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i ^ 


u^E oiu.y 


The Catholic Encyclopedia 


Simony— Tournely 















liew Bote 

Niha Obstat, July 1, 1912 





Copyright, 1912 
By Robert Appleton Company 

Copyrighty 1913 
By the encyclopedia PRESS, INC. 

The articles in this work have been written specially for The Catholic 
Encyclopedia and are protected by copyright. All rights, includ- 
ing the right of translation and reproduction, are reserved. 

Contributors to the Fourteenth Volume 

AHERNE, CORNELIUS, Rector, Professor of 
New Testament Exegesis, St. Joseph's Col- 
lege, Mill Hill, London: Son of God; Son of 
Man; Timothy and Titus, Epistles to. 

ALBERS, P., S.J., Maastricht, Holland: Thijm. 
Joseph Albert Alberdingk; Thijm, Peter Paul 
Mana Alberdingk. 

ALDASY, ANTAL, Ph.D., Archivist of the Li- 
brary OF the National Museum, Budapest: 

N Sirmium, Diocese of; Steinamanger, Diocese of; 

^ Stuhlweissenburg, Diocese of; Sz^nt6, Stephan; 

Szatm^r, Diocese of; Szentiv^nyi, Martin. 

ALLARD, PAUL. Editor, "Revue des Questions 
HiSTORiQUES , Paris: Slavery. 

ALSTON, G. CYPRLAN, O.S.B., London: Solesmee, 
Abbey of. 

AMADO, RAMON RUIZ, S.J., IX.D., Ph.L., Coi^ 
LEGE OF St. Ignatius, Sarria, Barcelona: 
Spain; Tarazona, Diocese of; Tarragona, Arch- 
diocese of; Teruel, Diocese of. 

holm, Sweden: Stockholm. 

AYME. EDWARD L., M.D., New York: Toribio, 
Alfonso Mogrovejo, St. 

tory, Birmingham, England: Sophronius; 
Symmachus the Ebionite; Synesius of Cyrene; 
Theodoric Lector; Theonas; Theophilus^ Bishop 
of Antioch; Three Chapters; Titus, Bishop of 

S.T.D., Rome: Statistics, Ecclesiastical. 

BAUR, CHRYSOSTOM, O.S.B., Ph.D. (Louvain), 
CoLLEGio Di San Anselmo, Rome: Theodore, 
Bishop of Mopsuestia; Theodoret; Theophilus, 
Patriarch of Alexandria. 

BECHTEL, FLORENTINE, S.J., Professor of 
Hebrew and Sacred Scripture, St. Louis 
University, St. Louis: Susa; Tostado, Alonso. 

BENIGNI, MGR. UMBERTO, Prothonotary 
Apostolic Partecipante, Professor of Ec- 
clesiastical History, Pontificia Accademia 
DEI NoBiLi EccLEsiASTici, Rome: SinigagUa, 
Diocese of; SoUm6es Superiore; Sorrento, Arch- 
diocese of; Sovana and Pitigliano, Diocese of; 
Spedalieri, Nicola; Spoleto, Archdiocese of; Squil- 
lace, Diocese of; Suourbicarian Dioceses; Susa, 
Diocese of; Syracuse, Archdiocese of; Tanucci, 
Bernardo |Taran to, Diocese of j Telese, Diocese of; 
Teramo, Diocese of; Termoh, Diocese of; Ter- 
racina, Sezze, and Pipemo, Diocese of; Tivoli, 
Diocese of; Todi, Diocese of; Tortona, Diocese of. 

BERTREUX, EPHREM M., S.M., Prefect Apos- 
tolic OF THE South Solomon Islands: Solomon 
Islands, Prefecture Apostolic of the Southern. 

BERTRIN, GEORGES, Lrrr.D., Fellow of the 
University, Professor of French Litera- 
turB; Institut Catholique, Paris: Swetchine, 
Sophie-Jeanne-Soymonof ; Tassin, Ren^-Prosper; 
TiUemont, Louis-s^bastian Le Nain de. 

BESSE, J. M., O.S.B., Director, "Revue Mabil- 
lon", Chevetogne, Belgium: Thebaid. 

BOLLAND, JOSEPH, S.J., Stonyhurst College, 
Blackburn, England: Soul; Spirit; Spiritualism. 

BOSMANS, H., S.J., CollIsge Saint Michel, 
Brussels: Stevin, Simon. 

D.C.L., Director, "Canoniste Contemporain", 
Professor of Canon Law, Institut Cath- 
olique, Paris: Synods, National. 

BRANTS, VICTOR. J.C.D., Member of the Royal 
Academy of Belgium, Louvain: Thonissen, 
Jean Joseph. 

BRAUN, JOSEPH, S.J., St. Ignatius College, 
Valkenburg, Holland: Stole; Surplice; Taber- 
nacle; Throne; Tiara. 

BRifiHIER, EMILE, Lrrr.D., Rennes, France: 
Stoics and Stoic Philosophy; Tancred. 

ton Castle. Perthshire, Scotland: Thomas 
Abel, Blessed (sub-title Blessed Edward Powell). 

BURTON, EDWIN, S.T.D., F.R. Hist. Soc, Vice- 
President, St. Edmund's College, Ware, 
England: Simpson, Richard; Smith, Richard. 
Bishop of Chalcedon; Smith, Richard; Sodor ana 
Man, Ancient Diocese of; Spencer, The Hon. 
George; .Stanyhurst, [Richard; Stapleton, Theo- 
bald j Stapleton, Thomas; Stuart, Henry Benedict 
Mana Clement; Sutton, Sir Richard; Tatwin, 
Saint; Taxster, John de; Theobald, Archbishop 
of Canterbury; Thomas of Beckington; Thomas 
of Bradwardine; Thomas of Hereford, Saint; 
Thomas Percy, Blessed; Thompson, Edward 
Healy; Thompson, Harriet Diana; Tichbome, 
Thomas, Venerable; Tiemey, Mark Aloysius; 
Tootell, Hugh; Touchet, George Anselm. 

Abbey, Bath, England: Sixtus IV, Pope. 

CABROL, FERNAND, O.S.B., Abbot of St. 
Michael's, Farnborough, England: Terce. 

CALLAN, CHARLES J., O.P., S.T.L., Professor 
of Philosophy, Dominican House of Studies, 
Washington: Slotanus, John; Soto, Dominic; 
Spina, Bartolommeo; Stephen of Bourbon. 

THE-FossE, Bath, England: Socialism. 



CASANOVA, GERTRUDE, O.S.B., Stanbrook Ab- DELAUNAY, JOHN B., C.S.C., Rome: Syntagma 

BET, Worcester, England: Thecla, Saint. 


CEDILLO; THE CONDE DE, Madrid: Toledo, DESMOND, DANIEL F., Huron, South Dakota: 

Archdiocese of. 

Sioux Falls, Diocese of. 

CHABOT. JEAN-BAPTISTE, S.T.D., Director of DEVINE, ARTHUR, C.P., St. Saviour's Retreat, 


Purgative, Illuminative, Unitive. 

THE "Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Ori- 
entalium", Paris: Syriac Hymnody; Syriac 
Language and Literature. 

CHAPMAN, JOHN, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), Ab- 
BAYE DE St. BenoIt, Maredsous, Namur, Bel- 
gium: Tertullian. 

S.T.D., President op Villanova College, Vil- 
LANOVA, Pennsylvania: Thomas of Villanova, 

CHILTON, CARROLL B., London: Thompson, DOYLE, JOHN P. M., T.O.R., M.A. S.T.D., Rec- 
Francis. tor op St. Francis College, Professor op 

Moral Theology, Loretio, Pennsylvania: 
Third Order of St. Francis, Province of the 
Sacred Heart of Jesus. 

LL.B.. Halifax: Thompson, Right Honourable 
Sir Jonn Sparrow David. 

S.T.L., SOMETIME Professor of Canon Law 
and Moral Theology, St. Isidore's College, 
Rome: Syndic, Apostolic. 

COLEMAN, CARYL, B.A., Pblham Manor, New 
York: Spire; Stained Glass; Tapestry. 

CORDIER, HENRI, Professor at the School for 
Oriental Living Languages, Paris: Taoism; 

COSSIO, ALUIGI, S.T.D., S.S.D., J.U.D., Bacca- 


OF Padua, Rome: Titulus. 

DRISCOLL, JAMES F., S.T.D., New Rochelle. 
New York: Stoning in Scripture; Terrestrial 
Paradise; Theocracy. 

DRISCOLL, JOHN JOSEPH, S.J., Superior, Wis- 
consin: Superior, Diocese of. 

Fonda, New York: Summer Schools, Catholic; 
Theosophy; Totemism. 

DRUM, WALTER, S.J,, Professor of Hebrew 
AND Sacred Scripture, Woodstock College, 
Maryland: Solomon, Psalms of; Synagogue; 
Temple, Liturgr of the; Theology, Pastoral; 


Thessalonians, Epistles to the; Tobias. 

COTTER, A. C. S.J., Woodstock College, Mary- dUBRAY, C.A., S.M., S.T.B., Ph.D., Professor of 
land: Stattler, Benedict; Tambm-im. Michel- Philosophy, Marist College, Washington: 

IaJ\.VHJm kJl'Orl/t'A^A, AJ%m%^\AR\^U f A C«U.*I^UJ. AULA, A.A 

angelo; Tanner, Adam; Tanner, Matthias. 

Species; Teleology; Telepathy. 

COYLE,MOIRAK., New York: Streber, Hermann. dxjgGAN, THOMAS, Editor, "Catholic Than- 

CRIVELLI, CAMILLUS, S.J., Professor of Phil- 
osoPHY AND History, Instituto Cientifico de 

script", Hartford, Connecticut: Tabb, John 

of; Tepic, Diocese of; Tlaxcala. 
CUMMINGS. THOMAS F., S.T.D., Holyokb. DUNIN-BORKOWSKI, Stanislaus, S.J., Bonn, 

Massachusetts: Springfield, Diocese of. 

Germany: Spinoza, Benedict. 

CUNNINGHAM, WILLIAM M., Chancellor of DURAND, ALFRED, S.J., Professor of Scrip- 

THB Diocese of Southwark, England: South- ture and Eastern Languages, Ore Place, 

wark. Diocese of. Hastings, England: Testament, The New. 


House, Oxtord: Theodos^^^ Barbara, California: Sitjar, Buenaventura; 

^ , r o. -r^_ .-<t * Tapis, Estcbau. 

Order of St. Francis in Great Britain and Ireland. 

DEBUCHY, PAUL, S.J., Litt.L., Enghien, Bel- pANNING, WILLIAM H. W., S.J., Professor op 
gium: Spiritual Exercises of Samt Ignatius. Church History and 

DEGERT, ANTOINE, Lrrr.D., Editor of "La 
Revue de la Gascoigne", Professor of Latin 
Literature, Institut Catholique, Toulouse: 
Sulpitius; Sylvius, Francis; Terrasson, Andr6; 
Tourn^ly, Honor6. 

DELAMARRE, LOUIS N., Ph.D., Instructor in 
French, College of the City of New York: 
Thibaut de Champagne. 

DELANY, JOSEPH F., S.T.D., New York: Slander, 
Sloth; Temperance; Temptation; Theft. 

Canon Law, St. Louis 
University, St. Louis: Societies, Catholic; So- 
cieties, Secret; Solicitation; Subdeacon; Suspen- 
sion; Synod; Tarquini, Camillus; Tenure, Eccle- 
siastical; Tithes; Tonsure. 

Speyer, Germany: Sophonias. 

FENLON, JOHN F., S.S., S.T.D., President, St. 
Austin's College, Washington; Professor of 
Sacred Scripture, St. Mary's Seminary, Bal- 
timore: Sulpicians in the United States. 



•FERET, P. CANON, Saint-Maurice, France: 

FLADGATE, GERALDINE, London: Stone, Mary 

FLAHERTY, MATTHEW J., M.A. (Harvard), 
Concord, Massachusetts: Stoddard, Charles 

FORD, JEREMIAH D. M., M.A., Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor OF French and Spanish Languages, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts: Spanish Language and Literature; 
Spanish- American Literature; Tassoni, Ales- 
sandro; Tebaldeo, Antonio; Tiraboschi, Giro- 

worth, Hertfordshire^ England: Suidas; 
Synaxarion; Synaxis; Syrian Rite, West; Theo- 
dosius I; Ticonius. 

FOX, JAMES J., S.T.D., Professor of Philosophy, 
St. Thomas's College, Washington: Slavery, 
Ethical Aspect of. 

FOX, JOHN M., S.J.^ Woodstock College, Mary- 
land: Tamburini, Thomas; Tongiorgi, Salvator. 

FOX, WILLIAM, B.Sc, M.E., Associate Pro- 
fessor OF Physics, College of the City of 
New York: Torricelli, Evangelista. 

FUENTES, VENTURA, B.A., M.D., Instructor, 
College of the City of New York: T^llez, 
Gabriel; Torres Naharro, Bartolom^ de. 

GALLAVRESI, GIUSEPPE, Professor of Mod- 
ern History, Royal Academy of Milan, 
Milan: Tasso, Torquato; Tosti, Luigi. 

GANSS, HENRY G., Mus.D., Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania: Tetzel, Johann. 

GARRIGAN, PHILIP J.^ S.T.D., Bishop of Sioux 
City, Iowa: Sioux City, Diocese of. 

Jacques Auguste de; Thou, Nicholas de; Tocque- 
ville. Charles Alexis -Henri- Maurice -Clerel de; 
Toulouse, Archdiocese of; Tours, Archdiocese of. 

GRATTAN-FLOOD, W. H., M.R.I. A., Mus.D., 
RosEMOUNT, Enniscorthy, IRELAND : Spontini, 
Gasparo Luigi Pacifico; Sullivan, Alexander Mar- 
tin; Tallis, Thomas; Tassach, Saint; Tavemer, 
John; Teman, Saint; Thomas, Charles L. A.; 
Tigris, Saint. 

GRISON, GABRIEL EMILE, Titular Bishop of 
Sagalasse, Vicar Apostolic of Stanley Falls, 
Belgian Congo, Africa: Stanley Falls, Vicari- 
ate Apostolic of. 

HAAG, ANTHONY, S.J., St. Ignatius College, 
Valkenburg, Holland: Syllabus. 

HAGEN, JOHN G., S.J., Vatican Observatory, 
Rome: Tempel, Wilhelm. 

HANSEN, NIELS, M.A., Charlottenlund, Den- 
mark: Steno, Nicolaus. 

HARTIGAN, J. A., S. J., Lrrr.D., Ore Place, Hast- 
ings, England: Tiberias, See of. 

HEALY, PATRICK J., S.T.D., Assistant Pro- 
fessor OF Church History, Catholic Uni- 
versity OF America, Washington: Socrates; 
Sozomen, Salamanius Hermias; Tatian. 

seph's College, Callicoon, New York: Ter- 
tiaries; Third Order Secular of the Order of Our 
Lady of Mount Carmel; Third Order Regular of 
St. Dominic in the United States: Third Order 
Regular of St. Francis in the United States: Third 
Order Secular of St. Francis; Thomas of Celano. 

HENRY, H. T., Litt.D., LL.D^ Rector of Roman 
Catholic High School for Boys, Philadelphia ; 
Professor of English Literature and Gre- 
gorian Chant, St. Charles's Seminary, Over- 
brook, Pennsylvania: Stabat Mater; Tantum 
Ergo; Te Deum; Te Lucis ante Terminum. 


rand-P^rigord, Charles-Maurice ae. 

Titular of Barlings, Tongerloo Abbey, 
Westerloo, Belgium: Tongerloo, Abbey of. 

GEYER, FRANCIS XAVIER, Titular Bishop of 
TRocMADiE. Vicar-Apostolic of the Sudan, 
Egypt: Sudan, Vicariate Apostolic of. 

LiTT. D., K.S.G., Professor of Latin Language 
AND Literature, College of the City of New 
York: Th^baud, Augustus. 

HILGERS, JOSEPH, S.J., Rome: Sodality. 

HOLWECK, FREDERIC G., St. Louis, Missouri: 
Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feasts of the 
Seven; Thorns, Feast of the Crown of. 


Classical Languages and .Esthetics, St. 
Ignatius College, Valkenburg, Holland: 
Stalls; Steinle, Eduard von. 

GIGOT, FRANCIS E., S.T.D., Professor of Sa- 
cred Scripture, St. Joseph's Seminary, Dun- 
wooDiE, New York: Synoptics; Temptation of 

GILLET, LOUIS, Paris: Tisio da Garafalo, Ben- 
venuto; Titian. 

GOYAU, GEORGES, Associate Editor, "Revue 
DES Deux Mondes", Paris: Soissons^ Diocese 
of; Tarbes, Diocese of; Tarentaise, Diocese of; 
Tellier, Michel Le; Thiers, Louis-Adolphe; Thou, 

* Deocaaed. 

SIDE Abbey, Bath, England: Stephen Harding, 
Saint; Thomas More, Blessed. 

HUDSON, DANIEL E.. C.S.C., LL.D., Editor, 
*'The Ave Maria,'* Notre Dame, Indiana: 
Sorin, Edward. 

HUNTER-BLAIR, SIR D. O., Bart., O.S.B., M.A., 
Fort Augustus Abbey, Scotland: Smith, 
James; Strain, John; Syon Monastery; Tarkin, 
Saint; Tavistock Abbey; Tewkesbury Abbey; 
Theodore, seventh Archbishop of Canterbury; 
Thomey Abbey; Tin tern Abbey. 

HUONDER, ANTHONY, S.J., St. Ignatius Col- 
lege, Valkenburg, Holland: Tieff entailer, 



HUSSLEIN, JOSEPH. S.J., Associate Editor KRIEHN, GEORGE, A.B., Ph.D., Nbw York: 

''America", New York: Syndicalism. 


INGOLD, A. M. P., Director "Revue d'Albacb", KROSE, HERMANN A., 8. J., Editor-in-Chiep, 

/^#%T «« * -n /^TKTsm* A m.T'^r • 1^ K j^tvi n aai «t T.^^iiia " fin«T%«-m«Tnxr A rra A^a«sta_T.a a a»tt " a ^m 1 1 X^ r-w^ m-^-^w 

CoLMAR, Germany: Thomassin, Louis. 

IRWIN, FRANCIS, S.J., Stonthurst College, 
Blackburn, England: Stonyhurst College. 

Stimmen AU8 Maria-Laach", and "Kirch- 


Deutschland", St. Ignatius College, Val- 
KENBURG, Holland: Statistics, Ecclesiastical, in 
Germany; Statistics of Religions. 
JARRETT, BEDE, O.P., B.A. (Oxon.), S.T.L., St. 

Dominic's Priory, London: Third Orders, LAUCHERT, FRIEDRICH, Ph.D., Aachen: Stapf, 

General; Third Order of St. Dominic. 

Maryland: Tincker, Mary Agnes. 

JENNER, HENRY, F.S.A., Late op the British 
Museum, London; Cornwall, England: Syrian 
Rite, East. 

JOHNSON, WILLIAM T., Kansas City, Missouri: 
Test-Oath, Missouri. 

JOUVE^ ODORIC M., O.F.M., Candiac, Canada: 
Tlurd Order of St. Francis in Canada. 

Joseph Ambrose; Staudenmaier, Franz Anton; 
Stdckl, Albert; Stolz, Alban Isidor. 

LAUNAY, ADRIEN, Archivist of the Society for 
Foreign Missions, Paris: Society of Foreign 
Missions of Paris. 

Place, Hastings, England: Terrien, Jean- 

LECLERCQ, HENRI, O.S.B., London: Station 

KAMPERS, FRANZ, Ph.D., Professor of Medie- ^™J^!S^' Vx^k™«^^^^^^^^^^ tw^^ 

VAT. Avk MonKRW CTTirirTT Htrtorv. TTvTvicR- College, Valkenburg, Holland: Theology, 


VAL AND Modern Church History, Univer- 
sity OF Breslau: Theodoric the Great. 

KEATING, JOSEPH IGNATIUS PATRICK, S. J., ^^^iSP^i'^T^Qi^io^'^^ ^'^'' ^^^*^" 
B.A., Assistant Edhor, "The Month", Lon^ ^^> Austria. Slavs, The. 

don: Temperance Movements, Great Britain and 

KEILEY, JARVIS, M.A., Grantwood, New Jer- 
sey: South Carolina. 

KELLEY, FRANCIS C, S.T.D., LL.D., President, 
The Catholic Church Extension Society, 
Chicago, Illinois: Society, The Catholic Church 
Extension, in the United States. 

KELLY, BLANCHE M., New York: Tabernacle 
Societies; Tegakwitha, Catherine. 

ada: Toronto, Archdiocese of. 

LE ROY, ALEXANDER A., C.SS.P., Bishop of 
Alinda, Superior-General of the Congre- 
gation of the Holy Ghost, Paris: Somaliland. 

LETELLIER, A,, S.S.S., Superior, Fathers of the 
Blessed Sacrament, New York: Society of the 
'Blessed Sacrament, The. 

Germany: Temperance Movements. 

Editor-in-Chief, "La Nouvelle France", 
Quebec: Tach6, Etienne-Pascal; Talon, Jean; 
Talon, Pierre; Tanguay, Cyprien; Tass^, Joseph. 

KEMPF, CONSTANTINE, S.J., Professor of LINEHAN, PAUL H., B.A., Instructor College 
Philosophy and Pedagogy, St. Ignatius Col- op the City of New York: Tartaglia, Nicol6; 

LEGE, Valkenburg, Holland: Theodicy. 

Torrubia, Jos^. 

KENNEDY, DANIEL J., O.P., S.T^., Professor lINS, JOSEPH, Dorsten. Westphalia, Germany: 

OF Sacramental Theology, Catholic Uni- 
versity OF America, Washington: Thomas 
Aquinas, Saint; Thomism. 

Sion, Diocese of; Strasburg, Diocese of; Tiraspol, 
Diocese of. 

xTTOTiv wiTTTATvvr T QTT T>« Fi Fi^^^o ^» LOEHR, AUGUST OCTAV RITTER von, Ph.D., 
KERBY, WILLIAM J., S.T.L, Ph.D., Doctor of Assistant Director of the Imperial ColleoI 

TiON OF Coins and Medals, Vienna: Streber, 

Special and Political Sciences, Professor 
OF Sociology, Catholic University of Ame- 
rica, Washington: Sociology. 

Franz Ignaz von; Streber, Franz Seraph. 

KIR5CH, MGR. JOHANN P., S.T.D., Professor LOFFLER, KLEMENS, Ph.D., Librarian, Uni- 

OF Patrology and Christian ARCHiBOLOGY, 
University of Fribourg, Switzerland: Sim- 
phcius, Saint, Pope; Siricius, Saint, Pope; Sted- 
mgers; Surius, Lauren tius; Switzerland; Syl- 
vester I, Saint, Pope; Sylvester II, Pope; Sym- 
machus, Saint, Pope; Tarachus, Probus, and 
Andronicus, Saints; Tarasius, Saint; Tarsicius, 
Saint; Teleaphorus, Saint, Pope; Thecla, Saints; 
Theodorus and Theophanes. 

vbrsity of MUnster: Simplicius, Faustinus, and 
Beatrice; Speyer, Diocese of; Staphylus, Fried- 
rich; Staupitz, Johann von; Stolberg, Joseph; 
Strossroayer, Joseph Georg; Studion; Svncre- 
tism; Tauler, John; Tepl; Tewdrig; Thalhofer, 
Valentin, Theiner, Augustin; Theobald, Saint; 
Theodard, Saint; Theodoie of Studium, Saint; 
Theodulf; Thryaus, Hermann; Tiberiup; Titus, 
Roman Emperor. 

many: Solari; Stoss, Veit; Temple; Tissot, James cow, Scotland: Stradivari, Antonio; Stradivari 

Joseph; Tomb. Family, The. 

• ■ • 



Convent of S. Salvator, Jerusalem: Temple 
of Jerusalem; Thabor, Mount; Tomb of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. 

MERK, AUGUST, S.J., Professor of Apologetics, 
St. Ignatius College, Valkenburg, Holland: 
Testament, The Old. 

fessor op Moral Theology, Canon Law, and 
Liturgy, St. John's College, Collegeville, 
Minnesota; Solemnity; Stanislaus of Cracow, 
Saint; Stephen of Autun; Subiaco; Supper, The 
Last; Tanner, Conrad; Thais, Saint; Theodore of 
Amasea, Saint; Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint; 
Theophanes, Saint. 

MOELLER, CH., Professor of General History, 
University of Louvain: Swan, Order of the; 
Templars, Knights, The; Teutonic Order. 

ary Apostolic, New York: Sze-ch' wan. East- 
em, Vicariate Apostolic of; Sze-ch'wan, North- 
western, Vicariate Apostolic of; Sze-ch'wan, 
Southern, Vicariate Apostolic of. 

MOONEY, JAMES, United States Ethnologist, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, Washing- 
ton: Sioux Indians; Sipibo Indians; Sobaipura 
Indians; Son^sh Indians j Spokan Indians; 
Squamish Indians; Swinomish Indians; Tacana 
Indians; Taensa Indians; Tait Indians; Tamanac 
Indians: Taos Pueblo; Thompson River Indians; 
Ticuna Indians; Timucua Indians; Toba Indians; 
Tonica Indians; Tonkawa Indians; Totonac In- 

Archbishop of Sydney, Primate of Austra- 
lia: Talbot, Peter. 

"Pan-American Union", Washington: So- 
corro, Diocese of; Spirito Santo, Diocese of; 
Taubat^, Diocese of. 

MORICE, A. G., B.A., O.M.I., Lecturer in An- 
thropology, University of Saskatchewan, 
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: Slaves; Tach6, 
Alexandre- Antonin; Takkali. 

MULLALYj CHARLES, S.J., Tortosa, Spain: Tor- 
tosa. Diocese of. 

MUNNYNCK, MARK P. de, S.T.D., Professor of 
Philosophy, University of Fribourg: Space; 

MUTZ, FRANZ XAVIER, S.T.D., St. Peter's 
Seminary, Freiburg, Baden, Germany: The- 
ology, Ascetical. 

NYS, DfiSIRfi, S.T.B., Ph.D., President S£mi- 
NAiRE L£oN XIII, University of Louvain, Bel- 
gium: Time. 

O'CONNELL, JOHN T., LL.D., Toledo, Ohio: 
MEEHAN THOMAS F., New York: Sullivan, ^^''^ Biocese of. 

Pcker John ; Tenney, WiUiam Jewett ; Thanksgiv- O'CONNOR, JOHN B., O.P., St. Louis Bertrand's 
mg Day; Thayer, John. Convent, Louisville, Kentucky: Thomas of 

MEIER, GABRIEL, O.S.B., Einsibdeln, Switzer- 
land: Tiburtius and Susanna, Sts.; Timotheus O'DONOVAN, LOUIS, S.T.L., Baltimore: Spald- 
and Ssnnphorian, Sts. ing, Martin John. 

Utica, New York: Syracuse, Diocese of. 

MAAS, A. J., S.J.. Rector, Woodstock College, 
Maryland: Tneology, Dogmatic, sub-title Chris- 

MacERLEAN, ANDREW A.. LL.B. (Fordham), 
New York: Societies, Catholic, American Fed- 
eration of; Solsona, Diocese of; Stanislawow, 
Diocese of; Suitbert, Saint; Sumatra, Prefecture 
Apostolic of; Tinin, See of. 

McGOVERN, JAMES J., Lockport, Illinois: Starr, 
Eliza Allen. 

MACKSEY, CHARLES, S.J., Professor of Ethics 
AND Natural Right, Gregorian University, 
Rome: Society, State and Church; Taparelli, 
Aloysius; Tolomer, John Baptist. 

McNEAL, J. PRESTON, A.B., LL.B., Baltimore: 
Taney, Roger Brooke. 

McNeill, CHARLES, Dublin: Tanner, Edmund. 

MacPHERSON, EWAN, New York: Thalberg, 

MAGNIER, JOHN, C.SS.R., St. Mary's, Clapham, 
London: Sportelli, Csesar, Venerable. 

MAHER, MICHAEL, S.J., Litf.D., M.A. (Lon- 
don), Director of Studies and Professor of 
Pedagogics, Stonyhurst College, Black- 
burn, England: Soul; Spirit; Spiritualism. 

MANN, HORACE K., Headmaster, St. Cuth- 
bert's Grammar School, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
England: Sisinnius, Pope; Stephen I, Saint, 
Pope; Stephen II, Pope; Stephen (II) III, Pope; 
Stephen (III) IV, Pope; Stephen (IV) V, Pope; 
Stephen (V) VI. Pope; Stephen (VI)VII, Pope; 
Stephen (VII) VIII, Pope; Stephen (VIII) IX, 
Pope; Stephen (IX) X, Pope; Theodore I; Theo- 
dore II. 

cellor OF the Diocese of Three Rivers, 
Province of Quebec, Canada: Three Rivers, 
Diocese of. 

MARY AGNES, SISTER, Mount St. Joseph, 
Ohio: Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

MARY PATRICK, MOTHER, Chicago, Illinois: 
Sisters of the Little Company of Mary. 

MEDLEYCOTT, A. E., S.T.D., Titular Bishop of 
Tricomia, Calcutta, India: Thomas Christians, 

MEEHAN, ANDREW B., S.T.D., J.U.D., Pro- 
fessor OF Canon Law and Liturgy, St. Ber- 
nard's Seminary, Rochester, New York: 
Stipend; Subreption; Subsidies, Episcopal; Su- 
premi disciplinse; Tametsi; Taxa Innocentiana. 


BURY, Ontario, Canada: Temiskaming, Vicari- Society of Jesus; Spenser, John; Stevenson, 

ate Apostolic of. Joseph; Stone, Marmaduke. 

O'HARAN, MGR. DENIS F., S.T.D., Sydney, Aus- pqpe, HUGH, O.P., S.T.L., Doctor op Sacred 

Scripture, Professor of New Testament 
Exegesis, Collegio Angelico, Rome: Socin- 

tralia: Sydney, Archdiocese of. 

OLIGER, LIVARIUS, O.F.M., St. Bonaventure's 
College, Rome: Somaschi; Spirituals; Sporer, 
Patritius; Taigi, Anna Maria Gesualda Antonia; POTAMIAN, BROTHER, F.S.C, D.Sc. (Lond.), 

Tarabotti, Helena; Third Order of St. Francis 
(Regular and Secular; Male and Female). 

Professor op Physics, Manhattan College, 
New York: Toaldo, Giuseppe. 


fessor of Theology, Dominican House op 
Studies, Washington: Sin. 

Mystical; Surin, Jean-Joseph; Theology, Mysti- 


Texas, State of. 

perior-General op the Theatine Order, 
Rome: Theatines; Theatine Nuns. 

OTT, MICHAEL, O.S.B., Ph.D., Professor op the 

History op Philosophy, St. John's College, RANDOLPH, BARTHOLOMEW, C.M^ M.A., 

COLLEGEVILLE, Minnesota: SlXtUS I, Saint, Tt^ao^vr oir P„iT.nRnP«v Avn r^RTTRrw ^TR^nT^v 

Teacher of Philosophy and Church History, 
St. John's College, Brooklyn, New York: 
Tamisicr, Marie-Marthe-Baptistine. 

Pope; Sixtus II. Saint, Pope; Sixtus V, Pope; 
Smaradgus, Arao; Spinola, Christopher Royas 
de; Spondanus, Henri; Stadler, John Evangelist; 

Stefaneschi, Giacomo Gaetani; Stephen, Saint; t»t^a/-iaxt n xTTr^rrrkT ao r^r^nx r^ a 

Stephen of Toumai; Steuco,Ago8tino: ^mpho^ REAGAN, P. NICHOLAS O.F.M. Collegio S. 
rosa. Saint; Syncelli; Tele^phorus ol dsenza; Antonio, Rome: Smai; Sodom and Gomorrha. 

Tencin, Pierre-Gudrin de; Theophanes, Kera- ^iTnTTTv 'rxjrMvf ac3 i irr^TjaT-Tkoar t> 
meus; Thundering Legion; Torquemada, Tomds RI^ILLY, iMUMAh A K., U.F., fe.l .U., b.fe.L., Fro- 
^jg ' o o » 1 I PEssoR OF Sacred Scripture, Dominican 

House op Studies, Washington: Tongues, Gift 


OTTEN, JOSEPH, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Sis- 
tine Choir; Song, Religious; Tartini, Giuseppe. 

OUSSANI, GABRIEL, Ph.D., Professor, Eccle- 
siastical History, Early Christian Litera- 
ture, AND Biblical Archaeology, St. Joseph's 
Seminary, Dunwoodie, New York: Solomon; rqBINSON, DOANE, Secretary, South Dakota 

REVILLE, JOHN CLEMENT, S.J., Professor op 
Rhetoric and Sacred Eloquence, St. Stan- 
islaus College, Macon, Georgia: Taion, 
Nicolas; Tomiclli, Girolamo Francesco. 


Department op History, Pierre, South Da- 
kota: South Dakota. 

PACE, EDWARD A., Ph.D., S.T.D., Professor op 

Philosophy, Catholic University op Ame- rqbINSON, PASCHAL, O.F.M., New York: 

rica, Washington: Spiritism. Spina, Alfonso de. 


New Rochelle, New York: Test em Benevo- Teneriffe, Canary Islands: Teneriffe, Diocese 



PEREZ GOYENA, ANTONIO, S.J., Editor, "Ra- rqmPEL, JOSEF HEINRICH, S.J., Ph.D., Stella 
z6nyFe" Madrid: Suarez, Francisco, Doctor Matutina College, Feldkirch, Austria: 

Eximius; Toledo, Francisco; Torres, Francisco. 

Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de. 

•P^TRIDfeS, SOPHRONE, A. A., Professor, RYAN, JOHN A., S.T.D., Professor op Moral 
Greek Catholic Seminary op Kadi-Keui, Theology, St. Paul Seminary, St. Paul, Min- 

Constantinople: Sinis; Sion; Sitifis; Soli; Sora; nesota: Socialistic Communities. 

Sozopolis; Stratonicea; Sufetula; Sura; Syene; 

Synaus; Synnada; Tabae; Tabbora; Tacapa; Ta- RYAN, PATRICK, S.J., London: Thomas Alfield, 
dama; Tainanim; Tamassus; Tanagra; Tavium; Venerable; Thomas Cottam, Blessed. 

Telmessus; Temnus; Teuchira; Thabraca; Thacia 

Montana; Thanae; Thagaste;Thagora; Thapsus; SACHER, HERMANN, Ph.D., Editor op the 
'^^ . r-^i • r-^i ^ ,. "Konversationslexikon", Assistant Editor, 

"Staatslexikon" op the Gorresgesell- 
schaft, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Germany: Sty- 
ria; Thuringia. 

PHILLIPS, EDWARD C, S.J., Ph.D., Woodstock « , , ^ , ^,„ , .^.c^^r. r ^ttto t. * t- urrr 

College, Maryland: Spagni, Andrea; Stansel, SALDANHA, JOSEPH LOmS, B.A.. Editor, "The 

Thaumaci; Themisonium; Thermae Basilicae; 
Thibaris; Thignica; Thmuis; Thuburbo; Tiberi- 
opohs; Timbrias; Tingis; Tlos; Torone. 

Valentin; Stephens, Henry Robert; Terill, An- 

Christian Puranna"; Professor of English, 
St. Aloysius College, Mangalore, India: 
Stephens, Thomas. 

POHLE, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Ph.D., J.C.L., Pro- «, ^,^« „^,, „,„,,.,, ^„ a xtt^ttxt r. 

PESSOR OF Dogmatic Theology, University op SANDS, HON. WILLIAM FRANKLIN, Chevalier 

Breslau: Theology, Dogmatic; Toleration, Re- of the Legion of Honour; Ex-En\'oy Extra- 

ligious. 0.7, o » ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of 



OF THB Am. Soc. International Law; Am. 
Academy Political and Social Science and 
THE Mexican Soc. op Geography and Statis- 
tics, New York: Tahiti, Vicariate Apostolic of. 

SCHEID, N., S.J., Stella Matutina College, 
Feldkirch, Austria: Spillmann, Joseph; Stifter, 

St. Ludwig's College, Dalheim, Germany: 
Sonnius, Franciscus; Thangmar; Thegan of 
Treves; Thurmayr, Johannes. 

SCHMID, ULRICH, Ph.D., Editor, "Walhalla", 
Munich: Tegemsee. 

SCHNURER, GUSTAV, Ph.D., Professor op Me- 
dieval and Modern History. University op 
Fribourg: States of the Churcn. 

SCHUHLEIN, FRANZ X., Professor in the Gym- 
nasium OF Freising, Bavaria, Germany: Tal- 
mud; Targum; Torah; Tosephta. 

SCHUYLER, HENRY C, S.T.L., Vice-Rector, 
Catholic High School, Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania: Steinmeyer, Ferdinand. 

SCULLY, JOHN, S.J., New York: Squiere, Herbert 

Cornwall, England: Thomas k Kempis; 
Thomas of Jesus. 

SENFELDER, LEOPOLD, M.D., Teacher op the 
History op Medicine, University op Vienna: 
Skoda, Josef; Sorbait, Paul de. 

Rector of the Catholic University op Ame- 
rica, Washington: Thomas Abel, Blessed. 

SHANLEY, WALTER J., LL.D., Danbury, Con- 
necticut: Temperance Movements in the United 
States and Canada. 

York: Slavonic Language and Liturgy; Slavs in 

SILVA COTAPOS, CARLOS, Canon of the Cath- 
edral of Santiago, Chile: Tarapacd, Vicariate 
Apostolic of. 

SINKMAJER, JOS., East Islip, New York: 
Strahov, Abbey op. 

SLATER, T., S.J., St. Francis Xavier's College, 
Liverpool, England: Speculation; Sunday; 

New York: Th^nard, Louis-Jacques, Baron. 

SMITH, IGNATIUS, O.P., Dominican House op 
Studies, Washington: Thomas of Jorz. 

P.), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Smith, 
Thomas Kilby. 

VINCI al of the American Province of the So- 
ciety OF Mary, Washington: Supernatural 
Order; Theophilanthropists. 

SORTAIS, GASTON, S.J., Associate Editoe, 
"Etudes", Paris: Tintoretto, II. 

S.S.D., Professor, Sacred Scripture, He- 
brew AND Liturgy, Kenrick Seminary, St. 
Louis: Stephen, Saint; Stones, Precious, in the 
Bible; Tabernacle in Scripture; Tabernacles, 
Feast of. 

SPAHN, MARTIN, Ph.D., Professor op Modern 
History, UNiVERsrrY op Strasburq: Thirty 
Years War, The; Tilly, Johannes Tserclajs, 
Count of. 

SPILLANE, EDWARD P., S.J., Associate EnrroR, 
"America", New York: Thimelby, Richard. 

STEELE, FRANCESCA M., Stroud, Gloucester- 
shire, England: Taylor, Frances Margaret; 
Temple, Sisters of the. 

STEICHEN, MICHAEL, Missionary Apostouc, 
ToKio, Japan: Tokio, Archdiocese of. 

tina College, Feldkirch, Austria: Tosca- 
nelli, Paolo dal Pozzo. 

STUART, JANET, R.S.H., Superior Vicar, Con- 
vent OP THE Sacred Heart, Roehampton, 
London: Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, 

DENT, Imperial Academy of Sciences, Pro- 
fessor, Polish Literature, University op 
Cracow: Skarga, Peter; Sobieski, John; Staro- 
wolski, Simon; Szujski, Joseph; Szymonowicz, 

TAVERNIER, EUGENE, Paris: Soloviev, Vla- 

TETU, MGR HENRI, Quebec, Canada: Tasche- 
reau, Elz6ar-Alexandre. 

THURSTON, HERBERT, S.J., London: Southwell, 
Robert, Venerable: Stone, Comer or Founda- 
tion; Stvlites; Symbolism; Tenebrse; Thanksgiv- 
ing before and after Meals; Theatre, The; 
Thomas, Saint, the Apostle; Thomas 6ecket, 
Saint; Toleration, History of. 

B.A., Stratton-on-the-Fosse, Bath, England: 

TURNER, MGR. JAMES P., S.T.D., Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania: Tabernacle Society. 

TURNER, WILLIAM, B.A., S.T.D., Professor of 
Logic and the History of Philosophy, Cath- 
olic University of America, Washington: 
Socrates; Sophists; Summae; Sylvester, Bernard; 
Telesio, Bernardino; Theodore of Gaza; Theo- 
doric of Chartres; Thomas of Strasburg. 

TYNE, THOMAS JAMES, Nashville, Tennessee: 

VACCON. A., Amiens, France: Tarisel, Pierre. 

VAILH^, SIMEON, A.A., Member of the Rus- 
sian Arch^ological Institute of Constan- 
tinople, Rome: Sinope; Siunia; Smyrna, Latin, 
Archdiocese of ; Sophene; Sozusa ; Sparta; Staurop- 


olis; Syra, Diocese of; Tanis; Tarsus; Tenedos; 
Tentyris: Teos; Terenuthis; Termessus; Thasos; 
Thebes (Achaia Secunda); Thebes (Thebais Se- 
cunda); Thelepte; Themiscyra; Thennesus; 
Theodosiopolis; Thera, Diocese of; Thermopyke; 
Thessalomca; Theveste; Thugga; Thyatira; 
Th3mia8: Tiberias; Ticelia; Tinoe and Mykonos; 
Tipasa; Titopolis; Tius; Tomi. • 

vain), PRorBssoR OF Moral Theology and 
Librarian, Grande S^minaire, Bruges, Bel- 
gium: Suicide. 

VAN ORTROY, FRANCIS, S.J., Brussels: Stanis- 
las Kostka, Saint. 

VASCHALDE, A.A., C.S.B., Catholic University 
OF America, Washington: Tell el-Amama 
Tablets, The. 

(OxoN.), London: Slythurst, Thomas; Snow, 
Peter, Venerable; Somerset, Thomas; South- 
eme, William, Venerable; Southworth, John, 
Venerable; Speed, John, Venerable; Spenser, Wil- 
liam, Venerable; Sprott, Thomas, Venerable; 
Stonnes, James; Stransham, Edward. Venerable; 
Sugar, John, Venerable; Sutton, Rooert, Vener- 
able; Talbot, John; Taylor, Hugh, Venerable; 
Teilo, Saint; Teresian Martyrs of Compidme, The 
Sixteen Blessed; Thomas Ford. Blessed; Thomas 
Johnson, Blessed; Thomas of Dover; Thomas 
Woodhouse, Blessed; Thorpe. Robert, Venerable; 
Thulis, John, Venerable; Tichbome, Nicholas, 

many: Speyer. Johann and Wendelin von; Swejm- 
heim, Konraa. 

WALSH, JAMES A^ Missionary Apostolic, Di- 
rector OP the Catholic Foreign Missionary 
Society of America, Hawthorne, New York: 
Th6ophane Vdnard, Blessed. 

WALSH, JAMES J., M.D., Ph.D., LL.D., D.Sc., 
Dean of the Medical School, Fordham Uni- 
versity, New York: Spallanzani, Lazzaro. 

WALTER^ ALOYSIUS, C.SS.R., Rome: StefFani, 

WARD, MGR. BERNARD, Canon of Wes-p- 
minster, F. R. Hist. Soc, President, St. 
Edmund's College, Ware, England: Talbot, 
James; Taunton, Ethelred. 

WARICHEZ, JOSEPH, Docteur en sciences mo- 
rales BT historiques, Archivist of the Dio- 
cese OF TouRNAi, Belgium: Toumai, Diocese of. 

WEBER, N. A., S.M., S.T.D., Professor of Church 
History, Marist College, Washington: Si- 
inony; Sirleto, Guglielmo; Sirmond, Jacques; 
Sixtus III, Saint, Pope; Smalkaldic League; 
Sophronius, Saint; Suger, Abbot of St. Denis; 
Sujly, Maurice de; Smpicius Severus; Sweden- 

WEBSTER, D. RAYMOND, O.S.B., M.A. (Oxon.). 
Downside Abbey^ Bath, England: Stephen or 
Muret, Saint; Swithin, Saint; Sylvester Gozzo- 
lini, Saint; Sylvestrines. 

O.S.B., Stanbrook, England: Stanbrook Ab- 

OscoTT College, Birmingham, England: 
Sykes, Edmund; Talbot. Thomas Joseph; 
Thomas Sherwood, Blessed; Thwing, Thomas, 

WILHELM, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Ph.D., Aachen, Ger- 
many: Superstition. 

London: Sodoma; Stanfield, William Clarkson; 
Teniers, David; Theotocopuli^ Domenico; Ti- 
baldij Pellegrino; Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista; 
Torbido, Francesco. 

WITTMANN, PIUS, Archivist for the Princes 
AND Counts of the House of Ysenburg- 
BUdingen; Royal Bavarian Archivist. BtJ- 
dingen, Germany: Snorri Sturluson; Stolberg, 
Friedrich Leopold, Count zu; Sweden. 

Spalato-Macarsca, Diocese of; Tamow. Diocese 
of; Thugut, Johann Amadeus; Frans ae Paula; 
Thun Hohenstein, Count Leo. 

Innsbruck, Austria: Speckbacher, Josef. 

Priory, Wincanton, Somersetshire, Eng- 
land: Teresa of Jesus, Saint; Third Order of Our 
Lady of Mount Carmel; Thomas k Jesu. 

ZUPAN, CYRIL, O.S.B., Pueblo, Colorado: Slom- 
sek, Anton Martin. 


Tables of Abbreviations 

The following tables and notes are intended to g^ide readers of The Catholic Enctclopedia in 
interpreting those abbreviations, signs, or technical phrases which, for economy of space, will be most fre- 
quently used in the woric. For more general information see the article Abbreviations, Ecclesiastical. 

I. — Genebal Abbreviationb. 

a. article. 

ad an. at the year (Lat. ad annitm), 

an., ann. the year, the years (Lat. annua, 


ap in (Lat. apud). 

art article. 

Assyr. Assyrian. 

A. S Anglo-Saxon. 

A. V Authorized Version (i.e. tr. of the 

Bible authorized for use in the 
Anglican Church — the so-called 
"King James", or "Protestant 

b. bom. 

Bk. Book. 

Bl Blessed. 

C, c. about (Lat. droa); canon; chap- 

ter; compagnie. 

can. canon. 

cap .chapter (Lat. caput — used only 

in Latin context). 

cf. compare (Lat. confer). 

cod. codex. 

col column. 

oond conclusion. 

const., constit. . . .Lat. constitutio. 

curft by the industry of. 

d died. 

diet dictionary (Fr. dicHonnaire), 

disp Lat. disptdatio. 

diss Lat. disaertatio. 

dist Lat. distinction 

D. V Douay Version. 

ed., edit edited, edition, editor. 

Ep.. Epp letter, letters (Lat. epiaiola), 

Fr, French. 

gen. genus. 

Gr. Greek. 

H. E., Hist. Eccl. .Ecclesiastical History. 

Heb., Hebr Hebrew. 

ib., ibid in the same place (Lat. ibidem). 

Id. the same person, or author (Lat. 



inf. below (Lat. infra). 

It Italian. 

1. c, loc. cit at the place quoted (Lat. loco 


Lat Latin. 

lat latitude. 

lib book (Lat. liber), 

long longitude. 

Mon Lat. Monumenta. 

MS., MSS manuscript, manuscripts. 

n., no number. 

N. T New Testament. 

Nat National. 

Old Fr., O. Fr. . . .Old French. 

op. cit in the work quoted (Lat. opere 


Ord Order. 

O. T Old Testament. 

p., pp P&ge» pages, or (in Latin ref- 
erences) pars (part). 

par. paragraph. 

passim in various places. 

pt part. 

Q Quarterly (a periodical), e.g. 

"Church Quarterly", 

Q*y QQ-» qusest. . . .question, questions (Lat. qucestio). 

q. V which [title] see (Lat. quod vide). 

Rev Review (a periodical). 

R. S Rolls Series. 

R. V Revised Version. 

S., SS Lat. Sandus, Sancti, "Saint", 

"Saints" — ^used in this Ency- 
clopedia only in Latin context. 

Sept Septuagint. 

Sess Session. 

Skt Sanskrit. 

Sp Spanish. 

sq., sqq following page, or pages (Lat. 


St., Sts Saint, Saints. 

sup Above (Lat. supra). 

B. v Under the corresponding title 

(Lat. sub voce), 

tom volume (Lat. tomus). 


tr. translation or translated. By it- 
self it means "Ekiglish transla- 
tion'', or " translated into Elng- 
lish by ". Where a translation 
is into any other language, the 
language is stated. 

tr., tract tractate. 

y see (Lat. vide). 

Ven Venerable. 

Vol Volume. 

n. — ^Abbreviations op Titles. 

Acta SS Ada Sanctorum (Bollandists). 

Ann. pont. cath Battandier, A nnuatra pontifical 


Bibl. Diet. Elng. Cath.GiIlow, Bibliographical Diction- 
ary of the English Catholics. 

Diet. Christ. Antiq.. .Smith and Cheetham (ed.). 

Dictionary of Christian An- 

Diet. Christ. Biog. . . Smith and Wace (ed.). Diction- 
ary of Christian Biography. 

Diet, d'arch. chr^t.. .Cabrol (ed.), Dictionnaire d'ar- 

chiohgie chr^tienne et de Htur' 

Diet. deth^L cath.. Vacant and Mangenot (ed.), 

Dictionnaire de thiologie 

Diet. Nat. Biog. .... Stephen and Lee (ed.), Dictbn- 

ary of National Biography. 

Hsfit., Diet, of the 

Bible Hastings (ed.), A Dictionary of 

the Bible. 

Eirchenlex. Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexir 


P. G Migne (ed.), Patres Grcsci. 

P. L. Migne (ed.), Patres Latini, 

Vig ,Dict. de la Bible. Vigouroux (ed.), Dictionnaire de 

la Bible. 

Nom I. — Laigo Roman numerals standing alone indicate volumes. Small Roman numerals standinir alone indicate 
chapters. Arabic numerals standing alone indicate pages. In other cases the divisions are explicitly staled. Thus " Rashdall, 
Universities of EuroFte, I, ix" refers the reader to the ninth chapter of the first volume of that work; *'I, p. ix" would indicate the 
ninth page of the preface of the same volume. 

Note II. — Where St. Thomas (Aquinas) is cited without the name of any particular work the reference is always to 
"Summa Theologica" (not to *'Summa Philosophis"). The divisions of the "Summa Theol." are indicated by a system which 
may best be understood by the following example: '* I-II, Q. vi, a. 7, ad 2 um " refers the reader to the seventh article of the 
nxOi question in the /ir«< part of the ttcond part, in the response to the second objection. 

Note III. — ^The abbreviations employed for the various books of the Bible are obvious. Eoolesiastious is indicated by 
Eedua., to distinguish it from Ekxslesiastes (Ecclea.), It should also be noted that I and II Elings in D. V. correspond to I and II 
Sunuel in A. V. ; and I and II Par. to I and II CSironicles. Where, in the qselling of a proper name, there is a marked differenoo 
between the D. V. and the A. V., the form found in the latter ia added« in parentheses 


Full Page Illustrations in Volume XIV 

Frontispiece in Colour page 

Interior of the Church of the Gesil, Rome 84 

Sorrento — Road from Sorrento to Positano, etc 150 

Spain — A Chapel in the Cathedral of Siglienza, etc 170 

East End of the Cathedral, Segovia 171 

Spain— The Alcald Gate, Madrid, etc 206 

Spalato — Interior of the Cathedral, etc 207 

The Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres 220 

Stalls — Church of the Frari, Venice, etc 242 

Stonyhurst College 308 

Subiaco — Church of St. Scholastica, etc 322 

The Last Supper— E. von Gebhardt 340 

The Cathedral of San Lorenzo, Lugano 360 

Constantine Holding the Bridle of St. Sylvester's Horse 370 

Tasso's Cell in the Convent of S. Onofrio, Rome 464 

Theodoric's Tomb, Ravenna 676 

Burial of the Conde D'Orgaz — Theotocopuli 628 

St. Thomas Aquinas among the Doctors of the Church — Zurbaran 670 

Blessed Thomas More — Rubens 692 

Episcopal Throne, Church of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, Rome 708 

Tintern Abbey, Monmouth 736 

Titian — ^A Knight of Malta, etc 744 

Tivoli — Medieval Castle, etc 745 

Alcantara Bridge, Toledo 758 

Altar-tomb of the Emperor Maximilian 1 772 


Spain and Portugal 200 

States of the Church 266 

Switzeriand and Liechtenstein 364 



Simony (from Simon Magus; Acts, viii, 18-24) is 
usually defined ''a deliberate intention of buying or 
selling for a temporal price such thixigB as are spirit- 
ual or annexed unto spirituals^'. While this defi- 
nition only speaks of purchase and sale^ any ex- 
chanf^e of spiritual for temporal things is smioniacal. 
Nor IS the giving of the temporal as the price of the 
spiritual required for the existence of simony; ao- 
cordinp; to a proposition condemned by Innocent XI 
(Demsmger-Bajmwart, no. 1195) it suffices that the 
determining motive of the action of one party be 
the obtaining of compensation from the other. The 
various temporal advantages which may be offered 
for a spiritiial favour are, after Gregory the Great, 
usually divided into three classes. These are: 

(1) the munus a manu (material advantage), which 
comprises money, all movable and immovable prop- 
erty, and all rights appreciable in pecuniary value; 

(2) the munu8 a lingua (oral advantage) which in- 
cludes oral commendation, public expressions of ap- 
proval, moral support in hign places; (3) the muniu ab 
obsequw (homage) which consists in subserviency, the 
rendering of undue services, etc. The spiritual ob- 
ject includes whatever is conducive to the eternal 
welfare of the soul, i. e. all supernatural things: 
sanctifying grace, the sacraments, sacramentals, etc. 
While according to the natural and Pivine laws the 
term simony is applicable only to the exchange of 
supernatural treasiu'es for temporal advantages, 
its meaning has been further extended through ec- 
clesiastical legislation. In order to preclude all dan- 

§er of simony the Church has forbidden certain 
ealings which did not fall under Divine prohibition. 
It is thus unlawful to exchange ecclesiastical benefices 
by private authority, to accept any payment what- 
ever for holy oils, to sell blessed rosanes or crucifixes. 
Such objects lose, if sold, all the indulgences pre- 
viously attached to them (S. Cone, of Indul^., 12 July, 
1847). Simony of ecclesiastical law is^ of course, 
a variable element, since the prohibitions of the 
Church may be abrogated or fall into disuse. Simony 
whether it be of ecclesiastical or Divine law, may be 
divided into mental, conventional, and real {simonia 
merUaliat converUionaliSf et realis). In mental simony 
there b lacking the outward manifestation, or, ac- 
cording to others, the approval on the part of the per- 
son to whom a propoeioi is made. In conventional 
■imony an expressed or tacit agreement is entered 
upon. It is subdivided into merely conventional, 
wnen neither party has fulfilled any of the terms of 
the agreement, and mixed conventional, when one of 
the parties has at least partly complied with the as- 
sumed obligations. To the latter subdivision may be 
referred what has been aptly termed ''confidential 
simony'', in which an ecclesiastical benefice is pro- 
cured for a certain person with the understanding 
that later he will either resign in favour of the one 
through whom he obtained the position or divide 
with Dim the revenues. Simony is called real when 
XIV.— 1 

the stipulations of the mutual agreement have been 
either partly or completely carried out by both 

To estimate accurately the gravity of simony, 
which some medieval ecclesiasticcJ writers denounced 
as the most abominable of crimes, a distinction must 
be made between the violations of the Divine law, 
and the dealings contrary to ecclesiastical legislation. 
Any transgression of the law of God in this niatter is, 
objectively considered, grievous in everv instance 
(tnortalia ex toto gtnere suo). For this kind of simony 
places on a par things supematiu*al and things nat- 
ural, things eternal and things temporal, and con- 
stitutes a sacrilegious depreciation of Divine treas- 
ures. The sin can become venial only through the 
absence of the subjective dispositions required for the 
commission of a grievous offense. The merely ec- 
clesiastical prohibitions, however, do not all and under 
all circumstances impose a grave obligation. The 
presumption is that the church authority, which, 
in this connexion, sometimes prohibits actions in 
themselves indifferent, did not intend the law to be 
grievously binding in minor details. As he who 
preaches the gospel ''should live by the gospel'* 
(I Cor., ix, 14) but should also avoid even the ap- 
pearance of receiving temporal payment for spiritual 
services, difficulties may arise concerning the pro- 
priety or sinfulness of remuneration in certain cir- 
cumstances. The ecclesiastic may certainly re- 
ceive what is offered to him on the occasion of spiritual 
ministrations, but he cannot accept any payment for 
the same. The celebration of Mass for money would, 
consequently, be sinful; but it is perfectly legitimate 
to accept a stipend offered on such occasion for the 
support of the celebrant. The amount of the sti- 
pend, varying for different times and coimtries, is 
usually fixed by ecclesiastical authority (see Stipend). 
It is allowed to accept it even should the priest be 
otherwise well-to-do; for he has a right to uve from 
the altar and should avoid becoming obnoxious to 
other members of the clergy. It is simonia>cal to ac- 
cept payment for the exercise of ecclesiastical juris- 
diction^ e. g., the granting of dispensations; but there 
is nothixig improper in demanding from the applicants 
for matrimomal dispensations a contribution intended 
partly as a chance^ fee and partly as a salutary fine 
calculated to prevent the too frequent recurrence of 
such requests. It is likewise simony to accept tem- 
poral compensation for admission into a religious or- 
der; but contributions made by candidates to defray 
the expenses of their novitiate as well as the dowry 
required by some female orders are not included in 
this prohibition. 

In regard to the parish clergy, 'the poorer the 
church, the more urgent is the obligation mcumbent 
upon tne faithful to support them. In the fulfilment 
oi this duty local law and custom ought to be ob- 
served. The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore 
has framed the following decrees for the United 


States: (1) The priest may accept what is freely offered SimplioiUi, Saint, Pops (468-483), date of birth 
after the administration of baptism or matrimony, unknown; d. 10 March. 483. Aooordii^ to the 
but should refrain from asking anything (no. 221). "Liber Pontifioalis'^ (ed. Duchesne^ 1, 249) Simplicius 
(2) The confessor is never allowed to apply to his was the son of a oitisen of Tivoh named Castinus: 
own use pecuniary penances, nor may he ask or ac- and after the death of Pope Hilarius in 468 was elected 
cept anything from the penitent in compensation of to succeed the latter. Tne elevation of the new poi^e 
his services. Even voluntary gifts must be refused, was not attended with any difficulties. During his 
and the offering of Mass stipends in the sacred tri- pontificate the Western Empire came to an end. 
bunal cannot be permitted (no. 280). (3) The poor Since the murder of Valentiman III (455) there had 
who cannot be biu'ied at their own expense should re- been a rapid succession of insignificant emperors 
ceive free burial (no. 303). The Second and Third in the Western Roman Empire, who were constantly 
Plenary Councils of Baltimore also prohibited the ex- threatened by war and revolution. Following other 
action of a compulsory contribution at the church en- German tribes the Heruli entered Italy, and their 
trance from the faithful who wish to hear Mass on ruler Odoacer put an end to the Western Empire by 
Sundays and Holy Days (Cone. Plen. Bait. II, no. deposing the last emperor, Romulus Augustulus, and 
397; Cone. Plen. Bait. Ill, no. 288). As this prao- asstming himself the title of King of Italy. Al- 
tice continued in existence in many chiu*ches until though an Arian, Odoacer treated the (Jatholio 
very recently, a circular letter addressed 29 Sept., Church with much respect^ he also retained the ^ater 
1911, by the Apostolic Delegate to the archbishops part of the former admmistrative organization, so 
and bishops of tne United States, a^ain condemns tne that the change produced no great differences at 
custom and requests the ordinanes to suppress it Rome. Durins the Monophysite controversy, that 
wherever foimd in existence. was still carried on in the flastem Empire, Simplicius 
To uproot the evil of simony so prevalent during vigorously defended the independence of the (Jhurch 
the Middle Ages^ the Church decreed the severest against the CsBsaropapism of the Byzantine rulers and 
penalties against its perpetrators. Pope Julius II de- the authority of tne Apostolic See in questions of 
dar^d simoniacal papal elections invalid, an enact- faith. The twenty-eighth canon of the Council of 
ment which has smce been rescinded, however, by Chalcedon (451) granted the See of Constantinople 
Pope Pius X (Constitution ** Vacante Sede ", 25 Dec., the same privileges of honoiu* that were enjoyed by the 
1904, tit. II, cap. vi, in ^'Canoniste Contemp.'', Bishop of Old Rome, although the primacy and the 
XXXII, 1909, 291). The collatibn of a benefice is highest rank of honour were due to the latter. The 
void if, in obtaining it, the appointee either committed papal legates protested aeainst this elevation of the 
simony himself, or at least tacitly approved of its Byzantine Patriarch, and Pope Leo confirmed only 
oomnussion by a third party. Should he have taken the dogmatic decrees of the council. However, the 
possession, he is bouna to resign and restore all the Patriarch of Constantinople sought to bring the canon 
revenues received during his tenure. Excommunica- into force, and the Emperor Leo IJ desired to obtain 
tion simply reserved to the Apostolic See is pro- its confirmation by Simplicius. The latter, however, 
nounced in the Constitution Apostolics Sedis^' rejected the request of the emperor and opposed the 
(12 Oct., 1869) : (1) against persons guilty of real si- carrying out of the canon, that moreover limited the 
inony in any benefices and against their accomplices; rights of the old Oriental patriarchates. 
(2) against any persons, whatsoever their dignity. The rebellion of Basiliscus, who in 476 drove the 
guilty of confidential simony in any benefices; (3) Emperor Zeno into exile and seized the Byzantine 
against such as are guilty of simony by p\u*chasing or throne, intensified the Monophysite dispute. Basilic- 
selling admission into a religious order; (4) against all CUB looked for support to the Monophysites, and 
persons inferior to the bishops, who derive gam (qtuBS- he granted permission to the deposed Nlonophysite 
turn facieniet) from indulgences and other spiritual patriarchs, Timotheus Ailurus of Alexandria and Peter 
sraces; (5) against those who, collecting stipends for Fullo of Antioch, to return to their sees. At the same 
Masses, realize a profit on them by having the Masses time he issued a religious edict (EnkyHikon) addressed 
celebrated in places where smaller stipends are usu- to Ailurus, which commanded that only the first 
ally given. The last-mentioned provision was sup- three cecumenical synods were to be accepted, and 
plemented by subsequent decrees of the Sacred Con- rejected the Synod of Chalqedon and the Letter of 
gregation of the Council. The Decree "Vigilanti" Pope Leo. All bishops were to sign the edict. The 
(25 May, 1893) forbade the practice indulged in by Biuiop of Constantinople, Acacius (from 471), wa- 
some booksellers of receiving stipends and offering vered and was about to proclaim this edict. But the 
exclusively books and subscriptions to periodicals to firm stand taken by the populace, influenced by the 
the celebrant of the Masses. The Decree '^Ut De- monks who were rigidly Catholic in their opinions, 
bita'' (11 May, 1904) c6ndemned the arrangements moved the bishop to oppose the emperor ana to de- 
acoordmg to which the guardians of shrines some- fend the threatened faith. The aboots and priests 
times devoted the offerings originally intended for of Constantinople united with Pope Simplicius, who 
Masses partly to other pious purposes. The offend- made every effort to maintain the Catholic dogma and 
era against the two decrees just mentioned incur bu»- the definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. The 
pension ipso facio from their functions if they are in pope exhorted to loyal adherence to the true faith in 
sacred ordera; inability to receive higher ordera if they lettere to Acacius, to the priests and abbots, as well 
are clerics inferior to the priests; excommunication of' as to the usurper Basiliscus himself. In a letter to 
pronounced sentence {latas aententia) if they belong to Basiliscus of 10 Jan., 476, Simplicius says of the See 
the laity. of Peter at Rome: ''This same norm of Apostolic doc- 
to2(^''^??'7^^"'*'*'' ^ T**?*^?. ?f?^'^ ^L?>***' trine is firmly maintained by his [Peter's] successore, 
\^]:T^^--l^''^r^<^iSt^t^ of him to wtom the Ix>rd entrusted the c«re of the 

BnisBeb. 1909). 237-44; Slatkb, Manual of Moral TKeology, I entire flock of sheep, to whom He promised not tO 

5?'^J^;l5*^.'^'*'^*tJ®^>» ^V^'ii ^""V^ ''^,?«*^^' leave him until the end of time" (Thiel, "Rom. 

umtHx Oraham, para. Ila, causa I: Decrel, Ortg., Ub. V, tat. 3, p^„* f* ico\ Jn iha o&mo urav Via frinlr nn with 

De Simonia; «*<rot.. commun.. lib. V. tit. 1, Deffiiioma: Santi- V^^^' » ^^^^-^ "^ ^"^ ?^® ^^^ J^®. ^*^ "P ^^^'l 

LBrTNCB. PraUctione9 Jurii CanonieiUih ed.. RatiBbon, 1905). <he emperor the cause of the Cathouc Patriarch of 

/fi^vXli^^®' 9S^?^«'Sr« Yj?"*^ '^•if? •iif^ ^*}2»^' ^^ Alexandria, Timotheus Salophakiolus, who had been 

S?i.«N®^i^*"*'r?*W' ?«>-52: Lmn«. DU Sinumie (Freiburg. -jnpniftHpH hv Ailunw Whpn thp Emnpror Zeno 

1902); Bamy, SpirUual MinittraHana at an Oeeanon of Bmolu- fiP«JBeaea Oy AllUTUS. wnen xne Jlimperor Z/Cno 

tnentin SeeUnatHcal Rewiew. XXXIX (1908), 234-45; Webes. in 477 drove away the usurper and again gained the 

A. History of Simony in the Chrit^n Church (BBXtimon, 1909). supremacy, he sent the pope a completely Catholic 

N. A. Wbbbr. confession of faith, whereupon Simplicius (9 Oct.^ 

Simple (Simplex} . See Fbastb, EccLssiAfliiCAL. 477} congratulated him on his restoraAion to power and 



exhorted him to ascribe the victory to God, who 
wished in this way to restore liberty to the Church. 
Zeno recalled the edicts of Basiliscus. banisheJ 
Peter Fullo from Antioch, and reinstated Timotheus 
Salophakiolus at Alexandria. He did not disturb 
Ailurus on account of the latter's xreat age, and as a 
matter of fact the latter soon died. The Mono- 

Shysites of Alexandria now put forward Peter 
longus, the former archdeacon of Ailurus, as his 
successor. Urged by the pope and the Eastern 
Catholics. Zeno commanded the banishment of Peter 
Mongus, out the latter was able to hide in Alexandria, 
and fear of the Monophysites prevented the use of 
force. In a moment of weakness Salophakiolus 
himself had permitted the placing of the name of the 
Monophysite patriarch Dioscurus in the diptychs to 
be reiul at the church services. On 13 March, 478, 
SimpUcius wrote to Acacius of Constantinople that 
Salophakiolus should be urged to wipe out the dis- 
grace that he had brought upon himself. The latter 
sent legates and letters to Rome to give satisfaction 
to the pope. At the request of Acacius, who was still 
active against the Monophysites, the pope condemned 
by name the heretics Mongus, Fullo, Paul of Epheseus, 
and John of Apamea, and delegated the Patriarch 
of Constantinople to be in this his representative. 
When the Monophysites at Antioch raised a revolt 
in 497 against the patriarch Stephen II, and killed 
him; Acacius consecrated Stephen III, and afterwards 
Kalendion as Stephen's successors. Simplicius made 
an energetic demand upon the emperor to punish 
the murderers of the patriarch, and also reproved 
Acacius for exceeding his comjjetence in performing 
this consecration; at the same time, though, the pope 

granted him the necessary dispensation. After tne 
eath of Salophakiolus, the Monophysites of Alexan- 
dria asain elected Peter Mongus patriarch, while the 
Cathoucs chose Johannes Talaia. Both Acacius and 
the emperor, whom he influenced, were opposed to 
Talaia, and sided with Mongus. Mongus went 
to Constantinople to advance his cause. Acacius 
and he agreed upon a formula of union between 
the Catholics and the Monophysites that was ap- 
proved by the Emperor Zeno in 482 (Henotikon). 
Talaia had sent ambassadors to Pope Simplicius 
to notify the pope of his election. However, at 
the same time, the pope received a letter frpm the 
emperor in which Talaia was accused of perjury 
and bribery and a demand was made for the recogni- 
tion of Mongus. Simplicius, therefore, delayeato 
recognize TaLua, but protested energetically against 
the elevation of Mongus to the Patriarchate of 
Alexandria. Acacius, however, maintained his alli- 
ance with Mongus and sought to prevail upon the 
Eastern bishops to enter into Church commumon with 
him. For a long time Acacius sent no information 
of any kind to the pope, so that the latter in a btter 
blamed him severely for this. When finally Talaia 
came to Rome in 483 Simplicius was already dead. 
Simplicius exercised a zealous pastoral care in 
western Europe also notwithstanding the trying cir- 
cumstances ot the Church during the disorders of the 
Migrations. He issued decisions in ecclesiastical 
questions, appointed Bishop Zeno of Seville papal 
vicar in Spam, so that the prerogatives of the papal 
see could be exercised in tne country itself for the 
benefit of the ecclesiastical administration. When 
Bishop John of Ravenna in 482 claimed Mutina as a 
suffragan diocese of his metropolitan see, and without 
more ado consecrated Bishop George for this diocese, 
Simplicius vigorously opposed him and defended the 
rights of the papal see. Simplicius established four 
new churches in Rome itseu. A lar^e hall built 
in the form of a rotunda on the Cselian Hill was turned 
into a church and dedicated to St. Stephen; the main 
part of this building still exists as the Church of San 
Stefano Rotondo. A. fine hall near the Church of 

Santa Maria Mag^ore was piven to the Roman 
Church and tumea by' Simplicius into a church ded- 
icated to St. Andrew by the addition of an apse 
adorned with mosaics; it is no longer in existence 
(cf. de Rossi, "BuU. di archeol. crist.", 1871, 1-64). 
The pope built a church dedicated to the first martyr, 
St. Stephen, behind the memorial church of San 
Lorenzo in Agro Verano; this church is no longer 
standing. He had a fourth church built in the city 
in honour of St. Balbina, ''juxta palatium Licinia- 
num'^ where her grave was; this church still remains. 
In order to make sure of the regular holding of church 
services, of the administration of baptism, and of the 
discipline of penance in the sreat churches of the 
catacombs outside the city waUs, namely the church 
of St. Peter (in the Vatican) ^ of St. Paul on the Via 
Ostiensis, and of St. Lawrence on the Via Tiburtina. 
Simplicius ordained that the clergy of three designated 
sections of the city should, in an established order, 
have charge of the reli^ous functions at these chiu^ches 
of the catacombs. Simplicius was buried in St. Pe- 
ter's on the Vatican. Tne "Liber Pontificalis" gives 
2 Mareh as the day of burial (VI non.); prob- 
ably 10 March (VI id.) should be read. Aft«r his 
death King Odoacer desired to influence the filling 
of the papal see. The prefect of the city, Basilius, 
asserted that before oeath Pope Simplicius had 
begged to issue the order that no one should be con- 
secrated Roman bishop without his consent (cf . con- 
cerning the regulation Thiel, "Epist. Rom. Pont/', 
686-88). The Roman clergy opposed this edict that 
limited their right of election. They maintained the 
force of the edict, issued by the Emperor Honorius 
at the instance ot Pope Boniface I, that only that 
person should be regarded as the rightful Bishop of 
Rome who was elected according to canonical form with 
Divine approval and universal consent. Simplicius 
was venerated as a saint; his feast is on 2 or 3 March. 

Liber pontificalis, ed. Ducbcanb, I, 249-251; Jatt^, Regesta 
Pont. Rom., 2ik1 ed., I. 77-80; Thisl, Epitt.' Rom. Paniif., I 
(Bninswick, 1868). 174 sq.; LiBbratus, Bretiar. eausa Nettor., 
xvi sq.; Evaoriub, H%9t, eccl.. Ill, 4 aq.; HskobnhStheb 
Photiu», I, 111-22; Grisar, GwehichU Rom* und der Pdptte, I. 
153 sq., 324 sq.; Lanorn, Oe»ehiehte der rdmUehen Kirehe, II 
(Bonn. 1885), 126 oqq.; Wurm, Die Papattoahl (Cologne. 1902). 

J. P. KiBSCH. 

Slmplieiui, Faustinus, and Beatrice,' martyrs 
at Rome during the Diocletian persecution (302 or 
303). The brothers Simplicius and Faustinus were 
cruelly tortured on account of their Christian faith, 
beaten with clubs, and finally beheaded; their bodies 
were thrown into the Tiber. According to another 
version .of the legend a stone was tied to them and 
they were drovned. Their sister Beatrice had the 
bodies drawn out of the water and buried. Then 
for seven months she lived with a pious , matron 
named Lucina, and with her aid Beatrice succoured 
the persecuted Christians by day and night. Mnally 
she was discovered and arrested. Her accuser was 
her neighbour Lucretius who desired to obtain 
possession of her lands. She courageously asserted 
before the judge that she would never sacrifice to 
demons, because she was a Christian. As punish- 
ment she was strangled in prison. Her friend Lucina 
buried her by her brothers in the cemetery ad 
Ursum PUeaium on the road to Porto. Soon after this 
Divine punishment overtook the accuser Lucretius. 
When Lucretius at a feast was making merry over 
the folly of the martyrs, an infant who had been 
brought to the entertainment by his mother, cried 
out, "Thou hast committed murder and hast taken 
unjust possession of land. Thou art a slave of the 
devil". And the devil at once took possession of 
him and tortured him three hours and drew him down 
into the bottomless pit. The terror of those present 
was so great that they became Christians. This is 
the story of the legend. Trustworthy Acts concern- 
ing the history of the two brothers and sister are no 

snspsoH 4 SIN 

longer in exifltence. Pope Leo. II (682-683) trana- adverse to the well-being of the subject, as pain and 

mted their relics to a church which he had built at suffering. Moral evil is found only in intelligent 

Rome in honour of St. Paul. Later the greater part beings; it deprives them of some moral good. Here 

of the relics of the martyrs were taken to the Church of we have to cleal with moral evil only. This may be 

Santa Maria Maggiore. St. Simplicius is represented defined as a privation of conformity to right reason 

with a pennant, on the shield of which are three lilies and to the law of God. Since the morality of a hu- 

called the crest of Simplicius; the lilies are a s^bol man act consists in its agreement or non-agreement 

of purity of heart. St. Beatrice has a cord in her with ri^t reason and the eternal law, an act is good 

hand, because she was strangled. The feast of the or evil m the moral order according as it involves this 

three saints is on 29 July. * agreement or non-agreement. When the intelligent 

(BiSLif^isoSi^b^^/'iife^M ^*"^*'***«» hogtographica latina creature, knowing (^ and His law, deliberately re- 

. ^ivwj, 11^/-^. J. TiiFFLFR ^^^ ^ ^*>«y; ^^^^^ evil results. 

ALEMEN8 i^FFLER. gj^ ^ nothing clsc than a moraUy bad act (St. 

Simpso&i RicHABD, b. 1820; d. near Rome, 5 April, Thomas, " De malo" , Q. vii, a. 3), an act not in ac- 

— '' ' - ■ - - - p^pjj ^^Yi reason informed by the Divine law. God 

reason and free-will, and a sense 

— c- cw I - I has made us subject to His law, 

vicar of Mitcfiam in Sunrey, tut resignedT^his Tn which is known to us by the dictates of conscience, 

1845 to become a Catholic. After some years spent ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ conform with these dictates, other- 

on the continent, during which time he became wise we sin (Rom., adv, 23). In every sinful act 4;wo 

remarkably proficient as a linguist, he returned to things must be considered, the substance of the act 

England and became editor of '^The Rambler", and the want of rectitude or conformity (St. Thomas, 

When this ceased in 1862 he, with Sir John Acton, I-I^i Q- l»t". »• !)• The act is something positive, 

began the "Home and Foreign Review", which was The smner intends here and now to act in some deter- 

opposed by ecclesiastical authority as unsound and niined matter, inordinately electing that particular 

was discontinued in 1864. Afterwards Simpson de- &^^ ^^ defiance of God's law and the dictates of 

voted himself to the study of Shakespeare and to ^8^* reason. The deformity is not directly intended, 

music. His works are: "Invocation of Saints proved ^^^ ^ i* involved in the act so far as this is physical, 

from the Bible alone" (1849); "The Lady Fafidand: but in the act as coming from the will which has 

her life" (1861); "Edmund Campion" (1867), the power over its acts and is capable of choosing this or 

most valuable of his works; "Introduction to the ^^^^ particular good contained within the scope of its 

Philosophy of Shakespeare's Sonnets" (1868); "The adequate object, i. e. universal good (St. Thomas, 

School of Shakespeare" (1872); and "Sonnets of "^^ malo", Q. iii, a. 2, ad 2um). God, the first 

Shakespeare selected from a complete setting, and cause of all realitv, is the cause of the physical act as 

miscellaneous songs" (1878). Though he remained such, the free-will of the deformity (St. Thomas, I-II, 

a practical CathoUc his opinions were very liberal and Q- Ixxxix, a. 2; "De malo", Q. iii, a. 2). The evil act 

he assisted Mr. Gladstone in writing his pamphlet adequately considered has for its cause the free-will 

on "Vaticanism". His papers in '^The Rambler" defectively electing some mutable good in place of the 

on the English martyrs deserve attention. eternal good, God, and thus deviating from its true 

CooPEB in Diet. Nat. Biog., b. v.; Gilu>w, Bibl. Diet. Eng. last end. 

j**^;o"a^T*' J^**°' ^« ^'"i J»"»<» ^S'^^^i'**^^ Wiseman (Loii- In every sfti a privation of due order or conformity 

don. 1897): Ga«qu«-. Z^ Acton and /^«C.rd.(I^DdoD^9^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^ j^^^-j^ f^^^^^ y^^^ ^j^ j^ ^^^ ^ ^^ 

l!j>wiN UURTON. ^^^jj^ privation of all moral good (St. Thomas, "De 
Sin. — ^The subject is treated under these heads: malo", Q. ii, a. 9; I-II, Q. Ixxiii, a. 2). There is a 
I. Nature of Sin; II. Division; III. Mortal Sin; twofold privation; one entire which leaves nothing of 
IV. Venial Sin; V. Permission and Remedies; VI. its opposite, as for instance, darkness which leaves no 
The Sense of Sin. ^ light; another, not entire, which leaves something of 
I. Nature of Sin. — Since sin is a moral evil, it is the good to which it is opposed, as for instance, disease 
necessary in the first place to determine what is meant which does not entirely destroy the even balance of the 
by evil, and in particular by moral evil. Evil is de- bodily functions necessary for health. A pure or en- 
fined by St. Thomas (De malo, Q. ii, a. 2) as a priva- tire privation of good could occur in a moral act only 
tion of form or order or due measure. In the physi- on the supposition that the will could incline to evil 
cal order a thing is good in proportion as it possesses as such for an object. This is impossible because 
being. God alone is essentially being, and He alone evil as such is not contained within the scope of the 
is essentially and perfectly good. Everything else adequate object of the will, which is good. The sin- 
possesses but a limited being, and, in so far as it pos- ner's intention terminates at some object in which 
sesses Deing, it is good. When it has its due propor- there is a participation of God's goodness, and this 
tion of form and order and measure it is, in its own object is directly intended by him. The privation of 
order and degree, good. (See Good.) Evil implies a due order, or the deformity, is not directly intended, 
deficiency in perfection, hence it cannot exist in God but is accepted in as much as the sinner's desire tends 
who is essentially and by nature good; it is found only to an object in which this want of confonnity is in- 
in finite beings which, because of their origin from volved, so that sin is not a pure privation, but a 
nothing, are subject to the privation of form or order human act deprived of its due rectitude. From the 
or measure due them, ana, through the opposition defect arises the evil of the act, from the fact that it is 
they encounter, are liable to an increase or decrease voluntary, its imputability. 

of the perfection they have: "for evil, in a large II. Division op Sin. — ^As regards the principle 
sense, may be described as the sum of opposition, from which it proceeds sin is original or actual. The 
which experience shows to exist in the universe, to the will of Adam acting as head of the human race for the 
desires and needs of individuals; whence arises, among conservation or loss of original justice is the cause and 
human beings at least, the suffering in which life source of original sin (q. v.). Actual sin b committed 
abounds" (see Evil). by a free personal act of the individual will. It is 
According to the nature of the perfection which it divided into sins of commission and omission. A sin 
limits, evil is metaphysical, physiciu, or moral. Meta- of commission is a positive act contrary to some pro- 
physical evil is not evil properly so called; it is but the hibitory precept; a sin of omission is a failure to do 
negation of a greater good, or. the limitation of finite what is commanded. A sin of omi^ion, however, 
beings by other finite beings* Physical evil deprives requires a positive act whereby one wills to oinit the 
the subject affected by it ofsome natural good, and is fumlling of a precept, or at least wills something in-> 



compatible with its fulfillment (I-II, Q. Ixxii, a. 5). 
Afl r^arda their malice, sins are distinguished into 
sins of ignorance, passion or infirmity, and malice; as 
regards the activities involved, into sins of thought, 
word, or deed (cordis j oriSf operis); as regards their 
gravity, into mortal and venial. This last named 
division is indeed the most important of all and it 
calls for special treatment. But before taking up the 
details, it will be useful to indicate some further dis- 
tinctions which occur in theology or in general usage. 

Material and Formal Sin. — Tms distinction is based 
upon the difference between the^ objective elements 
(object itself, circumstances) and the subjective (ad- 
vertence to the sinfulness of the act). An action 
which, as a matter of fact, is contrary to the Divine 
law but is not known to be such by the agent con- 
stitutes a material sin; whereas formal sin is com- 
mitted when the a^nt freely transgresses the law 
as shown him by his conscience, whether such law 
really exists or is only thought to exist by him who 
acts. Thus, a person who takes the property of an- 
other while believing it to be his own commits a mate- 
rial sin; but the sin would be formal if he took the 
property in the belief that it belonged to another, 
whether his belief were correct or not. 

Internal Sins. — That sin may be committed not 
only by outward deeds but also by the inner activity 
of the mind apart from any external manifestation, is 
plain from the precept of the DecaloKue: "Thou shalt 
not covet'', and from Christ's rebuxe of the scribes 
and Pharisees whom he likens to "whited sepulchres 
. . . full of all filthiness" (Matt., xxiii, 27). Hence 
the Council of Trent (Sees. XIV, c. v), in declaring 
that all mortal sins must be confessed, makes special 
mention of those that are most secret £md that vio- 
late only the last two precepts of the Decalogue, add- 
ing that they '^ sometimes more grievously wound the 
soul and are more dangerous than sins which are 
openlv committed". Three kinds of internal sin are 
usually distinguished: deUctatio morosat i. e. the pleas- 
ure taken in a sinful thought or imagination even 
without desiring it; gattdiunif i. e. dwelling with com- 
placency on sins already committed; and desiderium, 
1. e. the desire for what is sinful. An efficacious desire, 
i. e. one Uiat includes the deliberate intention to 
realize or gratify the desire, has the same malice, 
mortal or venial, as the action which it has in view. 
An inefficacious desire is one that carries a condition, 
in such a way that the will is prepared to perform 
the action in case the condition were verified. When 
the condition is such as to eliminate all sinfulness 
from the action, the desire involves no sin: e. g. I 
would gladly eat meat on Friday, if I had a dispen- 
sation; and in general this is the case whenever the 
action is forbidden by positive law only. When the 
action is contrary to natural law and yet is permis- 
sible in given circumstances or in a particular state of 
life, the desire, if it include those circumstances or 
that state as conditions, is not in itself sinful: e. g. I 
would kill so-and-so if I had to do it in self-defence. 
Usually, however, such desires are dangerous and 
therefore to be repressed. If, on the other hand, the 
condition does not remove the sinfulness of the action, 
the desire is also sinful. This is clearly the case where 
the action is intrinsically and absolutely evil, e. g. 
blasphemy: one cannot without committing sin, have 
the desire — I would blaspheme Crod if it were not 
wrong; the condition is an impossible one and there- 
fore does not affect the desire itself. The pleasure 
taken in a sinful thought (delectatio, gaudium) is, gen- 
erally speaking, a sin of the same kind and gravity 
as the action which is thought of. Much, however, 
depends on the motive for which one thinks of sinful 
actions. The pleasure, e. g. which one may experi- 
ence in studying the nature of murder or any other 
crime, in getting clear ideas on the subject, tracing its 
causes, determining the guilt etc., is not a sin; on the 

contrary, it is often both necessary and useful. The 
case is different of course where the pleasure means 
gratification in the sinful object or action itself. And 
it is evidently a sin when one boasts of his evil deeds, 
the more so •because of the scandal that is given. 

The Capital Sins or Vices. — ^According to St. 
Thomas (II-II, Q. cliii, a. 4) "a capital vice is that 
which has an exceedingly desirable end so that in his 
desire for it a man goes on to the commission of many 
sins all .of which are said to originate in that vice as 
their cliief source". It is not then the gravity of the 
vice in itself that makes it capitaJ but rather the fact 
that it gives rise to many other sins. These are 
enumerated by St. Thomas (I-II, Q. Ixxxiv, a. 4) as 
vainglory (pride), avarice, riuttony, lust, sloth, envy, 
anger. St. Bonaventure (Bre\il., Ill, ix) gives the 
same enumeration. Earlier writers had distinguished 
eight capital sins: so St. Cjrprian (De mort., iv); Cas- 
sian (De instit. coenob., v, coll. 5, de octo principali- 
bus vitiis); Columbanus (^'Instr. de octo vitiis 
princip." in "Bibl. max. vet. patr.", XII, 23); Alcuin 
(De virtu t. et vitiis, xxvii sqq.). The number seven, 
however, had been given by St. Grep)ry the Great 
(Lib. mor. in Job« aXXI, xvii). and it was retained 
by the foremost theologians of tne Middle Ages. 

It is to be noted that ''sin" is not predicated uni vo- 
cally of all kinds of sin. ''The division of sin into 
venial and mortal is not a division of genus into 
species wliich participate equally the nature of the 
genus, but the division of an analogue into things of 
which it is predicated primarily and secondarily" 
(St. Thomas, I-II, Q. Ixxxviii, a. 1, ad lum). "Sin is 
not predicated univocally of all kinds of sin, but 
primarily of actual mortal sin . . . and therefore it is 
not necessary that the definition of sin in general 
should be verified except in that sin in which the 
nature of the genus is foimd perfectly. The definition 
of sin may be verified in other sins m a certain sense" 
(St. Thomas, II, d. 33, Q. i, a. 2, ad 2um). Actual 
sin primarily consists in a voluntary act repugnant to 
the order of right reason. The act passes, out the 
soul of the sinner remains stained, deprived of grace, 
in a state of sin, until the disturbance of order has 
been restored by penance. This state is called hab- 
itual sin, macida pecccUi. reatus culpoB (I-II, Q. Ixxxvii, 
a. 6). 

The division of sin into original and actual, mortal 
and venial, is not a division of genus into species be- 
cause sin has not the same si^ficatioB when applied 
to original and personal sin, mortal and venial. 
Mortal sin cuts us off entirely from our true last end: 
venial sin only iinpedes us in its attainment. Actual 
personal sin is voluntary by a proper act of the will. 
Original sin is voluntary not by a personal voluntary 
act of ours, but by an act of the will of Adam. Orig- 
inal and actual sm are distinguished by the manner 
in which they are voluntary (ex parte actus); mortal 
and venial sin by the way in which they affect our 
relation to God {ex -parte deordincUionis). Since a vol- 
untary act and its disorder are of the essence of sin, it 
is impossible that sin should be a generic term in 
respect to original and actual, mortal and venial sin. 
The true nature of sin is found perfectly only in a 
personal mortal sin^ in other sins unperfectly, so that 
sin is predicated primarily of actual sin, only second- 
arily of the others. Therefore^we shall consider: first, 
personal mortal sin; second, venial sin. 

III. Mortal Sin. — Mortal sin is defined by St. 
Augustine (Contra Faustum, XXII, xxvii) as "Dic- 
tum vel factum vel concupitum contra legem SBter- 
nam", i. e. something said, done or desired contrary 
to the eternal law. or a thought, word, or deed con- 
trary to the eternal law. This is a definition of sin as 
it is a voluntary act. As it is a defect or privation it 
may be defined as an aversion from God, our true last 
end, by reason of the preference given to some mutable 
good. The definition of St. Augustine is accepted 




generally by theologiaiiB and is primarily a definition 
of actual mortal sin. It explams well the material 
and formal elements of sin. The words ''dictum vel 
factum vel concupitum'' denote the material element 
of sin. a human act: ''contra legem seternam", the 
formal element. The act is bad because it trans- 
gresses the Divine law. St. Ambrose (De paradiso, 
viii) defines sin as a "prevarication of the Divine 
law". The definition of St. Augustine strictly con- 
sidered, i. e. as sin averts us from our true ultimate 
end, does not comprehend venial sin, but in as much 
as venial sin is in a manner contrary to the Divine 
law, although not averting us from our last end, it may 
be said to be included in the definition as it stands. 
While primarily a definition of sins of coninussion, 
sins of omission may be included in the definition be- 
cause thev presuppose some positive act (St. Thomas, 
I-II, 6. boa, a. 5) and negation and afllrmation are 
reduced to the same genus. Sins that violate the 
human or the natural law are also included, for what 
is contrary to the human or natural law is also con- 
trary to the Divine law, in as much as everjr just 
human law is derived from the Divine law, and is not 
just unless it is in conformity with the Divine law. 

Bibli4xd Ibescription of Sin, — In the Old Testament 
sin is set forth as an act of disobedience (Gen., ii, 
16-17: iii, ll;l8.,i; 2-4; Jer., ii, 32) j as an insult to 
God (Num., xxvii, 14); as something detested and 
punished by God (Gen., iii, 14-19, Gen., iv, 9-16): 
as injurious to the sinner (Tob., xii, 10) ; to be expiated 
by penance (Ps. 1, 19). In the New Testament it is 
clearly taught in St. Paul that sin is a transgression of 
the law (Rom., ii, 23: v, 12-20): a servitude from 
which we are liberatea by grace (Kom., vi. 16-18); a 
disobedience (Heb., ii, 2) punished by God (Heb., x, 
26-3 1 ) . St. John describes sin as an offence to God, a 
disorder of the will (John, xii, 43), an iniquity (I 
John, iii, 4-10). Christ in many of his utterances 
teaches the nature and extent of sin. He came to 
promulgate a new law more perfect than the old, 
which would extend to the ordering not only of ex- 
ternal but also of internal acts to a degree unknown 
before, and, in His Sermon on the Mount, he con- 
demns as sinful many acts which were judged honest 
and righteous by the doctors and teachers of the Old 
Law. He denounces in a special manner hypocrisy 
and scandal, infidelity and the sin against the Holy 
Ghost. In particular he teaches that sins come from 
the heart (Matt., xv, 19-20). 

Systems which Deny Sin or Distort its True Notion, — 
All systems, religious and ethical, which either deny, 
on the one hand, the existence of a personal creator 
and lawgiver distinct from and superior to his crea- 
tion, or^ on the other, the existence of free will and 
responsibility in man^ distort or destroy the true 
biblico-theofogical notion of sin. In the beginning of 
the Christian era the Gnostics, although their ofoo- 
trines varied in details, denied the existence of a per- 
sonal creator. The idea of sin in the Catholic sense 
is not contained in their system. There is no sin for 
them, unless it be the sin of imorance, no necessity 
for an atonement; Jesus is not God (see Gnosticism). 
Manichseism (q. v.) with its two eternal principles, 
good and evil, at perpetual war with each other, is 
also destructive of the true notion of sin. All evil, 
and consequently sin, is from the principle of evil. 
The Christian concept of God as a lawgiver is de- 
stroyed. Sin is not a conscious voluntary act of dis- 
obedience to the Divine will. Pantheistic systems 
which deny the distinction between God and* His 
creation make sin impossible. If man and God are 
one, man is not responsible to anyone for his acts, 
morality is destroyecl. If he is his own rule of action, 
he cannot deviate from right as St. Thomas teaches 
(I, Q. Ixiii, a. I). The identification of God and the 
world by Pantheism (q. v.) leaves no place for sin. 

There must be some law to which man is subject. 

superior to and distinct from him, which can be 
obeyed and transgressed, before sin can enter into his 
acts. This law must be the mandate of a superior, 
because the notions of superiority and subjection are 
correlative. This superior can be only God, who 
alone is the author and lord of man. Materialism, 
denying as it does the spirituality and the immor- 
tality of the soul, the existence of any spirit whatso- 
ever, and consequently of God^ does not admit sin. 
There is no free will, everythmg is determined by 
the inflexible laws of motion. "Virtue" and "vice" 
are meaningless qualifications of action. Positivism 
places man s last end in some sensible good. Hb 
supreme law of action is to seek the maximum of 
pleasure. Egotism or altruism is the supreme norm 
and criterion of the Positivistic systems, not the 
eternal law of God as revealed by Him, and dictated 
by conscience. For the materialistic evolutionists 
man is but a highly-developed animal, conscience a 
product of evolution. Evolution has revolutionized 
morality^ sin is no more. 

Kant m his "Critique of Pure Heason" having re- 
jected all the essential notions of true mor^ty, 
namely, liberty, the soul, God and a future life, at- 
tempted tn his "Critique of the Practical Reason" to 
restore them in the measure in which they are neces- 
sary for morality. The practical reason, he tells us, 
imposes on us the idea of law and duty. The funda- 
mental principle of the morality of Kant is "duty for 
duty's sake", not God and His law. Duty cannot be 
conceived of alone as an independent thing. It car- 
ries with it certain postulate, the first of which is 
liberty. "I ought, therefore I can", is his doctrine. 
Man by virtue of his practical reason has a con- 
sciousness of moral obligation (categorical impera- 
tive). This consciousness supposes three"things: free 
will, the immortality of the soul, the existence of God, 
otherwise man would not be capable of fulfilling his 
obligations, there would be no sufllicient sanction for 
the Divine law, no reward or punishment in a future 
life. Kant's moral system labours in obscurities and 
contradictions and is destructive of much that per- 
tains to the teaching, of Christ. Personal dignity is 
the supreme rule of man's actions. The notion of sin 
as opposed to God is suppressed. According to the 
teacfung of materialistic Monism, now so widespread, 
there is, and cAn be, no free will. According to this 
doctrine but one thing exists and this one being pro- 
duces all phenomena, thought included; we are but 
puppets in its hands, carried hither and thither as 
it toIs, and finally are cast back into nothingness. 
There is no place for good and evil^ a free observance 
or a wilful transgression of law, m such a system. 
Sin in the true sense is impossible. Without law and 
liberty and a personal God there is no sin. 

That God exists and can be known from His visible 
creation, that He has revealed the decrees of His 
eternal will to man, and is distinct from His crea- 
tion (Denssinger-Bannwart. "Enchiridion", nn. 1782, 
1785, 1701), are matters or Catholic faith and teach- 
ing. Man is a created being endowed with free will 
(ibid, 793), which fact can be proved from Scripture 
and reason (ibid., 1041-1650). The Council of Trent 
declares in Bess. VI, c. i (ibid., 793) that man by reason 
of the prevarication of Adam has lost his primeval 
innocence, and that while free will remains, its powers 
are lessened (see Oriqinal Sin). 

Protestant Errors. — Luther and Calvin taught as 
their fundamental error that no free will properly so 
called remained in man after the fall of our first 
parents; that the fulfillment of God's precepts is im- 
possible even with the assistance of f^ce, and that 
man in all his actions sms. Grace is not an interior 
pft, but something external. To some sin is not 
imputed, because they are covered as with a cloak by 
the merits of Christ. Faith alone saves, there is no 
necessity for good works. Sin in Luther's doctrine 

cannot be a deliberate tranBgresaicm of the Divine dinal de Lugo (De incamat., disp. 5, lect. 3} admits 

law. Janaeniua, in his ^'AuguBtinus", taught that the possibility of philosophical sm in those who are 

according to the present powers of man some of God's inculpably ignorant of God, but he holds that it does 

precepts are impossible of fulfilment, even to the not actually occur, because in the present order of 

just who strive to fulfil them, and he further taught God's providence there cannot be invincible igno- 

that irrace by means of which the fulfilment becomes ranr 8 of God and His law. This teaching does not 

possible is wanting even to the just. His funded- nect.«arily fall under the condemnation of Alexander 

mental error consists in teaching that the will is not VIII, but it is conunonly rejected by theologians for 

free but is necessarily drawn either by concupiscence the reason that a dictate of conscience neces^uily in- 

or grace. Internal liberty is not required for merit or volves a knowledge of the Divine law as a principle of 

demerit. Liberty from coercion sunices. Christ did morality. 

not die for all men. Baius.taught a semi-Lutheran Conditions of Mortal Sin: Knowledqe^ Free WiU, 
doctrine. Liberty is not entirely destroyed, but is so Grave Matter, — Contrary to the teaching of Baius 
weakened that without grace it can do nothing but (prop. 46, Densinger-Bannwart, 1046) and the Re- 
sin. True liberty is not required for sin. A bad formers, a sin must be a voluntary act. Those oo- 
act committed involuntarily renders man responsible tions alone are properly called human or moral actions 
Q>ropositions 60-51 in Densinger-Bannwart, ''En- which proceed from the human will deliberately acting 
^iridion", nn. 1050-1). All acts done without with knowledge of the end for which it acts. -Man 
charity are mortal sins and merit damnation because differs from aU irrational creatures in this precisely 
they proceed from concupiscence. This doctrine de- that he is master of his actions by virtue of his reason 
nies that sin is a voluntary transgression of Divine and free will (I-II, Q. i, a. 1). Since sin is a human 
law. If man is not free, a precept is meaningless as act wanting in due rectitude, it must have, in so far as 
far as he is concerned. it is a human act, the essential constituents of a 

PhUoaophical Sin, — ^Those who would construct human act. The intellect must perceive and judge 
a moral cnrstem independent of God and his law dis- of the morality of the act, and the will must freely 
tinguish between theological and philosophical sin. elect. For a aeliberate mortal sin there must be full 
Phuosophical sin is a morally bad act which violates advertence on the part of the intellect and full con- 
the natural order of reason, not the Divine law. sent, on tiie part of the will in a grave matter. An 
Theological sin is a transgression c^ the eternal law. involuntary transgression of the law even in a grave 
Those who are of atheistic tendencies and contend for matter is not a formal but a material sin. The 
this distinction, either deny the existence of God or gravity of the matter is judged from the teaching of 
maintain that He exercises no providence in regard to Scripture, the definitions of councils and popes, and 
human acts. This position is destructive of sin in the also from reason. Those sins are judged to be mortal 
theological sense, as God and His law, reward and which contain in themselves some grave disorder in 
punishment, are done away with. Those who admit regard to God, our nei^bour, ourselves, or society, 
the existence of God. His law, human liberty and Some sins admit of no hghtness of matter, as for ex- 
responsibility, and still contend for a distinction be- ample, blasphemy, hatrM of God; they are always 
tween philosophical and theological sin, maintain that mortal (ex tola genere etio)^ unless rendered venial by 
in the present order of Grod's providence there are want of full advertence on the part of the intellect or 
morally bad acts, which, while violating the order of full consent on the part of the will. Other sins admit 
reason, are not offensive to God, and they base their lightness of matter: they are ^ave sins (cc genera euo) 
contention on this that the sinner can be ignorant of in as much as their matter in itself is sufficient to con- 
the existence of God, or not actually think of Him and stitute a grave sin without the addition of any other 
His law when he acts. Without the knowledge of matter, but is of such a nature that in a given case, 
God and consideration of Him, it is impossible to owing to its smallness, the sin may Jye venial, e. g. 
offend Him. This doctrine was censured as scanda- theft. 

loua, temerarious, and erroneous by Alexander VIII Imputahility. — ^That the act of the sinner may be 

(24 Aug., 1690) in his condemnation of the following imputed to him it is not necessary that the object 

proposition: "Philosophical or moral sin is a human which terminates and specifies his act should be di- 

act not in agreement with rational nature and right rectly willed as an end or means. It suffices that it be 

reason, theofogjical and mortal sin is a free transgres- willed indirectly or in its cause, i. e. if the sinner 

sion of the Divine law. However grievous it may be. foresees, at least confusedly, that it will follow from 

philosophical sin in one who b either ignorant of Goa the act which he freely performs or from his omission 

or does not actuathr think of God, is indeed a grievous o{ an act. When the cause produces a twofold effect, 

sin, but not -an offense to God, nor a mortal sin dis- one of which is directly willed, the other indirectly, 

solving friendship with God, nor worthy of eternal the effect which follows indirectly is morally imput- 

punishment" (Denzinger-Bannwart, 1200). able to the sinner when these three conditions are 

This proposition is condenmed because it does not verified: first, the sinner must foresee at least con- 
distinguish between vincible and invincible igno- fusedly the evil effects which follow on the cause he 
ranee, and further supposes invincible ignorance of places; second, he must be able to refrain from placins 
God to be sufficiently common, instead of only metar the cause; third, he must be under the obligation of 
physically possible, and because in ^he present dis- preventing the evil ^ect. Error and ignorance in 
pensation of God's providence we are clearly taught regard to the object or circumstances of tne act to be 
m Scripture that God will punish all evil coming from plac^, affect the judgment of the intellect and oonse- 
the free will of man (Rom., ii, 5-11). There is no quently the morality and imputahility of the act. 
morally bad act that does not include a transgression Invincible ignorance excuses entirely from sin. Vin- 
of Divme law. From the fact that an action is con- cible ignorance does not, although it renders the act 
ceived of as morally evil it is conceived of as pro- less free (see Ignorance). The passions, while they 
hibited. A prohibition is unintelligible without the disturb the iudgment of the intellect, more directly 
notion of some one prohibiting. The one prohibiting affect the will. Antecedent passion increases the in- 
in this case and bindins the conscience of man can be tensity of the act, the object is more intensely desired, 
only God, Who alone has power over man's free will although less freely, ana the disturbance caused by 
and actions, so that from the fact that any %ct is per- the passions may be so great as to render a free judg- 
ceived to be morally bad and prohibited by conscience, ment impossible, the agent being for the moment 
God and His law are perceived at least confusedly, and bemde himself (I~II. Q. vi, a. 7, ad Sum). Conse- 
a wilful transgression of the dictate of conscience is quent passion, whicn arises from a command of the 
Becessarily also a transgression of God's law. Car- will, does not lessen liberty, but is rather a sign df an 


intense act of volition. Fear, violence, heredity, 
temperament and pathological states^ in so far as they 
aii'ect free volition, affect the mahce and imputa- 
biltty of sin. From the condemnation of the errors 
of Baius and Jansenius (Denz.-Bann., 1046, 1066, 
1094, 1291-2) it is clear that for an actual personal sin 
a knowledge of the law and a personal voluntary act, 
free from coercion and necessity, are rec]uired. No 
mortal sin is committed in a state of invincible igno- 
rance or in a half-conscious state. Actu^ advertence 
to the sinfulness of the act b not required, virtual 
advertence suffices. It is not necessary that the ex- 
plicit intention to offend God and break his law be 
present^ the full and free consent of the will to an evil 
act suffices. 

Malice, — ^The true malice of mortal sin consists in a 
conscious and voluntary transgression of the eternal 
law, and implies a conl6mpt of the Divine will, a com- 
plete turning away from Glod, our true last end, and a 
preferring of some created thing to which we subject 
ourselves. It is an offence offered to God, and an in- 
jury done Him; not that it effects any change in God, 
who is immutable bv nature, but that the sinner by 
hb act deprives Goa of the reverence and honor due 
Him: it b not any lack of malice on the sinner's part, 
but God's immutability that prevents Him from 
suffering. As an offence offered to God mortal sin b 
in a way infinite in its malice, since it is directed 
a^iinst an infinite being, and the gravity of the 
(mence b measured b^ the dignity of the one offended 
(St. Thomas, III, Q. i, a. 2, ad 2um). As an act sin b 
nnite, the will of man not being capable of infinite 
malice. Sin b an offence against Christ Who has 
Yedeemed man (Phil., iii, 18) ; against the Holy Ghost 
Who sanctifies us (Heb.^ x, 29), an injury to man 
himself, causing the spiritual death of the soul, and 
making, man the servant of the devil. The first and 
primary malice of sin b derived from the object to 
which Ihe will inordinately tends^ and from the ob- 
ject considered morally, not physically. The end for 
which the dinner acts and the circumstances which 
surround the act are also determining factors of its 
morality. An act which, objectively considered, b 
morally indifferent, may be rendered good or evil by 
circumstances,*or by the intention of the sinner. An 
act that b good objectively may be rendered bad, or a 
new species of good or evil may be added, or a new 
degree. Circumstances can change the character of a 
sin to such a degree that it becomes specifically dif- 
ferent from what it b objectively considered; or they 
may merely aggravate the sin while not changing its 
specific character; or they mav lessen its gravity. 
That they may exercise thb aeterminin^ influence 
two things are necessary: they must contam in them* 
selves some good or evil, and must be apprehended^ at 
least confus^y, in their moral aspect. The external 
act, in so far as it b a mere execution of a voluntary 
efficacious internal act, does not, according to the 
common Thombtic opinion, add any essential good- 
ness or malice to the mtemal sin. 

Gravity. — ^While every mortal sin averts us from 
out true last end, all mortal sins are not equally 

Save, as b clear from Scripture (John, xix, 11; 
att., xi, 22: Luke, vi), and also from reason. Sins 
are specifically distingubhed by their objects, which 
do not all equally avert man from his last end. Then 
again, since sin is not a pure privation, but a mixed 
one, all sins do not equally destroy the order of reason 
Spiritual sins, other things being equal, are graver 
than carnal sins (St. Thomas, "De malo'', Q. h, 
a. 9; I-II, Q. Ixxiii, a. 5). 

Spedfie and numeric distinction of Sin. — Sins are 
dbtmgubhed specifically b^ their formally diverse 
objects; or from their opposition to different virtues, 
or to morally different precepts of the same virtue. 
Sins that are specifically distmct are also numerically 
dbtinot. Sins within the same species are dbtin- 

guished numerically according to the number of com- 
plete acts of the will in regard to total objects. A 
total object b one which, either in itself or by the 
intention of the sinner, forms a complete whole 
and is not referred to another action as a part of 
the whole. When the completed acts of tne will 
relate to the same object there are as many sina 
as there are morally interrupted acts. 

Subject causes of Sin. — Since sin b a voluntary act 
lacking in due rectitude, sin b found, as in a subject, 
principally in the will. But, since not only acts 
elicit^ by the will are voluntary, but also those 
that are elicited by other faculties at the command 
of the will, sin may be found in these faculties in 
so far as they are subject in their actions to the 
command of the will, and are instruments of the will, 
and move under ita guidance (I-II, Q. Ixxiv). 

The external members of the body cannot be 
effective principles of sin (I-II, Q. Ixxiv, a. 2 ad Sum). 
They are mere organs which are set in activity by 
the soul; they do not initiate action. The appetitive 
powers on the contrary can be effective principles 
of sin, for they possess, through their immediate 
conjunction with the will and their subordination 
to it, a certain though imperfect liberty (I~II,.Q. Ivi, 
a. 4, ad Sum). The sensual appetites have their 
own proper sensible objects to which they naturally 
incline, and since original sin has broken the bond 
which held them in complete subjection to the will, 
they may antecede the will in their actions and tend 
to their own proper objects inordinately. Hence 
they may be proximate principles of sin when they 
move inordinately contrary to the dictates of right 

It b the right of reason to rule the lower facul- 
ties, and when the dbturbance arises in the sen- 
sual part the reason may do one of two things: 
it may either consent to the sensible delectation 
or it may repress and reject it. If it consents, the 
sin b no longer one of the sensual part of man, 
biit of the intellect and will, and consequently, 
if the matter b grave, mortal. If rejected, no sm 
can be imputed. There can be no sin in the sensual 
part of man independently of the will. The in- 
ordinate motions of the sensual appetite which precede 
the advertence of reason, or which are suffered 
unwillingly, are not even venial sins. The temp- 
tations of the flesh not consented to are not sins. 
Concupiscence, which remains after the guilt of 
originid sin b remitted in baptbm, b not sinful so 
long as consent b not given to it (Coun. of Trent., 
sess. V, can. v). The sensual appetite of itseli 
cannot be the subject of mortal sin, for the reason 
that it can neither grasp the notion of God as an 
ultimate end, nor avert us from Him, without which 
aversion there cannot be mortal sin. The superior 
reason, whose office it b to occupy itself with Divine 
things, may be the proximate principle of sin both 
in regard to its own proper act, to know truth, and 
as it b directive of the inferior faculties: in regard 
to its own proper act, in so far as it voluntarily 
neglects to know what it can and ought to know; 
in regard to the act by which it directs the inferior 
faculties, to the extent that it commands inordinate 
acts or fails to repress them (I-II, Q. Ixxiv, a. 7, 
ad 2um). 

The will never consents to a sin that b not at the 
same time a sin of the superior reason as directing 
badly, by either actually deliberating and commanding 
the consent, or by failing to deliberate and impede 
the consent of the will when it could and should do 
so. The superior reason is the ultimate judge of hu- 
man acts and has an obligation of deliberating and 
deciding whether the act to be performed b according 
to the law of God. Venial sin may abo be found 
in the superior reason when it deliberately consents 
to sins that are venial in their nature, or when there 


IB not a full ooiiBent in the case of a sin that is mortal 
considered objectively. 

Causes of Sin. — Under this head, it is needful 
to distinguish between the efficient cause, i.e. the 
agent performing the sinful action, and those other 
agencies, influences or circumstances, which incite 
to sin and consequently involve a danger, more or 
less pp*ave, for one who is exposed to them. These 
incitmg causes are explained in special articles on 
Occasions op Sin and Temptation. Here we have 
to consider onl^r the efficient cause or causes of sin. 
These are interior and exterior. The complete and 
sufficient cause of sin is the will, which is regulated 
in its actions by the reason, and acted upon by the 
sensitive appetites. The principal interior causes of 
sin are ignorance, infirmity or passion, and malice. 
Ignorance on the part of the reason, infirmity and 
passion on the part of the sensitive appetite, and 
malice on the part of the will. A sin is from certain 
malice when the will sins of its own accord and not 
under the influence of ignorance or passion. 

The exterior causes of sin are the devil and man, 
who move to sin by means of suggestion, persuasion, 
temptation, and bad example. God is not the cause 
of sm (Counc. of Trent., sess. VI, can. vi, in Denz.- 
Bann., 816). He directs all thin^^ to Himself and is 
the end of all His actions, and could not be the cause 
of evil without self-contradiction. Of whatever 
entity there is in sin as an action, He is the cause. 
The evil will is the cause of the disorder (I-II, Q. 
Ixxix, a. 2). One sin may be the cause of another 
inasmuch as one sin may be ordained to another as 
an end. The seven capital sins, so called, may be 
considered as the source from which other sins 
proceed. They are sinful propensities which reveal 
themselves in particular sinful act«. Original sin 
bv rea'9on of its dire effects is the cause and source 
of sin in so far as by reason of it our natures are left 
wounded and inclined to evil. Ignorance, infirmity, 
malice, and concupiscence are the consequences of 
original sin. 

Effects of Sin. — ^The first effect of mortal sin in man 
is to avert him from his true last end, and deprive 
his soul of sanctifying grace. The sinful act passes, 
and the sinner is left in a state of habitual aversion 
from God. The sinful state is voluntary and imput- 
able to the sinner, because it necessarily follows from 
the act of sin he freely placed, and it remains until 
satisfaction is made (see Penance). This state of 
sin is called by theologians habitual sin, not in the 
sense that habitual sin implies a vicious habit, but 
in the sense that it signifies a state of aversion from 
God depending on the preceding actual sin, con- 
sequently voluntary and imputable. This state 
of aversion carries with it necessarily in the present 
order of God's providence the privation ot grace 
and charity by means of which man is ordered to 
his supernatural end. The privation of grace is the 
"macula peccati" (St. Thomas I-II, Q. Ixxxvi), 
the stain of sin spoken of in Scripture (Jos., xxii, 17; 
Isaias, iv, 4; 1 Cor., vi, 11). It is not anything 
positive, a quality or disposition, an obligation to 
suffer, an extrinsic denomination coming from sin, 
but is solely the privation of sanctifving grace. 
There is not a real but only )& conceptual distinction 
between habitual sin (recUus culjxe) and the stain of 
sin (macula peccati). One ana the same privation 
considered as destroying the due order of^ man to 
God is habitual sin, considered as depriving the 
soul of the beauty of grace is the stain or " macula '' 
of sin. 

The second effect of sin is to entail the penalty of 
undergoing suffering {reatxAs poencB). Sin (reatiLS 
eulpce) is the cause of this obligation (recUus pcena). 
The suffering may be inflicted in this life through the 
medium of medicinal punishments, calamities, sick- 
ness, temporal evils, which tend to withdraw from 

sin; or it may be inflicted in the life to come by the 
justice of Crod as vindictive punishment. The 
punishments of the future Ufe are proportioned 
to the sin committed, and it is the obligation of 
underling this punishment for unrepented sin that 
is sigmfied by the '^reatus poens" of the theologians. 
The penalty to be undergone in the future me is 
divided into the pain of loss {jpcma damni) and the 
pain of sense (poma sensus). The pain of loss is 
the privation of the beatific vision of God in punish- 
ment of turning away from Him. The pain of sense 
is suffering in punishment of the conversion to some 
created thing m place of God. This two-fold pain 
in punishment of mortal sin is eternal (I Cor., vi, 9; 
Matt., XXV, 41; Mark, ix, 45). One mortal sin 
suffices to incur punishment. (See Hell.) Other 
effects of sins are: remorse of conscience (Wisdom, 
V, 2-13); an inclination towards evil, as habits are 
formed by a repetition of similar acts: a darkening 
of the intelligence, a hardening of the will (Matt., xiii, 
14-15; Rom., xi, 8); a general vitiating of nature, 
which does not however totally destroy the substance 
and faculties of the soul but merely weakens t^e 
right exercise of its faculties. 

IV. Venial Sin. — Venial sin is essentially differ- 
ent from mortal sin. It does not avert us from 
our true last end, it does not destroy charity, the 
principle of union with God, nor deprive the soul 
of sanctifying grace, and it is intrinsically reparable. 
It is called venial precisely because, considered in 
its own proper nature, it is pardonable; in itself 
meriting, not eternal, but temporal punishment. 
It is distinguished from mortal sin on the part of 
the disorder. By mortal sin man is entirely averted 
from God, his true last end, and, at least imphcitlv, 
he places his last end in some created thing. By 
venial sin he is not averted from Grod, neither does 
he place his last end in creatures. He remains 
united with God by charity, but does not tend towards 
Him as he ought. The true nature of sin as it is 
contrary to the eternal law, repugnant namely to 
the primary end of the law, is found only in mortal 
sin. Venial sin is only in an imperfect way contrary 
to the law, since it is not contrary to the primary 
end of the law, nor does it avert man from the end 
intended bv the law (St. Thomas, I-II, Q. Ixxxviii, 
a. 1: and Cajetan, I-II. Q. Ixxxviii, a. 1, for the sense 
of tne prcBier legem ana contra legem of St. Thomas). 

Definition. — Since a voluntary act and its disorder 
are of the essence of sin, venial sin as it is a voluntary 
act may be defined as a thought, word, or deed at 
variance with the law of God. It retards man in 
the attainment of his last end while not averting 
him from it. Its disorder consists either in the not 
fully deliberate choosing of some object prohibited 
by the law of God, or in the dehberate adhesion 
to some created object not as an ultimate end but 
as a medium, which object does not avert the sinner 
from God, but is not, however, referi^le to Him 
as an end. Man cannot be averted from God 
except by deUberately placing his- last end in some 
created thing, and in venial sin he does not adhere 
to any temporal good, enjoying it as a last end, but as 
a medium referring it to God not actually but habit- 
uall}r inasmuch as he himself is ordered to God by 
charity. "Ille qui peccat venialiter, inhseret bono 
temporali n6n ut fruens, quia non constituit in eo 
finem, sed ut utens, referens in Deum non actu sed 
habitu^' (I-II» Q. Ixxxviii, a. 1, ad 3). For a mortal 
sin. some created ^ood must be adhered to as a last 
end at least implicitl}^. This adherence cannot be 
accomplished by a semi-deliberate act. Bv adherins 
to an object that is at variance with the law of God 
and yet not destructive of the primary end of the 
Divine law, a true opposition is not set up between 
God and that object. The created good is not 
desired as an end. The sinner is not placed in the 



position of choosing between God and creature 
as ultimate ends that are opposed, but is in such a 
condition of mind that if the object to which he 
adheres were prohibited as contrary to his true last end 
he would not adhere to it, but would prefer to keep 
friendship with God. An example may be had in 
human friendship. A friend will refrain from doing 
ansrthinfs that of itself will tend directly to dissolve 
friendship while allowing himself at times to do what 
is displeasmg to his friends without destroying 

The distinction between mortal and venial sin 
is set forth in Scripture. From St. John (I John, 
y, 1&-17) it is clear there are some sins ''unto deatib'' 
and some sins not ''unto death", i. e. mortal and 
venial. The classic text for the distinction of mortal 
and venial sin is that of St. Paul (I Cor., iii, 8-15), 
where he explains in detail the distinction between 
mortal and venial sin. "For other foundation no 
man can lay, but that which is laid; which is Christ 
Jesus. Now if any man build upon this foimdation 
gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble: 
eveiy man's work shall be manifest; for the day of 
the Lord shall declare it: because it shall be revealed 
in fire; and the fire shall try everv man's work, of 
what sort it is. If any man^s work abide, which he 
hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward. If 
any man's work bum, he shall suffer loss; but he 
himself ^all be saved, yet so as by fire." By wood, 
hay, and stubble are signified venial sins (St. 
Thomas, I-II, O. Ixxxix, a. 2) which, built on the 
foundation of a living faith in Christ, do not destroy 
charity, and from their very nature do not merit 
etemiu but temporal punishment. "Just as", 
says St. Thomas, [wood, hay, and stubble] "are 
gathered together in a house and do not pertain to 
the substance of the edifice, so also venial sins are 
multiplied in man, the spiritual edifice remaining, 
and for these he suffers either the fire of temporal 
tribulations in this life, or of purgatory after this 
life and nevertheless obtains eternal salvation." 

