator, 
man is a type of those who keep the 



VER. 17 27. ST. MARK. 203 

Chrys. And the Evangelist adds the cause of his grief, Chrys. 

• mi /• t />, UD1 SUp. 

saying, For he had great possessions. Ihe feelings of those 
who have little and those who have much are not the same, 
for the increase of acquired wealth lights up a greater flame 
of covetousness. There follows: And Jesus looked round 
about, and said unto his disciples, How hardly shall they 
that have riches enter into the kingdom of God. Theophyl. 
He says not here, that riches are bad, but that those are bad 
who only have them to watch them carefully ; for He 
teaches us not to have them, that is, not to keep or preserve 
them, but to use them in necessary things. Chrys. But the Chrys. 
Lord said this to His disciples, who were poor and possessed ubl sup * 
nothing, in order to teach them not to blush at their poverty, 
and as it were to make an excuse to them, and give them a 
reason, why He had not allowed them to possess any thing. 
It goes on : And the disciples were astonished at his words; 
for it is plain, since they themselves were poor, that they were 
anxious for the salvation of others. Bede ; But there is a great 
difference between having riches, and loving them; where- 
fore also Solomon says not, He that hath silver, but, He that Eccl. 
loveth silver shall not be satisfied with silver. Therefore 5 ' 10 ' 
the Lord unfolds the words of His former saying to His 
astonished disciples, as follows : But Jesus answerelh again, 
and saith unto them, Children, how hard it is for them that 
trust in their riches to enter the kingdom of God. Where we 
must observe that He says not, how impossible, but how hard; 
for what is impossible cannot in any way come to pass, what 
is difficult can be compassed, though with labour. Chrys. Chrys. 
Or else, after saying difficult, He then shews that it is im- u * sup * 
possible, and that not simply, but with a certain vehemence; 
and he shews this by an example, saying, // is easier for a 
camel to pass through the eye of a needle, than for a rich 
man to enter the kingdom of heaven. Theophyl. It 
may be that by camel, we should understand the animal 
itself, or else that thick cable, which is used for large 
vessels. Bede; How then could either in the Gospel, Bede 
Matthew and Joseph, or in the Old Testament, very many ubisu P* 
rich persons, enter into the kingdom of God, unless it be that 
they learned through the inspiration of God either to count 
their riches as nothing, or to quit them altogether. Or 



204 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. X. 

in a higher sense, it is easier for Christ to suffer for those who 
love Him, than for the lovers of this world to turn to Christ; 
for under the name of camel, He wished Himself to be un- 
derstood, because He bore the burden of our weakness; and 
by the needle, He understands the prickings, that is, the 
pains of His Passion. By the eye of a needle, therefore, He 
means the straits of His Passion, by which He, as it were, 
deigned to mend the torn garments of our nature. It goes 
on; And they were astonished above measure, saying among 
themselves, Who then can he saved? Since the number of 
poor people is immeasurably the greater, and these might be 
saved, though the rich perished, they must have understood 
Him to mean that all who love riches, although they cannot 
obtain them, are reckoned in the number of the rich. It 
goes on ; And Jesus looking upon them saith, With men 
it is impossible, but not with God; which we must not 
take to mean, that covetous and proud persons can enter 
into the kingdom of Heaven with their covetousness and 
pride, but that it is possible with God that they should be con- 
verted from covetousness and pride to charity and lowliness. 
Chrys. Chrys. And the reason why He says that this is the work of 
ubisup. q 0( j j s? t h at jj e ma y snew that he who is put into this path 

by God, has much need of grace ; from which it is proved, 
that great is the reward of those rich men, who are will- 
1 philo- ing to follow the l discipline of Christ. Theophyl. Or 
sop ] we must understand that by, with man it is impossible, 
but not with God, He means, that when we listen to God, it 
becomes possible, but as long as we keep our human notions, 
it is impossible. There follows, For all things are possible 
with God; when He says all things, you must understand, 
that have a being; which sin has not, for it is a thing 
without being and substance r . Or else: sin does not come 
under the notion of strength, but of weakness, therefore sin, like 

r This is often urged by St. Augus- tion or disorganization of parts, just as 

tine against the Manichees, who held darkness is a privation of light, and 

thatevil was a principle and a substance, sickness a disordered state of body; 

coeternal with good. It also appears which illustrates what Theophylact 

in the Pelagian controversy, for Pelagius means by saying, that sin, though so 

argued, that the Catholic doctrine of great an evil, has no being or substance, 

original sin implied that it was a sub- v. Aug. Conf. 7, 12. de Nat. et Grat. 

stance; St. Augustine answers that 21. 
though not a substance, it was a priva- 



VER. 28 — 81. ST. MARK. 205 

weakness, is impossible with God. But can God cause that 
not to have been done which has been done? To which we 
answer, that God is Truth, but to cause that what has been 
done should not have been done, is falsehood. How then 
can truth do what is false? He must first therefore quit His 
own nature, so that they who speak thus really say, Can God 
cease to be God? which is absurd. 

28. Then Peter began to say unto him, Lo, we 
have left all, and have followed thee. 

29. And Jesus answered and said, Verily I say 
unto you, There is no man that hath left house, or 
brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or 
children, or lands, for my sake, and the Gospel's, 

30. But he shall receive an hundredfold now in 
this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and 
mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions ; 
and in the world to come eternal life. 

31. But many that are first shall be last ; and the 
last first. 

Gloss. Because the youth, on hearing the advice of our Gloss. 
Saviour concerning the casting away of his goods, had gone nonocc * 
away sorrowful, the disciples of Christ, who had already 
fulfilled the foregoing precept, began to question Him con- 
cerning their reward, thinking that they had done a great 
thing, since the young man, who had fulfilled the command- 
ments of the law, had not been able to hear it without sadness. 
Wherefore Peter questions the Lord for himself and the 
others, in these words, Then Peter began to say unto 
him, Lo, we have left all, and have followed thee. The- 
ophyl. Although Peter had left but few things, still he 
calls these his all ; for even a few things keep us by the 
bond of affection, so that he shall be beatified who leaves a 
few things. Bede; And because it is not sufficient to haveBede 
left all, he adds that which makes up perfection, and have p * 
followed thee. As if he said, We have done what Thou hast 
commanded. What reward therefore wilt Thou give us ? * But • Theo- 

phyl. 



206 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. X. 

while Peter asks only concerning the disciples, our Lord makes 
a general answer; wherefore it goes on: Jesus answered and 
said, Verily I say unto you, There is no one that hath left house, 
or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or children, or 
lands. But in saying this, He does not mean that we should 
leave our fathers, without helping them, or that we should 
separate ourselves from our wives ; but He instructs us to prefer 
Chrys. the glory of God to the things of this world. Chrys. But it 
Matt! m seems to me that by these words He intended covertly to 
64 » proclaim that there were to be persecutions, as it would come to 
pass that many fathers would allure their sons to impiety, and 
1 Cat. in many wives their husbands. l Again He delays not to say, 
Oxon. f or m y names sa ^ e an d t ne Gospel's, as Mark says, or for the 
kingdom of God, as Luke says; the name of Christ is the 
power of the Gospel, and of His kingdom ; for the Gospel 
is received in the name of Jesus Christ, and the kingdom 
is made known, and comes by His name. Bede ; Some, 
however, taking occasion from this saying, in which it is 
announced that he shall receive an hundredfold now in this 
time, teach that Jewish fable of a thousand years after the 
resurrection of the just, when all that we have left for the 
Lord's sake is to be restored with manifold usury, besides 
which we are to receive the crown of everlasting life. These 
persons do not perceive, that although the promise in other 
respects be honourable, yet in the hundred wives, which the 
other Evangelists mention, its foulness is made manifest: 
particularly when the Lord testifies that there shall be no 
marriage in the resurrection, and asserts that those things 
which are put away from us for His sake are to be received 
again in this life with persecutions, which, as they affirm, will 
Cat. in not take place in their thousand years 8 . Pseudo-Chrys. This 
Marc, hundredfold reward therefore must be in participation, not 
in possession, for the Lord fulfilled this to them not carnally, 
but spiritually. Theophyl. For a wife is busied in a house 
about her husband's food and raiment. See also how this is 



s Certain early Fathers, as, for in- Cerinthians, to whom that name was 

stance, St. Austin and Irenseus, held applied, on account of their shocking 

the doctrine of the Millennium; Bede doctrine, that after the resurrection 

however mentions the Chiliasts, (though the Christians were to reign on earth 

their name is omitted in the Catena,) for a thousand years in sensual plea- 

and thus shews that he means the sures. v. Aug. de Her. 8. 



VER. 3 4 2 — 34. ST. MARK. 207 

the case with the Apostles ; for many women busied them- 
selves about their food and their clothing, and ministered 
unto them. In like manner the Apostles had many fathers 
and mothers, that is, persons who loved them; as Peter, for 
instance, leaving one house, had afterwards the houses of all 
the disciples. And what is more wonderful, they are to be 
persecuted and oppressed, for it is with 'persecutions that the 
Saints are to possess all things, for which reason there follows, 
But many that are first shall be last, and the last first. For 
the Pharisees who were first became the last; but those 
who left all and followed Christ were last in this world 
through tribulation and persecutions, but shall be first by the 
hope which is in God. Bede; This which is here said, shall Bede 
receive an hundredfold, may be understood in a higher sense. u l feup * 
1 For the number a hundred which is reckoned by changing! v. note 
from the left to the right hand, although it has the same s ' p * 
appearance in the bending of the fingers as the ten had on 
the left, nevertheless is increased to a much greater quantity. 
This means, that all who have despised temporal things for 
the sake of the kingdom of heaven through un doubting faith, 
taste the joy of the same kingdom in this life which is full of 
persecutions, and in the expectation of the heavenly country, 
which is signified by the right hand, have a share in the 
happiness of all the elect. But because all do not accomplish 
a virtuous course of life with the same ardour as they began 
it, it is presently added, But many that are first shall he 
last, and the last first ; for we daily see many persons who, 
remaining in a lay habit, are eminent for their meritorious 
life ; but others, who from their youth have been ardent in a 
spiritual profession, at last wither away in the sloth of ease, 
and with a lazy folly finish in the flesh, what they had begun 
in the Spirit. 

32. And they were in the way going up to Jeru- 
salem ; and Jesus went before them : and they were 
amazed ; and as they followed, they were afraid. 
And he took again the twelve, and began to tell 
them what things should happen unto him, 

33. Saying, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem ; and 



208 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. X. 

the Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief 
priests, and unto the scribes ; and they shall condemn 
him to death, and shall deliver him to the Gentiles : 

34. And they shall mock him, and shall scourge 
him, and shall spit upon him, and shall kill him : 
and the third day he shall rise again. 

Bede Bede ; The disciples remembered the discourse in which 

the Lord had foretold that He was about to suffer many 
things from the chief priests and scribes, and therefore in 
going up to Jerusalem, they were amazed. And this is what 
is meant, when it is said, And they were in the way going up 
to Jerusalem, and Jesus went before them. Theophyl. To 
shew that He runs to meet His Passion, and that He does 
not refuse death, for the sake of our salvation ; and they 
Bede were amazed, and as they followed, they were afraid. Bede; 
siip. Either lest they themselves should perish with Him, or at all 
events lest He, whose life and ministry was their joy, should 
fall under the hand of His enemies. But the Lord, foreseeing 
that the minds of His disciples would be troubled by His 
Passion, foretels to them both the pain of His Passion, and 
the glory of His resurrection ; wherefore there follows, And 
he took again the twelve, and began to tell them what 
things should happen unto him. Theophyl. He did this to 
confirm the hearts of the disciples, that from hearing these 
things beforehand, they might the better bear them afterwards, 
and might not be alarmed at their suddenness, and also in order 
to shew them that He suffered voluntarily ; for he who 
foreknows a danger, and flies not, though flight is in his 
power, evidently of his own will gives himself up to suffer- 
ing. But He takes His disciples apart, because it was fitting 
that He should reveal the mystery of His Passion to those who 
Vict, were more closely connected with Him. Chrys. And He 
Cat in enumerates each thing that was to happen to Him ; lest if He 
Marc, should pass any thing over, they should be troubled after- 
Chrys. wards at suddenly seing it; wherefore he adds, Behold, we go 
Horn. U p to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man. Gloss. That is, 
Gloss. He to whom suffering belongs ; for the Godhead cannot 
interim. su ff er Shall be delivered, that is, by Judas, unto the Chief 



vek. :jo — 40. ST. MARK. -209 

Priests, and unto the Scribes, and they shall condemn him to 
death ; judging Him to be guilty of death ; and shall deliver 
him to the Gentiles, that is, to Pilate the Gentile ; and 
his soldiers shall mock him, and shall spit upon him, and 
scourge him, and put him to death. Chrys. But that when Chrys. 
they were saddened on account of His Passion and death, M °™' in 
they should then also look for His resurrection, He adds, And 65 - 
the third day he shall rise again; for since He had not 
hid from them the sorrows and insults which happened, it 
was fitting that they should believe Him on other points. 

35. And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, 
come unto him, saying, Master, we would that thou 
shouldest do for us whatsoever we shall desire. 

36. And he said unto them, What would ye that I 
should do for you ? 

37. They said unto him, Grant unto us that we 
may sit, one on thy right hand, and the other on thy 
left hand, in thy glory. 

38. But Jesus said unto them, Ye know not what 
ye ask : can ye drink of the cup that I drink of? and 
be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized 
with ? 

39. And they said unto him, We can. And Jesus 
said unto them, Ye shall indeed drink of the cup that 
I drink of ; and with the baptism that I am baptized 
withal shall ye be baptized : 

40. But to sit on my right hand and on my left 
hand is not mine to give ; but it shall be given to 
them for whom it is prepared. 

Chrys. The disciples hearing Christ oftentimes speaking v.Chrys. 
of His kingdom, thought that this kingdom was to be before ubl sup * 
His death, and therefore now that His death was foretold to 
them, they came to Him, that they might immediately be 
made worthy of the honours of the kingdom : wherefore it is 
said, And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, came unto 

VOL. II. p 



210 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. X. 

him, saying, Master, ive would that thou shouldest do for us 
whatsoever we shall desire. For ashamed of the human 
weakness which they felt, they came to Christ, taking Him 
apart from the disciples ; but our Saviour, not from ignorance 
of what they wanted to ask, but from a wish of making them 
answer Him, puts this question to them ; And he said unto 
them, What would ye that I should do for you? Theophyl. 
Now the abovementioned disciples thought that He was 
going up to Jerusalem, to reign there, and then to suffer what 
He had foretold. And with these thoughts, they desired to 
sit on the right and the left hand; wherefore there follows, 
They said unto him, Grant unto us that we may sit, one on 
thy right hand, the other on thy left hand, in thy glory. 
Aug. Aug. Matthew has expressed that this was said not by 
Evan.li themselves, but by their mother, since she brought their 
64 - wishes to the Lord; wherefore Mark briefly implies rather 
that they themselves, than that their mother, had used the 
Chrys. words. Chrys. Or we may fitly say that both took 
ubi sup p] ace j f or seeing themselves honoured above the rest, 
they thought that they could easily obtain the foregoing 
petition ; and that they might the more easily succeed in their 
request, they took their mother with them, that they might 
Aug. pray unto Christ together with her. Aug. Then the Lord 
ubi sup. b^h according to Mark, and to Matthew, answered them 
rather than their mother. For it goes on, But Jesus said 
unto them, Ye know not what ye ask. Theophyl. It will 
not be as ye think, that I am to reign as a temporal king in 
Jerusalem, but all these things, that is, these which belong to 
My kingdom, are beyond your understanding; for to sit 
on My right hand is so great a thing that it surpasses the 
Bede Angelic orders. Bede ; Or else, they know not what they 
ubi sup. ag-^ w h see fc from the Lord a seat of glory, which they do 
Chrys. not yet merit. Chrys. Or else He says, Ye know not what 
ubi sup. y e as k; as if He said, Ye speak of honours, but I am dis- 
coursing of wrestlings and toil ; for this is not a time of 
rewards, but of blood, of battles, and dangers. Wherefore He 
adds, Can ye drink of the cup that I drink of, and be bap- 
tized with the baptisjn that I am baptized withal? He draws 
them on by way of question, that by communication with 
Himself, their eagerness might increase. Theophyl. But 



vkr. '35 — 40. ST. MARK. -ill 

by the cup and baptism, He means the cross; the cup, that is, 
as being a potion by Him sweetly received, but baptism as 
the cause of the cleansing of our sins. And they answer 
Him, without understanding what He had said ; wherefore 
it goes on : And they said unto him 3 We can ; for they 
thought that He spoke of a visible cup, and of the baptism 
of which the Jews made use, that is, the washings before their 
meals. Chrys. And they answered thus quickly, because they Chrys. 
expected that what they had asked would be listened to ; it goes ubl SUJ) ' 
on : And Jesus said unto them, Ye shall indeed drink of the 
cup that I drink of, and with the baptism that I am baptized 
withal shall ye be baptized; that is, ye shall be worthy of 
martyrdom, and suffer even as I. Bede ; A question is raised, Bede 
however, how James and John drank the cup of martyrdom, or ubl sup * 
how they were baptized with the baptism of the Lord, when the 
Scripture relates, that only James the Apostle was beheaded by 
Herod whilst John finished his life by a natural death. But if 
we read ecclesiastical histories, in which it is related, that he also 
on account of the witness which he bore was cast into a caul- 
dron of burning oil, and was immediately sent away to the 
island of Patmos, we shall then see that the spirit of martyrdom 
was in him, and that John drank the cup of confession, 
which the Three Children also drank in the furnace of 
fire, though the persecutor did not spill their blood. It goes 
on : But to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is not 
mine to give, but it shall be given to them for whom it is 
prepared. Chrys. Where two questions are raised, one is, Chrys. 
whether a seat on His right hand is prepared for any one ; ubi SU P* 
the other, whether the Lord of all has it not in His power to 
give it to those for whom it is prepared. To the first then 
we say, that no one sits on His right hand or on His left, for 
that throne is inaccessible to a creature. How then did He 
say, To sit on my right hand or on my left is not mine to 
give you, as though it belonged to some who were to sit 
there ? He however answers the thoughts of those who asked 
Him, condescending to their meaning ; for they did not know 
that lofty throne and seat, which is on the right hand of the 
Father, but sought one thing alone, that is, to possess the 
chief place, and to be set over others. And since they had 
heard it said of the Apostles, that they were to sit on twelve 

p 2 



*212 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. X. 

thrones, they begged for a place higher than all the rest, not 
knowing what was said. To the second question we 
must say, that such a gift does not transcend the power of the 
Matt. Son of God, but what is said by Matthew, it is prepared 
7 * by My Father, is the same as if it were said, " by Me," 
wherefore also Mark did not say here, by My Father. What 
therefore Christ says here is this, Ye shall die, He says, for Me, 
but this is not enough to enable you to obtain the highest 
place, for if another person comes possessing besides martyr- 
dom all other virtues, he will possess much more than you ; 
for the chief place is prepared for those, who by works are 
enabled to become the first. Thus then the Lord instructed 
them not to trouble themselves vainly and absurdly for high 
places; at the same time He would not have them made sad. 
Bede Bede ; Or else, it is not mine to give to you, that is, to proud 
ubi sup. persons, for such as yet they were. It is prepared for other 
persons, and be ye other, that is, lowly, and it is prepared for 
you. 

41. And when the ten heard it, they began to be 
much displeased with James and John. 

42. But Jesus called them to him, and saith unto 
them, Ye know that they which are accounted to rule 
over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them ; and 
their great ones exercise authority upon them. 

43. But so shall it not be among you : but whoso- 
ever will be great among you, shall be your minister: 

44. And whosoever of you will be the chiefest, 
shall be servant of all. 

45. For even the Son of man came not to be 
ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life 
a ransom for many. 

Theophyl. The other Apostles are indignant at seeing 
James and John seeking for honour; wherefore it is said, 
And when the ten heard it, they began to be much dis- 
pleased with James and John. For being influenced by 
human feelings, they were moved with envy; and their first 



VER. 46 — 52. ST. MARK. 213 

displeasure arose from their seeing that they were not taken 
up by the Lord; before that time they were not displeased, 
because they saw that they themselves were honoured before 
other men. At this time the Apostles were thus imperfect, 
but afterwards they yielded the chief place one to another. 
Christ however cures them ; first indeed by drawing them to 
Himself in order to comfort them ; and this is meant, when 
it is said, But Jesus called them to him ; then by shewing 
them that to usurp honour, and to desire the chief place, belongs 
to Gentiles. Wherefore there follows : And saith unto them, 
Ye know that they ivhich are accounted to rule over the 
Gentiles exercise lordship; and their great ones exercise 
authority over them. The great ones of the Gentiles thrust 
themselves into the chief place tyrannically and as lords. It 
goes on: But so shall it not be among you. Bede; In Bede 
which He teaches, that he is the greater, who is the less, and ublsu P* 
that he becomes the lord, who is servant of all : vain, there- 
fore, was it both for the one party to seek for im- 
moderate things, aud the other to be annoyed at their 
desiring greater things, since we are to arrive at the height 
of virtue not by power but by humility. Then He proposes 
an example, that if they lightly regarded His words, His 
deeds might make them ashamed, saying, For even the Son of 
man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to 
give his life a ransom for many. Theophyl. Which is a 
greater thing than to minister. For what can be greater 
or more wonderful than that a man should die for him to 
whom he ministers ? Nevertheless, this serving and con- 
descension of humility was His glory, and that of all; for 
before He was made man, He was known only to the Angels; 
but now that He has become man and has been crucified, He 
not only has glory Himself, but also has taken up others to a 
participation in His glory, and ruled by faith over the whole 
world. Bede ; He did not say, however, that He gave His life Bede 
a ransom for all, but for many, that is, for those who would ubi SU P- 
believe on Him. 



46. And they came to Jericho: and as he went out 
of Jericho with his disciples and a great number of 



214 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. X. 

people, blind Bartimseus, the son of Timaeus, sat by 
the highway side begging. 

47. And when he heard that it was Jesus of 
Nazareth, he began to cry out, and say, Jesus, thou 
Son of David, have mercy on me. 

48. And many charged him that he should hold 
his peace : but he cried the more a great deal, Thou 
Son of David, have mercy on me. 

49. And Jesus stood still, and commanded him to 
be called. And they call the blind man, saying unto 
him, Be of good comfort, rise ; he calleth thee. 

50. And he, casting away his garment, rose, and 
came to Jesus. 

51. And Jesus answered and said unto him, What 
wilt thou that I should do unto thee ? The blind 
man said unto him, Lord, that I might receive my 
sight. 

52. And Jesus said unto him, Go thy way; thy 
faith hath made thee whole. And immediately* he 
received his sight, and followed Jesus in the way. 

Jerome; The name of the city agrees with the approach- 
ing Passion of our Lord ; for it is said, And they came to 
Jericho. Jericho means moon or anathema ; but the failing 
of the flesh of Christ is the preparation of the heavenly 
Jerusalem. It goes on: And as he went out of Jericho with 
his disciples, and a great number of people, blind Bartim&us, 
Bede the son of TimcBUS, sat by the wayside begging. Bede ; 
' Matthew says, that there were two blind men sitting by the 
wayside, who cried to the Lord, and received their sight; 
but Luke relates that one blind man was enlightened by Him, 
with a like order of circumstances, as He was going into 
Jericho ; where no one, at least no wise man, will suppose 
that the Evangelists wrote things contrary to one another, 
but that one wrote more fully, what another has left out. 
We must therefore understand that one of them was the 
more important, which appears from this circumstance, that 



VER. 46—52. ST. MARK. 215 

Mark has related his name and the name of his father. Aug. Aug. de 
It is for this reason that Mark wished to relate his case Evan pii< 
alone, because his receiving his sight had gained for the 65 * 
miracle a fame, illustrious in proportion to the extent of the 
knowledge of his affliction. But although Luke relates a 
miracle done entirely in the same way, nevertheless we must 
understand that a similar miracle was wrought on another 
blind man, and a similar method of the same miracle. It 
goes on : And when he heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth, 
he began to cry out, and say, Jesus, thou Son of David, have 
mercy upon me. Pseudo-Chrys. The blind man calls the Lord, Vict. 
the Son of David, hearing the way in which the passing mul-c a t.'in 
titude praised Him, and feeling sure that the expectation of Marc - 
the prophets was fulfilled. There follows : And many 
charged him that he should hold his peace. *Origen; As if Orig. in 
he said, Those who were foremost in believing rebuked him when t0 m.xvi. 
he cried, Thou Son of David, that he might hold his peace, l3 - 
and cease to call Him by a contemptible name, when he 
ought to say, Son of God, have pity upon me. He however 
did not cease ; wherefore it goes on : But he cried the more 
a great deal, Thou Son of David, have mercy upon me-, 
and the Lord heard his cry ; wherefore there follows : And 
Jesus stood still, and commanded him to be called. But 
observe, that the blind man, of whom Luke speaks, is inferior 
to this one ; for neither did Jesus call him, nor order him to 
be called, but He commanded him to be brought to Him, 
as though unable to come by himself; but this blind man 
by the command of our Lord is called to Him. Wherefore 
it goes on: And they call the blind man, saying unto him, 
Be of good comfort, rise, he callelh thee-, but he casting 
away his garment, comes to Him. It goes on: And he 
casting away his garment, rose, and came to Jesus. Per- 
chance, the garment of the blind man means the veil of 
blindness and poverty, with which he was surrounded, which 
he cast away and came to Jesus ; and the Lord questions 
him, as he is approaching. Wherefore there follows : And 
Jesus answered and said unto him, What will thou that I 

1 The preceding words of Origen are upon me, it was they who went before 

necessary to make up the sense: "Next that charged him that he should hold 

observe, that on the blind man's crying his peace." v. Luke 18, 39. 
out, Thou Son of David, have mercy 



216 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. X. 

Bede should do unto thee. Bede ; Could He who was able to 

cup. restore sight be ignorant of what the blind man wanted ? 

His reason then for asking is that prayer may be made to 

Him ; He puts the question, to stir up the blind man's heart 

Chrys. to pray. Chrys. Or He asks, lest men should think that 

Hom.m ..i . 

Matt, what He granted the man was not what he wanted. For it 

66, was His practice to make the good disposition of those who 

were to be cured known to all men, and then to apply the 

remedy, in order to stir up others to emulation, and to shew 

that he who was to be cured was worthy to obtain the grace. 

It goes on : Tlie blind, man said unto him, Lord, that I 

may receive my sight. Bede; For the blind man looks down 

upon every gift except light, because, whatever a blind 

man may possess, without light he cannot see what he 

possesses. Pseudo-Jerome ; But Jesus, considering his 

ready will, rewards him with the fulfilment of his desire. 

Orig. Origen ; Again, it is more worthy to say Rabboni, or, as it is 

sup. - n fa eY pi aces? Master, than to say Son of David ; wherefore 

He gives him health, not on his saying, Son of David, but when 

he said Rabboni. Wherefore there follows: And Jesus said 

unto him, Go thy icay ; thy faith hath made thee whole. 

And immediately he received his sight, and followed him 

in the way. Theopiiyl. The mind of the blind man is 

grateful, for when he was made whole, he did not leave 

Bede Jesus, but followed Him. Bede; In a mystical sense, how- 

r * ever, Jericho, which means the moon, points out the waning 

of our fleeting race. The Lord restored sight to the blind man, 

when drawing near to Jericho, because coming in the flesh and 

drawing near to His Passion, He brought many to the faith ; 

for it was not in the first years of His Incarnation, but in 

the few years before He suffered, that He shewed the mystery 

of the Word to the world. 

Rom. Pseudo-Jerome ; But the blindness in part, brought upon 

11, 25. ^ e j ewS) w \]\ m the end be enlightened when He sends unto 

Bede them the Prophet Elias. Bede ; Now in that on approach- 

ubi sup. j n g j er j cno? fje restored sight to one man, and on quitting it 

to two, He intimated, that before His Passion He preached 

only to one nation, the Jews, but after His resurrection and 

ascension, through His Apostles He opened the mysteries both 

of His Divinity and His Humanity to Jews and Gentiles. 



VER. 46 — 52. ST. MARK. 217 

Mark indeed, in writing that one received his sight, refers to 
the saving of the Gentiles, that the figure might agree with the 
salvation of those, whom he instructed in the faith ; but Mat- 
thew, who wrote his Gospel to the faithful among the Jews, be- 
cause it was also to reach the knowledge of the Gentiles, fitly 
says that two received their sight, that He might teach us that 
the grace of faith belonged to each people. Therefore, as 
the Lord was departing with His disciples and a great mul- 
titude from Jericho, the blind man was sitting, begging by the 
way-side ; that is, when the Lord ascended into heaven, 
and many of the faithful followed Him, yea when all the elect 
from the beginning of the world entered together with Him 
the gate of heaven u , presently the Gentile people began to 
have hope of its own illumination ; for it now sits begging 
by the wayside, because it has not entered upon and reached 
the path of truth. Pseudo- Jerome; The people of the Jews 
also, because it kept the Scriptures and did not fulfil them, 
begs and starves by the wayside ; but he cries out, Son of 
David, have mercy upon me, because the Jewish people is 
enlightened by the merits of the Prophets. Many rebuke 
him that he may hold his peace, that is, sins and devils 
restrain the cry of the poor; and he cried the more, be- 
cause when the battle waxes great, hands are to be lifted 
up with crying to the Rock of help, that is, Jesus of Nazareth. 
Bede ; Again, the people of the Gentiles, having heard of 
the fame of the name of Christ, sought to be made a par- 
taker of Him, but many spoke against Him, first the 
Jews, then also the Gentiles, lest the world which was to be 
enlightened should call upon Christ. The fury of those 
who attacked Him, however, could not deprive of salvation 
those who were fore-ordained to life. And He heard the 
blind man's cry as He was passing, but stood when He restored 
his sight, because by His Humanity He pitied him, who by 
the power of His Divinity has driven away the darkness 
from our mind ; for in that Jesus was born and suffered 
fur our sakes, He as it were passed by, because this action 
is temporal; but when God is said to stand, it means, that, 

u This refers to the opinion that by the fined, and were carried by Him into a 

descent of our Lord into hell, the Patri- place of happiness, v. authorities quoted 

archs were freed from the limbus Pa- in Pearson on the freed, Art. 5. 
tnim, wh< >re thev had been before con- 



218 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. CHAP. X. 

Himself without change, He sets in order all changeable 
things. But the Lord calls the blind man, who cries to Him, 
when He sends the word of faith to the people of the Gentiles 
by preachers ; and they call on the blind man to be of good 
cheer and to rise, and bid him come to the Lord, when by 
preaching to the simple, they bid them have hope of 
salvation, and rise from the sloth of vice, and gird them- 
selves for a life of virtue. Again, he throws away his 
garment and leaps, who, throwing aside the bands of the 
world, with unencumbered pace hastens to the Giver of 
eternal light. Pseudo-Jerome ; Again, the Jewish people 
comes leaping, stripped of the old man, as a hart leaping on 
the mountains, that is, laying aside sloth, it meditates on 
Patriarchs, Prophets, and Apostles on high, and raises itself 
to heights of holiness. How consistent also is the order 
of salvation. First we heard by the Prophets, then we 
cry aloud by faith, next we are called by Apostles, we rise 
up by penitence, we are stripped of our old garment by 
baptism, and of our choice we are questioned. Again, the 
blind man when asked requires, that he may see the will of 
Bede the Lord. Bede; Therefore let us also imitate him, let us 
not seek for riches, earthly goods, or honours from the Lord, 
but for that Light, which we alone with the Angels can see, the 
way to which is faith ; wherefore also Christ answers to the 
blind man, Thy faith hath saved thee. But he sees and 
follows who works what his understanding tells him is good ; 
for he follows Jesus, who understands and executes what is 
good, who imitates Him, who had no wish to prosper in this 
world, and bore reproach and derision. And because we 
have fallen from inward joy, by delight in the things of the 
body, He shews us what bitter feelings the return thither 
will cost us. Theophyl. Further, it says that he followed 
the Lord in the way, that is, in this life, because after it all 
are excluded who follow Him not here, by working His 
commandments. Pseudo-Jerome ; Or, this is the way of 
which He said, / am the Way, the Truth, and the Life. 
This is the narrow way, which leads to the heights of Jeru- 
salem, and Bethany, to the mount of Olives, which is the 
mount of light and consolation. 



ubi sup. 



ST. MICHAEL'S \^ 

"^ \ COLLLl 

/ t L D \ D\f 



CHAP. XI. 

1. And when they came nigh to Jerusalem, unto 
Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount of Olives, he 
sendeth forth two of his disciples, 

2. And saith unto them, Go your way into the 
village over against you: and as soon as ye be en- 
tered into it, ye shall find a colt tied, whereon never 
man sat; loose him, and bring him. 

3. And if any man say unto you, Why do ye this? 
say ye that the Lord hath need of him; and straight- 
way he will send him hither. 

4. And they went their way, and found the colt 
tied by the door without in a place where two ways 
met; and they loose him. 

5. And certain of them that stood there said unto 
them, What do ye, loosing the colt? 

6. And they said unto them even as Jesus had 
commanded: and they let them go. 

7. And they brought the colt to Jesus, and cast 
their garments on him; and he sat upon him. 

8. And many spread their garments in the way: 
and others cut down branches off the trees, and strawed 
them in the way. 

9. And they that went before, and they that fol- 
lowed, cried, saying, Hosanna ; Blessed is he that 
cometh in the name of the Lord : 

10. Blessed be the kingdom of our father David, 
that cometh in the name of the Lord : Hosanna in 
the highest. 



2*20 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XI. 

