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The Catholic Encyclopedia 


Assize — Bro wnr 





THOMAS ]. SHAHAN, D.D. JOHN J. '.n \ ^ j 



voM'.;;-. II 

■new Botli 


Nihil Obstat, November i, 1907 





Copyright, 1907 
By Robert Applbton Company 

Copyright, 191S 
By the encyclopedia PRESS, INC. 

The articles in this work liaTa been written specially for The Catholic 
Encyclopedia and are protected by copyright. All rights, includ- 
ing the right of translation and reproduction, are reserved. 


List of Contributors to the Second Volume 

A'BECKET, JOHN J., Ph.D, New York. 

AIKEN, CHARLES F., S.T.D., Professor of 
Apologetics, Catholic University of Amer- 
ica, Washington. 

ALBERT, F. X. E., Ph.D., St. Joseph's Seminary, 
Dxtnwoodie, New York. 

ALSTON, G. CYPRIAN, O.S.B., Downside Abbey. 
Bath, England. 

OF Sacred Scripture, St. Patrick's Seminary, 
Menlo Park, California. 

ARENDZEN, J. P., Ph.D., S.T.D., B.A., Pro- 
fessor OF Holy Scripture, St. Edbiund's 
College, Ware, England. 

AVEUNG, FRANCIS, S.T.D., Westminster, 

BANDELIER, AD. F., Hispanic Society of 
America, New York. 

BARRET, T. B., S.J., Professor of Moral 
Theology, Woodstock College, Maryland. 


BECCARI, CAMILLO, S.J., Postulator General 
OF the Society of Jesus, Rome. 

BECHTEL, F., S.J., Professor of Hebrew and 
Sacred Scripture, St. Louis UzoYEBSiTTt 
St. Louis. 

BENIGNI, U., Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History, Pont. Collegio Urbano di Propa- 
ganda, Rome. 

BESSE, J. M., O.S.B., Director, "Revue Mabil- 
lon", Chevetogne, Belgium. 

BIRKHJBUSER, J. A., RAaNE, Wisconsin. 


Professor of Greek and Sanskrit, Catho- 

BOOTHMAN, C. T., Kingstown, Ireland. 

BREEN, A. E., S.T.D., Ph.D., PRorBSSOR of Holy 
Scripture, St. Bernard's Seminary, Roches- 
ter, New York. 

BROCK, H. M., S.J., Profbbsor of Pbtsigb, Holy 


BROM. GISBERT, S.T.D., Ph.D., Litt.D., Heap 
OF the Dutch Historicai^ Institutb at 
Rome, Utrecht, Holland. 

BRUCHESI, PAUL, S.T.D., Archbishop of Mont- 

French Academy, Director, ''Revue deb 
Deux Mondes", Paris. 


BURKE, EDMUND, A.B., Instructor in Latin, 
College of the City of New York. 

BURTON, EDWIN, S.T.D., F. R. Hist. Soa, St. 
Edbiund's College, Ware, England. 

BURfSELL, R. L., Ph.D., S.T.D., Rondout, 
New York. 

BUTIN, R., S.M., S.T.L., Ph.D., Marist College, 

CABROL, FERNAND, O.S.B., Abbot of St. 
Michael's, Farnborough, England. 

CAMM, BEDE, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), Birming- 
ham, England. 

CAMPBELL, T. J., S.J., Assoctate Editor, 
''The Messenger", New York. 

CANDIDE, F., O.M.Cap., Lector in Philosophy, 
Capuchin Monastery. Limoilou, Province 


QASARTELLI, L. C, MA., D.Litt.Or., Bishop of 
Salfobd, England. 

CASTLE, HAROLD, C.SS.R., M.A. (Oxon.) 
Lector in Theology and Church History, 
St. Mary's, Kinnoul, Perth, Scotland. 

CASWELL, JOHN, Kenilworth, England. 

CHAPMAN, JOHN, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), Prior 
OF St. Thomas's Abbey, Erdington, Bir- 
mingham, England. 

hattan College, New York. 

CLEARY, HENRY W., Editor, "New Zealand 
Tablet", Dunedin, New Zealand. 

tCLERKE, AGNES M., Hon. Member of the 
Royal Astronomical Society, London. 

CLIFFORD, CORNELIUS, Seton Hall Collegs, 
South Orange, New Jersey. 



OOLEBfAN, CARYL, B.A., Pelham Manor, New 



CONNELLAN, P. L., F.R.S.A. op Ireland, Knight 
OF St. Gregory the Great, Rome. 

CORBETT, JOHN, S.J., Professor of Holy 
Scripture, Woodstock College, Maryland. 

COTTER, JAMES M., S.J., Woodstock College, 

CREAGH, JOHN T., J.U.D., Professor of Canon 
Law, Catholic University of America, 

CROWNE, J. VINCENT, A.M., Ph.D., Instructor 
IN English, College of the City of New 

D' ALTON, E. A., M.R.I.A.; Athenry, Ireland. 

DE LAAK, H., S.J., Professor of Physics and 
Mathematics, St. Louis University, St. 

DELAMARRE, LOUIS N., Ph.D.. Instructor 
in French, College of the City of New 


DB MOREIRA, M., A.M., Litt.D., New York. 

DE SMEDT, CH., S.J., Brussels. 

DEVINE, E. J., S.J., Woodstock College, Mary- 

DEVITT, E. J., S.J., Professor of Psychology, 
Georgetown University, Washington. 

DEVLIN, WILLIAM, S.J., Woodstock College, 

DIERINGER, BARNABAS, Professor of Lan- 
guages AND Music, St. Francis Seminary, 
St. Francis, Wisconsin. 

DIONNE, N. E., S.B., M.D., Librarian to the 
Legislature of Quebec. 

DISSEZ, P., Professor of Pastoral Theology, 
St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore. 

DONNELLY, F. P., S.J., St. Andrew-on-Hud- 


DONOVAN, STEPHEN M., O.F.M., Franoscan 
Monastery, Washington. 

DOUMIC, RENE, Literary and Dramatic Critic, 
"Revue des Deux Mondbb", Paris. 

DRISCOLL, JAMES F., D.D., President of St. 
Joseph's Seminary, Dunwoodie, New York. 

DRURY. EDWIN, Nertnx, Kentucky. 

DUBRAY, C. A., S.T.B., Ph.D., Professor of 
Philosophy, Marist College, Washington. 

DUMONT, F. M. L., Prbbident of Dnmnrr 
College, Cathouc Univebsitt or America, 

DUNN, JOSEPH, Ph.D., Assistant Pbofessor 
OF Celtic Languages and Litebatubb, 
Catholic Univebsity of Amebica, Wash- 

EGAN, ANDREW, O.F.M., Profbssor of Theol- 
ogy, The Friary, Forest Gate, London. 

FANNING, WILLIAM H. W., S.J., Professor or 
Church History and Canon Law, St. Loxtib 
University, St. Louis. 

FENLON, JOHN F., S.S., S.T.D., President St. 
Austin's College, Brookland, D. C, Pro- 
fessor OF Sacred Scripture, St. Mart's 
Seminary, Baltimore. 

FERNANDES, P. A., Bassein, India. 

FLAHERTY, M. J., A.M., Professor of the His- 
tory OF Philosophy and English, St. John's 
Seminary, Brighton, Massachusbttb. 

FORD. HUGH EDMUND, O.S.B., Abbot of 
Glastonbury, Downside Abbey, Bath, Eng- 

FOURNET, A., S.S., Professor op Belles- 
Lettres, College de Montri^al, Montreal. 

FOX, JAMES J., S.T.D., B.A., Professor of Phi- 
losophy, St. Thomas's College, Washington. 

FOX, WILLIAM, B.S., M.E., Associate Pro- 
fessor OF Physics, College of the City of 
New York. 

tFRISBEE, S. H., S.J., Woodstock College, 

FUENTES, VENTURA, A.B., M.D., Instructob, 
College of the Cttt of New York. 

FUREY, JOHN, Pay Inspector U. S. N. (Re- 
tired), Brooklyn, New York. 

GANS, LEO, J.C.D., Professor of Canon Law, 
The St. Paul SEinNARY, St. Paul, Minnesota. 

GANSS, HENRY G., Mus. D., Carlisle, Penn- 

GAUDET, LOUIS, Soorton, Yorkshire, Eng- 

GEOGHAN, J. J., S.J., Woodstock College, 

GERARD, JOHN, S.J., F.L.S., London. 

Titular of Barlings, Corpus Christi Priory, 
Manchester, England. 

GIETMANN, G., S.J., Sr. Ionatiub College, Val- 
KENBURG, Holland. 

GIGNAC, JOS. N., S.T.D., J.C.D., FftoPBSSOB of 
Canon Law, Univebsity of Layai^ Quebbgl 




GIGOT, FRANCIS E., S.T.D., Professor of 
Sacred Scrifturb, St. Joseph's Sebunart, 
DuNWOODiE, New York. 

GILDAS, M., O.C.R., La Trappe, Quebec. 


GILLIGAN, EpWARD A., S.S., A.M., Washzno- 


GILUS, JAMES M., C.S.P., S.T.L., &r. Thomas's 
CoLLBQE, Washington. 

GOGGIN, J. F., S.T.D., Ph.D., St. Bernard's 
Seminary, Rochester, New York. 

GOODWIN, ENEAS B., A.M., B.D., La Grange, 

GOYAU, GEORGES, Associate Editor, "Revue 
DES Deux Mondes", Paris. 

GRATTAN FLOOD, W. H., M.R.I.A., Mus.D., 


GULDNER, B., S.J., St. Joseph's College, 

HAGEN, JOHN G., S.J., Vatican Observatory, 

HANDLEY, M. L., Madison, New Jersey. 

HANNA, EDWARD J., S.T.D., Professor of 
Theology, St. Bernard's Seminary, Roch- 
ester, New York. 

HARTIG, OTTO, Assistant Librarian of the 
Royal Library, Munich. 

HASSETT, MAURICE M., S.T.D., Harrisburo, 

HAVEY, FRANCIS P., S.S., S.T.D., Professor of 
Homiletigs and Pastoral Theology, St. 
John's Sbbanary, Brighton, Massachusetts. 

HEALY, PATRICK J., S.T.D., Assistant Pro- 
fessor OF Church History, Catholic Uni- 
versity of America, Washington. 

HENRY, H. T., Litt.D., Rector of Roman 
Catholic High School for Boys, Pro- 
fessor OF English Literature and of Gre- 
gorian Chant, St. Charles's Sebhnary, 
OvERBROOK, Pennsylvania. 

HERRICK, JOS. C, Ph.D., Professor of Experi- 
mental Psychology and Biology, St. Jo- 
seph's Seminary, Dunwoodie, New York. 

HOFFMANN, ALEXIUS, O.S.B., St. John's Col- 


HOWLETT, J. A., O.S.B., M.A., Suffolk, Eng- 

HULL, ERNEST R., S.J., Editor, "The Exam- 
iner", Bombay, India. 


HUNT, LEIGH, Professor of Art, Collbgb of 
the City of New York. 

HUNTER-BLAIR, D. O., Bart., O.S.B., M.A., 
Oxford, England. 

HYDE, DOUGLAS, LL.D., Litt.D., M.R.I.A., 
French Park, Roscommon, Ireland. 

INGOLD, A. M. P., Director, " Revue d'Albagb", 
CoLMAR, Germany. 

JACOBI, BfAX, Ph.D., Munich. 

JUNGNTTZ, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Diocesan Archiv- 
ist, Breslau, Germany. 

KAVANAGH, D. J., S.J., Woodstock College, 

KELLY, G. E., S.J., Woodstock College, Mary- 

KELLY, PATRICK H., S.J., St. Peter's College, 
Jersey City, New Jersey. 

KENT, W. H., O.S.C., Bayswater, London. 

KERRY, WILLIAM J., S.T.L., Ph.D., Doctor of 
Social and PoLmcAL Sciences, Professor 
OF Sociology, Catholic University of 
America, Washington. 

KIMBALL, CHARLES L., S.J., Professor of 
Latin and Greek, Holy Cross College, 
Worcester, Massachusetts. 

KIRSCH, Mgr. J. P., Professor of Patrology 
AND Christian AncHiBOLOGY, University 
OF Fribourg, Switzerland. 

KLAAR, KARL, Government Archivist, Inns- 

KURTH, GODEFROI, Director, Belgian His* 
torical Instttute, Li^ge. 

LADEUZE, P., S.T.D., Professor of Sacred 
Scripture and of Ancient Christian Litera- 
ture, University of Louvain, President 
College du Saint Esprtt, Louvain. 

LANG AN, J. T., S.J., Woodstock College, Mary- 

LANGOUET, A., O.M.I., Kimberuby, South 

tLE BARS, JEAN, B.A., Lrrr.D., Member of the 
Asiatic Society, Paris. 

LEGAL, EBHLE J., S.T.D., Bishop of St. Albert, 
Alberta, Canada. 


LEJAY, PAUL, Fellow of the University of 
France, Professor at the Catholic In- 
stttute OF Paris. 

LENHART, JOHN M., O.M.Cap., Lector of 
Philosophy, St. Fidelis Monastery, Vio 
TORiA, Kansas. 



UNDSAY, LIONEL ST. G., B.Sc., S.T.D., Ph.D., 
Editor in Chief, ''La Nouvklle France", 

LINEHAN, PAUL H., B.A., Instructor College 
OP THE City op New York. 

LINS, JOSEPH, Freiburg, Gerbjany. 

LOPEZ, TIRSO, O.8.A., Colegio de los Agus- 
TiNOS, Valladolid, Spain. 

fessor OF Theology, Uniyersity of Laval, 

LOUGHLIN, Mgr. JAMES F., S.T.D., Phila- 

MAAS, A. J., S.J., Rector op Woodstock College, 

MAES, CAMILLUS P., Bishop of Covington, 

MaoCAFFREY, JAMES, S.T.L., St. Patrick's 
College, Maynooth, Dublin. 

MoCAFFRAY, ARTHUR J., S.J., Woodstock 
College, Maryland. 

McBlAHON, ARTHUR L., O.P., Lector of Sacred 
Theology, Professor of Moral Theology 
AND Sacred Scripture, Dominican House 
OF Studies, Washington. 

McBiAHON, JOSEPH H., A.M., Ph.D., New York. 

McNEAL, MARK J., S.J., Woodstock College, 

McNICHOLAS, JOHN T., O.P., S.T.L., Lector, 


McSORLEY, JOSEPH, C.S.P., A.M., S.T.L., St. 
Paul's Church, New York. 

MANN, HORACE K., Headmaster St. Cuth- 
bert's Grambiar School, Newcastle-on- 
Tynb, England. 

MEEHAN, ANDREW B., Ph.D., S.T.D., Pro- 
FBBSOR OF Canon Law and Liturgy, St. 
Bernard's Seminary, Rochester, New York. 

MF£HAN, THOMAS F., New York. 

BOCiATB Professor of Moral Theology, 
Catholic University of America, Wash- 

MERCEDES, Sister, St. Elizabeth's Convent, 
CoRNWELLS, Pennsylvania. 

FBBSOR OF Moral Theology, Canon Law and 
Liturgy, St. John's Untversity, College- 
viLLE, Minnesota. 

MOELLER, CH., Professor of General His- 
tory, Universtty of Louvain. 

MOLLAT, G., Ph.D., PARia 

MOONEY, J AS., United States Ethnologist, 

MORICE, A. G., Kamloofs City, British Colum- 

MORRISROE, PATRICK, Dean and Professor 
OF Liturgy, St. Patrick's College, May- 
NOOTH, Dublin. 

BCUCKERMANN, H., S.J., Professor of Mathe- 
matics AND Natural Sciences, St. Ignatius 
College, Valkenburg, Holland. 

MUELLER, ADOLF, S.J., Director of the Pri- 
vate Astronomical Observatory on the 
Janiculum, Professor of Astronomy at the 
Gregorian University, Rome. 

MURPHY, JOHN F. X., S.J., Woodstock Col- 
lege, Maryland. 

NUGENT, F. v., CM., St. Louis. 

O'DANIEL, VICTOR F., O.P., S.T.L., Professor 
OF Dogmatic Theology, Dominican House 
OF Studies, Washington. 

O'DONOGHUE, D. J., Dublin. 

OESTREICH, THOMAS, O.S.B., Professor of 
Church History and Sacred Scripture, 
Maryhelp Abbey, Belmont, North Caro- 

O'LAUGHLIN, FRANCIS D., S.J., Woodstock 
College, Maryland. 

O'MALIA, M. J., FoRDHAM UNivERsmr, New 

O'NEIL, LEO F., A.B., S.T.L., Boston. 

O'NEILL, J. D., A.M., S.T.D., Lake Forest, 

O'RIORDAN, Mgr. M., Ph.D., S.T.D., D.C.L., 
Rector of the Irish College, Rome. 

OTT, BilCHAEL, O.S.B., Ph.D., Professor of 
THE History of Philosophy, St. John's Uni- 

OTTEN, JOSEPH, PrrrsBURG, Pennsylvania. 

OUSSANI, GABRIEL, Ph.D., Professor of 
Hebrew and the Semitic Languages, Orien- 
tal History and Biblical Archjbology, 
St. Joseph's Seminary, Dunwoodib, New 

tPARGOIRE, JULES, A.A., Constantinoplb. 

PETERSON, JOHN B., Professor of Ecclesi- 
astical History and Liturgy, St. John's 
Seminary, Brighton, Massachusetts. 

PETIT, L., A.A., Constantinople. 

PETRIDES, S., A.A., Constantinople. 




PHILLIPS, G. E., Professor of Philosophy and 
Church History, St. Cuthbert's College, 
(jshaw, dxtrham, england. 

PIAT, CLODIUS, LITT.D., Professor of Phi- 
losophy, Institut Catholique, Paris. 


PLOMER, J. C, C.S.B., Absduftion College, 
Sandwich, Ontario, Canada. 


POOLE, THOMAS H., New York. 

PORTALIE, EUGENE, S.J., Professor of Theol- 
ogy AT THE Catholic Institute of Toulouse, 

POWER, ALICE, R.S.H., Convent of the Sacred 
Heart, Kenwood, Albany, New York. 

QUINN, DANIEL, Ph.D., Yellow Springs, Ohio. 
REILLY, L. W., A.M., Washington. 

REILLY, W. S., S.T.D., S.S., Professor of 
Scripture, St. John's Seminary, Brighton, 

REINHOLD, GREGOR, Freiburg, Germany. 

REMY, ARTHUR F. J., A.M., Ph.D., Instructor 
IN Germanic Languages, Columbia Univer- 
sity. New York. 

RICKABY, JOSEPH, S.J., Pope's Hall, Oxford. 

ROBERGE, L. D., Vicb-Chancellor, Diocese 
OF St. Hyacinth, Canada. 

ROBINSON, PASCHAL, O.F.M., Professor of 
Theology, Francibcan Monastery, Wash- 

ROCK, P. M. J., Louisville, Kentucky 

ROY, J. EDMOND, LiTr.D., F.R.S.C, Officer of 
the French Academy, Director, ''Notarial 
Review", Livis, Quebec. 

RUDGE, F. M., M.A., Youngstown, Ohio. 

RUSSELL, WILLIAM T., S.T.D., Baiaimore. 

RYAN, EDWIN, Cathouc University of America, 

RYAN, J. A., S.T.D., Professor of Moral Theol- 
ogy, The St. Paul Seminary, St. Paul, 

RYAN, PATRICK, S.J., London. 

Instructor in the Latin Language and 
Literature, College of the City of New 

BAUER, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Editor, ' ' Rundschau ", 
Professor of Theology at the Univer- 
sity OF Freiburg. Germany. 

SAUVAGE, G. M., C.S.C., S.T.D., Ph.D., Professor 
OF Dogmatic Theology, Holy Cross College, 

SAXTON, E. F., Bautimorb. 

SCANNELL, T. B., S.T.D., Editor, "Catholic 
DicnoNARY", Folkestone, England. 

fessor of Church History, The St. Paul 
Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota. 

SCHEID, N., S.J., Stella Matutina College, 
Feldkirch, Austria. 



SCHRANTZ, CHARLES B., S.S., A.M., Catholic 
University of America, Washington. 

Bahama Islands. 

SCHWERTNER, THOS. M., O.P., Washington. 

SEUNGER, JOS., S.T.D., Jefferson City, Mis- 


SmPMAN, ANDREW J., A.M., LL.M., New 

OF Philosophy, St. Charles's Seminary, 


SINKMAJER, JOS., East Islip, New York. 

SLATER, T., S.J., St. Bbuno's College, St. 
Asaph, Wales. 


Ph.D., New York. 


SMITH, SYDNEY F., S.J., London. 

SMOUNSKI, JOSEPH, Washington. 

SMYTH, P. G., Chicago. 

SOLUER, J. F., S.M., S.T.D., Rector and Pro- 
fessor OF Moral Theology, Marist College, 

Ph.D., Professor of Holy Scripture and 
Hebrew, Kenrick Seminary, St. Louis. 

SPILLANE, EDWARD P., S.J., AssoaATS Editor, 
"The Messenger", New York. 

STEELE, FRANCESCA M., Stroud, Gloucester- 
shire, England. 

STONE, J. M., London. 

SULLIVAN, JAMES J.,. S.J., Professor of 
Dogmatic Theology, St. Louis University, 
St. Louis. 


structor IN English Literature, College 
OP THE CiTT or New York. 

TAYLOR, HANNIS, Spanish Claims Coumission, 


TIERNEY, JOHN J., A.M., S.T.D., Propessor op 
Scripture and Semitic Studies, Mt. St. 
Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Maryland. 

TIERNEY, R. H., S.J., Woodstock College, 


TURNER, WILLIAM, B.A., S.T.D., Propessor 
OP Logic and the History op Philosophy, 
Cathouc Uniyersity op America, Wash- 

UA CLERIGH, ARTHUR. M.A., K.C., London. 

URQUHART, F. F., M.A., Lecturer in Modern 
History, Balliol College, Oxpord. 

VAILHE, S., A.A., Constantinople. 


TAN DEN BIESEN, C, S.T.D., Propessor op 
Hebrpw and Old Testament Exegesis, St. 
Joseph's College, Mill Hill, London. 

VAN DER DONCKT, C, Pocatello, Idaho. 

VAN HOVE, A., D.C.L., Propessor op Church 
History, University op Louyain. 

VAN KASTEREN, JOHN P., S.J., Maastricht, 


VCELKER, J. A., Ossining, New York. 

VOLZ, JOHN R., O.P., Washington. 

VUIBERT, A. J. B., S.S., A.M., Propessor of 
History, St. Patrick's Seminary, Menlo 
Park, California. 

WALDRON, M. A., O.P., Washington. 

WALSH, JAS. J., M.D., Ph.D., LL.D., Propessor 
OP THE History op Medicine, Fordham 
University, New York. 


WANG, E. A., Bergen, Norway. 

WARD, Mgr. BERNARD, President op St. 
Edmund's College, Ware, England. 

WEBER, N. A., S.M., S.T.L., Propessor op 
Apologetics and Church History, Marist 
College, Washington. 

THLHELM, J., S.T.D., Ph.D., Battle, Sussex, 


WIRTH, EDBfUND J., S.T.D., Ph.D., Propessor 
OP Philosophy, St. Bernard's Seminary, 
Rochester, New York. 

WTTTMAN, PIUS, Ph.D., Reichsarchivrath, 


WOODS, JOSEPH M., S.J., Propessor op Ec- 
clesiastical History, Woodstock College, 

YANES, FRANCISCO J., Bureau op American 
Repubucs, Washington. 

YOUNG, T. J., S.J., Woodstock College, Mary- 

ZIMMERMAN, B., O.D.C., St. Luke's Priory. 
WiNCANTON, Somerset, Engulnd. 

Tables of Abbreviations 

The following tables and notes are intended to guide readers of The Catbouc Exctglopbdia in 
interpreting those abbreviations, signs, or technical phrases which, for economy of space, will be most fre- 
quently used in the work. For more general information see the article Abbreviations, Eoglbbiabtioal. 

I. — General Abbreviations. 

a article. 

ad an at the year (Lat. ad annum), 

an., ann the year, the years (Lat. annua, 


ap in (Lat. apud), 

art article. 

Assyr Assyrian. 

A. S Anglo-Saxon. 

A, V Authorized Version (i.e. tr. of the 

Bible authorized for use in the 
Anglican Church — the so-called 
"King James", or "Protestant 

b bom. 

Bk Book. 

Bl Blessed. 

C, c about (Lat. circa); canon; chap- 

ter; compagnie, 

can canon. 

cap chapter (Lat. caput — used only 

in Latin context). 

cf. compare (Lat. confer), 

eod codex. 

ool column. 

eoncl conclusion. 

const., constit. . . .Lat. constUutio, 

cur& by the industry of. 

d died. 

diet dictionary (Fr. dictionnaire), 

disp Lat. disputoHo, 

diss Lat. diaaertatio. 

dist Lat. dtatincUo. 

D. V Douay Version. 

ed., edit edited, edition, editor. 

Ep., Epp letter, letters (Lat. cpiatda). 

Fr. French. 

gen. genus. 

Gr. Greek. 

H. E., Hist. Bod. .Ecclesiastical History. 

Heb., Hebr Hebrew. 

ib., ibid in the same place (Lat. Mdem), 

Id. the same person, or author (Lat. 


inf. below (Lat. infra). 

It Italian. 

1. c, loc. cit at the place quoted (Lat. loco 


Lat Latin. 

lat latitude. 

lib book (Lat. Kber), 

long longitude. 

Mon Lat. Monumenta. 

MS., MSS manuscript, manuscripts. 

n., no number. 

N. T New Testament 

Nat National. 

Old Fr., O. Fr. . . .Old French. 

op. cit in the work quoted (Lat. opere 


Ord Order. 

O. T Old Testament. 

p., pp paSBf pas^i o^ (in Latin ref- 
erences) para (part). 

par. paragraph. 

paaaim in various places. 

pt part. 

Q Quarterly (a periodical), e.g. 

"Church Quarteriy". 

Q-f QQ>f quiBst. . . .question, questions (Lat. quaatio), 

q. V. which [title] see (Lat. quod vide). 

Rev Review (a periodical). 

R. S Rolls Series. 

R. V Revised Version. 

&,SS Lat. Sanctua, SancH, "Saint", 

"Saints" — used in this Ency- 
clopedia only in Latin context. 

Sept Septuagint. 

Sess. Session. 

Skt Sanskrit. 

Sp Spanish. 

sq., sqq following page, or pages (Lat. 


St., Sts Saint, Saints. 

sup Above (Lat. supra), 

s. V Under the corresponding title 

(Lat. aub voce), 

tom volume (Lat. Unmui)* 



tr. traiulation or translated. Byit- 

sdf it meaiiB " English tranal»- 
tion", or " translated into Eng- 
lish by". Where a translation 
is into any other language^ the 
language is stated. 

tr., tract tractate. 

T see (Lat. vide). 

Yen Venerable. 

VoL Volume. 

n. — ^Abbbeviationb of Titlbb. 

Acta SS Acta Sandorum (BoUandists). 

Ann. pont. cath. . . . .Battandier, Annuoire ponHfioal 


Bibl. Diet. Eng. Gath.Gillow, Bibliographical Diction- 
ary of the English Catholics. 

Diet. Christ. Antiq... Smith and Cheetham (ed.), 

Dictionaiy of Christian An- 

Diet. Christ. Biog. . . Smith and Waoe (ed.), Diction* 

ary of Christian Biography. 
Diet, d'arch. chr^t.. .Cabrol (ed.), Dictumnaire d'or* 

cfUologie chriUenne et de UivT' 

Diet, de th^l. cath. . Vacant and Mangenot (ed.), 

DidUmnavre de th^ologie 

Diet. Nat. Biog Stephen (ed.), Dictionaiy ol 

National Biography. 
Hast., Diet, of the 
Bible HastingB (ed.), A Dictionary ol 

the Bible. 
Kirchenlez. Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexir 


P. G Migne (ed.)» Patrea GtobcL 

P. L Migne (ed.), Pairee LaHnL 

Vig., Diet, de la Bible. Vigouroux (ed.), Dictumnaire de 

la Bible. 

NoTB I. — ^Larie Roman nuxnenls lUndiog alone indSoato vtitanmB. Small Roman numerali standing alone iniliflatft 
ehapten. Arabic numerali standing alone indicate pages. In other eases the divisions are explioitly stated. Thus ** Rashdall, 
Universities of Europe, I. iz" rsfers the reader to the ninth chapter of the first volume of that work ; *'I, p. ix" would indicate the 
ninth page d the prsf ace of the same volume. 

NoT«- il.- -Where St. Thomas (Aquinas) is cited without the name of any particular work the rafevenec is always to 
**Summa Theologica" (not to "Summa Philosophiis")* The divisions of the "Summa Theol." are indicated by a system which 
may best be understood by the following example: "I-II, (^ vi, a. 7, ad 2 urn " rsfers the reader to the Btmnth article d the 
nxth question in the fini part of the soeond part, in the rssponse to the ssoond objection. 

Nom III. — ^The abbreviations employed for the various books of the BiUe are obvious. Ecclesiasticns is indicated by 
Bcchu., to distinguish it from Ecdesiaates {Bedm,). It should also be noted that I and II Songs in D. V. oorrsspond to I and II 
Samuel in A. V. ; and I and II Par. to I and II dironioles. Where, in the spelling of a proper name, there is a marked diffannoe 
between the D. V. and the A. V.. the form found in the latter is added, in parenthesia. 

Full Page Illustrations in Volume II 

Frontispiece in Colour facs 

Psalter of St. Augustine, Canterbury g4 

St. Augustine 85 

Australia 120 

St. Peter's Abbey, Salzburg 121 

Baldachina 216 

Baltimore 230 

Cathedral of the Assumption, Baltimore 231 

Baptismal Fonts 274 

Baptistery 275 

Basilicas 326 

Battle Abbey, Entrance Gate 350 

Cathedral of Notre Dame, Bayeux 358 

Belgium 400 

Bell Towers 418 

Benedictional of St. Ethelwold 464 

St. Bernard 498 

Colonnade of St. Peter's 510 

Bethlehem 532 

Fisherman and the Ring of St. Mark (Bordone) 684 

Boston 704 

Bramante's Circular Temple 736 

Brazil 746 

Brooklyn 798 


Assjnrian Empire 8 

Australia 114 

Austria 136 

Belgium 396 





Aflsiies of Jentsalexn. — The signification of the resolution of a disputed point by an appeal to arms, 

word assizes in this connexion is derived from the its challenge, its champions, its value as evidence. 

French verb asseoir, whose past participle is astis. In brief, the "Assizes of Jerusalem" give us a faith- 

Aaseoir means "to seat", "to place one on a ful and vivid picture of the part played by the law 

seat ". Hence the idea of putting something in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 
into its place, determining it to something. Thus Beugnot, IUcu€Ude§ hialoriena de§ Croimtdet: LoUt 2 toIb. in 

assise came ^ mean an enactment a statute^ S'-'^lSfx^Sti'KSSof &.^^^^ 

Assize IS the English form of the word, and used Patjlin Paris, review of BeugnotV editiin. in the Jowtui 

in the plural, assizes, it denotes a court. The (^ Savanta (Pftris* 1841); Monnikr, Oodejhray de Bouillon 

"Assizes of Jerusalem" (lea astiaea de J&uaalem) S ^ ^iS^A^ Jrfnoofem (Acad^mie dee Scienoea morales, 

are the code of laws enacted brthe CniSSTfoi £^1873-74). Consult also a^ work on feudal or medxevJ 

the government of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. They Ch. Mobller. 
are a collection of legal regulations for the courts . _ . . . . i^ . 
of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem and Cyprus. „ ff^^yer, Iqnaz, an Austrian musician, b. at 
Thus we have the" Assizes of Antioch ", the "Assizes ?~^^^^^ ^ February, 1790; d. in Vienna, 31 August, 
of Rumania", legal regulations for the Latin prin- JS62. He studied under Brunmayr and Michael 
cipality of Antioch and for the Latin Empire of Haydn, and later, when he went to Vienna, he re- 
Constantinople. It is erroneous to ascribe the ^^"^^ further mstmction from Ejrbler. In 1808 
"Assizes of Jerusalem" to Godfrey de Bouillon on he was organist at St. Peter's .m his native town, 
the presumption that as he was Kmg of Jerusalem ^ ^^^ M wrote his oratorio "Die SUndfluth ' 
he enacted its laws. The "Assizes of Jerusalem*' CT^® Deluge) and his cantata "Worte derWeihe". 
were compiled in the thirteenth century, not m the Some tune after his removal to Vienna, in 1815. he 
eleventh; not in Jerusalem, but after its fall: not became choirmaster at the Schotten-Kirche. and in 
by any ruler, but by several jurists. Not even the ?S25 was appointed imperial organist. After hav- 
rames of these are aU known, though two of them «¥ served eight years as vice-choirmaster, he re- 
were the weU-known John of Ibelin, who composed, ce»ved m 1846 the appointment of second choir- 
before 1266, the "Livre des Assises de la Cour des master to the Court, as successor to Weigl. His 
Barons", and PhUippe de Navarre, who, about the R™9V^ oratorios, "Das Gelabde", "Saul und 
middle of the thirteenth century, compUed the pavid", and "&.uls Tod ', were reputedly per- 
" Livre de forme de plait en la Haute Cour". formed by the Tonkunstler-SocieUU, oi which he 
There are mne treatises in the "Assizes of Jerusa- ^^ conductor for fifteen years. He also wrote fif- 
lem ", and they concern themselves with two kinds teen masses, two requiems, a Te Deum, and various 
of law: Feudal Law, to which the Upper Court of smaller chureh pieces. Of these two oratorios, one 
Barons was amenable; and Common Law, which was mass, the requiems, and Te Deum, and furthermore 
applied to the Court of the Buigesses. The latter ^^^^7 secular compositions, comprising symphonies, 
is the older of the two and was drawn up before the ?yert"je8' pastorales, etc., were published. As to 
fall of Jerusalem. It deals with questions of civil ^"s ^tyl© Grove calls it correct and fluent, but want- 
law, such as contracts, marriage, and property, and "^ "^ ^i^ "^liS^^'^H."'".^. ^^^^' ^.^ . .^ . 
touches on some which faU JtU the provmce of cl'^iSirSi' S^^^^ 

special courts, such as the "Ecclesiastical Court" j. A. VOlxer. 

for canonical points, the "Cour de la Fonde" for 

commerce, ana the "Cour de la Mer" for admiralty AsBOCiation, Right of Voluntart. — ^I. Thb 

cases. It deals rather with what the law enjoins in Legal Right. A voluntarv association means 

these several fields than with determining p^udties an^ group of individuals freely united for the pur- 

for transgressions. The celebrated" Livre de la Haute suit of a common end. It differs, therefore, from 

Cour*' of Ibelin was adopted, after revision (1359), a necessarv association inasmuch as its members 

as the official code of the Court of Cyprus, which arc not under legal compulsion to become associated, 

kingdom succeeded to the title and reflations of The principal instances of a necessary association 

Jerusalem. We possess only the official text of are a conscript military body and civil society, or 

this, which is not much older than the works of the State; the concept of voluntary association covers 

French lawyeis of Rouen and Orltens. But the organizations as diverse as a manufacturing corpora- 

superiority of the " Assizes of Jerusalem " is that it tion and a religious sodality. The legal ri^t of vol- 

reflects the genuine character of feudal law, whereas untary association — the attitude of civil authority 

the works of the French feudalists betray something toward bodies of this nature — has varied in different 

of the royal influence which affected those sections ages and still varies in different countries. Under 

after the revival of the Roman law. No other work the rule of Solon the Athenians seem to have been 

dwells so insistently on the rights of the vassal free to institute such societies as they pleased, so 

towards his lord, no other throws such a light on the long as their action did not conffict with the public 

IL— I I 


law. The multitude of societies and public gather- supreme head resides outside of France; and associi^ 

ings for the celebration of religious festivals and the tions whose members live in common. Owing 

carrying on of games, or other forms of public recrea- partly to the terms of the law and partly to the 

tion ana pleasure, which flourished for so many cen- course pursued by the officials charged with its 

turies throughout ancient Greece, indicates that enforcement, almost all the religious congregations 

a considerable measure of freedom of association have been driven out of France. In Pmssia and 

was quite general in that country. in most of the other German states political associa- 

The Roman authorities were less liberal. No tions are subject to close inspection, and can be 
private association could be formed without a spe- dissolved by the public authorities in case they go 
cial decree of the senate or of the emperor. And yet outside of certain well-defined limits. Most other 
voluntary societies or corporations were niunerous societies pursuing reasonable ends can obtain exist- 
from the earliest days of the Republic. There ence and recognition by becoming registered accord- 
existed collegia for the proper performance of relig- ing to a general law of the empire. The law of 
ious rites, collegia to provide public amusements, Austria empowers magistrates to forbid the formation 
collegia of a political nature, collegia in charge of of any association that either in aim or personnel 
cemeteries, and collegia made up of workers in the seems contrary to law, and to dissolve any society 
various trades and occupations. In Judea the that is no longer conducted in accordance with the 
Pharisees and Sadducees — though these were schools, legal conditions to which it is subject. In Russia 
or sects, rather than organized associations — ^and participation in any association not expressly author- 
the Essenes were not senously interfered with bv ized by the Government is a penal offence. Speak- 
the Roman governors. With the union of Church ing generally, it may be said that with the exception 
and State in 325 there came naturally an era of of France, Russia, and Turkey, European govem- 
freedom and prosperity for associations of a relig- ments exhibit to-day a liberal attitude toward 
ious nattupe, especially for the religious orders, associations pursuing reasonable ends. 
During the period of political chaos that followed In the Umted States associations whose purpose 
the fall of the Empire, liberty of association was as b pecimiary gain, and all other societies that desire 
extensive as could be expected among populations a corporate existence and civil personality, must, 
whose dvil rulers were not sufficiently powerful of course, comply with the appropriate laws of incor- 
either to repress or to protect the formation of poration. Umncorporated societies may be insti- 
voluntary unions. Indeed, the "minor, obscure, luted without legal authorization, and may pursue 
isolated, and incoherent societies", to use the words any aim whatever, so long as their members do not 
of Guizot, that erected themselves on the ruins of engage in actions that constitute conspiracy or 
the old political organization and became in time some other violation of public order. Even in these 
the feudal system, were essentially private associa^ contingencies the members will not be liable to le^d 
tions. prosecution. for the mere act of forming the associa- 

As the needs, culture, and outlook of men ex- tions. Under the present fairly liberal attitude 

tended, there sprang into being a great number of governments, and owing to the great increase in 

and variety of associations, religious, charitable, the number and complexity of human interests, 

educational, and industrial. Instances are the great the number and variety of associations in the Western 

religious orders, the societies for the relief of poverty world have grown with great rapidity. We may 

and sickness, the universities, and the guilds which enumerate at least nine distinct types, namely: 

arose and flourished between the tenth and the religious, charitable, intellectual, mond, political, 

fourteenth centuries. All of these associations mutual-benevolent, labour, industrial, ana purely 

were instituted either under the active direction social. The largest increase has taken place m the 

of the Church, or with her warm encoiuragement, three classes devoted to social intercourse and en- 

ond as a rule without any serious opposition on joyment, such as clubs and "secret" societies; to 

the part of the civil power. Some of them, in fact, mdustry and commerce, such as manufacturing 

performed important political functions; others and mercantile corporations, and to the interests 

secured a measure of social peace that the civil of the wage earner, such as trade unions. Probably 

authorities were unable to enforce; while as a whole the great majority of the male adults in the cities 

they constituted a considerable check to the exercise of the United States have some kind of membership 

of arbitrary power by sovereigns. Thus, the mer- in one or other of these three forms of association, 
chant and craft guilds gpvemed trade and industry II. The Moral Right. — Like all other moral 

with a series of regulations that had all the force rights, that of voluntary association is determined 

and authority of legal statutes; the associations by the ends that it promotes, the human needs 

instituted to enforce the "Truce of God", helped that it supplies. The dictum of Aristotle that man 

sreatly to lessen petty warfare between different is a "political" animal, expresses more than the 

tords and different sections of the same country; fact that man naturally ana necessarily becomes a 

while " the monarch was . . . hemmed in on all sides participant in that form of association known as 

, , , hijT universities, corporations, brotherhoods, the State. It means that man cannot effectively 

monastic orders; b/ franchises and privileges of all pursue happiness nor attain to a reasonable degree 

kinds, which in greater or less degree existed all over of self-peiiection unless he imites his energies with 

Europe". those of his fellows. This is particularly true of 

With the rise and extension of political absolutism modem life, and for two reasons. First, because 

in most of the countries of Europe in the seventeenth the needs of men have greatly increased, and second, 

century, freedom of association became eveiwhere because the division of labour has made the individual 

greatly restricted. It was frequently suDjected more and more dependent upon other individuals 

to unreasonable conditions in the last century, and groups of individuals. The primitive, isolated 

and it is still withheld by some governments. From family that knows only a few wants, and is able 

1820 to 1824 labour unions were absolutely prohibited in rude fashion to supply all these, may enjoy a 

in Great Britain. Up to the vear 1901 non-indus- certain measure of contentment, if not of culture* 

trial associations consisting of more than twenty without the aid of any other association than that 

persons could not be formed in France without inherent in its own constitution. For the family 

authorization by a public official whose power in the of to-day such conditions are unsatisfying and 

matter was idmost arbitrary. At present, authoriza- insufficient. Its members are constrained to pursue 

tion is required in the case of associations composed many lines of activity and to satisfy many wantv 

af Frenchmen and foreigners; associations whose that demand organized and associated effort. 


Since the individual is dependent upon so manv And it extends even to those associations that are 
other individuals for many of those material goods not in themselves necessaiy for these ends — that 
that are indispensable to him, he must frequently is, so long as the associations do not contravene 
combine with those of his neighbours who are sim- good morals or the public weal. For the State has 
il^lv placed if he would successfully resist the no right to prohibit any individual action, be it 
tenaency of modem forces to overlook and override ever so unnecessary, which is, from the public 
the mere individual. A large proportion of the point of view, harmless. Although it is not essential 
members of every industrial community cannot to his personal development that the citizen should 
miUce adequate provision for the needs that follow become a member of an association that can do him 
in the tram of misfortune and old age imless they neither good nor harm, it is essential to his happiness 
utilize such agencies as the mutual benefit societv and his aelf-respect that he should not be prevented 
the insurance company, or the savings bank. Work- from doing so oy the State. The moment that the 
ingmen find it impossible to obtain just wages or State begins to practise coercion of this kind it violates 
reasonable conditions of employment without the individual rights. The general right of voluntary 
trade union. On the other nand, goods could not association is well stated by Pope Leo XIII in the 
be produced or distributed in sufficient quantities encyclical, "Rerum No varum '^: "To enter into 
except through the medium of associations. Manu- private societies is a natural right of man, and the 
facturing, trade, transportation, and finance neces- State must protect natural rights, not destroy them, 
sarily faU more and more under the control of partner- If it forbids its citizens to form associations, it con- 
ships and stock companies. ^ tradicts the very principle of its own existence; for 

Turning now from the consideration of these both they and it exist in virtue of the same principle, 

material needs, we find that association plays a no namely, the natural propensity of man to live in 

less important part in the religious, moral, mtelleo- society. " 

tual, political, and purely social departments of life. Nor is the State justified in prohibiting voluntary 
Men cannot give God due worship except in a public, associations on the ground that thejr may become 
social way. This implies at least the imiversaj inimical to public welfare. An institution should 
Church and the parish, and ordinarily it supposes not be utterly condenmed because it is liable to abuse; 
devotional and other associations, such as sodalities, otherwise an end must be made of all institutions 
altar societies, church-fund societies, etc. Select that are erected and conducted by human beings, 
souls who wish to embrace the life of perfection The State has ample power to protect itself against 
described by the evangelical counsels must become all the abuses to wnich liberty o! association is Eable. 
organized in such a way that they can lead a common It can forbid societies that aim at objects contrary 
life. In every community there are persons who to good morals or the public welfare, lay down 
wish to do efifective work on behalf of good morals, such reasonable restrictions as are required to define 
charity, acd social reform of various kinds. Hence the proper spheres of the various associations, punish 
we have purity leagues, associated charities, tem- those societies that go beyond their legitimate fields, 
perance societies, ethical culture societies, social and, in extreme cases, dissolve any particular organi- 
settlements. Since large numbers of parents prefer zation that proves itself to be incorrigible. Through 
private and religious schools for the education of these measures the State can provide itself with all 
their children, the need arises for associations whose the security that is worth having; any further inter- 
purpose is educational. Literary and scientific ference with individual liberty would be a greater 
associations are necessary to promote original social evil than the one that is sought to be remedied, 
research, deeper study, and wider culture. Good The formality of legal authorization, or registration, 
government, especially in a republic, is impossible is not in itself unreasonable, but it ought not to be 
without political associations which strive vigilantly accompanied by unreasonable conditions. The pro- 
and constantly for the removal of abuses and the oedure ought to be such that any society formed 
enactment of just laws. in accordance with the appropriate law of association 

In the purely social order men desire to enroll could demand authorization, or reristration, as a 

themselves in dubs, "secret" societies, amusement civil right, instead of being compellea to seek it as a 

associations, etc., all of which may be made to promote privilege at the hands of an official clothed with the 

human contentment and human happiness. Many power to grant or refuse it at his own discretion, 

of the forms of association just enumerated are ab- The difference between these two methods is the 

solutely necessary to right human life; none of them difference between the reign of law and the reign of 

is entirely useless. Finally, voluntaiy associations official caprice; between constitutional liberty and 

are capable of discharging many of the tasks that bureaucratic despotism. Precisely this sort of 

otherwise would devolve upon the State. This arbitrary power is at present exercised by French 

was an important feature of their activity in the officials over religious congregations. The result 

Middle Ages, and it is very desirable to-day when is that Frenchmen and Frenchwomen who wish to 

the functions of government are constantly mcreas- live in associations of this nature are denied the 

ing. Chief among the organizations capable of right to do so. Speaking generally of religious 

limiting State activity are those concerned with congregations, we may justly say in the words of 

education, charitable work, industry, and commerce, Pope ^o XIII, that they have " the sanction of the 

and the improvement of the womng classes. In law of nature'', that is, the same natural right to 

so far as these can perform their several tasks on exist on reasonable conditions as any other morally 

reasonable terms and without injury to the State lawful association, and, ''on the rehmous eide they 

or to any class of its citizens, the public welfare is rightly claim to be responsible to the Church alone ", 

better served by them than it would be if they were When the State refuses them the right to exist it 

supplanted by the Government. Individual liberty violates not merely the natural moral law but the 

and individual opportunity have a larger scope, supernatural Divine law. For these associations 

individual initiative is more readily called into are an integral part of the life of the Church, and as 

play, and the danger of Government despotism ia such, Ue within her proper sphere. Within this 

greatly lessened. ^ ^ ^ sphere she is independent of the State, as inde- 

The ri^ht of voluntary association is, therefore, a pendent as one sovereign civil power is of another, 

natural right. It is an endowment of man's nature, Abuses that may grow out of religious associations 

not a privilege conferred by civil society. It arises can be met by the State in the ways outlined above, 

out of his deepest needs, is an indispensable means Treasonable acts can be punished; excessive accumu- 

to reasonable life and normal self-development, lation of property can be prevented; in fact, every 


action, circumstance, or tendency that constitutes of ideas is a fact of everyday experience which 

a real danger to the public welfare can be successfully furnishes an important basis for the science of 

dealt with by other methods than that of denying psychology; yet it must be remembered that the 

these associations the right of existence. taws of association offer no ultimate explanation of 

,r '^^?EFI^^Ik ^K"*?^ Theol^ Maralu, de JuaftWd (New the facts observed. In accounting for the facts of 

York, 1904), 75-80; ANTomE, Coiirae a^conomi« aocieue (Paris, «oo/\r.;o*;#*r» «rA »niiaf ;» fK** A^if .>la««A *«.:.»^^ «« 

1899), 384-388: KirchenUx., s. v. Vmrm«iH»en; Lalob. Cwcto^ asso^tion we must, m the firat place, reject as 

pedia of Political Science and Political Economy (New York, insufficient the purely physical theory proposed by 

1888-90), a. v.. AModationa; Say-Chaillbt. I>ic«umnatr« Ribot, Richet, Maudsley, Carpenter, and others, 

liS:^SSi.'?^'*!?S?iK;;i^-'*^^fS who s«,k an explanation ^dxJidy in the asBocia- 

ouvriirea avant 1789, I, i. tion of bram-processes. Psychology thus becomes 

John A. Ryan. a chapter of physiology and mechanics. Aside from 

the fact that this theory can ^ve no satisfactory 

Association of Ideas, (1) a principle in psychology explanation of association by similaritv which im- 

to account for the succession of mental states, (2) the plies a distinctly mental factor, it neglects evident 

basis of a philosophy known as Associationism. The facts of consciousness. Consciousness tells us that 

fact of the association of ideas was noted by some in reminiscence we can voluntarily direct the sequence 

of the earliest philosophers; Aristotle (De mem. et of our mental states, and it is in this that voluntanr 

rem., 2) indicates the three laws of association which recall differs from the succession of images and feef- 

have been the basis of nearly all later enumerations, ings in dream and delirium. B<»ideSj one brain- 

St. Thomas, in his commentary on Aristotle, accepts process may excite another, but this is not yet a 

and illustrates them at some length. Hamilton state of consciousness. 

(Notes on Reid) gives considerable credit to the Ekjually unsatisfactory is the theoiy of the ultra- 
Spanish Humanist, Vives (1492-1540), for his treat- spiritualists, who would, have us believe that asso- 
ment of the subject. Association of ideas is not, ciation of ideas has nothing to do with the bodily 
therefore, a discovery of English psychology, as has organism, but is wholly mental. Thus Hamilton 
often been asserted. says that all physiological theories are too con- 
It is true, however, that the principle of associa- temptible for serious criticism. Reid and Bowne 
tion of ideas received in English psychology an in- reject all traces of perception left in the brain sub- 
terpretation never given to it before. The name is stance. Lotze admits a concomitant oscillation of 
denved from Locke who placed it at the head of one the brain elements, but considers them quite sec- 
of the chapters of his Essav", but used it only ondary and as exercising no influence on memoi^ 
to explain peculiarities of character. Applied to and recall. Like the purely physical theory, this 
mental states in general, the name is too restricted, also fails to explain the facts of consciousness and 
since ideas, even in the English sense, are only experience. The localization of activities in the 
cognitive processes. The association theory was various brain-centres, the facts of mental disease in 
held by Hobbes, Berkeley, Hume, and Hamilton; consequence of injury to the brain, the dependence 
but it received its widest interpretation at the hands of memory on the healthy condition of the central 
of the Associationists, Hartley, Priestley, James Mill, oiigan, etc. have in this theory no rational mean- 
John Stuart Mill, Bain, and Spencer. They re- ing. We must, then, seek an explanation in a 
garded it as a principle capable of explaining all theory that does justice to both the mental and the 
mental phenomena. For them it is in the sub- physical side of the phenomena. A mere psycho- 
jective world what the principle of g[ravitation is physical parallelism, proposed by some, will not, 
in the physical world. Association of ideas, though however, suffice, as it offers no explanation, but b 
variously explained, is accepted by all modem a mere restatement of the problem. The Scholastic 
psychologists. Sully, Maudsley, James, Hoffding, doctrine, that the subject of sensorv activity is 
MUnster^rg, Ebbinghaus, Ziehen, Taine, Ribot, neither the body alone nor the soul alone, but the 
LuyR, and many others accept it more or less in the unitary being compounded of body and soul, offers 
spirit of the Associationists. the best solution. As sense perception is not purely 
The traditional laws of association, based on physiological nor purely mental, out proceeds from 
Aristotle, are: 1. Similarity; 2. Contrast; 3. Con- a faculty of the soul intrinsically united to an orean, 
tiguity in time or space. In the course of time so the association of these perceptions proceeds from 
efforts were made to reduce them to more funda- a principle which is at the same time mental and 
mental laws. Contrast has been resolved into simi- physical. No doubt purely spiritual ideas also 
larity and contiguity. Contrasts, to recall each other, associate; but, as St. Thomas teaches, the most 
suppose generic similarity, as white recalls black. Yet spiritual idea is not devoid of its physiological basis, 
this alone will not suffice, since this gives us no reason and even in making use of the spiritual ideas which 
for the fact that white recalls black in preference to it has already acquired, the intellect has need of 
green or Uue; hence experience, based on the fact that images stored in the brain. It rec^uires these oi]ganic 
nature works in contrasts, is called into aid. Spencer, processes in the production of its abstract ideas. 
Hoffding, and others try to reduce all the laws of In its basis, the association of ideas is physiological, 
association to that of similarity, while Wundt and but it is more than this, as it does not follow the 
his school believe that all can be reduced to expe- necessary laws of matter. The higher faculties of 
rience and hence to contiguity. Bain, who has the mind can command and direct the process, 
analyzed the laws of association most thoroughly. The Scholastic theory does justice to the fact of 
holds both similarity and contiguity to be elementary the dependence of mental activities upon the oi^n- 
principles. To these he adds certain laws of com- ism, and vet leaves room for the freedom of the will 
pound association. Mental states easily recall one attested by consciousness and experience, 
another when they have several points of contact. English Associationism, while claiminjg to be 
And in fact, considering the complexity of mental neither idealistic nor materialistic, and disavowing 
life, it would seem probable that simple associations, metaphysics, has erected the principle of association 
by similarity or contiguity alone, never occur. Be- of ideas into a metaphysical principle to explain all 
sides these primary laws of association, various mental activitv. James Mill enunciated the prin- 
secondary laws are enumerated, such as the laws ciple of indissoluble associations: Sensations or ideas 
of frequency, vividness, recentness, emotional con- occurring together frequently, and never apart, sug- 
gruity, etc. These determine the firmness of the gest one another with irresistible force, so that we 
association, and consequently the preference given combine them necessarily. This principle is em- 
to one state over another, in the recall. Association ployed to explain necessary judgments and meta- 


physical concepts. Bain applied the principles of of the Faith; Apostleship of Prayer, known also a£ 

association to logic and ethics. Spencer inter- the League of the Sacred Heart of Jesus; Holy Child* 

f>reted them in an evolutionist ic sense. Certain be- hood League; Priests' Eucharistic League; C&cilien- 

iefs and moral principles are such that the associa- verein, an association especially developed in Ger- 

tions of the individual are not sufficient to explain many for the advancement of religious music, 

them; they are the associations of successive genera- BitRiMom Lea indulgencea (Paris, 1906); Moccheoiani. 

tions handed down by heredity. The whole process ^^'"«^ Indulgetuiorum (Quaracdu. 1^7) 

is governed by necessary laws. Mental states asso- • ' 

ciate passively, and mental life is but a process of AssneroB, the name of two different persons in 

''mental chemistry". Later Associationists, like the Bible: — 1. In I Esdr., iv. 6, and Esth., i, 17, it 

Sully, have come to recognize that the mind exerts corresponds to the Hebrew 'Achdahwerdaht and the 

activity in attention, discrimination, judgment^ rea- Sept. ^k^vo^pot (in Esth. 'Apra^^p^t), and denotes 

soning. With this admission there snomd logically Xerxes I, the King of Persia. It was to him that the 

come also the admission of a soul-substance that Samaritans addressed their complaints against the 

sciousness ", or some other series veiled in meta- garded these charges. The report of Herodotus (VII, 

phorical language. Association of ideas can never viii) that Xerxes convoked a council of his nobles, 

explain necessary judf;ments, conclusions drawn in the third year of his reign ^ to deliberate about the 

from premises, moral ideas and laws; these have war against Greece agrees with Esth., i, 3. telling of 

their causes deeper in the nature of things. the great feast ^ven by the king to his nobles in the 

MAnra, PttfduUogy (London, 1900): Mercikr, PtytMoavs third year of his reign. In the seventh year of his 

't^^^'f^'SSrjf'i^lSj^T^.^^^ 9 Jf'P*. '^^': the return of ^rxes from his ^;ar against 

1894); Aasociatum Controvernea in Muid, 1886; James Greece^ Esther was declared queen. In the twelfth 

Ward, Ptyeholoiiieal Princii ----- 

Hon and A990ctation in 

(London, 1883); Cioblot. 

Hon, in Revue j>kUomh%que, isas. spencer, iTtnctptea of uwici Aaouciua wuuio lu. wit? wicca. vcau ui xuu., aiv, 

PayduAoay (New York, 1903); James, PrincipUa of Pay- 15 CAff^pos)^ in conjunction with Nabuchodonosor; 

t!^PS;^'(!i?^iS.^.^Jr^rTSj^:v:^ the taki,« of Ninive is ascribed to these two. In 

York); Rxbot, La vaychologia anglaiae contemporaine (Paris, point Of fact, Assjma was conquered by Uyaxares 1, 

1901). the Kin^ of Media, and Nabopolassar, the King of 

Edmund J. Wirth, Babylonia, and father of Nabuchodonosor. Hence 

Aflsociation of Priestly Per8eTeranc6» a sac« ^^ Assuerus of Tob., xiv, 15, is Gyaxares I; his name 

erdotal association founded in 1868 at Vienna, and w coupled with Nabuchodonosor because the latter 

at firet confined to that archdiocese. In 1879, must have led the troops of his father in the war 

chiefly through the influence of its periodical organ, ajgainst Assyria. The same Gyaxares I is probably 

"La Correspondance", it spread into other dioceses ^^^ Assuerus ('AchdshwSrdsh) mentioned m Dan., ix, 

and oountnes, and in 1903 counted 14,919 living 1, as the father of Darius the Mede. Most probably 

members, belonging to 150 dioceses in Austria, Darius the Mede is Gyaxares II, the son of Astyages, 

Germany, Switzerland, and other countries. This the King of Media. The inspired writer of Dan., ix, 

organization is very similar to that of the Apostolic 1« represents him as a son of Gyaxares I, or Assuerus, 

Union of Secular Priests (q. v.). instead of Asty^es, on account of the glorious name 

Joseph H. McMahon. ^^ the former. This could be done without difficulty, 

« -^ ^ « ^1. «* 1 •■ n « TT ' since, in genealogies, the name of the grandson was 

Assodatdon of the Holy Famfly. See Holy ^ften int^uced instead of that of the son. 

Family. Haobn, Lexicon BMicum (Paris, 1905); LbsAtob in Via., 

Associations, Pious.— Under this term are com- la BibU (Parb, 1895). 

prehended all those organizations, approved and maas. 

indulgenced by Ghurch authority, which have been Assumption, Little Sisters of the, a congrega- 

instituted, especially in recent times, for the advance- tion whose work is the nursing of the sick poor in their 

ment of various works of piety and charity. Other own homes. This labour they perform gratuitously 

terms used with the same meaning are: pious union, and without distinction of creed. The oongrega- 

pious work, league, society, etc. Pious associations tion was founded in Paris in 1865, by the Rev. 

are distinguished, on the one hand, from ordinary Etienne Pemet, A. A. (b. 23 July, 1824; d. 3 April, 

societies composed of Catholics by having an explic- 1899), and Marie Antoinette Tage, known in religion 

itlv religious purpose, by enjoying indulgences and as Mother Marie de J^us (b. 7 Nov., 1824; d. 18 Sept., 

other spiritual benefits, and by possessing ecclesias- 1883). Both had long been engaged in charitable 

tical approbation. They are distinguished, on the work. Father Pemet while a pro^ssor in the GoUege 

other hand, from confraternities and sodalities. The of the Assumption at Ntmes, and Mile. Tage as a 

latter distinction is not determined bv the name and member of the Association of Our Lady of Good 

is not alwa^rs apparent. In general, pious associa- Gounsel in Paris. They met in Paris and Father Per- 

tions have simpler rules than confraternities; they do net placed her in charge of the work of nursixig the 

not require canonical erection, and though the^ have sick poor which he had inaugurated. Out of this 

the approbation of authority, they are not subject to movement the sisterhood grew, Mother Marie de 

as strict legislation as confraternities; they have no J^us beinjg the first superior. The nursing of the 

fixed term of probation for new members, no elabo- sick poor is not the only or even the chief purpose 

rate ritual, no special costumes; they are not obliged of the Little Sisters. They endeavour to bring about 

to meet for common religious practices, and, as conversions, to regularize illicit unions, to have 

a rule, they make the help of others more promi- children baptized, sent to school, and prepared for 

nent than the improvement of self. Of all these First Gommunion and Gonfirmation. They form 

differences, only that of canonical erection seems societies among their clients and enlist the aid of 

essential. Some authorities, however, declare that laymen and laywomen of education and means to 

practices in common constitute the trait which further the work of re^neration. The congregation 

distinguishes a confraternity from a pious association, has established houses m Italy, Spain, Belgium, Eng- 

Some well-known pious associations are: Society land, Ireland, and the United States of America. 

of St. Vincent de Paul; Society of the Propagation The papal Brief approving the congregation was 


issued in 1897. The sisters take simple vows and salem: ''St. Juvenal, Bishop of Jerusalem, at the 
are governed by a mother-general, wno resides in Council of Chaloedon (451), made known to the Em- 
Paris. Thomas Gaffnet Taaffe. peror Marcian and Pulcheria, who wished to possess 

AsBnmption. SisTERa op the, a congregation of ^l ^Ji M"lSf A^Jw'K^!f*»h^-, f k 

French niw devoted to the teaclling of y^ girls. ^,f P"^^ !.^„ ?h» £SSjw' A^ **""''' 

It was founded in 1839 by Eugenie HiUer^t dTfiron, f^Z E^^J. Sfhi-^^^T^ Uli^^'^i IS 

in religion Mfere Marie-Eugenie de J&us (b. 1817 I^^'Ik^'SPS^' !?t?J!^™„*^J? u^f^*^ concluded 

J ioft§\ J-. *v_ a: t:»t »» *u_ AKux r.l_u.t_t' that the Dodv was taken up to heaven." 



d. 189f), under the direction of the Abb« Combalot t«!?., ♦^ tSilTfil? ♦? ^'^\ 

a well-kiown orator of the time, who had been ini „f^^^L^^^iJ^*/j"*h«%"*,'P°'^- .u * * 

BnirpH tn Mtabliah the institute Aurinir a. nilirriinium **' **"y " umversal m the East and m the West; 

?rt Shrine o\&i?^Cfd^iJ^i%li"'Til t^^^ff, t» ^^:^,^\(^ F??*if B/. M., I, 

foundress, who had previously made i short novitiate y'"',i*> >* •? *tf "t""* °P""g"' 'S'.*'' *? '^"''^ .^'*! 

with the listers of tfie Visitation at Cdte SaintrAndr6. ^J^P^f^^^^ blasphemous. Regarding the ongm of 


admirably adapted for the undertaking, and had l^fJS^* J«- ""Z ""^ f'^'^A^i^' ♦• ^* f """"^ ^^^ 

the c(M)peratron of three companions, each Especially f^^^ ^^^ anmversaiy of the dedication of some cfiurch 

fitted to^dertake the direction of Lme one of thi *^jfJi -V*® •^^*'^^*\f'f'y ""l ^""^n^^K^ ^^^u 

activities of the order. Much of the initial success J^^ lT»f ?*^ ?^ ^^"^ *'""? ?' ^^iS'^''^ ""1^^^" 

was due to the stanch friendship of Monseigneur ff'^li^^^*?!?^ ^^^^ introduced it m Rome, 

Affre, Archbishop of Paris. The motto of the con- Su2fc,i'^*^^^^^ 

gregation is "Thy Kingdom Come", and the aim to ?!i!^T" ^^' ^^ '* was celebrated in Palestine 

i)mbine with a thoroi^h secular education a moral ^^^"^ the year 600 probably m August (B«umer 

and religious training Which will bear fruit in genera- ^^^^J'.^P^H ^ ^SyP^ ^'^ ^Ir"'^' ^^^^r^' '\ 

tions t? come. ThI habit of the sisters is\iolet, ^J« ^fP* "^ January, and smoe the monks of Gaul 

with a white cross on the breast and a violet cincture. ?^^P*^ ^^ "?2ff ^">°^ .^^l Egyptian monks 

The veil is white. On certain occasions a mantle of (?«H°i«f' ^7^' ^^\ ^® ^4 *^? ^®,*«* "^ ^^^J° 

white with a violet cross on the shoulder is worn in ^^^ ^"^^^ ^^^^'T, m January [medtantem^ und^ 

the chapel. Since its foundation the congregation fj"*? ^^^.\ Turon , De glona mart.. I, ix)]. The 

has spr^ beyond France to England, Italy, Spain, ^«i^^. ♦•Vf'^n ^/-^ T ^^® .•^^*' 1^ iT^' 

and fiicaragui. Several communities devote tLem^ ^^? *^,V*^i?' />epo*ii«> A*«impt«>, or£«rf«ntos S. 

selves to the work of Perpetual Adoration and the ^?"^ (^^^ *^® ^'*??V?T ^S^\"''V'' *^«,^«^<»^ 

instruction of poor children. The mother-house is {^^^87' '\u"n^*nu\ / *u ^^i^^^."^^ 

situated at Auteuil, a suburb of Paris, m a former KPi^P.P the Ga^hcan Church to the time of the 

chAteau, rich in historical a«ociations. The daugh- jntroduction of the Roman Rite In the Greek 

ters of Uny distinguished European families hive ^^^^''k '* ^^' f^® ^f^* ^^^ ^^K"^ '^^'^' 

studied at iuteuil, as weU as ^y English and Tu^^ ^^® "^?"^ ^^ Egypji; others m August with 

Americans, who receive a special tkinir^ in the ^5^^^/ Palatine; wherefore the Emperor Maunoe 

French language. (**• ^^)' ^ ^^® account of the "Liber Pontificahs" 

/>« anoinet de VAtaompHon; Siatera of the AaaumpHon in Q^* ^) be correct, set the feast for the Greek 

The Meaaenger (New York, Nov., 1899); Stkelb. The ConverUa Empire on 15 August. In Rome (Batlfifol, Brev. 

of Great Britain (St. Louia. 1902). 241. Rom., 134) the oldest and only feast of Our Lady 

b, M. KUDOS. ^as 1 January, the octave of Christ's birth. It was 
Assumption of the Blessed Virffin Mary, celebrated first at Santa Maria Maggiore, later at 
Feast of the, 15 Aug.; also called in old liturgical Santa Maria ad Martyres. Theother feasts are of By- 
books Pausatio, Nativfias (for heaven), Mors, zantine origin. Duchesne thinks (Origines du culto 
Depositio, Dormitio S. MARiiB. This feast has a chr., 262) tnat before the seventh century no other 
double obiect: (1) the happy departure of Mary feast was kept at Rome, and that consequently the 
from this life; (2) the assumption of her body into feast of .the Assumption, found in the Sacramen- 
heaven. It is the principal feast of the Blessed taries of Gelasius ana Gregory, is a spurious addition 
Virgin. Regarding the day, year, and manner of made in the eighth or seventh century. Probst, 
Our Lady's death, nothing certain is known. Epi- however (Sacramentarien, 264 sqo.), brings forth 
phanius (d. 403) acknowledged that he knew nothing good arguments to prove that tne Mass of the 
definite about it (Hser., Ixxix, 11). The dates a»- Blessed Virgin Mary, found on the 15th of August 
signed for it vary between three and fifteen years in the Gelasianum, is genuine, since it does not 
after Christ's Ascension. Two cities claim to fane the mention the corporeal assumption of Mary; that, con- 
place of her departure: Jerusalem and Ephesus; sequently, the feast was celebrated in the church 
common consent favours Jerusalem, where her of Santa Maria Maggiore at Rome at least in the 
tomb is shown [Nirschl, Haus und Grab der allerh. sixth century. He proves, furthermore, that the 
Jungfrau (Mainz, 1900); Mommert, Die Dormitio Mass of the Gregorian Sacramentaiy, such aa we 
(Leipzig, 1900)]; but in 1906, J. Niesen brought have it, is of Gallican origin (since the belief in the 
forth new arguments in favour of Ephesus (Panagia bodily assumption of Mary, imder the influence of 
Kapuli, DUlmen, 1906). The first six centuries the apocryphal writings, is older in Gaul than in 
did not know of the tomb of Mary at Jerusalem. Rome), and that it supplanted the old C^lasian 
The belief in the corporeal assumption of Mary is Mass. At the time of Sergius I (700) this feast was 
founded on the apocryphal treatise "De Obitu S. oneof the principal festivities in Riome; the procession 
Dominse", bearing the name of St. John, which started from the church of St. Hadrian. It was 
belongs however to the fourth or fifth century. It always a double of the first class and a Holy Day of 
is also found in the book "De Transitu VirKinis", obli^tion. The octave was added in 847 by Leo 
falsely ascribed to St. Melito of Sardis, ana in a IV; in Germany this octave was not observed in 
spurious letter attributed to St. Denis the Areop- several dioceses up to the time of the Reformation, 
agite. If we consult genuine writiogs in the East, The Church of Milan has not accepted it up to this 
it is mentioned in the sermons of St. Andrew of Oete, day (Ordo Ambros., 1906). The octave is privileged 
St. John Damascene, St. Modestus of Jerusalem and in the dioceses of the provinces of Sienna, Fermo, 
others. In the West, St. Gregory of Tours (De Michoacan, etc. The Greek Church continues this 
gloria mart., I, iv) mentions it first. The sermons of feast to 23 August, inclusive, and in some monasteries 
St. Jerome and St. Augustine for this feast, however, of Mount Athos it is protracted to 29 August (M<^n»a 
are spurious. St. John of Damascus (P. G., I, 96) Greeca, Venice, 1880), or was, at least, formerly, 
thus formulates the tradition of the Chureh of Jem- In the dioceses of B&varia a thirtieth day (a species 


of month's mind) of the Assumption was celebrated language, literature, and civilization. Hence Assyro- 

during the Middle Ages, 13 Sept., with the Office of Babylonian reli^on, mythology, and religious litera- 

the ^simiption (double); to-aay, only the Diocese ture, especially m their relation to the Old Testament, 

of Augsburg has retained this old custom. Some of will be treated in the article Babylonia, while the 

the Bavarian dioceses and those of Brandenburg, history of the modem explorations and discoveries 

Mainz, Frankfort, etc., on 23 Sept. kept the feast of in these two countries will be given in the present 

the "Second Assumption", or the "Fortieth Day article 

of the Assvmiption *' (double) believing, according Geography. — Geographically, Assyria occupies 

to the revelations of St. Elizabeth of Sch6nau (d. the northern and middle part of Mesopotamia, situated 

1165) and of St. Bertrand, O.C. (d. 1170), that the between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris: while the 

B. V. Mary was taken up to heaven on the fortieth southern half, extending as far south as the Persian 

day after her death (Grotefend, Calendaria 2, Gulf, constitutes the countries of Babylonia and 

136). The Birgittines kept the feast of the " Glorifica- Chaldea. Assyria originally occupied but a scant 

tion of Mary' (double) 30 Aug., since St. Birgitta geographical area, comprising the small triangular- 

of Sweden says (Revel., VI, bdi) that Mary was taken shapted land tying between the Tigris and Zab Rivers, 

into heaven fifteen days after her departure (Ck>lve- but in later times, owinff to its wonderful conquests, 

nerius, Cal. Mar., 30 Aug.). In Central America a its boundaries extended as far north as Armenia; 

special feast of the O>ronation of Mary in heaven to Media on the east; to northern Syria, and to the 

Mouble major^ is celebrated 18 Aug.^ The city of country of the Hittites, on the west' and to Baby- 

Geraoe in Calabria keeps three successive days with Ionia and Elam on the south and soutn-east. occupy- 

the rite of a double first class, commemorating: ing almost the entire Mesopotamian valley. By 

15th of August, the death of Mary; 16th of August, the Hebrews it was known under the name of Aram- 

her Assumption, and 17th of August, her O>ronation. Naharaimf i. e. "Aram [or Syria] of the two rivers ", 

At Piazza, in Sicily, there is a commemoration of the to distinguish it from Syria proper, although it is 

Assumption of Mary (double second class) the 20th of doubtful whether the Hebrew name should be read 

February, the anniversary of the earthquake in 1743. as dual, or rather as a plural; i. e. Aram-Naharim, 

A similar feast (double major with octave) is kept at "Aram of the many rivers", or "of the great river" 

Martano, Diocese of Otranto, in Apulia, 19tn of — ^the Euphrates. In later Old Testanient times, it 

November. was known under the name of Aashur. By the 

HoLWBcK, Fatii Mariani (Freiburs, 1892); Kbllnxr, Greeks and Romans it was called Mesopotamia, and 

Heortoiw» (Freiburg. 1901), 171 tt^,^,^ Assyria; by the Aramieans, Beth-nahann, "the 

Frkdebick G. Holweck. ^^^^ ^^ ^y^^ ^^^^o. by thi Egyptians, Nahnva; 

Aflsur, or Assuilb, a titular see of Proconsular by the Arabs, AihUr, or Al-GeziraXf "the island ", oi 
Africa, now Henchir-Zenfour. Its episcopal list oatfwi^^ia^ratn," the country between the two rivers'* 
(251-484) is given in Gams (p. 464). Ruins of its -^Mesopotamia, Whether the name Assyria is de- 
temples and theatres and other public buildings are rived from that of the g[od Asshur, or vice versa, or 
still visible. whether Asshur was originally the name of a particu- 

MoRCELLx, Africa Christiana (1816), I, 85-87. lar city and afterwards applied to the whole country, 

Aflsur (Hebrew, y\\^: Sept., 'Acrcrodp). (1) The ^25°^ ^ determined. ^ ^, ^ 
name used in the Old Testament to designate the J^^ aj«» ^^ Assyria is about fifty thousand square 

Assyrian land and nation. (See Assyria.) (2) The ^^^' ^^ physical character it is mountainous and 

name of one of the sons of Sem, mentioned in Gen., x, w®" watered, especiaUy m the northern part. Lime- 

22. In verse 11 of the same chapter, the Douay ;**>?® ^^4' *^ ^™® maces, volcanic rock form the 

version has: "Out of that land came forth Assure ?«>? ^f its fertile sod. Its southern part is more 

Here the name in the original refers not to a peraon. level, alluvial, and fertile. Its pnncipal nvers are 

but to the country, as above, and the reading: ^^^ Tipris and the Euphrates, which have their 

" . . . he (Ninmxi) went forth into Assyria (Assurf' ^^^'^ »^ <^**« Armeman mountains and run almost 

is preferable. Another Assur, or Ashur, "father of Parallel as far south as Babvlonia and Chaldea, 

Thocua", is mentioned in I Paral.,ii, 24, and iv, 5. lowing into the Persian Gulf. There are other, 

(3) The national god of the Assyrians (in the cunei- "J^^^^T "/®" »»^, tnbutanes. such as the lOjabur, 

form inscriptions Asshur and Ashur). The religion *!^® Bahkh, the UpTOr and Lower Zab, the Khoser, 

of the Assyrians, like their language and their arts, ^^^ Turnat, the Radanu, and the Subnat Assyna 

was in all essential particulars derived from the ^^J^ ^^^ "^®™' *"^ specially to the Tigris and 

corresponding ^ , w. ...« .w«^« n. - 

tutelary deity. Asshur, who was originally the whose site is now marked bv the mound of Kalah^ 

eponymic god of the capital of Assyria (also called Shei^at, on the right bank of the Tigris. (2) Calah, 
ABshur^, thus " 
at the head 

cUim to undertake'Their "various^miii^^ i? Pl«» <>' A^hur. Its site is nowadays marked by 

tions. He is styled King among the gods; the god J^® V^^^ S^ Nimroud. (3) Nineveh (in the Douay 

nan^a winged disc, sometimes accompanied by the ^f^, was undoubtedly one of the most ancient cities 

figure of a human bust. (See Assyria:) ^^ Assyna, and m the time of Sennacherib (7th cent. 

Gabriel Oubsani ^' ^') *^ became the capital of the empire, and the 

A., .u ..1 1 a A centre of the worship of Ishtar, the Assyro-Baby- 

ABSurbanipal. See Assyria. Ionian Venus, who was called Ishtar of Nineveh, to 

ASBvrla. — In treating of Ass3rria it is extremely distinguish her from Ishtar of Arbela. In the Old 

difiicult not to speak at the same time of its sister, Testament the city of Nineveh is well known in 

or rather mother, country. Babylonia, as the peoples connexion with the prophets, and especially as the 

of these two countries, the Semitic Babylonians and theatre of Jonah's mission. (4) Dur-Shamikin, 

the Assyrians, are both ethnographicsdly and lin- or Dur-Sargon (i. e. Sargonsburg), built by Sargon II 

guisticaliy the same race, with identical religion, (8th cent. b. c), the founder of the famous Sargonid 


dynasty. It was made first the royal residence of Asshur-dan must have reigned about the yean 

Sargon, and afterwards became the nval of Nineveh. 1170 or 1180 b. c. So also ^nnacherib tells us that 

Its site is represented by the modem Khorsabad. a seal of King Tukulti-Ninib I had been brought 

(5) Arbailu, or Arbela, famous in Greek and Persian from Assyria to Babylon, where after 600 years he 

annals for the decisive victory won by Alexander the found it on his conquest of that city. As Sennacherib 

Great over the formidable army of Darius, King of conquered Babylon twice, once in 702 and again in 

Persia and Babylon (331 b. c). (6) Nasibina, or 689 b. c, it follows that Tukulti-Ninib I must have 

Nisibis, famous in the annals of Nestorian Chris ti- reigned over Assyria in any case before 1289 b. c, 

anity. (7) Harran, well known for the worship of and possibly a few years before 1302 b. c. (3) 

Sin, the moon-god. (8) Ingur-Bel, corresponding Another chronological source is to be found in the 

to the modem Tell-Balaw&t. (9) Tarbis, corre- genealogies of the kings, which they give of them- 

sponding to the modem Sherif-Khan. The sites and selves and of their ancestors and predecessors, 

ruins of all these cities have been explored. (4) Further valuable hdp may be obtained from the 

Sources op Assyro-Babylonian History. — so-called "Synchronous nbtory*' of Babylonia and 

These may be grouped as: (1) the Old Testament; Assyria, which consists of a brief summary of the 

(2) the Greek, Latin, and Oriental writers; and (3) relations between the two countries from the earliest 

the monumental records and remains of the Assyrians times in regard to their respective boundary lines, 

and Babylonians themselves. The usefulness of this document consists mainly in 

In the first division belong the Fourth (in Author- the fact that it gives the list of many Babylonian 
ized Version, Second) Book of Kings, Paralipomenon and Assyrian kings who ruled over their respective 
(Chronicles), the writings of the prophets Isaias, countries contemporaneously. 
Nahum, Jeremias, Jonas, Ezechiel, and Daniel, as Assyro-Babylonian Exploration. — ^As late as 
well as the laconic but extremely valuable fragments 1849, Sir Henry Layard, the foremost pioneer of 
of information contained in Genesis, x, xi, and xiv. Assyro-Babyloman explorations, in the preface to 
To the second group of sources belong the Chaldeo- his classical work entitled "Nineveh and Its Re- 
Babylonian priest and historian Berosus, who lived mains", remarked how, previously, with the excep- 
in the days of Alexander the Great (356-323 b. c.) tion of a few cylinders and gems preserved elsewhere, 
and continued to Uve at least as late as Antiochus I, a case, hardly three feet square, in the British Museum, 
Soter (280-261 b. c). He wrote in Greek a great enclosed all that remained not only of the great city, 
work on Babylonian history, under the title of Nineveh, but of Babylon itself. At that time few 
"Babyloniaca , or "Chaldaica". This valuable indeed would have had the presumption even to 
work, which was based on contemporary Babylonian imagine that within fifty years the exploration of 
monuments and inscriptions, has unfortunately A8S3rria and Babylonia would have given us the most 
perished, and only a few excerpts from it have been primitive literature of the ancient world. What 
preserved in later Greek and Latin writers. Then fifty years ago belonged to the worid of dreams is 
we have the writings of Polyhistor, Ctesias. Herodo- at the present time a striking reality; for we are now 
tus, Abydenus, Apollodorus. Alexander ot Miletus, in possession of the priceless libranes of the ancient 
Josephus, Geoigius Syncellus, Diodorus Siculus, Assyrians and Babylonians, of their historical annals, 
Eusebius, and others. With the exception of Bero- civil and military records, State archives, diplomatic 
sus, the information derived from all the above- correspondences, textbooks and school exercises, 
mentioned historians is mostly legendary and un- grammars and dictionaries, hymns, bank accounts 
reliable, and even their quotations from Berosus and business transactions, laws and contracts, and 
are to be used with caution. This is especially true an extensive collection of geographical, astronomical, 
in the case of Ctesias, who lived at the Persian court mythological, magical, and astrological texts ana 
in Babylonia. To the third category belong the inscriptions. These precious monuments are actually 
numerous contemporary monuments and inscriptions scattered in all the public and private museums and 
discovered during the last fifty years in Babylonia, art collections of Europe, America, and Turkey. 
Assyria, Elam, and Egypt, whicn form an excellent The total number of tablets, cylinders, and cuneiform 
and a most authoritative collection of historical inscriptions so far discovered is approximately esti- 
documents. mated at more than three hundrea thousand, w^hich, 

For the chronolo^ of Assyria we have some very if published, would easily cover 400 octavo volumes 

valuable means of information. These are (1) The of 400 pages each. Unfortunately, only about 

"Eponym List", which covers the entire period one-fifth of all the inscriptions discovered have been 

from the reign of Ramman-nirari II (911-890 b. c.) published so far; but even this contains more than 

down to t£tt of Asshurbanipal (669-^25 b. c). eight times as much hterature as is contained in the 

The eponyms, or limmu. were like the eponymous Old Testament. The British Museum alone has 

archons at Athens and the consuls at Rome. They published 440 folio, and over 700 quarto, pages, and 

were officers, or governors, whose term of office about one-half as much more has appeared in various 

lasted but one year, to which year they gave their archaeological publications. The British Museum 

name; so that if any event was to be recorded, or a has more than 40,000 cuneiform tablets, the Louvre 

contract di&wn in the year, e. g. 763 b. c, the number more than 10,000, the Imperial Museum of Berlin 

of the year would not be mentioned, but instead we more than 7,000, that of the University of Pennsyl- 

are told that such and such an event took place in vania more than 20,000, and that of Constantinople 

the year of Pur-Shagli, who was the /tmmu, or gov- many thousands more, awaiting the patient toil of 

emor, in that year. (2) Another source is found in our Assyriologists. The period of time covered by 

the chronological notices scattered throughout the these documents is more surprising than their num- 

hdstorical inscriptions, such as Sennacherib's in- ber. They occur from prehistoric times, or about 

scription engraved on the rock at Bavian, in which 5000 b. c, down to the first century before the 

he t^ us that one of his predecessors, Tiglath-pileser Christian Era. But this is not all. for, according to 

(Douay Version, Th^athphidasar) reigned about the unanimous opinion of all modem Assyriologists, 

418 years before him, i. e. about 1107 b. c; or that by far the largest part of the Assyro-Babylonian 

of Tiglath-pileser himself, who tells us that he rebuilt literature and inscriptions are still buried under the 

the temple of Anu and Ramman, which sixty years fertile soil of these wonderful regions, which have 

previously had been pulled down by King Asshur- ever been the land of surprises, awaiting further 

dan because it had fallen into decay in the course of explorers and decipherers. 

the 641 years since its foundation by King Shamshi- As has already been remarked, the meagre and 

Ramman. This notice, therefore, proves that often unreliable information concerning Assyria and 


Babylonia which has come down to us through tions (especially those of Persepolis and of the 

the Persian, Greek, Latin, and Arabic writers — Behistun rock, not far from Hatnadan, in Persia), 

historians and geographers — has contributed little by Grotefend, Heeren, the Abb^ Saint Martin, Rask, 

or nothing to the advancement of our knowledge of Eioumouf, Lassen, Westergaard, de Saulcv, and 

these wonderful countries. The early European Rawlinson, all taking place at about the end of the 

travellers in the region of the Tigris and Euphrates first half of the nineteenth century, opened the way 

valley, such as Benjamin of Tudela (1160), John for the decipherment of the AjBsyro-Bab^lonian 

Eldred (1583), Anthony Shirley (1599), Pietro della inscriptions. The principal credit unouestionably 

Valle (1614-26), John Cartwright (1610), Gas- belongs to Rawlinson, Norris, J. Oppert, Fox Talbot, 

paro Balbi ri590), John Otter (1734), Niebuhr and especially to Dr. Hinks of Dublin. The acute 

(1765), Beaucnamp, Olivier, Hagers, and others at and onginal researches of these scholars were suc- 

the end of the eighteenth century, have left us a cessfully carried out by other Semitic scholars and lin- 

rather vague and superficial account of their personal guists no less competent, such as E. Schrader and 

visits and impressions. Later travellers, however, Fred. Delitzsch, in Germany; M^nant, Hal^vy, and 

such as Claudius James Rich (1811, 1821-22), J. S. Lenormant, in France; Sayce and G. Smith, in 

Buckingham (1816), Sir Robert Ker Porter (1817-20), England. 

Captain Robert Mignan (1826-28), G. Baillie-Fraser The Assyro-Babylonian language belong to the 

(1^4-35), the Euphrates Expedition under Colonel so-called Semitic family of languages, and m respect 

Chesney (1835-37), James Felix Jones, Lvnch, to grammar and lexicography offers no more oiffi- 

Selby, Collingwood, Bewsher, and others of the culty to the interpreter than either Hebrew, or 

first half of the nineteenth century made a far more Aramaic, or Arabic. It is more closely allied to 

searching and scientific study of the Mesopotamian Hebrew and Aramaic than to Arabic and the other 

region. But the real founders and pioneers of dialects of the South-Semitic ^up. The principal 

Assyro-Babylonian explorations are Emile Botta difficulty of Assyrian consists in its extremelv com- 

(1842-45), Sir Henry Austen Layard (1840-52), plicated system of writing. For, unlike all other 

Victor Place (1851-55), H. Rassam (1850, 1878-82), Semitic dialects, Assyrian is written not alphabet- 

Ix>ftus (1850), Jules Oppert, Fresnel and Thomas icaUy, but either syllabically or ideograpnically, 

(1851-52), Taylor (1851), Sir Henry Rawlinson, which means that Assyrian cnaracters represent not 

G. Smith, and others who have not only opened, but consonants, but syllables, open or closed, simple or 

paved, the way for future researches and explora- compound, and ideas or words, such as ia, batf ilu, 

tions. The first methodical and scientific explora- gikaru, etc. These same characters may also have 

tions in Babvlonia, however, were inaugurated and both a syllabic and an ideographic value, and 

most successfully carried out bv the intrepid French nearly always more than one syllabic value and as 

consul at Bassora and Bagdad, M. de Sarzec, who« many as five or six; so that a sign like the following 

from about 1877 until 1899, discovered at Tell6 may be read syllabic- ^^>W S'lly as ud, ul, u, tu, 

some of the earliest and most precious remains and torn, bir^ par, pir. lahf ^^ T lih, hiah, and his; and 

inscriptions of the pre-Semitic and Semitic dvnasties ideographic ally as ^^ f HmUf ''day"f pf^, 

of Southern Babylonia. Contemporaneous^ with "white"; ^^ynos^, the Sungod; etc. The snape 

de Sarzec there came other explorers, such as Rassam, of these signs is that of a wed^, hence the name 

already mentioned above, who was to continue cuneiform (from the Latin cuneuSf "a wedge"). 

George Smith's excavations; the American Wolf The wedges, arranged singlv or in groups, either 

expedition, imder the direction of Dr. Ward, of New are callea "ideograms" ana stand for complete 

York (1884-85); and, above all, the various expedi- ideas, or they stand for syllables. In course of time 

tions to Nippur, under Peters, Haynes, and Hilprecht, the same ideographic signs came to have also 

respectively, sent by the University of Pennsylvania the phonetic value of syllables, without losing, 

(1888-1900). The Turkish Government itself has however, their primitive ideographic value, as can 

not altogether stood aloof from this praiseworthy be seen from the example quoted above. This 

emulation, sending an expedition to Abu Habba, naturally caused a great difficulty and embarrassment 

or Sippar, under the direction of the well-known even to the Assyro-Babylonians themselves, and is 

Domimcan scholar, Father F. Scheil of Paris, in still the principal obstacle to the correct and final 

1894 and the following years. Several German, reading of many cimeiform words and inscriptions. 

French, and American expeditions have later been To remedy this great inconvenience, the Assyro- 

busily engaged in excavating important mounds Babylonians themselves placed other characters 

and ruins in Babylonia. One of these is the German (called determinatives) before many of these signs 

expedition under Moritz and Koldewey, with the in order to determine their use and value in certain 

assistance of Dr. Meissner, Delitzsch, and others, at particular cases and sentences. Before all names 

Shurgul, El-Hibba, Al-Kasr, Tell-ibrahim, etc. of gods, for example, either a sign meaning "divine 

The expedition of the University of Chica^, imder being" was prefixed, or a syllabic character (phonetic 

the direction of Dr. Banks, at Bismaya, m South complement), which indicated the proper phonetic 

Babylonia, came unfortunately to an early termi- value with which the word in question should end, 

nation. was added after it. In spite of these and other 

The Languagb and Cuneiform Writino. — All devices, many signs and collocations of signs have 

these wonderful archaeological researches and dis- so many possible syllabic values as to render exact- 

ooveries would have been useless and destitute of ness in the reading very difficult. There are about 

interest, had not the language of Assyro-Babylonian five hundred of these dinerent signs used to represent 

inscriptions been deciphered and studied. These words or syllables. Their origin is still a subject of 

inscriptions were all written in a language, and by discussion among scholars. The prevailing theory 

means of characters, which seemed for a while to is that they were originally picture-signs, representing 

defy all human skiU and ingenuity. The very ex- the ideas to be conveyed; but at present only about 

istence of such a language had been forgotten, and sixty of these 500 siens can be with certainty traced 

its writing seemed so capricious and bewildering back to their original picture-meanings, 
that the earlier European travellers mistook the According to the majority of Assyriologists, the 

characters for fantastic and bizarre ornamental cuneiform system of writing originated with the 

decorations- their dagger- or arrow-headed shape Sumerians, the primitive non-Semitic inhabitants of 

(from which their name of cuneiform) presenting Babylonia, from whom it was borrowed by the 

a difficult puzzle. However, the discovery, and Semitic Babylonians and Assyrians, and apphed to 

tentative decipherment, of the old Persian inscrify- their own luiguage. In the same way the Greeks 

AftdTftU 10 AttYEZA 

adopted the Semitic PhcBnician alphabet, and the having from six to ten sides on which writing could 

Germans adopted the Latin. The Semitic langua^ be inscribed. These tablets were then dried in the 

of Babylonia and As^ria was, therefore, written m sun, or baked in a furnace — a process which rendered 

Sumerian characters, just as Hebrew can be written the writing practically indestructible, unless the 

in English letters, or Turkish in Armenian, or Arabic tablet itself was shattered" (G. S. Goodspeed, 

in Syriac (KarshUni). This same cuneiform system Histoiy of the Babylonians and Assyrians, p. 28). 
of writing was afterwards adopted by the M^ians, Unlike all other Semitic systems of writing (except 

igh m some very 

'' Persian" style, which is a direct, but simplified, early inscriptions the lines run vertically from top 

derivative of the Babylonian, was introduced in to bottom hike the Chinese. These two facts evidence 

the times of the AchsBmenians. "Instead of a the non-Semitic origin of the cimeiform system of 

combination of as many as ten and fifteen wedges to writing. 

make one sign, we have in the Persian style never Value op Assyriglggy fgr Study gp the Old 
more than five, and frequently only three; and instead Testament. — ^The part played by these Assyro- 
of writing words by svllabies, sounds alone were Babylonian discovenes in the exegesis and interpreta- 
employed, and the syllabary of several hundred tion of the Old Testament has been important in 
signs reduced to fortv-two, while .the ideographic direct proportion to the immense ana hitherto 
style was fractionally abolished." The second unsuspected influence exercised by the Assyro- 
style of cuneiform, generally known as "Median", Babylonian religion, civilization, and literature upon 
or "Susian", is, again, a shght modification of the the origin and gradual development of the Hterature 
" Persian ". " Besides these two, there is a third and the religious and social institutions of the ancient 
language (spoken in the north-western district of Hebrews. This Babylonian influence, indeed, can 
Mesopotamia between the Euphrates and the Oron- be equally traced in its different forms and manifesta- 
tes). Known as ' Mitanni ', the exact status of which tions through all Western Asia, many centuries before 
has not been clearly ascertained, but which has been that concjuest of Palestine by the twelve Israelitish 
adapted to cuneiform characters. A fourth variety, tribes which put an end to the Canaanitish dominion 
found on tablets from Cappadocia, represents again and supremacy. The triumph of Assyriology, 
a modification of the ordinary writing met with in consequently, must be regarded as a triumph for 
Babylonia. In the inscriptions of Mitanni, the Biblical exegesis and criticism, not in the sense that 
writing is a mixture of ideographs and syllables, just it has strikingly confirmed the strict veracity of 
as in Mesopotamia, while the so-called ' Cappadocian ' the Biblical narratives, or that it has demonstratcKi 
tablets are written in a corrupt Babyloman, correfr- the fallacies of the "higher criticism", as Sayce, 
ponding in degree to the 'corrupt' forms that the Hommel, and others have contended, but in the sense 
signs take 6n. In Mesopotamia itself quite a number that it has opened a new and certain path wherebv 
of signs exist, some due to local influences, others we can study the writings of the Old Testament with 
the result of changes that took place in the course of their correct historical baekeround, and trace them 
time. In the oldest period known, that is, from through their successive evolutions and transforma^- 
4000 to 3000 B. c, the writing is linear rather than tions. Assvriology, in fact, has given us such ex- 
wedge-shaped. The linear writing is the modificar- cellent and imexpected results as to completely 
tion that the original pictures underwent in being revolutioniz^e our former exegetical methods and 
adapted for engraving on stone; the wedges are the conclusions. The study, it is true, has been often 
modification natural to the use of clay, though when abused by ultra-radical and enthusiastic Assyriologists 
once the wedges became the standard method, the and critics. These have sought to build up ground- 
greater frequencv with which clay, as against stone, less theories and illogical conclusions; they have 
came to be used led to an imitation of the wedees forced the texts to say what they do not say, and to 
by those who cut out the characters on stone. In support conclusions which they do not support; but 
consequence, there developed two varieties of wedge- such an abuse, which is due to a perfectly natural 
writing: the one that may be termed lapidary, used enthusiasm and scientific ardour, can never vitiate 
for the stone inscriptions, the official historical the permanent value of sober Assyriological re- 
records, and such legal documents as were prepared searcnes, which have demonstrably provided sources 
with especial care; the other cursive, occumng only of the first importance for the study of the Old 
on legal and commercial clay tablets, and becoming Testament. These few abuses can be discerned and 
more frequent £U3 we approach the latest period of in due time corrected by a more temperate and 
Babylonian writing, which extends to within a few judicious criticism. If the value of Assyriology in 
decades of our era. In Assyria, finally, a special its bearing upon the Old Testament has been too 
variety of cuneiform developed that is easily dis- often exaggerated, the exaggeration is at least 
tinguished from the Babylonian by its greater neat- partly excusable, considering the comparatively 
ness and the more vertical position of its wedges" recent date of these researches and their startling 
(Jastrow, The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria, results in the way of discovery. On the other hand, 
Boston, 1898, p. 20). that school of critics and theologians which disre- 
The material on which the Assyro-Babylonians gards the genuine merits and the great value of 
wrote their inscriptions was sometimes stone or metal, Assyriological researches for the interpretation of 
but usually clay of a fine quality most abundant in the Old Testament is open to the double charge of 
Babylonia, whence the use spread all over Western unfairness and ignorance. 

Asia. "The clav was venr carefully prepared. History gp Assyria tg the Fall gp Nineveh 

sometimes ground to an exceeding fineness, moistened, (Ninive. — c. 2000-606 B. c.) — ^The origin of the 

and moulded into various forms, ordinarily into a Assyrian nation is involved in great obscurity, 

tablet whose average size is about six by two and According to the author of the tenth chapter of 

one-half inches in superficial area by one inch in Genesis, the Assyrians are the descendants of Assur 

thickness, its sides curving slightly outwards. On the (Asshur) one of the sons of Sem (Shem— Gen., x, 22). 

surface thus prepared, and while still soft, the char- According to Gen., x, 11, "Out of that land [Sennaar] 

acters were impressed with a stylus, the writing often came forth Assur, and built Ninive, and the streets 

standing in columns, and carried over upon the back of the city, and Chale. Resen also between Ninive 

and sides of the tablet. The clay was quite frequently and Chale", where the Authorized Version reads: 

moulded also Into cones and barrel-shaped cylinders, " builded Nineveh, and the city of Rehoboth, and 

A88TBIA 11 A887BIA 

Calah, and Resen between Nineveh and Galah". between Assyria and Babylonia continued friendly, 

Till quite recently the most commonly accepted but towards the end of that reign the first open 

interpretation of this passage was that Assur left conflict between the two sister-countries broke out. 

Babylonia, where Nemrod (Nimrod) the terrible The cause of the conflict was as follows: Asshur- 

was reigning, and settled in Assyria, where he built uballit, in sien of friendship, had given his daughter, 

the cities of Nineveh, Rehoboth, Chale (Calah), and Muballitainsherua, for wife to the King of Babylonia. 

Resen. Nowadays, however, this interpretation. The son born of this royal union, Kadasnman- 

whlch is mainly based on the Vulgate version, is Charbe by name, succeeded his father on the throne, 

abandoned in favour of the more probable one, accord- but was soon slain by a certain Nazi-bugash (or 

ing to which Nemrod himself, the beginning of whose Suzigash), the head of the discontented Kassite 

kin^om was Babylon (Babel), Arach (Brech), party, who ascended the throne in his stead. To 

Achad (Accad), and CSialanne (Calneh), in Southern avenge the death of his grandson the aeed and 

Babjrlonia (Gen., x, 10), went up to Assyria (Assur valiant monarch, Asshur-uballit, invaded Babylonia, 

in this case being a geographical name, i. e. Assyria, slew Nazi-bugash, and set the son of Kadashman- 

and not ethnographical or personal), and there he Charbe, who was still verv young, on the throne of 

built the four above-mentioned cities and founded Babylonia, as Kuri^alzu II. However, towards the 

the Assyrian colony. Whichever of these two latter part of his reign (c. 1380 b. c), Kurigalzu II 

interpretations be held as correct, one thing is certain: became hostile to Aravria; in consequence of which, 

that the Assyrians are not only Semites, but in all Belnirari, Asshur-ubaUit's successor on the throne 

probability an offshoot of the Semitic Babylonians, of Assyria, made war against him and defeated him 

or a Babylonian colony; although, on account of at the city of Sugagu, annexing the northern part 

their apparently purer Semitic blood, they have of Babylonia to Assyria. Belmrari was succeeded 

been looked upon by some scholars as an independent by his son, Pudi-ilu (c. 1360 b. €.)» who undertook 

Semitic offshoot, which, at the time of the great several successful military expeditions to the east 

Semitic migration from Arabia (c. 3000-2500 and south-east of Assyria and built various temples, 

B. c), migrated and settled in Asssrria. The first and of whom we possess few, but important, inscrip- 

Assyrian nilers known to us bore the title of lahahaku tions. His successor was Ramman-nirari, who not 

(probably ''priest-prince", or "governor") and onlv strengthened the newly-conquered territories 

were certainly subject to some outoide power, pre- of nis two predecessors, but also made war and 

sumably that of Babylonia. Some of the earnest defeated Nazi-Maruttash, Kin^ of Babylonia, the 

of these Ishshaki known to us are Ishmi-Dagan and successor of Kurigalzu II, adding a considerable 

his son Shamshi-Adad I (or Shamshi-Rimunan). Babylonian territory to the newly arisen, but power- 

The exact date of these two princes is uncertain, ful, Assyrian Empire. 

although we may with reasonable certainty place Towards the ena of the fourteenth century b. c. 
them about 1840-1800 b. c. Other Ishshaki are (about 1330-20 b. c.) Ramman-nirari was succeeded 
Igpr-Kapkapu, Shamshi-Adad II, Khallu, and by his son Shalmaneser I. During, or about the 
Irishum. Tne two cities of Nineveh and Assur were time of this ruler, the once powerful Egsrptian su- 
certainly in existence at the time of Hammurabi premacy over Syria and Mesopotamia, thaiiks to the 
(c. 2260 b. c), for in one of his letters he makes orilliant military raids and resistance of the Hittites, 
mention of them. It is significant, however, that a powerful horde of tribes in Northern Svria and Asia 
in the long inscription (300 lines) of Agumkakrime, Minor, was successfully withstood and confined to 
one of the Kassite rulers of Babylonia (c. 1650 b. c), the Nile Valley. With the Egyptian pressure thus 
in which he enumerates the various countries over removed from Mesopotamia, and the accession of 
which his rule extended, no mention is made of Shalmaneser I, an ambitious and eneigetic monarch, 
Assyria. Hence, it is probable that the beginning to the throne of Asssrria, the Assyrian Empire began 
of an independent Assyrian kingdom may be placed to extend its power westwards. Following the 
towards tne seventeenth centurv b. c. According course of the Tigris, Shalmaneser I marched north- 
to an inscription of King Esarhadaon (681-668 B. c), wards and subjugated manv northern tribes; then, 
the first Assyrian Is^haku to assume the title turning westwards, invaded, part of north-eastern 
of King was a certain Bel-bani, an inscription of Syria and conquered the Arami. or Aramseans. of 
whom, written in archaic Babylonian, was found by Western Mesopotamia. From there he marcned 
Father ScheiL His date, however, cannot be deter- against the land of Musri, in Northern Arabia, adding 
mined. a considerable territory to his empire. For strategic 
Towards the fifteenth century b. c. we find Egyp- reasons he transferred the seat or his kingdom from 
tian supremacy extended over Svria and the Mesopo- the city of Asshur to that of Kalkhi (the Chale, or 
tamian valley: and in one of the royal inscriptions Calah, of Genesis), forty miles to the north, on the 
of Thothmes III of E^pt (1480-27 b. cX we find eastern bank of the Tigris, and eighteen miles south 
Assyria among his tnbutary nations. From the of Nineveh. Shalmaneser I was succeeded by his son 
Telnel-Amama letters also we know that diplomatic Tukulti-Ninib (c. 1290 b. c). whose records and 
n^otiations and correspondences were frequent inscriptions have been collected and edited by L. W. 
among the rulers of Assyria, Babylonia, ^yria, Kin^ of the British Museum. He was a valiant 
Mitazmi, and the Egyptian rharaons, especially wamor and conqueror, for he not only preserved 
Amenhotep IV. Towaros this same period we find the int^^ty of the empire but also extended it 
also the Kings of Assyria standing on an equal towards the north and north-west. He invaded 
footing with those of Babylonia, and successfully and conc[uered Babylonia, where he established the 
contesting with the latter for the boundaiv-Unes of seat of his government for fully seven yeara, during 
their kingdom. About 1450 b. c. Asshur-bel-nishe- which he became obnoxious to the Babylonians, who 
•hu was Einx of Assyria. He settled the boundary- plotted and rebelled against him, proclaiming a 
lines of his kingdom with his contemporary Kars^ certain Ramman-shur-usur king in his stead. The 
indash. King of Babylonia. The same treaty was AaEyrians themselves also became dissatisfied on 
concluded again between his successor, Fuzur- account of his long absence from Ass^a. and he 
Asshur, and Bumaburiash I, King of Babylon, was slain by his own nobles, who proclaimed his son, 
Puzur-Asshur was succeeded by Asshur-nadin-A|}^e, Asshur-nAsir-pal, kin^ in his stead. After the death 
^o is mentioned by his successor, Asshur-ubalut, of this prince, two kings, Asshur-narrara and Nabu- 
in one of his letters to Amenhotep IV, King of dayan oy name, reigned over Assyria, of whom, 
lEgyvt, as his father and predecessor. During most however, we know nothing. Towards 1210-1200 
oitDe long reign of Asshur-uballit, the relations b. c. we find Bel-Kudur-usur and his successor, 


Ninib-pal-Eshara, reigning over Assyria. These, who, in 890, was succeeded by his son, Tukulti-^ 

however, were attacked and defeated by the Baby- Ninib II. The last two monarchs appear to have 

lonians, who thus regained possession of a consider- undertaken several successful expeditions against 

able part of their former territory. The next As- Babylonia and the r^ons north of Assyria. Tiiulti- 

syrian monarch was Asshur-dan, Ninib-pal-Eshara's Ninib's successor was his son Asshur-nasir-pal 

son. He avenged his father's defeat by invading (885-86Q b. c), with whose accession to the throne 

Babylonia and capturing the cities of Zaban, Irria, began a long career of victory that placed Assyria at 

and Akarsallu. In 1150 b. c, Asshur-dan was sue- the head of the great powers of that age. He was a 

ceeded by his son, Mutakkil-Nusku; and in 1140 great conqueror, soldier, organizer, hunter, and 

B. c, by the latter's son Asshux^resh-ishi, who sub- builder, but fierce and cruel. In his eleven military 

jugated the peoples of Ahlami, Lullumi, Kuti (or campaigns he invaded, subdued, and conquerea, 

Guti), and other countries, and administered a after a series of devastations and raids, all the regions 

crushing defeat to his rival and contemporary, north, south, east, and west of Assyria, from the 

Nabuchodonosor (Nebuchadnezzar) I, King of mountains of Armenia down to Babylon, and from 

Babylonia. the mountains of Kurdistan and Lake Urmi (Urum- 

About 1120-10 B. c. Asshur-resh-ishi was succeeded yah) to the Mediterranean. He crossed the Eu- 
by his son, Tiglath-pileser I, one of the greatest phrates and the Orontes, penetrated into the Lebanon 
Assyrian monarchs, under whose reign of only ten re^on, attacked Karkemish, the capital of the 
years duration Assyria rose to the apex of its military Hittites, invaded Syria, and compelled the cities of 
success and glory. He has left us a very detailed the Mediterranean coast (such as Tyre, Sidon, 
and circumstantial account of his military achieve- By bios, and Armad) to pay tribute. But the chief 
ments, written on four octagonal cylinders which he interest in the history of Asshur-nasir-pal lies in the 
placed at the four comers of the temple built by him fact that it was in his reign that Assyria first came 
to the god Ramman. According to these, he under- into touch with Israel. In his expedition against 
took, in the first five years of his reign, several sue- Karkemish and Syria, which took plsuce in 878 b. c, 
cessful military expeditions against Mushku, against he undoubtedly exacted tribute from Amri (Omri), 
the Shubari, against the Hittites, and into the moun- King of Israel; although the latter's name is not 
tains of Zagros, against the people of Nairi and their ex^citly mentioned in this sense, either in Asshur- 
twenty-three kings, who were chased by him as far nasir-pal's inscriptions, or in the Old Testament, 
north as Lake Van in Armenia; against the people of The fact, however, seems certain, for in the Assyrian 
Musri in Northern Arabia, and against the Ara- inscriptions from about this time down to the time 
nuBans, or Syrians. "In all", he tells us, "forty- of Sargon — nearly 150 years — the land of Israel is 
two countries and their kings, from beyond the Lower frequently mentioned as the "land of Onuri"; and 
Zab, from the border of the distant mountains as Jehu, a later King of Israel, but not of the dynasty of 
far as the farther side of the Euphrates, up to the Amri, is also called the "son of Omri". This seems 
land of Hatti [Hittites] and as far as the uppier sea to show that the land of Israel was known to the As- 
of the setting sun [i. e. Lake Van], from the beginning Syrians as the land of that king who happened to be 
of my sovereignty until my fifth year, has my hand reigning when they were first brought into political 
conquered. I carried away their possessions, burned relations with it, and we know that this king was 
their cities with fire, demanded from their hostages Amri. for in 878, the year of Asshur-nasir-paJrs ex- 
tribute and contributions, and laid on them the heavy pedition to Syria, he had b^n king over Israel for 
yoke of my rule.'' He crossed the Euphrates some nine years. 

several times, and even reached the Mediterranean, Asshur-nasir-pal was succeeded by his son, Shal- 

upon the waters of which he embarked. He also maneser II, who in the sixth year of his reign (854 

invaded Babylonia, inflicting a heavy blow on the b. c.) made an expedition to the West with the object 

Babylonian king, Marduk-nadin-a^e and his army, of subduing Damascus. In this memorable cam- 

and capturing several important cities, such as paign he came into direct touch with Israel and their 

Dur-Kurigalzu, Sippar, Babylon, and Opis. He king Achab (Ahab), who happened to be one of the 

pushed his triumphal march even as far as Elam. allies of Benhadad, King of Damascus. In describing 

Tiglath-pileser I was also a daring hunter, for in one this expedition the Assyrian monarch goes on to 

of nis campaigns, he tells us, he killed no fewer than say that he approached Karkar, a town to the 

one hundred and twenty lions on foot, and eight south-west of luirkemish, and the royal residence of 

hundred with spears while in his chariot, caught Irhulini. — "I desolated and destroyed, I burnt it: 

four elephants alive, and killed ten in his chanot. 1.200 chariots, 1,200 horsemen, 20,000 men of Bir- 

He kept at the city of Asshur a park of animals idri of Damascus; 700 chariots, 700 horsemen, 10,000 

suitable for the chase. At Nineveh he had a botanical men of Irhulini of Hamath; 2,000 chariots, 10,000 

garden, in which he planted specimens of foreign men of Ah4ib of Israd . . . these twelve kings he 

trees gathered during his campaigns. He built also [i. e. Irhulini] took to his assistance. To offer battle 

many temples, palaces, and canals. It may be of they marched against me. With the noble might 

interest to add that his reign coincides with that of which Asshur, the Lord, granted, with the powerful 

Heli (Eli), one of the ten judges who ruled over weapons which Neigal, who walks before me, gave, 

Israel prior to the establishment of the monarchy. I fought with them, from Karkar into Gilzan I smote 

At the time of Tiglath-pileser 's death, Asssrria was them. Of their soldiers I dew 14,000." — The Old 

enjoying a period of tranquillity, which did not last. Testament is silent on the presence of Achab in the 

however, very long; for we find his two sons ana battle of Karkar. which took place in the same year 

successors, Asshur-bel-Kala and Shamshi-Ramman, in which Achab aied fighting in the battle of Ramoth 

seeking offensive and defensive alliances with the Galaad (III Kings, xxii). 
Kings of Babylonia. Eleven years cSter this event Jehu was proclaimed 

From about 1070 to 950 b. c, a ^ap of more than king over Israel, and one of his first acts was to pay 

one hundred years presents itself in the history of tribute to Shalmaneser II. This incident is com- 

Assyria. But from 950 b. c. down to the fafl of memorated in the latter's well-known " black obe- 

Nineveh and the overthrow of the Assyrian Empire lisk", in the British Museum, in which Jehu himself, 

(606 B. c.) the history of Assyria is very completely "the son of Omri", is sculptured as paying tribute to 

represented in documents. Towards 950 b. c, the king. In another inscription the same king 

Tiglath-pileser II was king over Assyria. In 930 records the same fact, saying: "At that time I re^ 

b. c. he was succeeded by his son, Asshur-dan II, and ceived the tribute of the Tyrians, Sidonians, and 

about 910 B. c. by the latter's son, Ramman-nirari II, Jehu the son of Omri." This act of homage took 




place in 842 b. c, in the eighteenth year of Shal- 
maneeer's reign. 

After Shalmaneeer II came his son Shamshi-Ram- 
man II (824 b. c.)t who, in order to quell the re- 
bellion caused by his ^der son, Asshur-danin-pal. 
undertook four campaigns. He also foueht ana 
defeated the Babylonian King, Marduk-balatsu- 
iqbi, and his powenul army. Shamshi-Ramman II 
was succeedea by his son, Ramman-nirari III (812 
B. c). This king undertook several expeditions 
against Media, Armenia, the land of Nairi, and the 
region around Lake Urmi, and sub justed all the 
coafltlands of the West, including Tyre, Bidon, Edom, 
Philistia, and the "land of Omri", i. e. Israel. The 
chief object of this expedition was acain to subdue 
Damascus, which he did by compiling Mari^ its 
king, to pay a heavy tribute in silver, gold, copper, 
and iron, liesides quantities of cloth and furmture. 
Joachaz (Jehoahaz) was then king over Israel, and he 
welcomed with open arms Ramman-nirari 's advance, 
inasmuch as this monarch's conquest of Damascus 
relieved Israel from the heavy yoke of the Syrians. 
Ramman-nirari III also claimed sovereignty over 
Babylonia. His name is often given as that of 
Adad-nirari, and he reigned from 812 to 783 b. c. 
In one of his inscriptions, which are unfortunately 
scarce and laconic^ he mentions the name of his wife, 
Sammuramat, which is the only Ass3rrian or Baby- 
lonian name discovered so far naving any phonetic 
resemblance to that of the famous legendary queen, 
Semiramis. The personal identity of the two 
queens, however, is not admissible. Ramman-ni- 
rari III was succeeded by Shalmaneser III (783- 
773 B. c), and the latter by Asshurdan III (773-755 
B. c), who in turn was followed by Asshur-nirari II 
(755-745 B. c). Of these three kings we know little, 
as no adequate inscriptions of their reigns have come 
down to us. 

