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^ ' ^'■'"" N 















, . '■/ 


Niha Obstat, November 1, 1907 





DEC 2 9 1922. 

Copyright, 1907 
Bt Robert Apfleton Compant 

Copyright, 1913 
By the encyclopedia PRESS, INC. 

The articles in this work have been written specially for The Catholie 
Encyclopedia and are protected by copyright. All rights, includ- 
ing the right of translation and reproduction, are reserved. 


List of Contributors to the Second Volume 

VBECKET, JOHN J., Ph.D, New Yobk. 

AIEEN, CHARLES F., S.T.D., Professor of 
Apolooetics, Catholic University of AifER- 
icA, Washinqton. 

ALBERT, F. X. £., Ph.D., St. Joseph's Seminart, 
DuNWOODiB, New York. 

ALSTON, G. CYPRIAN, O.S.B., Downside Abbet^ 
Bath, England. 

OF Sacred Scripture, St. Patrick's Seionart, 
Menlo Park, California. 

ARENDZEN, J. P., Ph.D., S.T.D., B.A., Pro- 
fessor OF Holt Scripture, St. Edb^und's 
College, Ware, England. 

AVELINO, FRANCIS, S.T.D., Westminster, 

BANDELIER, AD. F., Hispanio Soctety of 
America, New York. 

BARRET, T. B., S.J., Professor of Moral 
Theology, Woodstock College, Maryland. 


BBOCARI, CAMILLO, S.J., Postulator General 
OF the Society of Jesus, Rome. 

BBuuteL, F., S.J., Professor of Hebrew and 
Sacred Scripture, St. Louis UNiYEBairri 
St. Louis. 

BENIGNI, U., Professor of Ecclbblabtical 
History, Pont. Oollegio Urbano di PfeoPA- 
OANDA, Rome. 

BESSE, J. M., O.S.B., Director, '* Revue Mabil- 
lon", Chevetognb, Belgium. 

BIRKHiEUSER, J. A., Racinb, Wisconsin. 


Professor of Greek and Sanskrit, Catho- 
uc University of America, Washington. 

BOOTHMAN, C. T., Kingstown, Ireland. 

BREEN, A, E., 8.T.D., Ph.D., Professor of Holy 
Soufturb, St. Bernard's Seminaby, Roches- 
ter, New York. 

BROCK, H. M., S J., Prqfbssob of Fhybicb, Holy 
Cbosb Collegs, Wobcbbtbb, Massachubbtib. 

BROM, GISBERT, S.T.D., Ph.D., Ltpt.D., Head 
OF THE Dutch Historical Institute at 
Rome, Utrecht, Holland. 

BRUCHESI, PAUL, S.T.D., Archbishop of Mont- 

French Academy, Director, ''Revub dbb 
Deux Mondeb", Paris. 


BURKE, EDMUND, A.B., Instructor in Latin, 
College of the Cmr of New York. 

BURTON, EDWIN, S.T*D., F. R. Hist. Soc, St. 
Edmund's College, Ware, England. 

BURTSELL, R. L., Ph.D., S.T.D., Rondout, 
New York. 

RUTIN, R., S.M., S.T.L., Ph.D., Marist Gollbob, 

CABROL, FERN AND, O.S.B., Abbot of St. 
Michael's, Farnborough, England. 

CAMM, BEDE, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), Birming- 
ham, England. 

CAMPBELL, T. J., S.J., Associatb Editor, 
''The Messenger", Nbw York. 

CANDIDE, F., O-M.Cap., Lector in Philosophy, 
Capuchin Monastesiy, Limoilou, Province 

of QUEBBa 

OASARTELU, L. 0., M.A., D JiiTr.Oa., Bishop of 
Saupord, England, 

CASTLE, HAROLD, C.8S.R., M.A. (Oxon.) 
Lector in Theology and Church History, 
St. Mary's, Kinno^ul, Perth, Scotland. 

CASWELL, JOHN, Kenilworth, England. 

CHAPMAN, JOHN, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), Prior 
OF St. Thomas's Abbey, Erdington, Bir- 
mingham, England. 

HATTAN College, New York. 

CLEARY, HENRY W., Edftor, "New Zealand 
Tablet", Dunedin, New Zealand. 

tCLERKE, AGNES M., Hon. Member of thb 
Royal Astronomical Soqety, London. 

South Orange, New Jersey. 




GOLEBiAN, CARYL, B.A., Pelham Manor, New 


CONNELLAN, P. L., F.R.S.A. of Ireland, Knight 
OF St. Gregory the Great, Rome. 

CORBETT, JOHN, S.J., Professor of Holt 
Scripture, Woodstock College, Maryland. 

COTTER, JAMES M., S.J., Woodstock College, 

CREAGH, JOHN T., J.U.D., Professor of Canon 
Law, Catholic University of America, 

CROWNE, J. VINCENT, A.M., Ph.D., Instructor 
IN English, College of the City of New 
York. ' 

D* ALTON, E. A., M.R.I.A., Athenry, Ireland. 

DE LAAK, H., S.J., Professor of Physics and 
Mathematics, St. Louis University, St. 

DELAMARRE, LOUIS N., Ph.D., Instructor 
IN French, College of the City of New 


DE MOREIRA, M., A.M., Lrrr.D., New York. 

DE SMEDT, CH., S.J., Brussels. 

DEVINE, E. J., S.J., Woodstock College, Mary- 

DEVITT, E. J., 8. J., Professor of Psychology, 
Georgetown University, Washington. 

DEVLIN, WILLIAM, S.J., Woodstock College, 

DIERINGER, BARNABAS, Professor of Lan- 
guages AND Music, St. Francis Seminary, 
St. Francis, Wisconsin. 

DIONNE, N. E., S.B., M.D., Librarian to the 
Legislature of Quebec. 

DISSEZ, P., Professor of Pastoral Theology, 
St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore. 

DONNELLY, F. P., S.J., St. Andrew-on-Hud- 


DONOVAN, STEPHEN M., O.F.M., Franciscan 
Monastery, Washington. 

DOUMIC, RENE, Literary and Dramatic Critic, 
** Revue des Deux Mondes", Paris; 

DRISCOLL, JAMES F., D.D., President of St. 
Joseph's Seminary, Dunwoodie, New York. 

DRURY. EDWIN, Nerinx, Kentucky. 

DUBRAY, C. A., S.T.B., Ph.D., Professor of 
Philosophy, Marist College, Washinoton. 

DUMONT, F. M. L.. President of DiviNmr 
College, Cathouc Unxversitt of America^ 

DUNN, JOSEPH, Ph.D., Assistant Professor 
OF Celtic Languages and Literature, 
Cathouc University of America, Wash- 

EGAN, ANDREW, O.F.M., Professor of Theol- 
ogy, The Friary, Forest Gate, London. 

FANNING, WILLIAM H. W., S.J., Professor of 
Church History and Canon Law, St. Louis 
University, St. Louis. 

FENLON, JOHN F., S.S., S.T.D., President St. 
Austin's College, Brookland, D. C, Pro- 
fessor OF Sacred Scripture, St. BCart's 
Sebhnary, Baltimore. 

FERNANDES, P. A., Bassein, India. 

FLAHERTY, M. J., A.M., Professor of the His- 
tory OF Philosophy and English, St. John's 
Seminary, Brighton, Massachxxsetts. 

FORD. HUGH EDMUND, O.S.B., Abbot of 
Glastonbury, Downside Abbey, Bath, Eng- 

FOURNET, A., S.S., Professor of ^ellsb- 
Lettrbs, College de Montreal, Montobal. 

FOX, JAMES J., S.T.D., B.A., Professor of Phi- 
losophy, St. Thomas's College, Washinoton. 

FOX, WILLIAM, B.S., M.E., Assoctate Pro* 
fessor of Physics, College of«th£ City of 
New York. 

tFRISBEE, S. H., S.J., Woodstock Collbqe, 

FUENTES, VENTURA, A.B., M.D., Instructor, 
College of the City of New York. 

FUREY, JOHN, Pay Inspector U. S. N. (Re- 
tired), Brooklyn, New York. 

GANS, LEO, J.C.D., Professor of Canon Law, 
The St. Paul Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota. 

GANSS, HENRY G., Mus. D., Carlisle, Penn- 

GAUDET, LOUIS, Scorton, Yorkshirk, Eng- 

GEOGHAN, J. J., S.J., Woodstock Collegb, 

GERARD, JOHN, S.J., F.L.S., London. 

Titular of Barlings, Corpus Christi Priory, 
Manchester, England. 

GIETMANN, G., S.J., St. Ignatius College, Vai-- 
kenburg, Holland. 

GIGNAC, JOS. N., S.T.D., J.C.D., Professor ow 
Canon Law, UNivERsmr of Laval^ Qubbbc 




GIGOT, FRANCIS E., S.T.D., Pbofebsob of 
Sacbsd Scupturb, St. Josepb'^ SmoNiAT, 
DuNwooDiB, New Yobk. 

QILDAS, M., O.C.R., La Trappe, Quebec. 


GILLIGAN, EDWARD A., S.S., A.M., Washino- 


Gnus, JAMES M., C.S.P., S.T.L., St. Thomas's 
CoLLEQK, Washington. 

GOGGIN, J. F., S.T.D., Ph.D., St. Bebnabd's 
Sehinaby, Rochesteb, New Yobb. 

GOODWIN, ENEAS B., A.M., B.D., La Obanoe, 

GOYAU, GEORGES, Associate Edptob, "Revue 
DES Deux Monoes", Pabis. 

GRATTAN FLOOD, W. H., M.R.I.A., Mus.D., 
RosEMOUNT, Enniscobtht, Ibeland. 

GULDNER, B., S.J., St. Joseph's Colleoe, 

HAGEN, JOHN G., S.J., Vatican Obsbbyatobt, 

HANDLEY, M. L., Madison, New Jebset. 

HANNA, EDWARD J., S.T.D., PsoratsoB of 
TheolooV, St. Bebnabd's Sebunabt, Roch- 
esteb, New Yobk. 

HARTIG, otto. Assistant Libbabian op the 
Royal Libbaby, Munich. 

HASSETT, MAURICE M., S.T.D., Habbisbubo, 

HAVEY, FRANCIS P., S.S., S.T.D., Pbofessob of 


John's Seminaby, Bbighton, Massachusetts. 

HEALY, PATRICK J., S.T.D., Assistant Pbo- 
FEssoR OF Chubch Histoby, Catholic Uni- 


HENRY, H. T., Lrrr.D., Rectob of Roman 
Cathouc High School fob Boys, Pbo- 
FBaeoR OF English Litebatubb and of Gbe- 
oosiAM Chant, St. CbABLBB's SbminabYi 
Ovbbbboox, PbNNSYIcVANIA. 

HERRICK, JOS. C, Ph.D., Pbofessob of Ezpebi- 

SEPH'S Seminaby, Dunwoodie, New Yobk. 

HOFFMANN, ALEXIUS, O.S.B., St. John's Col- 
lege, Oollegeville, Minnesota. 


HOWLETT, J. A., O.S.B., M.A., SuFPOLKf Eng- 

HULL, ERNEST R., S.J., EDircm, "The Exam- 
ineb", Bombay, Imdia. 

HUNT, LEIGH, Pbofessob of Abt, Collbgv of 
THE City of New Yobk. 

HUNTER-BLAIR, D. O., Babt., O.S.B., M.A., 
OxFOBD, England. 

HYDE, DOUGLAS, LL.D., Lrrr.D., M.R.I.A., 
Fbench Park, Roscommon, Ibeland. 



INQOLD, A. M. P., DiBBcroB,'' Revue d' Alsace 


JACOBI, MAX, Ph.D., Munich. 

JUNGNITZ, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Diocesan Abchiv- 
isT, Bbeslau, Gebmany. 

KAVANAGH, D. J., S.J., Woodstock College, 

KELLY, G. E., S.J., Woodstock College, Maby- 

KELLY, PATRICK H., S.J., St. Petbb's College, 
Jebsey City, New Jebsey. 

KENT, W. H., O.S.C., Bayswateb, London. 

KERRY, WILLIAM J., S.T.L., Ph.D., Doctob of 
Social and Political SaENCEs, Pbofessob 
of Sociology, Catholic Univebsity of 
Ambbica, Washington. 

KIMBALL, CHARLES L., S.J., Pbofessob of 
Latin and Gbeek, Holy Cboss College, 
WoBCESTEB, Massachusetts. 

KIRSCH, Mgb. J. P., Pbofessob of Patbology 


of Fbiboubg, Switzebland. 

KLAAR, KARL, Govebnment Abchivibt, Inns- 

KURTH, GODEFROI, Dibbctob, Belgian His» 
TOBicAL Institute, Li^e. 

LADEUZE, P., S.T.D., Pbofessob of Sacbed 


TUBB, Univebsity of Louvain, Pbesident 
College du Saint Espbtt, Louvain. 

LANGAN, J. T., S.J., Woodstock College, Maby- 

LANGOUET, A., O.M.I., Ktmbbblby, South 

tLE BARS, JEAN, BA., Lrrr.D., Mbbcbeb of the 
Asiatic Socibty, Pabis. 

LEGAL, EMILE J., S.T.D., Bishop of St. Albebt, 
Albebta, Canada. 


LEJAY, PAUL, Fellow of the Univebsity of 
Fbance, Pbofessob at the Catholic In- 
stitutb of Pabis. 

LENHART, JOHN M., O.M.Cap., Lectob of 
Philosophy, St. Fidelis Monasteby, Vio- 
tobza, Kansas. 



UNDSAY, LIONEL ST. G., B.Sc., S.T.D., Ph.D., 
Editor in Chief, ''La Nouvbllb Francs", 


LINEHAN, PAUL Hi, B.A., Instructor Couueob 
OF THE City of New York. 

LINS, JOSEPH, Freiburg, Germany. 

LOPEZ, TIRSO, O.S.A., Colbqio db los Aous- 
TiNOS, Valladolid, Spain. 

fessor of Theology, University of Laval, 

LOUGHLIN, Mgr. JAMES F., S.T.D., Phila- 

MAAS, A. J., S.J., Rector of Woodstock College, 

MAES, CAMILLUS P., Bishop of Covington, 

MacCAFFREY, JAMES, S.T.L., St. Patrick's 
College, Maynooth, Dublin. 

McCAFFRAY, ARTHUR J., S.J., Woodstock 
College, Maryland. 

McMAHON, ARTHUR L., O.P., Lector of Sacred 
Theology, Professor of Moral Theology 
AND Sacred Scripture, Dominican House 
OF Studies, Washington. 

McMAHON, JOSEPH H., A.M., Ph.D., New York. 

McNEAL, MARK J., S.J., Woodstock College, 

McNICHOLAS, JOHN T., O.P., S.T.L., Lector, 


McSORLEY, JOSEPH, C.S.P., A.M., S.T.L., St. 
Paul's Church, New York. 

MANN, HORACE K., Headmaster St. Cuth- 
bert's Grammar School, Nbwcastle-on- 
Tyne, England. 

MEEHAN, ANDREW B., Ph.D., S.T.D., Pro- 
fessor OF Canon Law and Liturgy, St. 
Bernard's Seminary, Rochester, New York. 


sociate Professor of Moral Theology, 
Catholic University of America, Wash- 

MERCEDES, Sister, St. Elizabeth's Convent, 
CoRNWELLS, Pennsylvania. 

FEssoR OP Moral Theology, Canon Law and 
Liturgy, St. John's University, Collegb- 
viLLE, Minnesota. 

MOELLER, CH., Professor of Gbnbbal His- 
tory, University of Louvain. 

MOLLAT, G., Ph.D., Paris. 

MQONEY, JAS., United Statbb Ethnologist, 

MORICE, a. G., Kamloofs City, British Colum- 

MORRISROE, PATRICK, Dean and Professor 
OF Liturgy, St. Patrick's College, May- 
nooth, Dublin. 

MUCKERMANN, H.. S.J., Professor of Mathe- 
matics AND Natural SasNCES, St. Ignatius 
College, Valkenburg, Holland. 

MUELLER, ADOLF, S.J., Director of the Pri- 

Janiculum, Professor of Astronomy at thb 
Gregorian University, Rome. 

MURPHY, JOHN F. X., 8.J., Woodstock Col- 
lege, Maryland. 

NUGENT, F. v., CM., St. Louis. 

O'DANIEL, VICTOR F., O.P., S.T.L., Professor 
OF Dogmatic Theology, Dominican Housb 
OF Studies, Washington. 

O'DONOGHUE, D. J., Dublin. 

OESTREICH, THOMAS, O.S.B., Professor of 
Church History and Sacred Scripture, 
Maryhblp Abbey, Belmont, North Caro- 

O'LAUGHLIN, FRANaS D., S.J.„ Woodstock 


O'MAUA, M. J., FoRDHAM Unxversity, New 

O'NEIL, LEO F., A.B., S.T.L., Boston. 

O'NEILL, J. D., A.M., S.T.D., Lake Forest, 

O'RIORDAN, Mgr. M., Ph.D., S.T.D., D.C.L., 
Rector of the Irish College, Rome. 

OTT, MICHAEL, O.S.B., Ph.D., Professor of 
THE History of Philosophy, St. John's Uni- 

OTTEN, JOSEPH, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 

OUSSANI, GABRIEL, Ph.D., Professor of 
Hebrew and the Semitic Languages, Oribn- 
tal History and Biblical Arcosologt, 
St. Joseph's Seminary, Dunwoodie, New 

tPARGOIRE, JULES, A.A., Constantinoplb. 

PETERSON, JOHN B., Professor of Ecclesi- 
astical History and Lituroy, St. John's 
Seminary, Brighton, M ass acu usetts. 

PETIT, L., A.A., Constantinople. 
PETRIDES, S., A.A., Constantinoplb. 



PHILLIPS, Q. E., Professor of Philosopht and 
Church Bistort, St. Cuthbert'b Collboe, 


HAT, CLODIUS, Lrrr.D., Professor of Phi- 
losopht, Institxtt Catholique, Paris. 

PLAfiSMAN, THOMAS, O.F.M., M.A., Ph.D., 

PLOMER, J. C, C.S.B., Assumption CoUiSGE, 
Sandwich, Ontario, Canada. 


POOLE, THOMAS H., New York. 

PORTALIE, EUGENE, S.J., Professor of Theoi/- 



POWER, ALICE, R.S.H.. Convent of the Sacred 
Heart, Kenwood, Albant, New York. 

QUINN, DANIEL, Ph.D., Yeixow Sprincw, Ohio. 
REILLY, L. W., A.M., Washington. 

REILLY, W. S., S.T.D., S.S., Professor of 
Scripture, St. John's Seminart, Brighton. 

REINHOLD, GREGOR, Freiburg, Gbrmant. 

REMY, ARTHUR F. J., A.M., Ph.D., Instructtor 
in Germanic Languages, Columbia Univer- 
BiTT, New York. 

RICKABY, JOSEPH, S.J., Pope's Hall, Oxford. 

ROBERGE, L. D., Vice-Chancellor, Diocese 
OF St. Htacinth, Canada. 

ROBINSON, PASCHAL, O.F.M., Professor of 
Theoloot, Franciscan Monastert, Wash- 

ROCK, P M. J., Louisville, Kentuckt 

ROY, J. EDMOND, Litt.D., F.R.S.C, Officer of 
THE French Academt, Director, * * Notarial 
Review", Livis, Quebec. 

RUDGE, F. M., M.A., YouNGSTOWN, Ohio. 

RUSSELL, WILLIAM T., S.T.D., Baltimore. 

RYAN, EDWIN, Catholic Universitt of America, 

RYAN, J. A., S.T.D., Professor of Moral Theol- 
oot, The St. Paul Seminart, St. Paul, 

RYAN, PATRICK, S.J., London. 

Instructor in the Latin Language and 
Literature, College of the Citt of New 

8AUER, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Editor, * * Rundschau ", 
Professor of Thbologt at the Untvbr- 
srrr of Freiburg, Germany. 

SAUVAGE, G. M., C.S.C., S.T.D., Ph.D., Professor 
of Dogmatic Theology, Holy Cross College, 


SCANNELL, T. B., S.t.D., Editor, "Catholic 
DicnoNART", Folkestone, England. 

fessor OF Church History, The St. Paul 
Seminart, St. Paul, Minnesota. 

SCHEID, N., S.J., Stella Matutina College, 
Feldkirch, Austria. 

veld bei Lichtenvoorde, Holland. 

SCHRANTZ, CHARLES B., S.S., A.M., Catholic 
Universitt of America, Washington. 

Bahama Islands. 

SCHWERTNER, THOS. M., O.P., Washington. 

SELINGER, JOS., S.T.D., Jefferson Citt, Mis- 


OF Philosopht, St. Charles's Seminart, 
Overbrook, Pennsylvania. 

SINKMAJER, JOS., East Islip, New York. 

SLATER, T., S.J., St. Beuno's College, St. 
Asaph, Wales. 


Ph.D., New York. 


SMITH, SYDNEY F., S.J., London. 


SMYTH, P. G., Chicago. 

SOLLIER, J. F., S.M., S.TJ)., Rector and Pro- 
fessor OF Moral Theologt, Marist College, 

Ph.D., Professor of Holt Scripture and 
Hebrew, Kenrick Seminart, St. Louis. 

SPILLANE, EDWARD P., S.J., Associate Editor, 
**The Messenger", New York. 

STEELE, FRANCESCA M., Stroud, Gloucester- 
shire, England. 

STONE, J. M., London. 

SULLIVAN, JAMES J., S.J., Professor of 
Dogmatic Theologt, St. Louis Universitt, 
St. Louis. 



structor IN English Literature, College 
OP THE CiTT OP New York. 

TAYLOR, HANNIS, Spanish Claims Commibsion, 


TIERNEY, JOHN J., A.M., S.T.D., Propessor op 
Scripture and Semitic Studies, Mt. St. 
Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Maryland. 

TIERNEY, R. H., S.J., Woodstock College, 


TURNER, WILLIAM, B.A., S.T.D., Professor 
or Logic and the History op Philosophy, 
Catholic University of America, Wash- 

UA CLERIGH, ARTHUR. M.A., K.C., London. 

URQUHART, F. F., M.A., Lecturer in Modern 
History, Balliol College, Oxford. 

' VAILHE, S., A.A., Constantinople. 



VAN DEN BIESEN, C, S.T.D., Professor op 
Hebrfw and Old Testament Exegesis, St. 
Joseph's College, Mill Hill, London. 

VAN DER DONCKT, C, Pocatbllo, Idaho. 

VAN HOVE, A., D.C.L., Professor op Church 
History, University op Louvain. 

VAN KASTEREN, JOHN P., S.J., Maastricht, 


VCELKER, J. A., Ossining, New York. 

VOLZ, JOHN R., O.P., Washington. 

VUIBERT, A. J. B., S.S., A.M., PROPBtsoR or 
History, St. Patrick's Seminary, Menlo 
Park, California. 

WALDRON, M. A., O.P., Washington. 

WALSH, JAS. J., M.D., Ph.D., LL.D., Profebsoe 
of the History of Medione, Fordham 
University, New York. 


WANG, E. A., Bergen, Norway. 

WARD, Mgr. BERNARD, President op St. 
Edmund's College, Ware, England. 

WEBER, N. A., S.M., S.T.L., Professor op 
Apologetics and Church History, Maribt 
College, Washington. 

WILHELM, J., 8.T.D., Ph.D., Battle, Sussex, 


WIRTH, EDMUND J., S.T.D., Ph.D., Professor 
op Philosophy, St. Bernard's Seminary, 
Rochester, New York. 

WTTTMAN, PIUS, Ph.D., Reichsarotivrath, 
Munich. ^ 


WOODS, JOSEPrit M., S.J., Professor op Eo- 
glbsiastical History, Woodstock College, 

YANES, FRANCISCO J., Bureau op American 
Repubucs, Washington. 

YOUNG, T. J., S.J., Woodstock College, Mary- 

ZIMMERMAN, B., O.D.C., St. Luke's Priory, 
WiNCANTON, Somerset, England. 

Tables of Abbreviations 

The following tables and notes are intended to guide readers of Thk Cathouc Enctclopedia in 
interpreting those abbreviations, signs, or technical phrases which, for economy of space, will be most fre- 
quently used in the work. For more general information see the article Abbreviations, Ecclesiastical. 

I. — General Abbreviations. 

a. article. 

ad an. at the year (Lat. ad annum), 

an., ann the year, the years (Lat. annua, 


ip. in (Lat. ajmd). 

art article. 

Aasyr. Assyrian. 

A. 8 Anglo-Saxon. 

A. V Authorized Version (i.e. tr. of the 

Bible authorized for use in the 
Anglican Church — the so-called 
''Kmg James", or ''Protestant 

b. bom. 

Bk. Book. 

BL Blessed. 

C, c about (Lat. circa)) canon; chap- 

ter; compagnie. 

an. canon. 

cap. chapter (Lat. capiU — used only 

in Latin context). 

cL compare (Lat. confer), 

•oi codex. 

col column. 

nnd. conclusion. 

flODst., constit. . . .Lat. conatituHo. 

cfoL by the industry of. 

d died. 

diet. dictionary (Fr. dictionnaire). 

dkp. Lat. dispuJUUio, 

disL Lat. dissertatio, 

disL Lat. disHnctio, 

D. V Douay Version. 

^,edit .edited, edition, editor. 

£pv Epp letter, letters (Lat. epiitoia). 

Fr. French. 

sen. genus. 

Gr. Greek. 

H. E., Hist. Ecd. JScdesiastical History. 

Heb., Hebr Hebrew. 

^•f ibid in the same place (Lat. ibidem). 

^ the same person, or author (Lat. 


inf. below (Lat. infra). 

It Italian. 

1. c, loc. cit at the place quoted (Lat. loco 


Lat Latin. 

lat latitude. 

lib book (Lat. liber). 

long longitude. 

Mon Lat. Monumenta. 

MS., MSS manuscript, manuscripts. 

n., no number. / 

N. T New Testament. 

Nat National. 

Old Fr., O. Fr. . . .Old French. 

op. cit in the work quoted (Lat. opere 


Ord Order. 

O. T Old Testament. 

p., pp page, pagQS, or (in Latin ref- 
erences) para (part). 

par. paragraph. 

paaaim in various places. 

pt part. 

Q Quarterly (a periodical), e.g. 

"Church Quarterly". 

Q., QQ., qusest. . . .question, questions (Lat. quwatio). 

q. V which [title] see (Lat. quod vide). 

Rev Review (a periodical). 

R. S Rolls Series. 

R. V Revised Version. 

S., SS Lat. Sanctua, SancH, "Saint", 

"Saints" — used in this Ency- 
clopedia only in Latin context. 

Sept Septuagint. 

Sees Session. 

Skt Sanskrit. 

Sp Spanish. 

sq., sqq following page, or pages (Lat. 


St., Sts Saint, Saints. 

sup Above (Lat. aupra). 

8.V Under the corresponding title 

(Lat. aid) voce). 

tom volume (Lat. tomua}. 


to. translation or translated. By it- 
self it means ''English transla- 
tibn ", or " translated into Eng- 
lish by". Where a translation 
is into any other language, the 
language is stated. 

tr.y tract tractate. 

y see (Lat. vide), 

Ven Venerable. 

Vol Volume. 

II. — ^Abbreyiationb of Tttlbb. 

Acta SS Acta Sanctorum (Bollandists). 

Ann. pont. cath Battandier, Annuaire ponHfical 


Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath.Gillow, Bibliographical Diction- 
ary of the English Catholics. 

Diet. Christ. Antiq.. .Smith and Cheetham (ed.), 

Dictionary of Christian An- 

Diet. Christ. Biog. . . Smith and Waoe (ed.), DictloQ* 

aiy of Christian Biography. 

Diet, d'arch. chr6t.. .Cabrol (ed.), DictMnnaire ifar^ 

cfUologie chriHenne et de UtWT' 

Diet, de thM. cath. . Vacant and Mangenot (ed.), 

Didiormavre de thidogie 

Diet Nat. Biog. . . . .Stephen (ed.), Dictionary ci 

National Biography. 
Hast., Diet, of the 
Bible Hastings (ed.), A Dictionaiy oi 

the Bible. 
Kirchenlex. Wetzer and Wdte, KircherUexi- 


P. G Migne (ed.), Pairea GrcBd. 

P. L Migne (ed.), Patres LaHrd, 

Vig., Diet, de la Bible. Vigouroux (ed.), Dictionnaire de 

la Bible. 

NoTB I. — ^Laive Roman numerals standing alone indicate volumes. Small Roman numerals standing alone indicate 
diaptas. Arabic numerals standing alone indicate pages. In other eases the diyisicns are explicitly stated. Thus " RashdaU, 
Universities of Europe, I. ix" refers the reader to the ninth chapter of the first vcdume of that wcn'k; "I, p. ix*' would indicate the 
ninth page of the preface of the same volume. 

Not* il. — ^Where St. Thomas (Aquinas) is cited without the name of any particular work the referenee is always to 
'*Summa Theologica" (not to "Summa Philosophifls"). The divisions of the "Summa TheoL" are indicated by a system whiA 
may best be understood by the following example: " I-II. Q. vi. a. 7, ad 2 um " refers the reader to the seventh article of thm 
sixth question in the lirat pari of the seoond put, in the response to the teeond objection. 

NoTB m. — ^The abbreviations employed for the various books of the Bible are obvious. Eoolesiastious is indicated 1^ 
Bodua.t to distinguish it from Eeo l e si a s tes {Bcd^.\ It should also be noted that I and 11 Kings in D. V. ocHrespond to I and U 
Samuel in A. V. ; and I and II Par. to I and II Clironicles. Where, in the spelling of a proper name, there is a marked diffi 
between the D. V. and the A* V.t the form found in the latter is added, in parenthesia. 


Full Page Illustrations in Volume II 

Frontispiece in Colour pagb 

Psalter of St. Augustine, Canterbury ^ 84 

St. Augustine 85 

Australia '. 120 

St. Peter's Abbey, Salzburg 121 

Palace of the Popes, Avignon 158 

Baldachina 216 

Baltimore 230 

Cathedral of the Assmnption, Baltimore 231 

Baptismal Fonts 274 

Baptistery 275 

Basilicas 326 

Battle Abbey, Entrance Gate ; 350 

Cathedral of Notre Dame, Bayeux 358 

Belgium 400 

Bell Towers 418 

Benedictional of St. Ethelwold 464 

St. Bernard 498 

Colonnade of St. Peter's 510 

Bethlehem ; 532 

Fisherman and the Ring of St. Mark (Bordone) 684 

Boston 704 

Bramante's Circular Temple 736 

Brazil 746 

Brooklyn 798 


Asqrrian Empire 8 

Australia 114 

Austro-Hungarian Monarchy 120 

Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (Showing the Density of the Catholic Population) 136 

Belgium 396 



Assises of Jerusalem.— The signification of the 
word assizes in this connexion is derived from the 
French verb asseaiff whose past participle is omm, 
Asaecnr means "to seat", ''to place one on a 
seat ". Hence the idea of putting something 
into its place, determining it to something. Thus 
assiae came to mean an enactment, a statute. 
Assize is the English form of the word, and used 
in the plural, assizes, it denotes a court. The 
"Assizes of Jerusalem" (les assises de Jerusalem) 
are the code of laws enacted by the Crusaders for 
the government of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. They 
are a collection of legal re^ilations for the courts 
of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem and Ojrprus. 
Thus we have the ^Assizes of Antioch '', the "Arizes 
of Rumania ", legal regulations for the Latin prin- 
cipality of Antioch and for the Latin Empire of 
Constantinople. It is erroneous to ascribe the 
"Assizes of Jerusalem" to Godfrey de Bouillon on 
the presimiption that as he was King of Jerusalem 
he enacted its laws. The "Assizes of Jerusalem" 
were compiled in fhe thirteenth century^ not in the 
eleventh; not in Jerusalem, but after its fall; not 
by any ruler, but by several jurists. Not even the 
rames of these are all known, though two of them 
were the well-known John of Ibdin, who composed, 
before 1266, the "Livre des Assises de la Cour des 
Barons '\ and Philippe de Navarre, who, about the 
middle of the thirteenth century, compiled the 
"LivTir de forme de plait en la Haute Cour ". 

There are nine treatise^ in the "Assizes of Jerusa- 
km ", and they concern themselves with two kinds 
of law: Feudal Law, to which the U{^r Court of 
Bacons was amenable; and Common Law, which was 
applied to the Court of the Burgesses. The latter 
is the older of the two and "was drawn up before the 
fan of Jerusalem. It deals with questions of civil 
law, such as contracts, marriage, and property, and 
touches on some which fall witnin the province of 
^pedal courts, such as the "Ecclesiastical Court" 
for canonical points, the "Cour de la Fonde'' for 
oonmierce, ana the "Cour de la Mer" for admiralty 
cases. It deals rath^ with what the law enjoins in 
these several fields than with determininff penalties 
for transgressions. The celebrated " Livre ae la Haute 
Cour** of Ibdin Was adopted, after revision (1359), 
as the official code of the Court of Cyprus, which 
kingdom succeeded to the title and regulations of 
Jerusalem. We possess only- the official tQxt of 
this, which is not much older than the works of 
French lawyers of Rouen and Orl^ns. But the 
simeriority of the " Assizes of Jerusalem " is that it 
rraects the genuine character of feudal law, whereas 
the works of the French feudalists betray something 
(k the royal influence which affected those sections 
after the revival of the Roman law. No other work 
dwdls so insistently on the rights of the vassal 
towards his lord, no other throws such a light on the 

IL— 1 

resolution of a disputed noint by an appeal to arms, 
its challenge, its champibns, its value as evidence. 
In brief, toe "Assizes of Jerusalem" give us a faith- 
ful and vivid picture of the part played by the law 
in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. 

Beuonot, Reeueil m hUtorUns deM Crouade^: LoU, 2 vols, in 
fbl. (Paris, 1841-43). an edition which supersedes the older ones 
of THAUMApRikRK (1690), Kanslbr (1889), FoucHXB (1840): 
PAULiif Paris, review of Beugnot's edition, in the Jotamal 
<2m SavantM (Paris, 1841); Monnibr, Ooddroy d* Bouillon 
«C tes Assises de Jirumlem (Aeadtoiie des Sdaioes morales. 
Puis, 1878-74). Consult also aoy work on feudal or medieval 

Ch. Mosller. 

Assmajsr, Ignaz, an Austrian musician, b. at 
Salzburg, 11 February, 1790; d. in Vienna, 31 August. 
1862. He studied under Brunmayr and Michael 
Haydn, and later, when he went to Vienna, he re- 
ceived further instruction from Ejrbler. In 1808 
he was oreanist at St. Peter's in his native town, 
and here ne wrote his oratorio "Die Stlndfluth" 
(The Deluge) and his cantata "Worte derWeihe". 
Some time after his removal to Vienna, in 1815. he 
became choirmaster at the Schotten-Kirche. ana in 
1825 w£is appointed imperisd organist. After hav- 
ing served eight years as vice-choirmaster, he re- 
ceived in 1846 the appointment of second choir- 
master to the Court, as successor to Weigl. His 
principal oratorios, "Das Geldbde", "Saul und 
David", and "Sauls Tod", were repeatedly per- 
formed by the Tonkunstler-Societdt, of which he 
was conductor for fifteen years. He also wrote fif- 
teen masses, two requiems, a Te Deum, and various 
smaller church pieces. Of these two oratorios, one 
mass, the requiems, and Te Deum^ and furthermore 
sixty secular compositions, compnsing symphonies, 
overtures, pastorales^ etc., were published. As to 
his style Grove calls it correct and fluent, but want- 
ing in both invention and force. 

BAKBR, Bi(vr. Diet of Mundatuf Rikmann, Diet, of Muaie: 
Qmarm, DieL of Mutie and Mtmaans, 

J. Aw VdLKER. 

Association^ Right of Voluntary. — I. The 
Legal Right. A voluntary association means 
any group of individuals freely united for the pur- 
smt of a common end. It differs, therefore, from 
a necessary association inasmuch as its members 
arc not under legal compulsion to become associated. 
The principal instances of a necessary association 
are a conscript military body and civil society, or 
the State; the concept of voluntary association covers 
organizations as diverse as a manufacturing corpora- 
tion and a religious sodality. The legal right ot vol- 
imtary association — the attitude of civil authority 
toward bodies of this nature — has varied in different 
ages and still varies in different countries. Under 
the rule of Solon the Athenians seem to have been 
free to institute such societies as they pleased, so 
long as their action did not conflict with the public 


law. The multitude of societies and public gather- supreme head resides outside of France; and associa- 

ings for the celebration of religious festivab and the tions whose members live in common. Owing 

carrying on of games, or other forms of public recrea- partly to the terms of the law and partly to the 

tion and pleasure, which flourished for so many cen- course pursued by the officials charged with its 

turies throughout ancient Greece, indicates that enforcement, almost all the religious congre^tions 

a considerable measure of freedom of association have been driven out of France. In Prussia and 

was quite general in that country. . In most of the other German states political associa- 

The Roman authorities were less liberal. No tions are subject to close inspection, and can be 
private association could be formed without a spe- dissolved by the public authorities in case they go 
cial decree of the senate or of the emperor. And yet outside of certain well-defined limits. Most other 
voluntary societies or corporations were numerous societies pursuing reascmable ends can obtain exist- 
from the earliest days of the Republic. There ence and recognition by becoming registered accord- 
existed collegia for the proper performance of relig- ing to a general law of the empire. The law of 
ious rites, collegia to provide public amusements, Austria empowers magistrates to forbid the formation 
collegia of a political nature, collegia in charge of of any association tlmt either in aim or personnel 
cemeteries, and collegia made up of workers in the seems contrary to law, and to dissolve any society 
various trades and occupations. In Judea the that is no longer conducted in accordance with the 
Pharisees and Sadducees — tnough these were schools, legal conditions to which it is subject. In Russia 
or sects, rather than organized associations — and participation in any association not expressly author- 
the Essenes were not seripusly interfered with by ized by the Government is a penal onence. Speak- 
the Roman governors. With the union of Church ing generally, it may be said tnat with the exception 
and State in 325 there came naturally an era of of France, Russia, and Turkey, European govem- 
freedom and prosperity for associations of a relig- ments exhibit to-day a liberal attitude toward 
ious nature, especially for the religious orders, associations pursuing reasonable ends. 
During the period of political chaos that followed In the Umted States associatibns whose purpose 
the fall of the Empire, liberty of association was as is pecuniary gain, and all other societies that desire 
extensive as could be expected among populations a corporate existence and c^l personality, must, 
whose civil rulers were not sufficiently powerful of course, comply with the appropriate laws of incor- 
either to repress or to protect the formation of poration. Umncorporated societies may be insti- 
voluntary unions. Indeed, the "minor, obscure, tuted without legaf authorization, and may pursue 
isolated, and incoherent societies", to use the words any aim whatever, so long as their members do not 
of Guizot, that erected themselves on the ruins of engage in actions that constitute conspiracy or 
the old political organization and became in time some other violation of public order. Even in these 
the feudal system, were essentially private associa- contingencies the members will not be liable to legal 
tions. prosecution for the mere act of forming the associa- 

As the needs, culture, and outlook of men ex- tions. Under the present fairly hberal attitude 

tended, there sprang into being a great number of governments, and owing to the great increase in 

and variety of associations, religious, charitable, the number and complexity of human interests, 

educational, and industrisd. Instances are the great the number and variety of associations in the Western 

religious orders, the societies for the relief of poverty world have grown with great lapidity. We may 

and sickness, the universities, and the guilds whicn enumerate at least nine distinct types, namely: 

arose and flourished between the tenth and the religious, charitable, intellectual, moral, political, 

fourteenth centuries. All of these associations mutual-benevolent, labour, industrial, ajid purely 

were instituted either imder the active direction social. The largest increase has taken place m the 

of the Church, or with her warm encouragement, three classes devoted to social intercourse and en- 

ond as a rule without any serious opposition on joyment, such as clubs and "secret" societies; to 

the part of the civil power. Some of tnem, in fact, industry and commerce^ such as manufacturing 

performed important political functions; others and mercantile corporations, and to the interests 

secured a measure of social peace that the civil of the wage earner, such a^ trade unions. Probably 

authorities were unable to enforce; while as a whole the great majority of the male adults in the cities 

they constituted a considerable check to the exercise of the United States have some kind of membership 

of arbitrary power by sovereigns. Thus, the mer- in one or other of these three forms of association, 
chant and craft guilds governed trade and industry II. The Moral Right. — Like all other moral 

with a series of regulations that had all the force rights, that of voluntary association is determined 

and authority of legal statutes; the associations by the ends that it promotes, the human needs 

instituted to enforce the "Truce of God", helped that it supplies. The dictum of Aristotle that man 

greatly to lessen petty warfare between different is a "political" animal, expresses more than the 

lords and different sections of the same country; fact that man naturally and necessarily becomes a 

while " the monarch was . . . hemmed in on all sides participant in that form of association known as 

... by universities, corporations, brotherhoods, the State. It means that man cannot eflPectively 
monastic orders; b/ franchises and privileges of all ' pursue happiness nor attain to a reasonable degree 

kinds, which in greater or less degree existed all over of self-perfection unless he unites his exw^i^es with 

Europe". those of his fellows. This is particularly true of 

With the rise and extension of political absolutism modem life, and for two reasons. First, because 

in most of the countries of Europe in the seventeenth the needs of men have greatly increased, and second, 

century, freedom of association became everywhere because the division of labour has made the individual 

greatly restricted. It was frequently subjected more and more dependent upon other individuals 

to unreasonable conditions in the last century, and groups of individuals. The primitive, isolated 

and it is still withheld by some governments. From family that knows only a few wants, and is able 

1820 to 1824 labour unions were absolutely prohibited in rude fashion to supply all these, may enjoy a 

in Great Britain. Up to the year 1901 non-indus- certain measure of contentment, if not of culture, 

trial associations consisting of more than twenty without the aid of any other association than that 

persons could not be formed in France without inherent in its own constitution. For the family 

authorization by a public official whose power in the of to-day such conditions are unsatisfying and 

matter was almost arbitrary. At present, authoriza- insufficient. Its members are constrained to pursue 

tion is required in the case of associations composed many lines of activity and to satisfy many want^ 

of Frenchmen and foreigners; associations whose that demand organized and associated efiTort. 


Since the individual is dependent upon so m&ny And it extends even to those associations that are 

other individuals for many of those material goods not in themselves necessaiy for these ends^—that 

that are indispensable to him, he must frequently is, so long as the associations do not contravene 

combine with those of his neighbours who are sim- good morals or the public weal. For the State has 

ikrhr placed if he would successfully resist the no right to prohibit any individual action, be it 

tendency of nKxiem forces to overlook and override ever so unnecessary, which is, from the public 

the mere inctividual. A large proportion of the point of view, harmless. Although it is not essential 

members of every industrial community cannot to his personal development that the citizen should 

make adequate provision for the needs that follow become a member of an association that can do him 

in the train of misfortune and old age unless they neither good nor harm, it is essential to his happiness 

utitize such agencies as the mutual benefit societv and his aelf-respect that he should not be prevented 

the insurance company, or the savings bank. WorK- from doing so by the State. The moment that the 

ingmen fiad it impossible to obtain just wages or State begins to practise coercion of this kind it violates 

reasonable conditions of employment without the individual rights. The general right of voluntary 

trade union. On the other nand, goods could not association ia well stated by Pope Leo XIII in the 

be produced or distributed in sufficient quantities encyclical, ''Rerum Novarum'^: ''To enter into 

except through the mediimi of associations. Manu- private societies is a natural right of man, and the 

faduiing, trade, transportation, and finance neces- State must protect natural rights, not destroy them. 

fiarily faU more and more under the control of partner- If it forbids its citizens to form associations, it con- 

ships and stock companies. ^ tradicts the very principle of its own existence; for 

Turning now from the consideration of these both they and it exist in virtue of the same principle, 

matoial needs, we find that association pla^s a no namely, the natural propensity of man to live in 

less important part in the religious, moral, mtelleo- society. " 

tual, political, aiid purely soci^ departments of life. Nor is the State justified in prohibiting voluntary 
Men cannot give God due worship except in a public, associations on the ground that the^r may become 
social way. This implies at least the umversal inimical to public welfare. An institution should 
Church and the parish, and orcUnarily it supposes not be utterly condemned because it is liable to abuse; 
devotional and other associations, such as sodalities, otherwise an end must be made of all institutions 
shar societies, church-fimd societies, etc. Select that are erected and conducted by human beings. 
a>uls who wish to embrace the life of perfection The State has ample power to protect itself against 
described by the evangelical counsels mUst become all the abuses to wnich liberty of association is uable. 
orguiized in such a way that they can lead a common It can forbid societies that aim at objects contrary 
Ufe. In every oonmiunity there are p^*sons who to good morals or the public welfare, lay dowu 
vish to do efi^ctive work on behalf of good morals, such reasbnable restrictions as are requix^ to define 
charity, ard social reform of various kin^. Hence the proper spheres of the various associations, punish 
ve have purity leagues, associated charities, tern- those societies that go beyond their legitimate fields, 
peranoe societies, ethical culture societies, social and, in extreme cases, dissolve any particular organi- 
9ettfements. Since large munbeis of parents prefer zation that proves itself to be incorrigible. Through 
private and i^gious schools for the education of these measures the State can provide itself with all 
their diildren, the need arises for associations whose the security t^t is worth having; any further inter- 
purpoee is educational. Literary and scientific ference with individual liberty would be a greater 
aasodations are necessary to promote original social evil than the one that is sought to be remedied, 
research, deeper study, and wider culture. Good The formality of legal authorization, or registration, 
forenunent, especially in a republic, is impossible is not in itself unreasonable, but it ought not to be 
without politicfiu associations which strive vigilantly accompanied by unreasonable conditions. The pro- 
ud eonstantty for the removal of abuses and the oedure ought to be such that anv society formed . 
enactment of just laws. in accordance with the appropriate law of association 
In Uie purely sodal order men desire to enroll could demand authorization, or registration, as a 
themselves in dubs, ''secret" societies, amusement dvil right, instead of being compelled to seek it as a 
asneiatlons, etc., all of which may be made to promote privilege at the hands of an official clothed with the 
human oont^itznentand human happiness. Many power to grant or refuse it at his own discrotion. 
of the forms of association just enumerated are ah- The difference between these two methods is the 
Bohit^ necessary to right human life; none of them difference between the reign of law and the reign of 
ii eatuely useless. Finally, volimtary associations official caprice; between constitutional liberty and 
are capable of discharging many of the tasks that bureaucratic despotism. Precisely this sort of 
othenrise would devolve upon the State. This arbitrary power is at present exercised bv French 
was an important feature of their activity in the officials over religious congregations. Tne result 
lOdifle Ages, and it is very desirable to-dajr when is that Frenchmen and Frenchwomen who wish to 
the functions of government are constantly mcreas- live in. associations of this nature are denied the 
iag. ^ Chief among the organisations capable of right to do so. Speaking generally of religious 
famtiiii; State activity are those concerned with congregations, we mav justly say in the words of 
edneataon, charitable work, industry, and commerce. Pope hoo XIII, that they have ** the sanction of the 
nd the improvement of the working classes. In law of nature", that is, the same natural right to 
a> fir as these can perform their several tasks on exist on reasonable conditions as an^ other morally 
naaoaoUe terms and without injury to the State lawful association, and, ''on the reh^ous side thev 
or to BBj class of its citizens, the public welfare is ri^tly claim to be responsible to the Church alone . 
bettv served by Uiem than it would be if they were mien the State refuses them the right to exist it 
lUhnted by the Government. Individual liberty violates not merely the natural moral law but the 
w lafividiiAl opportunity .have a larger scope, sup^natural Divine law. For these associations 
BMdnal initiative is more readily called into are an integral part of the life of the Church, and a^ 
^f and the danger of Qovemment despotism is such, lie * within her proper sphere. Within this 
9M^ lesKoed. ^ sphere she is independent of the State, as inde- 
Ths ri ght of voluntary association is, therefore, a pendent as one sovereign civil power is of another. 
^tiari ngjoA. It is an endowment of man's nature, Abuses that may grow out of religious associations 
^ anivDege conferred by civil society. It arises can be met by the State in the ways outlined above, 
^othis doefpeat needs, is an indispensable means Treasonable acts can be punished; excessive accumu- 
to WMWinhlfi life and normal s^-development. lation of property can be prevented; in fact, every 


action, circumstance, or tendency that constitutes of ideas is a fact of everyday experience which 

a real danger to the public welfare can be successfully furnishes an important basis for the science of 

dealt with by other methods than that of denying psychology; y%t it must be ram^nbered that the 

these associations the right of existence. laws of association offer no ultimate explanation of 

XT '^**,*IS!^"Ja ?!C**?^ Thsohgia. MoraUa, de /utiitfd (New the faots observed. In aooounting for the facts of 

r^i'iSt^zI^lX^Z%^r{rJi^^i:S^}k3^ ««omtion we must, in the fi»t place, reject « 

pedia of Political Science and Political Economy (New York, msufficieot the pureiy physical theory proposed by 

i888-go), 8. v.. A99ocuaiom: Say-Cbajllby. JWrtumikWM Ribot, Richet, Aiaudsley, Carpenter, and others, 

tiS:^SS3a.'^'*rpJ^WS«.1"K;;fS«J^^ S?» "?l'^ «xpl«»tion «ccl,^Win the a«ocia. 

ouvrikrf avant 1789, I, i. tu>n of bfam-prooesses. Psychology thus becomes 

John A. Rtan. a chapter of physiology and mechamcs. Aside from 

the fact that this theory can ^ve no sadsfaotory 
AflBOOiaition of Ideas; (1) a principle in p^helesy ^cpiaaation of association by sunilaritr which im- 
to account for the succession ot mental states, (2) the trfies a distinctly mental factor, it neglects evident 
basis of a philosophy known as A£»ociationism. The facts of consciousness. Consciousness t^ls us that 
fact of the association of ideas was noted by some in reminiscence we can voluntarily direct the sequence 
of the earliest philosoi^ers' Aristotle (De mem. et of our mental states, and it is in this that voluntanr 
rem. , 2) indicates the tnree laws of association which recall differs from the succession of images and feel- 
have been the basis of nearly all later enumerations, ings in dream and deliriimi. BesideSj one brain- 
St. Thomas, in his commentary on Aristotle, accepts process may excite another, but this is not yet a 
and illustrates them at some length. Hamilton state of conseioumess. 

(Notes on Reid) gives considerable credit to t^ Bjqually imsatisfactorv is the theoiy of the ultra- 
Spanish Humanist, Vives (1492-1540), for his treat- spiritualists, who would, have lis believe that asso- 
ment of the subject. Association of ideas is not, ciation of ideas has nothing to do with the bodily 
therefore, a discovery of English psychology, as has oiiganism, but is wholly mental. Thus Hamilton 
often been asserted. says that all philological theories are too con- 
It is true, however, that the principle of associa- temptible for senous criticism. Reid and Bowne 
tion of ideas received in En^ish psychology an in- reject all traces of perception left in the brain sub- 
terpretation never given to it before. The name is stance. Lotze admits a concomitant oscillation of 
denved from Locke who placed it at the head of one 1^ brain elements, but considers them quite seo- 
of the chapters of his ' Essav'', but used it only ondary and as exercising no influence on memoi^ 
to explain peculiarities of character. Applied to and recall. Like the purely phjrsical theory, this 
mental states in general, the name is too restricted, also fails to explain the faets of consciousness and 
since ideas, even in the English sense, are only experience, llie localization of activities in the 
cognitive processes. The association theory was various bmin-centres, the faots of mental disease in 
held by Hobbes, Berkeley, Hume, and Hamilton; oonsequenoe of injury to the brain, the dependence 
but it received its widest interpretation at the hands of memory on the healthy condition of the central 
of the Associationists, Hartley, Priestley, James Mill, oiigan^tc. have in this theory no rational niean- 
John Stuart Mill, Bain, and Spencer. They re- ing. We must, then, seek an explanation in a 
garded it as a principle capable of expl^ning all theory that does justice to boUi the mental and the 
mental phenomena. For them it is in the sub- physical side of the phenomena. A mere psycho- 
jective world what the principle of ^vitation is physical parallelism, proposed by some, wiU not, 
m the physical worid. Association of ideas, though nowever, suffice, as it oners no explanation, but is 
variously explained,* is accepted by all modem a mere restatem^it of the problem. The Scholastic 
psychologists. Sully, Maudsley, Jaraes^ Hoffding, doctrine, that the subject of sensorr activity is 
Miinster^rg, Ebbinghaus, Ziehen, Tame, Ribot, neither the body alone nor the soul alone, bat the 
Lu^rs, and many others accept it more or less in the unitary being compounded of bod^r and soul, ofifers 
spirit of the Associationists. the best solution. As sense perception is not purely 
The traditional laws of association, based on physic^ogioal nor purely mental, but proceeds from 
Aristotle, are: 1. Similarity; 2. Contrast; 3. Con- a faculty of the soul intrinsically united to an oraan, 
tiipiity in time or space. In the course of time so the association of these perceptions proceeds m>in 
efforts were made to reduce them to more funda- a principle which is at the same time menta) and 
mental laws. Contrast has been resolved into simi- ph3reioid. No doubt purely spiritual ideas also 
larity and contiguity. Contrasts, to recall each other, associate; but, as St. Thomas teaches, the most 
supposegeneric similarity, as white recalls black. Yet spiritual idea is not devoid of its physiological basis, 
this alone will not suffice, since this gives us no reason and even in making use of the spiritual ideas which 
for the fact that white recalls black in preference to it has already acquired, the inteUeot has need of 
green or blue; hence experience, based on the fact that images stored in the brain. It requires these oi^gaoiic 
nature works in contrasts, is cie^ed into aid. Spencer, prooeeses in the production of its abstract ideas. 
H5ffdin^, and others try to reduce all the laws ot in its basis, the association of ideas is physiolo^cai, 
association to that of similarity, while Wundt and but it is more than this, as it does not follow the 
his school believe that all can be reduced to eocpe- necenary laws of matter. The higher faculties of 
rience and hence to contiguity. Bain, who has the mind can command and direct the prooees. 
analyzed the laws of association most thoroughly. The Scholastic theory does justice to the fact of 
holds both similarity and contiguity to be dementary the dependence of mental activities upon the or^an. 
principles. To these he adds certain laws of com- ism, and vet leaves room for the freeoom oi the 'will 
pound association. Mental states easily recall one attested by consciousness and experience, 
another when they have se\^ral points of contact. English Aasooiationism, while claiming; to be 
And in fact, considering the complexity of mental neither idealistic nor materialistic, and disavo^win^ 
life, it would se^n probaole that simple associations, metaphysics, has erected the principle of associ&tion 
by similarity or contiguity alone, never oCcur. Be- of ideas into a metaphjrsical princifde to ez^^n all 
sides these primary laws of association, various mental activity. James Mill enunciated the j>riii- 
secondary laws are enumerated, such as the laws ciple of indissoluble associations: Sensations or icietLs 
of frequency, vividness, recentness, emotional con- ooeurring together frequently, and never apart^ su^- 
gruity, etc. These determine the firmness of the geet one another with irresistible force, so that -we 
association, and consequently the preference given combine them necessarily. This principle is em* 
to one state over another, in the re(»tll. Association ployed to explain necessary judgments and vx^s&tt^ 


pbjscsl concepts. Bain apidied the prtnciplee of of the Faith; Apostleship of Prayer, known aleo at 

aBodUkm to logic and ethics. Spwicer inter- the League of the Sacred Heart of Jesus; Holy Child- 

pnUi them in an evolutioniatic sense. Certain be- hood L^gue; Prieats' Eucharistic Leamie'. C&cilien- 

Ms lud moral prinoiplea are such that the aaeocia- verein, an asaociation especially 

ticma of the individual are not sufficient to explain muiy for tto advanoement of relisioi 

tbeni; tW are the aaeoclations of eucceesive genera- „ Bfcmi™ L« MuieneiM 1P«™, Tbm): MoccHMoiiHi, 

tiaBhimcfed down by heredity. The whole process ^"^"^ /«d«*»«Ufln<« (Qu«»ooh.. 1W7^ ijf,^„„_ 
is governed by necessary laws. Mental atatee aaso- uonwEi.!. . 

date passively, and mental life ia but a prooees of AflnmuB, the name of two different pereoDB in 

"mental chemistry". Later Asaociationista, like the BiUe: — 1. Inl Esdr., iv, 6, and Eath., i, 17, it 

Sully, have come to recogniEe that the mind exerts corresponds to the Hebrew AckAthwerSih. and the 

activity in attention, discrimination, judgment, rea- SepC. 'JLrvoi^pot (in Eetli. ' Apraiipivt) , and denotes 

snning. With this admission there snould logically Xerxes I, the King of Peisia. It was to him that the 

(ome sIeo the admission of a soul-substance that Samaritans addressed their complaints against the 

itteads. discriminates, judges, and reasons; but as inhabitants of Jerusalem soon after 485 b. c, i. e. in 

they have not come to this conclusion, the soul is the beginning of his reign. Intent upon his [Measures 

for thnu a "train of thoughts", a "streaoi of con- and a war with Egypt, the king seems to have diaie- 

sdousuess", or some other series veiled in meta- guded thene chafges. The report of Herodotus (VII, 

pboricsl language. Association of ideas can never viii) ttiat Xerxes convoked a council of his nobles, 

etpUin necessary judgments, conclusions drawn in tho third year of his reign, to deliberate about the 

InuQ premises, mom idcan and laws; these have war against Greece agrees with Eeth., i, 3, telling of 

'' ' ' the nature of things. the great feast given oy the king to hie nobles in the 

— — . - -, — third year of hia reign. In the seventh year of his 

bS^iI,' sSmJ ™igni after the return of Xerxes from his war against 
Greece, Esther was declared c[ueen. In tlie tw^th 
year of the king's reign, Esther saved the Jews from 
the national ruin contemplated by Aman. II. An- 
other Assverus occurs in the Greek text of Tab., xiv, 
IS {'Aa^poi), in conjunction with Nabuchodonosor; 
the takiDg d Ninive is ascril^ed to theee two. In 
pcnnt of &t, Assyria was conquered by Cyaxares I, 

,^ the King of Media, and Nabopolassar, the King of 

Edmund J. Wibth. BalMoma. and father of Nabuehodonosor. Hence 

Atsodation of Tiiastlr PersoTsranM, a sac- the Aseuerusof Tob., xiv, 15, is Cyaxares I; his name 

eniolai amodation founded in 1868 at Vienna, and is ooupled with Nabuehodonosor because the latter 

It firat confined to that archdiocese. In 1879, ""uat have led the troops of his father in the war 

rfiiefty through the influence of iU periodical organ, «ainflt Assyria. The same Cyaxares I is probably 

-LsConespondanee", it spread into otheff dioceses the Aseuerua ['Achdthwirdsh) mentioned in Dan., ix, 

md countries, and in 1903 counted 14,919 living 1, as the father of Darius the Hede. Most probably 

member*, belonging to 150 diocesee in Austria, Darius the Made is Croxaree 11, the son of Astyagea, 

Gemiany, Switzerland, and Other countries. This the King of Media. The insiHred writer of Dan., ix, 

oi^niiation is very rimilar to that of the Apostolic 1. represents him as a son of Cyaxaree I, or Assuerus, 

L'nion of Secular Priests (q. v.). instead of AstyMee, on account of the glorious name 

Joseph H. HcUahon. "f the former. This could be done without difficulty, 

„ „ since, in genealogies, the name of the grandson was 

™* HotT oft^„ introduced instead of that of the son. 

Haoeh, Lericon BiUician (Piui«, 190fi)i LtetTRB in Via., 

iMOcUUonB, PiODS.— Under this term are com- Dut. ds lo BMe iP>^. 1896). A j « » 

prehended all those oi^nizations, approved and ■ ™**o- 

mdiilgenced by Church authority, which have been Asaiimptlon, Little Sihterb of trb, a congrega- 

instituled, (specially in recent times, for the advance- tion whose work is the nursing of the sick poor in their 

oient of various works of piety and charity. Other own homes. This labour they perform gratuitously 

temis used with the same meaning are; pious union, and without distinction of creed. The congrega- 

[ious work, league, society, etc. Rous associations tion was founded in Paris in 1865, by the Rev. 

m distinguished, on the one hand, from ordinary Etienne Pemet, A.A. (b. 23 July, 1824; d. 3 April, 

mcieties composed of CatboUcs by having an expliC' 1899), and Marie Antoinette Tage, known in religion 

itlridi^ouB purpose, by enjoying indulgences and as Mother Marie de Jfeus (b. 7 Nov., 1824; d. 18 Sept., 

ulner spiritual benefits, and by possee^ng ecclesias- 1883). Both had long been engaged in charitable 

lieal approbation. They are distinguished, on the work. Father Pemet while a proftssor in the Collie 

i>ther hand, from confraternities and sodalities. The of the Assumption at Ntmes, and Mile. Tage as a 

btter distinction is not determined bv the name and memtnr of the Association of Our Lady ^ Good 

i« not always apparent. In general, pious associa- Counsel in Paris. They met in Paris and Father Per- 

(ioiii have simpler rules than confraternities; they do net placed her in chaige of the work of numng the 

not requite canonical erection, and though the^ have sick poor which he had inaugurated. Out oi this 

lliea|>probation of authority, they are not subject to movement the sisterhood grow, Mother Marie de 

u strict legislation as confraternities; they have no J^us bein^ the first superior. The nursing of the 

filed terra of probation for new members, no elabo- sick poor is not the only or even the chief purpose 

■teiitual, no special costumes; they are not obliged of the Little Sisters. They endeavour to bring about 

to meet for common religious practices, and, as conversions, to regularize illicit unions, to have 

■ rale, they make the help of others more promi- children baptized, sent to school, and prepared for 

sort than the improvement of self. Of all these First Communion and Confirmation. They form 

(SfeiUioeB, only that of canonical erection seems socielieB among their cUents and enlist the aid of 

McntiaL Some authorities, however, declare that laymen and laywomen of education^ and means to 

netiees ia common oonstitute the trait which further the work of regeneration. The congregation 

ntingnishea a confraternity from apious association, has estatdished houses in Italy, Spain, Belgium, Eng- 

Soms w^I-known pious assodations are: Society land, Ireland, and the United States of America. ' 

<iSL Vincent de Pnul; Society of the Propagation The papal Brief approving Ihc congregation was 


dynasty. It was made first the royal residence of Asshur-dan must have r^gned about the yearE 

Sargon, and afterwards became the rival of Nineveh. 1170 or 1180 b. c. So also ^nnacherib tells us that 

Its site is represented by the modem Khorsabad. a seal of King Tukulti-Ninib I had been brought 

(5) Arbailu, or Arbela, famous in Greek and Persian from Assyria to Babylon, where after 600 years he 

annals for the decisive victory won by Alexander the found it on his conquest of that city. As Sennacherib 

Great over the formidable army of Darius, King of conquered Babvlon twice, once in 702 and again in 

Persia and Babylon (331 b. c). (6) Nasibina, or 689 b. c, it follows that Tukulti-Ninib I must have 

Nisibis, famous in the annals of Nestorian Christl- reigned over Assyria in any case before 1289 b. c, 

anity. (7) Harran, weU known for the worship of and possibly a few years before 1302 b. c. (3) 

Sin, the moon-god. (8) Ingur-Bel, corresponding Another chronological source is to be found in tne 

to the modem Tell-Balaw4t. (9) Tarbis, corre- genealogies of the kings, which they give of them- 

sponding to the modem Sherif-Khan. The sites and selves and of their ancestors and predecessors, 

ruins of all these cities have been explored. (4) Further valuable help may be obtained from the 

Sources of Assybo-Babylonian Histort. — so-called "Synchronous History" of Babylonia and 

These may be ^K)uped as: (1) the Old Testament; Assyria, which consists of a brief summary of the 

(2) the Greek, Latin, and Oriental writers; and (3) relations between the two countries from the earliest 

the monumental records and remaind of the Assyrians times in regard to their respective boundary lines, 

and Babylonians themselves. The usefulness of this document consists mainly in 

In the &^t division belong the Fourth (in Author- the fact that it gives the list of many Babylonian 

ized Version, Second) Book of Kings, Paralipomenon and Assyrian kings who ruled over their respective 

(Chronicles), the writings of the prophets Isaias, countries contem^raneously. 

Nahum, Jeremias, Jonas, E^echiel, and Daniel, as Absyro-Babylonian Exploration. — As late as 
well as the laconic but extremely valuable fragments 1849, Sir Henry Layard, the foremost pioneer of 
of information contained in Genesis, x, xi, and xiv. A^yro-Babyloman ex^orations, in the preface to 
To the second group of sources belong the Chaldeo- his classical work entitled "Nineveh and Its Re- 
Babylonian priest and historian Berosus, who lived inains", remarked how, previously, with the excep- 
in the days of Alexander the Great (356-323 B. c.) tion of a few cylindere and gems preserved elsewhere, 
and continued to live at least as late as Antiochus I, a caae, hardly three feet square, in the British Museum, 
Soter (280-261 b. c). He wrote in Greek a ereat enclosed all that remained not only of the great city, 
work on Babylonian history, under the title of Nineveh, but of Babylon itself. At that time few 
"Babyloniaca , or "Chaldaica". This valuable indeed would have nad the piaeeumption even to 
work, which was based on contemporary Babylonian imagine that within fifty years the exploration of 
monuments and inscriptions, has unfortunately Assyria and Babylonia would have given us the most 
perished, and only a few excerpts from it have been primitive literature of the ancient world. What 
preserved in later Greek and Latin writers. Then fifty years ago belonged to the world of dreams is 
we have the writings of Polyhistor, Ctesias. Herodo- at the present time a striking reality; for we are now 
tus, Abydenus, ApoUodorus, Alexander of Miletus, in possession of the priceless libranes of the ancient 
Josephus, Georgius Syncellus, Diodorus Siculus, As^vrians and Babylonians, of their historical annals, 
Eusebius, and others. With the exception of Bero- civil and military records. State archives, diplomatic 
sus, the information derived from all the above- correspondences, textbooks and school exercises, 
mentioned historians is mostly legendary and un- grammars and dictionaries, hymns, bank accounts 
reliable, and even their quotations from Berosus and business transactions, laws and contracts, and 
are to be used with caution. This is especially true an extensive collection of geographical, astronomical, 
in the case of Ctesias, who lived at the Persian court mythological, magical, and astrological texts and 
in Babylonia. To the third category belong the inscriptions. These precious monuments are actually 
niunerous contemporary monuments and inscriptions scattered in all the public and private museums and 
discovered during the last fifty years in Babylonia, art collections of Europe, America, and Turkey. 
Assyria, Elam, and Egypt, which form an excellent The total number of tablets, cylinders, and cuneiform 
and a most authoritative collection of historical inscriptions so far discovered is approximately est!- 
documents. matea at more than three hundrea thousand, which, 

For the chronolo^ of Assyria we have some very if published, would easily cover 400 octavo volumes 

valuable means of information. These are (1) The of 400 pages each. Unfortunately, only about 

"Eponym List", which covers the entire period one-fifth of all the inscriptions discovered have been 

from the reign oi Ramman-nirari II (911-890 B. c.) published so far; but even this contains more than 

down to tlmt of Asshurbanipal (669-625 b. c). eight times as much literature as is contained in the 

The eponyms, or limmUf were like the eponymous Old Testament. The British Museum alone has 

archons at Athens and the consuls at Rome. They pubtished 440 folio, and over 700 quarto, pages, and 

were officers, or governors, whose term of office about one-half as much more has appeared in varioxis 

lasted but one year, to which year they gave their archseological publications. The British Museum 

name; so that if any event was to be recorded, or a has more than 40,000 cuneiform tablets, the Louvre 

contract drawn in the year, e. g. 763 b. c, the number more than 10,000, the Imperial Museum of Berlin 

of the year would not be mentioned, but instead we more than 7,000, that of the University of Pennsyi- 

are told that such and such an event took place in vania more than 20,000, and that of Constantinople 

the year of Pur-Shagli, who was the limmUy or gov- many thousands more, awaiting the patient toil of 

emor, in that year. (2) Another source is found in our Assyriologists. The period of time covered by 

the chronological notices scattered throughout the these documents is more surprising than their num- 

historical inscriptions, such as Sennacherib's in- ber. They occur from prehistoric times, or about 

scription engraved on the rock at Bavian, in which 5000 b. c, down to the first century before the 

he tells us that one of his predecessors, Tiglath-pileser Christian Era. But this is not all, for, according to 

(Douay Version, The^lathphalasar) reigned about the imanimous opinion of all modem Assyriologists, 

418 years before him, i. e. about 1107 b. c; or that by far the largest part of the Assyro-Babylonian 

of Tiglath-pileser himself , who tells us that he rebuilt literature and inscriptions are still buried under the 

the temple of Anu and Ramman, which sixty years fertile soil of these wonderful regions, which have 

previously had been nulled down by King Asshur- ever been the land of surprises, awaiting further 

dan because it had fallen into decay in the course of explorers and decipherers. 

the 641 years since its foundation by King Shamshi- As has already been remarked, the meagre and 

Ramman. This notice, therefore, proves that often unreliable information concerning Assyria and 


Babylonia which has come down to us through tions (especially those of Pcrscpolis and of the 

the Persian, Greek, Latin, and Arabic writers — Behistun rock, not far from Hamadan, in Persia), 

historians and geographers — has contributed little by Grotefend, Heeren, the Abb6 Saint Martin, Rask, 

or nothing to the advancement of our knowledge of Efoumouf, Lassen, Westergaard, de Saulcy, and 

these wonderful coimtries. The early European Rawlinson, all taking place at about the end of the 

travellers in the region of the Tigris and Euphrates first half of the nineteenth century, opened the way 

valley, such as Benjamin of Tudela (1160), John for the decipherment of the Assyro-Babylonian 

Eldred (1583), Anthony Shirley (1599), Pietro della inscriptions. The principal credit unquestionably 

Valle (1614-26), John Cartwright (1610), Gas- belongs to Rawlinson, Norris, J. Oppert, Fox Talbot, 

paro Balbi fl590), John Otter (1734), Niebuhr and especially to Dr. Hinks of Dublin. The acute 

(1765), Beauchamp, Olivier, Hagers, and others at and original researches of th^se scholars were suc- 

the end of the eighteenth century, have left us a cessfully carried out by other Semitic scholars and lin- 

rather vague and superficial account of their personal guists no leis competent, such as E. Schmder and 

\'isits and impressions. Later travellers, however, Fred. Delitzsch, in Germany; M^nant, Hal^vy. and 

such as Claudius James Rich (1811, 1821-22), J. S. Lenormant, i^ France; Sayce and G. Smitn, in 

Buckmgham (1816), Sir Robert Ker Porter (1817-20), England. 

CaT^tain Robert Mignan (1826-28), G. Baillie-Fraser The Assyro-Babylonian language belongs to the 

(1834-35), the Euphrates Expedition imder Colonel so-called Semitic family of languages, and in respect 

Chesney (1835-37), James Felix Jones, Lynch, to grammar and lexicography offers no more aiffi- 

Selby, Collingwood, Bewsher, and others of the culty to the interpreter than either Hebrew, or 

first half of the nineteenth century made a far more Aramaic, or Arabic. It is more closely allied to 

•searching and scientific study of the Mesopotamian Hebrew and Aramaic than to Arabic and the other 

region. But the real founders and pioneers of dialects of the South-Semitic ^up. The principal 

Assyro-Babylonian explorations are Emile Botta diflSculty of Assyrian consists in its extremely com- 

(1842-45), Sir Henry Austen Layard (1840-52), plicated lystem of writing. • For, unlike all other 

Victor Place (1851-55), H. Rassam (1850, 187^-82),' Semitic dialects, Assyrian is written not alphabet- 

lioftus (1850), Jules Oppert, Fresnel and Thomas ically, but either syllabically or ideographically, 

(1851-52), Taylor (1851), Sir Henry Rawlinson, which means that Assyrian characters represent not 

G. Smith, and others who have not only opened, but consonants, but syllables, open or closec^ simple or 

paved, the way for future researches and explora- compound, and ideas or words, such as hif bar, ilu, 

tions. The first methodical and scientific explora- zikaru, etc. These same characters may also have 

tions in Babylonia, however, were inaugurated and both a syllabic and an ideographic value, and 

most successfully carried out by the intrepid French nearly always more than one syllaoic value and as 

consul at Bassora and Bagdad, M. de Sarzec, who> many as five or six; so that a sign like the following 

from about 1877 until 1899, discovered at TelI6 may be read syllabic- ^^. W afly as ud, ut, u, tu, 

some of the earfiest and most precious remains and torn, Wr, par^ pir. lai^f ^ y Hh^ ^is^,and his; and 

inscriptions of the pre-Semitic and Semitic dynasties ideographically as ^^ f 'SinUt ''day",' m^, 

^ , „ . , _ HmUy "day"; m^, 

of Southern Babylonia. Contemporaneoushr with "white"; Shamash, the Sungod; etc. The snape 

de Sarzec there came other explorers, such as Rassam, of these signs is that of a wedge, hence the name 

already mentioned above, who was to continue cuneiform (from the Latin cuneus, "a wed^e"). 

George Smith's excavations; the American Wolf The wedees, arranged singly or in groups, either 

expedition, under the direction of Dr. Ward, of New are called "ideograms" and stand for complete 

York (1884-85); and, above all, the various expedi- ideas, or they stand for syllables. In course of time 

tions to Nippur, imder Peters, Haynes, and Hilprecht, the same ideographic signs came to have also 

respectively, sent by the University of Pennsylvania the phonetic value of syllables, without losing, 

(1888-1900). The Turkish Government itself has however, their primitive ideographic value, as can 

not altogether stood aloof from this praiseworthy be seen from the example quoted above. This 

emulation, sending an expedition to Abu Habba, naturally caused a great difficulty and embarrassment 

or Sippar, imder the direction of the well-known even to the Assyro-Babylonians themselves, and is 

Domimcan scholar. Father F. Scheil of Paris, in still the principal obstacle to the correct and final 

ISM and the following years. Several German, reading of many cuneiform words and inscriptions. 

French, and American expeditions have later been To remedy this great inconvenience, the Assyro- 

busily engaeed in excavating important moimds Babylonians themselves placed other characters 

and ruins in Babylonia. One of these is the German (called determinatives) before many of these signs 

expedition under Moritz and Koldewey, with the in order to determine their use and value in certain 

assistance of Dr. Meissner, Delitzsch, and others, at particular cases and sentences. Before all names 

Shurgul, El-Hibba, Al-Kasr, Tell-ibrahim, etc. of gods, for example, either a sign meaning "divine 

The expedition of the University of Chicago, under being" was prefixed, or a syllabic character (phonetic 

the direction of Dr. Banks, at Bismaya, in South complement), which indicated the proper phonetic 

Babylonia, came unfortimately to an early termi- value with which the word in question should end, 

nation. was added after it. In spite of these and other 

The Languaqb and CJunbiform Writing. — All devices, many signs and collocations of signs have 

these wonderful archaeological researches and dis- so many possible syllabic values as to render exact- 

coveries would have been useless and destitute of ness in the reading very difficult. There are about 

interest, had not the language of Assyro-Babylonian five himdred of these different signs used to represent 

inscriptions been deciphered and studied. These words or syllables. Their origin is still a subject of 

ioseriptions were all written in a language, and by disctission among scholars. The prevailing tlicory 

means of characters, which seemed for a while to is that they were originally picture-signs, representing 

defy all himmn skill and ingenuity. The very ex- the ideas to be conveyed; but at present only about 

istence of such a language had been forgotten, and sixty of these 500 signs can be with certainty traced 

its writing seemed so capricious and bewildering back to their original picture-meanings. 

that the earlier European travellers mistook the According to the majority of Assyriologists, the 

characters for fantastic and bizarre ornamental cuneiform system of writing originated with the 

decorations: their dagger- or arrow-headed shape Sumerians, the primitive non-Semitic inhabitants of 

(from which their name of cuneiform) presetting Babylonia, from whom it was borrowed by the 

a difficult puzxle. However, the discovery, and Semitic Babylonians and Assyrians, and applied to 

tentative decipherment, of the old Persian inscrip- their own language. In the same way the Greeks 


adopted the Semitic Phoenician alphabet, and the liaving from six to ten sides on which writing could 

Germans adopted the Latin. The Semitic langua^ be inscribed. These tablets were then dried in the 

of Babylonia and Assjrria was, therefore, written m sun, or baked in a furnace — a process which rendered 

Sumerian characters, just as Hebrew can be written the writing practically indestructible, unless the 

in English letters, or Turkish in Armenian, or Arabic tablet itseu was shattered " (G. S. Goodspeed, 

in Syriac (Karshiini). This same cuneiform system History of the Babylonians and Assyrians, p. 28). 
of writing was afterwards adopted by the Medians, Unlflce all other Semitic systems of writing (except 

Persians, Mltannians, Cappadocians, ancient Armeni- the Ethiopic, which is an adaptation of the Greek), 

ans, and others. Hence five or six dififerent styles that of the Assyro-Babylonians generally runs from 

ol cuneiform writing may be distinguished. The left to right in horizontal lines, although m some very 

"Persian" style, which is a direct, but simplified, early inscriptions the lines run vertically from top 

derivative of the Babylonian, was introduced in to bottom like the Chinese. These two facts evidence 

the times of the Aclisemenians. "Instead of a the non-Semitic origin of the cimeiform system of 

combination of as many as ten and fifteen wedges to writing. 

make one sign, we have in the Persian style never Value op Assyrioloot for Study op the Old 
more than five, and frequently only three; and instead Testament. — ^The part played by these Assyro- 
oi writing words by syllables, sounds aJone were Babylonian disco venes in the exegesis and interpreta- 
employed, and the syllabary of several hundred tion of the Old Testament has been important in 
signs reduced to forty-two, while the ideographic direct proportion to the immense ana hitherto 
style waa fractionally abolished." The second unsuspected influence exercised by the Assyro- 
style of cuneiform, generally known as "Median", Babylonian rehgion, civilization, and literature upon 
or "Susian", is, again, a shght modification of the the origin and gradusd development of the literature 
"Persian". "Besides these two, there is a third and the religious and social institutions of the anciept 
language (spoken in the north-western district of Hebrews. This Babylonian influence, indeed, can 
Mesopotamia between .the Euphrates and the Oron- be equally traced in its different forms and manifesta- 
tes). Known as * Mitanni *, the exact status of which tions through all Western Asia, many centuries before 
has not been clearly ascertained, but which has been that conquest of Palestine by the twelve Israelitish 
adapted to cuneiform characters. A fourth variety, tribes which put an end to the Canaanitish dominion 
found on tablets from Cappadocia, represents agam and supremacy. The triumph of Assyriology, 
a modification of the ordinary writing met with in ccnsequently, must be regarded as a triumph for 
Babylonia. In the inscriptions of Mitanni, the Biblical exegesis and criticism, not in the sense that 
writing is a mixture of ideographs and ^Uables, just it has strikingly confirmed the strict veracity of 
as in Mesopotamia, while the so-called 'Cappadocian' the Biblical narratives, or that it has demonstrated 
tablets are written in a corrupt Babyloman, corres- the fallacies of the "higher criticism", as Sayce, 
ponding in degree to the 'corrupt' forms that the Hommel, and others have contended, but in the sense 
signs take on. In Mesopotamia itself quite a number that it has opened a new and certain path whereby 
of signs exist, some due to local influences, others we can study the writings of the Old Testament with 
the result of changes that took place in the course of their correct historical background, and trace them 
time. In the oldest period Imown, that is, from through their successive evolutions and transforma- 
4000 to 3000 B, c, the writing is linear rather than tions. Assyriology, in fact, has given us such ex- 
wedge-shaped. The linear writing is the modifica- cellent and unexpected results as to completely 
tion that the original pictures underwent in being revolutionize our former exegetical methods and 
adapted for engraving on stone; the wedges are the conclusions. The study, it is true, has been often 
modification natural to the use of clay, though when abused by ultra-radical and enthusiastic Ass3rriologists 
once the wedges became the st^mdard method, the and critics. These have sought to build up ground- 
greater frequency with which clay, as against stone, less theories and illogical conclusions; they have 
came to be usea led to an imitation of the wedges forced the texts to say what they do not say, and to 
by those who cut out the characters on stone, in support conclusions which they do not support; but 
consequence, there developed two varieties of wedge- such an abuse, which is due to a perfectly natural 
writing: the one that may be termed lapidary, uSd enthusiasm and scientific ardour, can never vitiate 
for the stone inscriptions, the official historical the permanent value of sober Assyriological re- 
records, and such legal documents as were prepared searches, which have demonstrably provided sources 
with especial care; the other cursive, occumng only of the first importance for the study of the Old 
on legal and commercial clay tablets, and becoming Testament. These few abuses can be discerned and 
more frequent as we approach the latest period of in due time corrected by a more temperate and 
Babylonian writing, which extends to within a few judicious criticism. If the value of As^riology in 
decades of our era. In Assyria, finally, a special its bearing upon the Old Testament has been too 
variety of cuneiform developed that is easily dis- often exaggerated, the exaggeration is at least 
tinguished from the Babyloman by its ^ater neat- partly excusable, considering the comparatively 
ness and the more vertical position of its wedges" recent date of these researches and their startling 
(Jastrow, The Religion of Babylonia and Aa^ria, results in the way of discovery. On the other hand, 
Boston, 1898, p. 20). that school of critics and theologians which disre- 
The material on which the Assyro-Babylonians gards the genuine merits and the great value of 
wrote their inscriptions was sometimes stone or metal, Assyriological researches for the interpretation of 
but usually clay of a fine quality most abundant in the Old Testament is open to the double charge of 
Babylonia, whence the use spread all over Western unfairness and ignorance. 

Asia. "The clay was venr carefully prepared. History of Assyria to the Fall of Nineveh 

sometimes grouncf to an exceeding fineness, moistened, (Ninive. — c. 2000-606 b. c.) — ^The origin of the 

and moulded into various forms, ordinarily into a Assyrian nation is involved in great obscurity, 

tablet whose average size is about six by two and According to the author of the tenth chapter of 

one-half inches in superficial area by one inch in Genesis, the Assyrians are the descendants of Assur 

thickness, its sides curving slightly outwards. On the rAsshur) one of tne sons of Sem (Shem — Gen., x, 22). 

surface thus prepared, and while still soft, the char- According to Gen., x, 11, "Out of that land [Sennaar] 

acters were impressed with a stylus, the writing often came forth Assur, and built Ninive, and the streets 

standing in columns, and carried over upon the back of tjie city, and Chale. Resen also between Ninive 

and sides of the tablet. The clay was quite frequently and Chale", where the Authorized Version reads: 

moulded also into cones and barrel-shaped cylinders, " builded Nineveh, and the city of Rehoboth^ and 


Gdah, and Resen between Nineveh and Oalah". between Assyria and Babylonia continued friendly, 

Till quite recently the most commonly accepted but towards the end of that reign the first open 

inteiTOetation of this x)assage was that Assur left conflict between the two sister-countries broke out. 

Bat^onia, where Nemfod (Ninutxl) the terrible The cause of the conflict was as follows: Asshur- 

was reigning, and settled in Assyria, where he built uballit, in siffn of friendship, had given his daughter, 

the cities of Nineveh, Rehoboth, Chale (Calah), and Muballitat-sherua, for wife to the King of Babylonia. 

Resen. Nowadays, however, .this interpretatfon. The son bom of this ^coysX union, Kadashman- 

which is jnainly based on the Vulgate version, is Charbe by name, succeeded his father on the throne, 

abandoned in favour of the more probable one, accord- but was soon ^ain by a certain Nazi-bugash (or 

ing to which Nemrod himself , the beginning of whose Suzigash), the head of the discontented Kassite 

kingdom was Babylon (Babel), Arach (Erech), party, who ascended the throne in his stead. To 

AchaA (Accad), and Chalanne (Oalneh), in Southern avenge the death of his grandson the aged and 

Babylonia (Gen., x, 10), went up to Assyria (Assur valiant monarch, Asshur-uballit, invaded Babylonia, 

in this case being a geographical name, i. e. Assyria, slew Nazi-bugash, and set the son of Kadashman- 

and not ethnographical or personal), and there he Charbe, who was still venr young, on the throne of 

built the four above-mentioned cities and founded Babylonia, as Kurigalzu II. However, towards the 

the Assyrian colony. Whichever of these two latt^ part of his reign (c. 1380 B.C.), Kurigalzu II 

interpretations be held as correct, one thing is certain: became hostile to Assvria; in consequence of which, 

that the Assyrians are not only Semites, but in all Belnirari, Asshur-ubaUit's successor on the throne 

probability an offshoot of the Semitic Babylonians, of Assyria, made war against him and defeated him 

or a Babylonian colony; although, on account of at the city of Sugagu, annexing the northern part 

th^ apparently purer Semitic blood, they have of Babylonia to Asi^rria. Belmrari was succeeded 

been locked upon by some scholars as an independent by his son, Pudi-ilu (c. 1360 b. c.)^ who undertook 

Semitic offshoot, which, at the time of the great several successfiil military expeditions to the east 

Semitic migration from Arabia (c. 3000-2500 and south-east of Assyria and built various temples, 

B. c), migrated and settled in Assyria. The first and of whom we possess few, but important, inscrip- 

Assyrian nilers known to us bore the title of Ishshaku tions. His successor was Ramman-nirari, who not 

(probably "priest-prince**, or "governor*') and only strengthened the newly-conquer^ territories 

were certainly subject to some outside power, pre- of his two predecessors, but also made war and 

tmmably that of Babylonia. Some of the earuest defeated Nazi-Maruttash, King of Babylonia, the 

of these Ishshaki known to us are Ishmi-Dagan and successor of Kurigalzu II, adding a considerable 

his son Shamshi-Adad I (or Shamshi-Ramman). Babylonian territory to the newly arisen, but power- 

The exact date of these two princes is uncertain, fuL Assyrian Empire. 

althoogh we may with reasonable certainty place Towards the ena of the fourteenth century b. c. 
them about 1840-1800 b. c. Other Ishshaki are (about 1330-20 b. c.) Ramman-nirari was succeeded 
Ig^ur-Kapkanu, Shanishi-Adad II, Khallu, and by his son Shalmaneser I. During, or about the 
Irishum. The two cities of Nineveh and Assur were time of this ruler, the once powerful Egyptian su- 
certainly in existence at the time of Hammurabi premacy over Syria and Mesopotamia, thanks to the 
(e. 2250 b. c), for in one of his letters he makes brilliant militanr raids and resistance of the Hittites, 
mraition of them. It is significant, however, that a powerful horde of tribes in Northern Syria and Asia 
in the long inscription (300 lines) of Agumkakrime, Mmor, was successfully withstood and confined to 
one of the Kassite rulers of Babylonia (c. 1650 b. c), the Nile Valley. With the Egyptian pressure thus 
in which he enumerates the various countries over removed from Mesopotamia, and the accession of 
which his rule extended, no mention is made of Shalmaneser I, an ambitious and energetic monarch, 
Assyria. Hence, it is probable that the beginning to the throne of Assyria, the Assyrian Empire began 
of an independent Assyrian kingdom may be placed to extend its power westwards. Following the 
towards the seventeenth century b. c. According course of the Tigris, Shalmaneser I marched north- 
to an inscription of King Esarhaddon (681-668 b. c), wards and subjugated manv northern tribes; then, 
the first Assyrian Ishshaku to assume the title turning westwards, invaded, part of north-eastern 
(d King was a certain Bel-bani, an inscription of Syria and conquered the Arami. or Aramaeans, of 
whom, written in archaic Babylonian, was found by Western Mesopotamia. From there he marched 
Father ScheiL His date, however, cannot be deter- against the land of Mu^, in Northern Arabia, adding 
minecL a considerable territory to his empire. For strat^ic 
Towards the fifteenth century b. c. we find Egyp- reasons he transferred the seat oi his kingdom from 
tian supremacy extended over Svria and the Mesopo- the city of Asshur to that of Kalkhi (the Chale, or 
tamian valley: and in one of the royal inscriptions Cfdah, of Genesis^ forty miles to the north, on the 
of Tfaothmes III of E^ypt (1480-27 b. c), we find eastern bank of tne Tigris, and eighteen miles south 
Aflyria among his tributary nations. From the of Nineveh. Shalmaneser I was succeeded by his son 
r<M-Aniama letters also we know that diplomatic Tukulti-Ninib (c. 1290 b. c). whose records and 
oefotiatioiis and correspondences were frequent inscriptions have been collected and edited by L. W. 

^ * " ' ^' ' • • ■"" ' '^ ^...1 *' oa. He was a valiant 

he not only preserved 

period we find the integrity of the empire but also extended it 

ain the Kings of Assyria standing on an equal towards the north and north-west. He invaded 

fooling with those of Babylonia, and successfully and conquered Babylonia, where he established the 

eooiestiiig with the latter for the boundarv-lines of seat of his government for fully seven years, during 

theff kingdom. About 1450 b. c. Asshur-bel-nishe- which he b^me obnoxious to the Babylonians, who 

aaa was King of Assyria. He settled the boundary- plotted and rebelled against him, proclaiming a 

Cm of his kingdom with his contemporary Kara- certain Ramman-shur-usur king in his stead. The 

mdaihy Ejuog of Babylonia. The same treaty was Assyrians themselves also became dissatisfied on 

""MiH**^ again between his successor, ruzur- account of his long absence from Ass^a. and he 

Aflinir, mud Bumaburiash I, King of Babylon, was slain b^ his own nobles, who proclaimed his son, 

^Bnr-AflBliur was succeeded by Asshur-nadin-A^e, Asshur-n&§ir^pal, kin^ in his stead. After the death 

1A0 ii mentioned by his successor, Asshur-uballit. of this prince, two kings, Asshur-narrara and Nabu- 

ia ooe oi hia letters to Amenhotep IV, King of dayan oy name, reigned over Assyria, of whom 

tfiptf 9B his father and predecessor. During most however, we know nothing. Towards 1210-1200 

« tte long reign of Asshur-uballit, the rdations b. c. we find Bel-Kudur-usur and his successor, 


Ninib-pal-Eshara, reigning over Assyria. These, who, in 890, was succeeded by his son, Tukulti- 

however, were attacked and defeated by the Baby- Ninib II. llie last two monarchs ap])ear to have 

lonians, who thus regained possession of a consider- undertaken several successful expeoitions acainst 

able part of their former territory. The next As- Babylonia and the regions north of Assyria. Tukulti- 

syrian monarch was Asshur-dan, Ninib-pal-Eshara's Ninib's successor was his son Asshur-nasir-ped 

son. He avenged his father's defeat by invading (8^5-860 b. c), with whose accession to the throne 

Babylonia and capturing the cities of Zaban, Irria, began a long career of victory that placed Assyria at 

and Akarsallu. In 1150 b. c, Asshur-dan was sue- the head of the great powers of that age. He was a 

ceeded by his son, Mutakkil-Nusku; and in 1140 great conqueror, soldier, or^^nizer, hunter, and 

B. c, by the latter's son Asshur-resh-ishl, who sub- builder, but fierce and cruel. In his. eleven military 

jugated the peoples of Ahlami, Lullumi, Kuti (or campaigns he invaded, subdued, and conquered, 

Guti), and other coimtries, and administered a after a series of devastations and raids, all the regions 

crushing defeat to his rival and contemporary, north, south, east, and west of Assyria, from the 

Nabuchodonosor (Nebuchadnezzar) I, King of mountains of Armenia down to Babylon, and from 

Babylonia. ^ ^ the mountains of Kurdistan and Lake Urmi (Urum- 

About 1120-10 B. c. Asshur-resh-Hshi was succeeded yah) to the Mediterranean. He crossed the £u- 
by his son, Tiglath-pileser I, one of the greatest phrates and the Orontes, penetrated into the Lebanon 
Assyrian monarchs, under whose reign of only ten re^on, attacked Karkemish, the capital of the 
years duration Assyria rose to the apex of its military Hittites, invaded Syria, and compelled the cities of 
success and gloiy. He has left us a very detailed the Mediterranean coast (such as Tyre, Sidon, 
and circumstantisd account of his military achieve- Byblos, and Armad) to pay tribute. But the chief 
ments, written on four octagonal cylinders which he interest in the hbtory of Asshur-nasiivpal lies in the 
placed at the four comers of the temple built by him fact that it was in his reign that Assyria first came 
to the god Ramman. According to these, he under- into touch with Israel. In his expedition against 
took, in the first five years of his rei^n, several sue- Karkemish and Syria, which took place in 878 b. c, 
cessful military expeditions against Mushku, against he undoubtedly exacted tribute from Amri (Omri), 
the Shubari, against the Hittites, and into the moun- Kinjj^ of Israel; although the latter's name is not 
tains of Zagros, against the people of Nairi and their exphcitly mentioned in this sense, either in Asshur- 
twenty-three kings, who were chased by him as far nasir-pal's inscriptions, or in the Old Testament, 
north as Lake Van in Armenia; against the people of The fact, however, seems certain, for in the Assyrian 
Musri in Northern Arabia, and against the Ara- inscriptions from about this time down to the time 
mseans, or Syrians. "In all", he tells us, "forty-^ of Sargon — ^nearly 150 years — the land of Israel is 
two countries and their kings, from beyond the Lower frequently mentioned as the "land of Omri"; and 
Zab, from the border of the distant mountains as Jehu, a later King of Israel, but not of the dynasty of 
far as the farther side of the Euphrates, up to the Amri, is also called the "son of Omri". This seems 
land of Hatti [Hittites] and as far as the uppjer sea to show that the land of Israel was known to the As- 
of the setting sun [i. e. Lake Van], from the beginning Syrians as the land of that king who happened to be 
of my sovereignty until my fifth year, has my hand reigning when they were first T)rought into political 
conquered, i carried away their possessions, burned relations with it, and we know that this kinf was 
their cities with fire, demanded from their hostages Amri^ for in 878, the year of Asshur-nasir-pars ex- 
tribute and contributions, and laid on them the heavy pedition to Syria, he had been king over Israel for 
yoke of my rule." He crossed the Euphrates some nine years. ^ 

several times, and even reached the Mediterranean, Asshur-nasir-pal was succeeded by his son, Shal- 

upon the waters of which he embarked. He also maneser II, who in the sixth year of his reign (854 

invaded Babylonia, inflicting a heavy blow on the b. c.) made an expedition to the West with the object 

Babylonian king, Marduk-nadin-a^e and his army, of subduing Damascus. In this memorable cam- 

and capturing several important cities, such as paign he came into direct touch with Israel and their 

Dur-Kuri^alzu, Sippar, Babylon, and Opis. He king Achab (Ahab), who happened to be one of the 

pushed his triumpnal march even as far as Elam. allies of Benhadad, King of Damascus. In describing 

Tiglath-pileser I was also a daring hunter, for in one this expedition the Assyrian monarch goes on to 

of nis campaigns, he tells us, he filled no fewer than say that he approached Karkar, a town to the 

one hundred and twenty lions on foot, and eight south-west of Karkemish, and the royal resid^ce of 

hundred with spears while in his chariot, caught Irhulini. — "I desolated and destroyed, I burnt it: 

four elephants alive, and killed ten in his chariot. 1 200 chariots, 1,200 horsemen, 20.000 men of Bir- 

He kept at the city of Asshur a paric of animals idri of Damascus; 700 chariots, vOO norsemen, 10,000 

suitaUe for the chase. At Nineveh he had a botanical men of Irhulini of Hamath; 2,000 chariots, 10,000 

garden, in which he planted specimens of foreign men of Ahab of Israel . . . these twelve Icin^ he 

trees gathered during his campaigns. He built also [i. e. Irhulini] took to his assistance. To offer battle 

many temples, palaces, and canals. It may be of they marched against me. With the noble might 

interest to add that his reign coincides with that of which Asshur, the Lord, granted, with the powerful 

Heli (Eli), one of the ten judges who ruled over weapons which Nergal, wlio walks before me, gave, 

Israel prior to the establishment of the monarchy. I fought with them, from Karkar into Gilzan I smote 

At the time of Tiriath-pileser's death, Assyria was them. Of their soldiers I slew 14,000." — The Old 

enjoying a period of tranquillity, which did not last. Testament is silent on the presence of Achab in the 

however, very lon^; for we find his two sons ana battle of Karkar. which tooK place in the same year 

successors, Asshur-bel-Kala and Shamshi-Ramman, in which Achab aied fighting in the battle of Ramoth 

seeking offensive and defensive alliances with the Galaad (lU Kin^s, xxii). 
Kings of Babylonia. E^ven years sater this event Jehu was prodaimed 

From about 1070 to 950 B. c, a ^p of more than king over Israel, and one of his first acts was to pay 
one hundred years presents itself m the histoiy of tribute to Shalmaneser II. This incident is coin- 
Assyria. But from 950 b. c. down to the fall of memorated in the latter's well-known "black obe- 
Nineveh and the overthrow of the Assyrian Empire lisk*', in the British Museum, in which Jehu himself, 
(606 B. c.) the history of Assyria is very completely "the son of Omri", is sculptured as paying tribute to 
represented in documents. Towards 950 b. c, the king. In another inscription the same king 
Tiglath-pQeser 11 was kinjg over Assyria. In 990 records the same fact, sayinff: "At that time I re^ 
b. c. he was succeeded by his son, Asshur-dan II, and ceived the tribute of the lyrians, Sidonians, and 
about 910 B. c. by the latter 's son, Ramman-nirari II, Jehu the son of Omri.^' This act of homage tcK>k 

A88TBU 13 A887UA 

plaee in 842 b. c, ^ the eighteenth year of fflial- Israel also was overrun by the Assyrian monarch, 
maneser's reign. the country reduced to the condition of a desert. 
After Shalmaneser II came his son Shamshi-Ram- and the trans-Jordanic tribes carried into captivity, 
man II (824 b. c), who, in order to quell the re- At the same time the Philistines, the Edomitee, the 
beUion caused by his elder son, Asshur-danin-pai. Arabians, and many other tribes were subdued* 
undertook four campaigns. He also fou(tht and and after the fall of Damascus, Tiglath-pileser held 
defeated the Babylonian KinjE, Marduk-balatsu* a durbar which was attended by many princes, 
iqbi, and his powenul army. Snamshi-Ramman II ^ amongst whom was Achaz himsen. His next ex- 
was succeeded by his son, Ramman-nirari III ^812 piedition to Palestine was in 734, the objective this 
B. c). This king undertook several expeditions time being Gtkza, an important town on the searcoast. 
agunst Media, Armenia, ihe land of Nairi, and the Achaz hastened to make, or, rather, to renew, his 
r^on around Lake Urmi, and subjugated all the submission to the Aceyrian monarch; as we find his 
oofisUands of the West, including Tyre, Sidon, Edom, name mentioned Bmdn with several other tributary 
PfajUstia^ and the "land of Omn", i. e. Israel. The kings on one o{ Tiglath-pileser's inscriptions. In 
chief object of this expedition was asain to subdue 733 the Assyrian monarch carried off the population 
Damascus, which he did by compelling Mari', its from large portions of the Kingdom of Israel, sparing, 
king, to pay a heavy tribute in silver, gold, copper, however, the capiteJ, Samaria. Tiglath-pileser was 
and iron, besides quantities of cloth and furmture. the first Assyrian king to come into contact with the 
Joachaz f Jehoahaz) was then king over Israel, and he Kingdom of Juda, and also the first Assyrian mon- 
welcomed with open arms Ramman-nirari's advance, arch to begin on a large scale the system of trans- 
inasmuch as this monarch's conquest of Damascus planting peoples from one country to another, with 
relieved Israel from the heavy yoke of the Syrians, the object of ^ Inreakine down their national spirit, 
Ramman-nirari III also claimed sovereignty over unity, and indepencfence. According to many 
Babylonia. His nstme is often given as that of scholars, it was during Ticlath-pileser^ reign that 
Adad-nirari, and he reigned from 812 to 783 b. c. Jonas (Jonah) preached in Nineveh, although others 
In one of his inscriptions, which are unfortunatdiy prefer to locate the date of this Hebrew prophet a 
scarce and laconic^ he mentions the name of his wife, centiuy later, i. e. in the reign of Asshurbanipal 
Sammuramat, which is the only Assyrian or Baby^ (see blelow). 

Ionian name discovered so far naving any phonetic T^Lath-pileser III was succeeded by his son (?), 
resemblance to that of the famous l^endary queen, Shalmaneser IV, who reigned but five years (727- 
Semiramis. The personal identity of the two 722 b. c). No historical inscriptions relating to this 
queens, however, is not admissible. Ramman-ni- king have as yet been founa. Nevertheless, the 
rari HI waa succeeded by Shalmaneser III (783- ''Babylonian Chronicle** (which gives a list of the 
773 B. c), and the latter by Asshurdan III (773-755 principal events occurring in Babylonia and AasyrJA 
B. c), who in turn was followed by Asshmniirari II between 744 and 688 b. c.) has the following state- 
(755-746 B. c). Of these three kings we know little, ment: "On the 25th of Thebet [December-January] 
as no adequate inscriptions of their reigns have come Sludmaneser [in D. V. Salmanasar] ascended the 
down to us. throne of Asenrria, and the city of Shamara'in [Sa- 
in the year 745 b. g. Tiglath-pileser III (in the maria] was destroyed. In the fifth year of his 
Douay Version, Theglathphalasar) seised the throne reign he died in the month of Thebet. " The Ass3rrian 
of Assyria, at Nineveh. He is said to have begun life "Eponym Canon" (see above) also informs us that 
as a gardener, to have distinguished himself as a the first two years of Shalmaneser's rei^ passed 
soldier, and to have been elevated to the throne by without an expedition, but in the remaining three 
the army. He was a most capable monarch, enter- his armies were engaged. In what direction the 
prising, eneigetic, wise, and daring. His military armies of Shalmaneser (Salmanasar) were engaged, 
ability savea the Assyrian Empire from the utter the "Canon" does not say, but the "Babylonian 
rain and decay which had begun to threaten its Chronicle" (quoted above) and the Old Testament 
extBtence, and for this he is fitly spoken of as the (IV Kings, xviii) explicitly point to Palestine, and 
founder of the Second Assyrian Empire. Tij^h- particularly to Samaria, the capital of the Israelitish 
pileser's methods differed from those of his prede- Kingdom. In the second or third year of Shal- 
ceasors, who had been mere raiders and plimderers. maneser'srei{^,08ee(Hoshea)KiiU( of Israel, together 
He organized the empire and divided it into prov- with the King of Tyre, rebelled against A^yria; 
inces, each of which had to pay a fixed tribute to and in order to crush the rebellion the Assyrian mon- 
Uie exchequer. He was thus ame to extend Aaeyn&n arch marched against both kings and laid siege to 
swptea^ucy over almoet all of Western Asia, from their capitals. The Biblical account (Douay Version, 
Arai^iia to Egypt, and from Persia to the Mediter- IV Kings, xvii, 3 sqq.) of this expedition is as follows: 
ranean. During his reign Assyria came into doee "Against him came up Salmanasar king of the 
contact with the Hebrews, as is shown by his own As^rians, and Osee became his servant, and paid 
inscriptions, as well as by the Old Testament records, him tribute. And when the king of the Assynans 
wbere he is mentioned under the name of Phul (Pul). found that Osee endeavouring to rebel had, sent 
In the Assyrian inscriptions his name occurs only as messengers to Sua the king of Effypt, that he might 
that of Ti^uith-jpileser, but in the"^stof Babylonian not pay tribute to the king of the Assyrians, as he 
^ngs" he is also called Pul, which settles his iden- had done every year, he Msieced him, bound him, 
tity with the Phul, or Pul, of the Bible. He reigned and cast him into prison. Ana he went through all 
for eij^teen years (745-727 b. c). In his annals he the land: and going up to Samaria, he besieged it 
mentions the payment of tribute by several kings, three years. And in the ninth year of Osee, the king 
amongst whom is "Menahem of Samaria", a fact of the Assyrians took Samaria, and carried Israel away 
ooofiraied by IV Kings, xv, 19, 20. During his to Assyria; and he plaoed them in Hala and Habor 
wign, Achaz was King of Juda. This prince, havinff by the river of Gozan, in the cities of the Medes." — 
been hard pressed and harassed by Rasin (Rezin) See also the parallel account in IV Kings, xviii, 9-11, 
Q^Dimascus, and Phacee rPekah) of Israel, en- which is one and the same as that here given. The 
tarted protection from Tiglath-pileser (Theglath- two Biblical accounts, however, leave undecided the 
pbalasar), who, nothing loath, marched westward and question, whether ^lalmaneser himself or his sue- 
attad^ed Rasin, whom be overthrew and shut up in cesser conc(uered Samaria; while, from the Assyrian in- 
Dsnuseus. Two years later, the city siurrendered. scriptions, it appears that Shalmaneser died, or was 
Rsflia was slain, and the inhabitants were carried murdered, before he could personally carry his vie* 
9»iy oapdves (tV Kin^, xvi, 7, 8, 9). Meanwhile toiy to an end. He was succeeded b^ Sargon II. 


Sai^n. a man of oommanding ability, was^ not- name is so well known to Bible students. He was an* 

withsianaing his claim to royal ancestiy, m aU exceptionally cruel, arrogant, revengeful, and des- 

probability a usurper. He is one of the greatest potic ruler, but, at the same time, a monarch of 

figures in Assyrian history, and the founder of the wonderful power and ability. His first military 

famous Saiigonid dynasty, which held sway in Assyria expedition was directed against Mwodach-baladan, 

for more than a century, i. e. until the fall of Nineveh of Babylonia, who, at the news of Sargon's deaUi. 

and the overthrow of the Assyrian Empire. He had returned to Babylonia, assuming the title oi 

himself reigned for seventeen years (722-706 b. c.) king, and murdering Merodach-zalur-shiuni, the 

and proved a most successful warrior and orf^anizer. viceroy appointed by Saigon. Merodach-baladan 

In every battle he was victor, and in every difi&culty was, however, easilv routed by Sennacherib; fleeing 

a man of resource. He was also a great builder and again to Elam ancl hiding himself in the marshes, 

Catron of the arts. His greatest work was the but always ready to take advantage of Sennacherib's 
uilding of Dur-Shamikin, or the Castle of Sargon, absence to return to Babylon. In 701, Sennacherib 
the modem Khorsabad, which jvas thoroughly marched eastward over the Zagros mountains and 
explored in 1844-55 by Botta, Flandin, and Place, towards the Caspian Sea. There he attacked, 
It was a larse city, situated about ten miles from defeated, and subdued the Medians and all the 
Nineveh, ana capable of accommodating 80,000 in- neighbouring tribes. In the same year he marched 
habitants. His palace there was a wonder of archi- on the Meoiterranean coast and received the sub- 
tecture, panelled in alabaster, adorned with sculp- mission of the Phoenicians, the Ammonites, tho 
ture, and inscribed with the i^ecords of his exploits. Moabites, and the Edomitee. He conquered Sidon, 
In the same year in which he ascended the throne, but was unable to ]&y hands on Tyre, on account of 
Samaria fell (722 b. c), and the Kingdom of Israel its impregnable position. Thence he hurried down 
was brought to an end. ''In the beginning ot my the coast road, captured Askalon and its king, 
reign", he tells us in his annals, "and in the first Sidaa; tumins to the north, he struck Ekron ana 
year of my reign . . . Samaria I besieged and Lacnish, and dispersed the Ethiopian-Egyptian 
conquered . . . 27,290 inhabitants I carried off forces, which had assembled to oppose his march 
... I restored it again and made it as before. Ezechias (Hesekiah), Kins of Juda, who togethet 
People from all lands, my prisoners, I settled there, with the above-mentioned kings had rebelled against 
My officials I set over them as governors. Tribute Sennacherib, was thus completdly isolated, and 
and tax I laid on them, as on the Assyrians.'' Sar- Sennacherib, finding his way clear, marched against 
gon's second campaign was against the Elamites, Juda, dealing a terrific blow at the little kingdom, 
whom he subdued. From Elam he marched west- Here is Sennacherib's own account of the event: 
ward, laid Hamath in n^ins, and afterwards utterly ''But as for Hezekiah of Judah, who had not sub- 
defeated the combined forces of- the Philistines and mitted to mv yoke, forty-six of his strong walled 
the Efl^yptians, at Raphia. He made Hanum. cities and the smaller cities roimd about them 
Kin^ ofGaza, prisoner, and carried several thousana without number, by the battering of rams, and the 
captives, with very rich booty, into Assyria. Two attack of war^ngines [?], by making breaches, by 
years later, he attacked Karkemish, the capital of cutting through, and the use of axes, 1 besieged and 
the Hittitee. and conquered it, capturing its king, captured. Two hundred thousand one hundred 
officers, ana treasures, and deporting them into and fifty people, small and great, male and female* 
Assyria. He then for fuUy six years harassed, and horses, mules, asses, camels, and sneep without num- 
finally subdued, all the northern and north-western ber I brought forth from their midst and reckoned 
tribes of Kurdistan, of Armenia (Urartu, or Ararat), as spoil. Himself [Hezekiah] I shut up like a caged 
and of Cilicia: the Mannai, the Mushki, the Kum- bird in Jerusalem, his royal city. I tnrew up forti- 
mukhi, the Milidi, the Kammani, the Gamgumi, fications against nim, and whosoever came out of 
the Samali, and many others who lived in those the gates of his city I punished. His cities, which 
wild and inaccessible regions. Soon after this he I had plundered. I cut off from his land and ^ve to 
subdued several Arabian tribes and, afterwards, Mitinti, King ot Ashdod, to Padi, King of Ekron, 
the Medians, with their forty-two chiefs, or princes, and to Cil-^, King of Gaza, and [thus] made his 
During the first eleven years of Sargon's reign, territory smaller. To the former taxes, paid yearly, 
the Kingdom of Juda remained peacefullv subject tribute, a present for my lordship, I adaed and im- 
to« Assyria, paving the stipulated annual tribute, posed on him. Hezekiah himsell was overwhelmed 
In 711 B. c. however, Ez^hias (Hezekiah). King oy the fear of the brilliancy of my lordship, and the 
of Juda, partly influenced by Merodach-balaoan, of .^^bians and faithful soldiers whom he had brought 
Babylonia, and partly by promises of help from in to strengthen Jerusalem, his royal city, desertcKl 
Egypt, rebelled against the Assyrian monarch, and him. Thir^ talents of gold, eight hundred talents 
in this revolt he was heartily jomed by the Phoeni- of silver, precious stones, guhli daggas^if large lapis 
cians, the Philistines, the Moabites, and the Ammon- lazuli, couches of ivory, thrones of elephant akin 
ites. Sargon was ever quick to act; he collected a and ivory, ivory, ushu and urkarinu woods of every 
powerful army, marched against the rebels, and dealt kind, a heavy treasure, and his daughters, his palace 

With Palestine and the West pacified and subdued, pay homage.'' 