The suitableness of the division into wood, hay, 
and stubble is en>lained by St. Thomas (iv, dist. 
21. Q. i, a. 2). Some venial sins are graver than 
otners and less pardonable, and this cuffereiice is 
well signified by the difference in the inflammabil- 
ity of wood, hay, and stubble. That there is a dis- 
tinction between mortal and venial sins is of faith 
(Counc. of Trent, sess. VI, c. xi and canons 23-25; 
sess. XIV, de poenit., c. v). This distinction is 
commonly rejected by all heretics ancient and 
modem. In the fourth century Jovinian asserted 
that all sins are equal in guilt and deserving of the 
same punishment (St. Aug., "Ep. 167", ii, n. 4); 
Pelagius (q. v.), that every sin deprives man of 
justice and therefore is mortal; Wyclif, that there is 
no warrant in Scripture for differentiating mortal 
from venial sin, and that the ^avity of sin depends 
not on the quality of the action but on the decree 
of predestination 'Or reprobation so that the worst 
crime of the predestined is infinitely less than the 
slightest fault of the reprobate; Hus, that all the 
actions of the vicious are mortal sins, while all the 
acts of the good are virtuous (Denz.-Bann., 642): 
Luther, that all sins of unbelievers are mortal ana 
all sins of the regenerate, with the exception of 
infidelity, are veniu; Calvin, like Wyclif, bases the 
difference between mortal sin and venial sin on 
predestination, but adds that a sin is venial because 
of the faith of the sinner. The twentieth among 
the condemned propositions of Baius reads: "There 
is no sin venial in its nature, but every sin merits 
eternal punishment" (Denz.-Bann., 1020). Hirscher 
in more recent times taught that all sins which are 
fully deliberate are mortal, thus denying the dis- 
tinction of sins by reason of their objects and making 

the distinction rest on the imperfection of the act 
(Kleutgen, 2nd ed., II, 284, etc.). 

Malice ofVenialSin. — ^The difference in the malice of 
mortal and venial sin consists in this: that mortal sin is 
contrary to the primary end of the eternal law, that it 
attacks the very substance of the law which commands 
that no created thing should be preferred to God as 
an end, or equalled to Him, while venial sin is only 
at variance with the law, not in contrary opposition 
to it, not attacking its substance. The substance 
of the law remaining, its perfect accomplishment is 
prevented by venial sm. 

Canditiana. — Venial sin is committed when, the 
matter of the sin is light, even though the advertence 
of the intellect and consent of the will are full and 
deliberate, and when, even though the matter of 
the sin be grave, there is not full advertence on the 
part of the intellect and fuU consent on the part 
of the will. A precept obliges sub ffravi when it has 
for its object an important end to be attained, and 
its transgression b prohibited under penalty of 
losing Gild's friendship. A precept obliges sub Uvi 
when it is not so directly imposed. 

EfecU. — ^Venial sin does not. deprive the soul of 
sanctifying grace, or diminish it. It does not produce 
a macula, or stain, as does mortal sin, but it lessens 
the lustre of virtue — "In anima duplex est nitor, 
unus quiden habitualis, ex gratia sanctificante, alter 
actualis ex actibus virtutum, jamvero peccatum 
veniale impedit quidem fulgorem qui ex actibus 
virtutum oritur, non autem habitualem nitorem. 
ouia non exduait nee minuit habitum charitatis" 
(I-II, Q. Ixxxix, a. 1). Frequent and deliberate 
venial sin lessens the fervour of charity, disposes to 
mortal sin (I-II, Q. Ixxxviii, a. 3), and ' hinders the 
reception of graces God would otherwise give. It 
displeases (}od (Apoc., ii, 4-5) and obliges the sinner 
to temporal punishment either in this life or in 
Purgatory. We cannot avoid all venial sin in this 
life. "Althou^ the most just and holy occasion- 
ally during this life fall into some sli^t and daily 
sins, known as venial, they cease not on that account 
to be just" (Counc. of Trent, sess. VI, c. xi). And 
canon xxiii says: "If any one declare that a man 
once justified cannot sin again, or that he can avoid 
for the rest of his life every sin, even venial, let him 
be anathema", but according to the common opinion 
we can avoid all such as are fully deliberate. Venial 
sin may coexist with mortal sin in those who are 
averted from God by mortal sin. This fact does 
not chanse its nature or intrinsic reparability, and 
the fact that it is not coexistent with chanty is not 
the result of venial sin, but of mortal sin. It is. 
per accidenSf for an extrinsic reason, that venial sin 
in this case is irreparable, and is punished in hell. 
That venifiJ sin may appear in its tme nature as 
essentially different from mortal sin it is considered 
as de facto coexisting with charity (I Cor., iii, S-15). 
Veniu sins do not need the grace of absolution. 
They can be remitted by prayer, contrition, fervent 
communion, and other pious works. Nevertheless 
it is laud^le to confess them (Denn.-Bann., 1539). 

V. Permission of Sin and REBfSDiES. — Since it is 
of faith that God is omnipotent, omniscient, and 
all good it is difficult to account for sin in His creation. 
The existence of evil is the underlying problefn in 
all theology. Various explanations to account for 
its existence have been offered, differing according 
to the philosophical principles and religious tenets 
of their authors. Any Catholic explanation must 
take into account the defined tmths of the omnipo- 
tence, omniscience, and goodness of God; free will 
on the part of man; and the fact that suffering is 
the penalty of sin. Of metaphysical evil, the negation 
of a greater good, God is tne cause inasmuch as he 
has created beings with limited forms. Of physical 
evil (malum jxencB) He is also the cause. Physical 




evil, considered as it proceeds from God and is inflicted 
in punishment of sin in accordance with the decrees of 
Divine justice, is good, compensating for the violation 
of order by sin. It is only in the subject affected 
by it tliat it is evil. 

Of moral evil (malum cuIjxb) God is not the cause 
(Couno. of Trent, sess. VI, wm. vi), either directly 
or indirectly. Sin is a violation of order, and God 
or lers all things to Himself, as an ultimate end, 
consequently He cannot be the direct cause of sin. 
God*s withdrawal of ^ace which would prevent the 
sin does not make Him the indirect cause of sin in- 
asmuch as this withdrawal is affected according 
to the decrees of His Divine wisdom and justice 
in punishment of previous sin. He is under no 
obligation of impeding the sin, consequently it 
cannot be imputed to Him as a cause (I-II, Q. Ixxix, 
a. I). When we read in Scripture and the Fathers 
that God inclines men to sin tne sense is, either that 
in His just judgment He permits men to fall into 
sin by a punitive permission, exercising His justice 
in punishment of past sin; or that He directly causes, 
not sin, but certain exterior works, good in themselves, 
which are so abused by the evil wills of men that here 
and now they commit evil; or that He gives them 
the power of accomplishing their evil designs. Of 
the physical act in sin God is the cause inasmuch 
as it is an entity and good. Of the malice of sin 
man's evil will is the sufficient cause. God could 
not be impeded in the creation of man by the fact 
that He foresaw his fall. This would mean the 
limiting of His omnipotence by a creature, and would 
be destructive of Him. He was free to create man 
even though He foresaw his fall, and He created 
him, endowed him with free will, and gave him 
sufficient means of persevering in good had he so willed. 
We must sum up our ignorance of the permission 
of evil by saymg in the words of St. Augustine, 
that God would not have permitted evil had He not 
been powerful enough to bring good out of evil. 
God's end in creating this universe is Himself, not 
the good of man, and somehow or other good 
and evil serve His ends, and there shall finally be 
a restoration of violated order by Divine justice. 
No sin shall be without its punishment. The evil 
men do must be atoned for either in this world by 
penance (see Penance) or in the world to come 
m purgatory or hell, according as the sin that stains 
the soul, and is not repented of. is mortal or venial, 
and merits eternal or temporal punishment. (See 
Evil.) God has provided a remedy for sin and 
manifested His love and goodness in the face of 
man's ingratitude by the Incarnation of His Divine 
Son (see Incarnation); by the institution of His 
Church to ^ide men and interpret to them His law, 
and administer to them the sacraments, seven 
channels of grace, which, rightly used, furnish an 
adequate remedy tor sin and a means to union with 
God in heaven, which is the end of His law. 

Sense of Sin. — ^The understanding of sin. as far 
as it can be understood by our finite intelligence, 
serves to unite man more closely to God. It impresses 
him with a salutary fear, a fear of his own powers, 
a fear, if left to himself, of falling from ^ace; with 
the necessity he lies under of seeking God's help 
and grace to stand firm in the fear and love of Goa, 
and m£^e progress in the spiritual life. Without 
the acknowledgment that the present moral state 
of man is not that in which God created him, that 
his powers are weakened; that he has a supernatural 
end to- attain, which is impossible of attainment 
by his own unaided efforts, without grace there being 
no proportion between the end and the means; 
that the world, the flesh, and the devil are in reality 
active agents fighting against him and leading him 
to serve them instead of God. sin cannot be under- 
stood. The evolutionary hypothesis would have it that 

physical evolution accounts for the physical origin 
of man, Uiat science knows no condition of man in 
which man exhibited the characteristics of the state 
of origmal justice, no state of sinlessness. The fiQl 
of man in this hypothesis is in reality a rise to a 
higher grade of bemg. ''A fall it mi^t seem, just 
as a vicious, man sometimes seems degraded below 
the beasts, but in promise and potency, a rise it\ 
really was" (Sir O. Lodge, "Life and Matter", p. 79). 
This teaching is destructive of the notion of sin as 
taught by the Catholic Church. Sin is not a phase 
of an upward struggle, it is rather a deliberate, 
wilful refusal to struggle. If there has been no fall 
from a hi^er to a lower state, then the teaching of 
Scripture m regard to Redemption and the necessity 
of a baptismal regeneration is unintelligible. The 
Catholic teaching is the one that places sin in its 
true light, that justifies the condemnation of sin we 
find in Scripture. 

The Church strives continually to impress her 
children with a sense of the awfulness of sin that they 
may fear it and avoid it. We are fallen creatures, 
and our spiritual life on earth is a warfare. Sin is 
our enemy, and while of our own strength we cannot 
avoid sin, with God's grace we c&n. If we but place 
no obstacle to the workings of grace we can avoid 
all deliberate sin. If we have the misfortune to sin, 
and seek God's grace and pardon with a contrite 
and humble heart, He will not repel us. Sin has its 
remedy in grace, which is given us by God, through 
the merits of His only-begotten Son, Who has re- 
deemed us, restoring by His passion and death the 
order violated by the sin of our first parents, and mak- 
ing us once a^ain children of God and heirs of heaven. 
Wnere sin is looked on as a necessary and un- 
avoidable condition of things human, where inability 
to avoid sin is conceived as necessary, discouragement 
naturally follows. Where the Catholic doctrine 
of the creation of man in a superior state, his fall 
by a wilful transgression, the effects of which fall 
are by Divine decree transmitted to his posterity, 
destroying the balance of the human faculties 
and leaving man inclined to evil; where the dogmas 
of redemption and grace in reparation of sin are Kept 
in mind, there is no discouragement. Left to our- 
selves we fall, by keeping close to God and continually 
seeking His nelp we can stand and struggle against 
sin, and if faithful in the battle we must wage shall 
be crowned by God in heaven. (See Conscience; 
Justification; Scandal.) 

DooMATic Works: St. Thomas, Summa theol., I-II, QQ. Ixxi- 
Izxziz; Idem, ConimffenUs, tr. Rickabt, OfGod and Hia Crealurn 
(Loodon, 1905): loBM, Quatt. dUputaUr: Detnaloin Opera omnia 
(Paris, 1875); Billuart. />« peeca<M (Paris, 1867-72); Suarez, 
Depece. in Opera omnia (Paris, 1878); Salmanticbnses. De pece, 
in Cura. theol. (Paris, 1877) ; Gonbt, Clypetu theol. thom. (Venice, 
1772) ; John or St. Thomas. De peee. in Curs, theol. (Paris, 1886) ; 
8TLyins,Z)e peee. (Antwerp, 1608) :Ca(ecAi«mu« Romanua, tr.DoNO- 
YAXf.Caieehiem of the Council of Trent (Dublin, 1829); Schebbkn, 
Handbuch d, hath. Dogmatik (Freiburg, 1873-«7) ; Wilhelm and 
ScANifBLL, Manual of Catholic Theotogy, IT (London, 1908); 
Manning, Sin and it* Coneeguencee (New York, 1904) ; Sbarpe, 
Principlee of Chrietianity (London, 1904) ; Idem, Evil, ita Nature 
and Caufe (London, 1906)^ Billot, De nai. Hrat. peceaiipereonalia 
(Rome, 1900); TanqubrA-, Synopaie theol., I (New York, 1907). 

Cf. followins on moral theology: — Lehmkuhl, Theol. morali* 
(Freiburg. 1910); GdPFBRT, MoraUheologie, I (Paderborn, 1899); 
Marc, Inal. mor. alphonsin^ (Rome, 1002): Noldin, Summa 
theol. mar. (Innsbruck, 1906); Gcnicot, Theol. mor. in^., 1 
(Louvain, 1906) ; Sabbtti-Barrstt. Compend. theol. mor. (Ratis- 
bon^ 1906) : Scrielbr-Heusbr, Theory and Practice of the Con- 
feeeumal (New York, 1906); Slater, Manual of Moral Theology 
(New York. 1908); Koch, MoraUheologie (3rded.. Freiburg, 1910). 

A. C. O'Neil. 

Sinai ("^y^Ot ^iPtit Sinai and Sina)f the mountain 
on which the Mosaic Law waa ^ven. Horeb and 
Sinai were thought synonjrmoua by St. Jerome ("De 
situ et nom. Hebr.'^, in P. L., XXIII, 889), W. 
Gesenius ('"i-D 3^n), and, more recently, G. Ebere 
(p. 381). Ewald, Delitzsch, Ed. Robinson, E. H. 
Palmer, and others think Horeb denoted the whole 
mountainous region i^ut Sinai (Ex., xvii, 6). The 


oripn of the name Sinai ie disputed. It seems to be 
ui adjective Trom ^'C, "the desert" (Ewsid and 
Ebera) or "the moon-god" (E. Schroder and otheia). 
The mount was called Sinai, or "the mount of God" 

Srobably before the time of Moeeo (Josephus, "Antiq. 
ud.", II, rii.) The name is now ^ven to the tn- 
angular peninsula lying betv^enthe desert of Southern 
Palestine, the Red Sea, and the gulfs of Akabah and 
Suez, with an area of about 10,000 sq. miles, which 
was the scene of the forty veats' wandering of the 
Ismelites after the Exodus from Egypt. 

The principal topographical features are two. 
North of the Jabal et-Tih (3200 to 3950 feet) stretehes 
an arid plateau, the desert of Tih, marked by numer* 
OUB Wadis, notably El-Arish, the "River of Egypt", 
which formed the southern boundary of the Promised 
Land (Gen,, icv, 18; Num., xxriv, 6). South of Jabal 
el'-'nh rises a mountainous mass of granite streaked 
with porph3Ty, dividing into three principal groups: 
the western, Jabal 
Serbal (6750 feet): 
the central, Jabal 
Mflsa (7380 feet), 
Jabal Catherine, 
(8560 feet), and Ja- 
bal Ura Schomer 
(S470reet); the east- 
em, Jabal Thebt 
(7906 feet) and Ja- 
bal Tarfa, which 
terminates in Ras 
Mohammed. It is 
among these moun- 
tains that Jewish and 
Christian tradition 
places the Siniu of 
the Bible, but the 
precise location is 
uncert^n. It is Ja- 
bal Mflsa^ according 
to a tradition trace- 
able back to the 
fourth century, when 
St. Silvia of^ Aqt ' 
taine was there. 


Jabal MAsa, which has been known unce the ninth 
century as St. Catherine's. Its smtdl Ubraiy coa- 
toina about 500 volumes of valuable manuscripts in 
Greek, Arabic, Syriac, Ethiopic, ^tc. It was here 
that Tischendorf, during his researches in 1844, 1853, 
and 1859. found a very ancient Greek MS. (since 
known as the "Codex Sinaiticus") containing most 
of the Septuagint, all the new Testament, the "Epistle 
of Barnabas , and the first part of the "Shepherd" 
of Hermas, Forty-three MS. pages found bv nim are 
preserved at the University of Leipzig and known as 
the "Codex Friderico-Au^pstanus". In 1892 Mrs. 
Smith Lewis found at Sinai a fourth-century palimp- 
sest Syriac te:tt of St. Luke's Gospel. Sinai is rich in 
valuable inscriptions. M. de VogUS gives 3200 
Egyptian and Semitic inscriptions found in the WAdi 
Mukatteb, the ruins of Che temple of Ischta, or 
Astaroth-Carmain, and the iron and turquoise mines 
and granite and marble quarries, which were ex- 
t«nwvcly worked un- 
der the twelfth and 
eighteenth Egyptian 

The present popu- 
lation of Sinai is 4000 
to 6000 semi- 
nomadic Arabs, Mo- 
haromedans, gov- 
erned by their tribal 
sheikhs and imme- 
diately subject to 
the conmiandant of 
the garrison at QaT 
at un-Nakhl, under 
the Intelligence De- 

Ertment of the 
jyptian War Office 


IdentifiHl by St. J< 

_ ._ Jabal Mflsa is defended by 

E. H. and H. S. Palmer, Vigouroux, Lagrange, and 
others. However, the difhculty of applying Ex., 
xix, 12, to Jabal MQsa and the inscriptions found near 
Jabal Serbal have led some to favour Serbal. This 
was the opinion of St. Jerome (P. L., XXIII, 916, 
B33) and Cosmas (P. G., LXXXVIII, 217), and more 
recently of Burkhard and Lepsius, and it nss of late 
been very strongly defended by G. Ebers, not to 
mention Beke, Gressmami, and others, who consider 
the whole stoiy about Sin^ (Ex., xix) only a mythical 
interpretation of some volcanic eruption. The more 
liberal critics, while agreeing generally that the Jewish 
traditions represented by the "PnestrKiodex" and 
"Elohistic documents" place Siniu among the moun- 
tains in the south-central part of the peninsula, yet 
disagree as to its location by tiTc older "Jahvistic" 
tradition (Ex., ii. 15, 16, 21; xviii, 1, 5). A. von Gall, 
whose opinion Welhausen thinks the best sustained, 
contends that Meribar (D. V. Temptation. — Ex., 
xviij 7) is identical with Cades (Num., xxxiii, 36; 
xxvii, 14), that the Israelites never went so far south 
as Ji^al MAsa, and hence that Sinai must be looked 
for in Madian, on the east coast of Ak^ar. Others 
(cf. Winckler, II, p. 29; Smend p. 35, n. 2; and Weill, 
opp. cit. infra in oibliography) look for Sinw in the 
near neighbourhood of Cades (Ayn Q&dis) in Southern 

Sinai was the refuge of many Christian anchorites 
during the third-century persecutions of the Church. 
There are traces of a fourth-century monastery near 
Mount Serbal. In 527 the Emperor Justinian built 
the famous convent of Ml. Sinai on the north foot of 

\aiil. <fu latrrirtiont {Psru. 10U7I: MEiimiiHiNii, 

Cuidt du Nil au Jimtdaia (Puis, ISW): ComnuiUarir, ox Ex. 

■ ^- ■" ■ , 18B7). Dii.uiiiN (Leipiis, 

rl D/IAf Er«l<ii ICsmhndKii, 

riiAHf* Pertorinalio (EfoiDfl, 
.Sli'iai' (Berlin. IMS): 
OtLL. AUin: Ku'tia- 
AUUtl. Rtlioi 

It du Nil au jBurdaia (t 
-. 1 «q<l. by HmHEUUER 

fl;),snilDtben>i PiUtmn. Tilt Dt« 

71): Sarqehtvii-Gauchoh. 5ina> 

s. Reist ton TAtbtn nach . 
<th. It. (Lwpiic, 1S9S): von 
I. ISeS): SuiHD, LtKrb. dtr 

. Ktttgtimtott 
lur 6lKk. , 

Sliuiticua Godu. See CoDEX SiNAmcos. 

SiluJoKi DiocGSB OF (SiNALOBNsis), in the Re- 
pubUc of Mexico, suffragan of the Archdioce^ of 
Durango. Its area is that of the State of Sinaloa, 
27,552 sq. miles, and its population (1910) 323,498. 
Culiacan, the capital of the state and residence of the 
bishop and governor, counts a population (1910) of 
13,578. The present territory of Sinaloa was dis- 
covCTed in 1530 by the ill-reputed D, Nufio de Guzman 
who founded the city of San Miguel de Culiacan. A 
few Spaniards established a colonv there. The prov- 
ince of Cuhacan was soon obliged to face the terrors 
of war brought upon it by the barbarous cruelties 
of Nufio and his favourite, Diego Hernandez de Pro- 
aflo. So frightened was Nufio by the terrible insur- 
rection that he removed Proafio, placing in his stead 
Cristobal de Tapia, whose humanitarian measures 
slowly restored confidence. Although colonized from 
the beginning of the sixteenth century, most of the 
territory,exceptingafew strong places, was inhabited 


by fierce pagan tribes, for whose 
Jesuits labot^cd early in the Beventeenth century. 
After having subdued and evangelized the Indian)' of 
the miBsion of Piaxtla in a comparatively short time, 
and after having turned over to the Bishop of Durango 
the settlemenia under their control, the Jesuits ex- 
tended their domination over the Indians living in 
the northern part of the actual state and at the time 
of their expulsion (by decree of Charles III) they fruit^ 
fully administered the miesions of Cbinipas and 
SinsJoa. In Chinipaa they had residences at Guasa- 
rapee, Santa Ana, Secora, Moris, Barbaroco, Santa 
Ines, Seronagui, Tubarea, Satebd, Baborigame, 
Nabogame, aed San Andres; in Sinaloa (misidn del 
Fuerte) they had r«sidenees at Mocorik), Nio, 
Guaiave, Chicorato, Mochicave, Batacosa, Conieari, 
Tehueco, Ocoronl, and Bacubirito. It is notable 
that the towns of the misi6n del Rio Yaqui, which 
now belong to the Diocese of Sonora, were then in- 
cluded in the mission of Sinaloa. When the See of 
Durango wus founded in 1620, Sinaloa, whidi until 
then had belonged to 
the Diocese of Gua- 
dalajara, became 
port of it; on the 
foundation (1780) of 


the I 

«of the bishop, 
after having been 
successively at Aris- 
pe and A lanio , pasfted 
'.II CuliiK'on, capital 
when l.eo XIII 
founded the Diocese 
formed part of the 
ecclesiastical prov- 
ince of Guadalajara. I 
and the Bishop of I ■ 
Sonora removed to 
HcrmoKitb. In 1891, ' 
when the new ardii- 
episcopal See of Durango 
came one of its suffragans. 

The diocese has 1 seminary with IS students; 
parochial schools^ 3 collegeavrith 677 students. 

3 snnoAOLu 

attempted to capture it, and, in tact, siiortly before 
the city was bestowed upon the Holy See it was the 
seat of a Duke Arioldo, who in 772 owed allegiance 
to King Desideriua. It afterwards shared the vicissi- 
tudes of the March of Ancona. and at the end of the 
twelfth century was the seat of a count. In the wars 
between the popes and Frederick II it bekinged for 
the most part to the party of the Guelphs, for which 
reason it sustained many sieges, and was in 1264 
sacked by Percivale Doria, captain of King Manfred. 
Hardly recovered from this calamity, it tS\ into the 
power of Gviido di Montefeltro (1280). In 1306 it 
was captured by Pandolfo Malateata of Pesaro and 
remained in his family, notwithstanding that tbey 
were expelled by Cardinal Bertrando du Poyet and 
later by Cardinal Albomoz (13.55). In 1416 Ludo- 
vico Migliorati of Fcrmo and the cities of Ancona 
and Cameriao formed a league against Galeotto 
Malateata, and captured Sinigaglia, but tbey after- 
wards restored it. In 1445 it was taken by Sigis- 
mondo Malateata of Rimini, who also secured the 

Eugenius IV and 
fortified the city. 

After various 
vicissitudes Sinif^ag- 
lia was (1474) given 
in fief to Giovanni 
della Rovere, a neph- 
ew of Sixtus IV. 
He married the lost 
heiress of the duchv 
of Urbino, of which 
the city thus be- 
a part (1508). 


Sinigaglia, winch had 

thrown open ila 

Ktes . to Cssar 
rgia, was the scene 
of the celebrated 
treachery by which 
" ia rid himself 


s created, Sinaloft b»- 

dt la hiiloriadik Nuti 

Camillcb Ckiviuj. 

Slnflston, Hugh. See Srrewsbdby, Diocese or. 

SlnlgKflU (Sekioallia), Diocese op (SbnogaI/- 
lienbib), in the Province of Ancona in the Marches 
(Central Italy). The city is situated on the Adriatic 
at the mouth of the Misa, which divides it into two 

erts. Maritime commerce, the cultivation and manu- 
;ture of silk, agriculture, and cattle-raising form the 
means of support of the population. The fortifica- 
tions constructed by the dukes of Urbino and by the 
Kpes still remain in part. Among tiie churches, 
9ides the cathedral, that of Santa Maria delle 
Grozie (1491) without the city walls deaervesmen- 
tion; it poHsessea a Madonna with six saints by Pcru- 
EJno, and another Madonna by Piero della Franceeca. 
The name Senigallia records the Senones, a tribe, of 
Gaub who poaseased thia city before ita conqiieat 
by the Rotnans, The latter founded a colony here 
called Sena Hadria, but later the name moat com- 
monly used waa Senogallia or Senigallia. In the 
Qvil War (b.c. 82) it was sacked by Pompey, then 
one of Sulla B generals. It was pilla^d a second time 
by Alaric, a.d. 408. Under the Bysantine rule it 
belonged to the so-c^led Pentapolie. Several timea 
in the sixth and eighth centuries the Lombarda 

, the 
;tty lords of the 
Komagna. In 1624 
it came under the immediate auzerainty of the 
popes. In 1683 Turkish pirates disembarked and 
plundered the city. Sinigaglia was the birth- 
place of Pius IX and B. Gherardo di Serra (four- 
teenth century). The patron saint of Sinigaglia 
is St. PaulinuB, whose body is preserved in the 
cathedral (as ia attested for the first time in 1397). 
He ia, therefore, not identical with St. Paulinus 
of Nola^^nor is it known to what epoch he be- 
longs. The first bishop of.certain date was Venantius 
(502). About 562 the bishop was St. Bonifacius, 
who at the time of the Lombartl invasion was mar- 
tyred by the" Arians. Under Bishop Sigiamundus 
(c. 590) the relics of St. Gaudentius, Bishop of Rimini 
and martyr, were transported to Sinigaglia. Other 
bishops of the diocese are: Robertua and Theodosius 
<1057), friends of St. Peter Damianus; Jaoopo (1232- 
1270), who rebuilt the cathedral which had been de- 
stroyed in 1264 by the Saracen troops of King Man- 
fred; Francesco Mellini (1428), an Augustinian, who 
died at Rome, suffocated by the crowd at a conaistory 
of Egenius IV. Under Bishop Antonio Colombella 
(1438), on Augustinian, SigiaRiondo Malateata. lord 
of Sinigaglia, angered by hia resistance to the destruc- 
tion of certain houses, caused the cathedral and the 
episcopal palace to fee demolished. The precious 
materials were transported to Rimini and were used 
in the construction of S. Francesco {tempio Malalea- 
tiano). Under Bishop Marco Vigerio della Rovere 
(1513) the new cathedral was begun in 1540; it was 
consecrated in 1,595 by Pietro Ridolfi (1591), a learned 




writer. Other biahops were Cardinal Antonio Bar- 
berini, a Capuchin brother of Urban VIII; Cardinal 
Domenico Poracciani (1714); Annibale della Genga 
(1816), who afterwards bcKsame Pope Leo XII. 
The diocese is suffragan of Urbino; it has 48 parishes 
with 114 secular and 78 regular clergy; 92,000 souls; 
15 monasteries for men; 19 convents for women; 
and 3 institutes for female education. 

Ca^bllbttz, Le chiaM d'ltalia (Venice, 1857); CoansLU, /I 
pataato e Pawenira di SanioaUia (Aaooli, 1890); Maboutti, 
BMcurtione ariuiiea per Seni{^%a (Florence, 1886). 

U. Benioni. 

SiniB, a titular see in Armenia Secunda, suffragan 
of Melitene. The catalogue of titular bishoprics 
of the Roman Curia formerly contained a see of 
Sinita, in Armenia. When the list was revised in 
1884, this name was replaced by Sinis, mentioned as 
belongpg to Armenia Secunda, with Melitene, now 
MaJatia, ejb its metropolis. Ptolemy, V. 7, 5, mentions 
a town called Siniscolon in Cappadocia at Melitene, 
near the Euphrates. MUUer in his "Notes k 
Ptolemy" ed. Didot, I (Paris, 1901), 887, identifies 
this with Sinekli, a village near the Euphrates, "ab 
Argovan versus ortum hibemum", about nineteen 
miles north of Malatia in the vilayet of Mamouret 
ul-Aziz. But it seems certain that Siniscolon is a 
mis-reading for "Sinis Colonia", a form found in 
several MSS. Ramsay, "Asia Minor", 71, 272, 314, 
reads Sinis for Pisonos in "Itinerar. Anton." and es- 
pecially for Sinispora in the "Tabula Peutingeriana" 
(Sinis, Erpa), and places Sinis Colonia twenty-two 
Roman miles west of Melitene, on the road to 
Csesarea. There is no mention of this town in the 
Greek "Notitise episcopatuum" amon^ the suffragans 
of Melitene, and none of its bishops is known, so it 
seems never to have been a bishopric. 

S. P^TRIDfts. 

' Sinna. See Sehna, Diocesb of. 

8ino];>6, a titular see in Asia minor, suffragan of 
Amasea in Helenopontus. It is a Ureek colony, 
situated on a peninsula on the coast of Paphlagonia, 
of very early ori^n, some attributing its foundation 
to the Argonaut Autolycus, a compamon of Hercules. 
Later it received a colony from Miletus which seeois to 
have been expelled or conquered by the Cimmerians 
(Herodotus, IV, 12); but in 632 B.C. the Greeks 
succeeded again in capturing it. Henceforth Sinope 
enjoyed great prosperity and founded several colonies, 
among them being Cerasus, Cotyora, and Trapezus. 
The town took part in the Peloponnesian War, sup- 
porting Athens. Xenophon stopped there with his 
forces on the retreat of the Ten Thousand (Anab. 
V, V, 3; Diodor. Sicul., XIV. 30, 32; Ammien 
Marcel., XXII, 8). Fruitlessly besieged in 220 b.c. 
by Mithridates IV, King of Pontus, Sinope was taken 
by Phamaces in 183 B.C., and became the capital 
and residence of the kin^s of Pontu9. It was the 
birthplace of Mithridates the Great, who adorned it 
with magnificent monuments and constructed lar^e 
arsenals there for his fleet. Lucullus captured it 
and save it back its autonomy. Csesar also estab- 
lished the Colonia JuUa Csesarea there in 45 B.C. 
when his supremacy began. Sinope was also the 
birthplace of the cynic philosopher, Diogenes, Di- 
philus, the comic poet, and Aquila, the Jew, who 
translated the Old Testament into Greek in the second 
century a.d. A Christian community existed there 
in the first half of the second century, with a bishop, 
the father of the celebrated heretic Marcion, whom he 
expelled from his diocese. Among its other bishops 
may be mentioned St. Phocas, venerated on 22 
September, with St. Phocas, the gardener of the same 
town, who is possibly to be identified with him: 
Prohseresios, present at the Councils of Gangres and 
Philippopolis m 343 and 344; Antiochus at the Coun- 
cil of Chalcedon, 451 ; Sergiito at the Sixth (Eoumenical 

Council, 681; Zeno, who was exiled in 712 for oppos- 
ing Monothelitifim; Gregory, present at the Seventh 
Council in 787, beheaded in 793 for revolting against 
the emperor, etc. A httle before 1315 the Bishop 
of Sinope, $lriven out of his see by the Turks, received 
in compensation the metropoles of Sida and Sykeos . 
(Miklosich and MUller, "Acta patriarchatus Ck>n- 
stantinopohtani". I, 34); the diocese must have been 
suppressed upon nis death, as it is not mentioned in 
the "Notitis episcopatuum" of the fifteenth century. 
In 1401 a Greek merchant who visited Sinope found 
everything in disorder as a result of the Turkish 
inroads (Wfichter, " Der Verfall des Griechentums 
in Kleinasien im XIV. Jahrhundert", 20); however, 
the town, which had belonged to the Empire of Trar 
pezus from 1204 was not captured till 1470 by 
Mahomet II. In November, 1853, the Turkish 
fleet was destroyed by the Russians in the port of 
Sinope. Sinope is now the chief town of a sanjak 
of the vilayet of Castamouni, containing 15,000 in- 
habitants, about one half of whom are Greek schis- 

Smitb, Did. of Greek and Roman Geog. (London, 1870). 8. v.; 
RoBiNBON. AneierU Sinope (Baltimore, 1906) ; Ls Quibn, Orierie 
ehrietianue (Paris, 1740), I, 637-40; VailhA, Lea Mguee de 
Sinope in Echoe d' Orient, XI, 210-12; Cuinet, La Turquie 
iVAne (Paris, 1891). IV. 674-82. 

S. Vailh£. 

Sins af aixut the Holy Ohost. See Holy Ghost, 
subtitle VIII. 

Sinueufti Synod of. See Marcelunus, Saint, 
Pope. * 

Sion. See Jerusalem. 

Sion, a titular see in Asia Minor, suffragan of 
Ephesus. -No civil document mentions it. It is 
numbered among the suffragans of Ephesus in the 
Greek "Notitise episcopatuum", from the seventh to 
the thirteenth century. [See Gelzer in "Abhand- 
lungen der k. bayer. Akademie der Wiss.", I. CI. 
XXI Bd. Ill Abth. (Munich, 1900), 536, 552: Idem, 
''Georgii Cyprii descriptio orbis romani'' (Leipzig, 
1890), 8, 62; Parthey, "Hierocles Synecderaus e 
Notit. gr. episcopat. (Berlin, 1866), 61, 103, 156, 
167, 203, 245.) The names of only three bishops of 
Sion are known: Nestorius, present at the Council 
of Ephesus, 431; John, at the Council in Trullo, 
692; Philip, represented at Nicsea, 787, by the priest 
Theognis (Le Quien, "Oriens clyistianus", I, 721). 
This author asks if Basil, Bishop xbXewt *A(ralu¥ rep- 
resented at Chalcedon, 451, by his metropolitan 
does not belong to Sion; it is more hkely that he was 
Bishop of Assus. Ramsay ("Asia Minor'', 105) 
thinks that Sion is probably the same town as 
Tianae, or Tiarae mentioned by Pliny, V, 33, 3, and 
Hierocles, 661, 8, and Attaca, mentioned by Strabo, 
XIII, 607: but this is very doubtful. In any case 
the site ot Sion is unknown. 

S. P£TRiDi:s. 

Siozii Diocese of (Sedunensis), a Swiss bishopric 
depending directly on the Holy See. 

History. — The Diocese of Sion is the oldest in Swit- 
zerland and one of the oldest north of the Alps. At 
first its see was at Octodorum, now called Martinach, 
or Martigny. According to tradition there was a 
Bishop of Octodorum, named Oggerius, as early as 
A. D. 300. However, the first authenticated bishop 
is St. Theodore (d. 391), who was present at the 
Council of Aquileia in 381. On the spot wheY-e the 
Abbey of Saint-Maurice now stands he built a church 
in honour of St. Mauritius, martyred here about 300. 
He also induced the hermits of the vicinity to unite 
in a common life, thus beginning the Abbey of Saint- 
Maurice, the oldest north of the Alps. Theodore 
rebuilt tne church at Sion, which had been destroyed 
by Emperor Maximianus at the beginning of the 


fourth century. At first the diocese was a suffra^^ mto the canton from Berne, Zurich, and Basle. In 
of Vienne; later it became suffragan of Tarentaise. 1529 Bishop Adrian I of Riedmatten (1529-48), the 
In 580 the bishop, St. Heliodorus, transferred the see cathedral chapter, and the 8i^)en Z^nten formed an 
to Sion, as Octodorum was frequently endangered by alliance with the Catholic cantons of the Confederal 
the inundations of the Rhone and the Drance. tion, the purpose of which was to maintain and pro- 
There were frequent disputes with the monks of the tect the Catholic Faith in all the territories of the 
Abbey of Saint-Maurice, who were jealously watch- allied cantons against the efforts of the Reformed can- 
f ul that the bishops shomd not extend their jurisdic- tons. On account of this alliance Valais aided in gain- 
tion over the abbey. Several of the bishops united ing the victory of the Catholics over the followers of 
both offices, as: Wilcharius (764-80), previously Zwingli at Cappel in 1531 ; this victory saved the pos- 
Archbishop of Vienne, from which he had been driven sessions of the Catholic Church in Switzerland. The 
by the Saracens; St. Alteus, who received from the abbots of Saint-Maurice opposed all reli^ous innova- 
pope a Bull of exemption in favour of the monastery tions as energetically as did Bishops Adnan I of Ried- 
(780); Aimo II, son of Count Hubert of Savoy, who matten, Hiloebrandof Riedmatten (1565-1604), and 
entertained Leo IX at Saint-Maurice in 1049. Adrian II of Riedmatten (1604-13), so that the whole 

The last king of Upper Burgundy, Rudolph III, of Valais remained Catholic. Both Adrian II and his 
granted the Countship of Valais to Bishop Hugo successor Hildebrand Jost (1613-38) were again in* 
(998-1017); this union of the spiritual and secular volved in disputes with the 9ie6en Ze^n(en in regard to 
powers made the bishop the most powerful ruler in the exercise of the rights of secular supremacy. In 
the valley of the Upper Rhone. Taking this donation order to put an end to these quarrels and not to en» 
as a basis, the bishops of Sion extended their secular danger the Catholic Faith he relinquished in 1630 the 
power, ana the religious metropolis of the valley became greater part of his rights as secular suzerain, and the 
also the political centre. However, the imion of the power of the bishop was thereafter limited aimoet en- 
two powers was the cause of violent disputes in the tirelv to the spiritual sphere. 

following centuries. For, while the spiritual juris- The secular power of the bishops was brought to an 
diction of the bishop extended over the whole valley end by the Fren^ Revolution. In 1798 Valais, after an 
of the Rhone above Lake Geneva, the Countship of heroic struggle against the supremacv of France, was 
Valais included only the upper part of the valley, incorporated into the Helvetian Rq)ublic, and Bishop 
reaching to the confluence of tne Trient and the John Anthony Blatter (1790-1817) retired to Novara. 
Rhone. The attempts of the bishops of Sion to During the sway of Napoleon Valais was separated 
carry their secular power farther down the Rhone from Switzerland in IS(A as the Rhodanic Republic, 
were bitterly and successfully opposed by thf abbots and in 1810 was united with France. Most of the 
of Saint-Maurice, who had obtained large possessions monasteries were suppressed. In 1814 Valais threw off 
in Lower Valius. The bishops were also opposed by French supremac;y, when the Allies entered the ter- 
the patrons of the abbey, the counts of Savoy, ritory; in 1815 it joined Switzerland as one of the can- 
who used this position to increase their suzerainty tons. As partial compensation for the loss of his sec- 
over Lower Valais. The medieval bishops of Sion ular power the bishop received a post of honour in the 
belonged generally to noble families of Savoy and Diet of the canton and the right to four votes. Dis- 
Valais and were often drawn into the feuds of these putes often arose as the O)nstitution of 1815 of the 
fanulies. Moreover the bishops were vigorously canton gave Upper Valais political predominance in 
opposed by the petty feudal nobles of Valais, who, the cantonal government, notwithstanding the fact that 
trusting to their fortified castles on rocky heights, its population was smaller than that of Lower Valais. 
sought to evade the supremacy of the bishop who was This led in 1840 to a civil war with Lower Valais, 
at the same time count and prefect of the Holy Roman where the * ' YounsSwiss ' ' party, hostile to the Church, 
Empire. Other opponents of the bishops were the were in control. The partv friendly to the Church con- 
flourishing peasant communities of Upper Valais, quered, it i^ true, and the influence of the Church 
which were called later the meben ZektUen (seven- over teaching was, at first, preserved, but on ac- 
tenths). Their struggles with Savoy forced the count of the defeat of the Sonderhund, with which 
bishops to grant continually increasing political rights Valais had united, a radical Government gained con- 
to the peasant conmiunities. Thus Bishop Wilfiam trol in 1847. The new administration at once showed 
IV of Rut>n (1437-57) was obliged to relinquish itself unfriendly to the Church, secularized many 
civil and criminal jurisdiction over the siehen Zehnten church landed prop^lies^ and wrung large sums of 
b^ the Treaty of Naters in 1446, while a revolt of money from the bishop and monasteries. When in 
his subjects compelled Bishop Jost of Silinen (1482- 1856 the moderate party gained the cantonal election, 
96), to flee from the diocese. Walter II of Supersax negotiations were begun with Bishop Peter Joseph 
(1457-82) took part in the battles of the Swiss against von Preux (1843-75)^ and friendly relations were re- 
Charles the Bold of Burgundy and his confederate, stored between the diocese and the canton. In 1880 
the Duke of Savoy, and in 1475 drove the House oi the two powers came to an agreement as to the lands 
Savoy from Lower Valais. The most important taken from the Church in 1848; these, so far as they 
bishop of this era was Matthew Schinner (1499-1522), had not been sold, were ^ven back for their original 
a highly cultivated Humanist. Bishop Schinner, uses. Since then the bishop and the Government 
fearing that French supremacy would endanger the have been on friendly terms. The new Constitution 
freedom of the Swiss, placed the military force of the of 1907 declares the Catholic religion to be the re- 
diocese at the disposal of the pope and in 1510 brought Ugion bf the canton, and forbids any union of spiritual 
about an alliance for five years between the Swiss and secular functions. The ordinances reflating the 
Confederacy and the Roman Church. In return election of a bishop which have been in existence from 
for this Julius II made the bishop a cardinal. In early times, at least, contradict this (see below). The 
1513 the bishop had succeeded in having his diocese present bishop is Julius Mauritius Abbet, b. 12 Sept., 
separated from the Archdiocese of Tarentaise and 1845, appointed auxiliary bishop cum jure atuxeaaionia 
placed directly uader the control of the pope. The 1 Oct., 1895, succeeded to the see 26 Feb., 1901. 
defeat of the SwisB in 1515 at the battle of Marignano, Statistics. — The boundaries of the Diocese of Valais 
at which Schinner himself fought, weakened his posi- have hardlv been changed since it was founded; the 
tion in the diocese, and the arbitrary rule ot his diocese includes the Upper Rhone Valley, that is, the 
brothers led to a revolt of his subjects; in 1518 he was Canton of Valais, with exception of the exempt Ab- 
obhffed to leave the diocese. bey of Saint-Maurice, and ot the Catholic inhabitants 

The new doctrines of the Reformation found little of Saint-Gin^olph, who belong to the French Diocese 

acceptance in Valais, although preachers were sent of Annecy; it also includes the parishes of Bex and 




Aigle that belong to the Canton of Vaud. In 1011 
the diocese had 11 deaneries, 125 parishes, 70 chap- 
laincies, 208 secular priests, 135 regular priests and 
professed, about 120,000 Catholics. Nearly 30 per 
cent of the population of the diocese speak German, 
and nearly 65 per cent French; the language of the 
rest of the population is Italian. The bishop is elected 
by the denominationally mixed Great Council from a 
list of four candidates presented by the cathedral chap- 
ter, and the election is laid before the pope for con- 
firmation. The cathedral chapter consists of ten 
canons; in addition five rectors are included among 
the cathedral clergy. The clergy are trained at a 
seminary for priests at Sion that has six ecclesiastical 
professors ancl twelve resident students; there are also 
six theological students studying at the University of 
Innsbruck. The religious orders of men in the dio- 
cese are: Augustinian Canons, with houses on the 
Great St. Bernard, the Simplon, and at Martieny, 
containing altogether 45 priests, 6 professed and 7lay- 
brothers; Capuchins, at Sion and Saint-Maurice, 
nimibering 22 priests, 6 stud^its of theolo|^, and 9 lay- 
brothers. The exempt abbey ot Augustmian Canons 
at Saint-Maurice contains 46 priests, 9 professed and 
lay-brothers. The orders and congregations of nuns 
in the diocese are: Bemardines at Colombay : Hospital 
Sisters at Sion ; Sisters of St. Vincent de Paul at Saint- 
Maurice; Franciscan Nuns, at the same place; Sisters 
of Charity of the Holy Cross at Sion, Leuk, and Leu- 
kerbad; tJrsuline Nuns at Sion and Brieg. 

BiuauBT, VaUesia chriH. aeu dure. Sedunenn$ hitt, tacra (Sion, 
1744); BoccABD, Hiti. du VaJai< (Geneva. 1844): Bubqensb, 
Die HeUigen dea toaUiter Landea (Einsiedeln, 1857); Qrbmaud, 
Catalogue dea Mquea de Sion (Lausanne. 1864): Idem, Doc 
reUUifa d Vhitt. du Valaia (Lausanne, 1875-84); Oat. Hial. du 
Valaia (Geneva, 1888-89); Idem, Milangea d'kiat. valaiaanne 
CGeneva, 1801); Rambau, Le Valaia hiat. (Sion. 1891); BtcBi, 
Die kath. Kirdu der SchweU (Munich, 1902) ; Bourbon, L'areh- 
eotque a. VuUehaire (Fribourg, 1900) ; Milangea d'hiat. et d'arehM. 
de la aoc. Kelvaique de Saint-Maurice (1901); Gbenat. HiaL 
modemedu Valaia 1636-1816 (Geneva, 1904) ; Bbsson. Reeherehea 
aw lea orig. dea itichia de Oenite^ LaiManntf. iSum, etc. (Paris, 
1906); Statue veneralnlia cleri dieac. Sedunen. (Sion, 1911); Bldtter 
aua der u/alliaer Geach, (Sion. 1899 — ). 

Joseph Linb. 
Sionita. See Gabriel Sionita. 

Sioux City, Diocese of (Siopolitan.), erected 15 
Jan.| 1902, by Leo XIII. The establishment of this 
diocese was provided for in the Bull appointing Most 
Rev. John J. Keane, D.D., to the Archbishopric of 
Dubuque on 24 July, 1900. This provision was made 
on the occasion of that appointment for the reason 
that the new diocese was taken entirely from the 
Archdiocese of Dubuque. It comprises twenty-four 
counties in north-western Ipwa^ including a territory 
of 14,518 square miles. Sioux City is on the extreme 
limit of the western boundary of Iowa, situated on 
the east bank of the Missouri River, about one hun- 
dred miles north of Omaha. With the exception of 
Des Moines, the capital, it is the largest and most en- 
terprising municipality in the State of Iowa, contain- 
ing a population of between fiftjr and sixty thousand. 
It is in the midst of a large and rich agricultural coun- 
try^ and relies chieil]^ on the products of the soil, of 
which the staple article is com; consequently grain- 
packing is the chief industry of Sioux City. The 
Cathohc population of the diocese is almost sixty 
thousand. It has 138 churches, including missions, 
122 priests, of whom 6 are religious (4 Fnars Minor 
and 2 Fathers of the Sacred Heart); 53 parochial 
schools, with 4 hospitals; 4 academies; 2 schools of 
domestic science; an orphanage, a Good Shepherd 
home, an infant asylum, a home for the aged, and a 
working girls' home. There are 7327 children in the 
parish schools, and nearly 80(X) under Catholic care. 
The composition of the Catholic population of the 
diocese is English-speaking and German. These form 
the principal elements of the Church's membership 
here, and are almost equally divided in numbers. 
A characteristic feature of western Catholicism is 

manifest here as in other western dioceses, that is the 
ardent desire of the people for parochial schools 
wherever it is possible. Out of the 10,000 children 
of school age (i. e. under seventeen years) in the 
diocese, three-fourths are in parochial schools. The 
following orders conduct schools and charitable institu- 
tions in Uie dUocese : Sisters of Charity B.V.M., Sisters 
of Christian Charity, Sisters of St. Dominic, Sisters of 
St. Francis (Dubuque, Iowa), Franciscan Sisters (Clin- 
ton, Iowa), Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration, 
School Sisters of St. Francis, Presentation Nuns, Ser- 
vants of Mary, Sisters of St. Benedict, Sisters of 
Mercy, Sisters of the Good Shepherd. 

Since its establishment nine years ago, the diocese 
is thoroughly organized and has been constantly 
expanding by the erection of churches, schools, and 
other institutions. The present bishop, the Right 
Reverend Philip J. Garrigan, D.D., first bishop of 
the diooese, was bom in Ireland in the early forties, 
came to this country with his parents, and received his 
elementary education in the public schools of Lowell, 
Mass. He pursued his classical course at St. Charles's 
College, Ellicott City, Manrland, and courses of 
philoBophv and theology at the Provincial Seminary 
of New York at Troy, where he was ordained on 11 
June, 1870. After a short term as curate of St. 
John's Church, Worcester, Massachusetts, he was 
appointed director of the Troy seminar^ for three 
years; and was for fourteen years afterwards pastor 
of St. Bernard's Church, Fitchburg, Massachusetts. 
In the fall of 1888 he was appointed first vice-rector of 
the Catholic University at Washington, D. C, which 
position he also held for fourteen vears. He was 
named Bishop of Sioux CHty on 21 March, 1902, and 
consecrated at the see of his home diocese, Springfield, 
Massachusetts, on 25 May of the same year, by the 
Right Rev. T. D. Beaven, and on 18 June following 
took possession of his see. 

Philip J. Garrigan. 

Sioux Falls, Diocese of (Siouxormensis), suf ^ 
fragan of St. Paul, comprises all that part of the State 
of South Dakota east of the Missouri River, an area 
of 34,861 s<|uare miles. The western portion of the 
state, forming the present Diocese of Lead, was de- 
tached from the Diocese of Sioux Falls, 8 AuKUst, 
1902. The early history of religion in South Dakota 
(until 1879) must be sought for in the histories re- 
spectively of St. Paul. Dubuque, and Nebraska. The 
first Mass celebratea in South Dakota was in 1842, 
in Brown Ck>unty, by the late Monsignor Ravoux of 
St. Paul on his first visit to the Sioux Indians; and the 
first church erected was in 1867, by the late Father 
Pierre Boucher, who was sent by Bishop Grace of St. 
Paul to Jefferson, Union County, to attend the 
Catholics scattered aJ[)out that centre. In August, 
^1879, the Vicariate Apostolic of Dakota, whose bound- 
aries corresponded with the then existing civil bound- 
aries of the newly formed Territory of Dakota, was 
established, and the Right Reverend Martin Marty, 
Abbot of St. Meinrad's Benedictine Abbey, Indiana, 
nominated Bishop of Tiberias and vicar Apostolic of 
the new district. Bishop Marty was consecrated in 
the Church of St. Ferdinand, Ferdinand, Indiana, 
1 Feb., 1880, by the Right Reverend Francis Silas 
Chatard, the present Bishop of Indianapolis. The 
vicariate was an immense district to govern (149.112 
square miles) with scarcely any mode of travelling, 
except by the primitive ox or mule teams. A few 
miles of railroad existed from Sioux City to Yankton. 
The new vicar Apostolic went directly to Yankton, 
where he took up liis residence. He found 12 priests 
administering to a scattered Catholic population of 
less than 14,000 souls and 20 churches. Many and 
heroic were the hardships endured by both bishop 
•and priests. At the close of 1881 the number of 
priests increased to 37, the number of churches to 41 


with 33 stationa. There were 3 convents, 2 aoidemies 
Uft young ladies, 4 parochial scboola for the white and 
4 schools for the Indian children, while the Catholic 
population, including 700 Indians, numbered 15,800 
Boub. The decade bef^nning with 1S80, witnessed a 
troaderful development and the population increased 
from 135,180 to 250,000. The BlatieticB at the end 
of 1883 ^ow 45 priesta, 82 churches, 67 stations, 4 
convents, 4 acadeniiea, 12 parochial schools, 6 Indian 
schools and a Catholic population, including 1,600 
Indians, of 26,800 souls. The Territory of Dakota 
WB8 divided by Act of Congress, 23 February, 1889, 
and the two states, North and South Dakota, were 
admitted to the Union, 2 November, 1889, The same 
month witnessed the ecclesiaDlJcal division of the 
vicariate, and two new dioceses were formed, Sioux 
Falls (South Dakota) with Bishop Marty its first 
bishop; and Jamestown (North Dakota), now Fargo, 
with Bishop Shanley (d. July, 1909) ite first incum- 
bent. In 1894 Bishop Marty was transferred to the 
Diocese of St, Cloud, Minnesota, where he died 19 Sep- 
tember, 1896. 

The efforts ot Bishop Marty were crowned with 
marveUous success. He devoted himself especially to 
the Indian race. He spoke their language and trans- 
latedhymnaandprayersintotheirtongue. Thesecond 
and present (1911) Bishop of Sioux Falls, the Right 
Rev. Thomas O'Gorman, was bom at Boston, Massa- 
^ chusetts, 1 May, 1843, he moved with his parents to St. 
Paul, and was one of the first two students selected 
for tne priesthood by Bishop Cretin, the other was 
Archbishop Ireland, Having pursued his eccle^astical 
studies in France, he returned to St. Paul, where he 
was ordained priest, 5 Novemberj 1865. He was 
pastor in tvim of Rochester and Faribault, Minn., and 
first preadent and professor of dogmatic theology at 
St. Thomas' College, St. Paul. In 1890 he was ap- 

Kinted Professor of Church History in the Cathofio 
liversity, Washington, D. C, was consecrated in 
St. Patrick's Church, Washington, D. C. (19 April, 
1896) by Cardinal Satolli, then Apostohc delegate 
to this country, and on 2 May, 1896, was in- 
stalled in the pro-cathedral of ms episcopal see. 
"The statistics of the diocese then showed 51 secular 
and 14 regular priests, 50 churches with resident 
priests, 61 miswoDS with churehes, 100 stations, 10 
chapels, 14 parochial schools, 61 Indian schools, 2 
orphanages, and 1 hospital. "There were 3 communi- 
ties of men and 8 of women, while the CathoUc popu- 
lation, white and Indian, was estimated at 30,000 
souls. Bishop O'Gorman infused new life into the 
diocese. The population increased so rapidly that in 
1902 the Diocese of Lead was erected. The statistics 
of the diocese (1911) are in priests, secular 102, 
regular 13; students 10; churches with resident priests, 
91; missioDS with churches, 70; stations, 23; chapels, 
13; parochial schools, 23 with 2,500 children in at- 
tendance; hospitals, 4. There are 3 communities of 
men: Benedictines, Eudists, and the Clerics of St. 
Viateur. The communitifs of women are ; Dominican 
Sisters; Presentation Nuns; Benedictine Sisters; Sis- 
ters of the Third Order of St. Francis; School Sisters 
of St. Francis, and the Sisters of Charity of St. Louis. 
Columbus College at Chamberlain, in charge of the 
Clerics of St. Viateur is an institution of great promise. 
The Catholic population, including 500 Indians, is 
50,000. In the vicariate Apostolic of thirty-one years 
WO, where there were only 1 bishop and 12 priests, 
^ere are now (1911) 4 bishops and 284 priests. 

Dioeuan ArrfiivtM: Ca^koiie Directoriet; pcTBOiul neollectiona. 

Daniel F. Dbsuond. 

Slouz Indlani, the lar^t and most important 
Indian tribe north of Mexico, with the single excep- 
tioD, of the Oj^wa (Chippewa), who, however, lack 

little, < 

the Sioux are virtually all within the United States 
and up to a comparatively recent period kept up 
close connexion among the various bands. 

Name and ArriUATCON.^The name Sioux (pro- 
nounced Ha) is an abbreviation of the French spelling 
of the name by which they were anciently known to 
their eastern Algonquian neighbours and enemies, 
viz, Nadouesgioux, signifying "little snakes", i. e. 
, n- =~condary enemies, as distinguished from 
. Nadowe, or enemies, the Iroquois, "rhis 
ancient name is now obsolete, having been superseded 
by the modem Ojibwa l«rm BuaTiag, of uncertain 
etymology. They 
call themselves 
Dakota, Nakota, 
or Lakota, accord- 
ing to dialect, 
meaning "allies". 
From the forms 
Dakota, Lakota, 
and Sioux are de- 
place-names with- 
m their ancient 
area, including 
those of two great 
states. Linguisti- 
cally the Sioux are 
of the great Siouan 
stock, to which 
they have given 
name and of which 
tbey themselves ' 
now constitute SirrtHQ bou. 

nearly three- F™m . Phoiog^ph 

fourths. Other cognate tribes are the Assiniboin, 
Crow, Hidatsa, or Minitari, Mandan, Winnebago. 
Iowa, Omaha, Ponca, Oto, Missouri, Kaw, Osage, ana 
Ouapaw, ^1 escepting the Wiimcbago living west of 
tlie Mississippi; together with a number of tribes for- 
merly occupying territories in Mississippi and the cen- 
tral regions ot the Carolinas and Virginia, all now vir- 
tually extinct, excepting a handful of Catawba in South 
Carolina. Linguistic and traditionary evidence indi- 
cate this eastern region as the original home of the 
stock, although the period and causes of the westward 
migration remain a matter of conjecture. The Sioux 
language is spoken in three principal dialects, vis. 
Saatee (pronounced Sahntee), or eastern; Yankton, 
or middle; and Teton, or western, differing chiefly 
in the interchange of d, n, and {, as indicate in the 
various fonns m the tribal name. The Assiniboin . 
are a seceded branch of the Yankton division, having 
separated from the parent tribe at some time earlier 
than 1640. 

History. — When and why the Sioux removed from 
their original home in the East, or by what route 
they reached the upper Mississippi country, are 
unknown. When first noticed in history, about 
1650, they centered about Mille Lac and Leech Lake, 
toward the heads ot the Mississippi, in central Minne- 
sota, having their eastern frontier within a day's 
mareh of Lake Superior. IVom this position they 
were gradually driven by the pressure, from the 
east, of the advancing Ojibwa, who were earlier in 
obtaining firearms, until nearly the whole nation had 
removed to the Miimesota and uppc Red River, in 
turn driving before them the Cneypnne, Omaiha. 
and other tribes. On reaching the buffalo plains and 
procuring horses, supplemented soon thereafter by 
firearms, they rapidly overran the county to the west 
and south-west, crossing the Missouri perhaps about 
1750, and continuing on to the Black Hills and the 
Platte until cheeked oy the Pawnee, Crow, and other 
tribes. At the beginnins of treaty relations in 1805 
they were the acknowledged owners of most of the 
territory extending from central Wisconsin, acrooB 




the Mifisifisippi and Missouri, to beyond the Black 
Hills, and frpm the Canada boundary to the North 
Platte, including all of Southern Minnesota, with 
considerable portions of Wisconsin and Iowa, most 
of both Dakotas, Northern Nebraska, and much of 
Montana and Wyoming. The boundaries otf all 
that portion lying east <^ the Dakotas were defined 
by the great inter-tribal treaty of Prairie du Chien in 
1825 and a supplemental treaty at the same place in 
1830. At this period the Minnesota region was 
held by the various Santee bands; Eastern Dakota 
and a small part of Iowa were claimed by the Yankton 
and their cousins the Yanktonai; while all the Sioux 
territory west of the Missouri was held by bands of 
the great Teton division, constituting three-fifths 
of the whole nation. 

Under the name of Naduesiu the Sioux are first 
mentioned by Father Paul le Jeune in the Jesuit 
Relation of 1640, apparently on the information of 
that pioneer western explorer, Jean Nicolet. the first 
white man known to nave set foot in Wisconsin, 
probably in 1634-5. In 1655-6 two other famous 
French explorers, Radisson and Groseilhers, spent 
some time with them in their own countr}r, about 
the western border of Wisconsin. At that time the 
Sioux were giving shelter to of refugee Hurons 
fleeing before the Iroquois. They were rated as 
possessing thirty villages, and were the- terror of all 
' the surrounding tribes D^r reason of their niunber and 
prowess, although admittedly less cruel. Fathers 
AUouez and Marquette, from their mission of St. 
Esprit, established at Lapointe (now Bayfield. Wis.) 
on Lake Superior in 1665. entered into friendly rela- 
tions with the Sioux, wnich continued until 1671, 
when the latter, provoked bv insults from the eastern 
tribes, retumea Marquette s presents, declared war 
against their hereditary foes, and compelled the 
abandonment of the mission. In 1674 they sent a 
delegation to Sault Ste. Marie to arrange peace 
throu^ the good offices of the resident Jesuit mission- 
ary. Father Gabriel DruiUettes, wlio already had 
several of the tribe under instruction in his house, 
but the negotiations were brought to an abrupt end 
by a treacherous attack made upon the Sioux while 
seated in council in the mission church, resulting in 
the massacre of the ambassadors after ia desperate 
encounter, and the burning of the church, which was 
fired over their heads by the Ojibwa to dislodge 

The tribal war went on, but the Sioux kept friend- 
ship with the French traders, who by this time had 
reached the Mississippi, In 1680 one of their war 
parties, descending tne Mississippi against the Illi- 
nois, captured the Recollect Father LK)uis Hennepin 
with two companions and brought them to their 
villages at the head of the river, where they held 
them, more as guests than prisoners, until released 
on the arrival of the trader. Du Luth, in the fall. 
While thus in custody Fatner Hennepin observed 
their customs, made some study of tne language, 
baptized a child and attempted some religious instruc- 
tion, explored a part of Minnesota, and discovered 
and named St; Anthony's Falls. In 1683 Nicholas 
Perrot established a post at the mouth of the Wis- 
consin. In 1689 he established Fort Perrot near the 
lower end of Lake Pepin, on the Minnesota side, the 
first post within the Sioux territory, and took formal 
possession of their country for France. The Jesuit 
Father Joseph Marest, officially designated "Mis- 
sionary toxhe Nadouesioux'', was one of the witnesses 
at the ceremony and was again with the tribe some 
twelve years later. Another post was built by Pierre 
LeSueur, near the present Red Wing about 1693. 
and in 1695 a principal chief of the tribe accompanied 
him to Montreal to meet the governor, Frontenac. 
By this time the Sioux had a number of guns and were 
beginning to wage aggressive warfare toward the 

west, driving the Cheyenne, Omaha, and Oto down 
upon the Missouri and pushing out into the buffalo 
plains. During Frontenac's administration mission 
work languished owing to his bitter hostility to mis- 
sionaries, especially the Jesuits. 

About the year 1698. through injudiciously assist- 
ing the Sioux against tne Foxes, the French became 
involved in a tedious forty-years' war with the latter 
tribe which completely paralyzed trade on the upper 
Mississippi and ultimately ruined the Foxes. Before 
its end the Sioux themselves turned against the 
French and gave refuge to the defeated Foxes. In 
1700 LeSueur had buUt Fort L'HuiUier on the Blue 
Earth River near the present Majikato, Minn. 
In 1727, an ineffective peace having been made,' the 
Jesuit Fathers, Ignatius Guignas and Nicolas de 
Gonnor, again took up work among the Sioux at the 
new Fort Beauhamais on Lake Pepin. Although 
driven out for a time by the Foxes, they returned 
and continued with the work some ten years, until 
the Sioux themselves became hostile. Li 1736 the 
Sioux massacred an entire exploring party of twenty- 
one persons under command of the younger Veren- 
drye at the Lake of the Woods, just beyond the north- 
em (international) Minnesota boundary. Among 
those killed was the Jesuit father, Jean-Pierre Aul- 
neau. In 1745-6, the Foxes having been finallv 
crushed, De Lusignan again arranged peace with 
the Sioux, and between them and the Ojibwa, and 
four Sioux chiefs returned with him to Montreal. 
On the fall of Canada the Sioux, in 1763, sent dele- 
gates to the English post at Green Bay with proffers 
of friendship and a request for traders. They were 
described as "certainly the greatest nation of In- 
dians ever yet found'', holding all other Indians as 
''their slaves or dogs". Two thousand pf their war- 
riors now had guns, while the other and larger portion 
still depended upon the bow, in the use of which, and 
in dancing, they excelled the other tribes. 

In the winter of 1766-7 the American traveller, 
Jonathan Carver, spent several months with the San- 
tee visiting their burial-zround and sacred cave near 
the present St. Paul^ and witnessing men and women 
gashing themselves m frenzied grief at their bereave- 
ment. Soon after this period the eastern Sioux defin- 
itively abandoned the Mille Lac and Leech Lake 
country to their enemies the Ojibwa, with whom the 
hereditary war still kept up. The nnal engagement 
in this upper region occurred in 1768 when a great 
canoe fleet of Sioux, numbering perhaps five hundred 
warriors, while descending tne Mississippi from a 
successful raid upon the Ojibwa, was ambushed near 
the junction of Crow Wing Kiver and entirely defeated 
by a much smaller force of the latter tribe. In 1775 
peace was again made between the two tribes through 
the efforts of the English officials in order to secure 
their alUance in the coining Revolutionary struggle. 
The peace lasted until the close of the Revolutionary 
War, in which both tribes furnished contingents 
against the American frontier, after which the warriors 
returned ^o their homes, and the old feud was resumed. 
In the meantime the Teton Sioux, pressing westward, 
were gradusJly pushing; the Arikara (Ree) up the 
Missouri, and by acquiring horses from the plains 
tribes haa become metamorphosed from canoe men 
and gatherers of wild rice into an equestrian race of 
nomad buffalo hunters. 

Some years after the close of the Revolution, per- 
haps about 1796, French traders in the American 
interest ascended the Missouri from St. Louis and 
established posts among the Yankton and Teton. 
In 1804 the first American exploring expedition, 
under Captains Lewis and Clark, ascended tne river, 
holding councils and securing the allegiance of the 
Sioux and other tribes, and then crossing the moun- 
tains and descending the Columbia to the Pacific, 
returning over nearly the same route in 1806. As a 

nous ] 

Insult of this «M]uamtaDc« the 6nt Sioux (Yankton) 
deleaalion visited Washington in the latt«r year. 
Ac tnn same time, 1805-6, Lieutenant Zebiilon Pike 
Bacended the Missisaippi on a similar errand to the 
Santee Sioux and other tribes otthatregion. In thia 
he WEL3 miccessful and on 23 September, 1805, nego- 
tiated the first treaty of the Sioux with the United 
States, by which they ceded lands in the vicinity of 
the preaent St. Paul lor the fstablishment of military 
posts, at the same time giving up their English flags 
and medals and accepting American ones. Vp to 
this period and for some years. lai«r the rapidly 
diverging bands of the east and west still held an 
annual reunion east of the lower James River in 
eastern South Dakota. In IS07 Manuel Lisa, founder 
of the American FurCompany, "the most active and 
indefatigable trader that St. Louis ever produced" 
(Chittenden), established headquarters among the 
Sioux, at Cedar Island, below the present Pierre, 
8. D., later moving down to about the present 
Chamberlain. Lisa was a Spaniard, and like his 
French associates, Chouteau, MSnard, and Trudeau, 
was a Catholic. At his several trading posts among 
the Teton and Yankton Sioux, and the Omaha lower 
down the river, he showed the Indians how to plant 
gardens and care for cattle and hc^, besides setting 
up blacksmith shops for their benefit, without charge, 
and caring for their aged and helpless, so that it was 
said that he was better loved by the Sioux than any 
other white man of his time. Being intensely Amer- 
ican in feeling, he was appointed first government 
agent for the upper Missouri River tribes, and by his 
great influence with them held them steady for the 
United States throughout the War of 1812, notwith- 
standing that most of the eastern, or Santee, Sioux, 
through the efforts of Tecumtha and a resident Brit- 
ish trader, Robert Dickson, declared for Enf^and and 
furnished a contingent against Fort Meigs. Lisa 
died in 1820, At the close of the war, by a series of 
five similar treaties made 15 July, 1815, at Portage 
des Sioux, above St. Louis, the various Sioux bands 
mode their peace with the United States and finally 
acknowledged its sovereignty. Other late hostile 
tribes made peace at the some time. This great 
treaty gathering, the most important ever held with 
the tribes of the Middle West, marks the banning 
of their modem history. In 1320 Fort Snellmg was 
built at the present Minneapolis to control the Santee 
Sioux and Ojibwa, an agency being also established 
' ' ' i time. In 1825 another O^t treaty 

as convened at Prairie du Qiien for the 


of an Indian mother, be had been taken to Canada, 
when a small boy, oy his French father, a noted 
trader, and placed under the care of a CathoUc 
priest, from whom he acquired some knowledge of 
Froich and of the Christian religion. The death of 
his father a few years later and his consequent return 
to the Sioux country put an end to his educational 
opportunity, but the early impression thus made was 
never effaced. On coming to manhood and succeed- 
ing to his father's business he sent across the ocean, 
probably through Dickson, the British trader, for a 
French Bible (which, when it came, was Protestant) 
and then hired a clerk who could read it to him. On 
the establishment 
of the post at 
Prairie du Chien 
he brought down 
his Indian wife 
and had her regu- 
larly married to 
him by a Catholic 

Eriest, he himself 
aving previously 
instructed her '" 

rom m Photognph 

gathering v 

cessions. At this period, and for yean after^ the 
Sioux led all other tribes in the volume of their fur 
trade, consisting chiefly of buffalo robes and beaver 

relat „_ 

brothers Samuel and Gideon Pona, for the Congre- 

Ktionalists, located among the Santee at Lake Col- 
un, near the present St. Paul, Minn. In 1835 the 
same denomination established other missions at 
Lake Harriet and Lac-qui-Parle| Minn., under Rev. 
J. D. Stevens and Thomas Williamson respectively. 
In 1837 Williamson was joined by Rev. Stepnen Riggs 
and his son Alfred. In 1852 the two tasUnamed mis- 
sions were removed to the upper Minnesota in con- 
sequence of a treaty cession. All of these workers 
are known for their linguistic contributions as well 
as for their missionary service. In 1837 a Lutheran 
mission was established at Red Wing and continued 
for some years. The successful establishment of these 
missions was due chiefly to the encouragement and 
active aid afforded by Joseph Renville, a remarkable 
half^reed, who stood high in the respect and affection 
of the eaBt«m Sioux. Bom in the wilderness in 1779 

he could. When 

the Congregation- 
alists arrived he 
welcomed them as 
bringing Chris- 

though not of the 
form of his child- 
hood teacher. He 
died in 1846. 

In 1841 Father 
Augustine Ravoux 
be^n work among the Santee in the neighbourhood 
of Fort SneUing, near which Father Galtier had just 
built a log chapel of St. Paul, around which grew the 
modem city. Applviag himself to the study of the 
language, in which ne soon became proficient. Father 
Ravoux in 1843 repaired to Prairie du Chien, and there 
with his own hands printed a small devotional work, 
"Katolik Wocekiye Wowapi Kin", which is still 
used as a mission manual. He continued with the 
tribe for several years, extending his ministrations 
also to the Yankton, until recalled to parish work. 
As early at least as 1S40 the great Jesuit apostle of the 
North-west, Father P. J. De Smet, had visited the 
bands along the Missouri River, where Father Chris- 
tian Hoecken had preceded him in 1837, instructing 
adults and baptizm^ children. Father De Smet 
made several other bnef stops later on his way to and 
from the Rocky Mountain missions, and in tne sum- 
mer of 1848 spent several months in the camps of the 
BruI6 and Ogalala, whom he found well disposed to 
Christianity. In 1850 Father Hoecken was again 
with the Yankton and Teton, but the design to estab- 
lish a permanent mission was frustrated by his 
untimely death from cholera, 19 June, 1851. In the 
same summer Father De Smet attended the great 
inter-tribal gathering at Fort Laramie, where for 
several weeks he preached daily to the Sioux and other 
tribes, baptizing over fifteen hundred children. From 
that period until his death in 1872 a large portion 
of his time was given to the western Sioux, among 
whom his influence was so great that he was several 
times called in by the Government to assist in treaty 
negotiations, notably in the great peace treaty of 

In 1837 the Sioux sold all of their remaining terri- 
tory east of the Mississippi. In the winter of 1837-8 
smallpox, introduced from a passing steamer, swept 
over all the tribes of the upper Missouri River, killing 
perhaps 30,000 Indians, of whom a large' proportion 
were Sioux. About the same time the war with the 




Ojibwa on the eastern frontier broke out again with 
greater fury than ever, {n a battle near the present 
Stillwater, Minn., in June, 1839, some 50 Oiibwawere 
slain and shortly afterward a Sioux raiaine party 
surprised an Ojibwa camp in the absence of the war- 
riors and brought away 91 scalps. In 1851 the var- 
ious Santee bands sold all theu* remaining lands in 
Minnesota and Iowa, excepting a twenty-mile strip 
along the upper Minnesota River. Although there 
were then four missions among the Santee, the major- 
ity of the Indians were reported to have ''an invete- 
rate hatred'' of Christianity. In March. 1857, on 
some trifling provocation, a small band of renegade 
Santee, under an outlawed chief, Inkpaduta, ''Scar- 
let Point," attacked the scattered settlements about 

risons and the general unrest ccmsequent upon the 
Civil War also encouraged to revolt. The trouble 
began 2 August with an attack upon the agency store- 
house at Redwood, where five thousand Indians were 
awaiting the distribution of the delayed annuity 
supplies. The troops were overpowered and the 
commissary goods seized, but no other damage 
attempted. On 17 Aug. a small party of hunters, 
beiiLg refused food at a settler's cabin, massacred the 
famuy and fled with the news to the camp of Little 
Crow, where a general massacre of a^ the whites and 
Christian Indians was at once resolved upon. Within 
a week almost every farm cabin and small settle- 
ment in Southern Mmnesota and along the adjoining 
border was wiped out of existence and most of the 

Spirit Lake, on the Iowa-Minnesota border, burning 
houses, massacring about fifty persons, and carrying 
off several women, two of whom were killed later, 
the others being rescued by the Christian Indians. 
Inkpaduta escaped to take an active part in all the 
Sioux troubles for twenty years thereafter. In 
1858 the Yankton Sioux sold aU their lands in South 
Dakota, excepting the present Yankton reservation. 
The famous pipestone quarry in south-western Minne- 
sota, whence tne Sioux for ages had procured the red 
stone from which their pipes were carved, was also 
permanently reserved to this Indian purpose. In 
1860 the first Episcopalian work was begun 
among the (Santee) Sioux by Rev. Samuel D. Hin- 

In 1862 occurred the greUt "Minnesota outbreak" 
and massacre, involving nearly all the Santee bands, 
brought about by dissatisfaction at the confiscation 
of a large proportion of the treaty funds to satisfy 
traders' claims, and aggravated by a long delay in 
the annuity issue. The weakening of the local gar^ 

inhabitants massacred, in many cases with devilish 
barbarities, excepting such as could escape to Fort 
Ridgely at the lower end of the reservation. The mis- 
sionaries were saved by the faithful heroism of the 
Christian Indians, who, as in 1857, stood loyally by 
the Government. Determined attacks were made 
under Little Crow upon Fort Ridgely (20-21 August) 
and New Ulm (22 August), the latter defended by a 
strong volunteer force under Judge Charles Flanditiu. 
Both attacks were finally repu&ed. On 2 Sept. a 
force of 1500 regulars and volunteers under Colonel 
(afterwards General) H. H. Sibley defeated the hos- 
tiles at Birch Coulee and again on 23 September at 
Wood Lake. Most of the hostiles now surrendered, 
the rest fleeing in small bands beyond the reach oi 
pursuit. Three hundred prisoners were condemned 
to death by court martial, but the number was cut 
down by Ptesident Lincoln to thirty-eight, who were 
hanged at Mankato, 26 December, 1862. They were 
attended by Revs. Riggs and Williamson and by 
Father Ravoux, but aJthough the other missionaries 

8I0UZ 2] 

had been twenty-five years stationed with the tribe 
and spoke the language fluently, thirty-three of the 
whale nun^ier elected to die in the Catholic Church, 
two of the remaining five rejectine all ChristiaD 
ministration. Three years later Father Ravoux 
again stood on the scaffold with two condemned 
warriors of the tribe. 

Two months after the outbreak Congress declared 
the Santee treaties abrogated and the Minnesota 
reservations forfeited. One part of the fugitives 
trying to escape to the Yanktonai was overtaken 
and defeated with great loss by Sibley near Big 
Mound, North Dakota, 24 July, 1863. The survivors 
fled to the Teton beyond the Missouri or took refuge 
in Canada, where they are still domiciled. On 3 
Sept. General Sully struck the main hostile camp 
under Inkpaduta at Whlteetone Hill, west of EUen- 
dale, N. D., killing 300 and capturing nearly as many 
more. On 28 July, 1864, General Sully dehvered the 
final blow to the combined hostile force, consisting 
of Santee, Yanktonai, and some northern Telon, 
at Kikieer Mountain on the Little Missouri. The 

Srisoners and others of the late hostile bonds were 
nally settled on two reservations established for the 
purpose, vii, the (Lower) Yanktonai at Crow Creek, 
8. D., and the Santee at Santee, north-eastern Nebras- 
ka. Here tbey still remain, being now well advanced 
in civilization and Christianity, and fairly prosperous. 
The outbreak had cost the lives of nearly 1000 whites. 
of whom nearly 700 perished in the firet few days oi 
the massacre. The Indian loss was about double, 
falling almost entirely upon the Sanlee. Panono- 
papi (Slrike-t he-Rce), head chief of the 3000 Yankton, 
and a Catholic, had ateadilv held his people loyal and 
the great Bruli? and Ogalala bojids of the Teton, 

trealy of peace was made with Ihe Sioux 
Telon band, the Lower Bnilf, agreed to come upon a 
reservation. The majority of the great Teton divi- 
iiion, however, comprising ihe whole strength of 
the nation west of the Missouri, refused to take part. 
In the meantime serious trouble had been brewing 
in the West. With (he discoveryof gold in California 
in 1849 and the conuemient opening of an emigrant 
trail along the North Platte and across the Rocky 
Mountains, the Indians became alarmed at the dis- 
tuAance to their buffalo herds, upon which they 
depended for Ihcir entire subsistence. The principal 
complainants were the Brul6 and Ogalala Sioux. 
For the protection of the emigrants in 1849 the Gov- 
ernment bought and garrisoned the American Fur 
Company post of Fort Laramie on the upper Nocth 
Platte, in Wyoming, later making it also an agency 
h^dquarters. In September, 1851, a great gathering 
of nearly all the trities and bands of the Northern 
Plains was held at Fort Laramie, and a treaty was 
negotiated by which they came to an agreement in 
regard to their rival temtorial claims, pledged peace 
among themselves and with the whites, and promised 
not to disturb Ihe trail on consideration of a certain 
annual payment. Father Dc Smet attended through- 
out the council, teaching and baptizing, and gives 
an intereStinE account of the gathering, the largest 
ever held witn the Plains Indians. The treaty was 
not ratified and had no permanent effect. On 
17 August, 1854, while the Indians were camped 
about the post awaiting the distribution of the 
annuity goods, occurred the "Fort Laramie Massa- 
cre", by which Lieutenant Grattan and an entire 
detachment of 29 soldiers lost their lives while tryii^ 
to arrest some Brulte who had killed and eat«n an 
emigrant's cow. From all the evidence the conflict 
was provoked by the officer's own indiscretion. The 
Indians then took forcible poesesBion of the annuity 
goods and left without making any attempt upon 
Uw fort or garrison. The Bruld Siouji were now 

. upon their camp at Ash Hollow, Western 
Nebraska, and, while pretending to parley on their 
proffer of surrender, suddenly attacked them, killing 
136 Indians and destroying the entire camp outfit. 

Late in 1863 the Ogalda and Brul£ under their 
chiefs, Red Cloud (Makhptya-luta) and Spotted Tail 
(ShiTili-gaUihka) respectively, became actively hos- 
tile, inflamed by reports of the Santee outbreak and 
the Civil War m the South, They were joined by 
the Cheyenne and for two years all travel acroas tlie 

pl^ns was virtually suspended. In March, 
they were roused to deap^tion by the proclac 
of two new roads to be opened tfarouui their brat 
hunting grounds to reach the new gold fields of Mon- 
tana. Under Red Cloud's leadership they notified 
the Government that they would allow no new roads 
or garrison posts to be established in their country, 
and carried on the war on this basis with such deter- 
mination that by treaty at Fort Laramie through a 
peace commission in April-May, 1868, the Govern- 
ment actually agreed to close the "Montana road" 
that had been opened north from Laramie, and to 
abandon the three posts that had been established 
to protect it. Red Cloud himself refused to sign 
untd «ft«r the troops had been withdrawn, l^e 
treaty left the territory south of the North Platte 
open to road building, recognized all north of the 
North Platte and cast of the Bighorn Mountains as 
unceded Indian territory, and established the "Great 
SioujcReservation", nearly equivalent to all of South 
Dakota west of the Missoun, Provision was made 
for an agency on the Missouri River and the inaugura- 
tion of regular governmental civilizing work. In 
consideration of thus giving up their old freedom the 
Indians were promised, besides the free aid of black- 
smiths, doctors, a saw mill, etc., a complete suit of 
clothing yearly for thirty years to every individual 
of the bonds concerned, based on the actual yearly 




census. Amoxig the official witnesses were Rev. 
Hinman, the Episcopalian missionary, and FaUier 
De Smet. This treaty brought the whole of the 
Sioux nation under agency restriction, and with its 
ratification in February, 1869, the five years' war 
came to a close. 

In this war Red Cloud had been the ])rincipal 
leader. Spotted Tail having been won to friendstup 
earlier through the kindness extended by the officers 
at Fort Laramie on the occasion of the death of his 
dau^ter, who was buried there with Christian rites 
at her own request. The Cheyenne and Northern 
Arapaho also acted with the Sioux. The chief fight- 
ing centered around Fort Kearney, Wyoming, which 
Red Cloud himself held under repeated siege, and 
near which on 21 December, 1866, occurred the "Fet- 
terman Massacre'', when an entire detachment of 
80 men under Captain Fetterman was exterminated 
by an overwhelmmg force of Indians. Bv treaties 
in 1867 reservations had been established at Lake 
Traverse, S. D. and at Fort Totten, N. D., for the 
Sisseton and Wahpeton Santee and the Cutliea(\ 
Yanktonai, most of whom had been concerned in the 
Minnesota outbreak. In 1870 a part of the Christian 
Santee separated from their kinsihen in Nebraska 
and removed to Flandreau, S. D., and became citi- 
zens. In 1871, defipite the protest of Red Cloud and 
other leading chiefs, the Northern Pacific railway 
was constructed along the south bank of the Yellow- 
stone and several new posts built for its protection, 
and war was on again with the Teton Sioux, Chey- 
enne, and part of the Arapaho. Several skirmishes 
occurred, and in 1873 General G. A. Custer was or- 
dered to Dakota. In the next year, while hostilities 
were still in progress. Custer made an exploration of 
the Black Huls, S. D., and reported gola. Despite 
the treaty and the military, there was at once a great 
rush of miners and otners into the Hills. The 
■ Indians refusing to sell on any terms offered, the 
military patrol was withdrawn, and mining towns at 
once sprang up all throu^ the mountains. Indians 
hunting by agents' permission in the disputed terri- 
. tory were ordered to report at their agencies by 31 
January, 1876, or be considered hostile, but even the 
runners who carried the message were unable to 
return, by reason of the severity of the winter, until 
after war had been actually declared. This is com- 
monly known as the "Custer War" from its' central 
event, 25 June, 1876, the massacre of General Custer 
and every man of a detachment of the Seventh 
Cavalry, numbering 204 in all, in an attack upon the 
main camp of the hostile Sioux and Cheyenne, on 
the Little Bighorn River in south-eastern Montana. 
On that day and the next, in the same vicinitv. other 
detachments under Reno and Benteen sustained desper- 
ate conflicts with the Indians, with the loss of some 
sixty more killed. The Indians, probably numbering 
at least 2500 warriors with their families, finally with- 
drew on the approach of Generals Terry and Gibbons, 
from the north. The principal Sioux commanders 
were Crazy Horse and Gall, although Sittinji; Bull 
was also present. Red Cloud and Spotted Tail had 
remained at their agencies. 

Several minor engagements later in the year resulted 
in the surrender and return of most of the hostiles to 
the reservation, while Sitting Bull and Gall and their 
immediate following escaped into Canada (June, 
1877). By a series of treaties negotiated 23 Sept.- 
27 Oct., 1876, the Sioux surrendered the whole of 
the Black Hills country and the western outlet. 
On 7 Sept, 1877, Crazy Horse, who had come in with 
his band some months before, was killed in a conflict 
with the guard at Fort Robinson, Neb. In the same 
month the last hostiles surrendered. Soon after the 
treaty a large delegation visited Washington, following 
which event the Red Cloud (Ogalala) and Spotted 
Tail (Brul6) agencies were permanently established in 

1878 at Pine Ridge and Rosebud, S. D., respectively. 
This date may be considered to mark the t)€|;inning 
of civihzation in these two powerful bands, m 1881 
all the late hostiles in Canada came in and surren- 
dered. Sitting Bull and his immediate followers, 
after being held in confinement for two years, were 
allow^ to return to their homes on Standing Rock 
reservation. On 5 August, 1881, Spotted Tail was 
kiUed by a rival chief. On 29 July, 1888, Strike-the- 
Ree. the famous Catholic chief of the Yankton, dicKi 
at the age of 84. 

In the allotment of Indian agencies to the manage- 
ment of the various religious denominations, in 
accord with President Grant's "peace policy" in 
1870, only two of the eleven Sioux agencies were 
assigned to the Catholics, namely. Standing Rock 
and Devil's Lake, notwithstanding that, with the 
exception of a portion of the Santee and a few of the 
Yankton, the only missionaries the tribe had ever 
known from AUouez to De Smet had been Catholic, 
and most of the resident whites and mixed-bloods 
were of Cathotic ancestry. Santee. Flandreau, and 
Sisseton (Lake Traverse) agencies or the Santee divi- 
sion were assigned to the Presbyterians, who had 
aheady been continuously at work among them for 
more than a generation. Yankton reservation had 
been occupied jointly by Presbyterians and Episco- 
pahans in 1869, as was Chevenne River reservation 
m 1873. Pine Ridge, Rosebud, Lower Brul£ and 
Crow Creek reservations, comprising nearlv one-half 
the tribe, were given to the Episcopalians, who erected 
buildings between 1872 (Crow Creek) and 1877 (Pine 
Ridge). At Devil's Lake an industrial boarding 
school was completed and opened in 1874 in charge 
of Benedictine Fathers and Grey Nun Sisters of 
Charitv. At Standing Rock a similar school was 
opened in 1877 in charge of Benedictine priests and 
Sisters. Thus by 1878 regular mission plants were 
in operation on every Sioux reservation. Other 
Catholic foundations were begun at Crow Creek and 
Rosebud in 1886, at Pine Ridge in 1887, and at Chew 
enne River in 1802. In 1887 the noted secular mis- 
sionary priest. Father Francis M. J. Craft, opened 
school at Standing Rock and later succeeded in 
organizing in the tribe an Indian sisterhood which, 
however, was refused full ecclesi^tical recognition. 
In 1891 he removed with his commimity to the Fort 
Berthold reservation, N. D., where for some years 
the Sioux Indian Sisters proved valuable auxiliaries, 
particularly in instructing the women and nursing 
the sick of the confederated Grosventres, Ankara, 
and Mandan. Later on several of them won com- 
mendation as volunteer nurses in Cuba during the 
Spanish War. This zealous sisterhood is no longer 
in existence. In 1889, after long and persistent 
opposition by the older chiefs, tne "Great Sioux 
Reservation" was cut in two and reduced by 
about one half by a treaty cession which included 
almost all territory between White and Cheyenne 
Rivers, S. D., and all north of Cheyenne River west 
of 102®. The ceded lands were thrown open to 
settlement by proclamation in the next spring, and 
were at once occupied by the whites. ' In the mean- 
time payment for the lands was delayed, the annuity 
goods failed to arrive until the winter was nearly over, 
the crops had failed through attendance of the Indiazis 
at the treaty councils in the preceding spring, epi- 
demic diseases were raging in the camps, and as the 
final straw Congress, despite previous promise, cut 
down the beef ration by over four million poimds 
on the ground of the stipulated money payment, 
which, however, had not arrived. 

A year before rumours had come to the Sioux of a 
new Indian Messiah arisen bevond the mountains 
to restore the old-time Indian life, together with their 
departed friends, in a new earth from which the 
whites should be excluded. Several tribes, including 




the Sioux, 8ent delegates to the home of the Messiah, 
in Western Nevada, to investigate the rumour. The 
first delegation, as well as a second^ confirmed the 
truth of ihe report, and in the sprmg of 1890 the 
ceremonial ''Ghost Dance," intended 'to hasten the 
fulfilment of the prophecy, was inaugurated at Pine 
Ridge. Because of its strong appeal to the Indians 
under the existing conditions, the Dance soon spread 
among other Teton reservations until the Indians were 
in a frenzy of religious excitement. The newly- 
appointed agent at Pme Ridge became frightened and 
called for troops, thus precipitating the outbreak of 
1890. By 1 December 3000 troops were disposed in the 
nei^bourhood of the western Sioux reservations the 
un^ orders of General Nelson Miles. Leading 
events of the outbreak were: the killing of Sitting 
BuU, his son, and six others on 15 December, at his 
camp on Grand River, Standing Rock reservation, 
while resisting arrest by the Indian police, six of whom 
were killed in the encounter; the flignt of Sitting Bull's 
followers and others of Standing Rock and Cheyenne 
River reservations into the Bad Lands of western 
South Dakota where they ioined other refugee 
''hostiles" from Pine Ridge ana Rosebud; the fight at 
Woimded Knee Creek, twenty miles north-east of 
Pine Ridge agency, 29 December, 1S90, between a 
band of surrendered hostiles under Big Foot and a 
detachment of the Seventh Cavalry under Colonel 
Forsyth. Oi\ 16 Jan^l891. the hostiles surrendered to 
General Miles at Pine Riage, and the outbreak was at 
an end. With the restoration of peace, grievances were 
adjusted and the work of civilization resumed. 
Under provision of the general allotment law of 1887 
negotiations were concluded from time to time with 
the various bands by which the size of the reserva- 
tions was still further curtailed, and lands allotted 
in severalty^ until now almost all of the Sioux Indi- 
ans are individual owners and well on the way to 
full citizenship. Indian dress and adornment are 
nearly obsolete, together" with the tipi and aboriginal 
ceremonial, and the great majoritv are cloth^ in 
citizen's dress, living in comfortable small houses 
with modem furniture, and engaged in farming and 
stock raising. The death of the old chief. Red Qoud, 
at Pine Ridge in 1909, removed almost the last link 
binding the Sioux to their Indian past. 

Religious Status. — in 1909 nearly 10,000 of the 
25,000 Sioux within the United States were officially 
reported as Christians. The proportion is now 
probably at least one-half, of wnom about half a|;e 
Catholic, the others being chiefiy Episcopalian and 
Presbyterian. The Catholic missions are: Our 
Lady of Sorrows, Fort Totten, N. D. (Devil's Lake 
Res.)» Benedictine; St. Elizabeth, Cannonball, N. D. 
(Standing Rock Res.), Benedictine; St. Peter, Fort 
Yates, N. D. * (Standmg Rock Res.), Benedictine; 
St. James, Porcupine (Shields P. O.), N. D. (Stand- 
ing Rock Res.), Benedictine; St. Benedict, Stand- 
ing Rock Agency, S. D. (Standing Rock Res.), Bene- 
dictine; St. Aloysius, Standing Rock Agency, S. D., 
(Standing Rock Res.), Benedictine; St. JSdward, 
Standing Rock Agency, S. D.^ (Standme Rock Res.), 
Benedictine: St. ^jddej Standmg Rock Agency, S. D. 
(Standing Rock Res.), Benedictine; Immaculate 
Conception, Stephan, 8. D. (Crow Creek Res.), 
Benedictine; St. Matthew, Veblen (Do. (Britton P. O.) 
S. D. (former Sisseton Res.), secular; Corpus Christi, 
Cheyenne River Agency. S. D. (Chey. R. Res.), 
secular; St. Francis, Rosebud^ S. P. (Rosebud Res.), 
Jesuit; Holy Rosary, Pine Rid^e, S. D. (Pine Rid^e 
Res.). Jesuit. The two Jesuit missions maintain 
boarding-schools, and are assisted by Franciscan 
Sisters. The Immaculate Conception mission also 
maintains a boarding-school, witn Benedictine Sis- 
ters. At the Fort Totten mission a monthly paper, 
"Sina Sapa Wocekiye Taeyanpaha" (Black-gown 
Prayer Herald), entirely in the Sioux language, is 

Sublished under the editorship of Father Jerome 
[unt, who has been with the mission from its foun- 
dation. Notable events in the religious life of the 
tribe are the (Catholic Sioux congresses held in the 
summer of each year, one in North and one in South 
Dakota, which are attended by many high church 
dignitaries and mission workers and several thousands 
of Catholic Indians. Gf some 470 Christian Sioux 
in Canada about one-fourth are Catholic, chiefly at. 
Standing Buffalo Reservation, Sask., where they are 
served from the Oblate mission school at Qu'Appelle. 
Organization and Culture. — ^The Sioux were 
not a compact nation with centralized' government 
and supreme head chief, but were a confederacy of 
seven allied sub-tribes speaking a common lan^age. 
each with a recognized head chief and each subdivioea 
into bands or villages governed by subordinate chiefs. 
The seven sub-tribes, from east te west, were: (I) 
Mdewakantonwan (Mde-wakanton) Vill^e (people) 
of the Spirit Lake (i.e. Mille Lac); (2) Wakhpekute 
"Leaf Shooters": (3) Wakhpetonwan (Wahpeton), 
"Village in the Lteaves": (4) Sisitonwan (Sisseton), 
"Village of the Marsh**; (5) Ihanktonwan (Yankton), 
"Village at the End"; (6) Ihanktonwanna (Yank- 
tonai), "Little Yankton"; (7) Titonwan (Teton), 
"Villigc of the Prairie". Of these, the first four, 
originallv holding the heads of the Mississippi, con- 
stitute the Isanti (Santee) or eastern, dialectic group: 
The Yankton and Yanktonai, about the lower ana 
upper courses of the James River respectively, 
together with the Assiniboin tribe constitute the 
central dialectic group. The gre»at Teton division, 
west of the Missouri and comprising three-fifths of 
the whole nation, constitutes a third dialectic group. 
The Teton are divided into seven principal banos, 
commonly known as Ogalala (at Pine Ridge); Bnil^ 
(at Rosebud and Lower Brul^); Hunkpapa (at 
Standing Rock); Blackfoot (at Standing Hock and 
Cheyenne River); Miniconju, Sans-Arc, and Two 
Kettle (Cheyenne River). Among the more seden- 
tary eastern bands chiefship seems to have been 
hereditai^ in the male line, but with the roving west- 
em bands it depended usually upon pre-eminent 
ability. In their original home about tne heads of 
the Mississippi the Sioux subsisted chiefly upon wild 
rice, fish, and small game, and were expert canoe 
men, but as they drifted west into the plains and 
obtained possession of the horse their whole manner 
of life was changed, and they became a race of eques- 
trian nomads, subsisting almost entirely upon the 
buffalo. They seem never to have been agncultural 
to any great extent. Their dwelling was the birch- 
bark lodge in the east and the bufifalo-skin tipi on the 
plain. Their dead were sometimes deposited in a 
coffin upon the surface of the ground, but more often 
laid upon a scaffolding or in the tree-tops. Food and 
valuables were left with the corpse, and relatives gashed 
their bodies with knives and cut off their hair in token 
of grief. Besides the knife, bow, and hatchet of the 
forest warrior^ they carried also on the plains the lance 
and shield ot the horseman. Polygamy was recog- 
nized. There was no clan system. 

To the Sioux the earth was a great island plain 
surrounded by an ocean far to the west of which was 
the spirit world. There were two souls— some said 
four — one of which remained near the grave after 
death, while the other travelled on to the^jspirit 
world, or in certain cases became a wandering and 
dangerous ghost. In the west also, in a magic house 
upon the top of a high mountain and guarded by 
four sentinel animals at the four doorways, lived the 
Wakinyan. or thunders, the greatest of the gods, 
and mortal enemies of the subterranean earth spirits 
and the water spirits. The sun also was a great 
god. There was no supreme "Great Spirit", as 
supposed by the whites, no ethical code to their 
supematuralism, and no heaven or hell in their 




epirit world. Among animals the buffalo was natu- 
rally held in highest veneration. Fairies and strange 
monsters^ both good and bad, were everywhere, 
usually mvisible, but sometimes revealing them- 
selves in warning portent. Dreams were held as 
direct revelations of the supernatural. Taboos, 
fasting, and sacrifices, including voluntary torture, 
were frequent. Among the great ceremonials the 
•annual sun dance was the most important, on which 
occasion the principal performers dancea at short 
intervals for four days and nights, without food, 
drink, or sleep, undergoing at the same time painful 
bodily laceration, either as a propitiation or in ful- 
filment of a thanksgiving vow. The several warrior 
orders and various secret societies each had their 
special dance, and for youne ffirls there was a puberty 
ceremony. (For cults ana home life see works of 
Dorsey and Eastman quoted in bibliography below.) 
In phvsique, intellect, morality, and general manli- 
ness the Sioux rated among the finest of the Plains 
tribes. Under the newer conditions the majority 
are now fairly industrious and successful farmers and 

Language and Literature. — ^The Sioux language 
is euphonious, sonorous, and flexible, and possesses a 
more abundant native literature than that of any 
other tribe within the United States, with the possible 
exception of the Cherokee. By means of an alphabet 
system devised by the early Presbyterian mission- 
aries, nearly all of the men can read and write their 
own language. The printed literature includes 
reli^ioud works^ school textbooks, grammars, and 
dictionaries, miscellaneous publications, and three 
current mission journals. Catholic, as alread^r noted, 
Presbyterian, and Episcopal^ all three entirely in 
Sioux. The earliest publication was a spelling-book 
by Rev. J. D. Stevens in 1836. In linguistics the 
principal is the ''Grammar and Dictionary of the 
Dakota Language'*, by Rev. S. R. Riggs, published 
by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, in 1862, 
and republished in part, with editing by Dorsey, by 
the Bureau of Am. Ethnology, Washington, in 1892-4. 

Population. — Contrary to the usual rule with 
Indian tribes, the Sioux have not only held their 
own since the advent of the whites, but have appar- 
ently si igh tly increased . This increase, however, is due 
largely to incorporation of captives and intermarriage 
of whites. We have no reliable estimates for the 
whole tribe before 1849, wten Governor Ramsey 
gave them "not over 20,000", while admitting that 
some resident authorities gave them 40,000 or more. 
Ri^ in 1851 gives them about 25,000, but under- 
estimates the western (Teton) bands. By official 
census of 1910 they number altogether 28,618 souls, 
including all mixed-bloods, distributed as follows: 
Minnesota, scattered, about 929: Nebraska, Santee 
agency. 1155; North Dakota, Devil's Lake (Fort 
Totten) agency, 986: Standing Rock agency, 3454; 
South Dakota, Flanoreau agency, 275, Lower Brul6, 
469, Crow Creek, 997, Yankton, 1753, Sisseton, 
1994, Cheyenne River, 2590, Rosebud, 5096, Pine 
Ridge, 6758 . Canada : Bird tail, Oak Lake. Oak River, 
Turtle Mountain, Portage La Prairie (Manitoba), 
613; Wahspaton, Standing Buffalo, Moosej aw. Moose 
Woods (Sask.), 455. Those in Canada are chiefly 
descendants of refugees from the United States 
in 1866 and 1876. 

Bryant and Muhch, Hist, of (he Oreat Massacre by the Sioux 
Indians (St. Peter, 1872); Bureau Cath. Ind. Missions, AnntuU 
Reports of the Director (Washington) ; Annual Reports of the Dept. 
of Ind. Affairs (Ottawa, Canada); Carvkr, Travels through 
the Interior Parts of N. Am. (1760-8) (London, 1778, and later 
editions) ; Catun, Manners, Customs and Condition of the N. Am. 
Inds. (Ivondon, 1841, and later editions); Chittenden, Am. Fur 
Trade (New York, 1902); Chittenden and Richardson. Life, 
LeUersand Travels of Fr. Pierre- Jean De Smet, (New York, 1906) ; 
CoimissiONER OF Ind. Aftairb. Annual Reports (Washington); 
Condition of the Indian Tribes, Report of Joint Special Committee 

g Washington, 1867); Dorset, Study of Siouan Cults, in 11th 
ept. Bur, Am, Eth, (Washington, 1894); Eastman. Indian 

Boyhood (New York, 1902); Idem, Wigwam Evmingt (Boston^ 
1909); FiNSRTT, Warpath and Bivouac (Chicago. 18^); Hat- 
den. Conts. to the Ethnography and Philology of the Ind, IVtbM 
of the Missouri Valley in Trans. Am. Philos. Soc., n. s., XII (Phil- 
adelphia, 1862); Hennepin. Diseriplion de la Louisiane (Paris, 
1683), tr. Shea (New York, 1880); Hinman and Welah. Joumoi 
of the Rev. S. D. Hinman (Philadelphia. 1869); Jesuit Relations, 
ed. Thwaites, 73 vols., especially Ottawa afid Illinois, Lr— LXXl 
(Cleveland, 1896-1901); Indian Affairs: Ijows and Treaties, 
ed Kappler, (Washington, 1903-4); Keating, Expedition 
{Long's) to the Sources of St. Peter's River (Philadelphia. 1824. 
and later editions) ; Lewis and Clark. Original Journals of the 
Expedition of 1804-6, ed. Thwaites. 8 vols. (New York, 1904-5. 
numerous other editions more or less complete, the first official 
report being contained in the Message from the President, Wash- 
ington, 1806); McGee, Siouan Indians in 16th Rept. Bur. Am. 
EOinology (Washington, 1897); McKenney and Hall, Hist. 
Ind. TrU>es of North Am. (Philadelphia. 1854. and other edi- 
tions); McLauqhun. My Friend the Indian (Boston, 1910); 
Mallert. Pxdographs of the N. Am. Indians in 4th Rept. Bttr, 
Am, Ethnology (Washington, 1886); Idem, Picture Writing oj 
the Am, Inds. in 10th Rept. Bur, Am. Ethnology (Washington, 
1893); Margrt. Dicouvertes et itablissements des FranQais 
(6 vols.. Paris. 1879-86) ; Maximiuan. Prince of Wied. Travels 
in the Interior of N. Am. (London. 1843; orimnal German ed. 
• 2 vols., Coblens, 1839-41); Miles. Personal RecoUeetions (Chi- 
cago, 1896); Minnesota Hist. Soc Colls. (1872-1905); Moonet. 
Siouan Tribes of the East, Bull. BB, Bureau Am. Ethnology (Wash- 
ington, 1895; Idem, The Ghost Dance Religion and Sioux Oui' 
break of 1890 in 14th Rept, Bur. Am. Ethnology, II (Washington. 
1896); Neill, Hist, of Minnesota (Philadelphia, 1858); New 
York, Documents Relating to the Colonial Hist, of (15 vols., 
Albany, 1853-^7) Nicollet,, Report on . . . Upper Mississippi 
{Senate Doc.) (Washington, 1843); North Dakota Hist. Soc. 
Colls. (2 vols., Bismarck, 1906-8); Parkman, Oregon Trail (New 
York. 1849, and later editions); Perrin du Lac. Voyages dans 
Us deux Louisianes, 1801-3 (Paris and Lyons, 1805): Pike, ExpO' 
dition to the So^rces of the Mississippi (Philadelphia, 1810); 
Pilling, Bibl. of the Sioiuin Languages, Bull. 5, Bur. Am. E0mol~ 
ogy (Washington, 1887); Poole, Among the Sioux of Dakota 
(New York, 1881); Ramsey, Report on Sioux in Rept. Comsner, 
Ind. Affairs for 1849 (Washington, 1850); Ravoux, Reminis- 
eences. Memoirs and Lectures (St. Paul, 1890) ; Rioas, The Dakota 
Language in CoUs. Minn. Hist. Soc, I (St. Paul, 1851, reprint 
St. Paul, 1872); Idem, Grammar and Diet, of the Dakota Lan- 
guage: Smithsonian Contributions, IV (Washiiigton, 1852); Idem, 
Tahkoo Wahkan, or the Gospel among the Dakotas (Boston, 1869); 
Idem, Mary and I: Forty Years with the Sioux (Chicago, 1880) ; 
Robinson, Hist, of the Sioux Indians in Colls. South Dakota 
Hist. Soc, II (Aberdeen, S.D., 1904); Royce and Thomas. 
Indian Land Cessions in 18th Rept. Bur. Am. Ethnology, II (Wash- 
ington. 1899); Schoolcraft. Travels . to the Sources 
of the Mississippi (Albany. 1821); Idem. Hist. Condition and 
ProspecU of the Indian Tribes of the U. S. (6 vols., Philadel- 
phia, 1851-7) ; Sheridan (in charge) , Record of Engagements with 
Hostile Indians, etc., 1868-1882 (Washington, 1882); Shea, Hist, 
of the Catholic Missions among the Indian Tribes of the U. S. 
(New York. 1855); Idem. Disc and Expl.ofthe Mississippi Toi- 
ley (New York, 1852; and Albany, 1903): De Smet. Oregon 
Missions (New York, 1847; Fr. edition, Ghent. 1848); 
Idem, Western Missions and Missionaries (New York, 1863); 
(see also Chittenden and Richardson), South Dakota Hist. 
Soc. CMs. (3 vols., Aberdeen, S. D., 1902-6); Wall, Recollec- 
tions of the Sioux Massacre (1862) (Lake City, Minn., 1909); 
Warren, Explorations in the Dakota Country, 1855, Senate 
Doc. (Washington, 1856); Warren. Hist, of the Ojibways in 
AAnn. Hist. Soc. Colls., V (St. Paul, 1885): Whipple, Lights 
and Shadows of a Long Episcopate (New York, 1899); Wisconsin 
Hist. Soc CoUs. (16 vols., Madison, 1855-1902). 

James Moonet. 

Sipibo Indians, a numerous tribe -of Panoan lin- 
guistic stock, formerly centring about the Pisqui and 
Aguaitia tributaries of the upper Ucayali River, Prov- 
ince of Loreto, north-eastern Peru, and now found as 
boatmen or labourers along the whole course of that 
stream. They speak the same language as the 
Conibo, Pano, and Setebo, whom they resemble in 
habit and ceremonial. 

The Sipibo became known about^the same time as 
their cogpiate tribes early in the seventeenth century, 
but opposed a determined resistance to the entrance 
of both gold-hunters and missionaries (1657), for a 
long time frustrating all Christianizing efforts in the 
Ucayali region by their constant raids upon the mis- 
sion settlements, particularly of the Setebo. In 1670, 
in common with other tribes of that region, they were 
greatly wasted by smallpox. In 1736 the>r broke the 
power of the Setebo in a oloody battle, but in 1764 the 
Franciscan Father Juan de Frezneda entered their 
country and so far won their good will that he suc- 
ceeded in making peace between the two tribes and 
in the next year (1765) established the first mission 
among the Sipibo under the title of Santo Domingo 

sxpno 2 

de Pisqui. Thia waa shortly followed by the founding 
of Hanta Barbaj^ de Archani find Santa Ciui de 
Aguuitia in the same Irihe, together with & resumji- 
tion of work unong the Conibo, firat undertaken in 
16S5. Among other Ubouren in the Sipibo field at 

this period was Father Job6 Amich, author of a history 
of the Ucayali nuHaiona. Suddenly and without warn- 
ing in the Bumroer of 1766 all the river tribes attacked 
the miaaions aimultaneously, slaughtered nine of the 
miaaionaries together with their neophytes, and com- 
pletely destroyed all that had been accomplished by 
yeara of persevering sacrifice. Rungato, a Setebo 
chief, who had professed the greatest friendship for 
the miasiooaries, appears to have been the leader. 
The reason of the outbreak was never known. It may 
have been jealousy of authority, impatience of re- 
strant, covetousneea of the misaion propeity, some 
unrecorded outrage by the Spaniarda on the frontier, 
some dream, or superstitious panic such as are of so 
frequent occurrence among aavagea. A small relief 
expedition sent out in charge of three Franciscans the 
next year learned the details of the massacre, and wafa 
forced tu turn back, but waa permitted to retire with- 
out molestation. 

Thia laat riaing of the wild tribea of the middle 
UcayaJi was in some measure an echo of a similar 

rinng of the wild Campa tribes on the upper branches 
of the same stream in 1742, led by Juan Santos, an 
apoatate Quichua Indian, who assumed the title of the 
Inea Atahualpa (see Quichua), and resulting in the 


destruction of all the misaions of that region and the 
Blauahter of nearly eighty Franciscan missionaries. 
Of tnis rising of the Campa, Hemdon aays: "It ia 
quite evident that no distaste for the Catholic reli^on 
induced this rebellion; for in the year 1750, eight 
years afterward, the Marquis of Mina-hermosa, 
marching into this country for the punishment of the 
rebels, found the church at Quimiai in perfect order, 
with candles burning before tne images. He burned 
the town and church, and six years after this, when 
another entrance into this country was made by Gen- 
eral Buatamente, he found the town rebuilt and a 
large cross erected in the middle of the plaia. I have 
had occaaion myself to notice the rcsi)ect and rev- 
erence of these Indians for their pastors, and their 
delight in participating in the ceremonial and sense- 
striking worship of the Roman Church." A similar 
instance ia recorded of the revolted Pueblos (q. v.), 
as also of the unconvertJ^ Setcbo. Fallowing close 
upon the massacre of 1766 came the expulsion of the 
Jesuits by royal decn« in the following year, and the 
Urayali region was piven over to barbarism until 
1781, when by direction of the superior of the Fran- 
ciscan coUi^ of Ocopa, Father Narciso Girbal with 
two companions once more braved the wilderness 
dangers and made 
BUcccssf ul f ou nda- 
tion at Sarayacu 
(q. V.) int I which 

of the Sipibo will 

of its details for 
all the tribes of 
the Ucayali and 

Huallaga region, 
within the former 
of the Franciscan 

the addition that 
certain tribes, 
particularly the ^ Sihbo Ttm 

Cashibo, were 

noted for their cannibalism, Therewaa very little tribal 
solidarity, each so-called tribe being broken up into 
petty bands ruled by local chiefs, and seldom acting 
together even gainst a common enemy. They sub- 
sided chiefly on iiBh, game, turtle eggs, bananas, yuccas, 
and a little com, agriculture, however, being but 
feebly developed. The root of the yucca was roasted 
as bread, ground between stones for flour, boiled or 
fried, while from the juice, fermented with saliva, 
was prepared the intoxicating masalo or chiclta, which 
was in requisition at all family or tribal festivals. 
Salt was seldom used, but clay-eating was common 
and sometimes of fatal conseauence. Their houses, 
scattered simply at intervals along the streams, were 
of open framework thatched with palm leaves. 
The arrow poison^ usually known as curari, was pre- 
pared from the juice of certain lianas or tree vmes 
and was an article of intertribal trade over a great 
extent of territory. They either went entirely 
naked or wore a short skirt or sleeveless shirt 
woven of cotton or bark fibre. Head flattening and 
the wearing of nose and ear pendants and labrets 
were common. They blackened their t«eth with 
a vegetable dye. Tlie modem civiUied Indiana 
dress in light peon fashion. 

Although most of the tribes could count no hi^er 
than five, their general mentality was high; and they 
prt^TMsed rapidly in civilized arts. Then- religion 




was animism, dominated by the ytUumi or priests, but 
wi^h few great ceremonies. As among all savages, 
disease and death were commonly ascribed to evil 
spirits or witchcraft. Polygamy was universal, the 
women being frequently obtained by raids upon other 
tribes. Among t^eir barbarous customs were the 
eating of prisoners of war, and sometimes of deceased 
parents, &e killing of the helpless and of deformed 
children and twins, and a sort of circumcision of 
young girls at about the age of twelve years. A part 
of the Sipibo still roam the forests, but the majority 
are now civilized and employed as boatmen, rubber- 
gatherers, or labourers along the river. In common 
with all the tribes of the region their numbers are 
steadily decreasing. See also Sbtebo Indians. 

CoDBult particularly: Raimonoi, El Perd, II aad III, Hitt» de la 
Oeoora/ia del Pini, bks. i and ii (Lima, 187&-79). Raimondi de- 
rives much of his information from a MS. hiatory of the Fran- 
ciscan missions, by Fernando Rodri^es, 1774, preserved in the 
convent at Lima; Idem, Provinda Litoral de Lorelo (Lima, 1862), 
condensed tr. by Bolubrt in ArUhropolooioal Review (Lon- 
don, May, 1863) ; Bbinton. Ameriean Race (New York, 1891) ; 
Castblnau, BxpSdUion dana lee partiee eeniraUe de rAmirioue 
du Sud, IV (Paris, 1891) ; Ebbrhabot, Indiane of Peru in Smtlh- 
eon. Miecel. CoUe., quarterly issue, V (Washington, 1909), 2; 
Hbrndon, Bzjdaration of the Amazon (Washington, 1854) ; Obp- 
DiNAiRE, Lee Sauvagee du Pirou in Renti d'Bthnooraphie, VI 
(Paris, 1887) ; Smtth and Lows, Journey from Lima to Pard (Lon- 
don, 1836). 

James Moonet. 
Sirach. See Ecclesiabticub. 

SiriciUB. Saint, Pope (384-99), b. about 334; d. 
26 November, 399. Siricius was a native of Rome; 
his father's name was Tiburtius. Siricius entered the 
service of the Church at an early age and, according 
to the testimony of the inscription on his grave, was 
lector and then deacon of the Roman Church during 
the pontiftcate of Liberius (352-66). After the death 
of Damasus, Siricius was unanimously elected his 
successor (December, 384) and consecrated bishop 
probably on 17 December. Ursinus, who had been 
a rival to Damasus (366), was alive and still main- 
tained his claims. However, the Emperor Valentinian 
III, in a letter to Pinian (23 Feb.. 385), gave his 
consent to the election that had been held and praised 
the piety of the newly-elected bishop; consequently 
no oifficulties arose. Immediately upon his eleva- 
tion Siricius had occasion to assert his primacy over 
the universal Church. A letter, in which questions 
were asked on fifteen different points concerning bap- 
tism, penance, church discipline, and the celibacy of 
the clergy^ came to Rome addressed to Pope Da- 
masus by Bishop Himerius of Tarragona, Spain. Siri- 
cius answered this letter on 10 February, 385, and 
gave the decisions as to the matters in question, ex- 
ercising with full consciousness his supreme power 
of authority in the Church (Constant^ **Epi8t. Rom. 
Pont.", 625 sq.). This letter of Siricius is of special 
importance because it is the oldest completely pre- 
served papal decretal (edict for the authoritative de- 
cision of questions of discipline and canon law) . It is, 
however, certain that before this earlier popes had also 
issued such decretals, for Siricius himself in his let- 
ter mentions '' general decrees" of Liberius that the 
latter had sent to the provinces; but these earlier ones 
have not been preserved. At the same time the pope 
directed Himerius to make known his decrees to tne 
neighbouring provinces, so that they should also be 
ob^rved there. This pope had very much at heart 
the maintenance of Church discipline and the obser- 
vance of canons by the clergy and laity. A Roman 
synod of 6 January, 386, at which eighty bishops were 
present, reaffirmed in nine canons the laws of the 
Church on various points of discipline (consecration 
of bishops, celibacy, etc.). The decisions of the coun- 
cil were communicated bv the pope to the bishops of 
North Africa and probably in the same manner to 
others who had not attended the synod, with the com- 
mand to act in accordance with them. Another letter 
which was sent to various churches dealt with the elec- 

tion of worthy bishops and priests. A Bvnodal letter 
to the Gallican bishops, ascribed by Coustant and 
others to Siricius, is assimed to Pope Innocent I b^ 
other historians (P. L., XlII, 1179 sqO- In all his 
decrees the pope speaks with the consciousness of his 
supreme ecclesiastical authority and of 'his pastoral 
care over all the churches. 

Siricius was also obliged to take a stand against 
heretical movements. A Roman monk Jovinian came 
forward as an opponent of fasts, good works, and the 
higher merit of celibate life. He found sonie ad- 
herents among the monks and nuns of Rome. About 
390-392 the pope held a synod at Rome, at which 
Jovinian and eight of his followers were condemned 
and excluded from communion with the Church. 
The decision was sent to St. Ambrose, the gr^t 
Bishop of Milan and a friend of Siricius. Ambrose 
now held a synod of the bishops of upper Italy 
which, as the letter says, in agreement witn his de- 
cision also condemned the heretics. Other heretics 
including Bishop Bonosus of Sardica (390), who was 
also accused of errors in the doema of the Trinity, 
maintained the false doctrine tnat Mary was not 
always a virgin. Siricius and Ambrose opposed 
Bonosus and his adherents and refuted their false 
views. The pope then left further proceedings 
against Bonosus to the Bishop of Thessalonica and 
the other lU^ian bishops. Like his predecessor 
Damasus, Sincius also took part in the Priscillian 
controversv; he sharply condemned the episcopal 
accusers of Priscillian, who had brought the matter 
before the secular court and had prevailed upon the 
usurper Maximus to condenm to death and execute 
Priscillian and some of his followers. Maximus 
sought to justify his action by sending to the pope the 
proceedings in the case. Siricius, however, excom- 
muni^atea Bishop Felix of Trier who. supported 
Ithacius, the accuser of Priscillian, and in whose city 
the execution had taken place. The pope addressed 
a letter to the Spanish bishops in which he stated the 
conditions under which the converted Priscillians were 
to be restored to communion with the Church. 