In the year 745 b. c. Tiglath-pileser III (in the 
Douay Version, Theglathphalasar) seized the throne 
of Assyria, at Nineveh. He is said to have begun life 
as a gardener, to have distinguished himself as a 
soldier, and to have been elevated to the throne by 
the army. He was a most capable monarch, enter- 
prising, energetic, wise, and daring. His miUtaiy 
ability saved the Assyrian Empire from the utter 
ruin and decay which had begun to threaten its 
existence, and for this he is fitly spoken of as the 
founder of the Second Assyrian Empire. Tiglath- 
pileser's methods differed from those of his prede- 
cessors, who had been mere raiders and plunaerers. 
He organized the empire and divided it into prov- 
inces, each of which had to pay a fixed tribute to 
the exchequer. He was thus ahle to extend Assyrian 
supremacy over almost all of Western Asia, from 
Armenia to Egypt, and from Persia to the Mediter- 
ranean. During his reign Assyria came into close 
contact with the Hebrews, as is shown by his own 
inscriptions, as well as by the Old Testament records, 
where he is mentioned under the name of Phul (Pul). 
In the Assyrian inscriptions his name occurs only as 
that of Tiglath-pileser, but in the "List of Babylonian 
Kings" he is also called Pul. which settles his iden- 
tity with the Phul, or Pul, ot the Bible. He reigned 
for eighteen years (745-727 b. c). In his annals he 
mentions the payment of tribute by several kings, 
amongst whom is "Menahem of Samaria", a fact 
confirmed by IV Kings, xv, 19, 20. During his 
reign, Achaz was King of Juda. This prince, havine 
been hard pressed and harassed by Rasin (Rezin) 
of Damascus, and Phacee (Pekah) of Israel, en- 
treated protection from Tiglath-pileser (Theglath- 
phalasar) , who, nothing loath, marched westwara and 
attacked Rasin, whom he overthrew and shut up in 
Damascus. Two years later, the city surrendered, 
Rasin was slain, and the inhabitants were carriea 
away oap^ives (XV Kin^, xvi, 7, 8, 9). Meanwhile 

Israel also was overrun by the Assyrian monarch, 
the country reduced to the condition of a desert, 
and the trans-Jordanic tribes carried into captivity. 
At the same time the Philistines, the Edomites, the 
Arabians, and many other tribes were subdued: 
and after the f^ of Damascus, Tiglath-pileser held 
a durbar which was attended by many princes, 
amongst whom was Achaz himself. His next ex- 
pedition to Palestine was in 734, the objective this 
time being Gaza, an important town on the sea-coast. 
Achaz hastened to make, or, rather, to renew, his 
submission to the Assyrian monarch; as we find his 
name mentioned ag&in with several other tributary 
kings on one of Tiglath-pileser's inscriptions. In 
733 the Assyrian monarch carried off the population 
from large portions of the Kingdom of Israel, sparing, 
however, tne capital, Samaria. Tiglath-pileser was 
the first Assyrian king to come into contact with the 
Kingdom of Juda, and also the first Assyrian mon- 
arch to begin on a large scale the system of trans- 
planting peoples from one country to another, with 
the object of breaking down their national spirit, 
unity, and indep>endence. According to many 
scholars, it was during Tiglath-pileser^ reiffn that 
Jonas (Jonah) preached in Nineveh, although others 
prefer to locate the date of this Hebrew prophet a 
century later, i. e. in the reign of Asshurbanipal 
(see below). 

Tiglath-pileser III was succeeded by his son (?), 
Shalmaneser IV, who reined but five years (727- 
722 B. c). No historical inscriptions relating to this 
king have as yet been found. Nevertheless, the 
"Babylonian Cnronicle" (which gives a list of the 

Erincipal events occurring in Babylonia and Assyria 
etween 744 and 688 b. c.) has the following state- 
ment: "On the 25th of Thebet [December-January] 
Shalmaneser [in D. V. Salmanasar] ascended the 
throne of Assyria, and the city of shamara'in [Sa- 
maria] was destroyed. In the fifth year of his 
reign he died in the month of Thebet. ' ' The Assyrian 
"Eponym Canon" (see above) also informs us that 
the first two years of Shalmaneser's reign passed 
without an expedition, but in the remaining three 
his armies were engaged. In what direction the 
armies of Shalmaneser (Salmanasar) were engaged, 
the "Canon" does not say, but the "Babylonian 
Chronicle" (quoted above) and the Old Testament 
(IV Kings, xviii) explicitly point to Palestine, and 
particularly to Samaria, the capital of the Israelitish 
Kingdom. In the second or third year of Shal- 
maneser's rei^, Osee (Hoshea) King of Israel, together 
with the King of Tyre, rebelled against Assyria; 
and in order to crush the rebellion the Assyrian mon- 
arch marched against both kings and laid siege to 
their capitals. The Biblical account (Douay Version, 
IV Kings, xvii, 3 sqq.) of this expedition is as follows: 
"Against him came up Salmanasar king of the 
Assyrians, and Osee became his servant, and paid 
him tribute. And when the king of the Assyrians 
found that Osee endeavouring to rebel had sent 
messengers to Sua the king of Egypt, that he might 
not pay tribute to the king of tne Assyrians, as he 
had done every year, he l^ieged him, bound him. 
and cast him into prison. And he went through all 
the land: and going up to Samaria, he besieged it 
three years. And in the ninth year of Osee, the king 
of the Assyrians took Samaria, and carried Israel away 
to Assyria; and he placed them in Hala and Habor 
by the river of Gozan, in the cities of the Medee." — 
See also the parallel account in IV Kings, xviii, 9-11, 
which is one and the same as that here given. The 
two Biblical accounts, however, leave undecided the 
question, whether Shalmaneser himself or his suc- 
cessor conquered Samaria; while, from the Assyrian in- 
scriptions, it appears that Shalmaneser died, or was 
murdered, before he could personally carry his vic- 
tory to an end. He was succeeded by Saigon U. 

A887BIA 14 A88YBI4 

Sai^n, a man of commanding ability, was^ not- name is so well known to Bible students. He was an 
withstanding his claim to royal ancestry, m all exceptionally cruel, arrogant, revengeful, and des- 
probability a usurper. He is one of the greatest potic ruler, but, at the same time, a monarch of 
figures in Ass^^rian history, and the founder of the wonderful power and ability. His first military 
famous Sargonid dynasty^ which held sway in Assyria expedition was directed against Merodach-baladan, 
for more than a century, i. e. until the fall of Nineveh of Babylonia, who, at the news of Sargon's death, 
and the overthrow of the .Assyrian Empire. He had returned to Babylonia, assuming the title of 
himself reiened for seventeen years (722-705 b. c.) king, and murdering Merodach-zakir-shumi, the 
and provea a most successful warrior and organizer, viceroy appointed by Sargon. Merodach-baladan 
In every battle he was victor, and in every difficulty was, however, easily routed by Sennacherib; fleeing 
a man of resource. He was also a great builder and again to Elam and hiding himself in the marshes, 
patron of the arts. His greatest work was the but always ready to take fuivantage of Sennacherib's 
building of Dur-Shamikin, or the Castle of Saiigon, absence to return to Babylon. In 701, Sennacherib 
the modem Khorsabad, which was thoroughly marched eastward over the Zagros mountains and 
explored in 1844-55 b^ Botta, Flandin, and Place, towards the Caspian Sea. Tnere he attacked, 
It was a lai^e city, situated about ten miles from defeated, and subdued the Medians and all the 
Nineveh, and capaole of accommodating 80,000 in- neighbouring tribes. In the same year he marched 
habitants. His palace there was a wonder of archi- on the Mecuterranean coast and received the sub- 
tecture, jpanellea in alabaster, adorned with sculp- mission of the Phoenicians, the Ammonites, the 
ture, and inscribed with the records of his exploits. Moabites, and the Edomites. He conquered Sidon, 
In tne same year in which he ascended the tnrone. but was unable to la^r hands on Tyre, on account of 
Samaria fell (722 b. c), and the Kingdom of Israel its impregnable position. Thence he hurried down 
was brought to an end. ''In the bc^nning of my the coast road, captured Askalon and its king, 
reign", he tells us in his annals, "and in the first Sidaa; turning to the north, he struck Ekron and 
year of my reign . . . Samaria I besieged and Lachish, and dispersed the Ethiopian-Egyptiait 
conquered . . . 27,290 inhabitants I carried off forces, which had assembled to oppose his march 
... I restored it again and made it as before. Ezechias ^Hezekiah), Kins of Juaa, who togetbex 
People from all lands, my prisoners, I settled there, with the above-mentioned kings had rebelled agaipst 
My officials I set over them as governors. Tribute Sennacherib, was thus completely isolated, and 
and tax I Laid on them, as on the Assyrians." Sar- Sennacherib, finding his way dear, marched against 
gon's second campaign was against the Elamites, Juda, dealing a terrific blow at the little kingdom, 
whom he subdued. From Elam he marched west- Here is Sennacherib's own account of the event: 
ward, laid Hamath in ruins, and afterwards utterly "But as for Hezekiah of Judah, who had not sub- 
defeated the combined forces of the Philistines and mitted to mv yoke, forty-six of his strong walled 
the Efl^tians, at Raphia. He made Hanum. cities and the smaller cities round about them 
Kin^ oiGaza, prisoner, and carried several thoufiana without number, by the battering of rams, and the 
captives, with very rich booty, into Asssrria. Two attack of war-engines [?], by making breaches, by 
years later, he attacked Karkemish, the capital of cutting through, and the use of axes, I besieged and 
the Hittites, and conquered it. capturing its king, captured. Two hundred thousand one hundred 
officers, and treasures, and aeportins them into and fifty people, small and great, male and female, 
Assyria. He then for fully six years harassed, and horses, mules, asses, camels, and sneep without num- 
finally subdued, all the northern and north-western ber I brought forth from their midst and reckoned 
tribes of Kurdistan, of Armenia (Urartu, or Ararat), as spoil. Himself [Hezekiah] I shut up like a caged 
and of CiUcia: the Mannai, the Mushki, the Kum- bird in Jerusalem, nis royal city. I threw up forti- 
mukhi, the Milidi, the Kammani, the Gamgumi, fications against him, and whosoever came out of 
the Samali, and many others who lived in those the gates of his city I punished. His cities, which 
wild and inaccessible regions. Soon after this he I had plundered. I cut off from his land and gave to 
subdued several Arabian tribes and. afterwards, Mitinti, King ot Ashdod, to Padi. King of Ekron, 
the Medians, with their forty-two chiefs, or princes, and to Cil-^l, ^ng of Gaza, ana [thus] made his 

During the first eleven years of Sargon's reign, territory smaller. To the former taxes, paid yearly, 

the King^dom of Juda remained peacefullv subject tribute, a present for my lordship, I added and im- 

to Assyria, paving the stipulated annual tribute, posed on him. Hezekiah himself was overwhelmed 

In 711 B. c. however, Ezechias (Hezekiah). King oy the fear of the brilliancy of my lordship, and the 

of Juda, partly influenced by Merodach-bala^oan, of Arabians and faithful soldiers whom he hsul brought 

Babylonia, and partly by promises of help from in to strengthen Jerusalem, his royal city, desetted 

Egypt, rebelled against the Assyrian monarch, and him. Thirty talents of gold, eight hundred talents 

in this revolt he was heartily joined by the Phceni- of silver, precious stones, guMi daggasti, laige lapis 

cians, the Philistines, the Moabites, and the Ammon- lazuli, couches of ivory, thrones of elephant skin 

ites. Sargon was ever quick to act; he collected a and ivory, ivory, ushu and urkarinu woods of every 

powerful army, marched against the rebels, and dealt kind, a heavy treasure, and his daughters, his palace 

them a crushing blow. The fact is recorded in women, male and fexnale singers, to Nineveh, my 

Isaias, xx. 1, where the name of Saiigon is expressly lordship's citv^ I caused to Be brought after me, 

mentionea as that of the invader and conqueror, and he sent his ambassador to give tribute and to 

With Palestine and the West pacified and subdued, pay homage.'' 

Sargon, ever eneri^tic and prompt, turned his atten- The same event is also recorded in IV Kings, 

tion to Babyloma. where Meroaach-baladan was xviii and xix, and in Isaias, xxxvi and xxxvii, but 

rulinff. The Babylonian army was easily routed, in somewhat different manner. According to the 

and Merodach-baladan himself abandoned Babylon Biblical account, Sennacherib, not satisfied with 

and fled in terror to Beth-Yakin, his ancestral strong- the payment of tribute, demanded from Ezechias 

hold. Sai^n entered Babylonia in triumph, and the unconditional surrender of Jerusalem, which 

in the following year he pursued the fleeing king, the Judean king refused. Terrified and bewildered, 

stormed the city of Beth-\akin, deported its people, Ezechias called the prophet Isaias and laid the matter 

and compelled all the Babylonians and Elamites before him, askins him for advice and counsel, 

to pay him tribute, homage, and obedience. In The prophet stron^y advised the vacillating kin^ to 

705, in the flower of his age and at the zenith of his oppose the outrageous demands of the Assyrian, 

glory J Sargon was assassinated. He was succeeded promising him Yahweh's help and protection, 

by bis 9on« S^pnacberib (705 to 681 b. c.)> whose Accordixigly, Ezechias refused to surrender, and 


Sennacherib, enraged and reyengeful, resolvecT to appears to have spent the last years of his reign bk 
storm and destroy the city. But in that same night building his magnificent palace at Nineveh, and in 
the whole Assyrian army, gathered imder the walls embellishing the city with temples, palaces, gardens, 
of Jerusalem, was stricken by the angel of the Lord, arsenals, and fortifications. After a long, stormy, 
who slew one hundred and eighty-five thousand and glorious reign, he died by the hand of one of his 
Assyrian soldiers. At the sight of this terrible own sons (681 b. c). The Bible tells us that " as he 
calamity, Sennacherib, in terror and confusion, [Sennacherib] was worshipping in the temple of Nes- 
departed and returned to Assyria. The Assyrian roch his god, Adramelech and Sarasar bis sons slew 
and the. Biblical accounts are primA facie conflicting, him with the sword, and they fled into the land of 
but many more or less plausible solutions have been the Armenians, and Asarhaddon [Esarhaddon] his 
sugf^ested. In the first place we must not expect to son reigned in his stead " (IV Kings, xix, 37). The 
find in Sennacherib's own annals mention of, or *' Baby Ionian Chronicle", ho we ver, has'* On 20 Thebet 
allusion to, any reverse he may have suffered; such [December- January] Sennacherib, King of Assyria, 
allusions would be clearly incompatible with the was slain by his son in a rebellion . . . years reigned 
monarch's pride, as well as with the purpose of Sennacherib in Assyria. From 20 Thebet to 2 Adar 
annals inscribed only to glorify his exploits and [March-April] was the rebellion in Assyria main- 
victories. In the second place, it is not improbable tained. On 18 Adar his son, Esarhaddon, ascended 
that Sennacherib undertook two different campaigns the throne of Assyria." If the murderer of Sennach^- 
against Juda: in the first, to which his annals refer, rib was, as the " Babylonian Chronicle " tells us, one 
he contented himself with exacting and receiving of his own sons, no son of Sennacherib by the name 
submission and tribute from Esechias (Hezekiah) ; of Adrammelech or Shareier has as yet been found in 
but in a later expedition, which he does not mention, the Assyrian monuments; and while the Biblical 
he insisted on the surrender of Jerusalem, and in narrative seems to indicate that the murder took place 
this latter expedition he met with the awful disaster, in Nineveh, on the other hand an inscription of Asshur- 
It is to this expedition that the Biblical account banipal, Sennacherib's grandson, clearly affirms that 
refers. Hence, there is no real contradiction between the tragedy took palce in Babylon, in the temple of 
the two narratives, as they speak of two different Marduk (of which Nesroch, or Nisroch, is probably 
events. FurtJiermore, the disaster which overtook a corruption). 

the Assyrian army may have been, after all, quite a Sennacherib was succeeded by his younger son, 
natural one. It may have been a sudden attack of Esarhaddon, who reigned from 681 to 668 b. c. At 
the plague, a disease to which Oriental armies, from the time of his father's death, Esarhaddon was in 
their utter neglect of sanitation, are extremely sub- Armenia with the^ Assyrian army, but on hearing 
ject, and before which they quickly succumb. Jose- the sad news he promptly set out for Nineveh, first to 
phus explicitly affirms that it was a flageUum pro- avenge his fatiier's death by punishing the perpe- 
digiosum (Antiq. Jud., X, i, n. 5); while, according to trators of the crime, and then to ascend the throne, 
an Egyptian tradition preserved to us by Herodotus On his way home he met the awsasHins and their 
(Lib. II, oxli), Sennacherib's army was attacked army near Cappadocia, and in a decisive battle 
and destroyed by a kind of poisonous wild mice, routed them with tremendous loss, thus becoming 
which suddenly broke into the Assyrian camp, the sole and undisputed lord of Assyria. Esar- 
completely demoralising the army. At any rate haddons' first campaign was against Babylonia, 
Sennacherib's campaign came to an abrupt end, and where a fresh revolt, caused by the son of the late 
he was forced to retreat to Nineveh. It is noteworthy, Merodach-baladan, had broken out. The pre- 
however, that for the rest of his life Sennacherib tender was easily defeated and compelled to flee to 
undertook no more military expeditions to the Elam. Esarhaddon, unlike his father, determined 
West, or to Palestine. This fact, interpreted in the to build up Babylon and to restore its ruined temples, 
light of the Assyrian monuments, would be the result palaces, and walls. He gave back to the people 
of the complete submission of Syria and Palestine; their property, wUoh had been taken away from 
while in the light of the Biblical narrative it would them as spoils of war during Sennacherib's destruc- 
signify that Sennacherib, after his disastrous de- tive campaign, and succeeded in restoring peace and 
feat, dared not attack Palestine again. harmony among the people. He determined, further- 
While laying siege to Jerusalem, Sennacherib more, to make Babylon his residence for part of the 
received the disquieting news of Merodach-baladan's year, thus restoring its ancient splendour and re- 
sudden appearance in Babylonia. A portion of the ligious supremacy. Esarhaddon's second campaign 
Assjrrian army was detached and hurriedly sent to was directed against the West, i. e. Syria, where a 
Babylonia against the restless and indomitable foe fresh rebellion, having for its centre the great mari- 
of Assyria. In a fierce battle, Merodach-baladan time city of Sidon, had broken out. He captured 
was for the third time defeated and compelled to the city and completely destroyed it, ordering a new 
flee to Elam, where, worn and broken down by old city, with the name of Kar-Esarhaddon, to be built 
age and misfortunes, he ended his troubled life, on its ruins. The King of Sidon was caught and 
and Asshur-nadin-shum, the eldest son of Sennache- beheaded, and the surrounding country devastated, 
rib, was appointed king over Babylonia. After his Twenty-two Syrian princes, among them Manasses, 
return from the West, and after the final defeat of King of Juda, surrendered and submitted to Esar- 
Merodach-baladan, Sennacherib began lengthy and haddon. Scarcely, however, had he retired when 
active preparations for an effective expedition against these same princes, including Manasses, revolted. 
Babylonia, which was ever rebellious and restless. — But the great Esarhaddon utterly crushed the 
'* The expedition was as unique in its methods as it rebellion, taking numerous cities, captives, and 
was audacious in its conception." — With a powerful treasures, and ordering Manasses to be carried to 
army and navy, he moved southward and, in a Babylon, where the king was then residing. A few 
terrific battle near Khalulu, utterly routed the years later Esarhaddon had mercy on Manasses 
rebellious Chaldeans, Babylonians, and Elamites, and allowed him to return to his own kingdom. In 
and executed their two chiefs, Nergal-uaesib and a third campaign, Esarhaddon blockaded the im- 
Muaesib-Merodach. Elam was ravaged, " the smoke pregnable Tsnre, and set out to conquer Egypt, which 
of burning towns obscuring the heavens ". He he successfully accomplished by defeating its king, 
next attacked Babylon, which was stormed, sacked, Tirhakah. In order to effectively establish Ass3rrian 
burnt, flooded, and so mercilessly punished that it supremacy over Egypt, he divided the country into 
was reduced to a mass of ruins, and almost ob- twenty provinces, and over each of these he appointed 
literated. On his return to Assyria, Sennacherib a governor; sometimes a native, sometimes an 


Asssrrian. He exacted heavy annual tribute from thought of the far distant Babylonian world." 

every one of these twenty provinces, and returned (G. H. Goodspeed, Hist, of the Babylonians and 

in triumph to Assjrria. "As for Tarqu [Tirhakah], Assjrrians, pp. 315, 316.) Of this library, which 

King of Egypt and Gush, who was under the curse of must have contained over forty thousand clay tablets, 

their great divinity, from Ishupri as far as Memphis, a part was discovered by G. Smith and H. Rassam, 

his royal city — ^a march of fifteen days — every day part has been destroyed, and part yet renmins to 

without exception I killed his warriors in great be explored. Here G. Smith first discovered the 

number, and as for him, five times with the point of famous Babylonian accounts of the Greation and of 

the spear I struck him with a deadly stroke. Mem- the Deluge in which we find so many striking simi- 

phis, his royal city, in half a day, by cutting through larities with the parallel Biblical accounts. Asshur- 

and scaling, I besieged, I conquered, I tore down, I banipal was also a great temple-builder — in Nineveh, 

destroyed, I burned with fire, and the wife of his Arbela, Tarbish, Babylon, Borsippa, Sippar, Nippur, 

palace, his palace women, Ushanahuru, his own son and Uruk. He fortified Nineveh, repaired, enUu-ged, 

and the rest of his sons, his daughters, his property and embellished Sennacherib's palace, and built 

and possessions, his horses, his oxen, his sheep next to it another palace of remarkable beauty, 

without number, I carried away as spoil to Assyria. This he adorned with numerous magnificent statutes, 

I tore up the root of Gush from Egypt, a single one — scidptures, bas-reliefs, inscriptions, and treasures, 

even to the suppliant — I did not leave behind- Assjrrian art, especially sculpture and architecture, 

Over all Egypt I appointed kings, prefects, governors, reached during his reign its golden age and its classical 

grain-inspectors, mayors, and secretaries. I in- perfection, while Awiyrian power and supremacy 

stituted regular offerings to Asshur and the great touched tiie extreme zenith 'of its height; for with 

gods, my lords, for all time. I placed on them the Asshurbanipal's death Ass3rrian power and glory 

tribute and taxes of my lordship, regularly and sank into the deepest gloom, and perished, pre- 

without fail.'' Esarhaddon also invaded Arabia, sumably, to rise no more. 

penetrating to its very centre, through hundreds Asshurbanipal's military campaigns were very 
of miles of sandy lands which no other Assyrian numerous. He ascended the throne in 668 b. c, 
monarch had penetrated before. Another important and his first move was against Egypt, which he sub- 
campaign was that directed against the Gimmerians, dued, penetrating as far as Memphis and Thebes, 
near the Gaucasus, and against many other tribes, On his way back, he exacted tribute from the Syrian 
in Armenia, Gappadocia, Gilicia, Asia Minor, and and Phoendcian kings, among whom was Manassei 
Media. The monarch's last expedition was a second of Juda, who is expressly mentioned in one of the 
campaign against Egypt. Before^ leaving Assyria, king's inscriptions. He forced Tsnre to surrender, 
however, i. e. in the month of lyyar (April-May), and subdued the Kings of Arvad, of Tabal, and of 
668 B. c, as if forecasting future events, he consti- Gilicia. In 655, he marched against Babylonia and 
tuted his son Asshurbanipal co-regent and successor drove away from it a newly organised, but powerful 
to the throne, leaving to his other son, Shamash- coalition of Elamites, Ghaldeans, and Arameans. 
shum-ukin, Babylonia. But, while on his way to He afterwards marched into the very heart of Elam, 
Egypt, he fell sick, and on the 10th of Marsheshwan as far as Susa, and in a decisive battle he shattered 
(October), in the year 668, he died. the Elamite forces. In 625, Shamash-shum-ukin, 
Esarhaddon was a truly remarkable ruler. Unlike Asshurbanipal's brother, who had been appointed 
his father, he was religious, generous, forgiving, less by his father King of Babylonia, and who had till 
harsh and cruel, and very diplomatic. He ruled then worked in complete harmony with his brother, 
^e various conquered countries with wisdom and rebelled against Asshurbanipal. To this he was 
toleration, while he established a rigorous system openly and secretly incited by many Babylonian, 
of administration. A great temple-builder and Elamite, and Arabian chiefs. Asshurbanipal, how- 
lover of art, he has left us many records and in- ever, was quick to act. He marched against Baby- 
scriptions. At Nineveh he rebuilt the temple of As- Ionia, shut off all the rebels in their own fortresses, 
shur, and in Babylonia, the temples at Ukuk, Sippar, and forced them to a complete surrender. His 
Dur-Ilu, Borsippa, and others, in all about thirty, brother set fire to his own palace and threw himself 
In Nineveh he erected for himself a magnificent palace into the flames. The cities and fortresses were 
and arsenal, and at Kalkhi (Galah; Douay, Ghale) captured, the rebels slain, and Elam completely 
another of smaller dimensions, which was still un- devastated. Temples, palaces, royal tombs, and 
finished at the time of his death. Asshurbanipal, shrines were destroyed. Treasures and booty were 
Esarhaddon's successor, was undoubtedly the great- taken and carried away to Assyria, and several 
est of all Ass3rrian monarchs. For generalship, thousands of people, as well as all the princes of the 
military conquests, diplomacy, love of splendour royal family, were executed, so that, a few years 
and luxury, and passion for the arts and letters, he later, Elam disappeared for ever from history, 
has neither superior nor equal in the annals of that In another campaign, Asshurbanipal advanced 
empire. To him we owe the greatest part of our against Arabia and subdued the Kedarenes, the 
knowledge of Ass3rTO-Babylonian history, religion, Nabatseans, and a dosen other Arabian tribes, as 
literature, art, and Civilization. Endowed with a far as Damascus. His attention was next attracted 
rare taste for letters, he caused all the most important to Armenia, Gappadocia, Media, and the north- 
historical, religious, mythological, legal, astronomical, western and north-eastern regions. In all these 
mathematical, grammatical, and lexicographical he established his supremacy, so that from 640 till 
texts and inscriptions known to his day to be copied 626, the year of Asshurbanipal's death, Assyria was 
and placed in a magnificent library which he built at peace. However, most scholars incline to be- 
in his own palace. " Tens of thousands of clay lieve that during the last years of the monarch's 
tablets systematically arranged on shelves for easy reign the Assyrian Empire began to decay, 
consultation contained, besides official dispatches Asshurbanipal is probably mentioned once in the 
and other archives, the choicest religious, historical, Old Testament (I Esdras, iv, 10) under the name 
and scientific literature of the Babylonia-Assyrian of Asenaphar, or, better, Ashenappar (Ashenappal) 
world. Under the inspiration of the king's literary in connexion with his deportation of many trouble- 
seal, scribes copied and translated the ancient sacred some populations into Samaria. He is probably 
classics of primitive Babylonia for this library, so alluded to by the Second Isaias and Nahum, in 
that, from its remains, can be reconstructed, not connexion with his campaigns against Egypt and 
merely the details of the government and adminis- Arabia. According to G. Brunengo, S.J. (Nabuchod- 
tration of the Assyria of his time, but the life and nossor di Giuditta, Rome, 1886) and other scholaiM. 


Aashurbanipal is the Nabuchodonosor (Nebuchad- driving away demons and evil spirits; Asshur, the 

neisar) of the Book of Judith; others identify him consort of Belit, and the supreme god of Assyria, 

with the Sardanapalus of Greek historians. In view, Besides these there were other minor deities. 

however, of the conflicting characters of the legendary I- Excavatwns and Deeipherment: Kaulen, Gesehiehte 

Sardanapalus and the Asshurbanipal of the cunei- AfSSJ^ *5?i»^?'^Ji!?i!!^' ?^a-1? 2Tf^- ^'»^5*^wn 

form mscriptions, this last identification seems riena (Berlin. 1885). 30-134; EvimB, New Liaht on the HUy 

impossible. Besides, Asshurbanipal was not the I^ond (London. 1891), 79-l2(f; VioouRonx, La Bible et lee 

last king of Assyria, as Sardanapalus is suppoeed to 1^:;^^,SuT^2^^^ ""jfe^Ao^iJ 

have been. and A»eyria (New York. 1901). I. 1-263; Hilpbbcht, Ex~ 

Asshurbanipal was succeeded by his two sons, vhratione in Bible Lande During the 19th Century (Philadelphia, 

Asshur-etil-elani and Sin-shar-ishkun. Of their ijga). 1-677; Booth. rA« ^ji*^^ 

.. J Au • 1 'x 1 XL* Truxnouai Cuneiform Jnacnptione (London, 1902): FoaacT. 

respective reigns and then* exploits we know nothmg, Manuel d'Aaeyriologie (Paria, 1904), I. 

except that in their days Assyria began rapidly to II- HieUny of Anuria: Hommbl. op. eit. eupra; Tixlb, 

lose its prestige and power. All the foreign prov- i.^^Jf^'^^P^^^ 9'f^^J^S^l^i ^^^^' Mubrdtbr- 

in^^i T?»^r«4 T>k^..;^. r«k«««-« Q,^:« aJ1k;« Delitmch, Kurzffefaaate OeechtchU BabyUmtena und Aaeynene 

inces— Egypt, Fhoenicia, Chanaan, Syria, Arabia, rstuttgart, 1891): Mabpbro. The Struggle of the Nations, and 

Armenia, Media, Babylonia, and Elam — broke away The Paaeing of the Bmpiree, vols. II and III of the tr. of the 

from Assyria, when the degenerate and feeble sue- R™? author's daasi^l work, HUtcirt ancienne den peupleade 

^.o^«i ^/ ♦ui ,r.i;.^4^ A«u».K.»;,x.l ^•^■^^A .,«»U1^ rOnent daaeique; Wincxlbb, OeechuJUe Babylonte^ und 

oessors of the valiant Asshurbanipal proved unable Aseyriene (Leipsig. 1902): RooBRa. op. dt. eupnTin 2 voU.; 

to cope with the situation. They had probably GoODePBXD, Hietary of the Babifimiane and AtsyriaM (New 

abandoned themselves to effeminate luxury and York. 1902) ; as weU asF^aa m Via.. IWd. d« to Bi6te and 

debaucheries, caring Uttle or nothing for miUtary itrcMect^'IS^Aaeuri^h Texu ^ TraneUdione: Raw- 

glory. In the meanwhile Nabopolassar, Kmg of lznson. The Cuneiform Inecriptione of Weatem Asia (London. 

Babylon, and Cyaxares, King of Media, formed a jf^^-f^^' iP™* Cun^orm Texts in the British Museum 

famUy and political alliance, the Utter giving hi« ^k^^r^idTi^SS^ &lii.'f^!^i);^™StS^ 

daughter m marriage to the former S son, Nabuchodo- of the Past— being English Translations of the Assyrian and 

nosor (Nebuchadneazar). At the head of a powerful Egyptian Jl/onumento. two series (London, 1888-92); Harper. 

army, these two kings together marched against iX^New'^Yoricfiwir "^ ''' 

Nineveh and laid siege to it for fully two years, IV. Assyrian Arts and Cinlisation: Pbrrot bt Chipibz, 

after which the city surrendered and was com- Bistoire de VaH dans VantiquiU CPtaia, 1884). II. Chaldie et 

pletely dertroyed and demolished («»6 b c.), and ^^^J^^. ^^J^^S^nZl^lt^ ^.J!"^^; 

Assyria became a provmce of Babylonia and works of Latard. Oppbrt. Place, etc. 

Media. ^' E^U/^on of Assyria: Ja8TROW, The Religion of Baby- 

. Rbuoion and CmuEATioN -The religion and S^rln^-^SU^^tuif^^blSSSfy t' ^Bj^- 

civihsation of Assyria were almost identical with lonia. 

those of Babylonia, the former having been derived ^I- Comparative Study of Assyrian Monuments and InF- 

from the utter and developed along the same linee. ^^ <^ «^«?*1?«to,,SS?X'Sonr*f88»'X M 

*or, although the Assyrians made notable contn- German ed.. entirel^r rewritten by Winckler and Zimmbr- 

butions to architecture, art, science, and literature, man, under the original title Die Keilinsehriften und das Alts 

these were with them essentially a Babylonian im- T^^T^v-^'^^A ^^1' Vioouroux. op. dt- Ball. Lv** 

vaavm; *v«;««7 waw** vu«,au ^c»«uv<a j a ^avjat^uaau .«* yj^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^ ^ Wttness of the Monuments (London. 1899); 

portation. Assyrian temples and palaces were Satcb. The Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments 

modelled upon those of Babylonia, although in the (London, 1894); Hommel, The Ancient Hebrew TradUion as 

building-material stone was far more liberally ^w«'~terf by the Mwiummts i^t^i^n, 1897); Price. The 

»ua Y'^B ***»^**o' I X 1 J /. ***»^*'J **fc/^*»..j Monuments and the Old Testament (Chicago. 1900); Pincbb8. 

employed. In sculptural decorations and m statuary The Old Testament in the Liaht of the Historical Records and 

more richness and originality were displayed by the Legends of Assyria and Babyionia (London, 1903); Jbrbmias, 

Assyrians than* by the Babylonians. It seems to (jgi)^''* Teatammt im Lichte des aUen Orients (Leipaig, 

have been a hobby of Assyrian monarchs to build Gabribl Oussani. 
colossal palaces, adorned with gigantic statues and 

an infinite variety of bas-reliefs and inscriptions Astaroth (Astarte). See Ph(Bnicia. 

showing theb- warlike exploits. Asshurbanipars Asterisk (Gr., hoHip, a star).-Thi8 is a utensil 

library shows that Assyrian religious literature was ^^^ ^^^ ^^ accorZg to the Greek Rite, which is 

not only an imitation of that of Babylonia, but abso- ^^^ ^^ j^ ^^e Ronui Rite at all. It insists of 

lutely identical therewith. An examination of the x„^ «„,„^^ k««.1o ^i. ci;,^. ^^a^ ^t an,,-.- ^- »^i^ 

religions of the two countries proves that the As- VT? P'"''^^ ^^l^\i?'' «^'P«' ^^^ ,<>' silver or gold 

oTrJi^- -^^^iTj Ti-K,,!,:^;^,. \i^«*..;Jl« ««u- ^A which cross each other at nght angles and thus form 

Syrians aaopted Babylonian doctrmes, cults, ana „ j«„ui^ „-.«k t* io »a^ri ♦« «i«.!l «««• ♦k^ r.*^..^. 

fifbT'l' WH^'nl ZtS^^'tnlhrno.^w^ or'^fcl^ o'f bkL^d^fad^ ^fen sp^ld tt^^u^n 

'^rX T^^tT i«^n^ i" tt S^S ,r rt ^"^ *•'• Pro.*o«,ide and earlier part, of 

^crseS^iTlt^^o^Lfn^t^^^^^^ Kr't^^tford^tte^^'bi^^irtr^n! 

While m Semitic times the principal god of the latter „^„,.4,^j «-^;^i«- ^t u^^a ;« »...,,;»«. ♦k^ ^^^^^ /.^«» 

was Marduk, that of the former was Asshur. The jecrated pju^icles of bread m carrying the paten from 

. 7 , J .'.""•-, Ai: '"*"*^*. "" ««,*.«*. *"o ^ prothe9%8 to the altar, or while it is standing at 

principal deities of both countries are: the three ^:*u/l ^i„«^ i* tl iTia\Iia^ «/L- ^k^ r««^Tt>i ;« 

chief deities, Anu, the god of the heavenly expanse; ^'^^^^ J!^^^- I* » ^'^ wide after ^e Creed and is 

Bel, the earth god and creator of mankind; and ?ot ordinarily used again during the Mass. The aster- 

IT* ♦k-a ^^A ^f k««»J«;r« ^^Z^^^^u^^^ ^^A Lf ^k^ "^ ^ usually surmounted by a cross, and often has a 

Ea, the god of humanity v^r excellence, and of the ^^ ^ suspended from the central junction, and 

water. Next comes Ishtar, the mother of mankmd • ♦k-a n,!^ rwkl^I^ ;« -I»^«k-* i-.-^- Jl »: « 

^^A j-k^ <.^«.^«4> ^t Tj«i. c;« 4:^4^ K^»« ««« ^t -n^i "* «'"® ureek Orthodox is somewhat larger m sue 

the ^heT'^'*^dom • S^^fed'^S X lo^ni *»-?,- «>« f-U C't^'c 9^f^^- When the priest 

Shamash, the sun-god; Ninib, the hero of the heav- S *K ^Z^l^.,!^\^,. »- through mcensmg the 

enly and earthly spirito; Nergal. chief of the nether- S®^^. ^-t'** 'j*^* "P?" *^' ^^!, .^^ *fu^ ."^ 

worid and of tL subte^anefn 'demons, and god of *^L*"/^h Td .S^H^^Sr wh^r^hl^MM^ 

nAi^iu.^^^ ^^A f^^r.^^. vr»*/iiiu ^.;»i'J.iUr « -«i-« camc forth and stood over where the child was ". 

d^rtf ^na^eror of rtor^t^^ X^SSds cre^S ^hen he puts it over the particles of bread upon the 

^minW^nH !^^ th.^J^^m/^^/lf <5lm^<. B.i!S P***''. «>d proceeds to cover it with the various 

flrAS lf^rZ'::^ZA'^^Tr^X^?:, ,t'"eei^,^.S*onTt»as:^ '"^ '^'"*'""*'^' '^'^^'' 

and lightning; Nebo, the god of wisdom, to whom *'lS'.t'"^'"S^** .' ^'ftlnuo^. in Diet. <rarcH. dW,, 

the art of writing and the sciences are ascribed; a. v.; Cluqnbt, Diet, des noms liturgiques, 22. 

Girru-Nusku, or, simply, Nusku, the god of fire, as Andrew J. Shipman. 

II .~2 


Asterius, name of several prominent persons in Aston, name of several English Catholios of promi- 

early Christian history. — (1) Asterius of Petra, a nence. — Sir Arthur, member of an ancient and 

bishop of Arabia, ill-treated by the Arian faction at knightly family, an able military officer in the army 

the Coimcil of Sardica (343) for withdrawing from of Charles I, governor of Oxford for the king, and 

them his support, and exiled to Upper Libya in made governor of Drogheda (Ireland) in 1649. He 

Egypt, whence he was recalled in 362 by the was killed 10 September, 1649, at the siege of that 

edict of Julian that restored all the banished bish- town by the forces of Oliver Cromwell; his brains were 

ops. He took part in the Council of Alexandria dashed out with his wooden leg during the massacre 

(362), called, among other reasons, for the pur- that followed the capture (D. Murphy, Cromwell 

pose of healing the Meletian schism that was rend- in Ireland, Dublin, 1897, p. 99). — Herbert, an 

ing the Church of Antioch. He was one of the English poet, b. at Chelsea, 1614, third son of Walter, 

bearers of the letter addressed by the council to first Lord Aston of Forfar, whom he accompanied 

the stubborn Lucifer of Cagliari and the other to Madrid on his second embassy in 1635, author of 

bishops then at Antioch. These peaceful measures " Tixall Poetry, Collected by the Hon. Herbert 

were, however, rendered useless by Lucifer's pre- Aston, 1658 " (ed. with notes and illustrations by 

cipitancy in consecrating Paulinus as successor to Arthur Clififord, Esq., Edinburgh, 1813, 4to). — 

Meletius of Antioch, whereby the schism gained Walter, father of the preceding and son of Sir Ed- 

a new lease of life. — (2) Asterius of Amasea in ward Aston, of Tixall in Staffordshire, educated 

Pontus (c. 400). The only fact in his life that under the direction of Sir Edward Coke, sent as one 

is known is related by himself, vis. his education of the two ambassadors to Spain (1619) to negotiate 

by a Scythian or Goth who had been sent in his a marriage treaty between Charles (I), Prince of 

youth to a schoolmaster of Antioch and thus ac- Wales, and the Infanta, daughter of Philip III. He 

quired an excellent education and great fame among became a convert to the Catholic Faith on this occh- 

both Greeks and Romans. The extant writings of sion, and on his return to England was made Lord of 

Asterius are twenty-one homilies, scriptural and Forfar (Scotland). He had a decided taste for 

panegyrical in content. The two on penance and literature, and was the patron of Drayton, who dedi- 

'' on the beginning of the fasts *' were formerly as- cated to him (1598) hia '' Black Prince '', and in his 

cribed to St. Gregory of Nyssa (Bardenhewer, " Polyolbion " praises the Astonls '' ancient seat " of 

Patrologie, 1901, 267). A life of his prede- Tixall.— William, b. 22 April, 1735, educated at 

oessor, St. Basil, is ascribed to Asterius (Acta SS., St.-Omer, entered the Society of Jesus in 1751, and 

26 April). His works (P. G., XL) are described by taught for several years in the Society's colleges of 

Tillemont (M6m., X, 409). He was a student of St.-Omer, Watten, and Bruges, until the suppres- 

Demosthenes and an orator of repute. Lightfoot sion in 1773; d. at Li^ge, 15 March, 1800, as canon 

says (Diet, of Christ. Biogr., I, 178) that his best of the cathedral. Among his writings are " Lettres 

sermons display " no inconsiderable skill in rhetoric, Ultramontaines " and '' Le Cosmopolite ". 

great power of expression, and great earnestness of „ 95*po^y ^*f- £*i ^ f "^- ^o******** !• 76-82; Foley. 

moral conviction; some passages are even strikingly ^""^ *^ ^"^^ -P^««»««' ^- ^' Thomab J Shah an. 
eloquent.'* The homilies of Asterius, like those of 

Zeno of Verona, offer no little valuable material Astorga (Abturiga Augusta), Diocbsb of, suf- 

to the Christian archieologist. (De Buck in Acta SS., fragan of Valladolid in Spain, dates, it is said, 

20 Oct. (Paris, 1883), XIII, 330-334.]— (3) Asterius from the third century. It was the principal church 

of Cappadocia, a Greek soplust, a friend of Arius, and of the Asturias in 344, after a long eclipse was again 

also his fellow student in the school of Lucian of an episcopal see in 747, and exhibits since 841 a 

Antioch. St. Athanasius quotes more than once regular succession of bishops. It was at different 

from a pro-Arian work of this writer. He wrote times a suffragkn of Braga and of Santiago. It 

commentaries on the Epistle to the Romans, the Cos- includes the whole province of Leon, and counts 

pels, the Psalms, and ''^many other works '' (Jerome, 300,115 Catholics, 990 parishes, and as many parish 

De Vir. 111., c. xciv), all of which have periahed churches, 431 chapels, and 1,183 priests. 

(Zahn, Marcellus von Ancyra, Gotha, 1867. 68 ^ Battajtoim. 4nn. jHmr o>M. (Pm. 19(^ 

^q.).-(4) Asteriu. a R<>man senator mentioned by ^, ^^: ^SL^f^^ S^ M^Vlf^rsS: 

Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., VII, 16) as a Chnstian dis- Munoz. Bik, Hiat, B»p. (1858) 40. 

tinguished for faith and charity. Rufinus says that Thomas J. Shahan. 

he suffered martyrdom at Ciesarea in Palestine in « . , . a^Q.«*,ow 

262 (Baronius, An. Eccl. ad an. 262, §§ 81, 82). Astrolatry, See Sabaism. ^. ^ ^ ^ 

—(5) Asterius Urbanus, a Montanist writer of the Astrology, the supposed science which determines 

latter part of the second century, referred to in the influence of the stars, especiaUy of the five older 

Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., V, 16, 17); his work was planets, on the fate of m&n {antrologia judicuina; 

probably a compilation of the pseudo-prophetic ut- mundane, or judicial astrology) or on the changes of 

terancfts of Montanus and his female companions the weather (asirologia naturalxs; natural astrology) 

Priscilla and IklaximiUa. Thomab J. Shahan. according to certain fixed rules dependent upon the 

. controlling position of the stars (constellations and 

Asti, Diocese of, one of the divisions of the aspects) at the time under consideration. Judicial 

province of Alexandria, and suffragan of Turin. Asti astrology— the more important branch of this occult 

18 a very old town. It became Christian at an early art— depended for its predictions upon the position 

period of the Christian Era. The first known bishop ^f ^h^ planets in the " twelve houses " at the moment 

was Pastor in 451. After him, were Ma joranus in 465, ^f the birth of a human being. The calculations 

Benenatus in 680, and St. Evasius in 730. From 800 necessary to settle these positions were called casting 

was rismg just 

and the episcopate of St. Evasius, once placed by equator was divided into twelve equal parts, six 
some at much earlier dates. Asti has 182,600 Catho- above and six below the horison, and circles were 

lies, 107 parishes, 300 secular priests, 12 regulars, 92 drawn through these points and the intersecting 

seminarists, 525 churches or chapels. points of the horison and the meridian. Thus the 

Gams, Striea epUeop. Eedn. cathol. (Ratisbon. 1873), 812; heavens were divided into twelve hotises. The first 

UoHBLU. rialic Sacra (Venice, 1722), IV. 332; Cappbllbttx, i.^..^^ (hnrnKmnuji'i hpirinfl with the Doint of the 

Le ehiet d^ludia (Venice, 1866), XIV. 179; Savio. Oli antichi '^^,^^. {noro8cppu8) oegms wiin xnc pomi ^ jue 

MMovi d'ltalia: PrwumU (Turin. 1807), I. 109-167. echptic that IS just rising {ascendens). The twelve 


houses are divided into cardinal houses, also called and Assyrians developed astrology, especiidly ju- 

angtdif succeeding houses (jsuccedenteSf anaphora) dicial, to the status of a science, ana thus advanced 

and declining or cadent houses (cadentea, cataphora). in pure astronomical knowledge by a circuitous 

The houses symbolize respectively: life, personal course through the labyrinth of astrological pr»- 

Eroperty, consanguinity, ricnes, children ana jewels, dictions. The Assyro-Babylonian priests (Chaldeans) 
eaith, marriage and course of life, manner of death were the professional astrologers of classic antiquity, 
and imieritance^ intellect and disposition (also Ions In its ori^ Chaldaic astrology also eoes back to the 
journeys), position in life and digm'ties. friends and worship of the stars; this is proved by the religious 
success, enemies and misfortune. In tne horoscope symbolism of the most ancient cuneiform texts of 
all these symbolic meanings are considered in their the zodiac. The oldest astrological document ex- 
relation to the newly bom. A Latin hexameter thus tant is the work called " Namar-Beli" (Illumination of 
sums up the meaning of the twelve houses: Bel) composed for King Sargon I (end of the third 
Vita, lucrum, fratres, genitor, nati, valetudo, millennium B. 0.) and contained in the cuneiform li- 
Uxor, mors, sapiens, regnans, benefactaque.dsmon. brary of King Asurbanipal (668-626 b. c). It in- 
The position of the planets and the sun and moon in eludes astronomical observations and calculations 
the twelve houses at the moment of birth is decisive, of solar and lunar eclipses combined with astrological 
The planets vary as to meaning. They are divided predictions, to which the interpretation of dr^uns 
into day-stars (Saturn, Jupiter, and also the sim) already belonged. Even in the time of Chaldean, 
and ni^ht-stars (the moon. Mars, and Venus); Mer- which should oe called Assyrian, astrology, the five 
cuiy belongs both to day and night. The sim, Jupiter, planets, together with the sun and moon^ were di- 
and Mars are masculine; the moon and Venus are vided according to their character and their position 
feminine. Mercury belonging again to both classes, in the zodiac as well as according to their position in 
Jupiter (fartuna major) ana Venus {foriuna minor) the twelve houses. As star of the sun, Saturn was 
are good planets* Saturn (infortuna major) and Mars the great planet and ruler of the heavens. The 
(inforluna minor) are malignant planets. The sun, weather, as far back as this time, was predicted from 
moon, and Mercury have a mixea character. Each the colour of the planets and from their rising and 
of the planets known to antiquity, including sim and setting. Classical antiquity looked upon Berosus, 
moon, ruled a day of the week; hence the names priest of the temple of Bel at Babylon, as the oldest 
still used to desie:nate the various days. Judicial as- writer on astrology* and accoraing to Vitruvius 
trology also took into consideration the position of Berosus foimded a scnool of astrology at Cos. Seneca 
the Sim in the zodiac at the moment of birth; the says that a Greek translation, made by Berosus^ of 
signs of the zodiac also had a special astrological the " Namar-Beli " from the library of Asurbampal 
significance in respect to the weal and woe of the new- was known to classical antiquity, 
bom, particularly his bodily health. In medical The EWptians and Hindus were as zealous astrolo- 
astrology every sign of the zodiac ruled some special gers as the nations on the Euphrates and Tigris. The 
part ofthe body, as for example: Aries, the Ram dependence of the early Egyptian star (sun) wor- 
(T), the head and its diseases; Libra, the Balance ship (the basis of the worship of Osiris) upon early 
{:^)f the intestines. Judicial astrology postulates Chaldaic influences belongs to the still unsettled ques- 
the acceptance of the earth as the centre of the solar tion of the origin of early Egyptian civilization. But 
system. Natural astrology predicts the weather undoubtedly the priests of the Pharaohs were the 
from the positions of the planets, especially the moon, docile pupils in astroloey of the old Chaldean priests. 
Many of its theories are not to be rejected a priori^ The mysterious Taautn (Thoth), the Hermes Tris- 
since the question of the moon's meteorological in- megistus of antiquity, was regarded as the earliest 
fluence still awaits a solution which must depend teacher of astrology in Egypt. He is reputed to have 
upon the progress of human knowledge as to ether laid the foundation of astrology in the "Hermetic 
waves and cognate matters. Books"; the division of the zomac into the twelve 
History.— ^he history of astrology is an impor- signs is also due to him. In classic antiquity many 
tant part of the history of the development of civi- works on astrology or on occult sciences in general 
lization: it goes back to the early days of the human were ascribed to this mythical foimder of Egyptian 
race. The unchangeable, harmonious course of the astrolo^. The astrological rule of reckoning named 
heavenly bodies, the profound impression made on after him "Trutina Hermetis" made it possible to 
the soul of man by the power of such heavenly phe* calculate the position of the stars at the time of oon- 
nomena as eclipses, the feeling of dependence on the ception from the diagram of the heavens at the time 
sun, the giver of daylight — all these probably sug- of birth. The Egyptians developed astrology to a 
gested, in the early ages of the human race, the ques- condition from which it varies but little to-day. The 
tion whether the fate of man was not dependent on hours of the day and night received special planets 
these majestic manifestations of Divine power. As- as their rulers, and high and low stood under the de- 
trology was, therefore, the foster-sister of astronomy, terminative iiifluence of the stars which proclaimed 
the science of the investigation of the heavens. From through the priestly caste the coming fate of the 
the start astrolo^ was employed for the needs and land and its inhabitants. It is significant that in 
benefit of daily life; the astrologers were astronomers ancient Egypt astronomy, as well as astrolo^, was 
only incidentally and in so far as astronomy assisted brought to an undoubtedly high state of cultivation, 
astrology in the functions which the latter had to The astoundingly daring theories of the world found 
perform in connexion with reliffious worship. Ac- in the Egyptian texts, which permit us to infer that 
cording to the belief of the early civilized races of their authors were even acquainted with the helio- 
the East, the stars were the source and at the same centric conception of the universe, are based entirely 
time the heralds of everything that happened, and on astrologico-theosophic views. The astrology of 
the right to study the "godlike science" of astrology the ancient inhabitants of India was similar, though 
was a privilege of the priesthood. This was the case hardly so completely developed; they also regarded 
in Mesopotamia and Egypt, the oldest centres of the planets as the rulers of the different hours. Their 
civilization known to us in the East. The most division of the zodiac into twenty-eight houses of 
ancient dwellers on the Euphrates the Akkado- the moon is worthy of notice; this conception, like 
Sumerians were believers in judicial astrology, which all the rest of the fundamental beliefs of Hindu as- 
was closely interwoven with their worship of the trology, is to be found in the Rig-Veda. In India 
stars. The same is true of their successors, the .both astrology and the worship of the gods go back 
Babylonians and Ai»yrians, who were the chief ex- to the worship of the stars. Even to-day, the Hindus, 
ponents of astrology m antiquity. The Babylonians especially the Brahmins, are considered the best au- 


thoriiies on astrology and the most skilful casters of stars. The poem of Aratus was greatly admired by 

horoscopes. both the Greeks and the Romans: Cicero translated 

India influenced and aided the development of it into Latin, and Hyginus, Ovia's friend, wrote a 

astrolo^ in ancient China; both India ana Mesopo- commentary on it. In this age astrology was as 

tamia that of the Medes and Persians. The AaenrrQ- highly developed as in its second perioa of pro»- 

Babylonian and Egyptian priests were the teachers perity, at the Renaissance. Medical astrolosy had 

of tne Greek astrologers. Both of these priestly also at this date secured a definite position. Hippoc- 

castes were called Chaldeans, and this name remained rates of Cos in his work ''De Acre, Aqua et Locis". 

the designation of all astrologers and astronomers which shows the influence of the Pythagoreans, 

in classic antiquity and in the period following. It discusses at length the value of astrology and its 

speaks well for the soimd sense of the early Grecian prognostications for the whole domain ofmedicine. 

pnilosophers that they separated the genume astro- In the Alexandrine school of medicine, astrological 

nomic nypotheses and facts from the confused mass proj^osis, diagnosis, and hy^ene soon covered with 

of erroneous astrological teaching which the Egyptian their rank growths the inherited scientific teachings 

priests had confided to them. At the same time it that had been tested by practice. In this way 

was through the old Hellenic philosophers that the "astrological" cures grew in favour. These formii 

astrologiccu secrets of the Oriental priestly castes of the art of healing are not without interest both 

reached the profane world. The earliest mention of for the history of suggestion and for that of human 

the art of astrological prediction in early classical error. The diseases of the more important bodily 

literature is found in the '* Prometheus Vmctus" of organs were diagnosed according to the influence 

iEschylus (line 486 sqq.) — a comparatively late date, of the sign of the zodiac at the time, and a medicine 

The often quoted lines of the Oayssey (Bk. XVIII, applied which either acted by suggestion, or was 

136 sqq.) have nothing to do with astrology. As- ^molly inoperative. In the division of the zodiac ac- 

trology was probably cultivated as an occult science cording to its medical effect on the different parts of 

by the Pythagorean school which maintained the the bc^y the first sign taken was the Ram (Aries), 

exclusiveness of a caste. The teaching of Pythagoras which ruled the head, and the last of the series was 

on the ''harmony of the spheres" points to certain the Fishes (Pisces), which controlled the health or 

astrological hypotheses of the Egyptian priests. It ailments of the feet. As the appetite of the Greeks 

is a striking fact that Greek astrology be^an to for the mysterious wisdom of astrology grew keener, 

flourish when the glory of the early classical civiliza- the Egyptian and Chaldean astrologers continually 

tion had begun to wane. It was in the age of Euripi- drew out still more mystical, but, at the same time, 

des, who refers to astrological predictions in a little more dubious treasures from their inexhaustible 

comedy, that the belief in astrology be^an to grow store-house. The newly founded city of Alexandria, 

popular in Greece. After the overthrow of the Assyro- where the later Hellenic culture flourished, was a 

Baoylonian Empire, the priests of those regions centre for all astrologers and practitioners of the 

found refuge in Greece and spread their astrological occult arts. From time to time books appeared here, 

teachings by word of mouth and writing. In this professing to have had their origin in tne early days 

way astrology lost the character of occult science, of Egyptian civilization, which contained the secret 

Astronomy and astrology remained closely united, knoii^age pertaining to astrological and mystical 

and both sciences were represented by the so-callea subjects. These writings seemed to meet the aspi- 

Chaldeans, Mathematici, and Genethliacs. Astrology rations of ordinary men for the ideal, but all they of- 

proper, from the time of Posidonius, was called fered was a chaotic mass of theories concerning 

AiroTe\€fffMTiKd (rendered into English, "apoteles- astrology and divination, and the less they were 

matics" in order to indicate more clearly the influence understood the more they were applauded. In the 

of the stars upon man's final destiny; dwd, ''from". Renaissance these pseudo-scientinc works of an- 

and rAof, "end*')* Astrology soon permeated the tiquity were eagerly studied. It suffices here to 

entire philosophical conception of nature amon^ the mention the books of Nechepso-Petosiris which 

Greeks, and rapidly attained a conmianding position w^ere believed by the neo-Platonists to be the most 

in religious worsmp. Plato was obligea to take ancient Egyptian authority on astrology but which, 

astrology into consideration as a "philosophical doc- probably, were written in Alexandria about 150 b. c. 

trine", and his greatest disciple, Aristotle, was the About this same time, in all probability, Manetho, 

first to separate the science of astrology from that an Egyptian priest and traveller repeatedly men- 

of meteorology, which was reserved for the phenom- tionea by Ptolemy, wrote on astrology. In order to 

ena of the atmosphere. The Stoics who encouraged meet the exigencies which arose, each degree of the 

all forms of divination were active promoters of heavens in late Egyptian astrology was assigned to 

astrology. The more plainly the influence of Orien- some special human activity and some one disease, 

tal teaching manifested itself in Greek civilization. Besides this, the "heavenly spheres", which play 

and the more confused the political conditions ana so important a part in the history of astronomy, were 

religious ideas of the GreeK States became, the increased to 54, and even a higher number, and from 

greater was the influence of astrologers in public, and astrological calculations made from the complicated 

tne more mischievous their activity in private, life, movements of these spheres the fate both of men and 

Every professional astronomer was at the same time nations was predicted. Thus arose in late classic 

an astrologer. Eudoxus of Cnidus, the author of times the svnoBra barbarica (foreign sphere) which 

the theory of concentric spheres, was perhaps the in the Middle Ages also had' a controlling influence 

first to write in Greek on purely astrological topics, over astrology. 

being led to select this subject by his studies in It was to be expected that the sober-minded, prac- 
Egypt. Most of the Greek astronomers known to tical Romans would soon be dissatisfied with the 
usfollowed in his footsteps, as, for instance, Geminus mystical and enigmatical doctrines of ^exandriap 
of Rhodes whose most important work treating of astrology. Cato uttered warnings against the mis- 
astronomy and astrology E/0'a7Ciry^ e/s rd 4»aiy6/AeMi chievous activity of the Chaldeans who had entered 
(Introduction to Phsenomena) was commented on Italy along with Greek culture. In the year 139 b. c. 
even by Hipparchus. About 270 b. c. the poet the Praetor Cneius Cornelius Hispallus drove all 
Aratus of Soli in his didactic poem, "Phenomena", astrologers out of Italy; but they returned, for even 
explained the system of Eudoxus, and in a poem the Roman people could not begin an important un- 
called "Diosemeia", which was appended to the dertaking without the aid and advice of augurs and 
former, he interprets the rules of judicial and natural auspices. It is only necessary to recall the greatest 
astrology ^at refer to the various changes of the man of ancient Rome, Julius Ca»ar. Cicero, who in 


his younger days had busied himself with astrology, five hundred years had ruled the public life of Rome, 
protested vigorously, but without success, against In 321 Constantine issued an edict threatening all 
it in his work "De Divinatione". The Emperor Chaldeans, Magi, and their followers with death. 
Augustus, on the other hand, believed in astrology Astrology now disappeared for centuries from the 
and protected it. The first Roman work on astrologv Christian parts of Western Europe. Only the Arabic 
was dedicated to him: it was the "Astronomica ' schools of learning, especially those in Spain after 
written about 45 b. c. by Marcus Manilius, who was the Moors had conquered the Iberian penmsula, ac- 
probabl^ a Chaldean by birth. In five books this cepted this dubious inheritance from tne wisdom of 
poem gives an outline of the astrology of the zodiac classic times, and among the Arabs it became an in- 
and constellations. The fifth book is devoted to centive to pure astronomical research. Arabian and 
the sphcera barbarica. It is a curious fact that the Jewish scholars were the representatives of astrolo^ 
poem does not take up the astrology of the planets, in the Middle A^, while both Church and State m 
In spite of repeated attempts to suppress it, as in the Christian countries rejected and persecuted this false 
reigns of Claudius and Vespasian, astrology main- doctrine and its heathen tendencies. Unfortunately, 
tained itself in the Roman Empire as one of the lead- at the same time the development of astronomy was 
ing forms of culture. The lower the Romans sank checked, excepting so far as it was needed to estab* 
in religion and morals the more astrology became lish certain necessary astronomic principles and to 
entwined with all action and belief. Under Tiberius calculate the date of Easter. Yet early Christian 
and Nero the two astrologers named Thrasyllus, who legend distinguished between astronomy and as- 
were father and son, held high political positions, trology by ascribing the introduction of the former 
The most distinguished astronomer of antiauity, to the good angels and to Abrtdiam, while the latter 
Claudius Ptolemseus, was also a zealous astrologer, was ascribed to Cham. In particular, St. Augustine 
His ''Opus Quadripartitum, seu de apotelesmatibus ("De civitate Dei", VIII, xix, and in other places) 
et judiciis astrorum, libri IV is one of the chief fought against astrology and sought to prevent its 
treatises on astrology of earlier times and is a detailed amalgamation with pure natural science. Once more 
account of astrological teachings. This work occu- the Eut prepared a second period of prosperity for 
pied in astrology as important a position as that astrolo^. The Jews, very soon after tney were 
which the same author's HtydXii Z^rra^it (also called driven mto Western Europe, busied themselves with 
"Almagest"), held in the science of astronomy before astrological questions, being stimulated thereto bv 
the appearance of the Copemican theory. It is a the Talmud. Jewish scholars had, moreover, a knowf- 
striking fact that Ptolemy sought, in the second book edge of the most important works of classic times 
of the ''Opus Quadripartitum", to bring the psychi- on astrology and they became the teachers of the 
cal and bodily differences of the various nations into Arabs. These latter, after the rapid spread of Mo- 
reLation with the physical conditions of their native bammedanism in Western Asia and North Africa, 
lands, and to maKe these conditions, in their turn, and their defeat in Western Europe bv Charles Mar- 
depend on the positions of the stars. The Roman tel, began to develop a civilization of their own. The 
astrologers wrote their manuals in imitation of mystical books which appeared in Jewish literature 
Ptolemy, but with the addition of mystic phantasies after the time of the Talmud, that is, the books cdled 
and predictions. After the death of Marcus Aurelius, the "Sefer Zohar" and the "Sefer Yezirah" (Book 
the Chaldeans were always important personages at of Creation), are full of rules of divination dealing 
the imperial court. As late as the time of Constan- especially with astrological meanings and calculations, 
tine the Great the imperial notary Julius Firmicus Tne high reputation of the Talmud and the Cabbala 
Matemus, who later became a Christian, wrote on among the Jews in the Middle Ages explains their 
'' Mathematics, or the power and the influence of the fondness for astrological speculations; but at a very 
stars" eight books which were the chief authority in early date, it should be noted, they distinguished 
astrologv until the Renaissance. With the overtmrow between astronomv, " the science of reading the stars ' ', 
of the old Roman Empire and the victory of Chris- and astrologv, "the science of divination". 
tianit}r, astroloff^ lost its importance in the centres CSaliph Al-Mansur, the builder of Baedad, was, like 
of Christian civuization in the West. The last known his son, the famous Harun-al-Rashid, a promoter 
astrolo^r of the old world was Johannes Laurentius of learning. He was the first caliph to call Jewish 
(sometimes called Lydus), of Philadelphia in Lydia, scholars around him in order to develop the study of 
who lived a. d. 490-565. the mathematical sciences, especially astronon^, in 
AsTROLOGT Under Christianity. — From the his empire. In the year 777 the learned Jew fsLCob 
start the C!hristian Church strongly opposed the false ben Tsurik founded at Bagdad a school for the studv 
teachings of astrology. The Fathers energetically of astronomy and astrology which soon had a hign 
demanded the expulsion of the Chaldeans who did reputation; amons those trained here was Alchindi 
so much harm to the State and the citizens bv em- (Alkendi), a noted astronomer. It was one of Al- 
ploying a fantastic mysticism to play upon the in- chindi's pupils, Abumassar (Abu Mashar), from Balkh 
eradicable impulses of the common people, keeping in Chorassan, bom about the year 805, whom the 
their heathen conceptions alive, and fostering a soul- Middle Ages regarded as the greatest of Arabian as- 
perplexing cult which, with its fatalistic tendencies, trologers. Astrology being regarded by the caliphs 
created difficulties in the discernment of right ana as the practical application of astronomy, all the 
wrong and weakened the moral foundations of all more important Arabic and Jewish astronomers who 
human conduct. There was no room in the early were attached to that court, or who taught in the 
Christian Church for followers of this pseudo-science. Moorish schools were also astrologers. Ajnon^ the 
The noted mathematician Aquila Ponticus was ex- notewortlr^ Jewish astrologers may be mentioned 
pelled from the Christian communion, about the Sahl ben Bishr al-Israel (alx>ut 820); Rabban al-Ta- 
year 120, on account of his astrolocpcal heresies. The ban, the well-known cabbalist and Talmudic scholar; 
early Christians of Rome, therefore, regarded the Shabbethai Donalo (913-970), who wrote a commen- 
astrologers as their bitterest and, unfortunately, their tary on the astrology of the ''Sefer Yezirah" which 
too powerful enemies; and the astrologers prol^bly Western Europe later regarded as a standard work; 
did their part in stirring up the cruel persecutions and, lastly^ the Jewish Ivric poet and mathematician 
of the Christians. As Chnstianitv spreeud, the as- Abraham ibn Ezrah. Among the noted Arabic as- 
trologers lost their influence and reputation, and tronomers were Massah Allah Albate^ius, Alpe- 
gradually sank to the position of mere quacks. The tragius, and others. The AraboJudaic astrology 
conversion of Constantine the Great put an end to of the Middle Ages pursued the path indicated by 
the importance of this so-called science, which for Ptolemy, and his teachings were apparently the im- 

A8TB0L00T 22 A8TB0L00T 

movable foundation of all astronomical and astro- Leo X, and Paul III. When these rulers lived 

logical activity. At the same time the "Opus Quad- trology was. so to say, the regulator of official life: 

ripartitum" of the great Alexandrian was corrupted it is a fact cnaracteristic of the age, that at the papal 

with Talmudic subtleties and overlaid with mystical and imperial courts ambassadors were not received 

and allegorical meaning|8, which were taken chiefly in audience until the court astrologer had been con- 

from the Jewish post-Talmudic belief concerning suited. Re^omontanus, the distinguished Bavarian 

demons. This deterioration of astrology is not sur- mathematician, practised astrology, which from that 

prising if we bear in mind the strong tendency of all time on assumed the character of a bread-winning 

Semitic races to fatalism and their blind belief in profession, and as such was not beneath the dignity 

an inevitable destinv, a belief which entaib spiritual of so lofty an intellect as Kepler. Thus had astrology 

demoralization. The result was that evei^ con- once more become the foster-mother of all astron- 

ceivable pursuit of mankind, every disease, and indeed omers. In the judgment of the men of the Renais- 

every nation had a special "heavenly regent", a sance — and this was the age of a Nicholas Copemi- 

constellation of definitely assigned position from the cus — the most profoimd astronomical researches and 

course of which the most oaring prophecies were theories were only profitable in so far as they aided in 

deduced. ^ the development of astrology. Among the zealous 

Up to the time of the Crusades, Christian coimtries patrons of the art were the Medici. Catharine de' 

in general were spared any trouble from a degenerate Medici made astrology popular in France. She erected 

astrology. Only natural astrologv, the correctness an astrological observatory for herself near Paris, and 

of which the peasant thought he nad recognized by her court astrologer was the celebrated "majgician" 

experience, secured a firm footing in spite of the Michel de Notredame (Nostradamus) who in 1555 

prohibition of Church and State. But the gradually published his principal work on astrology — ^a work 

mcreasing influence of Arabic learning upon the civi- still regarded as authoritative among the followers 

lization of the West, which reached its hiehest point of his art. Another well-known man was Lucas 

at the time of the crusades, was unavoidably followed Gauricus, the court astrologer of Popes Leo X and 

by the spread of the false theories of astrology. This Clement YII, who publish^ a large number of as- 

was a natural result of the amalgamation of the trological treatises. In Germany Johann Stdffler, 

teachings of pure astronomy with astrology at the professor of mathematics at Tiibineen, Matthias Laji- 

Mohammedan seats of learning. The spread of as- denberg, and, above all, Philip Melanchthon were 

trolog^ was also furthered by the Jewish scholars zealous and distinguished defenders of astrology, 

living m Christian lands, for they considered astrology In Pico della Mirandola (Ad versus Astrologos libri 

as a necessary part of their cabalistic and Talmumc XII) and Paolo Toscanelli astrology encountered its 

studies. The celebrated didactic poem, "Imago first successful antagonists; later in the Renaissance 

Mundi", written by Gautier of Metz in 1245, has a Johann Fischart and the Franciscan Nas were among 

whole chapter on astrology. Pierre d'Ailly, the noted its opponents. (Cf. Philognesius, Practica Practi- 

French theologian and astronomer, wrote several carum, Ingolstadt, 1571.) 

treatises on the subject. The public importance of Gabottcrs charming essay, "L'astrolo^a nel quat- 

astrology grew as the internal disorders of the Church trocento", in "Rivista di filosofia scientifica'% VlII, 

increased and the papal and imperial power declined. 378. so. . gives much information concerning astrology 

Towards the close of the Midcue Ages nearly every intne ntteenth century. A. Graf's ''La fatality nelle 

petty prince, as well as every ruler of importance, credenze del medio evo" (in ''Nuovo Antologia", 

nad his court astrologer, upon whose ambiguous ut- 3d series, XXVIII, 201, sqq.) is also of value for 

terances the weal and woe of the whole country often astrolo^ at the turning point of the Middle Ages, 

depended. Such a person was Anffelo Catto, the Some m the late Roman astrologers, among whom 

astrologer of Louis Al of France. The revival of was probably Firmicus Matemus, thought to reform 

classical learning brought with it a second period of astrology by idealizing it and raising its moral tone, 

prosperity for astrology. Among the civilized peoples The same purpose animated Paolo Toscanelli, called 

of the Renaissance period, so profoundly stirrea by Maestro PagoUo, a physician greatly respected for 

the idl-prevailing relinous, social, and political fer- the piety of his life, who belonged to the learned and 

ment, tne astrological teachings which had come to artistic circle whicn ^thered around Brother Am- 

light with other treasures of ancient Hellenic learn- brosius Camaldulensis m the Monastery of The An^ls. 

ing found many ardent disciples. The romantic There were special professors of astrology, besides 

trend of the age and its highly cultivated sensuality those for astronomy, at the Universities of Pavia, 

were conditions which contributed to place this art Bologna, and even at the Sapienza during the pon- 

in a position far higher than any it had attained in tificate of Leo X, while at times these astrologers 

its former period of prosperity. The forerunners of outranked the astronomers. The three intellectual 

Humanism busied tnemselves with astrology, and centres of astrology in the most brilliant period of 

but few of them perceived the dangerous psychical the Renaissance were Bologna, Milan, and Mantua 

effect of its teachings upon the masses. Towards The work of J. A. Campanus, published at Rome 

the end of the thirteenth century the Florentines in 1495, and often commented on« namely, "Qratio 

employed Guido Bonatti as their official astrologer, initio studii Perugise habita ", throws a clear light 

ana, although Florence then stood alone in this re- on the lack of comprehension shown by the Church 

pect, it was scarcelv a hundred years later when Fathers in their attitude towards pagan fatalism, 

astrology had entered in earnest upon its triumphant Among other things it is here said: "Quanquam 

course, and a Cecco d'AscoU was already its devoted Au^ustinus, sanctissimus ille vir (juidem ac doo- 

adherent. In Petrarch's day the questionable ac- tissimus, sed fortassis ad fidem religionemque pro- 

tivity of the astrologers at the Italian courts had made pensior, negat quicquam vel boni vel mall astrorum 

such progress that this clear-enghted Humanist (De necessitate contingere". 

remea. utr. fortun. I, iii, sqq; Epist. rer. famil.. Ill, In the Renaissance, religion, also, was subordinated 

8, etc.) again and again attacked astrology and its to the dictation of astrology. The hypothesis of an 

representatives with the keenest weapons of his wit, astrological epoch of the world for eacn religion was 

though without success, and even without any fol- widely believed by Italian astrologers of the time, 

lowing except the weak objections of Villani and the who obtained the theory from Aralx>Judaic sources, 

still more ineffectual polemics of Salutato in his di- Thus it was said that the conjunction of Jupiter with 

dactic poem "De fato et fortune ". Emperors and Saturn permitted the rise of the Hebrew faith; 

popes became votaries of astrology — the Emperors tliat of Jupiter with Mars, the appearance of the 

Charles IV and Y, and Popes Sixtus IV, Julius II, Chaldaic religion; of Jupiter with the sun, the Egyi> 



tian reliffion; of Jupiter with VenuB, Mohammedan- cultured man — all these together have caused as- 

ism; and of Jupiter with Mercunr, Christianity. At trology to emerge from its hiding place among paltry 

some future day the religion of Antichrist was to superstitions. The growth of oocultistic ideas, which 

appear upon the conjunction of Jupiter with the should, perhaps, not be entirely rejected, is reintro- 

moon. Extraordinaiy examples of the glorification of ducing astrolosy into society. This is especially 

astrology in Italy during the Renaissance are the true of judicifu astrology, which, however, by its 

frescoes painted by Miretto in the Sala della Ragione constant encouragement of fatalistic views unsettles 

at Pa via, and the frescoes in Borso's siunmer palace at the belief in a Divine Providence. At present ju- 

Florence. Petrarch, as well, notwithstanding his pub- dicial astrology is not justified by any scientific facts, 

lie antagonism to astrolo^, was not, until ms pnme, To put forward the theory of ether waves as an ar- 

entirely free from its tamt. In this connection his gument for astrological assertions is not in accord 

relations with the famous astrologer, Mayno de with the methods of sober science. Judicial astrology. 

Mayneri, are significant. (Cf. Rajna, Qiom. stor.,X, therefore, can claim a place only in the history ot 

101, sq.) ^ human error, while, however, as an historical tact, 

Even the victorious progress of the Copemican sys- it reflects much light upon the shadowy labyrinth 

tem could not at once destroy confidence in astrology, of the human soul. 

The greatest astronomers were still obliged to devote Abtroloot Among the Ancient Jews. — ^The Bible 

their time to making astrological predictions at is free from any base admixture of astrological delu- 

princely courts for the sake of gain; Tycho Brahe sions. There is no reason for dragging the passage 

made such calculations for the Emperor Kudolph II, Josue x, 12, into historico-astrological discussions ; the 

and Kepler himself , the most distinguished astronomer facts there related — the standing still of the sun in the 

of the age, was the imperial court astrolo^r. Kepler vidley of Gabaon and of the moon in the v^ley of 

was also obliged to cast horoscopes for Wallenstein, AjaJon — ^are of purely astronomical interest. Only a 

who later came completely tmder the influence of the few indications in tne Old Testament surest that, 

alchemist and astroloii^er Giambattista Zenno of notwithstanding the Divine prohibition (Ex., xxii, 

tiller's "Wallenstein". The 18; Deut., xviii, 10, etc.), the Jews, especially after 

Genoa, the Seni of Sci 

influence of the Copemican theory, the war of en- they were exposed to the influence of Egyptian and 

lightened minds against pseudo-prophetic wisdom. Babylonian errors, may have practised astrology in 

and the increasing perception of the moral ana secret, along with other superstitions. The Propnets 

psychical damage wrought by astrological humbug warned the people against the pernicious ascenoancy 

at last brought about a declme in the fortunes of of soothsayers and diviners of dreams (Jer., xxix, 

astrology, and that precisely in Wallenstein's time. 8: Zach., x, 1-2), among whom astrologers were in- 

At the same perioa astrological tracts were still eluded. Thus in the Book of Wisdom (xiii, 1-2) it is 

being written by the most celebrated of English as- said: "All men are vain . . . who . . . have imag- 

trologers, William Lilly of Diseworth, Leicestershire, ined either . . . the swift air, or the circle of the 

who received a pension of £100 from (^omwell's coim- stars, or the great water, or the sun and moon, to 

cil of state, ana who, in spite of some awkward in- be the gods tlmt rule the world. " The Book of Job, 

cidents, had no little political influence with Charles a writing of importance in the history of astronomy 

II. Among his works was a frequently republished and star nomenclature, is also free from astrological 

"Christian Astrology". Shakespeare (m IGng Lear) fatalism. But to this fatalism the Jews had a 

and Milton were acquainted with and advocated natural predisposition, and when Hellenism ^ined 

astrological theories, and Robert Fludd was a repre- a footing in the Holy Land it was accompamed by 

sentative of the art at the royal court. Francis Bacon, the spread of astrology, largely among the learned, 

it is true, sought to win adherents for a purified ana the '^philosophers", at whom even in an earlier age 

reformed astrology in order to destroy the existin^g the passage in Wisdom had probably been aimed, 

form of the art. It was Jonathan Swift who in his A^in, Isaias (xlvii, 13-14) derides the Babylonian 

clever satire, "Prediction for the Year 1708 by Isaac astrologers ("Let now the astrologers stand and save 

BickerstafF, Esq. ", which deserves to be res^i even thee, they that Amazed at the stars .... Behold they 

at the present oay, gave the deathblow to the belief are as stubble, nre hath burnt them"), and Jeremias 

of English society in astrology. The last astrolc^r exclaims (x, 2) : " Be not afraid of the signs of heaven, 

of importance on the Continent was Jean-Baptiste which the heathen fear". 

M&rin, who issued "Astrologia Gallica" (1661). The After the Exile, however, astrology spread so 
greatly misunderstood Swiss naturalist Theopnrastus rapidly, above all among the educated classes of 
Paracelsus was an opponent of astrology, and not Israel, that as early as the Hellenistic era a Jewish 
its advocate, as was formerly inferred from writings astrological literature existed, which showed a 
erroneously attributed to him. The rapid mwth of strong Persico-(}haldean influence. The prophets 
experimental investigation in the natural sciences had been keen opponents of astrology and of a re- 
in those countries which had been almost ruined, lapse into fatalism. If, when they were prophesying 
socially and politically, by the Thirty Years War of the great events to come, the contemplation of 
completely banished the astrological parasites from nature, and especially of the stars, filled them with 
society. Once more astrology fell to the level of a sympathetic enthusiasm, by reason of their poetic 
vulgar superstition, cutting a sorry figure among the inspiration and power of divination, this had nothing 
elates that still had faith in the occult arts. The to do with astrology. On the other hand it does not 
peasant held fast to his belief in natural astrolo^, appear impossible that in Daniel's time some exiled 
and to this belief the progress of the art of printing Jews practised astrology. Judging from Daniel, v, 
and the spread of popmar education contributed 7, 11, it is possible that the prophet himself held a 
largely. For not only were there disseminated amonff high rank among the astrologers of the Babylonian 
the rural poor "farmer's almanacs", which contained court. After the Exile an attempt was niJEule to 
information substantiated by the peasant's own ex- sepuate astroloey from sorcery and forbidden 
perience, but the printing-presses also supplied the magical arts, by oenying a direct Biblical prohibition 
peasant with a great mass of cheap and easily under- of astrology and by pretending to find encourage- 
stood books containing much fantastic astrological ment for such speculations in Grenesis, i, 14. It is a 
\ionsense. characteristic fact that in ancient Israel astrolo^ 
The remarkable physical discoveries of recent dec- received no direct encouragement, but that its 
ades, In combination with the growing desire for an spread was associated with the relapse of many Jews 
elevated philosophico-religious conception of the into the old Semitic star-worship which was aided 
world e<nd the intensified sensitiveness of the modem by Persico-Chaldean influence. For this Jeremiae 

A8TB0L00T 24 A8TR0L00Y 

is a witness (vii, 18; xix, 13; xliv, 17-19, 25). Co- ate, teachings of late Judaic astrology were swept 

incident with the spread of astrology in old Israel awav. 

and the decline of the nation was the diffusion of The lower the Jewish nation sank in the scale of 

demonolo^. The Jewish prayers to the planets, in religion and civilization the greater was the power 

the form m which they are preserved with others in gained by the erratic doctrines of astrology and the 

Codex Paris, 2419 (folio 277r), came into existence at accompanying belief in demonolo^. The earthly 

the time when Hellenism first flourished in the East, labours of the Saviour purified this noxious atmos- 

namely, the third and second centuries b. c. In phere. The New Testament is the opponent of 

these prayers enpecial angels and demons are as- astrology, which, by encouraging an apathetic 

signed to the different planets; the greatest and most fatalism, prevents the development of an elevating 

powerful planet Saturn, having only one aneel, Kte- and strengthening trust in a Divine Providence, 

toel, and one demon, Beelzebub. These planetary The "Star of the Wise Men" (Matt., ii, 2, 7, 9, sq.) 

demons regulated the destiny of men. cannot be identified by astronomy; perhaps, ac- 

The most notable witness for astrological super- cording to Ideler (Handbuch der mathemat. imd 

stitions in the era of the decadence of Israel is the techn. Chron.), the conjunction of the planets 

apocryphal "Book of the Secrets of Henoch", which, Jupiter and Saturn is meant. But this hypothesis, 

notwithstanding its perplexing phantasies, is a rich which would be of decisive importance in settling 

treasure-house of information concerning cosmoloe- the year of the birth of Christ, still lacks convincing 

ical and purely astronomical problems m the Hel- proof. It finds a curious support in Abrabanel's 

lenic East. The author of "Henoch" is said by a comment that, according to Jewish astrologers, a 

Samaritan writer to be the discoverer of astronomer, conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn was a sign of the 

and the book contains valuable explanations m Messias. It must, however, remain questionable 

regard to astronomy and astrolo^ at the time of whether and to what extent a prediction of Jewish 

the Machabean dynasty. The evidences for astro- astrologers, or Kere schamannty is to be considered 

logic demonology^ in ancient Israel, when the nation as realized in the "Star of the Wise Men" (Matt., ii, 

was affected by Hellenism and Babylonian decadence, 2, etc.). The first heralds of Christianit]^, the Twelve 

are found in the latter part of the "Book of the Apostles, at once bc^n a bold war against the rank 

Secrets of Henoch" — the "Book of the Course of growths of superstition. They also battled with the 

the Lights of Heaven" — as also previously in the propensity of the people for astrology and in its 

fourth section which treats of Henoch's wandering stead planted in the hearts of men a belief in the 

"through the secret places of the world". This power and goodness of God. Supported by the 

latter is perhaps the archetype of Dante's "Divine teachings of the Scriptures, the Church Fathers be- 

C)omedy . According to the "Book of Henoch" came powerful opponents of astrology and attacked 

the human race derived its knowledge of astrology with determination the bewildering and demoralizing 

and "lunar sorceries", together with all other forms ascendancy of its devotees. The assertion is therefore 

of magic, from the seven or eight spirits from whom justified that the Book of Books remained free from 

come the chief sins of mankind (Henoch, i, 8). It the taint of astrological delusion. The passion for 

is, moreover, worthy of note that the "Book of astrolo^ evinced by decadent Judaism, and pre- 

Henoch" must be regarded as a witness to Jewish served in the Bible, is only one more proof of the 

national prophecy. It does not betray the ascend- propensity of Semitic nations for fatalistic super- 

ancy of Hellenism in any such degree as do the stitions and of the purifying and victorious power 

verses of the "Sibylline Oracles", which were re- of the ethics of Christianity. 

corded in the old Ionic dialect during the reign of Campbell Thompson's monumental work, "The 

Ptolemy Physcon (145-112 b. c.) by Jewish scholars Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh 

in Effypt, and probably at a later date in the Holy ana Babylon" (London, 1902), may be consulted 

Lana itself. for the valuable facts which throw light upon 

The astrological demonolo^ of the Jews was the dependence of the astrology of the ancient 
continually fed from Egyptian and Babylonian Jews on that of Babylon. "A special branch of 
sources, and formed in its turn the basis for the astrology which was zealously cultivated in Baby- 
astrology of certain neo-Platonic sects. Toother Ion was medical astrology, or the astrological prog- 
with the Parsee astrology, it was the foundation of nosis of disease." Medical astrology is important 
the astrological demonology of the Gnostics and in regard to the question of astrology in the Bible. 
Priscillianists. The influence of Hellenistic Judaism It was greatly favoured by the spread of empirical 
is also plainly visible in the philosophic system of treatment of disease among the astrologers. The 
the Harranites, or Sabeans. It is only necessary Bible itself gives veiy little information concerning 
to mention here the high honour paid by the Sabeans this form of the science, but subordinate Jewish 
to the seven planetary gods who regulate the fate sources, above all the Talmud, allow conclusions to 
of man. According to the belief of the Sabeans be drawn as to its importance. Medical astrology, 
every planet is inhabited by a spirit as star-soul, derived from Arabo-Judaic sources, flourished agam 
and the deciphering of the figures of the conjunction at the time of the Renaissance. Its professional 
and opposition of the planets made the prediction representatives were then called "latromathema- 
of future destiny possible. Other elements of late ticians", after the mathematical mode of arriving 
Judaic astrology were adopted by the earliest known at conclusions in their "art of healing". [Cf. Kan 
Christian writer on astrology, the Byzantine court- Sudhoff , Jatromathematiker, vomehml. des XY. und 
astrologer, Hephsestion of Thebes. The didactic XVI. Jahrhund., in Abhand. zur Gesch. der Medizin 
astrological poem of Johannes Kamateros (about (Breslau, 1902), pt. II; Wilh. Ebstein, Die Medizin 
the middle of the twelfth century), which was dedi- im Alten Testament (Stuttgart, 1901); Gideon 
cated to the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I, appears Precher, Das Tranzendentale, Magie im Talmud 
to have been drawn from Judieo-Gnostic sources. (Vienna, 1850); Trasen, Sitten der alten Hebr&er 
It is a striking fact that as "demonized astrology" (Breslau, 1853).] 

gained ground in ancient Israel — and this was a The Babylonians, chiefly in relation to medical 

ranch of astrology in great favour among the Jewish astrolo^, distinguished between a spherical method 

scholars of the age of the Ptolemies, and much of calculation (from the point of view of the observer 

practised by them — the worship of the stars ven- to the stars, i. e. subjectively), and a cosmical method 

tured once more to show itself openly. It was (from the relative position of the stars, i. e. objec- 

not until the appearance of Christianity that the tively). The former was used in the prognosis de- 

preposterous and, in part, pathologically degener- duoea from the observation of the twelve houses 


of the heavenfi; the latter in that drawn from the sionaries in the seventeenth century. Indian astron- 

twelve signs of the Zodiac. omy contained few original elements. It assigned 

GrAsbb, Lehrb, einer LUerdargeKh, (Leipiig. 1839), II, oon- particular prominence to the lunar zodiac, called 

tains a lUt of ^e earUw Uterature of the subject; Law, A#- the nakshotros, or mansions of the moon, variously 

troloff%e tn der Bum in Ben Chananja (1803); Reitzenbtein, -o^ir^-.^^ „* ♦^.r^^f,, oA,r«» «- 4.«,«.«4^» 1:«.U4- . ««ii 

PaS^ndrf (Leipiig, 1904); Maass; £W« Taie»o6aer (Berlin; reckoned at twenty-seven or twenty-eirfit; and 

Sphara (Leipxig, 1905); Reitzknstein, Z^Dei religton&gem^. ^x • j j i. . « .. i 

Fragef^ (Strasbui|c, 1901); Bousarr. Rdtgion dea Jvdentutn» attamed, and a peculiar constellational ^stem of 

im neuUHam, Zeitalur (Berlin, 1906). See also the litcratiire obscure derivation, came into Use. The Baoylonians 

^"2?i^^'^d.Sttehi;.iS?l^rL*'nLdfnJtg'o^ flone,among thenations of the for^-time, Bu'cceeded 

caution should be observed) of the works of Felix YON Oefklb, m laying the foimdations of a progressive science. 

Die AfHfoben der Berlin^ PlaneUnjafel P. 8279 veralidten mU Through the medium of the Gieeks, they transmitted 

^JSrWr^II^'^iiriD'SrSSyS'o^'l^r^ Y> *»« ^est their entire scheme of urano«»phy our 

/dnmtis CArish, in the same proceedings. Ft. VI. lamiuar constellations havmg been substantially 

ZiMMERMANN, Die Wwukr der JPlaneien j^Un.B, d.); designed on the plain of Shinar about 2800 b. c. 

8?.;;SJldK*2SS ^eiX^ (^^l^ll-ftS^.: p-*. *«>.»* » ^o^ epoch the "San«" b«!ame 

Ueber aUe und neue Aatroloffie (Berlin, 1872); Lebrun, Hitt, known. This IS a cycle of eighteen years and ten 

criL detproL euperatU.: Maury, La maifie et Vattrol. (Pans, or eleven days, which affords the means of predict- 

1857); KlESKWETTER, Omc*. des OAAitttwmus (Leipsiff, 1896), inir f h« mrnmn/^ nf ArlinsAfl Tha ohtLntnrxtr sit 

II; BoucHfc-LBCLBRcxi,«i«<.d«iod»OTn. (Paris, 1879): Lenoh- *"«.^"® recurrence oi ecupses. ine cnangmg sit- 

iiANT, La divination chen lea Chaldiena (Paris, 1875); HAblbb. uations of the planets among the Stars were, moreover, 

Aatrid im AUertiJon (Zwickau, 1881 ):Hommkl. Att/sat» imd diligently recorded, and accurate acquaintance was 

t^SSr^iSi%^^:^l^rj:ikA^, *«««l with the movements of the sun and moon 

1902), III, ii; Bruosch, JEgyptologie: Jewben, KoemOa^ The mterpretation in 1889, by Fathers Eppmg and 

(1893); £ppinq-Stra88maieb, Aatron. aua AUrBabyUm in Strassmaier, of a collection of inscribed tablets 

^'^t'S:^V^^i^' ^^l^rt^^^A f^^^ If the British Museurn vividly iUumimtted 

Neue Jahrbh. fur PhQ. und Pdd., VII, 569; Dietbrxch, Abraxaa the methods of official Babylonian astronomy m the 

(Leipsig. 1904); Weber, Iruiien Studien, I; Rextzenbtexn, second century B. c. They Were perfectly effectual 

rr^A^''i'Si^^i^^''\^9^r^i^r^: f°' *« P"'!^, «^«fly ^ Xlf". whfch was the prepa- 

iiebr. Ueberaeti. (Berlin. 1893); L6wxn, Ben Chananja (1863), ration of yearly ephemendes annoimcmg expected 

401; Bdrckhardt, KuUur der Renaiaaanee (Leipzig, 1898), celestial events, ana tracing in advance the paths of 

'^Si^l^^J::^^JSSA^^%Hi^^^l^^s'^. «»« ''«»^«'^y ^'^- , father amJvsis in fsw ^ 

grae (1790). Ill; Lilly, Chriatian Aatrologu Modeady Treated Father Kugler, S.J., of the tabulated data emplo^red 

(London, 1647); CajainMASj Aativlogy, Cradle of the Twin in computing the moon's place, disclosed the striking 

'ii^t^ &tMS^^il^''i^^^k^r^^^ ^*«* »»»»* t»'«,.^?F ^Tf P?"<^tl« «y«?dic, side- 

see Sbarles in Catholie World, XLVII, 59. i^^» anomalistic, and draoonitic months — were 

MaxJacobi. substantially adopted by Hipparchus from his 

Chaldean predecessors. 

Astronomy (from Gr. darpow, star; i^/Mir, to distrib- Greek Astbonomt. — Astronomy, however, no 
ute), a science of prehistoric antiquity, ori^nat- sooner became a distinctively Greek science than it 
ing in the elementary needs of mankind. It is underwent a memorable transformation. Attempts 
divided into two mam branches, distinguished as began to be made to render the appearances of the 
astrometry and astroph3rsics; the former concerned sky intelligible. They were, indeed, ^atly hampered 
with determining the places of the heavenly bodies, by the assumption tnat movement m space must be 
the latter, with the investigation of their chemical conducted uniformlv in cireles, round an immobile 
and physical nature. But the division is of cjuite earth; }ret the problem was ostensibly solved by 
recent date. The possibilities of antique science Apollonius of Perga (250-220 b. c), and his solution, 
stopped short at fixing the apparent positions of applied by Hipparchus to explain the movements of 
objects on the sphere. Nor was any attempt made the sun and moon, was extended by Claudius Ptole- 
to rationalize the observed facts until the Greeks mseus (Ptolemy) to the planets. This was the cele- 
laboriously built up a speculative system, which was brated theory of eccentncs and epicvcles, which, by 
finally displaced by the vast fabric of gravitational the ingenuity of its elaboration, held, its own among 
theoiv. Descriptive astronomy, meanwhile, took its civiliz^ men during fourteen centuries. Hippar- 
rise from the invention of the telescope, and the chus, the greatest of ancient astronomers, observed at 
facilities thus afforded for the close scrutiny of the Rhodes (146-126 b. c), but is considered as belong- 
denizens of the sky; while practical astronomy ing to the Alexandrian school. He invented trigo- 
gained continually in refinement with the improve- nometry, and constructed a catalogue of 1080 stars, 
ment of optical and mechanical arts. At the present incited, according to Pliny's statement, by a tempo- 
time, astrophysics may be said to have absorbed rar^ stellar outburst in Scorpio (134 b. c). Corn- 
descriptive astronomy, and astrometry necessarily paring, as the work progressed, his own results with 
incluoes practical research. But mathematical as- those obtained 150 years earlier by Timocharis and 
tronomy, grounded on the law of gravitation, keeps Aristyllus, he detected the slow retrogression among 
its place apart, though depending for the perfecting the stars of the point of intersection of the celestial 
of its theories and the widening of its Bcope upon equator with the ecliptic, which constitutes the 
advances along the old, and explorations in new, phenomenon of the precession of the equinoxes, 
directions. The circuit is completed in 25,800 years; hence the 

Prehistoric Abtronomt. — Formal systems of tropical year, by wnich the seasons are regulated, is 

astronomical knowledge were early estaolished by shorter than the sidereal year by just twenty-one 

the Chinese, Indians, Egyptians, and Babylonians, minutes, the equinox shifting backward to meet the 

The Chinese were acauaiiited, probabl^r in the third sun by the annual amount of 501^. Greek astronomy 

millennium b. c, witn the cycle of nineteen years was embodied in Ptolemy's "Almagest'' (the name 

(rediscovered in 632 b. c. by^ Meton at Athens), by is of mixed Greek and Arabic derivation), composed 

which, since it comprised just 285 lunations, the at Alexandria about the middle of the second century 

solar and lunar years were harmonized; they re- a. d. It was based upon the geocentric principle, 

corded cometary apparitions, observed eclipses, and The starry sphere, with its contents, was supposed to 

employed effective measuring apparatus. European revolve, once in twenty-four hours, about the fixed 

methods were introduced at Pekin by Jesuit mis- terrestrial globe, while the sun and moon, and the 


five planets, besides sharing the common movement, ling the revolutions of the heavenly bodies was defini- 

described variously conditioned orbits roimd the tively established. But this was only a beginning, 

same centre. The body of doctrine it inculcated The colossal work remained to be accomplished of 

made part of the universal stock of knowledge imtil calculating the consequences of the law, in the 

the sixteenth century. The formidable task of minute details of its working, and of comparing them 

demonstrating its falsity, and of replacing it with a with the heavens. It was carried forward, mst by 

system corresponding to the true relations of the Newton himself, and in the ensuing century, by 

worldj was undertaken by an active and exemplary Euler, Clairaut, d'Alembert, Lagrange, and Laplace, 

ecclesiastic, Nicholas Copernicus, Canon of Frauen- Urbain Leverrier (1811-77) inherited from these 

burg (1473-1543). The treatise in which it was men of ^nius a task never likely to be completed; 

accomplished, entitled " De Revolutionibus Orbium and the mtricacies of limar theory have been shown, 

Ccelestiiun", saw the light only when its author lay bv the researches of John Couch Adams (1819-92), 

dying; but a dedication to Pope Paul III bespoke of Hansen and Delaimay, of Professors Hill and 

the protection of the Hoty See for the new and Newcomb, and many more, to be fraught with issues 

philosophically subversive views which it propounded, of unexpected and varied interest. 
Denounced as impious by Luther and Melanchthon. Discoveries in the Solar System. — ^The ex- 

they were, in fact, favourably received at Rome imtil traordinary improvement of reflecting telescopes bv 

theological discredit was brought upon them by the Sir William Herschel (1738-1822) opened a fresn 

wild speculations of Giordano Bruno H 548-1 600), epoch of discovery. His recognition of the planet 

and the imprudent utterances of Galileo Galilei Uranus Tl 3 Marcn, 1781) as a non-stellar object 

(1564-1642). marked tne first enlargement of the bounds assigned 

Descriptive Astronomy.; — Descriptive astronomy of old to the solar system; two Uranian moons, 
may be said to have originated with the invention of Oberon and Titania, were detected b^ him 11 Jan- 
the telescope by Hans Lippershey in 1608, Its uary, 1787, and the innermost Satumian pair, Ence- 
appli cation to the scrutiny of the neavenly bodies, ladus and Mimas, 28 August and 17 September of the 
by GalOeo and others, lea at once to a crowd of same year. Saturn was, in 1906, known to possess 
striking discoveries. Jupiter's satellites, the phases ten satellites. Hyperion was descried by W. C. 
of Venus, the mountains of the moon, the spots on Bond at the observatory of Harvard College 16 Sep- 
the sun, Saturn's unique appendages, all descried tember, 1848, and Professor W. H. Pickering, of 
with a little instrument resembling a uniocular the same establishment, discovered by laborious 
opera-glass, formed, each in its way, a significant photographic researches, Phoebe in 1898, and Themis 
and surprising revelation; and the perception of the m 1905. In point of fact, an indefinite number of 
stellar composition of the Milky Way represented satellites are a^lomerated in the rings of Saturn, 
the first step in sidereal exploration. Johann Kepler Their constitution by separately revolving, small 
(1571-1630) invented in 1611, and Father Schemer bodies, theoretically demonstrated by J. Clerk 
of Ingolstadt (1575-1650) first employed, the modem Maxwell in 1857, was spectroscopically confirmed 
refracting telescope; and the farther course of dis- by the late Professor Keeler in 1895. The system 
covery corresponded closely to the development of includes a dusky inner member, detected by Bond, 
its powers. Christian Huygens (1629-95) resolved, 15 November, 1850. The discovery of the planet 
in 1656, the ansa of Saturn into a ring, divided into Neptune, 23 September, 1846, was a mathematical, 
two by Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625-1712) in not an observational feat. Leverrier and Adams 
1675. Titan, the largest of Saturn's moons, was independently divined the existence of a massive 
detected by Huygens in 1655, and four additional body, revolvmg outside Uranus, and exercising over 
members of the family by Cassini before 1684. The its movements disturbances the analysis of which 
Andromeda nebula was brought to notice by Simon led to its capture. Its solitary moon was noted by 
Marius in 1612, the Orion nebula by J. B. Cysatus. William Lassell of Liverpool m October, 1846; and 
a Swiss Jesuit, in 1618; and some tew variable and he added, in 1851. two inner satellites to the re- 
multiple stars were recognized. ^ markable system ot Uranus. With the great Wash- 

Theoretical Abtronomt. — The theoretical, how- ington refractor, 26 inches in aperture. Professor 

ever, far outweighed the practical achievements of A^ph Hall discerned, 16 and 17 August, 1877, 

the seventeenth centtuy. Kepler published the Deimos and Phobos, the swiftly circling moonlets of 

first two of his ''Three Laws" in 1609, the third in Mars; the Lick 36-inch enabled Professor Barnard 

1619. The import of these great generalizations is: to perceive, 9 September, 1892, the evasive inner 

(1) that the planets describe ellipses of which the satellite of Jupiter; and two exterior attendants on 

Sim occupies one focus; (2) that the straight line the same planet were photographically detected by 

joining each planet with the sun (its radius vector) Professor Perrine in 1904-05. The distances of the 

sweeps out equal areas in equal times; (3) that the pUmets are visibly regulated by a method. They 

geometrical plan of movement in as '' Bode's Law ". But their succession was quickly 

the solar system was thus laid down with marvellous seen to be interrupted by a huge gap between the 

intuition. But it was reserved for Sir Isaac Newton orbits of Mars and Jupiter; and the conjecture was 

(1643-1727) to expound its significance by showine "hazarded that here a new planet might be found to 

that the same tmiformly acting force regulates celestial revolve. It was verified by the discovery of an army 

revolutions, and compels heavy bodies to fall towards of asteroids. Ceres, their leader, was captured at 

the earth's surface. The law of gravity, published Palermo, 1 January, 1801, by Giuseppe Piazzi, a 

m 1687 in ''Philosophise Naturalis Principia Mathe- Theatine monk (1746-1826); Pallas, m 1802 by 

matica" is to the following effect: every particle Olbers (1758-1840), and Juno and Vesta in 1804 

of matter attracts every other with a force directly and 1807, by Harding and Olbers respectively. The 

I>roportional to their masses, and inversely propor- original quartette of minor planets began m 1845 

tional to the squares of their distances apart. Its to be reinforced with companions, the known number 

validity was tested by comparing the amount of the of which now approximates to 600, and may be 

moon's orbital deflection in a second with the rate indefinitely increased. Their discovery has been 

at which an apple (say) drops in an orchard. Allow- immensely facilitated by Professor Max Wolf's in- 

ance bein^ made for the distance of the moon, the troduction, in 1891, of the photographic method of 

two velocities proved to tall^ perfectly; and the discriminating them from stars through the effecti 

identity of terrestrial gravity with the force control- of their motion on sensitive plates. 


The solar syBtem, as at present known, consists of beforehand. Mutually circling stars exist in such 

tour interior planets, Mercury, Venus, the Earth, profusion as probably to amount to one in three or 

and Mars; four exterior, and relatively colossal four of those unaccompanied. They are of limit- 

Slanets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, the less variety, some of the systems formed by them 
iffuse crowd of pygmy elobes called asteroids, or being exceedingly close and rapid, while others 
minor planets, ana an outlying array of comets with describe, in millennial periods , vastly extended orbits, 
their attendant meteor-svstems. All the planets Many, too, comprise three or more members; and 
rotate on their axes, though in very different periods, the multiple stars thus constituted merge, by pro- 
That of Mercur^r was determined by Signor Bchia- gressive increments of complexity, into actual clus- 
parelli of Milan in 1880 to be 88 days, the identical ters, sdobular and irregular. The latter class is 
time of his revolution roimd the sim, and Venus exemplified by the Pleiades and the Hyades, by the 
was, in the following year, shown by him to be, in all Beehive cluster in Cancer, Just visible to the naked 
likelihood, similarly conditioned, the common period eye, and by the double cluster in Perseus, which 
of rotation and circulation being, in her case, 225 makes a splendid show with an opera-glass. Globu- 
days. This implies that both planets keep the same lar clusters are compressed "balls'' of minute stars, 
hemisphere always turned towiuxis the sun, as the of which more than one hundred have been cata- 
moon does towards the earth; nor can we doubt logued. The scale on which these marvellous sys- 
that the friction of tidal waves was, on the three terns are constructed remains conjectural, since 
bodies, the agency by which the observed synchro- their distances from the earth are entirely imknown. 
nism was brought about. All the planets travel Variable stars are met with in the utmost diversity, 
round the sun from west to east, or counter clock- Some are temporary apparitions, which spring up 
wise, and most of the satellites move in the same from invisibility often to an astonishing pitch of 
direction roimd their primaries. But there are splendour, then sink back more slowly to quasi- 
exceptions. Phcebe, Saturn's remotest moon, cir- extinction. Nova Persei, which blazed 22 February, 
culates oppositely to the other members of the 1901, and was photographically studied by Father 
system; the four moons of Uranus are retrograde, Sidgreaves at Stonyhurst, is the most noteworthy 
their plane of movement bein^ inclined at more recent instance of the phenomenon. Stars, the 
than a right angle to the ecliptic: and the satellite vicissitudes of which are comprised in cycles of 
of Neptune travels quite definitely backward. These seven to twenty months, or more, are called "long- 
anomalies are of profound import to theories of period variables". About 400 had been recorded 
planetary origin. The "canals" of Mars were down to 1006. They not imcommonly attain, at 
recognized by Schiaparelli in August, 1877, and he maximum, to 1,000 tunes their minimum brightness, 
cau^t sight of some of them duplicated two years Mira, the ''wonderful" star in the Whale, discovered 
later. Their photographic registration at the Lowell by David Fabricius in 1506, is the exemplar of the 
observatory in 1005 proves them to* be no optical class. The fluctuations of "short-period variables" 
illusion, but their nature remains enigmatical. take place in a few days or hours, and with far more 
Comets and Meteors. — The predicted return of punctuality. A certain proportion of them are 
Halley's comet in 1750 afforded the first proof that "eclipsing stars" (about 35 have so far been recog- 
bodies of the kind are permanently attached to the nized as such), which owe their regularly recurring 
sun. They accompany its march through space, failures of light to the interposition of laree satellites, 
traversing, in either direction indifferently, highly Algol in Perseus, the variations of which were per- 
eccentric orbits inclined at all possible angles to the ceived by Montanari in 1660, is the best-known 
ecliptic. They are abcordingly subject to violent, specimen. Himdreds of rapid variables have been 
even subversive disturbances from the great planets, recently detected among the components of globular 
Jupiter, in particular, sways the movements of a clusters; but their course of change is of a totally 
eroup of over thirty "captured" comets, which have different nature from that of eclipsing stars. £a- 
had their periods curtailed, and their primitive mimd Halley (1656-1742), the second Astronomer 
velocities reduced by his influence. Schiaparelli Royal, announced in 1718 that the stars, far from 
announced in 1866 that the August shooting-stars, being fixed, move onward, each on its own account, 
or Perseids, pursue the same orbit with a bright across the sky. He arrived at this conclusion by 
comet visible in 1862; and equally striking accord- comparing modem with antique observations; and 
ances of movement between three other comets and stellar "proper motions" now constitute a wide 
the Leonid, Lyraid, and Andromede meteor-swarms and expansive field of research. A preliminary 
were soon afterwards established by Leverrier and attempt to regularize them was made by Herschel s 
Weiss. The obvious inference is that meteors are determination, in 1783, of the sun's line of travel, 
the disintegration-products of their cometary fellow- His success depended upon the fact that the apparent 
travellers. A theory of comets' tails, based upon displacements of the stars include a common element, 
the vaiying efficacy of electrical repulsion upon transferred by perspective from the solar advance, 
chemically different kinds of matter, was announced Their individual, or "peculiar" movements, however, 
by Theo<ior Br^dikhine of Moscow in 1882, and gave show no certain trace of method. A good many 
a satisfactory accoimt of the appearances it was stars, too, have been ascertained to travel at rates 
invented to explain. Latterly, however, the author- probably uncontrollable by the gravitational power 
ity of Arrhenius of Stockholm has lent vogue to a of the entire sidereal system. Arcturus, with its 
"light-pressure" hypothesis, according to which, portentous velocity of 250 miles a second, is one of 
cometary appendages are formed of particles driven these "runaway" stars. The sun's pace of about 
from the sun by the mechanical stress of his radia- 12 miles a second, seems, by comparison, extremely 
lions. But the singular and rapid changes pho- sedate; and it is probably only half the average 
tographically disclosed as takine place in the tails stellar speed. The apex of the sun's way, or the 
of comets, remain unassociatea with any known point towards which its movement at present tends, 
cause. IS located by the best recent investigations near the 

Sidereal Astronomy. — Sir William Herschel's brijdit star Vega, 
discovery, m 1802, of binary stars, imperfectly antici- Distances of the Sun and Stars. — The dis- 

pated by Father Christian Mayer in 1778, was one tances of the heavenly bodies can only be determined 

of far-reaching scope. It virtually proved the realm (speaking generally) by measuring their parallaxes, 

of ^vity to include sidereal regions; and the in other words, their apparent changes of position 

relations it intimated have since proved to be much when seen from different points of view. That of 

more widely prevalent than could nave been imagined the sun is simply the angle subtended at his distaooe 


by the earth's semi-diameter. Efforts were made of forty-two such objects; and Charles Messier 
with indifferent success to fix its value by the aid of (1730-1817) enumerated, in 1781, 103 nebuke and 
the transits of Venus in the eighteenth and nine- clusters. But this harvest was scantv indeed com- 
teenth centuries. The asteroids have proved more pared with the lavish yield of Herschel s explorations, 
efficient auxiliaries; and through the mediation of Between 1786 and 1802 he communicated to the 
Iris, Sappho, and Victoria, in 188^^9, Sir David Royal Societv catalo^es of 2,500 nebulae; he dis- 
Gill assigned to the great unit of space a length of tinguished their special forms, classified them in 
92,800,000 miles, which the photographic measures oroer of brightness, and elaborated a theory of 
of Eros, in 1900-01, bid fair to ratify. The stars, stellar development from nebuls, illustratea by 
however, are so vastly remote that the only chance selected instances of progressive condensation. The 
of detecting their perspective displacements is by next considerable step towards a closer acquaintance 
observing tnem at intervals of six months, from with nebulae was maae by Lord Rosse in 1845, when 
opposite extremities of a base-line nearly 186,000 the prodi^ous light-grasp of his six-foot reflector 
miles in extent. Thus, the annual parsulax of a afforded him the discovery of the great ''Whirlpool" 
star means the angle under which the semi-diameter structure in Canes Venatici. It proved to be typical 
of the earth's orbit would be seen if viewed from its of the entire class of spiral nebulae, the large prev- 
situation. This angle is in all cases, extremely alence of which has been one of the revelations of 
minute, and in most cases, altogether evanescent; photography. The superiority in nebula-portraiture 
so that, from only about eighty stars (as at .present of the cnemical to the eye-and-hand method was 
known), the terrestrial orbit would appear to have strikingly manifested in a photograph of the Orion 
sensible dimensions. Our nearest stellar neighbour nebula taken by Dr. A. A. Common, 30 January, 
is the splendid southern binary, a Centauri; yet its 1883. Its efficacy for discovery became evident 
distance is such that light needs four and one-third through the disclosure, on plates exposed by Paul 
years to perform the journey thence. Thomas and Irosper Henry, and by Isaac Roberts in 1885-86, 
Henderson ^1798-1844) announced his detection of of complex nebmous formations in the Pleiades, 
its pandlax m 1839, just after Bessel of Kdnigsberg almost wholly invisible optically. Professor Keeler 
(1784-1846) had obtained a similar, but smaller (1857-1900) estimated at 120,000 the number of 
result for an insignificant double star designated nebulae which the Crosslev reflector of the Lick 
61 Cygni. observatory would be capaole of recording in both 
Celestial Photoorapht. — The second half of hemispheres with an hour's exposure, while tele- 
the nineteenth century was signalized by a revolu- scopically constructed catalogues include less than 
tionary change in the meth<xis and purposes of 10,000. But it is through the combination of pho- 
astronomy. Experiments in lunar photography, tography with spectroscopy, constituting the spectro- 
begun in 1840 by J. W. Draper of New YorK, were graphic mode of researcn, that astrophysics has 
continued in the fifties by W. C. Bond, Warren de la achieved its most signal triumphs. 
Rue, and Lewis M. Rutherfurd. The first daguerre- Abtrophtsics. — The fundamental principle of 
otype of the sun was secured at Paris in 1845, and spectrum analysis, enunciated by Gustav Kirchhoff 
traces of the solar corona appeared on a sensitized (1824-87) in 1859, depends upon the eauivalence of 
plate exposed at Kdnigsberg during the total eclipse emission and absorption. This means tnat, if white 
of 28 July, 1851. But the epoch of effective solar Ught be transmitted through glowing vapours, they 
photography opened with the Spanish eclipse of arrest just those minute sections of it with which 
18 Jiuy, 1860, when the pictures successively ob- they themselves' shine. And if the source of the 
tained by Father Angelo Secchi, S.J., and Warren white light be hotter than the arresting vapour, 
de la Rue demonstrated the solar status of the crim- there results a prismatic spectrum, interrupted by 
son protuberances by rendering manifest the advance dark lines, distinctive of the chemical nature of the 
of the moon in front of them. At subsequent eclipses, substance originating them. Now this is exactly 
the leading task of the camera has been the portrayal the case of the sun and stars; The white radiance 
of the corona; and its importance was enhanced emanating from their photospheres is found, when 
when A. C. Ranyard pointed out, in 1879, the corre- dispersed mto a spectrum, to be crossed by numerous 
spondence of changes m its form with the alternations dusl^ rays indicating absorption by gaseous strata, 
of solar disturbance. The eleven-year periodicity to the composition of which Kirchhoff 's principle 
of sunspots was published in 1851 by Schwabe of supplies the clue. Kirchhoff himself identified in 
Dessau; and among the numerous associated phe- 1^1, as prominent solar constituents, sodium, iron 
nomena of change, none are better ascertained than magnesium, calcium, and chromium; hydrogen was 
those affecting the shape of the silvery aureola seen recognized by A. J. An^tr6m (1814-74); helium 
to encompass the sun when the moon cuts off the by Sir Norman Lockyer m 1868; and about forty 
glare of direct sunlight. At spot maxima the aureola elementary substances are now known with approxi- 
spreads its beamy radiance round the disc. But at mate certainty to be common to the earth and sun. 
times of minimum, it consists mainly of two great The chemistry of the stars is strictly analogous to 
wings, extended in the sim's equatorial plane. A that of the sun, although their spectra exhibit diver- 
multitude of photographs, taken during the eclipses sities symptomatic of a considerable variety in 
of 1898, 1900, 1901, and 1905, attest with certainty physical state. Father An^lo Secchi, S.J. (1818-78), 
the punctual recurrence of these unexplained vicissi- based on these diversities m 1863-67 a classification 
tudes. The fimdamental condition for the progress of the stars into four orders, still re^rded as funda- 
of sidereal photography is the use of long exposures; mental, and supplied by Dr. Vogel m 1874 with an 
since most of the objects to be delineated emit light evolutionary interpretation, according to which, 
so feebly that its chemical effects must accumulate differences of spectral type are associated with 
before they become sensible. But long exposures various stages or progress from a tenuous and in- 
were impracticable until Sir William Hug^ins, in choate towards a compact condition. Since 1879, 
1876, adopted the dry-plate process; and this date, when Sir William Huggins secured impressions of 
accordingly, marks the beginning of the wide- an extended range of mtrarviolet white star light, 
spreading serviceableness of the camera to astronomy, stellar spectra have been mostly studied photo- 
In nebu&r investigations above all, it far outranges graphically, the results being, not only precise and 
the telescope. Hailey described in 1716 six nebu- permanent, but also more complete than those obtain- 
Iffi, which he held to be composed of a lucid medium able by visual means. The same eminent investi- 
collected from space. The Abb6 Lacaille (1713-62) gator discovered, in 1864, the bright-line spectra of 
brought back with him from the Cape, in 1754, a list certain classes of nebulae, by which they were known 


to be of gaseous composition, and recognized, as of sufficient evidence of its being in a state of dynamical 

carbonaceous origin, the typical coloured bands of equilibrium. We cannot be sure that it has yet 

the cometarv spectrum, noted four years previously, reached the definitive term appointed for it by its 

though without specific identification, oy G. B. Chneator. Suggestive hints, on the contrary, of 

Donati (1827-73) at Florence. instability and evanescence help us to realize that 

Doppler's principle, by which li^ht alters in re- the heavens are, in very truth, the changing vesture 

frangibility through the end-on motion of its source, of Him whose "years cannot fail." 

was first made fiective for astronomical research ^Nbwcomb, Popular Aatronomy (London, 1883): Youno, 

by Huggins in .1868. The criterion of velocity, ^^„ iS^lZ'' l&^B.iT^H^°i^ TofdL^ 

whether of recession or approach, is afforded by the (London, 1900); Grant. Hittary of Phyncal Autronomy (Lon- 

shifting of spectral lines from their standard places; don. 1862); Glerke. HUt. of Autr, duHng the I9th Centwry 

ftfiH thp mAthnrl was thAspA to a hiirh crrade of arou- (London, 1903); Berry, Hiat of Aatronomy (London, 1898); 

ana tne meinoo^as raisea lO a nign graae OI accu- i>RETBR, HUt. of the Planetary Suatema (London, 1906); 

racy through Dr. Vogels adaptation, m 1888, of Eppino and Strassmaibr, Aatronomxachea aua Babylon (Frei- 

Algol's eclipses, by showing that the star revolved Newcomb, The Stara (London, 1901); ()lerkb, 
round an oUure companion in the identical neriod ^^Z\^)f^<^^^o^Ti:,'''lit:^"'- 

The Syatem 
in Aatrophyaiea 

of light-change; and the first discoveries of non- ^am™ and"6arpentkr7 TA« jifoonT^ 

' — r =* i_ — 1 J. X. • i_ J i ?i ?•' • low/;; MULLER. me fhotometne aer ijeatvme (LiOipzig, lew?;; 

cannot be sharply distm^ished from telescopic Secchi, U aoleU (Pwia, 1876-77); Morrux, be problhne 

double stars, which are, mdeed, believed to have aolaire (Paris, 1900); Turner, Modem Aatronomy (London, 

developed from them under the influence of tidal \^y Moulton. An Introductum to Aatronomy CNew York, 
friction; their periods vary from a few hours to Agnes M. Clerkb. 

several months; and their components are often of 

such unequal luminosity that only one leaves an^ Astronomy in the Bible.— No systematic ob- 
legible impression on the sensitive plate. Their servations of the heavenly bodies were made by the 
known number amounted, in 1905, to 140; and it Jews. Astral worship was rife in Palestine, and they 
may be indefinitely augmented. It probably in- could hardly have attended closely to its objects 
eludes all short-period variables, even those that without Yielding to its seductions. Astronomy was, 
escape eclipses; though the connection between under these circumstances, inseparable from as- 
their duplicity and luminous variations remains trolatry, and the anathemas of the prophets were 
unexplained. The photography in daylight of solar not carelessly uttered. As the most glonous works 
prominences was attemptea oy Professor Yoimg of the Almighty, the celestial luminaries were indeed 
of F^dnceton in 1870, and the subject was prosecuted celebrated in the Scriptures in passages thrilling with 
by Dr. Braun, S.J., in 1872. No genuine success rapture; but the appeal to them for practical pur- 
was, however, achieved until 1891, when Professor poses was reduced to a minimum. Even the regula- 
Hale of Chicago and M. Deslandres at Paris inde- tion of times and seasons was largely empirical. The 
pendently built up pictures of those objects out of Jews used a lunar year. It began, for leliKious pui^ 
the calcium-ray in their dispersed Hght, sifted through poses, with the new moon next after the spring 
a double slit on to moving photographic plates, equinox, and consisted normally of twelve months. 
Professor Hale's invention of the '' spectrohelio- or 354 days. The Jewish calendar, however, de- 
eraph" enables him, moreover, to delineate the sim's pended upon the course of the sun, since the festivals 
disc in any selected quality of its light, with the it appointed were in part agricultural celebrations, 
result of disclosing vast masses of calcium and Some process of adjustment had then to be resorted 
hydrogen floccuU, piled up at various heights above to, and the obvious one was chosen of adding a 
the solar surface. thirteenth, or intercalary, month whenever the dis- 
SiDEREAii CoNSTRncTioN. — The investigation of crepancy between the ripening of the crops and the 
the structure of the sidereal heavens was the leading fixed dates of the commemorative feasts became 
object of William Herschel's career. The magnitude elaringly apparent. Before the time of Solomon, the 
of the task, however, which he attempted single- Jews appear to have begun their year in the autumn; 
handed grows more apparent with every fresh at- and the custom, revived for civil purposes about the 
tempt to grapple with it; and it now engages the fifth centuiY b. c, was adopted in toe systematized 
comoined efforts of many astronomers, using methods religious calendar of the fourth century of our era. 
refined and comprehensive to a degree unimagined Both the ritual and the civil day commenced in 
by Herschel. An immense stock of materials for the evening, about half an hour aiter sunset. Its 
the purpose will be provided by the international subdivisions were left indeterminate. The Old Testa- 
photographic survey, at present advancing towards ment makes no mention of what we call hours; and 
completion at eighteen ooservatories in both hemi- it refers to the measurement of time, if at all, only in 
spheres. About thirty million stars will, it is esti- the narrative of the miracle wrought by Isaias in 
mated, appear on the chart-plates; and those pre- connection with the sundial of Achaz (IV Kings, xx, 
cisely catalogued are unlUcely to fall short of four 9-11). In the New Testament, the Roman practice 
millions. The labour of discussing these mult!- of counting four night-watches has superseded the 
tudinous data must be severe, but will be animated antioue triple division, and the day, as among the 
by the hope of laying bare some hidden spiings of Greeks, consists of twelve equal parts. These are 
the sidereal mechanism. The prospect is indeed the ''temporary hours" whicn stul survive in the 
remote that the whole of its intricacies will ever be Utuigy of the Church. Since they spanned the in- 
penetrated by science. We only perceive that the tervtu from sunrise to sunset, their length varied 
staiB form a collection of prodigious, but limited, with the season of the year, from 49 to 71 minutes, 
extent, showing strongly concentrative tendencies Corresponding nocturnal hours, too, seem to have 
towards the pkme of the Milky Way. Nor can the been partially used in the time of the Apostles 
nebuke be supposed to Torm a separate scheme. The (Acts, xxiii, 23). 

closeness of tneir relations, physical and geometrical. As might have been expected, the Sacred Books 

with stars excludes that supposition. Stars and convey no theory of celestial appearances. The 

nebulae belong to the same system, if such the sidereal descriptive phrases used in them are conformed to 

world may properly be called in the absence of any ^e elementary ideas naturally presenting themselves 


to a Dnmitive people. Thus, the earth fibres aa an viously related to the Arabic root kum (accumulate), 

indennitely' extenaed circular disk, lying Mtween the and to the Assyrian kamu (to bind); while the 

realm of light above and the abyss of darkness be- "chains of K%mah'\ referred to in the sacred text, 

neath. The word fipnamentum, by which the not inaptly figure the coercive power imparting unity 

Hebrew rahia (y^jTl) is translated in the Vulgate, to a multiple object. The associated constdlation 

exi>re8sed the notion of a solid, transparent vault, Kenl is doubtless no other than our Orion. Yet, in 

dividing the "upper waters" from the seas, sprinni, the first of the passages in Job where it figures, the 

and rivers far oelow. Through the a^en^ of the Septuagint gives Herper; in the second, the Vulgate 

flood-gates, however, the waters sustained by the qmte irrelevantly inserts Arcturus; Karstens Niebuhr 

firmament were, in due measure, distributed over the (1733-1815) understood KesU to mean Sirius: 

earth. The first visibility after sunset of the crescent Thomas Hyde (1636-1703) held that it indicated 

and moon are perhaps va^ely referred to among the acter of giants; and the stais of Orion irresistibly 
signs of doom enumerated by the Prophets Joel and suggest a hu^ figure striding across the sky. The 
Amos, who may easily have enhanced their imagery Arabs accordingly named the constellation Alrgebbar, 
from personal experience, since modem calculations ^'the giant", tne Syriac equivalent being Gabbara, 
show solar totalities to have been visible in Palestine "a strong man'': and Ketnl is actually translated 
in the years 831, 824, and 763 b. c, and the moon Gabbara in the old Syriac version of the Bible known 
reddened by immersion in the earth's shadow is not as the PeshiUa, We may then safely admit that 
an uncommon sight in any part of the world. But Kimah and KesU did actually designate the Pleiades 
the passages in question cannot be literally asso- and Orion. But further interpretations are con- 
ciated with mere passing phenomena. The prophets siderably more obscure. In the Book of Job — the 
aimed at something higher than intimidation. An most distinctively astronomical part of the Bible — 
express warning against ignoble panic was indeed mention is made, with other stars, of Ash and Ayish, 
uttered by Jeremias in the words: ^'Be not afraid of almost certainly diver^nt forms of the same word, 
the signs of heaven, which the heathens fear" (x, 2). Its signification remains an enigma. The Vulgate 
The stellar vault, conceived to be situated above and Septuagint inconsistently render it ''Arcturus" 
the firmament, is compared by Isaias to a tent and "nesperus". Abenezra (1092-1167), however, 
stretched out by the Most High. The "host of the learned Rabbi of Toledo, gave such strong rea- 
heaven", a frequently recurring Scriptural expres- sons for holding Ashf or Ayiahf to mean the Great 
sion, has both a general and a specific meaning. It Bear, that the opinion, though probably erroneous, 
designates, in some passages, the entire array of is still prevalent. It was cmeny grounded on the 
stars; in others it particularly applies to the sun, phonetic resemblance between ash and the Arabic 
moon, planets, and certain selected stars, the wor- na *ash, **& bier", appUed to the four stars of the 
ship of which was introduced from Babylonia under Wain, the three in front figuring as mourners, under 
the later kings of Israel. Venus and Saturn are the the title of BenAt na *ash, "daughters of the bier", 
only planets expressly mentioned in the Old Tes- But Job, too, speaks of the "children of AyiBh", and 
tament. Isaias (xiv, 12) apostrophizes the Babylon- the inference seems irresistible that the same star- 
ian Empire under the unmistakable type of He' group was similarly referred to in both cases. Yet 
lal (Lucifer in the Vulgate), "son of the morning"; there is lar^ room for doubt. Modem philologists 
and Saturn is no lees' certainly represented by the do not admit the alleged connection of Ayish with 
star Kaivxin, adored by the reprobate Israelites in na *<ish, nor is any funereid association apparent in 
the desert (Amos, v, 26). The same word (inter- the Book of Job. On the other hand, f^fessor 
preted to mean "steadfast") freouently designates, Schiaparelli draws attention to the fact that ash 
m the Babylonian inscriptions^ tne slowest-moving denotes "moth" in the Old Testament, and that the 
planet; while Sakhdhf the divinity associated with folded wings of the insect are closely imitated in 
the star by the prophet, is an alternative appellation their triangular shape by the doubly aligned stars 
for Ninib, who, as a Babylonian planet^od, was of the Hysldes. Now Ayish in the Peshitta is trans- 
merged with Saturn. The ancient Syrians and lated lyidha, a constellation mentioned by St. Ephrem 
Arabs, too, called Saturn Kaiuxint the corresponding and other Syriac writers, and SchiapareUi's learned 
term in the Zoroastrian Bundahish being Kevan. consideration of the various indications afforded by 
The other planets are individualized in the Bible Arabic and Syriac literature makes it reasonably 
only by implication. The worship of gods con- certain that lyutha authentically signifies Aldebaran, 
nected with them is denounced, but wiuiout any the great red star in the head of the Bull, with its 
manifest intention of referring to the heavenly children, the rainy Hyades. It is true that Hyde, 
bodies. Thus, Gad and Meni (Isaias, Ixv, 11) are. Ewald, and other scholars have adopted Capella and 
no doubt, the "greater and the lesser Fortune" the Kids as representative of lyiUha, and therefore 
typified throughout the East by Jupiter and Venus; of "Ayish and her children"; but the view involves 
Neba, the tutdary deity of Borsippa (Isaias, xlvi, 1). many mcongruities. The glories of the sky adverted 
shone in the sky as Mercury .and Nergal; transplanted to in the Book of Job include a sidereal landscape 
from Assyria to Kutha ^V Kings, zvii, 30), as vaguely described as " the chambers [i. e. venetralia] 
Mars. of the south ". The phrase, according to Schiaparelli, 
The urancMmiphy of the Jews is fraught with refers to some assemblage of brilliant stars, rising 
perplexity. Some naif-dozen star-groups are named 20 decrees at most above the southern horizon in 
m the Scriptures, but authorities £ffer widdy as to Palestine about the year 750 b. c. (assumed as the 
their identity. In s^ striking passage the Prophet date of the Patriarch Job), and, taking account of the 
Amos (t, 8) glcri£e« the Creator as "Him that made changes due to precession, he points out that the 
Kimah and K^*\ rendcsed in the Vulgate as stellar pageant formed by the Ship, the Cross, and 
Arctorus and Orion. Now Kimah certainly does the Centaur meets the required conditions. Sirius, 
not li^an Arcturus. The word, which occurs twice although at the date in question it culminated at an 
io che Book of Job (ix, 9; xxxviii, 31), is treated in altitude of 41 degrees, may possibly have been 
the Septuagint version as equivalent to Pleiades, thought of as belonging to the "chambers of the 
fhis, also, is the meaning given to it in the Talmud south"; otherwise, this splendid object would appear 
and throughout Syrian literature; it is supported by to be ignored in the Bible. Job opposes to the 
etymologic evidences, the Hebrew term being ob- "chambers of the south", as the source of cold, ao 


asterism named Mezarim (xxxvii, 0). Both the stellation Draco ib of hoaiy antiquity, and would 

Vulgate and the Septua^nt render this word by quite probably have been familiar to Job. On the 

Arcturui, evidently in miatalce (the blunder is not other hand, fUihab (Job, ix, 13; xxvi, 12), translated 

uncommon] for ArctoB. The Great Bear circled in "whale" in the Septuagiot, is probably of legendary 

those days much more closely round the pole than or^rmbolical import. 

it now does; its typical northern character survives The subjoined list gives (largely on Schiaparelli'a 

in the Latin word septentTio (from aepiem trUmet, the authority) the best-warranted interpretationB of 

seven stars of the Wain); ana SchiapareUi concludes, bibUcal star-names: Kimah, the Pleiades; Keatl, 

from the dual form of mezartm, that the Jews, hke the Orion; A»h, or Ajfish, the Hyades; Mezarim, the 

Ph(Enicians, were acquainted with the Little, as well Bears (Great and Little); Mazzaroth, Venus ^Lucifer 

as with the Great, Bear. He identifies the word as and Hesperus); Hadre thtman — "the chamoers of 

the plural, or dual, of miirtk, "a wi nno wing-fan ", the south" — Canopus, the Southern Cross, and a Cen- 

an instrument figured by the seven stars of the Wain, tauri; Nachaah, Draco. 