Sargon, ever ener^tic and prompt, turned his atten- The same event is also recorded in IV Kings, 

tion to Babylonia, where Merodach-baladan was xviii and xix, and in Isaias, xxxvi and xxxvii, but 

ruling. The Babylonian army was easily routed, in somewhat different manner. Accordii^ to the 

and Merodach-baladan himself abandoned Babylon Biblical account, Sennacherib, not satisfied with 

and fled in terror to Beth-Yakin, his ancestral strong- the payment of tribute, demanded from Ezechias 

hold. Sargon entered Babylonia in triumph, and the unconditional surrender of J^^isalem, which 

in the following year he pursued the fleeing king, the Judean king refused. Terrified and bewildered, 

stormed the city of Beth-Yakin, deported its people, Ezechias called the prophet Isaias and laid the matter 

and compelled all the Babylonians and Elanutes before him, asking him for advice and counsel, 

to pay him tribute, homage, and obedience. In The prophet strong advised the vacillating Idn^ to 

705, in the flower of his age and at the zenith of his oppose the outrageous demands of the Assyrian, 

elory, Sargon was assassinated. He was succeeded promising him Yahweh's help and protection, 

by nis son, Sennacherib (705 to 681 b. c), whose Accordingly, Ezechias refused to surrender, and 


Sexmaeherib, enraged and revengeful, reBolverf to appears to have spent the last years of his reign tn 

storm ajid destroy the city. But in that same night building his magnificent palace at Nineveh, and in 

the whole Assyrian army, gathered imder the walls embellishing the city with temples, palaces, gardens, 

of Jerusalem, was stricken by the angel of the Lord, arsenals, and fortifications. After a long, stormy, 

who slew one hufldred and eighty-five thousand and glorious reign, he died by the hand of one of his 

Assyrian soldiers. At the sight of this terrible own sons (681 b. c). The Bible tells us that " as he 

calamity, Sennacherib, in terror and confusion, [Sennacherib] was worshipping in the temple of Nes- 

departed and returned to Assyria. The Assyrian roch his god, Adramelech and Sarasar his sons slew 

and the. Biblical accounts are primd facte conflicting, him with the sword, and they fled into the land of 

but many more or less plausible solutions have been the Armenians, and Asarhaddon [Esarhaddon] his 

sui^gested. In the first place we must not expect to son reigned in his stead " (IV Kings, xix, 37). The 

find in Sennacherib's own annals mention of, or " Babylonian Chronicle ", however, has " On 20 Thebet 

allusion to, any reverse he may have suffered; such [December- January] Sennacherib, King of Assyria, 

alhisiona would be clearly incompatible^ with the was slain by his son in a rebellion . . . years reigned 

monarch's pride, as well as with the purpose of Sennacherib in Assyria. From 20 Thebet to 2 Adar 

annals inacribed only to glorify his exploits and [March- April] was the rebellion in Assyria main- 

victories. In the second place, it is not improbable tained. On 18 Adar his son, Esarhaddon, ascended 

that Sennacherib imdertook two different campaigns the throne of Assyria." If the murderer of Sennache- 

against Juda: in the first, to which his annals refer, rib was, as the " Babylonian Chronicle " tells us, one 

he contented himself with exacting and receiving of his own sons, no son of Sennacherib by the name 

submission and tribute from Ezechias (Hezekiah) ; of Adrammelech or Sharezer has as yet been found in 

but in a later expedition, which he does not mention, the Assyrian monuments; and while the Biblical 

he insisted on the surrender of^ Jerusalem, and in narrative seems to indicate that the murder took place 

this latter expedition he met wit& the awful disaster, in Nineveh, on the other hand an inscription of Asshur- 

It is to this expedition that the Biblical account banipaJ, Sennacherib's grandson, clearly afliirms that 

refers. Hence, there is no real contradiction between the tragedy took palce in Babylon, in the temple of 

the two narratives, as they speak of two different Marduk (of which Nesroch, or Nisroch, is probably 

events. Furthermore, the disaster which overtook a corruption). 

the Assyrian army may have been, after all, quite a Sennacherib was succeeded by his younger son, 
natural one. It may have been a sudden attack of Esarhaddon, who reigned from 681 to 668 b. c. At 
the plague, a disease to which Oriental armies, from the time of his father's death, E^rhaddon was in 
their utter neglect of sanitation, are extremely sub- Armenia with the Assyrian army, but on hearing 
ject, and before which they quickly succumb. Jose- the sad news he promptly set out for Nineveh, first to 
phus explicitly affirms that it was a flagellum pro- avenge his father's death by pimishing the perpe- 
diffiosum (Antiq. Jud., X, i, n. 5); while, according to trators of the crime, and then to ascend the throne, 
an Elgyptian tradition preserved to us by Herodotus On his way home he met the assassins and their 
(Lib. II, cxli), Sennacherib's army was attacked army near Cappadocia, and in a decisive battle 
and destroyed by a kind of poisonous wild mice, routed them with tremendous loss, thus becoming 
which suddenly broke into the Assyrian camp, the sole and undisputed lord of Assyria. Esar- 
completely demoralizing the army. At any rate haddons' first campaign was against Babylonia, 
Sennacherib's campaign came to an abrupt end, and where a fresh revolt, caused by the son of the late 
be was forced to retreat to Nineveh. It is noteworthy, Merodach-baladan, had broken out. The pre- 
however, that for the rest of his life Sennacherib tender was easily defeated and compelled to flee to 
undertook no more military expeditions to the Elam. Esarhaddon, unlike his father, determined 
West, or to Palestine. This fact, interpreted in the to build up Babylon and to restore its ruined temples, 
light of the Assyrian monuments, would be the result palaces, and walls. He gave back to the people 
of the complete submission of Syria and Palestine; their property, which had been taken away from 
while in the light of the Biblical narrative it would them as spoils of war during Sennacherib's destruc- 
•ignify that Sennacherib, after his disastrous de- tive campaign, and succeeded in restoring peace and 
feat, dared not attack Palestine again. harmony among the people. He determined, further- 
While laying siege to Jerusalem, Sennacherib more, to make Babylon his residence for part of the 
leeeived the disquieting news of Merodach-baladan's year, thus restoring its ancient splendour and re- 
sadden appearance in Babylonia. A portion of the ligious supremacy. Esarhaddon's second campaign 
Asqrrian army was detached and hurriedly sent to was directed against the West, i. e. Syria, where a 
B^ylonia against the restless and indomitable foe fresh rebellion, having for its centre the great mari- 
of Assyria. In a fierce battle, Merodach-baladan time city of Sidon, had broken out. He captured 
was for the third time defeated and compelled to the city and completely destroyed it, ordering a new 
fles to Elam, where, worn and broken down by old city, with the name of Kar-Esarhaddon, to be built 
age and misfortunes, he ended his troubled life, on its ruins. The King of Sidon was caught and 
aad Asshur-nadin-shum, the eldest son of Sennache- beheaded, and the surrounding country devastnted. 
rib, was appointed king over Babylonia. After his Twenty-two Syrian princes, among them Manassas, 
reiiirn from the West, and after ^e final defeat of King of Juda, surrendered and submitted to Esar- 
Merodach-baladan, Sennacherib began lengthy and haddon. Scarcely, however, had he retired when 
sethre preparations for an effective expedition against these same princes, including Manasses, revolted. 
Babylonia, which was ever rebellious and reqtless. — But the great Esarhaddon utterly crushed the 
expedition was as imique in its methods as it rebellion, taking numerous cities, captives, and 
andacioos in its conception." — With a poweriul treasures, and ordering Manasses to be carried to 
and navy, he moved southward and, in a Babylon, where the king was then residing. A few 
battle near Khalulu, utterly routed the years later Esarhaddon had mercy on Manasses 
Chaldeans, Babylonians, and Elamites, and allowed him to return to his own kingdom. In 
executed their two chiefs, Nergal-usezib and a third campaign, Esarhaddon blockaded the im- 
16HBBb-Merodach. Elam was ravaged, " the smoke pregnable Tyre, and set out to conquer Egypt, which 
ol taming towns obscuring the heavens ". He he successfully accomplished by defeating its king, 
alteeked Babylon, which was stormed, sacked, Tirhakah. In order to effectively establish Assyrian 
t, 6ooded, and so mercilessly punishea that it supremacy over Egypt, he divided the country into 
reduced to a mass of ruins, and almost ob- twenty provinces, and over each of these he appointed 
MeratedL On his return to Assyria, Sennacherib a governor; sometimes a native, sometimes an 


Assyrian. He exacted heavy annual tribute from thou^t of the far distant Babylonian world." 

every one of these twentv provinces, and returned (G. H. Goodspeed, Hist, of the Babylonians and 

in triumph to Asayritk* *^ Ab for Tarqu [Tirhakah], Aasyrians, pp. 315, 316.) Of this library, which 

King of Egypt and Cush, who was under the curse of must have contained over forty thousand day tablets, 

theu* great divinity, from Ishupri as far as Memphis, a par^ was discovered by G. Smith and H. Rassam, 

his royal city — a march of fifteen days — every day part has been destroyed, and part yet remains to 

without exception I killed his warriors in great be explored. Here G. Smith first discovered the 

number, and as for him, five times with the point of famous Babylonian accounts of the Creation and of 

the spear I struck him with a deadly stroke. Mem- the Deluge in which we find so many striking simi- 

phis, his royal city, in half a day, by cutting through larities with the parallel Biblical accounts. Asshur- 

and scaling, I besieged, I conquered, I tore down, I banipal was also a great temple-builder — in Nineveh, 

destroyed, I burned with fire, and the wife of his Arbela, Tarbish, Babylon, Eorsippa, Sippar, Nippur, 

palace, his palace women, Ushanahuru, his own son and Uruk. He fortified Nineveh, repaired, enk^ed, 

and the rest of his sons, his daughters, his property and embellished Sennacherib's palace, and built 

and possessions, his horses, his oxen, his sheep next to it another palace of remarkable beauty, 

without number, I carried away as spoil to Assyria. This he adorned with numerous magnificent statutes, 

I tore up the root of Gush from Egypt, a single one — sculptures, bas-reliefs, inscriptions, and treasures, 

even to the suppliant — I did not leave behind Assyrian art, especially sculpture and architecture, 

Over all Egypt I appointed kings, prefects, governors, reached during his reign its golden age and its classical 

grain-inspectors, mayors, and secretaries. I in- perfection, while Assyrian power and supremacy 

stituted regular offerings to Asshur and the great touched the extreme zenith of its height; for with 

gods, my lords, for all time. I placed on them the Asshurbanipal's death Assyrian power and glory 

tribute and taxes of my lordship, regularly and sank into the deepest gloom, and perished, pre- 

without fail." Esarhaddon also invaded Arabia, sumably, to rise no more. 

penetrating to its very centre, through himdreds Asshurbanipal's military campaigns were very 
of miles of sandy lands which no other Assyrian numerous. He ascended the throne in 668 b. c, 
monarch had penetrated before. Another important and his first move was against Egypt, which he sub- 
'campaign was that directed against the Cimmerians, dued, penetrating as far as Memphis and Thebes, 
near the Caucasus, and against many other tribes. On his way back, he exacted tribute from the Syrian 
in Armenia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Asia Minor, and and Phoenician kings, among whom was Manassea 
Media. The monarch's last expedition was a second of Juda, who is expressly mentioned in one of the 
campaign against Egypt. Before leaving Assyria, king's inscriptions. He forced Tyre to surrender, 
however, i. e. in the month of lyyar (April-May), and subdued the Kings of Arvad, of Tabal, and of 
668 B. c, as if forecasting future events, he consti- Cilicia. In 655, he marched against Babylonia and 
tuted his son Asshurbanipal co-regent and successor drove away from it a newly organized, but powerful 
to the throne, leaving to his other son, Shamash- coalition of Elamites, Chaldeans, and Arameans. 
shum-ukin, Babylonia. But, while on his way to He aiterwarda marched into the very heart of Elam, 
Egypt, he fell sick, and on the 10th of Marsheshwan as far as Susa, and in a decisive battle he shattered 
(October), in the year 668, he died. the Elamite forces. In 625, Shaniash-shutn-ukin, 
Esarhaddon was a truly remarkable ruler. Unlike ABshurbanipal's brother, who had been appointed 
his father, he was religious, generous, forgiving, less by his father King of Babylonia, and who had till 
harsh and cruel, and very diplomatic. He ruled then worked in complete harmony with his brother, 
the various conquered countries with wisdom and rebelled against Asshurbanipal. To this he was 
toleration, while he established a rigorous system openly and secretly incited by many Babylonian, 
of administration. A great temple-builder and Elamite, and Arabian chiefs. Asshurbanipal, how- 
lover of art, he has left us many records and in- ever, was quick to act. He marched against Baby- 
scriptions. At Nineveh he rebuilt the temple of As- Ionia, shut off all the i*ebel8 in their own fortresses, 
shur, and in Babylonia, the temples at Ukuk, Sippar, and forced them to a complete surrender. His 
Dur-llu, Borsippa, and others, in all about thirty, brother set fire to his own palace and threw himself 
In Nineveh he erected for himself a magnificent palace into the flames. The cities and fortresses were 
and arsenal, and at Kalkhi (Calah; Douay, Chale) captured, the rebeb slain, and Elam completely 
another of smaller dimensions, which was still un- devastated. Temples, palaces, royal tombs, and 
finished at the time of his death. Asshurbanipal, brines were destroyed. Treasures and booty were 
Esarhaddon 's successor, was undoubtedly the great- taken and carried away to Assyria, and several 
est of all Assyrian monarchs. For generalship, thousands of people, as well as all the princes of the 
military conquests, diplomacy, love of splendour royal family, were executed, so that, a few years 
and luxury, and passion for the arts and letters, he later, Elam disappeared for ever from history, 
has neither superior nor equal in the annals of that In another campaign, Asshurbanipal advanced 
empire. To him we owe the greatest part of our against Arabia and subdued the Kedarenes, the 
knowledge of Assyro-Babylonian history, religion, Nabatseans, and a dozen other Arabian tribes, as 
literature, art, and civilization. Endowed with a far as Damascus. His attention was next attracted 
rare taste for letters, he caused all the most important to Armenia, Cappadocia, Media, and the north- 
historical, religious, mythological, legal, astronomical, western and north-eastern regions. In all these 
mathematical, |p*ammatical, and lexicographical he established his supremacy, so that from 640 till 
texts and inscriptions known to his day to be copied 626, the year of Asshurbanipal's death, Assyria was 
and placed in a magnificent library which he built at peace. However, most scholars incline to be- 
in his own palace. " Tens of thousands of clay lieve that during the last years ol the monarch'b 
tablets systematically arranged on shelves for easy reign the Assyrian Empire began to decay- 
consultation contained, besides official dispatches Asshurbanipal is probably mentioned onoe in the 
and other archives, the choicest religious, historical. Old Testament (I Esdras, iv, 10) under the name 
and scientific literature of the Babylonia- Assyrian of Asenaphar, or, better, Ashenappar (Ashenappal) 
world. Under the inspiration of the king's literary in connexion with his deportation of many trouble- 
zeal, scribes copied and translated the ancient sacred some populations into Samaria. He is probably 
classics of primitive Babylonia for this library, so alluded to by the Second Isaias and Nahum, in 
that, from its remains, can be reconstructed, not connexion with his campaigns against £^ypt and 
merely the details of the government and adminis- Arabia. According to G. Brunengo, S.J. (Nabuchod- 
tratiou of the Assyria of his time, but the life and nossor di Oiuditta, Rome, 1886) and other scholan. 


Aaahurhfiipal is the Nabuchodonosor (Nebuohad- driving away demons and evil spirits; Asshur, the 

neaaar) of the Book of Judith; others identify him consort of Belit, and the supreme god of Assyria. 

with the Sardanapalus of Greek historians. In view, Besides these there were other minor deities. 

however, of the conflicting characters of the legendary '• Sxoatations ond Decipherment: Kaulen, Geschiefue 

Sardanapalus .nd the A»hurbanip»} of the cunei- f^«$g^. "i^jflC^. ^<^ SSlSl^iJ'tfl!;^ 

form mscnptions, this last identification seems rien* (Berlin. 1885), 30-184; Evarre. Nw Lioht on the Hdy 

impossible. Besides, Asshurbanipal was not the Land (London. 1801), 79-129; ViGouRotrx. La Bible et lee 

{art king of A«yria, as Sardanapalus is suppo«,d to I^TmSTt^^^^'t^^'^A ^fl^''orB^U. 

have been. ^ and Astyria (New York. 1901). I. 1-253; Hilphscut. Ez- 

Asahurbanipal was succeeded by his two sons, jAoratUme in BibU Land* During the I9th Century (Philadelphia, 

Aashur-etil-elani and Sin-shar-ishkun. Of their iS2?^ ^"?^' ®*??™' T^ Diecovery and ^e«Pi«™«{,^ fj* 

^^^ * . !*^ •uv» »^uA-ouM tou».uu. v» , *. •* TriltnQual Cuneiform Inacriptione (London. 1902); Fobskt* 

respective reigns and theur exploits we know nothmg, Manuel d'AeeyrioloQie (Paria. 1904), I. 

except that in their days Assyria began rapidly to 11. History of Aeeyria: Hoioiel. op. cU. supra; Tiels, 

;oM its prestige and .power All the foreign prov- gJSi^^^jKii^S'SJSSSJ^i^^ 

«»C08— Egypt, PhOSniCiai Chanaan, Syria, Arabia, gtuttgart, 1891): Maspbro, The StruooU of the Nations, and 

Armenia, Media, Babylonia, and Elam — broke away The Passing of the Empires, vols. II and III of the tr. of the 

from Assyria, when the degenerate and feeble sue- ^? author's claaaigl work. Hi^ aneiennedes peuplesde 

««.T.i», ^^» 2 ««6«**«**»«« »»Ax. *«^ ^ VOrimt daaaique; Wincki*eb, OeschxchU BabyUmtena unA 

oeeaors of the valiant Asshurbanipal proved unable Assytiens (Leipni?. 1902): Rooers. pp. eU. eupm in 2 vols.; 

to cope with the situation. They had probably (3oodspbbi>. Histarv of the Babylonians and Assyriat^s (New 

Abandoned themselves to eflfeminate luxury and IL'^^f^'u^fJ!^!.^ 

J . , . I'xAi J.I-- t M'x — ixoumlKl vsk a.A!nvHQ9, Diet, of the D%bU. 

debauchenes, caring httle or nothmg for military m. CoUecUons of Asaurian Texts and Translations: Raw- 

glory. In the meanwhile Nabopolassar, King of unboN, The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia (London, 

Babylon, and Cyaxares, King of Media, formed a JfJ^V a^^'ji^rto^'hj^*^ IS^d \ %tt^^%(m^!SSa 

family and political alliance, the latter giving his KeUi^rifaicJl^Bihli^ (Leinafg.TS!^i); ^Rec^d 

daughter in marriage to the former's son, Nabuchodo- e£ the Past — being English Translations of the Assyrian and 

noeor (Nebuchadnesiar). At the head of a powerful ifnmtian Monurju^, two scries (London. i?88-g2); Har^, 

army, these two kings together marched against iX^erYoK?iT ^~^ 

Nineveh and laid siege to it for fully two years, IV. Assyrian Arts and Civilisation: Pbrrot bt Chipibz, 

after which the city surrendered and was com- ffi^toire efe Vart dans VantiquiU CPariB, ^^K^^'S''**^^^ 

pletely destroyed and demolished (W6 b c.), and ^t'lg^J^Sfi^ ^k^TSS^Zj&Zelt^ $^^^ 

AaByriA became a provmce of Babylonia and works of Layaro, Oppbrt. Place, etc. 

Media. '^' ^^^9^^ of Assyria: Jartrow, The Rdigion of Baby 

D..,»«^«, A»T« ri,»^* » A mv^m, Tk^. .^llm'^n ^r^A lo^^ ^M AssyHa (Boston, 1898), Glerman ed., much im- 

. R?"<?101* AND CIVILIIATION.— The rehgion and p,^,^^^ ^^ entirely rewritten; bibliography in art. Babt- 

dviliaation of Assyria were almost identical with loioa. 

those of Babylonia, the former having been derived VI. Comparative 8^ of Assyrian 3fonuments and In- 

from the latter and developed along the same lines. ^^ a^ tJ!^oSTLta.S^S''K^on^'im^'^'^ 

For, although the Assyrians made notable contri- German ed.. entirely rewritten by Wincxler and Zimmbr- 

bntioilS to architecture, art, science, and literature, maw. under the origmid title Die KeUinschriflen und das AUe 

the* were with them eeeentUUy a Babylonian im- ^Z^S^^JTuu'^^SJ'T^^uZus'^L.^'itt^f; 

portation. Assyrian temples and palaces were Satcb. The Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments 

modelled upon those of Babylonia, although in the (London. 1894); Hommbl. The Ancient H^rw TradUion as 

b»n^:-.» »J«<^*:«1 »*^^^ w„o f«*. mrvr^ i;Ka^o1Ui> illustrated by the Monuments (London. 1897); Price. The 

uflding-matenal stone was far more hberally M^^„^^nts^ the Old Testament (Chicago. 1900); Pinches, 

emiMOyed. In sculptural decorations and in statuary The Old Testament in the Liqht of the Historical Records and 

more richness and originality were displayed by the Legends of Assyria and Babylonia (London, 1903); Jeremias. 

Anyrians than by the Babylonians. It seems to j>gi)^ r«fc««rt im LuM» i^ Mm onenu (Lipag. 

have been a hobby of Assyrian monarchs to build Gabriel Oussaki. 
eoloesal palaces, adorned with gigantic statues and 

aa infinite variety of bas-reliefs and inscriptions Astaroth (Abtarte). See Pbcenicia. 

i^owing their warUke exploits. Asshurbanipal's Asteriak (Or., iar^P, a star).-Thi8 is a utensil 

hbjary shows that Assynan rehgious hterature was j„, ^ y^^ according to the Greek Rite, which is 

jwt onty an imitation of that of Babylonia, but abjjo- ^„t ^^ {„ ^he Roman Rite at aU. It consists of 

lutely identiwl therewith. An examination of the ^^^ ^^^^^ ^anjg ,,, ^ ^^^ of gilver or gold 

religions of the two countries proves that the As- „,,i^,, ^^^ ^^ ^^i^„ ^^ ri^ht angles and thus form 

^rians adopted Babylonian doctrines, cults, and ^ ^^b,^ ^^^ It is used to pUce over the amnot, 

rrtee, with such shght modifications as were oaUed „, particles of blessed bread, when spread out upon 

(or by the conditions pwvaihng m the northern t^e paten during the pro»komide and earlier part of 

eooatey. The chief difference m the Assyrian ^^ ^^ Mase, so as to prevent the veU from coming 

pantheon compared with that of Babylonia is that, ^ ^^^^ ^^^^ o, disturbing these blessed but uncon- 

whfle m Semitic times ttie principal god of the latter gecrated particles of bread in carrying the paten from 

wa. Mardttk that of the lormer was Asshur. The y^, y^ ^^ t^^ jt„ „, ^^ile it is standing at 

prmjapal deities of both countriw are: the three jj^-; i^ ^ j^ j^j^ ^^ ^t^, the Creed and is 

^ .l!I*"*U^"' A^ ^A^ °' I*' Jif "^e^'y .«5'»'»»«j not ordinarUy used again during the Mass. The otter- 

S^.i**J3^^ ^ ""-^ *''*"'*°' ?; mankind; and f,* fa ugu^ny surmounted by a cross, and often has a 

^: *** ^"^ humanity par excellenct, and of the y ^ar suspended from the central junction, and 

"i^K ^*** !J°^ i"?*^' ^l Ti!?** ° "^f "S^? in the Greek Orthodox is somewhat larger in size 

«d Jbe consort of Bel; Sm, first-born son of Bel, ^^^ ;„ y,^ ^^^ Catholic Church. When the priest 

the father of wuidom. pereonified m the moon; j,^ ^^^ prckormde service is through incensing the 

ShaiMsh. the sun-god; Nmib, the h«o of the heav- ^ ^ 'g^ j ,^ t^^ ^ ^^ takes up 

•iibr and earthly spurits; Nergal, chief of the nether- ^^^ ^^^^^ ^J i^ceiiiiig it sTys, "And the star 

imtU and of the subteiranean demons, and god of ^^^ j^^h and stood over where the child was ". 

j^^Omee and fevers; Marduk originally a solar j^ ^ ^^ j^ ^y^ particles of bread upon the 


~ \^T IT' - J- • J «, x _u ' line ceieorauon oi \ne iviasB. 

j; NebO, the god of wisdom, to whom Kraus. Rea-Bncyk. b. v.; Pbtriobs in Diet, d'arch. ehrSt.. 

tte art of writing and the sciences are ascribed; a. v.; CLuoifBT. Diet, des noms liturgiquee. 22. 

GannNusku, or, simply, Nusku, the god of fire, as Andrew J. Suipman. 

n.— 2 



Asterius, name of several prominent persons in ^Um, name of several English Catholics of promi- 

early Christian history. — (1) Asterius of Petra, a nence. — Sir Arthur, member of an ancient and 

bishop of Arabia, ill-treated by the Arian faction at knightly family, an able military officer in the army 

the Council of Sardica (343) for withdrawing from of CharlcMS I, governor of Oxford for the king, and 

them his support, and exiled to Upper Libya in made governor of Drogheda (Ireland) in 1649. He 

^Syp^i whence he was recalled in 362 by the was kiUed 10 September, 1649, at the siege of that 

edict of Julian that restored all the banished bish- town by the forces of Oliver Cromwell; his brains were 

ops. He took part in the Council of Alexandria dashed out with his wooden leg during the massacre 

(362), called, among other reasons, for the pur- that followed the capture (D. Murphy, Cromwell 

pose of healing the Meletian schism that was rend- in Ireland, Dublin, 1897, p. 99). — Herbert, an 

ing the Church of Antioch. He was one of the English poet, b. at Chelsea, 1614, third son of Walter, 

bearers of the letter addressed by the council to first Lord Aston of Forfar, whom he accompaxiied 

the stubborn Lucifer of Cagliari and the other to Madrid on his second embassy in 1635, author of 

bishops then at Antioch. These peaceful measures " Tixall Poetry, Collected by the Hon. Herbert 

were, however, rendered useless by Lucifer's pre- Aston, 1658 *' (ed. with notes and illustrations by 

cipitancy in consecrating Paulinus as successor to Arthur Clifford, Esq., Edinburgh, 1813, 4to). — 

Meletius of Antioch, whereby the schism gained Walter, father of the preceding and son of Sir £d- 

a new lease of life. — (2) Asterius of Amasea in ward Aston, of Tixall in Staffordshire, educated 

Pontus (c. 400). The only fact in his life that under the direction of Sir Edward Coke, sent as one 

is known is related by himself, vis. his education of the two ambassadors to Spain (1619) to negotiate 

by a Scythian or Goth who had been sent in his a marriage treaty between Charles (I), Prince of 

youth to a schoolmaster of Antioch and thus ac- Wales, and the Infanta, daughter of Philip III. He 

quired an excellent education and great fame among became a convert to the Catholic Faith on this occa- 

both Greeks and Romans. The extant writings of sion, and on his return to England was made Lord of 

Asterius are twenty-one homilies, scriptural and Forfar (Scotland). He had a decided taste for 

panegyrical in content. The two on penance and literature, and was the patron of Drayton, who dedi- 

" on the beginning of the fasts " were formerly as- cated to him (1598) his " Black Prince ", and in his 

cribed to St. Gregory of Nyssa (Bardenhewer, " Polyolbion " praises the Aston 's ** ancient seat " of 

Patrologie, 1901, 267). A life of his prede- Tixall.— William, b. 22 April, 1735, educated at 

cessor, ^t. Basil, is ascribed to Asterius (Acta SS., St.-Omer, entered the Society of Jesus in 1751, and 

26 April). His works (P. G., XL) are described by taught for several years in the Society's colleges of 

Tillemont (M4m., X, 409). He was a student of St.-Omer, Watten, and Bruges, until the suppres- 

Demosthenes and an orator of repute. Lig^tfoot sion in 1773; d. at Li^, 15 March, 1800, as canon 

says (Diet, of Christ. Biogr., I, 178) that his beet of the cathedral. Among his writings are *' Lettres 

sermons display ** no inconsiderable skill in rhetoric, Ultramontaines " and ** Le Cosmopolite *'. 

great power of expression, and great earnestness of _ Oillow, BiM. Did. of Engl. Cathcliet, I, 76-82; Foi*t. 

moral conviction; some passages are even strikingly ^•"^ ""^ ^'^' '^^«'»~^' «• ^' Thomas J Shah an 
eloquent." The homilies of Asterius, like those of 

Zeno of Verona, offer no little valuable material Astorga (Abturiga Augusta), Diocebb op, suf- 

to the Christian archsologist. [De Buck in Acta SS., fragan of Valladolid in Spain, dates, it is said, 

20 Oct. (Paris, 1883), XIII, 330-334.]— (3) Asterius from the third century. It was the principal church 

of Cappadocia, a Greek soplust, a friend of Arius, and of the Asturias in 344, after a long eclipse was again 

also his fellow student in the school of Lucian of an episcopal see in 747, and exhibits since 841 a 

Antioch. St. Athanasius quotes more than once regular succession of bishops. It was at different 

from a pro-Arian work of this writer. He wrote times a suffragan of Braga and of Santiago. It 

commentaries on the Epistle to the Romans, ihe Gros- includes the whole province of Leon, and counts 

pels, the Psalms, and ''^many other works ■' (Jerome, 300,115 Catholics, 990 parishes, and as many parish 

De Vir. HI., c. xciv), all of which have perished churches, 431 chapels, and 1,183 priests. 
(Zahn, Marcellus von Ancyra, Gotha, 1867, 68 BATt^mixR, Ann. poni. oath. (Pm, id^ 

8qq.).-(4) Arterius a Rom^ -enator mentioned by ^rtj. T^ ^I^.O^-^l^ M*?Vl.^6S| 

Eusebius (Hist. EccL, VII, 16) as a Christian dis- Mxtnos, BM. HuL Bsp. (1858) 40. 
tinguished for faith and charity. Rufinus says that Thomas J. Shahan. 

he suffered martyrdom at Cssarea in Palestine in n^i__- a_a.».«o^ 
262 (Baronius, An. Eccl. ad an. 262, $$ 81, 82). A«trolatry, Bee Babaism. ^. ^ ^ , 

—(5) Asterius Urbanus, a Montanist writer of the Astrology, the supposed science which determines 

latter part of the second century, referred to in the influence of the stars, especiaUy of the five older 

Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., V, 16, 17); his work was planets, on the fate of maM {astrologut judtctarta; 

probably a compilation of the pseudo-prophetic ut- mundane, or judicial astrology) or on the changes of 

terances of Montanus and his female companions the weather {astrologia naturalu; natural astrology) 

Priscilla and Maximilla. Thomas J. Shahan. according to certain fixed rules dependent upon the 

. controlling position of the stars (constellations and 

Asti, Diocese of, one of the divisions of the aspects) at the time under consideration. Judicial 

province of Alexandria, and suffragan of Turin. Asti astrology— the more important branch of this occult 

IS a very old town. It became Christian at an early g^ — depended for its predictions upon the position 

period of the Christian Era. The first known bishop ^f the planets in the " twelve houses " at the moment 

was Pastor in 451. After him, were Majoranus in 465, ^f the birth of a human being. The calculationB 

Benenatus in 680, and St. Evasius in 730. From 800 necessary to settle these positions were called casting 

begins the regular list of bishops, though the see was the horoscope or the diagram of the heavens {Ihema 

vacant from 1857 to 1867. There has been some con- ^^j at the nativity. Starting with the point that 

troversy as to the beginning of the Diocese of Asti ^as rising just at the moment of birth, the celestial 

and the episcopate of St. Evasius, once placed by equator was divided into twelve equal parts, six 

some at much earlier dates. Asti has 182,600 Catho- above and six below the horison, and circles were 

lies, 107 parishes, 300 secular priests, 12 regulars, 92 drawn through these points and the intersecting 

seminarists, 525 churches or chapels. points of the horizon and the meridian. Thus the 

Gams. SerUt eniscop. Bode: cathol. (Ratisbon. 1873). 812; heavens were divided into twelve houses. The first 

UoHBLLi. Italia Sacra (Venice. 1722), IV. 332; Cappblubtti, u^,,«p (hnrmtrnnim) h^a\n& with the Doint of the 

U chiese tntalia (Venice, 1866). XIV. 179; Savio, Oli onHchi ^^,^^. {fwroscopus) oegins J^^^ xne pomi ^V^"© 

vucovi d'ltalia: PremonU (Turin. 1897), L 109-167. echptic that IB just nsing {ascendens) . Ihe twelve 


houses are divided into cardinal houses, also called and Assyrians developed astrology, especially ju« 
anffidif succeeding houses (aticcedentea, anaphora) dicial, to the status of a science, and thus advanced 
and declining or GEuient houses (cadentesj catapkora), in pure astronomical knowledge by a circuitous 
rhe houses symboHze respectively: lite, personal course through the labvrinth of astrological pr«- 
propCTty, consanguinity, ricnes, children ana jewels, dictions. The Assyro-Baoylonian priests (Chaldeans) 
oealth, marriage and course of life, manner of death were the professional astrologers of classic antiquity, 
and inheritance, intellect and disposition (also lonff In its origin Chaldaic astrology also goes back to the 
journeys), position in life and dignities, friends ana worship of the stars; this is proved by the religious 
success, enemies and misfortune. In tne horo8coi)e symbolism of the most ancient cuneiform texts of 
aD these symbolic meanings are considered in their the zodiac. The oldest astrological document ex- 
relation to the newly bom. A Latin hexameter thus tant is the work called " Namar-Beli " (Illumination ol 
sums up the meaning of the twelve houses: Bel) composed for King Sargon I (end of the third 
Vita, lucrum, fratres, genitor, nati, valetudo, millennium B. c.) and contained in the cuneiform li- 
Uxor, niors, sapiens, regnans, benefactaque, daemon, brary of King Asurbanipal (668-626 b. c.)- It in- 
The position of the planets and the sun and moon in eludes astronomical observations and calculations 
the twelve houses at the moment of birth is decisive, of solar and lunar eclipses combined with astrological 
The planets vanr as to meaning. They are divided predictions, to which the interpretation of dreams 
into davHstars (Saturn, Jupiter, and also the sim) already belonged. Even in the time of Chaldean, 
and nignt-stars (the moon, Mars, and Venus); Mer- which should be called Ass3rrian, astrology, the five 
cunr betongs both to day and night. The sun, Jupiter, planets, together with the sun and moon, were di- 
anci Mars are masculine; the moon and Venus are vided according to their character and their position 
feminine. Mercury belonging again to both classes, in the zodiac as well as according to their position in 
Jupiter (fortuna major) and Venus (Jortuna minor) the twelve houses. As star of the sun, Saturn was 
are good planets; Saturn (infortuna major) and Mars the great planet and ruler of the heavens. The 
{infortvna minor) are malignant planets. The sun, weather, as far back as this time, was predicted from 
moon, and Mercury have a mixea character. Each the colour of the planets and from their rising and 
of the planets known to antiquity, including sun and setting. Classical antiquity looked upon Berosus, 
moon, ruled a day of the week; hence the names priest of the temple of Bel at Babylon, as the oldest 
still used to designate the various days. Judicial as- writer on astrology: and according to Vitruvius 
trology also took into consideration the position of Berosus founded a school of astrology at Cos. Seneca 
the sun in the zodiac at the moment of birth; the says that a Greek translation, made by Berosus, of 
signs of the zodiac also had a special astrological the " Namar-Beli " from the library of Asurbanipal 
significance in respect to the weal and woe of the new- was known to classical antiquity. 
bom, particularly his bodily health. In medical The E^^yptians and Hindus were as zealous astrolo- 
astrology every sign of the zodiac ruled some special cers as the nations on the Euphrates and Tigris. The 
part of the body, as for example: Aries, the Ram dependence of the early Egjrptian star (sun) wor- 
(T), the head and its diseases; Libra, the Balance ship (the basis of the worship of Osiris) upon early 
(— ), the intestines. Judicial astrology postulates Chaldaic influences belongs to the still unsettled ques- 
the acc^tance of the earth as the centre of the solar tion of the origin of early Egyptian civilization. But 
system. Natural astrology predicts the weather undoubtedly the priests of tne Pharaohs* were the 
from the positions of the planets, especially the moon, docile pupils in astrolo^ of the old Chaldean priests. 
Many of its theories are not to be rejected a priori j The mysterious Taauth (Thoth), the Hermes Tris- 
since the question of the moon's meteorological in- megistus of antiquity, was regarded as the earliest 
fluence still awaits a solution which must depend teacher of astrology in Egypt. He is reputed to have 
opcm the progress of human knowledge as to ether laid the foimdation of astrology in the " Hermetic 
waves ana cognate matters. Books"; the division of the zodiac into the twelve 
History.— The history of astrology is an impor- signs is also due to him. In classic antiquity many 
tant part of the history of the development of civi- works on astrology or on occult sciences in general 
Itzation; it goes back to the early days of the human were ascribed to this mythical founder of Egyptian 
race. The unchangeable, harmonious course of the astrolo^. The astrological rule of reckoning named 
heavenly bodies, tne profound impression made on after him "Trutina Hermetis" made it possible to 
the soul of man by the power of such heavenly phe calculate the position of the stars at the time of con- 
nomena as eclipses, the feeline of dependence on the ception from the diagram of the heavens at the time 
«m, the giver of daylight — Sn these probably sug- of birth. The^ Egyptians developed astrology to a 
ge^ed. in the early ages of the human race, the ques- condition from which it varies but little to-day. The 
tion whether the fate of man was not dependent on hours of the day and night received special planets 
these majestic manifestations of Divine power. As- as their rulers, and high and low stood under the de- 
trologv was, therefore, the foster-sister of astronomy, terminative influence of the stars which proclaimed 
the science of the investigation of the heavens. From through the priestly caste the coming fate of the 
the start astrology was employed for the needs and land and its inhabitants. It is significant that in 
benefit of daily lue; the astrologers were astronomers ancient Egypt astronomv, as well as astrolo^, was 
Qtij incidentally and in so far as astronomy assisted brought to an imdoubtedly high state of cultivation. 
* r in the functions which the latter had tb The astoundingly daring theories of the world found 
in connexion with religious worship. Ac- in the Egyptian texts, which permit us to infer that 
_ to the belief of the early civilized races of their autnors were even acquainted with the helio- 
the Eiuit, the stars were the source and at the same centric conception of the universe, are based entirely 
tsae the heralds of everything that happened, and on astrologico-theosophic views. The astrology of 
theii|^ to study the "godlike science'' of astrology the ancient inhabitants of India was similar, though 
vis a privilege of the priesthood. This was the case hardlv so completely developed; they also regarded 
m Mesop otamia and Egypt, the oldest centres of the planets as the rulers of the different hours. Their 
^^■*' "ion Imown to us in the East. The most division of the zodiac into twenty-eight houses of 
dwellers on the Euphrates the Akkado- the moon is worthy of notice; this conception, like 
were believers in iudicial astrology,, which all the rest of the fundamental beliefs of Hindu as- 
f interwoven witn their worship of the trology, is to be found in the Rig- Veda. In India 
The same is true of their successors, the both astrology and the worship of the gods go back 
Bans and Assyrians, who were the chief ex- to the worship of the stars. Even to-day, the Hindus, 
of astrology m antiquity. The Babylonians especially the Brahmins, are considered the best au- 


thorities on astrology and the most skilful casters of stars. The poem of Aratus was greatly admired by 

horoscopes. both the Greeks and the Romans: Cicero translated 

India influenced and aided the development of it into Latin, and Hyginus, Ovia's friend, wrote a 

astrology in ancient China; both India ana Mesopo- commentary on it. In this age astrology was as 

tamia that of the Medes and Persians. The AaevrO' highly developed as in its second perioa of pro&- 

Bubvlonian and Egvptian priests were the teachers perity, at the Renaissance. Medical astroloey had 

of the Greek astrologers. Both of these priestly also at this date secured a definite position. Htp[X)c- 

castes were called Chaldeans, and this name remained rates of Cos in his work "De Acre, Aqua et Locis". 

the designation of all astrologers and astronomers which shows the influence of the Pythagoreans, 

in classic antiquity and in the period following. It discusses at length the value of astrofoey and its 

speaks well for the sound sense of the early Grecian prognostications for the whole domain oimedicine. 

pnilosophers that thev separated the genume astro- In the Alexandrine school of medicine, astrological 

nomic hypotheses ana facts from the confused mass prognosis, diagnosis, and hygiene soon covered with 

of erroneous astrological teaching which the Eg]^tian their rank growths the inherited scientific teachings 

priests had confided to them. At the same time it that had been tested by practice. In this way 

was through the old Hellenic philosophers that the "astrological" cures grew in favour. These form/] 

astrological secrets of the Oriental priestly castes of the art of healing are not without interest both 

reached the profane world. The earliest mention of for the history of suggestion and for that of human 

the art of astrological prediction in early classical error. The aiseases of the more important bodily 

literature is found in the "Prometheus Vinctus" of organs were diagnosed, according to the influence 

iEschylus (line 486 sqq.) — ^a comparatively late date, of the sign of the zodiac at the time, and a medicine 

The often quoted lines of the Odyssey (fik. XVIII, applied which either acted by su^estion, or was 

136 sqq.) nave nothing to do with astrology. As- wholly inoperative. In the division of the zodiac ac- 

trology was probably cultivated as an occult science cording to its medical effect on the different parts of 

by the Pythagorean school which maintained the the bc^ the first sim taken was the Ram (^Aries), 

exdusiveness of a caste. The teaching of Pythagoras which ruled the head, and the last of the series was 

on the "harmony of the spheres" points to certain the Fishes (Pisces) f which controlled the health or 

astrological hypotheses of the Egyptian priests. It ailments of the feet. As the appetite of the Greeks 

is a striking fact that Greek astrology be^an to for the mysterious wisdom of astrology grew keener, 

flourish when the gloiy of the early classical civiliza-r the Egyptian and Chaldean astrologers continually 

tion had begun to wane. It was in the age of Euripi- drew out still more mystical, but, at the same time, 

des, who refers to astrological predictions in a little more dubious treasures from their inexhaustible 

comedy, that the belief in astrology began to grow store-house. The newly founded city of Alexandria, 

popular in Greece. After the overthrow of the As^rro- where the later Hellenic culture flourished, was a 

Babylonian Empire, the priests of those regions centre for all astrologers and practitioners of the 

found refuge in Greece and spread their astrological occult arts. From time to time books appeared here, 

teachings by word of mouth and writing. In this professing to have had their origin in tne early days 

way astrology lost the character of occult science, of Egyptian civilization, which contained the secret 

Astronomy and astrology remained closely united, knowledge pertaining to astrological and mystical 

and both sciences were represented by the so-callea subjects. These writings seemed to meet the aspi- 

Chaldeans, Mathematici, and Genethliacs. Astrology rations of ordinary men for the ideal, but all they of- 

proper, from the time of Posidonius, was called fered was a chaotic mass of theories concerning 

dToreXcerMarticd (rendered into English, "apoteles- astrology and divination, and the less they were 

matics"inordertoindicate more clearly the influence understood the more they were applauded. In the 

of the stars upon man's final destiny; dr6, "from". Renaissance these pseudo-scientinc works of an- 

and tAoj. "end"). Astrology soon permeated the tiquity were eagerly studied. It suffices here to 

entire philosophical conception of nature amon^ the mention the books of Nechepso-Petosiris which 

Greeks, and rapidly attained a commandinjg position were believed by the neo-Platonists to be the most 

in religious worship. Plato was obliged to take ancient Egyptian authority on astrology but which, 

astrology into consideration as a "philosophical doc- probably, were written in Alexandria about 160 b. c. 

trine", and his greatest disciple, Aristotle, was the About this same time, in all probability, Manetho, 

first to separate the science of astrology from that an Egyptian priest and traveller repeatedly men- 

of meteorology, which was reserved for the phenom- tionea by Ptolemy, wrote on astrology. In order to 

ena of the atmosphere. The Stoics who encouraged meet the exigencies which arose, e&cn degree of the 

all forms of divination were active promoters of heavens in late Egyptian astrology was assigned to 

astrology. The more plainly the influence of Orien- some special human activity andsome one disease, 

tal teaching manifested itself in Greek civilization. Besides this, the "heavenly spheres", which play 

and the more confused the political conditions ana so important a part in the history of astronomy, were 

religious ideas of the Greek Statesi became, the increased to 54, and even a higher number, ana from 

greater was the influence of astrologers in public, and astrological calculations made from the complicated 

the more mischievous their activity in private, life, movements of these spheres the fate both of men and 

Every professional astronomer was at the same time nations was predicted. Thus arose in late classic 

an astrologer. Eudoxus of Cnidus, the author of times the svhcera barbarica (foreign sphere) which 

the theory of concentric spheres, was perhaps the in the Middle Ages also had a controlling influence 

first to write in Greek on purely astrological topics, over astrology. 

being led to select this subject by his studies in It was to be expected that the sober-minded, prac- 
Egypt. Most of the Greek astronomers known to tic^ Romans would soon be dissatisfied with the 
usfollowed in his footsteps, as, for instance, Geminus mystical and enigmatical doctrines of Alexandriap 
of Rhodes whose most important work treatii^ of astrology. Cato uttered warnings against the mis- 
astronomy and astrology El^aytay^ tit t4 *ati«6j*ewt chievous activity of the Chaldeans wno had entered 
(Introduction to Phenomena) was commented on Italy alot^ with Greek culture. In the year 139 b. c. 
even by Hipparchus. About 270 b. c. the poet the Prator Cneius Cornelius Hispallus drove all 
Atatus of Soli in his didactic poem, "Phenomena", astrologers out of Italy* but they returned, for even 
explained the system of Eudoxus, and in a poem the Roman people could not begin an important un- 
caUed "Diosemeia", which was appended to the dertaking without the aid and advice of augurs and 
former, he interprets the rules of judicial and natural auspices. It is only necessaiy to recall the greatest 
astrology that refer to the various changes of the man of ancient Rome, Julius Csesar. Cicero, ^^ho in 


b's yminger days had busied himself with astrology, five hundred years had ruled the public life of Rome. 
proteBtea vigoroudy, but without success, against In 321 Oonstantine issued an edict threatening al) 
It in his work "De Divinatione". The Elmperor Qiakleans, Magi, and their followers with death. 
AofUfitus, on the other hand, believed in astrology Astrology now disappeared for centuries from the 
and protected it. The first Roman work on astrology Christian parts of Western Europe. Only the Arabic 
ma dedicated to him: it was the ''Astronomica ' schools of learning, especially those in Spain after 
written about 45 B. c. by Marcus Manilius, who was the Moors had conquered the Iberian penmsula, ao- 
probably a Chaldean by birth. In five books this cepted this dubious inheritance from the wisdom of 
poem gives an outline of the astrology of the zodiac classic timeS; and among the Arabs it became an in- 
and constellations. The fifth book is devoted to centive to pure astronomical research. Arabian and 
the vphara barbarica. It is a curious fact that the Jewish scholars were the representatives of astrolo^ 
poem does not take up the astrology of the planets, in the Middle A^, while both Church and State m 
In spite of repeated attempts to suppress it, as in the Christian countries rejected and persecuted this false 
reigns of Claudius and Vespasian, astrology main- doctrine and its heathen tendencies. Unfortunately, 
tamed itsdf in the Roman Empire as one of the lead- at the same time the development of astronomy was 
ing forais of culture. The lower the Romans sank checked, excepting so far as it was needed to estab* 
in religion and morals the more astrology became lish certain necessary astronomic principles and to 
entwii^ with all action and belief. Under Tiberius calculate the date of Easter. Yet early Christian 
and Nero the two astrologers named Thrasyllus, who legend distinguished between astronomy and as- 
were father and son. held high political positions, trology by ascribing the introduction of the former 
The most distinguisned astronomer of antiquity, to the good angels and to Abraham, while the latter 
Claudius Rolenueus, was also a zealous astrologer, was ascribed to Cham. In particular, St. Augustine 
His "Opus Quadripartitum. seu de apoteleematious ("De civitate Dei", VIII, xix, and in other places) 
et judiciis astrorum, libri IV" is one of the chief fought against astrology and sought to prevent its 
treatises on astrology of earlier times and is a detailed amahramation with pure natural science. Once more 
account of astrological teachings. This work occu- the East prepared a second period of prosperity for 
pied in astrology as important a position as that astrolo^. The Jews, very soon after they were 
which the same author's MeydXri 2i^rra|tr (also called driven into Western Europe, busied themselves with 
"Almagest"), held in the science of astronomy before astrological questions, bemg stimulate thereto bv 
the appearance of the Copemican theory. It is a the Talmud. Jewish scholars had, moreover, a knowl- 
strikinK fact that Ptolemy sought, in the second book edge of the most important works of classic times 
of the Opus Quadripartitum , to bring the psychi- on astrology and they became the teachers of the 
cal and bodily differences of the various nations into Arabs. These latter^ after the rapid spread of Mo- 
relation with the physical conditi(His of their native hammedanism in Western Asia and North Africa, 
lands, and to make these conditions, in their turn, and their defeat in Western Europe bv Charles Mar- 
Jepend on the positions of the stars. The Roman tel, began to develop a civilization of tneir own. The 
astrologers wrote their manuals in imitation of mysti^ books which appeared in Jewish literature 
Ptolemy, but with the addition of mystic phantasies after the time of the Talmud, that is, the books called 
and mictions. After the death of Marcus Aure^ue, the "Sefer Zohar" and the "Sefer Yezirah" (Book 
the Chaldeans were always important personages at of Creation), are full of rules of divination dealing 
the imperial court. As late as the time of Constan- especially with astrological meanings and calculations, 
tine the Great the Imperial notary Julius Firmicus The high reputation of the Talmud and the Cabbala 
Matemus, who later became a Christian, wrote on among the Jews in the Middle Ages explains their 
"Mathematics, or the power and the influence of the fondness for astrological speculations; but at a very 
stars" eight books which were the chief authority m early date, it should be noted, they distinguished 
astrology until the Renaissance. With the overthrow between astronomy, " the science of reading the stars ' ', 
of the old Roman Empire and the victory of Chris- and astrology, "the science of divination", 
tianitjr, astrology lost its importance in the centres Caliph Al-Mansur, the builder of Bagdad, was, like 
of (Christian civHization in the West. The last known his son, the famous tiarun-al-Rashid, a promoter 
sstrolo^ of the old world was Johannes Laurentius of learning. He was the first caliph to call Jewish 
(sometimes called Lydus), of Philadelphia in Lydia, scholars around him in order to develop the study of 
who Uved a. d. 400-565. . the mathematical sciences, especially astronomy, in 
Astrology Under CHRisnANiTY. — From the his empire. In the year 777 the learned Jew jfacob 
start the Christian Church strongly opposed the false ben Tank foimded at Bagdad a school for the study 
teaddnss of astrology. The Fathers energetically of astronomy and astrology which soon had a high 
demancted the expuEion of the Chaldeans who did reputation; amonf those trained here was Alchindi 
so much harm to the State and the citizens bv em- (Alkendi), a noted astronomer. It was one of Al- 
pkyjring a fantastic mysticism to play, upon the in- chindi's pupils, Abumassar (Abu Mashar), from Balkh 
endicable impulses of the common people, keepwng in Chorassan, bom about the year 805, whom the 
their heathen conceptions alive, and fostering a soul- Middle Ages regarded as the greatest of Arabian as- 
poplexing cult which, with its fatalistic tendencies, tn^ogers. Astrology being regarded by the caliphs 
created cufficulties in the discernment of right and as tl^ practical application of astronomy, all the 
wrong and weakened the moral foimdations of all more important Arabic and Jewish astronomers who 
hm&an conduct. There was no room in the early were attached to that court, or who taught in the 
Offistian Church for followers of this pseudo-science. Moorish schools were also astrologers. Amon^ the 
The noted mathematician Aquila Ponticus was ex- noteworthy Jewish astrologers may be mentioned 
peDed from the Christian communion, about the Sahl ben Bishr aMsrael (alK>ut 820); Rabban al-Ta- 
yw 120, on account of his astroloipcal heresies. The ban, the well-known cabbaltst and Talmudic scholar; 
eaify ChristianB of Rome, therefore, regarded the Shabbethai Donalo (913-970), who wrote a commen- 
istrologere as their bitterest and, imfortunately, their tary on the astrology of the "Sefer Yezirah" which 
tee powerful enemies; and the astrologers probably Western Europe later regarded as a standard work: 
<U their part in stirrins^ up the cruel persecutions and, lastly, the Jewish lyric poet and mathematician 
<A tbe Oiristians. As Christianity spread, the as- Abraham ibn Ezrah. Among the noted Arabic as- 
tnlogera lost their influence and reputation, and tronomers were Massah Allah Albate^ius, Alpe- 
pmaXty sank to the position of mere quacks. The tragius, and others. The Arabo-Judaic astrol(^ 
<)ftty(Bngon of Constantine the Great put an end to of the Middle Ages pursued the path indicated by 
^ importance of this so-called science, which for Ptolemy, and his teachings were apparently the /m- 


movable foundation of all astronomical and astro- Leo X, and Paul III. When these rulers lived as- 
logical activity. At the same time the ** Opus Quad- trology was. so to say, the regulator of official life: 
ripartitum" of the great Alexandrian was corrupted it is a fact cnaracteristic of the age, that at the papal 
with Talmudic subtleties and overlaid with mystical and imperial courts ambassadors were not received 
and allegorical meanings, which were taken chiefly in audience until the court astrologer had been con- 
from the Jewish post-Talmudio belief concerning suited. Re^omontanus, the distinguished Bavarian 
demons. This deterioration of astrology is not sur- mathonatician, practised astrology, which from that 
prising if we bear in mind the strong tendency of all time on assumed the character of a br^sul-winning 
Semitic races to fatalism and their blind belief in profession, and as such was not beneath the dignity 
an inevitable destinv, a belief which entails spiritual of so lofty an intellect as Kepler. Thus had astrology 
demoralization. Tne result was that ever^ con- once more become the foster-mother of aU astron- 
ceivable pursuit of mankind, every disease, and indeed omers. In the judgment of the men of the Renais^ 
every nation had a special ''heavenly regent", a sanoe — and this was the age of a Nicholas Ck>pemi- 
constellation of definitely assigned position from the cus — the most profound astronomical researches and 
course of which the most <fiu>ing prophecies were theories were only profitable in so far as they aided in 
deduced. the development of astrology. Among the zealous 
Up to the time of the Crusades, Christian countries patrons of the art were the Medici. Catharine de' 
in general were spared any trouble from a degenerate Medici made astrology popular in France. She erect^ 
astrolo^. Only natural astrologv, the correctness an astrological observatory for herself near Paris, and 
of which the peasant thought he nad recognized by her court astrologer was the celebrated "ma>jgician" 
experience, secured a firm footing in spite of the Michel de Notredame (Nostradamus) who in 1555 
prohibition of Church and State. But the gradually published his principal work on astrology — a work 
mcreasing influence of Arabic learning upon the civi- still regarded as authoritative among the followers 
lization of the West, which reached its highest point of his art. Another well-known man was Lucas 
at the time of the crusades, was unavoidably followed Gauricus, the court astrologer of Popes Leo X and 
by the spread of the false theories of astrology. This Clement VII, who published a laige number of as- 
was a natural result of the amalgamation of the trological treatises. In Germany Johann StOfFler, 
teachings of pure astronomy with astrology at the professorof mathematics at TUbineen, Matthias Lan- 
Mohammedan seats of learning. The spread of as- denberg, and, above all, Philip Melanchthon were 
trology was also furthered by the Jewish scholars zealous and distinguished defenders of astrolo^. 
living in Christian lands, for they considered astrology In Pico della Mirandola (Adversus Astrologos libri 
as a necessary part of their cabalistic and Talmu£o XII) and Paolo Toscanelli astrology encountered its 
studies. The .celebrated didactic poem, "Imago first successful antagonists; later in the Renaissance 
Mundi", written by Gautier of Metz in 1245, has a Johann Fischart ana the Franciscan Nas were amonf 
whole chapter on astrology. Pierre d'Ailly, the noted its opponents. (Cf. Philognesius, Praotica Practi- 
French tneologian and astronomer, wrote several oarum, Ingolstadt, 1571.) 

treatises on the subject. The public importance of Gabottas charming essay, " L'astrolo^ nel Quat- 

astrolQgy grew as the internal disorders of the Church trocento", in "Ri vista di filosofia scientifica", VlII, 

increased and the papal and imperial power declined. 378. so., gives much information concerning astrology 

Towards the close of the MidcQe Ages nearly every in me nfteenth century. A. Graf's "La fatality nelle 

petty prince, as well as every ruler of importance, credenze del medio evo" (in "Nuovo Antologia", 

nad his court astrologer, upon whose ambiguous ut- 3d series, XXVIII, 201, sqq.) is also of value for 

terances the weal and woe of the whole country often astrology at the turning point of the Middle Ages, 

depended. Such a person was Angelo Catto, the Some of the late Roman astrologers, among whom 

astrologer of Louis XI of France. The revival of was probably Firmicus Matemus, thought to reform 

classics^ learning brought with it a second period of astrology by idealizing it and raising its moral tone, 

prosperity for astrology. Among the civilized peoples The same purpose animated Paolo Toscanelli, called 

of the Renaissance period, so profoundly stirred by Maestro Pagoflo, a physician greatly respected for 

the all-prevailing religious, social, and political fer- the piety of his life, who belonged to the learned and 

ment, tne astrological teachings which had come to artistic circle which ^thered around Brother Am- 

light with other treasures of ancient Hellenic learn- brosius C^maldulensis m the Monastery of The Angels, 

ing found many ardent disciples. The romantic There were special professors of astrology, besides 

trend of the age and its highly cultivated sensuality those for astronomy, at the Universities of Pavia, 

were conditions which contributed to place this art Bologna, and even at the Sapienza during the pon- 

in a position far higher than any it had attained in tificate of Leo X, while at times these astrologers 

its former period of prosperity. The forerunners of outranked the astronomers. The three intellectual 

Humanism busied themselves with astrology, and centres of astrology in the most brilliant period of 

but few of them perceived the dangerous psychical the Renaissai^ce were Bologna, Milan, and Mantua 

effect of its teachings upon the masses. Towards The work of J. A. Campanus, published at Rome 

the end of the thirteenth century the Florentines in 1495, and often commented on, namely, "Oratio 

employed Guido Bonatti as their official astrologer, initio studii Perugi® habita", throws a clear light 

and, ^though Florence then stood alone in this re- on the lack of comprehension shown by tiie Church 

pect, it was scarcely a hundred years later when Fathers in their attitude towards pagan fatalism, 

astrology had entered in earnest upon its triumphant Among other things it is here said: "Quanquam 

course, and a Cecco d'Ascoli was already its devoted Au^pstinus, sanctissimus ille vir cjuidem ac doo- 

adherent. In Petrarch's day the qu^ionable ao- tissimus, sed fortassis ad fidem rehgionemque pro- 

tivity of the astrologers at the Italian courts had made pensior, negat quicquam vel boni vd^ mali astronun 

such progress that this clear-sighted Humanist (De necessitate contingere". 

remea. utr. fortun. I, iii, sqq; Epist. rer. famil...III, In the Renaissance, religion, also, was subordinated 

8, etc.) again and again attacked astrology and its to the dictation of astrology. The hypothesis of an 

representatives with the keenest weapons of his wit, astrological epoch of the world for eaon religion was 

though without success, and even without any fol- widely believed by Italian astrologers of t£e time, 

lowing except the weak objections of Villani and the who obtained the theory from Arabo-Judaic sources, 

still more ineffectual polemics of Salutato in his di- Thus it was said that the conjunction of Jupiter with 

dactic poem "De fato et fortune '\ Emperors and Saturn permitted the rise of the Hebrew faith; 

popes oecAme votaries of astrology — the Emperors that of Jupiter with Mars, the appearance of the 

uharles IV and V, and Popes Sixtus IV, Julius II, Chaldaic religion; of Jupiter with the sun, the £gyp> 


Man religion; of Jupiter with Venus. Mohammedan- cvdtnred man — all these toother have caused as- 

iam; and of Jupiter with Mercuiy, Cfhristianity. At trology to emerge from its hiding place among paltry 

some futiue day the religion of Antichrist was to superstitions. The growth of occultistic ideas, which 

<!ippear upon the conjunction of Jupiter with the should, perhaps, not be entirely rejected, is reintro- 

moon. Extraordinary examples of theMglorification of ducing astrologpr into society. This is especially 

astrology in Italy during the Renaissance are the true of judicisS^ astrology, which, however, by its 

frescoes painted bv Miretto in the Sala della Ragione constant encouragement of fatalistic views unsettles 

at Pa via, and the frescoes in Borso's summer palace at the belief in a Divine Providence. At present ju- 

Florence. Petrarch, as well, notwithstanding his pubr dicial astrology is not justified by any scientific facts. 

lie antagonism to astrolo^, was not, imtil ms prime, To put forward the theory of ether waves as an ar- 

entirely free from its tamt. In this connection his gument for astrological assertions is not in accord 

relations with the famous astrologer, Mayno de with the methods of sober science. Judicial astrology, 

Mayneri, are significant. (Of. Rajna, Giom. stor.,X, therefore, can claim a place only in the history of 

101, sq.) human error, while, however, as an historical fact. 

Even the victorious progress of the Copemican sys- it reflects much light upon the shadowy labyrinth 

tern could not at once destroy confidence in astrology, of the human soul. 

The greatest astronomers were still obliged to devote Astrology Among the Ancient Jews. — ^The Bible 

their time to making astrological predictions at is free from any base admixture of astrological delu- 

princely courts for the sake of gain; Tycho Brahe sions. There is no reason for dragging the passage 

made such calculations for the Emperor Kudolph II, Josue x, 12, into historico-astrological discussions ; the 

and Kepler himself, the most distinguished astronomer facts there related — the standing still of the sun in the 

of the age, was the imperial court astrolo^r. Kepler valley of Gabaon and of the moon in the vfdley of 

was also obUged to cast horoscopes for Wallenstein, Ajalon — are of purely astronomical interest. Only a 

who later came completely under the influence of the few indications in > the Old Testament suggest that, 

'aJchemiBt and astrologer Giambattista Zenno of notwithstandiii^ the Divine prohibition ^x., xxii, 

Genoa, the Seni of Schiller's "Wallenstein". The 18; Deut., xviu, 10, etc.), the Jews, especially after 

influence of the Copemican theory, the war of en- they were exposed to the influence of Egjiptian and 

lightened minds against pseudo-prophetic wisdom. Babylonian errors, may have practised astrology in 

and the increasing perception of the moral ana secret, along with other superstitions. The Prophets 

psychical damage wrought by astrological humbug wam^ the people against the pernicious ascenoancy 

at last brought 'about a declme in the fortunes ot of soothsayers and diviners of dreams (Jer., xxix, 

astrology, and that precisely in Wallenstein 's time. 8: Zach., x, 1-2), among whom astrologers were in- 

At the same period astrological tracts were still eluded. Thus in the Book of Wisdom (xiii, 1-2) it is 

being written by the most celebrated of English as- said: "All men are vain . . . who . . . have imag- 

trologers, William Lilly of Diseworth, Leicestershire, ined either . . . the swift air, or the circle of the 

who received a pension of £100 from Ctom well's coun- stars, or the great water, or the sun and moon, to 

oil of state, and who, in spite of some awkward in- be the gods tM,t rule the world.*' The Book of Job, 

cidents, had no little political influence with Charles a writing of importance in the history of astronomy 

II. Among his works was a frequently republished and star nonoenclature, is also free from astrological 

"Christian Astrology". Shakespeare (m Kjng Lear) fatalism. But to this fatalism the Jews had a 

and Slilton were acquainted with and advocated natural predisposition, and when Hellenism ^ined 

astrological theories, and Robert Fludd was a repre- a footing in tne Holy Land it was accompanied by 

aentative of the art at the royal court. Francis Bacon, the sprc^ of astrology, largely among the learned, 

it is true, sought to win adherents for a purified and the philosophers", at whom even in an earlier age 

reformed astrology in order to destroy the existing the passage in Wisdom had probably been aimed. 

form of the art. It was Jonathan S\iift who in his Again, Isaias (xlvii, 13-14) derides the Babylonian 

clever satire, "Prediction for the Year 1708 by Isaac astrologers ("Let now the astrologers stand and save 

Bickerstaff, Esa. ", which deserves to be read even thee, they that gazed at the stars .... Behold they 

at the present day, gave the deathblow to the belief are as stubble, nre hath burnt them")^ and Jeremias 

of Snglish society in astrology. The last astrologer exclaims (x, 2): ''Be not afraid of the signs of heaven, 

of importance on the Continent was Jean-Baptiste which the heathen fear". 

Mcjin, who issued "Astrologia Gallica" (1661^. The After the Exile, however, astrology spread so 

fireatly misunderstood Swiss naturalist Theopnrastus rapidly, above all among the educated classes of 

P^BO^celsus was an opponent of astrology, and not Israel, that as early as the Hellenistic era a Jewish 

its advocate, as was formerly inferred from writings astrological literature existed, which showed a 

entMaeously attributed to him. The rapid growth of strong Persico-Chaldean influence. The prophets 

experimental investigation in the natiu^l sciences had been keen opponents of astrology and of a re- 

m those countries wnich had been almost ruined, lapse into fatalism. If, when they were prophesying 

socially and politically, by the Thirty Years War of^the great events to come, the contemplation of 

completely banished tne astrological parasites from nature, and especially of the stars, filled them with 

society. Once more astrology fell to the level of a sympathetic enthusiasm, by reason of their poetic 

vulvar superstition, cutting a sorry figure among the inspiration and power of divination, this had nothing 

daases that still had faith in the occult arts. The to do with astrology. On the other hand it does not 

peasant held fast to his belief in natural astrolo^, appear impossible that in Daniel's time some exiled 

and to this belief the progress of the art of printing Jews practised astrology. Judging from Daniel, v, 

and the spread of popudar education contributed 7^ 11, it is possible that the prophet himself held a 

lai^gely. For not only were there disseminated among high rank among the astrologers of the Babylonian 

the noral poor *' farmer's almanacs", which contained court. After the Exile an attempt was made to 

information substantiated by the peasant's own ex- separate astrology from sorceiy and forbidden 

}, but the printing-presses also supplied the magical arts, by denying a direct Biblical prohibition 

with a great mass of cheap and easily under- of astrology and by pretending to find encourage- 

hooks containing much fantastic astrological ment for such speculations in Genesis, i, 14. It is a 

106. characteristic fact that in ancient Israel astroloj;y 

Tbe remarkable ph3^cal discoveries of recent dec- received no direct encouragement, but that its 

\^ in combination with the growing desire for an spread was associated with the relapse of many Jews 

iievaled philosophico-religious conception of the into the old Semitic star-worship which was aided 

««ffld rT-nd the intensified sensitiveness of the modem by Persico-Chaldean influence. For this Jeremias 


is a witness (vii, 18; xix, 13; xliv, 17-19, 25). Co- ate, teachings of late Judaic astrology were swept 

incident with the spread of astrology in old Israel awav. 

and the decline of the nation was the diffusion of The lower the Jewish nation sank in the scale of 

demonolopr. The Jewish prayers to the planets, in religion and civilization the greater was the power 

the form m which they are preserved with others in gained by the erratic doctrines of astrology and the 

CJodex Paris, 2419 (folio 277r}, came into existence at accompanying belief in demonolo^. The earthly 

the time when Hellenism first flourished in the East, labours or the Saviour purified this noxious atmos- 

namely, the third and second centuries b. c. In phere. The New Testament is the opponent of 

these prayers special angels and demons are as- astrology, which, by encouraging an apathetic 

signed to the different planets; the greatest and most fatalism, prevents the development of an elevating 

powerful planet Saturn, having only one angel, Kte- and strengtheningtrust in a Divine Providence, 

toel, and one demon, Beelzebub. These planetary The "Star of the Wise Men" (Matt., ii, 2, 7, 9, sq.) 

demons regulated the destiny of men. cannot be identified by astronomy; perhaps, ac- 

The most notable witness for astrological super- cording to Ideler (Handbuch der mathemat. und 

stitions in the era of the decadence of Israel is the techn. C^lhron.), the conjunction of the planets 

apocryphal "Book of the Secrets of Henoch '\ which, Ju]3iter and ^tum is meant. But this hypothesis, 

notwithstanding its perplexing phantasies, is a rich which would be of decisive importance in settling 

treasure-house of intormation concerning cosmolog- the year of the birth of Christ, still lacks convincing 

ical and purelv astronomical problems m the Hel- proof. It finds a curious support in Abrabaners 

lenic East. The author of "Henoch" is said by a comment that, according to Jewish astrologers, a 

Samaritan writer to be the discoverer of astronomy, conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn was a sign of the 

and the book contains valuable explanations m Messias. It must, however, remain questionable 

regard to astronomy and astrolo^ at the time of whether and to what extent a prediction of Jewish 

the Machabean dynasty. The evidences for astro- astrologers, or Kere schamaiimjiB to be considered 

logic demonolofflr in ancient Israel, when the nation as reahzed in the "Star of tne Wise Men" (Matt., ii,' 

was affected by Hellenism and Babylonian decadence, 2, etc.). The first heralds of (Christianity, the Twelve 

are foima in the latter part of the " Book of the Apostles, at once began a bold war against the rank 

Secrets of Henoch" — the "Book of the CJourse of growths of superstition. They also battled with the 

the Lights of Heaven" — as also previously in the propensity of^ the people for astrology and in its 

fourth section which treats of Henoch's wandering stead planted in the hearts of men a belief in the 

"through the secret places of the world". This power and goodness of (jod. Supported by the 

latter is perhaps the archetype of Dante's "Divine teachings of the Scriptures, the (Siurch Fathers be- 

Comedy . According to the "Book of Henoch" came powerful opponents of astrology and attacked 

the human race derived its knowledge of astrology with cietermination the bewildering and demoralizing 

and "lunar sorceries", together with all other forms ascendancy of its devotees. The assertion is therefore 

of magic, from the seven or eight spirits from whom justified tnat the Book of Books remained free from 

come the chief sins of mankind (Henoch, i, 8). It the taint of astrological delusion. The passion for 

is, moreover, worthy of note that the "Book of astrolo^ evinced by decadent Judaism, and pre- 

Henoch" must be regarded as a witness to Jewish served in the Bible, is only one more proof of the 

national prophecy. It does not betray the ascend- propensity of Semitic nations for fatalistic super- 

ancy of Hellenism in any such degree as do the stitions and of the purifying and victorious power 

verses of the "Sibylline Oracles", which were re- of the ethics of Christianity. 

corded in the old Ionic dialect during the reign of Campbell Thompson's monumental wcM*k, "The 

Ptolemy Physcon (145^112 b. c.) by Jewish scholars Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh 

in Egypt, and probably at a later date in the Holy ana Babylon" (London, 1902), may be consulted 

Lana itself. for the valuable facts which throw light upon 

The astrological demonology of the Jews was the dependence of the astrology of the ancient 
continually fed from Egyptian and Babylonian Jews on that of Babylon. "A special branch of 
sources, and formed in its turn the basis for the astrology which was zealously cultivated in Baby- 
astrology of certain neo-Platonic sects. Together Ion was medical astrology, or the astrolo^cal prog- 
with the Parsee astrology, it was the foundation of nosis of disease. " Medical astrology is important 
the astrological demonology of the Gnostics and in regard to the question of astrology in the Bible. 
Priscillianists. The influence of Hellenistic Judaism It was greatly favoured by the spread of empirical 
is also plainly visible in the philosophic system of treatment of disease among the astrologers. The 
the Harranites, or Sabeans. It is only necessary Bible itself gives very little information concerning 
to mention here the high honour paid by the Sabeans this form of the science, but subordinate Jewish 
to the seven planetary gods who regulate the fate sources, above all the Talmud, allow conclusions to 
of man. According to the belief of the Sabeans be drawn as to its importance. Medical astrology, 
every planet is inhabited by a spirit as star-soul, derived from Arabo-Judaic sources, flourished agam 
and the deciphering of the figures of the conjunction at the time of the Renaissance. Its professional 
and opposition of the planets made the prediction representatives were then called "latromathema- 
of future destiny possible. Other elements of late ticians", after the mathematical mode of arriving 
Judaic astrology were adopted by the earliest known at conclusions in their "art of healing". [Cf. Kan 
CHiristian writer on astrology, the Byzantine court- Sudhoff , Jatromathematiker, vomehml. des XV. und 
astrologer, Hephsstion of Thebes. The didactic XVI. Jahrhund., in Abhand. zur Gesch. der Medizin 
astrological poem of Johannes Kamateros (about (Breslau, 1902), pt. II; Wilh. Ebstein, Die Medizin 
the middle of the twelfth century), which was dedi- im Alten Testament (Stuttgart, 1901); Gideon 
cated to the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I, appears Precher, Das Tranzendentale, Magie im Talmud 
to have been drawn from Judjeo-Gnostic sources. (Vienna, 1850); Trasen, Sitten der alten Hebrfter 
It is a striking fact that as "demonized astrology" (Breslau, 1853).] 

gained groimd in ancient Israel — and this - was a The Babylonians, chiefly in relation to medical 

branch of astrology in great favour among the Jewish astrolo^Ti custinguished between a spherical method 

scholars of the age of the Ptolemies, and much of calculation (from the point of view of the observer 

practised by them — the worship of the stars ven- to the stars, i. e. subjectively), and a cosmical method 

tured once more to show itself openly. It was (from the relative position of the stars, i. e. objec- 

not until the appearance of Christianity that the tively). The former was used in the prognosis de- 

preposterous ana, in part, pathologically degener- duced from the observation of the twelve houfiea 


3f t&e heavens; the latter in that drawn from the skxuuries in the seventeenth century. Indian astron- 

twdve signs of the Zodiac. omy contained few original elements. It assigned 

GalfiSE, Lekrb. einer LUerOrgeaek. (Leipzig, 1^30), II. oour particular prominence to the lunar zodiac, called 

tains a list of ^ earUer Uterature of the subject; L6w, A^ the naksholras, or mansions of the moon, variously 

&£e,'ri^"'i^y^«^['l^^^^^^ reckoned, at tw«nty^ven or twenty-eight: anS 

SjAan (Leipng, 1905); Reitzbnstein, Ztoei religion8ge$<^, ^x • j j i. « • i ^ 

PnQen (Strasbuifr. 1901); Boussbt. Reliffion dn Judentutiu attamed, and a peculiar constellational svstem of 

Ml MvMm. ZeUaUer (Berlin. 1906). See also the Uteratiue obscure derivation, came into use. The Babylonians 

d^.^eL S^tehi^. ^»e*^f nStg^i'S fl««, among the nations of the fore-time, succeeded 

cautioD should be observed) of the works of Felix YON Obitelb, m laymjg the foundations of a progressive science. 

/Aynw cvirufi. in tne same proeeeainss. rt. VI. hmhimw: i;uum;«»u»biuutf uavui^ uwu suuai/ttutuuiy 

Zdoiermank. pu Wwnder dtr ffaneten (B&:]m, m, d.); designed on the plain of Shinar about 2800 B. c. 

S£Sd5^3f;S^ ^ei^S;^ (i?Jl„"^lJ§?5:^=M*iSS^: £«. ^f^t^ »■ «>^f epoch the "Saros- be«une 

I'efto- alie und neue Astrotogie (Berlin, 1872); Lebrdn, Hxbl known. This IS a cycle of eighteen years and ten 

criL dea praL auperatU.: Maury, La magie et VoMtroi. (Pans, or eleven days, which affords the means of predict- 

1857); KiESEWETTTER. Gcsdi. dc» OWrt<Zft«i»t*s (Lemaig, 1896). ijur thPi raf»iimnf>A nf f^^linnAa Th#» nhtLntnna aif 

lI;BoccHfc-LECLERCQ,//t»teteiadivin. (Paris. 1879): Lenor- '"k.^'^ recurrence oi ecupses. ine cnangmg sit- 

MAKT, La divinatum ehez let ChaldSena (Paris, 1876); HJIblbr. uations of the planets among the Stars were, moreover, 

Attrol im AUa^um (Zwickau. 1881): HoMMEL.AMfsattewnrf diligently recorded, and accurate acquaintance was 

t^'J!!^^;^f!'f;Tul^r^l^Af^. ?^^,^t.*^^ »?vement8 of the sun and moon 

1902), III. u; Brucsch. ^owtoloQie; Jensen, Kowtotogte The mterpretatK>n m 1889, by Fathers Eppmg and 

(1883); EppiNp-STRA88MAiEH, Avtron, aua ^tt^Bofcyton in Strassmaier, of a collection of inscribed tablets 

^:^?::J^^^J'irf<^\^!^l^^T1t.^^A P««*^£«> t^« Brit«'\,M"seum vividly aiuminat^ 

NeneJahrhh. fur PhU. und Pad., VII, 669; Dietbrioh, AhraxM the methods of official Babylonian astronomy m the 

(Leipag. 1904); Webeb. Iniien S^ien, I; Rbitzenstbin, second century B. c. They were perfectly effectual 

llS:^&!'''T'^^^%^nk,^^%Sr^^^^: *"!.*»»« P,"nx»e cUefly in view, whiTh was the prepa- 

Hebr. UebenetM. (Berlin, 1893); L5wtn, Ben Chananja (1863), ratKMi of yearly ephemendes announcmg expected 

101; BuRCKHARDT, Kvltw der Benaiwance (Leipzig, 1898), celestial events, and tracing in advance the paths of 

'^^■oT^^^Z^%-r^l^TF^^^:'^^. *hej»eavenlv b«l««. Further analysis in 1899 by 

trtK (1790). Ill; LiLi.T, Christian Aatrolom ModeHly Treated Father Kugler, S.J., of the tabulated data employed 

(London, 1647); Cbmbtmab, Aetrology, Cradle of the Twin in computing the moon's place, disclosed the striking 

S£5iJ?^jSl2JS^''(fet°i^?>^^^^l£Sl^ ft«* tl^t *te;our lunar periods-the synodic, sid^ 

ne SEARLB8 in Catholic World, XLVII, 69. real, anomalistic, and draconitic months — were 

Max Jacobi. substantially adopted by Hipparchus from his 

Qialdean predecessors. 

Astronomy (from Or. Aarpov, star; r4ftei9, to distrib- Qrebk Astronomy. — Astronomv, however, no 
ate), a science of prehistoric antiquity, orionat- sooner became a distinctively Greek science than it 
ing in the elemental^ needs of mankind. It is underwent a memorable transformation. Attempts 
divide into two main branches, distinguished as began to be made to render the appearances of the 
astrometry and astrophysics; the former concerned sky intelligible. They were, indeed, greatly hampered 
with determining the places of the heavenly bodies, by the assumption that movement m space must be 
the latter, with the investigation of their chemical conducted uniformly in circles, roimd an immobile 
and ph3r8ical nature. But the division id of quite earth; yet the problem was ostensibly solved by 
recent date. The possibilities of antique science Apollonius of Perga (250--220 b. c), and his solution, 
stopped short at fixing the apparent positions of applied by Hipparchus to explain the movements of 
objects on the sphere. Nor was any attempt made the sun and moon, was extended by Claudius Ptole- 
to rationalize the observed facts until the Greeks mseus (Ptolemy) to the planets. This was the cele- 
laborioudy built up a speculative system, which was brated theory of eccentrics and epicvdes, which, by 
finally displaced by the vast fabric of gravitational the ingenuity of its elaboration, held its own among 
theonr. Descriptive astronomy, meanwhile, took its civiliz^ men during fourteen centuries. Hippar- 
lise from the mvention of the telescope, and the chus, the greatest of ancient astronomers, observed at 
facilities thus a^orded for the close scrutiny of the Rhodes (146-126 b. c), but is considered as belong- 
denizens of the sky; while practical astronomy ing to the Alexandrian school. He invented trigo- 
gained continuaUy in refinement with the improve- nometry, and constructed a catalogue of 1080 stars, 
ment of optical and mechanical arts. At the present incited, according to Pliny's statement, by a tempo- 
time, astrophysics may be said to have absorbed rary stellar outburst in Scorpio (134 b. c). Com- 
descrrotive astronomy, and astrometry necessarily paring, as the work progressed, his own results with 
mdudes practical research. But matnematieal as- those obtained 150 years earlier by Timocharis and 
tronomy, grounded on the law of gravitation, keeps Aristyllus, he detected the slow retrogression amone 
ltd place apart, thou^ depending for the perfecting the stars of the point of intersection of the celestial 
of its theories and tne widening of its scope upon equator with the ecliptic, which constitutes the 
advances akmg the old, and explorations in new, phenomenon of the precession of the equinoxes, 
directions. The circuit is completed in 25,800 years; hence the 

PfcEHisTORic Astronomy. — Formal systems of tropical year, by wnich the seasons are regulated, is 

^^^tionomical knowledge were early established by shorter than the sidereal year by just twenty-one 

tb^ Cfainucse, Indians, Egyptians, and Babylonians, minutes, the equinox shifting backward to meet the 

The Chinese were acquaii^ted, probabljr in the third sun by the aimual amount of 50i*. Greek astronomy 

oofflennium b. c, witn the cycle of nineteen years was embodied in Ptolemy's " Almagest " (the name 

(redisoov^^ed in 632 b. c. by Meton at Athens), by is of mixed Greek and Arabic derivation), composed 

vtich, sinoe it comprised just 285 limations, thie at Alexandria aJbout the middle of the second century 

wJir and lunar years were harmonized: they re- a. d. It was based upon the geocentric principle, 

cwded cometary apparitions, observea eclipses, and The starry sphere, witn its contents, was supposed to 

OBptoyed effective measuring apparatus. European revolve, once in twenty-four hours, about tne fixed 

■wiods were introduced at Pekin by ^Jesuit mis- terrestrial globe, while the sun and moon, and the 


five planets, besides sharing the common movement, ling the revolutions of the heavenly bodies was defini- 

described variously conditioned orbits roimd the tively established. But this was only a be^ning. 

same centre. The body of doctrine it inculcated The colossal work remained to be accomplished of 

made part of the imiversal stock of knowledge imtil calculating the consequences of the law, in the 

the sixteenth century. The formidable task of minute details of its working, and of comparing them 

demonstrating its falsity, and of replacing it with a with the heavens. It was carried forward, first by 

system corresponding to the true relations of the Newton himself, and in the ensuing century, by 

world, was imdertaken by an active and exemplary Euler, Clairaut, d'Alembert, Lagrange, and Laplace, 

ecclesiastic, Nicholas Copernicus, Canon of Frauen- Urbain Leverrier (1811-77) inherited from these 

burg (1473-1543). The treatise in which it was men of ^nius a task never likely to be completed; 

accomplished, entitled "De Revolutionibus Orbium and the mtricacies of lunar theory have been shown, 

Coelestium", saw the light only when its author lay by the researches of John Couch Adams (1819-92), 

dying; but a dedication to Pope Paul III bespoke of Hansen and Delatmay, of Professors Hill and 

the protection of the Holy See for the new and Newcomb, and many more, to be fraught with issues 

philosophically subversive views which it propounded, of unexpected and varied interest. 
Denounced as impious by Luther and Melanchthon, Discoveries in the Solar System. — The ex- 

^ they were, in fact, favourably received at Rome imtil traordinary improvement of reflecting telescopes by 

theological discredit was brought upon them by the Sir William Herschel (1738-1822) opened a fresh 

wild speculations of Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)^ epoch of discovery. His recognition of the planet 

and the imprudent utterances of Galileo Galilei Uranus (IS Malcn, 1781) as a non-stellar object 

(1564-1642). marked tne first enlargement of the bounds assigned 

Descriptive Astronomy. — Descriptive astronomy of old to the solar system; two Uranian moons, 
may be said to have originated with the invention of Oberon and Titania, were detected by him 11 Jan- 
the telescope by Hans Lippershey in 1608, Its uary, 1787, and the innermost Satumian pair, Ence- 
application to the scrutiny of the heavenly bodies, ladus and Mimas, 28 August and 17 September of the 
by Galileo and others, led at once to a crowd of same year. Saturn was, in 1906, known to possess 
striking discoveries. Jupiter's satellites, the phases ten satellites. Hyperion was descried by W. C. 
of Venus, the mountains of the moon, the spots on Bond at the observatory of Harvard College 16 Sep- 
the Sim, Saturn's unique appendages, all aescried tember, 1848, and Professor W. H. Pickering, of 
with a little instrument resembling a uniocular the same establishment, discovered by laborious 
opera-glass, formed, each in its way, a significant photographic researches, Phoebe in 1898, and Themis 
and surprising revelation; and the perception of the m 1905. In point of fact, an indefinite number of 
stellar composition of the Milky Way represented sateUites are a^lomerated in the rings of Saturn, 
the first step in sidereal exploration. Johann Kepler Their constitution by separately revolving, small 
(1571-1630) invented in 1611, and Father Schemer bodies, theoretically demonstrated by J. Clerk 
of Ingolstadt (1575-1650) first employed, the modem Maxwell in 1857, was spectroscopically confirmed 
refracting telescope; and the farther course of dis- by the late Professor Keeler in 1895. The system 
covery corresponded closely to the development of includes a dusky inner member, detected by Bond, 
its powers. Christian Huy^ns (1629-95) resolved, 15 November, 1850. The discovery of the planet 
in 1656, the ansa of Saturn into a ring, divided into Neptime, 23 September, 1846, was a mathematical, 
two by Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625-1712) in not an observational feat. Leverrier and Adams 
1675. Titan, the largest of Saturn's moons, was independently divined the existence of a massive 
detected by Huygens in 1655, and four additional body, revolving outside Uranus, and exercising over 
members of the family by Cassini before 1684. The its movements disturbances the analysis of which 
Andromeda nebula was brought to notice by Simon led to its capture. Its solitary moon was noted by 
Marius in 1612, the Orion nebula by J, B. Cysatus, William Laasell of Liverpool in October, 1846; and 
a Swiss Jesuit, in 1618; and some few variable and he added, in 1851, two inner satellites to the re- 
multiple stars were recognized. markable system of Uranus. With the great Wash- 

Theoretical Astronomy. — The theoretical, how- ington refractor, 26 inches in aperture. Professor 

ever, far outweighed the practical achievements of Araph Hall discemed, 16 and 17 August, 1877, 

the seventeenth century. Kepler published the Deimos and Phobos, the swiftly circling moonlets of 

first two of his "Three Laws" in 1609, the third in Mars; the Lick 36-inch enabled Professor Barnard 

1619. The import of these great generalizations is: to perceive, 9 September, 1892, the evasive inner 

(1) that the planets describe ellipses of which the satellite of Jupiter; and two exterior attendants on 

sun occupies one focus; (2) that the straight line the same planet were photographically detected by 

joining each planet with the sun (its radius vector) Professor Perrine in 1904r-05. The distances of the 

sweeps out equal areas in equal times; (3) that the planets are visibly regulated by a method. They 

squares of the planetary periods are severally pro- mcrease by an ordered progression, announced by 

portional to the cubes of their mean distances nx>m Titius of Wittenberg in 1772, and since designated 

the sun. The geometrical plan of movement in as "Bode's Law". But their succession was quickly 

the solar system was thus laid down with marvellous seen to be interrupted by a huge gap between the 

intuition. But it was reserved for Sir Isaac Newton orbits of Mars and Jupiter; and the conjecture was 

(1643--1727) to expound its significance by showing hazarded that here a new planet might be found to 

that the same uniformly acting force regulates celestial revolve. It was verified by the discovery of an army 

revolutions, and compels heavy bodies to fall towards of asteroids. Ceres, their leader, was captured at 

the earth's surface. The law of gravity, published Palermo, 1 January, 1801, by Giuseppe Piazzi, a 

m 1687 in "Philosophise Naturalis Principia Mathe- Theatine monk (1746-1826); Pallas, m 1802 by 

matica" is to the following effect: every particle Olbers (1758-1840), and Jimo and Vesta in 1804 

of matter attracts every other with a force directly and 1807, by Harding and Olbers respectively. The 

proportional to their masses, and inversely propor- original quartette of minor planets began m 1845 

tional to the squares of their distances apart. Its to Be reinforced with companions, the known number 

validity was tested by comparing the amount of the of which now approximates to ^600, and mav be 

moon's orbital deflection in a second with the rate indefinitely increased. Their discovery has "been 

at which an apple (say) drops in an orchard. Allow- immensely facilitated by Professor Max Wolf's in- 

ance being made for the distance of the moon, the troduction, in 1891, of the photographic method of 

two velocities proved to tally perfectly; and the discriminating them from stars through the effects 

Identity of terrestrial gravity with tlie force control- of their motion on sensitive plates. 


The solar system, as at present known, consists of beforehand. Mutually circling stars exist in such 
four interior planets, Mercury, Venus, the Earth, profusion as probably to amount to one in three or 
and Mars; four exterior, and relatively colossal tour of those unaccompanied. They are of limit- 
pjanets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptime, the less variety, some of the systems formed by them 
d^use crowd of pygmy globes called asteroids, or being exceedingly close and rapid, while others 
minor [Janets, ana an outlying array of comets with describe, in millennial periods , vastly extended orbits, 
their attendaiit meteor-svstems. All the planets Many, too, comprise three or more members; and 
rotate on their axes, though in very different periods, the multiple stars thus constituted merge, bv pro- 
That of Mercury was determined by Signor Schia- gressive increments of complexity, into actual clus- 
paidli of Mflan in 1889 to be 88 days, the identical ters, ^obular and irregular. The latter class is 
time of his revolution round the sun, and Venus exemjmfied by the Pleiades and the Hyades, by the 
was, in the following year, shown by him to be, in all Beehive cluster in Cancer, iust visible to the naked 
likelihood, similari^ conditioned, the common period eye. and by the double cluster in Perseus, which 
of rotation and cureulation being, in her case, 225 maxes a splendid show with an opera-glass. Globu- 
days. This implies that both phmets keep the same lar clusters are compressed "balls" of minute stars, 
hemisphere always turned towards the sim, as the of which more than one hundred have been cata- 
moon does towards the earth; nor can we doubt logued. The scale on which these marvellous sys- 
that the friction of tidal waves was, on the three tems are constructed remains conjectural, since 
bodies, the agency by which the observed synchro- their distances from the earth are entirely unknown, 
nism was brought about. All the planets travel Variable stars are met with in the utmost diversity, 
round the sim mm west to east, or counter clock- Some are temporary apparitions, which spring up 
iriae, and most of the satellites move in the same from invisibility often to an astonishing pitch of 
direction roimd their primaries. But there are splendour, then sink back more slowly to quasi- 
exceptions. Phoebe, Saturn's remotest moon, cir- extinction. Nova Persei, which blazed 22 February, 
cuktes oppositely to the other members of the 1901, and was photographicallv studied by Father 
system; tne four moons of Uranus are retrograde, Sidgreaves at Stonyhurst, is the most noteworthy 
their plane of movement bein^ inclined at more recent instance of the phenomenon. Stars, the 
than a right angle to the ecliptic ; and the sateUite vicissitudes of which are comprised in cycles of 
of Neptune travels quite definitely backward. These seven to twenty months, or more, are called " long- 
aoomalies are of profound import to theories of period variables". About 400 had been recorded 
planetary origin. The "canals" of Mars were down to 1906. They not imcommonly attain, at 
recognized by Schiaparelli in August, 1877, and he maximum, to 1,000 times'their minimum brightness, 
cau^ si^t of some of them duplicated two years Mira, the " wonderful " star in the Whale, discovered 
later. Their photographic registration at the Lowell by David Fabricius in 1596, is the exemplar of the 
obaervatory in 1905 proves them to be no optical class. The fluctuations of "short-period variables" 
Olusion, but their nature remains enigmatical. take place in a few da^rs or hours, and with far more 
Comets and Meteors. — ^The predicted return of punctuality. A certain proportion of them are 
Halky's comet in 1759 afforded the first proof that " eclipsing stars " (about 35 have so far been recog- 
bodies of the kind are permanently attached to the nized as such), wmch owe their regularly recurring 
sun. They accompany its march through space, failures of light to the interposition of larce satellites, 
iraversing, in either direction indifferenthr, highly Aljgol in Perseus, the variations of which were per- 
eceentric orbits inclined at all possible angles to the ceived by Montanari in 1669, is the best-known 
ectiptic. They are accordingly subject to violent, specimen. Hundreds of rapid variables have been 
even subversive disturbances from the great planets, recently detected among the components of globular 
Jupiter, in particular, sways the movements of a clusters; but their course of change is of a to tall v 
poupof over thirty "captiied" comets, which have different nature from that of eclipsing stars. Ed- 
had their periods curtailed, and their primitive mimd HaUey (1656-1742), the second Astronomer 
velocities reduced by his influence. Schiaparelli Royal, announced in 1718 that the stars, far from 
announced in 1866 that the August shooting-stars, being fixed, move onward, each on its own account, 
or Perseids, pursue the same orbit with a bright across the sky. He arrived at this conclusion by 
OMnet visible in 1862; and equally striking accord- comparing modem with antique observations; ana 
anees of movement between tnree other comets and stellar " proper motions " now constitute a wide 
the Leonid, Lyraid, and Andromede meteor-swarms and expansive field of research. A preliminary 
were soon afterwards established bv Leverrier and attempt to regularize them was made by Herschel s 
WeisB. The obvious inference is that meteors are determination, in 1783, of the sun's line of travel, 
the dklntegration-products of their cometary fellow- His success depended upon the fact that the apparent 
travellers. A theory of comets' tails, based upon displacements of the stars include a common element, 
the varying efficacy of electrical repulsion upon transferred by perspective from the solar advance. 
chemicaUy different kinds of matter, was annoimced Their individual, or "peculiar" movements, however, 
^ Theo(k>r Br6dikhine of Moscow in 1882, and gave show no certain trace of method. A good many 
a tttisfactory account of the appearances it was stars, too, have been ascertained to travel at rat^s 
invented to explain. Latterly, however, the author- probably uncontrollable by the gravitational power 
ity of Arrhenius of Stockholm has lent vogue to a of the entire sidereal system. Arcturus, with its 
"fifJiit-preBsuTe" hypothesis, according to which, portentous velocity of 250 miles a second, is one of 
coaietoiy appendages are formed of particles driven these " runaway '\ stars. The sun's pace of about 
&vn the sun by tne mechanical stress of his radia- 12 miles a second, seems, by comparison, extremely 
tioiHL But the singular and rapid changes pho- sedate; and it is probably only half the average 
togoqi^cany disclosed as takine place in the tails stellar speed. The apex of the sun's way, or the 
of eometSy remain imassociated with any known point towards which its movement at i)resent tends, 
etna. is located bv the best recent investigations near the 

ftn^ftFAT. Astronomy. — Sir William Herschel's bright star Vega. 
^mavtry, in 1802, of binary stars, imperfectly antici- Distances op the Sun and Stars. — The dis- 

pttod by Father Christian Mayer in 1778, was one tances of the heavenly bodies can only be determined 

cCiiiHrcaching scope. It virtually proved the realm (speaking generally) by measuring their parallaxes, 

of jpmvity to include sidereal regions; and the in other words, their apparent changes of position 

KfatioQa it intimated have since proved to be much when seen from different points of view. That of 

t widely prevalent than could nave been imagined the sun is simply the angle subtended at his distance 


by the earth's semi-diameter. E^orts were made of forty-two such objects; and Charles Messier 
with indifferent success to fix its value by the aid of (1730-1817) enumerated, in 1781, 103 ^ebulae and 
the transits of Venus in the eighteenth and nine- dusters. But this harvest was scanty indeed com- 
teenth centuries. The asteroids have proved more pared with the lavish yield of Herschel s explorations, 
efficient auxiliaries; and through the mediation of Between 1786 and 1802 he communicated to the 
Iris, Sappho, and Victoria, in 1888-89, Sir David Royal Society catalo^es of 2,500 nebulae; he dis- 
Gill as8i^p9bed to the great unit of space a length of tLnguished their special forms, classified them in 
92,800,000 miles, which the photographic measures order of brightness, and elaborated a theonr of 
of Eroe, in 1900-01, bid fair to ratify. The stars, stellar development from nebulas, illustrated by 
however, are so vastly remote that the only chance selected instances of progressive condensation. The 
of detecting their perspective displacements is by next coiisiderable step towards a closer acquaintance 
observing them at intervals of six months, from with nebuke was maae by Lord Rosse in 1845, when 
opposite extremities of a base-line nearly 186,000 the prodi^ous li^t-grasp of his six-foot reflector 
miles in extent. Thus, the animal parsdlax of a afforded him the discovery of the great '^ Whirlpool " 
star means the angle under which the semi-diameter structure in Canes Venatici. It proved to be typical 
of the earth's orbit would be seen if viewed from its of the entire class of spiral nebulas, the large prev- 
situation. This angle is in all cases, extremely alence of which has been one of the revelations of 
minute, and in most cases, altogether evanescent; photography. The superiority in nebula-portraiture 
so that, from only about eij^hty stars (as at present of the cnemical to the eye-and-hand method was 
known), the terrestrial orbit would appear to have strikingly manifested in a photograph of the Orion 
sensil^e dimensions. Our nearest stellar neighbour nebula taken by Dr. A. A. Common, 30 January, 
is the splendid southern binary, o Centauri; yet its 1883. Its efficacy for discovery became evident 
distance is such that light needs four and one-third throu^ the disclosure, on plates exposed by Paul 
years to perform the journey thence. Thomas and Prosper Henry, and by Isaac Roberts in 1885-^, 
Henderson (1798-1844) announced his detection of of complex nebulous formations in the Pleiades, 
its parallax in 1839. just after Bessel of Kdnigsberg almost wholly invisible optically. Professor Keeler 
(1784-1846) had obtained a similar, but smaller (1857-1900) estimated at 120,000 the number of 
result for an insignificant double star designated nebulte wluch the Crossley reflector of the Lick 
61 Qjrgni. observatory would be capable of recording in both 
CelestiaIj Photoorapht. — The second half of hemispheres with an hour's exposure, wnile tele- 
the nineteenth century was signalized by a revolu- scopically constructed catalogues include less than 
tionary change in the methods and purposes of 10»000. But it is through the combination of pho- 
astronomy.^ E]q)eriments in lunar photography, tography with spectroscopy, constituting the spectro- 
hegun in 1840 by J. W. Draper of New York, were graphic mode of research, that astrophysics has 
continued in the fifties by W. C. Bond, Warren de la achieved its most signal triumplis. 
Rue, and Lewis M. Rutherfurd. The first daguerre- Astrophysics. — Tne fundamental principle of 
otypeof the sun was secured at Paris in 1845, and m>ectrum ajoalysis, enunciated by Gustav KirchhofT 
traces of the solar corona appeared on a sensitized (1824-^87) in 1859, depends upon the eauivalence of 
plate exposed at Kdnigsberg auring the total eclipse emission and absorption. This means that, if white 
of 28 Jmy, 1851. But the €»och of effective scuar light be transmitted through flowing vapours, thev 
photograpny opened with the Spanish eclipse of airest iust those minute sections of it with whica 
18 Jiuy, 1860, when the pictures successivelv ob- the^ themselves shine. And if the source of the 
tained by Father Angelo Secchi, S.J., and Warren white light be hotter than the arresting vapour, 
de la Rue demonstrated the solar status of the crim- there results a prismatic spectrum, interrupted by 
son protuberances by rendering manifest the advance dark lines, distinctive of the chemical jiature of the 
of the moon in front of them. At subsequent eclipses, substamoe originating them. Now this is exactly 
the leading task of the camera has been the portjnayal the case of the sun and stars. The white radiance 
of the corona; and its importance was enhanced emanating from their photospheres is found, when 
when A. C. Ranyard pointea out, in 1879, the corre- dispersed mto a spectrum, to be crossed by numerous 
spondenoe of changes m its form with the alternations duu^ rays indicating absorption by gaseous strata, 
of s(^ar disturbance. The eleven-year periodicity to the composition of which Kirchhoff's principle 
of sunspots was published in 1851 by Schwabe of suppUes the clue. Kirchhoff himself identified in 
Desaau; and among the numerous associated phe- 1861, as prominent solar constituents, sodium, iron 
nomena of change, none are better ascertained than magnesium, calcium, and chromium; hydrogen was 
those affecting the shape of the silvery aureola seen recomized by A. J. An^tr5m (1814-74); helium 
to encompass the sun when the moon cuts off the by Sir Norman Lockyer m 1868; and about fortv 
glare of direct sunlight. At ^x>t maxima the aureola elementary substances are now known with approxi- 
spreads its beamy radiance round the disc. But at mate certainty to be common to the earth and sun. 
times of minimum, it consists mainly of two great The chemistry of the stars is strictly analogous to 
wings, extended in the sun's equatorial plane. A that of the sun, although their spectra exhibit diver- 
multitude of photographs, taken during the eclipses sities symptomatic of a considerable variety in 
of 1898, 1900, 1901, and 1905, attest with certamtjr physical state. Father Angelo Secchi, S.J. (1818-78), 
the punctual recurrence of these unexplained vicissi- based on these diversities m 1863-67 a classification 
tudes. The fundamental condition for the progress of the stars into four orders, still regarded as funda- 
of sidereal photography is the use of long exposures; mental, and suppUed by Dr. Vogel in 1874 with an 
since most of the objects to be delineated emit light evolutionary interpretation, according to which, 
so feebly that its chemical effects must accumulate differences of spectral type are associated with, 
before they become sensible. But long exposiu'es various stages of progress from a tenuous and in> 
were impracticable until Sir William Hug^ins, in choate towards a compact condition. Since 1879, 
1876, adopted the dry-plate process; and this date, when Sir William Huggins secured impressions of 
accordingly, marks the beginning of the wide- an extended range of mtra-violet white star light, 
spreading serviceableness of the camera to astronomy, stellar spectra l^ve been mostly studied photo- 
In nebular investigations above all, it far outranges graphically, the results being, not only precise and 
the tekecope. Hsulev described in 1716 six nebu- permanent, but also more complete than those obtain- 
he, whieh ne held to be composed of a lucid medium able by visual means. The same eminent invest!- 
collected from space. The Abb6 Lacaille (1713-62) gator discovered, in 1864, the bright-line spectra of 
brought back with him from the Gape, in 1754, a list certain classes of uebuhe, by which they were kiiowu 


to be of gaseous composition, and recognized, as of sufficient evidence of its being in a' state of dynamical 

ctAonaceous origin, the typical coloured bands of equilibrium. We cannot be sure that it has yet 

the oometary spectrum, noted four years previously, reached the definitive term appointed for it by its 

though without specific identification, oy G. B. Creator. Suggestive hmts, on the contrary, of 

Donati (1827-73) at Florence. mstsJiHlity and evanescence help us to realize that 

Dopj)ler'8 principle, by which light alters in re- the heavens are, in very truth, the changing vesture 

frangibility through the end-on motion of its source, of Him whose " years cannot fail." 

was first made ^ective for astronomical research ^ NEwcojirBv Popular AMrcnomy (London, 1888); Youno, 

bvHuggtos in .1868. The criterion of velocitv. ^^SI^yi^^SZ^^^ilT^l^''^ ^ISfliLt, 

whether of recession or approach, is afforded by the (London, 1900); Geant, Hutory of Phytiad Astronomy (Lon- 

shifting of spectral lines from their standard places; q®n, 1852); Clbrkb, Hist. o4 Attr, dwing the I9th Century 

«.d the method was rawed to a high grade <^u- ^^i^; '^■- o^'^^'-pltA^'^^^'ii^A \^Zl\ 

racy through Ur. Vogel S adaptation, m 1888, of Eppino and Strassmaier, Attronomuchet aua Babylon (Frei- 

AlgoPs eclipses, by showing that the star revolved Wxwcokb; The stars (London, 1901); Clerkb, The System 
round an oUu* companion in the identical Period ISrdfr^^^'ciSSik'^VrS^^irl^JrwVon^ 
of h^ht-change; and the farst discoveries of non- Nasmyth and CARPErrrF.R, TA« 3foon (Lond9n, 1903); Schbi- 

— . — r » 1 — 1 J. .. . • J r i. i"' • low;; MULLER, uis fHotometne aer uesttme (U^ipzig, low;; 

cannot be sharply distmguished from telescopic Secchi, Le soUa (Paris. 1875-77); Moreux, U mhUme 

double stars, which are, indeed, believed to have 9oUnrs (Pwii, 1900V. Turner, Modem Astronomy (London, 

developed from them under the influence of tidal JggJ^I Mouwdon, An Introduction to Astronomy (New York. 

friction; their periods vary from a few hours to * Agnes M. Clerke. 
several months; and their components are often of 

such unequal luminosity that only one leaves any Astronomy in the Bible. — No systematic ob- 
legible impression on the sensitive plate. Their servations of the heavenly bodies were made by the 
known number amounted, in 1905, to 140; and it Jews. Astral worship was rife in Palestine, and they 
may be indefinitely augmented. It probably in- could hardly have attended closely to its objects 
chides all short-period variables, even those that without yielding to its seductions. Astronomy was, 
escape ecli{>ses; though the connection between under these circumstances, inseparable from as- 
their duplicity and luminous variations remains trolatry, and the anathemas of tne prophets were 
unexplained. The photography in daylight of solar not cardessly uttered. As the most glorious works 
prommences was attempted by Professor Young of the Almighty, the celestial luminaries were indeed 
of Princeton in 1870, and the subject was prosecuted celebrated in the Scriptures in passages thrilling with 
by Dr. Braun, S.J., in 1872. No genuine success rapture; but the appeal to them for practical pur- 
was, however, achieved until 1891, when Professor poses was reduced to a minimum. Even the regula- 
Hale of Chicago and M. Deslandres at Paris inde- tion of times and seasons was largely empirical. The 
pendently built up pictures of those objects out of Jews used a lunar year. It began, for lelieious pur- 
the calcium-ray in their dispersed light, sifted through poses, with the new moon next after the sprirg 
a double slit on to moving photographic plates, equinox, and consisted normally of twelve months, 
Professor Hale's invention ot the " spectrohelio- or 354 days. The Jewish calendar, however, de- 
^ph*' enables him, moreover, to delineate the sun's pended upon the course of the sun, since the festivals 
disc in any selected quality of its light, with the it appointed were in part agricultural celebrations, 
result of disclosing vast masses of calcium and Some process of adjustment had then to be resorted 
Inrdroeen flocculi, pded up at various heights above to, and the obvious one was chosen of adding a 
toe 8<3ar surface. thirteenth, or intercalary, month whenever the dis- 
SmERBAL Construction. — The investigation of crepancy between the ripening of the crops and the 
the structure of the sidereal heavens was the leading fix^ dates of the commemorative feasts became 
object of Wmiam HerschePs career. The magnitude elaringly apparent. Before the time of Solomon, the 
of the task, however, which he attempted single- Jews appear to have begun their year in the autumn; 
handed grows more apparent with every fresh at- and the custom, revived for civil purposes about th'? 
tempt to grapple with it; and it now engages the fifth centurr b. c, was adopted in the systematized 
combined efforte of many astronomers, using methods rdiigious calendar of the fourth century of our era. 
refined and comprehensive to a degree unimagined Both the ritual and the civil day commenced in 
by Herschel. Aji immense stock of materials for the evening, about half an hour after sunset. Its 
the purpose will be provided by the international subdivisions were left indeterminate. The Old Testa- 
photographic survey, at present advancing towards ment makes no mention of what we call hours; and 
completion at eighteen observatories in both hemi- it refers to the measurement of time, if at all, only in 
spheres. ^ About thirty million stars will, it is esti- the narrative of the miracle wrought by Isaias m 
mated, appear on the chart-plates; and those pre- oonneotion with the sundial of Achaz (IV Kings, xx, 
dady caUuogued are unlikely to fall short of tour 9^11). In the New Testament, the Roman practice 
milbons. The labour of discussing these multi- of counting four night-watches has superseded the 
tudinous data must be severe,' but will be animated antlaue triple division, and the day, as amon^ the 
by the hope of laying bare some hidden springs of Greeks, consists of twelve equal parts. These are 
the sidmal mechanism. The prospect is indeed the "temporary hours" whicii stul survive in the 
I'emote that the whole of its intricacies will ever be fiturgy of the Chureh. Since they spanned the in- 
penetrated by science. We only perceive that the tervu from sunrise to sunset, their length varied 
Btan form a collection of prodigious, but limited, with the season of the year, from 49 to 71 minutes, 
otent. showing strongly concentrative tendencies Corresponding nocturnal hours, too, seem to have 
towaids the plane of the Milky Way. Nor can the been partially used in the time of the Apostl«s 
nebala be supposed to Torm a separate scheme. The (Acts, xxiii, 23). 

doKoess of tn«ir relations, physical and geometrical. As might have been expected, the Sacred Books 

with stars excludes that supposition. Stars ana convey no theory of celestial appearances. The 

nebuhe belong .to the same system, if such the sidereal descriptive phrases used in them are conformed to 

vorid may properly be called m the absence of a»y the qlernentarj 'tdoBSi n&t aralty prasenting thems^ves 


to a primitive people. Thus, the earth figures as an viously related to the Arabic root hum (accumulate), 

imlennitely extended circular disk, lying between the and to the Assyrian kamu (to bind); while Uie 

realm of light above and the abyss of darkness be- ''chains of Kimah*\ referred to in the sacred text, 

neath. The word fipnamentumf by which the not inaptl^r figure the coercive power imparting imity 

Hebrew rakia (}J^jn) is translated in the Vulgate, to a multiple object. The associated constdlation 

expressed the notion of a solid, transparent vault, Kenl is doubtless no other than our Orion. Yet, in 

dividing the "upper waters" from the seas, springs, the first of the passages in Job where it figures, the 

and rivers far below. Throu^ the a^ncV of the Septuagint gives Herper; in the second, the Vulgate 

flood-gates, however, the waters sustamed by the qmte irrelevantly inserts Arcturus; Karstens Niebuhr 

firmament were, in due measure, distributed over the (173^1815) understood KesU to mean Sinus: 

earth. The first visibility after sunset of the crescent Thomas Hvde (1636-1703) held that it indicatea 

moon determined the beginning of each month; and Canopus. l^ow^kesil signifies in Hebrew "foolish", 

this was the only appeal to the skies made for the or "unpious", adjectives expressive of the stupid 

purposes of the Jewish ritual. Eclipses of the sim criminality which belongs to the Ic^ndary char- 

and moon are perhaps vaguely referred to among the acter of giants; and the stars of Onon irresistiUy 

signs of doom enumerated by the Prophets Joel and sugsest a hu|^e figure striding across the sky. The 

Amos, who may easily have enhanced their* imagery Arabs acoordmsly named the constellation Al-gebhar, 

from personal experience, since modem calculations ^'the giant", uie Syriac equivalent being Gabbara, 

show solar totalities to have been visible in Palestine "a strong man''; and Keml is actually translated 

in the years 831, 824, and 763 b. c, and the moon Gabbara in the old Syriac version of the Bible known 

reddened by immersion in the earth's shadow is not as the PeshiUa, We may then safely admit that 

an uncommon sight in any part of the world. But Kimah and Kesil did actually designate the Pleiades 

the passages in question cannot be literally asso- and Orion. But further interpretations are con- 

ciated with mere passing phenomena. The prophets siderably more obscure. In . the Book of Job — the 

aimed at somethmg higher than intimidation. An most distinctively astronomical part of the Bible — 

express warning against ignoble panic was indeed mention is made, with other stars, of Ash and Ayish, 

uttered by Jeremias in the words: "Be not afraid of almost certainly divergent forms of the same word, 

the signs of heaven, which the heathens fear" (x, 2). Its signification remains an enigma. The Vulgate 

The stellar vault, conceived to be situated above and Septuagint inconsistently render it "Arcturus" 

the firmament, is compared by Isaias to a tent and "Hesperus". Abenezra (1092-1167), however, 

stretched out by the Most High. The "host of the learned Rabbi of Toledo, gave such strong rea- 

heaven", a frequently recurring Scriptural expres- sons for holding Ashj or Ayish, to mean the Great 

sion, has both a general and a specific meaning. It Bear, that the opinion, though probably erroneous, 

designates, in some passages, the entire array of is still prevalent. It was cmeny grounded on the 

stars; in others it psurticularly applies to the sun, phonetic resemblance between ash and the Arabic 

moon, planets, and certain selected stars, the wor- na 'ash, "a bier", applied to the four stars of the 

ship of which was introduced from Babylonia under Wain« the three in front figuring as mourners, under 

the later kings of Israel. Venus and Saturn are the the title of Bendt na *ash, "daughters of the bier", 

only planets expressly mentioned in the Old Tes- But Job, too, speaks of the " children of Ayish ", and 

tament. Isaias (xiv, 12) apostrophizes the Babylon- the inference seems irresistible that the same star- 

ian Empire under the unmistakable type of He" group was similarly referred to in both cases. Yet 

UU (Lucifer in the Vulgate), "son of the morning"; there is large room for doubt. Modem philologists 

and Saturn is no less certainly represented by the do not admit the alleged connection of Ayish with 

star Kaitoan, adored by the reprobate Israelites in ria *ash, nor is any funereal association apparent in 

the desert (Amos, v, 26). The same word (inter- the Book of Job. On the other hand. Professor 

preted to mean "steadfast") freauently designates, SchiapareUi draws attention to the fact that ash 

m the Babylonian inscriptions, the slowest-moving denotes "moth" in the Old Testament, and that the 

planet; while Sakkuth, the divinity associated with folded wings of the insect are closely imitated in 

the star by the prophet, is an alternative appellation their triangular shape by the doubly aligned stars 

for Ninib, who, as a Babylonian planet^od, was of the Hyades. Now Ayish in the Peshitta is trans- 

merged with Saturn. The ancient Syrians and lated Ivuiha. a constellation mentioned by St. Ephrem 

Arabs, too. called Saturn Kaiwan, the corresponding and other Syriac writers, and SchiaparelU's learned 

term in the Zoroastrian Bundahish being Kevan, consideration of the various indications afforded by 

The other planets are individualized in the Bible Arabic and Syriac literature makes it reasonably 

only by implication. The worship of eods con- certain that lyiUha authentically signifies Aldebaran, 

nected with them is denounced, but wimout any the great red star in the head of the Bull, with its 

manifest intention of referring to the heavenly children, the rainy Hyades. It is true that Hyde, 

bodies. Thus, Gad and Meni (Isaias, Ixv, 11) are. Ewald, and other scholars have adopted Capella and 

no doubt, the "greater and the lesser Fortime" the Kids as representative of lyiUha, and therefore 

typified throughout the East by Jupiter and Venus; of "Ayish and her children"; but the view involves 

Neba, the tutelary deity of Borsippa (Isaias, xlvi, 1). many moongruities. The glories of the sky adverted 

shone in the sky as Mercury, and Nergalf transplanted to in the Book of Job indude a sidereal landscape 

from Assyria to Kutha C^V Kings, xvii, 30), as vaguely described as "the chambers [i. e. venetralia] 

Mars. of the south ". The phrase, according to Scniaparelli, 

The uranography of the Jews is fraught with refers to some assemblage of brilliant stars, rising 

perplexity. Some half-dozen star-groups are named 20 decrees at most above the southern horizon in 

m the Scriptures, but authorities difTer widely as to Palestme about the year 750 b. c. (assumed as the 

their identity. In z striking passage the Prophet date of the Patriarch Job), and, taking account of the 

Amos (t, S) g*>cr:fle*» the Creator as "Him that made changes due to precession, he points out that the 

Kimah njid K^9il'\ rendered in the Vulffate as stellar pageant formed by the Ship, the Ooss, and 

Arrtarus and Orion. New Kimah certainly does the CJentaur meets the required conditions. Sirius, 

noC ^«an Arcturus. The word, which occurs twice although at the date in question it culminated at an 

ir. (he Book of Job (ix, 9; xxxviii, 31), is treated in altitude of 41 degrees, may possibly have been 

che Septuagint version as equivalent to Pleiades, thought of as belonging to the " chambers of the 

t'his, also, is the meaninjg given to it in the Talmud south"; otherwise, this splendid object would appear 

and throughout Syrian literature; it is supported by to be ignored in the Bible. Job opposes to the 

etymologic evidences, the Hebrew term being ob- "chambers of the south", as the source of cold, an 

A8TR08 31 A8TRU0 

asterism named Mezarim (xxxvil, 9). Both the stellation Draco is of hoary antiquity, and would 

Vulgate and the Septuapnt render this word by quite probably have been familiar to Job. On the 

Ardunts, evidently in mistake (the blimder is not other hand, Rahab (Job, ix, 13; xxvi, 12), translated 

uncommon) for Aretes. The Great Bear circled in " whale " in the Septuagint, is probably of legendary 

tnose days much more closely roimd the pole than or^rmbolical import. 

> now does; ite typical northern character survives Tne subjoined list gives (largely on Schiaparelli's 

.the Latin word 8^>tentrio (from aeptem trUmea, the authority) the best-warranted mterpretations of 

' .pn stars of the Wain); ana Schiaparelli concludes, biblical star-names: Kimah, the Pleiades; KesUf the dual form of Tne^drim, that the Jews, like the Orion; Ash, or Ayiah, the Hyades; Mezarim, the 

I i)(?nicians, were acquainted with the Little, as well Bears (Great and Little); Mazzaroth, Venus (Lucifer 

rs with the Great, Bear. He identifies the word as and Hesperus); Hadre theman — "the chambers of 

lie plural, or dual, of mwreh, "a winnowing-fan ", the south"— Canopus, the Southern Cross, and a Cen- 

Ln instrument figured by the seven stars of the Wain, tauri; Nachash, Draco. 

fjuite as accurately as the Ladle of the Chinese or the The New Testament is virtually devoid of as- 

Wpper of popular American parlance. tronomical allusions. The "Star of the Magi" can 

Perhaps the most baffling riddle in Biblical star- scarcely be regarded as an objective phenomenon; 

iiomenclature is that presented by the word Mazza-' it was, at least, inconspicuous to ordinary notice. 

Toth. or Mazzaloth (Job, xxxviii, 31, 32* IV Kings, Kepler, however, advanced, in 1606, the hypothesis 

xiiii, 5), usually, though not unanimously, admitted that a remarkable conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn, 

to be phonetic variants. As to their signification, which occurred in May of the year 7 b. c, was the 

otm<ms are hopelessly divergent. The authors of celestial sign followed by the Wise Men. Revived 

the Septuagint transcribed, without translating, the in 1821 by Dr. MtUiter, the Lutheran Bishop of 

ambiguous expression; the Vulgate gives for its Zealand, this opinion was stron^v advocated in 1826 

equivalent Lucifer in Job, the Signs of the Zodiac in by C. L. Ideler (Handbuch der Chronologie, II, 399). 

the Book of Kings. St. John Chrysoetom adopted But the late Dr. Pritchard's investigation (Smith's 

the latter meaning, noting, however, that many of Dkjt. of the Bible, Memoirs Roy. Astr. Society, XXV, 

hts oontemporories interpreted Mazzaroth as Sinus. 119) demonstrateid its inadequacy to fulfil the re^ 

But this idea soon lost vogue, while the zodiacal ex- quirements of the Gospel narrative. 