Chrys. Chkys. Now that the Lord had given sufficient proof of His 
UJ1 SU I } - virtue, and the cross was at hand, even at the door, He did 
those things which were about to excite them against Him 
with a greater openness; therefore although He had so often 
gone up to Jerusalem, He never however had done so in such 
a conspicuous manner as now. Theophyl. That thus, if 
they were willing, they might recognise His glory, and by the 
prophecies, which were fulfilled concerning Him, know that 
He is very God; and that if they would not, they might re- 
ceive a greater judgment, for not having believed so many 
wonderful miracles. Describing therefore this illustrious en- 
trance, the Evangelist says, And when they came nigh unto 
Jerusalem, and Bethany, at the mount of Olives, he sendeth 
Bede forth two of his disciples. Bede; Bethany is a little village 
3^41. 'or town by the side of mount Olivet, where Lazarus was 
raised from the dead. But in what way He sent His disciples 
and for what purpose is shewn in these words, And saith 
unto them, Go your way into the village over against you. 
Theophyl. Now consider how many things the Lord fore- 
told to His disciples, that they should find a colt; wherefore 
it goes on, And as soon as ye he entered into it, ye shall find 
a colt tied, whereon never man sat, loose him, and bring him; 
and that they should be impeded in taking it, wherefore there 
follows, And if any man say unto you, Why do ye this? say 
ye, The Lord hath need of him; and that on saying this, they 
should be allowed to take him ; wherefore there follows, And 
straightway he will send him hither ; and as the Lord had 
said, so it was fulfilled. Thus it goes on: And they 
went their way, and found the colt tied by the door ivithont, 
Aug. in a place where two ways meet ; and they loose him. Aug. 
Ev. ii, H ' Matthew says, an ass and a colt, the rest however do not 
66. mention the ass. Where then both may be the case, there is no 
disagreement, though one Evangelist mentions one thing, 
and a second mentions another; how much less should a 
question be raised, when one mentions one, and another 
mentions that same one and another. It goes on: And cer- 
tain of them that stood there said unto them, What do ye, 
loosing the colt? And they said unto them even as Jesus had 
commanded, and they let them take it, that is, the colt. 
Theophyl. But they would not have allowed this, if the 



VER. 1 — 10. ST. MARK. 2*21 

Divine power had not been upon them, to compel them, 
especially, as they were country people and farmers, and yet 
allowed them to take away the colt. It goes on: And they 
brought the colt to Jesus, and cast their garments on him ; 
and he sat upon him. Pseudo-Chrys. Not indeed that He was Cat. in 
compelled by necessity to ride on a colt from the mount of Qxon 
Olives to Jerusalem, for He had gone over Judaea and all 
Galilee on foot, but this action of His is typical. It goes on : 
And many spread their garments in the way: that is, under 
the feet of the colt; and others cut down branches off the 
trees, and strawed them in the way. x This, however, 'Pseudo- 
was rather done to honour Him, and as a Sacrament, 
than of necessity. It goes on: And they that went before, 
and they that followed, cried , saying, Hosanna; blessed is 
he that cometh in the name of the Lord. 2 For the multitude, - Theo- 
until it was corrupted, knew what was its duty, for which p y * 
reasori each honoured Jesus according to his own strength. 
Wherefore they praised Him, and took up the hymns of the 
Levites, saying, Hosanna, which according to some is the 
same as save me, but according to others means a hymn. I 
however suppose the former to be more probable, for there is 
in the 117th Psalm, Save now, I beseech thee, O Lord, which p s . us, 
in the Hebrew is Hosanna. Bede ; But Hosanna is a??\ 

Bede 

Hebrew word, made out of two, one imperfect the other perfect, ubi sup. 
For save, or preserve, is in their language, hosy ; but anna is a 
supplicatory interjection, as in Latin heu is an exclamation 
of grief. Pseudo-Jerome ; They cry out Hosanna, that is 
save us, that men might be saved by Him who was blessed, 
and was a conqueror and came in the name of the Lord, that 
is, of His Father, since the Father is so called because of the 
Son, and the Son, because of the Father. Pseudo-Chrys. Cat. in 
Thus then they give glory to God, saying, Blessed is he that q *"* 
cometh in the name of the Lord. They also bless the 
kingdom of Christ, saying, Blessed be the kingdom of our 
father David, which cometh. Theophyl. But they called 
the kingdom of Christ, that of David, both because Christ was 
descended from the seed of David, and because David means a 
man of a strong hand. For whose hand is stronger than the 
Lord's, by which so many and so great miracles were wrought. 
Pseudo-Chrys. Wherefore also the prophets so often call Marc. 

Oxon. 



'222 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XI. 

Christ by the name of David, on account of the descent accord- 
Bede ing to the flesh of Christ from David. Bede ; Now we read 
1 sup *in the Gospel of John that He fled into a mountain, lest they 
should make him their king. Now, however, when He comes to 
Jerusalem to suffer, He docs not shun those who call Him 
king, that He might openly teach them that He was King 
over an empire not temporal and earthly, but everlasting in 
the heavens, and that the path to this kingdom was through 
contempt of death. Observe also the agreement of the mul- 
Luke titude with the saying of Gabriel, The Lord God will give 
him the throne of his father David ; that is, that He Himself 
may call by word and deed to a heavenly kingdom the nation 
to which David once furnished the government of a temporal 
Cat. in rule. Pseudo-Chrys. And further, they give glory to God, 
Marc. wnen they add Hosanna in the highest, that is, praise and glory 
be to the God of all, Who is in the highest. Pseudo-Jerome ; 
Or Hosanna, that is, save in the highest as well as in the low- 
est, that is, that the just be built on the ruin of Angels, and 
also that both those on the earth and those under the earth should 
be saved. In a mystical sense, also, the Lord approaches 
Jerusalem, which is ' the vision of peace,' in which happiness 
Gal. 4 remains fixed and unmoved, being, as the Apostle says, the 
26. mother of all believers. Bede; Bethany again means the 
ubi sup. house of obedience, because by teaching many before His 
Passion, he made for Himself a house of obedience; and it is 
said to be placed on the mount of Olives, because He cherishes 
His Church with the unction of spiritual gifts, and with the 
light of piety and knowledge. But He sent His disciples to a 
• castel-hold 1 , which was over against them, that is, He appointed 
!£™ doctors to penetrate into the ignorant parts of the whole 
world, into, as it were, the walls of the hold placed against 
them. Pseudo-Jerome ; The disciples of Christ are called 
two by two, and sent two by two, since charity implies more 
Eccl. than one, as it is written, Woe to him that is alone. Two 
4 ? l0 - persons lead the Israelites out of Egypt: two bring down 
the bunch of grapes from the Holy Land, that men in autho- 
rity might ever join together activity and knowledge, and 
bring forward two commandments from the Two Tables, and 
be washed from two fountains, and carry the ark of the Lord 
on two poles, and know the Lord between the two Cherubim, 



VER. 1 — 10. ST. MARK. '2'2S 

and sing to Him with both mind and spirit. THEOPHYL. The 
colt, however, was not necessary to Him, but He sent for it to 
shew that He would transfer Himself to the Gentiles. Bede; Bede 
For the colt of the ass, wanton and unshackled, denotes the 
people of the nations, on whom no man had yet sat, because 
no wise doctor had, by teaching them the things of salvation, 
put upon them the bridle of correction, to oblige them to re- 
strain their tongues from evil, or to compel them into the 
narrow path of life. Pseudo-Jerome ; But they found the colt 
tiedby the door without, because the Gentile people were bound 
by the chain of their sins before the door of faith, that is, without 
the Church. Ambrose ; Or else, they found it bound before Ambr. 
the door, because whosoever is not in Christ is without, in ™ 6 uc * 
the way ; but he who is in Christ, is not without. He has 
added in the way, or in a place ivhere two ways meet, where 
there is no certain possession for any man, nor stall, nor food, 
nor stable; miserable is his service, whose rights are unfixed; 
for he who has not the one Master, has many. Strangers 
bind him that they may possess him, Christ looses him 
in order to keep him, for He knows that gifts are stronger 
ties than bonds. Bede ; Or else, fitly did the colt stand in a Bede 
place where two ways meet, because the Gentile people did 
not hold on in any certain road of life and faith, but followed 
in its error many doubtful paths of various sects. Pseudo- 
Jerome ; Or, in a place where two roads meet, that is, in the 
freedom of will, hesitating between life and death. Theophyl. 
Or else, in a place where two roads meet, that is, in this life, 
but it was loosed by the disciples, through faith and bap- 
tism. Pseudo-Jerome ; But some said, What do ye ? as if 
they would say, Who can remit sins ? Theophyl. Or else, 
those who prevent them are the devils, who were weaker than 
the Apostles. Bede; Or else, the masters of error, who resisted Bede 
the teachers, when they came to save the Gentiles ; but after ' S " P 
that the power of the faith of the Lord appeared to believers, 
the faithful people were freed from the cavils of the adversa- 
ries, and were brought to the Lord, whom they bore in their 
hearts. But by the garments of the Apostles, which they put 
upon it, we may understand the teaching of virtues, or the in- 
terpretation of the Scriptures, or the various doctrines of the 
Church, by which they clothe the hearts of men, once naked and 



ubi sup. 



224 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XI. 

cold and fit them to become the seats of Christ. Pseudo-Jerome ; 
Or else, they put upon it their garments, that is, they bring to 
them the first robe of immortality by the Sacrament of Bap- 
tism. And Jesus sat upon it, that is, began to reign in them, 
so that sin should not reign in their wanton flesh, but righte- 
ousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost. Again, many 
spread their garments in the way, under the feet of the foal of 
the ass. What are feet, but those who carry, and the least 
v. l Cor. esteemed, whom the Apostle has set to judge? And these 
9 ' too, though they are not the back on which the Lord sat, yet 
Bede are instructed by John with the soldiers. Bede ; Or else, 
u ] sup * many strew their garments in the way, because the holy mar- 
tyrs put off from themselves the garment of their own flesh, 
and prepare a way for the more simple servants of God with 
their own blood. Many also strew their garments in the way, 
because they tame their bodies with abstinence, that they 
may prepare a way for God to the mount, or may give good 
examples to those who follow them. And they cut down 
branches from the trees, who in the teaching of the truth 
cull the sentences of the Fathers from their words, and by 
their lowly preaching scatter them in the path of God, when 
He comes into the soul of the hearer. Theophyl. Let us 
also strew the way of our life with branches which we cut 
from the trees, that is, imitate the saints, for these are holy 
trees, from which, he who imitates their virtues cuts down 
branches. Pseudo-Jerome ; For the righteous shalljlourish 
as a palm tree, straitened in their roots, but spreading out 
wide with flowers and fruits ; for they are a good odour unto 
Christ, and strew the way of the commandments of God with 
their good report. Those who went before are the prophets, 
Bede and those who followed are the Apostles. Bede ; And 
ubi sup. because a n the elect, whether those who were able to be- 
come such in Judaea, or those who now are such in the 
Church, believed and now believe on the Mediator between 
God and man, both those who go before and those who follow 
cried out Hosanna. Theophyl. But both those of our 
deeds which go before and those which follow after must be 
done to the glory of God ; for some in their past life make a 
good beginning, but their following life does not correspond 
with their former, neither does it end to the glory of God. 



VEIL 11 — 14. ST. MARK. 225 

11. And Jesus entered into Jerusalem, and into 
the temple : and when he had looked round about 
upon all things, and now the eventide was come, he 
went out unto Bethany with the twelve. 

12. And on the morrow, when they were come 
from Bethany, he was hungry : 

13. And seeing a fig tree afar off having leaves, 
he came, if haply he might find any thing thereon : 
and when he came to it, he found nothing but leaves ; 
for the time of figs was not yet. 

14. And Jesus answered and said unto it, No man 
eat fruit of thee hereafter for ever. And his disciples 
heard it. 

Bede; As the time of His Passion approached, the Lord BeJt * 
wished to approach to the place of His Passion, in order to 
intimate that He underwent death of His own accord : where- 
fore it is said, And Jesus entered into Jerusalem, and into the 
temple. And by His going to the temple on first entering 
the city, He shews us beforehand a form of religion, which we 
are to follow, that if by chance we enter a place, where there 
is a house of prayer, we should first turn aside to it. We 
should also understand from this, that such was the poverty of 
the Lord, and so far was He from flattering man, that 
in so large a city, He found no one to be His host, no 
abiding place, but lived in a small country place with Laza- 
rus and his sisters; for Bethany is a hamlet of the Jews. 
Wherefore there follows: And when he had looked round 
about upon all things, (that is, to see whether any one would 
take Him in,) and now the eventide was come, he went out 
into Bethany with the twelve. Nor did He do this once 
only, but during all the five clays, from the time that He 
came to Jerusalem, to the day of His Passion, He used always 
to do the same thing ; during the day He taught in the tem- 
ple, but at night, He went out and dwelt in the mount of Olives. 
It goes on, And on the morrow, when they were come from 
Bethany, he was hungry. Chrys. How is it that He wasChn*. 
hungry in the morning, as Matthew says, it it were not thatH ( Ml 
by an economy He permitted it to His flesh ? There follows, 6 ?' 

VOL. II. Q 



Lorn. 



*i'2U GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XI. 

And seeing a jig free afar off having leaves, he came, if haply 
he might find any thing thereon. Now it is evident that this 
expresses a conjecture of the disciples, who thought that it 
was for this reason that Christ came to the fig tree, and 
that it was cursed, because He found no fruit upon it. For 
it goes on : And when he came to it, lie found nothing but 
leaves ; for the time of' figs was not yet. And Jesus answered 
and said unto it, No man eat fruit of thee hereafter for 
ever. He therefore curses the fig tree for His disciples' 
sake, that they might have faith in Him. For He every 
where distributed blessings, and punished no one, yet at the 
same time, it was right to give them a proof of His chastising 
power, that they might learn that He could even cause the 
persecuting Jews to wither away ; He was however unwilling 
to give this proof on men, wherefore He shewed them on a plant 
a sign of His power of punishing. This proves that He came to 
the fig tree principally for this reason, and not on account of 
His hunger, for who is so silly as to suppose that in the morn- 
ing He felt so greatly the pains of hunger, or what prevented 
the Lord from eating before He left Bethany ? Nor can it be 
said that the sight of the figs excited His appetite to hunger, 
for it was not the season of figs; and if He were hungry, why 
did He not seek food elsewhere, rather than from a fig-tree 
which could not yield fruit before its time? What punish- 
ment also did a fig tree deserve for not having fruit before its 
time? From all this then we may infer, that He wished to 
shew His power, that their minds might not be broken by 
His Passion. Theophyl. Wishing to shew His disciples that 
if He chose He could in a moment exterminate those who 
were about to crucify Him. In a mystical sense, however, 
the Lord entered into the temple, but came out of it again, to 

Bede shew that He left it desolate, and open to the spoiler. Bede; 

u i sup. jr ar tber 7 He looks round about upon the hearts of all, and when 
in those who opposed the truth, He found no place to lay His 
head, He retires to the faithful, and takes up His abode with 
those who obey Him. For Bethany means the house of obe- 
dience. Pseudo-Jerome; He went in the morning to the 

Bede Jews, and visits us in the eventide of the world. Bede; Just 

up ' in the same w 7 ay as He speaks parables, so also His deeds 

are parables; therefore He comes hungry to seek fruit off the 



VER. 15 — 18. ST. MARK. '227 

fig tree, and though He knew the time of figs was not yet. 
He condemns it to perpetual barrenness, that He might shew 
that the Jewish people could not be saved through the leaves, 
that is, the words of righteousness which it had, without 
fruit, that is, good works, but should be cut down and cast 
into the fire. Hungering therefore, that is, desiring the sal- 
vation of mankind, He saw the fig tree, which is, the Jewish 
people, having leaves, or, the words of the Law and the 
Prophets, and He sought upon it the fruit of good works, by 
teaching them, by rebuking them, by working miracles, 
and He found it not, and therefore condemned it. Do thou 
too, unless thou wouldest be condemned by Christ in the 
judgment, beware of being a barren tree, but rather offer to 
Christ the fruit of piety which He requires. Chrys. We Chrys. 
may also say, in another sense, that the Lord sought for fruit 
on the fig tree before its time, and not finding it, cursed it, 
because all who fulfil the commandments of the Law, are 
said to bear fruit in their own time, as, for instance, that com- 
mandment, Thou shalt not commit adultery; but he who not 
only abstains from adultery but remains a virgin, which is a 
greater thing, excels them in virtue. But the Lord exacts 
from the perfect not only the observance of virtue, but also 
that they bear fruit over and above the commandments. 

15. And they come to Jerusalem : and Jesus went 
into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold 
and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables 
of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that 
sold doves ; 

1G. And would not suffer that any man should 
carry any vessel through the temple. 

17. And he taught, saying unto them, Is it not 
written, My house shall be called of all nations the 
house of prayer ? but ye have made it a den of thieves. 

18. And the Scribes and Chief Priests heard it, and 
sought how they might destroy him : for they feared 
him, because all the people was astonished at his 
doctrine. 

q 2 



228 (iOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XI. 

Bede Bede; What the Lord had done in figure, when He cursed 

sup ' the barren fig tree, He now shews more openly, by casting 
out the wicked from the temple. For the fig tree was not in 
fault, in not having fruit before its time, but the priests were 
blameable; wherefore it is said, And they come to Jerusalem ; 
and Jesus went into the temple, and began to cast out them that 
sold and bought in the temple. Nevertheless, it is probable that 
He found them buying and selling in the temple things which 
were necessary for its ministry. If then the Lord forbids 
men to carry on in the temple worldly matters, which 
they might freely do any where else, how much more 
do they deserve a greater portion of the anger of Heaven, 
who carry on in the temple consecrated to Him those things, 
which are unlawful wherever they may be done. It goes 
on: and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers. Theo- 
phyl. He calls moneychangers, changers of a particular 
sort of money, for the word means a small brass coin. There 

Bede follows, and the seats of them that sold doves. Bede; Be- 
1 sup ' cause the Holy Spirit appeared over the Lord in the shape of a 
dove, the gifts of the Holy Spirit are fitly pointed out under 
the name of doves. The Dove therefore is sold, when the lay- 
ing on of hands by which the Holy Spirit is received is sold 
for a price. Again, He overturns the seats of them who sell 
doves, because they who sell spiritual grace, are deprived of 
their priesthood, either before men, or in the eyes of God. Theo- 
phyl. But if a man by sinning gives up to the devil the grace 
and purity of baptism, he has sold his Dove 3 and for this reason 
is cast out of the temple. There follows, And would not suffer 
that any man should carry any vessel through the temple. 

Bede Bede; He speaks of those vessels which were carried theie 
PUp * for the purpose of merchandise. But God forbid that it 
should be taken to mean, that the Lord cast out of the temple, 
or forbade men to bring into it, the vessels consecrated to God; 
for here He shews a type of the judgment to come, for He 
thrusts away the wicked from the Church, and restrains them 
by His everlasting word from ever again coming in to trouble 
the Church. Furthermore, sorrow, sent into the heart from 
above, takes away from the souls of the faithful those sins 
which were in them, and Divine grace assists them so that 
they should never again commit them. It goes on: And he 



VER. 15 — 18. ST. MARK. 229 

taught, saying unto them, My house shaft be catted of alt 
nations the house of prayer. Pseudo-Jerome; According 
to Isaiah : But ye have made it a den of thieves, according i sa- 56j 
to Jeremiah. Bede; He says, to all nations, not to the^- 
Jewish nation alone, nor in the city of Jerusalem alone, butn. 
over the whole world; and he does not say a house of bulls, ^l 
goats, and rams, but of prayer. Theophyl. Further, He calls 
the temple, a den of thieves, on account of the money gained 
there; for thieves always troop together for gain. Since then 
they sold those animals which were offered in sacrifice for 
the sake of gain, He called them thieves. Bede; For they Bede 
were in the temple for this purpose, either that they might up ' 
persecute with corporal pains those who did not bring gifts, 
or spiritually kill those who did. The mind and conscience 
of the faithful is also the temple and the house of God, but 
if it puts forth perverse thoughts, to the hurt of any one, it 
may be said that thieves haunt it as a den ; therefore the 
mind of the faithful becomes the den of a thief, when leaving 
the simplicity of holiness, it plans that which may hurt others. 
Aug. John, however, relates this in a very different order, Aug. 
wherefore it is manifest that not once only, but twice, this was Evan, 
done by the Lord, and that the first time was related by John, lib - »■ 
this last, by all the other three. Theophyl. Which also 
turns to the greater condemnation of the Jews, because 
though the Lord did this so many times, nevertheless they 
did not correct their conduct. Aug. In this again Mark Aug. 
does not keep the same order as Matthew; because however l e Con * 

1 Evan. 

Matthew connects the facts together by this sentence, A?idKh. ii. 
he left them, and went out of the city into Bethany, returning ^' Rtt 
from whence in the morning, according to his relation, Christ 21 ' 17 - 
cursed the tree, therefore it is supposed with greater proba- 
bility that he rather has kept to the order of time, as to 
the ejection from the temple of the buyers and sellers. Mark 
therefore passed over what was done the first day when He 
entered into the temple, and on remembering it inserted it, 
when he had said that He found nothing on the fig tree but 
leaves, which was done on the second day, as both testify. 
Gloss. But the Evangelist shews what effect the correction Gloss, 
of the Lord had on the ministers of the temple, when he adds : 
And the Scribes and Chief Priests heard if, and sought how 



230 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XI. 

they might destroy him ; according to that saying of 
Amos Amos: They hate him that rebuketh in the gate, and they 
abhor him that speaketh uprightly. From this wicked de- 
sign, however, they were kept back for a time solely by fear. 
Wherefore it is added, For they feared him, because all the 
people were astonished at his doctrine. For he taught them 
as one having authority, and not as the Scribes and Pharisees, 
as is said elsewhere. 

19. And when even was come, he went out of the 
city. 

20. And in the morning, as they passed by, they 
saw the fig tree dried up from the roots. 

21. And Peter calling to remembrance saith unto 
him, Master, behold, the fig tree which thou cursedst 
is withered away. 

22. And Jesus answering saith unto them, Have 
faith in God. 

23. For verily I say unto you, That whosoever 
shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and 
be thou cast into the sea ; and shall not doubt in his 
heart, but shall believe that those things which he 
saith shall come to pass ; he shall have whatsoever he 
saith. 

24. Therefore I say unto you, What things soever 
ye desire, when ye pray, believe that ye receive them, 
and ye shall have them. 

25. And when ye stand praying, forgive, if ye 
have ought against any : that your Father also which 
is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses. 

26. But if ye do not forgive, neither will your 
Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses. 

Pseu do -Jerome; The Lord, leaving darkness behind 
Him in the hearts of the Jews, went out, as the sun, from that 
city to another which is well-disposed and obedient. And 
this is what is meant, when it is said, And when even ivas 



VER. 19 — 26. ST. MARK. 231 

come, he went out of the city. But the sun sets in one 
place, rises in another, for the light, taken from the Scribes, 
shines in the Apostles; wherefore He returns into the city; on 
which account there is added, And in the morning, as they 
passed by, (that is, going into the city,) they saw the Jig tree 
dried up from the root. Theophyl. The greatness of the 
miracle appears in the drying up so juicy and green a tree. 
But though Matthew says that the fig tree was at once dried 
up, and that the disciples on seeing it wondered, there is no 
reason for perplexity, though Mark now says, that the dis- 
ciples saw the fig tree dried up on the morrow ; for what 
Matthew says must be understood to mean that they did not 
see it at once, but on the next day. Aug. The meaning is Aug. 
not that it dried up at the time, when they saw it, but ini-E var1( n. 
mediately after the word of the Lord ; for they saw it, 68 - 
not beginning to dry up, but completely dried up ; and they 
thus understood that it had withered immediately after our 
Lord spoke. Pseudo-Jerome ; Now the fig tree withered 
from the roots is the synagogue withered from Cain, and 
the rest, from whom all the blood from Abel up to Zechariah 
is required. Bede ; Further, the fig tree was dried up from Bede 
the roots to shew that the nation was impious not only u,)1 8U P* 
for a time and in part, and was to be smitten for ever, not 
merely to be afflicted by the attacks of nations from with- 
out and then to be freed, as had often been done ; or 
else it was dried up from the roots, to shew that it was 
stripped not only of the external favour of man, but altogether 
of the favour of heaven within it; for it lost both its life 
in heaven, and its country on earth. Pseudo- Jerome ; Peter 
perceives the dry root, which is cut off, and has been replaced 
by the beautiful and fruitful olive, called by the Lord; 
wherefore it goes on : And Peter calling to remembrance 
saith unto him, Master, behold, the fig tree which thou 
cursedsl is withered aivay. Chrys. The wonder of theChry.«. 
disciples was the consequence of imperfect faith, for this was 
no great thing for God to do ; since then they did not clearly 
know His power, their ignorance made them break out into 
wonder; and therefore it is added, And Jesus answering 
saith unto them, Have faith in God. For verily I say unto 
you, That whosoever shall say unto this mountain, $c. Thai 



non occ. 



232 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XI. 

is ; Thou shall not only be able to dry up a tree, but also to 
change a mountain by thy command and order. Theophyl. 
Consider the Divine mercy, how it confers on us, if we ap- 
proach Him in faith, the power of miracles, which He Himself 
possesses by nature, so that we should be able even to 
Bede change mountains. Bede; The Gentiles, who have attacked 
ubi sup. ^ e church are i n the habit of objecting to us, that we 
have never had full faith in God, for we have never been 
, vo[ able to change mountains. l It could, however, be done, if 
i. p. 614. necessity called for it, as once we read that it was done by the 
prayers of the blessed Father Gregory of Neocaesarea, Bishop 
of Pontus, by which a mountain left as much space of ground 
ciirys. for the inhabitants of a city as they wanted. Chrys. Or else, 
non occ. as jj e fcfi not fay U p tne fig ^ree for its own sake, but 

for a sign that Jerusalem should come to destruction, in 
order to shew His power, in the same way we must also 
understand the promise concerning the mountain, though a 
removal of this sort is not impossible with God. Pseudo- 
Jerome ; Christ then who is the mountain, which grew from 
the stone, cut out without hands, is taken up and cast into 
Acts 13 t ne sea, when the Apostles with justice say, Let us turn our- 
46 - selves to other nations, since ye judged yourselves unworthy 
Bede of hearing the word of God. Bede ; Or else, because the 
ubi sup. d ev i} i s often on account of his pride called by the name of 
a mountain, this mountain, at the command of those who 
are strong in the faith, is taken up from the earth and cast 
into the sea, whenever, at the preaching of the word of God 
by the holy doctors, the unclean spirit is expelled from the 
hearts of those who are fore-ordained to life, and is allowed 
to exert the tyranny of his power over the troubled and 
embittered souls of the faithless. At which time, he rages 
the more fiercely, the more he grieves at being turned away 
from hurting the faithful. It goes on : Therefore 1 say unto 
you, What things soever ye desire, when ye pray, believe 
that ye receive them, and ye shall have them. Theophyl. 
For whosoever sincerely believes evidently lifts up his heart 
to God, and is joined to Him, and his burning heart feels 
sure that he has received what he asked for, which he who 
has experienced will understand ; and those persons appear 
to me to experience this, who attend to the measure and the 



VER. 27 33. ST. MARK. 233 

manner of their prayers. For this reason the Lord says, Ye 
shall receive ivhatsoever ye ask in faith ; for he who believes 
that he is altogether in the hands of God, and interceding 
with tears, feels that he as it were has hold of the feet of the 
Lord in prayer, he shall receive what he has rightly asked for 
Again, would you in another w r ay receive what you ask for ? 
Forgive your brother, if he has in any way sinned against 
you ; this is also what is added : And when ye stand 
praying, forgive, if ye have ought against any: that your 
Father also which is in heaven may forgive you your tres- 
passes. Pseudo-Jerome; Mark has, as he is wont, expressed 
seven verses of the Lord's prayer in one prayer. But what 
can he, whose sins are all forgiven, require more, save that he 
may persevere in what has been granted unto him. Bede ; Bede 
But we must observe that there is a difference in those who s p ' 
pray; he who has perfect faith, which worketh by love, can 
by his prayer or even his command remove spiritual moun- 
tains, as Paul did with Elymas the sorcerer. But let those 
who are unable to mount up to such a height 1 of perfection pray ' fasti- 
that their sins should be forgiven them, and they shall obtain |J"™ ap ' 
what they pray for, provided that they themselves first forgive 
those who have sinned against them. If however they disdain 
to do this, not only shall they be unable to perform miracles by 
their prayers, but they shall not even be able to obtain pardon 
for their sins, which is implied in what follows; But if ye do 
not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven 
forgive your trespasses. 

27. And they come again to Jerusalem : and as he 
was walking in the temple, there come to him the 
chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders, 

28. And say unto him, By what authority doest 
thou these things ? and who gave thee this authority 
to do these things ? 

29. And Jesus answered and said unto them, I will 
also ask of you one question, and answer me, and 1 
will tell you by what authority I do these things. 

30. The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of 
men ? answer me. 



234 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XI. 

31. And they reasoned with themselves, saying, 
If we shall say, From heaven ; he will say, Why then 
did ye not believe him? 

32. But if we shall say, Of men ; they feared the 
people : for all men counted John, that he was a pro- 
phet indeed. 

33. And they answered and said unto Jesus, We 
cannot tell. And Jesus answering saith unto them, 
Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these 
things. 

Theophyl. They were angry with the Lord, for having 
cast out of the temple those who had made it a place of 
merchandize, and therefore they come up to Him, to question 
and tempt Him. Wherefore it is said: And they come again 
to Jerusalem : and as he was walking in the temple, there 
come to him the Chief Priests, and the Scribes, and the 
elders, and sag unto him, By what authority doest thou 
these things ? and who gave thee autliority to do these 
things ? As if they had said, Who art thou that doest these 
things ? Dost thou make thyself a doctor, and ordain thyself 

Bede Chief Priest ? Bede ; And indeed, when they say, By what 
sup * authority doest thou these things, they doubt its being the 
power of God, and wish it to be understood that what He 
did was the devil's work. When they add also, Who gave 
thee this authority, they evidently deny that He is the Son 
of God, since they believe that He works miracles, not by 
His own but by another's power. Theophyl. Further, they 
said this, thinking to bring Him to judgment, so that if He 
said, by mine own power, they might lay hold upon Him ; 
but if He said, by the power of another, they might make the 
people leave Him, for they believed Him to be God. But 
the Lord asks them concerning John, not without a reason, 
nor in a sophistical way, but because John had borne witness 
of Him. Wherefore there follows : And Jesus answered and 
said unto them, I will also ask of you one question, and 
answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I do these 
things. The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of 

Bede men f answer me. Bede; The Lord might indeed have 

ubi sup. 



VER. 27 33. ST. MARK. 235 

confuted the cavils of his tempters by a direct answer, but 
prudently puts them a question, that they might be con- 
demned either by their silence or their speaking, which is 
evident from what is added, And they reasoned with them- 
selves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven ; he will say, 
Why then did ye not believe him ? As if He had said, He 
whom you confess to have had his prophecy from heaven 
bore testimony of Me, and ye have heard from him, by what 
authority I do these things. It goes on : But if we shall 
say, Of men; they feared the people. They saw then that 
whatever they answered, they should fall into a snare ; fearing 
to be stoned, they feared still more the confession of the 
truth. Wherefore it goes on : And they answered and said 
unto Jesus, We cannot tell. Pseudo- Jerome ; They envied 
the Lamp, and were in the dark, wherefore it is said, / have p 8 . 132, 
ordained a lamp for mine anointed; his enemies will J 1 ''- 18 * 
clothe with shame* There follows: And Jesus answering 
saith unto them, Neither do I tell you by what authority I 
do these things. Bede ; As if He had said, I will not tellBede 
you what 1 know, since ye will not confess what ye know. u i sap ' 
Further, we must observe that knowledge is hidden from 
those who seek it, principally for two reasons, namely, when 
he who seeks for it either has not sufficient capacity to under- 
stand what he seeks for, or when through contempt for the 
truth, or some other reason, he is unworthy of having that for 
which he seeks opened to him. 



CHAP. XIL 

1. And he began to speak unto them by parables. 
A certain man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge 
about it, and digged a place for the winefat, and 
built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went 
into a far country. 

2. And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a 
servant, that he might receive from the husbandmen 
of the fruit of the vineyard. 

3. And they caught him, and beat him, and sent 
him away empty. 

4. And again he sent unto them another servant ; 
and at him they cast stones, and wounded him in the 
head, and sent him away shamefully handled. 

5. And again he sent another; and him they killed, 
and many others ; beating some, and killing some. 

6. Having yet therefore one son, his well-beloved, 
he sent him also last unto them, saying, They will 
reverence my son. 

7. But those husbandmen said among themselves, 
This is the heir ; come, let us kill him, and the 
inheritance shall be our's. 

8. And they took him, and killed him, and cast 
him out of the vineyard. 

9. What shall therefore the lord of the vineyard 
do ? he will come and destroy the husbandmen, and 
will give the vineyard unto others. 



VER. 1 — 12. GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. '237 

10. And have ye not read this Scripture; The 
stone which the builders rejected is become the head 
of the corner : 

1 1. This was the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous 
in our eyes ? 

12. And they sought to lay hold on him, but feared 
the people : for they knew that he had spoken the 
parable against them : and they left him, and went 
their way. 