According to the life in the ''Liber Pontificalis" 
(ed. Duchesne, I, 216), Siricius also took severe 
measures against the Maniohseans at Rome. ^ How- 
ever, as Duchesne remarks (loc. cit.; notes) it can- 
not be assumed from the writings of the converted 
Augustine, who was a Manichsaji when he went to 
Rome (383), that Siricius took any particular steps 
against them, yet Augustine would certainly have 
commented on this if such had been the case. The 
mention in the "Liber Pontificalis" belongs properly 
to the life of Pope Leo I. Neither is it probable, 
as Lauren thinks (Gesch. der rom. Kirche, I, 633), 
that Pnscillians are to be understood by this mention 
of Manichseans, although probably Pnscillians were 
at times called Manichseans in the writings of that 
age. The western emperors, including Honorius 
and Valentinian III, issued laws against the Mani- 
chseans, whom they declared to be political offenders, 
and took severe action against the members of this 
sect (Codex Theodosian, XVI, V, various laws). ^In 
the East Siricius interposed to settle the Meletian 
schism at Antioch; this schism had continued not- 
withstanding the death in 381 of Meletius at the 
Council of Constantinople. The followers of Mele- 
tius elected Flavian as his successor, while the ad- 
herents of Bishop Paulinus, after the death of this 
bishop (388), elected Evagrius. Evagrius died in 
392 and through Flavian's management no successor 
was elected. By the mediation of St. John Chrysos- 
tom and Theophilus of Alexandria an embassy, led 
by Bishop Acacius of Beroea, was sent to Rome to 
persuade Siricius to recognize Flavian and to re- 
admit him to communion with the Church. 

At Rome the name of Siricius is particularly con- 
nected with the basilica over the grave of St. Paul 

8IBUT0 2 

on the Via Oatiraiais which was rebuilt by the emperor 
as a basilica of five aisies during the pontificate of 
SiriciuH and was dedicated by the' pope in 390. 
The name of Siricius is still to be found on one of the 
pillars that was not deetrorcd in the fire of 1823, 
and which now stands in the vestibule of the side 
entrance to the transept. Two of his contempora- 
ries describe the character of Siricius diepara^ugly. 
PaulinuB of Nola, who on hia viat to Rome m 385 
was treated in a guarded manner by the pope, speaks 
of the urbici papa tuperba diiereUo, the haughty 
policy of the Roman bishop (Epist,, V, 14). This 
action of the pope is, however, explained by the^act 
that there had been irregularities in the election and 
oonaecration of Paulinus (Buse, "Paulin von Nola", 
I, 193). Jerome, for his part, speaks of the "lack 
of judgment" of Siriciue (Epist., cmvii, 9) on ac- 
count of the latter's treatment of Rufinus of Agui- 
leia, to whom the pope had ^ven a letter when 
Rufinua left Rome m 398, which showed that he 
was in communion with the Church. The reason, 
however, does not justify the judgment which Jerome 
expressed against the pope; moreover, Jerome in his 
polemical writings often exceeds the limits of pro- 
priety. All that ie known of the labours of Siricius 
refutes the criticism of the caustic hermit of Bethle- 
hem. The "Liber Pontificalis" ^ves an incorrect 
date for his death ; he was buried in the oemeferium 
of Priscilla on the Via Salaria. The text of the in- 
scription on his grave is known (De Rossi, "In- 
scriptionee christ. urbis Ronue", II, 102, 138). 
His feast is celebrated on 26 November. His name 
was inserted in the Roman Martyrology by Bene- 
dict XIV. 

tibrr Ponli/., ed, DocsH"'. I. Sl^lT; ComTAHT. Bpul. 
RnurL Ponl., I; Jirrd, R>». PnL Horn.. I, Sod «1.. «0-42; 
Babut, La plu anctmiu DfertlaU IPub. 1B04); Lanou OhcA. 
4tr rem. Kirdit, I IBonn, 1S81). SlI •qq.; Rackkkh, Jdtrb, dtr 
cArult. XiTchc IPniburf, 1S97): au«.im, Oach. Ami h. dcr 
i^Ip^. I. puiiii;II»ELi, XonnMneudt., lI,2DdBd..4S-48. fil. 
J. P. KlRBCR. 

SirlBto, GuQUEUiOj cardinal and ecbolar, b. at 
Guardavaile near Stilo in Calabria, 1514; d. at Rome, 
6 October, 1585. The son of a physician, he received 
an excellent edu- 



scholars at Rome, 
and became an in- 
timate friend of 
Cardinal Marcello 
Cervino, later 
Pope Marcellus 
11. He prepared 
for Cervino, who 
was President of 
the Council of 
Ttwl in it« initial 
period, extensive 
reports on all the 
important ques- 
tions presented for 
discussion. After 
his appointment as 
custodian of the 
Vatican Library, 
Sirieto drew uj) a. 
complete descrip- 
tive catak>gue of its Greek manuscripts and pre- 
pared a new edition of the Vulgate. Paul IV named 
Dim prothonotory aEid tutor to two of his neph- 
ews. After this pope's death he taught Greek 
and Hebrew at Rome, numbering St. Charles Bor- 
romeo among his students. During the concluding 
period of the Council of Trent he was, although he 
oontinued to reside at Rome, the constant and most 
heeded adviser of the cardinal-l^atee. He was him- 

' 8IBH0ND 

self created cardinal in 1565, became Bishop of San 
Marco in Calabria in 1566, and of Squillace in 1668. 
An order of the papal secretary of stale, however, en- 
joined his residence at Rome, where he was named, in 
1570, librarian of the Vatican Library. His influence 
was paramount in the execution of Che scientific un- 
dertakinea decreed by the Council of Trent. He col- 
laborated in the pubhcation of the Roman Catechism, 
presided over the Commissions for the reform of the 
Roman Breviary and Missal, and directed the work of 
the new edition of the Roman Martyrology. Highly 
appreciative of Greek culture, he entertained very 
friendly relations with the East and encouraged alt 
efforts tending to ecclesiastical reunion. He was at- 
tended in hia last illness by 8t. Philip Neri and was 
buried in the presence of Sixtus V. 

HcRTiR, NamencialBr Lit., I (2d ed.. Irmsbnick, 18021. 05-4; 
BIiTMKit-BiBON. Hitt. du britiairt, 11 (P«ri», IMS), 168-71, 

N. A, Wbbbb. 

Slrmlum (SiBRiki), Diocese op (Siruicnsis), 
situated near the modem town of Mitrovits in 
Slavonia; its church is said to have been founded by 
St. Peter. The district of Szerfm was subject to 
the Archbishop of Kalocsa after the Christianization 
of Hungary. In 1228, the archbishop petitioned the 
Holy See, in consideration of the large extent of his 
diocese, to found a new bishopric, and in 1229 
Gregory IX established the See of Szer^m, the juri»- 
diction of which covered almost exclusively the coun- 
try on the right bank of the Sava River. The see 
was under the Turkish Government in 1526. It had 
no bishop from 1537 to 1578, and was held by a 
titular bishop after 1624. In 1709 the see was re- 
established with some changes in its territory. 
Clement XIV united it with Bosnia and Diakovir 
in 1773. 

SlARiHTI, Pindin* Sirmun«i (Buda, 1T4B); Fabuti. 
nivno"" latnim. VII. 44S-S11; Pkat, ^penmrn Hitrarchiaa 
Bmoaria, II. 302-05; A hUotikut HamiaTortzAa (Bu<l>p«t, 

iwbT , 

A. ALoXsr. 

Sirmond, Jacques, one of the greatest scholars of 
the seventeenth century, b. at Riom in the Deport- 
ment of Puy-de-DOme, France, Oct., 1559; d. in 

He entered the 
Society of Jesus 
in 1576 and was 
appointed in ISSl 
professor of clas- 
sical languages in 
Paris, where he 
numbered St. 
FVancis de Sales 
among his pupils. 
Called to Rome 
in 1590, he was 
for sixteen years 
private Hecretary 
to the Jesuit su- 
perior general, 
Aquaviva, devot- 
ing his leisure mo- 
ments during the 
same period to 
the study of the 
literary and historical treasures of antiquity. He 
entertained intimate relations with several learned 
men then present at Rome, among them Bellarmine 
and particularly Baronius, to whom he was helpful 
in the composition of the "Annales". Jn 1608 he 
returned to Paris, and in 1637 became confessor to 
King Louis XIII. His first literary production ap- 
peared in 1610, and from that date until the end of 
'ear witnessed the publication 
e results of his literary labours 



are chiefly represented by editions of Greek and Latin 
Christian writing^. Theodoret of Cyrus, Ennodius, 
Idatius of Gallicia^ Sidonius Apollinaris, Theodulph 
of Orleans, Paschasius Radbertus, Flodoard. and Hinc- 
mar of Rheims are among the writers whose works 
he edited, either completely or in part. Of great im- 
portance were his editions of the capitularies of Charles 
the Bald and successors and of the ancient councils 
of France: "Karoli Calvi et successorum aliquot 
fVanciffi resum Capitula" (Paris, 1623); "Concilia 
antiqua GsJlise^' (Paris, 1629). His collected works, 
a complete list of which will be found in de Backer- 
Sommervogel (VII, 1237-60), were published in 
Paris in 1696 and again at Venice in 1728. 

Db BACKKR-SoiiMERVOGEL, Bibl. de la comp, de Jinu^ VII 
(Bruaaels, 1896), 1237-61; CoLOmfes, Vie du Pire Sirmond (La 
Rochelle, 1671): Chauherb, Bioff. Did. (London, 1816), s. v. 

N. A. Weber. 
Si8. See Flaviab. 

SlsixmiUBi Pope, date of birth unknown; d. 4 Feb., 
708. Successor of John VII, he was consecrated 
probably 15 Jan., 708, and died after a brief pontificate 
of about three weeks : he was buried in St. Peter's. 
He was a Syrian by birth and the son of one John. 
Although he was so afflicted with gout that he was 
unable even to feed himself, he is nevertheless said 
to have been a man of strong character, and to have 
been able to take thought for the good of the citv. 
He gave orders to prepare lime to repair the walls 
of Rome, and before he died consecrated a bishop for 

Ldber PontifiaUiB, I, 338; Manx, The lAvea of the Popea in the 
Barly Middle Agea, I, pt. ii (St. Louis and London, 1902), 124. 

Horace K. Mann. 


Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati^ Ohio. — 

On 27 October, 1829, at the request of Bishop 
Fenwick of Cincinnati, several sisters from Mother 
Seton's conmnmity at Emmitsburg, Maryland, 
opened an orphanage, parochial school, and academy 
on Sycamore Street opposite the old cathedral, then 
occupying the present site of St. Xavier's Church and 
college. When Bishop Purcell built the new cathe- 
dral on Eighth and Plum Sis., the sisters moved to 
Third and Plum Sts., and later the academy waa 
transferred to George St., near John. When Father 
Etienne, superior of the Daughters of Charity of 
France, in December, 1850, effected the affiliation of 
the sisterhood at Emmitsburg with the Daughters 
of Charity of France^ Sister Margaret George waa 
superior in Cincinnati. She had entered the com- 
munity at Emmitsburg early in 1812, and had filled 
the office of treasurer and secretary of the community, 
teaching in the academy during most of Mother 
Seton's life. She wrote the early records of the 
American Daughters of Charity, heard all the dis- 
cussions regarding rules and constitutions, and left 
to her community in Cincinnati letters from the first 
bishops and clergy of the United States, Mother 
Seton's original ^umal written in 1803 and some 
of her letters, and valuable writings of her own. She 
upheld Motner Seton's rules, constitutions, tradi- 
tions, and costume, confirmed by Archbishop Carroll 
17 Jan., 1812, objecting with Archbishop Carroll 
and Mother Seton to the French rule in its fulness, 
in that it limited the exercise of charity to females 
in the orphanages and did not permit the teaching 
of boys in the schools. The sisters in New York 
had separated from Emmitsburg in December, 1846. 
because they were to be withdrawn from the boys 
orphanage. When it was finally decided that the 
community at Emmitsburg was to affiliate with the 
French Daughters of Charity, the sisters in Cin- 
cinnati laid before Archbishop Purcell their desire 
to preserve the original rule of Mother Seton's 
foundation. He confirmed the sisters in their de- 
sire and notified the superior of the French Daughters 
of Charity that he would take under his protection 

the followers of Mother Seton. Archbishop Purcell 
became ecclesiastical superior and was succeeded 
by Archbishop Elder ana Archbishop Moeller. 

The novitiate in Cincinnati waa opened in 1852. 
During that year twenty postulants were received. 
The first Catholic hospital was opened by the sisters 
in November, 1852. In February, 1853, the sisters 
took charge of the Mary and Martha Society, a 
charitable organization established for the benefit 
of the poor of the city. On 15 August, 1853, the 
sisters purchased their first property on the comer 
of Sixth and Parks Sts., and opened there in Septem- 
ber a boarding and select day-school. The following 
July they bought a stone house on Mt. Harrison near 
Mt. St. Mary Seminary of the West, and called it 
Mt. St. Vincent. The community was incorporated 
under the laws of Ohio in 1854 as ''The Sisters of 
Charity of Cincinnati, Ohio". Mother Margaret 
George, Sister Sophia Gillmeyer, Mother Josephine 
Harvey, Sister Anthony O'Connell, Mother Retina 
Mattingly, Sister Antonio McCaffrey, and Sister 
Gonzalva Dougherty were the incorporators. In 
1856 Mt. St. Vincent Academy was transferred to 
the "Cedars", the former home of Judge Alderson. 
It remained the mother-house until 29 Sept., 1869, 
and the boarding-school until July, 1906. It is now 
a day academy and a residence for the sisters teach- 
ing adjacent parochial schools. In 1857 Bishop 
Bayle^ of New Jersey sent* five postulants to Mt. 
St. Vmcent, Cedar Grove, Cincinnati, to be trained 
by Mother Margaret George. At the conclusion 
of their novitiate. Mother Margaret and Sister 
Anthony were to have gone with them to Newark, 
New Jersey, to remain until the little community 
would be well established, but affairs proving too 
urgent, Mother Margaret interceded with the New 
York community, and Sisters Xavier and Catherine 
were appointed superiors over the Uttle band. In 
July, 1859, Mother Margaret George having held 
the office of mother for the two terms allowed by the 
constitution, waa succeeded by Mother Josephine 
Harvey. During the Civil War many of the sisters 
served in the hospitals. Between 1852 and 186^ the 
sisters had taken charge of ten parochial schools. 
Archbishop Lamy of New Mexico, and Bishop 
Machebreuf of Colorado, both pioneer priests of 
Ohio, in 1865 petitioned Archbishop Purcell for a 
colony of Sisters of Charity to open a hospital and 
orphanage in the West. Accordingly four sisters 
leu Cincinnati 21 August, 1865, amving at Santa 
F^, 13 Sept., 1865. The archbishop gave them his 
own residence which had been used also as a seminary. 
Tliere were twenty-five orphans to be cared for and 
some sick to be nursed. On 15 August, 1866, Jo- 
seph C. Butler and Lewis Worthington presented 
Sister Anthony O'Connell with the Good Samaritan 
Hospital, a building erected by the Government for 
a Marine Hospital at a cost of $300,000. Deeply 
impressed by the charity done in "old St. Johns 
during the war, these non-Catholic gentlemen bought 
the Government hospital for $90,000 and placed the 
deeds in the hands of Sister Anthony, Butler suggest- 
ing the name "Good Samaritan". Early in 1870 
Bishop Domenec of Pittsburg, desiring a diocesan 
branch of Mother Seton's community, sent four 
postulants to be trained in the Cincinnati novitiate. 
On their return they were accompanied by five of 
the Cincinnati sisters who were to remain with them 
for a limited time, and to be withdrawn one by one. 
Finally all were recalled but Mother Aloysia Lowe 
and Sister Ann Regina Ennis, the former being 
superior and the latter mistress of novices. Mother 
Aloysia governed the community firmly but tenderly, 
and before her death (1889) had the satisfaction of 
seeing the sisters in their new mother-house at Seton 
Hill, Greensburg, Pa., the academy having been 
blessed, and the chapel dedicated, 3 May, 1889. 




Mother Alovma's term of office had expired 19 July, 
1889, ana she was succeeded by Sister Ann Regina 
(d. 16 May, 1894). The community at Greensburg, 
Pa., at present nimiber more than three hundred. 
Their St. Joseph Academy at the mother-house is 
flourishing; they teach about thirty parochial schools 
in the Dioceses of Altoona and Pittsburg and conduct 
the Pittsburg Hospital and Roselia Foimdling Asylum 
in Pittsburg. 

From 1865 to 1880 the sisters in Cincinnati 
opened thirty-three branch houses, one of these being 
the St. Joseph Foundling and Maternity Hospital, 
a gift to Sister Anthony from Joseph Butler. In 
1869 a site for a mother-house, five miles from Cedar 
Grove, was purchased. The first Mass was offered 
in the novitiate chapel, 24 October, 1869, by Rev. 
Thos. S. Byrne, the chaplain, the present Bishop of 
Nashville, Tenneasee. In 1882 the building of the 
new mother-house began under his direction. Before 
its completion Mother R^na Mattingly died (4 
June, 1883). Mother Josephine Harvey a^ain as- 
sumed the office. In 18^ the new St. Joseph 
was burned to the groimd. The present mother- 
house was beffun at once imder the superintendence 
of Rev. T. S. Byrne. Mt. St. Mary Seminary, 
closed since the financial troubles, was now used 
for the sisters' novitiate. In July, 1886, the sisters 
took possession of the west wing of the mother-house, 
and the following year the seminary reopened. 
Mother Josephine Harvey resigned tne office of 
motJier in 1888, and was succeeded by Mother Mary 
Paul Hayes, who filled Mother Josephine's unexpired 
term and was re-elected in July. 1890, d3ring the fol- 
lowing April. Mother Mary Blanche Davis was ap- 
point^ to the office of mother, and held it until 
July, 1899. During her incumbency the Seton Hos- 

Eital, the Glockner Sanitarium at Colorado Springs, 
t. Joseph Sanitarium, Mt. Clemens, Mich., and 
Santa Maria Institute for Italians were begun; 
additions were made to the mother-house. During 
the administration of Mother Sebastian Shea were 
built: the St. Joseph Sanitariimi, Pueblo; the San 
Rafael Hospital, Trmidad; the St. Vincent Hospital, 
Santa F^, New Mexico; the St. Vincent Academy, Al- 
buquerque; and the Good Samaritan Annex in Chfton. 
Mother Mary Blanche resumed the duties of office 
in 1905, and was re-elected in 1908. During these 
terms a v^ry large addition was built to the Glockner 
Sanitarium and to the St. Mary Sanitarium, Pueb- 
lo; the Hospital Antonio in Kenton, Ohio; a large 
boarding school for boys at Fayetteville, Ohio; the 
new Seton Hospital was bought; the new Good Sa- 
maritan Hospittd wasbegim. Many parochial schools 
were opened, among them a school lol* coloured chil- 
dren in Memphis, Tennessee. 

The community numbers: about 800 members; 
74 branch houses; 5 academies; 2 orphan asylums; 
1 foundling asylum; 1 Italian institute; 11 hospitals 
or sanitariums; 1 Old Ladies' Home; ^53 parochial 
schools throughout Michigan, Ohio, Tennessee, Col- 
orado, and New Mexico. 

Sister Mart Agnes. 

Siitan of the Little Company of Mary, a 

congregation founded in 1877 in England to honour 
in a particular manner the maternal Heart of the 
Blessed Virgin, especially in the mystery of Calvary. 
The sbters make an entire consecration of them- 
selves to her, and aim at imitating her virtues. They 
devote themselves to the sick and dying, which is 
their i)rincipal exterior work. The^r nurse the sick 
iii their own homes, and also receive them in the 
hospitals and nursing-homes attached to their con- 
vents. Thev make no distinction of class, national- 
ity, or creed, and exact no charge for their services, 
but accept any offering which may be made them. 
Besides the personal attendance on the sick, they are 

bound to pray continually for the dving, and in the 
novitiate watch before the Blessed Sacrament, both 
by day and night, praying for the d3ring. When 
circumstances require it, the sisters may engage in 
various forms of mission work, especially in poor 
districts. The rules received final approbation m>m 
Leo XIII in 1893. The order conducts houses in: 
Italv (1 in Rome, 1 at Florence, 1 at Fiesole); Eng- 
land (3 in London, 1 at Nottingham); Ireland (1 at 
Limerick. 1 in Fermoy); Malta (1); United States 
(Chicago); Australia (2 at Sydney, 1 at Adelaide); 
South Africa (Port Elizabefii). The sisters when* 
in the convent wear a black habit and blue veil, 
with a white cloak in the chapel; when nursing, the 
habit is of white linen, with a olue veil. 

An association of pious women, known as "Pie 
Donne" or "Affiliated", are aggregated to the order, 
and share in its prayers and good works, some re- 
siding' in their own homes, others living in the con- 
vent, though in part separated from the community. 
A confraternity is attached to the order, called the 
Calvary Confraternity, the members of which assist 
those in their last agony by their prayers and, if 
possible, by personal attendance. 

Mother M. Patrick. 

Slstine Choir.— Although it is known that the 
Church, from her earliest days, employed music in 
her cult, it was not until the time of her emergence 
from the catacombs that she began freely to display 
her beauty and splendoiu' in sacred song. As early 
as in the pontificate of Sylvester I ^14-35) we 
find a regularly-constituted company of singers, under 
the name of schola cantorum. livmg together in a 
building devoted to their exclusive use. The word 
schola was in those days the le^al designation of an 
association of equals in any calhng or profession and 
did not primarily denote, as in oiu* tune, a school. 
It had more the nature of a guild, a characteristic 
which clune to the papal choir for many centuries. 
Hilai*y II (4i61-8) oraamed tiiat the pontifical singers 
live in community, while -Gregory the Great (590- 
604) not only made ^rmanent the existing institu- 
tion attachea to St. John Lateran and including at 
that time in its membership monks, secular clergy, 
and boys, but established a second and similar one m 
connexion with the Basilica of St. Peter. The latter 
is supposed to have served as a sort of preparatory 
school for the former. For several centuries the 
papal schola carUorum retained the same general 
character. Its head, archicantor or primiceriits, was 
^ways a clergyman of high rank and often a 
bishop. While it was his duty to intone- the various 
chants to be followed by the rest of the singers, he 
was by no means their master in the modem tecnni- 
cal sense. 

It is at the time of the transfer of the papal see 
from Home to Avignon in the thirteenth century that 
a marked chance takes place in the institution. 
Innocent IV did not take his schola carUorum with 
him to his new abode^ but provided for its continu- 
ance in Rome by turning over to it properties, tithes, 
and other revenues. Community life among the 
singers seems to have come to an end at this period. 
Clement V (1305-14) formed a new choir at Avignon, 
consisting for the most part of French singers, who 
showed a decided preference for the new developments 
in church music — the dkhanl and falsibordonif 
which had in the meantime gained great vogue in 
France. When Gregory XI (1370-8) returned to 
Rome, he took his singers with him and amalgamated 
them with the still-existing, at least in name, ancient 
schola cantarum. Before the sojourn of the papal 
(^urt at Avignon, it had been the duty of the schola 
to accompany the pope to the church where he held 
station, but after the return to Rome, the custom 
established at Avignon of celebrating all pontifical 




functions in the pap^l church or chapel was con- 
tinued and has existed ever since. The primicerius 
of former times is now no longer mentioned but is 
replaced by the magiiter capelUBf which title, however, 
continues to be more an honoraiV one held by a bishop 
or prelate than an indication of technical leadership, 
as may be gathered from the relative positions as- 
ngned to various dignitaries, their prerogatives, etc. 
Thus the magister cavellx came immediately after 
the cardinals, followea. in the order given, by tiie 
Mcristaf canUrres^ capeUanL and clerici, 

' With the buUding by Sixtus IV (1471-84) of the 
church for the celebration of all papal functions since 
known as the Sistine Chapel, the ori^^nal scHoIq 
cantorum and subsequent capeUa jwnHficia or 
cajyella papaUy which stdl retains more or less of the 
guild character, becomes the capelia aistiruif or Sis- 
tine Choir, whose golden era takes its beginning. 
Up to this time the number of singers had vari^ 
considerably, there being sometimes as few as nine 
men and six boys. By a Bull dated November, 
1483, Sixtus IV fixed the number at twenty-four, 
six for each part. After the year 1441 the records 
no longer mention the presence of bo^s in the choir, 
the hi^ voices, soprano and alto, bemg thenceforth 

' sung by natural (and occasionally^ unnatural) soprani 
fcUsetU and high tenors respectively. Membership 
in the papal choir became the great desideratum of 
singers, contrapuntists, and composers of every land, 
which accounts for the presence in Rome, at least 

^for a time, of most of the great names of that period. 
The desire to re-establish a sort of preparatory school 
for the papal choir, on the plan of the ancient schola, 
and incidentally to become independent of the ultra- 
montane, or foreign, singers, led Julius II (1503-13) 
to issue, on 19 February, 1512, a Bull founding the 
capeUa Julia^ which to this day performs all the choir 
duties at St. Peter's. It became indeed, and has ever 
since been, a nursery for, and stepping-stone to, men^;- 
bership in the Sistine Choir. Tne high artistic aims 
of its founder have, however, but rarely been at- 
tained, owing to tne rarity of truly great choir- 
masters. Leo X (1513-21), himself a musician, by 
choosing as head of the organization a iieal musician, 
irrespective of his clerical rank, took a step which was 
of the greatest importance for the future. It had the 
effect of transforming a group of vocal virivosi on 
equal footing into a compact vocal body, whose in- 
terpretation of the greatest works of polyphony 
which we possess, and which were then coming into 
existence, became the model for the rest of the world, 
not only then but for all time. Leo's step was some- 
what counteracted by Sixtus V (1585-90). who ordered 
the singers to elect their leader annually from their 
own number. Paul II (1534-49) on 17 November, 
1545, published a Bull approving a new constitution 
of the choir, which has been in K)roe ever since, and 
according to which the choir-master proppsesthe 
candidates for membership, who are then examined 
by the whole company ot singers. Since that time 
the state of life of the candidate has not been a 

While the Sistine Choir has, since its incipiency. 
undergone many vicissitudes, its artistic and moral 
level fluctuating, like all things human, with the 
mutations of the times, it has ever had for its purpose 
and object to hold up, at the seat of ecclesiastical 
authority, the highest model of Uturgical music as 
well as of its performance. When the Gregorian 
melodies were still the sole music of the Church, it 
was the papal choir that set the standard for the 
rest of Christendom, both as regards the purity of 
the melodies and their rendition. After these melo- 
dies had blossomed into polyphony, it was in the 
Sistine Chapel that it received adequate interpreta- 
tion. Here the artistic degeneration, which church 
music suffered in different periods in many countries, 

never took hold for any length of time. The use 
of instruments, even of the organ, has ever 1[>een ex- 
cluded. The choir's ideal has always been the 
purely vocal stvle. Since the accession of the present 
pope, and under its present conductor, the falsetto 
voices have been succeeded by boys' voices, and the 
artistic level of the institute has been raised to a 
higher point than it had occupied for the previous 
thirty or forty years. 

HABnu^ BauaUinM fOrMuaikMeKiehU, III. Dm titmiaehe Schota 
Cantorum und die pdptUieKen KapdUdno^ oi* mr MUU des W. 
JahrhundmU (Leipns. 1888); Schbllb, Die paptUieU Sdnger- 
wehuU in Ron (Leipaii;, 1872); Kzbnlb, ChonUehuU (Freiburg, 
1899); Baini, Mefnone tlorico-^ritiche della vita e delU opere di 
Giovanni Pierluiffi da PaUUrina (Rome, 1828). 

Joseph Otten. 

SltlflB, TrrniiAR See of (Sitifensis), in Mauretania 
Sitifensis. Sitifis, situated in Mauretania Caesaren- 
sis, on the road from Carthase to Cirta, was of no im- 
portance under the Numidian kin^ and became 
prominent only when Nerva established a colony 
of veterans there. When Mauretania Sitifensis was 
created, at the close of the third century, Sitifis be- 
came its capital. Under the Vandals it was the chief 
town of a district called Zaba. It was still the capital 
of a province under Byzantine rule and was then a 
place of strategic importance. Captured by the 
Arabs in the seventh centuiy, it was almost ruined 
at the time of the French occupation (1838). It is 
now Setif, the chief town of an arrondisaemenl in the 
Department of Constantine, Algeria. It contains 
15,000 inhabitants, of whom 3700 are Europeans 
and 1600 Jews; it has a trade in cattle, cereals, 
leather, and cloths. Interesting Christian inscrip- 
tions are to be found there, one of 452 mentioning 
the relics of St. Lawrence, another naming two 
martyrs of Sitifis, Justus and Decurius; there are 
a museum and the ruins of s Byzantine fortress. 
St. Au^stine, who had frequent relations with 
Sitifis, informs us that in his time it contained a 
monastery and an episcopal school, and that it suf- 
fered from a violent earthquake, on which occasion 
2000 persons, through fear of death, received baptism 
(Ep., Ixxxiv; Serm., xix). Five bishops of this see 
are known: Severus, in 409, mentioned in a letter of 
St. Augustine; Novatus, present at the Council of 
Carthage (411), where he opposed the Donatist 
Marcian, present at the Council of Carthage (419), 
dying in 440, mentioned in St. Augustine's letters; 
Liawrence, in 452; Donatus, present at the Council 
of Carthage (484), and exiled oy Huneric; Optatus, 
at the Council of Carthage (525). 

8ifiTH, Did. of Greek and Rotnan Geog., b. v. SUifi; MOllbr, 
Notea d PtUemjft ed. Didot. I, 612; Toulottb, Giog. de VAfrique 
ehritienne: MaurManie ■ (Montreuil, 1894), 185-9; Dieml, 
L'A/rique bytantine (PBris, 1896), paaaim. 

S. FfiTRIDks. 

Sltjar, Buenaventura, b. at Porrera, Island of 
Majorca, 9 Dec., 1739; a. at San Antonio, Cal., 3 
Sept., 1308. In April, 1758, he received the habit 
of St. Francb. After his ordination he joined the 
College .of San Fernando^ Mexico. In 1770 he was 
assigned to California, amving at San Diego, 21 May, 
1771. He was present at the founding of the Mis- 
sion of San Antonio, and was appointed first mission- 
ary by Father Junipero Ser^a. He toiled there until 
his death, up to which time 3400 Indians had been 
baptised. Father Sit jar mastered the Telame lan- 
guage, epoken at the Mission of San Antonio, and 
compilea a vocabulary with Spanish explanations, 
published at New York in 1861. Though the list 
of words is not as long as Arroyo de la Cuesta's dic- 
tionary of 2884 words and sentences in the Mutsun 
idiom of Mission San Juan Bautista, Sitjar^s gives 
the pronunciation and fuller explanations. He also 
left a journal of an exploring expedition which he 
accompanied in 1795. His bcxly was interred in the 
sanctuaiy of the church. 

AtMui ef Ui$iiim of Santa Barbara: RteonU 0/ JViinrm San 
Antanio: SiTJAS, Vocalmlary, in Sbca'b IMrary 9/ .4mericoB 
Linsuirtia (N«w York. 1S61) ; Ehoelhahdi. The Prancucau in 
Califernia {H»rbor 8prin«i, 18B7) ; Butcmorr, Caiifontia, II (S»n 



Sec StON, Diocese or. 

Siunift, a titular see, Buffragan of Sebostia in 

Armenia Prima. Siunia is not a town, but a province 
situated between Gof(hteha, Araxa, and Agho'vania, 
in the preseat Russian districta of Chamakha, or 
Baku, and Elisavetpol. The real name should be 
Siaacan^ the Persian form, for Siunia got its name 
Trom Sisac, the eon of Gegham, the fifth Armenian 
sovereign. Its first rulers, vaasals of tbe kings of Ar- 
meQia or the shahs of Persia, date back to the fourth 
century of our era; about 1046 it became an inde- 
pendent kingdom, but only till 1166. The Church 
of Siunia was established in the fifth century or per- 
haps a little earlier. It soon became a metropolis 
subject to the Catholicos of Armenia, and, as we see 
in a letter of the patriarch Ter Sargis in_1006, it 
counted twelve crosiers, which must nignify twelve 
suffragan aces. The archdiocese contiiincd 1400 
villages and 28 monasteries. In the ninth cen- 
tury the metropolitan see was fixed in the convent 
of Talhco, situated between Ouronta and Migri, 
sixty-two miles south-east of Lake Gokcha. Sep- 
arated for a brief interval from Noravaakj the See of 
Siunia was reunited to it, but was definitively sep- 
arated again in the thirteenth century. In 1837 the 
Dioceec of Siunia was, by order 01 the . Synod of 
Etchmiadiin, suppressed and Bubjeet«d directly Co 
the catholicos under the supervision of the Bishop 
of Erivan, who had a vicar at Tatheo. The complete 
list of the bishops and metropolitans of Siunia, from 
the fifth century till the nineteenth century, is known; 
amongst them we may mention Petros, a writer at 
the beginning of the sixth ccntuir, and Stephanos 
Orhelian, the historian of his Church. It is not 
known why the Roman Curia introduced this episcopal 
title, which does not appear in any Greek or Latin 
"Notitia episcopatuum , and was never a suffragan 
of Sebaatia. 

L» QutiM, 0™ni, I (P.rii. 1740). 1*43: Browitt. 
LitUt cSfonolooicvet da princet H da '^UropoliUm d. Siounie id 
Bull^in dt FAradtmit da Scitncn dt Saint-Pttrrtboure, IV {1BS2), 
497-M2; Stepbuio* Oueuih, Hutoiri it la Siounit, Xr. Bkob- 
•CT (Bkiat-Palenburi, 1864). 


81tu. See Sebabtia, Aruenian Catholic Dio- 

Slz Dftji' Work, Tbb. See Hexaeheron. 

Birtu« I, Saint, Pope (in the oldest documents, 
Xybtus is the spelling used for the first three popes of 
that name), succeeded St. Alexander and was followed 
by St. Telesphorus. According to the "Libcrian 
Catalogue" of popes, he ruled the Church during the 
reign of Adrian "a consulatu Nigri et Aproniani usque 
Vero III et Ambibulo", that is. from 117 to 126. 
EusebiuB, who in hia "Chronicon made use of a cat- 
alogue of popes different from the one he used in his 
"Historia Ecclesiaslica", Btat«« in his "Chronicon" 
that Sixtus I was pope from 114 to 124, while in hia 
"History" he makes him rule from 119 to 128. All 
authorities agree that he reigned about ten years. 
He was a Roman by birth, and his father's name was 
Pastor. According to the "Liber Pontificalia" (ed. 
Duchesne, I, 128), he passed the following three or- 
dinancee: (1) that none but sacred ministers are al- 
lowed to touch the sacred vessels: (2) that bishops 
who have been summoned to the Holy See shall, upon 
their return, not be received by their dioceee except on 
presenting Apostolic letters; (3) thatafter the Pref- 
ace in the Mass the priest shall recite the Sanctus 
with the people. The "Felioian Catalogue" of popes 
■od the vanouB martyrologies give him the title of 

martyr. His feast is celebrated on 6 April. He wu 
buried in the Vatican, beside the tomb of St. Peter. 
His relics are said to have been transferred to Ala.tri 
in 1132, though O. Joiii ("IlcorpodiS. Sisto I., papa 
e martire rivendicato alia basilica Vaticana", RiDme, 
1900) contends that they are still in the Vatican Ba- 
silica. Butler (Lives of the Saints, 6 April) states that 
Clement X gave some of his relics to Cardinal de 
Reti, who placed them in the Abbey of St. Michael in 
Lorraine. The Xystus who is commemorated in the 
Canon oF the Mass is Xystus II, not Xystus I. 

.i4aoSa.. April. 1. 531-4; Librr PanI ' ' ' " 

lanont deiU tue rtlituit da Roma fx.. mnnarii (Alatri, 1884); 
Bahubt in Did. Ckria. Bioa.. a, v, Sixtat (2| I. 

MlCHApGL Ott. 
Sixeiu II (Xybtcb), Saint, Pope, elected 31 Aug., 
257, martyred at Rome, 6 Aug., 258. His origin is 
unknown. The "Liber Pontificalia" says that he was 
a Greek by birth, but this is probably a mistake, orig- 
inating from the false assumption that he was identv- 
cal with a Greek 

philosopher of the 
same name, who 

was the authc 

the I 


Xystus. During 
the pontificate ol 
his predecessor, 
St. Stephen, a 
sharp dispute had 
arisen between 
Rome and the 
African and Asi- 
atic Churches, 
concerning the re- 
baptism of here- 
tics, which had 
threatened to end 
in a complete 
rupture between 

Rome and 
Churches of Africa 
and Asia Minor 
(see Cyprian of 
Carthaoe, Saint). 

Detail Irom 

St. Sinrm II 
Ibe Siitina Madomu, 

Sixtus II, whom Pontius (Vita 
Cypriani, cap. xivj styles a good and peaceful priest 
(iwnu* et jKicifieui sacerdoa), was more conciliatory 
than St. Stephen and restored friendly relations with 
these Churcnes, though, like his predecessor, he up- 
held the Roman usage of not rebaptiEing heretics. 

Shortly before the pontificate of Sixtus II the Em- 
peror Valerian issued hia first edict of persecution, 
which made it binding upon the Christians to partici- 

Eate in the national cult of the pagan gods and for- 
ade them to assemble in the cemeteries, threatening 
with exile ordeath whomsoever was found to disobey 
the order. In some way or other, Sixtus II man- 
aged to perform hia functions as chief pastor of the 
Qiristiana without being molested by those who were 
charg^ed with the execution of the imperial edict. 
But during tjie first days of August, 258, the emperor 
issued a new and far more cruel edict against the 
Christians, the import of which has been preserved in 
a letter of St. Cyprian to Succeesus, the Bishop of Ab- 
bir Germaniciana (Ep, Ixxx). It ordered bishops, 
priests, and deacons to be summarily put t^ death 
("epiacopi et presbyteri et diacones incontinent! ani- 
madvertantur ). Sixtus II was one of the first to 
fall a victim to this imperial enactment ("Xistum in 
cimiterio animadvereum sciatis Vlll. id. Augusti et 
cum eo diacones quattuor" — Cyprian, Ep. Ixxx). In 
order to escape the vigilance of the imperial officers he 
assembled his flock on 6 August at one of the leas- 
known cemeteries, that of Prstextatus, on the left side 




of the Appian Way, nearly opposite the cemetery of 
St. Callistus. While seated on his chair in the act of 
addressing his flock he was suddenly apprehended by a 
band of soldiers. There is some doubt whether he 
was beheaded forthwith, or was firet brought before 
a tribunal to receive his sentence and then led back 
to the cemetery for execution. The latter opinion 
seems to be the more probable. 

The inscription which Pope Damasus (366-84) 
placed on his tomb in the cemetery of St. Callistus 
ma^ be interpreted in either sense. The entire in- 
tcnption is to be found in the works of St. Damasus 
(P. L., XIII, 383-4, where it is wrongly supposed to 
be an epitaph for Pope Stephen I), and a few frag- 
ments of it Were discovered at the tomb itself by de 
Rossi (Inscr. Christ., II, 108). The "Liber Pontifi- 
calis'' mentions that he was led away to offer sacri- 
fice to the gods ("ductus ut sacrificaret demoniis'' — I, 
155). St. Cyprian states in the above-named letter, 
which was written at the latest one month after the 
martyrdom of Sixtus, that "the prefects of the City 
were daily urging the persecution in order that, if any 
were brought before them, they might be punished 
and their property confiscated '' . The pathetic meeting 
between St. Sixtus II and St. Lawrence, as the former 
was being led to execution, of. which mention is made 
in the unauthentic "Acts of St. Lawrence'' as well as 
by St. Ambrose (Officiorum, lib. I, c. xli, and lib. II, 
c. xxviii) and the poet Prudentius (Peristephanon, II), 
is probably a mere legend. Entirely contrary to 
truth is the statement of Prudentius (ibid., lines 
23-26) that Sixtus II suffered martyrdom on the 
cross, unless by an unnatural trope the poet uses the 
specific word cross ("Jam Xystus adfixus cruci") for 
martyrdom in general, as Duchesne and Allard (see 
below) suggest. Four deacons, Januarius, Vincen- 
t ius, Magnus, and Stephanus, were apprehended with 
Sixtus and beheaded with him at the same ceme- 
tery. Two other deacons, Felicissimus and Agapi- 
tus, suffered martyrdom on the same day. The feast 
of St. Sixtus II and these six deacons is celebrated on 
6 August, the day of their martyrdom. The remains 
of Sixtus were transferred by the Christians to the 
papal crypt in the neighbouring cemetery of St. Callis- 
tus. Behind his tomb was enshrined the blood- 
stained chair on which he had been beheaded. An 
x)ratory (OrcUorium Xyati) was erected above the 
cemetery of St. Prsetextatus, at the spot where he was 
martyred, and was still visited by pilgrims of the 
seventh and the eif^hth century. 

For some time Sixtus II was believed to be the au- 
thor of the so-called "Sentences'*, or "Ring of Six- 
tus", originally written by a Pythagorean phUosopher 
and in the second century revised by a Christian. 
This error arose because in his introduction to a Latin 
translation of these "Sentences" Rufinus ascribes 
them to Sixtus of Rome, bishop and martjr. It is 
certain that Pope Sixtus II is not their author (see 
Conybeare, "The Ring of Pope Xystus'now first ren- 
dered into English, with an historical and critical com- 
mentary", London, 1910). Hamack (Texte und 
Untersuch unpen zur altchrist. Literatur, XIII, XX) 
ascribes to him the treatise "Ad Novatianum", but 
his opinion has been generally rejected (see Rom- 
bold in "Theol. Quartalschrift^', LXXII, Ttibingen, 
1900). Some of his letters are printed in P. L., V. 
79-100. A newly discovered letter was publishea 
by Conybeare in "English Hist. Review", London, 

Acta SS., Aug.. II. 124-42; Duchesne, Liber Pontificalia, I, 
155-6; Barmby in Did. Christ. Biog., ». v. Xyttun; Rohault db 
Flbury. L«« Sainia de ta metme, III (Paris, 1893): Hbalt, The 
VaUrian PerKecution (Boston and New York, 1905), 176-9; Al- 
lard, Le» dernikre* peritictUioru du iroiitikme siicle (Paris. 1907), 
80-92, 343-349; de Rossi. Roma Sotteranea, II (Rome, 1864-77), 
87-97; WiLPBRT, Die PapatgrOher und die CUcUiengruft in der 
Katakombe dee hi. Calliatue, supplement to de Rossi's Roma 
SatUranea (Freiburc im Br.. 1909). 


SiztUB in OCtbtus), Saint, Pope, coDsecrated 
31 July, 432; d. 440. Previous to his accession he 
was prominent among the Roman clergy and in cor- 
respondence with St. Aiigustine. He reigned during 
the Nestorian and Pelagian controversies, and it was 
probably owing to his conciliatory disposition that he 
was f alselv accused of leanings towuds these heresies. 
As pope he approved the Acts of the Council of 
Ephesus and endeavoiured to restore peace between 
C^rril of Alexandria and John of Antioch. In the 
Pelagian controversy he frustrated the attempt of 
Julian of Eclanum to be readmitted to conmiunion 
with the Catholic Church. He defended the pope's 
right of supremacy over lUyricum against the local 
bishops and the ambitious designs of Proclus of Con- 
stantmople. At Rome he restored the Basilica of 
Liberius, now known as St. Maiy Major, enlarged the 
Basilica of St. Lawrence-Without-the- Walls, and ob- 
tained precious gifts from the Emperor Valentinian 
III for St. Peter's and the Lateran BasiHca. The 
work which asserts that the consul Bassus accused 
him of crime is a forgery. He is the author of eight 
letters (in P. L., L, 583 sqq.), but he did not write the 
works "On Riches", "On False Teachers", and "On 
Chastity" ("De divitiis". "De maUs doctoribus", 
"De castitate") attributed to him. His feast is kept 
on 28 March. 

DncHBSNB (ed.). Lib. Pont., I (Paris. 1886). 126-27. 232-^37; 
Barmbt in Did, Chriet. Biog., s. v. Sixtus (3); Gbisar. Hietonf 
of Rome and the Popee, tr. Cappadblta, I (St. Louis, 1911), 

nos. 54, 135, 140. 144, 154. 

N. A. Weber. 

Sixtus IV (Francesco della Rovere), Pope, b. 
near Abisola, 21 July, 1414; d. 12 Aug., 1484? His 
parents were poor, and while still a child he was 
destined for the Franciscan Order. Later he studied 
philosophy and theology with great success at the 
University of Pavia, and lectured 
at Padua, Bologna, Pavia, Siena, 
and Florence, having amongst other 
eminent disciples the famous Car- 
dinal Bessarion. After filling the 
post of procurator of his order in 
Rome and Provincial of Liguria, 
he was in 1467 created Caniinal 
of S. Pietro in Vincoli by Paul II. 
Whatever leisure he now had was 
devoted to theolo^, and in 1470 he o^**** % 
published a treatise on the Precious bktu» iv 
Blood and a work on the Immaculate Conception, 
in which latter he endeavoured to prove that Aquinas 
and Scotus. though differing in words, were reallv 
of one mind upon the question. The conclave which 
assembled on the death of Paul II elected him pope^ 
and he ascended the chair of St. Peter as Sixtus IV. 

His first thought was the prosecution of the war 
against the Turks, and legates were appointed for 
France, Spain, Germany, Hungary, and Poland, with 
the hope of enkindling enthusiasm in these countries. 
The crusade, however, achieved little beyond the 
bringing bact to Rome of twenty-five Turkish pris- 
oners, who were paraded in triumph throurfi the 
streets of the city. Sixtus continued the policy of 
his predecessor Paul II with regard to France, and 
denounced Louis XI for insisting on the royal con- 
sent being given before papal decrees could be pub- 
lished in his kingdom. He also made an effort like 
his predecessor for the reunion of the Russian Church 
with Rome, but his negotiations were without result. 
He now turned his attention almost exclusively to 
Italian politics, and fell more and more under his 
dominating passion of nepotism, heaping riches and 
favours on his unworthy relations. In 1478 took 
place the famous conspiracy of the Pazzi, planned 
oy the pope's nephew — Cardinal Rafael Riario — to 
overthrow the Medici and bring Florence under the 
Riarii. The pope was cognizant of the plot, though 


probably not of the intention to aaaaaaiimte, And even 
laid Florence under interdict because it rose in fmy 
af^unst the conbpiratora and brutal murderere of 
Giuliano de' Medici. He now entered upon a two 
years' war with Florence, and encouraged the Vene- 
tians to attack 
Ferrara, which he 
wished to obtain 
for his nephew 
Girolamo Riario. 
Ercoled'Este, at- 
tacked by Venice, 
found alJiee in al- 
most every Italian 
state, and Ludo- 
vico Sforia, upon 
whom the pope 
relied for support, 
did nothing to 
help him. The 
allied princes 
forced Sixtus to 
make peace, and 
the chagrin which 
this caused him is 
said to have hast- 
ened his death. 

Henceforth, un- 
til the Reforma- 
tion, the eeculsj 
interests of the 
papacy were of 
paramount im- 
portance. The at- 
titude of Sixtus 
towards the con- 
spiraoy of, the 
Pazzi, his wars 
and treachery, his 

Eromotion to the 
ighest ofhces in 
the Church of 
such men asPietro 

27 August, 1590. He belonged to 
which m the middle of the precedi 

a r ya.lmftt.ia.Ti f fcfnfl y 

I preceding centuiy had fled 
ho were devutating lUyria 
Dalmatia. His fattier was 

. o CtMntatOKAtm nnt Diteat 

or TBI TOBKI AT Otbamto, 1481 
ObTBTK: Portmit of Si.H» IV, Re- 
*vnp: Allegorieal fivun of Coniluicy. 
with Hie lias from Virp], SaiM. VI, 8S3: 
" To RHre the Bubmiiiive aod cru^ the 
pmud . with the addad wotdi: "Thou 
utibk. OSiiliu." 

,nd Gir 

Riario are blot» 
upon Ilia career. 
Nevertheless, there is a praiseworthy side to his 
pontificate. He t4Xik measures to suppress abuses 
m the Inquisition, vigorously opposed the Wal- 
denses, ana annulled the decrees of the Council 
of Constance. He was a patron of arts and letters, 
building the famous Sistine Chapel, the Siatine 
Bridge across the Tiber, and becoming the second 
founder of the Vatican Library, Under him Rome 
onoe mote became habitable, and he did much to im- 

5 rove the sanitary conditions of the city. He brought 
own water from the Quirinal to the Fountain of 
Trevi, and began a transformation of the city which 
death alone hmdered him from completing. In his 
private life Sixtus IV was blameless. The gross 
accusations brought against him by his _ enemy 
InfcEBura have no foundation; his worst vice was 
nepotism^ and his greatest misfortune was that he 
was destined to be pla(!ed at the head of the States 
of the Church at a time when Italy was emerging 
from the era of the republics, and territArial princes 
like the pope were torc(^i( U> do battle with the great 

PinVB. HiHorv of Ihe Ptpa. IV (Londoa, 18M); Gbioo- 
■oviDB.RMMinlA. Middle ^BM, VII (London, l»»);CmioHTOH. 
Hid. d/iAi nipocv, IV (London, leoi): BoKiaAtmr, OachidM 
dtr Rmaiuaita in Ilaliat [1904); Fuim, SiHiu IV iind di< 
JtipHWt ncrnu (RsliBboD, 1S80). 

R. Urban BtiTLKB, 

Bfztiu T, Pom (FBLicr PEBErn), b. at Grotta- 
mare near Montalto, 13 December, 1521: elected 24 
Apni, 1586; crowned 1 May, 1585; d. in the QuiiiDal, 
XIV.— 3 

Italy from the Turks who \t 
and threatened to invade Dak 
a gardener and it is said of FeUce that, when a boy, he 
was a swineherd. At the see of nine he came to the 
Minorite convent at Montalto, where his uncle. Frit 
Salvatore, was a friar. Here he became a novice at 
the age of twelve. He was educated at Montalto, 
Ferrara, and Bologna and was ordained at Siemi 
in 1547. The talented young priest gained a high 
reputation as a preacher. At Rome, wherein 1552 ho 
preached the Lenten sermons in the Church of Santi 
Apostohj his successful preaching gained for him the 
friendship of very influential men, such as Cardinal 
Carpi, the protector of his order; the Cardinals Caraffa 
and Ghisueri, both of whom became popes; St. 
Philip Neri and St, Ignatius, He was successively 
appomlfl4rectorof his convent at Siena in 1550, of Sao 
Lorenzo at Naples in 1553, and of the convent of tho 
Frari at Venice in 1556. A year later Pius IV ap- 
pointed him also counsellor to the Inquisition at 
Venice. His seat and severity in the capacity of in- 

Juisitor displeased the Venetian Government, which 
emanded and obtained his recall in 1560. Having 
returned to Rome he was made counsellor to the Holy 
Office, professor at (he Sapicnza, and general procu- 
rator and vicar Apostolic of his order. In 1565 Pius 
IV designated him to accompany to Spain Cardinal 
Buoncompagni (afterwards Gregory XiII),who was 
to investigate a choi^ of hereby against Archbishop 
CorronEa of Toledo. Prom this time dates the antip- 
athy between Pcretti and Buoncompagni, which de- 
clared itself more openly during the latt^r's pontificate 
(1572-85). Upon his return to Rome in 1566 Pius V 
created him Bishop of Sant' Agata dei Goti in the 
Kingdom of Naples and later chose him as his con- 
fessor. On 17 May, 1570, the same pope created him 
cardinal-priest with the titular Church of S. Simeone, 
which he afl«rwards exchanged for that of S. Girolamo 
dei Schiavoni. In 1571 be was transferred to the See 
ofFermo. He was , 
popularly known 
as the Cardinal di I 
Montalto. Dur- | 
ing the pontificate I 
of Gregory XIII 
he withdrew from ] 
public affaiiB, 
voting himself to | 
study and to the I 
collection of works | 
of art, as far as 
his scanty means 
permitted. Dur- 
ing this time he 
edited the works 
of St. Ambrose 
(Rome. 1579- 
1585) and erected 
a villa (now Villa 
Massimi) on the 

Gregory XIII 
died on 10 April, 
1585, and after a 
conclave of four 
days Peretti was 
elected pope by BmLUcb ot si, Mary Major 

"adoration on 

24 April, 1585. He took the name Sixtus V m 
memory of Sixtus IV, who had also been a Minor- 
ite. The l^nd that he entered the conclave 
on crutches, Signing the infirmities of old age, and 
upon his election exultantly thrust aside bis crutches 
and app^red full of life and vigour has long been ex- 
ploded; it may, however, have been invented as « 




fiymbol of his forced inactivity during the rdgn of 
Gregory XIII and the remarkable energy which he 
displayed during the five >[ear8 of his pontificate. He 
was a Dom ruler and especially suited to stem the tide 
of disorder and lawlessness which had broken out 
towards the end of the reign of Gregory XIII. Hav- 
ing obtained the co-operation of the neighbouring 
states, he exterminated, often with excessive cruelty, 
the system of brigandage which had reached immense 
proportions and terrorized the whole of Italy. The 
number of bandits in and about Rome at the death of 
Gregory XIII has been variously estimated at from 
twelve to twenty-seven thousand, and in little more 
than two years after the accession of Sixtus V the 
Papal States had become the most secure coimtry in 

Of almost equal importance with the extermination 
of the bandits was, in the opinion of Sixtus V.the rear- 
rangement of the papal finances. At his accession the 
papal exchequer was empty. Acting on his favourite 
prmciple that riches as well as seventy are necessarj^ 
for good government, he used every available means 
to replenish the state treasury. So successful was he 
in the accumulation of monev that, despite his enor- 
mous expenditures for public building, he had shortly 
before his death deposited in the Castello di Sant' 
Angelo three million scudi in gold and one million six 
hundred thousand in silver. He did not consider that 
in the long run so much dead capital withdrawn from 
circulation was certain to impoverish the country and 
deal the death-blow to conunerce and industry. To 
obtain such vast sums he economized ever3rwhere, 
except in works of architecture; increased the number 
of salable public offices; imposed more taxes and ex- 
tended the montif or public loans, that had been insti- 
tuted by Clement VII. Though extremely econom- 
ical in other ways, Sixtus V spent immense sums in 
erection of public works. He built the Lateran Palace ; 
completed the Quirinal; restored the Church of Santa 
Sabina on theAventine; rebuilt theQiurch and Hos- 
pice of San Girolamo dei Schiavoni; enlarsed and im- 
proved the Sapienza; founded the hospice for the poor 
near the Ponte Sisto; built and richly omamentea the 
Chapel of the Cradle in the Basilica of Santa Maria 
Maggiore; completed the cupola of St. Peter's; raised 
the obelisks of the Vatican, of Santa Maria Maggiore, 
of the Lateran, and of Santa Maria del Popolo; re- 
stored the columns of Trajan and of Antoninus Pius, 
placing the statue of St. Peter on the former and that 
of St. Paul on the latter; erected the Vatican Library 
with its adjoining printing-office and that wing of the 
Vatican Palace which is inhabited by the pope; built 
many mamificent streets; erected various monas- 
teries; ana supplied Rome with water, the ''Acqua 
Felice", which he brought to the city over a distance 
of twenty miles, partly under ground, partlv on elevated 
aoueducts. At Bologna he f oundea the CJoUegio Mon- 
talto for fif t]^ students from the March of Ancona. 

Far-reaching were the reforms which Sixtus V in- 
troduced in the management of ecclesiastical affairs. 
On 3 Dec, 1586, he issued the Bull " Postquam verus", 
fixing the number of cardinals at seventy, namely, six 
cardinal-bishops, fifty cardinal-priests, and fourteen 
cardinaJ-deacons. Before his pontificate, ecclesiasti- 
cal business was generally discnarged by the pope in 
consistory with the cardinals. There were, indeed, a 
few permanent cardinalitial congregations, but the 
sphere of their competency was very limited. In his 
Bull "Immensa aetemi Dei", of 11 February, 1588, he 
established fifteen permanent congregations, some of 
which were concerned with spiritual, others with tem- 
poral affairs. They were the Congregations: (1) of the 
inquisition; (2) of the Segnatura; (3) for the Estab- 
lishment of Churches; (4) of Rites and Ceremonies; 
(5) of the Index of Forbidden Books; (6) of the Coun- 
cil of Trent: (7) of the Regularp; (8) of the Bishops; 
(9) of the VfttiCAD Press; (lO) of the Annona, for the 

Srovisioning of Rome and the provinces; (11) of the 
Favy; (12) of the Public Welfare; (13) of the Sapi- 
enza; (14) of Roads, Bridges, and Waters; (15) of 
State Consultations. These congregations lessened 
the work of the pope, without in any way limiting his 
authority. The final decision belonged to the pope. 
In the creation of cardinals Sixtus Y was, as a rul^, 
guided by their good qualities. The only suspicion of 
nepotism with which he might be reproached was giv-> 
ing the purple to his fourteen-year-old grand-nephew 
Alessandro, who, however, did honour to the Sacred 
College and never wielded an undue influence. 

In 1588 he issued from the Vatican Press an edi- 
tion of the Septuagint revised according to a Vatican 
MS. His edition or the Vulgate, printed shortly be- 
fore his death, was withdrawn from circulation on 
account of its many errors, corrected, and reissued in 
1592 (see Bellarmine, Robert Francis Romulus, 
Venerable). Though a friend of the Jesuits, he ob- 
jected to some of their rules SLttd especially to the title 
' ' Society of Jesus ". He was on the point of changing 
these when death overtook him. A statue which nad 
been erected in his honour on the Capitol during his 
lifetime was torn down by the rabble immediately 
upon his death. (For his relations with the various 
temporal rulers and his attempts to stem the tide of 
Protestantism, see Counter-Reformation, The.) 

Von HObnbr, SixU-Quint (Paris, 1870), tr. jKRNiNaHAic 
(London, 1872); Balcani, Rome under Sixtua V in Caminidife 
Modem Hielory, III (London, 1905), 422-55; Robardi, Sixti 
V geeta quinquennalia (Rome, 1590); Lsn, VUa di Sieto V 
(Ixraanna, 1669), tr. FaRneworth (London, 1754), unreliable; 
TKMPBBTi, Storia ddia tita e geUe di Sieto V (Rome, 1755): 
Cbsarb, Vita di Sieto V (Naples. 1755); Lorbntx. Sixtue V 
und eeine Zeit (Mains, 1852); Dumeanil, Hist, de Sixte-Quini 
(Paris, 1869); Capranica, Papa Sieto, etoria del e. XVI (Milan, 
1884); Graxiani, Sieto V e la rior^nizzatione della e. Sede 
(Rome, 1910) ; Goiiadini, Gunanni Pepoli e Sieto V (Bologna, 
1879); Sbgretain, Sixt§-Quint et Henri IV (Paris, 1861); 
CnoNOKi, Memorie autografe di Papa Sieto V in Arehivio deiua 
Soc. Romana di etoria pairia (Rome, 1882); Benadduci, Sieto 
V. Dodid leUere inediU (Tolentino, 1888); Dalla Santa, Un 
documento inedito per la etoria di Sieto V (Venice, 1896) ; Roesi- 
Soom, Pompilio Bueebi da Perugia e Sieto papa V (Perugia, 
1893); Paou, Sieto V e i banditi (Sassari, 1902); Harper in 
Amer, Cath, Quarterly Review, III (Philadelphia. 1878), 498-521. 

Michael Ott. 

Skarga, Peter, theologian and missionary, b. at 
Grojec, 1536: d. at Cracow, 27 Sept., 1612. He 
began his education in his native town in 1552; 
he went to study in Cracow and afterwards in War- 
saw. In 1557 he was in Vienna as tutor to the young 
Castellan, Teczynski; returning thence in 1564. 
he received Holy orders, and later was nominated 
canon of Lemberg Cathedral. Here he began to 
preach^iis famous sermons, and to convert Protes- 
tants. In 1568 he entered the Society of Jesus and 
went to Rome, where he became penitentiary for the 
PoUsh langjuage at St. Peter's. Returning to Poland, 
he worked in the Jesuit colleges of Pultusk and Wilna, 
where he converted a multitude of IVotestants, 
Calvinism being at the time prevalent in those parts* 
To this end he first published some works of contnv 
versy: and in 1576, in order to convince the numer- 
ous scnismatics in Poland, he issued his great treatise 
"On the Unity of the Church of God^', which did 
much good then, and is even now held in great es- 
teem. It powerf ullv promoted the cause of the Union. 
Kizip Stephen Bdthori prized Skarga greatly, often 
profited by his aid and advice, took him on one of his 
expeditions, and made him rector of the Academy 
of Wilna, founded in 1578. In 1584 he was sent 
to Cracow as superior, and founded there the Brother- 
hood of Mercy and tne "Mons pietatis", meanwhile 
effecting numerous conversions. He was appointed 
court preacher by Sigismund III in 1588, and for 
twenty-four years filled this post to the great advan- 
tage of the Church and the nation. In 1596 the 
Ruthenian Church was united with Rome, largely 
through his efforts. When the nobles, headed by 
Zebnydowski, revolted against Sigiamund 111^ 




Skarga was sent on a mission of conciliation to the 
rebeliy which, however, proved fruitless. Besides 
the controversial works mentioned, Skarsa published 
a '* History of the Church", and ''Lives ofthe Saints'' 
(Wihia, 1579; 25th ed., Lembers, 1883-84), possibly 
the most widely read book in Poland. But most im- 

g>rtant of aU are his "Sermons for Sundays and 
olidays'' (Cracow, 1595) and "Sermons on the 
Seven Sacraments" (Cracow, 1600), which, besides 
their glowing eloauence, are profound and instructive. 
In addition to tnese are "Sermons on Various Oc- 
casions" and the "Sermons Preached to the Diet". 
These last for inspiration and feeling are the finest 

froductions in the literature of PoUnd before the 
Partitions. Nowhere are there found such style, elo- 
quence, and patriotism, with the deepest religious 
conviction. Skarga occupies a high place in the 
Uterature and the history of Poland. His efforts to 
convert heretics, to restore schismatics to unity, to 
prevent corruption, and to stem the tide of public and 
political license, tending even then towards anarchy, 
were indeed as to this last point unsuccessful; but 
that was the nation's fault, not his. 

Rtchoicki. Peter Skarga and kit age (Lemberg. 1852) ; Poi> 
KowsKi, Life of Peter Skarga (Cracow. 1884) ; Bobbstbiski, Ser- 
mons to the Diet (Cracow, 1876) ; Crrsakgwbkx, Preface to Sermont 
to the Diet (2nd ed., Warsaw, 1897); Tabnowskx, Schoaibook of 
Polish Literature (Ijembera, 1909) ; Idem, History of Polish Litera^ 
ture, I (Cracow, 1903)—^ in Potiah. 

S. Tarnowski. 

Skoda (Schkoda) , Josef, celebrated clinical lecturer 
and diagnostician and, with Rokitansky, founder of 
the modem medicid school of Vienna, b. at Pilsen in 
Bohemia, 10 December, 1805; d. at Vienna, 13 June, 
1881. Skoda was the son of a locksmith. He at- 
tended the gymnasium at Pilsen, entered the Univer- 
sity of Vienna in 1825, and received the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine on 10 Julv, 1831. He first served 
in Bohemia as physician during the outbreak of 
cholera, was assistant physician m the general hos- 
pital of Vienna, 1832-38, in 1839 city physician of 
Vienna for the poor, and on 13 February, 1840, 
on the recommendation of ^r. Ludwig, Freiherr von 
Tiirkheim, chairman of the imperial committee of 
education, was appointed to the unpaid position of 
chief physician of the department for consumptives 
just opened in the general hospital. In 1846. tnanks 
to the energetic measures of Karl RokitansKy, pro- 
fessor of pathological anatomy, he was appointed pro- 
fessor of the medical clinic against the wishes of the 
rest of the medical faculty. In 1848 he began to 
lecture in German instead of Latin, being the first 
professor to adopt this course. On 17 July, 1848, he 
was elected an active member of the matnematico- 
physical section of the Academy of Sciences. Early 
m 1871 he retired from his professorship, and the oc- 
casion was celebrated by the students and the popula- 
tion of Vienna by a great torchlight procession in his 
honour. Rokitansky calls him ^' a lignt for those who 
study, a model for those who strive, and a rock for 
those who despair". Skoda 's benevolent disposi- 
tion is best shown by the fact that, notwithstanding his 
large income and known simplicity of Ufe, he left a 
comparatively small fortune, and in his will bequeathed 
legacies to a number of benevolent institutions. 

Skoda's great merit lies in his development of the 
methods of physical investigation. Tne discovery 
of the method of percussion diagnosis made in 1761 
by the Viennese physician. Lipoid Auenbnigger 
(1722-1809), had been forgotten, and the knowledge 
of it was first revived in 1808 by CJorvisart (1755- 
1821), court-physician to Napoleon I. liaenneo 
(1787-1826) and his pupils Piorry and Bouillaud 
added auscultation to tliis method. Skoda began his 
cUnical studies in close connexion with patholo^cal 
anatomy while assistant physician of tne hospital, 
but his superiors failed to understand his course, 
and in 1837, by way of punidmient, transferred him 

to the ward for the insane, as it was claimed that the 
patients were annoyed by his investigations, espe- 
cially by the methoci of percussion. His first publica- 
tion, "Uber die Perkussion" in the '^Medizinische 
JahrbUcher des k.k. osterreichen Kaiserstaates", IX 
( 1836) , attracted but little attention. This paper was 
followed by: ''tJber den Herzstoss und die durch die 
Herzbewegungen verursachten Tone und iiber die 
Anwendung der Perkussion bei Untersuchung der 
Organe des Unterleibes'', in the same pericecal, 
vols. XIII, XIV (1837); "Uber Abdommaltyphus 
und dessen Behandlung mit Alumen crudum", also 
in the same periodical, vol. XV (1838); "Untersuch- 
ungsmethode zur Bestinmiung des Zustandes des 
Herzens", vol. XVIII (1839); "tJber Pericarditis 
in pathologisch-anatomischer und diagnostischer 
Beziehung", XIX (1839); "Uber Piorrys Semiotik 
und Diagnostik", vol. XVIII (1839); "Uber die 
Diagnose der Herzklappenfehler", vol. XXl (1840). 
His small but up to now unsurpassed chief work, 
"Abhandlung tiber die Perkussion und Auskulta- 
tion" (Vienna, 1839), has been repeatedly published 
and translated into foreign languages. It established 
his universal renown as a diagnostician. In 1841, 
after a journey for research to Paris, he made a sep- 
arate division in his department for skin diseases 
and thus gave the first impulse towards the reor- 
ganization of dermatology by Ferdinand Hebra. 
in 1848 at the request of the ministry of education 
he drew up a memorial on the reorganization of the 
studv of medicine, and encouraged later by his advice 
the founding of the present higher administration of 
the medical school of Vienna. As regards therapeu- 
tics the accusation was often made against him that 
he held to the "Nihilism" of the Vienna School. 
As a matter of fact his therapeutics were exceedingly 
simple in contrast to the great variety of remedial 
agents used at that time, which he regarded as useless, 
as in his experience manv ailments were cured with- 
out medicines, merely by suitable medical super- 
vision and proper diet. His high sense of duty as a 
teacher, the large amount of work he performed as a 
physician, and uie early appearance of organic heart- 
trouble are probably the reasons that from 1848 
he published less and less. The few papers which he 
wrote from 1850 are to be found in the transactions 
of the Academy. of Sciences and the periodical of the 
Society of Physicians of Vienna of which he was the 
honorary president. 

Dbaochb, Skoda (Vienoa, 1881). 

Leopold Senfelder. 

Slade, John, Venerable See Bodet, John, Ven- 

Slander is the attributing to another of a fault 
of which one knows him to be innocent. It contains 
a twofold malice, that which grows out of damage 
unjustly done to our neighbour's good name and that 
of lying as well. Theologians say that this latter 
guilt considered in itself, in so far as it is an offence 
against veracity, may not be grievous, but that never- 
theless it will frequently be advisable to mention 
it in confession, in order that the extent and method 
of reparation may be settled. The important thing 
to note of slander is that it is a lesion of our neigh- 
bour's right to his reputation. Hence moralists hold 
that it is not specifically distinct from mere detrac- 
tion. For the purpose of determining the species 
of this sin, the manner in which the injury is done is 
negligible. There is, however, this difference be- 
tween slander and detraction: that, whereas there 
are circumstances in which we may lawfully expostj 
the misdeeds which another has actually committed, 
we are never allowed to blacken his name by charging 
him with what he has not done. A lie is intrinsicall}"^ 
evU and can never be justified by any cause or in any 
circumstances. Slander involves a violation of com- 




mutative justice and therefore imposes on its per- 
))etrator the obhgation of restitution. First of all, 
he must undo the injury of the defamation itself. 
Thefe seems in general to be only one adequate way 
to do this: he must simply retract his false state- 
ment. Moralists say that if he can make full atone- 
ment by declaring that he has made a mistake, this 
will be sufficient; otherwise he must unequivocally 
take back his untruth, even at the expense of ex- 
hibiting himself a har. In addition he is bound to 
make compensation to his victim for whatever losses 
may have been sustained as a result of his maUcious 
imputation. It is supposed that the damage which 
ensues has been in some measure foreseen by the 

Slater. Manual of Mnral Theolatju (Now York, 1908); BaLt 
LERiM, Op. theol. mar. (Prato, ISO:)); d'Annibale, Summvla 
thfjl. mor. (Rome, 190S); Genicot, Tfieol. moral, instil, (Lou- 
vain, 189S). 

Joseph F. Delany. 

Slavery. — How numerous the slaves were in 
Roman society when Christianity made its appear- 
ance, how hard was their lot, and how the competition 
of slave labour crushed frw labour is notorious. It is 
the scope of this article to show what Christianity has 
done for slaves and against slavery, first in the Ro- 
man world, next in that society which was the result 
of the barbarian invasions, and lastly in the modem 

I. The Church and Roman Slavery. — ^The 
first missionaries of the Gospel, men of Jewish origin, 
came from a country' where slavery existed. But 
it existed inJudea under a form very different from 
the Roman form. The Mosaic Law was merciful 
to the slave (Ex., xxi; Lev., xxv; Deut., xv, xvi, xxi) 
and carefully secured his fair wage to the labourer 
(Deut., xxiv, 15). In Jewish society the slave was 
not an object of contempt, because labour was not 
despised as it was elsewhere. No man thought it 
beneath him to ply a manual trade. These ideas 
and habits of life the Apostles brought into the new 
society which so rapidly grciv up as the effect of 
their preaching. As this society mcluded, from the 
first, taithful of all conditions — ^rich and poor, slaves 
and freemen — the Apostles were obliged to utter 
their beliefs as to the social inequalities which so 
profoundly divided the Roman world. "For as many 
of you as have been baptized in Christ, have put on 
Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek: there is 
neither bond nor free: there is neither male nor female. 
For you are all one in Christ Jesus" (Gal., iii, 27-28; 
cf. I Cor., xii, 13). From this principle St. Paul draws 
no political conclusions. It was not his wish, as it 
was not in his power, to realize Christian equality 
cither by force or by revolt. Such revolutions are not 
effected of a sudden. Christianity accepts society as 
it is, influencing it for its transformation through, and 
only through, individual souls. WTiat it demands in 
the first place from masters and from slaves is, to live 
as brethren — commanding with equity, without 
threatening, remembering that God is the master of 
all — obeying with fear, but without servile flattery, 
in simplicity of heart, as they would obey Christ (cf . 
Eph., vi, 9; Col., iii, 22-4; iv, 1). 

This language was understood by masters and by 
sl.ives who. became converts to Christianity. But 
many slaves who were Christiaas had pagan masters 
to whom this sentiment of fraternity was unknown, 
and who sometimes exhibited that cruelty of which 
moralists and poets so often speak. To such slaves 
St. Peter pohits out their duty: to be submissive 
"not only to the good and gentle, but also to the fro- 
ward", not with a mere inert resignation, but to give a 
good example and to imitate Christ, Who also suffered 
unjustly (I Peter, ii, 18, 23-24). In the eyes of the 
Apostles, the slave's condition, peculiarly wretched, 
peculiarly exposed to temptations, bears all the more 

efficacious testimony to the new religion. St. Paul 
recommends slaves to seek in all things to please their 
masters, not to contradict them, to do them no wrong, 
to honour them, to be loyal to them, so as to make the 
teaching of God Our Saviour shine forth before ^he 
eyes of all, and to prevent that name and teachmg 
from being blasphemed (cf. I Tim., vi, 1; Tit., ii, 9, 
10). The Apostolic wntmgs show how large a place 
slaves occupied in the Church. Nearly all the names 
of the Christians whom St. Paul salutes in his Epistle 
to the Romans are servile cognamina: the two groups 
whom he caUs ^' those of the household of Aristobulus" 
and "those of the household of Narcissus" indicate 
Christian servitors of those two contemporaries of 
Nero. His Epistle, written from Rome, to the 
Philippians (iv, 22) bears them greeting from the 
saints of Caesar's household, i. e. converted slaves of 
the imperial palace. 

One fact which, in the Church, relieved the con- 
dition of the slave was the absence among Christians 
of the ancient scorn of labour (Cicero, "De off.", I, 
xlii; "Pro Flacco", xviii; "Pro domo", xxxiii; Sueto- 
nius, "Claudius", xxii; Seneca, "De beneficiis", xviii; 
Valerius Maximus, V, ii, 10). Converts to the new 
religion knew that Jesus had been a carpenter; 
they saw St. Paul exercise the occupation of a tent- 
maker (Acts, xviii, 3; I Cor., iv, 12). "Neither did 
we eat any man's bread", said the Apostle, "for 
nothing, but in labour and in toil we worked nignt and 
day, lest we should be chargeable to any of you" 
(II Thess., iii, 8; cf. Acts, xx, 33, 34). Such an ex- 
ample, given at a time when those who laboured 
were accounted "the dregs of the city", and those 
who did not labour hv^ on the pubhc bounty, 
constituted a very efficacious form of preaching. 
A new sentiment was thereby introducea into the 
Roman world, while at the same time a formal 
discipline was being established in the Church. 
It would have none of those who made a parade of 
their leisurely curiosity in the Greek and Roman 
cities (II Thess., iii, 11). It declared that those who 
do not labour do not deserve to be fed (ibid., 10). 
A Christian was not permitted to hve without an 
occupation (Didache, xii). 

Religious equality was the negation of slavery 
as it was practised by pagan society. It must have 
been an exaggeration, no doubt, to say, as one author 
of the first century said, that "slaves had no religion, 
or had only foreign religions " (Tacitus, "Annals", XIV, 
xliv) : many were members of funerary collegia under 
the invocation of Roman divinities (Statutes of the 
College of Lanuvium, "Corp.Inscr. lat.",XIV,2112). 
But in many circumstances this haughty and formalist 
rehgion excluded slaves from its functions, v/hich, 
it was held, their presence would have defiled (Cicero, 
"Octavius , xxiv). Absolute religious equality, 
as proclaimed by Christianity, was therefore a 
novelty. The Church made no account of the social 
condition of the faithful. Bond and free received 
the same sacraments. Clerics of servile origin 
were numerous (St. Jerome, Ep. Ixxxii). The very 
Chair of St. Peter was occupied by men who had 
been slaves — ^Pius in the second century. Callistus 
in the third. So complete— one might almost sav, 
so levelling — ^was this Christian equality that St. 
Paul (I Tim., vi, 2), and, later, St. Ignatius (Polyc, 
iv), are obliged to admonish the slave and the hand- 
maid not to contenm their masters, "believers like 
them and sharing in the same benents". In givine 
them a place in religious society, the Church restored 
to slaves the family and marriage. In Roman law, 
neither legitimate marriage, nor regular paternity, 
nor even any impediment to the most unnatural 
unions had existed for the slave (Digest, XXXVIII, 
viii, i, § 2; X, 10, § 5). That slaves often endeavoured 
to override this abominable position is touchingly 
proved by innumerable mortuary inscriptions; but 




the name of uxor, which the slave woman takes in 
these inscriptions, is very precarious, for no law 
protects her honour, and with her there is no adultery 
(Dieest, XLVIII, v, 6; Cod. Justin., IX, ix, 23). 
In the Church the marriage of slaves is a sacrament; 
it possesses "the solidity" of one (St. Basil, Ep. 
cxcix, 42). The Apostolic Constitutions impose 
upon the master the duty of making his slave contract 
"a legitimate marriage" (III, iv; VIII. xxxii). 
St. John ChrysQstom declares that slaves nave the 
marital power over their wives and the paternal 
over their children ("In Ephes.", Hom. xxii, 2). 
He says that "he who has immoral relations with the 
wife of a slave is as culpable as he who has the like 
relations with the wife of the prince: both arc adul- 
terers, for it is not the condition of the parties that 
makes the crime" ("In I Thess.", Hom. v, 2; "In 
II Thess.", Hom. iii, 2). 

In the Christian cemeteries there is no difference 
between the tombs of slaves and those of the free. 
The inscriptions on pagan, sepulchres — ^whether the 
columbarium common to all the servants of one 
household, or the burial plot of a funerary collegium 
of slaves or freedmen, or isolated tombs-^-always indi- 
cate the servile condition. In Christian epitaphs it is 
hardly ever to be seen (" Bull, di archeol. Christiana", 
1866, p. 24), though slaves formed a considerable part 
of the Christian population. Sometimes we find a 
slave honoured witn a more pretentious sepulchre 
than others of the faithful, like that of Ampliatus 
in the cemetery of Domitilla ("Bull, di archeol. christ.", 
1881, pp. 57-74, and pi. Ill, IV) . This is particularly 
80 in the case of slaves who were martyrs: the ashes 
of two slaves, Protus and Hyacinthus, burned alive 
in the Valerian persecution, had been wrapped in a 
winding-sheet of gold tissue (ibid., 1894, p. 28). 
Martyrdom eloquentlv manifests the religious 
equality of the slave: he displays as much firmness 
before the menaces of the persecutor as does the 
free man. Sometimes it is not for the Faith alone 
that a slave woman dies, but for the faith and chastity 
equally threatened — "pro fide et castitate occisa 
est" ('^Acta S. Dulae" in Acta SS., Ill March, p. 552). 
'Beautiful assertions of this moral freedom are found 
in the accounts of the martyrdoms of the slaves 
Ariadne, Blandina, Evelpistus, Potamienna, Felicitas, 
Sabina, Vitalis, Porphyrus, and many others (see 
Allard, "Dix lecons sur le martyre", 4th ed., pp. 
155-6^. The Church made the enfranchisement 
of the slave an act of disinterested charity. Pagan 
masters usually sold him his liberty for his market 
value, on receipt of his painfully amassed savings 
(Cicero, "Phihpp. VIII", xi; Seneca, "Ep. Ixxx"); true 
Christians gave it to him as an alms. Sometimes 
the Church redeemed slaves out of its common 
resources (St. Ignatius, "Polyc", 4; Apos. Const.. 
IV, iii). Heroic Christians are known to have sola 
themselves into slavenr to deliver slaves (St. Clement, 
"Cor.", 4; "Vita S. Joannis Eleemosynarii " in Acta 
SS., Jan., II, p. 506). Many enfranchised all the 
slaves they had. In pagan antiquity wholesale en- 
franchisements are frequent, but they never include 
all the owner's slaves, and they are always by testa- 
mentary disposition — that is v/hen the owner cannot 
be impoverished by his bounty (Justinian, "Inst.", I, 
vii; "Cod. Just.", VII, iii, 1). Only Christians en- 
franchised all their slaves in the owner's lifetime, thus 
effectually despoiling themselves of a considerable 
part of their fortune (see Allard. " Les esclaves Chre- 
tiens", 4th ed., p. 338). At the beginning of the fifth 
century, a Roman millionaire, St. Melania, gratui- 
tously granted liberty to so many thousand of slaves 
that her biographer declares himself unable to give 
theiy exact number (Vita S. Melaniae, xxxiv). Palla- 
dius mentions eight thousand slaves freed (Hist. 
I^usiaca, cxix), which, taking the average price of a 
slave as about SlOO, would represent a vidue of $800,- 

000. But Palladius wrote before 406, which was long 
before Melania had completely exhausted her im- 
mense fortune in acts of liberality of all kinds (Ram- 
polla^ "S. Melania Giuniore", 1905, p. 221). 

Primitive Christianity did not attack slavery 
directly; but it acted as though slavery did not 
exist. By inspiring the best of its children with 
this heroic charity, examples of which have been 
given above, it remotely prepared the way for the 
abolition of slavery. To reproach the Church of 
the first ages with not having condemned slavery- 
in principle, and with having tolerated it in fact, 
is to blame it for not having let loose a frightful 
revolution, in which, perhaps, all civilization would 
have perished with Roman society. But to say, 
with Ciccotti (II tramonto della schiavitiH, FV. tr., 
1910, pp. 18, 20), that primitive Christianity had not 
even "an embryonic vision" of a society in whicl 
there should be no slavery, to say that the Fathen^ 
of the Church did not feel "the horror of slavery", 
is to display either strange ignorance or singular 
unfairness. In St. Gregory of Nyssa (In Eksdesiastem, 
hom. iv) the most energetic and absolute reprobation 
of slavery may be found; and again in numerous 

Eassages of St. John Chrysostom's discourses we 
ave the picture of a society without slaves — a 
society composed only of free workers, an ideal 
portrait of which he traces with the most eloouent 
insistence (see the texts cited in Allard, "Les esclaves 
chrdtiens", pp. 416-23). 

II. The Church and Slavery after the 
Barbarian Invasions. — It is beyond the scope of 
this article to discuss the legislative movement 
which took place during the same period in regard 
to slaves. From Augustus to Constantine statutes 
and jurisprudence tended to afford them greater 
protection against ill-treatment and to facilitate 
enfranchisement. Under the Christian emperorn 
this tendency, in spite of relapses at certain points, 
became daily more marked, and ended, in the sixth 
century, in Justinian's very hberal legislation (see 
Wallon, "Hist, de I'esclavage dans I'antiauit^", 111, 
ii and x). Although the civil law on slavery still 
lagged behind the demands of Christianity ("The laws 
of Caesar are one thing, the laws of fJhrist another ", 
St. Jerome writes in "Ep. Ixxvii"), nevertheless very 

freat progress had been made. It continued in tiic 
pastern Empire (laws of Basil the Macedonian, 
of Leo the Wise, of Constantine Porphyrogenitus), 
but in the West it was abruptly checked by the 
barbarian invasions. Those invasions were calam- 
itous for the slaves, increasing their numbers which 
had be^n to diminish, and subjecting them to 
legislation and to customs much harder than those 
which obtained under the Roman law of the period 
(see Allard, "Les origines du servage" in "Rev. dea 
questions historiques", April, 1911). Here again the 
Church intervened. It did so in three ways: redeem- 
ing slaves; legislating for their benefit in its councils; 
setting an example of kind treatment. Documents 
of the fifth to the seventh century are full of instances 
of captives carried off from conquered cities by the 
barbarians and doomed to slavery, whom bishops, 
priests, and monks, and pious laymen redeemed. 
Kedeemed captives were sometimes sent back in thou- 
sands to their own country (ibid., pp. 393-7, and 
Lesne, "Hist, de la propria t6 eccl^siastique en 
France", 1910, pp. 357-69). 

The Churches of Gaul, Spain, Britain, and Italy 
were incessantly busy, in numerous councils, with 
the affairs of the slaves; protection of the maltreated 
slave who has taken refuge in a church (Councils 
of Orleans, 511, 538, 549; Council of Epone, 517): 
protection of freedmen, not only those manumitted 
in ecdesiiSy but also those freed by any other process 
(Council of Aries, 452; of Agdo, 50(5; of Orleans, 549; 
of M&con, 585; of Toledo, 589, 633; of Paris, 615); 




validity of marriages contracted with full knowl- 
edge of the circumstances between free persons and 
slaves (Councils of Verberie, 752; of Compile. 759): 
rest for slaves on Sundays and feast days (Council 
of Auxerre, 578 or 585; of Ch&lon-sur-Saone, middle 
of the seventh century; of Rouen. 650; of Wessex, 
691; of Berghamsted, 697); prohibition of Jews to 
possess Christian slaves (Council of Orleans, 541; 
of M&con, 581; of CUchy^ 625; of Toledo, 589, 633, 
656); suppression of traffic in slaves by forbidding 
their sale outside of the kingdom (Council of CMlon- 
sur-Sa6ne, between 644 and 650) ; prohibition against 
reducing a free man to slavery (Council of Clichy, 
625). Less liberal in this respect than Justinian 
(Novella cxxiii, 17), who made tacit consent a 
sufficient condition, the Western discipline does not 
permit a slave to be raised to the priesthood without 
the formal consent of his master; nevertheless the 
councils held at Orleans in 511, 538, 549, while im- 
posing canonical penalties upon the bishop who ex- 
ceed^ his authority in this matter, declare such an 
ordination to be vaHd. A council held at Rome in 
595 under the presidency of St. Gregory the Great 
permits the slave to become a monk without, any 
consent, express or tacit, of his master. 

At this period the Church found itself becoming 
a great proprietor. Barbarian converts endowed it 
largely with real property. As these estates were 
furnished with serfs attached to the cultivation of 
the soil, the Church became by force of circiunstances 
a proprietor of human beings, for whom, in these 
troublous times, the relation was a great blessing. 
The laws of the barbarians, amended through 
Christian influence, gave ecclesiastical serfs a priv- 
ileged position: their rents were fixed; ordinarily, 
they were bound to give the proprietor half of their 
labour or half of its products, the remainder being 
left to them (Lex Alemannorum, xxii; Lex Bajuva- 
riorum, I, xiv, 6). A council of the sixth century 
(Eauze, 551) enjoins upon bi8hoi>s that they must 
exact of their serfs a hghter service than that per- 
formed by the serfs of lay proprietors, and must 
remit to them one-fourth of their rents. Another 
advantage of ecclesiastical serfs was the permanency 
of their position. A Roman law of the middle of 
the fourtn century (Cod. Just., XI, xlvii, 2) had 
forbidden rural slaves to be removed from the lands 
to which they belonged: this was the origin of serfdom, 
a much better condition than slavery properly so 
called. But the barbarians virtually suppressed this 
beneficent law (Gregory of Tours, "Hist. Franc", 
VI, 45); it was even formally abrogated among the 
Goths of Italy by the edict of Theodoric (§ 142). 
Nevertheless, as an exceptional privilege, it remained 
in force for the serfs of the Church, who. Uke the 
Church itself, remained under Roman law (Lex 
Burgondionum, LVIII, i; Louis I, "Add. ad legem 
Langobard.'', Ill, i). The^r shared besides, the 
inalienability of all ecclesiastical property which had 
been established by councils (Rome, 502; Orleans, 
511, 538; Epone, 617; Clichy, 625; Toledo, 589): 
they were sheltered from the exactions of the royal 
officers by the immunity granted to almost all chiurch 
lands (Kroell, "L'immunit^ franque", 1910); thus 
their position was generally envied (Flodoard. "Hist, 
eccl. Remensis", I. xiv), and when the royal liberality 
assign^ to a chiurcn a portion of land out of the state 
property, the serfs who cultivated were loud in their 
expressions of joy (Vita S. Eligii, I, xv). 

It has been asserted that the ecclesiastical serfs 
were less fortunately situated because the inalien- 
ability of church property prevented their being 
enfranchised. But this is mexact. St. Gregory the 
Great enfranchised serfs of the Roman Church 
(Ep. vi, 12), and there is frequent discussion in the 
councils in regard to ecclesiastical freedmen. The 
Council of Agde (506) gives the bishop the right to 

enfranchise those serfs "who shall have deserved it" 
and to leave them a small patrimony. A Council 
of Orleans (541) declares that even if the bishop 
has dissipated the' property of his church, the sens 
whom he has freed in reasonable number {numero 
competenti) are to remain free. A Merovingian 
formula shows a bishop enfranchising one-tenth of 
his serfs (Formuke Biturigenses, viii). The Spanish 
councils imposed greater restrictions, recognizing 
the right of a bishop to enfranchise the serfs of his 
church on condition of his indemnifying it out of his 
own private property (Council of Seville, 590; of 
Toledo, 633; of Merida, 666). But they made it 
obligatory to enfranchise the serf in whom a serious 
vocation to the priesthood was discerned (Council 
of Saragossa^ 593). An English council (Celchyte, 
816) orders that at the death of a bishop all the other 
bishops and all the abbots shall enfranchise three 
slaves each for the repose of his soul. This last 
clause shows again the mistake of saying that the 
monks had not the right of manumission. The 
canon of the Coimcil of Epone (517) which forbids 
abbots to enfranchise their serfs was enacted in 
order that the monks might not be left to work with- 
out assistance and has been taken too literally. It 
is inspired not only by agricultural prudence, but 
also by the consideration that the serfs belong to 
the community of monks, and not to the abbot indi- 
vidually. Moreover, the rule of St. Ferr^l (sixth 
century) permits the abbot to free serfs with the 
consent of the monks or without their consent, 
if, in the latter case, he replaces at his own expense 
those he has enfranchised. The statement that 
ecclesiastical freedmen were not as free as the freed- 
men of lay proprietors will not bear examination 
in the light oi facts, which shows the situation of the 
two classes to have been identical, except that the 
freedman of the Church carried a higher werghM 
than a lay freedman, and therefore his life was 
better protected. The "Pol3rptych of Irminon", 
a detailed description of the abbey lands of Saint- 
Germain-des-Pr6s, shows that in the ninth century 
Uie serfs of that domain were not numerous and led 
in every way the hf e of free peasants. 

III. The Church and Modern Slavery. — 
In the Middle Ages, slavery, properly so called, no 
longer existed in Christian countries; it had been 
rc»>raced by serfdom, an intermediate condition in 
which a man enjoyed aU his personal rights except 
the right to leave the land he cultivated and the right 
to freely dispose of his property. Serfdom soon 
disappeared in Catholic countries, to last longer 
only where the Protestant Reformation prevailed. 
But while serfdom was becoming extinct, the course 
of events was bringing to pass a temporary revival 
of slavery. As a consequence of the wars against 
the Mussulmans and the commerce maintainedf with 
the East, the European countries bordering on the 
Mediterranean, particularly Spain and Italy, once 
more had slaves — Turkish prisoners and also, 
unfortunately, captives imported by conscienceless 
traders. Though these slaves were generally well 
treated, and set at liberty if they asked for baptism, 
this revival of slavery, lasting until the seventeenth 
century, is a blot on Christian civilization. But 
the number of these slaves was always very small 
in comparison with that of the Christian captives 
reduced to slavery in Mussulman countries, partic- 
ularly in the Barbary states from Tripoli to the 
Atlantic coast of Morocco. These captives were 
cruelly treated and were in constant danger of losing 
their faith. Many actually did deny their faith, or. 
at least, were driven by despair to abandon all 
religion and all morality. Religious orders were 
founded to succour and redeem them. 

The Trinitarians, founded in 1198 by St John 
of Matha and St. Felix of Valois, established hospitals 


for slaves at Algiers and Tunis in the sixteenth region of the Great Lakes, redeeming slaves and 

and seventeenth centuries; and from its foundation establishing ''liberty villages.'' At the head of 

until the year 1787 it redeemed 900,000 slaves, this movement appear two men: Cardinal Lavigerie, 

The Order of Our Lady of Ransom (Mercedarians), who in 1888 founded the SociiU Antieaclavaffiste 

founded in the thirteenth century bv St. Peter and in 1889 promoted the Brussels conference; 

Nolasco, and established more especially in France Leo XIII, who encouraged Lavigerie in all his projects 

and Spain, redeemed 490,736 slaVes between the and, in 1890, by an Encvclical once more condemning 

years 1218 and 1632. To the three regular vows its the slave-traders and " the accursed pest of servitude , 

foimder had added a fourth, "To become a hostage ordered an annual collection to be made in all 

in the hands of the infidels, if that is necessary for Cathohc churches for the benefit of the anti-slavery 

the deliverance of Christ's faithful." Many Mer- work. Some modern writers, mostly of the Socialist 

cedarians*kept this vow even to martyrdom. An- School — Karl Marx, Engel, Ciccotti, and, in a meas- 

other order undertook not only to redeem captives, ure, Seligman — attribute the now aknost complete 

but also to give them spiritual and material assistance, disappearance of slavery to the evolution of interests 

St. Vincent of Paul had been a slave at Algiers in and to economic causes only. The foregoing exposi- 

1605, and had witnessed the sufferings and perils tion of the subject is an answer to their materialistic 

of Christian slaves. At the reauest of Louis XlV, he conception of history, as showing that, if not the 

sent them, in 1642, priests of tne congregation which only, at least the prmcipal, cause of that disappear- 

he had founded. Many of these priests, indeed, ance is Christianity acting through the authority of 

were invested with consular functions at Tunis and its teaching and the influence of its charity. 

at Algiers. From 1642 to 1660 they redeemed about Wallon, Hi»t. de Vetclavage dans Vantiquiti (Paris, 1879); 

1200 slaves at an expense of about 1,200,000 livre^, ^'^^^' Ait^HSfLJ!^ ^ ^^i ** ^ ,1*^^"^^?^' ,^^'^ • 

T»xxi_' xxi-' A. * i. L* r'AVT, AffranchxMMmetU at* uelavea (Paru. 1875) : Allakd. 

But then* greatest achievements were m teaching Le%tKlav€*chTHien»dejmUle» vremierB tempi deVEgii^iutS^i 

the Catechism and converting thousands, and in ^ /in <(« 2a rfomtna<ton romatn« en OcciderU (Paris, igoo); Idem, 

preparing many of the captives to suffer the most ^^^'I'^/.li'^T'^^^ 

cru^l mi^yrdom rather tU deny the Faith. As \'^l^.i.^^r£T<A:LiiT^ 

a Protestant historian has recently said, none .of the B»clavage; Harnack. Mutnon u. Aushreitung det ChruUntum$ 

expeditions sent against the Barbary States by the )^^^/tmdrei Jahrhuruierten^iii^ipiig lopeu^^^ 

-n * -n A • 11 J « XL Mton de lesdavage ancxen en OeeiderU (Pans. 1840): Yanoski. 

Powers of Europe, or even America, equaUed "the Dt VabolUion dTveKlavage aneien au moymdffi (Paris. isSm 

moral effect produced by the ministry of consolation, Cochin. L'aholUion de Veeclatage (Paris, 1861) ; Bbownuow, 

peace and abnegation, going even to the sacrifice of ^v^"^,SX\^^^!!!I!L **2*' ^/^^^ »'» ^y^v^ 5^°**°,? *^** Ji?7 

i:u...4>.* ««J K/r^Ui^u «rao^«><».^;«<wl U.r ^k^ u^^kIa York, 1892); Foubnixb, Lee affranchieeemenle du V* au XIII* 

hberty and hfe, which was exercised by the humble nicU in Ret. Hiet., XXXI {Paris. 1883); Cibrawo, Delia 

sons of St. John of Matha, St. Peter NolascO, and Sehiavita e del Senaggio (Milan. 1868); Ciccotti, // tranumto 

St. Vincent of Paul" (Bonet-Maury, "France, £"2 ^^j",*^.^^^"*^- ^^>.'Ta^o. £e^ 

^k^o*;».«;o^» <^4 /.:,r;i;««f;^X" icyvr ^ iio\ oa AnetUeUatdotUmecolqtttei (JU>me,l90S);BRASi>t, II Pavato 

Chnstianisme et civilisation , 1907, p. 142). « ^ SchiawUH (Rome, 1903); Dbslandrm, L'ordre dee THrS- 

A second revival of slavery took place after the tairee pour U raehat dee capti/e (Paris. 1903) ; Abelly. Vie de S. 

discovery of the New Worid by the Spaniards in j^"^ .*'* '*««*'•. ?/. X- ^^^5* .^^.„^"^^^?«^' l^!*^' 

tAfvy 'T^ «^«« ♦k^ l^i'o^^^x^r ^t ;^ «r^,«1^ V^ ^rx ^^^..^^wl chrtehafiume et eitnlteation (Pans, 1907); Piolkt, Lee mxeetone 

M^;. T° give the history of it would be to exceed eath. franfaieee au XIX' eiiele, W.Afrupie (Paris. 1902); Klbiw. 

the limits of this article. It will be sufficient to Le cardimU iMvigerUet^eeeotuvreed^Afrlque {^bx\a,12Q^), 

recall the efforts of Las Casas in behalf of the abor- Paul Allard. 

igines of America and the protestations of popes 

both against the enslavement of those abongines Slayerji Ethical Aspect of. — In Greek and Ro- 
and the traffic in negro slaves. England, France, man civilization slavery on an extensive scale formed 
Portugal, and Spain, a^U participated in this nefarious an essential element of the social structure; and con- 
traffic. England only made amends for its trans- sequently the ethical speculators, no less than the 
gressions when, in 1815, it took the initiative in the practical statesmen, regarded it as a just and indis- 
suppression of the slave-trade. In 1871 a writer pensable institution. The Greek, however, assumed 
had the temerity to assert that the Papacy had not that the slave population shoula be recruited nor- 
yet been able ''to make up its mind to condemn mally only from the barbarian or lower races. The 
slavery " (Ernest Havet, " Le christianisme et ses Roman laws, in the heyday of the empire, treated the 
origines", I, p. xxi). He forgot that, in 1462, Pius II slave as a mere chattel. The master possessed over 
declared slavery to be ''a great crime" {magnum him the power of Ufe and death; the slave could not 
soe/u8) ; that, in 1537, Paul III forbade the enslavement contract a legal marriage, or any other kind of con- 
of the Indians: that Urban VIII forbade it in 1639. tract; in fact he possessed no civil rights; in the eyes 
and Benedict XIV in 1741; that Pius VII demanded of the law he was not a "person". Nevertheless the 
of the Congress of Vienna, in 1815, the suppression settlement of natural justice asserted itself sufficiently 
of the slave-trade, and Gre^ry XVI condemned it in to condemn, or at least to disapprove, the conduct of 
1839; that, in the BuU of Canonization of the Jesuit masters who treated their slaves with signal in- 
Peter Claver, one of the most illustrious adversaries humanity. 

of slavery, Pius IX branded the "supreme villainy" Christianity found slavery in possession throughout 

{summum nefas) of the slave-traders. Everyone the Roman world; and when Christianity obtained 

Imows of the beautiful letter which Leo XIII, in power it could not and did not attempt summar- 

1888, addressed to the Brazilian bishops, exhorting ily to abolish the institution. From the begin- 

them to banish from their counti^ tne remnants ning, however,-as is shown elsewhere in this article, 

of slavery — ^a letter to which the bishops responded the Church exerted a steady powerful pressure for the 

with their most energetic efforts, and some generous immediate amelioration of the condition of the in- 

slave-owners by freeing their slaves in a body, as dividual slave, and for the ultimate abolition of a sys- 

in the first ages of the Church. tom which, even in its mildest form, could with diffi- 

In our own times the slave-trade still continued culty be reconciled with the spirit of the Gospel and 

to devastate Africa, no longer for the profit of the doctrine that all men are brothers in that Divine 

Christian states, from which all slavery nad dis- sonship which knows no distinction of bond and free. 

§ speared, but for the use of Mussulman countries. Prom the beginning the Christian moralist did not 

ut as European penetration progresses in Africa, condemn slavery as in «e, or essentially, against the 

the missionaries, who are always its precursors — natural law or natural Justice. The fact that slavery, 

Fathers of the Holy Ghost, Oblates, White Fathers, tempered with many humane restrictions, was per- 

Franciscans, Jesuits, Priests of the Mission of Lyons — mitted under the Mosaic law would have sufficed to 

labour in the Sudan, Guinea, on the Gabun, in the prevent the institution from being condemned by 




Christian teachers as absolutely immoral. They, fol- 
lowing the example of St. Paul, implicitly accept 
slavery as not in itself incompatible with the Chris- 
tian Law. The apostle counsels slaves to obey their 
masters, and to bear with their condition patiently. 
This estimate of slavery continued to prevail till it 
became fixed in the systematized ethical teaching of 
the schools; and so it remained without any con- 
spicuous modification till towards the end of the 
eighteenth century. We mav take as representative 
de Lugo's statement of the chief argument offered in 
proof of the thesis that slavery, apart from all abuses, 
is not in itself contrary to the natural law. ''Slavery 
consists in this, that a man is obliged, for his whole 
life, to devote his labour and services to a master. 
Now as anybody may justly bind himself, for the sake 
of some anticipated reward, to give his entire services 
to a master for a year, and he would in justice be 
bound to fulfil this contract, why may not he bind 
himself in like manner for a longer period, even for his 
entire lifetime, an obligation wnicn would constitute 
slavery? '* (De Justitia et Jure. disp. VI, sec. 2. no. 14.) 

It must oe observed that the defence of what may 
be termed theoretical slavery was by no means in- 
tended to be a justification of slavery as it existed 
historically, with all its attendant, and almost 
inevitably attendant, abuses, disregarding the natural 
rights of the slave and entailing pernicious conse- 
quences on the character of the slave-holding class, as 
well as on society in general. Concurrently with the 
affirmation that slavery is not against the natural law, 
the moralists specify what are the natural inviolable 
rights of the slave, and the corresponding duties of 
the owner. The gist of this teaching is summarized 
by Cardinal Gerdil (1718-1802) : "Slavery is not to be 
understood as conferring on one man the same power 
over another that men nave over cattle. Wherefore 
they erred who in former times refused to include 
slaves among persons; and believed that however 
barbarously the master treated his slave he did not 
violate any right of the slave. For slavery does not 
abolish the natural equality of men: hence by slavery 
one man is understood to become subject to the do- 
minion of another to the extent that the master has a 
perpetual right to all those services which one man 
may justly perform for another; and subject to the 
condition that the master shall take due care of his 
slave and treat him humanely'' (Comp. Instit. Civil., 
L, vii). The master was judged to sin against justice 
if he treated his slave cruelly, if he overloaded him 
with labour, deprived him of adeouate food and cloth- 
ing, or if he separated husbana from wife, or the 
mother from her young children. It may be said that 
the approved ethical view of slavery was that while, 
reli^ously speaking, it could not be condemned as 
against the natural law, and had on its side the jiu 
aerUiumf it was looked upon with disfavour as at 
best merely tolerable, and when judged by its conse- 
quences, a positive evil. 

The later moralists, that is to say, broadly speak- 
ing, those who have written since the end of the 
eighteenth century, though in fundamental agreement 
with their predecessors, have somewhat shifted the 
perspective. In possession of the bad historical 
record of slavery and familiar with a Christian struc- 
ture of society from which slavery had been elimi- 
nated, these later moralists emphasize more than did 
the older ones the reasons for condemning slavery; 
and thev lay less stress on those in its favour. While 
they acimit that it is not, theoretically speaking at 
least, contrary to the natural law, they hold that it is 
hardly compatible with the dignity of personality, 
and is to be condemned as immoral on account of the 
evil consequences it almost inevitably leads to. It is 
but little in keeping with human dignity that one man 
should so far be deprived of his liberty as to be per- 
petually subject to the will of a master in everything 

that concerns his external life: that he should be com- 
pelled to spend his entire labour for the benefit of 
another and receive in return only a bare subsistence. 
This condition of degradation is ag^vated by the 
fact that the slave is, generally, deprived of all means 
of intellectual development for himself or for his chil- 
dren. This life almost inevitably leads to the de- 
struction of a proper sense of self-respect, blunts the 
intellectual faculties, weakens the sense of responsi- 
bility, and results in a degraded moral standard. On 
the other hand, the exercise of the slav»>master's 
power, too seldom sufficiently restrained by tt sense of 
justice or Christian feeling, tends to develop arro- 
gance, pride, and a tyrannical disposition, wnich in 
the long run comes to treat the slave as a being with 
no rights at all. Besides, as history amply proves, 
the presence of a slave population breecfs a vast 
amount of sexual immorauty among the slave-own- 
ing class, and, to borrow a phrase ofLecky, tends to 
cast a stigma on all labour and to degrade and im- 
poverish the free poor. 

Even granting that slavery, when attended with a 
due regard for the rights of the slave, is not in itself 
intrinsically wrong, there still remains the important 
question of the titles by which a master can justly 
own a slave. The least debatable one, voluntary ac- 
ceptance of slavery, we have already noticed. An- 
other one that was looked upon as legitimate was 
purchase. Although it is against natural justice to 
treat a person as a mere commodity or thing of com- 
merce, nevertheless the labour of a man for his whole 
lifetime is something that may be lawfully bought and 
sold. Owing to the exalted notion that prevailed in 
earlier times about the vatria potestaSf a father was 
granted the right to sell his son into slavery, if he 
could not otherwise reheve his own dire distress. 
But the theologians held that if he should afterwards 
be able to do so, the father was bound to redeem the 
slave, and the master was bound to set him free if 
anybody offered to repay him the price he had paid. 
To sell old or worn-out slaves to anybody who was 
hkely to prove a cruel master, to separate b^ sale 
husband and wife, or a mother and her little children, 
was looked upon as wrons and forbidden. Another 
title was war. If a man forfeited his life so that he 
could be justly put to death, this punishment might 
be commuted mto the mitigated penalty of slavery, or 
penal servitude for life. On the same principle tnat 
slavery is a lesser evil than death, captives ^ken in 
war, who, according to the ethical iaeas of the jus 
gentium^ might lawfully be put to death by the vic- 
tors, were instead reduced to slavery. Whatever justi- 
fication this practice may have had in the^iM gentium 
of former ages, none could b^ found for it now. 

Wlien slavery prevailed as part of the social organ- 
ization and the slaves were ranked as property, it 
seemed not unreasonable that the old juridical maxim, 
Partus sequiiur ventreniy should be accepted as peremp- 
torily settling the status of children bom in slavery. 
But it would be difficult to find any justification for 
this title in the natural law, except on the theory that 
the institution of slavery was, in certain conditions, 
necessary to the permanence of the social organiza- 
tion. An insufficient reason frequently offered in 
defence of it was that the master acquired a right to 
the children as compensation for the expense he 
incurred in their support, which could not be provided 
by the mother who possessed nothing of her own. 
Nor is there much cogency in the other plea, t. e. that 
a person bom in slavery was presumea to consent 
tacitly to remaining in that conaition, as there was no 
way open to him to enter any other. It is unneces- 
sary to observe that the practice of capturing savages 
or barbarians for the purpose of making slaves of 
them has always been condemned as a heinous offence 
against justice, and no just title could be created by 
this procedure. Was it lawful for owners to retain 




in slavery the descendants of those who had been 
made slaves in this unjust way? The last conspicu- 
ous Catholic moralist who posed this question when it 
was not merely a theoretical one, Kenrick, resolves it 
in the affirmative on the ground that lapse of time 
remedies the original defect in titles when the stabil- 
ity of society and the avoidance of grave disturbances 
demand it. 

St. Thomas, I-II. Q. xciv, a. 5. ad 3">; II-II. Q. Ivii. a. 3, ad 
2<», and a. 4, ad 2*'*; dk Lugo, Z>« jutt. el iure, disp. 3, 5, 2; Purr- 
XNDORF, DrotI de la Nature et dee Qene, I. VI, eh. iii, s. 7; Gao- 
TiDS, De Jure BeUi ac Pade^ I. ii, c. v, 0. 27; Kenbick, Theolo(fia 
Morality tract. V, o. vi; Mkykb, Inetilulionee Juris Naiuralie, 
par. ii, n. ii, c. iii, art. 2; Cathbexn, Moralphiloeophie (4th ed., 
Freiburg, 1904). 

Jamss J. Fox. 

SlaTes (D6n6 ''Men'')^ a tribe of the great D6n6 
family of American Indians, so called apparently 
from the fact that the Crees drove it back to its 
original northern haimts. Its present habitat is the 
forests that lie to the west of Great Slave Lake, from 
Hay River inclusive. The Slaves are divided into 
five main bands: those of Hay River, Trout Lake, 
Horn Mountain^ the forks of the Mackenzie, and Fort 
Norman. Then: total population is about 1100. 
They are for the most part a people of imprepossessing 
appearance. Their morals were not formerl^r of the 
best, but since the advent of Catholic missionaries 
they have considerably improved. Many of them 
have discarded the tepees of old for more or less com- 
jfortable log houses. Yet the religious instinct is not 
so strongly developed in them as with most of their 
congeners in the North. They were not so eager 
to receive the Catholic missionaries, and when Uie 
first Protestant ministers arrived among them, the 
liberalities of the strangers had more effect on them 
than on the other northern D^nds. To-day perhaps 
one-twelfth of the whole tribe has embraced Protest- 
antism, the remainder being Catholics. The spiritual 
wants of the latter are attended to from the missions 
of St. Joseph on Great Slave Lake, Ste. Anne, Hay 
River, and Providence, Mackenzie. 

Mackenzib, Voyaqe through the CoTitinent of North America 
(London, 1801) ; McLean, Notee of a Tventv-ftve Years* Service 
in the Hudson's Bay Territory (London, 1849) ; Pbtitot, Mono- 
orapkUdes Dhti-DindjU; Idbm, Autour du Grand Lac des Esclaves 
(Paria, 1891) ; Mobice. The Great DhU Race (Vienna, in course of 
publication, 19 U). 

A. G. MoRicB. 

SlaTonie Language and Liturgy. — Although the 
Latin holds the chier place among the litursical lan- 
guages in which the Mass is celebrated and the praise 
of God recited in the Divine Offices, yet the Slavonic 
language comes next to it among the languages widely 
used throughout the world in the liturgy of the 
Church. Unlike the Greek* or the Latin finguages, 
each of which may be said to be representative of a 
single rite, it is dedicated to both the Greek and the 
Roman Rites. Its use, however, is far better known 
throu(|hout Europe as an expression of the Greek Rite; 
for it 18 used amonjgst the various Slavic nationalities 
of the Byzantine Rite, whether Catholic or Orthodox, 
and in that form is spread among 115,000,000 people; 
but it is also used in the Roman Rite along the eastern 
shores of4he Adriatic Sea in Dalmatia and in the 
lower part of Croatia among about 100,000 Catholics 
there. Whilst the Greek lai^age is the norm and the 
original of the Byzantine or Greek Rite, its actual use 
Hfl a church language is limited to a comparatively 
small number, reckoning by population, llie liturgy 
and offices of the Byzantine Cnurch were translated 
from the Greek into what is now Old Slavonic (or 
Church Slavonic) by Sts. Cyril and Methodius about 
the year 866 and the period immediately following. 
St. Qyril is credited with having invented or adapted a 
special alphabet which now bears bis name (Cyrillic) 
in order to express the sounds of the Slavomc lan- 
guage, as n>oken by the Bulgors and Moravians of 
his day. (See Cyril and Methodius, Saints.) 

Later on St. Methodius translated the entire Bible 
into Slavonic and his disciples afterwards added othei 
works of the Greek saints and the canon law. These 
two brother saints always celebrated Mass and ad- 
ministered the sacraments in the Slavonic language. 
News of their successful missionary work among tne 
pa^an Slavs was carried to Rome along with com- 
plaints Sjgainst them for celebrating the rites of the 
Church in the heathen vernacular. In 868 Saints 
Cyril and Methodius were summoned to Rome by 
Nicholas I, but arriving there after his death they 
were heartily received by his successor Adrian II, who 
approved of their Slavonic version of the hturgy. St. 
C^rril died in Rome in 869 and is buried in the Church 
of San Clemente. St. Methodius was afterwards con- 
secrated Archbishop) of Moravia and Pannonia and re- 
turned thither to his missionary work. Later on he 
was again accused of using the heathen Slavonic lan- 
guage in the celebration of the Mass and in the sac- 
raments. It was a popular idea then, that as there 
had been three languages, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, 
inscribed over our Lord oh the cross, it would be sacri- 
legious to use any 6ther language in the service of the 
Cnurch. St. Methodius appealed to the pope and in 
879 he was again summoned to Rome, beiore John 
VIII, who after hearing the matter sanctioned the 
use of the Slavonic lan^^uage in the Mass and the 
offices of the Church, saying among other things: '' We 
rightly praise the Slavonic letters invented by Cyril, 
in which praises to God are set forth, and we order 
that the glories and deeds of Christ our Lord be told in 
that same language. Nor is it in anywise opposed to 
wholesome doctrine and faith to say Mass in that 
same Slavonic language (Nee same ndei vel doctrins 
aliquid obstat missam in eadem slavonica lingua ca- 
nere), or to chant the holy gospels or divine lessons 
from the Old and New Testaments duly translated 
and interpreted therein, or the other parts of the di- 
vine office: for He who created the three principal lan- 
guages, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, also made the 
others for His praise and glory'' (Boczek. Codex, 
tom. I, pp. 43-44). From that time onwara the Sla- 
vonic tongue was firmly fixed as a Uturgical lai^a^ 
of the Cnurch, and was used wherever the Slavic 
tribes were converted to Christianity under the influ- 
ence of monks and missionaries of the Greek Rite. 
The Cyrillic letters used in writing it are adaptations 
of the uncial Greek alphabet, with the addition of a 
number of new letters to express sounds not found in 
the Greek language. All Church books in Russia, Ser- 
via, Bulgaria, or Austro-Hungary (whether used in the 
Greek Catholic or the Greek Orthodox Churches) are 
printed in the old Cyrillic alphabet and in the ancient 
Slavonic tongue. 

But even before St. Cyril invented his alphabet for 
the Slavonic language there existed certain runes or 
native characters in which the southern dialect of the 
language was committed to writing. There is a tra- 
dition, alluded to by Innocent XI, that they were in- 
vented by St. Jerome as early as the fourth centuiy; 
Jagi£ however thinks that they were really the orig- 
inal letters invented by St. Cyril and afterwards aban- 
doned in favour of an imitation of Greek characters 
by his disciples and successors. This older alphabet, 
which still survives, is called the<jlagolitic (from gla" 
golaiiy to speak, because the rude tribesmen imagined 
that the letters spoke to the reader and told him what 
to say), and was used by the southern Slavic tribes 
and now exists along the Adriatic highlands. (See 
Glagolitic.) The Slavonic which is written in the 
Gla^litic characters ia also the ancient lai^^uage, but 
it differs considerably from the Slavonic written in the 
Cyrillic letters. In fact it may be roughly compared 
to the difference between the Gaelic of Ireland and the 
Gaelic of Scotland. The Roman Mass was trans- 
lated into this Slavonic shortly after the Greek liturgy 
had been translated by Sts. Cyril and Methodius, so 


that in the course of time among the Slavic peoples the Gennans and the ancestors of the present Swa- 
the southern Slavonic written in Glagolitic letters be- bians. must be absolutely rejected. Scattered names 
came the language of the Roman Rite, while the founa in old inscriptions and old charters that are 
northern Slavonic written in CjrriUtc letters was the similar in sound to the word Slav must also be ex- 
laneuage of the Greek Rite. The prevailing use of the eluded in this investigation. 

Latm language and the adoption of the Roman alpha- After the reference by Ptolemv the Slavs are first 

bet by many Slavic nationalities caused the use of the spoken of by Pseudo-Csesarios of Naziansum, whose 

Glagolitic to diminish and Latin to gradually take its work appeared at the beginning of the sixth century; 

pla(^. The northern Shivic peoples, like the Bohe- in the middle of the sixth century Jordanis and Pxt>- 

mians, Poles, and SlovaJks, who were converted by oopius gave fuller accounts of them. Even in the 

Latin missionaries, used the Latin in their rite from earliest sources the name appears in two forms. The 

the very first. At present the Glagolitic is only used old Slavonic authorities give: SUwSne (plural from the 

in Dalmatia and Croatia. Urban VIII in 1631 defi- singular Slovhiin)^ the country is called SlovHiakOf the 

nitively settled the use of the Glagolitic-Slavonio language sUwIhrieak jazykt the people slovHsk narod, 

missal and office-books in the Roman Rite, and laid The Greeks wrote Soubenoi (in Ptolemy 'Zov^pot), 

down rules where the clergy of each language came but the writers of the sixth century used the terms: 

in contact with each other in regard to church ser- Sklabenoi (2«Xo/3iji«oO, Sklauenoi (ZirXowjroO, Sklabi- 

vices. Leo XIII published two editions of the Gla- tioi (Z^Xa/Stwc), Sklauinoi (2icXai;ci>o(). The Romans 

golitic Missal, from one of which the illustration used -the terms: Sdaueni, Sdauinif Sdauenia^ Sclau- 

on page 45 is taken. inia. Later authors employ the expressions Slhla- 

The liturgy used in the Slavonic language, whether of benai (S^Xo/5ijn>/), Sthlabinoi (Z^Xa/few, ^eXa^iPot), 

Greek or_ Roman Rite, offers no peculiarities differing while the Romans wrote: SiMauenXj Sthlauini. In 

from the original Greek or Latin sources. The Ruth- the "Life of St. Clement" the expression ^eXafiepol 

enians have introduced an occasional minor modifi- occurs; later writers use such terms as Esklainnoi 

cation (see Ruthenian Rite), but the Orthodox Rus- (Bo-KXttiKroi), Asklabinoi (AcirXa/KVot), Sklabinioi (2KXa- 

sians. Bulgarians, and Servians substantially follow piwioi), Sklauenioi (SK\aiHjyu>i). The adjectives are 

the Byzantine liturj^ and offices in the Slavonic ver- sclavinUcuaf scUwaniacuSf itcltwinicuSf sdatuinicua. At 

sion. The Gk^litic Missal, Breviary, and ritual fol- the same tinle shorter forms are also to be found, 

low closely the Roman liturgical books, and the latest as: sklaboi (S^Xa/SoO, alhlaboi (Z^Xd/3oi), sdcarif schlavif 

editions contain the new offices authorized by the Ro- sdavaniat later also slavi. In addition appear as 

man congregations. The casual observer could not scattered forms: Sdauani, Sdauones (ZirXo^wrot, E0-- 

distinguish the Slavonic priest from the Latin priest $\afiiifftapolj XffKaPayewtis). The Armenian Moises of 

when celebrating Mass or other services, except by Choren was acquainted with the term SkUwajin: the 

hearing the language as pronounced aloud. chronicler Michael the Syrian used the expression 

GiNtBL, OAchichte der siav^oos^ CyHU u. Mfifwd, u. d«r Sglau or SgUm; the Arabians adopted the expression 

'SSSI^t.^^xSir^^^.^^^'^tJS'tl^Jl^i Sclav, but Wau«e it could not be brought into hw- 

(Moscow. 1904). ii. 326-42; Taylor, Ueber den UnprungdM ata- mony With their phonetical laws they changed it mto 

qolitUeKm Alphabets (Berlin. i88p;ZBiLL«R,I^ai^»^^^ Solddby Sokdlibe, and later also to Slatnje, Slavijun, 

'JS^^'lSliiZrniil^X^^^^ 'iS^- ""d^S^f^l Jhe anonymous Peman geography of the tenth cen- 

(Paris, 1905). tury uses the term Sdjabe. 