:danation gained wide currency. It is, indeed, at Schiaparklli. L'Attronomia neW anHco TeHamento (Milan, 

^J^^L '^r^'^i- p**""'"*- hs? K^"-'* ^''* &!'i^r*i^^w!s:;i;^Si,^ Sr^s;si"2?r 

tiodus the Twelve Signs were established m Eu- tunu (Leipsig. 1893}; Mahlee, Btblische Chronologie (Vienna 

Jihratean regions much as we know them now. 1887); Schraoer, Die Keilintehriften und dot alie Tettament 

ytbough never worshioped in apnnuuy aen*^ they ilS^^liiiSSS: c'Jr^ ^ ff&«^^^: 

may well have been held sacred as the abodes of tr. Edinburgh, 1866); Gebbotus, Thesaurus Linguce Hebrwa 

idtifll. The Assyrian manzaUu (sometimes written (Leip«i«^ 1829); Stern» Die^ StembUder in Hiob in Jlldiechs 

;«»«») "stetion" occurs m _the Babylonian ^^ «iJ!iii^= '(SS^; '(3SrS"^:SS.?Sr ^ 

ireation tablets with the import 'mansions of the Budi Hwb (Leipuc, 1902). 

p^"; and the word appears to be et^ologically Agnes M. Clerkb. 

ikin to Mazzalothf which in rabbimcal Hebrew . ^ _ _, , . ^^ t t^ . j. 

agnifies primarily the Signs of the Zodiac, second- Astxos, PAUi/-THtRfesB-DAViD d' a French cardi- 

ariJy the planets. The lunar Zodiac, too, suggests nal. b. at Tourves (Var) m 1772; d. 29 September, 

itsjf in this connection. The twenty-eight '^Iman- 1851. He wm a nephew of Portalis, a minister of 

aoM of the moon " (menanl al-kamar) were the lead- Napoleon, and as such wm ^gaged m the foraiula- 

in? feature of Arabic sky-lore, and they subserved t>on of the Concordat of ^801 On its conclusion 

Mtidogical purposes among many Oriental peoples. £e was made vicar general of Archbishop Gater, 

Tbej might, accordingly, have belonged to the 5^^^)«^.^°y/ of Pans, and after the latter s 

apparatus of superetition used by the soothsayers death (1808) admmistered the chocese until the 

^ho were extirpated in Judah, together with the nommation of Cardmal Maury He recei^, and 

wonhip of the MazzaratK by King Joeias, about was accused of promulgatmg, the bull of Pius VII 

621 B. c. Yet no such explanation can be made to 09 J^«' 1^09), excommunicating Napoleon. For 

fit in with the form of expression met with in the ^^ act he was unprisoned at Vincennes until 1814, 

Book of Job (xxxvui, 32). Speaking m the person After the Restoration he became Bishop of Bayonne. 

of the Almighty, the Patriarch asks, "Canst thou and m 1830 Archbishop of Toulouse. At tlie re- 

brinF forth Ma*zaroth in its time?"— clearly in q^^s^ ?^^"JL^*ig^^^"'* ^/"/ ^^ •*?®^^ r^'™ 

*Aa to a periodical phenomenon, such as the 5^"^"^^*' "^ ^^ ™ "^^tJ^ T^".^ ^^X^^k^^ 

kriUiant visibility of Lucifer, or Hesperus. Pro- ^^"^^SJ^' ?"» Lettreaux Protestants d Orthez 

fewr SchiaparelB then recurs to the Vulgate ren- (2 v. 8^, Toulouse, 1833). He was one of the earli^t 

Jering of thwpassage. He recognizes in Mazzarath opponents of Lamennais, against whom he wrote 

Ae^aiaet VemSuTin her double aspect of morning "Censure de divers 6cnts de I^ Mennais et de ses 

tad ^ySng star, pointing out that the luminary discipl^par plusieurs ^v^ues de France et Lettres 

deaigBiSdm the Book of Kings, with the sun and t^^,?^^«» f^^^ ^" ^i^^®*^ P^°*^®' Gr^goire 

own, and the "host of heaven", must evidently be XVI , etc^oulouse, 1835). 

r^tTL UJiJuTL,^^ ♦,> *U^ ^Ul^r i:<,Uf_^^r<>i« ITni^V.^.. HkroenrOther. KordtruU Maury (1878), 82, 132 aq.; 

next m bnghtness to the cluef bght-givers. Further, vacaht. DieL de iuol. eath,, I. 2142. 

UK luiL, moon, and Venus constitute the great as- Thomas J. Shahan. 

^n^Qoaneal triad of Babylonia, the sculptured repre- 

teeutaoDs of which frequently include the "host of Afltrac, Jean, b. at Sauves, 19 March, 1684; 

^vm" typified by a crowd of fantastic animal- d. at Paris, 5 May, 1766. He was the son of a con- 

^vimtiM. And since the astral worship anathema- verted Protestant minister. After he had taught 

^ued hj the pit>phet« of Israel was unquestionably medicine at Montpellier, he became a member of the 

tfSapaiBtean origin, the designation <n Mazzarotk Medical Faculty at Paris. His medical writings, 

■ the third member of the Babylonian triad is a however numerous, are now forgotten, but a work 

Tiknbfe lii^lf in the evidence. Still, the case remains published by him anonjnnously has secured for him 

f-rfrtai tortuo^us in the Vulgate) does really stand de la (j^^. Avec des remarques qui appuient 
iv the «ii«umpolar reptile. The Euphratean oon- ou qui ^laircissent ses conjectures' (Brussels). 


Astruc himself did not intend to deny the Mosaic Modem works, like tboee of Pre«cott, Robertson. Uklk, 

authorship of Genesis; but his work cr^t«d an era Ji^iSS^i'^^egiSircSh'SJcEr^/iS^IfX^/J^Ju*?^^^^^ 
m Blbhcal inquuy, occasioning the modem critical idemiate knowledge of the aourcee, of Indian character, and 
theories. of tne localitiee. But the reports of eyewitnesses deiserve 

Kaulen in KirchenUzieon, 2d ed. (Freiburg. 1882); Gxtil- 

LBRBAU in VioouRonx, Diet, de la Bible (Paris, 1805); Krrro, 

Cyd. at Bibl. Lt*. 3d ed. (Philadelphia, 1886); OaoooD. in ^_ . ,l- ir i.i -^ o -^ * - r ^ ._ j » d 

Pretbvt, and Ref. Review (Jan. 1892), 83 sq. ^ ^ ,<*• ^"^^^{^^'^ ..i^^'K, ^eo^f*^***" ^ ^''^ 

ATHrAAa Moma<2a fa ntievaCosfitta (Seville, Apnl, 1534); PrdroSancho 

A. J. jyiAAB. ReUmone per sua MaseUi, (14 July, 1534), Ramusic, III, 1665; 

AanmolAn Saa PAOAnrrAir Hernando PiZAJiRO, Carta d la Audiencia de Santo Domingo, 

ABuncion. Dee rARAOUAY. ^ Otiedo. Hiatoria natural y general de las indiae: Pedbo 

AsyltlXn, Right of. See Rianr of Asylum: Pwaero. Relacufn del Deeeubrimiento y Conquieia del Peru, 

RrrnnTMna 'Rnrj vat Atvmr ai published in vol. V of the Doc. para la Histona de Eepaiia; 

liUILDINGS, lliCCLESIASTICAL. CRiSTdBAL MoLXN A, ConquieUi y PMaci&n del Peru: Anok. MS.. 

AtfthUAllpft, properly AtaU-HUALLPA (etymology RelacUn del Primer Deeeubrimiento de la Cotia y Mar del <Sur. 

usuaUy given as from huM«i. the name o( some ^^^S^t'^B^^^^S^S^ ^A!^iet*fn^i^, 

indigenous bird), son of the Inca war chief Huayna published in 18»2 by Jdi^nrz de la Ebpaoa under the title o{ 

Capac and an Indian woman from Quito hence ^^^ Antiffitalla Pertiana, Later authorities, like ChEZA. Gar- 

(descent being in the female line) not an Inca, but ^t?^ ?' J^ ^^^' PFJ"*"?" ""^ ^^^'^^ T'^^' ^ °^*^' 

v^^^v^v wv.»»M^ .** viw A^^i^ ***xv,y Mv/w i»m Au^^, i^uv jj^^^^ ^^^ ^^ mcTit of the sbove-mentioned eyewitnesses, al- 
an Indian of Ecuador. The protracted wars, dur- though indispensable for the study of the subiMt. 
ii^ which the Incas overpowered the Ecuadorian Ad. F. JBakdeuer. 
tribes, having brought about the permanent lodg- 
ment of Inca war parties in Ecuador, led to inter- AUIilialpa, Juan Santos, an Indian from Cuzco 
marriages with women of that country, and the w*^o> being m the service of a Jesuit, went to Spain 
formaUon of a new tribe composed of Inca men with with his master. Upon his return, having committed 
women and children from Quito. Collisions ensued » murder at Guamanga (Ayacucho in Peru), he fled 
between this trib^ and the descendants of Inca ^ tbe forests on the eastern slopes of the Andes, 
women, and in ♦Le strife, Atau-huallpa figured as the There, in 1742, he persuaded the Indians that he 
leader of tlie former, whilst the latter recognized was a descendant of the Inca head-chiefs and aa- 
Huascar, duly elected war chief at Cuzco. Atau- suned the title of "Atahualpa Apu-Inca". He 
huallpa acted with great cruelty, nearly exterminat- claimed to have been sent by God to drive the 
ing such Ecuadorian tribes as resisted. He finally Spaniards from western South America. As he was 
prevailed, and sent his warriors southward along the aWe to read and write Latin, as well as Spanish, he 
backbone of the mountains, against Cuzco. When readily made the forest tribes believe him to be a 
Pizarro landed at Tumbez (northern Peruvian coast) powerful wizard and induced them to foUow him. 
in 1532, the Quito people had already overthrown abandoniM the towns which the Franciscans had 
the Inca tribe at Cuzco, taken the settlement, and Sf^^^^ished successfully at Ocopa and further east, 
committed the most horrible cruelties, chiefly against To his influence was due the ruin of the prosperous 
the keepers of ancient traditions whom they attempted missions throughout the Pampa del Sacramento in 
to exterminate, so as to wipe out the remembrance ©astern Peru. Under his direction the forest tribes 
of the past of Cuzco and b^n a new era. Atau- became very am-essive, and the missions were partly 
huallpa himself remained with a numerous war party destroyed. Efforts against hun proved a failure, 
at Caxamarca. There he awaited the whites, whom o^^g Partly to the natural obstacles presented by 
he despised. The Spaniards found Caxamarca de- the impenetrable forests, partly to the mefficiency 
serted, and the warriors of Atau-huallpa camping of the omceni to whom the suppression of his revolt 
three miles from the place. Pizarro recognized that ^as entrusted. The uprising caused by his appeal 
a trap had been set for him, and prepared for the ^ Indian superstition, was the severest blow dealt 
•^Qjigt. ^ ^be Christianization of the forest Indians in Peru, 
On the evening of the 16th of November, 1532, and it took decades of sacrifice and toil to recover 
Atau-huallpa entered the square of Caxamarca with ^^® territory lost. To this day, according to reliable 
a great retinue of men carrying their weapons con- testunony, the Indians included under the generic 
ceSed. • They packed the court densely. Pizarro nam© of Chunchos (properly Campas) daim to pre- 
had placed on the roof of the building his artillery serve the corpse of Santos Atahualpa, hidden from 
(two pedereros) that could not be pointed except ^^^ whites, in a wooden, or willow, casket, as their 
horizontally. When the Indians thronged into the ^^^ precious fetish. 

squa,*, a ftominican friar, Fray Vicent« Valvenle ,ol'-}IciTJl,^^R^nSS^i^t!^-lS&)rilS:o^^^. 

was sent by Pizarro to mform Atau-huallpa, through Dicdonario (Lima, 1874), I. 

an interpreter, of the motives of the Spaniards' ap- Ad. F. Bandelier. 

pearance in the coimtry. This embassy was received « a -d 

with scorn, and the friar, seeing the Indians ready to Atarj^atis. See Phobnicia. 

b^n hostilities, warned Pizarro. Hb action has Atavism [Lat.,atoim«, a great-jjprandfather'sgnmd- 

been unjustly criticised; Valverde did what was his father^ an ancestor]. — Duchesne mtroduced the word 

imperative duty imder the circumstances. Then, to designate those cases in which species revert spon- 

not waiting for the Indians to attack, the Spaniards taneously to what are presumably long4o6t charac- 

took the offensive. The sound of cannon and mus- ters. Atavism and reversion are used by most 

ketry, and the sight of the horses frightened the authors in the same sense. 

Indians so that they fled in dismay, leaving Atau- I. The term ataviam is emplo^ned to express the re- 

huallpa a prisoner in the hands ol Pizarro, who appearance of characters, ph3r8ical or psychical, in 

treated him with proper regard. The stories of a tne individual, or in the race, which are supposed to 

terrible slaughter of tne Indians are inordinate ex- have been possessed at one time by remote ancestors. 

aggerations. While a prisoner. Atau-huallpa caused Very often these suddenly reappearing characters 

the greater portion of the gola and silver at Cuzco are of the monstrous type, e. g. the three-toed horse, 

to be turned over to the Spaniards, at the same time The appearance of such a monster is looked upon as 

he had Huascar murdered, and laid plans for surpris- a harking back to Tertiary times, when the ancestor 

ing the Spaniards and having them massacred, of the modem horse possessed three toes. The three- 

Wnen this was discovered Pizarro had him executed, Ifted condition of the monstrous horse is spoken of 

on the 29th of August, 1633. The execution ^'as as atavistic. The employment of the term in con 

not unjustifiable. Atau-huallpa, at the time of his nection with teratology is often abused; for many 

death, was about thirty years of age. cases of so-called atavistic monstrosities have little 


lO do with lost characters, e. g. the possession by 8 April, 1862, by Pius IX. Bounded on the north by 

man of supernumerary fingers and toes. the Vicariate of Mackenzie; on the east and soutb- 

n. Atavism is also used to express the tendency east by the Vicariate of Saskatchewan: on the south 

to revert to one of the parent varieties or Species in by 55® N. lat.; on the west by the Rocfy Mountains. 

the case of a hybrid: this is the atavism of breeders. Tne first vicar Apostolic was Bishop Henri Faraud, 

CroBBed breeds of sneep, for example, show a con- O.M.I., b. at Gigondas, France, 17 March, 1828; d. at 

stant tendendy to reversion to either one of the orig- Saint Boniface, 26 Sept., 1890; ordained priest at 

inal breeds from which the cross was formed. De Saint Boniface, 8 March, 1847; elected 8 May, 1862; 

Vries distinguishes this kind of atavism as vicinism consecrated at Tours, France, 30 Nov., 1864, titular 

(Lat tncinu^, neighbour), and says that it "indicates Bishop of Anamur. He was succeeded by Bishop 

the sporting of a variety under tne influence of others Emile Grouard, O.M.I. , titular Bishop of Ibora; b. at 

m mb vicinity." Brulon, Mans, 2 Feb., 1840; ordained priest at Bou« 

IIL Atavism is employed by a certain school of cherville, 3 May, 1862, elected Bishop of Ibora, 

erolutionistic psychologists to express traits in the 18 Oct., 1890; consecrated at Saint Boniface, 1 Aug., 

individual, especially the child, that are assumed to 1891, and appointed vicar Apostolic. The Oblates 

be, as it were, reminiscences of past conditions of of Mary Immaculate serve all the missions of Atha- 

the human race or its progenitors. A child by its basca. There are 11 stations, 23 priests, 28 Soeurs 

UBtruthfuiness simply gives expression to a state de la Providence, 6 Soeurs Grises. Catholics, about 

that long since was normal to mankind. Also in 5,000. (See Saint Boniface.) 

the chilcrs fondness for splashing about in water is ^ ?Sn^^^ EccUsiattique (1907); Battandier, Ann, ponL 

exhibited a recrudescence of a habit that was quite *^^" ^^^' jr.^^ t * ^c^rvipm 

natural to its aquatic ancestors; this latter is called •'^^^ •'• ^ uecket. 

water-atavism. Many such atavisms are distin- Athanasian Greed, The, one of the s^pabols 

piished, but it hardly needs to be said that they are of the Faith approved by the Church and given a 

m many instiinces highly fantastic. Atavism is com- place in her liturgy, is a short, clear exposition of 

monly supposed to oe a proof of the evolution of the doctrines of tne Trinity and the Jncamation, 

plants ana animals, including man. Characters that with a paasing reference to several other donnas. 

were normal to some remote ancestor, after having Unlike most of the other creeds, " or symbols, it 

been latent for thousands of generations suddenly re- deals almost exclusively with these two funda- 

appear, and thus give a clue to those sources to mental truths, which it states and restates in terse 

wbich the present living forms are to be traced back, and varied forms so as to bring out unmistakably 

TTiat a character may lie dormant for several gener- the trinity of Persons in God, and the twofold na- 

ations and then reappear, admits of no doubt; even ture in the one Divine Person of Jesus Christ. At 

ordinanr observation tells us that a grandchild may various points the author calls attention to the 

resemble its grandparent more than either of its penalty incurred by those who refuse to accept 

immediate parents. But the sudden appearance of any of the articles therein set down. The foUow- 

a tailed man, for instance, cannot be said to prove ing is the Marquess of Bute's English translation 

the descent of man from tailed forms. Granting that of the text of the Creed: — 

man has really descended from such ancestors, the Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is 

phenomenon is more intelli^ble than it would be necessary that he hold the Catholic Faith. Which 

wne no such connexion admitted. But the proving Faith except everyone do keep whole and un* 

force of atavism is not direct, because teratolo^ical defiled, without doubt he shall perish everlast- 

phenomena are so difficult to interpret, and admit of ingly. And the Catholic Faith is this, that we 

several explanations. Darwin, pointing to the large worship one God in Trinity and Trinity in Unity, 

canine teeth possessed by some men as a case of Neither confounding the Persons, nor dividing 

atavism, remarks: "He who rejects with scorn the the Substance. For there is one Person of the 

belief that the shape of his own canines, and their Father, another pf the Son, and another of the 

occasional great devdopment in other men, are due Holv Ghost. But the Goohead of the Father, 

to our early forefathers having been provided with of the Son and of the Holy Ghost is all One, the 

these formidable weajjons, will probably reveal, by Glory Equal, the Majesty Co-Eternal. Such as 

sneering, the line of his own descent". the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the 

Atavism is appealed to by modem criminologists Holy Ghost. The Father Uncreate, the Son 

to explain certain moral aberrations, that are looked Uncreate, and the Holv Ghost Uncreate. The 

upon as having been at one time normal to the race. Father Incomprehensible, the Son Incompre- 

AJccepting the doctrine that man has, by slow prog- hensible, and tne Holy Ghost Incomprehensiole. 

ress, come up to his present civilized state from The Father Eternal, the Son Eternal, and the 

brute conditions, all that is brutish in the conduct Holy Ghost Eternal and yet they are not Three 

of criminals (also of the insane), is explained by ata- Eternals but One Eternal. As also there are 

vian. According to this theory degeneracy is a case not Three Uncreated, nor Three Incomprehen- 

of atavism. The explanation offered for tne sudden sibles, but One Uncreated, and One Incompre- 

reappearance of remote ancestral characters is so hensible. So likewise the Father is Almighty, 

intnnately connected with the whole question of the Son Almighty, and the Holy Ghost Almighty, 

heredity that it is impossible to do more than in- And yet they are not Three Almighties but One 

dieate that most writers on heredity seek this ex- Almighty. 

planation in the transmission from generation to So the Father is God, the Son is God» and the Holy 

Seoeration of unmodified heredity-bearing parts, Ghost is God. And yet they are not Three Gods, 

genmules (Darwin); pangenes (De Vries); determi- but One God. So fikewise the Father is Lord. 

DMrta (Weismaim). (See Heredity.) the Son Lord, and the Hohr Ghost Lord. And 

touffiKHJON, Thf CkOd (London, 1900); Db Vries. yet not Three Ix)rd8 but One Lord. For, like 

SlSl».r^«^S3nJ2"?fSi. iSSt ; llJ.TTk. '^ ««^^« t'lS ^"""PeU^ by the ^.risti^ vmty to 

M. K. TB0MP80N (London. 1904); Dblaob, La structure du acknowledge every Person by Himself to be God 

mlBplume et fet th&rrieB %ur VhSrSdiU et let granda problhnee and Lord, SO are we forbidden by the Catholic 

iiiLdCPSL'^iSd^ ^^^^* ^^^^^* L0MBR080. L'homme ReUpon to say, there be Three Gods or Three 

^^ ' Jos. C Herrick. Lor&. The Father is made of none, neither 

created, nor begotten. The Son is of the Father 

^ftabiflffft. Vicariate Apostolic of (North-west alone; not made, nor created, but begotten. The 

TeRitorie8).~Suffragan of Saint Boniface; erected Holy Ghost is of the Father, and of the Son- 


neither made, nor created, nor begotten, but in 1871, by E. C. Ffoulkes to assign the Creed to thn 
proceeding. ninth century. From a passing remark in a iettei* 
80 there is One Father, not Three Fathers; one written by Alcuin he constructed the foUowing re- 
Son, not Three Sons; One Holy Ghost, not Three markable piece of fiction. The Emperor Charie- 
Holy Ghosts. And in this Tnnity none is afore m&gne, he says^ yished to consohdate the Weetem 
or after Other, None is greater or less than An- Empire by a rehgious, as weU as a pohtical, separation 
other, but the whole Three Persons are Co-etemal (rom the East. To this end he suppressed the 
together, and Co-equal. So that in all things, as Nicene Creed, dear to the Onental Church, and 
is aforesaid, the Unity in Trinity, and the Trmity substituted a formulary comoosed by Pauhnus 
in Unity is to be worshipped. He therefore of Aqudeia, with whose approvd and that of Alcuin, 
that wiU be saved, must thus &nk of the Trinity, a distinguished scholar ol the tune, he ensured ite 

Fm.hermoreitisnece^r,toeveri^^^^^ ^hf ^na^"'^?" ^ mLT ^^^^ 

that he also beheve nghtly the Incarnation of ^^^j^ ^^ reputation of men whom every 

?w ^^^i?*^ ^^™*- /^^ ,^^% "S*^* ^^'^^ «' worthy historian regards as mcapable of such a 

JfeJcf'^th^rnf^pli'l^rS t^^u^^"^ ^^"^ fraud, added to the^doubted proofs of the Creed's 

Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man. y^^^^ y^^^ j^ ^ 1^^^ ^^^^ ^i^^ ^^^y^ century, 

God, of the substance of the Father, begotten leaves this theory without any foundation. 

before the worlds; and Man, of the substance of Who, then, is the author? The results of recent 

His mother, born into the world. Perfect God inquiry make it highly probable that the Creed 

and Perfect Man, of a reasonable Soul and human first saw the light m the fourth century, during 

Flesh suhsisting. Equal to the Father as touch- the life of the great Eastern patriarch, or shortly 

ing His Godhead, and inferior to the Father as after his death. It has been attributed by dif- 

touching His Manhood. Who, although He ferent writers variously to St. HQary, to St. 

be God and Man, yet He is not two, but One Vincent of L^rins, toEusebiusof Vercelli^to Vigilius, 

Christ. One, not by conversion of the Godhead and to others. It is not easy to avoid the force of 

into Flesh, but by taking of the Manhood into the objections to all of these views, however, as 

God. One altpgether, not by confusion of sub- they were men of world-wide reputation, and hence 

srance, but by Unity of Person. For as the any document, especially one of such importance 

reasonable sdul and flesh is one Man, so God as a profession of faith, coming from them would 

and Man is one Christ. Who suffered for our have met with almost immediate recognition. Now. 

salvation, descended into HeO, rose a«ain the no allusions to the authorship of the Creed, and 

third day from the dead. He ascended into few even to its existence, are to be found in the 

Heaven, He sitteth on the right hand of the literature of the Church for over two hundred years 

Father, God Ahnighty, from whence he shall after their time. We have referred to a like silence 

come to judge the quick and the dead. At in proof of a non-Athanasian authorship. It seems 

whose coming all men shall rise again with their to be similarly available in the case of any of the 

bodies, and shall give account for their own great names mentioned above. In the opinion of 

works. And they that have done good shall Father Sidney Smith, S.J., which the evidence just 

go mto life everlasting, and they that have done indicated renders plausible, the author of this Creed 

evil into everlasting fire. This is the Catholic must have been some obscure bishop or theologian 

Faith, which except a man believe faithfully who composed it, in the first instance, for purely 

and firmly, he cannot be saved. local use in some provincial diocese. Not coming 

For the past two hundred years the authorship from an author of wide reputation, it would have 

of this summary of Catholic Faith and the time of attracted little attention. As it became better 

its appearance have furnished an interesting prob- known, it would have been more widely adopted, 

lem to ecclesiastical antiquarians. Until the seven- and the compactness and the lucidity of its state- 

teenth centurv, the "Quicimque vult", as it is ments would have contributed to make it highlv 

sometimes called, from its openine words, was prized wherever it was known. Then would fol- 

thought to be the composition of the great Arch- low speculation as to its author, and what wonder, 

bi^op of Alexandria whose name it bears. In the if, from the subject-matter of the Creedj which 

year 1644, Gerard Voss, in his" DeTribusSymbolis*', occupied the great Athanasius so much, his name 

ffave weighty probability to the opinion that St. was first affixed to it and, unchallenged, remained. 

Athanasius was not its author. His reasons may The "damnatory", or "minatory clauses", are 

be reduced to the two following: first, no early the pronouncements contained in the symbol, of 

writer of authority speaks of it as the work of this the penalties which will follow the rejection of what 

and most probably it cannot, it undoubtedly owes concluding verse: "This is the Catholic Faith, which 

its existence to Athanasian infiuences, for the ex- except a man beheve faithfully and firmly, he cannot 

pressions and doctrinal colouring exhibit too marked be saved". Just as the Creed states in a veiy 

a correspondence, in subject-matter and in phrase- plain and precise way what the Catholic Faith is 

ology, with the literature of the latter half of the concerning the important doctrines of the Trinity 

fourth centuiy and especiallv with the writings of and the Incarnation, so it asserts with equal plainness 

the saint, to be merely accidental. These internal and precision what will happen to those who do not 

evidences seem to justify the conclusion that it faithfully and steadfastly oelieve in these revealed 

grew out of several provincial synods, chiefly that of truths. They are but the credal eauivalent of Our 

Alexandria, held about the year 361, and presided Lord's words: "He that believetn not shall be 

over by St. Athanasius. It should be said, however, condemned", and applv, as is evident, only to th^ 

that tnese arguments have failed to shake the con- culpable and the wilful rejection of Christ'cf words 

viction of some Catholic authors, who refuse to give and teachings. The absolute necessity of accepting 

't an earlier origin than the fifth century. the revealed word of God, under the stem penalties 

An elaborate attempt was made in £n«:land, here threatened, is 60 intolerable to a powerfu' 


dan in the Anglican churchy that frequent at- in referring to the events of this period he makes no 

tempts have been made to eliminate the Creed from direct appeal to his own personal recollections, but 

the public service of that Church. The Upper falls bacK, rather, on tradition. Such reserve would 

House of Convocation of Canterbur}r has already scarcely be intelligible, if. on the hypothesis of the 

affinned that these clauses, in their prima facie earUer date, the Saint nad been then a boy fully ten 

meaning, go bejjrond what is warrantee! by Holy vears old. Besides, there must have been some sem- 

Scripture. In view of the words of Our Lord (quoted blance of a foundation in fact for the chaige brought 

above, there should be nothing startling in the against him by his accusers in after-life (Index to the 

statement of our duty to believe what we know is Festal Letters) that at the time of his consecration 

the testimony and teaching of Christ, nor in the to the episcopate in 328 he had not yet attained the 

emous sin we conunit in wufiilly refusing to accept canonical age of thirty years. These considerations, 

it, nor, finally, in the punishments tlmt will be therefore, even if they are found to be not entirely 

inflicted on thoee who culpably persist in their convincing, would seem to make it likely that he 

sin. It is just this last that the damnatory clauses was bom not earlier than 296 nor later than 298. 

proebum. From a dogmatic standpoint, the merelv It is impossible to speak more than conjecturally ot 

historical question of the authorship ot the Creed, his family. Of the claim that it was both prominent 

or of the time it made its appearance, is of secondary and well-to-do, we can only observe that the tradi- 

consideration. The fact alone that it is approved tion to that effect is not contradicted hy such scanty 

by the Church as expressing its mind on the funda- details as can be gleaned from the samt's writings, 

mental truths with which it deals, is all we need Those writings undoubtedly betray evidences of the 

to know. sort of education that was given, for the most part, 

iom. The Creed of St, Atkanaeius; Jbwbl, Defence of the only to children and youths of the better class. It 

/ljwlo0y(Umdoii,1667); mjrorA»(C^ hpimn with orammftr went, on tn rhptorio and m- 

VoMiua. Dieaeruaionee de Tribue symbolie (Paris, 1603); Qdes- "^S»d ^itn grammar, wem on lo rneionc, ana re- 

m^lh8ymbctoAthana9ittnon675)ihLoitTTAvcou,Dt^^ ceived its final touches under some one of the more 

maboUm Quiau^wf m P. o„ XX VIII. 1567;. Mubatobi, fashionable lecturers in the philosophic schools. It is 

AAamuian CreedjCambridie. 1724; Oxford, 1870): IIarvey, training m letters to his saintly predecessor's favour, 

nemetory andptooloffv of the Three Creeds (London. 1854). if not to his personal care. But Athanaslus was One 

n:FrouiJUBB. The Atharuman Creed {Umdon, 1911)', Lumby, -.* thnaft mm nArannAlitiM that Hprivft innnmnarAhlv 

Tie Hiaiorv of the Creeds (Cambridge, 1887); Swainbon. The ^^ ^^^ rare personalities tnat oenve inoomi«raDiy 

Sieate Creed and the App^' Creed (London. 1876); Omman- more from theu" own native gifts of mtellect and 

nr. The Athanaeian Creed (London. 1875); Idem, A Critical character than from the fortuitousness of descent or 

WMiofi on the A^umaeian Creed (Oxford. 1897); Burn, environment. His career almost pereonifies a crisis 

Tkt AAanaetan Creeds etc., in Robinson. Texte and Studtea w»"w»ijwixu. ^xi^*-«i^x w^uvrov ^^crvA«xu«o « v^iuto 

(Cimbrid«e. 1896): Smith, The Athanaeian Creed in The m the history of Christianity; and he may be said 

Mimth (1904). CIV. 366; ScHAFF. Hieiory of the Chrietian rather to have shaped the events in which he took 

CW (New Voijc. 1903). Ill; IDBM.T'V part than to have been shaped by them. Yet it 

(New YotIc, 1884), I. 34; Tixkront, in Diet, de ih^ol. cath.; !'"*»'»'»*«*" <^ 'j. *^'^ o^^^^^^j v.<v»^^ 

Uore, in Aauck, ReaUncuklopadie fur prot. TheoL.a. v. See would be misleading to uige that he was m no no- 

abo the reoent dueuBsjon by Anadican writers: Wblldon. table sense a debtor to the time and place of his birth, 

^ce. Bliot. Luckock, in Ths Ifxneteenth Century (1904- ^he Alexandria of his boyhood was an epitome, itt- 

James J. Sullivan. tellectually, morally, and politically, of that ethnic- 
ally many-coloured Graeco-Koman world, over •which 

AthmaahlB, Saint, Bishop of Alexandria; Coiifes- the Church of the fourth and fifth centuries was 

SOT and Doctor of the Churcn; bom c. 296; d. 2 May, beginning at last, with undismayed consciousness, 

373. [No accepted emblem has been assigned to him after nearly three hundred years of unwearying 

in the hJstoiy of western art; and his career, in propagandism, to realize its supremacy. It was, 

spite of its picturesaiie diversity and extraordinary moreover, the most important centre of trade in 

wealth of detail, seetsii to have furnished little, if the whole empire; and its primacv as an emporium 

any, material for distinotlre illustration. Mrs. Jame- of ideas was more commanding than that of Rome 

son tells us that according to the Greek formula, or Constantinople, Antioch or Marseilles. Alreadv, 

"he oog^t to be represented old, baldheaded, ana in obedience to an instinct of which one can scarcely 

vHh a long white beard*' (Sacred and Legendary determine the full significance without studying the 

passion for orthodoxy 

lifetime earned the characteristic title of "Father of from Pantaenus, Clement, and Origen, had b^^un to 

Orthodoxy", by which he has been distinguished take on an alniost secular character in the compre- 

erer since. While the chronoloey of his career still hensiveness of its interests, and had counted paeans 

mnams for the most part a nopeleesly involved of infiuence among its serious auditors (Eusebius 

proiJem, the fullest material for an account of the Hist. Ecd., VI, xix). 

uttin achievements of his life will be found in his To have been bom and brought up in such an at- 

coQected writing? and in the contemporary records moephere of philosophizing Christianity was, in spite 

of his time. He was bom, it would seem, in Alex- of tne dangers it involved, the timeheet and most 

udiia, nH30t probably between the years 296 and liberal of educations; and there is, as we have inti- 

296. An earlier date, 293, is sometimes assigned as mated, abundant evidence in the saint's writings te 

the more certain year of his birth; and it is supported testify to the ready response which all the mtter 

S. F^ersbofurg, 1888) and corroborated by the un- supervision of the ecclesiastical authorities of his 

doubted maturity of judgment revealed in the two native city. Whether his Ions; intimacy with Bishop 

^wtiMs "Contra Gentes ' and "De Incamatione", Alexander began in childhood, we have no means of 

whidi were admittedly written about the year 318, judging; but a story which pretends to describe the 

heUxt Arianism as a mov^nent had begun to make circumstances of his first introduction to that prelate 

ftotf fdt. It must be remembered, however, that has been preserved for us by Rufinus (Hist. Eccl., I, 

i&two dktinct passages of his writings (Hist. Ar., xiv). The bishop, so the tale runs, had invited a 

hir, aid De Byn,, xviii) Athanaslus shrinks from number of brother prelates to meet him at breakfast 

^caking as a witness at first hand of the persecution after a great religious function on the anniversary 

vladi had broken out under Maximian m 303; for of the martyrdom of St. Peter, a reoent predeoessor 


in the See of Alexandria. While Alexander was wait* only writer who has described him for us (Orat 
ing for his guests to arrive, he stood by a window, xxi, 8). A contemptuous phrase of the Emperor Ju- 
watching a group of boys at play on the seashore llan's (Epist., li) serves unintentionally to corrob- 
below. the house. He had not observed them long orate the picture drawn by kindlier observers. He 
before he discovered that they were imitating, evi- w^s slightly below the middle height, spare in build, 
dently with no thought of irreverence, the elaborate but well-knit, and intensely energetic. He had a 
ritual of Christian baptism. (Cf. Bunsen's 'X'hristian- finely shaped head, set off with a thin growth of 
ityandMankind", London, 1854, VI, 465: Denzin^r, auburn hair, a small but sensitively mobue mouth, 
''Kitus Orientalivun'' in verb.; Butlers ''Ancient an aquiline nose, and eyes of intense but kindly 
Coptic Churches", II, 26S et sqq.; "Bapttoe chez brilliancy. He had a ready wit, was quick in intui- 
lee Coptes", ** Diet. Th^l. Cath. , Col. 244, 245). He tion, easy and affable in manner, pleasant in conver- 
thereiore sent for the children and had them brought sation, keen, and^ perhaps, somewhat too unsparing 
into his presence. In the investigation that followed in debate. (Besides the references already cited, 
it was discovered that one of the boys, who was no see the detailed description given in the January 
other than the future Primate of Alexandria, had Mripoiop quoted in the Bollandist life. Julian the 
acted the part of bishop, and in that character had Apostate, in the letter alluded to above sneers at the 
actually Imptized several of his companions in the diminutiveness of his person — fiv^i ^1^» ^'^^ A»^p«- 
course of their play. Alexander, who seems to have TloKot e^eX^i, he writes.) In addition to these 
been unaccountably puzzled over the answers he qualities, he was conspicuous for two others to which 
received to his inquiries, determined to recognize even his enemies bore unwilling testimony. He was 
the make-believe baptisms as genuine: and decided endowed with a sense of humour that could be aa 
that Athanasius and his playfellows should ^ into mordant — we had almost said as sardonic — as it 
training in order to fit themselves for a clerical ca- seems to have been spontaneous and unfailing; and 
reer. The Bollandists deal gravely with this story; his courage was of the sort that never falters, even 
and writers as difficult to satisfy as Archdeacon in the most disheartening hour of defeat. There is 
Farrar and the late Dean Stanley are ready to ac- one other note in this highly gifted and many-sided 
cept it as bearing on its face "every indication of personality to which everything else in his nature 
truth" (Farrar, "Lives of the Fathers", I, 337; literally ministered, and which must be kept steadily 
Stanley, "East. Ch.", 264). But whether in its in view, if we would possess the key to his character 
present form, or in the modified version to be foimd and writing and understand the extraordinary sig- 
m Socrates (I, xv), who omits all reference to the nificance of his career in the history of the Christian 
baptism and says that the game was "an imitation Church. He was by instinct neither a liberal nor a 
of the priesthood and the order of consecrated per- conservative in theology. Indeed the terms have a 
sons", the tale raises a number of chronological singular inappropriateness as applied to a tempera- 
difficulties and suggests even graver questions. ment like his. Prom first to last he cared greatly 

Perhaps a not impossible explanation of its origin for one thing and one thing only; that one thing 

may be found in the theory that it was one of the was the integrity of his Catholic creed. The religion 

many floating myths set in movement by popular im- it engendered in him was obviously — considering the 

agination to account for the marked bias towards an traits by which we have tried to depict him — of a 

ecclesi^ical career which seems to have character- passionate and consuming sort. It b^gan and ended 

ized the early boyhoodi of the future champion of in devotion to the Divinity of Jesus Christ. He was 

the Faith, bozomen speaks of his "fitness for the scarcely out of his teens, and certainly not in more 

priesthood", and calls attention to the significant than deacon's orders, when he published two treats 

circumstance that he was "from his tenderest years ises, in which his mind seemed to strike the key-note 

practically self-taught". "Not long after this," of all its riper after-utterances on the subject of the 

adds the same authority, the Bishop Alexander "in- Catholic Faith. The "Contra Gentes" and the ".Ora- 

vited Athanasius to be his commensal and secretary, tio de Incamatione" — to give tbem the Latin appella- 

He had been well educated, and was versed in gram- tions by which they are more commonly cited — were 

maraud rhetoric, and had already, while still a young written some time between the years 318 and 323. 

man. and before reaching the episcopate, ^ven proof St. Jerome (De Viris Illust.) refers to them under 

to tnose who dwelt with him of nis wisdom and a conmion title, as "Adversum Gentes DuoLibri", 

acumen" (Soz., II, xvii). That "wisdom and acu- thus leaving his readers to gather the impression, 

men" manifested themselves in a various environ- which an analysis of the contents of botn books 

ment. While still a levite under Alexander's care, certainly seems to justify, that the two treatises are 

he seems to have been brought for a while into close in reality one. 

relations with some of the solitaries of the Egyptian As a plea for the Christian position, addressed 
desert, and in particular with the great St. Anthony, chiefly to both Gentiles and Jews, the young deacon's 
whose life he is said to have written. The evidence apology, while undoubtedly reminiscential in i^ethods 
both of the intimacy and for the authorship of the and ideas of Origen and the earlier Alexandrians, is, 
life in question has been challenged, chiefly by non- nevertheless, strongly individual and almost pietlstic 
Catholic writers, on the ground that the famous "Vita" in tone. Though it deals with the Incarnation, it is 
shows signs of interpolation. Whatever we may silent on most of those ulterior problems in defence of 
think of the arguments on the subject, it is impos- which Athanasius was so soon to be summoned by the 
sible to deny that the monastic idea appealed power- force of events and the fervour of his own faith to 
fullv to the young cleric's temperament, and that devote the best energies of his life. The work con- 
he nimself in after years was not only at home when tains no explicit discussion of the nature of the Word's 
duty or accident threw him among the solitaries, Sonship, for instance; no attempt to draw out the 
but was so monastically self-disciplined in his habits character of Our Lord's relation to the Father; noth- 
as to be spoken of as an "ascetic" (Apol. c. Arian., ing, in short, of those Christological questions upon 
vi): In fourth-century usage the word would have which he was to speak with such splendid and coura- 
a definiteness of connotation not easily determinable geous clearness in a time of shifting formularies and 
to-day. (See Asceticism.) undetermined views. Yet those ideas must have been x 

It IS not surprising that one who was called to in the air (Soz., I, xv) for, some time between the 

fill so large a place in the history of his time should years 318 and 320, Arius, a native of Lib^ (Epiph. 

have impressed the very form and feature of his Haer., Ixix) and priest of the Alexandrian Gburch, 

personality, so to say, upon the imagination of his who had already fallen under censure for his part 

ooQtemporaries. St. Gregory Nazianzen b not the in the Meletian troubles which broke out during the 


episcopate of St. Peter, and whose teachings had co-essential, with the Father, together with its confi- 
BQcceeded in making dangerous headway, even among dent appeal to the emperor to Tend the sanction of 
"the consecrated virgins" of St. Mark's see (Epiph. his authority to the decrees and pronouncements by 
Haer., box; Soc., Hist. EccL, I, vi), accused Bishop which it hoped to safeguard this more explicit pro- 
Alexander of Sabellianism. Arlus, who seems to have feesion of the ancient Faith, had consequences of the 
proBumed on the charitaUe tolerance of the primate, gravest import, npt only to tl^ woiid of ideas, but 
was at length deposed (Apol. c. Ar., vi) in a synod to the world of politics as well. By the official pro- 
consisting of more thsm one hundred bishops of mul^tion of the term homodustoTif theological spec- 
E^t and Libya (Depositio Ar., 3). The con- ulation received a fresh but subtle impetus which 
demned heresiarch withdrew first to Palestine and made itself felt long after Athanasius and his sup- 
afterwardb to Bith3mia, where, under the protection porters had passed awav; while the appeal to the 
o^Euaebius of Nicomedia and his other ''Collucian- secular arm inaugurated a policy which endured 
ists", he was able to increase his already remarkable practically without change of scope down to the 
influence, while his friends were endeavouring to publication of the Vatican decrees m our own time, 
prepare a way for his forcible reinstatement as priest In one sense^ and that a very deep and vital one, 
of tae Alexandrian Church. Athanasius, though only both the definition and the policy were inevitable, 
in dooon's orders, must have taken no subordinate It was inevitable in the order of religious ideas tliat 
part in these events. He was the trusted secretary any break in logical continuity should be met by 
and adviser of Alexander, and his name appears in inquiry and protest. It was just as inevitable that 
the Kst of those who signed the encyclical letter sub- the protest, to be effective, should receive some coun- 
seqoently issued by the primate and his colleagues tenance from a power which up te that moment had 
to offset the growmg prestige of the new teaching, affected to r^ulate all the graver circumstances of 
and the momentum it was bq^nning to acquire from life (cf. Hamack, Hist. Dog., Ill, 146, note; Bu- 
the ostentatious patronage extended te the deposed chanan's tr.). As Newman has remarked: ''The 
Ariua by the Eusebian faction. Indeed, it is to this Church could not meet together in one, without en- 
party and to the leverage it was able to exercise at tering into a sort of n^otiation with the powers 
the emperor's court that the subsequent importance that be; whose jealousy it is the duty of Christians, 
of Aiianism as a political, rather than a religious, both as individuals and as a body, if possible, to 
movement seems primarily to be due. dispel" (Arians of the Fourth Cent., 4 ed., 241). 
Tlw heresy, of course, had its supposedly philo- Athanasius, though not yet in priest's orders, ac- 
sophic basis, which has been ascribed by authors, companied Alexander to tne council in the character 
ancient and modem, to the most opposite sources, of secretary and theological adviser. He was not, 
St. Epiphanius characterizes it as a kmd of revived of course, the originator of the famous homodusion. 
AnBtot«eanism(Haer.,lxviian(llxxvi); and the same The term had been proposed in a non-obvious and 
view is ^nactically held by Socrates (Hist. Eccl., illegitimate sense by Paul of Samosata to the Fathers 
II, xxxv), Theodoret (Haer. Fab., IV, iii), and St. at Antioch, and had been rejected by them as savour- 
Basil (Adv. Ekmom., I, ix). On the other hand, in^ of materialistic conceptions of the Godhead (cf. 
a theologian as broadly read as Petavius (De Trin., Atnan., "De Svn.," xliii; Newman, "Arians, of the 
I, viii, 2) has no hesitation in deriving it from Pla- Foxirth CJent., 4 ed., 184-196; Petav. "De Trin.," 
tonism; Newman in turn (Arians of the Fourth IV, v, § 3; Robertson, "SeL Writ, and Let. Athan. 
(^ent, 4 ed., 109) sees in it the influence of Jewish Proleg.", 3^ sqa.)- 

prejudices rationalized by the aid of Aristotelean It may even be questioned whether, if left to his 
Kieas; while Robertson (SeL Writ, and Let. of Ath. own logical instincts, Athanasius would have sug< 
Ppokg., 27) observes that the "common theology", gested an orthodox revival of the term at all ("De 
which was invariably opposed to it, " borrowecT its Decretis", 19; "Orat. c. Ar. ",ii,32; "AdMonachos ", 
philosophical principles and method from the Pla- 2). His writing, composed during the forty-six critical 
tonists." These apparently conflicting statements yearsof his episcopate, show a very sparing use of the 
oooid, no doubt, be easily adjusted; but the truth word; and though, as Newman (Arians of the Fourth 
is that the prestige of Arianism never lay in ite Cent., 4 ed., 236) reminds us, " the authentic account 
ideas. From whatever school it may have been of the proceedings" that took place is not extant, 
logically derived, the sect, as a sect, was cradled and there is nevertheless abundant evidence in support of 
nurtured in intrigue. Save in some few instances, thecommonviewthat it had been unexpectedly forced 
which can be accounted for on quite other grounds, upon the notice of the bishops, Arian and orthodox, in 
its prophets relied more upon curial influence than the great synod by Constantino's proposal to accept 
QPOD piety, or Scriptural knowledge, or dialectics, the creed submitted by Eusebius of Csesarea, with the 
loat must be borne constantly in mind, if we would addition of the homodusion, as a safeguard against 
not move distractedly through the bewildering maze possible vagueness. The suggestion h^ in all prob- 
of events that naake up the life of Athanasius for the ability come from Hosius (cf. "Epist. Eusebii. ", in 
not haif century to coma It is his peculiar merit the appendix to the "De Decretis , § 4; Soc., "Hist. 
that he not only saw the drift of things from the Eccl. ', I, viii; III, vii;Theod. "Hist. Eccl.", I, Athan.; 
v«y beginning, out was confident of the issue down "Arians of the Fourth Cent.". 6, n. 42; oCrof tV 
to the last (ApoL c. Ar., c). His insight and 4p liucaL^ tIctiv i^^ero, says the saint, quoting his 
oQon^ proved almost as efficient a bulwail to the opponents); but Athanasius, in common with the 
CSinstian (jhurch in the world as did his singularly leaders of the orthodox party, loyally accepted the 
hod grasp of traditional Catholic belief. His op- term as expressive of the traditional sense m which 
portimity came in the year 325, when the Emperor the Church had always held Jesus Christ to be the 
Constantino, in the hope of putting an end to the Son of God. The conspicuous abilities displayed in 
Ktadalous debates that were disturbing the peace the Nicsean debates and the character for courage 
Q' the QuiTch, met the prelates of the entire Cath- and sincerity he won on all sides made the youthful 
oGe woild in coimcil at Nicsea. cleric henceforth a marked man (St. (^reg. Nas., 
The j^reat council convoked at this juncture was Orat., 21). His life could not be lived m a comer, 
naethm^ more than a pivotal event in the history of Five months after the close of the council the Pri- 
(3inrtiaQity. Its sudden, and, in one sense, almost mate of Alexandria died; and Athanasius, quite as 
^fflpnnieditated adoption of a quasi-philosophic and much in recognition of his talents, it would appear, 
noivtoiptaral term — ifwc^ffiop — to express the charac- as in deference to the death-bed wishes of the de- 
ter of orthodox belief in the Person of the historic ceased prelate, was chosen to succeed him. Hiselef- 
'Stnst, 1^ defining Him to be identical in substance, or tion. in spite of his extreme youth and the oppositio n 


of a remnant of the Arian and Meletian factions in of the ruling party in the synod made it evident that 

the Alexandrian Church, was welcomed by all classes justice to the accused was the last tiling that wai 

among the laity ("Apol. c. Arian", vi; Soz., "Hist, thought of. It can himlly be wondered at, ^t 

Eccl. ' , II, xvii, xxi, xxii). Athanasius should have refused to be tried by such 

The opening years of the saint's rule were occupied a court. He, therefore, suddenly withdrew from 
with the wonted episcopal routine of a fourth-century Tyre, escaping in a boat with some faithful friendfi 
Egyptian bishop. Episcopal visitations, synods, who accompanied him to Byzantium, where he had 
pastoral correspondence, preaching and the yearly made up his mind to present himself to the emperor, 
roimd of churcn fimctions consumed the bulk of his The circumstances in which the stunt and the great 
time. The only noteworthy events of which an- catechumen met were dramatic enough. Gonstan- 
tiquity furnishes at least probable data are connected tine was returning from a hunt, when Athanasius 
with the successful efforts which he made to provide imexpectedly stepped into the middle of the road 
a hierarchy for the newly planted church in Ethiopia and demanded a hearing. The astonished emperor 
(Abyssinia) in the person of St. Frumentius (Ku- could hardly beUeve his eyes, and it needed the aa- 
nnusl.ix; Soc, I, xix; Soz., II, xxi v), and the friend- surance of one of the attendants to convince him 
ship which appears to have begun about this time bo- that the petitioner was not an impostor, but none 
tween himsell and the monks of St. Pachomius. other than the great Bishop of Alexandria himself. 
But the seeds of disaster which the saint's piety had "Give me", said the prelate, "a just tribunal, or 
unflinchingly planted at Nicsea were beginning to allow me to meet my accus^v face to face in your 
bear a disquieting crop at last. Already events were presence." His request was granted. An order 
happening at Constantinople which were soon to was peremptorily sent to the bishops, who had tried 
make him the most important figure of his time. Athajiasius and, of course, condemned him in his 
Eusebius of Nicomedia, who had fallen into disgrace absence, to repair at once to the imperial city. The 
and been banished by the Emperor Constantino for command reached them while they were on their 
his part in the earlier Arian controversies, had been way to the great feast of the dedication of Constan- 
recaJled from exile. After an adroit campaign of tine's new church at Jerusalem. It natundly caused 
intrigue, carried on chiefly through the instrumental- some consternation; but the more influential mem- 
ity of the ladies of the imperial household, this bers of the Eusebian faction never lacked either 
smooth-mannered prelate so far prevailed over courage or resourcefulness. The saint was taken at 
Constantino as to induce him to order the recall of his word; and the old charges were renewed in the 
Arius likewise from exile. He himself sent a char- hearing of the emperor himself. Athanasius was 
acteristic letter to the youthful Primate of Alexandria, condenmod to go into exile at Tr§ves, where he was 
in which he bespoke his favour for the condenmed received with the utmost kindness by the saintly 
heresiarch, who was described as a man whose opin- Bishop Maximinus and the emperor s eldest son, 
ions had been misrepresented. These events must Constantino. He began his journey probably in 
have happened some time about the close of the the month of February, 336, and amved on the 
year 330. Finally the emperor himself was per- banks of the Moselle in the late autumn of the same 
suaded to write to Athanasius, urging that all those year. His exile lasted nearly two years and a half, 
who were ready to submit to the definitions of Public opinion in his own diocese remained loyal to 
Nictea should be re-admitted to ecclesiastical com- him during all that time. It was not the least elo- 
munion. This Athanasius stoutly refused to do, quent testimony to the essential worth of his char- 
alleging that there could be no fellowship between the actor that he could inspire such faith. Constantino's 
Church and one who denied the Divinity of Christ, treatment of Athanasius at this crisis in his fortunes 

The Bishop of Nicomedia thereupon brought vari- has always been difficult to understand. Affecting, 

ous ecclesiastical and political charges against Athana- on the one hand, a show of indignation, as if he really 

sius, which, though unmistakably refuted at their believed in the political charge brought against the 

first hearing, were afterwards refurbished and made saint, he, on the other, refused to appoint a successor 

to do service at nearly every stage of his subsequent to the Alexandrian See, a thing wnich he mi^t in 

trials. Four of these were very definite, to wit: consistency have been obliged to do had he taken 

that he had not reached the canonical age at the seriously the condenmation proceedings carried 

time of his consecration; that he had imposed a through by the Eusebians at Tyre, 
linen tax upon the provinces; that his officers had, Meanwhile events of the greatest importance had 

with his connivance and authority, profaned the taken place. Arius had di^ amid startlingly dra- 

Sacred Mysteries in the case of an alleged priest matic circumstances at Constantinople in 336; and the 

named Ischyras; and lastly that he had put one death of Constantino himself had foUowed, on the 

Arsenius to death and afterwards dismembered the 22nd of May the year after. Some three weeks later 

body for purposes of magic. The nature of the the younger Constantino invited the exiled primate to 

charges and tne method of supporting them were return to his see: and by the end of November of 

vividly characteristic of the age. The curious stu- the same year Atnanasius was once more established 

dent will find them set forth in picturesciue detail in in his episcopal cijUr. His return was the occasion of 

the second part of the Saint's Apologia", or "Do- great rejoicing. The people, as he himself tells us, 

fense against the Arians ", written long after the ran in crowds to see his face; the churches were given 

events themselves, about the year 350, when the over to a kind of jubilee; thanksgivings were onered 

retractation of Ursacius and Vaiens made their pub- up everywhere; and clei^ and laity accounted the 

lication triumphantly opportune. The whole un- day the happiest in their lives. But ali>etfuly trouble 

happy story at this distance of time reads in parts was brewidg in a quarter from which the saint might 

more like a specimen of late Greek romance than the reasonably have expected it. The Eusebian faction, 

account of an inquisition gravely conducted by a who from this time forth loom large as the disturbers 

synod of Christian prelates with the idea of getting of his peace, managed to win over to their side the 

at the truth of a series of odious accusations brought weak-minded Emperor Constantius to whom the 

against one of their number. Summoned by the East had been assigned in the division of the empire 

emperor's order after protracted delays extending over that followed on the death of Constantino. TTie old 

a period of thirty months (Soz., II, xxv), Athanasius charges were refurbished with a graver ecclesiastica] 

finally consented to meet the charges brought against accusation added by way of rider. Athanasius had 

him by appearing before a synod of prelates at Tyre ignored the decision of a duly authorized synod, 

in the year 335. Fifty of his suffragans went with He had returned to his so© without the summons of 

him to vindicate his good name; but the complexion ecclesiastical authority (Apol. c. Ar., loc. cU,). tr 


the year 340, after the failure of the Euaebian mal- died in the month of April, 362, and Liberius had 

ooQtentfi to secure the appointment of an Arian' succeeded him as Sovereign Pontiff. For two years 

candidate of dubious reputation named Pistus, the Liberius had been favourable to the cause of Athan- 

notorious Gregory of C^padocia was forcibly in- asius; but driven at last into exile, he was induced 

traded into the Alexancinan See, and Athanasius to sign an ambiguous formula, from which the greai 

was obliged to go into hiding. Within a very few Nicene test, the homodti8um, had been studiously 

weeks he set out for Rome to lay his case before the omitted. In 355 a coimoil was held at Milan, where 

Church at large. He had made his appeal to Pope in spite of the vigorous opposition of a handful of 

Julius, who took up his cause with a whole-hearted- loyal prelates among the Western bishops, a fourth 

OBBs that never wavered down to the dav of that condemnation of Athanasius was annoimced to the 

holv pontiff's death. The pope siunmoned a synod world. With his friends scattered, the saintly Ho« 

of bishops to meet in Rome. After a careful and sius in exile, the Pope Liberius denounced as acqui- 

detailed examination of the entire case, the primate's eacing in Arian formularies, Athanasius could hanlly 

innocence was proclaimed to the Christian world, hope to escape. On the nieht of 8 February, 356, 

Meanwhile the Eusebian party had met at Antioch wmle engaged in services in the Church of St. Tnomas, 

and passed a series of decrees framed for the sole a band of armed men burst in to secure his arrest 

purpose of preventing the saint's retiun to his see. (Apol. de Fugd, 24). It was the beginning of his 

Three years were passed at Rome, diuring which time third exile. 

the idea of the cenobitical Ufe, as Athanasius had Through the influence of the Eusebian faction at 
seen it practised in the deserts of Eg3rpt, was preached Constantmople, an Arian bishop, George of Cappa- 
to the clerics of the West (St. Jerome, Epistle cxxvii, docia, was now appointed to rule the see of Alex- 
5). Two years after the Roman synod had pub- andria. Athanasius, after remaining some days in 
liahed its decision, Athanasius was simimoned to the neighbourhood of the city, finally withdrew into 
Milan by the Emperor Constans, who laid before him the deserts of upper Ef^ypt, where he remained for a 
the plan which Constantius had formed for a n-eat period of six years, livmg the life of the monks and 
reunion of the Inshops of both the Eastern and West- devoting himsdf in his enforced leisure to the com- 
em Churches. Now began a time of extraordinary position of that group of writings of which we have 
activity for the Saint. Early in the year 343 we the result in the "Apology to Constantius", the 
find the undaunted exile in Gaul, whither he had gone " Apology for his Flight ' ', the " Letter to the Monks ' ', 
to consult the saintly Hosius, the great champion ana the "History of the Arians". Legend has nat- 
of orthodoxy in the West. The two together set out urally been busy with this period of the Saint's ca- 
for the Council of Sardica which h|wl been summoned reer; and we may find in the "Life of Pachomius" a 
in deference to the Roman pontiff's wishes. At this collection of tales brimful of incidents, and enlivtened 
great gathering of prelates the case of Athanasius by the recital of "deathless 'scapes in thd breach." 
was tiu^en up once more; and once more was his But by the close of the year 360 a change was appar- 
innocence reaffirmed. Two concfliar letters were ent in the complexion of the anti-Nicqne party. The 
prepared, one to the clergy and faithful of Alexandria, Arians no longer presented an unbroken front to 
the other to the bishops of Egypt and Libya, in their orthodox opponents. The Emperor Constan- 
which the will of the Council was made known, tins, who had b^n the cause of so much trouble, 
Meanwhile the Eusebian party had gone to Philip- died 4 November, 361 , and was succeeded by Julian, 
popolis, where they issued an anathema against The proclamation of the new prince's accession was 
AtJianasius and his supporters. The persecution the signal for a pajgan outbreak against the still 
against the orthodox party broke out with renewed dominant Arian faction in Alexandria. George, the 
vigour, and Constantius was induced to prepare usurpinj; Bishop, was flung into prison and murdered 
drastic measures against Athanasius and the priests amia cu'cumstances of great cruelty, 24 December 
who were devoted to him. Orders were given that (Hist. Aceph., VI). An obscure presbyter of the 
if the Saint attempted to re-enter his see, he should name of Pistus was immediately chosen by the 
be put to death. Athanasius, accordingly, withdrew Arians to succeed him, when fresh news arrived that 
from Sardica to Nalssus in Mysia, where he cele- filled the orthodox party with hope. An edict had 
brated the Easter festival of the year 344. After that been put forth by Julian (Hist. Aceph., VIII) 
he set out for Aquileia in obedience to a friendly j)ermitting the exiled bishops of the "Galileans" to 
summons from Constans, to whom Italy had fallen return to their ''towns and provinces". Athanasius 
m the division of the empire that followed on the received a summons from his own flock, and he ac- 
death of Constantino. Meanwhile an unexpected cordingly re-entered his episcopal capital on 22 Feb- 
evcnt had taken place which made the return of ruary, 362. With characteristic energy he set to 
Athanasius to his see less difficult than it had seemed worK to re-establish the somewhat shattered fortunes 
for many months. Gregory of Cappadocia had died of the orthodox party and to purffe the theological 
(probabfy by violence) in June, 345. The embassy atmosphere of uncertainty. To clear up the mia- 
^ch had been sent b^ the bishops of Sardica to understandings that had arisen in the course of the 
the Emperor Constantius, and which had at first previous years, an attempt was made to determioe 
met with the most insulting treatment, now received still further the significance of the Nicene formu- 
a favourable hearing. Constantius was induced to laries. In the meanwhile, Julian, who seems to have 
reconsider his decision, owing to a threatening letter become suddenly jealous of the influence that Athan- 
from his brother Constans and the uncertain condi- asius was exercising at Alexandria, addressed an 
tion of affairs on the Persian border, and he accord- order to Ecdicius, the Prefect of Egypt, peremptorily 
ingly made up his mind to yield. But three separate commanding the expulsion of the restored primate, 
letters were needed to overcome the natural nesita- on the ^x>und that he had never been included in 
tkm of Athanasius. He passed rapidly from Aquileia the imperial act of clemency. The edict was com- 
to Trfeves, from Treves to Rome, and from Rome by municated to the bishop by Pythicodorus Trico, 
the northern route to Adrianople and Antioch, where who, though described in the "Chronicon Athana- 
he met Constantius. He was accorded a gracious sianum" (xxxv) as a "philosopher", seems to have 
interview by the vacillating Emperor, and sent back behaved with brutal insolence. On 23 October the 
to his see in triumph, where he began his memorable people gathered about the proscribed bishop to pro- 
ten years' reign, which lasted down to the third test against the emperor's decree; but the saint uri^ed 
exile, that of 356, These were full years in the life them to submit, consoling them with the promise 
of the Bishop; but the intrigues of the Eusebian, or that his absence would be of short duration. The 
Court, party were soon renewed. Pope Julius had prophecy was curiously fulfilled. Julian terminated 


Mis brief career 26 June, 363; and Athanasius re- Atheism (a privative, and Oc^f , God, i. e. without 

turned in secret to Alexandria, where he soon re- God) is that system of thought which b formally 

«eived a document from the new emperor, Jovian, opposed to theism. Since its first coming into use the 

reinstating him once more in his episcopal functions, tenn atheism has been very vaguely employed, gene- 

His first act was to convene a council which re- rally as an epithet of accusation against any system 

affirmed the terms of the Nicene Creed. Early in that called in question the popular gods of the day. 

September he set out for Antioch, bearing a synodal Thus, while Socrates was accused of atheism (Plato, 

letter, in which the pronouncements of tnis council ApoL, 26 c), and Diagoras called an atheist by 

had been embodied. At Antioch he had an inter- Cicero (Nat. Deor., I, 23), Democritus and Epi- 

view with the new emperor, who received him gra- curus were styled in the same sense impious (without 

oiously and even asked nim to prepare an exposition respect for the gods) on account of the trend of their 

of the orthodox i&ith. But in the following Febru- new atombtic philosophy. In this sense, too, the 

ary Jovian died; and in October, 364, Athanasius early Christians were known to the pagans as atheists, 

was once more an exila because they denied the heathen gods; while, from 

With the turn of circumstances that handed over time to time, various religious opinions and philosophi- 
to Valens the control of the East this article has cal systems have, for sunilar reasons, been deemed 
nothing to do; but the accession of that emperor atheistic. Though atheism, historically considered, 
^ave a fresh lease of life to the Arian party. He has meant no more in the past than a critical or 
issued a decree banishing the bishops who hskd been sceptical denial of the theolo^ of those who have 
deposed by Constantius, but who had been permitted employed the term as one of reproach, and has 
by Jovian to return to their sees. The news created consequently no one strict philosophical meaning; 
the greatest consternation in the city of Alexandria though there is no one consistent system in the 
itself, and the prefect, in order to prevent a serious exposition of which it has a definite place; yet, 
outbreak, gave public assurance that the very special if we consider it in its broad meaning as merely 
case of Athanasius would be laid before the emperor, the opposite of theism, we shall be able to frame 
But the saint seems to have divined what was pre- such divisions as will make possible a grouping of 
paring in secret against him. He quietly withdrew definite systems imder this head. And in so doin^ 
from Alexandria, 5 October, and took up his abode we shall at once be adopting both the historical and 
in a country house outside the city. It was during the philosophical view. For the common basis of 
this period that he is said to have spent four months all svstems of theism as well as the cardinal tenet 
in hiding in his father's tomb (Soz., "Hist.*Eccl.'', of all popular religion at the present day is indubita- 
VI, xii; Soc., "Hist. Ek;cL", IV, xii). Valens, who bly a oelief in the existence of a personal God, and 
seems to have sincerely dreaded the possible conse- to deny this tenet is to invite the popular reproach of 
quences of a popular outbreak, gave orders within atheism. The need of some sucn definition as this 
a very few weeks for the return of Athanasius to his was felt by Mr. Gladstone when he wrote (Contem- 
see. And now began that last brief period of com- porary Review, June, 1876): "By the Atheist I un- 
parative repose which unexpectedly terminated his derstand the man who not only holds, off, like the 
strenuous and extraordinaiy career. He spent his sceptic, from the affirmative, but who drives himself, 
remaining days, characteristically enough, in re- or is driven, to the negative assertion in regard to the 
emphasizing the view of the Incarnation which had whole unseen, or to the existence of Goa." Moro- 
been defined at Nicsea and which has been substan- over, the breadth of comprehension in such a use of 
tially the faith of the Christian Church from its the term admits of divisions and cross-divisions being 
earliest pronouncement in Scripture down to its last framed under it; and at the same time limits the num- 
utterance through the lips ot Pius X in our own ber of systems of thought to which, with any pro- 
times. "Let what was confessed by the Fathers priety, it might otherwise be extended. Also, if the 
of NicsBa prevail", he wrote to a philosopher-friend term is thus taken, in strict contradistinction to the- 
and correspondent in the closing years of his l|fe ism, and a plan of its possible modes of acceptance 
(Epist. Ixxi, ad Max.). That that confession did at made, these systems of thought will naturally appear 
last prevail in the various Trinitarian formularies in clearer proportion and relationship, 
that followed upon that of Nicsea was due, humanly Thus, defined as a doctrine, or theory, or philosophy 
speaking, more to his laborious witness than to that formally opposed to theism, atheism can only signify 
of any other champion in the long teachers' roll of the teaching of those schools, whether cosmological or 
CathoUcism. By one of those inexpUcable ironies moral, whicn do not include God either as a principle 
that meet us everywhere in human history, this man, or as a conclusion of their reasoning. The most trench- 
who had endured exile so often, and risked life itself ant form which atheism could take would be the posi- 
in defence of what he believed to be the first and tive and dogmatic denial of the existence of any spiiv 
most essential truth of the Catholic creed, died not by itual and extra-mundane First Cause. This is some- 
violence or in hiding, but peacefully in his own bed, sur- times known as dogmatic, or positive theordtic, athe- 
rounded by his clergy and mourned by the faithful of ism; though it may be doubted whether such a system 
the see he had served so wdL His feast in the Roman has ever b^n, or could ever possibly be seriously main- 
Calendar is kept on the anniversary of his death. tained. Certainly Bacon and Dr. Arnold voice the 

All the essential materials for the Saint's biography are common judgment of thinking men when they express 

to be found in hjs writings, wpeciaUy in those written after _ Hniihf ar in thft fivisf^npp nfRn athpUt hplonffimr tr% 

the year 350, when the Apologia contra Arianos was composed, * oOUDt as 10 tne exiSience OI an atneist oeionging to 

Supplementary information will be fotmd in St. £pn>HANix7s. such a school. Still, there are certain advanced 

^<rr., loc. cit.; in St. Greogry of Nasianzus, OraL, xji; phases of materialistic philosophy that, perhaps, 

also RuFiNus, Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodorbt. The nVirmlH rJtrViflvh« innliiHAH iinH^r tllisl^Asu^ Material 

Historia Acephala, or Maffeian Fraament (discovered by shouia ngntiy be incluoea iinder tnis neao. Matenai- 

Maffei in 1738, and inserted by Gallandi in Bibliotkeca ism. which professes to find in matter its own cause and 

Patrum, 1769), and the Chnmiam Athanaeianum, or Index explanation, may go farther, and positively exclude 

iotheFeHal Lettera, give us data for the chronological problem, au^ AYi«»f*»np^ nf n.nv <inirif iml oaiisa That siioh a Acar^ 

AU the foregoing sources are included in Mignb, P. O. and tne existence 01 any spiritual cause. 1 nat sucn a QOg- 

p. L. The great Papedroch's lAf e ia in the Acta SS., May, I. matic assertion IS both unreasonable and illogical 

The most important authorities in English are: Newman, needs no demonstration, for it IS an inference not 

ProUgor^ena to the Select WriHnge and Lettera of Saint Athana- thought. But the fact that certain mdlVlduals have 

nuB irthedit^ in Ubim/ of the Nicene arid paat^^ left the sphere of exact scientific observation for 

^^^l9&t^?'iii':^j".Jd^A^o1^: speculation,. and have thus dogmatized negatively, 

a^BEB and HBTEiiB, calls lor their inclusion m this specific type. Mate- 

Cqrnbuus CUFFOHP. rialism is the one dogmatic explaoatipi^ Qf the umverse 


irhich could in any sense justify an atheistic position, compatible with belief in a God; and much confusion 

But even materialism, however its advocates might is often caused by the inaccurate use of the terms, 

dogm&iiiet could do no more than provide an inaSe* belief y knowUdqey opinion, etc. 

Juate theoretic basis for a negative form of atheism. Lastly, a tlurd type is generally, though perhaps 
anfchdam, which must not be confused with ma- wrongly, included in moral atiheism. '' Practical athe- 
tenalism, in some of its forms can be placed also in ism is not a kind of thought or opinion, but a mode of 
this division, as categorically denying the existence of life" (R. Flint, Anti-theistic Theories, Lect. l\ This 
a spiritual First Cause above or outside the world, is more correctiy called, as it is described, goolessnees 
A second form in which atheism may be held and in conduct, quite irrespective of any theory of philoso- 
taught, as indeed it has been, is based either upon the phy, or morals, or of religious faith. It will be 
lack of physical data for theism or upon the limited noticed that, although we have included agnosticism, 
nature of we intelligence of man. This second form materialism, and pantheism, among the types of 
mav be described as a neeative theoretic atheism; atheism, strictly sp^Jcinf this latter does not necee- ^ 
and may be further viewed as cosmoloffical or pey- sarily include any one of the former! A man may 
etiological, according as it is motived, on the one hand, be an agnostic simply, or an agnostic who is also ' 
by a consideration of the paucity of actual data an atheist. He may be a scientific materialist and 
a\'ailable for the aivuments proving the existence of no more, or he may combine atheism with his ma- 
a super-sensible and spiritual God, or, what amounts terialism. It does not necessarily follow, because 
to the same thing, the attributing of aU cosmic change the natural cognoscibility of a personal First Cause 
and devdopment to the self-contained potentialities is denied, that His existence is called in (question: 
of an etern^ matter; or, on the other band, by an nor, when matter is called upon to explam itself, 
emfHric or theoretic estimate of the powers of reason that God is critically denied. On the other hand, 
working upon the data furnished by sense-perception, pantheism, while diestroying the extra-mundane 
From whichever ca,use this n^ative form of atneism character of God, does not necessarily deny the 
proceeds, it issues in agnosticism or materialism; al- existence of a supreme entity, but rather affirms such 
tfaoudi the agnostic is, perhaps, better classed under as the sum of all existence and the cause of all 
this nead than the materialist. For the former, phenomena whether of thought or of matter. Con- 
professing a state of nescience, more properly belongs sequently, while it would be unjust to dass agnostics, 
U) a cat^ory under which those are placed who materialists, or pantheists as necessarily also atheists, 
negject, rather than explain, nature without a God. it cannot be denied that atheism is clearly perceived 
Moreover, the agnostic may be a theist, if he admits to be implied in certain phases of all these systems, 
the existence of a beine behind and beyond nature. There are so many shades and gradations of thoiight 
even while he asserts that such a bein^ is both un- by which one form of a philosophy meiges into 
provable and unknowable. The matenalist belongs another, so much that is opinionative and personal 
to this type so long as he merely neglects, and does woven into the various individual expeditions of 
not exclude from his sjratem, the existence of God. systems, that, to be impartially fair, eacn individual 
So, too, does the positivist, regarding theological and must be classed by himself as atheist or theist. In- 
metaphysical speculation as mere passing stages of deed, more upon his own assertion or direct teach- 
thought through which the human mind has been ing than by reason of any supposed implication in 
journeying towards positive, or rdated empirical, the system he advocates must this classification 
ioiowledge. Indeed any system of thought or school be made. And if it is correct to consider the sub- 
of philosophy that simply omits the existence of God ject from this point of view, it is surprising to find - 
from the sum total of natural knowledge, whether the to what an exceedingly small number the supposed 
individual as a matter of fact believes in Him or not, atheistic ranks dwinme. In company with Socrates, 
can be dassed in this division of atheism, in which, nearly all the reputed Greek atheists strenuously 
strictly speaking, no positive assertion or denial is repudiated the clmige of teaching that there were 
made as to the ultimate fact of His being. no gods. Even Bion, who, according to Diogenes 
There are two systems of practical or moral Laertius (Life of Aristippus, XIII, Bohn's tr.), 
atheism which call for attention. They are based adopted the scandalous moral teaching of the 
upon the theoretic systems just expounded. One atheist Theodorus, turned again to the eods whom 
system of positive moral atheism, in which human he had insulted, and when he came to die demon- 

and it is significant of those to whom such a form mu j*j *u' xu • * t, • i j • i.* i 

of theoretic atheism is sometimes attributed, that ^^"^ ^^^^^^ atheist shrink and give his neck 

far the sanction of moral actions they introduc4 such V" a\T a^"^ ^"^ -^ ""^^^ "P^?l 

abstract ideas as those of duty, the ^cial instinct, or ^^. ^^f .^« T^J'^lj'^^'U *"^'^®^' • a 

humanity. There seems to fe no particuhu: reason ^'^}' laurel branches blocked his doors and wmdows, 

wigr they should have recourse to such sanctions, S^P^ *?? ^° ?.H ^^''^'^ anything 

anee the morality of an action can hardly be de^ ^**'®' **^^ **^®' 

rived from its performance as a duty, which in turn Epicurus, the founder of that school of i^ysics 

caa be called and known as a "duty" only because which limited all causes to purely natural ones and 

it refers to an action that is morally good. Indeed consequently implied, if he did not actually assert, 

in analysis of the idea of duty leads to a refutation atheism, is spoken of as a man whose "piety towards 

of the principle in whose support it is invoked, and the gods and (whose) affection for his country was 

points to the necessity of a theistic mterpretation of quite unspeakable" (ib.. Life of Epicurus, V). 

nature for its own justification. The second system And though Lucretius Carus speaks of the downfall 

an extrarmmidane, spiritual, and personal lawgiver; XXVII), he states plainly a true theistic position: 

bat that, not because such a lawgiver does not exist, "For there are gods: for our knowledge of them is 

b«t because the human intelligence is incapable of so indistinct. But they are not of the character which 

relating them. It must not be forgotten, however, people in general attribute to them." Indeed, this 

that either ne^tiye theoretic atheism or negative one citation perfectly illustrates the fundamental 

pnetical atheism is, as a system, strictly speaking historic meaning of the term, atheism. 


The naturalistic pantheism of the Italian Giordano in the midst of dan^rous morasses in what is non 
Bruno (154S-1600) comes near to, if it is not actually the parish of East Lme. It possessed scarcely more 
a profession of, atheism; while Tomaso Campanelia than two acres of firm land; was covered with alders 
(1568-1639), on the contrary, In his nature-philosophy and infested by wild animals, and was inaccessible 
finds in atheism the one impossibility of thought, except by boat (William of Malmesbury). Here Al- 
Spinoza (1632-77), while defending the doctrine tnat fred found a refuge from the Danes: nere he built 
God certainly es^sts, so identifies Him with finite the abbey dedicated to our Blessed Saviour, St 
existence that it is difficult to see how he can be Peter, St. Paul, and St. Egelwine. He peopled it 
defended against the chaige of atheism even of the with foreisn monks, drawn chiefly from France, with 
first t3rpe. In the eighteenth century, and especially John of oaxony (known as Scotus) as their abbot, 
in France, the doctnnes of materialism were spread The original church was a small structure consisting 
broadcast by the Encyclopedists. La Mettrie, Hoi* of four piers sup{)orting the main fabric and sur- 
bach, Feuerbach, Fleurens are usually classed among rounded oy four circular chancels. Little is known 
the foremost materialistic atheists of the period, ot the historv of the abbey from the eleventh cen- 
Voltaire, on the contraiy, while undoubtedly helping tury up to the time of its dissolution except that 
on the cause of practical atheism, distinctly neld the monks of Glastonbury attempted to annex it or 
its theoretic contrary. He, as well as Rousseau, was have it placed under the Glastonbury jurisdiction. It 
a deist. Comte, it will be remembered, refused to was not a rich oommunitv. An indulgence of thirty 
be called an atheist. In the last century Thomas days was given in 1321 for those who should assist 
Huxley, Charies Darwin, and Herbert Spencer, with in the rebuilding of the church, and the monks 
others of the evolutionistic school of philosophy, humbly petitioned Eldward I to remit " corrod " for 
were, quite erroneously, charged with positive athe- which thev were unable to find the means of pay- 
ism. It is a chaige which can in no way be sub- ment. The last abbot was Robert Haml3m. With 
stantiated; and the invention and rapid coming into eight monks of his community, he surrendered S Feb- 

S>neral use of the term agnosticism, used first by ruary, 1540, receiving a pension of £50 per annum 
uxley in 1859, shows the long-felt want of a word and retaining his prebend of Long Sutton. The rev- 
more definitely Refined than atheism to designate a enues (26 Hen. VII) were £209. Os. }d. 
phase of thought either critically or sceptically con- , Duodalb, Mona^Ucon Aniflieanum; Amjoi, De RdnuOmttit 
Semed with the process by which the common tenet ^^^••' Heabn.. Scnpt, Huu Ar^LXXVlilKm\\^-^ 
of theism is mamtained. The fundamental formula urancis avelinq. 
is not a denial of the existence of God, but an asser- Athenagoras, a d^istian apologist of the sec- 
tion that the Absolute is unknowable. In Germany, ond half of the second century of whom no more is 
the materialism of Karl Vogt, Jacob Moleschott, known than that he was an Athenian philosopher 
Ludwig Bilchner, culminating in the monism of and a convert to Christianity. Of his writings tnere 
Ernst H&ckel, goes far towards forming an atheistic have been preserved but two genuine pieces: — ^his 
system of philosophy. But even the last named "Apology" or "Embassy for the Christians" and a 
acimits that there may be a God, though so limited "Treatise on the Resurrection *\ The only allusions 
and so foreign to the deity of theists that his admis- to him in early Christian literature are the accredited 
sion can hardly remove the system from the first quotations from his "Apology" in a fragment of 
category of theoretic atheism. Methodius of Olympus (d. 312) and the untrust- 

Among the unscientific and unphilosophical there worthy biographical details in the fragments of the 
have from time to time been found dogmatic "Christian History" of Philip of Side (c. 425). It 
atheists of the first type. Here again, however, may be that his treatises, circulating anonymously, 
many of those popularly styled atheists are more were for a time considered as the work of another 
correctly described by some other title. There is a apologist. His writings bear witness to his erudi- 
somewhat rare tract, "Atheism Refuted in a Dis- tion and culture, his power as a philosopher and 
course to prove the Existence of (Jod by T. P." rhetorician, his keen appreciation of the int^ectual 
— British Museum Catalogue, "Tom Paine", who temper of his age, and his tact and delicacy in deal- 
was at one time popularly called an atheist. And ing with the powerful opponents of his religion, 
perhaps, of the few who have upheld an indubitable T^ "Apology'', the date of which is fixed by in- 
form of positive theoretic atheism, none has been temal evidence as late in 176 or 177, was not, as the 
taken seriously enough to have exerted any influence title "Embassy" (wpw^ela) has suggested, an oral 
upon the trend of {Kiilosophic or scientific thought, defence of Christianity, but a carefuDy written plea 
Robert Ingersoll might be instanced, but though for justice to the Christians made by a philosopher, 
popular speakers and writers of this tvpe may create on philosophical grounds, to the Emperors Marcus 
a certain amount of unlearned disturbance, the^ are Aurelius and his son Conamodus, conquerors, " but 
not treated seriously by thinking men, and it is ex- above all, philosophers ". He first com{dains of the 
tremely doubtful whether they deserve a place in any illo^oal and unjust discrimination against the 
historical or philosophical exposition of atheism. Christians and of the calumnies thejr suffer (i-iii)» 

Reimman. HUtoria adieiemi et atheprwn . . . (Hildesheim. and then meets the charge of atheism (iv). He 

1725); T0U88AINT in Did. de tMologte. 8. v. (a good bibliog- A«fAKliflh<»Q ihn nrirw^mlA nf mnnnfliPuxm nif imr ruuvAn 

rapny); Janet and sisAiLLEs. Htatorv of the Problenu of Philo*- estaDUsn^ tne principle oi monotneism. Citing pasan 

«^w (tr., London. 1902), II; HirrriNQER. Natural Reliffion poets and philosophers m support of the veiy doo- 

itr.Kem York J.SW); FLjmj, Ant^theietU: Theo^ trines for which Christians are condemned (v-vi), 

i?SUi^"<il*'n,'^rrfir^il7J?^^^^^ jnd demonstrates the Buperiority.. of Jhe O^i^ti^n 

Saturalitm and AonoaHcitm (New York. 1899); Ladd, PkHot- behef in God to that of pagans (vil-viu). This first 

qpky of Reiiffum (New York. 1905), II; Boedder. ATaturo/ strongly reasoned demonstration of the unity of 

t^X7yI^'^s^l)'^i«^biS^& ^XiiATii^; <^ "» Christian literature is suoplemented by an 

Barrt. The End of Atheism in The Catholic Wortd, LX, 333; able exposition of the Tnnity (x). Assummg then 

Shka. Stepe to Atheism \n The Am, Cath. Quart. Rev., 1^9, 305; the defensive, the apologist justifies the C3u*is- 

&i)iS«:^%Si^4^fdS?^^v! ti»n abstention from worship of the national d«tie- 

rsphy under Aonooticism, Materialism, Pantheism, and (xni-XlV) on grounds Of its absurcuty and mae-> 

Theism. For the refutation of Atheism see the article God. cency, quoting at length the pagan poets and phil- 

Francis Avelinq. osophers in support of his contention (xv-xxx). 

Athelney, The Abbey op, in the Coimty of Som- Finally, he meets the charges of immorality by ex- 

erset, England, was founded by King Alfred, a. d. posing the Christian ideal of purity, even in thought, 

888, as a religious house for monks of the Order of and the inviolable sanctity of the marriage bond. 

St. Benedict. Originally Athelney was a small island The chaige of cannibalism is refuted by showing the 


td^ ngard for human life which leads the Ghristian however, that a few believed in Paul's teachingi 
to detest the crime of abortion (xxxi-xxxvi). The Amongst these were Dionysios, a member of the 
treatifle on the "Resurrection of the Body", the Areopagite court, and Damaris, or Thamar possibly, 
&8t complete exposition of the doctrine in Christian who may have been a Jewess. A tradition asserts 
literature, was written later than the " Apology "» to that St. Paul wrote from Athens his two letters to 
wiucfa it may be considered as an appendix. Atho- the Christians of Thessalonika. Even if this be so, 
nagoras brings to the defence of tne doctrine the his stay in Athens was not a protracted one. He 
bert that contemporary philosophy could adduce, departed by sea, and went to Korinth by way of 
After meeting the objections common to his time Kenchres, its eastern harbour. It seems that a Cnris- 
(i), he demonstrates the possibility of a resur- tian community was rapidly formed, although for a 
Feetion in view either of the power of the Creator considerable time it did not possess a numerous mem- 
fii-iii), or of the nature of our bodies (iv-viii). bership. The commoner tradition names the Areo- 
To exercise such powers is neither unworthy of God pagite as the first head and bishop of the Christian 
DOT unjust to other creatures (ix-xi). He shows Athenians. Another tradition, however, gives this 
that the nature and end of man demand a perpetua- honour to Hierotheos the Thesmothete. The suc- 
tion of the life of body and soul. cessors of the first bishop were not all Athenians by 
Mabcr and Owkm, DouglaMa' SerU^ cfChrutian, Oreek and lineage. They are catalogued as Narkissos, Publius, 
'C>^^r,^^J'^^l^li>^)':i\':^^^"T!k4 and ^«lratu8. Narku«os ib stat^ to have come 

lish trtnalation is found in AnU-Nieene Pather$ (New York, from Palestine, and PubllUS from Malta. In some 

|«B), II, 129-162; in voL X (ibid.) pp. 36-3S, ia an extensive lists Narkissos is omitted. Quadratus is revered for 

J^lM3<!i;SitSSlj,2^%^^r4*{r.S?tl'n»^^ h«^r>g contributed to early Chnstianliterature by 

MABAifua in P. O. (Paris, 1857). VI, 889-1024. See also writmg an apology, which he addressed to the Em- 

SonrABTi in Oebhardt and Harnack. Zexte und Vnter- peror Hadrian. This was on the occasion of Had- 

S2X»L'l?S5*i?liip:JI-i^Jg7tr^S'^^^^ !?r'^Ji'?.l •*?• ^f'''^^- •^•"°*''f Athenian who 

%\^,^Kn>KHnvw^,Oe9chithuderaUkircmchenlMeratur(Ftfi\' defended Chnstiamty in writing at a somewhat later 

bmf, 1902), I, 267>277; Idkm. Po^rofo^ (ibid^. 1901) 67-68. time was Aristeides. His apology was directed to 

John B. Peterson. the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Athenagoras also 

Athenry, a small inland town in the county Gal- wrote an apology. In the second century there 

way, Ireland, anciently called Athnere. from Athrna- must have been a considerable community of Chris- 

mgh, the king's ford, or the abode of thd king. It tians in Athens, for Hygeinos, Bishop of Rome, is 

was the first town established by the Anglo-Norman said to have written a letter to the community in 

invaders of Connaught, and at a remote period be- the year 139. It is probable that the early Church 

came a place of importance. A Dominican monas- of Athens did not nave many martvrs, although 

tery was completed there in l561 on a site granted Dionysios himself graces the martyrs list. Under 

by M^ler de Bermingham. In time it became ex- Decius, we find recorded in the catalogue of martyrs 

tensive and wealthy and was used as the chief burial the names of Herakleios, Benedimos, Pavlinos, and 

place of the E^rls of Ulster and the principal families Leonides with his followers, the holy woman Char- 

of the adjoining territory. Indulgences for the benefit issa, and her companions. One reason why the 

of the monastery were granted by the pope in 1400. martyrs were few is that the Christians were also 

The church was burned in 1423, and in 1427 two few. Besides, the spirit of the Athenian i^agans and 

subordinate houses were established. In 1445 Pope philosophers was not one of blood; and it is prob- 

Eugenius IV renewed the decree of Pope Martin V able that the persecutions in Athens were rather of 

to encourage the repairing of the church, at which the social and scholastic kind. This would accoimt 

time there were thirty inmates in the monastery, for the writings of the apologists who thus would 

A Franciscan friary was also founded therein 1464 defend themselves bv weapons similar to those which 

hy Thomas, EJari of Kildare, and chapels erected by their opponents used. The philosophers of the Athe- 

m wife and the Earls of Desmond and OTully. nian schools did not indeed admire Christianity, as 

The place was sacked in 1577 during the Elizabethan they understood it; nevertheless there is some ground 

ware, but repaired in 1585. The northern Irish for believing that amongst the teachers who occupied 

burned the town in 1596 but the abbey escaped, the official and historic chairs of philosophy at 

The Dominican establishment was revived in 1644 Athens there later was at least one who was a Chris- 

stt a university, the town, however, never regained tian, Prohseresios, the sophist. Be this as it may, 

its ancient prestige. The Cromwell ian period ruined it is certain that the teaching of the philosophers 

the ecclesiastical buildings, of which the tower and was not rudely anti-Christian. Otherwise the pres- 

^ast window remained in good condition to tell of the ence of Christians amongst the students could not 

iDcieot extent and beau^ of the foundation. The be understood. Sixtus 11, or Xystos, who suffered 

Board of Works in 1893 made extensive repairs to martyrdom in Rome about a. d. 258, also may have 

tbe rains to preserve them. studied in Athens and is called " the son of an Athe- 

LtwB. Topographical Dictionary of Ireland (DMin, 1830). nian philosopher". But the most noted men who 

Thomas F. Meehan. frequented the schools here were Basil from Ksesareia, 

Athtns, CHRisrnAN. — Christianity was first and Gregory from Nazianzos, about the middle of 

preached in Athens by St. Paul. He came to Athens the fourth century. These schools of philosophy 

fnim Beitea of Macedonia, coming probably by water kept paganism aUve for four centuries, but by the 

^ hmding in the Peirseevs, the harbour of Athens, fifth century the ancient religion of Elevsis and 

This wai about the year 53. Having arrived at Athens had practically succumbed. In the Coun- 

Athens, he at once sent for Silas and Timotheos who cil of Niksea there was present a bishop from Athens. 

^ remained behind in Bercea. While awaiting the In 529 the schools of philosophy were closed, 

penning of these he tarried in Athens, viewing the From that date Christianity had no rival in Athens. 

iiWatTous citv, and frequenting the synagogue; for Down to the time of Constantino, and later, there 

^^ were already Jews in Athens. He also fre- were no large Christian temples in Athens. Like 

<^ted the (Mgara, and there met and conversed the Jews, whose synagogues in pagan towns were 

*ith the men of Athens, telUng them of the new small and unpretentious, the first Christians did not 

troths which he was promulgating. Finally, at the erect sumptuous temples. With their worship they 

Areopagoe, he spoke to them the sermon which is did not associate splendour of temple and sanctuary 

gwived in the seventeenth chapter of the Acts, as indispensable. In the time of Basil and Gregory, 

"* Athenians did not enthusiastically accept this there were surely numerous church edifices in Athens. 

^ preaching of Christianity. The Acts mention, but they were not spacious temples. They are caUed 


Ic^ of/roc, and probably were not much larger liikewise many monasteries were founded, both in 
than the ordinary dwelling-houses of the inhabitants. Athens itself and in the country of Attika, especially 
The first magnificent churches in Athens were, there- on the slopes of the surrounding mountains of Hy- 
fore, the Greek temples which, after the disappear- mettos, and Pentelikos, and Fames. A complete list 
ance of paganism, were transferred to the use of the o£ the Bishops of Athens could not be made. But 
Christian rites. It must have been about Justinian's as time goes on, and seals and manuscripts and in- 
time when the most of the ancient temples were scriptions are deciphered, the list of names will grow, 
converted into churches. Churches or ruins of Pistos, Bishop of Athens, was present at the Council 
churches have been frequently found on the sites of Niksea in 325. Bishop Modestus was at the Coun- 
where pagan shrines or temples originally stood, cil of Ephesos in 431. John, Bishop of Athens, was 
This is in part due to the fact that the sites were amongst the Fathers who signed the Acts of the 
first sanctined for Christian tradition by these pagan Sixth (Ecumenical Council. He was present as " Leg- 
temples or sanctuaries being made into churches, gate of the Apostolic See of ancient Rome". From 
It is also to some extent true that sometimes the the graffiti on the Parthenon a number of other 
saint whose aid was to be invoked at the Christian names and dates are already known. In these graf- 
shrine bore some outward analogy to the ddty pre- fiti we read names of bishops prior to the exaltation 
viously hallowed in that place. Thus in Athens the of Athens to the rank of an archbishopric, then the 
shrine of the healer Asklepios, situated between names of archbishops, and finally those of metropoli- 
the two theatres on the south side of the Akropolis, tans. The time of the elevation of this see to an 
when it became a church, was made sacred to the archbishopric cannot yet be fixed. Gregory II, who 
two saints whom the Christian Athenians invoked as was pastor of the Athenians during the firet patriarch- 
miraculous healers, Kosmas and Damian. Amongst ate of Photios, bore the title of archbishop. But it 
the temples converted into churches were the Par- is not known whether or not he was the first who had 
thenon and the Erechtheion on the Akropolis, and that title. This was about 8r>7-867. Shortly after- 
the yet well-preserved HephsBsteion (or "temple of wards the archbishops received the higher title of 
Theseus", as it is incorrectly called) near the ancient metropolitan. Niketaswho took part in the Eighth 
agoru. The Hephsesteion was, in later times, sacred (Ecumenical Council under Basil the Makedonian, 
to St. George. Pittakis, a noted epigraphist of which closed 28 February, 870, and who signed the 
Athens in the early half of the last century, pub- acts of that council as " Niketas by the grace of God, 
lished an inscription which purports to state that Metropolitan of Athens ", on his seals, or leaden bulls, 
in the year 630 the Parthenon was consecrated imder simply places the inscription " Niketas, Bishop of 
the title of " the church of Divine Wisdom " (r^j *Aylas Athens , Amongst the signatures to the acts of 
Xoiplat). But Pittakis was very careless or cred- this council, that of Niketas stands twenty-second 
ulous at times in the copying of inscriptions. So in order. But in a full assembly of metroix»litans 
we do not know with certainty what was the original he would not rank so high. According to the list 
title of this church. Possibly, from its first conver- made by Emperor Leon the Wise (886-911), a list 
sion the Parthenon had been dedicated to the Pana- intended to snow the relative rank of each ecclesi- 
gia. At least we learn from Michael Akominatos astical dignitary imder the Patriarch of Constanti- 
that in the twelfth century it was sacred to the nople, the Metropolitan of Athens is relegated to 
Mother of God. On the columns of this church, and the twentjr-eighth place. Just what sees were under 
on its marble walls, especially around the doors, are the Archbishop of Athens prior to Photios is not 
numerous graffiti inscnptions which record various easy to discover. After the changes brought about 
events, many of them important for sacred and pro- by Photios and his successors, the sees that were 
fane history, such as the names and deaths of bishops, suffragan to Athens varied in number from time to 
and public calamities. In these graffiti inscriptions, time. But in general it may be stated that all of 
this church is called " the great church ", " the church Attika belong^ directlv to the Archbishop of Athens, 
of Athens", and the cathedral church, or KaOoXiK^i after the abolishing of the See of Marathon, about 
iKK\7j<rla. All these appellations show that it was the middle of the mnth century. And under Athens 
the metropolitan churcn of the city. In Greek usage, were, besides other bishoprics, the Sees of Evripos, 
the name Ko^XticAi' or ica^oXtK^^ ^icicXi7<r/o, was a title ap- Oreos, Karystos, and Porthmos in Evboea; Avion; 
plied to churches which were the sees of bishops or Diavleia in Phokis, and Koroneia in Boeotia; Andros, 
archbishops. Skyros, Syros, and Seriphos of the islands; and, 

That the Parthenon was a church as far back as the later, Keos and ^Egina. 
sixth century is proven by the cemetery which lay From Photios down to the Franks the Metropoli- 

along its south side. This region was filled with Chris- tans of Athens were all of the Greek rite, naturally, 

tian graves, in some of which were found coins of a date Likewise their sympathies were rathw with Constan- 

os early as the reign of Justinian. In order to fit the tinople than with older Rome. Their metropolitan 

Parthenonfor a church, changes had to be made in it; church continued to be the ancient P^lienon. It 

an apse was built at the east end, and a great entrance seems that the residence of the bishops was on the 

door was placed in the west end. The interior waUs Akropolis, in the great Portals, or Propylaea, and that 

were covered with fresco paintings of saints. After in these Propylsea they had a private episcopal 

the conversion of these Greek temples into churches, chapel. In tnese days education was not held in. 

perhaps two or three centuries eiapsed before the very general esteem in Athens. No special erudition 

Athenians found it necessary to lavishly add to the characterized the clergy. Even the inscriptions 

number of large church edifices by erecting many which decorated the seals and bulls of bishops and ab- 

new ones. Then they followed the styles of eccle- bots were often most childishly misspelled. From 

siastical architecture which had been developed else- the time of Photios to the Franks the most noted 

where, and had become prevalent throughout so ecclesiastic was probably the last bishop, Michael 

much of the empire. Froni about the end of the Akominatos. He, however, was Athenian neither 

eighth century they erected new churches more fre- by birth nor by education. He came to Athens 

quently. Perhaps the Empress Eirene, who was an expecting great things in the city of ancient wia- 

Atheman, gave some impulse to this tendency. As dom, but was disappointed. Still it is wrong to 

years went on, Athens and the surrounding villages say that Athens of the Middle Ages produc^ed no 

of Attika, and the fields were filled with churches, scholars and noted personages. AthenaSs, who be- 

many of them veritable gems of Byzantine comeli- came queen to Theodosios in 421, and Eirene, ^*ho 

ness. The churches which were built in Athens and became empress in 780, were Athenians. Fnona the 

vicinity during the Middle Ages numbered hundreds, sixth to the thirteenth century Athens was out and 

' 45 ATHENS 

oot a provincial town, exercising no influence on the trade centre than was Athens. Athens, however, was 
worid at large, and almost unheard of in the politics considered important enough to be continued as an 
of the day. Nevertheless, the Emperor Konstas on archbishopric. It thus was ranked in equal dignity 
bis way to Sicily in 662 spent the winter in Athens; with the other larger cities of Greece, sucn as Thebes, 
and after his victories over the Bulgarians in 1018, within de la Roche's dominion, and Patrae and Kor- 
Basil II visited this city to celebrate his triumphs, inth in the Morea. The conquest of Greece was 
When, under Constantine, the Empire was divided accomplished in 1204 and 1205. The first Latin 
into governmental dioceses, the close relations which archbishop introduced the Latin ritual into the 
then were created between the Church and the State cathedral, the Partlienon, in the year 1206. This 
caused the ecclesiastical divisions to be often iden- was Archbishop Berard. Thus after a lapse of cen- 
tical with the civil. By this system all of Achaia, turies from the time of Leo the Isavrian, Greece 
wherein was Athens, was included within the Diocese and Athens were ^ain placed under the junsdiction 
of Eastern Illyria, of which Thessalonika was the of the Bishop of Rome. During the Frankish rule 
capital. All of this Diocese of Eastern Illjrria was the archbishops of Athens were without exception 
under the direct jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, of the Latin Rite, and were of Western lineage. Like- 
And so it remained imtil the reign of Leo the Isav- wise the canons of the cathedral, in the Parthenon, 
rian. This emperor, incensed at Pope Gregory III, were of Latin Rite, and were Franks. Their number 
baause of his strong opposition to Leo's icono- was fixed by Cardinal Benedict, papal legate in 
clastic passion, retorted against the pope by trans- Thessalonilca, by order of Pope Innocent III. But 
fening these countries of the Illvrian diocese fix)m the ritual of the common priests was not disturbed. 
the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome to that of The people continued to enjoy their own rites, cele- 
the See of Constantinople. This occurred in the brated by Greek priests m the Greek language, 
year 732. In this great struggle between the icono- These Greek priests nad, however, at least outwardly, 
clasts and the adherents to the use of the icons, to acknowleage the jurisdiction of the Latin arch- 
the Athenians placed themselves on the side of icon- bishop. Amongst the sees which were sufTragan to 
olatry. While accepting without any recorded pro- the Archbishop of Athens were those of Cnalkis, 
test their transference to the jurisdiction of the Thermopylse (or Bodonitsa) Davleia, Avion, Zorkon, 
Eastern patriarch, they retained the images in their Karystos, Koroneia, Andros, Skyros, Kea, and M^ara. 
cimrcbes and continued to venerate them. All the The last bishop of the Greek Rite was the learned 
inhabitants of Greece north of the Kofinthiac Gulf, Michael Akominatos, who, when the Franks came, 
who then were called Helladikoi, or Helladians, were retired to the Island of Keos, after first visiting the 
opposed to the iconoclasts. And their opposition cardinal legate of the pope in Thessalonika to im- 
was 80 determined that they fitted out an expedi- petrate certain favours lor those formerly under his 
tion and maimed a fleet, intending to attack Con- charge who wished to adhere to the Greek form of 
stantinople, depose Leo, and place their leader, wor^ip. In Keos he lived as a monk in the monas- 
Kosmas,on the throne. In this expedition, in which tery of St. John the Baptist. To support the Latin 
the Athenians doubtlessly had an important part, archbishop, and the canons, and the cathedral church, 
assistance was given by the inhabitants of the Kyklad a number of possessions were given to him. Amongst 
islands, who probably furnished most of the ships, these was the monastic property of Ksesariane, and 
The attempt, however, was futile. The fleet was the island of Belbina, which Pop)e Innocent III gave 
easily destroyed by the imperial ships in April, 727. to the Archbishop of Athens in 1208. The Frankish 
The mutiial bitterness which \vas evinced in Con- cavaliers lived in splendour in Thebes and Athens, 
stantinople by the contending parties of Photians The dignitaries of the Church lived in ease. Along 
and Anti-Photians was reflected here in Athens, with the coming of the Franks and the Latin Church 
Gregory II was archbishop when Ignatios was re- there came also Latin monks. The Cistercians es- 
stored to his throne as Patriarch of Constantinople, tabltshed themselves near Athens in 1208 in the 
Ignatios deposed him as being an adherent of Pno- beautiful monastery of Daphne, which previously 
tns. His successor, Kosmas, was also later deposed, was in the possession of Greek Basilian Fathers. 
Then Niketas, a Byzantine, came to Athens as arch- The Franciscans were the most active religious order 
bishop with the title of metropolitan. This Niketas in Greece during this period. There were also Do- 
was a supporter of Ignatios. His successor, Anas- minican convents. 

taaos, was a follower of Photios. Sabbas, who In the year 1311 another greats change came over 

succeeded Anastasios, was likewise a Photian and Athens. The Franks were defeated by the Catalans 

»as one of those who signed the acts of the synod in the swamps of the Kephisos in Boeotia. Athens, 

»hich closed in May, 880, by which Photios was with Thebes, became their possession. Under their 

a^in recognized as patriarch. A bull of his still sway, which lasted more than seventjr-five years, the 

exists, whereon he designates himself as ** MetropoU- higher dignitaries of the Church continued naturally 

tan of Athens". to be Latins. In these days there were fourteen 

Throughout the East there was a peculiar type of suffragan sees under the Archbishopric of Athens, 

Panagia-icQUf copies of which might be seen in mon- and at the cathedral there were eleven or twelve 

asteiies and churches in manv places. This was canons. In 1387 another change overtook Athens. 

the Panagia Oorgoepekoos. This Panagia Gorgoe^ The Catalonian possessions came under the owner- 

^koos seems to have been originally an Athenian ship of the Acciajoli, Florentines who had risen to 

icon, and was probaWy identical with an icon which eminence as bankers. The Acciajoli retained pos- 

waa called the Panagia Athenceotissa. The Athen- session of Athens until driven out by Omser Pasha, 

(K)£ma was the Madonna of the church in the who in June of 1456 entered the citv and, in 1458, 

Parthenon. This icon is mentioned by Biichael took possession of the Akropolis for his Sultan, 

Akntninatos. Mohammed II. The only notable change in eccle* 

After the conquest of the Byzantine Empire by siastical matters under the Acciajoli was that they 

the Europeans of the Fourth Crusade, in the par- permitted two archbishops to reside in Athens, a 

titiomiient which followed, Athens and the rest Greek dignitary ,for the Catholics of the Greek Rite, 

of Greece were given to Boniface, King of Thes- and a Latin for* the Franks. In this wajr the defec- 

■koika. Boniface gave Athens to one of his fol- tion of the Greeks of Athens from Roman jurisdiction 

knnecB, Otho de la Roche. At their coming to was again a fact. The Latin archbishop lived in 

Athens the Franks found it small and insignificant, the Castro, that is, on the Akropolis, and the Greek 

Tbey daoee Thebes to be the seat of civil power prelate had his residence in the lower city. Franco 

mer than Athens. Thebes was a more important Acciajoli was the last Duke of Athens. The last 


Latin archbishop was Nicholas Protimus. He died and an appendix (Athens. 19&M)6); HoPF,(;etcAic^(?ri«A«»' 

in 1483. After his death Rome continued to ap- ^^j<>!;^BeoinndeMMituUilier$hisax^^ 

point titular Latin archbishops to the See of Atheik 1870); Gkoroiades l<rropia rQv A^^yi'Oy (Athens): Nbrout. 

Under Turkish domination the Church and all its ^' X^^rrmwitat Aj^^mi (Athens. 1889 aqq.); Lequidc 

property .again became Greek. AH the suffragan sees 1868); Antonio Rdbio y Lloch, La Expedid&n y la Domma- 
were agam filled by Greek bishops, and the monas- cidn de ha Catalanoa en. OrienU (Barcelona, 1883); Gulden* 
teries were again occupied by Greek monks. The «?<>««. ^'^^^,, i^*^ m^^"*""' ^^^* Kampooeoolos, 
Parthenon, hSwever, wm appropriated by the con- J^''*^^^ ''*^'' 'Afirivu^y, TovpKOKparla (Ath^. 1889-93): 
querors, who converted it into a mosque. The Greek fAt w'' 1904) ' '' TovpKOKpariat 
bishops continued to Uve in the lower town, and Daniel Quinn 
during the latter half of the Turkish supremacy they . 
usualhr resided near the church of the ranagia Got- Athens, modern diocese of. — The Greeks have 
jroepekoos, which they used as a private chapel, long re^rded their religion as a national affair. 
They lived elsewhere at times, however, for Fatner This notion is so deep-rooted that they cannot under- 
Babm mentions Archbishop Anthimos as Uving near stand how a citizen can well be a true Greek if he 
the church of St. Dionysios, which was at the foot gives his all^iance to any religion which is not that 
of the Areopagos Hill. In Turicish times, as previ- of the Greek Church. At tne present time the 
ously, the sees under Athens were not always the majority of Catholics who live within the Diocese 
same in number. Nor were they all identical with of Athens are therefore foreigners, or of foreign 
those that had been under the Latin archbishops, deeoent. Of the foreigners who are Catholics, the 
Some of them were Koroneia, Salona, Bodonitsa, greater part are of Italian nationsflity. Most of those 
Davleia, Evripos, Oreos, Kaiystos, Porthmos, An- who are of foreign descent have come into Athens 
dros, Syra, and Skyros. and other portions of this diocese from the islands of 
Amongst the religious orders that lived in Athens the .^ean and Ionian seas. The Catholics of these 
under Turkish rule were the Franciscans. They were islands are largely descendants of the Western con- 
there as early as 1658. But they had already been in querors who held possession of the islands for two 
Greece under the Franks. The Franciscans are to be or three centuries, or even longer, b^inning with 
mentioned with the Dominicans as being the first the Fourth Crusade. As a rule, Uiey are of Venetian 
Western Europeans who sent students to Athens and and Genoese descent. In these islands some of the 
other places in the East for the purpose of studying native Greeks, on account of the higher social and 
the language and literature of the Greeks. Another political standing of the foreign element, accepted 
fact to the credit of the Franciscans of Athens is the Catholic Faith and obedience. From these con- 
that, although not primarily interested in antiquities, verted Greeks some Catholics in the Diocese of Athens 
they fruitfufly contributed to the awakening of our are now descended. On three or four of the islands, 
interest in such studies. There appeared in Fans in outside of the Diocese of Athens, there are many 
the second half of the seventeenth century, a book by such Catholics who are pure Greeks ^ beinx descended 
Guillet or " de la Guilleti^re ", which is entirely based from converts to Catholicism in the tune of the forei^ 
on information received from the Franciscans of feudal governments. These Catholics from the is- 
Athens. Franciscans sketehed the first plan of mod- lands are the nucleus of the future prosperity of 
em Athens. Considering how suspicious the Turks Catholicism in Greece, for gradually they are identify- 
were of any kind of description of their possessions ing themselves with the eood of the country and its 
and castles, it was quit-e a feat for the Franciscans to worthier ideals. Although they are still conscious of 
have made so eood a plan as they did. It was pub- their foreign extraction, or former foreign sympathies, 
lished by Guiliet in nis book, ''Ath^nes, anciennes they now feel that their residence m centuries in 
et nouvelles'\ 1675. In those days the Capuchins Greek territory has made them Greeks. The real 
had a comfortable monastery in Athens, which they foreign element is made up of those Catholics who 
built on ground bought from the Turks in 1658, have migrated into Greece since it has become a free 
behind the choragic monument of Lysikratcs. The country. These are chiefly Italians and Maltese, 
monument itself served them as their little library. Most of them are labourers who came to find employ- 
In this monastery many a traveller found hospitality, ment on the railroads and other public works, or to . 
It was destroyecl by fire in 1821, and the site is now live as fishermen or boatmen in the lai^ger seaport 
owned by the French Government. The Jesuits were towns. The exact number of Catholics cannot easily 
also active in Athens. They came in 1645. It must be estimated. Possibly in the entire Diocese of 
be noted that it was Father Babin, a Jesuit, who Athens there are about 10,(XX), of whom about one- 
wrote the first careful account of the modem condi- fourth attend church regularly. From amongst the 
tion of the ruins of ancient Athens. This he did in members of the Greek Church no converts are made 
a letter to the Abb6 P^coil, canon of Lyons. This to Cathohcity. At least, they are extremely rare. 
letter was written 8 October, 1672. It was published It is against the positive and explicit law of the State 
with a commentary by Spon in 1674 under the title for any other church to make proselytes from the 
of " Relation de Tdtat present de la ville d'Ath^es". established Greek or Orthodox Cnurch. In the first 
The Jesuits finally withdrew from Athens, leaving ' National Assembly, which was held at Epidavros in 
the entire field to the Franciscans, x The Franciscans 1822, it was declared that the Orthodox Church is 
remained until the beginning of the war of the revolu- the State Church. This declaration was repeated in 
tion. In the time of Babin and Spon there were the Assembly at Trcezen in 1827. Such nas been 
about two himdred churches in Athens, all of the the strict law ever since. But, except that propa- 
Greek Rite, except the chapels in the monasteries gandism is severely prohibited, the Catholic 
of the western monks. With the war of the insurrec- Church is perfectly free, is fwrly treated, and highly 
tion, in 1821, ends the history of the older Church of resjpected. 

Athens. A new Latin archbishopric has again its Otho of Bavaria, the first kin^ of regenerated 

residence in Athens. (See Athens, Modern Dig- Greece, was a Catholic. In his reign the Catholics 

CESB OF.) Since 1833 tne Church of the Greek Rite were few. But arrangements were made tlutt the 

has undergone serious changes of jurisdiction, for it Catholics could have a place of worship wherever they 

no longer recognizes the leadership of the Patriarch existed in sufficient numbers. After Athens became 

of Constantinople, but is a national autocephalous the seat of government, in 1834, an abandoned 

ohureh. Turkish mosque was given to the Catholics as a place 

Gregorovius. Oeachichte der Siadt Athen im MUUlalUr J^ ^^^^IP' « ^l*^ J^^'Hl ""^ ^ a church, and is at- 

(Stuttgart, 1889). Greek tr, by Lampros, with adcliUonal notes tended chiefly by Maltese and Itauans who Uve in 


ind around the Old Market, near the Tower of the the Anthropologicftl Hueeum of Athens. There ace 
Winds. HasB is eeid there on Sundays and Holy Days in Qraeee no Uniat Greek Catholics. All are of the 
by a [HitBt from the cathedral After the Upae of Latin Rite. This is ioecauee moat of these CathoUcs 
nme Tsan, m 1876, an archbishopric was eBtablished are from the West, either by deeoent or tiy birth, and 
in Amens. Those who have occupied this see are thev have kept their own Western rite. It mifht 
AicbbiahopB Marangos, Zaffino, De Angelis, and be Better for CathoUcism in Greece if the Oatholici 
Ddeodns. De Angelis was an Italian ; Zaffino were to adopt the native rite, and to have thrir 
a native of Corfu ; all the other archbiehops were liturgy in the liturgical language of the country, 
turn in the ^ffw" Islands. Within the Diocese But many of the Catholics of Athens would never , 
d Acheu there are now eight churches. Of these willingly accept such a chanse, which they would re- 
two are in Athens, and there is one in each of gard rather from a national than from a rdigioua 
tbetownsofPeimevs (the harbourof Athens); Fatne, point of view, and would consider a denial of their 
tbe chief town of the Peloponneeos; Voloa, the seaport Italian, or other Western, origin. 
ofTheBsaly' Lavrion (Ernwt«rial,in the silver mmee Daniel Quinn, 
irfAttica; Horakldon, a Bavarian settlement in At- Athlaa, Joseph, b. m Sp^n, probably in Cordova, 
Uka; Mid Navphon m the Argohd. Most of the Oath- ^^ the banning of the seventeenth century; d. at 
olira however^ are concentrated at Athens, Peineevs, Amsterdam, 12 May, 1700. In 1661 and 1667 he 
wdPatra. Of the two churches m Athena one » issued two editions of the Hebrew Bible. ThouKli 
the aociwit mosque which Otho donated to the Lath- carefuUy printed, they contain a number of mistakes 
oJjcs. and the otter is the cathedral of St. Dionysios. i^ the vowel pointa and the accents. But as they 
It B a atone structure in basilica style, with a portico „^je based on the earlier editions compared with the 
m (ront supported by marble colunms. The m tenor best manuscripts, they were the foundation of aU 
■ divided mto three naves separated from each other the aubeeouent editions. The copious marginal 
br rows of columns of Teman marble. The apse Jias notes added by Jean de Leusden , profeesor at Utrecht, 
beentrocoed. TTiis cathedral was bmlt with money are of little value. The 1667 edition was bitteriy 
KDt from abroad, ^pooially from Rome. Besides attacked by the Piot^tant savant, Samuel Des- 
Uk regular panshea there are missions tiere and there, niarets; Athias answered the charges m a work whose 
S^ years aicp there were missions at Kalamata, ^tle bewna: "Cfficua de coloribua". He published. 
PyrgoB, and ^lamaki. The only considerable one ai^o some other works of importance, such as the 
ttpTMentisatLamia. Within the Dioceee of Athena "Tikkun Sepher Torah", or the "Order of the Book 
ttere are at present eleven priestaengaged m paro- of the Law'^ and a Jud^o-German translation of the 
^ work: four at the cathedr^ m Athens, two at giye. The latter involved Athias in a competition 
Patm, and one at each of the churches of PeiraievH ^Jth Url Ph^bus, a question that has been diacuaaed 
Lavnon, Voloe, Herakleion, and Navphon. All of but cannot be tuUy cleared up at this late date. 
uem are secular pneete. Heuhtebue ia Vio.. Diet, de b Bibit (Puii, iSBs): The 

French sisters conduct schoola for girls m Athens Jruuh E-ncadoprdia (New York and London, IB03), II. 

and at the Peirseevs, and ItaUan sisters have schools A. J. Maas. 

for girig at Patrte. They have boarders as well as Athos. Mount. — Athos ia a small tongue of land 

day scholars. In the town of the Peir»evs there id a ' that projecls into the jEgean Sea, being uie eaatem- 

gwd schod for boys conducted by French Saleaian most of the three strijM in which the great moun- 

" ' ' ' ' ' ■ . . ■ It is almost 

LeoXIU, to supply ordinary and theological educa- 
tioQ for all Greek-epeaking Catholics. It embraces a 

Mrtant school of the by a narrow isthmus dotted vith lakes and swampa 
1 , founded by Pope 

jk-e peaking C 
pteparatory department, an intermediate or" hellenic" 
Kbool, a gymnasium or collie, and an ecclesiasti<^ 
wninary. The average number of pupils and stu- 
deuta for the past five years is about 175. The 
[acuity consists of both priests and laymen. In its 
character as seminary, the Leontoion receives stu- 
dsatfi from other dioceses as well as from that of 
Athun. Previous to the establishment of the 
liMHiteion, candidates for the priesthood were edu- 
cated chieSy ia the Propaganda, at Rome, and in a 
dtocesan seminary which existed in the MaeAn town 
of Syra. The seminary at Syra has been closed, and 
it ia DOW inl«Dded that all clerical training be given 
b tbe Leontdoa and the Propaganda. 

