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Theology 
Library 



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CATHEDRAL OF THE SACRED HEART, .NEWARK. 



CatJjoltc CJjurcI) m 



JOSEPH M. FLYNN, M. R., V. F. 

Rector of the Church of the Assumption of the B. r. M. 
Morristown, N. f. 



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MORRISTOWN, NEW JERSEY 
MDCCCCIl^ 



Copyright, 1904 
By JOSEPH M. FLYNN, M. R., V. F. 



PRESS OF 

THE publishers' PRINTING CO 

32 AND 34 LAFAYETTE PLACE 

NEW YliKK 



OUR FOREFATHERS IN THE FAITH— 

"The Dumbly Brave who did their Deed, and Scorned to 
Blot it with a Name" 

— -?3i£(I)op£(, IJncBtB, anH Laitp ; 

AND TO THEIR 

Successors, in Garnering the Harvest and Reaping where they 

have Sown ; and to their Children reflecting all the 

V^irtues of their Forefathers — Guarding well the 

Sacred Deposit ot Faith — Illustrious by 

Righteousness and Good Works, 

tbi» \Jolumc irf 

MOST LOVINGLY DEDICATED BY THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE. 



In presenting to the Catholics this chronicle of the planting 
and developing of the seed of Catholic faith in the State of New 
Jersey by their forefathers, most of whom have long since slept in 
the Lord and passed to the reward of their sacrifices and their 
constancy, I would apologize for the imperfections of this volume, 
which, owing to the short time allotted for its completion, were 
inevitable. It is lamentable that this work was not undertaken at 
an earlier date, when the facts might have been gathered from the 
lips of the actors and witnesses of this mighty and heroic struggle, 
and entrusted to an abler pen than mine. But the project was a 
flash which the approaching Golden Jubilee created, and the hope 
was cherished that this volume might appear on the anniversary 
of the instalment of our first bishop. There is a limit, however, 
to human efforts, and to gather all the facts connected with the 
progress of religion in our State from the close of the seventeenth 
century to the present, to cull the authentic from the fabulous, 
to verify apparently conflicting statements, and embody the 
whole into the present work, has required the constant, unremit- 
ting efforts and labor of the author for the last three months. 
Proprio tnotii he would have shrunk from the task, as he did when 
asked by the late Archbishop Corrigan to write the history of the 
Diocese of Newark. Yielding at length to the solicitation of es- 
teemed brethren in the priesthood, and unaware of the magnitude 
of the work, which grew on his hands day by day, at last he is 
able to present it to a kind and, he hopes, an indulgent public, 
who, in the full light of the above facts, will overlook any remiss- 
ness or shortcoming in its pages. Not the last in his encourage- 
ment to take up this work, nor the least in his efforts to assist by 
every means in his power to make a complete and finished record, 



IV 



PREFACE. 



was our worthy bishop, the Rt, Rev. John J. O'Connor, D.D., who 
was kind enough to write the following letter : 

Bishop's House, 
552 South Orange Avenue, 
South Orange, N. J. 
September 12th, 1903. 
Very Rev. dear Dean Flynn: 

I most cordially approve of your undertaking to vYrite a his- 
tory of Catholicity in the State of New Jersey for the Golden 
Jubilee of the Diocese of Newark which we are preparing to cele- 
brate, and I beg the rectors of the various churches and the su- 
periors of the different religious communities to supply you with 
all the information which you may desire from them, in order that 
this history may be as complete as possible. 
Believe me 

Very sincerely yours in Christ, 

♦ John J. O'Connor. 

To this an almost general and immediate response was made, 
not only by the priests of the diocese of Newark, but by a great 
number of the priests of the diocese of Trenton. It was deemed 
only fair to incorporate the history sent by them, as nearly as pos- 
sible, verbatim, both as a recognition of the labor involved, and at 
the same time shifting upon them the responsibility of the details. 
Furthermore, the varied style adds an additional charm to the nar- 
rative. But to none are we more obligated than to the venerable 
Bishop of Rochester, nor will the pleasant memory soon pass away 
of the delightful evenings spent in his rural home, amid his vines, 
with the forest at our feet, dipping down to the placid crystal 
waters of Hemlock Lake, and the melody of his voice ringing in 
our ears, as his marvellous memory recalled events and faces and 
facts of fifty years agone. Most of the early history is his nar- 
rative, and for many of the facts of the last score of years does he 
stand sponsor. To Mr. Stephen II. H organ are we indebted for 
the admirable illustrations, many of which would have been unat- 
tainable without him. With reluctance, where all have been so 
kind and so painstaking, do I single out as specially deserving of 
my grateful recognition the Rev. Charles J. Kelly, D.D., who 



PREFACE. V 

not only supplied me with valuable sources of information, but 
assisted me greatly in the onerous and responsible work of proof- 
reading, and the composition of the index; to the Rev. George 
W. Corrigan, M.R., who placed at my disposal his collection of 
memorabilia ; also to the Rev. Joseph C. Dunn, and the Rev. 
Patrick J. Hayes, the Secretary of the Archdiocese of New York, 
and the Very Rev. Dean Mulligan, M.R., for important docu- 
ments and generous aid. 

The cover, perhaps, requires some explanation : the seal in the 
upper left-hand corner is that of Archbishop Bayley ; and that on 
the opposite right-hand corner, of Archbishop Corrigan ; the one 
in the lower left-hand corner is that of Bishop Wigger; and, in 
the lower right-hand corner, of Bishop O'Connor; all grouped 
around the seal of Seton Hall, which has been the one institution 
upon which all have lavished their tenderest care and solicitude. 
The seal on the reverse cover is that of the State of New Jersey. 
The cover, as well as the histor}', has been copyrighted. 

Great pains have been taken with the clergy list, which, never- 
theless, is incomplete ; but it is hoped in a second edition to fill 
the lacunae and correct whatever errors have crept in. The Cath- 
olics of our State have just reason to be proud of their history; 
and, while they are thrilled with the tale of the sufferings, priva- 
tions, and generosit)^ of those who have gone before them, they 
may take the assurance that they, too, are deserving of a large 
measure of praise, for the sacrifices they have made and are mak- 
ing, and for the splendid example they are giving to the world of 
virtue, and loyalty to Church and country, helping, on their part, 
to make the diocese of Newark peerless among all the dioceses of 
the country. May this volume give to all the same pleasure in 
reading it as the author found in writing it. 

MoRRiSTOWN, N. J., Januarj' 7, 1904. 




HEMLOCK LAKE, N. V. 



SOURCES OF INFORMATION 



The following have been consulted and have proved valuable 
sources of information : 

Narrative and Critical Historj' of America Winsor. 

England in the Eighteenth Century Lecky. 

Smith's History of New Jersey, a Reprint Sharpe. 

Historical Collections of the State of New Jersey Barber and Howe. 

Old Order Book Morristown Headquarters 

H istor}' of New York Brodhead 

Laws of the Colony of Nova Ca?sarea 

H istory of New Jersey Rauni . 

New Jersey as a Colony and as a State .... Lee. 

Persecutions of Irish Catholics Moran. 

The Battle of the P'aith in Ireland O'Rourke 

The Story of Ireland Sullivan. 

A Child's History of Ireland Joyce. 

Irish Settlers in America McGee. 

The Catholic Church in the Ll^nited States DeCourcy-Shea. 

The Catholic Church in the United States Shea. 

The Life and Times of Archbishop Carroll Shea. 

History of the Catholic Church in New York Bayley. 

Life of Montalembert Lecanuet. 

Principles and Acts of the Revolution Niles. 

Account of Negro Plot Horsemanden. 

Life and Times of Archbishop Carroll Campbell. 

History of Wyoming Miner. 

Field Book of the Revolution Lessing. 

Life of Mother Margaret Seguier 

Records of American Catholic Historical Society, Phil- 
adelphia 

Historical Records and Studies, United States Catholic 
Historical Society, New York 

American Catholic Historical Researches Grififin. 

History of Sus.sex and Warren Counties, N.J 

History of Jersey City 

A Century of Catholicity in Trenton, N.J Fox. 

History- of Mercer County 

Story of a Pari.sh Flynn. 

Life of Madame D'Youville Ramsay. 

Register of Clergy (2 vols.). Diocese of Newark 

vii 



viii SOURCES OF INFORMATION. 

Letter Book of Arclibishop Bayley 

Letter Book of Archbishop Corrigan 

Diary of Archbishop Corrigan 

Church and State in the United States Spalding. 

Essays of History and Literature Fiske. 

Historical Records of Morris County, N.J Green. 

Memorial Address, the late Rev. John Rogers ... O'Grady. 

Historical Address, Sesqui-Centennial of Sussex County Swayze. 

Various Parish Chronicles; History of Catholic Church in Paterson, 
Schreiner; Sketch of St. Joseph's Church, Svvedesboro, Leahey ; St. 
Mary's, Berth Aniboy, Leahey; Story of Our Parish, Boonton; St. 
Mary's Catholic Church, Salem; A Half Century of Catholicity in 
Phillipsburg, McCloskey ; St. Nicholas's, Atlantic City; Brief History 
of St. Paul of the Cross. Jersey City; History of Catholic Church in 
Bloomfield ; History of St. Agnes's, Paterson; History of St. Patrick's 
Church, Chatham; and St. Leo's, Irvington, N. J., Dunn; Catholicity 
in Bound Brook; Seton Hall College: A Memoir; St. Mary's Church, 
Plainfield ; History of Catholicity in Lakewood ; and, through the 
courtesy of Rt. Rev. Monsignor Stafford, the Records of the Seminary 
of the Immaculate Conception from 1868 to the present. 

And newspaper files of The Truthteller. Metropolitan Magazine, London 
Tablet, New York Freeman's Journal, Catholic World, Catholic Mis- 
cellany, United States Catholic Magazine, Boston Pilot, Catholic Ex- 
positor, Sussex Register, Newark Advertiser, Newark Evening News, 
Jersey City Journal, Daily Times, New Brunswick; Catholic Messen- 
ger, Elizabeth ; Irish Ecclesiastical Record, and Catholic Directory (40 
vols.), and various documents in the Newark Library and that of the 
New Jersey Historical Society, Newark. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



CHURCHES 



Cathedral of Sacred Heart. Fro7ttispiece 

PAGE 

Atlantic City, St. Nicholas's 331 

Avondale, Our Lady of Grace 459 

Bayonne, St. Mary's 358 

" St. Mary's 357 

St. Henry's 543 

Belleville, St. Peter's no 

Bloomfield, Sacred Heart 465 

Boon ton, Mt. Carmel 191 

Butler, St. Anthony's 461 

Camden, Immaculate Conception 333 

Chatham, St. Patrick's 415 

Cranford, St. Michael's 441 

East Orange, Help of Christians 514 

Elizabeth, Holy Rosary 527 

" St. Mary's 141 

Sacred Heart 414 

St. Patrick's 356 

" St. Michael's 257 

Gloucester, St. Mary's 195 

Greenville, St. Paul's. 366 

Guttenberg, New Church 395 

Old Church 393 

Hackensack, Newman School 372 

Harrison, Holy Cross 373 

Hibernia, St. Patrick's 370 

Hoboken, St. Francis's 532 

" St. Joseph's 436 

" Sts. Peter and Paul's 534 

" Our Lady of Grace (Interior) 171 

Our Lady of Grace 169 

First Catholic Public School 158 

Hohokus. St. Luke's 378 

Irvington, St. Leo's 456 

Jersey City, St. Nicholas's 522 

" " St. Lucy's 520 

St. Anthony's 519 



X LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Jersey City, St. John Baptist 517 

St. Bridget's 408 

St. Peter's 99 

First St. Peter's Church 96 

" St. Peter's 96 

St. Aloysius's School 547 

" St. Patrick's 411 

" St. Paul of the Cross 405 

" St. Boniface 380 

" " St. Mary's 363 

" St. Michael's (Interior) 345 

" " St. Michael's (Exterior) 344 

" " All Saints' 545 

St. Joseph's 337 

Kearney, St. Cecilia's 541 

Lakewood, First Church 237 

Lodi, St. t>ancis de Sales's 3-4 

Macopin, St. Joseph's 462 

Church 35 

Madison, .St. Vincent's 115 

Mendham, St. Joseph's 355 

Montclair, Tegakwita Hall 310 

Morristown, All Souls' Hospital 223 

St. Margaret's 217 

" Assumption 214 

" P'irst Church 213 

New Brunswick, St. Peter's 89 

Netcong, St. Michael's 475 

New York, Old St. Peter's Church 50 

Newark, St. Bridgit's 531 

" St. Mary's Academy 594 

" Blessed Sacrament 582 

St. Michael's 467 

" St. Aloysius's 473 

" St. Antoninus's 454 

" St. John's 73 

" St. John's First Catholic Church 68 

St. Mary's 136 

" St. James's 305 

" St. Augustine's 452 

" St. Columba's 445 

" St. Philip Neri's 551 

Convent of Good Shepherd 427 

" St. Joseph's 39S 

" St. Benedict's 350 

St. Peter's 329 

" St. Mary Magdalen's 542 

" St. Rose of Lima 539 

" St. Lucy's 53S 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xi 

PAGiL 

Newark, Mt. Carmel 537 

St. Stanislaus's 535 

St. Patrick's Pro-cathedral 199 

Newton, Old Church 314 

Present Church 317 

Orange, Our Lady of the \'alley 448 

Mt. Carmel 576 

St. John's 323 

Passaic, St. Nicholas's 327 

" First Church 326 

" St. Joseph's 575 

" Assumption 474 

Paterson, St. George's 511 

" St. Bonaventure's 460 

St. Mary's 435 

" St. Joseph's 401 

St. John 's 76 

" St. Boniface's 254 

Philadelphia, Old St. Joseph's 23 

Plainfield, First Church 249 

St. Mary's 250 

Princeton, St. Paul's 182 

Rahway, St. Mary's 187 

Ridgewood, House of Divine Providence 596 

Rockaway, St. Cecilia's 369 

Roselle, St. Joseph's 444 

Salem, First Church 179 

St. Mary's 180 

Shadyside. Sacred Heart 446 

Stony Hill, St. Mary's 189 

South Orange, Our Lady of Sorrows 529 

" " Seton Hall College 599 

Summit. St. Teresa's 370 

Swedesboro, Second Church 339- 

Trenton, Sacred Heart 387 

St. Mary's Cathedral 384 

St. Francis's 234 

" St. Francis's 173 

Union Hill, St. Augustine's 526 

" " Holy Family 351 

Vineland, Sacred Heart 382 

West Hoboken, St. Michael's 240 

" " St. Joseph's 241 

Westfield, Holy Trinity 438 

Weehawken, St. Lawrence's 524 

Whippany, Our Lady of Mercy 325 

Wyckoff, St. Elizabeth's 379 



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

MISCELLANEOUS 

PAGE 

Academy of Madame Chegarry (Old Seton Hall) 278 

Academy, Old St. Elizabeth's 285 

Bayley, Most Rev. James R 266 

Brownson, Orestes A 147 

Bulger, Father 37 

Carroll, Archbishop 39 

Cauvin, Rev. Anthony 151 

Corrigan, Most Rev. M. A 207 

Consecration Procession of Bishop O'Connor 554 

U'Arcy, Rev. James 120 

Doane, Rt. Rev. George H 198 

Dubois, Rt. Rev. John 79 

Farmer, Father 25 

Geiger's House ; 178 

Hogan, Rev. John in 

Howell, Rev. Isaac P 14- 

Hughes, Most Rev. John 84 

Jubilee, Golden. 201 

Kilpatrick, (ien. Judson 319 

Kelly, Rev. John 97 

Kraus, Rev. D 381 

Mother Mary Xavier Mehegan 591 

Mass in the Woods 117 

Mackin, Rev. John 61 

Madden, Rev. Michael A 119 

Messmer, Most Rev. S. Ci 497 

McFaul, Rt. Rev. J. A 177 

McGovern, Rev. P 2 16 

McGorien, Rev. Francis 174 

McKay, Rev. James 322 

McQuaid, Rt. Rev. Bernard 202 

O'Connor, Rt. Rev. John J 553 

O'Connor, Consecration of Rt. Rev. John 200 

O'Farrell, Rt. Rev. Michael J 95 

O'Reilly, Rev. C 360 

Pardow, Rev. Gregory Bryan 68 

Pitcher, Molly • 44 

Power, Very Rev. John, D.D 49 

Prieth, Rev. Gottfried 330 

Revere, Gen. J . W 232 

Rogers, Rev. John 91 

Senez, Rev. Louis D 83 

Shea, John Gilmary. LL.D.. 149 

Sheppard, Rt. Rev. J . A 346 

Sisters of Charity, Mother House 589 

Sister Mary Catharine Nevin 592 

Sister Mary Agnes O'Neill 593 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xiii 

PAGE 

Smith. Rev. Anthony 385 

Tighe, Rev. John J 192 

\'enuta. Rev. A 338 

\'on Schilgen, Rev. Albert 258 

Ward, Old Mansion (Newark) 274 

Wigger. Rt. Rev. W. M 87 

Wimmer. Arch Abbot 138 

Women of Elizabeth Defend Church 145 

Young, Rev. Alfred, C.S.P 183 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN 
NEW JERSEY 



Colonial Period. 



The Cross erected by Columbus on one of the Bahamas, in 
the year of our Lord 1492, was, under the Providence of God, to 
be the harbinger of blessings to countless generations, driven by 
the mighty forces— even at that time shaking Continental Europe 
to its very centre — to seek a refuge and a home, free from tur- 
moil and conflict, in a virgin land. The fifteenth century wit- 
nessed kingdoms and the church of the living God tottering to 
destruction. The spirit of revolt, emboldened in its successful 
attack by Luther and his colleagues on the sacred deposit of 
dogma, was soon to assail in its citadel one of the most cherished 
of Christian traditions — the divine rights of royalty — and the head 
of a Charles I was to fall under the executioner's axe by the 
order of the Protector of the Commonwealth. In France, a sect 
was to feel the mailed hand of power, and after paying with tor- 
rents of blood, the best testimony of their good faith, was driven 
forth to seek in foreign lands that freedom denied them in their 
own. Fire and sword had swept over fair lerne, and the discov- 
ery of a new world saw a nation prostrate and a people in chains. 

Let us turn again to Columbus and his crew, clustered around 
the Cross — the wondering natives standing afar — with what fervor 
from a heart overflowing with gratitude went up to heaven the 
prayer of the saintly captain, which has come down to us : " O 
Lord, Eternal and Almighty God, who by Thy sacred word hast 
created the heavens, the earth, and the seas ! May Thy name be 
blessed and glorified everywhere! May Thy majesty be exalted, 
who hast deigned to permit that by Thy humble servant Thy 
sacred name should be known and preached in this other part of 
the world ! " 

And forth from their hearts burst the great Ambrose's hymn 
— "Te Deum Laudamus," i.e., We praise Thee, O God — forget- 

I 



2 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

ful of their past dangers and perils on the broad and trackless 
waters of the Atlantic — whose echoes were again to be taken up, 
like a theme in music — to be borne along the ages in full and fer- 
vent harmony by the sons of the Cav^alier and Roundhead, by the 
impulsive Celt and sturdy Saxon, by the children of mighty Rome, 
and by the sons of the fierce Goth, who had spoiled of all its 
glory the city of the Caesars. 

Was it chance or was it providential that among the crews of 
Columbus were to be found both a Saxon and a Celt, representa- 
tives of two races through whose activities the new world by its 
progress, ingenuity, political complexion, and industrial initiative 
were later on to startle and amaze the older world ? Winsor, 
Narrative and Critical History of America, says : The list of the 
companions of Columbus in his first voyage to the new world in 
1492 shows among them an Irishman, "Gulliermo Ires, natural 
de Galwey, en Irlanda " — that is, William Herries, a native of 
Galway, Ireland (ii., p. 11). 

The story of the acquisitions of the different sections of the 
newly discovered land by exploration or by conquest has been so 
often told that it does not come within the scope of the present 
work. Although the voyage of Cabot, in 1497, had established the 
English claim, yet it was not until Sir Humphrey Gilbert, in 1759, 
and Sir Walter Raleigh, in 1584, had landed the one as far north 
as the mouth of the Kennebec, and the other in Virginia, that 
any serious attempt was made by Raleigh to establish a colony in 
the new possessions. 

Notwithstanding the patent Queen Elizabeth had given Ra- 
leigh and his heirs, to discover and possess forever, all such coun- 
tries as were not then possessed by any Christian prince, King 
James, in 1606, granted a new patent of Virginia, in which was 
included what is now known as the New England States — New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland — to Sir Thomas 
Gates, Sir George Somers, Richard Hakluyt, Clerk, Edward Maria 
Wingfield, Thomas Hanham, Richard Gilbert, Esqs., William 
Parker, George Popham, Lord Chief Justice of England, and 
others. The land extended from the thirty-fourth to the forty- 
fifth degrees of north latitude, with all the islands within one 
hundred miles of the coast. This patent was divided into two 
districts, called North and South Virginia, the latter vested in the 
Company of the London Adventurers ; and the former, granted 
to Thomas Hanham and his associates, was called the Plymouth 
Colony. 



IN NKW JERSEY 3 

But the Dutch, although proverbially slow, in that day swept 
with their fleet the waters of the globe, and one of their vessels, 
the Half Moon, manned by an English captain and fitted out by 
the East India Company, entered Delaware Bay, August 28th, 
1609. On account of the shoals navigation was difficult, and 
Hudson set sail again, hugging the eastern shore of our State, and 
anchored September 3d, 1609, within Sandy Hook. He sent a 
boat ashore for the purpose of exploration and of taking sound- 
ings. His men penetrated some distance inland, in the woods of 
Monmouth, where the Indians they met received them kindly 
and offered them green tobacco and dried currants. 

Heaving anchor, Hudson continued his voyage up the noble 
river, buttressed by the Palisades, to which was given his name. 
Claiming to have purchased the chart Hudson had made of the 
American coast, and having obtained a patent from the States, in 
1 614, to trade in New England, the Dutch founded a settlement 
on the island of Manhattan, which they called New Amsterdam. 
They built many forts in their new possessions, among them one 
near Gloucester, N. J., which they called Fort Nassau; and made 
a settlement in Bergen in 161 7. 

King Charles I, however, regarded this occupation as an inva- 
sion of his territory and an intrusion on the part of these early 
Knickerbockers, and determined to dispossess them. 

Charles I, in 1632, granted to Sir Edmund Plowden a grant 
of land embracing New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Mary- 
land, and this despite the grant of Maryland to Lord Baltimore 
two years previously. Under this charter, in 1634, Plowden 
granted 10,000 acres to Sir Thomas Danby on condition that he 
would settle one hundred planters on it, but not to suffer " any to 
live there not believing or professing the three Christian creeds, 
commonly called the Apostolical, Athanasian, and Nicene." 

The Earl Palatinate visited his vast domain personally in 
1642, sailing up the Delaware River — which two other adventurers 
had named the Charles — and found at Salem City, N. J., a settle- 
ment of seventy persons who had come hither from New Haven to 
continue their avocation as whalers. Their officers did not hesi- 
tate to swear allegiance to him as governor. 

Owing to his retirement to Virginia, the execution of Charles 
I, and the advent of Cromwell with his Commonwealth, he lost 
grip of his possessions which fell into other hands, and although 
his grandsons, Thomas and George Plowden, came to America to 
assert their claims to New Albion in 1684, little seems to have 



4 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

come of it. One Charles Varlo purchased one-third of the char- 
ter, and in 1784 came with his family, as he says, "invested with 
the proper power as governor to the Province," going even so far 
as to enter suit in chancery, but defeat sent him back to England, 
and the claim of the Plowdens, and the name New Albion, passed 
into oblivion. 

The region between the Hudson and the Delaware rivers, of 
which little was known beyond the few hamlets near Manhattan, 
was called "Albania." It offered the greatest attraction to emi- 
grants, because it was " the most improveable part of the province, 
in respect not only to the land, but to the sea-coast and the Dela- 
ware River, the fertility of the soil, the neighborhood of Hudson's 
river, and, lastly, the fair hopes of rich mines." 

Charles H issued a patent to his brother, the Duke of York, 
in which were included among other lands the provinces of New 
York and New Jersey. The Dutch, totally unsuspicious and un- 
prepared for war, capitulated to Sir Robert Carre, after articles 
of agreement had been mutually accepted which secured them in 
the possession of their property and in the practice of their relig- 
ion. The Duke of York on his part, thus having secured posses- 
sion of this vast territory, in consideration of a competent sum of 
money, granted and conveyed unto Lord Berkeley, baron of 
Stratton, and Sir George Carteret, of Saltrum, " all that tract of 
land to the west of Manhattan Island and Long Island, and 
bounded on the east part by the main sea, and part by Hudson's 
river, and hath upon the west Delaware bay or river, and ex- 
tendeth southward to the main ocean as far as Cape May, and to 
the northward as far as the northermost branch of the said bay or 
river of Delaware, and crosseth over thence in a straight line to 
Hudson's river, which said tract of land is hereafter to be called 
Nova Csesarea, or New Jersey." 

This document bears the date of June 23d and 24th, 1664. 
Berkeley and Carteret, being now sole proprietors of New Jersey, 
agreed upon a constitution, which by its broad liberality, especially 
in the matter of religion, was calculated to attract settlers. Article 
seventh declares: No person qualified, as aforesaid, shall at any 
time be molested, punished, disquieted, or called in question, for 
any difference in opinion or practice in matters of religious con- 
cernment ; but that all and every such person and persons may, 
from time to time, and at all times, freely and fully have and 
enjoy his and their judgments and consciences, in matters of 
religion, throughout the said province, etc., etc. 



IN NEW JERSEY 5 

While the Dutch were in power in New York, no laws adverse 
to Catholics were enacted, the bigotry afterward dominant being 
of English origin. 

The laws promulgated by the Duke of York in 1664 required 
the establishment of a church in each parish. This was inter- 
preted by Governor Andros and his council as requiring all per- 
sons to contribute, whether belonging to the congregation or not, 
and he asserted that this was not an infringement of the liberty 
of conscience, "as some pretend." This last was aimed at the 
Dutch, in the minority in some parishes, who complained that the 
articles of capitulation, August 7th, 1664, guaranteeing to the 
Dutch " liberty of their consciences in divine worship and church 
discipline," were thereby violated. 

Colonel Dongan, a Catholic, afterward Earl of Limerick, suc- 
ceeded Andros in 1683. One of his first acts was to summon a 
provincial assembly, thus giving to the people of the colony what 
they had not hitherto enjoyed, a voice in the framing of the laws 
and the administration of the government. This was the conces- 
sion of a Catholic proprietor, and was carried into effect by a 
Catholic governor, at the very time when the colonists of New 
England were deprived of their charter. The first act of the first 
assembly of New York was the "charter of libertys," passed 
October 30th, 1683, and reads as follows: That no person or 
persons which prof esse ffaith in God by Jesus Christ shall, at any 
time, be any wayes molested, punished, disquieted, or called in 
question for any difference of opinion, or matter of religious con- 
cernment, who do nott actually disturbe the civil peace of the 
province, butt thatt all and every such person or p'sons may, from 
time to time, and at all times, freely have and fully enjoy, his or 
their judgements or consciences in matters of religions through- 
out all the province, they behaving themselves peacefully and 
quietly, and nott using this liberty to licentiousness, nor to the civil 
injury or outward disturbance of others." Another provision was, 
that whereas all the Christian churches then in the province seemed 
to be privileged churches, they were thereby secured in their 
property and discipline, and the like privileges were guaranteed 
to other Christian churches coming into the province, in regard 
to divine v\Aorship and church discipline. 

Some years anterior to these events are discerned the first 
traces of Catholicity in New York. In 1622 there were two 
Catholic soldiers in Fort Orange, now Albany ; and, when Father 
Jogues, the saintly apostle of the Indians, escaped from the Iro- 



6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

quois, in 1642, he found "a Portuguese woman and a young Irish- 
man on the Island of Manhattan, whose confession he heard 
{Bay ley, C. C, on Island of N. V., I/)." The young Irishman is 
said to have come from Virginia. 

When Dongan arrived in New York, he was accompanied by 
an EngUsh Jesuit, Father Thomas Harvey, who remained there 
seven years. He was joined by Father Henry Harrison, S. J., 
Father Charles Gage, S. J., in 1685-86, and two lay brothers. 
There was a Catholic chapel in Fort James, just south of Bowl- 
ing Green ; and an attempt was made to open a classical school 
on the King's Farm, near or on the site of Trinity Church. 

We are informed " that Papists began to settle in the colony 
under the smiles of the Governor." Even at that day Wood- 
bridge, N. J., was known for the fine quality of clay found there 
— "the finest in the world." This attracted many settlers, and 
among them some Catholics, since we find Fathers Harvey and 
Gage visiting both Woodbridge and Elizabethtown, the capital of 
East Jersey, settled by Carteret, and named for his own wife. 
The old records show Hugh Dunn, John and James Kelly, to be 
in Woodbridge in 1672, and Robert Vanquellen, or La Prarire, a 
native of Caen, France, in 1668, and Surveyor-General of that sec- 
tion of New Jersey, 1669-70. The documents connected with 
Leisler's usurpation give us another glimpse of the presence of 
Catholics, for "they allege that the Papists on Staten Island did 
threaten to cut the inhabitants' throats and to come and burn 
the city ; that eighty or a hundred men were coming from Boston 
. . , several of them Irish and Paptists; that a good part of the 
soldiers in the fort already were Papists; that M. de la Prearie 
(the same Vanquellen, whose name was pronounced and spelled 
out of all semblance) had arms in his house." One of the most 
prominent Catholics in New York in that day was Major Anthony 
Brockholes. 

After the reconquest of the province, King Charles appointed 
Andros governor, specifying, at the same time, that in case of 
the death of Andros Lieut. Anthony Brockholes was to succeed 
him in his office. Brockholes, of an old Catholic family of Lan- 
cashire, England, was known to be a Papist, and would have been 
excluded from holding office, were it not that the " Test Act " of 
March 23d, 1673, did not apply to the British American Plantations. 
Brockholes was an efficient officer and served the colony well, 
until the Leisler usurpation, when a price was set upon his head, 
and he and Arent Schuyler sought in New Jersey refuge from the 



IN NEW JERSKY 7 

storm. In 1696 they together bought five thousand five hundred 
acres of land, and large tracts m other parts of the State, extend- 
ing in part from Paterson to Pompton, where Brockholes passed 
to the end of his days a very retired life. He entered a matri- 
monial union, so often fatal to the heritage of faith, espousing 
Susanna Maria, daughter of Paulus Schrick, a member of the 
Dutch Reformed Church, in which their children were all bap- 
tized. They were, of course, brought up Protestants, and his son 
Henry made a gift to the Dutch Reformed Church of Paterson 
" for one acre of land I give to the good will I owe, and the regard 
I have, for the low duch (sic!) Reformed Church of Holland." 
Pew No. I of that church belongs to his heirs forever. Henry 
Brockholes, or Brockholst, as the family later pleased to spell the 
name, was a member of the New Jersey Legislature in 171 7. 
•Thus, the faith that resisted unto blood the , persecution of Ed- 
ward and Elizabeth, collapsed utterly through an unfortunate 
union with one of alien faith. 

In the ship Philip, which brought Carteret to this country, 
there were thirty emigrants, several of whom were Frenchmen, 
skilled in making salt, which was evidently intended to be the 
staple of New Jersey. They were, doubtless, Alsatians, since in 
that province extensive works of that kind were found; and this 
conjecture is supported by the fact that they were Catholics whom 
Fathers Gage and Harrison visited at the close of the seventeenth 
century, and other priests at a later period. 

The peace of Westminster, which concluded the war between 
the Dutch and the British, unsettled the position of the proprie- 
tors in the colonies. In the opinion of many jurists, who were 
consulted, the old patents were void, and on the strength of this 
opinion Charles again granted to his brother James, Duke of 
York, all that he had previously conveyed. James did not regret 
this decision, as he was anxious to recover the territories he had 
squandered on Berkeley and Carteret. But these wily courtiers 
had learned well their lesson, and were able to parry the blow. 
Berkeley, on his return from the lieutenancy in Ireland, was made 
ambassador to France. 

Shortly after the treaty, in consideration of ^1,000, Berkeley 
sold to John Fenvvick, an old Cromwellian soldier, in trust for 
Edward Byllinge, a broken-down London brewer, his undivided half 
of New Jersey, together with such "franchises, liberties, govern- 
ments, and powers as had been granted to him in 1664." This 
deal was concluded before Charles made his second grant to 



8 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

James. As for Carteret, he finally succeeded in wheedling James 
into confirming his grant in severalty of that portion of New 
Jersey extending south as far as Barnegat, and west as far as 
Rankokus Kill, or Delaware River. 

Dongan was removed from office in 1691, and the Assembly of 
New York passed a resolution that all laws made by the late 
Assembly were null and void ; and thus the first anti-Catholic 
legislation was enacted, to be the more fully exploited by the 
law-makers of July 31st, 1700. 

This is the preamble: " Whereas, divers Jesuits, priests, and 
papist missionaries have of late come, and for some time have had 
their residence in the remote parts of this province, and other of 
his Majesty's adjacent colonies, who, by their wicked and subtle 
insinuations industriously labored to debauch, seduce, and with- 
draw the Indians from their due obedience unto his most sacred 
Majesty, and to excite and stir them up to sedition, rebellion, and 
open hostility against his Majesty's Government." It then enacted 
that every priest, etc., remaining in or coming into the province 
after November ist, 1700, should be "deemed and accounted an 
incendiary, and disturber of the public peace and safety, and an 
enemy to the true Christian religion, and shall be adjudged to 
^v&QX perpetual tviprisomnent." In case of escape and capture to 
suffer death. Harborers of priests to pay ;^200 and stand three 
days in the pillory. (Lazes of N. Y., p. 38.) 

On September i6th, i70i,a law was enacted by which "papists 
and popish recusants are prohibited from voting for members of 
Assembly or any office whatever, from thenceforth and forever." 
{Col. of Lazvs, i., p. 42.) 

How truly does Lecky remark " that among the Irish Catholics, 
at least, religious intolerance has never been a prevailing vice, and 
those who have studied closely the history and character of the 
Irish people can hardly fail to be struck with the deep respect for 
sincere religion in every form which they have commonly evinced " 
(England in the Eighteenth Centiny, ii., 423). It is a memorable 
fact that not a single Protestant suffered for his religion in Ireland 
during all the period of the Marian persecution in England (ibid.). 

Leisler was a religious fanatic, a worthy predecessor of the 
new governor, the Earl of Bellomont, whose father. Colonel 
Coote, had been one of the bloodiest butchers of Irish Catholics 
in Cromwell's time. The son inherited all the sanguinary and 
fiendish ferocit}' against the Catholic religion of his father, coupled 
with the shrewder statecraft of the unprincipled politician. 

In the first general assembly, held at Elizabeth town. May 26th, 
1668, William Douglass, the member from Bergen, was excluded 



IN NEW JERSEY 9 

because he was a Catholic ; and two years later he was arrested as 
"a troublesome person," sent to New York, whence he was ban- 
ished to New England and warned not to come again into the 
Duke's territories. 

A little incident, in 1679, gives us another glimpse of the 
sad condition of the little band of Catholics in Elizabeth and 
near by. 

Joseph Bankers and Peter Sluyter, followers of Labadie, an 
apostate Jesuit, came to America in search of land for a settle- 
ment. In one of their letters, under date October ist, 1679, they 
say: 

"At Mill Creek, a good half-hour's distance from Elizabeth- 
town, N. J., there was a tavern on it kept by a French papist, 
who at once took us to be priests, and so conducted themselves 
toward us in every respect accordingly, although we told them 
and protested otherwise. As there was nothing to be said further, 
we remained so to th^ir imagination to the last, the more certainly 
because we spoke French, and they were French people. We 
slept there that night, and at three o'clock in the morning we set 
sail." 

On November 14th they again " reached the point of Eliza- 
beth's Kil, where we were compelled to anchor. We all went 
ashore and lodged for the night in the home of the French peo- 
ple, who were not yet rid of the suspicion they had conceived, 
notwithstanding the declaration we had made accordingly." 

Under date of January ist, 1680, they were on Woodbridge 
Creek: "We landed here on Staten Island to drink at the house 
of the Frenchman, Le Chaudronnier, where we formerly passed 
a night in making the tour of Staten Island. He related to us 
what strange opinions, every one as well as himself, entertained 
of us." 

Martin I.J. Griffin claims that Elizabeth Brittin, daughter of 
Lionel Brittin, the first to arrive in the Delaware (1680), father 
of the first white child born in these parts, on the first panel of 
jurors, and the first convert to the Catholic faith in Pennsylvania, 
was married to Michael Kearne}-, a prominent man in East Jersey. 
Now the most distinguished man of that name in this part of the 
colony lived about one half mile from Whippany, where he had 
an estate of nine hundred and ninety-nine acres, called the Irish 
Lott. Here he entertained in lordly style, and his hospitality 
won for him hosts of friends. His tomb may still be seen on a 
charming knoll, with pleasant views of hill and woodland on every 



10 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

side. When last seen by the writer, it was in a dilapidated con- 
dition. 

The inscription on the huge stone is: 



t 



SACRED 

TO THE MEMORY OF 

CAPTAIN MICHALE KEARNEY 

OF HIS 

BRITTANIC MAJESTY'S NAVY. 

HE DEPARTED THIS LIFE AT 

THE IRISH LOTT 

THE SEAT OF HIS RESIDENCE IN HANOVER 

ON THE 5 DAY OF APRIL A.D. 1797 
Aged 78 Years, 6 Months and 28 Days 



IN THE naval SERVICE HE WAS A BRAVE AND INTREPID 

OFFICER WHICH SECURI:D TO HIM SEVERAL 

MARKS OF DISTINGUISHED 

RESPECT AND CONFIDENCE. 

IN PRIVAIE LIFE HE EXERCISED THE VIRTUES OF 

BENEVOLENCE, HOSPITAI(«i:)ETY AND 

GENTEEL URBANITY. 

In May, 1682, an attempt was made by the Legislature to 
secure for West Jersey a separate coinage. The necessity for 
small coinage was pressing, and Mark Newbie, a Quaker, one of 
the earliest settlers of Gloucester, was empowered to supply the 
demand. The act provides: That Mark Newbie's half-pence, 
called Patrick's half-pence, shall from and after the said eighteenth 
instant pass for half-pence current pay of this province, provided 




A PATRICK PENCE. 



he, the said Mark, give sufficient security to the speaker of this 
House for the use of the General Assembly from time to time 
being, that he, the said Mark, his executors and administrators, 
shall and will change the said half-pence for pay equivalent upon 
demand ; and provided also that no Person or Persons be hereby 
obliged to take more than five shillings in one payment. 



IN NKW JERSEY ii 

There is considerable obscurity as to the manner in which tliese 
coins came into the possession of Nevvbie, and hkevvise as to their 
origin. By some it is thought that they were struck abroad in the 
reign of Charles I, or that they were minted on the Continent 
and authorized by the Kilkenny Assembly, and circulated by the 
confederates when other money was scarce in Ireland. There 
were several varieties, but the most common shows a king kneel- 
ing, playing a harp, with the motto " Floreat Rex " ; and on the 
obverse side is a figure of St. Patrick, with one hand outstretched, 
while the left clasps the archiepiscopal cross, and on the extreme 
right a church, with the motto " Ouiescat Plebs." 

There is no doubt that Mark Nevvbie secured these coins in 
Ireland, as he embarked from one of its ports on the 19th of Sep- 
tember, 1681, in a narrow-stemmed pink called " Ye Owner's Ad- 
venture," under the command of Mate Daggett. After a voyage 
of two months he arrived " by the grace of God, within ye Capes 
of De La Ware," and after spending the winter in Salem, finally 
took up a twentieth share of land, nearly midway between Cooper's 
Creek and Newton Creek in what was known as the Irish Tenth. 

When Sir Edmund Andros was commissioned captain-general, 
and governor-in-chief, in 1686, by James II, over his "Territory 
and Dominion of New England in America," i.e., Massachusetts 
Bay, New Plymouth, New Hampshire, Maine and the Narragan- 
sett counti")', to secure him in his government, two companies 
of regular soldiers, chiefly Irish papists, were raised in London, 
and placed under his orders (Brodhead, History of Nezv York, ii., 

450- 

In 1687 our attention is called to the woes of another Catholic 

who, despite his ability and the conscientious discharge of a deli- 
cate office, was dismissed in disgrace because of his religion. 

Mathew Plowman, a Catholic, was appointed by King James 
II " Our Collector and Receiver of our Revenue in our Province 
of New York and the Territories depending thereon in America," 
so that the sphere of his jurisdiction extended from Maine to 
Delaware, Rhode Island and Connecticut excepted. He, together 
with Captain Baxter and Ensign Russell of the fort of New York, 
were known to be Catholics, and for this the lieutenant-governor, 
on the accession of William and Mary, " to avoid jealousies, sent 
them out of the Province." 

While Catholics in America were thus dismissed from office 
because of their religion, Lecky writes : 

" The terror that was excited by the ambition of France en- 



II THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

listed a great part of the Catholic Europeans on the side of Wil- 
liam. The King of Spain was decidedly in his favor, and the 
Spanish ambassador at The Hague is said to have ordered Mass 
in his chapel for the success of the expedition. The Emperor 
employed all his influence at Rome on the same side, and, by sin- 
gular good fortune, the Pope himself looked with favor on the 
Revolution " (^England i)i the EigJiteenth Century,'^ i., p. 22). 

" It was asserted, though probably with some exaggeration, 
that there were no less than 4,000 Catholics in the army with 
which William came over to defend the Protestantism of Eng- 
land " {ibid., p. 294). 

"The penal laws against Roman Catholics, both in England 
and Ireland, were the immediate consequence of the Revolution " 
(p. 294). 

In other parts of King James's domain Catholics paid the pen- 
alty of loyalty to their faith. 

The first execution for witchcraft, in 1688, at Charlestown, 
Mass., was "an Irish woman of a strange tongue" named Glover. 
Her daughter was accused by a child of her "master" with having 
stolen family linen. The "scandalous old hag" Glover was "a 
Roman Catholic; she had never learned the Lord's Prayer in 
English." She was "condemned as a witch and executed" 
(Bancroft, iii., 76, ed. 1842). 

The first victim of the Salem witchcraft of 1691 was "Bridget 
Bishop, a poor and friendless old woman." She was hanged June 
loth, 1692. 

The drastic laws enacted in New York, on the accession of 
William and Mary at the close of the seventeenth century, found 
an echo in New Jersey. 

The law of 1698, declaring what are the rights and privileges 
of his Majesty's subjects in East New Jersey, directed "that no 
person or persons that profess faith in God by Jesus Christ, His 
only Son, shall at any time be molested, punished, disturbed, or 
be called in question for difference in religious opinion, &c., &c., 
provided this shall not extend to any of the Romish religion the 
right to exercise their manner of worship contrary to the laws and 
statutes of England." 

When Lord Cornbury assumed the government of New Jersey 
in 1 701, his instructions directed him to permit liberty of con- 
science to all persons except papists. Matters remained thus 
with the Catholic Church in New Jersey until the end of the Brit- 
ish rule. 



IN NEW JERSEY 13 

In her "Instructions" to Lord Cornbury, November i6th, 
1702, Queen Anne, among others, directed him to have oversight 
that no man's Hfe, member, freehold, or goods be taken away, or 
harmed, otherwise than by due process of the law ; that liberty of 
conscience be allowed to every one "except papists," and the 
"test" oath be administered "for preventing dangers which may 
happen from papish recusants." 

Early in the eighteenth century almost every church in our 
State had a school attached to it. " By the side of the log church 
the primitive school-house was erected ; and schools, supervised 
and supported by the church authorities, were established in all 
the larger settlements of East Jersey. The pioneers in West 
Jersey were Quakers. To them school-houses w^ere scarcely sec- 
ond in importance, and were usually placed under the same roof 
with their place of worship " (Raum, History of Nezu Jersey, ii., 
284). Private schools were also established, sometimes in a pri- 
vate house, sometimes in a rude building, and here the children 
were taught by an itinerant school-master, occasionally a college- 
bred man, and, not unfrequently, a Scotch or Irish redeniptioner. 
This leads us to some of the saddest pages of the history of the 
Irish race. 

The war ended in Ireland in 1652. According to the calcula- 
tion of Sir W. Petty, out of a population of 1,446,000, 616,000 
had in eleven years perished by the sword, by plague, or by famine 
artificially produced; 504,000, according ta this estimate, were 
Irish, 112,000 of English extraction. A third part of the popula- 
tion had been blotted out, and Petty tells us that according to 
some calculations the number of the victims was much greater. 
. . Famine and sword had so done their work that in some 
districts the traveller rode twenty or thirty miles without seeing 
one trace of human life, and fierce wolves — rendered doubly savage 
by feeding on human flesh — multiplied with startling rapidity 
through the deserted land, and might be seen prowling in num- 
bers within a few miles of Dublin, Liberty was given to able- 
bodied men to abandon the country and enlist in foreign service, 
and from 30,000 to 40,000 availed themselves of the permission. 
Slave-dealers were let loose upon the land, and many hundreds of 
boys and marriageable girls, guilty of no offence whatever, were 
torn away from their country, shipped to the Barbadoes and sold 
as slaves to planters (Lecky, England in the Eighteenth Century, 
ii., 188). 

The archives of the Ministry of War of France show that 



14 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

700,000 Irish soldiers gave their hearts' blood on a hundred bat- 
tlefields under \\\q. fleur-de-lis and the tricolor of the French mon- 
archy and republic {Life of Montalcinbcrt, Lecanuet, i., 107). 

In twenty years there were at least four of absolute famine, 
and that of 1 740-1 741, although it has hardly left a trace in history, 
was one of the most fearful on record. One writer states that 
400,000 perished this year through famine or its attendant diseases 
(Lecky, ii., 238). The details of the sufferings and deaths are 
sickening and revolting. Whole parishes were desolate, and 
whole thousands perished in a barony. 

Newnham, on "Irish Emigration," remarks: "If we said that 
during fifty years of the eighteenth century the average annual 
emigrations to America and the West Indies amounted to about 
4,000, and consequently that in that space of time about 200,000 
had emigrated to the English plantations, I am disposed to think 
we should rather fall short of the real truth " (Lecky, ii., 284). 

The Abbe MacGeoghegan says: By calculation and by re- 
searches made in the war office it is found that from the year 1691 
to the battle of Fontenoy, in 1745, more than 450,000 Irish soldiers 
died in the service of France. 

Sir William Petty, writing in 1672, states that six thousand 
boys and women were sold as slaves from Ireland to the under- 
takers of the Anierican islands. Bruodin estimates the total num- 
ber of the exiles from Ireland at 100,000. A letter, written in 
1656, cited by Dr. Lingard, reckons the number of Catholics thus 
sent to slavery at 60,000. "The Catholics are sent off in ship- 
fuls to the Barbadoes and other American islands. I believe 
60,000 have already gone; for the husbands being first sent to 
Belgium and Spain already, their wives and children are now 
destined for the Americas " {Persecutions of Irish Catholics, 
Moran, 323). 

In the course of years many of these Irish exiles became 
proprietors of the estates on which they labored, attained great 
wealth, had their black slaves, who assumed their names, and to- 
day one may meet them, black as ebony, bearing such names as 
T. Kelly Smith, S. M. Burke, Rachel Dunn, J. Harris Carr, and 
speaking English with a rich brogue. 

As late as 1785 the trade of "soul driver" was plied, and 
human cargoes of fifty or more were purchased from the inhuman 
captains of the ships which brought them over, by dealers, who 
drove them through the country and disposed of them to the 
farmers. Thus were the shipmasters compensated and enriched 



IN NEW JERSP'T 15 

for the expenses of the immigrants' passage over-sea. " All strata 
of society," says B. F. Lee, "were represented among the redemp- 
tioners, most of whom, in New Jersey, were Palatinate Germans, 
Scotch, English, Irish, and Scotch-Irish, sons of good families, 
street waifs, soldiers of fortune, young girls fresh from farms, dis- 
solute women from the purlieus of London and the great cities. 
Some in search of a new home, some desiring to reform wayward 
lives, some seeking adventure, were huddled upon ships and 
brought to Philadelphia, New York, Salem, Burlington, and Am- 
boy. Once landed, they v/ere offered to the highest bidder, placed 
on show like cattle, and hurried off to near-by farms, to become 
assimilated in a population which was as yet shifting and hetero- 
geneous. The advertisements of these sales crowd the columns 
of the newspapers of the day. The boys were ' likely ' and 
' willing,' the girls ' hearty ' and ' used to country work.' Here 
and there was one who could serve as a school-master, as a 
' taylor,' or as a shoemaker. Others there were who had trades, 
and many were ' pock-fretten.' " 

Once in the hands of a new master, the life of the redemp- 
tioner was more distasteful than that of a slave. Some owners 
recognized that their tenure over the life and liberty of the redemp- 
tioner was brief and uncertain, and, moved by selfish impulses, 
cruelly overworked their bondsmen. As a result, the redemptioner 
often performed more degrading work than a slave, and was 
treated with greater severity. Under such circumstances escapes 
were frequent, the advertisements in the newspapers described 
with great particularity the personal appearance and dress of the 
fugitive. Rewards, usually proportioned to the length of years 
the redemptioner had to serve, were offered, and from time to 
time notices appeared in the public prints advising those inter- 
ested that redemptioners had been taken up and were held in the 
common jails awaiting proper proofs of ownership. 

In the mutations of fortune the position of master and redemp- 
tioner was occasionally reversed. Upon completing his time a 
redemptioner would obtain possession of land, and, by successful 
ventures, become a proprietor. His sons would marry the daugh- 
ters of his former master, and families in the State trace their 
genealogies to such alliances. Nor was it uncommon for the 
redemptioner to secure a position in after-life as one of his Maj- 
esty's justices, although he seldom aspired to a seat in the House 
of Assembly, or hoped for a place in council. 

These redemptioners were made up of the Irish, the Scotch, 



i6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

and some from the German Palatinate, who were offered for sale 
at the docks of Philadelphia, Egg Harbor City, and elsewhere at 
from sixty to eighty dollars each, as late as in 1831. This trade 
introduced a new word into our language — " kidnapper." Of it 
Bailey, in his dictionary, has this to say : " Kid, formerly one 
trepanned" {i.e., entrapped) "by kidnappers; now, one who is 
bound apprentice here {England) in order to be transported to 
the English colonies in America^ Kidnapper, a person who 
makes it his business to decoy either children or young persons, 
to send them to the English plantations in America {Historical 
Magaaine, N. Y., June 1871, 399). 

The lowest and most degraded engaged in this infamous traffic, 
and one of them, Capt. William Cunningham, before suffering the 
death penalty he so richly deserved for his many and fiendish 
crimes, made a confession, a part of which is : 

"In the year 1792 we removed to Newry, where I commenced 
the profession of scowbanker, which is that of enticing the me- 
chanics and country people to ship themselves for America, on 
promise of great advantage, and then artfully getting an indenture 
upon them in consequence of which, on their arrival in America, 
they are sold or obliged to serve a term of years for their passage " 
{Principles and Acts of tJie Revolution, H. Niles, Baltimore, 1822, 

P- 274)- 

" When the Irish emigrants landed on the shores of Virginia, 
the laws against Catholics obliged them to embark again and set 
sail for Montserrat, in the West Indies, long known as an Irish 
colony. Sir George Calvert, also, was excluded from the native 
State of Washington because he was a Catholic, and for that rea- 
son founded his colony of Maryland. But amid their persecu- 
tions some Jesuit Fathers sought to extend around the succours 
of religion, for some Catholics were even then to be found in Vir- 
ginia, chiefly as slaves or indentured apprentices — Irish men and 
women, torn from their native land and sold into foreign bondage. 
After the struggle of 1541, and the Protestant triumph which en- 
sued, the Irish Catholics were relentlessly banished, and the State 
documents of Cromwell's time enable us to reckon from fifty to 
one hundred thousand forcibly transported to America. The ma- 
jority were given to the Barbadoes and Jamaica, but a great num- 
ber of women and children were also sold in Virginia, the men 
having been pressed into the Protector s navy. In 1652 the com- 
missaries of the Commonwealth ordered ' Irish women to be sold 
to merchants and shipped to Virginia,' and th^se ynfortunate fe- 



IN NEW JERSEY 17 

males, reduced to the condition of slavery as African negroes, sunk 
in great numbers under the labors imposed upon them by their 
masters" (De Courcey-Shea's History, p. 158). 

The hatred of the Virginia colonists toward Catholics was in- 
tense, and laws were passed by which no Catholic could hold 
ofifice, or vote, or keep arms, or own a horse, or even be a witness 
in any cause, civil or criminal. Papists were driven out of the 
colony, or out of the fold ; and when the Irish emigrants landed 
on its shores their reception was so hostile that they re-embarked 
for Montserrat, in the West Indies. 

The laws enacted by the first proprietors held out such induce- 
ments that it was to the interests of shipmasters to bring over as 
many, and of the colonists to buy as many redemptioners as their 
means would permit, as it meant for them larger concessions of 
territory. " We do hereby grant unto all persons who have al- 
ready adventured to the said Province of Nova Caesarea, or shall 
transport themselves, 150 acres of land, English measure; and for 
every able servant he shall carry with him 150 acres; and for 
every weaker servant or slave, male or female, exceeding the age 
of fourteen years, seventy-five acres of land ; and for every Chris- 
tian servant, exceeding the age aforesaid, after the expiration of 
their time of service, seventy-five acres of land for their own use 
(The Concessions and Agreements of the Lord Proprietors of the 
Province of Nova Caesarea)." 

In the press of the middle of the eighteenth century may be 
found curious advertisements for such redemptioners who would 
from^time to time take French leave. 

Forty Sillings Reward 

Little Britain Township, 

Lancaster County, June, 1769. 
Between the Sixth and Seventh day, 
Mary Nowland ran away; 
Her age I know not but appears 
To be at least full twenty years ; 
The same religion with the Pope. 

Penn. Gazette, yuiie 2g, Ij6g. 

Sept. 4, 1769. 
The jSIorning of this very day, 
My servant, John Stoge ran away, 
He came from Limerick the last fall, 
He's five feet seven inches tall. 



i8 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

He reads very well and writes a good hand, 
And arithmetic does well understand, 
As he can well use the scrivener's tool, 
He will incline to teach a school. 

Pcjin. Gazette, Sept. 28, 1769. 

About three thousand Alsatians came to Pennsylvania by invi- 
tation of the proprietors in 1682, who, says their historian, "while 
they were building their homes dwelt in caves and rude huts." 

Many of them settled at Haycock on the banks of the Dela- 
ware, and kept the faith alive across the river in West Jersey. 
Their descendants found their way as far north as New Bruns- 
wick, and, unlike many offshoots of sturdy Catholic stock, are still 
loyal to the religion of their forefathers, and among thera to-day 
are the Witts, Hunridges, and others. 

A great deal of stress and an exaggerated importance has been 
laid by non-Catholic writers on the numbers of Huguenots who 
came to this country after the revocatioii of the edict of Nantes, 
1685, and some claim that as many as half a million were driven 
from France, and most of them found shelter, refuge, and a wd- 
come in the colonies from Nova Scotia to Florida. 

"Weiss," says Gilmary Shea, "exaggerates beyond all limits 
the importance of that immigration, and draws an imaginary 
sketch of the influence exercised on America, by the French 
Huguenots, in agriculture, literature, politics, arts, sciences, civil- 
ization, and so forth. We shall be much more in truth's domain 
when we affirm that the French Catholic families, driven from the 
West Indies by the frightful consequences of the revolution, and 
who came to seek peace and liberty in the United States, far ex- 
ceeded in number the Protestant immigration of the previous cen- 
tury. Nay, more: Misfortune having purified their faith, these 
Creoles were distinguished for their attachment to religion, and 
often became models of American congregations. Without count- 
ing Martinique and Guadeloupe, the French part of San Domingo 
contained, in 1793, forty thousand whites. All emigrated to 
escape being massacred by the blacks. Many mulattoes followed 
them, and of this mass of emigrants a great part settled in the 
United States " (De Courcey-Shea's History of CatJiolies in 
United States, p. 74). Now and then in some martial achieve- 
ment, or by the betrayal of some racial weakness, or an outburst 
of genius and learning — for which the Celt has ever thirsted, and, 
possessing, has ever been eager to impart to others — there flashes 



IN NEW JERSEY 19 

forth from the gloom a name, unmistakably indicative of the na- 
tionality and religion of its bearer. Perchance it is a pursuit, or 
an exploit, mayhap, the result of a perverted morality, but always 
a pointer, fixing our attention on the many-sided character of the 
sons of Erin, whether in commercial enterprises or in the ar- 
rested development of the better part of his nature, when deprived 
of the help and aid of religion. 

Shortly before the outbreak of the Revolution, Brant and his 
savages were devastating the settlements in what are now the 
counties of Warren and Sussex with fire and tomahawk. The 
hardy pioneers rallied together in common defence, and, armed 
with their muskets, marched forth to meet the cruel foe; and, 
near the water of the Minisink, the fierce conflict raged long 
and doubtful, till at last the Indians fled, leaving on the field many 
of their dead and wounded. The settlers, too, suffered severely, 
and among the slain was one Thomas Dunn. 

We read again that Christopher Beekman, son of Col. Ger- 
ardus Beekman, one of Leisler's council— all of whom were pro- 
nounced guilty of treason, their estates forfeited, and themselves 
sentenced to be hung — a large land-owner in Somerset County, 
was united by marriage to Maria Delaney, in New York, January 
28th, 1704. Of their eight children four were daughters — Cor- 
nelia, Magdalene, Maria, and Katherine. 

As one rides from Pluckamin toward Somerville there stands 
an old house near a brook, built in 1756, by Squire Laferty, and 
known in the old surveys as the " Laferty House." Laferty was 
an Irish emigrant \\\\o lived there with his wife and their daugh- 
ter Ruth, a handsome girl, but of questionable morals. A fellow- 
countryman and forn>er friend of the- squire once called on him, 
and was guilty of the heinous offence of wearing his hat in pres- 
ence of the august upholder of tJie law. The squire commanded 
him to remove it. " You gray lampreen," retorted the incensed 
visitor, " to command me thus ! You roa-sted praties many a time 
by my fireside when you had no hearth of your own." 

Ruth, his daughter, brought sorrow to the family, whe-n the 
wild, dissolute offspring of an illicit union — handsome and way- 
ward as his moth-er — was the first and, to 1873, the only white 
man ever executed in Somerset County. 

The jail, a rickety affair, was in charge of one O'Brien, over 
six feet tall, a strapping, bold, and fearless man from Virginia. 

In this neighborhood lived also at that time John McBride, 
who came from Ireland late in the eighteenth century, and settled 



20 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

in Lamington; and an "old " Mr. Boylen kept a store in Pluck- 
amin. Others there were connected with tragedies to which, 
perhaps, they had been driven by their cruel taskmasters. 

In 1750 Daniel O'Brien, "who," according to the N. V. Ga- 
settc Review in tJie Weekly Post Boy, "put up at Mr. John 
Thompson's at the Thistle and Crown, known by the name of 
'Scotch Johnney's,' gives notice to 'Gentlemen and Ladies' that 
he conducts a Stage boat ... if Wind and Weather permit " from 
New York to Amboy and thence by stage to Bordentown, where 
another stage boat runs to Philadelphia. The rates are the same 
as between New Brunswick and Trenton and " the roads gener- 
ally drier" (Lee, i., 233). 

The broad liberality of the Friends tolerated the presence of 
Roman Catholics in West Jersey. Among the BVench servants 
of Dr. Daniel Coxe, at Cape May, earlier than 1700, there were 
probably many Catholics. 

" It has not been clearly demonstrated that John Tatham, about 
whose title to the governorship of West Jersey there was dispute, 
was not a Catholic. Certain it is that his library, which over- 
looked his famous garden in Burlington, contained books of Cath- 
olic theology, a rare circumstance, indeed, considering that two 
centuries had elapsed since any library of a theological partisan 
was filled with volumes dealing only with one side of the question " 
(Lee, iii., 319). Tatham, whose name, it appears, was an alias 
for John Gray, was not only Dr. Coxe's agent, but the owner of 
lands in Neshanning, Pa. Griffin, in his Researehes, says : " We 
are now satisfied that 'John Gray ye R. C was John Tatham 
whose career was so fully told in October, 1888 (July, 1890, p. 
109)." 

Of his title to be considered one of the governors of New Jer- 
sey, an excellent authority says : " So averse were the opponents 
of the proprietors to the re-establishment of their authority, that 
for a time the public sentiment was in favor of a continuance of 
this state of comparatively imperfect organization as a govern- 
ment. For, on the arrival of Hamilton in England and the death 
of Governor Barclay, October 3d, 1690, the proprietors appointed 
John Tatham to be their governor, and subsequently, in 1691, 
Col. Joseph Dudley, but both nominees the people scrupled to 
obey, on what ground is not stated (W. A. Whitehead, Coll. N.J. 
Hist. Soe., i., 2d rev. ed., p. 185). 

To Tatham belongs the credit of initiating the pottery indus- 
try, as he built the first pottery on this side of the Atlantic. 



IN NEW JERSEY 21 

The inventory of his effects includes, among other things: 
"Church Plate/' i handle cup, i small plate, 1 box £10. 12; i 
small case, ;^i. 2. 6; 1 universal dial; i round armed silver cruci- 
fix; I plate of St. Dominique, i small silver box with reliques, i 
wooden cross with image of Christ, ^i. 12. In his library were: 
" Pontifical Rome," Sir Thomas More's works, " Liturgy of Ye 
Mass," "Faith Vindicated," "Theologia Naturalis," "No Cross, 
No Crown," " Consideration of Ye Council of Trent," " Necessity 
of the Church of God," " Bibli Vulgati," "A Survey of Ye New 
Religion," "The Following of Christ," "Theologia Moralis," 
"Office of Ye Blessed Virgin" in French, "A Mass of Pious 
Thoughts," "Ambrosia Officia," "Defence of Catholic Faith." 
There v^-ere four hundred and seventy-eight volumes by actual 
count, mostly with Latin titles, treating of church discipline, com- 
mentaries on the Scripture, law, logic, theology, controversy, hi.s- 
tory, medicine, music, astronomy, and kindred subjects. 

The spirit of intolerance outlined in the Instructions of Queen 
Anne was not soon alla)'ed; and the so-called Negro Plot of 1741 
gave the fanatics an opportunity to show their spleen against the 
Catholic Church, and to accentuate how criminally unjust even 
educated men may be when they permit themselves to be swayed 
by passion and bigotry. All this is evident in the trial and con- 
viction of John Ury, about whose priestly character there has 
been much contention. Despite the opinion of Bishop Bayley to 
the contrary, it seems to be about certain that he was a Catholic 
priest. 

John Ury, a priest, began teaching school in Burlington, N. J., 
June 1 8th, 1739, and remained there twelve months. After a 
while he went to New York, engaged again in teaching, and 
received his board gratis (Horsemanden's Account of N^cgTo Plot, 
1744). During his stay it appears that he celebrated Mass pri- 
vately in his room, first locking the door to ensure privacy. There 
is also evidence that he administered infant baptism. In April, 
1741, he was engaged to teach school by John Campbell, and 
resided with him. In Campbell's house he had a private room, 
in which Father Ury had erected a temporary altar, and in it he 
gathered a number of persons, to whom he preached, and for 
whom, no doubt, he offered the holy Sacrifice; but he was ever 
careful not to expose himself to the severe legal penalties by 
appearing in the garb of a priest or noisily exercising his priestly 
office. He lived in so much obscurity, his conduct was so blame- 



22 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

less, and his deportment so humble, that he escaped censure, 
although he was known to not a few as a Catholic priest. The 
so-called Negro Plot, in 1741, enkindled the passions of the mul- 
titude and gave rise "to confusion and alarm, to folly, frenzy, 
and injustice, which scarcely has a parallel in this or any other 
country " (^American Colonial Trials, Peleg W. Chandler, Boston, 
1844). The result of this delusion was the hanging of four whites, 
the burning of eleven and the hanging of eighteen negroes, and 
the transportation to the West Indies to be sold as slaves of fifty. 

The examinations and trial had gone on for three months 
without any attempt to connect Father Ury with the plot. On 
the flimsiest kind of testimony, all the accused, together with 
John Ury, whose principal offence was his " being a priest, made 
by the authority of the pretended See of Rome " — "the heinous- 
ness of this prisoner's offences, and of tJie Popish religion in gen- 
eral'' — were condemned, and Ury was hanged. 

Campbell, who wrote the Life and Times of Archbisliop Car- 
roll, is of the opinion that Ury was a Catholic priest, but Bishop 
Bayley differs from him and thinks that he was a non-juror {Hist. 
C. C. on Island of N. Y., p. 46). 

In the centennial sermon preached by Father Clarke at St. 
Joseph's Church, Philadelphia, the preacher stated Mass had been 
celebrated in the City of Brotherly Love as early as 1686, but 
there is no evidence that any chapel was built there prior to 1733, 
when its Catholic population amounted to forty persons. The 
summer of 1732 was very hot, and the winter of 1732-33 very 
severe. In the spring of 1733 Father Greaton, who had been 
visiting the Catholics of Philadelphia as early as 1720, was sent to 
build a chapel and take up his permanent residence within its 
limits. Although the land was bought from John Dixon and his 
wife Mary, there is no other name than that of " Mary " on the 
legal transfer from the original patent in 1701-02; and thus it 
happened that the first Catholic church in Philadelphia was erected 
on Mary's land, and placed under the patronage of St. Joseph. 

A certain Jacob Duche gives the following pen description of 
the chapel : Mr. Harding was so obliging as to invite my friend, 
the merchant, and myself to spend an hour with him in his little 
Carthnsian cell, as he called it. This small apartment adjoins 
an old Gothic chapel, and together with another opposite to it 
(which is occupied by an assistant German priest, viz.. Father 
Farmer) forms a kind of porch, through which you enter the 
chapel (January 14th, 1772). 



IN NEW JKRSKY 



n 



Father Greaton's congregation was made up of twenty-two 
Irish and the rest Germans. This good priest labored among his 
httle flock, with occasional assistance from Maryland, until 1741, 
when the Rev. Henry Neale arrived from Maryland in the month 
of March, having been prevented from coming earlier by the deep 
snows of the winter. He fonnd the good repute of the Catholics 
somewhat exaggerated, yet " the congregation a growing one " ; 
but that one priest was as yet suflficient, an assistant being needed 







OLD ST. JOSEPH S CHURCH, PHILADELPHIA. 

" Whence radiated the living streams of grace " (page 23). 

for the country Catholics, some of whom lived sixty miles away. 
They "were very poor and most of them are servants or poor 
tradesmen." 

St. Joseph's was the first parish house of Catholicity in Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey, and New York for at least fourscore years. 
This was the centre whence radiated the living streams of grace 
to wherever a faithful child of the Church was found, and by its 
faithful, saintly priests was fostered and nourished the little mus- 
tard seed now grown into so noble and stately a tree. The old 
church is a shrine worthy of our veneration, for underneath its 
altars are buried the carthlv remains of those " who sowed in 



24 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

tears, that we might reap with joy." Father Greaton remained 
at his lonely post until 1750. His successor, the Rev. Robert 
Harding, came to this country from England in 1732. When he 
arrived in Philadelphia, August, 1749, it was a city of two thou- 
sand homes. 

* Father Harding " is the first priest to have visited New Jersey, 
whose labors could not have been prior to 1762" (De Courcey- 
Shea). This is hardly accurate, for we have seen that other 
priests had visited and exercised their sacred ministry in Eliza- 
bethtown and Woodbridge at the close of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and very likely at a much later period. Father Harding died 
September 2d, 1772, in the seventieth year of his age, and is 
buried under the altar of St. Mary's. 

The priest of that venerable sanctuary most closely identified 
with Catholicity in New Jersey was the Rev. Ferdinand Farmer, 
whose family name was Steinmeyer. This truly apostolic man 
and devoted and indefatigable missionary was born at Swabia, 
Germany, October 13th, 1720. He entered the Company of 
Jesus at Landerperge, September 26th, 1743, and was selected for 
the China Mission; but the "finger of God" intervened and the 
young priest was sent to this country. No picture of him is ex- 
tant ; but we are told that he was " of slender form, having a 
countenance mild, gentle, and bearing an expression almost 
seraphic." 

It appears that he arrived in Philadelphia in 1758, and from 
that time until he was called to his reward, August 17th, 1786, he 
was untiring in his labors for the salvation of souls. 

Every spring and every autumn saw him starting off on his 
journey along the Delaware River, across country to Long Pond 
(now Greenwood Lake), Mount Hope, Macopin, New York City, 
Basking Ridge, Trenton, and Salem. 

While good Father Farmer was one of the first apostles who 
spent himself in carrying the comforts of religion to the little com- 
munities scattered over New Jersey, he was by no means the first 
missionary priest, nor, after his death, were the Catholics totally 
abandoned. The names of these zealous, godly men are blotted 
out with their heroic deeds, but they are graven in the Book of 
Life. It is nigh impossible for us to realize the perils, discom- 
forts, and risks they encountered in their journeyings. 

The roads, at best, were only paths and Indian trails, of which 
one led from Philadelphia to Delaware Falls, now Trenton, north- 
easterly to Indian's Ferry, now New Brunswick, thence to Eliza- 



IN NEW JERSEY 



25 




FATHER FARMER. 

One of " these men of God, sometimes on horseback, . . . trudging through the forests 
. . . welcomed as an angel sent from God " (page 26). 



26 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

bethtovvn, where wayfarers were carried by boat to New York, 
From a point near Rahway another trail, starting from Navesink, 
on the Shrewsbury River, led to Minisink Island, in the extreme 
north, in the Delaware River. In West Jersey a road extended 
from Trenton to Crosswicks, thence to Burlington, to Trenton, to 
Salem, and later to Cohanzy Bridge, now Bridgeton. But be- 
tween New Brunswick and Trenton lay a narrow waste of thirty 
miles of country, which, owing to the unpleasant relations between 
the two sections, remained for a long time a barrier which barred 
communication. Through this wilderness was an Indian trail, 
along or near which the Legislature of 1795 ordered a road to be 
constructed. Picture, then, these men of God, sometimes on 
horseback, sometimes afoot, with their sack strapped across their 
back, containing the altar-stone, vestments, chalice, and wine for 
the Sacrifice, trudging through the forests, over mountains, cross- 
ing streams and rivers in the rude "dugouts," picking their way 
through the swamps, at times wet to the skin by the tempests 
which overtook them, again almost prostrated by the intolerable 
heats, resting under the shelter of the trees or in some rude cabin, 
perhaps of one hostile to their faith, or in the humble home of an 
exiled child of the Church, who welcomed them as an angel sent 
from God. " I remember," said Bishop McOuaid, " one of my 
visits to Franklin Furnace. While driving along the wretched 
road I remarked a dilapidated stone house, and, hearing the noise 
of my buggy, a woman came to the door. I greeted her, as I 
always did those I met, and I suspected from her accent that she 
was Irish. I soon learned that she was both Irish and a Catholic 
and that she kept boarders. There were three rooms in the 
house — a kitchen, and two others which served as bedrooms. After 
I saw that my horse was cared for, I asked if she could accommo- 
date me for the night. She showed me a room in which were two 
beds, and pointing to one she informed me that I could sleep in it, 
and her sister and herself would sleep in the other. For supper 
we had some soggy bread . Afterward I heard confessions, and 
then went to the bed assigned to me ; but the odors were too 
much for me, and I returned to the kitchen, saying that I would 
read my office. I was a long time at that office, and meanwhile 
the tallow-dip was growing smaller. A thought flashed across 
my mind. I went out to my buggy, and, wrapping myself in the 
horse-blankets, passed the night tolerably well. Morning came, 
bright and early, I heard more confessions, began Mass, preached 
a sermon, as I always did, rubbing it into them that though iso- 



IN NEW JERSEY 27 

lated from their priests they must remain staunch to the Church 
and Hve up to its laws, gave holy Communion, and then sat down 
to breakfast. But again that soggy bread, together with a very 
much salted mackerel, swimming in grease. It was too much for 
my stomach, so bidding them Godspeed I started again on my 
journey, and did not break my fast till evening." 

But this is modern history, and the discomforts of the priests 
of that day, grave enough indeed, were as nothing compared with 
their earlier brethren in the missionary field. 

Some time in the middle of the eighteenth century, three 
brothers, Sebastian, Ignatius, and Xavier Waas, fled from their 
native country, Germany, to avoid the military conscription so 
tyrannically exercised at that time, and, landing at Philadelphia, 
crossed over into West Jersey, and, taking up an Indian trail, 
through moor and morass, across streams, and through the for- 
ests, made their way to the north side of a beautiful stream of 
water, known now as Clark's or O'Neill's branch, in Waterford 
Township, Gloucester County, and there built a square and com- 
fortable cabin of cedar logs. This rude dwelling they called 
Shane's Castle, but the Celtic aroma that lingers about the name 
of the adjacent stream would lead one to believe that some lone 
wanderer from Erin had preceded them, and seeing, perhaps, 
some resemblance to another dear spot far over the great ocean, 
gave it a name which even the Indians respected, and which clung 
to it after he, like so many others of his countrymen, had passed 
into oblivion. However, by that name was it known and enshrined 
by tradition. 

The memory of one of the brothers, Sebastian, is hallowed 
with a pretty romance. Before his flight from fatherland he had 
plighted his troth to a plucky Gretchen who vowed to follow after 
him whithersoever he went. She escaped the vigilance of her 
parents, and before they could overtake her she was safe aboard 
a sailing-vessel, bound for Philadelphia. 

Sebastian's vigil was a long one, but his faith in his spouse 
was unshaken, and, at last, after a long voyage, the ship landed 
her human freight safe on the Delaware's shores. But, alas ! 
Sebastian was unable to bring her to his home and brethren, for, 
having no money wherewith to pay her passage, she was to be 
sold as a " redemptioner." This did not disconcert Sebastian, for 
with his trusty gun he soon secured pelts sufficent to defray all 
expenses, and with his loved one, now doubly cherished because 
of his efforts to save her from temporary serfdom, went to a priest 



28 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

in Philadelphia, who blessed their union. The brothers welcomed 
their new sister, and another charm was added to their sylvestral 
home. Furthermore, they were to erect a shrine where the mys- 
teries of their religion were to be celebrated, and thither came, 
not once but often, good Father Farmer, who kept alive in their 
and their neighbors' hearts the fire of faith. There is scarcely 
any doubt that holy Mass was offered for the first time in 
Shane's Castle, the home of the Waas. Here the little seed 
was cast that was destined to grow into a mighty tree. His 
records show that Father Farmer christened five children of this 
union. Two daughters survived, married, and inherited the 
estate ; but the memory of the old castle has almost entirely faded 
away. 

It seems that time did not soften the asperity or hostility either 
of the ruling powers abroad or of their subjects in these colonies 
toward our religion. George II in 1753 proclaimed an ordinance 
which was not only not less bitter, but more provocative than the 
instructions of William and Mary. 

"To the Governor, Council, and General Assembly of our 
Province of New Jersey, 13th day of October, 1753. 

" Oath prescribed for all civil and military officers. 

" I, A. B., do swear. That I from my heart abhor, detest, and 
abjure, as impious and heretical, that Damnable Doctrine and 
Position, that Princes, excommunicated or deprived by the Pope 
or any authority of the See of Rome, may be deprived or murdered 
by their subjects or any other whatsoever. 

" I, A. B., do solemnly swear and sincerely in the presence of 
God, Profess, Testify, and Declare, That I do solemnly believe 
that in the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper there is not any Tran- 
substantiation of the Elements of Bread and Wine into the Body 
and Blood of Christ, at or after the Consecration thereof by any 
person whatsoever. And that the Invocation or Adoration of the 
Virgin Mary, or any other Saint, and the Sacrifice of the Mass as 
they are now used in the Church of Rome, are Superstitious and 
Idolatrous, etc., etc." 

With this as a cue, we need marvel not that in his Instructions, 
in 1758, Gov. Francis Bernard orders, "You are to permit a 
Libert}' of Conscience to all persons (except Papists)." Lest he 
should forget it, Father Farmer had this slip pasted on the fly- 
sheet of his register. The forbears of our present non-Catholic 
brethren had thus the spirit of intolerance and hostility to Cath- 
olics so rubbed into them that an occasional ebullition of this 



IN NEW JERSEY 29 

same spirit in our day may be pardoned. Of all human weak- 
nesses, fanaticism dies the hardest. 

And withal these protagonists of pure religion were exceedingly 
superstitious. Ghosts, witches, phantoms, and papists haunted 
their imaginations and confused their thoughts. The witch scare 
which disturbed the Puritans of Charlestown and Salem in the 
seventeenth century seems to have disturbed the ecjuanimity of 
the Quakers living in Burlington. A noble buttonwood tree 
standing on beautiful Green Bank, the former residence of William 
Franklin when governor of New Jersey, was known as "The 
Witches' Tree," and around it was woven a legend of spectral 
dames astride of broomsticks, soaring to the stars with the speed 
of forked lightning. This is one of the verses of the song they 
were heard to sing : 

First Witch. 
I saw Dame Brady sitting alone, 
And I dried up the marrow within her hip bone. 
When she arose she could scarcely limp. 
Why did I do it? She called me foul imp ! 

About this same time, 1765, a tragic event occurred in Bur- 
lington by which two of our co-religionists paid the penalty of a 
crime which to-day would have been punished with a term of im- 
prisonment. On Wednesday, August 28th, 1765, at Gallows Hill, 
Burlington, John Grimes and John Fagan, Catholics, were exe- 
cuted for burglary and felony, committed at the home of Joseph 
Burr. Grimes was twenty-two years old, Fagan twenty-eight. 

The chronicles of Burlington contain a sketch of a singular 
and mysterious character. " Four miles from hence, a recluse 
person, who came a stranger, has existed alone, near twelve years, 
in a thick wood, through all the extremities of the seasons, under 
cover of a few leaves, supported by the side of an old log, and put 
together in the form of a small oven, not high or long enough to 
stand upright or lie extended ; he talks Dutch, but unintelligibly, 
either through design or from defect in his intellects, 'tis hard to 
tell which ; whence he came or what he is nobody about him can 
find out ; he has no contrivance to keep fire, nor uses any ; in 
very cold weather he lies naked, stops the hole he creeps in and 
out with leaves ; he mostly keeps in his hut, but sometimes walks 
before it, lies on the ground, and cannot be persuaded to work 
much, nor obliged without violence to forsake this habit, which 
he appears to delight in, and to enjoy full health; he seems to be 



30 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

upward of forty years of age ; as to person rather under the mid- 
dle size; calls himself Francis" (Smith, N. J., 495). 

Another account is : 

" With several friends in a couple of light wagons went to see 
the hermit in a wood this side of Mount Holly. 

" He is a person thought to have travelled along from Canada 
or Mississippi about ten years ago. He talks no English, and will 
give no account of himself" (Diary of Hannah Callender, 1762, 
6th mo., 5th day, Pa. Mag., January, 1769, p. 456). 

Burlington, January 28th, 1778. 

On the 19th inst. died Francis Furgler, the hermit, in the 
sixty-sixth year of his age, who existed alone twenty-five years, in 
a thick wood four miles from Burlington, through all the inclem- 
encies of the season, without fire, in a cell, made by the side of an 
old log, in the form of a small oven, not high or long enough to 
stand upright or lie extended. It was supposed he intended this 
mode as a penance for some evil done in his own country. He 
was a German — a Catholic, and was buried in the Friends' 
Ground at Mount Holly (Watson's Annals, ii., 292). 

Francis Furgler, age sixty-six, a hermit who had existed 
twenty-five years alone, died January 19th, 1778. "He was found 
dead in his cell with a crucifix and a brass fish by his side " 
(Moore's '' Diary of Rev.;' ii., 8). 

" The earliest account that we have of Catholics in New Jer- 
sey is in 1744, when we read that Father Theodore Schneider, a 
distinguished German Jesuit who had professed philosophy and 
theology in Europe, and been rector of a university, coming to 
the American provinces, visited New Jersey and held church at 
Iron Furnaces there. This good missionary was a native of 
Bavaria. He founded the mission at Goshenhoppen, now in Berks 
County, Pa., about forty -five miles from Philadelphia, and minis- 
tered to German Catholics, their descendants and others. Hav- 
ing some skill in medicine, he used to cure the body as well as the 
soul; and travelling about on foot or on horseback under the 
name of Doctor Schneider (leaving to the Smclfnnguscs to dis- 
cover whether he were of medicine or of di\inity), he had access 
to places where he would not otherwise have gone without per- 
sonal danger; but sometimes his real character was found out, and 
he was several times raced and shot at in New Jersey. He used 
to carry about with him on his missionary excursions into this 



IN NEW JERSEY 31 

pro\'ince a manuscript copy of the 'Roman Missal,' carefully- 
written out in his own handwriting and bound by himself. His 
poverty or the difficulty of procuring printed Catholic liturgical 
books from Europe, or, we are inclined to think, the danger of 
discovery should such an one with its unmistakable marks of 
'Popery ' about it (which he probably dispensed with in his manu- 
script) fall into the hands of heretics, must have led him to this 
labor of patience and zeal. Father Schneider, who may be reck- 
oned the first missionary in New Jersey, died on the eleventh of 
July, 1764. Another Jesuit used to visit the province occasionally 
after 1762, owing to the growing infirmities of Father Schneider, 
and there still exist records of baptisms performed by him here " 
{The Catholic World \\\ 1875). 

In his Life and Times of Archbishop Carroll, Campbell 
writes of one of the oldest, if not the oldest, Catholic settlement 
in New Jersey : 

"It is known that Rev. Mr. Harding, who was a priest in 
Philadelphia in 1762, occasionally visited New Jersey, and Rev. ¥ . 
Farmer for many years performed missionary duty in that State at 
several places. In his baptismal register the following among 
other places are named: Geiger's, 1759; Charlottenburgh, 1769; 
in the year 1776 Morris County, Long Pond, and Mount Hope; 
and in 1785 Sussex County, Ringwood, and Hunterdon. 

" In his semi-annual visits to New York, which were continued 
to the year of his death in 1786, Father Farmer visited an inter- 
esting Catholic settlement known then and later as Macopin (now 
Echo Lake). Macopin was settled by a colony of Germans from 
the Rhine, near Cologne, who came to New Jersey to engage in 
the iron industr}-, which opened up about the middle of the eigh- 
teenth century." 

The following notice appeared in the Freeman's Journal, New 
York : 

" One of the oldest and most interesting Catholic congrega- 
tions in the whole country is to be found in Macopin, this wild 
little place, fifteen miles distant from Paterson. The first settle- 
ment was made here by two German families some time before 
the American Revolution. They were a long time without seeing 
a priest, till at length a Mr. Langrey, from Ireland, paid them a 
visit. After this the Rev. Father Farmer from Philadelphia 
visited Mount Hope, in the vicinity of Macopin, twice a year 
He continued doing so for ten years, during which time the Revo- 
lution took place. These semi-annual visits were afterward con- 



32 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

tinned by Mr. Malnix, Mr. Katen, and Mr. Kresgel. The last- 
named priest was a German, and visited them first in 1775." 

Some years ago the duties of his sacred ministry brought the 
writer to Mrs. Littell, then ahiiost a nonogenarian, but intellectu- 
ally bright and radiantly reminiscent. As she talked of the old 
times her eye would kindle and the color come to her wrinkled 
cheeks, and a cheery laugh would accentuate the humorous inci- 
dents which now and then would sparkle through her narrative. 
On my return to the rectory I jotted down, as far as I could 
remember, the salient points of her story, clothing it as far as 
possible in her own language, and gave it to the first number of 
the Sacred Heart Union for publication under the title " Grand- 
mother's Reminiscences." Care was taken that she received a 
copy, and as she read it for the family — that was her self-imposed 
task and office — she cried out to her daughter : " Why, Mary, this 
is what I was telling Father Flynn the other day ! " 

As it gives a vivid portrayal of that ancient stronghold of 
Catholic faith — stronghold is used advisedly, for such it has proven 
to be, since the generations of that sturdy stock are all stanch 
Catholics today — it is here reproduced: 

" I came from a little town in the County Cavan, adjoining 
Fermanagh and Monaghan, to this country in 181 6. I will pass 
over the long and stormy voyage across the Atlantic, and begin 
my story with my arrival in New York. In those days two sail- 
boats served as a ferry to convey passengers. One w^ent to Paulus 
Hook, now Jersey City, and the other to the Elysian Fields, Ho- 
boken. We crossed over to Paulus Hook, and hiring a wagon we 
started out on our journey to Caldwell. There was only one 
street then in Jersey City, and it was called the Rope Walk. 
After riding all day long we arrived in the evening at Caldwell. 
There was not a single Catholic in the neighborhood. You may 
imagine how strangely we felt, and you will not be surprised that 
in a few months we moved to Macopin, where we heard there 
was quite a gathering of Catholics. A year or two before our 
arrival Charley O'Brien diqd in Newfoundland, some miles distant 
from Macopin. He went there as a school-teacher, saved his 
money, bought his land, built factories, and soon was the wealth- 
iest man in that section. He owned as far as he could see, and 
was the first to build bark factories and an iron mill. Charley 
took sick and sent to New York for a priest. The priest came 
all the way on horseback, and the close-fisted man gave him five 
dollars for his trouble. He left him, however, fifty dollars in his 



IN NEW JERSEY 23 

will, but his heirs never executed the wish of their father, and 
the priest never received his legacy. But his possessions melted 
away, and eventually his own son died in the poor-house. 

"John Gormley arrived there four or five years before we did, 
but his children intermarried with Protestants, and one of his 
grandsons is now a Methodist minister. Oh, yes, there were the 
McGees of Wynockie ; but they clung to the faith, and although 
their descendants have experienced many ups and downs in life, 
they are all stanch Catholics. Then there were the Littells, a 
family who came from Ireland. Mr. Littell was a cooper and the 
most influential man in the settlement. To him was deputed the 
duty of examining the credentials of the visiting priests so as to 
secure the faithful few from impostors, and to his house they 
always came and partook of the old-fashioned hospitality. Not 
only priests, but every poor exile from Erin was directed thither, 
and scarcely a day passed that some stranger did not accept of a 
generous meal and comfortable bed, under the roof-tree of the 
Littells. I remember one night, coming in from his shop, Mr. 
Littell met a poor fellow warming himself at the log fire. He 
began: 'Well, my man, where do you come from.?' 'From 
County Cavan, sir.' 'Ah, and perhaps you know William Lit- 
tell? ' meaning his cousin. 'Troth, I do. Bad luck to him! for 
if it wasn't for him I wouldn't be here.' 

"The topic was immediately changed. 

" Thirty years before we came, a Father Farmer, from Phila- 
delphia, had visited Macopin, and not a priest had the Catholics 
seen since. I remember one day seeing a man coming up the 
road in short coat and knee-breeches ; as soon as he spoke I knew 
he was an Irishman, and thought he was a school-teacher. He 
inquired for the Littells. He turned out to be a Father Langan, 
and he said Mass in our house two or three times. This was 
about 1 819. I must not forget to mention the Seehulsters, the 
Merrions, and the Strubles. Old Mrs. Seehulster was a remark- 
able woman — a regular missionary ; every Sunday she would gather 
the Catholics in Dominick Merrion's house, say the rosary, dis- 
tribute holy water, and teach the children catechism. God re- 
warded her, for, obeying a secret impulse, Father O'Reilly, then 
pastor of St. John's, Paterson, came out to Macopin, saw that 
this valiant woman was very ill, gave her the last rites of the 
Church, and an hour after she was a corpse. Then there was old 
Anthony Merrion, who died about 1822, having reached the good 
old age of one hundred and five. I remember well when Mass 
3 



34 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

was said lor the first time in Macopin. Many of the young 
Catholics who had never seen Mass celebrated, and Protestants 
who viewed the whole thing as witchcraft, crowded and hustled 
the old folks who were kneeling around the priest. The altar 
was a chest — we had no bureaus in those days. After Mass, 
when we were going home, old Anthony straightened his tall 
form, closing his fists and rapping them sharply together. 'Oh,' 
said he, ' I've seen the day I could rap their heads together.' John 
Reardon was another of the old settlers, who with a few others 
and their families numbered about one hundred Catholics all told. 

"Our next priest was Father Bulger, a native of Ireland, a 
tall, handsome man, but with a beardless face. He was ordained 
by 'little Bishop Connoll)',' as he was called, and came to us about 
1820. Mr. Littell had been notified to e.xpect a priest, and vainly 
looked among the passengers of the mail-coach for his Reverence. 
The driver told him that a passenger had booked for Macopin 
the night before, but had failed to put in his appearance. 

" Later that afternoon a stranger drove up to the shop on 
horseback, and thus addressed Mr. Littell: 'Did you expect a 
visitor, sir .? ' 'I did, sir.' 'How did you expect him.?' 'By the 
mail.' 'Might I ask whom you expected.?' 'Well,' said Mr. 
Littell, somewhat nettled by this cros.s-examination, 'I expect a 
Catholic priest.' 'Well, suppose you take me for a Catholic 
priest.' Surveying the beardless youth from top to bottom, Mr. 
Littell tartly replied : ' Go back to your wooden college, sir, before 
you come to jialm yourself off on me as a Catholic priest.' 'Per- 
haps,' thought Mr. Littell, 'I may after all be mistaken; he may 
be a priest ' ; and giving him another searching look, he inquired : 
'Am I talking to P"ather Bulger.?' 'You are,' said the young 
P'ather, smilingly; and his laughter drowned the apologies and 
put to flight the discomfiture of good Mr. Littell. Father Bulger 
was a regular apostle ; he travelled through Hudson, Passaic, and 
Sussex Counties. I remember he was once invited to preach in 
Newton, and the Presbyterian Church was offered to him. But 
when the day came for the lecture the 'blue-lights' feared to 
admit the papist into their sanctuary. So to the dismay of the 
most prominent member of the congregation — an Irishman — they 
gave a point-blank refusal to allow him to preach in their church. 
Chagrined but undaunted, the Irishman went to the judge who 
was then })residing over the Sussex Circuit, related to him all the 
circumstances, and asked him to adjourn the court so that the 
priest might give his lecture, The court was adjourned; the 



IN NEW JERSEY 



35 




The Catholics gathered at Dominick Alt-rriun-s house, .Macoiuu, biiying the 

rosary (page 33). 



2,6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

judge and a host of legal fledglings, who have since risen to fame 
and honor, listened to the young priest's masterly handling of the 
doctrine of the Real Presence. ' I did not believe,' said an ex- 
United States senator — Frelinghuysen — 'that the Catholics had 
such solid proofs for their doctrines.' 

" Returning on foot one cold wintry day, with the snow inches 
deep on the road, from Hohokus, where he had been saying Mass, 
a farmer and his wife invited him into their sleigh. Of course, 
the farmer's curiosity made him forget the world's politeness and 
institute a series of leading questions. Are you a peddler 1 No. 
Perhaps you will open a store in town } No. A physician ? No. 
A lawyer .? No. Then, may I ask, what do you do for a living } 
Thus driven to the wall by the persistent questioner. Father 
Bulger was obliged to confess that he was a Roman Catholic priest. 
The good wife was horror-stricken, and commanded the dutiful 
Benedict to stop the horse and put the papist out ; and out he went, 
and he was obliged to trudge through snow and cold all the way 
to Paterson. Another night an attempt was made to set fire to 
the house in which he was living in Paterson. 

"He offered Mass for the first time in 1816, in Mr. Gilles- 
pie's house, the grandfather of Sister Genevieve, now a Sister of 
Charity in St. Elizabeth's Convent, Madison. There were present 
the Grifiiths, Karrs, Burkes, Plunketts, Bradleys, Wades, Mahans, 
and Levasquez. Ground was afterward bought and a church built 
in 1822. He did not live many years, and is buried in St. Pat- 
rick's church-yard, New York. Fathers Conroy, O'Gorman, and 
Shanahan used to come out occasionally to say Mass. Then came 
Father Donohue, who determined to build a church. There was 
a great dispute as to whether it should be of logs or boards. The 
'log' partly carried the day, and Father Donohue called on Mr. 
Littell for his contribution. 'What is it going to be, Father.?' 
'Logs,' said he. 'Then Fll give $10 to pull it down as soon as 
built.' So the matter was reconsidered, and finally 'planks' pre- 
vailed. In 1830 it was dedicated. The night before, a furious 
rain storm set in, and Father Donohue and Father Ffrench were 
drenched to the skin. We had a great time finding dry clothes 
for the poor Fathers, but could find none big enough for Father 
Ffrench. -I can see tjiem now sitting before the big fire, drying 
their clothes and saying their office. The children had great fun 
with Father Ffrench, who amused them with his ventriloquism. 
Father Duffy next succeeded Father Donohue ; and he used to 
stop in Paterson with Dr. Binsse, who was a celebrated French 



IN NEW JERSEY 



37 




"The good wife was horror-stricken, and commanded the dutiful Benedict to 
stoD the horse and put the papist " (Father Bulger) " out " (page 36). 



38 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

doctor and lived on Main Street, opposite Congress Hall. Then 
good old Father Raffeiner came and spent one winter with us. 
After him came the Redemptorist Fathers Mailer and Tabert. 
Father O'Reilly succeeded Father Duffy in Paterson. 

"Then came Father Ouin, and the troubles which Bishop 
Hughes came out to queh. Then Father Senez, Father Beau- 
devin, Father Callan, and Father McNulty. Now you know as 
much about the present as I do ; but when I look back to the day 
when there was not a single church in New Jersey, nor a single 
resident priest, I feel God has blessed the fidelity of the old folks; 
and I begin to feel lonesome, for almost all have gone home." 

Grandmother many years ago joined her compeers in the 
blessed reward of the saints. 

Bishop Bayley has this to say of Macopin : 

" Three German families settled at this place some years be- 
fore the Revolution. They were from Baden (Silva Nigra) ; their 
names were Marion, Schulster, and Stobel. Stobel was a Prot- 
estant, but most of his descendants became Catholics. They 
form still a little Catholic colony, remarkable for their fervent 
piety. The son of the founder of the colony, Marion, who was 
but four years old when he came to this country, lived to be up- 
ward of a hundred years old. In the notice of the blessing of the 
church in the TrutJiteller of December, 1849, he was spoken of 
as being one hundred and five years old, and in good health " 
(Bayley, 121). 

The Catholic Press, October 30th, 1830, published a letter con- 
taining additional items of interest : 

•' Seventeen miles west of Paterson, at Mocassin, there is a 
highland ridge in Bergen County, where there are at present more 
than one hundred Catholics, descendants of one common stock, 
Mr. Meriam, who is yet living. He came from Germany to this 
country before the Revolution, and settled with his little family 
at Queen Charlotte's in the northern part of New Jersey. He 
has lived to see his descendants to the fifth generation, who unite 
a zeal for liberty with a firm attachment to the holy Catholic faith 
of their ancestors. They were for many years attended by Cath- 
olic clergymen from Philadelphia, among whom they frequently 
mention the Rev. Mr. Farmer, whose memory among them is 
recollected with benediction. When a bishop was sent from the 
Holy See to New York, the Jerseys were divided according to 
the old division line (which runs from Easton, Pa., to Little Egg 
Harbor) between the dioceses of New York and Philadelphia; so 



IN NEW JERSEY 



39 



that Mocassin, falling within the district of Paterson, was fre- 
quentl)' visited by the Rev. Mr. Bulger, and it is pleasing to state 
that a church has been lately erected in this last-mentioned town." 

The Revolutionary Period. 

The thread of our narrative brings us now to a stirring period 
in the history of our country and our religion, when the day-star 
of religious toleration begins to dawn, and the plenteous stream 




A 


^^^^■k^ ^ m 


m 


WSm 


" ^ 


^^ ^P 








jA' 



ARCHBISHOP CARROLL 



of blood flows from Irish hearts and from Catholic veins to sanc- 
tify the soil, and knit indissolubly the bonds of the children of 
freedom. Republics are proverbially ungrateful, and ours is no 
exception. The Irish, both the laity and the priesthood, from the 



40 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

beginning gave to the struggling republic their most earnest moral 
and physical support. Ours might have been Canada, and these 
children of St. Louis our allies and brothers in the conflict, had 
John Jay and his stripe been at least more tactful, if not politic. 

When Archbishop Carroll was engaged by General Washing- 
ton to induce the Canadian clergy to join in the Revolutionary 
struggle, his mission totally failed from the lavish abuse of popery 
in which the old colonies — from New England to Georgia — 
indulged. 

" Now," they said, "we believe, as you do, our religion to have 
been established by Jesus Christ, and that those good men and 
their forefathers in leaving our body made an innovation upon the 
unchangeable institutions of our Saviour. They complain of the 
King of England as guilty of tyranny for observing the treaty 
which secures to us our religion, and which he appears disposed 
to observe. If it be tyranny to permit us to follow the dictates of 
our consciences, and that those gentlemen wish to destroy tyranny, 
we must give up our religion in joining their union; we prefer, 
sir, to abide under the government of a king who is complained of 
for his justice to us, than to trust to the friendship of men who 
tell us that we are idolaters and slaves and dolts, and yet invite us 
to aid them against him whom they have abused for protecting us 
in our rights ; neither do we forget the zeal which they manifested 
in hunting and shooting Father Rasle and others of our mission- 
aries upon their borders." 

Thus was the aid of Canada lost by the abuse of popery (Eng- 
land, Works, iii., 223), and the mission of Franklin and Bishop 
Carroll a failure. 

On Bishop Carroll's return from his fruitless mission to Can- 
ada, he passed his time pleasantly in Philadelphia with Fathers 
Ferdinand Farmer and Robert Molyneux. " These reverend gen- 
tlemen were then engaged in laborious duties among the numerous 
Catholics in that city, as well as several other congregations at a 
distance." 

" Father Farmer extended his visits to New York, and organ- 
ized the first Catholic congregation in that city, in which there 
was no resident priest before 1785" ("Memoirs of Archbishop 
Carroll" in U. S. CatJiolic Maga.zinc, April, 1844, p. 248). 

Notwithstanding the bitter hostility of many, if not most, of 
the founders of the republic, the money, the services, and the 
blood of Catholics were placed on the altar of our country's lib- 
erty, and never did they once swerve from their allegiance in 



IN NEW JERSEY 41 

defeat, hunger, and cold. Of the foreign officers of our faith may 
be mentioned Lafayette, Du Coudray, Rochambeau, Roche de 
Fermoy, Kosciusko, de la Neuville, Armand, and Uuportail. 

From Bunker Hill to Yorktown, whether in Dillon's old 
brigade of the French allies, or in the Pennsylvania or Maryland 
line, Irish hearts throbbed to the music of the drum, and never 
faltered on land or sea, whether under Saucy Dick Barry, or 
Moylan, or Fitzgerald, to display the traditional bravery which 
has won for them the laurel of victory on the battlefields of every 
nation except their own. 

Montgomery, Sullivan, Knox, Wayne, Irving, Thompson, 
Stewart, Moylan, Butler, all Irish by birth or by descent, whose 
very names awaken memories of glorious deeds, by which our 
liberties were achieved and the colonies made one, free, and inde- 
pendent. And every child knows the services rendered to the 
republic by Charles Carroll of Carrolton, and his illustrious cousin 
the first bishop of Baltimore. None was more conscious, more 
appreciative of these services than the Father of his Country — 
the immortal Washington. 

" I presume that your fellow-citizens will not forget the patriotic 
part which you took in the accomplishment of their Revolution 
and the establishment of their government, or the important as- 
sistance which they received from a nation in which the Roman 
Catholic faith is profes.sed " (" Reply of Washington to Address 
of Roman Catholics "). Hodnett says that next to George Wash- 
ington Bishop Carroll rendered the most valuable services to the 
colonies. It was Carroll who induced the Pope to use his influ- 
ence with the French King in behalf of the colonies. Franklin 
was in Paris, as an envoy from this country, to enlist the services 
and financial aid of France in the struggle which was becoming 
desperate. His success was meagre, and he was in despair. One 
day the papal nuncio roused him from his stupor : " Mr. Franklin, 
Mr. Franklin, I have good news for you. I have just secured the 
promise of the King to send over a French army and navy to aid 
your countrymen." Franklin, astonished and delighted, clasped 
the hand of the nuncio. " Oh ! " said he, " convey to his Holi- 
ness, the Pope, my thanks in the name of the American people. 
We shall never, no never, forget Rome." 

"Mr. Franklin," replied the nuncio, "you must thank Father 
Carroll, for he it was who induced the Pope to send me here in 
the interest of the American people." 

Of Bishop Carroll, Washington said : " Of all men whose influ- 



4i THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

ence was most potent in securing the success of the Revolution, 
Bishop Carroll, of Baltimore, was the man." So, too, thought 
King George of England, who called Bishop Carroll " Washing- 
ton's Richelieu, who got the Pope of Rome to use his influence 
with the French court for the Americans." When William Pitt 
asked the King to sign the Emancipation Bill in favor of Ireland, 
the King replied : " I will sign no bill granting Catholic Emanci- 
pation, after the action taken by the bishop of Baltimore. He 
detached America from my dominion by aid of the French army 
and navy, and the force of Irish Catholics. No, no, Mr. Pitt, you 
need not stop to argue the question with me ; my mind is made 
up on that point." So innocent, helpless, prostrate Ireland was 
punished for Bishop Carroll's patriotism and her children's devo- 
tion to the cause of freedom, and had to bear the yoke of slavery 
for twenty years longer. 

Meanwhile, John Wesley, the founder of Methodism— the sect 
which claims to possess the only true brand of patriotism — was 
denouncing the colonists for their treason ; and the Presbyterians 
anathematized our Constitution ! In the light of future events, it 
is well to keep these facts to the forefront. The stream of emi- 
gration began again to set toward America from Ireland, France, 
and the West Indian islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique. 

The Maryland Journal, published in Baltimore, August 20th, 
1773, has the following: 

"New York, August 12th. — Within this fortnight 3,500 pas- 
sengers have arrived at Philadelphia from Ireland." 

"Philadelphia, August nth. — Since our last arrived here, the 
ship Alexander, Captain Hunter, with 500 passengers; and the 
ship Hannah, Captain Mitchell, with 550, both from Londonderry. 
The ship WalwortJi, Captain McCausland, sailed from London- 
derry for South Carolina about June ist, with 300 passengers and 
servants, who were obliged to leave their native country, not for 
their misbehavior, but on account of the great distress among the 
middle and lower classes." 

It would seem that Ireland even at that time was sending 
more than her quota of emigrants to people America. Philadel- 
phia then could not have had more than 20,000 of a population, 
and this addition of 3,500 was equal to one-sixth of its population 
{CatJi. Family Aim., i?>77, p. 77). 

The unhappy Acadians, torn from their homes most cruelly, in 
1756, were scattered along the coast from Maine to Carolina, but 
in a few years almost every trace of them was lost. But the emi- 



IN NEW JERSEY 43 

gration of the French took place at various periods, mainly at the 
negro insurrection in San Domingo and at the outbreak of the 
French Revolution. A great number settled in different sections 
of New Jersey, and later on will be seen their influence on relig- 
ion in these respective localities. "We affirm," says Shea, "that 
the French Catholic familes, driven from the West Indies by the 
frightful consequences of the Revolution, and who came to seek 
peace and liberty in the United States, far exceeded the Protest- 
ant immigration of the seventeenth century. Without counting 
Martinique and Guadeloupe, the French part of San Domingo con- 
tained in 1793 forty thousand whites. All emigrated to escape 
being massacred by t lie blacks; many mulattoes followed them, 
and of this mass of emigrants a great part settled in the United 
States" {Hist, of CatJi. ChurcJi, p. 74). Of all these strangers 
coming to our shores at this period, it may be said that it was the 
initial impulse of that tide of sturdy, sterling, adventurous spirits 
— sufficiently daring to hazard the perils of the deep, the horrors 
and uncertainty of a long voyage, stout-hearted enough to cut 
away from the dearest ties that hold a man to his native land and 
kindred, possessed of those virtues which promote the best results 
in the sphere of civics, commerce, and religion, and destined 
eventually, like bread cast upon the waters, to leaven the older 
world with the fruit of these triple blessings. In the dark and 
trying days of our struggle many instances might be cited to 
illustrate the devotion of the impulsive Celt, too ready to resent a 
wrong, but always willing to forgive it. When, in July, 1778, 
the Americans met in Wyoming with a crushing defeat, among 
the captured was an old man named Fitzgerald. He was placed 
on a flax-brake, and told he must renounce his rebel principles and 
declare for the King, or die. " Well," said the patriotic old fellow, 
" I am old, and I have little time to live anyhow, and I had rather 
die now a friend of my country, than live ever so long and die a 
Tory." The British were magnanimous enough to let him go 
(Miner's Hist, of Wyoming, p. 200). But our own little State 
was the theatre on which is written in ineffaceable lines the hero- 
ism of our ancestors, not only men, but women. The son of an 
Irish emigrant, James E. Kelly, the sculptor, a genius whose 
name is little known in our day, but is destined to be ranked 
among the masters when future generations will think less of 
pelf and more of art, has carved in eternal bronze, on the battle- 
field of Monmouth, the heroism of the Irish lass — Molly Pitcher, 
or, before her marriage, plain Mary McCauley. Of her Lossing 



44 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



says: "She was a sturdy young camp-follower, only twenty-two 
years of age, and in devotion to her husband, who was a cannoneer, 
she illustrated the character of her countrywomen of the Emerald 
Isle. In the battle of Monmouth, while her husband was man- 
aging one of the field-pieces, she constantly brought him water 
from a spring near by. (The day was intensely hot.) A shot 
from the enemy killed him at his post ; and the officer in com- 
mand, having no one competent to fill the place, ordered the piece 
to be withdrawn. Molly saw her husband fall as she came from 
the spring, and also heard the order. She dropped her bucket, 
seized the rammer, and vowed she would fill the place of her hus- 
band at the gun and avenge 
his death. She performed 
the duty with a skill and 
courage which attracted the 
attention of all who saw her. 
On the following morning, 
covered with dirt and blood, 
General Greene presented 
her to General Washington, 
who, admiring her bravery, 
conferred upon her the com- 
mission of sergeant " {Field 
Book of the Rcvolutioii). 

She is described as "a 
stout, red-haired, freckled- 
faced young Irish woman, with a handsome, piercing eye." 

On this same battlefield, a son of an Irish Catholic father and 
mother distinguished himself, and the story deserves to be told. 

Somewhere in 1750 a young couple who belonged to rival 
families were the actors in a runaway match, and immediately em- 
barked for Philadelphia. 

The young man, whose name was John Mullowney, invested 
his money in a few ships, and carried on a lively and lucrative 
trade between Philadelphia and various foreign ports. Six chil- 
dren were born to the Mullowneys, all of whom died in their 
infancy. The seventh child, a son, was robust, and filled his 
father's heart, who gave him his own name, with great hopes. 
The Revolution broke out when the boy was eight years old, and 
his father at once espoused the cause of the patriots. 

At this time, their pastor, a Catholic priest, visited the family, 
and urged that young John be dedicated to the priesthood, and 




MOLLY PITCHER AT THE BATTLE OF 

MONMOUTH. 

(Tablet on Princeton Monument by J. E 

Kelly.) 



IN NEW JERSEY 45 

that his preHminary studies begin at once. In the privacy of 
their chamber the proposition of the priest was earnestly discussed 
by the anxious father and mother, and the boy, who slept in an 
adjoining room, overheard all that was said with bated breath. In 
the early dawn of the next day he put into execution a sudden im- 
pulse to flee beyond the power of priest and parents. Dressing 
himself hastil}', he stole away from his luxurious home, and 
thr jugh difficulties which might have chilled the enthusiasm of a 
strong man (for Philadelphia was then in possession of the Brit- 
ish), reached Washington's army, near Germantown. 

He arrived, it is said, at his ilestination, with bleeding feet and 
ragged clothes, thoroughly beaten out with exhaustion and hunger. 
He stoutly maintained that he wanted to share a soldier's life, 
adding that he knew how to "drum." So a drummer boy he be- 
came, not as John Mullowney, but, with a wisdom beyond his 
years, under an assumed name. In the following summer came 
the battle of Monmouth. At a certain point in this hotly con- 
tested battle, a scjuad of infantry was ordered to hold a vital 
point upon which the enemy was marching. The redcoats 
charged furiously and the Americans gave way, whereupon John 
seized his drumsticks and pounded out " Yankee Doodle " with so 
much spirit and force that the retreating Continentals took heart, 
returned to the charge, dro\'e off the British, and held the stategi- 
cal position to the end of the battle. A few weeks after the tire- 
less search of the father for the truant was rewarded. John was 
recognized by a birthmark on the right shoulder, but his plead- 
ings, united with those of the officers, prevailed, and the parental 
consent was reluctantly given. John remained with the army 
until peace was declared. He then entered the navy, and ren- 
dered efficient services in the war of 181 2 and in the capture of 
slavers. Not only did he rescue the poor Africans, but placed 
them in good homes in Philadelphia and adjacent cities. On his 
retirement from the na\'y. Captain Mullowney was made consul 
to Tangier by President Monroe, a difficult post, in which he 
maintained the honor and dignity of our country for seven years. 
Many years afterward his daughter visited a grizzled veteran, 
more than ninety years of age, and asking him if he remembered 
John Mullowney, he exclaimed : " Remember John Mullowney ! 
That I do; he was just a slip of a lad when he used to beat that 
old drum." At the battle of Princeton scores of the Pennsylvania 
line shed their blood, defending Princeton Seminary, the strong- 
hold of Presbyterianism in New Jersey. 



46 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Another of our faith deserves mention in this connection : 

Patrick Colvin was the only CathoHc hving in Trenton at the 
time of the Revohition. He sheltered Father Farmer and often 
ferried him across the Delaware on his semi-annual visitation of 
his scattered Catholic flock in New Jersey. 

Colvin, a Catholic, and McConkey, an Irish Presbyterian, 
furnished the boats which transported Washington and his army 
across the Delaware on that bitter cold Christmas night, 1776, 
and thus enabled him to win the battle of Trenton on the 26th. 
When the Father of his Country journeyed to New York to be 
inaugurated President of the republic he had fought to make, it 
was Patrick Colvin who took charge of the presidential party and 
personally ferried them across the river. 

The Trenton Monument Association selected a site but a few 
paces from Father Farmer's headquarters when visiting that city. 

As New Jersey was the battle ground of the great conflict of 
the Revolution, the number of Catholics at various times in the 
State must have run into the thousands. With the troops priests 
have doubtless traversed the State. We read of the presence of 
one, the Rev. Seraphin Bandol, who was sent from Philadelphia 
to Morristown in April, 1780, to administer the last sacraments to 
a distinguished Spanish nobleman, then a guest of Washington. 
Don Juan de Miralles, a Spanish agent, arrived in camp, April 
19th, 1780, accompanied by the Chevalier de la Luzerne, Minister 
of France, and was almost immediately stricken down with pul- 
monary trouble, which ended fatally on the 28th. The chaplain 
of the French Ambassador, the Rev. Seraphin Bandol, hurried on 
from Philadelphia and administered the last sacraments to the 
dying Spaniard in the Ford house, now Washington's head- 
quarters. 

It was by P'ather Bandol, very probably, that the holy Sacrifice 
of the Mass was first offered in Morristown, and most likely in 
headquarters, where Washington then lived. 

The journal of Dr. James Thatcher, surgeon to the Revolu- 
tionary army, contains a very graphic account of this the first pub- 
lic Catholic funeral in Morristown: 

"29th April, 1780.- — I accompanied Dr. Schuyler to headquar- 
ters to attend the funeral of M. de Miralles. The deceased was a 
gentleman of high rank in Spain, and had been about one year 
resident with our congress from the Spanish court. The corpse 
was dressed in a rich state and exposed to public view, as is custo- 
mary in Europe. The coffin was most splendid and stately, lined 



IN NEW JERSEY 47 

throughout with fine cambric, and covered on the outside with 
rich black velvet and ornamented in a superb manner. The top 
of the cofifin was removed to display the pomp and grandeur with 
which the body was decorated. It was in a splendid full dress, 
consisting of a scarlet suit, embroidered with rich gold lace, a 
three-cornered gold-laced hat, and a genteel cued wig, white silk 
stockings, large diamond shoe and knee buckles ; a profusion of 
diamond rings decorated the fingers, and from a superb gold 
watch, set with diamonds, several rich seals were suspended. His 
Excellency, General Washington, with several other general offi- 
cers and members of Congress, attended the funeral solemnities 
and walked as chief mourners. The other officers of the army, 
and numerous respectable citizens, formed a splendid procession, 
extending about a mile. The pall-bearers were six field-officers, 
and the coffin was borne on the shoulders of four officers of artil- 
lery in full uniform. Minute guns were fired during the proces- 
sion, which greatly increased the solemnity of the occasion. A 
Spanish priest performed service at the grave in the Roman Cath- 
olic form. The coffin was enclosed in a box of plank, and all the 
profusion of pomp and grandeur were deposited in the silent grave 
in the common burying-ground, near the church at Morristown. 
A guard is placed at the grave lest our soldiers should be tempted 
to dig for hidden treasure. It is understood that the corpse is to 
be removed to Philadelphia. This gentleman is said to have 
been possessed of an immense fortune, and has left to his three 
daughters one hundred thousand pounds sterling each. Here we 
behold the end of all earthly riches, pomp, and dignity. The 
ashes of Don de Miralles mingle with the remains of those who 
are clothed in humble shrouds, and whose career in life was 
marked with sordid poverty and wretchedness" (p. 193). 