Gloss. After the Lord had closed the mouths of His Gloss, 
tempters by a wise question, He next shews their wickedness non oeo * 
in a parable ; wherefore it is said : And he began to speak 
unto them by parables. A certain man planted a vineyard. 
Pseu do- Jerome ; God the Father is called a man by a human 
conception. The vineyard is the house of Israel ; the hedge 
is the guardianship of Angels ; the winefat is the law, the 
tower is the temple, and the husbandmen, the priests. Bede; Bede in 
Or else, the hedge is the wall of the city, the winefat is the 3 JJF" 
altar, or 1 those winefats, by which three psalms receive their 1 v. vol. 
name. Theophyl. Or, the hedge is the law, which prohibited a .' 
their mingling with strangers. There follows, And went into 
afar country. Bede; Not by any change of place, but He Bede 
seemed to go away from the vineyard, that He might leave 11 ' 1 ftlip ' 
the husbandmen to act on their own freewill. It goes on : And 
at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant, that he might 
receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; The servants who were sent were the pro- 
phets, the fruit of the vineyard is obedience ; some of the 
prophets were beaten, others wounded, others slain. Where- 
fore it goes on, And they caught him, and beat him, and sent 
him away empty. Bede ; By the servant who was first sent, Bede 
we must understand Moses, but they beat him, and sent him ubl 8U P' 
away empty, because they angered Moses in the tents. There p s . 100, 
follows, And again he sent unto them another servant, and 6 ' 
they wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully 
handled. This other servant means David and the other 
Psalmists, but they wounded Him in the head and shamefully 
handled him, because they despised the songs of the Psalm- 



238 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XII. 

l Kings ists, and rejected David himself, saying, What portion have 
1 ' we in David? It goes on, And he sent another ; and him they 
killed, and many others; beating some, and killing some. By 
the third servant and his companions, understand the band 
of the prophets. But which of the prophets did they not 
persecute ? In these three kinds of servants, as the Lord Him- 
self elsewhere pronounces, may be included in a figure all the 

Luke doctors under the law, when He says, that all things must 
be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses, and in 
the Prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning Me. Theo- 
phyl. Or else, By the first servant, understand the prophets 

2Chron. who lived about the time of Elias, for Zedekiah the false 
9 ' prophet beat Micaiah ; and by the second servant whom they 
wounded in the head, that is, evil entreated, we may under- 
stand the prophets who lived about the time of Hosea 
and Isaiah ; but by the third servant understand the pro- 
phets who flourished about the time of Daniel and Ezekiel. 
It goes on, Having yet therefore one son, his well-beloved, lie 
sent him also last unto them, saying, Perchance they will reve- 
rence my son. Pseudo-Jerome ; The well-beloved son and the 
last is the Only-begotten ; and in that He says, They ivill re- 

Bede verence my son, He speaks in irony. Bede ; Or else, this is 

ubi sup. no j. ga -^ - n ig norance? "but God is said to doubt, that freedom of 
will may be left to man. Theophyl. Or else, He said this not 
as though He were ignorant of what was to happen, but to shew 
what it was right and fitting that they should do. But those 
husbandmen said amongst themselves, This is the heir, come, 

Bede let us kill him, and the inheritance will be ours. Bede ; The 

sup * Lord proves most clearly that the chiefs of the Jews did not 

crucify the Son of God through ignorance, but through envy; 

for they understood that this was He to whom it was said, 

Ps. 2, I will give thee the heathen for thine inheritance. But these 
evil husbandmen strove to seize upon it by slaying Him, when 
the Jews crucifying Him tried to extinguish the faith which 
is by Him, and rather to bring forward their own righteousness 
which is by the Law, and to thrust it on the nations, and 
to imbue them with it. There follows : And they took him, 
and killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard. Theophyl. 
That is, without Jerusalem, for the Lord was crucified out of 
the city. Pseudo-Jerome ; Or else, they cast Him out of 



VEB. 1—12. ST. MARK. 239 

the vineyard, that is, out of the people, saying Thou art a John 6, 
Samaritan, and hast a devil. ' Or, as far as in them lay, they i ^ ede 
cast Him out of their own borders, and gave Him up to the ubi SU P- 
Gentiles that they might receive Him. There follows, What 
then will the Lord of the vineyard do ? he will come and 
destroy those husbandmen, and give the vineyard unto other. 
Aug. Matthew indeed subjoins that they answered and said, Aug. 
He will miserably destroy those wicked men, which Mark here Evan! 1 
says was not their answer, but that the Lord after putting the Ij* '°- 
question, as it were answered Himself. But we may easily 21, 41. 
understand either that their answer was subjoined without 
the insertion of, they answered, or they said, which at the 
same time was implied; or else, that their answer, being the 
truth, was attributed to the Lord, since He also Himself gave 
this answer concerning them, being the Truth. Theophyl. 
The Lord of the vineyard then is the Father of the Son who 
was slain, and the Son Himself is He who was slain, who will 
destroy those husbandmen, by giving them up to the Romans? 
and who will give the people to other husbandmen, that is, to 
the Apostles. Read the Acts of the Apostles, and you will find 
three thousand, and five thousand on a sudden believing and 
bearing fruit to God. Pseudo-Jerome ; Or else, the vineyard 
is given to others, that is, to those who come from the east, 
and from the west, and from the south, and from the north, 
and who sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the 
kingdom of heaven. Bede; But that this was done by Rede 
Divine interposition he affirms, by immediately afterwards u ' hUl '' 
adding, And have ye not read this Scripture, The stone 
which the builders refused is become the head-stone in the 
corner? As if he had said, how is this prophecy to be ful- 
filled, save in that Christ, being rejected and slain by you, is to 
be preached to the Gentiles, who will believe on Him ? Thus 
then as a corner stone, He will found the two people on Him- 
self, and of the two people will build for Himself a city of the 
faithful, one temple. For the masters of the synagogue, whom 
He had just called husbandmen, He now calls builders, because 
the same persons, who seemed to cultivate His people, that 
they might bear the fruits of life, like a vineyard, were also com- 
manded to construct and adorn this people, to be, as it were, a 
house worthy to have God for its inhabitant. Theophyl. The 



240 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XII. 

stone then which the builders refused, the same has become 
the head-stone of the corner, that is, of the Church. For the 
Church is, as it were, the corner, joining together Jews and 
Gentiles; and this corner has been made by the Lord, and is 
wonderful in our eyes, that is, in the eyes of the faithful ; 
for miracles meet with detraction from the faithless. The 
Church indeed is wonderful, as it were resting on wonders, 
for the Lord worked with the Apostles, and confirmed the word 
with signs. And this is what is meant, when it is said, This 
was the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes. 
Pseudo- Jerome ; This rejected stone, which is borne by that 
corner where the lamb and the bread met in the supper, end- 
ing the Old and beginning the New Testament, does things 
Ps. 118, marvellous in our eyes as the topaz. Bede; But the Chief 
Vule Priests shewed that those things which the Lord had spoken 
Bede were true ; which is proved from what follows: And ihey sought 
to lay hold on him; for He Himself is the heir, whose unjust 
death He said was to be revenged by the Father. Again, in a 
moral sense, each of the faithful, when the Sacrament of Bap- 
tism is intrusted to him, receives on hire a vineyard, which 
he is to cultivate. But the servant sent to him is evil in- 
treated, beaten, and cast out, when the word is heard by him 
and despised, or, what is worse, even blasphemed ; further, 
he kills, as far as in him lies, the heir, who has trampled 
under foot the Son of God. The evil husbandman is de- 
stroyed, and the vineyard given to another, when the humble 
shall be enriched with that gift of grace, which the proud 
man has scorned. And it happens daily in the Church, that 
the Chief Priests wishing to lay hands on Jesus, are held back 
by the multitude, when some one, who is a brother only in 
name, either blushes or fears to attack the unity of the faith of 
the Church, and of its peace, though he loves it not, on account 
of the number of good brethren who dwell together within it. 

13. And they send unto him certain of the Phari- 
sees and of the Herodians, to catch him in his words. 

14. And when they were come, they say unto him, 
Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no 
man; for thou regardest not the person of men, but 



VER. 13 17. ST. MARK. 241 

teachest the way of God in truth : Is it lawful to 
give tribute to Caesar, or not ? 

15. Shall we give, or shall we not give? But he, 
knowing their hypocrisy, said unto them, Why tempt 
ye me ? bring me a penny, that I may see it. 

16. And they brought it. And he saith unto 
them, Whose is this image and superscription ? And 
they said unto him, Caesar's. 

17. And Jesus answering said unto them, Render 
to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the 
things that are God's. And they marvelled at him. 

Bede ; The Chief Priests though they sought to take Him, Bede 
feared the multitude, and therefore they endeavoured to effect s ^- 
what they could not do of themselves, by means of earthly 
powers, that they might themselves appear to be guiltless of 
His death; and therefore it is said, And they send unto him 
certain of the Pharisees and of the Herodians, to catch him 
in his words. Theophyl. We have said elsewhere of the 
Herodians, that they were a certain new heresy, who said that 
Herod was the Christ, because the succession of the kingdom 
of Judah had failed. Others however say that the Herodians 
were the soldiers of Herod, whom the Pharisees brought as 
witnesses of the words of Christ, that they might take Him, 
and lead Him away. But observe how in their wicked- 
ness they wished to deceive Christ by flattery; for it goes 
on: Master, we know that thou art true. Pseudo-Jerome; 
For they questioned Him with honied words, and they sur- 
rounded Him as bees, who carry honey in their mouth, but 
a sting in their tail. Bede; But this bland and crafty ques- Bede 
tion was intended to induce Him in His answer rather to u ' SUi> 
fear God than Caesar, and to say that tribute should not be 
paid, so that the Herodians immediately on hearing it might 
hold Him to be an author of sedition against the Romans ; 
and therefore they add, And car est for no man : for thou re- 
yardesl not the person of any. Theophyl. So that thou 
wilt not honour Caesar, that is, against the truth ; there- 
fore they add, But teachest the way of God in truth. Is it 

VOL. II. R 



242 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XII. 

lawful to (jive tribute to Casar, or not ? Shall we give, or 

shall ice not give ? For their whole plot was one which had a 

precipice on both sides, so that if He said that it was lawful 

to give tribute to Caesar, they might provoke the people 

against Him, as though He wished to reduce the nation itself 

to slavery ; but if He said, that it was not lawful, they might 

accuse Him, as though He was stirring up the people against 

Caesar; but the Fountain of wisdom escaped their snares. 

Wherefore there follows: But he, knowing their hypocrisy, 

said unto them, Why tempi ye me? bring me a penny, that I 

Bede may see it. And they brought it. Bede ; A denarius was a piece 
ubi sup. * i ■, „ . i , • 

of money, accounted equal to ten smaller coins, and bearing 

the image of Caesar; wherefore there follows: And he saith 
unto them, Whose is this image and, superscription? And 
they said unto him, Caesar's. Let those who think that our 
Saviour asked the question through ignorance and not by an 
economy, learn from this that He might have known w r hose 
image it was; but He puts the question, in order to return them 
a fitting answer; wherefore there follows: And Jesus answer- 
ing said unto them, Render unto Ccesar the things that are 
Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's. Theophyl. 
As if He had said, Give what bears an image to him whose 
image it bears, that is, the penny to Caesar; for we can both 
pay Caesar his tribute, and offer to God what is His own. 

Bede Bede; That is, tithes, first-fruits, oblations, and victims. In 
the same way as He gave tribute both for Himself and Peter, 
He also gave to God the things that are God's, doing the 
will of His Father. Pseudo-Jerome; Render to Caesar the 
money bearing his image, which is collected for him, and 
render yourselves willingly up to God, for the light of thy 

Ps. 4, 7. countenance, O Lord, and not of Caesar's, is stamped upon 

Vula;. . 

us. Theophyl. The inevitable wants of our bodies is as 
Caesar unto each of us ; the Lord therefore orders that there 
should be given to the body its own, that is, food and raiment, 
and to God the things that are God's. It goes on : And they 
marvelled at him. They who ought to have believed, won- 
dered at such great w r isdom, because they had found no 
place for their craftiness. 



VER. 18 — 27. ST. MARK. 243 

18. Then come unto him the Sadducees, which say 
there is no resurrection ; and they asked him, saying, 

19. Master, Moses wrote unto us, If a man's brother 
die, and leave his wife behind him, and leave no 
children, that his brother should take his wife, and 
raise up seed unto his brother. 

20. Now there were seven brethren : and the first 
took a wife, and dying left no seed. 

21. And the second took her, and died, neither left 
he any seed : and the third likewise. 

22. And the seven had her, and left no seed : last 
of all the woman died also. 

23. In the resurrection therefore, when they shall 
rise, whose wife shall she be of them ? for the seven 
had her to wife. 

24. And Jesus answering, said unto them, Do ye 
not therefore err, because ye know not the Scriptures, 
neither the power of God ? 

25. For when they shall rise from the dead, they 
neither marry, nor are given in marriage ; but are as 
the angels which are in heaven. 

26. And as touching the dead, that they rise : 
have ye not read in the book of Moses, how in the 
bush God spake unto him, saying, I am the God of 
Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of 
Jacob ? 

27. He is not the God of the dead, but the God of 
the living : ye therefore do greatly err. 

Gloss. After that our Lord has prudently escaped the Gloss 
crafty temptation of the Pharisees, it is shewn how Pie also 
confounds the Sadducees, who tempt Him ; wherefore it 
is said : Then come unto him the Sadducees, which say there 
is no resurrection. Theophyl. A certain heretical sect of 
the Jews called Sadducees denied the resurrection, and 
said that there was neither angel nor spirit. These then 

r 2 



non oeo. 



244 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XII. 

coming to Jesus, craftily proposed to Him a certain tale, in 
order to shew that no resurrection should take place, or had 
taken place; and therefore there is added, And they asked 
him, saying. Master. And in this tale they lay down that 
seven men had married one woman, in order to make men 

Bede draw back from belief in the resurrection. Bede ; And fitly do 
they frame such a fable in order to prove the madness of those 
who assert the resurrection of the body. Such a thing how- 
ever might really have happened at some time or other among 
them. Pseu do- Jerome ; But in a mystical sense: what can 
this woman, leaving no seed of seven brothers, and last of all 
dying, mean except the Jewish synagogue, deserted by the 
seven-fold Spirit, which rilled those seven patriarchs, who did 
not leave to her the seed of Abraham, that is, Jesus Christ? 
For although a Son was born to them, nevertheless He was 
given to us Gentiles. This woman was dead to Christ, nor 
shall she be joined in the resurrection to any patriarch of the 
seven ; for by the number seven is meant the whole company 
of the faithful. Thus it is said contrariwise by Isaiah, 

is. 4, 1. Seven wo?nen shall take hold of one man; that is, the seven 
Churches, which the Lord loves, reproves, and chastises? 
adore Him with one faith. Wherefore it goes on : And Jesus 
answering, said unto them, Do ye not therefore err, not 
knowing the Scripture, neither the power of God? The- 
ophyl. As if He had said, Ye understand not what sort of a 
resurrection the Scriptures announce; for ye believe that 
there will be a restoration of our bodies, such as they are 
now, but it shall not be so. Thus then ye know not the 
Scriptures ; neither again do ye know the power of God ; 
for ye consider it as a difficult thing, saying, How can the 
limbs, which have been scattered, be united together and 
joined to the soul ? But this in respect of the Divine power 
is as nothing. There follows : For when they shall rise from 
the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but 
are as the angels which are in heaven; as if He had said, 
There will be a certain heavenly and angelic restoration to 
life, when there shall be no more decay, and we shall re- 
main unchanged ; and for this reason marriage shall cease. 
For marriage now exists on account of our decay, that 
we may be carried on by succession of our race, and not 



VEIL 18 — 27. ST. MARK. 245 

fail ; but then we shall be as the Angels, who need no 
succession by marriage, and never come to an end. Bede • Bede 
We must here consider that the Latin custom does not sup ' 
answer to the Greek idiom. For properly ' different words » nubere 
are used for the marriage of men, and that of women ; but here ^orem 
we may simply understand that, marry is meant of men, and ducere. 
given in marriage of women. Pseudo- Jerome ; Thus then they 
do not understand the Scripture, in that in the resurrection, 
men shall be as the Angels of God, that is, no man there dies, 
no one is born, no infant is there, no old man. Theophyl. 
In another way also they are deceived, not understanding 
the Scriptures; for if they had understood them, they 
should also have understood how by the Scriptures the 
resurrection of the dead may be proved; wherefore He adds, 
And as touching the dead, that they rise, have ye not read 
in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spake unto him, 
saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, 
and the God of Jacob ? Pseudo-Jerome ; But I say, in the 
bush, in which is an image of you ; for in it the fire was 
kindled, but it did not consume its thorns ; so my words set 
you on fire, but do not burn off your thorns, which have grown 
under the curse. Theophyl. But I say, / am the God of 
Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. As if 
He had said, The God of the living, wherefore He adds, He 
is not the God of the dead, but of the living ; for He did not 
say, I have been, but / am, as if they had been present. 
But some one perhaps will say, that God spake this only of 
the soul of Abraham, not of his body ; to which I answer, 
that Abraham implies both, that is, soul and body, so that He 
also is the God of the body, and the body lives with God, 
that is, in God's ordinance. Bede; Or else; because after Bede 
proving that the soul remained after death, (for God could up# 
not be God of those who did not exist at all,) the resurrection 
of the body also might be inferred as a consequence, since 
it had done good and evil with the soul. Pseudo-Jerome; 
But when He says, The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, 
and the God of Jacob; by naming God thrice, He implied 
the Trinity. But when He says, He is not the God of the 
dead, by naming again the One God, he implies One Sub- 
stance. But they live who make good the portion, which they 



246 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XII. 

had chosen ; and they are dead, who have lost what they had 
Gloss, made good. Ye therefore do greatly err. Gloss. That is, 
"because they contradicted the Scriptures, and derogated 
from the power of God. 

28. And one of the scribes came, and having heard 
them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had 
answered them well, asked him, Which is the first 
commandment of all ? 

29. And Jesus answered him, The first of all the 
commandments is, Hear, O Israel ; The Lord our 
God is one Lord : 

30. And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all 
thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy 
mind, and with all thy strength : this is the first 
commandment. 

31. And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt 
love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other 
commandment greater than these. 

32. And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, 
thou hast said the truth : for there is one God ; and 
there is none other but he : 

33. And to love him with all the heart, and with 
all the understanding, and with all the soul, and with 
all the strength, and to love his neighbour as himself, 
is more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. 

34. And when Jesus saw that he answered dis- 
creetly, he said unto him, Thou art not far from the 
kingdom of God. And no man after that durst ask 
him any question. 

Gloss. Gloss. After that the Lord confuted the Pharisees, and 

oce * the Sadducees, who tempted Him, it is here shewn how He 

satisfied the Scribe who questioned Him ; wherefore it is 

said. And one of the scribes came, and having heard them 

masoninq together^ and perceiving that he had answered 

■m welh asked him, Which is the first commandment of 



VEIL 28 — 34. ST, MARK. 247 

(ill? Pseudo-Jerome ; This question is only that which is 
a problem common to all skilled in the law, namely, that the 
commandments are differently set forth in Exodus, Leviticus, 
and Deuteronomy. Wherefore He brought forward not one 
but two commandments, by which, as by two paps rising on 
the breast of the bride, our infancy is nourished. And 
therefore there is added, And Jesus answered him, The 
first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel ; the 
Lord thy God is one God. He mentions the first and 
greatest commandment of all ; this is that to which each of 
us must give the first place in his heart, as the only founda- 
tion of piety, that is, the knowledge and confession of the 
Divine Unity, with the practice of good works, which is 
perfected in the love of God and our neighbour ; wherefore 
there is added, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all 
thy heart, and with all thy mind, and with all thy sold, and 
with all thy strength: this is the first commandment. The- 
ophyl. See how He has enumerated all the powers of the 
soul; for there is a 'living power in the soul, which He i &&,h$ 
explains, when He says, With all thy soul, and to this be- 
long anger and desire, all of which He will have us give to 
Divine love. There is also another power, which is called 
natural, to which belong nutriment and growth, and this also 
is all to be given to God, for which reason He says, With 
all thy heart. There is also another power, the rational, 
which He calls the mind, and that too is to be given whole 
to God. Gloss. The words which are added, And with all Gloss. 
thy strength, may be referred to the bodily powers. It goes 110 " occ * 
on : And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy 
neighbour as thyself. THEorHYL. He says that it is like, 
because these two commandments are harmonious one with 
the other, and mutually contain the other. For he who loves 
God, loves also His creature ; but the chief of His creatures 
is man, wherefore he who loves God ought to love all men. 
But he who loves his neighbour, who so often offends him, 
ought much more to love Him, who is ever giving him 
benefits. And therefore on account of the connection be- 
tween these commandments, He adds, There is none other 
commandment greater than these. It goes on : And the 
Scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast said the truth : 



248 G0SPKL ACCORDING TO CHAT. XII, 

for there is one God, and there is none other but he : and 

to love him with all the heart, and with all the soul, and 

with all the understanding, and with all the strength, and to 

love his neighbour as himself, is more than all whole burnt 

Bede offerings and sacrifices. Bede ; He shews when he says, 

ubi sup. ,.. , J 

this is greater than all sacrifices, that a grave question was 
often debated between the scribes and Pharisees, which was 
the first commandment, or the greatest of the Divine law; 
that is, some praised offerings and sacrifices, others preferred 
acts of faith and love, because many of the fathers before the law 
pleased God by that faith only, which works by love. This 
scribe shews that he was of the latter opinion. But it con- 
tinues, And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly, he 
said unto him, Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. 
Theophyl. By which He shews that he was not perfect, for 
He did not sav, Thou art within the kingdom of heaven, but, 
ubi sup. Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. Bede; But the 
reason why he was not far from the kingdom of God was, that 
he proved himself to be a favourer of that opinion, which is 
proper to the New Testament and to Gospel perfection. 
Aug. de Aug. Nor let it trouble us that Matthew says, that he who 
Evan, addressed this question to the Lord tempted Him ; for it may 
n. 73. k e tliat though he came as a tempter, yet he was corrected 
by the answer of the Lord. Or at all events, we must not look 
upon the temptation as evil, and done with the intention of 
deceiving an enemy, but rather as the caution of a man who 
wished to try a thing unknown to him. Pseudo-Jerome; 
Or else, he is not far who comes with knowledge ; for 
ignorance is farther from the kingdom of God than know- 
ledge; wherefore he says above to the Sadducees, Ye err, 
not knowing the Scriptures, or the power of God. It goes 
on : And no man after that durst ask him any questions. 
B jf. de Bede ; For since they were confuted in argument, they ask 
Him no farther questions, but take Him without any disguise, 
and give Him up to the Roman power. From which we 
understand that the venom of envy may be overcome, but 
can hardly lie quiet. 



35. And Jesus answered and said, while he taught 



VER. 35 — 37. ST. MARK. 249 

in the temple, How say the Scribes that Christ is the 
Son of David ? 

36. For David himself said by the Holy Ghost, 
The Lord said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right 
hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool. 

37. David therefore himself calleth him Lord ; 
and whence is he then his son ? And the common 
people heard him gladly. 

Theophyl. Because Christ was coming to His Passion, 
He corrects a false opinion of the Jews, who said that 
Christ was the Son of David, not his Lord ; wherefore it is 
said, And Jesus answered and said, while he taught in the 
temple. Pseudo-Jerome; That is, He openly speaks to 
them of Himself, that they may be inexcusable; for it 
goes on: How say the Scribes that Christ is the Son of 
David? Theophyl. But Christ shews Himself to be the 
Lord, by the words of David. For it goes on: For David 
himself said by the Holy Ghost, The Lord said to my 
Lord, Sit thou on my right hand; as if He had said, 
Ye cannot say that David said this without the grace 
of the Holy Spirit, but he called Him Lord in the 
Holy Spirit ; and that He is Lord, he shews, by this that 
is added, Till F make thine enemies thy footstool ; for they 
themselves were His enemies, whom God put under the foot- 
stool of Christ. Bede ; But the putting down of His enemies Bede 
by the Father, does not shew the weakness of the Son, but ubi SU P' 
the unity of nature, by which One works in the Other; for 
the Son also subjects the Father's enemies, because He glo- 
rifies His Father upon earth. Gloss. Thus then the Lord Gloss, 
concludes from what has gone before the doubtful question. 
For from the foregoing words of David it is proved that 
Christ is the Lord of David, but according to the saying of 
the Scribes, it is proved that He is his son. And this is 
what is added, David himself then calls him Lord, how is 
he then his son? Bede; The question of Jesus is useful for Bede 
us even now against the Jews; for they, acknowledging that ubi SU P- 
Christ is to come, assert that He is a mere man, a holy Per- 
son descended from David. Let us then ask them, as our 



250 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XII. 

Lord has taught us, if He be a mere man, and only the son of 
David, how David in the Holy Spirit calls Him Lord. They 
are not however reproved for calling Him David's son, but for 
not believing Him to be the Son of God. It goes on, And 
Gloss. t/ ie common people heard him qladly. Gloss. Namely, 

nonocc. _ . f , . . / 

because they saw that He answered and put questions wisely. 

38. And he said unto them in his doctrine, Beware 
of the scribes, which love to go in long clothing, and 
love salutations in the marketplaces, 

39. And the chief seats in the synagogues, and the 
uppermost rooms at feasts : 

40. Which devour widows' houses, and for a pre- 
tence make long prayers: these shall receive greater 
damnation. 

Pseu do- Jerome; After confuting the Scribes and Pharisees, 
He burns up as a fire their dry and withered examples ; 
wherefore it is said, And he said tmto them in his doctrine, 
Beware of the Scribes, which love to go in long clothing. 

Bede Bede ; To walk in long clothing is to go forth into public 
clad in garments too much ornamented, in which amongst 
other things, that rich man, who fared sumptuously every 
day, is said to have sinned. Theophyl. But they used 
to walk in honourable garments , because they wished to be 
highly esteemed for it, and in like manner they desired other 
things, which lead to glory. For it goes on : And love salu- 
tations in the marketplaces, and the chief seats in the syna- 

Bede gogues, and the uppermost rooms at feasts. Bede; We 
must observe that He does not forbid that those, to whom it 
falls by the rule of their office, should be saluted in the 
marketplace, or have chief seats and places at feasts, but He 
teaches that those who love those things unduly, whether 
they have them or no, are to be avoided by the faithful as 
wicked men: that is, He blames the intention and not the 
office ; although this too is culpable, that the very men who 
wish to be called masters of the synagogue in Moses' seat, 
should have to do with lawsuits in the marketplace. We are 
in two ways ordered to beware of those who arc desirous of* vain 



VER. 41 — 44. ST. MARK. 251 

glory ; first, we should not be seduced by their hypocrisy 
into thinking that what they do is good; nor secondly, 
should we be excited to imitate them, through a vain 
rejoicing in being praised for those virtues which they 
affect. Theophyl. He also especially teaches the Apostles, 
not to have any communication with the scribes, but 
to imitate Christ Himself; and in ordaining them to be 
masters in the duties of life, He places others under 
them v . Bede; But they do not only seek for praise from Bede 
men, but also for gain. Wherefore there follows, Which sup ' 
devour widows' houses, under the pretence of long prayers. 
For there are men who pretending to be just hesitate not to 
receive money from persons who are troubled in conscience, 
as though they would be their advocates in the judgment. 
A hand stretched out to the poor is always an accompaniment 
to prayer, but these men pass the night in prayer, that they 
may take away money from the poor. Theophyl. But the 
Scribes used to come to women, who were left without the 
protection of their husbands, as though they were their pro- 
tectors; and by a pretence of prayer, a reverend exterior and 
hypocrisy, they used to deceive widows, and thus also devour 
the houses of the rich. It goes on, These shall receive a 
greater damnation , that is, than the other Jews, who sinned. 

41. And Jesus sat over against the treasury, and 
beheld how the people cast money into the treasury : 
and many that were rich cast in much. 

42. And there came a certain poor widow, and she 
threw in two mites, which make a farthing. 

43. And he called unto him his disciples, and saith 
unto them, Verily I say unto you, That this poor 
widow hath cast more in, than all they which have 
cast into the treasury : 

44. For all they did cast in of their abundance ; 
but she of her want did cast in all that she had, even 
all her living. 

v Theophylaet's wonls should he in the duties of life. 

translated. He becomes their example 



252 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XII. 

Bede Bede ; The Lord, who had warned them to avoid the 

sup * desire of high place and vain glory, now distinguishes by a 
sure test those who brought in gifts. Wherefore it is said, 
And Jesus sat over against the treasury, and beheld how the 
people cast money into the treasury. In the Greek language, 
phylassein means to keep, and gaza is a Persian word for 
treasure; wherefore the word gazophylacium which is here 
used means a place where riches are kept, which name also 
was applied to the chest in which the offerings of the people 
were collected, for the necessary uses of the temple, and to the 
porch in which they were kept. You have a notice of the 
John porch in the Gospel, These words spake Jesus in the treasury 
2'K? as ^ e t au ffht i fl t ne temple; and of the chest in the book of 
12, 9. Kings, But Jehoiada the priest took a chest. Theophyl. 
Now there was a praiseworthy custom amongst the Jews, that 
those who were able and willing should put something into the 
treasury, for the maintenance of the priests, the poor, and the 
widows; wherefore there is added, And many that were rich 
cast in much. But whilst many people were so engaged, 
a poor widow came up, and shewed her love by offering 
money according to her ability ; wherefore it is said, 
And there came a certain poor widow, and she threw 
Bede ™ l ^ uo m ^ es » which make a farthing. Bede; Reckoners 
ubi sup. use the word * quadrans' for the fourth part of any 
thing, be it place, money, or time. Perhaps then in this 
place is meant the fourth part of a shekel, that is, five 
pence. It goes on, And he called unto him his disciples, 
and saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, Thai this poor 
widow hath cast more in, than all they which have cast into 
the treasury: for God does not weigh the property but the 
conscience of those who offer; nor did He consider the 
smallness of the sum in her offering, but what was the store 
from which it came. Wherefore He adds, For all they did cast 
in of their abundance, but she of her want did cast in all that 
she had, even all her living. Pseu do- Jerome; But in a 
mystical sense, they are rich, who bring forth from the treasure 
of their heart things new and old, which are the obscure and 
hidden things of Divine wisdom in both testaments ; but who 
is the poor woman, if it be not I and those like me, who cast 
in what I can, and have the will to explain to you, where I have 



VER. 41 — 44. ST. MARK. 253 

not the power. For God does not consider how much ye hear, 
but what is the store from which it comes ; but each at all 
events can bring his farthing, that is, a ready will, which is 
called a farthing, because it is accompanied by three things, 
that is, thought, word, and deed. And in that it is said that 
she cast in all her living , it is implied that all that the 
body wants is that by which it lives * ; wherefore it is said, ' victum 
All the labour of man is for his mouth. Theophyl. Or Eccl. 6, 
else; That widow is the soul of man, which leaving Satan '* 
to which it had been joined, casts into the temple two 
mites, that is, the flesh and the mind, the flesh by abstinence, 
the mind by humility, that so it may be able to hear that it 
has cast away all its living, and has consecrated it, leaving 
nothing for the world of all that it possessed. BEDE;Bede 
Again, in an allegorical way, the rich men, who cast gifts into sup * 
the treasury, point out the Jews puffed up with the righte- 
ousness of the law ; the poor widow is the simplicity of 
the Church : poor indeed, because she has cast away the 
spirit of pride and of the desires of worldly things ; and a 
widow, because Jesus her husband has suffered death for her. 
She casts two mites into the treasury, because she brings 
the love of God and of her neighbour, or the gifts of faith 
and prayer; which are looked upon as mites in their own 
insignificance, but measured by the merit of a devout inten- 
tion are superior to all the proud works of the Jews. The 
Jew sends of his abundance into the treasury, because he 
presumes on his own righteousness ; but the Church sends 
her whole living into God's treasury, because she understands 
that even her very living is not of her own desert, but of 
Divine grace. 



CHAP. XIII. 

1. And as he went out of the temple, one of his 
disciples saith unto him, Master, see what manner 
of stones and what buildings are here! 

2. And Jesus answering said unto him, Seest thou 
these great buildings ? there shall not be left one 
stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down. 

Bede in Bede ; Because after the founding of the Church of Christ, 
lib. iv. Judaea was to be punished for her treachery, the Lord 
42, fitly, after praising the devotedness of the Church in the per- 
son of the poor widow, goes out of the temple, and foretold 
its coming ruin, and the contempt in which the buildings now 
so wonderful were soon to be held, wherefore it is said, And as 
he went out of the temple, one of his disciples saith unto him, 
Master, see what manner of stones and what buildings are here! 
Theophyl. For, since the Lord had spoken much concerning 
the destruction of Jerusalem, His disciples wondered, that 
such numerous and beautiful buildings were to be destroyed; 
and this is the reason why they point out the beauty of the 
temple, and He answers not only that they were to be destroyed, 
but also that one stone should not be left upon another : 
wherefore it goes on: And Jesus answering said unto him, 
Seest thou these great buildings? there shall not be left one 
stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down. Now 
some may endeavour to prove that Christ's words were false, 
by saying that many ruins were left, but this is not at all the 
point ; for though some ruins had been left, still at the 
consummation of all things one stone shall not be left upon 
another. Besides it is related, that iElius Adrian overturned 



VER. 3 8. ST. MARK. 255 

the city and the temple from the foundation, so that the word 
of the Lord here spoken was fulfilled. Bede; But it wasBede 
ordered by Divine power that after that the grace of the faith ubl Sl ' l> ' 
of the Gospel was made known through the world, the temple 
itself with its ceremonies should be taken away ; lest per- 
chance some one weak in the faith , if he saw that these 
things which had been instituted by God still remained, 
might by degrees drop from the sincerity of the faith, which 
is in Christ Jesus, into carnal Judaism. Pseudo-Jerome ; 
Here also the Lord enumerates to His disciples the destruc- 
tion of the last time, that is of the temple, with the people, 
and its letter ; of which one stone shall not be left upon 
another, that is, no testimony of the Prophets upon those, 
to whom the Jews perversely applied them, that is, on Ezra, 
Zerubbabel, and the Maccabees. Bede ; Again, when the Bede 
Lord left the temple, all the edifice of the law and the frame- 101 sup * 
work of the commandments were destroyed, so that nothing 
could be filled up by the Jews; and now that the head has 
been taken away, all the limbs fight one against the other. 

3. And as he sat upon the mount of Olives over 
against the temple, Peter and James and John and 
Andrew asked him privately, 

4. Tell us, when shall these things be ? and what 
shall be the sign when all these things shall be 
fulfilled ? 

5. And Jesus answering them began to say, Take 
heed lest any man deceive you : 

6. For many shall come in my name, saying, I am 
Christ ; and shall deceive many. 

7. And when ye shall hear of wars and rumours of 
wars, be ye not troubled : for such things must needs 
be ; but the end shall not be yet. 

8. For nation shall rise against nation, and king- 
dom against kingdom : and there shall be earth- 
quakes in divers places, and there shall be famines and 
troubles : these are the beginnings of sorrows. 



25G GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

Uede Bede; Because the Lord, when some were praising the 

buildings of the temple, had plainly answered that all these 
were to be destroyed, the disciples privately enquired about 
the time and the signs of the destruction which was foretold ; 
wherefore it is said : And as he sat upon the mount of Olives ■, 
over against the temple, Peter and James and John and 
Andrew asked him privately, Tell us when shall these things 
be? and what shall be the sign when all these things shall be 
fulfilled. The Lord sits upon the mount of Olives, over 
against the temple, when He discourses upon the ruin and 
destruction of the temple, so that even His bodily position 
may be in accordance with the words which He speaks, 
pointing out mystically that, abiding in peace with the saints, 
He hates the madness of the proud. For the mount of 
Olives marks the fruitful sublimity of the Holy Church. 

Aug- Aug. In answer to the disciples, the Lord tells them of things 

cxcix. which were from that time forth to have their course ; 

9 * whether He meant the destruction of Jerusalem which 

occasioned their question, or His own coming through the 
Church, (in which Fie ever comes even unto the end, for we 
know that He comes in His own, when His members are 
born day by day,) or the end itself, in which He will appear 
to judge the quick and the dead. Theophyl. But before 
answering their question, He strengthens their minds 
that they may not be deceived, wherefore there follows : 
And Jesus answering them began to say, Take heed 
lest any man deceive you? And this He says, because 
when the sufferings of the Jews began, some arose professing 
to be teachers, wherefore there follows: For many shall 
come in my name, saying, I am Christ ; and shall deceive 

Uede many. Bede; For many came forward, when destruction 

u ! SU P* was hanging over Jerusalem, saying that they were Christs, 
and that the time of freedom was now approaching. Many 
teachers of heresy also arose in the Church even in the time 
of the Apostles; and many Antichrists came in the name of 
Christ, the first of whom was Simon Magus, to whom the 
Samaritans, as we read in the Acts of the Apostles, listened, 

Acts 8, saying, This man is the great power of God: wherefore also 
it is added here, And shall deceive many. Now from the 
time of the Passion of our Lord there ceased not amongst the 



VKK. 9 — 13 ST. MARK. 257 

Jewish people, who chose the seditious robber and rejected 
Christ the Saviour, either external wars or civil discord; 
wherefore it goes on: And when ye shall hear of wars and 
rumours of wars, he ye not troubled. And when these come, 
the Apostles are Warned not to be afraid, or to leave Jerusa- 
lem and Judaea, because the end was not to come at once, 
nay was to be put off for forty years. And this is what is 
added: for such things must needs be; but the end shall not 
be yet, that is, the desolation of the province, and the last de- 
struction of the city and temple. It goes on: For nation 
shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. 
Theophyl. That is, the Romans against the Jews, which 
Josephus relates happened before the destruction of Jerusalem. 
For when the Jews refused to pay tribute, the Romans arose, 
in anger; but because at that time they were merciful 
they took indeed their spoils, but did not destroy Jerusa- 
lem. What follows shews that God fought against the Jews, 
for it is said, And there shall be earthquakes in divers places, 
and there shall be famines. Bede; Now it is on record that Bede 
this literally took place at the time of the Jewish rebellion. ublsup ' 
But kingdom against kingdom, the pestilence of those whose 
word spreads as a canker, dearth of the word of God, the 
commotion of the whole earth, and the separation from the true 
faith, may all rather be understood of heretics who, by fighting 
one against the other, bring about the triumph of the Church. 

9. But take heed to yourselves : for they shall deliver 
you up to councils ; and in the synagogues ye shall 
be beaten : and ye shall be brought before rulers and 
kings for my sake, for a testimony against them. 