The only publication of note lor the Catholics of 
thia diocese is the "Harmocia ", a periodical devoted 

to Catholic interests. The"Harmonia" ia aupported MoxABTHir o» EapHraumoH, Uodht athm 

diiefly t»r a subsidy from Rome. One does not ex- 
pect to 5nd a large number of noted scholars ii 

— - - , -B of them, with contour of its coasts, deep bays and inlets, bold cUfTfl 

othET accomplishments, speaks two or three other and promontories, atoep wooded slopes, and valleys 

laofuagee aa well as the vernacular Greek- of the winding inland. Several cities existed here in pre- 

cnmtiy. Amongat the laymen special mention Christian antiquity, and a sanctuary of Zeus (Jupiter) 

■bould be inade of the brothers Kyparissos Stephanos is said to have stood on the mountain. The isthmus 

and Elon Stephanos. Kyparisaoe. a mathematician was famous for the canal (3,950 feet in length) which 

vboae fame extended far beyond the confines of Xerxes had dug across it, in order to avoid tbe 

Gteeoe, was made a profeesor in the National Uni- perilous turning of the limestone peak immemoriijly 

Ttnity. His brother Klon, an anthropoloRist of known aa Mount Athoa, in which the amall pcnin- 

Kfiute, engaged in special historical, arcnEeological, eula ends, and which rises to a height of some 6,000 

ud siithropwigical researches, becaJne director of feet. From the summit of this peak on a clear dur 

ATH08 48 ATH08 

are visible the coasts of Macedonia and Thrace, even ministration of their temporal possessions, and their 

the entire JSgean from Mount Olympus in Thessaly commercial activity. By the imperial document 

to Moimt Ida in Asia Minor. It is the mountain that (typicon) which he issued, women are forbidden the 

the architect Dinocrates offered to turn into a statue peninsula, a prohibition so strictly observed since 

of Alexander the Great with a city in one hand and that time that even the Turkish aga^ or official, who 

in the other a perennially flowing spring. Medieval resides at Karyaes (Cariez) may not take his harem 

Greek tradition designated it as the high mountain " with him. Aoout the year 1100 the monasteries 

from which Satan tempted Our Lord. Its chief of Mount Athos were 180 in number, and sheltered 

modem interest lies in the fact that at least from 700 monks, with their dependents. At this time 

the beginning of the Middle Ages it has been the there came into general use the term Hagion Oron 

home of a little monastic republic that still retains (Holy Mountain, Hyiov 6pos^ Monte Santo). Alexius I 

almost the same autonomy granted a thousand years granted the monasteries immunity from taxation, 

ago by the Christian enaperors of Constantinople, freed them from all subjection to the Patriarch ot 

In 1905 the many fortified monasteries and her- Constantinople, and placed them under his immediate 

mitages of ^Athos .contained 7,553 monks (including protection. They still depended, however, on the 

their numerous male dependents), members of the neighbouring Bishop of Hierissus for the ordination 

Orthodox Greek Church: Greeks, 3,207; Russians, of their priests and deacons. Alexius also chose to 

3,615; Bulgarians, 340; Rumanians, 288; Georgians, be buried on the Holy Mountain among the brethren 

53; Servians, 18; other nationalities 32. The prin- (1118). A century later, after the capture of Con- 

cipal monasteries bear the following names: Laura, stantinople (1204), the Latin Crusaders abused the 

Iviron,Vatopedi,Chilandarion,St.Dionysiu8,Coutlou- monks, who thereupon appealed to Innocent III; 

mousi, Pantocrator, Xiropotamos, Zographu, Do- he took them under his protection and in his letters 

cheiarion, Caracalla, Philotneos, Simopetra, St. Paul, (xiii, 40; xvi, 168) paid a tribute to their monastic 

Stauroniceta, Xenophon, Gregorios, Esphigmenon, virtues. However, with the restoration of Greek 

St. Panteleimon, St. Anna (Rossicon), and Kanraes. political supremacy the monks returned (1313) to 

History. — ^The origins of monastic life on Mount their old allegiance to Constantinople. 
Athos are obscure. It is probable that individual In the fourteenth century a pseudo-spiritualism 
hermits sought its lonely recesses diu'in^ the fourth akin to that of the ancient Euchites or Messalians, 
and fifth centuries, and were numerous m the ninth culminating in the famous Hesychast controversies 
centiuy at the time of the first certain attempts at (see Hestchasm; Palamas), greatly disturbed the 
monastic organization. The nearest episcopal see mutual harmony of Greek monasteries, especially 
was that of Hierissus, and in conformity with an- those of Mount Athos. one of'whose monks, Callistus, 
cient law and usage its bishop claimed jurisdiction had become Patriarch of Constantinople (1350-54) 
over the monks of the little peninsula. In 885 Em- and in that office exhibited great severity towards the 
peror Basil the Macedonian emancipated them from opponents of Hesychasm. Racial and national 
the jurisdiction of the monastery of St. Colobos near discord between the Greeks and the Servians added 
Hierissus, and allotted to them Mount Athos as their fuel to the flames, and for a while the monks were 
property. Soon after, the oldest of the principal again subjected to the immediate supervision of 
monasteries, Xiropotamos, was built and adopted the Bishop of Hierissus. In the meantime the Palseo- 
the rule of St. Basil. Saracen pirates disturbed the logi emperors at Constantinople and the Slav princes 
monks in the ninth and tenth centuries, but imperial and no Dies of the Balkan reninsula continued to 
generosity always came to the aid of this domestic enrich the monasteries of Mount Athos, which re- 
"holy land" of the Greeks. About 960 a far-reaching ceived the greater part of their landed wealth during 
reform was introduced by the Anatolian monk this period. Occasionally a Byzantine emperor took 
Athanasius of Trebizond, later known as Athonites. refuge among the monWs in the hope of forgetting 
With several companions from Asia Minor he founded the cares and responsibilities of his office. AmTd the 
by the seashore tne monastery since known as Laura, political disasters of the Greeks, during the fourteenth 
where he raised the monastic life to a high degree of century. Mount Athos appears as a kind of Holy 
perfection. Eventually the new settlement was Land, a retreat for many men eminent in Church 
accepted as a model. With the help of the imperial and State, and a place where the spirit of Greek 
authority of John Tzimisces (969-976) all opposition patriotism was cherished when threatened elsewhere 
was set aside and the coenobitic or community life with ruin (Krumbacher, 1058-59). This period was 
imposed on the hermits scattered in the valleys and also marked by the attempts of the monastery of 
forests. Athanasius was made abbot general or Karyaes to secure a pre-eminence over the others, 
superior (Protos) of the fifty-eight monastic com- the final exclusion of the Bishop of Hierissus from 
munities then on the mountain. From this period the peninsula, fresh attacks from freebooters of all 
date the monasteries known as Iviron (Iberians), kinds, and the foundation of several new monas- 
Vatopedi, and Esphigmenon. At this time, also, there teries: Simopetra, Castamonitu, St. Paul, and St, 
arose a cause of internal conflict that has never Dionysius. The Fall of Constantinople (1453) 
been removed. Hitherto only one nationality, the brought no modification of the conditions on the Holy 
Greek, was represented amon^ the monks. Hence- Mountain. The monks, who had stubbornly opposed 
forth Slavic faith and generosity, and later on Slavic all attempts at reunion with the Apostolic See, sub- 
interests, had to be considered. The newly con- mitted at once to the domination of the Osmanli, 
verted Slavs sought and obtained admission into the and, with rare exceptions, have never been interfered 
recently opened monasteries: before long their with by the Turkish authorities. The hospodars of 
princes in the Balkan Peninsula began to found in- "Wallacnia remained as ever their friends and bene- 
dependent houses for Slavic monlS. In this way factors. Though the monks svmpathized with the 
arose during the reign of Alexius I (1081-1118) Greeks in the War of Indepenclence (1822-30), th«r 
the strictly Slavic monasteries of Chilandarion and estates on the Greek mainland were secularized by 
2k)graphu. The Byzantine emperors never ceased Capo d'lstria and a similar fate has overtaken their 
to manifest their interest in the little monastic re- properties in the Danubian principal cities. They 
public and even profited politically by the universal still hold numerous farms and properties in certain 
esteem that the religious brotherhood enjoyed islands of the Archipelago and on the mainland 
throughout the Christian world. (Kaulen in Kirchenlex., I, 1557-59; Bayet in Grande 

With the aid of the Patriarch of Constantinople, Encycl., s. v. Athos). 
in 1046, (3on6tantine Monomachos regulated the Constitution and Government. — ^This monastic 

domestic government of the monasteries, the ad- republic is governed by an assembly ^f 20 memberB, 

«« npreaent&tive from each of the 20 principal biUc" (lair^iar, caruibivm, common life), there 
Dcnutcriee; from amocg these is elected annually, is a greater monastic rigour. The superior, or hegou< 
ud in due rotation, a committee of 4 presidents, menos (fryoii^«i), has absolute autlwrity, and all 
The great seal of the united monasteries is in four property is held in common. The chief occupation 
pieces and is divided among the members of this ot the monks is tliat of solemn public prayer, by 
committee. One of the members is chosen as cliair- night and by day, i. e. recitation of the Divine Omce, 
miD. or ProLjs. Meetings of the assembly are held corresponding to the solemn choir-eervice of the 
veddj (Saturday), at Karyaes, and the assemblv Latin Church. (Bee Greek Rite, Breviary, PsAiy 
iclB as a supreme parliament and tribunal, witn uodv.) Thia leaves little time for agricultural, in- 
sppeal, however, to the patriarch at Constantmople. dustrial , or intellectual labour. Some nsh , or practise 
minor industries in aid of the common support, or 
administer the monastic estates located elsewhere; 
others go abroad occasionally to collect a part of 
the yearly tribute (about two dollars and a halt) 
that each monk must pay to the Turkish Govern- 
ment. A portion of this is collected from the monks 
themselves; the rest is secured by the ^e^'en^e of 
their farms or other possessions, and by contributions 
from affiliated monasteries In the Ballcan Peninsula, 
Georgia, and Russia. The generosity of the Greek 
faithful is also a source of revenue, for Mount Athos 
is one ot the most sacred pilgrimage sites of the entire 
Greek Church, and tho,fea8la of the principal mODas- 
teries are always celebrated with great pomp. It 
may be added that the monks practise faithfully 
the monastic virtue of hospitality. The usual name 
for the individual monk here, as elsewhere in the 
Greek Orient, is Kalogeroa (good old man). In their 
dreaa the monks do not difFer from other conununitiea 
KoHASinT Of Haqios ^"^ o» Sr. Paul, Moomt of Greek Basilians. 

ARCHiTECTnjBB AND THE Abts. — Most ot the builtj- 
Tbe Turkish Government is repreBent«d by an agent inga of Mount Athos are comparatively modem. • 
M Karyaea, the diminutive capital of the peninsula Yet, because of the well-known conservative chai^ 
snd the landinc-place for visitors. A detachment ecter of the monks, these edifices represent with much 
of Ouistian soldiers is usually stationed there, and fid^ty the Byzantine architecture, civil and religious, 
DO <Hie may land without permission ot the monastic of the tenth Ui the fourteenth century. The churches 
Mithorities. The monks have also an agent at Salo- are very rinlily adorned with columns and pavements 
Biki and another at Constantinople. Almost the only of marble, frescoed walls and cupolas, decorated 
Boiirce of contention among them is the rivalry be- screens, etc; there are not many mosaics. Some of 
tween the Greeks, in lieri tors of old traditions and the smaller oratories are said to be the oldest extant 
nstoms, and the Russians of the great monastery specimens of private architecture in the West, apiart 
of RoBsicon (St. Anna), repreeentative of the wealth, from the houses of Pompeii. The ecclesiastical art of 
!»«■«■, and interests of tneir church and countiy, the Greek Orient is riclSy represented here, with all 
ud generously supported from St. Petersburg. In its religious respect, though also with all its immobile 
in present form the constitution of the monasteries conservatism and its stem refusal to interpret in- 
dttet from 1783. dividual feeling in any other forms than those made 

UoNASnc Life.— Each of the twenty great monaa- sacred by a long line of almost nameless monastio 
teries (twenty-one, including Karyaes) possesses its painters hke Panselinos and confided by his dis- 
own Itu^ church and numerous chapels within and ciples to the famous "Painters' Book of Mount 
iritbout its enclosure, which is strongiy fortified, re- Athos" (see Didron, Manuel d'iconographie chrfi- 
aDing the feudal bu^fs ot the Mi»k!le Agee. The tienne, Paris, 1858). Though there is not in the 
Uf^ walls and strong towers are reminders of the 935 churches of the peninsula any art-work older 
irouUed times ot the fourteenth and fifteenth oen- than the sixteenth century (Bayet) their frescoes, 
luriw when corsairs abounded and self-defence was small paintings on boards, gilt and jewelled metal 
imwralive. Allot the great monasteries are on the work, represent with almost unswerving accuracy 
Hdly Mountain proper, and are most picturesquely the principles, spirit, and details ot medieval Byzan-^ 
■ilmled frcm sea to summit, amid dense masses of tine art as applied to religious uses, 
oak, pine, and chestnut, or on inaccessible crags. Libaabibs. — ^Each monastery possesses its own 
To each of these monasteries is attached a certain library, and the combined treasures make up a unique 
number of minor monasteries (ffjr^roi, agceUria), collection of ancient manuscripts (Monttaucon, 
mult monastic settlements (taSla/ukTa), and her- Paleographia Grs!ca, Paris, 1748, 441 sqq,). By 
milagcB (KtKKia, eellte). Every monastic habitation tar the richest in this respect is the Russian monas- 
miMt be affiUated to one or the other of the great tecy of Saint Anna (Rossicon). Some of the more 
[iMnai(«ries and is subject to its direction or super- valuable classical Greek manuscripts have been pur- 
naoo. All monasteries are dedicated to the Mother chased or otherwise secured by travellers JNaumann, 
if God, the larger ones under some specially signifi- "Serapeum", X, 252; Duchesne, "MSmoire sur une 
onttitle. TheancientGreekRuleof Sl.BasiliHstill mission au Mont Athos", Paris, 1876; Lambros, 
Wknred by alL "Catalogue of the Greek Manuscripts on Mount 

In the observance of the Rule, however, the greater Athos", Cambridge, 1895, 1900). It was in this way 
uanacteriea are divided into two classes, some fol- that the text of Ptolemy first reached the West. 
Inwiiw stiictly the ccenobitic life, wliile others per- Similarly, the oldest manuscript of the second-cen- 
M a laiXET personal freedom. The latter are called tury Christian text known aa "The Shepherd of 
"tSarbjuuDits"; in them the monks have a right Hermas" came from Mount Athos. The manu- 
of penonal ownership and a certain share in the scripts now in possession of the monks have chiefly 
■Ita uu^ nt ot the monastery (Council of Elders); an ecclesiastical value; their number is said to M 
iWy take their meals apart, and are subject to less about 8,000. There are also in the library and 
KTCTC regulations. In the former, known as "coeno- archives ot each monastery a great many documents 
U.— * 


(donations, privileges, deeds, charters) in Greek, Atkinsoii, James, Catholic confessor, tortured tc 

Georgian, and Old-Slavonic, beginning with the death in Bridewell prison in 1595. His pathetic and 

ninth centurv, some of which are important for the romantic story tells us nothing of his early life, but 

historian of Byzantine law and of the medieval Greek he is found in the Bridewell prison, one of the wont 

Church (Miklosich and Muller, Zacharia von Lin- in' London, and ddivered over to Topcliffe, the no- 

genthal, Uspenskii). The monks of Mount Athos torious priest-hunter, who was trying to wring out 

are somewhat indifferent towards these treasures; from him, by torture, evidence on w'nich he might 

nothing has been done to make them accessible, accuse his master, Mr. Robert Barnes, who then held 

except the unsuccessful attempt of Archbishop Bui- Mapledurham House, of having entertained priests, 

garis of Corfu to found at Mount Athos, towards and in particular the future martyr, Venerable John 

the close of the eighteenth century, a school of the Jones, O. S. F. Yielding to torment, Atkinson ao- 

classical languages. The monasteries conduct a cused his master of having done so, but shortly after 

few elementary schools for the teaching of reading repented, and was lost in despair, knowing on the 

and writing; nowhere, perhaps, is the intellectual one hand that Topcliffe would torture him again, 

stagnation of the Greet Schism more noticeable, perhaps unto death, and on the other fearing that no 

The monks are chiefly devoted to the splendour of priest could possibly come to confess and absolve 

their religious services; the solitaries still cherish him before his conflict. Unknown to him, however, 

Hesychast ideas and an apocalyptic mysticism, and a Jesuit Father happened to be in the same prison. 

the whole monastic republic represents just such an This was Father William Baldwin (or Bawden), a 

intellectual decay as must follow on a total exclusion man who afterwards filled important positions in his 

of all outside intercourse and a complete neglect order. He had been arrestea on suspicion while on 

of all intellectual effort (Kaulen). shipboard, and had assumed the part of an Italian 

J, ^'^I^J:?7^J^ Riley. AtAo«, ths ^founta^n of the Monks (Lon- merchant unacquainted with the English language, 

don, 18S7); CvtLZOfi, Monastenes of the Levant (6th ed., London, „_j «,:*k a.«o.K «..»».rvr,fl ♦u««- v.« «r«o ^^ ♦!>« »»«?«♦«? 

-1 M^t J #A«. J .« -.^«.#Ai.— /!>« J;- tQa'7\i and with such success that he was on the pomt oi 

lSsm^^o^^.liM^ASr.7,«.i^^^Z^^ f^d with such success that^he was on the ™int 

BACHBR, Oeach. der byzant. Litt. (2d ed., Munich, 1867), 511- . -, -.,-..,.! . i . - i 

616, 1068-59; Schmidtkb, Daa KloaUfrland dea Athoe (1903); dary. It was evident that he was at best a weak- 

among older works, Fallmerayer, Fra(;m«nte aua dem Orient ling, perhaps a traitor in disguise. To speak tO SUch 

(2d ed., Stuttgart, 1877). For the art-treasures of Mount _ /TncTin TTTTirlJcK on^ mimh mor^ t^ nwWtn him fhnt 

Athos see Brockhaus, Dte Kunat in den AthoB-KUttem (Leip- ? ^^^ ^^ H^nglish, and much more to OWn to him tMt 

. sig, 1891); and for photographs of the principal sites, besides he was a priest, would be to endanger his life. bO 

the above quoted works, Vom FeU turn Meer (1892), 19-20. he tried to COmfort him, at first through a fellow- 

Thomas J. Shah AN. prisoner who knew Latin, and finally offered to bring 
Atiexuia, Juan de, b. at Tordehumos, near Valla- nim a priest. The poor sufferer's joy was so great 
dolid, in Spain, in the year 1546, eldest son of the that the missionary ventured to creep to his oed- 
royal CJouncillor of Castile, Bartolom6 de Atienza, side that night and tell him that he was a priest, 
a very distinguished jurisconsult under Charies V. Then Atkinson held back, either out of suspicion 
He studied law in the celebrated University of Sala- or because, as he said, he was not prepared. Father 
manca, but in 1564 forsook the l^al career in order Baldwin's fears were reawakenea, but next night 
to become a Jesuit. While in Spain, he already the penitent made his confession with evident con- 
occupied distinguished positions. He was Prefect trition, was soon again tortured, and died under or 
of the College of Avila, Procurator of the Province shortly after the torment. Atkinson's cause has been 
of his order, founder of the College of Villa Garcfa, proposed for Beatification, but evidence for his final 
its rector and master of novices, and rector of the perseverence, though very necessary, is naturally 
College of Valladolid. While thus honourably placed nard to find. 

in his mother country, he became informed of a caU Challoner, Miwionary Prietu (1864), II, 189; Dodd. 

for fifty Jesuite to be sent to Pern in the interests of ^'^J^u",!^, k^SSf ^ol'.iL 'fr^S;^-/?^."^*^^ 

religion and of the Indians. Father Atienza at once aecounta for 1594, roll 196b. 

asked permission to become one of their number. J, H. Pollen. 
He reached Lima in 1581 and found there his ap- . .-, .. . ^ j x . . . i 
pointment as rector of the CoUege of San Pablo. , Atkinson, Nicholas, pnest and mart^^ 
In that capacity he was sun-ogate to the Provincial, ^ be identified with Venerable Thomas Atkin- 
Father Baitasar de Pifias, and founded, under tho ?^^- , Dodd, who mentions Nicholas's death as hav- 
direction of the Company of Jesus, the College of "g ^^®^ P^,^ »^ Y?rk m 1610, does not naention 
San Martin, the first school of secular learning es- Thomas at all; yet all the facte which he rdates of 
tablished at Lima. The foundation of that school **^® °"® ^i*® certainly true of the other whde there 
was confirmed by Pope Sixtus V, in 1588, and is no corroboration for Dodd's date of Nicholas's mar- 
Father Atienza became ite first rector. In 1585 he trydom. It seems probable, however, that there 
was made Provincial of the Jesuite in Peru. He ^f^ an old Marian priest named Nicholas, or "Ninny", 
at once began to foster and extend the missions in "^1^1°^^. ^^ ^ ?JYv ^^v, o^/* 

Ecuador, the Gran Chaco, Tucuman, and Paraguay. ^''''' ^'^"''^ ^"'*^' "• ^^^- j jr ^^^^^^ 

Out of these efforts the province of Paraguay was ' * 

bom in 1607. During that period a printing press Atkinson, Paxil op St. Francis. — One of the 

was established by the Jesuits at the Indian village notable confessors of the English Church durinf the 

of Julf. Jointly with Father Jos^ de Acosta he di- age which succeeded the persecution of blood. Hav- 

rected the publication of catechisms and textbooks ing been condemned to perpetual imprisonment for 

of Christian doctrine for the use of t^^ Indians, his priesthood, about the year 1699, he died in con- 

These religious "primers" were printed oetween finement after having borne ite pains for m6re than 

the years 1583 and 1590, at Lima. They are in thirty years. He was of a Yorkshire family and 

Spenish, Quichua, and Aymard. was called Matthew in baptism. He joined the Eng- 

Anello Olhta Hiatoria del Perv y Varonea Uuatrea de la lish Franciscan Convent at Douai in 1673, and had 

^^.!T.c'^.-!^^j!^iS'';^T^'7Si,lr^rfrS,^l f rved with distinction on the English mission for 

DB CMrdova Saltnas, Cor<}nica de la ReLigioaUdma Protincia twelve years, when he was betrayed by a maid- 

de loa Doce ajpdstolea del Peru (Lima, 1651); Mkndibur6, servant for the £100 reward. One ffovemor of his 

Hiatoriade la fundaeUin de Lima (1639; Lima, 1882). walk outeide the prison walls; but complaint waa 

Ad. F. Bandeuer. made of this and the leavQ was revoked. 



OorwepoDdgnce of Bishop MiLNg»in the Ot n t l m nmi't Moga- dulgeDCe were found upon him, and he was oon- 

t»i^.Zc'^^^^^,^li^C^S^Stt&^ i«r^ to b«han,^, drawn jmd quartered. H« 

An,, II. 224; Gnlow, «N. D«. Bfv. C«ft.. T. 84. differed "with wonderful patience, courage, and 

J. H. PoLLBN. oonBtaocy, and signs of great comfort ' . 

Atkinson, Sarah, philanthropist and bionra^her, «/ Sngi. Catk., I, 88. 
b. at AtUone, Ireland, 13 October, 1823; d. Dublin, Patrick Ryan. 

8 Juhr. 1893. She was the eldest daughter of John At«i.-(Gr. « privative, and ri^, cut; indivisi- 

«d W Gaynor, who Lved on the western bank ^e). Primktily, the smallest particle ot matter 

of the Shan^n, m that part of AtUone which is m ^y'^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ultimate anTsmallest division 

the Comity Roscommon. At the age of fiftwn, she ^j ^^^^^ j^^ t ^j^ sometimes the smallest par- 

ranoved with her fainily to Dubhn, where her y^,^ ^^ wkch a substance can theoretically be re- 


rasnans journal . xue .«» «i u«r umv w^u building up or constituting molecules. Two opposite 

his fourth y«ir so deeply affected Mrs Atlunswi ^^^^^ ^j j^e oonstitutfon of matter were held by 

?fu**i**?l''*^J^JP*'''*ir^ '^♦K k Vi J.^ M~ »»» ancient philosophers. One was that mattet 

^ ^^^i ^■'"!"^lJ^^}^^ ^r-J^^t' ^,u was infinitely divisible without losing ita distinctive 

Ellen Wo«llock, she mterested herseU in the female ^^ individual properties. This is the doctrine of 

DMipers of the South Dubhn Umon, and openwl a continuity or homo^mery. Anaxagoras is given as 

home to which many were traiwferred J«d were ^^ f^^j^^^ ^j jy^ ^^ /j ^.j,^ cons^tution of things, 

nuide useful members of society. Her house in Dnim- According to it any substenoe, such as wood or 

oondra soon became the rendeavous for the chantably ^^^ ^^ . ^^ ' ^^^ ^j subdivision, however 

•^T**^ ij T"* *v?" Tm ' ^**A~^„K °5' „?fiu far it might iJe carrfed, be made to be anything but 

S* S^^ ^,^\ **^ ^*^, ^''^ „^^ .^j a mdsB of wood or water. Infinite subdivision would 

Jfr. W. k H. Lecky has warrdy commended, Md ^^^ ,^^ ^^^ ^^.^^ ^f divisibiUty. Democritus and 

hereshewrotehermany valimbleessyrs Formanv ^^^^ ^^^^ ^j^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ultimate particles of 

«ara Ae transited mto Baghsh the Fr^ch Aimab ^^^^ ^^^.j^ ^^ indivisible, and these ^re caUed 

of the Proration of the Faith Much of her tame ^^^^ ^y^ .^ ^^ doctrine of atomicity, upheld by 

vas devoted, to visiting the hospitds and poor p j^j^rus, and enlansed on by Lucretiui in Ws "De 

people at their homes, imd to other beneficent pur- g^,.^^ NatuiA". The eariy atomists held that the 

DOM. To her is lareely due ^ ^"i^fll^^*'* tk! atoms were not in contact, but that voids existed 

ChiMrens' Hoep'taljTemple Street, Dubhn Th^ between them, claiming that otherwise motion would 

T"S?Tf°*u°'<^* ^'^i^ ^ • v'^ii £.«^» be impossible. Amon| the modems, Descartes and 

rttached to the aureh of St. Francis Xavier, was one gpinolTadhered to continuity. Leibnitz upheld 

^i '!;f*^!^L?y?^^-JZ'^. ^J^lfJV}! aUicity, and Boscoyich went'to the hist extreme 

Magaiine", 1860-64, "The Month", 1864-65, "The that matter is not infin^telvdMriWetSit there • 

Na&n", 186&-70, the "Freeman's Journal", 1871, J^ ultimM^ oartLle S eve^ su^ If ^his 

f^J^r^'^j"^'' Monthjbr" after its moeption are ^;^^ .^ broken up, that particular form of matter 

to be found many important gsays by h«-, chiefly ^y ^^ destroyed. This particle is the molecule, 

bweraphical and histoncal. Some of her eaftest j^ j^ co^jpoged of another division of matter called 

mmT kingest ess^s appwed in the J^rwh Qimteri^ ^ atom.^enerally, probably always, a molecule 

Review«; thet^stof themaremdudedinhervol^ consists of several atonis. The atoms unite to form 

fu^Jf. ^^^^^' ^^^kKJ^^^.IT^L^ iS molecules and cannot exist except as constituente of 

Aiteihead". modMtly pubhshed .w^th her uutial ^lolecules. If a molecule of My substance were 

Mly, appeared m 1879, and is one of the bwt Catholic ,,^^g^ ^^^^ substance would cease to exist and 

bjopapfiies m Enghsli. Her "Essays _ «ne>"de wm- j^^ constituent atoms would go to form or to enter 

pHe and fewned dissertations on such diyere^t ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^j^^^ molecule or molecules. There is a 

mbjects as "St. Furs^'s Life and Visions .The ^ndency to consider the molecule of modem science 

??*'"'^^. ^^f " T^^K w^^^^J W^fpn.S"h,t' "8 identical with the atom of the old philosopher; 

"Eugene O'Curiy ","Imh Wool and Woolens , St ^^^^ ^j^^ ^^^^ ^^^^i^ ^^^ l^ ^^^„ the mole- 

Bndget ", and excellent biogaphies of the 8culpt«« ^ule a different status from that of the old-time atom. 

John Heniy Foley and John HogM, the best a^wunte j^ as used in natural science, has a specific 

j*t wntten of those great artaste. Indeed most of ^^j^^ based upon the theory of chemistry. This 

these eswya are the bwtstudiM we have on the van- ^^^^1 is modified by recent work in the field of 

wssubjecte. Her Citis^Samt (St. Catherine ,^o-a^tivity, but the following will serve as a defini- 

crfW; occupies a hundred pages, and is a most y^ j^ .^ ^ gnjallest particle of an element wWch 

tbje summary. Preemm't Journal files (Dublin ***" exist in a compound. An atom cannot exist 

Jiily"f«B)"'imd "prefatory memoir in tlie Emaut: Tynan! alone as such. Atoms combine with each Other to 

fndk/ii<fn>en<l«fi(,Q«e(l>ublin, July, 1898); TlulriAMtmiMu form molecules. The molecule is the smallest 

(Doblm. November. 1893)— « fuU Bat »* •"*.,TR'^- „„„ particle of matter which can exist without losing its 

U. J. K) UONOGHUE. distinctive properties. It corresponds pretty closely 

AtUnaon, Thomas, Ven. martyred at Yoric, to the old Epicurean atom. The modem atom is an 

11 March, 1616. He was b. in the East Riding of entirely new conception. Chemistry teaches that 

Yorkshire^* was ordained priest at Reims, and the thousands of forms of matter upon the earth, 

letumed to his native country in 1688. We are almost infinite in variety, can be resolved into about 

told Uiat he was unwearied in visiting his flock, eighty substances, unalterable by chemical processes 

e^tedally the poor, and became so well known and possessing definite spectra. These substances, 

that be could not safely travel by day. He always are called elementa. The metals, iron, gold, silver, 

went afoot until, having broken his leg, he had to and others, sulphur, and carbon are familiar examples 

Tide a horse. At the age of seventy he was be- of elementa, A mass of an element is made up of a 

tnyed, and ' carried to York with his host, Mr. collection of molecules. Each molecule of ^ an ele- 

Vsrasour of WilUtoft, and some members of the ment as a mle is composed of two atoms. Elementa 

<«nilT. A pair of beads, and the form of an in- combine to form compound substances of various 


Qumbers of atoms in the molecule. Water is an text-books. The relations of the atomic weights 

example of a compound substance, or chemical com- to each other are several. The atom of lowest 

pound. Its molecule contains three atoms; tw^ weight is the hydrogen atom. It is usually taken 

atoms of hydrogen, and one atom of oxygen. If a as one, which is very nearly its exact value if oxygen 

, quantity of these two elements were mixed, the re- is taken as sixteen. On this basis one quarter of 

suit would be a mechanical mixture of the molecules the other elements will have atomic weights that are 

of the two. But if heat, or some other adequate whole numbers. This indicates a remarkable sim- 

cause were made to act, chemical action would fol- plicity of relationship of weights, which is carried out 

low, and the molecules, splitting up, lyould combine i>y the close approach of the rest of the elements to 

atom with atom. Part of a molecule of oxygen — the same condition, as regards their atomic weights, 

one atom — would combine with part of two mole- The range of the atomic weights is a narrow one. 

oules of hydrogen — two atoms. The result would be That of nyxlrogen is 1.008 — that of uranium 238.5. 

the pro^vction of a quantity of molecules of water. The latter is the heaviest of alii Between these all 

Each water molecule contains one atom of oxygen the other atomic wei^ts lie. Man^ of the elements 

and two atoms of hydrogen. The splitting-up of resemble each other in their chemical relations. It 

the elemental molecules into atoms is s3rncnronous might appear that those nearest to each other in 

with their combining into molecules, so that an atom atomic weight should be of similar properties. This 

never exists alone. The molecules of the elements, is not the case. If the elements are written down 

oxygen and hydrogen, have disappeared, and in in the order of their atomic weights, beginning with 

their places are molecules of water. There are the lightest and ending with the heaviest, it will be 

about eighty kinds of atoms known, one kind for found that the position of an element in the series 

each element, and out of these the material world is will indicate pretty clearly its properties. The 

made. elements will be found to be so luranged in the list 

Invariability of Composition. — The invariability that any element will be related as regards its chemi- 

of -composition by weight of chemical compounds is cal properties to the element eight places removed 

a fundamental law of chemistry. Thus water under from it. This relationship may oe thus expressed: 

•all circumstances consists of 88.88^ of oxygen and the properties of an element are a periodic runction 

11.11% of hydrogen. This estabhshes a relation of its atomic weight. 

between the weights of the atoms of hydrog^i and Mendel^eff's Table. — ^This relation is called 
oxygen in the water molecule, which is 1 : 8. Oxy- Mendeldeff's Law, from one of two chemists who 
gen and hydrogen are gaseous under ordinary con- independently developed it. The elements , mav, 
ditions. If water is decomposed, and the gases are as before said, be written down in the order of their 
collected and measured, there will always be two atomic weights, but in eight vertical columns, 
volumes of hydrogen to one of oxygen. This illus- Alon^ the top line the eight elements of lightest 
trates another fundamental law — the invariability atonuc weights are written in the order of their 
of composition by gaseous volume of chemical com- weights, foflowed on the second line by the next 
pounds. From the composition by volume of water eight, also in the order of their atomic weights, 
its molecule is taken as composed of two atoms of This arrangement, obviously, when carried out 
hydrogen and one of oxygen, on the assumption that brings the elements eight atomic weights apart, 
in a given volume ctf any gas there is the same number into vertical columns, ft will be found that aU the 
of molecules. As there are two atoms in the mole- elements in any vertical column are of similar chemi- 
cules of both of these elements, the above mav be c^ properties. When Mendel^eff made out his table 
put in a more popular way thus: the atoms of hy- it was supposed that several elements were as yet 
drogeh and oxyren occupy the same space. The imdiscovered. The table also broughl out clearly 
ratio spoken of above, of 1 : 8, is therefore the ratio certain numerical relations of the atomic weights, 
of two atoms of hydrogen to one of oxygen. It These together with other factors caused him to leave 
follows that the ratio of one atom of hydrogen to one blank spaces in his table, which none of the known 
atom of oxygen is 1 : 16. The numbers 1 and 16 elements could fiU. For these places hypothetical 
thus detenmned, are the atomic weights of hydrogen elements were assumed, whose general properties 
and oxygen respectively. Strictly speaking they and atomic weights were stat^ by him. One by 
are not weights at all, only numbers expressing the one these elements have been discovert, so that 
relation of weights. Atomic weights are determined Mendel^fT's Law predicted the existence of elements 
for all the elements, based on several considerations, later to be discovered. These discoveries of predicted 
such as those outlined for the atoms of oxygen and elements constitute one of the greatest triumphs of 
hydrogen. Thus the term atom indicates not only chemical science. Up to within a very recent 
the constituents of molecules, but has a quantitative period the atom was treated as the smallest division 
meaning, the proportional part of the element which of matter, although the possibility of the transmu- 
enters into compoimds. The sum of the wei^ts of tationof the elements in some way, or in some degree, 
the atoms in a molecule is the molecular weight of has long been considered a possibility. It was con- 
the substance. Thus the molecular weight of water jectured that all the elements might be composed of 
is the sum of the weights of two hydrogen atoms, some one substance, for which a name, protyle, 
which is two, and of one oxygen atom, which is six- meaning first material, was coined. This seemeci to 
teen, a total of eighteen. If we divide the molecular conflict with the accepted definition of the atom, as 
weight of a compound into the atomic weight of protyle indicated something anterior to or preceding 
the atoms of any element in its molecule, it will give it. The idea rested in abeyance, as there was little 
the proportion of the element in the compound, ground for building up a theory to include it. Re- 
Taking water again, if we divide its molecular cent discoveries have resuscitated this never quite 
weight, 18, into the weight of the atoms of hydrogen abandoned theory; protyle seems to have been 
in its molecule, 2, we obtain the fraction ^, which discovered, and the atom has ceased to hold its place 
expresses the proportion of hydrogen in water, as the ultimate division of matter. 
The same process ^ves the proportion of oxygen in Corpuscules. — The most recent theory holds 
water os H. that the atom is composite, and is built up of still 

Every element has its own atomic weight, and minuter particles, called corpuscules. As far as 

the invariability of chemical composition by weight the ordinary processes of chemistry are concerned 

is explained by the invariability of the atomic the atom remains as it was. But investigations in 

weights of the elements. Tables of the atomic the field of radio-activity, largely physical and partly 

weights of the elements are given in all chemical chemical, go to prove that the atom, built up of 


eorpuscules as said above, depends for its atomic Elements vary in the saturating power of their atoms. 

TOght upon the number of eorpuscules in it, and The saturating power is called atomicity or valency, 

theee eorpuscules are all identical in nature. In Some elements have a valency of one, and are termed 

these eorpuscules we have the one first material, or monads. A monad can saturate a monad. Others 

protyle. It folk)W8 that the only difference between are termed dyads, have a valencv of two, two monads 

atoms of different elements is in the number of being required to saturate one dyad, while one dyad 

ooipuscules they contain. Any process which would can saturate another dyad. Valencies run on 

change the number of eorpuscules in the atoms of an through triads, tetrads, pentads, hexads, heptads, 

element would change the element into another one, and octads, designating valencies of three, four, 

thus carrying out the transmutation • of elements, five, six, seven, and eight respectively. 

So far, one transmutation is accepted as effected. T. O'Conob Sloanb. 
Experiments in radio-activity go to prove that some 

elements, notably radium, project particles of in- Atomism, [a privative and rifineiw to cut, i. e. indi- 

conoeivable minuteness into space. These particles visible] is the system of those who hold that all 

have sometimes one-half the velocity of light. They bodies are composed of minute, indivisible particles 

are called eorpuscules. The corpuscule is sometimes of matter call^ atoms. We must distinguish be- 

defined as a particle of ne^tive electricity, which, tween (1) atoihism as a philosophy and (2) atomism 

in the existing state of electrical knowledge, is a very as a theory of science. 

imperfect definition. Thev are all negatively elec- Atomism as a philosophy originated with Leu- 
trined, and therefore repel each other. The condi- cippus. Democritus (b. 460 b. c), his disciple, is 
tion of equilibrium of groups of such particles, if generally considered the father of atomism, as prac- 
heki near to each other by another external force, tically nothing is known of Leucippus. Tne theory 
has been investigated by Prof. J. J. Thomson, and of Democritus may be summed up in the following 
his investigations establish a basis for a theory of propositions: 1. Ail bodies are composed of atoms * 
the constitution of atoms. Thus, assume an atom and spaces between the atoms. 2. Atoms are eter- 
to consist of a number of eorpuscules, not touching nal, indivisible, infinite in number, and homogeneous 
each other, all negativelv electrified so that they in nature; all differenced in bodies are due to a dif- 
repel one another, and held within the limits of the ference in the size, shape or location of the atoms, 
atom by what may be termed a shell of atyactive 3. There is no purpose or design in nature, and in 
force. Professor liiomson shows that such particles, this S( i se all is ruled by chance. 4. All activity is 
under the conditions outlined above, arrange them- reduced to local motion. The formation of the uni- 
telves into groups of various arrangement, the latter verse is due to the fact that the larger atoms fall 
depcmding on their number. If the number of faster, and by striking against the smaller ones com- 
putides in a group be progressively increased, a bine with them; thus the whole universe is the re- 
periodic recurrence of groupings will occur. Assume suit of the fortuitbus concourse of atoms. Countless 
a group of five partides. These will form a group worlds are formed simultaneouslv and successively, 
of definite shape. If more particles are added to Epicurus (342-270 b. c.) adopted: the theorv of ue- 
the group, the first additions will cause the five mocritus, but corrected the blimder, pointed out by 
group to disappear, other groups taking its place. Aristotle, that larger atoms fall faster than smaller 
until the number reaches fifteen, when the onginal ones in wicuo. He substituted a power in the atoms 
grouping of five will reappear, surrounded by the to decline a little from the line of fall. Atomism is 
other ten partides. On adding more particles, the defended by Lucretius Cams (05-51 b. c.) in his 
five and ten group disappear, to be succeeded by poem,'*De Rerum Naturft." With the exception of a 
others, until the number of thirty is reached. At few alchemists in the Middle Ages, we find no rep- 
this point the original five group and the ten group resentatives of atomism until Gassendi (1592-1655) 
reappear, with a new group ot fifteen. The same renewed the atomism of Epicurus. Gassendi tried 
recurrence of grouping takes place with forty-seven to harmonize atomism with Christian teaching by 
and sixty-seven particles. This gives the outlines postulating atoms finite in number and created by 
of an explanation of the periodic taw. If any num- God. With the application of atomism to the sci- 
ber of partides be t^en they will show groupings, ences, philosophic atomism also revived, and became 
characteristic of the number, and subject to periodical for a time the most popular philosophy. Present- 
reappearance as the number is increased. This day philosophic atomism regards matter as homo- 
reappearance of groupings is exactly comparable to geneous and explains all physical and chemical prop- 
the phenomena of the periodic law. It is the re- erties of bodies by a difference in mass of matter and 
appMrance of similar properties at periodic inter- local motion. The atom itself is inert and devoid of 
vals. The corpuscular theory also accounts for the all activity. The molecule, taken over from the 
▼ariation of the elementa in atomic weight. Cor- sciences, is but an edifice of unchangeable atoms, 
poscules are supposed to be all alike, so that the Philosophic atomism stands entirely on the basis of 
weight of an atom would depend on how many materialism, and, though it invokes the necessary 
cor^iscules were required to form it. Thus an atom laws of matter, its exclusion of final causes makes 
of oxygen would contain sixteen times as many it in the last analysis a philosophy of chance. 
corpu8<ni]es as would an atom of hydroffen, weighing The atomic theory was first applied to chemistry 
only one-sixteenth as much. The wdght of an atom by Dalton (1808), but with him it meant little more 
of nydrogen has been approximately calculated as than an expression of proportions in chemical com- 
expiessed by the decimal, 34 preceded by thirteen position. The theory supplied a simple explanation 
cipherB, of a gram. This means that thirty-four thou- of the facts observed before him: that elements com- 
aand nullions of millions of atoms of hydrogen would bine in definite and multiple proportions. The dis- 
weigh in the aggregate one gram. These calculations covery in the same year by Gay-Lussac of the law 
are based on (^termination of the electric charge of that gases under the same pressure and temperature 
eorpuscules. Corpuscules are calculated as being have equal volumes was at the same time a confir- 
about one-thousandth of the mass of an atom of hy- mation and an aid in determining atomic weighta 
drogen. Professor Oliver Lodge gives the following Avogadro's law (1811) that gases imder the same 
eomparison: if a church of ordmarv size represent an conmtions of pressure and temperature have an eoual 
Atom, a thousand grains of sand dasning about its inte- number of molecules, and the law of Petit and Du- 
rior with enormous vdodty would represent its con- long that the product of the specific heat and the 
rtituent eorpuscules. When atoms unite to form atomic weight of an element gives a constant num- 
OMfecnles, tney are said to saturate each other, ber were further confirmations and aids. The atomic 


theory was soon applied to physics, and is to-day ^(og«a^ (I^p»i«. 1898): 6th ed„ Thom^^ 

the Ssis of most oFthe scien^^ Its main outlines ]^^ ^-)SS %J^r%%o^^rsmkS;:Si. IJSSS:^:;. 

are: Matter is not contmuous but atomically oonsti- (igoo): Wortz. Atomic Theory, tr. by Clbminshaw (New 

tuted. An atom is the smallest particle of matter York, 188l) On ficholastio inUraretfttion of Atomiam see 

that can enter a chemical reaction At»m« of like ^^'^SS^^Y^r-B.'SS^J' ^'^''^mf'^A 

nature constitute elements, those of unlike nature Science venue MaUer and Form, in IhibUn Bev, (1899 and 

constitute compounds. The elements known to-day 1900). 

are about 76 in number and differ from one another IIiDMUND J. Wirth. 
in weight and physical and chemical properties. Atonementi Day of. — The rites to be observed 
Atoms combine to form molecules, whicn are the on the Day of Atonement [Hebrew DHDan DV Yom 
smallest quantities of matter that can exist in a free Hakkippurim, Vulgate, Dies ExpiaUonum, and Dies 
state, whether of an element or a compound. Some Pronitiationts (Leviticus, xxiii, 27, 28)J are fidly set 
believe that the atom retains its individuality in the fortn in the sixteenth chapter of I^eviticas (cf. Exo- 
molecule, whilst others consider the molecule homo- dus, xxx, 10; Leviticus, xxiii, 27-31, xxv, 9; Num- 
geneous throughout. The theoretic formulas of struo- bers, xxix, 7-11). It was a moist solemn fast, on 
ture of Frankland suppose them to remain. The which no food could be taken throughout the whole 
spaces between the atoms are tilled with an impon- day, and all servile works were forbidden. It was 
derable matter called ether. Upon the nature of kept on the nineteenth day of the seventh month, 
ether the greatest differences of opinion exist. The Tiachri, which faUs in September — October. The sac- 
adoption by scientists of Maxwell's theory of light rifioes induded a calf, a ram, and seven lambs (Num- 
seems to render the ether-hypothesis with its many bers, xxix, 8-11). But the distinctive ceremony of 
contradictions superfluous. At all events it is quite the day was the offering of the two goats. "''He 
independent of the atomic theory. [AaronJ shall make the two buck-goats to stand be- 

The results obtained by the Hungarian Lenard, fore the Lord, in the door of the tabernacle of the 
the English physicist J. J. Thomson, and many testimony: and casting lots upon them both, one to 
others, by means of electric discharges in rarified be offered to the Lord, and the other to be the 
eases, the discovery of Hertzian waves, a better un- emissary-goat: That whose lot fell to be offered to 
derstandine of electrolysis, and the discovery of ra- the Lord, he shall offer for sin: But that whose lot 
dium by Madame Curie have made necessary a was to be the emissary-goat he shall present alive 
modification of the atomic theory of matter. The before the Lord, that Ke may pour out prayers upon 
atom, hitherto considered solid and indivisible, is now him, and let him go into the wilderness. . . . After 
believed to break up into ions or electrons. This he hath cleansed the sanctuary, and the tabernacle, 
new theory, however, must not be considered as op- and the altar, let him offer the living goat: And put- 
posed to the atomic theory; it comes rather as an ting both hands upon his head, let nim confess all 
extension of it. In chemistry, the principal field of the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their 
the atomic theory, the atom will still remain as the offences and sins, and praying that they may light 
chemically indivisible unit. The h3rpothesis of sub- on his head, he shall turn him out by a man ready 
atoms is, moreover, not entirely new: it was pro- for it, into the desert. And when the ^at hatn 
posed by Spencer as early as 1872 (''Contemporary carried all their iniquities into an uninhabited land, 
Kev.'', June, 1872) and defended by Crookes in 1886. and shall be let go into the desert, Aaron shall return 

The physico-chemical theory of atomism, though into the tabernacle of the testimony '' (Leviticus, xvi, 

not a demonstrated truth, offers a satisfactory ex- 7-10, 20-23). The general meaning of the ceremony 

planation of a ^reat number of phenomena, and will, is sufficiently shown in the text. But the details 

no doubt, remain essentially the same, no matter how present some difficulty. The Vulgate caper emis- 

it may be modified in its details. In chemistry, it saritM, "emissary goat", represents the obscure 

does not stop arbitrarily in the division of matter, Hebrew word, 7TKty (Atazel), which occurs no- 

but stops at chemical division. If another science where else in the Bible. Various attempts have been 

demands a further division, or if philosophy must made to interpret its meaning. Some nave taken it 

postulate a division of the atom into essential prin- for the name of a place where the man who took the 

ciples, that is not the concern of chemistry. Science goat away used to throw it over a precipice, since its 

has no interest in defending the indivisible atom of return was thought to forbode evil. Others, with 

Democritus. better reason, take it for the name of an evil spirit; 

Scholastic philosophy finds nothing in the scientific and in fact a spirit of this name is mentioned in the 
theory of atomism which it cannot harmonise with Apocryphal ''Book of Henoch'', and later in Jewi^ 
its principles, though it must reject the mechanical literature. On this interpretation, which, though by 
explanation, often proposed in the name of science, no means new, finds favour with modem critics, the 
which looks upon the atom as an absolutely inert idea of the ceremony would seem to be that the sins 
mass, devoid of all activities and properties. Scho* were sent back to the evil spirit to whose influence 
lastic philosophers find in the different physical and they owed their origin. It has been noted that some- 
chemical properties of the elements an mdication of what similar rites of expiation have prevailed among 
specifically different natures. Chemical changes are heathen nations. And modem critics, ^ho refer the 
for them substantial changes, and chemical formulas above passages to the Phiestly Code, and to a post- 
indicate the mode in which the elements react on Exilic date, are disposed to regard the sending of 
one another in the production of the compound, the goat to Azazel as an adaptation of a pre-«xisting 
They are not a representation of the molecular edi- ceremonial. The significant ceremony observed on 
fice built up of unchangeable atoms. Some would this solemn Day of Atonement does but give a 
accept even this latter view and admit that there greater prominence to that need of satisfaction and 
are no substantial changes in inanimate nature (Gut- expiation which was present in all the ordinary sin- 
beriet). This view can also be harmonised more offerings. And all tnese sacrifices for sin, as we 
easily with the facts of stereo-chemistry. As re- learn from the teaching of the Epistle to the Hebrews, 
gards the phenomena observed in radio-activity, a were figures of the great Sacrifice to come. In like 
generalization, either in the materialistic sense, that manner these Jewish rites of atonement speak to us 
all matter is homogeneous, or in the scholastic sense, of the Cross of Christ, and of the propitiatory Sac- 
that all elements can be changed into one another, rifice which is daily renewed in a bloodless manner 
is in the present state of science premature. on the Eucharistic Altar. For this reason it may be 

ManuaU of Hietory of Philoeophy by Turner, Ueber- f '^^"^^ ^ note, with Proyost Maltzew, that the 

wbq-Ueintze. Stockl if. by Finlat; Lanqe, Hieiery (rf Jewish prayers used on the Day of Atonement for^ 


shadow the common commeroorataon of the saints sufferings, and the death of the Divine Redeemer, 

and the faithful deoarted in our liturgies (Die Litur- All this may be summed up in the word Atonement, 

pen der orthodox-Katholisciien Kirche des Morgen- This is, so to say^ the starting point. And herein 

Uixies, 252). all are indeed at one. But, when it was attempted 

Tie Bttbjeot is tmted by the commentators on Leviticiis, to give a more precise account of the nature of the 

»fSK^ rL^'^'^t.MS;r™*^''t i;j^T^3 ReVP"?'* '^\ *^* manner of iU accomplishment, 

m Spexckr's monumental work. De Leg%bu9 Hebrmmtm theolojgical speculation tOOK different COUTSes, SOme 

ntmia>Mj III, dies. 8. of. De Hvrop EmiMorio el vracipuia of which were Suggested by the various names and 

Jirrt^rteriSnS'eSrrc^'S.l^/^X^LSS^ ^J^ ^^^ whp.this ineffable mptery is adum- 

and Amel, by Dbiv^eb and Whttb in Dictionary of the Bible, brated in Holy Scnpture. Without pretending to 

In U» Talmud the treatise Ydma (The Day) deals with the give a full history of the discussions, we may bnefly 

thy of Atonement. Kent indicate some of the main lines on which the doctrine 

was developed, and touch on the more important 
Atonemonty Docttrinb of thb. — ^The word atone* theories put forward in explanation of the Atone- 
in^, which is almost the only theological term of ment. 

English origin, has a curious history. The verb (a) In any view, the Atonement b founded on the 
"atone'^ from the adverbial phrase ''at one" (M. £. Divine Incarnation. By this great mystery, the 
at om). at first meant to reconcile, or make ''at Eternal Word took to Himself the nature of man 
one'/; from this it came to denote the action by and, being both God and man, became the Mediator 
which such reconciliation was effected, e. g. satis- between God and men. From this, we have one of 
faction for an offence or an injunr. Hence, in the first and most profound forms of theological 
Qitholic theology, the Atonement is tnc Satisfaction speculation on the Atonement, the theory which is 
of Christ, whereby God and the world are reconciled or sometimes described as Mystical Redemption. In- 
made to be at one. "For God indeed was in Christ, stead of seeking a solution in legal figures, some of 
reconciling the world to himself" (II C^r., v, 19). the great Greek Fathers were content to dwell on 
The Catholic doctrine on thb subject b set forth in the fundamental fact of the Divine Incarnation, 
the Sixth Session of the Council of Trent, chapter ii. Bv the union of the Eternal Word with the nature 
Having shown the insufficiency of Nature, and of of man all mankind was lifted up and, so to say, 
the Mosaic Law. the Council continues: "Whence deified. "He wasmade man", says St. Athanasius, 
it came to pass, that the heavenly Father, the Father "that we might be made goos" (De Incamatione 
of mercies and the God of all comfort (EI Cor., i, 3), Verbi, 54). "Hb flesh was saved, and made free 
when that Uessed fullness of the time was come the first of all, being made the bodv of the Word, 
(GaL, iv, 4) sent unto men Jesus Christ, Hb own then we, being concorporeal therewitn, are saved by 
Son, who had been, both before the Law and during the same" (Orat., ll. Contra Arianos, 1x1). And 
the time of the Law, to many of the holy fathers again, " For the presence of the Saviour in the flesh 
announced and promised, that He might both was the price of death, and the saving of the whole 
redeem the Jews, who were imder the Law and that creation (Ep. ad Adelphium, vi). In like manner 
the G^itiles who followed not after justice mi^t St. Gregory of Nasianzus proves the integrity of 
attam to justice, and that all men might receive the Sacred Humanity by the argument, "That which 
the adoption of sons. Him God hath proposed as a was not assumed b not healeia; but that which b 
propitbtor, through faith in His blood (Kom., iii, 25), united to God b saved" (t6 ydp dvp6<r\7frTow, 
for our sins, and not for our sins only, but also for iOepdwevrow 6 ii Ijiwrai rf Om^, tovto xal ffdj/trai), 
those of the whole worid (I John, ii,2)." More than Thb speculation of the Greek Fathers undoubtedly 
twelve centuries before thb, the same dogma was contains a profound truth which b sometimes for- 
proclaimed in the words of the Nicene Creed, "who gotten by later authors who are more intent on framing 
for us men and for our salvation, came down, took juridical theories of ransom and satisfaction. But 
flesh, was made man; and suffered." And all that it b obvious that thb account of the matter b im- 
B thus taught in the decrees of the Councib may be perfect, and leaves much to be explained. It must 
read in the pages of the New Testament. For in- be remembered, moreover, that the Fathers them- 
stanoe, in the words of Our Lord, "Even as the son selves do not put thb forward as a full explanation, 
of man b not come to be minbtered unto, but to For while many of their utterances might seem to 
minister, and to give Hb life a redemption for many" imply that the Redemption was actually accom- 
(Matt, XX, 28); or of St. Paul, "Because in him, it plbhed by the union ot a Divine Person with the 
hath wdl jAeased the Father that all fulness should numan nature, it b clear from other passages that 
dwdl; ancl through him to reconcile all things unto they do not lose sight of the atoning sacrifice. The 
himeelf, making peace through the blood of hb Incarnation b, indeed, the source and the foundation 
cross, both as to the things that are on earth, and the of the Atonement, and these profound thinkers have, 
thmpg that are in heaven. " (Coloss., i, 19, 20). so to say, grasped the cause and its effects as one vast 
The great doctrine thus laid down in the b^inning whole. Hence they look on to the result before 
«i0 further unfolded and brought out into clearer staying to consider the means by which it was accom- 
h^t l^ the work of the Fathers and theologians, plii^ed. 

Aod it may be noted that in this instance the develop- (6) But something more on thb matter had 
inent b cniefly due to Catholic speculation on the already been taught m the preaching of the Apostles 
mystery, and not, as in the case of other doctrines, and in the pages of the New Testament. The 
to controversy with heretics. At first we have the restoration of fallen man was the work of the In- 
central fact made known in the Apostolic preaching, camate Word. "God was in Chrbt reconciling the 
that mankind was fallen and was rabed up ana world to himself" (II Cor., v, 19). But the peace 
redeemed from sin by the blood of Chrbt. But it of that reconciliation was accomplished by the 
nmained for the pious speculation of Fathers and death of the Divine Redeemer, ''making peace 
theologians to enter into the meaning of thb great through the blood of Hb cross" (Coloss., i, 20). 
truth, to inquire into the state of fallen man, and to Thb redemption by death b another mystery, and 
85k blow Qirist accomplished Hb work of Redemp- some of the Fathers in the first ages are led to specu- 
tion. By whatever names or fibres it may be late on its meaning, and to construct a theory in 
<^ttcribea, that work b the reversal of the Fall, the explanation. Here the words .and figures used in 
Wotting out. of sin, the deliverance from bonoage. Holy Scripture help to guide the current of theologi- 
the reconciliation of mankind with God. And it b cal thought. Sin b represented as a state of bondage 
^vooght to pass by the Incarnation, by the life, the or servitude, and fallen man b delivered by being 


redeemed, or bought with a price. "For you are various forms, and some of its more repulsive featurei 
bought with a great price" (I Cor., vi, 20). ^'Thou are softened or modified. But the strange notion 
art worthy, O Lord, to take the book, and to open of some rieht, or claim, on the part of Satan is still 
the seals thereof; because thou wast slain, and hast present. A protest was raised by St. Gregory of 
redeemed us to God, in thy blood" (Apoc., v, 9). Nazianzus in the fourth century^ as might be ex- 
Looked at in this light, the Atonement appears as pected from that most accurate of the patristic 
the deliverance from captivity by the pajmient of theologians. But it was not till St. Anselm and 
a ransom. This view is already developed in the AbeLara had met it with unanswerable arguments 
second centurv. ''The mighty Word ana true. Man that its power was finally broken. It makes a 
reasonably redeeming us by His blood, gave Himself belated appearance in the pages of Peter Lombard, 
a ransom for those who had been brought into (c) But it is not only in connexion with the theory 
bondage. And since the Apostasy unjustly ruled of ransom that we meet with this notion of "rights 
over us, and, whereas we belonged by nature to God on the part of Satan. Some of the Fathers set the 
Almighty, alienated us against nature and made matter m a different aspect. Fallen man, it was 
us his own disciples, the Word of God, being mifhty said^ was justly under the dominion of the devil, in 
in all things, and failing not in His justice, aealt punishment for sin. But when Satan brought suf- 
justly even with the Apostasy itself, buying back fering and death on the sinless Saviour, he abused 
from it the things which were His own" (Iremeus, his power and exceeded his ri^ht, so that he was 
Ad versus Haereses. V, i). And St. Augustine says now justly deprived of his dominion over the captives, 
in well-known words: "Men were held captive under This explanation is found especially in the sermons 
the devil, and served the demons, but they were of St. Leo and the "Morals" of St. Gregory the 
redeemed from captivity. For they could sell them- Great. Closely allied to this explanation is the 
selves, bnt they could not redeem themselves. The singular "mouse-trap" metaphor of St. Augustine. 
Redeemer came, and gave the price; He poured In this' daring figure of speech, the Cross is regarded 
forth His blood and bought the whole world. Do as the trap in which the bait is set and the enemy 
you ask what He bought? See what He ^ave, and is caught. "The Redeemer came and the deceiver 
find what He bought. The blood of Chnst is the was overcome. What did our Redeemer do to our 
price. How much b it worth? What but the Captor? In payment for us He set the trap, His 
whole world? What but all nations?" (Enarratio Cross, with His blood for bait. He [Satan] could 
in Psalm xcv, n. 5). indeed shed that blood; but he deserved not to 
It cannot be questioned that this theory also con- drink it. By shedding the blood of One who was 
tains a true principle. For it is founded on the ex- not his debtor, he was forced to release his debtors" 
press words of Scripture, and is supported by many (Serm. cxxx, | 2). 

of the greatest of tne early Fathers and later theo- (d) These ideas retained their force well into the 

logians. But unfortunately, at first, and for a long Middle Ages. But the appearance of St. Anselm 's 

period of theological history, this truth was some- "Cur Deus Homo?" made a new epoch in the theology 

what obscured by a strange confusion, which of the Atonement. It may be said, indeed, that this 

would seem to have arisen from the natural tend- book marks an epoch in theological literature and 

ency to take a fieure too literally, and to apply doctrinal development. There ace not many works, 

it in details which were not contemplated by those even among those of the greatest teachers, that can 

who first made use of it. It must not be for- compare in this respect with the treatise of St. Aiw 

gotten that the account of our deliverance from selm. And, with few exceptions, the books that have 

sin is set forth in figures. Conquest, captivity, done as much to influence and guide the growth of 

and ransom are familiar facts of human nistory. theology are the outcome of some great struggle 

Man, having yielded to the temptations of Satan, with heresy; while others, again, omy summarise 

was like to one overcome in battle. Sin, again, is the theological learning of the age. But this little 

fitly likened to a state of slavery. And when man book is at once purely pacific and eminently ongi* 

was set free by the shedding of Christ's precious nal. Nor could any dogmatic treatise well be more 

Blood, this deliverance would naturally recall (even simple and unpretending than this luminous dia- 

if it had not been so described in Scripture ) the logue between the great archbishop and his disciple 

redemption of a captive by Ihe payment of a ran- Boso. There is no parade of learning, and but little 

som. But, however useful and illuminating in their in the way of appeal to authorities. The disciple 

E roper place, figures of this kind are perilous in the asks and the master answers; and both alike face 

ands of those who press them too tar, and foi-get the great problem Isefore them fearlessly, but at the 

that they are figures. This is what happened here, same time with all due reverence and modesty. 

When a captive is ransomed the price is naturally Anselm says at the outset that he will not so much 

paid to the conqueror by whom he is held in bondage, show his disciple the truth he needs, as seek it along 

Hence, if this figure were taken and interpreted ynth him; ana that when he sa3rs anything that is 

literally in all its details, it would seem that the price not confirmed by higher authority, it must be taken 

of man's ransom must be paid to Satan. The notion as tentative, and provisional. He adds that, though 

is certainly startling, it not revolting. Even if he may in some measure meet the question, one who 

grave reasons point^ in this direction, we might is wiser oould do it better; and that, whatever nian 

well shrink from drawing the conclusion. And this may know or say on this subject, there will always 

is in fact so far from being the case that it seems remain deeper reasons that are beyond him. In 

hard to find any rational explanation of such a pay- the same spirit he concludes the whole treatise by 

ment, or any right on which it could be founded, submitting it te reasonable correction at the haiK& 

Yet, strange te say, the bold flight of theological of others. 

speculation was not checked by these misgivings. It may be safely said that this is precisely what 

In the above-cited passage of St. Irens&us, we read has come to pass. For the theory put forward by 

that the Word of Giod "dealt justly even with the Anselm has teen modified by the work of later 

Apostasy itself Fi. e. Satan], Duying back from it theologians, and confirmed by the testimony of 

the things whicn were His own ". Thb curious truth. In contrast to some of the other vie^n^ 

notion, apparently first mooted by St. IrenaBus, already noticed, this theory is remarkably dear and 

was taken up by Origen in the next century, and symmetrical. And it is certainly more agreeable to 

for about a thousand years it played a conspicuous reason than the "mouse-trap metaphor, or the 

part in the history of theology. In the hands of some notion of purchase money paid te Satan. Ansel tn '9 

of the later Fathers and medieval writers, it takes answer to the question is simply the need of 


bction for sin. No sin, as be views the matter, can denying the rights of Satan, denied the " Sacrament of 
be foigiven without satisfaction. A debt to Divine Redemption " and regarded the teaciiing and exam- 
iuBtioe has been incurred* and that debt must needs pie of Christ as the sole benefit of the Incarnation, 
be paid. But man could not make this satisfaction '' But '', as Mr. Oxenham observes, " he had not said 
for himself; the debt is something far greater than so, and he distinctly asserts in his * Apology ' that 
he can pay; and, moreover, all the service that he ' the Son <|f God was incarnate to deliver us from 
can offer to God is already due on other titles. The the bondage of sin and yoke of the Devil, and to 
8ug^B8ti(m that some innocent man, or angel, might open to us by His death the gate of eternal life.' 
pomUy pay the debt incurred by sinners is rejected, ^d &t. Bernard himself, in this venr Epistle, dis- 
on the ground that in any case this would put the tincUv denies any absolute necessity u>r tne method 
sinner under obligation to his deliverer, and he would of redemption chosen, and suggests a reason for it 
thus become the servant of a mere creature. The not so very unlike Abelard's. N^erhaps that method 
only way in which the satisfaction could be made, is the best, whereby in a land of forgetfulness and 
and men could be set*free from sin, was by the coni- sloth we might be more powerfully and vividly re- 
ing of a Redeemer who is both God and man. His minded of our fall, through the so great and so mani- 
d^th makes full satisfaction to the Divine Justice, fold sufferings of Him who repair^ it.' Elsewhere, 
for it is something Ki*cater than all the sins of all when not speaking controversially, he says still more 
mankind. Many side questions are incidentally plainly: 'Could not the Creator have restored His 
treated in the dialogue between Anselm and Boeo. work without that difficulty? He could; but He 
But this ts the substonce of the answer given to the prelerred to do it at His own cost, lest any further 
great question, ''Cur Deus Homo?" Some modem occasion should be ^ven for that worst and most 
writers have suggested that this notion of deliver- odious vice of ingratitude in man' (Bern., Serm. xi, 
ance by means of satisfaction may have a Gertnan in Cant.). What is this but to say, with Abelard,* 
origin. For in the old Teutonic laws, a criminal that ' He chose the Incarnation as the most efTectual 
might pay the wergild instead of imdeiigoing punish- method for eliciting His creature's love ' ? " (The 
ment Eiut this custom was not peculiar to tne Ger- Catholic Doctrine of the Atonement, 85, 86). 
mans, as we may see from the Celtic eirigy and, as (/) Although the high authority of ot. Bernard 
Riviere has pointed out, there b no need to have re- was thus agamst them, the views of St. Anselm and 
course to this explanation. For the notion of satisfao- Abelard, the two men who in different ways were the 
tion for sin was already present in the whole system fathers of Scholasticism, shaped the course of later 
of ecdesiastical penance, though it had been left for medieval theology. The strange notion of the rights 
Ansdm to use it m illustration of the doctrine of the of Satan, against which they had both protested, now 
Atonement. It may be added that the tome idea disappears from the pages of our theologians. For 
nnderlies the old Jewish "sin-offerings" as well as the rest, the view which ultimately prevailed may 
the similar rites that are found in many ancient reli- be regarded as a combination of the opinions of An- 
gions. It is specially prominent in the rites and selm and Abelard. In spite of the objections ur^ed 
prayers used on the Dav of Atonement. And this, it by the latter writer, Anselm's doctrine of satisfaction 
may be added, is now the ordinary acceptance of the was adopted as the basis. But St. Thomas and the 
word; to "atone" is to give satisfaction, or make other medieval masters a^ee with Abelard in re- 
amends, for an offence or an injury. ^ jecting the notion that this full satisfaction for sin 
(e) Whatever may be the reason, it is clear that was absolutely necessarv. At the most, they are 
this doctrine was attracting special attention in willing to admit a h^^poUietical or conditional neces- 
the a^ of St. Anselm. His own work bears witness sity for the Redemption by the death of Christ. The 
that it was undertaken at the urgent request of restoration of fallen man was a work of God's free 
others who wished to have some new light on this mercy and benevolence. And, even on the hypothesis 
mystery. To some extent, the solution offered by that the loss was to be repaired, this might have been 
Ansdm seems to have satisfied these desires, though, brought about in many and various ways. The sin 
in the course of further discussion, an important might have been remitted freely, without any satis- 
part of his theory, the absolute necessity of Re- faction at all, or some lesser satisfaction, however 
demption and of satisfaction for sin, was discarded imperfect in itself, might have been accepted as suffi- 
hy later theologians, and found few defenders. But cient. But on the hypothesis that Goa had chosen 
meanwhile, within a few years of the appearance of to restore mankind, and at the same time, to require 
the ^'Cur Deus Homo?" another theory on the sub- full satisfaction as a condition of pardon and de- 
ject had been advanced by Abelard. In common liverance, nothing less than the Atonement made by 
■rith St. Anselm, Abelard utterly rejected the old. one who was GgkI as well as man could suffice as 
tod tb^i stiU prevailing, notion that the devU had satisfaction for the offence against the Divine Majesty, 
some sort of right over fallen man, who could only And in this case Anselm's argument will hold good, 
be justly ddivered by means of a ransom paid to Mankind cannot be restored unless God becomes man 
his captor. Against this he very rightly ui^^es, with to save them. 

Anelm, that Satan was clearly guilty of injustice In reference to many points of detail the School- 

m the matter and could have no right to anvthing men, here as elsewhere, ^opted divergent views, 

bat punishment. But, on the other hand, Abelmrd One of the chief questions at issue was the intrinsic 

was unable to accept Anselm's view that an equiva- adequacy of the satisfaction offered by Christ. On 

lent satisfaction for sin was necessarv, and that this this point the majority, with St. Thomas at their 

<iebt could only be paid by the death of the Divine head, maintained that, by reason of the infinite 

Redeemer. He insists that God could have par- dignity of the Divine Person, the least action or 

doned us without requiring satisfaction. And, in suffering of Christ had an infinite value, so that in 

his view, the reason for the Incarnation and the itself it would suffice as an adequate satisfaction for 

deith of Christ was the pure love of God. By no the sins of the whole world. Scotus and his school, 

other means could men be so effectually tinned from on the other hand, disputed this intrinsic infinitude, 

aa and nooved to love God. Abelard s teaching on and ascribed the all-sufficiency of the satisfaction to 

tfak pointy as on others, was vehementljr attacked by the Divine acceptation. As this acceptation was 

St Bmaid. But it should be borne in mind that grounded on the infinite dignity of the Divine Per- 

aooie of the arguments urgj^ in condemnation of son, the difference was not so great as might appear 

Abdaid would affect the position of St. Anselm also, at first sight. But, on this point at any rate, the 

not to speak of later Cathohc theologv. simpler teaching of St. Thomas is more generally 

bi St. Bernard's eyes it seemed that Abelard, in accepted by later theologians. Apart from this 


cruestioiL, the divergent views of the two schools on the Atonement is specially connected with th« 

the primary motive of the Incarnation naturally have thought of the wrath of God. It is true of course 

some effect on the Thomist and Scotist theology of that sin incurs the anger of the Just Judge, and that 

the Atonement. On looking back at the vanous this is averted when the debt due to Divine Justice 

theories noticed so far, it will be seen that they are is paid by satisfaction. But it must not be thou^t 

not, for the most part, mutually exclusive, but may that God is only moved to mercy and reconciled to 

be combined and narmoni^ed. It may be said, in- us as a result of this satisfaction. This false concep- 

deed, that they all help to bring out different aspects tion of the Reconciliation is expressly rejected by 

of that great doctrine which cannot find adec]uate St. Augustine (In Joannem, Tract, ex, § 6). God s 

expression in any human theory. And in point of mercifiu love is the cause, not the result of that 

fact it will generally be found that the chief Fathers satisfaction. (2) The second mistake is the ten- 

and Schoolmen, though they may at times lay more dency to treat the Passion of Christ as being literally 

stress on some favourite theory of their own, do not a case of vicarious punishment. This is at best a 

lose sight of the other explanations. distorted view of the truth that Ilis Atoning Sacrifice 

Thus the Greek Fathers, who deUght in speculating took the place of our punishment, and that He took 

on the Mystical Redemption by the Incarnation, do upon Himself the sufferings and death that were due 

not omit to speak also of our salvation by the shedding to oiu* sins. 

of blood. Origen, who lays most stress on the dehv- This view of the Atonement naturally provoked 

erance by payment of a ransom, does not forget to a reaction. Thus the Socinians were led to reject 

dwell on the need of a sacrifice for sin. St. Anselm, the notion of vicarious suffering and satisfaction as 

again, in his "Meditations ", supplements the teach- inconsistent with God's justice and mercy. And in 

in^ set forth in his "Cur Deus Homo?" Abelard, who their eyes the work of Christ consisted simply in 

might seem to make the Atonement consist in nothing His teaching by word and example. Similar objeo- 

more than the constraining example of Divine Jjove, tions to the juridical conception of the Atonement 

has spoken also of our salvation oy the Sacrifice of led to like results in the later system of Swedenborg. 

the Cross, in passages to which his critics do not More recently Albrecht Ritschl, who has paid special 

attach sufficient importance. And, as we have seen, attention to this subject, ha8 formulated a new 

his great opponent, St. Bemidxi, teaches all that Is theory on somewhat similar lines. His conception 

really true and valuable in the theory which he con- of the Atonement is moral and spiritual, rather than 

demned. Most, if not all, of these theories had juridical; and his system is distinguished by the fact 

perils of their own, if they were isolated and ex- that he lays stress on the relation of Chnst to the 

aggerated. But in the CathoUc Church there was whole Chnstian community. We cannot stay to 

ever a safeguard against these dangers of distor- examine these new systems in detail. But it may 

tion. As Mr. Oxenhsun says very finely, "The be observed that the truth which they contain is 

perpetual priesthood of Christ in heaven, which oc- really found in the Catholic theology of the Atone- 

cupies a prominent place in nearly all the writings ment. That great doctrine has been faintly set 

we have examined, is even more emphatically in- forth in figures taken from man's laws and customs, 

sisted upon by Origen. And this deserves to be It is represented as the payment of a price, or a 

remembered, because it is a part of the doctrine ransom; or as the offering of satisfaction for a debt, 

which has been almost or altogether dropped out of But we can never rest in these material figures as 

many Protestant expositions of the Atonement, though they were literal and adequate. As both 

whereas those most inclining among Catholics to a 'Abelard and Bernard remind us, the Atonement is 

merely juridical view of the subiect have never been the work of love. It is essentially a sacrifice, the 

able to forget the present ana living reidity of a one supreme sacrifice of wMch the rest were but 

sacrifice constantly kept before their eyes, as it types and figures. And, as St. Augustine teaches us, 

were, in the worship which reflects on earth the the outward rite of sacrifice is the sacrament, or 

unfailing liturgy of heaven" (p. 38). sacred sign, of the invisible sacrifice of the heart. 

The reality of these dangers and the importance It was by this inward sacrifice of obedience unto 

of this safeguard may be seen in the history of this death, by this perfect love with which He laid down 

doctrine since the age of the Reformation. As we His Ufe for His friends, that Christ paid the debt 

have seen, its earlier development owed comparar to justice, and taught us by His example, and drew 

tively little to the stress of controversy with heretics, all things to Himself; it was by this that He wrpu^t 

And the revolution of the sixteenth century was no our Atonement and Reconcihation with God, "mak- 

exception to this rule. For the Atonement was not ing peace through the blood of His Cross", 

one of the subjects directly disputed between the ^^ ^ .^ .. .^ , * xi. .. . i. _x .•• j 

Refonners and their Catholfc opponente. But from .^-^l ^'^"''•f'^S^'Wtht^'td^^sT^fStn^a'JJo^'ig^ 

its close connexion with the cardmal question of notably in St. Athana«iui and in St. Ansel m; in the Scholastic 
Justification, this doctrine assumed a very special commentaries on the Third Book of Sentencea. and on the 

prominence and imnprtanoe in Protestant theolo^ ^^^^li^', ^"Ti^t^oi l^Z^irUlt^^"^'^ 

and practical preacnmg. Mark rattison tells us m modern works may be mentioned as worthy of special atten- 
his "Memoirs'^ that he came to Oxford with his tion, Thmet^OxmiHAU.TheCaiholicDocJrmeoftheAUme' 

home /'untan reUglOn almost narrowed to two church. With an Introduction on the PHndpU of Theohffical 


. ,. give a 

-, ^.- i.^, ., -.•T>-. *"" Yio^ w. w.« history of the doctrine. Much use has been 

general conception of the Atonement the Reformers made of them in this article. For modem non-Catholic the- 

and their followers happily preserved the CathoUc olo«y.. see Rjtschl's great work on Justifi^tion and Recon- 

Horfrinp at lftj«f in uVmnin linAH AnH in fhMP ciliation, Dis chnatltche lA^hre von der Rechtfertigung und 

aoctrme, at leasj m its main Unes. ^a m tneir Veredhnung (Bonn, 1870-74). The first volume, containing 

explanation of the ment of Christ S SUiiermgS and the hlstorv of the doctrine, was translated into English in 

death we may see the influence of St. Thomas and 1872; the third, in which the author's own view is found. 

fVift n^hi^r <rr<Mif QnVin^lmAn Ritf oa rv>;n-lvf Kz» *»ir was translated m 1900 (Clark ,'Edmburgh); the second voliunc, 

the Other great bChoolmen. liut, as might be ex- j^j^^ ^j^^ Biblical matter, has not been done into English. 

pected from the isolation of the doctrine and the some account of recent non-Catholic lit-craturo on the Atmi»> 

loss of other portions of Catholic teaching, the truth ment will be found in Fehrieb, The Growth of ChrUtjan Faith 

thus preservS^wa^ sometimes insensibfy obscured S't?^^/5S^'boii''S, ^'mcS^o^^?. rUe°'dcSSIS5^ 

or distorted. It will be enough to note here the the Atonement. See also Simpson in DicU cf Chriet and the 

presence of two mistaken tendencies. (1) The first Ooapels (New York, 1906) a. v. 

IS indicated in the above words of Pattison in which -. W. H. Kbnt. 


Atri, Diocese op. See Civita di Pbnne. usual form. While bills of attainder were used in 

Atrib, a titular see of Lower Egypt (Athribites) England as early as 1321 in the procedure empl^ed 

«rhose episcopal list (325-479) is given in Gams by Parliament m the banishment of the two Des- 

(p. 461). pensers (1 St. tr. pp. 23, 38), it was not until the 

Lequien. Orient ChriaL (1740), II, 553-556. period of passion ei^ndered by the civil war that the 

AfT4n*vi T A« r^^^^rx ^in«« ^- «^„..* u^fr^r^ « »v.t,*^i^ sumHiary power of Parliament to punbh criminals by 

Atrrani. — l. An open place or court before a cnurcn. _4„x„4.^ jLil *^„ xl^ fi^i. ♦i^^ ,^Ji,^^^^ «„ri «u..-«jr 

It c^fatejl of a l^^uad^ngle with colonnaded ^^t w«'rt'th1fp,^"eL^**fi^t f^lf ^^^ 

ir^^rit'^t^^L^t^x'^rXo'^Test?^^^^^^^^^ -* o^ trrAfet^riar;^"ber^^ 

the bcKly of the chu.^. In £ center of the atrium ^S Ae S^^^rof^^eJ^^'ofTete^' 
was a fountain or wdl, where the worshippew washed j^ ^^^ g^ j victotywWch foUowed the 

&^S^^ r«*^tW^h«^r^f th^ h„T^« battle of Towton, Edwarf IV obtained the passage 

this custom still survives in the use of the holy-water j sweeping bill of attainder through whiX^e 
font, or bB8m,u8uaUy placed near the inner entrance was eSriched by forfeiture of tTie estates <rf 

of churches. In the atnum those that were not sui- * _x i j*"'^"^^ "J" »v..viwi*i« w. w^^ %x,i>^v^xj v» 

fered to advance farther, and more particularly the ^*>'"^'' lords and more than a hundred knights and 

cZ^ 1 *~jL**"*^ *** ''»*^* » ****^ AMv*w p»*i,ivAAM»i*j i>ujj esquires. In the seventeenth year of that reiim was 

^Uh^fM^A^^^^.^^uf^tAt^'' ^^^11 P^ th« Act of Attainder of the Duke of Cfcence 

^li^.J^ « .^ni^L!^^.nH .f fi™W; fll A^ In^ch, after an oratorical preface setting out at 

HS^.^^r«^^Sf;*^f^™'„± f«r Anlv.™ length the offences imputed to him, it iTenacted 

TT^.^!lr^Tn'n ^v? ih7.K^i w^ "tfiit the said George Duke of CUrence be con- 

I!Sw I^ ^« f^ «lJ^ ^^, J^IL^ Th! victed, and atteynte? of high treason ". Then fol- 

h^^ ^ liI^J^%J^,J^L ?^ h!v^K J ! ^owH tfie appointment of the^Duke of Buckingham as 

KTLI.?^ wKu fh^ TniL. u,^ n^f^ lo«J high SWard for that occasion to do wTecution. 

Jww^f A r^^in^ I A^llin!- T.L^f It is a romaricable fact that during a period of one 

the* West. A mosaic in o. Apollinare Nuovo, u„«,j««j „«j «.:^4.«. 4.«,rv -.^.^ /i>i«i_ifcoi\ *u^,^ :- 

Ravenna, shows an open narthex closed by curtains ^"°±!i,*°f'*,'"^^rimlL^ir^^ -Uh~ in 

The atriim existed In some of the larg«t of the X.^J^f P-tlSTi^n^^Ti^^r^if ^ f^^^ 

eariy Christian churches, such as old St Peter's at J^^ "^^h^i^r!? Vli? *a.lili^^ 

SZ?ioni;^Ke\Txtl"'^ir^!'?^Tdet^^^^ ^S'^^itL ^^UroTMoref^thrS 

^*T?I f h^ Rnmin .:ri.tli^^^fct»tt^n' ^^^ "Ot anotherTmpeachment untU that of Sii Giles 

teL™&t^^MSw»a''^WdX" Momp^son and Sir^ncis MitcheU in 1621. Durw 

sion; fin.t.onentering^rourtcalledthea^rt«m;then, "^t'^i^^^tSl^Z^^^nh^AlV^T. 

farther in, another colonnaded court called the peri^ Z^ !^?^iZ {^K^L^f^J^i^lil, K^t^^oU^ tSl 

t^lt'^^'^^L^=nJ^^'''^^Z^^. iSr'cSLSb^ o^by !^iaK"^^^in"?^ Su^ 

9^^«E^f^^„^T^«^h?lh^..^ ^^1^2 of «>°"n<>n law. l£ the reign of Henry VIII Bills of 

Untelv^n^^ffi^n Uf^teni^?.^ nU^ vt attainder were often used iMtead of Snpeachments, 

^f ^^^h« ^Kit^ «fri.^^,fr& „1^ SZ a« ™ the cases of Wolsey, Thomas CromVell, Oueen 

this reason the old Koman atnum survived only occar v^4.u»^^^ ii^,.,«,.^ fk«> K,,i,^ «f xr««f^ii, ««! ♦u^ 

sionally m Eastern and Western churches. Typical ^^''^rS ^^^*S» f^® ,P^® P^ Norfolk, and the 

«t^„.^i^^tCrKl o™r;„ f\^^,,^«k^^f S nxJJCl^ Earl of Surrey. During that reign religious persecu- 

examples may be seen m the churches 01 ot. Clement, *• „ „„„ ^^JL^^ ,^^ »«*.u«« 4.u^,,^u *L^ i™»i «,« 

at Rome, and St. Ambrose, at Milan; also in the *?" ''"!i *^Z^, on rather through the le«^ ma- 

seventh-c^ntury churches of Novara and Paren20. ^^'^^''{^J^ ^^^ nTC^mL^ f h!f„ h^ifl^S 

II. In secukr architecture the atrium was the prin- "f <*f °'?*^ ^ *,?* Jt^ P^, Supremacy than by bills 

ao^S?s;*;i^?fon*^nt"wts^'i;?sfc - ^^^ #iLf'^fl£r4S?rer.f''^t^si 

p^^z^r^^zJ^lTJ^:t^. ^-^^Cr^;u^^Tect^\tr!:^?^tTe^pi 

sfopmg so as ^ throw the rain-water mto a cistern ^ dep^ him "of thedignityT title, or Lme" of 

If ^ ^!Z.!^^^ t^ r&i:^. ^"^ ^'^^ ^"""^ h« royal estate should consUtnte high treason; mider 

It was surrounded by a colonnade ^^^ ^^j^ ^^ providing the amended oath, it was 

IHOMAS M. I'ooLB. pogei&e to call upon anyone to declare his belief 
Attainder. — A Bill of Attainder may be defined m the validity of tne new title, and a failure to do so 
to be an Act of Parliament for putting a man to death was sufficient evidence of guilt. By that legal 
or for otherwise punishing him without trial in the machinery were dashed to pieces the Charterhouse 
usiial form. Thus by a legislative act a man is put monks of London, who are admitted on every hand 
in the same position as if he had been convicted after to have been the noblest and purest of all church- 
a regular trial. It b an act whereby the judicature men. Even Froude admits that they were "gallant 
of the entire Parliament is exercised, and may be men, whose high forms, in the sunset of the old faith, 
contrasted with the procedure by impeachment in stand transfigured on the horizon, tinged with the 
which the accusation, presented by the Commons light of its dyinf glory". The legal proceedings 
acting as a grand jury ot the whole realm, is tried bv through which the Bishop of Rochester and Sir 
the Lords, exercising at once the functions of a high Thomas More were brought to the block were but 
court of justice and of a jury. In a strictl^r technical a repetition of what had oeen eone through with in 
sense it may be said that a Bill of Attainder is a the case of the Carthusians. After the Tudor time 
legi^tive act inflicting the punishment of death with- the most remarkable bills of attainder are those that 
out a trial, and that a Bill of Pains and Penalties were directed against Lord Strafford, Lord Danhv, 
is such an act inflicting a mild^ punishment. In the the Duke of Monmouth, and Sir John Fenwick. As 
popular sense, however, the term "Bill of Attainder" instances of bills of pains and penalties, reference 
unbraces both classes of acts, and in that sense it is may be made to those against Bishop Atterbury and 
evidently used in the Constitution of the United Queen Caroline, usually referred to as the last in- 
states, as the Supreme Court has declared in Fletcha* stances of such legislation. When Queen Caroline 
V. Peck, 6 Crancn, 138, that "A bill of attainder ma^ returned to England, in July, 1830, all the ministers, 
affect the life of an individual, or may confiscate his except Canning, were induced to consent to the in- 
property, or both ". Such a bill aeals with the troduction in the House of Ix)rds of a bill of pains 
merits of a particular case and inflicts penalties, and penalties, providing for the dissolution of her 
more or lees severe, ex posi Jado, without tnal in the marriage with the King, upon the ground of adultery, 


and for bar degradation. When the charges con- Attalia, also Attaleia, a titular . metropolitan 
tained in the preamble cameon to be heard, Brougham see of Pamph^lia in Asia Minor. Its episcopal list 
and Denman, by their bold and brilliant defence of (431-^79) is given in Gams ^450). It is probably 
the Queen, so aroused popular sympathy in her identical with the present Adalia, the chief port and 
favour, by holding her up as a deserted and perse- largest place on tne southern coast of Asia Minor, 
cuted woman, that the ministry deemed it wise to Remains of sculptured marbles are abimdant in the 
drop the bill after the majority in its favour in the vicinity. It is mentioned in Acts, xiv, 24-25, as the 
Loras had dwindled to nine. Reference is made to seaport whence Paul and Barnabas set sail for An- 
this case as an illustration of the nature of the pro- tioch, at the close of their missionary journey through 
cedure upon such bills. ''The proceedings of parUa- Pisidia and Paniphylia. Another city of the same 
ment in passing bills of attainder, and of ^ins and name existed in Lydia, Asia Minor; its episcopal list 
penalties, do not vary from those adopted in r^rd (431-879) is ^ven in Gams (447). 
to other bills. They may be introduced in eith^ Lbquibn, Orwm« CArw^ (1740), I. 1030; Surra. i>irt. al 
house, but ordinarily commence m the House of »««*««<« ««»Hm Gacvr.. I. 320-3^. t q„,„ „ 
Lords: they pass through the same stages; and when ihomas. j. ohahan. 
agreed to by both houses they receive the royal Attaliatas, Michael, Byzantine statesman and 
assent in the usual form. But the parties who are historian, probably a native of Attalia in Pamphylia, 
subjected to these proceediMs are admitted to defend whence he seems to have come to Constantinople 
themselves by counsel and witnesses, before both between 1130 and 1140. He acquired in the royal 
houses; and the solemnity of the proceedings would city both wealth and position and was rapidly ad- 
cause measures to be taken to enforce the attendance vanced, under successive emperors, to the highest 
of members upon their service in parliament" (May, offices, among others to that of^ judge of the supreme 
Pari. Practice, 744). It thus appears that, in its court of the empire. He compiled (1072) for the 
naodern form, procedure by attainder admits the Emperor Michael Parapinakes a compendium of 
right of proof and ai*^ument. Entirely apart from Byzantine law which supplements in a useful way the 
the judicature of Parliament, attainder is defined by "Libri Basilici". In addition to this he also drew up 
the common law of England to be the stain or cor- an "Ordinance for the Poor House and Monastery^' 
ruption of blood which follows as an immediate and which he founded at Constantinople in 1077. Thb 
inseparable consequence of a death sentence. Such work is of value for the history of Byzantine life 'and 
attainder took place after judgment of death, or manners in the eleventh century. It contains a 
upon such circumstances as were equivalent to such catalogue of the libranr of his monastery. About 
a judraient, such as a judgment of outlawry on a 1079 or 1080 he published an account of Byzantine , 
capital crime, pronounced for absconding from jus- history from 1034 to 1079, a vivid and reliable 
tice. Conviction without judgment was not followed presentation of the palace revolutions and female 
by attainder. , The consequences of attainder were: domination that characterize this period of transition 
first, forfeiture; second, corruption of blood. The from the great Macedonian dynasty to the Comneni. 
extent of the forfeiture depended upon the nature of Attaliates writes as an eyewitness and contemporary, 
the crime for which the criminal was convicted: and Though his style is not free from the usual affectations 
by corruption of blood, " both upwards and do^Ti- of Byzantine historians, it is more flowing and corn- 
wards," the attainted peraon could neither inherit pact than that of his predecessors. Krumbacher 
nor transmit lands. After it was clear beyond dispute praises his accurate judgment and sense of equity; 
that the cruninal was no longer fit to live, he was m both respects he is superior to his continuator, the 
called attaint, stained, or blackened, and before pan^yrist and courtier Pscilos. The law-manual 
6 and 7 Vict., c. 85, -§. 1, could not be called as a of Attaliates was first edited by M. Freher (Juris 
witness in any court. The doctrine of attainder has, Graeco-Romani Tomi Duo, Frankfort, 1696, U, 1- 
however, ceased to be of much practical impOTtance 79) • the "Ordinance", or Aidro^ts, is found in 
since 33 and 34 Vict., c. 23, wherein it was provided Miklosich and MQller, "Acta et Diplomata Grseca 
that henceforth no confession, verdict, inquest, con- Medii iEvi" (1887), V, 293-327; the "History" 
viction, or judgment of or for any treason or felony, was edited by I. Bekker, in the "Corpus Script, 
or felo-^-ae shall cause any attainder or corruption Byz." (Bonn, 1853). 

of blood or any forfeiture or escheat. Krumbacher. Oeach. d. Byz. LiLj 2d ed., 269-271: Mob- 

HannIS TayLOB. TRBtJiL. HitL du droit Bytantin, III, 218-229; W. NisasN, 

X AxiAiit. ^^ DiataxU de% M. Attaleiaieg von 1077 (Jena. 1894). 23-30; 

Attala^ Saint, b. in the sbcth century in Bur- ^''''^* ^"^^ "^ ^^- ^^^>' ^'^'i^^^l^i'^^L^.^ 

gandyj d. 627. He first became a monk at Urins, ihomas j. hhahan. 

ut, displeased with the loose discipline prevailing Attention. See Consciousness. 

there, he entered the monastery of LiixeuU which Atticua, Patriarch of Constantinople (406-425),. 

had just been founded by St. Coluniban. When b. at Sebaste in Armenia; d. 425. He was educated 

Columjmn was expeUed from Luxeud by King Theo- in the vicinity of his native town by Macedonian 

doric II, Attala waa to succeed him as abbot, but monks, whose mode of life and errors he embraced, 

preferred to follow him into exde. They settled on when still young he went to Constantinople, abjured 

the banks of the nver Trebbia, a little north-east of his heretical tenets, and was raised to the priesthood. 

Genoa, where thev founded the cdebrated Abbey of He and another ambitious priest, Arsacius, were the 

Bobbio. After the death of St. Columban m 615. chief accusers of St. Chrysostom in the notorious 

AtUla succeeded him as Abbot of Bobbio. He and CouncU of the Oak, which deposed (405) tiie holy 

h^ monks suffered many hardships at the hands patriarch. On the death (406) of the intrudS- 

of the Anan King Anowald. As abbot, Attala m- Arsacius, he succeeded him in the See of Constanti- 

sisted on stnct discipline and when a lai^ge number nople, and at first strove hard, with the help of the 

of his monks rebelled, declanng his digciplme too civil power, to detach the faithful from the com- 

rigorous, he permitted them to leave the monastenr. munion of their lawful paator. But finding that. 

When, however, some of these perished miserably, the even after the death of St. Chrysostom, they ooa- 

others, considenng their death a punishment frona tinned to avoid his own spiritual ministrations, ho 

God, returned to the monasterv Attala was buried re-inserted the name of his holy predecessor in the 

m Bobbio where his feast is celebrat^ on 10 March, diptychs of the churches. This cliange of attitude 

MONTALEMBERT, Tfie MoTUit of thf Wcst (Boston), I, 582; on^ hio /.Kotnfv *^ fK*» *^^w>t. n^o^..»Il» Tn«^A k:«, 1.,.,^ 

Lechner. Martyroloa. des Bmediktiner Ordens (Au^burg. and lus Chan tv to the poor gradually made hma leSB 

1865); ]STiu>Lea, HeUigm-Lexikim (Augsburg, 1858). I, 341. unpopular, and he at length managed to have him- 

Michael Ott. self recognized as patriarch by Innocent I. Inteo^ 

ATnamr 61 attiubt 

upon enlai^g the prerogatives of his see, he obtained died shortly after. Catholic interest in Attila cen* 

from Theodosius the Younger two rescripts which ters chiefly in his relations with those bishops of 

tkced Bithynia and lUyria under his nirisdiction. France' and Italy who restrained the Hunnish leader 

Komeresistedtheseencrbachments, and the rescripts, in his devastating fury. The moral po\^er of these 

thanks to the intervention of Honorius, were re- bishops, and particularly of the pope, during the 

called. Atticus in some measure atoned for his am- dissolution of the empire, is evidencea as wdl by 

bition and the irregularitv of his promotion by his the confidence in whicn the faithful looked to them 

zeal in the cause of orthodoxy. He drove the Mes- for succour against the terrible invader as by the 

saHans from Pamphylia, and his opposition to the influence they sometimes exerted in staying that 

Pelagians caused mm to be praised by Celcstine I as invader's destroying hand. St. Agnan of^>leans 

"a true successor of St. Chrysostom *\ sustained the courage of his people and hastened the 

' ^l^^i^.^^P^^^^^' ^i^h ^^'^^^^^^^^'^IFI' reinforcements that saved his apparently doomed 

l^iA^iu^li^' ^' "• ^'' ^^'^'*^' ^^ city; at Troyes, St. Lupus prevaiKd upon Attila to 

A. J. B, VuiBBRT. spare the province of Champaj^e, and gave himself 

.^ -, TWi,ifax/MLj *®* hostage while the Hunnish army remained in 

Attagny, Councils op.— In 765, St. Chrodegang Gaul; when Rome seemed destined to meet the fate 

of Me.^ and thirty-^ven other bishop mutually of the Lombard cities which Attila had pillaged, it 

promised m an assembly held at the royal residence of ^as Pope Leo the Great who, by his eloquence and 

Attigny near Vouziers (Ardennes) that after the death commanding personality, overawed the conqueror 

of each the survivors would cause the psalter to be and saved ^le city. The terror which for centuries 

said one hundred times and would have one hundred after clung to the name of Attila, "the Scouree of 

Masses celebrated for the repose of the soul of the God", as he came to be called, and the gratitude of 

departed. Each one would also say thirty Masses the people to their deUverere combined in time to 

for the same intention. In 785, Charlemagne held a encumber medieval hagiography with legends of 

counal at Attigny. Widukmd and Abom, two con- saints reputed to have overcome Attila by their 

quered Saxon kmra, presented themselves for in- imposing presence, or stayed his progress by their 

stmction and were baptized. In 822, Pope Paschal I prayers. But these fictions serve to emphasize the 

iras present at a Council of Attigny, convened for Import of the facts which inspired them. They 

the reconciUation of the Emperor Louis the Pious enable us to appreciate how widespread must have 

with his three younger brothers, Hugo, Drogo, and been that sentiment expressed in the recently dis- 

rheodonc, whom he had caused to be violently covered appeal of Eusebius of Doryljeum to Pope 

tortpd and whom he had intended to put to death. Leo I: "Curavit desuper et ab exordio con.suevit 

In the council he confessed publicly his wrong-doing; thronus apostolicus iniqua perferentes defensare 

g.^^ iui.^Mi.viv/» v/i WTO x^.ti^iv^x A u<^^/v4^^otuo x. UK), camc lu timc to in vcsi^ uic pcrsou ot Attila witn 

e also exhibited an earnest desire to correct abuses a halo of fiction. Most European countries have 

ar^g from the negligence of the bishops and the their legends of the Hunnish leader, who is divereely 

nobles and confirmed the rule (Aquerms Regula) depicted, according as the vanity of nations would 

that the Council of Aachen had drawn up (816j for represent Attila as a friend who had contributed to 

canoiw and monks. In 870, thirty bishop and six their greatness or as a foe to whose superhuman 

^bishops met at Attigny, to pass judgment on strength it had been no discredit to succumb. Of 

Karlnmnn, the king s son, made an ecclesiastic at these legends the best known is the story of Etzel 

an early age, and accused by his father of conspiring (Attila) in the " Niebelungen-lied ". 

a^amst his life and throne. He was deprived of Thikrrt. Hiatoire d'AUila (Paris, 1864); Gibbon. Roman 

his abbeys and imprisoned at Senlis. In the council Empire CSew York, 1902), xxxiv, xxxy. III, 618-589, con- 

of 875, kncmar Bishop of Laon appealed to. the gS'^&*S^"&?n,'°il?7T!!=r. f^STd^'kn'S^Sfe 

pope from his uncle, Hincmar, Archbishop of Reims, historical elements of ecclesiastical tradition are not sum- 

Manbi, CoU. Cone, Sap. 1. 621, XIl, 674; Sup. I, 286, XIV. ciently distiMuished. Acta SS., s. v. St. Lupus, XXXIV, 75- 

403; Sup. I. 998; XV, 680, XVI, 662; Hulot, AUigny, avec 90; and St. Leo /, XI, 18. For the lefsendary elements in the 

tet dipendancee ... set conciUs, etc. (Attigny-Reims, 1826); Attila tradition, tMd., s. v. St. Oenetneve of Paria, I, 136 sq.. 

Chutaueb. Topo-W6t (Paris, 1894-09), 247. 144 sq.: St. Auctor of MeU, XXXVI, 536: St. ServoHus of 

Thomas J. ShaHAN. Maestncht, XVI. 211, 212 (St. ServaUus of Tongres did not 

-.^« - . - 1 f ^^ rr i ^ »» oxist); St, Oemtntanua of Modena, III, 714; St. John of Ra- 

AttUa, king and general of the Huns; d. 463. venna^ II. 9, 10. On the St. Servatius and St. Auctor legends 

^leceeding in 433 to the kingship of Sc3rthian hordes ?«e PAULusWARNErRiDus, De GeetiaEpiscoporum Metenaium, 

disoi^zld^and enfeebleirby inteiial discords. Sod^ctfon^I-^ ' p*'^*^"^*^ '^^ "" 

Attila soon 'made of his subjects a compact ana ' * John B. Peterson. 
fomiidable people, the terror of Europe and Asia. 

An onsucceesful compaign in Persia was followed Attiret, Jean Denis, painter, b. at Dole, France, 

in 441 by an invasion of tne Eastern Roman Empire, 31 July, 1702; d. at Pekin, 8 December, 1768. He 

the success of which emboldened Attila to invade made serious artistic studies in Rome and after 

the West. He passed unhindered through Austria returning to his native country achieved considera* 

and Gmiany, across the Rhine into Gaul, plunder^ ble reputation as a portrait painter. He entered the 

ing and devastating aU in his path with a ferocity Jesuit novitiate as a lay brother and has left some 

unparalleled in the records of oarbarian invasions, specimens of his work m the Cathedral of Avi^on 

&Da oompdling those he overcame to augment his and the Sodality chapel which he painted while a 

midity army. In 451 he was met on the Plains of novice. The Jesuits had many of their men in China 

(%ilons by the allied Romans imder Aetius and employed as painters. Attiret joined them in 1737 

tbe Visigoths under Theodoric and Thorismond, ana was easily the superior of all. He was honoured 

«bo overcame the Huns and averted the peril that with the title of Painter to the Emperor, who visited 

menaced Western civilization. Turning then to his studio daily and finally made him a mandarin in 

Itahr, Attila, in the spring of 452, laid wa^ Aquileia spite of the brother's unwillingness to accept the 

m many Lombara cities, ana was approaching honour. As all the work was done not for art but for 

Room, whither Valentinian III had fled before him, the sake of pleasing the emperor, every suggestion he 

viien he was met near Mantua by an embassy, the made was carefully attended to. Oil was not agreea- 

oaoBl influential member of which was Pope I.<eo I, ble, so aquarelles and distemper were resorted to. 

itidi diasoaded AttilA from sacking the city. Attila The Emperor did not like shading, for he thought it 


was a blot, so that disappearecL It all ended in Attiret ones '' are in great part a compilation of eaiiier eo- 

becoming altogether Chinese in his tastes and his clesiastioal legislation, including the False Decretals, 

methods, so that he no longer painted like a Euro- They contain, also, certain provisions of his own and 

pean. He made portraits of all the distinguished court- are of value for the studv ot contemporary ecdeeiasti- 

personages, but most of his work was done on glass oal life and manners in Northern Italy. He is some- 

or silk and represented trees, and fruits, and fishes, times known as Atto II; an earlier homonymous 

and animals, etc. When, however, the emperor had bl^op of Veroelli flourished about the middle of the 

beaten back the Tatars, he ordered the battles to eightn century. 

be painted. Four Jesuit brothers, among whom was Schijlts, iittovon VercMi (GdttinseD. 1887); Vbbschafpbk. 

Attiret, made sixteen tableaux, which were engraved '^.^Jls 'iW' p?^' J^<25r' n^^' TraABogcHi. 5tor. lea. 

in France in 1774. When the collection arri^a7rom h'&:^^iX^^ Chevalibb. /Wp. da. ^cm 

France, however, Attiret was dead. The emperor ' * Thomas J. Shahan. 

manifested great concern at his loss, bore the ex- ..^ ^j. / i no x * 

penses of the obsequies, and sent a special representa- a^^S'*?*^ V^ Ar aght) , Saint, a contemporary of 

tiveto show his sorrow at the tomb. Attiret is ?\ ^^^^^^ ^Z?™ ^**T ^®r ^"^^^^^ ^« Z^. ?^® 

credited with at least 200 portraits. ^ ^9^^ f **f foundrew of several churches in the 

Carayon, Biog. particuiih-eB, I486: Amiot, BiUioihlmu Nat, covmties of 9~^V ^^^ Sli«o, Ireland. Colgan s ac- 

(Paris); Somubrvoqel. Bibl. de la c. de J.; LeUre» Ed^ioanUB count of her life IS based on that wntten by Augustine 

"^^^^^ ^iJ'nS* xxb/i V- \?^ibf "liL^-I^ A^^}i Magraidin in the last years of the fourteenth century, 

STOCKLEIN, Welt Bottt AJLXIX, n. 679; Bbaumont, AecL of -_x AWr>..««^« :«, :^^w^JL.u^ui^ ^4.^* ^-,^^^4.^ tj^—.^..^ 

the Emperor of China't Garden (Londoi, 1762); North Chma ^^ abounds m unprobable statements. However, 

Herald. 3 Nov. I860; Pr^eie hUtoriqiM, 1866, 437, 461, 486; the fact 'of St. Attracta receiviM the veil from 

Joumai dea savanu. June, 1771. rr r n ^^' Patrick is corroborated by Tirech^n, in the 

1. J. OAMPBBLL. "Book of Armagh ", as is evident from the foUowinjj 

Atto, a faithful follower of Gregory VII in his con- passage m the "Documenta de S. Patricio" (ed. 
flict with the simoniac clergy, b. probably at Milan, Edmund Hogan, S.J.): "Et ecclesiam posuit in cella 
made Cardinal of San Marco, assisted (1079) at Adrachtae, filiaB TaJain, et ipsa accepit pallium de 
the retractation of Berenffarius in the Roman synod manu Patricii." A native ot the County Sligo, she 
of that year, and signed the decrees of the synod of resolved to devote herself to God, but bemg opposed 
1081. He may have been Bishop of Prseneste. by her parents, fled to South Connacht and made her 
Carduud Mai published imder his name (SS. Vet. first foundation at Drumconnell, near Boyle, County- 
nova coll.. VI, 2, 60 sqq.), from a Vatican manu- Roscommon, whence she removed to Greagraighe, 
script,' a ^'Breviarium l^onum", or miscellaneous or Coolavin, County Sligo. At Killaraght, St. At- 
collection of moral and canonical decrees, genuine tracta established a hospice for travellers, which 
and forged, from Pope Clement I to Gregory the existed as late as 1539. Her fame was so great that 
Great. It deab particularly with clerical rights and numerous places were named after her, e. g. Killa- 
duties, ecclesiastical acts, the administration of the raght (Cill Attracta^, Toberaraght, Qoghan Araffht, 
sacraments, censures, jurisdiction, etc. Other cardi- etc., and a large villa^ which grew up around her 
naU of the name are mentioned in the anonymous oratory at Killaraght m Coolavin. Colgan gives an 
(eighteenth-century) "Diatriba de Attonibus'*^ pub- account of the Cross of St. Attracta which was famed 
Ibhed by Cardinal Mai (op. cit.; cf. P.L., CXXXIV, during the Middle Ages, and of which the O'Mochain 
902). family were hereditary keepers. A striking con- 

BrCck in KirchenUx, 1, 1666, 1667. firmation of the existence of this relic in the early 

Thomas J. Shahan. jrears of the fifteenth centunr is afforded by an entry 

Atto of Piatoia, b. at Badajoz in Spain, 1070; \^^^ "Calendar of Papal letters- (VI, 451), from 

d. 22 May, llSS^He became Afebot of VSlombroeil 5?**^^^ l^^Tp^*'** ^^ ]^^^ M cross and cup of 

rruscany) in 1106, and in 1136 was made Bishop of ^t. Att^ta (Crux a^ Ci^h Aracht) were then 

Pistoia. He wroti lives of St. John Gualbert Wnd venerated m the church of Killaraght, in the Diocese 

of St. Bernard of VaUombrosa, Bishop of Parma. In ''^'i.'^*'?"^';v ^,?,^° ^"^^"^^ ^H^^^ 

1145 he transferred to Pistoia certTin relics of St. ?^^?'!f!3 ^^'f T'^^ ^t'^^ ^^^^ 

James of ComposteUa. His correspondence on that bad kpsed into desuetude to ^ 

occasion is foiSd in Ughelli, "ItiSik Sacra", VII, J^« I'^J^^'^K ^^LJ^l ""l ^*- ^k"^' '''' 

2QQ & I ' ' 11 August, IS given special honour in the Dioceee 

oinAUD. BtW. Sacr., 11. 420; Potthaht. BM. Hut, Med. ^^ Achonry, of which she is the ^troness. The 

jEvi, II, 1186; Chbvalier, rupertoire (Bio-Bibix I, 362. prayers and proper lessons for her Office were drawn 

Thomas J. Shahan. up by Cardinal Moran. 

...--- iM 1 J xi_ 1 • J -x Qrattan Flood, /rwfc iSamto; -Ada 55.(1668), 2 Feb., 296- 

Atto of VerceiJi, a learned theologian and canonist 2»7; BM. Haaioar. Lat. (looi), 1166; Colgan. Ada ss. 

of the tenth century, son of the Viscount Aldegarius, ^»Jf^- (1646), I, 2:n-2S2\ O'Hanlon, Live* of Irish Sainu, 

and Bishop of Vercelli (924-961). In 933 he became VIlI(il Aug.). w w r-.,^.^ i?,^^.. 

Grand ChanceUor of Lothaire 11^ King of France, and ^ • "• Urattan 1* lood. 

obtained from the royal gratitude donations and Attributes, Divine. — In order to form a more 

privileges for his see of Vercelli (Ughelli, Italia Sacra, systematic idea of God, and. as far as possible, to 

IV, 769). Several of his writings were first publLshea unfold the inudications of the truth. God is All- 

b^ the Benedictine D'Achery (16>55-77) in his '' Spicile- Perfect, this inmiite Perfection is viewea, successivdy, 

gium'' VIII, 1-137; 2d ed., 1723, I. 401-442. e. g. under various aspects, each of which is treated as a 

** Epistolse, Libellus de pressuris ecclesiasticis *\ and separate perfection and characteristic inherent to 

** Canones rursus statutaque Vercellensis ecclesise ''. the Divine Substance, or Essence. A certain noup 

A complete edition was executed by Baronzo del of these, of paramount import, is called the Divine 

Signore, in two folio volumes (Vercdli, 1768; P. L., Attributes. 

CXXXIV, 27-834), inclusive of his lengthy commen- I. Knowledge op God Mediate and Synthetic. 

tary on the Epistles of St. Paul. In 1832 Cardinal Mai — Our natural knowledge of God is acquired by 

published eignteen sermons of Atto, and his curious discursive reasoning upon the data of sense and 

" Polypticum ", or ** Perpendiculum '', an abridgment introspection, "For the invisiUe things of Him, 

of moral philosophy, ''written in a mysterious and from the creation of the world, are dearly seen, 

enigmatic way ". In his history of early medieval lit- being understood by the things that are made; His 

erature Ebert transfers to some Spaniard the author* eternal power also, and Divinity" (St. Paul, Romans, 

ship of this work, but Hauck defends the traditional i, 20). Created things, b^r the properties and activi- 

view (Realencyk. f. prot. Theol., II, 214). His *' Can- titt of their natures, manifest, as m a c^ass, darkly, 


Ihe powers and perfections of the Creator. But meaning of the statement is not that God lacks bh 

these refracted images of Him in finite things cannot telligence, but that in Him there is not intelli^nce 

/umish grounds for any adeq^uate idea of the Infinite exactly as we know it. Again, since there is no 

Being. Hence, in constructmg a synthetic idea of imperfection in God, every concept of defect, priva- 

God, before one can apply to the Divinity any con- tion, and limitation must be negated of God. Many 

eept or term expressing a perfection found in created negative names, it is true, are applied to God; as 

being, it must oe subjected to rigorous correction, when, for instance, He is said to be immutable, 

The profound disparity between the Divine perfection uncaused, infinite. It should, however, be care- 

aod the intimations of it presented in the world-copy fully observed that some attributes, which, from the 

may be broadly laid down imder two heads. (1) Num- etymological point of view, are native, convey, 

ber.— The perfections of creatures are innumerable, neverthdess, a positive meaning. Failure to per- 

the Divine perfection is one. (2) Diversity. — Createa ceive this obvious truth has been responsible for 

perfections differ endlessly in kind and decree; the much empty dogmatism on the impossibility of 

Divine perfection is uniform, simple. It is not a forming any concept of the Infinite. Tjie basic note 

.totality of various perfections; absolutely simple, in the idea of the Infinite is existence, actuality, per- 

tbe Divine perfection answers to every idea of actual fection; the negative note is subordinate. Furtner- 

or conceivaple perfection, without being determined more, since the force of the latter note is to deny any 

to the particular mode of any. Hence, when any and all limitations to the actuality represented by 

attribute expressing modes characteristic of the the former, its real import is positive, like the can- 

Torid of being that falls within the ran^e of our cellation of a minus sign in an algebraic formula; or, 

experience is api>lied to God its signification ceases it discharges the function of an exponent and raises 

to be identical with that which it has in every other actuality to the nth power. (3) Way of eminence. — 

casa Yet it retains a real meaning in virtue of the The concept of a perfection derived from created 

ratio which exists between the finite being and its things and freed of all defects, is, in its application 

Infinite analogue. In philosophical phrase, this use to God, expanded without limit. God not only 

of tem^ is called analogical predication, in contra- possesses every excellence discoverable in creation, 

distinction to univocal, in which a word b predicated out He also possesses it infinitely. To emphasize 

(rf two or more subjects in precisely the same sense, the transcendence of the Divine perfection, in some 

(Sec AiTALooY.) cases an abstract noun b substituted for the corre- 

n. Source op our Natural Knowledge op sponding adjective; as, God b Intelligence; or, a^in. 

God.— To correct, as far as possible, the inadequate some word of intensive, or exclusive, force is joined 

character of the concepts through which we must to the attribute; as, God alone b good, God b good- 

fonnulate our idea of God, the first step b to dis- ness itself, God b all-powerful, or supremely power- 

tinguish created perfection into two kinds, viz., fuL 

mixed F|erfections and pure perfections. A pure per- IV, Deductive Development. — Having estab- 

fection b one whose exact concept does not include Ibhed the exbtence of God from metaphysical, 

any note formally expressive of defect or limitation; physical, and moral arguments, the theologian selects 

fiw content of the idea b entirely positive. The some one of the attributes which these proofs au- 

idca of a mixed perfection, on the contrary, formally thorize him to predicate of the Divinity and, by 

or directly connotes, along with what b positive in unfolding its implications, reaches a number of other 

the perfection, some privation or deficiency. Ex- attributes. For instance, if God b Pure Actuality, 

ampfes of the former are power, truthfulness, will; that b, free from all static potency, it follows that, 

as an instance of the latter, materiality may be since change implies a transition from an antecedent 

offered For, though the reality that belongs to potential condition to a subsequent condition in 

matter b, of course, a participation of exbtence and which the potentialitjr b realized. God b immutable, 

activity, yet the concept of it connotes the imper- Here we reach the point where tne term Attribute b 

^ions (^ that particular kind of exbtence which eniployed in its strict sense. 
B composite and subject to disintegration. Asain, V. Essence and Attributes. — ^Transcendentally 

penionality b a pure perfection; for, as Catholic one, absolutelv free from composition, the Divine Be- 

phikMophy teaches, though the finite character of ing b not, and may not be conceived as, a fundamen- 

mman p^sonality comes mto play in the awakening tal substrate in which qualities or any other modal 

trfseif-consciousness, yet limitation b not an essential determinations inhere. The reality to which the 

constituent of personality. All terms that stand for various attributes are ascribed b one and indi vbible. — 

pure perfections are predicated analogically of God, "Quae justitia^" says St. Augustine, "ipsa bonitas; 

and are desLmated attributes in the wide sense of quae bonitas, ipsa beatitudo." — In thb respect, the 

tbe word. When terms which signify mixed per- relation of the attributes to the Divine nature might 

fectiooa are predicated of God, the analogy becomes be illustrated by the various reflections of one and 

» faint that the locution b a mere metaphor. the same object from a concave, a convex, and a 

in. Inductive Development of Attributes. — plane mirror. Nevertheless, to systematize the idea 

Tbe elaboration of the idea of God b carried out of God, and to draw out the nch content of the 

aiong three convolving lines: (1) The positive way knowledge resulting from the proofs of God's exbt- 

<rf ousalitv. — In virtue of the principle that what- ence, some primary attribute may be chosen as 

e^ excdlence is contained in an effect b repre- representing one aspect of the Divine perfection 

>«rted in the eflficiency of the cause, reason affirms from which the others may be rigorously deduced. 