The body of this distinguished nobleman was exhumed and 
sent to Spain, but in what year the most careful investigation has 
failed to ascertain. 

In Morristown, also, was the first official recognition of St. 
Patrick's day, as will appear from the following order, copied from 
the order book still preserved at Washington's headquarters : 

MoRRiSTOWx, N. J., March i6th, 1780. 

The adjutants are desired not to detail for duty to-morrow any 
of the Sons of St. Patrick. On the 17th the parole is "Saints," 
the countersign " Patrick " and " Sheelah." 

Marbois, the charge at Philadelphia, writing to Vergennes, 



48 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

March 25th, 1785, gives the number of CathoHcs in New York 
and New Jersey as 1,700 (Bancroft's Hist. Form, of Constit., 
i., 420). If this estimate be approximately correct, it is more than 
Hkely that the greater part was in New Jersey {Am. CatJi. Hist. 
Researches,'' April, 1888). 

Be this as it ma}^, no attempt was made at that time by the 
Catholics to build a church ; but we find the Catholics of New 
York City obtaining an act of incorporation from the legislature 
of the State in 1785. Much earlier, however, 1763, 1765, 1767, 
1768, and as late as 1786, Father Farmer had gathered together 
the little flock and offered for them the consolations of religion. 
It is true he entered the city by stealth and in disguise, for the 
odious proscriptive law of 1700 was still not repealed. It is 
known that he offered the holy Sacrifice in the house of Don 
Thomas Stoughton, the Spanish consul, and also in that of Don 
Diego de Gardequi, the Spanish ambassador. A Capucin Father, 
the Rev. Charles Whelan, a chaplain in De Grasse's fleet, resigned 
in order to devote himself to the little band of Catholics in New 
York City and near by. Of him Archbishop Bayley writes: 
" Father Whelan was the first regularly settled priest in the diocese 
of New York. He found only twenty communicants in the city, 
but " plenty of growlers." During his pastorate the trustees pur- 
chased from the trustees of Trinity Church the site of the present 
St. Peter's, and erected a church. There were then about two 
hundred Catholics in New York. Father Whelan was more at 
home in French than he was in English, and gave little satisfac- 
tion as a pulpit orator ; so, when a rival appeared, more gifted with 
eloquence and intrigue, the Rev. Andrew Nugent, O. M. Cap., 
good Father Whelan had to retire, and died in Maryland, 1809. 

On the 4th day of November, 1786, the first Catholic church, 
and the thirteenth of any denomination, was opened for divine 
service, and Mass was publicly celebrated in presence of a large 
congregation of persons of different religious belief. A second 
charter was obtained in 1787. Among the first Catholics of the 
future great Catholic city are found the names of Sieur de St. 
Jean de Crevecoeux, consul of France ; Don Diego de Gardequi, 
plenipotentiary of Spain; Jose Roiz Silva; Thomas Stoughton, 
consul of Spain ; Dominick Lynch, James Stewart, Henry Duffin, 
Andrew Morris, Gibbon Burke, Charles Naylor, William Bryson, 
William Mooney, George Barnwell, John Sulliv^an. 

In 1788 the Rev. William O'Brien succeeded Father Nugent 
as pastor, and continued until May 14th, 1816, when God called 



IN NEW JERSEY 



49 



him to his reward. His remains are interred lieneath the 
church. 

An examination of tlie structure, April 8th, 1836, revealed its 
unsafe condition, and, June 5th, it was determined by the pastor 
and trustees to rebuild it. Mass was celebrated for the last time 
in the old church August 28th, 1836. The corner-stone of the 
new church was laid by Bishop Dubois, October 26th, 1836, as- 
sisted by the Very Rev. John Power, who delivered an e.Kcellent 
address on the occasion. On the first Sunday of September, 

1837, mass was celebrated in the basement; and February 25th, 

1838, it was solemnly dedicated 
by Bishop Hughes. The Very 
Rev. Father Power preached 
a most eloquent sermon to 
an audience of more than 
four thousand persons, who 
thronged the sacred edifice 
from pew to organ-loft. 

The French refugees from 
the revolution and the insur- 
rections in Martinique, Guad- 
eloupe, and San Domingo set- 
tled in considerable numbers 
in Elizabeth and along the 
highway from that town to 
Bottle Hill, now Madison. 
Thither came the Van Schalk- 
wick Beauplands, the Boisau- 
bins. Cornet de St. Cyr, Blan- 
chets, Lavielle Duberceau, and Thebauds. The Beauplands were 
descended partly from the Dutch Van Schalkwick, who, expelled 
from Holland for harboring Catholics, was excluded from Mar- 
tinique because, coming from an heretical countr}', he was not 
regarded as orthodox in faith, and was obliged to proceed further 
and settle in the more hospitable island of Guadeloupe. He was 
accompanied in his wanderings by a French relative, a married 
woman, who, although only thirty years of age, was at that time 
the mother of thirty-one children. This matron would certainly de- 
serve an honorable mention from our present distinguished chief 
executi\e. The Rev. Peter Vianney, an assistant in St. Peter's, 
1804-09, it is said, celebrated the first Mass in Madison in the 
home of Mr. Lavielle Duberceau, whose house was for a long time 
4 




VERY REV. JOHN POWER, D.D., 

Pastor of St. Peter's Church, Barclay- 
Street, New York. (1819-1849.) 



50 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



the only sanctuary in that portion of the State. A certain Father 
Tissorant remained with the CathoHcs in EUzabeth from 1805 to 
1806. The Rev. John S. Tissorant was simply on a visit to this 
country, and in his zeal he determined to give his services tempo- 
rarily to his compatriots in Elizabeth. Bishop Cheverus says " he 
was a most amiable and respectable man," "equally conspicuous," 
adds Dr. White, "for his learning and piety." In or about 1795, 
several French families from Belgium and the West Indies set- 
tled in Princeton, and bought 
farms in and around Cedar 
Grove and Cherry Valley. 
They were men of character, 
intelligence, and refinement, 
some of them men of wealth, 
and others had occupied posi- 
tions of prominence in their 
own country. It is doubtful 
if some were Huguenots, and 
certain that most, if not all, 
were Catholics. Among their 
names were Viennet, L' Hom- 
me, Tulane, Joubert, Boissinot, 
Pothier, Lejoy, Ancellein, 
Hurage, Teisseirs, St. John, 
St. Louis, Malou, La Rue, 
Chielon, Bona, and, strangest 
of all, the Rev. Anthony 
Smith, whose grave is in the 
Presbyterian cemetery. He 
evidently accompanied these 
families in their exile, which 
was not at all unusual. Among them one demands our atten- 
tion. Pierre Malou, a general in the army of the Belgians, 
resident in Princeton, 1795-99, purchased five hundred acres of 
land in Cherry Valley, three miles from Princeton, and erected 
a mansion whose magnificence is still a tradition among Prince- 
tonians. There was a chapel attached to the house, with altar, 
stations of the cross, etc., etc. He returned to Europe for 
the purpose of bringing his wife and two sons to their new 
home ; but, on the voyage back to America, his wife was stricken 
with a mortal illness and died before reaching port. He sold his 
property in Cherry Valley, returned again to Belgium, disposed of 




OLD ST. PETER'S CHURCH, 
Barclay Street, New York Citj'. 



IN NEW JERSEY 51 

all his possessions, and journeyed to Russia, where, finding" a house 
of Jesuit fathers, he entered under an assumed name as a lay 
brother. One day some visitors were walking through the gardens, 
and one of them, an ex-officer, recognizing his old general laboring 
among the flowers in the garb of a Jesuit brother, ga\-e him the 
military salute. The fathers were astonished, and the more so 
when, on returning to the house, he told them the history of their 
distinguished subject. He was transferred at once, and took up 
the study of theology, and in time he was raised to the priesthood. 

In the beginning of the nineteenth century the Jesuit Fathers 
opened a school on the corner of Fiftieth Street and Fifth Ave- 
nue — a portion of the present site of St. Patrick's Cathedral — 
which was called the New York Literary Institution. Father 
Pierre Malou was one of the staff. But, after a time, his health 
broke down, and as it was thought that there was no prospect of 
his recovery and that he would be a burden to the community, 
efforts were made to induce him to return to Europe. This he 
refused to do. 

Father Malou afterward left the societ}-, and was attached to 
St. Peter's. He visited Madison, and was the first priest to 
reside there permanently, living upstairs in the old frame rectory, 
the lower apartments of w^hich were used as a church. He was a 
lo\-able character, and idolized b)' the children, to whom, when 
they were \ery good, he would show a miniature of his children. 
Cardinal McCloske}', who was in his catechism class, used to say 
that the children often marvelled how he, as a priest, could have 
children. 

One of his sons was John Baptist Malou, a senator of Belgium ; 
and of his grandsons one was Minister of Finance, and another 
John Baptist Malou, bishop of Bruges. 

Father Malou died in New York, October 13th, 1827, and is 
buried under St. Peter's Church. 

Of Father Anthony Smith there does not appear to be a single 
record, and the fact that he is mentioned here is due to the cour- 
tesy of the Rev. Robert E. Burke, the present pastor of the 
University town. Over his grave is a stone, which bears the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

IN MEMORY 

OF THE 

REVEREND ANTHONY SCHMIT 

WHO DIED 

ON THE 12TH OF FEBRUARY. 1S07. 
Aged 75. 



52 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



The Formative Period. 

The various industries opening up in different parts of the 
State of New Jersey invited skilled artisans to leave the scenes of 
conflict and carnage in their own country to settle in the new land 
where they might live with their families in peace and security. 
Before the middle of the eighteenth century glass-works were 
opened near Salem, N. J., and a number of German Catholics 
were among those employed. Thus was Father Schneider induced 
to run the risk of arrest and visit them in August, 1743. He was 
skilled in the art of healing, and, in the guise of a physician, he 
was able to exercise his priestly ministry. He celebrated holy 
Mass in the home of Maurice Lorentz, and in the month of Octo- 
ber, 1743, at the Glass Home, about ten miles from Salem. The 
next year he repeated his visits, and in the month of June admin- 
istered baptism in the house of Matthew Geiger. This name 
occurs frequently in the records of Father Farmer, and this house 
for nearly half a century was the rallying point of the Catholics 
in South Jersey. 

In the northern part of the State the iron industry was begin- 
ning to attract the attention of capital, and laborers began to 
flock thitherward from Pennsylvania about 1750. 

"The Irish and the Scotch-Irish came into Warren County, 
and many of them early worked their way into Sussex. . . . As 
travel increased, taverns became a necessity, and within six years 
after the county seat was fixed at Newton (by act of 1753), a 
tract of land of three-tenths of an acre at the northwest corner of 
the green was conveyed by Jonathan Hampton to Martin Delaney, 
evidently for a tavern, and a public house was kept on that spot 
until within the last fifty years. 

William Kirby, a deserter from the British army during the 
French and Indian War, passed through Sussex County in 1762, 
stopping at Sussex Court House, where he sold a pair of stock- 
ings for seven shillings. "There," he says, "we bought a bottle 
of rum, and on our march we met an old woman and gave her a 
dram." He went from the Andover Mine to Ringwood. 

He tells how the men tried to cheat each other. The wood 
chopper piled his wood so as to cheat the collier. The collier 
put his charcoal into baskets in such a manner as to deceive the 
iron master; and the iron master, not to be outdone, sold his 
provisions to the men at an extortionate price. As a consequence, 



IN NKW JERSEY 53 

" when they had worked six months, if they had anything coming, 
they ma)' perhaps get a few rags to cover their nakedness at a 
very dear price, but as for money they will get none though they 
have ever so much need of it." ' 

From 1750 to 1772 we find mines and furnaces in operation 
at Mount Pleasant, Denmark, Dickerson Mine, Mount Hope, 
White Meadow, Ringwood, Greenwood Lake, Hibernia, and 
Dover. These, doubtless, brought a number of Irish and Ger- 
man Catholics, who formed the little flocks so faithfully attended 
by Father Farmer. 

July 3d, 1776, the Provincial Council of New Jersey asked the 
Committee of Public Safety of Philadelphia to send troops to Mon- 
mouth Court House to check the Tories and defend the approaches 
to Staten Island. 

Three battalions, although ill-equipped and uniformed, were 
ordered there in reply to this appeal. The women of Philadelphia 
hastened to prepare lint and bandages, awnings and sails were 
made into tents, and clockweights were cast into bullets. Thomas 
Fitzsimmons was captain of the Third company, composed almost 
entirely of Irish and Catholics. Their tour of duty brought them 
to Elizabeth, Woodbridge, and vicinity. In December, 1776, they 
were at Trenton, and on the twent)--eighth of the same month 
they were in Burlington, where some of them have taken care to 
record that they were regaled with mince pies. In January, 1777, 
they arrived and were encamped on the Jockey Hollow road near 
Morristown. Thomas Fitzsimmons was not only an ardent patriot, 
but a man of exceptional ability. With Alexander Hamilton he was 
associated in establishing the financial policy of our government, 
and he is acknowledged by both Madison and Webster to be the 
father of that political principle and dogma of the present Repub- 
lican party known as the "protection of American industry." 

When P'ather Farmer visited the little flock in New York he 
not only administered to them spiritually the consolations of relig- 
ion, but it is beyond doubt that he built for them a church some 
time before the Revolution. Its exact location is not known, and 
it was swept away by the conflagration which followed the evacua- 
tion of the city by the Continental troops, after their crushing 
defeat by the British at the battle of Brooklyn. In 1787, Bishop 
Carroll, then the very reverend Prefect, appointed the Rev. William 
O'Brien, a Dominican, pastor of St. Peter's Church, New York, 

'"Semicentennial Address of Judge Swayze," Newton, N. J., Sept. 
2d, 1903. 



54 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

and of him it is said " that he had ah-eady done parochial work in 
New Jersey." 

Just where he labored is not known, but no doubt he 
visited the field which the intrepid Father Farmer had culti- 
vated with so much labor and in the face of so many perils and 
dangers. 

The large share Catholics had in the formation of the republic 
and in wresting from a powerful nation their liberties cannot be 
gainsaid. Still, with the dawning of a new order of things, our 
coreligionists did not reap the immediate fruits of religious equal- 
ity, or the full measure of the reward which their sacrifices seemed 
to deserve. 

In 1788, in a pamphlet entitled Rcviaj-ks on the Origin of 
Govenuncnt and on Religions Liberty, ascribed to Governor 
Livingston, in speaking of liberty of conscience and contrasting 
the prevailing condition in our State " with the spiritual tyranny 
in England," the writer goes on to say " how beautiful appears our 
Catholic Constitution (of New Jersey) in disclaiming all jurisdic- 
tion over the souls of men," "that no Protestant inhabitant of this 
State shall be denied the enjoyment of any civil right merely on 
account of his religious principles," and that "all persons profess- 
ing a belief in the faith of any Protestant sect shall be capable of 
being elected to any office of trust or profit, or being members of 
either branch of the legislature." These sentiments drew forth 
from the well-known Catholic publisher of Philadelphia, Matthew 
Carey, a reply in which he said : " This clause falls far short of the 
divine spirit of toleration and benevolence that pervades the 
American Constitution: 'Every Protestant is eligible to any office 
of profit or trust.' Are Protestants, then, thereby capable or 
upright men in the State ? Is not the Roman Catholic thereby 
disqualified } Why so 1 Will not every argument in defence of 
exclusion tend to justify the intolerance and persecution of Eu- 
rope } " ' And later on he voiced the indignation of his church- 
men in a spirited protest, which appeared in the General Adver- 
tiser. " The greatest wonder of all is that at the close of the 
eighteenth century, among the enlightened, tolerant, and liberal 
Protestants of America, at the very instant when the American 
soil was drinking up the best blood of Catholics, shed in defence of 
her freedom, when the Gallic flag was flying in her ports and the 
Gallic soldiers fighting her battles, then were constitutions framed 

' A;jierican Ahiscitiiu vol. iv. 



IN NEW JERSEY 55 

in several States degrading those very Catholics and excluding 
them from certain offices. O Shame ! where is thy blush ? O 
Gratitude ! if thou hast a tear, let it fall to deplore this indelible 
stigma ! " ' When the convention met at Philadelphia in May, 
1787, to amend the articles of confederation and to draft our 
present Constitution, the question of religion did not come up 
until the sixth article was reached. Charles Pinckne}', of South 
Carolina, proposed that a clause should be introduced preventing 
any religious test. North Carolina was the only State that voted 
against it. When the people were called upon to appro\-e the Con- 
stitution, New York, strongly anti-Catholic in its organic law, 
reluctantly approved it; Rhode Island and North Carolina, where 
Catholics were practically unknown, rejected it absolutely. It 
has been charged that Catholics were instrumental in having 
enacted the First Amendment to the Constitution: Congress 
shall make no law establishing religion, or to prevent the free 
exercise thereof, or to infringe the rights of conscience. There is 
not the slightest proof for any such contention. Dr. Schaff says: 
"The credit of the Amendment is due to the first Congress, which 
proposed it, and to the conventions of the States of New York, 
Virginia, North Carolina, New Hampshire, and the minority of 
Pennsylvania, all of which suggested it, directly or indirectly, in 
substantially the same language." ° Of it Bishop Spalding writes : 
" There is no foundation, we think, for the opinion which we have 
sometimes heard, that the First Amendment to the Constitution 
was intended as a tardy act of justice to the Catholics in the 
United States, in gratitude for their conduct during the war, and 
for the aid of Catholic France. It, in fact, made no change in the 
position of the Catholics, whom it left to the mercy of the differ- 
ent States, precisely as they had been in the colonial era. Various 
causes were, however, at work, which by modifying the attitude 
of the States toward religion tended also to give greater freedom 
to the Catholic Church. The first of these was the rise of what 
may be called the secular theory of government, whose great ex- 
ponent, Thomas Jefferson, had received his political opinions from 
the French philosophers of the eighteenth century. The State, 
according to this theor}', is a purely political organism, and is not 
in any w^ay concerned with religion ; and this soon came to be the 
prevailing sentiment in the Democratic party, whose acknowl- 
edged leader Jefferson was, which may explain why the great mass 

1 1792. ^ The C/nirr/i and State in the United States^ ii., 4. 



56 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

of the Catholics in this country have ahvays voted with this 
party." ' 

CathoHcs have many times since the foundation of the repub- 
Hc been made to feel the sting of ingratitude, but they have alvva)s 
found among them a skilful pen or an eloquent voice to resent it. 

"Tell me not, in the beautiful fiction of the poet, of the Pil- 
grims of Massachusetts : 

"' They left untouched what here they found, 
Freedom to worship God ! ' 

Tell me not of the liberal principles of Roger Williams, under 
whose rule of nearly a half century at Providence the Rhode 
Island ordinance excluded the Catholic from the franchises of his 
own asylum from Puritan persecution ! Tell me not of the char- 
ity of Penn, who could rebuke his officers for toleration of the 
Catholic worship ! . . . While the Puritan of the East was perse- 
cuting the Catholic, the churchman, the Antinonian, the Baptist, 
and the harmless Quaker ; while Winthrop was recording his dis- 
content at the ' open setting up of the mass in Maryland ' ; and the 
law-established church in Virginia was wielding the scourge of 
universal proscription — the Catholic of Maryland alone was found 
to open wide his door to the sufferer of every persuasion, in the 
sentiment of the sweetest, the all but inspired poet of antiquity, 
has ascribed to the injured Dido: 

"' Myself an exile in a world unknown, 
I learn to pity woes so like my own ! ' 

"The firmness of the sons of Maryland, marshalled by a Small- 
wood, a William, a Gist, a Howard, or a Smith, under every aspect 
of danger and every form of privation, from the frozen plains of 
Valley Forge to the svveltry high hills of Santee — while their 
bones were whitening every field of Revolutionary glory or her 
dashing Barney was guiding them to victory on the ocean ! The 
talent, the learning, the patriotism of her Chases, her Martins, 
her Dulaneys and Pinckneys, or the Wirts and Harpers whom 
adoption has made her own, these and the thousand incidents that 
illustrate them must be told by a more eloquent tongue than mine. 

" But there was one on whose lustrous character even I may 
venture with friendship's privilege to dwell. I need not name 
that venerable model of the Christian, patriot, and gentleman, the 

' Catholic Church in United States, 1 776-1876, p. 23. 



IN NEW JERSEY 57 

relative of the first American archbishop, and his associate in the 
estabhshment and support of American Hberty. I need not name 
the ardent youth, who, at a time when his rehgion disfranchised 
him in his native province, engaged with all the energies of a vig- 
orous and accomplished mind in successful conflict with the legal 
dictator of his age, for the violated rights of that very country. I 
need not name the man who threw into the scale, where the pa- 
triots of '76 staked ' life and fortune and sacred honor,' more 
brilliant earthly expectations than all perhaps beside him; and 
who lingered among us, an exemplar of their virtues, till the whole 
immortal band had passed away. He lived till the controversial 
title of ' first citizen,' by which the early gratitude of his admir- 
ing patriots addressed him, was literally realized. Even he so 
much his junior, like whom 

"' This earth that bears him dead 

Bears not alive so stout a gentleman,' 

the hero ' of Cowpens and Eutaw, who nourished witlT his blood 
the tree of liberty that Carroll's " hand had helped to plant, and 
who upheld it, with strong arm and unwavering heart, when 
shaken rudest by the storm of war, the pride of the Maryland line 
had struck his tent, and gone forth on his march of eternity, and 
the survivor of the Declaration of Independence was without a 

peer. 

"' He lived, till age his brow with snows 

Had crowned, — but, like the Syrian hill, 
Amid the waste of life he rose, 
And verdure clasped his bosom still.' " 

(Speech of William G. Read, Esq., at first Commemoration of the 
landing of the Maryland Pilgrims.) 

To James Madison more than to any of the early statemen be- 
longs the credit of removing religious disabilities. An attempt 
was made in the Virginia legislature, in 1784, to lay a tax upon 
the people " for the support of teachers of the Christian religion." 
Madison saw the danger which lurked behind this attempt to erect 
a state church. He wrote a Memorial and Rcmojist ranee, set- 
ting forth its dangerous character, and labored industriously to 
obtain signatures for it. In the election of 1785 the question of 
religious freedom was the issue. 

' John Eager Howard, died October 12th, 1827. 

'■* Charles Carroll, of Carrolton, died November 14th, 1832, 



58 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

The odious bill was defeated, and in its stead was enacted 
" that no man shall be compelled to frequent or support any relig- 
ious worship, place, or ministry whatsoever, nor shall be enforced, 
restrained, molested, or burdened in his body or in his goods, nor 
shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or be- 
lief; but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument 
to maintain, their opinion in matters of religion, and that the same 
shall in no wise diminish, enlarge, or affect their civil capacities." ' 

It was, indeed, becoming that Virginia, with its hideous past of 
religious proscription, should be the standard-bearer of religious 
equality in the States. 

To be done with this painful question of intolerance, suffice it 
to say that not until 1 844 was the clause excluding Catholics from 
office in New Jersey abolished. 

Among the first converts in this State, if not the very first, 
was the Rev. Calvin White, who from 1791 to 1795 was pastor of 
the first Presbyterian church built in Morris County, at Whippany, 
in 171 8. After " exercising a useful ministry of four years " in 
this congregation he resigned and attached himself to the Episco- 
pal Church, becoming eventually rector of St. James's parish, 
Derby, Conn. Although he became a Catholic he did not enter 
the priesthood, but by his edifying life and intelligent grasp of the 
teachings of the Catholic Church was a veritable confessor of the 
faith in Connecticut. He was a Tory and just escaped hanging 
at the hands of a mob, because he refused to shout " property and 
liberty." It is said that he was first led to examine the doctrines 
of the Catholic Church by the correct life and intelligence of an 
old Catholic soldier in the Continental army. He was the grand- 
father of Richard Grant White, the distinguished art, literary, and 
dramatic critic. He died in Derby, Conn., March 28th, 1853, in 
his ninetieth year, fortified by the sacraments of holy Church. 
Much of the progress of Catholicity in Connecticut was due to his 
efforts and example. 

The yellow fever in Philadelphia, in 1793, and the massacre of 
San Domingo filled the little town of Mount Holly with a surplus 
population, many of whom were Catholics. The gaiety and volu- 
bility of the P"rench imparted a lively tone to the little community, 
in strong contrast to the staid, sober, but no less happy Quakers. 
About this time Stephen Girard, "famous for his riches and 
gifts," landed at Egg Harbor, came across the country on a ped- 

' Fiske's Essays, History and Literature, i., 194. 



IN NEW JERSEY 59 

dling tour, and took up his residence in the village. He lived in 
Mills Street, where he opened a cigar store, and sold raisins, by 
the penny's worth, to the children. He is said to have been "a 
little unnoticed man, save that the beauty of his wife, whom he 
married there, worried and alienated his mind." 

In 1793, September 19th, we find the last record of Father 
Graessl, "the worthy bishop elect," who celebrated the marriage 
of Julia Vinyard to John Philip Seeholzer at Charlottenburg. 

In 1795 there came to our State a man of brilliant mind, a dis- 
tant relative of Archbishop Carroll, a member of the Society of 
Jesus until its dissolution by Clement XIV, but an apostate from 
the faith after twenty years in the ecclesiastical state. The Rev. 
Charles Henry Wharton, D.D., became principal of an academy 
in Burlington, N. J., and three years later became rector of St. 
Mary's Episcopal Church, a position he held thirty-five years. 
He was twice married, but he had no children. He died at Bur- 
lington in his eighty-sixth year. 

" The great lights of the Church of Rome he regarded with 
unaffected reverence. Of Archbishop Carroll, his antagonist in 
controversy, as he was his kinsman in the flesh, he spoke to the 
very last with warm affection. 'It was a remarkable trait in his 
character,' says Bishop White, 'that from the beginning to the 
end of my acquaintance with him, he was a decided advocate of 
Jesuits, with the exception of the tenets of the Roman Catholic 
creed' " ( Wharton's Remains, G. W. Doane, i., 66). 

It is said of him that when a servant of his household was 
stricken with a mortal illness, and realizing the impossibility of 
getting a priest from Philadelphia, for she was a Catholic, Wharton 
said to her, " Although I am a parson, I am also a Catholic priest, 
and can give you absolution in jv;//' case." She made her confes- 
sion to him, and he absolved her, thus giving her that little com- 
fort before she died. Wharton's nephew, a good Catholic and a 
magistrate in W^ashington, is responsible for this story. 

Not long after Bishop Carroll returned from England, where 
he had been consecrated, to take possession of his vast see, De- 
cember, 1790, there came to this country a priest, who as an officer 
under Rochambeau had taken part in the struggle for our inde- 
pendence, the Rev. John Rosseter. On his return to his country 
with the French forces he entered the Augustinian order, but his 
eyes turned toward the country he had helped to free, and his 
heart thirsted for other victories more glorious and more stable — 
the conquest of souls. 



6o THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Bishop Carroll gave him a warm welcome, and located him 
about thirty miles from Philadelphia, probably at Wilmington, 
Del. In 1795 he was joined by the Rev. Matthew Carr, from St. 
Augustine's Convent, John Street, Dublin, whose purpose in 
coming was to found a house of the Hermits of St. Augustine. 

In 1796 the Augustinian Fathers secured a site on Fourth 
Street, below Vine, in Philadelphia, and immediately started to 
collect funds to build a church. Washington and many other 
Protestants were among the contributors. 

By an indult granted May 27th, 1797, they were given the 
necessary authority to establish convents of their order in the 
United States. 

After the death of Father Farmer, the Augustinians took up 
missionary work in New Jersey, and the Catholics of this State 
must ever hold the members of this order in grateful remem- 
brance. Among the missions founded by them in the early part 
of the nineteenth century were Cape May Island, x'isited about 
1803 by the Rev. M Hurley; Trenton, by the Rev. Dr Matthew 
Carr in 1805 ; and Paterson, first visited by the Rev. Philip Lariscy 
about 1 82 1. 

This brings our narrative to the establishment of the first 
regular Catholic parish in the State of New Jersey, and this credit 
belongs to Trenton. 

Sacred Heart, Trenton, 

Formerly, St. John's Parish. 
1799-1899. 

It is impossible to say when Mass was first said in this city. 
Dr. John Gilmary Shea, in his History of the CatJwlic CJinrcJi in 
the United States, writes that in October, 1799, Rev. D. Boury, 
a Catholic priest from Philadelphia, officiated in Trenton. Bishop 
Carroll, of Baltimore, in a letter dated September 8th, 1 803, wrote 
that he was called to Trenton because of some trouble that 
had arisen in the congregation. "Next Monday, 12th, I will 
leave this place (Philadelphia) for the neighborhood of New York. 
The devil is always busy to raise obstacles in my way. He or his 
agent has made a disturbance at Trenton, where I did not expect 
any business, which will perhaps cause me some delay — so that I 
expect to cross Hobuck ferry before Wednesday." (Letter of 
Bishop Carroll to Jas. Barry, Esq., N. Y., September 8th, 1803.) 
In the following year, 1804, services were held in the printing- 



IN NEW JERSEY 



6i 



office of Isaac Collins, which stood on the corner of Broad and 
State streets, but then called Queen and Second streets. From 
the year 1811 to 1814, Mass was said at intervals in the house of 
John D. Sartori, a Catholic gentleman, who lived on Federal 
Street. The priests who officiated were Fathers Carr and Hurley, 
of St. Augustine's Church, Philadelphia, and the Dominican 
Father, Rev. William Vincent Harold, also of Philadelphia. In 
1 814 Mr. Sartori, Capt. John Hargous, and some other Catholic 
gentlemen, with the approval of Rt. Rev. Michael Eagan, Bishop 
of Philadelphia, purchased ground at the corner of Market and 
Lam her ton streets, and erect- 
ed thereon a small brick 
church, which was dedicated 
by Bishop Eagan, in the same 
year, and called St. Francis'. 
It was attended, more or less 
regularly, by priests from Phil- 
adelphia until about 1830, 
when Father Geoghen became 
its first resident pastor. He 
remained about two years, 
when on account of failing 
health he was obliged to give 
up the parish. Between that 
time and 1 844, when the Rev. 
John P. Mackin took charge, 
the parish had no less than 
seven different pastors. 

Father Mackin, finding his 
church too small for the growing congregation, bought, in 1844, 
ground on Broad Street, the site of the present Sacred Heart 
Church, and erected quite a large brick church, which was dedi- 
cated to St. John the Baptist. The congregation increased so 
rapidly that it soon outgrew the capacity of this church, which 
in 1853 was considerably enlarged. Father Mackin continued 
to labor faithfully for the good of the parish until, his health 
failing", he was obliged to suspend his labors and go abroad. Dur- 
ing his absence Fathers O'Donnell and Young, in succession, 
had charge of the parish. In May, 1861, Rev. Anthony Smith, 
who was afterward to become so important a factor in the 
religious and secular life of Trenton, was appointed pastor of 
St. John's. In the following year he opened an orphan asylum 




REV. JOHN MACKIN, 
Pastor of St. John's Church. (1843-1873.) 



62 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

on Broad Street, and brought the first Sisters of Charity to 
Trenton. 

When the Rev. Anthony Smith, in January, 1871, resigned 
St. John's parish to assume charge of St. Mary's, he was suc- 
ceeded by Father Mackin, who some years before had been pastor 
of St. John's, but was compelled to leave on account of ill health. 
Father Mackin died March, 1873, and Rev. Patrick Byrne was 
appointed his successor. Father Byrne saw at once the necessity 
of better school accommodations for the children, and in 1874 
began the erection of St. John's school on Lamberton Street. 
This is a large brick building with sixteen rooms and a large hall 
on the top floor. The Sisters' house adjoins the school. After 
five years' zealous and successful labor. Father Byrne resigned 
charge of the parish and was succeeded by the present rector. 
Rev. Thaddeus Hogan, in the autumn of 1878. On Sunday even- 
ing, September 30th, 1883, St. John's Church was destroyed by 
fire. Father Hogan began immediately to prepare plans for a 
new church to be erected on the same site. The corner-stone 
was laid while Bishop O'Farrell was in Rome on his visit ad 
liniina on August 3d, 1884, by Bishop Shanahan, of Harrisburg, 
Pa. It was nearly five years in the course of erection, and was 
solemnly dedicated, on June 30th, 1889, by Bishop O'Farrell. 
This was a notable occasion ; Archbishop Ryan, of Philadelphia, 
celebrated pontifical mass, and Archbishop Corrigan, of New 
York, preached the sermon. The new church was called the 
Sacred Heart, and while it could not have been dedicated to an 
object more holy, many people regretted that the old name St. 
John's was not retained. The church is a massive stone structure 
in the Roman style of architecture, with two dome-shaped towers 
in front. The interior decorations and furnishings are in keeping 
with the building. The altars are made of white marble and onyx. 
Besides the church proper, there is a large basement which is 
used for week-day services. The stone rectory and club house 
were also built by Father Hogan. These grand structures are an 
evidence of P'ather Hogan's zeal and activity. The population of 
the parish is about three thousand, and the number of pupils in 
the school about four hundred and fifty. 

Allusion has frequently been made to the causes which brought 
so many French to different parts of the United States and to so 
many localities in our own State. The French settlement at 
Madison, formerly Bottle Hill, was important not only in point of 
numbers, but on account of their wealth, lineage, and refinement. 



IN NEW JERSEY 63 

The Rev. Peter Vianncy, stationed at St. Peter's, New York, 
1804-09, is said to have celebrated the first Mass in the house of 
Lavielle Duberceau, and for some time it continued to be cele- 
brated there and in the old academy which stood on the corner of 
the Convent Road and Ridgedale Avenue. 

P'athers Vianney, Malou, Powers, Kohlman, Bulger Donohue, 
from Paterson attended successively to the needs of this little 
mission. 

It is related of Pather Power that once on his way to Madi- 
son, after having landed at Elizabeth, the carriage which was to 
have conve)ed him to Bottle Hill broke down, and he was con- 
strained to accept the invitation of a passing farmer to ride into 
the village, seated on a load of hogs. 

In 1789, Washington, then occupying the presidential chair, 
by a proclamation ordered Thiu'sday, November 26th, to be ob- 
served for the first time by the citizens of our country as a day of 
thanksgiving, in these noble and memorable words : " I recom- 
mend and assign this day to be devoted by the people of these 
States to the service of that great and glorious Being, who is the 
beneficent Author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be, 
that we may then all unite in rendering unto Him our sincere 
and humble thanks for His kind care and protection of the people 
of this country previous to their becoming a nation, . . . for the 
civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed." He prays 
" God to promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and 
virtue." 

We are straying far afield from these lofty principles, built on 
the only solid foundation which can afford permanency to the 
cause for which the Eather of his Country fought and pleaded. 

The visit of Bishop Carroll, before alluded to, brings to our 
notice two important cities in our diocese hardly distinguishable 
in their ancient vocable. " I am advised to go to Hoebuck's 
ferry, two miles above Powles' hook, to cross over in a boat 
always ready to the wharf of the new state prison " (Letter of 
Archbishop Carroll to James Barry, August 25th, 1803). 

Hoebuck's ferry has developed into Hoboken, and Powles' 
hook has become our important seaboard mart — Jersey City. 

The steady growth of Catholicity made it necessary for Bishop 
Carroll to apply to the Holy See for a division of his immense 
diocese, as it would be for the best interests of religion, and would 
best promote good order and discipline. 

April 8th, 1808, Pius VII. divided the see of Baltimore, and 



64 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

erected the sees of New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and Bards- 
town. The learned Dominican, the Rev. Richard Luke Con- 
canen, was chosen for New York, and consecrated with great 
pomp in the church of the nuns of St. Catharine, Rome, April 
24th, 1808. 

He was unable, because of war between the French and 
English, to embark until June 17th, 1810, when his preparations 
to start for his new diocese seemed complete. But an unexpected 
embarrassment with the civil authorities at Naples, on the pretext 
that his papers were not satisfactory, thwarted him in his purpose. 
A sudden attack of illness carried him off, and on the 20th of 
June he was buried in the church of San Domenico Maggiore, in 
Naples. 

Through the interference of Archbishop Troy of Dublin and 
other Irish bishops, who busied themselves overmuch in American 
affairs, the Hcly See was led into the blunder of appointing as 
successor to Bishop Concanen a worthy man, but a subject of 
Great Britain, then at war with the United States. Another 
country would have resented this as an insult. 

The Rev. John Connolly was appointed bishop and consecrated 
November 6th, 1814. The relations between himself and the 
archbishop and the other prelates seem to have been of a strained 
nature. He arrived in the ship Sn/Iy, December 2d, 181 5, un- 
announced and without a single one of his priests to greet him. 

In the division of the diocese of Baltimore, Hunterdon, War- 
ren, Burlington, Gloucester, Salem, Cumberland, and Cape May 
counties in New Jersey were assigned to the Philadelphia diocese ; 
and Sussex, Morris, Essex, Bergen, Somerset, Middlesex, and 
Monmouth counties to the diocese of New York. 

For almost half a century, then, the bishops of New York and 
Philadelphia must look after Catholic interests in the respective 
divisions of our State, and this will explain to the present gener- 
ation the presence in New Jersey of priests who are to be found 
later on laboring and honored in the great metropolis of our coun- 
try and the City of Brotherly Love. 

Industrial schemes, meanwhile, were in an active stage of 
development, and the little drops of that mighty flood of emigra- 
tion were beginning to fall in various parts of the State. At the 
beginning of the nineteenth century Morris County alone was 
able to supply all the iron ore needed in the United States. 
There were in the county two furnaces, two rolling mills, two 
slitting mills, and thirty forges^to say nothing of the iron mines. 



IN NEW JERSEY 65 

The Morris Canal and Banking Company was chartered, Decem- 
ber 31st, 1824, to build a canal from the Delaware River, near 
Easton, to Newark, and in 1828 was authorized to extend it to 
the Hudson River. 

In 1 81 5, February 6th, the legislature granted what was per- 
haps the first railroad charter ever granted in the United States, 
by an act creating a company " to build a railroad from the river 
Delaware, near Trenton, to the river Raritan, at or near New 
Brunswick," and thus* inaugurated that vast system of commer- 
cial highways which has so promoted the prosperity of our State. 
In the furthering of these enterprises and the construction of 
these works labor was needed. Unavailable at home, it had to 
be sought abroad, and in the main these men of brawn and muscle 
were English, Irish, and Scotch. The first emigrants, coming 
from a condition of peonage, cowed by oppression, warped to 
duplicity, if not lack of veracity, by the too human effort to shield 
themselves from the iron hand of the oppressor, be he the land- 
lord or his agents, made suspicious of everybody and everything 
by the swarms of spies set upon them by a harsh government, no 
sooner did they breathe the air of freedom than, intoxicated by 
it, they cast off all restraint, which often led to disorders, fraught 
with scandal and annoyance, and disastrous to the faith of not a 
few. 

In the first fifty years of our history there was scarcely a par- 
ish which did not suffer from these evils, and the heart of many a 
worthy priest was broken and his spirit crushed, and the flock 
torn by dissension from precisely these causes, which were inevit- 
able then, but now have happily passed away. The culprit was 
not the Celt alone, but his Gallic, Germanic, and, at a later period 
and in a lesser degree, his Slavic, Polish, and Italian brother. 
With these remarks, the unpleasant memories of their past mis- 
deeds may sleep with the dust of the victims and promoters, of 
whom these lived to regret and the others hastened to forgive. 

From the moors and glens of old Ireland, from its valleys and 
mountains they came, their hearts filled with sad memories of 
stately ruins of the grandeurs of that old faith for which they 
together with their sires had sacrificed so much, and mindful of 
the desolation that had swept over their fair land in the stubborn 
effort they had made to uphold the glory and integrity of their 
national honor. And, as they strained their eyes with one long, 
lingering look at the bold headlands of Kerry's coast, and saw the 
mad waves leap in fury and dash their crested foam, helpless and 
5 



66 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

impotent, against the eternal hills, the tears veiled from their gaze 
a land they never hoped and, most of them, were never destined 
to see again. 

And the Sassenagh, the ripened fruit of the bloody Hengist 
and Horsa, of the cruel Dane, of the freebooting, pitiless Norman 
and the unconquerable Briton, met again the old foe of their fore- 
bears, met them with that instinctive hatred which so often has 
characterized nations, clans, and families, and perpetuated feuds, 
enmities, and bloodshed for no other reason than a traditional 
pledge of mutual antagonism. Hence, the odious laws, the out- 
breaks, which go echoing along the cycles, bursting forth again 
and again into those unjust and cruel manifestations of Know- 
nothingism and Apaism. Even then this addition of a new ele- 
ment in our population did not fail to excite the alarm of many, 
and to them, when the question of emigration was discussed in 
Congress, in 1790, Representative Lawrence had this to say: "If 
the immigrant bring an able body, his labor will be productive of 
national wealth, an addition to our national strength." 

These Irish lads and lasses distributed themselves over our 
State, as faith cultures, some settling in the larger towns, where 
employment might be had as laborers in factories or at service in 
families ; others trudged through the country, finding occupation 
on farms; or others still along projected lines of railroad and 
canal. And the priests were on their trail, and did not fail, even 
if there were no church, to build an altar of logs and stones, and 
under the shadow of God's own Gothic temple— a widespreading 
oak or chestnut tree — to offer the holy Sacrifice while the kneel- 
ing throng, bowed in silence, their hearts filled with consolation, 
and their memories carried back beyond the seas to other shrines 
and other SoggaitJis, not less loved and reverenced than the priest 
before them, whose language they could hardly understand, rever- 
ently adored their Eucharistic God. 

" I will never forget the Mass I once heard in a country chapel. 
I happened one day at the foot of a lofty eminence. It was crested 
with fir trees and oaks. Up its sides I climbed until I found my- 
self in presence of a man on his knees. Soon I saw others in the 
same posture ; and the higher I went the more numerous was the 
throng. As I reached the summit I saw a humble building in 
the form of a cross, built of stones without mortar, and with a 
thatched roof. All around were crowds of big, brawny men, on 
their knees, with uncovered head, despite the pelting rain and the 
liquid mud under them. A stillness as of death hung over them. 



IN NEW JERSEY 67 

It was the Catholic chapel of Blarney, and the 'Soggarth' was 
saying Mass. I reached there just at the Elevation, and one and 
all bowed down to the very earth. 

" I managed to edge my way within its crowded walls. No 
pews, no decorations, not even a floor. Everywhere the damp 
and pebbly earth ; oj^en windows and tallow dips instead of wax 
tapers. The good priest made the announcement in Irish, that 
on such a da)' he would hold a station in such a place, where he 
would hear confessions, say Mass, and visit the sick. Soon Mass 
was over; the priest mounted his horse and was off; little by 
little the crowd broke up and trudged off, some to their cabins, 
others with the sickle over their arm to the harvest, and others 
lolled along the road, stopping at some near-by cabin to accept its 
humble hospitality, not as a charity, but as a right. Others with 
their wives mounted behind them rode off to their distant homes. 
Full many, however, remained praying a long time before the 
Eucharistic God, prostrate on the ground, in that silent spot so 
dear to a poverty-stricken people, but so faithful in the hour of 
persecution. The stranger who sees such sights, and on his 
knees side by side with these poverty-pinched creatures, rises up 
with a heart overflowing with pride and happiness at the thought 
that he too belongs to that Church which knows not death, and 
which at the very time that unbelief is digging its grave, feels the 
throbbing of a new life in the desert places of Ireland and America, 
but free and poor as it was at its cradle " (Montalembert, Avcnir, 
January, 1831). 

Our theme brings us now to the first Catholic settlement in 
the episcopal city of the diocese. 

St. John's Church, Newark, N. J. 

This beautiful edifice, located on Mulberry Street, is a land- 
mark, standing in an atmosphere of interesting memories. Its 
architect was the Very Rev. Patrick Moran, who was also the 
architect of St. Patrick's Cathedral and St. Peter's, of Belleville. 
It consists of the original church with a facade designed by 
Father Moran, and the whole structure is built of Newark brown- 
stone from the old quarry on Eighth Avenue. A rude hickory 
cross about six feet high, unstripped of its bark, surmounted the 
gable of the original structure, and was the first emblem of salva- 
tion reared in this State, spreading its arms to all. 

The Rev. Paul McQuade, ordained in Canada, September 23d, 



68 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 




ST, JOHN'S FIRST CATHOLIC CHURCH 

IN NEWARK. (1828.) 

Built by Rev. Gregory Brj'an Pardow. 



1805, lal)ored in Albany, N. Y., 1813 to 1817, according" to tradi- 
tion, offered the holy Sacritice for the first time in the city of 

Newark in an old stone 
house, which stood for many 
years on the corner of High 
and Orange streets, or, ac- 
cording to another tradition, 
in the Turf house, corner 
of Durand and Mulberry 
streets. In 1829 the Rev. 
Gregory Bryan Pardow was 
named first pastor of the 
Catholics of Newark. 
Father Pardow, born in 
Warwickshire, England, on 
November 9th, 1804, of 
George Pardow and Elizabeth Seaton, was educated in Ston)- 
hurst, entered the Society of Jesus, but left and went to Rome. 
His father came to this country later, and was manager of the 
Truthteller, the first Catholic newspaper in this country. P^ather 
Pardow was ordained by 
Bishop Dubois, and after his 
appointment to Newark or- 
ganized the congregation 
then and now known as St. 
John's. It was designated St. 
John's Roman Catholic Soci- 
ety of Newark, N. J. 

"In 1829, the Rev. Greg- 
ory Bryan Pardow, of New 
York, organized, under the 
patronage of St. John, the 
association of Catholics who 
founded St. John's church. 
The first trustees were Pat- 
rick Murphy, John Sherlock, 
John Kelly, Christopher 
Rourke, Morris Fitzgerald, 
John Gillespie, and Patrick 
Mape. Previous to the build- 
ing of St. John's church, the Catholics of Newark had met 
for divine service at a house on Mulberry Street, occupied by 




REV. GREGORY BRYAN PARDOW, 
Born Nov. 9th, 1804. Died April 24th, iS 



IN NEW JKRSEY 69 

Charles Durning. The trustees set about erecting a suitable 
place of worship, (jround was purchased on Mulberry Street 
and the erection of the church was begun in 1827. When the 
foundation was laid, the trustees found that their funds were ex- 
iiaustetl, and they decided to have a committee wait on the Rev. 
Dr. Power, of St. Peter's Church, New York, to ask him to assist 
them in their work, by delivering a lecture in Newark for the 
benefit of the struggling parish. He cheerfully consented, and 
ad\'ised the committee to have the lecture early and well adver- 
tised. As there was no public hall in the town at the time, the 
committee were at a loss how to proceed. This quandary was 
answered by the vestrymen of Old Trinity Church in the park. 
At the suggestion of Rev. Dr. Power, the committee called upon 
them to ask the use of the church for the lecture. After due 
consideration the vestrymen unanimously granted the request. 
On the appointed evening the lecture was given to a large audi- 
ence which filled the church and was about three-fourths non- 
Catholic, as at that time the Catholic population was very small. 
The proceeds netted o\'er three hundred dollars, quite a sum of 
money to realize from such an occasion in those days. The liberal 
and generous action of Trinity has been and al\va}s will be remem- 
bered by the Catholic citizens of Newark. But through the base- 
ness of one individual the money was lost to the struggling parish. 
The treasurer of the committee proved himself a veritable Judas, 
by making off with the entire receipts, and he was ne\-er heard of 
again. Let him be nameless ! Under the untiring zeal and 
energy of Rew P^ather Pardow the building was finished and 
dedicated to divine service in 1828. In the dedication ceremonies 
the Very Rev. John Power, who represented Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Dubois on the occasion, officiated. 

" The old pioneers, now all passed to their reward, used to say 
tliat the front and rear ends of the first St. John's were of rough 
boards, and not infrequently the rain and snow were blown 
through the crevices on the worshippers seated on planks, raised 
on big, rough stones. The cross was of Jersey hickory, with the 
bark on it, six by four feet, and no doubt was the first raised on a 
sacred edifiice in the State. Those not of our faith looked askance 
at it, for it was then regarded as superstitious to venerate the 
cross, as it had not yet become fashionable, as it is now, to place 
the emblem of salvation on the churches of Presbyterians, Meth- 
odists, Baptists, and Episcopalians. 

"The late Rev. Michael J. Holland, St. Columba's, Newark, 



70 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

gave a pen-picture of places and persons in that city and it is con- 
sidered worth reproducing. 

"Just about the time of the erection of St. John's Church, 
Newark as a city had begun to awake to quickening impulses. 
The Morris Canal was being completed, and work had already 
commenced on the railroad, which, the only one in the State, was 
about to connect the city with New York. Statistics give the 
population at that time as ten thousand white Americans, six 
hundred Irish, three hundred Germans, and three hundred and 
fifty negroes. The central portion of the town, still unincor- 
porated, was lighted with oil lamps sparsely scattered, and pos- 
sessed few buildings of any importance. There were but four 
wards, the north, south, the east, and the west, and but two docks 
upon the river above Bridge Street. Where now stands Clark's 
manufactory, in the writer's own recollection, was an old frame 
iron foundry, and above nothing but the marshy river banks. 
State Street on the north, High Street on the west, the line of 
the Passaic, and thence down River Street and Mulberry to Fair 
Street — the extreme southern boundary — might be called the city 
proper, though a number of outlying habitations existed beyond. 
A wide and swift-running brook, reaching into the interior, ran 
through a deep valley down a line parallel with Eighth Avenue, 
which formed four large and picturesque sheets of water above 
Broad, High, Sheffield streets, and the woodland district above, 
each of which supplied as many mill-wheels with power. This 
stream formed the water-shed of a wide extended territory, and 
after storms frequently rose very high. But two bridges, at Broad 
and High streets, spanned its current, and these were frequently 
overflowed. On this account many at times could not attend 
Mass from the North Ward and Belleville. 

"As early as 1824 the holy Sacrifice was weekly offered in 
Newark, where thirty or forty attendants were considered a good 
congregation. It was for some time continued at the home of 
Mr. Burning in Mulberry Street, but was first celebrated at the 
residence of Mr. Sherlock, below Mulberry Street. Persons from 
Orange, Elizabeth, Belleville, Arlington, Springfield, and Rahway 
came here for divine service. 

"The original church was constructed in a very primitive 
manner, having unplastered walls and boards arranged upon stone 
supports for seats. Men from the quarries dug its foundations, 
contributed the material, and performed most of the work. A 
graveyard large enough for the wants of the time existed in the 



IN NEW JERSEY 71 

rear. Some of the bodies were removed when the new church 
and its several extensions were built, but many of those old pioneer 
predecessors of ours still rest beneath the shadow of old St. John's. 
The first offshoot of this old church was St. Mary's, High Street, 
in 1842. Then followed St. Patrick's in 1848, which became the 
cathedral of the diocese in November, 1853. The other churches 
of the city were erected at varied intervals of a few years as the 
demands of necessity and opportuneness required. The growth 
of our faith in Newark during Father Moran's period vvas some- 
thing marvellous. He saw its first church and welcomed its first 
bishop. He was a man of earnest and persevering character, 
though by no means possessing rugged health, ' His body fainted, 
his heart — never ! ' 

"The first native of Newark ordained to the priesthood was 
Daniel G. Burning, son of Charles Burning, and its first ladies to 
embrace a religious life in the sisterhood were Winifred and Anna, 
daughters of Patrick Hart, then superintendent of the Mount 
Pleasant Cemetery. Of the latter, all are still living" {Sacred 
Heart Union, March, 1881). 

As the cost of the building exceeded the estimate by a con- 
siderable sum, it was judged advisable to put the pews up at auc- 
tion. The first pew to the right of the middle aisle brought forty- 
two dollars, and the other pews brought smaller but respectable 
sums. By this sale a handsome fund was realized, and some of 
the more urgent bills of the contractors were paid. But there was 
still a large balance of unpaid indebtedness, and general stagnation 
of business ensuing, the trustees found themselves unexpectedly 
called on for payment and the church in danger of being sold. In 
this emergency, good Bishop Bubois came to the rescue. Through 
his friend. Bishop Brute, he secured a loan of 22,960 francs from 
the association of the Propagation of the Faith, with which the 
claims were paid, and from that time, 1829, St. John's parish pros- 
pered. The Rev. Gregory B. Pardow, the founder of the church, 
labored faithfully with the parish for three years, and through his 
energy, tact, and zeal insured its success. He was followed by 
the Rev. Matthew Herard, October 7th, 1832, and the Rev, P. 
Rafferty, October 13th, 1833. 

On November 3d, 1833, the Rev. Patrick Moran was appointed 
pastor. He was eminently fitted for the place. He possessed 
good judgment, a refined and correct taste, and an educated 
mind. Under his management the affairs of St. John's advanced 
rapidly, despite the panic of 1837, and the sterling qualities of 



72 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

their pastor continued to win for the congregation the confidence 
of their non-CathoHc neighbors. Father Moran soon had a hbrary 
of eight hundred and fifty vohnnes in circulation. He organized 
church societies, hterary, temperance, and benevolent associations. 
He erected a school-house and arranged for the free education 
during the evening of such as could not attend the day school. 
But his chief source of pleasure and pride was in his Sunday- 
school, which he raised to a high degree of excellence. Connected 
with the Sunday-school was a teachers' association, which was a 
model of its kind. 

The Puritan element in those days confounded Catholicity with 
the nationality of St. Patrick's children, and hence to show their 
contempt for both, on March 1 7th, they were in the habit of hang- 
ing a stuffed " Paddy," a string of potatoes around his neck and a 
bottle sticking out of his pocket, from a tree or high pole ; and 
they took great delight enjoying the wrath and discomfiture of the 
Paddies. This kind of amusement was very popular all over the 
State, and sometimes these insulting figures were hung from Cath- 
olic churches. The last of these effigies to appear was about the 
middle of the fifties. It was strung across Broad Street, near the 
old First Church, Newark, from a noble elm to a house on the 
other side of the street. That night a good number of stalwart 
Irishmen, some Orangemen among the number, armed with axes, 
marched to the offensive figure, and, plying their weapon with 
lusty blows, the noble tree soon crashed across the street, carry- 
ing with it the ignoble sign, and blocked all trafificin the roadway. 
The lesson was taken to heart, and insolent bigotry was silent, if 
not extinct. 

When the late Most Rev. James Roosevelt Bayley, D.D., was 
appointed first bishop of Newark, one of his first acts was to ap- 
point the Rev. Patrick Moran his vicar-general. The Very Rev. 
Patrick Moran, V. G., born in Loughrea, Ireland, in 1798, edu- 
cated at Mount St. Mary's, and ordained November 9th, 1832, 
was made pastor of St. John's, Newark, in succession to the Rev. 
P. Rafferty, November, 1833. He enlarged the church several 
times, acting as his own architect, designing the facade as it now 
is, and making many, if not all, of the interior ornaments with 
his own hands. Under him St. John's was the first consecrated 
church in the diocese. During a long pastorate of thirty-three 
years he labored incessantly with his own, and endeared himself 
to those of other denominations. Of a bright and cheerful dispo- 
sition, he imparted the glow of his kindly nature to all those with 



IN NKW JERSEY 



73 



whom he came in contact, and more than all with the children. 
He is buried in old St. John's cemetery, in the rear of St. Michael's 
Church. He died July 25th, 1866. 

The Fireman's Journal wrote of him, August 4th, 1866: " No 
notice we could write would do justice to the earnest and gentle 
character of Father Moran. He was sedulous in the discharge of 




ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, MULBERRY STREET, NEWARK. 

his duties as a pastor, watchful of what might promote religion, 
and fond of his library and his books. Of a highly cultivated 
mind, he had a most playful and exquisite wit, but it was of that 
rare kind that never offends charity." Archbishop McCloskey, 
Bishop Bacon, and many priests attended his funeral. Bishop 
Bayley preached amid the sobs of the congregation, the tears 
streaming from his own eyes. " Father Moran's systematic habits, 



74 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

the care and devotion with which he recited the divine ofifice, the 
earnestness with which he prepared children for the first recep- 
tion of holy Communion and Confirmation — his reverence for the 
house of God and His sanctuary — all showed what an influence 
that saintly man (Bishop Brute) made upon his disciples " (Diary 
of Bishop Bayley). St. John's is the oldest church in the State, 
and the present is the fourth structure ; and it was consecrated 
May, 1858. 

After the death of Vicar-General Moran, which occurred July 
25th, 1866, the following were successively rectors of St. John's 
church : Rev. James Moran, nephew of the deceased rector, No- 
vember, 1866; Rev. Louis Schneider, November, 1867; Rev. 
Thomas M. Killeen, who built the new rectory adjoining the 
church and did much for St. John's, November, 1868; Rev. Pat- 
rick Leonard was rector in December, 1878; Rev. Louis Gambos- 
ville, who personally and with great care and labor rewrote the 
church's records of births and marriages from the foundation to 
his time, and who was the second incumbent to die (January, 
1892); Rev. Thomas A. Wallace, administrator, from January, 
1892, to February 27th, 1892; and February, 1892, Rev. J. P. 
Poels, the incumbent. The assistant rectors were Rev. Fathers 
Guth, 1837; Farrell, 1838; Bacon, 1838; Donahue, 1845; Hana- 
han, 1846; Callan, 1848; Senez, 1849; Conroy, 1852; McGuire, 
1853; Tubberty, 1854; Castet, 1858; McCloskey, i860; Byrne, 
1 861; Moran, 1863; Wiseman, 1867; Rolando, 1867; Nardiello, 
1867; Whelan, 1878; Corrigan, 1879; White, 1882; McGahan, 
1892; and John A. Fanning, D.D. Rev. Father Poels is now 
rector of St. John's, and his administration has already been 
signalized by a marked advancement of church affairs and an 
entire renovation of the church property. 

The history of St. John's is in very fact the history of Cathol- 
icity in New Jersey. The "mother of all the churches " of the 
diocese, from her sanctuary have gone forth several zealous and 
exemplary missionaries to propagate the faith, and among these 
may be mentioned Most Rev. Michael Augustine Corrigan, D.D., 
Archbishop of New York; the late Very Rev. James A. Corri- 
gan, for several years vice-president of Seton Hall College ; Rev. 
George W. Corrigan, of St. Joseph's, Newark; and the late Rev. 
Martin O'Connor, of Peoria, 111. 



IN NEW JKRSKY 75 



St. John's Church, Paterson. 

The first priest who placed his foot within what are at present 
the corporate hmits of the city of Paterson was Father Phihp 
Larriscy, an Augustinian monk who spoke Irish well and came here 
from New York, probably in 1822. Just what year he came here 
is not positively known, but it seems to be tolerably well estab- 
lished that he was here for some years previous to Father Lajig- 
ion. The name of this priest is generally misspelled. He was 
the Rev. Arthur Langdill, and was given faculties throughout the 
diocese of New York by Bishop Connolly, October 22d, 181 7. 

The first Mass in Paterson was celebrated in the residence of 
Michael Gillespie, which stood in Market Street on the site of the 
present Ekings building. Father Larriscy was a missionary 
priest who travelled between New York and Philadelphia and 
visited Paterson every few weeks. 

Father Langdill was the second priest who celebrated Mass in 
Paterson. The Gillespies had removed to Belleville, and so a 
room for the holding of divine service was fitted up in the resi- 
dence of Robert McNamee on the corner of Broadway and Mul- 
berry Street. Here the Catholics attended Mass for several 
years. Father Langdill was also a missionary priest, going from 
New York to Paterson, to Macopin, Bottle Hill, and other places ; 
then returning to Paterson, which was a more important Catholic 
settlement than any in this part of the State. On his return to 
New York from Paterson Father Langdill stopped at the residence 
of Mr. Gillespie at Belleville, and after celebrating Mass there pro- 
ceeded to Newark, where there were very few Catholics, and from 
thence to New York. This seems to have been the route taken 
by the earlier Catholic clergymen, for even Father Bulger, who 
was not ordained until 181 5, said Mass in the residence of Mr. 
Gillespie. 

Father Richard Bulger was educated at Kilkenny College, Ire- 
land, and was ordained a priest in 181 5 by Bishop Connolly. He 
was for some time the assistant pastor of the Cathedral in New 
York, but spent most of his nine years of priesthood in adminis- 
tering spiritual consolation to the Catholics in Paterson and 
vicinity. It was he who in 1820 erected the first building used 
exclusively for divine service by Catholics in Paterson, and he 
was the first parish priest in this city. Previous to this time he 
followed in the footsteps of his predecessors in journeying from 



76 



I HE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



place to place, preaching the word of God by the way and saying 
Mass and administering the rites of the Church whenever oppor- 




ST. John's church, main and (jrand streets, paterson. 

tunity afforded. In 1821 Mr. Roswell L. Colt, in behalf of the 
Society for Establishing Useful Manufactures, offered to all the 



IN NEW JERSEY 77 

\arioiis denominations in Paterson ground on which to erect 
houses of worship. This generous offer was accepted by the Cath- 
ohcs, and in this way tliey came into possession of a piece of prop- 
erty situated on the southwest corner of Congress (now Market) 
and Mill streets. The deed was given to the Catholics "for the 
purpose of erecting, maintaining, and keeping a building or house 
for the jiublic worship of (iod," a clause in the deed providing for 
reversion of the property to the donor as soon as the propert}' 
was used for any other purpose than that of divine worship. 
There were at that time onl}- thirteen Catholic families in Pater- 
son, but the prejudice against the Catholic Church which charac- 
terized its earlier history in this country had subsided, and the 
Catholics received aid from persons of other denominations. 
This, added to their own generous gifts of money and labor, pro- 
duced a building 25 x 30 feet in size and one story high. The 
room was furnished with a j^lain altar and a number of wooden 
benches without backs, which serxed as pews, and the attendance 
on Sundays did not exceed fifty, unless there was an influx of 
Catholics from some village not supplied with a church. Mass 
was celebrated every Sunday morning and vespers in the after- 
noon. The church was named for St. John the Baptist, and the 
building" still stands where it was erected in 1821, although it has 
been considerably altered Father Bulger was taken sick in 1 824, 
while assistant pastor at the Cathedral in New York, where he 
died in November of that year. He was buried in front of St. 
Patrick's Cathedral. 

Although Father Bulger's years as a priest were few, the}^ 
were devoted to the cause of the Ford with an energy and faith 
fulness which made him so prominent a figure in the early his- 
tory of the Church in Paterson. 

The Rev. John Shanahan, the successor of Father Bulger, was 
appointed missionary of the State of New Jersey — so much of it 
as was included in the diocese of New York — from Jersey City 
to the neighborhood of Trenton — with Paterson as a centre He 
had been educated at Mount St. Mary's, and ordained in 1823 b}' 
Bishop Connolly. On leaving Paterson he was associated with 
Father Moran in St. John's, Newark, 1846, to May 9th, 1848; 
thence he went to Utica, and afterward to California. He re- 
turned to New York and found a home in St. Peter's, where, 
although deprived of his sight, he led a cheerful life, edifying his 
])riestly penitents by his resignation and serenity. After hear- 
ing their confession, the penance he usually gave them was ; " For 



78 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

your penance you will now sit down and read this book for me for 
fifteen minutes." He died August 8th, 1870, aged seventy-eight 
years. 

Father Charles Brennan — or Brannin, as it is printed in con- 
temporaneous newspapers — came next. He had been educated in 
Kilkenny College, Ireland, and had been ordained by Bishop Con- 
nolly in 1822. He conceived the idea of erecting a new church, 
as the Catholics were rapidly increasing in numbers, and proceeded 
to carry his design into execution. He made a number of tours 
through the surrounding country soliciting subscriptions, and it 
was while thus engaged that he was taken sick. He went to New 
York, where he died in March, 1826, and his remains were in- 
terred by the side of Father Bulger. 

While P'ather Brennan was lying sick in New York, Father 
John Conroy — uncle of the late Bishop John J. Conroy of Albany 
— was sent to Paterson to look after the welfare of St. John's con- 
gregation. Father Conroy was educated in Mount St. Mary's 
College and was ordained by Bishop Connolly in 1825. He was 
subsequently assistant at the Cathedral in New York and assist- 
ant at St. Lawrence's Church in Eighty-fourth Street, New York. 
He died chaplain of Calvary Cemetery. 

Father Francis O'Donoghue was the next priest. He took 
up the work left unfinished by Father Shanahan and collected 
money for the new church. The construction of the Morris 
Canal at this time brought to Paterson a large number of Cath- 
olic Irishmen, and it was found that the congregation of St. John's 
received such numerous accessions that it was necessary to con- 
struct a gallery in the church building on Congress and Mill 
streets. Mr. Colt, in behalf of the Society for Establishing Use- 
ful Manufactures, showed a disposition not to extend to the Cath- 
olic Church any favors he had not shown to congregations of other 
denominations, and at first refused to give the church any more 
property or permit the sale of the real estate on which the church 
was situated. Rt. Rev. Bishop Du Bois then came to Paterson, 
and he and Father O'Donoghue called to see Mr. Colt. After a 
conference Mr. Colt was induced to withdraw his objections to 
the sale of the Mill Street property, and the congregation obtained 
from him the tract of land on Oliver Street on which stands the 
church in which St. John's congregation worshipped nearly a 
third of a century. 

The consideration mentioned in the deed from the Society for 
Establishing Useful Manufactures to the trustees of St. John's 



IN NEW JERSEY 



79 



Chapel is j82,ooo, but this amount is charged to Roswell L. Colt 
on the society's journal, folio 153, so that the Oliver Street prop- 
erty was a gift from Mr. Colt himself. There is a clause in the 
will of Mr. Colt by which his executors are directed to donate to 
charities one-tenth of his estate unless it shall appear that he 
during his lifetime had already disposed of one-tenth of his estate 
in this manner. 

Father O'Donoghuc was greatly assisted in his work by a 
young man named Ambrose Manahan, who boarded at Mr. Hugh 
Brady's house and who re- 
ceived his instructions for 
the priesthood from Father 
O'Donoghue. Mr. Manahan 
was a young man of brilliant 
genius ; he subsequently went 
to the Propaganda at Rome, 
where he was ordained priest 
on August 29th, 1 84 1, by 
Cardinal Franzoni and made 
a doctor of divinity ; he sub- 
sequently returned to this 
countr}-, where he became 
president of St. John's Col- 
lege and pastor of St. Jo- 
seph's Church in New York. 
His remains lie buried in 
New York. 

The arrangements for the 
building of a new church in 
Oliver Street were made in 1828, the year in which the trustees of 
St. John's Church obtained the grant of the land from Mr. Colt. 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Du Bois, who had so generously interested himself 
in the welfare of the congregation, solicited subscriptions, and 
among others obtained one of $2,000 from a Southern gentleman. 
Father Duffy and the trustees of the church were indefatigable in 
their efforts and in 1829 the foundation of the new church was 
laid. It was intended to erect a church fifty-five feet front and 
one hundred feet deep, and the work progressed favorably until 
the foundation wall had been erected and the lower window frames 
fixed in their places. Unfortunate dissensions among the mem- 
bers of the congregation then arose, and to this was added the 
debate of the question whether Church property in the State 




RIGHT REV. JOHN DU BOIS, D.D., 

Third Bishop (1826) of New York. 

Born Aug. 24th, 1764. Died Dec. 20th, 1842. 



8o THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

should be held by trustees, as had hitherto been the case, or 
whether the title to the Church propert)- should be vested in the 
name of the bishop of the diocese. The result was that the work 
on the new church was stopped for the time being' and the con- 
gregation continued worshipping in the old church, on Market 
and Mill streets, which had been somewhat improved. In 1832 
the trustees of the church were Charles O'Neill, John P. Brown, 
Joseph Warren, Andrew Lynch, James D. Kile}-, and Andrew 
Griffith. There was no question that the church on Market and 
Mill streets was too small and that something had to be done to 
accommodate the constantly and rapidly increasing congregation. 
So in the early part of 1833 the trustees above mentioned, together 
with a number of other gentlemen prominent in the church, held 
a meeting in the yard of the old church on Market and Mill streets 
and deliberated what to do. It was soon apparent that there were 
two factions. The one faction favored doubling the size of the 
church on Market and Mill streets and abandoning the Oliver 
Street enterprise. The other faction, of which Mr. O'Neill was 
the leader, insisted that a new church be erected on Oliver Street, 
and Mr. O'Neill argued strongly in favor of this project. The 
meeting finally adjourned without having come to any conclusion. 
The friends of the Oliver Street church then visited their oppo- 
nents at their residences, and by dint of argument and persuasion 
finally induced them to give their consent to the new project, so 
that at a meeting held two weeks after the first meeting it was 
resolved to go on with the work on Oliver Street. It was then 
discovered that some of the trustees and a portion of the congre- 
gation favored constructing the church on the foundations as 
originally built in 1829; the larger and more conservative ele- 
ment considered the limited resources of the church and finally 
prevailed. Changes were made in the plans, a poi-tion of the 
foundation was taken clown, so as to bring the windows nearer to 
the ground, and the second Catholic church in Paterson was 
erected. The church on Mill and Market streets had been sold 
for $1,625. Subscriptions came in better than had been antici- 
pated and the church was compelled to borrow but little ; that 
little was raised on the individual notes of prominent Catholics, 
and when the church was completed there was very little debt. 

The work on the church was done under the superintendence 
of the trustees and Father Patrick Duffy, the pastor of the church. 
Father Duffy had no clergyman to assist him, but his energy and 
untiring zeal were equal to all occasions ; and when he left Pater- 



IN NEW JERSEY 8i 

son in 1836 it was with the sincerest regrets of all the members 
of the congregation, and the most hearty wishes for his future 
welfare followed him to the new scenes of his labors, Newburg, 
Cold Spring, and Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Catholicity had not as 
yet taken deep root iir that vicinity and Father Duff}' had a large 
field but a small flock. With the increase in the number of the 
Catholics more priests were needed, and Father Duffy confined 
his labors to the city of Newburg, where he died, June 20th, 1853. 

Father Duffy was succeeded by Father Philip O'Reilly, who 
still lives in the pleasant recollections of hundreds of citizens of 
Paterson. He continued until 1845 as the sole shepherd of St. 
John's congregation. He was a large and powerfully built man, 
of commanding presence and very social qualities. " Mad Phil " 
he was called by his brother priests, and was often seen walking- 
through the streets with a string of game, gun over his shoulder, 
followed by his hounds, in true hunting dress. He mixed a great 
deal with persons of other faiths, and by his sociability, brilliancy, 
and powerful arguments succeeded in destroying a great deal of 
prejudice which had previously existed against the Catholic 
religion. 

A plate was always set for him at Colonel Colt's table, who 
was to the end a most ardent admirer of the bluff, honest, yet 
withal devoted priest. It is related of him that summoned, as 
well as the leading priests of the diocese, to the archbishop's resi- 
dence in Mott Street, and displeased with the nature of the busi- 
ness they were called to discuss, he arose to take his departure. 
Bishop Hughes attempted to stop him. "Stand aside, sir; this is 
no place for me, when my people are dying of the cholera," and 
off he went. 

Father O'Reilly belonged to one of the oldest and most 
respectable families in Ireland. He was born in the town of 
Scraba, County Cav^an, a county which was once called O'Reilly's 
county. He traced his ancestry back to beyond the time of 
James I., and at the time of his labors in Paterson some of 
his kinsmen were still in possession of the estates which had 
belonged to the family for centuries. He was educated in 
Spain, being a member of the order of St. Dominic, and trav- 
elled through Italy, France, and England. For some years 
he was chaplain to the Duke of Norfolk, a position of ease 
and honor. The duties there were, however, not enough for 
the restless and untiring spirit of Father O'Reilly, and so when 
less than thirty years of age he left Europe to seek for sterner 



82 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

duties in this country. He was first stationed at Poughkeepsie 
and then came to Paterson. From this city he went to Cold 
Spring, N. Y., where he built the first Catholic church. He was 
then removed to West Troy, and afterward placed in charge of 
St. Bridget's Church in New York. As pastor of this church he 
died in the sixty-second year of his life on the 7th of December, 
1854. His remains were interred on the 9th of the same month 
in St. Patrick's Cathedral, the funeral being attended by a large 
concourse of admiring and sorrowful friends, both of the clergy 
and laity. 

In the latter part of the pastorate of Father O'Reilly the 
congregation of St. John's had so increased in numbers that it 
was found necessary to enlarge the church. Steps were accord- 
ingly taken in this direction, but the project was not carried into 
execution until some time after the advent of Father James Quin, 
who came to Paterson in 1845. There was considerable discussion 
concerning the plans of the addition, and the work was not begun 
until 1846. Instead of erecting the church to the size of the old 
foundation walls — which had been entirely torn down and used in 
the construction of the first part of the church in 1833 — the build- 
ing was made thirteen feet longer, so that the present size of the 
church is one hundred and thirteen feet deep and fifty-five front. 
The original plot of land obtained from Mr. Colt would not 
have permitted the erection of a building of that size, and so an 
arrangement was entered into with the county — which at that 
time was contemplating the erection of the present county jail — 
by which the congregation deeded to the county a gore of land in 
return for another gore of similar size. The addition to the 
church was built by Col. Andrew Derrom, and resulted in a vexa- 
tious lawsuit which was decided in favor of the congregation. 
Shortly after the completion of the addition the seating capacity 
of the church was considerably enlarged by the erection of a gal- 
lery on the sides of the church. The seating capacity of the church 
was about thirteen hundred. As was the case with the first half 
of the church building, the moneys needed for the construction 
came in in a very satisfactory manner, so that the church had very 
little debt when the structure was accepted from the contractors. 

When P'ather James Quin came to Paterson to take charge of 
St. John's congregation, his brother, Thomas, was preparing for 
ordination, and after Father James Quin had been here about a 
year he was joined by his brother, who came to Paterson as soon 
as he had been ordained. Father James Quin was of delicate 



IN NEW JERSEY 



83 



health, and in addition to the assistance of his brother had the 
occasional services of Rev. Dr. Cummings, who frequently came 
to Paterson from St. Stephen's Church. Father James Ouin 
died on the 13th of June, 1851, being at the time pastor of the 
church. He was the only priest who died in Paterson, and his 
remains are interred in the cemetery on Sandy Hill. Father 
Thomas Ouin succeeded his brother as pastor of the church and 
remained about a year. He was educated at St. Joseph's Semi- 
nary, at P'ordham, and was or- 
dained by Right Rev. Bishop 
Hughes on June 14th, 1849. 
His remains are interred at 
Rahway in this State, of 
which place he was pastor. 

Father Thomas Quin was 
succeeded by Father L. D. 
Senez, who came in 1853 and 
remained until 1858. In the 
latter part of his pastorate 
he was assisted frequently 
on Sundays by Father G. 
McMahon. Father Senez 
came from St. Ann's, New 
York and when he left he 
went to Jersey City, where 
he bviilt St. Mary's Church. 
He made a number of im- 
provements to the Oliver 
Street church in this city, 
and it was with the greatest regrets that the Catholics of Pater- 
son saw him depart for other fields. 

Father Victor Beaudevin succeeded Father Senez in 1858 and 
remained until October, 1861. He was a member of the Society 
of Jesus and was ordained a priest by Rt. Rev. Bishop Hughes on 
May 25th, 1850. When he left Paterson he rejoined the Order 
of Jesuits. He was assisted by Father J. Schandel, who was sub- 
sequently the first pastor of St. Boniface's Church of this city, 
in the erection of which church he received material assistance 
from Father Beaudevin. 

Father James Callan came to St. John's congregation in 1861 
and remained about two years, leaving here in October, 1863. He 
was one of the most energetic priests that ever came to Paterson. 




REV. LOUIS DOMINIC SENEZ. 

Born June, 1815. Died P'eb. nth, 1900 



84 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



He was quiet and unassuming, but continually busy with projects 
for the benefit of the Catholic Church. His death constituted 
one of the most romantic episodes in the history of the Catholic 
Church in this country. Some time after he left Paterson he 




MOST RKV. JOHN HUGHES, 
Fourth Bishop (1838) of New York. Born June 24th, 1797. Died Jan. 3d, iS 



went on a mission to California, travelling" thither by boat from 
New York. While going from San Francisco to his mission in 
Santa Barbara, the steamer on which he was, was discovered to 
be on fire. The wildest confusion ensued and an attempt to run 
the vessel ashore failed. While most of those on board were 
busy devising i^lans for their j^iersonal safet^• and resorting to all 



IN NEW JERSEY 85 

kinds of expedients to save their lives, Father Callan busied him- 
self giving spiritual consolation and administering the last sacra- 
ments and rites of the Church. He had ample opportunity to 
save his life, but the poor distressed on shipboard, who had been 
injured by the explosion which had taken place, and some of 
whom were dying, called for the consolations of religion, and 
Father Callan remained to dispense them. He died while in the 
discharge of his duty — the death of a hero and a martyr. 

In 1863 Father William McNulty, the present pastor of St 
John's congregation, came to Paterson and took charge of the for- 
tunes and spiritual welfare of the constantly increasing congrega- 
tion. The Oliver Street church had become too small and could 
no longer hold the large numbers which crowded to it every Sun- 
day for the purpose of attending divine worship. Father McNulty 
consequently set to work preparing a new edifice. It was his in- 
tention to pro\"i(le a church which should be large enough to afford 
every Catholic in the city all the conveniences of attending Mass 
and receiving the sacraments, and at the same time he intended 
to erect a structure which would be a credit to the liberality and 
enterprise of the congregation. He accordingly entered into 
negotiations with the Society for Establishing Useful Manufact- 
ures, and in 1865 purchased from it sixteen lots on the corner of 
Grand and Main streets. The new enterprise seemed to infuse 
new vigor into the members of the congregation, and the full 
amount of the purchase money of the real estate was raised in two 
months. Preparations were made for the construction of the new 
church, and on September loth, 1865, the corner-stone was laid. 

The erection of the walls of the church was at once proceeded 
with. The stone used in the construction of the church was brought 
by canal from Little Falls and dressed on the ground as required. 
The slate used in the roof was imported from England. The chime 
of bells, the only one in the cit)', which had been used in the Oli- 
ver Street church, was transferred to the new edifice. Before the 
completion of the main building a neat little chapel was built on 
the northeast corner of the property ; this was at once fitted up 
and is at present used for confessionals and other purposes. The 
total seating capacity of the new church is 1,750. The time occu- 
pied to build the church was fourteen years. 

In 1 872 the congregation purchased four lots of land on Grand 
Street, east of the church building, from the Society for Estab- 
lishing Useful Manufactures, paying therefor the sum of $10,800. 
The property was bought for the purpose of erecting a parsonage, 



86 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

and work on this was begun soon after the acquirement of the 
real estate. The parsonage is a handsome structure, built in the 
same style as the church and of similar materials. 

The congregation retains the old church property in Oliver 
Street, but a number of important alterations were made. The 
building was changed into a hall for lectures, concerts, entertain- 
ments, and the like, and is known as St. John's Hall. A portion 
of the building is used for school purposes to relieve the parochial 
school which adjoins it. 

On September 7th, 1866, Mr. William G. Watson bought at 
an auction sale of the estate of Cornelius P. Hopper, deceased, 
24.92 acres of land, on the east side of Haledon Avenue, and north 
of East Main Street, and the next day conveyed it to the same 
church, for $ 10,770, the object being to locate a cemetery there. A 
few interments were made in the new grounds, but an act of the 
legislature, approved February 26th, 1867, prohibited the location 
or establishment of "any cemetery or burial ground within the 
limits and boundaries of the city of Paterson," and further pro- 
hibited the use "for the purposes of burial," of "any cemetery or 
burial grounds established within one year within said city." 
May I St, 1867, the church bought of Bartlett Smith and wife, for 
^15,500, three adjoining tracts of land, embracing 73.19 acres in 
all, at Totowa, just west of the city line, and near the Lincoln 
bridge, extending from the river back to the Preakness Mountain. 
Here was located the " Cemetery of the Holy Sepulchre," taste- 
fully laid out, containing 3,208 lots (1,126 consecrated and 2,082 
unconsecrated), and ornamented and improved as well as the ex- 
ceedingly sandy soil will allow (Nelson's History^. 

The farmhouse situated on the property purchased from Mr. 
Smith was changed into an orphan asylum; since that time a 
number of alterations and additions have been made. The children 
in the institution are under the charge of the Sisters of Charity. 

The children of St. John's for more than half a century have 
had the blessings of a Catholic teacher. First they came under the 
hands of the rough, but highly competent and ubiquitous Irish 
schoolmaster, m 1845; then, in 1853, the schools were put m 
charge of the Sisters of Charity, from Mount St. Vincent's, New 
York ; and, in 1 872 the Christian Brothers were brought to take 
charge of the boys' department. 

This Catholic training has borne its fruit, as is evident from 
the many zealous priests, children of the parish, taking up the 
work of the early missionaries and reaping rewards and honors, 



IN NEW JERSEY 



87 



the recognition of their zeal and success in the ministry. Among 
them the Rev. James McManus, pastor of the Sacred Heart, East 
Orange; the Rev. John A. Morris, Avondale; the Rev. M. A. 
McManus, St. Aloysius', Newark; the Rt. Rev, Monsignor John 
A. Sheppard, Vicar-General and pastor of St. Michael's, Jersey 




RT. REV. WINAND M. WIGGER, D.D., 

Third Bishop of Newark (from i88i to 1901). Born Dec. 9th, 1841. Died Jan. 5th, 1901. 

City; the Rev. Robert E. Burke, Princeton, N. J.; the Rev. 
Alphonsus Rossiter, a distinguished member of the Passionist 
congregation; the Rev. William McLoughlin, Union Hill, and 
many others in this and other dioceses. Others have joined the 
Christian Brothers; and others still have entered the Society 



88 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

of Jesus. Among the early recruits of the nascent Community of 
the Sisters of Charity were daughters of the parish, and their 
example has been followed year after year by other devoted 
women, who one and all have served the Master in serving those 
who are dear to Him, the "little ones" in the school and the 
orphanage, the destitute and the sick. 

Never was a parish so blessed in its children. 

On the 29th of June, 1890, the last gem was added to the 
diadem so queenly worn by this venerable church. On that ever- 
memorable day was solemnly consecrated to the worship of the 
ever-living God the magnificent edifice on the corner of Main and 
Grand streets, by the Rt. Rev. Winand M. Wigger, D.D. 

In his last will Charles O'Neill made the orphans an equal 
share with each of his children, and Robert Hamill founded a 
burse for the education of an ecclesiastical student — examples 
that others equally blessed might to their own spiritual profit and 
the edification of their neighbor imitate. 

St. Peter's, New Brunswick. 

At a very early period Catholicity was found in New Bruns- 
wick. John Phelan, a native of Queen's County, Ireland, settled 
there in the early part of the nineteenth century, and found that 
other families — the Costigans and others — of his old neighbor- 
hood had preceded him. He was a man of prominence and abil- 
ity, for during the War of 181 2-1 5 he was cashier of the Bank of 
New Brunswick. He afterward moved to Alabama, and his son, 
John Dennis Phelan, became judge of the Supreme Court of that 
State {Irish Settlers in NortJi Autej-ica, p. 172, T. D. McGee). 
Then arrived another colony from the province of Ulster, Ireland. 
They did not number fifty in all, and came in two divisions, the first 
about 1 814, the second in 1816. Included among these were the 
McDede, McConlough, McGrady, McShane, Campbell, Hagerty, 
Gillen, Kelly, De Vinne, Murphy, Butler, and Hasson families. 
These children from the Isle of Saints form the original stock of 
the present Catholic population. For years they met in the house 
of one or the other to recite the rosary and keep burning the light 
of faith. 

The first priest, concerning whom there is any recollection, 
who visited New Brunswick, was a Father McDonough. He 
was on his way from New York to Philadelphia. As he was 
going up George Street, Mr. Butler and another Catholic were 



IN NKW JERSEY 



89 



coming down. The pair espied the stranger and surmised from 
his appearance that he was a priest. He noticed that they were 
comparing notes concerning him, and stepped over to interview 
them. " You're Irishmen," was his opening. " We are," was the 
response. "And CathoHcs.?" he continued. "And you're a 
priest," came the quick half-question, half-affirmative. "I am," 
was the answer, which settled their surmises and which opened for 




ST. Peter's church. 

Mgr. O'Grady's Church, New Brunswick. 

him a welcome such as Irishmen alone could give to the first priest 
they had seen in their midst since they landed. The priest stayed 
at Butler's that night, and preached to the Catholics who gathered 
there that evening, and the next day started for Philadelphia. 

Next came the Rev. Dr. Power from St. Peter's, New York, 
about 1825. He .said the first Mass ever celebrated in the town, 
in a house occupied by Terence Rice, in the upper end of Albany 



90 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Street. The first baptism administered in New Brunswick was 
to Sarah Butler in 1825. Later on, when Rice moved to the old 
" Bartle Mansion " on Church Street, where Zimmerman's store 
now is, Mass was said there once a month. 

In 1829 Father Schneller came in Dr. Power's place every 
month. He suggested and urged the building of a church. The 
people were delighted with the idea. But the most difficult part 
of the plan was to obtain a plot. No one would sell ground for a 
Catholic church. In this difficulty Father Schneller borrowed 
$600 from a Dr. Springer, of New York, a Protestant, and entrusted 
it to Robert Butler, with instructions to try to buy from Dominie 
Jacob Edmunds the plot opposite the present public school on Bay- 
ard Street. Butler saw the dominie, and said he wanted the pro- 
perty for himself and his children — which was true as far as it went. 
The sale was successfully consummated in the name of Butler. 
But when the transfer was made to the priest, there ensued great 
excitement and objection on the part of our separated brethren ; 
nevertheless the church went up just the same, and it was called 
SS. Peter and Paul's. 

The Rev. Joseph A. Schneller, an Austrian by birth and 
ordained in New York December 24th, 1827, by Bishop Dubois, 
was a singularly gifted priest, ever ready with tongue and pen to 
defend the Church against her enemies. When sent to New 
Brunswick he set to work with energy and zeal to build a church, 
and collected funds for that purpose in New York. To him be- 
longs the credit of sowing the seed of faith in that part of New 
Jersey. He remained in New Brunswick until 1833, when, con- 
jointly with the Rev. Thomas C. Levins, he edited the New York 
Wcek/y Register 2ini\ Catholic Diary, October 5 th, 1833. He was 
for long pastor in Albany, and afterward in Brooklyn. He died 
September i8th, 1862. 

The church, the corner-stone of which was laid by Very Rev. 
Felix Varela, V G., and erected by Father Schneller, was a plain, 
unpretentious structure of brick, with but two windows, and 
unadorned in any part with paint. It was blessed by Father 
Schneller December 19th, 1831. 

Father Schneller came once a month and said Mass till 1833. 
At times his place was filled by Father, afterward Bishop 
O'Reilly who went down with the steamer Pacific some years ago. 

In 1833 Father McArdle came and took up his residence in 
New Brunswick, where he remained until 1839, when he was 
transferred to Belleville. It was in his time that the terrible 



IN NEW JERSEY 



91 



tornado, which visited New Brunswick with such sad results in 
1835, tore away the rear end of the church. The open space was 
closed up with boards, and so remained until 1847. 

For some time the people were again without a resident priest, 
but Father Madranno and after him Father Donaher came every 
two weeks and said Mass and ministered to the faithful. 

In 1842 came Father McGuire, who took up his residence with 
Mr. Boylan, and remained until 1 846, saying Mass every Sunday in 
the little brick church. 

Father McGuire found it necessary to extend his labors to 
South Amboy and Somerville. In August, 1843, h^ reported the 
number of Catholics in New 
Brunswick as two hundred 
and fifty; at Albany, fifteen 
miles away, sixty ; and about 
the same number at Prince- 
ton and near by. In 1846 he 
was transferred to Brooklyn, 
and died pastor of St. John's, 
Gowanus, October 25th, 1 872, 
aged seventy-seven years. It 
is related of him that Bishop 
Loughlin, remarking in his 
financial statement a very 
large item for "groceries," 
inquired what need the 
church had for groceries. 
He replied, " Brooms, my 
lord, brooms." 

And in 1845 came Father 
Rogers. A glance at his 
previous history will be in- 
teresting. 

He was born in County Fermanagh, Ireland, and was well 
advanced in the classics when he met Bishop Dubois at his cous- 
in's in Dublin. The bishop gained the good will of the young 
student, who soon after left home and came to New York at his 
lordship's invitation. Before leaving home he went to the curate, 
between whom and himself there was a warm friendship, to seek 
his blessing. "God bless you," said the priest; "and maybe I'll 
soon be after you to the big land." "Little did I then think," 
said Father Rogers some time since, " that I would ever see him 





^&iC^-'- - 


^H 


1 








^:0 


g 



REV. JOHN ROGERS, 
Patriarch of New Brunswick. Born 
Died 1887. 



92 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

again, much less that I would one day succeed him here as pas- 
tor of St. Peter's." The curate alluded to was the Rev. Father 
McArdle, the first resident pastor. 

Having finished his studies at Chambly and Montreal, he was 
ordained priest in 1834 by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Lartigue. For 
some months, on request of Bishop Lartigue, he remained in 
Canada, to administer the sacraments to some of the English- 
speaking residents ; but his own superior. Bishop Dubois, recalled 
and appointed him to the parish of Onondaga, N. V. As a 
pioneer in this section of the country much hard work was his 
share, but he proved equal to the burden, and soon a new church 
was started, and by his untiring energy and earnest cooperation 
of the people successfully completed. Indeed, so great was his 
zeal that it nearly cost him his life, for, giving all the time possi- 
ble to the supervision of the new structure, he was one day on the 
ground when a hod-carrier was taken sick. The masons were 
calling for mortar, and a strong effort was being made to have a 
certain portion of the wall finished at a fixed time. The sun sent 
his fierce rays down upon the workers, yet the priest seized the 
hod and actually carried brick and mortar till he was sunstruck 
himself. And it was while he was in bed under this stroke that a 
sick call came. He was wanted to attend a man fourteen miles 
off. The doctor told the priest he would never reach the place 
alive. Nothing daunted, the young priest ordered a bed to be 
put in a wagon, saying to those around him : " I took the cross, 
and I am not going to throw it down now that a man needs my 
help to get to heaven. If I only reach him — and, please God, I 
will — and administer the sacraments, I'm not afraid to die in har- 
ness." And so he, on his bed, was taken to the man in his bed. 
The priest prepared the sick man and was carried home. The 
doctor's prophecy never got a more li\'ing denial. 

During the ten years he i"emained in Onondaga he was often 
known to attend sick calls at a distance of fifty miles, and on one 
occasion went over one hundred miles in a sleigh to administer 
the sacraments. Yet amidst all this he found time for teaching 
the children, as instanced in the case of Bishop Baltes, who 
received his first Latin lessons from him in Onondaga. 

In 1844 he was sent to Jersey City, where he resided with 
Father Kelly, and went every Sunday for some time to say Mass 
in Hoboken. 

In 1845 Bishop Hughes sent him to New Brunswick, telling 
him that he would have to soak the rod of firmness in the oil of 



IN NEW JERSEY 93 

kindness, and with it whip out the serpent of the hateful old 
trustee system, which there, as elsewhere, had caused much 
trouble. And the priest was faithful to the charge; for though 
the serpent raised its head the first Sunday he came, and occa- 
sionally afterward, he then and always beat it down stoutly, yet 
without any noise or commotion. 

The year before he came, the church had been sold under 
foreclosure and bought in for the congregation for ^600. Mean- 
time Mass was said in Mr. Boylan's, on Church Street. Father 
Rogers's first step was to lift this debt, and this he soon did by 
extraordinary work, and the church was again opened. 

In 1847 he tore away the boards that enclosed the back of the 
church and enlarged the edifice. Next he built a school and had 
about thirty children in attendance. Meanwhile he lived in a lit- 
tle house beside the church, and some of the old folks laughingly 
tell that when they called on the priest he would in\'ite them in 
and bid them take a chair, seating himself on his trunk beside a 
little wooden table. Then, allowing the visitor to remain in per- 
plexity for some moments, he would suddenly, as if reminded of 
the fact, apologize for the absence of chairs by saying in a very 
confidential tone that he had loaned them out the night before to 
a wedding party. 

We might state that the time the church was built many of the 
remains of persons buried in the Episcopal cemetery were trans- 
ferred to the plot purchased by the Catholics. 

Under Father Rogers the congregation continued to increase 
with great rapidity. New Jersey or the greater part of it was 
then included in the New York diocese, with Bishop Hughes 
presiding, and the priest was required to attend to the spiritual 
wants of South Amboy, Woodbridge, Somerville, Princeton, and 
Millstone, in addition to this city. He would have Mass at eight 
o'clock in this city on one Sunday, and then go in a carriage to 
Amboy or one of the other places mentioned and say Mass 
there at eleven o'clock; the succeeding week going to either one 
of these places on Saturday evening to hear confessions, and next 
morning, after having Mass at eight o'clock, would drive to this 
city in time to have Mass here at eleven o'clock, thus alternating 
between the places. 

This was a thriving city then, but more in a commercial than 
a manufacturing aspect, the first thing in the way of a factory 
having been a saw mill, which was started in a deep lock by either 
James or Schuyler Neilson, some time about the year 1838. Dur- 



94 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

ing the summer of the year 1836 the railroad bridge was built, 
and subsequently the first rubber factory was started here by Mr. 
Horace Day, who when a boy attended a private school in this 
city taught by Mr. Jonathan White, a "down-east" Yankee, and 
an excellent scholar. Shortly after starting the factory Horace 
sent a rubber boat as a present to the Bey of Tunis, and received 
in return a valuable present set in jewels. He afterward removed 
to Newark. The factories increasing brought an increase of 
population, principally Irish, so that with those already here and 
those who came later it became necessary to build a larger church 
to accommodate them, and the property where the present St. 
Peter's Church stands was purchased, and during the winter fol- 
lowing, in 1854, the work of excavating for the foundation was 
commenced, many of the laborers, out of employment at the time, 
giving their work gratis to help the enterprise along. It was not 
until 1865 that the building was entirely completed, although 
previous to this both the basement and the upper church had 
been used for service. In 1867 the Rev. Major Duggan was ap- 
pointed assistant, with the more ample power of administrator, to 
relieve the burden of the venerable pastor. Father Duggan con- 
verted the old church into a school, introduced the Sisters of 
Charity, and founded several societies. Under his administration 
the George Street property, later used as a school, was bought, 
as also the present rectory, the Sisters' house built, and the chime 
of bells hung in the tower. His successor, September, 1873, was 
the Rev. Patrick F. Downes, who continued the good work inaug- 
lu'ated by Father Duggan, who was transferred to St. Mary's, 
Hoboken. In May, 1891, the Rev. John A. O'Grady was trans- 
ferred from the parish of Our Lady, Boonton, which, owing to a 
collapse of all the industries of that once busy town, was a forlorn 
hope when he was assigned, but which by his able financial man- 
agement and persistent effort he left in a flourishing condition. 
In coming to New Brunswick a heavy task awaited him, but he 
courageously faced it, rallying the congregation to his assistance, 
and inspiring them with new courage and greater efforts. The 
heavy burden of debt has practically disappeared, the church has 
been adorned and beautified, a new sacristy built, and one of the 
finest school buildings, St. Peter's School and Columbia Hall, 
erected. He has raised his schools to the highest degree of effi- 
ciency, advanced in every way the interests of his people, and en- 
joys the respect and esteem of all classes. 

He was honored by Bishop O'Farrell with the dignity of dean ; 



IN NEW JERSEY 



95 



and, at the request of the Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul, D.U., he 
was made a domestic prelate of His Holiness Leo XHI. 

The venerable Father Rogers, crowned with fulness of years, 
hallowed by the affection of every one without exception in the 
city in which during almost fifty years he had labored, answered 
the call of the Master and entered upon the reward of a well-spent 
life. He died July, 1887. In his panegyric of the good, modest, 
cheery old pastor, to whom 
he had been more than a 
friend, Monsignor O'Grady 
said: 

" If I were to single out 
any one feature as prominent 
in Father Rogers's long life 
of half a century in the priest- 
hood, I would say that his 
characteristic virtue was fidel- 
ity at all times to the duties 
of his sacred office. To de- 
vote half a century to the 
various details of the sacred 
ministry, to be ever at his 
post, in season and out of 
season, requires a spirit of 
self-sacrifice which reaches 
the utmost limit of moral 
heroism. Another trait in 
the life of Father Rogers 
was his childlike obedience to 
ecclesiastical authority. He 
lived under five different 

bishops, and, without changing his residence, in three successive 
dioceses, and through his long and varied career he was never 
known to be in antagonism to his superiors. This is saying much 
for him. The heart of man is prone to pride and rebellion. Cor- 
rupt nature finds it hard to bend in submission to the sway of 
authority, and it is no mean eulogy to say of Father Rogers that 
even under trying circumstances he possessed his soul in peace 
and always graciously deferred to the dictates of his superiors. 
'Better is the patient than the strong man, and greater is he that 
ruleth his spirit than he that taketh cities.' " 

There are now ten flourishing parishes in the field in which 




RT. REV. MICHAEL J. O FARRELL, 
First Bishop of Trenton (from 1881 to 1894). 



96 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Father Rogers first came to labor; and where he found less than 
five hundred Catholics there are now fourteen thousand seven 
hundred. 

St. Peter's Church, Jersey City. 

The early history of Catholicity in Jersey City is so entirely 
lost that it is next to impossible to obtain from the mass of con- 
flicting traditions any reliable details. Powles' Hook was certainly 
visited very early, not only by priests but, as we have seen, by 
Bishop Carroll. The few Catholics resident there either went to 
New York by boat to St. Peter's or were attended by priests from 
that church. It is said that Mass was first celebrated in the city 
in 1830. 

The Associates of the Jersey Company, incorporated by the 
legislature, November loth, 1804, moved by a desire to forward 
their own interests, as much as by public spirit, decided, 1829, to 
give to the different religious bodies land for the purpose of erect- 
ing schools and churches. They were convinced that the differ- 
ent denominations would erect edifices whose beauty would en- 
hance the value of the ad- 
joining properties, and their 
presence would advance the 
moral welfare of the inhab- 
itants. Four lots were deed- 
ed to the Catholics on Grand 
Street, March loth, 1831. 
At this time it seems that 
they were under the spiritual 
jurisdiction of the Cathedral, 
in Mott Street. The Rev. 
William Byrnes, the first pas- 
tor, accepted the gift of land 
from the Associates. His 
flock was very poor. John 
Mclver took the contract to 
build the chinxh, and work 
was begun in 1837. The 
site was on the edge of a 
morass, and as the gift was 
coupled with the condition 
of erecting a stone building, sufficient care was not taken to drive 
adequate piling. The building had not advanced far when it col- 




FUIST ST. PETER S CHURCH, 
Grand Street, Jersey City. 



IN NEW JERSEY 



97 




lapsed, and with it the hopes of the little flock, who saw their 
scanty earnings and their hopes buried in the ruins. The misfort- 
inie, howe\er, prox'cd a bless- 
ing. It stirred the sympathy 
of their fellow-citizens, who 
came to their aid with money, 
and moved the Associates to 
modify their conditions. In 
1836 Father Byrnes was 
obliged by ill health to leave 
the parish, and died at Platts- 
burg in 1837. He was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Hugh 
Mohan, who so advanced the 
work that services were held 
in the church in 1837. It 
was dedicated by Archbishop 
Hughes in 1839, assisted by 
Bishop Fenwick of Boston. 
There were then about one 
hundred Catholics in the con- 
gregation. Then began the 
struggle for existence which 

marked the genesis of each new parish, disheartening alike to 
the pastor and the flock. From 1831 to 1844 a series of priests 
seems to have ministered to the wants of the community. We 
find the names of the Rev. Bernard O'Reilly, afterward bishop of 
Hartford, who went down at sea in the ill-fated Pacific, January, 
1856; the Rev. Walter Quarter, who removed to Chicago when 
his brother was made bishop of that See, but returned to New 
York and died there December, 1863; the Rev. Patrick Kenny, 
of a frail constitution, who after a brief stay went to Charleston, 
S. C, where he died in 1845; the Rev. John Rogers, the vener- 
able patriarch of New Brunswick. In 1844 came the saintly 
Father Kelly, who offered for the blacks of Liberia the sacrifice 
of his life, but which the Master did not accept, reserving him for 
a greater field. If his was not the martyr's death, none that bears 
the martyr's palm in Paradise excelled his motive and his charity. 
The Rev. John Kelly was born in Trillick, parish of Kiliskerry, 
County Tyrone, Ireland. His was the blessing of so many great 
and holy men — a good mother, noted for her gentleness and 
amiability. His early years were characterized by that sincere, 
7 



REV. JOHN KELLY, 

Pastor of St. Peter's Church, Jersey City 
(from 1844 to 1866). Born 1805. Died i86f 



98 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

earnest piety which was the charm of his manhood. Every good 
work attracted him, teaching catechism, reciting the rosary, visit- 
ing the sick, and journeying even to distant Lough Derg on pil- 
grimages. That he was a leader in the Rosary Society at the age 
of fifteen, and a director of the Way of the Cross, and long before 
he entered the seminary, at the request of his pastor, who was 
very infirm, instructed the adults of the parish in Christian doc- 
trine, stamp him at once as a youth of rare and exceptional piety. 
When the young catechist left for the seminary in 1823, the grief 
of the parishioners was as great as if they had lost a devoted pas- 
tor. Father Kelly came to America in 1825. He was admitted 
to Mount St. Mary's in 1826, and joined the Jesuits, in Frederick, 
in 1828. But his health failed him, and he returned to the 
"Mountain," in 1830-31, and was ordained by Bishop Dubois, 
September 14th, 1833. His first appointment was St. Patrick's, 
New York, May 8th, 1 834 ; but, in the autumn of the same year, 
he was sent to the northeastern part of New York to assume 
charge of a district about half as extensive as Ireland. He said 
the first Mass in Saratoga in the house of John Costigan. In 
1836 Father Kelly was at Sandy Hill and Saratoga, and pastor of 
Albany from 1837 to 1841, when he set out for Africa. During 
the Revolution many negro slaves had sought refuge in the ranks 
of the British army and returned with them to England. Some 
London philanthropists, with a view of bettering their condition 
and enabling them to establish their own government and to 
check the slave trade, restored these negroes to the continent 
from which they or their fathers had been so rudely to^n. Thus 
was founded Monrovia at Cape Mesurado, and the whole country 
which it was hoped to colonize was called Liberia. This move- 
ment spread to the United States, and encouragement was given 
to free negroes to emigrate to Africa and a powerful society was 
organized to promote this scheme. A separate society was formed 
in Maryland with a view of colonizing another territory in Africa 
in 1833. The attention of the Holy See was called to the sad 
spiritual condition of these unfortunate colonists by the fathers of 
the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore, and as the Jesuits 
were unable in 1834 to take over that mission. Propaganda ex- 
pressed the desire of the Holy Father that the bishops of New 
York and Philadelphia should each send a missionary to that field. 
The Rev. Father Kelly, together with the Rev. Edward Barron 
and a young catechist, Dennis Pindar, sailed from Baltimore, 
December 21st, 1841, for Mesurado. It is impossible to exagger- 



IN NEW JERSEY 



99 



ate the sufferings this Httle band endured in the terrible climate. 
Father Kelly's heroic courage and faith sustained him in his 
fruitful labors, but at length human fortitude was forced to yield, 
and Father Kelly was carried on shipboard in a dying condition 
in 1844. The voyage restored him to health, and he was ap- 
pointed pastor of Jersey City, November 12th, 1844, with a parish 
of about five hundred souls. His zeal for souls, his care of the 




ST. Peter's church, jersey city. 

Old Parochial school on the left. St. Peter's College on the right. 



children, instructing them in simple and impressive language — so 
that to-day these children grown to manhood still speak of his 
explanation of the catechism — his love for the poor, were the edi- 
fication of all and the inspiration of the many young Levites he 
raised up to continue his work in the Lord's vineyard. Mean- 
while the circle of his flock enlarged, and to meet the demands 
of religion he built churches and laid the foundations of the new 
parishes of Hoboken, Hudson City, Bergen Point, etc. He died, 
poor and in debt, April 28th, 1866. He was succeeded by one of 
the children of the parish, the Rev. Patrick Corrigan, who deco- 



loo THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

rated the present St. Peter's, built by Father Kelly, and handed 
over to the Society of Jesus the new and the old churches, four 
cottages, and the parish school, representing a valuation of $250,- 
000. Father Corrigan's desire to see a Catholic college in Jersey 
City was realized in the erection of the present imposing college 
by the Rev. V. Beaudevin, S.J. Among the graduates now labor- 
ing as priests in the diocese are the Rev. Charles Mackel, S.T.L., 
professor of dogmatic theology in the diocesan seminary, and the 
Rev. Joseph P. A. McCormick, Ph.D., pastor of Netcong. Among 
the children of the parish raised to the dignity of the priesthood 
are the Rev. H. A. Brann, D.D., pastor of St. Agnes', New York, 
and the late Rev. Thomas J. Toomey and the Rev. Walter M. A. 
Fleming. The old St. Peter's was sold to the Sisters of Charity, 
and on its site was erected the present St. Aloysius' Academy 
and Home. A fine new school was opened in 1898. The follow- 
ing fathers of the Society of Jesus have been pastors: the Revs. 
V. Beaudevin, John McOuaid, Peter Cassidy, John Harpes, Joseph 
Zwinge, and John \V. Fox, who is assisted by the Revs. Matthew 
McDonald, Bryan, Kearney, and Edward McTammany, of the 
same society. 

Among the old reliable chronicles is one that refers to a lec- 
ture that the Rev. Dr. Pise was to have delivered on St. Patrick's 
Eve, 1843. The learned doctor embarked on the boat, which 
usually took ten minutes to cross the river, but owing to a tre- 
mendous snow-storm, which heaped the streets with snow, "it was 
driven down by the strong wind and tide, in such a manner that 
after laboring for nearly two hours to gain her destination, she 
succeeded at length, with the greatest difficulty, in reaching the 
shore. It was then too late for the service." We are also in- 
formed of the publication of " Seven Letters," by James Walsh, 
publisher, Jersey City. "These letters, containing much useful 
matter on religious doctrine, have been published by Mr. Walsh 
in a small, cheap volume. His undertaking should be encouraged, 
especially as he put forth his book under the patronage of the 
excellent pastor of the church of Jersey City, and his brother, the 
pastor of St. Mary's. To these reverend gentlemen (Father, later 
Bishop, Quarter, and his brother, Father Walter Quarter) the 
letters are dedicated " {^Catholic Expositor, March, 1843). 



IN NEW JERSEY loi 

The Early History of Catholicity in Jersey City. 

Bv Mr John McGuigan, Lately Deceased. 

In the earl)- days of Paulus Hook there were two factories 
which gave employment, the glass works owned and conducted by 
George and Phenice Dummel, and the American pottery works 
carried on by Da\id Henderson & Co. Many of the men em- 
ployed there were Catholics and their families. As the}- had 
no church of their own they were glad to go to New York, some- 
times to St. Peter's, and at others to St. Patrick's in Mott Street. 
This last church had the preference, from the fact that my uncle 
Philip O'Brien had a house at the corner of Mott and Hester 
streets, where old friends and acquaintances, and the lately arrived 
immigrants were wont to meet after Mass. After a few years 
the men went to their masters to request their good ofifices in 
obtaining for them a site for a church. A committee, consisting 
of Bernard McOuaid, Thomas McGuigan, and Thomas McCann, 
waited on the Messrs. Dummel and Henderson, and asked them 
to assist them. To this request they cheerfully gave their con- 
sent, to encourage the men in their employ. Application was at 
once made to the Associates of the Jersey Land Company for a 
church site. Their request met with favor, and a free grant of 
four city lots was given to the following denominations: St. Mat- 
thew's Episcopal Church on Sussex Street, the First Reformed 
Church on Grand Street, Trinity Methodist Church on York 
Street, and St. Peter's Church on Grand Street. This was done 
to avoid giving offence to any, and to manifest the broad and lib- 
eral spirit of the Associates. When this was made known to 
Bishop Dubois he was more than glad, and he promised to give 
all the assistance in his power to the establishment of a mission 
here. He determined at once to provide a monthly Mass. This 
arrangement was duly announced in the Cathedral, and the Rev. 
John Conroy, uncle of the late Bishop Conroy, of Albany, was 
appointed to this work. Accordingly, on the first Sunday in Ad- 
vent, the last of November, 1829, holy Mass was offered for the 
first time in Paulus Hook. The place chosen for this important 
first step in the onward march of Catholicity in the now great 
Catholic county of Hudson was an unoccupied back room in the 
house now known as 52 Sussex Street, Jersey City. [The house 
was the home of Bishop McQuaid's father, and the Bishop re- 



I02 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

members that he was put out of the house to make room for his 
elders, to his great wonderment and surprise, as he then did not 
know what Mass meant, and peeked tlirough the shutters to see 
what was going on. — The Author.] After that, Mass was said 
on the opposite side of the street at No. 51, the site of the Coyle 
buiklings, in the home of Bernard McQuaid, the father of Bishop 
McQuaid. The old house was torn down some forty-five (1886) 
years ago. At the first Mass there were present twenty -four 
adults, and their names were as follows : Bernard McQuaid and 
Mary, his wife; Thomas McGuigan and his wife Ann; John 
Bradley and Margaret, his wife; John Carr and Mary, his wife; 
Edward and Mary Teague ; Michael McLoughlin and Katherine 
his wife; George and Mary McAleer; John and Ellen Mclver; 
John and Mary Hunt; Thomas and Jane McCann; Thomas and 
Ellen Brophy; Owen McCann; Bridget McGuigan, married 
shortly after to Daniel Slevin, the parents of ex-Alderman James 
J. Slevin, New York, and Ann Mimm, who, with three exceptions, 
were natives of the county Tyrone, Ireland. 

As the number of Catholics increased a larger place became 
necessary, and divine service was held in a part of an unoccupied 
house belonging to the late Michael Lynch, 43 Morris Street, 
now occupied by the Thomas Goddard Columbian Iron Works. 
The old building disappeared long ago. 

The old boarding-house of the apprentices of the glass works 
south of the Morris Canal lock, now 163 Washington Street, and 
at present a portion of the sugar works of Matthies & Meickers, 
was the next place of worship. 

A fourth move was made to the house of John Hunt, where 
426 Grove Street now is. While services were held at this place 
a movement was started by a certain faction of the other denom- 
inations to induce the Catholics to exchange their church, then in 
process of construction, and its site for the old carpet factory on 
Grove Street together with the land attached to it for a cemetery, 
with a view of converting the church into a court-house. Then, 
like David's ark, it moved again for a short time to the hotel of 
Michael Hatch, 89 Railroad Avenue, near Grove Street. 

The mission next removed to the old Town Hall, 110-112 
Sussex Street — the old church edifice occupied by St. Matthew's 
congregation — from which they moved when they took possession 
of their new church. They very kindly allowed the Catholics to 
use it until St. Peter's Church, then building, was finished. 
When the building was enclosed, and nothing more than bare 



IN NEW JKRSKY 103 

walls greeted the vision, possession was taken of it, and the first 
Mass celebrated on Christmas, 1835. Here for a generation was 
the faith fostered and propagated, and only when increased num- 
bers and the prosperous condition of the parishioners demanded 
a more fitting abiding place for the eucharistic God, was the site 
which cost the early Catholics so many sacrifices and so much 
effort abandoned and sold to the Sisters of Charity. Upon its 
site they reared the present St. Aloysius' Academy and Home. 

The priests who attended this little flock were: The Rev. 
John Conroy, St. Patrick's; the Rev. John Powers, St. Peter's; 
the Rev. Michael Moran, St. Ann's; the Rev. Charles Constan- 
tine Pise, St. Peter's; the first pastor, William Burns; the sec- 
ond, Father Michael Mohan; the third, Father Walter C. Quar- 
ters; the fourth, Father James Kenny; the fifth, Father James 
Murphy; the sixth. Father John Kelly; and the seventh. Father 
Patrick Corrigan. Under him the church property was passed to 
the Jesuit Fathers, in whose care it has ever since been. 

Schools. 