2uite 08 accurately as the Ladle of the Chinese or the The New Testament is virtually devmd of as- 

>ipper of popular American parlance. tronomical allusions. The "Star of the Magi" can 

Perhaps the most baillling nddle in BibUcal star~ scarcely be regarded as an objective phenomenon; 

nomenclature is that presented by the word Mazza- it was, at least, inconspicuous to ordinary notice. 

rofA, or Mazzalolh (Job, xxxviii, 31, 32; IV Kings. Kepler, however, advanced, in 1606, the hypothesis 

xxiii, 5), usually, though not unanimously, admitted that a remarkable coniunction of Jupiter and Saturn, 

to be phonetic variants. As to their signification, which occurred in May of the year 7 b. c, was the 

opinions are hopelessly diver^nt. The authors of celestial sign followed by the Wise Men. Revived 

the Septuagint transcribed, without translating, the la 1821 by Dr. MUnter, the Lutheran Bishop of 

ambiguous expression; the Vulgate gives for its Zealand, this opinion was stron^y advocated in 1826 

equivalent Lucifer in Job, the Signs of the Zodiac in by C. L. Id^r (Handbuch der Chronologic, JI, 399). 

the Book of Kings. St. John Ciirysostom adopted But the late Dr. Pritchard's investigation (Smith's 

the latter meaning, noting, however, that manj^ of Diet, of the Bible, Memoirs Roy. Astr. Society, XXV, 

his contemporaries interpreted Mazzaroth as Sirius. 119) demonstrated its inadequacy to fulfil the re- 

But this idea soon lost vogue, while the lodiacal ex- auirements of the Gosoel narrative, 
planation gained wide currency. It is, indeed, at 
first sight, extremely plausible. Long before the 
Exodus the Twelve Signs were established in Eu- 
phratean regions much as we know them now. 
Although never worshipped in a primaiy sense, they 
may well have been held sacred as the abodes of 
deities. The Aa^rian moTizalttt (sometimes written 
mamazu), "station", occura in the Babylonian 
Creation tablets with the import "mansions of the 

gods"; and the word appears to be et^oloKically AoNES U. Clerxb. 

akin to Maizaloth, which in rabbinical Hebrew . „ ™ , ^ , ^ , i. 

signifies primarily the Signs of the Zodiac, second- A«tro>, PAm^THfeB ebb-David d' a French cardi- 

anly the planets. The lunar Zodiac, too, suggests nal, b. at TourvBS (Var) m 1772; d. 29 September, 

itself in this connection. The twenty-eight '^an- 1851. He was a nephew of Portahs, a minister of 

,vu .u y^^ The twenty-eight *'n ,, , , -, j ■ .l i , 

.ns of the moon" (mennni ai-ftnmar) were the lead- Napoleon, and as such was engaged in the formula- 
.,.g feature of Arabic sky-lore, and they subserved Jion of t,°e Coawrdat of 1801. On ita conclusion 
astrological purposes among many Oriental peoples, he was made vicar general of Archbishop (later, 
They might, accordingly, have belonged to the ^'^"^''"'JLSf"^^' ?' . ^^"5' "«1 after the latter s 
apparatus o{ superetition used by the soothsayers death (1808) administered the diocese until the 
w^o were extirpated in Judah, together with the nommation of Cardinal Maury. He received, and 
worship of the Mazzaroth, by King Josias, about "" accused of promulgating, the buU of Plus VII 
621 B. c. Yet no such explanation can be made to 09 ''"''«■ ^^^\ excommunicating Napoleon For 
fit in with the form of expression met with in the t"','* act he was impriaoned at Vmcennes until 1814, 
Book of Job {xxxviii, 32). Speaking in the peraon '^f'^'."'* ^?«^" '"" ''^ *^f "^ ^'^^"P "iPT""^' 
Of the Almighty, the Patriarch ask^ "Canst thou »"<» "» ?830 Archbishop of Toulouse. At tlie re- 
bring forth Mazzaroth in iU time? "-clearly in qu^ft of Louis Napoleon, Pius IX created him 
aU.i^on to a periodical phenomenon, such as the S^"'""j'%'" 1^^; ,?« """^.Vif T*"** ^^n^l'**"" 
brilliant visibiiky of Lucifer, or Hesperus. Pro- ^fmontr^; ou, Lettreaux Protestants d Orthei 
feasor Schiapartslli then recuia to the Vulgate ren- (2 v. 8», Toutouse, 1833), He was one of the earhcst 
dering of this passage. He recognizes in Mazzaroth opponents of Lamenn a is, against whom be wrote 
the planet Venus in her double aspect of morning Censure de divers ^cnts de La Mennais et de ses 
and evening star,_pointing out thSt the luminar^ disciples par plusieurs iv&jues de France et Lettres 
designated in the Book of Kings, with the sun and des„^*?™ ^'H""* au «>uveram pontife, Gr^goire 
moon, and the "host of heaven", must evidently be 
next in brightness to the chief light-givers. Further, 
the sun, moon, and Venus constitute the great aa- 
trcnomical triad of Babylonia, the sculptured repre- 
sentations of which frequently include the "host of Aatruc, Jean, b. at Sauves, 19 March, 1684; 
heaven" typified by a crowd of fantastic animal- d. at Paris, 6 May, 1766. He was the son of a con- 
divinities. And since the astral worahip anathema- verted Protestant minisler. After he had tau^t 
tized by the prophets of Israel was unquestionably medicine at Montpellier, he became a member of the 
of Euphratean origin, the designation of Mazzaroth Medical Faculty at Paris. His medical writings, 
as the third member of the Babylonian triad is a however numerous, are now forgotten, but a work 
valuable link in the evidence. Still, the case remains published by him anonymously has secured tor him 
one of extreme difficulty. Notwithstanding the a permanent reputation. Tins book was eatitled: 
Bcepticism of recent commentators, it appears fairly "Conjectures but les m^moires originaux dont il 
certain that the "fugitive serpent" of ^b, xxvi, 13 paroit que Moyse s'est servi pour composer le livre 
(eolitber torhiosuj in the Vulgate) does really stand de la Ofa^. Avec des remarques qui appuient 
for the drcumpolar reptile. The Euphratean con- ou qui ^cUirciaeent sea conjectures' (Brussels}. 


Afitruc himself did not intend to deny the Mosaic Modem works, like thoee of Pbbsoott, Robebtson, Helps, 

authorship of Genesis: but his work created an era ^^'^f\t» ^^.i^^Ajf^ mo«tlv inspired bv bitter preiudioe 

• ^M-i* *i • ^^'^*°f »'«»' *y» .Y ^*^»''^ ... , acainst the Gatholio Church and Spain, and written without 

m Biblical mquiiy, OCCasionmg the modem critical adequate knowledge of the Bourcearof Indian character, and 

Kaulbn in KireherUexicon, 2d ed. (Freiburg. 1882); Guil- C*^<^5l"' S*i«°?i?'*% ?^**P<^3r Francxsto db Xkbbe. 

LERBAU in VioouROUX. DtcL de la Bible (Paris. 1896); Krrro. Verdadera ReUut^n dela Corwuuta dd Peru (1634). of which 

Cyd. of BOA. LU. 3d ed. (Philadelphia, 1886); Osoood. in *?«« " » K<^ S°^^ translation by Mabkhaii in PtiMtor 

PrtOtyt, and Ref. Revievi (Jan. 1892). 83 sq. ^f^ ^ {^ ^^^^Jf*^' yl^^^'^y ^.o^f*^***" ^ ^='^ 

k 1 Uikko. uafruuia la ntievaCash^ (Seville. Apnl. 1634); Frdro Sam CHO 

A. J. JXIAAB. Relazione per 8ua Maeta, (14 July. 1534), Ramubxo. III. 1666; 

AannHnn Qm pAnA/irrAv Hbbnando Px2ABBO. Carta A la Audieneia tie Santo Domtngo, 

ABOnciOn. see rAHAGUAT. ^ Ovibdo. Hittoria natural y general de lae Indiae; PbdIJo 

Asylum, Right op. See Right op AjBTLXTM; PxfARBO. Reladfn del Deecuhrimiento y Conquiaia dd Per&, 

'Rtttt nrKT/ia TiVir-T vjaTAaTrr'AT published in vol. V of the Doc. para la Hietona de Eepafia; 

15UILDING8, iliCCLBSIASTICAL. CrxbixSbal Mouka. Conquiela y PMacufn dd PerU: AnonTmS.. 

Atahaallpa, properly AtaU-HUALLFA (etymology RdaHdn dd Primer Deacubrimiento tie la Coeta y Mar dd Sur, 

usually given as from fcuottpa, the name ot some g^.T^t^'^S^Sffl^olSSr^r'fSS'S^J^; 

indigenous bird), son of the Inca war chief Huayna published in 1892 by JxmAnbs db la Espada under the title of 

Capac and an Indian woman from Quito hence ^^ki AnHouaUa Peruana. Later authorities, like CiEZA. Gar- 

(descent being in the female line) not mi Inca but cn^^,^^^y^^^0^i«^^^B^^^O.^f^o^, 

an Indian of Ecuador. The protracted wars, dur- thoush indispensable for the study of the subjwt. 

ine which the Incas overpowered the Ecuadorian Ad. F. Bandeuer. 

tribes, having brought about the permanent lodg- • • , 

ment of Inca war parties in Ecuador, led to inter- AtWiualpa, Juan Saktos, an Indian from Cuzco 

marriages with women of that country, and the who, being in the service of a Jesuit, went to Spain 

formation of a new tribe composed of Inca men with with his master. Upon his return, having committed 

women and children from Quito. Collisions ensued a murder at Guamanga (Ayacucho in Peru), he fled 

between this tribe and the descendants of Inca ^ the forests on the eastern slopes of the Andes, 

women, and in tLe strife, Atau-huallpa figured as the There, in 1742, he persuaded the Indians that he 

leader of tlie former, whilst the latter recognized was a descendant of the Inca head-chiefs and as- 

Huascar, duly elected war chief at Cuzco. Atau- sumed the title of "Atahualpa Apu-Inca". He 

huallpa acted with great cruelty, nearly exterminat- claimed to have been sent by God to drive the 

mg such Ecuadorian tribes as resisted. He finally Spaniards from western South America. As he was 

prevailed, and sent his warriors southward along the *"l6 ^ ^^^ and write Latin, as well as Spanish, he 

backbone of the moimtains, against Cuzco. When readily made the forest tribes believe him to be a 

Pizarro landed at Tumbez (northern Peruvian coast) powerful wizard and induced them to follow him, 

in 1532, the Quito people had ab-eady overthrown abandoning the towns which the Franciscans had 

the Inca tribe at Cuzco, taken the settlement, and Sf^^^lished successfully at Ocopa and further east, 

committed the most horrible cruelties, chiefly against To his influence was due the ruin of the prosperous 

the keepers of ancient traditions whom they attempted missions throughout the Pampa del Sacramento in 

to exterminate, so as to wipe out the remembrance eastern Peru. Under his direction the forest tribes 

of the past of Cuzco and begin a new era. Atau- became very aggressive, and the missions were partly 

huallpa himself remained with a numerous war party destroyed. Eltorts against him proved a failure, 

at Caxamarca. There he awaited the whites, whom owing partly to the natural obstacles presented by 

he despised. The Spaniards found Caxamarca de- ^"^ impenetrable forests, partly to the inefficiency 

serted, and the warriors of Atau-huallpa camping of the officers to whom the suppression of his revolt 

three miles from the place. Pizarro recognized that was entrusted. The uprising caused by his appeal 

a trap had been set for him, and prepared for the *o Indian superstition, was the severest blow dealt 

^orst. ^ t^® Christianization of the forest Indians in Peru, 

On the evening of the 16th of November, 1532, "^d it took decades of sacrifice and toil to recover 

Atau-huallpa entered the square of Caxamarca with t^e territory lost. To this day, according to reliable 

a great retinue of men carrying their weapons con- testimony, the Indians included imder the generic 

ceSed. They packed the court densely. Pizarro name of Chunchos (properly Campas) claim to pre- 

had placed on the roof of the building his artillery serve t^e corpse of Santos Atahualpa, hidden from 

(two pedereroa) that could not be pointed except the whites, in a wooden, or willow, casket, as their 

horizontally. When the Indians thronged into the nao?* precious fetish. 

square a feominican friar, Fray Vicente Valverde ,ol''-^l:iZi^^BS:^S^l^t!^iS^)ru'^;>X^)^. 

was sent by Pizarro to inform Atau-huallpa, through Dieeitmario (Ldxna, 1874), I. 

an interpreter, of the motives of the Spaniards' ap- Ad. F. Bandeuer. 
pearance in the country. This embassy was received 

with scorn, and the friar, seeing the Indians ready to Atargatls. See Phcenicia. 
b^in hostilities, warned Pizarro. His action has Atavism [Lat.,atoim«, a great-j^randfather's grand- 
been unjustly criticised; Valverde did what was his father, an ancestor]. — Duchesne mtroduced the word 
imperative duty under the cireumstances. Then, to designate thoee cases in which species revert spon- 
not waiting for the Indians to attack, the Spaniards taneously to what are presumably long-lost charao- 
took the onensive. The sound of cannon and mus- ters. Atavism and reversion are used by most 
ketry, and the sight of the horses frightened the authors in the same sense. 

Indians so that they fled in dismay, leaving Atau- I. The term atavism is employed to express the re- 
huallpa a prisoner in the hands of Pizarro, who appearance of characters, physical or psychical, in 
treated him with proper resard. The stories of a the individual, or in the race, which are supposed to 
terrible slaughter of tne Indians are inordinate ex- have been possessed at one time by remote ancestors, 
aggerations. While a prisoner, Atau-huallpa caused Very often these suddenly reappearing characters 
the greater portion of the gold and silver at Cuzco are of the monstrous type, e. g. the three-toed horse, 
to be turned over to the Spaniards, at the same time The appearance of such a monster is looked upon as 
he had Huascar murdered, and laid plans for surpris- a harking back to Tertiary times, when the ancestor 
ing the Spaniards and having ttiem massacred, of the modem horse possessed three toes. The three- 
Wnen this was discovered Pizarro had him executed, toed condition of the monstrous horse is spoken of 
on the 29th of August, 1633. The execution was as atavistic. The employment of the term in con- 
not unjustifiable. Atau-huallpa, at the time of his nection with teratology is often abused; for many 
death, was about thirty years of age. cases of so-called atavistic monstrosities have little 


yo do with lost characters, e. g. the poflBesedon by 8 April, 1802, by Pius IX. Bounded on the north by 

man of supernumerary fingers and toes. the Vicariate of Mackenzie; on the east and soutl^ 

II. Atavism is also used to express the tendency east by the Vicariate of Saskatchewan: on the south 
to revert to one of the parent varieties or species in bv 55® N. lat.; on the west by the Rocnr Mountains, 
the case of a hybrid: this is the atavism of breeders. Tne first vicar Apostolic was Bishop Henri Faraud, 
Crossed breeds of sneep, for example, show a con- O.M.I. , b. at Gigondas, France, 17 Biarch, 1828; d. at 
stant tendency to reversion to either one of the orig- Saint Boniface, 26 Sept., 1890; ordained priest at 
inal breeds from which the cross was formed. De Saint Boniface, 8 Marcn, 1847; elected 8 May, 1802; 
Vries distinguishes this kind of atavism as vicinism consecrated at Tours, France, 30 Nov., 1864, titular 
(Lat. vticmtM, neighbour), and says that it "indicates Bishop of Anamur. He was succeeded by Bishop 
the sporting of a variety under the influence of others Emile Grouard, O.M.I., titular Bishop of Ibora; b. at 
in the vicinity." Brulon, Mans, 2 Feb., 1840: ordained priest at Bou* 

III. Atavism is employed by a certain school of cherville, 3 May, 1862, elected Bishop of Ibora, 
evolutionistic psychologists to express traits in the 18 Oct., 1890; consecrated at Saint Boniiace, 1 Aug., 
individual, especially the child, that are assumed to 1891, and appointed vicar Apostolic. The Oblates 
be, as it were, reminiscences of past conditions of of Mary Immaculate serve all the missions of Atha* 
the human race or its progenitors. A child by its basca. There are 11 stations, 23 priests, 28 Soeurs 
untruthfulness simply gives expression to a state de la Providence, dSceurs Grises. Catholics, about 
that long since was normal to mankind. Also in 5,000. (See Saint Bonifack.) 

the chilcTs fondness for splashing about in water is ^ Canada Eedinattique (1907); Battandisr, Ann, pont 

exhibited a recrudescence of a habit that waa quite **^" ^*^" John J a'Bsckst 

natural to its aquatic ancestors; this latter is called johw j. a dxc^mzt, 

water^tavism. Many such atavisms are distin- Athanasian Oreed, Thb, one of the s^pibols 

fished, but it hardly needs to be said that they are of the Faith approved by the Church and pven a 

m many instances highly fantastic. Atavism is com- place in her liturgy, is a short, clear exposition of 

monly supposed to he a proof of the evolution of the doctrines of tne Trinity and the Incarnation, 

plants ana animals, including man. Characters that with a passing reference to several other dogmas, 

were normal to some remote ancestor, after having Unlike most of the other creeds, or symbols, it 

been Latent for thousands of generations suddenly re- deals almost exclusively with these two funda- 

appear, and thus give a clue to those sources to mental truths, which it states and restates in terse 

which the present living forms are to be traced back, and varied forms so as to bring out unmistakably 

That a character may Re dormant for several gener- the trinity of Persons in God, and the twofold na- 

ations and then reappear, admits of no doubt; even ture in the one Divine Person of Jesus Christ. At 

ordinary observation tells us that a grandchild may various points the author calls attention to the 

resemble its grandparent more than either of its penalty incurred by those who refuse to accept 

immediate parents. But the sudden appearance of any of the articles therein set down. The follow* 

a tailed man, for instance, cannot be said to prove ing is the Marquess of Bute's English translation 

the descent of man from tailed forms. Granting that of the text of the Oeed: — 

man has really descended from such ancestoni, the Whosoever will be saved, before all things it^ is 

phenomenon is more intelligible than it would be necessary that he hold the Catholic Faith. Which 

were no such connexion admitted. But the proving ' Faith except everyone do keep whole and un« 

force of atavism is not direct, because teratolo^icfu defiled, without doubt he shaU perish everlast- 

phenomena are so difficult to interpret, and admit of ingly. And the Catholic Faith is this, that we 

several explanations. Darwin, pointing to the laige worship one God in Trinity and Trinity in Unity, 

canine teeth possessed by some men as a caito of Neither confounding the Persons, nor dividing 

atavism, remarks: "He who rejecte with scorn the the Substance. For there is one Person of the 

belief that the shape of his own canines, and their Father, another of the Son, and another of the 

occasional great development in other men, are due Holy Ghost. But the Goahead of the Father, 

to our early forefathers having been provided with of tne Son and of the Holy Ghost is all One. the 

these formidable weapons, will probably reveal, by Glory Equal, the Majesty Co-EtemaL Such as 

sneering, the line of his own descent". the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the 

Atavism is appealed to by modem criminologists Holy Ghost. The Father Uncreate, the Son 

to explain certain moral aberrations, that are looked Uncreate, and the Holv Ghost Uncreate. The 

upon as having been at one time normal to the race. Father Incomprehensible, the Son Incompre- 

Accepting the doctrine that man has, by slow prog- hensible, and the Holy Ghost Incomprehensiole. 

ress, come up to his present civilized state from The Father Eternal, the Son Eternal, and the 

brute conditions, all that is brutish in the conduct Holy Ghost Eternal and yet they are not Three 

of criminals (also of the insane), is explained by ata- Eternals but One Eternal. As also there are 

vism. According to this theory degeneracv is a case not Three Uncreated, nor Three Incomprehen- 

of atavism. The explanation offered for the sudden sibles, but One Uncreated, and One Incompro- 

reappearance of remote ancestral characters is so hensible. So likewise the Father is Almighty, 

intimately connected with the whole question of the Son Almighty, and the Holv Ghost Almighty, 

heredity that it is impossible to do more than in- And yet they are not Three Aunighties but One 

dicate that most writers on heredity seek this ex- Almighty. 

planation in the transmission from generation to So the rather is God, the Son is God, and the Holy 

generation of unmodified heredity-bearing parts. Ghost is God. And yet they are not Three Gods, 

gemmules (Darwin); pangenes (De Vries); determi- but One God. So hkewise the Father is LonL 

nants (Weismann). (See HEREDmr.) the Son Lord, and the Holy Ghost Lord. And 

Chambbrlain. Thf CMd (London. 1900); Da Vbmb, yet not Three Lords but One Lord. For, like 

^.Sr^^DeZSZ^SJ^tS^ 1S8S ; U."5?Tx. !SS V" S '^'^^^^^ ^ t^ ^i'^.'"t%^ 

M. R. Thompson (London. 1904); Dblage. U ttruchire du acknowledge every Person by Himself to be God 

mrotopUumfH U9 OUorUa ntr VfUridiU et U9 grandM prohlims9 and Lord, SO are we forbidden by the Catholic 

dc la bioiogu ginirale (Paris, 1895); Lombroso, L'hamms - - > . _. iL . _ 
crimina (Paris, 1896). 

Jos. C. Herrick. 

created, nor begotten. The Son is of the Father 

Athabasca, Vicariate Apostoug of (North-west alone; not made, nor created, but begotten. The 

Territories).--Su£fragan of Saint Boniface; erected Holy Ghost is of the Father, and of the Son* 


Religion to say, there be Three Gods or Tluree 
LorcEs. The Father is made of none, neither 


neither made, nor created, nor begotten, but in 1871, by E. C. Ffoulkes to assign the Greed to thf 
proceeding. nhith centurv. From a passing remark in a letter 
So there is One Father, not Three Fathers- one written by Alcuin he constructed the foUowing re- 
Son, not Three Sons; One Holy Ghost, not Three markable piece of fiction. The Emperor Charle- 
Holy Ghosts. And in this Trinity none is afore magne, he says, wished to consolidate the Western 
or after Other, None is greater or less than An- Empire by a rehgious, as well as a political, separation 
other, but the whole Three Persons are Co-eternal (rom the East. To this end he suppressed the 
together, and Co-equal. So that in all things, as Nicene Creed, dear to the Onental Church, and 
is aforesaid, the Unity in Trinity, and the Trinity substituted a formulary composed by Paulmus 
in Unity is to be worshipped. He therefore of Aqudeia, with whose approval and that of Alcuin, 
that will be saved, must thus think of the Trinity. » distinguished scholar of the time, he ensured its 

Furthermore it is necessary to everi^^^^^ ^^.^^^^^^ ^^L^P^!! ""^^^^^^ut^^ 

that he also beheve nghtly the Incarnation of ^^^^ ^j^^ reputation of men whom every 

?^f ^"""L^^"^ ^^r*- f^°MV^ \J5'\ "^^ worthy fcstorian r^ards as incapable of such a 

^vfif'^tv.^fcf^!^H''^r^(^^ i^H Mo!^^'"^ ^^"^ fraud,^«lded to the undoubted proofs of the Creed's 

Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man. ^^^^ ^^^ -^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^j^^l^ century, 

God, of the substance of thg Father, begotten leaves this theory without any foundation. 

before the worlds; and Man, #f the substance of Who. then, is the author? The results of recent 

His mother, bom into the world. Perfect God inquiry' make it highly probable that the Creed 

and Perfect Man, of a reasonable Soul and liuman first saw the light in the fourth century, during 

Flesh subsisting. Equal to the Father as touch- the life of the great Eastern patriarch, or shortly 

ing His Godhead, and inferior to the Father as after his death. It has been attributed by dif- 

touching His Manhood. Who, although He ferent writers variously to St. HQary, to St. 

be God and Man, yet He is not two, but One Vincent of L^rins, to Eusebius of Vercelli, to Vigilius, 

Christ. One, not by conversion of the Godhead and to others. It is not easy to avoid the force of 

into Flesh, but by taking of the Manhood into the objections to all of these views, however, as 

God. One altogether, not by confusion of sub- they were men of world-wide reputation, and hence 

stance, but bv Unity of Person. For as the any document, especially one of such importance 

reasonable soul and flesh is one Man, so God as a profession of faith, coming from them would 

and Man is one Christ. Who suffered for our have met with almost immediate recognition. Now, 

Baivation, descended into Hell, rose again the no allusions to the authorship of the Creed, and 

third day from the dead. He ascended into few even to its existence, are to be found in the 

Heaven, He sitteth on the right hand of the literature of the Church for over two hundred years 

Father. God Almighty, from whence he shall after their time. We have referred to a like silence 

come to judge the quick and the dead. At in proof of a non-Athanasian authorship. It seems 

whose coming all men shall rise again with their to be similarly available in the case ot any of the 

bodies, and shall give account for their own onreat names mentioned above. In the opinion of 

works. And they that have done good shall Father Sidney Smith, S.J., which the evidence just 

go into life everlasting, and they that have done mdicated renders plausible, the author of this Creed 

evil into everlasting fire. This is the Catholic must have been some obscure bishop or theologian 

Faith, which except a man believe faithfully who composed it, in the first instance, for purely 

and firmly, he cannot be saved. local use in some provincial diocese. Not coming 

For the past two hundred years the authorship from an author of wide reputation, it would have 

of this summary of Catholic Faith and the time of attracted little attention. As it became better 

its appearance have furnished an interesting prob- known, it would have been more widely adopted, 

lem to ecclesiastical antiquarians. Until the seven- and the compactness and the lucidity of its state- 

teenth centuiy, the "Quicunque vult", as it is ments would have contributed to make it highlv 

sometimes called, from its opening words, was prized wherever it was known. Then would fol- 

thought to be the composition of the great Areh- low speculation as to its author, and what wonder, 

bishop of Alexandria whose name it bears. In the if, from the subject-matter of the Creed, which 

year 1644, Gerard Voss, in his" DeTribusSymbolis", occupied the great Athanasius so much, his name 

ffave weighty probability to the opinion that St. was first aflSxed to it and, unchallenged, remained. 

Athanasius was not its author. His reasons may The "damnatory", or "minatory clauses", are 

be reduced to the two following: first, no early the pronouncements contained in the symbol, of 

writer of authority speaks of it as the work of this the penalties which will follow the rejection of what 

doctor; and secondly, its language and structure is there proposed for our belief. It opens with 

point to a Western, rather than to an Alexandrian, one of them: "Whosoever will be saved, before all 

origin. Most modem scholars agree in admitting things it is necessary that he hold the Catholic 

the strength of these reasons, and hence this view Faith". The same is expressed in the verses be- 

is the one generally received to-day. Whether ginning: "Furthermore, it is necessary" etc., and 

the Creed can be ascribed to St. Athanasius or not, "For the right Faith is" etc., and finally in the 

and most probably it cannot, it undoubtedly owes concluding verse: "This is the Catholic Faith, which 

its existence to Athanasian influences, for the ex- except a man believe faithfully and firmly, he cannot 

pressions and doctrinal colouring exhibit too marked be saved". Just as the Creed states in a vei^ 

a correspondence, in subject-matter and in phrase- plain and precise way what the Catholic Faith is 

oiogy, with the literature of the latter half of the concerning the important doctrines of the Trinity 

fourth centuiy and especiallv with the writings of and the Incarnation, so it asserts with equal plainness 

the saint, to be merely accidental. These internal and precision what will happen to those who do not 

evidences seem to justify the conclusion that it faithfully and steadfastly believe in these revealed 

grew out of several provincial synods, chiefly that of truths. They are but the credal equivalent of Our 

Alexandria, held about the year 361, and presided Lord's words: "He that believetn not shall be 

over by St^ Athanasius. It should be said, however, condemned", and a-PPly* ^ is evident, only to thv 

that these arguments have failed to shake the con- culpable and the wmul rejection of Christ's words 

viction of some Catholic authors, who refuse to give ana teachings. The absolute necessity of accepting 

h an earlier origin than the fifth century. the revealed word of God, under the stem penalties 

An e^borate attempt was made in England, here threatened, is so intolerable to a powerful 


elass in tbe Anglican church, that frequent at- in referring to the events of this period he makes no 

tempts have been made to eliminate the Creed from direct apj^al to his o^m personal recollections, but 

the public service of that Church. The Upper falls back, rather, on tradition. Such reserve would 

House of Convocation of Canterbury has already scarcely be intelligible, if, on the hypothesis of the 

affirmed that these clauses, in their prima facie earlier date, the Saint had been then a boy fully ten 

meaning, go beyond what is warranted by Holy vears old. Besides, there must have been some sem- 

Scripture. In view of the words of Our Lord quoted olanoe of a foundation in fact for the chaxge brought 

above, there should be nothing startling in the against him by his accusers in after-life (Index to the 

statement of oiur duty to believe what we know is Festal Letters) that at the time of his consecration 

the testimony and teaching of Christ, nor in the to the episcopate in 328 he had not yet attained the 

serious sin we commit in wUfully refusing to accept canonical age of thirty years. These considerations, 

it, nor, finally, in the punishments that will be therefore, even if they are found to be not entirely 

inflicted on those who culpably persist in their convincing, w^ould seem to make it likely that he 

sin. It is just this last that the damnatory clauses was born not earlier than 296 nor later than 298. 

Croclalm. From a dogmatic standpoint, the merely It is impossible to s]>eak more than conjecturally of 

istorical question of the authorship of the Creed, his family. Of the claim that it was both prominent 

or of the time it made its appearance, is of secondary and well-to-do, we can only observe that the tradi- 

consideration. The fact alone that it is approved tion to that efTect is not contradicted b^ such scanty 

by the Church as expressing its mind on the funda- details as can be gleaned from the samt's writings, 

mental truths with which it deals, is all we need Those writings undoubtedly betray evidences of the 

to know. sort of education that was given, for the most part, 

JovEs, The Creed of 5t A(*ana«i«; Jewel, De/enos d' tA« only to children and youths of the better class. It 

Apotogy (London, 1567); in TFotAm (Cambridge, 1848), IIL 254; KpiwtTi wifh irrammar w^nf nn fY> rh<»fnrir* anH w»- 

VosBiuB, Dieaertatumee de THbua •ymfto^w (Paris, 1693); (Jues- "^a^ w*»^^ grammar, went on to rnetonc, ana re- 

NEL DeSi^6otoA(Aana«tonoa675): MoNTFAucoN,l)ta<ri6etn ceived its final touches under some one of the more 

tymbolum Quicunqu^ in P O.. xxyill, 1567;. Muratori. fashionable lecturers in the philosophic schools. It is 

Bxpotttw Ftdet Caiholica Fortunati with Dttquuttto m Artec rv^wiihlA nf rnnrRA ihnt ha nw^ h\ti rpmnrlrahlA 

dota (Milan. 1698), II; Waterland, A Critical History of the possipie, ot course, tpat He owed nis remarkable 

Atharuuian Creed (Carabridke, 1724; Oxford, 1870): IIarvet, trammg m letters to his samtly predecessor's favour, 

The Hietory and Theology of the Three Creede (London. 1854), if not to his personal Care. But Athanasius was one 

II; Ffgulkes, The A (Aammon Crewi (London, 1871); Lumby, ^f ihoeu^ nirn nprannAlifina that fipriv#» inrnmnn.rn.K1v 

Tie History of the Creede (Cambridge, 1887); Swainson, The ®' ^"^ rare personalities tnai oerive mcomparaDiy 

Nicene Creed and the ApoatUe' Creed (London. 1876); Omman- niore from their OWn native gifts of intellect and 

NET, The Athanaeian Creed {London, 1876); Idem, A Critical character than from the fortuitousness of descent or 

DUmtiaUon on the AUianaetan Creed (Oxford. 1897); Burn, environment. His career almost personifies a crisis 

The Athananan Creed, etc., m Robinbon. Texts and Studies ^" ' " ^"^-^ ^"«" t^^ • v: •~'^***~*' m^«c»v"»"o=» » wjioio 

(Cambridge, 1896): SMrrn. The Athanasian Creed in The m the history of Christianity; and he may be Said 

Month (1904), CIV, 366; Schafp, History of the Christian rather to have shaped the events in which he took 

fN*^^X?^');S"°'3i:'¥;x'.^^^^^^^ P^^J^ <«,h»Ye been shaped by them. Yet it 

Loops, in 6auck, Renlencyklop&die fur prot. Theol.,B. v. See would be misleading to urge that he was in no no- 

bIso the recent discusnion by Anglican writers: welldon, t>able sense a debtor to the time and place of his birth. 

Croucb, Eliot, Luckock, in The I^ineteenth Century (1904- ^he Alexandria of his boyhood was an epitome, in- 

jj^MES J. Sullivan. tellectually, morally, and politically, of tnat ethnic- 
ally many-coloured Graeco-Roman world, over which 

Athanasius, Saint, Bishop of Alexandria; Confes- the Church of the fourth and fifth centuries was 

sor and Doctor of the Church; bom c. 296; d. 2 May, beginning at last, with undismayed consciousness, 

373. [No accepted emblem has been assigned to him after nearly three hundred years of unwearying 

in the history of western art; and his career, in propagandism, to realize its supremacy. It was, 

spite of its picturesni'a diversity and extraordinary moreover, the most important centre of trade in 

wealth of detail, seem^s t/> have furnished little, if the whole empire; and its primacv as an emporium 

any, material for distinoCi^e illustration. Mrs. Jame- of ideas was more commanding than that of Rome 

son telLs us that according to the Greek formula, or Constantinople, Antioch or Marseilles. Alreadv, 

''he ought to be represented old, baldheaded, ana in obedience to an instinct of which one can scarcely 

with along white beard" (Sacred and Legendary determine the full significance without studying the 

Art, I, 339).] Athanasius was the greatest cham- subsequent developments of Catholicism, its famous 

pion of Catholic belief on the subject of the Incar- ''Catechetical School", while sacrificing no jot or tittle 

nation that the Church has ever know^ and in his of that passion for orthodoxy which it had imbibed 

lifetime earned the characteristic title of " Father of from Pantsenus, Clement, and Origen^ had begun to 

Orthodoxy", by which he has been distinguished take on an almost secular character m the compre- 

ever since. While tbe thronolo^ of his career still hensiveness of its interests, and had counted pagans 

remains for the most part a nopelessly involved of influence among its serious auditors (Euseoius 

problem, the fullest material for an account of the Hist. EccL, VI, xix). 

main achievements of his life will be found in his To have been bom and brought up in such an at' 

collected writings and in the contemporary records moephere of philosophizing Chnstianitjjr was, in spite 

of his time. He was bom, it w^ould seem, in Alex- of the dancers it involved, the timeliest and most 

andria, most probably between the years 296 and liberal of educations ; and there is, as we have inti- 

298. An earlier date, 293, is sometimes assigned as mated, abundant evidence in the saint's writings to 

the more certain year of bis birth; and it is supported testify to the ready response which all the letter 

S. P^tersbourg, 1888) and corroborated by the un- supervision of the ecclesiastical authorities of his 

doubted maturity of judgment revealed in the two native city. Whether his long intimacy with Bishop 

treatises "Contra Gentes" and "De Incarnatione", Alexander began in childhood, we have no means of 

which were admittedly written about the year 318, judging; but a story which pretends to describe the 

before Arianism as a movement had begun to make circumstances of his first introduction to that prelate 

itself felt. It must be remembered, however, that has been preserved for us by Rufinus (Hist. Eccl., I, 

in two distinct passages of his writings (Hist. Ar., xiv). The bishop, so the tale runs, had invit^ a 

Ixiv, and De Syn., xviii) Athanasius shrinks from number of brother prelates to meet lum at breakfast 

speaking as a witness at first hand of the persecution after a great religious function on the anniversary 

which haA brokeii out imder Maximian m 303; for of the martyrdom of St. Peter, a recent predecesear 


in the See of AleOcandria. While Alexander was wait* only writer who has described him for us (Oiat. 

ing for his guests to arrive, he stood by a window, zxi, 8). A contemptuous phrase of the Emperor Ju- 

watchinff a group of boys at play on the seashore lian's (Epist., li) serves unintentionally to oorrob- 

below the house. He had not observed them lonjs orate the picture drawn by kindlier observers. He 

before he discovered that they were imitating, evi" was slightly below the middle height, spare in build, 

dently with no thought of irreverence, the elaborate but well-kiiit, and intensely enexgetic. He had a 

ritual of Christian baptism. (Cf. Bunsen's 'Christian- finely shaped head, set off with a thin growth of 
ity and &(ankind", Lk 
"Ritus Orientalium' 
Coptic Churches' , , 

lesCoptes", " Diet. Th^l. Cath. '^, t^l. 244, 245). He tion, easy and affable in manner, pleasant in conver- 
therefore sent for the children and had them brought sation, keen, and, perhaps, somewhat too imsparinc 
into his presence. In the investigation that followed in debate. (Besides the references already cited, 
it was discovered that one of the bovs, who was no see the detailed description given in the January 
other than the future Primate of Alexandria, had Mifmibr quoted in the BoUandist life. Julian the 
acted the part of bishop, and in that character had Apostate, in the letter alluded to above sneers at the 
actually baptized sevenu of his companions in the diminutiveness of his person — fiV^ ^^P* ^^' dpOfHo- 
course of their play. Alexander, who seems to have rUuan e^eX^r, he writes.) In addition to these 
been unaccountably puzzled over the answers he qualities, he was conspicuous for two others to which 
received to his inquuies, determined to recognize even his enemies bore unwilling testimony. He was 
the make-believe baptisms as genuine: and decided endowed with a sense of humour that could be as 
that Athanasius ana his playfdlows should fo into mordant — ^we had almost said as sardonic — as it 
training in order to fit themselves for a clerical ca- seems to have been spontaneous and unfailing; and 
reer. The Bollandists deal gravely with this story; his courage was of the sort that never falters, even 
and writers as difficult to satisfy as Archdeacon in the most disheartening hour of defeat. There is 
Farrar and the late Dean Stanley are ready to ao- one other note in this highly ^fted and many-sided 
cept it as bearing on its face "every indication of personalit^r to which ever^hing eke in his nature 
truth" (Farrar, "Lives of the Fathers", I, 337; literally ministered, and which must be kept steadily 
Stanley, "East. Ch. ", 264). But whether in its in view, if we would possess the key to his character 
present form, or in the modified version to be found and writing and unclerstand the extraordinary sig- 
m Socrates (I, xv), who omits all reference to the nificance of his career in the history of the Christian 
baptism and says that the game was "an imitation Church. He was by instinct neither a liberal nor a 
of the priesthood and the order of consecrated per- conservative in theology. Indeed the terms have a 
sons", the tale raises a number of chronological singular inappropriateness as applied to a tempera- 
difficulties and sujg;ge8ts even graver c^uestions. ment like his. From first to liast he cared greatly 
Perhaps a not impossible explanation of its orif in for one thing and one thing only; that one thing 
may be found in the theory that it was one of tne was the integrity of his Catholic crioed. The religion 
many floating myths set in movement by popular im- it engendered in him was obviously— considering the 
agination to account for the marked bias towards an traits by which we have tried to depict him — of a 
ecclesiastical career which seems to have character- passionate and consumiiig sort. It b^an and ended 
ised the early boyhood of the future champion of m devotion to the Divinity of Jesus Christ. He was 
the Faith. Sozomen speaks of his "fitness for the scarcely out of his teens, and certainly not in more 
priesthood", and caUs attention to the significant than deacon's orders, when he pubUshed two treat- 
circumstance that he was " from his tenderest years ises, in which his mind seemed to strike the key-note 
practically self-taught". "Not long after this," of all its riper after-utterances on the subject of the 
adds the same authority, the Bishop Alexander "in- Catholic Faith. The " Contra Gentes" and the "Ora- 
vited Athanasius to be his commensal and secretary, tio de Incamatione" — to give them the Latin appella- 
He had been well educated, and was versed in gram- tions by which they are more commonly cited — were 
mar and rhetoric, and had already, while still a young written some time between the years 318 and 323. 

men" manifested themselves in a various environ- which an analysis of the cont-ents of both books 

ment. While still a levite under Alexander's care, certainly seems to justify that the two treatises are 

he seems to have been brought for a while into close in reality one. 

rdations with some of the solitaries of the Egyptian As a plea for the Christian position, addressed 
desert, and in particular with the great St. Anthony, chiefly to both Gentiles and Jews, the young deacon's 
whose life he is said to have written. The evidence apology, while undoubtedly reminiscential in methods 
both of the intimacy and for the authorship of the and ideas of Origen and the earlier Alexandrians, is, 
life in question has oeen challenged, chiefly by non- nevertheless, strongly individual and almost pietistic 
Catholic writers, on the ground that the famous " Vita " in tone. Though it deals with the Incarnation, it is 
shows signs of interpolation. Whatever we may silent on most of those ulterior problems in defence of 
think of the arguments on the subject, it is impos- which Athanasius was so soon to be summoned by the 
sible to deny that the monastic idea appealed power- force of events and the fervour of his own faith to 
fully to the young cleric's temperament, and that devote the best enei^es of his life. The work con- 
he himself in after years was not only at home when tains no explicit discussion of the nature of the Word's 
duty or accident threw him among the solitaries, Sonship, for instance; no attempt to draw out the 
but was so monastically self-disciplined in his habits character of Our Lord's relation to the Father; noth- 
as to bespoken of as an "ascetic" (Apol. c. Arian., ing, in short, of those Christological questions upon 
vi). In fourth-century usage the word would have wmch he was to speak with such splendid and coura- 
a definiteness of connotation not easily determinable geous clearness in a time of shifting formularies and 
tonday. (See Asceticism.) undetermined views. Yet those ideas must have been 
It IS not surprising that one who was called to in the air (Soz., I, xv) for, some time between the 
fill so laige a place in the history of his time should years 318 and 320, Arius, a native of Libya (Epiph. 
have impressed the very form and feature of his Haer., Ixix) and priest of the Alexandrian CSiurch, 
personality, so to say, upon the imagination of his who had already fallen under censure for his part 
oontemporaries. St. Gregory Nazianzen is not the in the Meletian troubles which broke out during the 


episcopate of St. Peter, and whoee teachings had co-essential, with the Father, together with its confi- 
succeeded in making dangerous headway, even among dent appeal to the emperor to Tend the sanction of 
'Hhe consecrated virgins" of St. Mark's see (Epiph. his authority to the decrees and pronouncements by 
Haer.y Ixix; Soc., Hist. EccL, I, vi), accused Bishop which it hoped to saf^^ard this more explicit pro- 
Alexander of Sabellianism. Arius, who seems to have fession of the ancient Faith, had consequences of the 
presumed on the charitable tolerance of the primate, gravest importi not only to the world of ideas, but 
was at length deposed (Apol. c. Ar., vi) in a synod to the world of politics as well. By the official pro- 
consisting* of more than one hundred bishops of mulf^tion of the term homodusion^ theological spec- 
Egypt and Libya (Depositio Ar., 3). The con- ulation received a fresh but subtle impetus which 
demned heresiarch withdrew first to Palestine and made itself felt long after Athanasius and his sup- 
afterwiuds to Bithynia, where, under the protection porters had passed away; while the appeal to the 
of Eusebius of Nicomedia and his other "CoUucian- secular arm inaugurated a policy which endured 
ist«*', he was able to increase his already remarkable practically without change of scope down to the 
influence, while his friends were endeavouring to publication of the Vatican decrees m our own time, 
prepare a way for his forcible reinstatement as priest In one sense, and that a very deep and vital one, 
of tne Alexandrian Church. Athanasius, though only both the definition and the policy were inevitable, 
in deacon's orders, must have taken no subordinate It was inevitable in the order of religious ideas that 
part in these events. He was the trusted secretary any break in logical continuity should be met by 
and adviser of Alexander, and his name appears in inquiry and protest. It was just as inevitable that 
the list of those who signed the encyclical letter sub- the protest, to be effective, should receive some coun- 
sequently issued b^ the primate and his coUea^es tenance from a power which up to that moment had 
to offset the growinjg prestige of the new teaching, affected to regulate all the graver circumstances of 
and the momentum it was banning to acquire from life (cf. Hamack, Hist. Dog., Ill, 146, note; Bu- 
the ostentatious patronage extended to the deposed chanan's tr.). As Newman has remarked: ''The 
Arius by the Eusebian faction. Indeed, it is to this Church could not meet together in one, without en- 
party and to the leverage it was able to exercise at terinc into a sort of negotiation with the powers 
the emperor's court that the subsequent importance that oe; whose jealousy it is the duty of Christians, 
of Arianism as a political, rather than a religious, both as individuals and as a body, if possible, to 
movement seems primarily to be due. dispel" (Arians of the Fourth Cent., 4 ed., 241). 

The heresy, of course, had its supposedly philo- Athanasius, though not yet in priest's orders, ac- 
sophic basis, which has been ascribed by authors, companied Alexander to the council in the character 
ancient and modem, to the most opposite sources, of secretary and theological adviser. He was not, 
St. Epiphanius characterizes it as a Kind of revived of course, the originator of the famous homoduaion, 
Aristoteleanism(Haer.,lxviiandlxxvi); and the same The term had been proposed in a non-obvious and 
view is practically held by Socrates (Hist. EccL, illegitimate sense by Paul of Samosata to the Fathers 
II, xxxv), Theodoret (Haer. Fab., IV, iii), and St. at Antioch, and had been rejected by them as savour- 
Basil (Adv. Eunom., I, ix). On the other hand, in^ of materialistic conceptions of the Godheeid (cf. 
a theologian as broadly read as Petavius (De Trin., Atnan., "De Syn.," xliii; Newman, "Arians, of the 
I, viii, 2) haa no hesitation in deriving it from Pla- Fourth Cent., ''^4 ed., 184-196: Petav. "De Trin.," 
tonism; Newman in turn (Arians of the Fourth IV, v, § 3; Robertson, "Sel. Writ, and Let. Athan. 
Cent., 4 ed., 109) sees in it the influence of Jewish Proleg.", 30 sqo.). 

prejudices rationalized l^ the aid of Aristotelean It may even oe questioned whether, if left to his 

ideas; while Robertson (Sel. Writ, and Let. of Ath. own logical instincts, Athanasius would have sug- 

Prol^., 27) observes that the "common theoloey", gested an orthodox revival of the term at all ("De 

which was invariably opposed to it, "borrowed its Decretis", 19; "Orat. c. Ar.",ii,32; "AdMonachos ". 

philosophical principles and method from the Pla- 2). His writing, composed during the forty-six critical 

tonists." These apparently conflicting statements years of his episcopate, show a very sparing use of the 

could, no doubt, be easily adjusted; but the truth word; and though, as Newman (Arians of the Fourth 

is that the prestige of Arianism never lay in its Cent., 4 ed., 236) reminds us, " the authentic account 

ideas. From whatever school it may have been of the proceedings" that took place is not extant, 

logically derived, the sect, as a sect, was cradled and there is nevertheless abundant evidence in support of 

nurtured in intrigue. Save in some few instances, the common view that it had been unexpectedly forced 

which can be accounted for on quite other grounds, upon the notice of the bishops, Arian and orthodox, in 

its prophets relied more upon curial influence than the great synod by Constantine's proposal to accept 

upon piety, or Scriptural knowledge, or dialectics, the creed submitted by Eusebius of Caesarea, with the 

Tnat must be borne constantly in mind, if we would addition of the hamodusion, as a safeguara against 

not move distractedly through the bewildering maze possible vagueness. The suggestion had in all prob- 

of events that make up the life of Athanasius for the ability come from Hosius (cTT "Epist. Eusebii.", in 
next half century to come, 
that he not only saw the 

very beginning, out was confident _ , _ , , 

to the last (Apol. c. Ar., c). His insisht and ip 'Sucalq. TUrrip i^iBtro^ says the saint, quoting his 

coura^ proved almost as efficient a bulwark to the opponents); but Athanasius, in common with the 

Christian Church in the world as did his singularly leaders of the orthodox party, loyally accepted the 

lucid ^rasp of traditional Catholic belief. His op- term as expressive of the tra^ditional sense m which 

portunitjr came in the year 325, when the Emperor the Church had alwajrs held Jesus Christ to be the 

Constantine, in the hope of putting an end to the Son of God. The conspicuous abilities displayed in 

scandalous debates that were disturbing the peace the Nicsean debates and the character for courage 

of the Church, met the prelates of the entire Cath- and sincerity he won on all sides made the youthful 

olic world in council at Nic»a. cleric henceforth a marked man (St. Greg. Naz., 

The l^reat council convoked at this juncture was Orat., 21). His life could not be lived in a comer, 

something more than a pivotal event in the history of Five months after the close of the council the Pri- 

Ouistianity. Its sudden, and, in one sense, almost mate of Alexandria diedj and Athanasius, quite ac 

unpremeditated adoption of a quasi-philosophic and much in recognition of his talents, it would appear. 

non-Scriptural term — bitooAaiop — to express the charac- as in deference to the death-bed wishes of the de 

ter of orthodox belief in the Person of the historic ceased prelate, was chosen to succeed him. His elec - 

Christ, by defining Him to be identical in substance, or tion, in spite of his extreme youth and the oppoeitio 9 


of a remnant of the Arian and Meletian factions in of the ruling party in the synod made it evident that 

the Alexandrian Church, was welcomed bv all classes justice to the accused was the last thing that was 

amons the lait^ (''Apol. c. Arian", vi; Soz., "Hist, thought of. It can hardly be wondered at, that 

Eccl. , II, xvii, xxi, xxii). Athanasius should have refused to be tried by such 

The opening vears of the saint's rule were occupied a court. He, therefore, suddenly withdrew from 
with the wonted episcopal routine of a fourth-century Tvre, escaping in a boat with some faithful friends 
Egyptian bishop. Episcopal visitations, sjmods, who accompanied hun to Byzantium, where he had 
pastoral correspondence, preaching and the yearly made up his mind to present himself to thd emperor, 
round of church functions consumed the bulk of his The circumstcmcee in which the saint and the great 
time. The only noteworthy events of which an- catechumen met were dramatic enough. Constan- 
tiquity furnishes at least probable data are connected tine was returning from a hunt, when Athanasius 
with the successful efforts which he made to provide unexpectedlv stepped into the middle of the road 
a hierarchy for the newly planted church in Ethiopia and demanded a nearing. The astonished emperor 
(Abyssinia) in the person of St. Frumentius (Ru- could hardly believe his eyes, and it needed the as- 
nnusi, ix; Soc. I, xix; Soz., II, xxiv), and the friend- siurance of one of the attendants to convince him 
ship which appears to have begun about this time be- that the petitioner was not an impostor, but none 
tween himself and the monks of St. Pachomius. other than the great Bishop of Alexandria himself. 
But the seeds of disaster which the saint's piety had " Give me", said the prelate, " a just tribunal, or 
unflinchingly planted at Nicsea were beginning to allow me to meet my accusers face to face in your 
bear a disquieting crop at last. Already events were presence." His request was granted. An order 
happening at Constantinople which were soon to was peremptorily sent to the bishops, who had tried 
nuuce him the most important figure of his time. Athanasius and, of course, condemned him in his 
Eusebius of Nicomedia, who had fallen into disgrace absence, to repair at once to the imperial city. The 
and been banished by the Emperor Constantine for command reached them while they were on their 
his part in the earlier Arian controversies, had been way to the great feast of the dedication of Constan- 
recailed from exile. After an adr:^it campaign of tine's new church at Jerusalem. It naturally caused 
intrigue, carried on chiefly through the instrumental- some consternation; but the more influential mem- 
ity of the ladies of the imperial household, this bers of the Eusebian faction never lacked either 
smooth-mannered prelate so far prevailed over courage or resourcefulness. The saint was taken at 
Constantine as to induce him to order the recall of his word; and the old charges were renewed in the 
Arius likewise from exile. He himself sent a char- hearing of the emp)eror himself. Athanasius was 
acteristic letter to the youthful Primate of Alexandria, condemned to go into exile at Trdves, where he was 
in which he bespoke his favour for the condemned received with the utmost kindness by the saintly 
heresiarch, who was described as a man whose opin- Bishop Maximinus and the emperor s eldest son, 
ions had been misrepresented. These events must Constantine. He began his journey probably in 
have happened some time about the close of the the month of February, 336, and amved on the 
year 330. Finally the emperor himself was per- banks of the Moselle in the late autunm of the same 
suaded to write to Athanasius, urging that all those year. His exile lasted nearly two years and a half, 
who were ready to submit to the definitions of Public opinion in his own diocese remained loyal to 
Nicsea should be re-admitted to ecclesiastical com- him during all that time. It was not the least elo- 
munion. This Athanasius stoutly refused to do, quent testimony to the essential worth of his char- 
alleging that there could be no fellowship between the acter that he could inspire such faith. Constantine's 
Church and one who denied the Divinity of Christ, treatment of Athanasius at this crisis in his fortunes 

The Bishop of Nicomedia thereupon brought vari- has always been difficult to understand. Affectinc, 

ous ecclesiastical and political charges against Athana- on the one hand, a show of indignation, as if he really 

sius, which, though unmistakably refuted at their believed in the political charge brought against the 

first hearing, were afterwards refurbished and made saint, he, on the other, refused to appoint a successor 

to do service at nearly every stage of his subsequent to the Alexandrian See, a thing wnich he might in 

trials. Four of these were very definite, to wit: consistency have been obliged to do had he taken 

that he had not reached the canonical age at the seriously the condemnation proceedings carried 

time of his consecration; that he had imposed a through by the Eusebians at Tyre, 

linen tax upon the provinces; that his officers had. Meanwhile events of the greatest importance had 

with his connivance and authority, profaned the taken place. Arius had died amid startlingly dra- 

Sacred Mysteries in the case of an alleged priest matic circumstances at Constantinople in 336; and the 

named Ischyras; and lastly that he had put one death of Constantine himself had followed, on the 

Arsenius to death and afterwards dismembered the 22nd of May the year after. Some three weeks later 

body for purposes of magic. The nature of the the younger Constantine invited the exiled primate to 

charges and tne method of supporting them were return to his see: and by the end of November of 

vividly characteristic of the age. The curious stu- the same year Athanasius was once more established 

dent will find them set forth in picturesque detail in in his episcopal citv. His return was the occasion of 

the second part of the Saint's "Apologia", or "De- great rejoicing. The people, as he himself tells us, 

fense against the Arians ", written long after the ran in crowds to see his face; the churches were given 

events themselves, about the vear 350, when the over to a kind of jubilee; thanksgivings were offered 

retractation of Ursacius and Valens made their pub- up everywhere; and clergy and laity accounted the 

lication triumphantly opportune. The whole un- day the happiest in their lives. But already trouble 

happy story at this distance of time reads in parts was brewine in a quarter from which the saint might 

more like a specimen of late Greek romance than the reasonably nave expected it. The Eusebian faction, 

account of an inquisition gravely conducted by a who from this time forth loom large as the disturbers 

synod of Christian prelates with the idea of getting of his peace, managed to win over to their side the 

at the truth of a series of odious accusations brought weak-minded Emperor Constantius to whom the 

against one of tlieir number. Summoned by the East had been assigned in the division of the empire 

emperor's onler after protracted delays extending over that followed on the death of Constantine. The old 

a period of thirty months (Soz., II, xxv). Athanasius charges were refurbished with a graver ecclesiastical 

finally consented to meet the charges brought against accusation added by way of rider. Athanasius had 

him by appearing before a synod of prelates at Tyre ignored the decision of a duly authorized s3mod. 

in the year 335. Fifty of his suffragans went with He had returned to his see without the summons of 

him to vindicate his good name: but the complexion ecclesiastical authority (Apol. c. Ar., loc. cU.). Ir 


the year 340, after the fsdlure of the Eusebian mal- died in the month of April, 352, and Liberins had 
contents to secure the appointment of an Arian succeeded him as Sovereign Pontiff. For two yean 
candidate of dubious reputation named Pistus, the Liberius had been favourable to the cause of Athan- 
notorious Gregory of Cappadocia was forcibly in- asius; but driven at last into exile, he was induced 
truded into the Alexananan See, and Athanasius to sign an ambiguous formula, from which the great 
was obliged to go into hiding. Within a very few Nicene test, the homoousion, had been studiously 
weeks he set out for Home to lay his case before the omitted. In 355 a council was held at Milan, where 
Church at large. He had made his appeal to Pope in spite of the vigorous opposition of a handful of 
Julius, who took up his cause with a wnole-heartcd- loyal prelates among the Western bishops, a fourth 
ness that never wavered down to the dav of that condemnation of Athanasius was announced to the 
holv pontiff's death. The pope summoned a synod world. With his friends scattered, the saintly Ho- 
of bishops to meet in Rome. After a careful and sius in exile, the Pope Liberius deaounced as acqui- 
detailed examination of the entire case, the primate's escing in Anan formularies, Athanasius could hardly 
innocence was proclaimed to the Christian world, hope to escape. On the night of 8 February, 356, 
Meanwhile the Eusebian party had met at Antioch while engaged in services in the Church of St. Tnomas, 
and passed a series of decrees framed for the sole a band of armed men burst in to secure his arrest 
purpose of preventing the saint's return to his see. (Apol. de Fug&, 24). It was the beginning of his 
Thi^ years were passed at Rome, during which time tlurd exile. 

the idea of the cenobitical life, as Athanasius had Through the influence of the Eusebian faction at 
seenitpractisedin the deserts of Egypt, was preached Gonstantmople, an Arian bishop, George of Cappa- 
to the clerics of the West (St. Jerome, Epistie cxxvii, docia, was now appointed to rule the see of Aiex- 
5). Two years after the Roman synod had pub- andria. Athanasius, after remaining some days in 
lished its decision, Athanasius was summoned to the neighbourhood of the city, finally withdrew into 
Milan by the Emperor Cons tans, who laid before him the deserts of upper E^pt, where he remained for a 
the plan which Constantius had formed for a great period of six years, living the life of the monks and 
reunion of the bishops of both the Eastern and West- devoting himself in his enforced lebure to the com- 
em Churches. Now began a time of extraordinary position of that group of writings of which we have 
activity for the Saint. Early in the year 343 we the result in the "Apology to Constantius", the 
find the undaunted exile in Gaul, whither he had gone " Apology for his Flight ", the " Letter to the Monks ", 
to consult the saintly Hosius, the great champion and the ''History of the Arians". Lesend has nat- 
of orthodoxy in the West. The two together set out urally been busy with this period of the Saint's ca- 
for the Council of Sardica which had been summoned reer; and we may find in the "Life of Pachomius" a 
in deference to the Roman pontiff's wishes. At this collection of tales brimful of incidents, and enlivened 
great gathering of prelates the case of Athanasius by the recital of "deathless 'scapes in the breach." 
was taken up once more; and once more was his But by the close of the year 360 a change was ap^i^ 
innocence reaffirmed. Two conciliar letters were ent in the complexion of the anti-Nicene party. The 
prepared,oneto the clergy and faithful of Alexandria, Arians no longer presented an unbroken front to 
the other to the bishops of Egypt and Libya, in their orthodox opponents. The Emperor Constan- 
which the will of the Council was made known, tins, who had been the cause of so much trouble. 
Meanwhile the Eusebian party had gone to Philip- diea 4 November, 361, and was succeeded by Julian, 
popolis, where they issued an anathema against The proclamation of the new prince's accession was 
Atnanasius and his supporters. The persecution the signal for a pa^an outbreak against the still 
a^inst the orthodox party broke out with renewed dominant Arian faction in Alexandria. Geoi^e, the 
vigour, and Constantius was induced to prepare usurping Bishop, was flung into prison and murdered 
drastic measures against Athanasius and the priesta amia circumstances of great cruelty, 24 December 
who were devoted to him. Orders were given that (Hist. Aceph., VI). An obscure presbyter of the 
if the Saint attempted tore-enter his see, lie should name of Pistus was immediately chosen by the 
be put to death. Athanasius, accordingly, withdrew Arians to succeed him, when fresh news arrived that 
from Sardica to NaTssus in Mysia, where he cele- filled the orthodox party with hope. An edict had 
brated the Easter festival of the year 344. After that been put forth by Julian (Hist. Aceph., VIII) 
he set out for Aquileia in obedience to a friendly |)ermitting the exiled bishops of the "Galileans" to 
summons from Constans, to whom Italy had fallen return to their "towns and provinces". Athanasius 
in the division of the empire that followed on the received a summons from his own flock, and he ac* 
death of Constantine. Meanwhile an unexpected cordingly re-entered his episcopal capital on 22 Feb- 
event had taken place which made the return of niary, 362. With characteristic energy he set to 
Athanasius to his see less difficult than it had seemed work to re-establish the somewhat shattered fortunes 
for many months. Gregory of Cappadocia had died of the orthodox party and to purge the theolorical 
(probably by violence) in June, 345. The embassy atmosphere of uncertainty. To clear up the mis- 
which had been sent by the bishops of Sardica to understandings that had arisen in the course of the 
the Emperor Constantius, and which had at first previous years, an attempt was made to determine 
met with the most insulting treatment, now received still further the significance of the Nicene formu- 
a favourable hearing. Constantius was induced to laries. In the meanwhile, Julian, who seems to have 
reconsider his decision, owing to a threatening letter become suddenly jealous of the influence that Athao- 
from his brother Constans and the uncertain condi- asius was exercising at Alexandria, addressed an 
tion of affairs on the Persian border, and he accord- order to Ecdicius, the Prefect of Egypt, peremptorily 
ingly made up his mind to yield. But three separate commanding the expulsion of the restored primate, 
letters were needed to overcome the natural hesitar- on the ground that he had never been included in 
tion of Athanasius. He passed rapidly from Aquileia the imperial act of clemency. The edict was com- 
to Treves, from Treves to Rome, and from Rome by municated to the bishop by Pythicodorus Trico. 
the northern route to Adrianople and Antioch, where who, though described in the "Chronicon Athana- 
he met Constantius. He was accorded a gracious sianum" (xxxv) as a "philosopher", seems to have 
interview by the vacillating Emperor, and sent back behaved with brutal insolence. On 23 October the 
to his see in triumph, where he began his memorable people ^thered about the proscribed bishop to pro- 
ten years' reign, which lasted down to the third test against the emperor's aecree; but the saint urgjed 
exile, that of 356. These were full years in the life them to submit, consoling them with the promise 
•f the Bishop; but the intrigues of the Eusebian, or that his absence would be of short duration. The 
Court, party were soon renewed. Pope Julius had prophecy was curiously fulfilled. Julian terminated 


Ais brief career 26 June, 363; and Atfaanasius re- AtheiBxn (a privative, and Oc6t, God, i. e. without 

turned in secret to Alexandria, where he soon re- God) is that system of thought which is formally 

oeived a document from the new emperor, Jovian, opposed to theism. Since its fust coming into use the 

.^instating him once more in his episcopal functions, term atheism has been very vaguely employed, gene- 

His first act was to convene a council which re- rally as an epithet of accusation against any system 

affirmed the terms of the Nicene Creed. Early in that called in question the popular gods of the day. 

September he set out for Antioch, bearing a synodal Thus, while Socrates was accused of atheism (Plato, 

letter, in which the pronouncements of uiis council ApoL, 26 c), and Diagoras called an atheist b^ 

had been embodied. At Antioch he had an inter- Cicero (Nat. Deor., I, 23), Democritus and Epi- 

view with the new emperor, who received him ^ra- curus were styled in the same sense impious (without 

ciously and even asked nim to prepare an exposition respect for the gods) on account of the trend of their 

of the orthodox faith. But in the following Febru- new atomistic philosophy. In this sense, too, the 

ary Jovian died; and in October, 364, Athanasius early Christians were known to the pagans as atheists, 

was once more an exile. because they denied the heathen gods; while, from 

With the turn of circumstances that handed over time to time, various reli^ous opinions and philosophic 
to Valens the control of the East this article has cal systems have, for sunilar reasons, been deemed 
nothing to do; but the accession of that emperor atheistic. Though atheism, historically considered, 
^ave a fresh lease of life to the Arian party. He has meant no more in the past than a critical or 
issued a decree l^mishine the bishops who had been sceptical denial of the theology of those who have 
deposed by Constantius,but who had been permitted employed the term as one of reproach, and has 
by Jovian to return to their sees. The news created consequently no one strict philosophical meaning; 
the greatest consternation in the city of Alexandria though there is no one consistent system in the 
itself, and the prefect, in order to prevent a serious exposition of which it has a definite place; yet, 
outbreak, gave public assurance that the very special if we consider it in its broad meaning as merely 
case of Athanasius would be laid before the emperor, the opposite of theism, we shall be able to frame 
But the saint seems to have divined what was pre- such divisions as will make possible a grouping of 
paring in secret against him. He quietly withdrew definite systems under this head. And in so doine 
from Alexandria, 5 October, and took up his abode we shall at once be adopting both the historical and 
in a country house outside the city. It was during the philosophical view. For the common basis of 
this period that he is said to have spent four months all svstems of thebm as well as the cardinal tenet 
in hiding in his father's tomb (Soz., "Hist. EccL", of all popular religion at the present day is indubita- 
VI, xii; Soc, "Hist. EccL", IV, xii). Valens, who bly a Delief in the existence of a personal God, and 
seems to have sincerely dreaded the possible conse- to deny this tenet is to invite the popular reproach of 
quences of a popular outbreak, gave ordeps within atheism. The need of some sucn definition as this 
a very few weeks for the return of Athanasius to his was felt by Mr. Gladstone when he wrote (Contem- 
see. And now besan that last brief period of com- porary Review, June. 1876): "By the Atheist I un- 
parative repoee wnich unexpectedly terminated his derstand the man wno not only holds off, like the 
strenuous and extraordinaiy career. He spent his sceptic, from the affirmative, but who drives himself, 
remaining davs, characteristically enough, in re- or is (hriven, to the negative assertion in regard to the 
emphasizing tne view of the Incarnation which had whole unseen, or to the existence of Goa.^' More~ 
been defin^ at Nicsea and which has been substan- over, the breadth of comprehension in such a use of 
tially the faith of the Christian Church from its the term admits of divisions and cross-divisions being 
earliest pronouncement in Scripture down to its last framed under it; and at the same time limits the num- 
utterance through the lips of Pius X in our own ber of systems of thouj^ht to which, with any pro- 
times. "Let what was confessed bv the Fathers priet>[, it might otherwise be extended. AJso, if the 
of Nicffia prevail '% he wrote to a philosopher-friend term is thus taken, in strict contradistinction to the- 
and correspondent in the closing years of his life ism, and a plan of its possible modes of acceptance 
(Epist. Ixxi, ad Max.). That that confession did at made, these systems of thought will naturally appear 
last prevail in the various Trinitarian formularies in clearer proportion and relationship, 
that followed upon that of Niciea was due, humanly Thus, defined as a doctrine, or theory, or philosophy 
speaking, more to his laborious witness than to that formally opposed to theism, atheism can only signify 
ot any other champion in the long teachers' roll of the teaching of those schools, whether cosmological or 
Catholicism. By one of those inexplicable ironies moral, which do not include God either as a principle 
that meet us everywhere in human history, this man. or as a conclusion of their reasoning. The most trench- 
who had endured exile so often, and risked life itself ant form which atheism could take would be the posi- 
in defence of what he believed to be the first and tive and dogmatic denial of the existence of any spir- 
most essential truth of the Catholic creed, died not by itual and extra-mundane First Cause. This is some- 
violence or in hiding, but peacefully in his own bed, sur- times known as dogmatic, or positive theoretic, athe- 
rounded by his clergy and mourned by the faithful of ism; though it may be doubt^ whether such a system 
the see he had served so well. His feast in the Roman has ever b^n, or could ever possibly be seriously main- 
Calendar is kept on the anniversanr of his death. tained. Certainly Bacon and Dr. Arnold voice the 

All the essential materials for the Saint's biog^phy are common judgment of thinking men when they express 

to be found in his writings, wpecially in those written after « Hmiht m tn IHa A-sristpn<«A of an atheist belonffinip to 

the year 360, when the Apotogia contra A rianoa was composed. * apUDl as W) ine exisi^nce OI an atneisi. oeionging TO 

Supplementary information wUl be found in St. Epiphanius, such a school, stlil, there are certain advanced 

Har \oc. cit.; in St. Gbeoory of Naiianaus, Orat, xxi; phases of materialistic philosophy that, perhaps, 

^^J^r^'J^^^nkaf^'PrJ^Lr'^^^^^ fhould rightly be included under this head. Material- 

Maffei in 1738, and inserted by Gallandi in Bibliotheca Ism, which professes to find m matter its OWli cause and 

Patrum, !769), and the Chronicon A thatuuianum, or Index explanation, may go farther, and positively exclude 

to the Festal Lettera, give us daU for the chronological problem, ^u !, a«:af«„«o ^f anvoninf nal nonoA That minh n. t^nar^ 

All the foregoing sources are included in Mione, P. O. and the existence Ot any spiritual cause. 1 hat such a Qog- 

P. L. The great Papebboch's Life is in the ActaSS., May, I. matic assertion IS both unreasonable and lUogical 

The must important authorities in English are: Newman, needs no demonstration, for it is an inference not 

Aruxne of the Fourth Century, and Satnt Athananua; Bbzoht, warn-^n*^^ Kv *htk fanfa nnr inatifiAH hv fha lawQ of 

Dietumarv of Chriatian Biography; Robebtbon, Life, in the warranted by the tacts nor justihed »y the laws Ot 

Prolegomena to the Select Writinga and Lettera of Saint Athana- thought. But the fact that certain individuals have 

«u« (rented in lAferory 0/ «A« ^t(»n^ left the sphere of exact scientific observation for 

^bl^ S ^^^"A^S^JIU^^:^ A^ot: speculation,. and have thus dogmatized negatively, 

B&rHBR and Hbfelb. calls for their inclusion in this specific type. Mate* 

Cornelius Clutord. rialLsm is the one dogmatic explanation of the universe 


4irhich could in any sense justify an athebtic position, compatible with belief in a God; and much confusion 

But even materialism, however its advocates might is often caused by the inaccurate use of the terms, 

dogmatize, could do no more than provide an inade* belief, knowledqCf opinion, etc. 

quate theoretic basis for a negative form of atheism. Lastly, a third type is generally, though perhaps 

Pantheism, which must not oe confused with ma- wrongly, included in moral atheism. '' Practical athe- 

terialism, in some of its forms can be placed also in ism b not a kind of thought or opinion, but a mode of 

thb divbion, as categorically denying the exbtence of life" (R. Flint, Anti-thebtic Theories, Lect. I), Thb 

a spiritual First Oause above or outside the world, is more correctly called, as it b described, gocuessness 

A second form in which athebm ma^ be held and in conduct, quite irrespective of any theory of philoso- 
taught, as indeed it has been, b based either upon the ph;^, or morab. or of religious faith. It will be 
lack of physical data for thebm or upon the limited noticed that, although we have included agnosticism, 
natture of the intelligence of man. Tnb second form materialbm, and panthebm, among the types of 
mav be described as a negative theoretic athebm; athebm, strictly speaking thb latter does not neces- 
and may be further viewed as coemoloeical or psy- sarily include any one of the former. A man may 
chologicsEil, according as it b motived, on the one hand, be an agnostic simply, or an a^ostic who b abo 
by a consideration of the paucity of actual data an athebt. He may be a scientific materialist and 
available for the aivuments proving the existence of no more, or he may combine athebm with his ma- 
a superHsensible ana spiritual God, or, what amounts terialbm. It does not necessarily follow, because 
to the same thing, the attributing of all cosmic chan^ge the natural cognoscibility of a personal . First Cause 
and development to the self-contained potentialities b denied, that Hb exbtence b called in question: 
of an eternal matter; or, on the other nand. by an nor, when matter b called upon to explain itself, 
empiric or theoretic estimate of the powers of reason that God b criticallv denied. On the other hand, 
working upon the data fumbhed by sense-perception, panthebm, while destroying the extra-mundane 
From whichever cause thb n^;ative form of atnebm character of God, does not necessarily deny the 
proceeds, it issues in agnosticbm or materialbm; al- exbtence of a supreme entity, but rather affirms such 
though tne agnostic b, perhaps, better classed under as the sum of all exbtence and the cause of all 
thb nead t&n the materialbt. For the former, phenomena whether of thought or of matter. Con- 
professing a state of nescience, more properly belongs sequently, while it would be unjust to class agnostics, 
to a category under which those are placed who materialists, or panthebts as necessarily also athebts. 
neglect, rather than explain, nature without a God. it cannot be denied that athebm b clearly peroeivea 
Moreover, the agnostic may be a thebt, if he admits to be implied in certain phases of all these systems, 
the exbtence of a being behind and beyond nature. There are so many shades and gradations of thought 
even while he asserts that such a bein^ b both un- by which one form of a philosophy merges into 
provable and unknowable. The matenalbt belongs another, so much that b opinionative and personal 
to thb type so long as he merely neglects, and does woven into the various individual expositions of 
not exclude from hb system, the existence of God. systems, that, to be impartially fair, each individual 
So, too, does the positivbt, regarding theological and must be classed bv himiself as athebt or thebt. In- 
metaphysical speculation as mere passing stages of deed, more upon hb own assertion or direct teach- 
thought through which the human mind has been ing than by reason of any supposed implication in 
journeying towards positive, or related empirical, the system he advocates must thb classification 
knowledge. Indeed any system of thought or school be made. And if it b correct to consider the sub- 
of philosophy that simply omits the exbtence of God ject from thb point of view, it b surprising to find 
from the sum total of natural knowledge, whether the to what an exceedingly small number the supposed 
individual as a matter of fact believes in Him or not, athebtic ranks dwinSe. In company with Socrates, 
can be classed in thb divbion of athebm, in which, nearly all the reputed Greek athebts strenuously 
strictly speaking, no positive assertion or denial b repudiated the chaige of teaching that there were 
made as to the ultimate fact of Hb being. no gods. Even Bion, who, according to Diogenes 

There are two systems of practical or moral Laertius (Life of Arbtippus, XIII, Bohn's tr.), 
athebm which call for attention. They are based adopted the scandalous moral teaching of the 
upon the theoretic systems just expounded. One athebt Theodorus, turned again to the ffods whom 
system of positive moral athebm, in which human he had insulted, and when he came to die demon- 
actions would neither be right nor wrong, eood nor strated in practice what he had denied in theory, 
evil, with reference to God, would naturally follow As lAcrtius says in his "Life of Bion", he "who 
from the profession of positive theoretic athebm; never once 'said, 'I have sinned but spare me' — 
and it b significant of those to whom such a form rru«„ a\a ♦i^:» ofi.»:<.4^ ok«:»«u ««^ «;,,«. v,:« «^^u 
of theoretic athebm b sometimes attributed, that T^Tn nW wnrn^^^^^^^ ^ 
for the sanction of moral actions they introduci such T^^ v-^^^^^^^rl- ^l ^^ ^J^^L. 

li^riSU'"lT?fx:'^™ t'l^ t ^^^±^^^ Wifh Uurel bi^nc\r brL'hTdcSSt^^^ 

humanity. Inere seems to be no particular reason -d^^j,, 4.^ a^ ««^ ,r<^*«4-,.,» ...^.^k:^.. 

why they should have recourse to such sanctions, ^^y %^^ ^^A ^^^*^ anythmg 

since the morality of an action can hardly be de- ^^*^"®^ la&n a e. 

rived from its penormance as a duty, which in turn Epicurus, the founder of that school of physics 

can be called and known as a "duty" only because which limited all causes to purely natural ones and 

it refers to an action that b morally good. Indeed consequently implied, if he did not actually assert, 

an analysb of the idea of duty leads to a refutation athebm, b spoken of as a man whose "piety towards 

of the principle in whose support it b invoked, and the gods and (whose) affection for hb country was 

points to the necessity of a thebtic interpretation of quite unspeakable" (ib.. Life of Epicurus, V). 

nature for its own justification. The second system And thougn Lucretius Carus speaks of the downfall 

of negative practical or moral athebm may be of popular religion which he wished to hTm^ about 

referred to the second type of theoretic athebm. (De Kerum Natura, I, 79-80), ^et, in his own 

It b like the first in not relating; human actions to letter to Henaeceus (I.aert., Life of Epicurus, 

an extra-mundane, spiritual, ana personal lawgiver; XXVII), he states plainly a true thebtic position: 

but that, not because such a lawgiver does not exist, "For there are gods: for our knowledge of them b 

but because the human intelligence is incapable of so indbtinct. But they are not of the character which 

relating; them. It must not be forgotten, however, people in general attribute to them." Indeed, thb 

that either negative theoretic athebm or negative one citation perfectlv illustrates the fundamental 

practical athebm b, as a system, strictly speaking hbtoric meaning of the term, atheism. 


The nataralistic pantheism of the Italian Giordano in the midst of dan^rous morasses in what is noK 
firuno (1548-1600) comes near to, if it is not actually the parish of East Lmg. It possessed scarcely more 
a profession of, atheism; while Tomaso Campanella than two acres of firm land; was covered with alders 
(1568-1639), on the contrary, m his nature-philosophy and infested by wild animals, and was inaccessible 
finds in atheism the one impossibility of thought, except by boat (WilUam of Malniesbury). Here Al- 
Spinoza (1632-77), while defending the doctrine that fred found a refuge from the Danes; here he built 
God certainly exists, so identifies Him with finite the abbey dedicated to our Blessed Saviour, St. 
existence that it is difficult to see how he can be Peter, St. Paul, and St. Egelwine. He peopled it 
defended against the charge of atheism even of the with foreign monks, drawn chiefly from France, with 
first type. In the eighteenth century, and especially John of Saxony (known as Scotus) as their abbot, 
m France, the doctrines of materialism were spread The original church was a small structure consisting 
broadcast br the Encyclopedists. La Mettrie, Hoi- of four piers supporting the main fabric and sur- 
bach, Feuerbach, Fleurens are usually classed amoi^ rounded py four circular chancels. Little is known 
the foremost materialistic atheists of the period, ot the historv of the abbey from the eleventh cen- 
Voltaire, on the contrai^, while undoubtedly helping tury up to the time of its dissolution except tiiat 
on the cause of practical atheism, distinctly held the monks of Glastonbury attempted to annex it or 
Its theoretic contrary. He, as well as Rousseau, was have it placed under the Glastonbury jurisdiction. It 
a deist. Gomte, it will be remembered, refused to was not a rich community. An indulgence of thirty 
be called an atneist. In the last century Thomas days was given in 1321 for those who should assist 
Huxley, Charles Darwin, and Herbert Spencer, with in the rebuilding of the church, and the monks 
others of the evolutionistic school of philosophy, humbly petitioned Edward I to remit '* corrod " for 
were, quite erroneously, chaiged with positive athe- which they were unable to find the means of pay- 
ism. It is a chaige which can in no way be sub- ment. The last abbot was Robert Hamlyn. With 
stantiated; and the invention and rapid coming into eight monks of his community, he surrendered 8 Feb- 
general use of the term agnosticism, used first by ruary, 1540, receiving a pension of £50 per annum 
Huxley in 1859, shows the long-felt want of a word and retaining his prebend of Long Sutton. The rev- 
more definitely defined than atheism to designate a enues (26 Hen. Vll) were £209. Os. }d. 
phase of thought either critically or sceptically con- , Ddodalb, Mona^wm Anglicanum;ABMM,De Rebtu Oeatu 

Semed with the process by which the common tenet ^'^»'* Heabne, Scnpu //«/. Angl. yJC\lilKi73i), 687-90. 
of theism is maintained. The fundamental formula * Rancis Avelino. 
is not a denial of the existence of God, but an asser- Athenagoras, a Christian apologist of the sec- 
tion that the Absolute is unknowable. In Germany, ond half of the second century of whom no mere is 
the materialism of Karl Vogt, Jacob Moleschott, known than that he was an Athenian philosopher 
Ludwig Billchner, culminatii^ in the monism of and a convert to Christianity. Of his wntings there 
Ernst ll&ckel, goes far towards forming an. atheistic have been preserved but two genuine pieces: — his 
system of plulosophy. But even the last named "Apology" or "Embassy for the Christians" and a 
admits that there may be a God, though so hmited "Treatise on the Resurrection ". The only allusions 
and so foreign to the deity of theists that his admis- to him in early Christian literature are the accredited 
sion can hardly remove the system from the first quotations from his "Apology" in a fragment of 
category of theoretic atheism. Methodius of Olympus (d. 312) and the untrust- 
Among the unscientific and unphilosophical there worthy biographical details in the fragments of the 
have from time to time been found dogmatic "Christian History" of Philip of Side (c. 425). It 
atheists of the first type. Here again, however, may be that his treatises, circulating anonymously, 
many of those popularly styled atheists are more were for a time considered as the work of another 
correctly described by some other title. There is a apologist. His writings bear witness to his erudi- 
aomewhat rare tract, "Atheism Refuted in a Dis- tion and culture, his power as a philosopher and 
course to prove the Existence of God by T. P." rhetorician, his keen appreciation of^ the intellectual 
— British Museum Catalogue, "Tom Paine", who temper of his age, and his tact and delicacy in deal- 
was at one time popularly called an atheist. And ing with the powerful opponents of his religion, 
perhaps, of the few who have upheld an indubitable The "Apology , the date of which is fixed by in- 
form of positive theoretic atheism, none has been temal evidence as late in 176 or 177, was not, as the 
taken seriously enough to have exerted any influence title "Embass}r" (Tpeff^ia) has su^ested, an oral 
upon the trend of philosophic or scientific thought, defence of Christianity, but a carefully written plea 
Robert IngersoU might be instanced, but though for justice to the Christians made by a philosopher, 
popular speakers and writers of this tvpe may create on philosophical grounds, to the Emperors Marcus 
a certain amount of unlearned disturbance, they are Aurelius and his son Commodus, conquerors, " but 
not treated seriously by thinking men, and it is ex- above all, philosophers *\ He first complains of the 
tremely doubtful whether they deserve a place in any illogical and unjust discrimination against the 
historical or philosophical exposition of atheism. Chnstians and of the calumnies thejr suffer (i-iii), 

Reimman, Hiataria atheiami et atheorum . . . (Hildesheim, and then meets the chaige of atheism (iv). He 

1725); TODBSAINT in Diet, de piiologie, 8. v. (a good bibliog- ftH*j,Ki;ahp« thp nrinrinlp of monothpism ritinir rvurstn 

rspny); Janot and SAailles, History of the Problems of Philoa- estaoiisnw inc pnncipie oi monoineism, ciiing pagan 

opky (tr., London, 1902), II: Hettinoer. Natural Religion poets and philosophers m support of the very doo- 

(tr. New York, 18W); Flint, Anrt-(^ieM<ic TA^oriea (New York, trines for which Christians are condemned (v-vi), 

i^St&"AL*^'^iJr^iL^^^ »n4 /'?™°°«*?t!l *H superiority., of .the Christian 

NaiuraHtm and Agnoaticitm (New York, 1899); Ladd, PhUos- belief m God tO that of pagans (vu-viii). This first 

aphy of Religion (New York, 1905), II; Boedder, Natural strongly reasoned demonstration of the unity of 

&S'(ii^Y^r£:^87'8^'k^^o*ffi/^l3to7f^ God In Christian literature, is supplemented by an 

Barrt. The End of Atheism in The Catholic World, LX. 333; able exposition of the Trinity (x). Assuming then 

Shka, Steps to Atheism in The Am. Cath. Quart. Rev., 1879,305; the defensive, the apologist justifies the Chris- 

^°iSS«iS*J?<Sj5l^^^ ti*? abstention from worship of the national deities 

rmphy under Aonobticism, Materialism, Pantheism, and (XIU-XIV) on grounds Of its absurdity and inde- 

Theisu. For the refutation of Atheism see the article God. cency, quoting at length the pagan poets and phil- 

Francis Avelino. osophers in support of his contention (xv-xxx). 

Athelney, The Abbey op, in the County of Som- Finally, he meets the charges of immorality by ex- 

erset, England, was founded by King Alfred, a. d. posing the Christian ideal ofpuritv, even in thought, 

888, as a religious house for monks of the Order of and the inviolable sanctity of the marriage bond. 

3t. Benedict. Originally Athelney was a small island The chaige of cannibalism is refuted by showing th<> 


high regard for human life which leads the Qmstian however, that a few believed in Paul's teaching, 
to detest the crime of abortion (xxxi-xxxvi). The Amongst these were Dionysios, a member of the 
treatise on the "Resurrection of the Bo^", the Areopagite court, and Damaris, or Thamar possibly, 
first complete exposition of the doctrine in Christian who may have been a Jewess. A tradition asserUi 
literature, was written later than the "Apology", to that St. Paul wrote from Athens his two letters to 
which it may be considered as an appendix. Athe- the Christians of Thessalonika. Even if this be so, 
nagoras brings to the defence of the doctrine the his stay in Athens was not a protracted one. He 
best that contemporary philosophy could adduce, departed b^ sea, and went to Korinth by wav of 
After meeting the objections common to his time Kenchrese, its eastern harbour. It seems that a Chris- 
(i), he demonstrates the possibility of a resur- tian community was rapidly formed, although for a 
rection in view either of the power of the Creator considerable time it did not possess a numerous mem- 
(ii-iii), or of the nature of our bodies (iv-viii). bership. The commoner tradition names the Areo- 
To exercise such powers is neither unworthy of Goid pagite as the first head and bishop of the Christian 
nor unjust to otner creatures (ix-xi). lie shows Athenians. Another tradition, however, ^es this 
that the nature and end of man demand a perpetua- honour to Hierotheos the Thesmothete. The suc- 
tion of the life of body and soul. cessors of the first bishop were not all Athenians by 
March and Owen, I>oijaiaM'5«rw of CAritKon, Greet and lineage. They are catalogued as Narkissos, Publius, 

^A'!'t7XZ7J'^Tii£^:'lh\'^^"^:!^4 fnd\adratus. Narki»o« is stat^l to have come 

lish traiulation is found in Ante-Nicene FaiherB (New Yoi^. from Palestme, and PubllUS from Malta. In some 

19p3\ II. 12^162^ voLX (ibid.) pp. 36-38, is an extensive lists Narkissos is omitted. Quadratus is revered for 

^^^^^'!^X^i^\^^7)ryT^ i^^te^i^^ »"»y^« contributed to early Chmtianliterature by 

Maranub in P. G. (Paris, 1857). VI. 88^-1024. See also wnting an apolo^, which he addressed to the Em- 

ScHWABTz in Gbbhardt AND Harnack, TexUund Unur- peror Hadrian. This was on the occasion of Had- 

sste2*iii?sSfti.^i^p.^;i&i?7tr^^f ^^^ ?r^j;^t •*?• ^^'^^^ ^^"^^v ^''^^^^ ,^^ 

319: BARDKNHBWER.Oe»cfcicAtederaW»rcWu*«nLiterotttr(Frei- defended Chnstiamty m wnting at a somewhat later 

burg. 1902). 1,267-277; Idem. Pofroltvw (ibid^. 1901) 57^58. time was Aristeides. His apology was directed to 

John B. Peterson. the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Athenagoras also 

Athenzy, a small inland town in the county Gal- wrote an apology. In the second century there 

way, Ireland, anciently called Athnere. from Ath-na^ must have been a considerable communitv of Chris- 

Rifigkj the king's ford, or the abode of the king. It tians in Athens, for Hygeinos, Bishop of Rome, is 

was the first town established by the Anglo-Norman said to have written a letter to the community in 

invaders of Connaught, and at a remote period be- the year 139. It is probable that the early Church 

came a place of importance. A Dominican monas- of Athens did not nave many martyrs, although 

tery was completed there in 1261 on a site granted Dionysios himself graces the martyrs list. Under 

by Meyler de Bermingham. In time it became ex- Decius, we find recorded in the catalogue of martyrs 

tensive and wealthy and was used as the chief burial the names of Herakleios, Benedimos, Pavlinos, and 

place of the Earls of Ulster and the principal families Leonides with his followers, the holy woman Char- 

of the adjoining territory. Indulgences for the benefit issa, and her companions. One reason why the 

of the monast^ were granted by the pope in 1400. martyrs were few is that the Christians were also 

The church was bumea in 1423, and in 1427 two few. Besides, the spirit of the Athenian pagans and 

subordinate houses were established. In 1445 Pop)e philosophers was not one of blood; and it is prob- 

Eugenius IV renewed the decree of Pope Martin V able that the persecutions in Athens were rather of 

to encourage the repairing of the church, at which the social and scholastic kind. This woiUd account 

time there were thirty inmates in the monastery, for the writings of the apologists who thus would 

A Franciscan friary was also founded there in 1464 defend themselves bv weapons similar to those which 

b^ Thomas, Earl of Kildare, and chapels erected by their opponents used. The philosophers of the Athe- 

his wife and the Earls of Desmond and OTully. nian schools did not indeea admire Christianity, as 

The place was sacked in 1577 during the Elizabethan thev understood it; nevertheless there is some ground 

wars, but repaired in 1585. The northern Irish for oelieving that amongst the teachers who occupied 

burned the town in 1506 but the abbey escaped, the official and historic chairs of philosophy at 

The Dominican establishment was revived in 1644 Athens there later was at least one who was a Chris- 

as a university, the town, however, never regained tian, Prohseresios, the sophist. Be this as it may, 

its ancient prestige. The Cromwell ian period ruined it is certain that the teaching of the philosophers 

the ecclesiastical buildings, of which tne tower and was not rudely anti-Christian. Otherwise the pres- 

east window remained in good condition to tell of the ence of Christians amongst the students could not 

ancient extent and beauty of the foundation. The be understood. Sixtus li, or Xystos, who suffered 

Board of Works in 1893 made extensive repairs to martyrdom in Rome about a. d. 258, also may have 

the ruins to preserve them. studied in Athens and is called " the son of an Athe- 

Lewib. Topographical Dictionary c1 Ireland (J>nh\\Ti, 1839). nian philosopher''. But the most noted men who 

Thomas F. Meehan. frequented the schools here were Basil from Ksesareia, 

AthenB, Christian. — Christianity was first andf Gregory from Nazianzos, about the middle of 

preached in Athens by St. Paul. He came to Athens the fourth century. These schools of philosophy 

from Bercea of Macedonia, coming probably by water kept paganism alive for four centuries, but by the 

and landing in the Peirseevs, the harbour of Athens, fifth century the ancient religion of Elevsis and 

This was about the year 53. Having arrived at Athens had practically succumbed. In the Coun- 

Athens, he at once sent for Silas and Timotheos who cil of Niluea there was present a bishop from Athens, 

had remained behind in Beroea. While awaiting the Id 529 the schools of philosophy were clos^. 

coming of these he tarried in Athens, viewing the From that date Christianity had no rival in Athens, 

idolatrous citv, and frequenting the synagogue; for Down to the time of Constantine, and later, there 

there were already Jews in Athens. He suso fre- were no large Christian temples in Athens. Like 

quented the agora, and there met and conversed the Jews, whose synagogues in pagan towns were 

with the men of Athens, telling them of the new small and unpretentious, the first Christians did not 

truths which he was promulgating. Finally, at the erect sumptuous temples. With their worship they 

Areopagos, he spoke to them the sermon which is did not associate splendour of temple and sanctuary 

preserved in the seventeenth chapter of the Acts, as indispensable. In the time of iSasil and Gregory, 

The Athenians did not enthusiasticallv accept this there were surely numerous church edifices in Athens, 

first preaching of Christianity. The Acts mention, but they were not spacious temples. They are called 


lepol oikoi, and probably were not much larger Likewise many monasteries were founded, both in 
than the ordinal^ dwelling-houses of the inhabitants. Athens itself and in the countij of Attika, especially 
The first magnincent churehes in Athens were, there- on the slopes of the surrounding mountains of Hy- 
fore, the Greek temples which, after the disappear- mettos, and Pentellkos, and Fames. A complete list 
ance of paganism, were transferred to the use of the of the Bishops of Athens could not be made. But 
Christian rites. It must have been about Justinian's as time goes on, and seals and manuscripts and in- 
time when the most of the ancient temples were scriptions are deciphered, the list of names will grow, 
converted into chiuxshes. Churches or ruins of Pistos, Bishop of Athens, was present at the Council 
churehes have been frequently found on the sites of Niksea in ^25. Bishop Modestus was at the Coun- 
where i>agan shrines or temples originally stood, cil of Ephesos in 431. John, Bishop of Athens, was 
This is in part due to the fact that the sites were amongst the Fathers who siened the Acts of the 
first sanctined for Christian tradition by these pagan Sixth (Ecumenicid Council. He was present as ** Leg- 
temples or sanctuaries being made into churches, gate of the Apostolic See of ancient Rome". From 
It is also to some extent true that sometimes the the graffiti on the Parthenon a number of other 
saint whose aid was to be invoked at the Christian names and dates are already known. In these graf" 
shrine bore some outward analogy to the deity pre- fUi we read names of bishops prior to the exaltation 
viously hallowed in that place. Thus in Athens the of Athens to the rank of an arehbishopric, then the 
shrine of the healer Asklepios, situate between names of archbishops, and finally those of metropoli- 
the two theatres on the south side of the Akropolis, tans. The time ol the elevation of this see to an 
when it became a church, was made sacred to the archbishopric cannot yet be fixed. Gregory II, who 
two saints whom the Christian Athenians invoked as was pastor of the Athenians during the first patriarch- 
miraculous healers, Kosmas and Dainian. Amongst ate of Photios, bore the title of archbishop. But it 
the temples converted into churches were the Par- is not known whether or not he was the first who had 
thenon and the Erechtheion on the Akropolis, and that title. This was about 857-^7. Shortly after- 
the yet well-preserved Hephssteion (or "temple of wards the archbishops received the higher title of 
Theseus", as it is incorrectly called) near the ancient metropolitan. Niketaswho took part in the Eighth 
agora. The Hephssteion was, in later times, sacred (Ecumenical Council under Basil the Makedonian, 
to St. George. Pittakis, a noted epigraphist of which closed 28 February, 870, and who signed the 
Athens in the early half of the last century, pub- acts of that council as " Niketas by the grace of God, 
lished an inscription which purports to state that Metropolitanof Athens", on his seals, or leaden bulls, 
in the year 630 the Parthenon was consecrated under simply places the inscription " Niketas, Bishop of 
thetitleof 'Uhe church of Divine Wisdom " (r^ *A7fat Athens . Amongst the signatures to the acts of 
Zo^tot)- ^ut Pittakis was very careless or cred- this council, that of Niketas stands twenty-second 
ulous at times in the copying of inscriptions. So in order. But in a full assembly of metropolitans 
we do not know with certainty what was the original he would not rank so high. According to the list 
title of this church. Possibly, from its first conver- made by Emperor Leon the Wise (88(^11), a list 
sion the Parthenon had been dedicated to the Pann- intendea to snow the relative rank of each ecclesi* 
gia. At least we learn from Michael Akominatos astical dignitary imder the Patriarch of Constanti- 
that in the twelfth century it was sacred to the nople, the Metropolitan of Athens is relegated to 
Mother of God. On the columns of this church, and the twenty-eighth place. Just what sees were under 
on its marble walls, especially around the doors, are the Archbishop of Athens prior to Photios is not 
numerous graffiti inscriptions which record various easy to discover. After the changes brought about 
events, many of them important for sacred and pro- by Photios and his successors, the sees tnat were 
fane history, such as the names and deaths of bishops, suffra^n to Athens varied in number from time to 
and public calamities. In these graffiti inscriptions, time. But in eeneral it may be stated that all of 
this church is called *^ the great church ". " the church Attika belongra directly to the Archbishop of Athens, 
of Athens", and the catnedral churcn, or ratfoXur^ after the abolishing of the See of Marathon, about 
iKKXriffla. All these appellations show that it was the middle of the nmth century. And imder Athens 
the metropolitan church of the city. In Greek usage, were, besides other bishoprics, the Sees of Evripos, 
the name Ka0o\iK69 or KadoXiidi ixxXriffla, was a title ap- Oreos, Karystos, and Porthmos in Evboea; Avion; 
plied to churches which were tl.e sees of bishops or Diavleia in Pholas, and Koroneiain Boeotia; Andros, 
archbishops. Skyros, Syros, and Seriphos of the islands; and, 

That the Parthenon was a church as far back as the later, Keos and ^gina. 

sixth century is proven by the cemeteir which lay From Photios down to the Franks the Metropoli- 

along its soutn side. This region was filled with Chris- tans of Athens were all of the Greek rite, naturally, 

tian graves, in some of which were found coins of a date Likewise their sympathies were rather with Constan- 

as early as the reign of Justinian. In order to fit the tinople than with older Rome. Their metropolitan 

Parthenon for a church, changes had to be made in it; church continued to be the ancient Parthenon. It 

an apse was built at the east end, and a great entrance seems that the residence of the bishops was on the 

perhaps two or three centuries elapsed before the very general esteem in Athens. No special erudition 

Athenians found it necessary to lavishly add to the characterized the clergy. Even the inscriptions 

number of large church edifices by erecting many which decorated the seals and buUs of bishops and ab- 

new ones. Then they followed the styles of eccle- bots were often most childishly misspelled. From 

siastical architecture which had been developed else- the time of Photios to the Franks the most noted 

where, and had become prevalent throughout so ecclesiastic was probably the last bishop, Michael 

much of the empire. From about the end of the Akominatos. He, however, was Athenian neither 

eighth century they erected new churches more fre- by birth nor by education. He came to Athens 

quently. Pefnaps the Empress Eirene, who was an expecting great things in the city of ancient wis- 

Atheman, gave some impulse to this tendencjr. As dom, but was disappointed. Still it is wrong to 

years went on, Athens and the surrounding villages say that Athens of the Middle Aees produced no 

of Attika, and the fields were filled with churches, scnolars and noted personages. Atbenats, who be- 

many of them veritable gems of Byzantine comdi- came queen to Theodosios in 421, and Eirene, who 

ness. The churches which were built in Athens and became empress in 780, were Athenians. From the 

vicinity during the Middle Ages numbered hundreds, sixth to the thirteenth century Athens was out and 


out a provincial town, exercising no influence on the trade centre than was Athens. Athens, however, was 
woiid at large, and almost unheard of in the politics considered important enough to be continued ai an 
of the day. Nevertheless, the Emperor Ebnstas on archbishopric. It thus was ranked in eoual dignity 
his way to Sicily in 662 spent the winter in Athens; with the other larger cities of Greece, sucn as Thebes, 
and after his victories over the Bulgarians in 1018, within de la Roche's dominion, and PatrcB and Kor- 
Basil II visited this city to celebrate his triumphs, inth in the Morea. The conquest of Greece was 
When, under Constantine, the Empire was divided accomplished in 1204 and 1205. 'The first Latin 
into governmental dioceses, the close relations which archbishop introduced the Latin ritual into the 
then were created between the Church and the State cathedral, the Parthenon, in the year 1206. This 
caused the ecdesiastical divisions to be often iden- was Archbishop Berard. Thus after a lapse of cen- 
tical with the civil. By this system all of Achaia, turies from the time of Leo the Isavrian, Greece 
wherein was Athens, was included within the Diocese and Athens were ^ain placed imder the junsdiction 
of Eastern lUyria^ of which Thessalonika was the of the Bishop of Home. During the Prankish rule 
capital. All of this Diocese of Eastern lUyria was the archbishops of Athens were without exception 
imder the direct jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, of the Latin Rite, and were of Western line^e. Like- 
And so it remained until the reign of Leo the Isav- wise the canons of the cathedral, in the Parthenon, 
rian. This emperor, incensed at Pope Gregorjr III, were of Latin Rite, and were Franks. Their number 
because of his strong opposition tx> Leo^ icono- was fixed by Cardinal Benedict, papal legate in 
clastic passion, retorteid against the pope by trans- Thessalonika, by order of Pope Innocent III. But 
ferring these countries of the lUvrian diocese from the ritual of the common priests was not disturbed, 
the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome to that of The people continued to enjoy their own rites, cele- 
the See of Constantinople. This occurred in the brated oy Greek priests in the Greek language, 
year 732. In this great struggle between the icono- These Greek priests liad, however, at least outwardly, 
dasts and the adherents to the use of the icons, to acknowleage the jurisdiction of the Latin arch- 
the Athenians placed themselves on the side of icon- bishop. Amongst the sees which were suffragan to 
olatry. While accepting without any recorded pro- the Archbishop of Athens were those of Chalkis, 
test their transference to the jurisdiction of the Thermopyle (or Bodonitsa) Davleia, Avion, Zorkon, 
ki^tem patriarch, they retained the images in their Karystos, Koroneia, Andros, Skyros, Kea, and Megara. 
churches and continued to venerate them. All the The last bishop of the Greek Rite was the learned 
inhabitants of Greece north of the Korinthiac Gulf, Michael Akominatos, who, when the Franks came, 
who then were called Helladikoi, or Helladians, were retired to the Island of Keos, after first visiting the 
opposed to the iconoclasts. Aiid their opposition cardinal legate of the pope in Thessalonika to im- 
was so determined that they fitted out an expedi- petrate certain favours for those formerly under his 
tion and manned a fleet, intending to attack Con- charge who wished to adhere to the Greek form of 
stantinople, depose Leo, and place their leader, worship. In Keos he lived as a monk in the raonas- 
Kosmas, on the throne. In this expedition, in which tery ot St. John the Baptist. To support the Latin 
the Athenians doubtlessly had an important part, archbishop, and the canons, and the cathedral church, 
assistance was given by the inhabitants of the Kyklad a number of posnessions were given to him. Amongst 
islands, who probably furnished most of the ships, these was the monastic property of KsBsariane, and 
The attempt, however, was futile. The fleet was the island of Belbina, which Pope Innocent III gave 
easily destroyed by the imperial ships in April, 727. to the Archbishop of Athens in 1208. The Prankish 
The mutual bitterness which was evinced in Con- cavaliers Jived in splendour in Thebes and Athens, 
stantinople by the contending parties of Photians The dignitaries of the Church lived in ease. Along 
and Anti-Photians was reflected here in Athens, with the coming of the Franks and the Latin Church 
Gregory II was archbishop when Ignatios was re- there came also Latin monks. The Cistercians e»- 
stored to his throne as Patriarch of Constantinople, tablished themselves near Athens in 1208 in the 
I^atios deposed him as being an adherent of Pno- beautiful monasterjr of Daphne, which previously 
tios. His successor, Kosmas, was also later deposed, was in the possession of Greek Basilian Fathers. 
Then Niketas, a Byzantine, came to Athens as arch- The Franciscans were the most active religious order 
bishop with the title of metropolitan. This Niketas in Greece during this period. There were also Do- 
was a supporter of Ignatios. His successor, Anas- minican convents. 

tasios, was a follower of Photios. Sabbas, who In the year 1311 another great change came over 

succeeded Anastasios, was likewise a Photian and Athens. The Franks were defeated by the Catalans 

was one of those who signed the acts of the synod in the swamps of the Kephisos in Boeotia. Athens, 

which closed in May, 880, by which Photios was with Thebes, became their possession. Under their 

again recognized as patriarch. A bull of his still sway, which lasted more than seventjr-five years, the 

exists, whereon he designates himself as " Metropoli- higher dignitaries of the Church continued naturally 

tan of Athens". to be Latins. In these days there were fourteen 

Throughout the East there was a peculiar type of suffragan sees under the Archbishopric of Athens, 

Panaffia-icon, copies of which might be seen in mon- and at the cathedral there were eleven or twelve 

asteries and churches in manv places. This was canons. In 1387 another change overtook Athens, 

the Panagia Oorgoepekoos, This Panagia Qorgoe- The Catalonian possessions came under the owner- 

fekoos seems to have been originally an Athenian ship of the Acciajoli, Florentines who had risen to 

icon, and was probably identical with an icon which eminence as bankers. The Acciajoli retained poe- 

was called the Panagia AthencBotissa. The Athen-' session of Athens until driven out by Omser Pasha, 

(EoiUsa was the Madonna of the church in the who in June of 1456 entered the citv and, in 1458, 

Parthenon. This icon is mentioned by Michael took possession of the Akropolis for his Sultan, 

Akominatos. Mohammed II. The only notable change in ecde- 

After the conquest of the Byzantine Empire by siastical matters under the Acciajoli was that they 

the Europeans of the Fourth Crusade, in the par- permitted two archbishops to reside in Athens, a 

titionment which followed, Athens and the rest Greek dignitary for the Catholics of the Greek Rite, 

of Greece were given to Boniface, King of Thes- and a Latin for the Franks. In this wa]f[ the defeo- 

salonika. Boniface gave Athens to one of his fol- tion of the Greeks of Athens from Roman jurisdiction 

lowers, Otho de la Roche. At their coming to was again a fact. The Latin archbishop lived in 

Athens the Franks found it small and insi^ficant. the CastrOf that is, on the Akropolis, and the Greek 

They chose Thebes to be the seat of civil power prelate had his residence in the lower city. Franco 

rather than Athens. Thebes was a more important Acciajoli was the last Duke of Athens. The last 


Latin archbishop was Nicholas Protimus. He died and an appendix (Athens, 1 004-06); Hopp. Oeaehichte Oriechen' 

in 1483. After his death Rome continued to ap- ^^da^om Beginn d^'^MituiaUerM buaiif^^^^ 

point titular Latin archbishops to the See of Atheik 1870); Gkorgiades l^opla r«F'A<?^r«i. (Athens); Nerodt- 

Cnder Turkish domination the Church and aU its ^^tJP^^'!^!'i ^mI^J^ !fLL^rK T*^' ^^^"^' 

_ _ _x :_ u_ i-1 I All Ai_ ee Ortena Cnruhanus; Mommsen, Athena ChnUuma (JjemKUt. 

property agam became Greek. All the suffragan sees 1868); Antonio Rubio t Lluch. La Expedicukt. y la Domino- 
were again filled by Greek bishops, and the monas- cuht <U lot Caialanoa en Oriente (Barcelona, 1883); GuLDEN- 

teries were agaih occupied by Greek monks. The f?oNB, L'Achaig j^niaU (Paris, 1886); KAMPouRooLoe, 

Parthenon, h6wever, was appropriated by the con- i*'^*''^ ^^^'^ 'AOvviop. TovpKOKparla (Ath^. 1889-93); 

querors, who converted it into a mosque. The Greek f^^\^^^' Icropla tu,p 'ABvyiop M TovpKOKpurlat 

bishops continued to live in the lower town, and ' Daniel Quinn 
during the latter half of the Turkish supremacy they 

usually resided near the church of the Panagia Gor- AthenB, modern diocese of. — ^The Greeks have 
goepekoos, which they used as a private chapel, long regarded their religion as a national affair. 
They lived elsewhere at times, however, for Fatner This notion is so deep-rooted that they cannot under- 
Babin mentions Archbishop Anthimos as living near stand how a citizen can well be a true Greek if he 
the church of St. Dionysios, which was at the foot gives his all^iance to any revision which is not that 
of the Aj-eopagos Hill. In Turkish times, as previ- of the Greek Church. At the present time the 
ously, the sees U9der Athens were not always the majority of Catholics who live within the Diocese 
same in number. Nor were they all identical with of Athens are therefore foreigners, or of foreign 
those that had been under the Latin archbishops, deecent. Of the foreigners who are Catholics, the 
Some of them were Koroneia, Salona, Bodonitsa, greater part are of Italian nationality. Most of those 
Davleia, Evripos, Oreos, Kaiystos, Porthmos, An- who are of foreign descent have come into Athens 
dros, Syra, and Skyros. and other portions of this diocese from the Islands of 
Amongst the religious orders that lived in Athens the .^ean and Ionian seas. The Catholics of these 
under Turkish rule were the Franciscans. They were islands are largely descendants of the Western con- 
there as early as 1658. But they had already been in querors who held possession of the islands for two 
Greece under the Franks. The Franciscans are to be or three centuries, or even longer, beginning with 
mentioned with the Dominicans as being the first the Fourth Crusade. As a rule, they are of Venetian 
Western Europeans who sent students to Athens and and Genoese descent. In these islands some of the 
other places in the East for the purpose of studying native Greeks, on account of the higher social and 
the language and literature of the Greeks. Another political standiue of the foreign element, accepted 
fact to the credit of the Franciscans of Athens is the Catholic Faith and obedience. From these con- 
that, although not primarily interested in antiquities, verted Greeks some Catholics in the Diocese of Athens 
they fruitfuUy contributed to the awakening of our are now descended. On three or four of the islands, 
interest in such studies. There appeared in Fans in outside of the Diocese of Athens, there are many 
the second hidf of the seventeenth century, a book by such Catholics who are pure Greeks, being descended 
Guillet or " de la Guilleti^re ", which is entirely based from converts to Catholicism in the time of the forei^ 
on information received from the Franciscans of feudal governments. These Catholics from the is- 
Athens. Franciscans sketohed the first plan of mod- lands are the nucleus of the future prosperity of 
em Athens. Considering how suspicious the Turks Catholicism in Greece, for gradually they are identify- 
were of any kind of description ot their possessions ing themselves with the good of the country and its 
and castles, it was quite a feat for the Franciscans to worthier ideals. Although they are still conscious of 
have made so eood a plan as they did. It was pub- their foreign extraction, or former foreign sympathies, 
lished by Guiflet in his book, "Athdnes, anciennes they now feel that their residence of centuries in 
et nouvelles'S 1675. In those days the Capuchins Greek territory has made them Greeks. The real 
had a comfortable monastery in Athens, which they foreign element is made up of those Catholics who 
built on groimd bought from the Turks in 165o, have migrated into Greece since it has become a free 
behind the choragic monument of Lysikrates. The country. These are chiefly Italians and Maltese, 
monument itself served them as their little library. Most of them are labourers who came to find employ- 
In this monastery many a traveller found hospitality, ment on the railroads and other public works, or to 
It was destroyed by fire in 1821, and the site is now live as fishermen or boatmen in the larger seaport 
owned by the French Government. The Jesuits were towns. The exact number of Catholics cannot easily 
also active in Athens. They came in 1645. It must be estimated. Possibly in the entire Diocese of 
be noted that it was Father Babin, a Jesuit, who Athens there are about 10,(XX), of whom about one- 
wrote the first careful account of the modem oondi- fourth attend church regularly. From amongst the 
tion of the ruins of ancient Athens. This he did in members of the Greek Church no converts are made 
a letter to the Abb6 P6coil, canon of Lyons. This to Catholicity. At least, they are extremely rare, 
letter was written 8 October, 1672. It was published It is against the positive and explicit law of the State 
with a commentary by Spon in 1674 under the title for any other church to make proselytes from the 
of " Relation de i'^tat pr^ent de la ville d'Athdnes". established Greek or Orthodox Church. In the first 
The Jesuits finally withdrew from Athens, leaving National Assembly, which was held at Epidavros in 
the entire field to the Franciscans. The Franciscans 1822, it was declared that the Orthodox Church is 
remained until the beginning of the war of the revolu- the state Church. This declaration was repeated in 
tion. In the time of Babin and Spon there were the A^embly at Trcezen in 1827. Such has been 
about two hundred churches in Athens, aU of the the strict law ever since. But, except that propa- 
Greek Rite, except the chapels in the monasteries eandism Is severely prohibited, the Catholic 
of the western monks. With the war of the insurreo- Church is perfectly free, is fairly treated, and highly 
tion, in 1821, ends the history of the older Church of resjpected. 