Andrew J. Shipman. Various explanations of the name have been sug- 
gested, the theory depending upon whether the longer 
Slavs, The. — I. Name. — A. Slavs. — At present or shorter form has been taken as the basis and upon 
the customary name for all the Slavonic races is Slav, the acceptance of the vowel or a as the original 
This name did not appear in histonr until a late period, root vowel. From the thirteenth century until Safaffk 
but it has superseded all others. Tne general opinion is the shorter form Slav was always regarded as the 
that it appeared for the first time in written documents original expression, and the name of the Slavs was 
in the sixth century of the Christian era. However, traced from the word Slava (honour, fame), con- 
before this the Alexandrian scholar Ptolemy (about sequently it signified the same as ghriosi (alpcrol), 
A.D. 100-178) mentioned in his work, " TeuyfMt/nKif However, as eany as the fourteenth century and later 
i)0^7ii<rtf ", a tribe called Stavani (Srauttw/), which the name <S^v was 'at times referred to the longer form 
was said to live in European Sarmatia between the Slovhiin with o as the root vowel, and this longer form 
Lithuanian tribes of the Galindse and the Sudeni was traced to the word Slovo (word, speech), Slavs 
and the Sarmatic tribe of the Alans. He also men- Bignif3ring, consequently, ''the talking ones'', verbosif 
tioned another tribe, Soubenoi (Zov/SewQ, which he as- veraceSf 6f»Ay\oTToi. Dobrowsky maintained this ex- 
sisned to Asiatic Sarmatia on the other side of the planation and §afafik inclined to it, consequently it 
Aiani. According to Safafik these two statements has been the accepted theory up to the present time, 
refer to the same Slavonic people. Ptolemv got his Other elucidations of the name SlaVf as clovek (man), 
information from two sources; the orthography of the skala (rock), aeld (colony), slati (to send), solovei 
copies he had was poor and consequently he believed (nightingale), scarcely merit mention. There is much 
there were two tribes to which it was necessary to as- more reason in another objection that Slavonic philol- 
sign separate localities. In reality the second name ogists have made to the derivation of the word Slav 
refers very probably to the ancestors of the present from slovo (word). The ending en or an of the form 
Slavs^ as does the first name also though with less SlovHin indicates derivation from a topographical 
certaintv. The Slavonic combination of consonants designation. Dobrowsky perceived this difficulty and 
si was changed in Greek orthography into stl, slhly or therefore invented the topographical name Slovy, 
ski. This theory was accepted by man^r scholars which wag to be derived from slovo. With some res- 
before Safafik, as Lomonosov, Schlozer, Tatistcheff , J. ervation Safaffk also gave a geographical interpreta- 
Tliunmann, who in 1774 published a dissertation on tion. He did not, however, accept the purely imag- 
the subject. It was first advanced probably in 1679 inary locality SUwy but connected the word Slov^nin 
by Hartknoch who was supported in modem times with the Lithuanian Salavat Lettish Sala, from which 
by many scholars. Apart from the mention by is derived the Polish ihifotoa, signifying island, a dry 
Ptolemy, the expression Slavs is not found until the spot in a swampy region. According to this inter-^ 
sixth century. The opinion once held by some Ger- pretation the word Slavs would mean the inhabitanta 
man and many Slavonic scholars that the names Suevi of an island, or inhabitants of a marshy region. The 
and Slav were the same and that these two peoples German scholar Grimm maintained the identity of the 
were identical, although the Suevi were a branch of Slavs with the Suevi and derived the name from sloba^ 




9vcha (freedom). The most probable explanation is only a single tribe. Ptolemy called the Slavs as a 
that deriving the name from 8^0 (word) ; this is sup- whole the Venedai and says they are 'Hhe great- 
ported by the Slavonic name for the Grermans Nemci est nation'' (iktn/Urrov iOvoi). The Byzantines of the 
(the dumb). The Slavs called themselves Slovanif sixth century thought only of the southern Slavs and 
that is, ''the speaking; ones", those who know words, incidentally also o7 the Russians, who lived on the 
while they called then* neighbours the Germans, "the boundaries of the Eastern Empire. With them the ex- 
dumb'', that is, those who do not know words. pression Slavs meant only the southern Slavs; they 

During the long period of wtir between the Germans called the Russians Antce^ and distinguished snarply . 

and Slavs, which lasted until the tenth century, the between the two groups of tribes. In one place (Get., 




Slavonic territories in the north and south-east fur- 
nished the Germans lar^e numbers of slaves. The 
Venetian and other Itahan cities on the coast took 
numerous Slavonic captives from the opposite side 
of the Adriatic whom they resold to other places. The 
Slavs frequently shared in the seizure and export of 
their countrymen as slaves. The Naretani. a pirati- 
cal Slavonic tribe living in the present district of 
Southern Dalmatia, were especially notorious for their 
slave-trade. Russian princes exported large numbers 
of slaves from their country. The result is that the 
name Slav has given the word slave to the peoples of 
Western Europe. 

The question still remains to be answered whether 
the expression Slavs indicated originallv all Slavonic 
tribes or only one or a few of them. The reference 
to them in Ptolemy shows that the word then meant 

34, 35) Jordanis divides all Slavs into three groups: 
Veneiif Slavs f and AtUob; this would correspond to the 
present division of western, southern, and eastern 
Slavs. However, this mention appears to be an ar- 
bitrary combination. In another passage he desig- 
nates the eastern Slavs by the name Veneli. Prob- 
ably he had found the expression Veneti in old writers 
ana had learned personally the names Slavs and AuUe; 
in this way arose his triple division. All the seventh- 
centtiry authorities call all Slavonic tribes, both 
southern Slavs and western Slavs, that belonged to 
the kingdom of Prince Samo, simply Slavs; Samo is 
called the "ruler of the Slavs", but his peoples arc 
called "the Slavs named Vindi" (Sclavi cognomento 
Winadi). In the eighth and ninth centuries the 
Czechs and Slavs of the Elbe were generally called 
Slavs, but also at times Wends, by the German and 


81(mAVS 44 SLAVS 

Roman chroniclers. In the same wav all authoritiefl sixth century under the name of Sla^. The name 

of the era of the Apostles to the ^vs, Cyril and Wend, however, was never completely forgotten. 

Methodius, give the name Slav without any distinc- The German chroniclers used both names constantly 

tion both to the southern Slavs, to whicn branch without distinction, the former almost oftener than 

both missionaries belonged, and to th^ western Slavs, the latter. Even now the Sorbs of Lusatia are called 

among whom they laboured. As regards the eastern by the Germans Wends, while the Slovenes are fre- 

Slavs or Russians, leavine out the mention of Ptolemy quently called Winds and their language is caUed 

already referred to, Jordanis says that at the begin- Windish. 

'nine of the era of the migrations the Goths had car- Those who maintain the theory that the original home 
ried on war with the ''nation of Slavs''; this nation of the Slavs was in the coimtries along the Danube 
must have lived in what is now Southern Russia. The have tried to refute the opinion that these references 
earliest Russian chronicle, erroneously ascribed to the relate to the ancestors of the present Slavs, but their 
monk Nestor, always calls the Slavs as a whole arguments are inconclusive. Besides these definite 
"Slavs". When it begins to narrate the history of notices there are several others that are neither clear 
Russia it spesUcs indeed of the Russians to whom it nor certain. The Wends or Slavs have had con- 
never applies the designation Slav, but it also often nected with them as old tribal confederates of the 
tells of the Slavs of Northern Russia, the Slavs of present Slavs the Budinoi mentioned by Herodotus, 
Novgorod. Those tribes that were already thor- and also the Island of Banoma mentioned by Pliny 
oughly incorporated in the Russian kingdom are (IV, 94), further the Venetse, the original inhabitants 
simply called Russian tribes, while the Slavs in Nor- of the present Province of Venice, as well as the 
them Russia, who maintained a certain independence, Homeric Venetoi, Caesar's Veneti in Gaul and Anglia, 
were designated by the general expression Slavs. Con- etc. In all probability, the Adriatic Veneti were an 
sequently, the opinion advocated by Miklo§i6, namely, Illyrian tribe related to thepresent Albanians, but 
that the name Slav was originally applied only to one nothing is known of them. With more reason can the 
Slavonic tribe, is unfounded, though it has been sup- old story that the Greeks obtained amber from the 
ported by other scholars like Krek, Potkdnski, Czer- River Eridanos in the country of the Enetoi be ap- 
mak, and Pasternek. plied to the Wends or Slavs; from which it may be 

fVom at least the sixth century the expression Slav concluded that the Slavs were already living on the 

was, therefore, the general designation of all Slavonic shores of the Baltic in the fourth century before 

tribes. Wherever a Slavonic tribe rose to greater Christ. 

political importance and founded an independent Most probably the name Wend was of foreign origin 

kingdom of its own, the name of the tribe came to the and the race was known by this name only among the 

front and pushed aside the general designation Slav, foreign tribes, while they called themselves Slavs. It 

Where, however, the Slavs attained no political power is possible that the Slavs were originally named Wends 

but fell under the sway of foreign rulers they remained by the early Gauls, because the root Wend, or Wind, is 

known by the general name of Slavs. Among the found especially in the districts once occupied by the 

successful tribes who brought an entire district under Gauls. The word was apparently a designation that 

their sway and gave it their name were the Russians, was first applied to various Gallic or Celtic tribes, and 

Poles, Czechs, Croats, and the Turanian tribe of the then given by the Celts to the Wendic tribes living 

Bulgars. The old general name has been retained to north of them. The explanation of the meaning of 

the present time by the Slovenes of Southern Austria the word is also to be sought from this point of view, 

on tne Adriatic, the Slovaks of Northern Hun- The endeavour was made at one time to derive the 

gary, the province Slavonia between Croatia and word from the Teutonic dialects, as Danish wand, 

Hungary and its inhabitants the Slavonians, and the Old Norwegian vain, Latin unda, meaning water. 

Slovmci of Ptussia on tlie North Sea. Up to recent Thus Wends would signify watermen, people living 

times the name was customary among the mhabitants about the water, people living by the sea, as proposed 

of the most southern point of Dalmatia, which was by Jordan, Adclung, and others. A derivation from 

formerly the celebrated Rcpul)lic of Dubrovnik (Ra- the German wenden (to tvim) has also been suggested, 

gusa). Until late in the Middle Ages it was retained thus the Wends are the people wandering about; or 

by the Slavs of Novgorod in Northern Russia and by from the Gothic vinjaf related to the German weiden, 

the Slavs in Macedonia and Albania. These peoples, pasture, hence Wends, those who pasture, the shep- 

however, have also retained their specific national and nerds; finally the word has been traced to the old root 

tribal names. ven, belonging together. Wends would, therefore, 

B. Wends. — ^A much older designation in the his- mean the allied. Pogodin traced the name from the 

torical authorities than Slav is the name Wend. It is Celtic, taking it from the early Celtic root vindas. 

under this designation that the Slavs first appear in white^ by which expression the dark Celts designated 

history. The nrst certain references to the present the hght Slavs. Naturally an explanation of the 

Slavs date from the first and second centuries. They term was also sought in the Slavonic language; thus, 

were made by the Roman writers Pliny and Tacitus Kollar derived it from the Old Slavonic word t/n, 

and the Alexandrian already mentioned Ptolemy. Sassinek from Slo-van, Perwolf from the Old Slavonic 

PHny (d. a.d. 79) says CNat. hist., IV, 97) that among root wfd, still retained in the O. Slav, comparative 

the peoples living on the other side of the Vistula be- veatij meaning large and brought it into connexion 

sides the Sarmatians and others are also the Wends with the Russian Anti and VjatiH; Hilferding even 

(Venedi). Tacitus (G., 46) says the same. He de- derived it from the old East Indian designation of the 

scribes the Wends somewhat more in detail but can- Aryans VaniUif and Safafik connected the word with 

not make up his mind whether he ought to include the East Indians, a confusion that is also to be found 

them among the Germans or the Sarmatians; still in the early writers. 

they seem to him to be more closely connected with II. Original HoifE and Migrations. — ^There are 

the first named than with the latter. Ptolemy (d. two theories in regard to the original home of the 

about 178) in his reorypo^tic^ (III, 5, 7) calls the Venedi Slavs, and these theories are in sharp opposition to 

the greatest nation living on the Wendic Gulf. How- each other. One considers the region of the Danube 

ever, he says later (III, 5, 8) that they live on the as the original home of the Slavs, whence they spread 

Vistula; he also speaks of the Venedic mountains (III, north-east over the Carpathians as far as the Volga 

5, 6). In the centuries immediately succeeding the River, Lake Ilmen, and the Caspian Sea. The other 

Wends are mentioned very rarely. The migrations theory regards the districts between the Vistula and 

that had now begun had brought other peoples into the Dneiper as their original home, whence thev 

the foreground until the Venedi again appear in the spread south-west over the Carpathians to the Bal- 




kans and into the Alps, and towards the west across 
the Oder and the Elbe. 

The ancient KiefT chronicle, erroneoasly ascribcnl 
to the monk Nestor, is tlie earliest authority auoted 
for the theory that the original home of the Slavs is 
to be sought in the region of the Danube. Here in 
detail is related for the first time how the Slavs spread 

not commit himself to this view. The southern Slavs 
have held this theory from the earliest period up to 
the present time with the evident intention to base 
on it their claims to the Church Slavonic in the Lit- 
urgy. At an early period, in the letter of Pope John X 
(914-29) to the Croatian Ban Tomislav and the 
Sachlumian ruler Mihael, there is a reference to the 


AsbA 0dA llfiarB^A s faoaasmis 

• :ffla:* 

fimiaiaanr. f"fi. '(sin* dlbrA miaa a«a 
Aa0DA fDdbaahaooxniA 001 aoDbArilAT 
obaois imaaba. iifl&. fixraooa muias au 
paoBaiAaAi imlBdliiffT auifiimi uobTiBa- 
0DI onaaa. AAA., AAA. iui(.Pa.<ODV* 
Pauidbi obAmi %Kt piafflatti aooi aooa- 
ooAba: x bodt fixarA taAeinispix om. 

Pa fiaBhaaoh. mMoufamw iM&Aailb., a 
piaBdbaBb.oob.u^a: OOAauai. Pa.*uiA« 
fia nA^a eAAiiaeAaoDaooi ea ooTeAtT 
aAaoBA<T eaaa ea %8e|naBkA. oo(. DbA 
edbA^aadliaooiiniT oaa ViRi aoDT fiaarA: 
a oi»A •0D(8uia eAAbAa xaMaaAsinAA 
OBiea BhTra AaooaooA oanaaiia. odk. 8 
obA a0Duuia eara earaiiBi aanaaAi : 
M8&1 pA 80DfcA3Aa. 

OOi BDUMia iiAeAaflDip. mafflapiaena 
fionaiianp. a got maaoaa aa ktvx : iMIi- 
dfeadtoa, AAA. 11D&. Pa. •0ii9* PauiAx 
boAmt Vi8BfD8iibT laaoiattT aw anoaoDA- 
fta : a amT fiatf A AiAaoDaiDX ooa, AA- 

BOfc. f^, 'kWfJB' l!!AA«iaaAaBoa obAbt 
Viaapiaiibi aoDT fiaarA, aAa BToiioau 
racfx a 0D3fflAiD, AAAaA. 

A^ PaaJbaobanaAf aa aoa. aaoArinpa- 

y^ Aaa aom AAoaaa. 
AAbd. 'Odv* 
(Tpl ara oouMia: P&xamapixHia v 

jJL Haaaa piAueax aatauiAoiwa a, 
X &AA%aA0va: iliva obaaBDaaaDi aiRia- 
oaau piaaiinamia Aara aooaoi pia oai^ 
aAua' oaara? 8Aa aBBDAaAaai, laaa 
8MT : faaooa Aa aiAa, au eioaoauoDB 
80DT la&iBDA aAaaoaul, oiaAA a Aara 
aioaaau a? a uaa: fia%a lAoba aaooA- 
anaoDi aAaoaau aoDn/A a mAoDaKT, a 
piuAapixBBT aa Aara aooaaa, a eana- 
aA aeA BB1 (oAtobi aobapa. DDainTAa 
jpAa raaooA auuA, n aaurA ibAtodi. 
3Aa aea IHwui eiaaanA, aAkaDa^i awl 
ra &A0DAaaAaBDT. 

P&araai. Pa. •nr- fA aoa apnoDAAT, 
ViBa, &aAi: ODa aaa ^svi maa: ooi 
ba<a oaaaajB oauMiarA maa. 


F 6x018, maAamr oaa %K8, ohAu 60 A 
aooaaDa toA^ari AarsaaDs pibara- 
aara : a ohaAA abaAa aea waohbaoaaAT 
eaoba aoauaaDaAT. ^Kami rAiusfflr. 
9 Ea<i aaoiaa rAiui, xabaa |D&aAoh3 
raAa KaaaoDi: 80DeAooa ra, maAaniT oaa 
ViaepiaQba x (nua., eonaa (dkb eoDiAra 
9piaeaDaA83 (toiaffla dtlars^B a fapa- 
eoaa rA laAara^i piKaohi aAionAiarht,. 
%AA%ailb3BDi odmAw ajo iDaeAaob. Aa- 

PamaAami aa. AaAtfoooA. 
rT^aAaeoDaam i!;aoba, %oS8, maAa- 
il£ raami rAuiafflT,. a aeon Aoa Aarasoii 
moaBtiiT, afflSAa LAepiAaAaharfi uAa- 
iiBaafa(A%a uobA aaoDLaaAi aaa , 
cAAbi pKaobiaoDAra : ohA aAa, oaa- 
eaiB DBoauvaniT , eiiioT^BiDAAaoDi ea, 
ODaeaiD laamAiiAoDaAaaiT , er>&(Ar80Di 
ea. %aeiDaobami. 

PafflaAsniT ea. ifeaAsonoA. 

EaAa, sAa ooAAeiiDBD eaAa eooaaa 
ooieA aoDi raaaeaAa eTonaauAi 
-aea: aAa aeoDuaiuiT aoiea^i iranAua 
OoAaaAA, aAaooa^a pia aeLAOna i!;a- 
AaiD eTonoaors, oaaiia &Aoha raLAto- 
AaairajD (oarnaai Aara eiODTiibAAT aaa, 
ObA Aarie^^ma ODaAaea aoDi maAi- 
Bua piATonx ohAAr i!!a rAaaAa, aaa 
Aia aAa bodt aobarAia a%aohTra lifaeaDi 
eieDDAaaaaBa, rataiiOhA piaahaefira ra- 
ea cfaAa LA0DilIiaaxoD8 : lf!aAa, aAa 
0D8A1 oDseauflii oDAarTeoDDasiiiT ea- 
imaAiraa eTOflKapiAaraa aaaoaoii8Ai 
aea, obA CKAaTraoiT ODAoaaoDaoii Ai(8- 
eooA a ^Liuooa ooAara pi&aabiaeul- 
fciaAi ea: Iff aAa, aoiiAa AarA oiaAa 
BTOhLaAAani ea, i ohKaAicA qot'Idki- 
ooaa aaoDuarA, maoiT cAAiiaeAa- 
ooAarsami rAobA&AaoDi aa, aAa aohxra 
ra «A0Drxiii aaoiiaairA%a bbaAA, ra pia- 
DDapiTraoii aaaAobaraami aoBfaoDa lea- 
eoDi: fDU0DM maAaeoDaooa rA eajs 
lAcfa aooajB, aAa eiooKapiBDoa Aaoaa- 
VB ea fflaAiraoia tuaofa&aAaraiD, Aa- 

Glaooutic Missal of ths Roman Ritb 
A page from the Missa pro Sponso et Sponsa, containing the Gradual, Tract, Gospel 
(Matt, xix), and Special Prayer over the Bride and Groom 

from the lower Danube to ail the countries occupied 
later by them. The Noricans and Illyrians are de- 
clared to be Slavs, and Andronikos and the Apostle 
Paul are called Apostles to the Slavs because they 
laboured in Illyria and Pannonia. This view was 
maintained by the later chroniclers and historical 
writers of all Slavonic peoples, as the Pole Kadlubek, 
•'Chronikapol." (1206), Boguchwal (d. 1253), Dlugos, 
Matej Miechowa, Decius, and others. Among the 
Czechs this theory was supported by Kozmaz (d. 
1125), Dalimir (d. 1324), Johann Marignola (1355- 
1362), Pribik Pulkava (1374), and V. Hajek (1641). 
The Russians also developed their theories from the 
statements of their first chronicler, while the Greek 
Laonikos Harkondilos of the fifteenth century did 

prevalent tradition that St. Jerome invented the 
Slavonic alphabet. This tradition maintained itself 
through the succeeding centuries, finding supporters 
even outside these countries, and was current at Rome 
itself. Consequently if we were to follow strictly the 
written historical authorities, of which a number are 
very trustworthy, we would be obliged to support the 
theory that the orip,inal home of the Slavs is in the 
countries along the Danube and on the Adriatic coast. 
However, the contrary is; the original home 
of the Slavs and the region from which their migra- 
tions began is to be sought in the basin of the Dnieper 
and in the region extending to the Carpathians and 
the Vistula. It is to the origin of the 
above-mentione<i widely believcxi opinion. At the 




beginning of the Old Slavonic literature in the ancient 
Kingdom of the Bnlgars the Byzantine chronicles of 
Hamartolos and MabJa, which were besides of very 
little value, were translated into Slavonic. These 
chronicles give an account of the migrations of the 
nations from the region of Senaar after the Deluge. 
According to this account the Europeans are the de- 

do not correspond to facts are of ten adopted in his- 
torical writings. Among the Slavonic historians and 
philologists supporting this theory are: Kopitar, 
August Schlotzer, Saf^ik, N. ArcybaSef, Fr. Radki, 
Bielowski, M. Drinov, L. Stur, Ivan P. Filevii, Dm. 
Samokvasov, M. Leopardov, N. Zakoski, and J. Pic. 
We have here an interesting proof that a tradition 


BxTtflllMA AMfhA 

rAA^kl CKOA: Nf go nOAK^ONHUliI n^OTH ^ H Kpo- 
KH, NO TIG'S CTpijuiNO/H^ Ert$. Tkl Oy^GO fidKO 
npfA^^TK^qjilA Kt-k/HIk Nil/HIk &0 MAVOi H3p4- 

«NAH,no KOfrwn^AO* CKOfH noTpiG-k: n^i^Kiiio- 
qjH^ik cnAAMik, nt$Tfuie(T&t$fci|iH^ik cnt^Tfuif- 

CTK^H, NfASrt$IOIlllA Htl\'kAH, &pil1fb A^Ull' H 
' EiliirOAilTTiO, H III! ApOTil^H, H If ^OKiKO^ICGI* 

i^-k CAnHop^ANiirw Ghii T&ofrw, Ck hh/htki 
G^^rot^oKiNik etH, c-k npftf ki^'k, h GiiiirH/Hik, 

H TKHKOTKOpAlllH^'k TKOH^'k X^Odfk, NklH'b 
H nplitHW, H &0 K'EkH R'kKWK'k, aAki: AmAnk. 

iBt^fl, cfAM% TiAHAM sAmiv mim/ma, a dtcTMiAm mism tu akwIm ctpmI cti&a Tf4«lsM» 

HMixi MciTNCA ft«4Tk nfttiifw T4*a XfrU*, dvMi xi *, i Bin aHMuUm im c^iaB cfi&A t^a 
■Isu, mAsnw hmmjnAitca ctiAmi TiAnAMm. II* r<«i« ^t^'k A o«i r«#i ■•suits, 

•Kiirfc xf A «i6(M, iMAMTrA cm tMiiiiiiiifiam iriA. 


ohMH Tin Im XpTf Em nami^ w cta- 

Vw 7KM<1Ht|li1 TKOf rW, H W tt^TOAA CAAM 
qpTKIA TKOf rW, H npTilAH KO ^7Rt OtTHTM Nd'ck, 
H^f ropi CO Oliif'M'k ciAAH, M 3A'£ HAAVk HU 
TfiOf 10 p^KOlO npmOAilTH Hii^H'k npflHtTOf T^A9 
TKOl\ if *lf(TH^IO KpOKk, H Nij/HH KcS^HIk <1IOAf<M'k. 

Tima ffA^AfT* of pen T#teAV» fMriA^^: 

E;Kf, MH^OCTHK'k B^AH <tV^'£ rp'SuiHO^S. 

Ctrxllic Missal of Greek Rite 
A page from the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, containing the Prayers of Adoration 

just before Communion 

scendants of Japhet, who journeyed from Senaar by 
way of Asia Minor to the Balkans; there they divided 
into various nations and spread in various directions. 
Conseouently the Slavonic reader of these chronicles 
would believe that the starting point of the migrations 
of the Slavs also was the Balkans and the region of 
the lower Danube. Because the historical authorities 
place the ancient tribe of the Illyrians in this region, 
it was necessary to make this tribe also Slavonic. In 
the later battles of the Slavs for the maintenance of 
their language in the Liturgy this opinion was very 
convenient, as appeal could be made for the Slavonic 
claims to the authoritv of St. Jerome and even of St. 
Paul. Opinions which are widely current yet which 

deeplv rooted and extending over many centuries and 
found in nearly all of the early native historical au- 
thorities does not agree with historical fact. 

At present most scholars are of the opinion that the 
original home of the Slavs in South-eastern £urope 
must be sought between the Vistula and the Dneiper. 
The reasons for this belief are: the testimony of the 
oldest accounts of the Slavs, given as already men- 
tioned by Pliny, Tacitus, and Ptolemy: further the 
close relationship between the Slavs and the Lettish 
tribes, pointing to the fact that originally the Slavs 
lived close to the Letts and Lithuanians; then various 
indications proving that the Slavs must have been 
originally neighbours of the Finnish and Turaniai 


tribes. Historical investigation has shown that the Bohemian, Lusatian Sorb, and Polish. In his 

Thraco-Illjrrian tribes are not the forefathers of the ''Slavonic Ethnology" (1842) Pavel Safaffk enumer- 

Slavs, but form an independent family group between ated six languages with thirteen dialects: Russian, 

the Grreeks and the Latins. There is no ceilain proof Bolgarish, IU3rnan, Lechish, Bohemian, Lusatian. 

in the Balkan territory and in the region along the The great Russian scholar J. Sreznejevskij held that 

Danube of the presence of the Slavs there before the there were eight Slavonic languages: Great Russian, 

first century. On the other hand in the region of LitUe Russian, S^bo-Croat, Korotanish, Polish, Lu- 

the Dneiper excavations and archaeological finds show satian, Bohemian, Slovak. In 1865 A. Schleicher 

traces only of the Slavs. In addition the direction of enumerated eight Slavonic languages: Polish, Lusa- 

the general march in the migrations of the nations was tian, Bohemian, Great Russian, Little Russian, Serb, 

always from the north-east towards the south-west, Bulgarian, and Slovene. Franc Miklo6i6 countea 

but never in the opposite direction. Those who main- nine: Slovene, Bulgarian, Serbo-Croat, Great Rus- 

tain the theory that the Slavs came from the region of sian. Little Russian, Bohemian, Polish, Upper Lu- 

the Danube sought to strengthen their views by satian. Lower Lusati^. In 1907 Dm. Florinskij 

the names of various places to oe found in these dis- enumerated nine: Russian, Bulgarian, Serbo-Croat, 

tricts that indicate Slavonic origin. The etymology of Slovene, Bohemian-Moravian, Slovak, Lusatian, 

these names, however, is not entirely certain; there Polish, and KaSube. In 1898 V. Jagi6 held that 

are other names that appear only in the later author- there were eight: Polish, Lusatian, Bohemian, Great 

ities of the first centuries after Christ. Some again Russian, Litue Russian, Slovene, Serlx^-Croat, Bul- 

prove nothing, as the^ could have arisen without the garian. Thus it is seen that the greatest represen- 

occupatiod of these districts by the Slavs. tatives of Slavonic linguistics are not in accord upon 

It can therefore be said almost positively that the the question of the number of Slavonic languages, 

original home of the Slavs was in the territory along The case is the same from the purely philological 

the Dnieper, and farther to the north-west as far as point of view. I^actically the matter is even more 

the Vistula. From these regions they spread to the complicated because other factors, which often play 

west and south-west. This much only can be con- an important part, have to be considered, as religion, 

ceded to the other view, that the migration probablv pohtics etc. 

took place much earlier than is generally supposed. At the present time some eleven to fourteen lan- 
Probably it took place slowly and by degrees. One guages, not including the extinct ones, can be enu- 
tribe would push another ahead of it like a wave, and merated which lay claim to be reckoned as distinct 
they all spread out in the wide territory from the tongues. The cause of the uncertainty is that it is 
North Sea to the Adriatic and iEgean Seas. Here and impossible to state definitively df several branches of 
there some disorder was caused in the Slavonic migra- the Slavonic family whether they form an independent 
tion by the incursions of Asiatic peoples, as Scythians, nation or only the dialect and subdivision of another 
Sarmatians, Avars^ Bulgars, ana Magyars, as well as Slavonic nation, and further because often it is im- 
by the German miration from north-west to south- possible to draw the line between one Slavonic people 
east. These incursions separated kindred tribes from and another. The Great Russians, Poles, Bohemi^xis, 
one another or introduced foreign elements among and Bulgarians are universally admitted to be dis- 
them. Taken altogether, however, the natural ar- tinctive Slavonic peoples with distinctive languages, 
rangement was not much disturbed, kindred tribes The Little Russians and the White Russians are try- 
journeyed together and settled near one another in ing to develop into separate nationalities, indeed the 
the new land, so that even to-day the entire Slavonic former have now to be recognized as a distinct people, 
race presents a regular succession of tribes. As early at least this is true of the Ruthenians in Austria- 
as the first century of our era individual Slavonic Hungary. The Moravians must be included in the 
tribes might have crossed the boundaries of the orig- Bohemian nation, because they hold this themselves 
inal home and have settled at times among strangers and no philological, political, or ethnographical rea- 
at a considerable distance, from the native country, son opposes. The Slovaks of Moravia also consider 
At times again these outposts would be driven back that they are of Bohemian nationality. About sixty 
and obliged to retire to the main body, but at the years ago the SlovaJks of Hungary began to develop 
first opportunity thev would advance again. Central as a separate nation with a separate literary language 
Europe must nave been largely populated by Slavs and must now be reg£uxled as a distinct people. 1 he 
as early as the era of the Hunnisn ruler Attila, or of Lusatian Sorbs also are generally looked upon as a 
the migrations of the German tribes of the Groths, separate people with a distinct language. A division 
Lombards, Gepids, Heruli. Rugians etc. These last- of this Uttle nationality into Upper and Lower Lusa- 
mentioned peoples and tribes formed warlike castes tians has been made on account of linguistic, reli- 
and mihtary organizations which became oohspicu- gious, and political differences; this distinction is also 
ous in history by their battles and therefore have evident in the literary language, consequently some 
left more traces m the old historical writings. The scholars regard the Lusatians as two different oeoples. 
Slavs, however, formed the lower strata of the popula- The remains of the lan^pages of the former Slavonic 
tion of Central Europe; all the migrations of the other inhabitants of Pomerania, the Sloventzi, or Kadubes, 
tribes passed over them, and when the times grew are generally regarded at present as diale9ts of Polish, 
more peaceful the Slavs reappeared on the sunace. , though some aistinguii-hed Polish scholars main- 
It is only in this way that the appearance of the Slavs tain the independence of the KaSube language. The 
in great numbers in these countries directly after conditions in the south are even more complicated, 
the close of the migrations can be explfuned without Without doubt the Bulgarians are a separate na- 
there being any record in history of wnen and whence tionality, but it is difficmt to draw the line between 
they came and without their originfd home being the Bulgarian and the Servian peoples, especially 
depopulated. in Macedonia. Philologically the Croats and ^bs 

III. Classification of the Slavonic Peoples. — must be regarded as one nation ' politically, however, 

Th^ Question as to the classification and number of and ethnographically they are distinct peoples. The 

the Slavonic peoples is a complicated one. Scien- population of Southern Dalmatia, the Monammedui 

tific investigation does not support the common population of Bosnia, and probably also the inhabi- 

belief, and in addition scholars do not agree in their tants of some parts of Southern Hungary^ and of 

opinions on this question. In 1822 the father of Croatia cannot easily be assigned to a definite group. 

Slavonic philology, Joseph Dobrovsky, recognized Again, the nationality and extent of the Slovenes 

nine Slavonic peoples and languages: Russian, II- living in the eastern Alps and on the Adriatic coast 

lyrian or Serb, Croat, Slovene, Korotanish, Slovak, cannot be settled without further investigation. 


From a philolojpcal point of view the following sequently in 1900 the total number of Russians could 

fundamental principles must be taken for guidance, be reckoned at about 93 million persons. This does 

The Slavonic world in its entire extent presents not include the Russian colonists in other countries; 

philologically a homogeneous whole without sharply moreover, the numbers given by the official statistics 

defined transitions or gradations. When the Slavs of Austria-Hungary may be far below reality. Classi- 

settled in the localities at present occupied by them ficd by religion the Russian Slavs are divided as 

they were a mass of tribes of closely allied tongues follows: in Russia Orthodox Greeks, 95.48 per 

that changed slightly from tribe to tribe. Later cent; Old Believers, 2.59 per cent; Catholics, 1.78 

historical development, the appearance of Slavonic per cent: Protestants, .05 per cent; Jews, .06 per 

kingdoms^ the ^wth of literary languages, and var- cent; Mohammedans, .01 per cent; in Austria- 

ious civihzing influences from without have aided Hungary Uniat Greeks, 90.6 per cent, the Orthodox 

in bringing about the result that sharper distinctions Greeks, 8 per cent. In the Russian Empire, excluding 

have been drawn in certain places, and that distinct Finland and Poland, 77.01 per cent are illiterates; in 

nationalities have developea in oiiTerent localities. Poland, 69.5 per cent; Finland and the Baltic prov- 

Where these factors did not appear in sufficient number inces with the large German cities show a higher 

the boundaries are not settled even now, or have been grade of literacy. 

drawn only of late. The Slavonic peoples can be The Russians are divided into Great Russians, 
separated into the following groups on the basis of Little Russians or inhabitants of the Ukraine, ana 
philological differences: (1) The eastern or Russian White Russians. In 1900 the relative numbers of 
group; in the south this group approaches the Bui- these three divisions were approximately: preat Rus- 
garian; in the north-west the white Russian dialects sianSj 59,000,000; White Russians, 6,200,000; Little 
show an affinity to Polish. The eastern group is Rusmans, 23,700,000. In addition there are 3,800,- 
subdivided into Great Russian, that is, the prevail- 000 Little Russians in AustrisrHun^ary, and 500,000 
ing Russian nationaUtv, then Little Russian, and in America. The Russian official statistics are 
Woite Russian. (2) The north-western group. This nattirally entirely too unfavourable to the White 
is subdivided into the I^echish languages and into Russians and the Little Russians; private computa- 
Slovak, Bohemian, and Sorb tongues. The first sub- tions of Little Russian scholars give much higher re- 
division includes the Poles, KaSubes, and Slovintzi, suits. Hrusevskij found that the Little Russians 
also the extinct languages of the Slavs who formerly taken altogether numbered 34,000,000; Karskij cal- 
extended across the Oder and the Elbe throughout culated that the White Russians numbered 8,000,000. 
the present Northeni Germany. The second sub- A thousand years of historical development, different 
division includes the Bohemians, Slovaks, and the influences of civilization, different reli^ous confes- 
Lusatian Sorbs. The Slavs in the Balkans and in the sions, and probably also the ori^nal philological dif- 
southem districts of the Austro-IIun^uian Monarchy ferentiation have caused the Little Russians to de- 
are divided philologically into Bulgarians; Stokauans, velop as a separate nation, and to-day this fact must 
who include all Serbs, the Slavonic Mohammedans of be taken as a fixed factor. Among the White Rus- 
Bosnia, and also a large part of the population of sians the differentiation has not developed to so ad- 
Croatia; the Cakauans, who live partly in Dalmatia, vanced a stage, but the tendency exists. In classify- 
Istria, and on the coast of Croatia; the Kajkauans, to ing the Little Russians three different types can be 
whom must be assigned three Croatian countries and a^ain distinguished: the Ukrainian, the Podolian-Gali- 
all Slovene districts. According to the common cian, and the Podlachian. Ethnographicallv interest- 
opinion that is based upon a combination of philolo- ing are the Little Russian or Ruthenian tribes in the 
gical. political, and reugious reasons the Slavs are Carpathians, the Lemci,Boici, and Huzuli(Gouzouli). 
diviaed into tne following nations: Russian, Polish, The White Russians are divided into two groups; 
Bohemian-Slovak, Slovenes, Serbs, Croats, Bui- ethnographically the eastern group is related to the 
garians. Great Russians; the western to the Poles. 

IV. Present Condition — A. Russians. — The Rus- B. Poles. — The Poles represent the north-western 
sians live in Russia and the north-eastern part of branch of the Slavonic race. From the very earliest 
Austria-Hungary. They form a compact boay only times they have lived in their ancestral regions be- 
in the south-western part of the Russian Empire, as tween the Carpathians, the Oder, and the North Sea. 
in the north and east they are largely mixed with A thousand years ago Boleslaw the Brave united all 
Finnish and Tatar populations. In Austria the Little the Slavonic tribes living in these territories into a 
Russians inhabit Eastern Galicia and the northern Polish kingdom. This kingdom, which reached its 
part of Bukowina; in Hungary they live in the eastern highest prosperity at the close of the Middle Ages, 
part on the slopes of the Carpathians. Scattered then gradutdly declined and. at the close of the eif^h- 
colonies of Little Russians or Ruthenians are also to teenth centuiy, was diviaed by the surrounding 
be found in Slavonia and Bosnia among the southern ^wers — Russia, Prussia, and Austria. In Austria the 
Slavs, in Bulgaria, and in the Dobrudja. In Asia Poles form the population of Western Galicia and are 
Western Siberia is Russian, Central Siberia has num- in a large minority throughout Eastern Galiciaj in 
erous Russian colonies, while Eastern Siberia is Eastern Galicia the population of the cities particu- 
chiefly occupied by native tribes. There are Ru»- larly is preponderantly Polish, as is also a large part 
sians, however, living in the region of the Amur of the population of a section of Austrian Silesia, the 
River, and on the Pacific as well as on the Island of district of Teschin. The Poles are largelv represented 
Saghalien. Turkestan and the Kirghiz steppes have in the County of Zips in Hungary and less largely in 
native populations with Russian colonies in the cities, other Hungarian counties which border on Western 
There are large numbers of Russian emigrants, Galicia. There is a small Polish population in Bu- 
mostly members of sects, in Canada and elsewhere in kowina. In Prussia the Poles live in Upper Silesia, 
Amenca. Brazil, Argentina, and the Uhited States form a laige majority of the inhabitants oi the Ph>v- 
have man>r Little Russian immigrants. There are ince of roseii; and also inhabit the districts of 
small Russian colonies in Asia Minor and lately the Dantzic and Marienwerder in West Prussia, and the 
emigration has also extended to Africa. According southern parts of East Prussia. In Russia the Poles 
to tne Russian census of 1897 there were in the Rus- form 71.95 per cent of the population in the nine 
sian Empire 83,933,567 Russians, that is, 67 per cent provinces formed from the Polish kingdom. In addi- 
of the entire population of the empire. Allowing for tion they live in the neighbouring district of the 
natural increase, at the present (1911) time there are Province of Grodno and form a relatively large mi- 
about 89 millions. In 1900 there were in Austria nority in Lithuania and in the provinces of White and 
3,375,576 Ruthenians, in Hungary 429,447. Con- Little Russia, where they are mainly owners of large 



estates and residents of cities. According to the cen- as far as Lake Flatten, where they came into contact 
BUS of 1900 the Poles in Russia numbered about with the Slovenes who belonged to the southern Sla- 
8.400,000; in Austria, 4,259,150; in Germany, in- vonic group. Probably, however, they did not for- 
cluding the Kasubes and Mazuriana, 3,450,200; in the mcrly extend as far towards the east as now, and the 
rest of Europe about 55,000; and in America about Slovaks in the eastern portion of Slovakia are really 
1,500,000; consequently altogether, 17,664,350. Czer- Iluthenians who were Sfovakanized in the late Middle 
kawski reckoned the total number of Poles to be Ages. Directly after their settlement in these coun- 
21,111,374; Straszewicz held that they numbered tries the Bohemians fell apart into a great number of 
from 18 to 19,000,000. As regards religion the Poles tribes. One tribe, which settled in the central part of 
of Russia are almost entirely Catholic; in Austria 83.4 the present Bohemia, bore the name of Czechs. It 
per cent are Catholics, 14.7 per cent are Jews, and 1.8 gradually brought all the other tribes under its con- 
per cent are Protestants; in Germany they are also trol and gave them its name, so that since then the en- 
almost entirely Catholics, only the Mazurians in East tire people have been called Czechs. Along with this 
Prussia and a small portion of the Kasubes are name, however, the name Bohemians has also been re- 
Protestant, tained; it comes from the old Celtic people, the Boii, 

Ethnographically the Polish nation is divided into who once lived in these regions. Soon, however, Ger- 

three groups: the Great Poles live in Posen, Silesia, man colonies sprang lip among the Bohemians or 

and Prussia; the Little Poles on the upper Vistula as Czechs. The colonists settled along the Danube on 

far as the San River and in the rogion of the Tatra the southern border of Bohemia and also farther on in 

mountains; the Masovians east of the Vistula and the Pannonian plain. However, these settlements dis- 

along the Narva and the Bug. The Kasubes could appeared during the storm of the Magyar incursion, 

be called a fourth group. All these groups can be The Bohemians did not suffer from it as they did from 

subdivided again into a large number of branches, but the later immigrations of German colonists who were 

the distinctions are not so striking as in Russia and brought into tne country by the Bohemian rulers of 

historical tradition keeps all these peoples firmly the native Premsylidian dynasty. These colonbts 

united. The Kasubes uve on the left bank of the lived through the mountains which encircle Bohemia 

Vistula from Dantzic to the boimdary of Pomerania and large numbers of them settled also in the interior 

and to the sea. According to government statistics of the country. From the thirteenth century the lan- 

in 1900 there were in Germany 100,213 Kasubes guages of Bohemia and Moravia became distinct 

The very exact statistics of the scholar Ramult gives tongues. 

174,831 Kasubes for the territory where they live in The Bohemians have emip*ated to various countries 

large bodies, and 200,000 for a total including those outside of Bohemia-Moravia. In America there are 

scattered through Germany, to which should be added about 800,000 Bohemians; there are large Bohemian 

a further 130,000 in America. According to the colonies in Russia in the province of Volhynia, also 

latest investigation the Kasubes are what remains of in the Crimea, in Poland, and in what is called New 

the Slavs of Pomerania who are, otherwise, long Russia, altogether numbering 50,385. In Bulgaria 

extinct. there are Bohemian colonies in Wojewodovo and near 

C. Lusatian Sorbs, — ^The Lusatian Sorbs are the Plevna; there is also a Bohemian colony in New Zea- 
residue of the Slavs of the Elbe who once spread land. Nearly 400,000 Bohemians live at Vienna, and 
across the Oder and Elbe, inhabiting the whole of the there are large numbers of Bohemians in the cities of 
present Northern Germany. Dimng centuries of Linz, Pesth, Berlin, Dresden, Leipzig, Triest; there 
combat with the Germans their numbers gradually are smaller, well-organized -Bohemian colonies in 
decreased. They are divided into three main nearly all Austrian cities, besides large Bohemian col- 
groups: the Obiotrites who inhabited the present onies in Hungarv and Slavonia. In the last-men- 
Mecklenburg, Lilneburg, and Holstein whence they tioned country there are 31,581 Bohemians. These 
extendedinto theOld Mark; theLuticior Veltae, who settlements are modem. The Slovaks occupy the 
lived between the Oder and Elbe, the Baltic and south-eastern part of Moravia and the north-eastern 
the Vama; the Sorbs, who lived on the middle course part of Hungary from the Carpathians almost to the 
of the Elbe between the RiveVs Havel and Bober. The Danube. But there are scattered settlements of Slo- 
Lutici died out on the Island of Rugen at the begin- vaks far into the Hungarian plain and even in South- 
ning of the fifteenth century. In the middle of the em Hungary, besides colonies of Slovaks in Slavonia. 
sixteenth century there were still large numbers of On account of the barrenness of the soil of their native 
Slavs in Luneburg and in the northern part of the Old land many Slovaks emigrate to America. According 
Mark, while their nimibers were less in Mecklenburg to the Austrian census of 1900 there were 5,955,297 
and in Brandenburg. However, even in Liineburg Bohemians in Austria. The number may be de- 
the last Slavs disappeared between 1750-60. Only cidedly higher. In Germany there were 115,000 
the Lusatian Sorbs who lived nearer the borders of Bohemians; in Hungary 2,019,641 Slovaks and 50,000 
Bohemia have been able to maintain themselves in de- Bohemians; in America there are at least 800,000 Bo- 
clinins numbers until the present time. The reason hemians; in Russia 55,000; in the rest of Europe 
probably is that for some time their territorv belonged 20,000. Consequently taking all Bohemians and 
to Bohemia. At present the Lusatian Sorbs number Slovaks together there are probably over 9,000,000. 
about 150,000 persons on the upper course of the If, as is justifiable, the figures for America, Vienna, 
Spree. They are divided into two groups, which Moravia, Silesia, and Hungary are considered entirely 
differ so decidedly from each other in speech and cus- too low, a maximum of about 10,000,000 may be ac- 
toms that some regard them as two peoples; thev also ccpted. As to religion 96.5 per cent of the Bohe- 
have two separate literatures. They are rapidly be- mians are Catholics, and 2.4 per cent are Protestants; 
coming (Germanized, especially in Lower Lusatia. 70.2perccntof the Slovaks are Catholics, 5.3 per cent 
The Lusatian Sorbs are Catholics with exception of are Uniat Greeks, and 23 per cent are Protestants. 
15^000 in Upper Lusatia. E. Slovenes.— The Slovenes belong, together with 

D^ Bohemians and Slovaks, — The Bohemians and the Croats, Serbs, and Bulgarians, to the southern 

Slovaks also belong to the north-western branch of the group of Slavs. The Slovenes have the position 

Slavonic peoples. They entered the reeion now con- farthest to the west in the Alps and on the Adriatic, 

stitutin^s^ Bonemia from the north and then spread Thev first appeared in this region after the departure 

farther mto what is now Moravia and Northern Hun- of the Lombards for Italy and the first date m their 

fi»^, and into the present Lower Austria as far as the history is 595, when they fought an unsuccessful 

Danube. The settlements of the Slovaks in Hungary battle with the Bavarian Duke Tassilo on the field 

must have extefnded far towards the south, perhaps of Toblach. They occupied at first a much larger 
XJV.— 4 


territory than at present. They extended along the Krashovanians, Serbo-Croatian tribes in Huncary, 
Drove as far as the IVrol, reaching the valleys of the who were not included with these in the census. Uon- 
Rivers Rienz and Eisack; they also occupied the larger sequentlv the number of this bipartite people may be 
part of what is now Upper Austria, Lower Austria as reckoned f^proximately as 8,700,000 persons. Ac- 
far as the Danube, and from the district of the Lun- cording to Servian oomputiU.ion there are about 
§au in Southern Salzburg through Carinthia, Camiola, 2,300,000 Croats in Austriar-Hungary; the Croats 
t3rria, the crownland of Gon-Uradiska, and a large reckon their number as over 2,7(^,000. The con- 
part of Friuli. Under German supremacnr the terri- trovensy results from the uncertainty as to the group 
tory occupied by them has grown considerably less to which the Bosnian Mohammedans and the above- 
in the course of the centuries. They still mamtain mentioned Schokaans, Bimjevsians, and Krashova- 
themselves only in Camiola, in the northern part of nians, as well as the population of Southern Dalmatia, 
Istria, about Gdrz, and in the vicinity of Tnest, in belong. As to reli^n the Serbs are afanoet exclu- 
the mountainous districts north of Udine in Italy, sively Orthodox Greek, the Croats Catholic, the great 

in the southern part of Carinthia and Styria, and m majority of the inhabitants of Southern Dahnatia are 

the Hungarian coimtries bordering on the farther Cathohc, but many consider themselves as belonging 

side of the Mur River. Carinthia is becoming to the Servian nation. The branches in Hun^^ary 

r!H>idly GermanijEed. and the absorption of the other mentioned above are Catholic; it is still undecided 

races in Hungary by the Magyars constantly ad- whether to include them among the Croats or Sedw. 
vances. According to the census of 1900 there were G. Bulgarians. — ^The Slavonic tribes living in 

then 1,192,780 Slovenes in Austria, 94,993 in Him- ancient Roman Mcesia and Thrace south of the Danube 

gaiy, 20,987 in Croatia and Slavonia. probably and south-east of the Serbs as far as the Black Sea 

37.000 in Italy, in America 100,000, ana 20,000 in came under the sway of the Turanian tribe of the 

otner countries. There are, taking them alto- Buljgan, which established the old Kingdom of Bul- 

gether, probably about 1,500,000 Slovenes in the garia in this r^ion as early as the second half of the 

world; 99 per cent of them are Catholics. seventh century. The conquerors soon began to 

F. Croats and Serbs. — In speech the Croats and adopt the language and customs of the subjugated 
Serbs are on^ people; they have the same literary people, and from this intermixture arose the Bul- 
laziguage, but use different characters. The Croats ganan people. The historical development was not 
write with the Latin characters and the Serbs with a quiet and uniform one; there were oontinuid mi- 
the Cyrillic. - They have been separated into two grations and remigrations, conquests and inter- 
peoples by religion, political development, and dif- mingling. When the Slavs first entered the Balkan 
ferent forms of civilization: the Croats came imder peninsula they spread far beyond their present 
the influence of Latin civilization, the Serbs under boimdaries and even covered Greece and the Pelo- 
that of the Byzantines. After the migrations the ponnesus, which seemed s^ut to become Slavonic, 
warlike tribe of the Croats gained the mastery over However, thanks to their higher civilization and supe- 
the Slavonic tribes then living in the territory be- rior tactics, the Greeks drove back the Slavs. Still, 
tween the Kulpa and the Drave, the Adriatic and the Slavonic settlements continued to exist in Greece and 
River Cetina, m Southern Dalmatia. Th^ founded the Peloponnesus until the late Middle Ages. The 
the Croat Kingdom on the remains of Latin civiliza- Greeks were aided by the Turkish conquest, and the 
tion and with Roman Catholicism as their religion. Slavs were foreed to withdraw to the limit that is still 
Thus the Croat nation appeared. It was not until a maintained. The Turks then began to force back 
later date that the tribes living to the south and east the Slavonic population in Macedonia and Bulgaria 
began to unite politically under the old Slavonic name and to plant colonies of their ^wn people in certain 
of Serbs, and m this region the Servian nation de- districts. The chief aim of the Turkish colonization 
veloped. Decided movements of the population was always to obtain strategic points and to secure 
came about later, bein^ caused especially by the the passes over the Balkans. The Slavonic popula- 
Turkish wars. The Servian settlements, which origi- tion also began to withdraw from the plains along the 
nally followed only a south -eastern course, now Danube where naturally great battles were often 
turned in an entirelv opposite direction to the north- fought, and which were often traversed by the Turk- 
east. The original home of the Serbs was abandoned isharmv. A part emigrated to Himgary, where a con- 
largely to the Albanians and Turks; the Serbs emi- siderable number of Bulgarian settlements still exist; 
grated to Bosnia and across Bosnia to Dalmatia and others journeyed to B^sarabia and South Russia, 
even to Italy, where Slavonic settlements still exist After the liberation of Buljgaria the emigrants began 
in Abruzzi. Others crossed the boundaries of the to return and the population moved again from the 
Croat Kingdom and settled in large numbers in Servia mountains into the valleys, while laige numbers of 
and Slavonia, also in Southern Htmgary. where the Turks and Circassians went back m>m liberated 
Austrian Government granted them relisious and Bulgaria to Turkey. 

national autonomy and a patriarch of their own. On the other hand the emigration from Macedonia 

Some of the Serbs settled here went to Southern is still large. Owing to these uncertain conditions, 

Russia and founded there what is called the New and especi^y on account of the sli^t investigation 

Servia in the Government of Kherson. Consequentlv, of the subject in Macedonia, it is difficult to p;ive the 

the difference between the Croats and the Serbs size of the Bulgarian population even approximately, 

consists not in the language but mainly in the re- In approximate figures the Bulgarians number: in the 

ligion, also in the civifization, history, and in the Kingdom of Bulgaria, 2,864,735; Macedonia, 1,200,- 

form of handwriting. But all these characteristic 000; Asia Minor, 600,000; Russia, 180,000; Rumania, 

differences are not very marked^ and thus there are 90,()00; in other countries, 50,000, hence there are 

districts and sections of population which cannot be altogether perhap over- 5,000,000. In Bulgaria there 

easily assigned to one or the other nation, and which are besides the Bulgarian population, 20.644 Pomaks. 

both peoples are justified in claiming. that is Mohammedans wno speak Bulgarian, 1516 

Taking Serbs and Croats together there are: in Serbs, 531,217 Turks, 9862 Gagauzi (Bulgarians who 

Austria, 711,382: in Hungary and Croatia, 2,839,016; speak Turkish), 18,874 Tatars, 66,702 Greeks in 

in Bosnia and Herzegovina, probably 1,700,000; in cities along the coast, 89,563 Gypsies, and 71,023 

Montenegro, 350,000; in Servia, 2,298.551; Old Servia Rumanians. The kingdom, therefore, is not an 

and Macedonia, 350,000; Albania ana. the vilayet of absolutely homogeneous nationality. In religion the 

Scutari, about 100.000; Italy, 5000; Russia, 2000; Bulgarians are Orthodox Greeks with exception of the 

America and elsewnere, 300,000. In addition there Pomaks, ah*eady mentioned, and of the Paulicians who 

are about 108,000 Schokzians, Bunjevzians, and are Catholics. The Bulgarians are divided into a num- 




ber of branches and dialects; it is often doubtful 
whetlier some of these subdivisions should not be in- 
cluded among the Serbs. This is especially the case 
Ml Macedonia, consequently all enumerations of the 
population differ extremely from one another. 

If, on the basis of earlier results, the natural annual 
growth of the Slavonic populations is taken as 1.4 
per cent, it may be claimed that there were about 
156-157 milUon Slavs m the year 1910. In 1900 all 
Slavs t^en together numbered approximately 
136,500,000 persons, divided thus: Russians, 94,000,- 
(XX); Poles, 17,500,000; Lusatian Serbs, 150,000; 
Ik>hemians and Slovaks, 9,800,000; Slovenes, 1,500,- 
000; Serbo-Cioats, 8,550,000; Bulgarians, 5,000,000. 

Leopold L^nard. 

Slavs in America. — The Slavic races have sent 
large numbers of their people to the United States and 
Canada, and this immigration is coming every year 
in increasing numbers. The earliest immigration 
began before the war of the States, but within the 
past thirty years it has become so great as quite to 
overdiadow the Irish and German immigration of 
the earlier decades. For two-thirds of that period 
no accurate figures of tongues and nationahties were 
kept, the immigrants being merely credited to the 
IK)litical governments or countries from which they 
came, but within the past twelve years more accurate 
data have been preserved. During these years 
(1899-1910) the total immigration into the United 
States has been about 10,000,000 in round numbers, 
and of these the Slavs have formed about 22 per cent, 
(actually 2,117,240), to say nothing of the increase 
of native-bom Slavs in this country during that 
period, as well as the numbers of the earlier arrivals. 
Keliable estimates compiled from the various racial 
sources show that there are from five and a half to 
six millions of Slavs in the United States, including 
the native-bom of Slavic parents. We are generally 
unaware of these facts, oecause the Slavs are less 
conspicuous. among us than the Italians, Germans, or 
Jews; their languages and their history are unfamiliar 
and remote, besides they are not so massed in the 
great cities of'this coimtry. 

I. Bohemians (Cech; aajective. &8A^, Bohemian). 
These people ou^t really be called Ghekh {Czech) , 
but are named Bohemians after the aboriginal tribe 
of the Boii, who dwelt in Bohemia in Roman times. 
By a curious perversion of language, on account of 
various gypsies who about two centuries ago travelled 
westward across Bohemia and thereby came to be 
known in France as ''Bohemians'', the word Bohe- 
mian came into use to designate one who lived an 
easy, careless life, unhampered by serious responsibili- 
ties. Such a meaning is, however, the very antithe- 
sis of the serious conservative Chekh character. The 
names of a few Bohemians are found in the early his- 
tory of the United States. August^ Hefman (1692) 
of Bohemia Manor, Maryland, and Bedfich Filip 
(Frederick Philipse, 1702) of Philipse Manor, Yonk- 
ers. New York, are the earliest. In 1848 the revolu- 
tionary uprisings in Austria sent many Bohemians to 
this country. In the eighteenth century the Mora- 
vian Bretliren (Bohemian Brethren) hisui come in 
large numbers. The finding of gold in Califomia 
in 1849-50 attracted manv more, especially as serfdom 
and labour dues were abolished in Bohemia at the 
end of 1848, which left the peasant and workman 
free to travel. In 1869 and the succeeding years 
immigration was stimulated by the labour strikes 
in Bohemia, and on one occasion all the women work- 
ers of several ciear factories came over and settled 
in New York. About 60 per cent of the Bohemians 
and Moravians who have settled here are Catholics, 
and their churches have been fairly maintained. 
Their inunigration during the past ten years has been 
98,100, and in 1910 the number of Bohemians in the 

United States, immigrants and native bom, was 
reckoned at 550,000. They have some 140 Bohe- 
mian Catholic churches and about 250 Bohemian 
priests; their societies, schools, and general institu- 
tions are active and flourishing. 

II. Bulgarians (BiUgar; adjective hiUmiraki, 
Bulgarian). — This part of the Slavic race inhabits 
the present Kingdom of Bulgaria, and the Turkish 

Srovmces of Eastern Rumeha, representing ancient 
lacedonia. Thus it happens that the Bulgarians 
are almost equaUy divided between Turkey and 
Bulgaria. Their ancestors were the Bolgars or 
Bulgars, a Finnish tribe, which conquered, inter- 
married, and coalesced with the Slav inhabitants, and 
eventualljr gave their name to them. TTie Bulgarian 
tongue is in many respects the nearest to the Church 
Slavonic, and it was the ancient Bulgarian which 
Sts. Cyril and Methodius are said to have learned in 
order to evangelize the pagan Slavs. The modern 
Bulgarian lanffuaj^e, written with Russian characters 
and a few additions^ differs from the other Slavic 
languages in that it, like English, has lost nearly every 
inflexion, and, like Rumanian, has the peculiarity of 
attaching the article to the end of the word, while 
the other Slavic tongues have no article at all. The 
Bulgarians who have gained their freedom from Turk- 
ish supremacy in the present Kingdom of Bulgaria 
are fairly contented; but those in Macedonia chafe 
bitterly against Turkish rule and form a large portion 
of those who emigrate to America. The Bulgarians 
are nearly all of the Greek Orthodox Church; there 
are some twenty thousand Greek Catholics, mostly 
in Macedonia, and about 50,000 Roman Catholics. 
The Greek Patriarch of Constantinople has always 
claimed jurisdiction over the Bulgarian Orthodox 
Church, and he enforced his jurisdiction until 1872, 
when the Bulgarian exarch was appointed to exercise 
supreme jurisdiction. Since that time the Bu^arians 
have been in a state of schism to the patriarch. 
They are mled in Bulgaria by a Holy S3rnod of their 
own, whilst the Bulgarian exarch, resident in Constan- 
tinople, is the head of the entire Bulgarian Church. 
He is recognized by the Russian Church, but is 
considered excommunicate by the Greek Patriarch, 
who however retained his authority over the Greek- 
speaking churches of Macedonia and Bulgaria. 

Bul^nuians came to the United States as early as 
1890; out there were then only a few of them as 
students, mostly from Macedonia, brought hither by 
mission bodies to study for the Protestant ministry. 
The real immigration began in 1905, when it seems 
that the Bulgarians discovered America as a land of 
opportimity, stimulated probably by the Turki^ 
and Greek persecutions tnen raging in Macedonia 
against them. The railroads and steel works in 
the West needed men, and several enterprising steam- 
ship agents brought over Macedonians ana Bulga- 
rians in large numbers. Before 1906 there were 
scarcely 500 to 600 Bulgarians in the country, and 
these chiefly in St. Louis, Missouri. Since then 
they have been coming at the rate of from 80(X) to 
10,000 a year, until now (1911) there are from 
80,000 to 90,000 Bulgarians scattered throughout the 
United States and (Janada. The majority of them 
are employed in factories, railroads, mines, and sugar 
works. Granite City, Madison, and Chicago. Illi- 
nois: St. Louis, Missouri; Indianapolis, Inaiana; 
Steelton, Pennsylvania; Portland, Oregon, and New 
York City all have a considerable Bulgarian popula- 
tion. They also take to farming and are scattered 
throughout the north-west. They now (^1911) have 
three Greek Orthodox churches in the United States, 
at Granite City and Madison, Illinois, and at Steelton, 
Pennsylvania, as well as several mission stations. 
Their clergy consist of one monk and two secular 
priests; and they also have a church at Toronto, 
Canada. There are no Bulgarian Catholics, either 




of the Greek or Roman Rite, sufRcient to form a 
church here. The Bulgarians, unlike the other 
Slavs, have no church or oenefit societies or brother- 
hoods in America. They publish five Bulgarian 
papers, of which the *'Naroden Glas" of Granite 
City is the most important. 

III. Croatians (Hrvat; adjective, hrvatski, Croa- 
tian). — These arc the inhabitants of the autonomous 
or home-rule province of Croatia-Slavonia, in the 
south-western part of the Kingdom of Hungary where 
it reaches down to the Adriatic Sea. It includes not 
only them but also the Slavic inhabitants of Istria and 
Dalmatia, in Austria, and those of Bosnia and Herzo- 
govina who are Catholic and use the Roman alphabet, 
in blood and speech the Croatians and Servians are 
practically one; but religion and politics divide them. 
The former are Roman Catholics and use the Roman 
letters; the latter are Greek Orthodox and use modi- 
fied Russian letters. In many of the places on the 
border-line school-children have to learn both alpha- 
bets. The English word "cravat " is derived from their 
name, it being the Croatian neckpiece which the south 
Austrian troops wore. Croatia-iSlavonia itself has a 
population of nearly 2,500,000 and is about one-third 
the size of the State of New York. Croatia in the west 
is mountainous and somewhat poor, while Slavonia in 
the east is level, fertile, and productive. Many Dal- 
matian Croats from seaport towns came herefrom 1850 
to 1870. The original emigration from Croatia-Sla- 
vonia began in 1873', upon tne completion of the new 
railway connexions to the seaport of Fiume, when 
some of the more adventurous Croatians came to the 
United States. From the earlv eighties the Lipa- 
Krbava district furnished mucn of the emigration. 
The first Croatian settlements were made in Calu- 
met, Michigan, while many of them became lumber- 
men in Michigan and stave-cutters along the Missis- 
sippi. Around Agram (Zdgr^b, the Croatian capital) 
the grape disease caused large destruction of vine- 
yards and the consequent emigration of thousands. 
Later on emigration began from Varasdin and from 
Slavonia also, and now immigrants arrive from every 
county in Croatia-Slavonia. In 1899 the figures for 
Croatia-Slavonia were 2923, and by 1907 the annual 
immigration had risen to 22,828. the largest number 
coming from Agram and Varasain Counties. Since 
then it has fallen off, and at the present time (1911) 
it is not quite 20,000. .Unfortunately the govern- 
mental statistics do not separate the Slovenians 
from the Croatians in giving the arrivals of Austro- 
Hungarian immigrants, but the Hungarian figures 
of departures serve as checks. 

The number of Croatians in the United States at 
present, including the native-born, is about 280,000, 
divided according to their origin as follows: from 
Croatia-Slavonia, 160,000; Dahnatia, 80,000; Bosnia, 
20,000; Herzegovina, 15,000; and the remainder 
from various parts of Hungary and Servia. The 
largest ^oup of them is in Pennsylvania, chiefly 
in the neighbourhood of Pittsburg, and they number 
probably from 80,000 to 100,000. Illinois has about 
45^000, chiefly in Chicago. Ohio has about 35,000, 
prmcipally in Cleveland and the vicinity. Other 
considerable colonies are in New York, San Fran- 
cisco, St. Louis, Kansas City, and New Orleans. 
They are also in Montana, Colorado, and Michigan. 
The Dalmatians are chiefly engaged in business and 
grape culture; the other Croatians are mostly labour- 
ers employed in mining, railroad work, steel mills, 
stockyards^ and stone quarries. Nearly all of these 
are Catholics, and they now have one Greek Catholic 
and 16 Roman Catholic churches in the United States. 
The Greek Catholics are almost wholly from the 
Diocese of Kriievai (Crisium), and are chiefly settled 
at Chicago and Cleveland. They have some 250 
80(Meties devoted to church and patriotic purposes, 
and in some cases to Socialism, but as yet tney have 

no very lar^e central organization, the National 
Croatian Union with 29,247 members being the 
largest. They publish ten newspapers, among them 
two dailies, of which "Zajednicar" the organ of 
Narodnc Hrvatske Zajednice (National Croatian 
Union) is the best known. 

IV. Poles (Polakf a Pole; adjective polskif Polish). 
— ^The Poles came to the United States quite early 
in its history. Aside from some few early settlers, 
the American Revolution attracted such noted men 
as Kosciuszko and Pulaski, together with many 
of their fellow-countrymen. The Polish Revolution 
of 1830 brought numbers of Poles to the United States. 
In 1851 a Polish colony settled in Texas, and called 
their settlement Panna Mary a (Our Lady Mary). 
In 1860 they settled at Parisville, Michigan, and 
Polonia, Wisconsin. Many distinguished Poles served 
in the Civil War (1861-65) upon both sides. After 
1873 the Polish immigration began to grow apace, 
chiefly from Prussian Poland. Then the tide turnea 
and came from Austria, and later from Russian 
Poland. In 1890 they began to come in the greatest 
numbers from Austrian and Russian Poland, until 
the flow from German Poland has largely diminished. 
The immigration within the past ten years has been 
as -follows: from Russia, 53 per cent; from Austria 
about 43 per cent; and only a fraction over 4 per cent 
from the Prussian or German portion. It is esti- 
mated that there are at present about 3,000,000 
Poles in the United States, counting the native-bom. 
It may be said that they are almost solidly Catholic; 
the dissident and disturbing elements among them 
being but comparatively small, while there is no 

Puieiy Protestant element at all. They have one 
olish bishop, about 750 priests, and some 520 
churches and chapels, besides 335 schools. There 
are large numbers, both men and women, who are 
members of the various religious communities. The 
Poles publish some 70 newspapers, amount them 
nine daili^ 20 of which are purely Catholic publi- 
cations. Their religious and national societies are 
large and flourishing; and altogether the Polish ele- 
ment is active and progressive. 

V. Russians (Rossiyanin; adjective rossiiskif Rus- 
sian). — The Russian Empire is the largest nation in 
Europe, and its Slavic inhabitants (exclusive of Poles) 
are convposed of Great Russians or Northern Russians, 
White Russians or Western Russians, and the Little 
Russians (Ruthenians) or Southern Russians. The 
Great Russians dwell in the central and northern 
parts of the empire around Moscow and St. Peters- 
burg, and are so called in allusion to their stature and 
great predominance in number, government, and 
language. The White Russians are so called from 
the prevailing colour of the clothing of the peasantry, 
and inhabit the provinces lying on the borders of 
Poland — Vitebsk, Mohileff, Minsk, Vilna, and Grodno. 
Their lan^age diflfers but slightly from Great Rus- 
sian, inclining towards Polish and Old Slavonic. 
The Little Russians (so called from their low stature) 
differ considerably from the Great Russians in lan- 

OB and customs, and they inhabit the Provinces of 
, Kharkoff". Tchernigoff, Poltava, Podolia, and 
Volhynia, and they are also found outside the Empire 
of Russia in Galicia, Bukovina, and Hungary (see 
below, VI. Ruthenians). The Great Russians may 
be regarded as the norm of the Russian people. Their 
language became the language of the court and of 
literature, just as High German and Tuscan Italian 
did, and they form the overwhelming majority of the 
inhabitants of the Russian Empire. They are prac- 
tically all Greek Orthodox, the Catholics in Russia 
being Poles or Germans where they are of the Roman 
Rrite,, and Little Russians (Ruthenians) where they 
are of the Greek Rite. 

The Russians have long been settled in America, 
for Alaska was Russian territory before it was pur- 


chased by the United States in 1867. The Russian tvo Vzaimopomoshchi" (Russian Orthodox Mutual 
Greek Orthodox church has been on American soil Aid Society) for men, founded in 1895, now (1911) hav- 
for over a century. The immigration from Russia ing 199 councils and 7072 members, and the women's 
is however composed of very few Russians. It is division of the same, founded in 1907, with 32 coimcils 
principally made up of Jews (Russian and Polish), and 690 members. They publish two church papers, 
Poles, and Lithuanians. Out of an average emigra- ''American Orthodox Nlessenger^', and "Svit''; 
tion of from 250,000 to 260,000 annually from the although there are some nine other Russian papers 
Russian Empire to the United States, 65 per cent have published by Jews and Socialists. 
been Jews and only from three to five per cent actual VI. Ruthenians (/2tmn; adjective russkyf Ruthe- 
Russians. .Nevertheless the Russian peasant and nian). — ^These are the southern branch of the Rus- 
working class are active emigrants, and the exodus sian family, extending from the middle of Austria- 
from European Russia is relatively large. But it Hungary across the southern part of Russia. The use 
is directed eastward instead of to the west, for Russia of the adjective russkp by both the Ruthenians and 
is intent upon settling up her vast prairie lands in the Russians permits it to be translated into English 
Siberia. Hindrances are placed in the way of those by the word ''Ruthenian'' or '' Russian '\ They 
Russians (except the Jews) who would leave for are also called Little Russians (Malarossiani) in the 
America or the west of Europe, while inducements Empire of Russia, and sometimes Russniaki in Hun- 
and advantages are offered for settlers in Siberia, gary. The appellations ''Little Russians'' and 
For the past five years about 500,000 Russians have ^Ruthenians" nave come to have almost a technical 
annually migrated to Siberia, a number equal to meaning, the former indicating subjects of the Rus- 
one-half the immigrants yearly received by the sian Empire who are of the Greek Orthodox Church. 
United States from all sources. They go in great and the latter those who are in Austria-Hungary ana 
colonies and are aided by the Russian Government are Catholics of the Greek Rite. Those who are 
by grants of land, loans of money, and low transporta- active in the Panslavic movement and are Russo- 
tion. New towns and cities have sprung up all oyer philes are very anxious to have them c^ed "Rus- 
Siberia, which are not even on -our maps, thus rivalling sians", no matter whence they come. The Ruthe- 
the American settlement of the Dakotas and the North- nians are of the original Russo-Slavic race, and 
West. Many Russian religious colonists, other than gave their name to the peoples making up the present 
the Jews, have come to America; but often they are Russian Empire. They are spread all over the south- 
not wholly of Slavic blood or are Little Russians em part of Russia, in the provinces of Kieff , Kharkoff , 
(Ruthenians). It therefore happens that there are Tchernigoff, Poltava, Podolia, and Volhynia (see 
verv few Russians in the United States as compared above, V. Russians), but by force of governmental 
with other nationalities. There are, according to the pressure and restrictive laws are being slowly made 
latest estimates, about 75,000, chiefly in Pennsylvania mto Great Russians. Only within the past five 
and the Middle West. There has been a Russian years has the use of their own form of language and 
colony in San Francisco for sixty years, and they are their owii newspapers and press been allowed by law 
numerous in and around New York City. in Russia. Nearly every Ruthenian author in the 

The Russian Orthodox 'Church is well established empire has written his chief works in Great Russian, ' 

here. About a third of the Russians in the United because denied the use of his own language. They 

States are opposed to it, being of the anti-govem- are also spread throughout the Provinces of Lublin, 

ment, semi-revolutionary type of immigrant. But in Poland; Galicia andfBukovina, in Austria^ and the 

the others are enthusiastic in support of their Church Counties of Szepes, Saros, Abauj, Zemplin, Ung. 

and their national customs, yet their Church includes Marmos, and Bereg, in Hungarv. They have had 

not only them but the Little Russians of Bukovina an opportunity to develop in Austria and also in 

and a very large number of Greek Catholics of Gali- Hungary. In the latter country thcv are closely 

cia and Hungary whom they have induced to leave allied with the Slovaks, and many of them speak 

the Catholic and ent^r the Orthodox Church. The the Slovak language. They are all of the Cfreck 

Russian Church in the United States is endowed by Rite, and with the exception of those in Russia and 

the tsar and the Holy Governing Synod, besides Bukovina are Catholics. Thev use the Russian 

having the support of Russian missionary societies alphabet for their language, and in Bukovina and a 

at home, and is upon a flourishing financial basis portion of Gahcia have a pnonetic spelling, thus dif- 

in the United States. It now (1911) has 83 churches fering largely from Great Russian, even in words that 

and chapels in the United States, 15 in Alaska, and are common to both. 

18 in Canada, making a total of 126 places of wor- Their immijgration to America commenced in 1880 
ship, besides a theological seminary at Minneapolis as labourers in the coal mines of Pennsylvania and 
and a monastery at South Canaan, Pennsylvania. Ohio, and has steadily increased ever since. Although 
Their present clergy is composed of one arcnbishop, they were the poorest class of peasants and labourers, 
one bishopj 6 proto-priests, 89 secular priests, 2 illiterate for tne most part and unable to grasp the 
archimandrites, 2 hegumcns, and 18 monastic priests, English language or American customs when they ar- 
making a total of 119, while they also exercise juris- rived, they have rapidly risen in the scale of prosperity 
diction over the Servian and Syrian Orthodox clergy and are now rivallmg the other nationalities in pro- 
besides. Lately they took over a Greek Catholic gress. Greek Ruthenian churches and institutions are 
sisterhood, and now have four Basilian nuns. The being established upon a substantial basis, and their 
United States is now divided up into the following clergy and schools are steadily advancing. They are 
six districts of the Russian Church, intended to be scattered all over the United States, and there are now 
the territory for future dioceses: New York and the (1911) between 480,000 and 500,000 of them, count- 
New England States; Pennsylvania and the Atlantic ing immigrants and native bom. Their immigration 
states; Pittsburg and the Middle West; Western for the past five years has been as follows: 1907, 
Pacific States; Canada; and Alaska. Their statis- 24,081; 1908, 12,361; 1909, 15,808; 1910, 27,907; 
tics of church population have not been published 1911, 17,724; being an average of 20,000 a year, 
lately in their year-books, and much of their growth They have chiefly settled in the State of Pennsylvania, 
has been of late years by additions gained from the over half of them being there: but Ohio, New York, 
Greek Catholic Ruthenians of Galicia and Hungary, New Jersey, and Illinois have large numbers of them. 
and is due'largely to the active and energetic work The Greek Rite in the Slavonic language is firmly 
and financial support of the Russian church authori- established through them in the United States, but 
ties at St. Petersburg and Moscow. they suffer greatly from Russian Orthodox endeavours 

They have the "RiuskoyePravoslavnoyeObshches- to lead them from the Catholic Church, as well as 




from frequent internal dissensions (chieflv of an old- 
world political nature) among themselves. Thev 
have 152 Greek Catholic churches, with a Gredk 
clergy consisting of a Greek Catholic bishop who has 
his seat at Philadelphia, but without diocesan powers 
as yet, and 127 priests, of whom 9 are Basilian monks. 
During j.011 Ruthenian Greek Catholic nuns of the 
Order of St. Basil were introduced. The Ruthenians 
have flourishing religious mutual benefit societies, 
which idso assist in the building of Greek churches. 
The "Soyedineniya Greko-Katohcheskikh Bratstv" 
(Greek Catholic Union) in its senior division has 509 
brotherhoods or councils and 30,255 members, 
while the junior division has 226 brotherhoods ana 
15,200 members; the "Russky Narodny Soyus" 
(Ruthenian National Union) has 301 brotherhoods 
and 15,200 members; while the ''Obshchestvo Rus- 
skikh Bratstv" (Societv of Russian Brotherhood) has 
129 brotherhoods and 7350 members. There are 
also many Ruthenians who belong to Slovak organiza- 
tions. The Ruthenians publish some ten papners, 
of which the '^Amerikansky Russky Viestnik", 
"Svoboda", and " Dushpastyr" aste the principal ones. 

VII. Servians (Srbin; adjective armkif Ser- 
vian). — ^This designation applies not only to the 
inhabitants of the Kingdom of Servia, but includes 
the people, of the following countries forming a geo- 
fi;rapnical although not a political whole: southern 
Hungary, the Kingdoms of Servia and Montenegro, 
the Turkish Provinces of Kossovo, Western Mace- 
donia and Novi-Bazar, and the annexed Austrian 
provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The last 
two provinces may be said to furnish the shadowy 
boundary line between the Croatians and the Ser- 
vians. The two peoples are ethnologically the same, 
and the Servian and Croatian languages are merely 
two dialects of the same Slavic toneue. Servians are 
sometimes called the Shiokavskiy oecause the Ser- 
vian word for "what" is skLOy wnile the Croats use 
the word cha for "what", and Croatians are called 
Chakavski. The Croatians are Roman Catholics 
and use the Roman alphabet (latinica)^ whilst the 
Servians are Greek Orthodox and use the Cyrillo- 
Russian alphabet (art/ica), with additional signs to 
express special sounds not found in the Russian. 
Servians who happen to be Roman Catholics are 
called Bunjevaci (disturbers, dissenters). 

Servian unmigration to the United States did not 
commence until about 1892, when several hundred 
Montenegrins and Servians came with the Dalma- 
tians and settled in California. It began to increase 
largely in 1903 and was at its hi^est in 1907. They 
are largely settled in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois. 
There are no governmental statistics showing how 
many Servians come from Servia and how many 
from the surrounding provinces. The Servian Gov- 
ernment has established a special consular office in 
New York City to look after Servian immigration. 
There are now (1911) about 150,000 Servians in the 
United States. They are located as follows: New 
England States, 25,000; Middle Atlantic States. 
50,000; Middle Western States, 25,000; Western and 
Pacific States, 25,000; and the remainder throughout 
the Southern States and Alaska. They have brought 
with them their Orthodox clergy, and are at present 
affiliated with the Russian Orthodox Church here 
although they expect shortly to have -their own na- 
tional bishop. Tiiey now (1911) have in the United 
States 20 churches (of which five are in Pennsylvania) 
and 14 clergy, of whom 8 are monks and 6 seculars. 
They publish eight newspapers in Servian, of which 
"Amerikanski Srbobran" of Pittsburg, "Srbobran" 
of New York, and "Srpski Glasnik" of San Francisco 
are the most important. They have a large number 
of church and patriotic societies, of which the Serb 
Federation "Sloga" (Concord) with 131 druStva or 
councils and over 10,000 members and "Prosvjeta" 

(Progress), composed of Servians from Bosnia and 
Herzegovina, are the most prominent. 

VIII. Slovaks (Slovak; adjective alovenskSj Slo- 
vak). — ^These occupy the north-western portion of 
the Kingdom of Hungary upon the southern slopes 
of the Carpathian mountains, ranging over a territory 
comprising the Counties of Poszony, Nyitra, Bars, 
Hont, Zolyom, Trencs^n, Turocs, Arva, Lipt6, 
Szepes, Sdroe, Zemplin, Ung, Abauj, Gomor, and 
N6^ad. A well-defined ethnical line is all that 
divides the Slovaks from the Ruthenians and the 
Magyars. Their language is almost the same as the 
Bohemian, for they received their literature and their 
mode of writing it from the Bohemians^ and even 
now nearly all the Protestant Slovak hterature is 
from Bohemian sources. It must be remembered 
however that the Bohemians and Moravians dwell 
on the northern side of the Carpathian mountains 
in Austria, whilst the Slovaks are on the south of 
the Carpathians and are wholly in Hung^uy . Between 
the Moravians and the Slovaks, dwelling so near to 
one another, the relationship was especiaUy close. 
The Slovak and Moravian people were amons those 
who first heard the story of Christ from the Slavonic 
apostles Sts. Qyni and Methodius, and at one tim€ 
tneir tribes must have extended down to the Danube 
and the southern Slavs. The Magyars (Hungarians) 
came in from Asia and the East, and like a wedge 
divided this group of northern Slavs from those on 
the south. 

The Slovaks have had no independent history and 
have endured successively Polish rule, Magyar con- 
c^uest, Tatar invasions, German invading coloniza- 
tion, Hussite raids from Bohemia, and the dynastic 
wars of Hungary. In 1848-49, when revolution 
and rebellion were in the air, the Hungarians began 
their war against Austria; the Slovaks in turn rose 
against the Hungarians for their language and national 
customs, but on the conclusion of peace they were 
again incorporated as part of Hungary without any 
of their rights recognized. Later they were ruthlessly 
put down when they refused to carry out the Hun- 
garian decrees, particularly as they had rallied to 
the support of the Austrian throne. In 1861 the 
Slovaks presented their famous Memorandum to 
the Imperial Throne of Austria, praying for a bill 
of rights and for their autonomous nationality. 
Stephen Moyses, the distinguished Slovak Catholic 
bishop, besou^t the emperor to grant national 
and language rights to them. The whole movement 
awoke popular enthusiasm. Catholics and Protestants 
working together for the common good. In 1862 
high schools were opened for Slovaks; the famous 
''Slovenska Matica , to publish Slovak 1>ooks and 
works of art and to foster the study of the Slovak 
historv and language, was founded; and in 1870 the 
Catholics also founded the "Society of St. Voytech", 
which became a powerful helper. Slovak newspapers 
sprang into existence and 150 reading clubs and 
libraries were established. After the defeat of the 
Austrian arms at Sadowa in 1866, pressure was re- 
sumed to split the empire into two parts, Austrian 
and Hungarian, each of which was practically inde- 
pendent. The Slovaks thenceforth came wholly 
under Hungarian rule. Then the Law of Nationali- 
ties was passed which recognized the predominant 
position of the Magyars, but ^ve some small recog- 
nition to the other minor nationalities, such as the 
Slovaks, by allowing them to have churches and 
schools conducted in their own language. 

In 1878 the active Magyarization of Hungary was 
undertaken. The doctrine was mooted that a native 
of the Kingdom of Hungary could not be a patriot 
unless he spoke, thought, and felt as a Magyar. A 
Slovak of education who remained true to his ancestry 
(and it must be remembered that the Slovaks were 
there long before the Hungarians came) was considered 


deficient in patriotism. The most advanced political and organization, which presents a striking; contrast 
view was that a compromise with the Slovaks was to the cramped development of their kmsmen in 
impossible; that there was but one expedient, to wipe Hungary. 1 heir immi^atioh of late years has ranged 
them out a^ far as possible by assimilation 'with the annuallv from 52,368 in 1905 to 33,416 in 1010. 
Magyars. Slovak schools and institutions were Altogether it is estimated that there are now some 
ordered to be closed, the charter of the "Matica'' 560,000 Slovaks in the United States, including the 
was annulled, and its library and rich historical and native bom. They are spread throughout the coun- 
artistic collections, as well as its funds, were confis- try, chiefly in the following states: Pennsylvania, 270,- 
cated. Inequalities of every kind before the law 000; Ohio, 75,000; Illinois, 50,000; New Jersey. 50|000; 
weredevisecffor the undoing of the Slovaks and turn- New York, 35,000; Connecticut, 20,000; Indiana, 
ing them into Hungarians; so much so that one of 15,000; Missouri, 10,000; whilst they range from 5000 
their authors likened them to the Irish in their to a few hundreds in the other states. About 450,000 
troubles. The Hungarian authorities in their en- of them are Roman Catholics, 10,000 Greek Catholics 
deavour to suppress the Slovak nationality went and 95,000 Protestants. 
X even to the extent of taking awav Slovak children The first Slovak Catholic church in the United 
to be brought up as Magyars, ana forbade them to States was founded by Rev. Joseph Kossaiko at 
use their Icmguage in school and church. The Streator, Illinois, and was dedicated 8 Dec, 1883. 
2,000.000 Catholic Slovaks clung to their language Following this he also built St. Joseph's Church at 
and Slavic customs, but the cler^ were educated Hazleton, Pennsylvania, in 1884. In 1889 Rev. 
in their seminaries through the medium of the Magyar Stephen Furdek founded the Church of St. Ladislas 
tongue and required in their parishes to conform to at Cleveland, Ohio, together with a fine parochial 
the state idea. Among the 750,000 Protestant Slovaks school, both of which were dedicated by Bishop Gil- 
the Government went even further by takins control mour. The American bishops were anxious to get 
of their synods and bishops. Even Slovak family Slovak priests for -the increasing immifijation, and 
names were changed to Hungarian ones, and prefer- Bishop uilmour sent Father Furdek to Hungary for 
ment was only through Hungarian channels. Natu- that purpose. The Hungarian bishops were unwilling 
rally, religion decayed under the stress and strain of to send Slovak priests at first, but as immigration 
repressed nationahty. Slovak priests did not per- increased they acceded to the request. At present 
form their duties with ardour or diligence, but con- (1911) the Catholic Slovaks have a clerey consisting 
fined themselves to the mere routine of canonical of one bishop (Rt. Rev. J. M. Koudelka) and 104 
obligation. There are no monks or religious orders priests, and nave 134 churches situated as follows: 
among the Slovaks and no provision is made for any m Pennsylvania, 81 (Dioceses of Altoona, 10; Erie, 4: 
kind of community Ufe. Catechetical instruction Harrisburg, 3; Philadelphia, 15; Pittsbure, 35; ana 
is at a minimum and is required to be given whenever Scranton, 14) ; in Ohio. 14 (in the Diocese of Cleveland, 
possible through the medium of the Hungarian Ian- 12, and Columbus, 2) ; in Illinois, 10 (in the Arch- 
guage. There is no lack of priests in the Slovak diocese of Chicago, 7; and Peoria, 3); in New Jersey, 
country^ yet the practice of solemnizing the reception 11 (in the Diocese of Newark, 7; and Trenton, 4); 
of the first communion by the children is unknown in New York. 6; and in the States of Connecticut, 3; 
and many other forms of Catholic devotion are Indiana, 2; Wisconsin, 2; and Minnesota, Michigan, 
omitted. Even the Holy Rosary Society was Missouri, Alabama, and West Virginia, one each, 
dissolved, because its devotions and proceedings were Some of the Slovak church buildings are very fine 
conducted in Slovak. The result of governmental specimens of church architecture. There are also 
restriction of any national expression has been a 36 Slovak parochial schools, that of Our Lady Mary 
complete lack of initiative on the part of the Slovak in Cleveland having 750 pupils. They have also 
priesthood, and it is needless to speak of the result introduced an American order of Slovak nuns, the 
upon their flocks. In the eastern part of the Slovak Sisters of Saints Cyril and Methodius, who are 
territory where there were Slovak-speaking Greek established under the direction of Bishop Hoban in 
Catholics, they fared slightly better in regard to the Diocese of Scranton, where they have four schools, 
the attempts to make them Hungarians. There the The Protestant Slovaks followed the example of 
liturgy was Slavonic and the clergy who used the the Catholics and ^tablished their first church at 
Magyar tongue still were in close touch with their Streator, Illinois, in 1885, and later founded a church 
people through the ofiices of the Church. All this at Minneapolis in 1888, and from 1890 to 1894 three 
pressure on the part of the authorities tended to churches in Pennsylvania. They now have in the 
produce an active Slovak emigration to America, United States 60 Slovak churches and congregations 
while bad harvests and taxation also contributed. (of which 28 are in Pennsylvania), with 34 mmisters 
A few immigrants came to America in 1864 and (not including some 5 Presbyterian clerinrmen), who 
their success brought others. In the late seventies are organized under the name of ''The ^ovak Evan- 
the Slovak exodus was well marked, and by 1882 it eelical Lutheran Synod of America". The Slovaks 
was sufficiently important to be investigated by the have a large number of organizations. The principal 
Hungarian Minister of the Interior and directions Catholic ones are: PrvaKatolicka SlovenskdJednota 
given to repress it. The American immigration (First Slov^ Catholic Union), for men, 33,000 
figures indicate the first important SIoviJe influx members: Pennsylvdnska Slovensk^ Rimsko a 
in 1873 when 1300 immigrants came from Hungary, Gr^cko Katolfcka Jednota (Pennsylvania Slovak 
which rose to 4000 in 1880 and to nearly 15,000 m Roman and Greek Catholic Union), 7500 members; 
1884, most of them settling in the mining and indus- Prva Katolfcka SlovenskA Zenskd Jednota (First 
trial regions of Pennsylvania. At first they came Catholic Slovak Women's Union), 12,000 members; 
from the Counties of Zemplin, Saros, Szepes, and Pennsylvtoska Slovenskd Zenskd Jednota (Pennsyl- 
Ung, where there were also many Ruthenians. TTiey vania Slovak Women's Union), 3500 members; 
were called "Huns" or "Hunkies", and were used Zivena (Women's League), 6000 members. There 
at first to fill the places left vacant by strikers. They are also: Ndrodn^ Slovensk^ Spolok (National 
were very poor and willing to work for little when Slovak Society), which takes m all Slovaks except 
they arrived, and were accordingly hated by the Jews, 28,000 members; Evanjeltcka Slovenskd Jed- 
members of the various unions. The Slovak girls, nota (Evangelical Lutheran Slovak Union), 8000 
like the Irish, mostly went into service, and because members: Kalvinski Slovenskd Jednota (Presby- 
they had almost no expense for living managed to terian Slovak Union), 1000 members; Neodvisl^ 
earn more than the men. To-day the Slovaks of Ndrodny Slovensk^ Spolok (Independent National 
America are beginning to possess a national culturo Slovak Society), 2000 members. They also have a 




large and enterprising Press, publishing some four- 
teen papers. The chief ones are: ''Slovensk^ Den- 
nfk" (Slovak Journal), a daily, of Pittsburg; ''Slovak 
V Amerike" (Slovak in America), of New York; 
"Narodne Noviny" (National News), a weekly^ of 
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, with 38,000 circulation; 
"Jednota" (The Union), also a weekly, of Middle- 
town, Pennsylvania, with 35,000 circulation; and 
"Bratstvo" (Brotherhood) of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsyl- 
vania. There are also Protestant and Socialistic 
Slovak journals, whose circulation is small. Among 
the distinguished Slovaks in the United States may 
be mentioned Rev. Joseph Murgas of Wilkes-Barre, 
who, in addition to his work among hb people, has 
perfected several inventions in wireless telegraphy 
and is favourably known in other scientific matters. 

IX. Slovenes (Slavenec; adjective slovenskiy Slove- 
nian). — These come chiefly from south-western 
Austria, from the Provinces of Camiola (Kranjsko; 
Ger., Krain). Carinthia (KoroSko; Ger., Kdmten), 
and Styria (Stajersko; Ger., Steiermark): as well as 
from Kesia (Resja) and Udine (Videm) in north- 
eastern Italy, and the Coast Lands (Primorsko) 
of Austria-Hungary. Their neighbours on the south- 
west are Italians; on the west and north, Germans; 
on the east. Germans and Magyars; and towards the 
south, Italians and their Slavic neighbours the 
Croatians. Most of them are bilingucd, speaking 
not only the Slovenian but also the German language. 
For this reason they are not so readily distinguishable 
in America as the other Slavs, and have less trouble 
in assimilating themselves. At home the main 
centres of then* language and literature have been 
Laibach (Ljubljana). Rlagenfurt (Celovec)^ Graz 
(Gradec), and (jrdrz (Uorica), the latter city being also 
largely Italian. In America they are sometimes 
known as Austrians, but are more often known as 
"Krainer", that being the German adjective of 
Krain (Carniola), from whence the lar^r number of 
them come to the United States: sometimes the word 
has even been mispronouncea and set down as 
"Griner". The Slovenes became known somewhat 
early in the history of the United States. Father 
Frederic Baraga was among the first of them to come 
here in 1830, and began his missionary work as a 
priest among the Indians of Michigan, Wisconsin, 
and Minnesota, and finally became the first Bishop 
of Marquette, Michigan. He studied the Indian 
languages and wrote their grammars and history in 
his various English, German, and Slovenian works. 
He also published several catechisms and religious 
works in Slovenian, and brought over several other 
Slovenian priests. 

In Calumet, Michigan, the Slovenes settled as 
early as 1856; they first appeared in Chicago and in 
Iowa about 1863, and in 1866 they founded their 
chief farming colony in Brockway, Minnesota. 
Here they stm preserve their own language and all 
their minute local peculiarities. They came to 
Omaha in 1868, and in 1873 their present large colony 
in Joliet, Illinois, was founded. Their earliest 
settlement in New York was towards the end of 
1878, and gradually their numbers have increased 
until they have churches in Haverstraw and Rockland 
Lake, where their language is used. They have also 
established farm settlements in lowa^ South Dakota, 
Idaho, Washington, and in additional places in 
Minnesota. Their very active immigration began 
in 1892, and has been (1900-1910) at the rate of 
from 6000 to 9000 annually, but has lately fallen 
off. The official government statistics class them 
along with the Croatians. There are now (1911) 
in the United States a little over 120,000 Slovenes; 
practically all of them are Catholics, and with no 
great differences or factions among them. There is 
a leaning towards Socialism in the large mining and 
manufacturing centres. In Pennsylvania there are 

about 30,000; in Ohia 15,000; in Illinois, 12,000; 
in Michigan, 8000; in Minnesota, 12,000; in Colorado, 
10,000; m Washington, 10,000; in Montana. 5000; 
in Cidifomia, 5000; and in fact there are Slovenes 
reported in almost every state and territory except 
Georgia. Their immigration was caused by tne 
poverty of the people at home, especiall}^ as Camiola 
is a rocky and mountainous district without much 
fertility, and neglected even from the times of the 
Turkii^ wars. Latterly the institution of Raffeisen 
banks, debt-paying and mutual aid associations, 
introduced among the people by the Catholic party 
(Sloyenska Ljudska Stranka), has diminished immi- 
gration and enabled them to live more comfortably 
at home. 

The Slovenes are noted for their adaptability, 
and have given many prominent missionary leaders 
to the Church in the United States. Among them 
are Bishops Baraga, Mrak, and Vertin (of Marquette), 
Stariha (of Lead), and Trobec (of St. Cloud); Mon- 
signori Stibil, Buh, and Plut; Abbot Bernard Loc- 
nika, O.S.B.; and many others. There are some 92 
Slovenian priests in the United States, and tweifty- 
five Slovenian churches. Many of their churches are 

§uite fine, especially St. Joseph's, Joliet, Illinois: 
t. Joseph's, Calumet, Michigan; and Sts. Cyril and 
Methodius, Sheboygan, Wisconsin. There are also 
mixed parishes where the Slovenes are united with 
other nationalities, usually with Bohemians. Slovaks, 
or Germans. There are no exclusively Slovenian 
religious communities. At St. John's, Minnesota, 
there are six Slovenian Benedictines, and at Rock- 
land Lake, New York, three Slovenian Franciscans, 
who are undertaking to establish a Slovenian and 
Croatian community. From them much of the 
information herein has been obtained. The Francis- 
can nuns at Joliet, Illinois, have many Slovenian 
sisters; at Kansas City, Kansas, there arc several 
Slovenian sisters engaged in school work; and there 
are some Slovenians among the Notre Dame Sisters 
of Cleveland, Ohio. Archbishop Ireland of St. Paul, 
Minnesota, sent to Austria for Slovenian seminarians 
to finish their education here, and also appointed 
three Slovenian priests as professors in his diocesan 
seminary, thus providing a Slovenian-American 
clergy for their parishes in his province. 

There are several church and benevolent organiza- 
tions among the Slovenians in America. The princi- 
pal ones are: Kranjsko Slovenska Katolifika jednota 
(Krainer Slovenian Catholic Union), organized in 
April, 1894, now having 100 councils and a member- 
ship of 12,000; Jugoslovenska KatoliSka Jednota 
(South Slovenian Catholic Union), organized in 
Jan., 1901, having 90 councils and 8000 members; 
besides these there are also Slovenska Zapadna 
Zveza (Slovenian Western Union), with 30 councils 
and about 3000 members, Drustva Sv. Barbara 
(St. Barbara Society), with 80 councils, chiefly 
among miners, and tne semi-socialistic Delvaska 
Podpoma Zveza (Workingmen's Benevolent Union), 
with 25 councils and a considerable membei^ 
ship. There are also Sv. Rafaelova Druiba (St. 
Raphael's Society), to assist Slovenian immigrants 
founded by Father Kasimir, O.F.M.. and the Society 
of Sts. C3rril and Methodius to assist Slovenian schools, 
as well as numerous singing and gymnastic organiza* 
tions. The Slovenians publish ten newspapers in 
the United States. The oldest is the Catholic weekly 
"Amerikanski Slovenec" (American Slovene), es- 
tablished in 1891 at Joliet, and it is the organ of the 
Krainer Slovenian Catholic Union. "Glas Naroda" 
(Voice of the People), established in 1892 in New 
York City, is a daily paper somewhat Liberal in its 
views, but it is the official organ of the South Slavonic 
Catholic Union and the St. Barbara Society. "Ave 
Maria" is a religious monthly published by the 
Franciscans of Rockland Lake, New York. ' Glae- 


by great men of other nations, and his kindness and 
tact eliminated ail bitterness from the controversiea 
in which he was forced to engage. Patriotism, the 

land, Chio; **Narodni Vestnik'* (People's Messenger), education of his people, their temporal and spiritual 

of Duluth, Minnesota; and "Slovenski Narod welfare, were his inspiring motives, as the non- 

(Siovenian People), of Pueblo, Colorado. There are Catholic Makusev remarks: "Education, based on 

also two purely Socialistic weeklies in Chicago: religion and nationaUty, was his lofty aim". Hu- 

"Proletarec" (Proletarian) and "Glas Svobode" mihty and childlike simplicity marked his life. His 

(Voice of Freedom). A very fine work, "Amerika priests, sincerely devoted to him, frequently heard him 

in Amerikanci" (America and the Americans), repeat the words: "When I was bom, my mother 

descriptive of all the United States and Slovenian laid me on a bed of straw, and I desire no better 

life and development here, has been published by pallet when I die, asking only to be in the state of 

Father J. M. Trunk at Klagenfurt, Austria. grace and worthy of salvation". 

Balcb. Our Siavic Fellow CUisena (New York, 1910); Houst, Grafenaneb, Hi8t. of Slovenian Literature (1862). 

Krdtki ikjiny a Seznam Cesko-Katolickifch Oaad ve Spoj. St6tech p. CyRIL ZuPAN. 

AmericMch (St. Louia. 1890) ; Koblbeck, The Catholic Bohemiane «. ^ /« n x 

cf the United StaUa in Champlain Educator, (New York, Jan.- SlOtaniUI (SCHLOTTANUS, VAN -DER SlOOTEN), 

Mar.. 1906); xrv, 36^54; J^.Jfn;. VAmerika (Madiaon 1911); Jqhn (John Geffen), polemical writer; b. at Geflfen, 

ZoBiCiS, NaH xsadjenxei u Sjedxnj. urtatamx Amerxekxm (Agram, o^k**** . A «f r»^ll«l^« o T»iKr i t^J\ TI« :^;T^i^ 

1900): Radio. Modema K<ioniiacija i Slaveni (Agram, 1904); Brabant; d. at Cologne, 9 July, 1560. He joined 

Kbobxka, Historya PoUka w Ameryee (Milwaukee. 190&-09); the Dominican order at Cologne about 1525. For 

Janw. LudnoM Poiato w Am«ryc« (Lemberg. 1905); Kbaitjbr. many years he ably defended the Faith against the 

^J^P t^f^ %^?rW^'1^^^^^^ heretic^ by preaching and writing. Laterle taught 

Rueeki Mieeiateoaiov (Homestead, 1907-12); Fubdek, Zivot sacred letters at Cologne, and m 1554 was made a 

^onhtnv Anurike in Towyitvo, HI (Rujomberok, 1890); doctor of theology. About this same time he became 

|SS>«'r'cX/»c'^»£^1^^ \^)\ prior of his convent at Cblope and as such exercised 

Capkk. The Siovake of Hungary (New York. 1906) ; Stead, the offices of Censbr of the faith and papal mquiSltor 

Sertia by the S^ne (London. 1909); Dubbam. Throuqh the throughout the Archdiocese of Cologne and the Rhine 

fS^;l,2lK^Dii«;t'in\^^^^^^ coun^. In the discharge of these responsible 

Rojakom Slovencem (Joliet. 1903); Tbunk, Amerika in Ameri- duties Slotanus Came into COnfuct With the learned 

kanei (Klagenfurt. ^2}^-^?)jJ^^S?^ ""^ ^ Cammieeumer of Justus Velsius, who in 1556, on account of heretical 

immHTotum (Washington. 1900-12). a„,p„ . ^ teachings, was obliged to leave Cologne. The vehe- 

ment wntinra which Yelsius afterwards published 

Slomiaky Anton Martin, Bishop of Lavant, in against the Cologne theologians moved Slotanus to 

Maribor, Stjrria, Austria, noted Slovenian educator, write two works in which nearly all the heretical 

b. 1800; d. 24 Sept., 1862. The dawn of the nine- doctrines of his time are discussed with admirable 

teenth century found the Slovenian schools in a pre- skill, 

carious condition; their number was pitifully small, Among his various works those most worthy of men- 


press the national language, and, to compass this (Cologne, 1560); ^'De barbaris nationibus oon- 

end, introduced foreign teachers thoroughly dis- vertendis ad Christum" (Cologne, 1559). In the 

tasteful to the people, whom in turn they despised, last-named work Slotanus witnesses to the ardent 

Moreover, booKS, magazines, papers, and other missionary zeal which fired the religious men of his 

educational influences were lacking, not because they time. 

would not have been gladly welcomed, but because Ecbabd, Script. Ord. Freed., II, 175; Hubtbb, Nomehdator; 

they were forbidden by the Government in its fear of f^i^JZ. ?S'*^1?/.^'tS SJSSfTi l^i^fiti^^ 

Panslavism. This situation bishop blomsek was com- 79 m.; Paulus, KUlner DominicanerachrifUteller a.d. 10. Jahrh. 

pelled to face. A man of initiative and discernment, in katholik II (1897^ 238 sq. 

the changes he wrought in a short time were wonder- Chas. J. Callan. 
ful. In the Constitution of 1848, granting national Sloth, one of the seven capital sins. In general it 
rights long denied, he found his instrument. Follow- means disinclination to labour or exertion. As a capi- 
ing this measure, though only after many futile at- tal or deadly vice St. Thomas (Il-Hf Q- xxxv) calls it 
tempts, he received official sanction to undertake the sadness in the face of some spiritual good which one 
reform of the schools. The first fruits of his labours has to achieve (tfisiitia de bono spiriiuali). Father 
were a series of excellent text-books, many from his Rickaby aptly translates its Latin equivalent acedia 
own pen, which proved powerful factors in the growth (Gr. drijdte) by saying that it moans the don't-care 
and development of religious as well as national feeling. A man ^prehends the practice of virtue to. 
education. The founding of the weekly, "Drob- be beset with difficulties and chafes under the re- 
tinice" (Crumbs), was his next step. Essays and straints imposed by the service of God. The narrow 
books on a great variety of subjects, embracing prac- way stretches wearily before him and his soul grows 
ticfUly every question on which his countrymen stood sluggish and torpid at the thought of the painful life 
in need of enlightenment, were published in quick journey. The idea of right living inspires not joy 
succession, and his vigorous and incisive style, well but disgust, because of its laboriousness. This is the 
adapted to the intelligence of his readers, though not notion commonly obtaining, and in this sense sloth 
lacking scholarly re&ement, made his works ex- is not a specific vice according to the teaching of St. 
ceedingly popular. His pastorals and sermons con- Thomas, but rather a circumstance of all vices. Or- 
stitute a literature of lasting value. In 1841 he sought dinarily it will not have the malice of mortal sin un- 
to realize a dream of vears — ^the establishment of a less, of course, we conceive it to be so utter that be- 
society' for the spread of Catholic literature. Un- cause of it one is willing to bid defiance to some serious 
foctunatelv, the movement was branded as Pansla- obligation. St. Thomas completes his definition of 
vistic, and failed at the time; but ten years later this sloth by saying that it is torpor in the presence of 
organization was effected, and Dru^ sv, Mohora spiritual good which is Divine good. In other words, 
b^an sending a few instructive books to Catholic a man is then formally distre^ed at the prospect of 
homes. To-oay, a million educational volumes have what he must do for God to bring about or keep in- 
been distributed among a million and a half of people, tact his f riendsliip with God. In this sense sloth is 
Although SlomSek was ardent and active in the directly opposed to charity. It is then a mortal sin 
interests of his own race, yet he was admired and loved unless the act \ye lacking in entire advertence or full 




consent of the will. The trouble attached to main- 
tenance of the inhabiting of God by charity arouses 
tedium in such a person. He violates, therefore, ex- 
pressly the first and the greatest of the command- 
ments: "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy 
whole heart, and with thy whole soul, and with thy 
whole mind, and with thy whole strength. " (Mark*, 
xii, 30). 

RiCKABY, Moral Teaching of Si. ThoTnas (London, 1896); 
Slatcb. Manual of Moral Theology (New York. 1908); St. 
Thomaa, Summa, II-II, Q. zxzv; Bali.brixi, Opus theologicum 
morale (Prato, 1898). 

Joseph F. Delant. 

Slythunt, Thomas, English confessor, b. in Berk- 
shire; d. in the Tower of London, 1560. He was 
B.A. Oxon, 1530; M.A., 1534; B.D., 1543; and sup- 
plicated for the degree of D.D., 1554-5, but never 
took it. He was rector of Chalfont St. Pet«r, Bucks, 
from 1545 to 1555, canon of Windsor. 1554, rector ot 
Chalfont St. Giles, Bucks, 1555, ana first President 
of Trinity College, Oxford. He was deprived of these 
three preferments in 1559. On 11 Nov., 1556, he was 
appoint^ with others by Convocation to regulate the 
exercises in theology on the election of Cardinal Pole 
to the chancellorship. 

Warton, Life of Sir Thomas Pope (London, 1772), 359; Cath- 
olic Record Society Publications, 1 (London, 1905 — ^), 118; Fox, 
Acts and Monuments, VIII (London, 1843-9), 636. 

John B. Wainbwriqht. 

Smalkaldic League, a politico-religious alliance 
formally concluded on 27 Feb., 1531, at Smalkalden 
in Hesse-Nassau, among German Protestant princes 
and cities iox^ their mutual defence. The compact 
was entered into for six years, and stipulated that any 
military attack made upon any one of the confede- 
rates on account of religion or under &ny other pretext 
was to be considered as directed against them all and 
resisted in common. The parties to it were : the Land- 
grave Philip of Hesse; the Elector John of Saxony and 
his son John Frederick ; the dukes Philip of Brunswick- 
Grubenhagen and Otto, Ernest, and Francis of Bruns- 
wick-Lttneburg; Prince Wolfgang of Anhalt; the 
counts Gebhard and Albrecht of Mansfeld and the 
towns of Strasburg, Ulm, Constance, Reutlingen, 
Memmingen, Lindau, Biberach, Isny, Magdeburg, 
and Bremen. The city of Lttbeck joined the league 
on 3 May, and Bavaria on 24 Oct., 1531. The acces- 
sion of foreign powers, notably England and France, 
was solicited, and the alliance of the latter nation se- 
cured in 1532. The princes of Saxony and Hesse 
were appointed military commanders of the confed- 
eration, and its military strength fixed at 10.000 infan- 
try and 2000 cavalry. At a meeting hela at Smal- 
kalden in Dec., 1535, the alliance was renewed for ten 
years, and the maintenance of the former military 
strength decreed, with the stipulation that it should bie 
doubled in case of emergencv. In April, 1536, Dukes 
Ulrich of Wiirtemberg and Barnim and Pnilip of 
Pomerania, the cities of Frankfort, Augsburg, Ham- 
burg, and Hanover joined the league with several 
other new confederates. An alliance was concluded 
with Denmark in 1538, while the usual accession 
of the German Estates which accepted the Refor- 
mation continued to strengthen the organization. 
Confident of its support, the Protestant princes intro- 
duced the new religion in numerous districts, sup- 
pressed bishoprics, confiscated church property, re- 
sisted imperial ordinances to the extent of refusing 
help against the Turks, and disregarded the decisions 
of the Imperial Court of Justice. 

In self-aef ence against the treasonable machinations 
of the confederation, a Catholic League was formed 
in 1538 at Nuremberg under the Ic^ership of the 
emperor. Both sides now actively prepared for an 
armed conflict, which seemed imminent. But negotia- 
tions carried on at the Diet of Frankfort in 1539 re- 
sulted, partly owing to the illness of the Landgrave of 

Hesse, in the patching up of a temporary peace. The 
emperor during this respite renewed his earnest but 
fnutless efforts to effect a religious settlement, while 
the Smalkaldic confederates continued their violent 
proceedings against the Catholics, particularly in the 
territory of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, where Duke 
Henry was unjustly expelled, and the new religion in- 
troduced (1542). It became more and more evident 
as time went on that a conflict was unavoidable. 
When, in 1546, the emperor adopted stem measures 
against some of the confederates, the War of Smal- 
kalden ensued. Althou^ it was midnly a religious 
conflict between Cathohcs and Protestants, the de- 
nominational lines were not sharply drawn. With 
Pope Paul III, who promised financial and military 
assistance, several Protestant princes, the principaJ 
among whom was Duke Maurice of Saixony, aefenoed 
the imperial and Catholic cause. The beginning of 
hostilities was marked nevertheless by the success of 
the Smalkaldic allies; but division and irresoluteness 
soon weakened them and caused their ruin in South- 
em Germany, where princes and cities submitted in 
rapid succession. The battle of MUhlberg (24 April, 
1547) decided the issue in favour of the emperor in 
the north. The Elector John Frederick of Smcony 
was captured, and shortly after the l4uidgrave Philip 
of Hesse was also forced to submit. The conditions 
of peace included the transfer of the electoral dignity 
from the former to his cousin Maurice, the reinstate- 
ment of Duke Henry of WoKenbUttel in his domin- 
ions, the restoration of Bishop Jidius von Pfiug to his 
See of Naumburg-Zeitz, and a promise demanded of 
the vanquished to reco^ize and attend the Council 
of Trent. The dissolution of the Smalkaldic League 
followed; the imperial success was complete, but tem- 
porary. A few years later another conflict broke out 
and ended with the triumph of Protestantism. 

WxNCKBLM ANN. DcT Sehmolkold. Bund {16SO-SX) u, der NUm- 
herger Jteligionsfriede (Strasburg, 1892) ; Habenclbvbr, Die 
Politik der Schmalkaldener vor Aushrueh des Schmalkald. Krieges 
^rlin, 1901); Iobm, Die Politik Kaiser KarU V u. Landgraf 
Philipps von Hessen vor Aut^yrueh des Schmalkald, Krieges (Mar- 
burs, 1903) ; Berbntklo, Der Schmalkald. Krieg in Ncrddeutsch- 
land (Mdiuter, 1908) ; Janssbn, Hist, of the German People, tr. 
Chribtib, V (St. Louis, 1903), passim; Pabtor, History of the 
Popes, tr. Kerr, X (St. Louis, 1910). 166 sqq. 

N. A. Weber. 

SmaragdUB, Ahdo, hagiographer, d. at the Ben- 
edictine monastery of Aniane, Herault, in Southern 
France, March, 843. He entered this monastery 
when still a boy and was brought up under the direc- 
tion of Abbot St. Benedict of Aniane. On account of 
his piety and talents he was ordained and put at the 
head of the school at his monastery. In 794 he ac- 
companied his abbot to the Council of Frankfort and 
in 814 was made abbot in place of Benedict, who on 
the invitation of Louis-le-i>ebonnaire had taken up 
his abode at the imperial Court at Aix-lsrChapelle. 
Smaragdus was honoured as a saint in his monastery. 
He is the author of a life of St. Benedict of Aniane 
which he wrote at the request of the monks of Cor- 
nelimtinster near Aix-larCnapelle, where Abbot Ben- 
edict had died. It was written in 822,and is one of 
the most reliable hagiological productions of that 
period. Mabillon edited it in his "Acta SS. of the 
Benedictine Order" (sseculum IV, 1, 192-217), whence 
it was reprinted m P. L., CIII, 353-84. It was 
iJso edited by Waitz in "Mon. Germ. Script.", 
XV, I, 200-29. 

Histoire Lit. de la Prance, V, 31-5; Cbilubr, HiHoire giniraU 
des auteurs sacris et eccUsiastiques, XII (Paris, 1862), 394; Ma- 
BiuLOS, Acta SS. Ord. S. Ben., snc. IV. I, 589; Ebert, AUge- 
meine Oesch. der Literatur des MiUelalters, II (Leipzig. 1880), 

Michael Ott. 

Smith, Geobqb. See Arqtll and thb Islbs, 
Diocese of. 

Smith, James, journalist, b. at SkoUand, in the 
Shetland Isles, about 1790; d. Jan., 1866. He spent 




his boyhood at SkoUand, a small place belonging to 
his mother^ who was a member of a branch of the 
Bruce family which had settled in Shetland in the 
sixteenth century. He studied law in Edinburgh, 
became a solicitor to the Supreme Court there, ana 
married a Catholic lady (a cousin of Bishop Macdon- 
ell of the Glengarry clan), the result being his own 
conversion to Catholicism. Naturalljr hampered in 
his career, at that period, by his profession of Catholi- 
cism, he turned his attention to hterature, and became 
the pioneer of Catholic journalism in Scotland. In 
1832 he originated and edited the ^' Edinburgh Catho- 
lic Magazine '\ which appeared somewhat inter- 
mittently in Scotland until April, 1838, at which date 
Mr. Smith went to reside in London, and the word. 
''Edinburgh'' was dropped from the title of the 
magazine, the publication of which was continued for 
some years in London. Mr. Smith, on settling in 
London, inaugurated the "Catholic Directory" for 
Ensland, in succession to the old " Laity's Directory ", 
and edited it for many years; and he was also for a 
short time editor of the "Dublin Review", in 1837. 
Possessed of considerable gifts both as a speaker and 
a»a writer, he was always ready to put them at the 
service of the Catholic cause; and during the years of 
agitation immediately preceding Cathohc Emancipa- 
tion, as well as at a later period, he was one of the most 
active champions of the Church in England and 
Scotland. He made a brilliant defence in public of 
Catholic doctrine when it was violently attacked by 
certain prominent members of the Established Church 
of Scotland, and pubUshed in this connexion, in 1831, 
his "Dialogues on the Catholic and Protestant Rules 
of Faith", between a member of the Protestant Ref- 
ormation Society and a Catholic layman. He also 
edited (1838) Challoner's abridgment of Gother's 
"Papist Misrepresented and Represented", with 
copious notes. Mr. Smith was father of the Most 
Rev. William Smith, second Archbbhop of St. 
Andrews and Edinburgh in the restored hierarchy of 
Scotland, and a distinguished Biblical scholar. 

GiLLOW. Bibl. Did. Bng, Cath., s. v. ; Catholie Directory for Scot- 
land (1893). 264. 

D. O. Hunter-Blair. 

Smith, Jambs A. See Saint Andrews and Edin- 
burgh, Archdiocese of. 

Smith, Richard, Bishop of Chalcedon, second 
Vicar Apostolic of England; b. at Hanworth, Lincoln- 
shire, Nov., 1568 (not 1566 as commonly stated) ; d. 
at Paris, 18 March. 1655. He was educated at Trinity 
College, Oxford, where he became a Catholic. He was 
admitted to the English College, Rome, in 1586, 
studied under Bellarmine, and was ordained priest 7 
May, 1592. In Feb., 1593, he arrived at Valladolid. 
where he took the degree of Doctor of Theolosy, ana 
taught philosophy at the English College till 1598, 
when he went to Seville as professor of controversies. 
In 1603 he went on the English mission, where he made 
hia mark as a mi^oner. Chosen to represent the 
case of the secular clergy in the archpriest controversy, 
he went to Rome, where he opposea Persons, who saia 
of him: ** I never dealt with an^^ man in my life more 
heady and resolute in his opinions". In 1613 he 
became superior of the small body of English secular 
priests at Arras College, PariS; who devoted them- 
selves to controversial work. In 1625 he was elected 
to succeed Dr. Bishop as vicar Apostolic, but the date 
usually assigned for his consecration as Bishop of 
Chalcedon (12 Jan., 1625) must be wrong, as he was 
not elected till 2 Jan. He arrived in England in 
April, of the same year, residing in Lord Montagu's 
house at Turvey, fiedfordshire. As vicar Apostolic 
he came into conflict with the regulars, claiining the 
rights of an ordinary, but Urban VIlI decided (16 
Dec^ 1627) that he Was not an oi*dinary. In 1628 
the Government issued a proclamation for his arrest, 

and in 1631 he withdrew to Paris, where he lived with 
Richelieu till the cardinal's death in 1642; then he 
retired to the convent of the English Augustinian 
nuns, where he died. 