The first Sunday-school was organized in the old Town Hall 
by Morgan Nowlan, Michael Ward, and Patrick Powers in 1836. 
The first parish day-school was organized in the basement of a 
house on Newark Avenue near Warren Street by John Carr, who 
after his death was succeeded by Patrick Buckley, and afterward 
by Morgan Nowlan — all passed to their reward. For some time 
the school was as migratory as the church. The next place of 
assembly for the children was the basement of the church, thence 
to the old Washington Temperance Hall, under the care of 
Timothy McCarthy, and back again to the basement of the church 
which was fitted up for that purpose. After the passing of Mr. 
McCarthy Mr. James Brann was placed in charge of the school, 
and with the assistance of some lady teachers remained in charge 
for some years, until the parish school was built on the corner of 
York and Van Vorst streets, when it passed under the care of the 
Christian Brothers and the Sisters of Charity. Many thousands 
of children have been educated within its walls, and much money 
has been raised for the support of schools and church, by means 
of fairs, picnics, etc., during the many financial struggles and 
strenuous efforts to place on a solid foundation Catholicity in this 
now prosperous city. 

There are many incidents of interest in connection with the 



I04 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

foundation of the church. After receiving from the Associates 
the free grant of the four lots, the committee was informed that, 
as the Company was chartered by the State, the deed would have 
to be recorded in Trenton. Mr. Samuel CoUody, the father of 
one of our late County clerks, very graciously offered his legal 
services. He accompanied the committee in the stage-coach to 
Trenton, had the deeds properly recorded, and gave his services 
gratuitously. Both the gentlemen of the committee and the con- 
gregation were much gratified with this act of kindness. On 
their return the committee was empowered to present the deed to 
Bishop Dubois, who showed it to the congregation of the Cathe- 
dral at the ten o'clock Mass, and exhorted the people to assist the 
nascent parish in every way they could. Cheered by this action 
of good Bishop John, the Jerseymen began at once to prepare the 
ground for the church by filling in the lowland. All went to 
work with a good will. Mechanics and laborers offered materials 
and labor. As the land was near the meadow it was low, and a 
number of horses and carts came across the river daily, and gave 
their services free to the priest and committee. The Associates 
also gave another sign of their good will by granting free ferriage 
to all the volunteers night and morning. God seemed to smile 
with favor on their efforts, and the work progressed from day to 
day. The good priest was on hand every day encouraging every- 
body by his presence and his kind words. Nor were the noble 
women behindhand, and they showed that they were not to be 
outdone in the good work. The good priest called on them from 
day to day to provide dinners for volunteers. He would knock at 
the door of Mrs. So-and-So and tell her, " I will send you three, 
or five, or ten men for dinner to-day." And they went to work 
with a will to see that nobody went away hungry. The cheer}' 
" All right, Father ! " greeted his request everywhere. High sand- 
hills characterized the site of Jersey City at that period, and most 
of the property was in the hands of the Associates, who were 
only too well pleased to give away the sand that the lots might be 
graded. While the work of grading was going on, the Bishop au- 
thorized the committee to call a meeting of the parish and, in 
accordance with the deed of gift, to elect a board of trustees. 
Seven trustees were chosen, who prepared the plans which the)' 
submitted to Bishop Dubois. Having received his approbation, 
the contract for the stone work was given to John Mclver, and 
the carpenter work to B. Wooley. Robert and James McLough- 
lin took the contract for the tinning, which ended disastrously for 



IN NEW JKRSKY 105 

them. They put a Hen on the building, and under it, it was sold 
by the sheriff. It was bought in for the parishioners for $500 by 
Michael Malone, who risked his money for the welfare of the 
parish. But the trustees and the zealous pastor gave themselves 
no rest until they had raised the desired sum and paid back ever}- 
thing to their generous protector. Almost double the amount 
was raised in ten days, when the news of the sale became known. 
I have already mentioned the fact that the land had to be 
filled in on account of its proximity to a morass ; but in so doing 
no piling was used. When the heavy masonry had reached its 
highest hmit, and awaited the timbers for the roof, in the fall of 
1834 there occurred a furious equinoctial gale, and the deluge of 
water caused the west wall to fall out into the meadow. This 
was a bad set-back, and delayed the completion of the building 
another year. You will understand some of the crosses which 
the early pioneers endured in stri\'ing to plant the seed of faith in 
this city. Another blow was the removal of the glass works. 
Coal began to be introduced and used as a substitute for wood ; 
and on this account the numbers of the parish were diminished by 
about one-half. Many were forced to seek employment else- 
where. Then came the financial crash of 1837. Business was at 
a complete standstill. No work, and no money, and a great deal 
of suffering were for our people some of the consequences of the 
panic. As they had no money for themselves, they had nothing 
for the Church. Hence, everything dragged along until the ar- 
rival of Father Walter J. Quarters in 1840, who infused new life 
and hope in the breasts of the almost desperate children of the 
Church. Times improved, men had employment, and as Father 
Quarters had already considerable experience in church building 
in New York, he closed a contract with Hugh Clark to finish the 
church and have it ready for occupation as speedily as possible. 
Our people responded generously to the appeal of the jovial, light- 
hearted priest, who made friends not only with his own, but with 
many of those outside of the Church. His New York friends, 
too, gave him substantial and welcome assistance. He began to 
organize a church choir, opened a class for vocal and instrumental 
music, and started a catechism class to prepare the children for first 
Communion and Confirmation. And on June 7th, 1841, many 
of them were confirmed. His next move was the purchase of an 
organ, and James Walsh was appointed organist and choir- 
master. When his brother William was chosen for the Episcopal 
See of Chicago Father Walter severed his connection with Jersey 



!o6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

City, much to the regret of all, to accompany the new bishop. 
He was succeeded by that saintly man, the Rev. John Kelly, who 
labored so fruitfully and zealously, until God called him to his 
reward in April, 1 866. 

If I may be permitted I will tell something about the offshoots 
of this first nursery of Catholicity in Jersey City. 

The second church erected in Hudson County was St. Mary's, 
Hoboken, at the corner of Willow and Fourth streets, recently 
vacated for the new church of Our Lady of Grace. Mention 
should also be made of St. Joseph's, a little frame church, on 
Monroe Street, and the magnificent St. Mary's Hospital on Wil- 
low Avenue. 

The third church built was what was known as St. Mary's, a 
brick structure on the corner of Erie and Tenth streets. This 
was attended by Fathers Kelly and Coyle, and while the building 
was going up, Mass was said in the house of Patrick Gibney on 
Ninth Street. 

The fourth church was known as St. Bridget's, a small frame 
building on St. Paul's Avenue, near Palisade Avenue, and was in- 
tended for the accommodation of the men who were engaged in 
building the tunnel in 1856. This was likewise attended from 
St. Peter's, until it was handed over to the revered and much- 
lamented Father Aloysius Venuta. On the completion of the 
tunnel he sold the old church, and built the new St. Joseph's on 
Baldwin near Pavonia Avenue. After a few years the old gave 
way to the magnificent new church, a monument to the zeal of 
the pastor and the devotion of the flock. 

The fifth church was St. Mary's, Bergen Point, on Evergreen 
near Linnett Street. Mass had already been celebrated in the 
homes of John Welch and James Jackson in Centreville, by 
Fathers Kelly, Venuta, and Neiderhauser, and perhaps others, 
until the Passionists took charge of the parish. They were suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. James Dalton, who did not long survive his 
appointment. 

The sixth church was St. Paul's, Greenville, on Bergen near 
Danforth Avenue, built by Father Geissler and others. Mass 
had been offered in the house of Lawrence Murtha, who served 
the priest, and whose good wife attended to all the other essen- 
tials. The names of Henry Lembeck, Monroe Lignot, Henry 
Stoecklin, and others should never be forgotten by the Catholics 
of Greenville. 

The seventh church was built on the Andrew Kerrigan estate 



IN NEW JERSEY 107 

at West Hoboken. The land was granted to the late Archbishop 
Hughes for the purpose of a college or university. But the 
Archbishop had about completed his arrangements for the build- 
ing of St. John's College, Fordham, and ev^entually this grant was 
turned over to the Passionist Fathers. 

The eighth church was erected at the corner of Erie and 
Second streets, popularly known as St. Mary's, although the title 
is, I believe, that of the Immaculate Conception. The Rev. 
Louis D. Senez was the zealous pastor who built up all that the 
Catholics in this parish have to show as a testimony of their zeal 
and faith. 

The ninth church was built by Father Venuta, on the corner 
of Communipaw Avenue and Bergen Point Plank Road, which 
eventually fell to the care of the Rev. Patrick Hennessy. It was 
named in honor of Ireland's patron saint, St. Patrick. 

The tenth church was erected for the Germans, and named 
for their apostle St. Boniface. The Rev. Dominic Kraus, under 
the auspices of Father Kelly, started this mission in the frame 
building in York Street, between Grove and Barrow streets. The 
Germans were growing in numbers, and up to this time had no 
pastor who spoke or understood their language. Great credit 
belongs to the Messrs. Francis Stoecklin, John Miller, Adam 
Dittmar, and Herman Heintze. 

The eleventh church was the modest frame structure on the 
corner of Montgomery and Brunswick streets, built by Father 
Patrick Corrigan, and named for the virgin saint of Erin, St, 
Bridget. 

St. Michael's, on Ninth Street, is the twelfth church, built by 
the intrepid and learned Father J. de Concilio. 

The thirteenth is St. Lucy's, long used as a parish school 
attached to St. Mary's, and instead of the old frame building now 
rises the beautiful brick structure built by Father Boylan. 

The fourteenth is St. John the Baptist's Church on the 
Boulevard. Its humble beginning was on the corner of Nelson 
and Van Winkle avenues, and the credit of its erection belongs to 
the Rev. Bernard H. TerWoert. 

St. Paul of the Cross, on South Street and Hancock Avenue, 
is the fifteenth scion of that noble stock planted with so many 
tears on Grand Street. Started by the Passionists, it is now in 
charge of the Rev. Thomas Quinn. 

St. Joseph's, Guttenberg, is the sixteenth ; St. Augustine's, 
Union Hill, the seventeenth, and St. Pius', Harrison, the eigh- 



io8 THE CAIHOLIC CHURCH 

teenth church. Nor is the roll ended. The Germans bought a 
tract of land from the General Erwin estate, and built the present 
St. Nicholas' Church, making the nineteenth offshoot from the 
original St. Peter's. 

[The author of this interesting history is John McGuigan, born 
September 17th, 1826, the first child born of Catholic parents in 
Jersey City, and carried in a rovvboat to New York, and baptized 
in St. Peter's Church, Barclay Street. He died in Plainfield a 
few years ago.] 

To the number of churches on Mr. McGuigan's list must be 
added twenty others, so that in the field covered originally by 
Father Kelly there are now forty temples of the living God, 
where priests and sisters are laboring with their respective flocks 
for the advancement of God's glory, and all these are the precious 
jewels in the diadem of the venerable cradle of Catholic faith — St. 
Peter's Church. 

St. Luke's, Macopin. 
(Now St. Joseph's, Echo Lake.) 

The light of faith among the hills of Macopin, although the 
little band of German Catholics was often deprived of the consol- 
ing presence of the minister of God, was never once dimmed. 

The rude plank church, erected in the early part of the cen- 
tury, was improved and enlarged by the Rev. Francis Donaghoe, 
and on November 13th, 1829, it received its first blessing. This 
date does not, indeed, coincide with that given by Shea in his 
third and fourth volumes ; but, when Archbishop Corrigan made 
his last visitation as Ordinary of Newark, he found the original 
attestation of the blessing by Father Ffrench, and hence this date 
is presumably correct. The Rev. Charles Dominic Ffrench, O. 
P., was a convert to the faith, and a member of the order of St. 
Dominic. He was granted faculties by Bishop Connolly, January 
22d, 1 81 8. He afterward became the first resident pastor of 
Portland, Me., and received into the Church a }'oung printer, 
Joshua M. Young, who studied for the priesthood, and later was 
consecrated Bishop of Erie, April 23d, 1854 (died 1863). Father 
Donaghoe died in Lynchburg, Va., in 1845. 

Fathers Malou, Kohl man, S.J., Powers, and others attended 
this mission from New York and Paterson until 1 845, when the 
Rev. John Stephen Raffeiner took it under his care. The tradi- 
tion is that he built a sacristy and lived in it, his boy occupying 



IN NEW JERSEY 109 

the loft, to which, as there were no stairs, he was forced to ascend 
by means of a ladder. This, after having climbed into his eyrie, 
he would pull up after him, and in the morning" let it down again 
to resume his duties. Father Raffeiner, born at Walls in the 
Tyrol, December 20th, 1785, at first adopted the medical profes- 
sion, but abandoned it to enter the priesthood. He was ordained 
in May, 1825, and received by Bishop Dubois, January, 1833. He 
was a zealous and holy priest, whose field of labor extended far 
into the State of New York, and even Massachusetts. He was 
appointed Vicar-General of the Germans, and died in Brooklyn in 
1 861. The Redemptorist Fathers from New York succeeded 
Father Raffeiner in 1848, and continued in charge until 1855, 
when the mission was attended from Paterson. In i860 the Rev. 
John Schandel was placed in charge of the Germans in Paterson 
and also assigned to look after the spiritual interests of Macopin. 
From i860 to 1870 it was attended from Boonton, and again at- 
tached to St. Boniface's Church, Paterson. When the Francis- 
cans took possession of the Carmelite Church and Convent on 
Stony Road they were charged likewise with this mission, and 
from that time to the present they have been assiduous in their 
care. Many descendants of the old confessors still live there, 
and are just as loyal and as fervent as were their forefathers in 
the faith. 

St. Peter's Church, Belleville. 

Catholics, among whom we find the names of the Elliotts, 
Barretts, Doyles, Gormans, and Keoghs, settled at a very early 
date in Belleville. Long before there was a church in Newark, 
members of these families were in the habit of walking to New 
York, with their children in their arms, to have them baptized, to 
make their Easter duty, or to assist at Mass. Their first resident 
priest was the Rev. Francis Ferrall, born in Longford, in 181 2, 
and made his studies in Mt. St. Mary's, where he was raised to the 
priesthood by Bishop England, in 1837. His health compelled 
him to seek a northern climate, and on application to Bishop 
Dubois he was sent to Belleville. Previous to his coming good 
Father Moran had given the Catholics what attention he could, 
helped them to raise money, and gave them the plans for the 
present church. Father Ferrall devoted himself to the task set 
for him, and on December 2d, 1838, the church was dedicated by 
Bishop Dubois. In 1839 he was transferred temporarily to St. 
John's, Newark, and while there baptized Archbishop Corrigan, 



no 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



September 15th, 1839. Father Ferrall died in Utica, N. Y., De- 
cember 5th, 1840. His successor in Belleville was the Rev. Ber- 
nard McArdle, born 1790, in county Monaghan, who had done 
apostolic work in New Brunswick, Amboy, and near by. He died 
in Belleville, August 30th, 1 840. The Rev. David William Bacon, 
afterward Bishop of Portland, Me., exercised his ministry here 
from January 25th, 1841, to June 6th of the same year; and from 
August, 1845, to September, 1851, the Rev. Peter Gillick, or- 
dained 1827, discharged all the duties of priest and pastor. He 
died in i860. 

Previous to the erection of the church Mass was said in pri- 
vate houses, one of which still stands at the southwest corner of 




ST. PETER S CHURCH, UKLLEVILLE. 



William and Bridge streets, the property of William Connolly. 
Peter Keogh, the father of John F. Keogh, of Newark, gave the 
stone for the foundation of the church. In 1853 the Rev. John 



IN NEW JERSEY 



III 



Hogan, born 1815, in St. John's, Newfoundland, and educated in 
Stonyhurst, England, and ordained in Canada, was assigned to the 
pastorate. Before the creation of the diocese he had labored at 
the Cathedral. Bishop Bay- 
ley's eulogy of him is, " He 
was a good and faithful 
priest, well-educated and gen- 
tlemanly." 

His first work was to en- 
large the church and to erect 
the bell-tower. He also pur- 
chased the McCabe property 
adjoining the church, and 
built the present rectory. 
The parish limits at this time 
included the township of 
Bellevilleand also Bloomfield, 
Montclair, Nutley, Lynd- 
hurst, and the part of Newark 
formerly known as Wood- 
side. Father Hogan built 
St. Mary's Church at West 
Bloomfield. It was dedicated 
by the Rt. Rev. J. Roosevelt 
Bay ley, D.D., on November 

29th, 1857, and remained under Father Hogan's care until Feb- 
ruary 7th, 1864, when he resigned it in favor of the Rev. Titus 
Joslin. Death claimed Father Hogan on October 25th, 1867, 
after a pastorate of fourteen years. He is interred in St. Peter's 
Cemetery, Belleville, where a handsome monument has been 
erected by his former parishioners. 

The parish had been incorporated under the old State law 
until April i8th, 1868. On that date, under the pastorate of the 
Rev. Hubert DeBurgh a new corporation was formed, with 
Messrs. Patrick Smith and Timothy Barrett as lay trustees. 
Father DeBurgh remained as pastor for ten years. He pur- 
chased the site of the present school and built St. Mar}''s Church, 
Avondale. He was succeeded by the Rev. J.J. F. O'Connor, 
August 26th, 1877. 

On July 28th, 1879, the Rev. William H. Dornin was ap- 
pointed pastor. In 1887 Father Dornin enlarged the church. 
He placed the school under the care of the Sisters of Charity 




REV. JOHN HOGAN. 
Died October 25, 1867. 



112 thp: catholic church 

from Convent Station, N. J., and in 1890 he built the present brick 
school building. In connection with the school, mention should 
be made of Mr. Patrick Smith. For a period of twenty years be- 
fore the coming of the Sisters of Charity he had charge of St. 
Peter's School. Mr. Smith died November 4th, 1877. 

On August i6th, 1893, Father Dornin was transferred to St. 
Bridget's Church, Jersey City, N. J., and was succeeded in Belle- 
ville by the Rev. John J. Murphy, who after an illness of nearly 
two years, died on June 6th, 1895. The successor of Father 
Murphy, the Rev. Eugene Farrell, was also in continual ill health. 
He had, however, greatly reduced the church debt before death 
called him tni September 14th, 1898. On October 4th, 1898, he 
was succeeded by the Rev. James P. Smith, who with Rev. Rich- 
ard A. Mahoney, is now in charge of St. Peter's parish. 

The following were in charge of St. Peter's Church from 1838 
to the appointment of the first resident pastor: Rev. Francis 
P'errall, 1838-39; Rev. Bernard McArdle, 1839-40; Rev. James 
Dougherty, 1840; Rev. David W. Bacon, first Bishop of Portland, 
Me., 1841; Rev. Patrick Doneher, 1841; Rev. Daniel McManus, 
1841-42; Rev. Bernard McCabe, 1842-44; Rev. Francis Coyle, 
1844-45; Rev. Philip Gillick, 1845-51 ; Rev. John Curoe, 1851-53; 
Rev. John Hogan, 1853-67. 

The Catholics of Belleville, N. J. 

hitcrcstins^ Correspondence. 

We have been furnished for publication with a copy of the 
following interesting correspondence between the Catholics of 
Belleville and the Rt. Rev. Dr. Bayley, Bishop of Newark. We 
desire to call particular attention to the letter from the people of 
Belleville, for in it is breathed the real and only feeling which 
should actuate Catholics under all circumstances — implicit obedi- 
ence to the doctrine and practices of the Church, and respect and 
love for the pastors under whose spiritual control they are placed. 

[Taken From the American Celt, November 26th, 1853.] 

The Catholic Trustees of St. Peter's Church, Belle- 
ville, N. J., TO Their Pastor, the Rev. John Hogan. 

Rev. and Dear Sir: We, the undersigned, trustees of St. 
Peter's Church, Belleville, N. J., hope it will not be out of place if, 
for ourselves and the rest of the congregation, we respectfully 



IN NEW JERSEY 113 

solicit you to express to our Rt. Rev. Bishop the joy we feel at 
his elevation to the episcopal dignity over us and the entire state 
of New Jersey. We are also full of gratitude to the Sovereign 
Pontiff for having made us the spiritual chikh-en of one whom we 
and our families already regard with veneration and love; and 
whose admonition for the greater glory of God, and the welfare of 
our souls, we will ever obey with simplicity and alacrity. 

We also take this opportunity of declaring to you, our reverend 
pastor, and through you also, to our Rt. Re\^ Bishop, that from 
motives of conscience, and in order to stand in complete conform- 
ity with the laws and discipline of the Catholic Church, as lately 
explained to certain trustees in Buffalo, by the Nuncio of his 
Holiness, we divest ourselves of all super\'ision over the local 
ecclesiastical revenues of our Church, feeling, as the Nuncio has 
said, that " nothing can be more exclusively subject to the eccle- 
siastical ministry than such kind of revenue " ; and that " the 
offerings at Mass and contributions for pews being made only for 
the carrying on of divine service, such revenues are but the direct 
result of the sacred ministry, and consequently must be subject 
to the free administration of ecclesiastical authority." 

Too well we know as Catholics the ruin and desolation that 
have fallen upon our Church properties in the apostate Protestant 
countries of Europe, since Henry VHI, Calvin, and the others of 
them sacrilegiously wrested their revenues from Catholic ecclesi- 
astical management, and subjected them to lay control. If ever 
Protestant laws should accord us any sinful privilege of this sort, 
God forbid we should " avail ourselves of it to oppose our Bishop 
and clergy in the free discharge of their duty." On the contrary, 
if, from some civil cause or other, obliged to use such privilege, we 
would, in the words of the Nuncio of the Vicar of Christ on earth, 
" make it a duty to consult the principles of our faith, to ascertain 
when and how we ought to use it ; and would ever feel bound, in 
such a crisis, to make our action harmonize with our duty as 
Catholics." Indeed, we are fully convinced that to act otherwise 
would not only be to deviate from what we owe to the highest 
authority of the Catholic Church, but from being as we now are 
her faithful children, devoted to the Right Reverend Prelate, 
whom the Vicar of Christ has sent to govern us, and of whom, 
through you, reverend and dear sir, our immediate pastor, 
We remain 

Humble servants in Christ, 

George McCloskey, 

John Graham, 

John Conlin, 

Michael Barrett, 

John Finn, 

Patrick Smith, Secretary, 
Signed the Feast of the Patronage of the 
Immaculate Mother of God, Belleville, N. 
J., November 13th, 1853. 



- Trustees. 



114 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Bishop Bayley's Reply, 

In answer to this address the Rt. Rev. Bishop sent the follow- 
ing letter to the Rev. Mr. Hogan : 

Bishop's House, Newark, 

November i6th, 1853. 

Rev. and Dear Sir: I have received, and read with pleasure, 
the letter addressed to you by the trustees of St. Peter's Church, 
Belleville, and which you transmitted to me for my perusal. 

I, of course, regard their resignation of office rather as a mat- 
ter of form than anything else, for men entertaining such senti- 
ments are not likely to abuse the trust committed to them, and 
under some other name you will no doubt find them useful aux- 
iliaries in the management of the temporal affairs of your parish. 

Still, I could not but be pleased with the sound and correct 
views which their letter exhibits, in regard to the important mat- 
ter of the administration of Church revenues, and the reasons 
which they give for the resignation of an office which, I regret to 
say, has, on account of the abuse made of it, become an odious one. 

My late position as secretary of the Most Reverend Arch- 
bishop of New York has given me opportunity of becoming fully 
acquainted with the bad effects of the old trustee system as for- 
merly carried out, and of the ad\'antages to religion which have 
resulted from the adoption of those true Catholic principles of 
administration which he substituted in its place. 

There can be but one opinion among Catholics, whether clergy 
or laity, in regard to the position taken by the trustees of St. 
Louis' Church, Buffalo. If carried out it would make them, and 
not the Bishop, the real governing power in the Church. It is 
evident that if they had been good Catholics all grounds of dis- 
pute between them and their holy, zealous Bishop would have 
been long since removed, or, rather, would never have existed. 

I regard the prevalence of sound and correct views upon this 
subject amongst the laity of the diocese of Newark as a favorable 
augury for the peacefulness and prosperity of my future adminis- 
tration. We all alike. Bishop, priests, and people, can have but 
one interest in the matter — the honor and glory and prosperity of 
God's Church, which should be dearer to us than all else beside — 
and my trust and prayer is, that whatever we may have it in our 
power to do for the extension and more firm establishment of our 
holy religion in this State, may be done in the true spirit of Chris- 
tianity and charity. 

I beg you to convey to the late trustees of St. Peter's Church 
the expression of my kind regard. 

I remain with sincere respect, 

Very truly yours, etc., 

•i< James, 
Bishop of Newark. 
Rev, John Hogan, 

Pastor of St. Peter s CJmrch, Belleville. 



IN NEW JERSEY 



115 



St. Vincent's Church, Madison. 

Madison, although very early settled by Catholics, was at- 
tended from the time of the Rev. Peter Vianney at irregular in- 
tervals by priests from St. Peter's Church, Barclay Street, New 
York, and at a later day, by the priests from St. John's, Newark. 

In 1834, the Rev. Matthew Herard, attached to St. John's, 
Newark, October 7th, 1832, to October 6th, 1833, is mentioned as 
located at Bottle Hill. Very little can be ascertained of him. 
When Archbishop Carroll, in 
1 81 1, was invested by the 
Holy See with the burden 
of looking after the spiritual 
interests of the Danish West 
Indies, he appointed to this 
portion of his vineyard two 
vicars, one of whom was the 
Rev. Mr. Herard. It is not 
certain if this vicar and 
the pastor of Madison are 
one and the same person. 
In 1837 the Rev. Stephen 
Chartier, born in Canada, 
and, owing to political em- 
barrassments, obliged to fly 
from his native land, was in 
temporary charge, and he was 

succeeded by the Rev. Francis Guth in 1838. In 1839 came the 
Rev. Richard Newell, who had a tempestuous and checkered 
career. Born in England of non-Catholic parentage, he was 
brought up in the faith by a Catholic aunt, and by her trained 
for the ecclesiastical state. He was a highly gifted and cultivated 
scholar, of charming and attractive manners, and shortly after his 
ordination placed in charge of a college near London. Owing 
to some friction with his superiors he came to New York with 
letters to Bishop Dubois, who accepted him, and placed him in 
charge of St. Vincent's, Madison. It was under his pastoral 
care that the church was dedicated by Bishop Dubois. A tablet 
in the tympanum of the present church bears the following in- 
scription: St. Vincent's Church. Founded Anno Domini, 1839. 

He endeared himself to his own flock, and made many friends 




ST. VINCENT S CHURCH, MADISON 



ii6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

among the non-Catholics, who crowded the church to hear his 
sermons, and welcomed him to their homes. October i6th, 1842, 
he severed his connection with the parish, and sailed for South 
America as underwriter of the vessel. He then went to New 
Orleans and Cincinnati, and taught in Colonel Johnston's Military 
Academy, Blue Lick, Ky., where he became acquainted with a 
young professor, James Gillespie Blaine, who remained his friend 
to the end of his life. He died only a few years ago in Polk 
Settlement, Tenn., almost a centenarian. 

He was succeeded by the Rev. Ambrose Manahan, who re- 
mained until May, 1844. The Rev. Dr. Manahan in his youth 
devoted his services to the Rev. Francis Donaghoe, in Paterson, 
and by him was taught the classics. He was eventually sent to 
the Propaganda in Rome, where he was ordained priest by 
Cardinal Franzoni, August 29th, 1841. He was subsequently ap- 
pointed president of St. John's College, Fordham, N. Y., pastor 
of St. Joseph's Church, and died in Utica, N. Y., December 7th, 
1867. The Rev. Patrick Kenny succeeded Dr. Manahan, but 
owing to his feeble state of health his pastorate was very brief, 
and God called him to his reward in Charleston, S. C, March 21st, 
1845. 

The Rev. Pere Joseph ministered to the wants of the parish 
until the coming of the Rev. Louis Dominic Senez, whose memory 
is in benediction in whatever field he labored. Father Senez, 
born at Beauvais, France, June, 181 5, made his preparatory stud- 
ies in the historic colleges of Cambrai and Douay, and his theo- 
logical studies in St. Sulpice, Paris, where he was ordained to 
holy priesthood, December 19th, 184O. When in the seminary 
he formed an intimate friendship with a converted Jew, afterward 
the zealous and saintly Father Marie Alphonse Ratisbonne, whose 
thirst for souls deeply impressed Father Senez with the mission- 
ary spirit, and inspired him to devote his life to the interests of 
religion in distant America. Father Senez was sent to Madison 
in 1846 b)^ Archbishop Hughes. He was tireless and unwearying 
in searching out the faithful scattered throughout Morris and 
Sussex and even Warren counties. Despite his unfamiliarity with 
the English tongue he attended " Vendues " and gatherings of 
every description where our people might be expected to attend, 
and peering into their faces addressed those who he thought were 
Catholics. In one of his journeys he discovered a Catholic family 
in Montagu, near the Delaware River, and baptized their infant 
son, now the Rt. Rev. Monsignor O'Grady of New Brunswick. 



IN NEW JERSEY 



117 




He offered the holy bacriUce uuaer tne uroau ai ms ui it u iuc-=pi 



ii8 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

He would gather the Catholics, hear their confessions, and offer 
for them the holy Sacrifice under the broad arms of some wide- 
spreading chestnut or oak tree. The highway was his home, a 
bite in some lowly cabin his refreshment, and his carriage, himself 
wrapped up in horse-blankets, his bed. Father "Dominic" he 
was affectionately called, and to the last the old folks never failed 
to speak of him, who so unselfishly and devotedly attended to 
their wants and interests. On January 21st, 1848, he was given 
an assistant, a young man of delicate and frail health, the Rev. 
Bernard J. McOuaid. But the weak body enshrined an indomit- 
able will, a reserve of energy, an unquenchable hunger for souls, 
which have made him successi\'ely the model pastor, the valued 
adviser of his Bishop in his counsels, the consistent advocate of 
Catholic education, and the wise up-builder of a new See, whose 
venerable head he is to-day, loved and venerated by his priests, 
and strong in the esteem of his non-Catholic fellow-citizens. 
Father Senez, retiring in April, 1848, to return to his native land, 
was succeeded in the pastorate by the Rev. James McMahon. 
But it was not in this field he would reap his laurels, for in two 
months he was transferred to St. Mary's Church, New York, and 
began to accumulate the wealth which later on he bestowed on 
the Catholic University, Washington, and whose benefactions will 
be remembered by future generations in his monument — 
McMahon Hall. On his retirement Father McOuaid was called 
upon to take up the work begun by Father Senez, and how well 
he discharged the trust imposed in him the congregations of 
Morristown, Dover, Boonton, and Springfield are the witnesses. 
At a glance he saw the dangers which threatened, not the adult 
emigrants, but their children, whom every effort of Protestantism 
was bent in proselyting. 

Called once to attend a sick woman near Monroe, whose hus- 
band had died of ship fever at sea, and herself a victim of the fell 
disease, he strove to reconcile her to resignation. But one 
thought tortured her and embittered her last moments — what 
would become of her little son and daughter ? The young priest 
pledged himself to care for them, and thus assured, and kindly 
provided for by the charitable French ladies of Madison, a lonel}^ 
exile in a strange land gave up her soul into the hands of her 
Maker. Learning of her death. Father McOuaid hastened to the 
house to secure the children, but some Protestants had been be- 
fore him and kidnapped the girl, who later in life accosted him, a 
bitter enemy of her mother's faith. The boy he placed in an 



IN NEW JERSEY 



119 



orphanage, where he soon joined his mother. Cathohc education 
he was convinced was necessary to save the faith of the child and 
the future of the Church in these United States. Cathohc edu- 
cation then and Catliohc education to-day is his motto and his 
watchword. To prove his devotion to his convictions, without 
neglecting his important parish obligations in the vast field en- 
trvisted to him, he taught the scholars for nearly a year in Mad- 
ison. And when he had completed the church in Morristown, 
his first care was to provide 
a Catholic school. From 
that day to the present these 
schools have been continu- 
ously kept up, and in no par- 
ishes in the diocese, or, for 
that matter, in the Union, is 
the faith more vigorous, more 
abounding in those blessed 
fruits which are the harvest 
of a healthy, sturdy, deep- 
rooted religious conviction. 
But this sphere was too 
limited for his activities. 
The qualities displayed in 
his ministry at Madison and 
adjacent missions attracted 
the attention of his ecclesi- 
astical superiors, and in 1853 
he was transferred by Bishop- 
elect Bayley to St. Patrick's, 
Newark, which he was about 
to make his cathedral church. His successor was the Rev. 
Michael A. Madden. Father Madden, born in New York City 
in 1826, made his preparatory studies at Chambly, Canada, and 
his theological studies in St. John's, Fordham, where he was 
ordained by Archbishop Hughes, May 25th, 1850. He was for a 
short time assistant in St. Peter's, New York, and in 1851 was 
placed in charge of Middletown Point, which later on was to be- 
come South Amboy. While in charge of this parish he attended 
the Catholics as far down the coast as Point Pleasant, and gathered 
the nucleus of the present prosperous congregation at Red Bank. 
In October, 1853, he was transferred to Madison. Here he 
proved himself the worthy peer of his two illustrious predeces- 




REV. MICHAEL A. MADDEN 
Born 1826. Died May iglh, 1868. 



I20 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



sors. Less stern and more open-hearted than Father McQuaid, 
his flock loved and revered him, and were greatly shocked by his 
sudden death in Newark, in the house of a friend, of hemorrhage 
of the lungs. May 19th, 1868. Of him Bishop Bayley wrote: 
" One of my oldest and best friends." 

Then came the lovable, brilliant Father D'Arcy. The Rev. 
James DArcy, born in Ireland, made his theological studies in 
All Hallows, near Dublin, and in Seton Hall. He was the first 

seminarist ordained to holy 
priesthood in the college 
chapel, December 19th, 1863. 
His first assignment to duty 
was assistant in St. John's, 
Paterson, where his memory 
is still held in affectionate re- 
membrance. Afterward he 
was in temporary charge of 
Morristown, where during his 
brief stay he had so entwined 
himself into the affection of 
his flock that they were not 
only deeply grieved but in- 
dignant at his removal. More 
than usually gifted with the 
sacred fire of oratory, he was 
often called upon to lecture 
and preach on extraordinary 
occasions. In fulfilling an 
engagement of this kind in 
the Cathedral, Newark, where on March 17th, 1869, he preached 
the panegyric of St. Patrick, he imprudently exposed himself, 
and after a vigorous and splendid eulogy of St. Patrick and his 
children, he was seized with a chill, and died March 23d, 1869. 
April 2d of the same year Bishop Bayley appointed the apos- 
tolic, quiet, and unassuming Father Wigger, who during four 
years had labored so zealously in the vast Cathedral parish that 
his health broke down, and he was forced to go abroad to re- 
cuperate. When on his return to the diocese, after ordination, 
cholera broke out on the steamer Atalanta, he displayed his 
zeal and fearlessness in the discharge of his sacred duties, by 
asking permission and faculties from his Bishop to remain aboard 
in order to give the consolations of religion to the dying. For 




REV. JAMES D ARCY. 
Died March 23d, 1S69. 



IN NEW JERSEY 121 

two weeks he remained at his post until the scourge had disap- 
peared, and reported for duty at the Cathedral, November, 1865. 
That same zeal and devotion characterized his pastorate at 
Madison. But, elsewhere, a more detailed account will be given 
of his labors in Orange, Summit, and Chatham. When called by 
Bishop Corrigan to assume the herculean task of grappling with 
the debt-overwhelmed church of St. John, Orange, his successor 
was the Rev. Patrick E. Smythe. Father Smythe, born in Bally- 
jamesduff, county Cavan, Ireland, March 15th, 1841, made his 
preparatory studies in Kilmore Seminary, and his theological 
studies in Maynooth, where he was ordained priest March 17th, 
1864. 

He was appointed rector of Oxford Furnace, and built St. 
Joseph's Church, Washington. He came to Madison May, 1873. 
St. Vincent's Church is built on a site given by Amidee von 
Schalkwyck Boisaubin. The memory of this is recorded on his 
monument : 

" With Manifest Liberality 

He Contributed to the Erection 

Of This Church. By Its Site 

His Remains Have Been Placed 

That his Soul May Be Remembered 

In the Prayers of All Who Pray Therein." 

That family exercised, to a very limited extent certainly, a kind 
of patronage over the church, which was not renounced until 
Father Smythe's regime. 

In January, 1876, Father Smythe was transferred to St. 
Bridget's, Jersey City, and St. Vincent's welcomed back their old 
pastor. Dr. Wigger, whom the Summit congregation tried hard to 
retain. In August, 1881, he was chosen by the Holy See third 
Bishop of the diocese of Newark, and consecrated b)- Archbishop 
Corrigan in the Cathedral, Newark, October i8th, 1881. The 
successor of Bishop Wigger was his friend and classmate in the 
Seminary Brignole-Sale, the Rev. Joseph Rolando. Born at Ber- 
zezio, in the diocese of Cuneo, Italy, September 28th, 1839, Father 
Rolando studied classics in Cuneo, and theology at Brignole-Sale, 
where he was raised to the priesthood, June loth, 1865. His first 
appointments were the Cathedral and St. John's, Newark, for a 
brief period looking after the Italians in Philadelphia, and succes- 
sively rector of Hackensack and Milburn. His work in these 
missions was marked by energy and earnestness, and when ap- 
pointed rector of Madison he determined to clear off the debt 



122 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

with which for a long time it had been burdened. He not only 
succeeded, but brought the parish and its school to a high degree 
of efficiency, and when constrained by ill health — the result of the 
tension of incessant and unwearied labor — to resign, he left to his 
successor a very considerable sum with which to prosecute the 
ardent wish of his life, of erecting a church more suitable to the 
enlarged conditions of the parish, and more creditable to the faith 
and liberality of the Catholics of this thriving parish. The Rev. 
Joseph W. McDowell, D.C.L., born in Scotland, 1861, educated 
at St. Francis Xavier's College, New York, and at Seton Hall, was 
ordained priest October 12th, 1884. For many years he exer- 
cised the ministry in St. John's, Orange, and in 1895 went to 
Rome to devote himself to the study of canon law. In 1897 he 
took his degree, and was appointed rector of St. Paul's, Jersey 
City, and in August, 1900, rector of St. Vincent's, Madison. Dr. 
McDowell is a veteran of the Spanish War, having filled the 
office of chaplain of the Fourth Regiment N. J. Volunteers. 
Dr. McDowell has secured about four acres of land on Green 
Village Road and Wilmer Street, where in due time will be 
erected the new church, rectory, and school. The aspirations of 
the parish will be realized, and the mother will no longer be 
eclipsed in the beauty and splendor of schools and churches 
by her vigorous daughters. This notice would be incomplete if 
mention were not made of the cemetery, which has been beauti- 
fied and improved by Dr. McDowell, who gave the first fruits of 
his pastoral zeal to the spot hallowed by the earthly remains of a 
Madden and a D'Arcy, and of the early pioneers — all, priest and 
people, at rest in the bosom of God. 

St. Mary's, South Amboy, N. J. 

South Amboy was visited as early as 1830 by Father Dona- 
hue of New York, who came twice a year to minister to the few 
scattered Irish Catholics of the neighborhood. Father Maguire, 
of New Brunswick, also visited South Amboy occasionally. 
Father Rogers was the first to establish a regular station in 
South Amboy about the year 1847, and attended it once a month. 
In 1850 Father Rogers built the first church, a frame building 
30 by 18 feet, on the site of the present cemetery. In 1852 the 
Rev. Michael Madden, the first resident pastor, came to South 
Amboy, and moved the church from the cemetery to Stephen 
Avenue, building an addition 30 by 30 feet. 



IN NEW JERSEY 123 

In 1854 Father James Callan took charge, and remained until 
the advent of the Rev. John Kelly in 1855. Father Kelly set 
about to improve and extend the property. He added another 
wing 30 by 30 feet, thus providing for the growing congregation. 
He purchased ground back of the rectory and running to Church 
Street, thus affording ample ground for a future church, Sep- 
tember 20th, 1864. The property was incorporated under the 
title of " St. Mary's Catholic Church, South Amboy." On Feb- 
ruary 24th, 1873, it was resolved to build a new brick church on 
the corner of John Street and Stephen Avenue. On August 15th 
following the Rt. Rev. Bishop Corrigan laid the corner-stone of 
the magnificent Gothic structure, 135 by 64 feet. The work pro- 
gressed rapidly, and the church was dedicated to the honor of God, 
under the patronage of "Mary, Star of the Sea," September 17th, 
1876. 

October 2d, 1875, the feast of the Guardian Angels, Father 
Kelly opened the parochial school in the old church building, 
placing two secular teachers in charge. 

When the diocese of Newark was divided, and Bishop O'Far- 
rell placed at the head of the new diocese of Trenton, Father 
Kelly was selected one of the consultors. The Bishop, appreci- 
ating the zeal and good work of the faithful pastor, made him one 
of the first irremovable rectors of the new diocese. 

As years advanced he grew in favor with his bishops, so that 
on the death of the Very Rev. A. Smith, the first Vicar-General, 
Father Kelly was selected to succeed him. Honors seemed to 
increase his zeal, for he called to his assistance the Sisters of 
Mercy to take charge of his school. A convent was built and the 
old church remodeled to meet the increase of pupils. In 1891 
we find Father Kelly building a new rectory, but he did not live 
to finish it, as, after two weeks' sickness, he died February 27th, 
1 891, in the thirty-seventh year of his priesthood, aged sixty-one 
years, honored by his Bishop and brother priests, beloved by 
his faithful people, and respected by his non-Catholic fellow- 
citizens. 

Father Kelly was a pioneer missionary of the old school, who 
braved both heat and cold fearlessly. In his early years his parish 
extended from Raritan Bay to Point Pleasant, including Sayre- 
ville, Mattawan, Red Bank, Atlantic Highlands, Long Branch, 
Asbury Park, and many other places along the coast. Twenty- 
six priests are now laboring in the territory in which Father 
Kelly alone planted the seed of faith forty years ago. In 1 885 



124 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Father Kelly received his first assistant priest, the Rev. John 
W. Lawrence. The Rev. William H. Miller, a native of South 
Amboy, succeeded Father Lawrence, and remained with Father 
Kelly until a few months before his death. 

Father Kelly was succeeded in the pastorate of St. Mary's 
by the Rev. John F. Brady, who took charge May 30th, 1891. 
Father Brady started immediately to increase the school accom- 
modation. The old school was remodeled to accommodate the 
larger children, and a dwelling-house was converted into a tempo- 
rary school for the little ones, so that on the opening of school in 
September of the same year there was ample room for four hun- 
dred children. In 1892 the new St. Mary's parochial school and 
hall was commenced, and the corner-stone laid May 8th, 1892, 
with imposing ceremonies by the Rt. Rev. M. J. O'Farrell, Bishop 
of Trenton. The edifice was completed and dedicated June 29th, 

1893- 

It is constructed of brick with graystone basement and brown- 
stone trimming, and is finished with all modern improvements. 
It has twelve large class-rooms, and the hall seats fourteen hun- 
dred people. 

In 1895 the church was ov'erhauled, the sanctuary enlarged, 
three marble altars erected, the interior frescoed, and the grounds 
"about the church and school graded and sown with grass. 

The church, school, rectory, and convent of St. Mary's parish 
are the pride of South Amboy and the admiration of visitors. In 
the ten years, from 1891 to 1901, $160,000 was expended in 
building improvements and repairs, and every dollar of it contrib- 
uted by the poor people of the parish. 

Father Brady has had associated with him in the administra- 
tion of the parish successively the Revs. William Uumphy, D. 
Geaghan, William Leacy, T. Nolan, Peter Hart, R. J. O'Farrell, 
and M. J. Lavey. 

St. Mary's, Perth Amboy. 

The beginning of Catholicity in Perth Amboy, N. J., seems to 
date back to the year 1 826, when, as stated in an old register, the 
Rev. Father McArdle held services in an old building once at- 
tached to the house on Mechanic and Centre streets, afterward 
occupied by James Tuite. Where the Rev. Father McArdle 
went, or who formed his congregation, is not known. But rumor 
says that the spirit of persecution was so strong in those days that 



IN NEW JERSEY 125 

some individuals threatened " to tar and feather " the said priest 
should he dare to return. 

The next account we have of Catholicity in this place was 
when Patrick McCormick (father of William H. McCormick) and 
Patrick Haney arrived here. Both of these gentlemen were 
Catholics, and attended divine service at old St. Patrick's in New 
York City. This was about the year 1830. Later on, when Mr. 
McCormick engaged in the oyster business, he and his fellow 
Catholics went to service in South Amboy. Mass was then cele- 
brated in the house of the old widow McNally, by a priest from 
New Brunswick. The Catholics in this section were few and far 
between in those days, and obliged to endure many trials and 
hardships for the preservation of their faith. Besides Patrick 
McCormick and Patrick Haney we have the names of Bernard 
McAnerny, Matthew Smith, Daniel McDonald, and Thomas 
Flaherty. These with their families constituted the Catholic 
congregation for many years. If some of them forgot the teach- 
ings of their early years and drifted away from their Church, it is 
a comfort to know that others kept the faith, fought the good 
fight, and left to their children the inheritance of a noble. God- 
fearing ancestry. 

In connection with the first struggles of these sturdy pioneers, 
it is related of old Patrick McCormick that, being the fortunate 
possessor of an oyster boat, he became the acknowledged ferry- 
man for the Catholics when they made their occasional trips to 
South Amboy to attend divine service. The custom was to pay 
25 cents for the round trip, which money was given to the offici- 
ating clergyman as an offering. But on one occasion there was a 
certain individual who refused the contribution, demanding a free 
passage. Whereupon some of his fellow travellers tossed him out 
of the boat in mid-stream, and kept him in the water till the fare 
was given. This incident goes to prove that our early Catholic 
settlers were thorough business men and possessed more zeal 
perhaps than charity. Who the oppressed individual was, or who 
were his oppressors, is not specified. This arrangement appears 
to have continued for several years, for the Catholic population 
did not increase very rapidly. 

Somewhere about the year 1835 Ezekiel Patterson opened a 
coal-yard at the foot of Commerce Street, and this brought many 
Irish Catholics from Jersey City to work there. Up to this time 
the Catholics found some difficulty in renting rooms from the 
owners of dwelling-houses. Consequently they were compelled 



126 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

to take up their quarters at the old "Barracks," or in the old 
"tea-house." Some procured lodgings in the houses along the 
shore. Matthew Smith lived on Smith Street near the ferry, as 
did also the Tuite family, and Patrick McCormick obtained the 
old homestead on Water Street. When the Jersey City people 
came they began to purchase land on "Tower Hill " from James 
Parker, and dwellings were soon erected. Mass was said at Mr. 
Biglin's house on Smith Street, now West's furniture store, also 
in Owen McAdam's on Centre Street, and in James Tuite's on 
Mechanic Street. It is also asserted that one of the early Masses 
was said in John Brown's on Maiden I.ane. 

It is likewise related that in 1837, when the fever broke out in 
Europe, all vessels were quarantined off Staten Island. The ship 
PJioebc tried to land her cargo of immigrants in this city, but the 
people protested. Finally, however, they were landed and herded 
in the open fields beyond the Central Railroad. The citizens of 
Perth Amboy, however, were kind to the poor immigrants, and 
furnished them with food and clothing. During the same epidemic 
another shipload came in, and some of the passengers offered the 
captain of a pilot boat a considerable sum of money to land them 
in New York. The pilot agreed, but on reaching the upper bay 
became alarmed and landed his freight on a small island off the 
Jersey City flats, where they were almost drowned when the tide 
rose. Several fishermen from Staten Island rescued the unfortu- 
nates. 

As far as research can determine it the Catholics of Perth 
Amboy were attended at this time by Rev. Father Maguire, a 
priest from New Brunswick, who also held services at South 
Amboy. 

The first priest that seems to have taken permanent charge of 
the Catholics located at Perth Amboy was the Rev. Father Ma- 
dranno, a Spaniard, then residing at the old Quarantine Station 
on Staten Island, now called New Brighton. The reverend gen- 
tleman made his trips by means of the New Brunswick boats. Old 
bidcpciidcncc and Nczv Yoi'k. There are some of our citizens still 
living who remember these boats, and also can recall the good 
Father Madranno who came to them. Arriving on Saturday, he 
received the best hospitality his poor flock could furnish, and with 
this he was content. He remained with them until Monday morn- 
ing, when he returned to Staten Island. The exact date of his 
coming to Perth Amboy is not known, but those who recall him 
say it was about 1839. On some occasions he found shelter in 



IN NEW JERSEY 127 

the old hotel, also in Matthew Smith's, aloni^ the shore, also in M. 
Doyle's on Centre Street, and in Owen McAdam's, opposite the 
present St. Mary's Church. But after a little while Mr. Girard 
made Father Madranno's acquaintance, and insisted upon him ac- 
cepting the hospitality of his pleasant home on Water Street. 
The Girard family were not Catholics, but the society of the ac- 
complished priest was a source of enjoyment to all who knew him, 
for, like St. Paul, he was all to all with every one, a perfect gen- 
tleman and accomplished scholar, a model priest, and a man of 
probity and wisdom. 

After another little while Father Madranno gathered his scat- 
tered flock and organized them into a congregation under the title 
of St. Mary's Catholic Church, and about the year 1842 began to 
collect subscriptions for the purchase of a site for a new church, 
and a place where they might bury their dead. Subscriptions 
were taken by the people, the most active being Matthew Smith, 
the father of the present Smith family. In those days the erec- 
tion of a church was indeed a difficult matter. The Catholics 
were poor and few in number, and their fellow citizens were not 
over friendly to their cause. Yet the subscription lists showed 
many non-Catholic contributors. 

Father Madranno was not only a pious priest, he was also a 
brave and generous man, and in the late summer of 1844 the Rt. 
Rev. John Hughes, Bishop of New York and Northern New Jer- 
sey, laid the corner-stone of the old St. Mary's Church. The 
good Bishop also preached an eloquent sermon on the occasion, 
and the party was generously entertained by Mr. Girard. This 
was the beginning of a new era of good feeling, and as the days 
passed Father Madranno won the love and esteem of the whole 
community. The new church, a brick structure, with a porch 
extending along the front, began to rise at once. Our poor people 
spared neither labor nor expense in completing their little church. 
Some contributed money ; others gave the willing labor and skill 
of their hands; others furnished building materials, all doing their 
utmost toward its completion. Father Madranno himself con- 
tributed over $500 to its erection. 

But about the year 1847 his health declined and he was obliged 
to return to Spain. 

When Father Madranno resigned the charge of St. Mary's 
Church to seek for health in his Spanish home, he carried with him 
the benedictions of the people to whom he had ministered so faith- 
fully and efficiently. His mission again reverted to the mother 



128 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

church at New Brunswick, and was attended by Father John 
Rogers, once a month when the weather would permit. Father 
Rogers is said to have ministered to the Cathohcs of Perth Amboy 
from the year 1 846 to the year 1 849, during which period he en- 
deared himself to his people by his priestly zeal and unselfish 
conduct. He generally drove from New Brunswick on Sunday 
at about eleven, returning about five o'clock. Father Rogers is 
.said to have occasionally visited the few Catholics at Woodbridge. 

About the year 1850 Father Stephen Sheridan was placed in 
charge of St. Mary's congregation, and he became the first resi- 
dent priest the mission had. Father Sheridan took up his lodg- 
ings at the house of James Tuite on Fayette Street for a time, and 
afterward rented part of the house and lived with his mother and 
sister. He did not, however, stay long, for, being delicate, he was 
obliged to leave Perth Amboy, and consequently retired from the 
mission in the year 1 85 1 . 

When the Rev. Father Sheridan relinquished the care of St. 
Mary's Church, the Bishop of New York sent the Rev. Patrick 
McCarthy as pastor. Father McCarthy entered upon his duties 
about the year 185 1, and took up his residence at the house of 
Mr. J. Tuite. He also attended to the missions at Rah way, but 
was obliged to give up his work on account of ill health, and about 
the year 1853 he returned to New York City, to St. Mary's; he 
died at Holy Cross Church. Father McCarthy was a lovable 
man, and worked hard to make his people happy. During his 
pastorate, school was taught in the vestry and the gallery of the 
old church, and services were held regularly. 

During the year 1853 the Rev. Thomas Quin came from Pater- 
son, N. J., to assume charge of the Perth Amboy missions. For 
some months he resided with the Tuite family in the old Fayette 
Street house. Besides attending to the spiritual wants of the 
Catholics in this town, he also visited Rah way, and opened the 
Woodbridge mission. In September of 1853 he took up his resi- 
dence at Rahway, from which place he went three times a month 
to Perth Amboy, and once a month to Woodbridge. On retiring 
to Rahway he appointed J. Rourke and John Sparks trustees of 
St. Mary's Church, empowering them to collect all dues and pay 
all debts. Under his direction the said trustees purchased a tract 
of four acres on the Woodbridge road, for $1,200. These trustees 
also erected a building to be used as a school, twenty-five feet by 
twenty-five, at a cost of $400, and gathered the Catholic children 
for instruction, employing a teacher at a salary of $50 per month. 



IN NEW JKRSEY 129 

Uj) to lliis lime (i860) several Catholic teachers had at different 
periods conducted private schools. Mr. Martin Gorman taught 
on C'entre, and also Smith streets. Mr. Hurley also conducted a 
similar establishment, and later on a school was kept in the vestry 
of the old church and also in the gallery. 

Father Ouin said Mass in Perth Amboy \vhene\er the weather 
permitted. Sometimes he rode in a carriage from Rahwa)-, at other 
times he rode on a hand-car, propelled by some of his sturdy parish- 
ioners. 

St. James's Church, Woodbridge. 

About the year i860 Father Ouin opened the Woodbridge 
mission. Although, as we have already seen, the seeds of Catho- 
lic faith had fallen first on this soil, and Catholic priests had ad- 
ministered the sacraments and offered the ln)ly .sacrifice here at 
the close of the seventeenth century, no permanent results were 
achieved, and every trace of Catholicity was obliterated. It was 
reserved for the standard-bearer of the Cross — the Celt — to renew 
the spring, and to rear aloft the spire, beneath which the incarnate 
God would find a home, and man a source from which the life-giv- 
ing streams of grace would flow to his soul. 

Mass was at first .said in Patrick Masterson's, in John Dunn's 
at the clay bank.s, and also in a loft over an old stable. Later on the 
piece of ground, 120 by 250, on Main Street was purchased from 
Mr. Dall}', and, after many difficulties, the old frame church, now 
used for a school, was erected and paid for. Father Ouin also 
purchased the present Woodbridge Catholic Cemeter)-, and paid all 
except $500 on the purchase. After Father Ouin was relieved of 
the charge. Father Cornell continued services at Woodbridge until 
Father Ouin's second coming. In 1841 the mission passed to the 
care of Father Conncjlly, who added two small wings to the church. 
About the year 1878 the Rev. Father Betoni came to W'oodbridge, 
and remained until October 14th, 1882, when Father Uevine took 
the charge. Father Devine, however, was replaced in May, 1883, 
by Father Walsh. This priest built the present rectory, and also 
enlarged the church. But in May, 1885, Father Devine was again 
placed in the pastorate, to the great joy of the people of Wood- 
bridge. Through the priestly zeal and untiring efforts of this 
good clerg)'man the present beautiful church and grounds were 
procured, the present rectory and Sisters' House erected and paid 
for without burdening the people. According to the last financial 
statement the parish at Woodbridge is in possession of church 
9 



I30 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

property valued at over $50,000, and carries a debt of only $1,000. 
Woodbridge has also a flourishing school and various societies in 
active operation. 

The present rector is the Rev. John J. Griffin. 

About the fall of 1863 the parish of St. Mary's, Perth Amboy, 
N. J., was transferred to the care of Rev. John Cornell. Father 
Cornell placed a bell upon the church, and inaugurated the 
ringing of the Angelus. He also purchased an organ for the 
church, and held a successful fair for its benefit in old Columbia 
Hall. During his incumbency Bishop Bayley gave confirmation 
in St. Mary's. 

Father Cornell during his stay resided in a house on Jefferson 
Street, and was very zealous in the performance of his parish 
duties, teaching the children many pretty hymns, some of his own 
composition. The Catholics of Woodbridge also shared in his 
pastoral care. In the spring of 1865, however. Father Cornell left 
for a trip to Europe. Father Cornell was a convert, and some of 
his people still reside in this county. His old parishioners hold 
his memory dear. 

It was also during the incumbency of Father Cornell that St. 
Mary's congregation was incorporated under the laws of New 
Jersey. 

Father Cornell resigned the charge of St. Mary's Church in the 
spring of 1865, and Father Ouin, the old pastor, then living at 
Rahway and having charge of St. Mary's Church there, resumed 
the care of this district. 

Once more the parish became a mission of the Rahway Catho- 
lic Church. This arrangement was the best that could be made 
at the time, for priests were scarce, and the Catholics of the larger 
towns were demanding their services. Father Ouin was ever at- 
tentive to the wants of St. Mary's congregation, and gave them 
all the care he could possibly spare from his other two congre- 
gations. Long drives from Rahway on sick calls enfeebled his 
already weak frame. The congregation was growing, and the in- 
creasing number of children was calling for a permanent priest. 

In the December of 1861 the Rt. Rev. Bishop Bayley as- 
signed Rev. Father Connolly to this parish and the mission 
of Woodbridge. When Father Connolly came the old church, 
built by the saintly Father Madranno, stood in the cemetery 
where so many of the faithful pioneers rested, awaiting the 
resurrection. Catholics were flocking to Perth Amboy in good 
numbers, for work was plentiful and profitable. Everything 



IN NEW JERSEY 131 

seemed encouraging, and the members of St. Mary's were de- 
lighted to have a priest dwelUng once more with them. Now the 
sick would be attended to and the faint-hearted encoin-aged, and 
the children thoroughly grounded in the teachings of their 
Church. 

On January 2d, 1872, the fiat went forth, and the dead who had 
slumbered in peaceful security were transferred to the new ceme- 
tery on the hill. A new era was to be inaugurated, the church 
was to be enlarged and beautified, and the Catholics of Perth 
Amboy were to have the model church in this section. Some 
protested against the removal of the bodies, and pointed to other 
vacant lots, but all to no purpose. Some bodies were removed 
and others were left undisturbed, and in the spring the work of 
destruction and reconstruction began. 

The old church with all its blessed memories was taken down 
piecemeal, the two present transepts were added ; a sanctuary was 
built, and .sacristies, so that little or nothing was left of the old 
church. And the wonderful thing about the affair was that ser- 
vices continued during the remodelling process. In the year 
1883 the present school structure arose, much to the astonish- 
ment of the people and to their jo\'. The lay teachers were re- 
placed by the Sisters of Mercy, who now have three hundred 
children under their care. During the incumbency of Father 
Connolly the present convent was procured, also the old Tuite 
property, corner of Mechanic and Centre streets. 

In the year 1888 the growth of the Catholic population required 
a third Mass, and the Rev. Father Hosey was sent to assist the 
rector. Father Geoghegan succeeded Father Hosey in 1889, and 
in time came the Rev. Father Carey, who in turn was replaced by 
Father Geoghegan, who was succeeded by the Rev. Walter T. 
Leahy in September, 1892. 

St. Joseph's Church, Carteret. 

In the late spring of 1890 the mission of St. Joseph's at Car- 
teret, N. J., was opened by the Rev. Father Connolly, as an annex 
of St. Mary's, Perth Amboy. Mass was sakl in a room of Mr. 
Sexton's house in the spring of 1890. But this was not the first 
Mass celebrated in Carteret, for the Rev. Edward McCosker, of 
Rahway, had previously said Mass for the few scattered Catholics 
of that hamlet. The services were continued in Patrick Sexton's 
old boarding-house, called "The Ship," till the following Christ- 



132 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

mas, 1890, when a temporary altar was erected in the h<juse of 
Mr. Raclley, near the shore. A church has heen erected, and the 
parish has its resident priest, the Rev. Bartholomew W. Carey. 

St. Stephen's (Polish) Church. 

On April 26th, 1892, Rev. Stephen Szymanowski came to Perth 
Amboy at the request of the Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell, to look 
after the spiritual wants of the Polish and Slavonic Catholics set- 
tled in the town. In a short time opened a chapel on New Bruns- 
wick Avenue, where his little congregation gathered to worship. 
In the fall of the same year Father Szymanowski purchased a site 
for his new church on State Street. The corner-stone was laid on 
October i6th, 1892, by the Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell, assisted by 
the Rev. Valentine Swinarski and Rev. Walter T. Leahy. 

Thus was laid the foundation of the Polish parish in Perth Am- 
boy, N. J., and the good priest rapidly pushed his church to com- 
pletion. The present church building cost over $16,000, and is a 
notable addition to the town. 

There are also in Perth Amboy congregations of Slovaks who 
have their own church, the Holy Trinity, the Rev. Francis Janu- 
schek, rector; of Greeks, St. Mary's Church, the Father Kecscs, 
rector, and of Hungarians, the Rev. Charles Radocz)'. 

St. John's Church, Lambertville. 

Traces of Catholicity are found very early in Hunterdon 
County. On the Pennsylvania side of the Delaware River were 
found many Alsatian and not a few Irish families, who settled in 
and around Haycock, some of whom, doubtless, wandered over 
into New Jersey. As this portion of the State was attached to 
the Philadelphia div)cese, the spiritual charge of the faithful natu- 
rally fell to the priests of that diocese. There is a record of the 
baptism of Anna Canada, the wife of Patrick Mac-gan, then living 
in Georgia, in the town of Ringwood, in the county of Hunterdon, 
on October 21st, 1781, by the Rev. John Baptist Ritter. This 
was in Nicholas McCarthy's house, and the convert to the faith 
was then nineteen years of age. Later on we find that the Rev. 
Michael Hurley, D.D. (died May 14th, 1837), among other mis- 
sions in New Jersey had visited Lambertville. It is also on rec- 
ord that the Augustinians, if they did not actually build, at least 
set on foot the building of the church. The l^ev. Patrick J. Han- 
negan enlarged the church in 1853. For some time it was at- 



IN NEW JERSEY 133 

tended from St. John's, Trenton, by the Rev. James Mackin. Its 
pastors were the Rt. Rev. P. J. Hannegan, J. L. Jego, 1854-61; 
James Carney, 1861-63; James Callan, 1863-64; Eugene O'Keefe; 
Hugh Murphy, 1864-67; Patrick F. Connolly, 1867-73; Michael 
J. Connolly, 1873-76; IV Henry TerWoert, 1876-78; John F. 
Brady, 1878-84; William J. Fitzgerald, 1884-91; and the present 
rector, the Rev. William II. Lynch, appointed October ist, 1900. 
Under Father TerWoert's administration a school was built. 

When the Mulligan family arri\'ed in Hunterdon County in 
1850, they found as neighbors the Rupells, supposedly from Ba- 
varia, who despite the lack of priests held on to the faith. That 
the Ruppells came very early into Hunterdon County is evident 
from the baptismal register of the Jesuit Father Ritter, which 
contains the following enti)- : 

" Ruppell, Anna Maria, of Jacob Ruppell and his wife Barbara, 
born in New Jersey, June, 1766, baptized in Haycock, June 21, 
1767; sponsors, Jerome Grijnewald and Ann Mary Griinewald." 

Mass was occasionally offered in their home, but by whom there 
is no record. It is certain that the saintly Bishop Neuman in the 
early 40' s visited them and blessed a cemetery for them. The faith 
was also kept alive by an itinerant pedler, the brother of John Roach, 
the shipbuilder. In his travels through the country not only did 
he fight for his religion, defending it wherever and whenever 
an opportunity presented itself, but he braced up his co-religion- 
ists, reproaching the backsliders and strengthening the weak- 
hearted, and bringing them whenever possible the comforts of a 
priest. When the Central Railroad was in process of construction 
frequent disorders broke out along the line, especially after pay- 
da)-. On one occasion there was every indication of a riot, and as 
a measure of precaution the sheriff called upon the militia. The 
soldiers were not at all eager to take up the wage of battle with 
the infuriated and maddened railroaders. Some one, wiser than 
the rest, advised sending word to Father Reardon, then pastor at 
Easton, Pa. Father Reardon was a relative of Daniel O' Council, 
a man of commanding presence and a gifted orator. He hurried 
to the scene, garbed in his green coat, and gathering his country- 
men around the hotel he harangued them, and under the charm 
of his pleadings the wrath of the men was soon appeased. At his 
bidding they all knelt, and, receiving his blessing, they started off, 
some to their shanties and the rest to their work, much to the re- 
lief of the sheriff and the soldiers. One only was arrested, and 
brought to Flemington for trial. When brought before the court 



134 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

he cried out, "Hang me, judge, for God's sake hang me!" "I 
cannot go that far, ni}- man, unless you give me some reason. 
Why ought I to hang )ou ? " He repUed, '* What would my folks 
say in Ireland if they heard I was arrested ? " He was not hanged, 
but dismissed by the court. P^ather Reardon every now and then 
visited Clinton and F'lemington and said Mass and administered 
the sacraments. 



Church of the Immaculate Conception, Clinton. 

The Catholics in this hamlet were attended from Lambertville, 
and divine ser\'ice was held in the homes of the Mulligans, Lough- 
ertys, McLoughlins, and in the house of a Mr. Coxe, a Spanish 
consul, resident in Clinton. Old Mrs. Lougherty, in her ninety- 
seventh year when she died, was a veritable treasurer of historic 
lore, but unfortunately none had the thoughtfulness to gather from 
her what now would be of surpassing interest. Of the Mulligans 
there were three brothers, who settled in the county in 1845, 
Frank, Jeremiah, and James, the father of the worthy pastor of the 
Church of the Immaculate Conception, Camden, the Very Rev. 
Dean Bernard J. Mulligan. They were of the good old Irish 
stock, strong in the faith, and the wife of James was a woman of 
strong character, possessed of sterling virtue, who would have 
reared a Christian family in the desert, as well as under the 
shadow of a church. This was the compliment Bishop Bayley 
paid her when on the occasion of a visitation to that part of his 
diocese he visited her home, and saw in her children the evidences 
of solid Christian virtue. Father Jego bought a barn from the 
Mulligans and con\-erted it into a church. In the rear was a car- 
riage house, which once occasioned an amusing incident. Father 
Jego was preaching one Sunday, and although he was very earnest 
in his remarks, he observed that his audience were in a mirthful 
mood, and becoming more and more inclined to levity. At length 
it seemed impossible to restrain themselves, and all burst out in 
loud laughter. The good priest was indignant, and plainl)' said so 
to the congregation. One of them asked him to look behind him, 
and turning he saw the head of his horse thrust through the open- 
ing of the carriage house, wonderingly looking from side to side at 
the worshippers. " Ah, Fanny, so you are responsible for this 
disorder ! " And sending one of the men to put away the source 
of distraction, the services continued in a becoming manner. A 
more suitable structure was afterward built. 



IN NEW JERSEY 135 



Church of St. Mary Magdalene of Pazzi, Flemington. 

Father Jego built a little church for the Catholics in Flem- 
ington under the patronage of St. Mary Magdalene of Pazzi. In 
1858 Bishop Bayley administered the sacrament of confirmation 
to six candidates, of whom one was Dean Mulligan, and another 
Sheriff Corcoran. In 1859 the Rev. Claude Rolland, a native of 
Brittany, France, who had been exercising the ministry in the isl- 
and of St. Martin, West Indies, was placed in charge of these 
missions, and remained until June, 1864, when he returned to 
France. He was succeeded bv the Rev. Patrick Leonard. 



Church of the Immaculate Conception, Somerville. 

Father Farmer in his visitation is known to have stopped in 
Somerville, but there are only the faintest traces of those to whom 
he brought the joy of his presence. We find, however. Father 
Timothy Maguire, the pastor of South Amboy, making a station 
there in 1841, which was attended regularly from 1842-46 by the 
Rev. Hugh McGuire, the incumbent of New Brunswick. Wlien 
a pastor was sent to Raritan the flock was attended by him, and 
by the pastor of Plainfield, until 1882, when Bishop O'Farrell ap- 
pointed the Rev. Martin A. V. d. Bogaard resident pastor. He 
bought a site in the most beautiful part of the town and erected a 
fine Gothic church, 50 by 100 feet, and a rectory. Besides, he 
secured six acres of land for a cemetery. Father Bogaard con- 
templates the erection of a school in the near future. 



St. Mary's Church, Newark. 

The beginning of St. Mary's parish dates back to the year 
1838, when the Rev. John Stephen Raffeiner (born 1785 in Tirol, 
ordained 1825, died 1861 as Vicar-General of Brooklyn), of St. 
Nicholas' Church on Second Street, New York, or his assistant, 
the Rev. Father Nicolaus Balleis, O.S.B. (born 1808 in Salzburg, 
ordained 1831, died December 13th, 1891, in Brooklyn, after 
having celebrated the sixtieth anniversary of his ordination), came 
to Newark twice a month and held services for the German Catho- 
lics in St. John's Church on Mulberry Street. When about sixty 



136 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



families had been (gathered Father Balleis decided to stay in New- 
ark, and began to erect a frame church, 50 by 30 feet, with a 
school and rectory in the basement. This church was dedicated 
to the "Immaculate Conception" in the fall of 1842 by Bishop 
John Hughes, of New York, but services in it had been held as 
early as January 31st, 1842. This first church was situated on the 
corner of Grand (now Court) and Howard streets. The])roperty 
where the church now stands was bought in 1846, and the old 




ST. ilARV S CHCRCH, NEWARK, X. J. 



frame church moved to High Street, services being continued 
during the three weeks it took to move the building. Soon after 
Father Balleis obtained from St. Vincent's Abbey, Pa., an assistant 
in the person of Father Charles Geyerstanger, O.S.B. (born in 
Salzburg, 1820, ordained March i8th, 1847, died in St. Vincent's, 
Pa., April 22d, 1881). 

In 1843 the first German Catholic parochial school was opened 
with forty children. 

September 4th, 1854, the old church was sacked and plundered 
by a mob of Orangemen. Father Geyerstanger succeeded in sav- 



IN NEW JERSEY [37 

ing the Blessed ■ Sacrament, thereby exposing his Hfe to danger. 
As a monument of this sacrilegious Know-nothing outbreak a 
statue of the Blessed Virgin that had been disfigured by the mob 
is still kept under glass in the church near the side altar on the 
gospel side. 

In 1855 Father Balleis resigned the parish into the hands of 
Bishop Bayley and made a trip to the old country. For a short 
time the church services were continued by a German secular 
priest, the Rev. Father Hasslinger. 

In 1856 Bishop Bayley gave the parish into the hands of 
the Benedictines in the person of the Superior, afterward Arch- 
abbot, Boniface Wimmer, O.S.B., of St. Vincent's, Pa., who ap- 
pointed as pastor the Rev. Valentine Felder, O.S.B. (born 1830), 
who arrived in August of the same year, and November ist 
appointed a committee for the purpose of building the present 
church. Messrs. Charles Vellinger, John Radel, Joseph Criqui, 
Hermann Plagge were the members of the committee. Before the 
new building was finished Father Valentine Felder, O.S.B., was 
killed by a horse-car in New York City, May 28th, 1857. Shortly 
before the Rev. Father Eberhard Gahr, O.S.B., had been appoint- 
ed his assistant. The new jDastor, Father Rupert Seidenbusch, 
O.S.B. (born 1830 in Munich, ordained 1853, first Abbot of St. 
John's in Minnesota, 1866, Bishop of Halia, i. p. infid., and Vicar 
Apostolic of North Minnesota, 1875, resigned 1890, died June 3d, 
1895, in Richmond, Va.), finished the church and it was dedicated 
by Bishop Bayley, December 20th, 1857. In the same year 
ground was bought for a cemeter\' in the township of East Orange, 
known as St. Mar)'s Cemetery, in which in i860 the body of Father 
Valentine was buried. The cemetery holds the bodies of the 
following Benedictine Fathers: P. Beda Bergmann, i860; P. 
Casimir Seitz, 1867; P. Isidor Walter, 1867; P. Leonard Mayer, 
1875; P. Wendelin Mayer, 1881 ; P. William Walter, 1882; P. 
Nicolaus Bruch, 1883; P. Benno Hegele, 1885; Rt. Rev. Abbot 
James Zilliox, O.S.B., December 31st, 1890; P. Leo Szczepanski, 
1895. Also more than a dozen Benedictine Sisters have found 
their last resting place in this hallowed spot. 

P. Utho Huber, O.S.B., died 1896, was the next prior and pas- 
tor, by whom the present St. Mary's parochial school was built. 

The next prior was Father Oswald Moosmueller, O.S.B., died 
1901, who had the two side altars of the church erected by 
Brother Cosmas Wolf, O.S.B., of St. Vincent's, Pa. 

Father Oswald having been called to Rome, Father Ro- 



138 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



man Heil, O.S.B., succeeded; bolli of liis assistants died in 1867, 
F. Casimir Seitz, (^.S.B,, July 23d, 1'. Jsidor Walter, O.S.B, Oc- 
tober 23d. 

In 1857 services were held for the (iermans in the eastern part 
of the city, called the " Neck." Father Kberhard Gahr, O.S.B., 
was the first pastor. In 1864 it was attended by P. Bruno Hegele, 
O.S.B. ; in 1866 by Father Bernardine Dolweck, O.S.B. The 
other pastors were P. Lambert Kettner, O.S.B., to 1883; P. 
Theodorius Goth, O.S.B., to 1894. The original title of the 

church, St. Joseph's, was 

changed to St. Benedict's. 
The present pastor since 1894 
is the Rev. Leonard Walter, 
O.S.B., a brother of Fathers 
Isidor and William Walter. 

September nth, 1858, is 
the date of the deed by which 
Bishop Bayley gave to the 
Benedictines the property of 
the church on High Street, 
the church forever to be a par- 
ocJiial as 7cell as a eonveiitnal 
(and since 1883 an Ablxitial) 
churcJi. 

Owing to sickness P. 
Roman Heil went to St. Vin- 
cent's in 1 871, where he died 
May 3d, 1873. His successor 
was P. Leonard Mayer, O.S.B., 
who died May 1 8th, 1 875. He 
was succeeded by P. Bernhard Manser, O.S.B., who departed for 
Europe in September, 1879, leaving the church in charge of 
Father William Walter, O.S.B. After his death June 17th, 
1882, F"ather Gerard Pilz, O.S.B. (born 1834, in Bavaria, or- 
dained 1859, September 20th, 1891, in Mary Help Abbey, North 
Carolina). 

The foundation of St. Benedict's College, 522 High Street, 
dates back to the year 1868. The present building was solemnly 
blessed by Bishop Bayley F'ebruary 2d, 1872. 

There had been a frame house on the site which was occupieu 
by the Sisters of St. Benedict. To make place for the college the 
frame building had to be torn down ; therefore a convent was 




ARCH-ABBOT BONIFACE WIMMER, 
O.S.B., D.D. 



IN NEW JERSEY 139 

built for the Sisters on Shipman Street, next to the school; in 
fact, a continuation of it. This, St. Scholastica's Convent, was 
blessed by Bishop Corrigan in April, 1870. 

Father William Walter, O.S.B., was the first director of St. 
Benedict's College; his successor, 1875-77, ^^'^■'' ^- Alphonse Heil- 
mer, O.S.B. Then came Father Mellitus Fritz, O.S.B., 1891, till 
1882. The next director was Father F'rederick Hoesel, O.S.B., 
up to 1888, who died August ist, 1889. Then came: 1888, P. 
Hugo Paff, O.S.B. ; 1890, P. Leonard Walter, O.S.B. ; 1891, P. 
Cornelius Eckl, O.S.B., November 22, 1894, in Manchester, N. H. ; 
1893, P. Ernest Helmstetter, O.S.B.; 1897, P. George Biln, 
O.S.B., who still continues in office. 

The present rectory and abbey was begun by Prior Gerard Pilz 
in the year 1 882, and its solemn dedication and blessing by Bishop 
Wigger took place April i6th, 1883; Arch-abbot Boniface Wim- 
mer of St. Vincent's (born 1809 in Bavaria, ordained 1831, 
solemn vows 1833, died December 8, 1887). 

December 6th, 1881, P'ather Nicolaus Balleis, O.S.B., cele- 
brated in this church his golden jubilee. 

April 24th, 1884, P'ather Gerard celebrated his silver jubilee. 

From the time of the appointment of P'ather Valentine Felder 
in 1856 to F"ather Gerard's appointment in 1885 the pari.sh of St. 
Mary's ha-d been ruled by men sent there by the Abbot of St. 
Vincent's. 

Tfie time had arrived to raise the Priory to the independ- 
ent position of an Abbey. A request to that effect had been 
granted in Rome by brief dated December 19th, 1884. This 
brief arrived January I4tlfl, 1885. Thereupon an election was 
held February nth, 1885, in St. Vincent's, in which Father 
James Zilliox, O.S.B., a native of Newark, and a child of St. 
Mary's parish, was elected the first Abbot. His blessing and 
installation by Bishop W^igger took place July 22d, 1885, in St. 
Mary's Church. The Abbot is pastor or rector of the church, 
i/^so facto, but usually appoints an acting or \-ice-rector. Father 
Cornelius Eckl, O.S.B., acted in that capacity during the term of 
Abbot Zilliox. His two assistants were Fathers Alexander 
Reger, O.S.B., and Polycarp Scherer, O.S.B. Owing to failing 
health Abbot Zilliox resigned and his resignation was accepted 
by the Holy See in October, 1886. In a new election, Novem- 
ber i6th, 1886, Father Hilary Pfraengle, O.S.B., then director 
of St. Vincent's College, was chosen as the second Abbot. He 
was blessed by Bishop Phelan of Pittsburg in St. Vincent's, 



I40 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

February 17th, 1887. He appointed Father Polycarp Scherer as 
pastor of St. Mary's, and he still performs this office, to the satis- 
faction of his superiors as well as the people. 

Any of the Fathers residing" at St. Mary's may be called upon 
to perform the duties of an assistant ; and while the parish pays 
the salary of but one, it frecjuently has the services of three or 
four. It ought to be mentioned tliat the Benedictine Fathers 
have deserved well of the Newark diocese, as they have in the 
olden days attended missions that have now grown into flourishing 
and wealthy parishes. They have lent willing assistance always 
to the secular clergy, whenever and as far as it was possible for 
them to do so. 

April 6th, 1880, Bishop Corrigan of New York, in presence of 
Cardinal John McCloskey, celebrated a pontifical high Mass in 
St. Mary's Church in honor of the fourteen hundredth anniversary 
of the birth of our holy Founder St. Benedict (born 840, in Italy). 
Bishop Becker, of Wilmington, deli\'ered an eloquent sermon on 
the occasion. 

Dependent upon St. Mary's Abbey are two parishes in the 
diocese: the one already mentioned, St. Benedict's, of Newark, in 
charge of P. Leonard Walter, O.S.B., and the Sacred Heart 
Church in Elizabeth, in charge of P. Ambrose Huebner, O.S.B. 
The assistant in the former place is P. Henry Becker, O.S.B., 
in the latter P. James CuUinane, O.S.B. (a native of Eliza- 
beth). 

The Fathers of St. Mary's, Newark, also have charge of the 
Sacred Heart Church of Wilmington, Del. (founded by P. Wen- 
delin Mayer, O.S.B.), P. Hugo Paff being the present pastor 
with P. Meinrad Hettinger for assistant ; and of St. Raphael's 
Church in Manchester, N. H. (founded by P. Sylvester Joerg, 
O.S.B.). 

The greatest undertaking by St. Mary's Abbey was the 
foundation of St. Anselm's College in Manchester, N. H. P. 
Hugo Paff supervised the building and w^as the first director 
from 1893 to 1896. Fathers Sylvester and Florian followed as 
directors. For the last three years Abbot Hilary Pfraengle re- 
sides there and is acting director. There is a regular coiu-se of 
philosophy and theology for the younger members of the order 
at the college, and more than twenty priests have already finished 
their studies at St. Anselm's. 

August 17th, 1890, St. Mary's Church, after having been 
thoroughly renovated, was solemnly consecrated by Bishop Wig- 



IN NEW JERSEY 



141 



gei", and the Sunday within the Octave of the Assumption of the 
Blessed Virgin was fixed as the day of the yearly commemoration 
of this event. 



St. Mary's Church, Elizabeth, 

In the very dawn of the settlement of Elizabethtown is found 
Catholicity in the several Alsatian families — a weakly exotic, 
which struggled awhile for 
existence, weakened, and to- 
tally perished. The French 
Revolution d rove hither 
many noble and distinguished 
exiles, among whom are found 
the names of Lady Anne 
Renee Defoerger de Mau- 
perrins, widow of the Baron 
of Clugny, Governor of Gua- 
deloupe, Marie de Rouselat 
Campbell, the De Clots (who 
entertained Jerome Bona- 
parte and his wife, ncc Patter- 
son), the De Touchimberts, 
De Maroles, Malherbes, Ca- 
hierres, Libertons, Du Bucs, 
Godets, Triyons, Cuyers, Du- 
fors, Mosquerons, as well as 
Terrier de Laistre and Al- 
monde Tugonne. The most 
prominent, without doubt, 
was Joseph Louis, Count 
d'Anterroches, born at the 
chateau of Puy Darnac near 
Tulle, Limousin, France, 

about August 25th, 1753. As the second son, in accordance with 
the custom of his coimtry and his day, he was destined for the 
church, and was educated in the palace of his uncle, Alexander 
Caesar d'Anterroches, bishop of Comdom. But as his elder 
brother died in exile at the outbreak of the revolution, and pre- 
ferring a militar)' career to that of the sanctuar\', he ran awa}- and 
accepted a commission in the English army. Captured by the 
Continentals at Saratoga, he wrote to his kinsman, Lafayette, and, 




.MAKV S ( HLRCll. KLIZADETII. 



142, 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



on parole, he enjoyed full liberty within the American lines 
throughout the war. He wedded, in 1780, Mary, daughter of Capt. 
David Vanderpool, of Chatham Bridge, N. J., but left no descend- 
ants. It was said of him that "he was a consummate tactician, 
possessing the art of imparting his knowledge to others and gain- 
ing their confidence and affection." Many of these families were 
Catholics, and enjoyed the ministrations of the Rev. John S. Tis- 
sorant in 1805-06; but most of them joined the Episcopal com- 
munion, so that to-day there remain but few fragments of the old 

Catholic stock. Good Father 
Howell during his life wrote 
the history of the faith as he 
found it, and it is herewith 
appended. 

The Rev. Isaac P. Howell, 
born in Philadelphia, of a 
Quaker father and an Irish 
mother, educated partly in 
St. Charles' College, Phila- 
delphia, and partly in St. 
John's, Fordham, was or- 
dained priest b}' Bishop 
Hughes, March 2d, 1843. 
Appointed to the pastorate 
of Elizabeth shortly after his 
ordination, he organized the 
pari.sh, built its church, pas- 
toral residence and school, 
and died after twenty-two 
years of zealous and apostolic labor, August 31st, 1866, univer- 
sally loved and mourned. 

Although the borough of Elizabeth is the oldest settlement in 
New Jersey, still the Catholic Church cannot boast of having 
made any progress within her borders until of late years. The 
Catholic missionary in search of the scattered sheep of the fold 
would pass her by, unable to discover within her limits the object 
of his search. In the year 1829 three Catholics were known to 
reside in this town, who, when their religious principles were dis- 
covered, were obliged to leave, as no employment would be given 
them. The first influx of Catholicity was caused by the construc- 
tion of the New Jersey Railroad in the year 1833; and by this 
means the inhabitants, instead of being disabused of their preju- 




REV. ISAAC p. HOWELL. 
Founder of St. Mary's, Elizabeth. 



IN NEW JERSEY 143 

dices, became scandalized at tlie inebriety and other vices and ex- 
cesses of the laborers who professed themselves to be Catholics, 
and thus their antipathy to religion increased. The construction 
of this work aroused the dormant energies of the neighborhood. 
An impetus was given to agricultural, manufacturing, commercial 
pursuits. Laborers were in demand. Necessity and interest 
overcame proscriptive intolerance. The proscribed race was re- 
ceived into emplo}', in the hope that it would be enlightened. 
Those who were weak enough to deny their faith were indulged in 
their excesses, and evidences that they did are unfortunately in 
numerous cases permanently existing ; but those whose sense of 
rectitude withstood the tempting offer endured as long as neces- 
sity or interest compelled them the taunts of their persecutors, 
and then left their places to those whose indigence compelled them 
to accept any situation offered. During the time of the construc- 
tion of the New Jersey Railroad, and also of the Central Railroad, 
the sick calls were attended to by the Rev. P. Moran, then the 
only priest in Newark. In the year 1842 Rev. Yldephonsus Me- 
drano, then stationed at Staten Island, visited the few scattered 
Catholics in this neighborhood. He celebrated for them occasion- 
ally the rites of religion ; but unfortunately the only place he could 
procure for the purpose was a low tavern on the outskirts of the 
town, and his visitations were attended by the most unfavorable 
circumstances, not only to his own personal interest, but also to 
the most vital interests of religion. A few wept over the degraded 
condition to which religion w^as reduced, their most strenuous 
efforts to elevate it having proved ineffectual. In the fall of 1843 
several of the most zealous visited the Bishop of New York, the 
late lamented Archbishop Hughes; he encouraged them by prom- 
ising them that he would send them a priest in the spring. In 
the spring of 1844 he ordained and sent them as pastor, Rev. 
Isaac P. Howell, with instructions to visit that section of the 
country, and report on the possibility of establishing a mission at 
Elizabethtovvn, and another at Rahway. After considerable dillfi- 
culty a small room, in a house near the town, was procured in 
which to celebrate Mass. On Palm Sunday, 1844, a congregation 
of twenty -five assembled to greet their pastor and assist at the 
sacred rites of religion. 

Ji In 1832 the Protestant, the notoriously infamous anti-Catholic 
sheet, conducted by a cabal of Presbyterian and Dutch Reformed 
ministers, honored the little congregation in Elizabeth with the 
following notice : 



144 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



" Progress of Popery. 

" ycrscy, Elizabcthtoivn. — On the 13th of September, one hun- 
dred and three persons were coiifiruicd in their idolatry ; and the 
Mass house is about to be very much enlari^ed." 

During the year 1844 there was somewhat of an increase in 
the congregation, and a collection was commenced in the fall to 
purchase a lot on which to build a church. In April, 1845, the 
basement wall of St. Mary's of the Assumption was laid, and by 
the first Sunday of the next Advent a substantial brick church, 
fifty feet scjuare, was suf^ciently completed to accommodate the 
congregation, which by this time had increased to about one hun- 
dred. The funds for the purchase of the lot were contributed by 
the congregation, but those for the construction of the building 
were the charitable offerings of the faithful in New York, and of 
the different congregations in East New Jersey, and particularly 
from the laborers on the Morris Canal, solicited by the untiring 
exertions of the pastor. No sooner was the sign of our salvation 
erected on the new edifice than in a few years the church became 
too small. In the year 1847 the German portion of the congrega- 
tion erected an edifice for themselves, and in a short time were 
blessed by a pastor of their own. In the year 1851 a substantial 
brick school-house, two stories high, was erected alongside of St. 
Mary's Church. 

At the outbreak of fanaticism, stirred up by the native Ameri- 
cans and Know-nothings, St. Mary's did not escape attention. 
The infuriated rabble marched toward the church with the a\'owed 
intention of sacking and destroying it. With the open Bible — the 
book of all books which embalms sentiments of peace and good- 
will toward all, and the stifling of human passion — at the head of 
the procession, these sons of savage hate and crass ignorance 
wended their way to the modest edifice which stood for the faith 
and for the sacrifices of the Irish Catholic. Father Howell well 
knew what it would mean, if in some way he could not induce the 
men of the congregation to absent themselves from the scene of 
impending conflict. He succeeded. Then to the women he en- 
trusted the task of defending the church. With their babes in 
their arms, they grouped themselves, these worthy daughters of 
martyred sires, in front of the main door, and awaited the oncom- 
ing hostile mob. In the forefront, nerving the rest to courage by 



IN NEW JERSEY 



145 




'Come, Mary, stand aside with your child !" shouted the leader. 



146 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

her bravery, stood the wife of Captam Whelan. In her arms her 
infant son, who, grown to manhood, was destined to meet and 
overcome more subtle and more powerful foes of the Master, faced 
the leader, who was well known to her. " Come, Mary, stand 
aside with your child ! " shouted the leader. " No, Sam, I will 
not. You cannot enter this door, but over the dead body of my 
child and myself!" she quietly rej^lied. Daunted by this manifes- 
tation of courage, and not entirely devoid of the chivalrous spirit 
which at times his forefathers were wont to manifest, he hesitated 
for a moment. Then, turning to his fellows, he told them to go 
home, and, with a terrible oath, swore he would brain the first 
man who would lay a finger on woman or child. Father Howell's 
strategy was successful, and the church was saved. 

In the year 1858 collections were made for the enlargement 
and remodelling of the church, and the erection of a pastoral resi- 
dence in the rear. The spring of 1862 saw the work completed, 
and a beautiful church, 133 by 66 feet, and a spacious rectory 
evince the zeal and charity of the congregation. Meanwhile, the 
eastern portion of the city was not idle. The Catholics at the 
Port determined to have their own church ; and soon, under the 
untiring efforts of their pastor, the Rev. M. M. Wirzfeld, and the 
liberality of the flock, a commodious church, school, and pastoral 
residence arose as if by magic. In 1844 the entire population of 
Elizabeth was about five thousand, the Catholics about twenty- 
five in number; and in the year 1866 the city's population was 
about fifteen thousand, and the Catholics numbered about four 
thousand. Then within its corporate limits there were two 
churches and schools. Now there are eight churches with schools 
attached, and the fine hospital of the Xavierian Brothers. 

The faithful servant of God and his people, Father Howell, 
after twenty-two years of zealous, fruitful labor, passed away to 
the blessed vision of God, universally loved and regretted, August 
31st, 1866. 

The Rev. Michael E. Kane, a native of Newark, and ordained 
June 24th, 1865, succeeded Father Howell, and labored in this 
field with lofty motive but somewhat indiscreet zeal for five 
years. In January, 1872, the Rev. Leo Thebaud, a native of New 
York Cit)', educated at Seton Hall and the Collegio Brignole-Sale, 
Italy, and ordained June 13th, 1867, vv-as promoted to the pastor- 
ate. He had been an assistant in St. John's, Paterson, for some 
years, and by his zeal and piety endeared himself to both pastor 
and flock. Despite a chronic malady which left him no ease from 



IN NEW JERSEY 



147 



pain night or day, and which his unbroken cheertuhiess never be- 
trayed, he labored with this flock with much fruit, until he was at 
length forced to resign, and died in the home of his sister, Madi- 
son, N. J., May loth, 1893. 

In 1888 the Rev. James H. Corrigan, born in Newark, June 
29th, 1844, a brother of Archbishop Corrigan, making his prepar- 
atory studies in Wilmington, Del., and St. Francis Xavier's, New 
York, graduated from Mount St. Mary's, studying theology in the 
American College, Rome, and at Seton Hall, and ordained at Se- 
ton Hall, October 20th, 1867, succeeded Father Thebaud. The 
circumstances of the retire- 
ment of the one and the pro- 
motion of the other were 
alike. Father "James," as 
he was lovingly called by the 
seminarists and students, hav- 
ing taught in Seton Hall, and 
tilled successively and with 
credit the ofifices of director 
of the seminary, vice-presi- 
dent and president of the col- 
lege, was compelled to resign 
on the plea of ill health, and 
to seek in the active ministry 
relief from the worriment and 
anxiety of his late duties. 
But his disease was firmly 
rooted in his system and 
baffled the skill of his phys- 
icians; and after two years in St. Mary's he died of heart dis- 
ease, November 27th, 1891. His assistant, the Rev. Eugene 
C. Carroll, who had been the "staff and support" of himself and 
his predecessor, carried out the wishes of Father Thebaud, 
and with the moneys generously given by him for that pin-pose, 
erected the splendid building for the young men — St. Mary's 
Lyceum. The Rev. Francis O'Neill, born in New Brunswick, 
Canada, November 27th, 1842, educated by the Sulpicians in 
Montreal, and ordained in St. John's, New Brunswick, February 
1 6th, 1869, was the next pastor, and is the present incumbent. 
Father O'Neill labored successively as assistant in St. Peter's, 
Jersey City, and after as pastor of Hampton Junction, where he 
rebuilt St. Ann's Church, and built churches at Bethlehem, High 




ORESTES A. BROWNSON, LL.D. 



148 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Bridge, and Clinton. He was promoted to Guttenbergand Shady- 
side in June, 1880. As not much had been left undone by his 
predecessors, Father O'Neill is fulfilling his task by perfecting 
their work. He has beautified the church, and has lately added 
another church to meet the wants of the Catholics in the growing 
northern part of the city. 

From its earliest days Elizabeth has attracted to its borders 
men of education and refinement. For a long time it was the 
home of Orestes iVugustus Brownson, LL.D., the ardent convert, 
unswerving champion of the faith, and docile child of the Church. 
Born in the Puritan atmosphere of a New England home, in Stock- 
bridge, Vt., September i6th, 1803, of humble parentage, devoid of 
the opportunities of education, by deep and earnest study he de- 
veloped that masterly germ which nature had gix'en him, and be- 
came one of the greatest lights of the nineteenth century. He 
has been deservedly ranked among the bouquet of chivalrous and 
illustrious knights, whose lance was ever ready for the defence of 
religion and justice and right, when faith needed champions more 
than at any other period in the world's history. His name deserves 
to be linked with that of Gorres, O'Connell, De Gerlache, Rossi, 
Lamoriciere, Montalembert, Veuillot, Dechamps, Marshall, Ward, 
Garcia Moreno, Mallinkrodt, and Windhorst, whom to name is to 
praise, and theirs is the roll-call of that illustrious band, mainly 
laymen, who did more, perhaps, for the uplifting of religion than 
the priests and bishops of their age. His religious experience 
had passed through the gamut of human vagaries, from the op- 
pressive gloom of Presbyterianisni to unbelief, and, at last, into 
the full light and peace of truth. At nineteen years of age he 
wrote of himself : "' I have done my best to find the truth, to 
experience religion, and to lead a religious life, yet here I am with- 
out faith, without hope, without love. . . . My life is a stream that 
flows out of darkness into darkness. ... In attempting to follow 
the light of reason alone have I not lost faith, and plunged myself 
into spiritual darkness ? " To the astonishment and disgust of the 
pseudo-intellectual world he surrendered to the convincing argu- 
ments of the Catholic Church, and he was baptized into its com- 
munion, October 20th, 1 844. Ever after his towering genius was 
at rest, and his powerful pen was tireless in the defence of the one 
Catholic and Apostolic Church. But with this step, in a measure, 
he lost caste, and was taboo with the prot?eans of the then prevail- 
ing philosophic school. Not so, however, was he regarded by the 
solidly learned. A distinguished scholar and professor in Harvard 



IN NEW JERSEY 



149 



University was travcUini;' in Eni;iaiul, antl went to see Lord 
Brougham. After conversation on \arious subjects, Lord Brough- 
am said, "And what have you to tell me of Orestes A. Brown- 
son?" This cjuestion took the professor somewhat by surprise; 
for, like others of the Boston aristocracy, he had been accustomed 
to look down on Brownson as a \'ulgar locofoco. "Why," said he, 
" I have not much to say of him in Boston. Indeed, I am not 
acquainted with him." "Then," replied Lord Brougham, " I ad- 
vise you to become acquainted with him in Boston as soon as you 
get home. Let me tell you, sir, he is one of the first thinkers and 
writers, not merely of America, 
but of the present age." The 
learned professor went away, 
it is said, somewhat abashed. 
Dr. Brownson died in Detroit, 
Mich., April 17th, 1876. 

Of quite a different stamp, 
but no less distinguished, sin- 
cere, and de\-oted, was another 
champion of truth, and the 
chronicler of the early mission- 
aries, John Gilmary Shea. 
Born in New York July 22d, 
1824, on his father's side of 
good Celtic stock, and on his 
mother's of one Nicholas 
Upsall, who came to America 
in 1620 with Governor Win- 
throp, Gilmary Shea united 

what was best of both races, and reflected in his life the virtues 
of both ancestries. He at an early age entered Columbia College, 
but was not graduated. He preferred a business career, and took 
a position in the office of a Spanish shipping merchant. Provi- 
dence seemed to shape the circumstances of his early life to 
prepare him for the role he was to fill in his ripened manhood. 
He acquired a thorough familiarity with the Spanish language, 
which in the prosecution of his historical studies was of immense 
advantage. His first literary effort, written when he was only 
fourteen years of age, merited the encomium of Bishop Hughes, 
and encouraged the youth to continue in this line of work. An- 
other step, which although it failed of his aim, but was of great 
service in his future career, was his novitiate during six years 




JOHN GILMARY SHEA, LL.D. 
Historian. Died at Elizabeth, N. J. 



I50 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

with the Jesuits. He was to be the eulogist of Brebeuf, Lalle- 
ment, Bressani, and the martyred Jogues ; so it was fit, indeed, 
that he acquire the spirit and be imbued with that unction which 
have distinguished the sons of Loyola since their institution. 

No field of history in this land that does not bear the trace of his 
footstep. Nothing has he touched that he has not adorned. But 
his, too, has been the experience of others, that the labor of the 
historian may win fame, but fortune is golden in other fields. His 
works are a complete library of Catholic effort in America, and 
should be read and treasured by every intelligent Catholic. His 
private life was that of a true Christian, serene, calm, content in 
success, resigned in sickness, and to his spiritual superiors docile 
as a child. As in life he had always striven to serve God, so in 
death he feared not to meet him. He passed to his reward Feb- 
ruary 22d, 1892. Of John Gilmary Shea it has been said: He 
lived well, he wrought well, and he died well. 

St. Mary's Church, Hoboken. 

The early history of this congregation has been so thoroughly 
written by the Rev. Anthony Cauvin, that it has been considered 
advisable to reproduce it, even with its archaic and quaint expres- 
sions, as it so faithfully portrays every scene in the advancement 
of the faith in Hoboken and near by. As one reads this precious 
gleaning from the past, the heart is filled with regret that others 
of his compeers had not done likewise. Then we, of a distant day, 
would not be forced to grope and halt amid a mass of conflicting 
and contradictory traditions and memories. 

Before the year 1836 the Catholics of Hudson and Bergen 
counties, from Bergen Point to Fort Lee, had no church. They 
were visited occasionally when sick by a priest of St. Patrick's 
Cathedral in New York. 

In 1836 St. Peter's Church was built in Jersey City, and its 
pastor had charge of them. In 1841 Rev. Hugh Mohan, pastor of 
this church, read Mass in Hoboken once a month for nine months. 
In 1842 Rev. Walter J. Quarter, his successor, also read Mass in 
Hoboken in the month of September on the occasion of a jubilee. 
It was then that he appointed Mr. James Tallon to collect every 
month contributions from the people of Hoboken to pay the debts 
of St. Peter's Church of Jersey City, which he did for fifteen 
months. 

On January 25th, 1844, Rev. Walter Quarter called the Catho- 



IN NFAV JKF^SEY 



I ':i 



lies of Hoboken toa meeting; in the house of Mr. Patrick McKeon, 
and explained to them the advantages of having" a church in 
Hoboken, wherein the divine mysteries might be celebrated, and 
the rising generations instructed in their religious and moral 
duties. And it was resolved that the Catholics of Hoboken 
would unite their endeavors to build a church to be called St. 
Mary's; that every month they would give a subscription for that 
purpose. Collectors were appointed to receive these monthl\- sul)- 
scriptions. Mr. James Tallon 
was made treasurer and Mr. 
Cornelius Donavan secretary. 
The amount collected from 
that day until April, 1845, 
was $148.24. 

On the 6th of December, 
in 1844, Rev. John Rogers, 
who lived in Jersey City, 
came to Hoboken for the 
purpose of buikling the 
church, and read Mass every 
Sunday in the Phenix Hotel, 
corner of \Vashington and 
P'irst streets, kept by a Cath- 
olic woman named Mrs. 
Sweeny. Not being success- 
ful, he left Hoboken on the 
I St of April in 1845, having 
remained only four months. 

In the month of May, 

1848, Rev. John Kell)', who 
had succeeded in October, 

1844, to Rev. Walter Quarter in St. Peter's Church of Jersey 
City, came to read Mass on Sundays once a month in Hobo- 
ken until October of the same year — that is, for five months. 
He exhorted the Catholics of Hoboken to subscribe again their 
monthly contributions, which had been stopped in April, 1845; 
which being done, their contributions from June, 1848, until April, 

1849, amounted to $276.08, which after adding the $148.24 col- 
lected before amounted to $424.32. After paying $55.78 for rent, 
vestments, books, etc., the remainder, $368.54, was placed by Mr. 
Tallon in Chambers Street Savings Bank of New York to the 
credit of the church to he built in Hoboken. 




REV. AXTHONV CAUVIN, 

Born August 23, 1810 ; died May 26, 1902. 

Pounder of Our Lady of Grace, Hoboken. 



152 thf: catholic church 

F"rom October, 1848, until November, 1851, no Mass was read 
in Hoboken. In July, 185 1, Rev. A. Cauvin, of Nice, in France, 
was appointed by the Most Rev. J. Hughes, Archbishop of New 
York, to take charge of the Mission of Hoboken from Five 
Corners, Hudson City, to Fort Lee; and was directed by him to 
build a church in West Hoboken first, because it was the most 
central part of the mission. 

A Sunday-school was immediately established in the public 
school-house of Hoboken, Mr. James Davis, Jr., teaching the boys 
the catechism until the spring of 1852, when he was succeeded by 
Mr. James Tallon. Miss Catherine McKeon and Miss Rosanna 
Davis took charge of the girls. Lhese good persons continued to 
teach the catechism to the children of Hoboken every Sunday 
until St. Mary's Church was opened in Hoboken in July, 1855. 

Church of West Hoboken. 

Mr. James Kerrigan, who resided in West Hoboken, gave to 
Archbishop Hughes a plot of ground containing about six lots, 
whereon the church was built during the time between the months 
of August and November in 1851. The church, vcstr)', and fence 
around the ground cost $3,829. The people of West Hoboken 
and vicinity contributed $424 — of Hoboken, $114, and Rev. A. 
Cauvin collected in New York $1,824.75, thus making a total of 
$2,362.75. 

On the 23d of November, 1851, the church was blessed and 
dedicated by Archbishop Hughes to Our Lady of Mercy, on ac- 
count of an oil copy of Our Lady of Mercy of Rimini sent by His 
Eminence, Cardinal L. Brignole, from Rome to Rev. A. Cauvin 
for the new church. This painting was given to the Cardinal to 
be sent to some foreign mission by Mr. Nicholas Paci-Ippoliti, of 
Rimini, who afterward by his letter of the 23d of August, 1853, to 
Rev. A. Cauvin, acknowledged his indebtedness to Our Lady of 
Mercy and to the prayers of the congregation of West Hoboken 
for his miraculous escape from imminent death in an explosion of 
powder. 

In 1852 the sacrament of Confirmation was administered in the 
church to one hundred and twenty-six persons, half of them being 
adults or aged persons, by Archbishop Walsh of Halifax, Arch- 
bishop Hughes preaching at the High Mass. 

In 1854 a house was built for the sexton in the rear of the 
church at a cost of $328. 



IN NEW JERSEY 15;; 

On the 3d of September, 1854, Confirmation was again admin- 
istered in the church to one hundred and thirteen persons by Rt. 
Rev. James Bayley, first Bishop of Newark and the State of New 
Jersey. On these two occasions Confirmation was administered to 
the people of both Hoboken and West Hoboken. The two places 
formed at that time but one parish. 

On the 9th of September, i860, the Stations of the Cross were 
established in the church, and it was decorated with fifteen large 
oil paintings. These were presented to the church by its pastor. 
Rev. A. Cauvin, and were on that day solemnly inaugurated with 
a sermon by Dr. Neligan, of New York. Toward the close of 
September, i860, a mission was given in the church by Fathers 
Gaudentius and Anthony, Passionists from Pittsburg, and the 
result was a great spiritual benefit to the congregation. It was 
then agreed with Bishop Bayley that the Passionist Fathers would 
take charge of the mission of West Hoboken, and that they 
should always have with them a German Father for the benefit of 
the Germans of the locality. 

In November, i860, in expectation of the Passionist Fathers, 
Rev. A. Cauvin repaired the church and house, having them 
painted inside and out. He established a choir by opening a sing- 
ing school for the young persons of the congregation, and had 
them instructed for six months by a singing teacher. Thus when 
the Passionist Fathers came, they found the church painted and 
repaired, decorated with oil paintings and Stations of the Cross, 
and a choir, accompanied by a melodeon, to sing Mass and 
Vespers. 

Mass had been sung in the church of West Hoboken from its 
opening on the 23d of November, 1851, until the opening of the 
church of Hoboken in July, 1855, on Sundays and on the principal 
solemnities until Christmas, i860. It was also sung every Sunday 
from Christmas, i860, until the arrival of the Passionist Fathers 
in April, 1861. Vespers were also sung during the Lent of 1861, 
and the Stations of the Cross performed every Sunday. 

On the 2 1 St of April, 1861, the Passionist Fathers took formal 
possession of the church and mission, and were on that day sol- 
emnly installed by Rev. A. Cauvin, who had bui.lt the church and 
attended to it for the space of ten years. It was Father Dominic, 
Provincial, accompanied by Father Vincent and Brother Law- 
rence, who took possession of the church. It was agreed in the 
sermon of installation delivered in the church on that day between 
the Passionist Fathers and the people represented by Rev. A. 



154 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Cauvin, that the Hmits of the new mission would be the hill of tht 
Palisades. Those who lived on the hill were to be under the juris- 
diction of the church of West Hoboken, whereas the natural limits 
of the jurisdiction of the church of Hoboken extended to all those 
who lived at the base of the hill as far as Mr. King's Point or the 
coal-yard. 

In 185 1 and 1852 Rev. A. Cauvin established the stations of 
English Neighborhood, Bull's Ferry, and Fort Lee. These he 
visited alternately every Sunday to read Mass, hear confessions, 
and teach the catechism to the children. In English Neighbor- 
hood he read Mass in the house of Mr. Monahan, a venerable old 
Irishman. The population of Bull's Ferry consisted in part of 
two hundred or moremen who were working in the quarry. It 
was from this place that the Russ pavement used in Broadway, 
New York, was taken. As there were many children in the place. 
Rev. A. Cauvin sent a teacher from Hoboken to give instruction 
in the catechism. More than half an acre of ground on the road 
between Bull's Ferry and English Neighborhood was given by Mr. 
Arthur Green, a resident of the latter place, to Bishop Bayley for 
the purpose of building on the spot a Catholic church. 

In Fort Lee neighborhood Mass was first read by Rev. A. 
Cauvin at the home of Mr. Conway of Pleasant Valle}', or as it 
was sometimes called, Tillietudlum. Later on it was read at the 
Kenny house, now Dr. Anderson's. Rev. A. Cauvin was accus- 
tomed to go there on Saturday evening to teach the children the 
catechism ; then on Sunday morning he would hear confessions, 
preach, say Mass, baptize children, and then return to West Ho- 
boken to say Mass and preach. Rev. A. Cauvin often read Mass 
on week-days at Mr. Burns' house near the Palisades at Fort Lee, 
his only travelling accommodation being a boat. At this place he 
found young persons of seventeen and eighteen )ears of age who 
had never seen a priest, and who were perfectly ignorant of 
religion, knowing only the few prayers taught them by their par- 
ents. 

From 1852 until 1859 first Communion was given twice in both 
Fort Lee and Bull's Ferry, and these children were confirmed in 
Hoboken and West Hoboken. A chalice, two vestments, and a 
missal were presented to Fort Lee by Rev. A. Cauvin. 

In 1853 he bought four lots of ground on upper Fort Lee for 
a church ; but these were afterward sold for the benefit of the 
Church of the Madonna, built by Dr. Anderson on the ground he 
gave for that purpose to Bishop Bayley. Rev. A. Cauvin attended 



IN NEW JKRSEY 155 

Fort Lee regularly every fortnight in snnnner and c\cry month 
in winter until January, 1859, when it was made a new mission 
and given to the charge of Rev. Francis Anelli, assistant priest 
to Rev. Cauvin. This mission included Fort Lee, Hackensack, 
and Lodi, which last place was also attended by Rev. Cauvin from 
August, 1858, until January, 1859. 



Church of Hoboken. 

After having built the Church of Our Lady of Mercy in 
West Hoboken, Rev. A. Cauvin came to reside in Hoboken, the 
principal place of his mission. Here he read Mass on week-days 
and heard confessions in a private chapel in his own apartments 
in the house on Southeast Washington Terrace, corner of Newark 
Street. Here he remained until May, 1855, or until the time the 
church and house on Willow Street were finished. 

On the 28th of May, 1852, he applied to the Hoboken Land 
and Improvement Company for a plot of ground whereon to build 
a Catholic church. As a result the company ga\'e him on the 3d 
of August, in consideration of $1, a quit-claim deed to a plot of 
ground in the Church Square, commencing 265 feet from Garden 
Street, and running 75 feet along Fourth Street, and being 100 
feet deep in the square. The deed was made in the name of 
Archbishop Hughes, of New York, and his successors. This 
deed was duly filed in the clerk's office of Hudson County on the 
sixth day of September in the year 1852, in Liber 25 of Deeds, 
pages 373, 374- 

But after asking the legal advice of Mr. Wright, of Fi\'e 
Corners, and Mr. James Grover, of New York, and examining in 
Hackensack the original maps of Hoboken, filed in 1804 in the 
clerk's office of Bergen County, where Church Square is marked 
only Square, he came to the conclusion that Square, which was 
improperly called Church Square in a map of Hoboken, published 
by the Hoboken Company in 1851, was a public square, and there- 
fore the company had no right to give or sell any portion of that 
ground, and the Catholics had no right to build a church on it. 
The Methodists, who obtained from the same company ground on 
the square, had built their church there in 1846. The conclusion 
turned out afterward to be true, for in 1864 the city of Hoboken 
sued the Methodists in a bill of ejectment before the Supreme 
Court of Hudson County, and the Methodists were condemned by 



156 THK CATHOLIC CHURCH 

a decision of tlic jury on the i8th of October, 1865, declaring" that 
square a pubhc and an ornamental square. 

The Dutch Reformed, who had already built the foundation of 
their church on the northeastern corner of that square, hearing 
that the Catholics would not venture to build their church, 
stopped the work and purchased ground in Hudson Street, be- 
tween Fifth and Sixth streets; and shortly afterward Rev. A. 
Cauvin bought from them the window frames they had already 
prepared and placed them in his church. 

On the 14th of May, 1853, Rev. Cauvin wrote to the company, 
enclosing a copy of the legal advice, and even sent to Mr. Edwin 
Stevens a deputation of the principal Catholics of Hoboken ; but 
he refused to give other ground, saying that that scjuare was dedi- 
cated by his father, John Stevens, for church purposes. 

On the 5th of November, 1852, Rev. A. Cauvin called the 
Catholics of Hoboken to a meeting in the public-school house, 
situated on Church Square, for the purpose of devising means 
of building a church in Hoboken. Peter Meehan was called to the 
chair, and John Kerrigan elected secretary. Rev. Dr. Cummings, 
pastor of St. Stephen's Church, New York, was present and ad- 
dressed the meeting. They subscribed $745 for the erection of 
the church. On the 6th of December, 1852, they had a second 
meeting, Mr. Francis Bolting in the chair. They subscribed $203, 
and appointed collectors for each ward. 

On the loth of June, 1854, Rev. Cauvin bought from the Ho- 
boken Land Improvement Company three lots of ground on Wil- 
low Street, fronting" the public square, corner of Fifth Street, 
running 75 feet on Willow Street and 95 on Fifth Street, for the 
sum of $2,600; that is, $1,000 for the corner lot and $800 for each 
of the other two lots. Of this sum $250 was paid on account. 
The deed of these three lots was made on the 28th of November, 
1856, in the name of Rt. Rev. James R. Bayley, Bishop of New- 
ark; and was filed on the 6th of March, 1857, in the clerk's office 
of Hudson County, and the balance of the whole amount paid to 
the Hoboken Company. 

On the 4th of September, 1854, the corner-stone of the new 
church was laid by Bishop Bavley, of Newark, at 4 p.m., a large 
number of clergymen being present. The labor and temperance 
societies of Jersey City and Hoboken, accompanied by their band, 
marched from Mrs. Martha Cook's house on Hudson Terrace, 
down Hudson Street and Fifth. Their number was about seven 
hundred and fifty. After the ceremony Bishop Bayley preached 



IN NEW JERSEY 157 

to a x'ery large audience, although the weather on that day was 
extremely warm. A collection was afterward taken up. 

From July, 1854, until June, 1855, a low Mass was read every 
Sunday in Hoboken, in the public-school house, on the square, at 
eight o'clock. The men were to pay one shilling" and the women 
six cents. These contributions with the collections amounted at 
the end of that time to ^745.40. 