Athens. A new Latin archbishopric has again its Otho of Bavaria, the first kin^ of regenerated 

residence in Athens. ^See Athens, Modern Did- Greece, was a Catholic. In his reign the Catholics 

CESE OF.) Since 1833 the Church of the Greek Rite were few. But arrangements were made that the 

has undergone serious changes of jurisdiction, for it Catholics could have a place of worship wherever they 

no longer recognizes the leadership of the Patriarch existed in sufficient numbers. After Athens became 

of Constantinople, but is a national autocephalous the seat of government, in 1834, an abandoned 

church. Turkish mosque was given to the Catholics as a place 

GREooRoriTjB. OeachidUs der Siadt Aiken im MittelaUer ^^ "^^^^M' a ^l^^ jSr il "^ ^ a church, and is at- 
(Btuttgart. 1889), Greek tr. by Lamfbob, with additional notes tended chiefly by Maltese and Italians who live in 


and around the Old Harket, near tiiB Tower of the 
Winds. Masa is said there on Sundays and Holy Days 
by a. priest from the cathedral. After the lapse of 
aome rears, in 1876, an archbishopric was establisbed 
in Auiens. Thoee who have occupied this see are 
Archbishopa Marangoe, Zaffino, De Angdis, and 
Delendaa. De Angelis was an Italian ; ZaSno 
a native of Corfu ; all tbe other archbishops were 
bom in the £gean Islands. Within the Dioceee 
of Athens there ate now eight churches. Of these 
two are in Athens, and there is one in each of 
the towns of Peirsevs (the harbour of Athens); Patrte, 
the chief town of the Peloponneeos; Voice, the seaport 
of Theasaly; Lavrion (Ermsteria), in the silver mines 
of Attica; Uerakleion, a Bavarian settlement in At- 
tika; and Navplion in the Argolid. Most of the Cath- 
olics, however, are concentrated at Athens, Peirroevs, 
and ratrs. Of the two churches in Athens, one is 
the ancient mosque which Otho donated to the Cath- 
olics, and the ottier is the cathedral of St. Dionysios. 
It is a stone structure in basilica style, with a portico 
in front supported by marble columns. The interior 
is divided into three oaves separated from each other 
by rows of columns of Tenian marble. The apse has 
been frescoed. This cathedral was built with money 
sent from abro&d, especially from Rome. Besides 
the regular parishes there are missions here and there. 
Some years aco there were miasions at Kalamata, 
PyrgOB, and Kalamaki. The only considerable one 
at present is at Lamia. Within the Diocese of Athena 
there are at present eleven priests enKSsed in paro- 
chial work: four at the cathedral in Athena, two at 
Patne, and one at each of the churches of Pdneevs, 
Lavrion, Volos, Hen^eion, and Navphon. All oi 
them are secular priests. 

French sisters conduct schools for girls in Athens 
and at the Peireeevs, and Italian sisters have schools 
for girls at Patrm. They have boarders as well as 
day scholars. In the town of the Peineevs there is a 
Kpod school for boys conducted by French Salesian 
Fathers. Boardeis and day scholars are accommo- 
datedj and both classical and commercial courses 
are given. But the moat important school of the 
diocese is the Leonteion at Athens, founded by Pope 
Leo XIII, to supply ordinary and theological educa- 
tion for ail Greek-speaking Catholics. It embraces a 
preparatory department, an intermediate or " hellenio " 
school, a gymnasium or collie, and an ecclesiastical 
seminary. The average number of pupils and stu- 
dents for tbe past five years is about 175. The 
faculty consists of both priests and laymen. In its 
character as seminary, tne Leonteion receives stu- 
dents from other dioceses as well as from that of 
Athens. Previous to the establishment of the 
Leonttnon, candidates for the priesthood were edu- 
cated chiefly in the Propaganda, at Rome, and in a 
diocesan seminary which existed in the iCkean town 
of Syta. Tbe seminary at Syra has been cloeed, and 
it is now intended that all clerical training be given 
in the Leonteion and the Propaganda. 

The only pubhcation of noi« for the Catholics of 
this diocese is the "Harraonia ", a periodical devoted 
to Catholic interests. The " Harmonia" is supported 

7 ATH08 

the Anthropological Museum of Athens. There an 
in Greece no Uniat Greek Cathohcs. All are of tbe 
Latin Rite. This is because most of these Catholid 
ore from the Wes*., either by descent or by birth, and 
they have kept thrir own Western rite. It mi«ht 
he Detter for Catholicism in Greece if the Catholics 
were to adopt the native rite, and to have their 
liturgy in the liturgical language of the country. 
But many of the Catholics of Athens would r 

point of view, and would consider a denial of tl 
Italian, or other Western, origin. 

Damibl Qunnr. 
Athlaa, Joseph, b. in Spain, probably in Cordova, 

at the beginning of the seventeenth century; d. at 
Amsterdam, 12 May, 1700. In 1661 and 1667 he 
issued two editions of the Hebrew Bible. Thoufb 
carefully printed^ they contain a number of mistakes 
in the vowel points and the accents. But as they 
were based on the earlier editions compared with the 
best manuscripts, the^ were the foundation of all 
the subsequent editions. The copious mai|dnal 
notes addea by Jean de Leusden, professor at Utrecht, 
are of little value. The 1667 edition was bitteriy 
attacked by the Protestant savant, Samuel De»> 
marets; Athiaa answered the charges in a work whose 
title begins: "Cxcus de coloribus". He published, 
also, some other works of importuice, such as the 
"Tikkun Sepher Torah", or the "Order of the Book 
of the Law'', and a Judso^erman tnuislation of the 
Bible, The latter involved Athias in a competition 
with Uri PhiEbus, a question that has been discussed 
but cannot be fuUy cleared up at this late date. 

Heuhtehue in Via.. I>ict. de la BMt (Pariii. 189S); Th* 
Jewitk Eneudoptdia (New York and London, 1«03). II. 

A. J. Maab. 
AUiOB, MouNT.^AthoB is a small tonsue of land 
that projects into the ^Egean Sea, being the eastem- 
-r .1 _ .1 _._!__ .-J which the s 

smaU a Catholic 

other accomplishments, speaks two or three other 
languages as well as the vernacular Greek of the 
country. Amongst the laymen special mention 
should be mode of the brothera Kyparissoe Stephanos 
and Klon Stephanos. Kyparissoe, a mathematician 
whose fame extended far beyond the confines of 
Greece, was mode a professor in the National Uni- 
versity. His brother Klon, an anthropolcwist of 
repute, engaged in special historical, arcnsological, 
and anthropological researches, became director of 

MoHisT^T o* EsraiQiisKON, HointT Aratm 

interspersed with alluvial plains. It has been well 
called "a Greece in miniature", because of the varied 
contour of its coasts, deep bays and inlets, bold cliffs 
and promontories, steep wooded slopes, and valleys 
winding inland. Several cities existed here in pre- 
Christian antiquity, and a sanctuary of Zeus (Jupiter) 
is said to have bUxkI on the mountain. The istlunus 
was famous for the canal (3,950 feet in length) which 
Xerxes had dug across it, in order to avoid the 

Krilous turning of the limestone peak tmmemorially 
own as Mount Athos, in whicti the small penl^ 
sula ends, and which rises to a height of some 6^000 
feet. From the summit of this peak on a clear dav 

ATH08 48 ATH08 

are visible the coasts of Macedonia and Thrace, even ministration of their temporal possessions, and their 

the entire JEgesok from Moimt Olympus in Thessaly commercial activity. By the imperial document 

to Mount Ida in Asia Minor. It is the mountain that (typicon) which he issued, women are forbidden the 

the architect Dinocrates offered to turn into a statue peninsula, a prohibition so strictly observed since 

of Alexander the Great with a city in one hand and that time that even the Turkish aga, or official, who 

in the other a perennially flowing spnnf. Medieval resides at Karyaes (Caries) may not take his harem 

Greektraditiondesignateditasthe high mountain" with him. About the year 1100 the monasteries 

from which Satan tempted Our Loni. Its chief of Mount Athos were 180 in number, and sheltered 

modem interest lies in the fact that at least from 700 monks, with their dependents. At this time 

the beginning of the Middle Ases it has been the there came into general use the term Hagion Oro8 

home of a little monastic republic that still retains (Holy Mountain, dyiop Bpot^ Monte Santo), Alexius I 

almost the same autonomy granted a thousand years ^ranted the monasteries immunity from taxation, 

ago by the Christian emperors of Constantinople, freed them from all subjection to the Patriarch of 

In 1905 the many fortified monasteries and her- Constantinople, and placed them imder his immediate 

mitages of Athos contained 7,553 monks (including protection. Tney still depended, however, on the 

their numerous male dependents), members of the neighbouring Bishop of Hierissus for the ordination 

Orthodox Greek Church: Greeks, 3,207; Russians, of their priests and deacons. Alexius also chose to 

3,615; Bulgarians, 340; Rumanians, 288; Georgians, be buried on the Holy Mountain among the brethren 

53; Servians, 18; other nationalities 32. The prin- (1118). A century later, after the capture of Con- 

dpal monasteries bear the following names: Laura, stantinople (1204), the Latin Crusaders abused the 

Iviron,Vatopedi,Chilandarion,St.Dio]^sius,Coutlou- monks, who thereupon appealed to Innocent III; 

mousij Pantocrator, Xiropotamos, Zographu, Do- he took them under his protection and in his letters 

cheianon, Caracalla, Philotneos, Simopetra. St. Paul, (xiii, 40; xvi, 168) paid a tribute to their monastic 

Stauroniceta, Xenophon, Gregorios, Espnigmenon, virtues. However, with the restoration of Greek 

St. Panteleimon, St. Anna (Rossicon), and Ita^aes. political supremacy the monks returned (1313) to 

HiSTORT. — ^The origins of monastic life on Mount their old allegiance to Constantinople. 

Athos are obscure. It is probable that individual In the fourteenth century a pseudo-spiritualism 

hermits sought its lonely recesses during the fourth akin to that of the ancient Euchites or Messalians, 

and fifth centuries, and were numerous m the ninth culminating in the famous Hes^xhast controversies 

century at the time of the first certain attempts at (see Hbstchabic; Palamas), greatly disturbed the 

monastic ormmization. The nearest episcopal see mutual harmony of Greek monasteries, especially 

was that of Hierissus, and in conformity with an- those of Mount Athos. one of whose monks, Callistus, 

cient law and usage its bishop claimed jurisdiction had become Patriarch of Constantinople (1350-54) 

over the monks of the little peninsula. In 885 Em- and in that office exhibited great severity towards the 

peror Basil the Macedonian emancipated them from opponents of Hcsychasm. Racial and * national 

the jiuisdiction of the monastery of St. Colobos near discord between the Greeks and the Servians added 

Hierissus, and allotted to them Mount Athos as their fuel to the flames, and for a while the monks were 

property. Soon after, the oldest of the principal a^ain subjected to the immediate supervision of 

monasteries, Xiropotamos, was built and adopted the Bishop of Hierissus. In the meantime the Palseo- 

the rule of St. Basil. Saracen pirates disturbed the logi emperors at Constantinople and the Slav princes 

monks in the ninth and tenth centuries, but imperial and nooles of the Balkan reninsula continued to 

Athanaaius of Trebizond, later known as Athonites. refuge amonff the monks in the hope of forgetting 
With several companions from Asia Minor he founded the cares and responsibilities of his office. Amid the 
bv the seashore the monastery since known as Laura, political disasters of the Greeks, during the fourteenth 
wnere he raised the monastic life to a hiffh degree of century. Mount Athos appears as a kind of Holy 
perfection. Eventually the new settlement was Land, a retreat for many men eminent in Church 
accepted as a model. With the help of the imperial and state, and a place where the spirit of Greek 
authority of John Tzimisces (969-976) all opposition patriotism was cherished when threatened elsewhere 
was set aside and the CGenobitic or community life with ruin (Krumbacher, 1058-59). This period was 
imposed on the hermits scattered in the valleys and also marked by the attempts of the monastery of 
forests. Athanasius was made abbot general or Karyaes to secure a pre-eminence over the others, 
superior (Protos) of the fifty-eight monastic com- the final exclusion of the Bishop of Hierissus from 
munities then on the mountain. From this period the peninsula, fresh attacks from freebooters of all 
date the monasteries known as Iviron (Iberians), kinds, and the foundation of several new monas- 
Vatopedi, and Esphigmenon. At this time, also, there teries: Simopetra, Castamonitu, St. Paul, and St. 
arose a cause of intemad conflict that has never Dionysius. The Fall of Constantinople (1453) 
been removed. Hitherto only one nationality, the brought no modification of the conditions on the Holy 
Greek, was represented amon^ the monks. Hence- Mountain. The monks, who had stubbornly opposed 
forth Slavic faith and generosity, and later on Slavic all attemipts at reunion with the Apostolic See, sub- 
interests, had to be considered. The newly con- mitted at once to the domination of the Osmanli, 
verted Slavs sought and obtained admission into the and, with rare exceptions, have never been interfered 
recently opened monasteries: before long their with by the Turkish authorities. The hospodars of 

Srinces in the Balkan Peninsula began to foimd in- Wallacnia remained as ever their friends and bene- 

ependent houses for Slavic monks. In this way factors. Thoiigh the monks sympathized with the 

arose during the reign of Alexius I (1081-1118) Greeks in the War of Indepencience (1822-30), their 

the strictly Slavic monasteries of Chilandarion and estates on the Greek mainland were secularized by 

Zographu. The Byzantine emperors never ceased Capo dlstria and a similar fate has overtaken their 

to manifest their interest in the little monastic r&- properties in the Danubian principal cities. They 

public and even profited politically by the imiversal still hold numerous farms and properties in certain 

esteem that the religious brotherhood enjoyed islands of the Archipelago and on the mainland 

throughout the Christian world. (Kaulen in Kirchenlex., I, 1557-59; Bayet in Grande 

With the aid of the Patriarch of Constantinople, Encycl., s. v. Athos). 

in 1046, Constantino Monomachos reflated the Constitution and Government. — ^This monastic 

domestic government of the monastenes, the ad- republic is governed by an assembly «)f 20 members, 

Jtonaateries; from omonK these ia elected aiuii 
and in due rotation, a committee of 4 preaidents. 
The great seal of the united monasteries ie in four 
pieces and ia divided amoDg the members of this 
committee. One of the memberB is chosen as chair- 
man, or Prvlot. Meetings of the assembly are held 
weekly (Saturday), at Karyaes, and the assemblv 
act« aa a supreme parliament and tribunal, witn 
appeal, however, to the patriarch at Constantmople. 

bitic" (mttfiiof, eaiubium, common life), tlkere 
is a greater monastic rigour. The superior, or ho^u- 
menoB (i^yod^m), haa absolute authority, anci all 
property is held in common. The chief occupation 
of the monks is that of solemn public prayer, by 
night and by day, i. e. recitation of the Divine Office, 
corresponding to the solemn choir-service of the 
Latin Church. (See Greek Ritb, Bseviart, Psal- 
iioDY.) This leaves little time for agricultural, in- 
dustrial, or intellectual labour. Some fish, or practise 
minor industries in aid of the common support, or 
administer the monastic eetat«8 located elsewhere; 
others go abroad occasionally to collect a part of 
the yeuiy tribute (about two dollars and a half) 
that each monk must pay to the Turkish Govern- 
ment. A portion of this is collected from the monks 


I OF Haoios PATLOe, OB St. Faui., Uohht 

The Turkish Government is represented by an agent 
at Karyaes, the diminutive capital of the peninsula 
and the landing-place for visitors. A detachment 
of Christian soldiers is usually stationed there, and 
no one may land without permission of the monastic 
authorities. The monks l^ve also an agent at Salo- 
niki and another at Constantinople. Almost the only 
source of cont«ntion among them is the rivalry be- 
tween the Greeks, inheritors of old traditions and 
customs, and the Russians of the great monastery 
of Roaaicon (St. Anna), representative of the wealth, 
powiT, and interests of their church and country, 
and generously supported from St. Fetersbui^. In 
its present form the constitution of the monasteries 
dates from 1783. 

Monastic Life. — Each of the twenty great monas- 
teries (twenty-one, including Karyaes} possesses its 
own liurge church and numerous chapels witUn and 
without its enclosure, which is stronKly fortified, re- 
calling the feudal burgs of the Middle Ages. The 
high walls and strong towers are reminders of the 
troubled times of the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- 
turies when corsairs abounded and self-defence was 
imperative. All of the great monasteries are on the 
Holy Mounttdn proper, and ore most picturesquely 
situated from sea to summit, amid dense masses of 
oak, pine, and chestnut, or on inaccessible crags. 
To each of these monasteries is attached a certain 
number of minor monasteries (ffn^ai, amxUria), 
email monastic settlements {KaeiaitarB.), and her- 
mitages (iMXXIa, ceito). Every monastic habitation 
must be affiliated to one or the other of the great 
monasteries and ia subject to its direction or super- 
vision. All monasteries are dedicated to the Mother 
of God, the larger ones under some specially signifi- 
cant title. The ancient Greek Rule of St. Basil is still 
followed by all. 

In the obnervance of the Rule, however, the greater 
monasteriea are divided into two classes, some fol- 
lowing strictly the ccenobitic life, while others per- 
mit a larKcr personal freedom. The latter are called 
"idiorhytcunio"; in them the monks have a right 
of personal ownership and a certain share in the 
government of the monastery (Council of Elders); 
they take their meals apart, and are subject to less 
severe regulations. In the former, known as " cceno- 
II.— 4 

from affiliated monasteries in the BalKan Peninsula, 
Georgia, and Russia. The generosity of the Greek 
futhful is also a source of revenue, for Mount Athos 
is one of the most sacred pilgrimage sites of the entire 
Greek Church, and the feasts of the principal monas- 
teries are always celebrated with great pomp. It 
may be added that the monks practise faithfully 
the monastic virtue of hospitality. The usual name 
for the individual monk here, as elsewhere in the 
Greek Orient, is Kalogeroa (good old man). In their 
drras the monks do not differ from other communities 
of Greek BasiUans. 

AncHrTECTCRE AND TBE Arts. — Most of the build- 
ings of Mount Athos are comparatively modem. 
Yet, because of the well-known conservative char- 
acter of the monks, tbeee edifices represent with much 
fidelity the Byiantine architecture, civil and religious, 
of the tenth to the fourteenth century. The churches 
are very richly adorned with columns and pavements 
of marble, frescoed walls and cupolas, decorated 
screens, etc; there ore not many mosaics. Some of 
the smaller oratories are said to be the oldest extant 
specimens of private architecture in the West, apart 
from the houses of Pompeii. The ecclesiastical art of 
the Greek Orient is richly represented here, with all 
its religious reepect, though also with all its immobile 
conservatism and its stem refusal to interpret in- 
dividual feeling in any other forms than those made 
sacred by a long line of almost nameless monastic 
painters like Ponselinos and confided by hie dis- 
ciples to the famous "Painters' Book of Mount 
Athos" (see Didron, Manuel d'iconographie chr6- 
tienne, Paris, 1S5S). Though there is not in the 
935 churches of the peninsula any art-work older 
than the sixteenth century (Bayet) their frescoes, 
small paintings on boards, gilt and jewelled metal 
work, represent with almost unswerving accuracy 
the principles, spirit, and details of medieval Byzan- 
tine art as applied to religious uses. 

Libraries. — Each monastery possesses its own 
library, and the combined treasures make up a unique 
collection of ancient manuscripts (Montfaucon, 
Palffiographia Gneca, Paris, 1748, 441 sqq.). By 
far the richest in this respect is the Russian monas- 
tery of Saint Anna (Rosaicon). Some of the mora 
valuable ctaaaical Greek manuscripts have been pur- 
chased or otherwise secured by travellers (Naumann, 
"Serapeum", X, 252; Duchesne, "M^moire Bur une 
mission au Mont Athos", Paris, 1878; Lambros, 
"Catalogue of the Greek Manuscripts on Mount 
Athos", Cambridge, 1895, 1900), It was in this way 
that the text 01 Ptolemy first reached the West. 
Similarly, the oldest manuscript of the second-cen- 
tury Christian text known as "The Shepherd of 
Hermas'' came from Mount Athos. The manu- 
scripts now in possession of the monks have chiefly 
an ecclesiastical value; their number is said to be 
about 8,000. There are also in the library and 
archives of each monastery a great many documents 


(donations, privileges, deeds, charters) in Greek, Atkinson, James, Catholic confessor, tortured to 

Geoiigian, and Old-Slavonic, beginning with the death in Bridewell prison in 1595. His pathetic and 

ninth oenturv, some of which are important for the romantic story tells us nothing of his early life, but 

historian of Byzantine law and of the medieval Greek he is found in the Bridewell prison, one of the worst 

Church (Miklosich and Milller, Zacharia von Lin- in London, and delivered over to Topcliffe, the no- 

genthal, Uspenskij). The monks of Mount Athos torious priest-hunter, who was trying to wring out 

are somewhat indifferent towards these treasures; from him, by torture, evidence on ^ich he might 

nothing has been done to make them accessible, accuse his master, Mr. Robert Barnes, who then held 

except the unsuccessful attempt of Archbishop Bui- Mapledurham House, of having entertained priests, 

garis of Corfu to found at Mount Athos, towards ana in oarticular the future martyr, Venerabte John 

the close of the eighteenth century, a school of the Jones, 0. S. F. Yielding to torment, Atkinson ac- 

classical languages. The monasteries conduct a cused his master of having done so, but shortly after 

few elementary schools for the teaching of reading repented, and was lost in despair, knowing on the 

and writing; nowhere, perhaps, is the intellectual one hand that Topcliffe would torture him again, 

stagnation of the Greek Schism more noticeable, perhaps unto death, and on the other fearinf that no 

The monks are chiefly devoted to the splendour of priest could possibly come to confess ana absolve 

their religious services; the solitaries still cherish nim before his conflict. Unknown to him, however, 

Hcsychast ideas and an apocalyptic mysticism, and a Jesuit Father happened to be in the same prison, 

the whole monastic republic represents just such an This was Father William Baldwin (or Bawaen). a 

intellectual decay as must follow on a total exclusion man who afterwards filled important positions in nis 

of all outside intercourse and a complete neglect order. He had been arrestea on suspicion while on 

of all intellectual effort (Kaulen). shipboard, and had assumed the part of an Italian 

ATHEL8TAN KiLET.AthoM, the Mountain oftheMonkt (Lon- merchant unacquainted with the English language, 

t^ijZ'^S^TMVIS^i^S^I;:^^'^^^^^ f|nd with such 8uccee8 that he wm on the ^Snt oi 

DB VooO£, Syne, Palatine et Mont Atho9 (Paris, 1878); Ney- bemg exchanged for an English officer who had been 

RAc, L'4(Ao«(Ppw. 18M); Kaulen mjKtrd^ captured by the Spaniards on board the Dainty. 

UKXlsXLmZetUchr.f.KvrchenaeBch. (1890), XI, 305-435; Krum- AHfinann'a H« iviif Fat^hftr RnlHwin intn a nimn- 

BACHBR. Getck, der hyzant, Zitt. (2d ed., Munich, 1887), 611- AtKmson s uespaiT put ^atner J5aiawin into a quan- 

515, 1058-50; Schmidtke. Dob Kloaterland dea Atho9 (1003); dary. It was evident that he was at best a weak- 

amonff older works. Fallmerater. Fro^wMynte auM dem Orient Hng, perhaps a traitor in disguise. To speak to such 

^i^%'i:^kJi,"Si kI^ ^•dJ^*<SS:5?a«2i.S * one in Eni^lish. and much more to own to him tlmt 

sis, 1801); and for photosraphs of the principal sites, besides he was a pnest, would be tO endanger his life. So 

the above quoted works, Vom FeU gum Meer (1802), 10-20. he tried to comfort him, at firet through a fellow- 

Thomas J. Shahan. prisoner who knew Latin, and finall^^ offered to bring 
Atiensa, Juan de, b. at Tordehumos, near Valla- nim a priest. The poor sufferer's joy was so great 
dolid, in Spain, in the year 1546, eldest son of the that the missionary ventured to creep to his Hbed- 
Toyal Councillor of Castile, Bartolom^ de Atienza, side that night and tell him that he was a priest, 
a very distinguished jurisconsult under Charles V. Then Atkinson held back, either out of suspicion 
He studied law in the celebrated University of Sala- or because, as he said, he was not prepared. Father 
mancA, but in 1564 forsook the l^al career in order Baldwin's fears were reawakenea, but next night 
to become a Jesuit. While in Spain, he already the penitent made his confession with evident con- 
occupied distinguished positions. He was Prefect tritlon, was soon again tortured, and died under or 
of the College of Avila. Procurator of the Province shortly after the torment. Atkinson's cause has been 
of his order, founder ot the College of Villa Garcfa, proposed for Beatification, but evidence for his final 
its rector and master of novices, and rector of the perse verence, though very necessary, is naturally 
College of Valladolid. While thus honourably placed nard to find. 

in hb mother country, he became informed of a call ^ Challoneb, MMonary Prieau (1864), II, 180; Dodd, 

for fifty Jesuite to be sent to Pern in the interests of I'^'^f^^^^., i£^£."o^^"^,Sir W^r^^^SX^ 

religion and of the Indians. Father Atienza at once accounu lor 1694, roll 106b. 

asked permission to become one of their number. J. H. Pollen. 

He reached Lima in 1581 and found there his ap- ..,. xt • x j -^ • i_ li 

pointment as rector of the College of San Pablo. ^ AtidiiBon,NiCTOLi!^ pnest a^^^ 

In that capacity he was surrogate to the Provincial, ^ *^t^*X?^* u .- ^®S® u i , J*™Sf u^ 

Father Baltasar de PifXas, and founded, under the ?^''\ Dodd, who mmitions Nicholas s death as hav- 

was confirmed by Pope Sixtus V, in 1588. and js no corroboration for Dodd s date of Nichols mar- 
Father Atienza became its first rector. In 1585 he ^"^^^^'.Ai ^"^- P. ^iS'xi- ^7®*"' ^^xt- ^n 
was made Provincial of the Jesuits in Peru. He was an old Manan priest named Nicholas, or " Nmny", 

at once began to foster and extend the missions in -^^^??°?..^^^i%T, ^it ,ta 

Ecuador, the Gran Chaco, Tucuman, and Paraguay. ^•''' ^'^'*^ ^**'^' "' ^^^' j jj Pqllen 
Out of these efforts the province of Paraguay was 

bom in 1607. During that period a printing press AtUnson, Paul of St. Francis. — One of the 

was established by the Jesuits at the Indian vulage notable confessors of the English Church during the 

of JuH. Jointly with Father Jos^ de Acosta he di- age which succeeded the persecution of blood. Hav- 

rected the publication of catechisms and textbooks ing been condemned to perpetual imprisonment for 

of Christian doctrine for the use of t>o Indians, his priesthood, about the year 1699, he died in con- 

These r^igious ''primers" were printed oetween finement after having borne its pains for more than 

the years 1583 and 1590, at Lima. They are in thirty years. He was of a Yorkshire family and 

Spenish, Quichua. and Ajrmard. was called Matthew in baptism. He joined the Eng- 

Anello Oliva, Hiatoria del Perv y Varonea Huabrf de la lish Franciscan Convent at Douai in 1673, and had 

L""(5^?f»^/?^ilS';,iJS£^TuLfi*658'rrS«^^ served with distinction on the English mission for 

DE c<5ri>ova Salinas, Cor&nica de la Relioiotieima Provincia twdve years, when he was betrayed by a maid- 

de loB Doce apdetolea del Peru (Lima, 1651); Mendibdr^, servant for the £100 reward. One governor of his 

2JSS;ryJ.fci''^L'lL?i.^"?S8%^^^^ Pri^n. Hurst Castle on the Solent, allowed, him to 

HiUoriade la fundacuin de Lima (1639; Lima, 1882). walk outside the prison walls; but complaint WBfl 

Ad. F. Bandeueh. made of this and the leave was revoked. 


and he was con- 

rfl&.TaV)K?i°BJl^6;T,;^Lin«Kc^i;;^^^ denied to be hanged, Jniwn, jmd quartered. He 

Siog., 11. 22i; Canow^ Bibl. Diet. Sno. Ca(k.. 1. 9i. suffered With wonderful patience, courage, and 

J. H. Pollen. constancy, and signs of great comfort ". 

»»«_4_.__ a.„.„ _i,;i .1 . . ... . CBAiAMniat, Mitnonary Pne»U, 11, 51; Oum>w, BM. Diet. 

AtUnson, Sarah, philanthropist and biographer, of Engl. Caa., i, 86. 
b. at Athlone, Ireland, 13 October, 1823; d. Dublin, Patrick Rtan. 

8 July, 1893. She was the eldest daughter of John •» //-, ... . , ^ • j- • • 

and Anne Gaynor, who Kved on the western bank u, n ^:r^^n ' Pn*a*>ve, and t<m~, cut; mdivwi- 

of the Shannon, in that part of Athlone which is in '^V)-. Pnn>anly. the smallest particle of matter 

the County Roscommon. At the age of fifteen, she ^.^ich can exist: the ultimate and smallest division 

wmoved With her family to DuBUn, where her °f ,"^,*'*'"v"l physia sometimes the anallest par- 

Jducation was completed. At twenty-five, she mar- i"=L • if^ a substance caji theoretically be re- 

ried Dr. George Atkinson, part pioprieti)r of the f^'^' "» chemistry, the smallest I«rticle of matter 

"Freeman's Journal". The loss of fier only child i.H*,.'^ *"^'' '^..^^^waat'on with other atoms 

in his fourth year so deeply affected Mrs. Atkinson bu'Wmg up or constituting molecule. Two opposite 

that she resolved to spend the rest of her life in chart- doctrmes of the constitution of matter were held by 

teble and other goodTworks. With her friend, Mre. ^ ."^^lent philpsoDhers. One was that matter 

EUen Woodlock, she interested herself in the female ^^ 'F^^Jr divisible without losing its distinctive 

paupere of the South Dublin Union, and opened a and .individual properties. This is the doctnne of 

tome to which many were transfelred arid were JS^V 5^ or homoeomery. AnaxMoras is given as 

made useful members of society. Her house in Drum- **»« founder of this view of the constitution of things, 

condra soon became the rendezvous for the charitably Accordmg to it any substance, such as wood or 

disposed. It was even more a Kterary saton. Here ZV^!' "^l.^Z "^ Pi?*^ of subdivision, however 

she^repared her life of Mary Aikenhead which far it might be earned, be made to be anything but 

Mr.W.kH. Lecky has wanily commended, and »««« of wood or water, Infinite subdivision would 

here she wrote her liiany valuable essgrs. Forlnany not reach itehinit of divisibihtv Democntus and 

yeare she translated intbEngUsh the French "Annafe °*'^." k^k ^K*? •'^k^ j"^!!** P*'**'^ii5 

of the Propagation of the F«th ". Much of her time °J**<*' ^^J.^** ."^'f indivisible and the^ were caUed 

was devotdf to visiting the hospitals and poor t*""**- This >8 the doctnne of atomicity, upheld ^ 

people at their homes, and to other beneficent pur- fcPJ,""^ '"1 f.'^JjSfd «",'>y,L"«'!*Til?*K^ *?* 

^. To her is largely due the success of the ^^"^ Naturi '.. The early atomwta held that the 

Childrens* Hospital, Temple Street, DubHn. The ?*?'^ ''?"' "«' '? intact but th*t voids existed 

management of the Sodality of the Children of Mary, ^^^^ *^;*J"' cJf"n«g that otherwise motion would 

attached to the Chureh of St. Francis Xavier, was one be impossible. Ainong the modems, Descartes and 

of her particular pleasures. To the Hospice for the ffno^^ "**''T^ *° «>nt'nuity. Lfibiute upheld 

Dying, at Harold^ Cross, she was a constant bene- "5*',? ,7' *"** ^STX"^ 'T* to the kst extreme 

factrSs. Even her writings were made to serve the ^[^^ l^^'^' ^^ defined atoms as centres of force, 

great objects of her life In Duffy's "Hibernian ^«SK^« t^"*™ **>« attnbute of impenetrabihty. 

Magazine", 1860-64, "The Month ",1864-65, "The ,kH ^ ♦? • "^"^ -"^fi^^T j?^Ti ^^c'V'*. b°We 

NaUon", 1869-70, the "Freeman's Journal" 1871, *** ,'»**'*/ ** 12* voGmtely divisible; that there is 

and in the "Irish Monthly" after its inception ui ^J^l"^^ P*"*'"'* °J ,*''*T ''^^'^- ," J^" 

to be found many important essays by her, chiefly ^'^J^ " broken up. that particular fonn of matter 

biographical and historical. Some of her earliest f^, ^ '^^^^'i' ^ P?'*.":'* is the molecule. 

anJ longest essays appeared in the "Irish Quarterly J* "" composed of Miother division of matter caUed 

Review'^; the best o/them are included in her volume *^« ?*°"V Generally, probably always, a molecule 

of "EssaVs" (DubUn, 1895). Her "Life of Mary consists of several atoms. The atoms umte to form 

Aikenhead", modestly pubfished with her initiiQ molecules and cannot exist except as constituents of 

only, appea^d in 1879, and is one of the best Catholic «»<»lecule8. If a molecule of any substance were 

biog^apfoes in English Her "Essays" include com- J'~'«» "P- *»«» substance wouW cease to exist and 

plete Snd leameS dissertations on such diverrant !f»^'*if*i*1f,"KL*^",^!^P"" '?^ %J^ "?**' 

subjects as "St. Furaey's Life and Visions ", "T-he Sl^ ^P'^.^'l^' T*'*'?^ °', '"<'/**'*^- .^^*'^.'« * 

Geiildines", "The Efittamondo", " Devorgilla ", !!''teLl? ^^^m^f Vfe ^i^r "^r** 

" Eugene O'Cuny ", " Irish Wool and Woolens ^. " St ?» ,"^^^^'^*'^ f ® .***i? "' *^ *»^*? philosophers; 

Bridpt", and excellent biographies of the sculptora ''"* the modem atomic theoiy Imw given the mole- 

John^enry Foley and John fio^n, the best acco^unts "■'« » different status from that.of the old-time atom, 

yet writtei of those great artfste. Indeed most of t'^.' f . ^ .«» "f*"™^ science, has a specific 

these essays are the b^t studies we have on the vari- "»c*°F8 ^*^HP«J the theoiy of chemistry This 

ous subj«it8. Her "Citizen Saint" (St. Catherine !?5??"'«,'^-.°"^*!fv. Vif**^"* ^^t^ '" ^^ *fl '^^ 

„f □:„«.< ^^.,.^1^ . k....j.>.yi .^.noo .n/1 s. . .n/w» HWio-activity, but thc foUowiug Will servB as a dcflni- 

2>te sSSii^ and IS a moA ^j^^ j^ j^ ^^ ^^^^ p^.^^ ^j ^ ^^^^^ ^^^j^ 

MolhollakZ* in the Freeman; Journal file* (Dublin, can exist in a compound. An atom cannot exist 

July, 1803), and prefatory memoir in the Efat/K Tinah. alone as sucb. Atoms combine With each other to 

/rtrt/iuton«i<fafi<,6lee (Dublin, July, 1893); The InJi UontUu form molccules. The molecule is the smallest 

(Dublm. November. l893)-a full Im °f,%^'"?J^ particle of matter which can exist without losing ite 

' ' ' distinctive properties. It corresponds pretty closely 

AtUnaon, Thouab, Yen. martyred at York, to the old Epicurean atom. The modem atom is an 

11 March, 1616. He was b. in the East Riding of entirely new conception. Chemistry teaches tliat 

Yorkshire, was ordained priest at Reims, and the thousands of forms of matter upon the earth, 

returned to his native country in 1588. We are idmost infinite in variety, can be resolved into about 

told that he was unwearied in visiting his flock, eighty substances, unalterable by chemical processes 

especially the poor, and tjecame so well known and possessing definite spectra. These substances, 

that he could not safely travel by dav. He always are called elemente. The metals, iron, gold, silver, 

went i^oot until, having broken his leg, he had to and others, sulphur, and carbon are familiar examples 

ride a horse. At the age of seventy he was be- of elements, A mass of an element is made up of a 

trayed, and carried to York with his host, Mr. collection of molecules. Each molecule of an ele- 

Vavasour of WilUtoft, and some members of the ment as a mle is composed of two atoms. Elements 

'<tmily. A pair of beiads, and the form of an in- combine to form compound substances of various 


numbers of atoms in the molecule. Water is an text-books. The relations of the atomic wei^ts 

example of a compound substance, or chemical com- to each other are severaL The atom of lowest 

poima. Its molecule contains three atoms; two weight is the hydrogen atom. It is usually taken 

atoms of hydrogen, and one atom of oxygen. If a as one, which is very nearly its exact value if oxygen 

quantity of these two elements were mixed, the re- is taken as sixteen. On this basis one quarter of 

suit would be a mechanical mixture of the molecules the other elements will have atomic weights that are 

of the two. But if heat, or some other adequate whole numbers. This indicates a remarkable am- 

cause were made to act, chemical action would fol- plicity of relationship of weights, which is carried out 

low, and the molecules, splitting up, would combine oy the close approach of the rest of the elements to 

atom with atom. Part of a molecule of oxygen — the same condition, as regards their atomic weights, 

one atom — ^would combine with part of two mole- The ranee of the atomic weights is a narrow one. 

cules of hydrogen — two atoms. The result would be That of nydrogen is 1.008 — that of uranium 238.5. 

the production of a quantity of molecules of water. The latter is the heaviest of all. Between these all 

Each water molecule contains one atom of oxygen the other atomic weights lie. Many of the elements 

and two atoms of hvdrogen. The splitting-up of resemble each other in their chemical relations. It 

the elemental molecules into atoms is synchronous might appear that those nearest to each otiier in 

with their combining into molecules, so that an atom atomic weight should be of similar properties. This 

never exists alone. The molecules of the elements, is not the case. If the elements are written down 

oxygen and hydrogen, have disappeared, and in in the order of their atomic weights, beginning with 

their places are molecules of water. There are the lightest and ending with the heaviest, it will be 

about eighty kinds of atoms known, one kind for found that the position of an element in the series 

each element, and out of these the material world is will indicate pretty clearly its properties. The 

made. elements will be found to be so arranged in the list 

iNVARiABiLmr OP CoMPOBiTioN.-;-The invariabilitjy that any element will be related as regards its chemi- 

of composition by weight of chemical compounds is cal properties to the element eight places removed 

a fundamental law of cnemistry. Thus water tmder from it. This relationship may be thus en)re8sed: 

all circumstances consists of 88.88^^ of oxygen and the properties of an element are a periodic function 

11.11% of hydrogen. This estabhshes a relation of its atomic weight. 

between the weights of the atoms of hydrogen and Mendeleeff's Table. — This relation is called 
oxygen in the water molecule, which is 1 : 8. Oxy- Mendel6eff 's Law, from one of two chemists who 
gen and hydrogen are gaseous imder ordinary con- independently developed it. The elements ma^, 
ditions. If water is decomposed, and the gases are as before said, be written down in the order of their 
collected and measured, there will always be two atomic weights, but in eight vertical columns, 
volumes of hydrogen to one of oxyeen. This illus- Alon^ the top line the eight elements of lightest 
trates another fundamental law — the invariability atomic weights are written in the order of their 
of composition by gaseous volume of chemical com- weights, followed on the second line b;^ the next 
pounds. From tne composition by volume of water eight, also in the order of their atomic weights, 
its molecule is taken as composea of two atoms of This arrangement, obviously, when carried out 
hydrogen and one of oxygen, on the assumption that brings the elements eight atomic weights apart, 
in a given volume of any gas there is the same number into vertical columns. It will be found that all the 
of molecules. As there are two atoms in the mole- elements in any vertical column are of similar chemi- 
cules of both of these elements, the above may be cal properties. When Mendel6eff made out his table 
put in a more popular way thus: the atoms of hv- it was supposed that several elements were as yet 
drogen and oxygen occupy the same space. The undiscovered. The table also brought out clearly 
ratio spoken of above, of 1 : 8, is therefore the ratio certain numerical relations of the atomic weights, 
of two atoms of hydrogen to one of oxygen. It These together with other factors caused him to leave 
follows that the ratio of one atom of hydrogen to one blank spaces in his table, which none of the known 
atom of oxygen is 1 : 16. The numbers 1 and 16 elements could fill. For these places hypothetical 
thus detenmned, are the atomic weights of hydrogen elements were assumed, whose general properties 
and oxygen respectively. Strictly speaking they and atomic weights were stated jby him. One by 
are not weights at all, only numbers expressing the one these elements have been discovered, so that 
relation of weights. Atomic weights are determined Mendel6eff's Law predicted the existence of elements 
for all the elements, based on several considerations, later to be discovered. These discoveries of predicted 
such as those outlined for the atoms of oxygen and elements constitute one of the greatest triumphs of 
hydrogen. Thus the term atom indicates not only chemical science. Up to within a very recent 
the constituents of molecules, but has a quantitative period the atom was treated as the smallest division 
meaning, the proportionalpiut of the element which of matter, although the possibility of the transmu- 
enters into compounds. The sum of the weights of tation of the elements in some way, or in some degree, 
the atoms in a molecule is the molecular weight of Ims long been considered a possibility. It was con- 
the substance. Thus the molecular weight of water jectured that all the elements might be composed of 
is the sum of the weights of two hydrogen atoms, some one substance, for which a name, protvle, 
which is two, and of one oxygen atom, which is six- meaning first material, was coined. This seemed to 
teen, a total of eighteen. If we divide the molecular conflict with the accepted definition of the atom, as 
weight of a compoimd into the atomic weight of protvle indicated something anterior to or preceding 
the atoms of any element in its molecule, it will give it. The idea rested in abeyance, as tnere was little 
the proportion of the element in the compound, ground for building up a theory to include it. Re- 
Taking water again, if we divide its molecular cent discoveries have resuscitated this never quite 
weight, 18, into the weight of the atoms of hydrogen abandoned theory; protyle seems to have been 
in its molecule, 2, we obtain the fraction ^, wmch discovered, and the atom has ceased to hold ito place 
expresses the proportion of hydrogen in water, as the ultimate division of matter. 
The same process ^ves the proportion of oxygen in CoRPuscuLEa. — ^The most recent theory holds 
water as ||. that the atom is composite, and is built up of still 

Every element has ite own atomic weight, and minuter particles, called corpuscules. As far as 

the invariability of chemical composition by weight the ordinary processes of chemistry are concerned 

is explained by the invariability of the atomic the atom remains as it was. But investigations in 

weights of the elemente. Tables of the atomic the field of radio-activity, largely physical and partly 

weights of the elements are given in all chemical chemical, go to prove that the atom, built up of 


oorpuflcules as said above, depends for its atomic Elements vary in the saturating power of their atoms, 

weight upon the number of corpuscules in it, and The saturating power is called atomicity or valency, 

these corpuscules are all identical in nature. In Some elements have a valency of one, and are termed 

these corpuscules we have the one first material, or monads. A monad can saturate a monad. Others 

protyle. It follows that the only difference between are termed dyads, have a valencv of two, two monads 

atoms of different elements is in the number of being required to saturate one ayad, while one dyad 

corpuscules they contain. Any process which would can satiu-ate another dyad. Valencies run on 

chsjige the number of corpuscules in the atoms of an through triads, tetrads, pentads, hexads, heptads, 

element would change the element into another one, and octads, designating valencies of threei four, 

thus carrying out the transmutation of elements, five, six, seven, and eight respectively. 
So far, one transmutation is accepted as effected. T. O'Conor Sloanx. 

Experiments in radio-activity go to prove that some 

elements, notably radium, project particles of in- Atomism, [a privative and rifivttr to cut, i. e. indi- 

conceivable minuteness into space. These particles visible] is the system of those who hold that all 

have sometimes one-half the velocity of light. They bodies are composed of minute, indivisible particles 

are called corpuscules. The corpuscule is sometimes of matter callcKl atoms. We must distinguish be- 

defined as a particle of ne^tive electricity, which, tween (1) atomism as a philosophy and (2) atomism 

in the existing state of electncal knowledge, is a very as a theory of science. 

imperfect definition. Thev are all negatively elec- Atomism as a philosophy originated with I^u- 
trifled, and therefore repel each other. The condi- cippus. Democritus (b. 460 b. c), his disciple, is 
tion of equilibrium of groups of such particles, if generally considered the father of atomism, as prac- 
held near to each other by another external force, tically nothing is known of Leucippus. The theory 
has been investigated by Prof. J. J. Thomson, and of Democritus may be summed up in the following 
his investigations establish a basis for a theory of propositions: 1. Ail bodies are composed of atoms 
the constitution of atoms. Thus, assume an atom and spaces between the atoms. 2. Atoms are eter- 
to consist of a number of corpuscules, not touching nal, indivisible, infinite in number, and homogeneous 
each other, all negatively electrified so that they in nature; all differences in bodies are due to a dif- 
repel one another, and held within the limits of the ference in the size, shape or location of the atoms, 
atom by what niav be termed a shell of attractive 3. There is no purpose or design in nature, and in 
force. Professor Tnomson shows that such particles, this si i se all is ruled by chance. 4. All activity is 
under the conditions outlined above, arrange them- reduced to local motion. The formation of the uni- 
^Ives into groups of various arrangement, the latter verse is due to the fact that the larger atoms fall 
depending on their number. If the number of faster, and by striking against the smaller ones com- 
particles in a group be progressively increased, a bine with them; thus the whole universe is the re- 
periodic recurrence of groupings will occur. Assume suit of the fortuitous concourse of atoms. Countless 
a group of five particles. These will form a group worlds are formed simultaneouslv and successively, 
of definite shape. If more particles are added to Epicurus (342-270 b. c.) adopted the theory of De- 
the group, the first additions will cause the five mocritus, but corrected the blunder, pointed out by 
group to disappear, other groups taking its place, Aristotle, that larger atoms fall faster than smaller 
until the uumoer reaches fifteen, when the onginal ones in vacuo. He substituted a power in the atoms 
grouping of five will reappear, surrounded by the to decline a little from the line of fall. Atomism is 
other ten particles. On adding more particles, the defended by Lucretius Cams (95-51 b. c.) in his 
five and ten group disappear, to be succeeded by poem,'*De Rerum Natur&." With the exception of a 
others, until tne number of thirty is reached. At few alchemiste in the Middle Ages, we find no repn 
this point the original five group and the ten group resentatives of atomism until Gassendi (1592-1655) 
reappear, with a new group of fifteen. The same renewed the atomism of Epicurus. Gassendi tried 
recurrence of grouping takes place with forty-seven to harmonize atomism with Christian teaching by 
and sixty-seven particles. This gives the outlines postulating atoms finite in number and created by 
of an explanation of the periodic law. If any num- God. With the application of atomism to the sci- 
ber of particles be taken they will show groupings, ences, philosophic atomism also revived, and became 
characteristic of the number, and subject to periodical for a time the most popular philosophy. Present- 
reappearance as the number is increased. This day philosophic atomism regards matter as homo- 
reappearance of groupings is exactly comparable to geneous and explains all physical and chemical prop- 
the phenomena of the periodic law. It is the re- erties of bodies oy a difference in mass of matter and 
appearance of similar properties at periodic inter- local motion. The atom itself is inert and devoid of 
vaiB. The comuscular theory also accounts for the all activity. The molecule, taken over from the 
variation of tne elements in atomic weight. Cor- sciences, is but an edifice of unchangeable atoms, 
puscules are supposed to be all alike, so that the Philosophic atomism stands entirely on the basis of 
weight of an atom would depend on how many materialism, and, thoueh it invokes the necessary 
corpuscules were required to form it. Thus an atom laws of matter, ite exclusion of final causes makes 
of oxygen would contain sixteen times as many it in the last analysis a philosophy of chance, 
corpuscules as would an atom of hydrogen, weighing The atomic theory was first applied to chemistry 
onlv one^xteenth as much. The weight of an atom by Dal ton (1808), but with him it meant little more 
of hydrogen has been approximatelv calculated as than an expression of proportions in chemical com- 
expressea by the decimal, 34 preceded by thirteen position. The theory supplied a simple explanation 
ciphers, of a gram. This means that thirty-four thou- of the facts observed before him: that elements corn- 
sand millions of millions of atoms of hydrogen would bine in definite and multiple proportions. The dis- 
weigh in the aggregate one gram. These calculations covery in the same year by Gay-Lussac of the law 
are based on determination of the electric charge of that gases imder the same pressure and temperature 
corpuscules. Corpuscules are calculated as being have equal volumes was at the same time a confir- 
about one-thousandth of the mass of an atom of hy- mation and an aid in determining atomic weighta 
drogen. Professor Oliver Lodge gives the following Avogadro's law (1811) that gases under the same 
comparison: if a church of ordinarv size represent an concfitions of pressure and temperature have an eoual 
atom, a thousand grains of sand dashing about its inte- number of molecules, and the law of Petit and Du- 
rior with enormous velocity would represent its con- long that the product of the specific heat and the 
stituent corpuscules. When atoms unite to form atomic weight of an element gives a constant num- 
molecules, tn^ are said to saturate each other, ber were further confirmations and aids. The atomic 


theory was soon applied to physics, and is to-day MateHaliyn (I^psig, 1898); 6th ed.. tr. by Thomas (LondoB 

tIia Kwiia of mnsf of fhp RPipnopa Tf« main oiiflinw» 1892;; ManuaU of Chemtatry; Ramsat, Progreu of Chemxa- 

me DasiS Ot most Ol tne sciences, its main outlines ^^ ^ ^ jOth Century; Report of Smitheonian JnetUution 

are: Matter is not COntmuous but atomically constl- (I9OO); Wurtz, Atomic Theory, tr. by Cleminshaw (New 

tuted. An atom is the smallest particle of matter V°'^*'» l?^^K 9^ Scholastic interpretation of AtomiBm see 

that can enter a chemicid reaction. Atoms of like ^i,,£'>^S^SS^.^Y^\niS^^' ^^^^^.fPtSSi^ 

nature constitute elements, those of imllke nature Sdence veraua Matter and Form, in Dublin Rev, (1899 and 

constitute compounds. The elements known to-day 19(X)). 

are about 76 in number and differ from one another Edmund J. Wirth. 
in weight and physical and chemical properties. Atonement, Day of. — ^The rites to be observed 
Atoms combine to form molecules, whicn are the on the Day of Atonement [Hebrew onDSn DV Yom 
smallest quantities of matter that can exist in a free Hcikkippurim, Vulgate, Dies Expiaiionum, and Dies 
state, whether of an element or a compound. Some Provitiationis (Leviticus, xxiii, 27, 28)^ are fidly set 
believe that the atom retains its individuality in the fortn in the sixteenth chapter of I^viticua (cf. Exo- 
molecule, whilst others consider the molecule homo- dus, xxx, 10; Leviticus, xxiii, 27-31, xxv, 9; Num- 
geneous throughout. The theoretic formulas of struc- bers, xxix, 7-11). It was a most solemn fast, on 
ture of Frankland suppose them to remain. The which no food could be taken throughout the whole 
spaces between the atoms are filled with an impon- day, and all servile works were forbidden. It was 
derable matter called ether. Upon the nature of kept on the nineteenth day of the seventh month, 
ether the greatest differences of opinion exist. The Tischri, which falls in September— October. The sac- 
adoption by scientists of Maxwell's theory of light rifices included a calf, a ram, and seven lambs (Num- 
seems to render the ether-hypothesis with its many bers, xxix, 8-11). But the distinctive ceremony of 
contradictions superfluous. At all events it is quite the day was the offering of the two goats. *'He 
independent of the atomic theory. [Aaron] shall make the two buck-goats to stand be- 
The results obtained by the Hungarian Lenard, fore the Lord, in the door of the tabernacle of the 
the Enelish physicist J. J. Thomson, and many testimony: and casting lots upon them both, one to 
others, by means of electric discharges in rarified be offer^ to the Lord, and the other to be the 

§a8es, the discovery of Hertzian waves, a better un- emissary-goat: That whose lot fell to be offered to 
erstanding of electrolysis, and the discovery of ra- the Lord, he shall offer for sin: But that whose lot 
dium by Madame Curie have made necessary a was to be the emissary-goat he shall present alive 
modification of the atomic theorv of matter. The before the Lord, that he may pour out prayers upon 
atom, hitherto considered solid and indivisible, is now him, and let him go into the wilderness. . . . After 
believed to break up into ions or electrons. This he hath cleansed the sanctuary, and the tabernacle, 
new theory, however, must not be considered as op- and the altar, let liim offer the living goat: And put- 
posed to the atomic theory; it comes rather as an ting both hands upon his head, let him confess all 
extension of it. In chemistry, the principal field of the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their 
the atomic theory, the atom will still remain as the offences and sins, and praying that they may light 
chemically indivisible unit. The hypothesis of sub- on his head, he shall turn him out by a man readv 
atoms is, moreover, not entirely new- it was pro- for it, into the desert. And when the §oat hath 
posed by Spencer as early as 1872 (''Contemporary carried all their iniquities into an iminhabited land, 
Kev.", «june, 1872) and defended by Crookes in 1886. and shall be let go into the desert, Aaron shall return 

The physico-chemical theory of atomism, though into the tabernacle of the testimony" (Leviticus, xvi, 

not a oemonstrated truth, offers a satisfactory ex- 7-10, 20-23). The general meaning of the ceremony 

planation of a ^eat number of phenomena, and will, is sufficiently shown in the text. But the detaib 

no doubt, remain essentially the same, no matter how present some difficulty. The Vulgate caper emis- 

it may be modified in its details. In chemistry, it sariTis, ''emissary goaf, represents the obscure 

does not stop arbitrarily in the division of matter, Hebrew word, TttitV (Azazel), which occurs no- 

but stops at chemical aivision. If another science where else in the Bible. Various attempts have been 

demandls a further division, or if philosophy must made to interpret its meaning. Some nave taken it 

postulate a division of the atom into essential prin- for the name of a place where the man who took the 

ciples, that is not the concern of chemistry. Science goat away used to throw it over a precipice, since its 

has no interest in defending the indivisible atom of return was thought to forbode evil. Others, with 

Democritus. better reason, take it for the name of an evil spirit; 

Scholastic philosophy finds nothing in the scientific and in fact a spirit of this name is mentioned in the 
theory of atomism which it cannot harmonize with Apocryphal " Book of Henoch ", and later in Jewish 
its principles, though it must reject the mechanical literature. On this interpretation, which, though by 
explanation, often proposed in the name of science, no means new, finds favour with modem critics, the 
which looks upon the atom as an absolutely inert idea of the ceremony would seem to be that the sins 
mass, devoid of all activities and properties. Scho- were sent back to the evil spirit to whose influence 
lastic philosophers find in the different physical and they owed their origin. It has been noted that some- 
chemi^ properties of the elements an indication of what similar rites of expiation have prevailed among 
specifically different natures. Chemical changes are heathen nations. And modem critics, who refer the 
for them substantial changes, and chemical formulas above passages to the Priestly Code, and to a post- 
indicate the mode in which the elements react on Exilic date, are disposed to regard the sending of 
one another in the production of the compound, the goat to Azazel as an adaptation of a pre-existing 
They are not a representation of the molecular edi- ceremonial. The significant ceremony oDserved on 
fice built up of unchangeable atoms. Some would this solemn Day of Atonement does but give a 
accept even this latter view and admit that there greater prominence to that need of satisfaction and 
are no substantial changes in inanimate nature (Gut- expiation which was present in all the ordinary sin- 
berlet). This view can also be harmonized more offerings. And all tnese sacrifices for sin, as we 
easily with the facts of stereo-chemistry. As re- learn from the teaching of the Epistle to the Hebrews, 
gards the phenomena observed in radio-activity, a were figures of the great Sacrifice to come. In like 
generalization, either in the materialistic sense, that manner these Jewish rites of atonement speak to us 
all matter, is homogeneous, or in the scholastic sense, of the Cross of Christ, and of the propitiatory Sac- 
that all elements can be changed into one another, rifice which is daily renewed in a bloodless manner 
is in the present state of science premature. on the Eucharistic Altar. For this reason it may be 

ManuaU of History of PhUoeophy by Turnhi. Uebkik f interest to note, with Prmost Maltzew, that the 

vbo-Hbxntib. Stcbckl tr. by Fxmlat; Lanob, Hiatory of Jewish prayers used on the Day of Atonement fore- 


shadow the common commemoration of the saints sufferings, and the death of the Divine Redeemar 

and the faithful departed in our litureies (Die Litur- All this may be summed up in the word Atonement, 

cien (ier orthodox-Katholischen Kirche des Morgen- This is, so to say^ the starting point. And herein 

landes, 252). all are indeed at one. But, when it was attempted 

The subject is tmted by the oommeDtatora on Leviticus, to give a more precise account of the nature of the 

""^"'FSh^ "i^^'^W^^tSiSn'^'t ^SSfKTfoSSd B«aemption an(f the manner of its accompltahment, 

in Spencbr'b monumental work, D€ LegUrua Uebraorum theolo^cal speculation took different courses, some 

ri^ibiMf III, diss. 8, cf. De Hvreo EmiMorio et proecipuia of which were suggested by the various names and 

t1Si?^"t^e"tecT^Sre^2:S?iiSr°onX^V^iSrfe fiPY« V^'Jg- whicS.this ineffable myetery to adum- 

and AMozel, by Drivkr and White in Dictionary of the Bible, brated in Holy Scnpture. Without pretending tO 

In the Talmud the treatise Y&ma (The Day) deals with the pve a full history of the discussions, we may briefly 

Day of Atonement. Kent indicate some of the main lines on which the doctrine 

. ivBNT. ^^ developed, and touch on the more important 

Atonement, Doctrinib of the. — ^The word atone' theories put forward in explanation of the Atone- 

menty which is almost the only theological term of ment. 

English origin, has a curious history. The verb (a) In any view, the Atonement is founded on the 
"atone", from the adverbial phrase "at one" (M. £. Divine Incarnation. By this great mystery, the 
at oon). at first meant to reconcile, or make ''at Eternal Word took to Himself the nature of man 
one"; from this it came to denote the action by and, being both God and man, became the Mediator 
which such reconciliation was effected, e. g. satis- between God and men. From this, we have one of 
faction for an offence or an injunr. Hence, in the first and most profound forms of theological 
Catholic theoloey, the Atonement is the Satisfaction spieculation on the Atonement, the theory whidi is 
of Christ, whereoy God and the world are reconciled or sometimes described as Mystical Redemption. In- 
made to be at one. " For God indeed was in Christ, stead of seeking a solution in legal figures, some of 
reconciling the world to himself (II C^r., v, 10). the great Greek Fathers were content to dwell on 
The Catholic doctrine on this subject is set forth in the fundamental fact of the Divine Incarnation, 
the Sixth Session of the Council of Trent, chapter ii. By the union of the Eternal Word with the nature 
Having shown the insufficiency of Nature, and of of man all mankind was lifted up and, so to say, 
the Mosaic Law. the Council continues: "Whence deified. "He wasmade man", says St. Athanasius, 
it came to pass, tnat the heavenly Father, the Father "that we might be made goos" (De Incamatione 
of mercies and the God of all comfort (II Cor., i, 3), Verbi, 54). "His flesh was saved, and made free 
when that blessed fullness of the time was come the first of all, being made the bodv of the Word, 
(Gal., iv, 4) sent unto men Jesus Christ, His own then we, being concorporeal therewith, are saved by 
Son, who had been, both before the Law and during the same" (Orat., ll. Contra Arianoe, Ixi). And 
the time of the Law, to many of the holy fathers again, " For the presence of the Saviour in the flesh 
announced and promised, that He might both was the price of death, and the saving of the whole 
redeem the Jews, who were under the Law and that creation" (£p. ad Adelphium, vi). In like manner 
the Gentiles who followed not after justice mi^ht St. Gregory of Nazianzus proves the integrity of 
attain to justice, and that all men might receive the Sacred Humanity by the argument, "That which 
the adoption of sons. Him God hath proposed as a was not assumed is not healra; but that which is 
propitiator, through faith in His blood (Kom., iii, 25), united to God is saved^' {rb yiLp dr^Xiyirror, 
tor our sins, and not for our sins only, but also for dfiepdxeurov 6 H livwrai r^ ^f , toOto koX tf-cd/sn-cu). 
those of the whole world (I John, ii,2)." More than This spieculation of the Greek Fathers undoubtedly 
twelve centuries before this, the same dogma was contains a profound truth which is sometimes for- 
proclaimed in the words of the Nioene Cre^, "who gotten by later authors who are more intent on framing 
for us men and for our salvation, came down, took juridical theories of ransom and satisfaction. But 
flesh, was made man; and suffered.'' And all that it is obvious that this account of the matter is im- 
is thus taught in the decrees of the councils may be perfect, and leaves much to be explained. It must 
read in the pages of the New Testament. For in- be remembered, moreover, that the Fathers them- 
stance, in the words of Our Lord, "Even as the son sdlves do not put this forward as a full explanation, 
of man is not come to be ministered unto, but to For while many of their utterances might seem to 
minister, and to give His life a redemption for many" imply that the Redemption was actually accom- 
(Matt., XX, 28); or of St. Paul, "Because in him, it plished by the union oi a Divine Person with the 
hath well plea^sed the Father that all fulness should numan nature, it is clear from other passages that 
dwell; ana through him to reconcile all things unto they do not lose sight of the atonins sacrifice. The 
himself, making peace through the blood of his Incarnation is, indeed, the source and the foundation 
cross, both as to the things that are on earth, and the of the Atonement, and these profound thinkers have, 
things that are in heaven. " (Coloss., i, 19, 20). so to say, grasped the cause and its effects as one vast 

The great doctrine thus laid down in the banning whole. Hence they look on to the result before 

was further unfolded and brought out into clearer staying to consider the means by which it was accom- 

light by the work of the Fathers and theologians, plished. 

And it may be noted that in this instance the develop- (6) But something more on this matter had 
ment is chiefly due to Catholic speculation on the already been taught in the preaching of the Apostles 
mystery, and not, as in the case of other doctrines, and in the pages of the New Testament. The 
to controversy with heretics. At first we have the restoration of fallen man was the work of the In- 
central fact made known in the Apostolic preaching, camate Word. "God was in Christ reconciling the 
that mankind was fallen and was raised up and world to himself" (II Cor., v, 19). But the peace 
redeemed from sin by the blood of Christ. But it of that reconciliation was accomplished by the 
remained for the pious speculation of Fathers and death of the Divine Redeemer, "making peace 
theologians to enter into the meaning of this great through the blood of His cross" (Coloss., i, 20). 
truth, to inquire into the state of fallen man, and to This redemption by death is another mystery, and 
ask how Christ accomplished His work of Redemp- some of the Fathers in the first ages are led to specu- 
tion. By whatever names or figures it may be late on its meaning, and to construct a theory in 
described, that work is the reversal of the Fall, the explanation. Here the words and figures used in 
blotting out of sin, the deliverance from bondage. Holy Scripture help to guide the current of theologi- 
thc reconciliation of mankind with God. And it is cal thought. Sin is represented as a state of bondage 
brought to pass by the Incarnation, by the life, the or servitude, and fallen man is delivered by being 


redeemed, or bought with a price. "For you are various forms, and some of its more repulsive featuref 

bought with a great price" (I Cor., vi, 20). ''Thou are softened or modified. But the strange notior 

art worthy, O Lord, to take the book, and to open of some right, or claim, on the part of Satan is still 

the seals thereof; because thou wast slain, and hast present. A protest was raised by St. Gregory of 

redeemed us to God, in thy blood" (Apoc., v, 9). Nazianzus in the fourth century, as might be ex- 

Looked at in this light, the Atonement appears as pected from that most accurate of the patristic 

the deliverance from captivity by the payment of theologians. But it was not till St. Anselm and 

a ransom. This view is already developed in the Abelard had met it with tmanswerable aigumentf 

second centurv. "The mighty Word and true Man that its power was finally broken. It makes a 

reasonably redeeming us by His blood, gave Himself belated appearance in the pages of Peter Ix)mbard. 
a ransom for those who had been brought into (c) But it is not only in connexion with the theory 

bondage. And since the Apoetasv unjustly ruled of ransom that we meet with this notion of "rights 

over us, and, whereas we belonged by nature to God on the part of Satan. Some of the Fathers set the 

Almighty, alienated us acainst nature and made matter in a different aspect. Fallen man, it wa£ 

us his own disciples, the Word of God, being michty said^ was justly under the dominion of the devil, in 

in all things, and failing not in His justice, dealt punishment for sin. But when Satan brought suf* 

justly even with the Apostasy itself, buying back tering and death on the sinless Saviour, he abused 

from it the things which were His own" (Irenteus, his power and exceeded his ri^ht, so that he was 

Adversus Hsereses, V, i). And St. Augustine says now justlv deprived of his domimon over the captives, 

in well-known words: "Men were held captive under This explanation is found especially in the sermons 

the devil, and served the demons, but thev were of St. Leo and the "Morals" of St. Gregory the 

redeemed from captivity. For they could sell them- Great. Closely allied to this explanation is the 

selves, but they could not redeem themselves. The singular "mouse-trap" metaphor of St. Augustine. 

Redeemer came, and gave the price; He poured In this daring figure of speech, the Cross is regarded 

forth His blood and bought the whole world. Do as the trap in which the bait is set and the enemy 

you ask what He bought? See what He ^ve, and is caught. "The Redeemer came and the deceiver 

find what He bought. The blood of Chnst is the was overcome. What did our Redeemer do to our 

price. How much is it worth? What but the Captor? In payment for us He set the trap, His 

whole world? What but aU nations?" (Enarratio Cross, with His blood for bait. He [Satan] could 

in Psalm xcv, n. 5). indeed shed that blood; but he deserved not to 

It cannot be questioned that this theoiy also con- drink it. By shedding the blood of One who was 

tains a true principle. For it is founded on the ex- not his debtor, he was forced to release his debtors" 

press words of Scripture, and is supported by many (Serm. cxxx, i 2). 

of the greatest of ttie earlv Fathers and later theo- (d) These ideas retained their force well into the 

logians. But unfortunately, at first, and for a long Middle Ages. But the appearance of St. Anselm's 

period of theological history, this truth was some- " Cur Deus Homo? "made a new epoch in the theolo^ 

what obscured by a strange confusion, which of the Atonement. It may be said, indeed, that this 

would seem to have arisen from the natural tend- book marks an epoch in theological literature and 

ency to take a figure too literally, and to apply doctrinal development. There are not many works, 

it in details which were not contemplated bv tnose even among those of the ^peatest teachers, that can 

who first made use of it. It must not be for- compare in this respiect with the treatise of St. An- 

gotten that the account of our deliverance from selm. And, with few exceptions, the books that have 

sin is set forth in figures. Conquest, captivity, done as much to influence and guide the growth of 

and ransom are familiar facts of numan nistory. theol(^ are the outcome of some great strug^e 

Man, having yielded to the temptations of Satan, with heresy; while others, again, orm^ summarize 

was like to one overcome in battle. Sin, again, is the theological learning of the age. But this little 

fitly likened to a state of slavery. And when man book is at once purely pacific and eminently origi- 

was set free by the shedding of Christ's precious nal. Nor could any dogmatic treatise well be more 

Blood, this deliverance would naturellv recall (even simple and unpretending than this luminous dia- 

if it had not been so described in Scripture ) the logue between the great archbishop and his disciple 

redemption of a captive by the payment of a ran- Boso. There is no parade of learning, and but little 

som. But, however useful and illuminating in their in the way of appeal to authorities. The disciple 

proper place, figures of this kind are perilous in the asks and the master answers; and both alike face 

bands of those who press them too tar, and forget the great problem before them fearlessly, but at the 

ihat they are figures. This is what happened here, same time with all due reverence and modesty. 

When a captive is ransomed the price is naturally Anselm says at the outset that he will not so much 

Skid to the conqueror by whom he is held in bondage, show his disciple the truth he needs, as seek it along 

ence, if this figure were taken and interpreted with him; and that when he says anything that is 

literally in all its details, it would seem that the price not confirmed by higher authority, it must be taken 

of man's ransom must be paid to Satan. The notion as tentative, and provisional. He adds that, though 

is certainly startling, if not revolting. Even if he may in some measure meet the question, one who 

grave reasons pointed in this direction, we might is wiser could do it better; and that, whatever man 

well shrink from drawing the conclusion. And this may know or say on this subject, there will always 

is in fact so far from b«ing the case that it seems remain deeper reasons that are beyond him. In 

hard to find an^ rational explanation of such a pay- the same spirit he concludes the whole treatise by 

ment, or any right on which it could be founded, submitting it to reasonable correction at the hands 

Yet, strange to say, the bold flight of theological of others. 

speculation was not checked by these misgivings. It may be safely said that this is precisely what 

In the above-cited passage of St. Irenseus, we read has come to pass. For the theory put fon^'ard by 

that the Word of God "dealt justly even with the Anselm has been modified by the work of later 

Apostasy itself Ti. e. Satan], buying back from it theologians, and confirmed by the testimonjr of 

the things which were His own ". This curious truth. In contrast to some of the other views 

notion, apparently first mooted by St. Irenseus. already noticed, this theory is remarkably clear and 

was taken up by Origen in the next century, ana symmetrical. And it is certainly more agreeable to 

for about a thousand years it played a conspicuous reason than the "mouse-trap metaphor, or the 

part in the history of theology. In the hands of some notion of purchase money paid to Satan. Anselm 's 

of the later Fathers and medieval writers, it takes answer to the question is simply the need of satis 


faction for sin. No sin, as he views the matter^ can denving the rights of Satan, denied the " Sacrament of 
be forgiven without satisfaction. A debt to Divine Reoemption" and r^^aided the teaching and exam- 
justice has been incurred: and that debt must needs pie of Christ as the sole benefit of the Incarnation. 
be paid. But man could not make this satisfaction "But", as Mr. Oxenham observes, "he had not said 
for himself; the debt is something far greater than so, and he distinctly asserts in his 'Apology' that 
he can pay; and^ moreover. all the service that he 'the Son of God was incarnate to dehver us from 
can offer to God is already due on other titles. The the bondage of sin and yoke of the Devil, and to 
sug^tion that some innocent man, or angel, might open to us by His death the gate of eternal life.' 
possibly pay the debt incurred by sinners is rejected, And St. Bernard himself, in tms vezv Epistle, dis- 
on the ground that in anv case this would put the tinctlv denies any absolute necessity iov tne method 
sinner under obligation to his deliverer, and he would of redemption chosen, and suggests a reason for it 
thus become the servant of a mere creature. The not so very unlike Abelard's. ^Perhaps that method 
onlv way in which the satisfaction could be made, is the best, whereby in a land of forgetfulness and 
and men could be set free from sin, was by the com- sloth we might be more powerfully and vividly re- 
ing of a Redeemer who is both God and man. His minded of our fall, through the so great and so mani- 
death makes full satisfaction to the Divine Justice, fold sufferings of Him who repair^ it.' Elsewhere, 
for it is something greater than all the sins of all when not speaking controversially, he says still more 
mankind. Many side questions are incidentally plainly: 'Could not the Creator have restored His 
treated in the dialogue between Anselm and Boso. work without that difficulty? He could; but He 
But this is the substance of the answer given to the preterred to do it at His own cost, lest any further 
great question, "Cur Deus Homo?" Some modem occasion should be ^ven for that worst and most 
writers have suggested that this notion of deliver- odious vice of ingratitude in man' (Bern., Serm. xi, 
ance by means of satisfaction may have a German in Cant.). What is this but to say, with Abelard, 
origin. For in the old Teutonic laws, a criminal that ' He chose the Incarnation as the most effectual 
might pay the wei^gild instead of undei^going punish- method for eliciting His creature's love ' ? " (The 
ment. But this custom was not peculiar to tne Ger- Catholic Doctrine of the Atonement, 85, S6}. 
mans, as we may see from the Celtic etn^, and, as (/) Although the high authority of St. Bernard 
Rividre has pointed out, there is no need to have re- was thus against them, the views of St. Anselm and 
course to this explanation. For the notion of satisfac- Abelard, the two men who in different ways were the 
tion for sin was already present in the whole system fathers of Scholasticism, shaped the course of later 
of ecclesiastical penance, though it had been left for medieval theology. The strange notion of the rights 
Anselm to use it in illustration of the doctrine of the of Satan, against which they had both protested, now 
Atonement. It may be added that the same idea disappears from the pages of our theologians. For 
underlies the old Jewish "sin-offerings" as well as the rest, the view wnicn ultimately prevailed may 
the similar rites that are found in many ancient reli- be regarded as a combination of the opinions of An- 
gions. It is specially prominent in the rites and selm and Abeliurd. In spite of the objections ur^ed 
prayers used on the Dav of Atonement. And this, it by the latter writer, Anselm's doctrine of satisfaction 
may be added, is now the ordinary acceptance of the was adopted as the basis. But St. Thomas and the 
word; to "atone" is to give satisfaction, or make other medieval masters a^ree with Abelard in re- 
amends, for an offence or an injury. ^ jecting the notion that this full satisfaction for sin 

(e) Whatever may be the reason, it is dear that was £3>6olutel}r necessary. At the most, they are 
this doctrine was attracting special attention in willing to admit a h3rpothetical or conditional neces- 
the a^ of St. Anselm. His own work bears witness sity for the Redemption by the death of Christ. The 
that it was undertaken at the urgent request of restoration of fallen man was a work of God's free 
others who wished to have some new light on this mercy and benevolence. And, even on the hypothesis 
mystery. To some extent, the solution offered by that the loss was to be repaired, this might have been 
Anselm seems to have satisfied these desires, though, brought about in many and various ways. The sin 
in the course of further discussion, an important might have been remitted freely, without any satis- 
part of his theory, the absolute necessity of Re- faction at all, or some lesser satisfaction, however 
demption and of satisfaction for sin, was discarded imperfect in itself, might have been accepted as suffi- 
by later theologians, and found few defenders. But cient. But on the hypothesis that God had chosen 
meanwhile, within a few years of the appearance of to restore mankind, and at the same time, to require 
the "Cur Deus Homo?" another theory on the sub- full satisfaction as a condition of pardon and de- 
ject had been advanced by Abelard. In common liveranoe, nothing less than the Atonement made by 
with St. Anselm, Abelard utterly rejected the old. one who was God as well as man could suffice as 
and then still prevailing, notion that the devil had satisfaction for the offence against the Divine Majesty, 
some sort of right over fallen man, who could only And in this case Anselm's argument will hold good, 
be justly delivered by means of a ransom paid to Mankind cannot be restored imless Giod becomes man 
his captor. A^inst this he very rightly ur^, with to save them. 

Anselm, that Satan was clearly guilty of injustice In reference to many points of detail the School- 
in the matter and could have no right to anything men, here as elsewhere, adopted divergent views, 
but punishment. But, on the other hand, Aoelard One of the chief questions at issue was the intrinsic 
was unable to accept Anselm's view that an equiva^ adequacy of the satisfaction offered by Christ. On 
lent satisfaction for sin was necessary, and that this this point the majority, with St. Thomas at their ■ 
debt could only be paid by the death of the Divine head, maintained that, by reason of the infinite 
Redeemer. He insists that God could have par- dignity of the Divine Person, the least action or 
doned us without requiring satisfaction. And, in suffering of Christ had an infinite value, so that in 
his view, the reason for the Incarnation and the itself it would suffice as an adequate satisfaction for 
death of Christ was the pure love of God. By no the sins of the whole world. Scotus and his school, 
other means could men be so effectually turned from on the other hand, disputed this intrinsic infinitude, 
sin and moved to love God. Abelard s teachine on and ascribed the all-sufficiency of the satisfaction to 
this point, as on others, was vehemently attacked by the Divine acceptation. As this acceptation was 
St. Bernard. But it should be borne in mind that grounded on the infinite dignity of the Divine Per- 
some of the ailments urged in condemnation of son, the difference was not so great as might appear 
Abelard would tSfect the position of St. Anselm also, at first sight. But, on this point at any rate, the 
not to speak of later Catholic theology. simpler teaching of St. Thomas is more gener^y 

In St. Bernard's eyes it seemed tnat Abelard, in accepted by later theologians. Apart from this 


miestion, the divergent views of the two schools on the Atonement is specially connected with thf 

the primary motive of the Incarnation naturally have thought of the wrath of God. It is true of course 

some effect on the Thomist and Scotist theology of that sin incurs the anger of the Just Judge, and that 

the Atonement. On looking back at the various this is averted when the debt due to Divine Justice 

theories noticed so far, it will be seen that they are is paid by satisfaction. But it must not be tliought 

not, for the most part, mutually exclusive, but may that Goci is only moved to mercy and reconciled to 

be combined and narmonized. It may be said, in- us as a result of this satisfaction. This false concep- 

deed, that they all help to bring out dinerent aspects tion of the Reconciliation is expressly rejected by 

of that great doctrine which cannot find adec^uate St. Augustine (In Joannem, Tract, ex, { 6). God's 

expression in any human theory. And in point of mercifiu love is the cause, not the result of that 

fact it will generally be fotmd that the chief Fathers satisfaction. (2) The second mistake is the ten- 

and Schoolmen, though they may at times lay more dency to treat the Passion of Christ as being literally 

stress on some favounte theory of their own, do not a case of vicarious punishment. This is at best a 

lose sight of the other explanations. distorted view of the truth that His Atoning Sacrifice 

Thus the Greek Fathers, who delight in speculating took the place of our punishment, and that He took 

on the Mystical Redemption by the Incarnation, do upon Himself the sufferings and death that were due 

not omit to speak also of our salvation by the shedding to our sins. 

of blood. Origen, who lays most stress on the deliv- This view of the Atonement naturally provoked 

erance by payment of a ransom, does not forget to a reaction. Thus the Socinians were l<xi to reject 

dwell on the need of a sacrifice for sin. St. Anselm, the notion of vicarious suffering and satisfaction as 

again, in his ''Meditations ", supplements the teach- inconsistent with God's justice and mercy. And in 

in^ set forth in his ''Cur Deus Homo 7" Abelard, who their eyes the work of Christ consisted simply in 

nught seem to make the Atonement consist in nothing His teaching by word and example. Similar objeo- 

more than the constraining example of Divine Love, tions to the juridical conception of the Atonement 

has spoken also of our salvation oy the Sacrifice of led to like results in the later system of Swedenborg. 

the Cross, in passages to which ms critics do not More recently Albrecht Ritschl, who has paid special 

attach sufficient importance. And, as we have seen, attention to this subject, has formulated a new 

his great opponent, St. Bernard, teaches all that is theory on somewhat similar lines. His conception 

really true and valuable in the theory which he con- of the Atonement is moral and spiritual, rather than 

demned. Most, if not all, of these theories had juridical; and his system is distinguished by the fact 

perils of their own, if they were isolated and ex- that he lays stress on the relation of Chnst to the 

aggerated. But in the Catholic Church there was whole Christian community. We cannot stay to 

ever a safeguard against these dangers of distor- examine these new systems in detail. But it ma^ 

tion. As Mr. Oxenham says very finely, "The be observed that the truth which they contain is 

perpetual priesthood of Christ in heaven, which oo- really found in the Catholic theology of the Atone- 

cupies a prominent place in nearly all the writings ment. That great doctrine has been faintly set 

we have examined, is even more emphatically in- forth in figures taken from man's laws and customs, 

sisted upon by Origen. And this deserves to be It is represented as the pavment of a price, or a 

remembered, because it is a part of the doctrine ransom; or as the offering of satisfaction for a debt, 

which has been almost or altogether dropped out of But we can never rest in these material figures as 

many Protestant expositions of the Atonement, though they were Hteral and adequate. As both 

whereas those most inclining among Catholics to a Abelard and Bernard remind us, the Atonement is 

merely juridical view of the subject have never been the work of love. It is essentially a sacrifice, the 

able to forget the present and living reality of a one supreme sacrifice of which the rest were but 

sacrifice constantly kept before their eyes, as it tvpes and figures. And, as St. Augustine teaches us, 

were, in the worship which reflects on earth the the outward rite of sacrifice is Uie sacrament, or 

unfailing liturgy of heaven" (p. 38). sacred sign, of the invisible sacrifice of the heart. 

The reality of these dangers and the importance It was by this inward sacrifice of obedience unto 

of this safeguard may be seen in the history of this death, by this perfect love with which He laid down 

doctrine since the age of the Reformation. As we His Ufe for His friends, that Christ paid the debt 

have seen, its earlier development owed compara- to justice, and taught us by His example, and drew 

tively little to the stress of controversy with heretics, all things to Himself; it was by this that He wrought 

And the revolution of the sixteenth century was no our Atonement and Reconciliation with God, "mak- 

exception to this rule. For the Atonement was not ing peace through the blood of His Cross ". 

one of the subjects directly disputed between the ^^.^,. .»., *.i_.. ^ u-xj.. 

Itefonners and their Catholfc opponente. But from j„Th, CathoUc,.hgoI,^^^o.;^th^._^ Au^^^^^^^ 

its close connexion with the cardmal question of notably in St. Athanasius and in St. Anselm: in the Scholastic 
Justification, this doctrine assumed a very special commentaries on the Third Book of Sentence*, and on the 

pK,minence and importance in ftotestant theolo,pr '^1,^S^^:%"Ti^i^lil"^r^^rk±Z^^T. 

and practical preaching. Mark rattison tells us in modern works may be mentioned as worthy of special atten- 
hJS '^Memoirs'' that he came to Oxford with his tion. Theae m Oxkkb ah. The Catholic DocMne of the Alone- 

"home Puritan reUgionalm^t narrowed to two ^J^^.X^TJ±^^i^o^iL'pH^X"71t>^^l 

points, fear of God S wrath and laith m the doctnne Developmenta (London, 1865); and Rivikre, Le dogme de 

of the Atonement". And his case was possibly no la RMemption. Eaeai d'itude histariijue (Paris, 1905). Taken 

avAAr>f;/>n amf\ntr Pw^f^kcfonf i>Al{mr.n;of o T« iu^lw together, these two books, each admirable in its way, give a 

exception among Protestant rehgionists. In their full view of the history of the doctrine. Much use has been 

general conception OI the Atonement the Reformers made of them in this article. For modern non-Catholic the- 

and their followers happily preserved the Catholic oIo«y. see Ritschl s^eat work on Justification and Recon- 

Hnrfrini^ At lp«u»t in if« mnin linM AnH in fh^r citation. Die chnatlwhe Uhre von der Rechtfert^gung und 

aocmne, at least m its main nnes. And in tneir ycr^dhnung (Bonn. 1870-74). The first volume, contaming 

explanation of the ment of Chnst S SUnenngS and the hlstorv of the doctrine, was translate<l into English in 

death we may see the influence of St. Thomas and 1872; the' third, inwhirh the author's own view is found, 

thft nthpr mAt ^rhnnlmpn Rut aa miirht hp py ^*«» translated m 1900 (Clark. Edmburgh); the second volume. 
tne Otner great OCnooimen. UUt, as mignt Oe ex- giving ^he Biblical matter, has not been done mto English. 

pected from the isolation of the doctnne and the Some account of recent non-Catholic literature on the Atone- 

loss of other portions of Catholic teaching, the truth ment will be found in Ferries. 7'A«r;rou:tA of ChrUtian Faith 

thuspreserved was sometimes im^nsibly obscured i^d' Wv'3l5;.\^s^boJi'u a'^mo^n^^^^^^^^ r the^'dc^t'ltSe'^S 

or distorted. It will be enough to note here the the Atonement. See also Simpson in Diet, of Christ and the 

presence of two mistaken tendencies. (1) The first Ooapel* (New York, 1906) b. v. 
IS indicated in the above words of Pattison in which W. H. Kbnt. 


Atii, Diocese of. See Civita di Penne. usual foim. While bills of attainder were used in 

Atrib, a titular see of Lower Egypt (Athribites) England as early as 1321 in the procedure employed 

whose episcopal list (325-479) is given in Gams oy Parliament m the banishment of the two Des- 

<p. 461). pensere (1 St. tr. pp. 23, 38), it was not until the 

LBQuimf, Oriens Chriat, (1740), II, 663-666. period of passion engendered by the civil war that the 

Atrium.-I. An open place or court before a church. ^^^^^ P^J^^ oi Parliament to punish criminalsby 

T* ^ J Ir^Ti t^ *^^ j-1 ^!i^ .^u 1^i1«t1« j«^ statute was for the first time perverted and abused. 

It consisted of a ki^e quadrangle with colonnaded rpj^^^^ j^ ^^ ^^^ ^j^j^ process was first freelv used 

walks on its four sides forming a portico or cloister. ^ -. .^^i^ o»o;««f ^\^^ ir.M««<r K,»f o^r*^^*\wY^^ a<*o:naf 

It was situated between the prcror vestibule and ^^^ t^lSSn obS^^hf uTt^^ belS^f 

the body of the church. In the center of the atrium ^ confiscation of the estate of the attSied 

WM a fountain or wdl, where the worshippers washed ' j^ ^y^^ ^^ j j ^^ y j^ j „ ^^ ^^ 

their hands before entering the church A remnant of }^^^^ „j Towton, Edward IV obtained the passage 

this custom still survive m the use of the holy-water „f sleeping bill of attainder through whichtfie 

font or basm, usuaUy placed near the inner entrance was eiriched by forfeiture of Qie estates of 

of churchtB. In the atrium those that were not suf- fourteen lords and more than a hundred knights and 

fered to advance farther and more particidarly the esquires. In the seventeenth year of that reign was 

'^rA.'^^.v.*? ,P«™'if'' *«' stood to solicit the prayers ^^ ^y^ J^^^ ^f Attainder of the Duke of C&rence 

of the faithful ^ they went into the church. It was f^hich, after an oratorical preface setting out at 

also used as a burying-ground, at first onlvfor dis- , ^^^ ^^ ^g imputed to him, it is enacted 

tinguishedpersMB, but afterwards for aU T>elievere. ..^^^ ^^^ y Geoixe Duke of Clirence be con- 

The covered portion next the church was caUed the ^j^j^ ^^^ atteynte? of high treason ". Then fol- 

nortAei and was the place for penitents. The lows tte appointment of the Duke of Buckingham as 

basilicas at Ravenna seem usuaUy to have had a ,^^j ^^ ^^^ f^,, that occasion to do eScution. 

closed nartAcx; while those of Rome were open to ^ j^ a remarkable fact that during a period of one 

the West. A mosaic in S. AnoUinare Nuovo, hu^d^ ^^d sixty-two yeare (1459-1^1) there is 

Raveniia, shows an open narth^ closed by curtains. „^ ,^^ ^f ^ parliamentaiy impeachment either in 

The atrium existed in some of the largest of the j,^ ^,j^ j Pari&ment or in the LoW journal. After 

^riy Christian churches, such as old St. Peter s at ^^ impeachment of Lord Stanley in 1459. for not 

Rome m the fourth century and Sancta Sophia at Con- gendingTis troops to the battle of Bloreheath, there 

stantinople. m the sixth. In the residences (pototu., ^ ^^ anotherTmpeachment until that of Sir Giles 

domm) of the Roman «^tocracy, where the Roman Mompesson and Sir^ancis MiteheU in 1621. Dur- 

Christians first worshipped, there was a threefold divi- j tfieinterval, covering a little more than the reigns 

sion; first, on entering, a court caUed the a<num; then, f» ^ ^ouse of Tudor, enemies of the State were dis- 

farther in another colonnaded court called the pen- ^ j jj^ ^y bills of attainder, by trials in the 

ayU; and then the tabhnum, where the alter was prob- g^chamber, or by trials for tr«i^n m the courts 

ablv placed and services conducted. (See Basiuca.) ^^ common kw. In the reign of Henry VIII Bills of 

So krge a ^r^uft to a church required an area of attainder were often used iistead of mpeachmente, 

land costly and difficult to obtain m a large citv. For j^ jj,e cases of Wolsey, Thomas Crom^^, Queen 

this reason ttie old Roimn atrium survived only occa- Katharine Howard, the buke of Norfolk, and the 

sionallv m Eastern and Western church^ Typical ^^ „j g ^^ jj^^ ^i^ leligioii persecu- 

examplesmaybeseeninthechurchMofStaement, ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ j,^ ^^^^^J. through ^^ 1^ ma- 

cii»lentrance-haU and apartment m a Roman house, ^^^ declared H^d of the Chureh with "the title 

and formed the reception-room. It was lighted by an ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^f . , ^y the penal act which foUowed as 

opening m the roof, caUed the com^umnm, the roof cOroUary thereto, it was declared that any attempt 

sloping so as to throw the rain-water mto a cistern ^^ j ^ve him "of the dignity, title, or iame" of 

m the floor caUed the xmjduvtum In Uige houses ^^^^ ^^ estate should constitute high treason; under 

It was surrounded by a colonnade. ^^^ ' i^ ^t providing the amended oath, it was 

l-HOMAs H. Poole. poesible to caU upon anyone to declare his belief 

Attainder. — A Bill of Attainder may be defined in the validity of tne new title, and a failure to do so 

to be an Act of Parliament for putting a man to death was sufficient evidence of guilt. By that legal 

or for otherwise punishing him without trial in the machinenr were dashed to pieces the Charterhouse 

usual form. Thus by a l^islative act a man is put , monks of London, who are admitted on every hand 

in the same position as if he had been convicted after ' to have been the noblest and purest of all church- 

a regular trial. It is an act whereby the judicature men. Even Froude admits that they were "gallant 

of the entire Parliament is exereised, and may be men, whose high forms, in the sunset of the old faith, 

contrasted with the procedure by impeachment in stand transfigured on the horizon, tinged with the 

which the accusation, presented by the Commons light of ite_ dying glory". The legal proceeding 

acting as a grand jury of the whole realm, is tried bv through which the Bishop of Rochester and Sir 

the &rds, exereising at once the functions of a bign Thomas More were brought to the block were but 

court of justice and of a jury. In a strictly techni^ a repetition of what had oeen gone through with in 

sense it may be said that a Bill of Attainder is a the case of the Carthusians. After the Tudor time 

legislative act inflicting the punishment of death with- the most remarkable bills of attainder are those that 

poi .... 
emoraces both classes of acts, and in that sense it is may be made to those against Bishop Atterbury and 
evidently used in the Constitution of the United Queen Caroline, usually referred to as the last in- 
states, as the Supreme Court has declared in Fleteher stances of such legislation. When Queen Caroline 
V. Peck, 6 Cranch, 138, that "A bill of attainder may returned to England, in July, 1830, all the ministers, 
affect the life of an individual, or may confiscate his except Canning, were induced to consent to the jn- 
property, or both ". Such a bill deals with the troduction in the House of I>ords of a bill of pains 
merite of a particular case and inflicts penalties, and penalties, providing for the dissolution of her 
more or less severe, ex poat facto, without trial in the marriage with the King, upon the ground of adultery. 


and for bar degradation. When the chaiges con- Attalia, also Attaleia, a titular metropoUtao 

tained in the preamble cameon to be heard, Brougham see of Pamphylia in Asia Minor. Its episcopal list 

and Denman, by their bold and brilliant defence of (431-879) is given in Gams f450). It is probably 

the Queen, so aroused popular sympathy in her identical with the present Adalia, the chief port and 

favour, by holding her up as a deserted and perse- largest place on the southern coast of Asia Minor, 

cuted woman, that the ministry deemed it wise to Remains of sculptured marbles are abundant in the 

drop the bill after the majority in its favour in the vicinity. It is mentioned in Acts, xiv, 24-25, as the 

Loras had dwindled to nine. Reference is made to seaport whence Paul and Barnabas set sail for An- 

penalties, do not vary from those adopted in r^ard (431-879) is ^ven in Gams (447). 
to other bills. They may be introduced in either Lbquibn, On«n« CAriat (1740). I. 1030; Surra. Diet o/ 
house, but ordinaxify commence in the House of Greek and Roman Oeogr,, 1, 320-321. «„,„.„ 
Lords: they pass through the same stages; and when ihomab. j. ohahan. 
agreed to by both houses they receive the royal Attaliates, Michael, Byzantine statesman and 
assent in the usual form. But the parties who are historian, probably a native of Attalia in Pamphylia, 
subjected to these proceedings are admitted to defend whence he seems to have come to Constantinople 
themselves bv counsel and witnesses, before both between 1130 and 1140. He acquired in the royal 
houses; and the solemnity of the proceedings would city both wealth and position and was rapidly ad- 
cause measures to be taken to enforce the attendance vanced, under successive emperors, to the highest 
of members upon their service in parliament" (May, offices, among others to that of judge of the supreme 
Pari. Practice, 744). It thus appears that, in its court of the empire. He compiled (1072) for the 
modem form, procedure by attainder admits the Emperor Michael Parapinakes a compendium of 
right of proof and arf^ment. Entirely apart from Byzantine law which supplements in a useful way the 
the judicature of Parliament, attainder is defined by "Libri Baailici". In aadition to this he also drew up 
the common law of England to be the stain or cor- an "Ordinance for the Poor House and Monastery ' 
ruption of blood which follows as an immediate and which he founded at Gonstantinople in 1077. Tnis 
inseparable consequence of a death sentence. Such work is of value for the history of Byzantine life and 
attainder took place after judgment of death, or manners in the eleventh century. It contains a 
upon such circumstances as were equivalent to such catalogue of the library of his monastery. About 
a judgment, such as a judjpnent of outlawry on a 1079 or 1080 he published an account of Byzantine 
capital crime, pronounced for absconding from jus- history from 1034 to 1079, a vivid and reliable 
tice. Conviction without judgment was not followed presentation of the palace revolutions and female 
by attainder. The consequences of attainder were: domination that characterize this period of transition 
first, forfeiture; second, corruption of blood. The from the great Macedonian dynasty to the Oomneni. 
extent of the forfeiture depended upon the nature of Attaliates writes as an eyewitness and contemporary, 
the crime for which the cnminal was convicted: and Though his style is not free from the usual affectations 
by corruption of blood, "both upwards and down- of Byzantine historians, it is more flowing and corn- 
wards," the attainted peraon could neither inherit pact than that of his predecessors. I&umbacher 
nor transmit lands. After it was clear beyond dispute praises his accurate judgment and sense of equity; 
that the criminal was no longer fit to live, he was m both respects he is superior to his continuator, the 
called attaint, stained, or blackened, and before panegyrist and courtier Psellos. The law-manual 
6 and 7 Vict., c. 85, §. 1, could not be called as a of Attaliates was first edited by M. Freher (Juris 
witness in any court. The doctrine of attainder has, Graeco-Romani Tomi Duo, Frankfort, 1596, II, 1- 
however, ceased to be of much practical importance 79) • the "Ordinance", or Acdro^tf, is found in 
since 33 and 34 Vict., c. 23, wherein it was provided Miklosich and Mttller, "Acta et Diplomata Graca 
that henceforth no confession, verdict, inquest, con- Medii ^Evi" (1887), V, 293-327; the "History" 
viction, or judgment of or for any treason or felony, was edited by I. Bekker, in the "Corpus Script, 
or fdo-de'-se shall cause any attainder or corruption Byz." (Bonn, 1353). 

of blood or any forfeiture or escheat. Krumbachbr, Geech, d. Byz, Lit,, 2d ed., 26&-271: Mob- 

Hannib TATliOH- TREUiL, HitL du droit BjfMantin, III, 21S-229; W. Nibsen, 

xiAwwiB XAXiAiu. j^ JHatoxU dee M, AttaleuUee von 1077 (Jena. 1894), 23-30; 

Attala, Saint, b. in the sbcth century m Bur- ®""^' ^'^' ^^ ^- ^'^^^ ^^'T^^ksJ^^inj^ 
Kundy; d. 627. He first became a monk at L^rins, 

but, displeased with the loose discipline prevailing Attention. See Consciousness. 

there, he entered the monastery of Luxeuil which Atticus, Patriarch of Constantinople (406-425), 

had just been founded by St. Coliunban. When b. at Sebaste in Armenia; d. 425. He was educated 

Columban was expelled from Luxeud by Kmg Theo- in the vicinity of his native town by Macedonian 

done II, Attala waa to succeed him as abbot, but monks, whose mode of life and errore he embraced, 

preferred to follow hmi^into exile. They ^t tied on when still young he went to Constantinople, abjured 

raised to the priesthood, 
iest, Arsacius, were the 
M^^^M^. --^vw ««w x-^^v.* w. y„. ^^..^^ — ^ w*^, ciuei accusere oi ou onryaostom in the notorious 
Attala succeeded him as Abbot of Bobbio. He and Council of the Oak, which deposed (405) the holy 
his monks suffered many harcbhips at the hands patriarch. On the death (406) of the intruder 
of the Anan King Anowald. As abbot, AttaU m- Arsacius, he succeeded him in the See of Constanti- 
sisted on strict discipline and when a large number nople, and at first strove hard, with the help of the 
of his monks rebelled, declaring his discipline too civil power, to detach the faithful from the com- 
rigorous, he permitted them to leave the monastery, munion of their lawful pastor. But finding that. 
When, however, some of these penshed miserably, the even after the death of St. Chrysostom, they con- 
others, considering their death a punishment from tinned to avoid his own spiritual ministrations, he 
God, returned to the monastery. Attala was buried re-inserted the name of his holy predecessor in the 
in Bobbio where his fwst is celebrated on 10 March, diptychs of the churches. This change of attitude 

MoNTALKMBERT, The Monka cf^the Weet (BosUyn), I 582; j l- charitv to the noor irraHuftllv madp him lem 

Lechner. MartyroloQ. dee Benediktiner Ordene (Aumburg, »"a «»» cnamy ro ine poor graauauy maae mm iCSS 

1855); Staolbb. Hetiigen-Lexikon (Aucsbunc, 1858), I, 341 unpopular, and he at length managed to have him 

Michael Oit. self recognized as patriarch by Innocent I. Intend 


uponenlargin^theprerogativesof his see, he obtained died shortly after. Catholic interest in Attila cen* 

from Theodosius tne Younger two rescripts which tens chiefly in his relations with those bishops of 

S laced Bithynia and lUyria under his iurisdiction. France and Italy who restrained the Hunnish leader 

Lome resisted these encroachments, and tne rescripts, in his devastating fury. The moral power of these 

thanks to the intervention of Honorius. were re- bishops, and particularly of the pope, during the 

called. Atticus in some measure atoned for his am- dissolution of the empire, is evidencea as wdl by 

bition and the irregularity of his promotion by his the confidence in whicn the faithful looked to them 

zeal in the cause of orthodoxy. He drove the Mes- for succour against the terrible invader as by the 

salians from Pamphylia, and his opposition to the influence they sometimes exerted in staying that 

Pelagians caused him to be praised by Celostine I as invader's destroying hand. St. Agnan of Cleans 

" a true successor of St. Chrysostom ". sustained the courage of his people and hastened the 

, Vbnablm in />irt. Cfcme. B»og^, I, 207-209; Vbrschaffel reinforcements that saved his apparently doomed 

Sa2S''»& 4l6'3f67i • ^' '' ""'' ^^**'^'''* ^^ city; at Troyes, St. Lupus prevail^ upon Attila to 

* * * A. J. B. VuiBERT. spare the province of Champagne, and gave himself 

r ^Je a ' rM^ J ' *^ * hostajgc whilo the Hunnish army remained in 

Attigny, Councils op.-— In 765, St. Chrodegang Gaul; when Rome seemed destined to meet the fate 

of Metz and thirty-seven other bishops mutually of the Lombard cities which Attila had pillaged,' it 

promised in an assembly held at the royal residence of was Pope Leo the Great who, by his eloquence and 

Attigny near Vouziers (Ardennes) that after the death commanding personality, overawed the conqueror 

of each the survivors would cause the psalter to be and saved the city. The terror which for centuries 

said one hundred times and would have one hundred after clung to the name of Attila, "the Scourge of 

Masses celebrated for the repose of the soul of the God ", as he came to be called, and the gratitude of 

departed. Each one would also say thirty Ma^ the people to their deliverers combined in time to 

for the same intention. In 785, Charlemagne held a encumber medieval ha^iography ii-ith l^ends of 

council at Attigny. Widukind and Aboin, two con- saints reputed to have overcome Attila by their 

quered Saxon kinm, presented themselves for in- imposing presence, or stayed his progress by their 

struction and were oaptized. In 822, Pope Paschal I prayers. But these fictions ser\e to emphasize the 

was present at a Council of Attigny, convened for import of the facts which inspired them. They 

the reconciliation of the Emperor Louis the Pious enable us to appreciate how widespread must have 

with his three younger brothers, Hugo, Drogo, and been that sentiment expressed in the recently dis- 

Theodoric, whom he had caused to be violently covered appeal of Eusebius of Dorylffum to Pope 

tortured and whom he had intended to put to death. Leo I: "Curavit desuper et ab exordio consuevit 

In the council he confessed publicly his wrong-doing; thronus apostolicus iniqua perferentee defensare 

also the violence practised by him on his nephew, . . . et humi jacentes erigere, secundum possibili- 

Bemard, King of Italy, and his brother, the Abbot tatem quam habetis" [see Harnack, "History of 

Adelard Wala, and proposed to perform public Dogma'' (Boston, 1903), II. 168]. National pride, 

Sjnance in imitation of the Emperor Theodosius I. too, came in time to invest the person of Attila with 

e also exhibited an earnest desire to correct abuses a halo of fiction. Most European countries have 

arising from the negligence of the bishop« and the their legends of the Hunnish leader, who is diversely 

nobles, and confirmed the rule (Aquenais Regula) depicted, according as the vanity of nations would 

that the Council of Aachen had drawn up (816) for represent Attila as a friend who had contributed to 

canons and monks. In 870, thirty bishops and six their greatness or as a foe to whose superhuman 

archbishops met at Attigny, to pass judgment on strength it had been no discredit to succumb. Of 

Karlmann, the king's son, made an ecclesiastic at these legends the best known is the story of Etzel 

an eariy age, and accused by his father of conspiring (Attila) in the " Niebelungen-lied ". 

against his life and throne. He was deprived of Thirret, Hiatoire d'Auila (Paria, 1864); Gibbon. Roman 

his abbeys and imprisoned at Senlis. In the council ^mpir« (New York, 1902), xxxiv. xxxy, III. 618-589. con- 

^f Q^K ij:«^««,«»« TCok^*^ /%f T o/xM o*^*wknlA#l *^ fK#» tains abundant references to sources; ui Smfth and Wack, 

of 875, Hincmar, Bishop of Laon, appealed to the jy^ chrial. Biog. (London, 1877). I. the legendary and the 

pupe from his uncle, Hmcmar, Archbishop of Ueims. historical elements of ecclesiastical tradition are not suffi- 

Manbi, CoU. Cone, Sup. I, 621, XII. 674; Sup. I, 285. XIV. ciently distinguished. Acta SS., s, v. St. Lupua, XXXIV, 75- 

403; Sup. I. 993; XV, 680, XVI. 562; Hulot, Auigny, avec 90; and St. Leo /, XI, 18. For the legendary elements in the 

•es eUpendanees ... sea conciUa, etc. (Attigny- Reims, 1826); Attila tradition, ibid.^ s. v. St. Qentvieve of Paris, I, 135 sq.. 

Chevalier, Topo-WW. (Paris, 1894-99), 247. 144 sq.: St. Auctor of Metz, XXXVI. 636: St. SenaHtu of 

Thomas J. ShaHAN. Afa««tndU. XVI, 211, 212 (St Servatius of Tongres did not 

.^^,_ , . , 1 # ^1 -r-r :a Amn «xi8t); St. Oemvitanus of Modena, III, 714; St. John of Ra- 

Attila, king and general of the Huns; d. 453. vmna, II, 9. 10. On the St. Servatius and St. Auctor legends 

Succeeding in 433 to the kingship of Scythian hordes ?«« £'*^r''^^^"'l^^l^^®' ^f ?C?Hf,^"*^P°."*? Metensium, 

disoiganiaid and enfeebled by internal discords. Soductfon. wl^^? ' particularly the m- 

Attila soon made of his subjects a compact ana * * John B. Peterson. 
formidable people, the terror of Europe and Asia. 