10. And the Gospel must first be published among 
all nations. 

11. But when they shall lead you, and deliver you 
up, take no thought beforehand what ye shall speak, 
neither do ye premeditate : but whatsoever shall be 
given you in that hour, that speak ye : for it is not ye 
that speak, but the Holy Ghost. 

12. Now the brother shall betray the brother to 
death, and the father the son ; and children shall 

vol. ir. s 



258 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

rise up against their parents, and shall cause them to 
be put to death. 

13. And ye shall be hated of all men for my 
name's sake : but he that shall endure unto the end, 
the same shall be saved. 

Bede Bede; The Lord shews how Jerusalem and the pro- 

ubi sup. . . ... ... 

vince of Judaea merited the infliction of such calamities, in 
the following words : But take heed to yourselves : for they shall 
deliver you up to councils ; and in the synagogues ye shall 
be beaten. For the greatest cause of destruction to the 
Jewish people was, that after slaying the Saviour, they also 
tormented the heralds of His name and faith with wicked 
cruelty. Theophyl. Fitly also did He premise a recital of 
those things which concerned the Apostles, that in their own 
tribulations they might find some consolation in the community 
of troubles and sufferings. There follows: And ye shall be 
brought before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony 
against them. He says kings and rulers, as, for instance, 
Agrippa, Nero, and Herod. Again, His saying,ybr my sake, 
gave them no small consolation, in that they were about to suffer 
for His sake. For a testimony against them, means, as a judg- 
ment beforehand against them, that they might be inexcusable, 
in that though the Apostles were labouring for the truth, they 
would not join themselves to it. Then, that they might not think 
that their preaching should be impeded by troubles and dan- 
gers, He adds: And the Gospel must Jirst be published 
Aug. de among all nations. Aug. Matthew adds: And then shall the 
Evaii. en & come. Mark, however, by the word^r.^ means before the 

ii. 77. en d come. Bede: Ecclesiastical historians testify that this 

Matt. ' J 

24, H. was fulfilled, for they relate that all the Apostles long before 

the destruction of the province of Judaea were dispersed to 

preach the Gospel over the whole world, except James the son 

of Zebedee and James the brother of our Lord, who had before 

shed their blood in Judaea for the word of the Lord. Since 

then the Lord knew that the hearts of the disciples would 

be saddened by the fall and destruction of their nation, 

He relieves them by this consolation, to let them know 

that even after the casting away of the Jews, companions 

in their joy and heavenly kingdom should not be wanting. 



VER. 14 20. ST. MARK. 1259 

nay that many more were to be collected out of all 
mankind than perished in Judaea. Gloss. Another anxiety Gloss. 
might also arise in the breasts of the disciples. Lest nono 
therefore after hearing that they were to be brought before 
kings and rulers, they should fear that their want of science 
and eloquence should render them unable to answer, our Lord 
consoles them by saying, But when they shall lead you and 
deliver you up, take no thought beforehand what ye shall 
speak, hut whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that 
speak ye. Bede; For when we are led before judges forBede 
Christ's sake, all our duty is to offer up our will for Christ. u 1 sup * 
As for the rest, Christ Himself who dwells in us speaks for us, 
and the grace of the Holy Ghost shall be given us, when we 
answer. Wherefore it goes on : For it is not ye that shall 
speak, but the Holy Ghost. Theophyl. He also foretells to 
them a worse evil, that they should suffer persecution from 
their relations. Wherefore there follows: Now the brother 
shall betray the brother to death, and the father the son ; 
and children shall rise up against their parents, and shall cause 
them to be put to death ; and ye shall be hated of all men for my 
name^s sake. Bede ; This has often been seen in time of Bede 
persecution, nor can there be any firm affection amongst men ubl sup * 
who differ in faith. Theophyl. And this He says, that on 
hearing it, they might prepare themselves to bear persecutions 
and ills with greater patience. Then He brings them con- 
solation, saying, And ye shall be hated of all men for my 
name's sake ; for the being hated for Christ's sake is a 
sufficient reason for suffering persecutions patiently, 1 for it is i Aug. 
not the punishment, but the cause, that makes the martyr. J", Ps * 
Again, that which follows is no small comfort amidst persecu- 
tion : But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall 
be saved. 

14. But when ye shall see the abomination of 
desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing 
where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand,) 
then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains : 

15. And let him that is on the housetop not go 
down into the house, neither enter therein, to take 
any thing out of his house : 

S 2 



*2()0 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

16. And let him that is in the field not turn back 
again for to take up his garment. 

17. But woe to them that are with child, and to 
them that give suck in those days ! 

18. And pray ye that your flight be not in the 
winter. 

19. For in those days shall be affliction, such as 
was not from the beginning of the creation which God 
created unto this time, neither shall be. 

20. And except that the Lord had shortened those 
days, no flesh should be saved : but for the elect's 
sake, whom he hath chosen, he hath shortened the 
days. 

Gloss. Gloss. After speaking of the things which were to happen 
before the destruction of the city, the Lord now foretells those 
which happened about the destruction itself of the city, 
saying, But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation 
standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand.) 
Aug. Aug. Matthew says, standing in the holy place ; but with 
ii? 77. ' thi s verbal difference Mark has expressed the same meaning; 
for He says where it ought not to stand, because it ought not to 
Bede stand in the holy place. Bede ; When we are challenged to 
ubi sup. understand what is said, we may conclude that it is mystical. 
But it may either be said simply of Antichrist, or of the 
statue of Caesar, which Pilate put into the temple, or of the 
equestrian statue of Adrian, which for a long time stood 
in the holy of holies itself. An idol is also called abomina- 
tion according to the Old Testament, and he has added 
of desolation, because it was placed in the temple when 
desolate and deserted. Theophyl. Or he means by the 
abomination of desolation, the entrance of enemies into the 
Aug. city by violence. Aug. But Luke, in order to shew that 
Epist. ^ e aDom i na tion of desolation happened when Jerusalem 
9. was taken, in this same place gives the words of our Lord, 

Luke And when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, 
21 > 20 * then know that the desolation thereof is nigh. It goes on: 
Bede Then let them that be in Judaaflee to the mountains. Bede; 

ubi sup. 



VER. 14 20. ST. MARK. 261 

It is on record that this was literally fulfilled, when on the ap- Bede 
proach of the war with Rome and the extermination of the Jewish u l sup ' 
people, all the Christians who were in that province, warned 
by the prophecy, fled far away, as Church history relates, and 
retiring beyond Jordan, remained for a time in the city of 
Pella under the protection of Agrippa, the king of the Jews, 
of whom mention is made in the Acts, and who with that part 
of the Jews, who chose to obey him, always continued subject 
to the Roman empire. Theophyl. And well does he say, 
Who are in Jud<ea, for the Apostles were no longer in Judaea, 
but before the battle had been driven from Jerusalem. 
Gloss. Or rather went out of their own accord, being led Non in 
by the Holy Ghost. It goes on, And let him that is on Gloss - 
the housetop not go down into the house, neither enter therein, Theoph. 
to take any thing out of his house', for it is a desirable 
thing to be saved even naked from such a destruction. 
It goes on : But woe to them that are with child, and to 
them that give suck in those days. Bede; That is, they Bede 
whose wombs or whose hands, overladen with the burden of SU P* 
children, in no small measure impede their forced flight. 
Theophyl. But it seems to me, that in these words He 
foretells the eating of children, for when afflicted by famine 
and pestilence, they laid hands on their children. Gloss. Gloss. 
Again, after having mentioned this double impediment to non occ * 
flight, which might arise either from the desire of taking 
away property, or from having children to carry, He touches 
upon the third obstacle, namely, that coming from the 
season ; saying, And pray ye that your flight be not in the 
winter. Theophyl. That is, lest they who wish to fly 
should be impeded by the difficulties of the season. And 
He fitly gives the cause for so great a necessity for flight; 
saying, For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not 
from the beginning of the creation which God created unto 
this time, neither shall be. Aug. For Josephus, who has Aug. 
written the history of the Jews, relates that such things were Epi . st * 

* CXC1X* */• 

suffered by this people, as are scarcely credible, wherefore it 
is said, not without cause, that there was not such tribulation 
from the beginning of the creation until now, nor shall ever be. 
But although in ihe time of Antichrist there shall be one 
similar or greater, we must understand that it is of that 



•262 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

people, that it is said that there shall never happen such another. 
For if they are the first and foremost to receive Antichrist, that 
same people may rather be said to cause than to suffer tribulation. 

Bede Bede; The only refuge in such evils is, that God who gives 
i sup. g^Qjjgffo to suffer, should abridge the power of inflicting. 
Wherefore there follows : And except that the Lord had short- 
ened those days. Theophyl. That is, if the Roman war had 
not been soon finished, no flesh should be saved; that is, no Jew 
should have escaped; but for the elect's sake, whom he hath 
chosen, that is, for the sake of the believing Jews, or who 
were hereafter to believe, He hath shortened the days, that is, 
the war was soon finished, for God foresaw that many Jews 
would believe after the destruction of the city ; for which 
reason He would not suffer the whole race to be utterly 

Aug. destroyed. Aug. But some persons more fitly understand 
sup. t ^ at t | ie ca i am iti es themselves are signified by days, as evil 
days are spoken of in other parts of holy Scripture ; for the 
days themselves are not evil, but what is done in them. The 
woes themselves therefore are said to be abridged, because 
through the patience which God gave they felt them less, and 

Bede then what was great in itself was abridged. Bede ; Or else ; 
3up. ^ ege wor( j Sj j n those days shall be affliction, properly agree 
with the times of Antichrist, when not only tortures more 
frequent, and more painful than before are to be heaped on 
the faithful, but also, what is more terrible, the working of 
miracles shall accompany those who inflict torments. But in 
proportion as this tribulation shall be greater than those 
which preceded, by so much shall it be shorter. For it is 
believed, that during three years and a half, as far as may be 
conjectured from the prophecy of Daniel and the Revelations 
of John, the Church is to be attacked. In a spiritual sense, 
however, when we see the abomination of desolation stand- 
ing where it ought not, that is, heresies and crimes reigning 
amongst thorn, who appear to be consecrated by the heavenly 
mysteries, then whosoever of us remain in Judaea, that is, in 
the confession of the true faith, ought to mount the higher 
in virtue, the more men we see following the broad paths of 
vice. Pseudo-Jerome; For our flight is to the mountains, 
that he who has mounted to the heights of virtue may not go 

Bede down to the depths of sin. Bede ; Then let him who is on 

ubi sup. 



VER. 21 27. ST. MARK. 263 

the house-top, that is, whose mind rises above carnal deeds, 
and who lives spiritually, as it were in the free air, not come 
down to the base acts of his former conversation, nor seek again 
those things which he had left, the desires of the world or the 
flesh. For our house either means this world, or that in which 
we live, our own flesh. Pseudo- Jerome ; Pray that your 
flight may not be in the winter ', or on the sabbath day, that 
is, that the fruit of our work may not be ended with the end 
of time ; for fruit comes to an end in the winter and time in 
the sabbath. Bede : But if we are to understand it of the Bede 
consummation of the world, He commands that our faith and lsup# 
love for Christ should not grow cold, and that we should not 
grow lazy and cold in the work of God, by taking a sabbath 
from virtue. Theophyl. We must also avoid sin with fervour, 
and not coldly and quietly. Pseudo-Jerome ; Bat the 
tribulation shall be great, and the days short, for the sake of 
the elect, lest the evil of this time should change their under- 
standing. 

21. And then if any man shall say to you, Lo, 
here is Christ ; or, lo, he is there ; believe him not : 

22. For false Christs and false prophets shall rise, 
and shall shew signs and wonders, to seduce, if it 
were possible, even the elect. 

23. But take ye heed : behold, I have foretold you 
all things. 

24. But in those days, after that tribulation, the 
sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give 
her light, 

25. And the stars of heaven shall fall, and the 
powers that are in heaven shall be shaken. 

26. And then shall they see the Son of man com- 
ing in the clouds with great power and glory. 

27. And then shall he send his angels, and shall 
gather together his elect from the four winds, from 
the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part 
of heaven. 



264 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

Theophyl. After that the Lord had finished all that con- 
cerned Jerusalem, He now speaks of the coming of Antichrist, 
saying, Then if any man shall say to you, Lo, here is Christ; 
or, lo, he is there; believe him not. But when He says, 
then, think not that it means immediately after these things 

Matt. 3, are fulfilled about Jerusalem; as Matthew also says after the 
birth of Christ, In those days came John the Baptist ; does 
he mean immediately after the birth of Christ ? No, but he 
speaks indefinitely and without precision. So also here, 
then may be taken to mean not when Jerusalem shall be 
made desolate, but about the time of the coming of Anti- 
christ. It goes on : For false Christs and false prophets 
shall arise, and shall shew signs and tvonders, to seduce, if 
it were possible, even the elect. For many shall take upon 
them the name of Christ, so as to seduce even the faithful. 

Aug. de Aug. For then shall Satan be unchained, and work through 

Civ. 

Dei, Antichrist in all his power, wonderfully indeed, but falsely. 

xx. 19. -g u j. a d ou i3t i s often raised whether the Apostle said Signs 
and lying wonders, because he is to deceive mortal senses, 
by phantoms, so as to appear to do what he does not, or 
because those wonders themselves, even though time, are to 
turn men aside to lies, because they will not believe that 
any power but a Divine power could do them, being ignorant 
of the power of Satan, especially when he shall have received 
such power as he never had before. But for whichever 
reason it is said, they shall be deceived by those signs and 

v. Greg wonders who deserve to be deceived. Greg. Why however 

Ezech " * s ** sa ^ w * tn a d° UDt if it were possible, when the Lord 

lib. i. 9. knows beforehand what is to be ? One of two things is 

implied ; that if they are elect, it is not possible ; and if it 

non po- is possible, they are not elect. This doubt therefore in our 

Cat' aP Lord's discourse expresses the trembling in the mind of the 

elect. And He calls them elect, because He sees that they 

will persevere in faith and good works; for those who are 

chosen to remain firm are to be tempted to fall by the signs 

Bede of the preachers of Antichrist. Bede ; Some however refer 

u i sup. j.j^ g ^ ^ e ^- me Q f ^ e j ew j s jj captivity, where many, declaring 

themselves to be Christs, drew after them crowds of deluded 
persons ; but during the siege of the city there was no Chris- 
tian to whom the Divine exhortation, not to follow false 



VER. 21 27. ST. MARK. 265 

teachers, could apply. Wherefore it is better to understand 
it of heretics, who, coming to oppose the Church, pretended 
to be Christs ; the first of whom was Simon Magus, but that 
last one, greater than the rest, is Antichrist. It goes on : But 
take ye heed: behold, I have foretold you all things. Aug. For Aug. 
He did not only foretel to His disciples the good things 78 pist ' 
which He would give to His saints and faithful ones, but 
also the woes in which this world was to abound, that 
we might look for our reward at the end of the world with 
more confidence, from feeling the woes in like manner an- 
nounced as about to precede the end of the world. The- 
ophyl. But after the coming of Antichrist, the frame of the 
world shall be altered and changed, for the stars shall be 
obscured on account of the abundance of the brightness of 
Christ. Wherefore it goes on : But in those days, after that 
tribulation, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall 
not give her light; and the stars of heaven shall fall. 
Bepe ; For the stars in the day of judgment shall appear Bede 
obscure, not by any lessening of their own light, but because ubl SU P* 
of the brightness of the true light, that is, of the most high 
Judge coming upon them; although there is nothing to 
prevent its being taken to mean, that the sun and moon with 
all the other heavenly bodies then for a time are really to lose 
their light, just as we are told was the case with the sun at 
the time of our Lord's Passion. But after the day of judg- 
ment, when there shall be a new sky and a new earth, then 
shall happen what Isaiah says: Moreover, the light of the Isa. 30, 
moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the 26 ' 
sun shall be sevenfold. There follows, And the powers of 
heaven shall be shaken. Theophyl. That is, the Angelic 
virtues shall be astonished, seeing that such great things are 
done, and that their fellow-servants are judged. Bede; Bede 
What wonder is it that men should be troubled at this ubl SU P* 
judgment, the sight of which makes the very Angelic 
powers to tremble ? What will the stories of the house do 
when the pillars shake ? What does the shrub of the wilder- 
ness undergo, when the cedar of paradise is moved ? Pseudo- 
Jerome; Or else, the sun shall be darkened, at the cold- 
ness of their hearts, as in the winter time. And the 
moon shall not give her light with serenity, in this time of 



266 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIIJ. 

quarrel, and the stars of heaven shall fail in their light, when 

the seed of Abraham shall all but disappear, for to it they 

Gen. 22, are likened. And the powers of heaven shall be stirred up 

to the wrath of vengeance, when they shall be sent by the 

Son of Man at His coming, of whose Advent it is said, And 

then shall they see the So?i of Man coining in the clouds 

with great power and glory, He, that is, who first came 

down like rain into the fleece of Gideon in all lowliness. 

Aug. Aug. For since it was said by the Angels to the Apostles, 

cxcix. He shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into 

ll - heaven, rightly do we believe that He will come not only in 

A cts 1 

ll. ' the same body, but on a cloud, since He is to come as He 

went away, and a cloud received Him as He was going. 

Theophyl. But they shall see the Lord as the Son of Man, 
Aug. de that is, in the body, for that which is seen is body. Aug. 
13 rin ' l ' For the vision of the Son of Man is shewn even to the bad, 

but the vision of the form of God to the pure in heart 
Matt. 5, alone, for they shall see God. And because the wicked 

cannot see the Son of God, as He is in the form of God, 



equal to the Father, and at the same time both just 
and wicked are to see Him as Judge of the quick and dead, 
before Whom they shall be judged, it was necessary that the 
Son of Man should receive power to judge. Concerning the 
execution of which power, there is immediately added, 
And then shall he send his angels. Theophyl. Observe that 
Christ sends the Angels as well as the Father; where then are 
they who say that He is not equal to the Father ? For the 
Angels go forth to gather together the faithful, who are 
chosen, that they may be carried into the air to meet Jesus 
Christ. Wherefore it goes on : And gather together his elect 

from the four winds. Pseudo-Jerome; As corn winnowed 
from the threshing-floor of the whole earth. Bede ; By the 

four winds, He means the four parts of the world, the east, 
the west, the north, and the south. And lest any one should 
think that the elect are to be gathered together only from the 
four edges of the world, and not from the midland regions as 
well as the borders, He has fitly added, From the uttermost 
part of earth, to the uttermost part of heaven, that is, 
from the extremities of the earth to its utmost bounds, where 
the circle of the heavens appears to those who look from 



VER. 28 31. ST. MARK. 267 

afar to rest upon the boundaries of the earth. No one there- 
fore shall be elect in that day who remains behind and does 
not meet the Lord in the air, when He comes to judgment. 
The reprobate also shall come to judgment, that when it is 
finished they may be scattered abroad and perish from before 
the face of God. 

28. Now learn a parable of the fig tree ; When 
her branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye 
know that summer is near : 

29. So ye in like manner, when ye shall see these 
things come to pass, know that it is nigh, even at the 
doors. 

30. Verily I say unto you, that this generation 
shall not pass, till all these things be done. 

31. Heaven and earth shall pass away: but my 
words shall not pass away. 

Bede; Under the example of a tree the Lord gave a Bede 
pattern of the end, saying, Now learn a parable of the uhlsn v- 
fig tree, when her branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, 
ye know that summer is near. So ye in like manner, when 
ye shall see these things come to pass, know that it is nigh, 
even at the doors. Theophyl. As if He had said, As when 
the fig tree puts forth its leaves, summer follows at once, so 
also after the woes of Antichrist, at once, without an interval, 
shall be the coming of Christ, who will be to the just as 
summer after winter, but to sinners, winter after summer. 
Aug. All that is said by the three Evangelists concerning the Au<*. 
Advent of our Lord, if diligently compared together and^F 8 ^ 
examined, will perchance be found to belong to His daily 
coming in His body, that is, the Church, except those places 
where that last coming is so promised, as if it were approach- 
ing ; for instance in the last part of the discourse accord- 
ing to Matthew, the coming itself is clear 1 )' expressed, 
where it is said, When the So?t of Man shall come in Aw Matt. 
glory. For what does he refer to in the words, when ye shall 25 > 31 - 
see these things come to pass, but those things which He has 
mentioned above, amongst which it is said, And then ye shpM^eT~ ] t ~** t ^^ 

/ *$/ BT. f'' lC 

I ^ ( ^J 



2G8 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

the Son of Man coming in the clouds. The end there- 
fore shall not be then, but then it shall be near at hand. Or 
are we to say, that not all those things whieh are mentioned 
above are to be taken in, but only some of them, that is, 
leaving out these words, Then shall ye see the Son of man 
coming ; for that shall be the end itself, and not its approaeh 
only. But Matthew has declared that it is to be received 
without exception, saying, When ye shall see all these things, 
know that it is near, even at the doors. That which is said 
above must therefore be taken thus; And lie shall send his 
angels, and gather together the elect from the four winds; that 
is, He shall collect His elect from the four winds of heaven, which 
He does in the whole of the last hour, coming in His mem- 
Bede bers as nl C ^ 0U( ^ S * Bede ; This fruitbearing of the fig tree 
nbi sup. ma y also be understood to mean the state of the synagogue, 
which was condemned to everlasting barrenness, because 
when the Lord came, it had no fruits of righteousness in 
Rom. those who were then unfaithful. But the Apostle has said, 
' ' that when the fulness of the Gentiles is come in, all Israel 
shall be saved. What means this, but that the tree, which 
has been long barren, shall then yield the fruit, which it had 
withheld? When this shall happen, doubt not that a summer 
of true peace is at hand. Pseudo-Jerome; Or else, the 
leaves which come forth are words now spoken, the summer 
at hand is the day of Judgment, in which every tree shall 
shew what it had within it, deadness for burning, or green- 
ness to be planted with the tree of life. There follows: 
Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till 
Bede these things be done. Bede; By generation He either means 
ubi sup. the whole race of mankind, or specially the Jews. Theophyl. 
Or else, This generation shall not pass away, that is, the gene- 
ration of Christians, until all things be fulfilled, which 
were spoken concerning Jerusalem and the coming of 
Antichrist ; for He does not mean the generation of the 
Apostles, for the greater part of the Apostles did not live 
up to the destruction of Jerusalem. But He says this of 
the generation of Christians, wishing to console His disci- 
ples, lest they should believe that the faith should fail at that 
time; for the immoveable elements shall first fail, before the 
words of Christ fail; wherefore it is added, Heaven and earth 



VER. 32 — 37. ST. MARK. '2()9 

shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away. Bede; Bede 
The heaven which shall pass away is not the ethereal or sup ' 
starry heaven, but the heaven where is the air. For 
wheresoever the water of the judgment could reach, there also, 
according to the words of the blessed Peter, the fire of judg-2 Pet. 3. 
ment shall reach. But the heaven and the earth shall pass 
away in that form which they now have, but in their essence 
they shall last without end. 

32. But of that day and that hour knoweth no 
man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither 
the Son, but the Father. 

33. Take ye heed, watch and pray : for ye know 
not when the time is. 

34. For the Son of man is as a man taking a far 
journey, who left his house, and gave authority to his 
servants, and to every man his work, and commanded 
the porter to watch. 

35. Watch ye therefore : for ye know not when the 
master of the house cometh, at even, or at midnight, 
or at the cockcrowing, or in the morning : 

36. Lest coming suddenly he find you sleeping. 

37. And what I say unto you I say unto all, 
Watch. 



Theophyl. The Lord wishing to prevent His disciples 
from asking about that day and hour, says, But of that day 
and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are 
in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father. For if He had 
said, I know, but I will not reveal it to you, He would 
have saddened them not a little; but He acted more wisely, 
and prevents their asking such a question, lest they should 
importune Him, by saying, neither the Angels nor I. 
Hilary; This ignorance of the day and hour is nrgedjj^ ai% 
against the Only-Begotten God, as if, God born of GoddeTrin. 
had not the same perfection of nature as God. But first, 
let common sense decide whether it is credible that He, who 



270 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

is the cause that all things are, and are to be, should be igno- 
rant of any out of all these things. For how can it be beyond 
the knowledge of that nature, by which and in which that 
which is to be done is contained ? And can He be ignorant of 
that day, which is the day of His own Advent ? Human sub- 
stances foreknow as far as they can what they intend to do, 
and the knowledge of what is to be done, follows upon the 
will to act. How then can the Lord of glory, from ignorance 
of the day of His coming, be believed to be of that imperfect 
nature, which has on it a necessity of coming, and has not 
attained to the knowledge of its own advent ? But again, how 
much more room for blasphemy will there be, if a feeling 
of envy is ascribed to God the Father, in that He has with- 
held the knowledge of His beatitude from Him to whom He 
gave a foreknowledge of His death. But if there are in Him 
all the treasures of knowledge, He is not ignorant of this day ; 
Col.2,3. ra ther we ought to remember that the treasures of wisdom 
in Him are hidden ; His ignorance therefore must be connected 
with the hiding of the treasures of wisdom, which are in 
Him. For in all cases, in which God declares Himself igno- 
rant, He is not under the power of ignorance, but either it is not 
a fit time for speaking, or it is an economy of not acting. But if 
God is said then to have known that Abraham loved Him, 
when He did not hide that His knowledge from Abraham, it 
Gen. follows, that the Father is said to know the day, because He 
22, 12. ^j n0 f. ^ c i e ^ f r om the Son. If therefore the Son knew not 
the day, it is a Sacrament of His being silent, as on the con- 
trary the Father alone is said to know, because He is not 
silent. But God forbid that any new and bodily changes 
should be ascribed to the Father or the Son. Lastly, lest He 
should be said to be ignorant from weakness, He has immedi- 
ately added, Take ye heed, watch and pray, for ye know not 
when the time is. Pseudo-Jerome ; For we must needs 
watch with our souls before the death of the body. The- 
ophyl. But He teaches us two things, watching and prayer; 
for many of us watch, but watch only to pass the night in wick- 
edness; He now follows this up with a parable, saying, For 
the Son of man is as a man taking afar journey, who left 
his house, and gave his servants power over every work, 
and commanded the porter to watch. 



VER. 32 — 37. ST. MARK. 271 

Bede ; The man who taking a far journey left his house Bede 
is Christ, who ascending as a conqueror to His Father after ubl sup# 
the resurrection, left His Church, as to His bodily presence, 
but has never deprived her of the safeguard of His Divine 
presence. Greg. Forthe earth isproperly the place for the flesh, Greg. 
which was as it were carried away to a far country, when it was E °™' 9 " 
placed by our Redeemer in the heavens. And he gave his ser- 
vants power over every work, when, by giving to His faithful 
ones the grace of the Holy Ghost, He gave them the power of 
serving every good work. He has also ordered the porter to 
watch, because He commanded the order of pastors to have 
a care over the Church committed to them. Not only, how- 
ever, those of us who rule over Churches, but all are 
required to watch the doors of their hearts, lest the evil 
suggestions of the devil enter into them, and lest our Lord 
find us sleeping. Wherefore concluding this parable He 
adds, Watch ye therefore : for ye know not when the master 
of the house cometh, at even, or at midnight^ or at cockcrow, 
or in the morning : lest coming suddenly he find you sleep- 
ing. Pseudo-Jerome ; For he who sleeps applies not his 
mind to real bodies, but to phantoms, and when he awakes, 
he possesses not what he had seen ; so also are those, whom 
the love of this world seizes upon in this life ; they quit after this 
life what they dreamed was real. Theophyl. See again that 
He has not said, I know not when the time will be, but, Ye 
know not. For the reason why He concealed it was that it 
was better for us; for if, now that we know not the end, we 
are careless, what should we do if we knew it? We should 
keep on our wickednesses even unto the end. Let us there- 
fore attend to His words; for the end comes at even, when a 
man dies in old age ; at midnight, when he dies in the 
midst of his youth ; and at cockcrow, when our reason is 
perfect within us; for when a child begins to live according 
to his reason, then the cock cries loud within him, rousing 
him from the sleep of sense ; but the age of childhood is the 
morning. Now all these ages must look out for the end; for 
even a child must be watched, lest he die unbaptized. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; He thus concludes His discourse, that the 
last should hear from those who come first this precept which is 
common to all ; wherefore He adds, But what I say unto you I 



•272 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. CHAP. XIII. 

Aug. say unto all, Watch. Aug. For He not only speaks to those 
i99 St 3 m wnose hearing He then spake, but even to all who 
came after them, before our time, and even to us, and to 
all after us, even to His last coming. But shall that day 
find all living, or will any man say that He speaks also 
to the dead, when He says, Watch, lest when he cometh he 
find you sleeping ? Why then does He say to all, what only 
belongs to those who shall then be alive, if it be not that it 
belongs to all, as I have said ? For that day comes to each 
man when his day comes for departing from this life such as 
he is to be, when judged in that day, and for this reason every 
Christian ought to watch, lest the Advent of the Lord find 
him unprepared ; but that day shall find him unprepared, 
whom the last day of his life shall find unprepared. 



CHAP. XIV. 

1. After two days was the feast of the Passover, 
and of unleavened bread : and the Chief Priests and 
the Scribes sought how they might take him by craft, 
and put him to death. 

2. But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there 
be an uproar of the people. 



Pseudo-Jerome; Let us now sprinkle our book, and our 
thresholds with blood, and put the scarlet thread around the 
house of our prayers, and bind scarlet on our hand, as was Gen.38, 
done to Zarah, that we may be able to say that the red heifer is ^ 
slain in the valley. For the Evangelist, being about to 19, 2. 
speak of the slaying of Christ, premises, After two days was 2 \ 4" 
the feast of the Passover, and of unleavened bread. Bede ; Bede in 
Pascha which in Hebrew is phase, is not called from ^"3 
Passion, as many think, but from passing over, because 
the destroyer, seeing the blood on the doors of the Israelites, 
passed by them, and did not smite them ; or the Lord 
Himself, bringing aid unto His people, walked above them. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; Or else phase is interpreted a passing 
over, but Pascha means sacrifice. In the sacrifice of the 
lamb, and the passing of the people through the sea, or 
through Egypt, the Passion of Christ is prefigured, and 
the redemption of the people from hell, when He visits us 
after two days, that is, when the moon is most full, and 
the age of Christ is perfect, that when no part at all of it 
is dark, we may eat the flesh of the Lamb without spot, who 

VOL. II. T 



274 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHA1\ XIV. 

taketh away the sins of the world, in one house, that is, in 
the Catholic Church, shod with charity, and armed with 

Bede virtue. Bede ; The difference according to the Old Testa- 
ment between the Passover and the feast of unleavened 
bread was, that the day alone on which the lamb was slain 
in the evening, that is, the fourteenth moon of the first month, 
was called Passover. But on the fifteenth moon, when they 
came out of Egypt, the feast of unleavened bread came on, 
which solemn time was appointed for seven days, that is, up 
to the twenty-first day of the same month in the evening. 
But the Evangelists indifferently use the day of unleavened 
bread for the Passover, and the Passover for the days of un- 
leavened bread. Wherefore Mark also here says, After two 
days was the feast of the Passover, and of unleavened 
bread, because the day of the Passover was also ordered to be 
celebrated on the days of unleavened bread, and we also, as 
it were, keeping a continual passover, ought always to be 
passing out of this world. Pseudo-Jerome ; But iniquity 
came forth in Babylon from the princes, who ought to have 
purified the temple and the vessels, and themselves accord- 
ing to the law, in order to eat the lamb. Wherefore there 
follows: And the Chief Priests and the Scribes sought how 
they might take him by craft, and put him to death. Now 
when the head is slain, the whole body is rendered power- 
less, wherefore these wretched men slay the Head. But 
they avoid the feast day, which indeed befits them, for 
what feasting can there be for them, who have lost life 
and mercy? Wherefore it goes on: But they said, Not 
on the feast day, lest there be an uproar of the people. 

Bede Bede ; Not indeed, as the words seem to imply, that they 
sup * feared the uproar, but they were afraid lest He should be 
taken out of their hands by the aid of the people. The- 
ophyl. Nevertheless, Christ Himself had determined for 
Himself the day of His Passion ; for He wished to be cruci- 
fied on the Passover, because He was the true Passover. 



3. And being in Bethany in the house of Simon 
the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman 
having an alabaster box of ointment of spikenard very 



VER. 3 — 9. ST. MARK. 275 

precious ; and she brake the box, and poured it on 
his head. 

4. And there were some that had indignation with- 
in themselves, and said, Why was this waste of the 
ointment made ? 

5. For it might have been sold for more than three 
hundred pence, and have been given to the poor. 
And they murmured against her. 

6. And Jesus said, Let her alone ; why trouble ye 
her ? she hath wrought a good work on me. 

7. For ye have the poor with you always, and 
whensoever ye will ye may do them good : but me ye 
have not always. 

8. She hath done what she could : she is come 
aforehand to anoint my body to the burying. 

9. Verily I say unto, Wheresoever this Gospel shall 
be preached throughout the whole world, this also 
that she hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial 
of her. 

Bede ; The Lord when about to suffer for the whole Bede 
world, and to redeem all nations with His blood, dwells in uhl sup * 
Bethany, that is, in the house of obedience ; wherefore it is 
said, And being in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, 
as he sat at meat, there came a woman. Pseudo-Jerome ; 
For the fawn amongst the stags ever comes back to his couch, 
that is, the Son, obedient to the Father even unto death, 
seeks for obedience from us. Bede; He says of Simon the B e de 
leper, not because he remained still a leper at that time, but ubi SU P- 
because having once been such, he was healed by our 
Saviour ; his former name is left, that the virtue of the 
Healer may be made manifest. Theophyl. But although 
the four Evangelists record the anointing by a woman, there 
were two women and not one ; one described by John, the sister 
of Lazarus ; it was she who six days before the Passover 
anointed the feet of Jesus ; another described by the other 
three Evangelists. Nay, if you examine, you will find three ; 

t 2 



276 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

for one is described by John, another by Luke, a third by the 
other two. For that one described by Luke is said to be a sinner 
and to have come to Jesus during the time of His preach- 
ing; but this other described by Matthew and Mark is said 
to have come at the time of the Passion, nor did she confess 
Aug. de that she had been a sinner. Aug. I however think that 
Evaii.ii. nothing else can be meant, but that the sinner who then 
79. came to the feet of Jesus was no other than the same Mary 
who did this twice; once, as Luke relates it, when coming 
for the first time with humility and tears she merited the 
remission of her sins. For John also relates this, when he 
began to speak of the raising of Lazarus before He came to 
John Bethany, saying, It was that Mary which anointed the Lord 
' ' with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose 
brother Lazarus was sick. But what she again did at 
Bethany is another act, unrecorded by Luke, but mentioned 
in the same way by the other three Evangelists. In that 
therefore Matthew and Mark say that the head of the Lord was 
anointed by the woman, whilst John says the feet, we must 
understand thatboth the head and the feet were anointed by the 
woman. Unless because Mark has said that she broke the box 
in order to anoint His head, any one is so fond of cavilling as 
to deny that, because the box was broken, any could remain 
to anoint the feet of the Lord. But a man of a more pious spirit 
will contend that it was not broken so as to pour out the whole, 
or else that the feet were anointed before it was broken, so that 
there remained in the unbroken box enough to anoint the head. 
Bede Bede ; Alabaster is a sort of white marble, veined with various 
ubi sup. colours which is often hollowed out for boxes of ointment, 
because it keeps things of that nature most uncorrupt. Nard 
is an aromatic shrub of a large and thick root, but short, black, 
and brittle ; though unctuous, it smells like cypress, and has a 
sharp taste, and small and dense leaves. Its tops spread them- 
selves out like ears of corn, therefore, its gift being double, 
perfumers make much of the spikes and the leaves of the nard. 
And this is what is meant by Mark, when he says spikenard 
very precious, that is, the ointment which Mary brought for the 
Lord was not made of the root of nard, but even, what made it 
more precious, by the addition of the spikes and the leaves, the 
gratefulness of its smell and virtue was augmented. Theophyl. 