The amount received for building" the church from January, 
1844, until June, 1855, is as follows: 

Collected in 1S44 and 184S, with its interest, , ^511 70 

Legacy of Michael Kelly 2 12 00 

Subscriptions in Hoboken and other places in 1S52-54, 

with interest i.SiS 84 

Laying of the corner-stone on the 4th of September, 1854. 295 92 

Excursion on the 24th of September, 1S54 141 25 

Collected in New York 1 25 00 

Collection in the temporary chapel from 2d of July, 1S54, 

until 24th June, 1855 741 40 



The expenditures for building the church and the house, altar, 
furnace, furniture, and the $200 paid on account of the organ, 
amounted to $10,142.40. A loan of $5,000 was obtained in the 
year 1855 from Bishop Bay ley. On the 24th of June the church 
was solemnly blessed and dedicated b)^ Bishop Bayley to Our 
Lady of Grace, in presence of a large congregation. The beauti- 
ful painting at the back of the altar is an excellent copy of the 
Madonna of Foligno, painted by Raphael in 1 509, made by order 
of Charles Felix, King of Sardinia, and bequeathed to him by the 
Duke of Genoa, second son of Charles Albert, his successor on 
the throne of Sardinia, and brother of Victor Emmanuel, present 
King of Italy. This painting with its frame was given by the 
Duke to Rev. A. Cauvin, who, in turn, gave it to the church. 

In spring, 1856, the two side altars were added to the church, 
the one to be dedicated to St. Quietus, the other to the Society of 
a Good Death, Bona Mors. Mr. Noguet, of New York, presented 
to the church the painting of the Crucifixion, which is at the altar 
of the Bona Mors. At this time, also, were made the baptismal 
font and the two confessionals. 

On the 1st of June, 1856, there took place the solemn transla- 
tion of the relics of St. Quietus, martyr; the ceremony being per- 
formed by Bishop Bayley. The procession started from the par- 



158 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



sonage, the young Levites carr)ing palms, the priests singing the 
Litany of the Saints, and the Bishop carrying the rehcs in their 
shrine, which, after being incensed on the main altar, were placed 
on the altar destined for them. The Bishop preached an eloquent 
sermon. "He was certainly inspired by the Holy Ghost," said a 
French lady of great learning and piety. It was the first cere- 
mony of this kind that had taken place in America. It attracted 
a great number of people from the surrounding cities. All the 
newspapers throughout the land spoke of it, and Lcs/ii-'s Illustrated 
Maga'j.inc contained in its next number an article accompanied 
with illustrations showing the interior of the church, the shrine, 

the altar of St. Quietus, and 
the likeness of the Bishop. 
The relics of St. Quietus 
were found on the 29th of 
January, 1849, in the C^em- 
etery of Pretextatus in Rome, 
together with the vase con- 
taining his blood, and the 
marble slab on which was 
engraved the following epi- 
taph : Quietus qui vixit anuos 
(juiuque menses duo in paee. 
These relics were given to 
Rev. A. Cauvin by His Holi- 
ness Pope Pius IX., through 
the protection of His Eminence Cardinal Brignole, on the 27th of 
July, 1850, with the faculty of retaining, giving to others, or ex- 
posing to the i)ublic veneration of the faithful in any church, 
chapel, or oi-atory whatever. The decree of donation of these 
relics was signed on the 21st of July, 1850, by Fr. Joseph Cartel- 
lani, Episcopus Prophyriensis Sacrarii Apostolici Prefectus. At 
early Mass on the day of the translation Bishop Bayley admin- 
istered the sacrament of Confirmation to one hundred and one 
persons. 

At the end of September and at the beginning of October, 
1856, the first mission was given at the church by the Paulist 
Fathers of New York, at which time about eight hundred persons 
approached the sacraments. In October of this year Five Cor- 
ners, now Hudson City, was detached from the mission of West 
Hoboken, and a little church was built there by Rev. J. Coyle, of 
Jersey City, who had it in charge. 




FIRST CATHOLIC PUI5LIC SCHOOL, 

HOBOKEN. 
Built b}' Rev. A. Cauvin, in August, 1864. 



IN NKW JERSEY 159 

In December, 1856, the Society of the Living Rosary was es- 
tablished in Hoboken, and twelve circles of fifteen members each 
were immediately formed, making in all one hundred and eighty 
members. The following Sunda)- another circle was formed, 
there being then two circles of men and eleven of women. Rev. 
John Hogan, pastor of Bellevdlle, addressed the society on that 
occasion. The members of the societ)- meet in the church on the 
first Sunday of every month, an instruction is then given, tickets 
are distributed, contributions arc collected, and rosary is said. 
In 1856, before Lent, the Stations of the Cross were estab- 
lished. 

In 1857 many improvements were made in the church and 
house. The ceiling of the church was made with canvas covered 
with painted paper, and the walls of the church were painted and 
frescoed. The sanctuary was treated in the same manner. The 
Bishop's throne and pulpit were also made ; and to the house were 
added a kitchen and piazza. 

On the 17th of January in 1857 the Bishop lent $3,000 to the 
church; and this, with the $5,000 lent in 1855, made $8,000. 
With this $3,000 was paid the balance due to the Hoboken Land 
Company for the three lots of ground bought. The deed, which 
was given on the 28th of November, 1856, with interest from the 
loth of June, 1854, amounted to $2,775. 

On the 29th of March, 1857, by a rescript of Archbishop Be- 
dini, secretary of the Propaganda a Fide, His Holiness Pius IX. 
granted to Rev. A. Cauvin, pastor of the Church of Our Lady of 
Grace of Hoboken, and its successors forever, the privilege of im- 
parting the Papal benediction three times a year to the faithful of 
the Church : on the festival of the patronage of St. Joseph for the 
Bona Mors Sodality ; on the festival of Our Lady of Grace on 
the first Sunday of July; and on the festival of Our Lady of the 
Rosary on the first Sunday of October, for the Living Rosary 
Society. The Bishop approved the privilege. 

On the 5th of June, 1857, Rev. Peter Beckx, Superior General 
of the Jesuits, granted to Rev. A. Cauvin the privilege of erecting 
in the church of Hoboken the Sodality of Bona Mors, and aggre- 
gating it to the mother sodality in Rome, with all the indulgences, 
etc. The sodality has since been in a flourishing condition. 
There has always been a service in the church for that sodality 
every Friday evening at 7:30 o'clock, the services consisting in 
the recitation of the rosary, a sermon, the singing of the Litany 
of the Blessed Virgin, prayers for the sick, the aflflicted, and the 



i6o THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

dying, for the souls in purgatory, benediction of the Blessed Sac- 
rament, and the recitation of the De Profundis. 

On the 20th of June, 1858, the ceremony of the solemn coro- 
nation of Our Lady of Grace took place. This ceremony had 
been announced to the people since April, and they were waiting 
for it with impatience. The Bishop had granted forty days' indul- 
gence, and the Pope a plenary indulgence to those who would be 
present at the Papal Benediction ; and, in consequence, an im- 
mense crowd of people came from New York and surrounding 
places, even from other States. The crown had been given by 
Her Highness the Duchess of Genoa, the widow of the Duke of 
Genoa, to Rev. A. Cauvin. It was given to him in 1856, when he 
went to Turin and applied to the Duchess for the donation. A 
platform with steps was raised behind the altar to reach the head 
of the Blessed Virgin. The procession, which started from the 
house, was composed of many priests, a crowd of small choir boys, 
young girls dressed in white, each carrying a bouquet of flowers, 
and lastly, the Celebrant, carrying the crown on a red velvet cush- 
ion. On arriving at the altar, the crown was deposited upon it ; 
the Bishop blessed it, and then ascending the platform, placed it 
over the head of the Blessed Virgin. He then returned to the 
altar where a solemn Te Deum was sung. During the High Mass 
the Bishop preached an appropriate sermon. At the early Mass 
the sacrament of Confirmation was administered to one hundred 
and thirteen persons. 

A fair was held in May, which gave a profit of $1,115. On the 
2ist of August, 1858, Rev. A. Cauvin bought from the Hoboken 
Land Company two lots of land in the rear of the church and 
house, fifty feet along Fifth Street and one hundred feet parallel 
with Willow Street, for the sum of $750. The deed, given in the 
name of Bishop Bayley, was recorded on the 2d of September, 1858. 

The Paulist Fathers Baker and Hecker from New York 
preached in the church at Mass and Vespers, it being the first 
Sunday of September, 1858, the feast of St. Quietus. The col- 
lections taken up on this day were given to the Paulist Fathers 
for their new church and monastery at Fifty-ninth Street. This 
was the first money collected for the new building. 

On the 15th of December, 1858, Fort Lee, Hackensack, and 
Lodi were erected by the Bishop into a new mission, and therefore 
detached from that of Hoboken; and on the 5th of January, 1859, 
Rev. P^rancis Anelli, assistant priest of Rev. A. Cauvin, left Ho- 
boken to take charge of it. 



IN NEW JERSEY i6i 

On the 1 8th of July, 1859, Mr. Richard Conover, who had 
ah'eady begun to dig the foundations of tenement houses on the 
two lots south of the priest's house on Willow Street, kindly con- 
sented to exchange these two lots of ground for two other lots 
south of them, if Rev. Cauvin would pay him $1,000 for the stable 
he had built in the rear of the two lots. Rev. Cauvin accepting 
this proposition, on the 22d of September, 1859, the Hoboken 
Land Company ga\'e him in his own name the deed of these two 
lots of ground joining the house, with a mortgage of $1,800, the 
value of the two lots. Besides this Rev. Cauvin gave $115 to the 
architect who had obtained that exchange from Mr. Conover. 

On the 14th of September, 1859, Rev. Cauvin bought, in his 
own name, from the same company some ground in the rear for 
$450. As soon as the mortgage was paid, he transferred the 
three lots to Bishop Bayley by an indenture of the 14th of April, 
i860, which was recorded on the 28th of January, 1862. 

The Hoboken Land Company gave to Bishop Bayley a lease 
for 999 years of the alley- way, 10 feet wide and 125 feet deep, from 
Fifth Street, between the church ground bought on the 28th of 
November, 1856, and the ground bought afterward on the 21st of 
August, 1858, and on the 14th of September, 1859. This lease 
was renewed. 

As soon as possible Rev. A. Cauvin repaired the stable pre- 
viously purchased from Mr. Conover, and converted it into a 
select temporary school and a dwelling-house for a teacher. On 
the first Monday of September a select school was opened in that 
house with Miss Sarah Mahoney for the teacher. For fifteen 
years she had been teacher of the English department in St. Vin- 
cent de Paul's French Church of New York, under the direction 
of Father Lafont, to whom Re\'. A. Cauvin had been an assistant 
for the four years preceding his coming to Hoboken. This select 
school for young ladies and small boys continued to flourish until 
the parochial school was built in 1864, Miss Mahoney still being 
the teacher. The contributions of the children sufficed for the 
support of the teacher and the repairs of the school and house. 
In August, 1 859, the gas was introduced in the church and in the 
hoirse. It cost $762. 

In November, 1859, Rev. A. Cauvin established a ladies' 
benevolent society for the poor of Hoboken. Mrs. Peter Mahon 
was elected president, Mrs. Frances Bolting vice-president, Mrs. 
Pychowska treasurer, Miss Celestine Arras secretary, and Miss 
Sarah Mahoney in charge of the wardrobe. These ladies con- 
II 



i62 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

tinued in office and worked very hard and with great zeal in be- 
half of the poor until the Sisters of the Poor came to Hoboken 
in January, 1863. To pay for the ground purchased in 1859, a 
fair was held in November, 1859, which gave a profit of $1,313; 
and an excursion was given with a net profit of $653.73. 

There took place on the loth of June, i860, the solemn inaugu- 
ration of forty-two oil paintings which Rev. Cauvin procured from 
Italy to decorate the church. Some of these paintings are origi- 
nal ; some as old as one himdred and fifty-seven years. The cere- 
mony was performed by Bishop Bayley, who preached at the High 
Mass. The proceeds of the ceremony and the funds of the Rosary 
Society paid for the paintings and their frames. This was the 
third ceremony of a new kind performed in America, and it served 
to excite the zeal of the clergy in adorning and ornamenting the 
churches, according to the true Catholic spirit, and thus distin- 
guishing them from the Protestant churches. At the early Mass 
Bishop Bayley administered the sacrament of Confirmation to 
sixty-seven persons. 

On the 24th of November, 1861, Dr. Cahill delivered a lecture 
on the Hoi)' Eucharist and transubstantiation for the benefit of 
the Ladies' Benevolent Society. On the 21st of April, 1861, the 
church of West Hoboken with all the territory on the hill of the 
Palisades was detached from the parish of Hoboken, and given to 
the Passionist Lathers. 

On the 29th of January, 1862, a deed was given by the Hobo- 
ken Land Company to Bishop Bayley of a piece of ground 5 by 
75 feet, on the rear of the school ground and Mr. Conover's 
houses, 100 feet from Fifth Street to 175 feet south. This was 
done to make square the ground bought on the 14th of Septem- 
ber, 1859. Confirmation was given in April, 1862, to one hundred 
and seventeen persons. 

On the nth of January, 1863, the Sisters of the Poor of St. 
Francis came to Hoboken from Cincinnati, and established a 
house of their order on Meadow Street, No. 134. Sister Antonia 
was Superior and Sister Felicita the Mother Superior in America. 
As there was no house to be rented, Mr. Bryan Smith, a worthy 
Catholic of Hoboken, bought a house and rented it to the Sisters 
for $200 a year. Before their arrival. Rev. A. Cauvin made an 
appeal to the congregation to help him in paying the rent, furnish- 
ing the house, and preparing some provisions. The people con- 
tributed very liberally. More than $700 was paid in cash, the 
house was furnished with twenty-eight beds, all the necessary 



IN NEW JERSEY 163 

kitchen utensils and furniture, and provisions for four months. 
The ceremon)' of their installation took place in the church at the 
High Mass. After the High Mass Rev. (^auvin presented the 
Sisters with a painting" of St. Mary of the Poor, under whose pro- 
tection he placed them, recommending them to take care of the 
poor without distinction of creed or nationality. In the afternoon 
their house was blessed and opened to the public for inspection. 
The Sisters took immediate charge of the poor, the sick, and the 
orphans. The ladies of the bene\olent society, who had taken 
care of the poor for the space of three years, placed in the Sisters' 
hands all their funds, and their most precious treasure, the poor 
themselves. The little association of St. Vincent de Paul that had 
been formed in Hoboken two }ears previously did the same, and 
both societies were dissolved. 

In August, 1863, Rev. Cauvin called the male members of the 
congregation to a meeting, where it was resolved to build a school 
house on the two lots of ground bought in 1859 for that purpo.se. 
Mr. A. Lockwood, the architect, made the plan, Mr. Timothy 
Foley, of Hoboken, was the contractor for the masonry work, and 
Daniel Meystre for the carpenter work. It was immediately 
begun, and in October, 1863, Bishop Ba}dey came to lay the 
corner-stone, and preached an eloquent sermon on the necessity 
for Catholic schools. The school was finished in August, 1864, at 
the cost of $11,892, which was all paid in 1865, as can be seen by 
the reports of 1864 and 1865. 

On the I St of September, 1864, the parochial schools were 
opened for both sexes. The Sisters of Charity of Madison were 
invited to come and take charge of the girls and small boys, and a 
layman for the large boys. Then the select school was dismissed, 
and the worthy teacher entered the Order of the Visitation in 
Brooklyn. 

As soon as the school was organized a Mass was read every 
Sunday at nine o'clock for the children, who sang hymns under the 
direction of their music teacher, Miss Catherine Hogan, of Ho- 
boken. The children also sang every Friday evening during the 
service for the Bona Mors. 

In June, 1861, Bishop Bayley came to give confirmation in the 
church to one hundred and four persons, and in the ex'ening after 
Vespers he delivered a lecture on his journey to Rome for the 
benefit of the school. 

On the 20th of September, 1864, in pursuance of an act ap- 
proved February 17th, 1864, the Church of Hoboken was incor- 



i64 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

porated under the name of the Church of Our Lady of Grace, 
Hoboken, recorded October 3d, 1864. On the lOth of March, 
1865, the trustees elected Bishop Bay ley president, Rev^ A. Cau- 
vin treasurer, and L. DeGrand Val secretary. On the same day 
they adopted the b)'-la\vs. 

On January nth, 1865, the Forty Hours' devotion was for the 
first time established in the church, according to the general order 
of the Bishop, who assigned a different Sunday for each church in 
his diocese. Father Gaudentius, of Hoboken, preached on two 
evenings. This devotion produced excellent fruits; eight or nine 
hundred persons received Holy Communion. 

On the 5th of February, 1865, a mission was given in the 
church by Father Smarius and Father Converse, Jesuits of Chi- 
cago. The church was always crowded. Seventeen hundred 
and fifty persons received Holy Communion during the mission. 

In August, 1865, they began to build the hospital and asylum 
for the Sisters of the Poor ou five lots purchased from the Ho- 
boken Land Company on Willow Street, corner of Fourth Street. 
The deed was given to Bishop Bayley on the i6th of November, 
and recorded on the 23d of November. Mr. Keely, of Brooklyn, 
was the architect, Mr. Timothy Foley the mason, and Mr. Read, of 
Boston, the carpenter. It will be under the exclusive control of 
the Bishop and the Sisters of the Poor. For building this hos- 
pital and asylum the people of Hoboken contributed $4,600, and 
the fair, which was held in Odd Fellows' Hall in October, 1865, 
gave a net profit of $5,500. 

On the 5th of October, 1865, was organized a Temperance 
Benevolent Society in Hoboken after the plan of the Society of 
St. Patrick's Cathedral in Newark, recommended by Bishop Bay- 
ley in a circular to the clergy, on the 22d of September, 1865. 
This is also a religious society, since they have a chaplain, who is 
the pastor of the church, for supervisor, and the members must 
receive the Holy Communion three times a year. In 1843 there 
were but 71 houses in Hoboken and 59 rum-shops. 

In September, 1857, Rev. A. Cauvin took the census of the 
Catholics of Hoboken, when he found that there were in the city 
of Hoboken 1,600 Catholics, as follows: 568 married persons; 341 
single persons, 638 children, 83 unknown, principally Germans. 
Total, 1,600. These married and single persons formed 304 
families. Out of the 341 single persons 204 were girls living out, 
and the remainder, 137 men and women single. Out of the 638 
children, 179 were under six years of age, 254 between six and fif- 



IN NEW JKRSKY 165 

teen years of age, 205 ab()\e fifteen }ears of age. One family had 
II children and another 10; i had 9, another 5; 5 had 7 children 
each, and 12 had 6 children; 13 had 5 children, and 27 had 4 chil- 
dren. The other 215 families had i or 2 children, or none. This 
census was taken for the purpose of knowing all the children and 
their residence, in order to bring them to the catechism. 

The population of Hoboken was in 1861, 9,662; that of Jersey 
City, 29,226; that of Hudson City, 7,229; of Newark, 71,941; of 
Paterson, 19,586; Trenton, 17,221; Camden, 14,358; Elizabeth, 
11,568; New Brunswick, 11,255; Orange, 8,977; Rahway, 7,138; 
Morristown, 5,986; and Hackensack, 5,488. The population in 
1865 was: In Hoboken, 12,973; ^^^ Jersey City, 36,370; and in 
Hudson City, 10,509. 

The population of Hudson County in 1850 was 21,819; ""^ i860 
it was 65,923; and in 1865 it was 81,900. The population of the 
State of New Jersey in 1850 was 468,319, and in i860 it was 
659,998. 

The principal presents made to Rev. Cauvin for the church, or 
which Rev. Cauvin gave to the church, were: (i) A silver chalice 
given by the old Countess of Cavour (Turin) in 1852, which 
chalice was stolen from the church in 1863 in the month of No- 
vember. (2) Another chalice, also in silver, given in 1854 by a 
Marchioness of Genoa, a friend of Mrs. Serafina Archini, the sis- 
ter of Rev. A. Cauvin, and which he gave to the church of West 
Hoboken. (3) The great painting of Our Lady of Grace in the 
church of Hoboken, given by the Duke of Genoa in 1853. (4) 
The painting of Our Lady of Mercy in the church of West Ho- 
boken, sent by His Eminence Cardinal Brignole. (5) A chalice 
engraved with the name and imperial arms of Emperor Napoleon 
HL (6) A large sanctuar}' lamp with the imperial arms given by 
the same emperor. This lamp was the same that was bought for 
the chapel of the Tuileries at the time of the consecration of 
Charles X. (7) A silver ostensorium, by Victor Emmanuel, King 
of Sardinia. This present was made to Rev. Cauvin in recompense 
of the services rendered by him for so many years to the Italians 
of New York, especially to the Genoese, whom he attended in 
their sickness, instructed, and many of whom continued to 
come to him for confession. (8) Some vestments from the 
family of Cavour, of Turin, and other acquaintances of Rev. A. 
Cauvin. 

In the spring of 1 849 some gentlemen of Jersey City, Hoboken, 
and Five Corners formed a company for the purpose of buying 



i66 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

ground for a cemetery for the benefit of the CathoHcs of Hudson 
County, as these had no other place to bury their dead than in 
Calvary Cemetery of New York. On the 21st of April, 1864, 
they organized themselves into a corporation, according to the 
general law of the State of New Jersey, the certificate of which 
was recorded on the 22d of April, and elected nine trustees, James 
R. Bayley being chairman and Anthony Cauvin secretary. On 
the 28th of April, 1864, the board of trustees elected the follow- 
ing officers: Bishop Bayley, president; Rev. J. Kelly, vice-presi- 
dent; Rev. Anthony Cauvin, treasurer; and Rev. D. Senez, sec- 
retar}'. The corporation took the name of the Hudson County 
Catholic Cemetery. 

On May 6th, 1866, I'ishoii I^ayley administered Confirmation 
to one hundred and eighty-six children and grown persons. An- 
drew Thorman, a convert at the age of ninety years, was con- 
firmed on this day. 

On this day at 4 I'.m. Bishop Bayley blessed the new St. 
Mary's Hospital, which the Sisters of the Poor occupied the week 
previous. He went in procession from the church, accompanied 
by the children, who had received first Communion and Confirma- 
tion in the morning, by eight clergymen, the temperance societies 
of Hoboken and Jersey City, and the cadets of both cities, with a 
band of music. He preached in the chapel of the hospital, and 
gave in it the benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. A great 
concourse of people attended the ceremony. The societies 
paraded through the streets of Hoboken after the ceremony. 

In the evening the Bishop lectured in St. Mary's Church for 
the benefit of the hospital. 

On the 28th of September, 1868, Bishop Bayley blessed sol- 
emnly the up]Der part of the Hudson County Cemetery, from the 
middle cross and the vault to the meadows. Two blocks h.ad been 
previously blessed by Rev. C^auvin in 1866. The Bishop was ac- 
companied by all the pastors of the Hudson County churches. 
He preached a beautiful sermon to the people who came to wit- 
ness the ceremony, which began at 9:30 o'clock and ended at 
noon. 

On April 28th, 1869, Rev. Daniel J. Fisher, assistant pastor of 
Hoboken, died in St. Mary's Hospital, after ten days of sickness, 
in great sentiments of piety, patience, and faith. His funeral took 
place on the 30th of April, in presence of the Vicar-General and 
twenty-six priests of the diocese. 

On the 3d of August, 1 869, the clergy of the diocese presented 



IN NEW JERSEY 167 

an address to Bishop Bay ley with $5,000 ; and on the following day 
he started for Rome to the tlcumenical Council (Vatican). 

In September, 1871, the Bishop appointed Rev. Cauvin to take 
care of the (lermans of Hobokcn. October 8th the Rev. Cauvin 
called the Cermans to a meeting for the 15th, when about forty 
German families were present. And on October 22d the Rev. 
Angelus Kempen (a secularized Carmelite) began to say Mass in 
a hall kindly put at his disposal by Peter Kerrigan in Grand, corner 
of Newark Street. 

The Rev. Kempen having failed to form a (jerman congrega- 
tion in the meadows, where his temporary chapel was filled with 
other people than (iermans, the Bishop ordered him to look for 
a more decent place, and forbade him to preach in English and to 
have anything to do with the Irish, as his mission was for the Ger- 
mans only. On the 5th and 12th of May, 1872, he opened a tem- 
porary chapel in a hall on Meadow Street, between Fifth and 
Sixth, and it was filled with Germans. There are in Hoboken 
between three and four thousand German Catholics. There is no 
place in the United States where there are more elements for a 
German congregation than in Hoboken. They need only a church 
for themselves. But having again disobe}ed his orders, and 
preached in English, and coaxed the Irish in his chapel, and thus 
failed again, the Bishop invited Father IJurthaller, a Jesuit of 
New York, to take charge of the Germans, and dismissed the 
Rev. Kempen. After Bishop Bayley went to Baltimore as Arch- 
bishop, Dr. Corrigan, the administrator, invited Father Durthaller 
to keep his engagement ; but this he refused to do unless he had 
also the power of administering all the sacraments to all the 
Catholics of Hoboken, whether Germans or Irish. Dr. Corrigan 
was obliged to comply with his demand as a condition sine qua 
nan, and December 3d, 1872, he came to Hoboken, and read Mass 
and preached in his chapel for two Sundays. 

Rev. Cauvin disapproved of this arrangement as against the 
con.stitution of the Church as defined by the Council of Trent, 
the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore, and the synod of the 
diocese, which condemn noininatim the jurisdiction of two pastors 
ex cBquo over the same flock; and then Rev. Durthaller left Ho- 
boken. Mass was then read occasionally in the German chapel 
on Sundays, till Dr. Corrigan appointed the Rev. Father Martens 
to take care exclusively of the Germans. He came to Hoboken 
March 3d, 1873. 

On July I St, 1873, Rev. Cauvin wrote to Bishop Corrigan, that 



i68 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

after twenty-six years of uninterrupted labor in this country, 
twenty-two in Hoboken, with only three months' vacation, seven- 
teen years ago, he felt the need of rest, and therefore he had de- 
termined to resign his place and go to Nice, France, his native 
country. On August 3d, Sunday, Rev. Cauvin announced to the 
congregation his resignation for the sake of his health and need 
of rest, and August 9th he left Hoboken for France. 



The Rev. Anthony Cauvin, born August 23d, 1810, at Sclos, 
a little hamlet near Nice, was the youngest of ten children. The 
child of exemplary parents he was the third to enter the priest- 
hood. His preliminary studies were made in his native town, and 
his theological studies, until closed by the Revolution of 1830, in 
the seminary of Avignon. He afterward went to Turin and Rome, 
where he was ordained priest by Cardinal Brignole-Sale, October 
1 2th, 1 834. The register of the clergy of the Newark diocese states 
that he had been a member of the Order of Mercy. For some 
years he taught in a college near Genoa, but his health forced him 
to abandon that kind of work, and for a short time he was a tutor 
in the family of Count Cavour, the father of the famous minister. 
In 1847 he determined to go to America, and, on landing, asso- 
ciated himself to Father Lafont, then pastor of the French Catho- 
lic Church on Canal Street, New York. He remained three 
years in this position, and in 1850 he was assigned by Archbishop 
Hughes to the mission of Cold Spring and West Point on the 
Hudson. After spending a year in this assignment. Father Cau- 
vin was sent to establish a parish in the territory between the 
Hudson and Hackensack rivers, the history of which he has so 
carefully and so charmingly written. There is no doubt that his 
health was shaken by his constant and laborious pastorate. But 
there were other motives which prompted him to bid adieu to ties 
which had so long bound him to the Catholics of Hoboken — the 
necessity for a larger church, the departure for Baltimore of his old 
friend. Archbishop Bayley, to whom he was more than devoted, 
and the friction between those in charge of the hospital and him- 
self with regard to the disposition of the proceeds of the fair, held 
for the benefit of the hospital, and which amounted to $8,000. 

Sisters Paula and Afra complained to the administrator, the 
Very Rev. Dr. Corrigan, that these moneys had been diverted 
from their legitimate uses by Father Cauvin. This led to 
quite some correspondence between the head of the diocese and 



IN NKW JERSEY 



169 



the pastor of St. Mary's, until, finally, on November 20th, 1869, 
Dr. Corrigan wrote to Father Cauvin, "forbidding him posi- 
tively from alienating the fair money from its legitimate channels, 
and asking him to announce to the congregation on the following 
Sunday that the hospital debt would be paid off to the extent of 
;^8,000." Some weeks later he complied with the demand of his 
ecclesiastical superior. Father Cauvin spent the remaining years 
of his life in Nice. In 1881 he built at Sclos a chapel in memory 
of his brother Don Sixte 
Cauvin, who died the year 
before ; and in the cemetery 
of the same hamlet he erect- 
ed his own monument with 
the following inscription : 

"■ The priest, Anthon)' 
Cauvin, born August 23d, 
1 810. The founder and for 
twenty-three years rector of 
the Church of Our Lady of 
Grace, of the City of Hobo- 
ken, in the United States of 
America. In his own life- 
time he erected for himself 
this stone, in the year of God, 
1884." He died at Nice, 
May 26th, 1902, in the ninety- 
third year of his age, and in 
the sixty-eighth year of his 
sacred ministry. 

On Sunday, September 
28th, 1873, his successor, the 

Rev. Major Charles Duggan, was installed pastor, and the solemn 
high Mass was sung by the new incumbent, assisted by the Rev. 
Fathers Bergmann and Bettoni, deacon and sub-deacon respective- 
ly. Father Duggan, born June, 1831, made his theological studies 
in St. Bonaventure's College, Alleghany, N. Y., and was received 
into the diocese of Newark on the exeat granted by Bishop Corn- 
thwaite, of Beverly, England, dated October 23d, 1865. He found 
a field for his activity in New Brunswick, N. J., where, as assistant 
to the \"enerable Father Rogers, he built the convent, bought the 
rectory and hospital property, and built the church in Metuchen. 

May 1 8th, 1874, work on the proposed new church was begun 




CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF GRACE, 
HOBOKEN. 



170 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

by driving piles for the foundation ; and on Sunday, June 7th, the 
foundation stone was laid in presence of a vast concourse of people, 
and the various parish and other societies ; and on Sunday, July 
4th, 1875, the corner-stone was laid by Bishop Corrigan, the Rev. 
Dr. Lancaster Spalding preaching on the occasion. 

In November, 1875, Father Duggan returned to England, and 
became affiliated to the diocese of Southwark. 

January ist, 1876, the Rew Louis U. Senez, pastor of St. 
Mary's, Jersey City, was sent to Hoboken, as the third pastor of 
Our Lady of Grace. But as he was already advanced in years, the 
burden was beyond his strength, and he was constrained to crave 
Bishop Corrigan's permission to return to his f)ld charge, to the 
congregation he had built up in Jersey City. The Rev. Patrick 
Corrigan had succeeded him as pastor of St. Mary's, and was not 
at all inclined to yield to the old pastor's prayers. However, he 
finally consented to exchange places, and in September, 1876, he 
assumed pastoral charge of the Hoboken congregation. The 
Rev. Patrick Corrigan, born in Longford, January ist, 1835, made 
his theological studies in All Hallows, Ireland, and St. Mary's, 
Baltimore, where he was ordained priest June 28th, i860. His 
first mission was St. Peter's, Jersey City, and continued until 
1863, when he was given charge of the Church of the Madonna, 
P'ort Lee. On the death of Father Kelly, 1866, he was appointed 
pastor of St. Peter's, Jersey City, May loth. Circumstances 
made his appointment not altogether popular, and in spite of his 
energy, cheerfulness, and activity, he realized that the barriers 
were irremovable. On May 20th, 1870, Father Corrigan called 
on Dr. Corrigan, the administrator, to arrange for the dedication 
of St. Bridget's Church, and stated "that he was an.xious, as soon 
as he paid off the debt — $28,000 — on St. Peter's, to be allowed to 
retire to St. Bridget's, and work there alone; that difficulties 
would always exist to mar his efficiency at St. Peter's," etc. (diary 
of Bishop Corrigan). 

There was a rapidly growing congregation in the southern sec- 
tion of Jersey City, far from the influence of any parish, one which 
urgently demanded the j^resence of the priest. Father Corrigan 
had secured a valuable site, on which he had erected a small frame 
church. 

The transfer of St. Peter's to the Jesuit Fathers took place 
April i6th, 1871. Thereupon Father Corrigan went abroad, and 
remained in Europe six months. During his absence the Rev. 
Peter L. Connolly attended to the spiritual wants of St. Bridget's. 



IN NEW JERSEY 



171 



Hoboken needed just such a vigorous, determined, dauntless priest 
to carry through to completion the stately church begun by Father 
Duggan. Under Father (^)rrigan's pastorate were built the rec- 
tory and jiarisli school. Altogether the group of buildings is 




IXTERIOR OF Ul K I.AUY OF (,KACE CilLRCll. HOBOKF.N. 



among the finest to be found in our country, and reflects the high- 
est credit on the generous Catholics of Hoboken, who have reared 
this magnificent monument of their faith. The Rev. Charles J. 
Kelly, on the death of Father Corrigan, January 9th, 1894, was 
appointed rector. 



172 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

The Rev. Charles J. Kelly, born in Flainfield, N. J., February 
2d, 1857, after making his preliminary studies at St. Charles' Col- 
lege, Ellicott City, Md., was graduated from Seton Hall College, 
and, entering the seminary, was ordained in St. Patrick's Cathe- 
dral, June 7th, 1881. His first mission was St. Aloysius', New- 
ark, whence he was transferred to St. Mary's, Jersey City, in 
1884. On him mainly devolved the burden of erecting the 
Catholic Club building on Jersey Avenue, for the young men of 
Jersey City, among whom he had labored with great fruit. The 
faithful of Our Lady of Grace have responded to the touch of 
their fourth pastor, who reopened the schools, built a home for the 
orphans, and decorated the church. 

Sunday, November 8th, 1903, was celebrated the silver jubilee 
of the dedication of the church. The Rt. Rev. John J. O'Connor, 
D.D., Bishop of the diocese, celebrated pontifical Mass, at which 
more than thirty priests were present, and a congregation which 
thronged the spacious edifice. A feature of the celebration was 
the singing of the children's and chancel choirs — their silvery, 
guileless voices floating through the arches like the strains of a 
celestial melody. 

St. Mary's Church, Bordentown. 

The Catholic church in Bordentown had a very small begin- 
ning. We find no mention of divine service being held for the 
few scattered faithful previous to the year 1837. Before that 
time the Catholics were too few to have a permanent place of 
worship, and too poor to support a resident pastor. Besides this 
the priests in those days were scarce. The missions or stations 
were many but the laborers were few, and not unfrequently did it 
happen that the shepherd was obliged to travel upward of fifty 
miles to attend to the spiritual wants of a d}'ing member of his 
fold. Under such circumstances how could the few scattered 
Catholics of Bordentown obtain a resident pastor, even though 
means were not wanting.? We find them, then, betaking them- 
selves to Trenton, whenever divine service was to be held, and 
worshipping in the little unassuming building which may still be 
seen on the corner of Market and Lamberton streets. This was 
the cradle of Catholicity in Trenton. The faithful who worshipped 
around its rude altar were numbered by tens ; to-day they are 
counted by thousands. This was the parent church of the flour- 
ishing congregation of St. John's, while the magnificent structure 



IN NEW JERSEY 



173 



of St. Mary's may be looked upon as the offspring of the latter, 
and St. Francis and our Lady of Lourdes may be properly styled 
the children of both. It may, with propriety, too, he called the 
mother church of St. Mary's, of Bordentown, for there our Catho- 
lic neighbors worshipped with their co-religionists of Trenton, 
were instructed and strengthened in their faith, and fed with the 
spiritual food of their souls. 

At the time of which we write the Rt. Rev. Dr. Conwell was 
Bishop of the See, and the Rt. Rev. Dr. Kenrick, coadjutor and 




ST. FRAN'CIS CHURCH 

First Catholic Church erected in Trenton. 

administrator. Under the jurisdiction of the latter, divine service 
was held in Bordentown for the first time. This was in the month 
of October, 1837. The clergyman who came was no stranger to 
the people, for frequently did they listen to his words and receive 
the sacraments from the hands of the good Father McGorien, in 
the little modest chapel at Trenton. Once a month did he visit 
his people at Bordentown and W'hite Hill, ofificiating in private 
houses, as his congregation was then too poor to think of a per- 
manent place of worship. He continued to administer to their 



174 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



wants till the year 1840, when his superiors called him to another 
field of labor. 

His successor was Father Gilligan. It was during his admin- 
istration that the thought was first broached of purchasing a plot 
of ground, and erecting a small church upon it. Both priest and 
peo}Dle saw the necessity for this, as the congregation had some- 
what increased, and private houses were no longer large enough 
to contain the worshipping faithful. Moreover, there was every 
prospect of the mission growing larger from day to day. The 
population of the State was on the increase, and the many advan- 
tages arising from the public 
works would, no doubt, attract 
settlers and induce them 
to make Bordentown their 
home. A lot was therefore 
purchased on the hilltop, at 
the southeastern corner of 
Second and Bank streets, and 
a small frame structure erect- 
ed for divine service. This 
was in 1842. The little 
church was then thought suf- 
ficiently large for many years 
to come, but we may judge 
of the ra})id growth of the 
mission when the immediate 
successor of Father Gilligan 
was obliged to enlarge the 
building to accommodate his 
increasing congregation. Father Gilligan labored here for years, 
holding service but once a month, as the many other missions 
under his charge prevented his officiating more frequently. 

After his departure, in 1844, he was succeeded by the Rev. 
Father Mackin. Immediately after assuming charge the new 
pastor found it necessary to increase the seating capacity of the 
church. Some might absent themselves from divine service 
under the plea that there was no room; others again might excuse 
themselves, as they did not wish to stand while their neighbors 
were accommodated with seats. Whether this was the real mo- 
tive or not we cannot say, but certain it is that Father Mackin 
saw the absolute necessity of adding to the little church, and con- 
sequently a transept was erected to the eastern end of the build- 




REV. DANIEL M GORIEN, 
Pastor of St. John's Church, Trenton, in 1837 



IN NEW JERSEY 175 

ing, thus shaping it as the letter T. The original building and 
transept are still standing, plainly discernible, although a subse- 
cjuent addition was made. After administering to the wants of his 
people for nearly ti\e years, he was obliged to relinquish his Bor- 
dentown [people, as the rapid growth of Catholicity in Trenton, 
Lambertville, Flemington, and the other missions attended by 
him demanded his constant attention. 

His immediate successor was Father Hugh Lane. He re- 
ceived his appointment in 1849. During his term as pastor the 
second addition was made to the church, and divine service was 
held every two weeks. Father Lane was the last of the Philadel- 
phia priests who were commissioned to ofificiate at St. Mary's. 

Father Lane ceased to ofificiate in St. Mary's in 1854, and 
Father Bowles was immediately appointed its first resident pastor. 
No additions were made during his term, as Father Lane had 
made ample provisions for his congregation. 

In 1857 Father Bowles took up his residence in Burlington, 
and Father Biggio became second resident pastor. Under his 
administration the parochial house was built. After laboring as 
pastor for nine years, he died in Bordentovvn in 1866. Father 
Mackin, who left in 1849, ""^'^^ reappointed pastor, and acted as 
such for three years, leaving in 1 869. 

The parish at this time was a very important one, the number 
of souls exceeding sixteen hundred. The wealth of the parish 
increased with its growth, and it was the unanimous wish of the 
congregation to do away with the old unsightl}' building, and erect 
a grander edifice, more becoming divine worship. The ecclesias- 
tical authorities, knowing the importance of the place, and the 
amount of work to be done, resolved to send a man equal to the 
task, and their choice fell upon Father Leonard, the young ener- 
getic pastor of New Hampton Junction. He left his old home, 
universally regretted by his flock, and assumed charge of St. 
Mary's, July i8th, 1869. His first thoughts, after becoming ac- 
quainted with the people, were to procare a more fitting site for 
the new church. A lot was accordingly purchased the following 
15th of October, on Crosswicks Street, east of Second. The new 
church was commenced the }'ear following, the generosity of the 
congregation thus enabling the pastor to begin without delay. 
The corner-stone was laid October 30th, 1870, and two years later 
we find the grand cathedral-like church dedicated to the service of 
God, by the Rt. Rev. Dr. O'Hara, Bishop of Scranton, Pa. It is 
beyond comparison, although the church of the poor, the grandest 



176 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

and most costly in the town. The windows were generously do- 
nated by individual members, as may be seen by the inscriptions 
they bear. The grand sanctuary window was the gift of the St. 
Mary's Benevolent Society, and the beautiful one in the front of 
the church is the generous offering of the Hibernia Temperance 
Society. 

After the dedication of the new church the children were the 
object of Father Leonard's zeal and solicitude. To procure for 
them a good sound Christian education was his constant thought. 
He established the Convent of Mercy in the old pastoral residence, 
having obtained a colony of sisters from the mother house, Mount 
St. Mary's, Manchester, N. H. Since the advent of the sisters a 
marked change has taken place in the children. The schools are 
well attended. 

In September, 1 876, Father Leonard was promoted to the im- 
portant parish of St. John's, in the city of Newark. He took his 
departure from Bordentown, October 25th, 1876, amidst the tears 
of his people, and was succeeded by the Rev. P. F. Connolly. 

For twenty-one years, the longest period of any pastor in Bor- 
dentown, Rev. P. F. Connolly proved a most zealous shepherd. 
In 1897 he was promoted to the much larger parish of Phillips- 
burg. During his lengthy pastorate in Bordentown, the beautiful 
convent of St. Joseph's, for the Order of the Sisters of Mercy, was 
erected, and also the equally substantial and modern parochial 
school and hall. In 1 886 Father Connolly's silver jubilee as a priest 
was celebrated in a befitting manner. On that memorable occa- 
sion the Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul, many priests, including Rev. 
William Cantwell, of Monmouth County, the orator of the da)^, 
the entire congregation of St. Mary's Church, together with the 
most respected citizens of the various denominations in the city, 
united in testifying their appreciation of a true servant of God, and 
an edifying citizen. The best years of Father Connolly's life were 
devoted to his flock in Bordentown, where he has left an indelible 
impression of his faithfulness to his holy vocation. The number 
of converts he made, while remarkably large, will probably never 
be exactly known. 

In September, 1897, Rev. R. E. Burke, now at Princeton, suc- 
ceeded Father Connolly. The former's stay was brief — only four 
months. 

In January, 1898, Rev. D. J. Duggan, of Salem, became pastor 
of St. Mary's Church, and is now in control of the parish and 
its mission at Florence, four miles distant. 



IN NEW JERSEY 



177 




UKiHT REV. JAMES A. M'FAUL, D.D. 
Second Bishop oE Trenton. 



178 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



The congregation of St. Mary's Church, Bordentown, now 
numbers about fourteen hundred souls. In the latter years of 
Father Connolly a curate was appointed to the parish, and one 
has been supplied ever since. 

That King Joseph, brother of Napoleon I., spent a number of 
years on his vast estate in Bordentown, while an exile in this 
country, is a matter of history. He had his own private chapel. 
When he returned to France the ex-king presented the rich vest- 
ments and chalice used in the chapel to the Catholics of Bor- 
dentown. The chalice was left in trust forever, three Catholic 
laymen receiving the deed, which still exists. The vestments 
were long since worn out. The chalice is now in the possession 
of St. Mary's Church. Ancjther relic of the first stages of Catho- 
licity in Bordentown is a quaint old bureau in the possession of 
the children of John Flynn. For years this piece of furniture was 
used as an altar, when the holy sacrifice was offered in private 
houses. 

St. Mary's Church, Salem, N. J. 

We can imagine the heartfelt rejoicing of that little band of 
Catholics who were here for a time without Mass, when they 
heard that a priest from Philadelphia would visit Salem. The 

Rev.William O'Hara, D.D., 
for many )'ears pastor of 
St. Patrick's Church, Phila- 
delphia, and later on Bishop 
of Scranton, was the first 
priest to celebrate Mass in 
Salem. He held the first 
serx'ices early on the morn- 
ing of St. Patrick's Day, 
March 17th, 1847, in the 
house of Matthew McBride, 
corner of Broad and Second 
streets. 

The Rev. Dr. O'Hara 
made visits to Salem at reg- 
ular intervals, and held 
services alternately at the 
homes of Matthew McBride 
and Patrick McDonald on West Broad Street. The little band 
of worshippers gradually increased, and it soon became neces- 




GEIGER S HOUSE, NEAR SALEM. 

The beacon light of Catholicity in South 
Jersey, p. 52. 



IN NEW JERSEY 



179 




FIRST CHURCH IX SALEM. 



sary to procure more spacious accommodations for holding divine 
services. Samuel Ward, a Protestant gentleman, kindly donated 
the use of the hall over his blacksmith shop, on the corner of 
Broad and Griffith streets, where services were held until the 
church was erected. In May, 
1848, the Rev. E. S. O. Wal- 
dron was appointed b)' Rt. 
Rev. Bishop Kenrick, of Phila- 
delphia, to attend Salem and 
other missior.s in South Jersc)'. 
With zeal and energy P'ather 
Waldron devoted himself to 
his laborious missionary work, 
going from place to place, say- 
ing Mass in public halls and private houses, instructing the chil- 
dren, and preaching to the small bands of Catholics in the places 
he visited. Towartl the close of the }ear 1848 the good missionary 
and his faithful i^eople in Salem deemed it advisable to secure 
ground for a church. In those )'ears wages were low, farm labor- 
ers receiving but si.\ and eight dollars a month, and living-out 
girls seventy cents and a dollar a week. 

The work of raising funds begun by Dr. O'Hara was carried 
on by the zeal of Father Waldron. October 25th, 1848, the lot on 
which the church is located was i)urchased from George Bovven 
for ;^540. A new impetus was given to the ardent zeal of the 
good pastor and his devoted people b}' the purchase of a site for a 
church edifice. Work was commenced on the foundation in the 
year 1849, but had to be discontinued later for want of funds. 
Father Waldron was transferred to other fields of labor, and Salem 
was visited regularly by Revs. I. Amat, CM., Jeremiah O'Dono- 
hue, Hugh Lane, A. Haviland, John Kelley, Very Rev. Edward I. 
Sourin, V.G., Re\'s. Roger O'Connor and A. Rossi, CM., suc- 
cessively until December, 1851, when the Rt. Rev. Bishop Ken- 
rick of Philadelphia appointed the Rev. John McDermott as first 
resident pastor. Father McDermott made his home for several 
months with Thomas Murphy on Second Street. 

March 24th, 1852, Father McDermott bought the small house 
and lot adjoining the church property from John N. Cooper for 
$1,003. The house be occupied as a rectory. The church was 
under roof by the middle of June, and preparations were made to 
have it dedicated on the 4th of July following. The dedication of 
the new edifice to the service of God took place Sunday, July 4th, 



i8o 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



1852. The Very Rev. Patrick E. Moriarty, O.S.A., of St. Au- 
gustine's Church, Philadelphia, officiated on the occasion, and 
preached an appropriate sermon. The pastor, Rev. John McDer- 
mott, celebrated Mass. 

In December, 1853, Father McDermott purchased from Ebene- 
zer Dunn a small house and lot adjoining" the rectory for ^500. 
He connected the two houses by means of a hallway, and the 
double house served for nearly forty years as the residence of 
the pastors of St. Mary's. In the beginning of the year 1855 

the Rev. Cornelius Cannon 
was appointed by the Rt. 
Rev. Bishop Bayley as pastor 
of Salem and missions, to 
succeed Father McDermott. 
In April, 1859, the last ad- 
tlition to the original church 
property was purchased from 
John C. Dunn for ^460. The 
congregation had grown and 
the pastor purchased this last 
lot of ground with the inten- 
tion of erecting a parish 
school thereon. Actuated by 
the desire to procure religious 
training as well as secular 
knowledge for the children 
of the parish, P'ather Cannon erected on the lot purchased from 
Mr. Dunn the front portion of the frame building on Oak Street 
in the year 1863. He employed lay teachers to conduct the 
school under his own immediate supervision. P'ather Cannon 
attended Swedesboro and Woodstown. The church in Salem 
was incorporated September 20th, 1 864, under the title of " St. 
Mary's Catholic Church, Salem." In January, 1870, Father 
Cannon, after fifteen years of faithful service, was transferred 
to Jersey City, and the Rev. Secundino Pattle appointed as 
his successor in Salem. On the eve of Christmas, prior to the 
arrival of Father Pattle, the altar and the interior of the church 
were damaged by fire. In less than three months a new altar was 
erected and the interior of the church renovated. 

In 1872 Father Pattle built a small frame church in Woods- 
town. In May, 1873, the Rev. Anthony Cassesse was appointed 
by Rt. Rev. Michael A. Corrigan, then Bishop of Newark, as first 




ST. MARY'S CHURCH, SALEM. 



IN NEW JERSEY i8i 

resident pastor of St. Joseph's Church, Swedesboro, thus relieving 
Father Pattle of the charge. 

In June, 1876, Father Pattle was appointed pastor of St. Paul's 
Church, Burlington, and the Rev. James McKernan assumed 
charge of St. Mary's. Ill health compelled the zealous Father 
McKernan to resign the pastorate of St. Mary's and missions in 
November, 1 879, to the intense regret of his devoted people. The 
next spiritual guide of St. Mary's was the Rev. Peter Dernis, who 
in his quiet and unpretentious way entered on his sacred duties, 
and labored with zeal and energy for the welfare of the souls en- 
trusted to his fatherly care. The parish school had up to his 
time been taught by lay teachers. Miss Mary McBride, Patrick 
Fitzpatrick, Mrs. Fields, James Maguire, the Misses Sarah 
O'Neill, Agnes Barr, Mary O'Connor, Mary Crean, and Mr. John 
Loftus, successively. Father Dernis made arrangements to have 
the Sisters take charge of the school. In 1881 three Franciscan 
Sisters came from Philadelphia to Salem. In October, 1886, the 
Rev. J. Duggan was appointed by Bishop O'Farrell to succeed 
Father Dernis, who was transferred to Moorestown. In the year 
1894 what is known as the Mitchell property, on Oak Street, was 
purchased from I. Oakford Acton, for the sum of $3,200, thus 
placing in possession of the church the entire half block from 
Carpenter to Thompson streets. 

The parish school was discontinued and the Sisters returned 
to Philadelphia. After eleven years of devoted and untiring labor 
Father Duggan was promoted in January, 1898, by Rt. Rev. 
Bishop McFaul to the pastorate of St. Mary's Church, Borden- 
town. The Rev. William H. Lynch came from St. Mary's Cathe- 
dral, Trenton, as Father Duggan's successor. Father Lynch 
labored assiduously until October, 1900, when ne was appointed to 
the rectorship of St. John's Church, Lambertville. 

The Rev. Stephen M. Lyon, the present rector, entered on his 
duties October 2d, 1900. He first met his congregation Sunday, 
October 7th. 

St. Paul's Church, Princeton. 

It has already been seen that Catholicity is no stranger in the 
great university town of Princeton. A seething caldron of bitter 
antipathies to the old Church, the armory whence Breckenridge 
found and hurled his deadliest shafts against the Catholic Church 
in his controversy with Bishop Hughes, still this old stronghold 
of Presbyterianism, with its diadem of beautiful homes and de- 



182 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 




mesries, with its bewitching and picturesque natural glories of hill 
and vale, of farm and forest, has even in its earliest days sheltered 

and tolerated the creed of 
which of yore it was the bit- 
terest foe. But not until the 
famines of 1846 and 1847 had 
dri\cn the Irish cotter from 
his cabin and country, and 
landed him an immigrant in 
oui' countr\', where, owing to 
the development of railroads 
and canals, his labor was 
eagerl}' sought for, did the 
virile, fertile seed of faith 
begin to grow and bear fruit 
in this unfriendly soil. Very 
earl\' in the forties did good 
I^^athcr Rogers journey hith- 
er, and in the home of James 
Boyle, the farmer of Gov- 
ernor Newell, offer the holv 
sacrifice and dispense the con- 
solations of religion to the 
little company of Catholics, working on the canal and railroad, or 
at service in the college or on the neighboring farms. The Rev. 
John Scollard was the first resident ]:)astor, in 1850, and remained 
with the flock seven years. He worked with zeal and efficiency, 
and seemed to have the courage of his convictions. In a letter 
written January 3d, 1854, to Father Allaire, then chancellor of the 
diocese, relative to a collection for the seminary in F'ordham, he 
writes : 

"I have not taken up any such collection in 1853, and what is 
more, unless the Bishop exercises his full authorit\- in the case, 
I will not do It in 1854 either; and that because I do not think the 
seminary in Fordham is what it ought to be, and hence I would 
not deem it just on my part to contribute to its support. My rea- 
sons for thinking so I am j^repared to give when called upon." 

The Rev. Alfred Young, in July, 1857, was the second pastor. 
Owing to his shrewdness the Catholics were enabled to buy the 
fine property of twelve acres, within the city's limits, and their 
non-Catholic brethren wei-e more than amazed when the)' learned 
who had purchased the little farm. He erected upon it the 



ST. PACJ. S CIIUIICH, l'lvl.\( J'.IOX. 



IN NKW JKRSKY 



183 



church, which he kept scrupulously clean and neat. A fine 
musician, he composed hymns and taught them to the children. 
During his administration a mission was given by the celebrated 
Paulist Fathers, Hewitt and Baker, which made no little stir in 
the community. Owing to improper construction the first church, 
a stone building, partially collapsed during the mission exercises, 
but fortunately without serious injury. These zealous missionaries 
wrought good work among the townspeople, but they were the 
means of losing to the diocese a very capable and worthy priest. 
Father Young was enamored of their work, and although Bishop 
Bayley long resisted his wishes, he yielded eventually, and Father 
Young entered the Paulist community, in which he remained an 
active, edifying member until God called him to his reward. 

But although no longer in the flesh, Father Young will tell the 
story of his conversion and his first experience as pastor in Prince- 
ton. 

Father Alfred Young was born in Bristol, England, on the 
2 1 St of January, 1831. In the spring of that year the family came 
to America, staying for a brief period in Philadelphia, whence they 
removed to Trenton, N. J. In 1833 they finally settled in Prince- 
ton. There young Alfred 
passed the years of his bo}- 
hood and youth, and was des- 
tined in later years to become 
the first Catholic pastor and 
to say the first Mass ever 
celebrated within the town 
limits. 

He had been brought up 
by strict Episcopalian parents 
in the somewhat rigid obser- 
vances of the evangelical 
branch of that sect, and par- 
took of the prevalent preju- 
dices against Catholics to 
such an extent that when in 
1843 his brother George was 
received into the Church by 
Father Starr in New York, 
it was regarded as a great 

blow to the whole family and became the town talk as some- 
thing kindred to murder or suicide. It was in that same year 




REV. ALFRED VOUXG. C.S.P. 



i84 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

that young Alfred, then an impressionable lad of twelve, saw for 
the first time the celebration of the holy sacrifice of the Mass. 
He tells the story in an account of his conversion. 

" Hearing one day that the priest was coming from a town 
some sixteen miles distant to say Mass for the few scattered 
Catholics in our vicinity, I determined to witness the ceremony. 
I had learned that the priest would say the Mass at a laborer's 
house, some few miles distant from our town. So I stayed in my 
own church till the prayers were over and the minister's sermon 
began, and then slipped out and flew like a deer down the road 
and through the woods and over fences, and arrived, breathless 
from running, at the door of the little shanty. There was but one 
room into which the people crowded, and so I was obliged to stand 
on the wooden stoop outside the open door. I looked over the 
heads of the kneeling worshippers and saw the head and shoulders 
of the priest, who was standing before a table, on which I observed 
two lighted candles, three pasteboard cards, and a pasteboard 
crucifix nailed to the wall facing the priest. I heard only indis- 
tinct murmured prayers; a little bell tinkled, the people bowed 
their heads, and the round white Host in the priest's hands hid 
the crucifix on the wall from my eyes. . . . About twelve years 
from the day on which I saw holy Mass celebrated for the first 
time in that shanty I was the Catholic parish priest of my own 
town, and the first Mass I celebrated there was with the identical 
vestments the priest wore on that day, with the same little mis- 
sionary chalice, upon the same altar stone, and with the same paste- 
board altar cards before my eyes. The priest shall kiss the vest- 
ments before he robes himself with them. You may imagine with 
what reverence I pressed those old, threadbare vestments to my 
lips, doubly sacred in my eyes. Little did the Protestant boy 
know on that day of the designs of the God he loved." 

Alfred advanced so rapidly under the different masters then 
resident in Princeton that at thirteen years of age he passed the 
requisite examination for entrance into the freshman class of the 
university. In 1848 he was graduated from Princeton, and then 
went to New York to study medicine. In 1852 he was graduated 
from the medical department of the University of New York. 

On November 27th, 1850, while yet a medical student, Alfred 
Young was received into the Catholic Church by the V. Rev. Wil- 
liam Starr. He practised medicine for a year and was then sent 
to Paris by Bishop Bayley, of Newark, where he studied for the 
priesthood at the seminary of St. Sulpice. Returning to this 



IN NEW JERSEY 185 

country he was ordained priest in St. Patrick's Cathedral, New- 
ark, August 24th, 1856. In 1857 he was vice-president of Seton 
Hall under the presidency of Bishop McOuade, now of Rochester, 
N. Y., and in that same year was made rector of the church at 
Princeton and later at Trenton. Of his life as rector at Princeton 
he has left no special record save the fact that he often himself 
scrubbed the tioor and dusted the pews of the church. 

Attracted by the life and the aims of the newly founded Paul- 
ist communit}', Father Young" was received as a member of the 
congregation in 1861. He became a missionary of great zeal and 
noted eloquence. He was also a musician and composed many 
devotional hymns. He was enthusiastic in restoring the Gre- 
gorian chant for the entire services of the Church. He wrote 
many articles in favor of this movement and delivered many lec- 
tures on the same subject. In 1873 he established in the Church 
of St. Paul the Apostle a choir of men and boys which has used 
the Gregorian chant in all the liturgical services ever since. He 
was also an urgent advocate of congregational singing. 

Father Young was a writer of widely recognized ability. Be- 
sides many magazine articles on various religious subjects, and a 
series of epigrammatic poems on Scriptural texts in the CatJiolic 
World, he was the author of the " Complete Sodality Hymn 
Book," "Catholic Hymns and Canticles," "The Office of Ves- 
pers," and " Carols for a Merry Christmas and a Joyous Easter." 
The last work from his pen was a controversial treatise, entitled 
"Catholic and Protestant Countries Compared," which attracted 
much attention. He died April 4th, 1900. 

Among the illustrious sons of old Princeton there is none who 
has reflected greater glory on the university than its distinguished 
Catholic alumnus, Judge William Gaston. Born in Newbern, 
N. C, September 19th, 1778, he was the son of Dr. William Gas- 
ton, who was brutally murdered by the Tories in the presence of 
his wife and children. His mother was a Catholic, and instilled 
the principles of religion deep in the hearts of her children. 

William was the first student that entered Georgetown Col- 
lege. His brilliant talents and lovable character were long among 
the cherished traditions of Princeton University. He was grad- 
uated in 1796, winning the first honors of his class. His biog- 
rapher says of him : " Living in the midst of Protestants, who 
were his constant and only companions, he was never known to 
have faltered in his duty as a Catholic, and not in a single instance 



i86 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

to have disobeyed the precepts of the Church." In his reply to 
Calhoun Judge Gaston once said : " Faction is a demon ; faction 
out of power is a demon unchained ; faction vested with the attri- 
butes of rule is a Moloch of destruction." 

He did not fear to cross lances with the giant parliamentarians 
of that classic period — the Clays, Calhouns, Websters, Randolphs, 
Grosvenors, and Kings. He died in Raleigh, N. C, January 23d, 
1844. 

Father Young's successor was the Rev. James John Joseph 
O'Donnell, who came to the diocese of Newark from St. Hya- 
cinth, Canada; and he, in 1867, was succeeded by the Rew 
Thomas R. Moran, a former member of the Order of St. Bene- 
dict. Born in Dublin, Father Moran was received into the dio- 
cese of Newark, December, 1 866, and was assigned as assistant to 
St. John's, Paterson. Father Moran was a dignified, scholarly 
priest, with the loftiest conception of his sacred calling, and en- 
joyed the esteem of the bishops under whom he li\'ed, and the 
respect of Protestant and Catholic alike. He built the rectory, 
convent, and school, and when he died the parish was compara- 
tively out of debt. He was appointed vicar-general by Bishoji 
O'Farrell, and made by Leo XIII. a domestic prelate. He passed 
to his reward March 31st, 1900. 

His successor is the Rev. Robert Emmet Burke. Father 
Burke, born in the parish of Kilmore, Ireland, June nth, 1849, 
made his preparatory studies in St. Charles's College, Maryland, 
and was graduated from Seton Hall in the class of '72. He was 
ordained to holy priesthood in the seminary chapel by Bishop Cor- 
rigan, June loth, 1876. He labored as an assistant in St. Mary's, 
Jersey City, Our Lady's, Hoboken, and was made pastor of the 
Church of the Sacred Heart, Mount Holly, September ist, 1880. 
He has been pastor of SS. Philip and James's, Phillipsburg, where 
he built the church, dean of Warren County, of St. Mary's, Bor- 
dentown, and, during the Spanish-American War, chaplain at Fort 
Hancock, Sandy Hook. Here his work among the soldiers, and 
his care of the sick, returned from Cuba, merited the highest 
encomiums of tlie of^cers at the fort. By his talents and natural 
graces he is well fitted for his difficult post in the university town. 

St. Mary's Church, Rahway. 

The initial formation of St. Mary's parish in Rahway was 
begun by the Rev. I. P. Howell, then pastor of Elizabeth, about 
the year 1845. His work was not confined to Elizabeth and Rah- 



IN NEW JERSEY 



18' 



way, but extended on the east to Anibo}-, and on the south to the 
territory bordering on New Brunswick. I lis successor, tlie Rev. 
Patrick McCarthy, came in 1849 to extend, or rather concentrate, 
the work within closer limits. To Father Ouinn, however, was 
given the first resident rectorship. The Rev. Thomas Ouinn 
made his theological studies in Fordham, and was ordained priest 
by Bishop Hughes, June 14th, 1849. He was for a time assistant 
in St. John's, Paterson, and its pastor, and assigned to Perth Am- 




ST. M.VKV S CHLKCU .\MJ KECTORV, KAHWAV, X. J. 



boy, October 9th, 1853. There he built the old frame church, and 
attended the adjacent missions; but April ist, 1854, he took up his 
residence in Rahwa)', deeming that the more important mission. 
Here he built the first church and school. 

The older generation of Catholics still treasure his memory, 
and his name in Rah\va\', W'oodbridge, and the surrounding coun- 
try brings with it recollections of a priest peculiarb" adapted to 
the arduous work of the early days. He died February 5th, 1873, 
and he is buried in the new cemetery of the jiarish. 

Father Ouinn was succeeded by the Rev. Sebastian Smith, 
D.D., a man of studious habits and marked ability. His many 



i88 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

works are an important contribution to the ecclesiastical literature 
of the present generation. The Rev. Edward McCosker was 
transferred to this field from Newton, where he had labored for 
nearly a score of years. Father McCosker, born in the parish of 
Drumragh, diocese of Derry, in 1828, made his preliminary studies 
in St. Mary's College, Wilmington, Del., and his theological 
studies at St. Mary's, Baltimore, where he was ordained priest by 
Archbishop Kenrick, June i8th, 1859. He discharged the duties 
of assistant in St. Peter's, New Brunswick, St. Mary's, Jersey 
City, and St. John's, Newark, from which he was appointed to 
Newton, August 12th, 1861. While in Newton he built the beau- 
tiful brick church and rectory, a frame church in Hackettstown, 
and a brick church in Franklin Furnace. 

Shortly after his arrival in Rahway he displayed his wonted 
energy, and set about the erection of the present fine church and 
priest's house. But advancing years and unremitting toil made 
it necessary for him to obtain from Bishop Wigger an administra- 
tor who would relieve him of the responsibility and worriment of 
the pastoral ofifice. The present incumbent, the Rev. Bernard M. 
Bogan, was sent to him in June, 1894. On July loth, 1896, he 
retired as rector emeritus, and at present is living in St. Joseph's 
Hospital, Paterson. 

Father Bogan, born in Newark, N. J., December 8th, 1858, 
made his preparatory studies at St. Charles's College and Seton 
Hall, and is of the class of '81. He was an assistant in St. Paul's 
and St. Bridget's, Jersey City, and Holy Cross, Harrison, Febru- 
ary 2d, 1886. St. Mary's parish numbers 1,247 souls. 

The property, including church, rectory, school, convent, and 
parish hall, is valued at ^50,000. St. Mary's Cemetery, about two 
miles west of Rahway, is owned and controlled by the church cor- 
poration. The parish school is in charge of the Sisters of St. 
Dominic, and one hundred and thirty pupils are in attendance. 
A Young Men's Club, Holy Name and Rosary Society, Children 
of Mary, and Blessed Sacrament Society, keep the faith alive 
among the old and young, and are active in cooperating with the 
pastor in the work of the parish. 

St. Mary's Church, Stony Hill. 

The records of St. Mary's Catholic Church, Stony Hill, Som- 
erset Co., go back to the year 1847, when the baptismal record 
shows that Father Raffeiner of Brooklyn administered the sacra- 



IN NEW JERSEY 



189 



ment of baptism to Bartholomew Wormzer, October 17th, 1847. 
The first settlers of this section were Germans, and as the priests 
of that nationality were few at the time, their spiritual needs were 
attended to by the pastor of the Germans of Brooklyn, the Rev. 
John Raffeiner. The Redemptorist Fathers took charge of the 
parish toward the close of the year 1847 and attended the congre- 
gation until the year 1854, when the Rev. Peter Hartlaub became 
pastor and remained in charge until the end of the year 1857. 
The Benedictine Fathers from Newark assumed the charge of 
the parish in the year 1858, 
and continued their ministra- 
tions until the year 1874. 
Father Bergman and the Rev. 
Gregory Misdziol were pas- 
tors in 1 874. Father Misdziol, 
born in Budkowitz, diocese of 
Breslau, Silesia, Poland, was 
ordained priest in Seton Hall 
College Chapel, June 22d, 
1865. His field of labor was 
New Brunswick, where he 
was the first pastor of and 
built the church of St. John 
Baptist. He also had charge 
of the Germans in Trenton. 
In August, 1 87 1, he was 
assistant to the venerable 
Father Lemke in Elizabeth, 
and in March, 1874, he was appointed pastor of Baskingridge and 
Mendham. 

Owing to the poverty of the congregation the Benedictines 
again resumed care of the parish and ministered to the people 
until March, 1878, when Bishop Corrigan sent the Rev. John 
Schandel to the congregation to reside permanentl}^ in their 
midst. Since that time the congregation has increased in num- 
bers somewhat slowly, owing to the remoteness of the place from 
any railroad, but through the indefatigable labors of Father 
Schandel a neat brick church has been built (the old church was 
burned a year before) and paid for ; the little cemetery has been 
enlarged and beautified, and the zeal and sacrifice of the pioneers 
of the forties are still found in the descendants who now worship 
in the Stony Hill church. 




ST. MAKV S CHL KCH. STONV HILL 



I90 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Our Lady of Mount Carmel, Boonton, N. J. 

The present town of Boonton had its beginning" about the 
year 1830. It was in that year that the Morris Canal was com- 
pleted, and by its construction the water power at Boonton Falls 
was developed, and in consequence large tracts of land, including 
the northern part of the town and the site of the present "works," 
were purchased b)' the New Jersey Iron Company. This com- 
pany immediately began the construction of extensi\-e iron works. 
It was the building of these works which attracted immigration 
toward this section. If we are to judge of primitive Boonton from 
some of her undeveloped parts at the present time, we cannot but 
feel a sympathy f(jr the jMoneer settlers who hewed out their 
homes upon her rough hillsides. 

In the heat of summer and the cold blasts of winter the earlier 
Catholics trudged all the way to Madison, then called Bottle Hill, 
to hear Mass. 

The parish of the Rev. Father Senez included the counties of 
Morris, Sussex, and Warren. In making the rounds of this ex- 
tensive j^arish, he visited Boonton Falls and said Mass at the 
house of John Highland, which is still standing on Liberty Street. 

The Rev. B. J. McOuaid was appointed to assist Father Senez 
at Madison, and succeeded him after his departure for France. 
The spiritual wants of the Catholics of earlier times were looked 
after by Father Ward and other priests who said Mass at the 
house of John Long, on Brook Street, and who came from Pat- 
erson. 

The first contributors for a fund for the church were Barthol- 
omew Hart, Thomas Logan, John Fanning, John Highland, and 
Bartholomew Russell. Thomas Logan is still an old and faithful 
member of the church. 

It is stated on good authority that the first money was sub- 
scribed in 1846; that ground was broken in April of the following- 
year; that the little church was completed and dedicated on the 
15th of August, 1847. The ground upon which the church was 
built was donated by the New Jersey Iron Company, and though 
the deed was not passed until August, 1848, it is probable that, 
as the consideration was only nominal, the consent of the company 
to begin operations before that date was obtained. On March 
lOth, 1849, on the occasion of the dedication of the Church of the 
Assumption, at Morristown, a letter was written to the editor of 



IN NEW JERSEY 



191 



The Freeman's Journal, of New York, describing the same, in 
which it is stated positively that a church was built at Boonton 
Falls in 1847. 

The church was blessed by Rev. John Callan, who was sta- 
tioned at Dover. At the hrst Mass, which was celebrated by 
Father (^allan, there were fifteen persons present. The church 
was built b\- Henry Tuttle for the sum of ^350. 

The first church stood where the rectory now stands, and the 
plot of ground was used as a burying-ground until 1858, when the 
new plot was purchased on Green Street, above Wooten Street, 
and the bodies were removed and interred in the new ground. In 




ST. MAKV S CHUKC H, liOOXTOX. 



1867 the New Jersey Iron Comi)any donated a small plot adjoin- 
ing the former one, which has since been enclosed. 

The population of Boonton had increased from 300 in 1830 to 
2,000 in i860. On the arrival of Father Castet he found that the 
little church was inadequate for the needs of the growing parish. 
He immediately urged the building of a new church, and the 
handsome stone structure, with some additions and improvements, 
is the result. The parishioners with willing hands dug out the 
earth for the foundation, and in October, i860, the corner-stone 
was laid by Rt. Rev. James Roosevelt Bayley. It is estimated 
that the church cost about $12,000. The rectory was built three 
years after the church was finished, and its cost was much more 
in proportion than the church, on account of the increase of 
wages. 

Father Castet did everything for the Catholics of Boonton, and 



192 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



in return did not receive that grateful recognition to which he 
was entitled. Bishop McQuaid says there was no parish in the 
diocese where the services were more regular and more beautiful. 
He returned to France, where he died about 1898. His successor 
was the Rev. Louis Gambosville, born at Charenton, Fnrace, Oc- 
tober 14th, 1829. His theological studies were made in Orleans, 
where he was ordained priest June 7th, 1852. He had been 
a member of the Society of Mercy, and for a short time he was 
an assistant of St. Stephen's, New York. He was then affiliated 
to the Newark diocese, and appointed pastor of Boonton in 1 867, 

and rector of St. John's, New- 
ark, October, 1878. He died 
December 29th, 1891, a most 
edifying death. 

The first parochial school 
was opened in the basement 
of the church by Father 
Castet and was maintained 
by his successors until 1876. 
Fatlier Castet also visited 
Hibernia, to which place the 
first little church was moved, 
and attended to the spiritual 
wants of the parishioners. He 
also visited Macopin about 
once a month. Father Gam- 
bosville maintained the school 
and instructed the scholars 
personally. The Rev. John 
A. O' Grady came to Boon- 
ton to take the place vacated by Father Gambosville on November 
20th, 1878. 

It was indeed a gloomy prospect for Father O' Grady. The 
parish had now dwindled to 60 men, 66 women, and 130 children. 
The parish of Hibernia was still connected with Boonton. Father 
O'Grady had the church at Hibernia remodelled and had stained- 
glass windows placed in the same. He was appointed pastor to 
New Brunswick in May, 1891. He was succeeded by the Rev. 
P. F. Downes, who remained in Boonton till 1884, when he went 
to Paterson to establish a parish. Father Downes purchased a 
lot on the southwest corner of Birch and Oak streets, and erected 
the building that was afterward raised by Rev. J. P. Poels, and 




REV. JOHN J. TIGHE. 



IN NEW JERSEY 193 

made the second story of the i)i'esent school building. When 
Father Poels came to Boonton in June, 1884, he was enabled, by 
the condition of the times and the good will and generosity of the 
people, to begin an era of improvement. In 1886 he purchased 
the lot on the southeast corner of Oak and Birch streets, upon 
which he built the Sisters' residence. It was opened for occu- 
pancy on September i, 1887. Father Poels was appointed pastor 
of St. John's Church, Newark, February 25th, 1892. The new 
rector was the Rev. John J. Tighe, of St. Mary's, Hoboken. 
Father Tighe, like his predecessors, came to Boonton as a hum- 
ble and obedient servant of God, to perform the duties of his 
priestly mission. Time will not efface from the people's mind 
the memory of this genial and learned priest. 

The present rector, the Rev. Conrad Schotthoefer, D.D., was 
appointed to Boonton parish May ist, 1895. Father Schotthoefer, 
born in Syracuse, N. Y., October 29th, 1859, studied classics 
with the Franciscan Fathers in Syracuse and Trenton, and the- 
ology in the College, Brignole-Sale, Genoa, Italy, where he was 
raised to the priesthood September i8th, 1886. He was an 
assistant at St. John's, Newark, and labored with much fruit 
among the increasing number of Italians. August ist, 1887, he 
was appointed pastor of St. Philip Neri's (Italian) Church, and 
founded the congregations of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and 
St. Lucy, and built the church for the latter flock. 

St. Mary's Church, Dover, N. J. 

The frame building erected by Father " Dominic," as Father 
Senez was called, gave way to a stone building, commenced by the 
Rev. Pierce McCarthy, which was dedicated in 1873. School was 
inaugurated in the basement of the frame church by Father Callan 
in 1866. A new frame school-house was built in 1868 by Father 
Ouinn. The school was discontinued in 1870, but was taken up 
again in 1881, after Father Hanley had built a frame house for the 
Sisters. The small frame school-house was supplanted in 1889 
by a substantial brick building erected by the Rev. G. Funke, at a 
cost of about ^18,000. The rectory, a frame structure, was built 
by Rev. B. Ouinn in 1868, and in its place the present rectory 
was built by Rev. G. P"unke in 1899, at a cost of ^14,000. The 
old cemetery laid out by Rev. L. Senez in 1846 becoming too 
small, a new one was purchased by the Rev. P. McCarthy in 1874, 
to which an addition was made in 1903 by the Rev. G. Funke. 
13 



194 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

About 1844 Father Senez attended Dover from Madison. 
The Rev. B. J. McQuaid often went from Madison to say Mass. 
Father Senez, after building the church, left in 1846 and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. S. Ward. In 1847 Father John Callan was made 
pastor and remained until 1867; he also attended Rockaway, 
Mount Hope, and Stanhope. His successor was the Rev. B. 
Ouinn until 1869, when he was succeeded by Rev, P. Byrne, who 
visited the parish, alternating with Rev. P. Fitzsimmons until 
November, 1870. 

Then Rev. P. McCarthy, a professor in Seton Hall, was made 
rector, who was transferred to East Newark in November, 1878, 
and was succeeded by Rev. James Hanley, who had been pastor 
in Mount Hope. 

Father Hanley assuming charge of St. Bridget's, Jersey City, 
in January, 1883, the Rev. John A. Sheppard, then assistant at 
the Cathedral, became pastor and remained till August, 1884, to 
be succeeded by Rev. Nicholas Hens, who remained only eleven 
months, and was succeeded by the present rector. Rev. G. Funke, 
August ist, 1885, who had been pastor of St. Joseph's Church, 
Carlstadt, N. J., for eight years. 

Father Funke, born at Cappenberg in 1848, made his theologi- 
cal studies at the American College, Miinster, where he was or- 
dained May 30th, 1874. He served as an assistant in St. Mary's, 
Elizabeth, St. John's, Newark, and St. Pius', East Newark. 

St. Mary's Church, Gloucester, N. J. 

Previous to the year 1848 Catholics of this vicinity attended 
Mass in Philadelphia, and were considered members of the Cathe- 
■ dral parish in that city. 

The idea of making Gloucester a separate parish took definite 
shape in 1848, when a petition was presented to Bishop Kenrick, 
who ruled the diocese at that time, and as a result the Rev. E. Q. 
S. Waldron was appointed. Mass was first said in a private 
house, but the accommodations soon proved too small for the 
growing congregation. The superintendent of the school hall, 
though a non-Catholic, gave the use of the hall to Father Wal- 
dron, who for a time said Mass there every Sunday. Bigotry and 
ignorance soon deprived the little flock of this privilege. One 
Sunday morning the hall was rendered loathsome and unfit for 
services by a society of bigots who held a meeting there the Sat- 
urday evening previous, and who, to show their contempt for all 



IN NEW JKRSKY 



195 



things Catholic, scattered around the hall dirt and filth of every 
description. The school hall was abandoned. 

In 1849 a generous and large-hearted Protestant gentleman 
named Mr. Robb donated the ground for a church. Pastor and 
people immediately made every effort to erect a suitable edifice, 
their exertions meeting with 
great opposition. The first 
and second corner - stones 
were stolen, but a third, laid 
by Father Matthew, the great 
apostle of temperance, was 
buried ten feet under the 
earth. The church was built 
of limestone on the site of 
the present parochial school, 
and had a seating capacity of 
400. 

Catholics labored earnest- 
ly indeed for the honor of 
God in these early years of 
Gloucester's history Tradi- 
tion tells us that non-Cath- 
olics were surprised and 
wondered at the stupendous 
work assumed by Catholics. 
Father Waldron ministered 
to the Catholics of Gloucester 
until May, 1 849, when he was 
succeeded by the Rev. Jer- 
emiah Donoghue, who con- 
tinued his ministrations until 
September, 1850. Father H. 
B. Finnegan attended the 

parish from 1850 to 1851, when the Rev. J. N. Hannigan was 
appointed resident pastor. He remained until 1858. He 
died in the West, but his remains lie in St. Mary's Cemetery. 
Father Hannigan was succeeded by Father James Daly. 
During Father Daly's administration a brick school was erected 
and two classes were formed, with Miss Annie Whittington as 
teacher. 

In 1869 Rev. W. J. Wiseman was appointed pastor and re- 
mained until 1873. Dr. Wiseman had a new school built, and the 




ST. MAKV S CHURCH, GLOUCESTER. 



196 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

old brick church was occupied by the Sisters of St. Dominic, who 
were introduced into the parish. The ground whereon these 
buildings stood was low and marshy. The brick building proved 
an unwholesome habitation. Three Sisters died in it from the 
dampness of the structure. In 1873 Rev. Egbert Kars was ap- 
pointed pastor. With characteristic generosity he gave up the 
rectory to the Sisters and went to live in the old brick building, 
which served as his parochial residence up to his death, in the 
spring of 1886. He was a good and pious priest and his memory 
rests over Gloucester as a benediction. In the prime of manhood 
he was called to his reward. The Rev. Thomas J. McCormack 
was appointed his successor. There was great work to be done 
in the parish, as the number of Catholics increased with the 
growth of the town. The happy and laborious task of putting 
Catholicity on a broader field fell to the lot of Father McCormack, 
who proved himself equal to the work, as the results of his labors 
and zeal amply testify. In the autumn of 1886 he secured twelve 
lots, bounded by Somerset, Atlantic, and Monmouth streets. 
The last mentioned is the principal residential centre of Gloucester. 
The present substantial parochial residence was built at the cost 
of $14,000. In the beginning of March, 1888, Father McCor- 
mack moved into the new rectory. The lots and rectory were 
paid for, a few old debts were wiped out, and immediately, March 
24th, 1888, ground was broken for the new church. On July 
15th Bishop O'Farrell, of happy memory, laid the corner-stone. 
The church was brought to completion without delay, and dedi- 
cated on November 24th, 1889. The cost of the structure was 
$65,000. In the spring of 1893 the last dollar of debt on St. 
Mary's property was paid. 

St. Mary's Church, one of the most beautiful churches in 
New Jersey, is built of hard sandstone of a bluish-gray color. 
The stone trimmings are tool-dressed and the front has a fine 
stone gable cross. The style of architecture is the early deco- 
rated Gothic, with French feeling in the treatment of all the de- 
tails. The church is 140 feet in length by 70 feet in width; add- 
ing to the beauty of a magnificent structure is a tower and spire, 
together 160 feet in height. Sweet-toned chimes in the tower 
announce the hours of services, and on Sundays and festivals the 
dulcet cadences of favorite anthems are musically pealed forth by 
the harmonious bells. 

With the church complete and clear of debt, Father McCor- 
mack next turned his attention to the school. He had the old 



IN NEW JKRSEY 197 

church and school torn down, and erected the handsome school 
at the corner of Cumberland and Sussex streets. It is built 
three stories high, of brown stone and brick, surmounted by 
a belfry in which is the bell of old St. Mary's Church. Besides 
having man}^ large class-rooms, the building has a fine enter- 
tainment hall that will seat 900 persons. The corner-stone of 
the new school was laid by Bishop O'Farrell July 3d, 1893. The 
school was dedicated September 30th, 1895, by the Rt. Rev. 
James A. McFaul. 

Father McCormack worked zealously and well, and his name 
will ever be associated with St. Mary's parish, which he made one 
of the best equipped in the State. He was born in New York 
City, October 26th, 1852, and died on the field of his labors in the 
midst of the flock he loved, July 30th, 1898. 

The next pastor of St. Mary's was the Rev. Peter L. Connolly, 
who administered to the parish for three years. His short admin- 
istration in St. Mary's parish closed the career of this zealous and 
venerable priest. He died after a short illness September 29th, 
1901. 

The Rev. Charles G. Giese was appointed October 2d, 1901, to 
take up the work laid down b)- the late Father Connolly. For 
upward of twenty -one years the present pastor labored in Mill- 
ville, and with such marked success that the people grudgingly 
gave consent to his removal by Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul to the 
larger and wider field of Gloucester City. His coming was 
greeted with as affectionate a welcome by the parishioners of St. 
Mary's as his departure from Millville was sad. 

St. Patrick's Pro-Cathedral, Newark. 

Begun by the venerable Father Moran, finished by Father 
Senez, and consecrated during the pastorate of the Rt. Rev. Mon- 
signor Doane, St. Patrick's is embalmed in the sweetest and 
holiest as well as the saddest memories of the past. 

Former Senator Smith, at the banquet given by Bishop 
O'Connor to the laymen of the diocese who had contributed to 
the Special Jubilee Cathedral Fund, November 4th, 1903, respond- 
ing to the toast, "Old Cathedral Charms," said: "St. Patrick's 
was built because some members of old St. John's, in Mulberry 
Street, objected to the enlargement of that edifice, and urged the 
erection of a new chvu'ch in the centre of the city. Then Father 
Moran, called 'the F'ather of Catholicity in Newark,' with the 



198 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



authority of Bishop Hughes, succeeded, in spite of the prejudice 
against the Cathohc Church, in buying the land which St. Pat- 
rick's now occupies. Therefore, in any reference to the old cathe- 
dral, Father Moran should get credit, for he drew the plans for 
St. Patrick's, the second Catholic church in Newark, and he laid 
the foundations of the building [and carried it on to the clere- 
story. — Authoi-]. He had trials in prosecuting the work, but with 
the aid of Father Louis Dominic Senez, who became the first pas- 
tor, the church was completed in 1850. The work, begun in 
1846, was delayed a year by the builder running away. Arch- 
bishop Hughes, the great pre- 
late and statesman, laid the 
corner-stone and officiated at 
the dedication. . . . The par- 
ish first extended from Belle- 
ville to the south end of the 
city, and west to Orange, with 
the exception of St. Mary's 
(jcrman church parish. Har- 




RT. REV. MONSIGNOR (i. H. DOANE, P. A. 



rison was also in St. Patrick's 
l)arish. The streets and roads 
were not paved, and in wet 
weather the priests had to 
wade through mud, and they 
had to do a great deal of walk- 
ing in those days." 

What scenes has the old 
cathedral witnessed ! What 
voices have resounded through 
its arches! Here was the first bishop of the diocese installed 
and from its portals, on a bleak October morning, was his body 
borne to his distant archiepiscopal see, to be afterward laid be- 
side the remains of his sainted aunt. Mother Seton, in the 
humble God's-acre of Mount St. Mary's. Here were his three 
successors consecrated to the episcopal office with all the rev- 
erent pomp and solemnity of the Roman ritual. Here lay the 
body of Bishop Wigger, and after the solemn requiem had 
been chanted over his remains, through slush and sleet, ac- 
companied by thousands, the third bishop was laid awa)^ in the 
Cemetery of the Holy Sepulchre. Here a glorious comjiany of 
young Levites, the children of the parish, raised to the sublime 
dignity of the priesthood, have celebrated their first Mass, and 



IN NKW JERSEY 



199 



r. 




ST. i'ATRICK'S PRO-CATHEDRAL. 



200 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

crowds thronged the altar rails to kiss their consecrated hands. 
Here Father Anthony, the emaciated, ascetic son of St. Paul of 
the Cross, like another John the Baptist, terrified the sinner and 
in thundering tones warned him of his eternal doom if he neglected 




SCENE ]H'KIX(. COXSECRATIOX OF I'.ISIIol' o (OXXOK IX ST. PATRICK S 
I'RO-CATHEDKAL. 

to turn from the error of his ways. Here the great Smarius 
alternately swayed his audience to tears and laughter. Here the 
great Father "Tom " Burke electrified his hearers by that match- 
less eloquence, which has never been svu'passed and will hardly 
be equalled in our day, and which captivated and enthralled the 
thousands whose privilege it was to listen to this gifted son of St. 
Dominic. Hither came the \er)' flower of pulpit eloquence, the 
standard-bearers of the faith, the McOuaids, the Heckers, the 
Hewitts, the Spaldings, the Lynches — each in his day a master of 
the divine gift, each powerful in word and work. Here have min- 
istered almost threescore of pastors and assistants, of whom 
Senator Smith, in the above-mentioned speech, said: "Within the 
walls of old St. Patrick's labored men whose li\-es were conse- 
crated to the service of God, from Moran to Doane, every one of 
whom gained an honorable place in the hierarchy of the Church. 
Bishop Corrigan was not a member of the cathedral parish, but 
the people claimed him, for at one time a majority of the Catho- 



IN NEW JERSEY 



aoi 



lies of Newark were in the parish. He liked the okl cathedral. 
Bishop Wig-o-er was not a Newarker, but he received his training 
in church work as a curate under Monsignor Doane at the okl 
cathedral, where among si.xty other curates Bishop James A. 
McFaul, of Trenton, Monsignors Sheppard and O'Grady, Dean 
Flynn, and others were trained. From the children of this ven- 
erable parish were sent many priests, who went to other fields of 
labor and erected churches for the people to worship in, and 
schools in which their children are given a good religious and 
secular education, fitting them to be good citizens. Many young 
women of the old parish ha\'e joined religious orders and conse- 
crated their lives to the education of the young, the care of the 
orphans, the sick, and the aged. And, finally, from those who 
labored within this sanctuary have sprung institutions of learn- 




THE DIOCESAN GOLDEN JUBILEE, NOVEMBER 3d. 1903. 



ing second to none, institutions for the physical and religious 
welfare of those who are bereft of home and parents, and for the 
treatment of the afflicted." 

In September, 1853, came the news that the Rev. James 
Roosevelt Bayley, the secretary of Archbishop Hughes, was 



■202 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



appointed first Bishop of Newark, embracing the whole State of 
New Jersey. Father Senez hastened to New York and placed 
his resignation of the pastoral charge of St. Patrick's in the hands 
of the bishop-elect. In vain were argument and cajoling used to 
induce him to remain, and hax'ing been asked who was qualified 




(Coiiyrifiht I9II'2, l.y Smitli-rur 
RIGHT REV. BERNARD M'QUAID, BISHOP OF ROCHESTER. 



among the priests of the new diocese to take his place, Father 
Senez without hesitation named Father McOuaid, then in Madison. 
Bishop-elect Bayley wrote at once to Father McOuaid to report 
at the cathedral the following Sunday. But the pastor of Madi- 
son found this impossible, as he had made arrangements with con- 
tractors to begin the church in Mendham, and, furthermore, he 



IN NEW JERSEY 203 

claimed at least a week's delay to arrange matters in Madison. 
This request was granted, and on Sunday, September 25th, the 
new pastor made his first appearance before his new charge. 

It was not easy to supplant Father Senez in the affection of 
his flock, since this good priest exercised a strong — some would 
call it a hypnotic — influence over all those with whom he came in 
touch, and to this day the remnants of the old pioneers still speak 
of him with love and veneration. When he first visited his new 
mission, Father McOuaid was dissatisfied with the conditions he 
found in the orphanage in the rear of the church. 

Father Senez had installed some good women of the parish as 
matrons of the little ones, and while they did the best they could, 
still there was abundant room for improvement. On a visit to 
Bishop Bayley, Father McQuaid made known to him the actual 
state of affairs and the shortcomings in the asylum, and suggested 
that he ask the Sisters of Charity to take charge. The request 
having been put to Mother Angela, Sister Philippine and her little 
band were assigned to the mission and took charge of the orphans, 
October i8th, 1853, and were thus the first religious women to 
inaugurate in the diocese of Newark the work of charity which, 
during the last fifty years, has so flourished and extended. Before 
his departure Father Senez had built St. Mary's Hall on High 
Street, the site of the present Women's Hospital connected with 
St. Michael's, for school purposes, and where Mass was offered 
for the children on Sundays. This was old St. Patrick's school 
for boys, as the girls were taught in the old asylum on Central 
Avenue, then Nesbitt Street. Father McOuaid built the chapel 
and sacristy, and purchased the present priest's home on Bleecker 
Street, which he enlarged for the accommodation of the bishop 
and the clergy. Monsignor Doane further added to it in later 
years. 

Of Father McOuaid the registrar of the clergy records " that 
he was born in New York City, made his preparatory studies in 
Chambly, Canada, his theological studies in St. Joseph's Seminary, 
Fordham, and was ordained, January i6th, 1848, the feast of the 
Holy Name of Jesus, by Bishop Hughes; consecrated first bishop 
of Rochester by Archbishop McCloskey, in St. Patrick's Cathe- 
dral, New York, July 12th, 1868; nominated previously for Cin- 
cinnati, etc. Appointed pastor of Madison, Dover, Morristown, 
Mendham, etc., etc. His mission extended all through Morris 
County, and he used to make his ministrations extend also to 
Warren County, then in the diocese of Philadelphia. He opened 



204 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

the first continuous Catholic school in New Jersey, that is, the 
first which has never since been closed ; taught in it himself, to 
start it, for six months. He built the church of the Assumption, 
Morristown, St. Rose's Church, Springfield, now removed to 
Short Hills. Pastor of the cathedral, vicar-general after Father 
Moran's death, and the right arm of the bishop for many years. 
He built and rebuilt Seton Hall. College ; introduced the Sisters 
of Charity, and was foremost in promoting all diocesan works." 

What he did for St. Patrick's is not yet forgotten. His Ros- 
ary Society was so numerous that meetings had to be held on two 
successive Sundays. He built the Young Men's Institute on 
New Street, and was the father of the Young Men's Catholic 
Association, which to-day numbers thousands in its ranks. In 
parochial work, in the confessional, in the pulpit he never spared 
himself. When in the seminary his fellow-seminarists — big, 
burly, healthy sons of Erin — would look down with contempt on 
his thin, emaciated frame, and say, loud enough for him to hear, 
"They'll never make priests of such scrawny Yanks." But, as 
he to-day says, bowed under the weight of years, but laboring 
still with the same tireless activity, " I have downed them all." 
It is true. Of all those who assisted at the consecration and 
installation of Bishop Bayley, he is the only one left — the last of 
the Old Guard. Zealous as a churchman, P'ather McOuaid was 
no less ardent as a patriot. Learning on a Saturday evening of 
the attack on P'ort Sumter — the clarion which sounded the open- 
ing of the internecine struggle between the North and the South 
— on Sunday morning in eloquent and pathetic words he told his 
flock what was their duty, and pleaded with them to be loyal to 
the old flag. 

Of all the ministers of the Gospel, Leather McOuaid was first 
and alone that memorable Sunday morning to rally his flock to 
the defence of the Union. 

In the following week he was the only clergyman invited to 
address the public meeting assembled at the Court House to 
voice the patriotic sentiments of the citizens of Newark — a com- 
plimentary recognition of his patriotic action. And to the front 
he went as chaplain of the New Jersey Brigade, and mingled 
with the wounded and dying on the battle-field, amid the storm 
of shot and shell, until captured by the Confederates. 

From the dawn of his priestly life to the golden autumn of his 
fruitful episcopal career Bishop McOuaid has ever been the con- 
sistent, unswerving champion of Christian education. With him 



IN NEW JERSEY 205 

this has never been an academic question. To emphasize its im- 
portance, in addition to his other manifold and pressing duties he 
assumes the role of teacher, and for six months he performs the 
drudgery, but cheerfully, uncomplainingly, because he is convinced 
of its necessity. His motto has ever been, Upward and onward ; 
and it is safe to say that, in the thoroughness of the training of its 
priests and teaching sisters, in the rounded, solid education of 
its children, the diocese of Rochester is peerless among all. 
Bishop McOuaid's monument is St. Bernard's Seminary. In 
mediaeval days the great churchmen were William of Wykeham, 
Wolsey, and Richelieu, to whom Cambridge, Oxford, and the 
Sorbonne look as their patrons and founders, and is it not pardon- 
able to link to these names that of the Bishop of Rochester? 
Without the almost boundless resources these prelates and states- 
men enjoyed. Bishop McQuaid, full of trust in God, secure by his 
devotion to the Holy Souls, has gone on with his work from the 
humblest beginnings, while those nearest to him in confidence 
and closest to him in sympathy were breathless as to the end of it 
all; regardless of cruel cynicism, which great souls with noble 
projects never fail to call forth, this venerable bishop may point 
to-day with pardonable pride to a work accomplished, to criti- 
cism silenced, to folly imitated — the safest criterion of merit and 
admiration. 

The so-called Maria Monk revelations, and the animosities ex- 
cited by some Italian fugitives from justice, who accused the papal 
nuncio, Mgr. Cajetan Bedini, of cruelties when acting as gov- 
ernor of one of the papal states, and the old racial hatred of the 
men of the north of Ireland toward those of the south, culminated 
in an outburst of fanatical fury, as cruel as it was unjust. Some 
lodges of Orangemen visited Newark September 5th, 1854, 
where they were joined by kindred organizations, including some 
German Turners. They marched through the street, with an 
open Bible at the head of the procession, to the picnic grounds. 
In the afternoon, heated by drink, which aroused all the savage 
instincts in their breasts, they marched to the little German church 
on High and William streets, and immediately began to attack it. 
So unsuspicious of danger was the pastor, that at the very mo- 
ment of the onslaught he was dining with a reverend visitor, who, 
hearing the tumult and rushing to the window and beholding the 
angry mob, jumped out of a window and escaped. Father Balleis 
hid himself under a bed, but his housekeeper, brave of heart and 
indignant at the sacrilege, seized a broomstick and, brandishing 



2o6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

it at the rioters, defied them. They sacked the church, broke the 
windows, and bent the pipes of the organ, but, fortunately, the 
Blessed Sacrament was removed by the fleeing priest on his way 
to a safer shelter. 

Bishop Bayley, together with Father McQuaid, had gone early 
that morning to accompany Father Harkins of Boston on a visit 
to Seton Hall, then at Madison. Sister Philippine, at that time 
in charge of the orphan asylum, fearing that the mob would 
attack the orphanage, led her little ones into the church. There 
they remained during the rest of the day and far into the night in 
prayer, until, reassured by the return of their pastor, they retired 
to repose, if not to rest. F'ather McOuaid, obeying a secret in- 
stinct, returned to Newark earlier than he had intended, and on 
his arrival learned the news of the outrage. 

One of the bystanders, an inoffensive Catholic, had been killed 
and many others wounded, which wrought the Catholics working 
in the neighborhood into a great state of excitement. Fathers 
Moran and McOuaid went among them and calmed their anger 
by counselling them to allow the authorities to pursue the mis- 
creants in the jM'oper legal way. An investigation was, indeed, 
made, in which it was clearly demonstrated that there was no 
provocation on the part of the Catholics, and the blame was laid, 
where it belonged, to the Orange lodges. More than one of these 
misguided bigots became a parable — to use a good old Irish and 
significant expression — to his own and a later generation. The 
acrimony spread to the more pacific non-Catholics of the commu- 
nity, whose hatred, if not so active, was still as deeply rooted and 
bitter. The children on the way from the first Catholic school 
in Plane Street, and their elders on their way to the store or going 
home from work, were mocked and sneered at. The newspapers 
caricatured them; they were attacked and vilified in the pulpit. 
A Rev. Mr. Prince accused Father Moran with advising the 
Catholics of St. Mary's against taking the tracts and Bibles which 
were offered them by the Bible Society. Father Moran replied 
that the Germans were unable to read English, and that the Bibles 
offered them differed essentially from the Rheims Version. 
While always deprecating controversy, Father Moran never shrank 
from defending his faith and his Church. Anonymous articles 
appeared in the press, to which the good priest replied with the 
irresistible force of one having truth and justice on his side; and, 
eventually, one of the writers, no less a personage than Chief 
Justice Hornblower, had the manliness publicly to apologize to 



IN NEW JERSEY 



207 



Father Moran for his charges against the Catholic Church, and 
ever after remained the firm and ardent friend of the priest. 

Under all this provocation the Catholics, obeying fully but 
reluctantly the advice of their pastors, remained quiet, curbing 
that hot Celtic nature under the stins; that hurt most — the insult 




MOST REV. MICHAEL A. CURKIGAN, D.D. 
Second Bishop of Newark. 



to their religion. The tempest passed, and, while its trail was 
long visible, still it bore fruit by knitting Catholics more closely 
together, and, blotting out national prejudices, made both the 
Germans and the Irish realize to the full that their common glory 
and shame was not by loyalty to fatherland, but fealty to the one 
Church of whose body they were privileged to be members. The 



2o8 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

edelweiss blossoms and thrives in the snows of the icy summits 
of the Alps, and so this vine of Christian faith seems never to 
thrive so well as in the storm and fury of persecution. Within it 
is a divine germ which no human power can destroy. At times 
it seems to wither, it gives every sign of decay, and when men 
prepare to sing its death-knell, lo ! it bursts forth again in all the 
bounty of springtide blossoming, and ready again to bestow its 
benisons on humanity. One evil alone it has to fear — the evil of 
prosperity, when her children begin to gather into barns, to enjoy 
without stint and without gratitude, God's bounteous blessings. 
When her children have forced their wa)' to the little band of 
moneyed barons, political and professional leaders, then they for- 
get their God and his Church, and too often take the step which 
leads almost inevitably to the shipwreck of that faith, which all 
the cruelty of persecution, poverty, and plague was powerless to 
wrest from their fathers — a matrimonial alliance with one of alien 
faith. 

Here is the fruitful cause of the frightful leakage of the past. 

The shock which had almost crushed the Catholics was to 
ricochet in some measure against the less hostile of their oppo- 
nents. One Saturday evening after confessions in St. Patrick's, 
Mr. Matthew O'Brien, the sexton, called on Father McOuaid to 
tell him that a young man had walked into the church and insisted 
on seeing Bishop Bayley. The sexton directed him to go to the 
bishop's house. While Fathers McOuaid and Venuta were dis- 
cussing the character of the visitor and the nature of the errand 
the night-bell rang. It was then after eleven. At the suggestion 
of Father McOuaid, Father Venuta answered it. He found a 
tall, handsome young man, who excitedly asked for the bishop. 
He was told that as it was already late it would be difficult, if not 
out of the question, to see him. He so persisted that finally 
Father Venuta went to Bishop Bayley's room and delivered the 
young man's n^essage. The bishop replied, "Tell him I can't see 
him. It is too late, and let him call again." 

But undaunted by this rebuff, the young man replied that he 
would not leave the house until he saw the bishop. 

On hearing this Bishop Bayley came out of his room and in- 
vited the stranger to enter. They talked far into the night, and 
George Hobart Doane returned to Grace Church rectory and in- 
formed the rector that he could take no part in the services that 
day. He paid a short visit to his father, who was the Episcopal 
Bishop of New Jersey, and promised him to wait two months— in 



IN NEW JERSEY 209 

Newport — before taking any decisive step. In that fashionable 
watering-place he met Mrs. Peters of Cincinnati and other devout 
Catholics, who instructed and confirmed him in the doctrines of 
that Church of whose priesthood he has been these many decades 
of years its glory and its boast. But an abler pen, of one long 
since dead, but whose heart alwa}'s throbbed with admiration and 
veneration for the pastor of his childhood and the guide of his 
riper years — the Rev. Michael J. Holland, late pastor of St. Co- 
lumba's, Newark — will continue this theme. - 

Rt. Rev. Mgr. G. H. Doane, P.A. 

"To-day," wrote Archbishop Bayley, on September 22d, 1855, 
"I baptized George Hobart Doane, son of the Protestant Episco- 
pal Bishop of New Jersey." Educated, refined, and with every 
natural inducement in life beckoning him forward, this young 
deacon of the Episcopal Church abandoned all for' Christ's follow- 
ing. Newark could then boast of but a few simply constructed 
Catholic churches, having no conveniences apart from those neces- 
sarily required. The Orphan Asylum and Young Men's Insti- 
tute excepted, it possessed iio Catholic institutions, and its Cath- 
olic population, with but a few exceptions, were working men 
toiling hard for their daily bread. This would make the young 
man's sacrifice far more great. However, we see him later en- 
tering the Seminary of St. Sulpice, in Paris, and finally, after 
a visit to the Seven Hilled City, returning to Newark, where 
he was ordained priest on the 13th of September, 1857. The cer- 
emony was performed in the presence of a crowded congregation 
by Archbishop Bayley, in the Newark Cathedral. Doctor Ly- 
man, of Baltimore, a former convert to the faith, the Rev. Mr. 
Neligan, a former Episcopalian minister ; Dr. Ives, once Episco- 
pal Bishop of North Carolina; P^ather Hewitt, and others were 
present. Archbishop Bayley's memoranda thus summarize the 
event : " A Protestant minister was to-day ordained by a bishop 
who was formerly a Protestant minister, assisted by several priests 
who were formerly Protestant ministers, in the presence of a lay- 
man who was fromerly an Episcopal bishop." The Rev. gentle- 
man became the private secretary of Bishop Bayley, succeeded 
Father McOuaid as pastor of the Cathedral, became Chancellor of 
the Diocese, and Vicar-General under Bishop Corrigan, and he was 
honored with the purple by Leo XI 1 1., and after the departure of 
Archbishop Corrigan to New York, was appointed the administra- 
14 



210 rill, CA'IIIOMC CHURCH 

tor of the J)ioccsc of Newark. Moiisi^iior Doane's sinj^ularly 
marked career, apart fioni his ministerial al)iiity, lias heen of vast 
utility to our gradual ^lovvth and dexelopmeiit. lie obtained a 
hearing with certain classes wheie others could not, and if he 
could not wholly convince them, he at least taught many how to 
respect the Church. At the very outbreak of the war he was ap- 
pointed ch;iplain to the New Jersey brigade by (iovernor Olden, 
but unable to withstand the hardships of the field, he was obliged 
to resign the commission. He has, ])erha])s, been the ]M'incii)al 
motor and the most gratified witness of the origin and progress of 
the majority of Newark's Catholic institutions, ("hurches, hospi- 
tals, scliools, orphanages, and academies have successively sprung 
up under his watchful care. Apart from all else St. Michael's 
Hospital is a practical illustration of his activity. A singular in- 
cident in connection with its beginning is this remarkable fact: 
The first time that white and coloied nicn jjaradcd together the 
public streets of the United States was at the laying of its corner- 
stone. This was a most fitting ])re]ude, since the hos|Mtal recog- 
nizes neither cix-ed nor color. It lavishes its attentive care u])on 
every unfortunate, irrespective of color, creed, or condition, its 
good sisters, servants of the afflicted, are bound by vows of pov- 
erty and obedience to assist, wait upon, and sei've even the most 
rej^ulsive cases. The ])resent capacity of the hospital is 280 beds, 
the average number treated during the year, 2,500, and of out-door 
])atients, from (S,ooo to 10,000. 

I low sacred were the ties rui)tured by the conversion of Mon- 
signor Doane, how prunful the wound inflicted by the step his con- 
science ])rompted him to take, in;iy be judged by what follows: 

l)i()Ci<:sK oi'" Nhwakk. 

Sentence of Depositiiui from llie Jllinisny in tlw Case of Rev. 
(jeorge I lobdii J)oaiie, A/./)., Deacon. 

To all, everywhere, who are in communion with the One Holy 
Catholic and Apostolic Church: 

Be it known that C^icoige Ilobart Doane, M.I)., deacon of this 
diocese, having declared to me in handwriting his renunciation of 
the ministry, which he received at my hands, from the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and his design not to officiate in future in any of the offices 
thereof, intending to submit himself to the schismatical Roman 
intrusion, is deposed from the ministry, and I hereby pronounce 
and declare him to be deiKvsed, in the name of the h'ather, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy (ihost, Amen. 



IN Ni:w jkksi:y 21 1 

Given at Riverside, this fifteenth day of Se]>teml)er, in the 
year of Our Lord 1855, and in the twenty-third )earof my con- 
secration. 

G. W. DoANK, D.U., LL.D., 

] lis hop of N CIV Jersey. 
In presence of Milo Mahan, D.D., Presbyter, / 
Marcus J'". Hyde, A.M., Presbyter. [ 

This sentence was not executed until the provision of the 
canon "where the party has acted unadvisedly and hastily," which 
is preeminently the jiresent case, had been offered, urged, and re- 
fused. It only remains for me humbly to ask the prayers of the 
faithful in Christ Jesus, that my errinj.^ child may be brought back 
to the way of truth and peace; and for myself, that I may have 
grace to bear and do the holy will of (iod. 

G. W. Do.X.NE. 

After some years in the priesthood ]'"ather Doane was invited 
by the pastor to preach in the Catholic church of liurlington, his 
home, and the l'2piscopal See of his father. Jiishop Doane re- 
marked to his man-of-all-work, a Catholic, "Well, J see the 
prodigal is coming home. Then we must kill the fatted calf." lie 
sent ornaments from his home and flowers from his garden for 
the adornment of the altar, and in the evening father and son 
were reconciled. 

The MelropoliUiH of March, 1854, announces the results of a 
fair held by the ladies in aid of the Orphan Asylum, \vhi( h netted 
$2,000. The same paj^-r has a notice of Lockwood's picture of 
the Last Judgment. Mr. Lockwood was a convert to the faith, 
and during nine years had been occupied almost exclusively u|K)n 
this |)icture, which contained 1,500 figures. " The great blemish to 
it is a figure typifying Liberty, or man in a state of freedom, re- 
ceived by an angel, which is neither more nor less than a half-nude 
portrait of Washington." What has become of it } 

This leads up to the old school, which was lo( ated next to the 
cottage of the Lockwoods', in the rear of whose lot was a s])acious 
building on Orleans Street, said to contain this wondeiful painting. 
As one looks back to old St. I'atrick's school, with its crowded 
rooms and heterogeneous mass of boys of every condition, from 
the barefooted, tow-headed urchin to the well-dressed, well- 
groomed son of a comfortable home, under the tutorship of the 
memorable and worthy l^ernard Kearney, Michael K. Kenny, 
"Tom " McGovern, and Miss Esther O'Grady, when the fads and 
appliances of modern education were totally absent and unknown, 



212 THt: CATHOLIC CHURCH 

and scans the leaders in business, political, and ecclesiastical life 
to-day, there are few schools can compare with it in results. The 
old fire bell would occasionally deplete the room of the big boys, 
and the " Cedars " were an irresistible alku'ement in the balmy 
days of spring, and people would keep on dying, and necessitate 
Mr. Kearney engraving coffin-plates, for of this he held the mo- 
nopoly among the Catholics of the city, and Mr. Schmidt would 
have the boys meet in the first room of the girls' school for rehear- 
sal ; but, despite all these drawbacks, many of the old boys have 
attained success in the mercantile world, many have gone into the 
priesthood, and none has ever been heard to utter any unkind 
word or bitter protest against " Kearney's School." The old 
boys had the faith, and it was not a slumbering, quiescent article, 
but active and, at times, belligerent, as some of the old Eighth Ward 
boys will recall. They were loyal, too, and at the outbreak of the 
Civil War more eloquent, but not more patriotic addresses were 
made in the halls of Congress, than in front of the old school 
doors, and on the strip of fence between the angles, at the entrance 
to the school, was written in large letters, " No Compromise." 
It did not much matter that the boys did not understand what this 
meant, but the loyal newspapers bore this motto on their head- 
lines, and this satisfied the boys that it was the proper principle to 
uphold, and uphold it they did. Before the war ended, on the rolls 
of the patriot dead who shed their blood and offered their li\'es in 
defence of the Union, were many of Kearney's boys. 

What has become of the Irish schoolmaster.? He seems to be 
as extinct as the great auk. The Kearneys of Newark, the Cur- 
rans of Orange, the O'Neills of Morris County, the O'Connors 
and Doughertys of Paterson, strong of muscle, arithmetic, and 
penmanship, they did not spare the rod, and most of us are like a 
certain British admiral, who stated in the House of Commons that 
he was the better .^or the floggings he received at school. Peace 
to their ashes ! In many parishes they kept the faith alive, on a 
pittance of a salary, and turned out a larger percentage of chil- 
dren thoroughly grounded in the three R's, good spellers and good 
penmen, than schools do nowadays. 

The Christian Brothers came in September, 1866, and are fol- 
lowing out the traditions of their order, and carrying on the good 
work inaugurated more humbly in old St. Mary's Hall. They 
may count their alumni among the leading business and profes- 
sional men, not only of the city, but of the State and among the 
clergy, and their loyal adherence to their Church is at once the 



IN NEW JERSEY 



213 



reward and merit of their Christian teachers. The same is like- 
wise true of the girls, whose school has been in charge of the Sis- 
ters of Charity from the beginning. The old building gave place 
to the present substantial school in 1887. 

The Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, Morristown. 

It is quite certain, then, that during the winters of 1779 and 
1780 the number of Catholics in aiid around Morristown far ex- 
ceeded the number of Catholics at present in our parish, made up 
of the Irish Catholics in the Pennsylvania, New York, and New 
Jersey regiments, and the French and Polish officers attached to 
the line. 

In the Pennsylvania line were many Irish, both officers and 
soldiers ; and in the Official Register of tJie Officers and Men of 




FIRST CULKCU IX -MUKRISTOWX. ISUILT IX 1847. 

Nexv Jersey in tJie Revol/ttionary War, compiled under the admin- 
istration of Governor Theodore F. Randolph by Adjutant-General 
Stryker, a cursory glance shows that many of the New Jersey 
regiments contained a liberal number of Irishmen, over four hun- 



214 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



dred officers and soldiers with unmistakably Irish names being 
credited to the southern counties. 

Without priest or Mass, except on very rare visits from Father 
Farmer, they were married by the squire or magistrate ; and their 
children, if they themselves did not, attended the Protestant 
Church, for the reason that it was the only one in the neighbor- 
hood Their companions and 




of 



alien 



associates were 
faith. 

It is not surprising, then, 
that the Celtic names which 
prevailed in Morristovvn in 
the first quarter of the pres- 
ent century are not found on 
our church records. 

With their faith the chil- 
dren lost likewise the distinc- 
tive character of their family 
names. McGee becomes in 
its filtered state Magee; Mc- 
Carthy becomes Mccarty ; 
Kearnc)' becomes Kerny or 
Callahan becomes 
Raferty becomes 
All these names 
still prevail in our midst and 
are the indices of both the 
country and religion of their 
progenitors. 

A list of letters, uncalled 
for in the post-ofifice, October 
I St, 1807, contains the following names : Andrew Darsey, Michael 
F'laherty, John Kelly. 

It is said that one O'Hara taught a classical school in Morris- 
town in the first decade of this century, which was the germ of 
the subsequent McCullogh school 

In 1825 Charles Berault, a Catholic and a native of San Do- 
mingo, lived in the Revere House on DeHart Street He married 
a Mile. Des Abbeyes, also of a wealthy San Domingo family. 
Another daughter was Madame Chegarray, who taught a fashion- 
able Young Ladies' Academy, afterward purchased by Bishop 
Bayley, and the cradle of Seton Hall. This is now the prop- 



Kearn)' ; 

Callinan; 

Raverty. 



CHURCH OF THE ASSUMPTION, MOR- 
RISTOWN. 



IN NEW JERSEY 215 

erty of the Sisters of Charity t)n the old Convent road to 
Madison. 