An unsuccessfid compaign in Persia was followed Attiret, Jean Denis, ^inter, b. at Dole, France, 

in 441 by an invasion of Uie Eastern Roman Empire, 31 July, 1702; d. at Pekm. 8 December, 1768. He 

the success of which emboldened Attila to invade made serious artistic studies in Rome and after 

the West. He passed unhindered through Austria returning to his native countiy achieved considera- 

and Qermany, across the Rhine into Gaul, plunder- ble reputatmn as a portrait painter. He entered the 

ing and devastating all in his path with a ferocity Jesuit novitiate as a lay brother and has left some 

unparalleled in the records of barbarian invasions, specimens of his work m the Cathedral of Avi^on 

and compelling those he overcame to augment his and the Sodality chapel which he painted while a 

mighty army. In 451 he was met on the Plains of novice. The Jesuits had many of their men in China 

Chalons by the allied Romans under Aetius and employed as painters. Attiret joined them in 1737 

the Visigoths under Theodoric and Thorismond, ana was easily the superior of all. He was honoured 

who overcame the Huns and averted the peril that with the title of Pain+er to the Emperor, who visited 

menaced Western civilization. Turning then to his studio daily and hnally made him a mandarin in 

Italy, Attila, in the sprinc^ of 452, laid waste Aquileia spite of the brother's unwillingness to accept the 

and many Lombara cities, and was approaching honour. As all the work was done not for art but for 

Rome, whither Valentinian III had fled before him, the sake of pleasing the emperor, every suggestion he 

when he was met near Mantua by an embassv, the made was carefully attended to. Oil was not agreea- 

most influential member of which was Pope Leo I, ble, so aquarelles and distemper were resorted to. 

which dissuaded Attila from sacking the city. Attila The Emperor did not like shading, for he thought it 


was a blot, so that disappeared. It all ended in Attiret ones '' are in ^p^eat part a compilation of earlier eo- 

becoming altogether Chinese in his tastes and his clesiastical legislation, including the False Decretals, 

methods, so that he no loneer painted like a Euro- They contain, also, certain provisions of his own and 

pean. He made portraits of aU the distinguished court- are of value for the studv of contemporary eccleeiasti- 

personages, but most of his work was done on glass cal life and manners in Northern Italy. He is some- 

or silk and represented trees, and fruits, and fishes, times known as Atto II; an earlier homonymous 

and animals, etc. When, however, the emperor had bishop of Vercelli flourished about the middle of the 

beaten back the Tatars, he ordex^ the battles to eighth century. 

be painted. Four Jesuit brothers, among whom was Schultz, Atto von Vercelli (Gdttinsen. 1887); Vbrschaffel 

Attiret, made sixteen tableaux, which were engraved ft^'J^^ ^' ^fi- h^^^: r2^^, ™ "j^^'^^f '^^f; 

in France in 1774. When the collection arrived from h^::^^BiSHM^:'l!3^?' ' ^^"^'^^™' ^* *^ *^'^^ 

France, however, Attiret was dead. The emperor Thomas J. Shahan. 

manifested great concern at his loss, bore the ex- a **.««*. / a \ o 4. * 

penses of the obsequies, and sent a special representa- ^.^S^f^T Y^ ^^^^^^ » S^^r, a contemporary of 

tive to show his soniw at the t^b. Attiret is St. Patnck from whom she received the veil.^ She 

credited with at least 200 portraits. "^ ^?^ ^^^^ foundraw of several churches in the 

Carayon. Biog. particulih-ei. 1485; Amiot, BMiotMgue NaL covmties of Galwav and Shgo, Ireland. Colgan s ac- 

vParin): SoyyERvooEL, Bibl. de la c. de J.; Letbre* Edificaniee countof her hfe IS based On that wntten by Augustme 

led 1780). XXII. 4W. 5^1 (ed. 18«). "L 786, 7»6; XXVIl: Magraidin in the last years of the fourteenth century, 

SrdcKLEiN, Welt Bott, XXXlX, n. 679; Bbadmont, Acet. of ^ JT -i^„_ j„ • :^^JLkoK1^ c.4>«^».««»»»« ij*^^,^..^. 

the Emperor of China'a Garden (London. 1752); North China ^^ abounds in improbable Statements. However, 

Herald, 3 Nov. I860; Prieie hiatoriquee, 1856, 437, 461, 485; the fact of St. Attracta receiving the Veil from 

Journal dee eavania, June. 1771. rp t n ^^' Patrick is corroborated by llrechAn, in the 

1. J. CAMPBELL. "Book of Armagh ", as is evident from the following 

Atto, a faithful follower of Gregory VII in his con- passage in the "Documenta de S. Patricio" (ed. 

flict with the simoniac clergy, b. probably at Milan, Edmund H<»an, S.J.): "Et ecclesiam posuit in cella 

made Cardinal of San Marco, assisted (1079) at Adrachtae, fili» Talain, et ipsa accepit pallium de 

the retractation of Berengarius in the Roman synod nianu Patricii." A native of the County Sligo, she 

of that year, and signed the decrees of the synod of resolved to devote herself to God, but being opposed 

1081. He may have been Bishop of Prseneste. by her parents, fled to South Connacht and made her 

Cardinal Mai published under his name (SS. Vet. firet foundation at Drumconnell, near Boyle, County 

nova coll., VI, 2, 60 sag.), from a Vatican manu- Roscommon, whence she removed to Greagraighe, 

script, a "Breviarium Canonum", or miscellaneous or Coolavin, County Sligo. At Killara«ht, St. At- 

collection of moral and canonical decrees, genuine tracta established a hospice for travellers, which 

and foiled, from Pope Clement I to Gregory the existed as late as 1639. Her fame was so great that 

Great. It deals particularly with clerical rights and numerous places were named after her, e. g. Killa- 

duties, ecclesiastical acts, the administration of the raght (Cill Attracta), Toberaraght, Cloghan Araeht, 

sacraments, censures, jurisdiction, etc. Other cardi- etc., and a lai^e villa^ which grew up around her 

nals of the name are mentioned in the anonymous oratory at Killaraght in Coolavin. Colgau gives an 

(eighteenth-century) "Diatriba de Attonibus'"* pub- accoimt of the Cross of St. Attracta which was famed 

lished by Cardinal Mai (op. cit.; cf. P.L., CXXXIV, during the Middle Ages, and of which the O'Mochain 

902). family were hereditary keepers. A striking con- 

BrOck in Kirchenlex, 1, 1566. 1567. firmation of the existence of this relic in the early 

Thomas J. Shahan. 

years of the fifteenth centuiy is afforded by an entiy 
m the "Calendar of Papal Letters" (VI, 451), from 

ilZ^^Zt n^^,r.n^^u^ w;a ^r^,.,.^,^r^A^r.^^ ^„ fUo* had lapscd into desuetude, to be agam celebrated m 

i^.^nn iwTi^^^n TJirhd^ ^^^ IrSTchurch. The feast of St. Attracta, on 

oc^ion IS found m Ughelli, Italia Sacra , VII, ^^ j^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^p^j^ ^^^^^ j^ ^j^^ j^j^'^^ 

GmAUD. BHA. Sacr., II. 420; Potthabt. BtW. Hiet, Med. ^f Achoniy, of which she is the^troness. The 

jEvi, II, 1185: Chkvalieb, lUpertoire {Bu>-Bibl.\ I, 362. prayers and proper lessons for her Office were drawn 

Thomas J. Shahan. up by Cardinal Moran. 

-^^ -__ iM 1 J At_ 1 • J 'x Grattan Flood, /rt«fc Saint*; ilcio 55. (1658), 2 Feb., 29^ 

Atto of Vercelli, a learned theologian and canonist 297; Bibl. Haaiogr. Lat. (i90i), 1156; Coloan, Ada ss. 

of the tenth century, son of the Viscount Aldegarius, ^_*f^. (1646). I, 277-282; O'Hanlon, Livee of iriah Sainta, 

and Bishop of VerceUi (924-961). In 933 he became ^^^ ^^^ ^"«>- y,r „ p„,^,„ p,^^^ 

Grand ChanceUor of Lothaire II, King of France, and ^ • "* ^^R^^^n 1« lood. 

obtained from the royal gratitude donations and Attributes, Divine. — In order to form a more 

privil^es for his see of Vercelli (Ughelli, Italia Sacra, systematic idea of God, and. as far as possible, to 

iV, 769). Several of his writings were first published unfold the iinplications of the truth, (jod is All- 

by the Benedictine D'Achery (1656-77) in his " Spicile- Perfect, this infinite Perfection is viewed, successively, 

gium" VIII, 1-137; 2d ed., 1723, I. 401-442. e. g. under various aspects, each of which is treated as a 

'* Epistolse, Libellus de pressuris ecclesiasticis^', and separate perfection and characteristic inherent to 

" Canones rursus statutaque Vercellensis ecclesise '\ the Divine Substance, or Essence. A certain fsroxxp 

A complete edition was executed by Baronzo del of these, of paramount import, is called the Divine 

Signore, in two folio volumes (VerceUi, 1768; P. L., Attributes. 

CXXXIV, 27-834), inclusive of his lengthy commen- I. Knowledge of God Mediate and Synthetic. 

tary on the Epistles of St. Paul. In 1832 Cardinal Mai — Our natural knowledge of God is acquired by 

erature Ebert transfers to some Spaniard the author- eternal power abo, and Divinity" (St. Paul, Romans, 
ship of this work, but Hauck defends the traditional i, 20). Created things, by the properties and activi- 
view (Realencyk. f. prot. Theol., II, 214). His " Can- ties of their natures, manifest, as m a glass, du-kly, 


the powers and perfections of the Creator. But meaning of the statement is not that God lacks hi- 

these refracted images of Him in finite things cannot telligence, but that in Him there is not intelligence 

furnish grounds for any ade<^uate idea of the Infinite exactly as we know it. Again, since there is no 

Being. Hence, in constructmg a synthetic idea of imperfection in God, everv concept of defect, priva- 

God, before one can apply to the Divinity any con- tion, and limitation must be negated of God. Many 

cept or term expressing a perfection found in created negative names, it is true, are applied to God; as 

being, it must oe subjected to rigorous correction, when, for instance. He is said to be immutable, 

The profound disparity between the Divine perfection uncaused, infinite. It should, however, be care- 

and the intimations of it presented in the world-copy fully observed that some attributes, which, from the 

may be brcmdly laid down under two heads. (l)Num- etymological point of view, are ne^tive, convey, 

her. — The perfections of creatures are innumerable, nevertheless, a positive meaning. Failure to per- 

the Divine perfection is one. (2) Diversity. — Created ceive this obvious truth has been responsible for 

perfections differ endlessly in kind and decree; the much empty dogmatism on the impossibility of 

or conceivable perfection, without being determined more, since the force of the latter note is to deny any 
to the particular mode of any. Hence, when any and all limitations to the actuality represented by 
attribute expressing modes characteristic of the the former, its real import is positive, like the can- 
world of being that falLs within the ran^ of our cellation of a minus si^ in an algebraic formula; or, 
experience is applied to God its signification ceases it dischaiges the function of an exponent and raises 
to be identical with that which it has in every other actuality to the nth power. (3) Way of eminence. — 
case. Yet it retains a real meaning in virtue of the The concept of a perfection derived from created 
ratio which exists between the finite being and its things and freed of all defects, is, in its application 
Infinite analogue. In philosophical phrase, this use to uod, expanded without limit. God not only 
of terms is c^led analogical predication, in contra- possesses every excellence discoverable in creation, 
dbtinction to univocal, in which a word is predicated out He also possesses it infinitely. To emphasize 
of two or more subjects in precisely the same sense, the transcendence of the Divine perfection, in some 
(See Analogy.) cases an abstract noun is substituted for the corre- 

II. Source of our Natural Knowledge of sponding adjective; as, God is Intelligence; or, a^in, 
God. — ^To correct, as far as possible, the inadequate some word of intensive, or exclusive, force is joined 
character of the concepts through which we must to the attribute; as, God alone is good, God is good- 
formulate our idea of God, the first step is to di»- ness itself, God is all-powerful, or supremely power- 
tinguish created perfection into two kinds, viz., ful. 

mixed perfections and pure perfections. A pure per- IV. Deductivb Development. — Having estab- 

fection is one whose exact concept does not include lished the existence of God from metaphysical, 

any note formally expressive of defect or limitation; physical, and moral arguments, the theologian selects 

the content of the idea is entirely positive. The some one of the attributes which these proofs au- 

idea of a mixed perfection, on the contrary, formally thorize him to predicate of the Divinity and, by 

or directly connotes, along with what is positive in unfolding its implications, reaches a number of other 

the perfection, some privation or deficiency. Ex- attributes. For instance, if God is Pure Actuality, 

amples of the former are power, truthfulness, will; that is, free from all static potency, it follows that, 

as an instance of the latter, materiality may be since change implies a transition from an antecedent 

offered. For, though the reality that belongs to potential condition to a subsequent condition in 

matter is, of course, a participation of existence and which the potentiality^ is realized. God is immutable, 

activity, yet the concept of it connotes the imper- Here we reach the point where tne term Attribute is 

fections of that particular kind of existence which employed in its strict sense, 
is composite and subject to disintegration. Aeain, Y. Essence and Attributes. — ^Transcendentally 

personality is a pure perfection; for, as Catholic one, absolutely free from composition, the Divine Be- 

philosophy teaches, though the finite character of ing is not, and may not be conceived as. a fundamen- 

numan personality comes mto play in the aw^ening tal substrate in which qualities or any other modal 

of self-consciousness, yet limitation is not an essentia determinations inhere. The reality to which the 

constituent of personality. All terms that stand for various attributes are ascribed is one and indivisible. — 

pure perfections are predicated analogically of God, ''Quse justitia," savs St. Augustine, ''ipsa bonitas; 

and are designated attributes in the wide sense of quse bonitas, ipsa beatitude. — In this respect, the 

the word. When terms which signify mixed per- relation of the attributes to the Divine nature might 

fections are predicated of God, the analogy becomes be illustrated by the various reflections of one and 

so faint that the locution is a mere metaphor. the same object from a concave, a convex, and a 

III. Inductive Development of Attributes. — plane mirror. Nevertheless, to systematize the idea 
The elaboration of the idea of God is carried out of God, and to draw out the rich content of the 
along three converi^^ing lines: (1) The positive way knowledge resulting from the proofs of God's exist- 
of causality. — In virtue of the principle that what- ence, some primary attribute ma^r be chosen as 
ever excellence is contained in an effect is repre- representing one aspect of the Divine perfection 
sented in the efficiency of the cause, reason affirms from which the others may be rigorously deduced, 
that every positive perfection of created being has Then arises a logical scheme in which the derivative 
its transcendental analogue in the first cause. Hence, attributes, or perfections, stand towards one another 
from the existence of an intelligent bein^, man, in in a relation somewhat similar to that of the essence 
the cosmos, we rightly infer that God is intelligent, and the various properties and qualities in a material 
that is to say. His infinite perfection is superabund- substance. In this arrangement the primary per- 
antly adequate to all the operations of intellect, fection is termed the metaphysical essence, the 
(2) The nc^tive way. — If we fix our attention pre- others are csdled attributes. The essence, too, may 
cisely on the Infinity of God, then, focusing the be regarded as that cliaracteristic which, above all 
negation not upon the positive content of any others, distinguishes the Deity from everything else, 
created perfection, but upK>n the fact that, because Upon the question, which attribute is to be considered 
it is finite it is determined in kind and limited in primary, opinions differ. Many eminent theologians 
degree, we may affirm that it is not found in God. favour tne conception of pure actuality (ildi/s Puni«) 
We may say, e. g., that He is not intelligent. The from which simplicity and infinity are directly de 


duoed. Most modem authors fix on aseity (AseUaa; Gilbert de la Porrde, who maintained a real, ontolo^« 

3»''from" MS*' himself ")» or self-existence; for the cal distinction between the Divine Essence and the 

reason that, while all other existences are derived attributes. His opinion was condemned b^ the 

from, and aepend on, God, He possesses in Himself, Council of Reims (1148). St. Thomas definitively 

absolutely and independently, the entire reason of expressed the doctrine which, after some cont'ro- 

His uncaused, infinite Being. In this, the most pro- versies between Scotists and Thomists upon minor 

found and comprehensive distinction between the points and subtleties, and with some diveivenoe of 

Divinity and everything else, aU other distinctions opinion upon unimportant details, is now me com- 

are implicitly expressed. Whether, and in what mon teaching of Catholic theologians and philoso- 

way, the distmctions between the attributes and the phers. It may be summarized as follows: Ine idea 

metaphysical essence, and among the attributes of God is derived from our knowledge of finite beings, 

themselves, have an ontological basis in the Divine When a term is predicated of the finite and of the 

nature itself, was a subject which divided Nominal- Infinite, it is used, not in a univocal, but in an 

ists and Realists, Thomists and Scotists, in the aee analogical sense. The Divine Perfection, one and 

of Scholasticism (cf. Vacant, Diet, de thdol. cathol., invisible, is, in its infinity, the transcendental analogue 

I, 2230-34). of all actual and possible finite perfections. By 

VI. Division of Attributes. — Taking as the means of an accumulation of analogous predicates, 
basis of classification the ways by which the attributes methodically co-ordinated, we endeavour to form an 
are developed, they are divided into positive and approximate conception of the Deity who, because 
nc^tive. Amon^g the native attributes are sim- He is Infinite, cannot be comprehended by finite 
plicity, infinity, immutabuitv. The chief positive intelligence. Modem philosophv presents a re- 
attributes are unity, truth, goodness, beauty, markable gradation, from Pantheism, which finds 
omnipotence, omnipresence, intellect and will, per- God in everything, to Agnosticism, which declares 
Bonality. Some authors divide them into inoom- that He is bevond the reach of knowledge. Spinoza 
municable and communicable. The former class conceives Goa as "a substance consisting of infinite 
comprises those which belong to God alone (e. g., attributes each of which expresses eternal and 
all-wise, self-existent, omnipotent) to the latter belonff infinite essence ". The two attnbutes manifested to 
those which are predicable, analogically, of God and us are thought and extension. At the other ex- 
creatures; as good, just, intelligent. Again, the treme we find Agnostics of the school of Herbert 
divine nature may be considered either as static, or Spencer (see Agnosticism) and some followers of 
as the source of activity: hence another division into He^el, who hold that the nature of God, or, to use 
quiescent and active. Finally, some perfections in- their favourite term, ''the Absolute", is utterly 
volve a relation to things distinct from God, while unknowable, and its existence not determined to 
others do not; and from this standpoint theologians any mode; therefore, to predicate of it various 
divide the attributes into absolute and relative, attributes, expressive of determinations, is idle and 
The various classifications adopted by modem misleading. Between the finite and the Infinite 
Protestant theologians are due partly to the results there is no common ground of predication* hence, 
of philosophical speculation and partly to new con- words which signify finite perfections can nave no 
ceptions of the nature of religion. Schleiermacher, real meaning when predicated of God; they become 
e. g., derives the attributes of God from our three- mere empty symbols. All theolo^cal attempts to 
fold consciousness of absolute dependence, of sin, and elaborate an idea of Ckxl are vam, and result in 
of grace. Others, with Lipsius, distinguish the meta- complete absurdity when they conceive God after 
physical attributes from the psychological and the man^s image and likeness (see Anthropomorphism), 
ethical. A simpler division groups omnipotence, and circumscribe the Infinite in terms borrowed from 
omnipresence, eternity, omniscience, and unitv as human psychology. Criticism of this kind indicates 
the metaphvsical predicates, justice and goodness that its authors have never taken the trouble to 
as the moral attributes. The fundamental attribute understand the nature of analogical predication, or 
is, according to Ritschl, love; according to Pro- to consider fairly the rigorous logical process of 
fessor Royce, omniscience. The main difficulty with refining to which terms are subjected before being 
these writers centres about the idea of God as a per- predicated of God. It often happens, too, that 
sonal being. writers, after indul^ng liberally in eloquent de- 

VII. Revelation. — The supernatural knowledge nunciation of theologicalanthropomorphism, proceed, 
of God ^ven in revelation is apprehended through on the next pagje, to apply to the Infinite, presumably 
the medium of conceptions that belong to natural in a strictly umvocal sense, terms such as " eneigy '\ 
knowledge. Therefore, the same principles of at- ''force", and "law", which are no less anthropo- 
tribution that govern the one hold good also for the morphio, in an ultimate analysis, than ** will " and 
other. ** intelligence ". The position of the Catholic Church, 

VIII. Historical Development. — ^In the fourth declared in the Fourth Lateran Council (1215). is 
century Aetius and Eunomius maintained that, asain clearly stated in the following pronouncement 
because the Divine nature is simple^ excluding all of the Vatican Council: 

composition or multiplicity, the vanous terms and ''The Holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Church 

names applied to God are to be considered synonv- believes and professes that there is one living and 

mous. Otherwise they would erroneously imply true God, CJreator and Lord of heaven and earth, 

composition in God. This opinion was combated omnipotent^ eternal, immense, incomprehensible, 

by St, Cyril of Alexandria, St. Basil, and St. Gregory infinite in intellect and will and in all perfection; 

of Nyssa (In Eunom., P. G., XLV). The pnnci- Who, being One, singular, absolutely simple and un- 

ple of attribution received more precise statement changeable spiritual substance, is to be regarded as 

at the hands of St. Augustine, in his investigation of distinct really and in essence from the worid. most 

the conditions of inteUectual knowledge (ue Genesi blessed in and from Himself, and unspeakably ele- 

ad Litteram, IV, 32). In the ninth century, John vated above aU things that exist, or can be con- 

Scotus Erigena, who was laigely influenced by ceived, except Himself . " 

Neo-Platonism, transmitted through the works of ^ „ , „ ,. .. ^ , « -,. . ^ 

the PseudoHDionysitw, .contributes to bring mto x!5,V^^r6e'p^c^^:^il%X^'^::S.l'tc.i^l 

clearer relief the analogical character of predication Wilhblm and Scannbll. a Manual of Catholic Theolooy 

(De DivinA NaturA, Lib. I). The Nominalists (New York. 1892); J. y; Gratrt, La amnaUfaneede Di€u 

revived the views of Eunomius and the opposition |*«ga {l^'«L^*?892i: 'i'o^.'S^'^l^ 2? J^T^ 

of the Realists was earned to the other extreme by (Paris, 1003); flint, TheUm (Edinbursh, 1870); 1ymrac£ 


V*V^^hJ*^j^^ St^g^ ^^?^ «»rf.PAaMfl|pAy (New andria (Strom., VII) speaks of righteousness which 

York. 1800); Ladd, Tha Phtloaophy of Religion (New York, ««-„«„ Xf i^.,^ \.»^^Jru4^»^»«^r^« «.:«:»^ t^^^ ^^>«- 

1005); ILLINQWORTH, Personality^ Human ar!dDivine (London ^^^^ Of iove and nghteousncSS arising from fear, 

and New York, 1003); Fraber. Philosophy of Theism (Edin- and m the Strom., II. ch. Vll, he Speaks at length OU 

i*2af^ ^S^^' ^Aff,'- ^** ConeepHon of Ood (New York, the utility of fear, and answers all objections brought 

\m, il^^"™*'^"*** o/Dcvmo^ rXeoiw (New York, j^^^^^ against his position. The most strikhig 

'' * James J. Fox. sentence is the one wherein he says: "cautious fear is 

therefore shown to be reasonable, from which arises 

Attrition, or iMPERFEcrr CoNTRrnoN (Lat. ojffro/'to repentance of previous sins", etc. St. Basil (4th 

wear away by rubbing"; p. part, attriius), — ^TheCoun- interrogatory on the Rule) sp^ks of the fear of God 

cil of Trent (Sess. XIV, Chap, iv) has defined contrition and of His jud^ents, and he asserts that for those 

as "sorrow of soul, and a hatred of sin committed, who are beginmng a life of piety "e^ortation based 

with a firm purpose of not sinning in the future'', on fear is of greatest utility , and he quotes the wise 

This hatred of sm may arise from various motives, man asserting, "The fear of God is the beginning of 

may be prompted by various causes. If the detes- wisdom" (P. G., XXXI). St. John Chrysostom may 

tat ion of sin arise from the love of God, Who has be Quoted in the same sense (P. G., XLIX, 154). St. 

been grievously offended, then contrition is termed Ambrose, in the fifteenth sermon on the Psalm cxviii 

perfect; if it arise from anv other motive, such as speaks at large on godly fear which begets charity, 

loss of heaven, fear of hell, or the heinousness of oegQ\A\o\e\nuri4itirnoremsequUurchaTitas (P. L., 

guilt, then it is termed imperfect contrition, or xv, 1424), and his disciple, St. Augustine, treats fully 

attrition. That there exists such a disposition of the godliness of fear as a motive to repentance. In 

soul as attrition, and that it is a goodly thing, an the 161st of his sermons (P. L., XXXVIII, 882 sqa.) 

impulse of the Spirit of God, is the clear teaching of he speaks of refraining from sin for fear of Goa's 

the Council of Trent (Sess. XIV, iv). "And as to judgments, and he asks: "Dare I say such fear is 

that imperfect contrition which is called attrition, wrong?" He replies that he dare not, for the Lord 

because it is commonly conceived either from the Christ urging men to refrain from wrongdoing sue- 

consideration of the turpitude of sin, or from the gested the motive of fear. "Fear not those who kiU 

fear of hell and of punisnment, the council declares the body ", etc. (Matt., x). True, what follows in St. 

that if with the hope of pardon, it excludes the wish Augustine has been subject to much dispute, but the 

to sin, it not only does not make man a hypocrite general doctrine of the godliness of fear is here pro- 

and a greater sinner, but that it is even a gift of pounded, and the difficulty, if aught there be, touches 

God, and an impulse of the Holy Spirit, who does the other question hereinafter treated anent "Initial 

not indeed as yet dwell in the penitent, but who Love ". 

onlymoves him; whereby the penitent, being assisted. The word itself, attrition, is of medieval origin, 
prepares a way for himself unto justice, and although Father Palmieri (De Pcenit.. 345) asserts, on the au- 
this attrition cannot of itself, without the Sacra- thority of Aloysius Mingarelli, that the word is thrice 
ment of Penance, conduct the sinner to justification, found in the works of Alanus of Lille, who died at 
yet does it dispose him to receive the grace of God an advanced age in the year 1203; but its use in the 
m the Sacrament of Penance. For smitten profitably school is contemporaneous with William of Paris, 
with fear, the Ninivites at the preaching of Jonas Alexander of Hales, and Blessed Albert. Even with 
did fearful penance and obtained mercy from the these men its meaning was not so precise as in after 
Lord." Wherefore anent attrition, the council in years; though they all agreed that of itself it did not 
Canon y, Sess. XIV, declares: "If any man assert that suffice to justify the sinner in God's sight. (See the 
attrition ... is not a true and a profitable sorrow; Scholastic traditions in article Absolution, and Pal- 
that it does not prepare the soul for grace, but that mieri, loc. cit.). This fear is godly, since it excludes 
it makes a man a hypocrite, yea, even a greater not only the will to sin, but also the affection for sin. 
sinner, let him be anatnema." This doctrine of the There would perhaps have been little difficulty on this 
council is in accord with the teaching of the Old and point if the distinction were kept in mind between 
the New Testament. The Old Testament writers that fear which is termed servilis, which touches will 
praise without hesitation that fear of God which is and heart, and that fear known as servililer servilis, 
really "the beginning of wisdom" (Ps. ex). One which though it makes man refrain from perform- 
of the commonest forms of expression found in the ing the sinful act, leaves the will to sin and tne affeo- 
Hebrew scriptures is the "exhortation to the fear of tion thereto. 

the Lord" (Ecclus., i, 13; ii, 19 sqq.). We are told Attrition in the Sacrament of Penance. — ^The 

that "without fear there is no justification" (ibid., Church not only regards the godliness of fear as a 

i, 28; ii, 1; ii, 19). In this fear there is "confidence motive to repentance, but expressly defines that 

of strength" and it is "a fountain of life" (Prov., xiv, attrition, though it justifies not without the Sacra- 

26, 27); and the Psalmist prays (Ps. cxviii, 120): ment of Penance, nevertheless disposes the sinner to 

"Pierce thou my flesh with tny fear: for I am afraid receive grace in the sacrament itself (Sess. XIV, iv). 

of thy judgments." This particular phase of the doctrine of contrition 

New Testament. — ^Even when the law of fear had in penance is nrst taught with clearness by the 

given way to the law of love, Christ does not hesitate Schoolmen of the twelfth century, and particularly 

to inculcate that we must "fear him who can de- by St. Thomas, who gathered into a united whole the 

stroy both soul and body into hell" (Matt., x, 28). jarring opinions of his predecessors (See the Schola»- 

Certainly. too, the vivid account of the destruction tic in article Absolution). Though some still pre- 

of Jerusalem, typical of the final destruction of the ferred to follow the Lombards who insisted on peitect 

world, was intended by Jesus to strike terror into contrition, after St. Thomas there was little oi vision 

the he&Tta of those who heard, and those who read; in the schools up to the time of the Council of Trent, 

nor can one doubt that the last great judgment as At the council there was some opposition to a clear 

portrayed by Matthew, xxv,31 sqq., must have been definition, some of the Fathers insisting on the ne- 

deecribed by Christ for the purpose of deterring men cessity of perfect contrition, and it was perhaps for 

from sin by reason of God's awful judgments. The this reason that the decree w^ couched as above, 

AfXMtle appears not less insistent when he exhorts leaving it still possible to doubt whether attrition 

us to work out "our salvation in fear and trembling" was a proximate, or only a remote, disposition for 

lest the anger of God come upon us (Phil., ii, 12). justification in the sacrament. To-day the common 

The Fathers of the earliest days of Christianity have teaching is that the council simply intended to define 

spoken of fear of God's punishments as a goodly the sufficiency of attrition (Vacant, Diet, de thtol.^ 

Virtue that makes fpr ^^Jv^tipQ, Q^tp^nt of AJex- col, 224^7). And this would seem reasonable. 



because it is the dear teaching of the Church that [negatUem neoeMUatem aliqualis dilectionU Dei] in the 

perfect contrition justifies the sinner even without attrition conceived through fear of hell, which to- 

the Sacrament of Penance. If perfect contrition, day (1667) seems the one more generally held by 

then, were always necessary^ why did Christ institute scholastic theologians, or that affirming the necessity 

a particular sacrament, smce justification would of the said love, until something shall have been 

always be imparted independently of the sacramental defined in this matter bv this Holy See." The au- 

ceremony? If attrition is sufficient for justification thoritative statement of Alexander VII leaves the 

in the Sacrament of Penance, then there seems no question still open as Benedict XIV teaches in ''De 

reason to deny its sufficiency when there is question Synodo ", Bk. Vll, xiii, n. 9. Still it is clear that 

of remitting sin through oaptism, for the reason Alexander considered as more probable the opinion 

given above will apply eoually in this place. The stating attrition as sufficient for justification m the 

question has also been asked apropos of attrition. Sacrament of Penance even if it included not the 

when one receives a sacrament of the livixig in mortal beginninjg of love. The censure IoUb senientioB was 

sin, of which sin he is not conscious, wm attrition omitted in the " Apostolica Sedis *\ On the formula, 

with the sacrament suffice unto justification? The "Ex attrito fit contriltia", cf. Vacant, Diet, de th6ol., 

answer is generally fiven in the affirmative. See St. ooL 2256 sqq. 

Thomas. Sumxna TneoL, III, 2, a. 7 ad 2*^, 7ed., 2; Edwabd J. Hanna. 

^ o^!i,.7!^^°^^¥'^Jf^o?;^fi«n r«.,r «,.V-. f^. ;,«♦?« Attudft, a titular see of Phrygia in Asia Minor, 

sovereign. (See Condvtums m article CoNTRrriON.) of Greek and Roman Oeogr., I, 336. 

Interior, for the Council of Trent requires that it a-.u-JVj-. r xr tt i 

should OTclude the wiU to sin. Supernatural, for 4^P"^??» Jban-Miotbl;.d AaTORO, canon reguhur. 

Innocent XI condemned the propositi^,. " Probkbile ?2^^'X^l^^,f ,L*°?l®"Lf!L^,^^'^^^^ 

est suffice] 


brace aU sinLT"' &;^er5pi,lorh^"agairthroi5lii]^ ^\ ^/^T^ J^^^ ^^® ^^^^ ^^ *^® hiBhop, Francois 

motives of attrition (fear of heU, etc:) make one hate ^"^?*; >1^'^!u'^^ ""^"^u TT ^P^^^' .^ 

sin above aU other evil It has been questioned administrator of the diocese, he took up and earned 

whether this would be true if the motive were fear 5^ vigorously the resistance of Caulet to the roj^ 

of temporal punishments (Genicot, T. 11, n. 274; BU- demands m the matter of the Recalia. He refused 

lot, De^cenlt., 159 sq.). The Reformere denieS the \^ recognise royal nommations to local ecclesiastical 

hoiesty and godliness of attrition, and held that it sim- ^^f ?^'. ^""^ excommumcated the canons appointed 

ply mile man a hypocrite. (Bull of Leo X, Exu«» by the ^ng, when they attempted to exercise theur 

bbmine, prop. ^Council of Trent, Sees. XIV, <>ffi^- ^^® ™8 arrested by royad order ajd war 

can. iv.) They were foUowed by Baius, Jansen pnsoned for six years at Caen, where he died His 

and his discipli, who taught that fear without counij;eous resistant is remarkable at ^ 
love of 

^ 4T61,"fcr^<temned"bV Clel^rx! ' «*U^I oj Caulk and his clergy was partiy responsiBle for 

genitus *', 8 September, 1717. Also Bull of i»ius VI, their stubborn defiance of Louis XIV; they rightly 

"Auctorem Fidei" prop. 25). feared that the nommees of the kmg would not bcH 

Catholic writers in the seventeenth century quee- long to their faction, 

tioned, whether attrition must of necessity b2 ac- ^"*"«'' ''"''^ "^^ T^^ J Srahai^ 
companied at least by the beginning of the love of 

Go<L and, that granted, whether such love was a Aubennont, Jean-Antoinb d', of Bois-le-Duc, 

disiuterested love of God for His own sake, or whether theolo^pan, d. 22 November, 1686. He joined the 

it might not be that love termed concupiscerUicB, or Dominicans in 1633, taught philosophy and theology 

love of God because He is our {^reat good. Some in several convents of his order, was made doctor of 

hdd that in evenr real act of attntion there must be theology at Louvain in 1652, and president of the 

the bediming of love; others denied catesorically local Dominican college in 1653. His theolo^cal 

this position, exacting only that sorrow which ex- writings are mostly in defence of papal infallibility 

eludes affection for sin, and hope of pardon; others (1682) and aeainst the Gallican teachings of the 

insisted that there must be at least a beginning of Declaration of 1682. Shortly before his death he 

that love which has been termed above concupis^ defended against Papebroch St. Thomas of Aquin's 

centicB; whUe still others exact only that love which authorship of the Mass for Corpus Christi. 

begets hope. On these opinions see Vacant, Diet, de ^ SP^T^S.^^'^' ^^' ^•^•' ^^' ^^' Vacamt. DieL de TMoi, 

thiol s. V. Attrition, cols. 2252, .2253^^2254, etc. ^«^' '' ^263. 

On the controversy, particulariy m Belgium, see *'«-»« •. ^ ^^m^^^. 

DoUinger and Reusch (Diet., col. 2219). Thecontro- Aubery, Joseph, Jesuit missionary in Canada, 

versy waxed so warm that Alexander VII issued a b. at Gisors in Normandv, 10 May, 1673: d. at St. 

decree, 6 May, 1667, in which he declares his distress Francois, Canada, 2 July, 1755. At the age of 

at the almost scandalously bitter disputes waged seventeen he entered the Society of Jesus, and for 

by certain scholastic theologians as to whether the four years studied in Paris. He arrived in Canada 

act of attrition which is conceived through fear of in 1694 and completed his studies at Quebec, where 

hell, but excludes the will of sinning and counts on he was also instructor for five years, and where he 

obtaining the meroy of recovering grace through the was ordained in 1700. Assigned to the Abnaki 

Sacrament of Penance, reouires in addition some act mission, he re-established in 1701 the mission at 

of love of God, and then 'enjoins on all of whatever Medoctec on the St. John River, which appears to 

rank, under pain of incurring the severest ecclesiasti- have been abandoned by the Franciscans about a 

cal penalties, not to presume in future when discuss- year earlier. In 1708 he was ^ven chaige of the 

ing the aforesaid act of attrition to brand with any Abnaki reduction at St. Francis, and exercised the 

mark of theological censure, or wrong, or contempt, apostolate in that single mission for nearly htJi x 

either one or the other of the two opinions; that century. Aubery is said to have been an aora 

denying the necessity of some sort of loye of Qoi liitfcuist, but uofortuoately his rvuo^tous M99.. with 


the mission registers, were destrojred by fire in 1759. an extended work on the theme, entitled "Conjeo* 

He also wrote sevend memorials m opposition to the tiires acad^miques, ou dissertation sur llliade". He 

claims of the English in Acadia, ana sent them to died before he was able to make the final revision, 

the French Government, urging that the boundaries and it was not published until 1715, forty years 

between the French ana English possessions should after his death. The work was known to Wolf, and 

be determined by mutual agreement. To these though the French scholar anticipated many of his 

memorials he added a map, giving the boundaries pwn views he does him scant justice. A Ger- 

as defined by the treaty of Utrecht. His plan, how- man critic declares that d'Aubignac's arguments are 

ever, was not accepteci. These valuable documents substantially as strong as Wou's, in some respects 

are still preserved in the Paris archives. Chateau- stronger, and that if Wolf's "ProlQeomena" produced 

briand reproduces the lifenstory of Father Aubery neater and more lasting results, this is due less to 

in the character of the missionary in his "Atala". tne character of his aiguments than to the greater 

THWArri*. JemiU Rdatiofu (Clev?land. 1900). LXVI. 844; skill with which they are set forth. 

RocHxiiONTcix. Let /fnnlet ^Pans, 1805-06): Maurault, Finblbr. Die ConjecturtM acadSmiquet d€9 Abbi d'Aubignae 

HvKUnn dM Ahinak^ (Quabeo, 1866); Brums. HttL CoUt., I, fa Neu€ JahrbOeher far doM kUunKhe AlUrtum vnd fikr PA- 

^886. daoogik (Leipnc. 1005) XV. 

Edward P. Spillanb. Chablbs G. Herbermann. 

Anbignae, Fbanj«i8 HfoBLiN.ABBfe D'.««mnari- ..fS*"*^' •'■*^-"™" ^'^'^ ""'■ ** R"^""*- 

an, poet, preacher, archffiologist, philologist, D. at Paris, -' , _, ,„ ^ - ^, ,^, 

•4 August, 1604; d. at Nemoura, 27 July, 1676. He ^^^^^■^'^i Tterr^ d'. Grand Master of the Order 

tookhis name from an abbey that was granted him. ?? St. John of Jerusalem, b. 1423; d. 1503. He made 

After completing his classical and theological studies, his first campaigns against the Turks, and foujght 

he was appomted by Cardinal RicheUeu instructor ?e^«"?<*®r„Vi®/^'J<5*^ Dauphin m a war against 

to thelatteVs nephew, the young Due de Fronsac, to f*^® Swiss (1444) It was on his return from thif 

whose gratitude he owed a pension of 4,000 Uvres. last expedition that he obtamed from Charles VII 

This appointment, as weU sahia own inclination, led pemussion to join the Hospitollers. m year 1460 

him to devote his time to literary studies, especially found hun Castellan of Rhodes, and he soon ^ter 

to the classics. He was drawn into the oontro- became captain-general of the city, which had been 

veray between the ancients under the leaderahip ^? /eat of the order since 1309, and was now the 

.n^ii ^r>A fiiA m/vioi^a iinrioi- P«i^iiif Km chief obstaclo to Ottoman supremacy in the Medi- 

of BoUeau, and the modems under Perrault, hJs ^^^^ obstacle to Ottoman supremacy 

traction for d'Aubignac, who wrote not only a tragedy. «> i'^ urana Masiersmp, loresaw tne smtan s aesiffi, 
"Z^nobie", but abo a work entitled "Pratique dfu and lost no time m making what preparations lie 
TKAAfttt" could for the defence. A letter to the houses of his 


The abM interests modem schohira chiefly because ^^f^ brought him whatever men and money they 
of his attitude on what is known as the '^Homeric could spare. Additional sums came f rpm Sixtus IV 
Question". He was one of the first to doubt and Louis XI, together with sodm of the bravest 
the existence of Homer; he even propounded the soldiers of Italy and France. Yet with all his 
theory that the Iliad is made up of a number of in- exertions he was able to muster no more than 450 
dependent ballads gathered and put together by a knights and 2,000 auxiliaries. The Turldsh arma- 
compUer not veiy much later than the supposed nient, which appeared before Rhodes 23 May, 1480, 
date of Homer, whom he took to be Lycuigus. This f^ overwhelmingly supenw in numbers, and was 
first compilation, however, was not final, as the poem (umiahed with the best artillery then obtamable. 
continued to be handed down by the recitation of But the example of d'Aubusson's good right arm, and 
rhapsodistB who again divided the work into sep- ^^ omnipresence, made heroes of all the defenders, 
aratesongs, Pisistratus making the final redaction. After three piontlw of ahnost incessant .fightiijg. 
These views were based partly on statementa in the J*"?, t.^'^^ him 25,000 of his best warnors, the 
Greek historians, partly on reasons drawn from the Turkish commander was forced to raise the siege, 
poem itself. D'Aubignac dwelt on the impossibility For this briUiant achievement d AubuMon received 
^transmitting so long a poem without the aid of writ- » ^"^?. J^^' f ?^ ^ revered by ^ Chrwtendom 
ing which he, as did WolfTbelieved to be unknown to «« the Shield of the Church ". In his subsequwit 
Homer. He drew arguments from the constmction of efforts to form a league that would drive the Turks 
the epic, its lack of unity and its multiplicity of themes, from Constantinople, he failed, 
the q^uarrd of Achilla bein^r treated of m^ only a few sd^XSeMS^ t?, ?^onf ^e^H^^n^: "^ 
books. The name Iliad he considered a misno- «/ the Onrnd-Maetere . . . of sl J<^m . . . (Naples, 1636); 
mer. since Troy is not the subject of the story. The Fi-andbxn, Hietory of the Knighu of WutdeeCPm, 1876). 
Iliaa, he contended, has no suitable ending; the ^' •*• ^- Vuibert. 
raider's curiosity remains unsatisfied. It contains Aach (Augusta Aubcorum), Archdiocese of, 
many cantos that mi^ht be omitted, not only with- comprises the Department of Gers in France. Be- 
out detriment but with positive advantage to the fore the Revolution it had ten suffragan sees: Acqs 
action of the story. Besides these general oonsid- (Dax) and Aire, afterwards united as the Diocese of 
erations, he adduced numerous details which consti- Aire: Lectoure, later reunited with the Arehdiooese 
tute flaws in the poem as we possess it. but which of Auch; Couserans, afterwards united with the 
would be entirely justified in separate oallads. In Diocese of Pamiers; Oloron, Lescar, and Bayonne, 
short, there are few objections made to the Iliad united later as the Diocese of Bayonne; Bazas, after- 
l^ modem scholars on' sesthetical and rhetorical wards united with the Archdiocese of Bordeaux; 
grounds which are not touched upon by the French Comminges, united later with the Archdiocese of 
humanist. The arguments i^ainst a single author, Toulouse; and Tarbes. Up to 1789 the Areh- 
drawn from the character of the language, the in- bishops of Auch bore the title of Primate of Aqui- 
termixture of the dialects and the like, d'Aubignac taine, though for centuries there had been no Aqui- 
oould not present, because linguistic studies in his taine. The Arehdiooese of Auch, re-established in 
day had not advanced sufficiently to enable him 1882, was made up of the former arehdiooese of the 
to appreciate the " Homeric Question " from this same name and the former Dioceses of Lectoure, 
point of view. Though the abb6 had on many Condom, and Lombez. Condom was previously a 
occasions set forth in writing his opinions on Homer, suffragan of Bordeaux, and Lombez of Toulouse; 
it was only shortly before his death that he wrote thenceforth the suffragans of Auch were Aire, Tarbesy 


and Ba^onne. A local tradition that dates back to 5,000 had been baptized, "and there were about ^ve 
the beginning of the twelfth century tells us that or six times as many catechumens." In 1845 Dr. 
Taurinus, fifth Bishop of Eauze (Elusa), abandoned Pompallier changed his headquarters to Auckland, 
his episcopal city, which had been destroyed by the In 1848 Auckand and Wellington were erected into 
Vandals, and transferred his see to Aucn. Eauze, sees. The Marist Fathers were withdrawn to the 
in fact, probably remained a metropolitan see till WeIlinfl;ton diocese in 1850. The Rev. James Mc- 
about the middle of the ninth century, at which time, Donald then became the principal missionary to the 
owing to the invasions of the Northmen, it was re- Auckland Maoris. The Alaori missions in ISfew Zeft^ 
united to the Diocese of Auch, which had existed land were ptaralyzed by the series of native wars 
since the fifth century at least and then became an between 1843 and 1869. They were taken up in 
archdiocese. The first Bishop of Auch known to the Auckland diocese by the Mill Hill Fathers, in 
history is the poet, St. Orientius (first half of the 1886. The Sisters of Mercy were introduced in 
fifth century), m honour of whom a famous abbey 1850. In 1868 Dr. Pompallier went to France, re- 
was founded in the seventh century. Cardinal Mel- signed, and died in 1870. He was succeeded by 
chiorde Polignac, author of the "Anti-Lucr^e," was Dr. Thomas William Croke (1870-74), afterwards 
Archbishop of Auch from 1725 to 1741. The cathe- Archbishop of Cashel. After five years, Father 
dral of Sainte Marie, a Gothic structure with a Walter Bisschop Steins, S.J., was appointed to 
Byzantine facade, is, in spite of this incongruity, Auckland (1879-81). He was succeeaed by Dr. 
very imposing; its fifteenth-century windows are John Edmund Luck, O.S.B. (1882-96). The Right 
said to be the most beautiful in France. The ancient Rev. George Michael Lenihan, consecrated 15 No- 
episcopal sees of Condom and Lombez had a monastic vember, 1896, succeeded him. 

origin. Bossuet was non-resident Bishop of Condom Statistics. — At the census of 1901, the white 

for two years (1668-71). At the end of the year population of the Auckland Provincial District was 

1905 the Archdiocese of Auch contained 238,448 in- 175,938 (of whom 27,246 were Catholics): Maoris, 

habitants; 29 parishes, 478 succursal or mission 21,291. The population of the Kermadecs was 

churches, and 61 vicariates. eight, all non-(&tholics. The official estimate of the 

GaUia ChrUtianaM Nova. 1716), I, 96^1010^326-30, total white population of the Auckland Provincial 

3?1'2:Sr^daXll'^^i^^^ I>i«tnct, 31 toe^ber 1906, was 211,233; CathoUc 

tttque* d» la nUtropoU d'Auek (Auch, 1857); Chsvauch, population Of Auckland Provincial Distnct (which is 

Topo^ibL iPiia, 1894-99), 251-262. cotenninous with the Diocese of Auckland if the Ker- 

• Georoes Ootau, niadec Islands be included), 32,272: population of the 

Auch, Councim of. In 1068 a council of Auch pl^^^^'f^'^f '^^T' f "T^n'Sl, ft^^'"i 

decreed that, with a few exceptions, aU churches ^ "NewZ^dandStatistics 1904", p. 503, there were 

should pay ti the Cathedral of Xuch one quarter of ^''^^J!,''^^*^?' Provincial Distnct, at the cl(Me of 

their tit&M. At a council held in 1077 (nea?CUovem- ^^i ^7 ^thohc schools, with 96 teachers and 2,393 

populania) William, ArehbishopofAuck, was deposed PPl^*- . J|'^°'1«'^'V5 ^^f *•»« ^«1«S?«*'«^ 8**'f '«> 

VGerald legate of Gregory Vll. In 1276 a council ^' ^Pr^' ^^\ ^^l clergy, 26; Mill Hill Fathera. 

wis held at Auch in deflnci of ecclesiastical jurisdic- Je'l^r '^P^*li'''A' ^ whites and natives, 7 ; 

tion and immunities. In 1851 a provincial council <^tholic Maoris, about 5 000: parochial dwtricte, 29 ; 

of Auch drew up a number of decrees concerning *'S''^««'^^' 5.«'««0"8 IfOV'*"'.*^™*!,'^^; Sisters 

faith and doctrine, the hierarehy, pubKc worship, of Mercy 97 .gaterspf St. Joseph, 36 ; Sisters of the 

and ecclesiastical studies. **Ti?°k^^ Little Sisters of tlie Poor 8; coUeges 

Maoti. cm. Cone., XIX. 1063. XXV. 107. 217-281 ; Caiatv »nd high schools, 13 ; parochial schools, 25 ; orphan- 

»AH,ConeiUtet»vnoiindudioci»ed'Auch,iiiRetm*dea<ucoi)ne ages, 2; home for the aged poor, I: hospital,!: 

JUK*LF«S '°^' "2-126; Chevalier, Topo-bibl. (Paris, children in Catholic schools, 2,600. 
1894r-9B) 261. Pour AhhaR, Early Hitlorv of Ike CalKolie Church in Oceania 

AnckUnd. Diocese of. comprise the Provin- MVc ^XSJST^' i2S^"?8^3i,y*fr3;t3t^«^A,t 

Cial Distnct of Auckland (New Zealand), with its ChrUtian Mianona (New York, 1896); New Zeaiand Cenmta, 

islets, and the Kermadec Group. Area, 21,666 yol- iWi (Wellington, 1902); New Zealand StatUHcB (WeU- 
square miles. On Trinity Sunday, 1835, the Vicariate '"•^°- 190&^). Or -^„v 
Apostolic of the Western Pacific was erected by henry w. uleahy. 
Pope Gregoiy XVI. The Abb4 Jean Baptiste Fran- Anctorem Fidel, a Bull issued by Pius VI, 28 
^is Pompallier was chosen as its first vicar. The August, 1794, in condemnation of the Galilean and 
territory under his jurisdiction comprised sdl New Jansenist acts and tendencies of the Synod of Pistoia 
Z^ana, the present Vicariates Apostolic of Fiji, (1786). To understand its bearing, it is well to ob- 
Centitd Oceanica, British New Guinea, Dutch New serve that Leopold II, Grand duke of TuscanvC 1765- 
Guinea, New Pomerania, (part of) Gilbert Islands 90), pursued the ecclesiastical policy of his orother. 
New Caledonia, Navigators' Islands, New Hebrides, Joseph II of Austria; i. e. he practically arrogated 
and the Prefectures Apostolic of North Solomon Is- to himself supreme authority over all ecclesiastical 
lands and Northern New Guinea. The new vicar was matters within his dominions. In 1785 he sent fifty- 
consecrated in Rome, 30 June, and sailed from Havre, seven articles to each bishop in the grand duchy, 
24 December, 1836, accompanied by the Marist with orders to consider them in a diocesan sjmod, as 
Fathers Servant and Bataillon (Lyons), Chanel and a preliminary to a national synod, in which they were 
Bret (Belley), and three lay-brothers. Father Bret finally to be discussed. Scipio de' Ricci, Bishop of 
died on the voyage. Father Bataillon (afterwards Pistoia, held his diocesan synod, and approved not 
Vicar Apostolic of Central Oceanica) was left at only the fifty-seven articles drawn up oy order of 
Wallis Island, and Father Chanel (Blessed Peter Leopold, but added a number of others of similar 
Chanel, Protomartyr of Australasia) at Futuna. import. Amonjg them were the following: All eccle- 
Dr. Pompallier and Father Servant reached Hokianga siastical authority comes directly from the members 
(Auckland Province) 10 January, 1838, and were of the Church at large, whose commissioned minis- 
provided for by an Irish Catholic, Thomas Pojmton. ters the pastors are. The pope is only ministerially 
At that time there were probably fewer than 1(X) head of the Church. Bishops do not depend on the 
white (Catholics in all New Zealand. Other Marist pope for any jurisdiction in the ^vemment of their 
Fathers arrived in 1839 and subsequent years. The diocese. In diocesan synods parish priests have the 
missions to the aborigines (Maoris) became very sue- same right of voting and deciding as the bishop, 
oessful, despite grave calumnies propagated by Reserved cases should be abolished. Excommum- 
We^yao tnuler-missionaries. By April, 1846, about cation has only an external effect. It is superstit i on 


to have more devotion towards one sacred image of the highest rank, being considered as equal to the 

than towards another. Civil rulers have the right pope, sit near him during audience, under the same 

of maldng impediments diriment of matrimony and iMudachin or canopy. The attendance of guards and 

of dispensing from them. Bishops are not bound to chamberlains and court officials is always doubled 

make an oam of obedience to tne pope before their when such audiences are given. In the ordinary 

consecration. All religious orders should live under audiences given to priests and lay persons the general 

the same rule and wear the same habit. Each church practice is that they present a letter of recommenda- 

should have only one altar; the liturey should be lion from the bishop of their diocese, which is pre- 

in the vernacular, and only one Mass should be eel- sented to the rector of the national college in Rome 

ebrated on Sundays. Leopold caused a national of the country from which thev come. The rector 

synod to be held at Florence in 1787, but he did not procures from the master of the chamber the nec- 

mid the other bishops as pliant as Scipio de' Ricci. essary card of admission. Amongst the instructions 

Nevertheless he continued assuming all ecclesiastical printed on this card are those regulating the dress to 

authority, prohibited all appeals to the pope, and be worn on such occasion: for priests the cassock 

even appointed bishops, to whom the pope of course with a lai^e black mantle (Jerraiolone) , such as Roman 

refused canonical institution. Finally, the Bull "Auo- secular pnests wear; for lay men, evening dress with 

torem Fidei" was published, in whicn eighty-five arti- white cravat; for ladies, a black dress with black 

cles taken from the Synod of Pistoia were catalogued lace veil on the head. On these occasions it is for- 

and condemned. After the publication of the Bull, bidden to present to the pope for his sij^nature 

Scipio de' Ricci submitted. In 1805 he took occs^ written requests for indulgences, faculties^ pnvileges, 

sion of the presence of Pius VII in Florence, on his or the like. Since the election of Pope Pius X there 

way to Rome from his exile in France, to ask in has been some concession in the matter of dress for 

person for pardon and reconciliation. He died re- the laity in public audience; apparently, in order that 

Sintant, 1810, in the Dominican convent of San every "man of good-will", non-Catholic as well as 

arco at Florence. Catholic, who desires to see the pope may have his 

Dbnzinobr-Stahl. Enehindion Svmbolorwn ei Definii. (9th wish fulfilled. This has increased the number of 

ed., FrabilrSt 18W)^ 310-38; Potter, Viett Mimouret de r^rnf\r\a rnnAivAH in siiiHiAnf»A hiif if Iim InoHAnAH 

Scivion d^ Sieei (Pana, 1826, favourable to Ricci); Scadbbto. P©reops receivea m auQience, Dut 11 nas lessenea 

Siaio € CMen 9oUo Leopoido 1 (Florence. 1855); RBUMoirr. occasions for the pope's utterances on vanous aspects 

Oeachichtt wm To»etma, II. 167 sqq.: Gblli, Jlfemorie di of the tendencies of the time, which distinguished 

^^^it^^^a^^P^J^htSTis^xT^l'^Z the audiencee of L«« XIII and of the Utter yea« 

272-81; VI, 407-16. of Plus IX, and which were statements that awakened 

M. O'RiORDAN. profound interest. 

HuMPHRBT, Urb§ et OrbU, or the Pope a» BUhop and Pontiff 

AadiailB. See AntHROPOMORPHIBM. f London, 1899); L'Effliae ca^Koliq^e h la fin du XIX« nide 

Aadiences, Pontifical, the receptions given by "^^ p^ L^ Coiwibllan. 
the pope te cardinals, soverei^ns^ princes, ambassa- 
dors, and other persons, ecclesiastical or lay, having AadifEredi, Giovanni Battista, b. at Saomo, 
business with or interest in the Holy See. Such near Nice, in 1734; d. at Rome, July, 1704. He 
audiences form an important part of the po{)e's entered the Dominican Order, and soon attracted 
daily duties. Bishops of every rite in communion attention bjr his taste for books and his talent for 
with the Holy See, and from every nation, come te the exact sciences. After beixig occupied in various 
Rome, not omy to venerate the tombs of the Apoe- houses as professor and bibli(^;rapher, he was at 
ties, but also to consult the supreme pastor of the length transferred to the Domimcan house of studies 
Church. The master of the chamber (Maestro di (S. Maria sopra Minerva), and was placed in charge 
Camera), whose office corresponds' to that of grand (1765) of thegr^it Bibliotheca Casanatensis, founded 
chamberlain in royal courts, is the personage to whom in 1700 by Cardinal GIrolamo Casanata. Audiflfredi 
aU requests for an audience with tne pope are made, published a bibliographical work in four folio volumes 
even those which the ambassadors and other mem- entitled "Catalogus bibliothecn Casanatensis lib- 
bers of the Diplomatic Corps present through the rorum typis impressorum, 1761-1788". The work 
cardinal secretary of state. He is one of the four remains unfinished, not proceeding beyond the letter 
Palatine Prelates who are in frequent relations with L, and contains a list of his own publications, 
the pope, and his office is regarded as leading to the Similar works were the "Catalo^us historico-criticus 
(»rdinGuate. The pope receives every day the Romanarum editionum sseculi aV" (Rome, 1785, 
cardinal prefect of one or other of the sacred quarto), and the more extensively planned "Cata- 
congregations. At these audiences decrees are loeus historico-criticus editionum Italicarum sseculi 
signed or counsel given by the pope, and hence, by Xv" (ibid., 1794,), which was to give an account 
their very nature, they are of no slight importance of books printed in. twenty-six Italian cities. Au- 
to the practical work of the Church. Prelates con- diffredi did not live to complete the work. The 
nected with other institutions either in Rome or first part, extending to the letter G, contains a 
abroad, generals and procurators of religious orders, short biography of the author introduced by the 
are also received at regular intervals and on stated pujslisher. AudifTredi's position enabled him to 
days. The days and hours of resplar audiences are oecome an expert antiquarian, and he found time 
specified on a printed form which is distributed to all to cultivate his mathematical talent and to devote 
cardinals and persons whose duty and privilc^ it is himself to astronbmy. He built a smiUl observatory, 
to have such audience. This printed form is changed and at intervals busied himself with observation, 
every six months, as the hours of audience vary The eighteenth century was much occupied with the 
according to the season. Audiences to sovereigns or problem of solar parallax. In 1761 and 1769 transits 
princes travelling under their own names anatitles of Venus were observed, and Audififredi contributcNd 
are invested with special ceremonies. When the to the work in his publication, ''Phenomena coelestia 
pope was a temporal ruler the master of the cham- observata — investigatio parallaxis solis. Exercitatio 
oer, notified beforehand b^ the secretary of state Dadei Ruffi" (anagram for Audiffredi). The pre- 
of the proximate arrival m Rome of a sovereipi, dieted reappearance in the middle of the century 
went, accompanied by the secretary of ceremonial, of Halley's comet intensified scientific interest in 
several miles beyond the citv gates to meet hun. oometic orbits. The epoch was favoured with a 
Returning to Rome, he notified the pope of the event, number of brilliant objects of this kind, and that of 
and visited the sovereign to acquaint him with the 1769 distinguished itself by its great nucleus and 
day and hour of the pontifical audience. Sovereigns by the tail which stretehed over more than half 


the sky. Audiffredi took observations of the positioius and frequently quoted approvingly. He also de- 

of the comet and published his results under the title, voted himself to historical studies, especially in il« 

"Dimoetrazione aella stazione della cometa, 1769 lustration of the papacy, bringing to them absolutely 

(1770). A general taste and capacity for the natu- good intentions, assiduous industry, and much just 

ral sciences distinguished this learned Dominican, and acute observation, such as was not then common 

but, like that of many savants, Audiffredi's life was in the circle which surrounded him. Nevertheless 

one of retirement and obscurity. these historical labours had no great intrinsic value, 

H. Db Laax. especially at a time when so lane a number of docu- 

.-.,-,,- L ^ T • i»^*% J • nients were being published. For this reason they 

« A^^'i-L^""^°'^??T' ^W**>y?^ ^. l^??' f "^ are no longer soi«ht after by students. 
Parw, 21 February. 1851. He first studied theology Audisiohad no deep insight into theology and law, 

m the semmwy of Argenti^re, and afterwards pur- and often displayed Seplorable lapses on these sub^ 

sued the study of law. He passed his law exam- jects in hb writings and his lectures. At the time 

mation but never practised his profeMion. having of the Vatican Counca he was accused of GaUicanism, 

decided to enter on a hterary career. His first pub- to the great grief of his patron Pius IX, and his work 

hcations were: "La lanteme magique'' (1811); on political and religiotis society in tke nmeteenth 

"Blanc, bleu et rouge" (1814); "Tableau hwtorique centuiy was condeimied by the CSiurch. Audisio, 

des 6v&iem^ts qm se sont Mcomphs depuis le retour however, was profoundly CathoUc in feeling, and not 

i^rr^n^R^N J^^^^ r^t^hssement de Louis only did he fiJly submit to the condemnaBon of his 

XVIII " (1815). ^e also contnbuted to the "Jour- book, but he warmly protested against the accusation 

nal de Lyon" founded by Ba^anche. He soon left of heterodoxy and disobedienceT He was a fervent 

his native city and setUed m Pans where he opened upholder of papal and CathoUc rights against the 

a bookstore and at the same time was active with political liberalism of Piedmont. He was one of the 

took UD histoncal wntmg, hw tot work of this kmd §ut in Rome Audiswmiited hSiself with that clique 

^SS. Le^.Cpncordat entre L6on X et Francois I« " of Uberal Italian ecclesiastics (such as Monsignor Uv- 

(1821], which IS, for the most part, a tranri^ion of erani) who advocated reforms and concessions not al- 

that document. This was followed by his " Histouie ways just and often premature, and who professed doc- 

de la St. Barth^lemv " (2 vob., 1826). These two trines of little weight, sometimes false, often inexact, 

works were fairly well r«Mived although some eccle- i^ this environment Audisio compromised hunself , 

siasUcal OTtics accused him of being too favoiu^le but his figure remains that of an extremely religious 

to the Protestants. Audm pubhcly defended ^m- and charitable priest and of an eager student devoted 

self «am8t this unputation, and asserted hjs fim to the Holy See and to the CSiurch. Some pages of 

behef m the doctrinw of the Cathohc Church. He y^ ^^ks on the popes stiU merit consultatSS 

now began his most important work, the history of The works of Audisio are; "Lezioni di Eloquenza 

2d ed., 1851); (4) "Histoire de Henri VIII et du aemned V decree of the Holy Office, April, 1877; 

schisme d'Angleterre" (2 vols., 1847; 2d ed., 1862). «vita di Pio IX". » r i » 

The author claims to have based his statements upon Nwma Enddovedia ludiana (SuppL, I, 1888); Voce ddla 

researches which he made in the archives of various VerHh (Rome, 29 September, 1882). 

European cities, especially in the archives of the U. Benigni. 

Vatican. The work shows that this assertion can- Auditor, the designation of certain officials of the 

not be accepted m its entirety. The volumes are Roman Curia, whose duty it is to hear (Lat. audire) 

written m a romantic manner, and contam many anj examine the causes submitted to the pope, 

particulars which sober cnticism has long proved to They cannot, however, give a decision unless they 

be false. D6llinger says of the work on Luther: receive delegated jurisdiction. They are, therefore, 

'• Audm's work is wntten with an extraordinary, and not judges m the strict sense of the term. These 

at tunes almost naive ignorance of Luther s wntmgs officialshave been part of the Roman (}uria since the 

and contenaporary hterature, and of the wner^ Middle Ages. Amongst the principal dignitaries 

dition of Germany at that penod" ^Cirehenlex., bearing tSs title are: (1) Av&or Papar. TTiis of- 

s. V. Luther). ficial was at first the adviser of the pope in consis- 

La Orande &neifdopSdt€. IV. 611. RiRflCH ^"*^ ^^ theological matters, but he afterwards 

' ' * received also judicial power in civil and criminal 

Audisio, GuGLiELMO, b. at Bra, Piedmont, Italy, cases. Since 1831, however, his duties are restricted 

1801 ; d. in Rome, 27 September, 1882. He was pro- to certain ecclesiastical affairs, such as assisting at 

fessor of sacred eloquence in the episcopal seminary the examinations of episcopal candidates for Italy 

of Bra, appointed presiding officer of tne Academy and the transaction of matters relating to favours, 

of Superga (Turin) oy King Charles Albert, but was ete. (2) Auditor CamenB or Auditor General. This 

expelfod from this office because he was opposed official originally had very extended powers, such as 

to the irreligious politics of the Piedmontese Govern- judging appeals against the decisions of bishops, 

ment. He then went to Rome, where Pius IX ap- ana proceeding against bishops themselves in im- 

pointed him professor of natural and popular rif;hts portant cases ana even punisning them without a 

m the Roman University, and Canon of the Vatican special commission from the pope. He could also 

Basilica. take cof^izance of all cases of civil, criminal, and 

Audisio was a pious and charitable priest, and mixed jurisdiction in the States of the Church, 

spent large sums in benevolent works. He was an Nearly all these and similar powers have now been 

excdlent teacher of sacred eloquence, and his manual withdrawn, and the tribunal of the Camera Apo^ 

on the subject was iranslatea into many languages tolioa is at present limited almost entirelv to ex* 


pediting oommiBBions in certain well-defined cases. 1640: d in Paris, 1703, went to Paris, after being 

(3) AtSutora of the Rota were originally chaplains tau^t engraving by his father and his unde, to 

of the pope. By degrees thev were constituted receive instruction from the paints Lebrun, who 

into a tnbunal, and are saia to have derived gave him some of his paintings to reproduce. He 

their name from the round table (Lat. rota) at worked in Paris four years, and in 1665 went to 

which they sat. ■ Important cases laid before the Rome, where he remained three years and, it is said. 

Holy See oy sovereigns and nations were referred became a pupil of Carlo Maratta. He etched as well 

to tne Rota for judgment, and its decisions became as engraved, and produced in Rome some plates — 

preoadents for all ower tnbunals. It also served as notably, a portrait of Pope Clement IX. which 

a supreme court for civil cases in the States of the brought him much admiration. At the sugeestion 

Churoh. At present, however, the Auditors of the of Colbert, Louis XIV sent for the artist and made 

Rota are restricted practi<»lly to giving deliberative him engraver to, and pensioner of the king, with 

opinions in processes of beatification or canonisation apartments at the factory of the Gobelins. This 

and deciding (questions of precedence between eode- recognition of his great ability spurred Audran to 

siastical dignitaries. They are generally also at- even greater endeavours, in which he was further 

tached as Consultors to various Koman Congr^ga- encouraged by his former patron, Lebrun, more of 

tions. whose paintinm he reproduced, notably the " Battles 

Baaxf, The Roman Court jNejr York. 1885); Fduiaris, of Alexander'^. In November, 1681, he was made 

SJS%o5Sfi.S889)^ ** • ^'^'°^' UrbM 0i ^ member of the CouncU of the Royal Academy of 

WiLUAM H. W. Fanning. Painting. The first productions of Gerard Audran 

were stiff and dry, and his subsequent original and 

Aadran, the family name of foureenerationsof dis- vigorously brilliant style is credited to the counsels 

tinf^ished French artists, natives orParis and Lvons, of Maratta, Ciro Ferri, and, notably, of his lifelong 

which included eight prominent engravers ana two friend Lebrun. A second visit to Rome was made, 

painters. They nourished in the seventeenth and where was signed the plate after "The Four Cardinal 

eighteenth centuries, and some of their productions Virtues", by Domenicnino, which is in the church of 

rank among the finest examples of the art of the San Carlo ai Catinari. Among the original works of 

burin. this famous engraver are the portrait of the Rospiff* 

Charles, b. in Paris, 1594; d. 1674. was the elder lioei Pope, already alluded to, those of Samuele 

of two brothers, some say cousins (tne other being Sorbiere, Andrea Arroli of Padua, the Capuchin 

Claude the First), who attained reputation as en- Benoit LangloiB, the Bishop of Angers Henri Ar- 

gravers. Charles, who reached by far the greater nauld, and the sculptor Francois du Quesnoy, called 

eminence, after receiving some instruction in draw- Flamingo, "Wisdom and Abundance above two 

ing, went as a young man to Rome to study further Genii ", and the vignette, '* St. Paul preaching at 

the engraver's art, and while there produced some Athens ". Particularly esteemed among the plates 

plates which attracted attention. He engraved in of Gerard Audran are two after cartoons of Raphael 

pure line, and took the work of Cornelius Bloemart, "The death of Ananias" and "Paul and Barnabas at 

with whom he studied, as his model. On his return Lystra ", "The Martyrdom of St. Agnes ", after 

from Italy the engraver lived for some years in Lyons Domenidiino, and "Coriolanus" after Poussin. 

before settling in Faris. Amons his two hundred or Amon^ the other painters whose works he reproduced 

more plates are several original portraits, including are Titian, Rubens, Giulio Romano, Annibale Ca- 

one of Henry II, Prince of Cond4, and reproductions racci, Pietro da Cortona, Guercino, Guido Reni, 

of works by Titian, the Caracci, Domenicnino, Pakna Palnia the Younger, Lanfranco, Mignard, Coypel, 

the Younger, Albano and Leeueur. Lesueur, Bourgui^on, Lafa^e, and Girardon. Ho 

Claude the First, b. in Paris, 1597; d. at Lyons, was at times assisted by his nephews, Benoit the 

1677, studied with Charles, but in his portrait ana Elder and Jean. In 1683 Gerard publbhed a work 

allegorical plates, which were not many, adopted a called "The Proportions of the Human Body, meas- 

somewhat different manner. He became professor ured by the most Beautiful Figures of Antiquity '', 

of engravinff in the Academy of Lyons, and left, to which has been translated into English, 
perpetuate nis branch of the family and its artistic Claude the Third, son of Germain, and the second 

reputation, three sons: Germain, Claude the Second, painter of the family, b. at Lyons, 1658; d. in Paris, 

and Gerard, the last of whom became the most 1734, was notable as being the master of the famous 

famous artist among the Audrans. Watteau. He studied with his father as well as under 

Germain, the eldest son of Claude the First, b. at his uncles, Germain and Claude the Second. Chosen 

hyona, 1631; d. 1710, was a pupil of his unde Charles cabinet painter to the king, he was also for neariy 

and worked both in Paris and Lyons. Amonff his thirty years keeper of the palace of the Luxemboui^. 

plates are portraits of Richelieu and Charles F2m- where he died. He executed considerable work in oil 

manuel of Savoy (the latter after F. de la Monce). and fresco in various royal residences, 
landscapes after Poussin, and fancies and ornamental Benoit the Elder, third son of Germain, b. at Ly- 

desigxis. after Lebrun among others. His four sons ons, 1661; d. 1721, in the vicinity of Sens, was first 

were Claude the Third, Benoit the Elder, Jean, and tausht the family art by his father and then by his 

Louis. unde Gerard. He made an excellent reputation by 

Claude the Second, son of Claude the First, b. at lus reproduction of portraits and historical works. 

Lyons, 1639; d. in Paris, 1684, was the first painter Amons his best productions are "The Seven Sacra- 

in the family. After receiving instruction in orawing ments^'. after Foussin, and "The Bronze Serpent ", 

from his unde Charles, he went to study painting in after Lebrun. He became a Member of the Academy 

Rome. On his return to Paris he entered the studio and engraver to the kins. 

of the cdebrated historical painter Charles Lebrun, Jean, fourth son of Germain, b. at Lyons, 1667; 

on whose style he formed his own. Audran was d. 1756, became, next to hb cdebrated uncle Gerard. 

Lebrun's assistant in the painting, among others of his the best engraver of the family. He studied 

works, of the "Battle of Arbela^ and the "Passage of first under nis father and then with his unde. 

the Granicjs ". He painted in fresco with much skill. He had already distinguished himsdf at the early 

under the direction of his master, the grand gallery age of twenty. He was rewarded for his subsequent 

of the Tuileries, the great staircase at "Versailles, and successes by being made (in 1707) engraver to the 

the chapd near by, at Sceaux, of the ch&teau of that king, with the regular jpension and the Gobelin 

^nliffhtened patron of art. Prime Minister Colbert. apartments. This was followed next year by mem- 

OI^AjiD, t^ird 89Q gf QftUde the Fir^t, b* ftt Lyons, bership in tb^ Academy. J^an Audran worked until 



he was eighty. His masterpiece is ooDsidered to be title running, "A New Discovery that Enables the 

"The Rape of the Sabines *\ after Poussin. AmoOjg Physician from the Percussion of the Human 

his plates are portraits after Gobert — those of Louis Thorax to Detect the Diseases Hidden Within the 

XV, Vandyke, Coypel, Laigilli^re, Rigaud, Trevisani, Chest". 

and Vivien — and compositions after, among others, like most medical discoveries. Auenbrugger's 

Raphael, Rubens, the Caracci, Guide Reni, Domen* method of diagnosis at first met with neglect. Be- 

ichmo, Pietro da Cortona, Albano, Maratta, Philippe fore his death, however, it had aroused the attention 

de Champagne, Marot, Poussin, and Nattier. His son of Laennec, who, following up the ideas suggested by 

was Benoit the Younger. it, discovered auscultation. Since then, Auenbrugger 

liOUis, the yoimgest son of Germain, b. at Lyons, has been considered one of the great foundeis of 

1670: d. in Paris, c. 1712, studied with his father modem medicine. He lived to a happy old age, 

and his uncle Gerard. He assisted his brothers, and especially noted for his cordial relations with the 

did few original plates. A work of his to be noted vounger members of his profession, and for his 

is "The Seven Acts of Mercy ", after Bourdon. kindness to the poor and to those sufifering from 

Benoit the Younger, b. in Paris, 1698; d. in the tuberculosis. He is sometimes said to have died in 

same place, 1772, was the last of the remarkable the typhus epidemic of 1708, but the burial register 

family to have any historical importance artistically, of the parish church in Vienna, of which he had been 

He was a pupil of his father and did plates after, for half a century a faithful member, shows that he 

amons others, Veronese, Poussin, Watteau, Lancret, did not die until 1807. 

and Natoire. Leopou> Auenbruooer. Jahrub, d. Ver. d. AerUte in Sieier^ 

Prosper Gabriel, a grandson of Jean, b. in Paris, n^iJSl^iJ:^}} ^^^a^u ^^^V?!'^^^\d'^^' ^ 

1744; d. 1819; he studiSi with his Tmclel Benoit th^ "^^SStf^Sd^el^^^Sfo^^ ''^^' ''^"*'^' 

Younger, and etched some heads. He gave up art James J. Walsh. 

for the law and became prof essor of Hebrew m the a.^ t n « t^ . 

CoU^ de France AQXsees, Jobbt Bernhard von, canon of Bamberg 

D^LBSBM. Let Alaran; Bbtan, Dictumary d Painien ^^^ Wttrsburg, b. 28 March, 1671, on the family 

i^nd Engraver; estate of Mengersdorf; d. 2 April, 1738. He was 

Augustus VAN Clebf. baptised a Lutheran, but educated (1683-90) as 

Auenbrugger (or von Auenbrugg), Leopold, an |. Catholic through the efforts of his uncle Carl 

Austrian physician, b. 19 Nov., 1722; d. 17 May, 1807. Sigmund, canon of Bambeig and WUrzburg. He 

He was the inventor of percussion in physical diagno- ^ ^^ advanced to the ^e dignity m both 

sis and is considered one of the small group of men to "^^^^^^ was provost of Bamberg m 1723, and hdd 

whose original genius modem medicine owes its pres- 2rf °?T.?^ distinction in both cities. After 1709 

ent position. He was a native of Graz in Styria, an he devoted the revenues of his bene6ces to the esta^ 

Austrian province. His father, a hotel-keeper, gave }!«^5^* °^* house of studies at BMabeye: in 1728 

his son every opportunity for an excellent prefimi- ^S^wtoweduponit the sum of ^,000 gulden (about 

nary education in his native town and then sent «200,000). This Aufsees Seminary, or Institute, 

him to Vienna to complete his studies at the univer- ^ destined for the reception of poor boys from the 

sity. Auenbrugger was graduated as a physician at P^ceses of Bamberg and Wttrzbuig. They were to 

the age of twenty-two and then entered the Spanish ^ supported there during the entire tune of their 

Military Hospital of Vienna where he spent ten years, studies at the public academies. He originally in- 

His observations and experimental studies enabled J«^/^«*„*<>,P^?® **^® -^^^^^l^Sx^ charge, but by his 

him to discover that by tapping on the chest with ^^ wdl (17 February. 1738) turned it over to the 

the finger much important information with regard S'® ?^ the cathedral clmptera of Bambeig and 

to diseased conditions within the chest might be Wttijbuij. It was opened m 1741, and continued 

obtained ^^ beneficent career until the beginning of the 

Ordinarily, the lungs when percussed, give a sound nineteenth century, when the secularization of the 
like a drum over which a heavy cloth has been placed, property of the ecclesiastical pnncipalities took 
When the lung is consolidated, as in pneumonia, P^- Jf^ edifice was then turned over to the 
then the sound produced by the tapping of the finger P<»P»tal for incurables, and the rev^ues applied 
is the same as when the fleshy part of the thigh is "^ P^rt to scholarshins (Shpendi^) King Ludwig 
tapped. Auenbrugger found that the area over the ^ reopened it as a house of studira {Kdnighches 
heart gave a modified, dull sound, and that in this Studumsermnar) under governmental supervision, 
way the limits of heart-dullness could be determmed. The director and the prefects are pnests, but the 
This gave the first definite information with regard Government appoints holders of the 42 free places 
to pathological changes in the heart. During his ^ the 20 places for youths w;ho pay, also the 
ten yeara of patient study, Auenbrugger confirmed officers of the institute, and administers its revenues, 
thes^ observations by comparison witFpost-mortem WnrnANN in KvxhenUx.. I. 1615,^ Shahan 
specimens, and besides made a number of experi- 
mental researches on dead bodies. He injected Auger, Edmond, b. 1530, near Troyes; d. at Como, 
fluid into the pleural cavity, and showed tnat it Italy, 31 January, 1591, one of the great figures in 
was perfectly possible by percussion to tell exactly the stormy times in France, when the Calvinists 
the hmits of the fluid present, and thus to dedoe were striving to get possession of the throne. He 
when and where efforts should be made for its re- entered the Society of Jesus while St. Ignatius 
moval. was still living, and was regarded as one of the most 

His later studies during this ten-year period were eloquent men of his time. Mathieu caUs him the 

devoted to tuberculosis. He pointed out how to "Chrysostom of France". Wherever he went, 

detect cavities of the lungs, and how their location throngs flocked to hear him, and the heretics them- 

and size might be determined by pereussion. He selves were always eager to be present, captivated 

also recognized that information with regard to the as they 'were by the cnarm of his wisdom and the 

contents of cavities in the lungs, and the conditions delicac^r of his courtesy in their re^rd. His en- 

of lung tissue might be obtained by placing the hand trance into France as a priest was in the city of 

on the chest and noting the vibration, or fremitus, Valence, where the bishop had just apostatized, 

produced by the voice and the breath. These obser- and the Calvinists were then in possession. The 

vations were published in a little book now considered efforts of Auger to address the people were followed 

one of the most important classics of medicine. It by his bein^ seized and sentenced to be burned to 

w^ palled "lov^tun) Novum", the fuU £jigli9b death. While staodiog 9D the pyre> he harangued 


the multitude, and so won their good will that the; of the government district of Upper Bavaria, am) 
asked for his deliveiKnce. Viret, eBpecially, the a small part of the government disbict of Oentml 
chief orator of the CalvimBts, wanted to have a Francoma. 

public discussion with him to convert him. Ai^r I. Histort. (I) Early Period. — The present oity 
was conseauentlj sent to prison for the night, but of Au^burg appears in Strabo as Damasia, a strong- 
the Catholice rescued him before the conference bold of the Licatii; in 14 b. c. it became a Roman 
took place. We find him afterwards in Lyons, dui^ colony known as Augusta Vindelicorum, received the 
in^ a peBtilenoe, devotiius himself to the plague- rights of a city from Hadrian and soon became of 
stricken. When tbe peet Had ceased, in cons^uence great importance as an areeaal and the point of juno 
of a vow he made, the authorities, in gratitude, tion of several important trade routes. The bt^;in- 
establiahed a coll^ of the Society to which Auger nings of Christianity within the limits of the present 
asked, much to their astonishment, that the children diocese are shrouded in obscuritv; its tubings were 
of the CalvinistB might be admitted. His whole probably brought thither by SQldiers or merchants, 
life was one of constant activity, preaching and According to the acts of the martvrdom of St. Afrn, 
administering the responsible offices of Provincial, who with her handmaids sufferecf at the stake for 
Rector, etc. that were entrusted to him. He was Christ, there existed in Augsburg, early in the 'ourth 
present in at least two battles, and was remarkable century, a Christian communi^ under Bishop Nar- 
lor his influence over the BOldiere. He was finally cissus; St. Dionysius, uncle of St. Atra, is mentioned 
made confessor of King Henry III, the first Jeeuit as his successor. 

to have that troublesome charge put upon him. (2) Mtditvat Period. — Nothing authentic is known 
The difficulty of his position was increased by the about the history of the Au^burg Church during the 
fact that the League was just then being formed hy 
the Catholie succession. Its principles and methods 
were thought to trench on the royal prerogative; 
but Sixtus V was in favour of it. Several Jesuits, 
notably the Provincial, Mathieu, who was deposed 
by Acquaviva, were its stanch upholders. Auger's 
position was intolerable. Ixiyal to tbe king, he 
was detested by the ieaguera, who at Lyons, the city 
that be had saved, threatened to throw him into taa 
Rhone. They compromised by expdling him from 
•" =■- TTie r ' ""■ '- ■ "''-- 

r'sh the poet of confessor, but the kinz secured 
pope's order for him to stay. Finally, Auger 
prevailed on the monarch to release him, and ne 

nrithdrew to Como in Italy, where he died. Shortly 
afterwards Henry was assassinated. Like Canisius 
in Germany, Auger published a Catechism for France. 
It appeared at Hrst in I^tin, and later he published 
it in Greek. He wrote a work on tbe Blessed Eu- 
charist, instructions for soldiers, translations, some 
literary comppsitioos, and also drew up the statutes 
for congr^ations, eepecialW one in which the king 
was interested, called the Congregation of Penitents. 
There is a letter by him called "Spiritual Sug^", 
thougb he did not give it that title. He had wiittoi 
an address to the people of Toulouse to console tbem 
in the distress brougnt on by the calamities of tbe 
civil war. It so took the popular fancy that the 
authorities of the city published it under this curious 

CRtmiEAU-JoLT, Bi4loin dt lae, d» J„ II; BoimEHvooxL, 
BOUoAtqiu J.,I, B32: Vanmo tliulrM. V. 

T. J. Campbell, 

M.'ogam, or AiroiLA, a titular see of Cyrenidca m 

Northern Africa. It was situated in an oaaia in the centuries immediately succeeding, but it survived the 

Libyan desert which is stiU one of the chief stations collapse of Roman power in Germany and tbe tui^ 

(Audjelah. Aoudjiia) on the cwavan route from bulence of the great migrations. It U true that two 

Cairo to Fezzan. Its forests of date-palms were catalogues of the Biahopa of Augsbuw, dating from 

famous m the time of Herodotus ffV, 172); they the eleventh and twelfth centunes, mention several 

still crown the three smaU hiUs that nse out of an bishops of this primitive period, but the firet whose 

unbroken desert of red sand which in the near vicinity record has received indubitable historical eorrobora- 

is strongly impregnated with salts of soda. The tion is St. Wikterp tor Wichpert) who was bishop 

Moslem population is now about 10,000 and is gov- about 739 or 768. He took part in several synods 

emed by an official of the Bey of Tripoli who draws convened by St. Boniface in Germany; in company 

from the oasis an Minual revenue of »12,000. ^t^ gt. Magnus, he founded the monastery of FOs- 

tnESS'^'iS^^o:^ 'V^V ir'^^'^^SSL^ sen; and iriti. St. Boniface he dedicated the monas- 

LOtaan DtfTt (London, 1861), 128. 133. tery at Benediktbeuren. Under either St. Wikterp 

Thoius J. Shaham. or nis successor, Tozzo (or Tozzo), about whom little 

„ „ is known, many monasteriee were establisbed. e. g. 

AugBborg, Confession OF. See CoNFE&aioNs of Wea8obrunn,Ellwangen,Polling,Ottobeuren. Atthis 

Fatth, Protestant. time, also the see, hitherto suffragan to the Patri- 

Anffibnrff, Dioci^se of, in the Kingdom of archate oi Aquileia, was placed among tbe sufTragan 

Bavaria, Germany, suffragan of the Arch^ooeee of sees of the newly founded Archdiocese of Mainz (7w) 

Munich-Freising. embracing the entire government St. Sintpert (c. 810}, hitherto Abbot of the monastery 

district of Swabia and Neuburg, the weetem part of Murbach, and a relative of Charlemagne, reiu^ 

AtJCMttUfiO 74 AUaBBXTftO 

Vated n&any churches and monasteries laid waste in periods of conflict into which the Bishops of Augsbutg 
the wan of the Franks and Bavarians, and during were drawn, often against their will, in their capacitv 
the incursions of the Avari; he built the first cathe- as Princes of the Empire, and the life of the Qiurch 
dral of Augsbui]; in honour of the Most Blessed accordingly suffered oecline. Under Siboto von Lech- 
Virgin; and obtained from the Emperor Charlemagne fdd (1227-47) monasteries of the newly founded men- 
an exact definition of his diocesan limits. His ju- dicant orders were first established in Augsburg. A 
risdiction extended at that time from the Iller east- celebrated member of the Franciscans was David of 
ward over the Lech, north of the Danube to the Alb, Aumburg, and of the Dominicans, Albertus Magnus 
and south to the spurs of the Alps. Moreover, va- of Lauingen. Additional causes of conflict were the 
rious estates and villages in the valley of the Danube, troubles that arose between the Bishops of Augsburg 
and in the TVrol, belonged to the diocese. Among and the city authorities. During the strug^s be- 
the bishops of the following period a certain number tween the popes and emperors, Augsburg, 1^ other 
are especiallv prominent, either on account of the laige cities throughout the greater part of Germany, 
offices they mled in the Empire, or for their personal attained enormous wealth, owin^ to the industrial and 
Qualifications; thus Witgar (887-87), Chancellor and commercial activity of the citizens. From time to 
Archchaplain of Louis the German* Adalbero (887 time efforts were made to restrict as much as possible 
-010), of the line of the Counts of Dillingen, confi- the ancient civil rights of the bishops and their 
dant and friend of Emperor Amulf, who entrusted stewards, and even to abrogate them entirely. From a 
Adalbero with the education of his son, the German state of discontent the citizens passed to open vic^ence 

period of its (;reatest splendour under St. Ulrich and advantages. 

^92^973); he raised the standard of training and firmation by Emperor Rudolph of Habsbuig at the 

discipline among the clergy by the reformation of Reichstag held in Augsburip (1276) of the StadSnidif 

existing schools and the establishment of new ones, or municipal register, contaming the ancient customs, 

and by canonical visitations and synods: he provided episcopal and municipal rights, etc., specified in detail; 

for the poor, and rebuilt decayed churches and mon- on the same occasion Augsburg was recognized as a 

asteries. During the incursion of the Hungarians Free City of the Empire. Hartmaim bequeathed to 

and the siege of Augsburg (955), he sustained the the Church of Augsourg his paternal inheritance, 

courage of the citizens, compelled the Hung^ans to including the town and castle of Dillingen. Peace 

withdraw, and contributed much to the decisive vie- reigned under the succeeding bishops, of whom 

tory on the Lechfeld (955). He built churches in hon- Frederick I (1309-31) acquired for his see the castle 

our of St. Afra and St. John, founded the monastery and stronghold of FQssen; Ulrich II, von SchOneck 

of St. Stephen for Benedictine nuns, and undertook (1331-37), and his brother Hem^ III (1337-48) 

three pilgrimages to Rome. The diocese suffered remained faithful to Emperor Louis the Bavarian: 

much during the episcopate of his successor, Henry I Markward I, von Randeck (1348-65), again redeemed 

(973-982), for he sided with the foes of Bmperor the mortgaged property of the diocese, and by the 

Otto II J and remained for several months in prison, favour of Emperor Charles IV was made Patriarch 

After his liberation he renounced his former views of Aquileia (1365). New dissensions between the 

and bequeathed to his church his possessions at Gei- Bishop and the city arose under Burkhard von Eller- 

senhausen. The diocese attained great splendour bach (1373-1404), whose accession was marked by 

under Bishop Bruno (1006-29), brother of Em- erave discord ^wingj out of the overthrow of the 

peror Henry II; he restored a number of ruined Fatrizier. or aristocratic government, and the rise in 

monasteries, founded the church and college of St. municipal power of the crafts or ^ilds. Irritated by 

Maurice, placed Benedictine monks in the collegiate Burkhard's support of the nobility in their struggle 

church of St. Afra, and added to the episcopal pos- with the Swabian cities, the inhabitants of Augsburg 

sessions by the ^ft of his own inheritance of Strau- plundered the dwellings of the canons, drove some 

bing. Under Bi&op Henry II (1047-63), the guardian of the clergy from the city (1381), destroyed, idfter 

ofHenry IVf the diocese secured the right of coinage a short interval of respite (1388), the episcopal strong- 

and was enriched bv many donations; under Embrico hold, the deanery, and the mint, and became almost 

(or Enmierich, 1063-77) the cathedral was dedicated oompletelv independent of the bishop. Burkhard 

(1065), and the canonicate and church of St. Peter proceedea with great enei]pr against the heresy of 

and St. Felicitas were built. During the last years the Wydifites who had gamed a foothold in Augs- 

of this episcopate occurred the ouarrel of Emperor burg, and condemned to the stake five persons who 

HenrylY with the papacy in which Embrico took the refused to abjure. After the death of Eberhard II 

imperial side and only temporarily yielded to the papal (1404-13), a quarrel arose in 1413 because the city 

legate. The struggle continued under his successors: of Augsbuig declined to recognize the lawful Bishop, 

four anti-bishops were set lip in opposition to Siegfried Anselm von Nenningen (1413-23), and set up m 

II (1077-96). Hermann, Count von Vohburg (1096 opposition Friedrich von Grafeneck who had oeen 

or 1097-1132) supported with treachery and cuiming presented bv Emperor Sigismund. This trouble 

hb claim to the see he had purchased, violently perse- was settled oy Pope Martin V, who compdled both 

cuted the Abbot of St. Afra, and expelled him from bishops to resign, and on his own authority replaced 

the city. Only after the conclusion of the Concordat them by Peter von Schauenberg, Canon of Bamberg 

of Worms (1122) did Hermann obtain the confirma* and WOrzburg (1423-69). 

tion of the pope and relief from exconmiimication. Peter was endowed by the Pope with extraordinarjr 

The political disturbances resulting from the dissen- faculties, made cardinal and legate a latere for aU 

sions between the popes and the German emperors Germany. He worked with zeal and energy for the 

reacted on the Church of Au^burg. There were reformation of his diocese, held synods and made 

short periods of rest^ during which ecclesiastical life episcopal visitations in order to raise the decadent 

received a forwfutl impulBe, as. for instance, under moral and intellectual life of the clergy; he restored 

Bishop Walther II. Coimt Palatine von Dillineen the discipline and renewed the fallen splendour of 

(1133-52), under whom the possessions of the mo- many monasteries, canonries,and collegiate churches, 

cese were again consolidated and increased by his He completed the rebuilding of the cathedral in Gothic 

own inheritance; under Udalskalk (1184-1202), who style, consecrated it in 1431, and in 1457 laid the 

with great ceremony placed the recently discovered cornerstone of the new church of Sts. Ulrich and 

bones of St. Ulrich in the new church of Sts. Ulrich Afra. Succeeding prelates carried on the refor- 

iod Afra. Thine days of peace alternated with xnationof the diooeee with no less aoUdtude and sea^ 


Among them were Johami II, Count of Werdenbeig in 1537 joined the League of Smalkald. At tht 
(1469-86) I tutor to the emperor's son, afterwards beginning of this year a decree of the council was 

Emperor Maximilian I, who convened a synod in made, foroidding everywhere the celebration of Mass, 

DiUingen, and encouraged the recently invented art preaching, and aU ecclesiastical ceremonies, and 

of printing; Friedrich von Zollem (1486-1505) pupil giving to the CJatholic clergy the alternative of en- 

of the great preacher Geiler von Kaysersbeig, and rolling themselves anew as citizens. or leaving the 

foimder of a college in Dillingen, who held a synod city. An overwhelming majority of both secular and 

in the same city, promoted the printing of liturgical regular clergy chose banishment; the bishop with- 

books, and greatlv enriched the possessions of the drew with the cathedral chapter to Dillingen, whence 

diocese; Henry IV, von Lichtenau (1505-17), a great he addressed to the pope and the emperor an appeal 

friend and benefactor of monasteries ana of the for the redress of nis grievances. In the city of 

poor, and patron of the arts and sciences. During Augsburg the Catholic churches were seized by 

the episcopate of these bishops Augsburg acquired, Lutheran and ZwingUan preachers; at the command 

through the industry of its citizens, a world-wide of the council pictures were removed, and at the in- 

commerce. Some members of its families, e. ff. the stigation of Bucer and others a disgraceful storm of 

Fuggers and the Welsers, were the greatest mercnants p^opular iconodasm foUowed, resulting in the destruo- 

of their time: they lent larse sums of money to the tion of many splendid monuments of art and an- 

emperors andf princes of Uermany, conducted the tiquity. The greatest intolerance was exercised 

financial enterprises of the papacy, and even extended towards the Catholics who had remained in the city: 

their operations to the newly discovered continent of their schools were dissolved; parents were compelled 

America. Among the citizens of Augsburg famous to send their children to Lutheran institutions; it was 

at that time in literature and art were the humanist even forbidden to hear Mass outside the city under 

Conrad Peutinger; the brothers Bernard and Conrad severe penalties. 

Adelmann von Adelmannsfelden: Matthias Lang, Under Otto Truchsess von Waldbur^ (1543-73) the 

secretary to Emperor Frederick III. and later Car- first signs of improvement were noted m the attitude 

dinal and Archbishop of Salzbuig; tiie distinguished towards Cathoucs. At the outbreak of hostihties 

punters Holbein the elder, Burgkmair and others. (1546) between the emperor and the Lei^e of 

With wealth, however, came a spirit of worldliness Smalkald, Augsburg, as a member of the league, 

and cupidity. Pride and a super-refinement of cul- took up arms against (Dharles V, and Bishop Otto 

tuie furnished the rank soil in which the impending invested and plundered FQssen, and confiscated 

religious revolution was to find abundant nourish- nearly all the remaining possessions of the diocese, 

ment. After the victory at Mtmlberg (1547), however, the 

(3) Reformation Period, — The Reformation broueht imperial troops marched against Augsbure, and the 

disaster on the Diocese of Augsburg. It included city was forced to beg for mercy, surrender twelve 

1,050 parishes with more than 500,000 inhabitants, pieces of artillery, pav a fine, restore the g[reater num- 

Besides the cathedral chapter it could boast eight oer of churches to tne Catholics, and reimburse the 

collegiate foundations, forty-six monasteries for men, diocese and Uie clergy for the property confiscated, 

and thirty-eight convents for women. Luther, who In 1547 the Bishop, Otto von Truchsess, who had 

was summoned to vindicate himself in the presence meanwhile been created cardinal, returned to the 

of the papal legate before the Reichstag at Augs- city with the cathedral chapter, followed shortly af- 

burg (1518), found enthusiastic adherents in this terwards by the emperor. At the Diet held at Augs- 

diocese among both the secular and regular clergy, burg in 1548 the so-called "Augsburg Interim" 

but especially among the Carmelites, in whose con- was arranged. After a temporary occupation of the 

vent of St. Anne he dwelt; he also found favour city and the suppression of CathoUc services by the 

among the city councillors, burghers, and tradesmen. Elector, Rince Maurice of Saxony (1552), the 

Bishop Christopher von Stadion (1517-43) did all in "ReHgious Peace of Augsburg" was concluded at the 

his power to arrest the spread of the new teachings; Diet of 1555; it was followed by a long period of 

he called learned men to the pulpit of the cathedral, peace. The disturbances of the Reformation were 

among others Urbanus Rhegius, who, however, soon more disastrous in their results throughout the dio- 

went over to Luther* he convened a svnod at Dillingen, cese and adjoining lands than within the immediate 

at which it was forbidden to read Luther's writings: precincts of Augsburg. Thus, after many perturba- 

he promulgated throughout his diocese the Bull of tions and temporary restorations of the Catholic 

Leo X (1520) against Luther; he forbade the Car- religion, the Irotestants finally gained the upper 

melites, who were spreading the new doctrine, to hand in Wttrtemberg, Oettingen, Neuburg, the tree 

£ reach 2 he warned the magistrates of Augsburg, cities of N6rdlingen. Memmingen, Kaufbeuren, Din- 
[emmmgen, and other places not to tolerate the kelsbdhl, DonauwOrtti, Ulm, in the ecclesiastical terri- 
reformers, and he adopted other similar measures, tor^ of Feuchtwangen and elsewhere. Altogether 
Despite all this, the followers of Luther obtained the during these years of religious warfare the Diocese of 
upper hand in the city coimcil, and by 1524, various Augsburg lost to the Reformation about 250 parishes. 
Catholic ecclesiastical usages, notably the observance 24 monasteries, and over 500 benefices. Although 
of fast days, had been abolished in Augsburg. The the religious upheaval brought with it a great loss of 
apostate priests, many of whom, after Luther's ex- worldly possessions, it was not without beneficial effect 
ample, had taken wives, were supported by the city on the regions life of the diocese. Bishop CSiristopher 
council, and the Catholics were denied the right of von Stadion, while trying to protect Catholicism 
preaching. The Anabaptists also gained a strong from the inroads of the Reformation, had sought to 
following and added fuel to the fire of the Peasants' strengthen and revive ecclesiastical discipline, which 
War, in which many monasteries, institutions, and had sadly declined, among both the secular and 
castles were destroyed. At the Diet of Augsburg in the regular clergy. The work was carried on even 
1530, at which the so-called Aussburg Confession more energetically by Bishop Otto Truchsess, who 
was delivered to Emperor Charles V in the chapel of achieved a fruitful coimter-reformation. By fre- 
the episcopal palace, the emperor issued an edict quent visitations he sought to become familiar with 
according to wnich all innovations were to be abol- existing evils, and by means of diocesan synods and 
ished, and Catholics reinstated in their rights and a vigorous enforcement of measures against ignorant 
property. The city council, however, set itself up and dissolute clerics, secular and regular, he endeav- 
mopposition, recalled (1531) the Protestant preachers ouied to remedy these conditions. He advanced 
who had been expatriated, suppressed Catholic ser- the cause of education by founding schools; he sum- 
vices in all churches except the cathedral (1534), and moned Uie Jesuits to his diocese, among others Blessed 


Peter Canisius, who from 1549, in the capacity of Diocese of Augsbuig was ^ven to the Elector of 
cathedral preacher, confessor, and catechist, exercised Bavaria, who took possession 1> December, 1802. 
a remarkiA)ly fruitful and efficacious ministry. In The cathedral chapter, together with forty canoni- 
1549 Bishop Otto founded a seminary in Dillingen for cates, fort^r-one benefices, nine colleges, twenty-five 
the training of priests, obtained from the pope (1554) abbeys, thirty-four monasteries of the mendicant 
a decree raising it to the rank of a university, and in orders, and two convents were the victims of this 
1564 gave the direction of the new university to the act of secularization. Unfortunately, owing to the 
Jesuits, for whom he had built a college in Dillingen. inconsiderate conduct of the commissioners ap- 
It is due to his untiring labours and those of Canlsius pointed by the Bavarian minister, Montgelas, in- 
that much larger portions of the diocese were not lost numerable artistic treasures, viduable b(K>ks, and 
to the Church. Under the immediate successors of documents were destroyed. For five years after the 
Otto the revival instituted by him progressed death of the last bishop of princely rank (1812) the 
rapidly, and many excellent decrees were formulated, episcopal see remained vacant; the parts of the dio- 
Under Marquard II von Berg (1575-91) a pontifical oese lying outside of Bavaria were separated from 
boarding school {cdumnatus) was founded in Dillingen, it and annexed to other dioceses. It was not until 
colleges were established by the Jesuits in Landsberg, 1817 that the Concordat between the Holy See and 
and, through the bounty of the Fugjger family, in Augs- the Bavarian government reconstructed the Diocese 
burg (1580). Heinricn von Kndringen, made bishop of Augsbuiv, and made it subject to the Metropolitan 
at the early age of twenty-^ight, took ^ipecial interest of Munich-Freising. In 1821 the territory subject to 
in the University and the Seminary of Dillingen, both the ecclesiastical authority of Au^burg was increased 
of which he enriched with many endowments; he by the addition of sections of the suppressed See of 
convened several synods, converted Duke Wolfgang (Constance, and the present limits were then defined, 
of Neuburg to Catholicism, and during his long (5) The Nineteentk Century, — ^As the new bishop, 
episcopate (1598-1646) reconciled many Protestant Franz Karl von Hohenlohe-SchillingsfUrst, died 
cities and parishes to the Catholic Church, being idded (1819) before assuming office, and Joseph Maria von 
in a particular manner by the Jesuits, for whom he Fraunberg was soon called to the archiepiscopal 
founded establishments in Neuburg, Memmingen, and See of Bamberg, there devolved upon their success- 
Kaufbeuren. By means of the Edict of Restitution ors the important task of rearranging the external 
of Emperor Ferdinand II (1629), vigorously and even conditions and reanimating religious Vde^ which had 
too forcefully executed b^ the bishop, the Thirty suffered sorely. I^patius Albert von Riegg (1824- 
Years' War first accomphshed an almost complete 36) w^ successful in his endeavours to further the 
restoration of the former possessions of the Diocese of interests of souls, to raise the standard of popular 
Augsburg. The occupation of Augsburg by Gustavus education through the medium of numerous ordi- 
Adolphus of Sweden (1632) restored temporarily the nances and frequent visitations. He assigned the 
balance of power to the Protestants. Until the relief administration and direction of studies in the Lyceum 
of the citv Dy the imperial troops (1635) the Cat ho- to the monks of the Benedictine Abb^ of St. Stephen 
Ucs were Kara pressed and were forced to give up all in Augsburs. founded by King Ludwig (1834). 
thev had gained by the Edict of Restitution. Fi- Petrus von Kicharz (1837-55) displayed enei^ and 
nalfy, the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) established persistent zeal in promoting the interests of his dio- 
eauality between Catholics and Protestants, and was oese and the Catholic (Ilhurch in general, and en- 
followed by a long period of internal peace. On ac- courai^ed the giving of missions to the people, the 
count of the losses entailed on the diocese by the establishment of many religious institutions for the 
treaty, a solemn protest was laid before the imperial care of the sick and for educational purposes, and 
chancery by Blsnop Si^und Franz, Archduke of carefully superintended the training of tne clei^gy. 
Austria (1646-65). This bishop, on account of his The same spirit characterized the labours of the suo- 
youth, ruled the diocese through administrators, ceeding bishops: Michael von Deinlein (1856-58), 
and later resigned his office. His successor, Johann who after a short episcopate was raised to the Arch- 
Christopher von Freiberg (1665-90), was particularly bishopric of Bamberg- Pankratius von Dinkel (1858- 
desirous of liauidating the heavy burden of debt 94), under whom botn seminaries and the deaf and 
borne by the chapter, but was nevertheless generous dumb asylum were established in Dillingen, and 
towuxis churches and monasteries. His successor, many monastic institutions were founded; Petrus von 
Alexander Sigmund (1690-1737), son of the Palatine Hdtzl (1895-1902^ whose episcopate was marked by 
Elector, guarded the purity of doctrine in liturgical the attention paid to social and intellectual pursuits, 
books and prayerbcnoks. Johann Friedrich von and the number of missions given among the people 
Stauffenberg (1737-40) founded the Seminary of as well as by the solemn celebration of the beatifica- 
Meersburg and introduced missions among the people, tion of the pious nun Crescentia HOss. He was 
Joseph, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1740-^) ex- succeeded by Maximilian von Lingg, b. at Nesselwang, 
humed with great ceremonjr the bones of St. Ulrich 8 March, 1842; ordained priest, 22 July, 1865; ap- 
and instituted an investigation into the life of Cres- pointed bishop, 18 March, 1902, consecrated, 20 July, 
oentia Hdss of Kaufbeuren, who had died in the odour 1902. 

of sanctity. Klemens Wenzeslaus, Prince of Saxony II. Religious Statistics. — ^According to the cen- 

and Poland (1768-1812), made a great number of sus of 1 December, 1900, the Diocese of Augsburg 

excellent disciplinary relations, and took measures contained 777,958 Catholics and about 100,000 of 

for their execution; alter the suppression of the other belidfs; at present there are about 818,071 

Society of Jesus he afforded its members protection Catholics. Socially, the population is chiefly of the 

and employment in his diocese; he made a vigorous middle class; recently , however, on account of the; 

resistance to the rapidly spreading Rationalism and great growth of the mdustrial arts in the city ol 

infidelity, and was honoured by a visit from Pope Augsbuiv, in Lechhausen, Memmingen, and other 

Pius VI (1782). places, the working classes are increasing in numbers. 

(4) French Revolution and Seculmrization, — During Leaving out of consideration the laiger cities, in which 

this episcopate began the world-wide upheaval in- the various denominations are wdl represented, it 

augurated by the French Revolution. It was destined may be said that the southern part of the diocese, 

to put an end to the temporal power of the Church Alg&u and the adjoining parts of Altbayem (Bavarb 

an Germany, and to bring about the fall of Augsbuig proper), are almost entirely CathoUc, while in the 

from the dignity of a principality of the Empire, northern part a mixture of creeds predominates. 

In 1802, bv act ^f the Dele^tion of the Imperial That smaU portion of Mittelfranken (Central Fran* 

Diet {ReichsdepuUUionsrezess), the territory of the oonia) which belongs to the diocese is overwhelm 


Insiy Protestant. The relations between the various lingen; the Diocesan Seminary for boys at Dillingen; 

religious denominations are in general friendly and St. Stephen's Catholic House of Studies at Au^burg, 

peaceable. For the work of sacred ministry the dio- under the direction of the Benedictines, which in- 

cese is divided into 40 deaneries (1 city deanery at eludes a lArceum, a classical Gynmasium, a royal 

Au^burg, and 30 rural deaneries), with 862 seminary of studies and an institute for higher educa- 

ganshes, 31 parochial curacies, 16 curacies, 226 bene- tion; there are besides about forty students of the 
ces, 6 preaching-offices (Prhdikaturen), 227 chap- Diocese of Augsbuig who dwell in the Georgianum 
laincies. In general each parish is complete and at Munich and attend the courses of the University, 
independent, out in the mountainous southern The state, or communal, institutions of higher 
section there are many parishes to which are at- studies for bojrs number 28 in the Diocese of Augs- 
tached from fifty to a nundred dependent churches buig; 5 gymnasia, 1 Realgymnasium, 1 seminary of 
(FUiakirchen), The cathedral chapter consbts of BtuaieSf 5 Progymnasia, 2 LsitinBchoohf 7 Realachtden, 
the provost of the cathedral, a dean of the cathedral, 3 agricultural winter schools, 1 Realschule with Latin, 
8 canons, and 6 vicars. In 1907 the cleigy of the 1 normal school, and 2 preparatory schools. We 
diocese numbered 1,439: 815 parish priests and paro- must also mention the Cassianeum m Donauwdrth, 
chial curates, 49 parochial vicars, 11 curates, 73 a Catholic institute of pedagogy, which includes a 
beneficed clergymen, 53 vicars of benefices, 180 trainixigHschool, a publishing house for books and 
chaplains and assistant {)riests, 49 prebendaries and peripdicals, a printing press, and other appurtenances, 
dencal professors (not including the professors of In all of these institutions Catholic instruction is 
the Benedictine Abbey of St. Stephen in Augsbuig); given to Catholic students by Catholic clergymen. 
74 priests temporarily stationed in the diocese, 95 ^ IV. Charitable Institutions. — ^The ^aritable ff 
re(;ulars, 40 priests engaged in other dioceses or on institutions of the diocese are for the most part the I 
missions. Ot the religious orders of men there are property of the civic parishes or the unions (Feretne), 
the foHowinf establishments: Benedictines, 3 (Augs- or local associations; they are administered, however, 
burg, Andecns, Ottobeuren), with 33 priests, 6 clerics, mostly by rdigious communities to whom is also 
56 lav brothers; Mission Society of St. Benedict^ 1 confided the care of the sick, or children, and of 
(St. Ottilien), with 36 priests (12 at present outside the aged. There are 37 hospitals, 24 infirmaries, 12 
the diocese), 31 clerics, 117 lay brothers; Franciscans, protectories, 2 asylums for children, 8 orphanages, 
3, with 7 priests and 22 lay brothers; Capuchins, 5, 3 institutions for the deaf and dumb, 12 houses for 
with 28 priests, 18 clerics, and 37 lay brothers; the poor and orphans, 3 poorhouses, 1 hospital for 
Brothers of Mercy, 6, with 4 priests and 54 lay priests, 1 home for invalids, 3 institutions for ser- 
brothers. Altogether there are 18 establishments vants under the patronage of the Blessed Vir^n 
conducted by the male orders, with 108 priests, 55 (Marienanstalten), 1 House of St. Anne (AnnastiH) 
clerics, and 286 lav brothers. Far more numerous for the factory girls in Au^burg, 1 House of St. 
are the female orders and religious congregations; Elizabeth for incurables, 5 institutions for various 
they number 226 establishments and branches, with otherpurposes (e. ^. the Kneippianum in Wdrishofen). 
2,815 members. They are: Sisters of Mercy of St. One (Catholic institution of Augsburg deserves spe- 
Vincent de Paul, 59 nouses, with 392 sisters; Fran- cial mention: the Fuggerei, founded in 1519 by three 
ciscans, with their mother-houses at Augsburg. Dil- brothers (Ulrich, Georg, and Jakob) of the Fuggers. 
lingen, Kaufbeuren, and Mindelheim, 71 establish- It consists of an extensive block of 53 houses with 
ments, with 735 sisters; Anne Framiskanerinnen 106 apartments; in accordance with the conditions 
with mother-house at MaUersdorf , 34 establishments, of the foundation these must be let at a very small 
with 171 sisters; Englische Frdidein (English Ladies), rent to indigent people. It is a noble and durable 
11 convents with 311 ladies, 160 lay sisters, and 43 memorial of the spirit of (Christian charity that 
novices; Dominican nuns, 11 convents with 271 choir abounded in the Catholic Middle Ages. In recent 
sisters, 17 lay sisters, and 36 novices; Poor School times other works of Christian charity have been 
Sisters, 21 foundations with 166 sisters. Elisabelh^ inaugurated. The good priest and superintendent 
erinnen (Sisters of St. Elizabeth), 4 foundations of studies (/2egena), Father Wagner of Dillingen, es- 
with 41 sisters and 5 novices; Sisters of the Most tablished many institutions for the deaf, dumb, and 
Holy Redeemer with their mother-house at Ober- blind; Father Ringeisen, parish priest of Ursberg, es- 
bronn in Alsace, 61 foundations with 24 sisters; Cis- tablished there the Sisters of St. Joseph for the exercise 
tercian nuns, 1 convent with 29 choir nuns, 15 lay of every form of charity. For aged and infirm priests 
sisters, and 2 novices; Mission Sisters of St. Benedict, there exists a fund with 1,277 subscribers and a 
1 convent with 65 sisters and 9 novices; Sisters of reserve of 1,550,000 marks ($387,500). There is 
St. Joseph of Ursberg, 7 foundations with 231 sisters also an association for the support of indBrm priests, 
and 92 novices. ^ ^ with 792 members and a fund of 26,(XX) marks 
III. Education. — ^As the primary schools in Bava- ($6^500). Proimnent among the numerous social- 
ria are the property of the local civic corporation aiid pohtical and religious associations of the diocese are 
under State control, there are no parochial schools in 16 Catholic apprentices' unions (Lehrlin^avereineY the 
the strict sense of the word. According to the Bava- local union in Augsburg maintaining its own nome 
rian Constitution of 1818 nothing more is assured for apprentices; 49 Catholic journeymen's unions 
to the Church than the direction of religious instruc- (peseuenvereine), 4 TJmons of St. Joseph; 52 Catholic 
tion and the surveillance of religious life in the school, workingmen's unions; 19 Catholic students' clubs; 3 
She exercises this right in 1,074 primary schools of Catholic clubs for working women, with 504 mem- 
the Diocese of Augsburig, by means of 6 ecclesiastical bers; 7 Catholic ''Patronages" for working people: the 
county (Bezirk) school-inspectors and 50 ecclesias- Ulrich-union for the support of seminaries; the Men's 
tical district school-inspectors. However, in many Catholic Association, the Christian Peasants' Lea^e; 
of the girls' schools {il&dchenschulen) the direction the Cecilian Club; ot. Mary's Protectory for girls; 
of studies is confined entirely to religious societies the Young Women's Association, and the Association 
under State inspection. Thus the Poor School Sis- of Christian Mothers. Aimual pilgrimages give visi- 
ters have charge of the studies in 19 schools, the ble evidence of the vigorous religious lite of the dio- 
Franciscans in 35, the Dominican nuns in 11, the cese. Such pilgrimages are those of the Holy Cross 
Sisters of St. Joseph of Ursberg in 3; the Eiiglish HI May) and to the tomb of St. Ulrich at Augsburg 
Ladies are excellent teachers for the higher educa- (4 July). There are also processions to the holy 
tion of women, and conduct 11 institutes for girls, mountain of Andechs during the rogation days, and 
For the training of priests there are the Lyceum to the monastery of Lechfeld since the vear of the 
and the Diocesan Seminary for ecclesiastics at Dil- cholera (1854). Other pilgrimages are tnose to the 


rdies of St. Raaso at Grafrath, to the churdi of the 
Holy Sepulchre (Unaers Herm SiA) near Friedberg, 
Bnd to Haria ^beneich. 