He wrote: "An answer to T. Bel's late Challenge" 
(1605); "The Prudentiall Ballance of Religion", 
(1609); "Vita Domin» Magdalen® Montis-Acuti '^ 
i. e., Viscoimtess Montagu (1609): "De auctore et 
essentia Protestanticas Religionis'' (1619), English 
translation, 1621; "Collatio doctrine Catholicorum 
et Protestantium" (1622), tr. (1631); "Of the dis- 
tinction of fundamental and not fundamental points 
of faith" (1645); "Monita gusedam utilia pro Sacer- 
dotibus, Seminaristis, Missionariis Anglise" (1647); 
"A Treatise of the best kinde of Confessors" (1651); 
"Of the allHSufficient Eternal Proposer of Matters of 
Faith" (1653); "Florum Histori^e Ecclesiastics gentis 
Anglonim libri septem" (1654). Many unpubUshed 
documents relating to his troubled episcopate (an 
impartial history of which yet remains to be written) 
are preserved in the Westminster Diocesan Archives. 

DoDD, Church Hittory, III (Brussels vere Wolverhampton, 
1737-1742) the account from which most subsequent biographies 
were derived. See also Tiemey's edition of Dodd for further 
documents; Bebinoton, Memoira of Paruani (London. 1793): 
Calendar StaU Papera: Dom., 1696-1631; Butlbr, HiatoricaX 
Memoira of Bnqliah Catholica (London. 1819) : Sbbgeant, Ac- 
count of the Bngliah Chapter (London, 1853) ; Fullbhton, Life of 
Luiaa de Carvajal (London, 1873); Folet, Reeorda Sng. Prov. 
S.J., VI (London. 1880); Bbaot, Spiacopal Succeaaion, III 
(Rome, 1877), a confused and seIfHX>ntradictory account with 
some new facts; Aloeb in Diet. Nai. Bioo.', Gillow, Bibl. Diet. 
Eng. Cath.; Cedox, Convent de Religieuaea Anglaiaea d Paria 
(Paris, 1891); Third Douay Diary, C. R. S. Publioationa, X (Lon- 
don. 1911). 

Edwin Bubton 

Smith, Richard, b. in Worcestershire. 1500; d. at 
Douai, 9 July, 1563. He was educated at Merton 
College, Oxford; and, having taken his M.A. degree 
in 1530, he became r^strar of the university in 1532. 
In 1536 Henry VIII appointed him first Rqgius Pro- 
fessor of divinity, and he took his doctorate in that 
subject on 10 July in the same year. He subsequently 
became master of Whittington College, London; 
rector of St. DunstanVin-the-East; rector of Cuxham, 
Oxfordshire; principal of St. Alban's Hall ; and divinity 
reader at Magdalen College. Under Edward VI he 
is s£dd by his opponents to have abjured the pope's 
authority at St. PauVs Cross (15 May, 1547) and at 
Oxford, but the accounts of the proceedings are ob- 
scure and unreliable. If he yielded at all, he soon 
recovered and accordingly suffered the loss of his 
professorship, being succeeded by Peter Martyr, with 
whom he held a public disputation in 1549. Shortly 
afterwards he was arrested, but was soon liberated. 
Going to Louvain, he became professor of divinity 
there. During Mary's Catholic restoration he re- 
gained most of his preferments, and was made royal 
chaplain and canon of Christ Church. He took a 
prominent part in the proceedinKs against Cranmer, 
Ridley, ana Latimer. He again lost all his benefices 
at the change of reli^on under Elizabeth, and after a 
short imprisonment in Parker's house he escaped to 
Douai, where he was appointed by Philip II dean of 
St. Peter's church. There is no foundation for the 
slanderous story spsead by the Reformers to account 
for his deprivation of his Oxford professorship. When 
Douai University was founded on 5 Oct., 15o2, he was 
installed as chancellor and professor of theology, but 
only lived a few months to fill these offices. He wrote 
many works, the chief of which are: ''Assertion and 
Defence of the Sacrament of the Altar" (1546); 
"Defence of the Sacrifice of the Mass" (1547); 
"Defensio coelibatus sacerdotum" (1550); "Diatriba 
de hominis justificatione" (1550); "Buckler of the 
Cathohc Faith" (1555-56); "De Miss® Sacrificio" 
(1562); and several refutations of Calvin, Melanch- 
thon, Jewell, and Beza, all published in 1562. 

FoaTBB, Alumni Oxonienaea, IV (Oxford. 1891) ; Prra, De ittu*- 
tribua Anglia Scriptoribua (Paris, 1619); Dodd, Church Hiatory^ 




n (BnUMlfl vert Wolvi^rhaznpton. 1737-42); GAiBONSft, Lett<r« 
and Paper* of Henry VIII; Uoopbb. Diet. Nai.^Biog., s. ▼. 

Edwin Burton. 

Smith, Thomas Kilby, b. at Boston, Mass., 23 
Sept., 1820; d. at New York, 14 Dec, 1887; eldest son 
of Captain George Smith and Eliza Bicker Walter. 
Both his paternal and maternal forefathers were 
active and prominent in the professional life and in 
the government of New England. His parents moved 
to Cincinnati in his early childhood, where he was 
educated in a military school under O. M. Mitdiel, 
the astronomer, and studied law in the office of Chief 
Justice Salmon P. Chase. In 1853 he was appointed 
special agent in the Post Office Department at 
Washington, and later marshal for the Southern Dis- 
trict of Ohio and deputy clerk of Hamilton County. 
He entered the Union Army, 9 September, 1861, 
aa. lieutenant-colonel, and was conspicuous in the 
Battle of Shiloh, 6 and 7 April, 1862, assuming com- 
mand of Stuart's Brigade, Sherman's Division, during 
the second day. As commander of brigade in the 
loth and 17th Army Corps, he participated in all the 
campaigns of the Army of the Tennessee, being also 
for some months on staff duty with General Grant. 

Commissioned Brigadier-General of Volunteers, 11 
August, 1863. he was assigned on 7 March, 1864, to 
the command of the detached division of the 17th 
Army Corps and rendered distinguished service during 
the Red River Expedition, protecting Admiral 
Porter's fleet after the disaster of the main army.. 
After the fall of Mobile, he assumed the command of 
the Department of Southern Alabama and Florida, 
and then of the Post and District of Maine. He was 
brevetted Major-General for gallant and meritorious 
service. In 1866 President Johnson appointed him 
United States Consul at Panama. After the war 
he removed to Torresdale, Philadelphia. At the 
time of his death he was engaged in joumsdism in 
New York. On 2 May, 1848, he married Elizabeth 
Budd, daughter of Dr. William Budd McCuUou^^h 
and Arabella Sanders Piatt, of Cincinnati, Ohio. 
She was a gifted and devout woman, and through her 
influence and that of the venerable Archbishop 
Purcell he became a Catholic some years before his 
death. He was remarkable for his facility of 
expression, distinguished personal appearance, and 
courtly bearing. He left five sons and three dau^ters. 

Smith, Life and LeUera of ThoTntu Kilby Smith (New York, 


Walter Georgb Smith. 

Bmymskf Latin Archdiocese of (Smtrnensis), 
in Asia Minor. The city of Smyrna rises like an 
amphitheatre on the gulf which bears its name. It 
is the capital of the vilayet of Aidin and the starting- 
point of several railways; it has a population of at 
least 300,000, of whom 150,000 are Greeks. There 
are also numerous Jews and Armenians and almost 
10,000 European Catholics. It was founded more 
than 1000 years b. c. by colonists from Lesbos who 
had expelled the Leleges, at a place now called 
Boumabat, about an hour's distance from the pres- 
ent Smyrna. Shortlv before 688 b. c. it was captured 
by the lonians, under whose rule it became a very 
rich and powerful city (Herodotus, I, 150). About 
580 B. c. it was destroyed by Alyattes, King of Lydia. 
Nearly 300 years afterwards Antigonus (323-301 
B. c), and then Lysimachus, undertook to rebuild it 
on its present site. Subsequently comprised in the 
Kingdom of Pergamus, it was ceded in 133. b. c. to 
the Romans. These built there a judiciary canverUus 
and a mint. Smyrna had a celebrated school of rhet- 
oric, w£is one of the cities which had the title of metrop- 
olis, and in which the concilium festivum of Asia was 
celebrated. Demolished by an earthquake in a. d. 
178 and 180, it was rebuilt by Marcus Aurelius. In 
673 it was captured by a fleet of Arab Mussulmans. 

Under the inspiration of Clement VI the Latins cap- 
tured it from the Mussulmans in 1344 and held it. 
until 1402, when Tamerlane destroyed it after slaying 
the inhabitants. In 1424 the Turks captured it and, 
save for a brief, occupation by the Venetians in 1472, 
it has since belonged to them. 

Christianity was preached to the inhabitants at an 
early date. As early as the year 93, there existed a 
Christian community directed by a bishop for 
whom St. John in the Apocalypse (i, 11; ii, 8-11) has 
only words of praise. There are extant two letters 
written early in the second century from Troas by St. 
Ignatius of Antioch to those of Smyrna and to Poly- 
carp, their bishop. Through these letters and those 
of the Christians of Smyrna to the city of Philome- 
lium, we know of two ladies of high rank who be- 
longed to the Church of Smyrna. There were other 
Christians in the vicinity of the city and dependent on 
it to whom St. Polycarp wrote letters (Eusebiu^, 
"Hist, eccl.", V, xxiv). When Polycarp was mar- 
tyred (23 Feb.), the Church of Smyrna sent an 
encyclical concerning his death to the Church of Phi- 
lomelium and others. The "Vita Polycarpi" attrib- 
uted to St. Pionius, a priest of Sm3nma martyr^ in 
250, contains a list of the first bishops: Stratses; 
Bucolus; Polycarp; Papirius; Camerius; Eudsemon 
(250), who apostatized during the persecution of De- 
cius; Thraseas of Eumenia, martyr, who was buried at 
Sm3nma. Noctos, a Mooalist heretic of the second 
century, was a native of the city as were also Sts. 
Pothinus and Irenaeus of Lyons. Mention should also 
be made of another martyr, St. Dioscorides, vene- 
rated on 21 May. Amon^ the Greek bishops, a list of 
whom appears in Le Quien, (Oriens Christ., I, 737- 
46), was Metrophanes, the great opponent of Photius, 
who laboured in the revision of the "Octoekos", a 
Greek Uturgical book. 

The Latin See of Smjrma was created by Clement 
VI in 1346 and had an uninterrupted succession 
of titulars until the seventeenth century. This 
was the beginning of the Vicariate Apostolic 
of Asia Minor, or of Smyrna, of vast extent. 
In 1818 Pius VII established the Archdiocese of 
Smyrna^ at the same time retaining the vicariate 
Apostohc, the jurisdiction of which was wider. Its 
limits were those of the vicariates Apostolic of Meso- 
potamia. Syria, and Constantinople. The archdio- 
cese had 17,000 Latin Cathohcs, some Greek Mel- 
chites, called Alepi, and Armenians under special 
organization. There are: 19 secular priests; 55 regu- 
lars; 8 parishes, of which 4 are in Smyrna; 14 churches 
with resident priests and 12 without priests; 25 pri- 
mary schools with 2500 pupils, 8 colleges or academies 
with 800 pupils; 2 hospitals; and 4 orphanages. The 
religious men in the archdiocese or the vicariate Apos- 
tolic are Franciscans, Capuchins, Lazarists, Domini- 
cans, Salesians of I>on bosco, Assumptionists (at 
Koniah), Brothers of the Christian Schools, and 
Marist Brothers (at Metellin). Religious communi- 
ties of women are the Carmelites, Sisters of Charity 
(13 houses with more than 100 sisters). Sisters of Sion, 
Dominicans of Ivr^e, Sisters of St. Joseph, and Ob- 
lates of the Assumption. 

Smith. Diet, of Grew and Roman Geogr., s. v.; Hamilton, A«- 
aearchea in Asia Minor, I (London, 1S42), 44-95; Texier, i4«t« 
Mineure (Paris, 1862), 302-08; Scherzer, Smyrna ^Vienna. 
1873): Ramsat, The Lettera to the Seven Churchee of Ana (Lon* 
don, 1904), 251-57; GKonaiADts, Smyme (Paris, 1885) ; Rouoon. 
Smyrne (Paris, 1892); Le Camus, Lee eevt fgliaca de V Apocalypaa 
(Paris, 1896); Filuon in Via., Diet, de la Bible, s. v.; Miaaionea 
Catholiea (Rome. 1907), 155-57; LAMPAKis, The Seven Stara nf 
the Apoealypae (Athens, 1909), in Greek; Jean-Baftiste de Saint- 
Lorenzo, Saint Polycarpe et son tombeau aur le Pagua. Notice aur 
le ville de Smyrna (Constantinople, 1911). 

S. Vailh£. 

Snorri Stiirluson^ historian, b. at Hvammr, 
1178; d. 1241. Snom, who was the son of Sturla 
Thortsson (d. 1182), was the most important Ice- 
landic historian of the Middle Ages. In him were 

united the experienoed atateeman and tbe many- 
eidcd scholar. As a child he went to the school oC 
Saemund the Wise at Oddi, of which, at that time, 
Saemund'a grandson Jdn Lopteson was the head. On 
his father's side 36a. was related to the most- dis- 
tinguished familiea of Iceland, while by his mother 
Thora he was connected with the royal family ot 
Norway. Under this skilful teacher Snorri was thor- 


visiting atationa. The misaions shared the miafor- 
tunea attending those of the Pima and Piipago, but 
continued to exist until a few years after the expul- 
sion of the Jesuits in 1TG7, Before the end of the 
century the tribe itaelf had disappeared, and in later 
years San Xavicr appears aa a Pipago settlement. 
According to tradition the tribe was destroyed about 

_. . . 1 the 
ds, the saga concerning Odin, and Scandinavian 
history. By a rich alliance Snom obtained the money 
to take a leading part in politics, but his political 
course brought him many dangerous enemies, among 
whom King Haakon of Norway was the most power- 
ful, and he was finally murdered at the king's in- 
stigation. Snoni's importance restfi on his literary 
works ot which "Ileimskringla" (the world) is the 
most important, since it is the chief authority for the 
early history of Iceland and Scandinavia. However, 
it does not contain reliable statements until the 
history, which extends to 1 177, reaches a late period, 
while the descriptions ot the primitive era are largely 
vague narrations of sagas. The Sturlunga-Saga, 
which shows more of the local colouring of Iceland, 
was probably only partly the work of Snorri. On the 
other hand he ia probably the author of the Younger 
Edda called "Snorrar-Edda", which was intended as 
a textbook of the art of poetiy. Its first part "Gyl- 
faginning" relates the mythology of the North in an 
interestii^, pictorial msJiner, and is a compilation of 
the songs ot the early scalds, the songs of the common 
people, sagaH, and probably his own poetic ideas. 

Stokh, Skorra ='■-' «...„— ^■—.-- tr- k 

1S73I: BAnuGABT 

n Slalri and Tia 

forced to incorporate with the Pdpago and Pima 
(q. v.). 

BANCBorr. Uitt. Ni 
Sui FnnciHia, ISSS-g; 

ladiant (2 puU, Wuhlnrton, ISO? 

James Moonby. 

Sobluki, JoHH, b. at Olesko in 1629; d. at Wil- 
anow, 16g«; son of Jamea, Castellan ot Cracow and 
descended by his mother from the heroic ZolkJewHki, 
who died in battle at Cecora. ilis elder brother Mark 

Q the 

. Nordurht Fahrli 

t LtleraturhuUrria, I (Stockho 
, liLxnda ttaciTeehHUJu Stftturv/ oon der Ft . 
't Tagt (Barlin. ISOH). 17^18; Oaaif. Jfwjlueliei Oeit- 

Snow, Pktep, Venerable, English martyr, suf- 
fered at York, 15 June, 1598. He was born at or 
near Ripon, and arrived at the English College, 
Reims, 17 April, 1589, receiving the first tonsure 
and minor orders 18 August, 1590, the subdiaconate 
at Laon on 22 Sept., and the diaconat« and priesthood 
at Soissonson 30 and3I March, 1591. He left for Eng- 
land on the following 15 May. He was arrested about 
1 May, 1598, when on his way to York with Vener- 
able Ralph Grimston of Nidd. Both were shortly 
after condemned. Snow of treason as being a priest 
and Grimston of felony, for having aided and assisted 
him, and, it is said, having attempted to prevent his 

Challomek. Munmarv Priciu, I. no. IIZ: Khox. Douag 
Diaria (London, 1878). 

John B. WAiNEWiuaHT. 

Sobftlpura Indiuu, once an important tribe 
of the Fiman branch of the great Sbosh<»iean lin- 

Sbstic stock, occupying the territory of the Santa 
uz and San Pedro Rivers, in south-eastern Arizona 
and adjacent portion of Sonora, Mexico. In dialect 
and general custom they seem to have closely re- 
sembled the P&pago, by whom and by the closely 
«^;nate Pima most of them were finally absorbed. 
Their principal centre was Bac or Vaaki, later San 
Xavier del Bac, on Santa Cruz River, nine miles south 
from the present Tucson, Arizona. Here they were 
vwited in 1692 by the pioneer Jesuit explorer of the 
south-west. Father Eusebio Kino, who in 1699 began 
the church from which the mission took its name. 
Other Jesuit mission foundationa in the same tribe 
were (Santa Maria de) Suamca, just inside the Sonora 
line,establishedalsaby Kino about the same time, and 
San Miguel de Guevavi, iounded in 1732 near the 
present Nogales, Ariiona, all three miaaions being 
upon the Santa Cruz River. There were also sevena 

the great Cossack 
rebellion <1648), 
and fought at 
Zbarai; Bereste- 
czko, and lastly 
at Batoh where, 
after beine taken 
prisoner, he was 
murdered by the 
Tatars. John, 
the last ot all the 
family, accompa- 
nied Czamiecki 
in the expedition 
to Denmark; 
then, under 
George Lubomir- 
ski, he fought the 


i at 

Cudnow. Lubo- From aa unucned pi 

mitski revolting, 
he remained faithful to the king (John Caeimir), 
became succeeaiveW Field Hetman, Grand Mar- 
shal, and — after Revera Potocki'e death— <irand 
Hetman, or Commander-in-chief. Hia first ex- 

Ebit aa Hetman was in Podhajce, where, beaieged 
y an army ot Cossacks and Tatars, he at his 
own expense raised 8000 men and stored the place 
with wheat, baffling the toe so completely that they 
retired with ^reat loss. When, in 1672, under Michael 
Wi^iowiecki's reign, the Turks seized Kamieniec, 
Sobiraki beat them again and again, till at the 
crowning victory ot Chocim they lost 20,000 men and 
a great many guns. This gave Poland breathing- 
space, and Sobieski became the national hero, so 
that, Kinn Michael dying at that time, he was unan- 
imously elected king in 1674. Before his coronation 
he was forced to drive back the Turkish hordes, that 
had once more invaded the country; he beat them at 
Lemberg in 1675, arriving in time to raise the siege of 
Trembowla, and to save Chrzanowski and his hcn)ic 
wife, its defenders. Scarcely crowned, he hastenwl to 
fight in the Ruthenian provinces. Ilaviag too few 
soldiers (20,000) to attack the Turks, who were ten 
to one, he wore them out, entrenching himself at 
Zurawno, letting the enemy hem him in tor a fort- 
night, extricating himself with marvellous skill and 
courage, and finally r^aining by treaty a good part 
of the Ukraine. 

For some time there was peace; the Turks had 
learned to dread the " Unvanquished Northern 




lAon*\ and Poland, too, was exhausted. But soon the 
Sultan turned his arms against Austria. Passing 
through Hungary, a great part of which had for one 
hundred and fifty years been in Turkish hands, an 
enormous army, reckoned at from 210.000 to 300,000 
men (the latter figures are Sobieski's) marched for- 
ward. The Emperor Leopold fled from Vienna, and 
begged Sobieski s aidj which the papal nuncio also 
implored. Though dissuaded by Louis XIV. whose 
poucv was always hostile to Austria, Sobieski hesi- 
tated not an instant. Meanwhile (July^ 1683) the 
Grand Vizier Kara Mustapha, had amved before 
Vienna, and laid siege to the city, defended by the 
valiant Imperial General Count Stahremberg, with a 
garrison of^only 15,000 men. exposed to the horrors 
of disease and fire, as well as to hostile attacks. 
Sobieski started to the rescue in August, taking his 
son James with him ; passing by Our Lady s sanctuary 
at Czenstochowa, the troops prayed for a blessing 
on their arms: and in the beginning of September, 
having crossed the Danube and joined forces with 
the German armies under Jdhn George, Elector of 
Saxony, and Prince Charles of Lorraine, they ap- 

Eroached Vienna. On 11 Sept., Sobieski was on the 
eights of Kahlenberg, near the city, and the next 
day he gave battle in the plain below, with an army 
of not more than 76AX)0 men, the Germans forming^ 
the left wing and the Poles under Hetmans Jahonowski 
and Sieniawski, with General Katski in command of 
the artillery, forming the right. The hussars charged 
with their usual impetuosity, but the dense masses 
of the foe were impenetrable. Their retreat was taken 
for flight by the Turks, who rushed forward in pursuit; 
the hussars turned upon them with reinforcements 
and charged again, when their shouts made known 
that the "Northern Lion" was on the field and the 
Turks fled, panic-stricken, with Sobieski's horsemen 
still in pursuit. Still the battle raged for a time along all 
the line; both sides fought bravely, and the king was 
everywhere commanding, fighting, encouraging his 
men and urging them forward. He was the first to storm 
the camp: Kara Mustapha had escaped with his life, 
but he received the bow-string in Belsp^e some 
months later. The Turks were routed, Vienna and 
Christendom saved, and the news sent to the pope 
along with the Standard of the Prophet, taken by 
Sobieski, who himself had heard Mass in the 

Prostrate with outstretched arms, he declared that 
it was God's cause he was fighting for, and ascribed 
the victory (Venh vidi. Deus vicit — his letter to 
Innocent XI) to Him alone. Next day he entered 
Vienna, acclaimed by the people as their saviour. 
Leopold, displeased that the Polish king should have 
all the glory, condescended to visit and thank him, 
but treated his son James and the Polish hetmans 
with extreme and haughty coldness. Sobieski, though 
deeply offended, pursued the Turks into Hungary, 
attacked and took Ostrzyhom after a second battle, 
and returned to winter in Poland, with immense spoils 
taken in the Turkish camp. These and the glorv 
shed upon the nation were all the immediate ad- 
vantages of the great victory. The Ottoman danger 
had vanished forever. The war still went on: step 
by step the foe was driven back, and sixteen years 
later Kamieniec and the whole of Podolia were 
restored to Poland. But Sobieski did not live to see 
this triumph. In vain had he again and again at- 
tempted to retake Kamieniec, and even had built a 
stronghold to destroy its strategic value; this fortress 
enabled the Tatars to raid the Ruthenian provinces 
upon several occasions, even to the gates of Lemberp. 
He was also forced by treaty to give up Kieff to Russia 
in 1686; nor did he succeed in securing the crown for 
his son James. His last days were spent in the bosom 
of his family, at his castle of Wilanow, where he died 
in 1696, broken down by political strife as much as 

by illness. His wife, a Frenchwoman, the widow of 
John Zamoyski, Marie-Casimire, though not worthy 
of so great a hero, was tenderlv beloved by him, as 
his letters show: she influenced him greatly and net 
always wisely. His family is now extinct. Charles 
Edward, the Young Pretender, was his great-grand- 
son — ^his son James' daughter, Clementine, having 
married James Stuart in 1719. 

lAsty Jana III, Krdla poUkiego, do krolow^ Kaamierxy (Sobie- 
ski's letters to his wife), pablished by A. L. Hblbel, 1867. Two 
volumes of "Aeto Hiatoriea", published by the Academie der 
Wissensohaften. Tatham. John Sobietki (Oxford. 1881); Dn- 
PONT, Mimoira pour aarir d Vhittoire de Sobieaki (Warsaw, 1885) ; 
RiBDBR, Johann III, K&nig von Polen (Vienna, 1883). 

S. Tarnowski. 

Socialism, a svstem of social and economic organi- 
zation that would substitute state monopoly for pri- 
vate ownership of the sources of production and means 
of distribution, and would concentrate under the con- 
trol of the secular g()veming authority the chief 
activities of human life. The term is often used 
vaguely to indicate any increase of collective control 
over individual action, or even any revolt of the dis- 

S>ssessed against the rule of the possessing classes, 
ut these are undue extensions of the term, leading to 
much confusion of thought. State control and even 
state ownership are not necessarily Socialism: they 
become so only when they result in or tend towwxis the 
prohibition of private ownership not only of "natural 
monppoUes'^ out also of all the sources of wealth. 
Nor is mere revolt against economic inequality So- 
cialism: it may be Anarchism (see Anarchy); it may 
be mere Utopianism (see Communism); it may be a 
just resistance to oppression. Nor is it merely a pro- 
posal to make such economic changes in the social 
structure as would banish poverty. Socialism is this 
(see Collectivism) and much more. It is also a 
philosophy of social life and action, regarding all hu- 
man activities from a definite economic standpoint. 
Moreover mcxlem Socialism is not a mere arbitrary 
exercise at state-building, but a deliberate attempt to 
relieve, on explicit principles, the existing social con- 
ditions, which are regarded as intolerable. The great 
inequalities of human lif^ and opportunity, prociuced 
by the excessive concentration of wealth in tne hands 
of a comparatively small section of the community, 
have been the cause and still are the stimulus of what 
is called the Socialistic movement. But, in order 
to understand fully what Socialism is and what it 
implies, it Lb necessary first to glance at the history of 
the movement, then to examine its philosophical and 
religious tendencies, and finally to consider how far 
these may be, and actually have proved to be, in- 
compatible with Christian thought and Hfe. The 
first requirement is to understand the origin and 
growth of the movement. 

It has been customary among writers of the So- 
cialist movement to begin with references to Utopian 
theories of the classical and Renaissance periods, to 
Plato's "Republic", Plutarch's "Life of Lycurgus", 
More's "Utopia". Campanella's "City of the Sun", 
Hall's ' ' Mundus alter et idem ' ' . and the like. Thence 
the line of thought is traced through the French 
writers of the eighteenth century, Meslier, Montes- 
quieu, d'Argenson, Morelly, Rousseau, Mably, till, 
with Linguet and Necker, the eve of the Revolution 
is reached. In a sense, the modem movement has its 
roots in the ideas of these creators of ideal common- 
wealths. Yet there is a gulf fixed between the mod- 
em Socialists and the older Utopists. Their schemes 
were mainly directed towards the establishment of 
Communism, or rather, Communism was the idea 
that gave life to their fancied states (see Communism). 
But the Collectivist idea, which is the economic basis 
of modem Socialism (see Collectivism), realljr 
emerges onlv with "Gracchus" Babeuf and hi? 
paper, "The Tribune of the People", in 1794. In the 




manifesto issued by him and his fellow-conspirators, 
"Les Egaux"{ is to be found a clear vision of the col- 
lective orgamzation of society, such as would be 
largely accepted by most modem Socialists. Babeuf 
was guillotined by the Directory, and his party sup- 
press. Meanwhile, in 1703, Godwin in England 
nad published his '^Ehiquiry Concerning Political Jus- 
tice , a work which, though inculcating Anarchist- 
Communism (see Anarchy) rather than Collectivism, 
had much influence on Robert Owen and the school of 
Determinist Socialists who succeed;5'f him. But a 
small group of English writers in the early vears of the 
nineteenth century had really more to do with the 
development of Socialist thought than had either 
Owen's attempts to found ideal communities, at 
New Lanark and elsewhere, or the contemporary 
theories and practice of Saint-Simon and Fourier in 

These English writers, the earliest of whom. Dr. 
Charles Hall, first put forward that idea of a dominant 
industrial and social "system ", which is the pervafling 
conception of modem Socialism, worked out the vari- 
ous basic principles of Socialism, which Marx after- 
wards appropriated and combined. Robert Thomp- 
son, Ogifvie, Hodgkin, Gray, above all William 
Carpenter, elaborate the theories of "surplus value", 
of "production for profit ", of " class-war ", of the ever- 
increasing exploitation of the poor by the rich, which 
are the stuff of Marx's "Das Kapital", that "old 
clothes-shop of ideas culled from Berlin, Paris, and 
London". For indeed, this famous work is really 
nothing more than a dexterous combination of Hege- 
lian Evolutionism, of French Revolutionism, and of 
the economic theories elaborated bv Ricardo, on the 
one hajid, and this group of English theorists on the 
other. Yet the services of Karl Marx and of his 
friend and brother-Hebrew, Friedrich Engels, to the 
cause of Socialism must not be underrated. These 
two writers came upon the scene just when the So- 
cialist movement was at its lowest ebb. In England 
the work of Robert Owen had been overlaid bv the 
Chartist movement and its apparent failure, while the 
writings of the economists mentioned above had had 
but Uttle immediate influence. Li France the Saint- 
Simonians and the Fourierists had disgusted everyone 
by the moral collapse of their systems. In Germany 
Lassalle had so far devoted his brilliant energies 
merely to Republicanism and philosophy. But in 
1848 Marx and Engels published the "Communist 
Manifesto", and, mere rhetoric as it was, this docu- 
ment was the beginning of modem "scientific So- 
cialism". The influence of Proudhon and of the 
Revolutionary spirit of the times pervades the whole 
manifesto: the economic analysis of society was to be 
grafted on later. But already there appear the ideas 
of "the materialistic conception of history", of "the 
bourgeoisie " and "the proletariat ", and of " class-war". 

After 1848, in his exile in London, Marx studied, 
and wrote, and organized with two results: first, the 
foundation of "The International Workingmen's As- 
sociation", in 1864; second, the publication of the 
first volume of "Das Kapital", in 1867. It is not 
easy to judge which has had the more lasting effect 
upon the Socialist movement. "The International" 
gave to the movement its world-wide character; 
Das Kapital" elaborated and systematized the 
philosophic and economic doctrine which is still the 
creed of the inunense majority of Socialists. "Pro- 
letarians of all lands, unite!" the sentence with which 
the Communist Manifesto of 1848 concludes, became 
a reality with the foundation of the International. 
For the first time since the disruption of Christendom 
an organization took shape which had for its object 
the union of the major portion of all nations upon a 
common basis. It was not so widely supported as 
both its upholders believed and the frightened mon- 
eyed interests imagined. Nor had this first organizar 

tion any promise of stability. From the outset the 
influence of Marx steadily p;rew, but it was confronted 
by the opposition of Bakunm and the Anarchist school. 
By 1876 the International was even formally at an 
end. But it had done its work: the organized work- 
ing classes of all Europe had realized the international 
nature both of their own grievances and of capitalism, 
and when, in 1889, the firet International Congress ot 
Socialist and Trade-Union delegates met at Paris, a 
"New International" came into being which exists 
with unimpaired or, rather, with enhanced energy to 
the present day. Since that first meeting seven 
others have been held at intervals of three or four 
years, at which there has been a steady growth in the 
number of delegates present, the variety of nationali- 
ties represented, and the extent of the Socialistic in- 
fluence over its deliberations. 

In 1900, an International Socialist Bureau was es- 
tablished at Brussels, with the purpose of solidifying 
and strengthening the international character of the 
movement. Since 1904, an Inter-Parliamentary So- 
cialist Committee has given further support to the 
work of the bureau. To-day the international nature 
of the Socialistic movement is an axiom both within 
and without its ranks; an axiom that must not be for- 
gotten in the estimation both of the strength and of 
the trend of the movement. To the International, 
then, modem Socialism owes much of its present 
power. To "Das Kapital" it owes such intellectual 
coherence as it still possesses. The success of this 
book was immediate and considerable. It has been 
translated into many languages, epitomized by many 
hands, criticized, discussed, and eulogized. Thou- 
sands who would style themselves Marxians and 
would refer to "Das Kapital" as "the Bible of So- 
cialism", and the irrefragable basis of their creed, 
have very probably never seen the original work, nor 
have even read it in translation. Marx himself pub- 
lished only the first volume; the second was published 
under Engels' editorship in 1885, two years after the 
death of Marx; a third was elaborated by Engeb from 
Marx's notes in 189t5; a fourth was projected but never 
accomplished. But the influence of this torso has 
been immense. With consummate skill Marx gath- 
ered together and worked up the ideas and evidence 
that hsd originated with others, or were the floating 
notions of the movement; with the result that the new 
international organization had reader to hand a body 
of doctrine to promulgate, the vanous national So- 
cialist parties a common theory and programme for 
which to work. And promulgated it was, with a de- 
votion and at times a childlike faith that had no 
slight resemblance to religious propaganda. It hap 
been severely and destructively criticized by econo- 
mists of many schools, many of its leading^ doctrines 
have been explicitly abandoned by the Socialist lead- 
ers in different countries, some are now hardly de- 
fended even by those leaders who label themselves 
" Marxian " . Yet the influence of the book persists. The 
main doctrines of Marxism are still the stuff of popular 
Socialist belief in all countries, are still put forward 
in scarcely modified form in the copious literature 
produced for popular consumption, are still enun- 
ciated or imphed in popular addresses even by some 
of the very leaders who have abandoned them in serious 
controversy. In spite of the growth of Revisionism in 
Germany, of S3mdicalism in France, and of Fabian 
Expertism in England, it is still accurate to maintain 
that the vast majority of Socialists, the rank and file of 
the movement in all countries, are adherents of the 
Marxian doctrine, with all its materialistic philosophy, 
its evolutionary immorality, its disruptive political 
and social analysis, its clabs-conscious economics. 

In Socialism, to-day, as in most departments of 
human thought, the leading writers display a marked 
shyness of fundamental analysis: "Tne domain of 
Socialist thought", says Lagardelle, has become "an 


intellectual desert. '' Its protagonists are largely pression, with the usual result of consolidating snd 
occupied, either in elaborating schemes of social re- strengthening the movement. In 1875 was held the 
form, which not infrequently present no exclusively celebrated congress at Gotha, at which was drawn up 
socialist characteristics, or else in apologizing for the programme that formed the basis of the party, 
and disavowing inconvenient apphcations by earher Three years later an attempt upon the emperor's life 
leaders, of socialist philosophy to the domain of was made the excuse for renewed repression. But it 
religion and ethics. Nevertheless, in so far as the was in vain. In spite of alternate persecution and 
International movement remains definitely Socialist essays in state Socialism, on the part of Bismarck, the 
at all, the formuke of its propaganda and the creed of movement progressed steadily. Bismarck fell from 
its popular adherents are predominantly the reflection power in 1890 and since then the party has grown rap- 
of those put forwuxl in '^Das Kapital" in 1867. idly, and is now the strongest politiod body in Germany. 
Moreover, during all this period of growth of the In 1899 Edward Bernstein, who had come under the 
modern Socialist movement, two other parallel move- influence of the Fabians in England since 1888, started 
ments in all countries have at once supplemented and the "Revisionist'' movement, which, while attempt- 
counterpoised it. These are trade-unionism and oo- ing to concentrate the energies of the party more 
operation. There is no inherent reason why either ot definitely upon specific reforms and "revising" to 
these movements should lead towards Socialism: extinction many of the most cherished doctrines of 
properly conducted and developed, both should ren- Marxism, has yet been subordinated to the practical 
der unnecessary anything that can correctly be styled exigencies of politics. To all appearance the SocisJist 
"Socialism". But, as a matter of fact, both these Party is stronger to-day than ever. The elections of 
excellent movements, owing, to unwise opposition by 1907 brought out 3,258,968 votes in its favour; those 
the dominant capitalism, on the one hand, and in- of January, 1912, gave it 110 seats out of a total of 397 
difference in the Churches on the other, are menaced in the Reichstag — a gain of more than 100 per cent 
by Socialism, and may eventually be captured by the over its last previous representation (53 seats). The 
more intelligent and energetic Socialists and turned Marxian "Erfmi; Programme", adopted in 1891, is 
to serve the ends of Socialism. The training in still the official creed of the Party. But the "Re- 
mutual aid and interdependence, as well as in self- visionist" policy is obviously gaining ground and, if 
government and business habits, which the leaders the Stuttgart Congress of 1907 be any indication, is 
of the wage-earners have received in both trade- rapidly transforming the revolutionary Marxist party 
unionism and the co-operative movements, while it into an opportunist body devoted to specific social 
might be of incalculable benefit in the formation of reforms. 

the needed Christian democracy, has so far been In France the pi^gress of Sociahsm has been upon 
effective largely in demonstrating the power that is different lines. After the collapse of Saint-Simonism 
given by organization and numbers. And the leaders and Fourierism, came the agitation of Louis Blanc in 
of Socialism have not been slow to emphasize the les- 1848, with his doctrine of "The Ri^ht to Work", 
son and to extend the argument, with sufficient plausi- But this was side-tracked by the triumphant poli- 
bility, towards state monopoly and the absolutism of ticians into the scandalous "National Workshops", 
the majority. The logic of their argument has, it is which were probably dehberately established on 
true, been challenged, in recent years, in Europe by wrong lines in order to bring ridicule upon the agita- 
the rise of the great Catholic trade-union and co- tion. Blanc was driven into exile, and French So- 
operative organizations. But in English-speaking ciaUsm lay dormant till the ruin of Imperi^sm in 
nations this is yet to come, and both co-operation and 1870 and the outbreak of the Commune in 1871. This 
trade-unionism are allowed to drift into the grip of rising was suppressed with a ferocity that far sur- 
the Socialist movement, with the result that what passed the wildest excesses of the Communards; 
might become a most effective alternative for Col- 20,000 men are said to have been shot in cold blood, 
lectivism remains to-day its nursery and its support, many of whom were certainly innocent, while not a 
Parallel with the International movement has run few were thrown ahve into the common burial pits, 
the local propaganda in various countries, in each of But this savagery, though it temporarily quelled the 
which the movement has taken its colour from the revolution, did nothing to obviate the SociaUst 
national characteristics; a process which has con- movement. At first many of the scattered leaders 
tinued, until to-day it is sometimes difficult to realize declared for Anarchism, but soon most of them 
that the different bodies who are represented in the abandoned it as impracticable and threw their en- 
International Congresses form part of the same agita- ergies into the propagation of Marxian Socialism. In 
tion. In Germany, the fatherland of dogmatic So- 1879 the amnesty permitted Jules Guesde, Brousse, 
cialism, the movement first took shape in 1862. In Malon, and other leaders to return. In 1881> after 
that year Ferdinand Lassalle, the brilliant and the Anarchist-Communist group under Kropotkin 
wealthy young Jewish lawyer, delivered a lecture to and R^lus had seceded, two parties came into exist- 
an artisans' association at Berlin. Lassalle was fined ence, the opportunist Alliance SociaUste R^publi- 
by the authorities for his temerity, but "The Work- caine, and the Marxian Parti Ouvrier Socialiste K6vo- 
ing Men's Programme", as the lecture was styled, re- lutionaire de France. But these parties soon spht up 
suited in The Universal German Working Men's into others. Guesde led, and still leads, the Irre- 
Association, which was founded at Leipzig under his concilables; Jaur^ and Millerand have been the 
influence the following year. Lassalle commenced a leaders of the Parliamentarians; Brousse, Blanqui, 
stormy progress throughout Germany, lecturing, or- and others have formed their several conmiunistic 

ganizing, writing. The movement did not grow at groups. In 1906, however, largely owing to the in- 

rst with the rapidity he had expected, and he him- fluence of Jaurte, the less extreme parties united 

self was killed in a duel in 1864. But his tragic death again to form Le Parti SociaUste Unifi6. This body 

aroused interest, and The Working Men's Association is but loosely formed of various irreconcilable groups 

grew steadily till, in 1869, reinforced by the adhesion and includes Anarchists like Herve, Marxists like 

of the various organizations which had ^wn out of Guesde, Syndicalists like Lagardelle, Opportunists 

Marx's propaganda, it became, at Eisenach, the hke Millerand, all of whom Jaurfis endeavours, with 

Socialist Democratic Working Men's Party. Lieb- but slight success, to maintain in harmony. For 

knecht, Bebel, and Singer, all Marxians, were its chief right across the Marxian doctrinairianism and the 

leaders. The two former were imprisoned for treason opportunism of the parliamentary group has driven 

in 1870; but in 1874 ten members of the party, includ- the recent Revolutionary Syndicalist movement, 

ing the two leaders, were returned to the Reichstag This, which is really Anarchist-Communism working 

by 450,000 votes. The Government attempted re- through trade-unionism, is a movement distrustful of 




parliamentary systems, favourable Ut violence, tend- 
ing towards aestructive revolution. The Confedera- 
tion Gendrale du Travail is rapidly absorbing the So- 
cialist movement in France, or at least robbing it of 
the ardent element that gives it life. 

In the British Isles the Socialist movement has had 
a less stormy career. After the collapse of Owenism 
and the Chartist movement, the practical genius of 
the nation directed its chief reform energies towards 
the consoUdation of the trade unions and the building 
up of the great co-operative enterprise. Steadily, for 
some forty years, tne trade-union leaders worked at 
the strengthening of their respective organizations, 
which, with their dual character of friendly societies 
and professional associations, had no small part in 
trainmg the working classes in habits of combination 
for oonmion ends. And this lesson was emphasized 
and enlarged by the Co-operative movement, which, 
springing from the tiny efforts of the Rochdale Pio- 
neers, spread throughout the country, till it is now 
one of the mightiest business organizations in the 
world. In this movement many a labour leader 
leamt habits of business and of successful committee 
work that enabled him later on to deal on equal^ or 
even on advantageous, terms with the representatives 
of the owning classes. But during all this period of 
training the Socialist movement proper lay dormant. 
It was not until 1884, with the foundation of the 
strictly Marxian Social Democratic Federation bv 
H. M. Hyndman, that the Socialist propaganda took 
active form in England. It did not achieve any great 
immediate success, nor has it ever since shown signs 
of appealing widely to the English temperament. 
But it was a beginning, and it was followed bv other, 
more inclusive, organizations. A few months after 
its foundation the Socialist League, led by William 
Morris, seceded from it and had a brief and stormy 
existence. In 1893, at Bradford, the ''Independent 
Labour Party'' was formed under the leadership of 
J. Keir Hiurdie, with the direct purpose of carrying 
Socialism into politics. Attached to it were two 
weekly papers, "The Clarion" and "The Labour 
Leader ; the lormer of which, by its sale of over a 
million copies of an able little mandal, "Merrie 
England", had no small part in the diffusion of 
popular Socialism. All tnese three bodies were 
Marxian in doctrine and largely working class in 

But, as early as 1883, a group of middle-class stu- 
dents had joined together as The Fabian Society. 
This body, while calling itself Socialist, rejected the 
Marxian in favour of Jevonsian economics, and de- 
voted itself to the social education of the public by 
means of lectures, pamphlets and books, and to the 
spread of Collectivist iaeas by the "permeation" of 
public bodies and political parties. Immense as have 
been its achievements in this direction, its constant 
preoccupation with practical measures of reform and 
its contact with organized party poUtics have led it 
rather in the direction of the "Servile State" than of 
the Socialist Commonwealth. ' But the united efforts 
of the various Socialist bodies, in concert with trade 
imionism, resulted, in 1899, in the formation of the 
Labour Representation Committee which, seven years 
later, had developed into the Labour Party, with 
about thirty representatives in the House of Commons. 
Already, Iwwever, a few years' practical acquaint- 
ance with party politics has diminished the Socialist 
orthodoxy of the Labour Party, and it shows signs of 
becoming absorbed in the details of party contention. 
Significant commentaries appeared in the summer of 
1911 and in the spring of 1912; industrial disturb- 
ances, singularly resembling French Syndicalism, oc- 
curred spontaneously in most commercial and min- 
ing centres, and the whole Labour movement in the 
British Isles has reverted to the Revolutionary type 
that last appeared in 1889. 

In every European nation the Socialist movement 
has followed, more or less faithfully, one of the three 
preceding types. In Belgium, Switzerland, Denmark, 
and Italy it is predominantly parliamentary: in Rus- 
sia, Spam, and Portugal it displays a more bitterly 
revolutionary character. But everywhere the two 
tendencies, parliamentary and revolutionarj^ strug^e 
for the upper hand; now one, now the other becoming 
predominant. Nor is the movement in the United 
States any exception to the rule. It b^an about 
1849, purely as a movement among the German and 
other immigrants and, in spite of the migration of the 
old International to New York in 1872, had but little 
effect upon the native population till the Henry Georg;e 
movement of 1886. Even then jealousies and divi- 
sions restricted its action, till the reorganization of 
the Socialist Labour Party at Chicago in 1889. 
Since then the movement has spread rapidly. In 
1897 appeared the Social Democracy of America, 
which, uniting with the majority of the Socialist La- 
bour Party in 1901, formed the present rapidly grow- 
ing Socialist Party. In the Umted States the move- 
ment is still strongly Marxian in character, though a 
Revisionist school -is growing up, somewhat on the 
lines of the English Fabian movement, under the in- 
fluence of writers like Edmond Kelly, Morris Hillquit, 
and Professors Ely and Zueblin. But the main body 
is still crudely Revolutionary, and \a likely to remain 
so until the Dolitical democracy of the nation is more 
perfectly renected in itB economic conditions. 

These main points in the history of Socialism lead 
Up to an examination of its spirit and intention. The 
best idealism of earlier times was fixed upon the 
soul rather than upon the body: exactly the opposite 
is the case with Socialism. Social questions are 
tdmost entirely questions of the body — ^public health, 
sanitation, housing, factory conditions, infant mor- 
tality, employment of women, hours of work, rates of 
wages, accidents, unemployment, pauperism, old-age 
pensions, sickness, infirmity, lunacy, feeblc-minded- 
ness, intemperance, prostitution, physical deteriora- 
tion. All these are excellent ends for activity in 
themselves, but all of them are mainly concerned with 
the care or cure of the body. To use a Catholic 
phrase, they are opportunities for corporal works of 
mercy, which may lack the spiritual mtention that 
would make them Christian. The material may be 
made a means to the M>iritual^ but is not to be con- 
sidered an end in itself. This world is a place of 
probation, and the time is short. Man is here for a 
definite purpose, a' purpose which transcends the 
limits of this mortal' life, and his first business is to 
realize this purpose and carry it out with whatever 
help and guidance he may find. The purpose is a 
spiritual one, but he is free to choose or refuse the end 
. for which he was created; he is free to neglect or to 
co-operate with the Divine assistance, which will give 
his hfe the stability and perfection of a spiritual ratUer 
than of a material nature. This bein^ so, there must 
be a certain order in the nature of his development. 
He is not wholly spiritual nor wholly material; he has 
a soul, a mind, and a body; but the interests of the 
soul must be supreme, ana the interests of mind and 
body must be brought into proper subservience to it. 
His movement towards perfection is by way of ascent; 
it is not easy; it requires continual exercise of the will, 
continued discipline, continual training — ^it is a war- 
fare and a pilgrimage, and in it are two elements, the 
spiritual and the material, which are one in the unity 
of his daily life. As St. Paul pointed out, there must 
be a continual struggle between these two elements. 
If the individual h^is to be a success, the spiritual 
desire must triumph, the material one ,miist be sub- 
ordinate, and when tms is so the whole individual life 
is lived with proper economy, spiritual thin^ being 
sought after as an end, while material thmgs are 
used merely aa a means to that end. 



The point, then, to be observed is thftt the spiritual rately and selfishly efficient; a member is cut off 

life is really the economic life. From the Christian from its body only as a last resource to prevent or- 

point of view material necessities are to be kept at a ganic poisoning. The business of the State is rather 

minimimi, and material superfluities as far as possible that of helping the Family to a healthy, co-operative, 

to be dispensed with altogether. The Christian is a and productive unitv. The State was never meant to 

soldier and a pilgrim who requires material things only appropriate to itself the main parental duties, it wm 

as a means to ntness and nothing more. In this he rather meant to provide the pM&rents, especiallv poor 

has the example of Christ Himself, Who came to earth parents, with a wider, freer, healthier family sphere in 

with a minimum of material advantaj^es and persisted which to be properljr parental. Socialism, then, both 

thus even to the Cross. The Christian, then, not in Church and Family, is impersonal and determinis- 

only from the individual but also from the social ticitdeprives the individual of both his religious and 

standpoint, has chosen the better part. He does not his domestic freedom. And it is exactly the same with 

despise this life, but, just because his material desil'es the institution of private property, 

are subordinate to his spiritual ones, he Uves it much - The Christian doctrine of property can best be 

more reasonably, much more unselfishly, much more stated in the words of St. Thomas Aquinas: "In re- 

beneficialiy to his neighbours. The point, too, which pard to an external thing man has two powers: one 

he makes a^inst the Socialist is this. The Socialist is the power of managing and controlling it, and as to 

wishes to distribute material goods in such a way as this it is lawful for a man to possess private property, 

to establish a substantial equality, and in order to do It is, moreover, necessary for human life for three rea- 

this he requires the State to make and keep this dis- sons. First, because everyone is more zealous in 

tribution compulsory. The Christian replies to him: looking after a thing that belongs to him than a thing 

''You cannot maintain this widespread distribution, that is the common property of all or of many; be- 

for the simple reason that you have no machinery for cause each person, trying to escape labour, leaves to 

inducing men to desire it. On the contrary, you do another what is everyfc^y's business, as happens 

all you can to increase the selfish and accumulative where there are many servants. Secondly, because 

desires of men: you centre and concentrate all their there is more order in the management of men's 

interest on material accumulation, and then expect alTairs if each has his own work of looking; after defi- 

them to distribu^ their goods. " This ultimate dif- nite things; whereas there would be confusion if every- 

ference between Christian and Socialist teaching must one mana^d everything indiscriminately. Thirdly, 

be clearly imderstood. Socialism appropriates all hu- because in this way the relations of men are kept more 

man desires and centres them on the here-and-now, peaceful, since everyone is satisfied with his own pos- 

on material benefit and material prosperity. But session, whence we see that quarrels are commoner 

matmal goods are so limited in quaiitv, in quantity, between those who jointly own a thing as a whole, 

and in duration that thev are incapable of satisfying The other power which man has over external things 

human desires, which will ever covet more and more is the using of them: and as to this man must not hold 

and never feel satisfaction. In this Socialism and external tmngs as his own property, but as everyone's; 

Capitalism are at one, for their only quarrel is over the so as to make no difficulty, I mean^ in sharing when 

bone ui)on which is the meat that perisheth. Social- others are in need" (Summa theologica, II-II, Q. Ixvi. 

ism, of itself and by itself, can do nothing to diminish a. 2). If man, then, has the right to own, control, and 

or discipline the immediate and materialistic lust of use private property, the State cannot give him this 

men^ because Socialism is itself the most exaggerated right or take it away; it can only protect it. Here, of 

and universalized expression of this lust yet known to course, we are at issue with Socialism, for, according 

history. Christianity, on the other hand, teaches to it, the State is the supreme power from which aU 

and practises unselfish distribution of material ^oods, human rights are derived; it acknowledges no inde- 

both according to the law of justice and accordmg to pendent spiritual, domestic, or individual power what- 

the law of chanty. ever. In nothing is the bad economy of Socialism ^ 

Again, ethically speaking. Socialism is committed more evident than in its derogation or denial of all the ' 
to the doctrine of determinism. Holding that society truly personal and self-directive powers of human 
mcdces the individuals of which it is composed, and not nature, and its misuse of such human qualities as it 
vice versa, it has quite lost touch with the invigorating does not despise or deny is a plain confession of its 
Christian doctrine of free will. This fact may be il- material ana deterministic Umitations. It is true 
lustrated by its attitude towards the three great insti- that tKe institutions of religion, of the family, and 
tutions which have hitherto most strongly exemptifiod of private ownership are liable to great abuses, 
and protected that doctrine — the Church, the Family, but the perfection of human effort and character de- 
and private ownership. Socialism, with its essentially mands a freedom of choice between good and evil as 
matmalistic nature, can admit no raison ditre for a their first necessary condition. This area of free 
spiritual power, as complementary and superior to the choice is provided, on the material side, by private 
secular power of the State. Man, as the creature of ownership; on the spiritual and material, by the 
a matenal environment, and as the subject of a mate- Christian Family; and on the purely spiritual by re- 
rial State, has no moral responsibilities and can yield ligion. The State, then, instead of depriving men of 
to no allegiance beyond that of the State. An^ these opportunities of free and fine production, not 
power whicn claims to appropriate and discipline his only of material but also of intellectual values, should 
mterior life, and which affords him sanctions that ratner constitute itself as their defender, 
transcend au evolutionary and scientific determinism. In apparent contradiction, however, to much of the 
must necessarily incur Socialist opposition. So, too, foregoing argument are the considerations put for- 
with the Family. According to the prevalent Socialist ward by numerous schools of "Christian Socialism '^ 
teaching;, the child stands between two authorities, both Catholic and non-Catholic. It will be urged 
that of its parents and that of the State, and of these that there cannot really be the opposition between 
the State is certainly the higher. The State therefore Socialism and Christianity that is here suggested, for, 
is endowed with the hieher authority and with all as a matter of fact, many excellent and intelligent per- 
powers of interference to be used at its own discretion, sons in all countries are at once convinced Obristians 
Contrast this with the Christian notion of the Family and ardent Socialists. Now, before it is possible to 

orgjanic thing with an organic life of its own. estimate correctly how far this undoubted fact can 

'The State, it is true, must ensure a proper basis for alter the conclusions arrived at above, certain premises 

ite economic life, but beyond that it snould not inter- must be noted. First, it is not practically possible to 

fere: Jts business is not to detach the members of the consider Socialism solely as an economic or social doo- 

family from their body in order to maJce them sepa- trine. It has long passed the stage of pure theory and 




attained the proportions of a movement: it is to-day a 
doctrine emDooied in progranmies, a system of 
thought and belief that is put forward as the vivifying 
principle of an active propaganda, a thing organically 
connected with the intellectual and moral activities 
of the millions who are its adherents. Next, the views 
of small and scattered bodies of men and women, who 
profess to reconcile the two doctrines, must be allowed 
no more than their due weight when contrasted with 
the expr^sed beliefs of not only the majority of the 
leading exponents of Socialism, past and present^ but 
also ofthe immense majority of the rank and file m all 
nations. Thirdly, for Catnolics, the declarations of 
supreme pontiffs, of the Catholic hierarchy, and of the 
leading Catholic sociologists and economists have an 
important bearing on the question, an evidential force 
not to be lightly dismissed. Lastly, the real meaning 
attached to the terms "Christianity'' and ''Social- 
ism'', by those who profess to reconcile these doc- 
trines, must always be elicited before it is possible to 
estimate either what doctrines are being reconciled or 
how far that reconciliation is of any practical ade- 

If it be found on examination that the general 
trend of the Socialist movement, the predominant 
opinion of the Socialists, the authoritative pronounce- 
ments of ecclesiastical and expert Catholic authority 
all tend to emphasize the philosophical cleavage indi- 
cated above, it is probably safe to conclude that those 
who profess to reconcile the two doctrines are mis- 
taken: either their grasp of the doctrines of Christi- 
anity or of Socialism will be found to be imperfect, or 
else their mental habits will appear to be so lacking in 
discipline that they are content with the profession of a 
belief in incompatible principles. Now, if Socialism 
be first considered as embodied in the Socialist move- 
ment and Socialist activity, it is notorious that every- 
where it is antw>nistic to Christianity. This is above 
all clear in Catholic countries^ where the Socialist or- 
Ranizations are markedl^r anti-Christian both in pro- 
fession and practice. It is true that of late years tnere 
has appeared among Socialists some impatience of 
remaining mere catspaws of the powerful Masonic 
anti-clerical societies, but this is rather because these 
secret societies are larp;ely engineered by the wealthy 
in the interests of capitalism than from any affection 
for Catholicism. Tne European Socialist remains 
anti-clerical, even when he revolts against Masonic 
manipulation. Nor is this really less true of non- 
Catholic countries. In Germany, in Holland, in Den- 
mark, in the United States, even in Great Britain, 
organized Socialism is ever prompt to express (in its 
practical programme, if not in its formulated creed) its 
contempt for and inherent antagonism to revealed 
Christianity. What, in public, is not infre()uently 
deprecated is clearly enough implied in projects of 
legislation, as well as in the mental attitude that is 
usual in Socialist circles. 

Nor are the published views of the Socialist leaders 
and writers less explicit. "Scientific Socialism" be- 
gan as an economic exposition of evolutionary mate- 
rialism; it never lost that character. Its German 
founders^ Marx, Engels, Lassalle, were notoriouslv 
anti-Christian both in temper and in acquired phil- 
osophy. So have been its more modem exponents in 
Gennany, Bebel, Liebknecht, Kautsky, Dietzgen, 
Bemsteizi, Singer, as well as the popular papers — the 
"Sozial Demokrat", the "Vorwfirts", the "Zim- 
merer", the "Neue Zeit" — ^which reflect, while ex- 
pounding, the view of the rank and file; and the 
Gotha and Erfurt programmes, which express the 
practical ^ims of the movement. In France and the 
Netherlands the former and present leaders of the 
various Socialist sections are at one on the Question 
of Cluistianitjr — Lafargue, Herv6, Boudin, Guesde, 
Jaurds, Viviani, Sorel, Briand, GriffueUies, Lfia>gardelle, 
T^Ey, Renard, Nieuwenhuis, Vandervelde — all are 

anti-Christian, as are the popular newspapers, like 
"La Guerre Sociale", "L'Humanit6", ^^ Social- 
iste", the "Petite R^publique". the "Recht voor 
Allen", "Le Peuple". In Italy, Austria, Spain, Rus- 
sia, and Switzerland it is the same: Socialism goes 
hand in hand with the attack on Christianity. Only 
in the English-speaking countries is the rule appar- 
ently void. Yet, even there, but slight acouaintance 
with the leading personalities of the Socialist move- 
ment and the habits of thought current among them, 
is sufficient to dispel the illusion. In Great Britain 
certain prominent names at Once occur as plainly 
anti-Christian — Aveling, Hyndman, Pearson, Blatch- 
ford, Bax, Quelch, Leatham, Morris, Standring — 
many of them pioneers and prophets of the movement 
in England. The Fabiaxls, Shaw, Pease, Webb, 
Guest; independents, like Wells, or Orage, or Car- 
penter: popular periodicals like "The Clarion", 
"The Socialist Review", "Justice" are all markedly 
non-Christian in spirit, thou^ some of them do pro- 
test against any necessary mcompatibility between 
their £>ctrines and the Christian. It is true that the 
political leaders, like Macdonald and Hardie, and a 
fair proportion of the present Labour Party might 
insist that "Socialism is only Christianity in terms of 
modem economics", but the very measures they ad- 
vocate or support not unfrequently are anti-Christian 
in principle or tendency. And in the United States it 
is we same. Those who have studied the writings or 

Speeches of well-known Socialists, such as Bellamy, 
ronlund, Spargo, Hunter, Debs, Herron, Abbott, 
Brown, Del Mar, Hillquit, Kerr, or Simmons, or 

Periodicals like the "New York Volkszeitung", "The 
eople", "The Comrade", or "The Worker", are 
aware of the bitterly anti-Christian ton^ that per- 
vades them^and is inherent in their propaganda. 

The trend of the Socialist movement, then, and the 
deliberate pronouncements and habitual thought of 
leaders and followers alike, are almost universally 
found to be antagonistic to Christianity. Moreover, 
the other side of the question is but a confirmation 
of this antagonism. For all three popes who have 
come into contact with modem Socialism, Pius IX, 
Leo XIII, and Pius X, have formally condemned it, 
both as a general doctrine and with regard to specific 
points. The bishops and clergy, the lay experts on 
social and economic questions, the philosophers, the 
theologians, and practically the whole body of the 
faithful are unanimous in their acceptance of the con- 
demnation. It is of little purpose to point out that 
the Socialism condemned is Marxism, and not, Fa- 
bianism or its analogues in various countries. For, in 
the first place^ the main principles common to all 
schools of Socialism have been explicitly condemned 
in Encyclicals like the "Rerum no varum" or the 
"Graves de communi"; and, in addition, as has been 
shown above, the main current of Socialism is still 
Marxist, and no adhesion to a movement professedly 
international can be acquitted of the guilt of lending 
support to the condemned doctrines. The Chureh, 
the Socialists, the very tendency of the movement do 
but confirm the antagonism of principle, indicated 
above, between Socialism and Christianity. The 
"Christian Socialists" of all countries, indeed, fall 
readily, upon examination, into one of three cate- 
gories. Either they are very imperfectly Christian, 
as the Lutheran followers of Stocker and Naumann in 
Germany, or the Calvinist Socialists in France, or the 
numerous vaguely-doctrinal "Free-Church" Social- 
ists in England and America; or, secondly, they are 
but very inaccurately styled "Socialist"; as were the 
group led by Kingsley, Maurice and Hughes in Eng- 
land, or "Catholic Democrats" like Ketteler, Man- 
ning, Descurtins, the "Sillonists"; or, thirdly, where 
there is an acceptance of the main Christian doctrine, 
side by side with the advx>cacy of Revolutionary So- 
cialism, as is the case with the English "Guild of St. 




Matthew" or the New York Church Association for 
the Advancement of the Interests of Labour, it can 
only be ascribed to that mental facility in holding at 
the same time incompatible doctrines, which is every- 
where the mark of the ''Catholic but not Roman" 
school. Christianity and Socialism are hopelessly in- 
compatible, and the logic of events makes this ever 
clearer. It is true that, before the publication of the 
Encrjrclical "Rerum novarum", it was not unusual to 
apply the term ''Christian Soncialism" to the social 
reforms put forward throughout Europe by those 
Catholics who are earnestly endeavoiu'ing to restore 
the social philosophy of Catholicism to the position it 
occupied in the a^es of Faith. But, under the guid- 
ance of Pope Leo XIII, that crusade against the social 
and economic iniquities of the present age is now more 
correctly styled " Christian Democracy , and no really 
instructed, loyal, and clear-thinking Catholic would 
now claim or accept the style of Christian Socialist. 

To sum up, in the words of a capable anonymous 
writer in "Tjie Quarterly Review", Socialism has for 
"its philosophical basis, pure materialism; its re- 
ligious basis is pure negation; its ethical basis the 
theory that society makes the individuals of which it 
is composed, not the individuals society, and that 
therefore the structure of society determines indi- 
vidual conduct, which involves moral irresponsibility; 
its economic basis is the theory that labour is the sole 
producer, and that capital is the surplus value over 
Dare subsistence produced b^ laboiir and stolen by 
capitalists; its juristic basis is the rig^t of labour to 
the whole product; its historical basis is the industrial 
revolution, that is the change from small and handi- 
craft methods of production to large and mechanical 
ones, and the warfare of classes; its political basis is 
democracy. ... It may be not^ that some of these 
[bases] have already been abandoned and are in ruins, 
others are beginning to shake; and as this process 
advances the defenders are compelled to retreat and 
take up fresh positions. Thus the form of the doc- 
trine cnan^es and undergoes modification, though 
all cling still to the central principle, which is tne 
suJsstitution of public for private ownership." 

I. History of the Socialist Movement: (1) General:— Cettt, Let 
aodalistet alUmanda (Paris, 1907); Db Seilhac, Le« ctmgria 
ouvriera en France (Reims, 1008) ; Hillquit, Hietory of Socialiem 
in the United Statea (New York, 1902) ; Kirkup, History of So- 
ciaiiam (London, 1909); Lecocq, La question eocicUe au xviii 
niele (Paris, 1909); Louis, Histoire du mouvement aynduxU en 
Prance (Paris, 1907) ; Pelloutier, Histoire des Bourses de Travail 
(Paris, 1902); Rae, Contemporary Socialism (London, 1908); 
SouBA RT, Socialism and the SocialiH Movement (London, 1909) ; 
SroDDiRT, The New Socialism (London, 1909); Tuoan-Baro- 
NowsKT, Modem Socialism in its Historical Dev^pment (London, 
1910); ViLUBRS, The socialist Movement in England (London, 
1910); Winterer, Le socialisms contemporain (Paris, 1895). 

(2) Utopian and Revolutionarv Attempts. — ^Buonarotti, Babeufs 
Conspiracy for Equality (London, 1836) ; Cullbn, Adven^ 
tures in Socialism (London, 1910); Hinda, American Commu- 

nities (Chicago, 1902) ; Lissaoarat, History of the Commune of 
1871 (London, 1886); Mallock, A Century of Socialistic Experi- 
ments in The Dublin Review (July, 1909) ; March, History of the 
Paris Commune (London, 1895); NoRDHorr, Communistic So- 
cieties in the United States (London, 1875); NoTEa, History 
of American Socialisms (Philadelphia, 1870). (3) Biographies 
of Socialist Leaders. — Bbrnbtein, Ferdinand Lassalle as a 
Social Reformer (London, 1893) ; Booth, Saint-Simon and Saint- 
Simonism (London, 1871); Georqe, Life of Henry George (Lon- 
don, 1900); GiBBiNB, English Social Reformers (London, 1907); 
Jackson, Bernard Shaw, a monograph (London, 1909); Jones. 
The Life, Times and L(^>ours of Robert Owen {London, 1900); Mac- 
Kail, Life of William Morris (2 vols., London, 1899); Sparoo, 
Khrl Marx, his Life and Work (New York, 1910); Taylor, 
Leaders of Socialism (London, 1908). 

II. History^ of Movements Influencing Socialism: (1) Co- 
1908) : HoLYOAKE. History of Co-operation (2 vols., London, 1908) ; 


itory of 

Co-operation at Home and Abroad (London, 

Laverone, Le rigime coop^ratif (Paris, 1910); Potter, Co-opera- 
tive movement in Great Britain (London, 1899). (2) Combina- 
tions of Labour and Capital. — Db Seilhac, Les grhes (Paris, 
1909); DiUQBNT, Lea orientations syndicates (Paris, 1909); Ely, 
Monopolies and Trusts (New York, 1900); Hirst, Monopolies, 
Trusts, and Kartells (London, 1905); Howell, Trade Unionism 
Old and New (London, 1907) ; Kirkbride and Stbrrbtt. The 
Modem Trust Company (New York, 1906); Macrosty, The Trust 
Movement in British Industry (London, 1907); Wbbb, Hiatory 
of Trade- Unioniam (London, 1901); Idbm, Induatrial Democ- 
racy (London, 1901). (3) Legislation.— CuNNiNOHAif and Mao- 

arthttr, Outiinea of Engliah Induatrial Hiatory (Cambridge, 
1894) : Hdtchins and Harrison, Hiatory of Factory Legialatum 
CLondon, 1910); Nicholls and Mackay, Hiatory of the Engliah 
Poor Law (3 vols., London. 1910); Webb, Engliah Poor Law 
Policy (London. 1909); Idem, Granta in Aid (London, 1911); 
Idem, The StoU and the Doctor (London, 1910). (4) Municipal 
and Administrative Activities. — Darwin, Municipal Ownerahip 
(London, 1907) ; Joly. La Suiase politique et aocicUe (Paris, 1909): 
lOEif, L Italie contemporaine (Paris, 1911); Meyer, Municipal 
Ownerahip in Great Britain (London, 1906); Reeves, State Ex- 
perimenta in Aualralia and New Zealand (2 vols., London, 1902); 
Shaw, Municipal Government in Great Britain (London, 1895); 
loBif, Municipal Government in Continental Europe (London. 
1896) ; Wbbbbr, The Growth of Citiea in the Nineteenth Century 
(London. 1899); Zuebun, American Municipal Enterpriae (New 
York, 1902). 

III. Socialism as Expounded by Socialists. (1) Marxism.— 
Bax, Essays in Socialism New and Old (London, 1905) ; Blatch- 
roRD, Merrie England (London, 1895); Enoels, Socialism Uto- 
pian and Scientific (^ndon, 1892); Ferri, Socialism and Posi- 
tive Science (London, 1905); Gronlund, The Co-operative Com- 
monwealth (London, 1896); Hunter, Socicdists at Work (New 
York. 1908) ; Hyndman, The Economics of Socialism (London, 
1896): JaurAs, Studies in Socialism (London, 1906); Marx, 
Capital (3 vols., London, 1888, 1907, 1909); Morris and Bax. 
Socialism its Growth and Outcome (London, 1897); Sparoo, So- 
cialism, a Summary and Interpretation (New York, 1906); Idem, 
The Substance of Socialism (New York, 1910). (2) Revisionism, 
Revolutionary Sjrndicalism, Fabian Expertism. — Bernstein, 
Evolutionary Socialism (London. 1909); (Jlay. Syndicalism and 
Labour (London, 1911) ; EInsor, Modem Socialism as Set Forth by 
Socialists (New York, 1910); Fabian Essays in Socialism (Lon- 
don, 1909); Fabian Tracts, Nos. 1-160 (London, 1884-1911); 
Gripfublhes, L'adion syndicalists (Paris, 1908) ; Idem, Voyages 
rivolutionaires (Paris, 1910); Hillqdit, Socialism in Theory 
and Practice (New York, 1909); Kelly, Twentieth Century 
Socialism (London, 1910); Laqardbllb. Le aoeialiame ouvrier 
(Paris, 1911); Macdonald. Socialiam and Society (London, 
1905); Idem. The Socialist Movement (London, 1911); Mbb- 
MEix, Le aoeialiame (Paris, 1907) ; Idem, Le ayndicaliame eontre 
le aocicUisme (Paris, 1908) ; Pataud and Pouoet, Comment nous 
ferona la revolution (Paris, 1909); Prezzouni, La teoria aindi- 
ccdista (Naples, 1909); Vandervelde. Collectivism and Industrial 
Revolution (London, 1907) ; Webb, The Prevention of Destitution 
(London. 1911); Wells, New Worlda for Old (London. 1908). 

IV. Catholic Criticism of Socialism. — ^Antoine. Coura d'icono- 
mie socials (Paris, 1988), 523-^68; Ardant, Le socialisms contem- 

?7rain et la propriHi (Paris, 1905); Brochures jaunes de V Action 
opulaire, Nos. td, B8, J^, 97, 100, 163, 174, 199 (Reims, 1904- 
11); Cabtelein, Le socialisme et le droit de proprvUS (Brussels); 
Cathrein, SociiUism, its theoretical basis and practical applica- 
tion (New York, 1904) ; Cousin. Catichisme d'ieonomie soe. et pdit. 
(Paris. 1907) ; De Seilhac. Uutopie social. (Paris, 1907) ; Dbvas, 
Political Economy (London, 1907). 514-26; Kelleher. Private 
ownership: its basis and equUable conditions (Dublin, 1911); Le 
ROY-BEAULiEn, Collectivism, a Study of Some of the Loading Ques- 
tions of the Day (London, 1908) ; Pbsch, Liber^ismus, Socialis- 
mus ChrisU. GeseUschaftsord. (Freiburg, 1896) : Preuss, The Fun- 
damental Fallacy of Socialism (St. Louis, 1908); Savatier. Les 
variations du socialisme in Le mouvemenl soc. (Paris, May, 1911); 
ScHRiJvERs, Handbook of Practical Econonomics (London, 1910), 
25-48; ToussAiNT, CoUectivisme et communisms (Paris, 1907); 
Winterer, Le socialisme aUemand et ses dernih-es iv<dutions 
(Paris, 1907). 

V. Non-Catholio Criticism of Socialism. — Guyot, Socialistic 
Fallacies (London, 1910); Funt, Socialism (London, 1908); 
Hobson, The Industrial System (London, 1909); Idem. The 
Science of wealth (London, 1911); Kirkup, An Enquiry Into So- 
cialism (London, 1908); Mallock, A Critical Examination of 
Socialism (London, 1908); Nicholson, Historical Progress and 
Ideal Socialism (London, 1894); Schaepple, The Quintessence of 
Socialism (London, 1899); Skelton, Socialism, a critical analysis 
^^ndon, 1911); Socialism, Its Meaning and Origin; its Present 
Position and Future Prospects in Quarterly Review (April. July, 
London, 1910); The Case Against Socialism (London, 1909). 

VI. "Christian 8oc\aXiBin*\— Catholicism and Socialism in 
Catholic Truth Society Pamphlets (2 vols., London, 1908, 1910); 
Cunningham, Socialism and Christianity (London, 1909) ; Gay- 
RAUD, Un Catholique peut-il ttre aoeialiatet (Paris, 1907) ; Gold- 
stein, Socialiam, the Nation of Fatherleaa Children (New York, 
1908); Headlam, Dearmeb. Clippord, and Woolman. Social- 
iam and Religion in Fabian Sodaliat Seriea, no. 1 (London, 1908) ; 
Lamy. Catholiquea et Socialistes (Paris. 1910); Ming, The Char- 
acteristics and the Religion of Modem Socialism (New York. 1908) ; 
Idem, The Morality of Modem Socialiam (New York. 1909); 
Nim, Catholic Socialiam (London, 1895); Noel, Socialiam in 
ChurcJi History (London, 1910); Sertillanges, Socialisme ti 
Christianisme (Paris, 1909) ; Soderini, Socialiam and Catholiciam 
(London, 1896) ; Stang. Socialiam and Chriatianity (New York. 
1905); Wordsworth, Christian Socialism in England (London. 

VII. Christian Democracy. — Annie social^ internationals, l- 
III (Reims. 1910-12) ; Calippb. L'attitude socials des oatholi^es 
Franfais au XIX* siMe (Paris. 1910) ; Idem, Les tendences sociales 
des catholiques libSraux (Paris, 1911); Catholic Social GuHd 
Pamphlets (2 vols., London, 1910-12); Crawporb, Switzerland 
To-day (London, 1911); Dbvas, Social Questions and the Duty of 
Catholics (London, 1907); Idem, The Key to the World* s Progress 
(London. 1906) ; Garrigubt, The Social Value of the Gospel (Lon- 
don. 1911); Guide Social, I-VI (Reims. 1904-09); Lugan. L'en- 
seignement socuU de Jisus (Paris, 1907); Naudbt, Le ehriatian- 
ieme Social (Paris, 1908); Parkinson (ed.), Deatitution and 
Suggested Remedies (London, 1911); Plater, Catholic SodatWork 


fa<7ermani/(8t.Louis,i9ig;RTAN,ALm^^ of scholars and writers. In 1844 it was converted 

Economic AapectM (New York. 1910); The Catholic Church and • x_ _ F/^„rioi.i*flf nknlonv fKi'o ^^^^IJ^\^JJ^Xi^ 

Labour in CaShoHc Truth Society Pamphlets (London. 1908): The "^JO ? l^OUrieriSt phalanx, this, hOWeVCr, waS d»- 

Pope and the People (New York, 1909) ; Tdrmann, Le diteloppe- BOlved in 184d. 

"!r^. **** ^S^*^*^ eocial depuie rencydiaue Rerum Novarum Qf the Fourierlstic phalanges two had a verv brief 

2SS; iS^Lnd^ m/)'r*->" ^"^ '^^ "^ '^ "^ e-^^te^?? « F^ce- 4^ <^t thirty we«> or^u«Kl 

Leslie A. St. L. Tokb. ^ ^ne United States between 1840 and 1850. Their 

W. E. Campbell. aggregate membership was about 4600, and their 

longevity varied from a few months to twelve years. 

Socialistic ComxnuxiitieB. — This title compre- Aside from the one at Brook Farm, the most note- 

hends tho^ societies which maintain common owner- worthy were: the North American phalanx, founded 

ship of the means of production and distribution, in 1843 in New Jersey under the direction of Greeley, 

e. g., land, factories, and stores, and also those which Brisbane, Channing, and other gifted men, and dia- 

further extend the practice of common ownership solved in 1855; the Wisconsin, or Cresco, phalanx, 

to consumable goods, e. g., houses and food. While organized in 1844, and dispersed in 1850; and the 

the majority of /the groups treated in the present Sylvania Association of Pennsylvania, which has the 

article are, strictly speaking, communistic rather than distinction of being the earliest Fourieristic experi- 

socialistic, they are frequently designated by the ment in the Unit^ States, though it lasted only 

latter term. The most important of them have eighteen months. 

already been described imder Communism. Below The Oneida (New York) Community, the mem- 

a more nearly complete list is given, together with bers of which called themselves Perfectionists because 

brief notices of those societies that have not been they believed that all who followed their way of life 

discussed in the former articles. At the time of the could become perfect, became a communistic or- 

F^testant Reformation certain socialistic experi- ganization in 1B48, and was converted into a joint- 

ments were made by several heretical sects, including stock corporation in 1881. Its largest numbi^ of 

the Anabaptists, the Libertines, and the Familists; members was 300. 

but these sects did not convert their beUefs along this The first Icarian community was set up in Texas 

Une into practice with sufficient thoroughness or for in 1848, and the last came to an end in 1895 in Iowa, 

a sufficient length of time to give their attempts any Their most prosperous settlement, at Nauvoo, num- 

considerable value or interest (see Kautsky, ''(Dom- bered more than 500 souls. 

munism in Central Europe at the Time of the Ref- The Amana Community* was organized on social- 

ormation'', London, 1897). istic lines in 1843 near Buffalo, New York, but moved 

The Labadists, a reUgious sect with communistic to Amana, Iowa, in 1845. It is the one communistic 

features, foimded a community in Westphalia, in settlement that has increased steadily, though not 

1672, under the leadership of 'Jean de la Badie, an rapidly, in wealth and numbers. Its members rightly 

apostate priest. A few years later about one hundred attribute this fact to its religious character and 

members of the sect established a colony in Northern motive. The community einbraces about 1800 

Maryland, but within half a century both communi- persons, 

ties ceased to exist. A unique community is the Woman's Common- 

The Ephrata (Pennsylvania) Community was w€«ith, established about 1875 near Belton, Texas, 

founded in 1732, and contained at one time 300 mem- and transferred to Mount Pleasant, D. C.^ in 1898. 

bers. but in 1900 numbered only 17. It was oraanized by women who from motives of r»- 

The Shakers adopted a socialistic form of or- Ugion andf conscience had separated themselves from 

ganization at Watervliet, New York, in 1776. At their husbandte. As the members number less than 

their most prosperous period their various societies thirty and are mostly those who instituted the com- 

oomprised about 5000 persons; to-day (1911) they munity more thaji thirty-five years ago, the experi- 

do not exceed 1000. ment cannot last many years longer. 

The Harmonists, or Rappists, were established in The most important of recently founded com- 

Pennsylvania in 1805. Their maximum membership munities was the Ruskin Co-operative Colony, or- 

was 1000; in 1900 they numbered 9. Connected witn ganized in 1894 in Tennessee by J. A. Wayiand, 

this society is the Bethel Community, which was editor of the socialist paper, ''The Coining Nation'', 

founded (1844) in Missouri by a group which in- While the capital of the community was collectively 

eluded some seceders from Harmony. In 1855 the owned, its products were distributed among the 

Bethel leader. Dr. Keil, organized another community members in the form of wages. Owing to dissen- 

at Aurora, Oregon. The combined membership sions and withdrawals, the colony was reorganized 

of the two settlements never exceeded 1000 persons, on a new site in 1896, but it also was soon dissolved. 

Bethel dissolved in 1880 and Aurora in 1881. About 250 of the colonists moved to Georgia, and set 

The Separatists ' of Zoar (Ohio) were organized up another community, but this in a few years 

as a socialistic community in 1818, and dissolved in ceased to exist. 

1898. At one time they had 500 members. A number of other communities have been formed 

T^e New Harmony Community, the greatest at- within recent years, most of which permit private 
tempt ever made in this form of social organization, ownership of consumption-goods and private family 
was founded in Indiana in 1824 by Robert Owen. Ufe. As none of them has become strong either in 
Its maximum number of members was 900 and its numbers or in wealth, and as all of them seem des- 
length of life two years. Eighteen other communi- tined to an early death, they will receive only the 
ties formed by seceders from the New Harmony briefest mention here. Those worthy of any notice 
society were about equally short-lived. Other social- are: The Christian Commonwealth of Qeorgia, or- 
istic settlements that owed their foundation to the ganized in 1896, and dissolved in 1900; the Co- 
teachings of Owen were set up at Yellow Springs, operative Brotherhood, of Burley, Washington: the 
Ohio; Nashoba, Tennessee (composed mostly oi Straight Edge Industrial Settlement, of New York 
negroes); Haverstraw, New York; and Kendal, City: the Home Colony in the State of Washington, 
Oregon. None of them lasted more than two years, whicn has the distinction of being the only anarchist 

Tne Hopedale (Massachusetts) Community was colony; the Mutual Home Araociation, located in the 

organized m 1842 by the Rev. Adin Ballou; it never same state; the Topolambo Colony in Mexico, whidi 

had more than 175 members, and it came to an end lasted but a few months; and the Fairhope (Alabama) 

in 1867. Single-Tax Corporation, which has had a fair measure 

The Brook Farm (Massachusetts) Community was of success, but which is neither socisdistic nor oom- 

establiahed in 1842 by the Transcendentalist group munistic in the proper sense. 




as incidental to their religious purposeSi have cree. Catholic societies which are not church cor- 

achieved even temporary and partial success. Prac- porations may be founded and dissolved at the will of 

tically speaking, only two of these religious com- their members. Sometimes they are approved, or 

inunities remain; of these the Shakers are growing technically praised, by ecclesiastical authority, but 

steadily weaker, while the Amana Society is almost they are also frequently formed without any interven- 

stationary, and, besides, is obliged to carry on tion of the hierarchy. In general, it may be said that 

some of its industries witlf the aid of outside hired Catholic societies of any description are very desir- 

labor. able. 

• See bibliography under Couuvmau. HiuiuiT, HUtorv of The Church has always Watched with singular care 

fSSrivr«"J/;2?MSS;. ^^Z,^-'hJ!^\ acJSJ; over the vanou? organizations formed by the faithful 

of SocMatieBxpenmenu'mTheDiMin Review, July,i909;yfohrT, for the promotion of any good work, and the DOpes 

Socwiiatu Communitm in the United su^ The American CaftuH have enriched them with indulgences. No haTQ and 

!i? SSrSK gtSr» ^^:^^L^S:. \1^?:^"' '"*"' «<«* ™»« ^^y^^ ^ade, however, ss to the method 

John A. Ryan. ®' government. Some societies, e. g. the Propaga- 
tion of the Faith and the Holy Childhood, are gen- 
SoeietiM, Catholic. — Catholic societies are very eral in their scope; others, e. g. the Church Extension 
numerous throughout the world; some are inter- Society of the United States, are peculiar to one 
national in scope, some are national; some diocesan country. It sometimes happens that an association 
and others parochial. These are treated in particu- formed for one country penetrates into another, e. g. 
lar under their respective titles throughout the En- the Piusverein, the Society of Christian Mothers, eto. 
cyclopedia, or else under the countries or the dioceses There are also societies instituted to provide for some 
in which they exist. This article is concerned only special need, as an altar or tabernacle societv, or for 
with Catholic societies in general. The right of asso- tne furthering of some si>ecial devotion, as the Holy 
ciation is one of the natural rights of man. It is not Name Society. For societies which are general in 
surprising, therefore, that from earliest antiouity their scop)e, the Holy See frequently appomts a car- 
societies of the most diverse kinds should have been dinal protector and reserves the choice of the presi- 
formed. In pagan Rome the Church was able to dent to itself. This is likewise done as a mark of 
carry on its work and elude the persecuting laws, special favour to some societies which are only na- 
only imder the guise of a private corporation or so- tional, as the Church Extension Society of the United 
ciety. When it became free it encouraged the associ- States (Brief of Pius X, 9 June, 1910). In general, it 
ation of its children in various guilds and fraternities, mav be affirmed that it is the special duty of the 
that they might more easily, while remaining subject bidaop and the parish priest to foimd or promote such 
to the general supervision of ecclesiastical authority, societies as the faithful of their districts may be in 
obtain some special good for their souls or bodies or need of. Utilitv and necessity often vary with the 
both simultaneously. By a society we understand circumstances of time and country. In some lands it 
the voluntary and durable association of a number of has been found possible and advisable for the Church 
persons who pledge themselves to work together to authorities to form Catholic societies of workingmen. 
obtain some special end. Of such societies there is a These are trades-unions under ecclesiastical auspices 
great variety in the Church both for laymen and and re<;all the old Catholic guilds of the Middle Ages. 
clerics, the most perfect species of the latter being the Zealous bishops and priests nave made the promotion 
regular orders and religious congregations bound by of such societies, as in Germany and Belgium, a 
perpetual vows. As to societies of laymen, we may special work, in the hope of preventing Catholic 
distinguish broadly three classes: (a) confraternities, workin^en trom bein^ allured by temporal gain into 
which are associations of the faithful canonicaUy atheistic societies in which the foundations of civil and 
erected by the proper ecclesiastical superior to pro- religious institutions are attacked. In these unions a 
mote a Christian method of life by special worlu of priest appointed by the bishop gives religious instnic- 
piety towards God, e. g. the splendour of divine wor- tions wnich are particularly directed against the im- 
ship, or towards one's neighbour, e. g. the spiritual pious arguments of those who seek to destroy the 
or corporal works of mercy (see Confraternity); morals and faith of the workingmaii. Methods are 

(b) pious associations, whose objects are generally pointed out for regulating the family life according 
the same as those of confraternities, but whicn are not to the laws of God ; temperance, frugality, and submis- 
canonically erected (see Associations, Pious); and sion to lawful authority are urged, and frequentaticm 

(c) societies whose members are Catholics, but of the sacraments insisted on. These unions also pro- 
which are not in the strict sense of the word religious vide innocent amusements for their members. Such 
societies. Some of these associations are ecclesiasti- societies at times add confraternity and sodality fea- 
cal corporations in the strict acceptation of the term, tures to their organization. 

while others are merely subordinate and dependent There are a number of societies formed by Catholics 
parts of the parish or diocesan organization, or only which are not in a strict sense Catholic societies, 
remotely connected with it.^ Church corporations. Nevertheless, as the individual faithful are subject 
inasmuch as they are moral or legal persons, have the to the authority of the bishop they remain subject to 
right, according to canon law, of making by-laws for the same authority even as members of an organixa- 
their association by the suffrage of the members, of tion. It is true that the bishop may not, in conse- 
electin^ their own officers, of controlling their prop- quence of his ecclesiastical jurisdiction, rule such 
erty within the limits of the canons, and of making societies in the same sense as he does confraternities 
provision, according to their own judgment, for their and pious associations, yet he retains the inalienable 
preservation and growth. They have, consequently, right and even the obligation of preventing the faith- 
certain defined ri^ts, both original or those derivea fuf from being led into spiritual ruin through societies 
from their constitution, and adventitious or what of whatsoever name or purpose. He can, therefore, 
they have acquired by privilege or concession, tf convinced that an organization is harmful, forbid it 
Aniong original rights of all ecclesiastical corporations to assist at church services in its regalia, and, when no 
are the right of exclusion or the expelling of members; emendation results, warn individuals against entering 
of selection or the adoption of new members; o^ con- it or remaining members of it. Finally, there are so- 
vention or meeting for debate and counsel; of assist- cieties which are entirely secular, whose sole purpose 
anoe or aiding their associates who suffer from a viola- is to promote or obtain some oommerciid, domestic. 




or political advantage, such as the ordinary trades- 
unions. In such organizations men of every variety 
of religious belief combine together, and many Catho- 
lics are found among the members. There can be no 
objection to such societies as long as the end intended 
and the means employed are licit and honourable. 
It remains, however, the duty of the bishops to see 
that members of their flock suffer no diminution of 
faith or contamination of morals from such organiza- 
tions. Experience has proved that secular societies, 
while perfectly unobjectionable in their avowed ends, 
may cause grave spu'itual danger to their members. 
Bishops and parish priests can not be blame^. there- 
fore, if they display some anxiety as to membership 
in societies whicn are not avowedly Catholic. If they 
did otherwise^ they would be false to their duty to- 
wards their nock. It may be well to quote here the 
weighty words of an Instruction of the Holv Office 
(10 May, 1884): '^ Concerning artisans and labourers, 
among whom various societies are especially desirous 
of securing members that they may destroy the very 
foundations of religion and society, let the bishops 
place before their eyes the ancient guilds of working- 
men, which, under the protection of some patron 
saint, were an ornament of the commonwealth and an 
aid to the higher and lower arts. They will a^ain 
found such societies for men of commercial and hter- 
ary pursuits, in which the exercises of religion will go 
hand in hand with the benevolent aims mat seek to 
assuage the ills of sickness, old age, or poverty. Those 
who preside over such societies should see that the 
members commend themselves by the probity of their 
morals, the excellence of their work, the docility and 
assiduity of their labours, so that they may more 
securely provide for their sustenance. Let the bishops 

vthemselves not refuse to watch over such societies, sug- 
gest or approve by-laws, conciliate employers, ana give 
every assistance and patronage that lie in their power." 
There are many societies of Catholics or societies 
of which Catholics are members that employ methods 
which seem imitations derived from various organiza- 
tions prohibited by the Church. It may be well, 
therefore, to state that no Catholic is allowed, as a 
member of any society whatever, to take an oath of 
blind and unlimited obedience; or promise secrecy of 
such a nature that, if circumstances require it,' he 
may not reveal certain thing^ to the lawful ecclesiasti- 
cal or civil authorities; or join in a ritual which would 
be equivalent to sectarian worship (see Societies, 
Secret). Even when a society is founded by Cath- 
lics or is constituted principaUy of Catholics, it is 
possible for it to degenerate into a harmful organi- 
zation and call for the intervention of the authority 
of the Church. Such was the fate of the once bril- 
liant and meritorious French society **Le Sillon", 
which was condemned by Pius X (25 Aug., 1910). 
It is often expedient for Catholic societies to be in- 
corporated by the civil authority as private corpora- 
tions. In fact, this is necessary 'i they wish to possess 
property or receive bequests in their own name. In 
some countries, as Russia, such incorporation is 

, almost impossible; in others, as Germany and France, 
the Government makes many restrictions; but in 
EngUsh-speaking countries there is no difficulty. In 
England societies may be incorporated not only by 
special legal act, but also by common law or by pre- 
scription. In the United States a body corporate 
may be formed only by following the plan proposed 
by a law of Congress or a statute of a state legisla- 
ture. The procedure varies slightly in different 
states, but as a rule incorporation is effected by filing 
a paper in the office of the secretary of state or with a 
circuit judge, stating the object and methods of the 
society. Tiiree incorporators are sufficient, and the 
petition will always be granted if the purposes 
of the association are not inconsistent with the laws of 
the United States or of the particular state in question. 

IjAifBMNnvBt In$litttiionM juria eedeMuuUd (Eribourgt IMS); 
Wernz, Ju» decretaiium. III (Rome. 1901); Aichnkh, Compen- 
dium juris eccUaiattiei (Brixen, 1895); Bejunger. Die AbldsM 
(13th ed., Paderboro. 1911; French tr.. 1905); Taylor, The Law 
of Private Corporations (New York, 1902); Handbook of Cathnlic 
Charitable and Social Works (London, 1912). 

William H. W. Fanning. 

Societies, Catholic, American Fedesatton aw, 
an organization of the Catholic laity, parishes, and 
societies under the guidance of the hierarchy, to 
protect and advance their religious, civil, and social 
interests. It does not destroy the autonomy of any 
society or interfere with its activities, but seeks to 
unite all of them for purposes of co-operation and 
economy of forces. It is not a political organization, 
neither does it ask any privileges or favours for Cath- 
olics. The principal object of the Federation is to 
encourage (1) the Christian education of youth; (2) 
the correction of error and exposure of falsehood and 
injustice; the destruction of bigotry; the placing of 
Catholics and the Church in their true light, thus re- 
moving the obstacles that have hitherto impeded their 
progress; (3) the infusion of Christian principles into 
public and social life, by combatting the errors threat- 
ening to undermine the foundations of civil society, 
notably socialism, divorce, dishonesty in business, ana 
corruption in pHolitics and positions of public trust. 
The nrst organization to inaugurate the movement 
for a concerted action of the societies of Catholic 
laymen was the Knights of St. John. At their annual 
meeting held at Cleveland in 1899 the]^^ resolved to 
unite the efforts of their local commanderies. In 1900 
at Philadelphia they discussed the question of a fed- 
eration of all the Catholic societies. As a result a 
convention was held on 10 Dec., 1901^ at Cincinnati, 
under the presidency of Mr. H. J. Fries. Two hun- 
dred and fifty delegates were present under the guid-^ 
ance of Bishop McFaul of Trenton^ Bishop Messmer of 
Green Bay^ now Archbishop of Milwaukee, the princi- 

Eal factors in the orj^anization of the movement. Arch- 
ishop Elder of Cincinnati, Bishop Horstmann of 
Cleveland, and Bishop Maes of Covington. A char- 
ter bond was framed and the Federation formallv 
established, with Mr. T. B. Minahan as its first presi* 
dent. Since then annual conventions have been 
held. The Federation represents close to two million 
Catholics. It has been approved by Popes Leo XIII 
and Pius X, and practically all the hierarchy of the 
country. The fruits of the fabours of the organiza- 
tion have been manifold; among other things it has 
helped to obtain a fair settlement of the disputes con- 
cerning the church property in the Philippines, per- 
mission for the celebration of Mass in the navy-yards, 
prisons, reform schools; assistance for the Catholic 
Indian schools and negro missions; the ¥nthdrawal 
and prohibition of indecent plays and post-cards. It 
has prevented the enactment of laws inimical to 
Catholic interests in several state legislatures. One 
of its chief works has been the uniting of the Catholics 
of different nationalities, and harmonizing their 
efforts for self-protection and improvement. ^ It pub- 
lishes a montldy Bulletin, which contains valuable 
social studies. The national secretary is Mr. Anthony 
Matr6, Victoria Building, St. Louis, Missouri. 

MATRi, Hist, of the Peder. 5 Cath. 8oc. in The Catholie Cotum" 
bian (Columbus, Ohio, 18 Aug.. 1911); McFaul. The Amer. Feder, 
of Cath. Soc. (Clineiimati. 1911). 

A. A. MacErlban. 

Societies, Secbbt, a designation of which the exact 
meaning has varied at different times. I. Defini- 
tion. — 'By a secret society was formerly meant a 
society which was known to exist, but whose members 
and places of meetings were not publicly known. 
To-day, we understand by a secret society, a society 
with secrets, having a ritual demanding an oath of 
allegiance and secrecy, prescribing ceremonies of a 
religious character, sucn as the use of the Bible, either 




by extracts therefrom, or by its being placed on an 
altar within a lodge-room, by the use of prayers, of 
hymns, of religious signs and symbols, special funeral 
services, etc. (Rosen, ''The Catholic Church and 
Secret Societies'', p. 2). Raich gives a more elabo- 
rate description: ''Secret societies are those organiza- 
tions which completely conceal their rules, corporate 
activity, the names of their members, their signs, pass- 
words and usages from outsiders or the 'profane'. 
As a rule, the members of these societies are bound to 
the strictest secrecy concerning all the business of the 
association by oath or promise or word of honour, and 
often under the threat of severe punishment in case of 
its violation. If such secret society has higher and 
lower degrees, the members of the higher degree must 
be equaJly careful to conceal their secrets from their 
brethren of a lower degree. In certain secret societies, 
the memb«-s are not allowed to know even the names 
of their highest officers. Secret societies were 
founded to promote certain ideal aims, to be obtained 
not by violent but by moral measures. By this,* they 
ai» distingushed from conspiracies and secret plots 
wnich are formed to attain a. particular object through 
violent means. Secret societies mav be relidous, 
scientific, political or social" (Kirchenlex., V, p. 
519). Narrowing the definition still more to the 
technical meaning of secret societies (societatea dan^ 
destinm) in ecclesiastical documents, Archbishop Kat- 
ser in a Pastoral (20 Jan., 1895) savs: "The Catholic 
Church has declared that she considers those societies 
illicit and forbidden which (1) unite their members 
for the purpose of conspiring against the State or 
Church; (2) demand the observance of secrecy to such 
an extent that it must be maintained eveii before the 
rightful ecclesiastical authority; (3) exact an oath 
from their members or a promise of blind and abso- 
lute obedience; (4) make use of a ritual apd cere- 
monies that constitute them sects. " 

• II. Origin. — Though secret societies, in the mod- 
em and technical sense, did not exist in antiquity, yet 
there were various organizations which boastea an 
esoteric doctrine known onlv to their members, and 
carefully concealed from the profane. Some date 
societies of this kind back to Pythagoras (582-507 
B. c). The Eleusinian Mysteries, the secret teach- 
ings of Egyptian and Druid hierarchies, the esoteric 
doctrines of the Magian and Mithraio worshippers 
furnished material for such secret organizations. In 
Christian times, sueh heresies as the Gnostic and 
Manichsean also claimed to possess a knowledge 
known only to the illuminated and not to be sharid 
with the vulgar. Likewise, the enemies of the 
relieious order of Knights Templars maintained that 
the orothers of the Temple, while externally professing 
Christianity, were in reality pagans who veiled their 
impiety under orthodox' terms to which an entirely 
different meaning was given by the initiated. Orip;- 
inally, the various guilds of the Middle Ages were in 
no sense secret societies in the modern acceptation of 
the term, though some have supposed that symbolic 
Freemasonry was gradually developed in those or- 
ganizations. The fantastic Rosicrucians are credited 
with something of the nature of a modem secret so- 
ciety, but the association, if such it was, can scarcely 
be said to have emerged into the clear light of history. 
III. Modern Orqanizations. — Secret societies in 
the true sense began with symbolic Freemasonry 
about the year 1717 in London (see Masonry). This 
widespread oath-bound association soon became the 
exempLeu* or the parent of numerous other fraternities, 
nearly all of which have some connexion with Free- 
masonry, and in almost every instance were founded 
bv Masons. Among these may be mentioned the 
lUuminati, the Carbonari, the Odd-Fellows, the 
Knights of Pythias, the Sons of Temperance and 
similar societies whose number is legion. Based on 
the same principles as the secret order to which they 

are affiliated are the women-auxiliary lodges, of 
which almost every secret society has at least one. 
These secret societies for women have also their 
rituals, their oaths, and their degrees. Institutions of 
learning are also infected with the glamour of secret or- 
ganizations and the "Eleusis" of Ch^Omega (Fayette- 
viUe, Ark.) of 1 June, 1900, states that there are twenty- 
four Greek letter societies with seven hundred and 
sixty-eight branches for male students, and eight sim- 
ilar societies with one hundred and twenty branches for 
female students, and a total membership of 142,456 in 
the higher institutions of learning in the United States. 
IV. Attitude op Ecclesiastical Authorities. — 
The judgment of the Church on secret oath-bound 
associations has been made abundantly clear by papal 
documents. Freemasonry was condemned by Clem- 
ent XII in a Constitution^ dated 28 April, 1738. The 
pope insists on the objectionable character of societies 
that commit nien of all or no religion to a system of 
mere natural righteousness, that seek their end by 
binding their votaries to secret pacts by strict oaths, 
often under penalties of the severest character, ana 
that plot against the tranquillity of the State. Ben- 
edict XIV renewed the condemnation of his predeces- 
sor on 18 May, 1751. The Carbonari were declared 
a prohibited society by Pius VII in a Constitution 
dated 13 Sept., 1821, and he made it manifest that 
organizations similar to Freemasonry involve an 
equal condemnation. The Apostolic Constitution 
"Quo Graviora" of Leo XII (18 March, 1825) put 
together the acts and decrees of former pontiffs on the 
subject of secret societies and ratified and confirmed 
them. The dangerous character and tendencies of 
secret organizations among students did not escape 
the vigik^ce of the Holy S^, and Pius VIII (24 May, 
1829) raised his warning voice concerning those in 
colleges and academies, as his predecessor, Leo XII, 
had done in the matter of universities. The suc- 
ceeding popes, Gregory XVI (15 Aug., 1832) and 
Pius IX (9 Nov., 1846; 20 Apr., 1849; 9 Dec, 1854; 
8 Dec, 1864; 25 Sept., 1865), continued to warn the 
faithful against secret societies and to renew the ban 
of the Church on their designs and members. On 
20 Apr., 1884, appeared the famous EncycUcal of 
Leo XIII, "Humanum Genus". In it the pontiff 
says: "As soon as the constitution and spirit of the 
masonic sect were clearly discovered by manifest si^ns 
of its action, by cases investigated, by the publication 
of its laws and of its rites and commentaries, with the 
addition often of the personal testimony of those who 
were in the secret, the Apostolic See denounced the 
sect of the Freemasons and publicly declared its con- 
stitution, as contrary to law and right, to be perni- 
cious no less to Christendom than to the State; and it 
forbade anyone to enter the society, under the penal- 
ties which the Church is wont to inflict upon excep- 
tionally guilty persons. The sectaries, indignant at 
this, thinking to elude or to weaken the force of these 
decrees, partly by contempt of them and partly by 
calumny, accused the Sovereign Pontiffs who had 
uttered them, either of exceeding the bounds of mod- 
eration or of decreeing what was not just. This was 
the manner in which they endeavoured to elude the 
authority and weight of the Apostolic Constitutions 
of Clement XII and Benedict XIV, as well as of 
Pius VIII and Pius IX. Yet in the very society itself, 
there were found men who unwillingly acknowledged 
that the Roman Pontiffs had acted within their ri^t, 
according to the Catholic doctrine and disciphne. 
The pontiffs received the same assent, and in strong 
terms, from manv princes and heads of governments, 
who made it their business either to delate the 
masonic society to the Holy See, or of their own accord 
by special enactments to brand it as pernicious, as for 
example in Holland, Austria, Switzerland, Spain, 
Bavaria, Savoy and other parts of Italy. But, what 
is of the highest importance, the course of events has 




demonstrated the prudence of our predeoessors". 
Leo XIII makes it clear that it is not only the society 
explicitly called Masonic that is objectionable: ''There 
are several organized bodies which, though they differ 
in name, in ceremonial, in form and ori^m, are never- 
theless so bound together by community of purpose 
and by the similarity of their main opinions as to 
make in fact one thing with the sect of the Free- 
masons, which is a kind of centre whence they all go 
forth and whither they all return. Now, these no 
longer diow a desire to remain concealed ; for they hold 
their meeting^ in the daylight and before the public 
eye, and pubGsh their own newspaper organs; and yet, 
when thoroughly understood, tney are found still to 
retain the nature and the habits of secret societies. " 
The pope is not unmindful of the professed benevo- 
lent aims of these societies: ''They speak of their zeal 
for a more cultured refinement and of their love of 
the poor; and tliey declare their one wish to be the 
ameuoration of the condition of the masses, and to 
share with the largest possible number all the benefits 
of civil life. Even were these purposes aimed at in 
real truth, yet they are by no means the whole of their 
olyect. Moreover, to be enrolled, it is necessary that 
candidates promise and undertake to be thencefor- 
ward strictly obedient to their leaders and masters 
with the utmost submission and fidelity, and to be in 
readiness to do their bidding upon the slightest expres- 
sion of their will. '' The pontiff then points out the 
dire consequences which result from the fact that these 
societies substitute Naturalism for the Church of 
Christ and inculcate, at the very least, indifferentism 
in matters of religion. Other papal utterances on 
secret societies are: "Ad Apostolici'', 15 Oct., 1890; 
"PrsBclara", 20 June, 1894; "Annum Ingressi", 18 
Mar., 1902. 

V. The Societies Forbidden. — ^The extension of 
the decrees of the Apostolic See in regard to societies 
hitherto forbidden imder censure is summed up in 
the well-known Constitution "Apostolicse Sedis of 
Pius IX, where excommunication is pronounced 
against those "who give their names to the sect of the 
Masons or Carbonari or any other sects of the same 
nature, which conspire against the Church or lawfully 
constituted Governments, either openly or covertly, 
as well as those who favor in any manner these sects 
or who do not denounce their leaders and chiefs''. 
The condemned societies here described are associa- 
tions formed to antagonize the Church or the lawful 
civil power. A society to be of the same kind as the 
Masonic, must also be a secret organization. It is of 
no consequence whether the society demand an oath 
to observe its secrets or not. It is plain also that pub- 
lic and avowed attacks on Church or State are quite 
compatible with a secret organization. It must not 
be supposed, however, that only societies which fall 
direct!^ under the formal censure of the Church are 
prohibited. The Congregation of the Holy Office 
issued an instruction on 10 Ma^, 1884, in which it 
says: "That there may be no possibilitv of error when 
there is question of judging which of these pernicious 
societies fall under censure or mere prohibition, it is 
certain, in the first place, that the Masonic and other 
sects ot the same nature are excommunicated, whether 
they exact or do not exact an oath from their mem- 
bers to observe secrecy. Besides these, there are 
other prohibited societies, to be avoided under grave 
sin, among which are especially to be noted those 
which, under oath, communicate a secret to their 
members to be concealed from everybody else, and 
which donand absolute obedience to unknown lead- 
ers". To the secret societies condemned by name, 
the Congregation of the Holy Office, on 20 Aug., 1894. 
in a Decree addressed to the hierarchy of the United 
States, added the Odd-Fellows, the Sons of Tem- 
p«Tance, and the Knights of Pythias. 

VI. Recently Condemned Societies. — ^The order 

of Odd-Fellows was formed in England in 1812 as a 
completed ori^anization, though some lodges date back 
to 1745; and it was introduce into America in 1819. 
In the "Odd-Fellows' Improved Pocket Manual" the 
author writes: "Our institution has instinctively) as it 
were, copied after all secret associations of religious 
and moral character". The "North-West Odd-Fel- 
low Review" (May, 1895) declares: "No home can be 
an ideal one unless the principles of our ^ood and 
glorious Order are represented therein, and its teach- 
ings made the rule of life''. In the "New Odd-Fel- 
lows' Manual" (N. Y., 1895) the author says: "The 
written as well as the unwritten secret work of the 
Order^ I have sacredly kept unrevealed", though the 
book IS dedicated "to all inquirers who desire to know 
what Odd-Fellowship really is". This book teUs ua 
"Odd-Fellowship was founded on great religious prin- 
ciples" (p. 348) ;. " we use forms of worship" (p. 364) ; 
"Judaism, Christianity, Mohammedanism reco^iize 
the only living and true God" (p. 297). The Odd- 
Fellows have chaplains, altars, nigh-priests, ritual, 
order of worship, and funeral ceremonies. The order 
of the Sons of Temperance was founded in New York 
in 1842 and introduced into England in 1846. The 
"Cyclopaedia of Fraternities" says (p. 409): "The 
Sons of Temperance took the lead m England in 
demonstrating the propriety and practicability of 
both men and women mingling in secret society 
lodges". That the object of this order and its kin- 
dred societies is not confined to temperance "is evi- 
denced by its mode of initiation, the form of the obli- 
gation and the manner of religious worship" (Rosen, 
p. 162). The order of the Knights of F^thias was 
founded in 1864 by prominent Freemasons (Cyclop, 
of Fraternities, p. 263). In number, its membership 
is second only to that of the Odd-Fellows. Rosen 
(The Catholic Church and Secret Societies) says: 
"The principal objectionable features, on account of 
which the Catholic Church has forbidden its members 
to join the Knights of Pythias, and demanded a with- 
drawal of those who joined it, are: First, the oath of 
secrecy by which the member binds himself to keep 
secret whatever concerns the doings of the Order, even 
from those in Church and State who have a right to 
know, under certain conditions, what their subjects 
are doing. Secondly, this oath binds the member to 
blind obedience, whicn is symbolized by a test. Such 
an obedience is against the law of man's nature, and 
against all divine and human law. Thirdly, Christ is 
not the teacher and model in the rule of life, but the 
pagan I^thagoras and the pagans Damon, Pythias 
and Dionysius" (p. 160). The "Ritual for the sub- 
ordinate Lodges of the Knights of Pythias" (Chicago, 
1906) shows that this organization has oaths, degrees, 
prelates, and a ritual that contains religious worship. 
The decree of the Holy Office concerning the Oda- 
Fellows, Sons of Temperance, and Knights of Pythias, 
though not declaring them to be condemned under 
censure, says: "The bishops must endeavour by aJl 
means to keep the faithful from joining all and each 
of the three aforesaid societies; and warn the faithful 
against them, and if, after proper monition, thev still 
determine to be members of these societies, or cio not 
effectually separate themselves from them, they are 
to be forbidden the reception of the sacraments. A 
decree of 18 Jan., 1896, aflows a nominal membership in 
these three societies, if in the judgment of the Apos- 
tolic delegate, four conditions are fulfilled: that the 
society was entered in good faith, that there be no 
scandal, that grave temporal injury would result from 
withdrawal, and that there be no danger of perver- 
sion. The delegate, in granting a dispensation, usu- 
ally requires a promise that the person will not attend 
any meetings or frequent the lodee-rooms, that the 
dues be sent in by mad or by a third party, and that in 
case of death the society will have nothing to do with 
the funeral. 

80GIBT7 74 S0CIBT7 

VII. Ordbbs of Women. — In regard to female bodies the historical concept as definitized by cogent 
secret societies, the Apostolic delegation at Washins- reasoning. Under such reasoning it has become the 
ton, 2 Au^., lSi07, declared (Ans. no. I5,352-C): ''If essential idea of society and remains so still, not- 
these societies are affiliated to societies already withstanding the pervernon of philosophical terms 
nominally condemned by the Church, they fall under consequent upon later confusion of man with beast, 
the same condemnation, for they form, as it were, a stock, and stone. It is a priori only as far as chas- 
branch of such societies. As regards other female tened by restrictions put upon it by the necesaties of 
secret societies which may not be affiliated with socie- known truth, and is a departure from the inductive 
tiescondemnedexpresslybv the Church, the confessor method in vogue tonday only so far as to exclude 
must, in cases of members belonging to such societies^ rigidly the aberrations of uncivilized tribes and de- 




three societies condemned in 1894 will be dealt with its essential rdea,and is in peril of including' irrational 

by the Apostolic delegate in the same manner as male abuse with rational action and development, 

members when the necessary conditions are fulfilled. The first obvious requisite in all society is authority. 

VIII. Trades Unions. — ^The Third Council of Without this there can be no seciure co-ordination of 
Baltimore (no. 253) declares: "We see no reason why effort nor permanency of co-operation. No secure 
the prohibition of the Church against the Masonic co-ordination, for men's judgment inll differ on the 
and other secret societies should be extended to organ- relative value of means for the common purpose, men's 
isations of workingmen, which have no other obiect choice will vary on means of like value; and unless 
in view than mutual protection and aid for their there is some h^ulship, confusion will result. No 
members in the practice of their trades. Care must permanence of co-operation, for the best of m^i relax 
be taken, however, that nothing be admitted under m their initial resolutions, and to hold them at a co- 
any pretext which favors condemned societies; or ordinate task, a tight rein and a steady spur is needed, 
that the workin^en who belong to these organizar In fact, reluctant though man is to surrender the 
tions be induced, by the cunning arts of wicked men, smallest tittle of independence and submit in the 
to withhold, contrary to the laws of justice, the labor slightest his freedom to the bidding of another, there 
due from them, or m any other manner violate the never has been in the history of the world a successful, 
rights of their employers. Those associations are nor even a serious attempt at co-operative effort with- 
also entirely illicit, in which the members are so out authoritative guidance (see Authority, Civil). 
bound for mutual defense that danger of riots and Starting with this definition and requirement, philos- 
murders is the outcome. " ophy finds itself confronted with two kinds of society, 

IX. Method of Condemnation. — ^Finally, in re- the artificial or conventional, and the natural; and on 
gard to the condemnation of individual societies in pursuing the subject, finds the latter differentiating 
the United States, the council says (no. 255): "To itself into domestic society, or the family, civil societv, 
avoid confusion of discipline which ensues, to the or the State, and religious society, or the Church, 
great scandal of the faithful and the detriment of Each of these Isis a special treatment under other 
ecclesiastical authority, when the same society is headings (see Family; State and Church). Here, 
condemned in one diocese and tolerated in another, however, we shall state the philosophic basis of each, 
we desire that no society be condemned by name as and add thereto the theories which have had a vogue 
falling under one of the classes [of forbidden societies] for the last three centuries, though breaking down 
before the Ordinary has brought the matter before a now under the strain of moaem problems before the 
commission which we now constitute for judging such bar of calm judgment. 

cases, and which will consist of all the archbishops Conventional Societies. — The plurality of per- 

of these provinces. If it be not plsdn to all that a sons, the community of aim, the stability of bond, 

society is to be condemned, recourse must be had authority, and some co-operation of effort being ele- 

to the Holy See in order that a definite judgment be ments common to every form of society, the differen- 

obtained and that uniform discipline may be pre- tiation must come from differences in the character 

served in these provinces". of the purpose, in the nature of the bond. Qualific»- 

Stbvbnb. The Cydopadia of FratemUies (New York. 1907); tions of authority as well as modifications in details 

S^'i^'v MrA:S5J??/'«^"Si'^;;5''»?'i^ I^H^ o^ requisite ccM,pen»tion will follow on chaagee in the 

Lodge (Chicago, 1906) ; Idem, Revised OddrFeUowehip lUuttnUed— purpOSC and the eXtent 01 the bond. As many, then. 

The Compieu Revised Ritual (Chicago. 1906) ; Carnahan. Pyth- as there are objects of human desire attainable by 

l?:iS^/^*i^!?ni5SLi;,n'd.J-.V^ (Luth^T^I) co^^on fort (and their, name i8 l«ion, from the 

(New Orleans, 1899); Dallman. Odd-FeUowship Weighed^ makmg of money, which IS perhaps the Commonest 

Wanting (Pittsburgh. 1906); Gbrber. Der Odd-Fdlow Orden, tO-day, tO the rendering of public worship tO OUr 

^•fe^Ch1?^i89i'?DiLlirK'^:''b^r^^^^ Maker which is surely the meet siusred), bo manifold 

Societies (Pittsburgh, 1906); H. C. 8., Tv>o Discourses Against are the CO-operatlve associations Of men. Ihe Char- 

Secret O^h-Bound Societies or Lodges (Columbus, O.. ■• dO; acter, aS Well as the existence of mOSt of them, is left 

?.S25rc»»'aSXSi£?«iS''maendS*e!= -^^ ^ full freedom to human choice. These may be de- 

Idem, Reply to my Critics of the Cath. Church and Secret Societies nominated conventional societies. Man IS Under no 

(Dubuque. 1903). See also the extended bibliography appended precept to establish th«:;m, nor in universal need of 

to article Masonrt. 117, », „ tt w Tr*^^^« them. He makes or unmakes them at his pleasure. 

wiLUAM n. w . i* ANNiNG. jj^^^ ^^^^ ^ passing purpose, and in setting them up 

Socie^ implies fellowship, company, and has al- men give them the exact character which they judge 

ways been conceived as signifying a human relation, at present suitable for their purpose, determining as 

and not a herding of sheep, a hiving of bees, or a mat- they see fit the limitsx>f authority, the choice of means, 

ing of wild animals. Tne accepted definition of a the extent of the bond holding them together, as well 

society is a stable union of a pliiralitv of persons co- as their own individual reservations. Everything 

operating for a common purpose of benefit to all. about such a society is of free election, barring the 

Tlie fulness of co-operation mvolved naturally ex- fact that the essential requisites of a society must be 

tends to all the activities of the mmd, will, and there. We find this type exemplified in a reading 

external faculties, commensurate with the common circle, a business partnership, or a private charitable 

purpose and the oond of union: this alone presents organization. Of course, in establishing such a society 

an adequate, human working-together. men are under the Natural Law of right and wrong, 

This definition is as old as the Schoolmen, and em- and there can be no moral bond, for example, where 




the common purpose is immoral. They also fall un- 
der the restrictions of the civil law, when the existence 
or action of such an organization comes to have a 
bearing, whether of promise or of menace, upon the 
common weal. In such case the State lays aown its 
essential requirements for the formation of such 
bodies, and so we come to have what is known as a 
legal society, a society, namely, freely established 
under the sanction and according to the requirements 
of the civil law. Such are mercantile corporations 
and beneficial organizations with civil charter. 