VER. 3 9. ST. MARK. 277 

Or as is said in Greek, of pistic nard, that is, faithful, because 
the ointment of the nard was made faithfully and without coun- Matt, 
terfeit. Aug. It may appear to be a contradiction, that Matthew A ' ' 
and Mark after mentioning two days and the Passover, add de Cor ?; 
afterwards that Jesus was in Bethany, where that precious 78. 
ointment is mentioned; whilst John, just before he speaks John 12, 
of the anointing, says, that Jesus came into Bethany six " 
days before the feast. But those persons who are troubled 
by this, are not aware that Matthew and Mark do not place 
that anointing in Bethany immediately after that two days of 
which he foretold, but by way of recapitulation at the time 
when there were yet six days to the Passover. Pseudo- Jerome ; 
Again in a mystic sense, Simon the leper means the world, 
first infidel, and afterwards converted, and the woman with 
the alabaster box, means the faith of the Church, who says, 
My spikenard sendeth forth its smell. It is called pistic Cant. 1, 
nard, that is, faithful, and precious. The house filled with 12# 
the smell of it is heaven and earth ; the broken alabaster 
box is carnal desire, which is broken at the Head, from which 
the whole body is framed together, whilst He was reclining, 
that is, humbling Himself, that the faith of the sinner might 
be able to reach Him, for she went up from the feet to the 
head, and down from the head to the feet by faith, that is, 
to Christ and to His members. It goes on: And there 
were some that had indignation within themselves, and 
said, Why was this loss of the ointment? By the figure 
synecdoche, one is put for many, and many for one ; for it 
is the lost Judas who finds loss in salvation ; thus in the 
fruitful vine rises the snare of death. Under the cover of 
his avarice, however, the mystery of faith speaks ; for our 
faith is bought for three hundred pence, in our ten senses, denarii 
that is, our inward and outward senses which are again *• e - ten 

asses. 

trebled by our body, soul, and spirit. Bede; And in that he Bede 
says, And they murmured against her, we must not under- ubi SU P« 
stand this to be spoken of the faithful Apostles, but rather of 
Judas mentioned in the plural. Theophyl. Or else, it appears 
to be aptly implied that many disciples murmured against the 
woman, because they had often heard our Lord talking of 
alms. Judas, however, was indignant, but not with the same 
feeling, but on account of his love of money, and filthy gain; 



278 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

wherefore John also records him alone, as accusing the 
woman with a fraudulent intent. But he says, They mur- 
mured against her, meaning that they troubled her with 
reproaches, and hard words. Then our Lord reproves His 
disciples, for throwing obstacles against the wish of the 
woman. Wherefore it goes on: And Jesus said, Let her 
alone, why trouble ye her? For after she had brought her 
gift, they wished to prevent her purpose by their reproaches. 

Orig. Origen ; For they were grieved at the waste of the ointment, 

35 a ' which might be sold for a large sum and given to the poor. 
This however ought not to have been, for it was right that it 
should be poured over the head of Christ, with aholy and fitting 
stream ; wherefore it goes on, She hath wrought a good work on 
me. And so effectual is the praise of this good work, that it 
ought to excite all of us to fill the head of the Lord with sweet- 
smelling and rich offerings, that of us it may be said that we 
have done a good work over the head of the Lord. For we 
always have with us, as long as we remain in this life, the 
poor who have need of the care of those who have 
made progress in the word, and are enriched in the wisdom 
of God ; they arc not however able always day and night 
to have with them the Son of God, that is, the Word and 
Wisdom of God. For it goes on: For ye have the poor 
always with you, and whensoever ye will ye may do them 

Bede good; but me ye have not always. Bede ; To me, indeed, 
He seems to speak of His bodily presence, that He should 
by no means be with them after His resurrection, as He then 
was living with them in all familiarity. Pseudo-Jerome; He 
says also, She hath wrought a good work on me, for who- 
soever believes on the Lord, it is counted unto Him for 
righteousness. For it is one thing to believe Him, and to 
believe on Him, that is, to cast ourselves entirely upon Him. 
It goes on: She hath done what she could, she is come 

B u de (i forehand to anoint my body to the burying. Bede; As if 
the Lord said, What ye think is a waste of ointment is the 
service of my burial. Theophyl. For she is come aforehand 
as though led by God to anoint my body, as a sign of my 
approaching burial ; by which He confounds the traitor, as 
if He said, With what conscience canst thou confound the 
woman, who anoints my body to the burial, and dost not 



VER. 10, 11. ST. MARK. 279 

confound thyself, who wilt deliver me to death? But the 
Lord makes a double prophecy; one that the Gospel shall 
be preached over the whole world, another that the deed of the 
woman shall be praised. Wherefore it goes on: Verily I say 
unto you, Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached throughout 
the whole world, this also that she hath done shall be spoken 
of for a memorial of her* Bede; Observe also, that asMaryBede 
won glory throughout the whole world for the service which u ! sup ' 
she rendered to the Lord, so, on the contrary, he who was 
bold enough to reprove her service, is held in infamy far and 
wide; but the Lord in rewarding the good with due praise 
has passed over in silence the future shame of the impious. 

10. And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went 
unto the Chief Priests, to betray him unto them. 

11. And when they heard it, they were glad, and 
promised to give him money. And he sought how 
he might conveniently betray him. 

Bede; The unhappy Judas wishes to compensate with the Bede 
price of his Master for the loss which he thought he had u l sup * 
made by the pouring out of the ointment; wherefore it is 
said, And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went unto the 
Chief Priests to betray him unto them. Chrys. Why dost Chrys. 
thou tell me of his country? would that I could also have j ? 
been ignorant of his existence. But there was another Horn. l. 
disciple called Judas the zealot, the brother of James, and 
lest by calling him by this name there should arise a con- 
fusion between the two, he separates the one from the other. 
But he says not Judas the traitor, that he may teach us to 
be guiltless of detraction, and to avoid accusing others. In 
that however he says, one of the twelve, he enhanced the 
detestable guilt of the traitor; for there were seventy other 
disciples, these however were not so intimate with Him, 
nor admitted to such familiar intercourse. But these twelve 
were approved by Him, these were the regal band, out of o*t£rh 
which the wicked traitor came forth. Pseudo-Jerome ; ao, ' x x « a 
But he was one of the twelve in number, not in merit, Chrys. 
one in body, not in soul. But he went to the Chief Priests 
after he went out and Satan entered into him. Every living 



280 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

thing unites with what is like itself. Bede; But by the 

words, he went out, it is shewn that he was not invited 

by the Chief Priests, nor bound by any necessity, but 

entered upon this design from the spontaneous wickedness 

of his own mind. Theophyl. It is said, to betray him 

unto them, that is, to announce to them when He should 

be alone. But they feared to rush upon Him when He 

was teaching, for fear of the people. Pseudo- Jerome ; And 

he promises to betray Him, as his master the devil said 

Luke 4, before, All this power I will give thee. It goes on, And 

when they heard it they were glad, and promised to give 

him money. They promise him money, and they lose their 

Chrys. iif e> which he also loses on receiving the money. Chrys. Oh ! 
ubi sup. . y . 

the madness, yea, the avarice ot the traitor, tor his covetous- 

ness brought forth all the evil. For covetousness retains the 

souls which it has taken, and confines them in every way 

when it has bound them, and makes them forget all things, 

maddening their minds. Judas, taken captive by this madness 

of avarice, forgets the conversation, the table of Christ, his own 

discipleship, Christ's warnings and persuasion. For there 

follows, And he sought how he might conveniently betray 

him. Pseudo- Jerome ; No opportunity for treachery can 

be found, such that it can escape vengeance here or there. 

B £ de Bede; Many in this day shudder at the crime of Judas 

ubi sup. . . . 

in selling his Master, his Lord and his God, for money, as 
monstrous and horrible wickedness; they however do not 
take heed, for when for the sake of gain they trample 
on the rights of charity and truth, they are traitors to God, 
who is Charity and Truth. 

12. And the first day of unleavened bread, when 
they killed the Passover, his disciples said unto him, 
Where wilt thou that we go and prepare that thou 
mayest eat the Passover ? 

13. And he sendeth forth two of his disciples, and 
saith unto them, Go ye into the city, and there shall 
meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water : follow him. 

14. And wheresoever he shall go in, say ye to the 
goodman of the house, The Master saith, Where is 



VER. 12 — 16. ST. MARK. 281 

the guestchamber, where I shall eat the Passover with 
my disciples ? 

15. And he will shew you a large upper room 
furnished and prepared : there make ready for us. 

16. And his disciples went forth, and came into 
the city, and found as he had said unto them : and 
they made ready the Passover. 

Chrys. Whilst Judas was plotting how to betray Him, Chrys. 
the rest of the disciples were taking care of the preparation sup# 
of the Passover: wherefore it is said, And the first day of 
unleavened bread, when they killed the Passover, his disciples 
said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and prepare 
where thou mayest eat the Passover. Bede ; He means by Bede 
the first day of the Passover the fourteenth day of the first ubl sup * 
month, when they threw aside leaven, and were wont to 
sacrifice, that is, to kill the lamb at even. The Apostle 
explaining this says, Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us. 1 Cor. 
For although He was crucified on the next day, that is, on > ' * 
the fifteenth moon, yet on the night when the lamb was 
offered up, He committed to His disciples the mysteries of His 
Body and Blood, which they were to celebrate, and was 
seized upon and bound by the Jews; thus He consecrated the 
beginning of His sacrifice, that is, of His Passion. Pseudo- 
Jerome ; But the unleavened bread which was eaten with 
bitterness, that is with bitter herbs, is our redemption, and 
the bitterness is the Passion of our Lord. Theophyl. From 
the words of the disciples, Where wilt thou that we go ? it 
seems evident that Christ had no dwelling-place, and that 
the disciples had no houses of their own ; for if so, they 
would have taken Him thither. Pseudo-Jerome ; For they 
say, Where wilt thou that we go ? to shew us that we should 
direct our steps according to the will of God. But the Lord 
points out with whom He would eat the Passover, and after 
His custom He sends two disciples, which we have ex- 
plained above ; wherefore it goes on, And he sendeth 
forth two of his disciples, and he saith unto them, Go ye 
into the city. Theophyl. He sends two of His disciples, 
that is, Peter and John, as Luke says, to a man unknown to 



282 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

Him, implying by this that He might, if He had pleased, 

have avoided His Passion. For what could not He work in 

other men, who influenced the mind of a person unknown to 

Him, so that he received them ? He also gives them a sign 

how they were to know the house, when He adds, And there 

Aug. shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water. Aug. Mark 

Evan.ii. says a pitcher, Luke a two-handled vessel; one points out the 

80 - kind of vessel, the other the mode of carrying it; both how- 

Bede ever mean the same truth. Bede ; And it is a proof of the 

presence of His divinity, that in speaking with His disciples, 

He knows what is to take place elsewhere; wherefore it 

follows, And his disciples went forth, and came into the 

city, and found as he had said unto them; and they made 

Chrys. ready the Passover. Chrys. Not our Passover, but in the 

meanwhile that of the Jews; but He did not only appoint 

ours, but Himself became our Passover. Why too did He 

Gal. 4, eat it ? Because He was made under the Law, to redeem 

them that were under the Law, and Himself give rest 

to the Law. And lest any one should say that He did away 

with it, because He could not fulfil its hard and difficult 

obedience, He first Himself fulfilled it, and then set it to rest. 

Pseudo-Jerome ; And in a mystical sense the city is the 

Church, surrounded by the wall of faith, the man who meets 

them is the primitive people, the pitcher of water is the law 

Bede of the letter. Bede ; Or else, the water is the laver of 

1 SU P* grace, the pitcher points out the weakness of those who 

were to shew that grace to the world. Theophyl. He who 

is baptized carries the pitcher of water, and he who bears 

baptism upon him comes to his rest, if he lives according to his 

reason; and he obtains rest, as being in the house. Wherefore 

it is added, Follow him. Pseudo-Jerome ; That is, him who 

leads to the lofty place, where is the refreshment prepared 

John2i,by Christ. The lord of the house is the Apostle Peter, 

■it 

to whom the Lord has entrusted His house, that there may 
be one faith under one Shepherd. The large upper-room 
is the wide-spread Church, in which the name of the Lord 
is spoken of, prepared by a variety of powers and tongues. 
Bede Bede ; Or else, the large upper-room is spiritually the Law, 
u i sup. w ]jj c jj comes forth from the narrowness of the letter, and in 
a lofty place, that is, in the lofty chamber of the soul, receives 



VER. 17 — 21. ST. MARK. 283 

the Saviour. But it is designedly that the names both of 
the bearer of the water, and of the lord of the house, are 
omitted, to imply that power is given to all who wish 
to celebrate the true Passover, that is, to be embued with the 
sacraments of Christ, and to receive Him in the dwelling-place 
of their mind. Theophyl. Or else, the lord of the house is 
the intellect, which points out the large upper room, that is, 
the loftiness of intelligences, and which, though it be high, 
yet has nothing of vain glory, or of pride, but is prepared 
and made level by humility. But there, that is, in such a 
mind Christ's Passover is prepared by Peter and John, that 
is by action and contemplation. 

17. And in the evening he cometh with the twelve. 

18. And as they sat and did eat, Jesus said, Verily 
I say unto you, One of you which eateth with me 
shall betray me. 

19. And they began to be sorrowful, and to say 
unto him one by one, Is it I ? and another said, Is it 
I? 

20. And he answered and said unto them, It is one 
of the twelve, that dippeth with me in the dish. 

21. The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of 
him : but woe to that man by whom the Son of man 
is betrayed ! good were it for that man if he had 
never been born. 

Bede ; The Lord who had foretold His Passion, prophesied Bede 
also of the traitor, in order to give him room for repentance, u ' sup * 
that understanding that his thoughts were known, he might 
repent. Wherefore it is said, And in the evening he cometh with 
the twelve. And as they sat and did eat, Jesus said, Verily I 
say unto you, One of you which eateth with me shall betray me. 
Chrys. Where it is evident that He did not proclaim himchrys. 
openly to all, lest He should make him the more shameless ; ubi SU P- 
at the same time He did not altogether keep it silent, lest 
thinking that he was not discovered, he should boldly hasten 
to betray Him. Theophyl. But how could they eat reclining, 
when the law ordered that standing and upright they should 



284 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

eat the Passover? It is probable that they had first fulfilled 
the legal Passover, and had reclined, when He began to give 
them His own Passover. Pseudo- Jerome; The evening of 
the day points out the evening of the world; for the last, 
who are the first to receive the penny of eternal life, come about 
the eleventh hour. All the disciples then are touched by 
the Lord ; so that there is amongst them the harmony of 
the harp, all the well attuned strings answer with accordant 
tone ; for it goes on : And they began to be sorrowful, 
and to say unto him one by one, Is it I? One of them 
however, unstrung, and steeped in the love of money, said, 
Is it I, Lord? as Matthew testifies. Theophyl. But 
the other disciples began to be saddened on account of 
the word of the Lord; for although they were free from this 
passion, yet they trust Him who knows all hearts, rather 
than themselves. It goes on : And he answered and said 
unto them, It is one of the twelve, that dippeth with me in 
B , e . de the dish. Bede; That is, Judas, who when the others were 

ubi sup. . . . . 

sad and held back their hands, puts forth his hand with his 
Master into the dish. And because He had before said, One 
of you shall betray me, and yet the traitor perseveres in his 
evil, He accuses him more openly, without however pointing 
out his name. Pseudo- Jerome ; Again, He says, One out of 
the twelve, as it were separate from them, for the wolf carries 
away from the flock the sheep which he has taken, and the 
sheep which quits the fold lies open to the bite of the wolf. 
But Judas does not withdraw his foot from his traitorous design 
though once and again pointed at, wherefore his punish- 
ment is foretold, that the death denounced upon him might 
correct him, whom shame could not overcome; wherefore it 
goes on : The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of 
him,. Theophyl. The word here used, goeth, shews that 
the death of Christ was not forced but voluntary. Pseudo- 
Jerome ; But because many do good, in the way that Judas 
did, without its profiting them, there follows : Woe to that 
man by whom the Son of man is betrayed ! good were it for 
Bede that man if he had never been born. Bede ; Woe too to 
that man, to-day and for ever, who comes to the Lord's table 
with an evil intent. For he, after the example of Judas, 
betrays the Lord, not indeed to Jewish sinners, but to his 



VER. 22 — 25. ST. MARK. 285 

own sinning members. It goes on : Good were it for that man 
if he had never been bom. Pseudo-Jerome ; That is, hidden 
in his mother's inmost womb, for it is better for a man not 
to exist than to exist for torments. Theophyl. For as 
respects the end for which he was designed, it would have 
been better for him to have been born, if he had not been the 
betrayer, for God created him for good works ; but after he 
had fallen into such dreadful wickedness, it would have been 
better for him never to have been born. 

22. And as they did eat, Jesus took bread, and 
blessed, and brake it, and gave to them, and said, 
Take, eat : this is my body. 

23. And he took the cup, and when he had given 
thanks, he gave it to them : and they all drank of it. 

24. And he said unto them, This is my blood of 
the new testament, which is shed for many. 

25. Verily I say unto you, I will drink no more of 
the fruit of the vine, until that day that I drink it 
new in the kingdom of God. 

Bede; When the rites of the old Passover were finished, Bede 
He passed to the new, in order, that is, to substitute the 11 * sup * 
Sacrament of His own Body and Blood, for the flesh 
and blood of the lamb. Wherefore there follows : And as 
they did eat, Jesus took bread; that is, in order to shew that 
He Himself is that person to whom the Lord swore, T7ioup 8m no 
art a Priest for ever after the order of Melchizedec. There 4 - 
follows: And blessed, and brake it. Theophyl. That is, 
giving thanks, He brake it, which we also do, with the addition 
of some prayers. Bede ; He Himself also breaks the bread, Bede 
which He gives to His disciples, to shew that the breaking of ubi SU P* 
His Body was to take place, not against His will, nor without 
His intervention ; He also blessed it, because He with the 
Father and the Holy Spirit filled His human nature, which He 
took upon Him in order to suffer, with the grace of Divine 
power. He blessed bread and brake it, because He deigned 
to subject to death His manhood, which He had taken upon 



286 00SPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

Him, in such a way as to shew that there was within it the 
power of Divine immortality, and to teach them that therefore 
He would the more quickly raise it from the dead. There 
follows : And gave to them, and said, Take, eat : this is my 
body. Theophyl. That, namely, which I now give and 
which ye take. But the bread is not a mere figure of the 
Body of Christ, but is changed into the very Body of Christ. 
For the Lord said, The bread which I give you is my Jlesh. 
But the flesh of Christ is veiled from our eyes on account of 
our weakness, for bread and wine are things to which we are 
accustomed, if however we saw flesh and blood we could 
not bear to take them. For this reason the Lord bending 
Himself to our weakness keeps the forms of bread and 
wine, but changes the bread and wine into the reality of 
Chrys. His Body and Blood. Chrys. Even now also that Christ is 

ubi sup. 

close to us; He who prepared that table, Himself also conse- 
crates it. For it is not man who makes the offerings 
to be the Body and Blood of Christ, but Christ who was 
crucified for us. The words are spoken by the mouth of 
the Priest, and are consecrated by the power and the 
grace of God. By this word which He spoke, This is my 
body, the offerings are consecrated ; and as that word which 
Gen. l, says, Increase and multiply, and Jill the earth, was sent forth 
but once, yet has its effect throughout all time, when 
nature does the work of generation ; so also that voice 
was spoken once, yet gives confirmation to the sacrifice 
through all the tables of the Church even to this day, even to 
His advent. Pseudo-Jerome ; But in a mystical sense, the 
Lord transfigures into bread His body, which is the 
formans present Church, which is received in faith, is blessed in its 
sangm- num b er> is broken in its sufferings, is given in its examples, 
suum is taken in its doctrines; and He forms His Blood in the chalice 
Pseudo- °f w & ter an d wine mingled together, that by one we may 
Hier - be purged from our sins, by the other redeemed from their 
punishment. For by the blood of the lamb our houses are 
preserved from the smiting of the Angel, and our enemies perish 
in the waters of the Red sea, which are the sacraments of the 
Church of Christ. Wherefore it goes on : And he took the 
cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them. 
For we are saved by the grace of the Lord, not by our own 



VER. 22 25. ST. MARK. 287 

deserts. Greg. When His Passion was approaching, He is Greg. 
said to have taken bread and given thanks. He there- H 01 "* 11 ' 
fore gave thanks, who took upon Him the stripes of other 
men's wickedness ; He who did nothing worthy of smiting, 
humbly gives a blessing in His Passion, to shew us, what each 
should do when beaten for his own sins, since He Himself 
bore calmly the stripes due to the sin of others ; furthermore 
to shew us, what we who are the subjects of the Father should 
do under correction, when He who is His equal gave thanks 
under the lash. Bede; The wine of the Lord's cup is mixed Bede 
with water, because we should remain in Christ and Christ" 1 sup " 
in us. For on the testimony of John, the waters are the Apoc. 
people, and it is not lawful for any one to offer either wine ' 
alone, or water alone, lest such an oblation should mean that 
the head may be severed from the members, and either 
that Christ could suffer without love for our redemption, 
and that we can be saved or be offered to the Father 
without His Passion. It goes on : And they all drank 
of it. Pseudo-Jerome ; Happy intoxication, saving fulness, 
which the more we drink gives the greater sobriety of 
mind! Theophyl. Some say that Judas did not partake 
in these mysteries, but that he went out before the Lord gave 
the Sacrament. Some again say that He gave him also of 
that Sacrament. Chrys. For Christ offered His blood to Chrys. 
him who betrayed Him, that he might have remission of his sup * 
sins, if he had chosen to cease to be wicked. Pseudo-Jerome ; 
Judas therefore drinks and is not satisfied, nor can he quench 
the thirst of the everlasting fire, because he unworthily partakes 
of the mysteries of Christ. There are some in the Church 
whom the sacrifice does not cleanse, but their foolish thought 
draws them on to sin, for they have plunged themselves in the 
stinking slough of cruelty. Chrys. Let there not be therefore a Chrys. 
Judas at the table of the Lord; this sacrifice is spiritual food, sup * 
for as bodily food, working on a belly filled with humours 
which are opposed to it, is hurtful, so this spiritual food if 
taken by one polluted with wickedness, rather brings him to 
perdition, not by its own nature, but through the fault of the 
recipient. Let therefore our mind be pure in all things, and 
our thought pure, for that sacrifice is pure. There follows : 



288 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

And he said unto them, This is my blood of the New Testa- 
Bede ment, which is shed for many. Bede; This refers to the 
up ' different circumstances of the Old Testament, which was con- 
secrated by the blood of calves and of goats ; and the lawgiver 
Heb. 9, said in sprinkling it, This is the blood of the Testament 
Ex/cJ/ which God hath injoined unto you. It goes on : Which is 
8 - shed for many. Pseudo- Jerome ; For it does not cleanse 

all. It goes on : Verily I say unto you, I will drink no 
more of the fruit of the vine, until that day that I drink it 
new in the kingdom of God. Theophyl. As if He had said, 
I will not drink wine until the resurrection ; for He calls His 
resurrection the kingdom, as He then reigned over death. 
But after His resurrection He ate and drank with His dis- 
ciples, shewing that it was He Himself who had suffered. 
But He drank it new, that is, in a new and strange manner, 
for He had not a body subject to suffering, and requiring food, 
but immortal and incorruptible. We may also understand 
1 geni- it in this way. The vine is the Lord Himself, by the offspring 1 
of the vine is meant mysteries, and the secret understanding, 
3 generat which He Himself begets 2 , who teaches man knowledge. 
But in the kingdom of God, that is, in the world to come, 
He will drink with His disciples mysteries and knowledge, 
teaching us new things, and revealing what He now 
Bede hides. Bede; Or else, Isaiah testifies that the synagogue is 
l^^j' called the vine or the vineyard of the Lord, saying, The 
vineyard of the Lord of hosts is the house of Israel. The 
Lord therefore when about to go to His Passion, says, / will 
drink no more of the fruit of the vine, as if He had said openly, 
I will no longer delight in the carnal rites of the synagogue, 
in which also these rites of the Paschal Lamb have held the 
chief place. For the time of my resurrection shall come, 
that day shall come, when in the kingdom of heaven, that is, 
raised on high with the glory of immortal life, I will be 
filled with a new joy, together with you, for the salvation of 
the same people born again of the fountain of spiritual 
grace. Pseudo-Jerome ; But we must consider that here 
the Lord changes the sacrifice without changing the time ; 
so that we never celebrate the Caena Domini before the 
fourteenth moon. He who celebrates the resurrection on 



VER. 26 31. ST. MARK. 289 

the fourteenth moon, will celebrate the Caena Domini on the 
eleventh moon, which was never done in either Old or New 
Testament. 

26. And when they had sung an hymn, they went 
out into the mount of Olives. 

27. And Jesus saith unto them, All ye shall be 
offended because of me this night : for it is written, I 
will smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be 
scattered. 

28. But after that I am risen, I will go before you 
into Galilee. 

29. But Peter said unto him, Although all shall 
be offended, yet will not I. 

30. And Jesus saith unto him, Verily I say unto 
thee, That this day, even in this night, before the 
cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. 

31. But he spake the more vehemently, If I should 
die with thee, I will not deny thee in any wise. Like- 
wise also said they all. 

Theophyl. As they returned thanks, before they drank, 
so they return thanks after drinking; wherefore it is said, 
And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the 
mount of Olives, to teach us to return thanks both before 
and after our food. Pseudo-Jerome ; For by a hymn he 
means the praise of the Lord, as is said in the Psalms, Tlie Ps. 22, 
poor shall eat and be satisfied; they that seek after the Lord 
shall praise him. And again, All such as be fat upon earth 
have eaten and worshipped. Theophyl. He also shews by 
this that He was glad to die for us, because when about to 
be betrayed, He deigned to praise God. He also teaches us 
when we fall into troubles for the sake of the salvation of 
many, not to be sad, but to give thanks to God, who through 
our distress works the salvation of many. Bede; That hymn Bede 
in the Gospel of John may also be meant, which the Lord ^^j 
sang, returning thanks to the Father, in which also He 

vol. 11. u 



290 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

prayed, raising His eyes to heaven, for Himself and His 
disciples, and those who were to believe, through their word. 
Theophyl. Again, He went out into a mountain, that they 
might come to Him in a lonely place, and take Him without 
tumult. For if they had come to Him, whilst He was 
abiding in the city, the multitude of the people would have 
been in an uproar, and then His enemies, who took occasion 
against Him, should seem to have slain Him justly, because He 
ubi sup stnTe d up the people. Bede; Beautifully also does the Lord 
lead out His disciples, when they had tasted His Sacraments, 
into the mount of Olives, to shew typically that we ought through 
the reception of the Sacraments to rise up to higher gifts of 
virtue, and graces of the Holy Ghost, that we may be 
anointed in heart. Pseudo-Jerome ; Jesus also is held cap- 
tive on the mount of Olives, whence He ascended to 
heaven, that we may know, that we ascend into heaven from 
that place in which we watch and pray ; there we are bound 
Bede and do not tend back again to earth. Bede ; But the Lord 
sup ' foretells to His disciples what is about to happen to them, that 
when they have gone through it, they may not despair of 
salvation, but work out their repentance, and be freed ; 
wherefore there follows : And Jesus saith unto them. All ye 
shall be offended because of me this night. Pseudo- Jerome ; 
Ps. 40, All indeed fall, but all do not remain fallen. For shall not he 
9# u g * who sleeps also rise up again ? It is a carnal thing to fall, 
but devilish to remain lying when fallen. Theophyl. The 
Lord allowed them to fall that they might not trust in themselves, 
HaTviyo- and lest He should seem to have prophesied, what He had said, 
Theoph. as an °P en accusation of them, He brings forward the 
Zech. witness of Zechariah the Prophet ; wherefore it goes on : For 
13 > ** it is written , / will smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be 
Bede scattered. Bede ; This is written in different words in 
ubi sup. Zecharias, and in the person of the Prophet it is said to 
the Lord; Smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered, 
Pseudo-Jerome ; For the Prophet prays for the Passion of 
the Lord, and the Father answers, I will smite the shepherd 
according to the prayers of those below. The Son is sent and 
smitten by the Father, that is, He is made incarnate and suffers. 
Theophyl. But the Father says, / will smite the shepherd, 
because He permitted him to be smitten. He calls the 



VER. 26 31. ST. MARK. 291 

disciples sheep, as being innocent and without guile. At 
last He consoles them, by saying, But after that I am risen 
T will go before you into Galilee. Pseudo-Jerome; In 
which the true resurrection is promised, that their hope may 
not be extinguished. There follows : But Peter said unto 
him, Although all shall be offended, yet will not I. Lo, a 
bird unfledged strives to raise itself on high ; but the body 
weighs down the soul, so that the fear of the Lord is over- 
come by the fear of human death. Bede ; Peter then Bede 
promised in the ardour of his faith, and the Saviour as God u sup ' 
knew what was to happen. Wherefore it goes on : And 
Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, that this day, 
even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny 
me thrice. Aug. Though all the Evangelists say that theAug.iii. 
Lord foretold that Peter was to deny before the cock crew, c on . 
Mark alone has related it more minutely, wherefore some from Evan « 
inattention suppose that he does not agree with the others. 
For the whole of Peter's denial is threefold ; if it had begun 
altogether after the cock crew, the other three Evangelists 
would seem to have spoken falsely, in saying, that before the 
cock crew, he would deny him thrice. Again, if he had 
finished the entire threefold denial before the cock began to 
crow, Mark would in the person of the Lord seem to have 
said needlessly, Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny 
me thrice. But because that threefold denial began before 
the first cock-crowing, the other three did not notice when 
Peter was to finish it, but how great it was to be, that is, 
threefold, and when it was to begin, that is, before the cock 
crew, although the whole was conceived in his mind, even 
before the first cock crew ; but Mark has related more 
plainly the interval between his words themselves. The- 
ophyl. We are to understand that it happened thus ; Peter 
denied once, then the cock crew, but after he had made two 
more denials, then the cock crew for the second time. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; Who is the cock, the harbinger of day, 
but the Holy Ghost ? by whose voice in prophecy, and in 
the Apostles, we are roused from our threefold denial, to 
most bitter tears after our fall, for we have thought evil of 
God, spoken evil of our neighbours, and done evil to our- 
selves. Bede ; The faith of the Apostle Peter, and his Bede 

u ^ ubi sup. 



292 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

burning love for our Lord, is shewn in what follows. For it 
goes on : But lie spake the more vehemently \ If I should die 
with thee, I will not deny thee in any wise. Theophyl. 
The other disciples also shewed a fearless zeal. For there 
follows, Likewise also said they all, but nevertheless they 
acted against the truth, which Christ had prophesied. 

32. And they came to a place which was named 
Gethsemane : and he saith to his disciples, Sit ye here, 
while I shall pray. 

33. And he taketh with him Peter and James and 
John, and began to be sore amazed, and to be very 
heavy ; 

34. And saith unto them, My soul is exceeding 
sorrowful unto death : tarry ye here, and watch. 

35. And he went forward a little, and fell on the 
ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour 
might pass from him. 

36. And he said, Abba, Father, all things are pos- 
sible unto thee ; take away this cup from me : never- 
theless not what I will, but what thou wilt. 

37. And he cometh, and findeth them sleeping, and 
saith unto Peter, Simon, sleepest thou? couldest not 
thou watch one hour ? 

38. Watch ye and pray, lest ye enter into tempt- 
ation. The spirit truly is ready, but the flesh is 
weak. 

39. And again he went away, and prayed, and 
spake the same words. 

40. And when he returned, he found them asleep 
again, (for their eyes were heavy,) neither wist they 
what to answer him. 

41. And he cometh the third time, and saith unto 
them, Sleep on now, and take your rest : it is enough, 
the hour is come ; behold, the Son of man is betrayed 
into the hands of sinners. 



VER. 32 — 42. ST. MARK. 293 

42. Rise up, let us go ; lo, he that betrayeth me is 
at hand. 

Gloss. After that the Lord had foretold the offence of His Gloss, 
disciples, the Evangelist gives an account of His prayer, in 
which He is supposed to have prayed for His disciples; and 
first describing the place of prayer, he says, And they came 
to a place which was named Gethsemane. Bede; The place Bede 
Gethsemane, in which the Lord prayed, is shewn up to this day u &up ' 
at the foot of the Mount of Olives. The meaning of Gethse- 
mane is, the valley of the fat, or of fatness. Now when our 
Lord prays on a mountain, He teaches us that we should 
when we pray ask for lofty things ; but by praying in the 
valley of fatness, He implies that in our prayer humility and 
the fatness of interior love must be kept. He also by the valley 
of humility and the fatness of charity underwent death for us. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; In the valley of fatness also, the fat bulls 
beset Him. There follows, And he saith to his disciples, Sit 
ye here, while I shall pray ; they are separated from Him in 
prayer, who are separated in His Passion; for He prays, they 
sleep, overcome by the sloth of their heart. Theophyl. It 
was also His custom always to pray by Himself, in order to 
give us an example, to seek for silence and solitude in our 
prayers. There follows: And he taketh with him Peter, and 
James, and John. He takes only those who had been wit- 
nesses of His glory on Mount Tabor, that they who had seen 
His glory might also see His sufferings, and learn that He 
is really man, in that He is sorrowful. Wherefore there 
follows: And began to be sore amazed, and very heavy. 
For since He had taken on Himself the whole of human 
nature, He took also those natural things which belong to 
man, amazement, heaviness, and sorrow; for men are 
naturally unwilling to die. Wherefore it goes on: And he 
saith unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death. 
Bede ; As being God, dwelling in the body, He shews the Bede 
frailty of flesh, that the blasphemy of those who deny the u l sup * 
mystery of His Incarnation might find no place ; for having 
taken up a body, He must needs also take up all that belongs 
to the body, hunger, thirst, pain, grief; for the Godhead 
cannot suffer the changes of these affections. Theophyl. 