Among the ecdeeiastical monuments of the Dioceae 

and remodeled, 1331-1431, into a Gothic church with 
five naves; it was then that the lofty east choir with 
ila circle of chapela whh added. The towers were iiw 
creased in height in 1488-89 and 1504. Among the 
innumerable art treasures of the cathedral may be 
mentioned the veetments of St. Ub^ch: the four 
altars with paintings by the elder Holbein lUustratiag 
the life of the Blemed Virgin; the celebrated bronie 
doors of the left lateral nave, adorned with remark- 
able reliefs, and dating from the first half of the 
eleventh century; the ancient stained windows, some 
of which go oack to the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries: the intereeting tombs and slabs of the 
fourteentti and succeeding centuries, both in the 
cathedral iteelf and in the adjoining cloister, and 
many other objects of value and mtereet. The 
church of Sts. Ulrich and Afra, buUt 1467-1594, 
in the Gothic style, contains the tomb of St. Ulrich. 
the stone sarcophagus of St. Afra, the Pugger chapel 
with the memorial to Hans Pugger, and three magni- 
ficent altars in rococo style. The Lat« GoHiie 
church of the Holy Cross was renovated, early in the 
eighteenth centu^, in florid Roman rococo style, 
and is a favourite place of pilgrimage. Among the 
chief eccleeiaatical edifices outside the city of Ausa- 
burg are the Ronianesque basilicas of Allenstadt, 
Uraber^Thierhauptfin; the Gothic churches of Kais- 
hdm, Dinkelsbtlhl, DonauwOri^, Landsberg; the 
ancient &bt>ey-churcheH of Andecha (very nch in 
relics and costly reliquaries), Benediktbeuren. Dies- 
sen, FQssen, Kempten, Ottoljeuren, and Weesooninn, 
ijl restored and ornamented in sumptuous barocco 

8 AvatrsTA 

portanoe in the general eccledaatical and pofitioal 
development of Western Christendom. Two general 
imperial ^noda were held in Augsbure. The first, 
convened m August, 9£2, through the enorts of Em- 
peror Otto the Great, provided for the reform of 
abuses in civil and ecclesiastical life. Frederick, 
Archbishop of Maim, presided, and three arch- 
bishopB and twenty bishops of Germany and 
northern Italy took part. Eleven canons were pro- 
mulgated concerning ecclesiastical life and other 
matters of church disciphne. A similar synod, con- 
vened by Aimo, Archbishop of Cologne (27 October, 
1062), was occupied with the internal conditions of 
the empire and the attitude of the Church of Ger- 
many towards the schism of Cadalus, anti-pope dur- 
ing the reign of Alexander II. The diocesan synods 
of Augsburg correspond as a rule with the synodal 

Mmodi per viSas, convened under the influt 
tne Carlovio^an capitularies. They 

purpose was inquisitorial and iuoicial. After the 
time of 8t. Ulrich (92J-fl73), and in close relation to 
the system of provincial councils, diocesan synods 
were nekl at stated times, cjuefly in connection with 
matters of ecclesiastical administration (legalising 
of important grants and privileges, etc.), and the 
settlement of disputes. After tne thirteenth cen- 
tury these diocesan synods assumed more of a 
legislative character; decrees were issued regulating 
the fives of both ecclesiastics and laymen, and 
church discipline was secured by the puolication of 
diocesan statutes. The eariiest ertant are of 
Bishop Friedrich (1309-31). These diocesan synods 
fell into decay during the course of the fourtoenth 

In consequence of decrees of the Council of Basle 
the synods of the Diocese of Augsbun rose again 
to importance, so that aft«r the middle of the fif- 
teenth century they were once more frequently 
held, 88 for example: by the able Bishop Peter von 
Schauenhuig (1424-69) and his successor, Johann von 
Werdenburg, also by Friedrich von Zollem (1486) 
and HeintTch von Liechtenau (1606), The two 
Bishops Christopher von SCadion (1517-13) and 
Otto Tnichsess von Waldburg (l.'>43-73) made use 
of diocesan synods (1517, 1520, 1543 in Dilltngen, 
and 1536 in Augebun;) for the purpose of checking 
the progreBs of the Reformation through the im- 
provement of ecclesiastical life. At a later period 
there were but few ecclesiastical assemblies of this 
kind; as early as 1567, the synod of that year, ( 

Angsborg, Rzrjaioue Psacii of. See RxromiA- 

Angsbnrg, Stnodb or. — Prom the time of St. 
Boniface (d. 754), especially during periods of earnest 
revival of religious and ecclesiastical life, synods 
were frequently convened by the bishops of Germany, 
and sometimes by those of individual ecclesiastical 
provinces. Ah the German bishops were, on the one 
nand, princes of the empire, and the emperor was, 
on the other, the superior protector of the Roman 
Church, tbwe synods came to have no little im- 

the decline of the synod as a diocesan institution. 
Tbo Bishops of Augsburg were, moreover, not only 
the ecclesiastical superiors of their diocese, but after 
the tenth century poBsessed the Regalia, the right of 
holding and admmistering royal fiefs with concomi- 
tant jurisdiction. The right of coinage was obtained 
by St. Ulrich. At a later period disputes were 
frequent between the bishops and the civic authori- 
ties, which culminated in an agreement (1389) by 
which the city was made practically independent of 
the episcopal authority. (See Auosburo.) 

AmMtmcA und dnh^ucA itttcfirirbcn (Xuggburi, ISM); Bcsm 
in Kir^ivniex., 1, 1651-66. 

J. P. KlBACH. 

Angnry. See Divination. 

Auguata, a titular see of (^lida in Asia Uinor, 
whose episcopal list (363-434) is ^ven in Gams (435). 
Several cities bore the same name in Roman antiquity, 
some of which are yet flourishing, e. g. Augusta 


AuflOonun (Auoh in Southern France); Augusta to ^^'y^T^/\h ^^'- *^* former give* a oompreb«Diifo 

Batavoruih (Leyden in Holland); Augusta Asturica "^^^ <*' ^^^^* writings. tt„,^^ » n.,.-- 

(Astorga in Spain); Augusta Pratoria (Aosta in henry a. uanss. 

Northern Italy); Augusta Emerita (M^rida m Spain); Augustine, Bule of Saint. — The title, Rule of 

Augusta Rauraoorum (Aupt in Switzerland); AU- St. Augustine, has been applied to each of the fol- 

pustaSuessonum (Soissonsm France); Augusta Taur- lowing documents: (1) Letter ccxi addressed to a 

inorum (Turin in Italy); Augusta Trevirorum CTrier community of women; (2) Sermons ccdv and ccclvi, 

in Germany); Augusta Trinobantum (London); entitled "De vit& et moribus clericorum suorum"; 

Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsbuig in Germany). (S) a portion of the Rule drawn up for clerks or 

Lbquzkn. Orient ChriaL a7*D), H. 87\h^80; Smtth, I>ieL Consortia monackorum; (4) a Rule known as Regula 

of Oredi and Ronuin Qeogr., 1, 336. a«.«.» 8€cunda; and (6) another Rule caUed: "De vitA 

i-HOMAfl J. OHAHAN. eiemiticft ad sororem Uber." The last is a treatise on 

Augofltin von All eld (Alvisldt, or Alveldianub). eremitical life by Blessed ^bed, Abbot of Rievaulx, 
one of the earliest and most aggressive opponents of England, who died in 1166 and, as the two preceding 
Luther, b. in the village of AflSd, near fiildesheim, rules are of imknown authorship, it follows that 
from which he took his surname; d. probably in 1632. ^^one but Letter ccxi and Sermons ccclv and ccclvi 
Nothing is known of his parentage, youth, and early ^®re written by St. Augustine. Letter ccxi is ad- 
training. He first comes into prominence as a Fran- dreswd to nuns in a monastery that had been gov- 
ciscan of the Regular Observance, belonging to the f^^ "7 ^^^ s^ter of St. Augustme, and m which 
Saxon Province rf^theHoly Cross. The absence of his *"» <»"«» ^^ »»«» hved. His object m wntmg it 
name on the matriculation rosteis of the philosophi- ^as merely to qmet troubles mcident to the noim- 
cal and theological univereitiee of Erfurt, Rostock, »*<«>? of a new superior, and meanwhile he took 
Leipsig, and Wittenberg, usually frequented by the occasion to expatiate upon some of the vurtues and 
members of the above-named province, leaves the practices essential to the religious life. He dwells 
presumption that he made his studies in one of the ^J^^ chastity, poverty, obedience, detachment from 
monastic schools. At the solicitotion of Adolf of the world, the apportionment of labour, the mutual 
Anhalt, Bishop of Merseburg, in 1620, being already duties of superiors and infenors, fraternal chanty, 
Lectorof Holy Writ at Leipzig, he entered the theologi- I>»yer in common, fasting and abstinence propor- 
cal arena to controvert the Lutheran heresy (Mencken, ^jonate to the strength of the mdividual, care of the 
Scriptores rer. Ger.. II, 66). On 20 January, 1621, wck, sileiice, readmg durmg meals, etc. In his two 
he presided at the public theological disputation Bennons "De vitA et monbus clenoorum suprum" 
held at Weimar, between Lange, Mechler, and the Augustine sedcs to dispel the suspicions harboured 
Franciscans, on the merit of monastic vows and by the faithful of Hippo a«aiMt the clergy leadmg a 
life (Kapp, Kleinere Nachlese ntttslicher Urkunden monastic hfe with him m his episcopal residence, 
sur Erliluterung der Reformationsgeschichte, II, The penisal of these sermons discloses the fact that 
614, Leipsig, 1727), the result of which has not ^« bishop and his priests observed stnct poverty 
been handed down, though it called forth a satin- a^^ conformed to the example of the Apostles and 
cal poem at the time (ib., 620). In 1623 he be- ©a^ly Christians by using their money in common, 
came Guardian of the monastery at Halle, in which TWs was called the Apostolic Rule. St. Augustine, 
position he is still found in 1628. In 1629 he was however, diUted upon the rehgious hfe and its 
elected Provincial of the Saxon Province of the Holy obhgations on other occasioiw. Aurehus, Bishop of 
Qtoga, Carthage, was neatly disturbed by the conduct of 

Alfeld was a man of fine linguistic attainments, a monks who indulged in idleness under pretext of 

fluent Latinist, familiar with the ancient classics, contemplation, and at his request St. Augustine 

oonveraant with Greek and Hebrew, and well ac- published a treatise entitled "Deoperemonachorum" 

Suainted with the humanistic writings of his day. wherein he proves by the authority of the Bible, 
[is theology was that of medieval scholasticism, in the example of the Apostles, and even the exigencies 
which he proved "that the old theological training oi hfe, that the morDc is obliged to devote himself 
did not leave the antagonists of Luther helpless and ^ senous Ubbur. In several of his letters and ser- 
unprepared in combating the novel, ana to tJie nions is to be found a useful complement to his 
theologicaUy disciplined mind contradictory, asser- teaching on the monastic life and the duties it im- 
tions'^ (Otto, Johannes Cochlaeus, 132, Breslau, poses. These are easy of access m the Benedictinw 
1874). As Lector of Holy Writ, he devoted much edition, where the accompanying table may be con- 
attention and thought to the Bible, so that he can suited under the words: numachi, mantuiha, mon- 
state that "from my childhood I have devoted my ^^^Urium, monastioa vita, aanctimoniaUa, 
time and life to it" (Super Apostolicft Sede, etc., iu a). _ Jhe letter written by St. Augustine to the nuns at 
In the textual studies of the Greek and Hebrew ver- ?iPPO. (423), for the purpose of restormg harmony 
sions, the translation of Erasmus, the exegetical ^ ^^^^ oommumty, deals with the reform of certam 
writinm of Faber Stapulensis (Lefevre d'Etaples) phases of monasticism as it is understood by him. 
and the Complutensians, he shows a keen, analytical This documeiit, to be sure, contains no such cl«ir, 
mind and sound judgment. His memory and reputa- mmute prescnptions as are found m the Benedictme 
tion, however, rest on his polemical activity and Rule, because no complete rule was ever written prior 
writings. The latter are marred at times by a tone ^ the time of St. Benedict: nevertheless, the Bishop 
of bitterness and sarcasm that detract from their o( Hippo is a law-giver and his letter is to be read 
intrinsic worth and gave his opponents, notably weekly, that the nuns may guard against or repent 
Lonicer, Luther's amanuensis (Biblia nova Alvel- ^V infringement of it. He considers poverty the 
densis Wittenberg® Anno MDXX) opportunity to foundation of the religious life, but attaches no less 
censure the catalogued epithets flung at Luther importance to fraternal chanty, which consists m 
(Cyprian, Ntttzliche Urkunden sur Erl&uterung der livmg in. peace and concord. The superior, m par- 
Reformationsgeschichte, II, 168). If it be remem- ticular, is recommended to practise this virtue al- 
bered that Luther calls him ho8 lApsicus (De Wette, though not, of course, to the eartreme of omitting to 
Briefe, Sendschreiben, etc., I, 446>; annus (op. dt., chastise the guiltjr. However, St. Augustme leaves 
461, 463, 633); lApsiensis onaaer (op. cit., 446); lApsi. ^r free to determme the nature and duration of the 
ensU asinus (op. dt., 471, 476, 642), merely to single punishment unposed, m some cases it bemg her 
out a few controversial amenities, his Uterary stjde pnvilege even to expel nuns that have beoonie m- 
may be measurably condoned. corrigible. The superior shares the duties of her 
LmaDn.FatoriliviM(mwmii(f«U(Frdb«K,l809); Floss office with oertain memben of her community, oom 


of whom has charge of the sick, another of the cellar, these two families claiming him exclusively as its 

another of the wardrobe, while still another is own. It was not. so much the establishing of an 

custodian of the books which she is authorized to historical fact as the settling of a claim of precedence 

distribute among the sisters. The nuns make their that caused the trouble, and as both sides could not 

own habits, which consist of a dress, a cincture and a be in the right, the quarrel would have continued 

veil. Prayer, in .common, occupies an important indefinitely had not Pope Sixtus IV put an end to 

Elace in their life, being said in the chapel at stated it by his Bull '^Summum silentiiun'' (1484). The 
ours and according to prescribed forms, and com- silence thus imposed, however, was not perpetual, 
prising hymns, « psalms, and readings. Certain and in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
praters are simply recited while others, especially controversies were resumed between the Canons and 
indicated, are chanted; but as St. Augustine enters the Hermits, but all to no avail. Pierre de Saint- 
into no minute details, it is to be supposed that each Trond, Prior of the Canons Regular of St. Martin of 
monastery conformed to the liturgy of the diocese Louvain, tells the story of these quarrels in the 
in which it is situated. Those sisters desiring to lead preface to his "Examen Testament! S. Augustini'' 
a more contemplative life are allowed to follow special (Louvain, 1564). Gabriel Pennot, Nicolas Desnos, 
devotions in private. The section of the Rule that and Le Large uphold the thesis of the Canons; Gan- 
applies to eating, although severe in some respects, dolfo. Lupus, tiiles of the Presentation, and Noris 
is oy no means strict beyond observance and the sustain that of the Hermits. The Bollandists with- 
Bishop of Hippo tempers it most discreetly. Fasting hold their opinion. St. Augustine followed the 
and abstinence are recommended only in proportion monastic or religious life as it was known to his con- 
to the physical strength of the individual, ana when temporaries, and neither he nor they even thought 
the saint speaks of obUgator3r fasting he specifies of establishing among those who had embraced it 
that such as are unable to wait for the evening or any distinction whatever as to congregations or 
ninth hour meal may eat at noon. The nuns par- orders. This idea was conceived in a subsequent 
take of very frugal fare and, in all probability, ab- epoch, hence St. Augustine cannot be said to nave 
stain from meat. However, the sick and infinn are belonged to any particular order. He made laws for 
objects of the most tender care and solicitude, and the monks anci nuns of Roman Africa, it is true, and 
certain concessions are made in favour of those who, he helped to increase their numberB,while they, in turn, 
before entering religion, led lives of luxury. During reverb him as their father, but they cannot be classed 
meals some instructive matter is to be read aloud as members of any special monastic family, 
to the nuns. Although the Rule of St. Augustine St. Augustine's Influence on Monachism. — 
contains but few precepts, it dwells at great len^h When we consider Augustine's ^at prestige, it is 
upon reli^ous virtues and the ascetic life, this bemg easy to understand why his writings should nave so 
cnaractenstic of all primitive rules. In his sermons influenced the development of Western monachism. 
ccclv and ccclvi the saint discourses on the monastic His Letter ccxi was read and re-read by St. Benedict, 
observance of the vow of poverty. Before making who borrowed several important texts from it for 
their profession the nuns divest themselves of all insertion in his own rule. St. Benedict's chapter on 
their ^oods, their monastery being responsible for the labour of monks is manifestly inspired oy the 
supplying their wants, and Whatever they may earn treatise "De opere monachorum ', that has done 
or receive is turned over to a common fund, the so much towards fumishing an accurate statement 
monasteries having the rieht of possession. In his of the doctrine commonly accepted in religious 
treatise, "De opere monachorum'', he inculcates the orders. The teaching concerning religious poverty is 
necessity of labour, without, however, subjecting it clearly formulated in the sermons '' De vitA et moribus 
to any rule, the gaining of one's livelihood rendering clericorum suorum" and the authorship of these two 
it indispensable. Monks of course, devoted to the works is sufficient to earn for the Bishop of Hippo 
ecclesiastical ministry observe, ipso fado, the precept the title of Patriarch of monks and religious. Tne 
of labour, from wmch observance the infirm are influence of Augustine, however, was nowhere 
legitimately dispensed. These, then, are the most stronger than in southern Gaul in the fifth and sixth 
important monastic prescriptions found in the rule centuries. L^rins and the monks of that school were 
and writings of St. Augustine. familiar with Augustine's monastic writings, which. 
Monastic Life of St. Augustine. — ^Augustine together with those of Cassianus, were the mine 
was a monk; this fact stands out unmistakably in from which the principal elements of their rules 
the reading of his life and works. Although a priest were drawn. St. Csesanus, Archbishop of Aries, the 
and bishop, he knew how to combine the practices great organizer of religious life in that section, chose 
of the religious life with the duties of his office, and some of the most interesting articles of his rule for 
his episcopal house in Hippo was for himself and monks from St. Augustine, and in his rule for nuns 
some of his clergy, a veritaole monastery. Several quoted at length from Letter ccxi. Sts. Augustine 
of his friends anddisciples elevated to the episcopacy and Csesarius were animated by the same spirit 
imitated his example, among them Alypius at Tagaste, which passed from the Archbishop of Aries to St. 
Possidius at Calama, Profuturus and Fortunatus at Aurelian, one of his successors, and, like him, a 
Cirta, Evodius at Uzahs, and Boniface at Carthage, monastic lawgiver. Augustine's influence also ex- 
There were still other monks who were priests and tended to women's monasteries in Gaul, where the 
who exercised the ministry outside of the episcopal Rule of Csesarius was adopted either wholly or in 
cities. All monks did not live in these episcopal part, as, for example, at Sainte-Oroix of Poitiers, 
monasteries; the majority were laymen whose com- Juxamontier of Besan^on, and C!hamali^res near 
munities, although under the authority of the bishops, Clermont. 

were entirely (fistinct from those of the clergy, But it was not always enough merely to adopt the 

There were religious who lived in complete isolation, teachings of Aiigustine and to quote him; the author 

belonging to no community and having no legitimate of the regula Tamaiensis (an unknown monastery 

supenor; indeed, some wandered aimlessly about, in the Rhone valley) introduced into his work the 

at the risk of giving disedification by their vagabond- entire text of the letter addressed to the nuns, having 

age. The fanatics known as Circumcellumes were previously adapted it to a community of men by 

recruited from the ranks of these wandering monks, making slight modifications. This adaptation was 

and St. Augustine often censured their way of hving. surely made in other monasteries in tne sixth or 

The religious life of the Bishop of Hippo was, for seventh centuries, and in his ''Codex regularum" 

a long time, a matter of dispute oetween the Canons St. Benedict of Aniane published a text similarly 

Reguuur and the Hennits of St. Augustine, each of modified. For want of exact information we oannot 


say in which monasteries this was done, and whether mous monastery of St. Andrew erected by St. Gregory 
they were numerous. Letter ccxi, which has thus out of his own patrimony on the Cslian Hill. It was 
become the Rule of St. Augustine, certainly consti- thus amid the religious intimacies of the Benedictine 
tuted a part of the collections known under the gen- Rule and in the bracing atmosphere of a recent founda- 
eral name of "Rules of the Fathers" and used by tion that the character of the future missionary was 
the founders of monasteries as a basis for the prac- formed. Chance is said to have furnished the oppor- 
tices of the religious life. It does not seem to nave tunity for the enterprise which was destined to link 
been adopted by the regular communities of canons his name for all time with that of his friend and 
or of clerks which began to be organized in the eighth patron, St. Gregory, as the ''true be^nner" of one 
and ninth centuries. The rule given them bv St. of the most important Churches in Christendom and 
Chrodegang, Bishop of Metz (742-766), is almost the medium by which the authority of the Roman 
entirely drawn from that of St. Benedict, and no See was established over men of the En^ish-speaking 
more decided traces of Augustinian i9fluence are race. It is uimecessary to dwell here upon Bede's 
to be found in it than in the decisions of the Council of well-known version of Gregory's casual encounter 
Aachen (817), which may be considered the real con- with £ng;lish slaves in the Roman market place (H. E., 
stitutions of the Canons RegiUar. For this influence II, i), wmch is treated under Gregory the Great (q. v.). 
we must await the foundation of the clerical or Some five years after his elevation to the Roman 
canonical communities established in the eleventh See (590) Gregory began to look about him for ways 
century for the effective counteracting of simonv and and means to carry out the dream of his earlier davs. 
clerical concubinage. The Coimcil ofLateran (1059) He naturally turned to the community he had ruled 
and another council held at Rome four years later more than a decade of years before in the monastery 
approved for the members of the clergy the strict on the Ceelian Hill. Out of these he selected a com- 
community life of the Apostolic Age, such as the pany of about forty and designated Augustine, at 
Bishop of Hippo had caused to be practised in his that time Prior of St. Andrew's, to be their representa- 
episcopal house and had taught in his two sermons tive and spokesman. The appointment, as will ap- 
heretofore cited. The first communities of canons pear later on, seems to have oeen of a somewhat in- 
adopted these sermons as their basis of organization, determinate character; but from this time forward 
This reform movement spread rapidly tnrouehout until his death in 604 it is to Augustine as "strength- 
Latin Europe and brought about the foundation ened bv the confirmation of the blessed Father (}re^- 
of the regular chapters so numerous and prosperous ory" (roboratua confirmatiane beati patrU Grefoni. 
during the Middle Ages. Monasteries of women or Bede, H. E., I, xxv) that English, as distin^uishea 
of canonesses were formed on the same plan, but not from British, Christianity owes its primary inspira- 
according to the rules laid down in the sermons '' De tion. 

vitA et moribuB clericorum". The letter to virgins The event which afforded Pope Gregory the oppor- 

was adopted almost immediately and became the tunity he had so long desired of^ carrying out his great 

rule of tne canons and canonesses; hence it was the missionary plan in favour of the English happened in 

religious code of the Premonstratensians, of the the year 595 or 596. A rumour h»l reached Rome 

houses of Canons Regular, and of canonesses either that the pagan inhabitants of Britain were ready to 

gathered into congregations or isolated, of the Friars embrace the Faith in great numbers, if only preacners 

Preachers, of the Trinitarians and of the Order of could be foimd to instruct them. The first pum which 

Mercy, both for the redemption of captives, of hospi- seems to have occurred to the pontiff was to take 

taller communities, both men and women, dedicated measures for the purchase of English captive boys of 

to the care of the sick in the hospitals of the Middle seventeen years of age and upwaras. These he would 

Ages, and of some military orders. have brought up in the Catholic Faith with the idea 

AuonmNiiLN Foundations.— See also under individual of ordaining them and sending them back in due time 

titles. Canons, Rbgular of the Lateran (Austin), HBRinrs as apostles to their own people. He accordinirly wrote 

V.^T^jS^^^'^SSi^r H^Si^S: ^^^ to ««<«d«is, a presbyter entrusted with the aininui- 
Ambrosians, Brotherhood or the Apostles and or Vol- tration of a small estate belonging to the patnmony 
uNTART PovffliTT. BROTHERS or Merct. BETHLBRBMrrBs. of thc RoHum Church lu Gaul, askiug him to secure 

Sru1?Sr^^"«S^">. Ylfx'^lil.^SSSiSS^rinS: th« revenues and set them «ide for this pur«>se. 

Sermonet codv, ecdvi, P.L^XXXIX, 1568-81; Idem, Ds (Gr^., Epp., VI, VU m Mlgne, P. L., LXXVII.) It IS 

open monaehorum, op. cit., XL. 547-862; Bbsse, Le monor possible, not only to determine approximately the 

fc^f^S, tei!Si= i-SLiSIeSr'c&AnSSS! ^*^ of these events, but also to .in%te the particu- 
HELYOT.Huioirv deMordretraigieuxetmUitairea (Paris, 1792). lar quarter of Bntam from which the rumour had 
111 iy\ni:iMBmmKR,l^Oi^undKoyr^^ come. iEthelberht became King of Kent in 659 or 

Bremitarum S. Aumutini (Rome. 1628); Pamphiui. Chroniam establishing an overlordship that extended frofti the 
ordinia fraprutn Bretniiarwn 5. Auffu^tini (Rome. 1681); borders of the country of the West Saxons eastward 

£^'s*i^i.iriss?^?r«r!^rcss^" te »° *»>; "^ ^•'i « f« r^^r '^'^ ^rH ""* '}^ 

virorum muatrium ex ordine Bremitarum S.AuffuaHni (Antwerp, Trent. The Saxons of Middlesex and of Essex, to- 
1658); Oratianus. Ana^am* Aufnutiniana, in guA ecriptorea gether with the men of East Anglia and of Mercia, 

SSjr„f T^loVlSSr^^ !?„^SSri,^rSvr3J were thus broud»t to acknowledge him as Bretwalda, 

tnetitutione Fratrum Bremitarum exeaUeatorum ordinie S, and he acqmred a political importance whlch began 

Auguetini (Cambmi, 1658). . to be felt by the Prankish princes on the other side of 

•fe t''^i^^:StilJ;!!n: ^Su^r^. ?2Si J^e ^rml Chanbert of Pans gave him his daugh- 

(Vienna. 1663): Tiieiana degli uomini iUuetri che fuorono ter Bertha m mamage, stipulating, as part of the 

Oieniaii Morigia (Vienna, 1604); HERMBNEGn.i>o de San- nuptial agreement, that she should be allowed the 

^^'"^'(MSSdf WW)"'"'*^ ^'''***^ ^ rrfvvJn OuTon*. f^^ exercise of her relirion. The condition was 

''****~* ^ a, ;. j^ ^^ Bbssb. accepted (Bede, H. E., I, xxv) and Luidhard. a 

Prankish bishop, accompanied the princess to ner 

Augofltine of Oanterbuiy, Saint, first Archbishop new home in Canterbury, where the ruined church of 

ofCanterbury.Apostleof the English; date of birth un- St. Martin, situated a short distance beyond the 

known; d. 26 May, 604. Symbols: cope, pallium, and walls, and dating from Roman-British times, was set 

vitre as Bishop of Canterbury, and pastoral staft and apart for her use (Bede, H. E., I, xxvi). The date of 

gospels as missionary. Nothing is known of his vouth this marriage, so important in its results to the future 

except that he was probably a Roman of the better fortunes of Western Christianity, is of course largely 

dass, and that eEuiy in life he became a monk in the fa- a matter of conjecture; but from the evidence tiup- 

AuomxiNS 82 AuommnE 

Dished by 6ne or two scattered remftrks in St. Greg- King ^thelberht's orders until arrangements could 

ory's letters (Epp., VI) and from the circumstances be made for a formal interview. The king replied to 

which attended the emergence of the kingdom of the their messengers that he would come in person from 

Jutes to a position of prominence in the Britain of Canterbury, which was less than a dozen miles away, 

this period, we may sately assume that it had taken It is not easy to decide at this date between the four 

place fully twenty years before the plan of sending rival spots, each of which has claimed the distinction 

Augustine and his companions suggested itself to the of being the place upon which St. Augustine and his 

pope. companions first set foot. The Boarcfed Groin, Sto- 

The pope was obliged to complain of the lack of nar, Ebbsfleet, and Richborouch — the last named, if 
episcopal zeal among iBthelberht's Christian neigh- the present course of the Stour nas not altered in tbar- 
bours. Whether we are to imderstand the phrase ex teen hundred years, then forming part of the mainland 
vieinis (Greg. , Ed{>. , VI) as referring to Gaulish prel- — each has its defenders. The curious in such matters 
ates or to the Celtic bishops of nortnem and western may consult the special literature on the subject 
Britain, the fact remains tnat neither Bertha's piety, cited at the close ofthis article. The promised inter- 
nor Luidhard's preaching, nor iBthelberht's tolera- view between the king and the missionaries took place 
tion. nor the supposedly robust faith of British or within a few davs. It was held in the open air, sub 
Gaulish neighbouring peoples was found adequate <ftvo,savs Bede (H. E.,I,xxv),onalevelspot,proba- 
to so obvious an opportumt^ until a Roman pontiff, bly under a spreading oak in deference to the king's 
distracted with the cares of a world supposed to be dread of Aug&tine's possible incantations. His fear, 
hastening to its eclipse, first exhorted forty Benedio- however, was dispelled by the native grace of manner 
tines of Italian blood to the enterprise. The itinerary and the kindly personality of his chief guest who ad- 
seems to have been speedily, if vaguely, prepared; the dressed him through an interpreter. The message 
little company set out upon their long journey in the told "how the compassionate Jesus had redeemed a 
month of June, 596. Tney were armed with letters world of sin by His own agony and opened the King- 
to the bishops and Christian princes of the coimtries dom of Heaven to all who would believe" (JBlfric, 
through which they were likely to pass, and they were ap. Haddan and Stubbs, III, ii). The kind's answer, 
further instructed to provide themselves with Frank- while gracious in its friendliness, was cunouslv pro- 
ish interpreters before setting foot in Britain itself, pheticof the reli^ous after-temper of his race. ^'Your 
Discouragement, however, appears earlv to have words and promises are very fair" he is said to have 
overtaken them on their way. Tales of tne uncouth replied, " but as they are new to us and of uncertain 
islanders to whom thev were going chilled their enthu- import, I cannot assent to them and give up what I 
siasm, and some of tneir number actually proposed have long held in common with the whole English 
that they should draw back. Augustine so far com- nation. But since you have come as strangers from 
promised with the waverers that he agreed to return so great a distance, and. as I take it, are anxioiis to 
in person to Pope Gregory and lay before him plainly have us also share in wnat you conceive to be both 
the difficulties which they might be compelled to excellent and true, we will not interfere with you, but 
encounter. The band of missionaries waited for him receive you, rather, in kindly hospitality and take 
in the neighbourhood of Aix-en-Provence. Pope care to provide what may be necessary for your sup- 
Gregory, however, raised the drooping spirits of port. Moreover, we make no objection to your win- 
Augustine and sent him back without dela^ to his ning as many converts as you can to your creed", 
faint-hearted brethren, armed with more precise, and (Bede, H. E., I, xxv.) 
as it appeared, more convincing authority. The king more than made good his words. He in- 

Augustine was named abbot of the missionaries vited the missionaries to take up their abode in the 

(Bede, H. E.^ I, xxiii) and was furnished with fresh royal capital of Canterbury, then a barbarous and 

letters in which the pope made kindly acknowledg- half-ruined metropolis, buUt oy the Kentish folk upon 

ment of the aid thus far offered by Protasiiis, Bishop the site of the ola Roman military town of Durover- 

of Aix-en-Provence, by Stephen, Abbot of L^ns. num. In spite of the squalid character of the city, 

and by a wealthy lay official of patrician rank callea the monks must have made an impressive picture 

Ariidus [Greg., Epp., VI (indie, xiv) num. 52 sqq.; as they drew near the abode ''over against the lCing'i< 

sc. 3, 4, 5 of the Benedictine series]. Augustine must Street facing the north", a detail preserved in WiUiam 

have reached Aix on his return journey some time Thome's (c. 1397) " Cnronicle of the Abbots of St. 

in August; for Gregory's message of encouragement Augustine's Canterbury," p. 1759, assigned them for 

to the party bears tne date of July the twenty-third, a dwelling. The striking circumstances of their ap- 

596. Whatever may have been the real source of the proach seem to have lingered long in popular remem- 

passin^ discouragement no more delays are recorded, orance; for Bede, writing fullv a century and a third 

The missionaries pushed on through (Jaul, passing up after the event^ is at pains to describe how they came 

throogh the valley of the Rhone to Aries on their way in characteristic Roman fashion (more suo) bearing 

to Vienne and Autim, and thence northward, by one ''the holy cross together with a picture of the Sover- 

of several alternative routes which it is impossible ei^ I^nJ^^ Our I^rd Jesus C9irist and chanting in 

now to fix with accuracy, until they came to Paris, unison this litany", as they advanced: "We bes^h 

Here, in all probability, they passed the winter thee, O Lord, in the fulness of thy pity that Thine 

months; and here, too, as is not unlikely, considering an^er and Thy wrath be turned away from this citv 

the relations that existed between the family of the and from Thv holy house, because we have sinned: 

reigning house and that of Kent, they secured the Alleluia!" It was an anthem out of one of the 

services of the local presbyters suggested as inter- man^ "Rogation "litanies then bednninff to be famil- 

greters in the pope's letters to Theodoric and Theode- iar m the churches of Gaul and possibly not un- 

ert and to Brunichilda. Queen of the Franks. known also at Rome. (Martdne, "De antiouis Eo- 

In the sprint of the following year they were ready desise ritibus", 1764, III, 189; Bede, "H. E.", II, 

not improbable that the^ directed their steps thither use miist have been fairly large to afford shelter to a 

to find a suitable vessel m which they couldf complete community numbering nilly forty. It stood in the 

the last and not least hazardoiis portion of their Stable Gate, not far from the ruins of an old heathen 

journey. All that we know for certain is that they temple; ana the tradition in Thorn's day was that 

landedsomewhereon the Isle of Thanet (Bede, H. £., the pa^h church of St. Alphage approximately 

I, xxv) and that they waited there in obedience to marked the site (Chr, Aug. Abb., 1759). Here Augua* 


tine and his companions seem to have established the official collection of St. Gregory's correspondence 

without dela^ the ordinary routine of the Benedictine preserved in the registry of the Roman Church, 

rule as practised at the ' ' " • ' . ^»» , , , «. . . -^ ., ..^ 

to it they seem to have 

tolic ministry of preaching. 

St. Martin in the eastern piurt of the city which had ines", 3d ed.*p. 09, note.) It contiEulns nine responw, 

been set apart for the convenience of Bishop Luidhard the most important of which are those that touch 

and Queen Bertha's followers manv years before was upon local differences of ritual, the question of juris- 

also thrown open to them until the king should permit diction, and Uie perpetually recurring problem of 

a more highly organized attempt at evansdization. marriage relationships. "Why*', Augustine had asked 

The evioentsinoerityof the missionaries, their single- "since the faith is one, should there be different 
mindedness, their courage under trial, and, above all, usaees in different churches; one way of saying Mass in 
the disinterested character of Augustine himself and the Koman Church, for instance, and another in the 
the unworldly note of his doctrine made a profound Church of Gaul?" The pope's reply is, that while 
impression on the mind of the king. He asked to be "Aiigustine is not to forget the Chjirch in which he 
instructed and his baptism was appointed to take has been brought up", he is at liberty to adopt from 
place at Pentecost. Whether the queen and her the usage of other Churches whatever is most likely 
Frankish bishop had any real hand in the process of to prove pleasing to Almighty God. "For institu- 
this comparatively sudden conversion, it is impossible tions", he adds, "are not to be loved for the sake of 
to say. St. Gregory's letter written to Bertna her- palaces: but places, rather, for the sake of institu- 
self, when the news of the king's baptism had reached tions". With regard to the delicate question of jurist 
Rome, would lead us to infer, that, while little or diction Augustine is informed that he is to exercise 
nothing had been done before Augustine's arrival, no authority over the churches of Gaul; but that "all 
afterwards there was an endeavour on the part of the • the bishops of Britain are entrusted to him, to the 
queen to make up for past remissness. The pope end that uie unlearned may be instructed, the waver- 
writes: "Et cjuoniam, Deo volente, aptum nunc ing strengthened by persuasion and the perverse 
tempus est, agite^ ut divin& grati& co-operante, cum corrected with authority". [Greg., Epp., XI Qndic, 
augmento possitis c[uod neglectum est reparare". iv), 64; Bede, H. E., I, jcxvii.] Augustine seized the 
[Greg., Epp., XI (indic, iv). 29.] The remissness does firet convenient opportunity to carry out the graver 
seem to nave been atoned for, when we take into provisions of this last enactment. He had aS'eady 
account the Christian activity associated with the received the pallium on the return of Peter and Law- 
names of this royal pair during the next few months, rence from Rome in 601. The original band of mis- 
^thelberht's conversion naturally gave a ereat im- sionaries had also been reinforced by fresh recruits, 
petus to the enterprise of Aueustine and nis com- among whom "the first and most distinguished", as 
panions. Augustine himself determined to act at Bede notes, "were Mellitus, Justiis, Paulinus, and 
once upon the provisional instructions he had re- Ruffinianiis". Of these Rumnianiis was afterwards 
ceived from Pope Gregory. He crossed over to Gaul chosen abbot of the monastery established by Augus- 
and sought episcopal consecration at the hands of tine in honour of St. Peter outside the eastern imls 
Virgilius, the Metropolitan of Aries. Returning al- of the Kentish capital. Mellitus became the first 
most immediately to Kent, he made preparations for English Bishop of London; Justus was appointed to 
that more active and open form of propaganda for the new see of Kochester, and Paulinus became Metro- 
which JBthelberht's public baptism had prepared a politan of York. 

way. It is characteristic of the spirit whicn actuated ^thelberht, as Bretwalda^ allowed his wider 
Augustine and his companions that no attempt was territory to be mapped out mto dioceses, and ex- 
made to secure converts on a large scale by the em- erted himself in Augustine's behalf to bring 
ployment of force. Beda tells us that it was part of about a meeting with the Celtic bishops of South- 
the king's uniform poli^ "to compel no man to em Britain. The conference took place in Malmes- 
embrace Christianity (H. E., I, xxvi) and we know bury, on the borders of Wessex, not far from the 
from more than one of his extant letters what the Severn, at a root long described in popular legend 
pope thought of a method so strangelv at variance as Austin's Oak. ^Bec&.H. E.,II, ii.) Nothing came 
with the teaching of the Gospels. On Cnristmas Day. of this attempt to mtroduce ecclesiastical um'formitv. 
597, more than ten thousand persons were baptized Augustine seems to have been willing enough to yield 
by the first "Archbishop of the English". The great certain pointe; but on three important issues he would 
ceremony probably took place in the waters of the not compromise. He insisted on an unconditional 
Swale, not far from the mouth of the Medway. News surrender on the Easter controversy; on the mode of 
of these extraordinary evente was at once dispatehed administering the Sacrament of Baptism; and on the 
to Uie pope, who wrote in turn to express his duty of takine active measures in concert with him 
joy to his friend Eulogius. Bishop of Alexandria, to for the evangdization of the Saxon conquerors. The 
Augustine himself, and to tne kingand oueen. (Epp., Celtic bishops refused to yield, and the meeting was 
Vin,xxx;XI, xxviii;ibid.,lxvi; Bede, H. E.,I,xxxi. broken up. A second conference was afterwards 
xxxii.) Augustine's message to Gre^ry was carried planned at which only seven of the British bishops 
by Lawrence the Presbyter, afterwards Archbishop of convened. They were accompanied this time by a 
Ouiterbuzy, and Peter one of the original colony of eroup of their "most learned men "headed ^Dinoth, 
missionary monks. They were instructed to ask for tne abbot of the celebrated monastery of Bangor-is- 
more Gospel labourers, and, if we may trust Bede's coed. The result was, if anything, more discouraging 
account in this particular and the curious ^up of than before. Accusations of unworthy motives were 
letters embodied m his narrative, they bore with tnem freely bandied on both sides. Augustiiie's Roman 
a list of dvhia, or questions, bearing upon several regard for form, together with his punctiliousness for 
pointe 6f discipline and ritual with regard to which personal precedence as Pope Gregorv's representa- 
Augustine awaited the pope's answer. tive, gave umbrage to the Celts. Tney denounced 

The genuineness of the docimient or libeUtia, as the Archbishop for his pride, and retired behind their 
Bede calls it (H. E., II, i), in which the pope Is alleged mountains. As they were on the point of withdraw- 
to have answered the doubte of the new archbishop ing, thejr heard the only anery threat that is recorded 
has not been seriously called in (^[uestion; thougn of the saint: "If ye will not have peace ¥nth the breth- 
scholars have felt the force of the objection which St. ren, ye shall have war from your enemies; and if ye 
Boniface, writing; in the second quarter of the eighth will not preach the way of life to the English, ye shall 
century, urges, VIZ. that no trace of it could be found in suffer the punishment of death at their hands". 


Popular imag'nation, some ten years afterwards, saw Ahras, about 60 miles from Bona (ancient Hippo- 

a terrible fulfilment of the prophecy in the butchery Regius), and at that time a small free city of pro> 

of the Bangor monks at the hands of JBthelfrid the consular Numidia which had recently been converted 

Destroyer in the great battle won by him at Chester from Donatism. Although eminently respectable, 

in 613. his family was not rich, and his father, Patncius, one 

These efforts towards Catholic unity with the Celtic of the curiales of the city, was still a pagan. How- 
bishops and the constitution of a well-defined hier- ever, the admirable virtues that made Monica the 
archy for the Saxon Church are the last recorded acts ideal of Christian mothers at length brought her 
of the saint's life. His death fell in the same year husband the grace of baptism and of a holy death, 
says a very early tradition (which can be traced back about the year 371. Augustine received a Christian 
to Archbishop Theodore's time) as that of his beloved education. His mother had him signed with the cross 
father and patron, Pope Gregory. Thorn, however, and enrolled among the catechumens. Once, when 
who attempts always to give the Canterbmy version very iU, he asked for baptism, but, all danger being 
of these legends, asserts — somewhat inaccurately, it soon passed, he deferred receiving the sacrament, 
would appear, if his coincidences be rigorously t^ted thus yielding to a deplorable custom of the times. 
— that it took place in 605. He was Duried, in true His association with "men of prayer" left three 
Roman fashion, outside the walls of the Kentish capi- great ideas deeply engraven upon his soul: a Divine 
tal in a crave dug by the side of the great Roman nmd Providence, the future life with terrible sanctions, 
which then ran from Deal to Canterbury over St. and, above all, Christ the Saviour. "From my 
Martin's Hill and near the unfinished abbey church tenderest infancy, I had in a manner sucked with 
which he had begim in honour of Sts. Peter and Paul my mother's nulk that name of my Saviour, Thy 
and which was afterwards to be dedicated to his Son; I kept it in the recesses of my heart; and all 
memory. When the monastery was completed, his that presented itself to me without thiat Divine Name, 
relics were translated to a tomb prepared for them in .though it might be elegant, well written, and even 
the north porch. A modem hospital is said to occupy replete with truth, did not altogether carry me 
the site ot his last resting place. [Stanley, "Memo- away" (Confessions, I, iv). 

rials of Canterbury" (1906), 38.] His feast day in the But a ereat intellectual and moral crisis stifled for 

Roman Calendar is kept on 28 May; but in the proper a time ^1 these Christian sentiments. The heart 

of the English office it occurs two days earlier, the was the first point of attack. Patricius, proud of 

true anniversary of his death. his son's success in the schools of Tagaste and Madaura 

Bede, Hist. Eai., I Bnd II; Paulus Diaoontjs, Johannes determined to send him to Carthage to prepare for 

DiACONUB, and SL Gail MSS., Lives of St. Gregory in P. !/.» _ f^^andn aovx^k "Ruf iinf«^i^iinofAKr it i-onm'fA^ 

LXXV; ^pietola! GreapHi, ibid.; Greoort of tSurs. Hiatarii » forensic career. But, unfortunately, it required 

Francorum. ibid., LXXI; Goscelin, LiSeaf Su Gregory m Acta several months to coUect the necessary means, and 

5iS.^ay. VI, 370 sqq.: Wm. Thornb CAron. ijft&trt. S,A^, Augustine had to spend his sixteenth year at Tagaste 

in Twysden'a Decern Scnpioret (London, 1G52;, pp. 1768- :„^„ iHlpnAma whinh wm fatjil t/^ hin virtiiP* hp^avft 

2202; Haddan and Stubbs, CouneUM and Eccie»uuHcal Docur- "} an lOienMs \imcn was latai to nis Virtue, ne gave 

menta reloHng to Great Britain and Ireland (Oxford, 18e»-1873, himself up tO pleasure With all the vehemence of an 

3 vols.); Mason (ed.), T^ Miuion ofSt.Augiutineaccardinoto ardent nature. At first he prayed, but without the 

rt«OrHnnaiZ>ocum«ni« (Cambridge, 1897); D^ ainftprp HpitirP of hpin*r hftftrd and whpn hi> rftachwl 

Great, His Place in the History of Thought (Tendon, New York, S^ QCSire oi DCmg neaxQ, ana wnen ne reacneo 

Bombay, 1905); St. Gallen MS., ed. Gabquet (1904); Stan- Carthage, towards the end of the year 370, every 

LEY, MemoriaU of Canterbury (London. 1865, 1906); Ba8- circumstance tended to draw him from his true 

8ENGE. Ihe Sendung Augushns nor Bekehrung d. Angelsachsen ^rtiirwi* thp mn.nv RpHnotinnn nf iht» crrPAt ritv that 

(Leipaig. 1890); Brou, 5/. AugusHn de Canterbury et ses Com- course. tne many seauctions 01 me great City tnat 

j^agnonsiV&ria, 1897): LtytQVH, St. Auffustin ds Canterbury, was still half pagan, the licentiousness Of Other 

tn Rev.des QueH. Hist. (1899), xxi, 353-423; Martelli. students, the theatres, the intoxication of his literary 

£^A^/^A^^.*tet«4l! """^ * '"""^ ?ucce88, and a proud desire always to be first even 

Cornelius Cufford. *" evil. Before lon^ he was obliged to confess to 

Monica that he had formed a sinful liaison with the 

Augastine of Hippo, Saint, Doctor of the Church, person who bore him a son* (372), "the son of his 

b. 13 November, 354; d. 28 August, 430; — "a philo- sin" — an entanglement from which he only delivered 

sophical and theological eenius of the first order, himself at Milan after fifteen years of its thraldom, 

dominatiing, like a pyramid, antiquity and the sue- Two extremes are to be avoided in the appreciation 

ceeding ages .... Compared with the great philoso- of this crisis. Some, like Mommsen, misled perhaps 

phers of past centuries and modem times, he is the by the tone of grief in the "Confessions", have exag- 

equal of tnem all; among theolo^ans he is undeniably gerated it: in the " Realencyklopadie " (3d ed., II, 268) 

the first, and such has men his influence that none of Loofs reproves Mommsen on this score, and yet he 

the Fathers, Scholastics, or Reformers has surpassed himself is too lenient towards Aimistine, when he 

it". — ^The extraordinary part played by the great claims that in those days, the Church permitted 

Bi^op of Hippo, and thus eulogized by Philip £haff concubinage. The "Confessions" alone prove that 

in his "History of the Christian Church", accounts Loofs did not understand the 17th canon of Toledo, 

for the length of this article treating I. His Life; However, it may be said that, even in his fall, Au- 

II. His Works; III. His Function as a Doctor of gustine maintained a certain dignity and felt a com- 

the Church; IV. His System of Grace; V. Augustin- punction which does him honour, and that, from 

ism in History. the age of nineteen, he had a genuine desire to break 

I. His Life. — Augustine's life is imfolded to us the chain. In fact, in 373, an entirelv new inclination 

in documents of unrivalled richness, and of no great manifested itself in his life, brought about by the 

chai^icter of ancient times have we information com- reading of Cicero's "Hortensius" whence he imbibed 

parable to that contained in the "Confessions", a love of the wisdom which Cicero so eloquently 

which relate the touching story of his soul, the "Re- praises. Thenceforward Augustine looked upon 

tractations", which give the history of his mind, rhetoric merely as a profession; his heart was in 

and the "Life of Augustine", written by his friend philosophy. 

Possidius, telling of tne saint's apostolate. We will Unfortunately, his faith, as well as his morals, 

confine ourselves to sketching the three periods of was to pass through a terrible crisis. In this same 

this great life: (1) the young wanderer^ gradual year, 373, Augustine and his friend Honoratus fell 

return to the Faith; (2) the doctrinal development into the snares of the Manichaeans. It seems strange 

of the Christian philosopher to the time of his episco- that so great a mind should have been victimized 

pate; and (3) the full development of his activities by Oriental vapourings, synthesized by the Persian 

upon the episcopal throne of Hippo. Mani (215-276) into a coarse, material dualism, and 

(1) Augustine was bom at Tagaste, now Souk- introduced into Africa scarcely fifty years previously 



Augustine himself tells us that he was enticed by the sect, his mind rejected Manichsean doctrinea 
the promises of a free philosophy unbridled by faith; The illusion had lasted nine vears. 
by tne boasts of the Manichseans, who claimed to have But the reli^ous crisis of this great soul was only 
discovered contradictions in Hol^ Writ; and, above toberesolvedinItaly,under the ii&uence of Ambrose, 
all, by the hope of finding in their doctrine a scien- In 383 Aug^ustine, at the age of twenty-nine, yielded 
tific explanation of nature and its most mysterious to the irresistible attraction which Italy had for him, 
phenomena. Augustine's inquiring mind was en- but his mother suspected his departure and was so 
thusiastic for the natural sciences, and the Mani- reluctant to be separated from lum that he resorted 
chffians declared that nature withheld no secrets to a subterfuge and embarked imder cover of the 
from Faustus, their doctor. Moreover, being tor- night. He hi3 only just arrived in Rome when he 
tured by the problem of the origin of evil, Augustine, was taken seriously ill; upon recovering he opened 
in default of sol vine it, ackaowledgea a conflict a school of rhetoric, but, disgusted by the tricks of 
of two principles. And then, a^in, there was a his pupib, who shamelessly defraudea him of their 
very powerful charm in the moral irresponsibility re- tuition fees, he applied for a vacant professorship at 
suiting from a doctrine which deniea liberty and Milan, obtained it, and was accepted by the prefect, 
attributed the commission of crime to- a foreign prin- Symmachus. Having visited Bishop Ambrose, the 
ciple. fascination of that saint's kindness induced him to 
Once won over to this sect, Augustine devoted become a regular attendant at his preachings. How- 
himself to it with all the ardour <m his character; ever, before embracing the Faith, Augustine under- 
he read all its books, adopted and defended all its went a three vears' struggle during which his mind 
opinions. His furious proselytism drew into error passed through several £stinct phases. At first he 
his friend Alypius and Romanianiis, his Mscenas of turned towaras the philosophy of the Academics, 
Tagaste, the niend of his father who was defraying with its pessimistic scepticism; then neo-Platonic 
the expenses of Augustine's studies. It was during philosophv inspired him with genuine enthusiasm, 
this Manich^ean period that Augustine's literary At Milan ne had scarcely read certain works of Plato 
faculties reached tneir full development, and he was and, more especially, of Plotinus, before the hope 
still a student at Carthaee when ne embraced error, of finding the truth dawned upon him. Once more 
His studies ended, he should in due course have he beean to dream that he and his friends might 
entered the forum lUiaiosum, but he preferred the lead a life dedicated to the search for it, a life purged 
career of letters, and Possidius tells us that he re- of all vidgar aspirations after honours, wealth, or 
turned to Tagaste to ''teach grammar". The young pleasure, and with celibacy for its rule (Confessions, 
professor captivated his pupils, one of whom, Aljrpius, Vl). But it was only a dream; his passions still 
nardly younger than his master, loath to leave nim, enslaved him. Monica, who had joined her son at 
after following him into error, was afterwards bap-' Milan^ prevailed upon him to become betrothed, 
tized with him at Milan, eventually becoming Bishop but his affianced bnde was too young, and although 
of Tagaste, his native city. But Monica deeply Augustine dismissed the mother of Adeodatus, her 
deplored Augustine's heresy and would not have place was soon filled by another. Thiis did he pass 
received him into her home or at her table but for through one last period of struggle and anguish, 
the advice of a saintly bishop, who declared that Finally, through the reading of the Holy Bcriptures 
"the son of so many tears could not perish". Soon light penetrated his mind. Soon he possessed the 
afterwards Augustine went to Carthage, where he certainty that Jesus Christ is the only way to truth 
continued to £each rhetoric. His talents shone to and salvation. After that, resistance came only from 
even better, advantage on this wider stage, and by the heart. An interview with Simplicianus, the 
an indefatigable pursuit of the liberal £ls his in- future successor of St. Ambrose, who told Augustine 
tellect attained its full maturity. Having taken part the story of the conversion of the celebrat^ neo- 
in a poetic tournament, he carried off the prize, and Platonic rhetorician, Victorinus (Ck)nfe8sions, VIII, 
the Proconsul Vindicianus publicly conferred upon i, ii), prepared the way for the grand stroke of grace 
him the corona agoniatica. It was at this moment which, at the age of thirty-three, smote him to the 
of literary intoxication, when he had just completed sround in the ^uxien at Milan (September, 386). 
his first work on aesthetics, now lost, that he oe^an A few days later Aueustine, bein^ ill, took advantage 
to repudiate Manichseism. Even when Augustine of the autumn holic&ys and, resigning his professor- 
was in his first fervour, the teachings of Mani had ship, went with Momca, Adeodatus, and his friends 
been far from quieting his restlessness, and although to (jassisiacum, the country estate of Verecundus, 
he has been accused of becoming a priest of the sect, there to devote himself to the pursuit of true philoso- 
he was never initiated or numbered among the phy which, for him, was now inseparable from 
"elect", but remained an "auditor" — ^the lowest Christianity. 

degree in the hierarchy. He himself gives the reason (2) (From 986 to S95). — Ai^ustine gradually be- 
for his disenchantment. First of all there was the came acquainted with Christian doctrine, and in 
fearful depravity of Manichsean philosophy — "They his mind the fusion of Platonic philosophy with re- 
destroy everything and build up notning"; then, vealed donnas was taking place. The law that 
the dreadful immorality in contrast with their af- governed this change of thought has of late years 
fectation of virtue; the feebleness of their arguments been frequently misconstrued; it is sufficiently im- 
in controversy with the C!atholics, to whose Scrip- portant to be precisely defined. The solitude of 
tural arguments their only reply was: "The Scrip- Cassisiacum realized a long-cherished dream. In 
tures have been falsified '. But, worse than all, his books "Against the Academics", Auj^ustine has 
he did not find science among them — science in the described the ideal serenity of this existence, en- 
modem sense of the word — that knowledge of nature livened only by the passion for truth. He completed 
and its Laws which they had promised him. When the education of his young friends, now by literary 
he questioned them concerning the movements of readings in common, now by philosopmcal con- 
the stars, none of them could answer him. "Wait ferences to which he sometimes invited Monica, and 
for Fa\istus", they said, "he will explain everything the accounts of which, compiled by a secretary, have 
to you". Faustus of Mileve, the celebrated Mani- supplied the foundation of the "Dialogues". Licen- 
ch^ean bishop, at last came to Carthage; Augustine tins, in his "Letters", would later on recall these 
visited and questioned him, and discovered in his delightful philosophical mornings and evenings, at 
responses the vulgar rhetorician, the utter stranger which Augustine was wont to evolve the most ele- 
to all scientific cmture. The spell was broken, and, vating discussions from the most commonplace in- 
although Augustine did not mimediately abandon cidents. The favourite topics at their conferenoefl 


were truth, certainty ^Against the Academics), true at anv time sacrificed the Gospel to Plato. TIm 

happiness in philosophy (On a Happy Life), the same learned critic thus wiselv concludes his study: 

Providential order of the world and tne problem of ''So lon^, therefore^ as his pnilosophy af;rees with 

evil (On Order) and finally God and the soul (Solil- his religioiis doctrmes, St. Augustine is frankly 

oquies, On the Immortality of the Soul). neo-Platonistj as soon as a contradiction arises, 

Here arises the curious (^[uestion i)ropounded by he never hesitates to subordinate his philosophv to 
modem critics: Was Augustine a Christian when he religion, reason to faith. He was, first of all, a Chris- 
wrote these "Dialogues" at Cassisiacum? — Until tian; the philosophical questions that occupied his 
now no one had doubted it: historians, relying upon mind constantly found themselves more and more 
the "(>)nfe88ion8", had all oelieved that Augustine's relegated to the background" (op. cit., 155). But 
retirement to the villa had for its twofold object the the method was a dimgerous one; in thus seeking 
improvement of his health and his preparation for harmony between the two doctrines he thought 
baptism. But certain critics nowadays claim to too easily to find Christianity in Plato, or Platomsm 
have discovered a radical opposition between the in the Gospel. More than once, in his ''Retractations" 
philosophical "Dialogues" composed in this retire- and elsewhere, he acknowleoges that he has not 
ment and the state of soul described in the "Con- always shunned this danger. Thus he had imagined 
fessions". According to Hamack, in writing the that in Platonism he discovered the entire doctrine 
"Confessions" Augustine must have projected upon of the Word and the whole prologue of St. John, 
the recluse of 386 the sentiments of the bishop of He likewise disavowed a good number of neo- 
400. Others go farther and maintain that the reduse Platonic theories which had at first misled him — ^the 
of the Milanese villa could not have been at heart cosmolosical thesis of the universal soul, which 
a Christian, but a Platoiust; and that the scene in makes the world one immense animal — the Platonic 
the sarden was a conversion not to Christianity, but doubts upon that grave question: Is there a single 
to pnilosophy, the genuinely Christian phase begin- soul for all or a distinct soul for each? But on tne 
nin^ only in 390. But this interpretation of the other hand, he had always reproached the Platonists, 
"Dialogues" cannot withstand the test of facts and as Schaff very properly remarks (Saint Augustine, 
texts. It is admitted that Augustine received bai>- New York, 1886. p. 51), with being ienorant of, 
tism at Easter, 387; and who could suppose that it or rejecting, the nindamental TOints of (%ristianity: 
was for him a meaningless ceremony? So too, how " first, the great mystery, the Word made flesh; and 
can it be admitted that the scene in the garden, the then love, resting on the basis of humility". They 
example of the recluses, the reading of St. Paul, the also ignore grace, he says, giving sublime precepts 
conversion of Victorinus, Augustine's ecstasies in of moirality without any help towards realizing them, 
reading the Psalms with Momca were all invented It was this Divine grace that Augustine sought 
after the fact? Again, as it was in 388 that Augustine in Christian baptism. Towards the beginning of 
wrote his beautiful apology "On the Holiness of Lent, 387, he went to Milan and, with Adeodatus 
the Catholic Church", how is it conceivable that he and Alypius, took his place among the competentea, 
was not yet a Christian at that date? To settle the being baptized by Amorose on Easter Day, or at 
ara;ument, )iowever, it is only necessary to read the least dunng Easter-tide. The tradition maintaining 
"Dialogues" themselves. They are certainly a that the Te Deum was sung on that occasion by the 
purely philosophical work — a work of youth, too, bishop and the neophyte alternately is groundless, 
not without some pretension, as Augustine ingen- (See Tb Deum, The.) Nevertheless this lesend is 
uously acknowledges (O>nfes8ions, I A, iv); never- certainly expressive of the joy of the Church upon 
theless, they contain the entire history of his (}hris- receiving as her son him who was to be her most 
tian formation. As early as 386, the first work illustrious doctor. It was at this time that Augustine, 
written at Cassisiacum reveals to us the great un- Alypius, and Evodius resolved to retire into solitude 
derlying motive of his researches. The object of in Africa. Augustine uncfoubtedly remained at Milan 
his philosophy is to eive authority the support of until towards autumn, continuing his works: "On 
reason, and "for him tne great authority, that which the Immortality of the Soul" and "On Music", 
dominates all others and from which he never wished In the autumn of 387, he was about to embark at 
to deviate, is the authority of Christ"; and if he loves Ostia, when Monica was summoned from this life, 
the Platonists it is because he counts on finding In all literature there are no pages of more exquisite 
amon^ them interpretations always in harmony with sentiment than the story of her saintly death and 
his faith (Against the Academics, III, c. x). To Augustine's grief (Ck)nfessions, IX). Augustine re- 
be sure such confidence was excessive, but it remains mamed several months in Rome, chiefly engaged 
evident that in these "Dialogues" it is a Christian, in refuting Manichffiism. He sailed for Africa aner 
and not a Platonist, that speaks. He reveals to us the death of the tyrant Maximus (August, 388) and 
the intimate details of his conversion, the argument after a short sojourn in Carthage, returned to his 
that convinced him (the life and conquests of the native Tagaste. Immediately upon arriving there, 
Apostles), his progress in the Faith at the school of he wished to carry out his idea of a perfect life, 
St. Paul (ibid., II, ii)^s delightful conferences with and began by selling^all his goods and giving the pro- 
his friends on the Divinity of Jesus Christ, the ceeds to the poor. Then he and his friends withdrew 
wonderful transformations worked in his soul by to his estate, which had already been alienated, there 
faith, even to that victory of his over the intellectual to lead a common life in poverty, prayer^ and the 
pride which his Platonic studies had aroused in him study of sacred letters. Book of the " LXXXIH Ques- 
(On The Happy liife, I, ii), and at last the gradual tions" is the fruit of conferences held in this retire- 
calming of his passions and the great resolution to ment, in which he also wrote "De Genesi contra 
choose wisdom lor his only spouse (Soliloquies, I, x). Manichsos", "De Magistro", and, "De Vera Re* 

It is now easy to appreciate at its true value the iigione". 

influence of neo-Platonism upon the mind of the Augustine did not think of entering the priesthood, 

great African Doctor. It would be impossible for and, tnrough fear of the episcopacy. He even fled from 

anyone who has read the works of St. Augustine to cities in which an election was necessary. One day, 

deny the existence of this influence; to be convinced, having been summoned to Hippo by a friend whose 

it suflices to glance at the passages from Plotinus soul's salvation was at stake, tie was praying in a 

and from Augustine arranged in parallel columns by church when the people suddenly ^tnered about 

M. Grandgeorge (Saint Augustin et le N^platonisme, him, cheered him, and begged Valenus, the bishop, 

1896, 117-147). However, it would be a great to raise him to the priesthood. In spite of his tears 

exaggeration of this influence to pretend that it Augustine was obliged to yield to their entreaties, 

and was ordwned in 391. The new piMrt looked But he waa above aU the defender of truth and 
upon hia oirfination as an additional reason for re- the shepherd of aouls. Hia doctrinal activities, ths 
■uminz religiouB life at Tagarte, and bo fully did influence of which was dsBtined to last as long as 
Valerius approve that he put some church property the Caiurch itaelf, were manifold: he preached fro- 
st AueusUne'B disptwal, thus enabling him to ea- quently, sometimes for five daya consecutively, hia 
tablirt'amonartery— the second that hehad founded. Bermons breathing a spirit of charity Ui at won 
His priwtly miniatiy of five yeara waa admirably aU hearts; he wrote lettere which scattered broadcast 
fruittul i^ileiiuB hod bidden him preach, in spite through the then known world his solutions of the 
of the 'deploraUe custom which in Africa reserved problems of that day; he imprrased hia amrit upon 
that miniatry to Ushopa. Augustine combated divers African councils at which he asBiBted, for in- 
heresy, specially MaaichiAm, and his aucceaa was atance, those of Carthage in 398, 401, «7, 419 Mid 
pfodipous. Fortunatus, one of their great doctors, of Milevo in 416 and 418; and lastly struggled in- 
whom Augustine had challenged in public conference, defatigably against all errors. To rdat« these 
waa so humiliated by his defeat that he fled from struggles were endless; we shall, therefore, select 
Hippo. Augustine also abolished the abuse of hold- only the chief controversies and indicate in each 
ing banquets in the chapels of the martyis. He took the doctrinal attitude of the great Bishop of Hippo, 
part SOctober, 393, in the Plenary Council of Africa, (a) The Manichaan Controverty and the Prodienj 
presided over by Aurelius, Bishop of Carthage, and. ot £wJ.— After Augustine became biejiop the leal 
at the request of the bishops, was obliged to deliver which, from the time ot his baptism, he had maii- 
a discourse which, in its completed form, afterwards fested in bringing his former co-religionists into the 

cation of Aurelius, Primate of Africa, to associate tained. ... As for me. I ahould show you the eama 
Augustine with himself as coadjutor. Augustine had forbearance that my brethren had for me when I, 
to resign himself to consecration at the bands of blind, was wandering in your doctrines" (Contra 
Hegalius, Primate of Numidia. He was then forty- Epistolam Fundamenti, iii). Among the most mem- 
two, and WHS to occup)[ the See of Hippo for thirty- orable events that occurred during this cootroveny 
(our ^ears. The new bishop understood well how to waa the great victorv won in 404 over Felix, one of 
combine the exereise of bis pastoral duties with the the "elect" of the Msnicheeans and the great doctor 
austerities of the religious life, and although he left of the sect. He was propagating his errors in Hippo, 
his convent, his episcopal residence became a monas- and Augustine invited him to a public conference 
tery where he lived a community life with hie clergy, the issue of which would necessanly cause a great 
who bound themselves to observe religious poverty, stir; Felix declared himself vanquished, embraced 
Was it an order of regular clerics or of monks that the Faith, and. together with Augustine, subscribed 
he thus founded? — This is a question oft«n asked, the acts of the conference. In his writings Ai^ustine 
but we feel that Auguatine gave but little thought successively refuted Mani (397), the famous Faustus 
to such distinctions. Be that as it may, the episcopal (400), Secundinus (405), and (about 415) the fa- 
house of Hippo became a veritable nursery which talistic Priscillianists whom Paulus Orosius had de- 
supplied the foundera of the monasteries that were nounced to him. These writings contain the saint's 
soon spread all over Africa and the bishops who oc- clear, unquestionable views on the eternal problem 
cupiea the neighbouring sees, Poesidius (Vita S. of evil, views based on an optimism proclaiming, 
August., xxii) enumerates ten of the saint's friends like the Platonista, that every work of God is good 
and disciples who were promoted to the episcopacy, and that the only source of moral evil is the liberty 
Thus it was that Augustine earned the title of pa- of creatures (De Civitate Dei, XIX, c. xiii, n. 2). 
triarch of the religious, and renovator of the clerical, Augustine takes up the defence of free will, even hi 
liib in Alrica. nao m bs isj with such ardour that his worlu againit 


the Manichseans are an inexhaufitible storehouse of the Bishop of Hippo himself was several times at« 
arguments in this still living controversy. tempted (Letter Ixxxviii, to Januarius, the Donatist 
In vain have the Jansenists maintained that bishop). This madness of the Circumcelliones re- 
Augustine was unconsciously a Pela^an and that quired harsh repression, and Augustine, witnessing 
he afterwards acknowledged the loss of liberty through the many conversions that resulted therefrom, thence- 
the sin of Adam. Modem critics, doubtless unfa- forth approved rigid laws. However, this important 
miliar with Augustine's complicated system and restriction must be pointed out: that St. Augustine 
his peculiar terminology, have gone much farther, never wished heresy to be punishable by oeath — 
In the "Revue d'histoire et de litt^raturereligieuses" Vos rogamua ne occidaHs (Letter o, to the Pro- 
(1899^ p. 447), M. Margival exhibits St. Augustine as consul Donatus). But the bishops still favoured 
the victim of metaphysical pessimism unconsciously a conference with the schismatics, and in 410 an 
imbibed from Manichsean doctrines. "Never", says edict issued by Honorius put an end to the refusal 
he, "will the Oriental idea of the necessity and the of the Donatists. A solemn conference took place 
eternity of evil have a more zealous defender than at Carthage, in June, 411, in presence of 286 Catho- 
this bishop". Nothing is more opposed to the facts, lie, and 279 Donatist bishops. The Donatist 
Augustine acknowledges that he nad not yet under- spokesmen were Petilian of Ci)nstantine, Primian 
stood how the first good inclination of the will is a of Carthage, and Emeritus of Csesarea; the Catholic 

S'ft of God (Retractations, I, xxiii, n. 3); but it orators, Aurelius and Augustine. On the historic 

lould be remembered that he never retracted his question then at issue, the Bishop of Hippo proved 

leading theories on liberty, never modified his the innocence of Ceecilian and his consecrator Felix, 

opinion upon what constitutes its essential condition, and in the dogmatic debate he established the Catho- 

that is to say, the full power of choosing or of de- lie thesis that the Church, as long as it is upon earth, 

ciding. Who will dare to say that in revising his can, witHout losing its holiness, tolerate sinners 

own writings on so important a point he lacked within its pale for the sake of converting them, 

either clearness of perception or sincerity? In the name of the emperor the Proconsul Marcellinus 

(b) The Donatist Controversy and the Theory of sanctioned the victory of the Catholics on all points. 

the Church. — ^The Donatist schism was the last episode Little by little Donatism died out, to disappear with 

in the Montanist and Novatian controversies which the commg of the Vandals. 

had agitated the Church from the second century. So amply and magnificently did Augustine de- 
While the East was discussing under varying aspects velop his theory on the Church that, according to 
the Divine and Christological problem of the Word. Specht, "he deserves to be named the Doctor of the 
the West, doubtless because of its more practical Church as well as the "Doctor of Grace"; and M6hler 
genius, took up the moral question of sin m all its (Dogmatik, 351) is not afraid to write: "For depth 

^ «^. ^^^^, * question especially to the works of St. Augusti..w . **^ «-, ^^..^^^^. 

concerned the holiness of the hierarchy. The bishops perfected, and even excelled the beautiful pa^es of 

of Numidla, who, in 312, had refused to accept as St. Cyprian on the Divine institution of the Church, 

valid the consecration of Csecilian, Bishop of Carthage, its authority, its essential marks, and its mission in 

by a traditor, had inaugurated the schism and at the economy of grace and the aoministration of the 

the same time proposed these grave questions: Do sacraments. The Protestant critics, Domer, Binde- 

the hierarchical powers depend upon the moral mann, Bdhringer and especially Renter, loudly pro* 

worthiness of the priest? How can the holiness of claim, and sometimes even exaggerate, this i^le of 

the Church be compatible with the unworthiness of the Doctor of Hippo; and while Hamack does not 

its ministers? quite agree with them in every respect he does not 

At the time of Augustine's arrival in Hippo, the hesitate to say (History of Dogma, II, c. iii): "It is 

schism had attained immense proportions, naving one of the points upon which Augustine specially 

become identified with political tendencies — perhaps aflirms and strengthens the Catholic idea. . . . 

with a national movement against Roman domination. He was the first [!] to transform the authority of the 

In any event, it is easy to discover in it an under- Church into a religious power, and to confer upon 

current of anti-social revenge which the emperors practical religion the gift of a doctrine of the Church. " 

had to combat by strict laws. The strange sect He was not the first, for Domer acknowledges (Au- 

known as "Soldiers of Christ", and called by Catho- gustinus, 88) that Optatus of Mileve had expressed 

lies CircumceUiones (brigands, vagrants), resembled the basis of the same doctrines. Augustine, however, 

the revolutionary sects of the Middle Ages in point deepened, systematized, and completed the views 

of fanatic destructiveness — ^a fact that must not be of st. Cyprian and Optatus. But it is impossible 

lost sight of, if the severe legislation of the emperors here to go into detail. (See Specht, Die Lenre von 

is to M properly appreciated. der Kirche nach dem hi. Augustinus, Paderbom,1^^2.) 

The history of Augustine's struggles with the (c) The Pelagian Controversy and the Doctor of 
Donatists is also that of his change ofopinion on the Grace, — The close of the struggle against the Do- 
employment of rigorous measures against the here- natists almost coincided with the l^ginnings of a 
tics; and the Church in Africa, of whose councils very grave theological dispute which not only was to 
he had been the very soul, followed him in the change, demand Augustine's unremitting attention up to 
This change of views is solemnly attested by the the time of his death, but was to become an eternal 
Bishop of Hippo himself, especially in his Letters, problem for individuals and for the Church. Farther 
xciii (in the year 408). In the beginning, it was on we shall enlarge upon Augustine's system; here we 
by conferences and a friendly controversy that he need only indicate the phases of the controversy, 
sought to re-establish unity. He inspired various Africa, wnere Pelagius and his disciple Celestius had 
conciliatory measures of the African councils, and sought refuge after the taking of Rome by Alaric, 
sent ambaissadors to the Donatists to invite them was the principal centre of the first Pelagian dis- 
to re-enter the Church, or at least to urge them to turbances; as early as 412 a council held at Carthage 
send deputies to a conference (403). The Donatists condemned Pelagians for their attacks upon the doc- 
met these advances at first with silence, then with trine of original sin. Among other books directed 
insults, and lastly with such violence that Possidius. against them by Augustine was his famous " De 
Bishop of Calamet, Augustine's friend, escapea nature et gratis '. Thanks to his activity the con- 
death only by flight, the Bishop of Bagala was demnation of these innovators, who had succeeded 
left covered with liorrible wounos, and th« life of in deceiving a synod convened at DiosDolis in Palech 


tine, was reiterated by councils held later at Carthage (a) The "Coniesaions" (towards a. D. 400) ai^ 
and Mileve and confirmed by Pope Innocent I (417). in the Biblical sense of the word confiieri, not an 
A second period of Pelagian intrigues developed avowal or an account, but the praise of a soul that 
at Rome, but Pope Zosimus, whom the stratagems admires the action of God withm itself. Of aJl the 
of Celestius had for a moment deluded, beine en- works of the holy Doctor none has been more uni- 
lightened by Augustine, pronounced the solemn versally read and admired, none has caused more 
condemnation of these heretics in 418. Thenceforth salutary tears to flow. Neither in respect of pene- 
the combat was conducted in writing against Julian trating analysis of the most complex impressions 
of Eclanum, who assumed the leadership of the party of the soul, nor communicative feeling, nor elevation 
and violently attacked Augustine. Towards 426 of sentiment, nor depth of philosophic views, is there 
there entered the lists a school which afterwards any book like it in all literature, (b) The "Retrac- 
acquired the name of Semipelagian, the first members tations" (towards the end of his life, 426-128) are a 
being monks of Hadrumetum in Africa, who were revision of the works of the saint in chronolo^cal 
followed by others from Marseilles, led by Cassian, order, explaining the occasion and dominant idea 
the celebrated abbot of Saint-Victor. Unable to of each. They are a guide of inestimable price for 
admit the absolute gratuitousness of predestination, seizing the progress of Augustine's thought, (c) The 
they sought a middle course between Augustine and '^ Letters", amounting in the Benedictme collection 
Pelagius, and maintained that ^race must be given to 270 (53 of them from Augustine's correspondents), 
to those who merit it and denied to others* hence are a treasure of the greatest value, for the knowledge 
flroodwill has the precedence, it desires, it asks, and of his life, influence and even his aoctrine. 
Uod rewards. Informed of their views by Prosper (2) PhUoaophy. — These writings, for the most 
of Aquitaine, the holy Doctor once more expounded, part composed in the villa of C^isiacmn, from 
in "De Prsedestinatione Sanctorum", how even these nis conversion to his baptism (386-387), continue 
first desires for salvation are due to the grace of God, the autobiography of the saint by initiating us into 
which therefore absolutely controls our predestina- the researches and Platonic hesitations of his mind, 
tion. There is less freedom in them than in the Confessions, 

(d) Struggles against Arianism and Closina Yean, — They are literary essays, writings whose simplicity 
In 426 the holy Bishop of Hippo, at the age of is the acme of art and elegance. Nowhere is the 
seventy-two, wishizig to spare his episcopal city the style of Augustine so chastened, nowhere is his 
turmoil of an election after his death, caused both language so pure. Their dialogue form shows that 
clergy and people to acclaim the choice of the deacon they were inspired by Plato and Oicero. The chief 
Heraclius as his auxiliary and successor, and trans- ones are: ''Ck)ntra Academicos" (the most important 
ferred to him the administration of externals. Au- of all); ''De Beat& Vit&"; "De Ordine"; tne two 
eustine might then have enjoyed some rest had books of ''Soliloquies", wmch must be* distinguished 
Africa not been aeitated by the undeserved disgrace from the ''Soliloquies ' and "Meditations" which 
and the revolt of Count Boniface (427). The Goths, are certainly not authentic; "De Immortalitate 
sent by the Empress Placidia to oppose Boniface, animse"; "lie Magistro" (a dialogue between Au- 
and the Vandals, whom the latter summoned to his sustine and his son Adeodatus); and six curious 
assistance, were all Arians. Maximinus, an Arian books (the sixth especially) on Music, 
bishop, entered Hippo with the imperial troops. (3) General Apolooy. — (a) In the "City of God" 
The holy Doctor defended the Faith at a public con- fbegun in 413, but the books XX-XXII are of 426) 
ference (428) and in various writings. Being deeply Augustine answers the paeans, who attributed the 
grieved at the devastation of Africa, he laboured fall of Rome (410) to the abolition of pagan worship, 
to effect a reconciliation between Count Boniface Considering this problem of Divine Providence with 
and the empress. Peace was indeed re-established, regard to the Roman Empire, he widens the horizon 
but not witn Genseric, the Vandal king. Boniface, stul more and in a burst of ^nius he creates the 
vanquished, sought refuge in Hippo, whither many philosophy of history, embracing as he does with a 
bishops had already fled for protection and this glance the destinies or the world grouped around the 
well fortified city was to suffer the horrors of an Uhristian religion, the only one whicn goes back to 
eighteen months siege. Endeavouring to control the b^nnin^ and leads humanity to its final term, 
his anguish, Augustine continued to refute Julian "The City of God" is considered as the most im- 
of Eclanum; but early in the siege he was stricken portant work of the great bishop. The other works 
with what he realized to be a fatal illness, and, after chiefly interest theologians; but it, like the "Con- 
three months of admirable patience and fervent fessions", belongs to general literature and appeals 
prayer, departed from this land of exile, in the to every soul. The "Confessions" are theology 
seventy-sixth year of his a^. which has been lived in the soul, and the history of 

II. His Works. — ^Augustme was one of the most God's action on individuals, while "The City of God" 
prolific geniuses that humanity has ever known, and is theology framed in the nistory of humanity, and 
IS admired not only for the number of his works, but explaining the action of God m the world, (b) 
also for the variety of subjects, which traverse the Otner apolo^tic writings, like the "De VeHl Re- 
whole realm of thought. Tne form in which he casts ligione" (a httle maste]7)iece composed at Tagaste, 
his work exercises a very powerful attraction on 389-391), "De Utilitate Credendi" (391), "Liber 
the reader. Bardenhewer praises his extraordinary de fide rerum quse non videntur" (400), and the 
suppleness of expression and his marvelloiis gift "Letter CXX to Cbnsentius". constitute Augustine 
of describing interior thinc|;8, of painting the various the great theorist of the Faith, and of its rdations 
states of the soul and the facts of the spiritual world, to reason. "He is the first or the Fathers ", says 
His latinity bears the stamp of his age. In general, Hamack (Dogmengeschichte, III, 97) " who felt the 
his style is noble and chaste; but, says the same need of forcing his faith to reason". And indeed he, 
author, "in his sermons and other popular writings who so repeatedly affirms that faith precedes the 
he purposely drops to the language of the people", intelligent apprehension of the truths of revelation^ 
A detailed analysis is impossible here. We shall he it is who marks out with greater clearness of defi- 
merely indicate his principal writings and the date nition and more precisely than anyone else the func- 
(often approximative) of their composition. tion of the reason in preceding and verifying the 

(1) Avtolnography and Correspondence. — ^The"Con- witness's claim to creoence, and in accompanying 
fessions" are the history of his heart; the "Retrac* the mind's act of adhesion. (Letter to Consentius, 
tations"^ of his mind; while the "Letters" ^ow his n. 3, 8, etc.) What would not have been the stupe- 
^Ctivity in the Churp^ f^tipn of Au^tine if anyone l)a4 tol4 bim tOftt 


faith must close its eyes to the proofs of the divine But the hermeneutics of Augustine merit great 

testimony under the penalty of its becoming science I praise, especially for their insistence upon the stem 

— Or if one had spoken to him of faith in authority taw of extremeprudence in determining the meaning 

giving its assent, without examining any motive of Scriptm^: We muH be on our quard againtt giving 

which might prove the value of the testimony! — interpretations which are hazaraous or opposed to 

It surely cannot be possible for the human mind to science, and so eacposing Oie word of Ood to the ridicule 

accept testimony without known motives for such of unbelievers (De Genesi ad litteram, I, xix. xxi, 

acceptance, or, again, for any testimony, even when especially n. 39). An admirable application of this 

learnedly sifted out, to give the science — the inward well-ordered liberty appears in his thesis on the 

view--of the object. simultaneous creation of the universe, and the 

(4) Controversies with Heretics. — (a) Asainst the gradual development of the world under the action 

Manichseans; ''De Moribus Ecclesise Catholics et of the natural forces which were placed in it. Cer- 

de Moribus Manichaeorum " (at Rome, 368); "De tainly the instantaneous act of the Creator did not 

Duabus Animabus" (before 392); ''Acts of the produce an organised universe as we see it now. 

Dispute with Fortunatus the Manichsean" (392); But. in the beginning, God created all the elements 

"Acts of the Conference with Felix" (404); "De of tne world in a confused and nebulous mass (the 

Libero Arbitrio" — very important on the origin word is Augustine's — Nebulosa species apparet; "De 

of evil; various writings "Contra Adimantum"; Genesi ad litt.", I, n. 27), and in this mass were 

against the Epistle of Mani (the foundation); against the mysterious germs {rationes seminales) of the 

Faustus (about 400); against Secundinus (405), etc. futm^ beings which were to develop themselves, 

(b) Against the Donatists: " Psalmus contra partem when favourable circumstances should permit. Is 

Donati" (about 395), a purely rhythmic sons for Augustine, therefore, an Evolutionist? — if we mean 

popular use (the oldest example of its kind); ''Con- that he had a deeper and wider mental grasp than 

tra epistolam Parmeniani" (400); "De Baptismo other thinkers haa of the forces of natm^ and the 

contra Donatistas" (about 400), one of the most plasticitsr of beings, it is an incontestable fact; and 

important pieces in this controversy; "Contra litteras from this point of view Father ZaJim (Bible, 

Parmeniam", "Contra Cresconiiun", etc. — a good Science, and Faith, pp. 58-66, French tr.) properly 

number of letters, also, relate to this debate, (c) felicitates him on having been the precursor of 

Against the Pelagians, in chronological order, we modem thought. But if we mean that he admitted 

have: 412^ "De peccatorum meritis et remissione" in matter a power of differentiation and of gradual 

(On ment and forgiveness); same year. "De transformation, passing from the homogeneous to 

spiritu et litteHl" (On the spirit and the letter); the heterogeneous, the most formal texts force us 

interrupted by the death of the saint, (d) Against world have also their well defined force, and their 

the Semipela^ans: " De correptione et gratis " v*27); proper quality, from whidi depends what each one 

"De prsedestinatione Sanctorum" (428); "De Dono of them can or cannot do, and what reality ought 

Perse veranti»" (429). — (e) Against Arianism: "Con- or ou^ht not to issue from each one of them. Hence 

tra sermonem Arianorum" (418) and "Collatio cum it is that from a grain of wheat a beaji cannot issue, 

Biaximino Arianorum episcopo" (the celebrated con- nor wheat from a bean, nor a man from a beast, nor 

ference of Hippo in 428). a beast from a man '' fDe Genesi ad litt., IX, n. 32). 
(5) Scriptund Exeaesis. — ^Augustine in the "De (6) Dogmatic and Moral Exposition, — (a) The 

Doctrin& Christian^'' (begun in 397 and ended in fifteen books "De Trinitate", on which he worked 

426) gives us a eenuine treatise of exegesis, historically for fifteen years, from 400 to 416, are the most 

the first (for St. Jerome wrote rather as a contro- elaborate and profound work of St. Augustine, 

versialist). Several times he attempted a commen- The last books on the analogies which the mysteiy 

tary on Genesis. The great work "De Genesi ad of the Trinity have with our soul are much discussed, 

litteram" was composed from 401 to 415. The The saintly author himself declares that they are 

"Enarrationes in Fsalmos" are a masterpiece of only analogous and are far-fetched and very obscure, 

popular eloquence^ with a swing and a warmth to (b) The "Enchiridion", or handbook, on Faith, 

them which are immitable. On the New Testament: Hope, and Love, competed, in 421, at the re|quest 

the "De Sermone Dei in Monte (during his priestly of a pious Roman, Laurentius, is an admirable 

ministry) is especially notewortny; "De Consensu synthesis of Augustine's theology, reduced to the 

Evangelistarum (Harmony of the Gospels — 400): three theological virtues. Father Faure has given 

"Homilies on St. John" (416), generally classed us a learned commentary of it, and Hamack a de- 

among the chief works of Augustine; the "Exposi- tailed analysis (Hist, of dogmas. III, 205, 221). 

tion of the Epistle to the Ualatians" (324), etc. (c) Several volumes of miscellaneous questions. 

The most remarkable of his Biblical works illustrate amon^ which "Ad Simplicianum '' (397) has been 

either a theory of exegesis (one generally approved) especially noted, (d) Numberless writings of his 

which delights in finding mystical or allegorical have a practical aim: two on "Lying" (374 and 420), 

interpretations, or the style of preaching which is five on "Continence", "Marriage", and "Holy 

founaed on that view. His strictly exegetical work Widowhood", one on "Patience", another on 

is far from equalling in scientific value that of St. "Prayer for the Dead" (421). 

Jerome. His knowledge of the Biblical languages (7) Pastorals and Preaching. — The theory of 
was insufficient: he re^ Greek with difficulty; as preaching^ and religious instruction of the people 
for Hebrew, all that we can gather from the recent is given m the "E? Catechizandis Rudibus" (400) 
studies of Schanz and Rottmanner is that he was and in the fourth book "De Doctrind Christian^", 
familiar with Punic, a language allied to Hebrew. The oratorical work alone is of vast extent. Besides 
Moreover, the two grand qualities of his genius — the Scriptural homilies, the Benedictines have col- 
ardent feeling and prodigious subtlety — carried him lected 363 sermons which are certainly authentic; 
away into interpretations that were violent or more the brevity of these suggests that they are steno 
ingenious tb^n spli4f graphic, often revised 1^ Augustine hiqj^lf. Jt 

AVOtTltftM dl AU0U8TIK1 

the Doctor in him predominates over the orator, any direct control over politics, and Harnack addfl 
if he possesses less of colour, of opulence, of actuality, that perhaps he had not the qualifications of a 
and of Oriental charm than St. John Chrysostom, statesman. If Augustine occupies a place apart in 
we find, on the other hand, a more nervous logic, the history of humanity, Euclccn and men of his 
bolder comparisons, greater elevation and greater calibre agree that it is as a thinker, his influence being 
profundity of thought, and sometimes^ in his bursts felt even outside the realm of theolo^, and playing 
of emotion and his daring lapses mto dialogue- a most potent part in. the orientation of Western 
form, he attains the irresistible power of the Greek thought. It is now universally conceded that, in 
orator. The oratorical merit of Augustine has the intellectual field, this influence is unrivalled even 
recently been placed in strong relief by Rottmanner by that of Thomas Aquinas, and Augustine's t^Mch- 
in " Historisches Jahrbuch ", 1898, p. 894; and H. ing marks a distinct epoch in the history of Christian 
Pope, O. P., in "The Ecclesiastical Review", Sep- thought. The better to emphasize this important 
tember, 1906. fact we shall try to determine: (1) the rank and de- 

Editiona of St. Auguaine'a works, — ^The best edition gree of influence that must be ascribed to Au^pstine; 
of his complete works is that of the Benedictines, 72) the nature, or the elements, of his doctnnal in- 
eleven tomes in eight folio volumes (Paris, 1679- nuence; (3) the general qualities of his doctrine; 
1700). It has been often reprinted, e. g. by Gaume and (4) the character of his genius. 
(Paris, 1836-39), in eleven octavo volumes, and by (1) The greatest of the Doctors. — ^It is first of all a 
Migne, P. L., X.XXII-XLVII. The last volume of remarkable fact that the great critics, Protestant 
the Migne reprint contains a number of important as well as Catholic, are almost unanimous in placing 
earlier studies on St. Augustine — ^Vivte. Noris, Merlin. St. Augustine in tne foremost rank of Doctors ana 
particularly the literary history of tne editions of proclaiming him to be the greatest of the Fathers. 
Augustine from Sch6nemann's "Bibl. hist. lit. patrum such, indeed, was also the opinion of his contem- 
Lat." (Leipzig, 1794). For critical remarks on the poraries, jud^ng from their expressions of enthusiasm 
Benedictine, or Maurist, edition, see R. Kukula and gathered by the BoUandists. The popes attributed 
O. Rottmanner in the reports of the Vienna Academy such exceptional authorit;^ to the Doctor of Hippo 
of Science for 1890, 93, 98. Since 1887 a new edition that, even of late years, it has given rise to lively 
of St. Augustine has been appearing in the "Corpus theological controversies. Peter the Venerable 
Scriptorum Eccl. Latinorum ' of the Vienna Academy accurately summarized the general sentiment of the 
— the "Confessiones" bv P. Kn6ll (XXXIII), the Middle Ages when he ranked Augustine immediately 
" De Civitate Dei ", by £. Hoffmann (XL), etc. The after the Apostles; and in modem times Bossuet, 
principal tractates of St^Augustineare^also^ound in whose gemus was most like that^f Augustine, assigns 
the col" 

ford, 1839-55) contains translations of many works If the Jansenistio abuse of his works and perhaps 
of St. Augustine — the "Confessions", sermons, the exaggerations of certain Catholics, as well as tne 
treatises, expositions on the Psalms, and "Homilies attack of Richard Simon, seem to have alarmed 
on John '. it is well supplemented by the "Augu»- some minds, the general opinion has not varied, 
tinian Library" of Marcus Dods (Edinburgh, 1872- In the nineteenth century Stdckl expressed the 
76, 15 vols., 8vo), which contains a great number of thought of all when he said, "Augustine has justlv 
translations, from the pens of Cunningham, Findlay. been called the greatest Doctor of the Catholic world ". 
Salmond, Holmes, Wallis. and others — the "City ot And the admiration of Protestant critics is not 
God"^ tne "Confessions' , the Anti-Donatist, Anti- less enthusiastic. More than this, it would seem as 
Pelapan, and Anti-Manichiean works, "On the if they had in these latter days been quite specially 
Trinity", "Sermon on the Mount "^ "Harmonv of fascinated bv the great figure of Aueustine, so deeply 
the Gospels", "On Christian Doctrine", the "£n- and so assiauously have they studied him (Binde- 
chiridion", "On the Faith and the Creed", "On mann, Schaff, Domer, Renter. A. Hamack, Eucken, 
Catechizing the Ignorant". These volumes, en- Scheej, and so on) and all of tnem agree more or less 
riched witn other translations and introductory with Hamack when he says: "Where, in the history 
discourses, were reprinted under the editorial di- of the West, is there to be found a man who, in point 
rection of Dr. Philip Schaff (New York, 1886-88, of influence, can be compared with him?" Luther 
8 vols.). Dr. Pusey's translation of the "Confessions", and Calvin were content to treat Augustine with a 
he says himself, is a revision of the version of W. little less irreverence than they did the other Fathers, 
Watts (London, 1650), with addition of a lengthy but their descendants do him full justice, although 
preface and notes; the same translation, reprinted recognizing him as the Father of Roman Catholicism, 
at Boston (1843), and then reputed anonymous. According to Bindemann, "Augustine is a star of 
furnished Dr. W. G. T. Shedd (Aidover, I860) with extraordmary brilliancy in the firmament of the 
the text for his "excellent original introduction in Church. Since the Apostles he has been unsurpassed", 
which he clearly and vigorously characterizes the Inhis"Historyof the Church "Dr. Kurtz calls Augu»- 
Confessions and draws a comparison between them tine "the greatest, the most powerful of all the 
and the Confessions of Rousseau" (Schaff, Hist, of Fathers, him from whom proceeds all the doctrinal 
the Christian Church, 5th ed.. New York, 1903, and ecclesiastical development of the West, and to 
p. 1005). The earliest English translation of the whom each recurring crisis, each new orientation 
^'De Civitate Dei" bears the title: "Of the Citie of of thought brings it back". Schaff himself (Saint 
God with the leurned comments of Jo. L. Vivds, Augustine, Melanchthon and Neander, p. 98) is of the 




**x,..^..»«^. V — .^ .^, w ,. w.w « ^ — w. — other. 

III. His Function as a Doctor op the Church. — he enjoys from both a respect equally profound ana 
When the critics endeavour to determine Aueustine's endm-ine". Rudolf Eucken is bolder still, when he 
place in the history of the Church and of civilization, sajrs: "On the ground of Christianity proper a single 
there can be no question of exterior or political in- philosopher has appeared and that is Augustine", 
fiuence. such as was exercised bv St. Leo, St. Gregory, The English writer, W. Cunningham, is no less ap- 
or St. Bernard. As Renter justly observes, Augustine preciative of the extent and perpetuity of this ex- 
was bishop of a third-rate city and had scarcely traordinary influence: "The whole life of the medievaj 


Church was framed on lines which he has suggested: but according to others utterly deplorable. These 

its religioiis orders claimed him as their patron; its fantasies do not survive the reading of the texts, 

mystics found a sympathetic tone in his teaching; and Hamack himself shows in Augustine the heir 

its polity was to some extent the actualization of his to the tradition that preceded him. Still, on the 

pictm^ of the Christian Chiu-ch* it was in its various other hand, his share of invention and originalitv 

parts a carrving out of ideas which he cherished and in the development of dogma must not be ienored, 

diffused. Nor does his influence end with the de- although here and there, on special questions, human 

cline of medievalism: we shall see presently how weaknesses crop out. He realized, better th^m any 

closely his languag;e was akin to that of Descartes, of the Fathers, the progress so well expressed by 

who gave the nrst impulse to and defined the special Vincent of I^Srins, his contemporary, in a page that 

character of modem philosophy/' And after having some have turned against him. 

established that the doctrine of St. Augustine was In general, all Cnristian dogmatics are indebted 

at the bottom of all the struggles between Jansenists to him for new theories that better justify and ex- 

and Catholics in the Church of France, between plain revelation, new views, and greater clearness 

Arminians and Calvinists on the side of the Reform- and precision. The many struggles with which he 

ers, he adds: ''And once more in our own land when was identified, together with the speculative turn 

a reaction arose against rationalism and Erastinian- of his mind, brought almost every question within 

ism it was to the African Doctor that men turned the scope of his research. Even his way of stating 

with enthusiasm: Dr. Pusey's edition of the C<m- problems so left his impress upon them that there 

fessians was among the first-fruits of the Oxford is no problem, one might almost say, in considering 

Movement". which the theoloeian does not feel the study at 

But Adolf Hamack is the one who has oftenest Augustine's thought to be an imperative obligation, 

emphasized the unique rdle of the Doctor of Hippo. Certain dogmas in particular he so amply developed. 

He has studied Augustine's place in the history of so skilfully unsheathing the fruitful germ of the 

the world as reformer of Cnristian piety and his truths from their envelope of tradition, that many of 

influence as Doctor of the Church. In his study of these dogmas (wrongly, in our opinion) have been 

the "Confessions" he comes back to it: ''No man set down as "Augustinism". Augustine was not 

since Paul is comparable to him" — ^with the ex- their inventor, he was only the first to put them in a 

ception of Luther, ne adds. — "Even to-day we live strong light. They are chiefly the dogmas of the Fall, 

by Augustine, by his thought and his spirit; it is the Atonement, Grace, and Predestination. Schaff 

said that we are the sons of the Renaissance and the (op. cit., 97) has very properly said: "His appearance 

Reformation, but both one and the other depend in the history of dogma forms a distinct epoch, 

upon him". especiallv as regards anthropological and soterio- 

(2) Nattare and different aspects of his doctrinal logical doctrines, which he advanced considerably 
influisnce. — ^This influence is so varied and so complex further, and brought to a greater clearness and pre- 
that it is difficult to consider under all its different cision, than they had ever had before in the conscious- 
aspects. First of all, in his writings the .great bishop ness of the Church". But he is not only the Doctor 
collects and condenses the intellectual treasures of of Grace, he is also the Doctor of the Church: his 
the old world and transmits them to the new. Har- twenty years' conflict with Donatism led to a oom- 
nack goes so far as to say: "It would seem that the plete exposition of the dogmas of the Church, the 
miserable existence of the Roman empire in the West Rreat work and mystical Body of Christ, and true 
was prolonged until then, only to permit Augustine's Kingdom of God, of its part in salvation and of the 
influence to be exercised on imiversal history". It intimate efficacy of its sacraments. It is on this 
was in order to fulfil this enormous task that Provi- point, as the very centre of Augustinian theology, 
dence brought him into contact with the three that Reuter has concentrated those "Augustiniscne 
worlds whose thought he was to transmit: with the Studien" which, according to Hamack, are the most 
Roman and Latin world in the midst of which he learned of recent studies on St. Augustir e. Mani- 
lived, with the Oriental world partially revealed to chsean controversies also led him to state clearly the 
him through the study of Manichseism, and with great questions of the Divine Being and of the nature 
the Greek world shown to him by the Platonists. of evil, and he might also be called the Doctor of 
In philosophy he was initiated into the whole content Good, or of good principles of all things. Lastly, 
ana bJI the subtilties of the various schools, without, the very idiosyncrasy of his genius and the practical, 
however, giving his allegiance to any one of them, supernatural, and Divine imprint left upon all his 
In theolo^ it was he who acquainted the Latin intellectual speculations have made him the Doctor 
Church with the great dogmatic work accomplished of Charity. 

in the East during the fourth century and at the Another step forward due to the works of Augus- 

beginnin^ of the mth; he popularized the results of tine is in the language of theology, for, if he did 

it by giving them the more exact and precise form not create it, he at least contributed towards its 

of the Latin genius. definite settlement. It is indebted to him for a great 

To synthesis of the past, Augustine adds the in- number of epigrammatic formulae, as significant as 

comparable wealth of his own thought, and he may they are terse, afterwards singled out and adopted 

be said to have been the most powerful instrument by Scholasticism. Besides, as Latin \?as more con- 

of Providence in development and advance of dogma, cise and less fluid in its forms than Greek, it was 

Here the danger has oeen not in denying, but in wonderfully well suited to the work. Augustine 

exaggerating, this advance. Augustine's dogmatic made it the dogmatic language par excellence^ and 

mission (in a lower sphere and apart from inspiration) Anselm. Thomas Aquinas, and others followed his 

rec^ls that of Paul in the preaching of the Gospel, lead. At times he nas even been credited with the 

It has also been subject to the same attacks and pseudo-Athanasian creed which is imdoubtedly of 

occasioned the same vagaries of criticism. Just as it later date, but those critics were not mistaken who 

was sought to make of Paulinism the real source of traced its inspiration to the formulse in "De Trini- 

Christianity as we know it — ^a svstem that had tate". Whoever its author may have been, he was 

smothered the primitive germ of the Gospel of certainly familiar with Augustine and drew upon his 

Jesus — so it was imagined that, under the name of works. It is imquestionably this gift of concise ex- 

Augustinianism, Augustine had installed in the pression, as well as his charity, that has so often 

Church some sort of syncretism of the ideas of Paul caused the celebrated saying to be attributed to him: 

and of neo-Platonism which was a deviation from " In essentials unity, in non-essentials liberty, in all 

ancient Christianity, fortunate according to some, things charity". 


Augustine stands forth, too, as the great inspirer knowledge becomes moral, religious knowled^, or 

of reflgious thought in subsequent ages. A whole rather a moral, religious conviction, an act of faith on 

volume would not be sufficient to contain the full the part of man, who gives himself up unreservedly", 

accoimt of his influence on posteritv; here we shall And with still ereater energy Bdhrineer has said: 

merely call attention to its principal manifestations. ''The axis on which the heart, life, and theology of 

It is, in the first place, a fact of paramoimt importance Augusune move is God". Oriental discussions on 

that; with St. Augustine, the centre of dogmatic the Word had forced Athanasius and the Greek 

and theological development changed from East to Fathers to set faith in the Word and in Christ, the 

West. Hence, from this view-point again, he makes Saviour, at the very summit of theology; Augustine, 

an epoch in the history of dogma. The critics main- too, in his theolo^, places the Incarnation at the 

tain that up to his time the most powerful influence centre of the Divine plan, but he looks upon it as 

was exertea by the Greek Church, the East having the ^eat historic manifestation of God to humanitv — 

been the classic land of theology, the great work- the idea of God dominates all: of God considered in 

shop for the elaboration of dogma. From the time His essence (On the Trinity), in His government 

of Augustine, the predominating influence seems (The City of God), or as the last end of all Christian 

to emanate from the West, and the practical, realistic life (Encniridion and On the Christian Combat), 
spirit of the Latin race supplants the speculative Lastly, Augustine's doctrine bears an eminently 

and idealistic spirit of Greece and the East. Another Catholic stamp and is radically opposed to Protes- 

fact, no less salient, is that it was the Doctor of Hippo tantism. It is important to establisn this fact, prin- 

who, in the bosom of the Church, inspired the two cipally because of the change in the attitucfe of 

seemingly antagonistic movements. Scholasticism Protestant critics towards St. Augustine. Indeed, 

and Mysticism. From Gregory the Great to the nothing is more deserving of attention than this 

Fathers of Trent. Augustine^ tneological authority, development so highly creditable to the impartiality 

indisputably the nighest, dominates all thinkers and of modem writers. The thesis of the Protestants 

is appealed to alike by the Scholastics Anselm, Peter of olden times is well known. Attempts to monopo- 

Lomoard, and Thomas Aquinas, and by Bernard, lize Augustine and to make him an ante-Reformation 

Hugh of St. Victor, and Tauler, exponents of Mys- reformer, were certainly not wanting. Of course 

ticism, all of whom were nourished upon his writings Luther had to admit that he did not find in Augustine 

and penetrated with his spirit. There is* not one of justification by faith alone, that generating pnnciple 

even the most modem tendencies of thought but de- of all Protestantism; and Schan tells us that he 

rives from him whatever it may have of truth or of consoled himself with exclaiming (op. cit., p. 100): 

profound religious sentiment. Learned critics, such "Augustine has often erred, he is not to be trusted, 

as Hamack, hiBive called Augustine "the first modem Although good and holy, he was yet lacking in true 

man", and in truth, he so moulded the Latin world faith as well as the other Fathers. But in general, 

that it is really he who has shaped the education of the Reformation did not so easily fall into line, and 

modem minds. But. without going so far, we may for a long time it was customary to oppose the great 

quote the German philosopher, Eucken: "It is per- name of Augustine to Catholicism. Article 20 of 

haps not paradoxical to say that if our age wishes to the Confession of Augsburg dares to ascribe to him 

take up and treat in an independent way the problem justification without works, and Melanchthon invokes 

of religion, it is not so much to Schleiermacher or hisauthority in his "Apologia O>nfes8ionis". In the 

Kanti or even Luther or St. Thomas, that it miist last thirty or forty years all has been changed, and 

refer, as to Augustine. . . . And outside of religion, the best Protestant critics now vie with one another 

there are points upon which Augustine is more in proclaiming the essentially Catholic character of 

modem than Hegel or Schopenhauer". Augustinian doctrine. In fact they go to extremes 

(3) The domincUina qualities of his doctrine, — The when they claim him to be the founder of Cathol- 
better to imderstand St. Augustine's influence, we icism. It is thus that H. Renter concludes his very 
must point out in his doctrine certain ^neral char- important studies on the Doctor of Hippo: "I con- 
acteristics which must not be lost sight of, if, in reading sider Augustine the founder of Roman Catholicism 
his works, one would avoid troublesome misappre- in the West. . . . This is no new discovery, as 
hensions. First, the full development of the great Kattenbusch seems to believe, but a truth long since 
Doctor's mind was progressive. It was by stages, recognized by Neander, Julius Kdstlin, Domer, 
often aided by the circumstances and necessities of Sch^dt, . . . etc.". Then, as to whether Evan- 
controversy, that he arrived at the exact knowledge of gelicalism is to be found in Ausustine, he says: 
each truth and a clean-cut perception of its place "Formerly this point was reasonea out very difter- 
in the synthesis of revelation. He also requires that ently from what it is nowadays. . • . The phrases so 
his readers should know how to "advance with him", mucn in use from 1830 to 1870; Aygustine is the 
It is necessary to study St. Augustine's works in Fatiier of evangelical Protestantism ana Pelagius is 
historical order and, as we shall see, this applies the Father of Catholicism, are now rarely met with, 
particularly to the doctrine of grace. They have since been acknowledged to be untenable, 

Augustinian doctrine is, again, essentially theo- although they contain a pariictda veri*\ Philip 
logicfu, and has God for its centre. To be sure Au- Schaff reaches the same conclusion; and Domer 
ffustine is a great philosopher, and F^nelon said of says, "It is erroneous to ascribe to Augustine the 
him: "If an enlightened man were to gather from the ideas that inspired the Reformation". No one, how- 
books of St. Augustine the sublime truths which this ever, has put this idea in a stronger light than Har- 
great man has scattered at random therein, such a nack. Quite recently, in his 14th lesson on "The 
compendium [extrait], made with discrimination, Essenceof Christianity", he characterized the Roman 
would be far superior to Descartes' Meditations ". Church by three elements, the third of which is Au- 
And indeed just such a collection was made by the gustinism, the thought and the piety of St. Augustine. 
Oratorian ontologist, Andrd Martin. There is then "In fact Augustine has exertea over the whole inner 
a philosophy of St. Augustine, but in him philosophy life of the Church, religious life and religious thought, 
is so intimately coupled with theology as to be in- an absolutely decisive influence." And again he 
separable from it. Protestant historians have re- says, "In the fifth century, at the hour when the 
marked this characteristic of his writings. "The Church inherited the Roman Empire, she had within 
world", says Eucken, "interests him less than the her a man of extraordinarily deep and powerful 
action of God in the world and especially in ourselves, genius: from him she took her ideas, and to this 
Ciod and the soul are the only subjects the knowledge present hour she has been unable to break away from 
Of which ought to fire us with enthusiasm. AH them". In his "History of Dogma" (English tr.. 


V, 234, 235) the same critic dwells at length upon the of AriBtotle, the knowledge and intellectual 8up» 
features of what he calls the "popular Catholicism" pleness of Origen, the grace and eloquence of Basil 
to which Augustine belong. These features are and Chrysostom. Whether we consider him as 
(a) the Church as a hierarchical institution with doc- philosopher, as theologian, or as exegetist . . . 
trmal authority: (b) eternal life by merits, and dis- ne stilt appears admirable . . . the unquestioned 
re^^rd of the Protestant thesis of "salvation by Master of all the centuries/' Philip Schaff (op. 
faith" — that is, salvation by that firm confidence cit., p. 97) admires above all "such a rare union of 
in God which the certainty of pardon produces; the speculative talent of the Greek and of the' prao- 
(o) the forgiveness of sins- in the Cnurcn and by the ticai spirit of the Latin Church as he alone possessed". 
Church; (d) the distinction between commands and In aU these opinions there is a great measure of 
counsels — between grievous sins and venial sins — truth; nevertheless we believe that the dominating 
the scale of wicked men and good men — ^the various characteristic of Augustine's genius and the true 
degrees of happiness in heaven according to one's secret of his influence are to be found in his heart — 
deserts; (e) Augustine is accused of "outdoinjg the a heart that penetrates the most exalted speculations 
superstitious ideas" of this po{>ular Catholicism — of a profound mind and animates them with the 
the infinite value of Christ's satisfaction — salvation most ardent feeling. It is at bottom only the tra- 
considered as enjoyment of God in heaven — ^the ditional and general estimate of the saint that we 
mysterious efficacy of the sacraments (ex iypere express; for he has always been represented with a 
Qverato) — ^Mary's vireinity even in childbirth — ''the heart for his emblem, just as Thomas Aquinas with 
idea of her purity and her conception, unique in their a sun. M^r. Bougaud thus interpreted this symbol: 
kind". Hamack does not assert that Augustine "Never did man unite in one and the same soid 
taught the Immaculate Conception, but Schaff such stem rigour of logic with such tenderness of 
(op. cit., p. 98) says unhesitatingly: "He is responsi- heart", 'this is also the opinion of Hamack, B6h- 
ble also for many grievous errors of the Koman ringer, Nourisson, Storz, and others. Great in- 
Church ... he anticipated the dogma of the im- tellectuality admirably fused with an enlightened 
maculate conception of the Virgin Mary, and his mysticism is Augustine's distinguishing characteris- 
ominous word, Roma locida est, cauaa finita est, tic. Truth is not for him only an object of contempla- 
might almost be quoted in favour of the Vatican tion; it is a^od that must be possessed, that must 
decree of papal infallibility". be loved andlived by. What constitutes Augustine's 

Nevertheless, it were a mistake to suppose that genius is his marvellous gift of embracing truth 

modem Protestants relinquish all claim upon Au- with all the fibres of his soul; not with the heart 

gustine; they will have it that, despite his essential alone, for the heart does not think; not with the mind 

Catholicism, it was he who inspired Luther and Calvin, alone, for ^e mind grasps only the abstract or, as it 

The new thesis, therefore, is that each of the two were, lifeless truth. Augustine seeks the living truth, 

Churches may claim him in turn. Burke's expression and even when he is combating certain Platonic 

quoted by Schaff (ibid., p. 102) is characteristic: ideas he is of the family of Plato, not of Aristotle. 

"In Augustine ancient and modem ideas are melted He belongs indisputably to all ages because he is in 

and to his authority the papal Church has as much touch with all souls, but he is pre-eminently modem 

right to appeal as the Churches of the Reformation", because his doctrine is not tne cold light of the 

No one notes this contradiction more clearly than School; he is living and penetrated with personal 

Loofs. After stating that Augustine has accentuated sentiment. Religion is not a simple theory, Chris- 

the characteristic elements of Western (CathoUc) tianity is not a series of dogmas; it is also a life, as 

Christianity, that in succeeding ages he became its they say nowadays, or, more accurately, a source 

Father, and that " the Ecdesiasticism of Roman of hfe. However, let us not be deceived. Augustine 

Catholicism, Scholasticism, Mysticism, and even the is not a sentimentalist, a pure mystic, ana heart 

claims of the papacy to temporal rule, are founded aJone does not account for his power. If in him the 

iipon a tendency initiated by him", Loofs also affirms hard, cold inteUectuality of the metaphysician gives 

that he is the teacher of afl the reformers and their place to an impassioned vision of truth, that truth 

bond of union, and concludes with this strange para- is the basis of it all. He never knew the vaporous 

dox: "The history of Catholicism is the history of mysticism of our day, that allows itself to be lulled 

the progressive elimination of Augustinism". The by a vague, aimless sentimentalism. His emotion 

singular aptitude of these critics for supposing the is deep, &ue, engrossing, precisely because it is bom 

existence of flagrant contradictions in a genius like of a strong, secure, accurate dogmatism that wishes 

Augustine is not so astonishing when we remember to know what it loves and why it loves. Christianity 

that, with Renter, they justify this theoiy by the is life, but life in the eternal, unchangeable tmth. 

reflection: "In whom are to be found more frequent And if none of the Fathers has put so much of his 

contradictions than in Luther ?" But their theories heart into his writings, neither has any turned upon 

are based upon a false interpretation of Augustine's truth the searchlight of a stronger, clearer intellect, 

opinion, which is frequently misconstrued by those Augustine's passion is characterized not by violence, 

who are not sufficiently familiar with his language but by a commimicative tenderness; and his ex- 

and terminology. quisite delicacy experiences first one and then 

(4) The character of his genius, — ^We have now to another of the most intimate emotions and tests 
ascertain what is the dominating quality which them; hence the irresistible effect of the "Con- 
accounts for his fascinating influence upon posterity, fessions ". Feuerlein, a Protestant thinker, has 
One after another the cntics have consiaered the brought out in relief (exaggeratedly, to be sure, and 

is the great sower of the ideas by which future minds says: "It was not merely a chance or accidental 

are to Live. Others, like Jungmann and StOckl, have part that his mother, Monica, played in his in- 

pniised in him the marvellous harmony of all the tellectual development, and therein lies what es- 

mind's higher qualities, or, again, the universaUty sentially distiiiguishes him from Luther, of whom 

and the compass of his doctrine. "In the great it was said: 'Everything about him bespeaks the 

African Doctor", says the Rev. J. A. Zahm (Bible, man'". And Schldsser, whom Feuerlein quotes, is 

Science and Faith, Fr. tr., p. 56), "we seem to have not afraid to say that Augustine's works contain 

found united and combined the powerful and pene- more genuine poetry than all the writings of the 

trating logic of Plato, the deep scieotifio oonceptiona Greek Fathers. At least it cannot be denied that d# 


thinker ever caused so many and such salutaiy teais dred years that have followed. Even to our days 

to flow. This characteristic of Augustine's genius interior and living piety among Catholics, as well 

explains his doctrinal work. Christian dogmas are as the mode of its expression, has been essentially 

considered in relation to the soul and the great Augustinian: the soul is permeated by his sentiment, 

duties of Christian life, rather than to themselves it feels as he felt and rethinks his thoughts. It is 

and in a speculative fashion. This alone explains the same with many Protestants also, and they are 

his division of theology in the " Enchiridion *\ which bv no means among the worst. And even those to 

at first si^t seems so strange. He assemoles all whom dogma is but a relic of the past procbdm that 

Christian doctrine in the three theological virtues, Augustine's influence will Uve forever." 

considering in the mysteries the different activities This genuine emotion is also the veil that hides 

of the soul that must Uve by them. Thus, in the certain faults from the reader or else makes him 

Incarnation, he assigns the greatest part to the moral oblivious of them. Says Eucken: ''Never could Au- 

side, to the triumph of humility. For this reason, gustine have exereised all the influence he has 

also, Augustine's work bears an imprint, until then exercised if it had not been that, in spite of the rhe- 

unknown, of living personality peeping out eveiv- torical artifice of his utterance, absolute sincerity 

where. He inaugurates that literature in which tne reigned in the inmost recesses of his soul". His 

author's individuality reveals itself in the most ab- frequent repetitions are excused because they are 

stract matters, the " Confessions " being an inimitable the expreisslon of his deep feeling. Schaff says: 

example of it. It is in this connexion that Hamack " His books, with all the faults and repetitions of 

admires the African Doctor's gift of psychological isolated parts, are a spontaneous outflow from the 

observation and a captivating facility for portraying marvellous treasures of his highly-gifted mind and 

his penetrating observations. This talent, he says, his truly pious heart". (St. Augustine, p. 96 ) 

is the secret of Augustine's ori^ality and greatness. But we must also acknowledge that his passion i i 

Again, it is this same characteristic that distinguishes the source of exaggerations and at times of errore 

him from the other Doctors and gives him his own that are fraught with real danger for the inattentive 

special temperament. The practical side of a ques- or badly disposed reader. Out of sheer love for Au- 

tion appealed to the Roman mind of Ambrose, too, gustine certain theologians have endeavoured to 

but he never rises to the same heights, nor moves lustify all he wrote, to admire all, and to proclaim 

the heart as deeply as does his disciple of Milan. Je- him infallible, but nothing could be more detrimental 

rome is a more learned exe^tist, better equipped in to his glorv than such excess of praise. The reaction 

reroect of Scriptural erudition; he is even purer in his alread^^ referred to arises partly from this. We must 

style; but, despite his impetuous ardour, he is less recognise that the passion for truth sometimes fixes 

animated, less striking, than his correspondent of its attention too much upon one side of a complex 

Doctor. Origen played the part of initiator in the his in such a high degree", says Becker, very truly 

Eastern Church, just as Augustine did in the West- {Revue fThieUnre eccUeiaetique, 15 April, 1902, 

em, but his influence, unfortunate in more ways p. 379), 'Hhe kind of exaltation that befitted his 

than one, was exereised rather in the sphere of rich imagination and his loving soul, are not the most 

speculative intelligence, while that of Augustine, reliable m philosophical speculations". Such is the 

owing to the qualities of his heart, extended far origin of the contradictions alleged against him and 

beyond the reaun of theologv. Boesuet, who of all of the errors ascribed to him bv the predestinarians 

geniuses most closely resembles Augustine by his of all ages. Here we see the role of the more frigid 

elevation and his imiversalitv, is his superior in the minds of Scholasticism. Thomas Aquinas was a 

skilfulness and artistic finish of his works, but he necessary corrective to Augustine. He is less great, 

has not the alluring tenderness of soul; and if Au- less ori^nal, and, above all, less animated; but the 

gustine fulminates lessj he attracts more power- calm didactics of his intellectualism enable him to 

fully, subjugating the mmd with gentleness. casti^te Augustine's exaggerations with rigorous 

Thus may Augustine's universal influence in all criticism, to impart exactitude and precision to his 

succeeding ages be explained: it is due to combined terms — in one word, to prepare a dictionary with 

gifts of heart and mind. Speculative genius alone which the African Doctor may be read without 

oes not sway the multitude; the Christian world, danger, 
apart from professional theologians, does not read IV. His System of Grace. — ^It is unquestionably 

lliomas Ac[uinas. On the other lumd, without the in the great Doctor's solution of the eternal problem 

clear, defimte idea of dogma, mysticism founders of freedom and grace--of the part taken b^ God and 

as soon as reason awakes and discovers the empti- l^ man in the affair of salvation — ^that his thought 

ness of metaphors: this is always the fate of vague stands forth as most personal, most powerful, and 

pietism, whether it recognize Christ or not, whether most disputed. Most personal, for he was the first 

it be extolled by Schleiermacher, Sabatier, or their of lUl to synthesize the great theories of the Fall, 

disciples. But to Augustine's genius, at once en- grace, and free will; and moreover it is he who, to 

lightened and ardent, the whole soul is accessible, reconcile them all, has furnished us with a profound 

and the whole Chiurch, both teachers and taught, explanation which is in very truth his, and of which 

is permeated by his sentiments and ideas. A. Har- we find no trace in his predecessors. Hence, the 

nack, more than ansr other critic, admires and de- term Augustinism is often exclusively used to aesiff- 

scribes Augustine's influence over all the life of nate his system of grace. Moti vowerftdf for, as all 

Christian people. If Thomas Aquinas is the Doctor admit, it was he above all others who won the triumph 

of the Schools, Augustine is, according to Hamack, of hbertv against the Manichsans, and of grace 

the inspirer and restorer of Christian piety. If against the Pelagians. His doctrine has, in the main, 

Thomas inspires the canons of Trent, Augustine, been solenmly accepted by the Church, and we know 

besides having formed Thomas himself, inspires that the canons of the Council of Orange are bor- 

the inner life of the Church and is the soul of all the rowed from his works. Most dismdedf also, — Like 

great reforms effected within its pale. In his "Es- St. Paul, whose teachings he develops, he has often 

sence of Christianity" (14th lesson, 1900, p. 161) been quoted, often not understooa. Friends and 

Hamack shows how Catholics and Protestants live enemies have exploited his teaching in the most 

upon the piety of Augustine. "His living has been diverse senses, it has not been grasped, not only 

W9999Mitly reuv^d in the oonn^ of tb^ fifteen bun- by the opponents of Ub^y, and h^nce by tb^ R^ 


formers of the sixteenth century, but even to-day, prepares efficacious motives for the will); and grace 

by Protestant critics the most opposed to the cruel lor salutary and supernatural acts, ^iven with the 

predestinationism of Calvin and Luther, who father first preludes of faith. The latter is tne grace of the 

that doctrine on St. Augustine. A technical study sons, gratia fUiorum; the former is the grace of all 

would be out of place here; it will be sufficient to men, a grace which even strangers and infidels (filii 

enmiciate the most salient thoughts, to enable the conctdnnarunif as St. Augustine says) can receive (De 

reader to find his bearings. PatientiA, xxvii, n. 28). 