^ every positive perfection of created being has Then arises a logical scheme in which the derivative 

^tnnscendental analogue in the first cause. Hence, attributes, or perfections, stand towards one another 

ftona the existence of an intelligent being, man, in in a relation somewhat similar to that of the essence 

tfe cosmos, we rightly infer that God b inteUigent, and the various properties and qualities in a material 

w is to say, His infinite perfection b superabund- substance. In thb arrangement the primary per- 

KitlT adequate to all the operations of intellect, fection is termed the metaphysical essence, the 

^J ihe negative way. — ^If we fix our attention pre- others are called attributes. The essence, too, may 

csdy on the Infinity of God, then, focusing the be regarded as that cliaracterbtic which, above all 

«if5tioQ not upon the positive content of any others, dbtinguishes the Deity from everything else, 

^'oted perfection, but upon the fact that^ because Upon the question, which attnbute b to be considered 

^ JB finite it is determined in kind and limited in pnmary. opinions differ. Many eminent theologiant^ 

JJpee, we may affirm that it b not found in God. favour tne conception of pure actuality {Actus Purus) 

We nay say, e. g., that He b not int^igent. The from which simplicity and infinity are directly de 


duced. Most modem av^thors fix on aseity (AseUaa; Gilbert de la Porr^e, who maintained a real, ontoloei- 
a==** from " sc*** himself "), or self-existence; for the cal distinction between the Divine £lssence and the 
reason that, while all other existences are derived attributes. His opinion was condemned b^ the 
frorp, and depend on, God, He possesses in Himself. Coimcil of Reims (1148). St. Thomas defimtively 
absolutely and independently, the entire reason of expressed the doctrine which, after some contro- 
His uncaused, infinite Being. In this, the most pro- versies between Scotists and Thomists upon minor 
found and comprehensive distinction between the points and subtleties, and with some divergence of 
Divinity and everything else, all other distinctions opinion upon imimportant details^ is now the coin- 
are implicitly expressed. Whether, and in what mon teaching of C&tholic theologians and philoso- 
way, the distinctions between the attributes and the phers. It may be 8\immarized as follows: Tne idea 
metaphysical essence, and among the attributes of God is derived from our knowledge of finite beings, 
themselves, have an ontological basis in the Divine When a term is predicated of the finite and of the 
nature itself, was a subject which divided Nominal- Infinite, it is used, not in a univocal, but in an 
ists and Realists, Thomists and Scotists, in the aee analogical sense. The Divine Perfection, one and 
of Scholasticism (cf. Vacant, Diet, de th^l. cathoT., invisible, is, in its infinity^ the transcendental analogue 
I, 2230-34). of all actual and possible finite perfections, oy 

VI. Division op Attributes. — ^Taking as the means of an accumulation of analogous predicates, 
basis of classification the ways by which the attributes ^ methodically co-ordinated, we endeavour to form an 
are developed, they are divided into positive and ' approxim^^te conception of the Deity who, because 
ne^tive. Amonjg the n^ative attributes are sim- He is Infinite, cannot be comprehended by finite 
plicity, infinity, inamutabuity. The chief positive intelligence. Modem philosophy presents a re- 
attributes are unity, truth, goodness, beauty, markaole gradation, from Pantheism, which finds 
omnipotence, omnipresence, intellect and will, per- God in everjrthing, to Agnosticism, which declares 
sonality. Some authors divide them into incom- that He is beyond the readi of knowledge. Spinoza 
municable and communicable. The former class conceives Goa as "a substance consisting of infinite 
comprises those which belong to God alone (e. g., attributes each of which expresses eternal and 
all-wise, self-existent, omnipotent) to the latter oelong infinite essence ". The two attnbutes manifested to 
those which are predicable, analogically, of God and us are thought and extension. At the other ex- 
creatures; as good, just, intelligent. Again, the treme we find Agnostics of the school of Herbert 
divine nature may be considered either as static, or Spencer (see Agnosticism) and some followers of 
as the source of activity: hence another division into He^l, who hold that the nature of God, or, to use 
quiescent and active. Finally, some perfections in- their favourite term, "the Absolute", is utterly 
volve a relation to things distinct from God, while unknowable, and its existence not determined to 
others do not; and from this standpoint theologians any mode; therefore, to predicate of it various 
divide the attributes into absolute and relative, attributes, expressive of determinations, is idle and 
The various classifications adopted by modem misleading. Between the finite and the Infinite 
Protestant theologians are due partly to the results there is no conmion ground of predication* hence, 
of philosophical speculation and partly to new con- words which signify finite perfections can have no 
ceptions of the nature of religion. Schleiermacher, real meaning when predicated of God* they become 
e. g., derives the attributes of God from our three- mere empty symbols. All theolo^cal attempts tx» 
fold consciousness of absolute dependence, of sin, and elaborate an idea of God are vam, and result in 
of grace. Others, with Lipsius, distinguish the meta- complete absurdity when they conceive God after 
physical attributes from the psychological and the man s image and likeness (see Anthropomorphism), 
ethical. A simpler division groups omnipotence, and circumscribe the Infinite in terms borrowed from 
omnipresence, eternity, omniscience, and unity as human psychology. Criticism of this kind indicates 
the metaphysical predicates, justice and goodness that its authors have never taken the trouble to 
as the moral attributes. The fundamental attribute understand the nature of analogical predication, or 
is, according to Ritschl, love; according to Pro- to consider fairly the rigorous logical process of 
fessor Royce, omniscience. The main difficulty with refining to which terms are subjected before being 
these writers centres about the idea of God as a per- predicated of God. It often happens, too, that 
sonal being. writers, after indul^ng liberally in eloquent de- 

VII. Revelation. — ^The supernatural knowledge nunciation of theologicsu anthropomorphism, proceed, 

tribution that govern the one hold good also for the morphic, in an ultimate analysis, than " will " and 

other. "intelligence". The position of the Catholic Church, 

Vin. Historical Development. — ^In the fourth declared in the Fourth Lateran Council (1215), is 

century Aetius and Eunomius maintained that, again clearly stated in the following pronouncement 

because the Divine nature is simple^ excluding all of the Vatican Council: 

composition or multiplicity, the various terms and "The Holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Church 

names applied to God are to be considered synony- believes and professes that there is one living and 

mous. Otherwise they would erroneously imply true God, Creator and Lord of heaven and earth, 

coinposition in God. This opinion was combated omnipotent^ eternal, iimnense, incomprehensible, 

by St. Cyril of Alexandria, St. Basil, and St. Gregory infinite in intellect and will and in all perfection; 

of Nyssa (In Eunom., P. G., XLV). The princi- Who, being One, singular, absolutely simple and un- 

ple of attribution received more precise statement changeable spiritual substance, is to be regarded as 

at the hands of St. Augustine, in his investigation of distinct really and in essence from the world, most 

the conditions of intellectual knowledge (De Genesi blessed in and from Himself, and unspeakably ele- 

ad Litteram, IV, 32). In the ninth century, John vated above all things that exist, or can be con- 

Scotus Erigena, who ws3 largely influenced by ceived, except Himself. " 

Neo-Platonism, transmitted through the works of „ _ _ „ .. .. ^ , 

the P8eud<>:Dj,nysi«9, contributea to bring into ^,-^ ??2"lVi>f&,:'^v"ll^'5=; ^"^Z. llTk iL3: 

clearer relief the analogical character of predication Wilhelm and Scannkll, A Manual of Catholic rheoloai 

(De Diving Naturft, Lib. I). The Nominalists (New York, 1892); I, v; Ghatby, La connaUmnce de LH^u 

reWved the views of Eunonriius and the opposition y-g* ja^^^fg^ 'io^^^r'^iJ!: ^ i^T^ 

of the Realists was earned to the other extreme by (Phtib, 1903); Flint. Theim (Edinburgh, 1876); Iv^kbaob! 


TkMm in tA« LifiifU of Modem Science and PkOoi 
York. 1899); Ladd, The Pkiloeoph' 
1905): IixiNOWOBTH, Personal^, 

VJS'^, ^.-P^»SP*v (New andria (Strom., Vll) speaks of righteousness which 

^, . _ ..,.Jm/!^ulnaTDivk^TJ^^^ comeB of love and righteousness arising from fear, 

Knd New York, 1903); Frasbb, PhUosophy of Theism (Edin- and m the Strom., II. ch. vu, he si)eaks at length on 

1896), U. .^^^"•'w w *^twwK*«o sncuwgy u^ew xotk, forward against his position. The most striking 

James J. Fox. sentence is the one wherein he says: '' cautious fear is 

therefore shown to be reasonable, from which arises 

Attrition, or Imperfect Contrition (Lat.ottero, "to repentance of previous sins", etc. St. BasU (4th 

wear away by rubbme"; p. part, attntus). — ^TheCoun- interrogatoiy on the Rule) speaks of the fear of God 

cfl of Trent (Sess. XIV, Chap, iv) has defined contrition and of His judgments, and he asserts that for those 

as "sorrow of soul, and a hatred of sin committed, who are beeinnmg a life of piety "exhortation based 

with a firm purpose of not sinning in the future", on fear is of greatest utility", and he quotes the wise 

This hatred of sm may arise from various motives, man asserting, "The fear of God is tne beginning of 

may be pr6mpted by various causes. If the detes- wisdom" (P. G., XXXI). St. John Chrysostom may 

tation of sin arise from the love of God, Who has be auoted in the same sense (P. G., XLIX, 154). 8t. 

been grievously offended, then contrition is termed Ambrose, in the fifteenth sermon on the Psalm cxviii 

perfect; if it arise from anv other motive, such as speaks at large on godly fear which beg[et8 charity, 

loes of heaven, fear of hell, or the heinousness of begets love : nunc timorem sequitur charUas (P. L., 

guilt, then it is termed imperfect contrition, or xv, 1424), and his disciple, St. Augustine, treats fully 

attrition. That there exists such a disposition of the eodliness of fear as a motive to rep^itanoe. In 

soul as attrition, and that it is a goodly thing; an the I61st of his sermons (P. L., XXXVlII, 882 sqa.) 

impulse of the Spirit of God, is the clear teaching of he speaks of refraining from sin for fear of Goa's 

the Council of Trent (Sess. XIV, iv). "And as to judgments, and he asks: "Dare I say such fear is 

that imperfect contrition which is called attrition, wrong?" He replies that he dare not, for the Lord 

because it is commonly conceived either from the Christ uiging men to refrain from wrongdoing suff- 

consideration of the turpitude of sin, or from the gested the motive of fear. " Fear not those who kul 

fear of hell and of pimisnment, the council declares the body ", etc. (Matt., x). True, what follows in St. 

that if with the hope of pardon, it excludes the wish Augustine has been subject to much dispute, but the 

to sin, it not only does not make man a hypocrite general doctrine of the godliness of fear is here pro- 

and a greater sinner, but that it is even a gift of pounded, and the difficulty, if aught there be, touches 

Grod, and an impulse of the Holy Spirit, who does the other question hereinafter treated anent "Initial 

not indeed as yet dwell in the penitent, but who Love ". 

only moves him; whereby the penitent, beiii^ assisted. The word itself, attrition, is of medieval origin, 

prepares a way for himself unto justice, and although Father Palmieri (De Poenit., 345) asserts, on the au- 

this attrition cannot of itself, without the Sacra- thority of Aloysius Mingarelli, that the wOTd is thrice 

ment of Penance, conduct the sinner to justification, found in the works of Alanus of Lille, who died at 

y^et does it dispose him to receive the grace of God an advanced age in the year 1203; but its use in the 

m the Sacrament of Penance. For smitten profitably school is contemporaneous with William of Paris, 

-^ith fear, the Ninivites at the preaching of Jonas Alexander of Hales, and Blessed Albert. Even with 

did fearful penance and obt^^ined mercy from the these men its meaning was not so precise as in after 

Lord." Wherefore anent attrition, the council in years; though thev all agreed that of itsdf it did not 

Canon V, Sess. XIV, declares: "If any man assert that suffice to justify the sinner in God's sight. (See the 

attiition ... is not a true and a profitable sorrow; Scholastic traditions in article Absolution, and Pal- 

that it does not prepare the soul for grace, but that mieri, loc. cit.). This fear is godly, since it excludes 

it makes a man a hypocrite, yea^ even a greater not only the will to sin, but also the affection for sin. 

sinner, let him be anathema." This doctrine of the There would perhaps have been little difficulty on thb 

council is in accord with the teaching of the Old and point if the distinction were kept in mind between 

the New Testament. The Old Testament writers that fear which is termed aerviltSf which touches will 

praise without hesitation that fear of God which is and heart, and that fear known as servilUer aeroilie, 

really "the beginning of wisdom" (Ps. ex). One which though it makes man refrain from perform- 

of tne commonest forms of expression found in the ing the sinful act, leaves the will to sin and tne affeo- 

Hebrew scriptures is the "exhortation to the fear of tion thereto. 

the Lord" (Ecclus., i, 13; ii, 19 sqq.). We are told Attrition in the Sacrament op Penance. — ^The 

that "without fear there is no justification" (ibid., Church not only regards the godliness of fear as a 

i, 28; ii, 1; ii, 19). In this fear there is "confidence motive to repentance, but expresidy defines that 

of strength" and it is "a fountain of Ufe" (Prov., xiv, attrition, though it justifies not without the Saora- 

26, 27); and the Psalmist prays (Ps. cxviii, 120): ment of Penance, nevertheless disposes the sinner to 

"iHerce thou my flesh with tny fear: for I am afraid receive grace in the sacrament itself (Sess. XIV, iv). 

of thy judgments." This particular phase of the doctrine of contrition 

New Testament. — ^Even when the law of fear had in penance is nrst taught with deamess by the 

given way to the law of love, Christ does not hesitate Schoolmen of the twdfth century, and particularly 

to inculcate that we must " fear him who can de- by St. Thomas, who gathered into a united whole the 

stroy both soul and body into hell" (Matt., x, 28). jarring opinions of his predecessors (See the Scholas- 

Cwtainly, too, the vivid account of the destruction tic in article Absolution). Though some still pre- 

of Jeru^em, typical of the final destruction of the ferred to follow the Lombards who insisted on penect 

world, was intended by Jesus to strike terror into contrition, after St. Thomas there was little division 

the hearts of those who heard, and those who read; in the schools up to the time of the Council of Trent, 

nor <^n one doubt that the last great judgment as At the council there was some opposition to a clear 

portrayed by Matthew, xxv, 31 sqq., must Imve been definition, some of the Fathers insisting on the ne- 

described by Christ for the purpose of deterring men cessity of perfect contrition, and it was perhaps for 

from sin by reason of God's awful judgments. The this reason that the decree was couched as above, 

Apostle kppears not less insistent when he exhorts leaving it still possible to doubt T^^ether attrition 

us to work out "our salvation in fear and trembliM" was a proximate, or only a remote, disposition for 

lest the anger of God come upon us (Phil., ii, 12). justification in the sacrament. To-oay tne eommon 

The Fathers of the earliest da^^ of Christianity have teaching is that the council simply intended to define 

spoken of fear of God's punishments as a goodly the sufficiency of attrition (Vacant, Diet, de thM.^ 

virtue that makes for salvation. Clement of Alex- col. 2246-47). And this would seem reasonabla* 



because it is the clear teaching of the Church that [negantem necessUatem aliqiudis diisdionis Dei] in the 

perfect contrition justifies the sinner even without attrition conceived through fear of hell, which to- 

the Sacrament of Penance. If perfect contrition, day (1667) seems the one more generally held by 

then, were always necessary, why aid Christ institute scholastic theologians, or that affirming the necessity 

a particular sacrament, since justification would of the said love, imtil something shall have been 

always be imparted independently of the sacramental defined in this matter by this Holy See." The au- 

cerenaony? If attrition is sufficient for justification thoritative statement of Alexander VII leaves the 

in the ^crament of Penance, then there seems no question still open as Benedict XIV teaches in ''De 

reason to deny its sufficiencv when there is question Synodo ", Bk. Vll, xiii, n. 9. Still it is clear that 

of remitting sin through baptism, for the reason Alexander considered as more probable the opinion 

given above will apply eaually in this place. The stating attrition as sufficient for justification m the 

question has also been asked apropos of attrition, Sacrament of Penance even if it included not the 

when one receives a sacrament of the living in mortal b^nninjg of love. The censure latce serdenUa was 

sin, of which sin he is not conscious, wiU attrition omitted in the " Apostolic® Sedis ". On the formula, 

with the sacrament suffice unto justification? The "Exattrito fit contritus'*, cf. Vacant, Diet, de th^., 

answer is generally given in the affirmative. See St. col. 2256 sqq. 

Thomas. Sumnaa Theol., Ill, 2, a. 7 ad 2*°», 7ed., 2; Edward J. Hanna. 

Billot, De Poenit., p. 152. ***«-»-, a'a i * t>u • • a • »#■ 

CoiJDmoN8.-ffiat attrition may make for iustifi- ^u^"'"*^ * Yr f M^jlof • "^^^ '•" A"* ^Jlll' 

cation,itm«sttemtenor,«upernatLl,unive™il,aad ''''^„^i^'^^'''A^l'^^^V\^^^^.^i;^'^ 

sovereign. (See CondUtons m article CoNTRmON.) of Greek and Roman Gcogr., I. 336. 
Interior, for the Council of Trent requires that it.,vj,,, ,. , 
should exclude the will to sin. Supernatural, for ^?J?*'*1®' Jean-Michel-d Astorg, canon regular, 
Innocent XI condemned the proposition, ^'Probabile ^^^J^^^ Capitular of Pamiere, b. 1639; d. 4 August, 
est sufficere attritionem naturalem modo honestam ". l^^^' ^^^^"^^ educated at Toulouse (France), en- 
Universal, for the motives of attrition (fear of hell, *®^®^ ^^^ Semmaiy of Pamiers, and later joined the 
loss of heaven, etc.) are of such a nature as to em- ^"?^ regular who formed the cathedral chapter of 
brace aU sins. Sovereign, for here again the ordinary ^J^^\ ^'ocese. » After the death of the bishop, Francois 
motives of attrition (fear of hell, etc.) make one hate Caulet, Aubardde was chosen vicar capitular. As 
sin above aU other evil. It has been questioned administrator of the diocese, he t»ok up and earned 
whether thb would be true if the motive were fear ^^ vigorously the resistance of Caulet to the roy^ 
of temporal punishments (Genicot, T. 11, n. 274; Bil- demands m the matter of the Reffalia. He refused 
lot, De Pcemt., 159 sq.). The Reformers denied the J^ recognize royal nominations to local ecclesiastical 
honesty and godliness of attrition, and held that it sim- benefic^, and excommunicated the canons appointed 
ply made man a hypocrite. (Bull of Leo X, Exurge ^Z, ^^® ^i^S' "^^^^ they attempted to exercise their 
Domine, prop. VI; Council of Trent, Sess. XIV, office. He was arrested by royal order, and im- 
can. iv.) They were followed by Baius, Jansen, Poisoned for six years at Caen, where he died. His 
and his disciples, who taught that fear without courageous resistance is remarkable at a time when 
charity was bad, since it proceeded not from the ecclesiastical servility in France had reached its 
love of God. but love of self (see prop. 7, 14, 15, ^^^^' ^\ Jungmann remarks (in Herder, K. L., 
condemned by Alexander VIII, 7 December, 1690; \ ]^^V ^^^\ .^ well-knowTi Jansenistic rigorism 
also 44, 61, 62, condemned by Clement X, "Uni- ^l Caulet and his clergy was partly responsible for 
gwiitus ", 8 September, 1717. Also Bull of Pius VI, ^^^^^ stubborn defiance of Louis XIV; they rightly 
"Auctorem Fidei" prop. 25). feared that the nominees of the king would not be- 

Catholic writers m the seventeenth century ques- long to their faction. , , , „ ^ ^ 
tioned, whether attrition must of necessity be ac- ^''^^'^^ ^ AssembUe du dergi de Fmnee de 1682. 
companied at least by the beginning of the love of i^omas j. feHAHAN. 
God, and, that granted, whether such love was a Aubermont, Jean-Antoine b', of Bois-le-Diic, 
disinterested love of God for His own sake, or whether theologian, d. 22 November, 1686. He joined the 
it might not be that love termed ccmcupisceniiw, or Dominicans in 1633, taught philosophy and theology- 
love of God because He is our ^reat good. Some in several convents of his order, was made doctor of 
held that in every real act of attrition there must be theology at Lou vain in 1652, and president of the 
the beginning of love; others denied categorically local Dominican college in 1653. His theological 
this position, exacting only that sorrow which ex- writings are mostly in defence of papal infaUibility 
eludes affection for sin, and hope of. pardon; others (1682) and against the Galilean teachings of the 
insisted that there must be at least a beginning of Declaration of 1682. Shortly before his death he 
that love which has been termed above concupis- defended against Papebroch St. Thomas of Aquin^i 
centice; while still others exact only that love which authorship of the Mass for Corpus Christi. 
begets hope. On these opinions see Vacant, Diet, de Quetif-Echard, SS. 0.P„ II, 709; Vacant, D%cL de Thioi. 
thiol., s. v. Attrition, cols. 2252, 2253, 2254, etc. ^""^'^ ^' ^^^' rp„ to 
On the controversy, particularly in Belgium, see ihomas j. &hahan. 
DOllinger and Reusch (Diet., col. 2219). Thecontro- Aubery, Joseph, Jesuit missionary in Canada, 
versy waxed so warm that Alexander VH issued a b. at Gisors in Normandy, 10 May, 1673; d. at St. 
decree, 6 May, 1667, in which he declares his distress Francois, Canada, 2 July, 1755. At the age of 
at the almost scandalously bitter disputes waged seventeen he entered the Society of Jesus, and for 
by certain scholastic theologians as to whether the four years studied in Paris. • He arrived in Canada 
act of attrition which is conceived through fear of in 1694 and completed his studies at Quebec, where 
hell, but excludes the will of sinning and counts on he was also instructor for five years, and where he 
obtaining the mercy of recovering grace through the was ordained in 1700. Assigned to the Abnaki 
Sacrament of Penance, reguires in addition some act mission, he re-established in 1701 the mission at 
of love of God, and then '^enjoins on all of whatever Medoctec on the St. John River, which appears to 
rank, under pain of incurring the severest ecclesiasti- have been abandoned by the Franciscans about a 
cal penalties, not to presume in future when discuss- year earlier. In 1708 he was ^ven charge of the 
ing the aforesaid act of attrition to brand with any Abnaki reduction at St. Fran9ois, and exercised the 
nmrk of theological censure, or wrong, or contempt, ap)ostolate in that single mission for neany iuJf sl 
either one or the other of the two opinions; that century. Aubery is said to have been an aDie 
denying the necessity of some sort of love of God lin^niist. but unfortunately his numArous MSS.. with 


the mission registers, were destroyed by fire in 1759. an extended work on the theme, entitled "Conjeo- 

He also wrote several memorials m opposition to the tures acad^miques, ou dissertation sur Tlliade". He 

claims of the English in Acadia, and sent them to died before he was able to make the final revision, 

the French Government, urginjg that the boundaries and it was not published until 1715, forty years 

between the French and English possessions should after his death. The work was known to Wolf, and 

be determined by mutual agreement. To these though the French scholar anticipated many of his 

memorials he added a map, giving the boundaries own views he does him scant justice. A Qer- 

as defined by the treatv of Utrecht. His plan, how- man critic declares that d'Aubignac's arguments are 

ever, was not acceptecl. These valuable documents substantially as strong as WoU's, in some respects 

are still preserved in the Paris archives. Chateau- stronger, and that if Wolf's "Prolegomena" produced 

briand reproduces the hte^story of Father Aubery greater and more lasting results, this is due less to 

in the character of the missionary in his ''Atala". the character of his arguments than to the greater 

^4 bbf. d'A ubignac 

,__- ,». ~^- Altertum und fur Pd- 

18»«- ^ _, -, dagoffik (Leipzig, 1905) XV. 

Edward P. Spillane. Charles G. Herbermann. 

k^ui.^^^ v^.^rr^r^ tiA^«, r^, a««At.» «««^«,««: Aublgiie, Jean-Henri Merle d'. See Reforma- 

AuDignac, rRANfois 11edelin,Abbe D ,gramman- ^jqj. 

an, poet, preacher, archjBologist, philologist, b. at Paris, .* _ ,^ .,, ..,^, 

4 August, 1604; d. at Nemoura, 27 July, 1676. He ^^^^^?_3^^' Pierre d , Grand Master of the Order 

took his name from an abbey that was granted him. of bt. John of Jerusalem, b. 1423; d. 1503. He made 

Mter completmg his classical and theological studies, ^is first campaigns against the Turks, and fought 

be was appointed by Cardinal Richelieu instructor next under the French Dauphin in a >var agamst 

to the latter's nephew, the young Due de Fronsac, to ^'^^ Swiss (1444). It was on his return from thif 

whose gratitude he owed a pension of 4,000 Hvres. last expedition that he obtained from Charles VII 

This appointment, as well as his own inclination, led pnnission to join the Hospitallers. The year 1460 

him to devote his time to literary studies, especially fo^^d ^^^ Castellan of Rhodes, and he soon after 

to the classics. He was drawn into the contro- became captain-general of the city, which had been 

verey between the ancients under the leadership the seat of the order since 1309, and was now the 

of Boileau, and the moderns under Perrault, his ch»ef obstacle to Ottoman supremacy m the Med;- 

'*Z6nobie", but abo a work entitled "Pratique du ^^^, }^ ^? time m making what preparations he 

Th^tre". could for the defence. A letter to the houses of his 

The ahh6 interests modern scholars chiefly because ^^^^ brought him whatever men and money they 

of his attitude on what is known as the ^'^ Homeric could spare. Additional sums came from Sixtus IV 

Question". He was one of the first to doubt and Louis XI, together with some of the bravest 

the existence of Homer; he even propounded the soldiers of Italy and France. Yet with all his 

theory that the Iliad is made up of a number of in- exertions he ys^as able to muster no more than 450 

dependent ballads gathered and put together by a kn»g^ts and 2,000 auxiliaries. The Turkish arma- 

compUer not very much later than the supposed ment, which appared before Rhodes 23 May, 1480, 

dat^ of Homer, whom he took to be Lycurgus. This fas overwhelmingly superior in numbers, and was 

firet compilation, howevtr, was not final, as the poem furnished with the best artillery then obtainable, 

continued to be handed down by the recitation of ^^t the example of d Aubusson's good right arm, and 

rhapsodiats who again divided the work into sep- ^^ omnipresence, made heroes of all the defenders. 

arat« songs, Pisistratus making the final redaction. Aft^ three months of ahnost incessant fighting. 

These views were based partly on statements in the which cost him 25,000 of his best warriors, the 

Greek historians, partly on reasons drawn from the Turkish commander was forced to raise the siege, 

poem itself. D'Aubignac dwelt on the impossibility For this brilliant achievement d'Aubusson received 

of tiansmittmg so long a poem without the aid of writ- a cardmal s hat, and was revered by all Christendom 

ing which he, as did Wolf, beUeved to be unknown to as "the Shield of the Church ". In his subsequent 

Homer. He drew arguments from the construction of snorts to form a league that would dnve the Turks 

the epic, its lack of unity and its multiplicity of themes, ^^om Constantinople, he failed, 

the quarrdi of Achilles bein^treated of m^ only a few ^^^^^^^^^^"^^3^^ tt ^T^on' tof^'l^iZ^S^r: "^ 

books. The name Iliad he considered a misno- of the Grand-MaaUra . , . of St. John . . . (Naples, 1636); 

mer, since Troy is not the subject of the story. The Flandrin, HUtory of the KnighU of Rhodes (Paris, 1876). 

Diad, he contended, has no suitable ending; the •^- *^- ^- Vuibert. 
read«^s curiosity reniains unsatisfied. It contains Auch (Augusta Auscorum), Archdiocese of, 
many cantos that might be omitted/ not only with- comprises the Department of (Jers in France. Be- 
out detriment but with positive advantage to the fore the Revolution it had ten suffragan sees: Acqs 
action of the story. Besides these general consid- (Dax) and Aire, afterwards united as the Diocese of 
entions, he adduced numerous details which consti- Aire: Lectoure, later reunited with the Archdiocese 
tute flaws in the poem as we possesa it. but which of Auch; Couserans, afterwards united with the 
would be entirely justified in separate oallads. In Diocese of Paraiers; Oloron, Lescar, and Bayonne, 
short, there are few objections made to the Iliad united later as the Diocese of Bayonne; Bazas, after- 
by inod^n scholars on sesthetical and rhetorical wards united with the Archdiocese of Bordeaux; 
pounds which are not touched upon by the French Comminges, united later with the Archdiocese of 
humanist. The arguments against a single author, Toulouse; and Tarbes. Up to 1789 the Arch- 
diawn from the character of the language, the in- bishops of Auch bore the title of Primate of Aqui- 
tcrmixture of the dialects and the hke, d'Aubignac taine, though for centuries there had been no Aqui- 
couki not present, because linguistic studies in his taine. The Archdiocese of Auch, re-established in 
(fay had not advanced sufficiently to enable him 1882, was made up of the former archdiocese of tlie 
to appreciate the "Homeric Question" from this same name and the former Dioceses of Lectoure, 
pcint of view. Though the abb6 had on many Condom, and Lombez. Condom was previously a 
pccaMona set forth in writing his opinions on Homer, suffragan of Bordeaux, and Lombez of Toulouse; 
t was only shortly before his death that he wrote thenceforth the suffragans of Auch were Aire, Tarbes, 


and Ba^onne. A local tradition that dates back to 5,000 ha^ been baptized, "and there were about five 
the beginning of the twelfth century tells us that or six times as manv catechumens." In 1845 Dr. 
Taiuinus, fifth Bisho[> of Eauze (Elusa), abandoned Pompallier changed his headquarters to Auckland 
his episcopal city, which had been destroyed by the In 1848 Auckana and Wellington were erected into 
Vandals, and transferred his see to Auch. Eauze, sees. The Marist Fathers were withdrawn to the 
in fact, probably remained a metropolitan see till Wellington diocese in 1850. The Rev. James Mc- 
about the. middle of the ninth century, at which time, Donald then became the principal missionary to the 
owing to the invasions of the Northmen, it was re- Auckland Maoris. The Maori missions in New Zea- 
imit^ to the Diocese of Auch, which had existed land were paralyzed by the series of native wars 
since the fifth century at least and then became an between 1843 and 1869. They were taken up in 
archdiocese. The first Bishop of Auch known to the Auckland diocese by ;the Mill Hill Fathers, in 
history is the poet, St. Orientius (first half of the 1886. The Sisters of Mercy were introduced in 
fifth century), m honour of whom a famous abbey 1850. In 1868 Dr. Pompallier went to France, re- 
was foundea in the seventh century. Cardinal Mel- signed, and died in 1870. He was succeeded by 
chiorde Pohgnac, author of the "An ti-Lucrdce," was Dr. Thomas William Croke (1870-74), afterwardis 
Archbishop of Auch from 1725 to 1741. The cathe- Archbishop of Cashel. After five years, Father 
dral of Sainte Marie, a Gothic structure with a Walter Bisschop Steins, S.J., was appointed to 
Byzantine facade, is, in spite of this incongruity, Auckland (1879-81). He was succeeoed by Dr. 
very imposing; its fifteenth-century windows are John Edmund Luck, O.S.B. (1882-96). The Right 
said to be the most beautiful in France. The ancient Rev. George Michael Lenihan, consecrated 15 No- 
episcopal sees of Condom and Lombez had a monastic vember, 1896, succeeded him. 

origin. Bossuet was non-resident Bishop of Cbndom Statistics. — At the census of 1901, the white 

for two years (1668-71). At the end of the year population of the Auckland Provincial District was 

1905 the Archdiocese of Auch contained 238,448 in- 175,938 (of whom 27^246 were Catholics)' Maoris, 

habitants; 29 parishes, 478 succursal or mission 21,291. The population of the Kermaaecs was 

churches, and 61 vicariates. eight, all non-CSitnolics. The official estimate of the 

GaUia Christiana (od. Nova. 1715). I. 965-1010, 1325-30, total white population of the Auckland Provincial 

and I>ocum«nte, 169-172 and 202; Duchesne, Fa«((P»rfpMcopaux ninfrinf ^1 TWAmhAr IQOfi wm 211 2.^^- CatholiP 

de Vancienne GauU, II, 89-102: Montlezun, Vie dea mxinU A^WtriCt, 61 L>ecemDer. ItfUO, waS ZIM^, V/atnouc 

eviqueM de la mitropole d'Auch (Auch, 1857); Chevalier, population of Auckland Provincial District (which IS 

Topo-bibL (Paria, 1894-99), 251-252. coterminous with the Diocese of Auckland if the Ker- 

Georqes Goyatj. madec Islands be included), 32,272: population of the 

A^«« r«^^^r«,r*. ^« T« iHAQ « ^^,..^^.'1 ^f A„«k Kermadec Islands, five, all non-Catholics. According 

A ^' »^t S^^ /V J i^Ho^ «n ^L^ht to " New Zealand Stotistica, 1904 ", p. 503, there weii 

''r't^J^^ fTf PafhXl of C^Ant" .«rt^r^ in the Auckland Provinciai District, at the close of 

?K°"'?»'K!r A?* ^•.n^^W n 1077 ?n«a?n^I,^ 1904. 37 Catholic schoob, with 96 teachers and 2,393 

their tithes. At a council neia in 1077 (near Cliovem- ^„ -i* rpu^ f^iiy^,«;.>« «r™ ♦i^^ ^r.i<^;oof ;m>i afaf ;««;/»« 

populania) William, Archbishop of Auch. was deposed P^Pi'^H /^^""^irpU,^® 2fi!lim^ 

by Gerald legate of Gregory /ll. In 1276 a coWil {"' ^PV^' ^^06: secular clergy, 26 MiUHdlFatbeR 

wM held at Auch in defenc^ of ecclesiastical jurisdicv Jf'irr ''ITP^*!^ .'A' J^.^i^v,^ Hi^^^Tf '9I 

tion and immunities. In 1851 a provincial' council Sli^'t" ,2r."R*»&i^l^*SSL?^'^^^ 

of Auch drew up a number of decrees concerning <'^""'*'^' I» = S^l*'"*"* lr^teK^*tii3*^' !.?^ 

^^ec^iitriuSL''^'"'''^' ^"'"'^ ''°'^''^' °u^^-ZV':^''^i^^ir&foi>r^''J^ 

ml^^C^.. X?x! W3. XXV. 107. 217-281: CAZAn- «nd higii fhools 13 ; parochial schools, 25 ; orphan- 

KKS, ConcileaefynodeBdu diocese d* Auch, in Revue deOatcoffne ageS, 2: home for the ageO poor, 1; hospital, 1 ; 

(1878). XIX. 70-84; 112-126; CHEVAihER. Topo-bibl, (Paria, children in Catholic schools, 2,600. 

1894-99) 251. Pompallier, Early Hiatory of the Catholic Church in Oceania 

A»«vi«»«^ rk,^^««« ^B. ^rx»^»«;o^ *U^ ■D^,r:« CE. T., Auckland, 1888); Cardinal Moran, Hietory of the 

Auckland, Diocese of, COmpns^ the Provm- hatholic Church i^ Auetralaeia {Sydney, no dsLte): Mabbhaui^ 

cial Distnct of Auckland (New Zealand), with ite Christian Mieeione (New York, 1896); New Zealand Census, 
islete, and the Kermadec Group. Area, 21,665 yol. IWI (WeUington, 1902); New Zealand Statistics (Well^ 
square miles. On Trinity Sunday, 1835, the Vicariate "'**^"' 1905-06). Henry W Cleary 
Apostolic of the Western Pacific was erected by- 
Pope Gregory XVI. The Abbd Jean Baptiste Fran- Anctorem Fidei, a Bull issued by Pius VI, 28 
gois Pompallier was chosen as its first vicar. The August, 1794, in condemnation of the Gallican and 
territory under his jurisdiction comprised all New Jansenist acts and tendencies of the Synod of Pistoia 
Zealand, the present Vicariates Apostolic of Fiji, (1786). To understand its bearing, it is well to ob- 
(Ilentral Oceanica, British New Guinea, Dutch New serve that Leopold II, Grand duke of Tuscanv(1765- 
Guinea, New Pomerania, (part of) Gilbert Islands 90), pursued the ecclesiastical policy of his brother. 
New Caledonia, Navigators' Islands, New Hebrides, Joseph II of Austria; i. e. he practically arrogated 
and the Prefectures Apostolic of North Solomon Is- to himself supreme authority over all ecclesiastical 
lands and Northern New Guinea. The new vicar was matters within his dominions. In 1785 he sent fifty- 
consecrated in Rome, 30 June, and sailed from Havre, seven articles to each bishop in the grand duchy, 
24 December, 1836, accompanied by the Marist with orders to consider them in a diocesan ^od, as 
Fathers Servant and Bataillon (I^yons), Chanel and a preliminary to a national ^od. in which they were 
Bret (Belley), and three lay-brothers. Father Bret finally to be discussed. Scipio de' Ricci, Bishop of 
died on the voyage. Father Bataillon (afterwards Pistoia, held his diocesan synod, and approved not 
Vicar Apostolic of Ontral Oceanica) was left at only the fifty-seven articles drawn up oy order of 
Wallis Island, and Father Chanel (Blessed Peter Leopold, but added a number of others of similar 
Chanel, Protomartyr of Australasia) at Futuna. import. Among them were the following; All eccle- 
Dr. Pompallier and Father Ser\'ant reached Hokianga siastical authority comes directly from the members 
(Auckland Province) 10 January, 1838, and were of the Church at large, whose commissioned minis- 
provided for by an Irish Catholic, Thomas Poynton. ters the pastors are. The pope is only ministerially 
At that time there were probably fewer than 100 head of the Church. Bishops do not depend on the 
white (Catholics in all New Zealand. Other Marist pope for any jurisdiction in the ^vemment of their 
Fathers arrived in 1839 and subsequent years. The diocese. In diocesan synods pansh priests have the 
missions to the aborigines (Maoris) became very sue- same right of voting and deciding as the bishop, 
oessful, despite grave calumnies propagated by Reserved cases should be abolished. Exco mm uni - 
Wesleyan trader-missionaries. By April, 1846, about cation has only an external effect. It ia ouDeratitkui 


to have more devotion towards one sacred image of the highest rank, being considered as equal to the 

than towards another. Civil rulers have the right pope, sit near him during audience, under the same 

of maldng impediments diriment of matrimony and oatdachin or canopy. The attendance of guards and 

of dispensing from them. Bishops are not bound to chambeiiains andf court officials is always doubled 

make an oam of obedience to the pope before their when such audiences are given. In the ordinary 

consecration. AU religious orders should hve under audiences given to priests and lay persons the general 

the same rule and wear the same habit. Each church practice is that they present a letter of recommends^ 

should have only one altar; l^e hturgy should be tion from the bishop of their diocese, which is pre- 

in the vernacular, and only one Mass should be eel- sented to the rector of the national college in Rome 

ebrated on Sundays. Leopold caused a national of the country from which thev come. The rector 

synod to be held at Florence in 1787, but he did not procures from the master of the chamber the nee- 

find the other bishops as pliant as Scipio de' Ricci. essary card of admission. Amongst the instructions 

Nevertheless he continued assuming ail ecdesiastical printed on this card are those regulating the dress to 

authority, prohibited all appeals to the pope, and be worn on such occasion: for priests the cassock 

even 2U)pointed bishops, to whom the pope of course with a lar^e black mantle (Jerraiolone)^ such as Roman 

rcfusecf canonical institution. Finally, the Bull '' Auo- secular pnests wear; for lay men, evening dress with 

torem Fidel" was published, in whicE eighty-five arti- white cravat; for ladies, a black drees with black 

des taken from the Synod of Pistoia were catalogued lace veil on the head. On these occasions it is for- 

and condemned. After the publication of the Bull, bidden to present to the pope for his signature 

Sdpio de' Ricci submitted. In 1805 he took occa- written requests for indulgences, faculties^ privileges, 

non of the presence of Pius YJf. in Florence, on his or the like. Since the election of Pope Pius X there 

way to Rome from his exile m France, to ask in has been some concession in the matter of drees for 

person for pardon and reconciliation. He died re- the laity in public audience; apparently, in order that 

Ssntant, 1810, in the Dominican convent of San every ''man of good- will ", non-Catholic as well as 

arco at Florence. Catholic, who desires to see the pope may have his 

DEMziNosa-STAHL. Enchiridion Sj/mbolorum el DeAnit. (9th wish fulfilled. This has increased the numb«r of 

tip^^^J^X^kt^'-il^^i. ^%iti^ tSil,-^. P««0!« '«»iyed in audience, but it has lessened 

Suuo e Ckiesa aoUo Leopoldo I (Florence. 1856); Rbumont, occasions for the pope s Utterances on various aspects 

Getchichte von Toacana, II. 167 sqq.; Gklli,M emorie di of the tendencies of the time, which distinguished 

£SSTr^^i^i°^/?S'i?g'i>^~l85KfT'SA^ ^)%!^^^^^^^o{Uo XIII and of the latter yea« 

272-81; VI, 407-15. of Pius IX, and which were statements that awakened 

M. O'RioROAN. profound interest. 

HuMPHBBT. Urba et Orbit, or the Pope ae Bishop and Pontiff 

AndianS. See Anthropomorphism. (London, ISOO); L'Egliae catholique h la fin du XIX^ nicle 

Audiencet, Pontifical, the receptions given by **^ ' p, l, Connellan. 
the pope to cardinals, sovereigns, princes, ambassa- 
dors, and other persons, ecclesiastical or lay, having AudifCredi, Giovanni Battista, b. at Saoivio, 
business with or interest in the Holy See. Such near Nice, in 1734^ d. at Rome, July, 1794. He 
audiences form an important part of the poi)e's entered the Dominican Order, and soon attracted 
daily duties. Bishops of every rite in communion attention b}r his taste for books and his talent for 
with the Holy See, and from every nation, come to the exact sciences. After being occupied in various 
Rome, not only to venerate the tombs of the Apos- houses as professor and bibliographer, he was at 
ties, but also to consult the supreme pastor of the length transferred to the Dominican house of studies 
Churclu Thd master of the chamber (Maestro di (S. Maria sopra Minerva), and was placed in chaise 
Contfra), whose office corresponds to that of grand (1765) of the great Bibliotheca Casanatensis, founded 
chamberiain in royal courts, is the personage to whom in 17()0 by Cardinal Girolamo Casanata. Audiffredi 
all requests for an audience with tne pope are made, published a bibliographical work in four folio volumes 
even those which the ambassadors and other mem- entitled ''Catalogus bibliothec® Casanatensis Hb- 
beis of the Diplomatic Corps present through the rorum typis impressorum, 1761-1788". The work 
cardinal secretary of state. He is one of the four remains unfinished, not proceeding beyond the letter 
Palatine Predates who are in frequent relations with L, and contains a list of his own publications, 
the pope, and his office is regarded as leading to the Similar works were the "Catalo^us historico-criticus 
caidmalate. The pope receives every day the Romanarum editionum sseculi XV" (Rome, 1786, 
cardinal prefect of one or other of the sacred quarto), and the more extensively planned ''Cata- 
congregations. At these audiences decrees are lo^us historico-criticus editionum Italicarum ssculi 
signed or counsel given by the pope, and hence, by XV '* fibid., 1794,), which was to give an account 
their very nature, they are of no slight importance of books printed in twenty-six Itafian cities. Au- 
to the prjictical work of the Church. Prelates con- diffredi did not live to complete the work. The 
nected with other institutions either in Rome or first part, extending to the letter G, contains a 
abroad, generals and procurators of religious orders, short biography of the author introduced by the 
are also received at regular intervals and on statea publisher. Audiffredi 's position enabled him to 
days. The days and hours of regular audiences are become an expert antiquarian, and he found time 
specified on a printed form which is distributed to all to cultivate his mathematical talent and to devote 
cardimds and persons whose duty and privilege it is himself to astronomy. He built a small observatory, 
to have such audience. This printed form is changed and at intervals busied himself with observation, 
every six months, as the hours of atidience vary The eighteenth century was much occupied with the 
according to the season. Audiences to sovereigns or problem of solar parallax. In 1761 and 1769 transits 
princes travelQin^ under their own names and titles of Venus were observed, and Audiffredi contributed 
are invested with special ceremonies. When the to the work in his publication, ''Phenomena coelestia 
pope was a temporal ruler the master of the cham- observata — investigatio parallaxis soils. Exercitatio 
ber, notified beforehand by the secretary of state Dadei Ruffi" (anagram for Audiffredi). The pre- 
of the proximate arrival in Rome of a soverei|^, dieted reappearance in the middle of the century 
went, accompanied by the secretary of ceremonial, of Halley's comet intensified scientific interest in 
tereral miles beyond the city gates to meet him. cometic orbits. The epoch was favoured with a 
Returning to Rome, he notified the pope of the event, number of brilliant objects of this kind, and that of 
and visited the sovereign to acquaint him with the 1769 distinguished itself by its great nucleus and 
day and hour of the pontifical audience. Sovereigns by the taU which stretched over more than half 


the sky. AudifTredi took observations of the positions and frequently quoted approvingly. He also de- 

of the comet and published his results under the title, voted himself to historical studies, especially in il* 

''Dimostrazione aella staxione delta cometa, 1769" lustration of the papacy, bringing to them absolutely 

(1770). A general taste and capacity for the natu- good intentions, assiduous industry, and much just 

ral sciences distinguished this learned Dominican, and acute observation, such as was not then common 

but, like that of many savants, Audiffredi's life was in the circle which surrounded him. Nevertheless 

one of retirement and obscurity. these historical labours had no great intrinsic value, 

H. De Laak. especially at a time when so large a number of docu- 

™®^^ ^®^ being published. For this reason they 
Audin, J.-M.-ViNCENT, b. at Lyons m 1793; d. m are no longer sought after by students. 
Paris, 21 February, 1851. He first studied theology Audisio had no deep insight into theology and law, 
in the seramary of Argentidre, and afterwards pur- and often displayed deplorable lapses on these sub- 
sued the study of law. He passed his law exam- jects in his writings and his lectures. At the time 
ination but never practised his profession^ having of the Vatican Council he was accused of Gallicanism, 
decided to enter on a literary career. His first pub- to the great grief of hb patron Pius IX. and his work 
lications were: "La lanteme magique" (1811); on political and religious society in the nineteenth 
"Blanc, bleu et rouge" (1814); "Tableau histonque century was condemned by the Church. Audisio, 
des 6v6nemente qiu se sont accomplis depuis le retour however, was profoundly Catholic in feeling, and not 
de Bonaparte jusqu'au r^tablissenient de Louis only did he fully submit to the condemnation of his 
XVIH" (1815). He also contributed to the "Jour- book, but he warmly protested against the accusation 
nal de Lyon " founded by BaUanche. He ?oon left of heterodoxy and d&obedience. He was a fervent 
his native city and settled m Paris where he opened upholder of papal and Catholic rights against the 
a bookstore and at the same time was active with political liberalism of Piedmont. He was one of the 
his pen. He first published articles of a political founders of the Catholic irUransigeard paper, the 
cast, and historical tales in the style of the time, "Armonia^of Turin.- It waa for this reason that he 
such as "Michel Morin et la Ligue *; "Florence ou fell a victim to the anti-clerical influence which had 
la Religieuse"; " Le Regicide", and others. He then deprived him of his post at Supeiga. 
took up historical writing, his first work of this kind feut in Rome Audisio united himself with that clique 
bemg " Le Concordat entre L^n X et Fran<?ois I« " of liberal Italian ecclesiastics (such as Monsignor Liv- 
(1821), which is, for the most part, a translation of erani) who advocated reforms and concessions not al- 
that document. This was followed by his " Histoire ^ays just and often premature, and who professed doc- 
de la St. Barth^lemy" (2 vols., 1826). These two trines of little weight, sometimes false, often inexact, 
works were fauly well received although some eccle- Iq this enviromnent Audisio compromised himself, 
siastical critics accused him of bemg too favourable but his figure remaias that of an extremely religious 
to the Protestante. Audin publicly defended him- and charitable priest and of an eager student devoted 
self against this imputation, and a«^rted his firm to the Holy See and to the Church. Some pages of 
behef in the doctrines of the Cathohc Church. He his works on the popes still merit consultation, 
now began his most important work, the history of The works of Audisio are: "Lezioni di Eloquenza 
the Protestant Reformation, which he published Sacra" (several editions); "Juris Natur® et Gentium 
from 1839 to 1842 m four booKs, as follows: (l)"His- PubUci Fimdamenta" (Rome. \6b2)\ "idea storica 
tou^ de la vie, des ouvrages et de la doctrine de delladiplomaziaecclesiastica'^ (Rome, 1864); "Storia 
Luther" (2 vols., Paris, 1839; 2d ed., 3 vols., 1850); religiosa e civile dei papi " (5 vols., Rome, 1860); 
(2) "Histou^ de la vie, des ouvraces et de la doc- " Sistema politica e religiosa di Federico II edl Pietro 
trine de Calvin" (2 vols., 1841; 2d ed., 1851); (3) ^ella Vigna" (1866); "Delia society politica e reli- 
" Histoire de L6on X et de son si6cle" (2 vols., 1844; gjosa rispetto al secolo XIX" (Florence, 1876), con- 
2d ed., 1851); (4) "Histoire de Henn VIII et du demned by decree of the Holy Office, April, 1877: 
schisme d' Angleterre " (2 vols., 1847; 2d ed., 1862). "Vita di Pio IX". 

The author claims to have based his statements upon Nxwva Endchpedia Italiana (SuppL, I, 1889); Voet delta 

researches which he made in the archives of various VeriUi (Rome, 29 September, 1882). 

European cities, especially in the archives of the U. Benigni. 

Vatican. The work shows that this assertion can- Auditor, the designation of certain officials of the 

not be accepted in its entirety. The volumes are Roman Curia, whose duty it is to hear (Lat. axidire) 

written in a romantic manner, and contam many ^nd examine the causes submitted to the pope, 

particulars which sober criticism has long proved to xhey cannot, however, give a decision unless they 

n. These 

_ part of the Roman Ouria since the 

and contemporary literature, and of the general con- Middle Ages. Amongst the principal dignitaries 

dition of Germany at that period" (Kirchenlex., bearing tSs title are: (1) AudUor PajxB. This of- 

8. V. Luther). . T,r , filial was at first the adviser of the pope in consis- 

La Grande Encyclopidxe, IV, 611 , KmscH ^^^ *^^ theological matters, but he aft«n\'ard3 

received also judicial power in civil and criminal 

Audisio, GuGLiELMO, b. at Bra, Piedmont, Italy, cases. Since 1831, however, his duties are restricted 

1801 ; d. in Rome. 27 September, 1882. He was pro- to certain ecclesiastical affairs, such as assisting at 

feasor of sacred eloquence in the episcopal seminary the examinations of episcopal candidates for Italy 

of Bra, appointed presiding officer of tne Academy and the transaction of^ matters relating to favours, 

of Superga (Turin) by King Charles Albert, but was etc. (2) Auditor Camera or Audiior Oentral, This 

expelled from this office because he was opposed official originally had very extended powers, such as 

to the irreligious politics of the Piedmontese Govern- judging appeals against the decisions of bishops ^ 

ment. He then went to Rome, where Pius IX ap- and proc^ing against bishops themselves in im- 

pointed him professor of natural and popular ri^ts portant cases and even punishing them without a 

m the Roman University, and Canon of the Vatican special commission from the pope. He could also 

Basilica. take co^izance of all cases of civil, criminal, and 

Audisio was a pious and charitable priest, and mixed jurisdiction in the States of the Church, 

spent large sums in benevolent works. He was an Nearly all these and similar powers have now been 

excellent teacher of sacred eloquence, and his manual withdrawn, and the tribunal of the Camera Apt^^ 

on the subiect was Iranslated into many languages Udica is at present limited almost entirely to ex- 


peditinc oommissioiis in certain well-defined cases. 1640: d. in PaCris, 1703, went to Paris, after being 

(3) Amiton of the Rota were originally chaplains tau^t engraving by his father and his uncle, to 

of the pope. By degrees thev were constituted receive instruction trou) the painter Lebrun, who 

into a tnbunal, and are said to have derived gave him some of his paintings to reproduce. He 

their name from the round table (Lat. rota) at worked in Paris four years, and in 1665 went to 

iriiich thev sat. Important cases laid before the Rome, where he remained three years and, it is said. 

Hcdv See by sovereigns and nations were referred became a pupU of Carlo Maratta. He etched as well 

to the Rota for iudnnent, and its decisions became as engraved, and produced in Rome some plates — 

precedents for all other tribunals. It also served as notably, a portrait of Pope Clement I A which 

a supreme court for civil cases in the States of the brought him much admiration. At the suggestion 

Cburch. At present, however, the Auditors of the of Colbert, Louis XIV sent for the artist aim made 

Rota are restricted practically to giving deliberative him engraver to, and pensioner of the king, with 

opinions in processes of beatification or canonization apartments at the factory of the Gobelins. This 

and deciding questions of precedence between eccie- recognition of his great ability spuired Audran to 

nastical di^itaries. They are generally also at- even greater endeavours, in which he was further 

tached as Consultors to various Koman Congrega- encouraged by his former patron, Lebrun, more of 

tions. whose paintings he reproduced, notably the ^* Battles 

Baaw. T*e Roman Cotart {New York, 1806); Ferraris, of Alexander". In November, 1681, he was made 

S^'cLf^ 1889) ^ ^^' HuMPHRET, Urbs et ^ member of the CouncQ of the Royal Academy of 

William H. W. Fanning. Painting The first productions of Gerard Audran 

were stiff and dry, and his subsequent onginal and 

Andran, the family name of four generations of dis- vigorously brilliant st^de is credited to the counsels 

tin^ished French artists, natives of Paris and Lyons, of Maratta, Ciro Ferri, and, notably, of his lifelong 

which included eight prominent engravers and two friend Lebrun. A second visit to Rome was made. 

painters. They flourished in the seventeenth and where was signed the plate after ''The Four Cardinal 

ei^teenth centuries, and some of their productions Virtues'', b^r Domenicnino, which is in the church of 

rank among the finest examples of the art of the San Carlo ai Catinari. Among the original works of 

burin. this famous engraver are the portrait of the Rospiff^ 

Charles, b. in Paris, 1594; d. 1674, was the elder liosi Pope, al^dy alluded to, those of Samuele 

of two brothers, some say cousins (the other being Sorbiere, Andrea Argoli of Padua, the Capuchin 

daude the First), who attained reputation as en- Benoit Langlois, the Bishop of Angers Henri Ar- 

gravers. Charles, who reached by far the greater nauld, and the sculptor Frangois du Quesnoy, called 

eminence, after receiving some instruction in draw- Fiamingo, ''Wisdom and Abundance above two 

ing, went as a young man to Rome to study further C^enii", and the vignette, "St. Paul preaching at 

the engraver's art, and while there produced some Athens ", Particularly esteemed among the plates 

[dates which attracted attention. He engraved in of Gerard Audran are two after cartoons of Raphael 

pure line, and took the work of Cornelius Bloemart, "The death of Ananias" and "Paul and Bamal:^ at 

with whom he studied, as his model. On his return Lystra", "The Martyrdom of St. Agnes", after 

from Italy the engraver lived for some years in Lyons Domenichino, and ' Coriolanus" after Poussin. 

before settling in Paris. Among his two hundred or Amon^ the other painters whose works he reproduced 

more plates are several original portraits, including are Titian, Rubens, Giulio Romano, Annibale Ca^ 

one of Henry II, Prince of Oond^, and reproductions racci, Pietro da Cortona, Guercino, Guido Reni, 

of worics by Titian, the Caracci, Domenichino, Palma Palma the Younger, Lanfranco, Min^rd,, Coypcl, 

the Younger, Albano and Lesueur. Lesueur, Bourguignon, Lafa^e, and Girardpn. He 

Claude the First, b. in Paris, 1597; d. at Lyons, was at times assisted by his nephews, Benoit the 

1677, studied with Charles, but in his portrait ana Elder and Jean. In 1683 Gerard published a work 

allegoncal plates, which were not many, adopted a called "The Proportions of the Human Body meas- 

8(»newhat different manner. He became professor ured by the most Beautiful Figures of Antiquity'', 

of engraving in the Academy of Lyons, and left, to which has been translated into English. 

perpetuate his branch of the family and its artistic Claude the Third, son of Germain, and the second 

reputation, three sons: Germain, Claude the Second, painter of the family, .b. at Lyons, 1658; d. in Paris, 

and Gerard, the last of whom became the most 1734, was notable as being the master of the famous 

famous artist among the Audrans. Watteau. He studied with his father as well as under 

Germain, the eldest son of Claude the First, b. at his uncles, Germain and Qaude the Second. Chosen 

Lyons, 1631; d. 1710, was a pupil of his uncle Charles cabinet painter to the king, he was also for nearly 

and worked both in Paris and Lyons. Among his thirty vears keeper of the palace of the Luxembour;^. 

plates are portraits of Richelieu and Charles Em- where he died. He executed considerable work in oil 

manu^ of Savoy (the latter after F. de la Monce) . and fresco in various royal residences. 

kuidscapes after Toussin, and fancies and ornamental Benoit the Elder, third son of Germain, b. at Ly- 

designs, after Lebrun among others. His four sons ons, 1661; d. 1721, in the vicinity of Sens, was first 

were Claude the Third, Benoit the Elder, Jean, and taught the family art by his father and then by his 

Lotus. uncle Gerard. He made an excellent reputation by 

Clattde the Second, son of Claude the First, b. at his reproduction of portraits and historical works. 

Lyons, 1639; d. in Paris, 1684, was the first painter Among his best productions are "The Seven Sacra- 

in the family. After receiving instruction in orawing ments . after Poussin, and "The Bronze Serpent ", 

from his uncle Charles, he went to study painting in after Lebrun. He became a M^nber of the Academy 

Rome. On his return to Paris he entered the studio and engraver to the king. 

of the cdebrated historical painter Charles Lebrun, Jean, fourth son of (^armain, b. at Lyons, 1667; 

on whose style he formed his own. Audran was d. 1756, became, next to his celebrated uncle Gerard, 

Lebmn's assistant in the paintii^, among others of his the best engraver of the family. He studied 

irorks, of the ''Battle of Arbela^ and the "Passage of first under nis father and then with his uncle. 

theOranicus". He painted in fresco with much skill. He had already distinguished himself at the early 

imder the direction of his master, the grand gallery age of twenty. He was rewarded for his subsequent 

of the Toileries, the great staircase at \^rsaiUes, and successes by being made (in 1707) engraver to the 

tiie ehapel near by, at Sceaux, of the ch&teau of that king, with the regular pension and the Gobelin 

enb^htened patron of art, Prime Minister Colbert. apartments. This was followed next year by mem- 

(Urakd, tnird son of Claude the First, b. at Lyons, bership in the Academy. Jean Audran worked until 


lie was eighty. His masterpieoe is ooDsidered to be title nmning, "A New Discovery that Enables thi 

''The Rape of the Sabines , after Poussin. Amon^ Physician from the Percussion of the Human 

his {dates are portraits after Gobert — those of Louis Thorax to Detect the Diseases Hidden Within the 

XV, Vandyke, Coypel, Largjillidre, Rigaud, Trevisani, Chest". 

and Vivien — and compositions alter, among others, Like most medical discoveries, Auenbrugger's 

Raphael. Rubens, the Garacci, Guide Reni, Domen- method of diagnosis at first met with neglect. Be- 

ichino, Pietro da Cortona, Albano, Maratta, Philippe fore his death,^owever, it had aroused the attention 

de Qiampagne, Marot, Poussin, and Nattier. His soq of Laennec, who, following up the ideas suggested by 

was Benoit the Younger. it, discovered auscultation. Since then, Auenbrugger 

LouiB, the youngest son of Germain^ b. at Lyons, has been considered one of the great foundera of 

1670: d. in Paris, c. 1712, studied with his father modem medicine. He lived to a happy old age, 

and his unde Gerard. He assisted his brothers, and especially noted for his cordial relations with Uie 

did few original plates. A work of his to be noted vounger members of his profession, and for his 

is ''The Seven Acts of Mercy ", after Bourdon. kindness to the poor and to those suffering from 

BBNorr the Younger, b. in Paris, 1698; d. in the tuberculosis. He is sometimes said to have died in 

same place, 1772, was the last of the remarkable the typhus epidemic of 1708, but the burial register 

family to have any historical importance artistically, of the parish church in Vienna, of which he had been 

He was a pupil of his father and did plates after, for half a century a faithful member, shows that he 

among others, Veronese, Poussin, Watteau, Lancret, did not die until 1807. 

and Natoire. Leopotj> Auenbruoger, Jahreab. d. Ver, d. Aertzte in Steier^ 

Prospbr Gabribl, a grandson of Jean, b. in Paris, V3^,iS?^iJ^}: **??^?i. ^^^?^^^^^\dS^!^' ^ 

^'7AA, A 1Q10. k^ o^,\^;^ «r;*u ku „*«^lJ tl^^vU ♦kJ Ge§«U3chaH fur Natur und Hetlkunde CDresden, 1863); Walsh, 

1744; d. 1819; he studied with his uncle, Benoit the Makera^ Modem Medicine (New York. 1907). 

Younger, and etched some heads. He gave up art James J. Walsh. 

for the law and became professor of Iiebrew m the « « r •» i* ▼> l. 

CoU^ de France Anisees, Jobst Bernhard von, canon of Bambierg 

D^LBMw. Le$ Aiidran; Bbtan. DicHonary of Painten a^d WOrzburg, b. 28 March, 1671, on the family 

amd Engravm-B, estate of Mengersdorf; d. 2 April, 1738. He was 

Augustus van Cleef. baptized a Lutheran, but educated (1683-90) as 

Auenbragger (or von Auenbrugo), Leopold, an %. Catholic through the efforts of his uncle C^ii 

Austrian physician, b. 19 Nov., 1722; d. 17 May, 1807. Sigmund, ca-non of Bamberg and WilnbuTg. He 

He was the mventor of percussion in physical diagno- ^^^ ^oo" advanced to the same dignity m both 

sis and is considered one of the small group of men to ^^i*"^^^' was provost of Bamberg m 1723 and hdd 

whose original genius modem medicine owes its pres- 2}'^^^ offices of distinction m both cities After 1709 

ent position. He was a native of Graz m Styria, an he devoted the revenues of his benefices to the este^ 

Austrian province. His father, a hotel-keeper, gave [whment of a house of studies at Bambere: m 1728 

his son every opportunity for an exceUent preSmi- tS.S?^^®^ ^P?"" '^ ^r® ^^a^ ^-^'^^ ^^5'' 1^^."^* 

nary education in his native town and then sent ^200,000). This Aufsees Seminary, or Institute, 

him to Vienna to complete his studies at the univer- ^^ destined for the reception of poor boys from the 

sity. Auenbrugger was graduated as a physician at P^oceses of Bamberg and WUrzbui^. They were to 

the age of twenty-two and then entered the Spanish ^ supported there dunng the entire time of theu- 

MiUtary Hospital of Vienna where he spent ten years, f^udi^ at the public academies. He originally m- 

His observations and experimental studies enabled J^"^®4„*^„ T^., ^'^ ''^^"iJSx*" charge, but by his 

him to discover that by tapping on the chest with 'ast will (17 February. 1738) turned it over to the 

the finger much important information with regard ^^ ?' the cathedral clmptera of Bambei^. and 

to diseased conditions within the chest might be W(irabui«. It was opened m 1741, and continued 

obtained '^ beneficent career until the beginning of the 

Ordinarily, the lungs when percussed, give a sound nineteenth century, when the secularization of the 

like a drum over wWch a heavy cloth has been placed, property of the ecclesiastical pnncipalities took 

When the lung is consoUdated, as in pneumonia, P^- The edifice was then turned over to the 

then the sound produced by the tapping of the finger nospital for incurables, and the revenues applied 

is the same as when the fleshy part of the thigh is ^ P^rt to scholarships (Shpendien). King Ludwig 

tapped. AuenbruMer found that the area over the I reopened it as a liouse of studi^ {Kdntgl^^ 

heart gave a mod^ed, dull sound, and that in this ^wii^emiruir) under governmental supervision, 

way the Umits of heart-duUness could be determined. The director and the prefects are pnests, but the 

This gave the first definite information with regard Goyernmwit appoints holders of the 42 free places 

to pathological changes in the heart. During his and the 20 places for youths who pay, also the 

ten years of patient study, Auenbrugger confirmed officers of the institute, and administers its revenues, 

these observations by comparison with post-mortem WrmiANN in K^rchenUx,, I. 1616. gHAHAK 
specimens, and besides made a number of experi- 

mental researches on dead bodies. He iniected Auger, Edmond, b. 1530, near Troyes; d. at Cbmo, 

fluid into the pleural cavity, and showed that it Italy, 31 January, 1591, one of the great figures in 

was perfectly possible by pereussion to tell exactly the stormy times in France, when the Calvinists 

Uie hmits of the fluid present, and thus to decide were striving to get possession of the throne. He 

when and where efforts should be made for its re- entered the Society of Jesus while St. Ignatius 

moval. was still living, and was regarded as one of the most 

His later studies during this ten-year period were eloquent men of his time. Mathieu calls hina the 

devoted to tuberculosis. He pointed out how to **Chrysostom of France". Wherever he went, 

detect cavities of the lungs, and how their location throngs flocked to hear him, and the heretics them- 

and size might be determined by pereussion. He selves were always eager to be present, captivated 

also recognized that information witn regard to the as they were by the cnarm of his wisdom and the 

contents of cavities in the lungs, and the conditions delicac^r of his courtesy in their regard. His en- 

of lung tissue might be obtain^ by placing the hand trance into France as a priest was in the citj- of 

on the chest and noting the vibration, or fremitus, Valence, where the bishop had just apostatized, 

produced by the voice and the breath. These obser- and the Calvinists were then in possession. The 

vations were published in a little book now considered efforts of Auger to address the people ^ere followed 

one of the most important classics of medicine. It by his bein^ seized and sentenced to be burned to 

was called '^Inventum Novum'', the full English death. While standing on the pyre, he harangued 

(1h multitude, and so won their good will that th^ of the government district of Upper Bavaria, and 
wbd for hie deliverance. Viret, especially, the a ameil part of the government district of C«itnd 
chief ontor of the Calvinista, wanted to have a Franconia, 

public digeuasion with him to convert him, Aiuer I. Histoht. (1) Early Period. — The present ci^ 
na eooseauently sent to prison for the night, but of Augsbu:^ appears Ld ^rabo aa Damasia, a stroi:^ 
tlM Cktbolics rescued him before the conference hold of the Ltcatii; in 14 b. c. it became a Roman 
to^ place. We find him afterwards in Lyons, dur- colony known as Augusta Vindelioorum, received thtt 
in^ a pestilence, devotins himself to the plague- rights of a city from Hadrian and soon became of 
■tncknu When the peet had ceased, in cons^uence great importance aa an araenal and the p<»nt of juno- 
of 1 vow he made, the authorities, in gratitude, tion of several im)Kirtaat trade routes. The begin- 
utiblished a colle^ of the Society to which Auger niogsof Christianity within the limits of the present 
mktd, much to tfaeir astonishmeDtj that the children diocese arc shrouded in obscurity: its teachings were- 
of the Calviuiats might be admitted. His whole probably brought thither by Boldiers or merchanta. 
lifs was one of constant activity, preaching and According to the acta of the martyrdom of St. Afra, 
idministering the responsible offices of Provincial, who with her handmaids suSered at the stake (or 
Rector, etc. that were entrusted to him. He was Christ, there existed in Augsburg, early in the 'ourtfi 
p mcn t in at le«st two battles, and was remarkable century, a Chriatian community undw Bishop Nat<- 
IM- hia influence over the soldiers. He was Gnally ciasua; St. Dionysius, imde of St, Afra, is mentioned 
made confessor of King Henry III, the fiiat Jesuit aa his sucoeBsor. 

to have that troublesome chaif^ put upon bim. (2) Medieval Period. — Nothing authentic is known 
Hw difficulty of his position was increased by the about the history of the Augsbuif Cliurch during Um 
[act that the League was just then being formed Inr 
the Catholic succession. Its principles and methods 
rae thought to trench on the royal prertttatjve; 
but Sixtus V waa in favour <rf it. Several Jesuits. 
notably the Provincial, Mathieu, who was depoeea 
I7 Acquaviva, were its stanch upholders. Auger's 
pontion was intoleraUe. Loyal to the king, he 
wH detested by the leaguers, who at Lyons, the city 
Ihat he had saved, threatened to throw him into the 
Khoae. They compromised by expelling him from 
the city. The general commanded him to reliii' 

r'lh the post of confessor, but the king secured 
pope's onler for him to stay. FinaUy, Auger 
prevailed on the monarch to release him, and lie 
vithdiew to Como in Italy, where he died. Shortly 
aflenrards Henry was assassinated. Like Coniaius 
in Germany, Auger published a Catechism for France. 
It appeared at first in Latin, and later he published 
it in Gre^ He wrote a work on the Blessed Eu- 
(tiarist, instructions for soldiers, translations, some 
literary compositions, and also drew up the statutefl 
for congregations, especially one in which the king 
"M interested, called the Congregation of Penitents. 
There is a letter Whim called "Spiritual Su^r", 
thoo^ he did not give it that title. He had written 
uaadrese to tbe people of Toulouse to consde them 
in the distress brought on by the calamities of the 
civil war. It so took the popular fancy that the 
tuthontiea of the city puMiahea it under this curious 

e. dt J., II; SouuEKvooKL. 
VuTona iUatra. V. 

T. J. Caupbbll, 

SoiTTH DooB or TSS Caisdhui,, / 

AngiUB, or Apan<&, a titular see of Cyrens ._ 

Northern Africa. It was situated in an osBis inthe centuries immediately succeeding, but it survived the 

ubyan desert which is still one of the chief stations collapse of Roman power in Germany and the tur- 

(Audjelah, Aoudjila) on the caravan route from bulence of the great migrations. It is true that two 

C«ro to Fernan. Its toreats of date-palma were catalogues of the Bishops of Augsburg, dating from 

fimous m the time of Herodotus (IV, 172); they the eleventh and twelfth centu™, mention several 

•liU crown the three small hills that nse out of an bishops of this primitive period, but the firat whose 

unbroken desert of red sand which in the near vicinity record has received indubitable historical corrobora- 

u Btron^y impregnated with salts of aoda. The tion ia St. Wikterp (or Wichpert) who was bishop 

Boalem popuUtion la now about 10,000 and is gov- ^bout 739 or 768. He took part in several synoda 

enied by an official of the Bey of Tripoli who draws convened by St. Boniface in Germany; in company 

from the oasis an imnual revenue of 812,000, ^ith St, Magnus, he founded the monastery of Fite- 

jte^^^S^n'^SSS^.f'l^^v/i'^s U"<K^» ««n; and OiSt Boniface he d»ii«ted the monae. 

Bt fiTiy rri[iiii( (Laulon, 1861), 128, 133. terr at Benediktt>euren. Under either St. Wikterp 

Tbouas J, Shahan. or his successor, Taxzo (or Toizo), about whom little 

. . „ „ is known, many monasteries were established, e. g. 

Augsburg, Confession or. See Conftosionh of Wewobmnn Enwangen,Pomng,Ottobeuren, At this 

fan, PBOTKBrAirr. time, also, the see, hitherto suffragan to the Patri- 

Angiburg, Diocbsb of, in the Kingdom of archate of Aquileia, was placed among the sufftagan 

Bnaria, Germany, suffiagan (A the Archdiocese of sees of the newly founded Archdiocese of Mainz <74<S) 

Vimidi-FTeising. embraciiw the entire government St. Sintpert (c, 810), hitherto Abbot of the monastery 

^rtiict of Swabia and Neuburg, the western part of Murbach, and a relative of Charlemagne, ren» 


vated many churches and monasteries laid waste in periods of conflict into which the Bishops of Augsburg 
the wars of the Franks and Bavarians, and during were drawn, often against their will, in their capaoiti? 
the incursions of the Avari; he built the first cathe- as Princes of the Empire, and the life of the Church 
dral oi Augsburg in honour of the Most Blessed accordingly suffered decline. Under Siboto von Lech- 
Virgin; and obtained from the Emperor Charlemagne feld (1227-47) monasteries of the newly founded men- 
an exact definition of his diocesan limits. His ju- dicant orders were first established in Augsburg. A 
risdiction extended at that time from the Iller east- celebrated member of the Franciscans was David of 
ward over the Lech, north of the Danube to the Alb, Augsburg, and of the Dominicans, Albertus l^Iagpus 
and south to the spurs of the Alps. Moreover, va- of Lauingen. Additional causes of coi^ict were the 
rious estates and villages in the valley of the Danube, troubles that arose between the Bishops of Augsbuig 
and in the Tyrol, belonged to the diocese. Among and the city authorities. During the strug^es be- 
the bishops of the following period a certain number tween the popes and emperors, Augsbuig, 1^ other 
are especially prominent, either on account of the large cities tlux>ughout the greater part of Germany, 
offices they mled in the Empire, or for their personal attained enormous wealth, owing to the industrial and 
qualifications; thus Witgar (887-87), Chancellor and commercial activity of the citizens. From time to 
Archchaplain of Louis the German; Adalbero (887 time efforts were made to restrict as much as possible 
-910), of the line of the Counts of Dillingen, confi- the ancient civil rights of the bishops and their 
dant and friend of Emperor Amulf, who entrusted stewards, and even to abrogate them entirely. From a 
Adalbero with the education of his son, the German state of discontent the citizens passed to open violence 
King Louis the Child, . distinguished for generosity under the Bishop Hartmann von Dillingen (1248-86), 
to the monasteries. The See of Augsbuig reached and wrung from the bishops many municipal liberties 
the period of its greatest splendour under St. UlHch and advantages. A characteristic instance is the con- 
(d23-973); he raised the standard of training and fumation by Emperor Rudolph of Habsburg at the 
discipline among the cleigy by the reformation of Reichstag held in Augsburg (1276) of the ^tadtbuchj 
existmg schools and the establishment of new ones, or municipal register, contaming the ancient customs, 
and by canonical visitations and synods; he provided episcopal and municipal rights, etc., specified in detail; 
for the poor, and rebuilt decayed churches and mon- on the same occasion Augsburg was recognized as a 
asteries. During the incursion of the Hungarians Free City of the Empire. Hartmann bequeathed to 
and the siege of Augsburg (955), he sustained the the Church of Augsburg his paternal inheritance, 
courage of the citizens, compelled the Hungarians to including the town and castle of Dillingen. Peace 
withdraw, and contributed much to the decisive vie- reigned under the succeeding bishops, of whom 
tory on the Lcchfeld (955). He built churches in hon- Frederick I (1300-31) acquired for his see the castle 
our of St. Afra and St. John, founded the monastery and stronghold of Fiissen; Ulrich II, von Schdneck 
of St. Stephen for Benedictine nuns, and undertook (1331-37), and his brother Henry III (1337-48) 
three pilgrimages to Rome. The diocese suffered remained faithful to Emjjeror Louis the Bavarian: 
much during the episcopate of his successor, Henry I Markward I, von Randock (1348-65), again redeemed 
(973-982), for he sidea with the foes of Emperor the mortgaged property of the diocese, and by the 
Otto II, and remained for several months in prison, favour of Emperor Charles IV was made Patriarch 
After h\k liberation he renounced his former views of Aquiieia (1365). New dissensions between the 
and bequeathed to his church his possessions at Gei- Bishop and the city arose under Burkhard von Eller- 
senhausen. The diocese attained great splendour bach (1373-1404), whose accession was marked by 
under Bishop Bruno (1006-29), brother of Em- grave discord growing out of the overthrow of the 
peror Henry II; he restored a number of ruined ralrizier, or aristocratic government, and the rise in 
monasteries, founded the church and college of St. municipal power of the crafts or guilds. Irritated by 
Maurice, placed Benedictine monks in the collegiate Burkhard 's support of the nobility in their struggle 
church of St. Afra, and added to the episcopal pos- with the Swabian cities, the inhabitants of Augsburg 
sessions by the gift of his o\v'n inheritance of Strau- plundered the dwellings of the canons, drove aome 
bing. Under Bishop Henry II (1047-63), the guardian of the clergy from the city (1381), destroyed, after 
of Henry IV, the diocese secured the right of coinage a short intei-val of respite (13^), the episcopal strong- 
and was enriched by many donations; under Embrico hold, the deanery, and the mint, and became almost 
(or Emmerich, 1063-77) the cathedral was dedicated completely independent of the bishop. Burkhard 
(1066), and the canonicate and church of St. Peter proceeded with great enei^ against the heresy of 
and St. Felicitas were built. During the last years the Wychfites who had gamed a foothold in Auffs- 
of this episcopate occurred the auarrel of Emperor burg, and condemned to the stake five persons who 
HenrylV with the papacy in which Embrico took the refused to abjure. After the death of Eberhard II 
imperial side and only temporarily yielded to the papal (1404-13), a quarrel arose in 1413 because the city 
legate. The struggle continued under his successors: of Augsburg declined to recognize the la^'ful Bishop, 
four anti-bishops were set up in opposition to Siegfriea Anselm von Nenningen (1413-23), and set up in 
11 (1077-96). Hermann, Count von Vohburg (1096 opposition Friedrich von Grafeneck who had been 
or 1097-1132) supported with treachery and cunning presented bv Emperor Sigismund. This trouble 
his claim to the see he had purchased, violently perse- was settled by Pope Martin V, who compelled both 
cuted the Abbot of St. Afra, and expelled him from bishops to resign, and on his own authority replaced 
the city. Only after the conclusion of the Concordat them by Peter \T>n Schauenberg, Canon of Bamberg 
of Worms (1122) did Hermann obtain the confirma- and Wurzburg (1423-69). 

tion of the pope and rehef from excommunication. Peter was endowed by the Pope with extraordinary 
The political disturbances resulting from the dissen- * faculties, made cardinal and legate a latere for aU 
sions between the popes and the German emperors Germanjr. He worked with zeal and energy for the 
reacted on the Church of Augsburg. There were reformation of his diocese, held synods and made 
short periods of rest, during which ecclesiastical life episcopal visitations in order to raise the decadent 
received a forward impulse, as, for instance, under moral and intellectual life of the clergy; he restored 
Bishop Walther II. Count Palatine von Dillingen the discipline and renewed the fallen splendour of 
(1133-52), under whom the possessions of the dio- many monasteries, canonries. and collegiate churches, 
cese were again consolidated and increased by his He completed the rebuilding of the cathedral in Gothic 
own inheritance; under Udalskalk (1184-1202), who style, consecrated it in 1431, and in 1457 laid the 
with great ceremony placed the recently discovered cornerstone of the new church of Sta Ulrioh and 
bones of St. Ulrich in the new church of Sts. Ilrich Afra. Succeeding prelates carried on the refor- 
Aod Afra. These days of peace altematx^d with mation of the diocese with no less solicitude and 


Among them were Johann II, Count of Werdenberg in 1537 joined the League of ^malkald. At thfl 

(1469-86), tutor to the emperor's son, afterwards beginning of this* year a decree of the council was 

Emperor Maximilian I, Who convened a synod in made, forbidding everywhere the celebration of Mass. 

DiUmgen, and encouraged the recently invented art preaching, and all ecclesiastical ceremonies, ana 

of printing; Friedrich von Zollem (1486-1505) pupil giving to the Catholic clergy the alternative of en- 

of the great preacher Geiler von Kaysersberg, and rolling themselves anew as citizens or leaving the 

founder of a college in Dillingen, who held a sjrnod city. An overwhelming majority of both secular and 

in the same city, promoted the printing of liturgical regular clergy chose banishment; the bishop with- 

books, and greatlv enriched the possessions of the drew with the cathedral chapter to DiUingen, whence 

diocese; Henry IV, von Lichtenau (1505-17), a great he addressed to the pope ana the emperor an appeal 

friend ^nd benefactor* of monasteries and of the for the redress of nis grievances. In the city of 

poor, and patron of the arts and sciences. During Augsburg the Catholic churches were seized by 

the episcopate of these bishops Augsburg acquired, Lutheran and Zwinglian preachers; at the command 

through tne industry of its citizens, a world-wide of the council pictures were removed, and at the in- 

eommeroe. Some members of its famiUes, e. g. the stigation of Bucer and others a disgraceful storm of 

Fugeers and the Welsers, were the greatest merchants pKjpular iconoclasm followed, resulting in the destruc- 

of their time; they lent la^e sums of money to the tion of many splendid monuments of art and an- 

emperors and princes of Germany, conducted the tiquity. The greatest intolerance was exercised 

financial enterprises of the papacy, and even extended towaixis the Catnolics who had remained in the city: 

their operations to the newly discovered continent of their schools were dissolved; parents were compelled 

America. Amoiig the citizens of Augsburg famous to send their children to Lutheran institutions; it was 

at that time in literature and art were the numanist even forbidden to hear Mass outside the city under 

Conrad Peutinger; the brothers Bernard and Conrad severe penalties. 

Adrfmann von Adelmannsfelden; Matthias Lang, Under Otto Truchsess von Waldbur^ (1543-73) the 

secretary to Emperor Frederick III, and later Car- first signs of improvement were noted m the attitude 

dinal and Archbishop of Salzburg; tne distinguished towards Catholics. At the outbreak of hostilities 

winters Holbein the elder, Burgkmair and others. (1546) between the emperor and the League of 

With wealth, however, came a spirit of worldliness Smalkald, Augsburg, as a member of the legume, 

and cupidity. Pride and a super-refinement of cul- took up arms against Charles V, and Bishop Otto 

ture furnished the rank soil in which the impending invested and plundered Fiissen, and confiscated 

religious revolution was to find abundant nourish- nearly aU the remaining possessions of the diocese, 

ment. After the victory at Muhlberg (1547), however, the 

(3) Ref(rrinaiion Period. — ^The Reformation brought imperial troops marched against Augsburg, and the 

disaster on the Diocese of Augsburg. It included city was forced to beg for mercy, surrender twelve 

1,050 parishes with more than 500,(W0 inhabitants, pieces of artillery, pay a fine, restore the greater num- 

Besides the cathc^iral chapter it could boast eight oer of churches to the Catholics, and reimburse the 

collegiate foundations, forty-six monasteries for men, diocese and the clergy for the property confiscated, 

and thirty-eight convents for women. Luther, who In 1547 the Bishop, Otto von Truchsess, who had 

was summoned to vindicate himself in the presence meanwhile been created cardinal, returned to the 

of the papal i^ate before the Reichstag, at Augs- city with the cathedral chapter, followed shortly af- 

burg (1518), found enthusiastic adherents in this terwards by the emperor. At the Diet held at Augs- 

diocese among both the secular and regular clergy, burg in 1548 the so-called ** Augsburg Interim" 

but especiidly among the Carmelites, in whose con- was arranged. After a temporary occupation of the 

vent erf St. Arme he dwelt; he also found favour city and the suppression of Catholio services by the 

among the city councillors, burghers, and tradesmen. Elector, Prince Maurice of Saxony (1552), the 

Biahop Christopher von Stadion (1517-43) did all in "Rehgious Peace of Augsburg" was concluded at the 

his power to arrest the spread of the new teachings; Diet of lo55; it was followed by a long period of 

he called learned men to the pulpit of the cathedral, peace. The disturbances of the Reformation were 

among others Urbanus Rhegius, who, however, soon more disastrous in their results throughout the dio- 

went over to Luther -he convened a synod at DiUingen, cese and adjoining lands than within the immediate 

at which it was forbidden to read Luther's writings; precincts of Augsburg. Thus, after many perturba- 

he promulgated throughout his diocese the Bull of tions and temporary restorations of the Catholic 

Uo X (15^) against Luther; he forbade the Car- religion, the Protestants finally gained the upper 

melites, who were spreading the new doctrine, to hand in WUrtemberg, Oettingen, Neuburg, the free 

Sreachj he warned the magistrates of Augsburg, cities of Nordlingen, Memmingen, Kaufbeuren, Din^ 

[emnungen, and other places not to tolerate the kelsbtihl, Donauworth, Ulm, in the ecclesiastical terri- 

reformers, and he adopted other similar measures, tory of Feuchtwangen and elsewhere. Altogether 

Despite sdl this, the followers of Luther obtained the during these years of rehgious warfare the Diocese of 

upper hand in the city council, and by 1524, various Augsburg lost to the Reformation about 250 parishes, 

CSihoIic ecclesiastical usages, notably the observance 24 monasteries, and over 500 benefices. Although 

of fast days, had been alx)lished in Augsburg. The the religious upheaval brought with it a great loss of 

apostate priests, many of whom, after Luther's ex- worldly possessions, it was not without beneficial effect 

ample, had taken wives, were supported by the city on the religious life of the diocese. Bishop Christopher 

councU, and the Catholics were denied the right of von Stadion, while trying to protect Catholicism 

preaching. The Anabaptists also gained a strong from the inroads of the Reformation, had sought to 

lolbwing and added fuel to the fire of the Peasants* strengthen and revive ecclesiastical discipline, which 

War, in which many monasteries, institutions, and had sadly declined, among both the secular and 

eartks were destroyed. At the Diet of Augsburg in the regular clergy. The work was carried on even 

1530, at which the so-called Augsburg Confession more energetically by Bishop Otto Truchsess, who 

was delivered to Emperor Charles V in the chapel of achieved a fruitful counter-reformation. By fre- 

the episcopal palace, the emperor issued an edict quent visitations he sought to become familiar with 

aeeording to which all innovations ,were to be abol- existing evils, and by means of diocesan synods and 

iabed, and Catholics reinstated in their rights and a vigorous enforcement of measures against ignorant 

ftopaty. The city council, however, set itself up and dissolute clerics, secular and regular, he endeav- 

moppoirition, recalled (1531) the Protestant preachers oured to remedy these conditions. He advanced 

who had been expatriated, suppressed Cathohc ser- the cause of education by founding schools; he suna- 

Fkes in ail churches except the cathedral (1534), and moned the Jesuits to his diocese, among others Blessed 


'Peter Canisius, who from 1549, in the capacity of Dioceee of Augsburg was gjiven to the Elector oi 
cathedral preacher, confessor, and catechist, exercised Bavaria, who took possession 1 December, 1802. 
a remarkably fruitful and efficacious ministry. In The cathedral chapter, together with forty canoni- 
1549 Bishop Otto founded a seminary in Dillingen for cates, fort^-one benefices, nine colleges, twenty-five 
the training of priests, obtained from the pope (1554) abbeys, thirty-four monasteries of the mendicant 
a decree raising it to the rank of a university, and in orders, and two convents were the victims of this 
1564 gave the direction of the new university to the act of secularization. Unfortunately, owing to the 
Jesuits, for whom he had built a college in DiUingen. inconsiderate conduct of the commissioners ap>- 
It is due to his untiring labours and those of Canisius pointed by the Bavarian minister, Montgelas, in- 
that much larger portions of the diocese were not lost niunerable artistic treasures, valuable IxK^ks, and 
to the Church. Under the immediate successors of documents were destroyed. For five years after the 
Otto the revival instituted by him progressed death of the last bishop of princely rank (1812) the 
rapidly, and many excellent decrees were formulated. episco{Md see remained vacant; the parts of the dio- 
Under Marquard II von Berg (1575-91) a pontifical oese Iving outside of Bavaria were separated from 
boarding school (cdumnatua) was founded in Dillingen, it and annexed to other dioceses. It was not until 
colleges were established by the Jesuits in Landsberg, 1817 that the Concordat between the Holy See and 
and, through the bounty of the Fugger family, in Augs- the Bavarian government reconstructed the Diocese 
burg (1580). Heinrich von KnOringen, made bishop of Augsbui^, and made it subject to the Metroi)olitan 
at the early a^ of twenty-eight, took especial interest of Munich-Filing. In 1821 the territory subject to 
in the University and the Seminary of Dillingen, both the ecclesiastical authority of Augsburg was increased 
of which he enriched with many endowments; he by the addition of sections of the suppressed See of 
convened severd s3rnods, converted Duke Wolfgang Ck>nstance, and the present^ limits were then defined, 
of Neuburg to Catholicism, and during his long (5) The Nineteentk Century. — ^As the new bishop, 
episcopate (1598-1646) reconciled many Protestant Franz Karl von Hohenlohe-SchillingsfUrst, died 
cities and parishes to the Catholic Church, being aided (1819) before assuming office, and Joseph Maria von 
in a particular manner by the Jesuits, for whom he Fraimberg was soon called to the archiepiscopal 
foimcfed establishments in Neubui^, Memmingen, and See of Bambeig, there devolved upon their success- 
Kaufbeuren. By means of the Edict of Restitution ors the important task of rearranging the external 
of Emperor Fenunand II (1629), vigorously and even conditions and reanimating religious life; which had 
too forcefully executed by the bishop, the Thirty suffered sorely. Igpatius Albert von Riegg (1824- 
Years' War first accomplished an almost complete 36) was successful in his endeavours to further the 
restoration of the former possessions of the Diocese of interests of souls, to raise the standard of popular 
Augsburg. The occupation of Augsburg by Gustavus education through the medium of numerous ordi- 
Adolphus of Sweden (1632) restored temporarily the nances and frequent visitations. He assigned the 
balance of power to the Protestants. Until the relief administration and direction of studies in the Lyceum 
of the citv oy the imperial troops (1635) the Catho- to the monks of the Benedictine Abbey of St. Stephen 
lies were nard pressed and were forced to give up all in Augsbuig. founded by King Ludwig (1834). 
they had gained by the Edict of Restitution. Fi- Petrus von Kicharz (1837-55) displayed ener^ and 
nally, the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) established persistent zeal in promoting the interests of his dio- 
eauality between Catholics and Protestants, and was cese and the Catholic Church in general, and en- 
foilowed by a long period of internal peace. On ac- coura^ed the giving of missions to the people, the 
count of the losses entailed on the diocese by the establishment of many religious institutions for the 
treaty, a solemn protest was laid before the imperial care of the sick and for educational purposes, and 
chancery by Bishop Si^und Franz, Archduke of carefully superintended the training of ttie cleigy. 
Austria (1646-65). This bishop, on account of his The same spirit characterized the labours of the suo- 
youth, ruled the diocese through administrators, ceedin|; bishops: Michael von Deinlein (1856-58), 
and later resigned his office. His successor, Johann who aUer a short episcopate was raised to the Arch- 
Christopher von Freiberg (1665-90), was particularly bishopric of Bambeig; Pankratius von Dinkel (1858- 
desirous of liauidating the heavy burden of debt 94), imder whom both seminaries and the deaf and 
borne by the chapter, but was nevertheless generous dumb asylum were established in DiUingen, and 
towards churches and monasteries. His successor, many monastic institutions were founded; Petrus von 
Alexander Sigmund (1690-1737), son of the Palatine Hotzl (1895-1902) whose episcopate was marked by 
Elector, guarded the purity of doctrine in liturgical the attention paid to social and intellectual pursuits, 
books and prayerbcNoks. Johann Friedrich von and the number of missions given amons the people 
Stauffenberg (1737-40) founded the Seminary of as well as by the solemn celebration of the beatifica- 
Meersburg and introduced missions among the people, tion of the pious nun Crescentia HOss. He was 
Joseph, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1740-68) ex- succeeded by Maximilian von Lingg, b. at Nesselwang, 
humed with sreat ceremon}r the bones of St. Ulrich 8 March, 1842; ordained priest, 22 July, 1865; ap- 
and instituted an investigation into the life of Cr(»- pointed bishop, 18 March, 1902, consecrated, 20 July, 
centia Hdss of Kaufbeuren, who had died in the odour 1902. 

of sanctity. Klemens Wenzeslaus, Prince of Saxony II. Reugious Stati8TIC8. — ^According to the cen- 
and Pohmd (176S-1812), made a great number of sus of 1 December, 1900, the Dioceee of Auflsbuig 
excellent disciplinary regulations, and took measures contained 777,958 CathoUcs and about 100,000 (3 
for their execution; after the suppression of the other beliefs; at present there are about 818,074 
Society of Jesus he afforded its members protection Catholics. Socially, the population is chiefly of the 
and employment in his diocese; he made a vigorous middle class; recently, however, on account of the 
resistance to the rapidly spreading Rationalism and great growth of the mdustrial arts in the city of 
infiddity, and was honoured by a visit from Pope Augsbun, in Lechhausen, Memmin^n, and other 
Pius VI (1782). places, the working classes are increasing in numbers. 
(4) French Revolution and Secularization. — ^During Leaving out of consideration the lareer cities, in which 
this episcopate b^an the world-wide upheaval in- the various denominations are well represented, it 
augurated by the French Revolution. It was destined may be said that the southern part of the dioceee, 
to put an end to the temporal power of the Church Algftu and the adjoining parts of Altbayem (Bavaria 
*n uermany, and to bring about the fall of Augsburg proper), are almost entirely Catholic, while in the 
from the dignity of a principality of the Empire, northern part a mixture of creeds predominates. 
In 1802, bv act ef the Delegation of the Imperial That small portion of Mittelfranken ^Central Fran- 
Diet {Reichedeputationsrezess) f the territory of the oonia) which belongs to the diocese is overwbehD' 


incly Prot€6tant. The relations between the various lingen; the Diocesan Seminary for boys at Dillingen; 
raigious denominations are in general friendly and St. Stephen's Catholic House of Studies at Au^buig, 
peaceable. For the work of sacred ministry the dio- under the direction of the Benedictines, which in* 
oeee is divided into 40 deaneries (1 city deanery at eludes a Lyceum, a cl^ssic^ Gymnasium, ^ a royal 
Au^buig, and 39 rural deaneries), with 862 senunaryof studies and an institute for higher educa- 
paoshes, 31 parochial curacies, 16 curacies, 226 bene- tion; there are besides about forty students of the 
noes, 6 preaching-offices {PrGdikaturen), 227 chap- Diocese of Augsburg who dwell in the Georgianum 
laincies. In general each parish is complete and at Mimich and attend the courses of the University, 
independent, out in the mountainous southern The state, or communal, institutions of higher 
section there are many parishes to which are at- studies for boys number 28 in the Diocese of Augs- 
tached from fifty to a nimdred dependent churches buix; 5 gymnasia, 1 Realgymnasium, I seminary of 
(fUiakirchen), The cathedral chapter consists of stuaies, 5 Progymnasia, 2 Latin schools, 7 RecUschulen, 
the provost of the cathedral, a dean of the cathedral, 3 agricultural winter schools, 1 ReaUchtde with Latin, 
8 canons, and 6 vicars. In 1907 the clexgy of the 1 normal school, and 2 preparatory schools. We 
diocese numbered 1,439: 815 parish priests and paro- must also mention the Cassianeum in Donauw5rth, 
chial curates, 49 parochial vicars, 11 curates, 73 a Catholic institute of pedagogy, which includes a 
beneficed clergymen, 53 vicars of benefices, 180 training-school, a publishing house for books and 
chaplains and assistant {)rie6ts, 49 prebendaries and periodic^, a printing press, and other appurtenances, 
clerical professors (not including the professors of in all of these institutions Catholic instruction is 
the Bcunedictine Abbey of St. Stephen in Augsburg); given to Catholic students by Catholic cleigymen. 
74 priests twnporarily stationed in the diocese, 95 IV. Charitable Institutions. — ^The charitable 
re^ujars, 40 priests engaged in other dioceses or on, institutions of the diocese are for the most part the 
missions. Of the religious orders of men there are property of the civic parishes or the unions (Vereine), 
the following establismnents: Benedictines, 3 (Au^- or local associations; they are administered, however, 
bmg,Andecns, Ottobeuren), with 33 priests, 6 clerics,, mostly by religious communities to whom is also 
56 kiy brothers ; Mission Society of St. Benedict^ 1 confided the care of the sick, or children, and of 
(St. Ottilien), with 36 priests (12 at present outside the aged. There are 37 hospitals, 24 infirmaries, 12 
the diocese), 31 clerics. 117 lay brothers; Franciscans, protectories, 2 asylums for children, 8 orphanages, 
3, with 7 priests and 22 lay brothers; Capuchins, 5, 3 institutions for the deaf and dumb, 12 houses for 
with 28 priests, 18 clerics, and 37 lay brothens; the poor and orphans, 3 poorhouses, 1 hospital for 
Brothers of Mercy, 6, with 4 priests and 54 lay priests, 1 home for invalids, 3 institutions f or ser- 
brothers. Altogether there are 18 establishments vants under the patronage of the Blessed Vii^in 
conducted by the male orders, with 108 priests, 55 {Martenan8talten)j 1 House of St. Anne (Annasttft) 
dmcSf and 286 lav brothers. Far more numerous for the factory girls in Au^burg, 1 House of St. 
are the female oraers and religious congregations; Elizabeth for incurables, 5 Institutions for various 
they number 226 establishments and branches, with other purposes (e. ^. the 'Kneippianum in Wdrishofen). 
2,815 members. They are: Sisters of Mercy of St. One (jatholic institution of Augsburg deserves spe- 
Vincent de Paul, 59 houses, with 392 sisters; Fran- cial mention: the Fuggerei, founded in 1519 by three 
dscans, with their mother-houses at Augsbuig, Dil- brothers (Ulrich, Georg, and Jakob) of the Fuggers. 
Inigen, Kaufbeuren, and Mindelheim, 71 establish- It consists of an extensive block of 53 houses with 
ments, with 735 sisters: Arme Framiskanennnen 106 apartments; in accordance with the conditions 
with mother-house at MaUersdorf , 34 establishments, of the foundation these must be let at a very small 
with 171 sisters; Englische Frdtdein (English Ladies), rent to indigent people. It is a noble and durable 
11 convents with 311 ladies, 160 lay sisters, and 43 memorial of the spirit of Christian charity that 
novices; Dominican nuns, 11 convents with 271 choir abounded in the Catholic Middle Ages. In recent 
sisters, 17 lay sisters, and 36 novices; Poor School times other works of Christian charity have been 
Asters, 21 foundations with 166 sistera. Eliaahelh- inaugurated. The good priest and superintendent 
erinnen (Sisters of St. Elizabeth), 4 foundations of studies (/^eiw). Father Wagner of Dillingen, es- 
with 41 sisters and 5 novices; Sisters of the Most tablished many institutions for the deaf, dumb, and 
H<iy Redeemer with their mother-house at Ober- blind; Father Ringeisen, parish priest of Ursberg, es- 
bronn in Alsace, 61 foundations with 24 sisters; Cis- tablished there the Sisters of St. Joseph for the exercise 
tercian nuns, 1 convent with 29 choir nims, 15 lay of every form of charity. For aged and infirm priests 
sisters, and 2 novices; Mission Sisters of St. Benedict, there exists a fund with 1,277 subscribers and a 
1 convent with 65 sisters and 9 novices; Sisters oi reserve of 1,550,000 marks ($387,500). There is 
St. Joseph of Ursberg, 7 foundations with 231 sisters also an association for the support of infirm priests, * 
and 92 novices. with 792 members and a fund of 26,000 marks 
ni. Education. — ^As the primary schools in Bava- ($6^500). Prominent among the numerous social- 
ria are the property of the local civic corporation and pohtical and religious associations of the diocese are 
under State control, there are no parochial schools in 16 Catholic apprentices' unions (Lehrlinpsvereine)^ the 
the strict sense of the word. According to the Bava- local union in Augsburg mainlining its own home 
rian Constitution of 1818 nothing more is assured for apprentices; 49 Catholic journeymen's unions 
to the Church than the direction of religious instruo- (Ge8eUenvereine)f4JJmoiiB of St. Joseph; 52 Catholic 
tion and the surveillance of religious life m the school, workin^gmen's unions; 19 Catholic students' clubs; 3 
^ exercises this right in 1,074 primary schools of Catholic clubs for working women, with 504 mem- 
the Diocese of Augsbui^^, by means of 6 ecclesiastical bers; 7 Catholic ''Patronages" for working people; the 
county (Bezirk) school-inspectors and 50 ecclesias- Ulrich-union for the support of seminaries; the Men's 
tical district school-inspectors. However, in many Catholic Association, the Christian Peasants' Lea^e; 
d the girls' schools {Mddchenschiden) the direction the Cecilian Club; St. Mary's Protectory for girls; 
of studies is confined entirely to religious societies the Young Women's Association, and the Association 
under State inspection. Thus the Poor School Sis- of (I^istian Mothers. Annual pilgrimages jp;ive visi- 
ters have charge of the studies in 19 schools, the ble evidence of the vigorous religious life of the dio- 
Franctscans in 35, the Dominican nuns in 11, the cese. Such pilgrimages are those of the Holy Cross 
Sisters of St. Joseph of Ursberg in 3' the English (11 May) and to the tomb of St. Ulrich at Augsburg 
Ladies are excellent teachers for the higher educa- (4 July). There are abo processions to the holy 
tion of women, and conduct 11 institutes for girls, mountain of Andechs during the rogation days, and 
For the training of priests there are the Lyceum to the monastery of Lechfeld since the vear of the 
iDd the Diocesan Seminary for ecclesiastics at Dil- cholera (1854). Other pilgrimages are those to the 


reHcs of St. Rasso at Graf rath, to the church of the portance in the general ecclesiastical and political 

Holy Sepulchre {Unsers Herm Ruh) near Friedberg, development of Western Christendom. Two general 

and to Maria Siebeneich. imperial e^ods were held in Augsburg. The first, 

V. Ecclesiastical Art and Monuments. — convened in August, 952, through the efforts of Em- 
Among the ecclesiastical monuments of the Diocese peror Otto the Great, provided for the reform of 
of Augsburg the cathedral holds first place. It was abuses in civil and ecclesiastical life. Frederick, 
begun in the Roman style in 994, dedicated 1010, Archbishop of Mainz', presided, and three arch- 
and remodeled, 1331-1431, into a Gothic church with bishops and twenty bishops of Germany and 
five naves; it was then that the lofty east choir with northern Italy took part. Eleven canons were pro- 
its circle of chapels was added. The towers were in- mulgated concerning ecclesiastical life and other 
creased in height in 1488-89 and 1564. Among the matters of church discipline. A similar synod, con- 
innumerable art treasures of the cathedral may be vened by Anno, Archbishop of Cologne (27 October, 
mentioned the vestments of St. Ulrich; the four 1062), was occupied with the internal conditions of 
altars with paintings by the elder Holbein illustrating the empire and the attitude of the Church of Ger- 
the life of the Blessed Virgin; the celebrated bronze many towards the schism of Cadalus, anti-pope dur- 
doors of the left lateral nave, adorned with remark- ing the reign 6i Alexander II. The diocesan synods 
able reliefs, and dating from the first half of the of Augsburg correspond as a rule with the synodal 
deventh century; the ancient stained windows, some system as carried out in other parts of Germany, 
of which go back to the eleventh and twelfth We find in this diocese,^ elsewhere in Germany, the 
centuries; the interesting tombs and slabs of the synodi ver villas, convened under the influence of 
fourteenth and succeeding centuries, both in the the Carlovingian capitularies. They were visitation- 
cath^lr^ itself and in the adjoining cloister, and synods, held by the bishop assisted by the arch- 
many other objects of value and mterest. The deacon and the local lord or baron (GaugraJ). Their 
church of Sts. Ulrich and Afra, built 1467-1594, purpose was inquisitorial and judicial. After the 
in the Gothic style, contains the tomb of St. Ulrich, time of St. Ulrich (923-973), and in close relation to 
the.stone sarcophagus of St. Afra, the Fugger chapel the system of provincial councils, diocesan synods 
witn the memorial to Hans Fugger, and three magni- were held at stated times, chiefly in connection with 
ficent altars in rococo style. The Late Gothic matters of ecclesiastical administration (legaUzing 
church of the Holy Cross was renovated, early in the of important grants and privileges, etc.), and the 
eighteenth century, in florid Roman rococo style, settlement of disputes. After the thirteenth cen- 
and is a favourite place of pilgrimage. Among the tuiy these diocesan synods assumed more of a 
chief ecclesiastical edifices outside the city of Augs- legislative character; decrees were issued regulating 
burg are the Romanesque basilicas of Altenstadt, the lives of both ecclesiastics and laymen, and. 
Ursberg, Thierhaupten; the Gothic churches of Kais- church discipline was secured by the publication of 
heim, Dinkelsbiihl, DonauwOrth, Landsberg; the diocesan statutes. The earliest extant are of 
ancient abbey-churches of Andechs (very rich in Bishop Friedrich (1309-31). These diocesan synods 
relics and costly reliquaries), Benediktbeuren, Dies- fell into decay during the course of the fourteenth 
sen, Fllssen, Kempten, Ottobeuren, and Wessobrunn, • century. 

all restored and ornamented in sumptuous barocco In consequence of decrees of the Council of Basle 

or rococo style. the synods of the Diocese of Augsburg rose again 

Khamu, Hi^wrdda Auguatana chronologice tripartita (Au$s- to importance, SO that after the middle of the fif- 

SZei-i^T/e^^/: lTl\^r„; ^X^' ^:S^'^cctZ"T^u'J^'J^ J^enth century they were once more frequently 

(Augsburg, 1785); Veith. Biblioiheca Aumtatana (Augsburg, held, as for example: by the able Bishop Feter von 

1785-96); Braun, Qeachichie der Dischbfe von Augsburg Schauenburg (1424-69) and his successor, Johann von 

(Augsburg, 1813-15); Id., Htatortsch-topographvtche Beschrei- Wt»rHpnhiir<y nlsn hv Fripdrirh von Zollprn n4SR^ 

buna der Didzeae Augaburg (Augsburg. 1823); Id., Die Dom- W eraenburg also Dy rneoricn VOn AOliern (14e>D; 

kir^ zu Augsburg (kxigahuT^, 1829); Monumenia episconatuM and Heinnch VOn Liechtenau (1606). Ihe tWO 

Auovftani, in Monuments B<nca (yixmich, 1SAI~47) XXXlll- Bishops Christopher von Stadion (1517-43) and 

^^rii^£IS"'ii^t)!''!dTi;Sf4rr1^^0^SAiX Ottofmchsess von Waldbu^ (1543-73) made use 

Bistuma Augaburg {A^xi^sbxirg, 1856-60); id., Dna Biahitn Auga- of dlOCesan synods (1517, 1620, 1643 m Dlllmgen, 

burghiatoriachundatatiaHachbeachrieben (vol. II- V I, Augsburg, and 1536 in Augsburg) for the purpose of checking 

1864-1906: vols. V and VI by Schroder; vol. I haa not yet xu nmDTP«i« of fViP Reformation throiiirh fliA im 

appeared in print); Uopp, Pfrilnfleatatistik dca Bistuma Auga- *"® progress Ot tne Keionnauon tnrougn tUe im- 

burg {Augsburg, 1906); B\vM\^s,0c8chichte dea Algdu {Kemp- provement of ecclesiastical life. At a later period 

ten. 1880-95); many original manuscripts in ZiHachriit dea there were but few ecclesiastical assembHes of this 

Hiatoriachen Veretna fOr Schwaben und Neuburg (Augsburg, \r\r^A. oq pnrlv ns. 1 'ifi? thp Rvnorl of flmf vAar orm 

1874 aqq,; 1903); JahreaberiAJxt dea Historischcn \ errina DU- *^^^i^ eariV as IDO/, ine synOQ OI luat year, con- 

lingen (Dillingen, 1888 sqq.). For the histor\' of the city of vened for the purpose of carrying out the reforms 

Augaburg see: Stetten- (Augsburg, 1745-58); Meyer. Ur- instituted by the Council of Trent, shows signs of 

"^a^X!^ ^/o^Jl;^l?ai^5;!f7^E?- '^U^: {^^l «!« decline of the synod a« a diocesan institution. 

Werner (Augsburg. 1900. with details on earlier literature). The Bishops of Augsburg were, moreover, not only 

For the history of the fine arts in Augsburg see Merz. Die the ecclesiastical superiors of their diocese, but after 

f^r Ba?;. 'AuX^'^n'"SJl^dZr£:St '(Ba"X^: t^e tenth century possessed the Wia the right of 

1893); KEMPFAZ^Au(7«6ur(7 (100 plates, Berlin. 1898): ScHRo- holdmg and admimstenng royal fiefs with concomi- 

DER, Die Domkircfu! zu Avpabwrg (Augsburg. 1900); Friesen- tant jurisdiction. The right of coinage was obtained 

T^&i^^Ji'rtl''7:^a^rilm"L^T'''S^'J^l J-y St Wnch. At a kter peri«l disputes were 

Kunat (Munich, 1901); IIieul, Augaburg (Leipzig, 1903). frequent between the bishops and the Civic authon- 

Joseph Lins. ties, which culminated in an agreement (1389) by 

- , _ _ « T^ which the city was made practically independent of 

Augsburg, Religious Peace of. See Reforma- the episcopal authority. (See Augsburg.) 

TION. Hartzheim, Concilia GermanuK (Cologne, 1749); Hefelb. 

Anirshurir STWonq of From thp fitnA nf Rf Conciliengeach. (2d ed Freiburg, 1873); Steiner. 5i;no</» 

AUgSDlU-g, DTNODS OF. T rom inc Ume OI St. ^^^ Auguatance (1766): Steichele, Daa Biatum Augaburg 

Bomface (d. 754), especially during periods of earnest hiatoriach und atatUtiach beachrieben (Augsburg, 1864); ScHMio 

revival of religious and ecclesiastical life, synods in Kirchenlex., 1, 1651-55. t p tt 

were frequently convened by the bishops of Germany, ''• * • K^irsch. 

and sometimes by those of individual ecclesiastical Augury. See Divination. 

provinces. As the German bishops were, on the one Augusta, a titular see of Qlicia in Asia Minor, 

nand, princes of the empire, and the emperor was, whose episcopal list (363-434) is ^ven in Gams (435). 

on the other, the superior protector of tne Roman Several cities bore the same name in Roman antiquity. 

Church, ' these synods came to have no little im- some of which are yet flourishing, e. g. Augusta 


Ausoomm (Auch in Southern France); Augusta in ^^7^*V*^/\h ^^?-- "^^ iormm gives a comprrfieMh^ 

Batavorum (Leyden in Holland); Augusta Asturica ^**°^ °' ^^^ " wnunga. tt^^„^ a r xroo 

(.Astorga in Spain); Aueusta Prsetoria (Aosta in . henry a. uanss. 