A certain Benjamin Douglas kept a diary, now in the posses- 
sion of the Brookrteld family, his descendants, which contains the 
following" entries : 

"The first Roman Catholic service performed in the town- 
ship of Chatham was in the house of Lavaal Duberceau, at Bottle 
Hill, Sunday, July 30th, 1825, by Rev. O'Donahue. Text, fifth 
chapter of Galatians." 

Father O'Donahue visited Madison once a month from Pater- 
son and said Mass in the upper part of the academy. His Sun- 
day evening instructions were attended by large numbers of non- 
Catholics. His light-hearted gayety drew to him the hearts of all, 
especially the children. 

To the Rev. Louis Dominic Senez belongs the credit of crys- 
tallizing the little Catholic body in Morristovvn, and infusing into 
their hearts the courage, despite their small number and poverty, 
to build a sanctuary, which would hold their children and them- 
selves to the practice of their religion. "The first time I saw 
Father Senez," said old Tom Degan, "was at a vendue near 
Madison." 

"If I am not mistaken," said the good priest smilingly, in 
broken English, flavored with a strong French accent, " you are 
an Irishman and a Catholic." 

"And if I am not mistaken," replied Tom, "you are a Catho- 
lic priest." 

This was their mutual introduction. There was no road 
throughout the three counties — Morris, Sussex, and Warren — he 
did not traverse. When he first visited this desolate and disheart- 
ening field there w^as but one church — at Madison ; but St. Vin- 
cent's has been the fruitful mother of many children. No fewer 
than twenty-three Catholic churches lift to heaven the cross in the 
three counties which were the field of Father Senez's missionary 
labors. 

In the springtime of 1844-45 good Father Howell was tempted 
to sample the pastures and pure air of Morris County, and, com- 
bining business with pleasure, he baptized quite a number of chil- 
dren in Morristown, Dover, and Mount Hope. A Catholic woman 
married to a Protestant was denied the convenience of a carriage 
by her husband, and walked with her child all the way to Eliza- 
beth to have it baptized, as it happened there was no priest then 
at Madison. 



2l6 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 




There is considerable dispute relative to the house where the 
Holy Sacrifice of the Mass was first offered in Morristown. By 
some it is maintained that it was in a house formerly on the prop- 
erty of Dr. Dodge, Morris Street ; by others, in a house on Mc- 

Cullogh Avenue ; again, by 
some, in the Thebaud house, 
which long ago stood on Mr. 
John G. Foote's farm; and 
finall}^, by not a few, that it 
was in the Johnson house on 
South Street, on the way to 
the race-track, which was 
called by a subsequent Cath- 
olic owner Bellevue. Wher- 
ever it was, it is generally ad- 
mitted that the priest sought 
and received the hospitality 
of Mr. John Rogers. John 
Rogers was among the ear- 
liest settlers, and his home 
was looked upon as a head- 
quarters for the clergy when- 
ever they made a visitation. 
In 1847, however, steps were taken to secure a lot to build the 
church. The site on which the new rectory now stands was 
bought from John Kennedy, of Philadelphia, for $400 At the 
outbreak of the French Revolution Father Senez resigned the 
pastorate to return to his native land. Previous to his departure 
a "bee" was held to dig the foundations of the new church. 
P"ather Senez opposed the building of a basement, but finally 
yielded to the entreaty of Father McQuaid, and this feature was 
embodied in the plans. The honor of turning the first sod belongs 
to Patrick Cavanagh. Mr. Egsall built the masonry, and Mr. 
Muchmore did the carpenter work. 

Before the walls were built P'ather Senez left, and the work 
devolved solely on Father McOuaid. To P'ather McOuaid alone 
belongs the entire credit of building the first Catholic church in 
Morristown ; and of paying not only for the structure itself, but 
for the land on which it was erected. Three different times has 
this honor been wrested from him and unjustly given to another. 
This may seem to some a matter of indifference; but for the 
Catholics here it is all-important to know to whom they are in- 



REV. r. m' GOVERN. 



IN NEW JERSEY 



217 



debtee! for the church which cost more sacrifices, more anxiety 
and care from both priests and people, than would, to-day, the 
erection of a cathedral. Father McQuaid appointed William 
Nevins treasurer, and all the moneys passed through his hands. 
On the 15th of August the modest church was entirely roofed, 
and Father McOuaid gave the church the title of the Assumption 
in honor of the Blessed Mother of God, whose great feast saw the 
culmination of the hopes and desires of the little handful of 
Catholics. 

On Christmas Day, 1848, Mass was said for the first time in 
the new church by Father McOuaid. Simplicity and poverty 
were ev^erywhere apparent. The altar consisted of some planks 
laid on barrels. The little congregation of from forty to seventy 




ST. MARGARET S CHURCH, MORRISTOWN. 



made themselves as comfortable as possible without pews or kneel- 
ing benches. A fair number of Protestants was present, among 
them Mr. Bonsall. 

"Now," said Father McOuaid, "we depended on the goodness 
of God and the intercession of the Blessed Virgin, and we are all 
right. Through frost and cold we have collected by five and ten 



2i8 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

cent offerings the funds necessary to build and enclose the church, 
and now we have everything except the pews." 

There was little decoration and very little comfort in the new 
church, but there was great fervor. The poor exiles were full of 
gratitude to God that they had now a sanctuary in their midst 
where they might assist at the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, recon- 
cile themselves to Him in the tribunal of penance, and bring their 
children to be baptized and instructed in their holy faith. Father 
Senez had borrowed the money to pay for the lot, but the people 
set themselves to work and rested not until they had paid back 
every penny of the loan. 

Fortunate, indeed, it was for the Catholics of Morristown that 
Father McOuaid came among them. 

According to Father McQuaid's estimate in 1849, the Catho- 
lics belonging to the Morristown mission, stretching out for miles 
into the country in every direction except toward Madison, num- 
bered, including babies in arms, about one hundred and twenty 
souls. The first efforts of the priest were necessarily directed to 
the salvation of those already within the fold of the Church; but 
even at this early period conversions were not unfrequent. 

In 1843 William Fulton was received into the Church by the 
Rev. Dr. Ambrose Manahan ; and the first convert baptized by 
Father McQuaid was Mrs. Laurence Johnson. 

In 1850 the first festival, or tea-party, as it was called, was 
held by a few of the ladies of the congregation in what is now 
Farmer's Hotel in Market Street, then owned by Nathan B. Luse, 
and used by Isaac S. Runyon for a private school, another floor 
by the Odd Fellows and Freemasons, and the upper story as a 
hall. 

The brass band of the town furnished the music. There was 
no dancing. About one hundred and fifty dollars, clear of all ex- 
penses, was realized, and Father McOuaid was overjoyed with the 
result, because it enabled him to pay each of three creditors the 
fifty dollars he owed. 

The first se.xton was Mr. William OToole, whose weekly sal- 
ary was fifty cents. In September, 1850, Father McOuaid opened 
the first Catholic school in Morristown, with Mr. Tracey, from 
New York, as teacher. He was one of the old school of hard 
taskmasters whose theory and practice ran on the line of Solo- 
mon's injunction: " Spare the rod and spoil the child." 

One Antoine, a Frenchman, brutall\- murdered his master and 
mistress, for which he suffered the death penalty. This incident 



IN NEW JERSEY 219 

provoked an intense hostility to all foreigners, and, as a matter of 
course, the Irish were the first victims. 

Two poor laborers were driven by threats from their homes 
and compelled to seek refuge in Mr. Ford's woods, there to hide 
until the passion of the rowdy element had cooled down. 

The Irishmen who worked in Mr. Vail's Speedwell works were 
attacked, and more than one scrimmage took place; but the Irish 
succeeded in defending themselves. This condition of things con- 
tinued until Mr. Vail took sides with his Irish employees, and 
gave their shopmates to understand that he would tolerate the 
question of nationality no longer, and that the persecution must 
be stopped. 

Father McQuaid was succeeded by Father Madden, and al- 
though the wide field of his mission tested to the utmost the 
physical endurance and zeal of the new pastor, during the three 
years of his administration the spiritual side of the flock was well 
attended and the temjDoral welfare promoted. 

From the baptismal record it appears the care of the parish 
was entrusted at times to the Rev. L. Hoey ; and occasional en- 
tries indicate that the Rev. Alfred Young, later of the Paulist 
community, together with the Very Rev. Dean McNulty, and, 
now and then, the Rev. D. J. Fisher came from Seton Hall Col- 
lege — now the old St. Elizabeth's Convent — to say Mass, catechize 
the children, and administer to the wants of the congregation. 
The Morristown Catholics held Father Young in high esteem. 
His genial manners made him friends everywhere. The young 
flocked around him. At the sick-bed his charm of manner never 
failed to cheer, and his tender message of patience plucked out 
the thorn of suffering and substituted the holy calm of Christian 
resignation. 

The Rev. L. Hoey, who was appointed to the new mission of 
Morristown, cut off from Madison in i860, was the first priest to 
reside permanently here. He stopped at Mrs. Rogers's eleven 
months, during which time he labored hard and zealously for the 
erection of the priest's house. His ability as a mathematician at- 
tracted the attention of his superiors, and secured for him a pro- 
fessorship in the new college. 

His efforts were successful, and in 1861 the priest's home was 
built. About this time the old graveyard was bought for $500. 
The parish school started by Father McQuaid, although it had 
not all the appointments and conveniences of a modern school, 
continued its work. The rooms were dark, very warm in summer, 



220 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

and correspondingly cold in winter. A great stove stood in the 
middle of the room, and a pii)e was placed through one of the 
windows, but not too far out of the reach of the tricky boys. 
When the task became irksome, or the tempting chestnuts strewed 
the ground, or the ice was in prime condition for skating, a sod 
conveniently thrust down the stovepipe checked the draught, 
filled the room with smoke and gas, and necessitated the dismissal 
of the school. 

When Mr. Tracey severed his connection with the school he 
was succeeded by Mr. Donlin. Miss Slater, of Massachusetts, 
and a Mr. Faulkner, whose knowledge of the English language 
was too limited to make him a successful teacher, were engaged and 
taught for a short time. These teachers taught previous to i860. 

That the school might be kept together until a competent per- 
son was found to take charge of it, Father Hoey himself taught 
during the vacancy which occurred about the time of his appoint- 
ment. A Miss McDonald, with sufficient confidence in her ability 
to teach and rule the masons, painters, plumbers, and carpenters 
of the present day, presented herself for the arduous position; but 
a short experience convinced her of the serious mistake she had 
made. 

Mr. O'Neil was then secured; and, although gifted with con- 
siderable talent, was forced to resign on account of ill health. To 
him succeeded Mr. Meehan, who is remembered as " teaching the 
A B C's with the children on his knee, and both teacher and 
pupil enveloped in the smoke of his pipe." Then appears Mr. 
Fennessy " in a white shirt, ruffled upon either side of the bosom ; 
this, together with his personal appearance, evoked such a volley 
of cheers from the scholars that he was mortally offended, and 
decided to punish severely the unruly children by teaching them 
only for the short space of half a day." 

The absurd anti-Catholic and anti-Irish spirit, fed by the igno- 
rance and scheming of preachers and newspaper editors, made its 
sting felt in Morristown, as in almost every village, hamlet, and 
city of our country. There is a vague tradition of an attempt to 
destroy the little church first erected here by the lusty young 
bigots of that day, possessed of more brawn than brain. But a 
fanatic is usually a braggart ; and the tidings that the miners from 
Dover were ready to march down to protect the Catholics and 
avenge any insult offered to them, cooled the courage of the bul- 
lies and dissipated their plans. But, from time to time, the old 
hatred cropped out, especially on St. Patrick's day. 



IN NEW JERSEY 221 

It was not unusual to see strung up on a flag-pole or suspended 
from a tree a stuffed figure to represent St. Patrick, with a string 
of potatoes about his neck, a whiskey bottle in one pocket, and a 
codfish in the other. It was such a sight that aroused the lion in 
Patrick Smith as he saw the effigy of his patron swaying in the 
wind from the flag-staff in the Park. The assuring words and 
wise counsel alone of Colonel Vail prevented him from cutting 
down the flag-pole. On a like occasion another Smith, a name- 
sake of Patrick but no relative, saw a similar figure pendent from 
a tree. His good wife brought him an axe, and down came both 
tree and effigy. The last appearance of this vulgar exhibition was 
in Market Street, a few doors down from South Street. 

In 1864 the church was incorporated, the board consisting of 
Rt. Rev. James Roosevelt Bay ley, the Very Rev. Patrick Moran, 
the Rev. Lawrence Hoey, Messrs. Henry James and Patrick 
Rowe. 

In 1865 the school was found inadequate for the accommoda- 
tion of the children, and was enlarged at an expense of eight hun- 
dred dollars. 

The Rev. James D'Arcy was appointed pastor July, 1867. 

Father D'Arcy's magnetism and winsomeness were irresisti- 
ble. Gifted with more than ordinary ability, by careful study he 
enriched his mind. 

On the 2d of June, 1868, in obedience to his bishop, he left 
this parish to assume the pastoral charge of Madison, made vacant 
by the death of Father Madden. The sorrow and regrets were 
mutual on the part of priest and peo]Dle. 

The Rev. P. McGovern took charge of the parish on the de- 
parture of the Rev. James A. D'Arcy, about October, 1865. 
Father McGovern busied himself with the spiritual interests of 
the flock entrusted to him. His gentle nature, when aroused by 
the misdoings of his children, plainly evidenced that he knew how 
to be severe where leniency failed. 

A new church, owing to the increased number of Catholics, 
was a pressing necessity ; but the very thought of building one, 
and of incurring a debt, appalled the pastor and flock. 

In the fall of 1871 Father McGovern resigned and withdrew 
from a charge never entirely congenial. The most perfect har- 
mony, however, existed between him and his people, and when he 
left he was sincerely and deepl)' regretted. 

Father McGovern was ordained by Bishop Hughes, January 
29th, 1853. He was a subject of the Archdiocese of New York, 



222 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

but was received by Bishop Bay ley temporarily, December 25th, 
1853, and was assistant in Madison until 1855, when he returned 
to New York by reason of ill health. He again came back to 
Newark, and after his resignation of the Morristown parish went 
to Bergen Point, where he paid off all the indebtedness of the 
church; thence to Keyport, as first resident pastor, July ist, 
1 876. Once more he retraced his steps to New York, and became 
pastor of Croton. After many years of service he retired, and 
died some two years ago. 

The Rev. James Sheeran succeeded to the pastorate October, 
1 87 1. Father Sheeran was a born leader of men, an ideal nine- 
teenth-century priest. His life was varied by almost every inci- 
dent that may happen to layman or priest. 

Father Sheeran was born in Temple Mehill, Longford, in 
1 814. He chose the profession of teacher, and taught school in 
Monroe, Mich., and for the Redemptorists. After the death of 
his wife he entered the congregation of the Most Holy Re- 
deemer, October 15th, 1856, of which he was a most efficient 
missionary. 

When the yellow fever broke out in New Orleans and all the 
Fathers in the house were prostrated, he alone remained to attend 
the sick calls, and for weeks never slept in his bed. 

When the war broke out he was South, and, together with 
Father Smulders of the same congregation, was assigned by his 
superior to attend to the spiritual wants of the Confederates. 
There was nothing of the gold lace or gilt edge connected with his 
position. The soldiers' meagre fare was his; their hardships in 
camp and bivouac he shared. Realizing the importance of the 
events which were daily happening he kept an accurate diary, for 
which at the close of the conflict he was offered a large sum of 
money by a Southern firm of publishers; this he refused. 

Owing to a disagreement with his rector, he asked to be 
allowed to withdraw from the congregation. His petition was 
granted, and he was adopted for the Diocese of Newark by Bishop 
Bayley. Pending a permanent appointment, he assisted in the 
parish of Hackensack. Such, in brief, is the history of him to 
whom the Catholics in Morristown are so much indebted. 

In October, 1871, Bishop Bayley made him rector of that 
parish. Already far advanced be)'ond the meridian of life, his 
naturally strong constitution was weakened by hardships in the 
field and on the mission. Although jorovidentially preserved from 
contagion in the yellow-fever epidemic through which he had 



IN NEW JKRSKY 



223 



passed, the awful strain dealt a blow to his health from which he 
never recovered. 

The economy and |)rudent administration of Father McGovern 
had freed the jxirish entirely of debt, so that the way was clear to 
proceed with the construction of the new church. 

Fortunately a suitable site, secured by the wisdom and fore- 
thought of Bishop McOuaid, remained on which to erect the 
house of God, which was to excel all other church buildings in 
Morristown. 

On Sunday, June 30th, 1872, the corner-stone was laid by 
Bishop Bayley, who also preached the sermon on the occasion. 




ALL SUULS HOSPITAL, MORRISTOWN. 

The old Arnold Tavern, 1780. 



On Ascension Thursday, May 22d, 1873, a leaden dulness 
overspread the sky. The rain fell in torrents. Without every- 
thing was dismal and sombre, but within the walls of the church 
what joy filled the hearts of pastor and flock ! Bishop Corrigan 
solemnly blessed the new church, and the ceremony was followed 
by solemn pontifical Mass. After the Gospel the Rev. Dr. Ed- 
ward McGl}'nn preached from the text, " Thou art a priest forever 
according to the order of Melchisedech " (Psalm cix.). There was 
a large attendance of priests and people. The music rendered 
during the Mass was by a choir selected from the different 
churches in Newark. Thus, twenty-five years from the erection 



224 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

of the first humble sanctuary, the pioneers who survived saw their 
first efforts ecHpsecl, the tender shoot developed into a mighty tree, 
and a dwelling-place enshrining the Holy of Holies which far ex- 
ceeded their hopes and expectations. The Lord had, indeed, 
builded the house, and their labors had not been in vain. 

An important step for the welfare of the children was now 
made. 

From every side came petitions to Mother Xavier for teachers. 
The influence of the children of St. Vincent had already made 
itself felt in the parish schools and orphanages of the Newark 
diocese. 

Father Sheeran's plea was recognized, and arrangements were 
made in September, 1875, to send two of the Sisters from the 
mother-house every day. A little room was added to the school, 
and fitted up with a stove and cupboard. Here, after the noon 
dismissal, the Sisters prepared their lunch in light-hearted gayety 
and contentment. Their hallowing influence over both boys 
and girls was at once apparent. The success of the school was' 
assured. 

On Sunday, April 3d, 1881, the trials of Father Sheeran ter- 
minated, and the good priest, full of merit, comforted by the holy 
sacraments, went to his reward. 

Mr. McMaster, an old friend, in the editorial column of TJic 
Freeman' s Journal noXXcQd his death, and among other things said 
of him : 

"At an early age he came to New York. He was engaged 
here, for many years, in business. Out of a desire to do good he 
went to Monroe, Mich., to teach a parochial school, under the pas- 
toral care of Father Smulders, of the Redemptorists. Mr. Shee- 
ran married and had two children — a daughter who died in the 
Benedictine Convent, in Westmoreland County, Pa., and a son who 
died in the novitiate of the Redemptorists. The death of the 
latter inspired Mr. Sheeran with a desire, gallant and noble in its 
sentiments, to take the place of his deceased boy in the Redemp- 
torist novitiate. He entered, and, notwithstanding the difficulties 
of age somewhat too much advanced and habits of personal inde- 
pendence settled, finished his novitiate and his scholastic course 
and was ordained. His disregard of danger in face of the yellow 
fever has been spoken of in some of the daily papers. That is the 
rule for Catholic priests as soldiers of the Cross." 

As the diocese was then without a bishop, the administrator, 
the Rt. Rev. George H. Doane, assigned the senior assistant of 



IN NEW JERSEY 225 

the cathedral, the Rev. Joseph M. Flynn, to the pastoral care of 
Morristovvn, and Father Flynn took possession of his new charge 
June 1 8th, 1881. Father Flynn was born January 7th, 1848, in 
Springfield, Mass. The early years of his life -were spent chiefly 
in New York. He attended school, taught by the Christian 
Brothers, in St. Vincent's Academy until 1859, when, on the re- 
moval of his family to Newark, N. J., he was sent to the parochial 
school attached to St. Patrick's Cathedral, then located on High 
Street, now occupied by the Women's Hospital connected with 
St. Michael's. 

In September, 1865, he entered St. Charles's College, Ellicott 
City, Md., and in March, 1869, Seton Hall. His assignments as 
curate were St. Bridget's, Jersey City; Assumption, Morristown; 
St. Peter's, New Brunswick; thence to the cathedral, Newark, 
May 7th, 1876, where he successively filled the offices of bishop's 
secretary, diocesan chancellor, master of ceremonies, secretary of 
the Commission of Investigation, and for over a year, while Vicar- 
General Doane was abroad in search of health, administered the 
parish until his return in 1879. 

A site for a church in Morris Plains was secured, and, mitil its 
erection, an effort was made to have Mass in one of the houses 
conveniently located and sufficiently roomy for the accommodation 
of those who might desire to attend. 

This, and the increasing ministerial work in Morristown and 
the important supervision of the school, made the services of an 
assistant priest a necessity. December 3d the bishop wrote, 
" Father Whelan may be relieved at any time, and, if so, will be 
sent to you, as you desired." 

The Rev. Isaac P. Whelan reported some time in the month 
of December, and the Right Rev. Bishop added to the other duties 
of the Morristown priests the care of the Whippany mission. 

On Christmas Day Holy Mass was said for the first time in 
Morris Plains in the house of Andrew Murphy. The room was 
crowded, and the scene recalled to many the stories told them by 
their fathers of Catholicity forty years ago. 

Thereafter Mass was regularly celebrated every Sunday. Be- 
tween attending to the two Masses in Morristown, one in Whip- 
pany, and another at Morris Plains, Sunda}' was a busy day for 
the priests, who, from early morn to high noon, knew not a mo- 
ment's rest. 

The house deeded by old Thomas Burns, a confessor of the 
faith in this locality from the early twenties, to Father I^^lynn per- 
15 



226 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

sonally, was converted into a home for the Sisters of Charity, 
who came to reside here permanently January, 1882. 

In March, 1885, Father Flynn purcliased the Condit property 
at the junction of Speedwell and Sussex avenues, embracing ten 
acres, for the sum of ^25,000. The land was surveyed, laid off in 
lots, and a number of maps were printed for those who contem- 
plated purchasing. A meeting of the congregation was called 
to order in the pavilion. The object, it was stated, was to dis- 
pose of the lots to Catholics, if possible, and, after a reasonable 
time, to all comers. Father Flynn acted as auctioneer, and most 
of the best lots were quickly disposed of at good prices. The 
Water Company laid their pipes through the streets, and thus the 
location became more desirable for residences. 

The streets were named Columba, in honor of the great saint 
of lona; Grant, in honor of the great general of the Civil War, 
who was then in his death agony ; and Bellevue Terrace, from the 
charming prospect visible from the elevation. 

The lot looking north, directly in front of Columba Street, 
was reserved for the erection of a xhapel. In the beginning of 
April the requisite permission was obtained from Bishop Wigger. 

No delay was made in the construction of the modest building 
which was to rear aloft the cross and be a new sanctuary of the 
Most High. The great devotion of the Celtic race to St. Marga- 
ret, Queen of Scotland, as witnessed by their family names — for 
after Mary there is scarcely another more frequently bestowed 
upon their daughters than Margaret — her sweet and beautiful life, 
so much in its details like that of St. Elizabeth of Hungary and in 
some respects more attractive, prompted the pastor to honor, even 
in a humble wa)', this great saint, recognized thus for the first time 
in the United States. At the close of the month of May every- 
thing was in readiness for the laying of the corner-stone. It was 
determined to invest it with all the pomp and ceremony possible. 
The members of the parish entered heartily into the pastor's plan, 
and the ceremony was so grand and impressive that few who wit- 
nessed it will ever forget it. The following accurate report was 
written by an eye-witness : 

Sunday, May 31st, 1885, was a memorable day for the Catho- 
lics of Morristown. Surrounded by members of the local and 
visiting clergy, in the presence of a large number of the laity, the 
Rt. Rev. Winand M. Wigger, Bishop of the Diocese of Newark, 
laid the corner-stone of the chapel to be erected to the honor of 
God and St. Margaret, with all the pomp and splendor of ritual 



IN NKW JKRSEY 227 

with which the Roman CathoHc Church invests such an important 
ceremony. But, ajjart from the interest that such an event natu- 
rally arouses, the occasion was one of deep significance. It illus- 
trated and emphasized not only the growth of our city, but it was 
likewise indicative of the rapidly increasing strength of the Catho- 
lic Church in our midst. There are some of the members of the 
Church of the Assumption who can recall the time, not so very 
long ago, when the nearest Catholic church was at Madison, then 
known as Bottle Hill. Hence it was determined to give the cere- 
mony an expression of the significance it justly claimed, to mark 
it as an era in the history of the Catholic Church in Morristown. 
And so, despite the threatening weather, the mother Church 
gathered together her numerous societies, and, preceded by the 
cross-bearer and the acolytes with waving banners, followed by 
the clergy in their sanctuary dress and the bishop in his purple 
vesture, they marched, over a thousand in number, through the 
town to Sussex Avenue, where the new chapel is to be erected. 
A peculiar feature of this procession was the corner-stone, adorned 
with flowers and carried by four of the oldest members of the 
congregation, preceded by si.\ little girls in white, all representing 
the tribute of three generations to this happy event. Arrived at 
the grounds, the bishop, vested in cope and mitre, and bearing his 
crosier, solemnly blessed and laid the corner-stone, in which was 
placed an iron bo.x containing, besides various coins and copies of 
The Jerseynian, The Batiner, and The Chviiicle, a parchment de- 
scribing the event in Latin, and of which the following is a trans- 
lation : 

"D. O. M. 

"On the 31st day of May, in the year of our Redemption 1885 
— Pope Leo XHL happily reigning, Rt. Rev. Winand M. Wigger 
being the Bishop of Newark, and Rev. Joseph M. Flynn, rector, 
with Rev. Eugene A. Farrell, his assistant, of the Church of the 
Assumption ; Grover Cleveland being President of these United 
States; Leon Abbett Governor of the State of New Jersey; and 
John Taylor Mayor of Morristown — Rt. Rev. Winand M. VVigger, 
D.D., in the presence of the clergy and before a large concourse 
of people, laid the corner-stone of this chapel to be erected to the 
honor of God under the invocation of St. Margaret." 

After the ceremony the Rt. Rev. Bishop made a short ad- 
dress to the people, congratulating them on the progress of the 
Church in Morristown, and in particular commending the zeal 
they uniformly manifest in the furtherance of every good and 
praiseworthy work in the interests of morality and religion. He 
concluded with the hope that the day would not be distant when 
they and their labors would be so blessed that the humble begin- 
ning of to-da)' would ripen into a new, a large, and a flourishing 
parish. 

Huge masses of black clouds rolled up from the southwest; 



228 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

the wind was momentarily increasini^' in violence, and great drops 
of rain admonished all to seek shelter from the impending storm. 
Banners were taken from their poles and put away ; white veils 
were hurriedly removed, and soon all were in shelter from the 
tempest, which disappeared almost as quickly as it sprang up. 

The patriarchs who carried the corner-stone from the mother 
church were Thomas F. Burke, Thomas Degan, Martin Murphy, 
and John McGuire, and they were accompanied as a guard of 
honor by the little Misses Genevieve Welsh, Lulu Clifford, Rose 
Corcoran, Agnes Lucas, Marguerite Kenny, and Marguerite Mar- 
tin. The Rev. William D. Hughes, Paulist, a guest at the rec- 
tory, took part in the ceremony. 

The corner-stone laid, an effort Vv^as made to raise the money to 
pay for the chapel as the work went on, so that, if possible, by the 
time of dedication it should be absolutely free from debt. To this 
end a bazaar was held, and in three days $1,089.05 were realized. 
All worked with a will, and the parishioners showed their enthusi- 
asm by their attendance in large numbers and generous liberality. 

The old church, converted into a school, was no longer in a 
condition to accommodate the children. Hence it was determined 
early in 1 886 reverently to remove the dead from the old cemetery, 
and erect on the land the new school. 

Ground was broken in the spring, and on Thanksgiving Day 
the corner-stone of the Bayley Grammar School was laid by Bish- 
op Wigger, and after the ceremony the old pastor, now Bishop 
McOuaid, preached a sermon of rare historical interest to the 
crowded congregation in the church. In closing he said: 

" When the providence of God removed me to New Jersey my 
first thought was to get these sisters; so I went to Mount St. 
Vincent on October i8th, 1853, and asked for two sisters, the 
first to come to New Jersey. And what a blessing they are ! It 
is those women who are creating a Catholic atmosphere; the 
prayers of the mother at home are continued in the schoolroom. 
Who can take their place.? You have this blessing in Morris- 
town. 

" May God bless all those here and never forsake them ! 
Bless this congregation with added prosperity year after year, and 
all those who have gone before us, who are now looking down 
from heaven upon the good work we are doing ! And when to- 
day I looked down upon the old graveyard on the bodies I placed 
there, when I looked upon that place where those remains are 
gathered up and removed to a more beautiful cemetery, the 



IN NEW JERSEY 229 

thought came to my mind : Those souls, now in heaven, gladly 
make way for the Christian school that is to stand there; gladly 
resign their resting-place for the foundations of the large, beauti- 
ful schoolhouse; the saints in heaven — for many holy ones I 
placed there — are now looking down upon us." 

The new school was blessed by Bishop Wigger and opened 
October 9th, 1887. A desirable property, in the very centre of 
the city, in the heart of its business, was put on the market. 
Dean Flynn invited the original members of the Young Men's 
Catholic Association to meet him in the rectory January 17th, 
1887, and there proposed to secure a lot and erect a permanent 
home. It was thought that $25,000 would be the limit of the out- 
lay for site and building. 

On Tuesday, May ist, 1888, took place the formal dedication 
of the Young Men's Catholic Association building. 

A large flag floated from the front of the attractive building, 
while the interior decorations were superb, a wealth of pictures 
everywhere gracing the walls, supplemented by banks of palms 
and flowering plants, sprays of cut flowers and smilax, festoons of 
bunting, and other decorations pleasing to the eye. The commit- 
tee on decorations were Messrs. W. V. Dunn, M. F. Lowe, J. T. 
Murphy, and Thomas Holton, the latter furnishing the floral dis- 
play that on every floor delighted the beholder. 

There were two receptions — one in the morning to the ladies, 
and one in the afternoon and evening to the gentlemen. The re- 
ception committee was Very Rev. Dean Flynn, pastor of the 
Church of the Assumption; President C. H. Knight, and Messrs. 
P. Farrelly, T. Clifford, M. E. Condon, M. F. Lowe, John Mur- 
phy, Thomas Malley, T. J. O'Brien, D. L. Fox, and P. Welsh. 

In the morning the committee was assisted by a number of 
ladies, friends and relatives of the members, and the scores of vis- 
itors were lavish in their admiration of the arrangement, finish, 
and equipment of the building. Voss's orchestra was placed in 
an alcove of the lobby outside of the parlor, and sweet strains of 
classic music added to the delight which the inspection of the 
building gave. 

In September, 1888, it was determined to open a school for the 
children of St. Margaret's. Some five and twenty little ones at- 
tended the Mass of the Holy Ghost celebrated by the pastor, and 
the chapel, as a matter of necessity, had to be used for a school- 
room ; but what more fitting place than His sanctuary who said 
" Suffer the little ones to come unto me " .? 



230 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



October 24th, 1888, brought the tidings that Bishop Wigger 
had honored the parish by making it one of the seven in the Dio- 
cese of Newark which fulfilled all the conditions for a permanent 
rectorship, and the pastor, by appointing him the first irremovable 
rector. 

The year 1890 was to bring additional improvements. On 
Sunday, March 2d, Dean Flynn announced at all the Masses that, 
with the bishop's permission, he had sold the sisters' house for 
$4,000, and that this was virtually a donation of that sum to the 
parish, since it came to them from him as a gift. He furthermore 
stated that a rectory would be built on the site of the old church, 
and when completed the priests would take possession of it, and 
the sisters of the old rectory. 

Satisfactory progress had been made with the new rectory, 
and to such an extent that on St. Catherine's day, November 
25th, the furniture was put in place, and the priests took posses- 
sion of their new home. The same day the busy hands of the 
sisters and scholars enabled the former to be transferred from 
their temporary house to the more comfortable and commodious 
quarters of the old rectory. Early in December the congregation 
was invited to inspect the new building. All day long throngs of 
ladies passed in and out. In the evening the men imitated their 
example. Lunch was prepared for all, and served by the willing 
hands of the Young Ladies' Sodality. 

It had long been apparent that the growth of this section called 
for some provision for the sick, injured, and infirm. For a long 
time the matter occupied the attention of bishop and pastor. The 
distance to the city hospitals was considerable; the demands 
made upon them by the exigencies of their surroundings some- 
times rendered it difficult to accommodate patients from afar. In 
the month of November, within the octave of All Souls, the ever- 
recurring thought returned ; but, while the building was attaina- 
ble, it was a rather more difficult task to obtain sisters trained and 
devoted to this kind of work. 

On Sunday, November 22d, 1891, the announcement was made 
to the congregation that the old Arnold Tavern, venerated for its 
Revolutionary memories, on Mt. Kemble Avenue, had been pur- 
chased for a hospital, and that the Grey Nuns of Montreal, Can- 
ada, had consented to assume the charge of it. Unbounded en- 
thusiasm was manifest on every side. The old Arnold Tavern, 
removed some years ago from the square in Morristown, had long 
awaited a purchaser. This building sheltered General Washing- 



IN NEW JERSEY 231 

ton in 1777. It was his first headquarters. There he spent 
several months with his chiefs of staff. This became the Morris- 
town home of the Grey Nuns. The ballroom of General Wash- 
ington was turned into a chapel. The dining-room became a hos- 
pital ward. The broad corridors that a century ago resounded 
with noise of spur and clank of sabre took on new life, and were 
filled with the soft-falling footsteps and rustling garments of the 
gentle sisters, there to nurse the sick and afflicted of all races, 
colors, and creeds. In the building at the rear of the main struc- 
ture a home was provided for the aged and the orphans. 

On a single Sunday afternoon and evening $6,500 in cash was 
given by the men and women of the congregation for the further- 
ance of this work. Men were seen hurrying off to borrow money 
in order to share in the joy each one seemed to take in helping this 
great work of char it)'. 

On Labor Day, September 5 th, 1892, the hospital was blessed 
by Bishop Wigger, assisted by the rev. clergy of Sussex and Mor- 
ris counties. It was a beautiful autumn morning, and early in the 
forenoon carriages and pedestrians were seen wending their way 
out to Mt. Kemble Avenue by the hundreds. It is estimated that 
2,500 people visited and inspected the institution. The women of 
the parish pravided a bountiful luncheon for all, and the visitors 
were waited on by the Young Ladies' Sodality and the Young 
Men's Catholic Association. 

In the great national conflict which divided the North and 
South, in 1 861, members of our parish were found under both 
flags. The roll is an illustrious one. On the battle-field, in the 
prison, in rank and file, the children of St. Mary's gave ample 
proof of courage and patriotism. 

Among all names there is one conspicuous above the rest — 
Gen. Joseph Warren Revere. Descended from a French Hugue- 
not family, his grandfather was Col. Paul Revere, of Revolutionary 
fame. 

At the age of fourteen young Revere entered the United 
States Naval School, and began a long career of service on sea 
and land in almost every portion of the globe. In his sixteenth 
year he sailed for the Pacific, and was attached to the squadron 
employed in suppressing the African slave-trade. After narrow 
escapes from disease, wreck, and mutiny, he was detailed to the 
European squadron, and visited every country of Europe, and 
the Mediterranean shores of Asia and Africa. His knowledge of 
many languages secured him a favorable position, through which 



232 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



he met the most distinguished personages of the day. He was 
an eye-witness of the CarUst War, and served with the Mosquito 
fleet on the coast of Florida during the Seminole War. In 1838 
he sailed in the first American squadron which circumnavigated 
the globe. 

When in India he saved the British man-of-war Ganges from 
shipwreck, and was presented for his service with a sword of 

honor by the governor-gen- 
eral. 

Throughout the Mexican 
War he was on the coast of 
California. At Sonoma he 
raised the first American flag 
north of San Francisco. Soon 
after this he resigned, and 
was employed by the Mexi- 
can Government in reorgan- 
izing the artillery service. At 
the outbreak of the Civil War 
he offered his services to the 
general government and re- 
ceived a commission as col- 
onel of the Seventh New 
Jersey Volunteers. The bril- 
liant record of this gallant 
regiment, second to none in 
the service, has been largely 
attributed to the severe dis- 
cipline it received under Gen- 
eral Revere, whom General 
Hooker pronounced the best disciplinarian in the army. He 
was in all the l^attles of the Peninsular campaign; was pro- 
moted to the rank of brigadier-general, and commanded the 
Second New Jersey Brigade until after Fredericksburg. He 
was assigned to the command of the New York Excelsior Brigade, 
and at Chancellors ville Revere' s brigade led the van in the desper- 
ate struggle after the rout of the Eleventh Corps, when Howard's 
men retreated before the impetuous onslaught of Stonewall Jack- 
son. Censured by General Sickles for his conduct in this battle, 
Revere was for a time deprived of his rank ; the opinion of his 
troops, and of Generals Meade, Sedgwick, and other high officers, 
held him innocent of any offence. President Lincoln declared 




GEN. JOSEPH WARREN REVERE. 



IN NKW JERSEY ni^^^ 

that he had been unjustly treatetl and restored to him his rank, 
and he was subsequently named brevet major-generah It was 
after the Peninsular Campaign that one day, in Washington, 
brooding over the sex'ere losses his regiment suffered from the 
terrific struggle, he was led almost unconsciously to a Catholic 
church. On the moment he felt the impulse, or rather inspira- 
tion, to become a Catholic. For years he had carefully studied 
religious matters, and consequentl)', when he presented himself to 
the priest and asked to be baptized, he was found thoroughly in- 
structed in the principles of the Catholic Church. He received 
holy baptism October 19th and his first holy communion October 
26th, 1862. Some years later he was confirmed by Archbishop 
Bayley in our own church. During the period of well-merited re- 
pose in his delightful home he published in 1 873 Kcrl and Saddle, 
a retrospect of his stirring life, and various magazine articles. 
The picture of the " Espousals of the Blessed Virgin and St. 
Joseph," which hangs in the church in Our Lady's aisle, attests 
his artistic ability. He died April 20th, 1880. One of his sons, 
Mr. Paul Revere, was received into the Church some years after 
his father, and cooperated with every good work in the parish 
until his untimely death November loth, 1901. 

Many of the daughters of the parish have entered different 
religious communities, and in the priesthood are the Rev. Eugene 
P. Carroll, Newark; the Rev. James J. Mulhall, Newton; and the 
Rev. William P. Dunn, Passaic, . 

St. Mary's Star of the Sea Church, Cape May. 

The church records of St. Augustine's, Philadelphia, show 
that the Very Rev. Michael Hurley, D.D., ofificiated frequently at 
Cape May island, and that he made his first visit about 1803. 
The Augustinian Fathers seem to have given this mission what- 
ever attention it demanded, which, no doubt, was little except in 
the summer months ; and no notice of it appears in the Catholic 
Directory until 1848, when the name of the church appears — St. 
Mary's — and the attendant priest, the Rev. E. O. S. W^aldron, 
with the admonition, " During bathing season divine service every 
Sunday. Once a month the resf of the year." The names of 
those who ministered to the spiritual needs of the Catholics until 
the formation of the new diocese are the Revs. Hugh Kenny, E. 
J. Sourin, and J. McDermott, Salem. From 1854-56 the Rev. 
John Ford was the pastor; and from 1857-64 it was attached to 



^34 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



the pastoral charge of Salem, and from 1864 until 1869 to Mill- 
ville. The Rev. Martm Gessner was pastor of Millville during 
this latter period, and under his administration the churches of 
Bridgeton and Millville were built. Father Gessner, born at 
Sonderhoff, Bavaria, November loth, 1837, studied at Mount St. 
Mary's, and after in Munich. He was ordained priest July 26th, 
1863, and after laboring nine years in South Jersey was appointed 
pastor of St. Patrick's, Elizabethport. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. Theophilus Degen, a secularized Capuchin (d. October 31st, 
1900), who, by purchase of the cottage adjoining the church, 
established in it a convent and school, taught by the Sisters of 
Mercy. F"ather Degen also built St. Agnes's Church at Cape 
May Point, added a chapel to the Cape May church, and built an 
addition to the rectory. He was succeeded by the present in- 
cumbent, the Rev. D. S. Kelly. 



St. Francis's German Church, Trenton. 

Before the year 1844 all the Catholics of Trenton worshipped 
together in the old St. Francis's Church on Market and Lamber- 
ton streets. In that year Father Mackin gave up this church for 

the new one which he had 
erected on Broad Street and 
called St. John's. The Ger- 
man Catholics thought this 
a favorable time to secure. a 
church of their own where 
the German language would 
be spoken, but they were too 
few to pay for the church and 
support a pastor. The church 
was, in consequence, sold in 
1 85 1, and bought by Mr. 
Peter Hargous, a prominent 
Catholic, who presented it to 
Bishop Neumann for the use 
of the Germans. The first 
pastor, Father Gmeiner, was 
appointed June 21st, 1853. 
Three years later he purchased two lots on Market Street, in the 
rear of the church, on which, in October, 1856, he erected a school 
which for several years was in charge of the Sisters of Notre 




ST. FRANCIS'S CHURCH, TRENTON. 



IN NEW JERSEY 235 

Dame. Soon after the erection of the school, he left St. Fran- 
cis's for another mission, and was succeeded by the Rev. Anton 
Muller. In 1859 Father Gmeiner again became pastor and re- 
mained until 1865, when he was followed by Father Storr. At 
this time the Methodist church on Front Street was for sale. 
Father Storr seeing that it would accommodate his congregation 
better than their own, bought it for $11,000. After some neces- 
sary changes were made it was dedicated in the following year and 
called St. Boniface's, but afterward at the command of Bishop 
Bayley the name of the first church, St. Francis's, was substituted. 
Father Storr left before the church was opened for services, and 
was succeeded by Rev. Francis Gerber, D.D., who, in 1867, built 
the priest's house and the tower of the church, and in January, 
1869, placed the Sisters of St. Francis in charge of the school. 
He soon after left for Europe, and was succeeded by the Rev. 
Peter Jachetti, whose zeal and labors for the church are so well 
known to the people of Trenton. 

In 1870 Bishop Bayley gave the church to the P'ranciscans, 
and Father Jachetti was continued as pastor. In 1874 Father 
Jachetti resigned St. Francis's in order to start a parish in that 
part of the city then known as Chambersburg, and was succeeded 
by Rev. Avellino Szabo, who remained in charge for about eight 
years. His most important work was the building of the present 
parochial school. He was followed by the Rev. Conrad Elison, 
who was in care of the parish until November ist, 1883, when, in 
obedience to the wishes of Bishop O'Farrell, the Franciscans re- 
signed the charge of St. Francis's for that of St. Peter's German 
Congregation in Camden. The Rev. Joseph Thurnes was trans- 
ferred from Camden to St. Francis's. Father Thurnes greatly 
improved the appearance of St. Francis's Church. He also made 
some additions and improvements to the rectory. He erected a 
little frame church in Pennington, which is attended every other 
Sunday from St. Francis's. St. Francis's parish has about one 
thousand souls and two hundred and fifty children in the parochial 
school. 

In connection with this church the following letter of Arch- 
bishop Bayley will be interesting : 

Newark, August, 1856. 

M. L'Abbe O'bercamp: I hasten to reply to your kind letter 
of July 5th with reference to the dimensions for the picture to be 
placed in the church of St. Francis of Assisi, Trenton, which his 
Majesty King Louis of Bavaria has so graciously offered us. The 



236 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

measure is what is known as English measure. The height is 
nine feet Enghsh, and the width in proportion. I regret that my 
letter, owing to lack of sufficient explanation, has caused you some 
annoyance. 

Father Thurnes died June 7th, 1902, and was succeeded by: 
the Rev. Joseph Rathner, D.D. 

St. Bernard's Church, Raritan, N. J. 

Mass was said in Raritan several years previous to 1850. 
Father Rogers came here from New Brunswick and said Mass 
here and there in private houses. A small frame building was 
then erected by a few enthusiastic Catholics about 1850, and 
whether by accident or as some say by design, owing to an anti- 
Catholic spirit then prevalent, soon became a prey to the flames. 
Father Rogers said Mass in this church. Father Howell fol- 
lowed, remaining about two years, and after him Father J. Mc- 
Donough had charge for about three years. The registry of bap- 
tisms commences with the year 1854, which was the date of the 
burning of the church. Mass was then again said in private 
houses, but soon after steps were taken for the building of a more 
substantial brick structure. Father Fisher had charge from 1855 
to 1856; Father T. Kieran from 1856 to 1868, coming from Plain- 
field. Father M. Kaeder was pastor from 1868 to 1873, and 
bought the first parochial house, which afterward served for the 
residence of the sisters. After him Father Schandel of Stony 
Hill remained about a month, until the appointment of Father 
Marshall, who had charge from 1873 to the end of June, 1876. 

The next pastor was the Rev. Joseph J. Zimmer, born in Wil- 
liamsburg, N. Y., June 20th, 1846; was graduated from St. John's 
College, Fordham, and, after completing his theological studies in 
Seton Hall, was ordained priest May i8th, 1872. His first ap- 
pointments were as assistant to St. Mary's, Hoboken, and St. 
John's, Paterson. Father Zimmer is a scholarly priest, and gifted 
with musical talent of a high order. 

He was assigned to Raritan, as the Rt. Rev. Bishop Corrigan 
informed him, temporarily ; but he still has charge, having enjoyed 
the distinguished and rare honor of celebrating in 1901 the silver 
jubilee of his pastorate, begun in 1876. 

Besides having charge of St. Bernard's Church, there were 
several missions attached — Somerville, Bound Brook, and Mill- 
stone. These have since been made into separate [parishes, each 
having its own pastor. 



IN NEW JERSEY 



237 



St. Bernanl's Church is now well constituted tor all the needs 
of the people. A cemetery was bought in 1876 and blessed by 
the Rev. F. Daly, O.S.D. A new rectory, built of brick, was 
erected in 1881; the parochial school and hall in 1887; and the 
old rectory moved from its former site and fitted up for the sisters. 
The school is taught since 1889 by the Sisters of Mercy with 
great success. 

In the year 1883 there began a large influx of Italians and 
Slavs into the parish, so that in a short time it assumed a cosmo- 
politan aspect. An Italian priest was occasionally called in, until 
a regular assistant was appointed, the Rev. A. Soporno, who be- 
came the first assistant, and continued in charge of the Italians 
from April, 1896, to October, 1899; then came the Rev. N, Cos- 
cia to June, 1900, followed by the Rev. T. Rudden, a Genoese 
student, who remained till December, 1902, to be followed by the 
Rev. J. Triolo, who had charge till April, 1903. At this time the 
Italians importuning the bishop engaged in a new venture. They 
determined to leave St. Bernard's Church and begin a separate 
parish. The congregation of St. Bernard's, at the time of the 
departure of the Italians to form a separate congregation, num- 
bered about 1,700 souls. The original congregation, owing to 
deaths and departure for more profitable fields of labor, is gradu- 
ally diminishing, but this is a problem many others have to face. 



Church of St. Mary of the Lake. 

iHE first services of the Catholic 
Church that were held in this 
vicinity, as far as can be actu- 
ally known, were in 1850, when 
Mass was said in the small 
house of Larry Reilh', between 
the two lakes. Later a small 
shedlike building was erected 
east of the railroad crossing at 
the Cedar Bridge road, and 
here the services of the church 
were conducted by priests from 
various parishes, such as Free- 
hold, Red Bank, and Trenton. Gradually this building was 
allowed to go to ruin, and Mass was then said for a number of 




V p nlf/H 



FIRST CHURCH AT LAKEWOOD. 



238 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

years in the private houses of the Murphys, Wilsons, Carrolls, 
and Reilleys, until in 1889 Father James E. Sheehy, S.P.M., 
came to Lakewood and erected a temporary chapel on Second 
Street, where the present church now stands. On the first day 
of November, 1889, the parish of St. Mary of the Lake was found- 
ed by the Rt. Rev. M. J. O'Farrell, Bishop of Trenton, who ap- 
pointed Rev. Thomas B. Healy rector, with instructions to build 
a church. 

Father Healy was born in Tompkinsville, Staten Island, De- 
cember 27th, 1859. He made his classics at the college of St. 
Francis Xavier, New York, his philosophy at Seton Hall, and 
was graduated in 1883 with the degree of A.B., and in 1885 with 
the degree of A.M. His theological course was made at the 
Grand Seminary, Montreal, Canada, and he was ordained to the 
priesthood by Bishop O'Farrell in the seminary of the Sacred 
Heart, Vineland, N. J., on March 5th, 1887. He began his mis- 
sionary work in the Church of the Sacred Heart, Trenton, N. J., 
where he remained for two years and eight months, and then he 
went to Lakewood. 

On his arrival in Lakewood Father Healy said Mass in the 
small frame chapel on Friday, November 8th, and on the follow- 
ing Sunday he celebrated two Masses and read the letter of the 
bishop appointing him rector, and announced that he was to build 
a church. 

At that time there were only six Catholic families living in 
Lakewood, comprising about thirty souls, with as many more who 
worked in the one hotel, the Laurel Hotel, and in the cottages 
and boarding-houses throughout the town. 

Not only was there no money to build the church, but the 
parish was then in debt to the extent of $1,600 for the lot on 
which the chapel stood. The Bricksburg Land Company had 
given the church two lots in the eastern portion of the town, which 
Bishop O'Farrell had exchanged for two others in a more central 
location at an increased price of $1,600. The kindness to Father 
Healy of the prominent Protestant clergymen of Lakewood was 
fully appreciated by him, especially that of Rev. Dr. Alfred H. 
Dashiell, Rev. Dr. Charles H. McClellan, and Rev. Ralph L. 
Bridges, and at the house of the latter fellow-clergyman he took 
his first Christmas dinner in Lakewood. People who visited 
Lakewood also showed their interest in the struggling church, and 
Mrs. Grover Cleveland, at that time "the first lady of the land," 
with Baroness McDonald, of Canadn, attended and made gener- 



IN NKW JERSEY 239 

oils iHirchases at the first church fair which was held in Larra- 
bee's Hall. 

Sufficient money having finally been I'aised, ground was 
broken for the church on the 9th of May, 1890, and the corner- 
stone was laid August 15th of the same year. 

The church was dedicated with imposing ceremonies by the 
Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell, assisted by thirty-fi\^e priests, on April 
29th, 1 89 1. 

The parish, which on Father Healy's installation was in debt 
for $1,600, now has a property value of not less than $50,000. In 
March, 1892, a rectory was built on land adjoining the church, 
and later a home for the sexton and a stable were erected. The 
church itself is fully equipped ; it owns land to the east and west 
of it, with an entire frontage of 175 feet, and has a good-sized 
cemetery just west of River Avenue, the cemetery of St. Mary of 
the Lake. This was consecrated by the Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul, 
assisted by Father Norris, Father McCullough, and Father Healy, 
on Sunday, April 30th, 1899. 

In the autumn of 1898 three Sisters of Mercy from St. Jo- 
seph's mother house at Bordentown, N. J., came to Lakewood 
and established the convent and academy of St. Mary of the 
Lake, with Sister Superior Gonzaga in charge. The acad- 
emy was opened with eight pupils, but from that small be- 
ginning it has grown now to have an attendance of forty 
pupils, with eight sisters, at the head of whom is Sister Superior 
Mary Agnes, and in the autumn their house was doubled in 
size. 

Twenty-two acres of land have been purchased on the west 
side of the Squankum road, and within a few years a handsome 
brick building, to cost $75,000, will be erected on it to be used as a 
convent and academy. 

During Father Healy's incumbency in Lakewood he has had 
to assist him Father John J. McCullough, Father John R. O'Con- 
ner. Father Joseph A. Ryan, Father John J. Sweeney, Father 
James E. Sheehy, Father Peter J. Harold, Father Michael J. 
Brennan, and Father James J. Hughes. 

St. Michael's (Monastery) Parish, West Hoboken. 

The superb edifice dedicated to God under the title of " St. 
Michael the Archangel " at West Hoboken is the development of 
a little frame church erected in 1851 under the title of "Our 



240 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Lady of Mercy," by the Rev. Father Cauvin. 
the church was the following inscription : 



On the front of 



"MATER MISERICORDIAE" 

Mother of Grace! O Mary hear 
Mother of Mercy lend thine ear 
From raging foes our souls defend 
And take us when our life shall end. 



This church was generally called St. Mary's. It was dedicated 
by the Most Rev. Archbishop Hughes of New York, as this 
church was at the time in his archdiocese. The archbishop 
preached on the occasion. 

St. Mary's Church was erected on ground donated by James 
Kerrigan at the corner of Clinton Avenue and High Street. 
This parish at that time embraced the wh<^le territory that is 
now included in the parishes of St. Nicholas and St. Paul of the 







:^if|-^Hw1f|: 



mi 




jj 



.1^- 



ST. MICHAEL'S CHURCH. 
Monastery of the Passionist Fathers in the left. 

Cross, Jersey City Heights; St. Lawrence, Weehawken; the 
Holy Family and St. Augustine, town of Union; St. Joseph, Gut- 



IN NKW JERSEY 



241 



tenberg; the Sacred Heart, Shady Side; and St. Josei^n, West 
Hoboken. 

When the Monastery Church was opened in 1875 St Mary's 
became St. Michael's i)arish of West Hoboken. 

On September 29th, i860, feast of St. Michael the Archan- 
gel, Fathers Gaudentius and Anthony, of the Passionist Monas- 
tery in Fittsburg, opened the 
first mission ever held in St. 
Mary's, and a most satisfac- 
tory one it was. Shortly after 
the Rt. Rev. Bishop Bay ley 
in\'ited the Passionists to es- 
tablish themselves in his dio- 
cese. His offer was accepted, 
and after looking about for 
the most desirable spot on 
which to locate, the fathers 
selected West Hoboken, then 
but a sparsely settled hamlet, 
and on April 27th, 1861, they 
formally took charge of St. 
Mary's, with Very Rev. Fa- 
ther John Dominic Tarlatini 
as pastor. A parishioner 
wrote: "That Sunday is a 
never-to-be-forgotten one in 
the memory of the writer 
P'ather Cauvin's turning the 
keys of the church over to 
the new pastor was like rend- 
mg the last link that bound 
us to a good priest who had 
done his duty faithfully tow- 
ard us, and there were many 
tearful e)'es in the crowded 
little church; for all who 
could had come to bid their 
old pastor farewell." 

Father Cau\in now devoted himself to the rapidly increasing 
parish of Our Lady of Grace in Hoboken. 

In the same year the Passionist Order purchased twenty acres 
of land, a portion of the Kerrigan estate, known as " Kerrigan's 
16 




ST. Joseph's, west hoboken, jersey 
CITY heights. 



242 THF. CATHOLIC CHURCH 

woods," as a site on which to build a monastery in the near 
future. 

The new mission of the Passionists being an accomphshed 
fact, Very Rev. Father Victor Carunchio was appointed Superior. 
The small house at the rear of the church, being found wholly 
inadequate, was moved back, and a comfortable frame building- 
was immediately commenced and shortly after finished. Such 
was the nucleus from which sprang St. Michael's Monastery. 

Work was soon commenced on the new monastery, a building 
of "blue stone" loi feet long by 36 feet in width, the corner- 
stone of which was laid Sunday, August 9th, 1863. On that day 
at 3:30 P.M. Bishop Bayley officiated at Solemn Vespers in St. 
Mary's Church. He was assisted by the Rev. Chancellor (now 
Monsignor) Doane as deacon and Very Rev. John Dominic Tar- 
latini. Provincial of the Passionists, as subdeacon. After Bene- 
diction of the Blessed Sacrament, a procession was formed and 
headed by a brass band, the young girls dressed in white, and the 
members of the congregation following, two by two, carrying the 
United States flag, the green flag of Erin, the French and Italian 
tri-colors, and the bishop, attended by the Fathers and Brothers of 
the Order, closed the procession, which marched to the site of 
the new monastery, where the ceremony was to take place. 
Rev. Dr. McGlynn delivered an eloquent discourse. Rev. Father 
Cauvin preached from another stand in French, while from an- 
other platform the Rev. Father Stanislaus of the Passionists 
preached in German. After the ceremony and the blessing by 
the bishop, the procession returned to St. Mary's in the same 
order. 

At this time it was necessary to cross the open fields to get to 
the monastery, and at the time the site was not a healthy one on 
account of the lovvness of the land and its swampy condition. 
But the history of the monks repeats itself, for by cultivation it 
now smiles and is altogether changed. 

The dedication of the monastery took place a year later, Sep- 
tember 25th, 1864. On this occasion also a procession moved 
from St. Mary's Church to the new monastery, which was dedi- 
cated by Bishop Bayley. An address was read by Mr. P. M. 
Weldon, a very worthy member of old St. Mary's parish, to which 
the Very Rev. Father Dominic, Provincial of the Passionists, re- 
sponded as follows : 

" Gentlemen : I thank you very heartily in my own name and 
in the name of all those of the Passionist community for your flat- 



IN NEW JERSEY 243 

tering address, as well as for the hearty cooperation you have 
alvva)'s given us in the work that has been done for the good of 
the congregation. 

"We likewise thank all the ladies of St. Mary s congregation 
for their interest in our undertaking. We also thank the neigh- 
boring friends who so generously helped us in the erection of this 
monastery. I hope you will persevere in the good work, and 
although for the future we are to be removed from you a short 
distance, some of us will remain to take care of you. 

" Let us all then thank God for the many benefits he has be- 
stowed upon us, and by the purity of our lives show ourselves 
worthy disciples of the Cross." 

The Rev. Dr. Brann, of Jersey City, followed in a timely, elo- 
quent discourse, after which Benediction of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment was given and all went away greatly pleased with this day's 
ceremonies. 

Shortly after the arrival of the Passionist Fathers in West 
Hoboken in 1863, the same year in which the corner-stone of the 
monastery was laid, St. Mary's School was erected on ground 
donated by the Kerrigan family. It was built opposite St. Mary's 
Church, on the east side of Clinton Avenue and High Street. In 
1882, while Very Rev. Benedict Murnane, C.P., was rector of St. 
Michael's Monastery, an addition was made to the school. The 
schoolrooms are spacious, well lighted, and ventilated, and the 
sanitary conditions of the building leave nothing to be desired. 
The school is in charge of the Sisters of Charity. It ranks high 
among the parochial schools of the Diocese of Newark, and its 
general reputation is in every respect excellent. We shall return 
to speak of the erection of St. Michael's School in chronological 
order. 

On September 25th, 1864, as we have .stated, the monastery 
was solemnly dedicated, and on that day its portals were thrown 
open to the public, of which privilege hundreds of the townspeo- 
ple, Protestants as well as Catholics, availed themselves, the ladies 
especially ; for well they knew that when the doors would close 
against them that evening this opportunity would never again be 
afforded them, as no woman is permitted to go beyond the parlors 
and vestibule. That same day the little band of Passionists bade 
farewell to St. Mary's, just three years and five months after their 
advent to West Hoboken. 

It soon became evident that more room was required in the 
new monastery, and therefore strenuous efforts were made, fresh 



144 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

obstacles overcome, and in October, 1864, a wing, 65 by 50 feet 
was commenced. 

In this wing was erected a beautiful chapel, which was dedi- 
cated by the Rt. Rev. Bernard J. McQuaid, then elect and now 
the honored Bishop of Rochester, N. Y., on Sunday, September 
30th, 1866. After Solemn Vespers at St. Mary's Church, at 
which Very Rev. Father Anthony Calandri, Provincial of the 
Passionists, was celebrant, in the presence of the Rt. Rev. Bishop- 
elect of Rochester, the Rev. Dr. Brann of Fort Lee, and other 
clergymen, a procession was formed, headed by the Germania 
band from Third Street, New York, which proceeded to the mon- 
astery. Arriving at the front entrance, the Rev. Dr. Brann as- 
cended the stoop and delivered a sermon full of strength and 
beauty, taking for his text, " And the Word was made Flesh and 
dwelt amongst us." 

The bishop-elect then addressed the people and gave a sketch 
of the Passionist order in America. " May we not fairly believe," 
said he, " that the masses of these recluses, especially dedicated 
to the Passion of Jesus Christ, will have much efficacy in drawing 
down its redeeming fruits upon the streets and people of our own 
cities on the banks of the Hudson .' May God increase sevenfold 
such institutions." 

On June 29th, 1867, a date never to be forgotten by the Pas- 
sionists, Blessed Paul of the Cross was canonized by Pope Pius 
the Ninth of glorious memory. For this occasion, and the solemn 
Triduum that preceded it, a frame building 1 50 feet long and 60 
feet wide was erected where now stands the magnificent stone 
structure which is justly the pride of the people. It was decorated 
by the ladies of the parish and adorned with the papal arms, flags, 
bunting, banners, and evergreens. The nimilDcr that attended the 
services was legion. There were bishops, monsignori, and clergy 
from all parts, and right royally were they entertained, for was it 
not a gala week with the Passionists ? 

Among the orators for this Triduum were the eloquent Bishop 
of Hartford, Rt. Rev. F. P. McFarland ; Rev. Dr. Wiseman, of 
Seton Hall ; and Rt. Rev. Monsignor, now Archbishop, Seton. 

The third fair was held in this temporary building in October 
of the same year, just previous to its being torn down; for in No- 
vember the first huge stone was rolled into place for the new 
church, which was commenced in the month of April, 1869. 
Sunday, July i8th, 1869, in the presence of all the societies at- 
tached to the church and those from St. Paul of the Cross, 



IN NEW JERSEY 245 

Holy Family, St. Joseph, and other parishes, the corner-stone of 
this grand edifice was laid b}- Bishop Bay ley — a church which was 
to be a lasting monument to the memory of those who had been 
instrumental in its erection. The orator of the day was the Very 
Rev. Dr. Anderdon, an English convert. On July 22d, 1870, St. 
Mary's Church, amid the lamentations of its old parishioners, was 
closed forever to divine services, and the parishioners now wor- 
shipped in the basement chapel of the monastery church. 

This chapel was dedicated by Monsignor Seton, D.D., July 
17th. It was in the transept of the church, being 170 feet in 
width and 60 feet in length. 

St. Mary's Church was used as a hall for school entertain- 
ments until 1895, when it was removed to make room for the fine 
new school of St. Michael. 

On July 4th, 1875, the superb Church of St. Michael the Arch- 
angel was dedicated with all the pomp and splendor possible. The 
dedicatory ceremonies were conducted by Rt. Rev. M. A. Corri- 
gan, second Bishop of Newark, assisted by Monsignor De Concilio, 
of Jersey City, and Father Victor, C.P., as deacons of honor. 
Bishop Lynch, of Charleston, S. C, and Bishop O'Hara, of 
Scranton, were present in the sanctuary. After the ceremonies 
of dedication a Pontifical High Mass was sung by Bishop O'Hara, 
of Scranton, assisted by Rev. Dr. McSweeney, of Poughkeepsie, 
and Rev. H. McDowell, of St. Agnes's Church, New York City. 
The sermon was preached by Bishop Lynch, of Charleston, S. C. 
Among other things the speaker said : 

"To-day your beautiful and grandiose church is dedicated to 
the service of God. Here is a temple worthy of any city, even of 
Rome itself. Here stand those noble soldiers of Christ — the Pas- 
sionists — toiling day and night, bearing on their heart a shield re- 
minding them of Christ crucified. This order was brought here 
to this land not many years ago by the illustrious and devoted 
prelate who was the first Bishop of Pittsburg, Rt. Rev. Michael 
O'Connor, D.D., who was called to his reward last year." 

The music on this occasion was by the choir of St. Stephen's 
Church, New York. It elicited the admiration of all present. 

The following are the dimensions of the great blue-stone 
church of St. Michael: Extreme length, 195 feet; width of nave, 
70 feet; width of transept, 104 feet; height of main aisle, 75 feet; 
depth of sanctuary, 25 feet; height from ground to top of the 
cross on the dome, 193 feet. The blue-stone material was quar- 
ried on the Passionist Fathers' grounds. The trimmings are of 



246 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

brown stone. The architect was Mr. P. C. Keeley, of Brooklyn, 
and the church is one of his best specimens of the basihcan order 
of Roman style. 

In the south tower are three bells, each named for a saint: 
St. Michael, 3,040 pounds; St. Paul of the Cross, 1,500 pounds; 
St. Joseph, 900 pounds. 

On Sunday, April 24th, 1898, St. Michael's Church was con- 
secrated with imposing ceremonies. P'or fifteen months it had 
been undergoing repairs and alterations. Bishop Wigger, the 
third Bishop of Newark, was the consecrator. On this occasion 
the Pontifical Mass was sung by Monsignor Martinelli, the Apos- 
tolic Delegate, and the sermon was preached by His Eminence 
Cardinal Gibbons of Baltimore. The church is now one of the 
most beautiful and ornate in the State. At present, under the 
rectorship of Very Rev. Justin Carey, C.P., it is being fitted up 
with eighteen hundred electric lights, and promises to be wonder- 
ful in its attractions. 

We must return to record the building of St. Michael's School 
at Clinton Avenue and High Street. It stands where old St. 
Mary's was formerly erected. It was dedicated on November 
8th, 1896, by the Rt. Rev. M. W. Wigger, Bishop of Newark. 
The structure, whilst primaril}- a parish school, is meant to meet 
various parish needs. The building, whose construction belongs 
to the period when the Very Rev. Charles Lang, C.P., was in 
charge of the parish, is fitted up with every modern improvement. 
It is heated by steam, and special attention has been paid to light- 
ing and ventilation. 

The building is a red-brick structure with a high stone base- 
ment trimmed with Belleville brown stone. It fronts on High 
Street, and is 118 feet long by 74 feet wide. Besides the base- 
ment there are three stories. The building has a very handsome 
high hip roof with a tower in the centre, which is surmounted by 
a gilt cross. The latter is 112 feet from the street level. In the 
basement are the bowling alleys for St. Michael's Young Men's 
Lyceum. On the first floor on the east side are the rooms of St. 
Michael's Young Men's Lyceum. The second floor is occupied 
by class-rooms. The top floor consists of a hall, which is the 
largest in North Hudson. It is 70 by 80 feet, with a stage 48 by 
22 feet. 

Seven hundred and eighty-six children attend St. Michael's and 
St. Mary's schools. 



IN NEW JERSEY 247 



St. James's Church, Red Bank. 

The Catholics of Red Bank in the early da)s were attended 
from the Amboys. The first i^riest whose name is connected 
with this mission is the Rev. Michael A. Madden in 185 1. 

The faith was planted here with the usual obstacles and oppo- 
sition. It is in the memory of some still alive that, after having 
offered Mass in different private houses, the opportunity offered 
itself to use an abandoned Presb3'terian church. The Catholics 
had gathered from the surrounding country, and while service 
was going on a crowd on the outside threw through the open win- 
dows dead cats, old tins, etc. ; and after Mass was over a guard 
of stalwart Catholics escorted the priest beyond the limits of 
the town to protect him from assault and insult. So bitter was 
the prejudice against our people that when the fii'st church was 
built mechanics had to be brought from New York, as not one 
in Red Bank was willing to work on it. In 1853 the Rev. James 
Callan from South Amboy, and from 1855 to 1863 the Rev. John 
Kelly, ministered to the Catholics. The first resident pastor 
appears to have been the Rev. Thomas M. Killeen, born in New 
York City, November 3d, 1834, educated in St. Francis Xavier's 
College, New York, and in the Propaganda, Rome, and ordained 
in Newark by Bishop Bayley, December 6th, i860. Before his 
appointment to Red Bank in 1863 he had been an assistant in 
St. James's, Newark, St. Mary's, Jersey City, and St. John's, 
Paterson. 

In October, 1867, the Rev. John Francis Salaun, of Brittany, 
France, who had come to the diocese of Newark from Cleveland, 
and volunteered his services on the cholera ship in the Lower 
Bay, N. Y., remaining there from April 24th to July 5th, 1866, 
and assistant at St. Peter's, Jersey City, took pastoral charge in 
succession to Father Killeen. He remained until July ist, 1876, 
when he was appointed first resident pastor of Long Branch, 
where he built a church. He was later transferred to Seton Hall, 
named first pastor of South Orange, resigned, and returned to 
France in 1889, where he died October 19th, 1895. His succes- 
sor was the Rev. Michael E. Kane. Father Kane, born in New- 
ark, made his studies in Seton Hall, where he was ordained priest 
June 24th, 1865. 

He had been assistant in St. James's, Newark, pastor of St. 
Mary's, Elizabeth, and again reappointed assistant in St. James's, 



248 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Newark, January, 1871-July ist, 1876. Father Kane paid off all 
the debt of the church, and built the fine school-house in Red 
Bank. He died April 4th, 1891. 

The present rector, the Rev. James A. Reynolds, educated at 
St. Charles's and Seton Hall, a member of the class of '82, has 
built one of the most beautiful churches in the State, which was 
dedicated by the Most Rev. Francis Satolli, Apostolic Delegate. 

St. Mary's, Plainfield, 1851. 

A HALF century ago Plainfield was a small hamlet. Over 
the mountain, in what is still called the " Second Valley," stood 
the little Catholic chapel of Stony Hill, erected for the benefit 
of the German farmers tilling the pleasant fields of that smiling 
spot. The chapel was eight miles away, counting the distance 
in both directions, from the homes of the little band of Catho- 
lics then dwelling in Plainfield, a journey delightful to make 
in the soft air of May or when the golden haze of October lay 
broodingly o\er the mountains, covered with their autumn tapes- 
tries; but it was another matter when the fierce sun of July and 
August burned down on the shut-in Jersey valley and on the side 
of the steep hills, or when the icy winds of midwinter whirled 
the snow through the ravine and beat back the souls who braved 
these terrors to hear Mass. Elizabeth was twelve miles distant. 
Stony Hill but eight, and these Irish immigrants were used to 
suffer for their faith. So they toiled through heat and cold to 
the chapel built by their German brethren, nor thought the alter- 
native of staying home worthy to be entertained. 

Time went on, and the intrepid Plainfield Catholics increased 
in numbers, and the possibility of building a church for them- 
selves and getting the archbishop to appoint to them their own 
pastor was discussed among them. One of the members of the 
congregation, appointed delegate for the rest, went to New York 
to see Archbishop Hughes, and laid before him the fact of the 
great distance from Plainfield that the chapel of Stony Hill stood, 
its incapacity to accommodate the increasing numbers seeking it, 
even at so much sacrifice, and their ability to support a priest, at 
least, although as yet a church they had none. 

The archbishop, recognizing the justice of their request, sent 
the Rev. James I. McDonough in 1851 to take charge of the 
Catholics in Plainfield and the vicinity. 

It was much to have secured a priest ; a church to say Mass 



IN NEW JERSEY 



149 



in was beyond the possibilities of his smah congrei;ation when he 
came among" them. 

Out on what is now Somerset Street, not far from " the Notch," 
and on the way to the next valley which he had trodden bravely 
with the rest, stood, as still stands, the house of James Verdon. 
This was the cradle of Plainfield Catholicity. Here Father 
McDonough gathered his little flock on every alternate Sunday; 
here was said the first Mass within the limits of Plainfield. 

Increase in numbers continued steadily in this growing par- 
ish ; Mr. Verdon's house soon became too small, and in Mr. Ver- 
don's barn the Plainfield church was sheltered for a long time. 
It was not long before the barn 
as well as the house was out- 
grown, for there was some- 
thing like a hundred souls in 
the little congregation by this 
time, and they felt they could 
afford a building a little more 
like a church. A hall was 
rented for their use, and this 
stood in the centre of the vil- 
lage. 

The parish of St. Mary's at 
this time stretched from Rar- 
itan to Westfield, with the 
pastoral residence in the for- 
mer town, and until 1868 Mass was said in Plainfield only every 
two weeks. 

Father McDonough's stay among his new flock was brief; it 
was in 1854, the third year after his appointment, when he was 
succeeded by a younger priest, Rev. Daniel Fisher, who trans- 
ferred his residence from Raritan to Plainfield. Two years later 
this pastor was in turn removed to become the President of Seton 
Hall College, then in Madison. 

Father Fisher's removal brings us to the third pastor of St. 
Mary's and the first to serve the church for any considerable 
length of time. Leather Terence Kiernan, following Father 
Fisher in 1856, remained in Plainfield until his death, which oc- 
curred suddenly in 1869. His successor was Rev. John Connolly, 
who, because of his frail health, was given Father Morris as as- 
sistant, until the not-unexpected death of the pastor a year after 
his aopointment gave the charge to P'ather Morris. 




THE FIRST ST. MARY S CHURCH, 
PLAINFIELD. 



250 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Father Morris, recognizing" the rapid growth of the parish and 
its insufficient accommodations, began raising funds to build a 
permanent church. In 1875 the corner-stone of the fine Gothic 
church was laid. The pastorate of Father Morris ended two 
years after the dedication of the church in 1882. Two priests, 
Fathers De Burgh and Callahan, were placed in charge for a few 




ST. MARY S CHURCH, PLAINFIELD. 



months each until, January, 1883, the Rev. P. E. Smythe was sent 
to Plainfield from Jersey City. 

In 1888 the fine brick building, St. Mary's School, was built 
on the corner of Sixth and Liberty streets. 

The solemn consecration of St. Mary's Church took place with 
all due observance on the last Sunday in September, the 30th 
day of the month, igoo, by the Bishop of Newark, Rt. Rev. W. M. 
Wigger. The sermon was preached by Rt. Rev. Mgr. Mooney. 
The Most Rev. M. A. Corrigan, Archbishop of New York, who, 
when Bishop of Newark, dedicated the church, was present in the 
sanctuary. 

The Rev. P. E. Smythe was appointed permanent rector of St. 
Joseph's Church, Jersey City, in succession to the Most Rev. 
Archbishop Seton, and the Rev. Andrew M. Egan was appointed 
pastor of St. Mary's January 6th, 1902. 



IN NEW JERSEY 251 

Father Egan, born in Newark, August 21st, 1855, made his 
preparatory studies partly in St. Charles's and in St. Hyacinth's 
College, Canada, was graduated from Seton Hall in the class of 
'76, and ordained in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Newark, May 22d, 
1880. His missionary career began in St. Mary's, Bergen Point, 
then to St. Michael's, Jersey City, again to Bergen Point from 
February, 1883, to 1892, when he was appointed rector of St. 
Virgilius's, Morris Plains. Here his ministry was characterized 
by energy, zeal, and tact. Among his other duties was the care 
of the insane in the State asylum, and never at any time was there 
friction between the pastor and the staff, by whom and by the 
directors he was held in the highest esteem. He built the rec- 
tory, tastefully laid out the grounds, so that the place became one 
of the many attractive spots in that locality, and erected a parish 
hall. His departure was universally regretted. 



St. Rose's Church, Short Hills. 

The story of this parish is best told by its founder, Bishop 
McQuaid. 

Rochester, N. Y., March 28th, 1882. 

Dear Father Corrigan: Your favor of the 26th is at hand. 
Some of the facts relating to the beginning of the mission of 
Springfield I can furnish. 

When I took charge of Springfield as an outlying mission of 
Madison in April, 1848, Mass had been said only on week days. 
Daniel Coghlan then lived in Springfield, and it was in his house 
that all religious services took place and that the priest found 
good care and generous hospitality. 

After the opening of the Morristown church in 1849, which was 
subsequent to the formation of the Dover mission in November 
of 1848, Mass was said in Springfield once a month on Sunday. 
That Sunday Morristown was left without Mass. The first Mass 
was in Madison and the second in Springfield. Before the build- 
ing of the church the Catholics of Springfield and neighborhood 
met in Mr. Coghlan' s house for Mass, for Lenten devotions one 
evening in the week, and the children every Sunday for catechism. 
After Daniel Coghlan's removal to Whippany the same facilities 
were kindly granted by his brother, Thomas Coghlan. 

In 1852, owing to increasing numbers, it was judged advisable 
to build a church. As the non-Catholics of Springfield and Mil- 



252 THK CATHOLIC CHURCH 

burn were grossly and stui)iclly bigoted, it was necessary to pro- 
ceed warily in buying a lot for the new church. Fortunately a 
suitable site was found on the main road leading to Elizabeth, 
just where the road from Newark strikes it. The property be- 
longed to one * * * *. He agreed to sell one acre for $250, having 
paid $750 for three and a half acres, with house and barn, a short 
time before. Then, after the story got out that the Catholics 
were about to build a church, this man refused to complete the 
bargain, on the plea that his wife refused to sign the deed — a com- 
mon dodge among people who do not wish to keep their agree- 
ments. When it became known that he had backed out, no one 
in the neighborhood would sell at any price. An offer was then 
made to the man's wife of $300, and then of $400, for the same 
bit of ground for a church, seeing that the enemies of the Church 
were combined against us. She refused, no doubt in the hope of 
extracting more money, for when she found that the church was 
to be built elsewhere, she offered the ground at the last-named 
price. Her offer was indignantly refused. 

The site on which the church was built was a free gift from 
Daniel Coghlan, and was alwa}'s at our disposal, but as the ground 
was wet and the location not as desirable as other sites, it was 
judged better to pay for a choice site rather than accept this as a 
gift. 

The disappointment occasioned by the afore-mentioned gentle- 
man's want of honesty in keeping to his bargain delayed the com- 
mencement of the church until the autumn. Promise had been 
made to the people that they should have a church before the 
expiration of the year. Ground was broken for the fcjundations 
of the church on St. Theresa's Day, October 15th, and the church 
was blessed on the Sunday after Christmas, I think it was Decem- 
ber 26th, by the Very Rev. John Loughlin, V.G., deputed by 
Bishop Hughes. The day of the dedication all indebtedness was 
liquidated except two notes of $100, each payable to Houston of 
Chatham, one in six months and another in twelve months. The 
first was paid at maturit)' ; the second was met by my successor. 
Rev. M. A. Madden. The money for building this church was 
collected in small sums all over the extensive but not populous 
mission of Madison. An old collection book shows contributions 
from Madison, Morristown, Mendham, Baskingridge, Providence, 
Chatham, Columbia, Hanover, Whippany, Speedwell, etc. 

In September, 1853, on my removal to Newark, Rev. P'ather 
Madden took charge of the mission of Madison. In a few years. 



IN NEW JERSEY 253 

finding the church at Springfield too small for the congregation, 
he built an addition. 

After the removal of Seton Hall College from Madison to 
South Orange in i860, Springfield came under the administration 
of the priests of the college. It did the young priests of the col- 
lege good to ride over from the college on a crispy winter's morn- 
ing to get a slight taste of the pleasures of missionary life. It was 
about this time that Catholic families from New York began to 
move into the Short Hills. 

These are the chief facts that come to my memory in connec- 
tion with the establishment of the Springfield mission. Should 
there be any particular points on which )'0u desire information, 
and within my power to communicate, it will give me pleasure to 
help your good work. 

Very sincerely in Christ, 

Bernard, Bishop of RocJiester. 

P. S. I think that in The Fireman's Journal of December, 
1852, you will find an account of the dedication of St. Rose's 
Church. In the last century after the Revolution French emi- 
grants settled at Elizabeth. A priest visited them occasionally. 
If I am not mistaken, some lived a while near Springfield. Their 
compatriots at Madison (old Bottle Hill, as it was called) were 
often attended to by a priest from St. Peter's, New York. He 
came by boat to Elizabeth, thence by stage to Madison. These 
visits became quite regular as far back as 1805, although I think 
that the French priests li\ed in Elizabeth at an earlier date. 



St. Rose's Church is small and not imposing. It is not sur- 
mounted by sky-scraping steeple or cross, yet its walls have 
echoed many an eloquent sermon, and in it have ministered at one 
time or another as pastor more priests who have attained emi- 
nence in the Catholic Church than in any other parish in New 
Jersey. It was the first parish entrusted to a clergyman who has 
since become the head of the greatest and largest diocese in the 
United States, Archbishop Michael A. Corrigan, of New York. 
Among its former pastors were the Rt. Rev. W. M. Wigger, 
Bishop of Newark; Rt. Rev. B. J. McOuaid, Bishop of Roches- 
ter; Rev. \V. J. Wiseman ; and Rev. James H. Corrigan, president 
of Seton Hall College, and Rev. George W. Corrigan, brothers of 
the archbishop. 

Rev. P. Moran, of St. John's Church, Newark, began to make 
monthly visits to the parish, which comprised Milburn and Spring- 
field. Father Moran used to say Mass and teach catechism in the 



254 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



house of Charles Fury, of Springfield. This was in 1832 The 
Furys and Mrs. Matthew Dougherty were the only Catholics in 
these villages at this time. Rev. Father Guth frequently made 
visits from Madison to this straggling settlement. In 1841 two 
men with families, Terence Hogan and John Kenny, and Maurice 
Lonergan, single, were the only Catholics in Milburn. In Spring- 
field were Charles Fury and family, Mr. and Mrs. Philip Lynch, 
Mr and Mrs. Michael English, Arthur McCormick, Daniel 

Coghlan, and Bryan Dunigan. 
In 1847 Rev Louis D. Senez, 
of Madison, was assigned to 
celebrate Mass on week days 
in the house of Michael Eng- 
lish, and teach catechism at 
the residence of John Hogan 
on the Short Hills road. 

In the first years of its ex- 
istence the church had many 
trials. A spirit of hostility 
was excited by its erection 
among the Protestant resi- 
dents of the locality. Of 
these some were Irish Prot- 
estants — Orangemen — and 
their bitterness caused much 
annoyance. At one time an 
effigy of St. Patrick was hung 
on the large cross over the 
entrance to the church on 
that saint's day, and on other 
occasions various indignities 
were cast upon it. 

During Father Madden's 
term as pastor the sanctuary 
was shattered by lightning. 
In 1859 the church was 
robbed, the carpets were torn 
from the floor and scattered 
in shreds about the edifice, 
and the vestments destroyed. 
The Rev. Louis Schneider assumed pastoral charge in 1868. 
Father Schneider was an indefatigable worker. By his efforts its 
present site and the other property now owned by the church 
were purchased. The property then consisted of six acres of 
land, with a dwelling-house and a hat-shop. The shop has since 
been remodelled as a school. Father Schneider's love for the par- 
ish was so great that in the centre of the cemetery he erected a 
large cedar cross and made known his wish to be buried there. 
His wish was fulfilled and a monument was erected on his grave 
by his former pupils. 




ST. BONIFACE CHURCH, PATERSON. 



IN NEW JERSEY 255 

In 1873 Rev. Thomas J. Toomey was appointctl to take charge 
of the parish. 

Father Toomey was succeeded in February, 1874, by Rt. Rev. 
W. M. Wigger, Bishop of Newark, then pastor of St. Theresa's 
Church at Summit. In September, 1874, Bishop Wigger was 
superseded by Rev. L. S. Uagnault, who was the first resident 
priest. He remained until October, 1876. During his term he 
also attended Cranford and Westfield. In 1876 the parish had 
gained sufficiently in population to necessitate the saying of two 
Masses on Sunday. On October 8th, 1876, Father Dagnault 
exchanged parishes with the Rev. Joseph Rolando, of -Hacken- 
sack. 

In September, 1879, the present sisters' residence was erected, 
and a community of the Sisters of Notre Dame assumed control 
of the school. They were succeeded by the Sisters of Charity in 
1881. 

The church was removed from Springfield to its present loca- 
tion in 1880. The distance was only about one-third of a mile, yet 
the church was six weeks on the road. During that time Mass 
was said in the school-house. Father Rolando was transferred to 
Madison to succeed Bishop Wigger as pastor there on September 
1 2th, 1 881. The first appointment made by Bishop Wigger was 
that of the Rev. George \\\ Corrigan to succeed Father Rolando 
at Milburn in September, 1881. He was a great favorite with 
all his congregation. His charities and his exceeding kindness of 
heart are still traditional in the parish. He often went to Union- 
ville and said Mass at the residence of Matthew Ouilligan, and 
thus saved the Catholics of Unionville a walk of four miles. Dur- 
ing his pastorate the Forty Hours' devotion was first held in the 
church, and the first mission took place. It was conducted by the 
Redemptorist Fathers. 

Father Corrigan was transferred to St. Agnes's, Paterson. 
He was succeeded by Rev. Daniel F. McCarthy, the present pas- 
tor. Father McCarthy has worked unceasingly since he assumed 
charge. The parish is at present in good standing and entirely 
free from debt. Under his administration a fine school has been 
erected. — Nezvark Evening A^cws. 

St. Boniface's Church, Paterson. 

Before the erection of the present church of St. Boniface, the 
Germans of the city of Paterson assembled in the basement of old 
St. John's Church for divine worship. They were visited occa- 
sionally by Rev. Nagel, C.SS.R., and more frequently by Rev. P. 
Hartlaub, who from the 9th of October, 1853, till April 24th, 
1858, zealously responded to their spiritual wants. 

Rev. L. Fink succeeded him in the pastoral work July i8th, 
1858, and remained till July 3d, 1859. He became Bishop of 
Wichita, Kan. 



2s6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

He was succeeded by Rev. John J. Schandel, August nth, 
1859, at the same time assistant of St. John's. He bought the 
cliurch property of ten lots on the corner of Main and Slater 
streets. 

The corner-stone was laid on July 1st, i860, by Bishop Bay- 
ley, and after completion the church was blessed December ist, 
1 861, by Rev. J. J. Schandel. St. Boniface's Church in its pres- 
ent structure has the honor of being the oldest church in the city 
of Paterson. 

At a meeting, 29th of September, 1864, the church was incor- 
porated under the legal title " Saint Boniface's Catholic Church, 
Paterson." 

Rev. Nicholas Hens was appointed as the first assistant Sep- 
tember, 1869. 

Rev. John J. Schandel leaving December, 1871, was succeeded 
by Rev. Nicholas Hens in January, 1872, as pastor. He brought 
the Sisters of St. Dominic to his parish September 9th, 1872, and 
having procured two lots, the school was built in 1875. 

Rev. Aug. J. Geisler came as assistant August, 1879, and re- 
mained in that position till October, 1881. 

Rev. J. N. Grieff followed him October, 1881, and continued 
in the parish until February, 1884. 

Father Hens leaving" October, 1884, was followed by Rev. 
Eugene Dikovich, November, 1884, as pastor. Having no assist- 
ant, he was helped by the Rev. Franciscan Fathers, Paterson, till 
I St of May, 1901, when Rev. Adalbert Frey was appointed 
assistant. 

St. Michael's Catholic Church, Elizabeth. 

In the city of Elizabeth, N. J., there was only one Catholic 
church until the beginning of the "fifties,"' St. Mary's, where all 
the different nationalities worshipped. The few German Catho- 
lics who every Sunday heard Mass in St. Mary's, unable most of 
them to understand the English language, desired most anxiously 
to hear the Word of God in their native tongue. When their num- 
ber increased, the head of the diocese sent a priest now and then 
to preach the Gospel to them. Some time later a Redemptorist 
Father came once a month from New York to preach and hear 
confessions in the German language. Among these Rev. Redemp- 
torist Fathers who came in the years 1849-52 to Elizabeth may 
be mentioned P^'athers J. Nagel, M. Leimgruber, Felix Ed. Brecka. 



IN NKW JKRSEY 



257 



In the year 1852 the German CathoHcs, then numbering 
twenty-five famihes, resolved to found a new Cathohc parish. 
This certainly was a great undertaking for so small a number, 
especially as their means were slender, and as most of them were 
laborers who had to work hard for their daily bread. Still their 
love for God, and their desire to have a church of their own, 
filled their hearts with zeal 
for the great sacrifice. 

Among the founders were 
John Engel, J. L. Lutz, 
Francis Stein, George Streis- 
sel, John Eich, John Kelber, 
Leonard Sauer, Anton Stein, 
John Daubner, John H. Gei- 
ger. They first obtained lots 
on High Street on condition 
that they should build a stone 
church ; but they had not 
the resources sufficient, and 
hence had to return the gift 
to the donor. They then 
bought lots on Smith Street, 
and under their pastor's guid- 
ance, the Rev. Father Hart- 
laub, the foundation was laid 
in 1853. The first rector 
was Rev. Augustine Dautner, 
O.S.F., who came August 
8th, 1852. He remained one 
year ; then he was succeeded 
for two months by F'ather 
Carro ; and then b)' the ai)o\'e- 
mentioned Father Hartlaub, 
who built the frame church 

on Smith Street. His successor was Rev. Adolph Etthofer, 
from February 5th, 1854, to February nth, 1855. His successor 
was Rev. Nicholas Balleis, who was succeeded in the same year, 
July 29th, 1855, by Rev. Michael Wlirzfeld. He enlarged the 
frame church in 1858. In the year i860 the Rev. Henry Lemke, 
O.S.B., became rector of the parish. Father Henry, as he was 
always called, organized in 1861 the school, which was held at 
first in the church itself, a wooden partition separating the chil- 
17 




ST. Michael's church, elizaueth. 



258 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



dren from the altar. On Sundays and holidays this partition was 
removed. The Benedictine Sisters taught in the school. Father 
Henry retired from St. Michael's Church in 1870. Reorganized 
the Sacred Heart congregation in Elizabeth, and died in Carrollton, 
Pa., November 28th, 1882, in the eighty-seventh year of his age. 

In the year 1870 the Rev. Albert von Schilgen became the 
rector, and he at once began the erection of a new church on the 
corner of Smith and East Jersey streets. This new church, built 
of brick in real Gothic style, is no feet long and 55 feet wide, 

exclusive of the tower, 
which was not added 
till 1 899 and is 29 feet 
square and 179 feet 
high ; it was dedicated 
on St. Michael's Day, 
September 29th, 1872. 
The number of school- 
children in 1870 was 
52. On September 2d, 
1875, the Sisters of 
Christian Charity took 
charge of the school, 
there being 165 schol- 
ars. As the congre- 
gation increased so did 
the number of school- 
children, so that anew 
school became necessary. This school, together with the sisters' 
house, was built in 1885. The sisters' house is 70 feet long 
and 52 feet wide. The east wing, 90 by 30 feet, and the south 
wing, 118 by 33 feet, contain the school-rooms, and now (1903) 
the number of children is 510. Rev. Albert von Schilgen sacri- 
ficed every comfort for the benefit of the school and sisters, 
giving up even his own house to them and living in two hired 
rooms. The congregation without his knowledge collected $4,000 
to build a new rectory in 1882. So that Rev. Albert von Schilgen 
built the present church on Smith and East Jersey streets, the 
sisters' house, the school and hall, the rectory, and bought prop- 
erty for the erection of a club-house for the young men. After 
living for his parish and for it sacrificing himself from March, 
1870, till June 2, 1 90 1, he died, mourned and loved by his whole 
congregation. 




REV. ALBERT VON SCHILGEN. 



IN NEW JERSEY 259 

Father von Schilgcn, born of a noble and distinguished family, 
in Arensberg-, Westphalia, October 12th, 1833, made his studies in 
Miinster, Paderborn, and Lou vain, and was ordained priest March 
20th, 1858. He served three years as assistant at Dortmund, 
German)', and eight years as missionary pastor of Feudenberg. 
He was received into this diocese, and sent as assistant to Father 
Lemke, March 22d, 1870. He was singularly disinterested, 
modest, and discreet, a highly gifted scholar, and by nature as well 
as by birth a noble man. 

To continue the work of Father Albert von Schilgen has 
been the aim of the present rector. Rev. Hubert J. Behr, D.D., 
who succeeded him June 21st, 1901. When in June, 1902, the 
golden jubilee of St. Michael's parish was celebrated, the church 
had been renovated outside and decorated inside in an artistic 
way. There were present also at the golden jubilee five of the 
original founders of the parish. 

The first assistant was given to Father von Schilgen in 1893 
in the person of Rev. George H. Mueller, at present pastor of 
Mendham, N. J. In 1894 the Rev. Michael Rumpel was ap- 
pointed assistant, and during seven years helped the pastor in his 
zealous work for the welfare of the parish. 

In July, 1 90 1, the Rev. Andrew J. Schonhart became the 
assistant of Rev. H. J. Behr, D.D., and has been constant and 
zealous in the discharge of his duties. 

Not only has St. Michael's Church worked through its people 
and rectors for the welfare of the flock, but she has been the 
mother of other and now flourishing congregations in Elizabeth. 

First, St. Patrick's, Elizabeth, is her child, and it is a case 
in which the child has grown more famous than the mother. 

Secondly, the Sacred Heart congregation was organized by 
the rector of St. Michael's. 

Thirdly, the Holy Rosary congregation held service in St. 
Michael's Church in the beginning, and its rector lived with good 
Father von Schilgen. 

Fourthly, the present Italian parish has used the old church 
of St. Michael's now for over twelve years, free of all obligations; 
so that, though St. Michael's congregation may not do overmuch 
boasting, her works speak eloquently for her. 



26o THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

The Diocese of Newark. 

Its First Bishop, 

James Roosevelt Bayley. 

After the death of Bishop Connolly, February 5th, 1825, the 
See of New York was vacant two years, and meanwhile it was 
administered by the Very Rev. John Power, who had been ap- 
pointed vicar-general by Bishop Connolly. The Rev. John Du 
Bois, president and founder of Mount St. Mary's College, Em- 
mettsburg, Md., was consecrated second Bishop of New York, 
Sunday, October 29th, 1826. Bishop DuBois, born in Paris, 
August 24th, 1 764, was educated in the College of Louis le Grand, 
and among his fellow-students were many who figured prominently 
in the historical records of their day — among them the Abbe 
MacCarthy, the Abbe Le Oris Duval, Robespierre, and Camille 
Desmoulins. Bishop DuBois was one of that illustrious band of 
zealous, holy, and learned priests, who, driven from their own 
country by the fanatical hatred of their countrymen, seemed des- 
tined under God to come hitherward to build deep and solid the 
foundations of Catholicity in this virgin field. Letters brought 
by him from Lafayette secured for him a welcome among the 
most distinguished Americans of that day — James Monroe, the 
Randolphs of Roanoke, the Lees, the Beveridges, and the illus- 
trious orator Patrick Henry. He lost no time to familiarize him- 
self with the language of the country. He was brimming over with 
that charming activity, a peculiar attraction of his race, was cour- 
teous, polite, and in a marked manner sympathetic with children, 
with whom he readily made friends, and through them not infre- 
quently with their parents. While studying English with Patrick 
Henry he did not neglect his priestly office, but visited the Cath- 
olics in Richmond and Norfolk. In 1794 Archbishop Carroll en- 
trusted him with the Frederick mission, as the pastor at that time. 
Father Frambach, exhausted with the labors of his active mission- 
ary life, was no longer able for the work. The sphere of Father 
DuBois's activity was not confined to Maryland, but extended 
into Virginia. Despite the grave apprehension of the flock of 
Catholics in Frederick, he determined to build for them a church. 
It was built, and by his thrift and zeal paid for. Soon other 
churches and chapels appeared in his missionary field which 
tested to the utmost his endurance. 



IN NEW JERSEY 261 

On the suggestion of the Abbe Dubourg, he determined to 
open a preparatory college at Emmettsburg, and in 1 808 he had the 
satisfaction of inaugurating an institution with seven pupils that 
was to furnish great names not only to the Lord's vineyard, but 
in civil and political life. He became associated with the Society 
of St. Sulpice December 6th of that same year, but, after some 
eighteen years, he withdrew from it while still holding the esteem 
and affection of its members. 

About this time Elizabeth Bayley Seton, a distinguished con- 
vert to the Catholic Church, was chosen by Bishop Carroll to 
establish at Emmettsburg a foundation of the Sisters of Charity, 
and from that little log-house on the mountain has developed an 
institution which down to the present has been a benediction to 
thousands — on the battle-field, in the hospital, in the orphanage, 
and in the school-room. While the new community adopted the 
rules of St. Vincent de Paul, still much had to be done to adapt 
them to the times and the altered conditions of society. His ex- 
perience with the Sisters of Charity in Paris and in their asylums 
for the insane made Father DuBois a most valuable guide and 
adviser. But what he did and how the little band suffered is best 
told by the Rev. John McCaffrey in his eulogy of Bishop DuBois 
in 1843: 

Bishop Brute declared that Bishop DuBois was the true father 
of that institution {S2s/rrs 0/ ChaTity) from the beginning. When 
Mother Seton first came to Emmettsburg he gave her a home on 
its hill. He freely shared his limited means with the nascent 
community; he supported them when other support they had 
none. He was their confessor and director during the first years 
of their existence. To him Archbishop Carroll entrusted all that 
related to them. He instructed, trained, directed, formed them 
all. He initiated them into the practice of the rules laid down by 
St. Vincent de Paul. He consoled, encouraged, and sustained 
them amid trials and difficulties which would have shaken souls 
less generous than theirs or his, and from the scanty stores of his 
own poverty he supplied them with bread, when but for him they 
had no alternative but to abandon their undertaking and disperse 
or perish for want of food. That was true heroism then exhibited 
in St. Joseph's vale, when this man of God taught that delicately 
reared and softly nurtured mother and her little band of resolute 
associates to suffer without complaint day after day, month after 
month, the gnawing pains of hunger, confident that He who 
feeds the ravens would not forget them, and in the hope tliat they 
might yet grow up into a community and one day be able them- 
selves to feed the hungry, to rear the forsaken orphan, to nurse 
the destitute sick, to throw themselves like tutelary angels between 



262 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

the raging pestilence and its trembling victims. That hope has 
been realized ! Yes, departed benefactors of the poor, DuBois ! 
Seton ! thousands of orphans, rescued from want and misery 
and death, or worse than death, have raised their grateful hands 
to heaven, imploring blessings upon you — a thousand orphans 
will remember you in their prayers. 

Among the gardeners who aided Father DuBois in clearing 
the forest and tilling the farm was young John Hughes, whose 
extraordinary ability did not escape his keen eye, and who was 
one day to succeed him as fourth Bishop of New York. Bishop 
DuBois's life in the field of his new responsibilities was not a rose- 
strewn pathway, but his indomitable will, his courage, and his 
faith carried him safely through the troubles of the trustee sys- 
tem and the barriers which his nationality had raised against him. 
His zeal brought him to every part of his diocese, and many times 
did he visit the northern section of New York — travelling at one 
time over three thousand miles — to dedicate churches, to admin- 
ister confirmation, and to bless cemeteries. There is a tradition 
that he visited Elizabeth and blessed a portion of the Episcopal 
cemetery of St. John's, that the French families might lay away 
their dead in hallowed ground. The pages which precede this 
narrative speak eloquently of his interest in this part of his dio- 
cese in sending zealous and faithful priests to build the foundations 
of the majestic edifice we now behold. When he took possession 
of his cathedral, there were about 25,000 Catholics in New York 
City, who owned three out of the seventy churches. But the 
commercial panic in England and the famine in Ireland in 1826 
brought thousands of immigrants to our shores. Unfortunate 
Ireland, oppressed by her rulers, afflicted by the hand of God, 
desolated and decimated by famines from 1826 to 1848, was to see 
her population disappear and her fields and hamlets deserted. 
The tide of emigrants from the Sacred Isle still flows on. What 
were the horrors from which our forefathers fled only those who 
were eye-witnesses can portray. The famine of 1831 was one of 
the worst, and in his appeal in TJie Avcniriox funds to send to 
the distressed, Montalembert gives these harrowing details : 

The inhabitants of a vast parish in one of the remote counties 
of Ireland, completely deprived of food and reduced to the last ex- 
treme, are mere shadows, and calmly await death to put an end to 
their pangs and their misery. The priest would not abandon his 
iiock, and died with them of hunger. When he saw there was 
no hope of relief, no sign of succor, he went from cabin to cabin, 



IN NEW JERSEY aSi, 

always with the same message : My dear children, in this terrible 
hour let us not forget oiu^ Lord, the Lord God who gives life and 
takes it away. 

Obedient to his \'oice, five hundred spectres dragged them- 
selves to the chai)el and dropped on their knees ; the priest tot- 
tered up the steps of the altar, and there stretching out his shriv- 
elled hands over the heads of the dying, he tells the litany of the 
agonizing and recites the prayers for the dead. This agony of a 
whole people is the agony of a martyr, and in the yawning graves 
into which this people is falling like the leaves in the autumn, 
hell will not have a single victim. — Azrm'r, June 13th, 1831. 

The appeal was not in vain; $16,000 was forwarded to Ire- 
land to relieve the sufferers. 

The English Government seemed helpless or indifferent to 
stay the ravages of a peril ever recurring and which was losing to 
them millions of their subjects. This truth the London Tablet of 
that day confesses : 

The worst feature of Ireland's condition, in the minds of 
Englishmen, has been for a long time its hopelessness. It seemed 
past help and past hope. ... It is almost heartbreaking to think 
of Ireland. God, no doubt, tempers the wind to the shorn lamb, 
but of a truth it requires a stout heart for any minister that has 
to front the perils of the next twelve months. As it is, we know 
not what effort can be made successfully, nor how it is possible 
" to feed an entire nation that stretches out its hands for food " 
(1846). 

Dark, indeed, were the scenes they left behind them and sad 
their memories, but who can portray the horrors of that passage 
over sea .'' The human freight was packed away in rotten hulks, 
tyrannized by brutal masters and mates, who held human life — 
especially Irish human life — cheaply. Becalmed at times and 
wrapped in fogs at others, imprisoned in these floating storm-cen- 
tres of disease, of mutiny, of riotous and brutal conduct, how 
many a thrilling tale has been told of life aboard these " coffin " 
ships ! One of them v/as wrecked off Cape Cod, and of the hun- 
dreds aboard only thirteen were saved by the hardy fishermen. 
The captain's trunk was washed ashore, and in it was found a 
letter from the owners guaranteeing him a new command should 
he succeed in sinking the wrecked ship. 

But what people can point to a nobler record of self-sacrifice, 
of filial piety;' of intense Catholic faith than these penniless Celts, 
who, according to Lecky, in the twenty years ending with 1863, 



264 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

sent not less than one hundred milHons of dollars to their rela- 
tives in Ireland {^England in tJic Eightcoith Century, ii., 343), and 
who, furthermore, supported themselves, reared families, and built 
up the Catholic Church in the United States ? 

These were the hosts whicli demanded the care and attention 
of the spiritual heads of our Chvu'ch, and worried them in their 
anxious efforts to make provision for their spiritual welfare. 
With the limited means at their disposal this was simply out of 
the question, and hence the leakage so much to be deplored and 
regretted. 

Feeling the burden of his office too great to be borne at his 
advanced age, Bishop DuBois intimated to the bishops of the third 
Provincial Council that he would be pleased to have a coadjutor, 
and asked for the appointment of the Rev. John Hughes. The 
bull of his appointment reached Bishop Hughes in November, 
1837, and he was consecrated in St. Patrick's Cathedral, New 
York, by Bishop DuBois, January 7th, 1838. For twenty-eight 
years he dominated public opinion as a priest and a patriot, up- 
lifted a weak and timid flock, infused enthusiasm and courage 
into the hearts of priests and people, maintained their rights and 
dignity, defended by word and pen the dogmas and practices of 
holy Church, and gave Catholicity an impetus which has not yet 
been stayed. He swept away the t)"ranny of trusteeism, and 
scotched, if he did not kill, the strident hostility of that evil brood 
which attacks the Church on the plea of defending and protecting 
the Constitution of our country, and was in his day known as 
Native Americanism. His fertile mind never failed in an emer- 
gency. 

When the Native American party in 1844 had elected one of 
their party Mayor, who was also the publisher of Maria Monk's 
infamous book, a meeting was called by them, whose object was 
murder and arson. Bishop Hughes sought advice with reference 
to the liability of the city under the laws of New York for damage 
done by the rioters. A lawyer assured him that there was no 
legal redress. Then the bishop said, "The law intends that citi- 
zens shall defend their own property." 

An extra issue of TJie Frecinmi s Journal contained the follow- 
ing: "If, as it has already appeared in Philadelphia, it should be 
a part of Native Americanism to attack the houses or churches 
of Catholics, then it behooves them, in case all other protection 
fail, to defend both with their lives. In this they will not act 
against the law, but for the law. . . . But in no case let Catholics 



IN NEW JERSEY 265 

suffer an act of outrage on their property without repelling the 
aggression at all hazards." 

This warning had its effect. The cowards balked. Posters 
appeared revoking the call for the meeting. A terrible disaster 
was averted, for a powerful Irish society, with branches in every 
section of the city, had resolved in case a single church was at- 
tacked, buildings should be set afire in all parts, and the great city 
become a prey to the flames (Shea, The Catholic Church in the 
United States, iv., 106). 

On another occasion, when the rumor came to him that certain 
public men contemplated disfranchising Catholics, he said : 

If there be any intention among the public men of this coun- 
try to disfranchise Catholics — to abridge them of their rights— in 
the name of all that is honorable, I would say, let it be done by a 
manly, noble declaration to that effect. If Protestantism cannot 
thrive in this country unless it have some one or more denomina- 
tions to degrade and trample upon — as in Great Britain and Ire- 
land — let it speak out and candidly make known the fact. If 
defamation in aggregate and detail can accomplish it, the Catho- 
lics of this country will soon be degraded enough in the minds of 
their fellow-citizens. — Metropolitan, May, 1855. 

With such forcible, manly rebukes and statements he com- 
manded the admiration of the intelligence of the country, and the 
fair-minded, justice-loving public were soon all on his side. Of 
him Cardinal McCloskey said in his funeral oration that he was a 
providential man, and his life and the fruits of his laborious career 
fully justify the statement. 

Father Hurley, the able and eloquent Augustinian of Philadel- 
phia, became acquainted with Bishop Hughes while he was still a 
seminarist in Mount St. Mary's, discharging, likewise, the duties 
of teacher, and expecting soon to be raised to the diaconate. 
Father Hurley wrote to young Hughes in 1825, advising him 
before ordination to prepare sermons to last at least six months, 
assuring him that he would find this forethought to be an advan- 
tage. He would then be ahead of his work, whenever called upon 
to perform it. The wisdom of this advice either did not appeal to 
the seminarist or he did not have time to act upon it. On his 
way to St. Augustine's, Philadelphia, where he was to begin his 
work, Father Hughes met Bishop Conwell on the visitation to 
the western part of his diocese. 

Taking a fancy to the young priest, he invited Father Hughes 
to accompany him, and, arriving at the church, requested him to 



266 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



preach. Instead of having twenty or thirty sermons, Father 
Hughes had but one, and was sorry for it. However, he preached 




RIGHT REV. JAMES R. BAYLEV. 
First Bishop of Newark. 



that sermon and preached it well. But at every church on the 
circuit he received the same invitation and responded with the 



IN NEW JERSEY 267 

same sermon, very much to his dissatisfaction. After the visita- 
tion was over, Bishop Convvell said to him, " That was a very- 
good sermon, but I think I know it by heart." He became, 
indeed, a great preacher, ready, forcible, and eloquent, and both 
himself and Father Ryder attracted crowded churches even in 
the heat of summer. 

Bishop Hughes had witnessed the almost seven-fold growth of 
Catholicity in the Diocese of New York since his appointment as 
coadjutor. Two-thirds of a vast tide of emigration settled either 
in the city itself or its environs. Realizing the impossibility of 
administering personally to their wants, and convinced that the 
time for establishing new centres of the faith had arrived, he 
asked and obtained the division of his diocese and the creation of 
the new sees of Brooklyn and Newark. This important event 
carried with it new honors for himself, for he became the first 
Archbishop of New York in 1853. Early in the month of Octo- 
ber, 1853, the bulls appointing him first Bishop of the Diocese of 
Newark, which was to embrace the entire State of New Jersey, 
were received by James Roosevelt Bayley. The bishop-elect, at 
the time secretary of Archbishop Hughes, was born in New York 
City, August 23d, 1 814. His lineage was illustrious, and in him 
were combined the best elements of his ancestry. Nor pen nor 
language can do full justice to his character. In him were 
blended the Celt and the Dutch, the Gaul and the Briton, and his 
was their perfect fruitage without their blemish. We see him, 
as we saw him in our childhood, noble, dignified, gentle, winsome, 
a man among men, even as Saul, towering head and shoulders 
over all, attracting by his kindliness the lowliest, twining himself 
deep into the affections of his priests and compeers, and com- 
manding by his virtues the respect even of those who differed 
radically from his views. 

His early school-days were spent in Mendham, and afterward 
in Mount Pleasant, near Amherst. Here in his youth he gave 
that vernal promise which, ripened in maturity, made him idolized 
by all whose privilege it was to know him. This will appear 
from the following letters of two of his old classmates, written 
after death had ushered him to the eternal reward of a well-spent 
life and reft the Church of a wise counsellor and a zealous prelate. 

(From the Brunswick, Me., Telegraph, October 12th, 1877.) 

It is erroneous to say that Bayley was educated at Washington 
(now Trinity) College, Hartford, Conn. He was graduated from 



268 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

that institution, but he entered Amherst College in 1831, and 
passed his freshman and sophomore years in that institution, leav- 
ing, we think, at the close of the sophomore year. In the winter 
of 1832 we bade our classmates farewell, and with none did we 
part with more sincere regret than with James R. Bayley, between 
whom and ourself had sprung up the warmest friendship — a friend- 
ship which neither time nor long absence has served to check. 

In a cold and dreary night of the month of December, 1832, a 
few good friends came to the hotel to say good-bye, as we entered 
the stage-coach, the sole passenger to be jolted over the hills of 
Pelham and on to Worcester. Since that hour James R. Bayley 
and we have never met ; but we have not forgotten each other in 
the many years that have intervened. Correspondence at inter- 
vals has been kept up, and a letter received from him within two 
years expresses all the warmth of boyhood's hours, all the gener- 
osity of a nature singularly loving and lovable. There was a 
heartiness, a courtesy about our deceased classmate that won him 
many and esteemed friends, whose good-will was never impaired, 
however widely they may have differed from him politically and 
religiously. 

In Amherst College Bayley sustained good rank as a scholar, 
though we know not the rank which he held at the time of his 
graduation. He pos.sessed decided talent, a fact evident in his 
great and almost sudden elevation to place and power in the 
Catholic Church. . . . 

We happen to know that when he was appointed Archbishop 
of Baltimore, a Protestant gentleman of that city expressed his 
gratification with the appointment, as the community would be 
sure of having a gentleman to fill the ofBce. 

Letter of John Codman to The Bruiisunck TclcgmpJi, 
October iqth, 1877. 

Mv DEAR Tenney : I was much pleased with your paper this 
morning. You have done justice to the memory of our old 
friend, James Roosevelt Bayley, and no more than justice, for his 
character could not be too highly estimated. In talking of him 
with Beecher [Henry Ward Beecher] the other day, he said : 
"The commodore was a sincere Christian in his line, and did 
more good in it than he could have accomplished in any other 
way. He was ' bigoted ' only as all of us are in sticking to our 
principles." 

Do you know how he came by the title of commodore 1 It 
descended upon him before we entered college, when we were 
schoolmates at the Mount Pleasant Classical Institution. He 
then had a great fancy for the sea, and actually obtained a com- 
mission of midshipman in the navy. When he appeared before 
us in his uniform preparatory to leaving school, I well remember 
our admiration and envy of the naval hero. But upon mature 
consideration he reconsidered the matter, packed his uniform 



IN NEW JP:RSKY 269 

away, and devoted himself to his studies more earnestly than 
ever. 

At the time there were two hundred boys at Mount Pleasant, 
and I do not remember that the commodore was ever counted in 
when there was a quarrel, for he was everybody's friend. In fact, 
I never knew one who in all his boyhood and manhood steered so 
clear of all damage from collision among" all sorts and conditions 
of men. Like you, I have maintained an acquaintance and intimacy 
with him till his death. He never obtruded his religious ideas upon 
those who differed from him, and his charity embraced all mankind. 

We Mount Pleasant boys still keep up our reunions every five 
years on the old grounds at Amherst. The commodore's duties 
have not allowed him to meet with us, but he was always there in 
the spirit of his boyhood, as his letters on those occasions so cor- 
dially testify. If there is any truth in the Catholic dogma of the 
"intercession of the saints," 1 am sure that you and I with all his 
old chummies can count on a good word from the commodore in 
the quarter where he has influence. 

To this testimony may be added that of Monsignor Doane, 
who was associated with Archbishop Bayley almost from the day 
he undertook the government of the Diocese of Newark. 

" I was with Bishop Bayley ' quasi ab incept 0,' and learned to 
know him and to love him well. He was a noble model of a 
Christian bishop. Duty was paramount with him, and his delight 
was to be at his work building up the kingdom of God on earth. 
He was constantly studying the wants of the diocese then strug- 
gling into existence, establishing new parishes, new schools, in- 
creasing the number of the clergy, preaching, giving confirmation, 
and attending to all the multifarious details of a Catholic bishop 
in temporals as well as spirituals. . . . Bishop Bayley was a most 
delightful companion. He was endowed with a most retentive 
memory, had read much, and seen men and things, and after a 
long life I can recall no one more delightful to be with and to 
hear talk than he. He seemed animated with the spirit of St. 
Francis de Sales, full of zeal in the episcopal ofifice, and of kind- 
ness^ and charity to all mankind; not only relieving want, but 
speaking well and thinking well of everybody." 