Natural SoonsnES. — Standing apart from the 
foregoing in a class by themselves are the family, the 
State, and the Church. That these differ from all 
other societies in purpose and means, is clear and 
universally admitted. That they have a general ap- 
plication to the whole human race, history declares. 
That there is a difference between the bond holding 
them in existence and the bond of union in every other 
society, has been disputed — ^with more enthuttasm 
and imagination, however, than logical force. The 
logical view of the matter brings us to the concept of 
a natural society, a society, that is to say, which men 
are in general under a mandate of the natural law to 
establiw, a society bv consequence whose essential 
requisites are firmly nxed by the same natural law 
To get at this is simple enough, if the philosophical 

Eroblems are taken up in due order. Ethics may not 
e divided from psycholo^ and theodicy, any more 
than from deductive logic. With the proper pre- 
misals then from one and the other here assumed, we 
say that the Oreator could not have given man a fixed 
nature, as He has, without willing man to work out 
the purpose for which that nature is framed. He can- 
not act idly and without purpose, cannot form His 
creature discordantly with the purpose of His will. 
He cannot multiply men on the face of the earth with- 
out a plan for working out the destiny of mankind 
at large. This plan must contain all the elements 
necessary to His puipose, and these necessary details 
He must have wulea man freely to accomplish, that 
IS to say. He must have put upon man a strict ooliga- 
tion thereunto. Other details may be alternatives, 
or helpful but not necessarv, and these He has left 
to man's free choice; though where one of these ele- 
ments would of its nature be far more helpful'^than 
another, God's counsel to man will be in favour of the 
former. God's will directing man through his nature 
to his share in the full purpose of the cosmic plan, we 
Imow as the natural law, containing precept, permis- 
sion, and counsel, according to the necessity, help- 
fulness, or extraordinary vuue of an action to the 
achievement of the Divine purpose. We recognize 
these in the concrete by a rational study of the essen- 
tial characteristics of human nature and its relations 
with the rest of the universe. If we find a natural 
aptitude in man for an action, not at variance with 
tne general purpose of things, we recognize also the 
licence of the natural law to that action. If we find 
a more urgent natural propensity to it, we recognize 
further the counsel of the law. If we nnd the use of 
a natural faculty, the following up of a natural pro- 
peDsit3r, inseparable from the rational fulfilment of 
the ultimate destiny of the individual or of the human 
race, we know that thereon lies a mandate of the 
natural law, obliging the conscience of man. We 
must not, however, miss the difference, that if the 
need of the action or effort is for the individual natural 
destiny, the mandate lies on each human being sever- 
aUy: but if the need be for the natural destinv of the 
race, the precept does not descend to this or that par- 
ticular individual, so long as the necessary bulk of 
men accomplish the detail so intended in the plan for 
the natural destiny of the race. This is abstract rea- 
soning, but necessary for the understanding of a 
natural society in the fulness of its idea. 
A Soc?iBTT Natural by Mandate. — ^A society, 

then, IS natural by mandate, when the law of nature 
sets the precept upon mankind to establish that 
society. The precept is recognized by the natural 
aptitude, propensity, and need in men for tiie estab- 
lishment of such a union. From this point of view 
the gift of speech alone is sufficient to show man^f 
aptitude for fellowship with his kind. It is empha* 
sized bv his manifold perfectibility through contact 
with others and through their permanent companion- 
ship. Furthermore his normal slirinking from soli- 
tude, from working out the problems of life alone, 
is evidence of a social propensity to which mankind 
has always yielded. If again we consider his depen- 
dence for existence and comfort on the multiplied 
products of co-ordinate human effort; and his de- 
pendence for the development of his physical, intel- 
lectual, and moral perfectibility on complex intercourse 
with others, we see a need, in view of man's ultimate 
destiny, that makes the actualization of man's ca- 
pacity of organized social co-operation a stringent law 
upon mankmd. Taking then the kinds of social 
organization imiversally existent among men, it is 
plain not only that they are the result of natural 

Eropensities, but that, as analysis shows, they are a 
uman need and hence are prescribed in the code of 
the Natural Law. 

A Society Natural in Essentials. — Further^ 
more, as we understand a legal contract to be one 
which, because of its abutment on common interests, 
the civil law hedges roimd with restrictions and reser- 
vations for their protection, similarly on examination 
we shall find that all agreements by which men enter 
into stable social union are fenced m with limitations 
set by the natural law guarding the essential interests 
of the good of mankind. When,' moreover, we coqie 
to social unions prescribed for mankind by mandate 
of that law, we expect to find the purpose of the union 
set by the law (otnerwise the law would not h^e pre- 
scribed the union), all the details morally necessary 
for the rational attainment of that purpose fixed by 
the law, and all obstacles threatening sure defeat to 
that purpose, proscribed by the same. A natural 
society, then, besides being natural by mandate, will 
also be natural in all its essentials, for as much as these 
too shall be determined and ordained by the law. 

The Family a Natural Society. — Working along 
these lines upon the data given by eiroerience, per- 
sonal as well as through tne proxy of history, the 
i)hilo6opher finds in man's nature, considered pnysio- 
ogically and psychologically, the aptitude, propensity, 
and, both as a general thing and for mankind at large, 
the need of the matrimonial relation. Seeing the 
natural and needful purpose to which this relation 
shapes itself to be in full tne mutually perfecting com- 
pensation of common life between man and woman, 
as well as the procreation and education of the child, 
and keeping in mind that Nature's Lawgiver has in 
view the rational development of the race (or human 
nature at large) as well as of the individiial, we con- 
clude not only to abiding rational love as its distin- 
guishing characteristic, out to monogamy and a 
stability that is exclusive of absolute divorce. This 
gives us the essential requisites of domestic society, 
a stable union of man and wife bound together to 
work for a fixed common good to themselves and 
humanity. When this company is filled out with 
children and its incidental complement of household 
servants, we have domestic society in its fullness. It 
is created under mandate of the natural law, for 
thou^ this or that individual may safely escheiy 
matrunony for some good purpose, mankind may not. 
The individual in exception need not be concerned 
about the purpose of the Lawgiver, as human nature 
is so constituted that mankind will not fail of its ful- 
filment. The efficient cause of this domestic union 
in the concrete instance is the free consent of the 
initial couple, but the character of the juridical bon4 




which they thus freely accept is determined for them 
by the natural law according to Nature's full TMirpose. 
Husband and wife may see to their personal benefit 
in choosing to establish a domestic conmiunityy but 
the interests of the child and of the future race are 
safeguarded by the law. The essential purpose of 
this society we have stated above. The essential 
requisite of authority takes on a divided character 
of partnershipi because of the separate functions of 
husband and wife requiring authority as well as call- 
ing for harmonious agpreement upon details of common 
interest: but the headship of final decision is put by 
the law, as a matter of ordinary course, in the man, 
as is shown by his natural characteristics marking 
him for the preference. The essential limitations 
forbid plural marriage, race-suicide, euexual, excess, 
unnecessary separation, and absolute divorce. 

The State a Natural Society. — On the same 
principle of human aptitude, propensity, and need for 
'he individual and tne race, we find the larger social 
unit of civil society manifested to us as part of the 
Oivine set purpose with regard to human nature, and 
(V) under, precept of the natural law. Again, the ex- 
•optional individual may take to solitude lor some 
()nnobling purpose; but ne is an exception, and the 
bulk of mankmd will not hesitate to fulfil Nature's 
bidding and accomplish Nature's purpose. In the 
<^ncrete instance civil societ3r, though morally in- 
cimibent on man to establish, still comes into existence 
by the exercise of his free activity. We have seen 
the same of domestic society, which begins by the 
mutual free consent of man and woman to the accept- 
ance of the bond involving all the natural rights and 
duties of the permanent matrimonial relation. The 
beginning of civil society as an historical fact has taken 
on divers colours, far different at different times and 
places^ It has arisen by peaceful expansion of a 
family into a widespread kmdred eventually linked 
together in a civil union. It has sprung from the 
multipUcation of independent families in the coloniz- 
ing of undeveloped lands. It has come into being 
under the stronig hand of conquest enforcing law, 
order, and civil organization, not always justly, upon 
a people. There have been rare instances of its birth 
through the tutoring efforts of the gentler t3rpe of 
civilizers, who came to spread the Gospel. But the 

eridical origin is not obviously identical with this, 
istory aJone exhibits only the manifold confluent 
causes which moved men into an organized civil unit. 
The juridical cause is quite another matter. This is 
the cause which of it» character under the natural law 
puts the actual moral bond of civil union upon the 
many in the concrete, imposes the concrete obligation 
involving all the rights, duties, and powers native to 
a State, even as the mutual consent of the contracting 
parties creates the mutual bond of initial domestic 
society. This determinant has been under dispute 
among Catholic teachers. 

The common view of Scholastic philosophy, so ably 
develop^ by Francis Suarez, S.J., sets it in the con- 
sent of the constituent members, whether given ex- 
plicitly in the acceptance of a constitution, or tacitly 
by suDmitting to an organization of another's making, 
even if this consent be not given by inunediate sur- 
render, but by gradual process of slow and often reluc- 
tant acquiescence in the stability of a common union 
for the essential civil purpose. In the early fifties of 
the nineteenth century Luigi Taparelli, S.J., borrow- 
ing an idea from C. de Haller of Berne, brilliantly 
developed a theory of the juridical origin of civil 
onvemment, which has dominated in the Italian 
Catholic schools even to the present day, as well as 
in Catholic schools in Europe^ whose professors of 
ethics have been of Italian training. In this theory 
civil society has grown into being from the natural 
multiplication of cognate families, and the gradual 
extension of parental power. The patriarchal State 

is the primitive form, the normal type, though by 
accident of circumstance States may begin here' or 
there from occupation of the same wide territory un- 
der feudal ownership; by organization consequent 
upon conquest; or in rarer instances by the common 
consent ot independent colonial freeholders. These 
two Catholic views part company also in declaring 
the primitive juridiciad determinant of the concrete 
subject of supreme authority (see Authority, Civiii). 
To-day the Catholic schools are divided between these 
two positions. We shall subjoin below other theories 
of the juridical origin of the State, which have no 
place in Catholic thought for the simple reason that 
they exclude the natural character of civil society and 
throw to the winds the principles logicaUy inseparable 
from the existing natural law. « 

With regard to the essential elements in civil so« 
ciety fixedl)y the natural law, it is first to be noted 
that the normal unit is the family: for not only has 
the Amily come historically before the common- 
wealln, but the natural needs of man lead him first to 
that social combination, in pursuit of a natural r^ult 
only to be obtidned thereby; and it is logically only 
suljsequent that the purpose of civil society comes into 
human life. Of course this does not mean that indi- 
viduals actually outside of the surrounding of family 
life cannot be constituent members of civil society 
with full civic rights and duties, but they are not the 
primary unit; they are in the nature of things the ex- 
ception, however numerous they may be. and beyond 
the f aimly limit of perfectibility it is in the interest of 
complementary development that civil activity is 
exercised. The State cannot eliminate the family; 
neither can it rob it of its inalienable rights, nor bar 
the fulfilment of its inseparable duties, though it may 
restrict the exercise of certain family activities so as to 
co-ordinate them to the benefit of the body politic. 

Secondly, the natural object pursued by man in his 
ultimate social activity is perfect temporal happiness, 
the satisfacton. to wit, of his natural faculties to the 
full power of tneir development within his capacity, 
on his way, of course, to eternal felicity beyond earth. 
Man's happiness cannot be handed over to him, or 
thrust upon him by another here on earth; for his na- 
ture supposes that his possession of it, and so too in 
large measure his achievement of it, shall be by the 
exercise of his native faculties. Hence, civil society 
is destined by the natural law to give him his opportu- 
nity, i. e. to give it to all who share its citizenship. 
This shows the proximate natural purpose of the 
State to be: first, to establish and preserve social or- 
der, a condition, namely, wherein every man, as far as 
may be^ is secured in the possession and free exercise 
of all his rights, natural and Ic^al, and is held up to 
the fulfilment of his duties as far as they bear upon 
the common weal; secondly, to put within reasonable 
reach of all cithsens a fair allowance of the means of 
temporal happiness. This is what is known as external 
peace and prosperity, prosperity being also denomi- 
nated the relatively perfect sufficiency of Ufe. There 
are misconceptions enough about the generic purpose 
native to all civil society. De Haller thought that 
there is none such; that civil purposes are all specific, 
peculiar to each specific State. Kant limited it to 
external peace. The Manchester School did the same, 
leaving the citizen to work out his subsistence and de- 
velopment as best he may. The Evolutionist oon- 
sisteoitly makes it the survival of the fittest, on the 
way to developing a better type. ^ The modem peril is 
to treat the citizen merely as an industrial unit, mis- 
taking national material progress for the goal of civic 
energy; or as a military unit, looking to self-preserva- 
tion as the nation's first if not only aim. Neither 
material progress nor martial power, nor merely in- 
tellectual civilization, can fill the requirements of ex- 
isting and expanding human nature. The State, 
while protecting a man's rights, must put him in th9 

80CIST7 77 80CIBT7 

way of opportunity for developing his entire nature, at the last establiflhing through the mission of our 

physical, mental, and moral. Lord Jesus Christ an universal and unfailing religious 

Thirdly, the accomplishment of this calls for an society in the Church. This is a supematur^ re- 
authority which the Lawgiver of Nature, because he ligious society, (See Church.) 
has ordfuned this society, has put within the compe- Non-Catholic Theories. — ^Thomas Hobbes, start- 
tency of the State, and wnich, because of its reach, ex- ing from the assumption which Calvin had propagated 
tmidmg as it does to life and death, to reluctant sub- that human natiu^ is itself jtervene and man essen- 
jects and to the posterity of its citizenship, surpasses tially inept for consorting with his fellows, made 
the capacity of its citizenship to create out of any the natural state of man to be one of universal and 
mere conventional surrender of natural rights. The continuous warfare. This, of course, excludes the 
question of the origin of civil power and its concen- Maker of man from having destined him originally to 
tration in this or that subject is like the origin of society, since he would in Hobbes's view have given 
society itself, a topic of debate. Catholic philosophy . him a nature exactly the reverse of a proportioned 
is agreed that it is conferred by Nature's Lawgiver means. Hobbes thought that he found in man such 
directly upon the social depositary thereof, as par- selfish rivaliy, weak cowardice, and greed of self- 
ental supremacy is upon the father of a family. But glonfication as to make him naturally prey upon his 
the determination of the depositary is another matter, fellows and subdue them, if he could, to his wants, 
The doctrine of Suarez makes the community itself making might to be the only source of right. How- 
the depositary, immediately and naturally consequent ever, miding life intolerable (if not impossible) under 
upon its estaolishment of civil society, to be disposed such conditions, he resorted to a social pact wiUi other 
ot then by Uieir consent, overt or tacit, at once or by men for the establishment of peace, and, as that was a 
degrees, according as theiy determine for themselves a prudent thing to do, man, adds Hobbes, was thus fol- 
form of government. This is the only true philo- lowing the dictates of reason and in that sense the law 
sophical sense of the dictum that ''governments de- of nature. On this basis Hobbes could and did make 
rive their just powers from the consent of the gov- civil authority consist in nothing more than the sum 
emed''. The Taparelli school makes the primitive of the physical might of the people massed in a 
determinant out of an existing prior right oi another chosen centre of force. This theory was developed 
character, which passes naturally into this power, in the ''Leviathan" of Hobbes to account for the ex- 
Primitively this is parental supremacy grown to pa- istence of civil authority and civil society, but its 
triarehal dimensions and resulting at the last in su- author left his reader to apply the same perversity of 
preme civil power. Secondarily, it may arise from nature and exercise of physical force for the taking of a 
other rights, showing natural aptitude preferentially wife or wives and establishing domestic society, 
in one subject or another, as that of feuoal ownership Jean-Jacques Rousseau, though borrowing largely 
of the territory of thecommunity, capacity to extricate from Hobbes and fearlessly carrying some of nis prin- 
order out of cnaos in moments of civic confusion, mili- ciples to their most extreme issue, had a view in part 
tary ability and success in case of just conquest, and, his own. As for the family, he was content to leave it 
finally, in remote instances by the consent of the as a natural institution, with a stability, however, 
.governed. commensurate only with the need of putting the off^ 

Finally, the means by which the commonwealth will spring within reach of self-preservation. Not so for 

work toward its ideal condition of the largest measure tne State. Man naturally, he contended, was sylvan 

of peace and prosperity attsdnable are embraced in and solitary, a fine type of indolent animal, mating 

the just exercise, under direction of civil authority, of with his like and living in the pleasant ease of shady 

the physical, mental^ and moral activities of the. mem- retreats by running waters. He was virtuous, saf&- 

bers of the commumty: and here the field of human dent to mmself for his own needs, essentially free, 

endeavour is wide and expansive. However, the calls leaving others alone in their freedom, and desirous or 

upon the individual by the governmental power are being left alone in his. His life was not to be dis- 

necessarily limited by the scope of the natural purpose turbed by the fever of ambitious desires, the burden of 

of the State and by the inalienable prior rights and ideas, or the restriction of moral laws. Unfortu- 

inseparable duties conferred or imposed upon the in- nately, he had a ci^acity and an itch for self-improve- 

dividual by the Natural Law. ment, and his inventive genius, creating new conveni- 

Reuqious Society de facto a Supernatural So- ences, started new deecb, and, to meet these more 
ciETY. — If we analyze the moral development of man, readily, he entered into transitory agreements with 
we find looming large. hb obligation to worship his other men. Then came differences, fraud, and quar- 
Creator, not only privately, but publicly, not only as rels, and so ended the tranquil ease and innocence of 
an individual, but m social union. This opens up an- his native condition. Tmoucdi sheer necessity of 
other kind ot society ordered by the natural law, to self-defence, as in the theory of Hobbes, he took to the 
wit, religious society. An examination of this in the establishment of civil society. To do so without loss 
natural order and by force of reason alone would seem of personal freedom, there was but one way, namely, 
to show that man, though morally obliged to social that all the members should agree to merge all their 
worship, was morally free to establish a parallel or^an- rights, wiUs, and personalities m a unit monl person 
ization for such worship or to merge its functions and will, leaving uie subject member the satisfaction 
with those of the State, giving a double character that he was obeyine but ms own will thus merged, and 
to the enlarged society, namely, civil andreli^ous. soinpossessionstiUof full liberty in every act. Thua 
Historically, among tnose who knew not Divine civil authority was but the merger of all rights and 
revelation, men would seem to have been inclined wills in the one supreme ri^t and will of the com- 
more to the latter; but not always so. Of course, the munity. The merging agreement was Rousseau's 
purpose and means of this religious social duty are so "Social Contract''. IMortunately for its author, as 
relatedtothoseof a merely civfl society that consider- he himself confessed, the condition of perfect, self- 
able care would have to be exercised in adjusting the sufficient, lawless man was never seen on land or sea; 
balance of intersecting rights and duties, to de&ie the and his social contract had no precedent in all the 
relative domains of religious and civil authority, and, centuries of the history of man. His dream ignored 
finally, to adjudicate supremacy in case of direct ap- man's inalienable ri^ts, took no account of coereinc 
parent conflict. The aevelopment of all this has wills that would not agree, nor of the unauthorized 
been ^yen an entirely different turn through the in- merging of the wiUs of posterity, and drsuned idl the 
tervention of the Creator in His creation by positive vitauty as well out of authority as out of obedience, 
hiw revealed to man, changing the natural status into a He left authority a power shorn of the requisites ~ 
higher one, eliminating natural religious society, and sential for the purpose of civil security. 




. The evolutioiust, who has left the twisted ttxrn of all 
his theories in much of the oommon language of the 
day^ even after the theories themselves have died to all 
serious scientific acceptance, wished to make ethics a 
department of materialistic biology, and have the ag- 
gregate of human entities assemble by the same physi- 
cal laws that mass, cells into a living being. Man's 
native tendency to persist, pure egoism, made him 
shrink from the danp^er of destruction or injury at the 
hands of other individuals, and this timidity became a 
moving force driving him to compound with his peers 
into a unit source ofstrength witnout which he could 
not persist. From oommon life in this imit man's ego- 
ism began to take on a bit of altruism, and men ac- 
quired at the last a sense of the common good, which 
replaced their originid timidity as the spring of merg- 
ing activity. Later mutual sympathy put forth its 
tendrils, a sense of unity sprang up, and man had a 
civil society. Herein was latent the capacity for ex- 
pressing the general will, which when developed be- 
came, civil authority. This evolutionary process is 
still in motion toward the last stand foreseen by the 
theorist, a universal democracy clad in a federation 
of the world. All this has been seriously and solemnly 
presented to our consideration with a naive absence of 
all sense of humour, with no suspicion that the human 
mind naturally refuses to confoimd the unchanging 
action of material attraction and repulsion with hu- 
man, choice; or to mistake the fruit of intellectual 
planning and execution for the fortuitous results of 
blind force. We are not cowards all, and have not 
fled to society from the sole promptings of fear, but 
from the natural desire we have of human develop- 
ment. Authority for mankind is not viewed as the 
necessary resultant of the necessary influx of all men's 
wills to one goal, but is recognized to be a power to 
loose and to bind in a moral sense the wills of in- 
numerable freemen. 

The neo-pagan theor^^i renewing the error of Plato 
and in a measure of Anstotle also, has made the in- 
dividual and the family mere creatures and chattels of 
the State, and, pushing the error further, wishes to 
orientate all moral good and evil, all right and duty 
from the authority of the State^ whose good as a na- 
tional unit IS paramount. This theory sets up the 
State as an idol for human worship and eventuallv, if 
the theory were acted upon, though its authors 
dream it not, for human destruction.. 
• The historical school, mistaking what men have 
done for what men should do and, while often missing 
the full induction of the past, scornfully reiecting as 
empty apriorism deductive reasoning from the nature 
of maiif presents a materialistic, evolutionary, and 
positivistic view of human society, which in no way 
impeals to sane reason. No more does the theory of 
Kant, as applied to society in the Hegelian develop- 
ment of it; tnough, owing to its intellectual character 
and appearance of ultimate analysis, it has found 
f avxiur with those who seek philosophic principles from 
sources of so-called pure metaphysics. It would be 
idle to present here with Kant an analysis of the as- 
sumption of the development of all human right from 
the conditions of the use of liberty consistent with the 
general law of universal liberty, and the creation of 
civil government as an embodiment of universal 
liberty in the minified will of all the constituents of the 
fi^te. . . 

, SuAHBS, De Open Sex Dierum^ V, vii; Idcii, Deferuio Ptdei, 
III, ii.iU; :lDkif, De Legibtu, III. li, iii, iv; Coota-Rosbtti, Phil- 
oeophia UnroHe (Iniuibruck, 1886); os Hallbr, Reatauralion de la 
Science Potiti^; Tapabblu, Dritto Nglurole (Rome. 1855); 
Mbtbb, Inaiii%monee Juris Naturalia^ (Freiburg, 1900) ; Hobbes, 
Ln>a<Aan(CAin'bnd^ University Press); Roussbau, Du Contrat 
ANTiaT (Paris, 1896). The Social Contract, tr. Toxbb (London, 
1000)v..Sfbmcbr. The Study of Sociology (London); Comtb, Lee 
Briiy:^fee du Positivieme; Schafflb, Structure et La Vie du Corpe 
(Socwi/; Qluntbchm. The Theory of the State (Oxford translation, 
Clarendon Press, 1901) ; Stbbbbtt. The Ethice of Hegel (Boston, 
1698); WooDMaw Wilmn, TAs iSfote (Boston. 1909). 

Chableb Macxbit. 

Society, The Catholic Chdrch Extbnsion. — 
In the United States. — ^The first active agitation 
for a church extension or home mission society for the 
Catholic Church in North America was begun in 1904 
by an article of the present writer, pubU^ed in the 
''American Ecclesiastical Review'' (Philadelphia). 
This article was followed by a discussion in the same 
review, participated in by several priests, and then by 
8 second article of the writer's. On 18 October, 1905, 
the discussion which these articles aroused took form, 
and, under the leadership of the Most Reverend James 
Edward Quidey, Archbishop of Chicago^ a new so- 
.cietv, called The Catholic Cnurch Extension Society 
of the United States of America, was organized at a 
meeting held in the archbishop's residence at Clucago. 
The following were present at that meeting and be- 
came the first board of governors of the society : The 
Archbishops of Chicago and Santa Fe, the Bishop of 
Wichita, the present Bishop of Rockford, Reverends 
Francis C. Kelley, G. P. Jennings, E. P. Graham, E. 
A. KeUy, J. T. Koche, B. X. O'Reilly, F. J. Van Ant- 
werp, F. A. O'Brien; Messrs. M. A. Fanning, Anthony 
A. Hirst, William P. Breen, C. A. Plamondon, J. A. 
Roe, and S. A. Baldus. All these are still (1911) con- 
nected with the church extension movement, except 
Archbishop Bourgade of Santa F^, who has since died, 
Reverends E. P. Graham and F. A. O'Brien, and Mr. 
C. A. Plamondon, who for one reason or another have 
found it impossible to continue in the work. The 
Archbishop of Chicago was made chairman of the 
board, the present writer was elected president, and 
Mr. William P. Breen, LL.D., of Fort Wayne, Indi- 
ana, treasurer. Temporary headquarters were estab- 
lished at Lapeer, Michigan. The second meeting was 
held in December of the same year, when the consti- 
tution was adopted and the work formally launched. 
A charter was granted on 25 December, 1905, by the 
State of Michigan te the new society, whose objects 
were set forth as follows: "To develop the mission- 
ary spirit in the clergy and i)eople of the. Catholic 
Church in the United States. To assist in the erec- 
tion of parish buildings for poor and needy places. 
To support priests for neglected or proverty-stricken 
districts. To send the comfort of religion to pioneer 
localities. In a word, te preserve the faith of Jesus 
Christ to thousands of scattered Catholics in every 
portion of our own land^ especially in the country dis- 
tricts and among immigrants." In January, 1907, 
the headquarters of the society were moved to Chi- 
cago, and the president was transferred to that arch- 
diocese. In April, 1906, the societv began the publi- 
cation of a quarterly bulletin called ''Extension". 
In May, 1907, this quarterly was enlarged and 
changed into a monthly; its circulation has steadily 
increased, and at the present* time (1911) it has over 
one hundred thousana paid subscribers. On 7 June, 
1907, the society received its first papal approval by 
an Apostolic Letter of Pius X addressed to the Arch- 
bishop of Chicago. In this letter His Holiness gave 
unqualified praise to the young organization and be- 
stowed on ite supporters and members many spiritual 
favours. On 9 June, 1910, the pope issued a special 
Brief by which the society was raised to the dignity 
of a canonical institution, directly imder his own 
guidance and protection. By the terms of this Brief, 
the Archbishop of Chicago is fdways to be chancellor 
of the Society. The president must be appointed by 
the Holy Father himself. His term of oflBce is not 
more than five years. The board of governors has the 
right to propose three names to the Holy See for this 
office, and to elect, according to their laws^ all other 
officers of the society. The Brief also provided for a 
cardinal protector, living in Rome. His Holiness 
named Cardinal Sebastian Martinelli for this office, 
and later on appointed the present writer the first 

E resident under the new regulations. The Brief 
mits the society's activities to the United State.i 




ftntf its possessions. A similiar Brief was issued to 
the Church Extension Societv in Canada. 

Since the organization* ot the church extension 
movement, the American society has expended over 
half a miUion' dfollars in missionary work. It has 
made about seven hundred gifts and loans to poor mis- 
sions, and has had about five hundred and fifty 
diapels built in places where no Catholic Church or 
chapel existed previously and the scattered people 
could attend Mass only with great difficulty. Both 
sbcieties have been educating many students for the 
missions, and'both have circiuated much good Catho- 
lic literature. The American society operates a 
"chapel car'' (donated by one of its members, Am- 
brose Petry, K. C. S. G.), which carries a missionary 
into the remote districts along railroad lines, preach- 
ing missions and encouraging scattered Catholics to 
form centres with their own little chapels as beginnings 
of future parishes. The Holv Father has particularly 
blessed this chapel' car work, and has raven a gold 
medal to the donor of the car and to the society in 
recognition of its usefulness. Another chapel car, 
much larger and better equipped, is now about to be 
built. Tne society has interested itself very greatly 
in the missionary work of Porto Rico and the Philip- 

?ine Islands, and has achieved substantial results, 
'he Canadian society has been very active in saving 
the Ruthenian Catholics of the Canadian North-West 
to the Faith^ against which an active war has been 
waged, especially by the Presbyterians. It was prin- 
cipal through the publicity given to this activity by 
the (Canadian Society that the situation was brought 
to the attention of the bishops in Canada, who at the 
first Plenary Council decided to raise $100,000 for this 
work. The American society's first quinquennial re- 
port shows splendid progress, and the present situa- 
tion of both societies gives promise of great things to 
come. A remarkable thing about the church exten- 
sion movement is the ready response of the wealthier 
class of Catholics in the Unitea States to its appeals. 
Some veiy large donations have been given. The 
Ancient Order of Hibernians is raising a fund of 
$50,000 for chapel building, and the Women's 
Catholic Order of Foresters $25,000. The directors 
intend to erect a college for the American mission. 

The church extension movement, as it exists in the 
United States and Canada, has no close parallels in 
other countries, but is not unlike the Boniface Associa- 
tion in-Germany or the (Euvre of St. Francis de Sales in 
France. Membership is divided into founders ($5000). 
life members ($1000), fifteen-year members ($100), and 
Annual Members ($10) . There is a Women's Auxiliary 
in both societies which now begins to fburish. The 
American society has also a branch for children called 
the "Child Apostles' ' . From the pennies of the children, 
chapels are to be built and "each one called the " Holy 
Innocents"; the children have just completed (1911) 
the amount needed for their first chapel. The present 
officers of the American society are: His Eminence, 
Sebastian Cardinal Martinelli, Cardinal Protector; 
Most Rev. James E. Quigl^, D.D., Chancellor; 
Most Rev. S. G. Messmer, D.D., Vice-Chancellor; 
Very Rev. Francis C. Kelley, D.D., LL.D., Presi- 
dent ; Rev. E. B. Ledvina, Vice-President and General 
Secretary; Rev. E. L. Roe, Director of the Women's 
Auxiliary and Vice-President; Rev. W. D. O'Brien, 
Director of the Child Apostles and Vice-President; 
Mr. Leo Doyle, General Counsel and Vice-President; 
Mr. John A. Lynch, Treasurer. The members of the 
executive committee are: Most Rev. James E. Quig- 
ley, D.D.; Very Rev. Francis C. Kelley, D.D., LL.D., 
Rev. Edward A. Kelly, LL.D.; Messrs. Ambrose 
jPetry, K. C. S. G^ Richmond Dean, Warren A. Cart- 
\er, and Edward F. Carry. On the board of govern- 
ors are the Archbishops of Chicago, San Francisco, 
Milwaukee, Boston, New Orleans, Santa F^, Ore^n 
Gty, with the bishops of Covington, Detroit, Wichita, 

Duluth, Brooklyn, Trenton, Mobile, Rockford, Kan- 
sas City, Pittsburg and Helena, and distinguished 
priests and laymen. 

In Canada. — The church extension movement was 
organized in Canada as an independent society (bes^ 
ing the name of '^The Catholic Church Extension 
Society of Canada") by the Most Reverend Dozmtus 
Sbarretti, Delegate Apostolic of that country. Most 
Rev. Fergus Patrick McEvay, D.D., Archbisoop of 
Toronto, Rev. Dr. A. E. Burke of the Diocese oif 
Charlottetown, Very Rev. Monsignor A. A. Sinnott, 
secretary of the Apostolic Delegation, the Rev. Dr. 
J. T. Kidd, chancellor of Toronto, the Right Honour- 
able Sir Charles Fitzpatrick, K. C. M. G., Chief Jus- 
tice of Canada, and the present writer. The Cana- 
dian society at once purcnased the "Catholic Regis- 
ter", a weekly paper, enlarged it, and turned it into 
the official organ of the work. The circulation of this 
paper has increased marvellously. The new society in 
Canada received a Brief, similar to that granted the 
American society, establishing it canonicallv. The 
same cardinal protector wad appointed for both organ- 
izations. The Archbishop of Toronto was made 
chancellor of the Canadian society, and Veiy Rev. 
Dr. A. E. Burke was ^pointed president for the full 
term of five years. The officers of the Canadian 
society are: His Eminence Cardinal Martinelli, Pro- 
tector; The Archbishop of Toronto (see vacant), 
Chancellor; Very Rev. A. E. Burke, D.D., LL.D., 
President: Rev. J. T. Kidd, D.D., Secretary; Rev. 
Hu^ J. Canninp;, Diocesan Director; The Archbishop 
of Toronto; Right Hon. Sir Charles Fitzpatrick, 
K. C. M. G., and the President, Executive Com- 

Fbancis C. Kbllet. 

Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 
See Christian KNOwiiEDGS, Society fob Promot- 

Society of Foreign BSiBsions of PariB.— The So- 
ciety of Foreign Missions was established 1658-63, its 
chief founders being Mgr Pallu, Bishop of Heliopolis, 
Vicar Apostolic of Tonkihg, and Mgr Lambert de la 
Motte, Bishop of Bertyus, Vicar Apostolic of Cochin- 
China. Both bishops left France (1660-62) to go to 
their respective missions and as true travellers of 
Christ they crossed Persia and India on foot. The 
object of the new society was and still is the evangeli- 
zation of infidel countries, by founding churches and 
training up a native clergy under the jurisdiction of 
the bishops. In order that the society might recruit 
members and administer its property, a house was es- , 
tabli^ed in 1663 by the priests whom the vicars 
Apostolic had appomted their agents. This house, 
whose directors were to form youn^ ^ests to the 
apostolic life and transmit to the bishops the offer- 
ings made by charity, was and is still situated at Paris 
in the Rue du Bac. Known from the beginning as the 
-Seminary of Foreign Missions, it secured the approval 
of Alexander VII, and the legal recognition, still in 
force, of the French Government. 

The nature and organization of the society deserve 
special mention. It is not a religious order but a con- 
gregation, a society of secular priests, united as 
members of the same body, not by vows but by 
the rule approved by the Holy See, by community 
of object, and the Seminary of Foreign Missions, 
which is the centre of the society and the common 
basis which sustains the other parts. On enters 
ing the society the missionaries promise to devote 
themselves until death to the service of the missions, 
while the society assures them in return, besides the 
means of sanctification and perseverance, all neoeA- 
sary temporal support and assistance. There is no 
superior general; the bishops, vicars Apostolic, sur 
periors of missions, and board of directors of thp sexnir 
mary are the superiors of the society. The directoie 




of the seminary are chosen from among the mission- 
aries and each group of missions is represented by 
a director. The bimops and vicars Apostolic are 
appointed by the pope^ after nomination by the mis- 
nonaries, and presentation by the directors of the semi- 
nary. In their missions they depend only on Propa- 
ganda and through it on the pope. No subject aged 
more than thirty-five may be aidmitted to the semi- 
nary nor may anyone become a member of the societv 
before having spent three years in the mission field. 
Several points of this rule were determined from the 
earliest years of the society's existence, others were 
established by degrees and as experience pointed 
out their usefulness. By this rule the society has 
lived and according to it its history has been out- 

This history is difficult, for owing to the length of 
the journeys, the infrequent communications, and the 
poverty of resources the missions have developed with 
difficulty. The chief events of the first period (1658- 
1700) are: the publication- of the book ''Institutions 
apostoliques'', which contains the serm of the prin- 
ciples of the rule, the foundation of the general sem- 
inary at Juthia (Siam), the evangelization of Tonking, 
Cochin China, Cambodia, and Siam, where more than 
40,000 Christians were baptized, the creation of an 
institute of Annamite nuns known as "Lovers of the 
Cross '\ the establishment of rules among catechists, 
the ormnation of thirty native priests. Beside these 
events of purely religious interest there were others in 
the political order which emphasized the patriotism 
of these evangelical labourers: through their initiative 
a more active trade was established between Indo- 
China, the Indies, and France; embassies were sent 
from place to place; treaties were signed ; a French ex- 
pedition to Siam took possession of Bangkok, Mer- 
gin, and Jonselang, and France was on the verge of 
possessing an Indo-Chinese empire when the blun- 
dering of subalterns ruined an undertaking the failure 
of which had an unfortunate influence on the mis- 
sions. But the most important work of the vicars 
Apostolic and the society is the application of the 
fruitful principle of the organization of churches by 
native priests and bishops. Thenceforth the aposto- 
late in its progress has followed this plan in every part 
of the world with scrupulous fidelity and increasing 
success. In the'second half of the eighteenth century 
it was charged with the missions which the Jesuits had 
possessed in India prior to their suppression in Portu- 
gial. Many of the Jesuits remained there. The mis- 
sions thereupon assumed new life, especially at Se- 
tchoan, where remarkable bishops, Mgr Pot tier and 
Mgr Dufresse, gave a strong impulse to evangelical 
work I and in Cochin China, where Mgr Pigneau de 
Behame performed si^al service for the king of that 
country as his agent m making with France a treaty, 
which was the first step towards the present splendia 
situation of France in Indo-China. At the end of the 
eighteenth century the French Revolution halted the 
growth of the society, which had previously been very 
rapid. At that time it had six bishops, a score of 
missionaries, assisted by 135 native priests; in the 
various missions there were nine seminaries with 250 
students, and 300,000 Christians. Each year the 
number of adult baptisms rose on an average of 3000 
to 3500; that of infant baptisms in articulo mcrtU was 
more than 100,000. 

In the nineteenth century the development of the 
society and its missions was rapid and considerable. 
Several causes contributed to this; chiefly the charity 
of the Propagation of the Faith and the Society of the 
Holy- Childhood; each bishop receives annually 1200 
francs, each missionary 660 francs, each mission has 
its general needs and works allowance, which varies 
according to its importance and may amount to from 
10,000 to 30,000 francs. The second cause was per- 
Bccution. fifteen missionaries died in prison or were 

beheaded during the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies and the beginning of the nineteenth centuiy, 
but after that the martvTs among the missionaries 
were very numerous. The best known are Mgr EKi- 
fresse, Vicar Apostolic of Se-tchoan, beheaded in 1815; 
Gagelin, Marchand, Jaccard, Comay, and Dumoulin- 
Borie from 1833 to 1838; and from 1850 to 1862 
Schoeffler, V^nard, Bonnard, N^roh, Chapdelaine, N^l, 
Cuenot, Vicar Apostolic of Eastern Cochin China. If, 
besides these, mention were made of the native priests, 
catechists, and nims, in short of all who died for 
Christ, we should have a record of one of Uie bloodiest 
holocausts in history. These persecutions were de- 
scribed in Europe by books, pamphlets, annals, and 
journals, arousing the pity of some and the anger of 
others and inspinng numerous young men either with 
the desire of martyrdom or that of evangelization. 
They moved European nations, especially France and 
England, to intervene in Indo-China and China and 
open up in these countries an era of liberty and pro- 
tection till then unknown. Another cause of the 
progress of the missionaries was the ease and fre- 
quency of communication in conseouence of the in- 
vention of steam and the opening of the Suez Canal. 
A voyage could be made safely m one month which 
had formerly required from eight to ten monUts amid 
many dangers. 

The following statistics of the missions confided to 
the Society will show this development at a glance: 
Missions of Japan and Korea. — ^Tokio, Nagasaki, 
Osaka, Hakodate, Korea, total number of Camolics, 
138,624; churches or chapels, 238; bishops and mia- 
sionaries, 166; native priests, 48; catechists, 517; sem- 
inaries, 4; seminarists, 81; communities of men and 
women, 44, containing 399 persons; schools, 161, with 
9024 pupils; orphanages and work-rooms 38, with 988 
children; pharmacies, dispensaries, and hospitals, 19. 
Missions of China and Twet. — Western, Eastern, and 
Southern S€^-tchoan, Yun-nan, Kouy-tcheou, Kou- 
ang-ton, Kouang-si, Southern Manchuria, Northern 
Manchuria.— Catholics, 272, 792; churches or chapels, 
1392; bishops and missionaries, 408; native priests, 
191; catechists, 998; seminaries, 19; seminarists, 661; 
communities of men and women, 23, with 222 members : 
schools, 1879, with 31,971 pupils; orphanages ana 
work-rooms, 132, with 4134 children; pharmacies, dis- 
pensaries, and hospitals, 364. Missions of Eastern 
Indochina, — ^Tongking, Cochin China, Cambodia. — 
Catholic population, 632,830; churches or chapels, 
2609; bishops and missionaries, 365; native priests, 
491; catechists, 1153; seminaries, 14; seminarists, 
1271; communities of men and women^ 91, with 2583 
persons; schools, 1859, with 58,434 pupils; orphanages 
and work-rooms, 106, with 7217 children; pharmacies, 
dispensaries, hospitals, 107. Missions of Western 
Indo-China. — Siam, Malacca, Laos, Southern Bur- , 
ma. Northern Burma. — Catholics, 132,226; churches 
or chapels, 451; bishops and missionaries, 199; na- 
tive priests, 42; catechists, 242; seminaries, 3; semi- 
narists, 81 ; communities of men and women, 47, with 
529 members; schools, 320, with 21,306 pupils: or- 
phanages and work-rooms, 132, with 3757 children; 
pharmacies, dispensaries, hospitals, 86. Missions of 
India. — Pondicherry, Mysore, Coimbatore, Kumbako- 
nam. — Catholics^ 324,050; churches or chapels, 1048; 
bishops and missionaries, 207; native priests, 67; cate- 
chists, 274; seminaries, 4; seminarists, 80; communi- 
ties of men and women, 54, with 787 members: 
schools, 315, with 18,693 pupils; orphanages and 
work-rooms, 57, with 2046 children; pharmacies, dis- 
pensaries, and hospitals, 41. 

In addition to these missionaries activel]r engaged 
in mission work, there are some occupied in the es- 
tablishments called common, because they are used 
by the whole society. Indeed the development of the 
society necessitated undertakings which were not 
needed in the past. Hence a sanatorium for sick 




miasionarieB has been established at Hong-Kong on 
the coast of China; another in India among the 
Nilgiri mountains, of radiant appearance and in- 
vigorating climate, and a third in France. In think- 
ing of the welfare of the body, that of the soul was 
not lost sight of, and a house of spiritual retreat was 
founded at Hong-Kong, whither all the priests of the 
society may repair to renew their priestly and apos- 
tolic fervour. To this house was added a printing 
establishment, whence issue the most beautiful works 
of the Far East, dictionaries, grammars, books of 
theology, piety, Christian doctrine, and pedagOQr. 
Houses of correspondence, or agencies, were estab- 
lished in the Far East at Shan^ai, Hong-Kong, 
Saigon, Singapore, and one at Marseilles. France. 
The Seminary of the Foreign Missions wnich long 
had only one section, has for twenty years had two. 

LuQUvr, LettTM d FM^ de Lanqret star la eonq», dea Miu/wn^- 
Birangina (Paris. 1842); Launat, Hid, oinjrtOe de la SocUU dm 
Miaaiont-BtrangireM (Parifl, 1894) ; Doeum. hialfaur la Sod. deaMia- 
aiona-Btrangirea (Paris, 1904) ; Hial. dea miaaiona de VInde (Paris, 
1898): Hiai. de la miaaion du Thibei (Paris. 1903): Hiat, dea mia- 
aiona de Chine 8 (Paris, 1903-8): Louvvr. La Coehinchine reli- 
gieuae (Paris. 1885): Dallbt. Hiat. de Violiae de Corie (Paris. 
1874) : Marnab. La rdigion de JUua reaauaeiU au Japan (Paris, 

A. Launat. 

Society of Josiu (Compant of Jesus, Jesuits), 
a religious order founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola 
(q. V.) . Designated by him "The Company of Jesus" 
to indicate its true leader and its soldier spirit, the 
title was latinised into "Societas Jesu" in the Bull of 
Paul III ai>proving its formation and the first formula 
of its Institute ("Regimini militantis ecclesise'^ 27 
Sept., 1540). The term "Jesuit" (of fifteenth-cen- 
tury origin, meaning one who used too freely or appro- 
priated the name of Jesus), was first applied to the 
Society in reproach (1544r^2), and was never em- 
ployed by its founder, though members and friends 
of the Society in time accepted the name in its good 
sense. The Society ranks among religious institutes 
as a mendicant order of clerks ref^lar, that is, a body 
of priests organized for apostohc work, following a 
religious rule, and reljring on alms for their support 
fBiffis of Pius V, "Dum indefessse", 7 July, 1571; 
Gregory XIII, "Ascendente Domino" (q. v.), 25 
May, 15841. 

As has been explained under the title "Ignatius 
Loyola", the founaer began his self-reform, tod the 
enlistment of followers, entirely prepossessed with the 
idea of the imitation of Christ, and without any plan 
for a religious order or purpose of attending to the 
needs of the days. Unen)ectedly prevented from 
carrying out tliis original iaea, he offered his services 
and those of his followers to the pope, "Christ upon 
Earth", who at once employed them in such works 
as were most pressing at the moment. It was only 
after this and just before the first companions broke 
up to go at the pope's command to vanous countries, 
that the resolution to found an order was taken, ana 
that Ignatius was commissioned to draw up Constitu- 
tions. This he did slowly and methodically; first 
inUoducing rules and customs, and seeing how they 
worked, fie did not codify them for the first six 
years. Then three years were given to formulatinjg 
laws, the wisdom of which had been proved by experi- 
ment. In the last six years of the saint's life the Con- 
stitutions so composed were finally revised and put 
into practice everywhere. This sequence of events 
explains at once how the Society, though devoted to 
the following of Christ, as thou^ there were nothing 
else in the world to care for, is also so excellently 
adapted to the needs of the day. It began to attend 
to tnem before it be^an to legislate; and its legislar 
tion was the codification of those meamres which had 
been proved by experience to be apt to preserve 
its preliminary religious principle aiiM»ig men actu- 
ally devoted to the requirements of the Church in 
days not unlike our own. 


The Society was not founded with the avowed 
intention of opposing Protestantism. Neither the 
papal letters of approbation, nor the Constitutions of 
the order mention this as the object of the new founda- 
tion. When Ignatius began to devote himself to the 
service of the Church, he bad probably not heard even 
the names of the Protestant Reformers. His early 
plan was rather the conversion of Mohanunedans. an 
idea which^ a few decades after the final triumpn of 
the Christians over the Moors in Spain, must have 
strongly appealed to the chivalrous laniard. The 
name "Societas Jesu" had been borne by a military 
order approved and recommended by Pius II in 1459, 
the purpose of which was to fight against the Turks 
and aid in spreading the Christian faith. The early 
Jesuits were sent by Ignatius first to pagan lands or to 
Catholic countries; to Protestant countries only at the 
special reouest of the pope, and to Germany, the 
cradle-lana of the Reformation, at the urgent solici- 
tation of the imperial ambassador. From the very 
beginning the missionary labours of Jesuits among the 

gagans of India, Japan, China, Canada, Central and 
outh America were as important as their activity 
in Christian countries. As the object of the Society 
was the propagation and strengthening of the Cathohc 
Faith everywhere, the Jesuits naturally endeavoured 
to counteract the spread of Protestantism. They 
became the main instruments of the Counter-Refor- 
mation; the reconquest of southern and western 
Germany and Austria for the Church, and the pres- 
ervation of the Cathohc. faith in France and other 
countries were due chiefly to their exertions. 

Institute, Constitutions, Legislation. — The 
official publication which comprises all the r^ula- 
tions of the Society, its codex legum^ is entitled "fnsti- 
tutum Societatis Jesu", of which the latest edition 
walb issued at Rome and Florence, 1869-91 (for full 
bibliography see Sommervogel, V, 75-115; IX, 609- 
6 1 1 ; for commentators see X, 705-710) . The Institute 
contains: (1) The special Bulls and other pontifical 
documents approving the Society and canonically 
determining or regulating its various works, and 
its ecclesiastical standing and relations. — Besides 
those already mentioned^ other important Bulls are 
those of: Paul III, "Injunctum nobis", 14 March, 
1543; Julius III, "Exposcit debitum", 21 July, 1550; 
Pius V, "^quum reputamus", 17 January, 1565; 
Pius VII, "SoUicitudo omnium ecclesiarum", 7 Au- 
gust, 1814; Leo XIII, "Dolemus inter alia", 13 July, 
1880. (2) The Examen Generale and Constitu- 
tions. — The Examen contains subjects to be ex- 
plained to postulants and points on which they are 
to be exammed. The Constitutions are divideci into 
ten parts: (a) admission; (b) dismissal; (c) novitiate; 
(d) scholastic training; (e) profession and other grades 
of membership; (f) religious vows and other obligar 
tions as observed in the Society; (g) missions and 
other ministries; (h) congregations, local and general 
assemblies as a means of union and uniformity; 
(i) the general and chief superiors; (j) preservation of 
the spirit of the Society. Thus far in the Institute 
all is by St. Ignatius, who has also added " Declara- 
tions" of vanous obscure parts. Then come: (3) 
Decrees of General Congregations, which have equal 
authority with the Constitutions; (4) Rules, gen- 
eral ana particular, etc.; (5) Formulae or order of 
business for the congregations; (6) Ordinations of gen- 
erals, which have the same authority as the rules; 

(7) Instructions, some for superiors, others for those 
engaged in the missions or other works of the Society; 

(8) lindustrise, or special counsels for superiors; (9) 
The Book of the Spiritual Exercises^ and (10) the Ratio 
Studiorum (q. v.), which have directive force only. 

The Constitutions as drafted by Ignatius and 
adopted finally by the first congregation of the Society, 
1558, have never been alter^. Ill-informed writers 
have stated that Lainez. the second general, made 




considerable changes in the saint's conception of the 
order; but Ignatius's own last recension of the Con- 
stitutions) lately reproduced in facsimile (Rome, 
1908), exactly agrees with the text of the Constitu- 
tions now in force, and contains no word by Lainez, 
not even in the Declarations, or glosses added to the 
text, which are all the work of Ignatius. The text in 
use in the Society is a Latin version prepared under 
the direction of the third congregation, and subjected 
to a minute coinparison with the Spanish original 
preserved in the Society's archives, during the fourth 
congregation (1581). 

1 hese Constitutions were written after long delib- 
eration between Ignatius and his compamons in 
founding the Society, as at first it seemed to them 
that the]^ might continue their work without the aid 
of a special Rule. They were the fruit of long expe- 
rience and of serious meditation and prater. Through- 
out they are inspired by an exalted spirit of charity 
and of zeal for souLs. They contain nothing unreason- 
able. To appreciate them, however, requires a knowl- 
edge of canon law as applied to monastic life and 

tionate relations of members with superiors and witb^ 
one another^ by the manifestation of conscience, more 
or less practised in every religious order, and by mutual 
correction when this may be necessary. It also applies 
to the methods employed to ascertain the qualifica- 
tions of members for various offices or ministnes. 

The chief authority is vested in the general congre* 
gation, which elects the generaland could, for certain 
grave causes, depose him. This body could also 
(though there has never yet been an occasion for so 
doing) add new Constitutions, and abrogate old 
ones. Usually this congregation is convent on the 
occasion of the death of a general, in order to elect 
his successor, and to make provisions for the govern- 
ment and welfare of the Society. It may also be 
called at other times for grave reasons. It consists 
of the |;eneral, when alive, and £is assistants, the 
provincials, and two deputies from each province or 
territorial division of the society elected by the supe- 
riors and older professed members. Thus authonty 
in the Society eventually rests on a democratic basis. 
But as there is no definite time for calling the general 

~ ^ 

^^^ ■ U df ftJier en JM r0mfJ^ /mef/^ i^/^/^ r'^-rW' 




also of their history in the fight of the times for 
which they were framed. Usually those who find 
fault with them either have never read them or else 
have misinterpreted them. Monod, for instance, 
in his introduction to Bdhmer's essay on the Jesuits 
("Les j^suites", Paris. 1910, pp. 13. 14) recalls how 
Michelet mistranslated the words of tne Constitutions, 
p. VI, c. 5, Migationem ad i^eccatum^ and made it ap- 
pear that they require obedience even to the comnus- 
sion of sin. as if the text were obligatio ad peccanduvif 
whereas tne obvious meaning and purpose of the 
text is precisely to show that tne transgression of the 
rules is not in itself sinful. Monod enumerates such 
men as Amauld, Wolf, Lange, Ranke in the first 
edition of his '^ History' ^ H&usger and Droysen, 
PhiHppson and Charbonnel, as having repeated the 
same error, although it had been refuted frequently 
since 1824^ particularly by Gieseler, and corrected 
by Ranke m nis second edition. Whenever the Con- 
stitutions enjoin what is already a serious moral 
obligation, or superiors, by virtue of their authority, 
impose a grave obligation, transgression is sinful; 
but this is true of such transgressions not only in the 
Society but out of it. Moreover such commands 
are rarely given by the superiors and only when the 
^ood of the individual member or the common gocHd 
unperatively demands it. The rule throughout is 
one of love inspired by wisdom, and it must be inter- 
preted in the spirit of charity which animates it. 
This 18 especially true of its provisions for the affeo- 

congregation, which in fact rarely occurs except to 
elect a new general, the exercise of authority is 
usually in the hands of the general, in whom is vested 
the fullness of administrative power, and of spiritual 
authority. He can do ansrthing within the scope of 
the Constitutions, and can even dispense with them 
for Kood causes, though he cannot chan^ them. He 
resides at Rome, and has a council of assistants, five in 
number at present, one each for Italy, France, Spain 
and countnes of Spanish origin, one for Germany, 
Austria, Poland, Belgium, Hungary, Holland, and one 
for English-speaking countries — ^England^ Ireland, 
United States, Cannula, and British colonies (except 
India). These usually hold office until the death of 
the general. Should the general through age or 
infirmity become incapacitated for governing; the 
Society, a vicar is chosen by a general congregation to 
act for him. At his death he names one so to 
act until the congre^tion can meet and elect his 

Next to him in order of authority come the pro- 
vincisds, the heads of the Society, whether for an 
entire country, as England, Ireland, Canada, Bel- 
gium, Mexico, or, where these units are too large cr 
too small to make convenient provinces^ they may 
be subdivided or joined together. Thus there are 
now four provinces in the United States: California, 
Maryland-New York, Missouri, New Orleans. In 
all there are now twenty-seven > provinces^ Th0 
provincial is appointed by the gelfcml, with anqple 


administrative faculties. He too has a council of rienced fathers. They question him about the age, 

''consul tors'' and an "admonitor", appointed by health, position, occupation of his parents, their reli- 

the general. Under the provincial come the local gion and good character, their dependence on his 

sui>eriors. Of these, rectors of colleges, provosts services; about his own health, obhgatlons, such as 

of professed houses, and masters of novices are debts, or other contractual relations; his studies, quali- 

appointed bv the general; the rest by the provincial, fications, moral character, personal motives as well as 

To enable the general to make and control so many the external influences that ma^r'have led him to seek 

appointments, a free and ample correspondence is admission. The results of their questioning and of 

kept up, and everyone has the right of private com- their own observation they report severally to the 

munication with him. No superior, except the provincial, who wei^s their opmions carefuUy before 

generaJ, is named for life. Usually provincials and deciding for or against the apphcant. Any notable 

rectors of colleges hold office for three years. bodily or mental defect in the candidate, serious 

Members of the Society fall into four classes: indebtedness or other obUgation, previous member- 
(1) Novices (whether received as lav brothers for the ship in another religious order even for a day, indi- 
domestic and temporal services of the order, or as eating instability of vocation, unqualifies for admis- 
aspirants to the priesthood), who are trained in the sion. Undue influence, particularly if exercised by 
spirit and disciphne of the order, prior to making the members of the order, would occasion stricter scrutiny 
reli^ous vows. (2) At the end of two years the than usual into %he personal motives of the appUcant. 
novices make simple but perpetual vows, and, if Candidates mav enter at any time, but usually 
aspirants to the priesthood, become formed scholas- there is a fixed day each year for their ^admission, 
tics; they remain m this grade as a rule from two to towards the close of the summer holidays, in order 
fifteen ^ears, in which time they will have completed that all may begin their training, or probation, to- 
all their studies, pass (generally) a certain period in gether. Thev spend the first ten days considering 
teaching, receive the priesthood, and go tnrough a the manner of life they are to adopt and its difficulties, 
third year of novitiate or probation (the tertiansnip). the rules of the order, the obedience required of its 
Accoidine to the degree of discipline and virtue, and members. They then make a brief retreat, meditat- 
to the tsdents.they display (the latter are normally ing on what they have learned about the Society and 
tested bv the examination for the Degree of Doctor examining closely their own motives and hopes of per- 
of Theology), they may now become formed coadju- severance in the new mode of life. If all be satisfac- 
tors or professed members of the order. (3) Formed tory to them and the superior or director who has 
coa4jiUor8j whether formed lay brothers or priests, charge of them, they are admitted as novices, wear the 
make vows, which, though not solenm^ are perpetual clerical costume (as there is no special Jesilit habit), 
on their part; while the Society, on its side, bmds itself and begin in earnest the life of members of the Society, 
to them, unless they should commit some grave They rise early, mi^e a brief visit to the chapel, a 
offence. (4) The professed- are all priests, who meditation on some subject selected the night before, 
make, besides the three usual solemn vows of religion, assist at Mass, review their meditation, breakfast, 
a fourth, of special obedience to the pope in the matter and then prepare for the day's routine. This con- 
of missions, undertakinjg to go wherever they are sists of manual labour, in or out of doors, reading 
sent, without even rec|uirin^ money for the journey, books on spiritual topics, ecclesiastical history, biog- 
They also make certain additional, but non-essential, raphy, particularly of men or women distinguish^ 
simple vows, in the matter of poverty, and the refusal for zeal and enterprise in missionary or educational 
of external nonours. The professed of the four vows fields. There is a daily conference By the master of 
constitute the kernel of the Society; the other grades novices on some detiul of the Institute, notes of 
are r^arded as preparatory or as subsidiary to this, which all are required to make, so as to be ready, 
The cnief offices can be held by the professed alone; when asked, to repeat the salient points, 
and though they may be dismissed, yet they must be Wherever it is possible some are submitted to 
received back, if willmg to comply with the conditions certain tests of their vocation and usefulness: to 
that may be prescribed. Otherwise they enjoy no teaching catechism in the village churches; to attend- 
privileges, ana many posts of importance, such as ance on the sick in hospitals; to going about on a 
the government of colleges, may be held by members pilgrimage or missionary journey without money 
of other grades. For special reasons some are or other provision. As soon as possible all make the 
occasionally professed of three vows and they have spiritual exercises for thirty days. This is really the 
certain but -not all the privileges of the other pro- cnief test of a vocation, as it is also in epitome the 
fessed. All Uve in community alike as regards food, main work of the two years of the novitiate and for 
apparel, lodging, recreation, and ail are uike bound that matter of the entire life of a Jesuit. On these 
by the rules of the Society. exercises the Constitutions, the life, and activity 

There are no secret Jesuits. Like other orders the of the Society are based, so that they are resdly 

Society can, if it will, make its friends participators the chief- factor in forming the character of a Jesuit, 

in its prayers and in the merits of it» good works; In accordance with the ideals set forth in these 

but it caimot make them members of the order, un- exercises, of disinterested conformity with God's 

leas they live the life of the order. There is indeed the will, and of personal love of Jesus Christ, the novice 

case of St. Francis Borgia, who made some of the is trained diligently in a meditative study of the 

probations in an unusual way, outside the houses of truths of religion, in the habit of self-knowledge, 

the order. But this was in order that he mi^t be in a constant scrutiny of his motives and of the 

free to conclude certain business matters and other actions inspired by them, in the correction of every 

affairs of state, and thus appear the sooner in public as form of self-deceit, illusion, plausible pretext, and 

a Jesuit, not that he might remain permanently out- in the education ot his will, particularly in making 

side the common life. choice of what seems best after careful deliberation 

Novitiate and Training. — Candidates for admission and without self-seeking. Deeds, not words, are 

come not only from the colleges conducted by the insisted upon as proof of genuine service, and a me- 

Society, but from other schools. Freauently post- chanical, emotional, or fanciful piety is not tolerated. 

Eiduate or professional students, and those who As the novice gradually thus becomes master of his 
^ ve abready begun their career in business or profe&- judgment and will, he grows more and more capable 
flional life, or even in the priesthood, apply for admis- of offering to God the reasonable service enjoined by 
^n. Usually the candidate applies in person to the St. Paul, and seeks to follow the Divine will, as mam- 
provincial, and if he considers him a likely subject he tested by Jesus Christ, by His vicar on earth, by the 
tefe» him for escamination to four of the more expe- bishops appointed to rule His Church, by his more 

80CIET7 84 80CIETT 

immediate or religious superiors, and by the civil because he must interpret and determine its applica- 

powers rightfull^r exercising authority. This is what tion. In this fact and in its consequences, the Society 

IS meant by Jesuit obedience, the characteristic virtue differs from every religious order antecendent to its 

of the order, such a sincere respect for authority as foundation; to this principally it owes its life, activity, 

to accept its decisions and comply with them, not and power to adapt its Institute to modem conditions 

merely by outward performance but in all sincerity without need of change in that instrument or of 

with the conviction that compliance is best^ and that reform in the body itself. 

the command expresses for the time the will of God, The story of the foundation of the Society is told 

as nearly as it can be ascertained. in the article Ignatius Loyola. Briefly, after 

The noviceship lasts two years. On its completion having inspired his companions Peter Faber, Francis 

the novice makes the usual vows of religion, the Xavier, James Lainez, Alonso SalmehSn, Nicolas 

simple vow of chastity in the Society having the Bobadilla, Simon Rodriguez, Claude Le Jay, Jean 

force of a diriment impediment to matrimony. Codure, and Paschase Brouet with a desire to dwell 

During the noviceship but a brief time daily is devoted in the Holy Land imitating the life of Christ, they 

to reviewing previous studies. The noviceship over, first made vows of poverty and chastity at Mont- 

the scholastic members, i. e. those who are to become martre, Paris, on 15 August, 1534, adding a vow to 

priests in the Society^ follow a special course in so to the Holy Land after two years. When this was 

classics and mathematics lasting two years, usually found to be impracticable, after waiting another 

in the same house with the novices. Then, in another year, they offered their services to the pope, Paul III. 

house and neighbourhood, three years are given to . Fully another year was passed by some m university 

the study of philosophy, about five years to teadiing towns in Italy, by the others at Rome, where, after 

in one or other of tne public colleges of the Society, encountering much opposition and slander, all met 

four years to the study of theology, priestly orders toother to agree on a mode of life by which they 

being conferred after the third, and, finally, one year mig^t advance in evangelical perfection and help 

more to another probation or noviceship, mtended to others in the same task. The first formula of the 

help the young priest to renew Jiis spirit of piety and Institute was submitted to the pope and approved of 

to learn how to utilize to the best of his ability all viva voce, 3 September, 1539, and formally, 27 Sep- 

tbe learning and experience he has acquired. In tember, 1540. 

exceptional cases, as in that of a priest who has CoNmmmoNs.— Corput insiihuorum Sodeuuit Jesu (Ant- 
finished his studies before entering the order, allow- werp, Pra^e. Rome. m5, 1702. 1706. 1707, 1709, 188^70; 

annti is maAt» ftTiH tViA fmininir rw>rinH t>apH nnt lAflt ?»"». partial edition, 1827-38); Gaouabdi, De eoffnittoru trutt- 

ance isnaaae, ana tne trMnmg penoa neea not lasi ^^ am); Lanciciub, De prauantia instu. Soc. Jew (1644); 

over ten years, a good part of wnicn is spent m active Nadal, Scholia in eontituHonea (1883); Suarbz. Tract, de reli- 

ministry gione Soc, Jem (1625); Humphret, The Rdigioue State (London, j 

The object of tl« onler knot limited to practum^ '^ ^JlSt^ili'l^^ ^riT'^^ii^i^iT'&':f I 

any one dass of good works, however laudable (as the Society of Jeeue (Washington, 1839; London, 1863). 

preaching, chanting office, doing penance, etc.) but >, 

to studv, in the manner of the Spiritual Exeroises, Generals Prior to the Suppression of the j 

what Christ would have done, if He were living in our Society. — (1) St. Ignatius Loyola (q. v.), 19 April, i 

circumstances, and to carry out that ideal. Hence 1541-31 July, 1556. The Society spread rapidly < 

elevation and largeness of aim. Hence the motto and at the time of St. I^atius's death had twelve < 

of the Society: ''AdMajoremDeiGloriam". Hence provinces: Italy, Sicily, Portugal, Aragon, Castile, 

the selection of the virtue of obedience as the charao- Andalusia, Upper Germany. Lower Germany, France, 

teristic of the order, to be ready for any call and to India (incluoing Japan), Brazil, and Ethiopia, the 

keei5 unity in every variety of work. Hence, by last-mentioned province lasting but a short time, 

easy sequence^ the omission of office in choir, of a It met with opposition at the University of Paris; 

specially distinctive habit, of unusual penances, while in Spain it was severely attacked by Melchior 

'Where the Protestant Reformers aimed at reor^anix- Cano. 

ing the Church at large according^ to their particular (2) James Lainez (q. v.), 2 July, 1558-19 January, 

conceptions, Ignatius began with mterior self-reform; 1565. Lainez served two years as vicar-general,^ 

and after that had been thoroughly established, then and was chosen general in the first general con|;rega- ' 

the earnest preaching of self-retorm to others. That tion, retarded till 1558 (19 June-10 Sept.), owmg to 

done, the Church would not, and did not, fail to the unfortunate war between Paul IV and Philip II. 

reform herself. Many religious distinguished them- Paul IV gave orders that the Divine Office should be 

selves as educators before the Jesuits; but the Society recited in choir, and also that the generalate should 

was the first order which enjoined by its very Consti- only last for three years. The pope died on 18 Au- 

tutions devotion to the cause of education. It was, gust, 1559, and his orders were not renewed by his suo- 

in this sense, the first ''teaching order''. oessor^ Pius IV; indeed be refused Father Lainez leave 

The ministry of the Society consists chieflv in to resign when his first triennium closed. Through 

preaching; teaching catechism, especially to children; Pius's nephew, St. Charles Borromeo, the Society 

administering the sacraments, especially penance now received many privileges and openings, and prog- 

and the Eucharist; conducting missions m parishes rees was rapid. Father Lainez himself was sent to 

on the lines of the Spiritual Exercises; directing those the ''Colloquy of Pois^", and to the Council of 

who wi^ to follow tnese exercises in houses of retreat, Trent (156^), Saint Francis Borgia being left in 

seminaries, or convents; taking care of parishes or Rome as his vicar-general. At the death of Laines 

of colle^ate churches; organizing pious confraternities, the Society numbered 35(X) members in 18 provinces 

sodalities, unions of prayer, Bona Mors associations and 130 houses. 

in their own and in other parishes; teaching in schools (3) St. Francis Borgia (q. v.), 2 July, 1565-1 Octo- 

of everv ffrade — academic, seminary, university; ber, 1572. One of the most delicate tasks of his 

writing dooks, pamphlets, periodical articles; going government was to negotiate with Pope St. Pius V, 

on foreign missions among uncivilized peoples. In who desired to reintroduce the singing of Office, 

liturgical functions the Roman Rite is followed. The This was in fact begun in May, 1569, but only ^ in 

g roper exercise of all these functions is provided for professed houses, and it was not to interfere with 
y rules carefully framed by the general congregations other work. Pius also ordained (Christmas, 1566) 
or the generals. All these regumtions command the that no candidate of any religious order for the priest- 
greatest respect on the part of every member. In hood should be ordained until after his profession; 
practice the superior for the time bemg is the living and this indirectly caused much trouble to the Society, 
rule — ^not that he can alter or abrogate any rule^ but with its distinct grades of professed and non-pro- 


fessed priests. All had therefore to be professed of (7) Vincent Cctraffa (q. v.)) Neapolitan, 7 January, 

three vows, until Gregory XIII (December, 1572) 164&-^ June, 1649. A few days before Father Ca- 

allowed the original practice to be restored. Under raffa's election as general^ Pope Innocent X pubUshed 

his administration the foreign missionanr work of the a brief "Prospero felicique statui'', in which he 

order greatly increased and prospered. New niis- ordered a general congregation of the Society to be 

sions were opened by the Society in Florida, Mexico; held every nine years; it was ordained also that no 

and Peru. office in the Society except the position of master of 

(4) Everard Mercurian, Belgian. 23 April, 1573-1 novices should be held for more than three years. 
August, 1580. Fr. Mercurian was oom in 1514 in the The latter regulation was revoked by Innocent's suc- 
village of Marcour (Luxemburg), whence his name, cessor, Alexander VII, on 1 January, 1658; and the 
which he signed Everard de Marcour. He became former by Benedict XIV in 1746 by the Bull " Devo- 
the first non-Spanish general of the Society. Pope tarn", many dispensations having been granted in 
Gregory XIII, without commanding, had expressed the meantime. 

his desire for this change. This, however, caused (8) Francis Piccohmini, of. Siena, 21 December, 

great dissatisfaction and opposition among a number 1649-17 June, 1651 ; before his election as general he 

of Spanish and Portuguese members, which came to had been professor of philosophy at the Roman 

a cnsis during the generalate of Father Mercurian's College; he died at the age of sixty-nine, having 

successor. Father Claudius Acquaviva. Father Tolet passed fifty-three years in the Society, 

was entrusted with the task of obtaining the submis- (9) Aloysius GoUifredi^ Roman, 21 January, 1652- 

sion of Michael Baius to the decision of the Holy See; 12 March, 1652; Father Gottifredi died at the house 

he succeeded, but his success served later to draw on of the professed Fathers, Rome, within two months 

the Society the hatred of the Jansenists. Father Mer- after his election, and before the Fathers assembled 

curian, when general, brought the Rules to their final for the election and congregation had concluded their 

form, compiling the ^'Summary of the Constitutions'/ labour. He had been a professor of theology and 

from the manuscripts of St. Ignatius, and drawing up rector of the Roman College, and later secretary of 

the "Common Rules" of the Society, and the particu- the Society under Father Mutius Vitelleschi. 

lar rules for each office. He was greatly interested in (10) Gosurin NickeL German, b. at JtUich in 1582; 

the foreign missions and established the Maronite and 17 March, 1652-31 July, 1664. During these years 

En^sh missions, and sent to the latter Blessed Ed- the struggle with Jansenism was growmgmore and 

mund Campion and Father Robert Persons. Father more heated. The great controvert on tne Chinese 

Everard Mercurian passed thirty-two years in the Rites (1645) was continued (see Kicci, Matted). 

Society, and died at the age of sixty-six. At that Owing to his great age Father Nickel obtained from 

time the Society numbered 5000 members in eighteen the eleventh congregation the appointment of Father 

provinces. John Paul Oliva as vicar-general (on 7 June, 1661), 

(5) ClavditLB Acauamva, or Aquaviva (q. v.), with the approval of Alexander VII. 

Neapolitan, 19 February,. 1581-31 January, 1615 (ll]j John Paul Oliva, Genoese (elected vicar cum 

(for ihe disputations on f^ace, see C^onqreqatio iure successionis on 7 June, 1661), 31 July, 1664-26 

DE Auxiuis). After Ignatius, Acquaviva was per- November. 1681. During his generalate the Societv 

haps the ablest ruler of the Sodety. As a legislator established a mission in Persia, which at first met with 

he reduced to its Resent form the final parts of the great success, foiu* hundred thousand converts being 

Institute, and the fLatio Studiorum (q. v.). He had made within twenty-five years; in 1736, however, the 

idso to contend with extraordinary obstacles both mission was destroyed by violent persecution, 

from without and within. The Society was banished Father Oliva's genersdate occurred during one of the 

from France and from Venice^ there were grave differ- most difficult periods in the history of the Society, 

ences with the King of Spain, with Sixtus V. with as the controversies on Jansenism, the droit de rigale, 

the Dominican theologians j and within the Society and moral theology were being carried on by the 

the rivahy between Spaniard and Italian led to opponents of the Society with the greatest acrimony 

unusual complications and to the calling of two and violence. Father John Paul OUva laboured 

extraordinary general congregations (fifth and sixth), earnestly to keep up the Society's high rejputation for 

The origin of these troubles is perhaps eventually learning, and in a circular letter sent to aU the houses 

to be sought in the long wars of religion, which grad- of study urged the cultivation of the oriental lan- 

ually died down after the canonical absolution of guages. 

Heniy IV, 1595 (in which Fathers Georges, Toledo, (12) Charles de NoyeOe, Belgian, 5 July, 1682-12 

and Possevinus played important parts). The fifth December, 1686. Father de Noyelle was bom at 

con^gation in 1593 supported Acquaviva steadily Brussels on 28 July, 1615; so great was his reputation 

against the opposing parties, and the sixth, in l^OH. for virtue and prudence that at his election he received 

completed the union of opinions. Paul V had in 1606 unanimous vote of the congregation. He had been 

re-confirmed the Institute, which from now onwards assistant for the Germanic provinces during more 

may be considered to have won a stable position in than twenty years; he died at the age of seventv, after 

the Church at large, until the epoch of the Suppres- fifty years spent in the Society. Just about the time 

sion and the Revolution. Missions were established of his election, the dispute between Louis XIV of 

in Canada, Chile, Paraguay, the Philippine Islands, and France and Pope Innocent XI had culminated in the 

China. At Father Acquaviva's death the Society num- publication of the ''Declaration du clergs6 de France" 

bered 13,112 members in 32 provinces and 559 nouses. (19 March, 1682). This placed the Society in a diffi- 

(6) Mutius Vitelleschi (q. v.), Roman, 15 Novem- cult position in France, as its spirit of devotion to the 
ber, 1615-9 February^ 1645. His generalate was papacy was not in harmony with the spirit of the 
one of the most pacific and progressive, especially ^'D^laration". It required all the ingenuity and 
in France and Spain; but the Thirty Years' War ability of P^ La Chaise and Father de Noyelle to 
worked havoc in (^ermany. The canonization of Sts. avert a disaster. Innocent XI was dissatisfied with 
Ignatius and Francis Xavier (1622) and the first the position the Society adopted, and threatened to 
centenary of the Society (1640) were celebrated with suppress the order, proceeding even so far as to for- 
sreat rejoicings. The great mission of Paraguay bid the reception of novices. 

began, that of Japan was stamped out in blood. (13) Thyrsus GonoUez (g. v.), Spaniard, 6 July, 

England was raised in 1619 to the rank of a province 1687-27 Oct., 1705. He interfered in the contro- 

of me order, having been a mission until then. Mis- versy between Probabilism (q. v.) and Probabilior- 

dons were established in Tibet (1624), Tonkin (1627), ism. attacking the former doctrine with energy in a 

ftod ihe MaranhSo (1640). book published at DiUingen in 1691. As Probabilism 




was on the whole in favour in the Society^ this 
caused discussions, which were not quieted until the 
fourteenth congregation, 1696, when, with the pope's 
approval, liberty was left to both sides. Father 
Gonz^ez in his earlier days had laboured with great 
fruit as a missionary, and after his election as general 
encouraged the work of popular home missions. His 
treatise '^De infallibilitate Romani pontificis in defi- 
niendis fidei ct morum controversiis'', which was a 
vigorous attack on the doctrines laid down in the 
"Declaration du clerg6 de France'', was published at 
Rome in 1689 by order of Pope Innocent XI; how- 
ever. Innocent's successor, Alexander VII, caused the 
work to be withdrawi^ as its effect had been to ren- 
der the relations between France and the Holy See 
more difficult. Father Gonzdlez laboured earnestly 
to spread devotion to the saints of the Societ}^; he 
died at the age of eighty-four, having passed sixty- 
three years in the order, during nineteen of which he 
was general. 

(14) Michelangelo Tamburinif of Modena, 31 Jan- 
uary, 1706-28 February, 1730. The long reign of 
Louis XIV, so favourable to the Jesuits in many re- 
spects, saw the beginning of those hostile movements 
which were to lead to the Suppression. The king's 
autocratic powers, his Gallicanism, his insistence on 
the repression of the Jansenists by force, the way he 
compelled the Society to take his part in the quarrel 
with Rome about the r4gale (1684-8), led to a false 
situation in which the parts might be reversed, when 
the aJl-powerful sovereign might turn against them, 
or by standing neutral leave them the prey of others. 
This was seen at his death, 1715, when the regent 
banish^ the once influential father confessor Le 
Tellier, while the sallicanizing Archbishop of Paris, 
Cardhial de Noailles, laid them under an interdict 
(1716-29). Father Tamburini before his election 
as general had taught philosophy and theology for 
twelve years and had been chosen bv Cardinal 
Renaud d'Este as his theologian; he had also been 
provincisd of Venice, secretary-general of the Society, 
and vicar-general. Durine the disputes concerning 
the Chinese Rites (q. v.), the Society was accused of 
resisting the orders of the Holy See. Father Tam- 
burini protested energetically against this calumny, 
and when in 1711 the procurators of all the provinces 
of the Society were assembled at Rome, he had them 
sign a protest which he dedicated to Pope Clement 
XI. Tne destruction of Port-Royal and the con- 
demnation of the errors of Quesncl by the Bull 
"Unigenitus" (1711) testified to the accuracy of 
the opinions adopted by the Society in these disputes. 
Father Tamburini procured the canonization of 
Saints Aloysius Gonzaga apd Stanislaus Kostka, 
and the beatification of St. John Francis R^gis. 
During his generalato the mission of Paraguay 
reached its highest degree of success; in one year no 
fewer than seventy-seven missionaries left for it; 
the missionary labours of St. Francis de Geronimo 
and Blessed Anthony Baldinucci in Italy, and Vener- 
able Manuel Padial m Spain, enhanced the reputatidn 
of the Society. Father Tamburini died at the age 
of eighty-two, having spent sixty-five years in religion. 
At tne time of his death the Society contained 37 
provinces, 24 houses of professed Fathers, 612 colleges, 
59 novitiates, 340 residences, 200 mission stations; 
in addition one hundred and fifty-seven seminaries 
were directed by the Jesuits. 

(15) Francis RelZf Austrian (bom at Prague, in 
1673), 7 March, 1730-19 November, 1750. Father 
Retz was elected general unanimously, his able 
administration contributed much to the welfare of 
the Society; he obtained the canonization of St. 
John Francis R^gis. Father Retz's generalate was 
perhaps the quietest in the history of the order. At 
the time of his death the Society contained 39 prov- 
inces, 24 houses of professed Fathers, 669 colleges, 

61 novitiates, 335 residences, 273 mission stations. 
176 seminaries, and 22,589 members, of whom 11,293 
were priests. 

(16) Ignatius VisconH, Milanese, 4 July, 1751- 
4 May, 1755. It was during this gfeneralate that the 
accusations of trading were first made against Father 
Antoine de La Valette, who was recalled from Mar- 
tinique in 1753 to justify his conduct. Shortly before 
d3dng. Father Visconti allowed him to return to his 
mission, where the failure of his commercial opera- 
tions, somewhat later, gave an opportunity to the 
enemies of the Society in France to begin a warfare 
that ended only with the Suppression (see below). 
Trouble with Pombal also began at this time. Father 
Visconti died at the age of seventy-three. 

(17) Aloysius Cenlurionif Genoese, 30 November, 
1755 — 2 October, 1757. During his brief genendato 
the most noteworthy facts were the persecution by 
Pombal of the Portuguese Jesuits and the troubles 
caused by Father de La Valette's commercial activities 
and disasters. Father Centurioni died at Castel 
Gandolfo, at the age of seventy-two. 

(18) Loremo Ricd (q. v.), Florentine, 21 May, 
1758, till the Suppression in 1773. In 1759 the Soci- 
ety contained 41 provinces, 270 mission posts, and 
171 seminaries. Father Ricci founded the Bavarian 
province of the order in 1770. His generalate saw 
the slow death a^ny of the Society; within two ^ears 
the Portuguese, Brazilian, and Ekist Indian provinces 
and missions were destroyed by Pombal; close to two 
thousand members of the Society were cast destitute 
on the shores of Italy and imprisoned in fetid dun- 
geons in Portugal. France, Spain, and the Two 
Sicilies followed in the footsteps oi Pombal. The 
Bull '^Apostolicum" of Clement XIII in favour of 
the Society produced no fruit. Clement XIV at 
last yielded to the demand for the extinction of the 
Society. Father Ricci was seized, and cast a prisoner 
into the Castel San Angelo, where he was treated as 
a criminal till death ended his sufferings on 24 Novem- 
ber, 1775. In 1770 the Society contained 42 prov- 
inces, 24 houses of professed Fathers, 669 colleges, 
61 novitiates, 335 residences, 273 mission stations, 
and about 23,000 members. 

HiBTORT. Italy. — ^The history of the Jesuits in 
Italy was in general very peaceful. The only serious 
disturbances were those arising from the occasional 
quarrels of the civil governments with the ecclesias- 
tical powers. Ignatius's first followers were imme- 
diat'Cly in great request to instruct the faithful, and 
to reform the clergy, monasteries, and convents. 
Though there was little organized or deep-seated mis- 
chief, the amount of lesser evils was immense; the 
possibiUty here and there of a catastrophe was evi- 
dent. While the preachers and missionaries evange- 
lized the country, colleges were established at Padua, 
Venice, Naples, Bologna, Florence, Parma, and other 
cities. On 20 April, 1555, the University of Ferrara 
addressed to the Sorbonne a most remarkable testi- 
mony in favour of the order. St. Charles Borromeo 
was, after the popes, perhaps the most eenerous ci 
all their patrons, and they freely put their best talents 
at his disposal. (For the difiSculties i^ut his semi- 
nary and with Fr. Guilio Mazarino, see Sylvain, ** Hist, 
de S. Charles'', iii, 53.) Juan de Vega, ambassador of 
Charles V at Rome, had leamt to know and esteem 
I^atius there, and when he was appointed Viceroy of 
Sicily he brought Jesuits with him. A college was 
opened at Messina; success was marked, and its rules 
and methods were afterwards copied in other colleges. 
After fifty years the Society counted in Italv 86 
houses and 2550 members. The chief trouble in 
Italy occurred at Venice in 1(506, when Paul V laid 
the city under interdict for serious breaches of eccle- 
siastical immunities. The Jesuits and some other 
religious retired from the city, and the Senate, in- 
spired by Paolo Saipi, the disaffected friar, passed 


a decKe of perpetual bamshment against them. In 
effect, thou^ peace was ma<1e ere long with the pope, 
it was fifty years before the Society could return. 
Italy during the first two centuries of the Society 
was still the most cultured country of Europe, and the 
Italian Jesuits enjoyed a high reputation for learn- 
ing SJid letters. The elder S^peri is considered the 
first of Italian preachers, and there are a number of 
others of the first class. Maffci, Torsellino, Strada, 
PallaviciDo,andBartoli((].v.)haveleftbistaricAl works 
which are still highly prit»l. Between Betlarmine 
(d, 1621) and Zaecharia (d. 1795) Italiaji Jesuits of 
note in theology, controversy, and subsidiary sciences 
are reckoned Fy the score. They also claim a lai^ 
proportion of the sainis, martyrs, generals, and rais- 
sionariea. iSee also Bbllecidb; Boixieni; Bobco- 
vich; PossBviNns; Scaramelli; Viva.) Italy was 
divided into five provinces, with the following figures 
for the year 1749 (shortly before the banning of the 
movement for the Suppression of the Society): Rome, 
848; Naples, 667; Sicily, 775; Venice, 707; Milan, 
425; total, 3622 members, about one-half of whom 
were priests, with 178 houses. 

Spain. — Though the majority of Ignatius's com- 
panions were Span- 
iards, he did not 
^ther them together 
mSpain, and the first 
Jesuits paid only 

ring visits there. 
1644, however, 
Father Araox, cousin 
of St. Ignatius and 
a very eloquent 
preacher, came with 

then their success 
was rapid. On 1 
September, 1547, Ik- 
natius establif^ed 
the province of Spain 
with seven houses 
and about forty re- 
ligious; St. Francis 
Borgia joined in 
1548; in 1550 Lainc 

led the 

paigD. With rapid 

success came unexpected oppoutioD. Melchoir Cano. 
O.P., a theologian of European reputation, attacked 
the young order, which could make no effective reply, 
nor could anyone get (he professor to keep the p^e. 
But, very unpleasant as the trial was, it eventually 
brou^t advantage to the order, as it advertized it 
well m university circles, and moreover drew out de- 
fenders of unexpected efficiency, as Juan de la PeBa of 
the Dominicans, and even their general, Fra Fran- 
cisco Romeo. The Jesuits continued to prosper, 
and Ignatius subdivided (20 September, 1554) the 
existing province into three, containing twelve houses 
and 139 religious. Yet there were internal troubles 
both here and in Portugal under Simon Rodriguez, 
which gave the founder amdcties. In both countries 
the first houses had been established before the Con- 
stitutions and rules were committed to writing. It 
was inevitable thrrefore that the discipline intro- 
duced by AraoE and Rodrigue* should have differed 
somewhat from that which was being introduced by 
Ipiatius at Rome. In Spain, the good offices of 
Borgia and the visits of Father Nadal did much to 
effect a gradual unification of system, though not 
without difficulty. These troubles, however, affected 
the higher officials of the order rather than the rank 
and file, who were animated by the highest motives. 
The great |irfac'-rr Itamfrei is raid to nave attracted 


to religious orders at Salamanca in 
the year 1564, about fifty of them to the Sociel^'. 
There were 300 Spanish Jesuits at the death of Igna- 
tius in 1556; and 1200 at the close at Borgia's gener- 
olate in 1572. Under the non-Spanish generals who 
followed there was an unpleasant recrudescence <j 
tbe nationalistic spirit. Considering the quarrels 
which daily arose between Spain and other nations, 
there can be no wonder at such ebullitions. As has 
been explained under Acquaviva, Philip of Spain lent 
hie aid to the discontented parties, of whom the vir- 
tuous Joe^ de Acosta was the spokesman. Fathers 
Hem&ndei, Dionysius V^uez, Benrlquet, and Mari- 
ana the real leaders Their ulterior object was to 
procure a separate commissarv-general for Spain. 
This trouble was not quieted till the fifth congrega- 
tion, 1503, after which ensued the great debates de 
maHiU with the Dominicans, the protagonists on 
both sides being Spaniards. (See Conoreoatio dk 


Serious as these troubles were in their own sphere, 
they must not be allowed to obscure the fact that in 
the Society, as in all Catholic organiEations of that 
day, Spaniards played the greatest rdles. When we 
enumerate their 
great meq and their 

Sreat works, they 
efy all comparison. 
This consiaeration 
gains further force 
when "we remember 
that the success of 
the Jesuits in Flan- ' 
ders and in the parts 
of Italy then united 
with the Spanish 
crown was largely 
due to Spanish Jes- 
uits; and the same 
b true of tbe Jesuits 
is Portu^, wbidi 
country with its f ar- 
stretdung colonies 
was also under Uie 
Spanish Crown from 
1581 to 1640, though 
neither the organiza- 
tion of the Portu- 
guese Jesuits nor the 
civil government of 

I alram ated with those of Spain . 

s abstract sciences that the 
greatest lustre; Toledo 

the country itself was ami 

But it 

1 the n 

Spanish genius shone w , 

(d. 1596), Molina (1600), de Valentia (1603), VfUquez 
(1604), Sutoi (1617),Ripalda (1648), de Lugo (1660) 
(qa.v.) — these form a group of unsurpassed brilliance, 
wia there are quite a number of others almost equally 
remarkable. In moral theology, S^ches (1610), Azor 
(16031, Solas (1612), Castro Palao, (1633), Torres 
(TumonuB, 1635), Escobar y Mendoza (1669). In 
Scripture, Maldonado (1583), SalmeWin (1685), Fran- 
cisco Ribera (1591), Prado (1595), Pereira (1610), 
Sancio (1628), Pineda (1637). In secular literature 
mention may be made especially of de Isia (q. v.), 
and Baltasar Gracifin (1584-1658), author of the 
"Art of Worldly Wisdom" (El ortlculo) and "El 
criticon", which seems \o have suggested the idea 
of "Robinson Crusoe" to Defoe. 

Ft^Dwing the almost universal custom of the later 
seventeenth century, the kin(fs of Spain generally 
had Jesuit confessors; but their attempts at reform 
were too often rendered ineffective by court in- 
trigues. This was especially the mne with the 
Austrian, Father, later Cardinal, Everard Nidhard 
(confest<or of -Maria Anna of Austria), and Vire 
Daubenton, confessor of Philip V, After the era of 
the great writers, the chief glory of the Spanish 

Philippines, Paraguav, Quito, which will be noticed 
under "MissiomB , below. They were served by 
2171 Jeauilfl at the time of tKe Suppresaion. Spun 
itself in 1749 was divided into &ve provinces: Toledo 
with 659 membeTB, Castile, 718; Aragon, 604; Seville, 
662; Sardinia, 300; total, 2943 memberB (1342 priests) 
in 158 houses. 

Portugal. — At the time when Ignatius founded his 
order PortUKal was in her heroic age. Her rulers 
were men oT enterprise, her universities were full of 
life, her trade routes eictended over the then known 
world. The Jesuits were welcomed with enthusi- 
asm and made good use of their opportunities. 
St. Francis Xavier, traversing Porluguene colonies 
and settlements, proceeded to make bis splendid 
missionary conquests. These were continued by his 
confreres m such distant lands as Abyssinia, the Congo, 
South Africa, China, and Japan, by Fathers Nunhea, 
Silveira, Acosta, Femandes, and others. At Coim- 
bra, and afterwards at Evora, the Society made the 
moat surprising progress under such professors aa 
Pedro de Fonseca (d. 1599), Luis Molina (d. IfiOO), 
Christovio Oil, Se- 
bastifto de Abreu, 
etc., and from here 
also comes the first 
comprehensive series 
of philosophical and 
theological texl- 
books for students 
CENBBb). With the 
advent of Spanish 
monarchy, 1581, the 
Portuguese Jesuits 
sufTered no less than 
the rest of their 
country. Luis Car- 
valho joined the 
Spanish opponent.'^ 
of Father Acqua- 
viva, and when the 
Apostolic collector, 
Ottavio Accoram- 
boni, launched an in- 
terdict against the 
Ciovcmment of Lis- 
bon, the Jesuits, es- 
pecially Diego de Areda, became involved in the 
undignified strife. On the other hand th^ played 
nn honourable part in the restoration of Portugal's 
liberty in 1640; and on its success the difficulty 
was to restrain King Jofio IV from giving Father 
Manuel Femandes a seat in the Cortes, and employ- 
'ng others in diplomatic missions. Amongst these 
Fathers was Antonio Vieira. one of Portugal's most 
eloquent orators. Up to the Suppression Portugal 
and her colonists supported the following missions, of 
which further notices will be found elsewhere, Goa 
(originally India), Malabar, Japan, China, Brasil, 
Klaranhfto. The Porti^uese province in 1749 num- 
bered 861 members (SM priests) in 49 houses. 
(See also Vibiiu. Antonio; Mai^orida, Ga- 

France.—Tbe first Jesuits, though almost all Span- 
iards, were trained and made their first vows in 
France, and the fortunes of the Society in France 
have always been of exceptional importance for the 
body at lai^. In early years its young men were 
sent to Paris to be educated there as Ignatius had 
been. They were hospitably received by Guillaume 
du Prat, Bishop of Clermont, whose haul grew into 
the College de Ulermonl (1550), afterwards known as 
Louis-lc-Grand. Padre Viola was the first rector, 
but the public classes did not begin till 1564. The 


Parlemenl of Paris and the Sorbonne resislfid relw> 
mently the lett«rs patent, which Henry II and, sfter 
him, Praneis II and Charles IX, had granted with 
little difficulty. Meantime the same IJishop of Cler- 
mont had founded a second college at Billom in his 
own diocese, which was opened on 26 July, 1556, be- 
fore the fitst general congregation. Colleges at Mau- 
riac and Pamiers soon followed, and between 1565 
and 1575 others at Avimon, Chamb*ry, Toulouse, 
Rodei, Verdun, Nevers, Bordeaux, Pont-i-MousBm; 
while Fathers Coudret, Auger, Roger, and Pelletier 
distinguished themselves by their apostolic labours. 
The utility of the order was also shown in the Collo- 
quies at Poissy (1561) and 8t-Germain-en-Laye by 
Fathers Lainei and Possevinus, and again by Father 
Brouet, who, with two companions, gave his hfe in the 
service of the plague-stricken at Paris in 1562; while 
Father Maldonado lectured with striking effect both 
at Paris and Bourgcs. 

Meantime serious trouble was growing up with 
the University of Paris due to a number of petty 
causes, jealousy of the new teachers, rivalry with 
Spain, Gallican resentment at the enthusiastic devo- 
tion of the Jesuits ts Rome, with perhaps a spice of 
Calvinism. A law- 
suit for the closing 
of Clermont College 
was instituted before 
the Pariement, and 
Estienne Pasquier. 
counsel for Ihe uni- 
versity, deUvered a 
celebrated plaidtmer 
against t^e Jesiula. 
The Pariement, 
though then favour- 
able to the order, 

irritate the univer- 
sity, and came to an 
indecisive settle- 
ment (5 April, 1565). 
The Jesuits, in spite 
of the royal license, 
were not to be in- 
corporated in the 
university, but they 
might continue theu" 
lectures. Unsatisfied 
with this, the uni- 
versity retaUat«d by preventing the Jesuit scholars 
from obtaining degrees; and later (1573-6), a feud was 
maintained against Father Maldonado (q. v.), which 
waa eventually closed by the intervention of Gregwy 
XIII, who had also in 1572 raised the ColU^ of 
Poat-&-Mousson to the dignity of a university. 
But meantime the more or less incessant wars tA 
religion were devastating the land, and from time to 
time several Jesuits, especially Auger and Manare, 
were acting as army chaplains. Tley had no <xm- 
nexion with the Massacre of St. Bartholomew (1572); 
but Maldonado was afterwards deputed to receive 
Henry of Navarre (Jterwards Henry IV) into the 
Church, and in many places the Fath^v were able 
to shelter fugitives in their houses; and by remon- 
strance and intercession they saved many lives. 

Immediately after his coronation (1575) Henry III 
chose Father Auger for his confessor, and for exactly 
two hundred years the Jesuit court confessor became 
an institution in France; and, as French fashions were 
then influential, every Catholic Court in time fol- 
lowed the precedent. Considerinii the difliculty rf 
any sort of control over autocratic sovereigns, the 
institution of a court confessor was well adapted to 
the circumstances. The occasional abuses of the 
office which occurred are chiefly to be attributed 
to the exorbitant powers vested in the autocrat, 

80CIETT 8 

which no human guidance could save from perioda 
of decline and degradation. But this was more 
clearly aeen later on. A criBis for French Catholi- 
ciam was near when, after the death of Frangois, 
Duke of Aniou, 1584, Henri de Navarre, now an apos- 
tate. Blood heir to the throne, which the feeble Henry 
III could not possibly retain for long. Sidea were 
taken wiUi enthusiaHm, and La taitUe ligue was formed 
for tht defence of the Church (see Lbaguk, Thb; 
GuiSB, HouflB or; France) 

should have re- 
mained cool, when 
the whole popu- 

sible to keep the 
Jesuit friends of 
the exaiUt on both 
sides from partic- 
ipating in their 
extreme measures. 
Auger and Claude 
Matthieu were 
respectively in 
the confidence of 
the two contend- 
ing parties, the 
Court and the 
League. Father 

ceeded in with- 
drawing both from France, though with great difficulty 
and considerable loss of favour on either side. One or 
two he could not control for some time, and of thc^ the 
most remarkable was Henri Samerie, who had neen 
chaplain to Matv Stuart, and became later anny 
chaplain in Flanaers. For a year he passed as diplo- 
matic agent from one prince <rf the Lea^e to another, 
evading, by their means and the favour of Siitus V, 
all Acquaviva's efforts to get him back to regular life. 
But in the end discipline prevailed; and Acquaviva's 
orders to respect the consciences of both sides 
enabled the Society to keep friends with all. 

Henry IV made much use of the Jesuits (especially 
Toledo, PossevinuB, and Commolet), although they 
had favoured the League, to obtain canonical absolu- 
tion and the conclusion of peace; and in time (1604) 
took Pfire Colon (q. v.) aa his confessor. This, 
however, is an anticipation. After the attempt on 
Henry's life by Jean Chastel {27 December, 1694), 
Uie PaHement of Paris took the opportunity of attaek- 
m^ the Society with fury, perhaps in order to dis- 
guise the fact that they had been among the most 
extreme of the Leaguers, while the Society was among 
the more moderate. It was pret«nded that the 
Societv was responsible for Chastel's crime, because 
he had once been their student: thou^ in truth he 
was then at the university. The librarian of tie 
Jesuit College, Jean Guignard, was hanged, 7 Janu- 
ary, 1595, because an old book against the king was 
foiind in a cupboard of his room. Antoine Amauld, 
tlie elder, brou^t into his plaidoyer before the Parle- 
ment every posuble calumny agauist the Society, and 
the Jesuits were ordered to leave Paris in three days 
•od France in a fortnight. The decree was executed 
in the districts subject to the Parlement of Paris, 
but not elsewhere. The king, not being yet canoni- 
«ally absolved, did not then interfere. But the pope, 
and many others, pleaded earnestly for the revocation 
of the decree against the order. The matter was 
warmly debated, and eventually Henry himself gave 
the permtasion for its readmission, on 1 Sept., 1S03. 
Benowmadegreat use irf the Society, foundedfor it the 


great Coll^ of La Fl^che encouraged its missions 
at home, in Normandy and B^am, and the commence- 
ment of the foreign missions in Canadaand the Levant. 

The Society unmediately began to increase rapidly, 
and counted thirty-nine colleges, besides other houses, 
and 1136 religious before the king fell under Ravail- 
lac's dagger (1610). This was made the occasion 
for new assaults by the ParUmeni, who availed them- 
selves of Mariana's book "De rege" to attack the 
Society as defenders of tyrannicide. Suarez's "De- 
fensio fidei" was burnt m 1614. The young king, 
Louis XIH, was too weak to curb the jtarlemen- 
Utirtt, but both he and the people of France favoured 
the Society so effectively that at the time of his 
death in 1643 their numbers bad trebled. 'They now 
had five provinces, and that of Paris alone counted 
over 13,000 scholars in its colleges. The conf^sots 
during this reign were changed not unfrcquently by 
the manccuvres of Richebeu, and include P^res 
Arnoux de Sfiguiron, Suffren, Caussin (q. v.), Sirmond, 
Dinet. Richelieu's jrahcy of supporting the Ger- 
man Protestants against Cathohc Austria (which 
Caussin resisted) proved the occasion for angry po- 
lemics. TheOerman Jesuit Jacob Keller was believed 
(though proof of authorship is altosether wanting) 
to have written two strong pampUcts, "Mystena 
politica" and "Admonitio ad Ludovicum XIII", 
against France. The books were burned by the 
hangman, as in 1626 was a work of Father Santarelli, 
which touched awkwardly on the pope's power to 
pronounce against princes. 

The politico-reUgiouB history of the Society under 
Louis XIV centres round Jansenism (see Jansbnius 
AND Janbknisu) and the lives of the king's confessors, 
especially P^res Annat (1645-60), Femer (1660-74), 
La Chusc (q. v.) (1674-1709), and Michel Le Tellier, 
<q. v.), (1709-15). 
On 24 May, 1656, 
Blaise Pascal (q. v.) 
published the first 
of his "Provin- 
ciales". The five 
propositions of 

no longer defend 
them openly, and 
found the most 
effective method of 
retaliation was sat- 
ire, raillery, and 
against the Society . 
He concluded with 
the usual evasion 
that Jansenius did 
not write in the 
sense attributed to 
him by the pope. 
The ' 'Provinciales' ' 
were the first note- 
worthy example in "™ 
the French hm- Frnmai 
guage of satire 
written in studiously polite and moderate terms; and 
their great literary merit appealed powerfully to the 
French love of cleverness. Too light to be effectively 
answered by refutation, they were at the same time 
sufficiently envenomed to do great and lasting harm; 
although they have frequently been proved to mis- 
represent the teaching of the Jesuits by omissions, 
alterations, interpolations, and false contexts, notably 
by Dr. Karl Weiss, of Grati, "P. Antonio de Escobu 
y Mendoza als Moraltheologe in Pascals Bcleuchtung 
und im Lichte der Wahrheit". 

IB by Hier 




The cause of the Jesuits was also oompromised by 
the various quarrels of Louis XIV with Innocent XI, 
especially concerning the rigale and the GaUican articles 
of 1682. (See Louis XIV and Innocent XI. The 
different standpoints of these articles may help to 
illustrate the differences of view prevalent within 
the order on this subject.) At first there was a 
tendency on both sides to spare the French Jesuits. 
They were not at that time asked to subscribe to 
the trallican articles, while Innocent overlooked their 
adherence to the king, in hopes that their modera- 
tion might bring about peace. But it was hardly 
possible that they should escai)e all troubles under a 
domination so pressing. Louis conceived the idea 
of uniting all the French Jesuits under a vicar, inde- 
pendent of the general in Rome. Before making 
this known, he recalled all his Jesuit subjects, and all, 
even the assistant, P^ Fontaine, returned to 
France. Then he proposed the separation, which 
lliyrsus Gonzalez nrmly refused. The provincials 
of the five French Jesuit provinces implored the king 
to desist, which he eventually did. It has been 
alleged that a papal decree forbidding the reception 
of novices between 1684-6 was issued in punishment 
of the French Jesuits ^vinp; support to Louis (Cr^ 
tineau-Joly). The matter is alluded to in the Brief 
of Suppression; but it is still obscure, and would 
seem rather to be connected with the Chinese rites 
than with the difficulties in France. !£xcept for the 
interdict on their schools in Paris, 1716-29, by Car- 
dinal de Noailles, the fortunes of the order were 
ver>r calm and prosperous during the ensuing ^n- 
eration. In 1749 the French Jesuits were divided 
into five provinces with members as follows: France, 
891; Aquitaine, 437; Lyons, 773; Toulouse, 655; 
Champagne, 594; total, 3350 (1763 priests) in 158 

Oermany. — The first Jesuit to labour here was Bl. 
Peter Faber (q. v.), who won to their ranks Bl. Peter 
Canisius (q. v.), to whose lifelong diligence and emi- 
nent holiness the rise and prosperity of the German 
provinces are especially due. In 1556 there were two 
provinces, South Germanv (Germania Superior , up to 
and including Mainz) and North Germany {Rhenana, 
or Germania Inferior ^ including Flanders). The first 
residence of the Society was at Cologne (1544), the 
first college at Vienna (1552). The Jesuit colleges 
were soon so popular that they were demanded on 
every side, faster than they could be supplied, and the 
greater groups of these became fresh provinces. 
Austria branched off in 1563, Bohemia in 1623, 
Flanders had become two separate provinces by 1612, 
and Rhineland also two provinces in 1626. At that 
time the five German-speaking provinces numbered 
over 1(X) colleges and academies. But meanwhile 
all Germany was in turmoil with the Thirty Years 
War, which had so far gone, generally, in favour of 
the Catholicpowers. In 1629 came the Restitutions- 
edikt (see (jounter-Rbformation), by which the 
emperor redistributed with papal sanction the old 
church property, which had been recovered from the 
usurpation of the Protestants. The Society received 
large grants, but was not much benefitea thereby. 
Some bitter controversies ensued with the ancient 
holders of the properties, who were often Benedic- 
tines; and many ot the acquisitions were lost again 
during the next period of the war. 

The sufferings of the order during the second period 
were grievous. Even before the war they had been 
systematically persecuted and driven into exile by 
the Protestant princes, whenever these had the oppor- 
tunity. In 1618 they were banished from Bohemia, 
Moravia, and Silesia; and after the advent of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus the violence to which they were 
liable was increased. The fanatical proposal of 
banishing them for ever from Germany was made by 
him in 1631, and again at Frankfort in 1633; and 

this counsel of hatred acquired a hold which it still 
exercises over the German Protestant mind. The 
initial successes of the Catholics of course excited 
further antipathies, especially as the great generals 
Tilly, Wallenstein, and Piccolomini hi^ been Jesuit 
pupiis. During the siege of Prague, 1648. Father 
Plachy successfully trained a corps of students for 
the defence of the town, and was awarded the mural 
crown for his services. The province of Upper 
Rhine alone lost seventy-seven Fathers in the ndd- 
hospitals or during the fighting. After the Peace 
of Westphalia, 1648, the tide of the Counter-Refor- , 
mation had more or less spent itself. The foundation 
period had passed, and there are few external events 
to chronicle. The last notable conversion was that 
of Prince Frederick Augustus of Saxony (1697). 
afterwards' King of Poland. Fathers Vota and 
Salerno (afterwajrds a cardinal) were intimately con- 
nected with his conversion. Within the walls of their 
colleges and in the churches throughout the country 
the work of teaching, writing, and preaching contin- 
ued imabated, while the storms of controversy rose 
and fell, and the distant missions, especially China aod 
the Spanish missions of South America, claimed 
scores of the noblest and most high-spirit^. To this 
period belong Philipp Jenigen (d. 1704) and Franz 
Hunolt (d. 1740), perhaps the greatest German 
Jesuit preachers; Tschupick, Joseph Schneller, and 
Ignatius Wurz acquired an almost equally great . 
reputation in Austria. In 1749 the German prov- 
inces counted as follows: Germania Superior, 
1060; Lower Rhine, 772; Upper Rhine, 497; Austria, 
1772; Bohemia. 1239; total, 5340 members (2558 
priests) in 307 nouses. (See also the Index volume 
under title ''Society of Jesus'', and such names as 
Becan, Byssen, Brouwer, Drechsd, Lohner, etc.) 

Himgary was included in the province of Austria. 
The.cmef patron of the order was Cardinal P^ 
m^y (q. v.). The conversion of Sweden was several 
times attempted by German Jesuits, but they were 
not allowed to stay in the country. Kin^ John III, 
however, who had married a Polish prmcess, was 
actually converted (1578) through various missions 
by Fathers Warsiewicz and Possevinus. the latter 
accompanied by the English Father William Good; 
but the kin^ had not the courage t^ persevere. 
Queen Christina (q. v.) in 1654 was Drought into the 
Church, largely through the ministration of Fathers 
Macedo and Casati, having given up her throne for 
this purpose. The Austrian Fathers maintained 
a small residence at Moscow from 1684 to 1718, 
which had been opened by Father Vota. (See 

Poland. — Bl. Peter Canisius, who visited Poland in 
the train of the legate Mantuato in 1558, succeeded 
in animating King Sigismund to energetic defence of 
Catholicism, and Bishop Hosius of Ermland founded 
the college of Braunsberg in 1584, which with that 
of Vilna (1569) became centres of Catholic activity 
in north-eastern Europe. King Stephen Bathory, an 
earnest patron of the order, founded a Ruthenian 
CoUege at Vilna m 1576. From 1588 Father Peter 
Skarga (d. 1612) made a great impression by his 
preaching. There were violent attacks against the 
Society in the revolution of 1607, but after the vic- 
tory oiP Sigismund III the Jesuits more than recovered 
the inx)und lost; and in 1608 the province could be 
subdivided into Lithuania and Poland. The animus 
against the Jesuits however vented itself at Cracow 
in 1612, through the scurrilous satire entitled •" Mo- 
nita secreta" (q. v.). King Casimir, who had once 
been a Jesuit, favoured the Society not a little; so too 
did Sobieski, and his campaign to relieve Vienna from 
the Turks (1683) was due in part to the exhortations 
of Father Vota, his confessor. Among the great 
Polish missionaries are numbered Benedict Herbst 
(d. 1593) and Bl. Andrew Bobola (q. v.). In 1756 


the Polish' provinces weife readjuated into four: — 
Greater Pot&Dd; Lesser Poland; Lithimiiia; Massovia, 
counting in all 2359 religious. The Polish JeauilH, 
besides their own miaaions, had others in Stockholm, 
Russia, the Crimea, Constantinople, and Persia. 
(See Cracow, Universitt or.) 

Belgium. — The firat settlement was at Louvoin in 
1512, whither the students in Paris retired on the 
declaration of war between Franne and Spain. In 
1556 Ribadeneira obtained legal authoriiation for the 
Society from Philip II, and in 1564 Flanders became 
a separate province. Its beginnings, however, were 

revolting provinces told heavily agamst it At the 
Pacification of Ghent (1576) the Jesuits were offered 
an oath against the rulers of the Netherlands which 
they firmly refused, and were driven from their houses 
But this at last won for them Philip s favour, and 
under Alexander Pamese fortune turned completely 
in their favour. Father Oliver Manare became a 
leader fitted for the occasion whom Acquiviia him 
self greeted as "Pater Provincis In a few vears 
a number of well-established colleges had been 
founded, and in 1612 the provmce had to be sub- 
divided. The FlandTO-Betgica counted sixteen eoll^es 
and the OaUo~Belffiea eighteen All but two were day 
schools, with no preparatory classes for tmall boys 
They were worked with comparatively small st^S 
of five or six, sometimes only three professors though 
theirscholarsmightcountasmaDy hundreds Teach- 
ing was gratuitous, but a sufficient foundation for the 
support of the teachers was a necessary preliminary. 
Though preparatory and elementary education was not 
yet in fashion, the care taken in teaching catechism 
was most elaborate. The classes were regular, and 
at intervals enlivened with music, ceremonies, mystery- 
plays, and processions. These were often attended 
by the whole magistracy in robes of state, while 
the bishop himself wouM attend at the distribution 
of honours. A special congregation was formed at 

.3 that year their classes counted in all 3000 

children. Similar organiiations existed all over the 
eountr^. The first communion claffies formed an 
extension of the catechisms. In Bruges, Brussels, 
and Antwerp between 600 and 1600 attended the 
communion classes. 

Jesuit congregations of the Blessed Vii^in were 
first instituted at Rome by a Belgian Jesuit, Jean 
Leunis, in 1563. His native country soon took them 
up with enthusiasm. Each coUege had normally 
tour; — (1) for scholars {more often two, one for older, 

men, for tradesmen, professional classes, nobles, 
priests, doctors, etc., etc.; (4) for small boys. In days 
before hospitals, workhouses, and elementary educa- 
tion were regularly organited, and supported by the 
Slate; before burial-clubs, trade-unions, and the 
like provided special help for the. working-man, these 
sodalities discharged the functions of such institu- 
tions, in homely fashion perhaps, but gratuitously, 
bringing together all rantts for the relief of wdi- 
gence. Some of these congregations were exceedingly 
popular, and their roisters still show the names of 
the first artiste and savants of the time (Teniers, Van 
Dyck, Rubens, Lipsius, etc.). Archdukes and kings 
and even four emperors are found among the sodalists 
of Louvain. Probably the first permanent corps of 
army chaplains was that established by Fantese in 
1587. It consisted of ten to twenty-five chaplains. 
and was styled the "Missio eastrensis," and lasted 
as aa institution till 1660. The "Missio navalis" 
was a kindred institution for the navy. The Flandro- 
Bdgtan province numbered 542 in 1749 (232 priesU) 


in 30 houses: Gallo-Belgian, 471 (266 priests) in 2.^ 

England. — Founded at Rome after the English 
Schism had commenced, the Society had great diffi- 
culty in finding an entrance into England, though 
Ignatius and Ribadeneira visited Che country in 
1531 and 1558, and prayers for its conversion have 
been recited throughout the order from 1553 to the 
present day (now under the common designation 
of "Northern Nations"). Other early Jesuits exerted 
themselves on behalf of the English seminary at 
Douai and of the refugees at Louvain. The eilfect 
of Elizabeth's expulsion of Catholics from Oxford, 
1562-75, was that many took refuge abroad. Some 

scores of young men entered the Society, several of 
these volunteered for foreign missions, and thus it 
came about that the forerunner of those legions of 
Englishmen who go into India to carve out careers 
was the English Jesuit missionan', Thomas Stephens. 
John Yate (ofvw Vincent, b. 1550; d. after 1603) 
and Jdm Meade (see Alueida) were pioneera of the 
mission to Brazil. The most noteworthy of the first 
recruits were Thomas Darbishire and William Good, 
followed in time by Blessed Edmund Campion (q.v.) 
and Robert Persons. The latter was the first to con- 
ceive and elaborate the idea of the English mission, 
which, at Dr Allen's request, was undertaken in 
December, 1578. 

Before this the Society had undertaken the care of 
the English College, Rome (see Enqusk Colleoe), 
by the pope's command, 19 March, 1578. But diffi- 
culties ensued, owing to the miseries inherent in the 
estate of the religious refugees. Many came all the 
way t« Rome expecting pensions, or scholarships from 
the rector, i^o at first oecame, in spite of himself, the 

as unworthy. Hence disappointments and storms 
of grumbling, the records of which read sadly by 
the side of the consoling accounts of the martyr- 
doms of men like Campion, Cottam, Southwell, 
Walpole, Page, and others, and the labours of a 
Heywood, Weston, or Gerard. Persons and Crichten 
too, falling in with the idea, so common abroad, that 
a counter-revolution in favour of Mary Stuart would 
not be difficult, made two or three political missions 
to Rome and Madrid (1582-84) before realizing that 
their schemes were not feasible (see Persons). 
After the Armada (q. v.). Persons induced Philip to 
establish more seminaries, and hence the foundations 
at Valladolid, St-Omer, and Seville (1589, 1592. 
1593), all put in charge of the English Jesuit.0 On the 




other hand they suffered a setback in the so-called 
Appellant controversy (1598-1602), which French 
diplomacy in Rome eventuaUy made into an oppor- 
tunity for operating against Spain. (See Blackwell; 
Garnet.) The assistance of France and the influence 
of the French Coimter-Reformation were now on the 
whole highly beneficial. But many who took refuge 
at Paris became accustomed to a Gallican atmosphere, 
and hence perhaps some of the regalist views about 
the Oath of Allegiance and some of the excite- 
ment in the debate over the jurisdiction of the Bish- 
ops of Chalcedon, of which more below. The feelinp; 
ot tension continued until the missions of Pazani. 
, Conn, and Rosetti, 1635-41. Though the first of 
these was somewhat hostile, he was recalled in 1637, 
and his successors brought about a peace, too soon 
to be interrupted by the Civil War, 1641-60. 

Before 1606 the English Jesuits had founded houses 
for others, but neither they nor any other English 
order had yet erected houses for themselves. But 
, during the so-called ''Foundation Movement'', due 
* to many causes but especially perhaps to the stimu- 
lus of the Counter-Reformation (q. v.) in France, 
a full equipment of institutions was established in 
Flanders. The novitiate, begun at Louvain in 1606, 
was moved to Li^ge in. 1614, and in 1622 to Watten. 
The house at Li^ge was continued as the scholasticate, 
and the house of third probation was at Ghent 1620. 
The "mission" was made in 1619 a vice-province, 
and on 21 January, 1623, a province, with Fr. Rich- 
ard Blount as first provincial; and in 1634 it was able 
to undertake the foreign mission of Maryland (see 
below) in the old Society. The English Jesuits at 
this period also reached their greatest numbers. In 
1621 they were 211, in 1636, 374. In the latter year 
their total revenue amounted to 45,086 scudi (almost 
£11,000). After the Civil War both members and 
revenue fell off very considerably. In 1649 there were 
only 264 members, and 23,055 scudi revenue (about 
£5760); in 1645 the revenue was only 17,405 8cudi 
(about £4350). 

Since Elisabeth's time the martyrs had been few — 
one only, the Ven. Edmund Arrowsmith (q. v.), 
in the reign of Charles I. On 26 October, 1623, 
had occurred ''the Doleful Even-song". A congre- 
gation had gathered for vespers in the garrets of 
the French embassy in Blackfriars. when the floor 
gave way. Fathers Drury and Rediate with 61 
(perhaps 100) of the congr^ation were killed. On 
14 March, 1628, seven Jesuits were seized at St. 
John's, Clerkenwell, with a larse number of papers. 
These troubles, however, were Tight, compared with 
the sufferings during the Commonwealth, when the 
list of martyrs and confessors went up to ten. As the 
Jesuits depended so much on the country families, 
they were sure to suffer severely by the war, and the 
college at St-Omer was nearlv beggared. The old 
trouble about the Oath of Allegianoe was revived 
by the Oath of Abjuration, and "the three questions" 
proposed by Fairfax, 1 Au^st, 1647 jsee White. 
Thomas). The representatives of the secular ana 
regular clergy, amongst them Father Henry More, 
were called upon at short notice to subscribe to them. 
They did so, More thinking he mi^ht, "considering 
the reasons of the preamble", which qualified the 
words of the oath considerably. But the provin- 
cial, Fr. Silesdon, recalled him from England, and 
he was kept out of office for over a year; a punish- 
ment which, even if drastic for his offence, cannot be 
regretted, as it providentially led to his writing the 
history of the English Jesuits down to the year 1635 
("Hist, missionis anglicans Soc. Jesu, ab anno salutis 
MDLXXX", St-Omer, 1660). 

With' the Restoration, 1660, came a period of 

S -eater calm, followed by the worst tempest of all, 
ates's plot (a. v.), when the Jesuits lost eight on 
the scaffold ana thirteen in prison in five years, 1678- 

83. Then the period of greatest prospeHty under 
King James II (1685-8). He gave them a college, 
and a public chapel in Somerset House, made Father 
Petre his almoner, and on 11 November, 1687, a 
member of his Privy Council. He also chose Father 
Warner as his confessor, and encouraged the preach- 
ing and controversies which were carried on with no 
little fruit. But this spell of prosperity lasted only a 
few months; with the Revolution of 1688 the Fathers 
regained their patrimony of persecution. The last 
Jesuits to die m prison were Fathers Poulton and 
Aylworth (1690-1692). William Ill's repressive 
legislation did not have the intended effect of exter- 
minating the Catholics, but it did reduce them to a 
proscribed and ostracized body. Thenceforward 
the annals of the English Jesuits show little that 
is new or striking, though their number and works 
of charity were well maintained. Most of the Fathers 
in England were chaplidns to gentlemen's families, 
of which posts they held nearly a hundred during the 
eifl^teenth century. 

The church law under which the English Jesuits 
worked was to some extent special. At first indeed 
all was imdefined. seculars and regulars living in true 
happy-family style. As, however, organization devel- 
oped, friction between parts could not always be 
avoided^ and legislation became necessary. By 
the institution of the archpriest (7 March, 1598), and 
by the subsequent modifications of that institution 
(6 April, 1599; 17 August, 1601 ; and 5 October, 1602), 
various occasions for friction were removed, and prin- 
ciples of stable government were introciuced. As 
soon as Queen Henrietta Maria seemed able to pro- 
tect a bishop in England, bishops of Chalcedon in 
partibtut infidelium were sent, m 1623 and 1625. 
The second of these, Dr. Richard Smith, endeavoured, 
without having the necessary faculty trom Rome, to 
introduce the episcopal approbation of confessors. 
This led to the Brief ''^Britannia", 9 May, 1631, which 
left the faculties of regular missionaries in their pre- 
vious immediate dependence on the ^ply See. But 
after the institution of vicars Apostolic in 1685, by 
a Decree of 9 October. 1695, regulars were obliged 
to obtain approbation trom the bishop. There were 
of course many other matters that necxled settlement, 
but the difficmties of the position in England and the 
distance from Rome made legislation slow and diffi- 
cult. In 1745 and 1748 Decree were obtained, 
against which appeals were lodged; and it was not 
tiU 31 May, 1753, that the "Re^ke missionis" were 
laid down by Benedict XIV m the Constitution 
"Apostolicum ministerium". which regulated eccle- 
siastical administration until the issue of the Consti- 
tution "Romanos Pontifices" in 1881. In the year 
of the Suppression, 1773, the English Jesuits num- 
bered 274. (See Coffin, Edward; Crebwell: Eng- 
lish Confessors and Martyrs; More, Henrt; 
Penal Laws^ Persons, Robert; Petre, Sir Ed- 
ward; Plowden; Sabran, Louis de; Southwell; 
Spenser, John; Stephens, Thomas; Redford.) 