Northern Italy); Augusta Emerita (M6rida m Spain); Augustinei Rule of Saint. — The title, Rule of 

Augusta Rauracorum (Augst in Switzerland)* Au- St. Augustine, has been applied to each of the fol- 

gustaSuessonum (Soissons in France); Augusta Taur- lowing documents: (1) Letter ccxi addressed to a 

inorum CTurin in Italy); Augusta Trevirorum (Trier community of women; (2) Sermons ccclv and ccclvi, 

in Germany); Augusta Trinobantum (London); entitled "De vit& et moribus clerioorum suorum"; 

Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg in Grermany). (?) * portion of the Rule drawn up for clerks or 

Lbqotbk, OriCTw ChrieL (1740). II, 879-880; Smith, Diet. Consortia Tnonachorum; (4) a Rule known as Regula 

of Grtek and Roman Geogr., 1, d38. q„,„,„ secunda; '&nd (5) another Rule called: "De vitA 

1 HOMAS J . aHAHAN. eremiticA ad sororem Uber." The last is a treatise oi^ 

Aagiutan von AUeld (Alveldt, or Alveldianus), eremitical life by Blessed JElred, Abbot of Rievaubc, 
one of the earliest and most aggressive opponents of England, who died in 1166 and, as the two preceding 
Luther, b. in the village of Alfeld, near Hildesheim, rules are of unknown authorship, it follows that 
from which he took his surname; d. probably in 1532. none but Letter ccxi and Sermons ccclv and occlvi 
Nothing is known of his parentage, youth, and early were written by St. Augustine. Letter ccxi is ad- 
traimng. He first comes into prominence as a Fran- dressed to nuns in a monastery that had been gov- 
ciscan of the R^ular Observance, belonging to the ?rned by the sister of St. Augustme, and in which 
Saxon Provmceofthe Holy Cross. The absence of his ^is cousm and niece lived His object m wntmg it 
narae on the matriculation rosters of the philosophi- was merely to qmet troubles incident to the nonu- 
cal and theological universities of Erfurt, Rostock, nation of a new supenor, and meanwhile he took 
Leipzig, and Wittenbei^, usually frequented by the occasion to expatiate upon some of the virtues and 
members of the above-named province, leaves the practices essential to the religious life. He dwells 
presumption that he made his studies in one of the "P^n chastity, poverty, obedience, detachment from 
monastic schools. At the solicitation of Adolf of ^^^ world, the apportionment of labour-, the mutual 
Anhalt, Bishop of Merseburg, in 1520, being already duties of superiors and inferiors, fraternal charity. 
Lector of Holy Writ at Leipzig, he entered the theologi- prayer m wmmon, fasting and abstmence propor- 
cal arena to controvert the Lutheran heresy (Mencken, tionate to the strength of the mdividual, care of the 
Scriptores rer. Ger., II, 56). On 20 January, 1521, sick, silence, reading dunng mea^, etc. In his two 
he presided at the public theological disputation sennons "De vitA et moribus clencorum suorum" 
held at Weimar, between Lange, Mechler, and the Augustme seeks to dispel the suspicions harboured 
Franciscans, on the merit of monastic vows and ^Y ^^^ faithful of Hippo against the clergy leading a 
life (Kapp. Kleinere Nachlese nUtzlicher Urkunden monastic life with him m his episcopal residence, 
xur Erl&uterung der Reformationsgeschichte, II, The perusal of these sermons discloses the fact that 
514, Leipzig, 1727), the result of which has not ^^^ bishop and his priests observed strict poverty 
been handM down, though it called forth a satiri- ^"^^l conformed to the example of the Apostles and 
calpoem at the time (ib., 520). In 1523 he be- «arly Christians by usmg their money in common, 
ttme Guardian of the monastery at Halle, in which This was caUed the Apostolic Rule. St. Augustine, 
position he is still found in 1528. In 1529 he was however, dilated upon the rehgious hfe and its 
elected Provincial of the Saxon Province of the Holy obhgations on other occasions. Aurelius, Bishop of 
Qross. Carthfige, was greatlv disturbed by the conduct of 
Alfeld was a man of fine linguistic attainments, a monks who indulged m idleness under pretext of 
fluent Latinist, familiar with the ancient classics, contemplation, and at his request St. Augustine 
conversant with Greek and Hebrew, and well ac- published a treatise entitled "Deoperemonachomm" 
quainted with the humanistic WTitings of his day. wherein he proves by the authority of the Bible, 
Hffl theology was that of medieval scholasticism, m ^^e example of the Apostles, and even the exigencies 
which he proved "that the old theological training of life, that the monk is obliged to devote himself 
did not leave the antagonists of Luther helpless and ^ serious labour. In several of his letters and ser- 
unprepared in combating the novel, and to the nions is to be found a useful complement to his 
theologically disciplined mind contradictory, asser- teaching on the monastic life and the duties it im- 
tions*^ (Otto, Johannes Cochlaeus, 132, Breslau, Poses. These are easy of access in the Benedictine 
1874). Aa Lector of Holy Writ, he devoted much edition, where the accompanying table may be con- 
attention and thought to the Bible, so that he can suited under the words: moruichi, monachce, numr 
state that "from my childhood I have devoted my aaterium, monastica vita, safhctimoniales, 
time and life to it" (Super Apostolic^ Sede, etc., iii a). The letter written by St. Augustine to the nuns at 
In the textual studies of the Greek and Hebrew ver- Hippo (423), for the purpose of restoring harmony 
fiions, the translation of Erasmus, the exegetical m their community, deals with the reform of certam 
writings of Faber Stapulensis (Lefevre d'Etaples) Phases of monasticism as it is understood by him. 
and the Complutensians, he shows a keen, analytical This document, to be sure, contains no such cl«ir, 
mind and sound judgment. His memory and reputa- minute prescnptions as are found m the Benedictine 
tion, however, rest on his polemical activity and Rule, because no complete rule was cA'er written prior 
writings. The latter are marred at times by a tone ^ *"« time of St. Benedict; nevertheless, the Bishop 
of bitterness and sarcasm that detract from their of Hippo is a law-giver and his letter is to be read 
mtrinsic worth and gave his opponents, notably weekly, that the nuns may guard against or repent 
Lonicer, Luther's amanuensis (Biblia nova Alvel- any infringement of it. He considers poverty the 
densis Wittenbergae Anno MDXX) opportunity to foundation of the rehgious life, but attaches no less 
cwisure the catalogued epithets flung at Luther importance to fraternal charity, which consists in 
(Cvprian, NQtzliche Urkunden zur ErlHuterung der living m peace and concord. The superior, m par- 
Reformationsgeschichte, II, 158). If it be remem- tjcular, is recommended to practise tins virtue al- 
beied that Luther calls him hos Lipsicus (De Wette, though not, of course, to the extreme of omittmg to 
Briefe, Sendschreiben, etc., I, 446); asinus (op. cit., chastise the guiltjr. However, St. Augustine leaves 
451, 453, 533); Lipsiensis onaqer (op. cit., 446); Lipsi- her free to determine the nature and duration of the 
auis asinus (op. cit., 471, 473, 542), merely to single punishment imposed, m some cases it being her 
out a few controversial amenities, his literary style privilege even to expel nuns that have become m- 
may be meaaurably condoned. corrigible. The supenor shares the duties of her 
\, Pater Auffu$tinvdnAlftId(Frmb}jTg, 1899); Floss oflBce with certain members of her commumty, on« 


of whom has charge of the sick, another of the cellar, these two families claiming him exclusively as its 
another of the wardrobe, while still another is own. It was not so much the establishing of an 
custodian of the books which she is authorized to historical fact as the settling of a claim of precedence 
distribute among the sisters. The nuns make their that caused the trouble, and as both sides could not 
own habits, which consist of a dress, a cincture and a be in the right, the quarrel would have continued 
veil. Prayer, in common, occupies an important indefinitely had not Pope Sixtus IV put an end to 
place in their life, being said in the chapel at stated it by his Bull '^Summum silentium'^ (1484). The 
nours and according to prescribed forms, and com- silence thus imposed, however, was not perpetual, 
prising hymns, psalms, and readings. Certain and in the seventeenth and eighteenth centiuies 
praters are simply recited while others, especially controversies were resumed between the Canons and 
mdicated, are chanted; but as St. Augustine enters the Hermits, but all to no avail. Pierre de Saint- 
into no minute details, it is to be supposed that each Trond, Prior of the Canons Regular of St. Martin of 
monasterjr conformed to the liturgy of the diocese Louvain, tells the story of these cjuarrels in the 
in which it is situated. Those sisters desiring to lead preface to his "Examen Testamenti S. Augustini'* 
a more contemplative life are allowed to follow special (Louvain, 1564). Gabriel Pennot, Nicolas Deenos, 
devotions in private. The section of the Rule that and Le Large uphold the thesis of the Canons; Gan- 
appUes to eating, although severe in some respects, dolfo, Lupus, Giles of the Presentation, and Noris 
is Dy no means strict TOyond observance and the sustain that of the Hermits. The Bollandists with- 
Bishop of Hippo tempers it most discreetly. Fasting hold their opinion. St. Augustine followed the 
and aostinence are recommended only in proportion monastic or religious life as it was known to his con- 
to the physical strength of the individual, and when temporaries, and neither he nor they even thought 
the saint speaks of obligatorjr fasting he specifies of establishing among those who had embraced it 
that such as are unable to wait for the evening or any distinction whatever as to congregations or 
ninth hour meal may eat at noon. The nuns par- orders. This idea was conceived in a subsequent 
take of very frugal fare and, in all probability, ab- epoch, h^nce St. Au^stine cannot be said to have 
stain from meat. However, the sick and infirm are belonged to any particular order. He made laws for 
objects of the most tender care and solicitude, and the monks and nuns of Roman Africa, it is true, and 
certain concessions are made in favour of those who, he helped to increase their numbers,while they, in turn, 
before entering religion, led lives of luxury. Diuing reverb him as their father, but they cannot be classed 
meals some instructive matter is to be read aloud as members of any special monastic family, 
to the nuns. Although the Rule of St. Augustine St. Augustine's Influence on Monachism. — 
contains but few precepts, it dwells at great len^h When we consider Augustine's ^reat prestige, it is 
upon reli^ous virtues and the ascetic Ufe, this bemg easy to understand why his writings should have so 
characteristic of all primitive rules. In his sermons influenced the development of Western monachism. 
ocdv and ccclvi the saint discourses on the monastic His Letter ccxi was read and re-read by St. Benedict, 
observance of the vow of poverty. Before making who borrowed several important texts from it for 
their profession the nuns divest themselves of all insertion in his own rule. St. Benedict's chapter on 
their ^oods, their monastery being responsible for the labour of monks is manifestly inspired oy the 
supplying their wants, and whatever they may earn treatise "De opere monachorum ', that has done 
or receive is turned over to a common fund, the so much towaros furnishing an accurate statement 
monasteries having the right of possession. In his of the doctrine commonly accepted in religious 
treatise, ''De opere monachorum , he inculcates the orders. The teaching concerning religious poverty is 
necessity of labour, without, however, subjecting it clearly formulated in the sermons " De vit& et moribus 
to any rule, the gaining of one's livelihood rendering clericorum suorum" and the authorship of these two 
it indispensable. Monks of course, devoted to the works is sufficient to earn for the Bishop of Hippo 
ecclesiastical ministry observe, ipso fado, the precept the title of Patriarch of monks and religious. Tne 
of labour, from wmch observance the infirm are influence of Augustine, however, was nowhere 
legitimately dispensed. These, then, are the most stronger than in southern Gaul in the fifth and sixth 
important monastic prescriptions found in the rule centuries. L^rins and the monks of that school were 
and writings of St. Augustine. familiar with Augustine's monastic writings, which, 

Monastic Life of St. Augustine. — Augustine together with those of Cassianus, were the mine 
was a monk; this fact stands out unmistakaoly in from which the principal elements of their rules 
the reading of his life and works. Although a priest were drawn. ' St. Csesanus, Archbishop of Aries, the 
and bishop, he knew how to combine the practices great organizer of religious life in that section, chose 
of the religious life with the duties of his office, and some of the most interesting articles of his rule for 
his episcopal house in Hippo was for himself and monks from St. Augustine, and in his rule for nuns 
some of his clergy, a veritable monastery. ' Several quoted at length from Letter ccxi. Sts. Augustine 
of his friends anofdisciples elevated to the episcopacy and Csesarius were animated by the same spirit 
imitated his example, among them Alypius at Tagaste, which passed from the Archbishop of Aries to St. 
Possidius at Calama, Profuturus and Fortunatus at Aurelian, one of his successors, and, like him, a 
Cirta, Evodius at Uzalis, and Boniface at Carthage, monastic lawgiver. Augustine's influence also ex- 
There were still other monks who were priests and tended to women's monasteries in Gaul, where the 
who exercised the ministry outside of the episcopal Rule of Csesarius was adopted either wholly or in 
cities. All monks did not live in these episcopal part, as, for example, at Sainte-tlroix of Poitiers, 
monasteries; the majority were laymen whose com- Juxamontier of Besan^on, and Chamali^res near 
munities, although under the authority of the bishops, Clermont. 

were entirely (ustinct from those of the clergy, But it was not alwajrs enough merely to adopt the 

There were religious who lived in complete isolation, teachings of Aueustine and to quote him; the author 

belon^g to no community and having no legitimate of the regula TamcUensis' (an unknown monastery 

supenor; indeed, some wandered aimlessly about, in the Rhone valley) introduced into his work the 

at the risk of giving disedification by their vagabond- entire text of the letter addressed to the nims, having 

age. The fanatics known as CircumceUumes were previously adapted it to a community of men by 

recruited from the ranks of these wandering monks, making slight modifications. This adaptation was 

and St. Augustine qften censured their way of living, surely made in other monasteries in tne sixth or 

The religious life of the Bishop of Hippo was, for seventh centuries, and in his ''Codex regularuni" 

a lone time, a matter of dispute oetween the Canons St. Benedict of Aniane published a text similarly 

R^uuur and the Hermits of St. Augustine, each of modified. For want of exact information we cannot 


ny in which monasteries this was done, and whether mous monastery of St. Andrew erected by St. Gregory 
they were numerous. Letter ccxi, which has thus out of his own patrimony on the Cselian liill. It was 
become the Rule of St. Augustine, certainly consti- thus amid the religious intimacies of the Benedictine 
tuted a part of the collections known under the gen- Rule and in the bracing atmosphere of a recent founda- 
eral name of ''Rules of the Fathers'' and used by tion that the character of the future missionary was 
the founders of monasteries as a basis for the prac- formed. Chance is said to have furnished the oppor- 
tiees of the religious life. It does not seem to nave tunity for the enterprise which was destined to link 
\xtJi adopted by the regular conunimities of canons his name for all time with that of his friend and 
or of clerks which began to be organized in^he eighth patron, St. Gregory, as the "true beginner" of one 
and ninth centuries. The rule given tliem bv St. of the most important Churches in Christendom and 
Chrodegang, Bishop of Metz (742-766), is almost the medium by which the authority of the Roman 
entirely dniwn from that of St. Benedict, and no See was established over men of the English-speaking 
more decided traces of Augustinian influence are race. It is unnecessary to dwell here upon Bede's 
to be found in it than in the decisions of the Council of well-known version of Gregory's casual encounter 
Aachen (817), which may be considered the real con- with English slaves in the Roman market place (H. E., 
stitutions of the Canons Regular. For this influence II, i), which is treated under Gregoi^ the Ureat (q. v.). 
we must await the foundation of the clerical or Some Ave years after his elevation to the Roman 
canonical communities established in the eleventh See (590) Gregory began to look about him for ways 
century for the effective counteracting of simony and and means to carry out the dream of his earlier davs. 
clerical concubinage. The Council of Lateran (1059) He naturally turned to the community he had ruled 
and another council held at Rome four years later more than a decade of years before in the monastery 
approved for the members of the clergy the strict on the Cselian Hill. Out of these he selected a corn- 
community life of the Apostolic . Age, such as the pany of about forty and designated Augustine, at 
Bishop of Hippo had caused to be practised in his that time Prior of St. Andrew's, to be their representa- 
episcopal house and had taught in his two sermons tive and spokesman. The appointment, as will ap- 
iieretolore cited. The first communities of canons pear later on, seems to have oeen of a somewhat in- 
adopted these sermons as their basis of organization, determinate character; but from this time forward 
This reform movement spread rapidly throughout until his death in 604 it is to Augustine as ''strength- 
Latin Europe and brougnt about the founcmtion ened bv the confirmation of the blessed Father Gre^;- 
of the regular chapters so numerous and prosperous ory" {roboratua confirmatione beati pairis Gregoni. 
during the Middle Ages. Monasteries of women or Bede, H. E., I, xxv) that English, as distinguished 
of canonesses were formed on the same plan, but not from British, Christianity owes its primary mspira- 
accq^ling to the rules laid down in the sermons ** De tion. 

vitAet moribus clericorum". The letter to virgins The event which afforded Pope Gregory the oppor- 

was adopted almost inamediately and became the tunity he had so long desired of^ carrying out his great 

rule of tne canons and canonesses; hence it was the missionary plan in favour of the English happened in 

religious code of the Premonstratensians, of the the year 595 or 596. A rumour h^ reached Rome 

bouses of Canons R^ular, and of canonesses either that the pagan inhabitants of Britain were readv to 

nthered into congregations or isolated, of the Friars embrace the Faith in great numbers, if only preachers 

Preachers, of the Trinitarians and of the Order of could be found to instruct them. The first pmn which 

Mercy, both for the redemption of captives, of hospi- seems to have occurred to the pontiff was to take 

taller communities, both men and women, dedicated measures for the purchase of English captive boys of 

to the care of the sick in the hospitals of the Middle seventeen years of age and upwards. These he would 

Ages, and of some military orders. have brought up in the Catholic Faith with the idea 

AcGumxiAN FotTNOATioNs.— See aiao under individual of ordaining them and sending them back in due time 

titles. Canons. Rboular of thb Lateran (Austin), HERMrre as apostles to their own people. He accordingly wrote 

K^^^'SS^H^fB^^^Sir" ffxi[SS^"»l; ^/STcIS: *<» &us, a presbyter entrusted with the^aSminis- 
Amwromaws, Brotherhood or the Apostleb and or Vol- tration ol a small estate belonging to the patnmony 
WTART PovKiTY. BROTHERS or Merct. Bbthlehemitbs, of thc Romau Church in Gaul, asking him to secure 

SrnST^^°S'rX lr^E\X^£^:^riJi; J^e revenues a«d .set them ,^de for this 

8«rmone9 eedv, ceeLvi, P. L.^ XXXIX, 1668-81; Idem, D€ (Greg., Epp., VI, VU m Mlgne, P. L., LXXVII.) It is 
9fm monathapan, op. cH^ XL, 647-862; Besse, Le mono- possible, not only to determine approximately the 

feS.^P2S^ teS^= J°S&iSI?2;r'(&AnSwt ^^ of these evente, but also to jn/icate the pa'rticu- 

HiLTar^M<oir0 de9 ordreMreUaieuxetmUitavre* (Paris, 1792). lar quarter of Bntam from which the rumour had 

lU,rV;ni^BvcamB.J>ieOr^ come. iEthelberht became King of Kent in 559 or 

'tSj^oi^§^:A^ovs^^^^ ordinU 560 fnd in less than twenty years he succeeded in 

Ermiiarvm S. Auauatini (Rome, 1628); Pamphilii, Chronicon establishing an overlordship that extended from the 

rnhnU fnttrum Eremitarum S. AugusHni (Rome, 1681); borders of the country of the West Saxons eastward 

l;^'5^'tUSrS2^;Si,?ILri?7^rc^^^^^ *? t^e s«v and as far north as the Humber and the 

nrtirumiaiutrium ex inline Eremitarum S.Augu9tinii Antwerp, I rent. Ine idaxons 01 Miaolesex and Of iliSsex, to- 
1658); (SRATiANtJS, AruuiaeiM Aufn^atmiqna, in qud ecnpiorea gether with the men of East Anglia and of Mercia, 

n!S:4'r7^rivt/^T^ui !ru;Sr«^54"SJ ««>* t^us brought to acknowledge Wm as Bretwalda. 
«Mti(«i»ofw Fratrum Eremitarttm exctdceatorum onHnie S, and ne acquired a political unportance which began 
Amuatini (Cambrmi. 1668). . ^ . to be felt by the Franldsh princes on the other side of 

^ SS^^S^SZ^uJ^^n: JS:S.r^. ?^i ^^^ S!!r^-- "^^^"^ of Paris gave him his daugh- 
(VteBua, i66a)\Hi9toria degli wymini iUustri die fuorono ter Bertha in mamage, stipulatmff, as part of the 
gioMoii Moriffia (Viomu^ 1604); Hermeneoildo de San- nuptial agreement, that she should be allowed the 

i^'SSwd^ l^So"''''*'^ *"''*^ ^ ^^*" ^^^ exercise of her reUgion. The condition was 

J. M. Bbssb. accepted (Bede, H. E., I, xxv) and Luidhard. a 

Framdsh bishop, accompanied the princess to ner 

Augustine of Oanterbmy, Saint, first Archbishop new home in Canterbury, where the ruined church of 

ofGanterbury, Apostle of the English; date of birth un- St. Martin, situated a short distance beyond the 

imown; d. 28 May, 604. Symbols: cope, pallium, and walls, and dating from Roman-British times, was set 

nitre as Kshop of Canterbury, and pastoral staff and apart for her use (Bede, H. E., I, xxvi). The date of 

Supds as missionary. Nothing is known of his vouth this marriage, so important in its results to the future 

exeept that he was probably a Roman of the better fortunes of Western Christianity, is of course largely 

dMB, and that early m life he became a monk in the fa^ a matter of conjecture; but from the evidence fur- 

IL— 6 


nished by one or two scattered remarks in St. Greg- King ^thelberht's orders until arrangements could 

ory's letters (Epp. , VI) and from the circumstances be made for a formal interview. The king replied tc 

which attended tne emergence of the kingdom of the their messengers that he would come in perjon from 

Jutes to a position of prominence in the Britain of Canterbury, which was less than a dozen miles away, 

this period, we may safely assmne that it had taken It is not easy to decide at this date between the four 

place fully twenty years before the plan of sending rival spots, each of which has claimed the distinction 

Augustine and his companions suggested itself to the of being the place upon which St. Aufustine and his 

pope. companions first set foot. The Boarded Groin, Sto- 

The pope was obliged to complain of the lack of nar, EbbSfleet, and Richborough — the last named, if 
episcopal zeal among iEthelberht*s Christian neigh- the present course of the Stour has not altered in thir- 
lx)urs. Whether we are to understand the phrase ex teen hundred y^ars, then forming part of the mainland 
vicinis (Greg., Epp., VI) as referring to Gaulish prel- — each has its defenders. The ciuious in such matters 
ates or to the Celtic bishops of northern and western may consult the special literature on the subject 
Britain, the fact remains tnat neither Bertha's piety, cit^ at the close of this article. The promised int^- 
nor Luidhard's .preaching, nor iEthelberht's tolera- view between the king and the missionaries took place 
tion, nor the supp)osedly robust faith of British or within a few days. It was held in the open air, svh 
Gaulish neighbouring peoples was found adequate rfivo, says Bede (H. E., I, xxv), on a level spot, proba- 
te so obvious an opportunity until a Roman pontiff, bly under a spreading oak in deference to the king's 
distracted with the cares of a world supposed to be dread of Augustine's possible incantations. . His fear, 
hastening to its eclipse, first exhorted forty Benedic- however, was dispelled by the native grace of manner 
tines of Italian blooa to the enterprise. The itinerary and the kindly personality of his chief guest who ad- 
seems to have been speedily, if vaguely, prepared; the dressed him through an interpreter. The message 
little company set out upon their long journey in the told "how the compassionate Jesus had redeemed a 
month of June, 596. They were armed with letters world of sin by His own agony and opened the King- 
to the bishops and Christian princes of the countries dom of Heaven to all who would believe" (iElfric, 
through which they were likely to pass, and they were ap. Haddan and Stubbs, III, ii). The king's answer, 
further instructed to provide themselves with Frank- while gracious in its friendliness, was curiously pro- 
ish interpretefs before setting foot in Britain itself, phetic of the relij^ous after-tempter of his race. "Your 
Discouragement, however, appears early to have words and promises are very fair" he is said to have 
overtaken them on their way. Tales of the uncouth replied, "but as they are new to us and of uncertain 
islanders to whom they were going chilled their enthu- import, I cannot assent to them and give up what I 
siasm, and some of their number actually proposed have long held in common with the whole English 
that they should draw back. Aupistine so far com- nation. But since you have come as strangers , from 
promised with the waverers that He agreed to return so great a distance, and, as I take it, are anxiolts to 
m person to Pope Gregory and lay before him plainly have us also share in what you conceive to be both 
the difficulties which they might be compelled to excellent and true, we will not interfere with you, but 
encounter. The band of missionaries waited for him receive you, rather, in kindly hospitality and take 
in the neighbourhood of Aix-en-Provence. Pope care to provide what may be necessary for your sup- 
Gregory, however, raised the drooping spirits of port. Moreover, we make no objection to your win- 
Augustine and sent him back without delay to his ning as many converts as you can to your creed", 
faint-hearted brethren, armed with more precise, and (B^e, H. E., I, xxv.) 
as it appeared, more convincing authority. The king more than made good his words. He In- 

Augustine was named abbot of the missionaries vited the missionaries to take up their abode in the 

(Bede, H. E., I, xxiii) and was furnished with fresh royal capitsd of Canterbury, then a barbarous and 

letters in which the pope made kindly acknowledg- half-ruined metropolis, built by the Kentish folk upon 

ment of the aid thus far offered by Protasius, Bishop the site of the ola Roman military town of Durover- 

of Aix-en-Provence, by Stephen, Abbot of L4rins, num. In spite of the squalid character of the city, 

and by a wealthy lay official of patrician rank called the monks must have made an impressive picture 

Arigius [Greg., Epp., VI (indie, xiv) num. 62 sqq.; as they drew near the abode "over against the King'^* 

sc. 3, 4, 5 of the Benedictine series]. Augustine must Street facing the north", a detail preserved in William 

have reached Aix on his return journey some time Thome's (c. 1337) " Chronicle of the Abbots of St. 

in August; for Gregory's message of encouragement Augustine's Canterbury," p. 1759, assigned them for 

to the party bears the date of July the twenty-third, a dwelling. The striking circumstances of their ap- 

596. whatever may have been the real source of the proach seem to have lingered long in popular remem- 

passing discouragement no more delays are recorded, brance; for Bede, writing fully a century and a third 

The missionaries pushed on through Gaul, passing up after the event, is at pains to describe how they came 

through the valley of the Rhone to Aries on their way in characteristic Roman fashion (moTe suo) bearing 

to Vienne and Autun, and thence northward, by one "the holy cross together with a picture of the Sever- 

of several alternative routes which it is impo^ible eign Kin^, Our Ix>rd Jesus Christ and chanting in 

now to fix with accuracy, until they came to Paris, unison this litany", as they advanced: "We beseech 

Here, in all probability, they passed the winter thee, O Lord, in the fulness of thy pity that Thine 

months; and here, too, as is not unlikely, considering anger and Thy wrath be turned away from this city 

the relations that existed between the family of the and from Thy holy house, because we have sinnea: 

reigning house and that of Kent, they secured the Alleluia!" It was an anthem out of one of the 

services of the local presbyters suggested as inter- many "Rogation "litanies then beginning to be f anail- 

ship has not been recorded. Boulogne was at that Migne, P. L., LXXV; Duchesne's ed., "Liber Pon- 

time a place of some mercantile importance; and it is tificalis", II, 12.) The building set apart for theh- 

not improbable that they directed their steps thither use must have been fairly large to afford shelter to a 

to find a suitable vessel in which they could complete community numbering fully forty. It stood in the 

the last and not least hazardous portion of their Stable Gat«, not far from the ruins of an old heathen 

journey. All that we know for certain is that they temple; and the tradition in Thorn's day was that 

landed somewhere on the Isle of Thanet (Bede, H. E., the parish church of St. Alphage approximately 

I, xxv) and that they waited there in obedience to marked the site (Chr. Aug. Abb.^ 1759), Here Au^us- 



tine and his companions seem to have established the official collection of St. Gregory's correspondence 
without delay the ordinary routine of the Benedictine preserved in the registry of the Roman Church, 
rule as practised at the close of the sixth century; and (Haddan and Stubbs, III, .336; Dudden, "Gr^ory 
to it they seem to ha\'e added in a aui6t way the apofi- the Great", II, 130, note; Mason, "Mission of St. 
tolic ministry of preaching. The church dedicated to Augustine ", preface, pp. viii and ix; Duchesne, " Orig- 
St. Martin in the eastern part of the city which had ines", 3d ed., p. 99, note.) It contains nine responsa, 
been set apart for the convenience of Bishop Luidhard the most important of which are those that touch 
and Queen Bertha's followers many years before was upon local differences of ritual, the question of juris- 
also thrown open to them until the king should permit diction, and the perpetually recurring problem of 
a more highly organized attempt at evangelization, marriage relationships. "Why", Augustine had asked 
The e\iaentsincerityof the missionaries, their single- "since the faith is one, should there be different 
mindedness, their courage under trial, and, above all. usages in different churches; one way of saying Mass in 
the disinterested character of Augustine himself ana the Koman Chureh, for instance, and another in the 
the unworldly note of his doctrine made a profoimd Church of Gaul?" The pope's reply is, that while 
impression on the mind of the king. He asked to be "Augustine is not to forget the Church in which he 
instructed and his baptism was appointed to take has been brought up", he is at liberty to adopt from 
place at Pentecost. Whether the queen and her the usage of other Churches whatever is most likely 
Frankish bishop had any real hand in the process of to prove pleasing to Almighty God. " For institu- 
this comparatively sudden conversion, it is impossible tions", he adds, "are not to he loved for the sake of 
to say. St. Gregory's letter written to Bertna her- places; but places, rather, for the sake of institu- 
«df, when the news of the king's baptism had reached tions". With regard to the delicate question of juris- 
Rome, would lead us to infer, that, while little or diction Augustine is informed that ne is to exercise 
Dothing had been done before Augustine's arrival, no autHbrity over the churches of Gaul; but that "all 
afterwards fhere was an endeavour on the part of the the bishops of Britain are entrusted to him, to the 
que«n to make up for past remissness. The pope end that the unlearned may be instructed, the waver- 
writes: "Et cjuoniam. Deo volente, aptum nunc ing strengthened by persuasion and the per^'e^se 
tempus est, agite, ut (uvinA gratis co-operante, cum corrected with authority". [Greg., Epp., Xl (indie, 
augmento possitis cjuod n^ectum est reparare". iv), 64; Bede, H. E., I, xxvii.] Augustine seized the 
[Greg., Epp., XI (indic, iv), ^.] The remissness does firet convenient opportunity to carry out the graver 
seem to nave bc^n atoned for, when we take into provisions of this last enactment. He had already 
account the Christian activity associated with the received the pallium on the return of Peter and Law- 
names of this royal pair during the next few months, rence from Kome in 601. The original band of mis- 
^helberht's conversion naturally gave a great im- sionaries had also been reinforced by fresh recruits, 
petus to the enterprise of Augustine and nis com- among whom "the first and most distinguished", as 
panion& Augustine himself determined to act at B^e notes, "were Mellitus, Justus, Paulinus, and 
once upon the provisional instructions he had re- Ruffinianus". Of these Rumnianus was afterwards 
ceived from Pope Gregory. He crossed over to Gaul chosen abbot of the monastery established by Augus- 
and sought episcopal consecration at the hands of tine in honour of St. Peter outside the eastern walls 
Viigflius, the Metropolitan of Aries. Returning aJ- of the Kentish capital. Mellitus becaipe the first 
most immediately to Kent, he made preparations for En^ish Bishop of London; Justus was appointed to 
that more active and open form of propaganda for the new see of Rochester, and Paulinus became Metro- 
which ^thelberht's public baptism had prepared a politan of York. 

way. It is characteristic of the spirit which actuated uEthelberht, aa Bretwalda, allowed his wnder 
Aufustine and his companions tnat no attempt was territory to be mapped out into dioceses, and ex- 
made to secure converts on a large scale by tne em- erted himself in Augustine's behalf to bring 
pfoyment of force. Bede teUs us that it was part of about a meeting with the Celtic bishops of South- 
the king's uniform policy " to compel no man to em Britain. The conference took place in Malmes- 
embrace Christianity (H. E., I, xxvi) and we know bury, on the borders of Wessex, not far from the 
from more than one of his extant letters what the Severn, at a spot long described in popular legend 

ceremony probably took place in the waters of the not compromise. He insisted on an unconditional 
Swale, not far from the mouth of the Medway. News ^rrender on the Easter controversy; on the mode of 
of these extraordinary events was at once dispatched administering the Sacrament of Baptism; and on the 
to the pope, who wrote in turn to express his duty of taking active measures in concert with him 
joy to hjs friend Eulogius, Bishop of Alexandria, to for the evangelization of the Saxon conquerors. The 
Aiimtine himself, and to the kineand oueen. (Epp., Celtic bishops refused to yield, and the meeting was 
VlTljXxx; XI,xxviii; ibid.,lxvi; Bede, H. E.,I,xxxi. broken up. A second conference was afterwards 
xxm.) Augustine's message to Gregory was carriea planned at which only seven of the British bishops 
by Lawrence t^e Presbyter, afterwards Archbishop of convened. They were accompanied this time by a 
Canterbury, and Peter one of the original colony of groupof their "most learned men" headed by Dinoth, 
misaonary monks. They were instructed to ask for the abbot of the celebrated monastery of Bangor-is- 
nawe Go6p>el labourers, and, if we may trust Bede's coed. The result was, if anything, more discouraging 
anxmnt in this particular and the curious ^up of than before. Accusations of unworthy motives were 
lettera embodied in his narrative, they bore with tnem freely bandied on both sides. Augustine's Roman 
1 list of dubia, or questions, bearing upon several regard for form, together with his punctiliousness for 
points of discipline and ritual with regard to which personal precedence as Pope Gregory's representa- 
Aorustine awaited the pope's answer. live, gave umbrage to the Celts. They denounced 
fte genuineness of the document or libeUti8f as the Archbishop for his pride, and retired behind their 
Bede caUs it (H. E., II, i), in which the pope Is jdlcj^ed mountains. As they were on the point of withdraw- 
to have answered the doubts of the new archbishop ing, they heard the only angry threat that is recorded 
has not been seriously called in (question; thougn of the saint: "If ye will not have peace with the breth- 
lekolirs have felt the force of the objection which St. ren, ye shall have war from your enemies; and if ye 
Boniface, writing in the second quarter of the eighth will not preach the way of life to the English, ye shall 
eentiiry,urges, viz.thatnotraceof itcouldbefoimdin suffer the punishment >of death at then: hands". 


Popular imagination, some ten years afterwards, saw Ahras, about 60 miles from Bona (ancient Hippo> 

a terrible fulnlment of the prophecy in the butcheiy Regius), and at that time a small free city of pro* 

of the Bangor monks at the hands of ^thelfrid the co^ular Numidia which had recently been converted 

Destroyer in the great battle won by him at Chester from Donatism. Although eminently respectable, 

in 613. his family was not rich, and his father, Patncius, one 

These efforts towards Catholic unity with the Celtic of the curtales of the city, was still a paean. How- 
bishops and the constitution of a well-defined hier- ever, the admirable virtues that made Monica the 
archy for the Saxon Church are the last recorded acts ideal of Christian mothers at length brought her 
of the saint's life. His death fell in the same year husband the grace of baptism and of a holy death, 
says a very early tradition (which can be traced back about the year 371. Augustine received a Christian 
to Archbishop Theodore's time) as that of his beloved education. His mother had him signed with the cross 
father and patron. Pope Gregory. Thorn, however, and etux>lled among the catechumens. Once, when 
who attempts always to give the Canterbury version very iU, he asked for baptism, but, all danger being 
of these legends, asserts — somewhat inaccurately, it soon passed, he deferred receiving the sacrament, 
would appear, if his coincidences be rigorously t^ted thus yielding to a deplorable custom of the times. 
— that it took place in 605. He was buried j in true His association with "men of prayer*' left three 
Roman fashion, outside the walls of the Kentish capi- great ideas deeply engraven upon his soul: a Divine 
tal in a era ve dug by the side of the great Roman road Providence, the future life with terrible sanctions, 
which tnen ran from Deal to Canterbury over St. and. above all, Christ the Saviour. "From mv 
Martin's Hill and near the unfinished abbey church tenaerest infancy. I had in a manner sucked with 
which he had begun in honour of Sts. Peter and Paul my mother's milk that name of my Saviour, Thv 
and which was afterwards to be dedicated to his Son; I kept it in the recesses of my heart; and all 
memory. When the monastery was completed, his that presented itself to me without that Divine Name, 
relics were translated to a tomb prepared for them in though it might be elegant, well written, and even 
the north porch. A modem hospital is said to occupy replete with truth, did not altogether carry me 
the site of his last resting place. [Stanley, "Memo- away" (Confessions, I, iv). \ 
rials of Canterbury" (1906), 38.1 His feast day in the But a sreat intellectual and pioral crisis stifled for 
Roman Calendar is kept on 28 May; but in the proper a time lul these Christian sentiments. The heart 
of the English office it occurs two days earlier, the was the first point of attack. Patricius, proud of 
true anniversary of his death. his son's success in the schools of Tagaste and Madaura 

Bia>E, HuLEai., I and 11; Paulus Diaoonub, Johjwnes determined to send him to Carih&ge to prepare for 

DiACONUB, and St. GaU AfSS., Ltvet of St. Gregory in P, L., ^ fr^^^nol^ ,^wa^r> Tlii+ unf/^ffunnfolv if ro^uinvl 

LXXV; ^piatolaf Or^HyHU ibid.; Grbgobt of tSum, HiaUmi * lorwisic career. But, unfortunately, it required 

Francorum. ibid.. LXXI; Goscelin, Life of 8u Gregory in Ada several months to collect the necessary means, and 

SS.jyLvy, VI. 370 sqq.: Wm. Thobnb. cAron.^66a/. S,Ayg, Augustine had to spend his sixteenth year at Tagaste 

in Twyeden's Decern Scrtptoree (London, 1652;, pp. 1758- • J iHlpnfiiw wViirh W5« f«.tjil ir^ his virfiiP- hp^avp 

2202; Haddan and Stubbs, Councile and EcdeeuutuxU Doctp- "i ^'^ KUeness wnicn was laiai to nis viriue, ne ^\e 

menu relating to Great Britain and Ireland (Oxford. 1869-1873. himself up tO pleasure With all the vehemence Of an 

3 volB.)^ Mason (ed.), Tje Alianon of St. Auguatine according to ardent nature. At first he prayed, but without the 

t^'^^'S^'SlS^rl'tfi^^&^ll^'^ot «"'^"' ^^^^ of>i^ heara and when he reache.^ 

Bombay, 1905); St. GaUen MS., «d. Gabquist (1904); Stan- Carthage, towards the end of the year 370, every 

LET. MemoritiU of Canterbury (London. 1856, 1906); Bab- circumstance tended to draw him from his true 

t^^^^^%7oiT'ZJ^n^i^:^^7i^^ ooui«e: the many seductions of the gr«.t city that 

pagnona (Vt^riB, 1897): L±v±QVK, St. Auguetin de Canterbury, was stlU half pagan, the hcentiousness of Other 

m ^-deBQuetu^iet (1899), xxi, 363-423; Mabtwxi. students, the theatres, the intoxication of his literary 

i"^ ZI^A^S^e'i^t^A^J^). "'^^'^^ "^ '^'^ Bviccess, and a pn>ud desire always to be first even 

CoRNEUUS Clipford. ^ ©vil. Before long he was obhged to confess to 

Monica that he had formed a sinful liaison with the 

Aagnstine of Hippo, Saint, Doctor of the Church, pMerson who bore him a son (372), "the son of his 

b. 13 November, 354; d. 28 August, 430; — "a philo- sin" — an entanglement from which he only delivered 

sophical and theological genius of the first order, himself at Milan after fifteen years of its thraldom.^ 

dominating, like a pyramid, antiquity and the sue- Two extremes are to be avoided in the appreciation 

ceeding ages .... Compared with the great philoso- of this crisis. Some, like Mommsen, misled perhaps 

phers of past centuries and modem times, he is the by the tone of grief in the "Confessions", have exag- 

equal of tnem all; among theolo^ans he is undeniably serated it : in the " Realencyklop^ie '' (3a ed..II, 268) 

the first, and such has been his influence that none of LooTs reproves Mommsen on this score, and yet he 

the Fathers, Scholastics, or Reformers has surpassed himself is too lenient towards Augustine, when he 

it". — ^The extraordinary part played by the great claims that in those days, the (5nurch permitted 

Bishop of Hippo, and thus eulogized by Philip Shaff concubinage. The "Confessions" alone prove that 

in his "History of the Christian Church", accounts Loofs did not understand the 17th canon of Toledo, 

for the length of this article treating I. His Life; However, it may be said that, even in his fall, Au- 

II. His Works; III. His Function as a Doctor of gustine maintained a certain dignity and felt a com- 

the Church; IV. His System of Grace; V. Augustin- punction which does him honour, and that, from 

ism in History. the age of nineteen, he had a genuine desire to break 

I. His Life. — ^Augustine's life is unfolded to us the chain. In fact^ in 373, an entirely new inclination 

in documents of unrivalled richness, and of no great manifested itself m his life, brought about bv the 

character of ancient times have we information com- reading of Cicero's "Hortensius" whence he imbibed 

parable to that contained in the "Confessions", a love of the wisdom which Cicero so eloquently 

which relate the touching story of his soul, the "Re- praises. Thenceforward Augustine looked upon 

tractations", which give the history of his mind, rhetoric merely as a profession; his heart was in 

and the "Life of Augustine", written by his friena philosophy. 

Posaidius, telling of the saint's apostolate. We will Unfortunately, his faith, as well as his morals, 

confine ourselves to sketching the three periods of was to pass throujgh a terrible crisis. In this same 

this great life: (1) the young wanderer's gradual year, 373, Augustine and his friend Honoratus fell 

return to the Faith; (2) the doctrinal development mto the snares of the Manichseans. It seems strzuige 

of the Christian philosopher to the time of his episco- that so great a mind should have been victimized 

pate; and (3) the full development of his activities by Oriental vapourings, synthesized by the Persian 

upon the episcopal throne of Hippo. Mani (215-276) into a coarse, material dualism, and 

(1) Augustine was bom at Tagaste, now Souk- introduced into Africa scarcely fifty years previously 


Aagustine himsdf tells us that he was enticed by the sect^ his mind rejected Manichsan d<>ctrineft 
the promises of a free philosophy unbridled by faith; The illusion had lasted nine years. 
bjrtne boasts of the Manichseans, who claimed to have But the reli^ous crisis of this great soul was only 
discovered contradictions in Holy Writ; and, above to be resolved m Italy, under the i^uence of Ambrose. 
all.bjrthe hope of finding in their doctrine a scien- In 383 Augustine, at the age of twenty-nine, yielded 
tifiic explanation of nature and its most mysterious to the irresistible attraction which Italy had for him, 
phenomena. Augustine's inquiring mind was en- but his mother suspected his departure and was so 
thusiastic for the natural sciences, and the Mani- reluctant to be separated from hun that he resorted 
chseans declared that natiure withheld no secrets to a subterfuge and embarked under cover of the 
from Faustus, their doctor. Moreover, being tor* night. He 1m3 only just arrived in Rome when he 
tumi by tt^ problem of the origin of evil, Augustine, was taken seriously ill; upon recovering he opened 
in default of solving it, aclmowledged a conflict a school of rhetoric, but, disgusted by the tricks of 
of two principles. And then, a^in, there was a his pupils, who shamelessly defrauded him of their 
veiy powerful charm in the moral irresponsibility re- tuition fees, he applied for a vacant professorship at 
suiting from a doctrine which deniea liberty and Milan, obtained it, and was accepted by the prefect, 
attributed the commission of crime to a foreign prin- Symmachus. Having visited Bishop Ambrose, the 
ciple. fascination of that saint's kindness induced him to 
Once won over to this sect, Augustine devoted become a regular attendant at his preachings. How- 
himsdf to it with all the ardour of his character; ever, before embracing the Faith, Augustine under- 
lie read all its books, adopted and defended all its went a three years' stru^le during which his mind 
opinions. His furious proselytism drew into error passed througn several '(^tinct phases. At first he 
bs friend Alypius and Romanianus, his Maecenas of turned towards the philosophy of the Academics, 
Tagaste, the friend of his father who was defraying with its pessimistic scepticism; then neo-PIatonic 
' the expenses of Augustine's studies. It was during philosophy inspired him with genuine enthusiasm. 
this Manichiean period that Augustine's literary At Milan ne had scarcely read certain works of Plato 
fscolties reached tneir full development, and he was and, more especially, of Plotinus, before the hope 
^iU a student at Carthage when he embraced error, of finding the truth dawned upon him. Once more 
His studies ended, he snould in due course have he began to dream that he and his friends might 
entered the forum litigioaum, but he preferred the lead a life dedicated to the search for it, a life purged 
(areer of letters, and rossidius tells us that he re- of all vulgar aspirations after honours, wealth, or 
turned to Tag^hste to "teach grammar*'. The young pleasure, and with celibacy for its rule (Confessions, 
professor captivated his pupils, one of whom, Alypius, YI). But it was only a dream; his passions still 
oardiy yotmger than his master, loath to leave him, enslaved him. Monica, who had joined her son at 
liter following him into error, was afterwards bap- Milan, prevailed upon h^m to become betrothed, 
tized with him at Milan, eventually becoming Bishop but his afi^nced bnde was too yoimg. and although 
of Tagaste, his native city. But Monica deeply Augustine dismissed the mother of Adeodatus, her 
deplored Augustine's heresy and would not have place was soon filled by another. Thus did he pass 
received him into her home or at her table but for through one last period of struggle and anguish. 
the advice of a saintly bishop, who declared that Finally, through the reading of the Holy Scriptures 
"the son of so many tears coma not perish". Soon light penetrated his mind. Soon he possessed the 
afterwards Augustine went to Carthage, where he certainty that Jesus Christ is the only way to truth 
continued to teach rhetoric. His talents shone to and salvation. After that, resistance came only from 
f'ven better advantage on this wider stage, and by the heart. An interview with Simplicianus, the 
an indefatigaUe pursuit of the liberal arts his in- future successor of St. Ambrose, who told Augustine 
feOect attained its full maturity^ Having taken part the story of the conversion of the celebrated neo- 
in a poetac tournament, he carried off the prize, and Platonic rhetorician, Victorinus (Confessions, VIII, 
the rroeonsul Vindicianus publicly conferred upon i, ii), prepared the way for the grand stroke of grace 
him the corona agonistica. It was at this moment which, at the age of thirty-three, smote him to the 
of literaiy intoxication, when he had just completed ground in the garden at Milan (September, 386). 
his first work on sesthetics, now lost, that he oe^n A few days later Augustine, bein^ ill, took advantage 
to repudiate Manichseism. Even when Augustine of the autumn holioays and, resigning his professor- 
vis in his first fervour, the teachings of Mani had ship, went with Monica, Adeodatus, and his friends 
heoi far frcmi quieting his restlessness, and although to C;assisiacum, the country estate of Verecimdus, 
^ has been accused (h becoming a priest of the sect, there to devote himself to the pursuit of true philoso- 
^ was never initiated or numbered among the phy which, for him, was now inseparable from 
** elect", but remained an "auditor" — the lowest Christianity. 

fiegree m the hierarchy. He himself gives the reason (2) {From S86 to S95), — Augustine gradually be- 

for his disenehantment. First of all there was the came acquainted with Christian doctrine, and in 

fttrful d^yravitjr of Blanichsan philosophy — "They his mind the fusion of Platonic philosophy with re- 

♦tertioy evoything and build up nothing"; then, vealed do^noas was takine place. , The law that 

the dreadful immorality in contrast with their af- eovemed tnis change of thought has of late years 

fectation of virtue; the leebleness of their arguments been frequently misconstrued; it is sufficiently im- 

in OQotiOTerBy with the Catholics, to whose Scrip- portant to be precisely defined. The solitude of 

taral agamenta their only reply was:. "The Scrip- Cassisiacum realized a long-cherished dream. In 

lures hsve been falsified . But, worse than all, his books "Against the Acs^emics", Augustine has 

^ did not find science among them — science in the described the ideal serenity of this existence, en- 

JMdcTn RDse of the word — thSit knowledge of nature livened only by the passion for truth. He completed 

«rf its laws which they had promised mm. When the education of his yotmg friends, now by literary 

^ qoertioiied tbrai concerning the movements of readings in common, now by pnilosopmcal con- 

^he flten, none of them could answer him. "Wait ferences to which he sometimes invited Monica, and 

^ PaailQi**, they said, "he will explain everything the accounts of which, compiled by a secretary, have 

''>yoa**. 9)Mi8ti]s of Mileve, the celebrated Mani- supplied the foundation of the "Dialogues". Licen- 

<^^i^lMiOpy st last came to Carthage; Augustine tins, in his "Letters", would later on recall these 

^^ tti qfOestioned him, and discovered in his delightful philosophical mornings and evenings, at 

rw poM B i Hm TC^KB^ rhetorician, the utter stranger which Augustine was wont to evolve the mo^ ele- 

to &n seiaitM d cnuture. The spell was broken, and, vating discussions from the most commonplace in- 

il!hoQ|^ Attgivitine did not mimediately abandon cidents. The favourite topics at their conferences 


were truth, certainty f Against the Academics), true at any time sacrificed the Gospel to Plato. The 
happiness in philosopny (On a Happy Life), the same learned critic thus wisely concludes his study: 
Providential order of the world and the prbblem of *'So long, therefore, as his philosophy agrees with 
evil (On Order) and finally God and the soul (Solil- his religious doctrines, St. Augustine is frankly 
oquies. On the Immortality of the Soul). neo-Platonist; as soon as a contradiction arises, 
Here arises the curious question |>ropounded by he never hesitates to subordinate his philosophv to 
modem critics: Was Augustine a Christian when he religion, reason to faith. He was, fiirst of all, a Chris- 
wrote these "Dialogues" at Cassisiacum? — Until tian; tne philosophical questions that occupied his 
now no one had doubted it: historians, relying upon mind constantly found themselves more and more 
the "Confessions", had all believed that Augustine's relegated to the backgroimd" (op. cit., 155). But 
retirement to the villa had for its twofold object the the method was a dangerous one; in thus seeking 
improvement of his health and his preparation for harmony between the two doctrines he thought 
baptism. But certain critics nowadays claim to too easily to find Christianity in Plato, or Platomsm 
have discovered a radical opposition between the in the Gospel. More than once, in his "Ketractations" 
philosophical "Dialogues" composed in this retire- and elsewhere, he acknowledges that he has not 
ment and the state of soul described in the "Con- always shunned this danger. Thus he had imagined 
fessions". According to Hamack, in writing the that ih Platonism he discovered the entire doctrine 
"Confessions" Augustine ipust have projected upon of the Word and the whole prologue of St. John, 
the recluse of 386 the sentiments of the bishop of He likewise disavowed a good number of neo- 
400. Others go farther and maintain that the recluse Platonic theories which had at first misled him — the 
of the Milanese villa could not have been at heart cosmological thesis of the universal soul, which 
a Christian, but a Platonist; and that the scene in makes the world one immense animal — the Platonic 
the garden was a conversion not to Christianity, but doubts upon that grave question: Is there a single 
to pnilosophy, the genuinely Christian phase begin- soul for all or a distinct soul for each? But on the 
ning only in 390. But this interpretation of the other hand, he had always reproached the Platonist^, 
"Dialogues" cannot withstand the test of facts and as Schaff very properly remarks (Saint Augustine, 
texts. It is admitted that Augustine received bap- New York, 1886, p. 51), with being ^orant of, 
tism at Easter, 387; and who could suppose that it or rejecting, the fundamental points of Christianity: 
was for him a meaningless ceremony? So too, how "first, the great mystery, the Word made flesh; and 
can it be admitted that the scene in the garden, the then love, resting on the basis of humility". They 
example of the recluses, the reading of St. Paul, the also ignore grace, he says, giving sublime precepts 
conversion of Victorinus, Augustine's ecstasies in of morality without any help towards realizing them, 
reading the Psalms with Monica were all invented It was this Divine grace that Augustine sought 
after the fact? A^ain, as it was in 388 tliat Atigustine in CJhristian baptism. Towards the beginning of 
wrote his beautiful apology "On the Holiness of Lent, 387, he went to Milan and, with Adeodatus 
the Catholic Church", how is it conceivable that he and Alypius, took his place among the competenUs, 
was not yet a Christian at that date? To settle the being baptized by Ambrose on &6ter Day, or at 
argument, however, it is only necessary to read the least during' Easter-tide. The tradition maintaining 
"Dialogues" themselves. They are certainly a that the Te Deum was sung on that occasion by the 
purely philosophical work — a work of youth, too, bishop and the neophyte alternately is groundless, 
not witnout some pretension, as Augustine ingen- (See Te Deum, The.) Nevertheless this legend is 
uously acknowledges (Confessions, IX, iv)j never- certainly expressive of the joy of the Church upon 
theless, tliey contain the entire history of his Chris- receiving as her son him who was to be her most 
tian formation. As early as 386, the first work illustrious doctor. It was at this time that Augustine, 
written at Cassisiacum reveals to us the great un- Alypius, and Evodius resolved to retire into solitude 
derlying moti ve of his researches. The object of in Africa. Augustine imdoubtedly remained at Milan 
his philosophy is to give authority the support of until towards autumn, continuing his works: "On 
reason, aiici "for him the great authority, that which the Immortality of tne Soul" and "On Music", 
dominates all others and from which he never wished In the autumn of 387, he was about to embark at 
to deviate, is the authority of Christ"; and if he loves Ostia, when Monica was summoned from this life, 
the Platonists it is because he counts on finding In all literature there are no pages of more exquisite 
amon^ them interpretations always in harmony with sentiment ihan the story of her saintly death and 
his faith (Against the Academics, III, c. x). To Augustine's grief (Confessions, IX). Augustine re- 
be sure such confidence was excessive, but it remains mamed several months in Rome, chiefly engaged 
evident that in these "Dialogues" it is a Christian, in refuting Manichseism. He sailed for Africa after 
and not a Platonist, that speaks. He reveals, to us the death of the tyrant Maximus (August, 388) and 
the intimate details of his conversion, the argument after a short sojourn in Carthage, returned to his 
that convinced him (the life and conquests of the native Tagaste. Immediately upon arriving there, 
Apostles), his progress in the Faith at the school of he wished to carry out his idea of a perfect life, 
St. Paul (ibid., II, ii)Lhis delightful conferences with and began by selling all his goods and givmg the pro- 
his friends on the Divinity of Jestis Christ, the ceeds to the poor. Then he and his friends withdrew 
wonderful transformations worked in his soul by to his estate, which had already been alienated, there 
faith, even to that victory of his over the intellectual to lead a common life in poverty, prayer, and the 
pride which his Platonic studies had aroused in him study of sacred letters. Book of the " LX5CXIII Ques- 
(On The Happy Life, I, ii), and at last the gradual tions" is the fruit of conferences held in this retire- 
calming of his passions and the great resolution to ment, in which he also wrote "De Genesi contra 
choose wisdom for his only spouse (Soliloquies, I, x). Manichseos", "De Magistro", and, "De Vera Ile- 
itis now easy to appreciate at its true value the ligione". 
influence of neo-Platonism upon the mind of the Augustine did not think of entering the priesthood, 
great African Doctor. It would be impossible for and, through fear of the episcopacy, he even fled from 
anyone who has read the works of St. Augustine to cities in which an election was necessary. One day, 
deny the existence of this influence; to be convinced, having been summoned to Hippo by a friend whose 
it suflices to glance at the passages from Plotinus soul's salvation was at stake, ne was praying in a 
and from Augustine arranged in parallel columns by church when the people suadenly ^tnered about 
M. Grandgeorge (Saint Augustin et le N^platonisme, him, cheered him, and begged Valerius, the bishop, 
1896, 117-147). However, it would be a great to raise him to the priesthood. In spite of his tears 
exaggeration of this influence to pretend that it Augustine was obliged to yield to their entrea^es, 

Avmjwrant 87 kvavvmn 

wd was ordained In 391, The now priest looked But he was above all the defender of truth tO-i ' 

imoD his ordination as an Etdditional reason fof re- the shepherd of souls. His doctrinal activities, the 

sumcf religious life at Tagaste, and so fully did influence of which waa destined to last as long as 

Viltrius approve that he put iome church property tiie Church itself, were manifold: he preached fre- 

tl AugusUne's disposal, thus en&blinK him to ««- quently, sometimes for five days consecutively, hia 

taMish a monastery— the second that he nad founded, sermons breathing a spirit of charjty that won 

priffltly ministry of five yeara was admirably all Hearts; ne wrote letlers wmcn scatterea oroaacass 

ui.,lliil, Valeriua had bidden him preach, in spite through the then known world his solutionH_ of the 

of tJM deplorable custom which in Africa reserved problems of that day; he impressed hia spirit upon 

that ministry to bishops. Augustine combated divera African councils at which he assisted, for in- 

ieia^, efipecially Manichffiism, and his success was stance, those of Carthage in 398, 401, 407, 419 and 

prodigiouH. Fortunatus, one of their great doctors, of Mileve in 416 and 418; and lastly struggled in- 

wbom Augustine had challenged in public conference, detatigably against all errors. To relate these 

las BO huraiiiated by bis defeat that he fled from struggles were endless; we shall, therefore, select 

Hippo. Augustine also abolished the abuse of hold- only the chief controversies and indicate in each 

in^&iqueta in the chapels of the martyra. He took the doctrinal attitude of the great Bishop ot Hippo, 

pari, SOctober, 393, in thePlenaryCouncilof Africa, (a) The Maniduxan CtmlTOversy and Ihe Problem 

presided ovst by Aureiius, Bishop of Carthage, and, of Evil. — After Augustine became bishop tlie zea! 

it ihe request of the Wshops. was obliged to deliver which, from the time of his baptism, he had man' 

adwMurse which, in its completed form, afterwards fest«d in bringing his former co-religionUts into the 

berarne the treatise " De Fide et symbolo". true Church, took on a more paternal form without 

(3) (from 396 to 430).— Enfeebled by old age, losinc its pristine ardour— "Let those rage a^nst 

VileriUB, Bishop of HippOi obtained toe audiori- us nbo know not at what a bitter cost tiuth :s a^- 

"shrai irf Aureliua, Primate ot Africa, to associate tained. ... As tor me, I should show you the same 

Auguatiiie with himself as coadjutor. Augustine had forbearance that my brethren hod for me when 1, 

lo idign himself t« consecration at the hands of blind, was wandering in your doctrines" (Contra 

"cptius. Primate of Numidia. He was then forty- Epistolam Fundamenti, iii). Among the most mem- 

''OiMdwas to occupy the See ot Hippo for thirty- orable events that occurr^ during this controversy 

Swrjfeani. The new bishop understood well how to was the great victory won in 404 over Felix, one of 

MnUne the exercise of bis pastoral duties with the the "elect" of the Manichsans and the great doctor 

Wtcrides of the religious life, and although be left ot the sect. He was propagating his errors in Hippo, 

I* eonvHit, his episcopal residence became a monas- and Augustine invited him to a public conference 

lay vb^e he lived a community life with his clergy, the issue ot which would necessanly cause a great 

■lio bound themsdvea to observe religious poverty, stir; Felix declared himself vanquished, embraced 

Wii it m order of rei^lar clerics or ot monks that the Faith, and, together with Augustine, subscrilDed 

J« thus founded? — This is a question often asked, the acts of the conference. In his writings Augustine 

'"t we feci that Aufrustina gave but little thought successively refuted Mani (397), the famous Faustus 

'osuchdistinctions. Be that as it may, the episcopal (4(X)), Secundinus (405), and (about 415) the fa- 

""ae o[ Hippo became a veritable nursery which talistic Priscillianiata wliom Paulus Orosius had de- 

*P(tiai ihe toundoTB of the monasteries that were nounced to him. These writings contain the saint's 

■ni mread all over Africa and the bishops who oc- clear, unquestionable views on the eternal problem 

'*|Ml the neighbouring sees. Poesidius (Vita S. of evil, views based on an optimism proclniming, 

*%!<«., xxii) enumerates ten of the saint's friends like the Platoniats, that every work of God is good 

™ dieciples who were promoted to the episcopacy, and that the only source of moral evil is the liberty 

^n A waa that Augustine earned the title ot pa- of creatures (De Civitate Dei, XIX, e. xiii, n. 2). 

^nnk of the religious, and renovator of the clerical, Augustine takes up the defence of free will, even in 

Mb MiicL nian as he is. with such ardour that his works against 


^e Manichffians are an inexhaustible storehouse of the Bishop of Hippo himself was several times at« 

ar^mnents in this still living controversy. tempted (Letter Ixxxviii, to Januarius, the Donatist 

In vain have the Jansenists maintained that bishop). This madness of the Circumcelliones re- 
Augustine was imconsciouslv a Pela^an and that auired harsh repression, and Aufustine, witnessing 
he afterwards ackncwledffed the loss of hberty through tne many conversions that resulted therefrom, thence- 
the sin of Adam. Modem critics, doubtless xmtBr forth approved rifid laws. However, this important 
miliar with Augustine's complicated system and restriction must be pointed out: that St. Augustine 
his peculiar terminology, have gone much farther, never wished heresy to be punishable by oeathr- 
In the "Revue d'histoire et de litSSraturereligieuses" Voa rogamus ne occidatU (Letter o, to the P«)- 
(1899, p. 447), M. Margival exhibits St. Augustine as consul Donatus). But the bishops still favoured 
the victim of metaphysical pessimism unconsciously a confer^ioe with the schismatics, and in 410 an 
imbibed from Manichsean doctrines. '' Never '\ savs edict issued by Honorius put an end to the refusal 
he, "will the Oriental idea of the necessity and tne of the Donatists. A solemn conference took place 
eternity of evil have a more zealous defender than at Carthage, in June, 411, in presence of 286 Catho- 
this bishop". Nothing is more opposed to the facts, lie, and 279 Donatist bishops. The Donatist 
Augustine acknowledges that he imd not yet under- spokesmen were Petiiian of Constantine, Primian 
stood how the first ^od inclination of the will is a of Carthage, and Emeritus of Ceesarea; the Catholic 
gift of God (Retractations, I, xxiii, n. 3); but it orators, Aurelius and Augustine. On the historic 
should be remembered that he never retracted his Question then at issue, the Bishop of Hippo proved 
leading theories on liberty, never modified his the innocence of Cscilian and his consecrator Felix, 
opinion upon what constitutes its essential condition, and in the dogmatic debate he established the Catho- 
that is to say, the fu^l power of choosing or of de- lie thesis that the Church, as long as it is upon earth, 
ciding. Who will dare to say that in revising his can, without losing its holiness, tolerate sinners 
own writings on so important a point he lacked within its pale for the sake of converting them, 
either clearness of perception or sincerity? In the name of the emperor the Proconsul Marcellinus 

(b) The Donatist Controversy and the Theory of sanctioned the victory of the Catholics on all points. 

the Church. — ^The Donatist schism was the last episode Little by little Donatism died out, to disappear with 

in the Montanist and Novatian controversies which the conune of the Vandals. 

had agitated the Church from the second century. So amply and ma^ificently did Augustine de- 
While the East was discussing under varying sheets velop his tneory on tne Church that, according to 
the Divine and Christological problem of the Word, Specht, "he deserves to be named the Doctor of the 
the West, doubtless because of its more practical Cnurch as well as the "Doctor of Grace*'; and Mohler 
genius, took up the moral question of sin m all its (Dogmatik, 351) is not afraid to write: "For depth 
forms. The general problem was the holiness of the of feeling and power of conception nothing written 
Church; could the smner be pardoned, and remain on the Church since St. Paul's time, is comparable 
in her bosom? In Africa the question esoecially to the works of St. Augustine". He has corrected, 
concerned the hoUness of the hierarchy. The oishops perfected, and even excelled the beautiful pages of 
of Numidia, who, in 312, had refused to accept as St. Cyprian on the Divine institution of the Church, 
validtheconsecrationofOsBCilian, Bishop of Carthage, its authority, its essential marks, and its mission in 
by a iraditor, had inaugurated the schism and at the economy of grace and the aoministration of the 
the same time proposed these grave questions: Do sacraments. The Protestant critics, Domer, Binde- 
the hierarchical powers depend upon the moral mann, B6hringer and especially Renter, loudly pro- 
worthiness of the priest? How can the holiness of claim, and sometimes even exaggerate, this rble of 
the Church be compatible with the im worthiness of the Doctor of Hippo; and while Hamack does not 
its ministers? quite agree with them in every respect he does not 

At the time of Augustine's arrival in Hippo, the hesitate to say (History of Dogma, II, c. iii): "It is 

scliism had attained immense proportions, naving one of the points upon which Augustine specially 

become identified with political tendencies — perhaps affirms and strengthens the Catholic idea. . . . 

with a national movement against Roman dommation. He was the first [I] to transform the authority of the 

In any event, it is easy to discover in it an under- Church into a religious power, and to confer upon 

current of anti-social revenge which the emperors practical religion the gift of a doctrine of the Churcn. *' 

had to combat by strict laws. The strange sect He was not the first, for Domer acknowledges (Au- 

known as "Soldiers of Christ", and called by Catho- eustinus, 88) that Optatus of Mileve had expressed 

lies CircumceUioTies (brigands, vagrants), resembled the basis of the same doctrines. Augustine, however, 

the revolutionary sects of the Middle Ages in point deepened, systematized, and completed the view« 

of fanatic destructiveness — a fact that must not be of St. Cypnan and Optatus. But it is impossible 

lost sight of, if the severe legislation of the emperors here to go into detail. (See Specht, Die Lenre von 

is to be properly appreciated. derKircnenachdemhl. Augustinus, Padatom, 1892.) 

The history of Augustine's struggles with the (c) The Pelagian Controversy and the Doctor of 
Donatists is also that of his change ofopinion on the Grace. — ^The close of the struggle against the Do- 
employment of rigorous measures against the here- natists almost coincided with the l^ginnings of a 
tics; and the Church in Africa, of whose councils very grave theological dispute which not only ^vas to 
he had been the very soul, followed hun in the change, demand Augustine's imremitting attention up to 
This change of views is solemnly attested by the the time of ms death, but was to become an eternal 
Bishop of Hippo himself, especially in his Letters, problem for individuals and for the Church. Farther 
xciii (in the year 408). In the beginning, it was on we shall enlarge upon Augustine's system; here we 
by conferences and a friendly controversy that he need only indicate the phases of the controversy. 
sought to re-establish unity. He inspired various Africa, where Pelagius and his disciple Celestius had 
conciliatory measures of the African councils, and sought refuge after the taking of Home by Alaric, 
sent ambassadors to the Donatists to invite them was the principal centre of tne first Pelagian dis- 
to re-enter the Church, or at least to urge them to turbances; as early as 412 a coimcil held at Carthage 
send deputies to a conference (403). The Donatists condemned Pelagians for their attacks upon the doc- 
met these advances at first with silence, then with trine of original sin. Among other books directed 
insults, and lastly with such violence that Possidius. against them by Augustine was his famous " De 
Bishop of Calamet, Augustine's friend, escaped naturd et gratis '. Thanks to his activity the con- 
death only by flight, the Bishop of Bagala was damnation of these innovators, who had succeeded 
left covered with horrible wounds, and the life of in deceiving a synod convened at Diosoolis in Palee* 


tme, was reiterated by councils held later at Carthage (a) The "Conieesions*' (towards a, d. 400) a^ 
and Mileve and confirmed by Pope Innocent I (417). in the Biblical sense of the word confUeri^ not an 
A second period of Pelagian mtrigues developed avowal or an account, but the prai^ of a soul that 
at Rome, but Pope Zosimus, whom the stratagems admires the action of God \Wtmn itself. Of all the 
of Celestius had for a moment deluded, being en- works of the holy Doctor none has been more uni- 
lightened by Augustine, pronounced the solemn versally read and admired, none has caused more 
condemnation of these heretics in 418. Thenceforth salutaiy tears to flow. Neither in respect of pene- 
the combat was conducted in writing against Julian trating analysis of the most complex impressions 
of Eclanum, who assumed the leadership of the party of the soul, nor communicative feeling, nor elevation 
and violently attacked Augustine. Towards 426 of sentiment, nor depth of philosophic views, is there 
there entered the lists a school which afterwards any book like it in all literature, (b) The "Retrac- 
acquired the name of Semipelagian, the first members tations" (towards the end of his life, 426-428) are a 
bdng monks of Hadrumetum in Africa, who were revision of the works of the saint in chronological 
followed by others from Marseilles, led by Cassian, order, explaining the occasion and dominant idea 
the celebrated abbot of Saint-Victor. Unable to of each. They are a guide of inestimable price for 
admit the absolute gratuitousness of predestination, seizing the progress of Augustine's thought, (c) The 
tbeysou^t a middle course between Augustine and ''Letters*', amounting in the Benedictme collection 
Pdagius, and maintained that ^ace must be given to 270 (53 of them from Augustine's correspondents), 
to those who merit it and denied to others: hence are a treasure of the greatest value, for the knowledge 
foodwill has the precedence, it desires, it asks, and of his life, influence and even his doctrine. 
God rewards. Informed of tiieir views by Prosper (2) Philosophy. — ^These writings, for the most 
of Aquitaine, the holy Doctor once more expounded, part composed in the villa of Cassisiacum, from 
it "DePrsedestinatione Sanctorum", how even these nis conversion to his baptism (386-387), continue 
first desires for salvation are due to the grace of God, the autobiography of the saint by initiating us into 
which therefore absolutely controls our predestina- the researches and Platonic hesitations of his mind. 
UoQ. There is less freedom in them than in the Confessipns. 

(d) Struggles against Arianiam and Cloaina Years, — They are literary essays, writings whose simplicity 
In 426 the holy Bishop of Hippo, at the age of is tne acme of art and el^ance. Nowhere is the 
sevens-two, wishing to spare his episcopal city the style of Augustine so chastened, nowhere is his 
turmoil of an election after his death, caused both language so pure. Their dialogue form shows that 
deigy and people to acclaim the choice of the deacon they were inspired by Plato and Cicero. The chief 
Heradius as his auxiliary and successor, and trans- ones are: ''Contra Academicos*' (the most important 
ferred to him the administration of externals. Au- of all); "De Beati VitA"; "De Ordine"; tne two 
gustine might then have enjoyed some rest had books of ''Soliloquies", wmch must be distinguished 
Africa not been agitated by the imdeserved disgrace from the "Soliloquies" and "Meditations" which 
tnd the revolt of Count Boniface (427). The Goths, are certainly not authentic; " De Immortalitate 
sent by the Empress Placidia to oppose Boniface, animse"; "De Magistro" (a dialogue between Au- 
and the Vandals, whom the latter summoned to his gustine and his son Adeodatus): and six curious 
aoiBtance, were all Arians. Maximinus, an Arian books (the sixth ecpeciallv) on Music, 
bishop, entered Hippo with the imperial troops. (3) General Apolooy. — (a) In the "City of God" 
The holy Doctor defended the Faith at a public con- (begun in 413, but tne books XX-XXII are of 426) 
ference (428) and in various writings. Being deeply Augustine answers the pagans, who attributed the 
grieved at the devastation of Africa, he laboured fall of Home (410) to the abolition of pagan worship, 
to effect a reconciliation between Count Boniface Considering this problem of Divine Providence with 
and the empress. Peace was indeed re-established, regard to uie Roman Empire, he widens the horizon 
but not witn Genseric, the Vandal king. Boniface, stul more and in a burst of genius he creates the 
vanquished, sought refuge in Hippo, whither many philosophy of history, embracing as he does with a 
bisliops had al^ady fled for protection and this ^ance the destinies of the w&rld grouped around the 
well fortified dty was to suffer the horrors of an Qiristian religion, the only one which goes back to 
ei^iteen months' siege. Endeavouring to control the banning and leads humanity to its final term, 
hia Anguish, Augustine continued to refute Julian "The City of God" is considered ss the most im- 
of Ecliuium; but early in the siege he was stricken portant work of the great bishop. The other works 
with what he realized to be a fatiu illness, and, after chiefly interest theologians; but it, like the "Con- 
three months of admirable patience and fervent fessions", belongs to general literature and appeals 
prayer, departed from this land of exile, in the to every soul. The "Confessions" are theology 
eeven^-eixth year of his a^e. which has been lived in the soul, and the history of 

n. asB Works. — ^Augustme was one of the most God's action on individuals, while "The City of God" 
potific geniuses that humanity has ever known, and is theology framed in the history of humanity, and 
B admired not only for the number of his works, but explaining the action of God m the world, (b) 
alw for the variefy of subjects, which traverse the Otner apolo^tio writings, like the "De VerA Re- 
wfaole realm of thought. The form in which he casts ligione" (a httle masterpiece composed at Tagaste, 
liis work exercisefl a very powerful attraction on 3§9-391), "De Utilitate Credendi" (391), "Liber 
tbe reader. Bardenhewer praises his extraordinary de fide rerum quse non videntur" (400), and the 
sam)lene8S of expressioh and his marvellous gift "Letter CXX to Oonsentius". constitute Augustine 
of describing interior things, of painting the various the great theorist of the Faitn, and of its relations 
^tes of the soul and the facts of the spiritual world, to reason. "He is the first of the Fathers ''. says 
His latinity bears the stamp of his age. In general, Hamack (Dogmengeschichte, III, 97) '* who felt the 
bis style is noble and chaste; but, says the same need of forcing his faith to reason". And indeed he, 
author, "in his sermons and other popular writings who so repeatedly afl^rms that faith precedes the 
be purposely drops to the language oi the people . intelligent apprehension of the truths of revelation — 
A detuled analysis is impossible here. We shall ' he it is who marks out with greater clearness of defi- 
oeidy indicate his principal writings and the date nition and more precisely than anyone else the func- 
(often approximative) of their composition. tion of the reason in preceding and verifying the 

0) Autotdography and Correspondence. — ^The"Con- witness's claim to credence, and in accompanying 
wons" are the history of his heart; the "Retrac- the mind's act of adhesion. (Letter to Consentius, 
Nations", of his mind; while the "Letters" show hift n. 3, 8, etc.) What would not have been the stupe- 
^etivity in the Church. faction of Augustine if anyone had told him that 

AvauBTnnB go avousthiz 

faith must close its eyes to the proofs of the divine But the hermeneutics of Augustine merit great 

testimony, under the penalty of its becoming science! praise, especially for their insistence upon the stem 

—Or if one had spoken to nim of faith in authority law of extreme prudence in determining the meaning 

giving its assent, without examining any motive of Scripture: We must be on our guard against giving 

which might prove the value of the testimony! — interpretations which are hazardous or opposed to 

It surely cannot be possible for the human mind to science, and so exposing the word of God to the ridicule 

accept testimony without known motives for such of unbelievers (Do Genesi ad litteram, I, xix, xxi, 

acceptance, or, again, for any testimony, even when especially n. 39). An admirable application of this 

learnedly sifted out, to give the science — the inward well-ordered liberty appears in his thesis on the 

view — of the object. simultaneous creation of the universe, and the 

(4) Controversies with Heretics. — (a) Against the gradual development of the world under the action 

Manichseans; "De Moribus Ecclesi® CathoUcse et of the natural forces which were plac^ in it. Cer- 

de Moribus Manichaeorum" (at Rome, 368); "De tainly the instantaneous act of the Creator did not 

Duabus Animabus" (before 392); "Acts of the produce an org^ized universe as we see it now. 

Dispute with Fortunatus the Manichffian" (392); But. in the beginning, God created all the elements 

"Acts of the Conference with Felix" (404); "Ete of tne world in a confused and nebulous mass (the 

Libero Arbitrio" — very important on the origin word is Augustine's — Nebtdosa species apparet; **De 

of evil; various writings "Contra Adimantum''; Genesi ad litt.", I, n. 27), and in this mass were 

against the Epistle of Man! (the foundation); against the mysterious germs (rationes seminales) of the 

Faustus (about 400); againstSecundinus (405), etc. future beings which were to develop themselves, 

rmit. Is 


grasp than 

pie ^ , 

Parmeniam", "Contra Cresconium", etc. — a good Science, ancf Faith, pp. 58-66, French tr.) properly 

number of letters, also, relate to this debate, (c) felicitates him on naving been the precursor of 

Against the Pelagians, in chronological order, we modem thought. But if we mean that he admitted 

have: 412, "De peccatorum meritis et remissione" in matter a power of differentiation and of gradual 

(On merit and forgiveness); same year, "De transformation, passing from the homogeneous to 

spiritu et litterA" (On the spirit and the letter); the heterogeneous, the most formal texts force tis 

416, "De Perfectione justitiae hominis" — ^important to recognize that Augustine proclaimed the fixity of 

for understanding relaeian impeccability; 417, species, and did not admit that "from one identical 

"De Gestis Pelagu" — a nistory of the Council of primitive principle, or from one germ, different 

Diospolis, whose acts it reproduces; 418, "De GratiA realities can issue". This judgment of the Abb6 

Christi et de peccato originali"; 419, "De nuptiis et Martin in his very searching study on this subject 

concupiscentia"; and other writings (420-428); (S. Augustin, p. 314) must correct the conclusion 

"Against Julian of Eclanum"— the last of this series, of Father Zahm. "The elements of tliis corporeal 

worid have also their well defined force, and their 
proper quality, from which depends wliat each one 
of them can or cannot do, and wliat reality ought 

Perse verantise" (429). — (e) Against Arianism: "Con- or ought not to issue from each one of them. Hence 

tra sermonem Arianorum'* (418) and "Collatio cum it is tnat from a grain of wheat a bean cannot issue, 

Maximino Arianorum episcopo" (the celebrated con- nor wheat from a bean, nor a man from a beast, nor 

ference of Hippo in 428). a beast from a man " (De Genesi ad litt., IX, n. 32). 
(5) Scriptural Exegesis, — ^Augustine in the "De (6) Dogmatic and Moral Exposition. — (a) The 

DoctrinA Christian^'' (b^un in 397 and ended in fifteen books "De Trinitate", on ^^hich he worked 

426) gives us a genuine treatise of ex^esis, historically for fifteen years, from 400 to 416, are the most 

the first (for St. Jerome wrote rather as a contro- elaborate and profound work of St. Augustine. 

versialist). Several times he attempted a commen- The last books on the analogies which the mystery 

tary on Genesis. The great work "De Genesi ad of the Trinity have with our soul are much discussed, 

litteram" was composed from 401 to 415. The The saintly author himself declares that they are 

" Enarrationes in Psalmos" are a masterpiece of only analogous and are far-fetched and very obscure, 

popular eloquence, with a swing and a warmth to (b) The Enchiridion", or handbook, on Faith, 

them which are inimitable. On the New Testament: Hope, and Love, composed, in 421, at the re<que8t 

the "De Sermone Dei in Monte (during his priestly of a pious Roman, Laurentius, is an admirable 

ministry) is especially noteworthy; "De Consensu svnthesis of Augustine's theolo^, reduced to the 

Evangelistarum (Harmony of the Gospels— -400): three theological virtues. Father Faure has g^ven 

"Homilies on St. John" (416), generally classea us a learned commentary of it, and Harnack a de- 

among the chief works of Aujpistine; the "Exposi- tailed analysis (Hist, of dogmas. III, 205, 221). 

tion of the Epistle to the ualatians" (324), etc. (c) Several volumes of miscellaneous questions, 

The most remaricable of his Biblical works illustrate amonj^ which "Ad Simplicianum ''^ (397) has been 

either a theory of exegesis (one generally approved) especially noted, (d) Numberless writings of his 

which delights in finding mystical or allegorical have a practical aim: two on "Lying" (374 and 420), 

interpretations, or the style of preaching wmch is five on "Continence", "Marriage", and "Holy 

founded on that view. His strictly exegetical work Widowhood", one on "Patience", another on 

Is far from equalling in scientific value that of St. "Prayer for the Dead" (421). 

Jerome. His knowledge of the Biblical languages (7) Pastorals and Preaching. — The theory of 
was insufficient: he read Greek with difficulty; as preaching and religious instruction of the people 
for Hebrew, all that we can gather from the recent is given in the "De Catechizandis Rudibus" (400) 
studies of Schanz and Rottmanner is that he was and in the fourth book "De DoctrinA Christian A", 
familiar with Punic, a language allied to Hebrew. The oratorical work alone is of vast extent. Besides 
Moreover, the two grand qualities of his g^enius — the Scriptural homilies, the Benedictines have col- 
ardent feeling and prodigious subtlety; — carried him lected 363 sermons which are certainly authentic; 
away into interpretations that were violent or more the brevity of these suggests that they are steno- 
ingenious than solid. graphic, often revised by Augustine himself. If 

AXTGumra 91 AtrGusTin 

the Doctor in him predominates over the orator, any direct control over politics, and Hamack adds 
tfhepossesses less of colour, of opulence, of actuality, that perhaps he had not the qualifications of a 
and of Oriental charm than St. John Ghrysostom, statesman. If Augustine occupies a place apart in 
we find, on the other hand, a more nervous logic, the history of humanity, Eucken and men of his 
bolder comparisons, greater elevation and greater calibre agree that it is as a thinker, his influence being 
profundity of thought, and sometimes^ in his bursts felt even outside the realm of theology, and playing 
of emotion and ms daring lapses mto dialogue- a most potent part in the orientation of Western 
form, he attains the irresistible power of the Greek thought. It is now universally conceded that, in 
orator. The oratorical merit of Augustine has the intellectual field, this influence is unrivalled even 
recently been placed in strong relief by ftottmanner by that of Thomas Aquinas, and Augustine's teach- 
in " Historisches Jahrbuch ", 1898, p. 894; and H. ing marks a distinct Qpoch in the histor^r of Christian 
Pope, 0. P., in "The Ecclesiastical Review", Sep- thought. The better to emphasize this important 
lember, 1906. fact we shall try to determine: (1) the rank and de- 
EdiHms of St. Augustine's works. — ^The best edition gree of influence that must be ascribed to Augustine; 
of his complete works is that of the Benedictines, (2) the nature, or the elements, of his doctrinal in- 
eleven tomes in eight folio volumes (Paris, 1679- fluence; (3) the general qualities of his doctrine; 
1700). It has been often reprinted, e. g. by Qaiune and (4) the character of his genius. 
(Paris, 1836-39), in eleven octavo volumes, and by (1) The greatest of the Doctors, — It is first of all a 
Migne, P. L., XXXII-XLVII. The last volume of remarkable fact that the great critics, Protestant 
the Migne reprint contains a number of important as well as Catholic, are almost unanimous in placing 
eartier studies on St. Augustine — Vivde. Noris, Merlin, St. Augustine in the foremost rank of Doctors and 
particularly the literapy history of tne editions of proclaiming him to be the greatest of the Fathers. 
Ao^ine from SchOnemann's ^'Bibl. hist. lit. patrum Such, ind€^, was also the opinion of his contem- 
Lat." (Leipzig, 1794). For critical remarks on the poraries, judging from their expressions of enthusiasm 
Benedictine, or Maiurist, edition, see R. Kukula and gathered by the Bollandists. The popes attributed 
0. Rottmanner in the reports of the Vienna Academy such exceptional authority to the Doctor of Hippo 
of Science for 1890, 93, 98. Since 1887 a new edition that, even of late years, it has given rise to lively 
of St. Augustine has been appearing in the "Corpus theological controversies. Peter the Venerable 
Scriptorum Eccl. Latinorum ' of the Vienna Academy accurately summarized the general sentiment of the 
— the "Confessiones" by P. ICndll (XXXIII), the Middle Ages when he ranked Augustine, immediately 
"DeCivitate Dei", by E. Hoffmann (XL), etc. The after the Apostles; said in modem times Bossuet, 
pnocipal tractates of St. Augustine are also found in whose genius was most Like that of Augustine, assigns 
the collection of H. Hurter, " SS. PP. Opuscula him the first place amon^ the Doctors, nor does he 
selecta'* (Innsbruck, 1868 sqq.). — English transla- simply call him "the mcomparable Augustine", 
rww.— Dr. Pusey's "Library of the Fathers" (Ox- but "the Eagle of Doctors", "the Doctor of Doctors". 
ford, 1839-55) contains translations of many works If the Jansenistic abuse of his works and perhaps 
of St. Augustine — the "Confessions", sennons, the exaggerations of certain Catholics, as well as the 
treatises, expositions on the Psalms, and "Homilies attack of Richard Simon, seem to have alarmed 
on John". It is well supplemented by the "Angus- some minds, the general opinion has not varied. 
tinian Library" of Marcus Dods (Edinburgh, 1872- In the nineteenth century Stdckl expressed the 
76, 15 vols., 8vo), which contains a great number of thought of all when he said, "Augustine has justly 
translations, from the pens of Cunningham, Findlay. been called the greatest Doctor of the Catholic world . 
Salmond, Holmes, Wallis. and others — the "City of And the admiration of Protestant critics is not 
God'', the "Confessions", the Anti-Donatist, Anti- less enthusiastic. More than this, it would seem as 
Pelagian, and Anti-Manichsean works, "On the if they had in these latter days been quite specially 
Trinity", "Sermon on the Mount", "Harmony of fascinated by the great figure of Aioustine, so deeply 
the Gospels", "On Christian Doctrine", the "En- and so assiduously have they studied him (Binde- 
fhiridion", "On the Faith and the Creed", "On mann. Schaff, Domer, Renter. A. Hamack, Eucken, 
Catechizing the Ignorant". These volumes, en- Scheel, and so on) and all of tnem agree more or less 
riched with other translations and introductory with Hamack when he says: "Where, in the history 
discouraej, were reprinted imder the editorial di- of the West, is there to be found a man who, in point 
rection of Dr. Phihp Schaff (New York, 1886-88, of influence, can be compared with him?" Luther 
8 vols.). Dr.Pusey's translation of the" CJonfessions", and Calvin were content to treat Augustine with a 
1» says himself, is a revision of the version of W. little less irreverence than they did the other Fathers, 
Watta (London, 1650), with addition of a lengthy but their descendants do him full justice, although 
Preface and notes; the same translation, reprinted recognising him as the Father of Roman Catholicism. 
« Boston (1843), and then reputed anonymous. According to Bindemann, "Augustine is a star of 
furnished Dr. W. G. T. Shedd (Andover, I860) with extraordinary brilliancy in the firmament of the 
tbe text for his "excellent original introduction in Chiu-ch. Since the Apostles he has been unsurpassed". 
^hich he clearly and vigorously characterizes the In his "History of the Church "Dr. Kurtz calls Augus- 
Confeasions and dwiws a comparison between them tine "the greatest, the most powerful of all the 
ukI the Confessions of Rousseau" (Schaff, Hist, of Fathers, him from whom proceeds all the doctrinal 
ttie Christian Church, 5th ed.. New York, 1903, and ecclesiastical development of the West, and to 
P 1005). The earliest English translation of the whom each reciuring crisis, each new orientation 
''Deavitate Dei" bears the title: "Of the Citie of of thought brmgs it back". Schaff himself (Saint 
Hod with the learned conmients of Jo. L. Viv^, Augustine, Melanchthon and Neander, p. 98) is of the 
Eaj^isbed first by J. H(ealey), London, 1610". There same opinion: "While most of the great men in the 
is a German (Catholic) translation of several works history of the Church are claimed either by the 
of St. Augustine in the " Kempten Bibliothek der Catholic or bv the IVotestant confession, and their 
Kffphenvater" (1871-79, 8 vob.). influence is therefore confined to one or the other. 
UL His Function as a Docttor op the CnxmcH. — he enjoys from both a respect equally profound ana 
^^the critics endeavour to determine Augustine's enduring". Rudolf Eucken is bolder still, when he 
P^m the history of the Church and of civnization, says: "On the ground of Christianity proper a single 
*>^ean be no question of exterior or political in- philosopher has appeared and that is Augustine", 
fiance, such as was exercised bv St. Leo, St. Gregory, The English writer, W, Cunningham, is no less ap- 
c'^ Si. Bernard. As Reuter justly observes, Augustine preciative of the extent and perpetuity of this ex- 
*^ bishop of a third-rate city and had scarcely traordinary influence: "The whole life of the medieval 

AUGUBTnnB 92 Auansmrx 

Church was framed on lines which he has suggested: but according to others utterly deplorable. Theie 

its religious orders claimed him as their patron; its fantasies do not survive the reading of the texts, 

mystics found a sympathetic tone in his teaching; and Hamack himself shows in Augustine the heir 

its polity was to some extent the actualization of his to the tradition that preceded him. Still, on the 

picture of the Christian Church: it was in its various other hand, his share of invention and originality 

parts a carrving out of ideas wnich he cherished and in the development of dogma must not be imored, 

diffused. Nor does his influence end with the de- although here and there, on special questions, human 

cline of medievalism: we shall see presently how weaknesses crop out. He resized, better than any 

closely his language was akin to that of Descartes, of the Fathers, the progress so well expressed by 

who gave the mst impulse to and defined the special Vincent of Li^rins, his contemporary, in a page that 

character of modem philosophy." And after having some have turned against him. 
established that the doctrine of St. Augustine was In general, all Cliristian dogmatics are indebted 

at the bottom of ail the struggles between Jansenists to him for new theories that &tter justify and ex- 

and Catholics in the Church of France, between plain revelation, new views, and greater clearness 

Arminians and Calvinists on the side of the Reform- and precision. The many struggles with which he 

ers, he adds: "And once more in our own land when was identified, together with the speculative turn 

a reaction arose against rationalism and Erastinian- of his mind, brought almost every question within 

ism it was to the African Doctor that men turned the scope of his research. Even his way of stating 

with enthusiasm: Dr. Pusey's edition of the Con*- problems so left his impress upon them that there 

feasiona was among the first-fruits of the Oxford is no problem, one might almost say, in considering 

Movement". which the theologian does not feel the study of 

But Adolf Hamack is the one who has oftenest Augustine's thought to be an imperative obligation, 

emphasized the unique r61e of the Doctor of Hippo. Certain dogmas in particular he so amply developed, 

He has studied Augustine's place in the history of so skilfully unsheathing the fruitful eerm of the 

the world as reformer of Cnristian piety and his truths from their envelope of tradition, tnat many of 

influence as Doctor of the Church. In his study of these dogmas (wrongly, in our opinion) have been 

the "Confessions" he comes back to it: "No man set down as "Augustinism". Augustine was not 

said that we are the sons of the Renaissance and the (op. cit., 97) has very properly said: "His appearance 

Reformation, but both one and the other depend in the nistory of aogma forms a distinct epoch, 

upon him". especiallv as regards anthropological and soterio- 

(2) Nature and different aspects of his doctrinal logical doctrines, which he advanced considerably 
influence. — ^This influence is so varied and so complex further, and brought to a greater clearness and pre- 
that it is difficult to consider imder all its different cision, than they had ever luid before in the conscious- 
aspects. First of ail, in his writings the great bishop hess of the Church". But he is not only the Doctor 
collects and condenses the intellectual treasures of of Grace, he is also the Doctor of the Church: his 
the old world and transmits them to the new. Har- twenty years' conflict with Donatism led to a com- 
nack goes so far as to say: "It would seem that the plete exposition of the dogmas of the -Church, the 
miserable existence of the Roman empire in the West great work and mjrstical Body of Christ, and true 
was prolonged until then, only to permit Augustine's Kingdom of God, of its part in salvation and of the 
influence to be exercised on universal history". It intimate efficacy of its sacraments. It is on this 
was in order to fulfil this enormous task that Provi- point, as the very centre of Augustinian theology, 
dence brought him into contact with the three that Renter has concentrated those " August inische 
worlds whose thought he was to transmit: with the Studien" which, according to Hamack, are the most 
Roman and Latin world in the midst of which he learned of recent studies on St. Augustir e. Mani- 
lived, with the Oriental world partially revealed to chsean controversies also led him to state clearly the 
him through the study of Manichseism, and with great questions of the Divine Being and of the nature 
the Greek world shown to him by the Platonists. of evil, and he might also be called the Doctor of 
In philosophy he was initiated into the whole content Good, or of good principles of all things. Lastly, 
ana aU the subtilties of the various schools, without, the very idiosyncrasy of his genius and the practical, 
however, giving his allegiance to any one of them, supematiu^, and Divine imprint left upon all his 
In theolo^ it was he who acquainted the Latin intellectual speculations have made him the Doctor 
Church witn the great dogmatic work accomplished of Charity. 

in the East during the fourth century and at the Another step forward due to the works of Augus- 

beginning of the fifth; he popularized the results of tine is in the language of theology, for, if he did 

it by giving them the more exact and precise form not create it, he at least contributed towards its 

of the Latm genius. definite settlement. It is indebted to him for a great 

To synthesis of the past, Augustine adds the in- number of epigrammatic formulae, as significant as 

comparable wealth of his own thought, and he may they are terse, afterwards singled out and adopted 

be said to have been the most powerful instrument b^ Scholasticism. Besides, as Latin was more con- 

of Providence in development and advance of dogma, cise and less fluid in its forms than Greek, it was 

Here the danger has been not in denying, but in wonderfully well suited to the work. Augustine 

exaggerating, this advance. Augustine's aogmatic made it the dogmatic language par excellence, and 

mission (in a lower sphere and apart from inspiration) Anselm. Thomas Aquinas, and others followed his 

recalls that of Paul in the preaching of the Gospel, lead. At times he has even been credited with the 

It has also been subject to the same attacks and pseudo-Athanasian creed which is imdoubtedly of 

occasioned the same vagaries of criticism. Just as it later date, but those critics were not mistaken who 

was sought to make of Paulinism the real source of traced its inspiration to the formulsB in "De Trini- 

Christianity as we know it — a svstem that had tate". Whoever its author may have been, he was 

smothered the primitive germ of the Gospel of certainly familiar with Augustine and drew upon his 

Jesus — so it was imagined that, under the name of works. It is unquestionably this rift of concise ex- 

Augustinianism, Augustine hod installed in the pression. as well as his charity, tnat has so often 

Church some sort of syncretism of the ideas of Paul caused tne celebrated saying to be attributed to him: 

and of neo-Platonism which was a deviation from "In essentials unity, in non-essentials liberty, in ed] 

ancient Christianity, fortunate according to some, things charity". 

AtrotrsTHis d3 AuauSTon! 


Au^tine stands forth, too, as the great inspirer knowledge becomes moral, religious knowled^, Of 
of religious thought in subsequent ages. A whole rather a moral, religious conviction, an act of faith on 
volume would not be sufficient to contain the full the part of man, who gives himself up imreservedly''. 
account of his influence on poster! tv; here we shall And with still ^eater energy Bdhringer has said: 
merely call attention to its principal manifestations. "The axis on which the heart, life, and theology of 
Itis,inthefirst place, a fact of paramount importance Augusnne move is God". Oriental discussions on 
that, with St. Augustine, the centre of aogmatrc the Word had forced Athanasius and the Greek 
and theological development changed from East to Fathers to set faith in the Word and in Christ, the 
West Hence, from this view-point again, he makes Saviour, at the very summit of theology; Augustine, 
an epoch in the history of dogma. The critics main- too, in his theolo^, places the Incarnation at the 
tain that up to his time the most powerful influence centre of the Divme plan, but he looks upon it as 
iras exertea by the Greek Church, the East having the great historic manifestation of God to humanity — 
been the classic land of theology, the great work- the Idea of God dominates all: of God considered in 
shop for the elaboration of dogma. From the time His essence fOn* the Trinity), in His government 
of Augustine, the predominating influence seems (The City of God), or as the last end of all Christian 
to emanate from the West, and the practical, reab'stic life (Enchiridion and On the Christian Combat). 
spiiii of the Latin race supplants the speculative Lastly, Augustine's doctrine bears an eminently 
and idealistic spirit of Greece and the East. Another Catholic stamp and is radically opposed to Protes- 
fact, no less salient, is that it was the Doctor of Hippo tantism. It is important to establish this fact, prin- 
who, in the bosom of the Church, inspired the two cipally because of the change in the attitude of 
seemindy antagonistic movements, Scholasticism Protestant critics towards St. Augustine. Indeed, 
and Mysticism. From Gregory the Great to the nothing is more deserving of attention than this 
Fathers of Trent, Augustine^ theoloeical authority, development so highly creditable to the impartiality 
indisputably the highest, dominates all thinkers ana of modem writers. The thesis of the Protestante 
is a{H)eaIed to alike by tne Scholastics Anselm, Peter of olden times is well known. Attempts to monopo- 
Lomoard, and Thomas Aquinas, and by Bernard, lize Augustine and to make him an ante-Reformation 
Hugh of St. Victor, and Tauler, exponents of Mys- reformer, were certainly not wanting. Of course 
tidsm, all of whom were nourished upon his writings Luther had to admit that he did not And in Augustine 
and penetrated with his spirit. There is not one of justification by faith alone, that generating prmciple 
even the most modem tendencies of thought but de- of all Protestantism; and Schaff tells us that he 
rives from him whatever it may have of truth or of consoled himself with exclaiminjg (op. cit., p. 100): 
profound religious sentiipent. Learned critics, such "Augustine has often erred, he is not to be trusted. 
as Haraack, have called Augustine "the first modem Although good and holy, he was yet lacking in true 
man**, and in truth, he so moulded the Latin world faith as well as the other Fathers. ' But in general, 
that it is really he who has shaped the education of the Reformation did not so easily fall into line, and 
modem minds. But. without going so far, we may for a long time it was customary to oppose the great 
quote the German philosopher, Eucken: "It is per- name of Augustine to Catholicism. Article 20 of 
hapfl not paradoxical to say that if our age wishes to the Confession of Augsburg dares to ascribe to him 
take up and treat in an independent way the problem justification without works, and Melanchthon invokes 
of religion, it is not so much to Schleiermacher or nisauthority in his "Apologia Confessionis". In the 
Kant, or even Luther or St. Thomas^ that it must last thirty or forty years all has been changed, and 
refer, as to Augustine. . . . And outside of religion, the best Protestant critics now vie with one another 
tiiere are points upon which Augustine is more in procladming the essentially Catholic character of 
modem than Hegel or Schopenhauer". Augustinian doctrine. In fact they go to extremes 
(3) The dominatinq qualities of his doctrine, — The when they claim him to be the founder of Cathol- 
better to understand St. Augustine's influence, we icism. It is thus that H. Renter concludes his very 
mist point out in his doctrine certain general char- important studies on the Doctor of Hippo: "I con- 
actCTistics which must not be lost sight of, if, in reading sider Augustine the founder of Roman Catholicism 
iia works, one would avoid trouolesome misappre- in the West. . . . This is no new discovery, as 
^fcnsions. First, the full development of the great Kattenbusch seems to believe, but a truth long since 
Doctor's mind was progressive. It was by stages, recognized by Neander, Julius Kdstlin, Domer, 
often aided by the circumstances and necessities of Schmidt, , . . etc. ". Then, as to whether Evan- 
controversy, that he arrived at the exact knowledge of gelicalism is to be found in Aueustine, he says: 
«ch truth and a clean-cut perception of its place "Formerly this point was reasoned out very diflfer- 
in the synthesis of revelation. He also requires that ently from what it is nowadajrs. . . . The phrases so 
lii3readersshouldknowhowto"advance with him", mucn in use from 1830 to 1870: Atugustine is the 
It is necessary to study St. Augustine's works in Father of evarigelical Protestantism and Pdagius is 
toffical order and, as we shall see, this applies the Father of Catholicism , are now rarely met with, 
pwticulariy to the doctrine of grace. They have since been acknowledged to be untenable, 
AuFustinian doctrine is, again, essentially theo- although they contain a partictda veri'\ Philip 
fcpcu, and has God for its centre. To be sure Au- Schaff reaches the same conclusion; and Domer 
prtioe is a great philosopher, and F^nelon said of says, "It is erroneous to ascribe to Augustine the 
"in: "If an enlightened man were to gather from the ideas that inspired the Reformation". No one, how- 
boob of St. Augustine the sublime truths which this ever, has put this idea in a stronger light than Har- 
pttt man has scattered at random therein, such a nack. Quite recently, in his 14th lesson on "The 
tOQpendium [extrait], made with discrimination, Essenceof Christianity", he characterized the Roman 
Wd be far superior to Descartes' Meditations ". Church by three elements, the third of which is Au- 
Aad indeed just such a collection was made by the custinism, the thought and the piety of St. Augustine. 
Otatorian ontologist, Andr6 Martin. There is then "In fact Augustine has exertea over the whole inner 
f philosophy of St. Augustine, but in him philosophy life of the Church, religious life and religious thought, 
■ 80 intimately coupled with theology as to be in- an absolutely decisive influence." And again he 
•parable from it. Protestant historians have re- says, "In the fifth century, at the hour when the 
•wkfid this characteristic of his writings. "The Church* inherited the Roman Empire, she had within 
**rkl*', says Eucken, "interests him less than the her a man of extraordinarily deep and powerful 
•^ion of God in the world and especially in ourselves, genius: from him she took her ideas, and to this 
^ and the soul are the only subjects the knowledge present hour she has been unable to break away from 
^ which ought to fire us with onthufiiasm. All them". In his "History of Dogma" (finglish tr., 


V, 234, 235) the Bame critic dwells at length up<m the of Aristotle, the knowledge and intellectual sujk 
features of what he calls the "popular Catholicism" pleness of Origen, the grace and eloquence of Baal 
to which Augustine belong. These features are and Chrysostom. Whether we consider him u 
(a) the Church as a hierarchical institution with doc- philosopher, as theologian, or as exegetist . . . 
trinal authority* (b) eternal life by merits, and dis- ne still appears admirable . . . the unquestioned 
regard of the JProtestant thesis of "salvation by Master of all the centuries." Philip Schaff (op. 
faith" — that is, salvation by that firm confidence cit., p. 97) admires above all "such a rare imion of 
in God which the certainty of pardon produces; the speculative talent of the Greek and of the prac- 
(c) the forgiveness of sins* in the Cnurcn and by the tical spirit of the Latin Church as he alone possessed". 
Church; (d) the distinction between commands and In all these opinions there is a great measure of 
counsels — between grievous sins and venial sins — truth; nevertheless we believe that the dominating 
the scale of wicked men and good men — the various characteristic of Augustine's genius and the true 
degrees of happiness in heaven according to one's secret of his influence are to be found in his heart- 
deserts; (e) Augustine is accused of "outdoing the a heart that penetrates the most exalted speculations 
superstitious ideas" of this popular Catholicism — of a profound mind and animates them with the 
the infinite value of Christ's satisfaction — salvation most ardent feeling. It is at bottom only the tra- 
considered as enjoyment of God in heaven — the ditional and general estimate of the saint that we 
mysterious efficacy of the sacraments (ex opere express; for he has always been represented with a 
overato) — Mary's virginity ^ven in childbirth — "the heart for his emblem, just as Thomas Aquinas ^^nth 
iaea of her purity and her conception, unique in their a sun. Mgr. Bougaud thus interprets this symbol: 
kind". Hamack does not assert that Augustine *' Never did man unite in one and the same soul 
taught the Immaculate Conception, but Schaff such stem rigour of logic with such tenderness of 
(op. cit., p. 98) says unhesitatingly: "He is responsi- heart". This is also the opinion of Hamack, B6h- 
ble also for many grievous errors of the Roman ringer, Nourisson, Storz, and others. Great in- 
Church ... he anticipated the dogma of the im- tellectuality admirably fused with an enlightened 
maculate conception of the Virgin Mary, and his mysticism is Augustine's distinguishing characteris- 
ominous word. Roma lociUa est, caiisa finita est^ tic. Truth is not for him only an object of contempla- 
might almost be quoted in favour of the Vatican tion; it is a good that must be possessed, that must 
decree of papal infallibility". be loved and lived by. What constitutes Augustine's 

Nevertheless, it were a mistake to suppose that genius is his marvellous gift of embracing tmth 

modem Protestants relinquish all claim upon Au- with all the fibres of his soul; not with the heart 

gustine; they will have it that, despite his essential alone, for the heart does not think; not with the mind 

Catholicism, it was he who inspired Luther and Calvin, alone, for the mind grasps only the abstract or, as it 

The new thesis, therefore, is that each of the two were, lifeless truth. Augustine seeks the living truth, 

Churches may claim him in turn. Burke's expression and even when he is combating certain Platonic 

quoted by Schaff (ibid., p. 102) is characteristic: ideas he is of the family of Plato, not of Aristotle. 

" In Augustine ancient and modem ideaa are melted He belongs indisputably to all ages because he is in 

and to his authority the papal Church haa as much touch with all souls, but he is pre-eminently modem 

right to appeal as the Churches of the Reformation", because his doctrine is not tne cold light of the 

No one notes this contradiction more clearly than School; he is living and penetrated with personal 

Loofs. After stating that Augustine has accentuated sentiment. Religion is not a simple theory, Chris- 

the characteristic elements of Western (Catholic) tianity is not a series of dogmas; it is also a life, as 

Christianity, that in succeeding ages he became its they say nowadays, or, more accurately, a source 

Father, and that " the Ecclesiasticism of Roman of hfe. However, let us not be deceived. Augustine 

Catholicism, Scholasticism, Mysticism, and even the is not a sentimentalist, a pure mystic, and heart 

claims of the papacy to temporal rule, are founded alone does not account for his power. If in him the 

upon a tendency mitiated by nim", Loofs also affirms hard, cold intellectuaUty of the metaphysician ^ves 

that he is the teacher of all the reformers and their place to an impassioned vision of truth, that truth 

bond of union, and concludes with this strange para- is the basis of it all. He never knew the vaporous 

dox: "The history of CathoHcism is the history of mysticism of our day, that allows itself to be lulled 

the progressive elimination of Augustinism". The by a vague, aimless sentimentalism. His emotion 

singular aptitude of these critics for supposing the is deep, true, engrossing, precisely because it is bom 

existence of flagrant contradictions in a genius like of a strong, secure, accurate dogmatism that -wishes 

Augustine is not so astonishing when we remember to know what it loves and why it loves. Christianity 

that, with Renter, they justify this theory by the is life, but life in the eternal, unchangeable truth, 

reflection: "In whom are to be found more frequent And if none of the Fathers has put so much of his 

contradictions than in Luther ? " But their theories heart into his writings, neither has any turned up)on 

are based upon a false interpretation of Augustine's tmth the searchlight of a stronger, clearer intellect, 
opinion, which is frequently misconstrued by those Augustine's passion is characterized not by violence, 

who are not sufficiently familiar with his language but by a communicative tenderness; and his ex- 

and terminology. quisite deHcacy experiences first one and then 

(4) The character of his genius. — We have now to another of the most intimate emotions and tests 
ascertain what is the dominating quality which them; hence the irresistible effect of the "Con- 
accounts for his fascinating influence upon posterity, fessions". Feuerlein, a Protestant thinker, has 
One after another the critics have consiaered the brought out in reUef (exaggeratedly, to be sure, and 
various aspects of this great genius. Some have leaving the marvellous powers of his intellect in 
been particularly impressed by the depth and the shade) Augustine's exquisite sensibility — ^^rhat 
originality of his conceptions, and for these Augustine he calls the "feminine elements" of his genius. He 
is the great sower of the ideas by which future minds says: "It was not merely a chance or accidental 
are to live. Others, like Jungmann and Stockl, have past that his mother, Monica, played in his in- 
praised in him the marvellous harmony of all the tellectual development, and therein lies what es- 
mind's higher qualities, or, again, the universahty sentially distinguishes him from Luther, of "whom 
and the compass of his doctrine. "In the great it was said: 'Everything about him bespeaks the 
African Doctor", says the Rev. J. A. Zahm (Bible, man'". And Schldsser, whom Feuerlein quotes, is 
Science and Faith, Fr. tr., p. 66), "we seem to have not afraid to say that Augustine's works contain 
found imited and combined the powerful and pene- more genuine poetry than all the writings of the 
trating logic of Plato, the deep scientific conceptions Greek Fathen. At least it cannot be denied that no 

Auousmrx 95 AuauSTiNs 

tiunker ever caused so many and such salutary tears dred years that have followed. Even to our days 

to flow. This characteristic of Augustine's genius interior and living piety amon^ Catholics, as well 

explains his doctrinal woric. Christian dogmas are as the mode of its expressionrhas been essentially 

considered in relation to the soul and the great Augustinian: the soul is permeated by his sentiment, 

duties of Christian life, rather than to themselves it feels as he felt and rethinks his thoughts. It is 

and in a speculative fashion. This alone explains the same with many Protestants also, and they are 

his division of theology in the "Enchiridion", which by no means among the worst. And even those to 

at first si^t seems so strange. He assembles all whom dogma is but a relic of the past proclaim that 

(^iristian doctrine in the three theological virtues, Augustine's influence will live forever." 

considering in the mysteries the di£ferent activities This genuine emotion is also the veil that hides 

of the som that must Uvo by them. Thus, in the certain faults from the reader or else makes him 

incarnation, he assigns the greatest part to the moral oblivious of them. Says Eucken: "Never could Au- 

side, to the triumph of humility. For this reason, gustine have exercised all the influence he has 

also, Augustine's work bears an. imprint, \mtil then exercised if it had not been that, in spite of the rhe- 

unknown, of living personality peeping out every- torioal artifice of his utterance, absolute sincerity 

where. He inaugurates that literature in which the reigned in the inmost recesses of his soul". iHis 

author's individualitv reveals itself in the most ab- frequent repetitions are excused because they are 

straet matters, the *' Confessions" being an inimitable the expression of his deep feeling. Scha^ says: 

example of it. It is in this connexion that Hamack " His books, with all the faults and repetitions of 

admires the African Doctor's gift of psychological isolated parts, are a spontaneous outflow from the 

observation and a captivating facility for portraying marvellous treasures of his highly-gifted mind and 

his penetrating observations. This talent, he says, his truly pious heart". (St. Augustine, p. 96 ) 

is toe secret of Augustine's originality and greatness. But we must also acknowledge that his passion i } 

Again, it is this same characteristic that distinguishes the source of exaggerations and at times of errors 

hSa from the other Doctors and gives him ms own that are fraught with real danger for the inattentive 

^»cial temperament. The practical side of a ques- or badly disposed reader. Out of sheer love for Au- 

^on appealed to the Roman mind of Ambrose, too, Justine certain theologians have endeavoured to 

but he never rises to the same heights, nor nK>ve8 lustify all he wrote, to admire all, and to proclaim 

the heart as deeply as does his disciple of Milan. Je- him infallible, but nothing could be more detrimental 

Toroe is a more learned exe^etist, better equipped in to his glory than such excess of praise. The reaction 

respect of Scriptural erudition; he is even purer in his alread]^ referred to arises partly from this. We must 

style; but, despite his impetuous ardour, he is less recognize that the passion for truth sometimes fixes 

animated, less striking, tnan his correspondent of its attention too much upon one side of a complex 

Hippo. ^ Athanasius, too, is subtile in the meta- Question; his too absolute formulse, lacking quali- 

physical analysis of dogma, but he does not appeal to ncation, false in appearance now in one sense now 

the heart and take hold of the soul like the African in another. "The oratorical temperament that was 

Doctor. Origen played the part of initiator in the his in such a high degree ", says Becker, very truly 

Eastern Church, just as Augustine did in the West- [Revue d^histoire ecdieiaatiquej 15 April, 1902, 

em, but his influence, imfortunate in more ways p. 379), "the kind of exaltation that befitted his 

than one, was exercised rather in the sphere of rich ima^ation and his loving soul, are not the most 

speculative intelligence, while that of Augustine, reliable m philosophical speculations". Such is the 

owing to the qualities of his heart, extended far origin of the contradictions alleged against him and 

beyond the realm of theology. Bossuet, who of all of the errors ascribed to him by the predestinarians 

geniuses most closely resemoles Augustine by his of all ages. Here we see the r6le of the more frigid 

eievatwn and his umyersality, is his superior in the minds of Scholasticism. Thomas Aquinas was a 

ddlfulness and artistic finish of his works, but he necessary corrective to Augustine. He is less great, 

has not the alluring tenderness of soul; and if Au- less oripnal, and, above all, less animated; but the 

gustine fulminates less, he attracts more power- calm didactics of his intellectualism enable him to 

fuUy, subjugating the mind with gentleness. castigate Augustine's exaggerations with rigorous 

Thus may Augustine's universal influence in all criticism, to impart exactitude and precision to his 

succeeding ages be explained: it is due to combined terms — in one word, to prepare a dictionary with 

gifts of heart and mind. Speculative genius alone which the African Doator may be read without 

does not sway the multitude; the Christian world, danger. 

apart from professional theologians, does not read IV. His System op Grace. — It is unquestionably 

Inonias Ac^uinas. On the other hand, without the in the great Doctor's solution of the eternal problem 

Hear, defimte idea of dogma, mysticism founders of frc^om and grace — of the part taken by God and 

u soon as reason awakes and discovers the empti- by man in the affair of salvation — ^that his thought 

neas Of metaphors: this is always the fate of vague stands forth as most personal, most powerful, and 

pietism, whether it recognize Christ or not, whether most disputed. Most personal, for he was the first 

It be extolled by Schleiermacher, Sabatier, or their of £dl to synthesize the great theories of the Fall, 

disciples. But to Augustine's genius, at once en- grace, and free will; and moreover it is he who, to 

H^tened and ardent, the whole soul is accessible, reconcile them all, has furnished us with a profound 

and the whole Church, both teachers and taught, explanation which is in very truth his, and of which 

'^ permeated by his sentiments and ideas. A. Har- we fiind no trace in his predecessors. Hence, the 

naek, more than an^ other critic, admires and do- term Avgustinism is often exclusively used to desig- 

ambes Augustine's influence over all the life of nate his system of grace. Most vorverfuly for, as all 

(^nistian people. If Thomas Aquinas is the Doctor admit, it was he above all others wno won the triumph 

of the Schools, Augustine is, according to Hamack, of libertv against the Manichseans, and of grace 

the inspirer and restorer of Christian piety. If against tne Pelagians. His doctrine has, in the main, 

Thomas inspires the canons of Trent, Au^^tine, been solemnly accepted by the Church, and we know 

heades having formed Thomas himself, inspires that the canons of the Council of Orange are bor- 

the inner life of the Church and is the soul of all the rowed from his works. Most dismded, also. — Like 

pttt reforms effected within its pale. In his "Es« St. Paul, whose teachings he develops, he has often 

■aiee erf CSiriirtianity " (14th lesson, 1900, p. 161) been quoted, often not understooa. Friends and 

Hanttdc shows how CathoUcs and Protestants live enemies have exploited his teaching in the most 

'Toa xrte piety of Augustine. " His living has been diverse senses. It has not been gasped, not only 

feOBKantly reuved in the course of the fifteen hun- by the opponents of liberty, and nence by the Re 


formers of the sixteenth century, but even to-day, prepares efficacious motives for the will); and grace 

by Protestant critics the most opposed to the cruel for salutary and supernatural acts, given with the 
predestinationism of Calvin and Luther, who father first preludes of faith. The latter is the grace of the 

that doctrine on St. Augustine. A tecnnical study sons, gratia filiorum; the former is the grace of all 

would be out of place here; it will be sufficient to men, a grace which even strangers and infidels (filii 

enmiciate the most salient thoughts, to enable the concubinarumy as St. Augustine sa3rs) can receive (De 

reader to find his bearings. Patientid, xxvii, n. 28). 

(1) It is regarded as incontestable to-day that the (b) The second priuciple|, the affirmation of liberty 
system of Augustine was complete in his mind from even under the action of efficacious grace, has always 
tne year 397 — that is, from the beginning of his been safeguarded, and there is not one of his anti- 
episcopate, when he wrote lis answers to the "Qufles- Pelagian works even of the latest, which does not 
tiones Diversse'^of Simplician. It is to this book that pocdtively proclaim a complete power of choice in 
Augustine, in his last years, refers the Semipelagians man; ''not but what i'u does not depend on the free 
for the explanation of his real thought. This im- choice of the will to embrace the faith or reject it, 
portant fact, to which for a long time no attention but in the elect this will is prepared by God" (De 
was paid, has been recognized by Neander and es- Prsedest. SS., n. 10). The great Doctor did not re- 
tablished by Gangaut, and also by recent critics, such proach the Pelagians with re<juiring a power to 
as Loofs, Reuter, Tunnel, Jules Martin (see also choose between good and evil; m fact he proclaims 
Cunningham, St. Austin, 1886, pp. 80 and 175). with them that without that power there is no re- 
It will not, therefore, be possible to deny the authority sponsibility, no merit, no demerit; but he reproaches 
of these texts on the pretext that Augustine in his old tnem with exaggerating tais power. Julian of 
age adopted a system more antagonistic to liberty. Eclanum, denying the sway of concupiscence, con- 

(2) Tne system of Pelagius can to-day be better oeives free will as a balance in perfect equilibrium, 
imderstood than heretofore. Pelagius doubtless de- Augustine protests: this absolute equilibrium existed 
nied original sin, and the immortality and integrity in Adam; it was destroyed after original sin; the 
of Adam; in a word, the whole supernatural order, will has to struggle and react against an inclination 
But the parent idea of his system, which was of stoic to evil, but it remains mistress of its choice iOptis 
origin, was nothing else than the coniplete "emanci- imperfectum contra Jidiartum, III, cxvii). Thus, 
pation" of human liberty with regard tb God, and when he says that we have lost freedom in conse- 
its limitless power for good and for evil. It depended auence of the sin of Adam, he is careful to explain 
on man to attain by himself, without the grace of tnat this lost freedom is not the liberty of choosing 
God, a stoic impeccability and even insensibility, or between good and evil, because without it we could 
the absolute control of his passions. It was scarcely not help sinning, but the perfect liberty which was 
suspected, even up to our time, what frightful calm and withotd stru^Uy and which was enjoyed 
rigorism resulted from this exaggeration of the powers by Adam in virtue of his original integrity. 

of liberty. Since perfection was possible, it was of But is there not between these two principles an 

obligation. There was no longer any distinction be- irremediable antinomy? On the one hand, there is 

tween precepts and counsels. Whatever was good aflirmed ail absolute and unreserved power in God 

was a duty. There was no longer any distinction be- of directing the choice of our will, of converting every 

tween mortal &nd venial sin. Every useless word hardened sinner, or of letting every created will 

merited hell, and even excluded from the Church the harden itself; and on the other hand, it is afiinned 

children of God. All this ha« been established by that the rejection or acceptance of grace or of tempta- 

hitherto unedited documents which Caspar! haspub- tion depends on our free will. Is not this a contra- 

lished (Briefe, Abhandlungen, und Predigten, Cnris- diction? Very many modem critics, among whom 

tiania, 1890). are Loofs and Hamack, have considered these two 

(3) The system of St. Augustine in opposition to affirmations as irreconcilable. But it is because, 
this rests on three fundamental principles: (a) God according to them, Augustinian ^race is an irresistible 
is absolute Master, by His grace, of all tne determina- impulse given by God, just as in the absence of it 
tions of the will; (b) man remains free, under the every temptation inevitably overcomes the will, 
action of grace; (c) the reconciliation of these two But in reality all antinomy disappears if we ba\'e 
truths rests on the manner of the Divine eovemment. the key of the system; and this key is found in the 

(a) The first principle,' viz., that of the absolute third principle: the Augustinian explanation of the 

sovereignty of God over the will, in opposition to the Divine government of wills, a theory so original, so 

emancipation of Pelagius, has not always been un- profound, and yet absolutely unknown to the most 

derstood in its entire significance. We think that perspicacious critics, Hamack, Loofs, and the 

numberless texts of the holy Doctor signify that not rest. 

only does every meritorious act require supernatural Here are the main lines of this theory: The will 

grace, but also that every act of virtue, even of never decides without a motive, without" the attrac- 

infidels, should be ascribed to a gift of God, not in- tion of some good which it perceives in the object. 

deed to a supernatural grace (as Baius and the Now, although the will may be free in presence of 

Jansenists pretend), but to a specially efficacious every motive, still, as a matter of fact it takes diC- 

providence which has prepared this good movement ferent resolutions according to the different motives 

of the will (Retractations, I, ix, n. 6). It is not, as presented to it. In that is the whole secret of the 

theologians very wisely remark, that the will cannot influence exercised, for instance, by eloquence (the 

accomplish that act of natural virtue, but it is a orator can do no more than present motives), by 

fact that without this providential benefit it wovld meditation, or by good reading. What a power over 

not. Many misunderstandings have arisen because the will would not a man possess who could, at his 

this principle has not been comprehended, and in own pleasure, at any moment, and in the niost 

particular tne great medieval theology, which adopted striking manner, present this or the other motive 

it and made it the basis of its system of liberty, has of action? — But such is God's privilege. St. Au- 

not been justly appreciated. But many have been gustine has remarked that man is not the master of 

afraid of these affirmations which are so sweeping, his first thoughts; he can exert an influence on the 

because they have not grasped the nature of God s course of his reflexions, but he himself cannot* de^ 

gift, which leaves freedom intact. The fact has been termine the objects, the images, and, consequently, 

too much lost sight of that Augustine distinguishes the motives which present themselves to his mind. 

very explicitly two orders of grace: the grace of Now, as chance is only a word, it is God who detei^ 

natural virtues (the simple gift of Providence, which mines at His pleasure these first perceptions of 

aither by the prepared providential action of exteri6r sic eum vocat, quomodo scit ei congniere ut vocantert 
eauaes, or interiorly by a Divine illumination given non respuat" (op. cit., I, q. ii, n. 2, 12, 13). 
tothesoiil. — Let us take one last step with Augustine: Is there in this a vestige of an irresistible grace or 
Not only does God send at His pleasure those at- of that impulse against which it is impossible to 
^active motives which inspire the will with its de- fyht, forcing some to good, and others to sin and hell? 
tenninations, but, before choosing between these It cannot be too often repeated that this is not an 
fliuminations of the natural and the supernatural idea flung off in passing, but a fimdamental explana- 
order, God knows the response which the sotdj with tion which if not understood leaves us in the im- 
dlfreedonij will make to each of them. Thus, in the possibility of grasping anything of his doctrine; 
Divine knowledge, there is for each created will an but if it is seiz^ Atigustine entertains no feelings of 
indefinite series ot motives which de facto (but very uneasiness on the score of freedom. In fact he sup- 
freely) win the <x>nsent to what is good. God, there- poses freedom everywhere, and reverts incessantly 
fore, can, at His pleasure, obtain the salvation of to that knowledge on God's part which precedes 
Judas, if He wishes, or let Peter go down to perdition, predestination, directs it, and assures its mfallible 
No freedom, as a matter of fact, will resist what He result. In the "De Dono perseverantiae" (xvii, n. 42), 
has planned, although it always keeps the power of written at the end of his life, he explains the whole 
going to perdition. Consequently, it is God alone, of predestination by the choice of the vocation which 
in His perfect independence, who determines, by the is foreseen as efficacious. Thus is explained the 
choice of such a motive or such an inspiration (of chief part attributed to that external providence 
which he knows the future influence), whether the which prepares, by ill health, by warnings, etc., the 
will is going to decide for good or for evil. Hence, good thoughts which it knows will bring about good 
the man who has acted well must thank God for resolutions. Finally, this explanation alone nar- 
having sent him an inspiration which was foreseen monizes with the moral action which he attributes 
to be efficacious, while that favour has been denied to victorious grace. Nowhere does Augustine repre- 
to another. A fortiori ^ every one of the elect owes sent it as an irresistible impulse impressed by the 
it to the EKvine goodness alone that he has received stronger on the weaker. It is always an appeal, an 
a series of graces which God saw to be infallibly, invitation which attracts and seeks to persuade, 
though freely, bound up with final perseverance. He describes this attraction, which is without violence, 
Assuredly we may reject this theory, for the under the graceful image of dainties offered to a 
Cbureh, which always maintains the two principles child, green leaves offered to a sheep (In Joannem, 
oftheabeolutedependenceof the will and of freedom, tract, xxvi, n. 5). And always the infallibility of 
has not yet adopted as its own this reconciliation of the result is assured by the Divine knowledge wnich 
the two extremes. We may ask where and how God directs the choice of the invitation, 
knows the effect of these graces. Augustine has (4) The Au^ustinian predestination presents no 
always affirmed the fact; he has never inquired about new difficulty if one has understood the function of 
the mode; and it is here that Molinism has added to this Divine knowledge in the choice of graces. The 
and developed his thoughts, in attempting to answer problem is reduced to this: Does God in his creative 
this question. But can tne thinker, who created decree and, before any act of human liberty, deter* 
and until his dying day maintained this system which mine by an immutable choice the elect and the 
is 80 logically concatenated, be accused of fatalism reprobate? — Must the elect during eternity thank 
and Mimichseism? God only for having rewarded their merits, or must 
It remains to be shown that our interpretation they also thank Him for having, prior to any merit on 
exactly reproduces the thought of the great Doctor, their part, chosen them to the meriting of this reward? 
The texts (indicated in Vacant 's "Diet, de th^ologie One system, that of the Semipelagians, decides in 
catholique", I, col. 2390 sqq.) are too numerous favour of man: God predestines to salvation all alike, 
and too long to be reproduced here. But there is and gives to all an equal measure of grace; human 
one work of Augustine, dating from the year 397, in liberty alone decides whether one is lost or saved; 
which he clearly explains his thought — a work which from which we must logically conclude (and they 
he not only did not disavow later on, but to which really insinuated it) that the number of the elect ^A 
in particular he referred, at the end of his career, not fixed or certain. The opposite system, that 
those of his readers who were troubled by his con- of the Predestinationists (the Semipelagians falsely 
stant affirmation of grace. For example, to the ascribed this view to the Doctor of Hippo), affirms 
monks of Adrumetum who thought that liberty not only a privileged choice of the elect by God, 
was irreconcilable with this affirmation, he addressed but at the same time (a) the predestination of the 
a copy of this book "De Diversis cjusestionibus ad reprobate to hell and (b) the absolute powerlessness 
Simphcianum ", feeling sure that their doubts would of one or the other to escape from tne irresisttble 
be dissipated. There, in fact, he formulates his imf^lse which drags them either to good or to eviL 
thoughts with great clearness, oimplician had asked This is the system of Calvin. 

how he should imderstand the Epistle to the Romans Between these two extreme opinions Augustine 

ix, on the predestination of Jacob and Esau. Au- formulated (not invented) the Catholic dogma, 

rlne first lays down the fundamental principle of which affirms these two truths at the same time: 

Paul, that every good will comes from grace^ so (a) the eternal choice of the elect by God is very 

that no man can take glory to himself for his merits, real, very gratuitous, and constitutes the grace of 

and this grace is so sure of its results that human graces; (b) but this decree does not destroy the Divine 

liberty wm never in reality resist it, although it has will to save all men, which, moreover, is not realized 

the power to do so. Then he aflirms that this effica- except by the human liberty that leaves to the elect 

dotu grace is not necessary for us to he able to act weU^ full power to fall and to the non-elect full power to 

but because, in fact, without it we would not wish to rise. Here is how the theory of St. Augustine, 

«d weU. From that arises the great difficulty: How already explained, forces us to conceive of the Divine 

doei the power of resisting grace fit in with the cer- decree: Before all decision to create the world, the 

tainty of the result? And it is here that Augustine infinite knowledge of God presents to Him all the 

replie*: There are many ways of inviting faith. Souls graces, and different series of graces, which He can 

beme differently disposed, God knows what invitation prepare for each soul, along with the consent or re- 

1BWM aceeptedf wiiat other will not be accepted, fusal which would follow in each circumstance, and 

Okihr those are the elect for whom God chooses the that in millions and millions of possible combinations. 

rantetlon which is foreseen to be efficacious, but Thus He sees that if Peter had received such another 

God eoaid convert them all: "Cujus autem miseretur, grace, he would not have been converted; and if on 

n.— 7 


the contrary such another Divine appeal had been of men to His graces. If, then, the lists are definitive, 

heard in the heart of Judas, he would have done if no one will pass from one series to the other, it is 

penance and been saved. Thus, for each man in not because anyone cannot (on the ccmtrary, all can), 

particular there are in the thought of God, limitless it is because God knew with infallible knowledge that 

possible histories, some histories of virtue and sal- no one would wish to. Thus I cannot effect that God 

vation, others of crime and damnation; and God will should destine me to another series of graces than that 

be free in choosing such a world, such a series of which He has fixed, but, with this grace, if I do not 

graces, and in determining the future history and save myself it will not be because I am not able, but 

final destiny of each souL And this is precisely what because I do not wish to. 