In harmony with this is the language of Senator Smith, on 
the occasion of the " Laymen's Celebration of the Golden Jubilee 
of the Diocese " : " Bishop Bayley was one of the noblest, grandest 
characters I have ever known. He was noble in form and feature. 
One had only to look at his grand face to be convinced of his 
nobility of character, kindness of heart, and fervent piety. I do 
not hope to look on his like again." And what would the poor. 



270 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

the lowly, the humble — the innumerable host of dumb admirers 
— say, were it possible to gather into one encomium the verdict of 
their unerring" judgment? Their tribute is weighted with bless- 
ings, and to-day among the old folks Bishop Bayley is still spoken 
of as if the Diocese of Newark, instead of four, had had but one 
bishop. 

As has been said, he entered Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., 
to prepare himself for the Episcopal ministry, and took up the 
stud\- of theology under the Rev. Samuel F. Jarvis, at Middle- 
town, Conn., and on its conclusion he was appointed rector of St. 
Peter's Church, Harlem, N. Y. Visiting one day the home of a 
poor Irish laborer, on a mission of charity, he became acquainted 
with Father Michael Curran, the uncle of Father Michael Cur- 
ran, late of St. Andrew's Church, New York City, with whom he 
formed a friendship which continued throughout life. 

In the fall of 1841 he resigned his parish and journeyed to 
Rome. The result of his studies and investigation was that he 
was received into the Catholic Church by the Jesuit Father 
Esmond, conditionally baptized, and confirmed the same day, 
April 28th, 1842, by Cardinal Franzoni, in St. Ignatius's room. 
He then entered St. Sulpice, Paris, and entered upon his theolog- 
ical studies. In returning to New York he narrowly escaped 
shipwreck, the details of which in after life he often told in his 
inimitably graphic and humorous way. He was ordained priest 
by Archbishop Hughes, March 2d, 1842, and discharged succes- 
sively the duties of President at Fordham College and pastor of 
Quarantine, Staten Island. Here lie labored with loving, inde- 
fatigable zeal among the immigrants, and the lo\c he always bore 
the Irish became intensified and ever after was a singular trait of 
his beautiful character. He was next appointed secretary of the 
bishop, for which his love of order and administrative ability 
admirably fitted him. This office he held when he was designated 
Bishop of Newark. He was consecrated in St. Patrick's Cathe- 
dral, New York, together with Bishop Loughlin, of Brooklyn, and 
Bishop de Goesbriand, of Burlington, Vt., by the Most Rev. Caje- 
tan Bedini, Archbishop of Thebes and Apostolic Nuncio. 

On the resignation of Father Senez as pastor of St. Patrick's, 
Newark, the bishop-elect appointed Father McQuaid, of Madison, 
with whom he had been on the most intimate terms of friendship, 
and on the new pastor devolved the responsibility of properly 
receiving the newly consecrated bishop. Father McOuaid deter- 
mined to make this a memorable event. 



IN NEW JERSEY 271 

The older clergy were timid and looked on with alarm and 
dread at the displa}- the young priest contemplated making. They 
protested and objected, but failed to turn him aside from his 
plans. Even Bishop Bayley was called upon to check a move- 
ment which was bound to stir up rancor and bigotry, but even he 
failed with the intrepid young pastor. " You are not bishop yet, 
and if trouble ensues, then suspend me after you ha\'e taken pos- 
session of your cathedral," said Father McQuaid. The day came 
at last, the Feast of All Saints, November ist, 1853. Nature 
seemed to contribute to the joy of the Catholics, for the weather 
was balmy, the skies were cloudless, and altogether there was a 
remarkable blending of golden sunshine softened with the deli- 
cate tints of our rare Indian summer. 

Thousands upon thousands assembled at the Centre Street 
depot, the nearest to St. Patrick's, as a measure of precaution 
conceded by Father McOuaid, awaiting the arrival of the 9:45 
A.M. train. On its arrival the procession, which had been formed 
along Smith Street and Park Place, under Grand Marshal 
McLear, with his assistants the Messrs. Starr, Brannan, and Rowe, 
took up its line of march in the following order : 

A Cross-Bearer. 

The female children of St. Mary's, St. Patrick's, and St. John's Sunday- 
schools. 

A Cross-Bearer. 
The male children of the same Sunday-schools. In all aliout 1,200. 

The Newark Brass Band. 

The Hibernia Provident Society; the Shamrock Provident Society, with 

banners and regalia. 

The Jefferson Band. 
St. Joseph's Society; Erin Benevolent Society; the Laborers' Union. 

A New York Brass Band. 

The Catholic Total Abstinence Society', followed by carriages containing 

the Bishops and the Clergy. 

The streets were lined with spectators, among whom were 
the Irish and German Catholics not in the procession, which was 
over a mile in length. Not the slightest trace of disorder was 
manifest, not a discordant note jarred the occasion. On arriving 
at Washington Place the children remained in the park, and the 
societies formed in open order to allow the clergy to pass to the 
priest's house on Central Avenue, opposite the sacristy of the 
church. In the house the clergy vested, "and, preceded by a 



272 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

cross-bearer, the priests and bishops marched to the main door of 
the cathedral, where Bishop Bayley was received by the venerable 
Father Moran, the senior priest of the diocese. 

The clergy then marched to the sanctuary, and on arriving 
within the chancel Bishop Ba)'ley knelt in prayer. Father Moran 
sang the prayer appointed in the ritual for the reception of a 
bishop, and at its conclusion Bishop Bayley gave his blessing and 
was led to the throne. Father Moran, on behalf of the priests, 
made a brief address of welcome, and introduced the clergy to 
their new bishop. Bishop Bayley arose and returned his thanks 
for the sentiments expressed in the address. He trusted that 
their best wishes would be fulfilled and that God would send 
down upon them His richest blessings. He had hoped and ex- 
pected Archbishop Hughes to have introduced him, but ill health 
prevented his coming. He had come among them with the sanc- 
tion of the highest authority by which any one can be appointed 
to places of government on earth. He had been consecrated to 
the See of Newark, and had come to take possession of his See 
at the bidding of that Supreme Authority which is day after day 
sending bishops into all parts of the earth. 

The Catholics had become sufficiently numerous in New Jer- 
sey to require a bishop, and this beautiful and prosperous city had 
been erected into an episcopal See. When Archbishop Hughes 
was appointed to the See of New York, there were only fifty 
priests in the whole diocese, including a part of New Jersey. 
To-day there are three hundred zealous priests and five episcopal 
Sees. Experience has shown that new life has been infused among 
Catholics by the appointment of a bishop, whenever their num- 
bers justified it, and he hoped that the same blessing would attend 
the erection of this new See of Newark. In regard to himself, 
he could only say that according to his abilities he should endeavor 
faithfully to discharge his duty in this part of the Lord's vine- 
yard. In conclusion, he asked this single favor of both priests 
and people, that they would pray God to send down upon him, 
His unworthy son, the grace of wisdom and prudence, fortitude 
and courage, to establish their faith, overcome obstacles, and dis- 
charge the duty imposed upon him for their salvation and the sal- 
vation of his own soul. 

The bishop then received the obedience of his clergy, who on 
arriving at the throne knelt and kissed his ring. A Solemn High 
Mass was then sung, the Rev. Dr. Cummings celebrant, the 
Rev. Michael A. Madden deacon, and the Rev. Father O'Cal- 



IN NEW JKRSEY 273 

laghan siibdeacon. " There were really thres congregations in the 
church," states Bishop McOuaid; "one on the floor of the church, 
one standing on the seats, and others standing on the backs of 
the pews. There were no tickets of admission, and all who could 
get in were welcomed." Neither before nor since did the cathedral 
contain such a throng. There were present in the sanctuary 
Bishops McCloskey (afterward Cardinal) of Albany, Fitzpatrick 
of Boston, and Loughlin of Brooklyn, and upward of fifty priests 
in cassock and surplice in front of the chancel. Father Moran 
was the assistant priest, and the Masters of Ceremonies Fathers 
D'Andrasse and McOuaid. The music, which was under the 
direction of Mr. Pirsson, the organist, was very fine, and the Mass 
was Mazzinghi's in F. 

After the Mass the clergy were entertained at a banquet, pro- 
vided at the personal expense of Father McOuaid, who, to give 
this last touch to the glory of a beautiful and successful ceremony 
unblemished by a single mishap, sold his horse and carriage, and 
even with that was compelled to borrow money to meet the 
expense. 

To increase his difficulties the landlord raised the rent on the 
Central Avenue property, and Father McOuaid was forced to buy 
the present rectory, which was then a very small house and ill 
fitted as an episcopal residence. However, he raised the funds to 
build an addition, and the bishop retired into voluntary exile until 
the improvements were completed and the house in a condition 
for him to occupy it without incurring any risk from the stand- 
point of health. 

Bishop Bayley, as he entered upon the difficult work of organ- 
izing the new diocese, and surveyed the vast field entrusted to 
him, with practically only twenty-five priests on whom he could 
count as permanent helpers in the ministry, not a single diocesan 
institution, no funds, and a flock despised and penniless, saw little 
to encourage and sustain him. His experience in New York 
confirmed him as to the necessity of Christian education, since 
the schools, supported by the public funds, were openly antago- 
nistic to Catholic faith, and endangered and in many instances 
actually robbed of their faith the Catholic children who fre- 
quented them. Hence he laid it down as a principle from the 
beginning that his priests' first care must be the children, and if a 
choice between the erection of a school or a church had to be 
made, the preference in every case should be given to the school. 
For the school once established, the children later on would build 
18 



274 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



the church. He considered no parish worthy of the name that 
did not have its parochial school. 

His priests responded to the views of their bishop, and strove 
to organize the Catholic school as best they could with the 
limited means at their disposal. The work taken up by the sisters 
in the orphanage broadened, but the supply was unequal to the 
demand. There was but one thing to do, and that was to imitate 
the example of Archbishop Hughes, and install in the diocese its 
own sisterhood. Two sisters from Mount St. Vincent's were 




THE OLD WARD MANSION, 

First Mother House of Sisters of Ciiarity in the Diocese of Newark. 
September 30, 1S59. Razed in 1873. 



permitted to transfer their obedience to Bishop Bayley, open a 
novitiate, and launch the little community which has grown to 
such wonderful proportions. The old Ward mansion, on the cor- 
ner of Bleecker and Washington streets, was purchased, and this 
became the first advance post of that host of devoted women who 
from that day to this has accomplished so much of good not only 
in Newark, but in other dioceses. The two volunteers for this 
noble work were Sister Mary Xavier Mehegan and Sister Mary 
Catherine Nevins, of whom only one — Mother Xavier— survives, 
the witness of the triumphant success achieved through many 
tears and privations, and a lasting monument of God's condescen- 
sion and of the zeal and piety of her colaborers. Previous to this 



IN NEW JERSEY 275 

foundation, however, five young women resolved to consecrate 
their Hves to God in the service of the poor and the young, the 
Misses Margaret O'Neill, of Paterson, Mary Linah, Bridget Daley, 
Mary A. Duffy, and Margaret Plunkett, all of Newark, and they 
were sent under the tutelage of Father McOuaid to the novitiate 
of the Sisters of Charity in Cincinnati, Ohio. The mother supe- 
rior of that house had been an intimate friend of Bishop Bayley's 
saintly aunt, Mother Seton, and out of regard for her she con- 
sented to train this little company of volunteers from New Jersey. 
Hampered by lack of money to further his enterprises, Bishop 
Bayley determined to appeal to the Association of the Propagation 
of the P'aith, of Lyons, P" ranee. This society, the work of two 
humble sewing-girls, has accomplished wonders in the missionary 
field of the Catholic Church, and no people are under graver ob- 
ligations of gratitude to it than the Catholics of the United States, 
and in no small degree the Catholics of New Jersey. The letters 
of Bishop Bayley written from time to time reveal the actual con- 
dition of the diocese and its progress. His first appeal was made 
in June, 1854. In his letter Bishop Bayley says: 



The emigrants who in the beginning came into this State in 
search of work strayed all over its boundaries, and, deprived of 
the help of religion, have abandoned their faith or at least allowed 
their children to be brought up in heresy. Thus the names of 
many Protestant families, some of whom are distinguished to-day 
for their wealth and their influence, point clearly to the religion 
to which they should belong and to which they are utterly lost. 
For some years past many industries have been started in this 
State, and thereby attract many Catholics, who now number from 
fifty to sixty thousand, for the most part Irish and Germans. 
. . . But the number of priests is not in proportion to the faith- 
ful ; the diocese can count only on thirty-three clergymen to meet 
all its wants and demands. And what is most regrettable is that 
the State of New Jersey, having been regarded up to the present 
as an accessory rather than an integral and permanent part of the 
dioceses of New York and Philadelphia, does not possess a single 
institution of learning or religion, so necessary to the establish- 
ment and progress of religion. It is in view of these considera- 
tions that the Diocese of Newark awaits to-day the attention and 
benevolence of the charitable associations in favor of foreign 
missions; it believes it has a right to their assistance, since 
these dioceses, long since established, have kept all their col- 
leges, their seminaries, and religious houses, although their wants 
and their extension have diminished by the erection within their 
bosom of new dioceses. Helped in the beginning, the Diocese of 
Newark will soon be able to take care of itself, and to give back 



276 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

the kindness which will have been meted out to it, by coming to 
the assistance of other missions which may need its help. 

Again in January, 1855, in acknowledging the receipt of $3,000, 
Bishop Bay ley gives a gloomy picture of the condition of his l^ock: 

When I took possession of the diocese, I found many church- 
es loaded down with debts, and in such straits that they needed 
large sums of money to prevent their being sold under the hammer. 
At the same time the occasion presented itself of buying at a 
reasonable figure a property most suitable for a college and a 
seminary, and I felt constrained to avail myself of it. These out- 
lays and many others indispensable in a new diocese have placed 
me in urgent need of funds, and the news of the allowance of your 
society of 4,100 francs is welcome indeed. I have not as yet been 
able to obtain an exact and detailed report of the different missions 
of the diocese, but as soon as possible I will fill out the blank you 
have sent me. The last Provincial Council held in New York 
pressed upon the bishops their cooperation with the Propagation 
of the Faith, with the resolution of establishing it in all the dio- 
ceses. I would have taken immediate steps to carry out this 
resolution, but the commercial crisis, which just now is making 
itself felt throughout the country, and which has closed, for a time 
at least, a great number of factories and thrown our jDoor people 
out of employment, has left them not only incapable of giving an 
alms, but rather made them an oljject of charity. I hope soon for 
better things and that prosperity will return. I expect to have a 
retreat for the clergy and a diocesan synod in the course of next 
summer, and I will then establish the work of the Propagation 
and urge it warmly on the priests of the diocese. 

In August, 1855, he again writes to the director of the same 
association : 

I beg to acknowledge the receipt of the allowance made by 
the Council, which came most opportunely, for otherwise the Dio- 
cese of Newark would have been in great straits. With the money 
received I have been able to save two churches, on the point of 
being sold and lost to religion, and besides helped other churches 
which were very much embarrassed. I hope that a like necessity 
will not again exist, and all the funds sent by the society will be 
used no more to repair mistakes, but to build houses of education 
and charity of which we are so much in need. The report you 
ask for would have been completed but for the fact that I have 
not been able to obtain satisfactory statistics such as I would 
wish to send you. In one of my letters I gave you a general idea 
of the state of the diocese as I found it in the fall of 1853. The 
panic which came immediately after has fallen hard on my poor 
diocesans, who, almost all, are employed in factories and conse- 
quently out of work. . . . The only point I wish to modify in that 



IN NEW JERSEY 277 

report regards the number of Catholics scattered throughout the 
diocese, which I beUeve has been greatly exaggerated. Never- 
theless, our Catholics are so spread out, so floating, that it is ex- 
tremely difficult to find out just how numerous they are. I have 
taken means to find out the number of baptisms and interments 
during a gix'en j^eriod, and I hope by this means to ascertain a 
closer proximate of the number of Catholics in my diocese than 
heretofore. As I had the honor of informing you in my first let- 
ter, there was no educational institution under the care of relig- 
ious in the whole State when I took possession of the diocese. 
Since I was named bishop I have obtained from the mother-house 
in New York some Sisters of Charity to take care of two orphan- 
ages, one in Newark and the other in Paterson. There is also in 
Jersey City a community of sisters who teach in the parish school. 
In this country, more than in any other, the prosperity of the 
Church depends above all on the education given to the children. 
The evil influences to be met on every side are so destructive 
that the Catholic religion will disappear as quickly as it has spread 
unless we transplant it in a good soil, in training up with all pos- 
sible care the children in the faith of their fathers. Therefore I 
have opened schools wherever there is a church and a resident 
priest. It is a great burden for our poor people, who are obliged 
not only to support Catholic schools, but also to pay taxes for the 
maintenance of free schools, which are carried on at an immense 
outlay and which present ev^ery attraction to catch our children. 
. . . Again, to consolidate religious education, I have bought a 
property where I hope to open a college, in which the young men 
of the diocese who give signs of a vocation to the priesthood will 
be trained. At present I am of the opinion that there are 40,000 
Catholics in the State of New Jersey. The majority of the adults 
are Irish immigrants, many thousands of Germans, some Ameri- 
cans, English, French, and Canadians. To take care of their 
spiritual interests we have thirty-five missionary priests, of whom 
eight, including myself, were born in this country, seventeen born 
in Ireland, five Germans, five French or Italians. There are 
forty-one churches or chapels in the diocese, and twelve stations, 
where Mass is occasionally celebrated, sometimes in the open air 
or in dwelling-houses. When I will have gathered all the details 
I will send you a more exact account on all these points. I intend 
to establish the Propagation of the Faith in the synod which I 
hope to convoke shortly. I must look, however, to the society to 
help me to lay well the foundations of religion in my new diocese, 
and I hope hereafter, with the help of God, we will be able to 
carry on this work ourselves, and also to lend a helping hand to 
others. 

Impressed with the necessity of providing priests for his dio- 
cese, and in accordance with the ordinances of the Council of 
Trent, he determined to open a college, which might afford him a 
supply of aspirants to the priesthood, who would receive their 



278 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



ecclesiastical training in the seminary connected with the college. 
This wise legislation is summed up in chapter xviii. of the 
XXIIId. Session in the following words: "The Holy Synod de- 
crees that every cathedral church, in proportion to its means and 
the needs of the diocese, is held to place a certain number of the 
youth, belonging to the cathedral city and the diocese, or, if these 
fail, to the province, in a college near the churches, or in another 
place as the bishop deems expedient, for instructing and training 
in the ecclesiastical state. ... It desires chiefly that the children 




MADAME CHEGARRV S ACADEMY, 
Old Seton Hall, Convent Station. 



of the poor be given the preference, although the sons of the rich 
are not to be excluded provided they pay their own way. For 
its administration the Council prescribes that four deputies be 
elected in synod, of whom two will supervise the internal dis- 
cipline and two others look after the finances. Where the canon- 
ical dignity does not exist, as in the United States, the Holy See 
in an instruction to the American bishops has laid down the rule 
that, for diocesan seminaries at least, two deputies be chosen by 
the bishop with the advice of his council, one for spiritual and the 
other for temporal matters. Their advice the bishop is obliged to 
seek, although he may not follow it." 



IN NEW JERSEY 279 

Father McQuaid, when in Madison, often entertained Father 
Bayley, who would run out to Morris County to revisit the scenes 
of his boyhood, and to forget in his rambles through the hills and 
forests and the famed peach orchards the cares of office and the 
wear and tear of his responsibilities. 

The charms of these precious hours of idyllic pleasure were 
not utterly lost, and neither had forgotten the situation of the 
Seminary for Young Ladies, conducted by Madame Chegarry, a 
few miles from the village of Madison. As it was in the market, 
both Bishop Bayley and Father McOuaid were of one mind in 
regard to its desirability for a college site. 

Located on high ground and commanding a broad sweep of 
beautiful country, and unsurpassed for healthfulness, Seton Hall 
College was opened in September, 1856, with the Rev. B. J. 
McOuaid as its first president. An entry in Bishop Bayley's 
diurnal, August 26th, 1856, reads: "Father McOuaid very busy 
preparing to open the college. The difficulties and obstacles from 
unexpected quarters have been great, but Father McQuaid hopes 
to have from thirty to forty students to begin with." Five stu- 
dents answered to the first roll-call, but before the end of the 
month twenty additional names were registered. 

Meanwhile the diocese was responding to the touch of its 
new bishop. In August, 1854, three young men, Messrs. Cor- 
nelius Cannon, John A. Kelly, and Philip McMahon, and in 
December Mr. John Murray, were ordained to the priesthood and 
added to the diocesan body. On September 3d, 1854, the corner- 
stone of the new church of Our Lady of Grace was laid in Ho- 
boken; and November 21st, 1855, Bishop Bayley dedicated a new 
church in the northern limits of Jersey City, under the patronage 
of the Mother of God. Mass was celebrated by Father Moran of 
Newark, and the Rev. Dr. Heyden, V.G., of Philadelphia, preached 
on the occasion. The same day Bishop Bayley administered con- 
firmation in St. Peter's, Jersey City. Bishop Bayley had visited 
Rome and taken part in the promulgation of the dogma of the 
Immaculate Conception of the Mother of God. In December, 
1855, he published a pastoral letter to the clergy and laity of his 
diocese concerning a jubilee in honor of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion of the Mother of God, to take place during the month of 
December. The prelate inculcates in the strongest terms "a ten- 
der devotion to the Queen of Heaven. Nothing is more remark- 
able as connected with the revival of piety in our day than the 
increased devotion of all good Christians toward the blessed 



28o THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Mother of God. The definition of her Immaculate Conception 
has ah'eady added new fervor to this fihal love, and will no doubt 
tend to draw down additional blessings from God upon us and 
upon his Church. You will therefore, dearly beloved brethren, 
join your devotions to those with which the Universal Church has 
received the dogmatic decision of this important truth." 

He acknowledges, in February, 1856, the receipt of $1,290 
from the Leopoldine Society of Vienna. This organization owed 
its origin largely to the representations of Father, afterward 
Bishop, Rese, who while on a visit to Vienna awakened interest 
among the Austrian Catholics by his description of the poverty 
and need of the Catholics in the United States, especially in the 
territories. The object of the society, as stated in its rules, " was 
to promote the greater activity of Catholic missions in America,' 
and its name was to be a memorial of Leopoldina, deceased Em- 
press of Brazil, born Archduchess of Austria. The Archbishop 
of Vienna was its immediate superior. 

MoNsiGNOR : It is with great pleasure that I acknowledge the 
receipt of your letter enclosing a bill of exchange on London for 
£2^?), allotted by the Leopoldine Society of Vienna, to succor 
the wants of the poor missions of the Diocese of Newark. I will 
take special care to see that the money is expended in accordance 
with the wishes of the society. A part will be given to the mis- 
sion of Trenton, and the remainder will be distributed to the dif- 
ferent German missions of my diocese to help them to build par- 
ish schools, with the exception of a portion which I will reserve 
to aid me in carrying on a work which I consider of the highest 
importance for the upholding and furthering of our holy religion 
in our diocese — the establishment of a diocesan college for the 
Christian education of our youth. 

The Diocese of Newark, to the support of which you have so 
generously contributed, comprises the whole State of New Jer- 
sey, one of the first thirteen United States of America. It was 
erected by his Holiness Pope Pius IX. in 1853. Before this epoch 
one-half belonged to the Diocese of New York and the other was 
under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Philadelphia. Newark is 
situated between both dioceses. The number of Catholics is 
about 40,000, almost all emigrants from Ireland, Germany, and 
other countries. They are broadcast over the whole State, and 
are employed in factories, as household servants, or on farms. The 
churches in the diocese are for the most part small structures, 
built of wood, and attended by missionary priests, who are in the 
habit of offering the Holy Sacrifice at different stations where 
there is no church to give our poor people the opportunity of 
approaching the sacraments. I cannot .say exactly just how 
many Germans there are in the diocese, but I am of the opinion 



IN NEW JERSEY 281 

that they are about one-fourth of the entire Catholic population. 
There are some German churches and different stations attended 
by German priests. You are doubtless aware that we receive 
nothing" from the Government and that the clergy is entirely sup- 
ported by the faithful. The German missions, on this account, 
are in the greatest need of support, since the Germans, coming 
from a country where the Church is entirely supported by the 
state, are not habituated to the system of voluntary contributions 
and are much less generous than their Irish brethren. When the 
Diocese of Newark was under the jurisdiction of the Bishops of 
New York and Philadelphia, the faithful of New Jersey con- 
tributed generously to the support of the diverse institutions of 
piety and learning founded in these dioceses, although none of 
these institutions were built within the borders of the present 
diocese. The consequence is that we are now obliged to build 
ourselves to safeguard religion and uphold its dignity. It is for 
this reason that, since my advent to the diocese, I have established 
three communities of the Sisters of Charity, and I contemplate, 
as I said before, building and founding a college. 

I look upon the present time as most critical for our holy 
religion. The emigration of these last years has been so great 
that almost everywhere missions and churches are springing up, 
mainly because the emigrants come for the most part from Ire- 
land and Germany and the Catholic countries of Europe. The 
future of religion depends consequently upon the means we will 
take to preserve the children of our Catholics in the faith. There 
is no fear for the parents, who become ofttimes indifferent but 
rarely apostates, while the Protestants make the greatest efforts 
to per\'ert our youth, mainly in establishing free schools, sup- 
ported by the state. You will understand why I use every means 
to establish parochial schools wherever there are missions, in 
order that one day the children may become the mainstay of 
religion in our country. The future of our religion depends upon 
what we accomplish in these days, and if the Leopoldine Society 
sees fit to offer some assistance to this new diocese for some 
years, they will have powerfully contributed to the attainment of 
this most desirable end. 

These letters of our first bishop give us the clearest and most 
reliable view of existing conditions and a realizing sense of the 
difficulties he labored under and the means he had recourse to in 
his efforts to overcome obstacles and to keep pace with the de- 
mands of his diocese. 

In July, 1856, he again writes to the Propagation of the Faith: 

The money you have sent me has been a great help to relieve 
the wants of the poorest sections of my diocese and to help me 
establish among them the labors I have undertaken to consolidate 
our holy religion in these parts. 



282 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

The state of my diocese has not changed materially since 
my last letter. Many circumstances with which no doubt you 
are familiar have powerfully contributed to check emigration from 
Ireland, as well as from other Catholic centres on the Continent. 
At the same time such as are here have become restless ; many 
of them have gone back to the old country, and a great number of 
others have left the seaboard for the West. Affairs are certainly 
brighter, and our poor people, as a rule, have work and are more 
contented. These circumstances have been a great obstacle to 
our advancement. I have, however, been able to go on with the 
work already begun of erecting a diocesan college. It will be 
open for the admission of scholars the ist of September. 

The only way, in my opinion, in which we can hope to make 
an impression upon the proud and worldly spirit of the Protestants 
who surround us — a spirit which, to say in passing, presents to 
the development of our holy religion an obstacle as grave as the 
castes of India — is to elevate the social condition of Catholics. 

Many of our Catholic emigrants have made fortunes, and if 
their children can be taught that in holding to their faith they 
can stand on the same level with Protestants, they will be able 
little by little to remove the prejudices which hinder the enemies 
of the Church from examining the truth of our holy religion. 
During the synod which will be held in the month of August I 
will establish the work of the Propagation of the Faith, and 
although I cannot promise large contributions for the present, it 
will be a step in the right direction, and will draw down the bless- 
ings of Heaven on the flock entrusted to us. 

In 1858 he writes: 

I would be glad to be in a position which would furnish the 
means to give without being obliged to receive, but although I 
admit that certain portions of our missions are in greater stress 
than we, yet it will be difficult for me, at least for the present, to 
do anything without the help of the association. Here our work 
is in the midst of bitter heretics, and although our poor people 
contribute generously according to their means for the support of 
our churches, it will be out of the question without your help to 
give to our establishments for education the means and the pro- 
tection necessary. Unless the work is done now, it will soon be 
too late. So far as the diocese is concerned, things are about the 
same. We are striving to organize a mother house for sisters who 
will devote themselves in a special manner to teach poor children. 
We have every hope of success. In different places in the dio- 
cese we have endeavored to organize the conferences of St. Vin- 
cent de Paul. They are highly important to counterbalance the 
proselytism of the different sects who work constantly and per- 
sistently on the poverty of our poor emigrants to pervert their 
children. 

It is well to recall these early, bitter struggles, to listen again 



IN NEW JERSEY 283 

to that voice silenced by death, to recall his warnings, and verify 
his predictions. Much of the old rancor of our brethren outside 
the fold, if not extinct, is rarely ap})arent ; but to their spirit of 
opposition has succeeded the more dangerous, because intangible 
and inoffensi\-e, prevalent irreligious naturalism, which imper- 
ceptibl}' influences the young, who, restive of restraint, unless 
solidly grounded in their religion, sweep away every obstacle, 
moral or religious, which may hinder the full enjoyment of their 
liberty. The old foe of the Celt still reckons his victims among 
our ranks, still must be credited with a considerable share of that 
leakage of the faith which in the last half century has depleted 
the ranks of the Catholic Church in this country by the hundred 
thousands. It is the height of folly to blink this fact, which, if 
admitted, might stimulate to more earnest, persistent efforts to 
arrest it. One of its most efficient causes has been and is to-day 
the vice of intemperance. Hence the pastoral of January 21st, 
1 861, may be reproduced, not only for the interest it may excite, 
but also for the good it may accomplish. 

Reverend Sir : I am compelled to call your attention, in a 
particular manner, to the dreadful sin of drunkenness. 

This horrible vice, so destructive alike to body and soul, is, as 
we all know, making the most fearful ravages among our people. 
It may be said to be the chief cause of all the sins they commit, 
and of all the social evils and discomforts under which they labor. 
It brings strife and disunion and poverty into families; it renders 
parents unfit to discharge the duties which they owe to their 
children ; it corrupts the young, and is the source of innumerable 
crimes. It is, in fact, as we are all made to feel by daily experi- 
ence, the one great obstacle which stands in the way of our labors 
for their spiritual and temporal good. 

Notwithstanding all the clergy have done, by exhortation and 
warning, to put a stop to this monster vice, it is, I regret to say, 
on the increase among us, and I feel that I would be neglecting 
my duty as a bishop if I did not take some strong measures, in 
concert with the reverend clergy, to check this moral pestilence. 

It is my wish, therefore, that, on the receipt of this letter, you 
would immediately bring this subject to the attention of your 
people by reading it to them, and that you would urge upon all 
the better portion of them, all who love their religion and deplore 
the scandal which this vice brings upon it, and who grieve on ac- 
count of the souls that this sin destroys, to unite with you in 
laboring to arrest its progress. 

Your efforts, as you will readily perceive, are to be directed 
against two classes of persons — the drunkards themselves and 
those who, knowing them to be such, supply them with drink. 

While I am willing to leave to each pastor the choice of the 



284 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

particular means which he thinks most likely to effect the object 
we have in view, I would direct your attention especially to those 
who keep disorderly drinking houses and who sell liquor late on 
Saturday nights and on Sundays ; and I would suggest the advan- 
tage of obtaining a list of all the drunken men and women and of 
those who keep such houses in your district. In this way you 
may be able to make an example of them and to excite against 
them the indignation of all good Catholics, as persons who bring 
disgrace upon their religion and who are to be shunned by every 
one who has any regard for order, peace, and good citizenship. I 
am determined to make use of the most severe measures against 
all who are addicted to this scandalous and destructive vice ; and 
if they continue in the practice of it, they must do it as outcasts 
from the Catholic Church, who have no right to the name of 
Catholic while they live nor to Christian burial when they die. 

* James, Bishop of Nezvark. 

Bishop Bayley wrote, in August, i860, to the Propagation of 
the Faith in a more hopeful tone : 

I am happy to be able to say to you that the labors inaug- 
urated in my diocese for the establishment of religion seem to 
prosper. The mother-house of the sisters established for the edu- 
cation of the young and other works of charity contains now 
twenty-six novices. The house which I bought for them is too 
small and inconvenient, so that I have given them the property 
which belonged to the Diocesan College. It is large, convenient, 
and healthy, and it will answer all their wants. The sisters are 
animated with an excellent spirit, and we have every reason to ex- 
pect from them the greatest benefits for religion, above all, for the 
salvation of our poor children. Up to the present they have been 
supported almost entirely by me, and hence I ask the association 
to help me as much as possible. Within a year they will be able 
to receive some help from the other churches, where they will 
form little communities and will take care of themselves. After 
having given the college to the sisters, I had to purchase another 
property for the Diocesan College. It is near the episcopal city 
and will consequently be under my immediate direction. More- 
over, those who are preparing for the priesthood will be able to 
assist at the functions of the cathedral. 

We are sadly in need of priests. Had we a sufficient num- 
ber of zealous and worthy priests, religion would make great head- 
way in this country. At present it is almost impossible to take 
care of the Catholics. I have just now twenty-seven young men 
studying for the priesthood, some in one college, some in another. 
The most of them come from poor families, and I am forced to 
provide for their wants during their course, even to ordination. 
For every dollar I receive from the diocese I must spend three, 
for if the work is not done now, it will soon be too late to do it. 



IN NEW JERSEY 



285 



The year 1861 ushered in the rumors of a conflict which was 
to rend our countr)' in twain, to precipitate a war between the 
North and South, which was to cost milhons of dollars and thou- 
sands of human lives. This gave occasion to Bishop Bayley to call 
upon his people to avert this dreadful calamity by prayers and 
penance, and to counsel almsgiving in the stress occasioned by 
the hard times. 

In common with every citizen of our noble country, we can- 
not but grieve at these sad dissensions, which threaten to bring 
strife and anarchv where lately everything was peace and pros- 




OLD ST. KLlZAlJKTll S ACADEMY, 
Old Seton Hall, Convent Station. 

perity. The change has been so sudden and was so little antici- 
pated, the evils threatened are so dreadful, all remedy from human 
wisdom or statesmanship is so apparently hopeless, that we are 
obliged to acknowledge that the hand of God is upon us. And it 
is not difficult for us, as Christians, to understand the cause. 
Our country was too prosperous, and men forgot God and became 
proud. It is impossible, in reading our newspapers and the 
speeches of our public men, not to have been struck with that 
tone of arrogance and self-exaltation which was rebuked and pun- 
ished by God in the proud commercial cities of the Old World. 



286 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

And now God is about to visit us in his justice as he did Tyre 
and Sidon. He is about to humble us and make us recognize 
his supreme authority and our dependence upon him. We are 
no longer to seem to be an exception to the law of expiation 
which is upon the whole human race. It is our duty, therefore, 
as Christians and as citizens of the country, to humble ourselves 
before him and to do all that is in our power to turn away his 
judgments from us. . . . God would have spared the cities of the 
l^lain if ten just persons could have been found in them ; and how 
many thousands of pure and holy souls are there among our poor 
people whose daily life is one of expiation, and who at the voice 
of their pastors will pour forth fervent prayers and offer them- 
selves as victims for the sins of the people ! There is more hope 
for us in the prayers and sanctified sufferings of the pious poor 
than in all the wisdom and resources of men. 

And since I have alluded to these works of reconciliation, it 
may not be out of the way, in these times when so many are 
suffering from poverty, to remind them how great is the merit of 
almsgiving in obtaining pardon for sin. We are ourselves but 
beggars, knocking at God's door, and if we wish for mercy our- 
selves we must show it to others. The smallest alms involves an 
act of detachment from the goods of earth, the love of which is 
one of the evils of our day. It will be a favorable opportunity to 
explain to your people the spirit and teaching of the Catholic 
Church in regard to poverty, so different from the spirit and feel- 
ings of the world upon the subject. You will remind them tbat 
honest poverty, difficult as it may be to endure, is in the Christian 
view in some sense a holy state ; that our Blessed Lord was a 
poor man ; that the words so often used, that " Christ is in the 
poor," are no mere poetic phrase, but the expression of what may 
be called a Catholic dogma. These consoling truths will make 
those of your flock who are in want patient and resigned, and 
they will excite those who have anything left to come generously 
to their relief, so that they may obtain the blessing which God 
has promised to those who have compassion on the needy and the 
poor. — Circu/ar Letter, January 28th, 1861. 

In March, 1862, he again writes to the Propagation of the 
Faith : 

March 8th, 1862. 

It is not my intention to find fault with the distribution of the 
funds of the Propagation of the Faith ; nevertheless, it seems 
opportune to remark that the members of the council ought not 
to suppose that, because I have organized the work of the Propa- 
gation of the Faith in my diocese, and that it requires a serious 
effort to contribute to its funds (larger, I observe, in this diocese 
in a year than any other diocese in the United States outside of 
New York), the Catholics of this diocese are richer and more 
numerous than in other dioceses. They are on this account to be 



IN NEW JERSEY 287 

compared with other dioceses who send Httle or nothing to the 
work, but who receive four or five times as much from the society. 
Judging by the allotments as they appear in The Aniials, I am 
led to beliex'e that the council could have more accurate sources 
of information relative to the condition and needs of the different 
dioceses. 

April, 1864. 

The paper money with which the country is flooded is rapidly 
depreciating, but by its abundance it suffices to preserve a ficti- 
tious prosperity and helps us to maintain our institutions for the 
welfare of religion. My college, seminary, and the different mis- 
sions of the Sisters of Charity are all doing well, and my only fear 
is our immense debt. For sooner or later the financial crash 
must come. I regret to say that our Civil War, in addition to its 
other calamities, is undermining the morals of the people and hin- 
dering the progress of religion. The future becomes each day 
darker, and our only hope is in the goodness and mercy of God, 
who will protect his Church in the storms of disasters which are 
gathering around our country, once so prosperous." 

His letter of April loth, 1865, reviews the progress made in a 
decade of years, and is a noble testimony of the generosity of his 
flock : 

I have no other revenue than a very slender salary, and it is 
owing to the allotment of the Propagation of the Faith that I am 
able to meet the interest of many debts I have contracted by 
helping the many poor parishes and in founding institutions of 
education and charity in the diocese. Having made a review of 
the ten first years of my diocese, I find that while the Catholic 
population has increased a third, the churches and priests have 
doubled in number. In 1854 there were 33 churches and 30 
priests; to-day there are 67 churches and 63 priests. In 1854 
there was no religious community ; now we ha\'e a monastery of 
Benedictines, another of Passionists ; a mother house of Sisters 
of Charity, numbering 87 members and conducting seventeen 
different establishments ; two convents of Benedictine nuns, two 
others of German Sisters of Notre Dame, and two others of the 
Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis. In 1854 there was no institu- 
tion of learning; to-day we have a flourishing college and a 
diocesan seminary, an academy for young ladies, a boarding-school 
for boys, and parish schools attached to almost all the churches. 
More than this, man}' of the old wooden chapels have given way 
to handsome, stately churches of brick and stone. All this has 
been done in the midst of a population of emigrants, comparatively 
poor, without incurring a great debt ; but this debt is much less 
than the value of the property acquired, and, barring any financial 
crisis, we will be able to handle it and gradually liquidate it. We 
have good reason to thank God for blessing our feeble efforts 



288 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

and rooting solidly his Church in this portion of his vineyard. 
... It looks now as if our unfortunate Civil War were drawing 
to a close, and we hope, unless new complications arise, we will 
soon enjoy the blessings of peace and security. 

The publication of the Jubilee, granted by Pius IX. in his 
encyclical letter " Quanta Cura,'' gave Bishop Bayley an oppor- 
tunity to address his flock on matters which are as vital to us as 
they were to the Catholics of 1865. While many points of the 
encyclical were not directed to the Catholics of the United 
States, and hence had no weight among the faithful here, except 
as assertions of undoubted truths, nevertheless practical lessons 
could be learned by all from the warning voice of the chief pastor 
of Christendom : 

Pastoral Letter. 

James Roosevelt Bayley, by tlie Grace of God, and of tJic Apos- 
tolic See, Bishop of Newark, to the Clergy of his Diocese, 
Regular and Secular, health and benediction : 

Although happily that false liberalism which the Holy Lather 
denounces, which prevails so largely in Europe, and which prac- 
tises toleration by tying up the Church and giving full liberty 
to every form of error, has not hitherto been able to obtain a foot- 
hold in our country, yet we are subject to other dangers, spoken 
of in his Encyclical Letter, which it is our duty to understand and 
carefully to guard against. Foremost amongst these is what is 
called in our days religious indifferentism. In the words of St. 
Leo, when speaking of heathen Rome, men seem to " pride them- 
selves on being very religious because they reject no error." By 
a confusion of ideas which is almost incredible, large numbers of 
persons in our days have come to confound civil or political and 
religious toleration. Because the civil law leaves a man free to 
adopt whatever religion he sees fit or none at all, they seem to 
take it for granted that he has the same liberty before God. Now 
under certain circumstances, in a country like ours for instance, 
where so many different religious systems prevail, civil or political 
toleration is not only lawful, but it is absolutely necessary ; and 
under any circumstances intolerance, so far as it implies the use 
of coercion in obliging religious assent, is wrong. It may make 
men hypocrites ; it cannot make them good Christians. But 
intolerance, as implying the moral condemnation of all opposing 
error, is a necessary attribute of the truth. Before God's positive 
revelation of his holy will, man has no right to believe anything 
in matters of religion, except the truths of that revelation in their 
fulness and integrity. Hence all those false maxims which are 
so common in our days, that "all religions are good," that "it is 
no matter what a man believes so long as his life is right," that 



IN NEW JERSEY 289 

"the great point is to lead a good moral life," arc but the expres- 
sions of an ill -concealed infidelity, against which we cannot be too 
much on our guard. In the sight of God, a man's life can only 
be said to be right when he believes all those truths whicli God 
has revealed to us and observes all those duties which he has 
commanded us by his Church, "He that would have God for 
his Father," says St. Cyprian, "must have the Church for his 
mother." 

But whilst, ni)- dear reverend brethren, you watchfully guard 
those under your charge against these false principles by instruct- 
ing them carefully in the Christian doctrine, remember that their 
danger comes not so much from any intellectual perversion as 
from the worldly and sinful influences which surround them on 
every side. It is seldom or ne\'cr that a Catholic who has been 
well brought up and instructed in his religion falls away and be- 
comes a scandal to it. The sad perversions and wicked lives of 
so many among us who bear the name of Catholic have been 
chiefly owing to neglect on the part of parents, and to their not 
having been fortified when young by sound instruction and the 
graces of the sacraments. In fact, the weak point in our line of 
defence against the evil influence of society and the world is the 
decline and almost destruction of the Christian family in our 
midst. The active and too engrossing pursuit of gain, the habit 
of moving from one place to another in the hope of bettering 
one's temporal condition, the employment of women and children 
in factories, and, to a sad extent, the vice of drunkenness, have all 
tended almost to destroy the old Christian home. Parents no 
longer seem to recognize the immense responsibility which rests 
upon them in this matter ; that upon their care and protection 
and example, more than upon any other human cause, depends 
the future well-being of their offspring. It is, of course, impos- 
sible for us to remedy these things entirely, but we can do a great 
deal toward it, and therefore it is one of those matters which we 
should ever keep before us — by public and private exhortations ; 
by pointing out how inconsistent this restlessness and worldliness 
is with submission to the will of God and dependence on his 
providence; by often dwelling upon the immense influence of 
parental example; by encouraging parents to establish family 
devotions in their households, and to attend themselves to the 
instruction and training of their children. Life was not given 
to us to be spent in a ceaseless struggle for wealth and excite- 
ment, but to serve God and save our souls ; and this can hardly 
be done except in the peace and tranquillity of domestic retire- 
ment. 

Of this Christian domestic life and peace the basis must be 
the sanctity of Christian marriage, and there can be no doubt 
that one of the chief causes of the evils we deplore is that so many 
in our days enter upon this holy state without that prudence and 
careful preparation which so important an act demands. Not- 
withstanding the evident danger and impropriety of such mar- 

19 



290 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

riages and the reclamations of the Church, the evil of mixed mar- 
riages is greatly increasing, and \vc ha\e been surprised and pained 
at the frequency with which our people are married outside of 
the Church, seemingly without any sense of the dreadful sin they 
commit or the terrible consequences they incur. We renew our 
exhortations to you, reverend brethren, to speak frequently to 
them upon these most important matters, recalling to their minds 
the doctrine of the Church upon the subject of marriage, and the 
severe laws by which she strives to protect its sanctity. We 
wish particularly tliat renewed efforts should be made, by public 
exhortation and private advice, to dissuade them from mixed 
marriages, which are productive of so much unhappiness and evil, 
and to cause them to prepare for this sacrament with greater fore- 
thought and exactness. 

We take advantage of the opportunity to express to you our 
satisfaction at the zeal you have manifested in the cause of Chris- 
tian education. It is indeed a very heavy burden upon us, with 
our limited resources, to say nothing of its injustice, to pay taxes 
to the state for the support of schools to which we cannot con- 
scientiously send our children, and then to be obliged to provide 
instruction for them ourselves; but as things are at present we 
have no alternative. We must therefore maintain our parochial 
schools at any sacrifice, trusting that, one of these days, our fel- 
low-citizens may be led to adopt the more just, and for their chil- 
dren and society the more beneficial, system which prevails in 
England and France and in every other country which has estab- 
lished a system of popular education. That naturalism, against 
which the warnings of the Encyclical are principally directed, 
which limits man's knowledge and interests to the things of time 
and sense, and which if it be not arrested will undermine the very 
fabric of Christian civilization, has no more powerful ally than a 
system of popular education which, by excluding positive religious 
truths, leaves the youthful mind to conclude that they are of 
little or no importance. It is contrary to every principle of Cath- 
olic doctrine and Catholic feeling to separate daily religious in- 
struction from the training of the young. If we ever had any 
doubts on the subject, they must have disappeared before the 
exhortations of the Holy Father upon this important point. The 
world and the world's interests get too great a share of every- 
thing as it is, and if we consent that religion and religious instruc- 
tion is to be made a matter of one day in seven, the effect will be 
the same as if we had given it up altogether. All our hopes for 
the future well-being of our children depend upon our attention 
to this matter, and we exhort you to keep the subject constantly 
before the minds of your people, and to spare no labors and sacri- 
fices until the means of a good Christian education are provided 
for every child in your parishes, and particularly to see that no 
children are taken away from school and apprenticed or put to 
work until the}^ have properly made their first communion and 
received the sacrament of confirmation. 



IN NEW JERSEY 291 

The assassination of President Lincoln, " that terrible crime of 
mingled atrocity and folly, which has come so suddenly to over- 
cloud the bright prospects of peace and restored union which 
were dawning upon us," moves Bishop Bayley " to deplore the act 
as a patriot and to abhor it as a Christian. Before it all spirit of 
party and every animosity must be hushed into silence. To 
tremble at it, to abhor it, and to denounce it must be the instinc- 
tive impulse of every heart that loves justice and hates iniquity. 
It is an outrage that concerns every one of us, as human beings, 
as citizens of the country wishing to live in peace and security, 
and, above all, as Christians taught from our childhood to subdue 
and eradicate from oiu^ hearts hatred and revenge and all bad pas- 
sions. The assassin's hand in this case has struck not merely at 
the life of an individual, but of a nation ; and the stain is upon us 
all, upon our national honor, upon our fair name, upon our love of 
what is manly and honorable ; and it will penetrate through and 
darken every page of our history, unless we wash it out by our 
tears and regrets and by our universal repudiation of any sympathy 
with it, even in the inmost and most secret corners of our hearts. 
We will all of us, therefore, join with our fellow-citizens in mourn- 
ing over this great crime, and endeavor by our prayers and the 
sincerity of our conversion to God to turn away his anger from 
us." 

In twelve years the Association of the Propagation of the 
Faith gave to the Diocese of Newark $23,600, and the evidence 
of the good which this generosity enabled Bishop Bayley to 
accomplish must be gathered from his letters. Nor should this 
be forgotten by the Catholics of to-day, whose prosperity enables 
them to carry on the work of religion with such little effort, but 
whose horizon of almsgiving is apt to be narrowed by selfishness, 
which makes them oblivious of the fact that other regions are 
struggling as did their fathers some generations ago. Gratitude 
should prompt us to come to the assistance of that noble associa- 
tion to whom in the cause of propagating the faith no appeal has 
ever been made in vain. Since its foundation in 1822 $65,690,017 
have been raised from the slender means of the poor and distrib- 
uted in different parts of the world, to build churches and schools, 
to educate and support missionaries, priests, brothers, and sisters ; 
and of this vast stream of charity $5,807,393.40 have come to 
the United States. An occasional line to the director makes 
known, in February, 1 866, the destruction by fire of Seton Hall : 
" I regret to inform you that the main building of my college and 



292 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

diocesan seminary was destroyed by fire the evening of January 
25th, involving a loss of $30,000, but which is diminished by 
$16,000 insurance, and we are hard at work rebuilding it." And 
again in 1867: "The emigration, especially from Germany, still 
continues. The price of everything is exorbitant, on account of 
the immense circulation of paper money. The taxes, resulting 
from the war, are most heavy. Many workers are out of employ- 
ment and in want. We have not had such times since 1857." 

Meanwhile, the work of organization continued; diocesan 
synods were held, churches and schools built, hospitals, homes 
for the aged, and orphanages erected ; in a word, religion kept 
pace with the rapidly increasing demands of the Catholic popula- 
tion. The voice of the pastor was always heard as he perceived 
some new danger threatening the welfare of his flock. " Let us," 
Bishop Bayley writes, February 2d, 1 868, " my dear brethren, as 
dutiful children of God's Holy Church, renew our allegiance to 
her as our teacher and guide in all matters of faith and sound 
morality ; and let us carefully prepare our souls to share in those 
spiritual blessings which are offered to- us at this time, that so we 
may the more exactly fulfil our obligations as faithful Christians 
and good citizens of the country in which we live. There never 
was a time when we stood in greater need of them, to strengthen 
us against evil and to enable us to do good. All over the world — 
and our own country affords no exception-^the powers of evil 
seem to gain strength, and the moral influences which should 
restrain and correct them to grow weaker ; social disorganization, 
the weakening of family ties, an eager wish to be rich at any cost, 
vulgar ostentation of wealth and alongside of it increasing pov- 
erty, dishonesty in trade, frauds in the administration of public 
and private trusts, criminal outrages, and a lax and indifferent 
public opinion. All these things have a moral origin, and it is the 
duty of each individual in the community, as a Christian and a 
good citizen, to do all that he can to correct them, at least by the 
protest of his own carefull}- regulated and upright life, by culti- 
vating a spirit of truthfulness and simplicity and honesty and 
sobriety; in a word, by living according to the principles and 
teachings of his holy religion. 

" The only thing we should be anxious about is to be always 
found on the right side, on the side of truth, of justice, of God's 
Church, of the Apostolic See, ever ready to give our sympathies, 
our means, and our lives also if they be called for." 

The consecration of the Rt. Rev. Bernard J. McOuaid, D.D., 



IN NEW JERSEY 293 

as first Bishop of Rochester in St. Patrick's old cathedral, New 
York, July 12th, 1868, depriv^ed the diocese of an efficient laborer 
and its bishop of a wise counsellor, whose advice he often sought, 
and whose views on the education of the clergy and the children 
of the flock shaped the policy of Bishop Bayley, and have been pur- 
sued by his successors unwaveringly and consistently to the pres- 
ent day. The director of the seminary, the Rev. Michael A. Cor- 
rigan, D.D., was entrusted with the presidency of Seton Hall and 
with the graver responsibility of vicar-general.. Although young 
in years, the innate talent of administration, the gift of knowing 
men, and the charming blend of gentleness and strength quickly 
set at naught the misgivings of many, silenced adverse criticism, 
and justified the wisdom of his superior. Inexperienced, indeed, 
he was ; but he had long learned to seek light and strength from 
above, and in the quiet obscurity of the seminary he laid deep the 
foundations of that humility and sanctity which would serve him 
so well in the lofty and responsible offices which awaited him. It 
was not so much from his lijDS as from his life that the young 
Levites of the diocesan seminary learned the grandeur, the holiness 
of the priesthood. As priest and as bishop he first of all appeared 
in the chapel for the spiritual exercises, and none who ever saw 
him celebrate Mass will ever forget the unction and piety which 
stamped his every movement. 

In 1869 Bishop Bayley was summoned to attend the Vatican 
Council, and in the month of August Dr. Corrigan was obliged to 
assume the government of the diocese. How little he cared for 
power, how irksome the responsibility his ofifice thrust upon him, 
will appear from an entry in his diary, August 23d, 1870: "The 
bishop arrived this morning. Thanks be to God ! " 

Bishop Bayley for a long time had the thought of building a 
cathedral and an episcopal residence. For this purpose various 
properties had been bought and abandoned, one of which was on 
the corner of High and Kinney streets. Finally a site was se- 
lected on the south side of Lincoln Park. This created great 
enthusiasm among Catholics, and the cathedral fund already estab- 
lished received considerable increase. Elaborate plans were drawn 
by the great architect Pugin, but it was found that to execute 
these magnificent and stately designs would require millions of 
dollars. August 21st, 1869, the corner-stone of the cathedral 
chapel of Our Lady and St. Patrick was laid by the Very Rev 
Dr. Corrigan, administrator of the diocese. 

This, however, was a beginning whose ultimate end was not 



294 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

to be consummated in that section of the city. The reasons 
therefor are given in a letter of Bishop Bayley, dated December, 
probably of 1 870-7 1 : 

Bishop's House, Newark, December. 

Rev. and Dear Sir : As the clergy and people of the diocese 
have to a certain extent assisted me in securing lots for the con- 
templated cathedral, and are all interested in the matter, it seems 
to me proper that I should inform them of the reasons why I 
have sold the lots on South Park and purchased others. 

We paid originally for the lots on South Park $52,000, and 
owing to assessments and taxes they have cost us up to the pres- 
ent $72,000. The collections in the diocese and annual picnic in 
Newark for this purpose have amounted to $ * * * * altogether, 
so that we still owed, after years upon the land, the sum of $43,000. 
Owing to the paving of the broad streets in the vicinit)' of the 
property, the assessments of the coming year will not fall short 
of $20,000. Owing to these circumstances, and the fact that the 
Catholic portion of the inhabitants are not very numerous in that 
vicinity, nor likely to be, it seemed to me that it would be very 
difficult to retain the property and build a proper cathedral upon 
it. I therefore determined to sell it and purchase elsewhere. I 
obtained for the property $153,500, nearly three times the original 
purchase money, twice as much as it cost us altogether, and I 
have purchased on the hill in the Eighth Ward, near a large Cath- 
olic population, a lot 200 feet by 800, having a front on both P"ifth 
and Sixth avenues, for $60,000. I have thus been enabled to pur- 
chase a lot for the chapel, pay the debt, obtain a large, commo- 
dious situation, and leaving, after paying charges and assessments, 
a small surplus. What I have done was with the approval of se\'- 
eral priests of the diocese and intelligent laymen, and I think it 
will meet with the approval of all. It relieves the diocese from a 
great burden in paying for the land, and enables us to have a 
clear ground and a fair start to erect a cathedral and episcopal resi- 
dence. 

The verdict of the people was against the bishop's action, and 
the chagrin of many still exists. No one certainly could have 
foreseen the changes which have been wrought in Newark, and 
the move, if a mistake, was made in good faith and for the best 
interests of the diocese. Branch Brook Park has absorbed the 
large Catholic population, and thousands of Catholics are living 
around South Park. The purchasers of the cathedral property 
were unable to make good their promises, and during the adminis- 
tration of two bishops it was a source of anxiety and expense. 

January 29th, 1872, Bishop Bayley published the last Pastoral 
he was to address to the Catholics of the Newark diocese : 



IN NEW JERSEY 295 

. . . The topics I intend to dwell upon have nothing new about 
them ; they are as old as our religion, but experience teaches us 
that they need to be constantly recalled to mind. There is noth- 
ing that shows more clearly the weakness and fickleness of our 
poor fallen nature than the slight hold that the most sacred and 
important truths have upon us, unless they be constantly repeated. 

And in the first place let me urge upon you the obligation of 
adhering with all your mind and soul to the principles and teach- 
ings of your holy religion. Remember that God in all his om- 
nipotence cannot confer upon any one a more precious gift than 
that of faith. "It has the promise of the life that now is, and of 
that which is to come." When it dwells in our souls and regu- 
lates our lives, it makes all the rough places smooth and gives us 
peace in life and at the hour of our death. Reject with horror the 
words so common in the mouths of men in our days, that it 
makes no matter what a man believes, " so long as his life is 
right " ; such assertions as these involve a denial that God has 
made any revelation of his will to men. A man's life can be 
right before God only when he believes all that God has revealed 
and "observes all that he has commanded him." It may sound 
very fine and liberal to say that "a man's creed cannot be wrong 
whose life is in the right," and that "all that is necessary is to be 
just " ; but these sentences are but the expression of an ill-con- 
cealed infidelity. There must be a standard of right and justice 
to fix the exact weight and meaning of these expressions, and if 
they do not come up to that standard which God has given us, 
then they are worth nothing. " Unless your justice," says our 
blessed Lord, " exceeds that of the Scribes and Pharisees, you can- 
not enter the kingdom of heaven " ! But remember also that a 
right faith can profit you nothing, unless it brings forth in you the 
fruit of a good life. " For as the body without the spirit is dead, 
so faith without works is dead." It cannot be denied that the 
great obstacle to the progress of our religion in this country is 
not the prejudices and misrepresentations of those who oppose it, 
but the wicked lives of so many who profess to believe in it. And 
when we reflect how pure and holy that religion is, and how good 
and virtuous our lives would be if we ordered them by its pre- 
cepts, we must be convinced that the greatest enemy of God and 
his revealed truth is a bad and scandalous Catholic. We cannot 
too often call to mind and meditate upon that simple but most 
important truth so often repeated to us, that in order to be in 
favor with God and lay up treasure in heaven we must live in a 
state of grace, by avoiding sin and the occasions of sin, and by 
making a good use of the most holy sacraments of the Church, by 
which, in the words of the Council of Trent, "all true justice be- 
gins, or being begun is increased, or being lost is restored." 

The first particular subject to which I wish to call your at- 
tention is that of Christian marriage. I would urge upon the 
clergy that they often recall to your minds the teachings of your 
religion and the enactments of the Church upon this most impor- 



296 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

tant matter, and I would remind you that you are bound to lay to 
heart these teachings, so wise in themselves, so full of advantage 
to you and to human society, and yet which are so often neglected. 
There is no institution of our religion about which the Church 
has been so solicitous from the beginning; none in regard to 
which she has made more exact laws, or for which she has suffered 
greater injuries and losses, in order to preserve its sacredness and 
integrity. As instituted by God and regulated by his Church, 
Christian marriage is the basis of almost everything that is good 
and happy in this world. If all Christians recognized its true 
character and the solemn responsibilities which it imposes as they 
ought to do, if in choosing a helpmate for life, in preparing for 
and entering upon this holy state, they acted prudently and intelli- 
gently, if after marriage they took care that their households 
should be Christian households, how different would be the state 
of things amongst us ! 

There is one point fortunately upon which the law of God and 
the Church is so strong that you cannot break it. You cannot 
obtain a divorce and get married again. One of the most fruitful 
sources of evil to the community in our days is the facility of 
divorce, and you ought to thank God that you can have nothing 
to do with it. "What therefore God hath joined together, let no 
man put asunder." No matter what free-lovers and strong-minded 
women in their folly may say about it, its permanent character is 
essential to every object of Christian marriage and the foundation 
of all that is really good in it. 

Whilst human nature remains what it is, the marriage state, 
like everything else in this world, will have its trials and difficul- 
ties; but a person is unworthy of the name of a Christian who, 
instead of bearing with them and tinning them to good, endeavors 
like a coward to run away from them. We cannot and we ought 
not to try to escape from the trials of life. We have to bear with 
the peculiarities of all that we have anything to do with, and they 
with ours. It is in this way that we grow in Christian virtue. 
And in no condition of life should you bear more cheerfully any 
sacrifice that may be required of you than in the marriage state, 
because its permanent and enduring character is not only essential 
to your own good, but to the good of the family and of the com- 
munity of which you form a part. 

In connection with this subject I have to express my regret 
and sorrow at the increased frequency of mixed marriages among 
us. There is nothing that shows more clearly how much the 
true idea of Christian marriage has become weakened in the minds 
of our people. It is religion that gives its character and sanctity 
to marriage. It doubles its happiness and takes away half of its 
sorrows ; and to marry a person who has no religion or who differs 
from you on this all-important point can be regarded only as a 
sort of practical heathenism. It is to ignore the very end of the 
marriage union, which is to bring up children in the fear and love 
of God. What sort of a marriage is that in which God may be 



IN NEW JERSEY 297 

said to have no part, when parents do not even kneel down to 
pray together, when all instruction to their children of a religious 
character is either neglected or, if attempted, by its conflicting 
character produces doubt and indifference ? 

I was so much struck by some words of the Lord Chancellor 
of Ireland in a decision which he gave last summer, in a case for 
the guardianship of the children of a mixed marriage of this sort, 
that I made a copy of them and will repeat them to you here. 
The dispute was between relatives of the two deceased parents, 
one side wishing to bring the children up as Catholics, and the 
other as Protestants. In such cases the chancellor is obliged to 
examine the children personally, as the decision is made to turn 
upon their own choice when they are old enough to make one. 
In giving an account of his interview with them he says: "The 
spectacle was a very sad one. The simple cloudless confidence 
of childhood, adhering joyously to religion, as expounded and 
made dear to them by loving parents, had been broken up by 
struggling influence and transmuted into premature and desolat- 
ing doubt.*' Alas for such parents ! and I may say still more, alas 
for such children ! the innocent xictims of the folly and want of 
Christian principle of those who ought to have trained them up 
from their infancy in faith and virtue and all good conduct. In 
immediate connection with this matter, I must say a few words to 
you upon a subject which I have so often dwelt upon in my pas- 
toral letters and at the time of my visitation of parishes — the 
Christian education of the young. This includes two things. 
Christian education at home and Christian education in the 
school. Of these Christian education at home is the most impor- 
tant. There is no responsibility before God so heavy as that of 
Christian parents in this matter. Upon them depends for the 
most part the destiny of their children for time and for eternity. 
The peculiar character and conduct of every one depend chiefly 
upon the influences which surround them in early life. " As the 
twig is bent, the tree's inclined." The education of a child, in the 
full and proper sense of the word, may be said to commence from 
the moment it opens its eyes and ears to the sights and sounds 
of the world about it, and of these sights and sounds the words 
and example of parents are the most impressive and the most 
enduring. Of all lessons those learned at the knees of a good 
mother sink the deepest into the mind and heart and last the 
longest. Many of the noblest and best men that ever lived and 
adorned and benefited the world have declared that, under God, 
they owed everything that was good and useful in their lives to 
the love of virtue and truthfulness and piety and the fear of God 
instilled into their hearts by the lips of a pious mother. If every 
one of our households, no matter how poor and humble, were 
what they ought to be, religious Christian households, what a 
different state of things would we see about us ! 

But though the duties and responsibilities of jxarents in this 
matter are the heaviest and most important for themselves and 



298 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

for society of all others, yet there are none which are more 
neglected. In our busy, exacting days parents have no time and 
apparently little disposition to attend to their children. The poor 
ha\'e to work too hard during the day and are too fond of drink- 
ing houses in the evening ; and the better classes, as they are 
called, gad about too much and are too fond of amusements to 
attend to these matters. The consequences are that the old-fash- 
ioned Christian family may be said to have almost ceased to exist 
among us. 

It is on this account, among others, that it has become of 
such paramount importance to have in every parish good Christian 
schools. The best of schools, it is true, can never adequately 
make up for the want of good religious homes, but it is to them 
we must look for the only remedy to the evil, so far as it can be 
supplied. I would earnestly exhort the pastors of souls to spare 
no exertions to establish these schools and watch over them them- 
selves with the greatest solicitude, and I would exhort all Cath- 
olics to shrink from no sacrifice in order to have them in their 
midst. A parisli without such schools does not deserve the name, 
and can bring little consolation to the hearts of either priest or 
people. 

I know that it is a heavy burden and demands great sacrifices 
on our part to support parochial schools, at the same time that 
we have to pay taxes for the support of the state schools. But 
there is no help for it. We would gladly avail ourselves of the 
public schools if it were in our power to do so. But as they are at 
present conducted it is impossible for us to send our children to 
them. The public schools in this State are virtually Protestant 
schools, as much so as if Protestantism was the established relig- 
ion of the State ; and I have yet to find out the difference between 
Church and state, and schools and state, as these schools arc 
managed. Strange stories have sometimes reached my ears, as 
bearing upon this matter ; but if I had had any doubts as to the 
decided and strong-flavored anti-Catholic tone which pervades the 
state schools, they would have been dispelled by the " List of 
Books recommended by the State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction for PubUc-School Libraries in New Jersey," which came 
into my hands accidentally a short time since. If the name of the 
author was not given on the title-page, a person looking over it 
might suppose that the selection of such works as bear upon the 
history of religion and the Church had been made by some viru- 
lent anti-popery lecturer. 

We can have little hope that the tradition of falsehood and 
misrepresentation in regard to ever)'thing connected with our 
religion is ever likely to die out of the minds of men when such 
books as DAubigny's " History of the Reformation " and Llo- 
rente's " History of the Inquisition " are recommended to the in- 
structors of the rising generation as fountains of truth. 

Still we ought to be thankful, I suppose, that they let us 
have any schools at all. 



IN NEW JERSEY 299 

I am almost ashamed to speak to you again in regard to the 
horrible vice of intemperance, and 1 might add that I am almost 
discouraged from doing so. Notwithstanding all that has been 
said and done against it, it is, I am afraid, increasing among us 
and throughout the country. It kills more people in Great Brit- 
ain and this country than all the malignant diseases put together. 
Besides the sin and misery caused by it, the money squandered 
upon bad and poisonous drink would feed all the poor, provide 
good hospitals for all the sick, not to say that two-thirds of the 
poverty and sickness in the world would disap[)ear if this evil 
habit was put a stop to. The state is very much to blame in this 
matter. It is bound to protect the lives and welfare of the people 
as far as lies in its power; and an efificient law in regard to 
licenses, and the proper inspection of what is sold under the name 
of drink, thoroughly enforced, would save half of the money now 
spent on poor-houses, prisons, and lunatic asylums. 

It is not my business, however, to discuss the duties of the 
State, especially when there is no probability of its doing any 
good, but to remind }0u of your own personal duties in this mat- 
ter as citizens, as parents, as Christians. A drunkard is a bad 
citizen, an unnatural parent, and a scandalous Christian, and as 
such can ha\e no place in the kingdom of heaven. All that I can 
dels to warn you against this miserable vice and direct your pas- 
tors to enforce against those who make themselves the slaves of 
it and those who sell drink to them the statutes and regulations 
which have been made upon the subject. I know of no more pitia- 
ble sight in this world than to see a strong, healthy man, who could 
earn an honest livelihood by the labor of his hand, standing be- 
hind a counter and dealing out crime, misery, and death by the 
sale of adulterated and poisonous drinks. 

I am informed that what is called the International Society 
is making strong efforts to enroll the working classes of this 
country among its members. It is hardly necessary for me to 
say anything about it, for no one likely to listen to my words 
would ever think of joining it. The principles of their association 
have been published to the world, and the knowledge of what 
they profess and what they aim at should be sufficient to keep 
any honest man from having anything to do with them. As citi- 
zens of this country and as Catholics you are bound to keep away 
from all secret associations. They are contrary to the spirit of 
our republican form of government, the security and permanency 
of which depend upon everything being done openly and above- 
board ; and they are condemned by the Church, on the principle 
that nothing that is really good or for the benefit of ourselves or 
our fellows-men need to hide itself from the open light of day. No 
form of slavery ever existed in this world so abject and miserable 
as that to which a man gives himself up, who, divesting himself 
of the rights of his reason and his will and of everything that 
giv^es dignity to human nature, makes himself the blind instru- 
ment of a secret central committee, whose names he has never 



300 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

heard, whose faces he will probably never see, and whose real ob- 
ject in fact he knows nothing about. 

And since my object in addressing" you at this time is to 
warn you against the evil influences that surround you in the 
world, I would be omitting the most insidious and in some respects 
the most hurtful of all these influences if I did not say a word to 
you about bad books and bad newspapers. If we are bound by 
every principle of our religion to avoid bad company, we are 
equally bound to avoid bad books, for of all evil, corrupting com- 
pany, the worst is a bad book. There can be no doubt that the 
most pernicious influences at work in the world at this moment 
come from bad books and bad newspapers. The yellow-covered 
literature, as it is called, is a pestilence compared with which the 
yellow fever and cholera and smallpox are as nothing, and yet 
there is no quarantine against it. Never take a book into your 
hands which you would not be seen reading. Avoid not only 
notoriously immoral books and papers, but avoid also all those 
miserable sensational magazines and novels and illustrated j^apers 
which are so profusely scattered around on every side. The de- 
mand which exists for such garbage speaks badly for the moral 
sense and intellectual training of those who read them. If you 
wish to keep your mind pure and your soul in the grace of God, you 
must make it a firm and steady principle of conduct never to touch 
them. 

We live in a time of great acti\'ity and change and intense 
worldliness. " Men run to and fro and knowledge is increased." 
Would that we could feel that there is an increase also in integ- 
rity and ^'irtue and respect for religion. We all know that it is 
not so ; so far as we can form accurate ideas of the social and 
religious condition of men at any particular period in the world's 
history we may doubt whether the words of the Apostle St. 
Paul, describing what shall come to pass in what he calls " the 
last days," ever touched any body of people who called themselves 
Christians so closely as they do those of our times. "Men," he 
says, " shall be lovers of themselves, covetous, haughty, proud, 
blasphemous, disobedient to parents, ungrateful, wicked, without 
affection, without peace, slanderers, incontinent, unmerciful, with- 
out kindness, traitors, stubborn, puffed up, and lovers of pleasure, 
more than lovers of God." Well may the apostle speak of such 
times as "dangerous times." When the moral atmosphere we 
breathe is so full of what the Scriptures call " the spirit of this 
world," we can only hope to escape its corrupting influences by 
prayer, by meditating upon the eternal truths, and by the regular 
and careful use of the sacraments. 

In August, 1872, letters came from Rome ordering him to 
leave his dear Newark and take up the work in Baltimore begun 
by the illustrious Carroll, and continued by a long line of saintly 
and eminent prelates. By him alone the honor was not appre- 



IN NEW JERSEY 301 

ciated. He was, to use his own words, too old a tree to be thus 
transplanted. He set to work, however, with all the zeal that 
marked his earlier years; and in May, 1876, gave to God the 
ancient and venerable temple, so many years used for religious 
services, but on account of a heavy debt up to that time not con- 
secrated. 

Convening a synod of the clergy, he enacted many salutary 
regulations, particularly with regard to the clerical dress and 
mixed marriages. Though not a musician himself, he, first of all 
his predecessor.s, and it might be added alone of all his brothers 
in the episcopate, carried out the recommendations so many times 
expressed in the councils of Baltimore, installed in his cathedral 
a male choir, and had the liturgy of the Church sung in the grand 
and majestic Gregorian melodies. 

Illness obliged him to go abroad for relief; and, after seeking 
in vain the restoration of his health in Vichy and Homburg, he 
returned to his old home in Newark, August, 1877. His ailment 
baffled the skill of the physicians who waited on him with the 
devotion of children to a father. Despite the pain from which he 
was never free, he was always so cheerful, so full of anecdote, that 
it was difficult to believe him ill. Finally, October 3d, 1877, for- 
tified by the sacraments of the Church he loved so well, in his old 
room, in his old bed, in his dearly loved Newark, surrounded by 
Bishop McQuaid, Archbishop Corrigan, Rt. Rev. G. D. Doane, 
Fathers Toomey, Flynn, and Sheppard, his soul was loosed from 
its prison of clay and was in the presence of its Judge. Full of 
faith and good works, James Roose\'elt Bayley entered upon his 
eternal reward. 

Of an incident in the life of Archbishop Bayley, the New 
York Frceniajis Journal, through its editor, the late James A. 
McMaster, wrote, October 6th, 1877: 

A gentle, right-minded boy, he was the pet of his grand- 
father, James Roosevelt, after whom he was called. That grand- 
father, very rich, as things were forty years ago, had made James 
Roosevelt Bayley his principal heir. But the honest old gentle- 
man was under the delusion that his grandson, in becoming a 
Catholic priest, had to renounce all right to property; and the 
poor old gentleman, on that account, cut him off from the mag- 
nificent property that he otherwise would ha\'e inherited. It so 
happened that we were with Father James Roosevelt Bayley at 
the moment he received the decision of the court on his grand- 
father's will. The decision of the court, we hold, was correct. 
The will of the grandfather was made under a misapprehension, 



302 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

but it wtrs, unmistakably, the last legal will and testament of 
James Roosevelt. 

Judge John Duer, an intense Protestant, honored himself and 
the law of the State by expressing his regret that the letter of the 
law compelled him to decide against the legatee, cut off on a false 
understanding of his right to hold property ; and glad that, as to 
a portion of the i)roperty, the will was inoperative against James 
Roosevelt Bayley as one of the heirs. 

We have said we happened to be with Father Bayley at 
the moment he received the decision of the court. A little 
shade of sadness passed over his face, we think out of sorrow 
for his kind old grandfather that never meant to do what he 
did. But it cleared away, and Father Bayley used one of his 
habitual sayings, " It will be all the same a hundred years from 
now." 

The funeral services were held in St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
Newark, F"riday, October 5th, and Pontifical Mass was celebrated 
by Bishop Corrigan. The sermon was preached by the Very Rev. 
Father Preston, V.G. of New York. 

In the beginning of his remarks he expressed regret that 
Bishop McOuaid was not able to be present and preach. " Yet I 
could not refuse," continued F'ather Preston, "to bear my humble 
tribute to our deceased friend, who received me into the Church 
of God, was the first father to guide my steps when I entered the 
fold, and was ever my friend and counsellor. I feel his death as a 
personal loss. It was a loss to the American Church and the 
Diocese of Newark. Not soon shall we see his like again. We 
shall cherish his memory in our heart of hearts, and the Diocese 
of Newark will always remember him as its first bishop. It 
would be far from his wish to have words spoken in praise of him, 
but the virtues of the just are the treasure of the Church. It is 
meet and right for us to meditate upon his virtues and so stimulate 
our faith." 

Father Preston mentioned briefly the leading facts concerning 
the archbishop's life. 

I remember, he said, his ordination to the Episcopal min- 
istry. He entered it to do God's will. The light of faith had 
not yet shown him the portals of the true Church. You who have 
had the happiness to be born in the fold of Christ know not how 
God has blessed you ; you know not as we do, who came into the 
fold in mature years, how he has blessed you in bringing you 
up safe in the Church's holy doctrines. You can't know the 
trials of a mind feeling for the faith and struggling against 
friends and family and worldly influences. Archbishop Bayley 



IN NEW JERSEY 303 

was too true to allow anything;" to stand between him and the 
Church. For a brief period he had charge of an Episcopal 
church on the island of New York, and I know it was a period of 
trial to him. Finally he went to Rome in the spirit of a pilgrim 
to learn the truth, and there, where the blessed light of faith 
shines so brightly around the throne of the Vicar of Christ, he had 
the grace to renounce the errors in which he had been reared. 
He often told me that they were days of happiness. Having re- 
ceived baptism and been confirmed in Rome, he began his theo- 
logical studies in the Seminary of St. Sulpice, Paris. He spoke 
to me often of the happiness of those days, of the spiritual life 
which he led in the seminary. He looked back to that discipline 
as evidence of God's favor. . . . While at the cathedral in New 
York he received me into the fold. There I was in constant in- 
tercourse with him. Until he was set over this See, he was in 
constant labor in New York. You know how that here in every 
work showing the Christian bishop his hand was felt. You know 
that he devoted himself and all his strength to this diocese, which 
he loved and reluctantly left, and where he willed to die. Here 
he wished to draw his last breath, as he did, with his eyes turned 
toward the altar. 

Here in a few words have I gone over the life of Archbishop 
Bayley. If I were to draw out his characteristics in a few words, 
I would speak of his great simplicity and honesty of purpose. 
He had but one end — to glorify God. It gave a directness to his 
words and acts. Duplicity was impossible to him, and deceit in 
his presence was also impossible. He had also an affectionate 
heart and a genuine winning way. I have seen few men whose 
ways were as gentle and winning. No one could be more free 
from malice and uncharitableness ; and that which was in his heart 
welled out into his face and gave it that gentle expression. His 
countenance is a memory which I kne to cherish. It reflected a 
heart sanctified by God's grace. 

His gentle manner was an influence. The penitents who 
had confessed to him in the cathedral in New York afterward 
came to me, and I can testify that he drew souls to God. But 
there was one other characteristic — the most important of all — 
the earnestness of his faith. Diamonds in the mine are nothing 
compared with this precious gift of faith. In the society of which 
he was an ornament his faith shone out in his face; he never 
compromised the truth. That earnestness of belief characterized 
him in his dying moments. 

After the Mass the body was forwarded to Baltimore, accom- 
panied by Bishop Corrigan and many priests of the diocese. 
On Tuesday, October 9th, after the Solemn Pontifical Mass 
of Requiem had been sung, the earthly temple of the lofty 
soul of Archbishop Bayley was conveyed to Emmettsburg, 
Md. In the centre of the Sisters' God's Acre is a mortuary 



304 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

chapel, near the front of which is a marble slab bearing this 
inscription • 

Sacred to the Memory of 

E. A. SET ON, 

Foundress. 

Here, side by side, the saintly Bayley, the sainted Mother 
Seton— aunt and nephew^ — await a glorious resurrection. 

His love for his old cathedral city was deep and strong, and 
its progress was marked by him wnth sincere gratification. The 
best evidence of this appears in a letter he wrote to Colonel 
Swords : 

Baltimore, October 24th, 1872. 

My Dear Colonel : I thank you for your kind, good letter. 
I would have answered it sooner, but I have been, am still, over- 
whelmed with business of all sorts, and have also been absent from 
home to assist at the installation of the new Bishop of Richmond. 
I regret that I did not see you before I left. I intended to call 
and bid you good-bye, but in the excitement and hurry of my 
departure this was neglected with many other things. 

It was with sincere regret that I left Newark. If I had had 
my own way I would not have done so, and if it was in my power 
would go back to-morrow. There is more respectability and dig- 
nity here, but I like my old, simple, poor people best. But my 
likes and dislikes have nothing to do with the matter, and I will 
submit cheerfully to what I believe is God's will. I was very 
much touched by Bishop Odenheimer's kind reference to me in 
his letter to you as President of the Newark Board of Trade. It 
shows him to be a high-minded and generous man; for poor 
human nature is very weak, and it requires an effort to say any- 
thing good of those we differ from. Though I never compromised 
my religious conviction, I certainly did all I could " to insure peace 
with all men," and to make our people good Christians, conse- 
quently good citizens. It was a great happiness to me to have 
my good intention, at least, recognized by such a man as Bishop 
Odenheimer. I wish that when you have an opportunity of seeing 
him you would convey to him the expression of my kindest regards 
and sincere thanks. 

I feel proud also of my old episcopal city. She has not only 
made great progress in material pros])erity and a great variety of 
useful industries, but what is of more importance, and, alas ! more 
rare in our days, she has established and preserves a high name 
for commercial integrity and honor. I cannot feel too grateful for 
the kindness which was extended toward me by all classes of her 
people from the time I came among them. May peace ind 
happiness be always with them ! 



IN NEW JERSEY 305 

Please give my kindest remembrances to Mrs. Swords, and 
believe me to be always, my dear colonel, very truly your friend, 

J. Roosevelt Bavley, 

ArchbisJiop of Baltimore. 



St. James's Catholic Church, Newark. 

In 1853 the Rev. Louis D. Senez purchased lots in that portion 
of Newark called the " Neck," on Lafayette Street, with a view 
of erecting a church and a school. March i6th, 1854, the Rev. 
Benjamin F. Allaire, secretary of Bishop Bayley, was appointed 
pastor of the new parish, and immediately steps were taken to 
carry out the project of Father Senez. Father Allaire was edu- 
cated in St. Sulpice, Paris, and was ordained sub-deacon by Mgr. 
Sibour, Archbishop of Paris. After his ordination to the priest- 
hood he was made secretary of Bishop Bayley, October 30th, 1853. 

The corner-stone of the church was laid June 19th, 1854. It 
was a brick building 40 by 80 feet, three stories high, to be used 
both as a church and a school, and was named " St. James the 
Less." 

Before the building was finished Father Allaire was removed, 
and the Rev. James Callan was appointed, October 17th, 1854, in 
his stead. Father Callan, a brilliant young Irish priest, zealous, 
devoted, and impetuous, had made his studies in Ireland and had 
served on the mission in South Amboy. November 5th, 1854, 
the building was ready for dedication, and services were opened. 
He then built a brick rectory in the rear of the church, and 
labored with much zeal in the parish until February 26th, 1864, 
when he resigned and went to California. His death was pathetic 
and worthy of the lofty motives that always swayed him in the 
exercise of his priesthood. When he was returning to his mission 
from the clerical retreat the boiler on the steamboat exploded, 
with the result that many were killed outright and many more 
mortally injured by the scalding steam. Although he had escaped 
all hurt, his first thought was the injured, and without hesitation 
he literally walked into the jaws of death to administer the sacra- 
ments to the dying. During these ministrations he inhaled the 
live steam, but, despite the agony he endured, he persisted in his 
work of heroic charity, and after all was over he succumbed, a 
victim of his zeal and heroism, 1865. 

His successor in St. James's was the Rev. John Mary Gervais. 
Father Gervais was born in the Diocese of Clermont, France, 
20 



3o6 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



and became a member of the Society of St. Sulpice. He taught 
philosophy in France and in St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore; 
and, after his withdrawal from the society, he was affiliated to the 
Diocese of Newark and appointed as- 
sistant to St. Patrick's Cathedral. 
His ideas of the priesthood were the 
most elevated, his life was most edify- 
ing, and so little did he think of him- 
self that his premature death was due 
in no small degree to his neglect to 
take proper nourishment. As a curate 
in the cathedral he was devoted to his 
work, constant in his care of the sick 
and in the difficult work of the con- 
fessional. The pastor, Father Mc- 
Quaid, was strenuous and frequent in 
his appeals for the wherewithal to 
carry on the works of the parish ; and 





ST. JAMES S CHURCH, NEWARK. 
Rectory in foreground. 

as Father Gervais would listen to these earnest appeals for 
money he could not resist showing displeasure by moving his 
chair, and as the appeal would become more urgent so the 
chair would go round, until at the finish Father Gervais had 
literally turned his back to his pastor. He never hesitated to 
express his abhorrence of this necessary evil, which pursues 



I>l NEW JERSEY 307 

the pastor even to the present, and to declare that he was 
scandaHzed by it. But, on assuming pastoral charge, he became 
so persistent in his appeals as to dwarf the efforts of the 
pastor, about whose salvation on this score he expressed very 
grave doubts. Piece by piece he secured the adjacent property 
until the entire square was held by the church. He found his 
flock poor but generous. The finances were in good condition 
and the small debt was soon paid. At once he set about raising 
funds for a new stone church, and on July 12th, 1863, the corner- 
stone was laid by Bishop Bayley. It was no unusual sight to see 
the pastor among the workmen, and so absorbed was he in the 
construction that he often forgot to take his meals. In vain did 
his bishop protest and threaten ; and if he did not obey it was not 
through disrespect for his superior, but rather from the intensity of 
his nature, which could brook no restraint or tolerate any respite 
when once set upon a work to be accomplished. Everybody 
marvelled at this wonder-worker, whose brain was ever in a whirl 
with its vast projects. On June 17th, 1866, the church was dedi- 
cated, and on the occasion Bishop Bayley preached an eloquent 
sermon. By the death of Mr. Nicholas Moore a large sum of 
money was bequeathed for the purpose of erecting a hospital. 
With the approval of Bishop Bayley, Father Gervais made an 
announcement of the fact and outlined the policy of the institu- 
tion : 

St. James's Hospital, Newark. 

We cordially desire and purpose in carrying out the real in- 
tentions of Mr. Moore to meet the views and wishes of the vener- 
ated Bishop of Newark. 

As the choice of the persons to take care of the hospital is 
left by the will to our discretion; believing that the best, if not 
the only, means of procuring a careful attendance and thereby 
promoting the public good is to entrust the institution to women 
who relinquish all temporal pursuits to devote their life to the 
relief of sufferers without remuneration for their services, and 
that the public will welcome such an arrangement, as they see it 
practicable ; and being satisfied that it is beyond possibility to 
find persons of that sort outside of the Catholic religion, it is our 
determination to accept persons of the bishop's choice for the 
guidance of the hospital. 

Believing, moreover, that for the successful operation of the 
hospital it is of the utmost importance that the persons in charge 
of it should not be interfered with, bothered, and trammelled, 
we shall lay down before them the general object of the institu- 
tion, and then deliver to them the full conduct of it; and after 
this order of things shall have been proved satisfactory (and we 



3o8 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

can see no reason why it should not be so), it shall be our aim to 
make it perpetual by transferring the whole trust unto them, 
property and all. 

We believe that this plan will give full satisfaction to all as it 
is carried out, best promote the usefulness of the hospital, and 
fulfil the intentions of Mr. Moore. 

For the institution remains a public and a city work, for the 
benefit of all, standing by itself without connection with any sec- 
tional institution. Its management is free from any denomina- 
tional character in its primary nature ; the persons in charge of 
it happen to be Catholic, and they must enjoy the privilege 
granted to all of practising their religion as they choose. We 
understand that there are public institutions, even in this coun- 
try, founded on these principles, and we do not see why we could 
not attain the same end. J. M. Gervais. 



Another project of Father Gervais was the erection of a co- 
lossal convent. Upon this vast structure $50,000 was expended, 
but it would have cost $700,000 to finish it. Had he lived there 
is no doubt that his inflexible will and persistent effort would have 
carried the project through, but nature gave way under the stress 
laid upon it. His health was shattered, and he died July 24th, 
1872, in the very prime of his manhood, aged forty-two }'ears. 

Bishop Bayley wrote of him, " A faithful, earnest, disinterested 
priest." 

In January, 1873, the Rev. Patrick Cody was called upon to 
take up the herculean task inaugurated by Father Gervais. 
Father Cody in his boyhood was a protege of Bishop McQuaid 
when he was pastor of Madison, and from him he received his 
first lessons in Latin. His classical studies were continued in St. 
Mary's, Wilmington, Del. ; St. Vincent's, Latrobe, Pa., until he 
was sent to Rome, September 29th, 1 860. He left the American 
College in Rome, August, 1863, and entered Seton Hall, where 
in the college chapel he was ordained priest, December 19th, 1863. 

His first appointment was Prefect and Vice-President of Seton 
Hall, until the fire, January, 1866; and after he was successively 
assistant in St. Peter's, New Brunswick, and St. Peter's, Jersey 
City. He was appointed pastor of Hackensack and the adjacent 
missions, and finished the church in Hackensack, which was 
blessed April 19th, 1868. Thence he was transferred to St. Pat- 
rick's, Elizabethport, where he did efificient work from 1869 until 
his promotion to St. James's. The testimony of his long pastor- 
ate and of his unselfish devotion is the vast square of parish 
buildings, some begun by his predecessor, but all augmented, 



IN NEW JERSEY 309 

perfected, and adorned by Father Cody. His latest work is the 
beautiful rectory, which was commenced only after the realization 
of Nicholas Moore's hopes and Father Gervais's efforts and after 
a long period of suspended aspirations — the opening of St. James's 
Hospital. Many consolations have rewarded the unselfish gener- 
osity of the flock of St. James's, but none greater than that God 
has raised a child of the parish, John Joseph O'Connor, to the 
highest spiritual honor in the diocese, that of its chief pastor and 
bishop. 

The Church of the Immaculate Conception, Montclair. 

Rev. John Hogan, the zealous pastor of St. Peter's, Belleville, 
began in 1855 to gather the Catholics of Montclair, then called 
West Bloomfield, also those from Caldwell, into a congregation, 
and to attend to their spiritual wants regularly every Sun- 
day in the old school-house, which stood near the corner of the 
Old Road, now Glenridge Avenue, and Bay Street, on the same 
spot where a new school had been built in 1879, which is at pres- 
ent a tenement-house occupied by Italians. 

Father Hogan secured property on Washington Street near 
Elm Street, where he built a small frame church, the corner-stone 
of which was laid August loth, 1856, and which was dedicated by 
Rt. Rev. James Roosevelt Bayley, November 29th, 1857, under 
the title "The Church of the Immaculate Conception, Montclair." 

On the same day the bishop confirmed eighteen boys and 
thirty-eight girls. 

From 1857 to 1864 Father Hogan or one of the Passionist 
Fathers from West Hoboken officiated on Sundays and holydays 
of obligation. Among the Passionist Fathers who attended Mont- 
clair frequently, at one time six months in succession, was the 
celebrated Albinus Magno. 

On February 7th, 1864, Rev. Titus Joslin was appointed resi- 
dent pastor. He secured additional property on Elm Street, 
running from Washington to Fulton Street, and enlarged the 
church built by Father Hogan. 

During his pastorate the township of Montclair was created 
April 15th, 1868. He was succeeded by Rev. Alphonse M. 
Steets, September 5th, 1874, who built in 1877 a handsome rec- 
tory on the corner of Elm and P'ulton streets. He had as assist- 
ants in 1877 Rev. Joseph Ruesing, now Dean of West Point, 
Neb., Rev. B. H. TerWoert, and in 1878 Rev. F. O'Reilly, 



3IO 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



deceased. Father Steets also began in 1878 to have service in a 
private house once a month for the CathoUcs in Caldwell. He 
died March i6th, 1879, and was succeeded by Rev. Joseph F. 
Mendl. 

The parish of Montclair was divided in June, 1879. The 
Catholics of Bloomfield obtained permission from Bishop Corrigan 
to build a church and secured a resident pastor. The church in 
Montclair was only a few blocks from the Bloomfield township 
line, and as the town began to grow rapidly toward north and 




TEGAKWITA HALL, CATHOLIC I'Ul'.LIC SCHOOL, .MONTCLAIR, N. J. 



west the majority of the Catholic population had quite a distance 
to walk to the church, and it became evident that a more central 
site had to be secured for a new chinch. Bishop Corrigan had 
given permission to buy property for that purpose in 1880. 
Various difficulties delayed the intended purchase, and in 1881 
Bishop Wigger, who had succeeded Bishop Corrigan, withdrew 
the permission. In 1881 a parochial school was opened with six 
classes. Six Sisters of Charity from Madison, N. J., took charge 
of the school. Seeing the absolute necessity of locating church 
and school eventually in a central part of the town, and in order 
to avoid useless outlays for new buildings on a proj^erty destined 
to be abandoned sooner or later, the basement of the church and 



IN NEW JERSEY 311 

a part of the rectory, which also served as a dwelHng for the sis- 
ters, was fitted up temporarily for school purposes. After re- 
peated remonstrances Bishop Wigger finally yielded in 1892 and 
gave his consent to buy a site for church and school more con- 
venient for the great majority of the people. In the mean time 
the church debt had been wiped out and a large sum had accumu- 
lated in the treasury. About an acre of land was bought on the 
corner of Fullerton Avenue and Munn Street, only one block 
from Montclair Centre, in 1892. The corner-stone of a new 
church was laid October 21st, 1892, by Bishop Wigger, and the 
basement dedicated by him. May 30th, 1893. Services were held 
in the basement only on Sundays and holydays until 1899, whilst 
the school still remained on the old church property. 

The old cemetery was condemned by the authorities in 1895, 
and thirty-five acres for a new cemetery were bought on the cor- 
ner of Mount Hebron Road and Grove Street. The new ceme- 
tery was blessed by Bishop Wigger, May 29th, 1895. 

In 1896 an acre was bought on the corner of Lorraine and In- 
wood avenues, Upper Montclair. On that ground the corner- 
stone of a mission chapel, with the title " St. Cassian's Catholic 
Church, Montclair, N. J.," was laid by Very Rev. William 
McNulty, May loth, 1896, and dedicated by Rt. Rev. W. M. 
Wigger, July 4th, 1896. This chapel was attended for a few 
months from Seton Hall, and then until 1899 by the Jesuit Fathers 
from Jersey City, and from 1899 to June, 1903, by Rev. Benedict 
Boeing, O.F.M., from Patersbn, and now by the assistant of the 
Church of the Immaculate Conception, Rev. William F. Carlin. 

In 1897 the Munn property was bought, intended for a con- 
vent for the Sisters of Charity having charge of the parochial 
school. The property comprises a frame building and the whole 
front of the block on Munn Street between Fullerton Avenue 
and Cottage Place. 

In 1898 a new rectory was built on Fullerton Avenue adjoin- 
ing the basement of the new church. 

In 1899 ground was bought on the corner of Munn Street and 
Cottage Place, and the same year the stately parochial school was 
erected named "Tegakwita Hall." The laying of the corner- 
stone took place May i6th, Monsignor George H. Doane officiat- 
ing. Rev. Henry Van Rensselaer, S.J., preached on "Christian 
Education." The building was dedicated by Rt. Rev. W. M. 
Wigger on August 22d, and the school opened the first week in 
September. 



312 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Additional property : The " Sandford lot " adjoining the school 
was acquired in 1899, and again the " Sigler lot " in 1902. 

The old church property was bought by the Sisters of Charity 
of Madison, N. J., in 1898, who made a dwelling of the old church 
and opened St. Vincent's Foundling Asylum for the Diocese of 
Newark on August 15th of the same year. 

The Catholic people of Caldwell were regularly attended once 
a month from Montclair. Mass was celebrated in a private house, 
and the children were instructed occasionally on week-days until 
a resident priest was appointed in 1886. 

Thus within twenty-five years two new parishes were created 
from the original church of Montclair — Bloomfield in 1879, Cald- 
well in 1886, besides St. Cassian's Mission in Upper Montclair in 
1896. 

The Church of the Sacred Heart, Mount Holly. 

Over a century ago, as these pages have already shown, there 
was a considerable number of Catholics in Mount Holly; but, as 
happened in other localities, the descendants of the old Catholic 
French families have not been able to withstand the isolation from 
their clergy and have succumbed to the allurements of alien 
churches. Not until 1849 was there any inducement for the 
priest to attempt to cultivate this fallow field. In that year 
Father Mackin visited the few Catholics recently settled there, 
and from time to time offered for them the Holy Sacrifice. The 
erection of the church is due to the efforts of the Rev. Hugh 
Lane, born August 15th, 1 821, died April 5th, 1902, the pastor 
of St. Teresa's Church, Philadelphia. The building was 65 by 25 
feet. After Father Lane came the Rev. Hugh P. Kenney, who 
became one of the pioneer priests in Nebraska in 1858. The 
Rev. Benjamin F. Allaire who followed is still held in loving mem- 
ory for his gracious and winning manner. 

In 1856 the Rev. J. D. Bowles, of Burlington, visited Mount 
Holly once a month, until the appointment of the Rev. James J. 
McGahan as the first resident pastor. Father McGahan during 
his incumbency bought land for cemetery purposes, and in- 
fused among the little flock a spirit of energy and sacrifice which 
enabled his successors to accomplish great things. For a brief 
period it became attached again to Burlington, until the Rev. 
Thaddeus Hogan was assigned as second resident pastor. Under 
Father Hogan's pastorate the corner-stone of the new church 
was laid on West Washington Street, 1872. His successors were 



IN NEW JERSEY 313 

the Rev. S. J. Walsh and the Rev. Hugh J. McManus, who was 
appointed in 1875. Father McManus was born in Ballyshannon, 
February 13th, 1 841, and made his preparatory studies in Killbarr, 
Raphoe, St. Charles's, Maryland, and his theological studies in 
Seton Hall, where he was ordained priest June 7th, 1873. He 
spent two years in St. Patrick's, Jersey City, with the Rev. P. 
Hennessy as assistant. He was a simple, kindly. God-fearing 
priest. Under him the church was finished and blessed. It is a 
beautiful Gothic structure, with a seating capacity of 500. Arch- 
bishop Corrigan dedicated it October 19th, 1879. The next year 
Father McManus hoped to recruit his health by a visit to his 
native land. He had worked hard, but none dreamed that he bore 
within him the germs of a fatal malady. Before his eyes were 
gladdened with the sight of the green hills of Ireland he was 
prostrated, and died only a few days after reaching the home of 
his childhood, June 25th, 1880. His death was a great loss to the 
parish, where he is still remembered for his untiring devotion to 
the welfare of his people. His remains are interred in an old 
Cistercian abbey, built in the thirteenth century, where the dust 
of his people has lain for centuries past. In addition to Mount 
Holly, Father McManus had charge of Moorestown and Jobs- 
town, where he built a church, which awaited his return for dedi- 
cation. The Rev. Robert E. Burke was his successor, and his 
labors continued until 1884. The Rev. D. J. Duggan, the Rev. 
James Reynolds, the Rev. J. M. O'Leary, the Rev. M. J. Bren- 
nan, the Rev. Joseph Keuper, and the Rev. Stephen M. Lyons 
were successively pastors until the appointment of the Rev. 
Peter J. Hart, October, 1900. 

The Church of Our Lady of Good Counsel, Moorestown, 

attached to the Mount Holly Mission during Father Hogan's ad- 
ministration, is now a flourishing parish, which was detached and 
made a separate mission by Bishop Corrigan. The Rev. James 
McKernan, formerly an oblate of Mary Immaculate, and incar- 
dinated into the Diocese of Newark, 1873, was the first resident 
pastor, March 15th, 1880. The present rector is the Rev. John 
W. Murphy. 

St. Andrew's Church, Jobstown, 

is another mission in which the zeal of Father McManus was dis- 
played. The little church started by him was completed by 
Father Burke. The congregation is small in numbers, but, owing 



314 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



to the faith and generous character of the people, it has always 
been a satisfactory and successful charge. 

The removal of factories has diminished the flock at Mount 
Holly, so that at present there are no more than three hundred 
souls — about half what it was twenty years ago. But the flock 
has always been noted for its truly Catholic spirit, which never 
wavers in its duty, loyal in its adherence to Catholic practice, 
prompt in cooperation with its pastors, and enshrined in the 
esteem of the non-Catholic element of the community. The con- 
gregation is represented in the j^riesthood by the Rev. Francis 
A. Foy, of St. Joseph's Church, Jersey City, and the Rev. John 
Graham, Metuchen. 



St. Joseph's Church, Newton. 

In 1753, as the increase in population of the northern part of 
Morris County seemed to warrant it, Sussex County was formed, 
which extended on the northeast to the boundary line between 

New York and New Jersey, 
and likewise included what 
is now known as Warren 
County. Twelve years later 
we discern the footsteps of 
that holy missionary, Father 
Ferdinand F a r m e r , who 
braved the perils of the sea- 
sons, the Indians, and ban- 
dits, who infested the few 
trails which followed the 
courses of the streams, and 
frequently plundered and 
murdered their victims. 
Nothing daunted him, and as 
every recurring spring and autumn came around he ventured out 
in search of his scattered flock, through Hunterdon, Warren, 
Sussex, and Passaic counties, visiting, as his baptismal records 
show, Changewater, in Oxford Township, Warren County ; Long- 
pond, now Greenwood Lake, Ringwood, both at that time in 
Sussex County, and Mount Hope in Morris County. These 
records will be found in the Supplement at the end of this 
work, and the reading of it will show both the zeal of the de- 
voted pastor and at the same time the considerable number of 







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OLD ST. Joseph's church, newton. 



IN NEW JERSEY 315 

Catholics living then in the northern section of New Jersey. 
Many of the names are German, many Irish, some English and 
French. The iron works attracted them and afforded them em- 
ployment. The Gossenshoppen records show that some of the 
Germans went to Reading, Pa., doubtless to spend the closing 
days of their life with old friends and to have their bones laid 
beside them. In sixteen years the number of baptisms in Ring- 
wood was one hundred and sixteen, and in Long Pond, in nine 
years, eighty. That these families did not live far apart is evident 
from the dates of his entries, for we find him one day in Ring- 
wood and the next in Long Pond, and we also see the names of 
families living in one place acting as sponsors for those who lived 
in another. In both places are found one hundred and eighty-one 
distinctive family names, and if we multiply this by four, it will give 
us an inadequate idea of the number of Catholics who then lived in 
Sussex County. Families then were larger than they now are, so 
that it is safe to say that from 1770 to 1780 there were more than 
seven hundred Catholics living in that neighborhood. The popu- 
lation of Sussex County in 1771, including Warren County, was 
8,994, so that the Catholics were not less than one-tenth of the 
population. Naturally the question arises, What has become of 
them ? There is no answer. Some of the names are still borne in 
Morris and Sussex counties, but the bearers are not of the faith of 
their forefathers. An examination of the files of the oldest news- 
paper, 77/r Sussex Register, gives us an occasional gleam of one of 
the lost tribes : November 7th, 1814, Hugh McCarty was convicted 
on five separate indictments and sentenced to thirty years' im- 
prisonment. March ist, 1816, Kathleen Hunt was married to 
Charles McCormick. August 20th, 1819, an Irishman, lately 
landed, in the employ of Benjamin Strong, died from drinking too 
much cold water. In 1820 Patrick McMahon advertises for a 
weaver; and in 1821 John and Luke Feeney enter into a partner- 
ship. In 1825 Dr. Francis Moran hangs out his sign, and in 1827 
we hear of Major Francis Donleavey, attorney -at-law. So the 
records run, until we come to the fifties, when, no longer trusting 
to conjecture, we are able to learn from the survivors of to-day 
who they were who drifted into old Sussex and many of whom 
drifted from the faith. There were Dennis Cochrane, Edward 
McCormick, John McCormick, Charles Harold, Timothy and 
Thomas Farrell, Martin Ward, Thomas English, and Redmond 
O'Leary. Redmond was a man of parts, and so taught school in 
Vernon and later became Squire O'Leary. John Gaffney was 



3i6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

another, who was called " Webster " because he sold dictionaries. 
Some of the " greenhorns " who reached Sussex, although they ' 
did not know the difference between calico and muslin, were 
started on their way throughout the county with their packs on 
their back, and many of them achieved success. In 1854 two 
sons of Poland came to Newton to swell the little Catholic colony, 
Anthony Burhardt and Francis Graey. 

A charming sketch of Catholicity from this period onward 
was written by the Rev. Michael A. McManus, which is here 
reproduced : 

Prior to 1854 the Catholics of Sussex County had only very 
rare opportunities of gathering together for public worship, for 
up to that date they were entirely dependent for spiritual minis- 
trations upon visiting clergymen. These came, as necessity would 
demand or convenience allow, now from Dover, again from Madi- 
son, or from New York, or points still more distant. Father 
John Callan, stationed at Dover and exercising his zeal through 
much of Morris County, often penetrated into Sussex on his 
sacred mission. Father Senez, still hale and active as the rector 
of St. Mary's Church, Jersey City, was in those times pastor at 
Madison ; in addition to his home duties he often managed to 
visit the scattered Catholics of this district. 

The present Bishop of Rochester, the Rt. Rev. B. J. 
McOuaid, succeeding P'ather Senez at Madison, imitated him in 
his zeal, and by his repeated trips became acquainted with every 
nook and corner that gave shelter and a home to Catholics. And, 
indeed, in every quarter of the county Catholics were to be found. 
Deckertown had its quota. Wawayanda was not without many 
holding to the old faith. In Montague a happy cluster always 
welcomed the priest; while Hamburg, Vernon, Ogdensburg, 
Franklin P'urnace, Stanhope, Andover, and Newton each had a 
fair Catholic representation to receive and appreciate periodical 
visits of the early missionaries. 

On the occasions of the visits of the priest Mass was said 
and other acts of Catholic worship were i)erformed in private 
houses or, when opportunity offered, in public buildings. 

In Franklin Furnace the ballroom over the hotel was fre- 
quently offered for these purposes through the courtesy of Prot- 
estants. The storeroom too over the old-time store of Oakes 
Ames & Co. often beheld the solemn celebration of the Holy 
Mass. In Newton a building on the present site of the Levi 
Longcor residence, on Spring Street, occupied by Mr. Edward 
McCormick, repeatedly gathered beneath its humble roof the 
assembled Catholics of the surrounding districts. And the 
Blackwell house on Church Street, then serving as dwelling and 
harness shop for Mr. P'rancis Graey, is memorable as opening its 
doors for divine worship. Thus matters continued until the fall 



IN NEW JERSEY 



317 



of 1854. About that time Father McMahon was appointed to the 
parish of Sussex County. If he had any headquarters at all, they 
may be said to have been at Newton. Like his missionary prede- 
cessors, he travelled from place to place, carrying with him the 
consolations of religion and strengthening the spirit of faith in 
the minds of his children While other points in his charges 
were diligently cared for, Andover demanded and received special 
attention. 

In those days Andover was a thri\'ing village with larger ex- 
pectations and higher ambitions than any of its neighbors The 
mines, musical with hammer and drill, attracted busy hundreds 
of working-men, and when 
Father McMahon made his 
first tour of the mines he 
was pleased to discover that 
the majority of the employees 
were members of his Church 
and subjects of his young 
parish. 

A church edifice was now 
felt to be a necessity, and 
the great cjuestion was as to 
its whereabouts. The pres- 
ent seemed to demand its 
erection at the industrial 
centre, Andover; the future 
called for its building at 
Newton. At length Father 
McMahon, prudently consid- 
ering the uncertain character 
of the mining industry and 
rightly judging the eventual 
stability of Newton, decided 
upon raising the edifice in 
this latter district. 

The foundations were laid in the fall of 1855. Vigorous 
work pushed the enterprise to a successful issue, and in the follow- 
ing spring the gladdening cross surmounted the cupola, and began 
its still-continued task of throwing its shadow upon one of the 
pleasantest grassy knolls in the town. Pewless and unplastered 
within, thinly painted and rough-boarded without, it possessed 
within its walls the attractive charm and comforting influence 
that a Catholic church always has — be it ever so modest or ever 
so massive — for the children of that faith. 

Limited means hindered the entire completion in its interior 
appointments, and it was in this unfinished condition when in the 
spring of 1857 Father McMahon was removed to another field of 
labor. 

Succeeding him, with the interval of five months, came 
Father James McKay. He took up the work, material and 




ST. JOSEPH'S CHURCH, NEWTON. 



3i8 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

spiritual, where his predecessor had been forced to discontinue it. 
What with the contributions of his own people and with assist- 
ance from other parishes through the diocese, he shortly com- 
pleted the church in all its details, and found ample time to instruct 
and console his flock at home and abroad. The rectory, too, that 
nestled so snugly in the meadow close to the church, was the 
result of his activity and zeal, and this, be it remembered, when 
Catholics had anything but plethoric purses. 

Father McKay's residence in Newton was productive of the 
greatest good. While entirely loyal and true to his own Church, 
he had consideration and toleration for views opposed to it, and 
thus, while winning the confidence and love of his own people, he 
secured to himself the respect of non-Catholics. In July, 1861, 
his superior removed him to Orange, N. J., and among those who 
regretted his departure were numbered the respectable members 
of every church in the town. 

His place was taken (I may say entirel}^ filled) by the Rev. 
Edward McCosker. He came fresh from the ecclesiastical semi- 
nary, with the oils of ordination yet damp upon his brow. He 
carried, therefore, to his spiritual harvest fields a zeal and a love 
that nerved him to heroic work. Buoyant in disposition, perse- 
vering in determination, winning in manner, and blessed with a 
constitution of vigor and activity. Father McCosker had all the 
invaluable requisites as well for a mountain missionary as for a 
home rector. All these served an excellent purpose. 

With an eye to the outlying districts, in 1863 he purchased 
a lot of land from the Fowler estate for a future church edifice. 
Subscriptions were raised with little ado, and in the following 
year the church was built and dedicated by the Rt. Rev. J. R. 
Bayley, under the title of the Immaculate Concej^tion. 

Later on the same zeal led him to erect churches at Hacketts- 
town and Oxford Furnace, in Warren County. 

The crowning material work of Father McCosker's adminis- 
tration was the location of the present excellent and ample brick 
church fronting on Halsted Street ; its corner-stone was laid in 
the summer of 1870. A man less courageous than Father 
McCosker and less trustful in the blessing of God upon his work 
never would have presumed to enter upon this large task. But 
his people were generous even beyond their means, and many and 
respectable contributions from different parts of the country found 
their charitable way to the building fund. Thus the work went 
bravely on, and was gradually carried to an elegant finish. 

The imposing scene of the church's dedication was witnessed 
the istof September, 1872. And in quick succession then sprang 
into existence a handsome and commodious rectory convenient to 
the church. 

All this is only the material and tangible ; great though it be, 
yet greater (because higher its aim) work was done in the spiritual 
order. 

The spark of faith was nursed and became a sacred flame, 



IN NEW JERSEY 



3^9 



imparting warmth and vigor to the spiritual Hfe, and though un- 
fortunately not a few were lost to the faith of their fathers through 
negligence or wilfulness, yet such a loss was perhaps quite com- 
pensated for by the earnestness of the old residentcrs and the 
devotion of their children and followers. 

Nineteen years were passed by Father McCosker in Newton. 
His works and his good name are after him, while remembrance 
of his kindness and his good deeds lingers about every Catholic 
hearthstone in all the region round. In July, 1880, he was 
removed to Rah way, N. J. 

Father G. W. Corrigan was the next incumbent of the par- 
ish. His pastorate, though short, was filled with works of apos- 
tolic zeal and practical deeds. 
The mission chapel of St. 
Monica, at Deckertown, was 
the result of his industry 
and love for souls. It was 
said that it was owing to 
this Rev. Father's missionary 
spirit that the Hon. Judson 
Kilpatrick became attracted 
to the Catholic Church, on 
whose peaceful bosom he was 
laid to rest. This brilliant 
cavalry leader who distin- 
guished himself in the Civil 
War, was born near Decker- 
town, N. J., January 14th, 
1836. He took an activ^e part 
in the battles of Gettysburg, 
was severely wounded at Re- 
saca, and abl}' seconded Sher- 
man in his " Ride to the Sea," 

and commanded a division of cavalry in the military division of 
Mississippi in 1865. He was a brave, daring, and efficient officer, 
in whom his superiors placed the fullest confidence, and idolized 
by his soldiers. He died in Valparaiso, Chili, to which govern- 
ment he had been appointed Minister by President Johnson and 
afterward by President Garfield, March, 1881. His wife was of 
Spanish origin, of the family of Valdivieso. It was at his sugges- 
tion and largely by his efforts that St. Monica's Church was built 
in Deckertown. He was received into the Catholic Church a 
short time before his death, which occurred December 4th, 1881. 

By this time St. Joseph's, at Newton, became a parent 
church. A large number of Catholics in the vicinity of Franklin 
Furnace justified the erection of that mission into an independent 
parish, and in i88i Rev. A. M. Kammer was appointed its first 
resident rector ; as outposts for exercising his ministry he had the 
neighboring missions of Ogdensburg and Deckertown. Ogdens- 
burg was yet in its primitive innocence of a church building. 




GEN. JUDSOX KILl'ATKICK. 



320 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

One was called for, its erection was undertaken in May, 1881, 
and, under the masterly supervision of the rev. rector, before the 
snows of that year began to fiy, the Church of St. Thomas Aquinas 
lifted its summit in worship to Almighty God. After three and 
one-half years of successful labor Father Kammer was removed 
and gave place to the Rev. J. H. Hill. It is small praise to say 
of Father Hill that he was devoted to his work and self-sacrificing 
in its performance ; he was eminently so, and therefore, among a 
people as appreciative as those of the Franklin parish, he secured 
more than ordinary success. 

Among the other excellent works of Father Corrigan's pas- 
torship at Newton was the establishment of a parochial school in 
that town. But directly upon its opening, in September, 1881, 
he was transferred to the more important parish of Short Hills, 
Essex County. For the two months immediately following the 
removal of Father Corrigan, the parish was under the zealous care 
of Rev. A. M. Shaeken. A rector was appointed in November, 
1881. When the Rev. M. A. McManus took charge, he was 
pleased to find a well-ordered parish. He had merely to continue 
his work on the lines laid down by wiser heads. Perhaps it may 
modestly be remarked that pastoral work, during the present 
rectorship, has not been entirely neglected, nor have the general 
interests of the parish been quite lost sight of. The advent of 
the Sisters of Charity, in September, 1886, while increasing the 
excellence of the school, gave certainty to its permanence. 

And thus, in the flush of present great and future greater 
Church prosperity, there is every reason for gratitude to God. 