294 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

But some have understood this, as if He had said, I am 
sorrowful, not because I am to die, but because the Jews, 
my countrymen, are about to crucify me, and by these means 
to be shut out from the kingdom of God. Pseudo- Jerome ; 
By this also we are taught to fear and to be sorrowful before 
the judgment of death, for not by ourselves, but by Him only, 
John can we say, The prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing 
in Me. There follows: Tarry ye here, and watch. Bede; 
He does not mean natural sleep by the sleep which He for- 
bids, for the time of approaching danger did not allow 
of it, but the sleep of unfaithfulness, and the torpor of the 
mind. But going forward a little, He falls on His face, and 
shews his lowliness of mind, by the posture of His body. 
Wherefore there follows: And he went forward a little, and 
fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the 
Aug* hour might pass from him. Aug. He said not, if He could 
iii. iv. do it, but if it could be done; for whatever He wills is 
possible. We must therefore understand, if it be possible, 
as if it were ; if He is willing. And lest any one should 
suppose that He lessened His Father's power, he shews in 
what sense the words are to be understood; for there follows, 
And he said, Abba, Father, all things are possible unto thee. 
By which He sufficiently shews, that the words, if it be 
possible, must be understood not of any impossibility, but 
of the will of His Father. As to what Mark relates, that 
he said not only Father, but Abba, Father, Abba is the 
Hebrew for Father. And perhaps the Lord said both words, 
on account of some Sacrament contained in them ; wishing 
1 tristiti- to shew that He had taken upon Himself that 'sorrow in the 
Aur P P erson °f His body, the Church, to which He was made the 
chief corner stone, and which came to Him, partly from the 
Hebrews, who are represented by the word Abba, partly from 
Bede the Gentiles, to whom Father belongs. Bede; But He prays, 
8up * that the cup may pass away, to shew that He is very man, 
wherefore He adds : Take away this cup from me. But re- 
membering why He was sent, He accomplishes the dispensa- 
tion for which He was sent, and cries out, But not what I will, 
but what thou wilt. As if He had said, If death can die, with- 
out my dying according to the flesh, let this cup pass away ; 
but since this cannot be otherwise, not what I will, but what 



VER. 32 42. ST. MARK. 295 

thou wilt. Many still are sad at the prospect of death, but 
let them keep their heart right, and avoid death as much as 
they can ; but if they cannot, then let them say what the Lord 
said for us. Pseudo- Jerome ; By which also He ceases not 
up to the end to teach us to obey our fathers, and to prefer 
their will to ours. There follows: And he cometh, and 
findeth them sleeping. For as they are asleep in mind, so 
also in body. * But after His prayer, the Lord coming, and l The- 
seeing His disciples sleeping, rebukes Peter alone. Where- 
fore it goes on : And saith unto Peter, Simon, steepest thou ? 
couldest not thou watch with me one hour? As if He had 
said, If thou couldest not watch one hour with me, how wilt 
thou be able to despise death, thou who promisest to die 
with me ? It goes on : Watch and pray, that ye enter not 
into temptation, that is, the temptation of denying me. 
Bede ; He does not say, Pray that ye may not be tempted, Bede 
because it is impossible for the human mind not to be 
tempted, but that ye enter not into temptation, that is, that 
temptation may not vanquish you. Pseudo- Jerome ; But 
he is said to enter into temptation, who neglects to pray. 
There follows: The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh 
is weak. Theophyl. As if He had said, Your spirit in- 
deed is ready not to deny me, and for this reason ye 
promise ; but your flesh is weak, in that unless God give 
power to your flesh through prayer, ye shall enter into 
temptation. Bede ; He here represses the rash, who Bede 
think that they can compass whatever they are confident u ' sup * 
about. But in proportion as we are confident from the 
ardour of our mind, so let us fear from the weakness of 
our flesh. 2 For this place makes against those, who say that 2 v.Bede 
there was but one operation in the Lord and one will. For p * l48 * 
He shews two wills, one human, which from the weakness of 
the flesh shrinks from suffering; one divine, which is most 
ready. It goes on : And again he went away and prayed, 
and spake the same words. Theophyl. That by His second 
prayer He might shew Himself to be very man. It goes on: 
And when he returned, he found them asleep again ; He 
however did not rebuke them severely. For their eyes were 
heavy, (that is, with sleep,) neither wist they what to 
nnswer him. By this learn the weakness of men, and 



296 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

let us not, whom even sleep can overcome, promise things 
which are impossible to us. Therefore He goes, away 
the third time to pray the prayer mentioned above. 
Wherefore it goes on : And he cometh the third time, 
and saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take your rest. 
He is not vehement against them, though after His rebuke 
they had done worse, but He tells them ironically, Sleep 
on now, and take your rest, because He knew that the 
betrayer was now close at hand. And that He spoke iron- 
ically is evident, by what is added: It is enough, the hour 
is come; behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the hands 
of sinners. He speaks this, as deriding their sleep, as if He 
had said ; Now indeed is a time for sleep, when the traitor is 
approaching. Then He says; Arise, let us go; lo, he that 
betrayeth me is at hand; he did not say this to bid them 
Aug. fly ? but that they might meet their enemies. Aug. Or else ; 
In that it is said, that after He had spoken these words, 
Sleep on now, and take your rest, He added, It is enough, 
and then, the hour is come ; behold, the Son of man is 
betrayed, we must understand that after saying, Sleep on 
now, and take your rest, our Lord remained silent for 
a short time, to give space for that to happen, which He 
had permitted ; and then that He added, the hour is come; 
and therefore He puts in between, it is enough, that is, your 
rest has been long enough. Pseudo-Jerome; The threefold 
sleep of the disciples points out the three dead, whom our 
Lord raised up ; the first, in a house ; the second, at the 
tomb ; the third, from the tomb. And the threefold watch 
of the Lord teaches us in our prayers, to beg for the pardon 
of past, future, and present sins. 

43. And immediately, while he yet spake, cometh 
Judas, one of the twelve, and with him a great 
multitude with swords and staves, from the Chief 
Priests and the Scribes and the elders. 

44. And he that betrayed him had given them 
a token, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same 
is he ; take him, and lead him away safely. 

45. And as soon as he was come, he goeth straight- 



VER. 43 52. ST. MARK. 297 

way to him, and saith, Master, master ; and kissed 
him. 

46. And they laid their hands on him, and took 
him. 

47. And one of them that stood by drew a sword, 
and smote a servant of the High Priest, and cut off 
his ear. 

48. And Jesus answered and said unto them, Are 
ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and with 
staves to take me ? 

49. I was daily with you in the temple teaching, 
and ye took me not : but the Scriptures must be 
fulfilled. 

50. And they all forsook him, and fled. 

51. And there followed him a certain young man, 
having a linen cloth cast about his naked body ; and 
the young men laid hold on him: 

52. And he left the linen cloth, and fled from them 
naked. 

Bede ; After that our Lord had prayed three times, and Bede 
had obtained by His prayers that the fear of the Apostles u x sup ' 
should be amended by future repentance, He, being tranquil 
as to His Passion, goes to His persecutors, concerning the 
coming of whom the Evangelist says, And immediately, while 
he yet spake, comet h Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve. 
Theophyl. This is not put without reason, but to the greater 
conviction of the traitor, since though he was of the chief 
company amongst the disciples, he turned himself to furious 
enmity against our Lord. There follows: And with him 
a great multitude with swords and staves from the Chief 
Priests and the Scribes and the elders. Pseudo-Jerome ; 
For he who despairs of help from God, has recourse to the 
power of the world. Bede; But Judas had still something Bede 
of the shame of a disciple, for he did not openly betray Him sup ' 
to his persecutors, but by the token of a kiss. Wherefore it 
goes on : And lie that betrayed him had given them a token, 
saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he; take hirn, 



298 GOSPEL ACCOKDING TO CHAP. X[V. 

and lead him away safely. Theophyl. See how in his 
blindness he thought to deceive Christ by the kiss, so as to 
be looked upon by Him as His friend. But if thou wert a 
friend, Judas, how didst thou come with His enemies ? But 
wickedness is ever without foresight. It goes on : And as 
soon as he ivas come, he goeth straightway to him, and saith, 
Master, master ; and kissed him. Pseudo- Jerome; Judas 
gives the kiss as a token, with poisonous guile, just as 

Bede Cain offered a crafty, reprobate sacrifice. Bede; With envy 

sup * and with a wicked confidence, he calls Him master, and gives 

Him a kiss, in betraying Him. But the Lord receives the 

kiss of the traitor, not to teach us to deceive, but lest he 

should seem to avoid betrayal, and at the same time to 

Ps. 120, fulfil that Psalm, Among them that are enemies unto peace, 
I labour for peace. It goes on : And they laid hands 
on him, and took him. Pseudo- Jerome ; w This is the Joseph 

Ps. 105, who was sold by his brethren, and into whose soul the iron 

18 

entered. There follows: And one of them that stood by 
drew a sword, and smote a servant of the High Priest, and 
Bede cut off his ear. Bede; Peter did this, as John declares, with 
u i sup. ^ e same ar( j en t m ind with which he did all things ; for 
he knew how Phineas had by punishing sacrilegious persons 
received the reward of righteousness and of perpetual 
priesthood. Theophyl. Mark conceals his name, lest he 
should seem to be praising his master for his zeal for Christ. 
Again, the action of Peter points out that they were 
disobedient and unbelieving, despising the Scriptures; for 
if they had had ears to hear the Scriptures, they would not have 
crucified the Lord of glory. But he cut off the ear of a ser- 
vant of the High Priest, for the Chief Priests especially passed 
over the Scriptures, like disobedient servants. It goes on : 
And Jesus answered and said unto them, Are ye come out, 
as against a thief, with swords and with staves to take me ? 
Bede Bede ; As if He had said, it is foolish to seek with swords 
ubi sup. an( j s t aves Hi m? w ho offers Himself to you of His own accord, 
and to search, as for one who hides Himself, by night and by 
means of a traitor, for Him who taught daily in the temple. 
Theophyl. This, however, is a proof of His divinity, for 
when He taught in the temple they were unable to take Him, 

,v This sentence from Pseudo- Jerome is not in the Venice edition. 



VER. 43 — 52. ST. MARK. 299 

although He was in their power, because the time of His 
Passion had not yet come; but when He Himself was 
willing, then He gave Himself up, that the Scriptures might 
be fulfilled, for he was led as a lamb to the slaughter ', not 
crying nor raising His voice, but suffering willingly. It 
goes on: And they all forsook him and fled. Bede; In this Bede 
is fulfilled the w T ord, which the Lord had spoken, that all His 
disciples should be offended in Him that same night. There 
follows : And there followed him a certain young man, 
having a linen cloth cast about his naked body, that is, he 
had no other clothing but this linen cloth. It goes on : And 
they laid hold on him, and he left the linen cloth, and fled 
from them naked. That is, he fled from them, whose pre- 
sence and whose deeds he abhorred, not from the Lord, for 
whom his love remained fixed in his mind, when absent from 
Him in body. Pseudo-Jerome; Just as Joseph left his 
mantle behind him, and fled naked from the wanton woman; 
so also let him, who would escape the hands of the evil ones, 
quit in mind all that is of the world, and fly after Jesus. 
Theoph. It appears probable that this young man was of that 
house, where they had eaten the Passover. But some say that 
this young man was James, the brother of our Lord, who was 
called Just; who after the ascension of Christ received from 
the Apostles the throne of the bishopric of Jerusalem. Greg. Greg. 
Or, he says this of John, who, although he afterwards returned 49 ° r * ' 
to the cross to hear the words of the Redeemer, at first was 
frightened and fled. Bede ; For that he was a young man at Bede 
that time, is evident from his long sojourn in the flesh. Per- u l sup * 
haps he escaped from the hands of those who held him for the 
time, and afterwards got back his garment and returned, 
mingling under cover of the darkness with those who were 
leading Jesus, as though he was one of them, until he arrived 
at the door of the High Priest, to whom he was known, as 
he himself testifies in the Gospel. But as Peter, who washed 
away the sin of his denial with the tears of penitence, shews 
the recovery of those who fall away in time of martyrdom, 
so the other disciples who prevented their actual seizure, 
teach the prudence of flight to those who feel themselves un- 
equal to undergo tortures. 



300 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

53. And they led Jesus away to the High Priest: 
and with him were assembled all the Chief Priests 
and the elders and the Scribes. 

54. And Peter followed him afar off, even into the 
palace of the High Priest : and he sat with the serv- 
ants, and warmed himself at the fire. 

55. And the Chief Priests and all the council 
sought for witness against Jesus to put him to death ; 
and found none. 

56. For many bare false witness against him, but 
their witness agreed not together. 

57. And there arose certain, and bare false witness 
against him, saying, 

58. We heard him say, I will destroy this temple 
that is made with hands, and within three days I will 
build another made without hands. 

59. But neither so did their witness agree together. 

Gloss. Gloss. The Evangelist had related above how our Lord 

non occ. 

had been taken by the servants of the Priests, now he 
begins to relate how He was condemned to death in the 
house of the High Priest : wherefore it is said, And they led 

B b ^ de Jesus away to the High Priest. Bede; He means by the 
High Priest Caiaphas, who (as John writes) was High Priest 
that year, of whom Josephus relates that he bought his priest- 
hood of the Roman Emperor. There follows: And with 
him were assembled all the Chief Priests and the elders and 

Ps. 67, the scribes. Pseudo-Jerome : Then took place the gather- 

31 . 

Vulff. nl 8* together of the bulls among the heifers of the people. 

It goes on : And Peter followed him afar off, even into the 

palace of the High Priest. For though fear holds him back, 

Bede love draws him on. Bede ; But rightly does he follow afar 

ubi sup. Q ^ w j 1Q ^ g j usl a |3 0u ^ ^ betray Him ; for he could not have 

denied Christ, if he had remained close to Him. There 
follows, And he sat with the servants, and warmed himself 
at the fire. Pseudo-Jerome; He warms himself at the fire 
in the hall, with the servants. The hall of the High-Priest 
is the enclosure of the world, the servants are the devils, with 



ubi sup, 



VER. 53 — 59. ST. MARK. 301 

whom whosoever remains cannot weep for his sins ; the fire 
is the desire of the flesh. Bede ; For charity is the fire of Bede 
which it is said, / am come to send fire on the earthy which ^uke 
flame coming down on the believers, taught them to speak 12,49. 
with various tongues the praise of the Lord. There is also 
a fire of covetousness, of which it is said, They are all Hosea 
adulterers as an oven ; this fire, raised up in the hall of ' ' 
Caiaphas by the suggestion of an evil spirit, w 7 as arming the 
tongues of the traitors to deny and blaspheme the Lord. 
For the fire lit up in the hall amidst the cold of the night 
was a figure of what the wicked assembly was doing within ; 
for because of the abounding of iniquity the love of many Matt. 
waxes cold. Peter, who for a time was benumbed by this 24 ' 12# 
cold, wished as it were to be warmed by the coals of the serv- 
ants of Caiaphas, because He sought in the society of traitors 
the consolation of worldly comfort. It goes on, And the 
Chief Priests and all the council sought for witness against 
Jesus to put him to death. Theophyl. Though the law 
commanded that there should be but one High Priest, there 
were then many put into the office, and stripped of it, year 
by year, by the Roman emperor. He therefore calls chief 
priests those who had finished the time allotted to them, and 
had been stripped of their priesthood. But their actions are 
a sign of their judgment, which they carried on as they had 
prejudged, for they sought for a witness, that they might 
seem to condemn and destroy Jesus with justice. Pseudo- 
Jerome ; But iniquity lied as the queen did against 
Joseph, and the priests against Susannah, but a flame 
goes out, if it has no fuel; wherefore it goes on, And 
found none. For many bare false witness against him, but 
their witness agreed not together. For whatever is not con- 
sistent is held to be doubtful. There follows, And there 
arose certain, and bare false witness against him, saying, 
We heard him say, I will destroy this temple that is made 
with hands, and within three days I will build another made 
without hands. It is usual with heretics out of the truth to 
extract the shadow ; He did not say what they said, but some- 
thing like it, of the temple of His body, which He raised again 
after two days. Theophyl. For the Lord had not said, I will 
destroy, but, Destroy, nor did He say, made with hands, 



302 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

Bede but, this temple. Bede ; He had said also, / will raise 
up, meaning a thing with life and soul, and a breathing 
temple. He is a false witness, who understands words in a 
sense, in which they are not spoken. 

60. And the High Priest stood up in the midst, 
and asked Jesus, saying, Answerest thou nothing ? 
what is it which these witness against thee ? 

61. But he held his peace, and answered nothing. 
Again the High Priest asked him, and said unto 
him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed ? 

62. And Jesus said, I am : and ye shall see the 
Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and 
coming in the clouds of heaven. 

63. Then the High Priest rent his clothes, and 
saith, What need we any further witnesses ? 

64. Ye have heard the blasphemy : what think ye ? 
And they all condemned him to be guilty of death. 

65. And some began to spit on him, and to cover 
his face, and to buffet him, and to say unto him, 
Prophesy : and the servants did strike him with the 
palms of their hands. 

Bede Bede ; The more Jesus remained silent before the false wit- 

up * nesses who were unworthy of His answer, and the impious 
priests, the more the High Priest, overcome with anger, endea- 
voured to provoke Him to answer, that he might find room 
for accusing Him, from any thing whatever which He might 
say. Wherefore it is said, And the High Priest stood up in 
the midst, and asked Jesus, saying, Answerest thou nothing ? 
what is it which these witness against thee? The High 
Priest, angry and impatient at finding no room for accusation 
against Him, rises from his seat, thus shewing by the motion 
of his body the madness of his mind. Pseu do- Jerome; Bat 
our God and Saviour Himself, Who brought salvation to the 
world, and assisted mankind by His love, is led as a sheep 

Ps.39,3. to the slaughter, without crying, and remained mute and kept 



VER. 60 — 65. ST. MARK. 303 

silence yea even from good ivords. Wherefore it goes on, Bui 
he held his peace, and answered nothing. The silence of Christ 
is the pardon for the defence or excuse of Adam. Theophyl. Gen. 3, 
But He remained silent because He knew that they would 10 * 
not attend to his words ; wherefore He answered according 
to Luke, If I tell you, ye will not believe. Wherefore there Lute 
follows, Again the High Priest asked him, and said unto ' 
him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? The 
High Priest indeed puts this question, not that he might 
learn of Him and believe, but in order to seek occasion against 
Him. But he asks, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the 
Blessed, because there were many Christs, that is, anointed 
persons, as Kings and High Priests, but none of these was 
called the Son of the Blessed God, that is, the Ever-praised. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; But they looked from afar off for Him, whom 
though near they cannot see, as Isaac from the blindness of 
his eyes does not know Jacob who was under his hands, 
but prophesies long before things which were to come to 
him. It goes on, Jesus said, I am; namely, that they might 
be inexcusable. Theophyl. For He knew that they would 
not believe, nevertheless He answered them, lest they should 
afterwards say, If we had heard any thing from Him, we 
would have believed on Him ; but this is their condemnation, 
that they heard and did not believe. Aug. Matthew, however, Aug. de 
does not say that Jesus answered / am, but, Thou hast said. 6 on * in * 
But Mark shews, that the words lam were equivalent to Thou Ma< *. 
hast said. There follows, Andye shall see the Son of Man sitting 
on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven. 
Theophyl. As if He had said, Ye shall see Me as the Son of 
Man sitting on the right hand of the Father, for He here 
calls the Father power. He will not however come without a 
body, but as He appeared to those who crucified Him, so will 
He appear in the judgment. Bede ; If therefore to thee, O Bede 
Jew, O Pagan, and heretic, the contempt, weakness, and cross u sup " 
in Christ are a subject of scorn, see how by this the Son of 
Man is to sit at the right hand of the Father, and to come in 
His majesty on the clouds of heaven. Pseudo- Jerome ; The 
High Priest indeed asks the Son of God, but Jesus in His answer 
speaks of the Son of Man, that we may by this understand that 
the Son of God is also the Son of Man ; and let us not make 



304 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

a quaternity" in the Trinity, but let man be in God and God 
in man. And He said, Sitting on the right hand of power, 
that is, reigning in life everlasting, and in the Divine power. 
He says, And coming with the clouds of heaven. He 
ascended in a cloud, He will come with a cloud; that is, He 
ascended in that body alone, which He took of the Virgin, 
and He will come to judgment with the whole Church, 

Leo, which is His body and His fulness. Leo; But Caiaphas, to 

dePass'.m crease the odiousnessof what they had heard, rent his clothes, 
and without knowing what his frantic action meant, by his 
madness, deprived himself of the honour of the priesthood, 
forgetting that command, by which it is said of the High 

Lev. Priest, He shall not uncover his head or rend his clothes. 
For there follows : Then the High Priest rent his clothes, 
and saith, What need we any further witnesses? Ye have 
heard the blasphemy: what think ye? Theophyl. The 
High Priest does after the manner of the Jews; for whenever 
any thing intolerable or sad occurred to them, they used to 
rend their clothes. In order then to shew that Christ had 
spoken great and intolerable blasphemy, he rent his clothes. 

Bede Bede ; But it was also with a higher mystery, that in the 
Passion of our Lord the Jewish priest rent his own clothes, 
that is, his ephod, whilst the garment of the Lord could not 
be rent, even by the soldiers, who crucified Him. For it 
was a figure that the Jewish priesthood was to be rent on 
account of the wickedness of the priests themselves. But the 
solid strength of the Church, which is often called the garment 
of her Redeemer, can never be torn asunder. Theophyl. The 
Jewish priesthood was to be rent from the time that they 
condemned Christ as guilty of death; wherefore there follows, 
And they all condemned him to be guilty of death. Pseudo- 
Jerome ; They condemned Him to be guilty of death, that 
by His guiltiness He might absolve our guilt. It goes on : 
And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and 
to buffet him, and to say unto him, Prophesy: and the 
servants did strike him with the palms of their hands ; that 
is, that by being spit upon He might wash the face of 

x This is a reference to the charge introduced a fourth Person into the 

brought by the Apollinarians against Blessed Trinity ; it is also answered by 

the Catholics, that their doctrine of a St. Ambrose, de Incarnatione, 7, 77. 
divine and human substance in our Lord 



VER. 66 — 72. ST. MARK. 305 

our soul, and by the covering of His face, might take away 
the veil from our hearts, and by the buffets, which were dealt 
upon His head, might heal the head of mankind, that is, 
Adam, and by the blows, by which He was smitten with the 
hands, His great praise might be testified by the clapping of 
our hands and by our lips, as it is said, O clap your hands?*-*! ,\. 
together, all ye people. Bede; By saying, Prophesy, who Bede 
is he that smote thee, they mean to insult Him, because He u sup * 
wished to be looked upon as a prophet by the people. 
Aug. We must understand by this, that the Lord suffered Aug. 
these things till morning, in the house of the High Priest, 
whither He had first been brought. 

66. And as Peter was beneath in the palace, there 
cometh one of the maids of the High Priest : 

67. And when she saw Peter warming himself, she 
looked upon him, and said, And thou also wast with 
Jesus of Nazareth. 

68. But he denied, saying, I know not, neither 
understand I what thou sayest. And he went out 
into the porch ; and the cock crew. 

69. And a maid saw him again, and began to say 
to them that stood by, This is one of them. 

70. And he denied it again. And a little after, 
they that stood by said again to Peter, Surely thou 
art one of them : for thou art a Galilaean, and thy 
speech agreeth thereto. 

71. But he began to curse and to swear, saying, I 
know not this man of whom ye speak. 

72. And the second time the cock crew. And Peter 
called to mind the word that Jesus said unto him, 
Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. 
And when he thought thereon, he wept. 

Aug. Concerning the temptation of Peter, which happened Aug. 
during the injuries before mentioned, all the Evangelists do ublsup * 
not speak in the same order. For Luke first relates the 

VOL. II. x 



306 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

temptation of Peter, then these injuries of the Lord ; but 
John begins to speak of the temptation of Peter, and then 
puts in some things concerning our Lord's ill-treatment, and 
adds, that He was sent from there to Caiaphas the High 
Priest, and then he goes back to unfold the temptation of 
Peter, which he had begun, Matthew and Mark on the 
other hand first notice the injuries done to Christ, then the 
temptation of Peter. Concerning which it is said, And as 
Peter was beneath in the palace, there cometh one of the 
Bede maids of the High Priest. Bede; But what can be meant 
p 'by his being first recognised by a woman, when men were 
more able to know him, if it be not that that sex might be 
seen to sin in the death of our Lord, and that sex be redeemed 
by His Passion ? It goes on : But he denied, saying, I know 
not, neither understand I what thou say est. Pseudo-Jerome ; 
Peter when he had not the Spirit yielded and lost courage at 
the voice of a girl, though with the Spirit he was not afraid 
before princes and kings. Theophyl. The Lord allowed this 
to happen to him by His providence, that is, lest he should be 
too much elated, and at the same time, that he might prove 
himself merciful to sinners, as knowing from himself the result 
of human weakness. There follows: And he went out into the 
Bede porch; and the cock crew. Bede; The other Evangelists do 
1 sup * not mention this crowing of the cock; they do not however 
deny the fact, as also some pass over many other things in 
silence, which others relate. There follows: And a maid saw 
him again, and began to say to them that stood by, This is one 
Au g- of them. Aug. 7 This maid is not the same, but another, as 
' Matthew says. Indeed we must also understand, that in this 
second denial he was addressed by two persons, that is, by the 
maid whom Matthew and Mark mention, and by another per- 
son, of whom Luke takes notice. It goes on : And he denied it 
again. Peter had now returned, for John says that he denied 
Him again standing at the fire ; wherefore the maid said what 
has been mentioned above, not to him, that is, Peter, but to those 
who, when he went out, had remained, in such a way however that 
he heard it; wherefore coming back and standing again at the 
fire, he contradicted them, and denied their words. For it is 
evident, if we compare the accounts of all the Evangelists on 

y For a harmony of this portion of the Gospel, v. Williams on the Passion, p. 101. 



VER. 66 — 7*2. ST. MARK. 307 

this matter, that Peter did not the second time deny him before 
the porch, but within the palace at the fire, whilst Matthew 
and Mark who mention his having gone out are silent, for the 
sake of brevity, as to his return. Bede ; By this denial of Bede 
Peter we learn, that not only he denies Christ, who says that u Ilsup * 
He is not the Christ, but he also, who although he is a 
Christian, denies himself to be such. For the Lord did not 
say to Peter, Thou shalt deny thyself to be my disciple, but, 
Thou shalt deny me ; he therefore denied Christ, when he 
said that he was not His disciple. There follows: And a 
little after, they that stood by said again to Peter, Surely thou 
art one of them, for thou art a Galilcean, and thy speech 
agreeth thereto. Not that the Galilaeans spoke a different 
tongue from the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for they were both 
Hebrews, but that each province and region has its own 
peculiarities, and cannot avoid a vernacular pronunciation. 
Theophyl. Therefore Peter was seized with fear, and for- 
getting the word of the Lord, which said, Whosoever shall con- Matt. 
fess me before men, him will I confess before my Father, he 30 > 32 * 
denied our Lord; wherefore there follows: But he began to 
curse and to swear, saying, I know not this man of whom ye 
speak. Bede; How hurtful is it 1 to speak with the wicked. Bede 
He denies before infidels that he knows the man, whom y bi SU P- 

• collo- 

amongst the disciples, he had confessed to be God. But quia ap. 
the Scripture is wont to point out a Sacrament 2 of the.f| de 
causes of things, by the state of the time ; thus Peter, mentum 
who denied at midnight, repented at cock crow; wherefore 1 
it is added : And the second time the cock crew. And Peter 
called to mind the word which Jesus said unto him, Before 
the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And he 
began to weep. Theophyl. For tears brought Peter by 
penitence to Christ. Confounded then be the Novatians, 
who say that he who sins after receiving baptism, is not 
received to the remission of his sin. For behold Peter, who 
had also received the Body and Blood of the Lord, is received 
by penitence ; for the failings of saints are written, that if we 
fall by want of caution, we also may be able to run back through 
their example, and hope to be relieved by penitence. Pseudo- 
Jerome ; But in a mystical sense, the first maid means the 
wavering, the second, the assent, the third man is the act. This 

x 2 



308 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. CHAP. XIV. 

is the threefold denial which the remembrance of the word of the 
Lord washes away through tears. The cock then crows for us 
when some preacher stirs up our hearts by repentance to 
compunction. We then begin to weep, when we are set on 
fire within by the spark of knowledge, and we go forth, when 
we cast out what we were within. 



CHAP. XV. 

1 . And straightway in the morning the Chief Priests 
held a consultation with the elders and Scribes and 
the whole council, and bound Jesus, and carried him 
away, and delivered him to Pilate. 

2. And Pilate asked him, Art thou the King of 
the Jews? And he answering said unto him, Thou 
sayest it. 

3. And the Chief Priests accused him of many 
things : but he answered nothing. 

4. And Pilate asked him again, saying, Answerest 
thou nothing ? behold how many things they witness 
against thee. 

5. But Jesus yet answered nothing ; so that Pilate 
marvelled. 

Bede ; The Jews had a custom of delivering him whom Bede in 
they had condemned to death, bound to the judge. Where- 4 44# ' 
fore after the condemnation of Christ, the Evangelist adds: 
And straightway in the morning the Chief Priests held a 
consultation with the elders and Scribes and the whole 
council, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and 
delivered him to Pilate. But it must be observed, that they 
did not then first bind Him, but they bound Him on first 
taking Him in the garden by night, as John declares. The- 
ophyl. They then gave Jesus up to the Romans, but were 
themselves given up by God into the hands of the Romans, 
that the Scriptures might be fulfilled, which say, Recompense Ps.28,5. 
them after the work of their hands. It goes on : And Pilate 
asked him, Art thou the King of the Jews? Bede; By Bede 

ubi sup. 



310 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

Pilate's asking Him about no other accusation, except whether 
He was King of the Jews, they are convicted of impiety, for 
they could not even find a false accusation against our 
Saviour. It goes on : And lie answering said unto him, 
Thou sayest. He answers in this way so as both to speak 
the truth, and yet not to be open to cavil. Theophyl. For 
His answer is doubtful, since it may mean, Thou sayest, but I 
1 Bede sav not so. x And observe that He does somewhere answer 
1 SU P- Pilate, who condemned Him unwillingly, but does not choose 
to answer the priests and great men, and judges them un- 
worthy of a reply. It goes on : And the Chief Priests 
Au £- accused him of many things. Aug. Luke has also laid open 
Evan, the false charges which they brought against Him; for he thus 
m.8. relates it: And they began to accuse him, saying^ We found 
23, 2. this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give 
tribute to Ccesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King* 
There follows: And Pilate asked him, saying, Answer est 
thou nothing? behold how many things they witness against 
Bede thee. Bede ; He indeed who condemns Jesus is a heathen, 
1 sup * but he refers it to the people of the Jews as the cause. 
There follows: But Jesus yet answered nothing; so that 
Pilate marvelled. He was unwilling to give an answer, lest 
He should clear Himself of the charge, and be acquitted by 
the judge, and so the gain resulting from the Cross should be 
done away. Theophyl. But Pilate wondered, because, 
though He was a teacher of the law, and eloquent, and able 
by His answer to destroy their accusations, He did not 
answer any thing, but rather bore their accusations courage- 
ously. 

6. Now at that feast he released unto them one 
prisoner, whomsoever they desired. 

7. And there was one named Barabbas, which lay 
bound with them that had made insurrection with him, 
who had committed murder in the insurrection. 

8. And the multitude crying aloud began to desire 
him to do as he had ever done unto them. 

9. But Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that 
I release unto you the King of the Jews? 



VER. 6 — 15. ST. MARK. 31 1 

10. For he knew that the Chief Priests had de- 
livered him for envy. 

11. But the Chief Priests moved the people, that 
he should rather release Barabbas unto them. 

12. And Pilate answered and said again unto them, 
What will ye then that I shall do unto him whom ye 
call the King of the Jews ? 

13. And they cried out again, Crucify him. 

14. Then Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil 
hath he done ? And they cried out the more exceed- 
ingly, Crucify him. 

15. And so Pilate, willing to content the people, 
released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, 
when he had scourged him, to be crucified. 

Bede; Pilate furnished many opportunities of releasing Bede 
Jesus, in the first place contrasting a robber with the Just One. ubl SU P- 
Wherefore it is said, Now at that feast he released unto 
them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired. Gloss. Which Gloss. 
indeed he was accustomed to do, to obtain favour with the non occ * 
people, and above all, on the feast day, when the people of 
the whole province of the Jews flocked to Jerusalem. And 
that the wickedness of the Jews might appear the greater, 
the enormity of the sin of the robber, whom they preferred to 
Christ, is next described. Wherefore there follows: And 
there was one Barabbas, who lay bound with them that had 
made insurrection with him, who had committed murder in 
the insurrection. In which words their wickedness is shewn 
both from the heinousness of his signal crime, in that he had 
committed murder, and from the way in which he did it, 
because he had in doing it raised a sedition and disturbed 
the city, and also because his crime was notorious, for he 
was bound with seditious persons. It goes on : And the 
multitude, when it had come up, began to desire him to do as 
he had ever done unto them. Aug. No one can feel it a Aug. 
difficulty that Matthew is silent as to their asking some one ublsUp# 
to be released unto them, which Mark here mentions; for 
it is a thing of no consequence that one should mention a 



312 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

thing which another leaves out. There follows : But Pilate 
answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the 
King of the Jews ? For he knew that the Chief Priests had 
delivered Jam for envy. Some one may ask, which were the 
words of which Pilate made use, those which are related by 
Matthew, or those which Mark relates; for there seems to 

Matt, be a difference between, Whom will ye that I release unto 
you ? Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ ? as Matthew 
has it; and, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the 
Jews ? as is here said. But since they gave to kings the name 
of Christs, he who said this man or that must have asked 
whether they wished the King of the Jews to be released unto 
them, that is, Christ. It makes no difference to the sense that 
Mark has said nothing of Barabbas, wishing only to mention 
what belonged to the Lord, since by their answer he sufficiently 
shewed whom they wished to have released to them. For. there 
follows, But the Chief Priests moved the people that he should 

Bede rather release unto them Barabbas. Bede; This demand 
SU P- which the Jews made with such toil to themselves still sticks 
to them. Because, when the choice was given to them, 
they chose a robber instead of Christ, a murderer instead of 
the Saviour, they deservedly lost their salvation and their 
life, and they subjected themselves to such a degree to 
robbery and sedition, that they lost their country and their 
kingdom which they preferred to Christ, and never regained 
their liberty, body or soul. Then Pilate gives another oppor- 
tunity of releasing the Saviour, when there follows, And 
Pilate answered and said again unto them, What ivill ye 

Aug. then that I should do unto the King of the Jews? Aug. It 

sup ' now is clear enough that Mark means by King of the Jews 

what Matthew means by the word Christ; for no kings but 

those of the Jews were called Christs. For in this place 

Matt, according to Matthew it is said, What then shall I do ivith 

27, 22. J e sus which is called Christ? There follows, And they cried 
out again, Crucify him. Theophyl. Now see the wicked- 
ness of the Jews, and the moderation of Pilate, though he too 
was worthy of condemnation for not resisting the people. 
For they cried out, Crucify ; he faintly tries to save Jesus from 
their determined sentence, and again puts a question to them. 
Wherefore there follows, Then Pilate said unto fhern, Why, 



VEIL 16 20. ST. MARK. 313 

what evil hath he done ? For he wished in this way to find 
an opportunity for releasing Christ, who was innocent. 
Bede ; But the Jews giving loose to their madness do not Bede 
answer the question of the judge. Wherefore it goes on, 
And they cried out the more exceedingly, Crucify him, that 
those words of the Prophet Jeremiah might be fulfilled, 
Mine heritage is unto me as a lion in the forest, it crieth out Jer. 12, 
against me. There follows, And so Pilate, willing to content 8 ' 
the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, 
when he had scourged him, to be crucified. Theophyl. He 
wished indeed to satisfy the people, that is, to do their will, 
not what was agreeable to justice and to God. Pseudo- 
Jerome; Here are two goats; one is the scape goat, that is, 
one loosed and sent out into the wilderness of hell with the 
sin of the people; the other is slain, as a lamb, for the sins of 
those who are forgiven. The Lord's portion is always slain ; the 
devil's part, (for he is the master of those men, which is the 
meaning of Barabbas,) when freed, is cast headlong into hell. 
Bede; We must understand that Jesus was scourged by no Bede 
other than Pilate himself. For John writes, Pilate took Jesus, jX^' 
and scourged him, which we must suppose that he did, that the 13 ? l« 
Jews might be satisfied with His pains and insults, and 
cease from thirsting for His blood. 