He does when, among all possible worlds, by an Such are the two essential elements of Augustiniao 

absolutely free act, He decides to realize the actual and Catholic predestination. This is the dogma 

world with all the circumstances of its historic evo- common to all the schools, and formulated by all 

lutions, with all the graces which in fact have been theologians: predestination in its entirety is abeoitUely 

and will be distributed until the end of the world, qratuitoue^ (ante merita). We have to insist on this, 

and consequently with all the elect and all the repro- because many have seen in this immutable and 

bate who God foresaw would be in it if de facto He gratuitous choice only a hard thesis peculiar to 

created it. St. Augustine, whereas it is pure dogma (barring the 

Now in the Divine decree, according to Augustine, mode of conciliation, which the Church still leaves 

and according to the (Ilatholic Faith on this point, free). With that established, the long debates of 

which has been formulated by him, the two elements theologians on special predestination to glory ante or 

pointed out above appear: (a) The certain and poet merita are tar from having the importance that 

gratuitous choice, of the elect — God decreeing, indeed, some attach to them. (For a fuller treatment of 

to create the world and to give it such a series of this subtile problem see the ''Diet, de th^l. cath., I, 

graces with such a concatenation of circumstances coll. 2402 sqc^.) I do not think St. Augustine entered 

as should bring about freely, but infallibly, such that debate; m his time, only dogma was in question, 

and such results (for example, the despair of Judas But it does not seem historically permissible to main- 

and the repentance of Peter), decides, at the same tain, as many writers have, that Augustine first 

time, the name, the place, the number of the citizens taught the milder system (post merita) , up to the year 

of the future heavenly Jerusalem. The choice is 416 (In Joan, evang., tract, xii, n. 12), and that 

immutable: the Ust closed. It is evident, indeed, afterwards, towards 418, he shifted his ground and 

that only tnose of whom (jod knows beforehand that went to the extreme of harsh assertion, amounting 

they win wish to co-operate with the grace decreed even to predestinationism. We repeat, the facts 

by Him will be saved. It is a gratuitous choice, the absolutely refute this view. The ancient texts, even 

gift of gifts, in virtue of which even our merits are a of 397, are as affirmative and as categorical as those 

gratuitous benefit, a gift which precedes all our of his last years, as critics like Loofs and Renter have 

merits. No one, in fact, is able to merit this election, shown. If ^ therefore, it is shown that at that time 

God could, among other possible worlds, have chosen he inclined to the milder opinion, there is no reason 

one in wnich other series of graces would have to think that he did not persevere in that sentiment, 
brought about other results. He saw combinations (5) The part which Augustine had in the doctrine 

in which Peter would have been impenitent and Judas of Original Sin has been brought to light and deter- 

con verted. Itns therefore prior to anv merit of Peter, mined only recently. 

or any fault of Judas, that God decided to five them In the first place, it is no longer possible to maintain 
the graces which saved Peter and not Juoas. God seriously, as was formerly the fashion (even among 
does not wish to give paradise gratuiiously to any on^; certain Catholics, like Richard Simon), that Augus- 
but He gives very gratuOoudy to Peter the graces tine invented in the Church the hitherto unknown 
with which He laiows Peter will be saved. — Mys- doctrine of original sin, or at least was the first to 
terious choice! Not that it interferes with liberty, introduce the idea of pimishment and sin. Domer 
but because to this question: Why did not God, himself (Augustinus, p. 146) disposed of this asser- 
seeing that another grace would have saved Judas, tion, which lacks verisimilitude. In this doctrine 
give it to him? Faith can only answer, with Angus- of the primal fall Augustine distinguished, with 
tine: O Mystery! O Altitudo! (De Spiritu et litterA, greater insistency and clearness than his predecessors, 
xxxiv, n. 60). — (b) But this decree includes also the the punishment and the sin — the chastisement which 
second element of the Catholic dogma: the very sin- strips the children of Adam of all the original privi- 
cere will of God to give to all men the power of leges — and the fault, which consists in this, that 
saving themselves ana the power of damning them- the crime of Adam, the cause of the fall is, without 
selves. According to Augustine, God, in his creative having been committed personall^r by his children, 
decree, has expressly excluded every order of things nevertheless in a certain measure imputed to them, 
in which grace would deprive man of his liberty, in virtue of the moral union established by God be- 
every situation in which man would not have the tween the head of the human family and his de- 
power to resist sin, and thus Augustine brushes scendants. 

aside that predestinationism which has been attrib- To pretend that in this matter Augustine waa an 
uted to him. Listen to him speaking to the Manich- innovator, and that before him the Fathers afifirmed 
scans: ''AH can be saved if they wish"; and in his the punishment of the sin of Adam in lus sons, but 
"Retractations" (I, x), far from correcting this as- did not speak of the fault, is a historical error now 
sertion, he confirms it emphatically: ''It is true, proved to demonstration. We may discuss the 
entirely true, that all men can, if they wish". But thought of this or that pre-Au^pstinian Father, but, 
he always goes back to the providential preparation, taking them as a whole, there is no room for doubt. 
In his sermons he says to all: "It depends on you The Protestant R. Seeberg (Lehrbuch der Dog- 
to be elect" (In Ps. cxx. n. 11, etc.): "Who are the mengeschichte, I, p. 256), after the example of 
elect? — You, if you wish it" (In Ps. Ixxiii, n. 5). many others, proclaims it by referring to TertuUian, 
But, you will say, according to Augustine, the lists CJommodian, St. Cyprian, and St. Ambrose. The 
of the elect and reprobate are closed. Now if the expressions, faidtt sin, stain (culpa, peccatum, tnaciUa) 
non-elect can gain heaven, if all the elect can be lost, are repeated in a way to dispel all doubt. The truth 
why should not some pass from one list to the other? is that original sin, while being sin, is of a nature es- 
You forget the celebrated explanation of Augustine: sentially different from other faults, and does not 
When God made His plan. He knew infallibly, before exact a personal act of the will of the children of Adam 
His choice, what would be the response of tne wills in order to be responsible for the fault of their father. 


wbieh is morally imputed to them, Coiise^ueutly, it was one of his disciples, Gregory the Great, who, 

the Fathers— the Greeks especially — have ii^isted on after being formed in his sdiool, popularized his 

its penal and afflictive character, which is most in theories. The r61e of Origen, who engrafted neo- 

evidence, while Augustine was led by the polemics Platonism on the Christian schools of the East, was 

(rf the Pelagians (and only by them) to lay emphasis that of Augustine in the West, with the difference, 

on the mom aspect of the fault of the human race however, that the Bishop of Hippo was better able 

in its first father. to detacn the truths of Platonism from the dreams 

With regard to Adam's state before the fall Au- of Oriental imagination. Hence, a current of Platonic 

gustine not only afi&rmed, a^nst Pela^us, the gifts ideas was started which will never cease to act upon 

of inunortality, impassibility, integrity, freedom Western thought. This influence shows itself in 

from error, ami, above all, the sanctifying grace of various ways. It is found in the compilers of this 

Divine adoption, but he emphasized )ts absolutely period, who are so numerous and so well deserving 

gratuitous and supernatural character. Doubtless, of reo^nition — such as Isidore, Bede, Alcuin — who 

considenne the matter historically and de facto, it drew abundantly from the works of Augustine, just 

was only tne sin of Adam that inflicted death on us — as did the preachers of the sixth century, and nota- 

Au£ustme repeats it again and ag^in — because God bly St. Cse^rius. In the controversies, especially in 

hid safeguarded us against the law of our nature, the great disputes of the ninth and twelfth centuries 

But de jwre neither immortality nor the other ^aces on the vahdity of Simoniacal ordinations, the text of 

were our due, and Augustine recognized this m af- Augustine plays the principal part. Carl Mirbt has 

finning that God could have made the condition in published on this point a very interesting study: 

which we were actually bom the primitive cour ''Die Stellune Augustins in der Publizistik des gre- 

dition of our first parents. That assertion alone gorianischenlurohenstreits" (Leii)zig, 1888). In the 

is the very reverse of Jansenism. It is, moreover, pre-Thomistic period of Scholasticism, then in process 

formally confirmed in the ''Retractations" (I, ix, of formation, namely, from Anselm to Albert the 

D- 6). Great, Augustine is the great inspirer of all the mas- 

(6) Does this mean that we must praise every- ters, such as Anselm, Aoelard, Hugo of St. Victor, 

thing in St. Augustine's explanation of grace?— Cer- who is called by his contemporaries, another Angus- 

tainly not. And we shall note the improvements tine, or even the soul of Augustine. And it is proper 

made by the Church, through her doctors, in the to remark, with Cunningham (Saint Austin, p. 178), 

original Augustinism. Some exaggerations have been that from the time of Anselm the cult of Augustinian 

abandoned, as, for instance, the condemnation to ideas exercised an eiK)rmous influence on English 

M of children dyine without baptism. Obscure and thought in the Middle Ages. As regards Peter Ix)m- 

ambiguous formuise nave been eliminated. We must bard, his Sentences are little else than an effort to 

say iraokly that Augustine's literary method of synthesize the Augustinian theories. 

^phasizing his thought by exaggerated expressions. While they do not form a system as rigidly bound 

isuing in troublesome paradoxes, has often obscurea together as Thomism, yet Father Mandonnet (in his 

^ doctrine, aroused opposition in manv minds, or learned study of Siger de Brabant^ and M. de Wulf 

led them into error. Also, it is above all important, (on Gilles de Lessines) have bee^ able to group these 

in order to comprehend his doctrine, to oompile theories together. Aiul here let us present a summary 

an Augustinian dictionary, not a priori, but after sketch of those theses regarded in the thirteenth cen- 

^ objective study of his texts. The work would be tury as Augustinian, and over which the battle was 

long and laborious, but how many prejudices it fought. First, the fusion of theology and philosophy; 

would dispel ! the preference given to Plato over Aristotle — the 

The Protestant historian Ph. Schaff (St. Augustine, latter representing rationalism, which was mistrusted, 

P- 102) writes: "Tl^ great genius of the African whilst the idealism of Plato exerted a strong attrac- 

umrch, from whom the Middle Ages and the Refor- tion — ^wisdom regarded rather as the philosophy of 

mation have received an impul^ alike powerful, the Good than the phUosophv of the True. As a 

• though in different directions, has not vet fulfilled oonsequence, the disciples of Augustine always have 

the work markedoutiior him in the counsels of Divine a pronoimced tinge of mysticism, while the disciples 

Wisdom. He serves as a bond of union betweep the of St. Thomas may be recognized by their very 

tvo antagonistic sections of Western (Christendom , accentuated intelleotualism. In psychology the 

and encourages the hope that a time mav come when illuminating and immediate action of God is the 

ihe mjustice and bitterness of strife will be forgiven origin of our intellectual knowledge (at times it is 

^forgotten,'andthediscordsof the past be drowned pure ontologism); and the faculties of the soul are 

forever in ihe sweet harmonies of perfect knowledge made subsULntially identical with the soul itself. 

^ perfect love". May this drea^n be realized! They are its functions, and not distinct entities (a 

V. AuGUBTiNiaM IN liiSTORY. — The influence of thesis which was to keep its own partisans in the 

the Doctor of Hippo has been so exceptional in the Scholasticism of the future and to be adopted by 

Qiureh, that, after having indicated its general Descartes): the soul is a substance even without the 

characteristjcs (see above), it is proper to indicate body, so tnat after death, it is trulv a person. In 

^ principal phases of the historical development of coonology, besides the celebrated thesis of raiiones 

^ doctrine. The word A,tigu9tini9m designates at aeminaU^, which some have recentlv attempted to 

rimes the entire group of philosophical doctrines of interpret in favour of evolutionism, Augustinism ad- 

^ngvistine, at others, it is restrict^ to his system of mitted the multiplicitv of substantial forms in com- 

pace. Hence, (1) philosophieal Augustinism; (2) the- pound beings, especially in man. But especially in 

ojogical Au^pistinism on grace; (3) laws which gov- the impossibility of creation ab cetemOf or the es- 

cnied the nutimtion of Augustinism. sentially temporal character of every creature which 

(1) Philo9Qpnical Aypuftiniam, — ^In the history of is subject to chan^, we have one of the idecus of 

(wMophical Augustinkm we may distinguish tnree Augustine which his disciples defended with greater 

^^(hstinct phases. First, the period of its almost constancy and, it would appear, with greater success. 

cxawive triumph in the West, up to the thirteenth A second period of veiy active struggles came in 

^e&tvy. During the long ages which were darkened the thirteentn century, and this has onl^ lately been 

hy^the invasion of the barbarians, but which were recognized. Renan (Averroes, p. 259) and others 

ikercrtlieleas burdened with the responsibility of safe- believed that the war against Tnomism, which was 

Sttnfatg the sciences of the future, we may say that just then beginning, was caused by the infatuation 

AOgntine was the Great Master of the West. He of the Franciscans for Averroism; but if the Fran- 

*■! ftbiolatdy without a rivals or if there was one, ciscan Order showed itself on the whole opposed to 


8t. Thomas, it was simply from a certain horror at solemnly promulgated at Orange, and ^ve theii 

philosophical innovations and at the neglect of Au- consecration to tne triumph of Augustinism (529). 

eustinism. The doctrinal revolution brought about In the ninth century, a new victory was gained ovei 

Dv Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas in favour the predestinationism of Gottschalk in the assem- 

ot Aristotle startled the old School of Augustinism blies of Savonni&res and Toucy (859-860). The 

among the Dominicans as well as among the Francis- doctrine of the Divine will to save all men and the 

cans, but especially among the latter, who were universality of redemption was thus consecrated by 

the disciples of the eminent Augustinian doctor, St. the public teaching of the Church. In the Middle 

Bonaventure. This will explain the condemnations. Ages these two truths are developed by the great 

hitherto little understood, of many propositions of Doctors of the Church. Faithful to the principles of 

St. Thomas Aquinas three years after his death, on Augustinism, they place in especial relief his theory 

the 7th of March, 1277, by the Bishop of Paris, and on Divine Providence, which prepares at its pleasure 

on the 18th of March, 1277, by the Archbishopof the determinations of the will by exterior events and 

Canterbury, Robert Kilwardby, a Dominican. The interior inspirations. 

Augustinian school represented tradition; Thomism. In the fourteenth century a strong current of 
progress. The censure of 1277 was the last victory ot predestinationism is evident. To-day it is admitted 
a too rigid Augustinism. The happy fusion of the that the origin of this tendency goes back to Thomas 
two methods in the two orders of Franciscans and Bradwardin, a celebrated professor of Oxford, who 
Dominicans little by little brought about an agree- died Archbishop of Canterbury (1349), and whom 
ment on certain points without excluding differences the best critics, along with Loofs and Hamack, 
on others which were yet obscure (as, K)r instance, recognize to have been the inspirer of Wyclif himself, 
the unity or the multiplicity of forms), at the same His book ''De causd Dei contra Pelagium" gave rise 
time that it made for process in all the schools, in Paris to disputes on Augustinian "predeterminar 
We know that the canomzation of St. Thomas caused tion", a word which, it huEul been thought, was in- 
the withdrawal of the condemnations of Paris vented by Banes in the sixteenth century. In spite 
(14 February, 1325). Moreover, the wisdom or the of the opposition of theologians, the idea of absolute 
moderation of the new school contributedpower- determinism in the name of St. Augustine was 
fully to its triumph. Albert the Great and St. Thomas, adopted by Wyclif (1324-87), who formulated his 
far from being adversaries of St. Augustine, as they universal fatalism, the necessity of Kood for the eleci 
were reported to be, placed themselves in his school, and of evil for the rest. He fancied that he found in 
and while modifying certain theories, took over into the Aug^tinian doctrine the Strang conception 
their system the doctrine of the African bishop, which TOcame for him a central doctnne that over- 
How many articles in the "Summa" of St. Thomas threw all morality and all ecclesiastical, and even 
have no other object than to incorporate in theology civil, government. According as one is predestined 
this or the other theory which was cherished by or not, everything changes its nature. The same sins 
St. Augustine (to take only one example, that of are mortal in the non-elect which are venial in the 
exemplar ideas in God). Hence, there was no longer predestined. The same acts of virtue are meritorious 
any school strictly Augustinian, because every school m the predestined, even if he be actually a wicked 
was such. They all eluninated certain specid points man which are of no value in the non-elect. The 
and retained the same veneration for the master. sacraments administered by one who is not pre- 

From the third period of the fifteenth century to destined are always invalid; more than that, no juris- 
our days we see less of the special progress of phil- diction exists in a prelate, even a pope, if ne be not 
osophical Augustinism than certain tendencies of an predestined. In the same way, there is no power, 
exaggerated revival of Ratonism. In the fifteenth even civil or political, in a prince who is not one of 
century Bessarion (1472) and Marsilio Ficino (1499) the elect, ancl no right of property in the sinner or 
used Augustine's name for the purpose of enthroning the non-elect. Such is the basis on which Wyclif 
Plato in the Church and excludmg Aristotle. In established the communism which aroused the so- 
the seventeenth centijuy, it is impossible to deny cialist mobs in England. It is incontestable that he 
certain resemblances between Cartesianism and the was fond of quoting Augustine as his authority* and 
philosophy of St. Augustine. Malebranche was his disciples, as we are assured by Thomas Natter 
wrong m ascribing his own ontologism to the great Waldensis (Doctrinale, I, xxxiv, | 6), were con- 
Doctor, as were also many of his successors in the tinually boasting of the profound knowledge of their 
nineteenth century. great Doctor, whom they called with emphaais 

(2) Theological Avgustinism, — ^The histoiy of Au- "John of Augustine". Shiney, in his Introduction to 
gustine's system of grace seems to blend almost in- "Zizaniorum Fasciculi", has even pretended that 
aistinguiBfaiably with the progressive developments of the theories of Wyclif on God, on tne Incarnation, 
this dogma. Here it must suffice, first, to enumerate and even on property, were the purest Augustinian 
the principal phases; secondly, to trace the general inspiration, but even a superficial comparison, ii 
laws of development which mitigated Augustinism this were tne place to make it, would show how base- 
in the Church. less such an assertion is. In the sixteenth century 

After the death of Augustine, a whole, century of the heritage of Wyclif and Hus, his disciple, was 

fierce contests (430-529) endea in the triumph of always accepted in the name of Augustinism by the 

moderate Augustinism. In vain had Pope St. Ce- leaders of the Reformation. Divine predestination 

lestine (431) sanctioned the teachings of the Doctor from all eternity separating the elect, who were to be 

of Hippo. The Semipelagians of the south of France snatched out of tne mass of perdition, from the 

could not understand the predilection of God for reprobate who were destined to hell, as well as the 

the elect, and in order to attack the works of St. Au- irresistible impulse of God drawing some to salvation 

ffustine they made use of the occasionally exaggerated and others to sin — such was the fundamental doc- 

formulse of St. Fulgentius, or of the real errors of trine of the Reformation. Calvinism even adopted 

certain isolated predestinationists, as, for example, a system which was ''logically more consistent, but 

Lucidus, who was condemned in the Council of Aries practically more revolting", as Schaff puis it (St. 

(476). Happily, Prosper of Aquitaine, by his modera- Augustine, p. 104), by wEcn the decree of r^roba- 

tion, and also the unlcnown author of ** De Vocatione tion of the non-elect would be independent of the 

omnium jgentium", bv his consoling thesis on the fall of Adam and of original sin (Supralapsariaiusm). 

appeal acmressed to all, opened the way to an agree- It was certain that these harsh doctrines would l>rii\g 

ment. And finally, St. CsBsarius of Aries obtained their reaction, and in spite of the severities of tbe 

from Pope Felix iV a series of Capitula which were Synod of Dordrecht, which it would be int 


^ oompftre with the Council of Trent in the matter (Seas. VI, can. 2); against Protestant predestination* 
d mooeretion, Arminianism triumphed over the ism it proclaimed the freedom of man, with his double 
(Uvinistic thesis. power of resisting grace (posae disserUire n velU — 
We must note here that even Protestant critics, Sess. VI, can. 4) and of domg good or evil, even be- 
with a loyalty which does them honour, have in these fore embracing the Faith (can. o and 7). 
latter times vindicated Augustine from the false In the seventeenth century Jansenism adopted, 
interpretations of Calvin. Domer, in his ^ Gesch. der while modifying it, the Protestant conception of 
piDt. Th^logie", had already shown the instinctive original sin and the state of fallen man. No more 
repugnance of Anglican theologians to the horrible than Luther did the Jansenists admit the two orders, 
theorieB of Calvin. W. Cunningham (Saint Austin, natural and supernatural. All the gifts which Adam 
p. 82 aqq.J has very frankly called attention to the had received — immortality, knowledge, integrity, 
complete doctrinal opposition on fundamental points sanctifying grace — are absolutely reauired by the 
which exists between the Doctor of Hippo and the nature of man. Original sin is, therefore, again re- 
French Reformers. In the first place, as regards the fl&rded as a profound alteration of human nature, 
state of human nature, which is, according to Calvin, From which the Jansenists conclude that the key to 
totally depraved, for Catholics it is very difficult to St, Augustine^s system is to be found in the essential 
msp the Protestant conception of origiiud sin which, difference of the Divine government and of grace, before 
for OUvin and Luther, is not, as for us, the moral and after the Fall of Adam. Before the Fall Aoam 
degradation and the stain imprinted on the soul of enjoyed complete hberty, and grace save him the 
erery son of Adam by the fault of the faUier which power of resisting or obeying; after the Fall there 
iB imputable to each member of the family. It is was no longer in man liberty properly so called; there 
Dot tne deprivation of grace and of all other super- was only spontaneity (libertas a coactione^ and not 
natural gifts; it is not even concupiscence, understood libertas a necessitate), Grace, or delectation in the 
in the ordinary sense of the word, as the struggle of good, is essentially efficacious, and necessarily vio- 
bue and selfish instincts against the virtuous tend- torious once it is superior in degree to the opposite 
endes of the soul; it is a profound and complete concupiscence. The struggle, which was prolonged 
mbversion of human nature: it is the physical altera- for two centuries, led to a more profound study of 
tion of the very substance ot our soul. Our faculties, the Doctor of Hippo and prepared the way for the 
understanding, and will, if not entirely destroyed, definite triumph of Augustinism, but of an Au^stin- 
are at least mutilated, powerless, and chained to ism mitigated in accordance with laws which we 
evil. For the Reformers, original sin is not a sin. must now indicate. 

it is <A« sin, and the permanent sin, living in us and (3) Laws whidi governed the mitigation of Au- 

cansing a continual stream of new sins to spring from qxistinism. — In spite of what Protestant critics may 

our nature, which is radically corrupt and evil, have said, the Church has always been faithful to 

For, as our being is evil, every act of ours is equally the fimdamental principles defended by Augustine 

evil Thus, the Protestant theologians do not ordi- ajgainst the Pelagians and Semipelagians, on original 

narily speak of the sins of mankind, but only of the sin, the necessity and ntituity of grace, the absolute 

AR, which makes us what we are and defiles every- dependence on God for salvation. Nevertheless, 

thing. Hence arose the paradox of Luther: that even great progress was made along the line of CTadual 

in an act of perfect charity a man sins mortally, mitigation. For it caimot be denied that the doc- 

beeause he acts with a vitiated nature. Hence that trine formulated at Trent, and taught by all our 

other paradox: that this sin can never be effaced, but theologians, produces an impression of 

remains entire, even after justification, although it suavity ana greater clarity than this or that passa^ 

will not be any longer imputed; to efface it, it would in the works of St. Augustine. The causes of this 

be necessary to m<xlify pn3r8ically this human being softening down, and the successive phases of this 

which is sin. Calvin, without going so far as Luther, progress were as follows: — 

has nevertheless insisted on this toti^ corruption. First, theologians began to distinguish more 

"Let it stand, therefore, as an indubitable truth clearly between the natural order and the super- 

which no engines can shake '\ says he (Institution 11. natural, and hence the Fall of Adam no longer ap- 

V, } 10)/' tmtt the mind of man is so entirely alienated peared as a corruption of human nature in its con- 

irom th^ righteousness of God that he cannot con- stituent parts; it is the loss of the whole order of 

ceive, desire, or design anythin^^ but what is weak, supernatural elevation. St. Thomas (Summa, I, 

distorted, foul, impure, or iniqmtous, that his heart 'Q. Ixxxv, a. 1) formulates the ereat law of the pres- 

M 80 thoroughly environed by sin that it can breathe ervation, in guilty Adam's children, of ail the fac-. 

ont Dothhig but corruption and rottenness; that if ulties in their essential inte^ity: "Sin (even original) 

iome men occasionally make a show of goodness, neither takes away nor diminishes the natural en- 

their mind is ever interwoven with hypocrisy ana dowments". Thus the most rigorist Thomists, 

(iecdt, their soul inwardly bound with the fetters Alvarez, Lemos, Contenson, agree with the great 

of wickedness". "Now", says Cunningham, "this Doctor that the sin of Adam has not enfeebled 

<ioctnne. whatever there may be to be said for it, (intrinsece) the natural moral forces of humanity. 

is not tne doctrine of Saint Austin. He held that Secondly, such consoling and fundamental truths 

«n is the defect of a good nature which retains ele- as God's desire to save all men, and the redeeming 

inents of goodness, even in its most diseased and death of Christ which was really offered and ac- 

corrupted state, and he ^ves no countenance, what- cepted for all peoples and all individuaLs — these 

ever to this modem opinion of total depravity", truths, which Aupistine never denied, but which 

It is the same with Calvin's affirmation of the irre- he left too much m the background and as it were 

nstible action of God on the will. Cunningham shows hidden under the terrible formulas of the doctrine 

that these doctrines are irreconcilable with liberty of predestination, have been placed in the full light, 

ud respoasibility, whereas, on the contrary, "St. have been developed, and applied to infidel nations, 

Austin IS careful to attempt to harmonise the belief and have at last entered into the ordinary teaching 

in God's omnipotence with hiunan responsibility" of theology. Thus our Doctors, without detracting 

(8t Austin, p. §6). The Council of Trent was there- in the least from the sovereignty and justice of God, 

^fauthful to the true spirit of the African Doctor, have risen to the highest idea of His goodness: that 

od maintained pure Au^^ustinism in the bosom of God so sincerely desires the salvation of all as to 

the Cltunsh, by its defimtions against the two op- give absolutely to all, immediately or mediately, the 

poiite excesses. Against Pelagianism it reaffirmed means necessary for salvation, and always witn the 

vi^hial m and we absolute necessity of grace desire that man should consent to employ those 


means. No one falls into hell except by his own demnation of doctrines which are to-day univeraally 
fault. Eren infidels will be accountable for their taught in all the schools. Thus.inthejprojectof ceiih 
infidelity. St. Thomas expresses the thought of all sure reproduced by Serry (*' Historia Congregationis 
when he says: "It is the common teaching that if de Auxiliis", append., p. 166) the first proposition is 
a man bom among the barbarous and infidel nations this: "In statu naturse lapste potest homo, cum solo 
really does what Ties in his power, God will reveal concursu general! Dei, emcere opus bonum morale, 
to mm what is necessary for salvation, either by quod in ofdine ad finem hominis naturalem sit ver» 
interior inspirations or by sending him a preacher virtutis opus, referendo iUud in Deum, sicut referri 
of the Faith" (In Lib. II Sententianmi, dist. 23, potest ac deberet in statu naturali" (In the state of 
Q. viii, a. 4, ad 4*"). We must not dissemble the fallen nature num can with only the general eon- 
fact that this law changes the whole aspect of Divine curntut of God do a good moral work wmch may be 
Providence, and that St. Augustine had left it tob a woric of true virtue with regard to the natural 
much in tne shade, insisting only upon the other end of man by referring it to God, as it can and 
aspect of the problem: namely, that God, while ought to be referred in the natural state). Thus they 
making a sufficing appeal to all, is nevertheless not sought to condemn the doctrine held by all the 
bound to choose alwavs that appeal which shall in Scholastics (with the exception of Gregory of Rimini), 
fact be efficacious and shall be accepted, provided and sanctioned since then by the condemnation of 
that the refusal of consent be due to the oostinacy Proposition Ivii of Baius. For a long time it was said 
of the sinner's will and not to its lack of power. Thus that the pope had prepared a Bull to condemn 
the Doctors most eagerly approved the axiom, Molina; but to-day we learn from an autograph doc- 
FacierUi quod in se est Deus rum denegat gratiamr— ument of Paul V that liberty was left to tne two 
God does not refuse grace to one who does what he schools until a new Apostolic decision was given 
can. (Schneeman "Controversianim de Div. grat.", 1881, 

Thirdly, from principles taught by Augustine con- p. 289). Soon after, a third interpretation of Au- 

sequences have been drawn which are cleariy de- gustinism was offered in the Church, that of Noris, 

rived from them, but which he had not pointed out. Belleli, atnd other partisans of moral predetermina- 

Thus it is incontestably a principle of St. Augustine tion. This system has been called Avgustinianism, 

that no one sins in an act which he cannot avoid — To this school belong a niunber of theologians who, 

"Quis enim peccat in eo quod caveri non potest?" with Thomassin, essayed to explain the infalliUe 

Tins passage from "De libero arbitrio" (III, xviii, action of grace without admitting either the scierdia 

n. 50) is anterior to the year 395; but far from re- media of the Molinists or the pfavsical predetermina- 

tracting it he approves and explains it, in 415, in tion of the Thomists. A detaued study of this inter- 

the "De naturft et ffratifi,", Ixvii, n. 80. From that pretation of St. Augustine mav be found in Vacant 's 
pregnant principle theologians have concluded, first, Dictionnaire de th^logie catholique", I, ools. 2485- 

that grace sufficient to conquer temptations never 2501; here I can only mention one very important 

fails anyone, even an infidel; then, against the Jan- document, the last in which the Holy See nas ex- 

senists, they have added that^ to deserve its name of pressed its mind on the various theories of theologjans 

sufficient grace^ it ought to give a real power which for reconciling grace and liberty. This is the Brief 

is complete, even relatively to the actual difficulties, of Benedict XI V (13 July, 1748) which declares that 

No doubt theologians have groped about, hesitated, the three schools — ^Thomist, Augustinian (Noris), 

even denied; but to-day there are very few who and Molinist — ^have full right to defend their theories, 

would dare not to recognize in St. Augustine the The Brief concludes with these words: "This Apos- 

affirmation of the possibility of not sinning. tolic See favours the liberty of the schools; none of 

Fourthly, certain secondary assertions, which the systems proposed to reconcile the liberty of man 
encumbered, but did not make part of the dogma, with the onmipotence of God has been thus far con- 
have been lopped off from the doctrine of Augustine, demned (op. cit., col. 2555). 

Thus the Church, which, with Augustine, has always In conclusion we must indicate bri^y the official 

denied entrance into Heaven to unbaptized children, authority which (he Church attributes to St. Augustine 

has not adopted the severity of the great Doctor in in the questions of grace. Numerous and solemn are 

condemning such children to bodily piEiins, however the eulogies of St. Augustine's doctrine pronounced 

slight. And little by little the milder teaching of by the popes. For instance, St. Gelasius I (1 No vem- 

St. Thomas was to prevail in theology and was even ber, 49d), St. Hormisdas (13 August, 520) Boniface 11 

to be vindicated against unjust censure when Pius VI and the Fathers of Orange (529), John II (534), 

condemned the pseudo-synod of Pistoja. At last Au- and many others. But the most important docu- 

gustine's obscure formulse were abandoned or cor- ment, that which ought to serve to interpret all the 

rected, so as to avoid regrettable confusions. Thus others, because it precedes and inspires tnem, is the 

the expressions which seemed to identify original celebrated letter of St. Celestine I (431),in which the 

sin witn concupiscence have given way to clearer pope guarantees not only the orthodoxy of Augustine 

formulae without departing from the real meaning a^inst his detractors, but also the great merit of 

which Augustine sought to express. his doctrine: "So great was his knowledge that my 

Discussion, however, is not yet ended within the predecessors have always placed him in the rank of 
Church. On most of those points which concern the masters", etc. This letter is accompanied by a 
especially the manner of the Divine action Thomists series of ten dogmatic capittUa the origin of inrluch 
and Mohnists disagree, the former holding out for an is uncertain, but which have always been regarded, 
irresistible predetermination, the latter maintaining, at least since Pope Hormisdas, as expressing the 
with Augustine, a grace whose infallible efficacy is re- faith of the Church. Now these extracts from African 
vealed by the Divine knowledge. But both of these councils and pontifical decisions end with this re- 
views affirm the grace of God and the liberty of man. striction: "As to the questions which are more prp- 
The lively controversies aroused by the "Concordia" found and difficult, and which have given rise to 
of Molina (1588) and the long conferences de auxiliis these controversies, we do not think it necessarv to 
held at Rome, before Popes Clement Vlli and impose the solution of them". — In presence of those 
Paul V, are well known. Tnere is no doubt that a documents emanating from so high a source, ougVit 
majority of the theologian-consultors thought they we to say that the Church has adopted all the teach- 
discovered an opposition between Molina and St. Au- inp of St. Augustine on grace so that it is never per- 
gustine. But their verdict was not approved, and missible to depart from that teaching? Thr^ans^wers 
(what is of great importance in the history of Au- have been given: (a) For some, the authority of 
gustinism) it is certain that they asked for the cop- St. Augustine is absolute and irrefragable. The 

Auouamn 10< 

luKOitt^ went bo far m to fonnulste, with H&ver- 
Quuu, thia propoeitioD, condemneii by Alexander VIJI 
(7 December, 1690): "Ubi quis invenerit doctrioam 
iD Augustino clare fundatftm, illam absolute potest 
tcnere et docere, non icspiciendo ad ullam pontificia 
boUun'' {Where one has found a doctrine dearlr 
bind on St. Augustine, he can hold «nd teach it 
ihgolutely. without referring to any pontifical Bull). 
Thia ig iDadmiseible. None of the pontifical appro- 
balitma has a meaning so absolute, and the eavUtJa 
mtke ui express reservation for the profound and 
difficult questions. The popes themselves have per- 
mitted s departure from the thought of St. Augustine 
in Ihe matter of the lot of children dying nithout 
bsptiam (Bull 'JAuctorem Fidei", 28 August, 1794). 
(b) OtlieiB again have concluded that the eulogiea 
in question are merely vague fonnulie leaving full 
liberty lo withdraw trtmi St. Augustine and to SUune 
hiiD on every point. Thus Launoy, Richard Simon, 
md otherg have maintained that Augustine had been 
in eiTor on the very gist of the problem, and had 
roily taught predrattinationism. But that would 
'mtpij that for fifteen centuries the Church took as 
it« yiide an adversary of its faith, (c) We must con- 
duce, with the greater number of theologians, that 
Augustine has a real normrUive authority, hedged 
■boat, however, with reserves and wise Umitations. 
In the capital questions which constitute Ute faith 
of the Church in those matters the Doctor of Hippo is 
truly the authoritative %vitnesB of tradition; for 
nampie, on theexistenceof original sin, the necessity 
of gnee, at least for every salutary act; the giatut' 
towDess of the ^t of God which precedes all merit 
of man because tt is the cause of it; the predilection 
tor tbe elect and, on the other hand, the liberty of 
man and his responsibility for his transgressions. 
But the secondary problems, concemii^ the mode 
rather than the fact, are left by the Church to the 
prudent study of theologians. Thus all schools unite 
m a great respect for the assertions of St, Augustine. 
At present this attitude df fidelity and respect is 
all the more remarkable as Prol«ataQts, who were 
formerly so bitter in defending the predestination of 
(ilvin, arc to-day almcwt unanimous m rejecting what 
tbey themselves call " the boldest defiance ever given 
Id lesson and conscience" fOr^tillat, "Dogjnatique", 
in, p. 329). Schleiermacher, it is true, maintains 
it, Dut he adds to it tbe Orlgenist theory of universal 
rairation by the final restoration of all creatures, and 
be ia followed in this by Farrar, Lobstein, Pfisler, and 
others. The C^lvSnist dogma is to-day, eHpecially in 
Eo^and, altogether abandoned, and oft«n replaced 
br pure Pela^nism (Beyschlag). But among 
nntestant critics the best are drawing near U> the 
Catholic interpretation of St. Augustine, as, fm* 
example, Gr£tillat, in Switzerland, and Stevens, 
Bnice, and Moiley (On the Augustinian Doctrine of 
Predestination) , in England. Sanday (Romans, p. 50) 
ilw declares the mystery to be unfathomable for 
man yet solved by God — "And so our solution of 
the problem of Free-will, and of the problems of j 
biatwy and of individual salvation, must finally lie ■> 
b the full acceptance and realisation of what is f| 
iaiffied by the infinity and the omnwcietKt of God". » 
Tun Goncludiug words recall the true system of 
Ai^uitine and permit us to hope that at least on 
this question there may be a union of the two Churches 
in a wise Augustinism. 

Wiitu ON THB LiTB Or 8t. Auqitstihb. — Tha shiif orisiaal 
■BVEB ar* hia own Conftationt and hiji Ufa tVUa S. Aureta 
'-fliriiQ by hia fricod PoHiTiiua, in Vol. XI of the Bena- 
£mi£ti^ (P. t.. XXXII): for l«raed itluxtration ot tha 
■at a( PiMiditia aM tha Boltudiita CnpHn uid Stiltiho in 
jWi 86. (17*3). AQfuat. VI.— Amon* the prioeipia modoro 
■^ubica of the saiat the lollonmc %ie worthy of iDention; 
([As ^B(. tx tjut potiHimum icriviii ommnata (by hia 
- ■ editon. vwjr usuniM. tiaaed on the aola of 
r P. h., JCKXIIl] Kloth, ftr U. Kir(A«a.*«r, 
" ■- -1, lBW);FoujoiiLAT. Afutoinde5.'4uau(- 
a, «DB Mtdt <Paria. ISIS-Ul; BniDULUor. 

^iVUrti-MnalParia. 16«1,2 .._ 

of the Scnptunl cnnuiiant&nea ol Bt. Augiutioa according u 
lh« ordar,of tha Biblical books; Ideu, ConaiTrlaiUia Aagut- 

unfu^mS^Ai^. <Twr*M[Piirie, 16M, 2 vokTlolioTMoialiNl 
Notion Au^iutinumrtB de VhtmitieviMvt (Clermoat-Fomrndt 
leoa); DoDUB, St. Aagxi*tin a la BMe in Rivun Bibiiqui: tat 
1893-^, — On KrAfe and on FclacioniBm; see the aevec rrudite 
di»erl^ioDa oT G«aHiitR, addod to hia edition of llABiua 
HmciTOB {Parii, 1B73; P. i., XLVIII); PiTAvroa, D, Ftia- 
aitnonm tt SrMitiiiaiiianortimhmtn{,Vti\B,lM3)\ Hona.nii- 
loria PHaaiana, .... additU VwtdiciiM Auffuatmamr {Pmii%. 
1ST3^: Heklih, Virilabk eUf ia omraou dt S. Atigmtin 
cenSv ItM POaffimi in R^utation da critivim, tic., de U. Bayl* 
" ■ ■ {Paria, 1732), P. L.. XLVII; Wiooem, 
" IR17 da AaffU4tmitmu4 und Ptiaffionu 

. . tUfruof DtK^int- Auguatiru ajtd lAf Peloffian Confrp- 

vrrij/, Tht Decitirpment of (*« DortriiM of Infant Sairalum 
iHewYoA, 1SQ8I: Rotthaiines. D«r Aumikuiumuj (Hnnich. 
lS92)(Poauufcmi>>c(.diCUaLai<A., I, 22a»-Z472,.aq>ecb 


2875-2406; Chbvaubr. Ripertaire det mntroeB huL du moyen family circles, in workshops, and places where work- 

iinism see. besides the above quoted works of MANDONNirr uc papers establisnea by them have a greater circu- 

And Db Wulf, Webner, Dis Auffuatinibdie, Ptytkoloffie in lation than many famous non-^hristian papers. 

ft'^N 'T*"^^'*^*n'*^ ^tn««rfuna tmJ Gwtottufw (Vienna. Until recently no popular Catholic paper has reached 

1882): Idem, Der AuguBttnumut xn der SchoUutxk ae« tpAteren '^"»'** "owcx^vij^ uvr t^puuu ^(»uuvrM^ i^«t^A t^ A^^^^y 

MUtdaUen (Vienna. 1883). also other studies of the same a degree of Circulation equal to that of La Croix 

author on Bede, Aicuxn, OuiUaume d'Auvtrgtiet St, Tfumaa or of "Le P^lerin'^. These two papers are issued at 

Mutnat, Suaret; EuRLE, Der Auau9tinumu9 und djsr Arts- ^^ rate of three milhon per week; Saturdays this 

ioUlttmtu xn der Scholaatik gegen Ende dea XI IL JahrhunderU, . . ^ j !^ /^ *f!J;" *^ »»«^«., fc^vv**x*»/ u*" 

in Archiv fUr Litteratur undKircheno, dee MiUekdtera (1889). IS increased to four milhon copies. To this must be 

For theohoical Augustinism see all doctrine-histories. Modern added the circulation of 6()0.(XX) COpiies of " The 

StSL'f^T^': SS"^o^'ut?i'o.°LrB'L5?JSr{BI Hyes^of the Sainte-, 70,000.o/ the " ^^ Contempo- 

Molinist Suabbz. the Sorbonnist Tournblt. particularly rams ", besides the many copies of the " Revue scien- 

SciPioNB Mapfei, /«(oria teolopica delle dottrine e deUe opt- tifique": "Cosmos": Questions actuellefi": "Les 

fvumi coreene'^einaueprimi^^ j^^y^o^ je rOrient"; the "Petit Bleu", and many 

divtna orcuria, del Ubero arbttrto, e della predeettnanone (Trent, -^^ir r Xi.'i »,*'*'" * %/^rr u »**«"v 

1742; Latin, Frankfort. 1766). Cf. also Gaillard, Eiude sur others. In Chile, where these Fathers have been 

I'hietoire de la doctrine de lacprdce depute S, Auguetin (Lyons- for thirteen years, they publish in Spanish " Echoes 

l^-,J.'!S^i::^'r^:A'ii!;::^^ ?~«° the Saj^ctuary ofl^urdes^ 6 theirjoumal- 

Unie lee iKSologiene iuequ'au ooneile de Trente. et depute oe istic work they were aided by the Oblate bisters of 

ooncUe dee plue cSlebree doctewe dee vnivereitie de y Europe the Assumption, an order established by them to 

cHBBNB, Le PrideeHnaHameme (Paris. 1724); Moelby. sl are not confined to that field. Until the suppression 

Auguetine'e Doctrine of PredeeHnation (London, 1865),, see they directed the women's section in the publishing 

&JtBJt]^: (?^i)fx3?^f. 5^TS:oSri4''«SSJ ^^ "f the "Chnstiaa IW " as weU as the hospi- 

dee hi. AuguBtin in der Ldtre von der Onade und PrOdeetination tals, orphan asylums, and schools. 

in Tub. O^ol. Quartaleehrift (1801); Idem, Der heUige Fauetue Among other works carried on by the Assump- 

von Ries (Stuttgart, 1806). ^>,^^ t>_ ^.,,^5. tionists m France prior to their suppression was 

. , ^ ^ ^ EuGfeNB POETAU6. ^^ ^j ^^^ " Assodation of Our Lady Sf Salvation", 

▲ugUBtiniftn Canozui and CanoneBses. See Can- a society devoted to prayer, almsgiving, and setting 

ONB AND Canonesse8,Reqular. a good example for the reformation of the working 

▲ugUBtinians of the ▲ssamption, or Assttmf- class. This society was established in eighty dio- 
TIONISTS. — This congregation had its ori^ in the ceses, and it succeeded in drawing the higher classes 
Ck)llege of the Assumption, established in Ntmes, of society more closely to the workingmen. It en- 
France, in 1843, by toe Rev. Emmanuel d'Alzon couraged everjrwhere social prayer, and social and 
vicar-general of that diocese, some account of whose national expiation, and discoura^d human respect, 
life and work is given at the end of this article. Al- social apostasy, and isolation in piety. It raised 
though it was organized in 1847, the members did not funds to convey . workmen, pilgrims, paupers, and 
take their first vows until 1850; they took their public sick poor to Lourdes. tf> the number of a thousand 
vows at Christmas of the next year. A second nouse each year: it was zealous in the cause of workmen's 
was established in Paris, and they continued their work clubs, and of Cathohc schools, and was active in 
there, encouraged by the Holy See. The oongrega* the movement in favour of the keeping of Sunday 
tion was formally approved by a Brief of 26 Novem- as a day of rest. Another field of missionary labour 
ber, 1864. The chief objects of the congregation was found among the Newfoundland fisnermen. 
are to combat the spirit of irreligion in Europe and Every year 12,0(X) or 15,0(X) fishermen leave the 
the spread of schism in the East. To this end the coasts of France, Belgium, and Ireland, to go to the 
Assumptionists have devoted themselves to the Banks of Newfoundland for codfish. The Prot- 
work of Catholic higher and secondary education, cstants have long maintained a flotilla of hospital 
to the spread of truth by means of the Press, to the ships, with which they go to the aid of these un- 
conduct of pilgrimages, and to missionary work in fortunate men and, while ministering to their ma- 
the East, in addition to their college at Ntmes they terial needs, draw their souls to heresy. The As- 
estabhshed Apostolic schools where poor students sumptionists found here a field for their activity- 
were educated for the priesthood without expense and zeal. They have organized the most prominent 
to themselves. They established "La Bonne Presse", Catholic sailors into a committee and have been 
which issued periodicals, pamphlets, and books in encouraged to equip two Cathohc hospital ships, 
great numbers, the chief pubhcation, "La Croix", which now succour the unfortunate fishermen. The 
appearing simultaneously m several different cities, vessels have alreadv been wrecked twice, but have 
Their activities provoked the resentment of the been replac^ed, anci the Assumptionists have con- 
French Government, and in 1900 the congregation tinned their labours. 

was suppressed within French territory, this action The Assumptionists have been active missioik* 

being based on the charge that they were accumula- aries in the Orient, where at the present time 3DO 

ting a fund to be used in a royalist movement to of the congregation, Fathers ana Brothers, and. 

overthrow the Republic. Many of the Assumption- nearly 400 Ssters are engaged. Their labours take 

ists left France after this, but some remained as them from the Balkans to the Dead Sea. They have 

secular priests under the authority of various bishops, estabhshed there twenty-two permanent residences. 

At the time of their suppression the Assumption- thirty regular missionary stations, and fifteen ixk- 

ists maintained twenty Apostolic schools which in stitutions entrusted to the Oblates of the Assump- 

twenty-five years gave more than 500 priests to the tion. In the schools in Turkey in Europe and 

secular clergy. These schools have all been closed, Turkey in Asia the Assumptionists have 2,500 

but the coi^gre^tion has taken up the work in other scholars. Here the Oblates have opened a hospital, 

?uarters. Similar schools have been established in an orphanage, and nine gratuitous dispensaiiee, 

taly, Belgium, England, and the United States, where they care for about 30,000 sick every yei^c 

* La Bonne Presse " was purchased at the time of Of the twenty-two public churches of the congr^ist.. 

the suppression by Paul Feron-Vrau, a wealthy tion in the 'East twelve are parishes, and in four of 

manufacturer of Lisle, and all its publications have them the Offices are held in the rites of the Orient 

been continued without any change of poUcy. (Greek, or Slav). These rites the Assumptionists hatve 

Much of the good accompUshed by the Assumption- embraced to render the teaching of the Gospel 

ists was effected through this medium. They en- fruitful. The Orientals, whether from love of 

tered into comnetition witi» the irreUgious press in legitimate traditions, or from ignorance, make of 

Avatrtmmt lo5 AtrdTnltimiS 

e9[teriGr fonn of the rites a question of supreme im- in the eity of BroUa8a,with its population of 100,000, 

portanoe. Called in 1862 to work for the conversion they have established a large college and two 

of the Bulgarians to Catholic unity, the Assump- churches, one of which is the Latin parish. The 

tiomstB founded in the Turkish quarter of Ad- towns of Eski-Ohehir, Ismid, Sultan Eschoir, Koniah 

rianople, and in Karagatch the European quarter, (Iconium), Fanaraki have each a residence for the 

a readenoe with a Slav church and a Latin church, priests with a public church; the Oblate Sisters are 

& ho^tal, three schools and a Bulgarian seminary of also establishea in these places. At Jerusalem the 

the Greek and Slav Rites, in which forty young men Assumptionists have erected the Hostelry of Our 

receive their maintenance and are prepared for the Lady of France for the reception of pilgrims, an- 

office of the sacred ministry. A ramilar work is being nexed to which is a scholasticate of forty religious. 

done at Philippopoli, the cradle of the Oriental mis- They have established there also the Society of the 

fiions of the Assumptionists. There is also a primary Crois^ of Purgatory, and they have a church in 

school, attended by 200 scholars, and an educational which to receive the Latin pilgrims. The Eucharis- 

institute, man^ of the former pupils of which occupy tic Congress at Jerusalem m 1893 was held in the 

important official positions in Eastern Rumelia. Tne Hostelry of Our Lady of France. 

Aasumptionists have also churches and schools of £}mmanuel-Joseph-Marie-Maurice d'Alzon, founder 

different rites at Yamboli and Varna. and first Superior General of the Augustinians 

At the instance of Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, of the Assumption was bom at Le Vigan, France, 

vben he was Apostolic delegate, the Assumptionists 30 August, 1810, and died at Ntmes, 21 November, 

went to Constantinople and established themselves in 1880. He was a member of a noble family, and, 

the Turkish quarter at Koum-Kapou. The animosity being an only son, encountered strong opposition 

of the Turks and the jealousy of the Greeks and Ar- when he decided to enter the clerical state. He 

menians caused the new missionaries to be very studied at the seminary of Montpellier and later 

badly received. To escape persecution they worked at Rome, where he was ordained priest 26 Decem- 

OQ their building at night, doing their masonry, car- ber, 1834. On his return to France the next year he 

pentry and painting themselves. By this stratagem was appointed Vicar-General of the Diocese of Nimes, 

they constructed their church of Anastasia, the nrst which position he hdd for forty-five years, serving 

church consecrated to Catholic worship in this quar- imder four bishops. Among nis earliest notable 

ter since 1453. This church, to favour the conver- works was the establishment at Nlmes in 1843 of the 

aon of the schismatics, was consecrated to the Greek College of the Assumption, for the education of the 

Rite and dedicated by the Apostolic delegate himself, children of the aristocracy. This college later be- 

Tbe ocmgregation possesses other Greek churches at came the cradle of his oongre^tion. He was associ- 

Ksdikoi (Chalcedon), on the Asiatic bank of the Bos- ated with Gu^ranger, Loms VeuiUot, and other 

poruB, and at Gallipoli. In order to prepare a native champions of the Catholic cause. With the " Revue 

clergy, the Assumptionists have opened at Stamboul de Tenseignem^it chr^tien ", ^ich he founded and 

(Constantinople) a jjetit s^minaire, where sixtv youn^ directed, ne restored the Christian spirit in classical 

men are instructed in the Greek Kite. At Kadikoi, studies. To combat Protestantism in southern 

in the great Leonine seminary, thev follow with the France he established the Association of St. Francis 

ordinary theological course special lessons in prepa- de Sales. He also suggested the idea of the ecclesias- 

ration for tiae pastoral ministiy. They are also given tical caravan, formeoDy the priests at Ntmes, who 

iastnictions in liturgy, history, canon law and in by request of Mgr. Plan tier came to Rome to visit the 

the Greek, Turkish, and Slav languages. At the day sovereign pontiff. This was the beginning of the great 

of its opening this seminarv had Uiirty scholars and French pilgrimages called the national pilgrimages, the 

eight professors. At Stamboul, as at Kadikoi, there directors of which were for many years the religious of 

are flourishing schools for boys and girls, with more the order founded by Pdre d'^zon. By his " alum*- 

than 700 scnolars in attendance. They do not nats'',or Apostolic schools, he supplied the education 

taiSkce for receiving all the scholars who present of the poor children called to the priesthood, who, ow* 

themselves. To the labours of teaching are united ing to lack of means, could not be admitted to the 

thoee of the apostleship, in behalf of the natives as seminaries. The Fathers of the Assumption opened 

well as foreigners. At Stamboul and at Kadikoi, fifteen of these houses which in twenty-five years 

the priests preach and hear confessions in Italian, ^ve more than 500 priests to the secular clergy. 

French, German, Greek, and Turkish. In the To sustain this work of charity, Pdre d'Alzon founded 

various houses established throughout the empire the Association of Our Lady of Vocations, enriched 

at least ten living languages are spoken. Greeks, with numerous indulgences, by Pius IX and Leo XIII. 

Latins, and Orientals imite for the conferences of The brotherhood, by a decree of the Holy See, has 

St Vincent de Paul, and the Sisters visit and care been canonically established in the chapel of the 

for the sick to the number of 10,000 annually. College of Ntmes, and has received the approbation 

Their knowledge of the Oriental lan^ua^ has of many bishops. P^ d'Alzon was much es- 

been of p-eat service to the Assumptionist Fathers teemed oy the Popes Gregory XVI and Pius IX. 

in their journalistic labours. Twelve of the Fathers The latter in 1863 sent him to Constantinople to 

who are the most skilled in these studies write in found in the East the missions of the Congregation 

the Oriental Review. They have their special of the Assumption. More than once he was pro- 

buUetin, "Les Echos de TOrient'^ which circu- posed for the episcopate, but he always declined the 

lates among Greeks and Orientals. Because of the nonour, prefemng to devote himself to the woric of 

Oriental love of splendour in external worship the his congregation. Thomas Gaffnbt Taatfe. 

feasts of the Blessed Sacrament are celebrated with 

great pomp. With the consent of the authorities, Ali^stinas, ANTomus, historian of canon law and 

and under the protection of a corps of soldiers, the Archbishop of Tarrajgona in Spain, b. at Saragossa 

prooessiQns of the Blessed Sacrament are conducted 26 Feb., 1517, of a distinguished family; d. at Tanur 

thnra^ all the streets around Santa Sophia. The gona, 31 May, 1586. After finishing ius studies at 

CathcSc funerals solemnized with reverential pomp AlcaUL and Salamanca, he went to Bologna (1536), 

produce also a great effect upon the impression- to Padua (1537), and to Florence (1538) in which 

able natives. In 1890 the Congregation of the latter place be examined the famous ''Codex Floren- 

Propaganda confided to the Assumptionists the tinus" of the Pandects and made the acquaintance 

temiory in Asia Minor extending from Broussa to of such learned men of the new historical school as 

Angora. It practically embraces the ancient Bithynia. Andrea Alciati, to whom he owed a confirmation of 

Abeady six residences have been established tnere; his pronounced bent towards a positive snd critical 


treatment of the ancient materials of canonical the time and place of their compilation, it is clear 

jurisprudence. In 1541 he took his degree of that he did not believe them earUer than the time 

Doctor of Civil and Canon Law and in 1544, at the of Pope Damasus (360-384) or even of the seventh 

request of the Emperor Charles V, he was made century ''CoUectio Hispana". His notes on the 

Auditor of the Rota by Paul III. In 1555 he was correlated ''Capitula Hadriani '' (Angilramni) were 

sent by Paul IV to England, with a message of con- published at Cologne in 1618. His powerfid 

natulation for Queen Mary and as Counsellor to genius was truly universal. Classical pnilolo^, 

Cardinal Pole. In 1556 hie was made Bishop of epigraphy, numismatics, above all the history of civil 

Alife, in the Kingdom of Naples, and in 1561 was and ecclesiastical law found in him an investigator 

transferred to Lerida in his native Spain. He as- whose boldness and insight were extraordinary for 

sisted during three years at the Council of Trent and that period of incipient historico-critical rest^urch. 

urged^ ardently the reformation of the clergy. " It Death surprised him at the patriotic task of an edi- 

is our fault '', he said in the council, '' that so great tion of the works of the Spanish writer, St. Isidore 

an agitation has arisen in France and Germany. We of Seville. The works of Augustinus were printed in 

must begin with the reformation of the clergy. It ei^t volumes at Lucca (1775-74); his lif e by Siscarius 

is your business, O Fathers, to save b^ your decrees is m the second volume 1-121. 

the common weal of the Church that is now threat- , Maabsen. CTmcA;. d. Q%^«n und^ Liu, det. can, R^ehta im 

ptiaH " Tn li^Tfi hft wjwi nmmnipH hv ClrMmrv XTTT Ahendumd^, etc, (Grats. 1870), I, xix-xxxiv; Von Scherer m 

enea. An Id/O ne was promoiea Oy Uregory Alll KirthenUx.: Schott, Laud. Punebr. d. viri. Ant. Auffuetun, in 

to the arcmepiscopal see of 1 arragona. OaUandi, Ch veL Ca$vmum collect, dueertatMmum eyiloffe (Mains. 

Augustinus is one of the foremost figures of the U^* p^swolub, JJ» cL uq. interpnta, (Leipaig. 1721 ); 

Catholic Counter-Reformation that set in with so much S^Stola/^fSSTct^J^ iIm?' ^'*"'*'''*' ^'^' ^'^^ 

vigour and success in the latter half of the sixteenth * * Thomas J Shahan 

centurv. His chosen field was the fonles or j^y^g^xinxiM Maria, O. D. C. See Cohen, Hbr^ 

original sources of ecclesiastical law both papal and w^aJv «*«»»«»» ^. , ^, ^^^^ , 

conciliar. The basis of the medieval canon law was '^^^^' 

the "Decretum" of Gratian, a useful codification of AugUfltinuB Novellas, O. S. A. See AooamNO 

the middle of the twelfth century, the ecclesiastical Novell. 

law-book of the schools and the universities, of great AugaBtinus TriumphUB. See Hermfts of St. 

academic authority, but never formally approvc^d by Augustine. 

the popes as church legislation. Its matenab, never AugUBtinuB-Ver^n, The, an association organ- 

hitherto critically illustrated as to their prominence i^ed in 1878 to promote the intereste of the Catholic 

and form, and often badly corrupted as to their text, preas, particularly the daily press, of Germany. The 

stood in need of judicious sifting and elucidation, society proposes to attain its end (1) by giving its 

It was to this task that the young Augustinus ad- moral support to the establishment of Catholic 

dressed himself from 1538 to 1543. In the latter papers; (2) by furnishing trustworthy information 

medieval Benedictine of Bologna. This text re- by representmg the interests of the profession: 

mained his life-long study; towards the dose of his (5) by securing positions and giving information and 

career, after important services rendered during ten assistance in fJl matters connected with journalism, 

years to the " (Jorrectores Romani " in their edition free of charge; and finally (6) by endeavouring to bring 

of Gratian (Rome, 1582), he finished his own magis- about the harmonious co-operation of Catholic pub- 

terial examination of the work: it was not, however, lishers, as well as uniformity in treating the ques- 

Sublished until after his death, " De Emendatione tions of the day. The lack of organization on the 

iratiani dialogi (30) libri II" (Tarragona, 1587). part of the Catholic Press first became obvious at an 

Other important publications of the sources of dvil early stage of the KuUurkampf; several unsuccessful 

and ecclesiastical law occupied his pen. Thus he attempts were made to supply the deficiency, among 

published in 1567 an edition o^ the Bvzantine im- others the formation of a society of publishers. The 

penal constitutions, in 1576 his "IV Antique Col- first feasible steps were taken at the (^tholic CJonven- 

lectiones Decretalium", in 1582 a treatise on the tion at WOrzburg: at subsequent gatherings plans 

"Penitential Canons" together with a" PoBoitentiale were matured, and at DOsseldorf, 15 May, 1878, a 

Romanum" discovered oy him. From 1557 he programme was drawn up which is sunstantially 

sought earnestly for the necessary patronage, papal followed out in the present Augustinus- Verein. 

or recal, to enable him to publish the hitherto un- DOaseldori became the centre of the Verein, which, 

edited Greek text of the ancient ecclesiastical coun- ik>w that it has spread throughout Germany, is 

cils, and for that purpose examined many archives in divided into ten groups, corresponding to geographi- 

Italy and Germanv; the fruits of his Ubours were cal divisions, each, to a large extent autonomous, 

reaped at a later date by others. Among the more A general assembly is held annually. The Verein 

valuable of his posthumous publications, and appealr has its own organ, the ''Augustinusbtatf, published 

ing stron^y to modem historical tastes, is a cntical at Krefeld. ft also conducts a literary &ireau, a 

examination of several early medievcd collections of beneficial society, a parliamentary correspondence 

canon law that served as original material fcMr the association of the Centre Party, in Ba'lin, and an 

"Decretum" of Gratian. This work, that Maassen employment agency. In 1904 the society had a 

and von Scherer speak of with respect, is entitled regular membership of 850, in addition to the asso- 

" De quibusdam veteribus Canonum Ecclesiastioorum ejate membership. 

CoUectionibus Judicium et censura", and was pub- KdcK in Bucbberqeb, XirdUicA. ^otuttftr.; Mbur in Kir- 

lishedat Rome (1611) with the second and third parts chcnUx. r» •»# t> 

of his "Juris Pontificii Veteris Epitome" (to Inno- '^' *^- I^udge. 

cent III, 1198-1216), the first part of which appeared ▲ugustopolis, a titular see of Palestine, suffragan 

at Tarragona in 1587. It contains biographical and of Petra. Its episcopal list (431-536) is given in 

text-critical notes on a number of collectors of Gams (p. 454). There were two other sees of the saxne 

ecclesiastical laws, from the sixth to the twelfth name, one in Cihcia, a suffrs^gan of Tarsus, the o^er 

century. In this work he treats progressively of the in Phiygia (Asia Minor), suffragan of Synnada. Its 

peeudo-Isidorian Decretals, and while he did not episcopal list (Gams, p. 446) extends from 359 to 869. 

dispose of sufficient material to demonstrate thor- Lequien, Onent Chrut. (1740), II. 727-728; I, 845-88^ 

oughly their spurious character or to attempt to fix Augiutow, Diocese of. See Senjt. 


Aiigiistii8.^The name by which Caiub Julius by Augjistus in the adminiBtration of Rome, and hie 
Gasar Octavianus, the first Roman Emperor, in policy in the Orient are of especial sigmficance to 
whose reign Jesus Christ was bom, is usually known; Ihe historian of Christianity. The most important 
b. at Rome, 62 b. c; d. a. d. 14; It is the title event of his rei^ was the birth of Our Lord (Luke, 
irhich he received from the Senate 27 B. c, in grati- ii, 1) in Palestine. The details of Christ's hfe on 
tude for the restoration of some privileges of which earth, from His birth to His death, were very closely 
that body had been deprived. The name was after- interwoven with the purposes and methods pursued 
wards assumed by all his successors. Augustus by Augustus. The Emperor died in the seventy- 
belonged to the gene Odavia and was "^the son of sixth year of his age (a. d. 14^. After the battle of 
CWus Octavius, a praetor. He was the grand- Act^um, he received into his favour Herod the 
nepbew of (Caius) Julius Csesar, and was named in Great, confirmed him in his title of King of the Jews, 
the tatter's will as his principal heir. After the and fixanted him the territory between Galilee and 
murder of .Julius Csesar, the young Octavianus the Trachonitis. thereby winning the gratitude 
proceeded to Rome to gain possession of his inheri- and devotion of Herod and his house. After the 
tonce. Though originally in league with the repub- death of Herod (750, a. u. c), Augustus divided 
bean party, he eventually allied himself with Mark his kingdom between his sons. One of them, Arche- 
Antony. Through his own popularity, and in oppo- laus, was eventually banished, and his territory, 
atioQ to the will of the senate ne succeeded (43 b. c.) together with Iduixiffia and Samaria, were added to 
in obtaining the consulate. In the same year he the province of Syria (759, a. u. c). On this occar- 
entered into a pact with Antony and Lepidus by sion, Augustus caused a census of the province to 
vhich it was a^^ed that for five years they would be taken by the le^te, Sulpicius Quirimus, the cir- 
control the affairs of Rome. This (second) Trium- cuffistAiicee of which are of great importance for 
virate (tremri re^pu6/iccB ean«^u67uia?) so apportioned the ri^t calculation of the birth of Christ. See 
the Roman dominions that Lepidus received Spain: Roman Empire; Luke. Gospel of. 
AntoDV, Graul: and Augustus, Africa, Sicily, ana "^o <^^ aources for me life of Augustus are the Latin 
S^iniA Th« firat nonn^rtAH mnvA nf fhft Trinm- writers, Suetonius, Tacitus, Ybixeius pATERcuims, and 
Mrainia. ine nrst conceriea move oi tne inum- cicbro (in his EpistUs tuid ^hilippica); the Greek writers, 

vnate was to proceed against the murderers of Nicholas of Damascus, Dio Cassius, and Plutarch. See 

Gb^T and the party of the S^iate vmder the leader- &l^o ^ official autobiography, the famous Monvmentum 

ship of Brutus and Cassius. A crushing defeat ^SPrSTt *^1•fi^^^f f ^^^ (^Berlin, 1883), .and by Fairlbt 

__»'.«. t^* "*'"*' jXT t 21 X \u u XXI ^t^^tjiTm- • (Philadelphia, 1808), with tr.; Tillemont, Htstotre de8 empe- 

was inflicted on the latter at the battle of Phlhppi r«ur», etc. (Brussels, 1732); Merivale, History <i the Romane 

(42 b. c), after which the fate of Rome rested practl- itndsr the Emjnre (London. 1850-62); SMrrn, DicL of Greek 

««y m the hands of two m«». Lepidus, .alwavs T'cSSSSIii^^^^^^^i^f tJ^t^Z'^^, 

toated with neglect, sought to obtam Sicily for xvi-xviil: Ramsay, Was Christ bom at Bethlehemf (New York 

iunmf, but Augustus 86on won over his troops, and, '^^ London, 1808); The Ckitr^ under the Boman Empire (ibid., 

» lis Bubmission. sent him to Rome where he spent l^l^^^^St^r.' i^lf:^!^^' ^^i^ti^"^ '^ 

toe rest of nis life as pontl/ex maximus. acter of the legends that, at an early date, made Augustiis 

A new division of the territory of the Republic oneof the'* prophets of€?nri8t'',»ee Graf, I2oman<ttofn«»u>ria 

behm^n Anfnnv sltiA AnoiiatiiA rofliiltAH hv whinh e nelie jntma^/irutnoHi tLU Medio Bvo (Turin, 1882). I, ix, 308, 

oM^rcen Antoiw ana Augustus resuitea, Dy wtucn 33, ^ ^^ q^^ ^ Hastinqs, Dia. of Christ and tfU Oospeli 

the former took the East and the latter the West. (New York, 1906) s. v. Augustus, 1, 143-46. 

When Antony put away his wife Octavia, the sister Patrick J. Healt. 

<rf Augustus, through infatuation for Cleopatra, . , • 1 .^x a a 

dvil war again ensued, whose real cause is doubtless . Aumbry, variously wntten Ambry, or Aumbryb. 

to be sought in the conflicting intereste of both, '« * denvative through the French of the classiea 

and the long-standing antagonism between the East O'™'?^^. or medieval Latin almanum. Its original 

ttd the West. The foUowers of Antony were routed "leaning was a cupboard and it has never lost this 

in the naval battle of Actium (31 b. c), and Augustus "^^. ^^J'^P'^ ^ense^ but even m classical Lat;m it had 

WM left, to aU intend and purposes, the master of acquired m addition the ^cial sigmfication of a 

the Roman world. He succeeded in bringing peace cupboard for holding books This Emi ted meamng 

to the long-distracted Republic, and by his modera- was widely prevalent in the Middle Ag^. Thus 

tioQ in dealing with the senate, his munificence to »^.*^e tenthnientury rule of Cluny the hbrwy is 

the army, and his generosity to the people, he ^^M^^^ armarium and the official who had charge 

atrengthened his posftion and became iThujt, if ,f '^ arrmriua while by an arrangement which was 

not in name, the firat Emperor of Rome. His policy ^^^^ ^^^ ^»^f .^y observed both m Benedictine and m 

of preserving intact the repubUcan forms of adminii °*^^' monastic hoi^s, this armariua, or bbranan, 

trstion and of avoiding aU semblance of absolute was usually identical with the precentor In.Elfnc's 

power or monarchy dW not dimmish his authwity ^glo-Saxon glossary, compiled at the begmmnc 

or weaken his control. Whatever may be said in ?^ ^^% eleventh century, the Anglo-Saxon word 

eofisoiidatinK the loosely orgtmized Homan state ^ * ^ • ^ • / 

iato a dosTand well-knit whole. He was a patron ^^S^ ccwrfrum m^e amamentarw (a monastenr 

of art, letters, aiid science, and devoted large^ums without a hbrarjr is like a fortre^ without an arsenal^^ 

of umey to the embeUishment and enlargement of ^^^^^s tl^s owing to the number of cupboards and 

^me. It was his wcU-known boast that he "found Pf^^ "^!? ^^' «*?"^8 vestments, church plate, 

itof briek and left it of marble". Under his manage- ^^^-i f^ ^.^^d armarium was a^ not unfrequentiy 

nant, industry and commerce increased. Seciw% ^^^ ^°f *i^ wTu^^iL.^l'"''^^ *4t "^^t ^ ^ "^"^ 

•nd apidity of intercouree were obtained by meaii ^ the fact that the books were themselves m many 

ol aiS^w highways. He undertook to remove ^^^ X®P* j^ . **^f. sacnsty. In German the word 

by Wi4tion ^ difloitier and confusion in life and ^Irnerei s, derivative of armanum, has the meamng 

■CttTblOuirilt about, in great measure, by the ^^c^^"^^^^ Care of Books (Cambridjje, 1902), 67-88; Ml. 

WU WBIS. Hw court Ufe was simple and unosten- cbakl, desckidUe des deutsehenVoUces (RSbui*, 1903), 42-62; 

titiDW. Severe laws were made for the purpose of Q/isqubt, EnoHsh Monastic Life (London, 1904), 51-55; 

fte mimoraUty of the ^mes and the theatres was Herbert Thuroton. 

vhed, and new laws mtroduced to regulate the 

ittooffieedmenandslAves. The changes wrought Auna rii M (or Aunacharius), Saint, Bishop of 


Auxerre in France, b. 573, d. 603. Beingof noble birth, the monetary system thoroughly revised. His 

he was brought up in the royal court, but evinced a scheme for the complete unification of the Empira 

desire to enter the clerical state, was ordained priest led him to attempt to establish the worship of the 

b^ St. Syagrius of Autun, and eventually was made sun as the supreme god of Rome.'' During the early 

Bishop of Auxerre. His administration is noted for years of his reign Aurelian exhibited remarkable 

certain important disciplinary measures that throw justice and tolerance towards the Christians. In 

li^ht on the religious and moral life of the Merovin- Z72, when he had gained possession of Antioch, 

gian times. He caused solemn litanies to be said after defeating ZenoBia in several battles, he was 

daily in the chief centres of population, by rotation, appealed to by the Christians to decide whether the 

and on the first day of each month in the lar^r "Church building" in Antioch belonged to the 

towns and monasteries. He enforced a regular daily orthodox bishop Domnus, or to the party repre- 

attendance at the Divine Office on the P^rt both of sented by the favourite of Zenobia, Paul of Samo- 

regular and secular cler^. He held (581 or 585) an sata, who had been deposed for heresy b^ a synod 

important synod of four bishops, seven abbots, thirty- held three or four years before. His decision, based 

five priests, and four deacons, for the restoration of probably on the Edict of Gallienus, was that the 

ecclesiastical discipline and the suppression of pop- property belonged to those who were in union with 

ular pagan superstitions, and caused the lives ot his the bishops of Italy and of the city of Rome (Eus., 

Predecessors .Miator and Germanus to be written. Hist. Ecci.. VII, xxvii-xxx). As this act was based 

[e was buried at Auxerre, where he has always on political motives, it cannot be construed into one 

been held in veneration. His remains were later en- of friendliness for the Christians. As soon as he was 

closed in a golden chest, but were partially dispersed at liberty to carry out his schemes for internal re- 

by the Huguenots in 1567. A portion, however, form Aurelian revived the policy of his predeces- 

was placed in the hollow pillar of a crypt, and saved, sor Valerian, threatened to rescind the Kdict of 

His feast is celebrated 25 September. Gallienus, atid commenced a^rstematic persecution 

BuTLKB, LitJea o/ thf Sainu. 25_ September; P|ner, in of the followers of Christ. The exact date of the 

^^J^^0&^l^^-^t^^r.T-y%7'-^. * jfifuguration of this policy > not known. . It is 

Thomas J. Shahan. "Kely, however, that an edict was issued in the 

A««*4^. /n^iA^^\ « ♦;♦!« «i«^« 4^ ^^«:» »^Ii^« summer of 275 and despatched to the governors of 

.n^^ J^„£ntl^^i?,?77>^ f l.f ^F n.^^ t^c provincos, but AurclUn was slain before he could 

and documente: BttZ^ the ch^ put It into execution. Tradition refers to his reign a 

commentaries made by St. Thomas Aquinas. Le- kL,.-«J3:«« Vr.«:„«.,„ o«JL 7^*.^\ ♦i>«* ui* «««« 

genda, a coUection of lives of saints 'iegendte) by ^^S^P^fJ' I?'p^U^„i''t^ fl ^^UTr. 

Sacoplj da Voragine, Archbishop of Gi7oa in thi !!P!?Sf'i?l ^^itllhTSL^^^n hLr^l^l^r^J^t 

thirt^nth centuiy. Summa flWtenm, also Sum- e"^"^'.*^, Si 1.^^- «^S "..Tf ^^wt« 

— « J -.-I.-*— «•«.,«•«• « ^»»^,ia ^^u^^^^uiA^ r^f *u^ peril. It would seem ,ne said, as if you were 

^nir^ nS?f S' th. fcT.U^?^^^™ TY ^ ^oldxm your meetings in a churcll of the Christians 

WJLT^l ^t^,«:« n^^^ ^7a ^-h^ instealo'f in a temp& of aU the gods"; from which 

Irran^n^l^' ^'^rl.'^^&l'^'h ^clfn^T^hl^'^f^h^^'^^uil^rlhh^'^'rf 

St. Thomas Aquinas prepared by Pietro da ^rgamo. t"*'^^J^a'j'?iirthrbundh^ IS'r^^t^i 

Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus), Roman worship of the Christians were becoming more and 

Emperor, 270-275, b. of humble parents, near Sirmium more conspicuous ". 

in raimonia, 9 September, 214; d. 275. At the age Homo, Eaaai mr le r^qns de Vemperettr Aur&ien (Paris, 

of twenty he entered the militanr service, in wWcf, mH^^rSLd^ /t'^Si^^J^wn^^S^^^^ 

because of exceptional abdity and remarkable boddy ieiuchr, fur wBaenKh^ftiiche Theol., XLVIII (new Beries, 

strength, his advancement was rapid. On the death XIII), Oct., 1906; Diet. Chritt. Biofp-. s. v. Aweiian, I, 22©; 

of Claudius he was proclaimed Emperor by the army 5S<=h'J«'»» ^*ft. «»««nn« de W»^JPww. iMC). I, 465- 

at Sirmium, and became sole master of the Roman PATRTrnr T TTRAT-e 

domimons on the smcide of his nval Oumtillus, the 

candidate of the Senate. When Aurdian assumcKi AureliopolU, a titular see of L^rdia in Asia lienor, 

the reins of government the Roman world was di- whose episcopal list (325-787) is given in Gams 

vided into tmee sections: the Gallo-Roman Empire, (P- 447). 

established by Postumus, comprising Gaul and Lequmn, Orietw Chntt, (1740). I. 8ft5-«96; III. 869-962. 

Britain; the kingdom of Palmyra, which held sway AlireUas, Archbishop of Carthage from 388 to 

over the entire Orient, including Egypt and the 423. From the time of St. Cyprian, Carthase was 

greater part of Asia Minor, and the Roman Empire, one of the foremost sees in Christendom. Its bishop, 

restricted to Italy, Africa, the Danubian Provinces, though not formally bearing the title of Primate, 

Greece, and Bithynia. On the upper Danube, confirmed the episcopal nominations in all the 

Rhsetia and Northern Italy were overrun by the provinces of Africa, convoked and presided at the 

Juthuiw, while the Vandals were preparing to plenary councils, which were held almost yearlv, 

invade rannonia. The internal affairs of Kome were and si^ed the synodal letters in the name of all t£e 

equally deplorable. The anarchy of the legions participants. Such a post Aurelius occupied with 

and the frequent revolutions in preceding reigns had distinction at a time when Africa hdd the Intel- 

shattered the imperial authority; the treasury was lectual leadership in the Church. His episcopate 

empty and the monetary system ruined. With no coincided with the last great effort made bv the 

support but that afforded by the army of the Danube. Donatists to uphold a losing cause, and witK the 

Aurelian undertook to restore the material and moral first appearance of Pelagianiam. Both these crises 

unity of the Empire, and to introduce whatever re- Aurelius met with eouai decision and wisdom. A 

forms were necessary to give it stability. Enormous man of conciliating oisposition, and a great k>ver 

as this project was, in the face of so many obstacles, of peace, his tendency to an indulgent treatment 

he succeeded in accomplishing it in less than five of repentant Donatists was conspicuous in the 

years. When he died, tne frontiers were all restored synodal acts of his own church, ancl in the plenary 

and strongly defended, the unity of the Empire was coimcils over which he presided he consistently 

established, the administration was reoi^ni^ed, the upheld the same moderate policy. But when the 

finances of the Empire placed on a sound Tooting, and rk)natist8 reBorted to rebellion and wholesale niur- 


(far, he joined his oolleaguee in ^pealing to the trate into a rich and tempting temtQrv. People 

secular power. He was the first to unmask and with strange-somiding names, the Marcomanni, 

denounce Pelagianism. In 412 he exconmiunicated Varistee, Hermanduri, Quad!, Suevi, Jazy^es, Vandals, 

and drove from Carthage Cslestius, the disciple of collected along the Danube, crossed the frontiers, 

Peiagius. In 416 he condenmed them both, in a and became tne advance-guard of the great migra- 

synod of sixty-eight bishops of the Proconsulate, tion known as the "Wandering of tl^ Nations", 

aod induced Innocent I to brand their two principal which four centuries later culmmated in the ovei- 

erron by defining the necessity of grace and of throw of the Western Empire. The war against 

uhni baptisuL When Pope 2i06imus allowed him- these invaders conunenced in 167, and in a short time 

jelf to be deceived by Pelsgius's lyinf; professions, had assumed such threatening proportions as to 

he held (417) a plenary council of his Afnoan brethren, demand the presence of both emperors at the front, 

and in their names warned the pontiff, who in turn Lucius Verus died in 169, and Marcus was left to 

(418) cond^nned the heresiarchs. Aurelius is men- carry on the war alone. His difficulties were im- 

tiooed in the African martyrolcMry on 20 July. measurably increased by the devastation wrought by 

LnwQ, L'Afrique dtrHi^ne CFim, lO^)* I; Pab- the plague carried westward by the returning legions 

71 a£Su'% ?5rf^f Si-iSSSi/jjS;. '^]- ^ a^. of V^™«..V i^'^ '^d earthquakes, and by inunda- 

410^18; PoBTALit in I>M<. de tMoL eaih. s. r. AuguBtm, tions which destroyed the vast grananeS of Rome 

A. J. B. VuiBERT. and their contents. In the panic and terror caused 

by these events the people resorted to the extremes 

Anroliiu Antoninoi, Marcus^ Roman Emperor, of superstition to win back the favour of the deities 

A. D. 161-180, b. at Rome, 26 Apnl, 121; d. 17 March, through whose anger it was believed these visitations 

180. His father died while Marctis was yet a boy, were inflicted. Strange rites of expiation and 

aod be was adopted by his grandfather, Annius Verus. sacrifice were resorted to, victim^ were slain by 

In the first pages of his '' Meditations " Qi, i-xvii) thousands, and the assistance of the gods of the 

he has left us an account, unique in antiquity, of Orient sought for as well as that of the gc^ of Rome. 

his education by near relatives and by tutors of dis- During the war with the Quadl in 174 there took 

tinctioD; diligence, mtitude^ and hardiness seem to place the famous incident of the Thundering Legion 

hare been its chief diaractenstics. From his earliest {Legio Ftdminatrix, Fxdminea, Fulminata) which nas 

E) enjoyed the friendship and patronage of the been a cause of frequent controversy between Chris- 
r Hadrian, who bestowed on him the honour tian and non-Christian writers. The Roman army 
luestrian order when he was only six years old, was surrounded by enemies, with no chance of escape, 
made him a member of the Sahan priesthooa at eight, when a storm burst. The rain poured down in 
and compelled Antoninus Pius inunediately after his refreshing showers on the Romans, while the enemy 
own adoption to adopt as sons and heirs both the were scattered with lightning and hail. The parched 
young Marcus and Ceionius Commodus, known later and famishing Romans received the saving drops 
as t& Emperor Lucius Verus. In honour of his first on their faces and parched throats, and after- 
adopted fatner he chtmged his name from M. .£lius wards in their helmets and shields, to refresh their 
Aumius Verus to M. Aurelius Antoninus. By the horses. Marcus obtained a glorious victory as a 
wiD of Hadrian he espoused Faustina, the daughter of result of this extraordinary event, and his enemies 
Antoninus Pius. He was raised to tne consulship in were hopelessly overthrown. That such an event 
140, and in 147 received the '' tribunician power", did really happen is attested both by pagan and 
(See Roman EImperor.) In all the later years of the Christian writers. The former attribute the occur- 
life of Antoninus Pius, Marcus was his constant com- rence either to magic (Dion Cassius, LXXI, 8-10) 
paoion and adviser. On the death of the former (7 or to the prayers of the emperor (Capitolinus, " Vita 
March, 161) Marcus was inmiediately acknowledged Marci ", aXIV: Themistius, "Orat. XV. ad Theod. "; 
as emperor by the Senate. Acting entirely on nis Glaudian, '^Deoext.Oons. Hon.", V, 340 sqq.; ''Sibyl, 
own initiative, he at once promoted his adopted Orac.", ed. Alc^candre, XII, 196 sqq. Cf. Bellori, 
toother Lucius Verus to theposition of colleague, with " La Colonne Antonine '\ and Ecloid, " Doctrina 
equal rights as emperor. With the accession of Mar- Nummorum'^ 111,64). The Christian writers at- 
nu the great Pax Romana that made the era of the tributed the fact to the prayers of the Christians 
Antonines the happiest in the annals of Rome, and who were in the army (Claudius ApoUinaris in Euseb. . 
perhaps of mankind, came to an end, and witn his ''Hist. Eccl. ", V, 5; TertuUian, "Apol. *\ v; aa 
reign the glory of the old Home vanished. Younger Scap. c. iv), and soon there grew up a legend to the 
peoples, untainted by the vices of civilization, and effect that in consequence of this miracle the em- 
boiwinf nothmg of the inanition which comes from peror put a stop to tne persecution of the Christians 
over-refinement and over-indulgence, were preparing (cf. Euseb. and Tert. opp cit.). It must be conceded 
to Btnij^e for the lead in tl^ direction of human that the testimony of Claudius ApoUinaris (see 
(iestiny. Marcus was scarcely seated on the throne SmithandWace, "Diet, of Christ. Biogr.", 1, 132-133) 
vhen the Picts commenced to threaten in Britain is the most valuaUe of all that we possess, as he 
the recently erected Wall of Antoninus. The Chatti wrote within a few years of the event, and that all 
aod Cbauci attempted to cross the Rhine and the credit must be given to the prayers of the Christians. 
Qpper reaches of the Danube. These attacks were though it does not necessarily follow that we shoula 
<a^ repelled. Not so with the outbreak in the accept the elaborate detail of the story as ^ven by 
Orient, which commenced in 161 and did not cease Tertullian and later writers [Allard, op. cit. infra, 
antil 166. The destruction of an entire legion (XXII pp. 377, 378: Renan, "Marc-AurMe" (6th ed., Paris, 
Daotttnana) at Elegeia aroused the emperors to the 1891), XVII, pp. 273-278; P. de Smedt, "Principes 
gravity of the situation. Lucius Verus took com- de la critique hist." (1883), p. 133]. The last years 
nttad of the troops in 162 and, through the valour of the reign of Mareus were saddened by the appear- 
aad skfll of his lieutenants in a war known officially ance of a usurper, Avidius Cassius, in the Orient, 
aa the BeUum Armemacum et Parthicumf waged over and by the consciousness that the empire was to 
tW wide area of Syria, Cappadocia, Armenia, Meso- fall into unworthy hands when his son Commodus 
potifflia, and Media, was able to celebrate a glorious should come to the throne. Mareus died at Vindo- 
trinmph in 166. For a people so long accustomed bona or Sirmium in Pannonia. The chief authori- 
^petee as the Romans were, this war was wellnish ties for his life are Julius Capitolinus, "Vita Maroi 
htaL It taxed all tl:»ir resources, and the wiuv- Antonini Philosophi" (SS. Hist. Aug. IV): Dion 
<hiwal of the legions from the Danubian frontier Cassius, "Epitome of Xiphilinos"; Herodian; Fronton 
9aveia opportunity to the Teutonic tribes to pene- "Epistolse" and Aulus Qellius "Noctes Atticte". 

▲umvLnrft no jL9»B^irt 

Marcus Aurdius was one of the best men of heathen of Trajan jgkve way to a more severe temper. Ii 
antiquity. Apropos of the Antonines the judicious Southern Uaul, at least, an imperial re8orii>t in- 
Montesquieu says that, if we set aside for a moment augurated an entirely new and much more violent 
the contemplation of the Christian verities, we can- era of mreecution (Eus., Hist. EccL, V, i, 46). 
not read the life of this emperor without a softening In Asia Minor and in S3rria the blood of Chnstians 
feeling of emotion. Niebunr calls him the noblest flowed in tork^nts (Allard, op. cit. infra, pp. 375. 
character of his time, and M. Martha, the historian 376, 388, 380). ' In genend the recrudescence of 
of the Roman moralists, savs that in Marcus Aure- persecution seems to have come immediately through 
lius "the philosophy of Heathendom grows less the local action of the provincial governors impdled 
proud, draws nearer to a Christianity which it by the insane outcries of terrified and demoralized 
Ignored or which it despised, and is ready to fling city mobs. If any general imperial edict was issued, 
itself into the arms of the Unknown God ". On the it has not survived. It seems more probable that 
other hand, the warm eulogies which many writere the "new decrees" mentioned by Eusebius ^Hist 
have heaped on Marcus Aurelius as a ruler and as a EccL, IV, xxvi, 5) were local ordinances of municipal 
man seem excessive and overdrawn. It is true that authorities or provincial governors; as to the em- 
the most marked trait in his character was his peror, he maintained affainst the Christians the ex- 
devotion to philosophy and letters, but it was a isting legislation, though it has been aigued that the 
curse to mankind tnat "he was a Stoic first and imperial edict (Digests, XLVIII, xxix, 30) against 
then a ruler". Hb dilettanteism rendered him those who terrify by superstition "the fickle minds 
utterly unfitted for the practical affairs of a laige of men" was directed against the Christian soci- 
empire in a time of stress. He was more concerned ety. Dudiesne savs (Hist. Ancienne de TEglise, 
witn realizing in .his own life (to say the truth, a Paris, 1906, p. 21Q) that for such obscure sects the 
stainless one) the Stoic ideal of perfection, than he emperor womd not condescend to interfere with the 
was with the pressing duties of nis oflice. laws of the empire. It is clear, however, from the 

Philosophy became a disease in his mind, and cut scattered references in contem^rary writing (Cdsus, 
him off from the truths of practical life. He was "In Orijien. Contra Celsiun ", VIII, 169; Melito, in 
steeped in the grossest superstition; he surrounded Eus. /' Hist. Eccl. *', IV, xxvi; Athenagoras, "I^egatio 
himself with charlatans and magicians, and took with pro ChristialKs ", i) that throughout the empire an 
seriousness even the knavery of Alexander of Abo- active pursuit of the Christians was now und^taken. 
noteichos. The highest oflices in the empire were In order to encourage their numerous enemies, the 
sometimes conferred on his philosophic teachers, ban was raised from the cfetofor^, or "denouncers", 
whose lectures he attended even after he became and they were promised rewards for all cases of 
emperor. In the midst of the Parthian war he successfu conviction. The impulse given by this 
found time to keep a kind of private diary, his legislation to an unrelenting pursuit of the foUowers 
famous "Meditations", or twelve short books of of C!hrist rendered their condition so precarious that 
detached thoughts and sentences in which he gave many changes in ecclesiastical omnization and 
over to posterity the results of a rigorous self- discipline date, at least in embryo, m>m this rei^. 
examination. With the exception of a few letters Another sii^ificant fact, pointing to the growing 
dbcovered amon^ the works of Pronto (M. Com. numbers ana influence of the Christians, and the 
Frontonis Reliquise, Berlin, 1816) this history of his increasing distrust on the part of the imperial au- 
inner life is the only work which we have from his thorities and the cultured dasses, is that an active 
pen. The style is utterly without merit and di*- literary propaganda, emanating from the imperial 
tinction, apparently a matter of pride, for he tdls surroundings, was commenced at this period. The 
us he had learned to abstain from rhetoric, and Qynic philosopher Crescens (see Justin Martyr) 
poetry, and fine writing. Though a Stoic aeeply took part in a public disputation with St. Justin in 
rooted in the principles developed by Seneca and Rome. Pronto, the preceptor and bosom friend of 
Epictetus, Aurelius cannot be said to have any Marcus Aurelius, denounced the followers of the 
consistent system of philosophy. It might be said, new religion in a formal discourse (Min. Felix. 
perhaps, in justice to this seeker after righteous- "Octavius", cc. ix, xxxi) and the satirist Lucian of 
ness , that his faults were the faults of his Samosata turned the shafts of his wit against 
philosophy rooted in the principle that human them, as a party of ignorant fanatics. No better 
nature naturally inclined towards evil, and needed proof of the tone of the period and of the wide- 
to be constantly kept in check. Only once does he spread knowledge of Christian beliefs and prac- 
refer to Christianity (Medit., XI. iii), a spiritual tices which prevailed amone the pagans is needed 
regenerative force that was visibly increasing its than the contemporary "True Word" of C^us 
activity, and then only to brand the Christians with (see Orioen), a work in which were collected all 
the reproach of obstinacy (rapdra^is), the highest the calumnies of pagan malice and all the ar^- 
social crime in the eyes of Roman authority. He ments, set forth with the skill of the trained rhetori- 
seems also Hbid.) to look on Christian martyrdom cian, which the philosophy and experience of the 
as devoid of the serenity and calm that should ac- V^&^ worid could muster against the new creed, 
company the death of the wise man. For the The earnestness and frequency with which the Chris- 
possible relations of the emperor with Christian tians replied to these assaults by the apologetic 
bishops see Abercius of Hierapolis, and Melito of works (see Athenaooras, MiNUcrus Feux, Theo- 
Sardis. philus op Anttoch) addressed directly to the em- 

In his dealings with the Christians Marcus Aurelius perors themselves, or to the peo^e at laige, show 

went a step farther than any of his predecessors, now keenly alive they were to tne dangers arising 

Throughout the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian, and from these literary or academic foes. 
Antoninus Pius, the procedure followed by Roman From such and so many causes it is not surprising 

authorities in their treatment of the Christians that Christian blood flowed freely in all parts of the 

was that outlined in Trajan's rescript to Pliny, empire. The excited populace saw in the misery 

by which it was ordered that the Christians should ana bloodshed of the period a proof that the gods 

not be sought out; if brought before the courts, were angered by the toleration accorded to the 

le^ proof of their guilt should be forthcom- Christians; consequently, they threw on the latter 

• "tic 

ing. [For the much-disputed rescript "Ad con- all blame for the incredible public calamities. 
ventum Asia" (Eus., Hist. EIccl., IV, xiii), see An- Wh®*^®' ^^ ^^ famine or pestilence, drought or 

Tertull., "Apologeti- 
leanem (Fhiow the 

TONiNTS Pius]. It is clear that during the reign of floods, the cry was the same (Tertull., 'VApologeti- 
Aurelius the comparative leniency of the legislation cimi", V, xli): Christianos ad 


Christians to the lion.) The pages of the Apolo- eiven to the settlement on the St. Lawrence opposite 

nets show how frequently the Christians were con- Lachine which was established for the Iroquois 

donned and what penaltiee they had to Endure, and converts who wanted to withdraw from the cor- 

theee vague and general references are confirmed by ruption of their pagan kinsmen. To the village on 

some contemporary "Acta" of unquestionable au- the Mohawk Jogues and Goupil were brought in 

thority. in which tne harrowing scenes are described 1642 as prisoners, and, in 1646, Jogues again, with 

in aU their rrueeome details. Among them are the Lalande. In 1644 Bressani was tortured there, and 

"Acta" of Justin and his companions who suffered later on Poncet. In 1655-56-57 Le Moyne came as 

at Rome (c. 165), of Carpus, Papyhis, and Aga- ambassador to make peace: and the year after the 

thonica, who were pnt to death in Asia Minor, of punitive expedition of the Marquis de Tracy a per- 

tbe SdUitan Martyrs in Numidia, and the touch- manent nussion was established (1667). There 

ing Letters of tba Churches of Lyons and Vi- Father Boniface, James de Lamberville, Fremin 

ennc ^us., Hist. BiccL, V, i-iv) in which is con- Bruyas, Pierron, and others laboured until 1684, 

teined the description of the tortures inflicted (177) when the mission waa destroyed. The famous Indian 

on Blandina ana her companions at Lyons. Inci- girl, Tegakwitha, was bom there. From it she escaped 

dentj^y, this document throws much light on the to Canada. While the missionaries were in control 

cbaracter and extent of the persecution of the of Ossemenon and the adjacent Indian towns, the 

Christians in Southern Gaul, and on the share of the Mohawk converts were remarkable for their exact 

emperor therein. Christian life, and in many instances for their exalted 

m^^ v^w.uo *««« ^^^«^^ <<«^w» ^® exact location of this village, which is so 

*« wrtfetrfion* penrfa1^**«<i"^J^W« »t^fe« 0^ intimately associated with the establishment of 

1892). ec. vi-vii; Rrman, Mare-AwHa H la fin du monde Christiamty in New York, was for a time a subject 

K^ i!P^J^\Jii^u!:^A^l VSu\ 5SSn ^^Ll!^' of considerable dispute. The researches of John Gil- 

Nero to Marcua Aiareltua (L^naon, 190^)t00o-oll, SLaapasswi! o, , »^, , , * j.i. i.* j. __ r At 

Farbab, Marcus Awelius In Seekers after dod (London, mary Shea, whose knowledge of the history of the 

iwo.) His Mediiations have been tranaUted into Eni^b eaiiy mission was SO profound, at first favoured the 

lL^rS^\J^''AJ}:^^^l^^^i^^^ view that the old village was on the other side of 

uu Cenrt Ues ArUontns) (Faru, 1863); DARTiONU-fETBON, xi_ ■»«• i i . » Z^- m -u tt-h ■%* 

Mfirc-AwHe dans aes rapports avec le Christianisme (Paria. the Mohawk at what IS now Tnbes Hill. More 

18W). thorough investigations, however, aided by the 

Patrick J. Hbalt. conclusions of Gen. J. S. Clarke ot Auburn, whose 

A aaI q V knowledge of Indian sites both in New York and 

inreMt. See Nimbus. Huropia is indisputable, have shown finally that the 

AveoH (AvRB^UB, d'Auriol, ORir ,), Petrus. oresent Auriesville is the exact place in which Father 

a Franciscan philosopher and theologian, callea Jogues and his companions suffered death. The 

on account of hk elo<[uence Doctor facimdus, b. basic evidence is the fact that, up to the time of their 
1280 at Toulouse (or Verberie-sur-Oise); d. 10 Jan-* destruction by de Tracy, the villages were certainly 

uanr, 1322 (Denifie; other dates assigned are 1330 on the south side of the Mohawk and west of tli^ 

ana 1345). He entered the Orcter of Friars Minor, Schoharie — ^as is clear from contemporary maps, and 

ftudied at Toulouse, taught theolo^ there and at ^m Jogue8's,Bressani's, and Poncet 's letters. JoUet, 

Pkris and became (1319) nrovincial of his order one of the most accurate cartographers of the time, 

(Province of Aquitaine). John XXII appointed him puts the villaffe of Ossemenon at tne junction of the 

Arcfabishopof Aix (1321). He defended the doctrine Schoharie and Mohawk. To further particularize 

of the Immaculate Conception in apublic disputation it, Jogues said the village was on the top of the hill, 

at Toulouse (1314), in his "De Uonceptione Maris a quarter of a league from the river. The ravine in 

Vnginis" and "Repepcussorium" (replv to pppo- which Goupil 's bcxiy was found is also specified by 

unte of the doctrine), in his "Sermons and in nis Jo^ee, ana he speaks of a watercourse and a rivulet 

cooMnentary on St. Bernard's teaching. His other muting there — a feature still remaining. The dis- 

pnncipal works are the commentary on the "Sen- tances f rom Andagaron and Tionontoguen given by 

tences" of Peter Lombard (Rome, 1696-1606), Father Joeues also fix the exact locality. 
"Quodlibeta'', and "Breviarium Bibliorum'', an Satisfied that the precise spot had be^ determined, 

introduction to the Scriptures with literal commen- ten acres of land on the hill were purchased in 1884 

tary, which appeared in numerous editions at Venice by the Rev. Joseph Loyzanoe, o. J., who was at 

Paris, and Lou vain. A new edition by Seeboeck was that ^me parish priest of St. Joseph's, Troy. N. Y.. and 

publiiiied at Quaracchi in 1896. In philosophy who had all his life been an ardent student ot the 

Aureoli was a Conceptualist and a forerunner of lives of the early missionaries. Father Lojrsance 

Occam. He critioised the doctrine of St. Thomas erected a small shrine on the hUl, under the title of 

and defended, though not in all points, the views of Our Lady of Martyrs, and he was the first to lead a 

ScotuB. His writings on the Iminaculate Conception number of pilgrims to the place, on the 16th of August 

were published by ^trus de Alva in the "Monumenta of that yesx, which was the anniversary of the nrst 

Seraphiea Imm. Concept''. arrival of Father Jogues as an Iroquois captive. 

MSSF«4j^<>»««»«^*<f' II. 463; Stawonik mDerKaOuiilik, Four thousand people went from Albany and Troy 

'^k^1^:^::Si^!Srpl^:^{l^':it^i»i^^ «« that day d^er parishes subeeciuently adopted 

E. A. Pace. *he practice of visitmg AunesviUe during the summer. 

Frequently there are as many as four or five thou- 

Alireiu Codes. See Codex. sana people present. The grounds have been since 

Amkoltf Oonf esBicn. See Conpession. extended beyond the original limits for the purp^ 

-n-niiiM vvjuooiMwu. »w v^^rx^oii^i^. ^^ kccpiug the surrouudings free from undesirable 

AnriasyiUe, the site of the Mohawk village, buildini^. Many of the pilgrims come fasting and 

Montgomery Co., New York, U. S. A., in which receive rioly Communion at the shrine. The entire 

Father I^ac Jogues and his companions, Goupil day is passed in religious exercises, but anjrthing 

md Lalande, were4>ut to death for the Faith by tne which could in the least savour of any public cult of 

liMfians. It is on the south bank of the Mohawk, the martyrs is sedulously euarded against, as such 

•bool forty miles west of Albany. Auries was the anticipation of the Church's official action would 

BUM of u!e last Mohawk who lived there, and ttom seriously interfere with the cause of their canoniza- 

tltt the present designation was formed. It was tion, which is now under consideration at Quebec, 

known among the Indians as Ossemenon, also The present buildings on the site are only of a tem^ 

Gadawa^ and Caughnawaga, the latter being also porary nature. If the Church pronounces on the 


reality of the martyrdom of the three miasionaries, Toaw. §foria di Bcnifado VUl (Modu CMnno. ISJW); Juwe^ 

more suitable edifices wiU be erected. ^S^i^!'^' vnr ^^fniT^ll pll^^^^Phk^ 

Shea. Life of /.o^ ^.oQuea. SJ, (New York. lB^2);JemsU ^ j£rf (Paria. 1861):' Fimkb, A%U den Taoen Btmifas Vni 

AnnaU of the Shrtne (New York); Wynne, A Shnne tn me \P n»Hir»i>nAv 

Mohawk VaUey (New York, 1905). •"• ^ «^lORDAN. 

T. J. Campbell. AuBoniiui, Dbcxuus Maonub, a professor and poet 

Aurispa, Giovanni, a famous Italian humanist ^ about a. d. 310; d., probably, about a. d m, 

and coUector of Greek manuscripts, b. about 1369 The son of a physiciaii of Bordeaux, he studied firet 

at Noto. in SicUy; d. at Ferrara m 1459. It is not i"? that city, then at Toulouse, with his uncle iEmibiM 

known where he first studied. In 1418 he went to Mamus Arbomis. The latter havmg gone to teach 

Constantinople to learn Greek and to collect codices, m CoMt^tmople, Ausomus returned to Bordeaux, 

So industrious was he that he was accused to the where he became profesror of grammar, and later od 

Greek emperor of despoiling the city of boo|w. He ?f rhetonc. ^Between 364 and 868, Valentmian I 

returned to Venice in 1423 with 238 volumes of S^»*»^j^„^ Tner to teach his son GraUan. In 

classical authore, purchased at Constantinople. ^^^.J^^J^^^.-^^^'^Jfi^ff^SlP®?/^ J^ ^^^ 

Among his treasures were the celebrated ''Codex " " * ''"'" - — - ^ ^ ..— . ~v 
Laurentianus" (seven plays of Sophocles, six of 
iGschylus, Apollouius's Angonautica ') of the tenth 

century, the Iliad, Demosthenes, Plato, Xenophon, ^ ^ t ^x. xa ^ • • ^i ..u us 
ete. The next year Aurispa went to Bologna, where ^en Prefect of the West conjomUy wiUi his boti 
he became professor of ^reek at the university. ?esperiU8 O^etween August, 378, and July, 379). 
As a teacher he was not very successful. Thence I? ^79.^® hec^m% consul. After the assassmation 
he was invited to Florence, where he also hdd the ^ Gratikn, hw benefactor (383), Ausomus mov«i to 
chau- of Greek. Later he went to Ferrara. In 1441 Bordeaux, where he hved among many admirmg 
he was appointed secretary to Pope Eugene IV. ™^^/ and wrote a great deal of poetiy. He 
Six yeare later Pope Nicholas V r^ppointed him l-ved through almost the whole of the fourth cen- 
to the same post. Besides being a tireless collector ^^ry? The wntmgs of Ausomus are generally 
of manuscripts, Aurispa was a poet of some merit. ?^ort, and they form a miscellaneous coUection which 
His^published works include lettera, epigrams, and ^ t'o^J^^^y^^^,) "Epigrams": short 

Voio^* Die Wiedei^>eiamno dee klae^itchm AUerihwne Ppems on different subjects, often trandated from the 

(Berlin, 1893); Sabbadxnx, Bio^ra^ <iocMm«n<ato tf» GuivaniM Greek Anthology. (2) " Parentaha '' : thirty eulo- 

Avriapa (Noto, 1890). -d,,^^™ gics on dec \sc3^ relatives, with some occasional ex- 

£.DMUND BURKE. pressious of personal sentiment '(about 379). (3) 

Aurora LacU Butilat. — ^This is one of the so- " Commemoratio profeesorum Burdigalensium "\ a 
called Ambroeian hymns, but its author is unknown, collection like the preceding, giving an idea of a uni- 
It has been revised and separated into three hymns versity in the fourth century ^ter 389). (4) " Mo- 
for the Roman Breviarv. The firat sixteen lines sella '^: a description of the River Moselle and the 
form the hymn for Lauds from Low Sunday to the country through which it flows, written while travel- 
Ascension, and begin in the revised form, Aunra ijng from Bingen to Trier (c. 371). This poem has a 
Cadum Pvrpurat. There are many English versions certain local and archaobgical interest. (5) Charm- 
in use among Protestents. Dr. J. M. Neale's trans- in^ poems relating to Bissula (after 368). (6) Many 

and Evangelists for paschal time at the first and grandson (about 380); '' Cupido crucifixus '': descrip- 
second Vespers and Matins. This hymn has also tion of a painting in a dining-room at Trier, which rep- 
been translated into English. The Gregorian melody resented Cupid as tormented in hell by the women 
is in the third mode and may be found in the " Ves- who pursued him on earth, eto. (7) " Gratiarum 
perale Romanum ". Lines 33 to the end of the actio dicta domino Gratiano Augusto ", in which Au- 
ancient hymn form ** Paschale Mimdo Gaudium,'' the sbnius expresses in prose his thanks for having been 
hymn at Lauds in the Ck>mmon of Apostles inpaschal made consul. This was read at Trier in 379, and is 
time. Among the EnsHsh versions, besides Dr. made up of flowers of rhetoric and conventional flat- 
Neale's, are those of J. A. Johnston in his "En^h teries. (8) '' Ephemeris ": the account of daily du- 
Hymnal" (1852), "With sparkling rays mom decks ties, from morning to night; a fragment (379). In 
the sky"; E. Oaswall, "Lyra Catholica" (1849), this work is found a morning prayer composed of 
"The dawn was purpUng o'er the skv''; J. D. Cham- Biblical expressions in which the doctrine of the Trin- 
bers, " Lauda Svon ' ^ (1857), " Light'is very mom its ity is set forth in detailed formulae directed against the 
beams displays . l»resies of the times. (9) "Lettera": twenty-five 

BiuMKR. Oeechichfs rfM^wieij (Freiburg, 1895); Juliak. epistles, mostly in verse. The most interesting are 

Dtci. of Hymnoloffy (New YoA. 1893). ^^^^ ^^^^^ address^ to St. Paulinus of Nola (393) and m them 

. ,. _,-. - ^^ ,, J e- -r. I.* Ausonius bewails a conversion that deprives the State 

,«^^?"^ ™*i. * r ^r?rr^;P^u.v •4?^°JP?r, and literature of the benefit of such a briUiant mind, 

1301, bv Pope Boniface VIII to Phihp the Fair, ^nd tries to lead the saint back to worldly life at 

gardle» of papal authonty. He drove from their vided society. aO) "PraBfatiuncula": prefaces and 
sees thcwe bishops who, hi opposition to his will, envois to pdems. 

rei^med faithful to the pope. This letter is couchad n. School Exbroises and FRAOMmra.— These ar« 
m firm but internal terms. It pomts out the evik chiefly mnemonic verse: " Caesaree ", on the Roman 
the king has bought to his kingdom, to Church and ©mperore; consular annals; "Ordo nobilium urbium ". 

Rome and endins 
'^ a collection ot 
the months, the 



oomplete text of thi« Bull in found in the BidlaHitm «.i-„j«- ^^itmU^m* ^^^ . " PA«.;^^k<n '» /P^n4-ArtfA^ JL««rv««, 
m (Luxemburg. 1730). IX. 121 sqa.: cf. Hbfsle- calendar, weighte, etc., /OTOchffi (Contents), prose 

Lsa, ConeiiitnoeeehiehiM (Praibuii, 1^), VI, 324-338; headings for the Iliad and the Odyaaey. It is doubt- 

Axmmr 113 AvntLkLik 

ful whether Ansonras wrote these, but they were others. Among his writings are: "The Christian 
at least the work of a member of the circle to which Moderator: or rerseoution for Itdigion condemned 
be belonged; short poems on the labours of Her- by the Light of Nature, by the Law of God, the Evi> 
cules; on the Muses; on ethical subjects (tranda- dence of our own Principles, but not by the Practice 
tioL5 of Greek originals, inspired by Pythagorean of our Commissioners for Sequestrations — In Four 
philoeophy). Other writings are lectures by a pro- Parts " (London, 1652, 4to.)* it was published under 
tcfisor; Epitaphs, eulogies on dead heroes of the the pseudonym of William Birchlev, and in it he 
Troii^ War, modelled filter the Greek, and epitaphs on frequently disclaims the pope's deposing power. 
Niobe, Diogenes, etc., trandated from tne Greek; *' In this work, Austin assummg the disguise of an 
Epyilia, various pieces, among others an enigma independent, shows that Cathmics did not really 
on the nimiber three, a diversion of a courtier forced hold the odious doctrines vulgarly attributed to 
to ^ to war (368); ''Cento nuptialis'' (an ingenious them, and makes an eneigetic appeal to the inde- 
conoeit of the same origin, tne result of a wager pendents to extend to the t^erents of the persecuted 
made with Valentinian), extracts from Virgil, tne church such rights and privileges as were granted to 
omdusion of which fc(mst<m7na(io mo^montt) is not other religious bodies (Diet, of Nat. Biogr., II, 
vciy refined (368); " Technopaegnion ", a collection 264). "The Oatholique's Plea; or an Explanation of 
of verses in which each ends in a monosyllable; the the Roman Catholick Belief , Concerning their Church, 
authenticity of the Consul Ausonius's prayer, written Manner of Worship, Justification, Civil Government, 
in ropalic verse (verse composed successivdy of Together with a Catalogue of all the Poenal Statutes 
words of one, two, three, four, five syllables and against Popish Recusants, All which is humblv 
80 on) is doubtful; "Ludus septem sapientum''; this submitted to serious consideration, By a Catholick 
product of the seven sages is a kind of scholastic Gentleman" (London, 1659, 18mo.),afso under the 
drama, in which, after a prologue, each sage recites pseudonym of William Birchlev; '' Reflections upon 
a proverb; at the end, they invite the audience to the Oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance; or the 
applaud. It is a document interesting for the his- Christian Moderator, The Fourth Part, By a Catho- 
U>iy of pedagogy ana also for the medieval drama, lick Gentleman, an obedient son of the Church and 
To appraise Ausonius justly it must be borne in loyal subject of his Majesty" (London, 1661); "A 
mind tnat he represents the professor of the fourth Punctual Answer to Doctor John Tillotson's book 
coitury. Some of his works, therefore, written for called 'The Rule of Faith' " (imfinished); "Devo- 
the scQool and in the spirit of the school, frequentlv tions. First Part: In the Ancient Way of Offices, 
tranriations from the Greek, are unimportant. A With Psalms, Hynms, and Prayers for every Dav in 
versifier to whom any subject could appeal (the the Week, and every Holiday in the Year ". It is 
more difficult and the lees poetical it was, the better), not kiK)wn when and where the first edition appeared; 
Auaooius knew by heart the works of his predeoes- the second, a duodecimo, is dated 1672. An edition 
sors, but by his taste and nietrical peculiarities printed at Edinburgh, 1789, contains a life of the 
showed himself a disciple rather of the poets of the author, presumably by Dodd. This work was 
new school {neoUricif poetic innovators of the time adapted to the uses of the Anglican Church in Hicks's 
of the Severi) than of the classic poets. In this "Harmony of the Gospels", etc. (London, 1701), 
work the letters to Paulinus of Nola are an excep- and has l)een often reprinted as a stock book under 
tbn to the whole, which is almost void of ideas, the title of Hicks's Devotions. "Devotions, Second 
Auaonius's attitude in regard to Christianity should Part, The Four Gospels in one, broken into Lessons, 
be explained in the same way. The paganism of his with Reeponsories^ To be used with the Offices, 
works is the paganism of the schools, and, if one Printed AimoDommi, 1676 " (2 vols., Paris, 12mp), a 
would base on that the doubt that he was a Christian, posthumous work, divided into short chapters with 
invcredy, his literarjr manner of treating mythology a verse and prayer at the end of each. The prayers, 
should make it Questionable whether he was a pagan, says GiUow, "gave rise to offence under the impres- 
Bm the paschal prayer, and still more, the prayer sion that they favoured Blackloe's doctrine con- 
of the " Ephemeris ", could not have been written by oeming the middle state of souls, and on account 
a pagan. An orthodox Christian in his prayers, he of this the work was not republished ''. A third part 
was a pagan in the class-room. Hence his works, of the "Devotions" was never printed; it contained, 
which^redass-roomproductions, may very naturally according to the author's own statement "Prayers 
seem pagan. It is said that after the edict of Julian for all occasions, framed by an intimate friend ac- 
(362) Ausonius had to give up teaching; but there cording to his (Austin's) directions, and overlooked 
is nothing to prove this, nor is there any proof to by himself ". He also wrote several anonymous 
the contrary, as Julian died the fdlowing year. It is pamphlets against the divines who sat in the West- 
supposed that, like some of his contemporaries, minster Assembly. 