Ireland, — One of the first commissions which the 
popes entrusted to the Society was that of acting as 
envoys to Ireland. Fathers Salmer6n and Brouet 
managed to reach Ulster during the Lent of 1542; 
but«the immense difficulties of the situation after 
Henry VIII's successes of 1541 made it impossible 
for them to live there in safety, much less to discharge 
the functions or to commence the reforms which the 
pope had entrusted to them. Under Queen Mary the 
Jesuits would have returned had there been men ready. 
Tliere were indeed already a few Irish novices, and of 
these David Woulfe returned to Ireland on 20 Janu- 
uary, 1561, with ample Apostolic faculties. He pro- 
cured candidates for the sees emptied by Elizabeth, 
kept open a grammar school for some years^ and sent 
several novices to the order; but he was finally im- 
prisoned, and had to withdraw to the Continent. A 


Kttle lal«r the "Irish miaBion" was repilftrly orRaniied 
UDder Irish HUperiorB, beginning with tr. Richard 
Fleming (d. 1590). professor at Clermont CoUege, 
and then Chancellor of the Univereity of Ponl^A- 
MouBBon. In 1609 the misBion numbered seventy- 
two, forty of whom were priesta, and eighteen were 
at work in Ireland. By 1617 this latter number had 
inc^'eaaed to thirty-eight; the rest were for the most 
part in training among their French and Spanish 
confreres. The foundation of collegea abroad, fit 
Salamanca, Santiaeo, Seville, and Lisbon, for the 
education of the clergy, was chiefly due to Father 
Thomas Whit* (d., 1622). They were consolidated 
and long managed by Fr. Jamea Archer of Kilkenny, 
afterwards missionary in Ulster and chaplain to 
Hugh O'Neill. The Irish College at Poitiers was also 
under Irish Jesuit direction, as was that of Rome 
for some time (see Irish Colleoe, in Rome). 

The createst extension in Ireland was naturally 
during the dominance of the Confederation (1642-54), 
with which Father Matthew O'Hartigan was in great 
favour. Jesuit colleges, schools, and residences then 
amounted to thirteen, with a novitiate at Kilkenny. 
During the Puritan domination the number of Jeeuita 
fell again to eighteen; but in 1685, under James 11, 
there were twenty-eight with seven residences. After 
the Revolution their numbers fell again to six, then 
rose to 8event«en in 1717, and to twenty-eight in 
1755. The Fathers sprang mostly from the old 
Ai^lo-Norman families, but almost all the mission- 
aries spoke Irish, and missionary labour was the chief 
occupation of the Irish Jesuits. Fr. Robert Rocfa- 
ford set up a school at Youghal as early as 1575; 
university education was given in Dublin in the reign 
of Charles I, until the buildings were seized and 
handed over to Trinity CoUege; and Father John 
Austin kept a Bourishing school in Dublin for twenty- 
two years before the Suppression. 

Some account of the work of Jesuits in Ireland will 
be found in the articles on Fathers Christopher 
Holywood and Henry Fitzsimon; but it whs abroad, 
from the nature of the case, that Irish genius of that 
day found its widest recognition. Stephen White, 
Liuce Wadding, cousin of his famous Franciscan name- 
sake, at Madrid; Ambrose and Peter Wadding at 
Dillingen and Grati respectively; J. B. Duiggin and 

Richard Lynch (16U-76) at Valladolid and Sala- 
manca; James Kelly at Poitiers and Paris; Peter 
Phinkett at Leghorn. Among the distinguished 
writers were William Bathe, whose "Janua lingua- 
ram " (Salamanca, 1611) was the basis of the worlc of 
Commeniue. Bernard Routh (b. at Kilkenny, 1S6S) 
was a writw in the "Mfimoires de Tr^voujc'' (1734- 
43), and assisted Montesquieu on his death-bed. In 
the Geld of foreipi missions O'Fihily was one of the 
first apostles of Paraguay, and Thomas Lynch was 
provincial of Brazil at the time of the Suppression. At 
this time also Roger MagFoire was working in Marti- 
niijue, and PhiUp O'Reilly in Guiana. But it was the 
mission-field- in Ireland itself of which the Iri^ Jesuits 
thought moat, to which all else in one way or other led 
Up. Their labours were principally spent in the walled 
cities oMhe old English Pale. Here they kept the 
faith vtRoroua, in spite of persecutions, which, if 
sometimes intermitted, were nevertheless long and 
severe. The first Irish Jesuit martyr was Edmund 
O'Donnell, who suffered at Cork in 1575. Others on 
that list of honour are: Dominic Collins, a lay brother, 
Youghal, 1602; WilUam Boyton, Cashel, 1647; 
Fathers NetterviUe and Bathe, at the fall of Dro- 
gheda, 1649. Fr. David Galway worked among the 
scattered and persecuted Gaels of the Scottish Isles 
and Highlands, until his death in 1643. (See also 
FrriBiiioN; Mau>ne; O'Donnell; Talbot, Petbr; 
Ibibh Confessors anu Martirs.) 

3 80CIETT 

ScoUand. — Father Nicholas de Gouda was sent to 
visit Mary Queen of Scots in 1562 to invite her to 
send bishops to the Council of Trent. The power of 
the Protestants made it impossible to achieve this- 
object, but de Gouda conferred with the queen and 
brought back with him six young Scots, who were to 

g'ove the founders of the mission. Of these Edmund 
ay soon rose to prominence and was rector of Cler- 
mont College, Paris. In 1584 Crichton returned 
with Father James Gordon, nnfile to the Earl of 
Huntly, to Scotland; the former was captured, but 
the latter was extraordinarily successful, and the 
Scottish mission proper may be said to have begun 
with him, and Father Edmund Hay and John Drury, 
who came in 1585. 
The Earl of Huntly 
became the Catho- 
lic leader, and the 


of his 

party passed 
through many a 
strange turn. But 
the Catholic vic- 
tory of Glenhvet, 
in 1591, aroused 
the temper of the 
Kirktosucha pitch 
that James, though 
averse to severity, 
was forced to ad- 
vance against the 
Catholic lords and 
eventually Huntly 
was constrained to 
leave the country 
and, then return- 
ing, be submitted 
This put a term to 

in reconciling Anne of Denmark, who, however, 
did not prove a very courageous convert. Meantime 
the Jesuits had been given the management of the 
Scots College foundea by Mary Stuart in Paris, 
which was successively removed to Pont-^Mousson 
and to Douai. In 1600 another coll^ was founded 
at Rome and put under them, and there was also a 
small one at Madrid. 

After reaching the English throne James was bent 
on introducing eniiscopacy into Scotland, and to 
reconcile the Pre^ytenans to this he allowed them 
to persecute the Catholics to their hearts' content. 
By their barbarous "excommunication", the suffer- 
ing they inflicted was incredible. The soul of the 
resistance to this cruelty was Father James Anderson, 
who, however, becoming the object of special searches, 
had to be withdrawn in 1611. In 1S14 Fathers 
John Ogilvie (q.v.) and James Moffat were sent in, 
the former suffering martyrdom at Glasgow, lOMarch, 
laiS. In 1620 Father Patrick Anderson (q.v.) was 
tried, but eventually banished. After this, a short 
period of peace, 1625-7, ensued, followed by another 
persecution 1629-30, and another period of peace 
b^ore the rising of the Covenanters and the civil 
wars, 1638-45. There were about six Fathers in the 
mission at this time, some chaplains with the Catho- 
lic gentry, some living the then wild life of the 
Highlanders, especially during Montroee's campaigns. 
But after Phihphaurfi (1645) the fortunes of the 
royalists and the Catnolics underwent a sad change. 
Among those who fell into the hands of the enemy 
was Father Andrew LesliCj who has left a lively 
account of his prolonged sufferings in various prisons. 
After the Restoration (1660) there was a new period 
of peace in which the Jesuit missionaries reaped a 
considerable harvest, but during the disturbances 




caused by the Covenanters (q.v.) the persecution of 
Catholics was renewed. James II favoured them as 
far as he could, appointing Fathers James Forbes 
. and Thomas Patterson chaplains at Holyrood, where 
a school was also opened. After the Revolution the 
Fathers were scattered, but returned, though with 
diminishing numbers. 

HisiORT. — A. General. — Man. hiatorica Soe. Jmu, ed. Rodelbs 
(Madrid. 1894. in progress); Orlandini (continued in turn 
by Sacchini, Jouvancy. and Cordara), Hiat. Soc. Jetu, I64O-- 
1652 (8 vols, fol., Rome and Antwerp, 1615-1750), and Sup- 
plement (Rome, 1859); Bartoli, Dea' istoria delta eomp, di 
Gesil (6 vols. fol.. Rome, 166^-73); CRinNEAU-JoLT, Hiai. de la 
eomp. de Jiaua (3rd ed., 3 vols., Paris, 1859); B. N.. The Jeeuits; 
their Foundation and History (London, 1879); (Wbrnz). Abriae der 
Geeeh. der GeaeUechafl Jeau (MOnster, 1876); Cabrss, Atiaa geo- 
graphicua Soc. Jeau (Paris, 1900); Heimbucheb, Die Orden und 
Konffregationen der katholiaehen Kirehe, III (Paderbom, 1908), 
2-258, contains an excellent bibliography; IQusbneiJL Hi^. dea 
religieux de la eomp. de Jiaua (Utrecht. 1741). Non-Catholic: — 
Steiz-Zocklbr in Realencyel. fUr prot. Theol., s. v. Jeauitenorden; 
HabbnmOller, Hiat. jeauUici ordinia (Frankfort, 1593); Hos- 
PINIANU8, Hiat. jeauitica (Zurich, 1619). 

B. Particular Countries. — Italy. — Tacchi-Vbnturi, Storia 
delta eomp. di G. in Italia (Rome, 1910, in progress); ScHiNCfli 
AND Santaoata, latoria delta eomp. di G. appartenente at regno 
di Napoli (Naples, 1706-57); Albbrti, La Sicilia (Palermo. 
1702); AauiLBRA, Protineia Sicutof Soe. Jeau rea geata (Palermo, 
1737-40); Cappelletti, / gesuili e la republica di Venezia (Ven- 
ice, 1873); Favaro, Lo atudio di Padora e la eomp. de G. (Venice, 

Spain. — Ahtrain, Hiat. de la eomp. de J. en la aatalencia de 
EapafUi (Madrid, 1902, 3 vols., in progress); Alcazar, Chrono' 
hiatoria de la eomp. de J.enla provincia de Toledo (Madrid, 1710) ; 
Prat, Hiat. du P. Ribadeneyra (Paris, 1862). 

Portugal. — TcLLEZ, Chronica de la eomp. de J. na prorincia de 
Portugal 'iCoimbn, 1645-7); Franco, Synop. annal. Soc. Jeau in 
Liuitania ab anno 1 40 ad 172 i (Auscsburg. 1726); Teixeira. 
Doeum. para a hiat. doa Jeauitaa em Portugal (Coimbra, 1899). 

France. — Fouquerat,.//w^ de la eomp. de J. en France (Paris, 
1910) ; Caraton, Doeum. inid. coneemant la eomp. de J. ^23 vols., 
Paris, 1863-86) ; Idem, Lea parlementa et lea jiauitea (Pans, 1867) ; 
Prat, Mhn. pour servir d Vhiat. du P. Brouet (Puy, 1885); Idem, 
Recherchea hiat. aur la eomp. de J. en France du tempa du P. Colon, 
1664-162^ (Lyons, 1876); Idem, Maldonat et Vuniveraiti de Paria 
(Paris, 1856) ; Donarche, L'univ. de Paria et lea jiauitea (Paris, 
1888); PiAOET, L'dabliaaemerU dea jiauitea en France 1640-1660 
(Leyden, 1893) ; Chossat, Lea jiauitea et leura auvrea d Avignon 
(Avignon, 1896). 

Germany, etc. — Agricola (continued by Flotto. Kropp), 
Hiat. prov. Soc. Jeau Germanite auperioria (I64O-I641) (5 vols., 
Augsburg and Munich, 1727-54); Hansen, Rhein. Akten aur 
Geaeh. dea Jeauitenordena 1642-82 (1896); Jansben, Hiat. of the 
German People, tr. Christie (London, 1905-10); t>VKn, .Gtsch. 
der Jeauiten in den Ldndem deuiaeher Zunge (Freiburg, 1907); 
Kroess, Geach. der bOhmiachen Prov. der G. J. (Vienna, 1910); 
Medeber, Annal. Ingolatadienaia academ. (Ingolstadt, 1782); 
Reippbnbero, HiH. Soe. Jeau ad Rhenum inferiorem (Cologne, 
1764); Argbnto, De rebua Soe. Jeau in regno PolonieB (Cracow, 
1620) ; Pollard, The Jeauita in Poland (Oxford, 1882) ; Zalenski, 
Hiat. of the Soe. of Jeaua in Poland (in Polish, 1896-1906); Idem, 
The JeauiU in White Ruaaia (in Polish, 1874; Fr. tr., Paris. 1886); 
PiERUNO, Antonii Poaaevini miaaio moaeovitica ( 1883) ; Rootowski, 
Hiat. Soc. Jeau Lithuanicarum provinciatium (Wilna, 1765); 
ScHMiDL, Hiat. Soe. Jeau prov, Bohemia, 1666-1663 (Prague, 
1747-59); Socher, Hiat. prov, Auatria Soc. Jeau, 1640-1690 
(Vienna, 1740); Steinhuber, Geaeh, dea ColL GermanicumrHun- 
garicum (Freiburg, 1895). 

Belgium. — Manare, De rebua Soe. Jeau commentariua, ed. 
Dklplace (Florence, 1886) ; Waldack, Hiat. prov. Flandro-belgy- 
ca Soc. Jeau anni 1638 (Ghent, 1867). 

England, Ireland, Scotland. — Foley, Recorda of the Engliah 
Prov. of the Soe. Jeaua — includes Irish and Scotch Jesuits (London, 
1877) ; Spillmann, Die erigliachen Mdrtyrer unter Elizabeth bia 1683 
(Freiburg, 1888); Forbes-Leith, Narr. of Scottiah Catholica 
(Edinburgh, 1885) ; Idem. Mem, of Scot. Cath. (London, 1909) : 
Hogan, Ibemia Ignatiana (Dublin. 1880); Idem, Diatinguiahed 
Iriahmen of the XVI century (London, 1894); Mbteb, England 
und die kath. Kirehe unter Eliaab^ (Rome, 1910) ; More, Hiat. 
prov. AnglieanoB (St-Omer, 1660); Persons. Memoira, ed. Pol- 
len in CcUh. Record Society, II (London, 1896, 1897), iii; Pollen, 
Politiea of the Eng. Cath. under Eliaabeth in The Month (London, 
1902-3); Taunton. The JeauiU in England (London, 1901). 

Missions. — No sphere of religious activity is held 
in greater esteem among the Jesuits than that of 
the foreign missions; and from the be^ning men of 
the highest gifts, like St. Francis Xavier^ have been 
devot^ to this work. Hence perhaps it is that a 
better idea may be formed of the Jesuit missions by 
reading the lives of its great niissionaries, which will 
be found under their respective names (see Index 
vol.), than from the following notice, in which atten- 
tion has to be confined to general topics. 

India. — When the Societv began, the great colon- 
izing powers were Portugal and Spain. The career 

of St. Francis Xavier (q. v.), so far as its geographical 
direction and limits were concerned, was laraely 
determined b v the Portuguese settlements in the East 
and the trade routes followed by Portuguese mer- 
chants. Arriving at Goa in 1542, he evangelised 
first the western coast and Ceylon, in 1545 he was 
in Malacca, in 1549 in Japan. At the same time he 
pushed forward his few assistants and catechists into 
other centres; and in 1552 set out for China, but died 
at the year's end on an island off the coast. Xavier's 
work was carried on, with Goa as headquarters, 
and Father Barzaeus as successor. Father Antonio 
Criminali, the first martvr of the Societv, had suffered 
in 1549, and Father Mendez followed in 1552. In 
1579 Blessed Rudolph Acquaviva visited the Court 
of Akbar the Great, but without permanent effect* 
The great impulse of conversions came after Yen. 
Robert de Nobili (q. v.) declared himself a Brahmin 
SannjMj and lived the life of the Brahmins (1606). 
At Tan j ore and elsewhere he now made immense 
numbers of converts, who were allowed to keep the 
distinctions of their castes, with many religious cus- 
toms; which, however, were eventuafly (after much 
controversy) condemned by Benedict XIV in 1744. 
This condenmation produced a depressing effect on 
the mission, though at the very time Fathers Lopez 
and Acosta with singular heroism devoted them- 
selves for life to the service of the Pariahs. The Sup- 
pression of the Society, which followed soon afti^r, 
completed the desolation of a once prolific missionary 
field. (See Malabar Rites.) From Goa too were 
organized missions on the east coast of Africa. The 
Abyssinian mission under Fathers Nunhes, Oviedo, 
and Paes lasted with varied fortunes for over a cen- 
tury, 1555-1690 (see Abyssinia, I, 76). The mis- 
sion on the Zambesi under Fathers Silveira, Acosta, 
and Fernandez was but short-lived ; so too was the 
work of Father Govea in Angola. In the seventeenth 
century the missionaries penetrated into Tibet, 
Fathers Desideri and Freyre reaching Lhasa. Others 
pushed out in the Persian mission from Ormus as 
far as Ispahan. About 1700 the Persian missions 
counted 400,(X)0 Catholics. The southern and 
eastern coasts of India, with Ceylon, were comprised 
after 1610 in the separate province of Malabar, with 
an independent French mission at Pondicnerry. 
Malabar numbered forty-seven missionaries (Por- 
tuguese) before the Suppression, while the French 
missions counted 22. (See Hanxleden.) 

Japan. — ^The Japanese mission (see Japan, VIII, 
306) gradually developed into a province, but the 
seminary and seat of government remained at Macao. 
By 1582 the number of Christians was estimated at 
200,000 with 250 churches and 59 missionaries, of 
whom 23 were priests, and 26 Japanese had been ad- 
mitted to the Society. But 1587 saw the beginnings 
of persecution, and about the same period began the 
rivalries of nations and of competing orders. The 
Portuguese crown had been assumed by Spain, and 
Spanish merchants introdticed Spanish Dominicans 
and Franciscans. Gregory XIII at first forbade this 
(28 Jan., 1585), but Clement VIII and Paul V (12 
December, 16(X); 11 June, 1608) relaxed and repealed 
the prohibition; and the persecution of Talco-sama 
quenched in blood whatever discontent might have 
arisen in consequence. The first great slai^^^^ o^ 
26 missionaries at Nagasaki took place on 5 Feb., 
1597. Then came fifteen years of comparative peace, 
and gradually the number of Christians rose to about 
1,800,000 and the Jesuit missionaries to 140 (63 
priests). In 1612 the persecution broke out again, 
mcreasing in severity till 1622, when over 120 mar- 
tyrs suffered. The "great martyrdom" took place 
on 20 September, when Blessed Charles Spmola 
(q. V.) suffered with representatives of the Dominicans 
and the Franciscans. For the twenty ensuing years 
Uie massacre continued without mercy, all Jesuita 


who landed being at once executed. In 1644 Father 
Caspar de AmaJal was drowned in attempting to 
land, and hia death brought to a cloae the century of 
iiiiBHionary efforts which the Jesuits had made to 
bi'iiig the Faith to Japan. The name of the Japan- 
we province was retamed, and it counted 57 subjecte 
in 1760; but the mission was really confined to Tonkin 
and Cuchin-China, whence etations were established 
in Annam, Biam, etc. (sec Indo-China, VII, 774-5; 
MARTTits, Japanese). 

China.~A detailed account of this miitaion from 
1552 to 1773 will be found under China (111(672-4) 
and MARTTRS[NCHiNA,andin Mveaof themisaionariee 
Bouvet, Bran cat i, Cameiro, Cibot, Fridelli, Gaubil, 
Gerbillon, Herdtrich, Hindcrcr, Mailla, Martini, 
Matteo Ricci, Schall von Bell, and Verbieat (ijq. v.}. 
Prom I5S1, when the mission was organized, it con- 
sisted of Portuguese Fathers. They established four 
coUegea, one seminary, and some forty stations 
I under a vice-provincial, who resided frequently in 
Pekin; at the suppression there were 54 Falhera. 
From 1687 there was a special mission of (he French 
Jpsuilfi to Pekin, under their own superior; at the 
Suppression they numbered 23. 

Central and South America. — The mi.'wions of 
" Central and Southern America were divided between 
Portugal and Spain (sec America, I, 414). In 1549 
Father Nombr^ and five companions, Portuguese, 
went to Braiil. Progreas was slow at firet, but when 
the languages had been learnt, and the confidence of 
the natives acquired, progress became rapid. Blessed 
Ignacio de .\zcvedo and his thirty-nine companions 
were martyred on their way thither in 1570, The 
missione, nowever, prospered steadily under such 
leaders as Joa£ Anchieta and John Almeida (qq. v.) 
(Meade). In 1630 there were ,70,000 converts. 
Before the Suppression the whole country had been 
divided into missions, served by 445 Jesuits in Brazil, 
And 146 in the vice-province of Maranhio. 

Paroffuay. — Of the Spanish missions, the most 
noteworthy is Paraguay (see Guaran) Indians; 
Abipones; Arqbntinb Bepubi.ic; Rbductionb of 
Paraguat). The province contained 564 members 
(of whom 385 were priests) before the Suppression, 
with 113,716 Indiana under their chaise. 

Mexico, — Even Jarger than Paraguav was the 
misaionary province of Mexico, whicn included 
CaUfomia, with 572 Jesuits and 122,000 Indians. 
(See also Caufornia Missions; Mexico, pp. 258, 
266, etc; ASazco; Cuvigero; DJaz; Ducrue; etc.) 
The conflict as to jurisdiction (1647) with Juan de 
Palafox y Mendoza (q.v.). Bishop of La Fuebla, led 
to an appeal to Rome which was decided by Inno- 
cent X m 1648, but af(«rwBrda became a catue oSlb- 
bre. The other Spanish missions, New Granada 
(Colombia), Chile, Peru, Quito (Ecuador), were 
administered by 193, 242, 526, and 309 Jesuits respec- 
tively (see Albore; Aradcaniaks; Arawakb; Bab- 
rasa; Moxos Indians). 

UnUed 5(ate».— Father Andrew ftTiite (q.v.) and 
four other Jesuits from the English mission arrived 
in territory now comprised in the Stat« of Maryland, 
25 March, 1634, with the expedition of Cecil Calvert 

S. v.) For ten years they ministered to the Catholics, 
the colony, converted many of its Protestant pio- 
neers, and conducted missions among the Indians 
^ong Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac River, the 
Patuxents, Anacostans, and Piscataways, which last 
were especially friendly. In 1644 the colony was 
invaded by the Puritans from the nei^bouring settle- 
ment of Virginia, and Father White was sent in 
chains to England, tried for being a Catholic, and on 
his release took refuge in Belgium. Although the 
Catholic colonists soon re^in^ control, they were 
oonatontly menaced by their Puritan neighbours and 
hy malcontents in the colony ileelf, who finally in 

i5 80CIETT 

1692 succeeded in selling the government, and in 
enacting penal laws against the Cathohca, and par- 
ticularly against their Jesuit priests, which kept 
growing more and more intolerable until the colony 
became the State of Marvland in November, 1776. 
ijjfing the 140 years between their arrival in 
Maryland and the Suppression of the Society, the 
misBionaries, averaging lour in number the first forty 
years and then gredually increasing to twelve and 
finally to about twentv, continued to work among the 
Indiana and the settlera in spite of every vexation 
and disability, though prevented from increasing in 
number and extending their laboura during the dis- 

C,e with Cecil Calvert over retaining the tract of 
d, Mattapany, given to them by the Indians, relief 
from taxation on 
lands devoI«d to 
religious or chari- 
table purposes, 
and the usual 
ecclesiastical im- 
munity for them- 
selves and (heir 
householda. The 
controversy ended 
in the cession of 
the MaKapany 
tract, the miaaion- 
aries retaining the 
land they had ac- 

3uiredby thecott- 
itions of planta- 
tion. Prior to tha 
Suppression they 
had established 

land, at St. 
Thomas, White 
Marsh, St. Ini- 
goea, Leonard- 
town, atiU (1912) 
under the care of Jesuits, and also at Deer Creek, 
Frederick, and St. Joseph a Bohemia Manor, besides 
the many less permanent stations among the Indians 
in Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Conewago, Lancaster, 
Goehenhoppen, and excursion stations as far as New 
York where two of their number, Fathers Harvey 
and Harrison, assisted for a time by Father Gage, 
had, under Governor Dongan, ministered as (ihaplains 
in the forts and among the white settlers, and 
attempted unsuccessfully to establish a school, be- 
tween 1683-89, when they were forced to retire by an 
anti-Catholic administration. 

The Suppression of the Society altered but little 
the status of the Jesuits in Maryland. As (hey were 
tbe only priests in the mission, they still remained at 
their posts, most of them, the nine English members, 
until death, all continuing to labour under Father 
3<Aai Lewis, who after the Suppression had received 
the powers of vicar-general from Bishop Challoner 
of the London District. Only two of them survived 
until the restoration of the Society — Robert Molyneux 
and John Bolton. Many of those who were abroad, 
labouring in England or studying in Belgium, returned 
to work in (he mission. As a corporate bodv they 
still retained the properties from which they derived 
support for their religious ministrations. As their 
numbers decreased some of the missions were aban- 
doned, or served for a time by other priests but main- 
tained by tbe revenues of the Jesuit properties even 
^ter the Restoration of the Society. Though these 
properties were r^;arded as revertmg to it through 
its former members organized as the Corporation of 
Roman Catholic Clergymen, a yearly allowance from 
the revenues made over to Archbishop Carroll became 
during Bishop Mar^chal's administration (1817-34) 
the basis of a claim for such a payment in perpetuity 

tb« ColleCB of PlopicuulB 




and the dispute thus occasioned was not settled until 
1838, under Archbishop Eccleston. 

French Missums. — The French missions had as 
bases the French colonies in Canada, the Antilles, 
Guiana, and India; while French influence in the 
Mediterranean led to the missions of the Levant, in 
Syria, among the Maronites (q. v.)y etc. (See also 
Guiana; Haiti; Martinique; China. Ill, 673.) 
The Canadian mission is described under Canada, 
and Missions, Cathouc Indian, of Canada. (See 
also the accounts of the mission giv^n in the articles 
on Indian trib^ like the Abenakis, Af)aches, Cree. 
Hurons, Iroquois, Ottawas; and in the biographies oi 
the missionaries Bailloquet, Br^beuf, Casot, Cha- 
banel, Chastellain, Chaumonot, Cholohec, Cr^pieul, 
Dablon, Druillettes, Gamier, Goupil, Jogues, LaJQtau, 
Lagren6, Jacques- P. Lallemant, Lamberville, Lauzon. 
Le Moyiie, Rdle, etc.) In 1611 Fathers Biard ana 
Mass6 arrived as missionaries at Port Royal, Acadia. 
Taken prisoners by the English from Virginia, they 
were sent back to France in 1614. In 1625 Fathers 
Mass^. Br^beuf, and Charles^Lalemant came to work 
in ana about (Quebec, imtiL 1629, when they were 
forced to return to France after the English captured 
Quebec. Back again in 1632 they began the most he- 
roic missionary period in the annals of America. They 
opened a college at Quebec in 1635, with a staff of 
most accomplished professors from France. For forty 
years men quite as accomplished, labouring under 
mcredible hardships, opened missions among the 
Indians on the coast, along the St. Lawrence and the 
Saguenay, and on Hudson Bay; among the Iroquois, 
Neutral Nation, Petuns^ Huipns, Ottawas, and later 
among the Miamis, Illmois, and among the tribes 
east of the Mississippi as far south as the Gulf of 
Mexico. When Canada became a British possession 
in 1763, these missions could no longer be sustained, 
thou^ many of them, especiallv those that formed 
part of parochial settlements, had gradually been 
tfdcen over by secular priests. The college at Quebec 
was closed in 1768. At the time of the Suppression 
there were but twenty-one Jesuits in Canada, the 
last of whom. Rev. Jolm J. Casot^ died in 1800. The 
mission has oecome famous for its martyrs, eight of 
whom, Br6beuf, Gabriel Lalcmant, Daniel, Gamier. 
Chabanel, Jogues and his lay companions Goupil ana 
Lalande, were declared venerable on 27 Feb.^ 1912. 
It has also become noted for its literary remams, es- 
pecially for the works of the missionaries in the Indian 
tongues, for their explorations, especially that of 
Marquette, and for its ''Relations'^. 

Jesuit Relations. — The collections known as the 
''Jesuit Relations'' consist of letters written from 
members of the Society in the foreign mission fields to 
their superiors and brethren in Europe, and contain 
accounts of the development of the missions, the 
labours of the missionaries, and the obstacles which 
they encountered in their work. In March, 1549, 
when St. Francis Xavier confided the mission of Or- 
mus to Father Caspar Barzseus, he included among his 
instructions the commission to write from time to time 
to the college at Goa, givinp; an account of what was 
being done in Ormus. His letter to Joam Beira 
(Maukcca, 20 June, 1549) recommends similar accounts 
being sent to St. Ignatius at Rome and to Father 
Simon Rodriguez at Lisbon and is very explicit con- 
cerning both the contents and the tone of these 
accounts. These instructions were the ^ide for the 
future "Relations" sent from all the foreign missions 
of the order. The "Relations" were of three kinds: 
Intimate and personal accounts sent to the father- 
general, to a relative, a friend, or a superior, which 
were not meant for publication at that time, if ever. 
There were also annual letters, intended only for 
members of the order, manuscript copies of which 
were sent from house to house. Extracts and analy- 
ses of these letters were compiled in a volume entitled : 

" Litterse annuse Societatis Jesu ad patres et fratres 
ejusdem Societatis". The rule forbade the conununi- 
cation of these letters to persons not members of the 
order, as is indicated by the title. The publication of 
the annual letters began in 1581, was interrupted from 
1614 to 1649, and came to an end in 1654, tnough the 
provinces and missions continued to send such let- 
ters to the father-general. The third class of letters, 
or "Relations" properly so called^ were written for 
the public and intended for printmg. Of this class 
were the famous "Relations ae la Nouvelle-France", 
bc^un in 1616 by Father Biard. The series for 1626 
was written by Father Charles Lalemant. Forty-one 
volumes constitute the series of 1632-72, thirty-nine 
of which bear the title "Relations", and two (1645-55 
and 1658-59) "Lettres de la Nouvelle-France". 
The cessation of these publications was the indirect 
outcome of the controversy concerning Chinese Rites, 
as Clement X forbade (16 April, 1673) missionaries to 
publish books or writings concerning the missions 
without the written consent of Propaganda. 

JjBtten from the miflrions were instituted by Saint Ignatius. 
At first they circulated in MS. and contained home as well aa 
foreign news; e. g. Litterm quadrimettret (5 vols.), lately printed 
in the MonumerUa series, mentioned above. Later on JAtUrm 
annua, in yearly or triennial volumes (1681 to 1614) at Rome. 
Florence, etc., index with last vol. Second Series (1650-54) 
at Dillingen and Prague. The AnntuU Letter* were continued, 
and still continue, in MS., but very irregularly. The tendency 
was to leave home news in MS. for the future historian, and to 
publish the more interesting reports from abroad. Hence many 
early issues of Attiei and Littera, etc., from India, China, Japan, 
and later on the celebrated Relatxona of the French Canadian 
missions (Paris, 1634 — ). From these ever-growing printed 
and MS. sources were drawn up the collections — Lettree id^ 
fiantee et curieuMee icritea par qudqrua mieeionairea de la comp, 
de JievM (Paris, 1702; frequently reprinted with di£Ferent matter, 
in 4 to 34 volumes. The original title was LOtree de qutiquM 
fnM9i(maire»)\ Der Neue^WeUbott mit aUerhand Nachrichten deren 
Miuumar. Soc. Jeeu, ed. drocKLSiN and others (36 vols., 
Augsburs, Grats, 172S — ); Huonbbr, Deuteehe jetuiten M%»- 
eiondre (Freiburg, 1809). For literature of particular missions 
see those Ut^. Lbclkrcq, Premier itabliasement de la foy dane la 
NouveUe-France (Paris, 1619), tr. Shea (New York, 1881) ; Camp- 
BKLL, Pioneer Prieete of North America (New York, 1908-11); 
BouBNE, Spain in America (New York, 1904); Pabkman. The 
Jesuiti in North America (Boston, 1868); Rochemontkix, Lee 
jUuites et la Nouvelle-France au xtii* eiide (Paris, 1896) ; Charlb- 
vonc, Hiat de la NouveUe-France (Paris, 1744) ; Campbell (B.U.), 
Bioo. Sketch of Father Andrew White and hie Companiontt the 
firet Mieeumariee of Maryland in the Metropolitan Catholic Alma- 
nac (Baltimore, 1841); Idbm, Hiat. Sketch of the Early Christian 
MieeioM among the Indiana of Maryland (Maryland Hiat. Soc., 
8 Jan., 1846) ; Johnbon, The Foundation of Maryland in Mary- 
land Hiat, Soe„ Fund Publicaliona, no. 18 f lup, Barly Jeauit Afit- 
aiona in North America (New York. 1882); Idem, Hiat. Sceneafrom 
the Old Jeauit Miaaion* (New York. 1876); The Jeauit Relationa, 
ed. Thwaxtes (73 vols., Cleveland, 1896-1901) ; Shea, Jeauita, 
RecoUeetat and Indiana in Winbob, Narrative and critical Hist, cj 
America (Boston, 1889) ; Huohes, Hi A. of the Soc. of Jeaua in 
North America, Colonial and Federal (Cleveland, 1908-—) : Shea, 
Hiat. of the Cath. Church within the limiU of the United Statea 
(New York, 1886-92) ; Schall, Hiat. relatio de ortu et vrogreaeu 
fidei orthod. in reono Chineai 1681-1609 (Ratisbon, 1672); Riccx, 
Opere atoriche, ed. Ventusx (Maoarata, 1911). 

Suppression. 1750-73. — ^We now approach the 
most difficult part of the history of the Society. 
Having enjoyed very high favour among Catholic 
peoplesi kmgs, prelates, and popes for two and a 
naif centuries, it suddenly becomes an object of 
frenzied hostility, is overwhelmed with obloquy, and 
overthrown with dramatic rai)idity. Every work 
of the Jesuits — their vast missions, their noble col- 
leges, their churches — all is taken from them or de- 
stroyed. They are banished, and their order sup- 
prised, with harsh and denunciatory words even from 
the pope. What makes the contrast more striking 
is that their protectors for the moment are former 
enemies— the Russians and Frederick of Prussia. 
Like many intricate problems^ its solution is best 
found by beginning with what is easy to understand. 
We look forward a generation and we see that every 
one of the thrones, the pope's not excluded, which 
had been active in the Suppression, is •overwhelmed. 
France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy become, indeed 
still are, a prey to the extravagances of the Revolu- 
tionary movement. The Suppression of the Society 




"Was due to the same causes which in further develop- 
ment brou^t about the French Revolution. These 
causes varied somewhat in different countries. In 
Fkance many influences combined, as we shall see, 
from Jansenism and Free-thought to the then prev- 
alent impatience with the old order of things (see 
France, VI, 172). Some have thought that the 
Suppression was primarily due to these currents of 
thought. Others attr^ute it chiefly to the absolu- 
tism of the Bourbons, r or, though in France the khig 
was averse to the Suppression, the destructive forces ac- 
quired theu: power because he was too indolent to exer- 
cise control, which at that time he alone possessed. Out- 
side France it is plain that autocracy, acting through 
high-handed ministers, was the determining cause. 

Portugal, — In 1750 Joseph I of Portugal appointed 
Sebastian Joseph Carvalho, afterwards Marquis of 
Pombal (a. v.), as his first minister. Carvalho's quarrel 
with the Jesuits began over an exchange of territory 
with Spain. San Sacramento was exchanged for the 
seven Reductions of Paraguav, which were under 
Spain. The Society's wonderful missions there were 
coveted by the Portuguese, who believed that the 
Jesuits were mining gold. So the Indians were 
ordered to quit their country, and the Jesuits endeav- 
oured to lead them quietly to the distant land allotted 
to them. But owing to the harsh conditions imposed, 
the Indians rose in arms against the transfer, and the 
so-cidled war of Paraguay ensued, which, of course, 
was disastrous to the Indians. Then step by step 
the quarrel with the Jesuits was pushed to extremi- 
ties. The weak king was persuaded to remove them 
from Court; a war of pamphlets against him was 
commenced; the Fathers were first forbidden to under- 
take the temporal administration of the missions, and 
then they were deported from America. 

On 1 April, 1758, a Brief was obtained from the 
aged pope, Benedict XIV (q. v.). appointing Cardinal 
Saldanhia to investigate the allegations against the 
Jesuits, which had been raised in the King of Portu- 
gal's name. But it does not follow that the pope had 
forejudged the case against the order. On the con- 
trary, if we take into vi«w all the letters and instruc- 
tions sent to the cardinal, we see that the pope was 
distinctly sceptical as to the levity of the alleged 
abuses. He ordered a minute inquiry, but one con- 
ducted so as to safeguard the reputation of the Soci- 
ety. All matters of serious imi)ortance were to be 
rdferred back to himself. The pope died five weeks 
later on 3 May. On 15 May, Saldanha, having 
received the Brief only a fortni^t before, omitting 
the thorough, house-to-house visitation which had 
been ordered, and pronoimcing on the issues which 
the pope haa reserved to himself , declared that the 
Jesuits were guilty of having exercised illicit, public, 
aud scandalous commerce both in Portugal and in its 
colonies. Three weeks later, at Pombal's insti^ap- 
tion, all faculties were withdrawn from the Jesuits 
throughout the Patriarchate of Lisbon. Before Cle- 
ment XIII (a V.) had become pope (6 July, 1758) the 
work of the Society had been destroyed, and in 1759 
it was civilly suppressed. The last step was taken 
in consequence of a plot against the chamberlain 
Texeiras, but suspected to mtve been aimed at the 
king, and of this the Jesuits were supposed to have 
approved. But the groimds of suspicion were never 
clearly stated, much less proved. The height of 
Pombal's persecution was reached with the burning 
(1761) of the saintly Father Malagrida (q. v.) ostensi- 
bly for heresy; while the other Fathers, who had been 
crowded into prisons, were left to perish by the score. 
Intercourse between the Church of Portugal and 
Rome was broken off till 1770. 

France, — ^The suppression in France was occasioned 

by the injuries inflicted by the English navy on 

French commerce in 1755. The Jesuit missionaries 

held a heavy stake in Martinique. They did not 

XIV.— 7 

and could not trade, that is, buy cheap to sell « dear, 
any more than any other religious. But they dia 
sell the products of their great mission farms, in 
which many natives were employed, and this was 
allowed, partly to provide for the current expenses 
of the mission, partly in order to protect the simple, 
childlike natives from the common plague of dishonest 
intermediaries. Pdre Antoine La Valette, superior of 
the Martinique mission, managed these transactions 
with no little success, and success encoiurs^^ him to 
go too far. He began to borrow money m order to 
work the large undeveloped resources of the colony, 
and a strong letter from the governor of the island 
dated 1753 is extant in praise of his enterprise. But 
on the outbreak of war, ships conveying goods of 
the estimated value of 2,000,000 livres were captured 
and he suddenly became a bankrupt for a very large 
sum. His creditors were egged on to demand pay- 
ment from the procurator ofthe Paris province: but 
he, relying on what certainly was the letter of the 
law, refused responsibility for the debts of an inde- 
pendent mission, though offering to negotiate for a 
settlement, of which he held out assured hopes. The 
creditors went to the courts, and an order was made 
(1760) obliging the Society to pay, and giving leave 
to distrain in case of non-payment. 

The Fathers, on the advice of their lawyers, 
appealed to the (?tand*chambre of the ParlemerU of 
Paris. This turned out to be an imprudent step. For 
not only did the ParlemerU supi)ort the lower court, 8 
May, 1761, but, having once got the case into its 
hands, the Society's enemies in that assembly deter- 
mined to strike a great blow at the order. Enemies 
of every sort combined. The Jansenists were nu- 
merous among the gens-de-robef and at that moment 
were especially keen to be revenged on the orthodox 
party. The Sorbonnists, too, the university rivals 
of the great teaching order, joined in the attack. 
So did the Gallicans, the PnilosopheSf and Encyclo- 
pidistes. Louis XV was weakj and the influence 
of his (Dourt divided; while his wife and children were 
earnestly in favour of the Jesuits, his able first minis- 
ter, the Due de Choiseul (q. v.). played into the hands 
of the ParlemerUf and the royal mistress, Madame de 
Pompadour, to whom the Jesuits had refused absolu- 
tion, was a bitter opponent. The determination of 
the ParlemerU of Paris in time bore down all oppo- 
sition. The attack on the Jesuits, as such, was opened 
by the Jansenistic Abb6 Chauvelin, 17 April, 1762, 
who* denounced the (Constitutions of the Jesuits as 
the cause of the alleged defalcations of the order. 
This was followed by the compte^rendu on the Consti- 
tutions, 3-7 July, 1762, full of misconceptions, but 
not yet extravagant in hostility. Next day Chauve- . 
lin descended to a vulgar but efficacious means of 
exciting odium by denouncing the Jesuits' teaching 
and morals, especially on the matter of tyrannicide. 

In the ParlemerU the Jesuits' case was now despe- 
rate. After a long conflict with the (>own, in which 
the indolent minister-ridden sovereign failed to 
assert his wHl to any purpose, the ParlemerU issued 
its well-known **Extra%t8 dee assertions", a blue-book, 
as we mi^t say. containing a congeries of passages 
from Jesuit theologians and canonists, in which they 
were alleged to teach every sort of immorahty and 
error, from tjrrannicide, magic, and Arianism to 
treason, Socinianism, and Lutheranism. On 6 
August, 1762, the final arrH was issued condenming 
the Society to extinction, but the king's intervention 
brought eight months' delay. In favour of the Jes- 
uits there had been some striking testimonies, espe- 
cially from th^ French clergy in the two convocations 
summoned on 30 November, 1761, and 1 May, 1762. 
But the series of letters and addresses published 
by Clement XIII afford a truly irrefragable attesta- 
tion in favour of the order. Nothing, however, 
availed to stay the ParlemerU, The king's counter- 




edict delayed indeed the execution of its arrH, and 
meantime a oompromise was suggested by the Court. 
If the fVench Jesuits would stand apart from the 
order, under a French vicar, with French customs, 
the Crown would still protect them. In spite of the 
dangers of refusal, the Jesuits would not consent: 
and upon consulting the pope, he (not Ricci) used 
the sinoe famous phrase, Sint ut sunt, jui non sirU 
(de Ravignan, ^'Cllment iCIII'', I. 105, Me ^ordsare 
attributed to Ricci also}. Louis's intervention hin- 
dered the execution of the carr^ against the Jesuits 
until 1 April, 1763. The colleges were then closed, 
and by a further arrit of 9 March, 1764, the Jesuits 
were required to renounce their vows under pain of 
banishment. Only three priests and a few scholastics 
accepted the conditions. At the end of November, 
1764, the king unwillingly signed an edict dissolving 
the Society throughout his dominions, for they were 
still protected by some provincial parlements, as 
Franche-Comt^, Alsace, ana Artois. But in the oraft 
of the edict he cancelled numerous clauses, which 
implied that the Society was guilty; and, writing to 
Choiseul, he concluded with the weak but significant 
words: "If I adopt the advice of others for tne*i)eace 
of my realm, you must make the changes I propose, 
or I will do nothing. I say no more, lest I shoulci say 
too much". 

Spain, NapleSf and Parma, — ^The Suppression in 
Spain and its quasi-dependencies, Naples and Parma, 
and in the Spanish colonies was carried through by 
autocratic kings and ministers. Their deliberations 
were conducted in secrecy, and they purposely kept 
their reasons to themselves. It is onw of late years 
that a clue has been traced back to Bernardo Tan- 
ucci, the anti-clerical minister of Naples, who acquired 
a great influence over Charles III before that king 

fiassed from the throne of Naples to that of Spain, 
n this minister's correspondence are found all the 
ideas which from time to time guided the Spanish 
policy. Charles, a man of good moral character, had 
entrusted (lis Government to the Count Aranda and 
other followers of Voltaire; and he had brought from 
Italy a finance minister, whose nationality made the 
government unpopular, while his exactions 1^ in 
1766 to rioting and to the publication of various 
squibs, lampoons, and attacks upon the adminis- 
tration. An extraordinary council was appointed 
to investigate the matter, as it was declared that 
people so simple as the rioters could never have pro- 
duced the political pamphlets. They proceeded to 
take secret informations, the tenor of which is no 
longer known; but records remain to show that in 
September the council had resolved to incrilhinate 
.the Society, and that by 29 January, 1767, its ex- 
pulsion was settled. Secret orders, which were to 
be opened at midnight between the first and second 
of April, 1767, were sent to the magistrates of every 
town where a Jesuit resided. Tne plan worked 
smoothly. That morning 6000 Jesuits were march- 
ing like convicts to the coast, where they wpre deported 
first to the Papal States, and ultimately to Corsica. 
Tanucci pursued a similar policy in Naples. On 
3 Novembsr the religious, agam without trial, 
and this time without even an accusation, were 
marched across the frontier into the Papid States, 
and threatened with death if they returned. It will 
be noticed that in these expulsions the smaller the 
state the greater the contempt of the ministers for 
any forms of law. The Duchy of Parma was the 
smallest of the so-called Bourbon Courts, and so 
aggressive in its anti-clericalism that Clement XIII 
addressed to it (30 January, 1768) a numilorium, 
or warning, that its excesses were punishable with 
ecclesiastical censures. At this all parties to the 
Bourbon "Family Compact" turned m fury against 
the Holy See, and demanded the entire destruction 
of the Society. Aa a preliminary Parma at once 

drove the Jesuits out of its territories, confiscating 
as usual all their possessions. 

Clement XIV, — ^From this time till his death (2 
February, 1769) Clement XIII was harassed with 
the utmost rudeness and violence. Portions of his 
l^tates were seized by force, he was insulted to his 
face by the Bourbon representatives, and it was made 
dear that, unless he gave way, a great schism would 
ensue, such as Portugal hajd already commenced. 
The conclave which followedTasted from 15 Feb. to 
May, 1769. The Bourbon Courts, through the so- 
called "crown caidmal8'\ succeeded in excluding any 
of the party, nicknamed Zelantif who would have 
taken a firm position in defence of the order, and fi- 
nally elected Lorenzo Ganganelli, who took the name of 
Clement XIV. It has been stated by Cr6tineau-J6ly 
(Clement XIV. p. 260) that Ganganelii, before his elec- 
tion, engaged nunself to the crown cardinals by some 
sort of stipulation that he would suppress the Society, 
which would have involved an infraction of the con- 
clave oath. This is now disproved by the statement 
of the Spanish agent Azpuru, who was specially 
deputed to act with the crown cardinals. He wrote 
on 18 May, just before the election, "None of the 
cardinals has gone so far as to propose to anyone that 
the Suppression should be secured by a written or 
spoken promise"; and just after 25 May he wrote, 

Gangtmelli neither made a promise, nor refused it''. 
On the other hand it seems he did write words, whirh 
were taken by the crown cardinals as an indication 
that the Bourbons would get their way with him 
(de Bemis's letters of 28 July and 20 November, 

No sooner was Clement on the throne than the 
Spanish Court, backed by the other members of 
the "Family Compact", renewed their overpower- 
ing pressure. On 2 August, 1769, Choiseul wrote a 
strong letter demanding the Suppression within two 
months; and the pope now made his first written 
promise that he would grant the measure, but he 
declared that he must have more time. Then began 
a series of transactions, which some have not unnatu- 
rally interpreted as devices to escape bv delays from 
the terrible act of destruction, towarois which Cle- 
ment was being pushed. He passed more than two 
years in treating with the Courts of Turin, Tuscanv, 
Milan, Genoa, Bavaria, eto., which would not easuy 
consent to the Bourbon projects. The same ulterior 
object may perhaps be detected in some of the minor 
annoyances now inflicted on the Society. From 
several colleges, as those of Frascati, Ferrara, Bologna, 
and the Irish College at Rome, the Jesuits were, after 
a prolonged examination, ejected with much show 
of hostility. And there were moments, as for in- 
stance after the fall of Choiseul, when it really seemed 
as though the Society might have escaped; but event- 
ually the obstinacv of Charles III always prevailed. 

In the middle of 1772 Charles sent a new ambassa- 
dor to Rome, Don Joseph Mofiino, afterwards Count 
Florida Blanca. a strong^ hard man, "full of artifice, 
sagacity, and dissimulation, and no one more set on 
the suppression of the Jesuits". Heretofore the 
negotiations had been in the hands of the clever, diplo- 
matic Cardinal de Bemis, French ambassador to the 
pope. Mofiino now took the lead, de Bemis coming 
m afterwards as a friend to urge the acceptance of 
his advice. At last^ on 6 Sept., Mofiino gave in a 

Eaper suggesting a bne for the pope to follow, which 
e did in part adopt, in drawing up the Brief of Sup- 
pression. By November the end was corning m 
sight, and in December Clement put Mofiino into 
communication with a secretsuy; and they drafted 
the instrument together, the minute being ready by 4 
January, 1773. By 6 February Mofiino. had got it 
back from the pope in a form to be conveyed to the 
Bourbon Courts, and by 8 June, their modifications 
having been taken account of, thQ minute was thrown 





into its final ioria and signed. Still the pope delayed, 
until Moiiino constrained him to get copies printed: 
and as these were dated, no delay was posEiible beyona 
that date, which was 16 August, 1773. A second 
Brief was issued to determine the manner in which the 
Suppression was to be carried out. To secure secrecy 
one regulation was introduced which led, in forei^ 
countries, to some unexpected results. The Bnef 
was not to be published Urbi et Orbi, but only to 
each college or place by the local bishop. At Rome, 
the father-general was confined first in the English 
College, then in Castel S. Angelo, with his assistants. 
The papers of the Society were handed over to a 
special commission, together' with its title deeds and 
store of money, 40,000 scudi (about $50,000), which 
belonged almost entirely to definite charities. An 
investigation of the papers was begun, but never 
brought to any issue. 

In the Brief of Suppression the jnost striking fea- 
ture is the long list of allegations against the Society, 
with no mention of what is favourable; the tone 
of the Brief is very adverse. On the other hand 
the charges are recited categorically; th^ are not 
-definitely stated to have been proved. The object 
is to represent the order as having occasioned per- 
petual strife, contradiction, and trouble. For 
the sake of peace the Society must be suppressed. 
A fidl explanation of these and other anomalous 
features cannot yet be given with certainty. The 
chief reason for them no doubt is that the Suppression 
was an administrative measure, not a judicial sen- 
tence based on judicial inquiry. We see that the 
course chosen avoided many difficulties, especially 
the open contradiction of preceding popes, who had 
so often praised or confirmed the Society. Again, 
such statements were less liable to be controverted; 
and there were different ways of interpreting the Brief, 
which commended themselves to Zelanti and Bor- 
bonici respectively. The last word on the subject 
is doubtless that of St. Alphonsus di Liguori — "Poor 
Pope! What could he do in the circumstances in 
which he was placed, with all the sovereigns conspir- 
ing to demand this Suppression? As for -ourselves, 
we must keep silence, respect the secret judgment of 
God, and hold ourselves in peace". 

CRinN»AU-JoLT, Cltment XIV et let jimitet (Paris. 1847); 
Danvilla t Collado, Reinado de Carlos III (Madrid, 1893); 
Delplacc, La suppregaion des jisuUes in Etttdet (Paris, 5-20 
July, 1008) ; FERReR del Rio, Hist, del reinado de Carlos III 
(Madrid. 18fi6); de Ravionan, CUment XIII et CUment XIV 
(Paris, 1854); Rosbeau, Rigne de Chalies IIId'Eapaffne (Paris, 
1907) ; Smith, Supprettion of the Soc. of Jeaua in The Month (Lon- 
don, 1902-3) ; Theiner. Oeseh. dee PontificaU Clement XIV (Paris, 
1853; French tr., Brussels, 1853); Kobler, Die Aufhebung der 
GeselUchaft Jeau (Linx^ 1873) ; Weld, Suppression of the Soc. of 
Jetus in the Portuguese Dominions (Tendon, 1877); Zalenski. 
The JeauiU in White Russia (in Polish, 1874; Fr. tr., Paris, 
1886) ; Cabaton, Le pkrs Rieei et la suppression de la comp, de 
Jisus (Poitiers, 1869); Saint^Pribbt, Chute desj/suites (Paris, 
1846); NiPPOLD, Jeauitenarden von seiner WiederherdeUung 
(Mannheim, 1867). 

The Interim (1773-1814).— The execution of the 
Brief of Suppression having been largely left to the 
local bishops, there was room for a good deal of variety 
in the treatment which the Jesuits might receive in 
different places. In Austria and Germany they were 
generally allowed to teach (but with secular clergy 
as superiors); often they became men of mark as 
preacners, like Beauregard, Muzzarelli, and Alexan- 
dre Lanfant (b. at Lyons, 6 Sept., 1726, and massacred 
in Paris, 3 Sept., 1793) and writers like Frangois-X. 
de Feller (q. v.), Zaccharia, Ximenes. The first 
to receive open official approbation of their new works 
were probably the English Jesuits, who in 1778 
obtained a Brief approving their well-known Academy 
of Li^e (now at Stonyhurst). But in Russia, and 
until 1780 in Prussia, the Empress Catherine and 
King Frederick II desired to maintain the Society 
as a teaching body. They forbade the local bishops 
to promulgate the Brief until their vLacet was obtainea. 

Bishop Massalski in White Russia, 19 September, 
1773, therefore ordered the Jesuit superiors to con- 
tinue to exercise jurisdiction till further notice. On 
2 February, 1780, with the approbation of Bishop 
Siestrzencewicz's Apostolic visitor, a novitiate was 
opened. To obtain higher sanction for what had 
uesn done, the envoy Benislaski was sent by Cathe- 
rine to Rome. But it must be remembered' that the 
animus of the Boinrbon Courts against the Society 
was still unchecked; and in some countries, as in 
Austria under Joseph II, the situation was worse than 
before. There were many in the Roman Curia who 
had worked their way up by their activity against 
the order, or held pensions created out of former 
Jesuit property. Pms VI declined to meet Cathe- 
rine's requests. All he could do was to express an 
indefinite assent by word of mouth, without issuing 
any written documents, or observing the usual for- 
malities; and he ordered that strict secrecy should be 
observed about the whole mission. Benislaski 
received these messages on 12 March, 1783, and later 
gave the Russian Jesuits an attestation of them (24 
July, 1785). 

On the other hand, it can cause no wonder that 
the enemies of the Jesuits should from the first have 
watched the survival in White Russia with jealousy, 
and have brought pressure to bear upon the pope to 
ensure their suppression. He was constramea to 
declare that he had not revoked the Brief of Sup- 
pression, and that he regarded as an abuse anything 
done against it, but that the Empress Catherine 
would not allow him to act freely (29 June, 1783). 
These utterances were not in real conflict with the 
answer given to Benislaski, which only amounted to 
the assertion that the escape from the Brief by the 
Jesuits in Russia was not schismatical, and that 
the pope approved of their continuing as they were 
doing. Their existence therefore was legitimate, 
or at least not illegitimate, though positive approval 
in legal form did not come till Pius VlFs Brief Cath- 
olics Fidei'' (7 March, 1801). Meantime the same 
or similar causes to those which brought about the 
Suppression of the Society were leadine to the dis- 
ruption of the whole civil order. The French Revo- 
lution (1789) was overthrowing every throne that 
had combined against the Jesuits, and in the angui^ 
of that trial many w^re the cries for the re-establish- 
ment of the order. But amid the turmoil of the 
Napoleonic wars, during the prolonged captivities 
of Pius VI (1798^1800) and of Pius VII (1809-14), 
such a consummation was impossible. The English 
Jesuits, however (whose academy at Li^e, driven 
over to England by the French invasion of 1794, 
had been approved by a Brief in 1796), succeeded 
in obtaining oral permission from Pius VII for their 
aggregation to the Russian Jesuits, 27 May, 1803. 
The permission was to be kept secret, and was not 
even communicated by the pope to Propaganda. 
Next winter, its prefect, Cardinal Borgia, wrote a 
hostile letter, not indeed cancelling the vows taken, 
or blaming what had been done, but forbidding the 
bishops "to recognize the Jesuits*', or "to admit their 
privileges", until they obtained permission from the 
Congre^^ation of Propaganda. 

Considering the extreme difficulties of the times, 
we cannot wonder at orders being given from Rome 
which were not always quite consistent. Broadly 
speaking, however, we see that the popes worked 
tneir way towards a restoration of the order by 
degrees. First, by approving community life, which 
had been specifically forbidden by the Brief of Sup- 

gression (this was done for England in 1778). Second, 
y permitting vows (for England in 1803). Third, by 
restoring the full privileges of a religious order (these 
were not recognized in England until 1829) . The Soci- 
ety was extended by Brief from Russia to the Kingdom 
of Naples. 30 July. 1804: hut on the invasion of the 




French in 1806| all houses were dissolved, except 
those in Sicily. The superior in Italy during these 
changes was the Venerable Giuseppe M. Pignatelli 
(q. V.)- In their zeal for the re-«stablishment of the 
Society some of the ex-Jesuits united themselves into 
congregations, which mighty while avoiding the now 
unpopular name of Jesuits, preserve some of its 
essential features. Thus arose the Fathers of the 
Faith (P^res de la Foi), founded with papal sanction 
by Nicolas Paccanari in 1797. A somewhat similar 
congregation, called the "Fathers of the Sacred 
Heart , had been commenced in 1794 in Belgium, 
under P^re Charles de Broglie, who was succeeded by 
P^re Joseph Varin as superior. By wish of Pius VI, 
the two congregations amalgamated, and were gen- 
erally known as the Paccanarists. The^ soon spread 
into many lands; Paccanari, however, did not prove a 
good superior, and seemed to be working against a 
reunion with the Jesuits still existing in Kussia; this 
caused P^re Varin and others to leave him. Some of 
them entered the Society in Russia at once; and at 
the Restoration the others joined en masse, (See 
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Society op the.) 

The Restored Society. — Pius VII had resolved 
to restore the Society during his captivity in France; 
and after his return to Rome did so with little delay, 
7 Au^t, 1814, by the Bull "Sollicitudo omnium 
ecclesiarum," and therewith the general in Russia, 
Thaddaeus Brzozowski, acquired universal jurisdic- 
tion. After ^he permission to continue given by 
Pius VI, the first Russian congregation had elected 
as vicar-general Stanislaus Czerniewicz (17 Oct.. 
1782-7 July, 1785). who was succeeded by Gabriel 
Lenkiewicz (27 Sept., 1785-10 Nov., 1798) and 
Francis Kareu (1 Feb., 1799-20 July, 1802). On 
the receipt of the Brief "CathoUc® Fidei", of 7 
March, 1801, his title was changed from vicar-general 
to general. Gabriel Gruber succeeded (10 Oct., 
1802-26 March, 1805), and was followed by Thad- 
dseus Brzozowski (2 Sept.. 1805). Almost simul- 
taneously with the death of the latter, 5 Feb., 1820,' 
the Russians, who had banished the Jesuits from St. 
Petersburg in 1815, expelled them from the whole 
country. It seems a remarkable providence that 
Russia, contrary to all precedent, should have pro- 
tected the Jesuits just at the time when all other 
nations turned against them, and reverted to her 
normal hostility when the Jesuits began to find toler- 
d.tion elsewhere. Upon the decease of Brzozowski, 
Father Petrucci, the vicar, feU under the influence 
of the still powerful anti-Jesuit party at Rome, and 
proposed to alter some points in the Institute. The 
twentieth general congregation took a severe view 
of his proposals, expeUed him from the order, and 
elected Father Aloysius Fortis (18 Oct., 1820-27 
Jan., 1829) (q. v.); John Roothaan succeeded (9 July, 
1829-8 May, 1853); and was followed by Peter 
Beckx (q. v.) (2 July, 1853-4 March, 1887). Anton 
Maria Anderledy, vicar-general on 11 May. 1884, 
became general on Fr. Beckx's death and died on 18 
Jan., 1892; Luis Martin (2 Oct., 1892-18 Apr., 1906). 
Father Martin commenced a new series of histories of 
the Society, to be based on the increased materials 
now available, and to deal with many problems about 
which older annalists, Orlandini and his successors, 
were not curious. Volumes by Astrain, Duhr, Fou- 
queray, Hughes, Kroess, Tacchi-Venturi have ap- 
peared. The present general, Francis Xavier Wemz, 
was elected on 8 Sept., 1906. 

Though the Jesuits of the nineteenth century can- 
not show a martyr-roll as brilliant as that of their pre- 
decessors, the persecuting laws passed against them 
surpass in number, extent, ana continuance those 
enaured by previous generations. The practical 
exclusion from university teaching, the obligation of 
military service in many countries, the wholesale 
confiscations of religious property, and the dispersion 

of twelve of its oldest and once most flourishing prov- 
inces are very serious hindrances to religious voca- 
tions. On a teaching order such blows fall very 
heavily. The cause bf trouble has generally been 
due to that propaganda of irreligion which was 
developed during the Revolution and is still active 
through Freemasonry in those lands in which the 
Revolution took root. 

France, — ^This is plainly seen in France. In that 
country the Society began after 1815 with the direc- 
tion of some peiits a6minaires and congregations, and 
by giving missions. They were attacked by the 
Liberals, especially by the CJomte de Montlosier in 
1823 and their schools, one of which, St-Acheul, 
already contained 800 students, were closed in 1829. 
The Revolution of July (1830) brought them no 
immediate relief; but in the visitation of cholera in 
1832 the Fathers pressed to the fore, and so began 
to recover influence. In 1845 there was another 
attack by Thiers, which drew out the answer of de 
Ravignan (q. v.). The Revolution of 1848 at first 
sent them again into exile, but the liberal measures 
which succeeded, especially the freedom of teaching, 
enabled them to return and to open many schools 
(1850). In the later days of the Empire greater 
difficulties were raised, but with the advent of the 
Third Republic (1870) these restrictions were removed 
and progress continued, until, after threatening meas- 
ures in 1878, came the decree of 29 March. 1880, 
issued by M. Jules Ferry. This brought aoout a 
new disi^ersion and the substitution of staffs of 
non-religious teachers in the Jesuit colleges. But 
the French Government did not press their enact- 
ments, and the Fathers returned by degrees; and 
before the end of the century their houses and schools 
in France were as prosperous as ever. Then came 
the overwhelming Associations laws of M. Waldeck- 
Rousseau, leading to renewed though not complete 
dispersions and to the reintroduction of non-reli- 
gious staffs in the coUeges. The right of the order to 
hold property was also violently suppressed; and, by a 
refinement of cruelty, any property suspected of being 
held by a congregation may now be confiscated, unless 
it is proved no^ to be so held. Other clauses of this 
law penalize any meeting of the members of a con- 
gr^ation. The order is under an iron hand from 
which no escape is, humanly speaking, possible. For 
the moment nevertheless public opinion disapproves 
of its rigid execution, and thus tar, in spite of sJl 
sufferings, of the dispersal of all houses, the confisca- 
tion of churches, ana the loss of practically all prop- 
erty and schools, the numbers of the order have been 
maintained, nay slightly increased, and so too have 
the opportunities for work, especially in literature 
and theology, etc. (See also Carayon; Deschamps; 
Du Lac; (Jlivaint; Ravignan.) 

Spain. — In Spain the course of events has been 
similar. Recalled by Ferdinand VII in 1815, the 
Society was attacked by the Revolution of 1820; and 
twenty-five Jesuits were slain at Madrid in 1822. 
The Fathers, however, returned after 1823 and took 
part in the management of the military school and the 
College of Nobles at Madrid (1827). But in 1834 
they were again attacked at Madrid, fourteen were 
killed, and the whole order was banished on 4 July, 
'1835, by a Liberal ministry. After 1848 they began 
to return and were re-settled after the Concordat, 
26 Nov., 1852. At the Revolution of 1868 they were 
again banished (12 Oct.), but after a few years they 
were allowed to come back, and have since made 
great progress. At the present time, however, another 
expulsion is threatened (1912). In Portugal the Jesuits 
were recalled in 1829, dispersed again in 1834; but 
afterwards returned. Though they were not formally 
sanctioned by law they had a large college and several 
churches, from which, however^ they were driven out 
in October, 1910, with great violence and cruelty. 


lUUy. — In Italy they were cupelled from Naples 
(1820-21); but in 1836 they were admitted to Lom- 
baidy. Driven out by the Revolution of 1S4S from 
almost the whole peninsula, they were able to rclum 
when peace was restored, except to Turin. Then 
with the gradual growth of United Italy they were 
step by step suppressed again by law everj'where, 
and finally at Rome after 1871. But though for- 
mally suppressed and unable to keep schools, except 
on a very small scale, the law is so worded that it does 
not press at every point, nor is it often enforced with 
acrimony. Numbers do not fall off, and activities 
increase. In Rome they have charge inter alia 
of the Gr^orian University, the "Institutum Bibli- 
cum", and the German and Latin-American Colleges. 

Germanic Province^.- — Of the Germanic Provinces, 
that of Austria may be said to have been recom- 
menced by the immigration of many Polish Fathers 
from Russia to Galicia in 1820; and colleges were 
founded at Tamopol, Lemberg, Linz (1837), and 
Innsbruck in 1838, in which they were assigned the 

1 socutt 

pation (see Roman Cathouc Relief Bill), which re- 
mained in doubt for so many years. Eventually 
Leo XII on 1 Jan., 1829, declared the Bull of restora- 
tion to have force m England. After this the Society 
grew, slowly at first, but more rapidly afterwards. 
It had 73 members in 1815, 729 in 1910. The princi- 
pal colleges are Stonyhurst (St. Omers, 1592, migrated 
to Bruges, 1762, to Li^, 1773, to Stonyhurst, 1794); 
Mount St. Mary's (1842); Liverpool (1842); Beau- 
mont (1861); Glasgow (1870); Wimbledon, Lon- 
don (1887); Stamford Hill, London (1894); Leeds 
(1905). In 1910 the province had in Engknd and 
Scotland, besides the usual novitiate and houaes 


treats, 60 churches 


[ to 97,- 

only in Switzerland at Brieg (1814) and Freiburg 
(1818). But after the Sonderbund they were obl^ed 
to leave, being then 264 in number (111 priests). 
They were now able to open several houses in the 
Rhine provinces, etc., malting steady proEress till 
they were ejected durine Bismarck's Aufturiamp/ 
(1872), when they numbered 755 members (351 
priests). They now count 1160 (with 574 priests) 
and are known throughout the world by their many 
excellent publications. (See Antoniewicz; Debarbe; 
HAasLACHER; Pesch; Roh; Spillmann.) 

Belgium. — The Belgian Jesuits were unable to 
return to their country till Belgium was separated 
from Holland in 1830. Since then they have pros- 
pered exceedingly. In 1832, when they became a 
separate province, thev numbered 1(15; at their 
seventy-five years jubilee, in 1907, they numbered 
1168. In 1832, two colleges with 167 students: in 
1907, 15 colleges with 7466 students. Congregations 
of the Blessed Virgin, originally founded by a Belgian 
Jesuit, still flourish. In Belgium 2529 such con- 
rai^tioRS have been aggregated to the Prima 
pTimana at Rome, and of these 166 arc under Jesuit 
direction. To say nothing of missions and of retreats 
to convents, dioceses, etc., the province had six 
houses of retrealB, in which 245 retreats were given 
to 9840 persons. Belgium supplies the foreign 
mission of Eastern Bengal and tne Diocese of GaHe 
in Ceylon. In the burfi-counlry of Chota Nagpur 
there b^on, in 1887, a wonderful movement of the 
aborigines (K61es and Ouraons) towards the Church, 
and the Catholics in 1907 numbered 137,120 (i.e. 
62,386 baptized and 74,736 catechumens). Over 
35,000 conversions had been made in 1906, owing to 
the penetration of Christianity into the district of 
Joahpur. Besides this there are excellent colleges 
at Dorjeeling and at Kuiseong; at Kandy in Ceylon 
the Jesuits have charge of the great pontifical sem- 
inai^ for educating native clergy for the whole of 
India. In all they have 442 churches, chapels, or 
stations, 479 schools, 14,467 scholars, with about 
167,000 Catholics, and 262 Jesuits, of whom 160 are 
priests. The Belgian Fathers have also a flourishing 
mission on the Congo, in the districts of Kwango 
and Stanley Pool, which was begun in 1893; in 1907 
the converts already numbered 31;402. 

England. — Nowhere did the Jesuits get through the 
troubles inevitable to the Interim more easiij' than in 
conservative England. The college at Li^ge con- 
tinued to train their students in the old traditions, 
while the English bishops permitted the ex-Jesuits 
to maintain iheir miaaions and a sort of corporate 
discipline. But there were difhculties in recognizing 
the restored order, lest this ahoukl impede em&nci- 


3746; confessions, 
844,079; Easter 
confessions, 81,- 
065; Communions, 
1,303,591; con- 
verts, 725 ; extreme 
unctions, 1698; 
marriages, 782; 
children in ele- 
mentary schools, 
18,328. The Gui- 
ana mission (19 
priests) has charge 
of about 45,000 
souls; the Zam- 
besi mission (36 oumu 

' sts), 4679 souls. (See also the articles Morrib; 


Ireland. — There were 24 ex-Jesuits m Ireland in 
1776, but by 1803 only two. Of these Father O'Cal- 
laghan renewed his vows at Stonyhurst in 1803, and 
he and Father Betagh, who was eventually the last 
survivor, succeeded m finding some excellent postu- 
lants who made their novitiate in Stonyhurst, their 
studies at Palermo, and returned between 1812 and 
1814, Father BeCagh, who had become Vicar-Gen- 
eral of Dublin, having survived to the year 1811. 
P'ather Peter Kenny (d. 1841) was the first superior 
of the new mission, a man of remarkable eloquence, 
who when visitor of the Society in America (1830- 
1833) preached by invitation before Congress. From 
1812-13 he was vice-president of Maynooth College 
under Dr. Murray, then coadjutor Biuiop of Dublin. 
The College of Clongowes Wood was begun -in 1813; 
Tullabeg m 1818 (now a house of both probations); 
Dublin (1841); Mungret (Apostolic School, 1883). 
In 1883, too the Irish bishops entrusted to the Society 
the University College, Dublin, in connexion with the 
late Royal University of Ireland. The marked supe- 
riority of this college to the richly endowed Queen's 
Collies of Belfast, Cork, and Cialway contributed 
much to establish the claim of the Irish Catholics to 
adequate university education. When this claim 
had been met by the present National University, the 
University (College was returned to the Bishops. Five 
Fathers now hold teaching posts in the new university, 
and a hostel for students is being provided. Under 
the Act of Catholic Emancipation (q. v.) 58 Jesuits 
were registered in Ireland in 1830. In 1910 there 
were 367 in the province, of whom 1(X) are in Aus- 
tralia, where they have 4 colleges at and near Mel- 
bourne and Sydney, and miaaions in South Australia. 

United States o/Americo.— Under the direction of 
Bishop CWoU the members of the Corporation of 
Roman Catholic Clergymen in Maryland were the 


chief factors in founding and maintaining George- along the coast of Florida, where Father MartSnes 

town College (q. v.) from 1791 to 1805, when they was massacred near St. Augustine in 1566. They, 

resumed their relations with the Society still existing penetrated into Virginiai where eight of their number 

in Russia, and were so strongly reinforced by other were massacred by Indians at a station named Axaca, 

members of the order from Europe that they could supposed to be on the Rappahannock River. Later, 

assume full charge of the institution, which they Jesuits from Canada, taking as their share of the 

have since retained. On the Restoration of the Louisiana territory the Illinois oountrv and afterwards 

Society in 1814 these nineteen fathers constituted from the Ohio River to the gulf east of the Mississippi, 

the mission of the United States. For a time (1808 worked among the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Natchez, 

to 1817) some of them were employed in the Diocese and Yazoo. Two of their number were murderea 

of New York just erected, Father Anthony Kohl- by the Natchez and one by the Chickasaw. Their 

mann (q. v.) administering the diocese temporarily, expulsion in 1763 is the subject of a monograph by 

the others engaging in school and parish work. Carayon, ''Documents in^oits", XIV. (>iginally 

In 1816 Gonzaga College, Washington, D. C, was evangelized by Jesuits from the Lyons, province, 

founded. In 1833 the mission of the United States the New Orleans mission became a province in 1907, 

became a province under the title of Maryland, having 7 colleges and four residences. It has now 

Since then the histoiy of the province is a record of 255 members working in the territory north of the 

development proportionate with the growth of Cath- Gulf of Mexico to. Missouri as far east as Virginia, 
olicity in the various fields specially cultivated by the California. — In 1907 a province was formed in 

Society. The colleges of the Holy Cross, Worcester California comprising the missions of California, the 

(found.ed in 1843), Loyola College, Baltimore (1852), Rocky Mountains, and Alaska (United States). 

Boston College (1863) have educated great numbers The history of these missions is narrated under 

of yoimg men for the ministry and hberal professions. California Missions; Missions, Catholic Indian, 

Up to 1879 members of the Society had been labour- of the United States; Alaska; Idaho; Sioux 

ing in New York as part of the New York-Canada Indians. 

mission. In that year, they became affiliated with New Mexico.— •In the mission of New Mexico 

the first American province under the title of Mary- ninety-three Jesuits are occupied in the college at 

land-New York. This was added to the old province, Denver, Colorado, and in various missions in that 

besides several residences and parishes, the coUeges state, Arizona, ana New Mexico; the mission depends 

of St. Francis Xavier and St. John (now Fordham on the Italian province of Naples. 
University), New York City, and St. Peter's College, In all the provinces in the United States there are 

Jersey City, New Jersey. St. Joseph's College, Phil- 6 professional schools, with 4363 students; 26 coUeges 

adelphia, was chartered in 1852 and the Brookl^ with full courses, witn 2417^ and 34 preparatory and 

College opened in 1908. In the same year Canisius high schools witn 8735 pupils. 
'College, and two parishes in Buffalo, and one parish Canada. — Jesuits returned to Canada from St. 

in Boston for German Catholics, with 88 members Mary's College, Kentucky, which had been taken 

of the German province were aflSliated with this prov- over, in 1834, oy members of the province of France, 

ince, which has now (1912) 863 members with 12 col- When St. Mary s was given up in 1846 the staff came 

leges and 13 parishes, 1 house of higher studies for the to take charge of St. John's College, Fordham, New 

members of the Society, 1 novitiate, in the New Eng- York, thus forming with their fellows in Montreal 

land and Middle States, and in' the Virginias, with the New York-Canada mission. This mission lasted 

the Mission of Jamaica, British West Indies. until 1879, the Canadian division having by that year 

The Missouri province began as a mission from 1 college, 2 residences, 1 novitiate, 3 Indian missions 

Maryland in 1823. Father Charles Van Quicken- with 131 members. In 1888 the mission received 

borne, a Belgian, led several young men of his own $160,000 as its part of the sum paid by the Province 

nationality who were eager to work among the of Quebec in compensation for the Jesuit estates 

Indians, among them De Smet (a, v.). Van Aische, appropriated under George III by imperial authority, 

and Verhaegen. As a rule the tribes were too nomad- and transferred to the authorities of the former Prov- 

ic to evangelize, and the Indian schools attracted ince of Canada, all parties agreeing that the full 

only a very small number of pupils. The missions amount, $400,000, thus allowed was far short of the 

among the Osage and Pottawatomie were more per- value of the estates, estimated at $2,000,000. The 

manent and fruitful. It was with experience gathered settlement was ratified by the pope and the Legisl»- 

in these fields that Father De Smet started his mis- ture of the Province of Quebec, and the balance was 

sion in the Rocky Mountains in 1840. A college, now divided among the archdioceses of Quebec, Montreid, 

St. Louis University, was opened in 1829. For ten and other dioceses, the Laval University besides 

years, 1838-48, a college was maintained at Grand receiving, in Montreial, $40,000 and, in Quebec, $100,- 

Coteau, Louisiana; in 1840 St. Xavier's was opened 000. 

at Cincinnati. With the aid of seventy-eight Jesuits, In 1907 the mission was constituted a province, 

who came from Italy and Switzerland in the years It has now 2 colleges in Montreal, one at St. Boniface 

of revolution 1847-8, two colleges were maintained, with 263 students in the collegiate and 722 in the 

St. Joseph's. Bardstown, 1848 until 1861, another at preparatory classes, 2 residences and churches in 

Louisville, Kentucky, 1849-57. In this last year a Quebec, one at Guelph, Indian missions, and missions 

college was-opened at Chicago. The mission l)ecame in AlasKa, and 309 members. 

a province in 1863, and since then colleges have been Mexico. — In Mexico (New Spain) Jesuit mission- 
opened at Detroit, Omaha, Milwaukee^ St. Mary's aries began their work in 1571 and prior to their 
(Kansas). By the accession of part of the Buffalo expulsion, in 1767, they numbered 678 members, of 
mission when it was separated from the German whom 468 were natives. They had over 40 colleges 
province in 1907, the Missouri province acquired an or seminaries, 5 residences, and. 6 missionary districts, 
additional 180 members, and colleges at Cleveland, with 99 missions. The mission included Cuba, Lower 
Toledo, and Prairie du Chien. besides several resi- California, and as far south as Nicaragua. Three 
dences and missions. Its members work in the terri- members of the suppressed society who were in Mexico 
tory west of the Alleghanies as far as Kansas and at the time of the Restoration formed a nucleus for 
Omaha, and from the Lakes to the northern Une of its re-establi^ment there in 1816. In 1820 there were 
Tennessee and Oklahoma, and also in the Mission of 32, of whom 15 were priests and 3 scholastics, in care 
British Honduras (q. v.). of 4 colleges and 3 seminaries. They were dispersed 

New Orleans. — For five years, 1566-1571, members in 1821. Although invited back in 1843, they could 

of the Peruvian province laboured among the Indians not agree to the limitations put on their activities by 




General Santa Anna, nor was the prospect favourable 
in the revolutionary condition of the country. Four 
of their number returning in 1854, the mission pros- 
pered, and in spite of two dispersions, 1859 and 1873, 
it has continued to increase m number and activity. 
In August, 1907, it was reconstituted a province. It 
has now 326 members with 4 colleges, 12 residences, 
6 mission stations among the Tarahumara, and a 
novitiate (see also Mexico; Pious Fund of thx 

Gkhard, SUmyhurtt CmUnary Record (Belfast, 1894); Coa- 
CORAN, CUmooroe* Cmtenary Record (Dublin, 1012); Woodatoek 
Letter* (Woodstock College, Maryland. 1872—); GeorQttown 
Univerniy (Washington. 1891); The First Half Century of SL 
Jgnatiue Church and CoUege (San Francisco. 1905) ; Duhb, Akt^n. 
sur Geech. der Jetuit-mumonen in Deuieehland, 184^-7$ (1903); 
BotRO. Itoria delta tUa del R. P. PignalMi (Rome. 1857); 
PoNCSLET, La eomp. de Jfaue en Belgique (BruaseU. 1907); Zara- 
DONA. Hiet. de la extineidn y reatahUeimiento de la eomp. de Jieua 
(Madrid, 1890); Nippold. Jeauitenorden von seiner Wiederher- 
atellung (Mannheim. 1867). 

QnnaAL Statistics or ths Sociitt or Jrsub roa thi BaaimnNG or 1912. 







Italian , 







































FksDch (dispersed) 












Portugal (dis- 



















Riif1ish....r, ,, . 

1 England 

New Orleans 






















Grand Total 16,646 

Apologetic. — The accusations brought against 
the Society have beep exceptional for their frequency 
and fierceness. Many inaeed would be too absurd 
to deserve motion, were they not crated even by cul- 
tured ^d literary peoi)le. Such for instance are the 
charged that the Society was responsible for the 
Franco^Prussian war, the affaire Dreyfus, the Panama 
scandal, the assassination of popes, kings, princes, 
etc. — statements found in books and periodicals oi 
some pretence. Sifch likewise is the so-called Jesuit 
Oath, the clumsy fabrication of the forger Robert Ware, 
exposed by Bndgett in "Blunders and Forgeries". 
The fallacy of such accusations may often be detected 
by general principles. A. Jesuits are faUiUe, and 
may have given some occasion to the accuser. The 
ehfurges laid against then^ would never have been 
brought against aneels, but they are not in the least 
inconsistent with the Society being a body of good 

but fallible men. Sweeping denials here and an 
injured tone would be misplaced and liable to mia- 
oonception. Aa an instance of Jesuit fallibility, 
one may mention that writings of nearly one hundred 
Jesuits have been placed on the Roman '^ndex". 
Since this involves a reflection upon the Jesuit book- 
censors as well, it might appear to be an instance of 
failure in an important matter. But when we 
remember that the number of Jesuit writers exceeds 
120,000, the proportion of those who have missed 

MnnoNB or ihb Socdrt or Jibits in 1912. 







Syra and Tinas (Q 




B«giaa Coofo 

Ugper Zfcmhwe 

Lower Zambeie 

Madagasear, Reunion, and 


Betaileo (Mada^iscar). . . . 



Bombur (India) 

MangaTore (India)... 

Ben^ (India) 

Qalie (Cnrkm 

Trineomawe (C!egrlon) 

Madura (India) 

Goa (India) 

Nankin (China) 

S. E. Tche«-li (China).... 

Philippine Islands 

Floras, Java^ and Sumatra. 
S. and £. Australia 

North America 
Indian Missions (Canada) 
North Alaska (U. 8. A.) 
South Alaska (U. S. A.). 
New Mezioo, Oilorado, and 


Tarahumara (Mez.) 






Brit. Guiana 

N. and Cent Braiil. 

S. Brasil 

S. BraaU 



Chile and Argentina. 


Sicily . 



















New York 




















— - 


























































































— . 















— . 













125 i 


















Total 3531 

> Note.— Figures for 1911— those for 1912 not arailable. 

the mark cannot be considered extraordinary; the 
censure inflicted moreover has never been of the 
graver kind. Many critics of the order, who do not 
consider the Index censm-es discreditable, cannot 
pardon so readily the exaggerated esprit de corps in 
which Jesuits of Umited exf^erience occasionally 
indulge, especially in controversies or while eulogizing 
their own confreres; nor can they overlook the 
narrowness or bias with which some Jesuit writers 
have criticised men of other lands, institutions, educa- 
tion, though it is unfair to hola up the faults of a 
few as characteristic of the entire body. 

B. The Accusers. — (1) In an oft-recited passage 
about the martjrrs St. Ambrose tells us: ''Vere 
frustra impugnatur qui apud impios et infidos im- 
pietatis arcessitur cuin fidei sit magister'' (He in 
truth, is impugned in vain who is accused of impiety 
by the ' impious and the faithless, though he is ^ 




teacher of the faith). The personal equation of the 
accuser is a correction of great moment; nevertheless 
it is to be applied with equally great caution; on no 
other point is an accused person so liable to make 
mistakes. Undoubtedly, however, when we find 
a learned man like Hiurnack declaring roundly (but 
without proofs) that Jesuits are not historians, we 
may place this statement of his beside another of 
his professorial dicta, that the Bible is not history. 
If the same principles underlie both propositions, 
the accusation against, the order will carry little 
weight. When an infidel government, about to 
assul the liberties of the Church, bedns bv expelling 
the Jesuits, on the allef^ation that they destroy the 
love of freedom in their scholars, we can only say 
that no words of theirs can counterbalance the logic 
of -their acts. Early in this century the Frentsh 
Government urged as one of their reasons for sup- 
pressing all the religious orders in France, among 
them the Society, that the regulars were crowding 
the secular clerKV out of their proper spheres of activity 
. and influence. No sooner were the religious suppressed 
than the law separating Church and State was passed 
to cripple and enslave the bishops and secular cler^. 

(2) Again it is perhaps little wonder that heretics 
in general, and those in particular who impugn 
church liberties and the autnority of the Holy See, 
should be ever ready to assail the Jesuits, who are 
especially bound to the defence of that see. It 
seems stranger that the opponents of the Society 
should sometimes be within the Church. Yet it is 
idmost inevitable that such opposition should at 
times occur. No matter how adequately the canon 
law regulating the relations of regulars with the 
hierarchy and clergy generally may provide for their 
peaceful oo-operation in missionary, educational, and 
charitable enterprises, there will necessarily be 
occasion for differences of opinion, disputes over 
jurisdiction, methods, and similar vital pomts, which 
in the heat of controversy often embitter and even 
estrange the parties at variance. Such imfortunate 
controversies arise between other religious orders and 
the hierarchy and secular clergy; they are neither 
common nor permanent, not the rule but the excep- 
tion, so that they do not warrant the sinister judg- 
ment that is sometimes formed of the Society m 
particular as unable or unwilling to work with others, 
jealous of its own influence. Sometimes, especially 
when troubles of this kind have affected broaid questions 
of doctrine and discipline, the agitation has reached 
immense proportions ana bitterness has remained 
for years. The controversies De attxUiis led to 
violent explosions of temper, to intrigue, and to furious 
language which was simply astonishing; and there 
were others, in Englana for instance about the 
faculties of the archpriest, in France about Galli- 
canism. which were almost equally memorable for 
fire and fury. Odium theologicum is sure at all times 
to call forth excitement of unusual keenness; but we 
may make allowance for the earlv disputants, because 
of the pugnacious character of the times. When the 
age quite approved of gentlemen killing each other 
in duels on verv slight provocation, there can be 
little wonder that clerics, when aroused, should 
forget propriety and self-restraint, sharpen their 
pens like daggers, and, dipping them in gall, strike 
at any sensitive point of their adversaries which they 
could injure. Charges put about by such excited 
advocates must be received with the greatest caution. 

(3) The most embittered and the most untrust- 
worthy enemies of the Society (they are fortunately 
not very numerous) have ever been deserters from its 
own ranks. We know with what malice and venom 
some unfaithful priests are wont to assail the Church, 
which they once believed to be Divine, and not dis- 
similar has been the hatred of some Jesuits who have 
been untrue to their calling. 

C. What is to he expected? The Society has cer- 
tainly had some share in the beatitude of suffering 
for persecution's sake; though it- is not true, how- 
ever, to say that the Society is the object of imivereal 
detestation. Prominent politicians, whose acts affect 
the interests of millions, are much more hotly and 
violently criticized, more freely denounced, carica- 
tured, and condenmed in the course of a month than 
the Jesuits singly or collectively in a year. When 
once the politician is overthrown, the world turns 
its fire upon the new holder of power, and it forgets 
the man that is fallen. But the light attacks against 
the Society never cease for long, and their cumulative 
effect appears more serious than it should, because 
people overlook the long spans of years which in 
its case intervene between the different signal assaults; 
Another principle to remember is that the enemies 
of the Church would never assail the Society at all, 
were it not that it is conspicuously popular with large 
classes of the Catholic conmiunity. Neither univer- 
sal odium therefore nor freedom from all assault 
should be expected^ but charges which, by exaggerap- 
tion, inversion, satire, or irony, somehow correspond 
with the place of the Society in the Church. 

Not being contemplatives like the monks of old, 
Jesuits are not decried as lazy and useless. Not being 
called to fill posts oi high authorit]^ or to rule, like 
popes and bishops, Jesuits are not seriously denounced 
as tyrants, or n^aligned for nepotism and similar 
misdeeds. Ignatius described his order as a flying 
squadron residy for service anywhere, especially as 
educators and missionaries. The principal charges 
against the -Society are misrepresentations of these 
qualities. If they are readv for service in any part 
of the world, they are called busybodies, miscni^- 
makers, politicians with no attachment to country. 
If they ao not rule, at least they must be grasping, 
ambitious, scheming, and wont to lower stanaaras 
of moraUty, in order to gain control of consciences. 
If they are good disciplinarians, it will be said it is 
by espionage and suppression of individuality and 
independence. If they are popular schoolmasters, the 
adversary will say they are good for children, good 
perhaps as crammers, but bad educators, without 
mfluence. If they are favourite confessors, their 
success is ascribed to their lax moral doctrines, to 
their casuistry, and above all to their use of the maxim 
which is supposed to justify any and every evil act: 
"the end justifies the means". This perhaps is the 
most salient instancy of the ignorance or iil-will of 
their accusers. Their books are open to all the world. 
Time and a^ain those who impute to them as a body, 
or to any of their publications, the use of. this maxim 
to justify evil of any sort have been asked to cite 
one instance of such usage, but all to no purpose. 
The si^al failure of Hoensbroech to establisn before 
the civil courts of Trier and Cologne (30 July, 1905) 
any such example of Jesuit teaching should silence 
this and similar accusations forever. 

D. The Jesuit Leaend. — It is curious that at the 
present day even literary men have next to no 
mterest in the objective facts concerning the Society, 
not even in those supposed to be to its disadvantage. 
All attention is fixed on the Jesuit legend ; eiyyclope- 
dia articles and general histories hardly concern 
themselves with anything else. The legend, though 
it reached its present form in the middle of the nine- 
teenth century, began at a much earlier period. The 
early persecutions of the Society (which coimted 
some 100 martyrs in Europe during its first century) 
were backed up by fiery, loud, unscrupulous writers 
such as Hasenmaller and Hospinian, who diligently 
collected and defended all the cnarges brought against 
the Jesuits. The rude, criminous ideal which these 
writers set forth received subtler traits of deceitful- 
ness and double-dealing throu^ Zahorowski's ''Mon- 
ita secreta Societatis Jesu" (Cracow, 1614), a satire 


miirepraeeiiting the rales of the order, which ia 
freely believed to be genuine by credulous adversaries 
(see MoNTTA Skcketa). The current versioD of the 
legend ia late Freoch, evolved during the long revo- 
.lutiopary ferment which preceded the Third £mpire. 
It b(^an with the denunciations of Montloaier 
(1824-27), and grew strong (1833-45) in the Univer- 
sity of Paris, which afTected to consider itself as the 
representative of the Gallican Sorbonne, of Port- 
Royal, and of the Ena/dopidie. The occasion for 
lito^uy hostilities was offered by attempts at univer- 
sity reform, which, so the Liberals affected to believe, 
were instigated by Jesuits. Hereupon the "Pro- 
viociales" were given a place in the university cur- 
riculum, and ViUemain, Thiers, Cousin, Michelet, 
Quinet, Libri, Mignct, and other respectable scholars 
succeeded by their writings and denunciations in 
givins to onti-Jeeuitism a sort of literary vogue, 
not always with scrupulous observance of accuracy 
or fairness. More harmful still to the order were the 

8 lays, the songs, the popular novels against them. 
if these the most celebrated was Eug^e Sue's 
"Juif errant" (Wandering Jew) (1844), which soon 
became the most popular anti-Jesuit book ever 
printed, and has done more than any thing else to 
pve final form to the Jesuit l^end. 

The special character of this fable is that it has 
hardly anything to do with the order at all, its traits 
being simply copied from masonry. The previous 
Jesuit bogey was at least one which haunted churches 
and colleges, and worked through the confessional 
and the pulpit. But this creation of modern fiction 
has lost all connexion with reality. He (or even she) 
is a person, not necessarily a nnest, under the com- 
mand of a black pope, who lives in an imaging 
world of back stairs, closets, and dark passa^ies. ' He 
is busy with plotting and schemi:^, tnesmeming the 
weak and corrupting the honest, occupations diversi- 
fied by secret crimes or melodramatic attempts at 
crime of every sort. This ideal we see is taken over 
bodily from the reol^ or rather the supposed, method 
of life of the ConCmental mason. Yet this is the 
sort of nonsense about which special correspondents 
send telegrams to their papers, about which revolu- 
tionary agitators and croity politiciar^t make long 
mflammatory speeches, which standard works <tt 
reference discuss quite gravely, which none of our 

Kpulor writers dares to expose as an imposture (see 
ou, op. cit, infra, II, 199-247). 

E, Some Modem Objections. — (1) Without having 
pven up the old historical objections (for the study 
M which the historical sections of this article may be 
consult^), the anti-Jesuits of t^i-day arraign the 
Society as out of tout^ with the modem Zeilfeitl, 
as hostile to liberty and culture, and as being a failure. 
Liberty, next to intelligence (and some people put 
it before), h the noblest of man's endowments. Its 
meraies ore the enemies of the human race. Yet it is 
said that Ignatius's system, by aiming at "blind" 
obedience, paralyses the judgment and by conse- 
quence scoops out the will, mserting the will of the su- 
perior in its place, as a watchmaker might replace otle 
mainspring by another (cf. Encyc. Brit., 1911, XV, 
342); perinde ac eadaver, "like a corpse", again "simi- 
lar to an old man's staff" — therefore dead and listless, 
mere machines, ineApable of individual distinction 
(Bdhmer-Monod, op. cit. infra, p. Ixjtvi). 

The cleverness of this injection lies in its bold 
inversion of certain plain truths. In reality no one 
loved liberty better or provided for it more carefully 
than Ignatius. But he upheld the deeper principle 
that true freedom lies in obeying reason, all other 
choice being Ucence. Those who hold themselves 
free to disobey even the laws of God, who declare 
all rule in the Church a tyranny, and who aim at so- 
called frec'love, free divorce, and tree thoughl^they, 
(rf course, reject his theory. In practice his custom 

5 80CIETT 

was to train the will so thoroughly that his men 
might after a^ort time be able to "level up" othov 
(a meet difficult thing) from laxitv to thorou^mees, 
without themselves being drawn down (a most easy 
thing), even though they lived outside cloisters, 
with no external support for their discipline. 'Ilie 
wonderful achievement of staying and rolling back 
the tide of the Reformation, in so far as it was 
due to the Jesuits, was the result of the increased 
will-power 'given to previously irresolute Catholics 
by the Ignatian methods. 

As to "blind" obedience, we should note that all 
obedience must be blind t« some extent — "Theirs not 
to reason why, Theirs but to dn and die." Ignatius 

borrowed from _ _^! 

earUer aacetie wri- 
ters the strong 
metaphors of the 
"blind man", "the 
corpse", "the old 
man's staff", to 
illustrate the na- 
ture of obedience 
in a vivid way ; but 
he does not want 
those metaphors to 
be run to death. 
Not only does he 
want the subject 
t« bring both head 
and heart to the 
execution of the 
command, but, 
knowing human 
nature and its 
foibles, he recog- 

arise when the su- 
perior's order may appear impracticable, unreasonable, 
or unrighteous to a free subject and may possibly really 
be BO. In such cases it ia the acknowledged duty of 
the subject to appeal, and his judgment ss well as his 
conscience, even when it may happen to be ill-formed, 
is to be respected; provision is made in the Constitu- 
tions for the clearing up of such troubles by discus- 
sion and arbitration, a provision which would be incon- 
ceivable, unless a mind and a free will, independent 
of and possibly opposed to that of the superior, were 
recognised and respected. Ignatius wishes his sub- 
jects (o be "dead" or "bhnd" only in respect of sloth, 
of passion, of self-interest, and self-indulgence , which 
would impede the ready execution of orders. So far 
is he from desiring a mechanical performance that he 
explicitly disparages "obedience, which executes in 
work only", as " unworthy of the name of virtue" and 
warmly urges that "bending to, with all forces of head 
and heart, we should carry out the commands 

Juickly and completely" (Letter on Obedience, 

Further iUustrations of Ignatian love of liberty 
may be found in the Spiritual Exercises and in the 
character of certain theological doctrines, as Proba- 
bilism and Mohnism (with its subsequent modifica- 
tions) which are commonly taught in the Society's 
schools. Thus, Molinism "is UMve all determined 
to throw a wall of security round free will" (see 
Grace, CoNTROVBaoiKS on), and Probabilism (q. v.) 
teaches that liberty may not be restrained unless the 
restraining force rests on a basis of certainty. The 
characteristic of both theories is to emphasiie the 
saraednesa of free will somewhat more than is done 
in other systems. The Spiritual Exercises, the secret 
of Ignatius's success, are a series of considerations 
arranged, as he tells the exercitant from the first, to 
enable him to make a choice or election on the highest 
principles and without fear of consequences. Again 
the priest, who explains the meditations, is wanied 


to be most careful not to incline the exercitant more which the Jesuits of previous times succeeded in 

to one object of choice than to another (Annot. 15). founding and endowing. It is not to be questioned 

It is notoriously impossible to expect that anti- that the sum total of learned institutions in the hands 
Jesuit writers of our day should face their subject in oi non-Catholics is now greater than those in the 
a common-sense or scientific manner. If they did, hands of our co-religionists, but the love of culture 
one would [Mint out that the onlv rational manner surely is not extinguished in the exiled French, 
of inquiring into the subject would oe to approach the German, or Portuguese Jesuit, who, robbed pethapM 
persons under discussion (who are after all very of all he possesses, at once settles down a^ain to his 
i^proachable) and to see whether they are character- task of study, of writing, or of education. Very 
less, as they are reported to be. Another easy test rare are the cases where Jesuits, living among enter- 
would be to turn to the lives of their great missionaries prising people, have acquiesced in educational 
Br^beuf, Marquette, Silveira, etc. Any men more mferiority. For superiority to others, even in sacred 
unlike ''mere machines" it would be impossible to learning, the Societv does not and should not contend, 
conceive. The Society's successes in education con- In their own line^ that is in Catholic theology, philos- 
firm the same conclusion. It is true that lately, ophy, and exegesis, they would hope tlutt they are not 
as a preparatoiy measure to closing its schools by inferior to the level of their generation, and that, far 
violence, the French anti-Jesuits asserted both in from accjuiescing in intellectual inferiority, they aim 
print and in the Chamber that Jesuit education pro- at making their schools as good as circumstances 
duced mere pawns, spiritless, unenterprising nonen- allow them. They may also claim to have trained 
titles. But the re&l reason was notoriously that the many good scholars in almost every science, 
pupils of the Jesuit schools were exceptionally sue- The objection that Jesuit teachers do not influence 
cessful at the examinations for entrance as officers masses of mankind, while men like Descartes and 
into the army, and proved themselves the bravest Voltaire, after breaking with Jesuit education, have 
and most vigorous men of the nation. In a contro- dcMie so. derives its force from passing over the main 
Verted matter like this, the most obvious proof that work of the Jesuits, which is the salvation of souls, 
the Society's education fits its pupils for the battle of and any lawful means that helps to this end, as, for 
life is found in the constant readiness of parents to instance, the maintenance of orthodoxy. It is easy 
entrust their children to the Jesuits even when, from to overlook this, and those who object will perhaps 
a merely worldly point of view, there seemed to be despise it, even iif they recognize it. The work is not 
many reasons for holding back. (A discussion of showy, whereas that of the satirist, the iconoclast, 
this matter, from a French standpoint, will be and free-lance compels attention. Avoiding compari- 
found in Brou^ op. cit. infra, II, ^09; Tampe in sons, it is safe to say that the Jesuits have ofdne much 
"Etudes", Pans. 1900, pp. 77. 749.) It is hardly to maintain the teaching of orthodoxy, and that the 
necessary to add that methoas of school discipline orthodox far outnumber the followers of men like 
will naturally differ greatly in different countries. Voltaire and Descartes. 

The Society would certainly prefer to observe muUitis It would be impossible, from the nature of the case. 

mtUandia its well-tried ''Katio Studiorum"j but it to devise any satisfactory test to show what love of 

is far from thinking that local customs ^as for instance culture, especially of intellectual culture, there was 

those which regard surveillance) ana external dis- in a body so diversified and scattered as the Society, 

cipline should everywhere be uniform. Many might be applied, and one of the most telling 

(2) Another objection akin to the supposed hostility is the regularity with wnich every test reveals refine- 
to freedom is the alleged KuUurfeindliaUceU, hostility ment and studiousness somewhere in its ranks, even 
to what is cultured and intellectual. This cry has in poor and distant foreign missions. To some it 
been chiefly raised by those who scornfully reject will seem significant that the pope, when searching 
Catholic theology as clogmatism, who scoff at Catho- for theologians and consultors for various Roman 
Uc philosophy as Scholastic, and at the Church's colleges and congregations, should so frequently 
insistence on Biblical inspiration as retrograde and select Jesuits, a relatively small body, some thirty 
unscholarly. Such men make Uttle account of work or forty per cent of whose members are employed in 
for the ignorant and the poor, whether at home or on foreign missions or among the poor of our great towns, 
the missions, they speak of evangelical poverty, of The periodicals edited by the Jesuits, of which a list 
practices of penance and of mortincation, as if mey is eiven below, afford another indication of culture, 
were debasing and retrograde. They compare their and a favourable one, though it is to be remembered 
numerous and richly endowed universities with the that these publications are written chiefly with a 
few and relatively poor seminaries of the Catholic view of popularizing knowledge. The more serious 
and the Jesuit, and their advances in a multitude of and leamea books must be studied separately. The 
physical sciences with the intellectual timidity (as most striking test of all is that offered by the great 
they think it) of those whose highest ambition it is Jesuit bibliography of Father Sommervogel, showing 
not to go beyond the limits of theological orthodoxy, over 120,000 writers, and an almost endless list of 
The Jesuits, they say, are the leaders of the KvUur^ books, pamphlets, and editions. There is no other 
feindliche; their great obiect is to bolster up anti- body in the world which can point to such a monu- 
quated traditions. They have produced no geniuses, ment. Cavillers may say that the brand-mark is 
while men whom they trained, and who broke loose "respectable mediocnty": even so, the value of the 
from their teaching. Pascal. Descartes. Voltaire, have whole will be very remarkable, ana we may be sure 
powerfully affected the pnilosophicai and religious that less prejudiced and theretore better Judges will 
beliefs of large masses oi mankmd: but respectable form a higher appreciation. Masterpieces, too, in 
mediocrity ia the brand on the long lists of the Jesuit every fielaof ecclesiastical learning and in several 
names in the catalogues of Alegambe and de Backer, secular branches are not rare. 
Under Bismarck ana M.Waldeck-Rousseau arguments Hie statement that the Society has produced few 
of this sort were accompanied by decrees of banish- . geniuses is not impressive in the mouths of those who 
ment and confiscation of goods. have not studied, or are unable to study or to judge, 

This objection springs chiefly from prejudice — the writers under discussion. Again uie objection, 

religious, worldly, or national. The Catholic will whatever its worth, confuses two ideals. Educational 

thirdc rather better than worse of men who are decried bodies must necessarily train by classes and schools 

and p)ersecuted on grounds which apply to the whole and produce men formed on definite lines. Genius 

Church. It is true the modem Jesuit's school is on the other hand is independent of training and does 

often smaller and poorer than the establishment of not conform to type. It is unreasonable to reproach 

his rival, who at times is ensconced in the academy a missionary or educational system for not possessing 




advantages which no system can offer. Then it 
is well to bear in mind that genius is not restricted to 
writers or scholars alone. There is a genius of organ- 
ization, exploration/ enterprise, diplomacy, evangeli- 
zation, ana instances of it, in one or other of these 
directions^ are common enough in the Society. 

Men will vary of course in their estimate as to 
whether the amount of Jesuit genius is great or^not 
according to the esteem they make of those studies 
in which the Society is strongest. But whether the 
amount is great or little, it is not stunted by Ignatius's 
strivings lor uniformity. The objection taken to 
the words of the rule ''Let all say the same thing as 
much as possible" is not convincing. This is a 
clipp>ed quotation, for Ignatius goes on to add " juxta 
Apostolum", an evident reference to St. Paul to the 
Fnilippians, iii, 15, 16, beyond whom he does not go. 
In truth Ignatius's object is the practical one of 
preventing zealous professors from wasting their 
lecture time in disputing small points on which thev 
may differ from their colleagues. The Society s 
writers and teachers are surely never compelled to 
the same rigid acceptation of the views of another 
as is often the case elsewhere, e. g. in politics, diplo- 
macy, or journalism. Members of a staff of leader- 
writers have constantly to personate convictions not 
really their own, at the bidding of the editor; whereas 
Jesuit writers and teachers write and speak almost in- 
variably in their own names, and with a variety of 
treatment and a freedom of mind which compare not 
unfavourably with other exponents of the same sub- 

(3) Failure. — The Society never became "relaxed" 
or needed a "reform" in tne technical sense in which 
these terms are applied to religious orders. The 
constant intercourse which is maintained between all 
parts enables the general to find out very soon when 
anything goes wrong, and his large power of appoint- 
ing new officials has always sufficed to maintain a 
high standard both of discipline and of religious 
virtue. Of course there have arisen critics, who nave 
inverted this generally acknowledged fact. It has 
been said that: (a) failure has become a note of 
Jesuit Bnterprises. Other religious and learned 
institutions endure for century after century. The 
Society has hardly a house that is a hundred years 
old, very few that are not quite modem. Its great 
missionary glories, Japan, Paraguay, China, etc., 
passed like smoke and even now, in countries predomi- 
nantly Catholic, it is banished and its works ruined, 
while other Catholics escape and endure. Again, 
that (b), after Acquaviva's time, a period of decay 
ensued; (c) disputes about Probabilism, tyrannicide, 
equivocation, etc., caused a strong and steady decline 
in the order; (d) the Society after Acquaviva's time 
began to acquire enormous wealth, and the professed 
Uved in luxury ; (e) religious energy was enervated by 
poUtical scheming andbv internal dissensions. 

^) The word "failure is here taken in two differ- 
ent ways — ^failure from internal decay and failure 
from external violence. The former is discreditable, 
the latter may be glorious, if the cause is good. 
Whether the failures of the Society, at its Suppres- 
sion and in the violent ejections from various lands 
even in our own time, were discreditable failures is a 
historical question treated elsewhere. If they were, 
then we must say that such failures tend to the credit 
of the order, that they are rather apparent than real, 
and God's rrovidence will, in His own way, make 
good the loss. In effect we see the Society frequently 
suffering, but as freouently recovering and renewing 
her youth. It woula be inexact to say that the perse- 
cutions which the Society has suffered have been so 
great and continuous as to be irreconcilable with the 
usual course of Providence, which is wont to temper 
trial with relief, to make endurance possible (I Cor., 
X, 13). Thus, while it may be truly said that many 

Jesuit communities have been forced to break up 
within the last thirty years, others have had a cor- 
porate existence of two or three centuries. Stony- 
hurst College, for instance, has been only 116 years 
in its present site, but its corporate life is 202 years 
older still; yet the most glorious pages of its his- 
tory are those of its persecutions, when it lost, 
three times over, everything it possessed and. barely 
escaping by. flight, renewed a lite even more nonour- 
able and distinguished than that which preened, a 
fortune probably without its equal in the history of 
pedagogy. Again the BoUandists (q. v.) and the 
Collegio Romano may be cited as well-known exam- 
ples of 'institutions which, though once smitten to 
the ground, have afterwards revived and flourished 
as much as before if not more. One might instance, 
too, the German province, which, though driven 
into exile by Bismarck, has there more than doubled 
its previous numbers. The Christianity which the 
Jesuits planted in Paraguay survived in a wonderful 
way, after they were gone, and the rediscovery of the 
Church in Japan affords a glorious testimony to the 
thoroughness of the old missionary methods. 

(b) Turning to the point of decadence after 
Acquaviva's time, we may freely concede that no sub- 
sequent generation contained so many great person- 
alities as the first. The first fifty years saw nearly all 
the Society's saints and a large proportion of its 
great writers and missionaries. But the same phe- 
nomenon is to be observed in almost all orders, inaeed 
in most other human institutions whether sacred or 
profane. As for internal dissensions after Acqua- 
viva's death, the truth is that the severe troubles 
occurred before, not after, it. The reason for this is 
easily understood. Internal troubles came chiefly 
with that oonffict of views which was inevitable while 
the Constitutions, the rules, and general traditions 
of the body werQ being moulded. This took till 
near the end of Acquaviva's generalate. The worst 
troubles came first, under Ignatius himself in regard 
to Portugal, as has been explained elsewhere (see 
Ignatius Loyola). The troubles of Acquaviva with 
Spain come next in seriousness. 

(c) After Acquaviva's time we find indeed some 
warm theological disputations on Probabihsm and 
other points; out in truth this trouble and the debates 
on tyrannicide and equivocation had much more to do 
with outside controversies than with internal division. 
After they had been fully argued and resolved by 
papal authority, the settlement was accepted through- 
out the Society without any trouble. 

(d) The alfegation that the Jesuits were ever' im- 
mensely rich is demonstrably a fable. It would seem 
to have arisen from the vulgar prepossession that all 
those who Uve in great houses or churches must be 
very rich. The allegation was exploited as early as 
1594 by Antoine Arnauld, who declared that the 
French Jesuits had a revenue of ^X),000 Iwrea 
(£50,000^ which might be multiphed by six to g^et 
the relative bu3ring power of that day). The Jesuits 
answered that their twenty-five churches and col- 
leges, having a staff of 500 to 600 persons, had in all 
only 60,000 livrea (£15,000). The exact annual 
revenues of the English province for some 120 years 
are published by Foley (Records S. J., VII, Introd., 
139). Duhr (Jesuitenfabehi, 1904, 606, etc.) gives 
many figures of the same kind. We can, therefore, 
tell now that the college revenues were, for their pur- 
poses, very moderate. The rumours of inmiense 
wealth acquired still further vogue through two occur- 
rences^ the Resiitutionsediki of 1629 andthe licence, 
Efometmaes given by papal authority, for the procura- 
tors of the foreign missions to include in the sale of the 
produce of their own mission farms the produce of 
their native converts, who were generally still too 
rude and childish to make bargains for themselves. 
The ResHtutumsediktf as has been already explained 


(see above: Germany) ^ led to no permanent results, they do not infringe on the rights and functions of 

but the sale of the mission produce came conspicu- the parish priests. (4) What restriction can be 

ously before the notice of the public at the time of the placed on the authority of the General of the Jesuits, 

Suppression, by the failure of Father La Valette (see, so far as it is exercised in fVance. For eliciting the 

in article above. Suppression, France), In neither judgment of the ecclesiastics of the kingdom on the 

case did the money transactions, such as they were, action of the Parlement, no questions could be more 

i^ect the standard of living in the Society itself, suitable, and the bi^ops convoked (three cardinals, 

which alwa3rs remained that of the honesH aacer- niqe archbishops, and thirty-nine bishops, that is 

dotes of their time (see Duhr, op. cit. infra, pp. fifty-one in all) met togethei^to consider them on 30 

582-652). November. They appointed a commission consisting 

During the closing months of 1761 many other of twelve of their number, who were given a month 

E relates wrote to the king, to the chancellor, M. de for their task and reported duly on 30 December, 
lamoignon, protesting against the arrit of the Of these fifty-one bishops, forty-four addr^sed a 
Parlement of 6 August, 1761, and testifying to their letter to the king, dated 30 December, 1761, answer- 
sense of the injustice of the accusations madfe against ing all the four questions in a sense favourable to the 
the Jesuits and of the loss which their dioceses would Society and giving under each head a clear statement 
sustain by their suppression. De Ravignan gives of their reasons. 

the names of twenty-seven such bishops. Of the To the first question the bishops reply that the 

minority five out of the six rendered a collective "Institute of the Jesuits ... is conspicuously 

answer, approving of the conduct and teaching of consecrated to the good of religion and the profit of 

the Jesuits. These five bishops, the Cardinal de the State". They begin by noting how a succession 

Choiseul, brother of the statesman, Mgr de La Roche- of popes, St. Charles Borromeo, and the ambassadors 

fouoauld. Archbishop of Rouen, and Mgrs Quiseau of prmoes, who with him were present at the Council 

of Nevers, Choiseul-Beaupr^ of Ch&lons, and Cham- of Trent, together with the Fathers of that Council 

pion de Cice of Auxerre, declared that "the confidence in their collective capacity, had pronounced in favour 

reposed in the Jesuits by the bishops of the kingdom, of the Society after an experience of the services it 

all of whom approve them in their oiocese, is evidence could render* how, though in the first instance there 

that they are tound useful in France'', and that in was a prejuoioe against it in France, on account of 

consequence they, the writers, "supplicate the king* certain novelties in its constitutions, the sovereign, 

to 0rant his royal protection, and keep for the Church bishops, clergy, and people had, on coming to know it, 

of France a society commendable for the service it become firmly attached to it, as was witnessed by the 

renders to the Chiurch and State and which the vigi- demand of the States-General in 1614 and 1615 and 

lance of the bishops may be trusted to preserve free of the Assembly of the Cler^ in 1617, both of which 

from the evils which it is feared might come to affect bodies wished for Jesuit colleges in Paris and the 

it". To the second and third of the king's questions provinces as "the best means adapted to pl&nt 

they answer that occasionally indiviaual Jesuits religion and faith in the hearts of the people". They 

have taught bl£m[ieworthy doctrines or invaded the refer also to the language of many letters-patent^ by 

jurisdiction of the bishops, but .that neither fault which the kings of France had authorized the various 

has been general enough to affect the body as a whole. Jesuit colleges, in particular that of Clermont, at 

To the fourth question they answer that "the author- Paris, which Louis XIV had wished should bear his 

ity of the general, as it is wont to be and should be own name, and which had come to be known as the 

exercised in France, appears to need no modification; College of Louis-le-Grand. Then, coming to their 

nor do they see anything objectionable in the Jesuit own personal experience, they bear witness that "the 

vows". In fact, the only point on which they differ Jesuits are very useful for our dioceses, for preaching, 

from the majority is in the suggestion that "to take for the guidance of souls, for implanting, preserving, 

away all difficulties for the future it would be well to and renewing faith and piety, by their missions, 

soUcit the Holy See to issue a Brief fixing precisely congregations, retreats, which they carry on with our 

those limits to the exercise of the general's authority approbation, and unaer our authority". Whence 

inFrancewhichthemaximsof the kingdom require'', they conclude that "it would be difficult to replace 

Testimonies like these might be multiplied indef- them without a loss, especially in the proymcia! 

initely. Among them one of the most significant towns, where there is no university", 

is that of Clement XIII, dated 7 January, 1765, which To the second question the bishops reply that, 

specially mentions the cordial relations of the Society if there were any reality in the accusation that the 

with bishops throu^out the world, precisely when Jesuit teaching was a menace to the lives of sovereigns, 

enemies were plotting for the suppression of the order, the bishops would long since have taken measures 

In his books on Clement XIII and Clement XIV de to restrain it, instead of entrusting the Society with 

Ravignan records the acts and letters of many bishops the most important functions of the sacred ministry, 

in favour of the Jesuits, enumerating the names of They idso indicate the source from which this and 

nearly 200 bishops in every part of the world. From similar accusations against the Society had 4|^ir 

a secular source the most noteworthy testimony is origin. "The Calvinists", they say, "tried their 

that of the French bishops when hostility to the utmost to destroy in its cradle a Society whose 

Society was rampant in high places. On 15 Novem- principal object was to combat their errors . . . 

ber, 1761, the Comte de Florentin, the minister of the and disseminated many publications in which they 

royal household, bade Cardinal de Luynes, the Arch- singled out the Jesuits as professing a doctrine which 

bishop of Sens, convoke the bishops then at Paris menaced the lives of sovereigns, because to accuse 

to investigate the following points: (1) The use which them of a crime so capital was the surest means to 

the Jesuits can be in France, and the advantages or destroy them; and the prejudices against them thus 

evils which may be expected to attend their dis- aroused had ever since been seized upon greedily 

charge of the different functions committed to them, by all who had had any interested motives for object- 

(2) The manner in which in their teaching and ing to the Society's existence (in the counti^)." 

practice the Jesuits conduct themselves ia regard to The bishops add that the charges against the Jesuits 

opinions dangerous to the personal safety of sover- which were being made at that time in so many 

eigns, to the doctrine of the French clergy contained writings with which the country was flooded were but 

in the Declaration of 1782, and in re^rd to the Ultra- rehashes of what had been spoken and written against 

montane opinions generallv. (3) The conduct of them throu^out the preceding century and a half, 

the Jesuits in regard to the subordination due to To the third question they reply that the Jesuits 

bishops and ecclesiastical superiors, and as to whether have no doubt received numerous privileges from the 


Holy See, many of which, however, and those the tion [Urban Vlllf 6 August, 1623] that as Ahnighty 

most extensive, have accrued to them bv cominunica- God raised up other holy men for other times, so He 

tion with the other orders to which they had been has raised up St. Ignatius and the Society established 

primarily granted: but that the Societv has been by him to oppose Luther and the heretics of his day: 

accustomeq to use its privileges with moderation and and the religious sons of this Society, following the 

prudence. luminous way of so great a parent, continue to give 

The fourth and last of the questions is not per- an unfailing example of the rdigious virtues and a dis- 
tinent here, and we omit the answer. The Arch- tinguished proficiency in every Kind of learning, more 
bishop of Paris, who was one of the assembled especially in sacred, so that, as their co-operation is a 
bishops, bat on some grourd of precedent preferred p^^ service in the successful conduct of the most 
not to sign the majority statement, endorsed it in a important affairs of the Catholic Church, in the res- 
separate letter which he addressed to the king. toration of morality, and in the liberal culture of young 

(e) It is not to be denied that, as the Society men, they merit new proofs of Apostolic favour." In 
acquired reputation and -influence even in the Courts the paragraph foUowmg he speaks of the Society as 
of powerful kings, certain domestic troubles arose, "most deserving of tne orthodox religion", and 
which had not oeen heard of before. Some jeal- further on he sa3rs: "It abounds in men skilled in 
ousies were inevitable, and some losses of friend- every branch of learning." On 27 September, 1748, 
ship; there was danger too of the faults of the Court he commended the General of the Societv and its 
communicating themsdves to those who frequented members for their "strenuous and faithful labours in 
it. But it is equally dear that the Societv was keenly sowing and propagating throughout the whole world 
on its guard in this matter, and it would seem. that Catholic faith and unitv, as well as Christian doc- 
its precautions were successful. Religious observ- trine and piety, in all their integrity and sanctity", 
ance did not suffer to any appreciable extent. But On 15 July. 1749, he speaks of the members of the 
few people of the seventeenth century, if, any. Society as "men who by their assiduous labour strive 
noticed the grave dangers which were coming from to instruct and form all the faithful of both sexes in 
absolute government, the decay of energy, the dim- every virtue, and in zeal for Christian piety and doc- 
inished desire for progress. The Society like the rest trine". "Tne Society of Jesus", he wrote on 29 
of Europe suffered under these influences, but they March, 1753, "adheringclosely to the splendid lessons 
were plainly external, not internal. In France the and examples set them txy their founder, St. Ignatius, 
injurious influence of Gallicanism must also be admit- devote themselves to this pious work [spiritual exer- 
ted (see above, France), But even in this dull neriod eiscs] with so much ardour, zeal, charity, attention, 
we find the French Jesuits in the new mission-neld of vi^ance, labour . . .", etc. 