16. And the soldiers led him away into the hall, 
called Praetorium ; and they call together the whole 
band. 

17. And they clothed him with purple, and platted 
a crown of thorns, and put it about his head, 

18. And began to salute him, Hail, King of the 
Jews ! 

19. And they smote him on the head with a reed, 
and did spit upon him, and bowing their knees wor- 
shipped him. 

20. And when they had mocked him, they took off 
the purple from him, and put his own clothes on 
him. 



314 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

Theophyl. The vainglory of soldiers, ever rejoicing in dis- 
order and in insult, here displayed what properly belonged 
to them. Wherefore it is said, And the soldiers led him 
away into the hall called Prwtorium, and they call together 
the whole band, that is, the whole company of the soldiers, 
Bede and they clothed him with purple as a king. Bede ; For since 
sup. jj e j^ been called King of the Jews, and the scribes and 
priests had objected to Him as a crime that He usurped rule over 
the Jewish people, they in derision strip Him of His former 
garments, and put on Him a purple robe, which ancient kings 
Aug. de used to wear. Aug. But we must understand that the words 
Evan, of Matthew, they put on him a scarlet robe, Mark expresses by 
»i- 9 « clothed him in purple; for that scarlet robe was used by them 
in derision for the royal purple, and there is a sort of red purple, 
very like scarlet. It may also be that Mark mentions some purple 
which the robe had about it, though it was of a scarlet colour. 
Bede Bede; But instead of the diadem, they put on Him a crown 
1 sup ' of thorns, wherefore it goes on, And platted a crown of thorns, 
and put it about his head. And for a royal sceptre they 
give Him a reed, as Matthew writes, and they bow before Him 
as a king, wherefore there follows, And began to salute him, 
Hail, King of the Jews ! And that the soldiers worshipped Him 
as one who falsely called Himself God, is clear from what is 
added : And bowing their knees, worshipped him, as though 
He pretended to be God. Pseudo-Jerome ; His shame took 
away our shame ; His bonds made us free; by the thorny crown 
of His head, we have obtained the crown of the kingdom; 
A "g. by His wounds we are healed. Aug. It appears that Matthew 
and Mark here relate things which took place previously, not 
that they happened when Pilate had already delivered Him to 
be crucified. For John says that these things took place at 
Pilate's house; but that which follows, A ndwhen they had mocked 
him, they took off the pur pie from him,, and put on him his own 
clothes, must be understood to have taken place last of all, when 
He was already being led to be crucified. Pseudo- Jerome ; But 
in a mystic sense, Jesus was stripped of His clothes, that is, of 
the Jews, and is clothed in a purple robe, that is, in the 
Gentile church, which is gathered together out of the rocks. 
Again, putting it off in the end, as offending, He again is 

Rom. clothed with the Jewish people, for when the fulness of the 
11,25. r x 



VER. 20 28. ST. MARK. 315 

Gentiles is come in, then shall all Israel be saved. Bede; 
Or else, by the purple robe, with which the Lord is clothed, 
is meant His flesh itself, which He gave up to suffering, 
and by the thorny crown which He carried is meant, the 
taking upon Him of our sins. Theophyl. Let us also put 
on the purple and royal robe, because we must walk as kings 
treading on serpents and scorpions, and ! having sin under our ' ? u PP e - 
feet. For we are called Christians, that is, anointed ones, just 
as kings were then called anointed. Let us also take upon 
ourselves the crown of thorns, that is, let us make haste to be 
crowned with a strict life, with self-denials and purity. Bede ; Bede 
But they smite the head of Christ, who deny that He is very 11 1 8up " 
God. And because men are wont to use a reed to write with, 
they, as it were, smite the head of Christ with a reed, who speak 
against His divinity, and endeavour to confirm their error by 
the authority of Holy Writ. They spit in His face, who 
spit from them by their accursed words the presence of His 
grace. There are some also in this day, who adore Him, 
with a sure faith, as very God, but by their perverse actions, 
despise His words as though they were fabulous, and think 
the promises of that word inferior to worldly allurements. 
But just as Caiaphas said, though he knew not what it 
meant, It is expedient for us that one man should die for the John 
people, so also the soldiers do these things in ignorance. 

20. And led him out to crucify htm. 

21. And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who 
passed by, coming out of the country, the father of 
Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross. 

22. And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, 
which is, being interpreted, The place of a scull. 

23. And they gave him to drink wine mingled with 
myrrh : but he received it not. 

24. And when they had crucified him, they parted 
his gcirments, casting lots upon them, what every 
man should take. 

25. And it was the third hour, and they crucified 
him. 



316 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

26. And the superscription of his accusation was 
written over, The King of the Jews. 

27. And with him they crucify two thieves ; the 
one on his right hand, and the other on his left. 

28. And the Scripture was fulfilled, which saith, 
And he was numbered with the transgressors. 

Gloss. Gloss. After the condemnation of Christ, and the insults 
non oce. ] iea p e ^ U p on Him when He was condemned, the Evangelist 
proceeds to relate His crucifixion, saying, And led him out 
to crucify him. Pseudo-Jerome; Here Abel is brought out 
into the field by his brother, to be slain by him. Here 
Isaac comes forth with the wood, and Abraham with the ram 
caught in the thicket. Here also Joseph with the sheaf of 
which he dreamed, and the long robe steeped in blood. 
Here is Moses with the rod, and the serpent hanging on the 
wood. Here is the cluster of grapes, carried on a staff. 
Here is Elisha with the piece of wood sent to seek for the 
axe, which had sunk, and which swam to the wood ; that is, 
mankind, which by the forbidden tree, fell down to hell, but 
by the wood of the cross of Christ, and by the baptism of 
water, swims to paradise. z Here is Jonah out of the w T ood of 
the ship sent down into the sea and into the whale's belly for 
three days. There follows : And they compel Simon a Cyre- 
nian, ivho passed by, coining out of the country, the father of 
Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross. Theophyl Now 
John says that He Himself bare His cross, for both took place ; 
for He first bore the cross Himself, until some one passed, 
whom they compelled, and who then carried it. But he 
mentioned the name of his sons, to make it more credible 
and the affirmation stronger, for the man still lived to relate 
all that had happened about the cross. Pseudo-Jerome ; 
Now since some men are known by the merits of their fathers, 
and some by those of their sons, this Simon, who was 
compelled to carry the cross, is made known by the merits 
of his sons, who were disciples. By this we are reminded, 

1 The Glossa ordinaria has here the editions of St. Jerome and in the 
preserved the right reading, de ligno Catena, 
navis foris, which had been Tost both in 



VER. 20 — 28. ST. MARK. 317 

that in this life, parents are assisted by the wisdom and the 
merits of their children, wherefore the Jewish people is 
always held worthy of being remembered on account of 
the merits of the Patriarchs, Prophets, and Apostles. But 
this Simon who carries the cross, because he is compelled, is 
the man who labours for human praise. For men compel 
him to work, when the fear and love of God could not 
compel him. Bede ; Or, since this Simon is not called Bede 
a man of Jerusalem, but a Cyrenian, (for Cyrene is a city u up ' 
of Libya,) fitly is he taken to mean the nations of the Gentiles, 
which were once foreigners and strangers to the covenants, 
but now by obedience are heirs of God, and joint heirs with 
Christ. Whence also Simon is fitly interpreted ' obedient,' and 
Cyrene * an heir.' But he is said to come from a country 
place, for a country place is called ' pagos' in Greek, wherefore 
those whom we see to be aliens from the city of God, we 
call pagans. Simon then coming out from the country 
carries the cross after Jesus, when the Gentile nations 
leaving pagan rites embrace obediently the footsteps of our 
Lord's Passion. There follows: And they bring him unto 
the place Golgotha, which is being interpreted, the place of 
Calvary. There are places without the city and the gate, in 
which the heads of condemned persons are cut off, and 
which receive the name of Calvary, that is, of the beheaded. 
But the Lord was crucified there, that where once was the 
field of the condemned, there the standards of martyrdom 
might be lifted up. Pseudo-Jerome; But the Jews relate, 
that in this spot of the mountain the ram was sacrificed for 
Isaac, and there Christ is made bald ', that is, separated from ' decai- 
His flesh, that is, from the carnal Jews. There follows : 
And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh. 
Aug. This we must understand to be what Matthew ex- Aug. de 
presses by, mixed with gall ; for he put gall for any £° n * 
thing bitter, and wine mingled with myrrh is most bitter ;iii. 11. 
although there may have been both gall and myrrh to make 
the wine most bitter. Theophyl. a Or, they may have brought 
different things, in order, some vinegar and gall, and others 
wine mixed with myrrh. Pseudo- Jerome ; Or else, wine 

* The sense is here strangely tione being «Ta£<*f> 
changed, the word translated ordina- 



318 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

mingled with myrrh, that is, vinegar; by it the juice of the 
Bede deadly apple is wiped away. Bede ; Bitter the vine which 
ubi sup. k ore t j ie kj tter wme? se t before the Lord Jesus, that the Scrip- 

Ps. 69 tuve might be fulfilled which saith, They gave me gall to eat, 
22, and when I was thirsty, they gave me vinegar to drink. 
Aug. Aug. That which follows, But he received it not, must' 
ubi sup. mean) jj e received it not to drink, but only tasted it, as 
Matthew witnesses. And what the same Matthew relates, he 
would not drink, Mark expresses by, he received it not, but 
was silent as to His tasting it. Pseudo-Jerome ; He also 
refused to take sin for which He suffered, wherefore it is 
said of Him, I then paid the things that I never took. 
Ps. 68, There follows : And when they had crucified him, they 
5 s ' parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every 
man should take. In this place salvation is figured by 
the wood ; the first wood was that of the tree of know- 
ledge of good and evil ; the second wood is one of un- 
mixed good for us, and is the wood of life. The first 
hand stretched out to the wood caught hold of death ; 
the second found again the life which had been lost. 
By this wood we are carried through a stormy sea to the 
land of the living, for by His cross Christ has taken away 
our torment, and by His death has killed our death. 
''With the form of a serpent He kills the serpent, for the 
serpent made out of the rod swallowed up the other ser- 
pents. But what means the shape itself of the cross, 
save the four quarters of the world; the East shines from the 
top, the North is on the right, the South on the left, the 
West is firmly fixed under the feet. Wherefore the Apostle 
Eph. 3, says : That we may know what is the height, and breadth, 
18# and length, and depth. Birds, when they fly in the air, take 
the shape of a cross; a man swimming in the waters is 
borne up by the form of a cross. A ship is blown along by 
its yards, which are in the shape of the cross. The letter Tau 
Bede is written as the sign of salvation and of the cross. Bede ; 

ubi sup. 

b This clause is not in Pseudo-Je- serpent because our Lord took upon 

rome ; its obscurity may be cleared up Himself death for us. In St. Gregory 

by comparing it with a passage in St. Nyssen, the serpent is said to signify 

Augustine's sixth sermon, where it is sin, de vita Mosis, p. 193. v. also St. 

said that the serpent signifies death, Ambrose, de Spiritu Sancto 3, 50. 
and that Moses' rod was changed into a 



VER. 20 — 28, ST. MARK. 319 

Or else, in the transverse beam of the cross, where the hands 
are fixed, the joy of hope is set forth; for by the hands we 
understand good works, by its expansion the joy of him who 
does them, because sadness puts us in straits. By the height 
to which the head is joined, we understand the expectation 
of reward from the lofty righteousness of God; by the length, 
over which the whole body is stretched, patience, wherefore 
patient men are called long-suffering; by the depth, which is 
fixed in the ground, the hidden Sacrament itself. As 
long therefore as our bodies work here to the destruction 
of the body of sin, it is the time of the cross for us. Theo- 
phyl. But their casting lots for His garments was also meant 
as an insult, as though they were dividing the clothes of a 
king; for they were coarse and of no great value. And John's 
Gospel shews this more clearly, for the soldiers, though they 
divided every thing else into four parts, according to their 
number, cast lots for the coat, which was without seam, 
woven from the top throughout. Pseudo-Jerome ; Now the j hn 
garments of the Lord are His commandments, by which His 19 ' 23, 
body, that is, the Church, is covered; which the soldiers of 
the Gentiles divide amongst themselves, that there may be 
four classes with one faith, the married, and the widowed, 
those who bear rule, and those who are separate . They cast 
lots for the undivided garment, which is peace and unity. It 
goes on : And it was the third hour, and they crucified him. 
Mark has introduced this truly and rightly, for at the sixth 
hour darkness overspread the earth, so that no one could 
move his head. Aug. If Jesus was given up to the Jews Aug. de 
to be crucified, when Pilate sat down at his tribunal about £ on - 
the sixth hour, as John relates, how could He be crucified atiii. 13. 
the third hour, as many persons have thought from not under- 
standing the words of Mark ? First then let us see at what 
hour He might have been crucified, then we shall see why 
Mark said that He was crucified at the third hour. It was 
about the sixth hour when He was given up to be crucified 
by Pilate sitting on his judgment seat, as has been said, for it 
was not yet fully the sixth hour, but about the sixth, that is, the 

c The Catena, Glossa ordinaria, and ing u praepositi et separati." It appears 
editions of St Jerome, which often cor- to be only another instance of this 
recteach other, here agree in the read- writer's obscurity. 



320 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

fifth was over, and some of the sixth had begun, so that those 
things which are related of the crucifixion of our Lord took 
place after the finishing of the fifth, and at the commence- 
ment of the sixth, until, when the sixth was completed and 
He was hanging on the cross, the darkness which is spoken 
of took place. Let us now consider, why Mark has said, 
It was the third hour. He had already said positively, And 
when they had crucified him, they parted his garments ; as 
also the others declare, that when He was crucified His gar- 
ments were divided. Now if Mark had wished to fix the 
time of what was done, it would have been enough to say, 
And it was the third hour, why did He add, and they cruci- 
fied him, unless it was that he wished to point to something 
which had gone before, and which if enquired into would be 
explained, since that same Scripture was to be read at a time, 
when it was known to the whole Church at what hour our Lord 
was crucified, by which means any error might be taken away, 
and any falsehood be refuted. But because he knew that the 
Lord was fixed to the cross not by the Jews but by the 
soldiers, as John very plainly shews, he wished to intimate 
that the Jews had crucified Him, since they cried out, 
Crucify Him, rather than those who executed the orders of 
their chief according to their duty. It is therefore implied, 
that it took place at the third hour when the Jews cried out, 
Crucify Him, and it is most truly shewn that they crucified 
Him, when they so cried out. But in the attempt of Pilate 
to save the Lord, and the tumultuous opposition of the Jews, we 
understand that a space of two hours was consumed, and that 
the sixth hour had begun, before the end of which, those things 
occurred which are related to have taken place from the time 
when Pilate gave up the Lord, and the darkness overspread 
the earth. Now he who will apply himself to these things, 
without the hard-heartedness of impiety, will see that Mark 
has fitly placed it at the third hour, in the same place as the 
deed of the soldiers who were the executors of it is related. 
Therefore lest any one should transfer in his thoughts so 
great a crime from the Jews to the soldiers, he says it was 
the third hour, and they crucified him, that the fault might 
rather by a careful enquirer be charged to them, who, as he 
ri ^nd, had at the third hour cried out for His crucifixion, 




VER. 20 — 28. ST. MARK. 321 

whilst at the same time it would be seen that what was done 
by the soldiers was done at the sixth hour d . Pseudo-Aug. There- Quaest 
fore he wishes to imply that it was the Jews who passed sentence N q V ' e 
concerning the crucifixion of Christ at the third hour; for every Test - 65 ° 
condemned person is considered as dead, from the moment that 
sentence is passed upon him. Mark therefore shewed that our 
Saviour was not crucified by the sentence of the judge, because 
it is difficult to prove the innocence of a man so condemned. 
Aug. Still there are not wanting persons who assert that the Aug. 
preparation, mentioned by John, Now it was the preparation 
about the sixth hour, was really the third hour of the day. For 
they say that on the day before the sabbath day, there was a pre- 
paration of the passover of the Jews, because on that sabbath, 
they began the unleavened bread; but however that the true 
passover, which is now celebrated on the day of our Lord's 
Passion, that is, the Christian not the Jewish passover, began 
to be prepared, or to have its parasceue, from that ninth hour of 
the night, when His death began to be prepared by the Jews ; 
for parasceue means preparation. Between that hour therefore 
of the night and His crucifixion occurs the sixth hour of prepar- 
ation, according to John, and the third hour of the day, according 
to Mark. What Christian would not give in to this solution of 
the question, provided that we could find some circumstance, 
from which we might gather that this preparation of our Passover, 
that is, of the death of Christ, began at the ninth hour of the 
night,? For if we say that it began when our Lord was taken by 
the Jews, it was still early in the night, but if when our Lord 
was carried away to the house of the father in law of Caiaphas, 
where also He was heard by the chief priests, the cock had not 
crowed ; but if when He was given up to Pilate, it is very 
plain that it was morning. It remains therefore that we must 
understand the preparation of our Lord's death to have com- 
menced when all the Chief Priests pronounced, He is guilty 
of death. For there is nothing absurd in supposing that 
that was the ninth hour of the night, so that we may under- 
stand that Peter's denial is put out of its order after it really 
happened. It goes on : And the superscription of his accusation 
was written over, THE KING OF THE JE WS. Theophyl. 
They wrote this superscription, as the reason why He was 

d For another explanation of this, v. Williams on the Passion, p. 257. 
VOL. II. Y 



322 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV 

crucified, thus wishing to reprove His vainglory in making 
Himself a king, that so the passers by might not pity 
Him, but rather hate Him as a tyrant. Pseudo-Jerome; 
He wrote it in three languages, in Hebrew, Melech Jeudim ; 
in Greek, fiao-iXevs IfofAoXoyijToov ; in Latin, Bex confessorum. 
These three languages were consecrated to be the chief, in 
the superscription on the cross, that every tongue might 
Bede record the treachery of the Jews. Bede ; But this super- 
ubisup. gcription on the cross shews, that they could not even in 
killing Him take away the kingdom over them from Him 
who was about to render unto them according to their works. 
There follows : And with him they crucify two thieves, the 
one on his right hand, the other on his left. Theophyl. 
They did this that men might have a bad opinion of Him, as 
though He also were a robber and a malefactor. But it was 
done by Providence to fulfil the Scriptures. There follows : 
And the Scripture was fulfilled which sailh, And he was 
numbered with the transgressors. Pseudo- Jerome ; Truth 
was numbered with the wicked; He left one on His left 
hand, the other He takes on the right, as He will do at the 
last day. With a similar crime they are allotted dif- 
ferent paths ; one precedes Peter into Paradise, the other 
Judas into hell. A short confession won for him a long life, 
and a blasphemy which soon ended is punished with endless 
Bede pain. Bede; Mystically, however, the thieves crucified with 
ubi sup. c nr i s t signify those, who by their faith and confession of Christ 
undergo either the struggle of martyrdom, or some rules 
of a stricter discipline. But those who do these deeds for 
the sake of endless glory, are signified by the faith of the right 
hand robber; those again who do them for worldly praise copy 
the mind and the acts of the left hand robber. Theophyl. 
Or else ; the two robbers were meant to point out the two 
people, that is, the Jews and the Gentiles, for both were evil, 
the Gentile as transgressing natural law, but the Jew by 
breaking the written law, which the Lord had delivered to 
them ; but the Gentile was penitent, the Jew a blasphemer 
unto the end. Between whom our Lord is crucified, for 
He is the corner stone, which binds us together. 

29. And they that passed by railed on him, 



VEIL 29—32, ST. MARK. 323 

wagging their heads, and saying, Ah, thou that 
destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, 

30. Save thyself, and come down from the cross. 

31. Likewise also the Chief Priests mocking said 
among themselves with the Scribes, He saved others ; 
himself he cannot save. 

32. Let Christ the King of Israel descend now 
from the cross, that we may see and believe. And 
they that were crucified with him reviled him. 

Pseudo- Jerome; The foal of Judah has been tied to the Gen. 
vine, and his clothes dyed in the blood of the grape, and the kids ' 
tear the vine, blaspheming Christ, and wagging their heads. 
Wherefore it is said : And they that passed by railed on him, 
wagging their heads, and saying, Ah, thou that destroyest 
the temple, Theophyl. For the passers by blasphemed 
Christ, reproaching Him as a seducer. But the devil moved 
them to bid Him come clown from the Cross ; for he knew 
that salvation was being won by the Cross, therefore he 
again proceeded to tempt Christ, so that if He came down 
from the Cross, he might be certain that He is not truly the 
Son of God, and so the salvation, which is by the Cross, 
might be done away. But He being truly the Son of God, 
did not come down; for if He ought to have come down, 
He would not have ascended there at all ; but since He 
saw that in this way salvation must be effected, He under- 
went the crucifixion, and many other sufferings, unto the 
finishing of His work. It goes on : Likewise also the Chief 
Priests mocking said among themselves with the Scribes, 
He saved others, himself lie cannot save. They said this, 
to do away with His miracles, as though those which He 
had done were but the semblance of them, for by working 
miracles He saved many. Bede ; Thus also they confess, Bede 
though against their will, that He saved many. Therefore your ubl sup ' 
words condemn you, for He who saved others could have saved 
Himself. It goes on : Let Christ the King of Lsrael descend 
now from the cross, that we may see and believe. Pseudo- 
Jerome ; Afterwards they saw Him arise from the grave, 
though they would not believe that He could come down from 

y 2 



324 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

the tree of the Cross. Where, O Jews, is your lack of faith ? 

Your own selves I appeal to ; your own selves I bring as 

judges. How much more wonderful is it that a dead man 

should arise, than that one yet living should choose to come 

down from the cross. Ye asked but small things, till greater 

should have come to pass ; but your want of faith could not 

be healed by signs much greater than those for which you 

Ps.14,4. sought. Here all have gone out of the way, all are become 

abominable. Wherefore it goes on : And they that were 

Aug. crucified with him reviled. Aug. How can this be, when 

Evan.^' .according to Luke one only reviled Him, but was rebuked by 

]6 « the other who believed on God ; unless we understand that 

Matthew and Mark, who touched but slightly on this place, 

put the plural for the singular number ? Theophyl. Or 

else, both at first reviled Him, then one recognising Him as 

innocent, rebukes the other for blaspheming Him. 

33. And when the sixth hour was come, there was 
darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour. 

34. And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud 
voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani ? which 
is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast 
thou forsaken me ? 

35. And some of them that stood by, when they 
heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias. 

36. And one ran and filled a spunge full of vinegar, 
and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, 
Let alone; let us see whether Elias will come to take 
him down. 

37. And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave 
up the ghost. 

Bede Bede ; This most glorious light took away its rays from 

ubi sup. t ^ e wor i ( j > i es t it should see the Lord hanging, and lest the 
blasphemers should have the benefit of its light. Where- 
fore it goes on : And when the sixth hour was come, there 

Aug. was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour. 

deCon. ^ Luke added to this account the cause of the darkness, 

Evan. 
3, 17. 



VER. 33 — 37. ST. MARK. 325 

that is, the darkening of the sun. Theophyl. If this had 
been the time for an eclipse, some one might have said that this 
that happened was natural, but it was the fourteenth moon, 
when no eclipse can take place. There follows : And at 
the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, 
Eloi, lama sabachthani. Pseudo-Jerome ; At the ninth 
hour, the tenth piece of money which had been lost is found, 
by the overturning of the house. Bede; For when AdamBede 
sinned, it is also written that he heard the voice of the Lord, ubl sup * 
walking in paradise, in the cool after mid-day; and in that Gen. 3, 
hour when the first Adam by sinning brought death into the 8 * 
world, in that same hour the second Adam by dying destroyed 
death. And we must observe, that our Lord was crucified, 
when the sun was going away from the centre of the world ; 
but at sunrise He celebrated the mysteries of His resurrec- 
tion ; because He died for our sins, but rose again for our 
justification. Nor need you wonder at the lowliness of His 
words, at the complaints as of one forsaken, when you look 
on the offence of the cross, knowing the form of a servant. 
For as hunger, and thirst, and fatigue were not things proper 
to the Divinity, but bodily affections ; so His saying, Why 
hast thou forsaken me ? was proper to a bodily voice, for 
the body is never naturally wont to wish to be separated 
from the life which is joined to it. For although our 
Saviour Himself said this, He really shewed the weak- 
ness of His body ; He spoke therefore as man, bearing 
about with Him my feelings, for when placed in danger we 
fancy that we are deserted by God. Theophyl. Or, He 
speaks this as man crucified by God for me, for we men 
have been forsaken by the Father, but He never has. For 
hear what He says ; I am not alone, because the Father is with Johni6. 
me. Though He may also have said this as being a Jew, ac- 
cording to the flesh, as though He had said, Why hast thou for- 
saken the Jewish people, so that they have crucified Thy Son ? 
For as we sometimes say, God has put on me, that is, my 
human nature, so here also we must understand thou 
hast forsakoi me, to mean my nature, or the Jewish people. 
It goes on : And some of them that stood by, when they 
heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias. Bede ; These Bede 
however I suppose were Roman soldiers who did not ubisup * 



326 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

understand the peculiarity of the Hebrew tongue, but, from 
His calling Eloi, thought that Elias was called by Him. 
But if the Jews are understood to have said this, they must 
be supposed to do this, as accusing Him of folly in calling 
for the aid of Elias. It goes on : And one ran and filled 
a sponge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him 
to drink, saying, Let alone : let us see whether Elias will 
come to take him down. John shews more fully the reason 
why the vinegar was given to the Lord to drink, saying, that 
John Jesus said, 7" thirst, that the Scriptures might be fulfilled. 

19 28. . . . 

They however applied a sponge full of vinegar to His mouth. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; Here he points out a similitude for the 
Jews ; a sponge on a reed, weak, dry, fit for burning ; they 

Aug. fill it with vinegar, that is, with wickedness and guile. Aug. 
sup * Matthew has not related, that the man who brought the 
sponge filled with vinegar, but that the others spoke about 
Elias; from whence we gather that both said it. Pseudo- 
Jerome ; Though the flesh was weak, yet the heavenly 

Ps. n7, voice, which said, Open me the gates of righteousness, waxed 
strong. Wherefore there follows : And Jesus cried with a 
loud voice, and gave up the ghost. We who are of the earth 
die with a very low voice, or with no voice at all ; but He 
who descended from heaven breathed His last with a loud 
voice. Theophyl. He who both rules over death and 
commands it dies with power, as its Lord. But what this 
voice was is declared by Luke : Father, into thy hands I 
commend my spirit. For Christ would have us understand 

v. note by this, that from that time the souls of the saints go up 
'into the hands of God. For at first the souls of all were 
held in hell, till He came, who preached the opening of the 
prison to the captives. 

38. And the veil of the temple was rent in twain 
from the top to the bottom. 

39. And when the centurion, which stood over 
against him, saw that he so cried out, and gave up 
the ghost, he said, Truly this man was the Son of 
God. 

40. There were also women looking on afar off: 



VER. 38—41. ST. MARK. 327 

among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the 
mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome; 

41. (Who also, when he was in Galilee, followed 
him, and mininistered unto him;) and many other 
women which came up with him unto Jerusalem. 

Gloss. After the Evangelist has related the Passion and the 
death of Christ, he now goes on to mention those things which 
followed after the death of our Lord. Wherefore it is said : 
And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to 
the bottom. Pseudo-Jerome ; The veil of the temple is rent, 
that is, the heaven is opened. Theophyl. Again, God by 
the rending of the veil implied that the grace of the Holy 
Spirit goes away and is rent from the temple, so that the 
Holy of holies might be seen by all; e also that the temple 
will mourn amongst the Jews, when they shall deplore their 
calamities, and rend their clothes. This also is a figure of 
the living temple, that is, the body of Christ, in whose 
Passion His garment is torn, that is, His flesh. Again, it 
means another thing ; for the flesh is the veil of our temple, 
that is, of our mind. But the power of the flesh is torn in 
the Passion of Christ, from the top to the bottom, that is, 
from Adam even down to the latest man; for also Adam 
was made whole by the Passion of Christ, and his flesh does not 
remain under the curse, nor does it deserve corruption, but 
we all are gifted with incorruption. And when the centurion 
who stood over against him saw. He who commands a 
hundred soldiers is called a centurion. But seeing that He 
died with such power as the Lord, he wondered and 
confessed. Bede ; Now the cause of the centurion's wonder Bede 
is clear, that seeing that the Lord died in that way, that is, sent sup * 
forth His spirit, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God. 
For no one can send forth his own spirit, but He who is the 
Creator of souls. Aug. This also he most of all wondered at, Aug. 
that after that voice which He sent forth as a figure of our sin, J: e 7™ n ' 
He immediately gave up His spirit. For the spirit of the 
Mediator shewed that no penalty of sin could have had power 

c The sense of the passage by refer- as a sign of grief, so the temple by the 
ence to Theophylact appears to be, that rending of its veil might be said to 
as the Jews used to rend their clothes mourn. 



328 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

to cause the death of His flesh; for it did not leave the 
flesh unwillingly, but as it willed, for it was joined to the 
Word of God in the unity of person. Pseudo-Jerome ; But 
the last are now made the first. The Gentile people confesses. 
The blinded Jew denies, so that their error is worse than 
the first. Theophyl. And so the order is inverted, for the 
Jew kills, and the Gentile confesses ; the disciples fly, and 
the women remain. For there follows : There were also 
women looking on afar off, amongst whom was Mary 
Magdalene, and Mary the mother of 'James the less and 
Orig. in f Joses, and Salome. Origen ; But it seems to me, that 

~i\/r 4-*~ 

Tract. nere three women are chiefly named, by Matthew and 

35 - Mark. Two indeed are set down by each Evangelist, Mary 

Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James ; the third is 

called by Matthew, the mother of the sons of Zebedee, but by 

Sede Mark she is called Salome. Bede ; He means by James 

ubi sup. 

the Less, the son of Alphseus, who was also called the brother 
of our Lord, because he was the son of Mary, our Lord's 
John mother's sister, whom John mentions, saying, Now there 
stood by the cross of Jesus Ins mother and his mother's 
sister, Mary of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene. And he 
seems to call her Mary of Cleophas, from her father or some 
relation. But he was called James the Less, to distinguish 
him from James the Great, that is, the son of Zebedee, who was 
called amongst the first of the Apostles by our Lord. Further, 
it was a Jewish custom, nor was it thought blamable after the 
manners of an ancient people, that women should furnish to 
teachers food and clothing out of their substance. Where- 
fore there follows : Who also when he was in Galilee followed 
him, and ministered unto him. They ministered unto the 
Lord of their substance, that He might reap their carnal 
things whose spiritual things they reaped, and that He might 
shew forth a type for all masters, who ought to be content 
with food and clothing from their disciples. But let us see 
what companions He had with Him, for it goes on: And 
many other women which came up with him into Jerusalem. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; As the female sex through the Virgin Mary 
is not shut out from salvation, so it is not thrust away from 
the knowledge of the mystery of the cross, and of the 
resurrection, through the widow Mary Magdalene, and the 
others, who were mothers. 



VER. 42 47. ST. MARK. 329 

42. And now when the even was come, because it 
was the preparation, that is, the day before the 
sabbath, 

43. Joseph of Arimathaea, an honourable counsellor, 
which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and 
went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of 
Jesus. 

44. And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead : 
and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him 
whether he had been any while dead. 

45. And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave 
the body to Joseph. 

46. And he bought fine linen, and took him down, 
and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a 
sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a 
stone unto the door of the sepulchre. 