Ausonius remained a catechumen for a long time. Qillow, BibU DicL Eng, Cath., I, 87-90; Coopsr in Diet, 

It is possible that he was not baptized until the time ^^ ^^-^ ^^» ^^' av,^„.« t g,, „,^t 

wh^ we lose all trace of him, in the last sUent and I^omas J. bHAHAN. 

EDmoN^^^i^KL^in ^ciiumenta Qemumim HUUmea; ^ -^1"^ OanOIUI, See CanonS AOT CanonESSES, 

Aud0n9tttUiq}d99imi (Berlin, 1883), II; Peipbr in BtbHotheca RequLAR. 

l^^?&^^m)^^SL,X^^rr^K^^>'^ „ ^^^ 'ri""- See Canons and Canonesses. 

nUeftteder r&niachen LUeratur (Munich, 1004), IV. 1, 20-40, RSGULAR. 

fSS^J^'^^SSA ^^irii^i^r' ^-«-' « <*« AuitraBa (also known as New Holland tUl-about 

Paul Lbjay. 1817) is geographically the world's great island- 

contment. PoHtically, the mainland, with the ad- 

Anstin, John, an English lawyer and writer, joining island of Tasmania, forms the Commonwealth 

b. 1613 at Walpole. in Norfolk; d. London. 1669. of Australia. This is imder the British Crown and 

He was a student of St. John's College, Cambridge, consists of the following six Stktes, which were 

aod of Lincoln's Inn, and about 1640 embraced tne federated on 1 Jan., 1901, and are here named in the 

OKthoiic Faith. He was highly esteemed in his pro- order in which they became separate colonies of the 

^ttrion and was looked on as a master of English British Empire: New South Wales (1788); Tasmania 

style. His time was entirely devoted to books and (1S03); Western Australia (1826); South Australia 

liteivy pursuits. He enjoved the friendship of such (1836): Victoria (1851); and Queensland (1859). 

«ho!ar8 as the antiquary Blount, (Christopher Daven- 'The Commonwealth covers an area of 2,980,632 

port (Franciscus a Santa Clara), John Sergeant, and square miles. It is, territorially, about one-fourth 



times larger than Germany or France, and about on their first consignment to the guardianship of the 
twenty-five times larger than the British Isles. At law. In many illustrious cases, a long and dan- 
the census of 1901 the population of the six States gerous residence in the most depraved penal settle- 
was as follows: New South Wales, 1,359,943; Western ments was unable to extinguish these noble char- 
Australia, 182,553; Victoria, 1,201,341; Queensland, aoteristios.'^ During the first three decades of the 
503,266; South Australia, 362,604; Tasmcmia, 172,475. nineteenth century the convict population was 
This gave the Commonwealth in 1901 a total popu* notably increased by the addition of many who had 
lation of 3,782,182. The official estimate of the taken part in the agitations in connexion with 
total population for December, 1905, was 4,002,893. tithes, the Charter and Reform movements, the 
I. The Convict System. — ^The north and west Combination Laws, and the Com Laws. During the 
coasts of Australia figure in the maps of Spanish and first fifty years and more of the Australian penal 
Portuguese navigators as far back as about the year settlements, convictions and sentences of deporta- 
1530. But it was the War of American Independ- tion were matters of fearful facility. For no provi- 
ence that led to the settling of the white man on the sion was made for the defence of prisoners unable 
shores of the ^reat lone continent. At that time, to procure it for themselves; the right of defence 
and until the mneteenth century was well advanced, throughout the entire trial was not recognized till 
the maxim of Paley and of others of his school, that 1837; jurors were allowed to act as witnesses; and, 
crime is most eflfectually prevented by a dread of belongmg, as they generally did, to ** the classes " 

of England " (IV, 309), " more than six hundred sumption of guilt (See National History of England, 

different offences had been made capital — a state of IV, 310). 

law unexampled in the worst periods of Roman or Convictism endured in New South Wales from its 
Oriental despotism *\ Transportation was the ordi- first foundation in 1788 till 1840. Tasm§,nia re- 
nary commutation of, or substitute for, the slip-knot mained a penal colony till 1853. Transportation to 
of the hangman. From 1718 to 1776 British con- Norfolk Island ceased in 1855. Moreton Bay (in the 
victs had been sent in considerable numbers annually, present State of Queensland) becfune a convict station 
imder contractors, into servitude on the American m 1824 and remained one till 1839^ Western Aus- 
mainland. The traffic was stopped by the War of traiia began as a penal settlement in 1826. It oon- 
Independence. At the close of the struggle the tinned as such for only a very brief space. Owing 
British prisons and, later on, the prison-hulks to the dearth of free labour, convicts (among whom 
overflowed. The colony of New South Wales (till was the gifted John Boyle O'Reilly, a political 
1826 synonymous with the whole Australian main- prisoner) were reintroduced from 1849 till 186& 
land) was established as a convict settlement by an when the last shadow of "the system '' was lifted 
Order in CJouncil dated 6 Decembw, 1785. On 13 from Australia. Two noted Catholic ecclesiastics 
May, 1787, "the first fleet", provisioned for two years, (Dr. UUathome and Dr. Willson, first Bishop of 
left England, 'with 1,030 souls on board, of whom Hobart) took a prominent and honoured part in 
696 were convicts. They reached Botany Bay on the long, slow movement which led to the aboli- 
20 January, 1788. They abandoned it after a few days tion of the convict svstem in New South Wales, 
because of its shallow waters, and laid the founda- Tasmania, and Norfolk Island. Almost froqi the 
tions of Sydney on the shores of the noble and dawn of the colonization of New South Wales and 
spacious harbour to which they gave the name of Tasmania, voluntary settlers went thither, at first 
rort Jackson. The men who founded Sydney and as stragglers, but in a steady stream when the ad- 
the Commonwealth of Australia "may have been vantages of the country became known, when irre- 
convicts", says Davitt, "but they were not neces- sponsible military rule ceased (in 1824) and when 
sarily 'criminals', such as we are familiar with free selection and assisted immigration were planks 
to-day. Some account must be taken of what con- in the policy of the young Australian colonies. The 
stituted a crime in those transportation days, and first free settlers came to Queensland (known till its 
of the hideously unjust sentences which were in- separation in 1859 as the Moreton Bay District of 
flicted for comparatively trivial offences" (Life and New South Wales) in 1824, just in advance of the 
Progress in Australasia, 193-194). convicts; to Victoria (known till its separation in 
Within the next decade, the ranks of the original 1851 as the Port Phillip District of New South 
convict population were swelled by a goodly percent- Wales) in 1835, and to South Australia in 1836. 
age of the 1,300 unoffending Catholic peasants from The gold discoveries of the fifties brought a great 
the North and West of Ireland who were seized and inrush of population, chiefly to Victoria and New 
deported by "Satanides" Carhampton and the Ulster South Wales. Events have moved rapidly since 
magistrates during the Orange reign of tettoT in 1795- then. The widened influences of religion, the influx 
96, "without sentence", as Lecky says, "without trial, of new blood, the development of resources, pros- 
without even the colour of legality (Ireland in the perity, education, and the play of free institutions 
Eighteenth Century, III, 419 ; England in the Eight- nave combined to rid the southern lands of the 
eenth Century, VIII, 250). After the insurrection traces of a penal system which, within living memory, 
of 1798, "a stream of Irish political prisoners was threatened so much permanent evil to tne moral, 
poured into the penal settlement of Botany Bay, social, and political progress of Australia. The 
and they played some part in the eariy history of dead past has buried its dead, 
the Australian colonies, and especially of Australian The reformation of the criminal formed no part of 
CathoL'cism" (Lecky, England in the Eighteenth the convict system in Australia. " The body , says 
Century, VIII, 250). In his "CJatholic Mission in Bonwick, "rather than the soul, absorbed the atten- 
Australia" (1836), Dr. Ullathome says of those early tion of the governors " (First Twenty Years of Austra- 
Irish political convicts: "Ignorance or violation of lia, 218). "Vengeance and cruelty", says Erskine 
religious principle, the knowledge or habits of a May, " were it^ only principles; charity and refonna- 
criminal life, were scarcely to any extent recognizable tion formed no part of its scheme" (Constitutional 
features in this unhappy class of Irish political pris- Historyof England, 111,401). For the convict, it was 
oners. On the contrary, the deepest and purest a beast-of-burden lijfe, embittered by the lash, the iron 


ball, the punishment-cell, the prison-hulk, the chain- ary. Methodism (then a branch of the Anglican 

gsmg, and the " hell". " The ' whipping-houses ' of the Establishment) made a feeble beginning in Australia 

Mississippi'', says Dilke, "had their parallel in New in 1813; Presbyterianism in 1823; other Protestant 

South Wales; a look or word would cause the hurry- denominations at later dates O^onwick, First 

ing of a servant to the post or the forge, as a pre- Twenty Years of Australia, 240). In 1836, when 

liminary to a month in a chain-gang on the roads" Dr. UUathome wh>te his pamphlet, "The Catholic 

(Greater Britain, 8th ed., 373). For idleness, for Mission in Australia ", Catholic and other dissidents 

disobedience, for drunkenness, for evenr trivial fault, were still compelled to attend the more or less 

the punishment was "the lash I — the lash! — the lash I" perfunctory services of the Anglican Church (in 

(Dr. UUathome, in Cardinal Moran's History of Moran, op. cit., 153). The penalties for refusal, pro- 

the Catholic Church in Australasia, 156). And vided at various times in (jreneral Orders, consisted 

the "cat" was made an instrument of tortirre (Dflke, in reduced rations, imprisonment, confinement in 

Greater Britain, 8th ed., 374). Matters were even prison-hulks, the stocks, and the urgent pressure of 

worse in the convict "hells" of New Norfolk (estab- the public flagellator's "cat-o'-nine-tails" — twenty- 

lished in 1788), and of Port Arthur and Mac^quarie five lashes for the firet offence, fifty for the second. 

Harbour in Tasmania. In 1835 Dr. Ullathome went and for the third, the road-gangs, or transportation 

to New Norfolk to prepare thirty-nine supposed to the " living death " of the convict heUs. (Seethe 

conspirators for an aorupt passage into eternity, official and other evidence in Moran, op. cit., 11*-1 9.) 

Twenty-six of the condemned men were reprieved. As late as 5 March, 1843, a convict named Bernard 

They wept bitterly on receiving the news, "whilst Trainer was sentenced to fourteen dajrs' imprison- 

thoee doomed to die, without exception, dropped ment in Brighton jail for refusing to attend the 

on their knees and with dry eyes thanked God tney Protestant service (Therry MSS., in Moran, 19). 

were to be delivered from so horrid a place ". They This abuse of power continued in Tasmania till 1844 

"manifested extraordinary fervour and repentance . ^ogan. The Irish in Australia, 3d ed., 257-258). 

received their sentence on their knees " as the will Both in New South Wales and Tasmania, the children 

of God", and on the morning of their execution of Catholic convicts and all orphans under the care 

"they feU down in the dust and, in the warmth of of the State were brought up in the profession of 

their gratitude, kissed the very feet that had brought the dominant creed. In 1792 there were some three 

them peace" (Ullathome in Moran, op. cit., 164). hundred Catholic convicts and fifty Catholic freemen 

For a long period Australian officials and ex-officials (mancipists) in New South Wales. Nine years later, 

were to all intents and purposes a great "ring" of in 1801, there were 5,515 inhabitants in the penal 

spirit-dealers. Rum became the medium of com- settlement (Bonwick, First Twenty Years of Aus- 

merce, just as tobacco, and maize, and leaden bullets tralia, 17^176). About one-third of these were 

were in the earlv days of New England (History of Catholics; but no regular statistics of religious beUef 

New South Wales from the Records, II, 271-273). were kept at the time (Kenny, The Catholic Church 

The cost of building the first Protestant church in Aus- in Australasia to the Year 1840, 20). Among the 

tralia (at Sydney) was, as the pastor's balance sheet "little flock" there were three priests who had been 

shows, in part paid in rum Top. cit., II, 66). "Rum- unjustly transported on a charge of complicity in 

sdling ana rum-distilling deoauched the convicts and the Irisn insurrection of 1798— Fathers James Harold, 

their guards" (Jos^, History of Australia, 21), and James Dixon, and Peter O'Neill. The last-mentioned 

the moral depravity that grew up under the system priest had been barbarously scourged on a suborned 

is described by Dr. Ullathome as " too frightful even charge of having abetted murder — a crime of which 

for the imagination of other lands" (Moran, op. cit., he was afterwards proved to be wholly innocent, 

pp. 8-11, and " Historical Records of New South ' Father Harold was tne uncle of the Rev. Dr. William 

Wales, n and III, passim). The Irish Catholic con- Vincent Harold, O.P., famous in the Hogan Schism 

victs — "most of whom", says Ullathome (in Moran, in Pliiladelphia, and en route to Ireland in 1810, from 

op. cit., 152-153), " were transported for the infringe- Australia, he visited Philadelphia (Moran, op. dt., 33). 
meat of penal laws and for agrarian offences and mi- These priests were strictly forbidden the exercise of 

nor delinquencies" — had generally (according to the their sacred ministry. After repeated representa- 

same eyewitness) a lively dread of the depravity of tions, Father Dixon was at length, by order of the 

the prison hells of the system. Irish Catholic female Home Government, conditionally emancipated, and 

convicts were also saved to a notable extent by their permitted to celebrate Mass once a month, under 

robust faith from the profligacy which, almost as a galling restrictions (see Historical Records of New 

matter of. course, overtook tneir less fortunate sisters South Wales, V, 110). He offered the Holy Sacrifice 

from other countries (McCarthy, History of Cur Own for the first time in New South Wales, 15 May, 1803. 

Times, ed. 1887, I, 467; UUatnome, in Moran, 157- There was no altar-stone; the chalice, the work of a 

158). Long before, similar testimony was given by convict, was of tin; the vestments were made of 

John Thomas Bigge, after he had spent three years parti-coloured old damask curtains sacrificed for the 

(1819-22) in Australia as Special Commissioner from occasion, and the whole surroimdings of this mem- 

tbe Britisb Government to investigate the working orable event in the history of the Church in Australia 

of the transportation system. In his final report bespoke the poverty of Bethlehem and the desolation 

(dated 6 May, 1822) he said: "The convicts em- of Calvary. After little more than a year, Father 

barked in Ireland generally arrive in New South Dixon's precious privilege was withdrawn, and the 

Wales in a very healthy state, and are found to be last state of the Catholic convicts became worse 

more obedient and more sensible of kind treatment than the first. Father O'Neill had in the meantime 

during the passage than any other class. Their (1803) been restored to Ireland, with his character 

separation from their native coimtry is observed to completely vindicated. In 1808 Father Dixon, 

make a stronger impression upon their minds, both broken down in health, was permitted to return to 

on their departtnre and during the voya^." his native diocese. Two years later he was followed 

n. Pehiod op Persecution. — The mfluences of to Ireland by Father Harold, and till 1817 a deep 

religion were not allowed to remedy to any great spiritual desolation brooded over the infant Church 

extent the '^ <''u animalism and inhumanity of the in Australia. In the last-mentioned year there were 

wnvict systen Anglicanism was de factor although some 6,000 Catholics in and about Sydney alone, 

not de jurCf the established religion of the Australian The representations of the returned priestly exDes 

p^ial colonies. But the Anglican chaplain, fre- resulted at length in the appointment of Fath^ Jere- 

quently a farmer, run-holder, and magistrate, was miah Flynn, an Irish CJistercian, as Prefect Apostolic 

more conspicuously a civil than a religious function- of New Holland. Obstacles were thrown in nis way 


Fiction, — Dftniel E. Deniehy, lawver, statesman, Moran, in Sydnev, in 1894); " The Madonna " (Mel* 

iournalist, will be best remembered for his clever bourne, 1897); '^The Garland of St. Joseph " (1906). 

skit, " How I Became Attorney-General of Barataria", A usefi^ " Catholic Almanac and Family Annual " ia 

which was famous in its day, and is still as readable published for the Diocese of Maitland. Illustrated 

as ever. James Francis Hogan published "An scholastic annuals are also issued by most of the O&th- 

Australian Christmas Collection" of colonial stories olic colleges for boys, and by some of the secondaiy 

and sketches. Ambrose Pratt is the author of schools for girls. — In size, literary quality, successful 

''The Great Push Experiment", ''Franks, Duellist", management, and influence, the Catholic newspapera 

and ''Three Years with Thunderbolt". Among and magazines of Australia easily outrival the rest 

other Australian Catholic writers of fiction whose of the religious press in the Commonwealth. Manv 

work has appeared in book form are the following: Catholic names of note in the political, judicial, 

Miss Tennyson, Roderick Quinn, Laura Archer (a Uterar^r, and scientific history ot Australia were, 

collection of Queensland tales), F. M. Komer (pen for a time at least, associated with the religious or 

name, "George Garnet"), a Loretto nun (author of secular press of the country. Among them may be 

" I Never Knew "), the Rev. P. Hickey (" Innisfail **)• mentioned: Sir Charles Gavan Duffv; the Right Hon. 

"Australian Wonderland" is a cleverly written book William Bede Dalley, P.C, Q.C.; the Hon. John Hu- 

for children, in which two sisters (one of them a Sis- bert Plunkett, Q.C.. M.L.C.; Sir Roger Therry; Rich- 

ter of Mercy) collaborated. Newspaper and periodi- ard Sullivan (brotner of A. M. and T. D. Sullivan); 

ctd literature has also been enriched with some excel- Judges Therry, Real, Power, O'Connor, Casey, Hey- 

lent work in fiction by Australian Catholic writers. don, and Omnlan; the Hon. Edward Butler, Q.C., 

Poetry. — Among tne poets, two Irish singers, M.L.C.. and his brother, Thomas Butler; E. W. O'Sulli- 
"Eva" of the Nation (Mrs. Kevin Izod O'Doherty) van; Sir John O'Shannasgr, K.C.M.G.; the Hon. Sir 
and "Thomasine", are now (1907) passing tne Patrick Jennings, K.C.M.G., LL.D., M.L.C.; Edward 
evening of their lives in humble retirement in Queens- Whitty, the brilliant Anglo-Irishman, who ended his 
land. Roderick Flanagan (the historian of New days in Melbourne; William A. Duncan, C.M.G.; Rod- 
South Wales) published m his day a volume of verse, erick Flemagan; Daniel E. Deniehy; Philip Mennell, 
Victor J. Daley was a gifted and prolific verse-writer, F.R.G.S.; John Farrell; Victor J. Daley; the Rev. 
but his only published work is "At Dawn and Dusk". Julian E. Tenison Woods; the Hon. J. V. O'Loghlen; 
John Farrell, for a time editor of the Svdnejr Daily the Hon. Hugh Mahon; J.F. Hogan; Benjamin Hoare; 
Telegraph, was the author of "How He Died, and Roderick and P. E. Quinn; F. J. Bloomfield; Am- 
Other Poems". In 1897 he wrote a "Jubilee Ode" brosePratt;HelenK. Jerome; John Hughes, K.C.S.G.; 
which was pronounced to be finer than Kipling's John Gavan DufTv; Frank Leverrier (noted as a 
"Recessional" as a piece of national stock-taking, scientist); Kenneth McDonall; — Nicholson: Frank 
Roderick Quinn has written "The Higher Tide , and Martin Donohoe; Ernest Hoben; C. Brennan; 
and "The Circling Hearths"; Edwin J. Brady, a T. Courtney; and others. Phil May first won fame 
poet of the sea and wharfside, "The Way of Many as a caricaturist in the columns of an illustrated 
Waters"; Bernard O'Dowd, "Dawnward" and "Dar- weekly published in Sydney. A number of able lay 
rawill of the Silent Land"; Cornelius Moynihan, and clerical writers are associated with the Catholic 
" Feast of the Bunya, An Abori^nal Ballad ", with a newspapers and jperiodicals of Australia, 
preface containing ' . . • . « . m.^ a .. _ , ^^^ . ._.___ j x. 

and ethnologica" 

blacks; the He^ 

dramas in blank verse; J. Hood, "Land of the Fern"; PlenarySynods of 1886 and 1896: Historical Recordt of New 

Tolin Tl O'Hnpo "ftoniTfl nf fhft RniifH" OA ao>-ioa^ Soysih Wales; Bennett, South Australian Almanac C1%M)': 

JOtm J5. U nara, songs OI tne »OUtn (Jd senes), Kbnnt. The Catholic C)iureh in Auetralia to the Year 1840; 

" Sonnets, Odes, and Lyncs ; the Rev. M. Wat- Flanagan, History of New South Wales (1862); The»ry. 

son, S.J., a series of seven handsomely illustrated New South Wale$ and Victoria {1863); The National Hilary 

Christmas.booklete in ver^e which have gonet|m>urii i^Sti^'^' ^li^^l^SS^'/^S^^J'W^ 

many editions. Volumes of verse have also been pub- Q888): Bonwick, The Port PhiUip Settlement (1888). and 

lished by Marion Miller (" Songs From the Hills "), The First Twenty Yem-s of Auetralia{l883); Filhtok History 

anA T{/»na WftllanA r** A Kiifth (lirl'ia Slnnira "^ CL^ttvo qf Tasmania (,ISS4); Dtlkk, Greater Brttawi il885)jMcCA»Tar. 

ana Kena Wallace r a Busn Uirl S »>ngs ;. Home ]^^fc^ of Our Own Times (1887); Hogan, The frish in Aue- 

meritorious work by Australian Cathohc poetic tralia (1888); Sutherland, History of Australia (1888); 

writers (mcluding various odes, etc., by the Rev. hvunpiLTZ, Among CannibaU {18W))\ Hutchinson, Am- 

J. J. Malpne) haa not appeared m Beparate fonn. 5«!«^„ ^'S;?Xa89CT.i JiSlT «1i^^*'S^^ 

Catholic Journalism in Austraha had a long and Wales from the Records (1894); Moran, History of the Catholic 

thorny road to travel before it reached assured sue- Church in Australasia: H baton, Australian Dictionary of 

PASS TUirintiinir with " Thp Ohmnirlft " (fnunf\txA in i>oto« (1807); Davitt, Life and Progress in Australasia (1808); 

cess. J5eginmng Wim ine Onromcie (tOimaed m Coohlan, StoHeHcs of the Seven Colonies of Australasia from 

Sydney, m 1839), the way was strewn with failures, 2861 to 1899 (lOOO); Jos*. History of Australia (1901); CooH- 

wnicb, however, helped to form the steps leading ^'^ *>"> 'E^ma, Progress of Australasia in the NineteenA 

othere to better ggs The existing CathoUo ^'^i^Slu^^'^^X^^^-^^'^-'^ ^'^^^' 

newspapers and penodicals of Austraha, with their of Central Auioralia (1904), and The Northern Tribes of Central 

dates of foundation, are, Weekly: Sydney, N. S. W., Australia C1904); Hall, States of Australia and New Zealand 

" The Freeman's Journal " (the oldest emsting news- <^«06>J ^** ^^tralasum Catholic ^ed^ M 1906. 
paper in Austraha, founded and first edited by Arch- henry w . ^leaby. 

deacon McEncroe in 1850) ; and " The Catholic Press " Atistrebertha, Saint, Virgin, bom c. 630 at Ther- 

(1895): Melbourne, Victoria, "The Advocate " (1868), ouane in the modem department of Pas-de-Calais in 

*' The Tribune " (1900); Brisbane, Queensland, " The France; d. 10 February, 703 or 704. When her father 

Australian " (founded by Dr. 0*Quinn in 1878), " The desired to give her in marriage to a jroung nobleman, 

Age " (1892); Adelaide, South Australia, " The South- she fled from home and took the veil from the hands 

em Cross" (1889); Perth, W. A., "The W. A. Rec- of Bishop Saint-Omer. Some time later she entered 

ord " (1874); Launceston, Tasmania, ** The Monitor " the monastery of Port on the Somme, where she was 

(founded in 1894 by amalgamating " The Catholic later elected prioress. Soon afterwards she was ap- 

Standard " of Hobart, and " The Morning Star " of pointed first abbess of the newly erected convent 

Launceston). — Monthly: Melbourne, **The Austrah'an of Pavilly in Lower Seine. Under her direction the 

Messenger" (1887); 'The Austral Light " (an eccle- nuns" of Favilly became so celebrated for sanctity 

si astical property since 1899); Sydney, ''The Annals that parents came from all sides to place their 

of Our Lady". — Quarterly and Annual: "The Au»- daughters under the guidance of Austrebertha. Her 

tralasian Catholic Recora " (founded by Cardinal name is in the Roman martyrology and she is hon- 



AXr8TB»C01in71 121 AUSTBO-HUKaABLUff 

oared as patron at Montreuil in the department of The only strip of coast land in Austria-Hungary li^s 

Piis-dfrOBlais. on the Adriatic and has a length of 1,366 miles 

IUnbkk, The Bwi^didy!^ CtOendar JUmdoD, 1896); (2,200 km.). The countries which border on Austria- 

J^^f:^tA^k£Si/?SS/Hfe^^^ H^'f^T are: lUly, Switzerland, the princip^ty of 

MTrwAgr. Off. Liechtenstein, Bavana, Saxony, Prussia, Russia, 

Rumania, Servia, Turkey, and Montenegro. 

iostramoniiiB, Saint, Apojstk and Bishop of Au- Church Hibtort.— The Austro-Hungarian Mon- 

veipe (c. 314). All that is certainly known of arohy was created by the union gf the Gepnanic, 

AuBtrenonius is deduced from a few brief sentences Slavonie, and Hungarian piovinces which now lie 

in the writings of St. Gregory oi Tours* (Hist, within its territory. This union took place in 1526. 

Fnoc, I, zxx, and De Glori& Confessorum, c. xxix). Upon the death of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia 

Acconung to this authority he was one of the seven at the battle of Mohdcs, in that year, Bohemia and 

bishops sent from Rome into Gaul about the middle Hun|;ary were united to the Austrian possessions of 

of the third century; he laboured in Anveargne and Ferdmand I, of the Hapsburg family. This union 

is said to have been the fint Bishop of Clennont. was in accordance with the law of succession as well 

But from a study of the episeopal lists as ffiven by as the result of a free choice. Up to 1526 each of 

St. Gregory himself, St. Austremonius could hardly these three divisions of the present empire had its 

have antedated the commencement of the fourth own separate religious history. 

coitur^, since his third successor died in 385. It is A. ^arly CkriHianity, — ^The Romans in the time 

more hkely, therefore, that he was the contemporary of Augustus took possession of those pro\4nce8 of 

of the three Bishops of Aquitaine who attended the the present Austria-Hungary which lie south of the 

Council of Arks in 314. He was not a martyr. His Danube. In the course of time they buQt roads, 

eult began about the middle of t^e sixth century, founded cities, turned the territory into Roman 

when C^tius, a deacon, saw a vLuon of angels about provinces, and here and there converted the inhabi- 

kig neglected tomb at Issoire on the Couse. His tants to Christianity. The cities of Aquileia and 

body was afterwaids translated to Volvic, and in Salona, episcopal sees from the middle of the first 

761tothe Abbey of Mauzac. Towards the middle of century, were craitres of Christianity for Noricum 

the ninth oentiuy , the head of the saint was brought and rannonia. In the year 294 five Christian 

to St.-Yvoine, near Issoire, and about 900 was re- workmen were thrown from the marble bridges of 

tuned to Issoire, the original phice of burial. Sirmium (Mitrowitz) into the Save and drowned. 

Ada 55., Nov, I, ^aq.; Anal, B^,^ XIII, .33-46; Af*- During the persecution of the Christians under the 

^2(«^S5^' ^^^Srm\ c^r'i^^cJTtr (i^ Empeit>r Diocletian in 304, the soldier Florianus 

iM9.}, 2d ed., 380, 391. was thrown mto the Enns at Lauriacum (Lorch). 

Francib p. Hayxt. The house of Augustinian canons, at St. Florian, 

. ^. ^ ^ „ _ _ in Upper Austria, now stands on the spot where the 

Austria. See Austro-Hungakian Monarcht. body <rf this saint was buried. A tradition gives 

Aaitro-Hnngarian Monarchy, The. — By this the same date for the martyrdom of the two bishops 
Dame is designated the Ehnropean monarchy whose Victorinus of Petovia (Pettau in Southern Styria) 
(bminions Imve for their main life-distributing and Qulrinus of Siscia, who met death where the 
artery the River Danube, in its course from Engel- Kulpa empties into the Save. Even at this period 
tooell, near Passau, to Orsova. South of the Qbnstianity must have had a large number of ad- 
Danube lie the Austrian Alpine provinces and the herents in these districts, for already an established 
provinces of Carinthia and Camiola' north of the organization is found here. The bisnops of Noricum 
Danube are the Carpathian and Sudetic provinces, were imder the control of the Patriarcn of Aquileia, 

.\rea and Population. — The monarchy as a while Pannonia was subject to the Metropolitan of 

vbole has an area of about 262,577 square miles Sirmium. 

((^^7 squiu^ kilometres), and a population of The last representative of Christian culture among 

about 48,592,000. This gives it the second place in the Roman inhalu tants of the Danube district is St. 

extent of territory, and toe third pla<» in respect to Severinus. The story of his life, by his pupil Eugip- 

population, among the political divisions of £iut>pe. pius, is the only written document we nave for the 

m average density of its population is, approxi- history of the Danubian provinces during the last 

matelj, isis to the sauare mile. The monarchy years of Roman occupation. Severinus settled near 

inlds sway over: (a) tne kingdoms and provinces the present city of Vienna, built a monastery for 

|^^)re8eiited in Uie Austrian ParUament, or Keichsrat, himself and his companions, and led so austere a 

vmch have together an area of 115,095 sq. m. life that even in winter, when the Danube was frozen, 

(300^ sq. km.) and a population kA 26,969^12; he walked up and down over the ice barefoot. His 

(b) the provinces of the Hungsurian Crown which nave journeys upon the frozen river were errands of conso- 

a total area of 127,204 sq. m. (329,851 sq. km.) lation to tne despairing provincials, who saw them- 

^ a popdation of 19,885,465; (c) Bosnia and selves threatened on all sides by bands of marauding 

HerxegoVina, with an area of 19,678 sq. m. (51,028 barbarians. In these journeys Severinus travelled 

^ km.) ffitul a population of 1,737,000, occupied as far as Castra Batava (Passau), and inland from 

^ administ^fed hy AustriarHungary, though still the river up to Juvavum (Salzburg). God had 

^^Korettcally a part of the Ottoman Empire. These granted him the gift of prophecy. When Odovakar 

populations indude a great variety of races. In (Odoaoer), King of the Heruli, set out on his march 

the Austrian territory there are: Oermans. 9,171,000; aj^ainst Rome, ne came to the saint and asked for 

^hs, 5,955,000; Poles, 4,259,000; Kuthenians, his blessing. Severinus spoke prophetically: ''Go 

'^376^; Slovenes, 1 ,193,000; Italians and Ladini- forward, my son. To-day thou art still clad in the 

^ TVflOO^ In Hungary the population is com- worthless skins of animals, but soon shalt thou make 

?p6ed oC: Magyars, 9,180,000: Rumanians, 2^867,000; gifts from the treasures of Italy. " After Odovakar 

^^ainana, 2338,000; Slovaks, 2.055,000; Croats, had overthrown the Roman Empu« of the West. 

^•734,000; Serbs, 1,079,000; Rutnenians, 443,000. and had made himself master of Italy, he sent ana 

Tbe inhabitants of Bosnia and Herzegovina are invited Severinus to ask from him some favour, 

^o^^roatians. Severinus only asked the pardon of one who had been 

^ CKntals of the three main divisions are: condemned to banishment. The Alamannic king, 

AtBtria, Vienna, with 1,675,000 inhabitants; Hun- Gibold, also visited him in Castra Batava, and the 

P'J, Budapest, with 732,000 inhabitants; Bosnia saint begged as a personal grace that the king cease 

sn Herzegovina, Serajevoi with 38,000 inhabitants, from ravaging the Roman temtory. His usual 


salutation was "Sit nomen Domini bened]etUIn'^ and drove tke Gertnans to the outskirts of the coun- 
corresponding to our "Praise be to Jesus". When try, the Czechs of Prague were the most important 
Severinus lay dying the sobs of his disciples prevented division. In a. p. 871 their prince, Borziwoy, and 
their praying; he himself began to recite the last his wife, LudmiUa, consented to receive baptism 
psalm, and with the closing words of this psalm, from Sti Methodius. From this time on the history 
"Omnis spiritus laudet Dommum", he passed away of Bohemia is an account of the struggles between 
(482). Six years later the Romans withdrew from two contending parties, the Ghristian-uermaiuc and 
this region, taking the body of the saint with them, the National Heathen. At the insti^tion <^ the 
and returned to Italy.* Here he was buried with National Heathen party the saintly Ihike Wenad 
suitable honour in the castle of Luculanum, near (Wenceslaus) I was murdered by his brother, Boles- 
Naples. P law I. But even Boleslaw had to rule according to 

B. The Middle Ages. — During the period of migra- the wishes of the Christian-Germanic party, and his 

tions which followed the fall of the Roman Empire, son Boleslaw II foimded the Bishopric of Prague 

Austria was the fighting-ground of the barbaric (973). The new see was placed under the Archbimop 

hordes which pour^ through it. Vindobona dis- of Mains, and its first bishop was the Saxon Dithmar. 

appeared from the face of the earth; Pannonia was His successor, St. Adalbert (Wojtech), met a martyr's 

entirely laid waste by the Avars, a people related death (997) at the hands of the heathen Slavs of 

to the Huns. The same fate befell Styria, Cflurinthia, Prussia, whom he sought to bring to the truth. The 

and Camiola, desolated by the Slovenes, who now Benedictine Order came into Bohemia with the 

took possession of those provinces. The land lying founding of the monastery of Borevnov by Boleslaw 

on the upper Drave has since borne the name of II, and Boleslaw's sister, Milada, was the nrst abbess 

"Pustertw ' (from the Slovenic puat, "waste"), of St. Qeorge, the Benedictine cloister for women in 

The (>oats and Serbs seized the country south of Prague. Duke Bretislaw seized Gnesen and brought 

the Save. The Croats are the first-bom sons of the the body of St. Adalbert in triumph to Prague. 

Church among the Slavs. They were converted, Dabrowka, the daughter of Boleslaw I, married the 

about the year 650, by Roman priests. The Baju- Polish Duke Mieczyslaw, and the latter was baptuoed 

varii (Bavarians), a people from the West, spread in 966. The son of Mieczyslaw laid the foundation 

themselves over the whole of Upper Austria. St. of an enduring churoh-organization by forming the 

Rupert, Bishop of Worms, baptized the Bavarian four bishoprics of Posen, Kolberg, Breslau, and 

duke, Theodo, at Regensburg (Ratisbon) and be- Cracow, and placing them under the Archbishopric 

came the Apostle of the Austrian Bajuvarii. He of Gnesen, wnich had been established in the year 

travelled ana preached nearly as far as Lauriaoum. 1000. 

settled in Salzburg, and there erected a see ana The Magyars, a people from the Ural-Altai region, 

founded the monastery of St. Peter (c. 700). St. moved forward in 895 into the Avarian Wilderness 

Peter's is the oldest Benedictine monastery which on the Theiss. Attempts to convert them were 

has had a continuous existence down to our own made by the court of Byzantium as well as by St. 

times, Monte Cassino having been repeatedly de- Wolfgang, a monk of Maria Einsiedeln, by Pilicrim, 

stroyed and deserted. The Benedictine ofoister Bishop of Passau, who, as successor of the Bisnops 

for women, Nonnberg, founded by Rupert's niece of Loreh, wished to be Metropolitan of all Paxmoma, 

Ehrentraut, is also still standin|^. The Bavarian and by Adalbert of Prague. Thus it was brought 

Duke Tassilo founded the Benedictine monasteries about that the Magyar rmer G^za, great grandson of 

of Mondsee (748) and Kremsmtknster (777). The Arpad, and his wife Sarolta were favourably inclined 

Bishops of Salzburg brought the Christian Faith to Christianity. The real Apostle of the Magyars, 

and Cferman customs to the Slavs. A quarrel broke however, was G^a's great son, St. Stephen. Ste- 

out, however, between the Carinthians and the phen received a Christian education and was b^ 

Patriarch of Aquileia. Charlemagne raised the tized by St. Adalbert. Upon the occasion of his 

Carinthian see of Salzburg to an archbishopric in marriage with Gisela, sister of the future emperor, 

798, settled the dispute with Aauileia by making St. Henry II, Stephen vowed to give his people the 

the Drave the dividing line of tne two provinces, blessings of Christianity. One of the most important 

and in 803 established the border territones known measures taken by him for the security of the new 

as the Mark of Friuli and the East Mark. fcuth was the founding at Gran of an arehbishopric 

Moravia was won to Christianity by two brothers, with ten subordinate sees. As Stephen's patron 

Methodius and Constantine, Greek monks from saint in battle had been St. Martin, he founded the 

Thessalonica, known in history as the Apostles of Benedictine monastery of Martinsberg. He also 

the Slavs. Constantine invented the Glagohtio founded hospices for the reception of Hunii^arian 

alphabet, translated the Bible into Slavic, and com- pilgrims at Kavenna, Rome, and Jerusalem. Astri- 

posed the litur^ in that language. But, as Sfdzburg ous, the Abbot of Martinsberg, obtained for him, 

and Passau laid claim to the region in which iAie from the pope, the title of king. Sylvester II sent 

brothers worked, complaint was made against them Stephen a crown of gold and, according to a tradition 

by the German ecclesiastics. Pope Hadrian II, (which, however, is not well founded) a Bull 'which 

however, authorized the liturgy in the Slavic Ian- decreea to the Kiiigs of Hungary the privilege of 

guage. Constantine remained at Rome in a monas- the ''Apostolic Majestv" (c{. v.). Having a sreat 

tery and took the name of Cyril, while Methodius, devotion to the Blessed Virgin, Stephen caused him- 

after many fruitful labours as Arehbishop of Pannonia self to be crowned on the festival of the Assumption, 

and Moravia, died 6 April, 885, at Vehlehrad, on the the 15th day of August, in the year 1000, and cliurch - 

River* Marchu The Apostles of the Slavs are now historianshavegiven to Hungary the title of "Mary's 

(pursuant to a decree of Leo XIII) commemorated Realm'' (Regnum Marianum), 

throughout the Catholic Church on the 5th d^ of The gradual advance of Christianity in Austria 

July. The Latin Liturgy was reintroduced in Mora- towards the east is shown in the shifting of the abode 

via by Swatopluk, the successor of Duke Ratirtaus, of the early rulers of the Babenberg (BamberK) line 

and soon after his death the Magyars overthrew the from Melk, on the Kahlenberff, to Vienna. One of 

3mpire of Great Moravia (906). When Moravia is this family, Leopold I, the Illustrious, had already 

affain heard of m history (founding of the bishopric founded at Melk an establishment of secular canons. 

of CHmiitz, 1063), it is a province of Bohemia. These were replaced in 1089 by twelve Benedictine 

Christianity was introduced into Bohemia from monks from Lambach. At the time when Leopold's 

Moravia. Of the Slavic tribes which at the «nd of youngest son, Adalbert I, the Victorious, was mar- 

tbe fifth century controlled the interior of Bohemia grave, three youths left this regk)n to go to Paris to 

AUSTRO-HUiroAaiAK 123^ AtnTrao-HuvaABiAN 

gtody. Wfine on their way, thej were obliged to new castle for hinwelf (dchweizerhof) and the church 

spend a night in the open and fell to speaking of the of St. Miehael. The church was intended for the 

future. Each wished to become a bishop, and each benefit of the duke's attendants, retainers, servants, 

^Dwed that, if ever a bishop, he would found a monas- and the townspeoj^cJ who settled around the castle. 

tenr. One, Gebhard, became Archbishop of SaUburg The scheme to form a bishopric at Vienna was not 

and founded Admont and the Diocese of Gurk: an^ carried out, but Eberhard II of Salzburg founded 

other, Adalbero, Bishop of Wtkrsbxirg. founded' the bishoprics at Seckau and Lavant, for sWria and 

monastery of Lambach; while the third, St. Altmanii Oarinthia. Leopold's son and successor, Frederick 

of Faasau, founded Gdttweig for twelve canons under II, the last of the Babenberg line, was knighted with 

the Rule of St. Augustine. The canons at G^Vttweig much religious pomp at the feast of the Furification 

irere replaced after the lapse of ten years by Beiae^ of the Virgin, 1232, in the castle church. Bishop 

dictines from St. Blasien in the Black Foreet. All Gebhard of' rassau celebrated Mass and gave the 

three of these bishops remained true to Gregory VII consecrated sword to the duke, two hundr^ young 

in the controversy of investitures. The Cnisades nobles receiving knighthood at the same time. 

began during the reign of the Margrave Leopold 11. After the ceremony the voung duke rode at the head 

the Saint, and many of the crusading armies traversed of the newly made knights to Penzing, where jousts 

Austria Leopold^ mother, Ida, took part in a were held. 

pflgriokage of which Thiemo, Archbishop of Salzbut^, Wit^iin a short space of time the national dynasties 
«'as the leader. The archbishop met the death of a of the countries under discusEaon died out in the male 
martyr, smd Ida was made a prisoner. Leopold lines: the Babenberg Dynasty (Austria) in 1246, the 
erected a church on the Kahlenberg and foxmded Arpadian (Hungary) in 1301, and the Premyslian 
the monasteries Klostemeuburg and Heilieenkreus. (Bohemia) in lS)6. In 1282 the German Emperor, 
His wife, Agnes, widow of the Hohenstaufen Duke Rudolph of Hapeburg, gave Austria in fief to his son 
Frederick, tore him eiriiteen children. Their third Albrecnt. To Austria and Styria the dukes of the 
son, Otto, studied at Faris, entered the Cistercian Hapsburg line soon added Oarinthia, Camiola, the 
monastery of Morimond, became Bishop of Freising, T3npol, and the Mark of the Wends. The rulers of 
and wrote a chronicle, "De Duabus CSvitatibus*^, tms line are deserving of great praise for their aid in 
and a second work, "Libri Duo De Gestis Friderici I", developing chiutjh life in these territories. Albrecht 
By reason of these two works he is the most noted I founded the court (Hofburff) chapel in his castle; 
German historian of the Middle Ages. Duke Rudolph IV in 1359 laid the comer-stone of 
After a hard strugi^e, the sainfly King Ladidaus the Gothic reconstruction of the church of St. Ste- 
(d. 1095) succeeded m regulating the ecclesiastical phen. A hundred and fifty years elapsed before 
and dvil affairs of Hungary. He founded the Bishop- the great tower of the church was completed With 
ric of Grosswardein and smnmoned the di^nitwries the consent of the pope the same duke founded the 
of the Church and the State to a diet at Sisabolcs. University of Vienna in 1365. The university was 
This diet is often called a synod, on account of the modelled on the one at Paris and possessed ^*eat 
many decisions arrived at in church matters. The privile^ (freedom from taxation, right of adimnis- 
priests were ordered to observe celibacy strictly, the tering justice). When part of the Council of Basle 
laity were commanded to keep Sunday and least* separated from Eugenius IV and set up Felix V as 
days and to abstain from inmiorality. Ladislbus antipope, the theofogical faculty of the university, 
concjuered Croatia, whose duke, Zwonimir, had of which at that time the celebrated Thomas Eben- 
received from a Iqgate of Gregory VII at Salona dorffer of Haselbach was a member, sided with the 
(1076) a banner, sword, crown, and sceptre, with antipopei But the papal legate, John Carvajal, 
the title of kibig, in return for which he nad sworn and Mneaa Sylvius Ficcolomim, the emperor's gov- 
fealty to the pope. emmental secretary, prevailed upon Frederick III 
Henry H, Jasomirgott, was the first Duke of to espouse the cause of Eugenius and to sign the 
Austria. He built rf residence for himself at Vienna Concordat of Vienna (1448). The concordat pro- 
Urn Hof)t in which was the Pancraz chapel, and vided that the annates and the confirmation dues 
founded the Schottenkloster. for BenecUctine monks should be restored to the pope, that the pope should 
from St, Jacob's at Regensburg. Octavian Wohmer, have the right to appoint to the canonries in the 
an arddtect from Cracow, erected for the new duke uneven months, and that the filling of ecclesiastical 
the church of St. Stephen, to which the parish of vacancies at Rome should be reserved to him. The 
St. Peter was added. Leopold V, the Virtuous, concordat was gradusdly accepted by all of the Ger- 
wn of Henry II, took part in the Third Crusade and man rulers, and up to the present time the relations 
fou^t so bravely that, as we are told, his annour between the German Church and the papacy are 
was stained blood red, and ot^ the part under the regulated by its provisions. In 1452 Frederick was 
sword belt remained white. However, Richard the crowned emperor at Rome, bein^ the last emperor 
lionbearted tore down the Austrian banner at the to be crowned in that citrjr. In his rei^ the Bishop- 
storming of Asc^on and the enraged duke went home rics of Laibach (1462), Vienna, and Wiener-Neustadt 
at once. While on his way to England, Richard was (both the latter in 1460) were founded. Diuing 
sozed at Erdberg, and held a prisoner by the duke this period a great many monastic houses were 
^ Dttarenstein. Crusaders being xmdfer the proteo- foun^d in Austria, especially by the more recently 
tion of the pope, Celestine III put Leopold V under established orders: Carthusian houses were founded 
the ban. To tins the duke paid no attention; but at Mauerbach, Gaming, Agsbach; Franciscan at/ 
^ben be fell with hffl horse, at Graz, broke a leg, and Vienna, Klostemeuburg, St. P5lten, Maria Enzers- 
foond h&Qself near death, his conscience smote him; dorf , Pupping; Dominican at Graz and Retz. 
he sent for Albert III, Archbishop of Salzburg, who Under the Luxembourg line Bohemia attained a 
ns in the neighbourhood, and received absolution high degree of material and spiritual prosperity, 
from Mm. FrSierick I, the eldest son of Leopold V, C^u'les TV, before his reign began, succeeded m 
rafed only six yeoia and died while on a crusade, having Prague raised to an archbishopric (1344), 
The PKgn of his brother, Leopold VI, the Glorious, and in this way made the country ecclesiastically 
w a brilliant one. He too went on a crusade ana independent of Germany. Charles had been a stu- 
endeavcrared first to capture Damietta, the kev to dent at Paris, and immediately upon ascending the 
^QQMiem, but was obliged to return home without throne he founded the University of Prague (1348), 
Wing accomplished anything. He married a the first imiversity on German sou. Master Matthias 
^untine princess and formed relations with men of Anras and Peter Parler from Schwftbisch-Gmiind 
01 Greek learning and culture. The duke built a began the neetion of the stately Cathedral of St 


Wtus which is now nearing completion. Parler who was also called the "Shaven" (//oZy) becauBe he 

also erected the Teynkirche (Tejrn church) in Praffue, had been a monk. After Zizka's death the extreme 

and the church of St. Barbara in Kuttenberg, wnile radicals took the name of "Orphans" because no 

Matthias of Anras built the fortress-castle of Karl- one was worthy to take Zizka's place. They were 

stein. The crown jewels of Bohemia were preserved finally conquered, and an agreement, called the 

in the sumptuous chapel at Karlstein. But Bohemia CompacUUa (Treaty of Iglau) based on the Four 

had a sudaen fall from the height it had attained. Articles of Prague, was made with the moderate party 

King Wenzel (Wenoeslaus), son of Chaiies IV, had (1436). The Compactata provided: that in Bohemia 

no control of his temper, and began a <juarrel with everyone who demanded it should receive Holy 

the archbishop. The archbishop's vioar-general, Conmiunion under both kinds; mortal sins should be 

John of Pomuk (St. John Nepomucene), refused to punished, but only by the legal authorities; the Word 

tell what he had heard in confession. He was first of God should be freely expounded by clergy ap- 

tortured and then, gan;ed and bound^ was thrown at pointed for the purpose; ecclesiastics should manage 

night into the River Moldau. At this time the first their property according to the rules of the church, 

siens appeared in Bohemia of a religious agitation After this, Hussitlsm lived on in the "Bohemian 

which was destined to bring the great^t sorrow both Brethren", who elected a bishop at Lhota near 

to Bohemia and to the adjoining countries. Jerome Reiohenau (1467), and were finally carried into the 

of Prague had become acquainted with the writings current of the Reformation. 

of Wyclif at Oxford. He returned home, bringing In Hungary Christian culture fiourished during 

the teachiiigs of Wyclif with him, and communicatea the reign of the House of Anjou. Louis the Great 

them to his friend Hus. Hus came from Husinetz foimded universities at Altofen and Filnfkirchen, 

near Prachatitz. He was the child of a peasant, and built the fine cathedral at Kaschau. When 

and had become professor of i>hilosophy at the Constantinople was captured by the Turks (29 May, 

University of Prague, preacher in the Bohemian 1453). a cry of horror resounded throughout Europe, 

language at the Bethlehem chapel, and confessor to and the pope sent forth John Capistran to preach a 

Queen Sophia. A complaint was brought in the crusade. The saintly monk came with an immense 

university against Hus on account of his teaching, following from Italy to Germany, Bohemia, and 

Of the four "Nations" {Saxons, Bavarians, Poles. Hungary. He preached in the open, as the churches 

and Bohemians), which had votes in the affairs ot coula not hold his hearers. A stone pulpit with a 

the university, only the Bohemians voted for Hus. statue of the saintly Capbtran stands on the east 

Hus then turned a personal into a national affair, side of St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna. A hundred 

King Wenzel issued a command that henceforth the thousand people crowded the s(juare and the roofs 

Bohemians should have three votes, and the other of the houses to hear him. This was the more re^ 

"Nations" only one vote. Upon this 5,000 students markable because Capistran preached in Latin, 

and the German professors withdrew and founded Yet all who saw and heard him were moved to their 

the University of Leipzig. The university was now innermost souls. The Turks, in 1456, tried to 

simply a national one, and Hus without interference capture Belgrad, the key to Hungary. The papal 

taught the following doctrines: the church consists legate, John Carvaial, and John Capistran raised a 

only of the elect; no man is a temporal ruler, no man crusading army witn which John Hunyady was able 

is a bishop, if he be in mortal sin; the papal dignity to defeat, at' Belgrad, a Turkish army much more 

is an outcome of the imperial power; obedience to numerous. This was called the " Battle of the Three 

the church is the invention of men. Hus was sua- Johns". Hunyady and Capistran died shortly after- 

pended by Archbishop Zbinko; he appealed to the wards from camp fever. Hunyady 's son had been 

pope (Alexander V) and then to Jesus Christ. John educated by John Vitez, Bishop of Grosswardein, 

XaIII placed Hus under the ban, Prague under an afterwards Archbishop of Gran. This prelate in- 

interdict, and called the Council of Constance. The stilled such a love of learning into his pupil that 

£knperor Si^mund gave Hus a safe-conduct which when the latter ascended the throne as Matthias 

protected him from acts of violence on the part of Corvinus, he gathered learned men about him, re- 

the indignant Germans through whose territory he established the decayed university at Ofen^ and 

nust pass, but not from the verdict of the council, founded a new university at Pressburg. Thirty 

Hus was repeatedly examined before the council, copyists were kept busy at Of en transcribing the 

but would not retract his opinions; the members of Greek and Latin classics. The volumes, which 

the council, therefore, unammously condemned his were beautifully illuminated and handsomely bound, 

errors and delivered him to the secular power, by were known as Corvinian books, 
which, in accordance with the law of the land at the C. Modem Times, — If in analyzing church history 

time, he was condemned to death at the stake (1415). Christian antiquity is taken to represent the period of 

Jerome of Prague suffered the same death the next ^e life and labours of the Church among the peoples 

year. While at Constance Hus sanctioned the influenced by Greek and Roman civilization, and the 

receiving of the sacrament in both kinds which had Middle Ages the period of the Church's life and labours 

been introduced by Master Jacob of Miez (Calix- among the Germans and the nations which came 

tines). As a former monk, John of Selau, was lead- into contact with them, then the modem period of 

ing a procession a stone was thrown at him from a history must be taken as that in which the influence 

window of the town hall. The throng, led by the of the Church began to extend throughout the whole 

knight John Zizka of Trocnov, attacked the town world. Modern times would, acoordinff to this 

hall and threw the judge, the burgomaster, and theory, begin with the discovery of the Isiew World, 

several members of the town council out of the win- But if the beginning of the modem era is made, as it 

dow into the street, where they were killed by the usually is, to coincide with the Reformation, then 

fall. This is known in historyas the "First Defenes- it is further marked by the rise of that monarchy 

tration of Prague". King Weniel was so excited which was formed by the union of the Austrian, 

by the episode that he was struck with apoplexy and Slavonian, and Hungarian provinces under the 

died. The Hussite wars caused fearful devastation Hapsburgs in 1526. 

not only in Bohemia, but in the adjacent countries Ferdinand of Hapsburg, the ruler of the German- 

as well. Fortunately, the Hussites divided into the Austrian crown provinces, had married, at Linz 

more moderate Calixtines, under John of Rokyzana. Anna of Hunwiry and Bohemia. When Anna's 

and the "Taborites", so called from the city ana brother, Louis n, was killed in the desperate battle of 

mountain which they named Tabor. The Taborites Moh^U^ (1526), Ferdinand of Austria succeeded by 

were led by John 2iaka and Prooopius the Great, right of inheritance and election as King of Bohemia 

AUSTttO-mTNttAltUir 125 Anttto-HUKQABIAM 

and Hungary. The new doctrine taug^ht at Witten- most impoHiant factor in the defence of the F^th 
berg was soon brought into the Austrian provinces, and the elevation of Christian life. Ferdinand I 
Minera were the first to spread the new teaching, obtained from St. Ignatius the founding of a Jesuit 
Noble families frequently sent their sons to German college in Vienna. The first two Jesuits came to 
universities, and even to Wittenberg, and these Vienna in 1551. They were followed, the next year, 
students often returned with Protests^t ideas, and by St. Peter Canisius, the first Orerman member ol 
even brought Protestant preachers with them, the order, were assigned the abandoned Carmelite 
The constant danger from the Turks in Austria was monastery Am Hof , obtained two chairs in the 
exceedingly opportune for the new religious move- theological faculty, and founded a gymnasium with 
nsent. One of the first preachers of the new doctrine a theological seminary attached. St. Peter Canisius 
inViennawasPaulof Spretten (Speratus),aSwabian, was named court preacher, and for a time was ad- 
wbo had been driven out of Salzburg on account of ministrator of the Diocese of Vienna. He still in- 
ius Lutheran views. The new doctrine entered fluences the present day through his "Summu • 
Huneary and Transylvania through merchants Doctrinse Chnstianse'^; an abridpnent of which, 
vrho brought Lutheran books with them, and it took called the catechism of Canisius, is still in use. A 
bold, more especially, among the Grerman population few years later the Jesuits founded at Praguo ."^i 
of the Zipser region and among the Saxons of Transyl- eymnasium, a theological school, and a university . 
vania. siiiyia Biro^ known as Devay, from the place for philosophical and theological studies, which in 
of his origin, Deva m Transylvania, has been called contradistinction to the ''Carolinum" was called the 
"the Luther of Hungary". Most of the Hungarian "Clementinum". They also founded schools at Inns- 
bishops had fallen at the battle of Mohdcs, and the bruck and at IVmau. The tutor and court preacher 
subsequent disputes concerning the succession to of Maximilian il, Ferdinand's eldest son, was Sebas- 
the throne distracted the monarchy. For these tian Pfauser, a man of Protestant tendencies. It 
reasons the new doctrines spread rapicfly, and Devay was feared that Maximilian would embrace the new 
VBS able to bring over to it such noble families as creed, but the papal nuncio. Bishop Hosius of Erm- 
the Batthyany and Bocskay. It was then that land, pointed out to him those inconsistencies in the 
Calvinism b^n to be called m Hungary Magyar hit Protestant doctrine which prove its falsity. Maxi- 
(Hungarian laith), Lutheranism N ernes hit (German mQian II gave permission to lords and Imights to 
faith), and Catholicism Igaz hit (Right faith). Equal follow the Augsburg Confession in their own castles, 
success accompanied the preaching of John Gross of cities, and villages. David Chytrftus of Rostock 
Cronstadt in Transylvama, despite the efforts of drew up for the Ptotestants a form of church service. 
George Utyeszenich to check him. XJtyeszenich In Bohemia the Evangelicals united with the Bohe- 
(also called, after his mother, Martinuzzi) was prior mian and Moravian Brethren, and called the new 
of the Pauline monastery at Szenstochov near agreement the "Bohemian Confession". They had 
CracoWy and governed Transylvania as euardian of a consistory of fifteen to which the Evangelical 
John Sigismund Zdpolyas. Gross addea Honter to clergy were subordinate. Maximilian's position in 
hit name in memory of his deliverance by an elder the part of Hungary controlled by them was a difi^ 
bush (in the Transylvanian dialect horUert) from cult one, because rebels cpncealed their political 
death by drowning. In order to secure the crown schemes under the doak of a struggle for religious 
for her son, John Sigismund Zdpolyas, his mother, freedom. His brother Charles was master of the 
Isabella, was obliged to sanction the decisions of the inner Austrian provinces, Styria, Carinthia, Camiola, 
diet which met at Thorenburg (Torda) near IQausen- and GOrz. He summoned the Jesuits to Graz and, 
buiv. These granted to adherents of the Augsburg in the religious pacification of BrOck, granted the 
Comession equal rights with the Catholics. In free exercise of religion at Graz, Klagenfurt, Laibach, 
Boheniia and Moravia Lutheranism first found and Judenburg. In return he demanded that the 
adherents among the Germans and especially among Protestants should leave him and his coreligionists 
the sect of the Utraquists. Just as the UapsburK undisturbed in their faith, rights, and estates; 
Ehrnasty showed itself at this period to be the shield besides this the Lutheran f)reacher8 and teachers 
of Christianity against the advance of Islam, so also were obliged to leave the cities, market towns, and 
it proved itself ay its constancy and zeal to be the estates under the personal rule of the archduke, 
support of the Faith against the religious innova- In order to counteroalance the endowed schools of 
tions. Pope Pius IV conceded the cup to the laity the Styrian provinces the Archduke Charles founded 
in the Archdioceses of Gran and Prague, a concession, the University of Graz (Carolina) in 1586. Charies's 
however, withdrawn by St. Pius V. Ferdinand I son Ferdinand (later the Emperor Ferdinand II) 
sought in many ways to be of aid: by his mandates, was educated at Ingolstadt, and while there he 
by the inspection of convents and parishes, by his declared, "I would rather give up land and people 
care in selecting competent ecclesiastics, by the and go away in nothing but a snirt than sanction 
introduction of the newly established Society of Jesus, what might be injurious to religion". When he 
and by proposals which were sent to the Council became ruler he appointed commissioners who 
of Trent in support of reforms. The mandates cleared the land of these preachers (ranters), 
of Ferdinand were of little use, but the inspections The bishops George Stobftus of Lavant and Martin 
and the enforcement of the decisions of the Ck)uncil Breimer (n Seckau (the Hammer of the Heretics) 
of Trent had effect. The Bishops of Vienna, Fabri were at the heiid of these reformatory commissions. 
(Heigerlein), and Frederick Nausea (a Latinization But no blood was shed in this counter-reformation, 
of Grau; Nausea , horror, disgust) were unusual men. At the distribution of provinces Archduke Ferdi- 
With unfla^ng zeal both preached on Sundays and nand, husband of Philippina Welser had received 
feast days m the Cathedral of St. Stepheh and took the Tyrol. The diet of^ 1570 decided the relieious 
part in the religious movement by tne publication position of that province. The governor, Jacob of 
of theological pamphlets. Nausea's sermons are Pagrsbach, declared firmly that to grant the wishes 
characterized in a rude rhyme of the day: — of the Protestants would be contrary to the customs 
Viel tausend Menschen standen da and ordinances of the land and, further, that it would 
Efl predigt Bischof Nausea, be folly to rend religion, the strongest tie which binds 
Wie er denn pflegt zu aller Zeit hearts together. All classes agreed with him. 
Sein' Sch&flein zgebn selbst die Weid. Kudolph II , Maximilian's eldest son and successor. 
"Many thousands gather where Bishop Nausea lived m the Hradschin at Prague, where he carried 
eaehes, and himself, as his wont is, feeds his flock", on his studies in alchemy and art. The Archduchy 

<— In the Austrian provinces the Jesuits were the of Austria was ruled by his brother Ernst. Ernst 


was aided by Melchior Khlefil, who bnoujdit about eentloDess of his character, and his strong patriotic 
the counter^^reformation in Austria. Khlesl was the feeling. He brought about the return of fifty noble 
child of Protestant parents; his father had been a famiUes to the mother church and was the author of 
baker in Vienna. He was converted by the court the first Catholic polemic in the Hungarian language, 
preacher, George Scherer. From the time of Scher^ a "Guide to Catholic Truth". He founded at T^rmau 
until the su^nsion of the order the court preachers ^ university which was later transferred to Budapest, 
were ohosen m imbroken succession from the Jesuits, and also the Hungarian CioUege at Rome. Believing 
Khlesl became Provost of 8t. Stephen's, Chancellor that the preservation of reugion requires worthy 
of the univ^«ity, and Bishop ot Vienna. During servants he founded at Vienna, 1623, a college 
the reigns of Ernst and his brother Matthias, Khlesl (Pazmaneum) for the training and instruction of 
was all powerfuL Rudolph II having shut himself clergy for all the dioceses of Hungary. Ferdinand II 
up in Prague, the members of the Hapsburg family called Pdzmdn his friend. This emperor raised the 
chose the Archduke Matthias to be theu* head. The bishops of Vienna to the rank of prince-bishops 
Bohemians held to Rudolph II, but wrung from him (1631). When the terrible religious war came to an 
a resofript (Majestdisbrief) in 1609. This confirmed end in the Peace of Westphalia, and the diplomats 
the Bohemian Confession, granted the Protestants played with religious establishments and monasteries 
, permission to use the universitjr, and gave them as Doys play with nuts, and invented the term 
the right to choose a consistory; it also allowed the "secularization" to express the secular appropria- 
three temporal estates of lords, knights, and cities tion of the Church's estates, the Hapsburg pnnces 
having chartered rights to build Protestant churehes were not willing to commit Austria to such a policy, 
and schools. Contrary to the provisions of this At this crisis the Hapsbui^ Eh^asty obeyed the 
agreement, subjects of the Archbishop of Prague directions of Providence. Had the house of Haps- 
built a Protestant church at Klostergrab, and sub- burg then come forward as champions of the new 
jects of the Abbot of Braunau did the same at doctrine which originated at Wittenberg, it would 
braunau. The bishops ordered these to be closed, have been easy to renew the shattered imperial power 
and when the Emperor Matthias supported them in Germany and give to the crown of the Holy 
the result was (1620) the " Second Defenestration of Roman Empire a lustre far exceeding that of any 
Prague" with which the Thirty Years War began, other JBuropean diadem. But ' reverence for God 
The Elector Palatine Frederick V, the head of the and Holy CJhurch had greater \Veight with the em- 
Protestant League and of the German Calvinists, .perors of this line than worldly advantage. For one 
was elected King of Bohemia. The cathedral was hundred and twenty years they battled with the 
altered to suit Calvinistic church services. The stonns which the so-called Reformation had stirred 
altars were demolished, the pictures destroyed, and up, while the armies of Islam attacked Vienna and 
Scultetus, the court preacher, arranged a church the edge of the Ottoman Empire was pushed forward 
service. No ruler ever began to reign imder more as far as Raab. Even when Louis XIV forced his. 
distressing conditions than Ferdinand II. The way in from the West, bringing calamity in his train, 
insurgents under Thum stood before the gates of and the war cry of the Osmanli was heard within the 
Vienna; those unfriendly to Catholicism wiuiin the imperial citadel, the rulers of Austria stilf trusted in 
city made conmion cause with the enemy. Ferdi- God. Innocent XI sent subsidies, and the saintly 
nand, however, never lost courage. Khlesl, Bishop Father Marco D'Aviano aroused Christian enthusiasm 
of Vienna, proved to be too weak and was therefore Iw preaching a crusade. The feast of the Holy Name 
confined firat in the castle of Ambras and Uien in of Mary is a reminder that on the 12th of September, 
the castle of Sant' Angelo at Rome. He lived to have 1683, the power of Islam was forever broken before 
the satisfaction of being restored in state to his the walls of Vienna, and that the inheritance of St. 
diocese. He founded in Vienna the Himmelspfort- Stephen was then freed from the Turkirfi yoke, 
kloster, which commemorates the beautiful legend Goa sent the rulers of Austria to do His woric, and 
of the truant nun whose place as doorkeeper was that they did it is an honour exceeding that of the 
taken during her absence by the Blessed Virgin. quickly fading garlands which victory twines about 
After the battle of the White Mountain. Ferdinand the victor's chariot. During this period the Piarist 
took severe measures against the .disturbers of the and UrsiUine orders were active in the work of 
peace; they were driven out of the country, and education. New bishoprics were founded at Leit- 
finally the rescript, which had been the source of so meritz (1656) and KOniggrfitz (1664). Charles VI 
much trouble, was annulled. A new constitution raised Vienna in 1722 to an archbisnopric. While 
was published which, among other provisions, made France at this time pointed with pride and reverence 
the clergy the highest estate of the land. The to its famous divines, the great preacher of Vienna 
emperor was obliged to give Upper Austria in pledge was the always clever, but often eccentric, Augus- 
to Bavaria as security for the cost of the war. The tinian, Father Abraham a Sanct& Clari, whose 
cruelties of the Bavarian troops and Ferdinand's family name was Ulrich Mefeerie. For example, 
order, requiring the people either to leave the country preaching on the feast of the conversion of St. Paul 
or to return to the old belief, led to a peasant revolt (Pauli)^ ne announced as his theme Gauli^ MauH 
under the leadership of Stephen Fadinger, the pro- and Fault. Gauli he interpreted to mean pride and 

and the Protestants retired into the little-frequented The fifty years preceding the French Rev<dution 
mountain districts. In Hungary the Government are known in histoiy as the period of the *' Enligh ten- 
could not accomplish so much. However, Peter ment". The Rationalist writers of this period 
Pdzmdn laboured with success against the spread believed that by enlightenment, in their sense of 
of the new religious doctrines. Pdzmdn was born at the word, a cure could be found for the evils of the 
Grosswardein (Nagy Vdrad) of Calvinistic parents, time, and a means of promoting the happiness of 
At sixteen he changed his creed, then entered the mankind. Men were led more and more away from 
Society of Jesus and studied at Cracow, Vienna, and the influence of the Church, the loftier aspirations of 
Rome. At Rome Bellarmine and Vasquez were noble and pious souls were scorned, and only the 
amouK his teachers. When professor at Graz he claims of a refined sensuality deemed worthy of 
publi^ed the "Imitatio Chnsti". He finally re- consideration. The new ideas made their way into 
turned to Hungary, became Primate, and gained great Austria, and that country became the birthplace of 
influence for &e Church through bis eloquence, the Josephinism, so called from the Emperor Joseph II, 


wbose policy and leeislatioii embodied these ideas, alone; 51 in Lower Austria. The property of theK 
Marift Theresa forbade the sale of the book written conventual institutions was turnea into a fund foi 
l^Fehfonius, but soon its sale to the learned and churoh expenses, which was to be administered by 
discreet was permitted. Urged b^ her council, thi^ ieveral provinces. In Lower Austria alone 231 
Maria Theresa issued the "Placitum r^um", new parishes were formed. Much discontent was 
made a stole-tax ordinance and obtained from caused by the appointment of an "ecclesiastical 
Boudict XIV a reduction of the feast days. By court oommission ' which issued a number of arbi- 
thislastregulation all the Apostles are conunepiorated trary regulations concerning public worship: only 
OD the feast of Sts. Peter and Paul, and all the martyrs one Mass was to be celebrated m a church, and that 
in the Mass uid Breviary on the feast of St. Stamen, at the haj^ altar; in parish churches, auring the 
The empress also abolished the convent prisons, and seasons of fasting, only two fast-day sermons, on 
ordered that passages in the Breviary lessons for the Wednesday smd Friday^ must be preached; after- 
feast of St Gregorv VII which are opposed to tljte noon devotions, the Litany of Loretto, and the 
increase of the secular power should be covered over Rosaiv were forbidden; a requiem might be cele- 
vith paper. She also put a stop to public excom- bratea in a parish church upon the occasion of a 
municatioDs and public penances. Tne last public death, but not upon the anniversary^ it was forbidden 
penance (1769) was that of a merchant at P^ to e^qboee the Blessed Sacrament m a monstrance, 
m Lower Austria who had struck an ecclesiastic. He the cibprium must be used instead; only when the 
stood for an hour at the church door hpldiqg a black Host was displayed could more than six candles be 
candle. When Qement XIV suppressed the ^dclety placed on the altar. A special regulation forbade 
ofJesus, the Archbishop of Vienna, Cardinal Migaxu, the dr^sing of statues of the Virgin and ordered 
sought to save that oraer in Austria. ''If the menn that the bodies of the dead should be buried in sacks 
b»8 (^ the ord^ should be scattered, it wo^ld not and covered with G|uicklime. Further ordinances 
be easy to fill their places; it would cost much ex- forbade the illumination and ornamentation of sacred 
pnise and time to bnng conditions back to the point pictures, the exhibition of relics, and pilgrimages, 
at idiich these priests had left their work if th^y The Edict of Toleration (1781) granted the private 
vere forced to abandon it." Just twenty years exercise of their religion to Lutherans and Calvinists. 
later Ifigazai begged the Emperor Francis 11 to re- The marriage law of 1783 runs: ''Marriage in itself 
establish the order. "I can prove to Your Majesty", is regarded as a purely civil contract. Both this 
be said, "that even the late French ambassador, who contract and the privileges and obligations arising 
was certainly an unprejudiced witness, did not hesi- from it are entirely dependent for uieir character 
tate to say that but for the suppression of the Jesuits and force on the secular laws of the land.'' In 1783, 
Frinoe would never have suffered from the Revolu- also, all schools, episcopal and monastic, for the 
tion, which brought such terrible results in its train, training of the clergry were abolished, and general 
Three months before the death of Your Majesty's seminaries were founded at Vienna, Budapest, Pavia, 
grandmother I heard her say, 'Oh, if I had only and Lou vain, with branches at Graz,01matz, Prague, 
roOowed your advice and had availed myself of your Innsbruck, Freiburg, and Pressburg. This measure 
statements r " After the suppression of the Jesuits was intended to check the influence of the bishops 
their property was converted into a fund for the aid in the training of ecclesiastics, and to obtain devoted 
of stuoents, and the whole system of education was servants of the State. The Minister of State, Van 
remodelled from top to bottom. Rautenstrauch, Swieten, took care that the new schools were supplied 
Abbot of Braunau, drew up a new scheme for a theo- with suitable teachers and superintendents, 
logiealoourse, in which there should be" no squaobles The first lodge of Freemasons^ "Zu den drei 
of schoob and scholastic chaos". Father Gratian Kcuionen", was formed at Vienna m 1742; a lodee 
Marx, of the Congrejgation of the Pious Schools, cidled "Zu den gekrOnten Sternen und zur Red- 
pl&nned a Realgymnasium (high school without Greek) Hchkeit" was formed soon< after at Prague. Joseph 
^thsix classes, which prov^ very successful. The 11, however, had no alliance with Freemasons. "I 
common schools, which Maria Theresa had called a know little about their secrets", he said, "as I never 
political necessity, were reorganized by Abbot John had the curiosity to take part in their mummeries".' 
iSDu Fdbiger of Sagen in Prussian Silesia, each Still, his words, "The Freemason societies increase 
parish being given a primary school, each aistrict and are now to be found in the smallest cities", 
a hi^ school, and the capital of each province a show the rapid growth of the order. Although 
Qormal school with whi^h an institute for training many of the representatives of the Church failed to 
tetchers was connected. Felbiger wrote the neces- meet the new tendencies with force and courage, 
sanr eehool books. The school at Kaplitz in southern the Prince- Archbishop of Vienna, Cardinal Migazzi. 
Bohc uia, under the sup>ervision of tne parish priest, attacked them boldly. He wrote vigorously and 
Ferdinand Kindermann, was noted as a model defended the Church with energy. He was well 
ftbooL supported by the Primate of Hungary, Count Joseph 
In ten years Joeeph 11 published 6,200 laws, court Batthydnyi, and, in the lower provinces by tne 
ll^uiations, and ordinances. Even those measures Cardinal Count von Frankenberg. But their efforts 
vfich were good and appropriate in themselves were in vain; the movement continued to grow. In 
l^&erally bore the evidences of precipitancy. His this condition of affairs Pius VI felt it necessary to 
^ay first ordii^nces were directed against the govern- take some action, and he resolved to visit Vienna. 
vioii of t^ Catholic Church and aroused discontent This visit (1782) was very opportune for the emperor 
1^ thdr interference with the affairs of the Church, and the leaders of the new tendency in the empire. 
^ aooeptance of papal decrees without the sanction Eybel issued the libellous pamphlet, "Was ist der 
<rf the uovernment was forbidden. The bishops Papst?" The value of the pamphlet literature of 
*^ forbidden to apply for, or make use of, the the Josephinist movement is not in proportion to its 
Wqtieimial faculties of the Holy See, on the ground amount. The roads traversed by the papal cort^e 
^ they had full authority to act for themselves, were lined with the faithful who were eager to obtam 
^ the other hand, they were not allowed to issue the blessing of the Holy Father. The emperor met 
Pastoral letters or instructions without the sanotion the pope at Wiener-Neustadt. and on the 22d of 
of the Government. The Government soon b^j^ian March the two heads of the Cnristian world entered 
^ ciote those monasteries which were not occupied the imperial city. The emperor showed the pope 
^ the spiritual care of a community, teaching or every attention, but his chancellor of state, Prince 
soning, and all the brotherhoods were suspended. Kaunitz, was less considerate. At Easter the pope 
^^t 738 religious bouses were closed; 13 in Viennai celebrated High Mass in the church of St. Stephen 


and afterwards blessed, from the balodn^ of the .permitted^toapointnotfar distant", and Saturday 

church facing Am Hof , the vast throng which filled evening devotions were also allowed (without Bene^ 

the sauare. But the object of the pope's visit was diction, however), as well as the exposition of relics. 

fainea only in part, although it may oe said that the Francis II was a devout and conscientious Chri»- 

osephinist fanaticism began to give place to a more tian, and a ruler who wished to be a father to hie 

sober mood. When the Holy Father left Vienna, people. Nevertheless, it was during his reign that 

22 April, after a stay of just one month, the emperor what ia called the Josephinist system struck firmer 

accompanied him as far as Mariabrunn. Here, roots. In the first place, the struggle with France, 

after praying in the church, the two parted. The next which lasted over twenty years, demanded all the 

year the emperor visited Rome, where the Spanish energies of the Government, and during this reign 

ambassador, Azara, and Cardinal Bemis are said to both dersy and people grew more accustomed to 

have had a moderating effect upon him. Thare was the Josephinist regulations. But in addition to this 

no break with the Curia. Francb I dung witii a childlike devotion to the 

One work of lasting value which this empm)r memory of his uncle Joseph II, whom he called his 

undertook was in connexion with diocesan boimdaries. second father. And, furthermore, whenever any 

He took from the Diocese of Passau that part which concession was made to the Church, the supporters 

lies in Austria and formed with it the See of Lina; of Joeephinism raised an outcry. In 1793, for in- 

the episcopal residence was transferred from Wiener- stance, the Government was informed that in the 

Neustadt to St. P6lten, Brejgenz was made the seat church of St. Stephen Mass was celebrated simul- 

of a vicar-^neral, and a bishopric was founded at taneouslv at several altars, and that in several places, 

Leoben. The worst blunder committed by Joseph II at the afternoon litanies. Benediction was ^ven with 

in his later years was his obstinate adherence, in spite the monstrance. A priest had been the mformant. 

of the warnings of Cardinal Frankenberg, to the After repeated conferences the cardinal obtained 

scheme of erecting a general seminary at Ix>uvain. permission to have two Masses said at the same time 

Van Swieten put Stdger in charge of it. Stdger was m the church of St. Stiephen but " the Benediction 

one of the few Catholic priests who had committed coidd be given only once at the close of the service", 

themselves unreservedly to the "Enlightenment" The almost insurmountable diflSculty in the way of 

movement. Maria Theresa had dismissed him from reform was the ecclesiastical court commission. It 

his position as teacher of church history, and his was the only means of communication between a 

opinions were to be found in print in his compendium bishop and the emperor. Migazzi wished, above 

of church history. The career of Aurelius Fessler everything, to eliminate this dimcultv. "I am in all 

is a still more distressing example of the influence of things", ne said, "Your Majesty s most dutiful 

the new spirit. Fessler was bom in Hungary and subject. But in his ecclesiastical character the 

came to Vienna as a Capuchin monk. There he chief shepherd must say boldly that the placing of 

became acquainted with Eybel, and as an offset to such fetters upon the guardians of the Church is an 

Eybers "Was ist der Papst?" issued "Was ist der offence to all Catholics, and it is a still neater offence 

Kaiser?" Appointed prof essor of theoloffv at Lem- that this power is given to men of worioly or untrust- 

berg, he entered the Freemason lodge "JrhOnix zur worthy reputation, and even to men known to be 

runden Tafel", but was soon obliged to leave Lem- dangerous or of notorious character." The emperor, 

berg "on account of debt and frivolous demeanour indeed, sought to do away with the worst features 

unsuited to his calling". He became a Lutheran, of the svstOTi which had come down to him from 

established himself in Beriin as legal counsellor in his predecessors. He authorized the prayer, the 

ecclesiastical and school cases, got a divorce in order solemn benediction of graves, and the pilgrimages 

to marry again, and accepted a professorship in the to Mariazell (the first of which, in 1792, was led by 

academy at St. Petersburg. Obliged to leave this Migazzi himself), and the draping of "the poor 

position in a year's time ^'on account of atheistical statues of the Mother of God", 
opinions", he succeeded in becoming an Evangelical Afan cannot at will be stirred to activity or lulled 

bii^op, and died at St. Petersburg. His "Reminis- to sleep. However, at the beginning of the nine- 

cences of My Seventy Years' Pilgrimage" presents teenth century a number of circumstances combined 

a melancholy picture of long and wearv wanderings, to bring about an increase of the religious spirit in 

Although the reforms of Joseph II were well- Austria. In 1802, the emperor issued two circulars, 

intentioned, yet the independence of the Chiut^h the first on "the means of elevating the secular 

suffered detriment through them. His enactments clergy" and the second on "the means of improving 

were drafted by Austrian canonists without any the regular clerpr". To remedy the lack of priests, 

previous understanding with the authorities of the the firet order mcreased the number of gymnasia. 

Church, and in violation of her rights (jus circa directed the establishment of a theological training- 

sacra). In many instances the tender germs of school, with a seminary attached, for each dioceee, 

religion were killed, and a careless, frivolous way of and granted stipends to divinity students. EkMdesi- 

thinking resulted. astics belonging to an order were to wear the habit 

Leopold II, the successor of Joseph II, entered of their order, and must not live alone; a profession 

Vienna, 12 March, 1790, and on the 21st of the same might be made in the twenty-first year, mstead of 

month Cardinal Migazzi presented a memorial con- the twenty-fifth. Soon after this the emperor 

ceming the painful position of the Austrian Chiut^h. transferred to the bishops the supervision of religioiis 

As a result, the bishops received an intimation that instruction (1808) and the censorship of theolo^cal 

they were at liberty to point out any serious defects works (1814). Kepeated commands Uy officials 

in the existing ecclesiastical conditions. This they required them to attend Sunday church-services, 

did, but, more especially. Cardinal Migazzi enumer- A university service, with a university preacher, was 

ated "thirteen grievances and their remedies" in founded for university students. Two days before 

his memorandum. Among these grievances were his death the emperor directed his successor to 

"the lack of monastic discipline, the general semi- "complete the work he had begun of rectifying 

naries, the marriage laws, and the Ecclesiastical those laws, principles, and methods of managing 

Commission which had assumed to be the judge church afiPaira which had been introduced -since 

of the bishops and their rights". Leopold II virtu- 1780". 

ally suspended the general seminaries, permitted The Archbishops of Vienna acted in a manner 

the bishops to have seminaries under their own worthy of their high office. Migazzi's successor, in 

control, and granted to the monasteries the right to 1803, was Sigismund Anton Osunt Hohennvarth, 

give theologi^ courses. Religious processions were the instructor of the emperor, and a pastor seelous 


In- souk, who devoted himself especially to the the congregation aa an order, and, filled with joy, 

theological schools. After him came Vincenz Eduard he pas^d away, praising God, 15 March, 18^. 

Milde (d 1853) who had gained a good reputation as Tendler, who followed inHofbauer's footsteps, was 

a theorist in pedagogics and as a practical teacher, bom only six days after his death. Hofbauer was 

An important part in arousing the Church was taken beatified in 1886. Cardinal Rauscher said of him: 

by the followmg court preachers of that period: "Father Hofbauer made the final arran^ment of 

Yincenz Damaut, who prepared an Old Testament the Concordat possible; he gave to the spirit of the 

histofy; Frint, author of a compendium of religious time a better direction". 

knowledge (6 vols.), the man at whose suggestion There were at this time, unfortunately, priests 
the emperor in 1816 established the advancea school who instead of offering to their fellow-men the pure 
for secular clergy at St. Augustine, and the founder wheat of the truth sought to give them the chaff of 
of the Vienna Theologische S^itschrift"; Vincenz fantastic dreams. Among others, Martin Boos 
Eduard Milde was the author of a textbook of the gen- taught that " the Saviour only demands from sinners 
eral theory of pedagogics (2 vols.); Johann Michael that they believe in him and make his merits their 
Leonhard, who publisned ''Christian Doctrines" in own. For this reason the formation of a particular 
four parts and textbooks for grammar schools: society of believers in the living faith is necessary". 
Johann Pletz, who continued Frint 's periodical and Boos supported his views by referring to Professor 
puUifihed ''Dogmatic Sermons"; Job, confessor to Sailer, but was imprisoned a whole year by the 
the queen mother. (Woline Augusta; Albert SchlOr, consistory at Augsburg. After this he nad a parish 
whoj>roduced "MeditatAons upon the Entire Gospel at Gallenkirchen, in Upper Austria, but was ooliged 
for Ecclesiastics and Priests", a work still fruitful, to resign his position. Thomas P6schel, a curate, 
The priests whom the emperor received into Austria at Ampfelwang, in Upper Austria, received a heav- 
after the secularisation ot the abbeys in the empire enly revelation that the millennium had begun, 
woe also very active. Thirty-five monks who came This was to be preceded by the arrival of Antichrist, 
from St. Blasien, in the Black Forest to St. Paul in who had just appeared in the person of Napoleon. 
Garinthia pursued serious studies; twenty-five from P6schel died at Vienna in the infirmary for priests. 
Wiblingen entered Austrian abbeys. Among these The "Manharter" in Tyrol took the name of the 
'were &bastian Z&ngerle, who, "praying, working, peasant Manhart, who, influenced by the assistant 
and bravely fighting", bequeathed ms diocese oi curate Easpar Hagleitner, maintained that the acts 
Seckau in exc(^ent condition to his successor; and of the Tyrolese ecclesiastics who had sworn fealty 
Gregor Thomaa Ziegler, who, while pjrofessor of to Napoleon were invalid. The Archbishop of Salz- 
dogmatics at Vienna, wrote "On Theological Ration- buig, Augustine Gruber, and Cardinal Cappellari 
aHam", "Foundation of the Catholic Faith", and a (Gregory XVI) quieted the peasants. . 
"life of Job". Their efforts were aided by the In 1848, when, as was said at the bishops' confer- 
oonverts Frederick von Sohlegel and Zachariafl ence at WUrzburg, " the judgment of God was passed 
Werner. Mettemich was Schlegel's patron. Schle- on thrones and peoples", the devastating storm 
gera lectures on modem history and on ancient and broke out in Austria. Even Foster, a pro^ssor of 
modem literature, delivered at Vienna, had a bene- theology at the University of Vienna and a university 
ficialeffect, and the "Konkordia",whidi he founded, preacher, led students astray. The Prince- Arch- 
advocated Catholic interests. Werner's conversion oishop of Vienna, Vincenz Eduard Milde,' issued a 
was finaJly effected by the confession of St. Peter, warning to the entire clergy "to keep within the 
In reading the "Imitation of Christ "his eye happened limits of their calling". Nevertheless, the revolu- 
to fall on the only words of Peter contained m the tionary spirit soon threatened the Church. Public 
WOTk (Im., Ill, Uii, I). He called th^ "Imitation of demonstrations were made against Archbishop 
Christ "the "pith of all books". (ToUe.lege,) During Milde and the papal nuncio, because Pius IX was 
the sessions of the Congress he preacned at Vienna said to have blessed the Italians who marched out 
with such intense feeling that at times he wept as he to fight the Austrians. The Redemptorists were 
recalled with remorse nis youthful errors. For a driven out of Vieima, and the Jesuits out of Graz. 
while Hohenwarth entertained him in his palace and Ronge, whose followers abused the words German 
DaJberg gave him'a gold pen which he presented to and Catholic by calling themselves "German-Catho- 
the shrine at Ms^azeiL Werner, who died eleven lie", preached in the Odeon at Vienna and in the 
days after preaching a notable sermon on the feast of taverns at Graz. Unfortunately, Ronee was joined 
the Epii>luuiy. in 1823, was buried at Maria Enzers- by Hermann Pauli, assistant at Erdberg, and by 
dorf beode Hessed Clement Maria Hofbauer. Hof- Hirschberger, chaplain at the home for disabled 
bauer was a man of saintly character and prayerful soldiers. Pauli and Hirschberger came to a sad end: 
life who^ as confessor and preacher, exercised an the former died in an insane asylum, the latter com- 
extraordmary ii^uence over many and was a source mitted suicide. 

of lig^t and instruction for Vienna and Austria. He With these exceptions, the clergy of Vienna be- 
was bom at Twss^iii in Moravia^ entered the Re- haved admirably. In May the curate, Sebastian 
demptorist Order at Rome as its first German mem- Brunner, came to the defence of the Church against 
her and was active in the order at Warsaw. He the hostile press by issuing the "Kirchenzeitun^", 
suffered for tlie Faith, being confined in the fortress and the bishops of various dioceses sent memorials 
of KOs^in, and after coming to Vienna was appointed and addresses to the ministry, the imperial diet and 
anistant to the rector of the Italian church through the emperor, such as: a statement of the bishops of 
the influence of Archbishop Hohenwarth. He was the Arcndiocese of Moravia drawn up by Kutschker; 
finaHy made confessor to the Ursulines. Without petition of the Prince-Bishop of Lavant to the Im- 
Doiajr effort he produced deep effects. Among his perial Diet; petition of the Archbishop of Gdrz to 
peutentfl were: Adam von Milller, court councillor the Ministry; "What are the Relations of Church 
and author, whose last words were "Only those and State? An Answer by the bishops of Bohemia"; 
facta are worthy of notice which the Catholic Church memorial of the Archbishopric of Salzburg to the 
leeociifles as true"; Schlegeh Zacharias Werner; Imperial Diet; memorial of the Archdiocese of Vienna 
the Prinoeas Jafalonowska and Princess Bretzenheim; to the Diet; memorial of the bishops of the Arch- 
Privy Councillor Francis de Paul Szeechenyij Pro- diocese of the maritime district to the constitutional 
Umon Fourerius Ackermann, Zangerle, Ziegler; imperial diet at Kremsier. All these brochures 
Byibopfi Rauscher and Baraga. He converted Sil- sought the independence of the Church, the breaking 
bert Klinkowstr5m and Veith. Hofbauer learned of her fetters so that she might be free to raise her 
on his death-bed that the emperor had recognized hand to bless. 


As the apt)eals of individual bishops and dioceses regulate instruction: "All school instruction oi 
had little effect, the minister of the interior, Count Catholic children must be in accordance with tha 
Stadion, summoned the Austrian bishops to Vienna teachings of the Catholic Church j the bishops are 
in order to obtain a unanimous expression of their to have charge of religious training; professors of 
wishes. Hungary and the Lombardo-Venetian prov- theology are to be chosen from men whom the bishop 
inces were not mcluded, as they were not yet pacified, holds to be most suited to the position: only Catholics 
This first conference of the Austrian bishops met, shall be appointed professors in the eymnasia [middle 
29 April to 20 June, 1849, in the archiepiscopal schools] set aside for Catholic children; the bishops 
palace. Sixty sittings were held. Schwarzenberg, are to select the religious text-books*'. The bishops 
the "German cardinal", presided, and the lately have the right to condemn books injurious to religion 
consecrated Bishop Rauscher was secretary. Hun- and morals, and to forbid Cathohcs reading them 
gary was represented by the Bishop of Pecs, Scit- (Art. 8). The ecclesiastical judge decides matri- 
vosky. Among the theologians were Court Councillor monial suits of an ecclesiastical character (Art. 10). 
Zenner, of Vienna; Professor Kutachker, of OlmOtz; The Holy See does not forbid ecclesiastics who have 
Canon Tarnoczy, of Salzburg* Canon Wiery, of committed misdemeanours and crimes to be brought 
Lavant; Professor Fessler, of Brixen; Canon Jab- before the secular courts (Art. 14). The emperor, 
linsky, of Tarnow; and Canon Ranolder of P^cs. in exercising the Apostolic prerogative inherited 
The voluminous memorials presented to the Gov- from his ancestors, or nominating the bishops to be 
emment by the conference discussed marriage, canonically confirmed by the Holy See, wiU in the 
the endowment funds for religion, school, and future, as in the past, avail himself of the advice of 
student-stipends, livings and endowments for church- the bishops, especially of the bishops of the archdio- 
services, instruction, the administration of the cese in wnich the vacant see lies (Art. 19). In all 
church, ecclesiastical ofiices and church services, metropolitan churches the Holy Father appoints the 
monastic houses, ecclesiastical jurisdiction. In the highest di^itary. The emperor tetill appoints all 
resolutions, which cover 207 paragraphs, the bishops other dignitaries and the canons of the cathedral 
marked out for themselves a common course of action. (Art. 22). The Holy Father empowers the emperor 
The resolutions of this first conference of the bishops and his successors to present to all canonries and 
of Austria were the foundation on which the new parishes where the right of patronage is derived from 
structure of the Austrian CJhurch has been built, the endowment fund for religious or educational 
Before the close of the conference an episcopal foundations, but in such cases the appointee must 
committee of five members was formed to press the be one of three candidates nominated by the bishop 
settlement of the memorials, and to protect the as suitable for the position (Art. 25). The bishops 
interests of the Church. The chairman of the com- have the right to Drine religious orders into their 
mittee was Cardinsd Schwarzenberg, the secretary dioceses (Art. 28). The estates which form the 
was Prince-Bishop Rauscher of Seckau. Count endowment fund for religious and educational foun- 
Leo Thun, Minister of Instruction, presented the dations are the property of the Church and are man- 
matter at last to His Majesty at two audiences, and aged in its name, tne bishops having the supervision 
the important imperial decrees of 18 and 23 April, of affairs; the emperor is to aid in making up what 
1850, were the result of these interviews. The nrst is lacking in the fund (Art. 31). 
ordinance defined the relations of the Catholic Church The Concordat was intended to be binding upon the 
to the State: Catholics "are at liberty to apply in entire monarchy, and to be carried out with uniform- 
spiritual matters to the pope"; bishops might issue ity in all parts. Thun, therefore, in the emperor's 
regulations in matters pertaining to their office name, called the bishops of the entire empire to 
without previous permission from state officials; Vienna. On the 6th of April, 1856, the inhaoitants 
ecclesiastical authorities were allowed to order of the imperial city saw 66 princes of the Church 
church punishments; careless administrators of enter the Cathedrju of St. Stephen in state. These 
church offices could be suspended. The ordinance ecclesiastics represented the Latin, Greek, and Ori- 
of 23 April defined the relations of the Church to ental Rites; among them were German, Hungarian, 
public instruction: teachers of religion and theological Italian, and Polisn bishops. The procession w^as 
professors could not be appointed without the con- closed by the pro-nuncio, Cfardinal Viale Preld. The 
sent of the bishop, who could at any time withdraw assembly presented to the Government proposals, 
his ratification; the bishop named one-half of the requests, and resolutions concerning schools, mar- 
examining committee at theological examinations; riage, church estates, appointment to ecclesiastical 
a candidate for a theological doctorate had to sub- benefices, monasteries, patronage of livings. The 
scribe to the Tridentine Confession of Faith in the closing session was held 17 June. The emperor 
presence of the bishop before obtaining his degree. received the bishops in a farewell audience. On this 

On the 14th of September, 1852, the Emperor occasion Cardinal Schwarzenberg said: "After God, 

Francis Joseph empowered Prince- Bishop Rauscher our hope and trust rest on Your Majesty's piety, 

to act as his representative in drawing up a Concordat, wisdom, and justice. When we have reached our 

and Pope Pius IX named as his representative, Viale dioceses we shall strive most zealously to extend 

Preld, the papal nuncio in Vienna. In important the benefits of the agreement in all directions", 

questions Rauscher was to consult with the com- In order to make the Concordat effectual, the bishops 

mittee on the Church. This committee was com- held synods in their dioceses: at Gran, 1858; Vienna, 

posed of Thun, Minister of Instruction; Buol Schauen- 1858; Prague, 1860; Kalocsa, 1863. Fresh life 

stein. Minister of Foreign Affairs; Bach, Minister of showed itself everywnere. It is now acknowledged 

the Interior; R. von Salvotti, Member of the Imperial that schools of all grades accomplished great things 

Diet; and Freiherr von Kiibeck, President of the under the Concorcfet. The primary schools were 

Imperial Diet. The results of the conferences were excellently arranged, a course of study which is still 

to be laid from time to time before the emperor for in force was drawn up for the rymnasia, and the 

decision. The negotiations advanced very slowly. University of Vienna gained a world wide reputation 

The Hungarian bishops presented special desideria under Thun, the author of the Concordat. In 1855 

(requests), the Patriarch of Venice presented poatu' the Institute for Research in Austrian history was 

lata et desideria (demands and requests). In order formed. Famous members of the medical faculty 

to expedite matters, Rauscher spent seven consecu- of the university were the professors: Skodra (ijer- 

tive months in Rome, busied with negotiations, cussion and auscultation); Kokitansky (pathological 

The Concordat was at last signed on the emperor's anatomy); Oppolzer; Hebra; Stellwag; HyrU; Brlidce, 

birthday, 1855. It contains 36 articles. Arts. 5-8 and Billroth, the last named being the leading sui^ 


geon of the century. Upon Rauscher's suggestion teenth century, John Emanuel Veith, and of the 
the number of professors in the department of dog- philosopher and priest, Anton Gilnther. Veith was 
matic theology of the University of Vienna was t)om at Kuttenplan, in Bohj^mia, and was of Jewish 
increased, in order to ensure a more extended course parentage. When he was nine years old his spiritual 
in this branch. The new men called were, Father struggles began. In his twenty-first year, led by 
Philip Guidi, O.P., and Father demenS Schrader, Father Hofbauer, he found peace in the Church. He 
S.J., Doth from Rome. The lectures were obligatory faithfully kept the vow he had made: *'I will devote 
on divinity students in any one year of the four years' my entire lite to the only thing that is eternal, and 
course, and were intended also for priests desirous therefore, the only thing that is important.'' Veith 
of instruction. The successful development of art became a priest, preached for fourteen years in the 
during this period is shown in the church of Altler- Cathedral of St. Stephen at Vienna and died in 1876. 
chenfeld in Vienna, which was consecrated in 1861. At the time of his last illness he was preparing a 
This fine structure was built from the designs of the translation, with commentary, of the Canticle of 
architect John George MtiUer, and was decorated Canticles. On the day of his death he wrote down 
with a series of murm paintings by Joseph FUhrich, the words of Sulamit: 
wofesaor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. Neu auch wollen wir dort oben 
These paintings combine art and true dogma most Lieb und Treue ihm geloben. 
admiraoly, and Ftihrich is in them a veritable — "Afresh will we there above vow to him our faith 
teacher of the Faith. He was bom at Krazau in and love." Then, putting the pen aside, he said, 
Bohemia, studied art first at the academv in Prague, "It is finished", and breathed nis last. (Life by 
afterwards for two years at Rome, and coming to LOwe.) Richness of thought and a classic elegance 
Vienna passed forty-two studious and fruitful years of speech characterized Veith 's sermons. Among 
there (ci. 1876), Among the large number of his those published are:" Die Leidenswerkzeuge Chris ti"; 
religious paintings the most famous are: The Pater- " DenkbQchlein von der gOttlichen Liebe"; "Das 
nosier; the Way of the Cross, in the church of St. Friedensopfer": " Lebensbilder aus der Passions- 
John on the Prater, Vienna, copies of which can be geschichte"; "Die heiligen Berge" (2 vols.): "Ho- 
found in all parts of the world; the Way to Bethle- milienkranz" (5 vols.); "Der verlome Sohn ; "Die 
hem; illustrations of the Psalter and the Imitation Samaritin"; "Die Erweckung des Lazarus"; "Mater 
of CSm'st; the Prodigal Son; the ^ook of Ruth. Dolorosa"; "Festpredigten" (2 vols.); "Homiletische 
The manner in which Ftihrich developed his scheme VortrSge" (7 vols.); "Der Blindgebome"; "Poli- 
of thought in the series of pictures in the Altlerchen- tische Passionspredigten "; "Eucharistie"; "Welt- 
feld church is extremely impressive. Pictures in leben und Christen tum"; "Charitas"; "Worte der 
churches, according to his view, were not merely Feinde Christi"; "Misericordia" (Psalm Miserere); 
decorative; through the senses they must imfold to "Das Vaterunser"; "Weg, Wahrheit, und Leben"; 
the spirit that inner life of faith which finds its full " Dodekatheon " ^2 vols.); "Die Miichte des Unheils"; 
development in the church. In the vestibule of "Die Anfange der Menschenwelt"; "Die Stufen- 
the church, six pictures portray the work of creation, psalmen"; "Prophetic und Glaube"; " Homiletische 
and a seventh sets fortn the rest of the Creator on Aehrenlese" (2 vols.); "Meditationen uber den 118. 
the Sabbath. The paintings in the two side aisles Psalm"; "Hundert Psalmen"; "Der Leiden we^ des 
represent the Church of the Old Testament, which Herm"; " Stechpalmen "; "Dikaiosyne, Die Epistel- 
kept alive the longing for salvation and proclaimed reihe des Kirchenjalu-es". Karl Werner, the son 
its coming. The paintings of the middle aisle por- of a teacher, was born at Hafnerbach in Lower 
tray the fulfilment of the promise by scenes from Austria and died in 1888. He w^as first professor of 
the life of Christ. Between the historical pictures moral theology at St. Pdlten, then professor of higher 
are placed at intervals the figure of the Saviour with exegesis at the University of Vienna. In Vienna he 
appropriate historical emblems, such as Christ as was appointed member of the advisory council of 
a gardener, with a hoe on the shoulder. This is the mmister of instruction, and wtis elected member 
foffi)wed by a picture of the owner of the vineyard of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. Amon^ the 
conunanding the gardener to cut down the imfruitful many worts of learned research Werner published 
tree. Then Christ aa shepherd, followed by an are: "System der Ethik" (2 vols.); "Grundlinien 
allegorical picture of the transferring of the ofiice of der Philosophic"; "Der hi. Thomas von Aquino" 
shepherd to Peter; Christ the wayfarer, followed by (3 vols.); "Franz Suarez und die Scholastik der 
a representation of the man who fell among thieves; letzten Jahrhunderte " (2 vols.); "Geschichte der 
Christ the sower, followed by the approaching apologetischen und polemischen Literatur der christ- 
liarvester with his sickle. These paintm§^, with lichen Theologie"; ^'Geschichte der katholischen 

ur Ge^en- 



Tbe conception running through the whole series of Sige unci seine Zeit": "Alkuin und seinJahrhundert"; 

i)aintings, from those in the vestibule to that of the "Gerbert von Aurillac, die Kirche und Wissenschaft 

nigh altar, is that the paradise lost by the first seiner Zeit"; "Giambattista Vico als Philosoph und 

human beings is offered to us again by the second gelehrter Forscher": "Johannes Duns Scotus"; 

Adam in the new heaven. "Geschichte der Scholastik des spateren Mittelalters" 

At this moment of renewed energy in the church. (5 vols.); "Geschichte der italienischen Philosophic 

Austria possessed bishops who would have excited des 19. Jahrh. " Many of Werner's treatises are to 

the envy of little Cappaaocia at the time of the three be found in the reports of the sessions of the philo- 

great Cappadocians. Among these Austrian bishops sophico-historical section of the Imperial Academy 

were: cWainal Schwarzenberg (d. 1886) and Cardinal of Sciences. Anton Gtinther, founder of the Gun- 

Ranscher (d. 1875^ life by Wolfsgruber); Francis therian school of philosophy, was born at Lindenau, 

Joseph Rudigier, Bishop of Linz (a. 1879; life by near Leitmeritz, in Bohemia. He studied juris- 

Meindl); Vincenz Gasser, Prince-Bishop of Brixen prudence and philosophy at Pra^e, and came under 

(d, 1879; life by Zobl); Joseph Fessler, Bishop of St. the influence of the philosophical ideas of Kant. 

Pidten (d. 1872; life by Erdinger); John B. Zwerger, Fichte, and Jacobi. Blessed Clement Hofbauer led 

Prince-Biahop of Seckau (d. 1893; life by Oer). him back to the truth. Giinther was consecrated 

The description of this period would not be complete priest, and became teacher of philosophy in noble 

vithout mention of the foremost German preacher families, especially in that to which Scnwarzenberg, 

and most fruitful German theologian of the nine- afterwards Cardinal, belonged. For many years he 


filled the modest Dosition of sacristan of St. Ruprecht, should be instilled. It was not possible, however, 

the oldest church in Vienna. After a life spent in to resist the liberal pressure. On the 2l8t of Decern- 

ghilosophical study he died in 1876 Qife by Knoodt). ber, 1867, the new fundamental laws received the 

tdnther's chief worics are: "Vorschule zur spekula^ imperial approval. The first granted full freedom 

tiven Theologie des Christen tiuns"; "Peregrins of faith and conscience and freedom in scientific 

Gastmal*'; "Stid- und Nordlichter am Horizont opinion. The second declared: "All jurisdiction 

spekulativer Theologie"; "Januskdpfe fttr Philoso- in the state is exercised in the name of the emperor". 

Justes-Milieux in der deutschen Philosophie gegen- tion. Two professors of dogmatics did not take the 

warti^rZeit"; "EurystheusundHerakles '; "Lvdia" oath; these were Schrader, 3ie Jesuit, and Hyacinth 

(a philosophical annual, in oc^aboration with Veith). Pellegrinetti, the Dominican successor of Guidi. 

Honestly intending to defend fdth against the They were obliged to resign their professorships, 

philosophical doubtmgs which are constantly arisine and their places nave not yet been filled, 
in mpdem times, GUnther fell into the mistake of During this same period the dual constitution was 

making the mysteries of faith d^)endent on their sanctioned, by whicn the Austro-Hungarian Mon- 

recognition by the understcmding, so that knowledge archy as it now exists, was formed "of two distinct 

was substituted for faith. A learned war broke out co-ordinate States having the same constitutional, 

in Germany, in which G(Ui therms position was dam- legal, and administrative rights". After a long 

aged by the vagaries of his followers, and at the end stru^e the emi>eror signed, & May, 1868, the laws 

of five years' examination the Congregation of the concerning marriage, schools, and the status of the 

Index condemned his writings. After the first ex- several denominations. The first jq{ these laws 

citement had subsided GUnther gave a proof of the declares marriage to be a civil contract, makes the 

honesty of opinion which had characterized his action civil marriage obUgatory, and takes from the Church 

from the start. The verdict of the Congregation of the judicial power pro foro extemo in matrimonial 

the Index was sent to him 23 January, 1867; on suits. The law concerning schools takes from the 

10 February he handed Cardinal Rauscner his sub- bishop any control of the management as well as 

mission, to be forwarded to the Holy Father and to the right of supervision. These powers are given 

Cardinal Andrea, Prefect of the Congregation of the to an official scnool committee of the district and 

Index. The thought which consoled Gtbither in town, of which committee ecclesiastics can be chosen 

these days of trial was that God demanded of every members. The bishops select the books used by 

man the sacrifice of his Isaac, and that this sacrifice the catechist and instructors in religious doctrine, 

was what he now made to God. The third law grants everyone the right to choose 

Goethe sa3rs that the subject of profoundest interest his own religion on attaining the age of fourteen 

in the history of the world is the battle of disbelief years, but a child between seven and fourteen years 

against faith. This is still more true of the history of age cannot change his or her religion even at the 

of the Church. In 1860 Austria became a constitu- wish of the parents. As these laws infringed the 

tional monarchy, and in the next year the founda- Concordat in essentials, a secret consistory was held 

tions of a representative government were laid, at Rome, 22 June, at which the pope declared: 

The Imperial Parliament was to consist of a House of " Leges auctoritate NostrA apostolic^ reprobamus. 

Peers, to which the archbishops and prince-bishop damnamus et decreta ipsa irrita prorsus nulliusque 

were to belong, and a House of Deputies. During roboris fuisse ac fore declaramus. " ("By Our 

the first session of the Parliament, Maager, a Protes- Apostolic authority we reprobate and condemn 

tant deputy, attacked the Concordat and demanded these laws, and declare that their purport was, and 

its revision. Upon this the members of the episco- shall be, wholly invalid and of no force.") The 

pacy in the Upper House and some other bishops bishops upon this issued pastorals. The joint 

met and prepared a memorial which was sent to the letter of 3 June issued by the Bohemian bishops to 

emperor. "Of all the party cries", it ran, "which the clerfor and their joint pastoral of 24 June were 

are put to eflfective use in electioneering, none has condemned by the imperial civil courts of all three 

so much prominence at present as the word toleration, instances, on the ground that they were a disturbance 

True toleration is exercised by the Catholic Church, of the public peace, and suppressed. Penal prooeed- 

while the harshest intolerance is practised on all ings were not brought against Cardinal Schwarzen- 

sides against the Catholic Church. All its ordinances berg, but Bishop Francis Joseph Rudigier, of Linz, 

and institutions are slandered and mistrusted, and was prosecuted for his pastoral of 7 September, 

eveiy exhibition of Catholic conviction is ovei^ "On account of the misdemeanour committed in 

whelmed with scorn and derision," The events the pastoral letter" — of calling the law of 24 May a 

just noted were merely the forerunners of a terrible lie— -he was brought before the Supreme Court, 

storm which broke after the disastrous war of 1866. found guilty by the jury, and condemned to fourteen 

In July of the next year Deputy Herbet moved the days' imprisonment with costs. The pastoral was 

preparation of three bills concerning marriage, ordered to be destroyed. Next day the emperor 

schools, and the mutual relations of Uie different in a decree remitted the punishment and its legal 

religious denominations. A conference of twenty- consequences. The bishops disagreed as to whether 

four bishops was held at Vienna, and a second me- the clergy should permit themselves to be chosen 

morial was sent to the emperor which contained the members of the school committees, but Rauscher 

following: "A party has arisen which has chosen and Schwarzenberg, who were for the permission, 

this time of distress for an attack on the religion to carried their point. 

which Your Majesty, the Imperial family, and a The definition of the pope's infallibiUty afforded 

^eat majority of the inhabitants of the land belong, von Stremayr, the Austrian Minister of Instruction, 

We are in the presence of a spectacle which causes a pretext to demand the abrogation of the Concordat, 

the enemies of Austria to smile derisively, and which on the plea that the pope, one of the contractlni^ 

fills Austria's sons with shame rather than with parties, had received from the definition a ne^ 

anxiety." Marriage without the blessing of the character, which invalidated the ori^nal agreement. 

Church, schools without religion were demanded. Beust, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, ad£%9ased to 

In order to obtain suitable teachers for these schools Palomba a note which declared: "The Concordat 

it was proposed to found for the training of teachers exists no longer; it is annulled." The abrogation 

institutions where contempt for all that is holy of the Concoraat produced a gap in religious 


lation. To remedy this four bills were introduced, Rauscfaer died (24 Nov., 1875). It was due to his 

January, 1874, for regulating the legal status of the wise moderation and caution that Austria escaped the 

Catholic Church, the taxing of the fund for the sup- evils of a KuUurkamvf (religioucr conflict). In 1874, 

port of relig|ion, the legal status of monasteries, and von Stremayr offerea four projects for bills in the 

the recognition of new religious societies. The pope House of Deputies, one of wnich dealt with the legal 

expresBed, on the 7th of March, his grief at the attack status of monastic cmmunities. Rauscher said 

on the rights of the Church, implied in the assertion that it " bore on its forvuead unusual marks of mis- 

tbat the supreme power in all matters concerning trust, arbitrariness, and harshness. According to its 

the external life belonged to the State. The bishops provisions, the authority of the minister of worship 

assembled again at Vienna and sent this statement of the time being would be sufhcient to sweep from 

to the Ministry and the Upper House: "We repeat ^e earth a monastic house which had existed for a 

that we are ready to agree to the demands wnich thousand years and to enforce the sequestration of 

the State makes on us in the bill concerning the legal its property. " The bill reached the tipper House 

status of the Catholic Church as far as these demands by the middle of January, 1876. But Cardinal 

are in harmony with the Concordat concerning these Schwarzenberg succeeded, by means of a memorial^ 

matters. We cannot and will not acauiesce in a of the Austrian archbishops and bishops, in inducing' 

proposition the consummation of wnich would the emperor not to sign it, and the bill has not yet 

endanger the welfare of the Church." become law. 

One of the chief causes of the scarcity of priests The parliamentary election of 1879 increased the 
which now began to be marked was the new law of number of conservative members so that the Right 
national defence. By this law youths in their ^ohenwari) Party was in the majority. In 1882, the 
twentieth year during their course at a gymnasitun Karl Ferdinand University, at Prague, was divided 
were subject to military duty. The bishops a^in into a German and a Czech university. Cardinal 
and again be^ed for a relaxation of the provisions Schwarzenberg, however, would not consent to a 
of the law. But they had, for the time oeing, no division of the theological faculty. He wrote to the 
redress except to appeal in individual cases to the minister, Conrad von Eybesfeld: "The Church does 
indulgence of the emperor. When the bills reached not wisn the separation of the nations, but their 
the upper house the bishops defended themselves union in one body, the head of which is Christ, 
bravely. Rauscher closed his address of 10 April She dedicates the olessings of her activity to all 
with these worcjs: "So-called progress no longer nations, she recognizes the ririit of every peo]:de to 
considers it necessary to conceal its real aim, and independence, she respects ana supports the demands 
has unmasked its hate against God and eternal truth, of a people for its own language and its own form of 
But Providence has set a natural limit to all things, instruction. But the Church cannot give to the 
The destruction of Christianity is impossible, but claims of nationality the first place, they must always 
Austria may be destroyed if the war against relirion be for her a secondary interest. The theological 
is not checked in good time." Yet, for all tnis, faculty must impress this idea upon their pupils 
the first two bills became law, 7 May, 1874. Among and must not, therefore, drive them apast. They 
other thinffs, the law concerning the legal status of should not deepen and embitter the national dif- 
the Church declares that: In order to obtain any ferences by a separation; they should strive rather 
ecclesiastical appointment or living, a candidate s to compose these differences. This duty is above all 
record of past conduct must be blameless when judged necessary among the various nationalities of Bohemia, 
by the standard of the civil law (§ 1); if the Govern- In this country it is a special duty of the priesthood 
nient finds that an ecclesiastical regulation respect- to seek to soothe and unify.*' The separation took 
ing a public church service is not consistent with place, however, directly after Schwarzenberg's death, 
the public interest, the Government shall then forbid An amendment! to the school law which somewhat 
'^ (§17); the total number of Catholics living in the improved matters was laid before the Upper House in 
district of a parish form the parish community (§ 35); 1883. This amendment was the result of numerous 
in order to cover the expenses of a parish a tax is to memorials from the bishops to the Government 
be laid on its members (§ 36); the ministry of public and much effort of other kinds. During the debate 
worship and instruction is authorized to oversee the on the amendment Cardinal Schwarzenberg said: 
pianagement of the funds of the churches and church "The bishops for whom I speak to-day recognize 
institutions (§ 38); the ministry of public worship the value 01 the amendment and are ready to work 
and instruction is to take care tnat the ecclesiastical for its passage. But this does not justify the pre- 
joumals do not go beyond the sphere of their proper sumption that we consider the amendment as reme- 
activity (| 60). The law concerning contributions dying all defects of the school laws, and that our 
to the fund for the support of religion declares that: votes are a corroboration of these laws. Only a 
Afsessments shall be made on incumbents of livings denominational system of common schools can satisfy 
and the communities of the regular orders for the the claims of the Church and of the Christian com- 
fund for the support of religion m order to meet the munity. The present system is unsatisfactory, 
expenses of Catholic worship and especially in order While we now give our support, we reserve the rignt 
to increase the incomes of pastors which have been to press our just demands by way of legislation in 
until now very small (§1); the value of the entire the future." The amendment made certain con- 
property of the living or of the community shall be cessions to children who had attended school for 
taken as the basis (of the assessment) (§ 2); the six years, and permitted only such persons to be 
amount of the assessments shall be fixed every ten made the principals of schools as were competent 
years for the next ten years (§ 9); and they were to to give instruction in the faith to which the majority 
be "one-half of one per cent on amounts up to 10,000 of the scholars belonged. 

florins [$4,000], one-and-a-half per cent on amounts Cardinal Schwarzenberg had presided over every 

from 10,000 florins to 20,000 florins [$4,000 to $8,000], meeting of the Austrian bishops since 1849, and had 

and 10 per cent on all amounts over 90,000 florins always fulfilled faithfully the duties of the cardinalate. 

($36,000]". The law (signed 20 May) in regard to At the meeting of the bishops at Vienna in 1885 he 

the leeaf recognition of religious societies "accepts was unable, through illness, to preside at the 8th 

in f all ' the principle of religious equality. session. The next day he appeared, although unfit 

ffince the passage of these three laws no further, to attend. He was not able to be present again and 

enactments have so far been made, with r^ard to died of pneumonia 27 March. 

tt« status of the various denominations m Aus- A bill called the Prince Alfred Liechtenstein school 

tii In the year following their passage Cardinal bill was introduced in October, 1888. It was in- 


tended to give the Church greater power over the the cost of living and the value of money hacf varied 

schools. But while the bishops pressed the demand The speech from the throne in 1871 and 1879 referred 

of "Catholic schools for Catholic children", the to the improvement of the material condition of 

social-democratic convention which met the same the clergy as an object of solicitude on the part of 

year at Hainburg, took its stand upon "conmion the Government, and since 1872 state subventions 

schools without religious teaching, the separation have been granted for this purpose. In order to 

of Church and State, reliei. us belief is a private obtain the money for this subvention, a tax for the 

matter". Gregr, of the Young Czech party, also maintenance of the religious fund was created in 

declared in behalf of his party associates: "A Liech- 1874. But although a sum reaching ten per cent 

tenstein has come again to dig a grave for the Bohe- of i}ie capital fund was demanded every ten years, 

mian nation, the grave of ignorance a^d demoraliza- few priests received from it assistance amountmg to 

tion." This was an allusion to what had happened more than 100 florins ($40). As this subvention 

after the battle of the White Mountain (1620). was called an "advance" to the fund for the support 

Against such opposition the bill could not be carried, of religion in the different provinces, the debts of 

in 1891 Leo aIII regulated the meetings of the the provinces ffrew every year,