" Paul planted, Apollo watered, but God gave the increase." 

Always a humanizer and civilizer, the Catholic Church is 
ever making her holy influence felt ; beneficent and active, vice- 
reproving and virtue-encouraging in high places, she is not less so 
in more modest spheres. In its love for justice and its apprecia- 
tion of honest endeavors, the world is growing better and fairer. 
Calumny and prejudice against such a benefactor of the human 
race as the Catholic Church has always shown itself to be are 
quite disappearing. Bugaboo stories against the priesthood and 
Catholicity, that flourished and frightened children of larger 
growth, have only a very slender circulation; and "fair play," the 
honorable mark of Americanism, calls for the free exercise of a 
religion once jeered at and for the respectful consideration of opin- 
ions or truths once antagonized. 

All this is as it should be. In such conditions progress and 
prosperity may be within the grasp of every band of religionists, 
and smiling peace and godly charity will draw men closer to- 
gether in the bonds of human brotherhood and heavenly father- 
hood. 

Father McManus was succeeded by the Rev. John Baxter, 
who labored in Newton from November, 1890, to June 26th, 1898. 
At this period the parish school was closed, as the burden was 



IN NEW JERSEY 321 

greater than the parish could bear. The Rev. Walter Tallon took 
charge of the parish June 26th, 1898, and remained until Febru- 
ary 14th, 1901, when he was succeeded by the Kev. James J. 
Mulhall. Father Mulhall was born in Morristown, and made his 
entire classical and theological course at Seton Hall. His first 
and only assignment was St. Joseph's Church, Newark, where he 
served as assistant until called upon by his late pastor, the pres- 
ent bishop, to take up the burden of the pastorate. The flock 
remains as devoted and as responsi\e to its pastor as ever. 

St. Mary's Church, Pleasant Mills. 

One of the oldest Catholic missions in our State is St. Mary's, 
Pleasant Mills, of which records are found in the Catholic Directory 
as early as 1833, when it was attended by the Rev. James Cum- 
miskey, from Philadelphia; and from that time until the incoming 
of Bishop Bayley it was attended by priests from Philadelphia, 
among them Fathers P. Kenny, Richard B. Harding, R. Waters, 
J. A. Miller, W. Loughran, B. Rolando, Hugh Lane, and others. 

A writer says of it : " The old ruin still stands, though no hu- 
man habitation now exists within many miles. An ocean vessel, 
stranded on the beach, gave occasion to its erection, but the con- 
gregation, attracted by the more powerful inducements of the 
interior, gradually moved away. Most of their descendants, from 
necessary clerical inattendance, have lost the faith. The Bradley s, 
Murphys, Lees, and others of Gloucester, Burlington, and Mercer 
counties are instances. This church must have been built not 
long after the settlement of Newark in 1666. 

It is now attended from Egg Harbor City. 

St, John's Church, Orange. 

It is regrettable that repeated efforts to obtain from the proper 
sources reliable information concerning the foundation of St. 
John's parish have been made without success, and hence recourse 
must be had to the directories and register of the clergy for the 
little light obtainable. It appears that the Catholics in the early 
days were compelled to walk to Newark, generally to St. Patrick's, 
from which church they were attended. Father Senez secured 
the site on which was erected the first frame church. The name 
of the Rev. Terence Kieran appears in the Directory of 1854, after- 
ward in Paterson and died in Plainfield, and from that }'ear until 
21 



322 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 




REV. JAMES M'KAY. 



1858 the title of the church is St. Ig:natius. In 1855 the Rev. 
Robert Hubbersty, a Yorkshire man, coming from the Diocese 
of Salford, was in charge of the parish. He had a magnificent 

voice, which he used with 
good effect in the Tenebrae 
services in the cathedral, but 
was eccentric and odd in his 
manner. He usually rode 
ahorseback, with a short cloak 
over his shoulders, beneath 
which the wind, as it would 
occasionally toss it aside, 
would reveal a glaring red 
shirt. In his hand a short 
cane, in the English fashion, 
he wjuld ride over the side- 
walk to the door of the bish- 
ojVs house, and, without dis- 
mounting, ring the bell and 
announce his presence. In 
1856 the Rev. James Murray 
took charge and remained until 1861, when he was succeeded by 
the Rev. James McKay. Father McKay was ordained to the priest- 
hood in Dublin, September 13th, 1857, arrived in New York, No- 
vember 4th, 1857, and was appointed pastor of Newton, November 
15th, 1857. His wit and eloquence won the hearts of all, not only 
of his own, but even of the non-Catholics. He was an ardent tem- 
perance advocate, and when he spoke on this live topic there was 
no auditorium spacious enough to accommodate his audience ; even 
the court-house was filled long before the houi', and many had to 
leave disappointed because they could not obtain entrance. He 
did much good in this ethical field, and by his clear and eloquent 
statement of Catholic doctrine from the inilpit removed long-exist- 
ing prejudices and conciliated the bitter opposition to the Church 
which had long prevailed in the county seat of Sussex. During 
the Civil War he strongly opposed the enlistment of the Irish 
immigrant, and while on a visit to Ireland he wrote a series of 
strong articles under a pen name which gave great offence to the 
United States Government. Bishop Bayley accused him of the 
authorship, and on his admission of the charge removed him from 
the parish. He died a few years ago in Ireland. In 1865 the 
Rev. Edward M. Hickey, who had been Prefect and Vice-President 



IN NEW IKRSEY 



3^3 



of Scton Hall, and several years an assistant at St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, Newark, was promoted to the pastorate of Orange. 
Father Hickey was of a pleasant and winsome disposition, made 
many friends, and stood high in the esteem of his superiors, but was 
a failure as a financial manager. He built the present stone church 
and rectory, and in\-ol\'ed the parish in an immense debt, under 
which it has ever since been staggering". In May, 1873, the Rev. 
\V. M. Wlgger, of Madison, in obedience to the wi.shes of Bishop 




ST. John's church, orange. 

Corrigan, undertook the forlorn hope of bringing order out of 
chaos; but in a few months, after paying off $11,000, he resigned. 
In March, 1874, the Rev. Hugh P. P^leming, assistant at the 



3^4 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



cathedral, was appointed to the very difficult position of pastor of 
St. John's Church, Orange, with its debt of a quarter of a million " 
{Register of the Clergy^. With this burden Father Fleming has 
been struggling manfully up to the present, and yet impro\'ements 
have been made — the church spire built, the installing of a new 
organ, and the erection of the magnificent Columbus School. 
Truly the Catholics of Orange deserve well of the Church, for 
through all their adversities they have not lost heart, but con- 
tinue to win the admiration of all by their faith and pluck. 

The Church of St. Rose of Lima, Freehold. 

Freehold was first attended as a mission about the year 1854 
from Princeton, N. J., by the Rev. John Scollard, and shortly 
after a frame church, 25 by 40 feet, was erected and blessed under 
the patronage of St. Rose of Lima, and hence the corporate title. 
In July, 1857, Father Scollard was succeeded by the Rev. Alfred 
Young, the pastor of St. Paul's, Princeton, who in turn was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. J. J. J. O'Donnell. In July, 1867, the Rev. 
Thomas R. Moran took charge and attended Freehold until Janu- 
ary 9th, 1 871, when the Rev. P'rederick Kivilitz was sent to Free- 
hold as resident pastor. In the same year Father Kivilitz bought 
a parsonage, and in 1875 he opened a parochial school. In 1878 
he built a brick and terra-cotta church at Jamesburg; one at 
Hillsdale (now Bradevelt) ; in 1879 one at Colt's Neck and one at 
Perrinesville. In 1882 he built a new brick and terra-cotta church 
at Freehold. Bradevelt and Jamesburg are now separate missions 
with their respective pastors. The assistant priests of this mis- 
sion arc the Revs. Patrick 
McCarren, Peter J. 
John A. Graham, 
Gardner. The Rev. 
Ouinlan is the assistant at 
present. 




Kelly, 
P. H. 
A. T. 



St. Francis de Sales' 
Church, Lodi. 

This mission was estab- 
lished by P'ather Senez as 
early as 1854, and the church 
is probably the oldest Catholic church in Bergen County. 

St. Francis de Sales' Church was attended from Paterson and 



ST. FRANCIS 1)K SALES, LODI. 



IN NEW JERSEY 



2>^S 



other centres until 1897, when in the month of May the Rev. 
Joseph Ascheri was appointed first resident pastor. He built the 
rectory and put the church in proper condition. The member- 
ship is small, as the parish does not seem to grow. It has been 
thought inadvisable as yet to build a school. 

Near by, at Hasbrouck Heights, is a mission opened some 
years ago by the Rt. Rev. Monsignor Sheppard, V.G., then pastor 
of Passaic, who built a church which bears the name Corpus 
Christi. 

Our Lady of Mercy, Whippany. 

The making of paper has been carried on in Whippany for 
almost a century. An ever-flowing spring of the purest water 
imparts a quality to the paper 
and a depth and richness to 
colored papers which have 
made them famous and mar- 
ketable. In the middle of the 
last century Daniel Cogh- 
lan, of blessed memory, ac- 
quired possession of the old 
mills and moved hither from 
Springfield. Around this 
man of God clustered a good 
number of Catholics who 
were employed in the mill, 
and in 1854 the corner-stone 
of the Church of Our Lady 
of Mercy was laid by Bishop 
Bayley. Untoward circum- 
stances delayed its comple- 
tion until 1857, when it was 
dedicated to the service of 

God under the patronage of his blessed Mother. The leading 
spirit of the congregation, its mainstay, its sexton who would 
allow none other to prepare the altar, serve the priest, and 
perform the dozen and one little services around the sanctuary, 
was Daniel Coghlan. " Honest " Dan Coghlan was he known 
far and wide by his own and by the host outside of his church. 
Quiet, unassuming, retiring, he was rarely seen to smile, rarely 
heard to talk. In a word, he was a godly. God-fearing man, the 
perfect type of what a Christian layman should be. His wife, 




ST. MARY S CHURCH, WHIPFANV. 



326 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



a sister of the late Bishop Byrne of Arkansas, was a worthy 
helpmate, cooperating with him in all works of charity and dis- 
pensing with him a lavish hospitality. Both have long since 
gone to their reward. The mission was attended from Mad- 
ison until 1 881, when it was attached to Morristovvn. July 13th, 
1883, Morris Plains and Whippany were separated from Mor- 
ristovvn and erected into a mission, with the Rev. James J. 
Brennan as pastor. Father Brennan was a child of St. Patrick's, 
Newark, in which parish he was reared, although born in Ireland, 
March ist, 1850. His preparatory studies were made in St. 
Charles, Md., and completed in Seton Hall, from which he was 
graduated in the class of '72. He was for a brief time chaplain of 
St. Elizabeth's Convent, the mother house of the diocesan Sisters 
of Charity, and assistant in Camden, St. Joseph's, Jersey City, 
and St. John's, Paterson. He was promoted to the Church of 
the Sacred Heart, Newark, in 1892, and died there March 20th, 
1897. His successor was the Rev. A. M. Egan, and after him 
the present rector, the Rev. James T. Brown. 

For a short while a Catholic scho(^l was taught, but the num- 
ber of children in the mission did not warrant the outlay. There 
is a cemetery, in which repose the remains of the founder of the 
parish and its best benefactor. 



St. Nicholas's, Church, Passaic, N. J. 

Previous to 1855 the Catholics of Passaic, Lodi, and the sur- 
rounding country were obliged to go to Paterson to hear Mass. 

In that year Father Senez, 
of St. John's, Paterson, built 
a frame church in Lodi, a 
village two miles and a half 
from Passaic, and this church 
the Passaic Catholics attend- 
ed until they became able 
to erect a church of their 
own. This hapj^y event 
took place in 1868, when 
the Rev. John Schandel was 
appointed rector. Father 
Schandel erected a frame building on Prospect Street where 
now stands the Passaic Club. Father Schandel remained pastor 
until the fall of 1873, when he was succeeded by the Rev. Louis 




FIRST CHURCH OF PASSAIC. 



IN NEW JKRSEY 



327 



Schneider. Father Schneider was a native of Alsace — a French- 
man, he insisted on calling himself — and was born November 
2d, 1823. He entered the Society of Jesus, was a member of 
the staff of Fordham College in 1859, and afterward taught phil- 




ST. NICHOLAS CHURCH AND RECTORY, PASSAIC. 

osophy in St. Francis Xavier's College, New York, and was 
of the three Fathers who are regarded as the founders of 
the Xavier Alumni Sodality. He left the society in 1866, and 
was temporarily in charge of St. John's Church, Newark. He 
was afterward appointed to the chair of dogmatic and moral theol- 
ogy in the diocesan Seminary, for which his studies and rare talent 
of imparting knowledge so admirably fitted him. 

In connection with his professorial work he attended, as has 
been seen, to the Milburn mission. 

With the intellectual treasures of a well-stored mind he com- 
bined a wide experience of men, gleaned from his labors as a 
Jesuit. A great teacher, a profound thinker, a wise guide, he was 
also a charming companion, a firm friend, and a generous host. 

Father Schneider, in November of the .same year, opened the 
parochial school, which was entrusted to the Sisters of Charity. 
In 1874 he purchased the present site of the church and rectory. 

In December, 1875, the church was destroyed by fire — the 
work of incendiaries it was thought ; and an effort to dispose of 
the property, in order to build on the new site, failed for lack of a 
purchaser. Passaic, then, was little more than a village, with a 



328 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

few thousand inhabitants. The wildest dreamer could not have 
presaged its rapid growth and present prosperity. Perforce, the 
Catholics were obliged to rebuild the old church, which was a 
strange combination of church, rectory, and school. 

In April, 1876, the Spencer Academy property on Howe Ave- 
nue was purchased, and the school, which had outgrown the ac- 
commodations furnished in the church building, was removed 
thither. 

In August, 1884, Father Schneider died and the Rev. John 
A. Sheppard was appointed his successor. With characteristic 
energy Father Sheppard set to work to build a house of worship 
worthy of the growing" importance of the town and congregation. 
In the face of great difficulties and discouragements he succeeded 
in erecting a church and rectory which together cost in the neigh- 
borhood of $80,000. In 1886 he purchased a residence for the 
sisters for $6,000, and in 1892 he purchased a plot of ground at 
the corner of Hamilton Avenue and Washington Place and erected 
thereon a school building at a total cost of $20,000. In 1896 he 
opened a hospital in the rear of the school, and in 1897 he built 
the present admirable St. Mary's Hospital. On April 6th, 1898, 
Father Sheppard was transferred to St. Michael's parish, Jersey 
City, and Rev. Thomas J. Kernan, of St Cecilia's Church, Kearney, 
was appointed his successor. Father Kernan was born at Hamil- 
ton, Scotland, January 6th, 1858, and made his preparatory studies 
in Villanova College, Pa., and his theological studies in Seton Hall 
Seminary, where he was ordained May 19th, 1883. His ministry 
was exercised in St. Michael'-s, the Cathedral, and St. James's, 
Newark, and on September ist, 1893, he was appointed to the 
new parish of Kearney. He built the church of St. Cecilia, and 
left the parish in a prosperous condition. 

Father Kernan added to the church property a plot of ground 
on Jefferson Street, 150 by 150 feet, at a cost of $9,500. On this 
ground, in 1902, he erected a convent ($25,000; for the sisters 
who teach in the parochial school. In 1900 he purchased eigh- 
teen acres in Lodi Borough for $14,000, to be used as a cemetery. 
This land adjoins the old St. Nicholas Cemetery and is admirably 
suited for the purpose. The following are the priests who have 
been assistants at St. Nicholas's: the Revs. C. Mundorf, M. J. 
Hickey, John McHale, Joseph Ali, William J. O'Gorman, James 
H. Brady, Henry Connery, Daniel S. Clancy, William F". Grady, 
James F. Mackinson, Thomas E. O'Shea, and at present Michael 
J. McGuirk and William V. Dunn. 



IN NEW JERSEY 



3^-9 



St. Peter's Church, Newark. 

The Rev. Martin Hasslingcr left the congregation of the Re- 
demptorists and was received in the Diocese of Newark in the 
summer of 1854, taking up his i-esidence temporarily in St. Peter's, 
Jersey City. He was called to Newark, February lOth, 1855, and 
appointed vicar-general of the Germans. The little church, be- 
gun on Belmont Avenue in 

I 



1854, was blessed by Father 
Hasslinger and placed under 
the patronage of St. Peter, 
February 2d, 1855. On Oc- 
tober 20th, 1854, the Rev. 
Godfried Prieth, born at 
Graun, in the Tyrol, arrix'ed 
in the diocese. He had made 
his studies at Bri.xen, and ex- 
ercised his ministry three 
years in Schwartz. He acted 
as assistant to Father Hass- 
linger from March 7th, 1855, 
until his appointment to the 
rectorship of St. Peter's, 
May nth, 1855. The whole 
slope which marks the west- 
ern section of Newark was 
fifty years ago an unbroken 
wood-land. Through this the 
Springfield road, a continua- 
tion of Market Street, ex- 
tended into the farm lands 
and pastures of the interior. 
A wide clearing to the right 
of this road on the hilltop 
was known then as " Stump- 
town," and here Father Hass- 
linger started the little mission. Here P'ather Prieth gave to the 
Catholics twenty-six years of unselfish energy, not only upbuild- 
ing religion, but contributing to the material prosperity of his 
flock by encouragement to thrift and insistence on their building 
and owning their homes. With his ceaseless care and zeal the 




IM 



ST. PETER'S CHURCH, NEWARK. 



330 



THK CATHOLIC CHURCH 



congregation grew rapidly, so rapidly that a new church became 
necessary. 

On November nth, 1861, the vicar-general of the diocese, 
Father McOuaid, laid the corner-stone of the present church, 

which was dedicated October 
27th, 1862. Father Prieth 
opened the first school in the 
basement of the old church, 
and taught the little ones of 
his flock until the resources 
of the congregation justified 
his employing lay teachers. 
In 1864 the Sisters of Notre 
Dame were introduced in the 
parish and took charge of 
the kindergarten, school, and 
orphanage. In 1876 Father 
Prieth celebrated the silver 
jubilee of his priesthood, all 
classes and denominations 
joinhig in the festivities. On 
June 8th, 1885, he depart- 
ed this life, regretted and 
mourned by his flock and 
fellow-citizens. I"ew clergymen in the diocese have been more 
identified with the progress of German Catholicity than Father 
Prieth. The Rev. Sebastian Messmer, now Archbishop of Mil- 
waukee, a fellow- countryman, who journeyed every Sunday from 
Seton Hall afoot to help his venerable friend, succeeded him in 
the pastorate. On August 15th, 1886, the Rev. Alois Stecker 
was assigned to the pastorate on the resignation of Father Mess- 
mer. Father Stecker in 1887 erected the present fine school 
building, and in July, 1897, the commodious building for the 
orphans, on Lyons Avenue. 




REV. GODKRHiD PRIETH. 



St. Nicholas' Church, Atlantic City. 

It is nearly fifty years since the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass 
was celebrated for the first time in Atlantic City by Rev. Michael 
Gallagher, O.S.A., who was then attached to the community of 
St. Augustine's, Philadelphia. This was in July, 1855, soon after 
the railroad was built. There were only a few Catholics at the 



IN NEW JERSEY 



33^ 



time, but during the months of July and August the number was 
sufficiently large to warrant the attendance of the priest. In the 
year 1856, at a cost of $16,000, a beautiful little Gothic chapel 
was dedicated under the patronage of St. Nicholas of Tolentino. 
This chapel was built near the corner of Atlantic and Tennessee 
avenues. Father Gallagher continued to administer to the wants 
of his little congregation during the summer months and occa- 
sionally during the other months until 1 862, when he was trans- 
ferred to another field of labor. Subsequently he founded the 
parish of St. Augustine's, Andover, Mass., and remained in charge 
of that parish until his lamented death, which occurred in 1869. 

After his departure to St. Augustine's the chapel was attended 
as an outpost by the priests of that community for many years. 




ST. NICHOLAS CHURCH , ATLANTIC CITY. 



The names of Father Mark Crane, Dr. Stanton, Father Peter 
Crane, and Father Coleman are still lovingly remembered by the 
Catholics of Atlantic City. 

About a year before a resident pastor was appointed. Father 
Coleman, at the request of the congregation, consented to cele- 



332 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

brate Mass every Sunday and holyday at St. Nicholas' Chapel. 
This was not done without considerable inconvenience, as he was 
obliged to celebrate the six o'clock Mass at St. Augustine's, Phila- 
delphia, and afterward take the train for Atlantic City in order to 
celebrate another Mass for the people of that place. 

In 1880 Father J. J. Fedigan, O.S.A., was appointed resident 
pastor, and during his term of eighteen years the material growth 
of Atlantic City was reflected in the advancement of Catholic 
interests. 

The church was not large enough to accommodate the people 
during the summer months, and Father Fedigan purchased a new 
and more desirable site at the corner of Pacific and Tennessee 
avenues, and had the church removed there. It was also enlarged 
to a seating capacity of over one thousand persons. Later on it 
became necessary to fit up the basement to provide room for 
another thousand. A splendid new parochial residence was built, 
also a little chapel for week-day use during the winter months, 
but which became a most attractive place of retreat for the devout 
faithful at all times of the year. All these improvements cost 
approximately ;^ 50,000. As the city grew in extent, a large lot in 
the southern district, at the corner of Atlantic and California 
avenues, was bought in 1885 and a capacious church erected 
thereon, dedicated under the title of St. Monica in the summer of 
1887. This was under the care of the Augustinian Fathers until 
1893, when Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell decided to establish a 
permanent parish in the care of the diocesan clergy. Rev. P. J. 
Petri was appointed first rector and has been in charge of the par- 
ish ever since. In December, 1896, St. Monica's Church was 
entirely destroyed by fire, but through the energy of the pastor a 
new church was soon erected and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin 
under the title of " Star of the Sea." 

In 1898 Father Fedigan was elected Provincial of the Augus- 
tinian Order in this country, and he left the scene of his many 
labors to take up his residence at Bryn Mawr, Pa., and the Rev. 
J. F. McShane, O.S.A., was appointed pastor of St. Nicholas' 
Church. Soon after his arrival the building of a new and more 
substantial church was determined upon, which would be more in 
accordance with the handsome structures in course of erection in 
various parts of the city. 

The lot at the corner of Tennessee and Pacific avenues had to 
be cleared ; the clergy house had to be removed ; the ground had 
to be prepared for this ; a twenty -five-foot lot had to be purchased 



IN NKW JERSEY 



333 



to make the space large enough for the house. The chapel was 
likewise removed. All this cost quite $16,000. Of this, $12,000 
has been raised, mostly from seat money and entertainments. 
This $12,000 with the $33,000 on hand means that $45,000 has 
been raised o\'er and above current expenses since the new church 
was first mentioned three years ago. 

Parish of the Immaculate Conception, Camden, N. J. 

On the square bounded by Broadway, Market, Seventh, and 
Federal streets, in the heart of Camden, stand the Roman Cath- 
olic Church of the Immaculate Conception, its rectory, school, 




THI-: I.M,MACUi.ATE CO-NX l.l' IK >.\ ( 111 K( II AM) PARISH liUILDIXG. 



and lyceum building. It has perhaps a larger membership than 
any other church in Camden, and it is the largest Catholic con- 
gregation in the State south and west of Trenton. The begin- 
ning of the congregation dates back over fifty years. Before the 
erection of a church the handful of Catholics of the vicinity wor- 
shipped respectively in the old City Hall, in the residence of the 
late Mr. Henry M. Innis, Bridge Avenue, or in Starr's Hall, Bridge 
Avenue, under the Rev. E. J. Waldron, who had for successors 
several other clergymen from Gloucester and Philadelphia. The 
settlement was erected into a separate parish, November nth, 
1855, and it was placed in charge of Rev. James Moran, the first 
resident pastor. The first church, "The Immaculate Conception 



334 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

of the Blessed Virgin," was built on land purchased from W. D. 
Cooper, Esq., at Fifth Street and Taylor Avenue, in 1857, and it 
was dedicated by the Rt. Rev. James Roosevelt Bayley, D.D., 
November 5th, 1859. In June, 1861, the first parish house was 
built. 

When Father Byrne came to Camden to take charge of the 
parish of the Immaculate Conception, June, 1863, the church at 
Fifth Street and Taylor Avenue was deemed amply large for the 
congregation. In addition there were chapels at Snow Hill, Fel- 
lowship, and Waterford, with small and much-scattered congrega- 
tions which were attended at intervals by the pastor at Camden. 
As there was no Catholic cemetery nearer than Gloucester or 
Philadelphia, to provide one seemed to be a special necessity; 
to this question therefore did the young pastor give his first 
attention. At the junction of Westfield Turnpike and Federal 
Street, just two miles east of the Market Street Ferry, he found 
a plot of ground containing 8/,,'jp acres, which he secured for $3,588 
from William B. Cooper, Esq., a part of which was laid out in 
plots and consecrated with the prayers of the Church, and there 
for nearly forty years the Catholics of Camden and vicinity have 
laid to rest the bodies of departed relatives and friends. 

In the early fifties to insult a Catholic on the public street was 
not considered by the bigots — and there were many of them — an 
unmanly act, and when in 1852 the hall in which Mass was offered 
up was burnt by the Native American Party the act received a 
scant condemnation from many. The Cooper and Starr families 
were pronounced in their spirit of fair dealing toward Catholics, 
and when Mr. Starr was reminded that he was letting his hall for 
Catholic worship, he gave the bigots such a stinging rebuke that 
they could not mistake his meaning. In the sixties the conditions 
had somewhat improved, owing, no doubt, to the better under- 
standing of Catholics and of the influence of their religion on pub- 
lic morals. This was brought about in a great measure by the 
giant at the helm. 

The Rev. Patrick Byrne foresaw Camden's future and ex- 
pressed his dissatisfaction with the limited quarters at Taylor Ave- 
nue and P"ifth Street, and he succeeded in purchasing from the 
Cooper estate the magnificent site at Broadway and Market 
Street. On May ist, 1864, the corner-stone of the present stone 
church was laid by the Rev. B. J. McOuaid, now Bishop of 
Rochester, N. Y., then Vicar-General of the Diocese of Newark, 
the name of the old church, "The Immaculate Conception of the 



IN NEW JERSEY 335 

B. V. M.," being transferred to the new one. In 1872 the corner- 
stone of the new brick school and sisters' house was laid, but be- 
fore its finish Father Byrne was called away to take charge of St. 
Jc^hn's Church, Trenton, and was succeeded by the Rev. Peter 
Fitzsimmons, June, 1873, whose pastorate of over twenty-three 
years witnessed Camden's advance from a scattering settlement 
to a grand city of over 70,000 inhabitants. 

Father Byrne, before his departure, accomplished three great 
works: he secured the present magnificent site of the church, 
organized a temperance society which still lives in a flourishing 
condition, and founded a building-loan association, which has 
enabled most of the members of the parish to own their own 
homes ; and although it has been in existence over thirty years, 
and in that time thousands upon thousands of dollars have passed 
through the hands of the treasurer, not one penny has ever 
been lost or misappropriated — a memorable record in these 
days. 

Under Father Fitzsimmons's pastorate the school was finished, 
the brothers' house erected, the rectory enlarged, the church 
finished and beautified and freed of debt, and on May 28th, 1893, 
the church was solemnly consecrated, a ceremony allowed only 
when the building is free from debt. In consideration of his 
merits and successful labors P^ather Fitzsimmons was raised to 
the dignity of dean of the six counties of South Jersey, and his 
parish was created into a missionary or permanent rectorate, 
entitling the pastor to the privilege of irremovability. The Very 
Rev. Dean Fitzsimmons died August ist, 1896, and was succeeded, 
October 23d of the same year, by the Rev. B. J. Mulligan, who 
was also made dean of the district and permanent rector of the 
Church of the Immaculate Conception. The excellent financial 
condition of the parish warranted the Very Rev. Dean Mulligan 
to add still further to the parish buildings, and at the earnest 
solicitation of the parishioners, expressed in a largely attended 
meeting, plans were prepared for a new building, to be used espe- 
cially as a parish building, a lyceum, and a home for the church 
societies. The corner-stone was laid, June 28th, 1896, by the Rt. 
Rev. James A. McFaul, D.D., bishop of the diocese, in the pres- 
ence of a large concourse of people. About twenty clergymen 
from neighboring parishes were present and took part in the cere- 
monies. The lyceum was completed and dedicated January 9th, 
1897, Governor Griggs, ex-Attorney-General of the United States, 
being one of the speakers. The lyceum has since been the scene 



336 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

of many of the social events of Camden, and some of the most 
eminent and talented men of the country have spoken from its 
platform. 

St. Joseph's Church, Jersey City. 

The construction of the Erie Railroad tunnel through Bergen 
Hill brought many Catholic laborers to that neighborhood, and to 
make provision for them Father Kelly deputed Father Coyle, his 
assistant, to build a church. It was a small frame structure, and 
placed under the patronage of St. Bridget, June, 1856, and was 
located on what was then called Clinton, now Hopkins, Avenue. 
The Rev. Aloysius Venuta, before the completion of the church, 
was appointed pastor. Father Venuta was born in Nicosia, Sicily, 
January 3d, 1823, and was educated in the theological seminary of 
Palermo. He became involved in the political disturbances of '48 
and was under police surveillance. He meditated and planned his 
escape. With ai:)parent indignation he called on the chief of police 
and energetically protested against the espionage placed over him. 
This official was profuse in his apologies and relaxed his vigi- 
lance long enough for Father Venuta to take a boat in the night 
and board a bark that was about to sail for America. Landing in 
New York, he went on a Sunday morning to old St. Stephen's 
Church, then standing on the site of the present Madison Square 
Garden, to hear Mass. The pastor. Dr. Cummings, was often 
forced to heroic measures to obtain from his flock the wherewith to 
carry on the work of the parish. This Sunday he locked the 
doors of the church and in vigorous language told the congrega- 
tion what he wanted, and assured them that tliey could not leave 
till he obtained it. This procedure and the unusual animation of 
Dr. Cummings's language so terrified Father Venuta, who knew 
not a word of English, that he jumped out of the open window 
and escaped the peril which he thought menaced him. He spent 
three years with the Rev. Sylvester Malone, at Williamsburg, as 
curate; and then entered the Diocese of Newark, officiating as 
assistant in the cathedral ; during the absence of Father Cauvin 
in Europe, in Our Lady of Grace, Hoboken; and for a brief 
period in St. John's, Paterson. 

As the little congregation grew m numbers he looked around 
for a location for a new church. He fixed uj^on Baldwin Avenue 
as the new site, and erected a small church wnth a pastor's resi- 
dence and a house for the Sisters of Charity on either side. Here 
he labored for some years, holding great sway among the men 



IN NEW JERSEY 



337 



engaged at that time on the tunnel by Messrs. Seymour and 
Mallory, the first contractors. Hundreds of times he was called 
from his bed in the dead of night to quell the rioting among them, 
nearly always with good effect, but often at great risk to himself. 




ST. Joseph's church, jersey city. 

Usuall)-, however, the sound of his well-known \'oice stopped the 
tumult, and his soothing words and persuasi\'e manner soon recon- 
ciled the belligerents. 



33^ 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 




At the same time he started the new parish in South Bergen, 
the present St. Patrick's, Jersey City, and built a small frame 
church, near Library Hall. December 23d, 1869, Father Venuta 
arranged with Bishop Corrigan, then administrator of the diocese, 

that the Rev. Patrick Hen- 
nessy assume charge of that 
porticMi of his parish, January 
1 5th, 1 870, the limits of which 
were to be the horse railroad 
between both places, thence 
in a straight line to the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. 

The rapid growth of Cath- 
olicity in Hudson City made 
a larger church imperative. 
Still the flock was poor, but 
the pastor determined. If 
they could make sacrifices, 
so could he. His clothes 
were barely warm enough to 
withstand the bitter winter's 
cold, and often he denied 
himself the luxury of stock- 
ings. He was not only a learned but a holy man. When scarce- 
ly able to walk he would drag himself to the church, and there 
spend an hour before the Blessed Sacrament, giving free vent to 
his ardent faith, when unobserved, and his consuming love. 
While the process of construction was going on around the old 
church the services were never once interrupted. 

Father Venuta died January 22d, 1876, and was succeeded by 
the Rt. Rev., Robert Seton, D.D., Prot. Apost. Monsignor 
Seton, a grandnephew of Mother Seton, was born in Pisa, Italy, 
August 28th, 1839. His preparatory studies were made in Mount 
St. Mary's, Md., Carlsruhe, Pau, Spain, and the Propaganda; and 
his theological studies in the American College and the Accademia 
Ecclesiastica, Rome. He was ordained in Rome, April 15th, 
1865, and was made Prothonotary Apostolic by Pius IX. He 
was assistant at the cathedral, but his delicate state of health 
could not withstand the inroads of the missionary life, and he was 
appointed chaplain of the mother house of St. Elizabeth, a post 
he filled nine years. 

July 1st, 1876, he entered upon his new work and built the 



REV. ALOYSIUS VENUTA, 
Pastor of St. Joseph's Church, Jersey City. 



IN NKW JERSKY 



339 



rectory, convent, and parish hall. In the interim between Father 
Venuta's death and Monsignor Seton's appointment, the parish 
was ably administered by the senior assistant, the Rev. Michael J. 
Holland. In 1901 Monsignor Seton resigned his parochial charge 
and went to Rome. One of the last acts of Leo XIII. was to 
appoint him archbishop with the title of the ancient See of 
Heliopolis, in 1903. His successor is the Very Rev. Patrick E. 
Smythe, who was named Dean of Hudson County by the Rt. Rev. 
Bishop O'Connor at the last synod. Dean Smythe has thoroughly 
reno\'ated and decorated the church since he took possession of 
his new charge. 

St. Joseph's Church, Swedesboro, N. J. 

The history of the present Catholic Church in Swedesboro 
goes back to the year 1848, when a few Irish Catholics gathered 
to hold services in an old house which stood near Clark's hotel. 
At that time the Rev. John McDermott, pastor of St. Mary's, 
Salem, came occasionally to minister to these scattered people. 
Afterward services were held in the home of Henry Boyle and 
William Crowe, on the Ogden tract, at the cross-roads. Later on 
services were held at the homes of Patrick Lyons, Philip Creran, 
and Daniel Reagan, on the Woodstown pike. The first Catholics 
who came to this section were emigrants from Ireland, and were 
employed on the new roads or on the adjacent farms. In those 
days the farmers were not able to obtain fertilizers from afar, and 
consequently depended chiefly on the marl pit for the success of 
their crops. Among the earli- 
est Catholic settlers we find 
the names of Daniel Kenny, 
George Blake, Michael Mul- 
keen, and Michael Bowe. 
These men seem to have come 
as early as 1847. For many 
years Father McDermott and 
his successor came from Salem 
to hold services several times 

a year, and those who desired to attend church in the interval 
were compelled to go either to Salem or to Gloucester. The 
little boat came to the wharf at the foot of Church Street during 
the summer months and the farmers carted their produce to the 
city, and oftentimes in winter had to carry their shovels to break 
their way through the snow-drifts. 




SECOND CHURCH, SWEDESBORO. 



340 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

About the year 1856 the Bishop of Philadelphia transferred 
the Rev. John McDermott from Salem and placed the Rev. Cor- 
nelius Cannon in charge of that church with its outlying missions. 
This .was no easy field of labor, but the good Father Cannon 
worked assiduously to keep his little fiock. Their numbers were 
increasing, and when the monthly services were held in the private 
house of George Blake or Matt. Kelly, in Irishtown, or in other 
places, the rooms were not sufficiently large to contain all who 
attended. Then Father Cannon began to think of erecting a 
little church where his scattered flock might come to worship. 
Several plots of ground were sought. Some were too expensive 
and some could not be purchased for a Catholic church, because 
certain of our good people thought it would be a disgrace to have 
a Catholic church on the sacred soil of Woolwick Township. 
Happily, however, better counsel prevailed, and Daniel Kelly pur- 
chased the present church property from Charles P. Shivers and 
at once transferred it to P'ather Cannon. When the time came 
for building, some foolish people threatened to destroy any struc- 
ture erected, but such people and their talk were easily suppressed 
by the good sense of the community. 

In the fall of i860 P^ather Cannon began the erection of a new 
church on the i^lot of ground purchased from Charles P. Shivers. 
The congregation was small, comprising about thirty families, 
scattered over an area of as many square miles. Before the 
year ended the little building was completed and they were in 
happy possession of their own church. It was Bishop Bayley 
that appointed P^ather Cannon to the parish of Salem in 1856. 
Father Cannon had the church incorporated, with Martin Hayes 
and James Brennan as his first lay trustees. This was in 1864, 
and from then on Swedesboro Catholic Church remained attached 
as a mission to Salem till 1873. 

The first church was dedicated in 1861. Several years after 
the war the congregation continued to increase, and leather Can- 
non was again compelled to build. This time he built an addition 
of a sanctuary and vestry, at a cost of $500. 

After the sanctuary had been added to the church the edifice 
accommodated 180 persons, with fifteen pine benches on each 
side. The church was now sufficiently large for many years and 
monthly services were held. Gradually the cemetery began to 
fill up and the Catholic population to increase, until in 1870 
Father Cannon was recalled from Salem by Bishop Bayley, and 
Father Pattle was sent to take charge of the mission. Father 



IN NEW JERSEY 341 

Cannon was a big-hearted Irishman from Donegal. Father 
Secondino Pattlc was a Spaniard from the land of the Cid. It 
was during Father Pattle's term of office that the members of St. 
Joseph's Church, Swedesboro, decided on the requesting of the 
bishop to send them a priest to live at Swedesboro. In the 
mean time they exerted themselves in erecting a suitable residence 
for the priest whom the bishop would send them. Finally, in 
September, 1873, the bishop, Rt. Rev. M. A. Corrigan, sent the 
Rev. Anthony Cassese to take charge of the Swedesboro Church. 
Father Pattle was left in charge of Salem and Woodstovvn, and 
later on was appointed to Burlington, N. J. 

Father Anthony arrived in Swedesboro during September of 
1872, and being an Italian by birth, and although he did not speak 
the language of his new charge fluently, yet the people were glad 
to receive him and tried to make him happy. Besides the church 
at Swedesboro, Father Anthony also attended the mission of 
Glasboro, going there monthly till 1878. 

As the weeks went by they found the pious priest a faithful 
friend and a good father. From 1873 till 1880 the little church at 
Swedesboro received few improvements. It required all that 
could be spared to keep the grounds in order and to furnish the 
new rectory. At last in 1880 Father Anthony resolved to make 
some alterations in the church so as to meet the wants of the 
growing congregation. The old church was 40 by 25 feet. To 
this was added sixteen feet, with a steeple six feet above the point 
of the roof, and another addition of twenty-six feet was placed to 
the rear, and the whole building newly plastered and weather- 
boarded, so that really there was very little of the old church left. 
New pews were built and the building made ready for about 250 
persons. The gallery was also placed in position and the old 
sanctuary removed to the side where it now stands, as a library 
and chapel. All these improvements cost money, and as yet 
the congregation was poor; but the priest met these expenses, 
amounting to $1,103, ^y advancing the money. He expected to 
get it back when the congregation could afford it, but he also de- 
sired that when he died the unpaid debts should also die with him. 
Little if any of this money did he ever receive, and this is another 
reason why the people of St. Joseph's should honor the memory 
of this self-sacrificing priest, for he was the chief benefactor of 
their church. In November, 1881, the southern portion of the 
State of New Jersey was separated from the Diocese of Newark 
and became an independent organization. The new See was 



342 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

located at Trenton, with the Rt. Rev. M. J. O'Farrell as its first 
bishop. In May of the same year St. Joseph's Church was dedi- 
cated by the Rev. Joseph Rolando, but before doing this Father 
Anthony placed the new altar in the church. This expense he 
also bore. His one thought was to beautify the church of God 
and teach the people virtue. Coming as he did from a Catholic 
country, where all his surroundings were Catholic, it required 
years for Father Anthony to understand our customs and man- 
ners. St. Joseph's may have had pastors who knew their language 
better, but they never had nor will have a priest who did so much 
for their moral and material improvement. Fiery like most of 
his race, he was also gentle and forgiving. He may have been 
severe at times to some, but who will say his severity was uncalled 
for, and what good father is there that must not be severe at times 
with the children he loves ? Like a trusty steward he turned to 
profit the small resources that were placed in his hands. Faithful 
in the discharge of his duties, always zealous and sympathetic, 
he lived his simple life among his people, edifying them by his 
good example, encouraging them by his charity. For thirteen 
years he was in charge of St. Joseph's, and when he was called 
away from this world his people missed him and will miss him 
for years to come. Surely it was a fitting tribute of love and 
gratitude on the part of his people to place the beautiful monu- 
ment over his tomb beside the little church he had served so well, 
amid the people he had learned to love. Neither should the 
Catholics of Swedseboro soon forget him, for his dying wish was 
to be buried with them. 

Father Cassese was born at Palma, Naples, and came to 
America about 1867. He served for a time as curate to Father 
Henry in the Catholic church at Pawtucket, R. 1. He died 
November 26th, 1886, leaving the parish of Swedesboro free of 
debt and a surplus in the treasury. 

After the death of Father Anthony, Bishop O'Farrell placed 
the Rev. William P. Treacy, a native of Tipperary, Ireland, in 
charge of St. Joseph's. Father Treacy in 1892 purchased from 
Michael Costello the present property on Broad Street to be used as 
a cemetery ; but some difificulties arose and he purchased another 
lot for this purpose, both purchases amounting to $1,076. Father 
Treacy also attended the Woodstown mission from 1886 to 1890. 

On February 28th, 1893, the Rev. Walter T. Leahy was ap- 
pointed to St. Joseph's. When Father Leahy took charge of St. 
Joseph's parish the church and rectory were located on Church 



IN NKW JERSEY 343 

Street, on the north end of the present cemetery. He at once 
added a Sunday-school room to the side of the church, cleaned 
out the cemetery, and began the erection of an iron fence around 
the property. The church was now too small for the growing 
needs of the parish, and the cemetery was filling up; so it was 
finally decided, in order to get more room for burials, to move the 
church and rectory to Broad Street. The new rectory was begun 
in April, 1898. In September of the same year the church was 
moved to Broad Street and additions were made to the sides, so 
that instead of seating 216 persons it was capable of seating 400 
persons. 

The present church and cemetery were dedicated on April 
27th, 1899, by the Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul, of Trenton. From 
February, 1894, till September, 1900, the parish of Woodstown 
was also attended by the Rev. Walter T. Leahy as a mission of 
Swedesboro parish. On June 14th, 1898, Father Leahy also 
opened a mission at Pennsgrove, N. J., and held services there on 
Saturdays monthly. The Mullica Hill mission was opened in 
March, 1901, and attended from Swedesboro. 

St. Michael's Church, Jersey City. 

In 1854 Father John Kelly decided to build a church for the 
Catholics in the northern part of Jersey City, on the corner of 
Erie and Tenth streets. The building was of brick, two stories 
high, and the property included four lots. In 1859 the Rev. 
Louis D. Senez became pastor, and as the Catholic population 
was increasing rapidly he purchased additional property on the 
corner of Erie and Second streets. In 1863 the new St. Mary's 
was built and the old church used for a school, until the Catholic 
Institute was built on Third Street. In November, i860, Bishop 
Bayley created the new parish, which was thenceforward called 
St. Michael's, and placed the Rev. Januarius De Concilio in 
charge. Father De Concilio was a native of Naples, Italy, where 
he was born July 6th, 1836. He made his preparatory studies in 
Naples under the celebrated philosopher, San Severino, and his 
theological studies in the Collegio Brignole-Sale, Genoa. He 
arrived in this country April loth, i860. He was an assistant to 
Father Cauvin, Hoboken, and in St. Mary's, Jersey City. He 
was likewise called to Seton Hall as professor of philosophy and 
theology at two different periods. 

The old church was put in order for divine service, but Father 



344 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



De Concilio lost no time in keeping pace with the needs of the 
parish. He opened a school, placing it in charge of lay teachers. 
Later he built a house for the Sisters of Charity and introduced 
them into the parish schools. In 1870 he built a new parochial 




ST. Michael's church, jersey city. 

residence, and in 1871 purchased the site of the present imposing 
church, the corner-stone of which was laid by Archbishop Bayley, 
September 25th, 1873. It was dedicated by Bishop Corrigan, 
October 8th, 1876. That same year Mr. Harold Henwood, a 
wealthy convert to the Catholic faith, purchased the old Children's 
Home on Pavonia Avenue and presented it to the parish. It cost 
^30,000, and Father De Concilio expended an additional $10,000 
to fit it for the orphans. It has since been entirely rebuilt and is 



IN NEW JERSEY 



345 



in the hands of the Sisters of Charit)'. The old church was 
remodelled for school purposes at a cost of $15,000 In 1890 the 
new rectory was built, at a cost of $25,000. Father De Concilio 
was named Domestic Prelate by Leo XIII., and in 1892 he 
received from Georgetown University the degree of Doctor of 
Di\inity. Monsignor De Concilio was one of the foremost scholars 
of his day and an author of many works on various subjects. In 
1896 he returned to his native land, in the hope of ridding him- 
self of rheumatism, with which he had been afflicted many years. 
He returned improved in health, but was stricken with another 




INTERIOR OF ST. MICHAEL'S CHURCH, JERSEY CITY. 

attack that eventually culminated in Bright's disease, which ter- 
minated fatally, March, 1898. The concourse at his funeral 
was so great that many were unable to obtain entrance intt) the 
church. His successor, the Rev. John A. Sheppard, took posses- 



346 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



sion of his new charge, April 6th, 1898. Father Sheppard was 
born in Ireland, but came to this country at a very early age, and 
was brought up in St. John's, Paterson. His preparatory studies 
were made in St. Charles's, Md., and Seton Hall, of which he 
is an alumnus of the class of '72. His theological studies were 
made in the diocesan seminary, and he was ordained in the college 
chapel, June lOth, 1876. His only appointment as assistant was 
to the cathedral, where he spent almost seven years, discharging 
for a time the duties of chancellor of the diocese. It was during 
this period that he established the Sacred Heart Union for the 

support of the wayward boys 
in the institution at Denville, 
which afterward was removed 
to Arlington. In February, 
1883, he was sent to Dover, 
and in 1884, on the death 
of Father Schneider, made 
pastor of Passaic. Here it 
may be said that he built up 
the parish, for practically 
everything had to be done. 
Without a peer as an admin- 
istrator. Bishop Wigger was 
convinced that he was the 
man to grapple with the 
burden of debt left by Mon- 
signor De Concilio. It was 
long the declared policy of 
the Monsignor that he did 
not intend to leave his suc- 
cessor nothing to do. Father Sheppard has greatly reduced the 
debt, decorated and embellished the church with painted windows, 
marble pulpit, etc. On the promotion of Bishop O'Connor to the 
See of Newark, Father Sheppard was appointed vicar-general. 
Few were surprised at the honor conferred upon him, for his 
past services in the Church entitled him to distinction, and his 
ability fitted him for the responsibihty. On October 18th, 1903, 
he was vested with the purple of Domestic Prelate, the first con- 
ferred on any priest by our present Holy P'ather, Pius X. 

The ceremonies were very elaborate. Over thirty clergymen, 
all distinguished in the work of the Church, took part. Bishop 
O'Connor, who earlier in the day had dedicated the completed 




RE\'. JMONSKiXOK SHEPPAKU, 
Seventh Vicar-General. 



IN NEW JERSEY 347 

portion of St. Mary's Church, at Erie and Second streets, arrived 
at St. Michael's rectory at 2:30 p.m., and there met the specially 
invited clergy, who included the Rt. Rev. Monsignors George H. 
Doane, Chancellor of the Newark Diocese; John A. O'Grady of 
New Brunswick; and John A. Stafford, President of Seton Hall 
College; also the Very Rev. Dean Flynn of Morristown, Very 
Rev. P. A. Smyth, Rev. John J. Ryan of St. Bridget's, Rev. John 
A. Sullivan of St. Aloysius's, Rev. Joseph A. Meehan of All 
Saints', Rev. Thomas Ouinn of St. Paul of the CroSvS, Rev. 
Leather Justin of the Passionist P'athers, West Hoboken, Very 
Rev. Dean Robert A. Burke of Princeton, Rev. John Brady of 
South Amboy, Rev. Joseph Nardiello of Bloomfield, Rev. A. M. 
Egan of Plainfield, Rev. G. W. Corrigan of Newark, Rev. Father 
Brennan of Trenton, Rev. Isaac P. Whelan of Bayonne, Rev. 
Charles J. Kelly of Hoboken, Rev. Eugene Carroll of Newark, 
Rev. Dr. D. J. Callahan, Rev. F. P. McCue, Rev. J. F. Mooney, 
and Rev. C. J. Mackel, all of Seton Hall College; Rev. Father 
Fox of St. Peter's, Rev. P^ather Aigner, S.J., Rev. Father Chle- 
bowski of Passaic, Rev. Feather Dickovitch of Paterson, Rev. 
Joseph Dunn of Irvington, Very Rev. Dean McNulty of Pater- 
son, and others. 

Bishop O'Connor was assisted in the investiture of Monsignor 
Sheppard by the Very Rev. Dean Flynn and the Rev. Isaac f . 
Whelan. 

The choir, which had been largely augmented for the occasion, 
sang the Hallelujah Chorus from Handel's "Messiah," when 
Monsignor Sheppard emerged from the vestry to have the rochet 
and manteletta placed on him by the bishop. The scene was 
magnificently impressive. The altar, beautifully decorated with 
flowers, was illuminated with hundreds of candles. The scent 
of incense filled the air, and the prelates and priests in their rich 
vestments made the picture complete. 

Rev. Father Mackel, who at one time was a curate at St. 
Michael's, read the papal brief conferring the title of monsignor. 
The document was in Latin, but after reading it in that tongue. 
Father Mackel translated it into English for the benefit of 
the congregation. The brief in substance recited that the 
dignity of monsignor had been conferred upon the recipient 
because of his distinguished services in behalf of the Church 
and Christianity in general. Father Mackel's address, after 
reading the brief, took the form of a tribute to Monsignor 
Sheppard from the faculty of Seton Hall College, in testi- 



348 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

mony of his worth as a priest and a hfelong patron of edu- 
cation. 

"Father Sheppard," said the speaker, "has made his mark so 
that he is looked up to not only by those who are his juniors, but 
by those who are his seniors as well." 

Bishop O'Connor's address was a glowing tribute to Monsignor 
Sheppard's life and work. In full it was as follows: 

It is my pleasant duty to make to you the official announce- 
ment of the honor our Holy Father, Pius X., has conferred on 
your worthy pastor, and to authorize the reading of the pontifical 
brief raising him to the dignity of a domestic prelate of the Pon- 
tifical Court. It is a gratifying thing that the newly elected 
Pontiff should bestow this dignity on one who has deserved so well 
of the Church in this diocese. I consider that the honor is not 
only a personal one to Father Sheppard, but that it redounds to 
the people of this parish, over which he has presided so ably since 
the death of your lamented first pastor, Monsignor De Concilio, 
and to the Diocese of Newark and its bishop, whom he assists by 
his wise counsel and energetic activity. To me it is specially 
gratifying because of the relations that exist between us, both 
personal and official. I first made Father Sheppard's acquaint- 
ance during our college days at Seton Hall more than thirty years 
ago. I learned to admire him for his talents, which I then recog- 
nized were above the ordinary. I learned to esteem and respect 
him— his qualities of heart were no less conspicuous than those 
of his mind, and all through the years of his priestly life I have 
looked upon him as the type of the true priest of Floly Church, 
fitted by nature and by grace for the work the Lord chose him to 
do, and doing that work ably and successfully, discharging the 
duties of his exalted state in a way that would not fail to meet 
with the approbation of his superiors. His successful administra- 
tion of the parishes to which he was sent, the high degree of 
efficiency to which he brought them, the excellent spiritual con- 
dition of his people — and, after all, this is the principal standard 
by which to test the worth of a parish priest — all j^roclaimed the 
priest whom God had chosen for the work cf His vineyard, faith- 
ful to his calling, a model to his fellow-priests, a light and a guide 
to his people. More than a quarter of a century has passed since 
he became the anointed of the Lord and began his life's work, 
and the promises of his early priestly life have been faithfully 
realized. 

Time has only rendered more brilliant his gifts of mind and 
heart, while the grace of God has preserved in him the Christian 
humility and sense of lowliness without which the priest will 
never imitate his great model, the Eternal Priest Jesus Christ, 
whose representative he is and without whom he realizes he can 
do nothing. 

I speak these words not for his ears, but for yours. I know 



IN NEW JERSEY 349 

full well that words of praise are distasteful to him, but 1 deem it 
fitting that on an occasion such as this is I should bear testimony 
before this congregation of the worth of him whom the Holy 
Father has honored. The dignity of domestic prelate does not, 
indeed, imi^ly any new spiritual power such as is derived from the 
Sacrament of Holy Orders or any new power of jurisdiction. It 
is an honor that the Holy Father in the goodness of his heart 
bestows on a worthy priest, ranking him above his fellows in the 
priesthood and entitling him to certain privileges in the papal 
court from which the rank and file of the clergy are excluded, and 
which permit to him a nearer approach to the person of the 
sovereign pontiff. 

We are grateful to the Holy Father who has been pleased to 
honor us, and our loyalty and attachment to the centre of unity 
will be stronger because of it. The Holy Father we revere as 
Christ's vicar on earth. We receive his teachings as those of 
Christ himself. We obey him in spiritual matters because in 
him the plenitude of spiritual authority resides. He is the suc- 
cessor of Peter, to whom it was said : " On this rock I will build 
my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against her. 
Whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth shall be bound in heaven, 
and whatsoever thou shalt loose upon earth shall be loosed in 
heaven." And we are grateful to him that his first official act 
directly affecting the Diocese of Newark has been the elevation 
of the vicar-general of the diocese to the rank of a prelate. In 
your name, in the name of the diocese, and in my own, I have 
extended to His Holiness our sentiments of grateful recognition 
of the honor. And while we all pray for Pius X. that the fulness 
of years to rule God's Church that was granted to his predecessors 
of happy memory may be accorded also to him, we at the same 
time supplicate the Throne of Grace that Monsignor Sheppard 
may wear the purple robes for many years with credit to himself 
and honor to the diocese, until it shall please God to translate 
him full of \'irtue and good works to his heavenly reward. 

Bishop O'Connor's talk concluded the investiture ceremonies, 
and immediately afterward he proceeded to confirm a class of over 
two hundred children and fourteen adults. The proceedings 
closed with the benediction of the Blessed Sacrament and the 
sinsfine: of the Te Deum. 



St. Benedict's Church, Newark, 

St. Benedict's Church, Newark, N. J., was founded June 
28th, 1857, under the direction of the Rt. Rev. J. R. Bayley, who 
saw the necessity of ministering to the spiritual wants of the 
German Catholics who lived in the eastern section of the city. 

The Rev. Rupert Seidenbusch, O.S.B., who later on became 



350 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Bishoi) of St. Cloud, Minn., ministered to the little flock. As the 
fold increased it was found necessary to appoint a resident 
pastor in the person of Rev. Benno Hegele, O.S.B., who labored 

faithfully from 1864 to 1866. 
He was succeeded by the 
Rev. Bernardine Dolweck, 
O.S.B., whose pastorate ex- 
tended from 1866 to 1872. 
In that year the Rev. Lam- 
bert Kettner took up and con- 
tinued the good work till 
1 885 . Through Father Lam- 
bert's zeal the present church 
was built. The Rev. Theo- 
dosius Goth, O.S.B., followed 
and worked successfully till 
1894. He built the spacious 
school and rectory. During 
his administration it was 
found necessary to give him 
an assistant priest, and the 
Rev. Hugo Faff, O.S.B., was 
appointed as such. 

Since 1894 the Rev. 
Leonard Walter, O.S.B., has had charge of St. Benedict's Church, 
who was ably assisted during these years by Rev. Meinrad Hetz- 
inger, O.S.B., and Rev. Thomas Rosenberger, O.S.B. In 1897 
the new school hall was erected. The Benedictine Sisters teach 
the 400 children in the school. 




ST. BENEDICT S CHURCH, NEWARK. 



Fort Hancock, Sandy Hook, N. J. 

The United States garrison has been attended by a priest for 
many years, but by what priests it is impossible to ascertain until 
1 861. In that year the Rev. Thomas A. Killeen, of Red Bank, 
visited the fort once a month. His successor, the Rev. J. Salaun, 
continued these visits. The Rev. Stanislaus Danielou, who was 
assigned to the charge of Manchester and near-by missions, Sep- 
tember 22d, 1874, gave as much of his time and attention to the 
soldiers and the government employees as circumstances would 
permit. In July, 1879, the Rev. John J. F. O'Connor was given 
charge of Atlantic Highlands and New Monmouth, and conse- 



IN NEW JERSEY 



3S^ 



quently Fort Hancock. Father O'Connor was born in Newport, 
R. I., February 26th, 1843. St. Charles's College, St. Mary's, 
Baltimore, and Seton Hall were the institutions in which his 
classical and theological studies were made. He was ordained in 
Seton Hall and assigned to the cathedral, where he was master 
of ceremonies, chaplain of St. Michael's Hospital, and later pastor 
of St. Peter's, Belleville. His cheerful rough-and-ready manner 
made him a great favorite with the soldiers and the hard)' fisher- 
men of that locality. He built the Church of Our Lady of the 
Angels at New Monmouth, where he died November 7th, 1894. 
In 1880 Bishop Corrigan administered confirmation at the fort. 
Fathers Fox and Egan visited the post regularly until 1894, when 
Bishop O'Farrell, of Trenton, assigned Father Lerche as resident 
pastor. The Rev. Robert E. Burke succeeded him in 1898, and 
at the outbreak of the Hispano-American War did great work 
among the boys in khaki, 
preaching to them, instructing 
them, preparing them for the 
dangers of the field ; and, when 
the sick returned fever-strick- 
en and wounded, he was assid- 
uous in his care, going so far as 
to give over to them the tent 
which he used for divine 
service. His services were 
properly recognized by the 
commandant and by the de- 
partment. His successor in 
1900 was the Rev. T. H. Allen, 
who still ministers to the flock, 
composed of about five hun- 
dred Catholic soldiers, fifteen 
families, and fifty unmarried 
government workmen. 



Holy Family Church, 
Union Hill. 

The parish of the Holy 
Family was founded June 7th, 
1857, by the venerable Father 
Balleis, O.S.B., who ministered 




HOLY FAMILY, UNION HILL. 



2S^ THK CATHOLIC CHURCH 

to the German Catholics on the Hill until December 24th, 1865. 
The mission was then taken over by the Passionist Fathers and 
attended by them until November, 1868, when the Rev. P. Vin- 
cent, C.P., took up his residence there. The Revs. Bernard Hehl, 
C.P., and George Basil, C.P., exercised their ministry successively 
until February 8th, 1884, when the present j^astor, a secular 
priest, the Rev. J. N. Grieff, was appointed. P\ither Grieff was 
born at Eschweiler (Luxembourg), January 12th, 1855. His 
preparatory studies were made with the Jesuits in the pro-gymna- 
sium of Echternach and Tournhout, and his theological studies in 
the episcopal seminary of Verona, Laly, where he was ordained 
June 15th, 1878. His first field of missionary work was St. Boni- 
face's, Paterson, October, 1881 

P'rom 1857 to 1868 the congregation worshipped in tempo- 
rary quarters on the Hackensack Plankroad. The first church 
was erected in 1868 and the first school opened in 1872. In 1885 
a new church was built at a cost of $75,000, and in 1897 the new 
school erected at a cost of $100,000. The assistant priests since 
1885 were the Revs. John Reuland, John Weyland, John Huy- 
gens, Joseph Hasel, Vincent Hellstern, Anton Stein, Rudolph 
Hulsebusch, Joseph Herkert, Nicholas Espen, Peter Kurz, and 
B. Berto. Since 1902 P^ather Grieff is aided by the Passionist 
Fathers. 

St. Joseph's Church, Bound Brook, N. J. 

According to John (jilmary Shea, the first Mass was cele- 
brated in Bound Brook near the close of the summer of 1744. 
The celebrant of that Mass was the Rev. Theodore Schneider. 

Hence we must conclude that the number of Catholics in and 
around Bound Brook was considerable enough to attract the pres- 
ence of the holy missionary. No other fact of importance to 
Catholics is known from that time until the year 1858. In that 
year the church records began under the pastoral care of the 
Benedictines of St. Mary's Abbey, Newark, N. J. The first 
record of a baptism is that of John Kaiserauer, which took place 
on the lOth day of July, 1858. The officiating priest was the 
Rev. Louis Pink, O.S.B., late Bishop of the Diocese of Leaven- 
worth, Kan. 

The first record of a marriage was that of John Spohn and 
Magdalena Eder, the officiating priest being as above, Bishop 
P^ink. The Benedictines zealously fostered religion in the parish. 



IN NEW JERSEY 353 

They gathered the Cathohcs of the neighborhood and gave them 
the opportunity to assist at the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass as 
often as possible. The people were poor and few. The best that 
could be done was to procure some Catholic dwelling wherein the 
people could assemble to assist at the divine mysteries. Accord- 
ingly we learn that Mass was celebrated for many years in the 
house of Joseph Prehm. It was celebrated also in the homes of 
Lawrence Wells and Edward Butler. As an instance of the love 
of the people for their holy faith, we see by the old record that 
the sum of $51.50, a great sum for them at that time, was raised 
to purchase the necessary vestments that the divine services 
might be carried out as decorously as possible. The devotedness 
of the Benedictines and the faith of the people soon bore abun- 
dant fruit. In the year 1864 we see the little congregation weigh- 
ing the bold project of building a church and providing a perma- 
nent home for Our Lord among them. Subscriptions were called 
for. Every one worked enthusiastically, and in April, 1865, the 
congregation found itself in possession of a plot of ground for 
which it paid $400. With renewed courage the people prosecuted 
their pious undertaking, and on June 17th, 1866, they had the hap- 
piness of inviting the Rt. Rev. Bishop Bay ley to lay the corner- 
stone of their new church. As near as can be ascertained now 
the little frame church cost $2,000. It was soon furnished with a 
new altar and all the other accessories of divine worship, and 
within its walls for twenty-five years the calm current of their 
religious life flowed on. Many noteworthy events took place 
within that humble church. There two young priests belonging 
to that parish said their first Mass. One was the Rev. Theodo- 
sius Goth, a worthy member of the great order of St. Benedict, 
the other was the Rev. James A. McFaul, now the Bishop of the 
Diocese of Trenton. The church was built during the incum- 
bency of Father Bernardine, O.S.B., but a great number of the 
Benedictine priests were at one time or another connected with 
St. Joseph's. 

Among the many priests who attended the congregation there 
is none whose memory is preserved with greater affection than 
that of good Father William Walter. In the year 1868 the Rt. 
Rev. Bishop Bayley, of the Diocese of Newark, sent the Rev. 
M. W. Kaeder to Raritan, giving him at the same time charge of 
the church at Bound Brook, thus withdrawing it from the Bene- 
dictines. P'ather Kaeder was succeeded in 1873 by the Rev. J. 
A. Marshall, a priest of the order of St. Dominic. Father Mar- 
23 



354 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

shall remained three years, and was succeeded Ijy the Rev. J. J. 
Zimnicr, in September, 1876. 

Up to this time the church in Bound Brook had been a mission 
attached to St. Bernard's Church in Raritan. Now for the first 
time it was to be an independent church, with its own resident 
pastor. The Rev. A. v. d. Bogaard was the first to be appointed 
to the place. He took charge in December, 1876, and from that 
day to this the growtli of the parish in e\'ery way has been 
remarkable. Father Bogaard's first work was to provide a pas- 
toral residence. After some difficulty he succeeded in purchasing 
the necessary grounds and erecting thereuj:)on the neat, substan- 
tial, and commodious rectory of St. Joseph's Church of to-day. 
For six years he successfully prosecuted his labors in this parish, 
until the year 1882, when he was called by the late Bishop O'Far- 
rell to found the church in Somerville. His successor in Bound 
Brook was the Rev. John H. Fox, and during his .short stay he 
reduced the debt of the church and made an excellent impression 
on the people. The Rev. James F. Devine was the next pastor 
of St. Joseph's, but his stay was shorter even than that of Father 
Fox. After only three months' service he was appointed assist- 
ant rector of the Church of the Sacred Heart, Trenton, and the 
Rev. B. T. O'Connell was sent as his successor. The new rector 
took charge August 4th, 1883. The debt of the church on his 
arrival was $3,500. The buildings of the parish were a frame 
church and a rectory. The church was in a dilapidated condition, 
and, moreover, was fast becoming inadequate for the needs of the 
people. After paying off the debt, ways and means were pro\'ided 
for the building of a new church. The old church building was 
removed and fitted up as a school, and on its former site the 
present church was erected, at a cost of $22,000. It was solemnly 
dedicated to God on the 7th day of June, 1891, by the Rt. Rev. 
M. J. O'Farrell, Bishop of Trenton. The parochial school was 
the next measure of importance. It was thrown open to the 
children on the first day of September, 1893, under the charge of 
the Sisters of Mercy. The next thing of importance was to pro- 
vide a resting-place for the dead of the parish, and accordingly 
six acres of land were purchased and dedicated as a cemetery on 
November ist, 1893. This was the last public function of the 
beloved Bishop O'Farrell in Bound Brook. This church was now 
fully equipped with everything needed, and although the cost of 
these necessaries reached the great sum of $30,000, the original 
debt was increased by only $7,000. 



IN NEW JERSEY 



355 



St. Joseph's Church, Mendham. 

The Catholics in Mendham were attended by Father McQuaid 
when he was pastor of Madison. The church property was 
bought by bim and he was about erecting the church, when he 
was summoned by Bishop Bayley to the pastorate of the cathe- 
dral. The Rev. William McNulty, chaplain of St. Elizabeth's 
Convent, took up the work, built the church, and attended to the 
needs of the mission until his removal to Paterson. The mission 
was then attached to Morristown and attended by the priests of 
that parish until 1874, when 




the Rev. D. S. Dagnault was 
made pastor of Mendham and 
Baskingridge. 

His successor, the Rev. 
Gregory Misdziol, worked 
very zealousl}- in both mis- 
sions. His death was marked 
by strange and pathetic fea- 
tures. After the death of 
Pius IX., the Ordinary of the 
diocese ordered a Requiem 
Mass to be celebrated with 
all solemnity possible on Feb- 
ruary 22d. Father Misdziol 
busied himself draping the 
Baskingridge church — his 
residence was in that village 
— with his own hands. Early in the morning of the 22d he 
visited the church to put the last finishing touches on his labor 
of many days, and on his return to his home dropped dead on 
the roadway. He had decorated the church for his own funeral. 
He was buried in the Mendham Cemetery, February 25th, 1878. 

The Rev. Bernard J. Mulligan and the Rev. J. P. Poels were 
in turn charged with the administration of the flock. Father 
Poels bought the present rectory, together with three acres of 
land. Among his successors were the Rev. John Baxter, 1883-90; 
the Rev. J.F.Duffy, 1890-92; the Rev. Eugene A. Farrell, 
1892-95. Father Farrell worked very earnestly and with great 
success. The number of Catholics had lessened and the debt was 
a great burden on those who remained. Father Farrell's popu- 



ST. JOSEPH S CHURCH, MENDHAM. 



35^ 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



larity in the different parishes in which he had labored aided him 
greatly in his efforts to diminish the debt. The Rev. Charles H. 
Mackel served a brief pastorate. The Rev. George H. Miiller has 
discharged the arduous and trying duties of this mission of slen- 
der resources, among a not very numerous and scattered flock, 
since October 14th, 1895. Nevertheless, despite the hindrances, 
many necessary improvements have been made in the church, 
rectory, and cemetery. 

Mendham is becoming better known for its healthfulness, 
owing to its altitude and the protection its hills afford against 
the rude blasts of the north. Archbishop Bayley was wont to 
say that Mendham, in point of picturesque scenery and salubrious 
climate, was unexcelled. The mighty barons of capital seem to 
be of the same opinion, for their palatial residences crown every 
hill, and dominate the landscape with its varied aspect of moun- 
tain and hill, vale and meadow, forest and glebe. Here the victims 
of the white plague grow strong, the bloom of health returns to 
their cheeks, activity and energy to the body. It is a veritable 
haven of healing for the infirm, 
the weak, and the brain-weary. 

St. Patrick's Church, 
Elizabeth. 

The Catholics in the Port were 
at first attended from St. Mary's 
Church, and in i860 by the Rev. 
M. A. M. Wii /feld. Father Wirz- 







■- i, 




ST. PATRICK S CHURCH, ELIZAlHiTH. 
Catholic Public School on lefl. 



feld made his theological studies at St. Charles's, Philadelphia, 
where he was ordained by Bishop Kenrick, March 24th, 1859. 
After a short term of service with Father Madden he was 



IN NEW JERSEY 



357 



sent to Elizabeth in May, 1855. He built the first church 
and was appointed its first pastor in August, 1861. He was not 
successful in the financial management of the parish, and was 
replaced by the Rev. Patrick Hennessy in 1866. Father Hennessy 
in turn was succeeded by the Rev. Patrick Cody, P'ebruary ist, 
1870 In January, 1873, the Rev. Martin Gessner was transferred 
from Millville, and from that day he has labored among the Cath- 
olics of the Port, in season and out of season. To his zeal and 
energy the present splendid group of parish buildings is due. A 
rich field of historic interest is certainly here, but unfortunately it 
is not available. The reason therefor is to be found in the ex- 
planation taken from P^ather Gessner's letter : " It is impossible for 
me to give you the history of St. Patrick's parish. I have not 
the time to do so. ... If I can get the time I will gi\e you some 
history of the parish in a few weeks." Alas ! the time could not 
be had; and as our history cannot be delayed, the public must 
remain disappointed. 

St. Mary's Church, Bayonne, N. J. 

The memory of the oldest parishioners goes back to the year 
1852, when Mass was celebrated in the home of John Welsh, on 
Lord Avenue, by the Rev. 
John Kelly, of St Peter's 
Church, Jersey City. 

He was succeeded in his 
semi-monthly visitations b\' 
the Rev. B. F. Allaire and 
the Rev. James Callan, of 
St. James's Church, Newark, 
the latter erecting the first 
St. Mary's Church in Ever- 
green Street in 1 860. Short- 
ly after that date the spiritual 
interests of the Catholics of 
Bergen Point were entrusted 
to the Paspionist Fathers 
from the Hoboken Monas- 
tery, Fathers Vincent Nagler, Timothy and Thomas O'Connor 
making weekly visitations from Januar}-, 1862, till August ist, 
1865, when the growing mission was made a parish by the Rt. 
Rev. Bishop Bayley, who named Rev. Peter P. Niederhauser its 
first rector. 




ST. MARY S CHURCH, BAYONNE 
t86i to 1880. 



3S^ 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Father Niederhauser had been a Redemptorist, and was ad- 
mitted into the diocese December 13th, 1862. He assisted Father 
Rogers in New Brunswick, looking after the Germans, until he 
was chosen first pastor of Bergen Point, July 17th, 1865 He 
labored with great fruit among the Catholics of this mission until 
he was transferred to St. John the ]3aptist's German Church, 
New Brunswick, August, 1871. 

He was of a bright, sunny nature, and his cheerfulness did not 
fail him even in his sickness, not even when he lay under the 




ST. MAKV S STAli OF THE SEA, 
Church, Rectory, and School. 



shadow of the angel of death. He passed away August i6th, 
1873, and is buried in St. Peter's Cemetery, New Brunswick. 

Father Niederhauser was succeeded in August, 1871, by the 
Rev. Patrick McGovern, who enlarged the church to meet the 
requirements of his increasing congregation. After five years 
P'ather McGovern was assigned to a mission in New York State, 
where he died about two years ago. Father James Dalton, his 
successor, lived but a few weeks. Then, in August, 1876, came 
the Rev. Thomas M. Killeen, who, after a jnstorate of twenty 
years, retired from the active duties of the ministry in July, 1896 
In 1880 Father Killeen erected the present church on Fourteenth 
Street and Avenue C, which is now enlarged to double its original 
size. He likewise built the sisters' house on Fourteenth Street, 
as well as the old frame school, which in 1898 was removed to 
make room for the present commodious brick structure erected by 



IN NKW JKRSEY 359 

his successor, the Rev. Isaac P. Whelan, now rector of St. Mary's 
—one of the best-equipped and most flourishing" parishes in the 
Diocese of Newark. 

The Rev. Lsaac P. Whelan, born in Ehzabeth, October i8th, 
1852, and ordained at Seton Hall, June loth, 1876, comes from a 
Catholic stock which has never quailed before persecution, and 
whose faith has been of aggressive and militant quality. His 
father, Captain Whelan, was identified with every movement 
which furthered the interests of religion in Elizabeth, and in his 
loyalty, service, and devotion to his pastor was without a peer. 
His mother, bereft of her parents in early childhood and brought 
up by a descendant of one of the old French families, cjuiet, gen- 
tle, and retiring, proved to the hostile rabble which was bent on 
destroying the church that hers was the heroism of the martyrs. 
Their children have inherited the noble qualities of the parents, 
and in both sons and daughters the virtues of both father and 
mother have been blessed. A daughter, known in religion as Sis- 
ter Mary Cecilia, was a worthy child of St. Vincent de Paul, and 
was ne\'er so happy as when she found some poor, abandoned sin- 
ner to be brought back to God, some family plunged in i^overty 
and despair to succor, and, after, to consecrate what remained of 
her spare time to the service of the sanctuary. 

This parish has grown rapidly in numbers, and proportionately 
in the efforts made to promote and advance religion. When the 
old school on Evergreen Street was opened in September, 1879, 
400 children were enrolled, under 5 Sisters of St. Joseph. This 
building was abandoned in 1886, and the frame structure on 
Fourteenth Street opened, with 1 1 sisters and 700 children. In 
the admirably appointed new brick school there are 18 sisters and 
1 3 10 children. Moreover, instead of one there are six parishes, 
with resident priests, laboring among the faithful of different 
nationalities — Irish, German, Italian, Greek, Polish, and Hun- 
garian. 

St. Philip and St. James's Church, Philipsburg, N. J. 

The Catholics of Philipsburg and the vicinity were attended 
by Father Reardon, the pastor of Easton, Pa., who journeyed into 
New Jersey as far as Newton in one direction and as far as Plain- 
field in another, giving what spiritual aid he could to the lal^orers 
who were brought to these parts 1)y the construction of the Cen- 
tral and Lehigh railroads in New Jersey. 



360 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Prior to i860 services were held by Rev. Father McKee in 
the old brick house on Sitgreaves Street, owned by John Smith; 
also in the houses still standing at 526 and 561 Main Street. 

Father McKee was succeeded by Rev. John Smith, who served 
the congregation but a few months, when he was taken sick and 
died in a Newark hospital. 

In September, 1859, the late Squire Walsh purchased from 
Hiram Heckman, president of the land company, a tract of 

land, 100 by 200 feet, upon 
which was erected a small 
church at a cost of about 
$5,000. 

The corner-stone of this 
church was laid by Bishop 
Bayley in i860, and on De- 
cember 25th of the same year 
Mass was celebrated by the 
late Rev. C. J. O'Reilly, 
whose life of exceptional 
l~)iety and devotion to his 
tlutics marked him preemi- 
nently as a man of God. 
Fresh indeed is that memor- 
able Christmas morning in 
the minds of those who as- 
sisted at Mass, when there 
was nothing to keep out the 
bitter cold except the muslin 
tacked in the window frames to serve as windows. 

The pastorate of Father O'Reilly extended over a period of 
twenty-four years, during which time he was assisted by the Revs. 
James Hanley, Michael Connoll)^, James Cusick, William Curtin, 
J. J. Griffin, and John O'Leary. When he came he found but a 
handful of Catholics, but when he was called to his reward, in De- 
cember, 1885, he left a' large and well-organized congregation as 
the fruit of his labors. Previous to the death of Father O'Reilly 
Father B. J. Mulligan, at present pastor of the Immaculate Con- 
ception Church at Camden, was sent here by Bishop O'Farrell to 
look after the welfare of the parish until Father O'Reilly would 
be restored in health. Until the parochial residence was erected, 
in 1863, Father O'Reilly made his home among various members 
of the congregation. 




REV. CORNELIUS O REILLY. 

Pastor of Philipsburg. 



IN NEW JERSEY 361 

The land on which the Parochial Hall stands was purchased 
in 1873, and the structure erected in 1875 at a cost of ^22,000. 

In 1873 the corner-stone of the new church was laid by the 
Rt. Rev. M. A. Corrigan. Work progressed until one-third of 
the church was completed and connected with the old building. 
It remained in this condition until 1886, when work was resumed 
by Rev. R. E. Burke, who succeeded Father O'Reilly. Its com- 
pletion was the work of years of labor and anxiety on the part of 
F"ather Burke, and while many aided and encouraged him, to his 
own zeal and energy more than to any other does the building of 
this splendid temple of worship belong. 

When work was resumed by Father Burke in 1886 the corner- 
stone was relaid. While the side and front walls of the new 
church were being built Mass was celebrated in the old church 
as before, and never during the whole work were the regular 
Sunday services interfered with. 

During the eleven years in which Father Burke labored in 
Philipsburg great advancement was made. He finished the 
church, fitted it with all modern improvements, and built an addi- 
tion to the parochial residence. On Sunday, December ist, 1889, 
he had the pleasure of enjoying the reward of his earnest labors 
in having the present grand edifice formally dedicated by the Rt. 
Rev. M. J. O'Farrell, D.D., Bishop of Trenton, who was assisted 
by the Rt. Rev. J. J. Conroy, D.D., Bishop of Albany, who cele- 
brated Solemn Pontifical Mass. The sermon on that occasion 
was delivered by Bishop O'Farrell. 

In September, 1897, Father Burke was appointed to St. 
Mary's Church, Bordentown, and on the 22d of the same month 
Bishop McFaul appointed the Rev. Patrick F. Connolly pastor of 
St. Philip and St. James's Church. 

The first census of the congregation was taken in 1861. There 
were then 800 souls, in 1867 there were 1,500, in 1889 there were 
2,500, and in 1900 there were 3,000 souls in the parish. Other 
Church property in Philipsburg includes the Parochial Hall build- 
ing and the Young Men's Catholic Club rooms, which, besides 
being elegantly fitted up for the purpose intended, contains a 
library of 500 volumes presented by Bishop O'Farrell. 

The cemetery on Fillmore Street was bought by Father 
O'Reilly in 1861 from Daniel Block for $1,100. Up to the pres- 
ent time there have been about 3,000 burials. 

There is also St. Catherine's Academy, which was built by 
Patrick O'Gorman in 1876. The building soon afterward became 



261 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

the property of Dennis (J'Reilly, who sold it in 1887 to the Sisters 
of Mercy of the Diocese of Trenton. The first superior of the 
academy was Mother Genevieve, who served at the head of the 
institution for seven years and was succeeded by Sister M. Agnes. 
During the years 1876 and 1877 the Sisters of Charity had charge 
of the education of the children of the parish, and conducted a 
school in the basement of the old church, and resided in the build- 
ing now occupied by the Elks. The aggregate value of the prop- 
erty belonging to the congregation of St. Philip and St. James is 
placed at $150,000. 

In strong contrast to the modern methods of imparting learn- 
ing to the young" were those of the old days, when our elders drank 
at the fountain of knowledge then situated in the basement of the 
old church. Daily was the ancient adage disproved of driving a 
horse to the trough and failing to make him drink, the most incor- 
rigible never failing to yield to the gentle persuasiveness of the 
swishing cat-o'-nine-tails and the redundant raps of the knuckle- 
reddening ferule with which the master spurred the lagging intel- 
lects of our respected sires. In those days education was a lu.xury 
which could be indulged in at a cost of fifteen cents a week per 
scholar, except where there were four from a family, in which case 
the fourth was admitted free of charge. 

Mr. Slowey was the first of the old regime to undertake the 
task of teaching the young idea how to shoot, and was succeeded 
in turn by Mr. James Fogarty, who only a few months ago sought 
his long repose on the hill surrt)unded by many of his former 
loving pupils; Messrs. Hogan, Rooney, and Mullen, M. Boyle, 
Phil. Grawney, and Miss Caffery, who is now a teacher in the 
public schools. Among the first aspirants to learning were the 
Rev. Father Bernard T. O'Connell, Messrs. Michael Connlain, 
Robert O'Hara, Hugh Smith, Mrs. Thomas Newman, and many 
others. 

St. Philip and St. James's parish has contributed to the priest- 
hood the Rev. Feathers Bernard T. O'Connell, Neal McMeninin, 
John Gammel, Peter J. Kelly, James Prendergast (deceased), 
John E. Murray, William Tighe, James Maroney, and Thomas 
Rudden. 

St. Mary's Church, Jersey City. 

St. Marv'.s is the sec(Mid oldest Catholic parish in Jersey City, 
founded by P^ather John Kelly. The jiresent limits of the parish, 
however, are not identical with the old, but a part of it, for which 



IN NKW JERSKY 



3^3 



I^\ithei- Sencz, when he selected the present site, determined to 
make provision in what then iM-omised a more rapid growth. The 
old St. Mary's Church, dismantled and rooted up from its founda- 
tions, around which clustered the most sacred memories, was com- 
menced in 1861 and tinishctl in 1863. The touch of that holy 
l)ast()r, so fruitful in good works in so many sections of the 
Lord's vineyard in the Diocese of Newark, was felt here, and no 
flock ever res^xjuded more generousl)- to the word and work of 
their divine guide than the 
Catholics of St. Mary's. In 
less than a generation a church, 
a school, an orphanage, a hos- 
pital, and a lyceum arose to 
complement the work of the 
l^riest and show forth the 
beauty, glory, and beneficence 
of Catholic faith. Nor was 
their progress confined merely 
to the material order, for that 
was only the fruit of a living 
and active principle which 
necessarily manifests itself in 
good works. During the forty 
years of his ministry Father 
Senez gave to his flock the 
example of the disinterested, 
unselfish shepherd, w^iose sole 
aim was the welfare of his 
flock and their betterment and 
advancement in the wa}s of 
righteousness and godliness. 
The hearts of many were grieved when, in consequence of the 
results of a cyclone, August 24th, 1901, it was determined to 
wreck the old church and the old rectory, to remove utterly the 
memorials which the piety of their relatives and friends had 
placed in its windows and on its altars, and to raise in its stead 
a more substantial edifice. It is safe to .say that the new will 
eclipse the older church in its grandeur and stateliness, but it 
will never replace old St. Mary's in the love and reverence which 
those whose fathers and mothers were married in the old church, 
were buried from it, and in which the}' themselves were baptized 
and made their first communion built around it. Reports often 




ST. MAKY S CHURCH, JERSEY CITY, 
Built bv Rev. T,. 1). .Senez. 



364 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

uttered and as frequently denied as to the unsafe condition 
of the old church were proven absolutely baseless, for the walls 
resisted, as if in protest, the vigorous assaults made upon them as 
the work of destruction progressed. The foundation was built 
and the corner-stone of the church laid September 21st, 1902. 
The basement was blessed October i8th, 1903, by Bishop O'Con- 
nor, and is now used for divine service. The present pastor, the 
Rev. B. Henry TerWoert, was appointed June ist, 1900. Father 
TerWoert was born in Jersey City, April 20th, 1852, and made 
his preparatory studies in St. Charles's, Maryland, St. V^incent's, 
Pennsylvania, and his theological studies in Seton Hall, where he 
was ordained May 22d, 1875. His parents were among the first 
founders of St. Boniface's Church, Jersey City. The field of his 
missionary career covers St. John's, Orange, St. Michael's, New- 
ark, Montclair, Bergen Point, Lambert ville, and St. John Baptist, 
Jersey City, of which he was the first pastor and under whom the 
church, rectory, and school were built. The following priests 
have been connected with St. Mary's: Revs. J. O'Brien, J. Coyle, 
George McMahon, Fr. Raybaudi, P. Byrne, Thomas M. Killeen, 
Januarius De Concilio, Henry A. Brann, E. O'Keeffe, John Mor- 
ris, J. P". Vassallo, James P. Smith, S. J. Walsh, J. McKernan, 
D. McCartie, Robert E. Burke, J. P. Callaghan, P. M. Corr, L. C. 
M. Carroll, Charles J. Kelly, E. A. Farrell, J. A. Stafford,' J. P. 
Mooney, H. J. Behr, Charles A. Smith, William T. McLaughlin, 
M. F. McGuinness, James T. Delehanty, M. J. Donnelly, John F. 
Boyle, P. A. Maher. 

St. Mary Magdalen's Church, Millville. 

The oldest baptismal record shows that the Rev. Joseph Wirth, 
C.S.S.R., was pastor in Millville, June 25th, 1861. Father Wirth 
built the old church, which is now only a memory. He was suc- 
ceeded in September, 1863, by the Rev.Joachim Haymann. Father 
Haymann left the Redemptorists and was recei\'ed into the Dio- 
cese of Newark February 5th, 1862. He attended the Germans 
in New Brunswick and Fort Lee for a short time, and finally was 
transferred to Millville. His successor, June i6th, 1864, was the 
Rev. Martin Gessner, now of St. Patrick's, Elizabeth. P'ather 
Gessner's missionary field covered all South Jersey — Bridgeton, 
Malaga, Dennisville, Vineland, Egg Harbor, Cape May, and Mill- 
ville. He built the old rectory of Millville, now used as a convent, 
the church at Cape May, and the present combination church and 



IN NEW JERSEY t,6s 

school of Millville. Work on this last structure was bci;un in 
1869 and finished in 1871. 

The first meeting of the trustees was held July ist, 1865. 
Father Gessner was succeeded February 9th, 1873, by Rev. 
Theophilus Degen, who died two years ago as pastor of Cape May. 
November 9th, 1873, Rev. P. Vivet, a French priest, succeeded 
Father Degen. During his rectorship he built the church at 
Vineland. He left for France, where he died (date unknown). 
Rev. William Ignatius Dwyer, an ex-Paulist, took up the work 
July 6th, 1879. He built the church at Goshen, no\v a mission of 
Sea Isle City, and died in St. Michael's Hospital, Newark, April 
5th, 1 881, and is buried back of the church in Millville. During 
his illness and the interregnum the Rev. James J. Durick, now 
rector of Our Lady of Good Counsel, Brooklyn, was temporarily 
in charge until the appointment of Charles J. Giese, June, 1881. 
Father Giese built the church at Sea Isle City, brought the Sis- 
ters of Charity to Millville, enlarged the convent, and built the 
new rectory. He was transferred to Gloucester, October 2d, 
1901, and was succeeded by the Rev. William J. FitzGerald, J. CD. 

St. Paul's Church, Jersey City (Greenville). 

The date of the establishment of this parish is 1861, and the 
first priests who ministered to the Catholics were the Passionists 
from West Hoboken. The first church was built in 1862, and in 
1869 Father Niederhauser built the transepts. His successor in 
1 87 1 was Father Kempen, a secularized Carmelite, who in turn 
was succeeded by the Rev. Sebastian B. Smith, D.D., who left 
for Rahway, October, 1872. The Rev. Joseph ¥. Mendl was 
then charged with the government of the parish, and was suc- 
ceeded in the pastorate, April 12th, 1882, by the Rev. John Joseph 
Schandel. Father Schandel, born at Williamsburg, L. I., August 
lOth, 1849, made his classical studies at St. Vincent's, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Seton Hall ; and his theological studies in the Ameri- 
can College, Rome, where he was ordained October 30th, 1874. 
He taught moral theology in the diocesan seminary from 1874 
until September, 1881. The old school built by Dr. Smith was 
replaced by the present building erected by Father Schandel 
in 1890. Father Schandel also built the present church, which 
was dedicated in July, 1888. The rectory was built by the Rev. 
Henry Fehlings in 1870, and extended by Father Schandel. 
April 2 1 St, 1895, death removed Father Schandel from the parish, 



366 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



and his successor was the Rev. John J. Tiglie. Father Tighe 
was a priest of I'are abihtv, gifted with a graceful pen and an elo- 
quent tongue. He was born in 1852, and studied at St. Charles's 
and at Seton Hall, from which he was graduated with high honors 
in the class of '80. He was an assistant in St. Mary's, Hoboken, 

and pastor of Our Lady's, 
Boonton. He died August 
9th, 1897. The Rev. J. W. 
McDowell, J. CD., succeed- 
ed him, and remained until 
August loth, 1900, when 
the Rev. Alphonsus M. H. 
Schaeken assumed the re- 
sponsibilities of the pastoral 
office. Father Schaeken, 
born at Weert, Holland, 
made his pi'eparatory studies 
in the local college and his 
theological studies in the 
American College, Louvain, 
Belgium, and was ordained 
in Mechlin, June loth, 1876. 
His labors as assistant were 
in St. John's, Orange, St. 
Joseph's, Newark, St. J(v 
seph's, Jersey City, Key port, 
and chaplain of the Protec- 
tor)-, Denville, with the duty 
of attending to St. Cecilia's, 
Rockaway. He was trans- 
ferred to Oiu- Lady of Lour- 
des, Paterson, May 25th, 
1883, where he labored with great zeal until his appointment to 
St. Paul's. The following is the list of priests who have been 
engaged in duties of the ministry in this parish: 




ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, GRKP:X\ILLE. 



Pastors. 

Passionist Fathers. 1S61-1865. 

Rev. Paul Niederhauser. 1865-1S69. Died August i6th, 1S73. 

Rev. H. Fehlings, November, 1S69, to October ist, 1870. 

Rev. Angelus Kempen. (~)ctober 2d, 1870, to September ist, 1871, 

Rev. S. B. Smitli, D.D., September, 1871, to November, 1872. 



IN NEW JERSEY 367 

Rev. J. F. Mcndl, Novcnil)cr, 1.S72, to November. 1S78. 

Rev. A. Hechiiiser, November, 1S7S, to April, 1882. 

Rev. J. J. Schandel, April, 1S82, to April, 1895. Died April 21st, 1895. 

Rev. J. J. Tighe, May, 1895, to August, 1897. Died August 8tli, 1897. 

Rev. J. VV. McDowell, D.C.L., August, 1897, to August, 1900. 

Rev. Alpli. M. H. Schaekeii, August loth, 1900. 

Assistants. 

Rev. Th. Lee, December, 1893, to July, 1894. 
Rev. T. E. Reilly, September, 1894, to Jiuie, 1900. 
Rev. C. Schotthoefer, February, 1895, to April, 1895. 
Rev. j. T. Hopkins, August, 1895, to October, 1895. 
Rev. Neal McMenamin, October, 1895, to March, 1896. 
Rev. J. F. Brown, July, 1896, to July, 1897. 
Rev. T. D. Lill, August, 1S97, to September, 1897. 
Rev. J. B. Hater, September, 1S97, to April, 1898. 
Rev. J. B. Ferguson, October. 1898, to January. 1901. 
Rev. E. F. Schulte, June, 1900. 



St. Ann's Church, Hampton Junction. 

St. Ann's Parish, Junction, N. J., was established by Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Bayley in Januar}-, 1861, and Rev. C. A. Rolland was 
appointed the first pastor. Prior to that time Rev. Father Kerins, 
of Plainfield, N. J., had visited Junction occasionally to attend to 
the spiritual needs of the Catholic families that had settled there. 
Upon taking charge of the parish Father Rolland immediately 
set about the work of building a church and rectory, and in two 
years he completed the task. He himself dedicated the new 
church, a small frame building, on the 14th of May, 1863, the 
feast of the Ascension. During Father Rolland's pastorate, as 
well as during that of his successor, St. Ann's parish included 
Washington, High Bridge, Oxford, Clinton, and West Portal. 
Washington, High Bridge, and Oxford later became separate par- 
ishes, Clinton is at present attached to Plemington, and West 
Portal is still attended from St. Ann's. 

On August 1st, 1864, Father Rolland was succeeded by Rev. 
P. Leonard. Owing to the rapid growth of the parish, P^ather 
Leonard decided to erect a larger and more substantial church. 
A large plot of ground, selected by the eminent Irish lecturer, 
the Rev. Dr. Cahill, was purchased for that purpose on April ist, 
1866, and the corner-stone of the new edifice was laid on July 4th, 
1866. The church, which is a brick structure, was completed and 
occupied during the next )ear. A rectory was built adjoining the 
church. Father Leonard disposed of the old church and rectory 



368 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

in January, 1868. The church was afterward converted into a 
dwelling and is still standing and occupied. Father Leonard was 
promoted to the pastorate of St. Mary's Church, Bordentown, N. 
J., in July, 1869, and later went to St. Michael's Church in New- 
ark. Rev. Francis O'Neill succeeded Father Leonard at Junc- 
tion and continued as pastor until June, 1880. During his pas- 
torate he erected churches at High Bridge and West Portal ; he 
also built a two-story frame school-house at Junction. Succeed- 
ing Father O'Neill were Rev. M. J. Brennan, June, 1880, to Oc- 
tober, 1885; Rev. M. Dolan, October, 1885, to January, 1888; 
Rev. W. J. Donovan, January ist, 1888, to January 8th, 1893. 
Father Donovan was recalled by Archbishop Corrigan to the 
Archdiocese of New York, to which he belonged. 

Rev. N. M. Freeman came as successor to Father Donovan 
and remained until February ist, 1895, when he was changed to 
Metuchen, where he died during the summer of the same year. 
Rev. J. W. Norris, J. CD., was the next pastor, but on Novem- 
ber ist, 1895, he was sent to Rome by Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul, 
to pin"sue a course in canon law, so that his pastorate covered a 
period of only nine months. The pastorate of his successor. Rev. 
J. H. Kenney, was also very brief, since, owing to ill health, he 
was compelled to resign eleven months after his appointment. 
His death occurred in Trenton in January, 1897. The bishop 
chose Rev. M. J. Hagerty, D.D., to succeed Father Kenney, and 
he took charge of the parish on February 26th, 1897, and re- 
mained until May 27th, 1901, when he was transferred to Bridge- 
ton. May 27th, 1901, the present pastor, Rev, M. C. McCoriston, 
was appointed. 

The Madonna Church, Fort Lee. 

It is impossible to fix the date of the founding of the parish of 
Fort Lee, which doubtless was attended to by the worth)' pastor 
of Hoboken, for we find one of his assistants appointed to this 
field December 6th, 1858, together with the care of Lodi and 
Hacken.sack — the Rev. Francis Annelli. One of the greatest 
benefactors of the parish was the distinguished convert and 
scholar. Dr. Henry James Anderson. Dr. Anderson was a native 
of New York City, and was graduated from Columbia College 
with the highest honors in 181 8. He studied medicine and re- 
ceived his degree from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
but devoted himself to mathematical investigations and became 



IN NEW JERSEY 



3^9 



professor of mathematics and astronomy in Columbia College in 
1825. While in France, about the year 1850, he was received 
into the Catholic Church, of which he was ever after a devout 
and consistent member. Me published variou-s scientific works, 
and died in Hindostan while exploring the Himalayas, October 
19th, 1875. Dr. Anderson made a gift of the land on which the 
church stands. The list of pastors includes the Revs. Patrick 
Corrigan, Henry A. Brann, U.D., Patrick Cody, A. Smits, O.C.C, 
G. Spierings, the Capuchin Fathers, and the present rector, the 
Rev. John A. Huygens, who was appointed July 25th, 1891. 
Father Huygens was born at Bergen, Holland, and made his 
classical studies in Ruremonde, Limburg, and his theology in the 
Grand Seminary, Liege, and the American College, Louvain, 
where he was ordained by the Most Rev. Archbishop Riordan, of 
San F"rancisco, Cal., June 29th, 1888. He was an assistant in 
Union Hill until his promotion to Fort Lee. 

St. Cecilia's Church, Rockaway. 

The church in this little mission was built by the Rev. Bernard 
A. Ouinn, pastor of Dover, to which this charge was attached, in 




ST. CECILIA S CHURCH. KueKAU AV. 



1869. The pastors of Dover, Denville, and Hibernia have at- 
tended to the spiritual needs of this flock, and among them may 
be numbered the Revs. Pierce McCarthy, ¥. v. d. Bogaard, M. A. 
24 



370 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



McManus, the Franciscan Fathers, A. M. H. Schaeken, Eugene 
A. Farrell, J. P. Callahan, and M. F. Downes, who located hhn- 
self in Rockaway in March, 1885. The Rev. Nicholas E. Sotis 
succeeded Father Downes, December 22d, 1887, and is the pres- 
ent rector. Father Sotis has made many improvements in the 
parish with the limited means at his disposal — moved and en- 
larged the church and built a 
rectory. 

St. Patrick's Church, 
Hibernia. 




ST. PATRICK S CHURCH, HIBKRNIA. 



This is an older mission 
than Rockaway, having been 
founded in the sixties. The 
iron mines brought a num- 
ber of Catholics to Hibernia, 
and in the face of many perils 
and adversities the little flock has held its own, and may be justly 
proud of the children it has sent out to more elevated spheres 
with more hopeful prospects of pecuniary results. It came first 
under the care of Boonton, and was attended by that parish until 
1881, when it was united 
with _ Rockaway and made a 
distinct parish. 

St. Teresa's Church, 
Summit. 

Father Madden, of Mad- 
ison, built the first Catholic 
church for the faithful of 
Summit and visited the mis- 
sion occasionally, and until 
February 9th, 1874, the priest 
in charge of St. Vincent's, 
Madison, ministered to the 
wants of the Catholics in 
Summit, when Bishop Cor- 
rigan appointed the Rev. W. 
M.Wigger, D.D., pastor. Dr. 
Wigger built the rectory and 
during two years labored earnestly and gained the love of his flock. 
In 1872 the Rev. G. A. Vassallo took possession of the parish, 




ST. TKKI> \ s < in RCH, SUMMIT. 



IN NKW JERSEY 371 

where he has worked all these years. Father Vassallo was born 
at Murialdo, in the Diocese of Mondovi, October 8th, 1843. He 
is an alumnus of the Collegio Brignole-Sale, and was ordained 
June 15th, 1867. Orani^e. Orange Valley, New Brunswick, and 
Morristown have been the fields in which he has labored for 
souls, until his assignment to Summit. He has enlarged the 
church and the scho(^l, into which he introduced the Sisters of 
Charity. In 1880 he purchased a tract of thirty acres for cem- 
etery purposes for $3,500, and in February, 1896, he acquired 
a property, the house of which he refitted as a school, at an 
outlay of $12,000. The Rev. John J, Maher is at present the 
assistant. 

The Roman Catholic Church of the Holy Trinity, 
Hackensack, N. J. 

About forty-one years ago a small frame building on Law- 
rence Street served as a temporary church. Father Patrick Cor- 
rigan was then pastor and continued to labor in this field from 
September, 1863, to May, 1866. Dr. Henry A. Brann, now of 
New York, succeeded him and began the erection of a brick 
church, but left before its completion, in August, 1867. He was 
succeeded by Father Patrick Cody, who finished the church and 
built the rectory in 1868. The church was dedicated April 19th, 
1868. 

The Rev. Dr. Garvey, now of St. Charles's Seminary, Phila- 
delphia, succeeded him in February, 1870. 

On November 17th, 1870, the Rev. J. Rolando was made rec- 
tor. The cemetery was purchased and laid out by him and a 
school built in 1875. The Rev. P. Dagnault assumed charge 
January, 1876, and administered the parish until July, 1878. He 
was followed by Rev. M. J. Kirwin, who remained for nearly 
seven years, going to East Orange in September, 1885. His 
successor was the Rev. P. M. Corr, who labored most zealously, 
renovating the church, reducing the debt, and building a residence 
for the Sisters of Charity, whom he invited to take charge of the 
parochial school. 

The Rev. P. J. O'Donnell took up the work of Father Corr, 
January 7th, 1890, and finished a very successful pastorate in 
March, 1894, to take charge of St. Joseph's Church in Newark. 
The present rector. Rev. Joseph J. Cunneely, began his pastorate 
March 14th, 1894. The debt has been paid off and many im- 



372 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



provements have been made, and a new parish building is con- 
templated to meet the urgent needs of the Catholic people. The 
congregation numbers 700 souls. 

The Newman School. 

Within the limits of this parish is the Newman School, which 
was founded in Orange, N. J., by Mr. and Mrs. Jesse Albert 
Locke. It was long felt by many members of the hierarchy — 
and by none more than the late Archbishop Corrigan — that there 
was need of a private school for boys which could offer refined 
surroundings of family life, together with a good scholastic and 
Catholic training. Mr. Locke, before his conversion to the Cath- 
olic Church, was a clergyman of the Episcopal Church, and had 
had experience in teaching in some of the best schools belonging 
to that denomination. Mrs. Locke is a niece of the late Father 
Hecker, founder and first superior of the Paulist community. 
Four pupils were received the first year, then fourteen, then 
twenty, and at present the number is limited to thirty. The 
growth of the school justified its foundation and made the acquisi- 




THE NEWMAN SCHOOL, HACKENSACK. 



tion of more commodious quarters a necessity. An ideal situation 
was secured in this beautiful, suburban, and healthful locality, 
where the grounds and charming residence of Mr. F. B. Poor 
afford a pleasant home and ample room for the faculty and pupils. 



IN NEW JERSEY 



373 



Church of the Holy Cross, Harrison, N. J. 

In the section of Hudson County, between the Passaic and 
Hackensack rivers, known as West Hudson, previous to the year 
1863, there was neither school nor church. The few Catholics 




HOLY CROSS CHURCH, HARRISON. 



attended St. Patrick's or St. John's, Newark, or St. Peter's, 
Belleville. Father McOuaid, in 1863, purchased six lots on the 
corner of Jersey and Third streets, and during his pastorate and 
that of Monsignor Doane the two-story combination of church 
and school was built. May loth, 1871, Bishop Bayley selected 
the Rev. James J. McGahan as the first resident pastor. Father 
McGahan was born at Cullyhanna, county Armagh, July i6th, 
1840, and made his theology at All Hallows, Dublin. He was 
one of many who volunteered for the Australian mission, and 
afterward had great difficulty in withdrawing from that obedi- 
ence. However, he eventually succeeded, and when in Rome, 
seeking a release from his engagement, in his last interview with 
Pius IX., he promised the Pope that the first church he would 
build he would place it under the patronage of St. Pius. Father 



374 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

McGahan enlarged the old church at an outlay of $17,000, bought 
lots lor a new church, and began its erection. He was a man 
of untiring energy, much beloved by the people, and had his life 
been spared would have accomplished great things for religion. 
He died January 7th, 1874. When he first took possession of 
his new charge there were about four hundred souls in the parish 
and about fifty children attending the parish school. The land 
purchased by Father McGahan from Isaac Halsey, of Newark, for 
a consideration of $15,000, has a frontage on Harrison Avenue of 
225 feet and the same on Jersey Street — containing twenty-four 
lots. 

On September 28th, 1873, the corner-stone of a new and hand- 
some church was laid by Bishop Corrigan. Father McGahan's 
death put an end to the work. Some years afterward, when the 
foundation then laid had to be torn up, the following statement, 
written on parchment, was taken from the corner-stone : " To God 
the Master of All, in the Year of Salvation, 1873, on the twenty- 
eighth day of September. With Pius IX. as Pope, Ulysses S. 
Grant President of the United States of America, Patrick Keely 
architect, James J. McGahan pastor, the most illustrious and Rt. 
Rev. Michael A. Corrigan, with sacred ceremonies, has conse- 
crated, blessed, and laid the corner-stone of the church to be built 
in honor of our Lord Jesus Christ, under the patronage of St. 
Pius." P^ather McGahan was assisted by the Rev. James Mc- 
Kernan, who took charge after his death until a successor was 
appointed. 

Father McGahan rented and resided for some months in Mr. 
Gilbert's house, Sussex Street, and ultimately bought of General 
Halsey the remainder of the property, corner of Jersey and Third 
streets. March 3d, 1874, Rev. Thaddeus Hogan, of Mount 
Holly, succeeded as rector. 

During his pastorate Father Hogan built the sisters' convent 
on Jersey Street, purchased the lot where the rectory now stands, 
and erected the C. Y. M. A. Hall. November 9th, 1878, he was 
advanced to the rectorship of St. John's Church, Trenton. His 
assistants were the Revs. D. ¥. McCarthy, Gerard P\inke, A. T. 
Shiitlehofer, Thomas Ouinn. Six Sisters of Charity looked after 
the school of 400 children. Rev. Pierce McCarthy, rector of St. 
Mary's Church, Dover, N. J., entered upon his duties as rector of 
St. Pius, on the same date, November 9th, 1878. A priest <^f 
marked ability and executive talent, P'ather McCarthy left his im- 
press on the parish and reduced the debt to $15,006.70. His 



IN NKW JERSEY 375 

health faihng, he was transferred as rector to the Church of Our 
Lady Help of Christians, East Orange, and was succeeded on the 
same day, December 6th, 1 883, by the then rector and founder of 
the East Orange Church, Rev. Maurice P. O'Connor. Father 
McCarthy was assisted here by Revs. M. L. Killahy, J. J. Mur- 
phy, and Charles O'Connor. Seven Sisters of Charity and a lay 
teacher, Mr. Henry J. Dougherty, were required to teach the 
parish school. The Rev. Maurice P. O'Connor, in the prime of 
his manhood, of indomitable energy, which had found an untilled 
field for its exercise in East Orange, where he built a new church, 
school, and hall, and left to his successor only $8,000 debt, entered 
upon his work in Harrison. Father O'Connor was born in Scot- 
land, of Irish-Catholic famine exiles in 1850, and came to this 
country when eleven years of age. He attended the parish school 
in Jersey City and afterward entered St. Charles's College, near 
Baltimore, Md. Later he went to Seton Hall College, South 
Orange, N. J., where he was graduated, together with the present 
Bishops O'Connor and McFaul, in June, 1873, and four years 
afterward. May 26th, 1877, was ordained priest by the late Arch- 
bishop Corrigan, the Bishop of Newark, in the seminary chapel of 
the Immaculate Conception, attached to Seton Hall. During his 
brief curacy of five years he labored in Trenton and Newark. 

When the parish committee of St. Pius's Church waited on 
Bishop Wigger after the people had learned of Father McCarthy's 
transfer, they told their ecclesiastical superior that the founda- 
tions of the new church had been left untouched since January 
I St, 1874, and that the people wanted a pastor who would build 
them one. The bishop replied : " All right, I have my man. I 
will send him to you." 

The new pastor, in surveying the field of operations, discovered 
that while there were in the parish some polished diamonds, the 
majority were in the rough, and that the church-school brick build- 
ing of 1 871 needed extensive renovation. To show the necessity 
for the latter, an accident occurred shortly after his advent to his 
first assistant. One Sunday evening as Vespers had just begun 
nearly the entire plastered ceiling over his head came suddenly 
down upon him. Men attending the service rushed to his aid and 
conveyed him in a dazed condition to the sacristy. 

December 31st, 1885, found the people well organized and the 
necessary renovations completed, with no parish debt, but a bal- 
ance on hand of $1,659.56. May 26th, 1886, the ninth anniversary 
of the ordination of the rector was joyously celebrated by begin- 



376 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

ning work for the new church. The old foundations of the new 
church, begun m 1873, were removed, as competent authorities 
had pronounced them unsafe. August 15th, 1886, was an auspi- 
cious day. The corner-stone of the new church, to be known 
hereafter as the Church of the Holy Cross, Harrison, N. J., taking 
its title from the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, Sep- 
tember 14th, was laid by the Rt. Rev. W. M. Wigger, D.D., 
Bishop of Newark, with imposing ceremonies before an immense 
concourse of i:)eople, the Ancient Order of Hibernians, the Cath- 
olic Young Men's Associations, and other societies taking part. 
The attendance of the rev. clergy, secular and regular, was large 
and representative. Governor Abbett, of N^w Jersey, and other 
distinguished citizens added eclat to the solemn occasion. 

February i6th, 1890, marks the dedication of Harrison's mag- 
nificent rock-faced, ashlar brown-stone Church of the Holy 
Cross. Nearly three thousand people witnessed the ceremonies ; 
hundreds of men, women, and children were obliged to stand, but 
as the services were intensely interesting they did not feel the- 
fatigue. Immediately after the dedication ceremony the bishop 
and assistant priests retired to the sacristy and robed for the 
Solemn Pontifical Mass. Bishop Wigger was the celebrant. The 
Rt. Rev. Monsignor G. H. Doane, Prot. Ap., preached the ser- 
mon and spoke feelingly of the memories of the past, especially 
of the departed ones of the flock. Solemn Vespers in the evening 
in presence of the bishop and an eloquent sermon of the Rev. 
John J. Tighe, once a lay trustee of the church, closed Harrison's 
most eventful day. 

In March, 1893, the parish had grown to such an extent nu- 
merically that a division was found necessary, and thus the new 
parish of St. Cecilia's, north of the railroad, came into existence. 
A minute in the book of the church records says : " At the Rt. Rev. 
bishop's request, the Rev. M. P. O'Connor, rector, was present at 
a meeting of the bishop and his council and consented to a divi- 
sion of the parish of the Holy Cross of Harrison, N. J. The 
boundary line was fixed at the N. Y., L. E. & W. Railroad, as 
found on the map of Scarlett & Scarlett, 1890, all south of that 
line being included in the aforesaid parish." May loth, 1896, was 
another red-letter day for the parish, its silver jubilee, 1871-1896. 
A large audience filled the spacious church, both at the morning 
and evening services. 

At 10:30 A.M. a Solemn Pontifical High Mass was celebrated 
by the Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul, D.D., LL.D., Bishop of Tren- 



IN NEW JERSP;Y 377 

ton and a classmate of Father M. P. O'Connor, the Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Wiggcr, being present on his throne. The Rev. John J. 
Tighc, rector of St. Paul's, Greenville, preached the sermon. 

Rev. Thaddeus Hogan, formerly rector of the parish, delighted 
the people at the evening services by a sermon full of thought 
and piety. 

In November, 1900, the material work on the church was 
completed. A number of artists and workmen had been busily 
engaged all summer in decorating and frescoing the interior, in- 
stalling electricity, and a number of other improvements. 

In 1901 a parish hall was added to the other buildings. May 
26th, 1902, the rector celebrated his own silver jubilee as a 
priest, surrounded by a large number of his brother priests from 
Newark, Trenton, New York, Scranton, Springfield, and Brook- 
lyn dioceses, and in the midst of the thousands of his devoted 
flock. Bishops O'Connor and McFaul honored him by their 
presence on the happy day of his life. 

The year 1902 witnessed the beautiful marble altar to Our 
Blessed Lady placed in the church, the gift of a loving people to 
their beloved pastor. This same year beheld two large wings or 
extensions added to the parochial school to make adequate room 
for the ever-increasing numbei- of children. The year 1903, last 
but not least, saw the rich raarble altar of the jubilee completed. 
A beautiful white Carrara marble statue of the Immaculate Mother, 
imported from Italy, the gift of the Rev. M. P. O'Connor, in mem- 
ory of his saintly Irish mother, was placed in the niche prepared 
for it, on Sunday, October ist, and presented to the parish. 

The assistant priests of the parish have been the Revs. A. M. 
Brady, B. M. Bogan, James F. Mooney, James Nolan, J. F. Boy- 
Ian, Dr. Dillon, G. F. Brown, Thomas Lee, M. J. Welch, E. M. 
O'Malley, and, at present, the Revs.^H. G. Coyne and L. J. Bohl. 

The census of the parisli shows 7,496 souls, nearly 1,100 chil- 
dren in the parish school,- with fifteen Sisters of Charity and two 
lay teachers, and sixteen societies for young and old, ;numbering 
nearly 4,000 members, engaged in religious, charitable, and intel- 
lectual work. In addition to the church, school, hall, rectory, 
convent, and C. Y. M. A. hall, the congregation owns valuable 
property on which there are houses now rented, purchased a few 
years ago to protect the church buildings, and which in future 
years may serve for church extension. 

The present debt on the church property, valued at $250,000, 
is the comparatively small sum of $45,000. 



378 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



St. Luke's Church, Hohokus. 

Previous to the year 1864 the territory north of Paterson, as 
far as the New York State hue, comprising nearly all of Bergen 
County, was without church or priest. The Very Rev^ Dean 
McNulty in that year began the work of spreading the influence 
of Catholicity by saying Mass in a private house in Chestnut 
Ridge. 

The venture having promised success, in the same year, on 
Palm Sunday, a new attempt was made at Hoppertown, and 
through the efforts of John J. Zabriskie the use of the school 
building was obtained. Ground was then bought in Hohokus, 
and the corner-stone of the present St. Luke's Church was laid 
on October 16th, 1864. 

For many years it was attended by the assistants of St. John's 
Church, Paterson. In the early eighties it was given in charge 
of Rev. J. W. Grieff, succeeded in turn by Revs N. Hens, M. F. 
Dovvnes, and Father Justin, O.S.F. 