47. And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of 
Joses beheld where he was laid. 



Gloss. After the passion and death of Christ, the Evan- Gloss. 
gelist relates His burial, saying, And now when the even was non oce * 
come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before 
the sabbath, Joseph of Arimathcea. Bp.de; What is called Bede 
parasceue in Greek, is in Latin prceparatio; by which name up * 
those Jews, who lived amongst Greeks, used to call the sixth 
day of the week, because on that day they used to prepare 
what was necessary for the rest of the sabbath day. Because 
then man was made on the sixth day, but on the seventh the 
Creator rested from all His work, fitly was our Saviour 
crucified on the sixth day, and thus fulfilled the mystery of 
man's restoration. But on the sabbath, resting in the tomb, 
He was waiting for the event of the resurrection, which was 
to come on the eighth day. So we must also in this age of 
time be crucified to the world ; but in the seventh day, that 
is, when a man has paid the debt to death, our bodies indeed 
must rest in the grave, but our souls after good works in 
hidden peace with God ; till in the eighth period, even our 



330 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

bodies themselves, glorified in the resurrection, receive 
incorruption together with our souls. But the man who 
buried the body of the Lord must needs by his righteous 
merits have been worthy, and by the nobility of worldly 
power able to perform this service. Therefore it is said, 
An honourable counsellor, which also waited for the kingdom 
of God. He is called in Latin, decurio, because he is of the 
order of the curia, and served the office of a provincial magis- 
tracy ; this officer was also called curialis, from his care of 
civic duties. Arimathaea is the same as Ramathain, the city 
of Elkanah and Samuel. Pseudo- Jerome ; It is interpreted, 
taking down, of which was Joseph, who came to take down 
the body of Christ from the cross. There follows : Came 
and went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of 
Jesus. Theophyl. He was bold with a praiseworthy bold- 
ness ; for he did not consider within himself, I shall fall from my 
rich estate, and I shall be expelled by the Jews, if I beg for 
the body of Him, who was condemned as a blasphemer. It goes 
on : And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead. For he 
thought that He should continue long alive upon the cross, 
as also the thieves used to live long, upon the instrument 
of their execution. It goes on : And calling unto him the 
centurion, he asked him if he had been any while dead; 
that is, before the time when other executed persons 
usually died. There follows : And when he knew it of 
the centurion, (that is, that He was dead,) he gave the body 
Bede to Joseph. Bede; But it was not an obscure person, 
nor a man of mean rank, who could come to the governor 
and obtain the body. There follows : And he bought fine 
linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen. 
Theophyl. Burying the precious body preciously; for being 
a disciple of our Lord, he knew how greatly the Lord's body 
Bede ought to be honoured. Bede ; By this however, according 
ubi sup. i Q a S pi r it U al meaning, we may understand that the body of the 
Lord should not be wrapped in gold or gems, or silk, but in 
a clean linen cloth. Hence it became a custom in the Church 
that the sacrifice of the altar should not be celebrated in 
silk, or in a dyed cloth, but in linen produced from the earth, 
just as the body of the Lord was wrapped in clean linen; as, 
we read in the Pontifical acts, it was ordered by the blessed 



VER. 42 — 47. ST. MARK. 331 

Sylvester f . Though it has also another meaning, that he who 
receives Jesus in a pure mind wraps Him in clean linen. There 
follows : And laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of 
a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre. It 
is said that the sepulchre of the Lord is a round cell, hewn out 
of the rock which was around it, so high, that a man standing 
upright could scarcely touch the roof with his outstretched 
hand ; and it has an entrance to the east, to which the great 
stone was rolled, and placed upon it. In the northern 
part of it is the tomb itself, that is, the place where our 
Lord's body lay, made of the same rock, seven feet in length, 
raised three palms higher than the floor. It is not open from 
above, but on the south side, the whole of which is open, 
and through which the body was brought in. The colour of 
the sepulchre and of the recess is said to be a mixed 
white and red. Pseudo-Jerome ; By the burial of Christ 
we rise again, by His going down into hell we mount up 
into heaven ; here is found the honey in the mouth of the 
dead lion. Theophyl. Let us too imitate Joseph, taking to 
ourselves the body of Christ by Unity, and let us place it in 
a sepulchre, hewn out of the rock, that is, in a soul recollected, 
never forgetful of God ; for this is a soul hewn out of the 
rock, that is, out of Christ, for He is our rock, who holds 
together our strength. We ought also to wrap Him in linen, 
that is, to receive Him in a pure body ; for the linen is the 
body which is the clothing of the soul. We must, however, 
not throw open, but wrap Him up ; for He is secret, closed 
and hidden. There follows : And Mary Magdalene and 
Mary the mother of Joses beheld where he was laid. Bede ; 
We read in Luke, that His acquaintances and the women 
who had followed Him stood afar off. When these then who 
were known to Jesus returned home after the burial of His 
body, the women alone, who were bound to Him with a closer 
love, after following the funeral, took care to see how Lie w r as 
laid, that they might be able at a fitting season to offer Him 
the sacrifice of their devotion. But on the day of the 
parasceue, that is, of the preparation, the holy women, that 

f St. Sylvester was Pope from 314 Holy Eucharist, v. Bona de Rebus Lit. 
to 335. On his decree respecting the i. c. 25. 11. 
Corporal used in the celebration of the 



332 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK. CHAP. XV. 

is, humble souls, do the same, when they burn with love for 
the Saviour, and diligently follow the steps of His Passion in 
this life, where their future rest is to be prepared ; and 
they weigh with a pious minuteness the order in which His 
passion was accomplished, if perchance they be able to 
imitate it. Pseudo-Jerome ; These things also fit the 
Jewish people, which finally is believing, which is ennobled 
by faith to become the child of Abraham. It lays aside its 
despair, it waits for the kingdom of God, it goes in to 
the Christians, that it may be baptized ; which is implied by 
the name of Pilate, which is interpreted, ' One who works 
with a hammer,' that is, he who subdues the iron nations, 
that he may rule them with a rod of iron. It seeks for the 
sacrifice, that is, the viaticum, which is given to penitents at 
their last end, and wraps it up in a heart clean and dead to 
sin ; it makes it firm in the safeguard of faith, and shuts it up 
with the covering of hope, through works of charity; (for 
l Tim. the end of the commandment is charity ;) whilst the elect, 
' * who are the stars of the sea, are looking on from afar, for, 
if it be possible, the very elect shall be offended. 



*• r 



CHAP. XVI. 

1. And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magda- 
lene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, 
had bought sweet spices, that they might come and 
anoint him. 

2. And very early in the morning the first day of 
the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising 
of the sun. 

3. And they said among themselves, Who shall roll 
us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre ? 

4. And when they looked, they saw that the stone 
was rolled away : for it was very great. 

5. And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a 
young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long 
white garment; and they were affrighted. 

6. And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted : Ye 
seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified : he is 
risen ; he is not here : behold the place where they 
laid him. 

7. But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter 
that he goeth before you into Galilee : there shall ye 
see him, as he said unto you. 

8. And they went out quickly, and fled from the 
sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: 
neither said they any thing to any man ; for they 
were afraid. 



334 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVI. 

Pseudo-Jerome; After the sadness of the sabbath, a happy- 
day dawns upon them, which holds the chief place amongst 
days, for in it the chief light shines forth, and the Lord rises 
in triumph. Wherefore it is said, And when the sabbath 
was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James 

Gloss, and Salome, had bought sweet spices. Gloss. For these 

Beda. religious women after the burial of the Lord, as long as it 
was lawful to work, that is, up to sunset, prepared ointment, 

Luke as L u ke says. And because they could not finish their work 
from the shortness of the time, when the sabbath was over, 
that is, at sunset, as soon as the time for working came round 
again, they hastened to buy spices, as Mark says, that they 
might go in the morning to anoint the body of Jesus. Neither 
could they come to the sepulchre on the evening of the 
sabbath, for night prevented them. Wherefore it goes on : 
And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they 

occ. ap. came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun. Severianus; 

Wum°" ^ ne women m tn i s P^ce run abroad with womanly devotion, 

serm, for they do not bring Him faith as though He were alive, 
but ointments as to one dead ; and they prepare the service 
of their grief for Him as buried, not the joys of hea- 
venly triumph for Him as risen. Theophyl. For they do 
not understand the greatness and dignity of the wisdom of 
Christ. But they came according to the custom of the Jews 
to anoint the body of Christ, that it might remain sweet-smelling, 
and might not burst forth into moisture, for spices have the 
property of drying up, and absorb the moisture of the body, 

Greg, so that they keep the body from corruption. Greg. But if 

Hom. in we |3 e ii eve on Him who is dead, and are filled with the sweet 
Evan. < ' 

21. smell of virtue, and seek the Lord with the fame of good works, 
we come to His sepulchre with spices. There follows: And 
very early in the morning the first day of the week, they 

A came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun. Aug. 

Con. What Luke expresses by very early in the morning, and 

iih24^ John by early when it was yet dark, Mark must be under- 
stood to mean, when he says, very early in the morning * 
at the rising of the sun, that is, when the sky was growing 
bright in the east, as is usual in places near the rising sun ; 
for this is the light which we call the dawning. Therefore 
there is no discrepancy with the report which says, while it 



VER. 1 — 8. ST. MARK. 336 

was yet dark. For when the day is dawning, the remains of 
darkness lessen in proportion as the light grows brighter; and 
we must not take the words very early in the morning, at the 
rising of the sun, to mean that the sun himself was seen upon 
the earth, but as expressing the near approach of the sun into 
those parts, that is, when his rising begins to light up 
the sky. Pseudo-Jerome ; By very early in the morning, Luke24, 
he means what another Evangelist expresses by at the Jj^ 
dawning. But the dawn is the time between the darkness Vulg. 
of night, and the brightness of day, in which the salvation 
of man is coming forth with a happy closeness, to be 
declared in the Church, just as the sun, when he is rising and 
the light is near, sends before him the rosy dawn, that with 
prepared eyes she may bear to see the graciousness of his 
glorious brightness, when the time of our Lord's resurrection 
has dawned; that then the whole Church, after the example 
of the women, may sing the praises of Christ, since He has 
quickened the race of man after the pattern of His resur- 
rection, since He has given life, and has poured upon them 
the light of belief. Bede ; As then the women shew the Bede in 
great fervency of their love, by coming very early in the 4 ^ 
morning to the sepulchre, as the history relates, according to 
the mystical sense an example is given to us, that with a shin- 
ing face, and shaking off the darkness of wickedness, we may 
be careful to offer the fragrance of good works and the 
sweetness of prayer to the Lord. Theophyl. He says, On 
the first of the sabbaths, that is, on the first of the days of ^ t 
the week. For the days of the week are called sabbaths, and" a ^ a " 
by the word ' una' is meant ' prima.' Bede ; Or else, by this Bede 
phrase is meant the first day from the day of sabbaths, or 11 lsup * 
rests, which were kept on the sabbath. There follows: And 
they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone 
from the door of the sepulchre ? Sever. Your breast was Chryso- 
darkened, your eyes shut, and therefore ye did not before see Jjj§ us ^ 
the glory of the opened sepulchre. It goes on : And they 
looked, and saw that the stone was rolled away, Bede; 
Matthew shews clearly enough, that the stone was rolled 
away by an Angel. This rolling away of the stone means 
mystically the opening of the Christian sacraments, which 
were held under the veil of the letter of the law ; for the 



836 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVI. 

law was written on stone. It goes on : For it was very great. 
Chryso- Sever. Great indeed by its office rather than its size, for it 

ubTsup. can snut m an( ^ tnrow °P en the body of the Lord. Greg. 

Greg. But the women who came with spices see the Angels; because 
up * those minds who come to the Lord with their virtues, through 
holy desires, see the heavenly citizens. Wherefore it goes 
on : And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man 
sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment ; 
and they were affrighted. Theophyl. Though Matthew 
says that the Angel was sitting on the stone, whilst Mark re- 
lates that the women entering into the sepulchre saw a young 
man sitting, yet we need not wonder, for they afterwards saw 
sitting within the sepulchre the same Angel as sat without on 

Aug. the stone. Aug. Either let us suppose that Matthew was 
' silent about that Angel, whom they saw on entering, whilst 
Mark said nothing of him, whom they saw outside sitting on 
the stone, so that they saw two and heard severally from two, 
the things which the Angels said concerning Jesus ; or we 
must understand by entering into the sepidchre, their coming 
within some inclosure, by which it is probable that the 
place was surrounded a little space before the stone, by the 
cutting out of which the burial place had been made, so 
that they saw sitting on the right hand in that space 
him whom Matthew designates as sitting on the stone. 
Theophyl. But some say the women mentioned by Matthew 
were different from those in Mark. But Mary Magdalene was 

Chryso- v^jth all parties, from her burning zeal and ardent love. Sever. 

logus 

ubi sup. The women, then, entered the sepulchre, that being buried 
with Christ, they might rise again from the tomb with Christ. 
They see the young man, that is, they see the time of the Re- 
surrection, for the Resurrection has no old age, and the period, 
in which man knows neither birth nor death, admits of no 
decay, and requires no increase. Wherefore what they 
saw was a young man, not an old man, nor an infant, but 

Bede the age of joy. Bede ; Now they saw a young man sitting 
on the right side, that is, on the south part of the place 
where the body was laid. For the body, which was 
lying on its back, and had its head to the west, must have had 

Greg, its right to the south. Greg. But what is meant by the left 

u ! sup * hand, but this present life, and what by the right, but ever- 



VER. 1 8. ST. MARK. 337 

lasting life? Because then our Redeemer had already gone 
through the decay of this present life, fitly did the Angel, who 
had come to announce His everlasting life, sit on the right hand. 
Sever. Again, they saw a young man sitting on the right, Chryso- 
because the Resurrection has nothing sinister in it. They also Io ,? us 

° J ubi sup. 

see him dressed in a long white robe ; that robe is not from 
mortal fleece, but of living virtue, blazing with heavenly 
light, not of an earthly dye, as saith the Prophet, Thou deckestPs. 104, 
thyself with light as with a garment ; and of the just it is said, ^ att 
Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun. Greg. Or 1 ^43. 
else, he appeared covered with a white robe, because he u bisup. 
announced the joys of our festivity, for the whiteness of the 
robe shews the splendour of our solemnity. Pseudo-Jerome ; 
The white robe is also true joy, now that the enemy is driven 
away, the kingdom won, the King of Peace sought for and 
found and never let go by us. This young man then shews 
an image of the Resurrection to them who feared death. But 
their being frightened shews that eye hath not seen, nor ear 1 Cor. 
heard, neither have entered into the heart of man to conceive ' 
the things which God hath prepared for them that love 
Him. There follows, And he saith unto them, Be not 
affrighted. Greg. As though he had said, Let them fear, who Greg. 
love not the coming of the inhabitants of heaven ; let them sup ' 
fear, who, weighed down with carnal desires, despair that 
they can ever attain to their company ; but why should ye 
fear, ye who see your own fellow citizens. Pseudo-Jerome ; 
For there is no fear in love. Why should they fear, who had 
found Him whom they sought ? Greg. But let us hear what Greg. 
the Angel adds; Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, Jesus means the u ' sup ' 
Saviour, but at that time there may have been many a Jesus, 
not indeed really, but in name, therefore the place Nazareth 
is added, that it might be evident of what Jesus it was spoken. 
And immediately he subjoins the reason, Which was cruci- 
fied. Theophyl. For he does not blush at the Cross, for in 
it is the salvation of men, and the beginning of the Blessed. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; But the bitter root of the Cross has dis- 
appeared. The flower of life has burst forth with its fruits, 
that is, He who lay in death has risen in glory. Wherefore 
he adds, He is risen ; he is not here. Greg. He is not here, Greg . 
is spoken of His carnal presence, for He was not absent ubi SU p 
vol. 11. z 



338 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVI. 

from any place as to the presence of His majesty. Theophyl. 
As if he had said, Do ye wish to be certain of His resurrec- 
tion, he adds, Behold the place where they laid him. This 
too was the reason why he had rolled away the stone, that 
he might shew them the place. Pseudo- Jerome ; But im- 
r debita mortality is shewn to mortals as 1 due to thankfulness, that 
Pseudo- we ma y understand what we were, and that we may know 
Hier. what we are to be. There follows, But go your way, tell 
his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee. 
The women are ordered to tell the Apostles, that as by a 
woman death was announced, so also might life rising again. 
But He says specially unto Peter, because he had shewn 
himself unworthy of being a disciple, since he had thrice 
denied his Master; but past sins cease to hurt us when they 
Greg, cease to be pleasing to us. Greg. If again the Angel had 
p " not expressly named him who had denied his Master, he 
would not have dared to come amongst the disciples; he is 
therefore called by name, lest he should despair on account 
Aug. de of his denial. Aug. By saying, He will go before you into 
E °^ Galilee, there shall ye see him, as he said unto you, he seems 
iii. 25. to imply, that Jesus would not shew Himself to His disciples 
after His resurrection except in Galilee, which shewing of 
'nee' Himself Mark himself has not 2 mentioned. For that which 
? * He has related, Early the first day of the week he appeared 
to Mary Magdalene, and after that to two of them as they 
walked and went into the country, we know took place 
in Jerusalem, on the very day of the resurrection ; then he 
comes to His last manifestation, which we know was on the 
Mount of Olives, not far from Jerusalem. Mark therefore 
never relates the fulfilment of that which was foretold by 
the Angel ; but Matthew does not mention any place at all, 
where the disciples saw the Lord after He arose, except 
Galilee, according to the Angel's prophecy. But since it is 
not set down when this happened, whether first, before He 
was seen any where else, and since the very place where 
Matthew says that He w r ent into Galilee to the mountain, 
does not explain the day, or the order of the narration, 
Matthew does not oppose the account of the others, but 
assists in. explaining and receiving them. But nevertheless 
since the Lord was not first to shew Himself there, but sent 



VER. 1 — 8. ST. MARK. 339 

word that He was to be seen in Galilee, where He was seen 
subsequently, it makes every faithful Christian on the look 
out, to find out in what mysterious sense it may be understood. 
Greg. For Galilee means 1 ' a passing over ;' for our Redeemer Gr . e f- 
had already passed from His Passion to His resurrection, i tians- 
from death unto life, and we shall have joy in seeing the mlgrai ° 
glory of His resurrection, if only we pass over from vice to 
the heights of virtue. He then who is announced at the tomb, 
is shewn in ( passing over,' because He who is first known 
in mortification of the flesh, is seen in this passing over of 
the soul. Pseudo-Jerome; This sentence is but short in the 
number of syllables, but the promise is vast in its greatness. 
Here is the fountain of our joy, and the source of everlasting- 
life is prepared. Here all that are scattered are brought to- 
gether, and the contrite hearts are healed. There, he says, ye 
shall see Him, but not as ye have seen Him. Aug. It is also Aug. 
signified that the grace of Christ is about to pass over from the u 
people of Israel to the Gentiles, by whom the Apostles would 
never have been received when they preached, if the Lord had 
not gone before them and prepared a way in their hearts ; and 
this is what is meant by, He goeth before you into Galilee, 
there shall ye see him, that is, there shall ye find His members. 
There follows : And they went out quickly, and fled from the 
sepulchre, for they trembled and were amazed. Theophyl. 
That is, they trembled because of the vision of Angels, and 
were amazed because of the resurrection. Sever. The Angel Chryso- 
indeed sits on the sepulchre, the women fly from it ; he, on u ^§ sup 
account of his heavenly substance, is confident, they are 
troubled because of their earthly frame. He who cannot die, 
cannot fear the tomb, but the women both fear from what 
was then done, and still, as being mortals, fear the sepulchre 
as mortals are wont. Pseudo-Jerome; This also is spoken 
of the life to come, in which grief and groaning will flee away. 
For the women prefigure before the resurrection all that is to 
happen to them after the resurrection, namely, they flee away 
from death and fear. There follows, Neither said they any 
thing to any man, for they were afraid. Theophyl. Either on 
account of the Jews, or else they said nothing because the fear^ u #- 
of the vision prevented them. Aug. We may however enquire Evan. 
how Mark can say this, when Matthew says, they departed™^' 

Z 2 28, 8.' 



340 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVI 

quickly from the sepulchre with fear and great joy, and did 
run to bring his disciples word, unless we understand it to 
mean, that they did not dare to say a word to any of the 
Angels themselves, that is, to answer the words which they 
had spoken to them ; or else to the guards whom they 
saw lying there; for that joy of which Matthew speaks is not 
inconsistent with the fear which Mark mentions. For we 
ought to have understood that both feelings were in their 
minds, even though Matthew had not mentioned the fear. 
But since he has also said that they came out with fear and 
great joy, he does not allow room for any question to be 
Chryso- raised. Sever. It is said also in a marked manner, that they 
uftTsup. sa ^ nothing to any one, because it is the part of women to 
hear, and not to speak, to learn, not to teach. 

9. Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of 
the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out 
of whom he had cast seven devils. 

10. And she went and told them that had been with 
him, as they mourned and wept. 

11. And they, when they had heard that he was 
alive, and had been seen of her, believed not. 

12. After that he appeared in another form unto 
two of them, as they walked, and went into the 
country. 

13. And they went and told it unto the residue : 
neither believed they them. 

Aug. Aug. Now we must consider how the Lord appeared after 

Evan."' the resurrection. For Mark says, Now when Jesus was 

iii. 25. risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to 

Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils. 

Bede Bede; John tells us most fully how and when this appearance 

u ' 8Up * took place. But the Lord rose in the morning from the 

sepulchre in which He had been laid in the evening, that 

Ps. 30, those words of the Psalm might be fulfilled, Heaviness may 

endure for a night, but joy cometh in the morning. Theo- 

phyl. Or else put a stop at, Now when Jesus was risen, and 

then read, early the first day of the week he appeared, fyc. 



VER 9. — 13. ST. MARK. 341 

Greg. For as Samson at midnight not only left Gaza, but Greg, 
also carried away the gates of it, so also our Redeemer rising 
before the light, did not only come out free from hell, but 
destroyed also the very gates of hell. * But Mark here testifies 1 Hom. 
that seven devils were cast out of Mary ; and what is meant by ^in"' 
seven devils save all vices ? for as by seven days is understood 
all time, so by the number seven 2 a whole is fitly figured. The- 2 v . note 
ophyl. But Mary had seven devils, because she was filled with > p ' 
all vices. Or else, by seven devils are meant seven spirits 
contrary to the seven virtues, as a spirit without fear, without 
wisdom, without understanding, and whatsoever else is opposed 
to the gifts of the Holy Ghost. Pseudo-Jerome; Again, He 
is shewn to her, out of whom He had cast seven devils, because 
harlots and publicans shall go before the synagogue into the 
kingdom of heaven, as the thief reached it before the Apostles. 
Bede ; In the beginning also woman brought man into sin, now Bede 
she, who first tasted death, first sees the resurrection, lest she p * 
should have to bear the reproach of perpetual guilt amongst 
men ; and she who had been the channel of guilt to man, now 
has become the first channel of grace. For it goes on: And she 
went and told them that had been with him as they mourned 
and vjept. Pseu do- Jerome ; They mourn and weep because 
they had not yet seen, but after a short time they shall receive a 
consolation. For blessed are they that weep now, for they 
shall be comforted. Bede ; Fitly too is this woman, who was Bede 
the first to announce the joy of our Lord's resurrection, said to u * sup * 
have been cured of seven devils, lest any one worthily repent- 
ing of his sins should despair of pardon for what he had 

done, and that it might be shewn that where sin abounded, Rom. 5, 

20 
grace did much more abound. Sever. Mary brings thechVyso- 

news, not now as a woman, but in the person of the Church, lo g us 

so that, as above woman was silent, here as the Church she 

might bring tidings and speak. There follows, And they when 

they heard that he ivas alive and had been seen by her, believed 

not. Greg. That the disciples were slow in believing our Greg. 

Lord's resurrection was not so much a weakness of theirs as it fr om * in 

Evan. 

is our strength. For the resurrection itself through their doubts xxix. 
was manifested by many proofs ; and whilst we read and ac- 
knowledge them, what do we but become firmer thrj 
their doubting? There follows, After this he 




342 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVI. 

another form unto two of them as they walked and went to a 
Aug. farm house. Aug. Luke relates the whole story respecting 
these two, one oi whom was Cleophas, but Mark here touches 
but slightly upon it. That village of which Luke speaks 
may without absurdity be supposed to be what is here called 
a farm house, and indeed in some Greek manuscripts it is 
called the country. But by this name are understood not 
only villages, but also boroughs and country towns, because 
they are without the city, which is the head and mother of all 
the rest. That which Mark expresses by the Lord's appearance 
in another form, is what Luke means by saying that their eyes 
were holden that they could not know him. For something 
was upon their eyes, which was allowed to remain there, 
Chryso- until the breaking of bread. Sever. But let no one suppose 
ublTsup. tnat Christ changed the form of His face by His resurrection, 
but the form is changed when of mortal it becomes immortal, 
so that this means that He gained a glorious countenance, not 
that He lost the substance of His countenance. But He was 
seen of two ; because faith in the resurrection is to be 
preached and shewn to two people, that is, the Gentiles and 
the Jews. There follows, And they went and told it unto the 
residue, neither believed they them. How are we to under- 
stand the words of Mark compared with the account of Luke, 
i^® that thev then said, The Lord hath risen indeed, and hath ap- 

24, 34. . 

feared unto Simon, if we do not suppose that there were some 
there who would not believe ? Theophyl. For he does 
not say this of the eleven, but of some others, whom He 
calls the residue. Pseudo-Jerome ; But in a mystic sense 
we may understand that faith here labours, leading the active 
life, but there it reigns secure in the contemplative vision. 
Here we see His face through a glass, there we shall see the 
truth face to face, wherefore He was shewn to them as they 
were walking, that is, labouring, in another form. And when 
it was told, the disciples did not believe, because they saw, like 
Exod. Moses, that which was not enough for them, for he said, Shew 
|p' t 18, me thyself; forgetting his flesh, he prays in this life for that 
which we hope for in the life to come. 



14. Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they 



VER. 14 — 18. ST. MARK. 34$ 

sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief 
and hardness of heart, because they believed not them 
which had seen him after he was risen. 

15. And he said unto them, Go ye into all the 
world, and preach the Gospel to every creature. 

16. He that believeth and is baptized shall be 
saved ; but he that believed not shall be damned. 

17. And these signs shall follow them that believe ; 
In my name shall they cast out devils ; they shall 
speak with new tongues ; 

18. They shall take up serpents; and if they drink 
any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them ; they shall 
lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover. 

Gloss. Mark, when about to finish his Gospel, relates the Gloss, 
last appearance of our Lord to His disciples after His resur- non occ ' 
rection, saying, l For the last time he appeared unto the eleven i novis- 
as they sat at meat. Greg. We should observe that Luke y™£ 
says in the Acts, As he 2 was eating with them he commanded Greg. 
that they should not depart from Jerusalem, and shortly Acts l 
afterwards, while they beheld he was taken up. For He** 9 - 
ate, and then ascended, that by the act of eating, the truth SC ens 
of the flesh might be declared ; wherefore it is also here said, Vul &" 
that he appeared to them for the last time as they sat at meat. 
Pseudo-Jerome ; But He appeared when all the eleven were 
together, that all might be witnesses, and relate to all men what 
they had seen and heard in common. It goes on: And up- 
braided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, be- 
cause they believed not them who had seen him after his 
resurrection. Aug. But how was this done the last time? Aug. 
The last occasion on which the Apostles saw the Lord upon" ' * Uf) * 
earth happened forty days after the resurrection ; but would 
He then have upbraided them for not believing those who had 
seen Him risen, when they themselves had so often seen Him 
after His resurrection? It remains therefore that we should 
understand that Mark wished to say it in few words, and 
said/or the last time, because it was the last time that He 
shewed Himself that day, as night was coming on, when the 



344 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVI. 

disciples returned from the country into Jerusalem, and found, 
Luke as Luke says, the eleven and those who were with them, 

24 33. . 

speaking together concerning the resurrection of our Lord. 
But there were some there who did not believe ; when these 
then were sitting at meat, (as Mark says,) and were still 
Luke speaking, (as Luke relates,) The Lord stood in the midst of 
24, 36. tfr em ^ anc [ sa itJi unto them, Peace be unto you; as Luke and 
John John say. The rebuke therefore which Mark here mentions, 
must have been amongst those words, which Luke and John 
say, that the Lord at that time spoke to the disciples. But 
another question is raised, how Mark says that He appeared 
when the eleven sat at meat, if the time was the first part 
of the night on the Lord's day, when John plainly says 
that Thomas was not with them, who, we believe, had gone 
out, before the Lord came in to them, after those two had 
returned from the village, and spoken with the eleven, as we 
find in Luke's Gospel. But Luke in his relation leaves room 
for supposing that Thomas went out first, while they spoke 
these things, and that the Lord entered afterwards ; Mark 
however from his saying,/br the last time he appeared to the 
eleven as they sat at meat, forces us to believe that he 
was there, unless indeed, though one of them was absent, 
he chose to call them the eleven, because the company 
of the Apostles was then called by this number, before 
Matthias was chosen into the place of Judas. Or if this 
be a harsh way of understanding it, let us understand that 
it means that after many appearances, He shewed Him- 
self for the last time, that is, on the fortieth day, to the Apo- 
stles, as they sat at meat, and that since He was about to 
ascend from them, He rather wished on that day to reprove 
them for not having believed those who had seen Him risen be- 
fore seeing Him themselves, because after His ascension even 
the Gentiles on their preaching were to believe a Gospel, which 
they had not seen. And so the same Mark immediately after 
that rebuke says, And he said unto them, Go ye into all the 
world, and preach the Gospel to every creature. And lower 
down, He that believeth not shall he condemned. Since then 
they were to preach this, were not they themselves to 
be first rebuked, because before they saw the Lord they 
had not believed those to whom He had first appeared ? 



VER. 14—18. ST. MARK. 345 

Greg. Another reason also why our Lord rebuked His dis- Greg, 
ciples, when He left them as to His bodily presence, was, that u l sup * 
the words which He spoke on leaving them might remain 
more deeply impressed upon the hearts of His hearers. 
Pseudo-Jerome; But He rebukes their want of faith, that 
faith might take its place ; He rebukes the hardness of their 
stony heart, that the fleshy heart, full of love, might take its 
place. Greg. After rebuking the hardness of their hearts, Greg, 
let us hear the words of advice which He speaks. For it u 
goes on : Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to 
every creature. Every man must be understood by every 
creature; for man partakes something of every creature ; he 
has existence as have stones, life as trees, feeling as animals, 
understanding as have Angels. For the Gospel is preached 
to every creature, because he is taught by it, for whose sake 
all are created, whom all things are in some way like, and 
from whom therefore they are not alien. By the name of 
every creature also every nation of the Gentiles may be 
meant. For it had been said before, Go not into the way Matt. 
of the Gentiles. But now it is said, Preach the Gospel to 1 ' 5 * 
every creature, so that the preaching of the Apostles which 
was thrust aside by Judaea, might be an assistance to us, 
since Judaea had haughtily rejected it, thus witnessing to her 
own damnation. Theophyl. Or else ; to every creature, 
that is, whether believing or unbelieving. It goes on : He 
that believeth and is baptized shall be saved. For it is not 
enough to believe, for he who believeth and is not baptized, 
but is a catechumen, has not yet attained to perfect salvation. 
Greg. But perhaps some one may say in himself, I have Greg, 
already believed, I shall be saved. He says what is true, if ubl sup * 
he keeps his faith by works ; for that is a true faith, which 
does not contradict by its deeds what it says in words. 
There follows: But he that believeth not shall be damned. 
Bede ; What shall we say here about infants, who by reason B ede 
of their age cannot yet believe ; for as to older persons there ubi SU P- 
is no question. In the Church then of our Saviour children 
believe by others, as also they drew from others the sins 
which are remitted to them in baptism. It goes on: And 
these siytfs shall follow them that believe, In my name shall 
they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues; 



ubi sup. 



346 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVI. 

they shall take up serpents. Theophyl. That is, they shall 
scatter before them serpents, whether intellectual or sensible, 

Luke as ^ i s said, Ye shall tread upon serpents and scorpions, 
which is understood spiritually. But it may also mean 
sensible serpents, as when Paul received no hurt from 
the viper. There follows : And if they drink any deadly 
thing, it shall not hurt them. We read of many such cases 
in history, for many persons have drank poison unhurt, by 
guarding themselves with the sign of Christ. It goes on : 
They shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recorer. 

Gre g« Greg. Are we then without faith because we cannot do these 
signs ? Nay, but these things were necessary in the beginning 
of the Church, for the faith of believers was to be nourished by 
miracles, that it might increase. Thus we also, when we plant 
groves, pour water upon them, until we see that they have 
grown strong in the earth ; but when once they have firmly 
fixed their roots, we leave off irrigating them. These signs and 
miracles have other things which we ought to consider more 
minutely. For Holy Church does every day in spirit what 
then the Apostles did in body; for when her Priests by the 
grace of exorcism lay their hands on believers, and forbid 
the evil spirits to dwell in their minds, what do they, but 
cast out devils? And the faithful who have left earthly 
words, and whose tongues sound forth the Holy Mysteries, 
speak a new language ; they who by their good warnings 
take away evil from the hearts of others, take up serpents ; and 
when they are hearing words of pestilent persuasion, without 
being at all drawn aside to evil doing, they drink a deadly 
thing, but it will never hurt them ; whenever they see their 
neighbours growing weak in good works, and by their good 
example strengthen their life, they lay their hands on the 
sick, that they may recover. And all these miracles are 
greater in proportion as they are spiritual, and by them souls 
and not bodies are raised. 



19. So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, 
he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right 
hand of God. 

20. And they went forth, and preached every where, 



VER. 19, 20. ST. MARK. 347 

the Lord working with them, and confirming the word 
with signs following. Amen. 



Pseudo-Jerome; The Lord Jesus, who had descended 
from heaven to give liberty to our weak nature, Himself also 
ascended above the heavens; wherefore it is said, So then 
after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up 
into heaven. Aug. By which words He seems to shew Aug. 
clearly enough that the foregoing discourse was the last that ubl SU P' 
He spake to them upon earth, though it does not appear to 
bind us down altogether to this opinion. For He does not 
say, After He had thus spoken unto them, wherefore it admits 
of being understood not as if that was the last discourse, 
but that the words which are here used, After the Lord 
had spoken unto them, he was received into heaven, might 
belong to all His other discourses. But since the arguments 
which we have used above make us rather suppose that this 
was the last time, therefore we ought to believe that after 
these words, together with those which are recorded in the 
Acts of the Apostles, our Lord ascended into heaven. Greg. Greg. 
We have seen in the Old Testament that Elias was taken up ubl SU P* 
into heaven. But the ethereal heaven is one thing, the aerial 
is another. The aerial heaven is nearer the earth, Elias then 
was raised into the aerial heaven, that he might be carried off 
suddenly into some secret region of the earth, there to live in 
great calmness of body and spirit, until he return at the end 
of the world, and pay the debt of death. We may also observe 
that Elias mounted up in a chariot, that by this they might 
understand that a mere man requires help from without. But 
our Redeemer, as we read, was not carried up by a chariot, 
not by angels, because He who had made all things was 
borne over all by His own power. We must also consider 
what Mark subjoins, And sat at the right hand of God, since 
Stephen says, / see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man 
standing at the right hand of God. Now sitting is the 
attitude of a judge, standing of one fighting or helping. 
Therefore Stephen, when toiling in the contest, saw Him 
standing, whom he had for his helper; but Mark describes 



348 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVI. 

Him as sitting after His assumption into heaven, because 
after the glory of His assumption, He will in the end be seen 
Aug. de as a judge. Aug. Let us not therefore understand this 
1 7_ sitting as though He were placed there in human limbs, as if 
the Father sat on the left, the Son on the right, but by the 
right hand itself we understand the power which He as man 
received from God, that He should come to judge, who first 
had come to be judged. For by sitting we express habitation, 
as we say of a person, he sat himself down in that country 
for many years ; in this way then believe that Christ dwells 
at the right hand of God the Father. For He is blessed and 
dwells in blessedness, which is called the right hand of the 
Father ; for all is right hand there, since there is no misery. 
It goes on: And they went forth and preached every where, 
the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with 
Bede signs and wonders. Bede; Observe that in proportion as 
ubi sup. jyj; ar k began his history later, so he makes it reach in writing 
to more distant times, for he began from the commencement 
of the preaching of the Gospel by John, and he reaches in 
his narrative those times in which the Apostles sowed the 
Greg, same word of the Gospel throughout the world. Greg. 
ubi sup. T3 U £ w hat should we consider in these words, if it be not that 
obedience follows the precept and signs follow the obedi- 
ence? For the Lord had commanded them, Go into all the 
world preaching the Gospel, and, Ye shall be witnesses 
Aug. even unto the ends of the earth. Aug. But how was this 
Epist. preaching fulfilled by the Apostles, since there are many 
12. nations in which it has just begun, and others in which it has 
8 CS ' not yet begun to be fulfilled? Truly then this precept was 
not so laid upon the Apostles by our Lord, as though they 
alone to whom He then spoke were to fulfil so great a 
charge ; in the same way as He says, Behold, I am with 
you always, even unto the end of the world, apparently to 
them alone; but who does not understand that the promise 
is made to the Catholic Church, which though some are 
dying, others are born, shall be here unto the end of the 
world? Theophyl. But we must also know from this that 
words are confirmed by deeds as then in the Apostles works 
confirmed their words, for signs followed. Grant then, O 



VEK. 19, 20. ST. MARK. 349 

Christ, that the good words which we speak may be con- 
firmed by works and deeds, so that at the last, Thou working 
with us in word and in deed, we may be perfect, for Thine 
as is fitting is the glory both of word and deed. Amen. 



BS 2555 .A2 T513 1864 v. 2 

IMS 
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Catena aurea 
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