(1) It is regarded as incontestable to-day that the (b) The second principle, the affirmation of liberty 
svstem of Augustine was complete in his mind from even under the action ofefficacious grace, has alwavs 
the year 397 — that is, from the beginning of his been safeguarded, and there is not one of his anti- 
episcopate, when he wrote his answers to the ''Quies- Pelagian works even of the latest, which does not 
tione8l)iver8SB"of Simplician. It is to this book that positively proclaim a complete power of choice in 
Augustine, in his last years, refers the Semipelagians man; ''not but what i'« does not depend on the free 
for the explanation of his real thought. This im- choice of the will to embrace the faith or reject it, 
portant fact, to which for a long time no attention but in the elect this will is prepared by God*' (De 
was paid, has been recoenized by Neander and es- Praedest. SS., n. 10). The great Doctor did not re- 
tablished by Gangaut, and also by recent critics, such proach the Pelagians with requiring a power to 
as lioofs, Reuter, Turmel, Jules Martin (see also choose between good and evil; m fact he proclaims 
Cunningham, St. Austin, 1886, pp. 80 and 175). with them that without that power there is no re- 
It will not, therefore, be possible to deny the authority sponsibilitv, no merit, no demerit; but he reproaches 
of these texts on the pretext that Augustine in his old tnem witn exaggerating tliis power. Julian of 
age adopted a system more antagonistic to liberty. Eclanum, denying the sway of concupiscence, con- 

(2) Tne system of Pelagius can to-day be better ceives free will as a balance in perfect equilibrium, 
understood than heretofore. Pelagius doubtless de- Augustine protests: this absolute equilibrium existed 
nied original sin, and the immortality and integrity in Adam; it was destroyed after original sin; the 
of Adam; in a word, the whole supernatural order, will has to struggle and react against an inclination 
But the parent idea of his system, which was of stoic to evil, but it remains mistress of its choice (Opus 
ori^n, was nothing else than the complete "emanci- imperfedum contra JtUianunif III, cxvii). Thus, 
pation" of human liberty with regard to God, and when he savs that we have lost freedom in conse- 
its limitless power for good and for evil. It depended quence of the sin of Adam, he is careful to explain 
on man to attain by himself, without the ^race of that this lost freedom is not the liberty of choosing 
God, a stoic impeccability and even insensibility, or between good and evil, because without it we could 
the absolute control of his passions. It was scarcely not help sinning, but the perfect liberty which was 
suspected, even up to our time, what frightful calm and without struggle , and which was enjoyed 
rieorism resulted from this exaggeration of the powers by Adam in virtue of his original integrity. 

of liberty. Since perfection was possible, it was of But is there not between these two principles an 

obligation. There was no longer any distinction be- irremediable antinomy? On the one hand, tnere is 

tween precepts and counsels. Whatever was good affirmed an absolute and unreserved power in God 

was a duty. There was no longer any distinction be- of directing the choice of our will, of converting eve^ 

tween mortal and venial sin. Every useless word hardened sinner, or of letting every creat^ will 

merited hell, and even excluded from the Church the harden itself; and on the other hand, it is affirmed 

children of God. All this has been established by that the rejection or acceptance of grace or of tempta- 

hitherto unedited documents which Caspari has pub- tion depends on our free will. Is not this a contra- 

lished (Briefe, Abhandlungen, und Predigten, Cnris- diction? Verv many modem critics, among whom 

tiania, 1890). are Loofs and Hamack, have considered these two 

(3) The system of St. Augustine in opposition to affirmations as irreconcilable. But it is because, 
this rests on three fundamental principles: (a) God according to them, Augustinian grace is an irresistible 
is absolute Master, by His grace, of all the determina- impulse given by God, just as in the absence of it 
tions of the will; (b) man remains free, under the every temptation inevitably overcomes the will, 
action of grace: (c) the reconciliation of these two But in reality all antinomy disappears if we have 
truths rests on the manner of the Divine government, the key of the system; and this key is found in the 

(a) The first principle, viz., that of tne absolute third principle: the Augustinian explanation of the 

sovereignty of God over the will, in opposition to the Divine government of wills, a theoiy so original, so 

emancipation of Pelagius, has not always been un- profound, and yet absolutely unknown to tne most 

derstood in its entire significance. We think that perspicacious critics, Hamack, Loofs, and the 

numberless texts of the holy Doctor signify that not rest. 

only does every meritorious act require supernatural Here are the main lines of this theory: The will 

ptkce, but also that everv act of virtue, even of never decides without a motive, without the attrac- 

mfidels, should be ascribed to a gift of God, not in- tion of some good which it perceives in the object, 

deed to a supernatural grace ^ Baius and the Now, although the will may be free in presence of 

Jansenists pretend), but to a specially efficacious every motive, still, as a matter of fact it takes dif- 

providence which has prepared this good movement ferent resolutions according to the different motives 

of the will (Retractations, I, ix, n. 6). It is not, as presented to it. In that is the whole secret of the 

theologians very wisely remark, that the will cannot influence exercised, for instance, by eloquence (the 

accomplish that act of natural virtue, but it is a orator can do no more than present motives), by 

fact that without this providential benefit it vx)uld meditation, or by good reading. What a power over 

not. Many misunderstandings have arisen because the will would not a man possess who could, at his 

this principle has not been comprehended, and in own pleasure, at any moment, and in the most 

particular the great medieval theology, which adopted striking manner, present this or the other motive 

it and made it the basis of its system of liberty, has of action? — But such is God's privilege. St. Au- 

not been justly appreciated. But many have been gustine has remarked that man is not the master of 

afraid of these affirmations which are so sweeping, his first thoughts; he can exert an influence on the 

because they have not grasped the nature of God s course of his reflexions, but he himself cannot de^ 

gift, which leaves freedom intact. The fact has been termine the objects, the imaees, and, consequently, 

too much lost sight of that Augustine distinguishes the motives which present themselves to his mind, 

very explicitly two orders of grace: the grace of Now, as chance is only a word, it is God who deter-< 

natural virtues (the simple gift of ProvidenoQ, which min^ f^t His pl^a^ure these first perceptions of men, 


3itfaer l^ the prepared providential action of exterior aio eum vooati quomodo scit ei oongruere ut vooanteor 
oauaes, or interiorly by a Divine illumination given non respuaf (op. cit., I, q. ii, n. 2, 12, 13). 
to the fioul. — ^Let ns take one last step with Augustine: la there in this a vestige of an irrwMble grace oz 
Not only does God send at His pleasure those at- of that impulse against which il is tmpoiaible to 
tractive motives which inspire the wiU with its de- fighi, forcing some to good, and others to sin and hell? 
terminations, but, before choosing between these It cannot be too often repeated that this is not an 
illuminations of the natural and the supernatural idea flung off in passing, but a fundamental explana- 
order, God knows Uie response which the eoidj wUh tion which if not understood leaves us in the im- 
aU freedom, vrUl make to each of them. Thus, in the possibility of grasping anything of his doctrine; 
Divine knowledge, there is for each created will an but if it is seised Augustine entertains no feelings of 
indefinite series of motives which de fado (but very uneasiness on the score of freedom. In fact he sup- 
freely) win the consent to what is good. God, there- poses freedom everywhere, and reverts incessantly 
fore, can, at His pleasure, obtain the salvation of to that knowled^ on God's part which precedes 
Judas, if He wishes, or let Peter go down to perdition, predestination, directs it, and assures its infallible 
No freedom, as a matter of fact, will resist what He result. In the "De Dono perse verantiee" (xvii, n. 42), 
has planned, although it always keeps the power of written at the end of his life, he explains the whole 
^ins to peidition. Consequently, it is God alone, of predestination by the choice of the vocation which 
in His perfect independence, who determines, by the is foreseen as efficacious. Thus is explained the 
choice of such a motive or such an inspiration (of chief part attributed to that external providence 
which he knows the future influence), whether the which prepares, b^r ill health, by warnings, etc., the 
will is goine to decide for good or for evil. Hence, good thoughts which it knows will bring about eood 
the man ^o has acted well must thank God for resolutions. Finally, this explanation alone nar- 
having sent him an inspiration which was foreseen monises with the moral action which he attributes 
to be efficacious, while that favour has been demed to victorious grace. Nowhere does Augustine repre- 
to another. A fortiori^ every one of the elect owes sent it as an irresistible impulse impressed by the 
it to the Divine goodness alone that he has received stronger on the weaker. It is always an appeal, an 
a series of graces which God saw to be infallibly, invitation which attracts and seeks to peiBuade. 
though freely, bound up with final perseverance. He describes this attraction, which is without violence, 

Assuredly we may reject this theory, for the under the graceful image of dainties offered to a 

Church, which always maintains the two principles child, green leaves offer^ to a sheep (In Joannem, 

of Uie absolute dependence of the will and of freedom, tract, xxvi, n. 5). And always the infallibility ot 

has not yet adopted as its own this reconciliation of the result is assured by the Divine knowledge which 

the two extremes. We may ask where and how God directs the choice of the invitation, 
knows the effect of these graces. Augustine has (4) The Au^ustinian predestination presents no 

always affirmed the fact; he 1ms never inquired about new difficulty if one has understood the function of 

tibe mode; and it is here that Molinism has added to this Divine knowledge in the choice of graces. The 

and developed his thoughts, in attempting to answer problem is reduced to this: Does God in his creative 

tlus question. But can the thinker, who created decree and, before any act of human Uberty, deter- 

and until his dying day maintained this system which mine by an immutable choice the elect and the 

is so logically concatenated, be accused of fatahsm reprobate? — ^Must the elect during eternity thank 

and ManicheeiBm? God only for having rewarded their merits, or must 

It remains to be shown that our interpretation they also thank Him for having, prior to any merit on 

exactly reproduces the thought of the great Doctor, their part, chosen them to the meriting of this reward? 

The texts (indicated in Vacant 's ''Diet, de th^logie One system, that of the Semipelasians, decides in 

catholique", I, col. 2390 sqq.) are too numerous favourof man: God predestines to suvation all alike, 

and too long to be reproduced here. But there is and gives to ail an eqtuU measure of grace: human 

one work of Augustine, dating from the year 397, in liberty alone decides whether one is lost or saved; 

which he clearly explains his thought — a work which from which we must logically conclude (and they 

he not only did not disavow later on, but to which really insinuated it) that the number of the elect is 

in particular he referred, at the end of his career, not fixed or certain. The opposite system, that 

those of his readers who were troubled by his con- of the Predestinationists (the oemipelagians falsely 

stant affirmation of grace. For example, to the ascribed this view to the Doctor of Hippo), affirms 

monks of Adrumetum who thought that liberty not only a privil^ed choice of the elect by God, 

was irreconcilable with this affirmation, he addressed but at the same time (a) the predestination of the 

a copy of tins book ''De Diversis G|U£B8tionibus ad reprobate to hell and (b) the absolute powerlessness 

Simplicianum", feeling sure that their doubts would of one or the other to escape from the irresMhU 

be dissipated. There, in fact, he formulates his tmpuZse which drags them either to good or to evil, 

thoughts with great clearness. Simplician had asked This is the system of Calvin. 

how ne should imderstand the Epistle to the Romans Between these two extreme opinions Ausustine 

ix, on the predestination of Jacob and Esau. Au- formulated (not invented) the Catholic ao^ma, 

(pustine first lays down the fundamental principle of which affirms these two truths at the same time: 

St. Paul, that every good vriU comes from grace, so (a) the eternal choice of the elect by God is very 

that no man can take glory to himself for his merits, real, very gratuitous, and constitutes the grace of 

and this grace is so sure of its results that human gnLcee; (b) but this decree does not destroy the Divine 

liberty will never in reality resist it, although it has will to save all men, which, moreover, is not realized 

the power to do so. Then he affirms that this efjUa" except by the human liberty that leaves to the elect 

cious grace is not necessary for us to he able to ad wdl, full power to fall and to the non-eleot full power to 

but because, in fact, without it we v>ould not wish to rise. Here is how the theory of St. Augustine, 

act weU. From l^t arises the great difficulty: How alr»Euly explained, forces us to conceive of the Divine 

does the power of resisting grace fit in with the cer- decree: Before all decision to create the world, the 

tainty of the result? And it is here that Augustine infinite knowledge of God presents to Him all the 

replies: There are many ways of inviting faith. Souls graces, and different series of ftAcea, which He can 

bemg differently disposed, God knows what invitation prepare for each soul, along with the consent or re-> 

wiU be accepted, what other will not be accepted. lusal which would follow in each circumstance, and 

Only those are the elect for whom God chooses the that in millions and millions of possible combinations, 

invitation which is foreseen to be efficacious, but Thus He sees that if Peter had received such another 

God could convert them all: "Cujus autem miseretur, grace, he would not have been converted: and if on 

n.— 7 


the contrary such another Divine appeal had been of men to His graces. If, then, the lists are definitive, 

heard in the heart of Judafi. he would have done if no one will pass from one series to the other, it is 

penance and been saved. Thus, for each man in not because anifone cannot (on the contrary, all can), 

particular there are in the thought of God, limitless it is because Grod knew with infallible knowledge that 

possible histories, some histories of virtue and sal- no one tDOuld wish to. Thus I cannot eCFect that God 

vation, others of crime and damnation; and God will should destine me to another series of graces than that 

be free in choosing such a world, such a series of which He has fixed, but, with this grace, if I do not 

graces, and in determining the future history and save myself it will not be because I am not able, but 

final destiny of each soul. And this is precisely what because I do not wish to. 

He does when, among all possible worlds, by an Such are the two essential elements of Augustinian 

absolutely free act, He deciaes to realize the actual and Catholic predestination. This is the dogma 

world with all the circumstances of its historic evo- common to all the schools, and formulated by all 

lutions, with all the graces which in fact have been theologians; predestinaHon in its entirety is absolutely 

and will be distributed until the end of the world, aratuitotis (ante rnerita). We have to insist on this, 

and consequently with all the elect and all the repro- because many have seen in this immutable and 

bate who God foresaw would be in it if de facto He gratuitous choice only a hard thesis peculiar to 

created it. St. Augustine, whereas it is pure dogma (Imrring the 

Now in the Divine decree, according to Augustine, mode of conciliation, which the Church still leaves 

and according to the Catholic Faith on this point, free). With that established, the long debates of 

which has been formulated by him, the two elements theologians on special predestination to glory ante or 

pointed out above appear: (a) T(ie certain and post merita are tar from having the importance that 

gratuitous choice of the elect — God decreeing, indeed, some attach to them. (For a fuller treatment of 

to create the world and to give it such a series of this subtile problem see the ''Diet, de th^ol. cath., I, 

graces with such a concatenation of circumstances coll. 2402 sq(][.) I do not think St. Augustine entered 

as should bring about freely, but infallibly, such that debate; m his time, only dogma was in question, 

and such results (for example, the despair of Judas But it does not seem historically permissible to main- 

and the repentance of Peter), decides, at the same tain, as many writers have, tnat Augustine first 

time, the name, the place, the number of the citizens taught the milder system (post merita) , up to the year 

of the future heavenly Jerusalem. The choice is 416 (In Joan, evang., tract, xii, n. 12), and that 

immutable: the list closed. It is evi4ent, indeed, afterwards, towards 418, he shifted his ground and 

that only tnose of whom God knows beforehand that went to the extreme of harsh assertion, amounting 

they will wish to co-operate with the grace decreed even to predestinationism. We repeat, the facts 

by Him will be saved. It is a gratuitoua choice, the absolutely refute this view. The ancient texts, even 

gift of gifts, in virtue of which even our merits are a of 397, are as affirmative and as categorical as those 

gratuitous benefit, a gift which precedes all our of his last years, as critics like Loofs and Renter have 

merits. No one, in fact, is able to merit this election, shown. If, therefore, it is shown that at that time 

God could, among other possible worlds, have chosen he inclined to the milder opinion, there is no reason 

one in wnich other series of graces would have to think that he did not persevere in that sentiment, 
brought about other results. He saw combinations (5) The part which Aueustine had in the doctrine 

in which Peter would have been impenitent and Judas of Original Sin has been brought to light and deter- 

converted. It is therefore prior to any merit of Peter, mined only recently. 

or any fault of Judas, that God decided to give them In the first place, it is no longer possible to maintain 
the graces which saved Peter and not Judas. God seriously, as was formerly the fashion (even among 
does not wish to give paradise orcrfut^ou^Zy to any one; certain Catholics, like Richard Simon), that Augus- 
but He gives very groiuUously to Peter the graces tine invented in the Church the hitherto unknown 
with which He Knows Peter will be saved. — Mys- doctrine of ori^nal sin, or at least was the first to 
terious choice 1 Not that it interferes with liberty, introduce the idea of punishment and sin. Domer 
but because to this question: Why did not God, himself (Augustinus, p. 146) disposed of this asser- 
seeing that another nuce would have saved Judas, tion, which lacks verisimilitude. In this doctrine 
give it to him? Faith can only answer, with Angus- of the primal fall Augustine distinguished, with 
tine: O Mystery 1 O Altitude 1 (De Spiritu et litter&, greater insistency and clearness than his predecessors, 
xxxiv, n. 60). — (b) But this decree includes also the the punishment and the sin — the chastisement which 
second element of the Catholic dogma: the very sin- strips the children of Adam of all the original privi- 
cere will of God to nve to all men the power of leges — and the fault, which consists in this, that 
saving themselves and the power of damning them- the crime of Adam, the cause of the fall is, without 
selves. According to Augustine, God, in his creative having been committed personally by his children, 
decree, has expressly excluded every order of things nevertneless in a certain measure imputed to them, 
in which grace would deprive man of his liberty, in virtue of the moral imion established by God be- 
every situation in which man would not have the tween the head of the human family and his de- 
power to resist sin, and thus Augustine * brushes scendants. 

aside that predestinationism which has been attrib- To pretend that in this matter Augustine was an 
uted to him. Listen to him speaking to the Manich- innovator, and that before him the Fathers affirmed 
seans: ''All can be saved if tney wish"; and in his the punishment of the sin of Adam in his sons, but 
"Ptetractations" (I, x), far from correcting this as- did not speak of the fault, is a historical error now 
sertion, he confirms it emphatically: ''It is true, proved to demonstration. We may discuss the 
entirely true, that all men can, if they wish". But thought of this or that pre- Augustinian Father, but, 
he always goes back to the providential preparation, taking^ them as a whole, there is no room for doubt. 
In his sermons he says to all: "It depends on you The Protestant R. S^berg (Lehrbuch der Dog- 
to be elect" (In Ps. cxx. n. 11, etc.): "Who are the mengeschichte, I, p. 256), after the example of 
elect? — You, if you wish it" (In Ps. Ixxiii, n. 5). many others, proclaims it by referring to Tertullian, 
But. you will say, according to Augustine, the lists Commodian, St. Cyprian, and St. Ambrose. The 
of tne elect and reprobate are closed. Now if the expressions, faulty 8tn, stain (culpa, peccatum, macula) 
non-elect can gain heaven, if all the elect can be lost, are repeated in a way to dispel all doubt. The truth 
why should not some pass from one list to the other? is that original sin, while being sin, is of a nature es- 
You forget the celebrated explanation of Augustine: sentially different from other faults, and does not 
When God made His plan. He knew infallibly ^ before exact a personal act of the will of the children of Adam 
His choice, what would bs the response of the wills in order to be responsible for the fault of their father 

AnauBTm 99 AuansTiMs 

which is morally imputed to them. Consequently, it was one of his disciples, Gregory the Great, who, 

the Fathers — ^the Greeks especially — ^have insisted on after being formed in his school, popularized his 

its penal and afllictive character, which is most in theories. The r61e of Origen, who engrafted neo- 

eviaenoe, while Augustine was led by the polemics Platonism on the Christian schools of the East, was 

of the Pelagians (and onlv bv them) to lay emphasLs that of Aujgustine in the West, with the difference, 

on the moral aspect of the fault of the human race however, that the Bishop of Ilippo was better able 

in its first father. to detacn the truths of Platomsm from the dreams 

With regard to Adam's state before the fall Au- of Oriental imagination. Hence, a current of Platonic 

gustine not only affirmed, against Pela^us, the gifts ideas was started which will never cease to act iipon 

of immortality, impassibihty, inte^ty, freedom Western thought. This influence shows itself in 

from error, and, above all, the sanctifjring grace of various ways. It is found in the compilers of this 

Divine adoption, but he emphasised its absolutely period, who are so numerous and so well deserving 

gratuitous and supernatural character. Doubtless, of recognition — such as Isidore, Bede, Alcuin — ^who 

considering the matter historically and de facto, it drew abundantlv from the works of Augustine, just 

was onl^ the sin of Adam that inflicted death on us — as did the preacnmv of the sixth century, and nota- 

Augustme repeats it again and a^n — because God bly St. Csesarius. In the controversies, especially in 

had safeguarded us against the law of our nature, tbie neat disputes of the ninth and twelfth centuries 

But de jure neither immortality nor the other ^aces on the validity of Simoniacal ordinations, the text of 

were our due, and Auffustine recognised this in af- Augustine plays the pjrincipal part. Carl Mirbt has 

firming that God could have made the condition in published on this point a very interesting study: 

which we were actually bom the primitive con- "Die Stellunff Augustins in der Publizistik des gre- 

dition of our first parents. That assertion alone gorianischenlvirchenstreits" (Leipzig, 1888). In the 

is the very reverse of Jansenism. It is, moreover, pre-Thomistic period of Scholasticism, then in process 

formally confirmed in the "Retractations" (I, ix, of formation, namelv, from Anselm to Albert the 

n. 6). Great, Augustine is the great inspirer of all the mas- 

(6) Does this mean that we must praise every- ters, such as Anselm, Aoelard, Hugo of St. Victor, 

thing in St. Augustine's explanation of grace? — Cer- who is called by his contemporaries, another AOgus- 

tainly not. And we shall note the improvements tine, or even the soul of Augustine. And it \b proper 

made by the Church, through her doctors, in the to remark, with Cunningham (Saint Austin, p. 178), 

original Augustinism. Some exju^gerations have been that from the time of Aniselm the cult of Augustinian 

abandoned, as, for instance, the condemnation to ideas exercised an enormous influence on English 

hell of duloren dyinc without baptism. Obscure and thought in the Middle Ases. As renirds Peter Com- 

ambiguous formmie nave been ehminated. We must bard, his Sentences are little else than an effort to 

say frankly that Augustine's literary method of synthesize the Augustinian theories, 

empihasizing his thought by exaggerated expressions. While they do not form a system as rigidly bound 

issuing in troublesome paradoxes, has often obscured together as Thomism, yet Father Idandonnet (in his 

his doctrine, aroused opposition in manv minds, or learned study of Sig^ de Brabant^ and M. de Wulf 

led them into error. Also, it is above all important, (on Gilles de Lessines) have been able to group these 

in order to comprehend his doctrine, to compile theories together. And here let us present a summary 

an Augustinian oictionary, not a priori, but uter sketch of those theses regarded in the thirteenth cen- 

an objective study of his texts. The work would be tury as Augustinian, and over which the battle was 

long and laborious, but how many prejudices it fought. First, the fusion of theology and philosophv; 

would dispell the preference given to Plato over Anstotle — tne 

The Protestant historian Ph. Schaff (St. Augustine, latter representing rationalism, which was mistrusted, 

p. 102) writes: "The great genius of the African whilst the idealism of Plato exerted a strong attrac- 

Church, from whom the Middle Ages and the Refor- tion — ^wisdom regarded rather as the philosophv of 

mation have received an impulra alike powerfifl, the Ciood than uie philosophv of the True. As a 

though in different directions, has not yet fulfilled consequence, the disciples of Augustine always have 

the work marked out for him in the counsels of Divine a pronounced tinge of mysticism, while the disciples 

Wisdom. He serves as a bond of union between the of St. Thomas may be recognized by their very 

two antagonistic sections of Western Christendom, accentuated intellectualism. In psychology the 

and encourages the hope that a time may come when illuminating and immediate action of God is the 

the injustice and bitterness of strife will be forgiven origin of our intellectual knowledge (at times it is 

and forgptten, and the discords of the past be drowned pure ontologism): and the faculties of the soul are 

forever in the sweet harmonies of perfect knowledge made subsUuitiaLljr identical with the soul itself, 

and perfect love". May this dream be realized I They are its functions, and not distinct entities (a 

V. AuGUSTiNisif IN liiSTORT. — ^Thc influence of thesis which was to keep its own partisans in the 
the Doctor of Hippo has been so exceptional in the Scholasticism of the future and to be adopted by 
Church, that, after having indicatea its general Descartes): the soul is a substance even without the 
characteristics (see above), it is proper to indicate body, so that after death, it is trulv a person. In 
the principal phases of the historical development of cosmology, besides the celebrated thesis of raiiones 
his doctrine. The word Avgustinism designates at eeminalea, which some have recently attempted to 
times the entire group of pmlosophical doctrines of interpret in favour of evolutionism, Augustinism ad- 
Augustine, at others, it is restricted to his system of mitted the multiplicity of substantial forms in com- 
graoe. Hence, (1) philosophical Augustinism; (2) the- pound beinss, especially in man. But especially in 
ological Aujpistinism on grace; (3) laws which gov- the impossibility of creation ab oetemo, or the es- 
emed the mitigation of Augustinism. sentially temporal character of every creature which 

(1) Phxloeo'phioal Aupueiiinsm, — ^In the history of is subject to chanf^, we have one of the ideas of 

philosophical Augustinism we may distinguish tnree Augustine which his disciples defended with greater 

very distinct phizes. First, the period of its almost constancy and, it would appear, with greater success, 

exclusive triumph in the West, up to the thirteenth A second period of veiy active struggles came in 

century. During the long ages which were darkened the thirteenth century, and this has only lately been 

by the invasion of the barbarians^ but which were recognized. Renan (Averroes, p. 259) and others 

nevertheless burdened with the responsibility of safe- believed that the war against Tnomism, which was 

ffuarding the sciences of the future, we may say tliat just then be^nning, was caused by the infatuation 

Augustine was the Great Master of the West. He of the Franciscans for Averroism; but if the Fran- 

abeolutely without a rival, or if there was one, ciscan Order showed itself on the whole opposed to 

AuansTira lOO Avovnam 

9t. ThomAd, it was simply from a oertain horror at solemnly promuUnited at Orange, and oave theh 

pbiloaophical innovations and at the ne^ect of Au- oonsecration to tne triumph of Augustinumi (520). 

ffiistinism. The doctrinal revolution brought about In the ninth century, a new victory was gained over 

by Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas m favour the predestinationism of Gottschalk in the assem- 

of Aristotle startled the old School of Augustinism bliee of Savonnidres and Toucy (850-860). The 

among the Dominicans as well as among the Francis- doctrine of the Divine will to save all men and the 

cans, but especially among the latter, who were universality of redemption was thus consecrated by 

the aisciples of the eminent Augustinian doctor, St. the public teaching of the Church. In the Middle 

Bonaventure. This will explain the condemnations. Ages these two truths are developed by the great 

hitherto little understood, of many propositions of Doctors of the Church. Faithful to the principles of 

St. Thomas Aquinas three years after his death, on Augustinism, they place in especial relief his theory 

the 7th of March, 1277, by the Bishop of Paris, and on Divine Providence, which prepares at its pleasure 

on the 18th of March, 1277, by the Archbishopof the determinations of the will by exterior events and 

Canterbury, Robert Kilwardby, a Dominican. The interior inspirations. 

Augustinian school represented tradition; Thomism. In the fourteenth century a strong current of 
progress. The censure of 1277 was the last victory of predestinationism is evident. To-day it is admitted 
a too rigid Augustinism. The hap^ fusion of the that the origin of this tendency goes back to Thomas 
two methods in the two orders of Franciscans and Bradwardin, a celebrated professor of Oxford, who 
Dominicans little by little brought about an agree- died Archbishop of Canterbury (1340), and whom 
ment on certain points without excluding differences the best critics, along with Loofs and Hamack, 
on others which wero yet obsouro (as, for instance, recognise to have been the inspirer of Wyclif himself, 
the unity or the multiplicity of forms), at the same His book "De causd Dei contra Pelagium" gave rise 
time that it made for pro^^ress in all the schools, in Paris to disputes on Augustinian ^'predetermina- 
We know that the canonisation of St. Thomas caused tion", a word which, it hfui been thought, was in- 
the withdmwal of the condemnations of Paris vented by Banes in the sixteenth century. In spite 
(14 February, 1325). Moreover, the wisdom or the of the opposition of theologians, the idea of absolute 
moderation of the new school contributedpower- determinism in the name of St. Augustine was 
fully to its triumph. Albert the Great and St. Thomas, adopted by Wyclif (1324-87), who formulated his 
far from being adversaries of St. Augustine^ as they universal fatalism, the necessity of good for the elect 
were reported to be, placed themselves in his school, and of evil for the rest. He fancied that he found in 
and while modifying certain theories, took over into the Augustinian doctrine the Strang conception 
their system the doctrine of the African bishop, which became for him a central doctrine that over- 
How many articles in the "Summa" of St. Thomas threw aU morality and all ecclesiastical, arid even 
have no other object than to incorporate in theology civil, government. According as one is predestined 
this or the other theory which was cherished 1^ or not, everything changes its nature. The same sins 
St. Augustine (to take only one example, that of are mortal in the non-elect which are venial in the 
exemplar ideas in God). Hence, there was no longer predestined. The same acts of virtue are meritorious 
any school strictly Au^tinian, because every school m the predestined, even if he be actually a wicked 
was such. They all eliminated certain special points man wnich are of no value in the non-elect. The 
and retained the same veneration for the master. sacraments administered by one who is not pre- 
From the third period of the fifteenth century to destined are always invalid; more than that, no juris- 
our days we see less of the special progress of phil- diction exists in a prelate, even a pope, if ne be not 
OBOphical Augustinism than certain tendencies of an predestined. In tne same way, there is no power, 
exaggerated revival of Platonism. In the fifteenth even civil or political, in a prince who is not one of 
century Bessarion (1472) and Marsilio Ficino (1400) the elect, and no right of property in the sinner or 
used Augustine's name for the purpose of enthroning the non-elect. Such is the iMtsis on which Wyclif 
Plato in the Church and excluding Aristotle. In established the communism which aroused the so- 
the seventeenth century, it is impossible to deny cialist mobs in England. It is incontestable that he 
certain resemblances between Cartesianism and the was fond of quoting Augustine as his authority: and 

tiineteenth century. ffreat Doctor, whom they called with emphasis 
(2) Theologieal Aitgutiinum. — The history of Au- "John of Augustine". Shirley, in his introduction to 
nistine's system of grace seems to blend almost in- "Zizaniorum Fasciculi", has even pretended that 
distinguishably with the progressive developments of the theories of Wyclif on God, on tne Incarnation, 
this dogma. Here it must suffice, first, to enumerate and even on property, were the purest Augiistinian 
the principal phases; secondly, to trace the general inspiration, but even a superficial comparison, it 
laws of development which mitigated Augustinism this were tne place to make it, would show how base- 
in the Church. less such an assertion is. In the sixteenth century 
After the death of Augustine, a whole century of the heritage of Wyclif and Hus, his disciple, was 
fierce contests (430-520) ended in the triumph of always accepted in the name of Augustinism by the 
moderate Augustinism. In vain had Pope St. Ce- leaders of the Reformation. Divine predestination 
lestine (431) sanctioned the teachings of the Doctor from all eternity separating the elect, who were to be 
of Hippo. The Semipelagians of the south of France snatched out of tne mass of perdition, f;x>m the 
could not understand the predilection of God for reprobate who were destined to hell, as well as the 
the elect, and in order to attack the works of St. Au- irresistible impulse of God drawing some to salvation 
ffustine tney made use of the occasionally exaggerated and others to sin — such was the fundamental doc- 
formulie of St. Fulgentius, or of the real errors of trine of the Reformation. Calvinism even adopted 
certain isolated predestinationists, bjb, for example, a system which was "logically more consistent, but 
Lucidus, who was condemned in the Council of Aries practically more revolting", as Schaif puts it (St. 

ment. And finally, St. Ccesarius of Aries obtained their reaction, and in spite of the severities of the 
from Pope Felix iV a series of CapUula which were Synod of Dordrecht, which it would be interesting 

AnauBTin loi augustinb 

jO compare with the Council of Trent in the matter (Seas. YI, can. 2); against Protestant predestination- 
of moaeration, Arminianism trimnphed over the ism it proclaimed the freedom of man, with his doubk 
Calvinistio thesis. power of resisting grace (posse dusenh're n veHl— 
We must note here that even Protestant critics, seas. VI, can. 4) and of domg good or evil, even be- 
with a loyalty which does them honour, have in these fore embracing the Faith (can. 6 and 7). 
latter times vindicated Augustine from the false In the seventeenth century Jansenism adopted, 
interpretations of Galvin. Domer,in his^Qesch. der while modifying it, the Protestant conception of 
prot. ThMogie", had already shown the instinctive original sin and the state of fallen man. No more 
repugnance of Anglican theologians to the horrible than Luther did the Jansenists admit the two orders, 
theories of Galvin. W. Cunningham (Saint Austin, natural and supernatural. All the gifts which Adun 
p. 82 sqq.} has very frankly called attention to the had received — ^immortality, kno^edge, integrity, 
complete doctrinal opposition on fundamental points sanctifying grace — are absolutely reauired b^ the 
which exists between the Doctor of Hippo and the nature of man. Original sin is, therefore, again re- 
French Reformers. In the first place, as regards the SArded as a profound alteration of human nature, 
state of human nature, which is, according to Calvin, From which the Jansenists conclude that the key to 
totally depraved, for Catholics it is very d^cult to St. Avgtuiine^e system is to be found in the essential 
erasp the Protestant conception of original sin which, difference of the Divine government and of grace, before 
for Calvin and Luther, is not, as for us, the moral and after the Fall of Adam. Before the FiJl Adam 
degradation and the stain imprinted on the soul of enjoyed complete hberty, and grace save him the 
every son of Adam by the fault of the father which power of resisting or obeying; after &e Fall there 
is imputable to each member of the family. It is was no longer in man liberty properly so called; there 
not tne deprivation of grace and of all other super- was only spontaneity (libertas a coactionCf and not 
natural gifts; it is not even concupiscence, imderstood libertas a necessitate), Grace, or delectation in the 
in the ordinary sense of the word, as the struggle of good, is essentially efficacious, and necessarily vic- 
base and selfish instincts against the virtuous tend- torious once it is superior in decree to the opposite 
encies of the soul; it is a i)rofound and complete concupiscence. The struggle, which was prolonged 
subversion of human nature: it is the physical altera- for two centuries, led to a more profouna study of 
tion of the very substance of our soul. Our faculties, the Doctor of Hippo and prepared the wav for the 
understanding, and will, if not entirelv destroved, definite triumph of Augustmism, but of an Au|sustin- 
are at least mutilated, powerless, and chained to ism mitigated in accordance with laws which we 
evil. For the Reformers, original sin is not a sin, must now indicate. 

it ia the sin, and the permanent sin, living in us and (3) Laws which governed the mitigation of Au- 

causing a continual stream of new sins to spring from ausiinism, — In spite of what Protestant critics may 

our nature, which is radically corrupt ana evil, nave said, the Church has always been faithful to 

For, as our beingis evil, every act of ours is equalljr the fundamental principles defended by Augustine 

evil. Thus, the Protestant theologians do not ordi- aj|;ainst the Pelagians and Semipelagians, on original 

narily speak of the sins of mankind, but only of the sin, the necessity and gratuitv of grace, the absolute 

sin, which makes us what we are and defiles every- dependence on God for salvation. Nevertheless, 

thing. Hence arose the paradox of Luther: that even great progress was made along the line of gradual 

in an act of perfect charity a man sins mortally, mitigation. For it cannot be denied that the doo- 

because he acts with a vitiated nature. Hence that trine formulated at Trent, and taught by all our 

'is sin can never be effaced, but theologians, produces an impression of greater 
remains entire, even after justification, although it suavity ana greater clarity than this or that passa^p 

will not be any longer imputed; to efface it, it would in the works of St. Augustine. The causes of this 

be necessary to mcxiify pnysically this human being softening down, and the successive phases of this 

which is sin. Calvin, without going so far as Luther, progress were as follows: — 

has nevertheless insisted on this total corruption. First, theologians began to distinguish more 

"Let it stand, therefore, as an indubitable truth clearly between the natural order and the super- 

which no engines can shake*', says he (Institution 11. natunJ, and hence the Fall of Adam no lonjger ap- 

V, i 19), " tl^t the mind of man is so entirely alienated peared as a corruption of human nature in its con- 

from tne righteousness of God that he cannot con- stituent parts; it is the loss of the whole order of 

ceive, desire, or design anjrthin^ but what is weak, supernatural elevation. St. Thomas (Summa, I, 

distorted, foul, impure, or iniquitous, that his heart Q. Ixxxv, a. 1) formulates the great law of the pres- 

is so thoroughly environed by sin that it can breathe ervation, in guilty Adam's children, of all the fac- 

out nothing but corruption and rottenness; that if ulties in their essential intepity: ''Sin (even original) 

some men occasionally make a show of goodness, neither takes away nor diminishes the naturu en- 

their mind is ever interwoven with hvpocrisy ana dowments". Thus the most rigorist Thomists, 

deceit, their soul inwardly bound with the fetters Alvarez, Lemos, Contenson, agree with the great 

of wickedness". "Now", says Cunningham, "this Doctor that the sin of Adam has not enfeebled 

doctrine, whatever there may be to be said for it, (intrinsece) the natural moral forces of humanity, 

is not tne doctrine of Saint Austin. He held that Secondlv, such consolinff and fundamental truths 

sin is the defect of a good nature which retains ele- as Grod's desire to save alT men, and the redeeming 

ments of goodness, even in its most diseased and death of Christ which was reall^r offered and ac- 

corrupted state, and he gives no countenance, what- cepted for all peoples and all individuals — these 

ever to tbis modem opinion of total depravity", truths, which Auf^ustine never denied, but which 

It is the same with Calvin's affirmation of^ the irre- he left too much m the background and as it were 

sistible action of God on the will. Cunningham shows hidden under the terrible formulas of the doctrine 

that these doctrines are irreconcilable with liberty of predestination, have been placed in the full light, 

and responsibility, whereas, on the contrary, "St. have been developed, and applied to infidel nations, 

Austin is careful to attempt to harmonize the belief and have at last entered into the ordinary teaching 

in God^B omnipotence with human responsibility" of theology. Thus our Doctors, without detracting 

(St. Austin, p. 86). The Council of Trent was there- in the least from the sovereignty and justice of God, 

fore faithful to the true spirit of the African Doctor, have risen to the highest idea of His goodness: that 

and maintained pure Augustinism in the bosom of God so sincerely desires the salvation of all as to 

the Church, by its defiinitions against the two op- give absolutely to all, immediately or mediatelv, the 

posite excesses. Aeainst Pelagianism it reaffirmed means necessary for salvation, and always with the 

original sin and the absolute necessity of grace desire that man should consent to employ those 


means. No one falls into hell except by his own demnation of doctrines which are to-day universally 

a man bom amonff the barbarous and infidel nations this: "In statu natursB lapsse potest homo, cum solo 
really does what ues in his power, God will reveal concursu generali Dei, emcere opus bonum morale, 
to mm what is necessary for salvation, either by quod in ordine ad finem hominis naturalem sit vene 
interior inspirations or by sending him a preacher virtutis opus, referendo iUud in Deum, sicut referri 
of the Faith" ^In Lib. II Sententianun, dist. 23, potest ac deberet in statu naturali" (In the state of 
Q. viii, a. 4, aa 4*"). We must not dissemble the lallen nature man can with only the general conn 
fact that this law changes the whole aspect of Divine curtnts of God do a good moral work which may be 
Providence, and that St. Augustine had left it too a work of true virtue with regard to the natural 
much in the shade, insisting only upon the other end of man by referring it to God, as it can and 
aspect of the problem: namely, that God, while ought to be referred in the natural state). Thus they 
making a sufficing appeal to all, is nevertheless not sought to oondenm the doctrine held by all the 
bound to choose always that appeal which shall in Scholastics (with the exception of Gregoiy of Rimini), 
fact be efficacious and shall be accepted, provided and sanctioned since then by the condemnation of 
that the refusal of consent be due to the oostinacy Proposition Ivii of Baius. For a long time it was said 
of the sinner's will and not to its lack of power. Thus that the pope had prepared a Bull to condemn 
the Doctors most eagerly approved the axiom, Molina; but to-day we learn from an autograph doc- 
Facienti quod in ae est Deus rum denegat graJHam — ument of Paul v that liberty was left to the two 
God does not refuse grace to one who does what he schools until a new Apostolic decision was given 
can. (Schneeman "Gontroversiarum de Div. grat.", 1881, 

Thirdly, from principles taught by Augustine con- p. 289). Soon after, a third interpretation of Au- 
sequences have oeen drawn which are clearly de- gustinism was offered in the Church, that of Noris, 
rived from them, but which he had. not pointed out. Belleli, and other partisans of moral predetermina- 
Thus it is incontestably a principle of St. Augustine tion. This system has been called Avqustinianism, 
that no one sins in an act which he cannot avoid — To this school belong a number of theologians who, 
"Quis enim peccat in eo quod caveri non potest?" with Thomassin, essayed to explain the infallible 
This passage from ''De libero arbitrio" (III, xviii, action of erace without admitting either the acientia 
n. 50) is anterior to the year 395; but far from re- media of the Molinists or the physical predetermina- 
tracting it he approves and explains it, in 415, in tion of the Thomists. A detailea study of this inter- 
the **De naturft et sratid", Ixvii, n. 80. From that pretation of St. Augustine may be found in Vacant 's 
pregnant principle tneologians have concluded, first, Dictionnaire de th6ologie catnolique", I, cols. 2485- 
that grace sufficient to conquer temptations never 2501; here I can only mention one very important 
fails anyone, even an infidel; then, against the Jan- document, the last in which the Holy See has ex- 
senists, they have added that^ to deserve its name of pressed its mind on the various theories of theologians 
sufficient grace^ it ought to give a real power which for reconciling mtce and liberty. This is the Brief 
is complete, even relatively to the actuu difficulties, of Benedict Xiy (13 July, 1748) which declares that 
No doubt theologians have groped about, hesitated, the three schools — ^Thomist, Au^ustinian (Noris), 
even denied; but to-day there are very few who and Molinist — have full right to defend their theories, 
would dare not to recognize in St. Augustine the The Brief concludes with these words: "This Apos- 
affirmation of the possibility of not sinning. tolic See favours the liberty of the schools; none of 

Fourthly, certain secondary assertions, which the systems proposed to reconcile the liberty of man 
encumbered, but did not make part of the dogma, with the omnipotence of God has been thus far con- 
have been lopped off from the doctrine of Augustine, demned (op. cit., col. 2555). 

Thus the Church, which, with Augustine, has always In conclusion we must indicate briefly the official 
denied entrance into Heaven to unbaptized children, authority which the Church attributes to St. Augustine 
has not adopted the severity of the great Doctor in in Uie questions of grace. Numerous and solemn are 
condemning such children to bodily pains, however the eulogies of St. Augustine's doctrine pronounced 
slight. And little by little the miloer teaching of by the popes. For instance, St. Gelasius I (1 No vem- 
St. Thomas was to prevail in theology and was even ber. 493), St. Hormisdas (13 August, 520) Boniface II 
to be vindicated against unjust censure when Pius VI ana the Fathers of Orange (529), John II (534), 
condemned the pseudo-synod of Pistoja. At last Au- and many others. But the most important docu- 
gustine's obscure formulae were abandoned or cor- ment, that which ought to serve to interpret all the 
rected, so as to avoid regrettable confusions. Thus others, because it precedes and inspires tnem, is the 
the expressions which seemed to identify original celebrated letter of St. Celestine I (431), in which the 
sin with concupiscence have given way to clearer pope guarantees not only the orthodoxy of Augustine 
formuls without departing from the real meaning a^inst his detractors, but also the great merit of 
which Augustine sought to express. his doctrine: ''So great was his knowledge that my 

Discussion, however, is not yet ended within the predecessors have always placed him in the rank of 
Church. On most of those points which concern the masters", etc. This letter is accompanied by a 
especially the manner of the Divine action Thomists series of ten dogmatic capUula the origin of which 
and Molmists disagree, the former holding out for an is uncertain, but which have always been regarded, 
irresistible predetermination, the latter maintaining, at least since Pope Hormisdas, as expressing the 
with Augustine, a ^ce whose infallible efficacy is re- faith of the Church. Now these extracts from African 
vealed by the Divine knowledge. But both of these councils and pontifical decisions end with this re- 
views affirm the grace of God and the liberty of man. striction: "As to the questions which are more pro- 
The lively controversies aroused by the "Concordia" found and difficult, and which have given rise to 
of Molina (1588) and the long conferences de auxUiis these controversies, we do not think it necessary to 
held at Rome, before Popes Clement VIII and impose the solution of them". — In presence of these 
Paul V, are well known. Tnere is no doubt that a documents emanating from so high a source, ought 
majority of the theologian-consultors thought they we to say tliat the Church has adopted all the teach- 
discovered an opposition between Molina ana St. Au- in^; of St. Augustine on grace so that it is never per- 
gustine. But their verdict was not approved, and missible to depart from that teaching? Three answers 
(what is of great importance in the history of Au- have been given: (a) For some, the authority of 
gustinism) it is certain that they asked for th^ cop- St. Augustine is absolute and irrefragable. The 


JauKOista went so far as to tormiilate, with Haver- 

idemned ' 

1 Augustino clare fimdatam, ilUm absolute potest 

t«nere et docere, non respiciendo ad ullam pontificls 

bullam'' (Where one has found a doctrine clearly 

based on St. Augustine, he can hold and teach it 

absolutely, without referriog to any pontifical Bull). 

This is inadmissible. None of the pontifical appro- 
bations has a meaning so absolute, and the caoUiJa 

m&ke an express reservation for the profound and 

difficult questions. The popes themselvea have per- 
mitted a.departure from the thought of St. Augustine 

in the matter of the lot of children dying without 

baptism (Bull "Auctorem Fidei". 28 August, 1704). 

(b) Others again have concluded that the eulogies 

in question are merely vague formulie leaving fidl •-p- — ■ •• -• — -x- _^ „ 

liberty to withdraw from St. Augustine and to blame JdnomamIT WO.i!' pJirTfnSb™* IsSo^rirsI 

him on every point. Thus Launoy, Richard Simon, dehreweh, PatnAvit (Freiburc, 1901 ),' 416-M7; 'acnwu 

and others have maintained that Augustine had been °3™fS!^i '"'''' """ "" " '"'" 

in error on the very gist of the problem, and had 

really taught predestinationism. But that would 

imply that for Gfteen centuries the Church took as 

its guide an adversary oF its faith, (c) We must con- 
clude, with the great«r number of theologians, that 

Augustine has a real normalive authority, hedged 

about, however, with reserves and wise limitations. 

In the capital questions which constitute the faith 

of the Church in those matters the Doctor of Hippo is 

truly the authoritative witness of tradition; for 

example, on the existence of original sin, the necessity 
.of grace, at least for every salutary act; the gratm- 

tousness of the ^ift of God which precedes all merit 

of man because it is the cause of it; the predilection 

for the elect and, on the other hand, the liberty of 

man and his responsibility for his transgressions. 

But the secondary problems, concerning uie mode 

rather than the fact, are left W the Church to the 

priident study of theologians. Thus all schools unite 

m a great respect for the assertions of St. Augustine. 

At present this attitude of fidelity and respect is 

all the more remarkable as Protestants, who were 

formerly bo bitter in defending the predestination of 
Calvin, are to-day almost unanimous in rejecting what 
Uiey themselves call "the boldest defiance ever given 
to reason and conscience" (Gritillat, "Dogmatique'', 
III. p. 329). Schleiermacher, it is true, maintains 
it, but he adds to it the Origenist theory of universal 
salvation by the final restoration of all creatures, and 
he is followed in this biy Farrar, Lobstein, PfisWr, and 
others. The Calvinist dogma is t^v-day, especially in 
England, altogether abandoned, and often replaced 
by pure Pelagianism (Beyschlag). But among 
nx>teet«nt critics the best are drawing near to the 
Catholic interpretation of St, Aimistine, as, for 
example, Gr^tillat, in Switzerland, and Stevens, 
Bruce, and Mozley (On the Augustinian Doctrine of 
Predestination), in England. Sanday (Romans, p. 50) 
also declares the mystery to be unfathomable for 
man yet solved by God— "And so our solution of 
the problem of Free-will, and of the problems of 
history and of individual salvation, must finally lie 
in the full acceptance and realization of what is 
implied by the infinity and the omnUcienee of God". 
These concluding words recall the true system of 
Augustine and permit us to hope that at least on 
this question there may be a unionof the two Churches 
in a wise Augustinism. 

WonKs on THE LiPE o» St. AcannrmE.— The chiet oriaimU 
•OURM sn his ova Coatttiotu sod hia lila (Vila S. Aurilii 
Augtanni) by hi* friend Pobsidiuh, in Vol. XI of Iha Bnoe- 
dictine editioD (P. L.. XXXII); far leariied illiuIrBtion of the 
tat of Pouidiiu Me tlia Bolludisti Cuper &ad yriLTTNa in 
Acta SS. (17«3), Aucuat. VI,— AmoDK the principal modBm 
bi^nghieg of tbe tuDt the foUowmg u« wortliy of mentiaii: 

., . . _.. IiTkLT:.., _ "" " ""*" " 

n <A»chBQ, 1840): Poujoulat. ,_ 

. —auvrei. mm riicU (Puii, 1845-40); Bind>*mnh. 

AuansnNUH 104 AnotrsTiinufs 

im-^imiOnru^am, Btptrtain d— aomt kM, Ai movm family ciroles, in worlubops, and places where work 

Unim Ml tMridii the abova guoMd vorki of Uamdohhbt uo papen eatoblubed by them have b greater eireu- 
■ad Db Wdl^, WnufD. i>H Atviu'intK'^ FtyeiMmu tit lation' than many famous non-Chiietian papers. 
uE)'l2S?'D?^l™.5SiSSTS <*?&*3S^r5«'JSSII: U°til reoentl^ no popular Catholic paper has reached 

If^M^llva (VianuTia^) mlao otiur Mudis of the Hina a degree of drculatJoD equal to that of "La Croix" 
ntirar ooBib. Aioan. SuiUauiiw ii;Aj.B«im«. St, TAomm or of " Le PSlerin ". These two papers are issued at 

in Artkm for LfOtratur mSXtrduna. d- Miudmlltri (188S). IS mcreosed to four ouUian copies. To tms must be 
For ifitaloeicai Ausiutininm wa all doetriiMhliiatoriaa. Hadcrn added the circulation of 600,000 copies of " The 
ft5L°»?^_-»"?^i' .'??'&'-}!',?. J^.'?:.'1-1'S:.*!??2'°JS« lives of the Saints", 70,000 of the " Lee Contempo- 
raina", beeidee the many copies of the "Bevue scien- 
tifique": "Cosmos"; Queetioos actuellee": "Les 
Eohoa ae I'Orieat"; the "Petit Bleu", and many 
others. In Chile, where these Fathers have been 
for thirteen years, they publish in Spanish " Echoes 
from the Sanctuary of Lourdas". In their journal- 
istic work they were aided by the Oblate Sistere of 
the Assumption, an order established by them to 
assist in their Oriental missions, but whose activities 
are not confined to that field. Until the suppression 
tbey directed the women's section in the publishing 
rooms of the "Christian Press" as well as the hospi- 
tals, orphan asylums, and schools. 
Among other works carried on by the Assump- 
..T-^o.™ »»»,^.... tionislfl in France prior to thrir suppression was 

^ « . - tooEira roHTAua. ^^^^ ^^ ^j,^ "Association of Our Lady Sf Salvation", 

AnfftutinUn Ouums ud OuionflBSSB. See Can- ^ society devoted to prayer, almsgiving, and setting 
ONB AJTO Canoneshe8,Rsovlar. a good example for the reformation of the working 

Angnatliiluii of the AiitunpUon, or AaBnvp- class. This society was established in eighty dio- 
TIONIBT8. — This congregation had ite origin in the ceses, and it succeed^ in drawing the higher olassea 
College of the Assumption, estabUsbed in Ntmes, of society more cloaely to the workingroen. It en- 
France, in 1S43, by the Rev. Emmanuel d'Alxon couraged everywhere social prayer, and social and ' 
viaai>-general of that diocese, some account of whose national expiation, and discouraged human respect, 
life and work Is given at the end of this article. Al- social apostasy, and isolation in piety. It raised 
though it was organized in 1847, the members did not funds to convey workmen, pilgrims, paupers, and 
take their first vows until 1850; they took their public sick poor to Lourdee. to the number of a thousand 
vows at Christmas of the next year. A second nouse each year: it was zealous in the cause of workmen's 
was eatablished in Paris, and they continued their work clubs, and of Catholic schools, and was active in 
thM«, encouraged by the Holy See. The congrego- the movement in favour of the keeping of Sunday 
tjon was fomuuly a^iproved by a Brief of 26 Novem- as a day of rest. Another field of missionaty labour 
ber, 1804. The chief objects of the congregation was found among the Newfoundland Sstiermen. 
are to combat the spirit of irrelipon in Europe and Every year 12,000 or 15,000 fishermen leave the 
the spread of schism in the East. To this end the coasts of France, Bel^um, and Ireland, to go to the 
AssumptionistB have devoted themselves to the Banks of Newfoundland for codfish. The Prot- 
work of Catholic higher and secondary education, ostants have lone maintained a flotilla of hospital 
to the spread of truth by means of the Press, to the ships, with which they go to the aid of these un- 
conduct of pilgrimages, and to missionary work in fortunate men and, wnile ministering to their ma- 
the East. In addition to their college at Ntmes they terial needs, draw their souls to heresy. The As- 
efltablished Apostolic schools where poor students aumptioniste found here a field for their activity 
were educated for the priesthood without expense and seal. They have oi^aniied the most nrominent 
to themselves. Th^established"IiaBonnePresBe", Catholic sailors into a committee and have been 
which issued periodicals, pamphlets, and books in encouraged to equip two Catholic hos{Htal slups, 
great numbers, the chief pubhcation, "lot Croix", which now succour the unfortunate fishermen, llie 
uipearing simultaneously m several different cities, vessels have already been wrecked twice, but have 
llMir activities provoked the resentment of the been replaced, and the AssumpUonists have oon- 
French Government, and in 1900 the congregation tiu_ued thei ~ ' ' 
was suppressed within French territory, this action 

bnng based on the charge that they were accumulo- „._ , _. 

ting a fund to be used in a royaUst movement to of the congregation. Fathers and Brothers, and 
overthrow the Republic. Many of the AMumption- nearly 400 Sistere are engaged. Their labours take 
ists left France after this, but some remained as them from the Balkans to the Dead Sea, They have 
secular priests under the authority of various bishops, established there twenty-two permanent residences. 
At the time of their suppression the Assumption- thirty; regular misffionarv stations, and fifteen in- 
ists maintained twenty ApoetoUc schools which in stitutions entrusted to the Oblatea of the Assump- 
twenty-five years gave more than 500 priests to the tion. In the schools in Turltey in Europe and 
secular clergy. These schools have all been closed, Turkey in A^a the- Assumptioniste have 2,500 
but the conn^gation has taken up the work in other scholars. Here the Oblates have opened a hospital, 

Juarten. ffimilar schools have been esteblished in an orphanage, and nine gratuitous dispensaries, 
taly, 3el0uro, England, and the United States, where they care for about 30,000 sick every year. 
"La Bonne Presse" was purehased at the time of Of the twenty-two public churches of the oongrega- 
the suppression by Paul Feron-Vrau, a wealthy tion in the East twelve are parishes, and in four of 
manufacturer of Lisle, and all its publications have them the Othces are held in the rites of the Orient 
been continued without any change of policy. (Greek, or Slav). These rites the Assumptionists have 
Much of the good accomplish^ by the Assumption- embraced to render the teaching of the Gospel more 
ists was effected through this medium. They en- fruitful. The Orientals, whether from love of their 
terad into eomnetition witl* the irreU^oui press in le^timate traditions, or from ignorance, make of tfaa 

AtXatXBTXinTB 106 AX7GtX8TZNn8 

exterior form of the rites a question of supreme Im- in the dty of Broussa, with its population of 100,000. 

portance. Galled in 1862 to work for the conversion they have established a large college and two 

of the Bulgarians to Catholic imity) the Assump^ churches, one of which is the Latin parish. The 

tionists founded in the Turkish quarter of Ad- towns of Eski-Chehir, Ismid, Sultan Escnoir, Koniah 

rianople, and in Karagatch the European quarter, (Iconium), Fanaraki have each a residence for the 

a residence with a Slav church and a Latin church, priests with a public church; the Oblate Sisters are 

a hospital, three schools and a Bulgarian seminary of also establishea in these places. At Jerusalem the 

the Greek and Slav Rites, in which forty young men Assumptionists have erected the Hostelry of Our 

receive their maintenance and are prepared for the Lady of France for the reception of pilgrims, an- 

offioe of the sacred ministry. A similar work is being nexed to which is a scholasticate of forty religious, 

done at Philippopoli, the cradle of the Oriental mis- They have established there also the Society of the 

sions of the ABSumptionists. There is also a primary Crois^ of Purgatory, and they have a church in 

school, attended by 200 scholars, and an educational wbdch to receive the Latin pilgrims. The Eucharis- 

institute, man^r of the former pupils of which occupy tic Congress at Jerusalem m 1893 was held in the 

important official positions in Eastern Rimielia. Tne Hostelry of Our Lady of France. 
Assumptionists have also churches and schools of Emmanuel-Joseph-Marie-Maurice d'Alson, founder 

different rites at Yamboli and Varna. and first Superior General of the Augustinians 

At the instance of Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, of the Assumption wss bom at Le Vigan, France, 

when he was Apostolic delegate, the Assumptionists 30 August, 1810, and died at Ntmes, 21 November, 

went to Constantinople and established themselves in 1880. He was a member of a noble family, and, 

the Turkish quarter at Koum-Kapou. The animosity being an only son, encountered strong opposition 

of the Turks and the jealousy of the Greeks and Ar- when he decided to enter the clerical state. He 

menians caused the new missionaries to be very studied at the seminary of MontpeUier and later 

badly received. To escape persecution they worked at Rome, where he was ordained priest 26 Decern- 

on their building at night, doing their masonry, car- ber, 1834. On his retiun to France the next year he 

pentry and painting themselves. By this stratagem was appointed Vicax^^xeneral of the Diocese of Nlmes, 

they constructed their church of Anastasia, the Brat which position he held for forty-five years, serving 

church consecrated to Catholic worehip in this quar- imder four bishops. Among nis earliest notable 

ter mnce 1453. This church, to favour the conver- works was the establishment at Ntmes in 1843 of the 

sion of the schismatics, was consecrated to the Greek CoUege of the Assumption, for the education of the 

Rite and dedicated by the Apostolic delegate himself, children of the aristocracy. This coUege later be- 

The congregation possesses other Greek churches at came the cradle of his congregation. He was assod- 

Kadikoi (Chaloedon), on the Asiatic bank of the Bos- ated with Gu^ranger, Ix>uis Veuillot, and othw 

porus, and at GallipoU. In order to prepare a native champions of the Catholic cause. With the ''Revue 

clergy, the Assumptionists have opened at Stamboul de Tenseignement chr^tien ", which he founded and 

(Constantinople) a j)8tit a&minairef where sixtv younj; directed, ne restored the Christian spirit in dassical 

men are instructed in the Greek Rite. At Kadikoi, studies. To combat Protestantism in southern 

in the great Leonine seminary, thev follow with the France he established the Association of St. Fiancis 

ordinary theological course special lessons in prepa- de Sides. He also suggested the idea of the ecclesias- 

ration for the pastoral ministry. They are also given tical caravan, formedby the priests at Nfmes, who 

instructions in liturgy, history, canon law and in by request of Mgr. Plantier came to Rome to visit the 

the Greek, Turkish, and Slav languages. At the day sovereign pontiff. This was the beginning of the great 

of its opening this seminarv had thirty scholan and French pilgrimages called the national pilgrima^, the 

eight professors. At Stamboul, as at Kadikoi, there directors of which were for many years the religious of 

are flourishing schools for boys and girls, with more the order founded by P^re d'Alzon. By his " alum- 

than 700 scnolars in attendance. They do not nats",or Apostolic schools, he supplied toe education 

suffice for receiving all the scholare who present of the poor children called to the priesthood, who, ow- 

themselves. To the labours of teaching are united ing to lack of means, could not be admitted to the 

those of the apostleship, in behalf of the natives as seminaries. The Fathers of the Assiunption opened 

well as foreigners. At Stamboul and at Kadikoi, fifteen of these houses which in twenty-five years 

the priests preach and hear confessions in Italian, taixe more than 500 priests to the secular clergy. 

French, German, Greek, and Turkish. In the To sustain this work of charity, Pdre d'Alzon foun£d 

various houses established throughout the empire the Association of Our Lady of Vocations, enriched 

at least ten living languages are spoken. Greeks, with numerous indulgences, by Pius IX and Leo XIII. 

Latins, and Orientals unite for the conferences of The brotherhood, by a decree of the Holy See, has 

St. Vincent de Paul, and the Sisters visit and care been canonically establi^ed in the chapel of the 

for the sick to the number of 10,000 annually. College of Ntmes, and has received the approbation 

Their knowledge of the Oriental lan^ages has of many bishops. Pdre d'Alzon was much es- 
been of great service to the Assumptiomst Fathera teemed by the Popes Gregory XVI and Pius IX. 
in their journalistic labours. Twelve of the Fathero The latter in 1863 sent mm to Constantinople to 
who are the most skilled in these studies write in found in the East the missions of the Congregation 
the Oriental Review. Thev have their special of the Aasumption. More than once he was pro- 
bulletin, "Les Echos de rOrient", which drcu- posed for the episcopate, but he always declined the 
lates among Greeks and Orientals. Because of the honour, prefemng to devote himself to the work of 
Oriental love of splendour in external worehip the his congregation. Thomas Gaffnbt Taatfb. 
feasts of the Blessed Sacrament are celebrated with 

great pomp. With the consent of the authorities, AuffOBttniui, Antonius, historian of canon law and 

and under the protection of a corps of soldiere, the Archbishop of Tarragona in Spain, b. at Saiagossa 

processions of the Blessed Sacrament are conducted 20 Feb., 1517, of a distinguished family; d. at ^rra- 

throush all the streets around Santa Sophia. The gona, 31 May, 1586. After finishing his studies at 

Catholic funerals solemnized with reverential pomp Alcal& and Salamanca, he went to Bologna (1536), 

produce also a great effect upon the impression- to Padua (1537), and to Florence (153^rin which 

able natives. In 1890 the Congregation of the latter place he examined the famous " Codex Floren- 

Propaganda confided to the Assumptionists the tinus'^^of the Pandects and made the acquaintance 

territory in Asia Minor extending from Broussa to of such learned men of the new historical school as 

Angora. It practically embraces the ancient Bithynia. Andrea Aldati, to whom he owed a confirmation of 

Already six residences have been established there; hb pronounced bent towaids a positive vid oritioal 


treatment of the ancient materials of canonical the time and place of their compilation, it is clear 

iurispnidence. In 1541 he took his degree of that he did not believe them earlier than the time 

Doctor of Civil and Canon Law and in 1544, at the of Pope Damasus (366-384) or even of the seventh 

request of the Emperor Charles V, he was made century "Collectio Hispana''. His notes on the 

Auditor of the Rota by Paul III. In 1555 he was correlated " Capitula Hadriani '' (Angilramni) were 

sent by Paul IV to England, with a message of con- published at Cologne in 1618. His powerful 

griatulation for Queen Mary and as Counsellor to genius was truly universal. Classical pnilologsr. 

Cardinal Pole. In 1556 he was made Bishop of epigraphy, numismatics, above all the history of civil 

Alife, in the Kingdom of Naples, and in 1561 was and ecclesiastical law found in him an investigator 

transferred to Lerida in his native Spain. He as- whose boldness and insight were extraordinaiy for 

sisted during three years at the Council of Trent and that period of incipient lustorico-critical research, 

urged ardently t^e reformation of the clergy. " It Death surprised him at the patriotic task of an edi- 

is our faiilt", he said in the council, ''that so great tion of the works of the Spanish writer, St. Isidore 

an agitation has arisen in France and Germany. We of Seville. The works of Augustinus were printed in 

must begin with the reformation of the clergy. It eig[ht volumes at Lucca (1775-74); his life by Siscarius 

is your business, O Fathers, to save by your decrees is m the second volume 1-121. 

the common weal of the Church that is now threat- , Maasben. Getch. d. QuelUn und Liu. dea. can. Reehu m 

ofiA/l " Tn 1 «;7fi Ka jvaa nmrnntMi hv Cirt^tmrv XTTT AbendUmde, etc. (Grats, 1870). I. xix-xxxiv; VoN Schbrbr in 

ened. in .lo7ti ne was promotea Oy Uregory Alll KirckerdeT.; Schott. Laud. Funebr. el. irtrt. Ant. Av^9tini, in 

to the archiepiscopal bee of Tarragona. GaUandi, De vet Canonum collect, diatertotionum 9yiloae (Mains, 

Augustinus is one of the foremost figures of the 17®9^I Panmrolub, De d. teg. wterpreta. (Leipzig. 1721); 

Catholic Counter-Reformation that set in with so much S^Stelo/fifSSr'i^aJ^ iIm?' Andrebiub, Ant. Aug. 

vigour and success in the latter half of the sixteenth ' * Thomab J Shahan 

S^nSao.^ Sf 'Tlesi'a^UcalTw ^^ »a^d ^^r"*^- '^'^ «• °- ^- «- ^•"-' ^^ 

conciliar. The basis of the medieval canon law was ■•^'^- -- „ a% « * « * 

the "Decretum" of Gratian, a useful codification of Augustinus Novellus, O. S. A. See AooanNO 

the middle of the twelfth century, the ecclesiastical Novell. 

law-book of the schools and the universities, of great Augustinus Triumphus. See Hermits of St. 

academic authority, but never formally approved by Augustine. 

the popes as church legislation. Its matenals, never Augustinus- Verein, The, an association organ- 

hitherto criticallv illustrated as to their prominence ijBed in 1878 to promote the interests of the Catholic 

and form, and often badly corrupted as to their text, press, particularly the daily press, of Germany. The 

stood in need of iudicious sifting and elucidation, society proposes to attain its end (1) by giving its 

It was to this task that the young Augustinus ad- moral support to the establishment of Catholic 

dressed himself from 1538 to 1543. In the latter papers; (2) by furnishing trustworthy information 

year he published at Venice the first critical study on and authentic news to the daily papers; (3) by 

Gratian, " Emendationum et Opinionum libri IV", training Catholic journalists, and giving assistance 

the result of four years' labour at the text of the old to the members of the profession in necS of it; (4) 

medieval Benedictine of Bologna. This text re- by representing the interests of the profession: 

mained his life-long study; towards the close of his (5) by securing positions and giving information and 

career, after important services rendered during ten assistance in all matters connected with journalism, 

years to the "Correctores Romam" in their edition free of charge; and finally (6) by endeavouring to bring 

- day. The lack of organization 

Gratiani dialogi (30) Ubri II" (Tarragona, 1587). part of the Catholic Press first became obvious at an 

Other important pubUcations of the sources of civil ©arly stage of the KuUtarkampf; several unsuccessful 

and ecclesiastical law occupied his pen. Thus he attempts were made to supply the deficiency, among 

published in 1567 an edition of the Bvzantine im- others the formation of a society of publishers. The 

prial constitutions, in 1576 his "IV Antiquae Col- first feasible steps were taken at the Catholic Ck)nven- 

lectiones Decretalium", in 1582 a treatise on the tion at Wurzburg* at subsequent gatherings plans 

"Penitential Canons" together with a"Poenitentiale were matured, and at Dtisseldorf. 15 May, 1878, a 

Romanum" discovered oy him. From 1557 he programme was drawn up whicn is substantially 

sought earnestly for the necessary patroziage, papal followed out in the present Augustinus- Verein. 

or regal, to enable him to publish the hitherto un- Dtisseldorf became the centre of the Verein, which, 

edited Greek text of the ancient ecclesiastical coun- now that it has spread throughout Germany, is 

cils, and for that purpose examined many archives in divided into ten groups, corresponding to geographi- 

Italy and Germany; the fruits of his labours were cal divisions, each, to a large extent autonomous, 

reaped at a later date by others. Among the more A general assembly is held annually. The Verein 

valuable of his posthumous pubUcations, and appeal- has its own organ, the "Augustinusbfatt", published 

ing strongly to modem historical tastes, is a cntical at Krefeld. ft also conducts a literary bureau, a 

examination of several early medieval collections of beneficial society, a parliamentary correspondence 

canon law that served as original material for the association of the Centre Party, in Berlin, and an 

"Decretum" of Gratian. This work, that Maassen employment agency. In 1904 the society had a 

and von Scherer speak of with rsspect, is entitled regular membership of 850, in addition to the asso- 

" De quibusdam veteribus Canonum Ecclesiasticorum ciate membership. 

Collectionibus Judicium et censura ", and was pub- K6ck in Bucsberoeb, KirdUich, HandUx.; Meier in Kir' 

lished at Rome (1611) with the second and third parts chenUx. t:, ,, t> 

of his "Juris Pontificii Veteris Epitome" (to Inno- ^- M. Rudge. 

cent III, 1198-1216), the first part of which appeared AagUBtopolis, a titular see of Palestine, suffragan 

at Tarragona in 1687. It contains biographical and of Petra. Its episcopal hst (431-536) is given in 

text-critical notes on a number of collectors of Gams (p. 454). There were two other sees of the same 

ecclesiastical laws, from the sixth to the twelfth name, one in Cilicia, a suffragan of Tarsus, the other 

century. In this work he treats progressively of the in Phiygia (Asia Minor), suffragan of Synnada. Its 

peeudo-Isidorian Decretals, and while he did not episcopal list (Gams, p. 446) extends from 359 to 869. 

dispose of sufficient material to demonstrate thor- Lequien, Orient Chnat. (1740). II. 727-728; I, 845-886 

oughly their spurious character or to attempt to fix Augofltow, Diocese of. Sec Senjy. 


Anffutni. — The name by which CAros Julidb by Augustus in the adnunistration of Rome, and hit 

J^BSAR OcTAViANue, the fiist Roman Emperor, in policy in the Orient are o( eapecial Bignificance to 

whose reign Jeaus Chriat was born, is usually known; the historian of Cbristjanitjr. The most important 

b. at Rome, 62 b. c; d. a. d. 14; It is the tjtle event of his reif;n was the birth of Our Iiord ^Luke, 

which he received from tho Senate 27 b. c, in grati- ii, I) in Palestine. The details of Christ's hfe on 

tude for the restoration of some privileges of which earth, from His birth to His death, were very closely 

that body had been deprived. The name was after- interwoven with the purpoaes and metiioda pursued 

wards aaaumed by all his succeaaors. Augustus by Augustus. Tbe Emperor died in the seventy* 

belonged to the gen» Odatia and waa the son of sixth year of his age (a. d. 14). After the battle of 

Caius Octavius, a prstor. He was the grand- Actium, lie received into his favour Herod the 

nephew of (Caius) Julius Cnsar, and waa named in Great, confirmed him in his title of King of tbe Jews, 

the tatter's will as his principal heir. After the and sranted him the territory between Galilee and 

murder of Julius Csear, the young Octavianue the Trachonitis, thereby winning the gratitude 

proceeded to Rome to gain possessioD of his inheri- and devotion of Herod and his house. After the 

tance. Though originally in league with the repub- death of Herod (750, a. u. c), Augustus divided 

lican party, he eventually allied himself with Mark his kingdom between his sons. One of them, Arcfae- 

Antony. Through his own popularity, and in oppo- laus, was eventually banished, and his territory, 

ntion to the will of the senate he succeeded (43 n. c.) together with Idumsa and Samaria, were added to 

in obtaining the consulate. In the same ^ear he the province of Syria (759, a. u. c). On this oeca- 

entered into a pact with Antony and Lepidua by sion, Augustus caused a census of the province to 

which it was agreed that for five years they would be token by the l^ate, Sulpicius Quirimus, the olr~ 

control the affairs of Rome. This (second) Trium' cumstaDces of which ore of great importance for 

viiKte (treniiri reCpubliea eonttituenda) so apportioned the right calculation of the cnrtb of Christ. See 

the Roman dominions that Lepidua received Spain* Rohan EHPniE; Luke, Gospbl or. 
Antony, Gau!; and Augustus, Africa, Sicily, and 
Sardinia. The first concerted move of the Trium- 
virate was to proceed against the murderers of 
Ctesar and the party of the Senate under the leader- 
ship of Brutus and Cassius. A crushing defeat 
was inflicted on the latter at the battle of Fhilippi 
(42 B. c), after which the fate of Rome rested practi- 
cally in the hands of two men. Lepidua, alw^s 
treated with neglect, sought to obttun Sidly for 
himself, but Augustus soon won over his troops, and, 
on his Bubmisaion, sent him to Rome wliere he spent 
the rest of his life as pontijex maximiu. 

A new division of the territory of the Republic 
between Antony and Augustus resulted, by which 
the former took the East and the latter the West. 
When Antony put away his wife Octavia, the siater 

of Augustus, through mfatuation for Cleopatra, »„_i„. i.~^>i-_ k.^^- __ a»w..»__ 

civil wSr again ensued, whose r^l cause is douUles^ . AimbiT.vanously written Akbbt, or AoMBRTi 

to be sought in the conflicting interests of both, '" " derivative through the French of the claasica^ 

and the lOTg-standine ontagonisSi between the East ornwnum. or mediev^ Utm olmorium. Its onginal 

and the W^. The ToUowl^ of Antony were it>uted ™eamng was a cupboard and it has never lost Uus 

in the nav(d battle of Actium (31 b. c), and Augustus more^neral sense, but even in ckssical Latm it had 

was left, to aU intents and purposes, the master of '"^l'^ '? addition ^ spewa^ siRmfication of a 

the Roiion world. He succSedSlin bringing peace cupboard for holding books This limited meaoing 

to the long-4istracted Republic, and by hfs m6^Z was widely prevalent m the Middle AgM Thus 

don in d(^Ung with the senate, his r^unificence to ™,,^« tenth-century rule of Cluny the hbrary is 

the army, anil his generosity to the people, he •^'If^ ormonuw and the official who had_ charge 

strengthened his posrUon and became In fact, if ?' '* "T'Ti' "k li w^'^'"!!?'."'"*^ J^ 

not in name, the flbt Emperor of Rome. His poUcy ^""K ""* ™><*«.'y observed both in Benedictine and m 

of preserving intact the reVubUcan forms of ad^nii- other monastic hoiwe«.. this armanui, or hbrarian, 

traW and of avoiding aU sembhmce of absolute was usually identical with the precentor In^afnc's 

power or monarchy diJnot diminish hia authority An^^xon gloasaiy compiled at t^ begmmnx 

M weaken his control. Whatever may be said ii f the eleventh century, the Anglo^ion word 

regard to the general character of his administration ^*°^^ (book-hoard, _i. e. library), is mterpreled 

^SUb policy of centraUzation. it cannot be denied {^'""''"^ ^^ armarium yd orchivum. Similarly 

that he ^cceeded effectually ui strengthening and '* ™ " common proverb in rehgious houses, which 

^Udating the loosely oi^ni^ Roman state meets uaaseariy as 1170, that ctai«lr„m«wan«orw 

into a close and well-knit wh^e. He was a patron ^'S^ «^"i fJJ^" arTnameniarxo (a monasten- 

of art, letters, and science, and devoted large sums without ahbrar^.shkeafortresswithoutan arsenal) 

of mo^y to the embellishment and enlargeSient of B™"*^ '''"j^'^"* *f '■*■" °"'°.'^' "/ cupboards and 

Rome. It was his well-known boast that Ee "found ^^^^. "^!? ^^""* vestments, church plate, 

itofbrickandleftitofmart.le". Under his manage cte. the word ornwrium was ako not ur^reouently 

ment, mdustry and oommeroe increased. Bec^ty '^, ^"J ^h^!^'^'^d^^''^ ^ """^ ■ ^ ^"^ 

Md rapidity of intercourse were obtained by mea.^ ^ ^^"^^^ '^at the books were thernselvee in ma^ 

Stmanyn^w yghways. He undertook to remove ^«« l^pt m the sacnsty. In German the worS 

by legidation tbi disorder and oonfusion m hfe and Aln^ei !^ derivative of omanam, has the meaning 

moraE brought about in great measure, by the **'c^JI ?A. C=™ o/ Book, (C«obrid«. 1902), 67-88: M- 

civil wars. His court hfe was simple and uneaten- n,^ji., dadiiMt da dn-tocAmVoUa^Tnin. itK&l. 4^-62; 

tatious. Severe laws were mode for the purpose of OiMdcr. Engiuk MonoMic u/a (LondoD. IBM), Gi-56,- 

enoouragmg marriages and increasing the birth-rate. S?7V"'"'f^^- ''^if^d^^!^^ ^ iBSft i*^'' '■ 

The immor^Uty of the ^m» and tL theatres was '"■ ^""■-"■'-°"^' ^'^"'^■^?™ffii^«. 
curbed, and new laws introduced to regulate the 
status of freedmen and slaves. The changes wrought Aniurlns (ob Aunachabius), Saint, Bii^p of 


Au3DeiTemFranoeyb.573,d.603. Bemgof noble birth, the monetary Bjrstein thoroughly rnvised. His 

lie was brought up in the royal court, but evinced a scheme for the complete unification of the Empire 

desire to enter the clerical state, was ordained priest led him to attempt to establish the worship of the 

bf St. Syagrius of Autun, and eventually was made sun as the supreme god of Rome. During the early 

Bishop of Auzerre. His administration is noted for years of his reign Aurelian exhibited remarkable 

certain important disciplinary measures that throw justice and tolerance towards the Christians. In 

lip(ht on the reb'gious and moral life of the Merovin- 272, when he had gained possession of Antioch, 

Sian times. He caused solemn litanies to be said after defeating Zenobia in several battles, he was 

aily in the chief centres of population, by rotation, appealed to by the Christians to decide whether the 

and on the first day of each month in the lai^^ "Church, building" in Antioch belonged to the 

towns and monasteries. He enforced a regular dady orthodox bishop Domnus, or to the party repre- 

attendance at the Divine Office on the psrt both of sented by the favourite of Zenobia, Paul of Samo- 

r^ular and secular clergy. He held (581 or 585) an sata, who had been deposed for heresy b^ a synod 

important synod of four bishops, seven abbots, thirty- held three or four years before. His decision, based 

&ye priests, and four deacons, for the restoration of probably on the Edict of Gallienus, was that the 

ecclesiasticsl discipline and the suppression of pop* property belonged to those who were in imion with 

ular pagan superstitions, and caused the lives ot his the bishops of Italy and of the city of Home (Eus.. 

Sredecessors .^ator and Germanus to be written. Hist. Eccl.. VII, xxvii-xxx). As this act was based 

Le was buried at Auxerre, where he has always on political motives, it cannot be construed into one 

been held in veneration. His remains wero later en- of friendliness for the Christians. As soon as he was 

closed in a golden chest, but were partially dispensed at liberty to cany out his schemes for internal re* 

by the Hujguenots in 1567. A portion, however, form Aurelian revived the polic^r of his predecee* 

was placed in the hollow pillar of a crypt, and saved, sor Valerian, threatened to rescind the Edict of 

His teast is celebrated 25 September. Qallienus, and commenced a systematic persecution 

Bvnioi, Ltoeti of Ou .<^mto, 25 September; PixBa, in of the followers of Christ. The exact date of the 

^^^^olliiJl!^'!^t^j^T\%§^ * in«jgu»tion of thi. policgr > not known. . It i. 

Thomas J Shahan likely, however, that an edict was issued m the 

Anna (Golden), a title given to certain works Sr;S^^^!i^i?fl,^S?ntS?iSi„**lllS^ 

and docuienta: bulla, the charter of Emperor *^, ff^^*!^Li"ln^r?^]JtSn^fc,^r^ W.^^ 

Charles IV, eeteWishing (10 January, 1356), in uSon F^ '* "'***,^*°^*'5^ ThaAtion refers to his reim a 

™5»t: !k« JrfVf^^rf J&^^nViXr^ "«g« number of Acta Martffrum, none of which is 

.3!l*Jil^^-l^^.*'^JS!ll5'^P!!SsAef.i*!!^gL-l'i*.'^ coMlde«d to be authentic '^m Butler, "Journal 

'^^^v^ :^^' s^j:^Tos^^sls:^ ^^'j^tS's^'sj'rd'-^'iftn^Ss' 

'^^^^'^•tL teLls^^SPSrv^^ t ESdin. /our'SSinThi 'a'chS of"h?^S?st^ 

^^^.p^^^^jA^ s£niT£«*^4h^^e^;urtK 


Of twenty he entered the mflitanr service, in whS^. 'm^T^Jii ^!gJSSi!^JS5«rti?*K.« 


01 uiauoius ne wasprociaimea Ji^mperor oy tne army Z7Al''X;Z:iiu:i['iir£i"i;erZuii^^ 

at Sirmium, and became sole master of the Roman Patrick J. Hbalt. 

dominions on the suicide of his rival Quintillus, the , , * t ,. . 1 

candidate of the Senate. When Aurel'ian assumed Aoraiiopoiis, a titular see of liydia, m Asia Minor, 

the reins of government the Roman world was di- whose episcopal list (325-787) is given in Gams 

vided into three sections: the Gsdlo-Roman Empire, (p. 447). 

established by Postumus, comprising Gaul and Lwjuibk. Oruiw CAmi. (1740), I. 8»5-«»; III. 069-962. 

Britain; the kingdom of Palmyra, which held sway AnreUlu, Arehbishop of Carthage from 388 to 

over the entire Orient, including Egypt and the 423. From the time of St. Cyprian, Carthage was 

greater part of Asia Minor, and the Roman Empire, one of the foremost sees in Christendom. Its bishop, 

restricted to Italy, Africa, the Danubian Provinces, thou^ not formally bearing the title of Primate, 

Greece, and Bithynia. On the upper Danube, oonfirmed the episcopal nominations in all the 

Rhsetia and Northern Italy were overrun by the provinces of Africa, convoked and presided at the 

Juthungi, while the Vandials were preparing to plenary councils, which were^ held almost yearly, 

invade rannonia. The internal affairs of Rome were and si^ed the synodal letters in the name of all the 

equally deplorable. The anarchy of the legions participants. Such a post Aurelius occupied with 

and the frequent revolutions in preceding reigns had disUnction at a time when Africa held the intel- 

shattered the imperial authority; the treasui^ was lectual leadership in the Church. His episcopate 

empty and the monetary system ruined. With no coincided with tne last great effort made by the 

support but that affordecl by the army of the Danube, Donatists to uphold a losinjg cause, and with the 

Aurelian undertook to restore the material and moral first appearance of Pelagianism. Both these crises 

unity of the Empire, and to introduce whatever re- Aurelius met with emial decision and wisdom. A 

fonns were necessary to give it stability. Enormous man of conciliating oisposition, and a great lover 

as this project was, m the face of so many obstacles, of peace, his tendency to an indul^^t treatment 

he suc<»eded in accomplishing it in less than five of repentant Donatists was conspicuous in the 

years. When he died, tne frontiers were all restored synodal acts of his own church, ana in the plenary 

and strongly defended, the unity of the Empire was councils over which he presided he consistently 

established, the administration was reorganized, the upheld the same moderate policy. But when the 

finances of the Empire placed on a sound footing, and Donatists resorted to rebellion and wholesale mur- 


dir, he yAned his ooUeftgues in appealing to the trate into a rich and tempting territonr. People 

aeoular power. He was the first to unmask and with strange-soimding names, the Biarcomanni, 

dttiounoe Pelagianism. In 412 he excommunicated Varistie, Hermanduri,Quadi, Suevi, JasyM, Vandals, 

and drove from Carthage Cnlestius, the disciple of collected idong the Danube, crossed tne frontiers, 

Psiagius. In 416 he condemned them both, in a and became the advance-guard of the great migra- 

synod of sixty-eight bishops of the Proconsulate, tion known as the ''Wandering of i& Nations", 

and induced Innocent I to brand their two principal which four centuries later culmmated in the ovei*^ 

errors by defining the necessity of grace and of throw of the Western Empire. The war against 

infant baptism. When Pone Zosimus allowed him- these invaders commenced in 167, and in a short time 

self to be deceived by Pelsjrius's lyin^ professions, had assumed such threatening proportions as to 

he held (417) a plenary council of his African brethren, demand the presence of both emperors at the front, 
and in their names warned the pontiff, who in turn Lucius Verus died in 169, and Marcus was left to 

(418) condemned the heresiarchs. Aurelius is men- carry on the war alone. His difficulties were im- 

tioned in the African martjnrology on 20 July. measurably increased Yxy the devastation wrought by 

^'"^''S?^. ^'^f^^ i*']^*?^*!^^^ J*?^/*! "^^ the plague carried westward hy the returning legions 

TSU ^tSSl.*^ ?X^?«U^^??B7J??n. '^?* ^ ^nt Of vW.bjr famine and earthquakes, aSdby^^^ 

416-418 ; PoBTALiA in Diet, de tMoL etUh, s. ▼. Auguaim, tions which destroyed the vast grananes of Rome 

A. J. B. VuiBSRT. and their contents. In the panic and terror caused 

bv these events the people resorted to the extremes 

Anrettiu Antoniniu, Marcus^ Roman Emperor, of superstition to win back the favour of the deities 
A. D. 161-180, b. at Rome, 26 Apnl, 121; d. 17 March, through whose anger it was believed these visitations 
180. His father died while Marcus was yet a boy, were inflicted. Strange rites of expiation and 
and he was adopted bv his grandfather, Annius Verus. sacrifice were resorted to, victims were slain by 
In the first psiges of his ''Meditations" (I, i-xvii) thousands, and the assistance of the gods, of the 
he has left us an account, unique in antiquitv, of Orient sought for as well as that of the gcras oi Rome, 
his education by near relatives and by tutors of dis- During the war with the Quadl in 174 there took 
tinction; diligence, gratitude, and hardiness seem to place the famous incident of the Thundering Legion 
have been its chief cnaraoteristics. From his earliest (Legto Ftdmtnairix, Ftdmima, Ftdminaia) which has 
years he enjoved the friendship and patronage of the been a cause of frequent controversv between Chri»* 
Emperor Hadrian, who bestowed on him the honour tian and non-Christian writers. Tne Roman army 
of the e<iuestrian order when he was only six vears old, was surrounded by enemies, with no chance of escape, 
made him a member of the Salian priesthood at eight, when a storm burst. The rain poured down in 
and compelled Antoninus Pius immediately after his refreshing showers on the Romans, while the enemy 
own adoption to adopt as sons and heirs both the were scattered with lightning and hail. The parched 
young Marcus and Ceionius Commodus, known later and famishing Romans received the saving drops 
as the Emperor Lucius Verus. In honour of his first on their faces and parched throats, and after- 
adopted fattier he changed his name from M. ^lius wards in their helmets and shields, to refresh their 
Aurelius Verus to M. Aurelius Antoninus. By the horses. Marcus obtained a glorious victory as a 
will of Hadrian he espoused Faustina, the daughter of result of this extraordinary event, and his enemies 
Antoninus Pius. He was raised to tne consulship in were hopelessly overthrown. That such an event 
140, and in 147 received the '' tribunician power", did really happen is attested both by pagan and 
(See Roman Emperor.) In all the later years of the Christian writers. The former attribute the occur- 
life of Antoninus Pius, Marcus was his constant com- rence either to magic (Dion Gassius, LXXI, 8-10) 
panion and adviser. On the death of the former (7 or to the prayers of the emperor (Capitolinus, "Vita 
March, 161) Marcus was immediately acknowledsed Maroi ", XXlV: Themistius, "Orat. XV. ad Theod."; 
as emperor by the Senate. Acting entirely on nis Claudian, "De Sext. Cons. Hon.", V, 340 sqq.; "Sibyl, 
own initiative, he at once promoted his adopted Orac.", ed. Alexandre, XII, 196 sqq. Cf. Bellori, 
brother Lucius Verus to the position of colleague, with "La Colonne Antonine ", and Ecknel, "Doctrina 
equal rights as emperor. With the accession of Mar- Nummonim ", III, 64). The (Christian writers at- 
cus the great Pax Romana that made the era of the tributed the lact to the prayers of the Christians 
Antonines the happiest in the annals of Rome, and who were in the army (Claudius Apollinaris in Euseb.. 
perhaps of mankind, came to an end, and with his "Hist. Ecd. ", V, 5; Tertullian, "Apol. ", v; ad 
reign the glorjr of the old Rome vanished. Younger Scap. c. iv), and soon there grew up a legend to the 
peoples, untainted by the vices of civilization, and effect that in oonseouence m this miracle the em- 
knowinff nothing of the inanition which comes from peror put a stop to tne persecution of the Christians 
over-rennement and over-indulgence, were preparing (of. Euseb. and Tert. opp cit.). It must be conceded 
to struggle for the lead in the direction of human that the testimony of Claudius Apollinaris (see 
destiny. Marcus was scarcely seated on the throne SmithandWaoe, " Diet, of Christ. Biogr. ",1,132-133) 
when the Picts commenced to threaten in Britain is the most valuable of idl that we possess, as he 
the recently erected WiUl of Antoninus. The ChatU wrote within a few years of the event, and that all 
and Chauci attempted to cross the Rhine and the credit must be given to the prayers of the Christians, 
upper reaches of the Danube. These attadcs were though it does not necessarily follow that we shoula 
easily repelled. Not so with the outbreak in the accept the elaborate detail m the story as ^ven by 
Orient, which commenced in 161 and did not cease Tertullian and later writers [Allard, op. cit. infra, 
until 166. The destruction of an entire legion (XXII pp. 377, 378; Renan, "Marc-Aurftle" (6th ed., Paris, 
Deioianana) at Elegeia aroused the emperors to the 1891), aVII, pp. 273-278; P. de Smedt, "Pnncipes 
gravity of the situation. Lucius Verus took com- de la critique nist.'* (1883), p. 138]. The last years 
mand of the troops in 162 and, through the valour of the reign of Marcus were saddened by the appear- 
and skill of his lieutenants in a war known officially ance of a usurper, Avidius Cassius, in the Orient, 
as the BeUum Armeniacum et Parihicumy waged over and by the consciousness that the empire was to 
the wide area of Qyria, Cappadocia, Armenia, Meso- fall into unworthy hands when his son Commodus 
potamia, and Media, was able to celebrate a glorious should come to the throne. Marcus died at Vindo- 
triumph in 166. For a people so long accustomed bona or Sirmium in Pannonia. The chief authori' 
to peace as the Romans were, this war was wellnieh ties for his life are Julius Capitolinus, "Vita Maroi 
fatal. It taxed ail their resources, and the with- Antonini Philosophi" (SS. Hist. Aug. IV): Dion 
drawal of the lemons from the Danubian frontier Cassius, "Epitome of Xiphilinos"; Herodian; Fronton 
l^ve an opportumty to the Teutonic tribes to pene- "Epistdis" and Aulus QeUius "Noctes Kttktb", 


Marcus Aurdius was one of the best men of heathen of Trajan gave way to a more severe temper. li 
intiquity. Apropos of the Antonines the judicious Southern Gaul, at least, an imperial rescrii>t in- 
Montesquieu sa^ that, if we set aside for a moment augurated an entirely new and much more violent 
the contemplation of the Christian verities, we can- era of oersecution (Eus., Hist. Ecd., V, i, 45). 
not read the life of this emperor without a softening In Asia Minor and in Syria the blood of Chnistians 
feeling of emotion. Niebunr calls him the noblest flowed in torrents (Allard, op. cit. infra, pp. 375. 
character of his time, and M. Martha, the historian 376, 388, 389). In general the recrudescence of 
of the Roman moralists, says that in Marcus Aure- persecution seems to have come immediately through 
lius ''the philosophy of Heathendom grows less the local action of the provinciid ffovemors impelled 
proud, draws nearer to a Christianity which it b^ the insane outcries of terrifiea and demoralized 
Ignored or which it despised, and is ready to fling city mobs. If any seneral imperial edict was issued, 
itself into the arms of the UnJuiown God *\ On the it has not surviveo. It seems more probable that 
other hand, the warm eulogies which many writers the ''new decrees" mentioned by Eusebius (Hist, 
have heaped on Marcus Aurelius as a ruler and as a Eccl., IV, xxvi, 5) were local ordinances of municipal 
man seem excessive and overdrawn. It is true that authorities or provinciai governors; as to the em- 
the most marked trait in his character was his peror, he maintained against the Christians the ex- 
devotion to philosophy and letters, but it was a isting legislation, though it has be^i argued that the 
curse to mankind ttiat "he was a Stoic first and imperial edict (Digests, XL VIII, xxix, 30) against 
then a ruler". His dilettanteism rendered him those who terrify by superstition ".the fickle minds 
utterly unfitted for the practical affairs of a laige of men" was directed a^inst the Christian soci- 
empire in a time of stress. He was more concerned ety. Duchesne says (Hist. Ancienne de TEglise, 
witn realizing in his own life (to say the truth, a Paris, 1906, p. 210) that for such obsciue sects the 
stainless one) the Stoic ideal of perfection, than he emperor would not condescend to interfere with the 
was with the pressing duties of bis office. laws of the empire. It ia clear, however, from the 

Philosophy became a disease in his mind, and cut scattered references in contemporary writings (Celsus, 
him off from the truths of practical life. He was "In Oriffen. Contra Celsum", VIII, 169; Melito, in 
steeped in the grossest superstition; he surrounded Eus./'Hist. EccL", IV,xxvi; Athenagoras, " Lectio 
himself with charlatans ana magicians, and took with pro Christianis *\ i) that throughout the empire an 
seriousness even the knavery of Alexander of Abo- active pursuit of the Christians was now undertaken, 
noteichos. The highest offices in the empire were In order to encourage their numerous enemies, the 
sometimes conferred on his philosophic teachers, ban was raised from the delator es, or "denouncers", 
whose lectures he attended even after he became and they were promised rewards for all cases ot 
emperor. In the midst of the Parthian war he successful conviction. The impulse nven by this 
found time to keep a kind of private diary, his Imslation to an unrelenting pursuit of the followers 
famous "Meditations", or twelve short books of oiChrist rendered their condition so precarious that 
detached thoughts and sentences in which he gave many changes in ecclesiastical oiganization and 
over to posterity the results of a rigorous self- discipline date, at least in embry^o, m>m this reifpi. 
examination, mth the exception of a few letters Another significant fact, pointini^ to the growing 
discovered amon^ the works of Fronto (M. Com. numbers and influence of the Christians, and the 
Frontonis Reliquue, Berlin, 1816) this history of his increasing distrust on the part of the imperial au- 
inner life is the only work which we have from his thorities and the cultured dasses, is that an active 
pen. The style is utterly without merit and dis- literary propaganda, emanating from the imperial 
tinction, apparently a matter of pride, for he tells surroundings, was commenced at this period. The 
us he haa learned to abstain from rhetoric, and Cynic philosopher Crescens (see Justin Martyr) 
poetry, and fine writing. Though a Stoic aeeply took part in a public disputation with St. Justin in 
rooted in the principles developed by Seneca and Rome. Fronto, the preceptor and bosom friend of 
Epictetus, Aurelius cannot be said to have any Mareus Aurelius, denounced the followers of the 
consistent system of philosophy. It might be saia, new religion in a formal discourse (Min. Felix, 
perhaps, in justice to this ''seeker after righteous- "Octavius", cc. ix, xxxi) and the satirist Lucian ot 
ness", that his faults were the faults of his Samosata turned the shafts of his wit acainst 
philosophy rooted in the principle that human them, as a party of ignorant fanatics. No better 
nature naturally inclined towards evil, and needed proof of the tone of the period and of the wid&- 
to be constantly kept in check. Only once does he spread knowledge of Christian beliefs and prao- 
refer to (Christianity (Medit., XI. ui), a spiritual tices which prevailed amonc the pagans is neisded 
regenerative force that was visibly increasing its than the contemporary "True Word" of Celsus 
activity, and then only to brand the Christians with (see Orioen), a work in which were collected all 
the reproach of obstinacy (rapdra^it), the highest the calumnies of pagan malice and all the argu- 
socifli crime in the eyes of Roman authority. He ments, set forth with the skill of the trained rhetori- 
seems also (ibid.) to look on Christian martyrdom cian, which the philosophy and experience of the 
as devoid of the serenity and calm that should ao- PB^gaui worid couid muster against the new creed, 
company the death of the wise man. For the The earnestness and frequency with which the Chris- 
possible rdations of the emperor with Christian tians replied to these assaults by the apologetic 
Dishops see Abercius of iiierapolis, and Melito of works (see Athenaooras, Minucius Feux, Theo- 
Sardis. philus of Aktioch) addressed directly to the em- 

In his dealings with the Christians Marcus Aurelius perors themselves, or to the people at laige, show 

went a step farther than aiw of his predecessors, now keenly alive they were to tne dangers arising 

Throughout the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian, and from these literary or academic foes. 

Antoninus Pius, the procedure followed by Roman From such and so many causes it is not surprising 

authorities in their treatment of the C!hristians that Christian blood flowed freely in all parts of the 

was that outlined in Trajan's rescript to Pliny, empire. The excited populace saw in the misery 

by which it was ordered that the Christians should ana bloodshed of the period a proof that the gods 

not be sought out; if brought before the courts, were angered by the toleration accorded to the 

legal proof of their ffuilt should be forthcom- C!hristians; conseauently, they threw on the latter 

ing. [For the much-disputed rescript "Ad con- all blame for tiie incredible public calamities, 

ventum Asis" (Eus., Hist. Eccl., IV, xiii),see An- Whether it was famine or pestilence, drought or 

TONINU8 Pius]. It is clear that during the reign of floods, the cry was the same CTertull., " Apmogeti- 

Aurelius the comparative leniency of the legislation cum", V, xli): Christianoa ad leonem CThrow the 


CSiTisttans to the lion.) The pages of the Apolo- eiven to the settlement on the St. Lawrence opposite 

ffists show how frequently the Christians were con- Lachlne which was established for the Iroquois 

demned and what penalties they had to endure, and converts who wanted to withdraw from the cor- 

these vague and general references are confirmed by ruption pf their pagan kinsmen. To the village on 

some contemi)oraiy "Acta" of unquestionable au- the Mohawk Jogues and Goupil were brought in 

thority. in which the harrowing scenes ar^ described 1642 as prisoners, and, in 1646, Jogues again, with 

in all their eniesome details. Among them are the Lalande. In 1644 Bressani was tortured there, and 

"Acta" of Justin and his companions w^o suffered later on Poncet. In 1655-56-57 Le Moyne came as 

at Rome (c. 165), of Carpus, Papylus, and Aga- ambassador to make peace: and the year after the 

thonica. who were put to death in Asia Minor, of punitive expedition of the Marquis de Tracy a per- 

the Sciilitan Martyrs in Numidia, and the touch- manent mission was established (1667). There 

mg Letters of the Churches of Lyons and Vi- Father Boniface, James de Lamberville, Fremin 

enne (Eus., Hist. Ecd.. V, i-iv) in which is con- Bruyas, Pierron, and others laboured until 16S4, 

tained the description of the tortures inflicted (177) when the mission was destroyed. The famous Indian 

on Blandina ana her companions at Lyons. Inci- girl, Tegakwitha, was bom there. From it she escaped 

dentally, this document throws much light on the to (Canada. While the missionaries were in control 

character and extent of the persecution of the of Ossemenon and the adjacent Indian towns, the 

Cihristians in Southern Gaul, and on the share of the Mohawk converts were remarkable for their exact 

emperor therein. Christian life, and in many instances for their exalted 

Ttkt Roman hutories of Qibbok, Durut, and Mkrxvalb piety. 

deal atjenjth with his^^rw^ The exact location of this village, which is so 

der rdmtachen Katterxeu (Gotna, 1883); Allard, HtMtotre ... . • x j -xi. xi_ ^*. '. ,. , * * 

de» vertScutioru pendant {m nrwlien nielet (2d ed.. Paris, mtimately associated With the establishment of 

1892), CO. vi-vii; Ren an, MarcAurHU ei la fin du mands Christiamty in New York, was for a time a subject 

antique (6th ed.. Paris, 1901); Vn.h, Roman SoaHy from q£ considerable dispute. The researches of John Gil- 

Nero to Marcue Aurelws (London, 1904), 606-511, and poMtm; "* w*«.^c.»w*c vuoj/^w. * *»« a«»^xmv« «» *#» *^g t/* 

Farrab. Mareue Aureltue in Seeken after Ood (London, mary Shea, whose knowledge of the history of the 

1890.) Hia MeditoHone have been translated into English early mission was SO profound, at first favoured the 

by Gtorob LoNo (^n<!«%i202); cf al» De Ch^ampao^^^ vje^ ^^^^ ^hg olj village was on the other side of 

Let Cimn (fee Antontne) (Pans, 1863); Dartione-Pryron, , iLr«u.«„,i, „* «,k«* ;- «^«, t«»;u^« ti;ii \m^^ 

Marc-Aur^ dane tee rapporte avee U Chriatianieme (Paris, the Mohawk at what is now Tnbes Hill. More 

1897). thorough investigations, however, aided by the 

Patrick J. Healt. conclusions of Gen. J. S. Clarke of Auburn, whose 

A 1 a.^ 1ST knowledge of Indian sites both in New York and 

AoreolA. Bee Nimbus. Huronia is indisputable, have shown finally that the 

Aoreoli (Aurbolus, d'Aupjol, Ori^ .), Pktrus. present Auriesvitle is the exact place in which Father 

a Franciscan philosopher and theolc^pan, called Jogues and his companions suffered death. The 

on account of his eloquence Doctor factmdus, b. basic evidence is the fact that, up to the time of their 

1280 at Toulouse (or Verberie-sur-Oise); d. 10 Jan- destruction by de Tracy, the villages were certainly 

uanr, 1322 (Denifle; other dates assigned are 1330 on the south side of the Mohawk and west of the 

an€i 1345). He entered the Order of Friars Minor, Schoharie — as is clear from contemporary maps, and 

studied at Toulouse, taught theolo^ there and at from Jones's, Bressani 's, and Poncet 's letters. Joliet, 

Paris and became (1319; provincial of his order one of the most accurate cartographers of the time, 

(Province of Aquitaine). Jonn XXII appointed him puts the village of Ossemenon at the junction of the 

Archbishop of Aix (1321). He defended the doctrine Schoharie and Mohawk. To further particularize 

of the Immaculate Conception in a public disputation it, Jogues said the village was on the top of the hill, 

commentary on St. Bernard's teaching. His other muting there — a feature still remaining. The dis- 

principal works are the commentary on the " Sen- tonces from Andagaron and Tionontoguen given by 

tences" of Peter Lombard (Rome, 1596-1605), Father Joffues also fix the exact locality. 

"Quodlibeta", and "Breviarium Bibliorum", an Satisfied that the precise spot had been determined, 

introduction to the Scriptures with literal commen- ten acres of land on the hill were purchased in 1884 

tary, which appeared in numerous editions at Venice by the Rev. Joseph Loyzance, S. J., who was at 

Paris, and Louvain. A new edition by Seeboeck was that time parish priest of St. Joseph's, Troy. N. Y.. and 

published at Quaracchi in 1896. In philosophy who had all his life been an ardent student of the 

Aureoli was a Conceptualist and a forerunner of lives of the early missionaries. Father Loyzance 

Occam. He criticized the doctrine of St. Thomas erected a small shrine on the hill, under the title of 

and defended, though not in all points, the views of Our Lady of Martyrs, and he was the first to lead a 

Scotus. His writings on the Immaculate Conception number of pilgrims to the place, on the 15th of Aucust 

were published by I%trus de Alva in the "Monumenta of that year, which was the anniversary of the first 

Seraphica Imm. Concept". arrival of Father Jogues as an Iroquois captive. 

., Ji^F»"*fcr^*''~''**%^^ "• 463; Staijonik in Der KaAolik, Four thousand people went from Albany and Troy 

^^^kii!^.ra^iS!rrpIZ:i^^isS'J^^ on that day & «iru,.heo subeequentiy adopteS 

E. A. Pace. "le practice of visiting Aunesville during the summer. 

Freauently there are as many as four or five thou* 

AoreiiB Oodex. See Codex. sand people present. The grounds have been since 

Auricular Oonf ession. See Confession. extendecT beyond the ordinal limits for the purpose 

•»iM«w.»»« wwM*w WM. K^^ v^<^xi»axvrA^. ^£ keeping the surroundings free from undesirable 

Auxiesville, the site of the Mohawk villa|i;e, buildings. Many of the pngrims come fasting and 

Montgomery Co., New York, U. S. A., in which receive Holy Communion at the shrine. The entire 

Father Isaac Jogues and his companions. Goupil da^ is passed in religious exercises, but anything 

and Lalande, were put to death for the Faith by the which could in the least savour of any public cult oT 

Indians. It is on the south bank of the Mohawk, the martyrs is sedulously guarded against, as such 

about forty miles west of Albany. Auries was the anticipation of the Church's official action would 

name of the last Mohawk who lived there, and from seriously interfere with the cause of their canoniza- 

this the present designation was formed. It was tion, which is now under consideration at Quebec, 

known among the Indians as Ossemenon, also The present buildings on the site are only of a tern- 

Qandawaga and Caughnawaga, the latter being also porary nature. If the Church pronounces on ^the 


reality of the martyrdom of the three miaBionariee, Tobti, Sforiadi ^fmfwsio VIII (Monte Caarino. i|]«i);_Jpwf 

more BuiUble edifices wiU be erected. J^Stli^W- njlr ^^^SIiT^lL^^' ^^^ 

^•'"^f^:,''^?^! ^^'^^ °f y^ ^KS^ Af arti/r. (New York); (MQnater. 1902); cf. kmnm dM ffueat. MtionquM (Oct.. 1903). 
AtmaU of the Shrtne (New York); Wynne, A Shrxne t« flid ILf O'KinnnAv 

Mohawk ValUy (New York. 1906). ^' ^ "JORDAN. 

T. J. Campbell. AoBoniiiB, Dbcimus Maqnub. a profeosor and poet 

AnxiBpa, Giovanni, a famous Italian humanist j!; *^^* ^- ^; ^^Pr d., probably, about a. d. 394. 

and coUector of Greek manuscripts, b. about 1369 Thewn of a physician of Bordeaux, he studied first 

at Noto, in Sicily: d. at Ferrara in 1459. It is not S that city, then at Toulouse, with his uncle iEmihiw 

known where he ferst studied. In 1418 he went to Mamus Arbonus. The latter havmg gone to teach 

Constantinople to learn Greek and to coUect codicee. m Constimtmople, Ausomus returned to Bordeaux, 

So hidustrious was he that he was accused to the where he became profeswr of grammar, and kto 

Greek emperor of despoiUng the city of books. He ?f rhetonc. Between 364 and 368, Valentmian I 

returned to Venice in 1423 with 238 volumes of S,^t^i"S^*® J'"^' .*^ ****^ ^ ~? Gratian. In 

classical authors, purchased at Constantinople. 368 and 369 Ausomus accompanied the emperor 

Among his treasiree were the celebrated "Codex on the expedition ajgamrt the Alemanm, and re- 

Laur^tianus" (seven pUys of Sophocles, six of «i^ » young Swabian, Bissula, as hu share of the 

JEschylus, ApoUonius's '^iionautica^') of the tenth booty. The emperors overwhelmed hun with 

centu^, the Iliad, Demosthenes, Rato. Xenophon, ^o'^oure^and naade hma first Prefect of the Gauls, 

etc. The next year Aurispa went to Bologna, where ^en Prefect of the West conjomtly with his son 

he became prolessor of ^reek at the univereity. ?««PS""« (between August, 378 and July, 379). 

As a teacher he was not very successful. Thence I?^79.*ie became oonsiH. After the assassmation 

he waa invited to Florence, where he also held the of Gratian, \as benefactor (383), Ausomus moved to 

chair of Greek. Later he vieat to Ferrara. In 1441 Bordeaux, where he hved among many admirmg 

be was appointed secretary to Pope Eugene IV. {P^^^i ^\^^^\J^t i * * u ^^"Zl ^® 
Six years tter Pope Nicholas V r^Tppointed him i>ved through almost the whole of the fourth cen- 
to the same post, ^ides being a tiiyas coUector tury. The wntingp of^ Ausomus are generally 
of manuscripts; Aurispa was apoet of some merit. ?*»ort, and they form a miscellaneous collection which 

His published works include letters, epigrams, and » ?^V^ ^^ ^^%J^^^'Tts « uv.- » u -* 

!J^g^ » *"© » J Occasional Works. — (1) "Epigrams": short 

Vom,' Die Wiederhddntng ds9 klaetUdun AUerOumf Poems ondi£Ferent subjects, often translated from the 

(Bcrlin/l8B3); Sabbadxni, ^io0ro/to (iMnimenfoto d< tftbvanf»< Greek Anthologv. (2) " Parentalia": thirty eulo- 

Awritpa (Noto» 1890). gies on deo ^jbm relatives, with some occasional ex- 

Edmund Burke. pi^ggions of personal sentiment (about 379). (3) 

Aurora Lads Batilat. — This is one of the so- '< Commemoratio professorum Burdigalensium " : a 
called Ambrosian hymns, but its author is unknown, collection like the preceding, giving an idea of a uni- 
It has been revised and separated into three hymns versity in the fourtn century ^fter 389). (4) *' Mo- 
for the Roman Brevianr. The first sixteen Unes sella '^: a description of the Biver Moselle and the 
form the hymn for Lauds from Low Sunday to the country through which it flows, written while travel- 
Ascension, and begin m the revised form, Avrora ling from Bingen to Trier (c. 371). This poem has a 
Coelum Purpurai. There are many En^h versions certain local and arehsBological mterest. (5) Charm- 
in use among Protestants. Dr. J. M. Neale's trans- ing poems relating to Bissula (after 368). (6) Biany 

second Vespers and Matins. This hymn has also tionof a painting in a dining-room at Trier, which rep- 

ancient hymn form " Paschale Mundo Gaudium," the sonius expresses in prose his thanks for having been 
hymn at Lauds in the Common of Apostles in paschal made consul. This was read at Trier in 379, and is 

^_ „_„ , expressions 

bers, "Lauda Svon'' (1357), ''Light^s very mom its ity is set forth in detailed formulse directed against the 

beams displays . heresies of the times. (9) '' Lettera": twenty>five 

.BiuMM, Gt9eh%ehted4$Brev%a^(Vwhmg, 1896); Juliah, epistles, mostly in verse. The most interesting are 

Duu, of Hymnology (New York. 1893). ^^^ ^^^^^ address^ to St. Paulinus of Nola (393) and in them 

•^ «if«. 1 ^. J J •!•.•»% t^* Ausonius bewails a conversion that deprives the State 

Anacoltik Fill, a letter address^ 5 Deceinber, ^nd literature of the benefit of such a brilliant mind. 