In 1887 Rev. G. W. Corrigan became pastor and soon set to 
work to form a new mission, now known as St. Andrew's, at West- 
wood, at present in charge of Rev. James P. Corrigan, who is 

erecting a new church, St. 
Mary's, at Park Ridge, five 
miles north of West wood. 

Two years later, the popu- 
lation of the neighboring Par- 
amus valley having consider- 
ably increased, it was deemed 
advisable to begin a new 
church in Ridgewood. Rev. F. 
Nevins undertook this work. 
It was thought best at the 
time to close St. Luke's and 
build a larger church at Ridge- 
wood to accommodate all the 
Catholic population of the 
northern section of Bergen County. But the parishioners of St. 
Luke's strongly objected to this arrangement, and petitioned the 
late Bishop Wigger to reopen their church. This was done, but 
St. Luke's was opened as a mission, the rectory abandoned, and 
a new church. Our Lad\' of Mount Carmel, built. A rectory, do- 




ST. LUKE S CHURCH, HOHOKUS. 



IN NEW JERSEY 



379 




ST. ELIZABETH S CHURCH, WYCKOFF. 



natecl by Joseph F. Carrigan, was occupied by Rev. Dr. Mull, who 
succeeded T^ather Nevins in the latter part of 1889. 

In 1892 Rev. J. A. Sullivan was appointed rector, and during 
his term he did much toward the instruction of the people, 
the improvement of the church property, and the lessening 
of the heavy debt left by 
his predecessor. Five years 
later, in July, 1897, Rev. E. 
A. Kelly succeeded to the 
pastorate and labored four 
years with untiring zeal in 
the work of improving the 
spiritual and temporal condi- 
tion of the parishes confided 
to him and still further re- 
ducing the debt. 

The present rector, Rev. 
P. T. Carew, was appointed in 1901. Ridgewood cherishes great 
prospects for Catholic growth, as it is a very healthful village, 
delightfully situated within easy reach of New York, and has ex- 
cellent train facilities. Altogether it is an ideal residential place. 
A large percentage of the inhabitants, many Catholics among 
them, have moved thither from Brooklyn and Jersey City. 

Within the past year an additional mission was opened in 
Wyckoff, and in July, 1903, was dedicated the new Church of St. 
Elizabeth. 

This year ground was purchased for still another mission at 
Ramsey, where in the near future a chapel will be erected. The 
two chapels are to be built not because of any notable increase in 
the number of Catholics — although the outlook for the future is 
very bright — but as a means of arousing some from their indiffer- 
ence, and stimulating the lukewarmness of other Catholics in this 
section, for whom lack of facilities for hearing Mass and coming 
in touch with the priest have resulted in all but a complete loss 
of faith, especially in sparsely settled localities remote from the 
cities. 

St. Boniface's Church, Jersey City. 

St. Boniface's parish, Jersey City, N. J., was founded on the 
15th of November, 1863. The first meeting at which this was 
accomplished took place in the old so-called Hudson House, at 
the Five Corners — corner of Newark and Hoboken avenues, and 



38o 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



West Newark and Bergen avenues — Jersey City, N. J. Rev. 
Dominic Kraus, the first rector, and Father Prieth, of St. Peter's, 
Newark, were present, and twenty-eight laymen. On May 7th, 
1865, the corner-stone of the present church was laid, and on 
November nth, 1866, the church was opened for services. The 
legal title is St. Boniface's Church, Jersey City. The pastor at 
the time was Rev. Dominic Kraus. The old school and rectory 
were built in 1864. The new school was begun in March, 1888, 
and finished in November, 1888. 

St. Boniface's congregation worshipped for a short time in a 
stable on Newark Avenue. Then a Protestant church was 
rented for one year for $200, on John Street; the vestments 
were kindly loaned by Father Kelly, of St. Peter's, Jersey City. 
November 22d, 1863, the first High Mass was sung and the first 

sermon preached by Rev. D. 
Kraus. First rector Rev. D. 
Kraus, November 1 5th, 1 863 ; 
died November i6th, 1885. 
The second rector, the Rev. 
William F. Wahl, still in 
charge, was appointed No- 
vember 17th, 1885. Assis- 
tants: Rev. B. Ahne, from 
February, i8gi, to January, 
1892, Rev. Charles Miill, 
from February, 1 892, to Au- 
gust, 1896; died August ist, 
1896. Rev. Peter Lill, from 
August, 1896, to May, 1899, 
Rev. Peter Kurtz, from De- 
cember, 1899, to September 
1 6th, 1903. 

Father Wahl, born at 
Gross Eislinger, Wiirtem- 
berg, Germany, November 
3d, 1855, made his prepara- 
tory studies at Feldkirch, 
Austria, Rottenberg, St. Vin- 
cent's, Pennsylvania, and his 
theology at Seton Hall. He was ordained priest May 22d, 1880, 
in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Newark. In this parish he labored in 
his quiet, unobtrusive way, but unto edification, from June ist. 




ST. Boniface's church, jersey city. 



IN NKW JERSEY 



381 



1880, until May 20th, 1884, when he was appointed to assist the 
late Father Kraus, and, after a hrief period of service in St. 
Mary's, Elizabeth, he was appointed rector of St. Boniface's, 
March 3d, 1885. All these 
years he has toiled iinremit- 
tingly,without noise or notice, 
single-minded, devoted, and 
weariless in searching out his 
flock and bringing them to 
the practice of their religion. 
Animated with this lofty pur- 
pose the material assistance 
has not failed ; and, although 
he has made many improve- 
ments in his church and 
schools, not a few were sur- 
prised when the announce- 
ment was made that St. Bon- 
iface's was to be consecrated. 
This solemn act may be car- 
ried out only when the church 
is free from all indebtedness. 
The consecration services 
were performed by the Rt. 
Rev. Bishop O'Connor, Sun- 
day, November 8th, 1903, assisted by the Rt. Rev. Monsignor 
Sheppard and many priests. The improvements made by Father 
Wahl amount to almost $70,000, and the gross amount of rev- 
enue received by him and expended is over a quarter million 
of dollars. This statement is the eulogy of the pastor and his 
flock. 




REV. DOMIXIC KRAUS, 
Rector of St. Boniface's Church, Jersey City. 



The Catholic Church of the Sacred Heart, Vineland, N. J. 

The Catholics of Vineland were visited by Father Gessner for 
the first time in 1864, and Mass was occasionally celebrated in 
private houses by him until 1868, when divine service was held 
once a month. He came from Millville, where he was stationed, 
and from which place he attended Vineland, Bridgeton, and Cape 
May. He said Mass finally in an upper room of the old Pennsyl- 
vania depot. Father Gessner gave up Vineland at the close of 
the year 1872. Father Deegan took charge after Father Gess- 



382 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



ner, and ministered to the spiritual wants of the people of Vine- 
land mainly through his curate, l^^ather Vivct. With a view to 
building a church and organizing a parish a corporation was 
formed in the fall of 1873. The Church of the Sacred Heart 
was commenced in 1874. The work progressed rapidly through 
the summer under the constant supervision of Father Vivet. The 
church was roofed before Christmas, and, althbugh the interior 
was not yet finished. Mass was first said in it on Christmas Day, 
1874, by Father Vivet. Rev. William Dwyer succeded Father 
Vivet in June, 1879, at Millville, to which Vineland was still 
attached as a mission. Father Dwyer personally, and through 

his curate, the Rev. J. J. 
Durick, had charge of Vine- 
land to June, 1 881. Father 
Dwyer added the sacristy to 
the church and improved it 
in other respects. He also 
purchased a church from the 
Methodists at North Vine- 
land. This church has passed 
out of the possession of the 
Catholics. The Rev. Charles 
J. Giese succeeded to Mill- 
ville upon the death of Father 
Dwyer, and Vineland contin- 
ued under his administration 
until June, 1883. Father 
Giese at this time made a trip to Europe and left Father Mc- 
Teague, of the Society of the Fathers of Mercy, in charge of 
Millville and Vineland during his absence. At this time the 
people of Vineland began an agitation to be erected into an inde- 
pendent parish and to have a pastor of their own. The result was 
that at the close of the year 1883 the Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell, 
then Ordinary of this diocese, consented to give the church in 
charge of the Fathers of Mercy, and Father McTeague was ap- 
pointed first pastor. These fathers in 1884 purchased a large build- 
ing on the outskirts of the town and organized the Sacred Heart 
College, which was at the same time the diocesan seminary. The 
college was under the presidency of the Rev. E. H. Porcile, 
S.P.M. A parochial house of brick was erected in 1884. Father 
McTeague took up his residence at the college, and the Sisters of 
Charity established a private school in the parochial house. Later 




CHURCH OF THE SACRED HEART, 
VINELAND. 



IN NEW JERSEY 383 

on the parish house was rcoccupied by the pastor, and the sisters 
removed to a property which they purchased on East Avenue. 
The school did not flourish and was abandoned, the sisters with- 
drawing. The college was closed for good in 1894. But the 
Fathers of Mercy continued in charge of the parish up to 1895. 
The several priests belonging to that order in charge of the par- 
ish were the Rev. Fathers Thomas McTeague, I. M. Wiest, E. 
H. Porcile, E. Kelley, C. Elert, J. E. Sheehy, and J.J. McCul- 
lough. The last one of the society in residence was Rev. J. 
Courvoisier. On October ist, 1895, the Rt. Rev. James A. 
McFaul took the church under his direct control and appointed 
the Rev. William F. Dittrich pastor. The Fathers of Mercy had 
built a church for a colony of one thousand Italians at East Vine- 
land, and commenced saying Mass for them at intervals. Father 
Dittrich continued to attend this mission and prepared it for a 
separate pastor, who was appointed on November 14th, 1897, 
the Rev. Louis Pozzi. On September 21st, 1899, Father Dittrich 
was removed to Bound Brook, N. J., and the Rev. J. H. Hen- 
dricks became pastor of Vineland. Upon the latter's removal, 
May 29th, 1901, to Riverton, the Rev. John Gammell became 
pastor. In 1902 the Rev. Michael di Elsi, an Italian priest, 
was appointed at Minotola to look after the Italians in the district 
between that place and Vineland. He organized the two parishes 
of Landisville and Minotola, and succeeded in erecting two 
churches which are already used for religious services. He was 
transferred to Camden to organize an Italian parish in that city in 
1903, and his place was filled by Rev. Father Leone. 

St. Mary's Parish (Cathedral), Trenton, N. J. 

Observing the rapid growth of the Catholic population in the 
northern portion of the city, the Rev. Anthony Smith resolved to 
form a new parish, to be called St. Mary's. With this object in 
view he purchased, in 1865, the ground on which St. Mary's 
Cathedral now stands. This is historic ground, for here some of 
the hardest fighting in the battle of Trenton took place, and Colo- 
nel Rail, who commanded the Hessians, had his headquarters in 
the frame building which stood on the very spot now occupied by 
the cathedral rectory. Rail, being mortally wounded during the 
engagement, was carried to his headquarters, where he died 
December 27th, 1776. On April 23d, 1866, ground was broken 
for the foundation of St. Mary's Church, and the corner-stone 



384 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



was laid by Bishop Bayley, of Newark, on July 15th of the same 
year. The work on the church went on slowly for almost five 
years, and was finally completed toward the end of 1870. On 

Sunday, January ist, 1871, it 
was solemnly dedicated to 
the service of God by the 
Rt. Rev. James R. Bayley, 
Bishop of Newark, assisted 
by a large number of clergy- 
men, among whom was the 
Rev. Dr Corrigan, the Arch- 
bishop of New York. Up to 
this time St. Mary's parish 
was not separated from St. 
John's, which was still in 
charge of Father Smith. 
Now, however, the two were 
formally divided. Father 
Smith resigned St. John's 
and retained St. Mary's, 
which embraced all the ter- 
ritory north of the Assinpink 
Creek. 

While the church was 
being built. Father Smith 
was making provision for the 
Christian education of the 
children. On September nth, 1868, he purchased the property 
on the corner of Bank and Chancery streets, and on it, in 1870, 
commenced the erection of a parochial school. As this property 
scarcely afforded room for a playground, an adjoining lot on 
Chancery Street was purchased November 2d, 1868. The school 
was opened on October 2d, 1871, with about one hundred and 
seventy scholars and three Sisters of Charity as teachers. 

His ne.xt care was to provide a cemetery, and for this purpose 
a property of eight and one-half acres, situated on the Lawrence 
Road, just beyond the city limits, was purchased October 12th, 
1872. The character of the soil, however, made it unsuitable for 
a burial place, and the present St. Mary's Cemeter}', or rather 
a portion of it, containing thirteen and one-half acres, was bought 
November ist, 1872. An adjoining tract of ten acres was pur- 
chased March 24th, i< 




bT. .MARY S CATHEDRAL, TK i:.\ li )X . 



IN NEW JKRSKY 



385 



During all these years Father Smith labored alone; he had no 
assistant. How great were his labors can be understood only by 
those who know the duties of a pastor of a large congregation. 
His iirst assistant i)riest, Rev. Michael J. Holland, was appointed 
in March, 1877. He relieved Father Smith of much of the spirit- 
ual work of the parish. But the energetic pastor could not rest. 
His attention was directed to Hopewell, where there was a small 
settlement of Catholics without a church or pastor. He bought 
a suitable piece of land, and on July 6th, 1877, laid the corner- 
stone of a beautiful little church. This was attended from St. 
Mary's till January, 1883. 

St. Mary's was now provided with everything necessary to 
constitute a perfectl}- ecjuipped parish. But the congregation 
was a growing one, and increased so rapidly that the school, 
which contained six large rooms, was incapable of accommodating 
all the children. To provide for these Father Smith bought, July 
1st, 1875, another lot on Chancery Street, and began at once to 
enlarge the school by aii addition of six more rooms. It can now 
accommodate seven hundred children In February, 1880, he 
bought a lot on Warren 
Street, adjoining the rectory, 
on which he built, in 1883, 
the episcopal residence. 

For the accommodation 
of the Catholics who lived in 
Millham, now East Trenton, 
he bought a plot of ground 
on Sherman and St. Joe's 
avenues, and in July, 1882, 
laid the corner-stone of a 
brick building, to be used as 
a school and chapel. This 
was the beginning of St. 
Joseph's parish. But it con- 
tinued a mission of St. Mary's 
until April, 1893, when it 
was separated and became a 
distinct parish. 

The Holy Father in 1881 
created a new diocese for 

Southern New Jerse\' and made Trenton the episcopal city. The 
bishop of the new diocese, the Rt. Rev. Michael J. O'Farrell, for- 
25 




REV. AXTHONV SMITH. 

First Pastor of St. IMary's Cathedral, 
Trenton. 



386 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

merly pastor of St. Peter's Church, New York, was consecrated in 
St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York City, on November ist, 1881. 
Eight days afterward he came to Trenton and chose St. Mary's 
Church for his cathedral, where he was installed with impressive 
ceremonies. Bishop O'Farrell rented a house on West State 
Street and resided there until F'ather Smith, in 1883, erected the 
present episcopal residence. At the same time he enlarged the 
rectory, and, by joining it to the bishop's house, produced a grand, 
imposing front. P'rom this time until his death Father Smith 
labored for the spiritual welfare of his people and the reduction of 
the debts of the parish. When he died, August nth, 1888, he 
was mourned not only by his own j^eople, for whom he labored 
so well for more than twenty -seven years, but by the public gener- 
ally, who recognized in him a faithful servant of God and an emi- 
nently good citizen. The buildings he erected and left with com- 
paratively little debt will stand as monuments to his zeal and 
executive ability. Before coming to Trenton he had charge of 
missions in Buffalo and Baltimore. In the former city he built 
St. Mary's Church and St. Andrew's Hospital. He was born in 
Obergunsburg, Germany, on April 8th, 1821, came to this coun- 
try in 1844, and was ordained a priest of the Redemptorist Order 
on December 21st, 1845, by Archbishop Eccleson, in Baltimore. 
After P^ather Smith's death Bishop O'Farrell assumed for a time 
the rectorship of the cathedral and appointed Rew J. Joseph 
Smith acting rector. 

In the spring of 1890 P"ather Smith had to leave the cathe- 
dral, on account of ill health, and was transferred to St. P'rancis's, 
Metuchen, where his duties were light and where it was hoped he 
would regain his strength ; but after some months he was com- 
pelled to give up his charge and returned to his parents' home in 
Trenton, where he died October 31st, 1891. His early death was 
deeply mourned, for his kindly ways and bright, sunny disposition 
had endeared him to all who knew him. During Bishop O'P^arrell's 
rectorship steam was substituted for hot air in heating the church 
and school. After P'ather Joseph Smith's appointment to Metuchen 
he was succeeded by the Rev. John M. McCloskey, who afterward 
became so well and favorably known to the priests of the diocese as 
the secretary and chancellor of Bishop McP'aul. Father McCloskey 
looked after the affairs of the parish till October, 1 890, when the Rev. 
James A. McFaul, rector of the Church of Our Lady Star of the 
Sea, Long Branch, was made rector of the cathedral. He had for- 
merly been assistant under the Rev. Anthony Smith, in December, 



IN NEW JERSEY 



387 



1879, and was therefore well acquainted with the parish. He 
entered on his work with his well-known zeal and energy, infusing 
new life and vigor into the parish. His first care was the 
school; he improved the class-rooms, raised the standard of 
studies, and introduced the latest and most approved methods 
of teaching. Bishop O'Farrell had some time before contracted 
for the new organ, but it was Father McFaul who suj^erintended 
its erection and raised the 
funds for its payment. 

St. Joseph's parish. East 
Trenton, was still attended 
from the cathedral, and the 
old building containing chajv 
el and school became too 
small for the rai^idly growing 
parish. Father McFaul, in 
1 89 1, erected a large and 
handsome school. It is a 
three-story brick building 
with brownstoue trimmings, 
has eight large, well-lighted, 
and well-ventilated class- 
room.s, antl a large hall on 
the third fioor which is now 
being used for a chapel. He- 
changed the okl chapel and 
school into a dwelling-house 
for the Sisters of Charit\', 
who up to this time went 
from St. Mary's e\-ery day to 
teach. 

On November ist, 1892, Father McPViul was appointed vicar- 
general of the diocese. On the death of Bishop O'Farrell, April 
2d. 1894, Father McFaul was made administrator of the diocese, 
and by a papal brief dated Julv 20th appointed Bishoj) of Trenton, 
to succeed his friend the lamented Bishop O'F'arrell. He still 
continued as rector of the cathedral until Februar\- ist, 1895, 
when he appointed the present rector, 1-lev. John H. l^'o.x. Under 
his supervision the improvements long contemplated by Rt. Rew 
Bishop McFaul were begun and so successfully conducted that 
to-day the cathedral is one of the most beautiful churches in the 
State. 




S.\CKEU HEART. OLD ST. JOH.\ S. 
TKEXTOX. 



388 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

As the sisters' house has scarcely sufficient accommodation 
for the present number of sisters, and as it will be soon necessary 
to increase their number, the building on the northwest corner of 
Warren and Bank streets, formerly the old State Bank, was pur- 
chased March i8th, 1897 

A new religious sisterhood was brought to Trenton in June of 
the year 1899 by Bishop McFaul, — the Mission Helpers, whose 
mother house is in Baltimore. Their name gives some idea of 
the purpose of the institution. They are to supplement the work 
of the priest, to reach classes that he cannot well reach, and espe- 
cially to look after the colored people and instruct the deaf and 
dumb. 

St. Mary's Cathedral has been the scene of many grand and 
solemn ceremonies. Here the first Bishop of Trenton was en- 
throned and received the obedience of the clergy of his diocese ; 
here the first Apostolic Delegate of Leo XHI. of the United 
States was received in an official and canonical manner for the 
first time in this country ; here the present bishop, Rt. Rev. James 
A. McFaul, who had been so long connected with the parish, was 
consecrated. Those were occasions of great joy that brought 
together within the walls of the cathedral many distinguished 
persons both of church and state. There were present at Bishop 
McFaul's consecration three archbishops, eleven bishops, and 
about three hundred priests, besides many ministers of other de- 
nominations and men prominent in public and professional life. 
But these large and distinguished gatherings were not always of 
a joyful character. Solemn and sorrowful were some of them. 
It was a sad assemblage that filled the cathedral on August 14th, 
1888, when Bishop O'Farrell, surrounded by priests and people, 
offered the sacrifice of the Mass for the repose of the soul of 
Father Smith, the founder and for many years pastor of St. 
Mary's, whose remains lay in state before the altar at which he 
so often celebrated. The cathedral was the scene of a still deeper 
and greater sorrow on the occasion of the funeral services of the 
first Bishop of Trenton, the lamented Rt. Rev. M. J. O'Farrell. 
The presence of so many high ecclesiastics, th-e great number of 
priests, and the large gathering of people showed the esteem in 
which the dead prelate was held, and the sad countenances of all 
told better than the dark drapery of the church the grief occa- 
sioned by his death. 



IN NEW JERSEY 389 



Holy Cross Church, Trenton, N. J. 

Shortly after the erection of the Immaculate Conception 
Church, the Polish members of the congregation resolved to form 
a parish of their own. They purchased ground on the corner of 
Cass and AdeUne streets, and in 1891 erected a two-story brick 
building. The upper story serves for a chapel, the lower for a 
school. The chapel was bles.sed for divine services by the Rt. 
Rev. Bishop O'Farrell in the latter part of 1891. Their first pas- 
tor, under whose supervision the building was erected, was Rev. 
Valentine Swinarski. Father Swinarski labored zealously for the 
parish till his departure in the summer of 1895. He was suc- 
ceeded in December of that year by the Rev. Francis Czernecki, 
who is the present rector. Father Czernecki is doing excellent 
work among his people, and has a school with a hundred and 
twenty pupils. The parish has about one thousand members. 



St. Stanislaus's Church, Trenton, N. J. 

In 1892 the Rev. Stanislaus Czclusniak came to Trenton, and 
with the approval of Bishop O'Farrell formed another Polish par- 
ish. A lot was purchased on Randall Avenue at the point where 
South Broad Street and Chestnut Avenue join. The corner- 
stone of the new church was laid by Bishop O'Farrell on Septem- 
ber nth, 1892, and the dedication took place on August 29th of 
the following year. The church is built of pressed brick, has two 
large towers in front, and can seat over seven hundred. It is 
called St. Stanislaus's, after Poland's patron saint. Father 
Czclusniak was succeeded in December, 1893, by the Rev. Felix 
Baran, who remained till the end of the year 1896. Up to this 
time the pastors of St. Stanislaus's were priests of the Franciscan 
Order. On February 20th, 1897, the bishop sent a secular priest. 
Rev. Julien- Zielinski. For two years this young pastor labored 
with untiring zeal, and was succeeded in January, 1899, by the 
present pastor. Rev. Matthias Tarnowski. Father Tarnow.ski 
is an earnest and successful worker. The parochial school, which 
for financial reasons was closed for a time, has just been reopened. 
It has now about fifty pupils. The population of the parish is 
about one thousand. 



J96 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



St. Mary's (Greek) Church, Trenton, N. J. 

Among the immigrants that have come to Trenton in recent 
years are many Cathohcs of the Greek rite. In 1891 they consid- 
ered that they were numerous enough to have a church and pas- 
tor of their own, and at their request Bishop O'Farrell appointed 
the Rev. John Szabo to be their first pastor. He bought ground 
on the corner of Grand and Malone streets, and began at once to 
collect funds for the building of a church. The corner-stone was 
laid on April i6th, 1893, by Bishop O'Farrell, and the church 
was dedicated in September of the same year. It is a brick build- 
ing and will accommodate about four hundred people. Before 
the erection of this church, which they called St. Mary's, they 
held services in a building on the corner of South Broad and Cole- 
man streets. Father Szabo left in December, 1893, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Theodore Damjanovics, who remained till 
Januar)', 1898. The next pastor was the Rev. John Csurgovich, 
who is still in charge of the parish. He has a school in the b/ase- 
nient of the church with fifty scholars, and is at present building 
a neat rectory beside the church. The parish numbers about four 
hundred and fifty. 

St. Joseph's Church, Trenton, N, J. 

In Ai-jril, 1893, St. Joseph's Parish, East Trenton, was sepa- 
rated from that of St. Mary's Cathedral. The stone bridge on 
North Clinton Avenue was made the boundary line between it 
and the mother parish. The first resident pastor. Rev. John H. 
Fo.x, labored hard for the spiritual welfare of the parish until Feb- 
ruary 1st, 1895, when he was transferred to St. Mary's Cathedral. 
He was succeeded by the Rev. Bernard T. (^'Connell, who, owing 
to ill healtli, was compelled to resign after one month. The ne.xt 
rector, Rev. Michael O'Reilley, remained for three years and a 
half, during which time he proved to be an earnest worker. He 
was followed in September, 1898, by the present rector, Rev. 
Henry A. Ward. Father Ward is an energetic clergyman, and 
hopes before long to lay the foundation of a new church. He has 
recently purchased a house for the Sisters of Mercy, and changed 
the one formerl}- occupied by the sisters into a rectory. St. 
Joseph's has a population of two thousand and a parochial school 
with three hundred and thirty scholars. 



IN NKW JERSEY 391 

Trenton will soon have another Catholic church. The Slavs 
have already purchased a site in South Trenton, upon which they 
expect to erect a church during the coming year, and in the fall 
of 1903 the Italians, who now are sufficiently numerous, followed 
the example of the Catholics of other nationalities and erected a 
church of their own. 



St. Francis's Hospital. 

The Catholic Church is the mother of Christian charity; her 
history is the history of organized charity. She was the first to 
conceive the idea of founding hospitals for the sick and afflicted, 
and homes for the orphan, the aged, and the abandoned. That 
these institutions might become permanent, she established relig- 
ious orders of women who give up the world and devote them- 
selves entirely to these works of charity. It is not surprising then 
to find the Catholic Church founding the first hospital in Tren- 
ton. In 1 871 the Sisters of St. Francis, whose mother house is in 
Philadelphia, purchased a beautiful site on Chambers Street, cor- 
ner of Hamilton Avenue. The foundation was begun October 
15th of that year, and the hospital was dedicated May 31st, 1874, 
by the Rt. Rev. M. A. Corrigan, then Bishop of Newark, and later 
Archbishop of New York. In 1880 a chapel was added to the 
hospital for the use of the sisters and the convalescent patients 
who might wish to attend religious services. In the same year a 
house was erected at some distance from the main building for 
contagious diseases. In 1888 additional land was purchased, and 
in 1896 a large wing was added. This new building has one of 
the finest and most completely equipped operating-rooms in this 
country. An idea of the work accomplished by this hospital may 
be obtained from the report. The number of patients admitted 
to the hospital during the year was 1,120, number of opera- 
tions performed 212, and the number of outside patients who 
received free treatment at the hospital dispensary over 3,000. 
The doors are open to all needy sufferers, without distinction of 
creed or color. 

It is seen from this sketch that the Catholic Church in Tren- 
ton has grown during a century from a few members to nearly 
16,000. While a large part of this increase is due to Catholic 
immigration, the natural growth has also been great. A little 
more than half a century ago one small church accommodated all 
the Catholics of the city; to-day there are eight churches, of 



392 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

which three at least are unusually large and imposing structures. 
All these parishes are well-organized and equipped, having each 
its own school for the children and religious societies for the 
adults. If under less favorable conditions the Church has grown 
and prospered so greatly in the past, will not its future growth in 
nunii^ers and influence be far ureater.'' 



Church of the Immaculate Conception, Bridgeton, N. J. 

The history of the Roman Catholic Church of Bridgeton is 
closely connected with the growth of the city. When in the year 
1865 Mrs. Charles Miller, of Deerfield, whose name will long be 
held in memory by the people of the parish, presented the valu- 
able lot on the corner of North Pearl and North streets, it was 
surrounded by cornfields and was considered far out in the coun- 
try. Now the trend of the city's growth is such that handsome 
residences have been built in great numbers around the church 
property. The Church of the Immaculate Conception was built 
in 1866 by Rev. Martin Gessner, of St. Patrick's Church, Eliza- 
beth, N. J., and was dedicated by the Rt. l-^ev. James Roosevelt 
Bayley, in June, 1867. Previous to that time services were held 
in private houses, and later in Grosscup's Hall and Carl's Hall, 
near Commerce Street bridge, the officiating clergymen coming 
once a month from the Redemptorist Church of St. Peter at Fifth 
and Grand streets, Philadelphia. 

There were up to this time in Bridgeton and the surrounding 
districts but twenty-five or thirty Roman Catholic families, but 
the little flock gradually increased and at the present time there 
are over 700 communicants. 

Father Gessner was succeeded by Rev. Father Degen, who 
built the rectory and made other improvements. He was trans- 
ferred to Cape May in 1878, where he labored assiduously until 
November ist, 19CXD, when he died. 

Father Vivet attended to the spiritual wants of the parish for 
a short period, and was succeeded in 1879 by the Rev. Father 
Mulligan, who is now Dean of the southern counties of the Dio- 
cese of Trenton, and pastor of the Immaculate Conception Church, 
Camden, N. J. 

During Father Mulligan's pastorate the cemetery was bought, 
and after four years of faithful labor he was transferred to New 
Brunswick. Following Father Mulligan, the Rev. D. D. Duggan 
was assigned to the rectorship of the parish and after two years 



IN NKW JERSEY 



393 



transferred to Mount Holly, and is now rector of St. Mary's 
Church, Bordentown, N. J. 

The Rev. Father Walsh succeeded, and after four years was 
compelled, owing to his ill health, to give up the charge. He 
died at West End, N. J., December, 1890. 

Father Petri, now of Atlantic City, was the next rector, and 
during his rectorship the spiritual and temporal welfare of the 
people was attended with \-ery fruitful results. The Rev. Father 
O'Farrell followed iii the spring of 1894, and for nearly seven 
years looked after the affairs of the parish. During his pastorate 
the St. Mary's Lyceum was built. His successor was the Rev. 
Father Gammel, now of Sacred Heart Church, Vineland, N. J., 
who in turn was succeeded. May 29th, 1901, by Rev, M. J. 
Hagerty, D.D., the present incumbent. 



St. Joseph's Church, Guttenberg, N. J. 

The hamlet situated in the northern part of Hudson County, 
which was first occupied by German refugees of 1848, was named 
for the inventor of printing, probably wnth a little side slap at the 
old barbarism of autocratic 
Europe to be superseded by 
American independence, yet 
so that the politico-irreligious 
spirit of 1848 becoming mani- 
fest in this enlightened name, 
should be quickened and kept 
alive by the two breweries that 
were soon to decorate and 
" benefit " both the eastern 
and the western end of Gut- 
tenberg. 

Yet the zealous mission- 
aries of Hudson County were 
not afraid of a little infidelity 

and unfriendliness, and previous to 1865 pious and dutiful priests 
came to say Mass in the upper portion of Hudson County at the 
residence of Mrs. Jane Minnix, a pious Catholic matron, who 
furnished candles and other requisites for the Holy Sacrifice. 

These sundry acts of courage and zeal found soon their reward 
in a turn of public opinion, and since Guttenberg had become an 
independent borough it had its town hall, and so generously and 




OLD CHURCH, GUTTENBERG. 



394 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

hospitably loaned it to the Catholics when they had a priest to 
minister to them on Sundays. The old school-house on Franklin 
Avenue also was many times sanctified by the Eucharistic Sac- 
rifice. 

The spirit of faith and charity cannot be kept from its super- 
natural Catholic expansion, and it soon found vent in the efforts 
that were made by the faithful of Guttenberg" and vicinity toward 
raising" a church building fund. " Fear not, ye little flock," it had 
been said, and God's blessing and man's generosity enabled the 
Catholics to build a church and to have it blessed in 1865 by 
Bishop Bayley. In 1863 the seed had been sown that now bore 
its first sweet fruit, St. Joseph's brick church. 

The faithful and dutiful sons of St. Paul of the Cross had 
evangelized the upper portion of Hudson County, and one of their 
number took charge of the new congregation, yet he resided in the 
monastery at West Hoboken. Rev. Timothy Pacetti, C.P., was 
the first pastor of the parish. 

St. Mary's Church, West Hoboken — dear old St. Mary's, as 
the loving pioneers used to call it — was the mother church of 
Guttenberg". Hence previous to 1885 all records concerning the 
sacraments of baptism and matrimony were kept there. 

P^ather Timothy served St. Joseph's from March 12th until 
the end of 1865. From January ist, 1866, until July 25th, 1869, 
the following Passionist Fathers alternately attended to the spirit- 
ual wants of St. Joseph's congregation: the Revs. Vitalian Lilla, 
Philip Birk, Stanislaus Parezyck, Timothy Pacetti, Andrew 
McGorgan, Ildephonsus Obach, Nilus Nostrajanni, John B. Bau- 
dinelli, and paved the way toward an event great in the begin- 
nings of every parish. August ist, 1869, welcomed the first resi- 
dent pastor, in the person of the Rev. Eusebius Sotis, C.P., who 
built the rectory, a frame structure, 19 by 30 feet, stone base- 
ment and two stories, in 1875. July, 1876, Father Eusebius 
was succeeded by Rev. Michael J. Kerwin, a priest of the 
diocese, who was subsequently transferred to St. Mary's, at East 
Orange. 

Rev. John M. Giraud administered the parish from Septem- 
ber 25th, 1877, until July ist, 1880. He also attended the chapel 
at Shadyside. Father Giraud was a man of great activity, zeal, 
patience, and perseverance. His resources were slender, but the 
improvements were remarkable. The high altar which for years 
served in the brick church was his handiwork. His zeal and for- 
titude found their reward even in this world, where the eternal 



IN NEW JERSEY 



395 



Pastor vouchsafed him the vocation of St. Ignatius's sons. Father 
Giraud is now a Jesuit and attends Blackwell's Island. 

Rev. Francis O'Neill succeeded him, and built a frame school, 
70 by 35 feet, which served at the same time as the sisters' resi- 
dence. Four Sisters of St. Francis, belonging to the mother 
house of Peekskill, N. Y., conducted the pai"()chial school. 

Rev. Joseph II. I lill was jxistor from December 14th, 1890. 
until August 2d, 1898. During this pastorate a frame church 
was built for German-speaking Catholics in West New York. 
But the number of parishioners kept on increasing, so that the 
withdrawal of the former at- 
tendants was soon made up b\' 
new-comers. 

A greater increase was to 
be witnessed during the in- 
cumbenc)' of Rev. A. M. 
Kammer, who t(K)k charge on 
August loth, 1898, so much 
so that a third Mass became 
an absolute necessity on Sun- 
days, in order to give the chil- 
dren an opportunit}' of hearing 
Mass; and in 1902 definite 
steps were taken toward build- 
ing a new church. 

The sisters' residence, 
which was built on Si.xth Street in 1899, 62 by 25 feet, a com- 
fortable frame house, was in October, 1903, removed to its new 
site in West New York, corner of Twenty-first Street and 
Palisade Avenue, opposite the new church, St. Joseph's of the 
Palisades. 

The dear old brick church, dear to so many Catholic hearts 
in North Hudson, was found to be "eccentric" in the literal 
sense of the word ; out of place, viz., in the northern extremity 
of the parish. Fourteen town lots in West New York were 
purchased from Mr. Herman Walker, former mayor of Gutten- 
berg. 

Ground was broken on March 2d, 1903, the first blasting 
begun April 4th. and the first stone of the basement was laid 
May I St. 

The new church, St. Josephs' of the Palisades, is built of blue 
trap rock of the Palisades, with white trimmings; corners, jambs, 




CHURCH OF ST. JOSEPH OF THE 
PALISADES, GUTTENKERG. 



396 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

arches, and cornice of white stone quarried at Richfield, also on 
the Palisades. The edifice is being erected in the Lombard 
Romanesque style, 144 by 56 feet, with two large towers, and rec- 
tory of the same stone adjacent, of the dimensions of 25 by 54 
feet, basement and three stories. 

The corner-stone was laid on a beautiful Sunday, September 
13th, 1903, by Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Connor, attended by the pastor. 
Rev. A. M. Kammer, Rev. Joseph Bloem assistant. Rev. Thomas 
A. Wallace chancellor. Rev. William McLaughlin, who preached 
the sermon. Rev. Andrew Kenny, C.P., Rev. J. J. Cunnelly, 
Rev. J.J. Flanigan, Rev. P. D. Lill, Rev. John Rongetti, Rev. L. 
Hofschneider, and Rev. Walter A. Purcell, in presence of more 
than two thousand people. 

The vicinity of New York City and the great accommodation 
of electric street-cars will undoubtedly soon raise this parish to 
great importance in Hudson County. 

St. Cecilia's Church, Englewood, N. J. 

In the year 1866 the Rev. Dr. Brann, now pastor of St. 
Agnes's Church, New York City, established St. Cecilia's Church 
in Englewood, N. J. Prior to the inception of this church there 
was no resident pastor in Englewood, nor did any take up a regu- 
lar residence within the parish limits until 1 868, when it was placed 
in charge of the Carmelite Fathers by the Rt. Rev. James Roose- 
velt Bayley, D.D., who was at that time bishop of the diocese. 
Rev. Father A. J. Smits, O.C.C, became the first resident pas- 
tor of the parish. In 1872 he enlarged the church, and in 1874 
established a parochial school on the church property, which was 
used effectually and did good service until about a year ago. An 
addition was made to the church in 1 878, and from that time the 
congregation grew so rapidly that in 1884 Father Theo. J. 
McDonald, O.C.C, the present pastor, found it necessary to double 
its capacity in order to accommodate its members. The pupils of 
the school increased in numbers from its inception, and a few 
years ago Father McDonald saw that he could not, with the pres- 
ent seating capacity of the school, accommodate the children. 
He therefore caused to be erected the beautiful stone building 
which in every detail is modern and stands as a living memo- 
rial to his faithful efforts in this community. The school is built of 
cut stone and is erected to accommodate six hundred children. 
The corner-stone was laid May 2d, 1901, and the dedication cere- 



IN NEW JERSEY 397 

monies were held January 19th, 1902, by the Rt. Rev. J. J. 
O'Connor, D.D., bishop of this diocese. 

Connected with St. Ceciha's Church in the same parish, about 
a mile and a half north, a church was erected at Tenafly in 1873. 
The first pastor was Father Paganini, who, after a few years of 
hard labor, was succeeded by Father Cannon, who remained as 
rector until the church was returned to the Carmelite Fathers in 
the year 1 878. This church had its own difficulties and met with 
considerable uphill work. It appeared so difficult to instruct the 
children in the Christian doctrine that the pastor then in charge, 
in order to facilitate his work, fitted up the parochial residence as 
a school. In 1889 an addition was made to it and it was built 
sufficiently large to accommodate the children. It is in charge of 
the Sisters of Charity from Englewood. The necessity for this 
school was thoroughly understood by Mother Xavier, the Supe- 
rior of the Sisters of Charity, who realized the conditions that 
existed and the great need for the school in that vicinity. It 
was, indeed, from a financial standpoint, in a poor condition, and 
one of the sisters who was assigned to officiate at the school was 
sent by Mother Xavier free of charge for many years. 

Rev. Father McDonald, the present pastor, has endeared him- 
self to the entire community through his efforts and good work 
in the parish. 

St. Nicholas's Church, Egg Harbor City. 

The mission of Egg Harbor City was for many years attended 
from Millville, and was incorporated February 14th, 1866. The 
Rev. Joseph Thurnes was the first resident pastor, August 12th, 
1866, and during his administration were built the school and rec- 
tory. His successor, November 14th, 1878, was the Rev. An- 
thony Hechinger, who came to the Diocese of Newark from 
Rochester. The Diocesan Register has this record of him : " He 
reduced the debts, and reduced the congregation by his uncon- 
genial temper." He was transferred to Greenville when its pas- 
tor. Father Mendl, left to join the Redemptorists. He ultimately 
left the diocese and returned to Rochester, where he died some 
years ago. The Rev. Joseph Esser, born in Neuss, near Cologne, 
September 19th, 1851, educated at the University of Bonn and 
the American College, Munster, ordained priest December 19th, 
1874, assistant at St. Joseph's, Jersey City, was placed in charge 
of the parish, November ist, 1878. His pastorate effected much 



398 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



good. He paid off the debts, decorated the church, and brought 
peace and piety to the parish. He was thrown out of his carriage, 
April 5th, 1885, and died twenty-two days after, much regretted 
and mourned by all classes. The present pastor, the Rev. An- 
thony von Riel, was appointed June 12th, 1885. In 1893 he in- 
stalled three Sisters of St. Francis, from Glen Riddle, Pa., as 
teachers in his school. 



St. Joseph's Church, Newark. 

The first steps to organize the Catholics in the growing sec- 
tion of Newark called the " Hill " were taken by the pastor of the 
cathedral, Father McOuaid, who bought the land and erected a 
combination church and school in 1859. For nine \ears this was 



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ST. Joseph's church, newakk. 

a portion of St. Patrick's parish and attended b}- the priests con- 
nected with it, until the Rev. James V . Dalton, of the cathedral, 
was appointed i)astor. I'^ither Dalton was born in New York 
City, ediu-ated in St. Charles's, Maryland, anil made his theology 
at Seton Hall, where he was ordained June 24th, 1865. He was 
very much beloved both as assistant and pastor, and despite his 
delicate state of health he accomplished very much for his flock. 
On a trip to Ireland he brought over a stone for the contemplated 
new church from the historic vale of Glendalough, which was 
laid with great })omp and ceremony Thanksgiving Day, 1872. 



IN NEW JERSEY 399 

The orator of the occasion was the great Dominican, Father 
"Tom" Burke, who electrified his vast auditory by one of his 
most splendid oratorical efforts. The enthusiastic greeting given 
to this distinguished scholar and priest, who had utterly annihilated 
and put to ignominious flight James Anthony Froude, the ma- 
ligner of the Irish race and Mary, Queen of Scots, was a sight to 
be witnessed but once in a generation and never to be forgotten. 
July I St, 1876, Father Dalton was transferred to St Mary's, 
Bayonne, and was succeeded by the Re\'. Thomas J. Toomey. 
Father Toomey was born in Piermont, N. Y., March 23d, 1848. 
His studies, begun at St. Mary's, Wilmington, Del., and continued 
at St. Charles's, Maryland, were completed at Seton Hall, from 
which he was graduated in the class of '69. He was ordained in 
Seton Hall Seminary, June 7th, 1873, and discharged for a time 
the duties of prefect in the college. In March, 1874, he was 
named assistant at the cathedral, where he served until July ist, 
1876. With great reluctance he obeyed the voice of his superior, 
as he realized the difficulty of supplanting Father Dalton in the 
affection which his flock bore him. Notwithstanding his diffi- 
dence and a certain timidity in his character, he went to work Cjui- 
etly and unoi:)trusively, and the congregation had the satisfaction 
of seeing their beautiful new church dedicated April 18th, 1880. 
Monsignor Doane, in his sermon, referred to the rapid growth of 
Catholicity in Nqwark. " Many were still alive and doubtless pres- 
ent who remembered when they had to worship in a humble room 
with an improvised altar. They had not forgotten that man of 
all men, Father Moran, the pastor of St. John's — the mother of 
all the Newark churches Somebody had said to the preacher 
the other day that there were no longer such priests as Father 
Moran. The Monsignor was cjuite unwilling to admit that, and 
he was quite sure the other clergy would be loath to admit it. 
They were all willing to give the chaplet of superiority to Father 
Moran. What wonder that with such a man to sow the seed the 
harvest has been so abundant ! This church is associated with 
my ministr)-, for I used to say Mass here in the first days of the 
parish." 

In 1885 Father Toomey built the rectory, and in the spring of 
1894 the spacious and imposing school was opened. When he 
died, February 15th, 1894, with all the improvements made by 
him. Father Toomey left only $50,000 debt on the parish. His 
successor, who lived little more than a year, was the Rev, Peter 
J. O'Donnell. Father O'Donnell, born in Sligo, Ireland, Decem- 



400 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

ber 14th, 1854, made his preparatory studies in St. Francis Xavier's, 
New York, and later in Seton Hall. He finished his theological 
course in the Collegio Brignole-Sale, Genoa, and was ordained in 
the Cathedral of Genoa, June 7th, 1879. His priestly ministry was 
exercised in St. John's, Orange, during eleven years, and in Hack- 
ensack, of which he was made pastor, January 6th, 1890. He died 
of pneumonia, (3ctober 19th, 1895, and is buried in the Hudson 
County Catholic Cemetery. His successor was the Very Rev. John 
J. O'Connor, the present Bishoj) of the Diocese of Newark. On 
his return to the diocese, after his ordination, December 22d, 1877, 
Father O'Connor was appointed professor in Seton Hall and in the 
diocesan seminary. On the death of the Very Rev. \V. P. Salt, 
V.G., he was named vicar-general, and after the death of Bishop 
Wigger he became administrator of the diocese. From the time 
of his appointment to his new field of labor, October 30th, 1895, to 
the day of his elevation to the greater dignit)' and responsibility of 
Bishop of Newark, Bishop O'Connor's administration was marked 
by quiet but effective work, stimulating to greater spiritual ad- 
vancement, lessening the debt, and perfecting the work and 
methods in the school. The Re\'. George \V. Corrigan was 
appointed by the new bishop to be his successor in St. Jo- 
seph's. Father "George "was born in Newark, N. J., October 
20th, 1849, and is the third of that illustrious family who, raised 
to the priesthood, ha\e made their name monumental by reason 
of the signal services rendered to religion in this diocese ])y this 
trinity of zealous and devoted brothers. His studies were made 
in that ancient nursery of priests, the " Mountain," at St. Sulpice, 
Paris, and at Seton Hall, where he was ordained August 15th, 
1874. These pages have already recorded what Father " George " 
has accomplished in Newton, Franklin Furnace, Deckertown, Mil- 
burn, and St. Agnes's, Paterson. With never a thought of self 
he has given himself entirely to his work, and in a marked degree 
to the young men and the school. If the fullest success has not 
crowned his efforts, it surely was through no fault of his, for 
he has thrown himself into his work with a heartiness and abandon 
which others might admire but did not dare imitate. Bishop 
O'Connor recognized his devoted labor in the cause of religion 
for over twenty years by making him a permanent rector, July 
1st, 1901. The following priests have served as assistants in St. 
Joseph's: 

Rev. Nicholas Molloy, June, 1S73. to August. 1S75. 
Rev. J. M. Giraud, August, uSyc;, to December, 1S76. 



IN NEW JERSEY 401 

Rev. M. A. McManus, Uecember, 1S76. to November. 1877. 

Rev. A. M. Schecken. November. 1S77. to January. 1879. 

Rev. M. j. Holland. fn)m January. 1S79. to August, 1879. 

Rev. M. r. O'Connor, .\ugust. 1879, to April, 1SS2. 

Rev. 1'. F. J. Connolly. August, 1882, to May. 1S90. 

Rev. H. C. Phelan. D.D.. October, 1887. to February. 1S93. 

Rev. T. A. Conroy, July. 1890, to August. 1901. 

Rev. Th. N. Stanton, March, 1893, to December. 1893. 

Rev. James Mulhall, June. 1S93, to F^ebruary, 1901. 

Rev. E. M. 0"Malley. February. 1901. to July. 1903. 

Rev. M. P. Corcoran. July, 1901. 

Rev. E. F. Quirk. July. 1903. 

St. Joseph's Church, Paterson, N. J. 

The property on which the fir.st church \va,s opened for the 
convenience of the Catholics Hving- in the southeastern section of 
Paterson was purchased by the trustees of St. Jolm's Cliurch, on 




ST. JOSEPH S CHURCH, PATERSON. 



Broadway, January 28th, 1867. A stable in the rear was converted 
into a church, where Mass was celebrated for eight years and six 
months by a priest from the mother church. August ist, 1895, 
it was detached from St. John's, becoming an independent parish, 
26 



402 THK CATHOLIC CHURCH 

with the Rev. Nicholas Molloy as first resident pastor. Father 
Molloy was educated in the College of SS. Peter and Paul, Lisbon, 
Portugal, was ordained for the diocese of Liverpool, England, and 
was received in this diocese, May, 1 873. He remodelled the chapel, 
and built the combination school and church on a more central 
site, on Market Street near Carroll, in 1877. He died June 23d, 
1880, and is buried in Calvary Cemetery. July ist, 1880, the Rev. 
Sebastian Smith, D.D., was assigned to this field, and, although 
more of a student than an administrator, he purchased additional 
ground, built the stone church and rector)', and improved the 
school. He published various works on canon law, and died while 
on a vacation for his health, alone and unknown, in a hospital in 
Havana, Cuba. By the merest chance his bishop was informed 
of his death, and his remains were interred among strangers until 
long after the close of the Spanish war, when the\-, together with 
the remains of the sailors of the unfortunate Alainc, were brought 
North. In March, 1895, the Rev. Charles P. Gillin was appointed 
rector. Father Gillin, born June 27th, 1847, made his theological 
studies in Seton Hall, and was ordained in the cathedral, Newark, 
June 15th, 1878. He discharged the duties of assistant in St. 
Patrick's, Elizabeth, and St. Mar)''s, Plainfield, until December 
1st, 1883, when he was made pastor of Mount Hope. He was 
transferred to St. Lucy's, Jersey City, August, 1888. Father 
Gillin in 1898 built a more commodious brick and stone rectory, 
and in 1900 the old rectory was enlarged and converted into a 
convent. All these buildings fell a prey to the destructive fire 
which visited Paterson Sunday, February 9th, 1902, and destroyed 
millions of dollars of property. Undismayed by their terrible 
loss the congregation purchased additional property, and erected a 
fine school, in which they assembled for divine service during the 
restoration and rebuilding of the church. It should be recorded 
that the flock of St. Joseph's received from every side the sym- 
pathy of all, irrespective of their creed. Some religious bodies 
tendered to them the use of their church, and the city placed at 
their disposal the national guard armory, which was used for 
divine service until the hall in the school was ready. The rectory 
has been rebuilt and the church is approaching completion The 
following priests have been identified with the parish: 

Assistants. 
Rev. J. F. Brady, August, 1879, to P'ebruary, 1880. 
Rev. M. S. Callan, June, 1884, to June, 18S5. 
Rev. E. A. Kelly, June. 1885, to November, 1886. 



IN NEW JERSEY 403 

Rev. J. E. McAvoy, November, 1886, to January, 1888. 

Rev. Henry Murphy, November, 1889, to September, 1893. 

Rev. P. F. Kirwan, January, 1894, to March, 1894. 

Rev. J. J. Maher, May, 1894, to September, 1894. 

Rev. J. F. Brown, October, 1894, to May, 1896. 

Rev. J. P. Hangley, May, 1896, to January. 1898. 

Rev. E. M. O Donnell, January, 1898, to November, 1899. 

Rev. J. F. Keenahan, November, 1899, to May, 1901. 

Rev. I). J. Brady, May. 1901, to July. 1903. 

Rev. 1'. .AI. Schoenen, August. 1900-1903. 

Rev. E. M. O'Malley. July, 1903. 

Rev. Owen Clark, 1903. 

St. Bernard's Church, Mount Hope, Morris Co., N. J. 

In 1 861 the Rew heather Callan, of St. Mary's, Dover, built a 
hall for the Catholic congregation of Mount Hope, which until 
then had attended Ma.ss at pri\ate houses, at the point where the 
Mount Hope road branches off from the Rockavva}' and Port Oram 
road. In this hall Mass was said once a month. For the week 
days it was rented to the trustees of the school district. 

In 1869 the Rev. B. Ouinn, of Dover, built St. Bernard's 
Church where it now is, on a plot donated by John Corrigan, at a 
cost of $2,200. 

On the i6th of September, 1875, the Rev. Michael Connolly, 
of St. Mary's, bought for $110 a i^lot of ground of about three 
acres, on which there was a small hall used by the A. O. H. for 
meetings, about one-half mile away from the church toward 
Rockaway. 

About November ist, 1875, the Rev. Walter M. Fleming 
was appointed hrst resident pastor of St. Bernard's Church. He 
lost no time in building the present rectory for $4,200. 

This good, simple, generous flock have never failed to contribute 
to the support of their church and priest out of tlieir earnings, 
scanty enough in the most prosperous times. The main industry 
is mining, and as the market for iron rises or falls, so do the hard- 
working miners fare ill or well. Father Schneider visited the 
Catholics at Mount Hope as early as October, 1774, and, judging 
from the number of baptisms administered by him until 1781, 
there must have been at least two score Catholic families in this 
^dcinity. To-day there is barely a trace of their descendants. 

The Rev. Patrick McGahan, born in Cully Hannah, county 
Armagh, Ireland, June 29th, 1850, educated at Mount Melleray 
and St. Nicholas's Seminary, Belgium, was ordained priest in 



404 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Louvain, May 22d, 1875. He labored in St. Bridget's, Jersey- 
City, St. John's, Trenton, and St. John's, Paterson. He was 
appointed to Mount Hope F'ebruary 19th, 1883, was acting pastor 
of the Poles in Jersey City, and died in St. Vincent's Hospital, 
New York, July 22d, 1894. 

Father McGahan, shortly after coming to Mount Hope, 
enlarged the hall of the A. O. H. and engaged the Sisters of 
Charity to teach ; they lived in a rented house. Father Gillin 
first bought a house for them where the Whitemeadow road 
branches off from the Rockaway road, and in the fall of 1 884 he 
built a convent for them with a chapel, costing about $3,000. 
When in 1892 the number of parishioners, on account of the 
closing of some mines, had considerably decreased, Father Hall 
had to discontinue the parochial school. The chapel is still used 
for Mass on week days. The names and terms of the pastors 
are as follows : 

Rev. Walter "M. Fleming, November 1st, 1875, to August 20th. 1880. 
Rev. r. A. McGahan, August 20th. 18S0, to December ist, 1882. 
Rev. iAIichael J. Hickie, December ist. 1SS2, to December ist, 1883. 
Rev. C. P. Gillin, December ist, 1883, to Augu.st, 1S88. 
Rev. J. H. Hill. August. 1SS8, to January ist, 1891. 
Rev. J.J. Hall, January ist, 1891, to March. 1896. 

Rev. John M. McHale. March, 1896, to December 12th, 1897; died in 
Mount Hope. 

Rev. John McErlain. December. 1897. to November 2d. 1900. 
Rev. B. W. Ahne. November 2d. 1900. 

The Church of St. Paul of the Cross, Jersey City. 

The parish of St Paul of the Cross embraces that portion of 
Jersey City which is bounded on the north by the Paterson Plank- 
road, on the south b}' Manhattan Avenue, on the east by Ogden 
Avenue or the edge of Jersey City Heights, and on the west by 
the Hackensack River. It became regularly incorporated accord- 
ing to the laws of New Jersey in 1 868. 

The parish of St. Paul of the Cross was in its infancy under 
the pastoral care of the Passionist Fathers of West Hoboken. 
In the year 1 869 it seemed necessary to the good fathers to build 
a church in the section of Jersey City already described. This 
section of Jersey City was then included in what was known as 
Hudson City, N. J. With devout affection for the sainted founder 
of their congregation, the Passionist Fathers decided to place the 
new church under the patronage of St. Paul of the Cross. Father 



IN NEW JKRSEY 



405 



John Philip Baudinelli, C.P., since called to his reward, first 
assumed pastoral chari^e. The corner-stone of the new church 
was laid and blessed on the Feast of the Assumption of B. V. 
Mary, August 15th, 1869. We cannot do better than quote the 
Irish-American describing this solemn ceremony: 

On Sunday, August 15th, 1869, the corner-stone of the new 
Church of St. Paul of the Cross, in Hancock Avenue, near South 
Street, Hudson City, N. J., was laid in presence of a large mul- 
titude. The building when 
completed will be a handsome 
and substantial brick edifice, 
about 50 by 100 feet, with a 
spacious basement intended 
to be used as a school-room. 
The want of a Catholic 
church in this part of Hud- 
son City has long been felt, 
and to the zealous efforts of 
the Passionist P"athers the 
people are indebted for the 
erection of this edifice, which 
is expected to be ready for 
divine service by Christmas. 

The ceremonies were 
opened b}' a discourse by the 
Rev. F'ather Reilly, of New- 
ark, who dwelt at some length 
on the characteristics of the 
true Church, which traced its 
origin to the Redeemer Him- 
self, and whose doctrine and 
teachings were ever the same, whether enunciated imder the mar- 
ble domes of magnificent cathedrals or in the lowly huts of the 
missionary, whose zeal for the salvation of souls had led him into 
the haunts of the savages of the wilderness. 

Rev. F'ather Vincent then delivered a discourse in German, 
after which the ceremony of blessing the corner-stone was per- 
formed by Rt. Rev. Monsignor Seton according to the Catholic 
ritual. Rev. Fathers John, Philip, Angelo, and Sebastian of the 
Passionist Order assisting. 

The following is a transcript of the record deposited in the 
foundation : 




ST. PAUL OF THE CROSS, lERSKV CITY. 



In the year of our Lord 1869, on the 15th day of August, the 



4o6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

festival of the Assumption of tlie Blessed Virgin Mary; Pius 
IX. by the grace of God being Chief Bishop of the Church of 
God; Ulysses S. Grant, President of the United States; Most 
Rev. James R. Bayley, Bishop of this Diocese; Rev. Father 
Dominick, Provincial of the Order of the Passionists ; and Rev. 
John Philip, rector of this parish, this corner-stone of a church, 
in the presence of a large concourse of people, was blessed and 
laid by the Rt. Rev. Monsignor Seton, in honor of St. Paul of the 
Cross, and to the greater glory of God ; Rev. Father Reilly being 
preacher in the English language, and Rev. Vincent Nagle preacher 
in the German language. 

P'ather John Philip was succeeded by his brother. Father John 
Baudinelli. 

On the second Sunday of October, 1 870, the new church of 
St. Paul of the Cross was dedicated to the service of the Almighty. 

Father John was succeeded by Father Timothy Pacetti, who 
seems to have been full of activity and zeal. In the year 1872 he 
organized a society for the purpose of raising funds to meet the 
expenses of a parochial school, and in 1875 he brought together 
the Young Men's Literary Association of St. Paul of the Cross. 
Feather Timoth}' is at present doing missionary work in Chili, 
South America. 

In 1876 Father James P. Smith, a secular priest, took charge 
of the parish of St. Paul of the Cross. 

Many regrets were expressed at the departure of the Passion- 
ist Fathers from the flock they had guarded so well, but soon the 
parishioners in a degree forgot their loss, owing to the kindly dis- 
position and many excellent qualities of their new pastor. P"ather 
Smith continued to grow in the love and esteem of the people of 
St. Paul of the Cross until the year 1887, when death called him 
away. 

Father Smith was a native of the parish of Cluaneen, having 
been born near Fethard, in the county Tipperary, Ireland. At 
an early age, having evinced a vocation for the sacred ministry, 
he received his preliminary training at a classical school in his 
native Cashel. He was subsequently sent to Mount Melleray and 
thence to All Hallows College, whence, having concluded to 
adopt the American mission as his future field of labor, he came 
to this country and completed his theological course at Seton 
Hall College, where he was ordained for the Diocese of Newark 
by the late Archbishop Bayley. His first curacy was in the par- 
ish of St. Mary's, Jersey City, where he officiated for some years, 
endearing himself to all the congregation by his gentle manner 



IN NKW JERSEY 407 

and kindly disposition. When the Passionist Fathers, in 1876, 
gave up the charges of the parishes in which they had up to that 
time officiated, Father Smith was assigned by the present Arch- 
bishop of New York, then Bishop of Newark, to the rectorship of 
the church and parish of St. Paul of the Cross, which at that 
time included all that portion of Jersey City Heights between 
the parish of St. Joseph's and that of St. Michael's Monastery. 
Here Father Smith continued to labor with unflagging zeal, 
winning golden opinions from all, until he was struck down by 
the insidious disease to which, in the prime of life, he fell a 
victim. 

The parishioners should not fail to remember two worthy 
priests who assisted Father Smyth in his labors for the advance- 
ment of religion in this parish, — Father Esser, who died in Egg 
Harbor, N. J., and Father Huygen, who died in St. Francis's 
Hospital, Jersey City. 

Both these good priests richly deserve the high admiration in 
which they were and are )-et held in the parish of St. Paul of the 
Cross. 

In December, 1887, the Rev. Thomas Ouinn was appointed 
by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Wigger to take care of the parish. 

St. Bridget's Church, Jersey City. 

This parish, as has been noted, was organized during the ad- 
ministration of Dr. Corrigan, while Bishop Bay ley was attending 
the Vatican Council, by the Rev. Patrick Corrigan. The corner- 
stone of the little frame church was laid November 14th, 1869. 
The outlook was not promising. Cabbage-gardens, sand-hills, 
and rush-grown swamps, filling the air with their poisonous effluvia, 
presented a somewhat discouraging aspect to the active and light- 
hearted Father Corrigan. The condition of the flock materially 
and spiritually was in harmony with the environment. But in a 
short time the Catholics gave evidence of their faith and gener- 
osity, of a veneration and docility to the guidance of their pastors, 
which has ever since been a distinguishing feature of this congre- 
gation. A priest who began his career among these lowly, hum- 
ble people has declared that although nearly thirty years in the 
priesthood, and during that time coming in contact with many 
phases of Catholicity in many fields, he has never seen the love 
and veneration of the people of St. Bridget's for their priests 
equalled. To him their grateful appreciation of the ordinary 



4o8 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



functions of the priesthood was and will be to the end of his days 
a precious memory. 

In 1874 a basement was built under the church, and better 
accommodation was afforded to the scholars and their teachers. 
In January, 1875, the Rev. Patrick E. Smythe was transferred 
from Madison to St. Bridget's, and under him the present rectory 




ST. BRIDGET'S CHURCH AND RECTORY, JERSEY CITY. 



was built. Meanwhile the tide of population flowed thitherward, 
new houses were built, the swamps were filled, and the congrega- 
tion materially increased in numbers. The Rev, James Hanly, 
who had labored as assistant in St. Patrick's, Elizabeth, Philips- 
burg, and St. John's, Paterson, was transferred to this flock from 
Dover, January, 1883. Father Hanly erected the present hand- 
some church. He died in the parish house in 1889, and his suc- 
cessor was the Rev. P. M. Corr. Father Corr, born at Ballintem- 
ple, county Kildare, Ireland, entered Seton Hall in September, 



IN NKW JERSEY 409 

1876, and was ordained priest June 15th, 1878. St. James's, 
Newark, and St. Mary's, Jersey City, were the parishes in which 
he labored as a curate. Appointed pastor of Hackensack in 1885, 
he awakened that congregation from its lethargy, built a convent 
for the sisters, improved the school, and left the parish in a 
healthy financial condition. His energy was felt in the new field 
of his activities, and his principal monument is the large and well- 
appointed parish school. But his health began to fail, and in the 
hope of recruiting it he went to Ireland, but died there July 24th, 

1893- 

The Rev. William Henry Dornin, who was born in New York, 
October 15th, 1850, educated at St. Charles's and Seton Hall, a 
graduate of the class of '71, and ordained May 22d, 1875, was 
destined to exhaust in this parish the last years and the best 
efforts of a fruitful ministry. Father Dornin's life proved how 
much could be accomplished by devotion to duty and trust in God. 
He pursued his studies with much labor; but it is safe to say 
that none has gone forth from the diocesan seminary who has 
achieved better results than Father Dornin. There was no cor- 
ner of the missionary field neglected by him, and whether as 
assistant or pastor he never shirked work and never tired in its 
discharge. St. John's, Trenton, St. Patrick's, Elizabeth, and St. 
John's, Orange, can all testify to his zealous labors as an assistant. 
His first parochial charge was St. Peter's, Belleville, where his 
memory still lives and where he is blessed in his work. In Belle- 
ville and in St. Bridget's he brought his schools to a high de- 
gree of efficiency. He loved the children, and sought by every 
means in his power to fit them to fight successfully the battle of 
life. He was an earnest, forcible preacher, and in the discharge 
of the responsibilities resting upon him he literally wore himself 
out. He departed this life to enter upon his reward July 4th, 
1899. The Rev. John F. Ryan, born in Dover, N. J., October 
30th, 1863, studied at Seton Hall, graduated in the class of '83, 
and ordained June 4th, 1887, is Father Dornin's successor. 

Father Ryan's work in the Arlington Protectory deserves 
never to be forgotten. He infused new life into it, organized 
trade classes, found a market for the goods manufactured there, 
and displayed an exceptional talent of administrative and execu- 
tive ability of a high order. In him St. Bridget's has found a 
worthy pastor, and the experience gained in his last charge will 
redound to the benefit of his present flock. 

The following priests have been connected with St. Bridget's 



410 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

parish: The Revs. Joseph M. Flynn, P. A. McGahan, J. O'Reilly, 
H. B. Ward, John J. McGrath, N. McMenamin, Thomas Ouinn, 
B. Fitzpatrick, Thomas E. Butler, Joseph H. Hill, P. McGauran, 
William Murphy, Eugene A. Farrell, John J. Murphy, B. M. 
Bogan, John J. Shannessy, William J. Foley, James P. Smith, 
John F." Ryan, L. H. Ryan, D. S. Clancy, E. A. Kelly, W. A. 
Brothers, S. A. Halloran, J. E. Sheehey, W. A. Keyes, L. J. 
Bohl, R. A. Mahoney, John J. Murphy. 

St. Patrick's Church, Jersey City. 

This parish was founded December 23d, 1869, when by ar- 
rangement with Father Venuta Bishop Corrigan, then administra- 
tor, assigned the Rev. Patrick Hennessy to take charge of the 
new congregation. Father Hennessy was born in the county 
Limerick, h-eland, March 17th, 1833, and was educated in Mount 
St. Mary's, Emmettsburg, and in the American College, Rome. 
He was ordained in the Eternal City by Cardinal Patrizzi, May 
30th, 1863. He was an assistant with Father Kelly in Jersey 
City until December 12th, 1865, when he was sent by Bishop 
Bayley to Elizabethport and became pastor of St. Patrick's. 
Here he labored four years until he was called to " South Bergen," 
as the present section of Jersey City covered by St. Patrick's par- 
ish was then called. The corner-stone of the new church was laid 
November 13th, 1870, and the new church dedicated August 19th, 
1877. St. Patrick's parish enjoys the distinction of possessing 
the most perfect and imposing specimen perhaps of Gothic archi- 
tecture in the diocese of Newark, and another, less honorable, of 
being the only parish of any considerable size without a parish 
school. It is true, indeed, that Father Hennessy's successor, the 
Rev. Lawrence C. M. Carroll, laid the corner-stone of a sump- 
tuous structure, October 13th, 1901, which promises to contain all 
the recjuirements for a school, club, and theatre, so that ample 
provision has been made for the many-sided wants of the parish 
in the future. The building is still in an inchoate state, but its 
elaborateness no doubt justifies the delay of its completion. It 
will be a unique parish building. Father Carroll was born in 
Newark, N. J., May 6th, 1854, made his studies at St. Charles's 
and Seton Hall, of the class of '75, and was ordained in the cathe- 
dral June 7th, 1879. He was an assistant in St. John's, Orange, 
and St. Mary's, Jersey City. He was appointed pastor of South 
Orange, and built the Church of Our Lady of Sorrows, the school, 



IN NEW JERSEY 



411 



and the rectory. His appointment to St. Patrick's dates March 
15th, 1896. Father Hennessy's body is buried near the tower of 
the church. The following priests have served St. Patrick's: 
Revs. P. McCahill. M. J. Connolly, M. de Stephano, Hugh 
McManus, J. Canon Moynihan, James A. McP'aul, D.D. (now 
Bishop of Trenton ), Michael ¥. Downes, James J. Sheehan, James 




ST. PATRICK S CHURCH. JERSEY CITY. 

P. Corrigan. P. MacDonald, \\\ J. C^3nle)-, J. C. McErlain, Wil- 
liam J. O'Gorman, J. H. Hennes, M. R. Donahue, Bernard Hater, 
James A. Kelly, Thomas F. Monaghan, Walter Tallon, James A. 
Keough, J. B. Donahue, John McGeary. 



St. Mark's Church, Rahway, N. J. 

In the spring of 1870 several meetings were held by the Ger- 
man Catholics of Rahway, the result being that Messrs. George 
V. Andelfinger, Sr., August Ritter, Marcus Schantz, and Joseph 



412 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Beecher were appointed as a committee to purchase a suita- 
ble piece of property whereon to build a church. They finally 
purchased the property where the church and parsonage now 
stand ; the afore-mentioned together with eleven others formed 
a building" committee. In the mean time the spiritual wants 
of the small flock were looked after by the Rev. Alber Von 
Schilgen, of Elizabeth. Meetings were held in an old hall known 
as Gibby's Rink, long since gone to ruin, and at these meetings 
it was concluded to call the church after St. Mark; hence the 
credit of founding St. Mark's Roman Catholic Church must be 
given to the Rev. Alber Von Schilgen, of Elizabeth. The first 
Mass said for the members of St. Mark's v/as said in the house 
of Mr. Andelfinger; the house is still standing. In the fall of 
1 87 1 the corner-stone was laid and the basement w^as fitted up as 
a temporary chapel until the church was finished for service — a 
year and a half later. The first Mass was celebrated by Father 
Misdziol, who came Sundays for about si.x months. From that 
time until 1874 various priests attended to the wants of the peo- 
ple, when the Rev. A. Bergman w^as appointed. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. R. Goodman, O.S.B., in 1875, and he in the fol- 
lowing year, 1876, was succeeded by Rev. P. H. Rabanus, O.S.B., 
who remained in charge until 1877, when the Rev. Theodosius 
Goth, O.S.B., assumed the duties of pastor. The following year, 
1878, saw two changes — Rev. J.J. Schandel succeeding Father 
Goth, and he in turn being followed by Rev. Mauritius Kaeder, 
who remained until 1879, when the church was closed until 
1882. 

The year 1882 will always be remembered with feelings of 
great joy by the members of St. Mark's Church, as it marked the 
reopening of the church by our late Rt. Rev. Bishop Wigger. 
Rev. Eugene Dikovitch was appointed to the arduous task of again 
gathering back the stray sheep. He performed his duties well, 
and it was his pleasure to see the church prosper under his ardent 
and tender care. He remained until October, 1884, when he ac- 
cepted a parish in Paterson, N. J. (St. Boniface's), where he is 
still stationed. His successor was Rev. Anthony Wirtner, O.S.B., 
who remained until February, 1885, when he was succeeded by 
Rev. Hugo Paff, O.S.B. He remained until January, 1886. In 
January, 1886, Rev. Leopold Hof Schneider assumed charge of the 
parish, and he will always be revered and honored for the amount 
of work and good he accomplished, among which were the build- 
ing of a parsonage, sisters' house, tower on the church, including 



IN NEW JERSEY 413 

new bells, enlarging the church, etc., and all this in the short 
period of three and one-half years. In August, 1889, he was 
removed to Hoboken, to establish a new parish, where he is still 
stationed. His successor, the Rev. J. H. Miller, remained until 
October, 1892, when Rev. Henry Kouse assumed ■ charge and 
remained until 1893, his successor, Rev. Philip Henke, remaining 
until April 24th, 1895. On the Sunday following Rev. John Bap- 
tist Kayser assumed charge, and during the eight years of labor 
did much good in the parish. Words fail to express the gratitude 
due him, but God will reward him now that He has called him to 
Himself. The interior of the church, the vestments, a new altar 
erected by himself, and a new pipe organ stand as monuments of 
his works. He died very suddenly September nth, 1903, and 
his loss was keenly felt. His successor, Rev. Henry Duckgeischel, 
formerly of Newark, N. J., assumed charge of the parish Septem- 
ber. 17th, 1903. 

This parish is blessed with a parochial school, founded by Rev. 
Eugene Dikovitch in 1883, which is in charge of the Sisters of 
St. Dominic. 

Sacred Heart Church, Elizabeth, N. J. 

In April, 1870, Rev. Henry Lemke, O.S.B., bought land at 
the corner of Magnolia Avenue and Spring Street. He built a 
chapel, which was incorporated as St. Henry's Church, April 
24th, 1 871. 

April 2d, 1877, he was followed by Rev. Athanasius Hinte- 
nach, O.S B. 

In 1 881 Rev. Augustine Wirth, O.S.B., succeeded to the 
pastorate. 

In 1883 the corner-stone of a new church was laid. The 
church was named the " Sacred Heart," and was completed in the 
year 1888. 

In 1887 Rev. Cornelius Eckl, O.S.B., was appointed pastor 
and completed the church. 

In 1890 Rev. Augustine Wirth, O.S.B., became pastor. 

In the year 1897, October 6th, Rev. Ambrose Haebwr, O.S.B , 
the present pastor, took charge of this congregation. In 1899 a 
large brick school was built, which at present 290 children 
attend. 

The regular assistants of this church have been: From 1900 
to 1902, Rev. Florian Widman, O.S.B. ; from 1902 to 1903, Rev. 



414 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 




tHLiRCH OF THE SACRED HEART, ELIZABETH. 

Henry Becker, O.S.B. ; and at present Rev. James Cullinane, 
O.S.B. 

The church was consecrated on November 25th, 1894, by the 
Archbishop of New York, Most Rev. Michael A. Corrigan, D.D. 



St. Patrick's Church, Chatham, N. J. 

The need of a mission at Chatham was apparent to Dr. Wig- 
ger as early as the year 1870. He witnessed how at least one 
hundred Chathamites made the long journc}' of tw(_) and a half 
miles over the hills to the church at Madison ; and, be it said to 
their credit, they were proverbially first at Mass. 

The rev. doctor awaited his opportunity, and in the mean time 
consulted many of the resident Catholics regarding his plans for 
their benefit. 

Among these was Mr. John McCormac. This gentleman in- 
formed the doctor one Sunday that some land on Mr. Paul Lum's 
farm vva.s to be sold. Accordingly, at a meeting of the trustees 



IN NEW JERSEY 



415 



of St. Vincent's Church, Madison, December 2d, 1870, it was 
resolved to pin-chase the property for a school site. On May 3d, 
1871, Mr. McTernan, one of the trustees, was authorized to make 
the purchase. In conjunction with Mr. James S. Coleman, New 
York City, he performed this dut)'. Mr. Coleman paid the money 
and passed the title to Mr. McTernan, who in turn transferred 
the property to the trustees of St. Vincent's Church. 

The minutes of the meeting of the trustees, held on Ma\' 30th, 
1871, read: " Jolin McTernan reported that he })urchased two lots, 
150 by 50 feet each, for the sum of $500." 

It does not seem that the hcjldini;" of dixinc serxice was the 
first reason of the purchase, although afterward the building 
served the twofold purpose of church and school. 

There seems to have been much op[)()sition to the purchase on 
the grounds of distance from tlie lentre of population. No road 
yet traversed the old farm, altliough the now Washington Avenue 
was opened shortly afterward. On account of this opposition 
some of the Catholics met and made overtures to the owner of 
premises near where Mr. John Doian now resides. The owner 
mentioned consented to make the exchange for a consideration. 
Mr. Henry H(.)uston was chosen by the meeting to represent the 
case to Dr. W'igger, the pas- 
tor. After listening patient- 
ly to the statement, Dr. W'ig- 
ger replied, "It is just where 
I want it." 

At a meeting of the trus- 
tees the contracts were given 
out to erect a building 35 b)- 
50 feet, the walls to be 14 
feet higli. The entire cost of 
the building was $4,000. 

The work was commenced 
in January, 1872. A meet- 
ing of the parishioners was called about this time to receive dona- 
tions of money and materials. As manv Catholics were employed 
in the neighboring brick-)ard, it was found more convenient to 
supply material than to give money. 

In this manner the school was erected. And it was in this 
case, as in the founding of all new jmrishcs, a common sacrifice of 
pastor and people, he with an.xious hope and patience, they with 
joy and privation. \\'e are told that many Catholics contributed 




ST. PATRICK'S, CHATHAM. 



4i6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

as high as five thousand bricks. Brick cost in those days ^lo per 
thousand. Many also gave money. 

The Rev. P. E. Smyth became pastor of St. Vincent's, Madi- 
son. Father Smyth had still to attend to th'^ spiritual wants of 
Whippany, so when Dr. Wigger returned to take charge of Sum- 
mit, Chatham was added to Summit. 

In 1894, when Bishop McOuaid came to preside at the com- 
mencement of Seton Hall College, in reply to the question of his 
having been the first priest to celebrate the sacred mysteries in 
what is now known as the Borough of Chatham, he stated that he 
never said Mass in Chatham. In fact, he admitted that the fog 
about the Passaic " was a damper on his courage." He illustrated 
this feeling when he referred to his journey over Hobart's Hill on 
his way from Springfield ; that he knew that he was near Chatham 
by the fog, " and then I closed m)- e}'es and whipped my horse 
until I had passed Chatham." We are glad to say that no fog 
now exists in Chatham. 

After Bishop Wigger had resumed charge of Summit and 
Chatham he set to work to better the school facilities, and, to 
prepare for the opening of the school-house as a church only, he 
secured the premises on the corner of Washington Avenue, now 
Chatham Street. There were three lots in the purchase. It 
was on this property that Dr. Wigger laid the foundation of the 
future school-house. However, before the frame was placed on 
these foundations, Dr. Wigger resumed charge of St. Vincent's 
Church, Madison. The completion of this building was the first 
of the labors of the Rev. G. A. Vassallo, of Summit. 

Father Vassallo continued the work of his predecessor. New 
interest was established by ■ the introduction of the Sisters of 
Charity, who took the place of the lay teachers for some years 
employed in the education of the youths of Chatham. 

It was found advisable to cut off Chatham and make it an 
independent parish. This was effected by the bishop appointing 
Father Muhl. His appointment dates from the 19th of January, 
1887. 

The first pastoral residence was a small two-story frame house 
situated on the south side of Watchung Avenue, opposite Wash- 
ington Avenue. It is part of the old Dunning estate. The 
Ferdon house was purchased by Father Muhl, but he never 
occupied it. 

P^ather Muhl, a native of Germany and a graduate of the Col- 
legium Germanicum at Rome, died at the Sanitarium, Denville, 



IN NEW JERSEY 417 

N. J., in July, 1896. After Father Muhl's removal to take charge 
of the i^arish at South Orange, the Rev\ P. A. McGahan took 
charge of Chatham, November 5th, 1887. 

After a few years' administration Father McGahan was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Joseph C. Dunn. The appointment dates 
from the 21st of September, 1889. The new rector came from 
St. James's Church, Newark. 

Livingston had been added to Chatham when it was made a 
separate parish in 1887. The honor of saying the first Mass in 
Livingston belongs to the late Father McGahan, who died July 
1 8th, 1894. Sterling mission was opened 1886, with Father 
Julian as rector. He remained in charge for two years, and was 
succeeded by the Rev. P. A. W'enzel, now of Orange. 

On Tuesday e\ening, February 27th, 1894, a fire occurred 
which for an hour threatened to wipe away the work of twenty 
years. The damage amounted to $381.54. 

When Father Dunn assumed charge of the parish the school 
was taught by a lay teacher. Miss Murphy, a very efficient teacher, 
yet unequal to the task of so many grades. In August, 1890, the 
sisters returned to the school and took up residence there. 

Father Dunn was succeeded on September 25th, 1897, by 
Rev. William T. McLaughlin, who was transferred to St. Augus- 
tine's Church, Union Hill, May 31st, 1899. His successor was 
the Rev. James M. McCormick, who died May 29th, 1903; and 
he was succeeded by the Rev. Samuel Hedges in June of the 
same year. 

St. Francis's Church, Metuchen. 

In the diary of Bishop Corrigan while Vicar-General and Ad- 
ministrator of the Diocese of Newark, under date of September 
1 5th, 1 869, is found this entry : " New church needed at Metuchen ; 
cost $10,000." The property was bought and the church was built 
by the Rev. Major Charles Duggan, the assistant and adminis- 
trator of St. Peter's, New Brunswick. From St. Peter's journeyed 
the priests in all kinds of weather to attend this mission, but the 
inconveniences were mitigated by the ro}al hospitality of Mr. 
Nat. C. Robbins, who, although not a Catholic, always gave a 
hearty welcome to the priests and generous assistance to the 
church. St. Francis's Church was destroyed by fire in December, 
1903. The first resident rector was the Rev. Stephen Bettoni. 
It is regrettable that more historic details cannot be given, but 
' 27 



4iS THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

they are unavailable, as no response was received to the letter 
soliciting information. The present rector is the Rev. John A. 
Graham. 

Most Rev. Michael A. Corrigan, D.D,, 

Second Bishop of Newark. 

Michael Augustine Corrigan, born in the city of Newark, 
August 1 3th, 1 839, was the worthy successor of Archbishop Ba\- 
ley in the See of Newark. The mantle of a noble, saintly father 
descended upon the shoulders of one who was eminently fitted to 
carry on the great and responsible task of go\erning a di<jcese. 
His preparatory studies were made at St. Mary's College, Wil- 
mington, Del., then under the presidency of the venerable Father 
O'Reilly. The future bishoi), on leaving Wilmington, entered 
the nursery of bishops — Mount St. Mary's, Emmettsburg, Md. — 
from which he was graduated in 1859. He was one of the little 
band sent by the bishops of the United States to start in the 
centre of Catholic unity the American College. Here, as else- 
where, the modest, gentle youth won for himself the friendship of 
his professors and fellow-students. His talents kei)t pace with 
his piety, for none applied himself with greater zest to his studies 
nor with greater success than the subject of this sketch. He was 
ordained to holy priesthood September 19th, 1863, in the Cathedral 
Basilica of St. John Lateranby the late Cardinal Patrizzi, 

Returning to America in August, 1864, he was assigned to 
teach dogmatic theology and Holy Scripture in the seminar)-, 
Seton Hall, by Bishop Bay ley. His ability and talents, which an 
extreme modesty was powerless to conceal, attracted the attention 
of many prelates in this country, and he was chosen and in fact 
appointed by Pius IX. to the See of Columbus, Ohio. The most 
earnest pleadings of the youthful dignitary, coupled with the 
influence of Bishop Bayley— who was loath to lose one so full of 
promise and usefulness — combined with the kind offices of Arch- 
bishop, afterward Cardinal, McCloskey, availed to put off for a 
few years his elevation. Meanwhile he strained every ner\-e and 
toiled day and night, in his endeavors to bring Seton Hall Col- 
lege up to the high conceptions of its founder and to make it 
second to no other Catholic college in the country. The student 
did not shrink from the stern gravity which seems to surround 
those whom circumstances perhaps had placed at the head of a 
school or a college, but with perfect ease and vmdisturbed confi- 



IN NEW JERSEY 419 

dence he detailed to the good "doctor" his catalogue of troubles 
and trials, and, whether vindicated or not, always went from the 
president's room \ery much comforted by his kind, soft words. 
Yet none dare trespass on his mild rule, for all knew that he could 
be firm when occasion called for it. 

On the transfer of Archbishop Bayley to Baltimore he was 
appointed administrator of the diocese. In Februar)', 1873, the 
news was flashed across the water that he was appointed to fill 
the See. '' Is there no escape ? " said he to Bishop McQuaid, then 
on a visit to Seton Hall, and was just entering" a carriage to take 
the train when the messenger brought the telegram from the edi- 
tor of 77/e Fircina /i' s Jon 1 11(1 1 ■An\\^)v\nc\ng his promotion. " None," 
replied the bishop; '"you must accept the burden." The follow- 
ing May he was consecrated by Cardinal McCloskey in St. Pat- 
rick's pro-Cathedral, Newark. The mitre was hardly placed on 
his head when the pricking" thorns roused him to the realization 
that it was to be for him not a wreath of roses, but in very truth 
a crown of thorns. 

Most complicated financial entanglements demanded the at- 
tention of the young bishop and brought into play his wisdom and 
prudence. It would be a waste of time to dwell longer on this 
dark period in the history of the diocese ; it would but open afresh 
wounds long" since closed. True, another form filled the chair of 
the illustrious and lovable J^ayley, but his spirit was still in the 
diocese. God blessed the work and zeal of Bishop Corrigan. 
His time was wholly taken up blessing" corner-stones, churches, 
hospitals; making the visitation, not solely of large city churches, 
but the isolated, distant, almost always forgotten and neglected 
country congregations. Benign, courteous, willing", he never 
thought of self. You might before asking, especially if it re- 
quired his personal attention, anticipate that your request was 
granted. His mind might be racked with anguish, his body suf- 
fering from illness ; none would be the wiser. When we hear of 
bishops descending from their throne, condescending" to speak to 
the lowliest as to the loftiest of their flock, sitting" for hours in the 
confessional, anxious to relieve a weary pastor of a little of his 
burden, visiting the hovels of the poor to administer to some poor 
dying Christian the sacrament of confirmation, or speaking" a kind 
word to some querulous old grann)-, we lose not a jot of that high 
esteem which from our very childhood we ha\'e had for the very 
name of bishop, but are carried back to the charm and simplicity 
of early apostolic days, when bishops were the guardians and 



420 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

fathers of the faithful. A vaster field awaited him. In October, 
1880, he was made Archbishop of Petra and Coadjutor Archbishop 
of New York, with the right of succession, an honor which he 
would ha\-e refused, and which filled the hearts of the clergy and 
laity of the flock to whom he had endeared himself with many 
and sincere regrets. 

On May 12th, 1873, Bishop Corrigan was invited to attend the 
second cjuarterly meeting of the Catholic Union, which was held 
at the Catholic Institute, Jersey City. On that occasion this body 
of prominent Catholic laymen delivered an address of congratula- 
tion to their lately consecrated bishop, in which, while expressing 
their regret at the loss of Archbishop Bayley, they declared they 
were consoled by the double consolation that His Grace, Arch- 
bishop Bayley, would add to the glory of Holy Church in a more 
extended field, and labor unceasingly to obtain a good pastor for 
the flock he had watched o\'er so long and so tenderly. 

The result is all we could have wished or expected, and since 
the voice of our infallible Pontiff called you to the vacant See of 
Newark, our hearts have been gladdened and our gloom dispelled. 

We have anxiously awaited the hour of anointment, when with 
mitre and crosier you would ascend the episcopal throne in your 
cathedral and be officially proclaimed our future guide and pastor. 
This happy event has at last appeared, and, weary of restraint, 
we hasten to proclaim our gratitude to God and affection and 
loyalty to his bishop. . . . May God add to your youth and firm- 
ness the necessary strength and grace for this great work. May 
the blessed Mother of God, whose month we celebrate, favor you 
with her powerful patronage. You will have our poor prayers 
for \'Our assistance, and we beg that )'ou will impart your benedic- 
tion to the members of the union, who are united by your per- 
mission in maintaining truth and justice. . . . 

"To maintain truth and justice " was the motto which inspired 
lo)-al and intelligent Catholics the world over after the invasion of 
the rights of tlie Holy See, and rallied them to the defence of 
their faith and to consolidation exery where of their coreligionists 
in a strong, vigorous body. This movement spread all over 
Europe and ultimately beyond the seas. 

A council was formed in New York in 1871, and efforts were 
made at that early date to establish an association in the Diocese 
of Newark. But for one reason or another the matter was left 
in abeyance until after the transfer of Archbishop Bayley to 
Baltimore. 

The Catholic Union of New Jersey was established for the 



IN NKW JERSEY 421 

larger parishes, and, as will be seen later on, although it did not 
accomplish all that was aimed at, yet it bore certain beneficial 
results. 

In August, 1873, Bishop Corrigan made an urgent appeal in 
favor of the priesthood and on the necessity 

of fostering and preserving vocations to the priesthood and to the 
religious life. In a commercial country like ours, where other 
careers in life are constantly presenting themselves to the notice 
of the young, we should not forget to seek to stem the current by 
putting before the minds of parents and of their children, as occa- 
sion offers, the glory and the great reward, as well as the self-sac- 
rifice and the voluntary privation for God's sake, of those who 
devote their lives to the service of the altar. 

In the same letter he called the attention of the reverend 
clergy to some points of the statutes of the diocese, in order that 
there might be uniformity throughout. 

The financial embarrassment of St. John's Church, Orange, 
has been alread}^ alluded to. In February, 1874, the bishop writes 
to his flock to thank both priests and people for the efforts they 
had made to enable him to meet the grave obligations of this 
unfortunate church. 

I am happy to state that the disposition of both the reverend 
clergy and the Catholic laity of Newark to aid in this labor of love 
for the glory of God's house is beyond all praise. By their con- 
duct they have shown that they appreciate keenly the difficulties 
of the situation ; that they regard it as one unprecedented in our 
midst and to be treated as a case entirely apart from ordinary con- 
tingencies ; that it is not a question of simply raising a collection 
to pay the interest on the great debt and leave the future blank 
and unprovided for, but an occasion that calls for substantial aid 
that will reduce the principal to such an extent that henceforth 
the people of St. John's parish may themselves and by their own 
efforts, not only take up the burden, but also with God's help 
and blessing carry it for a while and gradually throw it aside. 

Again, April 28th of the same }'ear, in conformity with the 
often-expressed wishes of many of the Catholic laity. Bishop Cor- 
rigan expressed his resolve to do all that was possible to pay off 
the floating debt on St. John's. 

Though most unjustly and recklessly incurred, nevertheless as 
it stands it is a legal debt, and not only the honor of the diocese 
but the good name of Catholics at large will be seriously com- 
promised if we neglect paying it. The Catholic Church does not 



4^2 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

accept the doctrine of repudiation. Tlie entire debt on St. John's 
Church in 1873 was $265,000, with interest accruing for the last 
months of the previous year. The extrication of St. John's parish 
from its present difficulties is not a hopeless task ; it is practica- 
ble, is presumptably certain and guaranteed even, but only with 
the generous and prompt cooperation of the sister churches 
throughout the State. 

In the spring of 1874, mainly through the efforts of three 
prominent Catholic laymen of the Diocese of Newark, the Messrs. 
P. Farrelh', John McAnerne}-, and Harold Henwood, the first 
Catholic pilgrimage was organized in the United States, and left 
our shores to visit the different shrines in France and Italy and 
to lay at the feet of the common Father of Christendom the 
pledges of loyalty and devotion of their Catholic fellow-countr}-- 
men. A reminiscence of tliis pilgrimage is still to l:)e seen in the 
Basilica of Our Lady of Lourdes, in the American flag which 
still hangs over the sanctuary in this remarkable shrine of the 
Mother of God. It was successful bcN'ond expectation. 

The opening of the State Reform School for wayward boys, 
and the eliminating of all provision for the religious training of 
those who profess the Catholic faith in that institution, called 
forth an earnest protest from the Catholic Union. In October, 
1873, in a letter to the trustees of the school, their attention was 
called to the fact 

that the Catholic Union of New Jersey expresses the earnest 
desire of at least 200,000 fellow Catholics, citizens within the 
State, who ask your honorable body to make such modifications 
of the rules governing the Reform School as will enable Catholic 
inmates to receive the ministrations and consolations of their relig- 
ion, which are at ]o resent denied them. We are aware that a 
similar application has been made by a priest stationed at Free- 
hold, and declined, we charitably hope, because of the misappre- 
hension of the justice involved in his request. . . . We want 
no State aid or chaplain's commission, only the simple right to 
administer the sacraments of the Church to the Catholic children 
under your charge wlio desire it. It need conflict with no rule 
nor interfere with the working hours of your establishment. 

A second letter^ December 20th, 1 873, was addressed by the 
advisory board of the Catholic Union to the Governor, Chief Jus- 
tice, and Chancellor of New Jersey, comprising the Board of Con- 
trol of the State Reform School, enclosing copies of the corre- 
spondence between the Catholic Union and the trustees of the 
Reform School. The Catholic Union expressed regret 



IN NEW JERSEY 41^ 

that our hopes have been disappointed, but in seeking justice a 
second time from the board of trustees we feel that we pursue 
the proper course, particularly as this first was recommended to 
us by His Excellency, Governor Parker, on the occasion of our 
appeal t<> him as chief executor and member of your honorable 
board. 

The superintendent of the school. Rev. Mr. Sheldon, held 
religious exercises every day, which the Catholic children as well 
as the others were obliged to attend. On Sunday he also had 
religious services. Mr. Sheldon informed the committee of the 
Catholic Union, which visited the institution, that while a Catholic 
priest niight address the boys, he could not [permit him to express 
himself distiJictly Catholic in his remarks; in other words, not- 
withstanding the large number of unfortunate Catholic children in 
this public institution, a Catholic priest, as such, had no right to 
minister to those of his own flock ; while Protestant clergymen 
were permitted to pray or preach to their own satisfaction, not 
only to the Protestant children, but to the Catholics as well. It 
was against this act of flagrant injustice that these Catholic lay- 
men protested in the name of the Catholics of the State of New 
Jersey, and at the same time called to attention that such a con- 
dition of affairs was contrary to the Constitution of our State, 
which in Section 3, Article I., declares "that no person shall be 
deprived of the inestimable pri\ileges of worshipping Almighty 
God in a manner agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience, 
nor under an)' pretence whate\'er be compelled to attend an}- place 
of worship contrary to his faith and judgment." 

The condition of affairs manifested through this correspond- 
ence made it clear to Bishop Corrigan that in order to save the 
faith of the Catholic children it was necessary that the diocese 
make provision for them. A tract of land was purchased in Den- 
ville, Morris County, about thirty-five miles from New York, on 
which was a commodious brick mansion. Neces.sary improve- 
ments and repairs were made, and in the month of September, 
1874, St. Francis's Catholic Protectory for boys was opened and 
placed in charge of the Franciscan Brothers. Many priests of the 
diocese, as well as a number of the laity, most of whom were 
members of the Catholic Union, were present on the occasion to 
participate in the formal opening of the premises. The property 
was admirablv adapted for its purpose. The country is elevated 
and healthy in the highest degree, and the two hundred and four- 
teen acres of fine land is well adapted for cultivation. It has an 



424 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

abundance of wood and excellent water, a tine orchard of fruit- 
trees, and all the out-buildings necessary for an institution. 

Bishop Corrigan looked to the faithful of the diocese, and in a 
particular manner to the members of the Catholic Union, to 
enable him to carry on to a successful issue the work thus inaug- 
urated for Catholic wayward boys. 

The Catholic Union felt that the time had come to make an 
effort to secure a charter from the State for the new institution, 
and its president, John McAnerney, wrote t-o Bishop Corrigan on 
September 29th, 1874: 

The Catholic Union proposes, if agreeable to you, to make an 
effort at the coming election to ascertain, as far as possible, the 
opinions of the candidates for legislative honors in regard to 
the reform school. This, you will remember, is in the line of the 
agitation we have begun and which we think must be continued 
to be successful. We propose to do this work in our usual quiet 
manner and upon our own responsibility, if the proposed action 
meets with your approbation. We seek your approbation, not 
for public or general use, but for the reason that we do not desire 
to undertake anything of importance without your sanction. 

Bishop Corrigan judged that it would be desirable to obtain a 
charter for the Denville protectory. Mr. McAnerney consulted 
Judge Bedle, who expressed the opinion that there should be no 
serious objection to the charter granting the judges and justices 
the right to commit Catholic boys to the protectory. This sug- 
gestion of the Ordinary met with the approval, not only of the 
Catholic laity, but of the leading priests of the diocese. Mr. 
McAnerney writes : 

I think it will be well for you to prepare such a charter as you 
require, and if you could have it all ready by next week, we could 
then take the held and " sound " the candidates. If left until after 
the election I am sure it will be a much more difficult subject to 
handle than the reform-school matter. At all events there is no 
time to be lost. 

Every effort was made to disseminate the campaign documents 
to be used throughout the State in order to secure the Catholic 
protectory charter. The leading men of the Hudson County 
Union had the charter printed, and it was proposed to make a 
thorough canvass of the whole State. 

This movement spread consternation in the ranks of both 
parties of politicians. The office of the president of the union 
was besieged day and night by Republicans and Democrats, 



IN NEW JERSEY 425 

all groaning about the misfortune of having this matter in the 
canvass. I never saw so many people investigating this reform- 
school subject as at the present time. Please let no reports from 
politicians annoy you. The agitation will be grand in its results. 
Our people will be educated up to a true appreciation of the 
matter, and our non- Catholic fellow-citizens will be obliged to 
redress the present injustice. . . . Next Tuesday the excitement 
and smoke of the battle will clear away, and the people of New 
Jersey will have a better idea of the injustice done their Catholic 
fellow-citizens than they have ever had before. 

In another letter, written on October 30th, Mr. McAnerney 
says : 

The breeze is now blowing in our favor. It is, indeed, curious 
to see Presbyterians, Episcopalians, etc., going about vigorously 
arguing the justice of the Catholic position in regard to the reform 
school. In Jersey City copies of the bill have been printed and 
generously distributed by the Democrats. The advocates of jus- 
tice are growing numerous and well-informed. Would that our 
Catholic citizens would everywhere stand up like men. We would 
then have no dillficulty. The most ignorant people I have found 
on this question are the Catholic politicians. Thank God ! the 
abuse of The Evening Journal has made them examine the mat- 
ter, and our people are better informed to-day than they would 
ha\'e been by Catholic-Union meetings, Church sermons, or any- 
thing else. Many of these unfortunate Catholics never go to 
church or read a Catholic book, and have always cried " Hush ! " 
when anything in relation to Catholic interests was mentioned. 
This time the " Hobgoblin " has met them in the canvass and 
would not down at their bidding. If we don't get our charter, 
if they don't pass Assembly Bill 413, we have one thing beyond 
dispute ; that is, the sympathy of non-Catholics, justly disposed, 
and our own people united and well-informed of the necessity for 
a protectory, as will be appreciated when the bishop deems it the 
proper time to issue his circular of a general collection. . . . The 
time is not far distant when our rights in all the public institutions 
will be granted, in order to keep this "terrible" question out of 
the canvass. ... At present the matter has gone beyond the 
control of the politicians, and will never be settled until our rights 
are granted. . . . Gentle agitation of this kind likewise prevents 
our opponents from doing us further injury. 

The cause was lost. The bill was defeated. The usual tricks 
which stigmatize legislation which has for its object the redress- 
ing of injustice to Catholics were successful. 

Contemplated amendments to the Constitution of the State, 
some of which seemed calculated to impose new burdens upon 
Catholics or which might be construed against the Church, 



426 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

prompted Bishop Corrigan, after having taken legal advice, to 
send a personal letter to the priests of the diocese, in which he 
recommended them to influence their people to strike out the ob- 
jectionable clause, " or, better still, to make assurance doubly cer- 
tain, let them strike out the whole ballot." 

This letter unfortunately fell into the hands of the press, and 
the enemies of our faith made the most of it in their appeals to 
the large body of bigoted, because ignorant, voters in our State, 
and the amendments were carried by a large majority. 

After taking the advice of Cardinal McCloskey, Bishop Corri- 
gan called a meeting of the executive committee of the Catholic 
Union on February nth, 1876, and expressed to them the opinion 
that further efforts in this line should be indefinitely postponed, 
to avoid stirring up the rancor and bigotry of the non-Catholics 
throughout the State. This sounded the death-knell of the Cath- 
olic Union. The meeting adjourned sine die. The work of the 
laymen of the diocese for the protection of Catholic interests and 
the redress of the wrongs under which their religion groaned was 
at an end. But, despite all that was said and done, the Catholic 
Union accomplished a great deal. In our State institutions Cath- 
olics are allowed the ministrations of their priests, and in the State 
Reform School and state-prison there is a Catholic chaplain. 

As provision had been made for the wayward bo)'s, it seemed 
to Bishop Corrigan that the time had now come when a similar 
institution should be established in the diocese to carry out the 
recommendation of Archbishop Bayley in his parting address to 
the clergy of the Diocese of Newark, and which he had so much 
at heart because they were so urgently needed, namely, a Catholic 
protectory for boys, a house of the Good Shepherd for girls, and 
a large asylum for the orphans of the entire diocese. 

Bishop's House, Newark, 
May I St, 1875. 

Rev. Dear Sir: You will remember that in his parting ad- 
dress to the clergy of this diocese, the Most Rev. Archbishop Bay- 
ley directed their zeal, in a special manner, to three good works 
which he would ha\'e undertaken had he remained in New Jersey, 
and which he had much at heart, because they were most urgent!}^ 
needed, namely, a Catholic Protectory for boys, a House of the 
Good Shepherd for girls, and a large asylum for the orphans of 
the entire diocese. Of these three wants, the last-mentioned is 
the least pressing, for the reason that there are already four local 
asylums in our midst which give shelter to some five hundred 



IN NEW TERSEY 



427 



orphans. The CathoHc Protectory and the House of the Good 
Shepherd, the want of which is a matter of sad and ahnost daily 
experience, have hitherto existed only in intention and in hope, 
but the time has now come when our desires and anticipations 
are about to be converted into reality. 

With God's blessing", the House of the Good Shepherd, under 
the charge of the devoted sisters of the same name, will be o{)ened 
in Newark on May 24th, the Feast of our Lady, Help of Chris- 
tians. About the same time the Catholic Protectory will be 
inaugurated at Denville, Morris County, imder the direction of 
the Brothers of St. Francis. In both institutions, besides a care- 
ful moral and religious training", the inmates will be taught habits 




CONVI-:XT OF THE (iOOD SHEPHKRD, NEWARK. 



of industry and usefulness. The boys will be taught trades and 
the labors of the farm ; and the girls to ply the needle, operate on 
sewing-machines, and l)e instructed in other similar employments 
suited to their station in life, so that in the course of two or three 
)ears, when the first expenses shall have been defrayed, both 
institutions in a large measure at least will he self-supporting. 

The Protectory farm cost $30,000. It contains over two hun- 
dred acres of land, one-half of which is already cleared ; a large 
brick mansion, in good repair, capable of accommodating at once 
sixty children; a neat frame cottage, newly built, with various 
out-buildings, barns, stables, and a good supph' of stock and farm- 
ing utensils. 

The House of the Good Shepherd consists of two large brick 
buildings, in good order, on High Street, near Central Avenue, 
Newark, in a most healthy location, and with two vacant lots ad- 
joining affording sufficient recreation ground for the sisters and 
inmates. The buildings and property cost $27,500, and will 



428 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

afford accommodations for one hundred children. It will be open 
for inspection on the 20th, 21st, and 22d of May. 

The great difficulty in maintaining these excellent institutions 
wiJl meet us at the very start. It will be necessary for us to 
raise this year a sum sufficient to pay the interest on the outlay, 
and, if possible, something on the principal ; also a sum sufficient 
to defray the expenses of furnishing plainly and fitting up both 
houses, besides contributing to their support. We will need in 
all fully twice as much as is raised by an ordinary diocesan collec- 
tion. Year by year it is expected that these collections will pay 
the interest and gradually pay off the principal. To meet the 
wants of the occasion, I hereby order a collection to be taken up 
in all the churches of the diocese on Pentecost Sunday, the i6th 
of May. Instead of a separate collection for each charity, only 
one is ordered for both ; but as both institutions are sadly needed 
for the salvation of souls throughout the whole diocese, it is con- 
fidently expected that the returns from every parish will be large 
in proportion. It is specially appropriate that the commencement 
of these great works should occur in the year of Jubilee. 

I need not remind you, reverend sir, of the necessity which 
presses on us all, of providing a shelter and the means of reforma- 
tion for the many poor children of Catholic parentage who other- 
wise would be lost to themselves and to the Church. The Sacred 
Heart of our Saviour, during His public ministry on earth, has 
given us the most touching examples of tender mercy toward the 
wayward and the sinner. His parables of the Prodigal Son and 
of the lost sheep have suggested to penitents from century to cen- 
tury the hope of pardon and of reconciliation with Him. Our 
Lord Himself foretold that wherever His gospel should be 
preached, the name and the forgiveness of Magdalene would also 
be recorded ; and it is not without significance that Divine Provi- 
dence, who ordains all things — even the number of sands on 
the seashore — should divide the station of honor at the foot of 
the Cross of Calvary between Mary the Immaculate and Mary the 
Penitent, and that of the various apparitions of our risen Lord 
recorded in the Scriptures the first of all was to her who had been 
a sinner. The whole history of the Church is full of examples of 
the efforts made at all times to reclaim the souls of those for 
whom our Saviour died. 

Finally, I need not stop to remind you of the efforts vainly 
made thus far in the Legislature of this State to obtain freedom 
of conscience for the unfortunate Catholic children confined in 
the State Reform Schools. With a bigotry which, if it proceed 
from honest conviction, argues an amount of ignorance which to 
our minds is simply astounding, the petition to grant liberty of 
religious worship to those confined in prisons, reformatories, and 
similar institutions has been shamefully rejected by men who 
claim to be enlightened enough to ask our suffrages that they 
may make our laws; men in whose minds, if we may judge from 
their actions, liberty of conscience means liberty for them and 



IN NEW JERSEY 429 

intolerance for their Catholic fellow-citizens. I merely allude to 
this utter want of fairness that you may say to your people that, 
besides the divine plea of charity, they are bound to support the 
Catholic Protectory in self-defence and in protection of the natural 
rights of their children, lest, should they have the misfortune to 
enter a State reform school, they be compelled to attend regularly 
to religious exercises that their conscience must indignantly reject. 

Please explain this matter plainly and clearly to your flock ; 
make them understand that, relying on little or no help from with- 
out, we must build and maintain our own institutions. We pay 
our taxes for Protestant reformatories, but we must support our 
own. 

Many a bruised heart will be consoled that we have at length 
a home where wayward children, often the \'ictims of circum- 
stances or of temptation more than of wilful crime, may be sent 
for protection without running the risk of losing their faith and 
of endangering that without which it will "profit a man nothing 
to gain the whole world." 

I rely upon your zeal for souls and our holy religion to do all 
that you can to promote these good works, and I trust that we 
may all have the satisfaction of feeling at our last moment that 
no soul has perished through any fault of ours. 

The returns of the collections will be made as soon as possible 
to the Very Rev. G. H. Doane, V.G. 

I remain. Rev. Dear Sir, 
With kind regards. 

Very truly yours in Christ, 
4« Michael, 

BisJiop of Newark. 

The attention of Bishop Corrigan was called in October, 1875, 
to the number of Italian Catholic immigrants who had located in 
his episcopal city. Bishop Corrigan commissioned the Rev. 
Jos. Borghese, an assistant at the cathedral, to take the census 
of the Italian Catholics of Newark, with the result that they were 
found to number 235 in all. 

In April, 1876, owing to the rapid growth of Catholicity 
throughout the State, and the difficulty of giving the Catholics 
spread over this vast territory the necessary care and supervision, 
Bishop Corrigan began lo consider the division of the diocese, 
and the separation of the southern part into a distinct diocese, 
with Trenton as the episcopal city. On the 26th of the same 
month Seton Hall received as a guest His Eminence Cardinal 
McCloskey, who had been prostrated with an attack of malaria, 
and was advised by his physicians to seek rest and restoration of 
health in the mountains. His Eminence remained five weeks 
and returned to New York entirely restored. 



430 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

In the spring of this same year an event occurred which 
greatly troubled the Catholics of Hudson County. A railroad 
company, desirous of shortening its line, sought to obtain a strip 
of the Hudson County Catholic Cemetery. Without seeking to 
familiarize himself with the exact conditions prevalent there, 
Bishop Corrigan gave his consent to the proposed sale. Unfor- 
tunately the section to be sold had been used for the interment of 
the poorer classes. The Catholics were greatly agitated. Meet- 
ings were held in which their indignation was voiced, and protests 
were passed against the desecration of the dead. Both the bishop 
and the company were forced to retire from their positions. 

On May 8th, 1878, an important .synod of the clergy of the 
diocese was held in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Newark, and lasted 
two days. Many matters were discussed, and the legislation of 
former synods supplemented here and there by extracts from the 
Council of Baltimore and more recent decisions of the Holy 
See. 

The establishment of the House of the Good Shepherd in 
Newark and the Catholic Protectory in Denville proved a great 
financial burden. To meet the obligations of these institutions 
Bishop Corrigan was obliged to use temporarily the " Peter's 
pence " collection taken up in the diocese, and as he was about to 
make his visitation ad limina, and consequently to la)' at the feet 
of the Holy father the sums collected from the faithful, he was 
at a loss whence to obtain the moneys. A young priest attached 
to the cathedral staff, the Rev. John A. Sheppard, suggested to 
Bishop Corrigan the advisability of establishing in the Diocese of 
Newark a union similar to that organized in New York City by 
the Rev. Father Drumgoole. 

The many solicitors for this noble work in the city of Newark, 
and chief among them a most worthy and devout matron, Mrs. 
Bridget Maher, had repeatedly urged Father Sheppard to induce 
the bishop to establish a similar union in Newark for the Denville 
protectory. 

With considerable misgivings and assured that no possible loss 
would accrue to the diocese Bishop Corrigan gave a somewhat 
reluctant consent. This was the initial movement of the " Sacred 
Heart Union," which from that day to this has accomplished so 
much of good for the support of the boys, not onl\' in Denville, 
but in the present well-appointed and admirabl}- conducted pro- 
tectory at Arlington. It is but just to allow the founder of this 
admirable work to make known the success of his first efforts. 



IN NEW JERSEY 431 

The following words were printed in the first number of The 
Sacred Heart Union by Father Sheppard, who outlines the scope 
of the work and details the results of the first efforts: 



Ol'r Present Success. 

We have been anxiously awaiting the day when we could put 
this little sheet into the hands of our many friends. We have 
been wanting to thank them for their efforts, and we have been 
wanting to say to them that their efforts have always filled us with 
courage. They assured us that we were engaged in a popular 
work, and that the people themselves would see to it that the 
work should go on and prosper. 

Our first undertaking to pay off the debt that has accumulated 
upon our protectory, so that in time we might be able to throw its 
doors wide open to all that would be offered us or recommended 
to us for reformation, we need scarcely say that the task seemed 
a heavy one, nay, an impractical one ; but the kind words of our 
good bishoj), since made Coadjutor-Archbishop of New York, 
filled us with hope. In his pastoral letter addressed to the clergy 
he recommended, among other things, this institution to their 
special care. This was sufificient, for we knew that a word from 
him to the priests who ever loved him would guarantee our 
success. 

The clergy, almost without exception, thanks to their kindness 
and generosity, though they were struggling under heavy debts 
of their own, gave us their assistance and bade us, each one in his 
own parish, God-speed. 

A word from the clerg}-, and the laity were ready and willing 
to pay their mite of twenty-fi\'e cents, while others, more charita- 
bly inclined, sent us their donations. 

Three gentlemen particularly we must mention for their kind- 
ness in rendering us assistance as soon as they heard there was a 
united effort in our midst to give our many wandering boys a 
chance of bettering their condition. These were the Rev. P. L. 
Connolly, of Amboy; Dr. Morrogh, of New Brunswick; and D. 
F. Cooney, of Jersey City. We have not asked permission of 
these gentlemen to use their names, but we thought their example 
worthy of imitation, and we saw no better opportunity of present- 
ing our thanks in a manner worthy of their offering. 

Our efforts this year were even more successful than we 
looked for, and we have to state for the satisfaction of our mem- 
bers that we have been enabled by their offerings to reduce the 
debt $7,000, to pay insurance, interest on mortgages, the salary 
of brothers who are in charge, the expenses of a visiting clergy- 
man, and our bills for printing cards of membership to the union, 
making in all a total of nearly $10,000 raised during the last year. 

The coming year we will expect our solicitors to again favor 
us with their valuable and duly appreciated services. Faithfully 



432 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

and energetically indeed have they laboreCi, and we pray God to 
grant them their reward. One letter we shall never forget. It 
was from an old gentleman in a country district. He sent us 
returns, telling us at the same time of the miles that he was 
obliged to walk through the warm sultry days of July in order to 
raise the sum he had forwarded. We could not help admiring his 
earnestness and thinking to ourselves that the good angels of God 
must have looked down upon his footsteps and registered them in 
heaven for that great day of reckoning when time for him will be 
no more. Think over it, kind reader: if, in every city where there 
are people who have leisure, some would make it their business, 
like this good man, to go among their friends and collect the 
small sum that is asked for, how much good might be effected in 
our midst ! 

There are to-day children in every city in our State, young 
boys showing signs of intelligence, who would be able to go 
through the world with success, were it not that they are thrown 
upon the streets, where they contract vicious habits that grow 
upon them and that make them in time useless members of society 
and a disgrace to their religion. The object of our union is to 
lay hold of such boys, to give them a proper idea of themselves, 
to make them feel that they are not neglected, that society regards 
them as its members, and that the Church particularly considers 
them her children. But this object, praiseworthy though it may 
be, can never be accomplished unless there be united and untiring 
action upon the part of the members. Hence let us set ourselves 
to work with earnestness, with the thought that there are hun- 
dreds in our midst whom we may aid in the salvation of their 
souls. 

Often during the past year have they been brought to us and 
we have been asked to take them and send them to the protec- 
tory, where they might learn their religion and be schooled in a 
way that would be of profit to them in the future. Thanks to 
God, we have been able to receive some, but others we were 
obliged to send away. We did the very best we could. Those 
we thought could be looked after by their parents we refused, 
while others we received. Many indeed there were that we would 
have wished to receive, but in our present crippled condition we 
foun