Canada showing a fervour worthy of the highest tra- „ 'O' i}»« ew'Jy oontrovewica see the articles Annat, Cenvtti, 

Uitions Of tne oraer. me nnai wia most convincing f^i ^^^ ^ j^jg^j^ apologiee. ibid., x. 1601. 

proof that there was nothmg seriously wrong m the Bohmkb-Monod, Lea Jiwitea (PariB, 1910); Giobbbti, n 

poverty or in the discipline of the Society up to the ^f^**? '"<'^^2l?x ^^'*"*^^®' 1846) iGMMiNaER, ««<.©/ <A«/e«i»to 

Urr^n, />f {fa ^t^rxrx^^airLn ia nfft^rexA Kv ^Ka inoKi'li'f^r f^f (Loodon, 1872); HOBN8BBOBCH, Vtenthn Johtt j99U%t (LeipSlg, 

time Of Its Suppression is offered by the mability of 1910); hubkb, Dtr Jewitm-Ordm (BcrUn. 1873); Michbud? 

its enemies to substantiate their charges, when, after Qitxnbt, Dm jStuiUt (Paris. 1843); Mulleb, Lea onginea de la 

the Suppression, all the accounts and the papers of «?«J>: <*« ,•?«*«. (Paris, 1898); Rbubch, BeUrOge zur Geaeh. der 

the Sockty passed bodily into the sdversaries' posses- itK (g^X^ li^^ViSSST'&i-"'!. 1n£L£Td»Z 

Sion. What an unrivalled opportunity for provmg d'iducation eeeUa. (Fr. tr.. Cohan. Paris, 1840). Discussions of 

to the world those allegations which were hitherto **»« above and of other hostile writers will be found in the Jesuit 

unsupported! Yet aft^ a careful scrutiny of the ^JS^T^iS!^ i^^SS>oTx^!^^^!^.'^^^^^\ 

papers, no such attempt was made. Ine conclusion Protestant writer, of anti-Jesuitieal literature; BriIab. L'apofe- 

IS evident. No serious fault could be proved. ^*^\^,?'^*^fL^.^^JkJ^^ (Paris, 191 i),Bbo^, Leajfau^ 

Neith^ at the njiddle of the eighteenth century ^^^j^^f^Si'^iS^^^^^^^i^Ji^ 

nor at any previous tune was there any mtemal declme 19OI) : Matnard. The Studiea and Teaehino of the Society of Jeaua 

of the Society: there was no loss of numbers, but on (London, lS55);L^PronruMUeaHleurrffttiati<m{Tm,lS5l^^ 

the contrary a sU^dy growth; there was no falling off '^.^^[S^rii^l^^^.^tirSXtl'tSS:^^ 

m leammg, morauty, or zeal. From 1000 members (Freiburg. 1911); Reusch. Der Index der verbotenen BUeher; D6lr 

in 12 provinces in 1556, it had grown to 13,112 in 27 "Noeb and Rw^sch, Geach. der MoralatreitiokeUm: Pakrkv, A 

nrovinrM in Ifil*?' frt 17 ««*> in Ififtfl 7»Qn nf wlinm Vindieaium of 8l, IffmUtua from Phanaiietatn, and of the Jeamtea 

provmces m lOld, to 1/,W)& m lp»U, 7»yU of wnom ^.^ ^^ Calumniea laid to their charge (London. 1688); Hughbb. 

were priests, m 35 prOvmces with 48 novitiates, 28 Loyola and the Bdueat. Syatem of the JeauiU (New York. 1892); 

professed houses, 88 seminaries, 678 colleges, 160 ^^chtlbb-Duhr, Ratio Studicpim in Albn. Germ, padagogiea 

rPsiHpnPAft and lOfi frm^itm miminnn* and in Hnit^ nf (?erhn, 1887); Swicxbbath, JeauU Educatum, Ita HxUory and 

resiaences, ana lUO loreign missions, ana, in spite Ol prindpUa in the Light of Modem Educational Problema (St. Louia. 

every obstacle, persecution, eiroulsion, and suppres- I905).i 

sion during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, DisnNOxnBHED Membebs. — Saints: Ignatius Loy- 

in 1749 it numbered 22,589 members, of whom 11,293 ola; Francis Xavier; Francis Borgia; Stanislaus 

were priests, in 41 provinces, with 61 novitiates, 24 Kostka; Aloysius Gonzaga; Alphonsus Rodriguez; 

professed houses, 176 seminaries, 669 colleges, 335 John Berchmans; John FVancis Regis: Peter Claver; 

residences, 1542 churches, and 273 foreign missions. Francis de Geronimo, and Paul Miki, John Goto, 

That there was no falling off in learning, morality, James Kisai, Japanese martyrs (1597). 

or zeal historians generally, whether hostile or friend- Blessed. — ^The blessed number 91 : among them are 

Sto the Society, attest (see Maynard, "The Jesuits, Peter Faber; Peter Canisius: Anthony Baldinucci; 

eir Studies and their Teaching ). the martyrs Andrew Bobola; John de Britto (qq. v.) : 

On this point the testimony of Benedict XIV will Bernardino Realini; Ignatius de Azevedo (q. v.) and 
surely be accepted as incontrovertible. In a letter companions (known as the Forty Martyrs of Brazil), 
dated 24 April, 1748, he says that the Society is one viz. Didacus de Andrada (priest); Antonio Suaree; 
"whose religious are everywhere reputed to be in the Benedictus a Castro; Francisco Magalhftes; Jofto Fer- 
good odour of Christ, chiefly because, in order to nandes:LuizCorrea;ManoelRodrigues; Simon Lopes; 
advance the young men who frequent their churches Manoel Femandes; Alvaro Mendes; Pedro Nunhes; 
and schools in the pursuit of liberal knowled^, learn- Andreas Gon^alves; Juan a S. Martino (scholastics); 
ing, and culture, as well as in deeds and habits of the Gonzalvo Henriques; Didaco Pires; Ferdinand San- 
Christian religion and piety, they zealously exert cies: Francisco P6rez Godoi; Antonio Correa; Manoel 
every effort greatly to the advantage of the young". Pacneco; Nicolas Diniz; Alexius Delgado; Marco Cal- 

In another be^nng the same date he says: "It is a deira; Sanjoannes (scholastic novices); Manoel Alva- 

universal conviction confirmed by pontifical declara- res; Francisco Alvares; Domingos Femandes; Caspar 


Alvares; Amarus Vaz; Juan de Majorga; Alfonso de 1879. During the Franco-German War he served 

Vaena; Antonio Femandes; Stefano Zuriare: Pedro as chaplain in Faidherbe's army, and was decorated 

Fontoura; Gregorio Scrivano: Juan de Zafra; Juan de in 1871 with a bronze medal for his seUnsacrifice. 

Baeza; Blasio Kibeiro; Jofio Femandes; Simon Acosta P. de Backer in the revised edition of his ''Bibho- 

(lay brothers); the Japanese martyrs: John Baptist th^ue" (1869-76) gave Sommervogel's name as 

Machado, 1617; Sebastian Chimura, 1622; Camillo co-author, and deservedly, for the vast improvement 

Costanzo, 1622; Charles Spinola, 1622; Paul Navarro, in the work was in no small measure due to the 

1622; Jerome de Angelis, 1623; Didacus Carvalho. latter's contributions. From 1880 till 1882 P. 

1624; Michael Carvalho, 1624; Francisco Pacheco and Sommervogel was assistant to his father provincial, 

his companions Baltasar de Torres and Giovanni Before 1882 he had never had any special opportunity 

Battista Zola, 1626; Thomas Tzugi, 1627; Anthony of pursuing his favourite study; all his bibliographical 

Ixida, 1632 (priests); Augustine Ota, 1622; Gonzalvus work had been done in his spare moments. In 1884 

Fusai and his companions, Anthony Chiuni, Peter he published his " Dictionnaire des ouvrages ano- 

Sampd, Michael Xump6, Louis Cavara, John Chin- nymes et pseudonymes publics par des religieux de 

focu, Thomas Acafoxi, 1622; Denis F^igixima and la Compagnie de Jesus''. In 1885 he was appointed 
^eter Onizuchi (companions of Bl. Paul Navarro), successor to the PP. de Backer and went to Louvain. 
1622; Simon Jempo (companion of Bl. Jerome de He determined to recast and enlarge their work and 
Angelis)^ 1623; Vmcent Caun and his companions: after five years issued the first volume of the first 
Peter Rmxei, Paul Chinsuche, John Chinsaco; Mich- part (Brussels and Paris, 1890); by 1900 the ninth 
aelToz6, 1626; Michael Nacaxima, 1628 (scholastics); volume had appeared; the tenth^ an index of the 
Leonard Chimura, 1619; Ambrosio Femandes, 1620; first nine, which comprised the bibliographical part 
Caspar Sandamatzu (companion of Bl. Francis of the ^'Biblioth^que" was unfinished at the time of 
Pacneco, 1626). lay brothers; the English martyrs: his death but has since been completed by P. Bhard, 
Thomas Woodnouse, 1573; and John Nelson, Ed- with a bio^aphical notice by P. Brucker, from which 
mund Campion, Alexander Briant (qq. v.); Thomas these details had been drawn. P. Sommervogel had 
Cottam. 1582 (priests); the martyrs of (juncolim(q. v.): intended to compile a second, or historical, part of 
Rudolpn Acquaviva: Alfonso Pacheco; Pietro Bemo; his work, which was to be a revision of Carayon's 
Antonio Francisco (priests); and Francisco Aranha, ''Bibliographic historique". He was a man of 
1583 (lay brother); the Hungarian martyrs: Melchior exemplwy virtue, giving freely to all the fruit of his 
Grodecz and Stephen Pongracz, 7 Sept., 1619. , devoted labours and content to lead for years a bus;y 
Venerables. — The venerables number fifty and obscure life to which duty called him, until his 
include, besides those whose biographies have been superiors directed him to devote himself to his favour- 
given separately (see Index vol.), Claude de La Col- ite study during the last fifteen years of his life, 
ombi^re (1641-^82), Apostle of the devotion to the He re-edited a number of works bv old writers of the 
Sacred Heart; Nicholas Lancicius (1574-1653). author Society and. in addition to his articles in the " Etudes", 
of "Gloria I^;natiana" and many spiritual works, and, wrote: " Taole m6thodique des M6moires de Tr^voux " 
with Orlandmi, of "Historia Societatis Jesu"; Julien (3 vols., Paris, 1864-5); "Bibliotheca Mariana de la 
Maunoir (1606^-83)^ Apostle of Brittany. Comp. de J^sus" (Paris, 1885); **Moniteur biblio- 
Though the Jesuits, in accordance with their rules, graphique de la Comp. de J6sus" (Paris, 1894r-1901). 
do not accept ecclesiastical dig^ties, the popes MsNOLoaisa, Biooraphieb.^— Alkgambe, McHu iUuUm u 

at times have raised some of their numbers to the <f^*^ eorum de Soc. Jeau qui in odium fidei necati turU (Rome. 

rank of cardioal, as Cardinals Bellarmine Franze- '^■•Jr'ji^1^^ri7^^i.^",^i}^ SSt^^ 

lin, de Lugo, Mai, Mazzella, Odescalcm. Pallavicmo, Soc. Jew (London, 1910); Guilhermt. Mfnolooe de la comp. de 

Pdzmdny, Tarquini, Toledo, Tolomei (qq. v.); also /.; Par<ii<^(Pari9 1867) ; France (Paris. 1892) : /ta/w 

PftrHinaU Pnjaimir V K\ntr nf PnlfinH ^^nij^ \(U7' Oermante (P&na,lS9S);MACLSOi>,Menol. for the English Aenetaney 

UarOmaiS UasmiU- V, JVing Ol l:'0iana,-createa 1047, (London); BoftRO. Menohgio (Rome, 1859): Stooeb. Hietorio- 

AlvarO CienfuegOS (1657-1739), created 1720; Johann gnphie Soe. Jeau (RatUbon. 18A1); Niersmberg, Clarot varonea 

Eberhard Nidhard (1607-81), created 1675; Giam- <te ia ccwip. de j. (Madrid, 1643) ; Patrignani, A/enoi. <rafcun» r*- 

Kottiafn .^alpmn nfi70-179Q^ t*rt^aif^ 1700' AnHrAOii ligioai delta comp. di G.iV enice, 1730), T ANN t^R, Soe, Jeau apoato- 

DattlSta ftalerao UO/U-l/iSy;, Createa l/W, Anareas ^^^^ imitatrix (Prague. 1694); Idem, Soc. Jeau uaque ad mortem 

Steinhuber (1825-1907), created 1893; and Louis militana (Pngae, 1^5); TBomiSiN, Menol.derdeuUchen Ordena- 

Billot (b. 1846), created 27 Nov., 1911. provinz (Roermond, 1901). Bibliographies of particular pereonn, 

Afl .»f<>.»«%.»A in mArlo. ;» wnno^ «r ♦k-rt. A..4:^lr^ ^.^ on a larger scale than can be given here, •will be found under the 

As reference is made m most of the articles on separate articles devoted to them, {hce also index volume.) 

members of the society to {Sommervogels monu- The best-arranged historical bibliography is that of Carayon, 

mental "Biblioth^ue de la Compagnie de J^SUS" a Bil>lioffraphiede la compagnie de y/v" (Paris, 1864). See also 

brief account of its author fa given here Carlos, ^^^!:."i:S:!T,:^v'T}tTti!^^]\''^)'^'iSS: 

fourth son of Marie-Maximuien-Joseph Sommer- mervooel, BiM. (ie« ^cn'i). d« 2a comp. de J^sk« (lO vols.. Brussels, 

vogel and Hortense Blanchard, was bom on 8 1890-1910);Hurtor, ^ommcfa/orZi<minu« (Wbruck, 1892-^^^ 

Jan mi, at Stra«burg, Alsace, and died in Paris ^'^r^^^ifl^la^^.^/^'^^^rirl^'lS^k 

on 4 May, 1902. After studying at the lyc^e of Galerie iUuatrie de la comp. de J, (8 vols.. Paris, 1893) ; DE Uri- 

Strasburg, Carlos entered the Jesuit novitiate at arte, CaUU. raaonadode obraa . . . de autcrea de la comp. 

Issenheim Alsace, 2 Feb., 1853, and was sent later "^ /^„P^oDil^:^Mhnoirea de Trivoux (Ti^voux and 

to Samt-Acheul, Amie;iS, to complete his literary Paris, 1701-67, 265 vols.). Table mlthodigue, by SoMMERVoaEL 

studies. In 1856 he was appointed assistant prefect (3 vols., Paris. 18M-65);Cmttdco«aiioa (Rome. ISfiO); Btudea 

of discipline and sub-librari^ in the College of the 'j;SiJ:f!'i^-^a^%}^X~^8T^^ 

Immaculate Conception, Rue Yaugirard, Pans, hiatoriquea (Brussels, 1852), TabUa, 186t-72 (Brussels, 1894), 

Here he discovered his literary vocation. The 1^1899 »t ^came the Ji/iMion* 6«/a« 

" BibUotMque" of PP. Augustin an'k Aloys de Backer }|?t5; ^ 'i^'i^'i^kl^'n^rint^J^^'^ 

was then m course of pubucation. and Sommervogel, issued a series of ErgHnzungahefte. Also Regiater /. 1871-86; Reg- 

noting in it occasional errors and omissions, made a ♦^«' ^^. /l*^"^?' ^^if* iP^py* 1868); R«. d[« queationa hia- 

systematic examination of the whole work Four aS^)i«z■S:5l'•/iffeik.^ff(/ZbS;k^'f^^^^^ 

years later P. Aug. de Backer, seemg his hst of adden- (Madrid, 1901). Besides the above, which deal with topics of all 

da and errata, a MS. of SOO pages containing over «>J^. there are a host of minor |M?riodical8 devoted to special 

10,000 entries, obtdned leave to make use of it Som- S^TSijSlS^ mo^ n^m^^^^^^ ^:''T^'M°^ieC ^ 

mervogel continued at Rue Yaugirard till 1865, re- Saered Heart has editions for manv countries and in numerous 

viewing his course of philosophy meanwhile. He then languages. It is the organ of the Apostlwhip of Prayer; moat of 

BtudieiftheoloBr at Amiens where he was ordained in '^ tXl^).'^'i^ Sio'BoT^No.tiflu??" '^»SS! 

Sept., 18()6. From 1867 till 1879 he was on the staft Rbtbbat8:Spi]utualExerci8E0 of Saint Ignatius; Theatu.) 

of the "Etudes", being managing editor from 1871 \XSL J. H. Pollen. 


Society of the Bleased Sacramenti The, a con- especially to aporoach the Holy Table frequently, 

eregation of priests founded by Venerable Pierre- ''The Society ot Nocturnal Adoration", the members 

Julien E>inard (q. v.) in Paris, 1 June, 1856. His of which for an entire night keep watch before the 

aim was to create a society whose members should Host, reciting the Office of the Blessed Sacrament, 

devote themselves exclusively to the worship of the and offering various acts of reparative homage; ''The 

Holy Eucharist. Pius IX approved the society by Work of Fu^t Communion for Adult-s". The apos- 

Briefs of 1856 and 1858 and by a Decree of 3 June, tolate of the press is a prominent feature in the 

1863, approved the rule ad decennium. On 8 May, labours of these religious. In the United States, they 

1895| Leo XIII approved it in oerpe^uum. Tho first publish "Emmanuel", the organ of "The Priests' 

to jom the founder was P^ de Cuersj whose example Eucharistic League", and "The Sentinel of the 

was soon followed by P^re Champion. The com- Blessed Sacrament". 

For bibliography see EniABDr Pisbbb-Juusm, YnrsiuBLB. 

munity prospered, and in 1862 Pdre Eymard opened 
a novitiate, whicn was to consist of priests and lay 

A. Lbtbllibr. 
brothers. The former recite the Divine Office in choir 

and perform all the other duties of the clergy; the Sodety of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Ths. 

latter share in the principal end of the society — an institution of religious women, taking perpetual 

perpetual adoration, and attend to the various house- vows and devoted to the work of education, founded 

hold employments peculiar to their state. The 21 Nov., 1800, by Madeleine-Sophie Barat (q. v.). 

Blessed Sacrament is always exposed for adoration, P^e of the signs of returning vigour in the Cniu^h 

and the sanctuary never without adorers in surplice, in France after 1792 was the revival of the religious 

and if a priest, the stole. Every hour at the sound of lif?- Religious orders had been suppressed by the 

the signal bell, all the religious kneel and recite a laws of 18 August, 1792, but within a few years a 

prayer in honour of the Blessed Sacrament and of reaction set in; the restoration of some orders and the 

Our Lady. Since 1856, the following houses have been foundations of new congregations ushered in "the 

established: France— Paris (1856), Marseilles (1859), second spring". One of the first was the Society of 

Angers, (1861), Saint Maurice (1866), Trevoux (1895), Jesus. Under the provisional title of "Fathers of the 

Sarcelles (1898); Belgium— Brussels (1866), Or- Sacred Heart" and "Fathers of the Faith", some 

meignies (1898), Oostduinkerke (1902), Bassenge devoted priests banded themselves together and in 

(1902), Baronville (1910), Baelen Post Eupen on the due time returned from their exile or emigration to 

Belgian frontier for Germans (1909); Italy — Rome devote themselves to the spiritual welfare of their 

(1882), Turin (1901), Castel-Vecchio (1905); Aus- country. Father L^nor De Toum% was amons; 

tria— Botzen (1896); Holland— Baarle-Nassau, now the founders of the Fathers of the Sacred Heart, and 

Nijmegen (1902); Spain— Tolosa (1907); Argentina— the first to whom it occurred that an institute of 

Buenoe-Ayres (1903); Chile— Santiago (1908); Can- women bearing the same name and devoting them- 

ada — Montreal (1890), Terrebonne (1902); United selves to the education of girls, would be one of the 

States— New York (1900); Suffem, N. Y. (1907). most efficacious means of restoring the practice of 

All the houses in France were closed by the Govern- religion in France. Though many difficulties in- 

ment in 1900, but Perpetual Adoration is still tervened, two attempts were made. Princess Louise 

held in their chapel in Paris, which is in charge de Bourbon Cond6, before the Revolution a Bene- 

of the secular clergy, by the members of "The dictine abbess, and the Archduchess Mary Anne of 

People's Eucharistic League". The first foundation Austria both tried to form an institute according to 

in the United States took place in 1900, under the his idea; but neither succeeded, and he died before 

leadership of P^e Estevenon, the present superior- anything could be accomplishea. He had confided 

general, m New York City, where the Fathers were his views to Father Varm who succeeded him as 

received in the Canadian parish of Saint-Jean- superior of the Fathers of the Sacred Heart. A 

Baptiste, 185 East 76th Street. A new church is short time afterwards Father Varin found in Mado- 

under construction. In September, 1904, the Fathers leine-Sophie Barat, sister of Father Louis Barat, the 

of the Blessed Sacrament opened a preparatory sem- instrument to execute his plans. The first members 

inary at Suffem, Rockland Co., N. Y. Here young of the new society began their conmiunity life in 

boys who give evidence of a vocation are trained to Pans, under the guidance of Father Varm. The 

the religious life, while pursuing a course of secular first convent was opened at Amiens in 1801, imder 

study. From the seminary the youths pass to the Mademoiselle Loquet. A school which had already 

novitiate, where, after two years, they make the three existed therfe was made over to the new institute, 

vows of religion, and then enter upon their first and some who had worked in it offered themselves 

theological course preparatory to ordination. as postulants for the "Dames de la Foi" or "De 

From every house of the Fathers of the Blessed L'Instruction Chr^tienne", the name which the new 

Sacrament emanates a series of Eucharistic works, society had assumed^ as that of the "Society of 

all instituted by their founder. They are: "The the Sacred Heart" might be supposed to indicate 

Eucharistic WeeKS, or. Lights and Flowers ", a society a connexion with the royalist party of La Vend^. As 

whose members devote themselves to the proper Mile. Loquet, who had been acting as superior, 

adornment of the altar; "The People's Eucharis- lacked the recjuisite qualities, by the advice of Father 

tic League", which numbers over 500,000; "The Varin and with the assent of the community Sophie 

Priests' Eucnaristic League", with a membership of Barat was named superior By education and tem- 

100,000; "The Priests' Communion League", an perament, the new superior was especially fitted for 

association of priests under the title of "Sacerdotal the work of foundation. In 1804 a second house 

Eucharistic League", established at Rome in the was opened and a new member, Philippine Duchesne, 

church of San Claudio, July, 1906, and at once raised received, who was destin^ to carry tne work of the 

by Pius X to the dignity of an archconfratemity. societybeyond the limits of France. Formerly a novice 

Its object is to spread the practice of freouent and of the Visitation convent at Ste. Marie d en Haut, 

daily Communion, in conformity with the Decree of near Grenoble, Mile. Duchesne found it impossible to 

the Sacred Conere([ation of the Council, "De ouo- reconstruct the religious life of the Visitation in the 

tidiana SS. Euchanstis sumptione" (20 December, convent which she purchased after the Revolution. 

1905). The means there highly recommended refer Father Varin made her acquaintance and reported to 

to the following pjointa: (1) To instruct, refute objec- Mother Barat that the house was offered to her, 

tions, spread writings favouring daily Communion; and that she could find there some who wished to 

(2) To encoura^ assistance at Holy Mass; (3) To join her. 

promote Eucharistic triduums; (4) To induce children The first plan of the institute was drawn up by 




Fathers Roger and Varin, and with a memorial com- 
posed by Mothers Barat and Duchesne was presented 
to the Bishop of Grenoble and approved by him. 
This plan ana memorial set forth the end of the as- 
sociation, which was the perfection of its members 
and the salvation of souls; the spirit aimed at de- 
tachment from the world, purity of intention for the 
fl^ory of the Sacred Heart, gentleness, zeal, and obe- 
dience; the means, for the religious^ the training of 
the novitiate, and spiritual exercises, for others, 
boarding schools for the upper classes, free schools 
for the poor, and spiritual retreats. The rule in this 
preliminary stage was simple; the houses were to be 
imder one siy)erior-general, everything was to be in 
common, the office of the Blessed Virgii^ was to be 
recited, the time appointed for mental prayer was 
specified. The manner of life was to be simple 
without the prescribed austerities of the older orders, 
which would be incompatible with the work of educa- 
tion. On Mother Barat's return to Amiens in 1806 
the first general con^egation was assembled for the 
election of the superior-general, and she was chosen 
for the office. Father Varin then withdrew from the 
position he had held as superior of the new institute 
which was now regularly constituted, but he con- 
tinued for years to help the young superior-general 
with his advice and support. The first serious 
trouble which arose nearly wrecked the whole under- 
taking. At the end of 1808 the ''Dames de la Foi" 
had six houses; Amiens, Grenoble. Poitiers, Niort, 
Ghent, and Cuigniers. The first house at Amiens 
wafi governed at this time by Mother Baudemont, 
who ^11 under the influence of a priest of the Diocese 
of Amiens, Abb^ de St-Estdve, who took that house 
under his control and even drew up a set of rules 
drawn from those of the monastic orders and entirely 
foreign to the spirit of Father Varin and the foundress. 
The devotion to the Sacred Heart which was to be 
its very life scarcely appeared in the new rules and 
they were in consequence not acceptable* to any of 
the houses outside Amiens. Ahh6 ae St-Est^ve was 
determined to force the matter. He went to Rome 
and from thence sent orders, ostensibly from the Holy 
See. The name of the Societv of the Sacred Heart 
was to be abandoned for that of ''Apostolines'', 
and he wrote vehenient letters condemning Father 
Varin and the superior-general and her work. Tlie 
most important letter in the case proved to be a 
forgery. The institute recovered its balance, but 
the house at Ghent had been ahready lost to the 

The second general congregation (1815) examined 
the constitutions which nad been elaborated by 
Father. Varin and Mother Barat (they were an ex- 
pansion of the first plan presented to the Bishop of 
Grenoble) and they were acceptcKi by all the houses 
of the society. It was decided to have a general 
novitiate in Paris. The third general congregation 
(1820) drew up the first uniform plan of studies 
which has been developed and modified from time 

tion of the Holy See. Superiors-vicar were named 
to help the superior-general in the government of the 
society by taking the immediate supervision of a cer- 
tain number of houses forming a vicariate. The 
superiors-vicar assembled with the mother general 
and the assistants general, form the general congre- 

fation of the society. In 1818 Mother Philippine 
>uchesne introduced the society into the iJnited 
States and the first houses were U)unded in Missouri 
and Ix>uisiana. The society under the guidance of 
Mother Mary Aloysia Hardey (q. v.) spread rapidly, 
and in 1910 counted twenty-seven houses and more 
than eleven hundred members The extension in 
Europe was confined to France until 1827 when a 
school was opened at the Trinitll dei Monti, Rome. 
Houses were founded in Belgium (Jette), 1836; 
England (Berrymead, now Rodiampton) and Ire- 
land (Roscrea), both in 1841; Canada (Montreal), 
1842; Austria (Lemberg), 1843; Spain (Sarria, near 
Barcelona), 1846. Mother du Kousier was the 
pioneer in South America (Santiago de Chile in 1854). 
Other foundations were made m the West Indies 
(1858); New Zealand (1880); Australia (1882): 
Egypt (1903): Japan (1908). The Revolution of 
1830 disturbed the nouse in Paris but did not destSk^y 
it; the novitiate was removed elsewhere. In 1848 
the house in Switzerland had to be abandoned; the 
rel^ious were e}n)elled from Genoa, Turin, Saluzso. 
and Pi^erol while the houses in Rome were searched 
and pillaged. In 1860 Loreto, St. Elpidio, and 
Perucia were suppressed. The German houses were 
closed by the May Laws of 1873. Between 1903 
and 1909 fortv-seven houses in France were closed 
and many of tnem confiscated by the French Govern- 
ment. The mother-house was transferred to Brus- 
sels in 1909. This wholesale destruction increased the 
extension in foreign countries; for almost every house 
that has been closed another has been opened else- 
where. At present the society counts 139 houses 
and about 6500 religious. 

The society aims at a twofold spirit — contemplative 
and active. It is composed of choir religious and lay 
sisters. Enclosure is observed in a manner adapted 
to the worksj the Office of the Blessed Virgm is 
recited in choir. The choice of subjects is guided by 
the qualifications laid down in the oonfftitutions. 
In addition to the indication of a true religious vocap 
tion there is required resp>ectable parentage, unblem- 
ished reputation, a good or at least sufficient education 
with some aptitude for completing it, a sound judg- 
ment, and above all a generous determination to make 
an entire surrender of self to the service of God 
through the hands of superiors. The candidate is 
not aSowed to make any conditions as to place of 
residence or employment, but must be reac^ to be 
sent by obedience to any part of the world, even the 
privilege of going on foreign missions is not definitely 

?roini^d in the oe^nning to those who aspire to it. 
ostulants are admitted to a preliminary probation 

which has been developed and modified from time of three months, at the end of which they may take 
to time to bring it into harmony with present needs, the religious haoit and begin their novitiate of two 
without losing the features which have characterized years, which are spent in studying the spirit and the 

it from the beginning. In 1826 the society obtained 
the formal approbation of Leo XII ana the first 
cardinal protector was appointed, in place of an 
ecclesiastical superior whose authority would have 
depended too much upon local conditions. The 
sixth general congregation was anxious to bring the 
constitutions into closer conformity with those of 
the Society of Jesus. Mother Barat foresaw that 
the proposed changes were unsuitable for a congre- 
gation of women, but permitted an experimental 
trial of them for three yearo. Finally the whole 
affair was submitted to Gregory XVI, who decided 
that the society should return in all points to the 
constitution approved by Leo XII. The last changes 
in the constitutions were made in 1851 with the sano- 

years, which are spent in studving the spirit and the 
rules oithe society, exercising themselves mits manner 
of living, and in the virtues which they will be called 
upon to practice; the second year is devoted to a 
course of study which is to prepare them for their 
educational work. To each novitiate there is at- 
tached a teaching and training department where the 
fiirst course of studies may be taken, and when it is 
possible the young religious pass a year in this, after 
their vows, before they are sent to teach in the schools. 
The first vows, simple perpetual vows of poverty, 
chastity and obedience, are taken at the end of two 
years 'of noviceship, after which foUow five years 
spent in study, teaching, or other duties. At the end 
of this period follows for those who have special 
aptitude for the work o( teaching, another short 


oourse of study, and for all a period of second novi- poor giils and peasant women. Retreats for First 
tiate or probation lasting six months, at the end of Communion in Rome, and retreats for Indian women 
which, that is to say, seven years after their ad- in Mexico are special varieties of this work. (4) The 
mission to the society, the aspirants take their final congregations of Children of Mary living in the world 
vows and are received as professed religious. The which have their own rules and organization (see 
vow of stability, that is, of perseverance in the Children of Maby of the Sacred Heart, The). 
society, is then added, and for the choir religious See bibliographies to Barat, Madblkinb-Sopbib. BucaBBD; 
a vow to consecrate themselves to education of youth; Harobt, Mart Alotbia; Dochbbnb, Phiuppinb-Rosb. 
provision is made, however, that this vow may be Janet Stuart. 

accomplished even if obedience should prescribe other 

duties than those of direct teaching, and may be Socinianisxiii the bod^r of doctrine held by ons of 
fulfilled by concurrence in any way in the work of the the numerous Antitrinitarian sects to which the Ref- 
society. The vow of stabilitv binds the society to the ormation gave birth. The Socinians derive their 
profe^ed until death, as well as the professed to the name from two natives of Siena^ Lelio Sozzini (1525- 
society; this bond can only be broken by the Holy 62) and his nephew Fausto Sozzmi (1539-1604). The 
See. The society is governed by a superior general, surname is variously given, but its Latin form. So- 
elected for life by the assistants general and superiors cinus, is that currently used. It is to Fausto. or 
vicar. The assistants general are elected for six years. Faustus Socinus, that the aegt owes its individuality, 
the superiors vicar and local superiors are nominated but it arose before he came into contact with it. In 
by the mother general, and may be changed at her 1546 a secret society held meetings at Vicenza in the 
discretion; their usual period of government is three Diocese of Venice to discuss, among other i>oints, the 
years, but it may be prolonged or shortened according doctrine of the Trinity. Among the members of this 
to circumstances. The superior general assembles the society were Blandrata, a well-known physician, Alcia- 
superiors vicar in a general congregation every six tus, Gentilis, and Lelio, or Lselius Socinus. The last- 
years, and with the help of the assistants general named, a priest of Siena, was the intimate friend of 
transacts with them all business connected with the Bullinger, Calvin, and Melanchthon. The object of 
general government of the society. These periodical the society was the advocacy not precisely of what 
assemblies, the occasional visits of the superior were afterwards known as Sooinian principles, but of 
general to the houses in different countries, the re^plar Antitrinitarianism. The Nominalists, represented 
reports and accounts sent in from eveiy vicariate, by Abelard, were the real progenitors of the Anti- 
the free access of all to the mother general by writing, trinitarians of the Reformation period, but while 
and in particular the organization of the house of last many of the Nominalists ultimately became Trithe- 
probation, which as far as possible brin^ the young ists, the term Antitrinitarian means expressly one who 
religious for six months into touch with the first denies the distinction of persons in the Godhead, 
superiors of the society — all tend to unity. Its union The Antitrinitarians are thus the later representatives 
is what is most valued, and if it had been possible to of the Sabellians, Macedonians, and Arians of an 
defijie it sufficiently it is said that a fourth vow of earlier period. The secret society which met at 
charity would have been added to the obligations of Vicenza was broken up. and most of its members fled 
the members. to Poland. Lselius, indeed, seems to have lived most 
Four principal works give scope to the activities of at Zurich, but he was the mainspring of the society, 
the society. (1) Education of the upper classes in which continued to hold meetings at Cracow for the 
the boardmg schools and of late years in day schools, discussion of reli^ous questions. He died in 1562 
Originally the plan of studies was more or less uni- and a stormy period began for the members of the 
form in all the houses, but it has become necessary pa£ty. 

to modify it according to the needs and educational The inevitable effect of the principles of the Refor- 
ideals of different countries and the kind of life for mation was soon felt, and schism made its appearance 
which the pupils have to be prepared. The character in the ranks of the Antitrinitarians — ^for so we must 
of the education of the Sacred Heart, however, re- call them all indiscriminately at this time. In 1570 
mains the same, based on the study of religion and of the Socinians separated, and, through the influence 
Christian philosophy and laying particular stress on of the Antitrinitarian John Sigismund, established 
history, literature, essay-wnting, modem languages, themselves at Racow. Meanwhile Faustus Socinus 
and such knowledge of household management as had obtained possession of his imcle's i)apers and in 
can be taught at school. (2) Free or parochial 1579 came to Poland. He found the various bodies of 
schools. In some countries, as in England, these are the sect divided, and he was at first refused admission 
aided by the State, and follow the regulations laid because he refused to submit to a second baptism, 
down for other public elementary schools; in others ^ In 1574 the Socinians had issued a '' Catechism of the 
they are voluntary and adapt their teaching to the Unitarians", in which, while much was said about the 
needs and circumstances of the children. Between nature and perfections of the Godhead, silence was 
these two classes of schools have arisen in England observed regarding those Divine attributes which are 
secondary schools, aided by the State, which are mysterious. Christ was the Promised Man; He was 
principally feeding schools for the two training the Mediator of Creation, i. e. of Regeneration. It 
colleges in London and Newcastle, where Catholic was shortly after the appearance of this catechism 
teachers are prepared for the certificates entitling that Faustus arrived on the scene and, in spite of 
them to teach in elementary state-supported schools, initial opposition, he succeeded in attaching all parties 
This work is of widdr importance than the teaching to himself and thus securing for them a degree ol 
of single elementary schools, and is valued as a means unity which they had not hitherto enjoyed. Once in 
of reaching indirectly a far greater number of children possession of power, his action was high-handed. He 
than those with whom the reli^dous themselves can nad been invited to Siebenbur^ in order to counter- 
come into contact. It likewise leavens the teaching act the influence of the Antitrimtarian bishop Francis 
profession with minds trained in Catholic doctrine David (1510-79). David, having refused to accept 
and practice. This work for Catholic teachers also the peculiarly Socinian tenet that Christ, though not 
exists at Liina in a flourishing condition. (3) A work God, is to be adored, was thrown into prison, where he 
which is taking rapid development is that of spiritual died. Budnaeus, who adhered to David's views, was 
retreats for all classes of persons. The spiritual exer- degraded and excommunicated in 1584. The old 
cises are given to considerable numbers of ladies who catechism was now suppressed and a new one pub- 
spend a few days within the convents of the Sacred lished under the title of the "Catechism of Racow". 
heart; in other cases the exercises are adapted for Tliough drawn up by Socinus, it waa not published 





until 1605, a year after his death; it first appeared in 
Polish, then in Latin in 1609. 

Meanwhile the Socinians had flourished; they had 
established colleges, they held synods, and they had a 
printing press whence they issued an immense amount 
" of relieious literature in support of their views; this 
was cmlected, under the title " Bibliotheca Antitrini- 
tarianorum'', by Sandius. In 1638 the Catholics in 
Poluid insisted on the banishment of the Socinians, 
who were in consequence dispersed. It is evident 
from^ the pages of davle that the sect was dreaded 
in Europe; many of the princes were said to favour 
it secretly, and it was predicted that Socinian- 
ism would overrun Europe. Bayle, however, en- 
deavours to dispel these fears by dwelling ufion the 
vigorous measures taken to prevent its spread in Hol- 
land. Thus, in 1639, at the su^estion of the British 
Ambassador, all the states of Holland were advised 
of the probable arrival of the Socinians after their ex- 
pulsion from Poland; while in 1653 very stringent de- 
crees were passed against them. The sect never had a 
great vogue in England; it was distasteful to Prot- 
estants ifdio, less logical, perhaps, but more conserva- 
tive in their views, were not prepared to go to the 
lengths of the Continental Reformers. In 1612 we 
find the names of Leggatt and Wightman mentioned 
as condenmed to deam for denying the Divinity of 
Christ. Under the Commonwelath, John Biddle was 
prominent as an ui)holder of Socinian principles; 
Cromwell banished him to the Scilly Isles, out he re- 
turned under a writ of habeas corpus and became 
minister of an Independent church in London. After 
the Restoration, however, Biddle was cast a^dn into 
prison, where he died in 1662. The Unitarians are 
frequently identified with the Socinians, but there are 
fundamental differences between their doctrines (for 
which see next section). 

Fundamental Doctrines. — ^These may be gath- 
ered from the ''Catechism of Racow", mentioned 
above and from the writings of Socinus himself, which 
are collected in the ''Bibliotheca Fratrum Polon- 
orum". The basis was, of course, private judgment; 
the Socinians rejected authority and insisted on the 
free us§ of reason, but they did not reject revelation. 
Socinus, in his work "De Auctoritate Scripturas 
Sacrse'', went so far as to reject all purely natural re- 
ligion. Thus for him the Bible was everything, but 
it had to be interpreted by the light of reason. Hence 
he and his followers thrust aside all m3rsteries; as the 
Socinian John Crell (d. 1633) says in his "De Deo et 
ejus Attributis'', "Mysteries are indeed exalte ^ 
above reason, but they do not overturn it; they byno ' 
means extinguish its light, but only perfect it''^. This 
would be quite true for a Catholic, but in the mouth 
of Socinian it meant that only those mysteries which 
reason can grasp are to be accepted. Thus both in 
the Racovian Catechism and in Socinus's "Institu- 
tiones Religionis Christian®'', only the unity, eter- 
nity, omnipotence, justice, and wisdom of God are 
insisted on, since we could be convinced of these; His 
immensity, infinity, and omnipresence are regarded as 
beyond human comprehension, and therefore unneces- 
sary for salvation. Original justice meant for So- 
cinus merely that Adam was free from sin as a fact, 
not that he was endowed with peculiar ^ifts; hence 
Socinus denied the doctrine of original sm entirely. 
Since, too, faith was for him but trust in God, he was 
obliged to deny the doctrine of justification in the 
Catholic sense; it was nothing but a judicial act on the 
part of God. There were only two sacraments, and, 
as these were held to be mere incentives to faith, they 
had no intrinsic efficacy. Infant baptism was of 
course rejected. There was no hell; the wicked were 

Christolooy. — ^This point was particularly inter- 
esting, as on it the whole of Socinianism turns. God, 
the ^cinians maintained, and rightly, is absolutely 

simple^ but distinction of persons is destructive of 
such simplici^^ therefore, they concluded, the doc- 
trine of tne Trinity is unsound. Further, there can 
be no proportion between the finite and the infinite, 
hence there can be no incarnation of the Deity, since 
that would demand some such proportion. But if, 
by an imi)ossibility, there were distinction of persons 
in the Deity, no Divine person could be united to a 
human p^-son. since there can be no unity between 
two individualities. These arguments are of course 
puerile and nothing but ignorance of Catholic teach- 
ing can explain the hold which such views obtained 
in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. As 
against the first argument, see St. Thomas, Summa, 
I, Q. xii, a. 1, ad 4»m; for the solution of the others 
see Petavius. But the Socinians did not become 
Arians, as did Campanus and Gentilis. The latter 
was one of the original society which held its meet- 
ings at Vicenza; he was beheaded at Berne in 1566. 
They did not become Tritheists, as Gentilis himself 
was supposed by some to be (cf. "A Short History of 
Valentius Gentilis the Tritheist", London, 1696). 
Nor did they become Unitarians, as might have been 
expected. Socinus had indeed many affinities with 
Paul of Samosata and Sabellius; with them he re- 
garded the Holy Spirit as merely an operation of God, 
a power for sanctification. But his teaching concern- 
ing the person of Christ differed in some respects from 
theirs. For Socinus, Christ was the Logos, but he 
denied His pre-existence; He was the Word of God as 
being His Interpreter (irUerpres divina voluntatis). 
The passages from St. John which present the Woid 
as the meofium of creation were explained by Socinus 
of regeneration only. At the same time Christ was 
miraculously begotten: He was a perfect man. He 
was the appointed mediator; but He was not God, 
only deified man. In this sense He was to be adored; 
ana it is here precisely that we have the dividing line 
between Socinianism and Unitarianism, for the latter 
system denied the miraculous birth of Christ and re- 
fused Him adoration. It must be confessed that, on 
their principles, the Unitarians were much more 

Redemption and Sacraments. — Socinus's views 
reg^rdin^ the person of Christ necessarily affected 
his teaching on the office of Christ as Redeemer, and 
consequently on the efficacy of the sacraments. 
Being purely man, Christ did not work out oiir re- 
demption in the sense of satisfying for our sins; and 
consequently we cannot regard me sacraments as 
instruments whereby the fruits of that redemption 
are applied to man. Hence Socinus taught that the 
Passion of Christ was merely an example to us and 4i 
pledge of our forgiveness. All this teaching is syn- 
cretized in the Socinian doctrine regarding the Last 
Supper; it was not even commemorative of Christ's 
Passion, it was rather an act of thanksgiving for it. 

The Church and Socinianism. — Needless to say, 
the tenets of the Socinians have been repeatedly con- 
demned by the Church. As Antitrinitarianists, they 
are opposed to the express teaching of the first six 
councils; their view of the person of Christ is in con- 
tradiction to the same councils, especially that of 
Chalcedon and the famous "Tome" (Ep. xxviii) of 
St. Leo the Great (cf. Denzinger, no. 143). For its 
peculiar views regarding the aaoration of Christ, cf. 
can. ix. of the fifth CEcumenical Synod (Denz., 22\), 
It is opposed, too. to the various creeds, more espe- 
cially to that of St. Athanasius. It has also many 
affinities with the Adoptionist heresy condemned in 
the Plenary Council of Frankfort, in 794, and in the 
second letter of Pope Hadrian I to the bishoi)s of 
Spain (cf. Denz., 309-314). Its denial of the Atone- 
ment is in opposition to the decrees against Gottes- 
chalk promulgated in 849 (cf . Denz., 319), and also to 
the definition of the Fourth Lateran Council against 
the Albigensians (Denz.^ 428; cf. also Cone. Trid.. 

80CZ0L007 115 SOCIOLOGY 

Rees. xxii.y cap. i. de Sacrificio Misss, in Denz., 938). It is the aim of eoonomic science to investigate the 
ThecondemnedpropoeitionsofAbelard (1140) might forms, relations, and processes that occur among 
equally well stand for those of the Socinians (cf. Denz., men in their associated efforts to make immediate or 
363 sqq.)> The same must be said of the Waldensian mediate provision for their physical wants. The 
heresy: the Profession of Faith drawn up against science deals with the phenomena resulting from the 
them by Innocent III might be taken as a summary production, distribution, and consumption of wealth, 
of Socinian errors. The formal condemnation of So- The science of politics is concerned with the stable 
cinianism appeared first in the Constitution of social relations resulting from the efforts of soverei^p 
Paul IV, ''Cum quorundam'*. 1555 (Denz^ 993); this social units to maintam themselves in integrity m 
was confirmed in 1603 bv Clement VIII, or ''Do- their internal and external relations and to promote 
minici gregis", but it is to be noted that both of these hunuui progress. The state is the institution m which 
condemnations appeared before the publication of the these activities centre. Hence, the forms in which 
''Catechism of Racow" in 1605, hence they do not sovereignty is clothed, the processes of change which 
adequately reflect the formal doctrines of Socinian- occur among them, and the varying functions of gov- 
i )m. At the same time it is to be remarked, that ac- eminent are central problems in this field of investi- 
cording to many, thb catechism itself does not reflect gation. The science of religions aims at describing 
the doctrines really held by the leaders of the party; the stable social relations which occur when men col- 
it was intended for the laity alone. From the decree lectively endeavour to understand the law of their 
it would appear that in 1555 and again in 1603 the relation to a Supreme Being and to adjust their wor- 
Socinians held (a) that there wsjs no Trinitv, (b) that ship and conduct to His supreme will. The science of 
Christ was not consubstantial with the Father and law is concerned with those principles, relations, and 
the Hol3r Spirit, (c) that He was not conceived of the institutions through which tne more important rela- 
Holy Spirit, but begotten by St. Joseph, (d) that His tions between the one and the many are defined, di- 
Death and Passion were not undergone to brins rected, and sanctioned by the sovereign state. The 
about our redemption, (e) that finally the Blessed science of ethics aims at expounding the principles and 
Virgin was not the Mother of God, neither did she sanctions by which all human conduct, both indi- 
retain her virginity. It would seem from the Cate- vidual and social, is adjusted to the supreme end of 
chism that the Sociniaas of 1605 held that Christ was man; or, in the Christian sense of the term, to the will 
at least miraculously conceived, though in what sense of God. The science of history, which assumes the 
they held this is not clear. law of continuity in human society, endeavours to 

BiUiotheea Fratrum Polanorum (Amsterdam. 1656); Bock, look OUt OVer its whole SUrface, tO disCOVer and de- 

mUrDJ'SSrtS« ^"p^ ?SS«r h"*751^:'fS^?^S£ ^^^^em a large way the p«.cee8e8 of change that have 

Soeinianitmua in der Qeaammtentwieklung dei Chriat. (Kiel. 1845) ; occurred m SOCial relations of whatsoever kind. Each 

S*i!if?"M^??^' SoHySour^ of Utf SngiM, Unitarian Church of these social sciences is analytical or descriptive, but 

(1884), ix; MoBHBiM, HtaL Cent., XVI, lect. lu, pt. ii, 4, 7; Crell :- :x_ «^,-»i^i«.*^ #l**w*»ly^r%.««k«f f* ol^^nlrl Uax,^\> «%r«l.*.« 

(Socidiui. d. 1633), \d« Deo et ejua attributii; OsHimivs (or "? *« Complete development It Should have a norma- 

PMiPcoTroe), Vita Fauati Sodni (1643, 1636); Toulmin, Mem- tive or durective Side. To use the techmcal phrase, it 

om of the Life, Chancter and WrUing* of F.Soeintu {London, ig teleological. The Complete function of each of 

lS2^"J^Jl4/(Sr.2^SS^^^ th«n 8ho"W include the »Btti^ forth of a purpose for 

Hietory of Christian Dogmae, II, 62&^700 (a very good account of human COnduct and should Otter direction towards it, 

the Socinian teneto) ; Blunt, Dictionary of Seete, Hfreeiea, Ec- which is modified by the relations in which each 

cleeiaetieal POHiee and SchooU of Thought, Rdigioue Thought aianAa i^ f Ka f\*h»m 

(1891); PKTATIU8, De theolooicie doffmatibua. Lib. XVI, cap. L B'^Mias U) ine Otners. x i . .* • • 

(where a full treatment of the Socinian dosmas will be found); Some sociologists endeavour to locate theu: science 

KiBflCH-HBBaBNBfiTHBB. Handbuch der ailgemeinen Kirchen- as logically antecedent to all of these. According to 

geethichte. III. 333-38. ^yiiB view sociology should occupy itself with general 

phases of the processes of human association and 
should furnish an introduction to the special social 

Soeiology. — ^The claims of sociology (sociua, con^ sciences. Others endeavour to locate sociology as the 

panion; XAyof, science) to a place in the hierarchy of philosophical synthesis of the results of the special 

sciences are subjected to varied controversy. It has social sciences, in which view it resembles somewhat 

been held that were is no distinct problem for a sci- the philosophy of history. Giddings includes both 

eace of sociologv, no feature of human society not functions in his description of the science. _He says 

already provided for in the accepted social sciences, in his "Principles of sociology": "While Sociology in 

Again it has been claimed that while the future may the broadest sense of the word is the comprehensive 

hold out prospects for a science such as sociology, its science of society, coextensive with the entire fidd of 

present condition leaves much to be desired. Fur- the special social sciences, in a narrower sense and 

thermore, among sociologists themselves discussion for the purposes of university study and of general 

and disagreement abound concerning aim3, problems, exposition it may be defined as the science of social 

and methods of the science. Beyond this confusion elements and first principles. ... Its far-reaching 

in scientific circles, misunderstancung results from the principles are the postulates of special sciences and as 

popular habit of confounding sociology with phil- such they co-ordinate the whole body of social general- 

anthropy, ethics, charity, and relief, social reform, izations and bind them together in a large scientific 

statistics, municipal probleroR, socialism, sanitation, whole" (p. 33). 

criminology, and politics. It is hardly to be expectea There is a general tendency towards the establish- 
that differences of opinion would not occur when ment of a single dominant interest in social groups, 
scholars endeavour to describe in simple terms the Periods of unstable equilibrium tend to be followed 
complex social processes; to pack a vast arrav of his- by constructive epochs in which some one social 
torical and contemporaneous facts in rigid, logical interest tends to dominate. This is the case when 
classes, and to mark off for research purposes sec- social sroups are primitive and isolated as well as 
tions of reality which in fact overlap at a hundred when they are highly organized and progressive. It 
points. Nevertheless, efforts to create a science of may be the foodinterest, the maintenance of the 
Bociolo^ have led to notable results. Minds of a group against invasion, the thirst for conquest incar- 
very high order have been attracted to the work; nate in a leader, or the establishment of the Kingdom 
abundant literature of great excellence has been pro- of God on earth that serves as the basis of social 
duced; neighbouring sciences have been deeply unity. In any case, the tendency of social groups 
affected by the new point of view which Sociology has towards unity is practically universal. In earlier 
fostered; and the teaching of the science has attained to stag^ of civilization the process is relatively simple, 
undisputed recognition in the universities of the world, but to-day, when differences of climate, race, environ- 


ment, type, and place am overcome by progress in lution, political parties, centralization of w:ealth. con- 
transportation, travel, oommunication, and industry, flicts among social classes, the sociologist will en- 
the process is highly complex. Political institutions, deavour to discover their wider bearings and their 
lan^ages, and race traditions no longer bound the place in the social processes of which they are part, 
honzon of the thinker. To-day all states are sub- The method employed in sociology is primarily in- 
merged in the larger view of humanity. All cultures, ductive. At times ethnological ana biological 
civilizations, centuries, all wars, and armaments, all niethqds have predominated but their sway has been 
nations and customs are before the social student, diminished in recent years. Sociology suffers greatlv 
Origins heretofore hidden are exposed to his con- from its failure to establish oa yet a satisfactory basis 
fus^ gaze. Interpretations, venerable with age and of classification for social phenomena. Although 
powerful from heretofore unquestioning acceptance, much attention has been given to this problem the 
are swept away and those that are newer are substi- results achieved still leave much to be desired. The 
tuted. Dozens of social sciences flow with torrential general point of view held in sociology, as distinct 
impatience, hurling their discoveries at the feet of the from the particular point of view held m the special 
student. Thousands of minds are busy day and social sciences, renders this problem of classification 
night gathering facts, offering interpretations, and particularly difficult and causes the science to suffer 
seeking relations. The social sciences have become from the very mass of indiscriminate material which 
BO overburdened with facts and so confused by vary- its scholarship has brought to view. Hence, the 
ing interpretations that they tend to split into sepa- process of observation and interpretation has been 
rate subsidiary sciences in the hope that the mind somewhat uncertain and results have been subjected 
may thus escape it-s own limitations and find help in to vehement discussion. The fundamental problem 
its power of generalization. Economic factors and for sociology is to discover and to interpret coexist- 

Erocesses are studied more industriously than ever ences and sec^uences among social phenomena. In its 
efore, but they arte found to have in themselv^ vital study of origins and of historical development of so- 
bearing other than economic. Political, religious, cial forms, sociology necessarily makes use of ethno- 
educational, and social facts are found saturated with logical methods. It resorts extensively to comparative 
heretofore imsuspected meanings, which in each par- methods in its endeavour to correlate phenomena re- 
ticular case the science itself is unable to handle. lated to the same social process as tney appear in 
In this situation three general lines of work present different times and places. The statistical method is 
themselves. (1) There is the need of careful study of the highest importance in determining quantities 
of commonplace social facts from a point of view among social phenomena, while the prevailing tendency 
wider than that fostered in each particular social to look upon society from a psychological point of 
science. (2) The results obtained within the differ- view has led to the general method of psychological 
ent social sciences and among them should be brought analysis. The efforts to develop a systematic soci- 
to^ether in general interpretations. (3) A social ologv deductively have not yet led to anv undisputed 
philosophy is needed which will endeavour to take the r^ults although the evolutionary hypothesis prevails 
established results of these sciences and put them to- widely. The range of methods to be found among 
gether through the cohesive power of metaphysics and sociologists might be fairly well illustrated among 
philosophy into an attempted interpretation of the American writers by a comparison of the works or 
whole course of human society itself . Prof essor Small Morgan, Ward, Giddings, Baldwin, Cooley, Ross, 
thus describes the situation: ''We need a genetic, Sumner, Mayo-Smith, and Small, 
static, and teleological account of associated human In as far as modem sociology has been developed 
life; a statement which can be relied upon as the basis on the philosophical side it has naturally been unable 
of a philosophy of conduct. In order to 'derive such to remain free of metaphysics. It shows a marked 
a statement it would be necessary to complete a pro- tendency towards Agnosticism, Materialism, and 
gramme of analyzing and synthesizing the social pro- Determinism. " He would be a bold man '', says Pro- 
cess in all of its phases. " fessor Giddings, addressing the Amer. Economic Asso- 
On the whole the sociological treatment of social ciationin 1903, ''who to-day after a thorough training 
facts is much wider than that foimd in the other social in the best historical scholarship should venture to 
sciences and its interpretations are consequently put forth a philosophy of history in terms of the 
broader. An endeavour is made in following out the divine ideas or to trace the plan of an Almighty in the 
social point of view to study social facts in the full sequence of human events. On the other hand^ those 
complement of their organic relations. Thus, for in- interpretations that are characterized as materialistic 
stance, if the sociologist studies the question of woman . . . are daily winning serious respect. " Even when 
suffrage, it appears as a phase in a world-movement, the science has been confined to the humbler r61e of 
He goes bacK through the available history of all observation and interpretation of particular social 
times and civilizations endeavouring to trace the facts and processes, its devotees have been unable to 
changing place of woman in industry, in the home, refrain from assumptions which are offensive to the 
education, and before the law. Bv looking outward Christian outlook on life. Theoretically, social facts 
to the horizon and backwards to the vanishing point may be observed as such, regardless of philosophy, 
of the perspective of history, the sociologist endeav- But social observation which ignores the moral and 
ours to discover all of the relations of the suffrage social interpretation of social facts and processes is 
movement which confronts us to-day and tries to in- necessarily incomplete. One must have some prin- 
terpret its relation to the progress of the race. He ciple of interpretation when one interprets, and one 
will discover that the marriage rate^ the birth rate, the always tends towards interpretation. Thus it is that 
movement for higher education, the demand for politi- even descriptive sociology tends to become directive 
cal and social equality are not unrelated facts but are or to offer interpretations, and in so doing it often 
organically connected in the processes that centre on takes on a tone with which the Christian cannot 
woman in human society. The student of econom- agree. 

ics, politics, ethics, or law will be directly interested If, for instance, the sociologist proposes a standard 

in particular phases of the process. But the sociolo- family of a limited number of children in the name of 

gist will aim at reachihg an ijl-inclusive view in order human progress, by implication fae assumes an atti- 

to interpret the entire movement in its organic relap tude towards the natural and Divine law which is 

tions to historical and actual social processes. IJke- quite repugnant to Catholic theology. Again, when 

wise, whether the problem be that of democracy, hb- he interprets divorce in its relation to supposed social 

erty, equality, war, armaments and arbitration, progress alone and finds little if any fault with it, he 

tariffs or inventions, the organization of IsJbour, revo- lays aside for the moment the law of marriage given 

80CI0L007 117 80CI0L007 

by Christ. When, too, the sociolonst studies the re- social valuations by which social conduct should 

lation of tiie State to the family and the individual or begovemed. 

the relations of the Church and the State he comes Economics as it developed imder Christian influ- 
into direct contact with the fundamental principles ences related largely to the search for justice in prop- 
of Catholic social philosophy. When he studies the erty relations amongmen rather than to the evolution 
religious phenomena of history, he cannot avoid of property itself. Whatever attempts were made to 
takmg an attitude toward the distinctive claims of correlate and interpret economic phenomena, they 
Christianity in his interpretation of the facts of its were inspired largely by the search for justice and by 
history. Thus it is that sociology, not only on its the hope of holding mdustrial relations true to the law 
philosophical side but also on the side of observation, of justice as it was understood. Political science as it 
mterpretations, and social direction, tends to take on develo^d under Christian influence never lost sight 
a tone that is often foreign to and as often a^tagon- of the Divine sanction of civil authority. The study 
istic to Catholic philosophy. Professor Ward would of the forms and changes of government, Uttle ^ the 
forbid pure sociology to have anything to do with the underl3ring processes were then understood, never de- 
direction of human conduct. He says, for instance, parted far from the thought of the state as a natural 
in his "Pure Sociology '^ '^All ethical considerations and Christian phenomenon and the exercise of its 
in however wide a sense that expression may be under- authority as a del^ated power from on high. Thus, 
stood must be ignored for the time being and atten- whatever there was of social science, rudimentary be- 
tion concentrated upon the effort to determine what cause of the static view of society which obtained, it 
actually is. Piu^ Sociology has no concern with what grew out of the study and application of the moral and 
Sociology ought to be or with any social ideals. It social principles derived from the Revelation of God 
confines itself strictly with the present and the past, and presented to the beUever through the instrumen- 
allowing the future to take care of itself. " But he tality of the Church. The great emphasis placed in 
would give to what he terms Applied Sociology the our days of wonderful social investigation and of 
function of directing society toward its immediate world-views of social processes causes those earher 
ideals. He says: "The subject matter of Pure So- attempts at eocisl science to appear crude, yet they 
ciology is achievement, that of Applied Sociology is developed organically out of their historical surround- 
improvement. The former relat^ to the past and in^, retaining, for all time, titles to no mean oonsider- 
the present, the latter to the future. " Sociology can ation. Scattered here and there throughout theo- 
scarcely avoid interpretation and direction of human logical and moral treatises in Christian hterature there 
conduct and hence it can hardly be expected te avoid "is a vast amount of sociological material, which has its 
taking very definite attitudes tewanu the Christian value in oiir own time. Tne present-day endeavours 
outlook on life. of sociology to classify human desires and fundamental 
Modem sociology hopes to arrive at a metsyshysics interests appear to have been anticipated in a modest 
through the systematic observation and interpreta- way in the work of the medieval Scholastics. Theo* 
tion of present and past social facts and processes, logical treatises on human acts and their moraUty re- 
in the Christian view of life, however, the social v^ a very practical understanding of the influence 
sciences are guided by a sanctioned metaphysics and of objective and subjective environment on character, 
philosophy. This philosophy is derived not from in- Treatises on sin, on the virtues, on good and bad 
auction but from Revelation. This view of life ac- ezanqjle touch constantly on social facts and proc- 
cepts at the outset as Divinely warranted the moral esses as then understood. The mainspring of all of 
and social precepts taught or re-enforced by Christ, this work, however, was not to show forth social 
Thus, it looks out upon the real largely firom the processes as such, not to look for theretofore unknown 
standpoint of the ideal and judges the former by the law, but to en^le the individual to discover himself 
latter. It does not, of course, for a moment forget in the social process and to hold his conduct true to 
that the systematic observation of life and knowledge his ideals. 

of its processes are essential to the understanding and To some extent there is confusion in speaking of 

application of the Divine precepts and to the estab- sociology in this way since reference appears to be 

lishment of the sanctioned spiritual ideals which it made rather to morsJ direction than to social investi- 

profe&ses. But Christiai^ social philosophy did not, gation. The relations between all of the social sci- 

for example, derive its doctrine of human brother- ences are intimate. The results established in the 

hood by induction: it received it directly from the lips fields of the social sciences will always have the great- 

of Chnst. And the consequences of that Christian est importance for Christian ethics. It must take up 

principle in human history are beyond all calculation, the undisputed results of sociological investigation and 

The Christian view of life does not confound the abso- widen its definitions at times. It must restate rights 

lute with the conventional in morality, although in and obligations in the terms of newer social relations 

the literature of Christianity too much emphasis may and adjust its own system to much that it can wel- 

at times be placed upon what is relative. A Chris- come from the hands of the splendid scholarship now 

tian sociology, therefore, would be one that carries devoted to social study. Bouquillon (q. v.), who was a 

with it always the philosophy of Christ. It could not distinguished theolo^an, complained that we had not 

look with indifference on the varied and complicated paid sufficient attention to the results of modern social 

social processes amid which we live and move. In all research. Illustration may be found in the problem 

of its study and interpretation of what is going on in of private property, which is a storm centre in modem 

life — ^which is largely the function of sociology — ^it life and is the object of most acute study from the 

never surrenders concern for what ou^t to be, how- standpoint of the social sciences. Suum caique may 

ever clearly or dimly this "ought'' is seen. While be called the law of justice that is back of all social 

modem sociology is seeking descriptive laws of human changes and is sanctioned for all time. But the 

desires and is endeavouring to classify human inter- social processes which change from time to time the 
ests and to account for social functions, it is seeking * content of tuum may not be neglected. Changes in 

merely for changes, uniformities, and interpretations the forms of property, varied consequences from the 

unconcerned with any relation of these to the Divine failure to have it at all and from the having of it in 

law. Christian sociology, on the contrary, is actu- excess, are seen about us every day. It is undeniably ' 

ated mainly by concern about the relations of social the business of ethics to teach the sanctions of private 

changes to the law and Revelation of God. It classi- property and defend them, but it must willingly learn 

fies processes, institutions, and relations as right or the sociological meaning of property, the significance 

wrong, good or bad, and oflTers to men directive of changes m its forms, and Uie laws that govern these 

laws of human- desire and distiuctivQ standards of changes. This is largely the work of other social 




sciences. Ethics must proclaim the inviolable natu- 
ral rights of the individual to private property in cer- 
tain forms. It must proclaim the pernicious moral 
consequences that may flow from certain property 
conditions, but it will fail of its high mission unless in 
its indisi)ensable ethical work it take account of the 
established results of social investigation. Eco- 
nomics, ethics, sociology, politics are drawn together 
by the complex problems of property and each has 
much to leam from the others. And so, whether the 
problem be that of the Christian family, the relations 
of social cla»es, altruism, the modineation of the 
forms of government, the chan^g status of woman, 
the representative oi the Christian outlook on life 
may not for a moment ignore the results of these par- 
ticular social sciences. 

Closer relations have been established between 
Christian ethics and sociology in modem days. 
Modem social conditions with their rapid changes, 
accompanied by ethical and philosophical unrest, 
have set up a challenge which the Christian Church 
must meet without hesitation. The Catholic Church 
has not failed to speak out definitely in the circum- 
stances. The School of Catholic Social Reform, which 
has reached such splendid development on the Euro- 
pean continent, represents the closer sympathy be- 
tween the old Christian ethics and the later socio- 
logical investigation. Problems of poverty seen in its 
organic relations to social organization as a whole, 
problems and challenges raised by the modern indus- 
trial labouring class, demand for a widening of the 
definitions of individual and social responsibility to 
meet the facts of modem social power of whatsoever 
kind, reaffirmations of the rights of individuals have 
been taken account of in this whole Christian modem 
movement with the happiest result. ^ There has been 
produced an abundant literature in which traditional 
Christian ethics take ample account of modem social 
investigations and the theories thus fonnulated have 
created a movement for social amelioration which is 
playing a notable part in the present-day history of 

Since all of the social sciences are concemed with 
the same complex fact of human association, it is but 
to be expectea that the older sciences would nave con- 
tained in their literature much that in the long run is 
turned over to the newer ones. Sociolo^poal material 
is found, therefore, throughout the history of the 
other social sciences. The word "sociology" comes 
from Auguste Comte, who used it in his course of posi- 
tive philosophy, to indicate one of the sections in his 
scheme of sciences. Spencer sanctioned the use of 
the word and gave it a place in permanent hterature 
by using it unreservedly in his own system of phil- 
osophy. He undertook to explain all social changes 
as phases in the great inclusive process of evolution. 
Society was conceived of as an organism. Research 
and exposition were directed largely by the biological 
analogv. Schaeffle, Lilienfeld, and Ren^ Worms 
were later exponents of this same view. Later 
schools in sociology have emancipated themselves 
from the sway of the biological analop;y and have 
tumed toward ethnological, anthropological, and psy- 
chological aspects of the great problems involved. 
Repeated attempts have been made to discover the 
fundamental unifying principle by which all social 
processes may be classified and explained, but none of 
them have met general acceptance. The drift to-day 
is lar^ly toward the psychological a^ects of human 
association. Professors uiddings and Baldwin may be 
looked upon as its representatives in the United States. 
Aside from these attempts at systematic or philo- 
sophical sociology there is scarcely an aspect of human 
association which is not now under investig^^tion from 
the sociological standpoint. That this activity in a 
field of such great interest to the welfare of the 
human race promises much for human progress is 

beyond question. Even now statesmen, religious 
teachers, educators, and leaders in movements for 
social amelioration ao not fail to take advantage of the 
results of sociological research. 

Bee Ethics; PsrcHOLoar; Chvich; and articleB on the other 
social sciences. 

The following text-books summarise the field of sociology from 
various standpoints: Ward, Outlinea of Sociology (New York, 
1898) : Dealt. Sociology (New York. 1900) : Gumpldwics. Outf«a<« 
of Soc. (tr. Moors), pub. by Amgr. Acad, of Soc and Pol. Se. 
(1899): GiDDiNQS. Elem, of Soc. (New York, 1898); Babcom. 
Sociology; Blackmab. Blem. of Soc. (New York, 1906); Stuck- 
BNBBBO. Sociology (New York, 1903). 

The following general treatises aim to present the new socio- 
logical point of view: Roes, Social Control (New York. 1901); 
Idbm, Soc. Ptychology (New York, 1908) ; (Toolbt. Soc. Chrganiza- 
lion (New York, 1909); Small, Gentral Soc. (Chicago. 1905); 
Idbm, Meaning of Social Science (Chicago, 1910) ; BdcDouaAL« 
Soc. Peychology (London) ; Baldwin, Social ana Ethical Inter- 
pretaliont (New York, 1902); Kidd, Soc. Btolution (New York, 

Systematic Treatises: Spbmcbr, PrincipUe of Soc.: Schabftlb, 
Bau und Leben dee iotiaUn Korpern; Liubnfbld, Gedanken aber 
die Soxialwiitenechafl der Zukunft (5 vols., Mitau. 1873); Lb- 
TOURNEAU, La eociologie, tr. Trallope (Paris. 1884) ; Tardb. The 
Lavot of Imitation^ tr. Parsons (New York, 1903) ; Simmel, So- 
ziologie (Leipsig. 1908); Ward, Pure Soc. (New York. 1903); 
Idem, Applied Soc. (New York, 1906); Giddings, Principlee of 
Soc. (New York. 1899) : Idbm, Inductive Soc. (New York, 1901). 

Periodicals: Annalee de rinal. interna, de eoc; Ret. intern, de 
aoc.; American Jour, of Soc. 

Discussions of the nature and relations of sociology will be 
found in Reports of meetings of economic, historical, aira[ political 
sciences associations and in text-books on the various social sci- 
ences. For discussion of the science from a Catholic standpoint, 
see Slater, Modem Sociology in the Irieh Theo. Quart., Vu nos. 
21, 22. 

William J. Kekbt. 

SocorrOi Diocese of (de Succubsu), established 
in 1895 as a suffragan see of the Archdiocese of 
Bogota, in the Republic of Colombia, South America. 
The Catholic population in 1910 numbered 230,000. 
The city of Socorro arose at Chianoon, the settlement 
of an Indian chief of the same name, in 1540 defeated 
and captured by the discoverer Martin Galeano. In 
1681 the village moved to its present site under the 
auspices of Our Lady of Succour (Socorro), with 
which name the rank of parish was given it in 1683, 
and it was definitivelv constructed eight years later. 
In 1771 it was raisea to the rank of a town. This 
city was one of the first in starting the Colombian 
movement for independence, for as late as 1781 there 
was a revolt against the Spanish authorities. Socorro 
is the capital of the province of the same name, in 
the Department of Santander. The present bishop 
is the Rt. Rev. Evaristo Blanco. (See Colombia, 
Republic of.) 

Julian Moreno-Lacallb. 

SocrateSi a historian of the Early Church, b. at 
Constantinople towards the end of the fourth century. 
Nothing is known of his parentage and his earljr years 
with the exception of a few details found in his own 
works. He teUs us himself (Hist, eccl., V, xxiv) that 
he studied under the grainmarians HeUadius and Am- 
monius, and from the title of scholastuma which is 
given to him it has been concluded that he belonged 
to the legal profession. The greater part of his Ufe 
was spent in Constantinople, for which reason, as he 
admits, the affairs of that city occupy such a large 
part in his works. From the manner in which ne 
speaks of other cities and from his references as an 
eyewitness to events which happened outside Constan- 
tinople, he is credited with having visited other coun- 
tries in the East. Though a layman he was excel- 
lently qualified to recount the history of ecclesiastical 
affairs. Love of history, especially the history of his 
own time, and a warm admiration for Eusebius of 
Csraarea impelled him to undertake the task in which 
he was sustain^ by the urgent solicitation of a cer- 
tain Theodorus to whom his work is dedicated. His 
purpose was to continue the work of Eusebius down 
to his own time; but in order to round out his narra- 
tive and to supplement and revise some statements of 


118, he began at the year 306, when Confltan tine 

was declared emperor. His work ends with the seven- 
teenth consulate of Theodosius the Younger, 439. 
liiB division of his histoi^ into sevea hooka waa baaed 
on the imperial succession in the Eaatera Empire. 
The fint MK>k embracee events in the reign of Con- 
Btantina (306-37): the second tboae in the reign oT 
Constantius (337-60): the third includes the reigns 
a! Julian and Jovian (360-4) : the fourth deals with 
the reign of Vaiens (364-78): the fifth with that of 
Theodosius the Great (379-95) r the sixth with that of 
Arcadius (393^08): the seventh with the first thirty- 
one years of the reiga of Theodosius the Younger 

The general character of the work of Socrates can 
be judged from his attitude on doctrinal queetiona. 
Living as he did in sn age of bitter polemics, he strove 

the Catholic party in opposing the Ariana, Eunomiana, 
Macedonians, and other heretics. The moderate tone, 
however, which he used in speaking of the Novatians, 
and the favourable references which he makes to them, 
have led some authors into the belief that he belonged 
to this sect, but it is now generally admitted that the 
eicprasions which he used were based on his desire for 
impartiahty and his wish lo give even his enemies 
credit for whatever good he could find in them. Bis 
attitude towards the Church was one of unvarying 
re^>ect and submission. He honoured clerics because 
of Uieir sacred calling, and entertained the profound- 
est veneration for monks and the monastic spirit. 
His ardent advocacy and defence of Christianity did 
not, nevertheless, prevent him from uein^ the writings 
of pagan authors, nor from urging Christians to study 
them. Though he entitled his work 'Etn^Tivuumiiii 
'tirrtpla, SocratM did not confine himself merely to 
recounting events in the history of the Church. He 
paid attention to the mihtary history of the period, 
because he considered it necessary to relate these facts, 
but principally "inorderthat the minds of the readers 
might not become satiated with the repetition of the 
mntentious disputes of bishops, and their insidious 
desi^s against one another; but more especially that 
it might be made apparent that, whenever the affairs 
of the 8tat« were disturbed, those of the Church, as if 
by some vital sympathy, became disordered also" 
(introd. lo Book V). Tnough thus recogniiing the 
intimate relation of civil and ercteaastical affairs, Soc- 
rates had no well-defined theory of (Hurch and State. 
Socrat«a had a restricted idea of the scope and func- 
tion of hisbiry. To his mind the task of the historian 
consisted in recording the troubles of mankind, for 
as lonp as peace continues, those who desire to write 
histonea will find no materiala for their purpose (VTI, 
itlviii). As an example of historical composition the 
work of Socrates raniis very high. The simplicity of 
style which he cultivated, and for which he was re- 
proached by Photius, is entirely in keeping with his 
method and spirit. Not the least among his merits 
is the sedulousness he exhibited in the collection of 
evidence. He had a truly scientific instinct for pri- 
mary sources, and the number of author? he has drawn 
on proves the extent of his reading and the thorough- 
neas of his investigations. In addition U> using the 
works of such men as Athanasius, Evagrius, Talla- 
dius, NeatoriuB, he drew freely on public and official 
documents, oonciliar Acts, encyclical letters, etc. As 
might be expected when writing of events so close to 
liisown time, he had to depend frequently on the re- 
ports of eyewitnesses, but even then he used their 
evidence with prudence and caution. Notwithstand- 
ing his industry and impartiality, however, his work 
is not without serious defects. Though teetncting 
himself so luf ely to the affairs of the Eastern Church, 
he is guilty of many serious omissions in regard to 
other parts of Christendom. Thu», when he speaks 

9 8O01UTXS 

of the Church in the West, he is frequently guilty of 
mistakes and omissions. Nothing for instance is said 
in his history about St. Augustine. In questions of 
chronology, t4>o, he ia frequently at fault, bW he is by 
no means a persistent sinner in this respect. The ob- 
jection most froouently n^e in respect to Socrates 
as a historian ia that he waa too credulous and that he 
lent too ready an ear toetories of miracles and portmits. 
This, however, is a fault of the time rather than of the 
man, and was shared by pagan as well as Christian 
authors. His moat notable characteristic, however, 
is his obvious effort to be thoroughly impartial, as far 
as impartiality was oonsistent with conviction. He 
held the scales equitably, and even when he differed 
widely from men on matters of doctrine, he did not al- 
low his dissent from their views to find expression in 
denunciation or abuse. His "Church Histo^" waa 
published by Stephen (Paris, 1644) and by Valeaius 
(Paris, 1668, reprmted at Oxford by Parker, 1844, and 
in P. G., LXVII). A good translation ia given in the 
Poat-Nieene Fathers, II (New York, 1890), with on 
excellent memoir on Socrates by Zenoa. 

STljjauv. GeMchUAa und Liter alttr der KiTchtn^achichU 
IHuiavBr. IS27): Geffebt. Dit QutlUn dtt KiTrAeiAitUnlUTt 
SatraUt ScAolaXtfui (Leip*^. 1SB8); Miluoah in Did. CKriit. 
BiBB: a. V. Sacralei (2|. 

Patrick J. Hi alt. 

SoCTfttM, Greek philoaopher and educational re- 
former of the fifth century B.C., b. at Athens, 469 B.C.: 
d. there, 399 b. c. After having received the usual 
Athenian education in music (which included htera- 
ture), geomeWy, 
and gymnastics, 
he practised for a 
time the craft of 
sculptor, working, 
we are told, in^ 
father's work- 
shop. Admon- 
ished, as he tells 
us. by a divine 
call, he gave up 
his occupation in 
order to devote 
himself to the 
moral and intel- 
lectual reform of 
his fetlow-citiiena. 
He believed him- 
self deetmed to 
become "a sort 
of gadfly" to the 
Athenian State. 
He devoted him- 
self to this mis- 
sion with extraor- 
dinary teal and 
singleness of pur- 

latiqiw Fncmant, Uflri Qalhcr 

left the City of Athens exoept 
, one of which was the cam- 
paign of Potidea and Delium, and the Other a 
Eublic religioua festival. In his work as reformer 
e encountered, indeed he mayi^e said to have pro- 
voked, the opposition of the Sophists and their influ- 
ential friends. He was the most unconventional of 
teachers and the least tactful. He delighted in as- 
suming all sorts of rough and even vulgar manner- 
isms, and purposely shocked the more refined sensi- 
bihties of his lellow-citizens. The opposition to him 
culminated in formal accusations of imfliety and sub- 
version of the existing moral traditions. He met 
these accusations in a spirit of defiance and, insteiui 
of defending himself, provoked his opponents by a 
speech in presence of his judges in which he afiirmed 
his innocence of all wrongdoing, and refused to re- 
tract or apologise for anything that he had said or 
done. He was condemned to drink the hemlock 




and, when the time came, met his fate with a cabn- 
ness and dignity which have earned for him a high 
place among those who suffered unjustly for con- 
science sflke. He was a man of ^at moral earnest- 
ness, and exemplified in his own life some of the no- 
blest mord virtues. At t^e same time, he did not rise 
above the moral level of his contemporaries in every 
respect, and Christian apologists have no difficulty in 
refuting the contention that he was the equal of the 
' Christian saints. His frequent references to a "di- 
vine voice'' that inspired hun at critical moments in 
his career are, perhaps, best explained by saying that 
they are simply his peculiar way of speakmg about the 
promptings of his own conscience. They do not 
necessarily imply a patholo^cal condition of his mind, 
nor a superstitious behef m the existence of a '^ fa- 
miliar demon". 

Socrates was, above all things^ a reformer. He was 
alarmed at the condition of affairs in Athens, a condi- 
tion which he was, perhaps, right in ascribing to the 
Sophists. They taught that there is no objective 
standard of the true and the false, that that is true 
which seems to be true, and that that is false which 
seems to be false. Socrates considered that this theo- 
retical scepticism led inevitably to moral anarchy. 
If that is true which seems to be true, then that is 
good, he said, which seems to be good. Up to this 
time morality was taught not by principles scientifi- 
cally determined, but by instances, proverbs, and 
apothegms. He undertook, therefore, first to deter- 
mine the conditions of universally vaUd knowledge, 
and, secondly, to found on universally valid moral 
principles a science of human conduct. Self-knowl- 
edge IS the starting-point, because, he believed, the 
greatest source of the prevalent confusion was the 
milure to realize how little we know about anything, 
in the true sense of the word know. The statesman, 
the orator, the poet, thirik they know much about 
courage; for they talk about it as being noble, and 
praiseworthy, and beautiful, etc. But they are really 
Ignorant of it until they know what it is, in other 
words, until they know its definition. The definite 
meaning, therefore, to be attached to the maxim 
"Know thyself" is "Realize the extent of thine own 

Consequently, the Socratic method of teaching in- 
cluded two stages, the negative and the positive. In 
the negative stage. Socrates, approaching his intended 
pupil in an attitude of assumed ignorance, would be- 
gin to ask a question, apparently for his own informa- 
tion. He would follow this by other questions, until 
his interlocutor would at last be obliged to confess 
ignorance of the subject discussed. Because of the 
pretended deference which Socrates payed to the su- 
perior intelhgence of his pupil, this stage of the 
method was called "Socratic Irony". In the positive 
stage of the method, once the pupil had acknowledged 
his ignorance^ Socrates would proceed to another 
series of questions, each of which would bring out some 
phase or aspect of the subject, so that when, at the 
end, the answers were all summed up in a general 
statement, that statement expressed the concept of 
the subject, or the 'definition. Knowledge through 
concepts, or knowledge by definition, is the aim, there- 
fore, of the Socratic method. The entire orocess was 
called " Heurbtic", because it was a methoa of finding, 
and opposed to "Eristic", which is the method of 
strife, or contention. Knowledge through concepts is 
certain, Socrates taught, and oners a firm foundation 
for the structure not only of theoretical knowledge, 
but also of moral principles, and the science of human 
conduct. Carriea away by his enthusiasm for con- 
ceptional knowledge as a basis of conduct, Socrates 
went so far as to maintain that all right conduct de- 
pends on clear knowledge, that not only does a defi- 
nition of a virtue aid us in acquiring that virtue, but 
that the definition of the virtue is the virtue. A man 

who can define justice is just, and, in general, theo- 
retical insight into the principles of conduct is identi- 
cal with moral excellence in conduct; knowledge is 
virtue. Contrariwise, ignorance is vice, and no one 
can knowingly do wrong. These principles are, of 
course, only partly true. Their formulation, how- 
ever, at this tune was of tremendous importance, be- 
. cause it marks the beginning of an attempt to build up 
on general principles a science of human conduct. 

Socrates devoted little attention to questions of 
physics and cosmogony. Indeed, he did not conceal 
his contempt for these questions when comparing 
theni with questions affectmg man, his nature and his 
destiny. He was, however, interested in the ques- 
tion of the existence of God and fontiulated an argu- 
ment from design which was afterwards known as the 
"Teleological Argument" for the existence of God. 
"Whatever exists for a useful purpose must be the 
work of an intelligence" is the major premise of Soc- 
rates' argument, and may be said to be the major 
premise, expUcit or imphcit, of every teleological ar- 
gument formulated since his time. Socrates was pro- 
foundly convinced of the immortality of the soul, 
although in his address to his judges he argues against 
the fear of death in such a way as apparently to offer 
two alternatives: "Either death ends all things^ or it 
is the beginning of a happy life." His real conviction 
was that the soul survives the body, unless, indeed, we 
are misled by our authorities, Plato and Xenophon. 
In the absence of primary sources— Socrates, appar- 
ently, never wrote anything — ^we are obliged to rely 
on these writers and on a few references of Aristotle 
for our knowledge of what Socrates taught. Plato's 
portrayal of Socrates is idealistic; when, however, we 
correct it by reference to Xenophon's more practical 
view of Socrates' teaching, the result cannot be far 
from historic truth. 

For Souroefl. Ritteb and Prbllbb, HiH. PhilosophuB Oraea 
(Gotha, 1888), 192 sq.; Bakbwell, Source Book in Ancient PfU- 
loBophy (New York, 1007), 86 sq. Consult Zeller, Socrate* and 
the Socratic SckooU, tr. Reichel (London, 1885); Piat, Socrate 
(Paris. 1900); Tubner, Hist, of Philosophy (Boeton, 1903), 77 sq. 

William Turner. 

Sodality. — I. The sodalities of the Church are 
pious associations (see Associations, Pious) and are 
included among the confraternities and archcon- 
fraternities (q. v.). It would not be possible to give 
a definition making a clear distinction between the 
sodalities and other confraternities; consequently 
the development and history of the sodahties are the 
same as those of the religious confraternities. A 
general sketch of these latter has been already given 
in the account of the medieval confraternities of 
prayer (see Purgatorial Societies). They are also 
mentioned in the article Scapular. Confraternities 
and sodalities, in the present meaning of the word, 
the only ones which will be here mentioned, had their 
beginnings after the rise of the confraternities of 
prayer in the early Middle Ages, and developed 
rapidly from the end of the twelfth century, i. e. from 
the rise of the great ecclesiastical orders. Proofs of 
this are to be found in the Bullaria and annals of these 
orders, as those of the Dominicans, the Carmelites, 
and the Servites. [Cf . Armellini, '* Le chiese di Roma 
(2nd ed., Rome, 1891), 20 sqq.; "Historisch-poli- 
tische Blatter", cxlviii (Munich, 1911), 759 sqq^ 823 
sqq.; Ebner, "E)ie acht Briiderschaften des hi. Wolf- 
gang in Regensburg" in Mahler, "Derhl. Wolfgang" 
(Ratisbon, 1894), 182 sq. ; Villanueva, " Viage Uterario 
a las Iglesias de Espafia", VIII (Valencia, 1821), 258 
sqq., Ap^ndice XXIII: ibid., XI (Madrid, 1850), 
185 sq., Ap^ndice IV; Gallia Christ., XI, instr. 253 
sq., n. XXVII; ibid., VI, instr. 366, n. XXXIV; 
Mabillon, "Annales Ordinis Benedicti", VI, Lucca, 
1745,361sqq..adan. 1145;Mart^ne, "Thesaurusnovus 
anecdotorum^',IV (Paris, 1717), 165 sqq. "Confrater- 
nitas Massiliensis an. 1212 instituta"; ''Monumenta 




O.Servdrum B.M.V.", I, 107, ad an. 1264; Gianius, 
" Annales O. Serv. B.M.V.", I (2nd ed., Lucca, 1719), 
384, ad an. 1412; ^' Libro degli ordinamenti de la Com- 
pagnia di 9&i^ta Maria del Carmine scritto nel 1280" 
(Bologna, 1867)]. Pious associations of this kind, 
however, soon appeared, which were solely under the 
bishop and had no close connexion with an order. 
An interesting example of such an association of 
the year 1183 is described in the ''Histoire g^n^r^le 
du Lwguedoc" (VI, Toulouse, 1879, 106 sqq.), as 
an '' association formed at Lie Puy for the restoration 
of peace". A carpenter named Pierre (Durant) is 
given as the founder of this societv. In reg^d to a 

(Confraternity of the Mother of (jod" which existed 
at Naupactos in Greece about 1050, see '*La Con- 
fraternity di S. Maria di Naupactos 1048", in the 
''BuUettino deir Istituto storico italiano", no. 31 
(Rome, 1910, 73 sqq.). 

From the era of the Middle Ages very many of 
these pious associations placed themselves under the 
special protection of the Blessed Virgin, and chose 
her for patron under the title of some sacred mystery 
with which she was associated. The main object and 
duty of these societies were, above all, the practice of 
piety and works of charity. The dechne of ec- 
clesiastical life at the close of the Middle A^es was 
naturally accompanied by a decline of religious as- 
sociational life, the two being related as cause and 
effect. However, as soon as the Church rose to re- 
newed prosperity in the course of the sixteenth 
century, by the^id of the Counter-Reformation and 
the appearance of the new religious congregations 
and associations, once more there sprang up nimierous 
confraternities and sodalities which laboured with 
great success and, in many cases, are still effective. 

Of the sodalities which came into existence just at 
this period, particular mention should be made of 
those called the Sodalities of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary (congregcUiohea seu aodcdiUUes B. Marice Vir" 
ginia), because the name sodalUy was in a special 
manner peculiar to these, also because their labours 
for the renewal of the life of the Church were 
more permanent and have lasted until the pres- 
ent time, so that these sodalities after fully three 
hundred years still prosper and flourish. Even the 
opponents of the Catholic Church seem to recognize 
this. The article " Bruderschaf ten, kirchliche" in 
Herzog-Hauck, ^'Realencyklopadie fiir protestan- 
tische Theologie", discusses almost exclusively the 
Sodalities of the Blessed Virgin Mary as the pattern 
of Catholic sodalities. It cannot, indeed, be denied 
that these sodalities are, by their spirit and entire or- 
(^ization, better equipped than other confraterni- 
ties to make their members not only loyal Catholics 
but also true lay apostles for the salvation and bless- 
ing of all around them. In the course of time other 
pious Church societies sprang from the Sodalities of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary, or were quickened by these 
to new zeal and fruitful labours, e. g. the work of 
foreign missions, the "Society of St. Vincent de Paul", 
the "Society of St. Francis Regis", and many others. 
While all other confraternities and sodalities have 
as their chief end a single pious devotion or exercise, a 
single work of love of Groa or of one's neighbour, the 
peculiar aim of the Sodalities of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary is, bv means of the true veneration of the Blessed 
Virgin, to build up and renew the whole inner man in 
order to render him capable of and zealous for all 
works of spiritual love and charity. (Consequently 
these sodalities are described below in detail sepa- 
rately from the others. 

II. All sodalities, pious associations, and confra- 
ternities may be diviaed into three classes, although 
these classes are not absolutely distinct from one 
another. The first class. A, includes the confrater- 
nities which seek mainly to attain piety, devotion, 
and the increase of love of Cjod by special veneration 

of (jod, of the Blessed Virgin, the angels, and the 
saints. The second class, B, consists of those sodali- 
ties which are founded chiefly to promote the spiritual 
and corporal works of mere v. The third class, C. 
may be considered to include those associations or 
the Church the main obiect of which is the well-being 
and improvement of a definite class of persons. 

A. — ^The first class includes: (1) The "Confrater- 
nity of the Most Holy Trinity with the White Scap- 
ular ' ' (see Scapular) . (2) The (Confraternities of th^ 
Holy (jrhost. In 1882 such a confraternity was estab- 
lished for Austria-Hungary in the diurofa of the Lazarists 
at Vienna, and in 1887 it received the right of aggre- 
gation for the whole of Germany. Special mention 
&ould here be made of the " Archconfratemity of the 
Servants of the Holy Ghost " . It was first established 
in 1877 at the Church of St. Mary of the Angels, Bays-: 
water, London. In 1878 it received the papal confir- 
mation and special indulgences, in the following year it 
was raised to an archconfratemity with unlimited 
power of aggregation for the whole world. The director 
of the archconfratemity, to whom application for ad- 
mission can be made personally or by letter, is the su- 
perior of the Oblates of St. Charles Borromeo, at the 
Church of St. Mary of the Angels, Bavswater, London, 
W. A third confraternity for the glorification of the 
Holy Ghost, especially among the heathen, was estab- 
lished in the former collegiate Church of (Jur Lady at 
Knechtsteden, Germany. It is directed by the 
Fathers of the Holy Ghost and of the Immaculate 
Heart of Mary. Its organ is t^e missionary monthly. 
"Echoaus Kiiechtsteden". (3) There is no special 
confraternity in honour of the Heavenly « Father. 
There is, however, an "Archconfratemity of the 
Most Holy Name of God and of the Most Holy 
Name of Jesus". Originally this formed two dis- 
tinct confraternities, which owed their origin to 
the Dominicans. At a later date they combined and 
were united into one society, the ^ablishment of 
which is under the control of the general of the Do- 
minicans. Paul V cancelled the indulgences pre- 
viously granted to the confraternity and granted 
new ones. It is probable that the Brief of 21 Sept., 
1274, of Gregory IX, addressed to the general of the 
Dominicans, gave the first impulse to the founding of 
the above-mentioned confraternities. In this Brief 
the pope called upon the father-general to promote, by 
preaching, the veneration of the Holy Name of Jesus 
among the people. In America especiallv this society 
has spread widely and borne wonderful fruit. It has 
a periodical, "Tne Holy Name Journal," and has 
been granted new indulgences for those of its mem- 
bers who take part in its public processions [Analecta 
Ord. Fratr. Prsedic., XVII (1909), 325 sq. See Holt 
Name, Socibty op the). There are other confrater- 
nities and sodalities, especially in France, and also in 
Rome and Belgium, for the prevention of blasphemy 
against the name of (jod and of the desecration of 
Sundays and feast days (Beringer, " Les indulgences", 
II, 115 sqq.; cf. Act. S. Sed., I, 321). 

(4) A triple series of confraternities has been 
formed about the Person of the Divine Saviour for the 
veneration of the Most Holy Sacrament, of the Sacred 
Heart, and of the Passion. 

The confraternities of the Most Holy Sacra- 
ment were founded and developed, strictly speaking, 
in Italy from the end of the fifteenth century by the 
apostolic zeal of the Franciscans, especially by the 
zeal of Cherubino of Spoleto and the Blessed Ber- 
nardine of Feltre ("Acta SS.", Sept., YH, 837, 858). 
Yet as early as 1462 a confraternity of the Most 
Holy Sacrament existed in the Duchy of JtiUch, 
in the Archdiocese of Cologne; other Confraternities 
of the Most Holy Sacrament were also founded in the 
Archdiocese of Cologne in the course of the fifteenth 
century (cf. "Kohi. Pastoralblatt", 1900, 90). At 
Rome the Confraternity of the Most Holy Sacra- 


ment was founded (1501) in the Church of San Lo- archconfratemity with the right of ag^^gation 

renzo in Damaso by the devotion and zeal of a poor throughout the world. In 1898 its summary of in- 

priest and four plain citizens. Julius II confinned dulgences was confirmed by the Congregation of In- 

this sodidity bv a Brief of 21 Aug., 1508, and wished dul^noes. The main condition of memb^Bhip is a 

to be enteiied himself as a member in the register of continuous hour of adoration of the Most Holy Sacn^ 

the confraternity. It is not, however, this sodality ment once a month. The headquarters of the oon- 

but another Roman confraternity that has been the fratemi^ are at Rome, in the church of the Fathers 

fruitful parent of the countless confraternities of the of the Most Holy Sacrament, whence the society has 

Most Holy Sacrament which exist to-day everywhere the name of ''The Archconfratemity of the Most 

in the Catholic world (cf. Qu^tif-Echard, I, 197 sq.). Holy Sacrament in the Church of Sts. Andrew and 

This second confraternity, due to the zeal of the Do- Claudius at Rome" (San Claudio, 160 Via del Poa- 

minican Father, Thomas Stella, was erected by Paul zetto, Rome). 

Ill on 30 Nov., 1539, in the Dominican Church of Santa ''The Perpetual Adoration of Catholic Nations" 
Maria sopra Minerva. This confraternity alone is was founded at Rome in 1883, its purpose being the 
understood when mention is simply made of the Con- union of the nations and peoples of the world for per- 
fratemity of the Sacrament. Alon^ with the hono- petual solemn expiatory prayer in order to avert 
ranr title of archconfratemity it received numerous in- God's just wrath and to implore His aid in the 
dulgences and privileges by the Bull of 30 Nov., 1539. grievous troubles of the Church. The association is 
The indulgences were renewed by Paul V. It was conducted by the Redemptorist Fathers in the 
made known at its inception that this confraternity Church of St. Joachim at Rome, lately built in mem- 
could be established in parish churches, and that such ory of the jubilee of Leo XIII as pnest and bishop, 
confraternities should share in the indulgences of the Special countries are assigned to eacn one the different 
archconfratemity without formal connexion with the days of the week for the adoration of reparation, e. g. 
Roman confraternity. This privilege was recon- Thursday, North and Central America; Friday, Souui 
firmed at various times by the popes, who expressed America. The rector of the Church of St. Joachim 
the wish that the bishops would establish the confrar (Prati di Castello, Rome) is the director-general of the 
ternity everywhere in ail parish churches {cf . Tacchi- association, which has the rig^t to appoint diocesan 
Venturi, " Jjel vita reli^iosa in Italia durante la prima directors in all countries, including missionaiyones. In 
et& della Compagnia di Gestl", Rome, 1910, 191 sqq^.). order to enter the association, application should be 

In the nineteenth century, however, confratenuties made to one of these directors or to the director 

for the adoration of the Most Holy Sacrament were general. Two other associations were founded in 

also established in other countries, and these now ex- France for the purpose of expiation and atonement ; 

tend all ^ver the Catholic world. Mention is made in these have already extended over the world. One is 

the article Purgatorial Societies of the " Archcon- the "Association of the Communion of Reparation", 

fraternity of the Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed the other the "Archconfratemity of the Holy Mass of 

Sacrament under the Protection of St. Benedict." Reparation". The "Association of the Communion of 

This association, that was founded in 1877 under Pius R^aration", established in 1854 by Father Drevon, 

IX in Austria, was transferred to North America in S.J..wascanonicallyerectedinl865atParay-le-Monial, 

1893 during the pontificate of Leo XIII, and in 1910 in the monastery where the Divine Saviour had com- 

received from Pius X the right of extension through- manded Blessed Margaret Mary Alacoque to make 

out the entire world. reparation by Holy Communion for the in^atitude of 

In 1848 a pious woman, Anne de Meeds, estab- men. This is also the purpose of the entire associa- 

lished at Brussels in Belgium a religious society which tion, which can be canonically erected anywhere. The 

had as its object to unite the adoration of the Most "Archconfratemity of the Holy Mass of Reparation" 

Holy Sacrament with work for poor churches. In owes its origin to a poor widow of Paris, in June, 1862. 

1853 this society was raised to an archconfratemity Each member makes it his duty to attend a second 

for Belgium; soon after this separate archconf rater- Mass on Sundays and feast-days as expiation for those 

nities of the same kind were erected for Bavaria, Aus- who sinfully fail to attend Mass on these days. In 

tria, and Holland. At the same time there sprang 1886 the confraternity was erected into an archcon- 

from the original society a female religious congrega- fraternity with the right of aggr^ation for fYance. 

tion which, after receiving papal confirmation, estab- At a later date other countries received in like manner 

lished itself at Rome, and since 1879 has conducted the a similar archconfratemity. Even in parts of the 

archconfratemity from Rome. It has authority to world where no such archconfratemity exists it is easy 

associate everywhere with itself confraternities of the to be received into the confraternity. By a Decree 

same name and purpose, and to share with these all its of 7 Sept., 1911, of the Holy Office, all former indul- 

indulgences. 1 he archconfratemity has received gences were cancelled, and richer ones, to be shared 

large indulgences and privileges, and labours with equally by all the arcnconfratemities and oonfrater- 

much success in nearly all psuts of the world. En- nities of the Holy Mass of Reparation, were granted 

trance into this confraternity is especially to be recom- (Ad. Apost. Sed., Ill, 476 sq.) . In this class belongs 

Atiended to all aftar societies. The full title of the con- also the " Ingolstadt Mass Asaociation ". (See PuR- 

fratemity is "The Archconfratemity of the Perpetual qatorial Societies.) 

Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and Work of (5) As early as 1666 confraternities of the Blessed 

Poor Churches". Any information desired as to Jean Eudes for the united veneration of the Heart of 

the working of the confraternity and the condi- Jesus and the Heart of Mary were estabhshed. It 

tions of its establishment may be obtained from its was not until after the deatn of Blessed Margaret 

headquarters, Casa delle Adoratrici perpetue, 4 Via Mary Alacoque that there arose confraternities for the 

Nomentana, Rome. Since 1900 the religious associa- promotion of the adoration of the Sacred Heart of Jesus 

tion of the Sisters of the Peipetual Adoration has had m the manner desired by her. During the years 1697- 

a house with a chapel at Washington, U. S. A., from 1764 more than a thousand such comratemities were 

which they extend and conduct the confraternity in erected by papal Briefs and granted indulgences. At 

America. Rome the first "Confraternity of the Sacred Heart 

The "Society of the Most Holy Sacrament", of Jesus" was established in 1729 by the efforts 

founded by the Venerable Pierre-Julien Eymard (d. of Father Joseph GaUifet, S. J. This confraternity 

1868) also sought, by means of a new confraternity es- still exists at the Church of St. Theodore, at the foot 

tablished by it, to incite the faithful to adoration and of the Palatine. The membership of this "Confra- 

zeal for the glorification of Jesus Christ in the Holy ternity of the Sacconi" has included celebrated and 

Eucharist. In 1897 this society was raised to an holy men. Only men, however, can bebng to it. 




Consequentlv it was given to another confraternity of 
the Sacred Heart to spread from Rome over the entire 
world. This is the sodality established in 1797 by 
Father Felici, S.J.. in the httle Church of Our Lady 
ad Pineanif called in CappeUa. The sodality was 
raised in 1803 to an archconfratemity. and was after- 
ward transferred by Leo XII to the Church of Santa 
Maria della Pace. Application to join this confra- 
ternity is made at the church. More than lOiXX) con- 
fraternities have already united with it. The con- 
fraternities of the Sacred Heart erected in Belgium 
can unite with the archconfratemity of Paray-le-Mo- 
nialy those established in France can either loin this 
archconfratemity or that at Moulins. In addition a 
new confraternity of the Sacred Heart of Jesus was 
established in 1876 at Montmartre, Paris. In 1894 
this Bocietv received the right to incorporate into itself 
other confraternities of the same name and object in 
any part of the world and to share its indulKcnces with 
these. The object of this confraternity, fike that of 
the great church at Montmartre, is expiatory, and the 
society is to pray for the freedom of the pope and the 
salvation of numan society. 

The "Archconfratemity of Prayer and Penance in 
honour of the Heart of Jesus", founded at Dijon in 
1879 with the right of aggregation for the entire world, 
has, since 1894. been established at the church of 
Montnukrtre. A wish expressed by the Divine Sa- 
viour long before to Blessed Margaret Mary Alacoque 
was fulfilled on 14 March, 1863. On this day the 
''Guard of Honour of the Most Sacred Heart of 
Jesus" was founded in the monastery of the Visita- 
tion at Bourj^-en-Bresse, France. The name ex- 
presses the object of this sodality, which is to collect 
faithful hearts around the Saviour for constant ad- 
oration and love and to make reparation to him for the 
ingratitude of men. In 1864 the association at Bourp- 
en-Bresse was confirmed as a confraternity, and m 
1878 was made an archconfratemity for France and 
Belelimi. In 1879 the confraternity was established 
at Rome in the Church of Sts. Vmcent and Anas- 
tasius, and defined as an archconfratemity for Italy 
and all countries which have no archconfratemity of 
their own. In 1883 the confraternity of Brooklyn, 
New York, conducted by the Sisters of the Visitation, 
was confirmed. by Leo XIII as an archconfratemity, 
with the right of aggregation for the United Stat^. 
For the "Apostleship of Prayer" see The Catholic 
Encyclopedia, vol. I, 633; Hilgers, "Das Goldene 
Buchlein", Ratisbon, 1911. In 1903 Leo XIII es- 
tablished at the Church of St. Joachim at Rome a 
special "Archconfratemity of the Eucharistic Heart 
of Jesus", granting it the right to unite sodalities 
bearing the same name as itself. The confraternity 
is intended to offer in a special manner adoration, 
gratitude, and love to the Heart of Jesus for the in- 
stitution of the Holy Eucharist. Mention should also 
be made of the "Archconfratemity of the Holy Agony 
of Our Lord Jesus Christ", conducted by the Lazarist 
Fathers in Paris, which was established m 1862 in the 
Diocese of Lyons and was defined in 1865 as an 
archconfratemity for this diocese. In 1873 the con- 
fraternity at Paris was declared an archconfrater- 
nity for all France, and in 1894 it received the right 
of aggregation for the whole world. The "Arch- 
confratemity of Uie Holy Hour" is also connected 
with a wi^ expressed by the Saviour and a reve- 
lation of Himself given in 1673. At that time the 
Saviour demanded of Blessed Margaret Mary Ala- 
oooue an hour of union with Himself m prayer at mid- 
nignt on Tliursdays in memory of His Agony on the 
Mount of Olives. In 1829 this sodality was founded 
at Paray-le-Monial, and finally in 1911 it received the 
right of aggregation for the entire world (Acta Apost. 
Sea., Ill, 157). The members can observe the noly 
hour of prayer from Thursday afternoon onwards. A 
"^ " society was founded at Toulouse in 1885 and 

canonically erected in 1907, under the title of "The 
Holy Perpetual Hour of Gethsemani ". In 1909 it re- 
ceived indulgences from Pius X (Acta. Ap. Sed., I, 
483), and in 1912 new indulgences with the right of 
aggregation for the whole of France. 

(6) The confraternities mentioned above are also 
in part sodalities of the Passion, particularly those 
which especially venerate Christ's Agony. Besides 
these should be mentioned particularly "The Arch- 
confratemity of the Most Precious Blood". This 
society was founded on 8 Dec., 1808, in the Church 
of S. Nicola in Carcere at Rome by tne. saintly Fran- 
cesco Albertini, who died in 1819 as Bishop of Terra- 
cina. The members pledge themselves to a special 
veneration of Christ's Passion, and in particular to 
offer the Precious Blood to the Heavenly Father for 
the expiation of sins, for the conversion of sinners, for 
the needs of the Church, and for the consolation of 
the poor souls. In 1809 the confraternity was canoni- 
cally erected; in 1815 it was richly endowed with in- 
dulgences, and in the same year was raised to an arch- 
confratemity. Applications for membership can be 
made to the director of the archconfratemity at S. 
Nicola in Carcere, or t6 the Missioners of the Precious 
Blood, 1 Via Poli Crociferi, Rome, for since 1851 the 
general of these missioners has had all necessary 
powers. Blessed Caspar of Buffalo, founder of the 
mission houses of the Precious Blood, did much to 
promote this confraternity. He was beatified in 1894. 
A rescript of 3 Aug., 1895, of the Congregation of In- 
dulgences granted in perpetuity that the bishops of 
the United States of North America and Canada pro 
8UO arbitrio et pnuientia might erect the Confrater- 
nity of the Precious Blood in all parish churches 
without regard to their location, that these then could 
unite with the society at Rome, the "Unio Prima- 
Primaria", in the church of the Missioners of the 
Precious Blood, and could share in its indulgences and 
privileges (cf. ^'Amerikan Pastoralblatt", 1897,104). 
See Precious Blood, Abchconfraternitt of thb 

Religious associations have also been formed to en- 
courajge the practice of the Holy Way of the Cross, 
especuklly the "Pious Association of the Perpetual 
Way of the Cross", and the "Association of the Liv- 
ing Way of the Cross". Both societies are under the 
care of the FVanciscans (cf. Mocchegiani, "Collectio 
Indulg.", no. 1264, sqq.). In 1884 the "Archcon- 
fratemity of the Holy Face" was formed at Tours 
as a work of expiation. It was provided with in- 
dulgences and in 1885 was erected into an arch- 
confratemity for the whole world. The insignia of 
the brotherhood is the Face of the Suffering ^viour 
on the veil of St. Veronica. The members wear 
this picture on a scapular, a cross, or a medal. 
Lastly, there was founded in 1904 at the congress 
in honour of the Blessed Virgin at Rome the "Pious 
Union of the Crucifix of Pardon". This asso- 
ciation has for its object the reconciliation with God 
of nations, families, and individuals. The head- 
Quarters of the association are in the Church of the 
Annunciation at Lyons. The badge of the members 
is a specially-consecrated crucifix (cf. Beringer, op. 
cit., Appencuce by Hirers, Paris, 1911). 

(7) The Confratermties of the Mother of God, 
which have been confirmed for the entire Church, ex- 
ist in such large numbers that all cannot be given here. 
Especially numerous are the sodalities and associa- 
tions erected in honour of the Blessed Virgin in indi- 
vidual cities, dioceses, districts, or countries. The 
most important, most widely extended, and best- 
known of the confraternities of the Blessed Virgin 
are: (a) the "Confraternity of the Holy Rosary" 
(q. v.): in the article concerning it the "Per- 
petual Kosary" and the "Living Rosary" are also 
mentioned; (b) the "Confraternity of the Scapular of 
Our Lady of Mount Carmel" (see Scapular); (o) 




\kit3 Sodalities of the Blessed Virgin Mary (see 

In addition, mention has abready been made of: the 
'^ Confraternity of the Black Scapular of the Seven 
Dolours of Our Lady" (see Scapular); the "Arch- 
confratemit}^ of the Immaculate Conception of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary'\ which is now combined with 
the Blue Scapular (see Scapular); the "Pious Union 
of Our Lady of Grood Counsel and the Scapular of Our 
Lady of Grood Counsel" (see Our Lady op Good 
Counsel, Feast of; Scapular); the "Archcon- 
f ratemitv of Our Lady of the (German Campo Santo at 
Rome" (see Purgatorl\l Societies) ; the "Archcon- 
f ratemitv for the relief of the Souls in Purgatory, es- 
tablished under the title of the Assumption of the 
Blessed Virgin, in the Church of Santa Maria in 
Monterone, at Rome" (see Purgatorial Societies). 

Furthermore, mention should be made of the "Arch- 
confraternity of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart." This 
society was established in 1864 at Issoudun, France, 
by the Missioners of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Since 
1872 its headquarters as an archconfratemitv have 
been at Rome, and in 1897 they, were transf errea to the 
newly-built (Jhurch of Our Lady of the Heart of 
Jesus, in the Piazza Navona. Only this confrater- 
nity at Rome has the right to incorporate in itself con- 
fraternities of the same title erected in any part of the 
world and to share with these its indulgences. The 
object of the confraternity is the veneration of the 
Blessed Virgin in her intimate relation to the Heart of 
Jesus. The "Confraternity of the Immaculate Con- 
ception of the Blessed Virgin Mary", established at 
Lourdes in 1872, in 1873 was raised to an archconfra- 
temity, and in 1878 was made an archconfratemity 
for the entire world by Leo XIII. The head of the 
archconfratemity is the Bishop of Tarbes. 

The "Association of the Children of Mary", under 
the protection of the Immaculate Virgin and St. Ag- 
nes, was established for girls alone. It was canonical]^ 
erected in 1864^ in the Church of S. Agnese fuori le 
mura, Rome; m 1866 it received its indulgences and 
privileges with the right of aggregation for all similar 
societies. Since 1870 this power of aggregation has 
belonged to the abbot-geneim of the Ref orated 'Augus- 
tinian Canons of the Lateran, near San Pietro in 
Vincoli, Rome. The intention of the society is to 
keep Christian ^oung women under the standard of 
the Blessed Virgin, and to promote the loyal fulfilment 
by its members of their auties. (See Children of 
Mary; Children of Mart of the Sacred Heart.) 
For the "Archconfratemity of Our Lady of Com- 
passion for the Return of England to the Catholic 
Faith", see Unions of Prayer. The miraculous 
picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour, venerated 
.at Rome in the Church of St. Alphonsus, is known 
everywhere. In 1871 a confraternity was erected in 
this church, and in 1876 was made an archconfrater- 
nity under the title of the "Archconfratemity of Our 
Lady of Perpetual Succour and of St. Alphonsus 
Liguori ". The general of the Redemptorists has the 
power to incorporate everywhere confraternities of 
the same name m the archconfratemity and to grant 
these the same indulgences. There are also various 
confraternities of the Cord, whose members wear a 
cord as insignia just as members of other confrater- 
nities wear a scapular. The oldest and most cele- 
brated of these Confraternities of the Cord is probablv 
the "Archconfratemity of the Black Leathern Belt 
of St. Monica, St. Augustine and St. Nicholas of 
Tolentino", also called the "Archconfratemity of 
Our Lady of Consolation". This society has par- 
ticularly extensive indulgences (cf. "Rescr. authent. 
S. Congr. Indulg.", II, no. 40, and especially the 
lately-issued summary of indulgences in the "ActaS. 
Sedis ", XXXV, 630) . The headfouarters of the society 
are at Rome, in the Church of St. Augustine where 
the body of St. Monica lies. 

(8) There are also numerous confraternities in hon- 
our of angels and saints which are dedicated to the 
patron saints of individual districts, countries, cities, 
and locahties; these are consequently more loc^ in 
their character, e. g. the "Bomface Association" in 
Germany and Austria (see Boniface Association). 
However, there are also such for the whole world, e. g. 
the "Confraternity of St. Benedict" (see Scapular), 
the "Archconfratemity of the Girdle of St. Francis of 
Assisi", and the "Pious Union in honour of St. 
Anthony of Padua", as also the "Young Men's 
Sodality of St. Anthony of Padua", which, through a 
Brief (10 March, 1911) of Pius X (Act. Apost. Sedis, 
III, 128 sq.), was granted indulgences and recom- 
mended to the faithful [cf. Acta Ord. Fratr, Min., 
XXX (1911) 177 soq.l. Only a few more of these 
confraternities can be noticed here. In 1860 the 
"Confratemity of St. Michael" was founded at Vi- 
enna to implore theprotection of the archangel for 
the pope and the Church, and to collect gifts as 
Peterspence for the oppressed pope. There is another 
"Confratemity of St. Michael", with a scapulax (see 
Scapular) . In 1860 the " Confratemity in honour of 
St. Joseph" was established at Rome in the Church of 
St. Rocn. • In 1872 it received indulgences and was 
raised to an archconfratemity with the right of incor- 
poration for the whole world. The members also 
wear a consecrated cord in honour of St. Joseph. 
Special indulgences are connected with the wearing of 
tnis cord. There is also another Archconfratemity of 
the Cord of St. Joseph, which was erected in 1860 at 
Verona and to which Pius IX granted indulgences. 
There are besides many confraternities of St. Joseph 
for individual countries. Several were founded espe- 
cially for France (cf. Beringer, op. cit.). In 1892 an 
"Archconfratemity of St. Joseph" was erected in the 
Church of St. Joseph, West de P^re, Wisconsin, 
U. S. A., that is already widely spread over America. 
Connected with it is a children s league under the 
patronage of St. Joseph [cT. Seeberger, "Key to the 
Spiritual Treasures" (2nd ed.. 1897), 20 sqq.]. 
In 1866 the "Confratemity of St. Peter's Chains" 
was canonically erected at Rome in the Basilica of 
San Pietro in Vincoli. In 1866 and 1867 the con- 
fratemit>r was granted indulgences and at the same 
time received as an archconfratemity the right of ag- 
gregation for the entire world. The purpose of the 
society is to promote loyalty to the pope, and to pray 
and work for the real freedom of the papacy, by the 
veneration of the Holy Chains of St. reter. The 
"Militia Angelica", or the " Confratemitjr of the 
Cord of St. Thomas Aquinas", has been in exist- 
ence a long time. It possesses indulgences granted it 
in 158^ by Sixtus V. Its purpose is the protection 
of purity by the intercession and aid of the Angelic 
Doctor who, according to tradition, was girt in his 
youth with a cord by angels after an heroic and suc- 
cessful struggle for purity. The father-general of the 
Dominicans has charge of the administration and 
erection of the "Militia Angelica". The members 
receive a consecrated cord which they wear constantly. 

B. — In this second class, which contains those con- 
fraternities that have been established to promote the 
work of zeal for souls and Christian charity, there are 
a number of societies that are named after an angel or 
saint, and thus could also be included in the previous 
class. On the other hand a number of confraterni- 
ties, such as the "Confratemity of St. Michael" and 
the "Confratemity of St. Peter's Chains", and even 
all confraternities of expiation that have already been 
described in the first class, could also quite properly 
be included here in the second class. Besides these, 
special mention should be made of the following: — 

(1) All confraternities or sodalities for the relief of 
the poor souls (see Purgatorial Societies). (2) 
The "Bona Mors Confratemity", i. e. the Confrater- 
nity of the Agony of Christ. The object of this con- 




gregation is the preparation of the faithful for a holy 
death. It was established in 1648 by the Jesuit general 
Caraffa in the Church of the Gestl, under the title of 
' ' The Congregation of the Bona Mors in honour of Jesus 
Dying on the Cross and His Sorrowing Mother '\ The 
contemplation of the Passion is one ofthe chief means 
of attaining the object of the sodality. In 1729 this 
congregation was raised to the rank of an archcon- 
gregation, with power to erect similar sodalities every- 
where in Jesuit churches and to share its indulgences 
with these. In 1821 this privilege was recon&ned, 
and in 1827 the general of the Jesuits received au- 
thority for the erection and aggregation of such sodali- 
ties in other churches also. In order to share in the 
indul^^ences of the Roman chief congregation, these 
sodalities must be ^^corporated with this congrega- 
tion by the general of the Jesuits. Pius X increased 
the indulgences and privileges of the congregation, 
and confirmed anew its entire summary of indul- 
gences on 20 March, 1911. The ''Archiconfr6rie du 
Cceur agonisant de J6sus et du Cceur compatissant de 
Marie poiir le salut des mourants" (Archoonfrater- 
nity of the Agonizing Heart of Jesus and the Compas- 
sionate Heart of Mary for the help of the Dyins), 
erected in 1864 at the place which was the scene of the 
Agony in the Garden, has the same object as the 
aTOve-mentioned confraternity. In 1867 it was 
raised to an archconfratemity and received the right 
to incorporate other societies with itself throughout 
the world. Since this date it has grown and spread 
steadily. In 1897, 1901, and 1907 it received new 

(3) The "Archconfratemity of the Most Holy and 
Immaculate Heart of Mary for the Conversion of 
Sinners'' founded in 1836 by the parish priest of 
the Church of Our Lady of Victories, Paris. In 1838 
it was raised to an archconfratemity with the right of 
aggregation throughout the world. The confrater- 
mty includes many millions of members, and. has had 
remarkable success in the conversion of sinners. The 
special veneration of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, 
which is the first aim of the confraternity, is also the 
chief means of attaining the second aim, the conver- 
sion of sinners. In this class may be included the 
Confraternity of Our Lady of Compassion already 
noticed, which has as its aim the return of England and 
all English-speaking peoples to the Catholic Church. 
For the *' Pious Union of Prayer to Our Lady of Com-