1301, bv Pope Boniface VIII to Phihp the Fair, and tries to lead the saint back to worldly Ufe at 

gardless of papal authonty. He drove from their vided society. (10) " Pnefatiunculae ": prefaces and 
sees those bwhops who, m opposition to his will, envois to p<ims. 

remained faithful to the pope. This letter is couched n. School Exercises and Fragmentb.— These are 
in firm but paternal terms. It pomts out the evils chiefly mnemonic verse: " C®sares ", on the Roman 
the kmp has brought to his kingdom, to Church and emperore; consular annals; "Ordo nobilium urbium ", 

I and ending 

collection of 




fill whether Ausonius wrote theee, but they were others. Among his writings are: "The Christian 
at least the work of a member of the eirole to which Moderator: or rersecution for Religion condemned 
he belonged; short poems on the labours of Her- by the Lignt of Nature, by the Law of Qod, the Evi^ 
oules; on the Muses; on ethical subjects (transla- denoe of our own Principles, but not by the Practice 
tioLs of Greek originals, inspired by Pythagorean of our CommissionerB tor Sequestrations — In Four 
philosophy). Other writings are lectures by a pro- Parts " (London, 1652, 4to.). It was published imder 
lessor; jBpitaphs, eulogies on dead heroes of the the pseudonym of William Birchiey, and in it he 
Trejan War, modelled lutertheGreek, and epitaphs on frequently disclaims the pope's aepoein^ power. 
Niobe, Diog^es, etc., translated from the Greek; '* In this work, Austin assuming the disguise of an 
Epyllia, various pieces, among others an enigma independent, shows that Catholics did not really 
on the number three, a diversion of a courtier forced hold the odious doctrines vulgarly attributed to 
to go to war (368); " Cento nuptialis " (an ingenious them, and makes an eneigetic appeal to the inde- 
conceit of the same origin, tne result of a wager pendents to extend to the adh^ents of the persecuted 
made with Valentinian), extracts from Virgil, the ohureh such rights and privileges as were granted to 
conclusion of which (consummo^io matrtmonit) is not other religious bodies'' (]2ict. of Nat. Biogr., II. 
very refined (368); '' Technopiegnion ", a collection 264). "The Catholique's Plea; or an Explanation of 
of verses in whicn each ends in a monosyllable; the the Roman Catholick Belief, Concerning their Chureh, 
authenticity of the 'Consul Ausonius's prayer, written Manner of Worship, Justification, Civu Government, 
in ropalic verse (verse composed successively of Togjether with a Catalogue of all the Pcenal Statutes 
words of one, two, three, four, five syllables and against Popish Recusants, All which is humUv 
so on) is doubtful; '^Ludus septem sapientum"; this submitted to serious consideration. Bv a Catholick 
product of the seven sages is a kind of scholastic Gentleman" (London, 1659, 18mo.),also under the 
drama, in which, after a prologue, each sage recites pseudonym of William Birehlev; "Reflections upon 
a proverb; at the end, they invite the auaience to the Oaths of Supremacy ana Allegiance; or the 
applaud. It is a document interesting for the his- Christian Moderator, The Fourth Part, By a Catho- 
tory of pedagogr and also for the medieval drama, lick Gentleman, an obedient son of the Church and 
To appraise Ausonius justly it must be borne in loyal subject of his Majesty" rLondon, 1661); "A 
mind tnat he represents the professor of the fourth Punctual Answer to Doctor John Tillotson's book 
century. Some of his works, therefore, written for called 'The Rule of Faith' " (unfinished); ''Devo- 
the school and in the spirit of the school, frequentlv tions, First Part: In the Ancient Way of Offices, 
translations from the Greek, are unimportant. A With Psalms, Hymns, and Praters for every Dav in 
vereifier to whom any subject could appeal (the the We^, and every Holiday in the Year ". It is 
more difficult and the less poetical it was, tne better), not known when and where the first edition appeared; 
Ausonius knew by heart the works of his predeces- the second, a duodecimo, is dated 1672. An edition 
sore, but by his taste and metrical peculiarities printed at Ekiinburgh, 1789, contains a life of the 
showed himself a disciple rather of the poets of the author, presumably by Dodd. This work was 
new school (neoteriei, poetic innovatore of the time adapted to the uses of the Anglican Chureh in Hicks 's 
of the Severi) than of the classic poets. In this "Harmony of the Gospels ", etc. (London, 1701), 
work the letten to Paulinus of Nola are an excep- and has t!een often reprinted as a stock book under 
tion to the whole, which is almost void of ideas, the title of Hicks's Devotions. ''Devotions, Second 
Ausonius's attitude in regard to Christianity should Part, The Four Gospds in one, broken into Lessons, 
be explained in the same way. The paganism of his with Responsories, To be used with the Offices, 
works is the paganism of the schools, and, if one PrintedAnno Domini, 1675 "(2 vols., Paris, 12mo), a 
would base on that the doubt that he was a Christian, posthumous work, divided into short chapters with 
Inversely, his literary manner of treating mythology a verse and prayer at the end of each. The prayers, 
should make it Questionable whether he was a pagan, says Gillow, "gave rise to offence under the impres- 
But the paschal prayer, and still more, the prayer sion that they favoured Blackloe's doctrine con- 
of the " Bphemens ", could not have been written by oeming the middle state of souls, and on account 
a pagan. An orthodox Christian in his prayers, he of this the work was not republish^ ". A third part 
Was a pagan in the class-room. Hence tiis works, of the "Devotions" was never printed; it contained, 
which are class-room productions, may very naturally according to the author's own statement "Prayers 
seem pagan. It is said that after the edict of Julian for all occasions framed by an intimate friend ac- 
(362) Ausonius had to give up teachmg; but there cording to his (Austin's) directions, and overlooked 
is nothing to prove this, nor is there any proof to by himself". He also wrote several anonymous 
the contrary, as Julian died the following year. It is pamphlets against the divines who sat in the West- 
supposed that, like some of his contemporaries, minster Assembly. 

Ausonius remained a catechumen for a lone time. Gillow, Bibl, DicL Eng, Cath., I, 87-90; Coopbb in iHet 

It is possible that he was not baptized until the time ^^ Biog,, II. 263. rp„^„.„ t q^.^.^ 

when we lose aU trace of him, in the last sUent and I-homas j. »hahan. 

^ EDSS^M.^OTiafKL°m l^umenta Qtrmania HUtoriea; „ Auatin Oanons. See CaNONS AND CaNONBSSEB, 

AuetorManH^uiMtimi (Berlin. 1883), II; Peiper in BiUiotheea RequLAR. 

2SS5r(lSrii.&m)/&a nS:^^^ „ Awtin »«. see Canons and Canonh««8, 

icAicAli dm' r&mueheH LUeratur (Munich. 1904), IV, 1. 20-40. REGULAR. 

Paul Lejat. 1817) is geographically the world's great island- 
continent. Politically, the mainland, with the ad- 

Anstin, John, an English lawyer and writer, joining island of Tasmania, forms the Commonwealth 

b. 1613 at Walpole. in Norfolk; d. London. 1669. of Australia. This is under the British Crown and 

He was a student of St. John's College, Cambridge, consists of the following six States, which were 

and of Lincoln's Inn, and about 1640 embraced the federated on 1 Jan., 1901, and are here named in the 

Catholic Faith. He was highly esteemed in his pro' order in which they became separate colonies of the 

fession and was looked on as a master of English British Empire: New South Wales (1788); Tasmania 

style. His time was entirely devoted to books and (1803); Western Australia (1826); South Australia 

literary pursuits. He enjoved the friendship of such (1836); Victoria (1851); and Queensland (1859). 

scholars as the antiquary Blount, Christopher Daven- The Commonwealth covers an area of 2,980,632 

port (Franciscus a Santa Clara), John Sergeant, and square miles. It is, territorially, about one-fourth 



smaller than Europe, one-sixth larger than the sentiments of piety, a thorough comprehension o! 
United States Texcluding Alaska), over once and a religious responsibuity, and an almost impreg|nable 
half the size of tne Indian Empire, more than fourteen simplicity of manner, were their distinctive virtues 

times larger than Germany or France, and about on their first consignment to the guardianship of the 
twenty-five times larger than the British Isles. At law. In many illustrious cases, a long and dan- 
the ceQsus of 1901 the population of the six States gerous Fesidenoe in the most depraved penal settle- 
was as follows: New South Wales, 1,359,943; Western ments was unable to extinguish these noble char- 
Australia, 182,553; Victoria, 1,201,341; Queensland, acteristics." During the first three decades of the 
503,266; South Australia, 362,604; Tasmania, 172,475. nineteenth century the convict population was 
This gave the Commonwealth in 1901 a total popu- notably increased by the addition of many who had 
lation of 3,782,182. The official estimate of the taken part in the agitations in connexion with 
total population for December, 1905, was 4,002,893. tithes, the Charter and Reform movements, the 

I. The Convict System. — ^The north and west Combination Laws, and the Com Laws. During the 

coasts of Australia figure in the maps of Spanish and first fifty years and more of the Australian penal 

Portuguese navigators as far back as about the year settlements, convictions and sentences of deporta- 

1530. But it was the War of American Independ- tion were matters of fearful facility. For no provi- 

ence that led to the settling of the white man on the sion was made for the defence of prisoners unable 

shores of the ^reat lone continent. At that time, to procure it for themselves; the right of defence 

and imtil the nmeteenth century was well advanced, throughout the entire trial was not recognized till 

the maxim of Paley and of others of his school, that 1837; jurors were allowed to act as witnesses; and, 

crime is most effectually prevented by a dread of belongmg, as they generally did, to " the classes ", 

capital punishment, held almost complete control they were too prone to convict, and judges to tran»- 

of the legislative mind in Great Britain. "By poit, especially during periods of popular ferment, 

1809 ", says a legal authoritv in the " National History on weak or worthless evidence, or on the mere pre- 

of England " (IV, 309), more than six hundred sumption of guilt (See National History of England, 

different offences had been made capital — a state of IV, 310). 

law unexampled in the worst periods of Roman or Convictism endured in New South Wales from its 
Oriental despotism ". Transportation was the ordi- first foundation in 1788 till 1840. Tasmania re- 
nary commutation of, or substitute for, the slip-knot mained a penal oolon^r till 1853. Transportation to 
of the hangman. From 1718 to 1776 British con- Norfolk Island ceased in 1855. Moreton Bay (in the 
victs had been sent in considerable numbers annually, present State of Queensland) became a convict station 
under contractors, into servitude on the American m 1824 and remained one till 1839. Western Aus* 
mainland. The traffic was stopped by the War of tralia began as a penal settlement in 1826. It con- 
Independence. At the close of the struggle the tinned as such for only a very brief space. Owing 
British prisons and, later on, the prison-hulks to the dearth of free labour, convicts (among whom 
overflowed. The colony of New South Wales (till was the gifted John Boyle O'Reilly, a political 
1826 synonymous with the whole Australian main- prisoner) were reintroduced from 1849 till 186& 
land) was established as a convict settlement by an when the last shadow of ''the system" was lifted 
Order in Coimcil dated 6 December. 1785. On 13 from Australia. Two noted Catholic ecclesiastics 
May, 1787, ** the first fleet ", provisioned for two years, (Dr. Ullathome and Dr. WiUson, first Bishop of 
left Englaind, with 1,030 souls on board, of whom Hobart) took a prominent and honoured part in 
696 were convicts. Thev reached Botany Bay on the long, slow movement which led to the aboli- 
20 January, 1788. They abandoned it after a few days tion of the convict svstem in New South Wales, 
because of its shallow waters, and laid the founda- Tasmania, and Norfolk Island. Almost from the 
tions of Sydney on the shores of the noble and dawn of the colonization of New South Wales and 
spacious harbour to which thev gave the name of Tasmania, voluntary settlers went thither, at first 
rort Jackson. The men who founded Sydney and as stragglers, but in a steady stream when the ad- 
the Commonwealth of Australia "may nave been vantages of the country became known, when irre- 
con victs", says Davitt, "but they were not neces- sponsible military rule ceased (in 1824) and when 
sarily 'criminals', such as we are familiar with free selection and assisted immigration were planks 
to-day. Some account must be taken of what con- in the policy of the young Australian colonies. The 
stituted a crime in those transportation days, and first free settlers came to Queensland (known till its 
of the hideously unjust sentences which were in- separation in 1859 as the Moreton Bay District of 
flicted for comparatively trivial offences" (Life and New South Wales) in 1824, just in advance of the 
Progress in Australasia, 193-194). convicts; to Victoria (known till its separation in 

Within the next decade, the ranks of the original 1851 as the Port Phillip District of New South 

convict population were swelled by a goodly percent- Wales) in 1835, and to South Australia in 1836. 

age of the 1,300 unoffending Catholic peasants from The gold discoveries of the fifties brought a great 

the North and West of Ireland who were eeized and inrush of population, chiefly to Victoria and New 

deported by "Satanides" Carhampton and the Ulster South Wales. Events have moved rapidly since 

magistrates during the Orange reign of terror in 1795- then. The widened influences of religion, the influx 

96, " without sentence *\ as LecW says, " without trial, of new blood, the development of resources, pros- 

without even the colour of legality" (Ireland in the perity, education, and the play of free institutions 

Eighteenth Century, III, 419 ; England in the Eight- nave combined to rid the southern lands of the 

eenth Century, VIII, 250). After the insurrection traces of a penal system which, within living memory, 

of 1798, "a stream of Irish political prisoners was threatened so much permanent evil to the moral, 

poured into the penal settlement of Botany Bay, social, and political progress of Australia. The 

and they played some part in the early history of dead past has buried its dead, 
the Australian colonies, and esoecially of Australian The reformation of the criminal formed no part of 

CathoUcism'' (Lecky, Englana in the Eighteenth the convict system in Au8tralia. " The body '', says 

Centuiy, VIII, 250). In his "Catholic Mission in Bon wick, " rather than the soul, absorbed the atten- 

Australia" (1836), Dr. Ullathome says of those early tion of the governors" (First Twenty Years of Austra- 

Irish political convicts: "Ignorance or violation of lia, 218). "Vengeance and cruelty", says Erskine 

religious principle, the knowledge or habits of a May, " were its only principles; charity and reforma- 

criminal life, were scarcely to any extent recognizable tion formed no part of its scheme " (Constitutional 

features in this unhappy class of Irish political pris- Historyof England, 111,401). For the convict, it was 

^uci6. On the contrary, the deepest and purest a beastrof-bunlen iiife, embittered by the lash, the iron 



Sew South Wales 


South Australia 



Western Australia 

Xorthern Territory 

Federal Capital District . . 


(All monetary items, except Finance, in dollars converted at $4.85 to the £) 

Sq. m. 









Pop. (1921)> 








2 . 572 







Perth (includes Frcniantlc) . 

Port Darwin 

Canberra after May 9. 1927. 


52. 163 





Norfolk Island 


Mandated territory of New («uinea 

Grand total 



5. 43;-). 734 

38?:?S6} Port Moresby 


181 ,553 

658 . .',79 



1 60,300 full-blooded aboriginals not counted. 







Macquarie .... 




Murohison .... 






Hawkesbury. . 
Castleroagh . . . 






Shoalhaven. . . 





Bq. m. 



Kosciusko . . . 
Townsend . . . 
Twynam .... 


Foathertop. . 


Cobboras. . . . 




Bartle Frere , 
Taraboritha . . 


T^gge's Peak. 


Baw Baw . . 
Ben Lomond. 


Sq. m. 


Tasmania ond 
Macquarie (170). 26, 21 5 

Mehnlle 2,474 

Kangaroo 1 . 734 

Groote Eylandt. 981 

Flinders 827 

B.«ithurst 811 

Wellesley 436 


(other than capitals) 

New Castle .... 





Broken Hill. . 
Launceston. . . . 
Rockhampton. . 
TownsviUc . . . 
Toowoomba. . . 






Maryborough. . 

Port Pirie 

Charter Towers 


Bundabcrg. . . . 


Warrnambocl. . 




Mount Morgan 


N. .S. W.... 
Victoria . . . . 


N. S. W'. '. '. 


Tasmania. . . 
Queensland . 

W. Aust. 
N. H. W, 

Queensland . 

S. Aust 

Queensland . 
N. S. W . . . . 
Queensland . 
NSW . . 
Victoria. . . . 
N. S. W ... 
Queensland . 
N. S. W..., 
Queensland . 





























Origin and Value of Imports 

British $430,859,561 

United States 187,834.748 

Foreign 1.34.450 .676 

Total $762, 144.9H.5 

Principal Imports 

Chassis and bodies 

for automobiles 
Electrical machinery 
Plate and sheet stwl 

Drugs and chemicals 
Cigars and cigarettes 







Bags and sacks 



Area, yield and value of chief crops, 1923-24 







Green forage 

Orchards and fruit 

gardens * 

Vines. -. 

Sugar cane 













124,993,271 bushels 
17, 303.. 325 " 
8.114.733 " 
4.975.451 " 
4.051.934 tons 

Yield per acre 

13. 10 bushels 
16 07 " 
25 65 " 
19 23 •• 
1 19 tons 

2.177.892 tons cane 14 97 crushed 

447.570 tons 3 33 ton* 


16,. '53 1.1 86 










.S,393. ().-,.->. 100 

Drstimtion and Valuf of ExporU. 

British $416,907,120 

United States 44.393.430 

Foreign 324.545.748 

Total *785.846.271 

Principitl Exjtorts 
Wocl Butter Meats Lead 
Wheat Sugar Flour Hides and Bkin 


Total area 24 .600.000 acres 

Forest and timber re- 
serve 18,732,485 acres 


Humber of Live S*<jck 

Sheep 93. 155.000 

Cat tie / """^i""*^' 1 . 804 . 000 

Pigs . 




Product im 

Wool, grea?y 729.243,000 llw. 

Butter 313.952.000 lbs. 

Cheese 31 .442.000 lbs. 

Condensed and 

powdered milk. .. 62.009.000 lbs. 
Bacon and horn ... 69.312.000 lbs. 
Value of pastornl and 

d.iir>- production. $SI0.342,S50 


Aggregate public debt of the several Australian State?. .30 June. 1924 

Commonwealth public debt .30 June. 1925 (£311,194.326 owing in resjiect 

of war loans) 

Commonwealth revenue (1924-2.5) 

Commonwealth expenditure (1924-25) ( f;""™ revenue. £(i6.836,433 ' 


Number of factories . 20 . 795 

C595.364 487 Employees 430.949 

Wages paid $394,596,000 

Total value of out 

put .<;i. 8 17. 093. 400 


£88,. 583. 775 

om loans. £21.747.342... . / 

Sirin-fif Banks (31 March. 1925) Check Pauinn Banka (31 March. 192.5") 

\^counts open 3.945.861 Bank notes in circulation. . . £203. IS6 


(Including depositors in penny sa>nngs 

Deposits £174.105.104 

Australian notes held £38 . 080 . 024 

C<nn and bullion held £24 .312. 634 

Deposits £320,610,529 



Tern pernture 

Height Average 
above rainfall, 
sea-level inches 


Silver and lead . . 



Zinc and concentrates , 


liimestone fluse 


Precious stones 



Mean, Mean, 
summer winter 



Adelaide. . 
Brisbane. . 
Hobart. ... 


Sydney . . . 
Canberra . . 



44. 9S 
26 31 
34 OS 
47 73 






68.0 1 


46 8 




31 2 
35 9 





6. 7 16,. 3.50 




6*^3 . 850 

1.. 5 1 3. 200 

Total $119..533.1(X) 


Agriculture $519,415,600 


• Three hottest months. 

• Three coldest months. 

D.iiry, iwultry and bee 


Forestry and fisheries.. . 




.50 1.171.. 3.50 

219. 171.. 5(10 


11 9.. 533. 100 


82. 17N. 4 11. 4.50 

A 11» 


■'iiom I. 

M o ijj; 

E A 





uw;creM /'^TtftPc Kin 




J( IMj Water* < 

U^^S T R A 




if^ J>»«ri 






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Mure^i»on]^ ^^ 

Reynold Rang 

.•• Reynold Ran A^/^^T /* 


AaMnl Dovttj 





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Printed especially for THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA 

t y OrwMwfeh 1«0 

O U liF 
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IfO 1^ 

AUSTRALIA — Concluded 

State . . 
Private . 


State and Private Schools (1924) 

No. of 
schools Teachers 

10.218 27.424 

1.740 9,219 






Uniwrsities — Teachers and Students 

Students attending lectures 

Lecturers ^ • s 

and demon- Matricu- Non ma- 
Professors stratore lated triculatcd Total 



Queensland (Brisbane) ... 


W(»«tern Auj«tralia (Perth) 
Tasmania (Hobart) 














' sio 














Oovernment Kaiiways (1923-24) 

State lines 22.750.87 m. 

Federal lines 1 .733.02 m. 

Private linen available for 
general traffic 964. 19 m. 

Total open for general 

traffic 25.448.08 m. 

Private lines used for 

special i>uri>08ea only . . 1 , 835 . 00 m. 

Grand total 27.283.08 m. 

Orerxra Shipping (1923-24) 

Tonnage entered 4.911 . 136 

Tonnage cleared 5,011 ,678 

Tramways (1923-24) 

Electric 482.24 m. 

Steam 85.97 m. 

Cable 45.68 m. 

Horse 7.39 m. 

Total 621.18 m. 

Established Routes: 

Perth to Derby 1 .442 m. 

Adelaide to Sydney 790 m. 

Sydney to Bn«banc 560 m. 

Cfharleville to Camooweal (Q) 825 m. 

Melbourne to Hay 233 m. 

Mildura to Broken Hill. 18 9 m. 

Total 4,029 m. 


Church of England 2,372.995 

Catholic 1 , 178.C83 

Presbyterian 636 . 9: 4 

Methodist 632.629 

Baptist 106.703 

Congregational Independent. . 74 , 51 3 

I..utheran 67 , 519 

Church of Christ 54,674 

Salvation Army 31 ,589 

Seventh Day Adventista 11, 306 

Unitarian 1.714 

Protestant Undefined 67 , 1 12 

Others 42,981 


Hebrew 21,615 

Miscellaneous 13.790 

35.4 U5 

Indefinite 19. S>xi 

No religion 20. 644 

Not specified 92.258 

Grand total 5,435,7.^4 



Aiistralian half-caste aboriginals. 1 1 . 536 

Asiatics 33.569 

Africans 354 

American Indians 181 

Polynesian 2,652 

Miscellaneous 29{> 


> 60.300 full-blooded aboriginals not 


ball, the punishment-oell, the prison-hulk, the chain- ary. Methodism (then a branch of the Anglican 

sang, and the " hell". '' The * whipping-houses ' of the Establishment) made a feeble beginning in Australia 

Mississippi", says Dilke, "had their parallel in New in 1813; Presbyterianism m 1823; other Protestant 

South Wales; a look or word would cause the hiury- denominations at later dates (Bonwick, First 

disobedience, for dnmkenness, for every trivial fault, were still compelled to attend the more or less 

the punishment was "the lash I — the lash I — the lash I" perfunctory services of the An^ican Chim;b (in 

(Dr. Ullathome, in Cardinal Moran's History of Moran, op. cit., 153). The penalties for refusal, pro- 

the Catholic Church in Australasia, 156). And vided at various times in General Orders, consisted 

the "cat" was made an instrument of torture (Dilke, in reduced rations, imprisonment, confinement in 

Greater Britain, 8th ed., 374). Matters were even prison-hiUks, the stocks, and the urgent pressure of 

worse in the convict "hells" of New Norfolk (estab- the pubhc flagellator's "cat-o'-nine-tails" — twenty- 

lished in 1788), and of Port Arthur and Maoquarie five lashes for the first offence, fifty for the second, 

Harbour in Tasmania. In 1835 Dr. Ullathome went and for the third, the road-gangs, or transportation 

to New Norfolk to prepare thirty-nine supposed to the " living death " of the convict hells. (See the 

conspirators for an abrupt passage into eternity, official and other evidence in Moran, op. cit., 11-19.) 

Twenty-six of the condemned men were reprieved. As late as 5 March, 1843, a convict named Bernard 

They wept bitterly on receiving the news, "whilst Trainer was sentenced to fourteen days' imprison- 

those doomed to die, without exception, dropped ment in Brighton jail for refusing to attend the 

on their knees and with dry eyes thanked God tney Protestant service CTherry MSS., in Moran, 19). 

were to be delivered from so horrid a place". Thev This abuse of power continued in Tasmania till 1844 

"manifested extraordinary fervour ana repentance". (Hogan, The Irish in Australia, 3d ed., 257-258). 

received their sentence on their knees " as the will Both in New South Wales and Tasmania, the children 

of God", and on the morning of their execution of Catholic convicts and all orphans imder the care 

"they feU down in the dust and, in the warmth of of the State were brought up in the profession of 

their gratitude, kissed the very feet that had brought the dominant creed. In 1792 there were some three 

them peace" (Ullathome in Moran. op. cit., 164). hundred Catholic convicts and fifty Catholic freemen 

For a long period Australian officials and ex-officials (mancipists) in New South Wales. Nine years later, 

were to all intents and purposes a great "ring" of in 1801, there were 5,515 inhabitants in the penal 

spirit-dealers. Rum became the medium of com- settlement (Bonwick, First Twentv Years of Aus- 

merce, just as tobacco, and maize, and leaden bullets tralia, 175-176). About one-third of these were 

were in the early days of New England (History of Catholics; but no regular statistics of religious belief 

New South Wales from the Records, II, 271-273). were kept at the time (Kenny, The Catholic Church 

The cost of building the first Protestant church in AuB- in Australasia to the Year 1840, 20). Among the 

tralia (at Sydney) was, as the pastor's balance sheet "little flock" there were three priests who had been 

shows, in part paid in rum fop. cit., II, 66). " Rum- unjustly transported on a charge of complicity in 

selling and rum-distilling deoauched the convicts and the Irisn insurrection of 1798— Fathers James Harold, 

their guards" (Jos^, History of Australia, 21), and James Dixon, and Peter O'Neill. The last-mentioned 

the moral depravity that grew up under the system priest had been barbarously scourged on a suborned 

is described by Dr. Ullathome as " too frightful even charge of having abetted murder — a crime of which 

for the imagination of other lands" (Moran, op. cit., he was afterwards proved to be wholly innocent, 

pp. 8-11, and " Historical Records of New South Father Harold was the uncle of the Rev. Dr. William 

Wales, n and III, pasaim). The Irish Catholic con- Vincent Harold, O.P., famous in the Hogan Schism 

victs — "most of whom", says Ullathome (in Moran, in Philadelphia, and en route to Ireland in 1810, from 

op. cit.. 152-153), "were transported for the infringe- Australia, he visited Philadelphia (Moran, op. cit., 33). 

ment of penal laws and for agrarian offences and mi- These priests were strictly forbidden the exercise of 

nor delinquencies" — had generally (according to the their sacred ministry. After repeated representa- 

same eyewitness) a lively dread of the depravity of tions, Father Dixon was at lengtn, by order of the 

the prison hells of the system. Irish Catholic female Home Government, conditionally emancipated, and 

convicts were also saved to a notable extent by their permitted to celebrate Mass once a month, under 

robust faith from the profligacy which, almost as a galling restrictions (see Historical Records of New 

matter of course, overtook their less fortunate sisters South Wales, V, 1 10). He offered the Holy Sacrifice 

from other countries (McCarthy, History of Our Own for the first time in New South Wales, 15 May, 1803. 

Times, ed. 1887, I, 467; Ullathome, in Moran, 157- There was no altar-stone; the chalice, the woik of a 

158). Long before, similar testimony was given by convict, was of tin; the vestments were made of 

John Thomas Bigge, afUsr he had spent three years parti-coloured old damask curtains sacrificed for the 

(1819-22) in Australia as Special Commissioner from occasion, and the whole surroundings of this mem- 

the British Government to investigate the working orable event in the history of the Church in Australia 

of the transportation system. In his final report bespoke the poverty of Bethlehem and the desolation 

(dated 6 May, 1822) he said: ''The convicts em- of Calvary. After little more than a year, Father 

barked in Ireland generally arrive in New South Dixon's precious privilege was withdrawn, and the 

Wales in a very healthy state, and are found to be last state of the Catholic convicts became worse 

more obedient and more sensible of kind treatment thim the first. Father O'Neill had in the meantime 

during the passage than any other class. Their (1803) been restored to Ireland, with his character 

separation from their native country is observed to completely vindicated. In 1808 Father Dixon, 

make a stronger impression upon their minds, both broken down in health, was permitted to return to 

on their departure and during the voya^." his native diocese. Two years later he was followed 

II. Period of Persecution. — The influences of to Ireland by Father Harold, and till 1817 a deep 

religion were not allowed to remedy to any great spiritual desolation brooded over the Infant Church 

extent the ^^"^d animalism and inhumanity of the in Australia. In the last-mentioned year there were 

convict systen Anelicanism was de facto, although some 6,000 Catholics in and about Sydney alone, 

not de jure, the established religion of the Australian The representations of the returned priest^ exiles 

penal colonies. But the Anglican chaplain, fre- resulted at length in the appointment of Father Jere- 

quently a farmer, run-holder, and magistrate, was miah Flynn, an Irish C^tereian, as Prefect Apostolic 

more conspicuously a civil than a religious function- of New Holland. Obstacles were thrown in nis way 


by the Colonial OfBoe. He placed the matter in the with the Sydney offieialB. This, in turn, led to the 
hands of the Rt. Rev. Dr. Poynter, and, relying on appointment oi Dr. Ullathome, a distinguinhed 
the known influence of his Enelish friend, set sail in f^glish Benedictine, as Vicar-Qeneral of the Bishop 
good faith for his distant field. On his arrival in of Mauritius, who exercised jurisdiction over Aus- 
Sydney, Governor Macquarie bluntly informed him tralia till 1834. 

that no "Popish missionary" would be allowed to Dr. UDathome arrived in his new field of labour 
intrude within the settlement, and that every person in 1S33. In that year the white population of 
in the penal oolong must be a Protestant. New South Wales (i. e. of the whole island oonti- 

Father Flynn mmistered secretly to his flock wher- nent except Western Australia) had risen to 
ever he could evade the watchful eyes of hostile offi- 60,794. Ot these, some 36,000 were free. The 
eials. A few months after his arrival he was suddenly Catholic body, numbering 17,179, and scattered over 
arrested without warrant or accusation, placed under a vast area, was ministered to b^ four priests. There 
lock and key in prison, and, without trial, shipped were on the Australian mainland four Catholic 
back to London as a prisoner by the first vessel schools, and four churches under construction (one 
homeward bound. Before his arrest he used secretly of them Old St. Maiy's, Sydney). Tasmania (as we 
to celebrate the Sacred Mysteries in the house of a still call it bv anticipation) had onlv one Catholic 
pious Catholic named Davis. There the Sacred priest, no school, and its one churon (at Hobart) 
Species were reserved for the sick and dying, in a was described by Dr. UUathome as "a mere tem- 
oedar press, or tabernacle. Father Flynn vainly porary shed ". Sir Richard Bourke, a broad-minded 
besought permission to return to the house. And Irish Protestant, was at that time Qovemor of New 
there, for two years after his departure, the taper South Wales. Throu^ his exertions was passed 
or lamp was ever kept alight, and, with pathetic the Church Act of 1836, which broke up the ouasi^ 
devotion, the children of sorrow flnthered in adora- monopoly of State appropriations for the dersy 
tion around the Bread of Life. The "Holy House and the denominational schools that had hith- 
of Australia ", with its small adjoining grounds and erto been enjoyed by the Church of England 
the sum of £1,000, was devoted to religion by Davis, (Themr, New South Walee and Victoria, ed. 1863, 
and on its site now stands a fine church dedicated 17; Flanagan, Histoiy of New South Wales, I, 
to God under the invocation of the national apostle 512, 513). Despite its admitted shortcomings, this 
of Ireland. Qovemor Macquarie's harsh and ille^ was, in the circumstances of the time and country, a 
treatment of Father Flynn created a stir in the notable measure. It ended forever the dream of a 
Briti^ House of Commons. It opened up the whole Protestant ascendancy on the Australian mainland, 
scandalous story of the persecution of the Catholic and is justly regarded as the first Charter of the 
convicts and settlers in Australia, created a healthy coimtry s religious liberties. A Church Act on simi- 
reaction, and led to the appointment of two Irish lar lines was passed in Tasmania in 1837. During 
chaplains. Father Philip Oannolly (who went to the govemorsnip of Sir Richard Bourke Catholics 
Hobart) and Father John Joseph Therry (who re- (Roger, afterwards Sir Roger, Therry, and John 
mained in Sydney), each with a slender yearly Hubert Plunkett) were also, for the first time in the 
salary of £100. Tnat was in May, 1821. With that history of Australia, appointed to positions of any 
day, to use the words of Archoishop Carr of Mel- importance under the C^wn. Under this adminis- 
boume "what may be termed the period of the tration the annual influx of free immigrants (some 
Church suffering ends, and that of the Church mill* 8,000) equalled for the first time that of the con- 
tant benns". viets (Sutherland, History of Australia, 12th ed., 

III. Period of Partial Toleration. — The new 61,52). 
era inaugurated by Fathers ConnoUv and Therry Australia was gradually rolling out of the sul- 
was, however, one of only partial toleration of the len gloom of a penal settlement, and emerging into 
Catholic Faitn. It extended from their arrival in the condition of a freeman's country. The Catholic 
Australia, and was marked by long and successful population increased rapidly. Their numbers and 
struggles against religious ascendancy, the partial their distance from the immediate centre of their 
eessation of convictism, and the beginnings of the spiritual jurisdiction led, in 1834, to the formation 

§ resent hierarchical organization. In 1821 New of Australia, Tasmania, and the ad^jacent islands 
outh Wales and Tasmania (the only places then (including New Zealand) into a vicariate Apostolic, 
colonized) contained a white population of 35,610 The Rigpt Rev. John Bede Folding, an English 
souls. Some 30 per cent of these were Catholics. Benedictine, was appointed its first bishop. In 
At a census taken in 1828 there were in eastern 1841 his vast diocese contained some 40,000 Catho- 
Australia36,598 whites, of whom 11,236 were Catho- lies, minbtered to by twenty-eight priests, and 
lies. Serious restrictions were still placed upon the scattered over a territory nearly as large as Europe, 
marriage of Catholic convicts. The chaplains were The Australian mainland and Tasmania had In that 
strictly forbidden to receive converts from any year a population of 211,095 souls. At the census 
IVotestant denomination, or to interfere with the of that year, there were 35,690 of Bishop Folding's 
old-standing abuse of bringing up all the children spiritual subjects in a total population of 130,856 
in State-aided institutions in the creed of the Church in New South Wales (which then mduded the preeent 
of England (Hogan, The Irish in Australia, 3d ed., States of Queensland and Victoria). Among the 
286-237). And through and over it all ran the other scattered Catholics was a litUe group, poor 
constant effort to set up the Protestant Reformed Labourers all, except one family, in a white popular 
Religion as the Established Church of the new tion of some 15,000 souls in South Australia. This 
south lands. A great stride in the direction of such colony had been foimded in 1836 as a free and 
an establishment was made when, on 17 July, 1825, "socially superior" Protestant settlement, from 
Royal letters set apart for the ruling creed one- which '^Papists and pagans" were to have been 
seventh of the whole territoiy of New South Wales, rigidly excluded. A few Catholics, however, crept 
without prejudice to previous grants bestowed upon in. They were ministered to b)^ one priest (Father 
it. It was in a great measure to Father Therry's Benson) who lived among them in apostolic poverty 
energy and ardour that this crowning act of as- from 1839 till the arrival of the first Bishop 
cendancy owed its partial defeat. The Royal Grant of Adelaide, Dr. Murphy, in 1842. In Western 
was revoked in 1834, but in the meantime, 435,000 Australia there were 2,311 hard-pressed colonists at 
acres of the public domain had been alienated for the census of 1840. There were very few Catholics 
the benefit of the Anglican Church. Father Therry's among them, and no priest till 1845, when there 
lirequeDt collisions with abuses created a deadlock arrived in the colony Dom Rudeiind Salvado, a 




Spftnith Benedictine, afterwarda founder and first 
Aobot of New Norcia. A doaer hierarchical organisa- 
tion was needed. At Bishop Folding's earnest 
solicitations new dioceses were created by the Holy 
See: Hobart, in 1842; Adelaide, in 1843; Perth, in 
1845; Melbourne, Maitland, and Port Victoria, in 
1848. Sydney also became an archiepiscopal see. 
Dr. WiUson, the first Bishop of Hobart, win be re- 
membered for his successful opposition to the ef- 
forts made, despite the local Church Act of 1837, to 
have Anglicanism placed on the same official footing 
as in Enghmd. It was the last serious efifort to 
establish a religious ascendancy in any part of 
Australasia. In New South W^es the first synod 
was held in 1844. Six years later, the first sod of the 
first railroad in Australasia was turned in the capital 
of the mother-colony. At the census of 1851, the 
Catholic body in the mother-colony had risen to 
58,899 in a total population of 190,999. In the 
Moreton Bay District of New South Wales (now 
Queensland) there were few Catholics, and no resi- 
dent priest till the Passionist Fathers opened their 
mission to the abori^nals on Stradbroke Island, in 
1843. In the Port Phillip District of New South 
Wales (now Victoria) there were, in 1851, 18,014 
Catholics in a total population of 77,345, with six 
priests (in 1850) ana thirteen State-aided primary 
schools. Dr. Gould was the first Bishop of the new 
see founded there in 1848. 

IV. Period op Comparative Calm. — ^The dis- 
covery of rich gold in Victoria in 1851 had a pro- 
founa and far-reaching effect on the history of 
Australia. There was a delirium of sudden pros- 
perity. Population rushed into the new £1 Dorado. 
In 1851, the mainland and Tasmania had a joint 
population of 211,095, nearly double that of 1841. 
This rapid increase of inhabitants soon called for the 
erection of new episcopal sees. That of Bridi)ane 
was founded in 1859, the year in which Queensland 
became a separate colony. The Bishopric of Goul- 
bum was established in 1864; Maitland (a titular see 

since 1848) and Bathurst, in 1866; the abbacy nttUiiu 
of New Norcia (aboriginal mission), in 1867; the See 
of Armidale, in 1869; and those of Ballarat and Sand- 
hurst, in 1874. In the last-mentioned year Mel- 
bourne (since 1851 the capital of the separate colony 
of Victoria) became an archiepisoopal see. The 
Vicariate Apostohc of Cooktown was formed in 
1876, and the Diocese of Rockhampton in 1882. 
Three years later, in 1885, Dr. Moran (successor 
to Dr. Vaughan in the Archiepiscopal See of 
Sydney) was raised to the purple as Australia's first 
cardinal. The Plenaxy Synod held in Sydney in the 
same year resulted in the formation, in 1887^ of the 
Dioceses of Grafton (now called Lismore), Wilcannia, 
Sale, and Port Augusta, together with the Vicariates 
Apostolic of Kimberley (now under the jurisdiction 
of the Bishop of Creraldton), and of Queensland (for 
aborigines only), while Adelaide, Brisbane, and (in 
1888) Hobart became archiepiscopal sees. Tne 
Plenary Synod of 1895 led to tne formation of the 
Diocese of Geraldton in 1898. The occupant of that 
see is administrator of the Diocese of Port Victoria 
and Palmerston, which, founded in 1848. lost its 
whole European population in 1849. Tne latest 
Plenary Synod of the Church in the Commonwealth 
took place in 1905, and two important and hi^y 
successful Catholic Congresses were held, the first in 
Sydney in 1900, the second in Melbourne in 1904. 
In 1906, there were in the Australian Commonwealtlr 
six archbishops (one of them a cardinal, another a 
coadjutor), fifteen bishops (two of them coadjutors), 
one abbot ntdliu8f and one vicar Apostolic; in all, a 
hierarchy of twenty-three prelates exercising episco- 
pal jurisdiction. 

V. Reliqious Statistics. — ^The following table, 
compiled from official sources, shows the numerical 
strength of Catholics on the Australian mainland 
and in Tasmania for the years named, which have 
been chosen as being, in most instances, census 
years: — 


New South' 

























The Jews number 15,239 souls, and the minor eral summary of ecclesiastical statistics is from a 
Christian sects run in diminishing numbers to total table in the "Australasian Catholic Directory" for 
memberships of mere hundreds. The following gen- 1906: — 

State and Eeclesiastioal 








Sute of New South Wales 

(Prov. of Sydney) 
State of Victoria 

(Prov. of Melbourne) 
State of 'lasmania 

(Prov. of Tasmania) 
States of South and Western 

(Prov. of Adelaide) 
State of Queensland 

(Prov. of Brisbane) 
t^mmonwealth of Australia 

















Q S 
























































(Certain of the figures given above are the sums of incomplete 





The religious statistics of South Australia were 
not tabulated in 1846, 1851, and 1861. There was 
no enumeration of religious denominations at the 
Tasmania census of 1881. The figures given below 
for that year are an estimate by T. A. Coghlan, 
Statistician of New South Wales. The Catholic body 

in the Commonwealth is surpassed in numerical 
strength onlv by the adherents of the Church of 
England. The following table, compiled from the 
Australian Handbook for 1905, shows the numerical 
strength of the principal religious groups in the dif- 
ferent States at the census of 1901: — 

Ralicioua Denominationa ^^w JS?'** Victoria 





Churoh of Ensland 
Roman Catholic 

Salvation Army 















. 13.034 



































Total Population 






162.752 1 3.555,674 

VI. Education. — For a time all the colonies of 
the Australasian flTOup followed the example initiated 
bv New South Wales in according State aid to the 
clergy and the denominational schools of the principal 
religious bodies, Anglicans, Catholics, Presbyterians, 
ancT Methodists. These grants were witndrawn; 
at once or by gradually diminishing payments; 
by South Austrafiia in 1851, after they had been 
in force only three years; by Queensland in I860; 
by New South Wales in 1862; by Tasmania and 
victoria, in 1875, and by Western Australia, in 
1895. State grants to denominational schools ceased 
when the various secular systems took effect: in 
Victoria in 1872; in Queensiland, in 1876; in South 
Australia, in 1878; in New South Wales, in 1879; and 
in Western Australia in 1896. In all the States of 
the Commonwealth primary education is com- 
pulsory. In Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, 
and Western Australia, it is also free. In New South 
Wales and Tasmania a small fee is charged, with free 
education for children whose parents cannot afford 
to pay for them. In Victoria fees are charged for 
sucn extra subjects as book-keeping, shorthand, 
Euclid, algebra, Latin, French, etc. Throughout the 
Commonwealth the rate of illiteracy is low. "Out 
of every 10,000 children between the ages of five and 
fifteen, there could read and write in 1861, 4,637; 
in 1871, 5,911; 1881, 7,058; 1891, 7,565" (Coghlan 
and Ewing, Progress of Australasia in the Nineteenth 
Century, p. 455). At the census of 1901, according 
to the "Victorian Year-Book" for 1903 (pp. 70-71), 
of the children of school age (6 to 13 years) in Victo- 
ria, 90.12 per cent were able to read and write: in 
Queensland, 84.42 per cent ^Australian bom chiloren 
only); in Western Australia, 82.05 per cent; in 
South Australia, 82.00 per cent; in New South Wales, 
80.35 per cent, and in Tasmania, 78.77 per cent. 
Hostility to the Catholic Church gave the chief im- 
pulse to the secularizing of public instruction in 
Victoria and New South Wales. In Victoria Mr. 
Stephen, Attorney-General, declared that the new 
Act was "to purge the colony of clericalism ", and to 
lead the rising generation by sure but gradual steps 
to "worship in common at the shrine ofone neutral- 
tinted deity, sanctioned by the State Department" 
^oran, op. cit., 882-883). In New South Wales 
Henry (afterwards Sir Henry) Parkes was even more 
outspoken. Holding aloft his Draft Bill on Public 
Instruction, at a public meeting, he said: "I hold 
in my hand what will be death to the calling of the 

griesthood of the Church of Rome" (Moran. op. cit., 
75). One of the first results of the withdrawal of 
the State grants in the various colonies was the clos- 
ing of most of the Protestant primary schools. There 
was, on the other hand, everywhere a steady in- 
crease in the number of Catholic schools. The fol- 

lowing figures, taken from official sources, show the 
growth oi Catholic primary schools in Victoria from 
the passing of the secular Education Act till 1897: — 


Primary Schools 

Children Attending 




No official returns appear in the Victorian census 
reports for 1901. The followinsextract from a table 
published by T. A. Coghlan (wealth and Progress 
of New South Wales. 1897-98, 762) indicates the 
advance made by Catholic primary schools in the 
mother-state for twelve years after the date (1882) 
at which State assistance was withdrawn from de- 
nominational schools: — 




on Roll 







According to official returns, there were 41,112 
children on the rolls of the Catholic schools in New 
South Wales in the December quarter, 1904, and 
5,413 on the rolls of the Catholic schools of Western 
Australia on the last school week of 1903 (the latest 
Government figures available for that State). No 
official information appears in the census or reports 
of Tasmania, Queensland, or South AustraUa. The 
"Australasian Catholic Directory" for 1906 made 
what seems to be a somewhat conservative estimate 
when it set down as 105,835, the number of children 
attending Catholic schools throughout the Common- 

VII. The Aborigines. — ^The origin of the native 
tribes of Australia is one of the unsolved riddles of 
ethnology. An unknown number of these black- 
skinned people still live in their "wild" state, in 
small and scattered communities, over vast areas 
extending from Central Queensland almost to the 
coast of Western Australia. They have no ac- 
quaintance with metal, nor with the bow and arrow, 
and their weapons of war and chase are (with the 
exception of tne boomerang) of a very rude kind, 
wooaen spears and clubs, stone tomahawks, etc. 
They are extraordinarily keen and skilful hunters. 
They are polygamous, given at times to cannibalism 
and infanticide, and have no permanent dwelling, 
no pottery, and no idea of cultivation of the sod. 
They die out fast wherever they come in contact 


with the white man and his vices. The last Tas- teristic feature of which works is the frequency and 
manian aboriginal died in 1876. In New South effectiveness of their appeals to the writings of Prot- 
Wales and Victoria, the dwindling remnants of the estant historians and cuvines; Hall, ** Who translated 
native tribes are mostly settled upon reserves under the Bible?" A multitude of minor polemical 
State control. The most permanent and successful publications on questions of history, missions, doc- 
missions to the aborigines are those in the Dioceses of trine, statistics, socialism, education, medico-moral 
Perth and Genddton (Western Australia). subjects, religion and science, etc., have appeared 

VIII. Catholic LrrERATTTRS. — Under the penal from time to time from the pens of Cardinal Moran, 

slavery that long prevailed over a part of Australia, Archbishop Carr, Dr. Ullathome (" ^P^/ ^ Judge 

intellectual and moral advancement was subordi- Barton"), Fathers W. Kelly, J. O^alley, and 

nated to the two central ideas of punishment and E. J. Masterson, S.J., the Rev. W. Barry, D.D., 

money-getting. For some five decades from the the Rev. M. Watson, S.J., Benjamin Hoare, the 

date of the first colonization there was scarcely such Rev. P. O'Doherty, the Rev. M. Barrett, and others; 

a thing as a cultured class; the struggle for existence Byrne, "True Wisdom" Qiranslated from Thomas k 

was generally keen among the free settlers in a virgin Kempis); "Lietters of a Mother to Her Children" 

country; ana education, seldom more than primary, and ^Sketches of the Lives of Young Saints", books 

was mainly in the hands of convict teachers and of compiled by Loretto Nuns; Huault, ''The Mother 

convict tutors assigned to private families. The of Jesus". Devotional manuals have been published 

literary gloom of Australian penal servitude before by the Fathers M. Watson and J. Ryan, S.J., and a 

the days of the '48 men was lit up by two non-Cath- prayerbook by the Australian Catholic Truth 

oUc Insh convicts, Edward O'Shaumnessy, a gifted Society. This useful organization (established at 

poet and political writer, and George Waldron the Second Australian Catholic Congress in 1904) 

(better known as George Barrington), the prince of is doing excellent service by its publications, which 

modem pickpockets, whose romantic career has embrace nearly every department of Catholic lit- 

found fame even in the pages of the '* Dictionary erature. A place of honour in Australian apologetic 

of National Biography". To Australian Catholics, and general literature is rightly due to the two 

however, it is especially gratifying that one of the volumes containing the Proc^dinss of the Australa- 

first contributions of a writer of their faith and sian Catholic Congresses held at Sydney (1900) and 

country dealt a severe blow at the convict system; Melbourne (1904). 

this work was Dr. Ullathome's heart-rending P&n^- Physical Science, Law, PclUics, etc. — The foremost 

phlet, ''The Horrors of Transportation". Time, names in geological science in Australia are those 

free immigration, prosperity, nigher instruction, of the Rev. Juhan E. Tenison Woods, F.G.S., and 

more extended educational facilities, and the play the Rev. J. Milne Curran, F.G.S. Father Woods 

of representative institutions have since then com- was author of ''Geological Observations in South 

binea to develop in the "Land of Dawning" a rich Australia", "Geolc^ of Portland", and "North 

general literature, in many respects 9ui generis, and Australia and its Physical Geography". (Mennell 

marked, especially on its " lighter " side, by a certain says of this author: "His contributions to the pages 

weird melancholy which, according to Marcus Clarke, of scientific journals and the proceedings of learned 

is the predominant feature of Australian scenery, societies were numerous ana valuable.") Father 

In the literary development of the Commonwealth Curran is the author of "The Geology of Sydney 

Catholic writers have borne an honourable part, and the Blue Mountains" and "Quantitative 

The following list is made up exclusively of works Analysis". T. A. Coghlan (Agent-General for New 

produced by Catholic authors having at the time of Soutn Wales, Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society) 

writing a cfomicile in Australia. is the Mulhall of Australian statistical science. Tne 

History and Biography. — Ullathome, "The Hor- most imiwrtant of his many publications while he 

rors of Transportation", and "The Australian Mis- was Statistician of New South Wales were: "The 

sion"; Kenny, "The Catholic Church in Australia Wealth and Progress of New South Wales" and 

to the Year 1840"; Therry, "Comparison of the "The Seven Colonies of Australasia", both of which 

Oratory of the House of Commons Thirty Years Ago went through numerous editions. His successor 

and at the Present Day (1856)", "Reminiscences as statistician of the mother-state is W. H. Hall, 

of Thirty Years' Residence in New South Wales"; author of "The Official Year-Book of New South 

Flanagan, "History of New South Wales"; Tenison Wales". W. H. Archer, K.S.G.G., published sundry 

Woods, " History of the Discovery and Exploration of statistical works while Registrar-General of Victoria 

Australia"; Finn ("Garry-Owen'^), "The Chronicles in its young and strenuous days, and for twenty-five 

of Early Melbourne"; George Collingridge (whose years Dr. E. S. Hall compiled and published the vital 

brother Arthur originated the real art life of the statistics of Tasmania. Charles (afterwards Sir 

mother-state by founding the Art Society of New Charles) Gavan Duffy was the author of a "Guide 

in Australia"; Kelsh, "Memoir of Bishop Willson". Frank Gavan Duffy (son of Sir Charles), Judges 

The principal work written by Cardinal Moran in Casey and Quinlan, M. Brennan, Bernard O'Dowd, 

Australia is his monumental "History of The Cath- N. G. Power, and J. Hood. Benjamin Hoare, author 

olic Church in Australasia". Carr (Arehbishop of of "Preferential Trade", ranks high in political 

Melbourne), "Fifty years of Progress"; Byrne, circles as an authority on protective tariffs. John D. 

" History of the Catholic Church in South Australia" Fitzgerald, an author of recognized ability on munici- 

(two small vols, issued); Cleary, "The Orange pal reform, has written " Greater Sydney and Greater 

Society"; Gray, "Australasia, Old and New"; Don- Newcastle". Frederick J. Bloomfield did the Aus- 

ohoe (Arthur Cayll), "History of Botany Bay". tralasian work in "Webster's Dictionary". Helen K. 

Apologetic and Ascetic lAterature. — The most note- Jerome wrote a work on Japan. The Rev. Julian E. 

worthy contributions to Australian Catholic apolo- Tenison Woods compiled an "Australian Bibliog- 

getic literature are those of Cardinal Moran, " Letters raphy"; and useful educational works have issu^ 

on the Anglican Reformation ", and " The Reunion of from his pen and from those of Fathers P. J. O'Mara 

Christendom"; and of Archbishop Carr, "The Origin and W. Kelly, S.J., and of J. W. Foster-Rogers, 

of the Church of England", "The Church and the Archbishop O Reilly (Adelaide) has written pamph- 

Bible", "The Primacy of the Roman Pontiff", and lets on music, a subject on which he is an authority 

''Letters in Reply to Dr. Rentoul", the charac- of Australian reputation. 


FieUon. — ^Daniel E. Deniehy, lawver, statesman, Moran, in Sydney, in 1894); '' The Madonna " (Mel« 

jounudist, will be best remembereci for his clever boiune, 189/); '^The Gkuland of St. Joseph " (1906). 

skit, " How I Became Attorney-General of Barataria '\ A useful *' Catholic Almanac and Family Annual " is 

which was famous in its day, and is still as readable published for the Diocese of Maitland. Illustrated 

as ever. James Francis Hogan published "An scholastic annuals are also issued by most of the Catb* 

Australian Christmas Collection" of colonial stories olie colleges for boys, and tr$r some of the secondary 

and sketches. Ambrose Pratt is the author of schools for giris. — In sise, literary quality, successful 

''The Great Push Experiment", "Franks, Duellist", management, and influence, the Catholic newspapers 

and "Three Years with Thunderbolt". Among and magazines of Australia easily outrival the rest 

other Australian Catholic writers of fiction whose of the religious press in the Commonwealth. Manv 

work has appeared in book form are the following: Catholic names of note in the political, judicial, 

Miss Tennyson, Roderick Quinn, Laura Archer (a literary, and scientific history ot Australia were, 

collection of Queensland tales), F. M. Komer (pen for a time at least, associated with the religious or 

name, "George Garnet"), a Loretto nun (author of secular press of the country. Among them may be 

"I Never Knew"), the Kev. P. Hickey (" Innisfsil "). mentioned: Sir Charles Gavan Duffv; the Right Hon. 

"Australian Wonderland" is a cleverly written book William Bede Dalley, P.C., Q.C.; the Hon. John Hu- 

for children, in which two sisters (one of them a Sis- bert Plunkett, Q.C., M.L.C.; Sir Roger Therry; Rich- 

ter of Mercy) collaborated. Newspaper and periodi- ard Sullivan (brother of A. M. and T. D. Sullivan); 

cal liteorature has also been enriched with some excel- Judges Therry, Real, Power, O'Connor, Casey, Hey- 

lent work in fiction bv Australian Catholic writers. don, and Omnlan; the Hon. Edward Butler, Q.C., 

Poetry, — Among tne poets, two Irish singers, M.L.C., and his brother, Thomas Butler; £. W. O'Sulli- 
"Eva" of the Nation (Mrs. Kevin Izod O'Dohertv) van; Sir John O'Shannassy, K.C.M.G.; the Hon. Sir 
and "Thomasine", are now (1907) passing the Patrick Jennings, K.C.M.G., LL.D., M.L.C.; Edward 
evening of their lives in humble retirement in Queens- Whitty, the brilliant Anglo-Irishman, who ended his 
land. Roderick Flanagan (the historian of New days in Melbourne; William A. Duncan, C.M.G.; Rod- 
South Wcdes) published m his day a volume of verse, erick Flanagan; Daniel E. Deniehy; Philip Menneli, 
Victor J. Daley was a gifted and prolific verse-writer, F.R.G.S.; John Farrell: Victor J. Daley; the Rev. 
but his oody published work is "At Dawn and Dusk". Julian E. Tenison Woods* the Hon. J. V. O'Loffhlen; 
John Farrell, for a time editor of the Svdne^ Daily the Hon. Hugh Mahon; J. F. Hogan; Benjamin Hoare; 
Telegraph, was the author of "How He Died, and Roderick and P. E. Quinn; F. J. Bloomfield; Am- 
Other Poems". In 1897 he wrote a "Jubilee Ode" brose Pratt; Helen K.Jerome; John Hughes, K.C.S.G.; 
which was pronounced to be finer than Kipling's John Gavan Duffv; Frank Leverrier (noted as a 
"Recessional" as a piece of national stock-taking, scientist); Kenneth McDonall; — Nicholson* Frank 
Roderick Quinn has written "The Higher Tide", and Martin Donohoe; Ernest Hoben; C. Brennan; 
and "The Circling Hearths"; Edwin J. Brady, a T. Courtney; and others. Phil May first won fame 
poet of the sea and wharfside, "The Way of Many as a caricaturist in the columns of an illustrated 
Waters"; Bernard O'Dowd, "Dawnward" and "Dar- weekly published in Sydney. A number of able lay 
rawill of the Silent Land"; Cornelius Moynihan, and clencal writers are associated with the Catholic 
" Feast of the Bunya, An Aboriginal Ballad ", with a newspapers and periodicals of Australia. 

preface containing curious historical, legendary, Ths Auttmlian Handbook (variouB datw); the Year-Book9 

and ethnological lore regarding the Queensland ^^^ j^„i„ (varioua dates), and The Seven C<^iea of Au^ 

blacks; the Rev. W. Kelly, S.J., three convent tnlana (various dates); Acta et Dterela of the Australian 

son, S.J., a series of seven handsomely illustrated ^«» *»«<* T,*^x°'^^*'=*?r**_i>^^* ,^^.V"'*^'J^ 

Christmas booklete in ve«e which have gonethmurfi f,i^}%i^}j th^'^tS^^ 

many editions. Volumes of verse have also been pub- (1883): Bonwick. The Port PhiUip SetOemeni (1883). and 

writers (including various odes, etc., by the Rev. Ldmholte. Amw (7an«flwf» (1890); HirrcnxNeoN, Au»- 

J.JlkWpne^hasnotappear^lmsepamteform. StJ^SS^^'SSJXosQW.Jn^r^^S^ 

Catholie Journalism in Austraha had a long and WaUa from the Recorda (1894); Moran. Uielarv of the Catholic 

thorny road to travel before it reached assured sue- £*««*. ^Lx^l?*''"'*^*,*^^^?^''' ^^*'*'^^ J^J'*^f^^^S^ 

nooa Hocnnninir with " Th«» rhTVtninlp " rfniinH«v1 in ^>«te« (1897); DAvriT, Life and Progreee «n Auetralaeta (1898); 

Oeffl. lieginning Wltn ine ^^nromcle (lounded m Coohlan, Statietica of the Seren CoUmiee of Auatralaeia from 

Sydney, m 1839), the way was strewn with failures, i86l to 1899 (19(X)): Jos£. Hiatonf of Auatralia (1901); Cogh- 

Which, however, helped to form the steps leading i^n and Ewwa.Progreea of Auetralaw in the NinHeenth 

othe« to better & The eristing &thoUc Sl2£X^'»:"°pIS^'i;/dS5r™':'t*i t§^^, 

newspapers and periodicals of Austraha, with their of Central Autkraiia (1904). and The Nortkem Tribea of Central 

dates of foimdation, are, Weekly: Sydney, N. S. W., Auetralia JIWA); Hall, states of Au^ralia and Ne^ Zealand 

"The Freeman's Joumaf " (the old^t existing news- <^«>5); Ths AuetnUanan Cathaltc ^reo^f^ i9(?tf 

paper in Austraha, founded and firat edited by Areh- wenry w. uleaby. 

deacon McEncroe in 1850); and " The Catholic Press " Atuitrebertha, Saint, Virgin, bom c. 630 at Ther- 

(1895); Melbourne, Victoria, "The Advocate" (1868), ouane in the modem department of Pas-de*Odais in 

** The Tribune " (1900); Brisbane, Queensland, " The France; d. 10 Febmary, 703 or 704. When her father 

Australian " (foimded by Dr. O'Quinn in 1878), " The desired to give her in marriage to a young nobleman. 

Age " (1892); Adelaide, South Australia, " The South- she fled from home and took the ved from the hands 

em Cross " (1889); Perth, W. A., "The W. A. Rec- of Bishop Saint-Omer. Some time Uter she entered 

ord " (1874); Launceston, Tasmania, " The Monitor " the monastery of Port on the Somme, where she was 

(founded in 1894 by amalgamating '' The Catholic later elected prioress. Soon afterwards she was ap- 

Standard"of Hobart, and "The Morning Star" of pointed first abbess of the newly erected convent 

Launceston). — Monthly: Melbourne, " The Australian of Pavilly in Lower Seine. Under her direction the 

Messenger" (1887); *^The Austral Light " (an eccle- nuns of Pavilly became so celebrated for sanctity 

siastical property since 1899); Sydney, "The Annals that parents came from all sides to phice their 

of Our Lady *\—Quarlerly and Annual: " The Au»- daughters under the guidance of Austrebertha. Her 

trakasian Catholic Record " (founded by Cardinal name is in the Roman martytology and she is hon- 





(Hired as patron at Montreuil in the department of The only strip of coast land in Austria-Hungary lies 

Pas-de-Calais. on the Adriatic and has a length of 1,366 miles 

Rakbmck, The B^ieiiu .C'<^j»flter OiOjidoii, 1896); (2;800km.). The countries which border on Austria- 

VJS;S:S!^%^^ Hungary are: IWy, Switzerland, the princip^ty of 

Michael Ott. Lieehtenstem, Bavana, Saxony, Prussia, Russia, 

Rumania, Servia, Turkev, and Montenegro. 

▲mtremoiiliiB, Saint, Apostle and Bishop of Au- Church History. — ^The Austro-Hungarian Mon- 

veigne (c. 314). All that is certainly known of archy was created by the union of the Germanic,, 

Austremonius is deduced from a few brief sentences Slavonic, and Hungarian provinces which now lie 

in the writings of St. Gregory of Tours (Hist, within its territonr. This union took place in 151^. 

Franc, I, xxx, and De GloriA Confessorum, c. xzix). Upon the death of Louis II of Hungaiy and Bohemia 

According to this authority he was one of the seven at the battle of Moh^Uss, in that year, Bohemia and 

bishops sent from Rome into Gaul about the middle Hun^^ary were united to the Austrian possessions of 

of the third century; he laboured in Auveigne and Ferdinand I, of the Hamburg family. This union 

is said to have been the first Bishop of Clermont, was in accordance with the law of succession as well 

But from a study of the episcopal lists as given by as the result of a free choice. Up to 1526 each of 

St. Gregory himself, St. Austremonius could hardlv these three divisions of the present empire had its 

have antedated the commencement of the fourtn own separate religjious history, 

century, since his third successor died in 385. It is A. Early ChrisHanity, — ^The Romans in the time 

more likely, therefore, that he was the contemporary of Augustus took possession of those provinces of 

of the three Bishops of Aauitaine who attended the the present Austria-Hungary which lie south of the 

Council of Aries in 314. He was not a mart3rr. His Danube. In the course of time they built roads, 

cult began about the middle of the sixth century, founded cities, turned the territory into Roman 

when C^tius, a deacon, saw a vision of angels about provinces, and here and there converted the inhabi- 

his neglected tomb at Issoire on the Couze. His tants to Christianity. The cities of Aquileia and 

body was afterwards translated to Volvic, and in Salona, episcopal sees from the middle of the first 

761 to the Abbey of Mauzac. Towards the middle of century, were centres of Christianity for Noricum 

the ninth century, the head of the saint was brought and rannonia. In the year 294 five Christian 

to St.-Yvoine, near Issoire, and about 900 was re- workmen were thrown from the marble bridges of 

turned to Issoire, the origiiud place of burial. Sirmium (Mitrowits) into the Save and drowned. 

Aoa g5.. Nov.. 1. 40 sq.; Anal. BM.^ XIII. .33-46; Aff- During the persecution of the Christians under the 

SrW^SS^- c'hU^SS:T4: cd^^JTcenRTcilSS: Empe«>r Diocletian in 304, the soldier Floriamm 

Hog.), 2d ed.. 800, 801. was thrown mto the Enns at Lauriacum (Lorch). 

Francis P. Havet. The house of Augustinian canons, at St. Florian, 

in Upper Austria, now stands on the spot where the 

▲mtria. See Austro-Hunoarian Monarchy. body of this saint was buried. A tradition cives 

▲QStro-Hongarian Monarchy, The. — By this the same date for the martyrdom of the two bii^ops 
name is designated the European monarchy whose Victorinus of Petovia (Pettau in Southern Styria) 
dominions Imve for their main life-distributing and Quirinus of Siscia, who met death where the 
artery the River Danube, in its course from Engel- Kulpa empties into the Save. Even at this period 
hurtssell, near Passau, to Orsova. South of the Christianity must have had a laige number of ad- 
Danube lie the Austrian Alpine provinces and the herents in these districts, for alreadv an established 
provinces of Carinthia and Camiola; north of the organization is found here. The bisnops of Noricum 
Danube are the Carpathian and Sudetic provinces, were under the control of the Patriarch of Ac^uileia, 

Area and Population. — ^The monarchy as a while Pannonia was subject to the Metropohtan of 

whole has an area of about 262,577 square miles Sirmium. 

(680,887 square kilometres), and a population of The last representative of Christian culture among 

about 48,592,000. This gives it the second place in the Roman inhabitants of the Danube district is St. 

extent of territory, and the third place in respect to Severinus. The story of his life, by his pupil Eugip- 

nopulation, among the political divisions of Europe, pius, is the only written document we nave for the 

The average density of its population is, approxi- history of the Danubian provinces during the last 

mately, iSs to the sauare mile. The monarchy years of Roman occupation. Severinus settled near 

holds sway over: (a) the kinsdoms and provinces the present city of Vienna, built a monastery for 

represented in the Austrian Parliament, or Reichsrat, himself and his companions, and led so austere a 

which have together an area of 115,605 sq. m. life that even in winter, when the Danube was frozen, 

(300,008 sq. km.) and a population of 26,969^12; he walked up and down over the ice barefoot. His 

(b) the provinces of the Hungarian Crown which nave loumeys upon the f rosen river were errands of conso- 

a total area of 127,204 sq. m. (329,851 scj. km.) lation to the despairing provincials, who saw them- 

and a population of 19,885,465; (c) Bosnia and selves threatened on alTsides by bands of marauding 

HerjBegovina, with an area of 19,678 sq. m. (51,028 barbarians. In these journeys Severinus travelled 

sq. km.) and a population of 1,737,000, occupied as far as (^astra Batava (Passau), and inland from 

and administered by Austria-Hungary, though still the river up to Juvavum (Salsburs). Qod had 

theoretically a part of the Ottoman Empire. These granted him the gift of prophecy. When Odovakar 

populations include a great variety of races. In (Odoacer), King of the Heruli, set out on his march 

the Austrian territory there are: Germans, 9,171,000; a^nst Rome, he came to the saint and asked for 

Czechs, 5,955,000; Poles, 4,259,000; Kuthenians, his blessing. Severinus spoke prophetically: ''Go 

3,376,000; Slovenes, 1,193,000; Italians and Ladmi- forward, my son. To-day thou art still dad in the 

ans, 727,000. In Hungary the population is com- worthless skins of animals, but soon shalt thou make 

posed of: Magyars, 9,180,000: Rumanians, 2,867,000; gifts from the treasures of Italy." After Odovakar 

Germans, 2,138,000; Slovaks, 2.055,000; Croats, had overthrown the Roman Empire of the West. 

1,734,000; Serbs, 1,079,000; Kuthenians, 443,000. and had made himself master of Italy, he sent and 

The inhabitants of Bosnia and Herzegovina are invited Severinus to ask from him some favour. 

Servo-Croatians. Severinus only asked the pardon of one who had been 

The capitals of the three main divisions are: condemned to banishment. The Alamannic king, 

Austria, Vienna, with 1,675,000 inhabitants; Hun- Gibold, also visited him in Castra Batava, and the 

ffaiy, Budapest, with 732,000 inhabitants; Bosnia saint begged as a personal grace that the king cease 

and Herzegovina, Serajevo, with 38,000 inhabitants, from ravaging the Roman territory. His usual 


salutation was "Sit nomen Domini benedictum", and drove the Germans to the outskirts of the coun- 
corresponding to our "Praise be to Jesus". When try, the Czechs of Prague were the most important 
Severinus lay dying the sobs of his disciples prevented division. In a. d. 871 their prince, Borziwoy, and 
their praying; he himself began to recite the last his wife, Ludmilla, consented to receive baptism 
psalm, and with the closing words of this psalm, from St. Methodius. From this time on the history 
"Omnis spiritus laudet Dommum", he passed away of Bohemia is an account of the struggles between 
(482). Six years later the Romans withdrew from two contending parties, the Christian-Germanic and 
this region, taking the body of the saint with them, the National Heathen. At the instiflntion of the 
and returned to Italy. Here he was buried with National Heathen party the saintiy Duke Wenzd 
suitable honour in the castle of Luculanum, near (Wenceedaus) I was murdered by his brother, Boles- 
Naples, law I. But even Boleslaw had to rule accoraing to 
B. The Middle Ages, — ^During the period of migjra- the wishes of the Christian-Germanic {Mu-ty, ana his 
tions which followed the fall of the Roman Empire, son Boleslaw II founded the Bishopric of Prague 
Austria was the fighting-ground of the barbaric (973). The new see was placed under the Archbishop 
hordes which pour^ through it. Vindobona dis- of Mainz, and its first bishop was the Saxon Dithmar. 
appeared from the face of the earth; Pannonia was His successor, St. Adalbert (Wojtech), met a martyr's 
entirely laid waste by the Avars, a people related death (997) at the hands of the heathen Slavs of 
to the Huns. The same fate befell Styria, Carinthia, Prussia, whom he sought to bring to the truth. The 
and Camiola, desolated by the Slovenes, who now Benedictine Order came into Bohemia with the 
took possession of those provinces. The land lying founding of the monastery of Borevnov by Boleslaw 
on the upper Drave has since borne the name of II, and Boleslaw 's sister, Milada, was the first abbess 
"Pustertal ' (from the Slovenic pustf "waste"), of St. George, the Benedictine cloister for women in 
The Croats and Serbs seized the country south of Prague. Duke Bretislaw seized Gnesen and brought 
the Save. The Croats are the first-bom sons of the the body of St. Adalbert in triumph to Prague. 
Church among the Slavs. They were converted, Dabrowka, the daughter of Boleslaw I, married the 
about the year 650, by Roman priests. The Baju- Polish Duke Mieczyslaw, and the latter was baptized 
varii (Bavarians), a people from the West, spreiEul in 966. The son of Mieczyslaw laid the foundation 
themselves over the whole of Upper Austria. St. of an enduring church-organization by forming the 
Rupert, Bishop of Worms, baptized the Bavarian four bishoprics of Posen, Kolberg, Breslau, and 
duke, Theodo, at Regensburg (Ratisbon) and be- Cracow, and placing them under the Archbishopric 
came the Apostle of the Austrian Bajuvarii. He of Gnesen, wnich Imd been established in the year 
travelled ana preached nearly as far as Lauriacum. 1000. 

settled in Salzburg, and there erected a see ana The Magyars, a people from the Ural-Altai region, 
founded the monastery of St. Peter (c. 700). St. moved forward in 895 into the Avarian Wilderness 
Peter's is the oldest Benedictine monastery which on the Theiss. Attempts to convert them were 
has had a continuous existence down to our own made by the court of Byzantium as well as by St. 
times, Monte Cassino having been repeatedly de- Wolfgang, a monk of Maria Einsiedeln, by Piligrim, 
stroyed and deserted. The Benedictine cloister Bishop of Passau, who, as successor of the Bishops 
for women, Nonnberg, founded by Rupert's niece of Lorch, wished to be Metropolitan of all Pannonia, 
Ehrentraut, is also still standin^r. The Bavarian and by Adalbert of Praeue. Thus it was brought 
Duke Tassilo founded the Benedictine monasteries about that the Magyar rmer G^za, great grandson of 
of Mondsee (748) and Kremsmttnster (777). The Arpad, and his wife Sarolta were favourably inclined 
Bishops of Salzburg brought the Christian Faith to Clunstianity. The real Apostle of the Magyars, 
and German customs to the Slavs. A quarrel broke however, was Gaza's great son, St. Stephen. Ste- 
out, however, between the Carinthians and the phen received a Christian education and was bap- 
Patriarch of Aquileia. Charlemagne raised the tized by St. Adalbert. Upon the occasion of his 
Carinthian see of Salzburg to an archbishopric in marriage with Gisela, sister of the future emperor, 
798, settled the dispute with Aauileia by making St. Henry II, Stephen vowed to give his people the 
the Drave the dividing line of tne two provinces, blessings of Christianity. One of tne most important 
and in 803 established the border territories known measures taken by him for the security of tne new 
as the Mark of Friuli and the East Mark. faith was the founduig at Gran of an archbishopric 

, Moravia was won to Christianity by two brothers, with ten subordinate sees. As Stephen's patron 

Methodius and Constantine, Greek monks from saint in battle had been St. Martin, he founded the 

Thessalonica, known in history as the Apostles of Benedictine monastery of Martinsberg. He also 

the Slavs. Constantine invented the Glafolitic founded hospices for the reception of Hungarian 

alphabet, translated the Bible into Slavic, anaoom- pilgrims at Ravenna, Rome, and Jerusalem. Astri- 

posed the litur^ in that language. But, as Salzburg cus, the Abbot of Martinsberg, obtained for him, 

and Passau laid claim to tne region in which the from the pope, the title of king. Sylvester II sent 

brothers worked, complaint was made acainst them Stephen a crown of gold and, according to a tradition 

by the German ecclesiastics. Pope Hadrian II, (which, however, is not well founded) a Bull which 

however, authorized the liturgy in the Slavic Ian- decreea to the Kings of Hungary the privilege of 

guage. Constantine remained at Rome in a monas- the "Apostolic Majesty" (c|. v.). Having a sreat 

tery and took the name of Cyril, while Methodius, devotion to the Blesseo Virgin, Stephen caused nim- 

after many fruitful labours as Archbishop of Pannonia self to be crowned on the festival of the Assumption, 

and Moravia, died 6 April, 885, at Vehlehrad, on the the 15th day of August, in the year 1000, and cnurch 

River March. The Apostles of the Slavs are now historians have given to Hungary the title of "Mary's 

(pursuant to a decree of Leo XIII) commemorated Realm" {Regnum Marianum). 
throughout the Catholic Church on the 5th day of The gradual advance of Christianity in Austria 

July. The Latin Liturgy was reintroduced in Alorar towards the east is shown in the shifting of the abode 

via by Swatopluk, the successor of Duke Ratislaus, of the early rulers of the Babenberg (Bambeiv) line 

and soon after his death the Magyars overthrew the from Melk, on the Kahlenberg, to Vienna. One of 

3mpire of Great Moravia (906). When Moravia is this family, Leopold I, the Illustrious, had already 

again heard of m history (founding of the bishopric founded at Melk an establishment of secular canons, 

of OlmQtz, 1063), it is a province of Bohemia. These were replaced in 1089 by twelve Benedictine 

Christianity was introduced into Bohemia from monks from Lambach. At the time when Leopold's 

Moravia. Of the Slavic tribes which at the end of youngest son, Adalbert I. the Victorious, was mar- 

the fifth century controlled the interior of Bohemia grave, three youths left this region to go to Paris to 


study. WhSe on their way, they were obliged to new castle for himself (Schweixerhof) and the churd) 

spend a night in the open and fell to speaking of the of St. Michael. The church was intended for the 

future. Elach wished to become a bishop, and each benefit of the duke's attendants, retainers, servants, 

vowed that, if ever a bishop, he would found a monas^ and the townspeople who settled around the castle, 

tery. One, Gebhard, becabae Archbishop of Salzburg The scheme to form a bishopric at Vienna was not 

ana founded Admont and the Diocese of Gurk: an- carried out, but Eberhard il of Salzbun; founded 

other, Adalbero, Bishop of WUrzbur^ foimdea the bishoprics at Seckau and Lavant, for Styria and 

monastery of Lambach; while the third, St. Altmann Carinthia. Leopold's son and successor ^ Frederick 

of Passau, founded GOttweig for twelve canons under II, the last of the Babenberg line, was kmshted with 

the Rule of St. Augustine. The canons at GOttweig much religious pomp at the feast of the Ruification 

were replaced after the lapse of ten years by Bene- of the Virsin, 1232, in the castle church. Bishop 

dictines from St. Blasien in the Black Forest. All Gebhard of Passau celebrated Mass and gave the 

three of these bishops remained true to Gresory VII consecrated sword to the duke, two hundr^ young 

in the controversy of investitures. The Crusades nobles receiving knighthood at the same time, 

began during the reign of the Margrave Leopold 11. After the ceremony the voung duke rode at the head 

the Saint, and many of the crusading armies traversed of the newly made knights to Penzing, where jousts 

Austria. Leopold's mother, Ida, took part in a were held. 

pilgrimage of which Thiemo, Archbishop of Salzburg, Within a short space of time the national dynasties 

was the leader. The archbishop met the death of a of the countries under discussion died out in tne male 

martyr, and Ida was made a prisoner. Leopold lines: the Babenberg Dynasty (Austria) in 1246, the 

erected a church on the Kahlenberg and founded Arpadian (Hungary) in 1301, and the Premsrslian 

the monasteries Klostemeuburg and Heiligenkreuz. (Bohemia) in lS)6. In 1282 the Gennan Emperor, 

His wife, Agnes, widow of the Hohenstaufen Duke Rudolph of Hapsbur^, gave Austria in fief to his son 

Frederick, bore him eif^teen children. Their third Albrecnt. To Austna and Styria the dukes of the 

son. Otto, studied at Paris, entered the Gisterdan Hapsburg line soon added Carinthia, Camiola, the 

monastery of Morimond, became Bishop of Freising, Tyrol, and the Mark of the Wends. The rulers of 

and wrote a chronicle, ^'De Duabus Civitatibus , this line are deserving of great praise for their aid in 

and a second work, ** Libri Duo De Gestis Friderici I ". developing church life in these territories. Albrecht 

By reason of these two works he is the most noted I founded the court (Hofbvrg) chapel in his castle* 

German historian of the Middle Ages. Duke Rudolph IV in 1359 laid the comer-stone of 

After a hard stnig^e, the saintly King Ladislaus the Gothic reconstruction of the church of St. Ste- 

(d. 1096) succeeded m regulating the ecclesiastical phen. A hundred and fifty years elapsed before 

and civil affairs of Hungary. He founded the Bishop- the great tower of the church was completed. With 

ric of Grosswardein and summoned the dignitaries the consent of the pope the same duke founded the 

of the Church and the State to a diet at Szabolcs. LTniversity of Vienna in 1365. The university was 

This diet is often called a synod, on account of the modelled on the one at Paris and possessed ^e&t 

many decisions arrived at in church matters. The privilei^ (freedom from taxation, nsht of adimms- 

{mests were ordered to observe celibacy strictly, the tering justice). When part of the Council of Basle 
aity were commanded to keep Sunday and feast- separated from Eugenius IV and set up Felix V as 
days and to abstain from immorality. Ladislaus antipope, the theological faculty of the university, 
conquered Croatia, whose duke, Zwonimir, had of which at that time the celebrated Thomas Eben- 
received from a legate of Gregory VII at oalona dorffer of Haselbach was a member, sided with tbe 
(1076) a banner, sword, crown, and sceptre, with antipope. But the paps! le^te, John Carvajal, 
the title of king, in return for which he had sworn and iEneas Sylvius Piccolomini, the emperor's gov- 
feslty to the pope. ernmental secretary, prevailed upon Frederick III 
Henry II, Jasomirgott, was the first Duke of to espouse the cause of Eugenius and to sign the 
Austria. He built a residence for himself at Vienna Concordat of Vienna (1448). The concordat pro- 
(Am Hof)t in which was the Pancraz chapel, and vided that the annates and the confirmation dues 
founded the Schottenkloster for Benedictine monks should be restored to the pope, that the pope should 
from St. Jacob's at Regensburg. Octavian Wolzner, have the right to appoint to the canonries in the 
an architect from Oaoow, erected for the new duke uneven months, and that the filUng of ecclesiastical 
the church of St. Stephen, to which the parish of vacancies at Rome should be reserved to him. The 
St. Peter was added. Leopold V, the Virtuous, concordat was gradually accepted by all of the Ger- 
son of Henry II, took part in the Third Ousade ana man rulers, and up to the present tune the relations 
fought so bravdy that, as we are told, his armour between the German Church and the papacy are 
was stained blood red, and onlv the part under the r^gulat^ by its provisions. In 1452 Frederick was 
sword belt remained white. However, Richard the crowned emperor at Rome, beinp; the last emperor 
Lionhearted tore down the Austrian banner at the to be crowned in that city. In his reip;n the Bishop- 
storming of Ascalon and the enraged duke went home rics of Laibach (1462), Vienna, and Wiener-Neustadt 
at once. While on his way to Enj^land, Richard was (both the latter in 1469) were founded. During 
seized at Erdberg, and held a prisoner by the duke this period a great many monastic houses were 
at DQrrenstein. Crusaders being under the protec- founded in Austria, especially by the more recently 
tion of the pope, Celestine III put Leopold V under established orders: Carthusian houses were founded 
the ban. To this the duke paid no attention; but at Mauerbach, Gaining, Agsbach; Franciscan at 
when he fell with his horse, at Graz, broke a leg, and Vienna, Klostemeuburg, St. Pdlten, Maria Enzers- 
found himself near death, his conscience smote him; dorf. Pupping; Dominican at Graz and Retz. 
he sent for Albert III, Archbishop of Salzburg, who Under the Luxembourg line Bohemia attained a 
was in the neighbournood, and received absolution high degree of material and spiritual prosperity, 
from him. Fn^erick I, the eldest son of Leopold V, (Charles IV, before his reign began, succeeded m 
ruled only six years and died while on a crusade, having Prague raised to an archbishopric (1344), 
The reign of his brother, Leopold VI, the Glorious, and in this way made the country ecclesiastically 
was a brilliant one. He too went on a crusade ana independent of Germany. Charles had been a stu- 
endeavoui^d first to capture Damietta, the key to dent at Paris, and immediately upon ascending the 
Jerusalem, but was obliged to return home without throne he founded the University of Prague (1348), 
having accomplished anything. He married a the first university on German sou. Master Matthias 
Byzantine princess and formed relations with men of Anras and Peter Parler from Schw&bisch-GmQnd 
of (^reek learning and culture. The duke built a began the erection of the stately Cathedral of St 


V^ttua whioh is now nearing completion. Parler who was also called the "Shaven" (/2o{y) because h£ 

also erected the Teynkirche (Teyn church) in Prasue, had been a monk. After Ziska's death the extreme 

and the church of St. Barbara in Kuttenberg, while radicals took the name of "Orphans" because no 

Matthias of Anras built the fortress-castle of Karl- one was worthy to take Ziaka's place. They were 

stein. The crown jewels of Bohemia were preserved finally conquered, and an agreement, called the 

in the sumptuous cnapel at Karlstein. But Bohemia CompacUUa (Treaty of Iglau) based on the Four 

had a sudden fall from the height it had attained. Articles of Prague, was made with the moderate party 

King Wenzel (Wenceslaus), son of Charles IV, had (1436). The (>>mpactata provided: that in Bohemia 

no control of his temper, and began a (j[uarrel with everyone who demanded it should receive Holy 

the archbishop. The archbishop's vicar-general, Oommunion under both kinds; mortal sins shoxild be 

John of Pomuk (St. John Nepomucene), refused to punished, but only by the legal authorities; the Word 

tell what he had heard in comession. He was first of God should he freely expounded by clergy ap- 

tortured and then, gag^ and bound^ was thrown at pointed for the purpose; ecclesiastics should manaie 

night into the River Moldau. At this time the first their property according to the rules of the church, 

signs appeared in Bohemia of a religious agitation After this, Hussitism Uved on in the "Bohemian 

which was destined to bring the greatest sorrow both Brethren", who elected a bishop at Lhota near 

to Bohemia and to the adjoining countries. Jerome Reichenau (1467), and were finally carried into the 

of Prague had become acquainted with the writings current of the Reformation. 

of Wydif at Oxford. He returned home, bringing In Hungary Christian culture flourished during 

the teachings of Wyclif with him, and communicated the reign of the House of Anjou. Louis the Great 

them to his friend Hus. Hus came from Husinetz founded universities at Altofen and Ftlnfkirchen, 

near FnLch&titt, He was the child of a peasant, and built the fine cathedral at Kaschau. When 

and had become professor of philosophy at the Constantinople was captured by the Turks (29 May, 

University of Prague, preacher in the Bohemian 1453), a cry of horror resounded throughout Europe, 

language at the Bethlehem chapel, and confessor to and the pope sent forth John Capistran to preach a 

Queen Sophia. A complaint was bro\i{$ht in the crusade. The saintly monk came with an immense 

university against Hus on account of his teaching, following from Italy to Germany, Bohemia, and 

Of the four "Nations" (Saxons, Bavarians, Poles, Huneary. He preacned in the open, as the churches 

and Bohemians), which had votes in the affairs of coula not hold his hearers. A stone pulpit with a 

the university, only the Bohemians voted for Hus. statue of the saintly Capistran stands on the east 

Hus then turned a personal into a national affair, side of St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna. A hundred 

King Wensel issued a command that henceforth the thousand people crowded the square and the roofs 

Bohemians idiould have three votes, and the other of the houses to hear him. This was the more re^ 

"Nations" only one vote. Upon this 5,000 students markable because Capistran preached in Latin, 

and the German professors withdrew and founded Yet all who saw and heard him were moved to their 

tihe University of Leipzig. The university was now innermost souls. The Turks, in 1456, tried to 

simply a national one, and Hus without interference capture Belgrad, the key to Hunsar^. The papal 

taught the following doctrines: the church consists legate, John C^rvaial, and John Capistran raisea a 

only of the elect; no man is a temporal ruler, no man crusading army with which John Hunyady was able 

is a bishop, if he be in mortal sin; the papal dignity to defeat, at Belgrad, a Turkish army much more 

is an outcome of the imperial power; obedience to numerous. This was called the " Battle of the Three 

the church is the invention of men. Hus was sua- Johns". Hunyady and Capistran died shortly after^ 

pended by Archbishop Zbinko; he appealed to the wards from camp fever. Hunyady 's son had been 

pope (Alexander V) and then to Jesus Christ. John educated by John Vitez, Bishop of Grosswardein, 

XXIII placed Hus under the ban, Prague under an afterwards Archbishop of Gran. This prelate in- 

interdict, and called the Council of Constance. The stilled such a love oi learning into his pupil that 

Emperor Si^ismund gave Hus a safe-conduct which when the latter ascended the throne as Matthias 

protected him from acts of violence on the part of Corvinus, he gathered learned men about him, re- 

the indignant Germans through whose territory he established the decayed university at Ofen, and 

nust pass, but not from the verdict of the council, founded a new university at Pressburg. Thirty 

Hus was repeatedly examined before the council, copyists were kept busy at Ofen transcribing the 

but wo\ild not retract his opinions; the members of Greek and Latin classics. The volumes, which 

the council, therefore, unanimously condemned his were beautifully illuminated and handsomely bound, 

errors and delivered him to the secular power, by were known as 0)rvinian books, 
which, in accordance with the law of the land at the C. Modem Times. — If in analyzing church history 

time, ne was condemned to death at the stake (1415). Christian antiquity is taken to represent the period of 

Jerome of Prague suffered the same death the next the life and labours of the Churcn among the peoples 

year. While at Constance Hus sanctioned the influenced by Greek and Roman civilization, and the 

receiving of the sacrament in both kinds which had Middle Ages the period of the Church's life and labours 

been introduced by Master Jacob of Miez (Calix- among the Germans and the nations which came 

tines). As a former monk, John of Selau, was lead- into contact with them, then the modem period of 

ing a procession a stone was thrown at him from a history must be taken as that in which the influence 

window of the town hall. The throng, led by the of the Church began to extend throughout the whole 

knight John Zizka of Trocnov, attacked the town world. Modem times would, according to this 

hall and threw the judge, the burgomaster, and theory, beein with the discovery of the Nfew World, 

several members of the town council out of the win- But if the oeginning of the modem era is made, as it 

dow into the street, where they were killed by the usually is, to coincide with the Reformation, then 

fall. This is known in historyas the "First Defene»- it is further marked by the rise of that monarchy 

tretion of Prague". King Wenzel was so excited which was formed by the union of the Austrian, 

by the episode that he was struck with apoplexy and Slavonian, and Hungarian provinces tmder the 

died. The Hussite wars caused fearful devastation Hapsburgs in 1526. 

not only in Bohemia, but in the adjacent countries Ferdinand of Hapsburg, the ruler of the German- 

as well. Fortunately, the Hussites divided into the Austrian crown provinces, had married, at Linz, 

more moderate Calixtines, under John of Rokyzana, Anna of Hungry and Bohemia. When Anna's 

and the "Taborites", so called from the city and brother, Louis n, was killed in the desperate battle of 

mountain which they named Tabor. The Taborites Moh^U» (1526), Ferdinand of Austria succeeded by 

wen led by John Tazka, and Procopius the Great, right of inheritance and election as King of Bohraoia 


and Hungary. The n«w dooirine taught at Wttten^ most important factor in the defence of the Faith 

beig was soon brought into the Austrian provinces, and the elevation of Christian life. Ferdinand I 

Miners were the fint to spread the new teaching, obtsuned from St. Ignatius the founding[ of a Jesuit 

Noble families frequently sent their sons to German college in Vienna. The first two Jesmts came to 

universities, and even to Wittenberg, and these Vienna In 1551. They were followed, the next year, 

students often returned with Protestfmt ideas, and by St. Peter Canisius, the first German member of 

even brought Protestant preachers with them, the order, were assigned the abandoned Carmelite 

The constant danger from the Turks in Austria was monastery Am Hof , obtained two chairs in the 

exceedingly opportime for the new religious move* theological faculty, and founded a gymnasium with 

ment. One ot the fint preachers of the new doctrine a theological semmary attached. St. Peter Canisius 

in Vienna was Paul of Spretten (Speratus),a Swabian, was named court preacher, and for a time was ad- 

who had been driven out of Salzburg on account of ministrator of the Diocese of Vienna. He still in- 

his Lutheran views. The new doctrine entered fluences the present day through his "Summu 

Hunsary and Transylvania through merchants Doctrine Chnstiame"; an abrid^ent of which, 

who Drought Lutheran books with them, and it took called the catechism of Canisius, is still in use. A 

hold, more especially, among the German population few years later the Jesuits founded at Prague ft 

of the Zipser region and among the Saxons of Transyl* symnasium, a theological school, and a university 

vania. Hity&s Biro^ known as Devay. from the place for philosophical and theological studies, which in 

of his oriffin, Deva m Transylvania, nas been called contradistinction to the ''Carolinum" was called the 

"the Lutner of Hungary*'. Most of the Hungarian "Qementinum". They also founded schools at Inns- 

bii^ops had fallen at the battle of Mohics, and the bruck and at IVmau. The tutor and court preacher 

subsequent disputes concerning the succession to of Maximilian II, Ferdinand's eldest son, was Sebas* 

the throne distracted the monarchy. For these tian Pfauser, a man of Protestant tendencies. It 

reasons the new doctrines spread rapicUv, and Devay was feared that Maximilian would embrace the new 

was able to bring over to it such noble families as creed, but the papal nuncio. Bishop Hosius of £rm- 

the Batthvany and Bocskajr. It was then that land, pointed out to him those inconsistencies in the 

Calvinism bepai to be called in Hungary Magyar hit Protestant doctrine which prove its falsity. Maxi- 

(Hungarian &th), Lutheranism Nemet hit (German milian II gave permission to lords and knights to 

faith), and Catholicism Igcu hU (Right faith). Equal follow the Aufpburg Confession in their own castles, 

success accompanied the preaching of John Gross of cities, and viUases. David Chytr&us of Rostock 

Cronstadt in Transylvama. despite the efforts of drew up for the Irotestants a form of church service. 

George Utyessenich to cneck him. Utyessenich In Bohemia the Evangelicals tmited with the Bohe- 

(idso called, after his mother, Martinuisi) was prior mian and Moravian firethren, and called the new 

of the Pauline monastery at Szenstochov near agreement the ''Bohemian Confession". They had 

Cracow, and governed Transylvania as suardian of a consistory of fifteen to which the Evangelical 

John Sigismund Z^polyas. Gross added Harder to clergy were subordinate. Maximilian's position in 

his name in memory of his deliverance by an elder the part of Hungaiy controlled bv them was a diffi- 

bush (in the Transylvanian dialect horUert) from cult one, because rebels concealed their political 

death by drowning. In order to secure the crown schemes under the cloak of a struggle for religious 

for her son, John Sigismund Zdpolyas, his mother, freedom. His brother Charles was master of the 

Isabella, was oUiged to sanction the decisions of the inner Austrian provinces, Styria, Carinthia, Camiola, 

diet which met at Thorenburg (Torda) near Klausen- and GOrs. He summoned the Jesuits to Graz and, 

burg. These granted to adherents of the Augsburg in the religious pacification of Brilck, granted the 

Comession eaual rights with the Catholics. In free exeroise of religion at Graz, Klagenfurt, Laibach, 

Bohemia and Moravia Lutheranism first found and Judenburg. In return he demanded that the 

adherents among the Germans and especially among Protestants should leave him and his coreligionists 

the sect of the Utraquists. Just as the Hapsburg undisturbed in their faith, rights, and estates; 

I>^asty showed itself at this period to be the shield besides this the Lutheran preachers and teachers 

of Christianity against the advance of Islam, so also were obliged to leave the cities, market towns, and 

it proved itself by its constancy and seal to be the estates under the personal rule of the archduke, 

support of the Faith against the religious innovsr In order to counteroalance the endowed schools of 

tions. Pope Pius IV conceded the cup to the laity the St^rrian provinces the Archduke Charles founded 

in the Arehdioceses of Gran and Pracue, a concession, the University of Graz (Carolina) in 1586. Charles's 

however, withdrawn by St. Pius v. Ferdinand I son Ferdinand G^ter the Emperor Ferdinand II) 

sought in many ways to be of aid: by his mandates, was educated at Ingolstadt, and while ^..ere he 

by the inspection of convents and parishes, by his declared, "I would rather give up land and people 

care in selecting competent ecclesiastics, by the and go away in nothing but a snirt than sanction 

introductionof the newlv established Society of Jesus, what might be injurious to religion". When he 

and by proposals which were sent to the Council became ruler he appointed commissioners who 

of Trent in support of reforms. The mandates cleared the land o! these preachers (ranters), 

of Ferdinand were of little use, but the inspections The bishops George Stobaus of Lavant and Martin 

and the enforcement of the decisions of the Council Brenner of Seckau (the Hammer of the Heretics) 

of Trent had edffect. The Bishops of Vienna^ Fabri were at the head of these reformatory commissions. 

(Heigerlein), and Frederick Nausea (a Latimzation But no blood was shed in this counter-reformation, 
of Grau; Nausea, horror, disgust) were unusual men. At the distribution of provinces Archduke Ferdi- 

With unfla^ing zeal both preached on Sundays and nancL husband of Philippina Welser had received 

feast days in the Cathedral of St. Stephen and took t^e Tyrol. The diet of 1570 decided the religious 

part in the religious movement by tne publication position of that province. The governor, Jacob of 

of theological pamphlets. Nausea's sermons are Pagrsbach, declared firmlv that to grant the wishes 

characterized in a rude rhyme of the day: — of the Protestants would be contrary to the customs 

Viel tausend Menschen standen da and ordinances of the land and, further ^ that it would 

Es predigt Bisohof Nausea, be folly to rend religion, the strongest tie which binds 

Wie er denn pflegt zu aller Zeit hearts together. All classes agreed with him. 

Sein' Schftflein zgebn selbst die Weid. Rudolph H, Maximilian's eldest son and successor. 

"Many thousands gather where Bishop Nausea lived m the Hradschin at Prague, where he carried 

preaches, and himself, as his wont is, feeds his flock", on his studies in alchemy and art. The Arehduchy 

—In the Austrian provinoas the Jesuits were the of Austria was ruled by his brother Ernst* Ernst 


was aided by Helchior Khled, who brou^t about senUeneflB of his character, and hu strong patriotfi 
the oounter-feformation in Austria. Khlesl was the feeling. He brought about the return of fifty noble 
child of Protestant parents; his father had been a famOies to the mother church and was the author of 
baker in Vienna. He was converted by the court the first O&tholic polemic in the Hungarian language, 
preacher, George Scherer. From the time of Scherer a "Guide to Catholic Truth*'. He founded at^rmau 
until the suspension of the order the court preachers a university which was later transferred to Budapest, 
were choeen m unbroken succession from the Jesuits, and also the Hungarian Collese at Rome. Believing 
Khlesl became Provost of St. Stephen's, Chancellor that the preservation of region requires worthy 
of the university, and Bishop of Vienna. During servants he founded at Vienna, 1623, a college 
the reigns of Ernst and his brother Matthias, Khlesl (Pasmaneum) for the training and instruction of 
was all powerful. Rudolph II having shut himself clergy for all the dioceses of Hungary. Ferdinand II 
up in Prague, the members of the Hapsbuig family called Fixm£n his friend. This emperor raised the 
chose the Archduke Matthias to be their head. The bishops of Vienna to the rank of prince-bishops 
Bohemians held to Rudolph 11, but wrung from him (1631). When the terrible religious war came to an • 
a rescript (MajedOi^brief) in 1609. This confirmed end in the Peace of Westphalia, and the diplomats 
the Bohemian Confession, granted the Protestants played with religious establishments and monasteries 
permission to use the universit^r, and gave them as boys play with nuts, and invented the term 
the right to choose a consistory; it also allowed the ''secularization" to express the secular i^propria- 
three temporal estates of lords, knights, and cities tion of the Church's estates, the Hapsbuig pnnces 
having chartered rights to build Protestant churches werenot willing to commit Austria to such a policv. 
and schools. Contrary to the provisions of this At this crisis the Hapsbuig Dynasty obeyed tne 
agreement, subjects of the Archbishop of Prague directions of Providence. Had the house of Haps- 
built a Protestant church at Klostergrab, and sub- buig then come forward as champions of the new 
jects of the Abbot of Braunau did the same at doctrine which originated at Wittenberg, it would 
Braunau. The bishops ordered these to be closed, have been easy to renew the shattered imperial power 
and when the Emperor Matthias supported them in Germany and five to the crown of the Holy 
the result was (1620) the "Second Defenestration of Roman Empire a lustre far exceeding that of any 
Prague" with which the Thirty Years War began, other European diadem. But reverence for God 
Tlie Elector Palatine Frederick V, the head of the and Holv (Jhurch had greater weight with the em- 
Protestant League and of the German Calvinists, perors of this line than worldly advantage. For one 
was dected King of Bohemia. The cathedral was hundred and twenty years they battled with the 
altered to suit Calvinistic church services. The storms which the scHcalled Reformation had stirred 
altars were demolished, the pictures destroyed, and up, while the armies of Islam attacked Vienna and 
Scultetus, the court preacher, arranged a church the edge of the Ottoman Empire was pushed forward 
service. No ruler ever began to reign under more as far as Raab. Even when Louis XIV forced his 
distressing conditions than Ferdinand II. The way in from the West, bringing calamity in his train, 
insurgents under Thum stood before the gates of and the war cnr of the Osimmli was heard within the 
Vienna; those unfriendly to Catholicism witliin the imperial citadel, the rulers of Austria still trusted in 
city made common cause with the enemy. Ferdi- God. Innocent XI sent subsidies, and the saintly 
nand, however, never lost courage. Khlesl, Bishop Father Marco D'Aviano aroused Christian enthusiasm 
of Vienna, proved to be too weak and was therefore by preaching a crusade. The feast of the Holy Name 
coniSned first in the castle of Ambras and then in of Mary is a reminder that on the 12th of Septen&ber, 
the castle of Sant' Angelo at Rome. He lived to have 1683, the power of Islam was forever broken before 
the satisfaction of being restored in state to his the walls of Vienna, and that the inheritance of St. 
diocese. He founded in Vienna the Himmelspfort- Stephen was then freed from the Turkish yoke, 
kloster, which commemorates the beautiful legend Goa sent the rulers of Austria to do His work, and 
of the truant mm whoee place as doorkeeper was that they did it is an honour exceeding that of the 
taken during her absence by the Blessed Virgin. ouickly fading garlands which victory twines about 
After the oattle of the White Mountain, Ferdinand tne victor's chariot. During this period the Piarist 
took severe measures against the disturbers of the and Ursuline orders were active in the work of 
peace; they were driven out of the country, and education. New bishoprics were founded at Leit- 
finally the rescript, which had been the source of so merits (1656) and KOniggratz (1664). C!haries VI 
much trouble, was annulled. A new constitution raised Vienna in 1722 to an archbishopric. While 
was published which, among other provisions, made France at this time pointed with pride and reverence 
the clergy the highest estate of the land. The to its famous divines, the great preacher of Vienna 
emmror was obliged to give Upper Austria in pledge was the always clever, but often eccentric, Augus- 
to Bavaria as security for the cost of the war. Tne tinian. Father Abraham a Sanct& Clari, whose 
cruelties of the Bavarian troops and Ferdinand's family name was Ulrich Megerle. For example, 
order, requiring the people either to leave the country preaching on the feast of the conversion of St. Paul 
or to return to the old belief, led to a peasant revolt {Pauli)^ he announced as his theme Gauli, Mauli. 
under the leadership of Stephen Fadinger, the pro- and Fauli, GauU he interpreted to mean pride ana 
prietor of a farm not far from St. Agatha, which was sensuality (Gati/, "horse"): A/au/t, gluttony, drunk- 
carried on until Fadinger died of a wound at Lins. enness, and wrangling (ii/au/, ''mouth"); Fauli, 
The Catholic was now again the dominant religion indolence (/au/, ''lazy ). 

and the Protestants retir^ into the little-frequented The fifty years preceding the French Revolution 

mountain districts. In Hungary the Government are known in histoiy as the period of the "Enlighten- 

could not accomplish so much. However, Peter ment". The Rationalist writers of this period 

Pdzmdn laboured with success against the spread believed that by enlightenment, in their sense of 

of the new religious doctrines. Pdzmdn was bom at the word, a cure could be found for the evils of the 

Grosswardein (Nagy Vdrad) of Calvinistic parents, time, and a means of promoting the happiness of 

At sixteen he changed his creed, then entered the mankind. Men were lea more and more away from 

Society of Jesus and studied at Cracow, Vienna, and the influence of the Church, the loftier aspirations of 

Rome. At Rome Bellarmine and Vasquez were noble and pious souls were scorned, and only the 

among his teachers. When professor at Graz he claims of a refined sensuality deemed worthy of 

published the "Imitatio CHinsti". He finally re- consideration. The new ideas made their way into 

turned to Hungary, became Primate, and gained great Austria, and that country became the birthplace of 

influence forwe Church through his eloquence, the Joeephinism, so called from the Emperor Jos^h U^ 


whose poh'cy and legislation embodied these ideas, alone; 51 in Lower Austria. The property of thesi 
Maria Theresa forbade the sale of the book written conventual institutions was turned into a fund foi 
b^ Febronius, but soon its sale to the learned and churdi expenses, which was to be administered bj- 
discreet was permitted. Urged b^ her council, the aeveral provinces. In Lower Austria alone 231 
Maria Theresa issued the ''Flacitum r^um", new parishes were formed. Much discontent was 
made a stole-tax ordinance and obtained from caused by the appointment of an '^ ecclesiastical 
Benedict XIV a reduction of the feast days. By court commission ' which issued a number of arbi- 
this last regulation all the Apostles are commemorated trary regulations concerning public worship: only 
on the feast of Sts. Peter ana Paxil, and all the martyrs one Mass was to be celebrat^ m a church, and thai 
in the Mass and Breviary on the feast of St. Stephen, at the hiffh sltar; in parish churches, during tho 
The empress also abolished the convent prisons, and seasons of fasting^ only two fast-day sermons, on 
ordered that passages in the Breviary lessons for the Wednesday and Friday^ must be preached; after- 
feast of St. Uregory VII which are opposed to the noon devotions, the Litany of Loretto, and the 
increase of the secular power should be covered over Rosaiy were forbidden; a requiem might be cele- 
with paper. She also put a stop to public excom- brated in a parish church upon the occasion of a 
munications and public penances. Tne last public death, but not upon the anniversary: it was forbidden 
penance (1769) was that of a merchant at Pyrawart to expose the Blessed Sacrament in a monstrance, 
in Lower Austria who had struck an ecclesiastic. He the ciborium must be used instead; only when the 
stood for an hour at the church door holding a black Host was displayed could more than six candles be 
candle. When Clement XIV suppressed the Society placed on the futar. A special regulation forbade 
of Jesus, the Archbishop of Vienna, Cardinal Migazzi, the dressing of statues of the Virgin and ordered 
sought to save that oraer in Austria. "If the mem- that the bodies of the dead should be buried in sacks 
bers of the order should be scattered, it would not and covered with (quicklime. Further ordinances 
be easy to fill their places; it would cost much ex- forbade the illumination and ornamentation of sacred 
pense and time to bnng conditions back to the point pictures^ the exhibition of relics, and pilgrimages, 
at which these priests had left their work if they The Edict of Toleration (1781) granted the private 
were forced to abandon it. " Just twenty years exercise of their religion to Lutnerans and Cslvinists. 
later Migazzi begged the Emperor Francis 11 to re- The marriage law of 1783 runs: "Marriage in itself 
establish the order. "I can prove to Your Majesty", is regarded as a purely civil contract. Both this 
he said, "that even the late French ambassador, who contract and the privileges and obligations arising 
was certainlv an unprejudiced witness, did not hesi- from it are entirely dependent for their character 
tate to say that but for the suppression of the Jesuits and force on the secular laws of the land." In 1783, 
France would never have suffered from the Revolu- also, all schools, episcopal and monastic, for the 
tion, which brought such terrible results in its train, training of the derry wero abolished, and general 
Three months before the death of Your Majesty's seminaries wero founded at Vienna, Budapest JPa via, 
grandmother I heard her say, 'Oh. if I had only and Lou vain, with branches at Graz,01mQtz, Prague, 
followed your advice and had availed myself of your Innsbruck, Freiburg, and Pressburg. This measure 
statements!' " After the suppression of the Jesuits was intended to check the influence of the bishops 
their property was converted mto a fund for the aid in the training of ecclesiastics, and to obtain devoted 
of students, and the whole system of education was servants of the State. The Minister of State, Van 
remodelled from top to bottom. Rautenstrauch, Swieten, took care that the new schools were supplied 

den drei 
; a lodge 

Marx, of the Congregation of the Pious Schools, called "Zu den gekrOnten Stemen und zur Red- 
planned a Realgymnasium(liigh school without Greek) Uchkeit" was formed soon after at Prague. Joseph 
with mx classes, which proved very successful. The II, however, had no alliance with Freemasons. "I 
common schools, which Maria Theresa had called a know little about their secrets", he said, "as I never 
political necessity, were reorganized by Abbot John had the curiosity to take part in their mummeries ". 
ignaz Felbiger of Sagen in Prussian Silesia, each Still, his words, "The Freemason societies increase 
parish being given a primary school, each district and are now to be found in the smallest cities", 
a high school, and the capital of each province a show the rapid growth of the order. Although 
normal school with which an institute for training many of the representatives of the Chureh failed to 
teachers was connected. Felbiger wrote the neces- meet the new tendencies with force and courage, 
saiy school books. The school at Kaplitz in southern the Prince-Arehbishop of Vienna, Cardinal Migazzi, 
Bone nia, under the supervision of tne parish priest, attacked them boldly. He wrote vigorously and 
Ferdinand Kindermann, was noted aa a model defended the Chureh with energy. He was well 
school. supported by the Primate of Hungary, Count Joseph 
In ten years Joseph II published 6,200 laws, court Batthydnyi, and in the lower provinces by tne 

Xlations, and ordinances. Even those measures Cardinal Count von Frankenberg. But their efforts 

;h were good and appropriate in themselves were in vain; the movement continued to grow. In 

generally bore the evidences of precipitancy. His tins condition of affairs Pius VI felt it necessary to 

very first ordinances were directed against the govern- take some action, and he resolved to visit Vienna, 

ment of the Catholic Church and aroused discontent This visit (1782) was very opportune for the emperor 

by their interference with the affairs of the Church, and the leaders of the new tendency in the empire. 

Tne acceptance of papal decrees without the sanction Eybel issued the libellous pamphlet, "Was ist der 

of the Government was forbidden. The bishops Papst?" The value of the pamphlet literature of 

were forbidden to apply for, or make use of, tne the Josephinist movement is not in proportion to its 

Quinquennial faculties of the Holy See, on the ground amount. The roads traversed by tne papsl cort^ 

tnat they had full authority to act for themselves, were lined with the faithful who were eager to obtam 

On the other hand, they were not allowed to issue the blessing of the Holy Father. The emperor met 

pastoral letters or instructions without the sanction the pope at Wiener-Neustadt, and on the 22d of 

of the Government. The Government soon bei^an Manm the two heads of the Christian world entered 

to close those monasteries which were not occupied the imperial city. The emperor showed the pope 

with the spiritual care of a community, teaching, or every attention, but his chancellor of state. Prince 

nursing, and all the brotherhoods were suspended. Kaunitz, was less considerate. At Easter the pope 

About 738 religious houses were closed; 13 in Vienna celebrated High Mass in the chureh of St. Stephen 


and afterwards blefised, from the balconsr of the permitted^'toapointnot fardJatant", andSatuida;^ 

church fadng Am Hof , the vaat throng which filled eveoiog devotions were lUao allowed (without Bene- 

the BQuare. But the object of the pope's visit was diction, however), as well as the exposition of relics, 

sained only in part, although it may oe said that the Francis II was a devout and conscientious Cbris- 

Josephinist fanaticism began to give place to a more tian, and a ruler who wished to be a father to hie 

sober mood. When the Holy Father left Vienna, people. Nevertheless, it was during his reign that 

22 April, after a stay of just one month, the emperor what is called the Josephinist system struck firmer 

accompanied him as far as Mariabrunn. Here, roots. In the first place, Uie struggle with France, 

after praying in the church, the two parted. The next which lasted over twenty years, demanded all the 

year the emperor visited Rome, wnere the Spanish energies of the Government, and during this reign 

ambassador, Azara, and Cardinal Bemis are said to both clergy and people grew more accustomed to 

have had a moderating effect upon him. There was the Josephinist regulations. But in addition to this 

no break with the Curia. Francis I dung with a childlike devotion to the 

One work of lasting value which this emperor memory of his uncle Joseph II, whom he called his 

undertook was in connexion with diocesan boimdaries. second father. And, furthermore, whenever any 

He took from the Diocese of Passau that part which concession was made to the Church, the supporters 

lies in Austria and formed with it the See of Lins; of Josephinism raised an outcry. In 1793, for in- 

the episcopal residence was transferred from Wiener- stance, the Qovemment was informed that in the 

Neustadt to St. Pdlten, Bregens was made the seat church of St. Stephen Mass was celebrated simtU- 

of a vicar-jgeneral, and a bishopric was founded at taneouslv at sevenu altars, and that in several places, 

Leoben. The worst blunder committed by Joseph II at the afternoon litanies, Benediction was piven with 

in his later years was his obstinate adherence, in spite the monstrance. A priest had been the mformant. 

of the warnings of Cardinal Frankenberg, to the After repeated conferences the cardinal obtained 

scheme of erecting a general seminary at Louvain. permission to have two Masses said at the same time 

Van Swieten put Stdger in charge of it. St6ger was m the church of St. Stephen but '' the Benediction 

one of the few Catholic priests who had committed could be given only once at the close of the service", 

themselves unreservedly to the "Enlightenment" The almost insiurmountable difficulty in the way of 

movement. Maria Theresa had dismissed him from reform was the ecclesiastical court commission. It 

his position as teacher of church history, and his was the only means of communication between a 

opinions were to be found in print in his compendium bishop and the emperor. Migassi wished, above 

of church history. The career of Aurelius Fesaler eversrthing, to eliminate this difficulty. "I am in all 

is a still more distressing example of the influence of things", ne said, "Your Majesty s most dutiful 

the new spirit. Fessler was bom in Hungary and subject. But in his ecclesiastical character the 

came to Vienna as a Capuchin monk. There he chid shepherd must say boldly that the placing of 

became acquainted with Eybel, and as an offset to such fetters upon the guardians of the Qiurch is an 

Eybel's "Was ist der Papst?" issued "Was ist der offence to all Catholics, and it is a still greater offence 

Kaiser?" Appointed professor of theolo^ at Lem- that this power is given to men of worldly or untrust- 

berg, he entered the Freemason lodge "Ph6nix sur worthy reputation, and even to men known to be 

runden Tafel", but was soon obliged to leave Lem* dangerous or of notorious character." The emperor, 

berg "on account of debt and frivolous demeanour ind^, sought to do away with the worst features 

unsuited to his calling". He became a Lutheran, of the svstem which had come down to him from 

established himself in Berlin as legal counsellor in his predecessors. He authorised the prayer, the 

ecclesiastical and school cases, got a divorce in order solemn benediction of graves, and the pilgrimages 

to marry again, and accepted a professorship in the to Biariazell (the first of whicn, in 1792, was ledoy 

acadeihy at St. Petersbui^. Obliged to leave this Migazzi himself), and the draping of "the poor 

position in a year's time "on account of atheistical statues of the Mother of God", 

opinions", he succeeded in becoming an Evangelical Man cannot at will be stirred to activity or lulled 

bishop, and died at St. Petersburg. His "Reminis- to sleep. However, at the beginning of the nin^ 

cences of My Seventy Years' Pilgrimage" presents teenth century a number of circumstances combined 

a melancholy picture of long and wea^ wanderings, to bring about an increase of the religious spirit in 

Although the reforms of Joseph II were well- Austria. In 1802, the emperor issued two circulars, 
intentioned, yet the independence of the Church the first on "the means of elevating the secular 
suffered detriment through them. His enactments clergy" and the second on "the means of improving 
were drafted by Austrian canonists without any the regular dergpr". To remedy the lack of priests, 
previous understanding with the authorities of the the first order mcreased the number of gymnasia, 
Church, and in violation of her rights (jus circa directed the establishment of a theological training- 
sacra). In many instances the tender genna of school, with a seminary attached, for each diocese, 
religion were killed, and a careless, frivolous way of and granted stipends to divinity students. Ecdesi- 
thinking resulted. astics belonging to an order were to wear the habit 

Leopold II, the successor of Joseph II, entered of their orde