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The Catholic Encyclopedia 
















■flew 13orft 

Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1914 





Copyright, 1914 
By the encyclopedia PRESS, INC. 

The articles in this work have been written specially for The Catholic 
Encyclopedia and are protected by copyright. All rights, includ- 
ing the right of translation and reproduction, are reserved. 


As originally planned and announced The Catholic Encyclopedia was not to 
have an Index Volume. The editors were of the opinion that the alphabetical 
order of the articles and niunerous cross references would enable the reader to find 
readily the topics ordinarily sought after. Few encyclopedias have indexes. 

No sooner had the first volume appeared than subscribers urged upon the 
editors the necessity of publishing an Index. The numerous topics treated in the 
articles, all of unusual character and interest, would, it was argued, be extremely 
difficult to find without the aid of an analytical index. Such an index would tell the 
reader at a glance every part of the work in which a given topic is discussed, and 
bring together in alphabetical arrangement every other topic closely related with it. 

Shortly after deciding to prepare an analytical index of the Encyclopedia, in 
April, 1907, the editors began the work, by training a corp of assistants who, as 
each successive volume appeared, selected the titles which would be most com- 
monly the subject of inquiry. In this way the titles selected were available for 
reference as the work went on so that they could be constantly tested by the 
editors, and, on the completion of the Fifteenth Volume of the Encyclopedia, 
nothing further remained to be done except the arrangement and verification of 
the titles as they occur in the passages indicated, and the usual painstaking reading 
of printer's proofs which such work requires. 

The Index will make the volumes proper of the Encj'clopedia immensely more 
valuable than they would have been without it. It also serves to reveal the vast 
and varied information contained in the work as well as the complete and thorough 
treatment of the subjects discussed. For the benefit of all who may wish to use 
the Encyclopedia not only for reference, but also for systematic reading. Courses 
of Reading are published in this voliune, bringing together in logical and chronolog- 
ical sequence the subjects which the alphabetical order of the Encyclopedia has 
necessarily kept apart. 

In addition to the Index, this volume contains certain articles supplying in- 
formation chiefly about prominent persons deceased, dioceses erected, ecclesiastical 
legislation enacted, and omissions observed, since the issue of the volumes in which 
these subjects might have appeared in alphabetical order. Though these articles 
are in no way essential, or even integral, to the completeness of the Encyclopedia, 
it was thought proper to add them here in order to bring the information contained 
in the work up to date, instead of waiting until such time as they would appear in 
a supplemental volume. 

As in the Preface to Volume One, so now in this concluding statement, the 
Editors express their gratitude to all who have aided them in the publication of 
the Encyclopedia, to the hierarchy, the clergy, promoters, patrons, contributors, 
publishers, reviewers, to a faithful staff of editorial assistants, and to all associated 
in any manner with the business of producing and circulating the work. 

List of Contributors of Additional Articles 

AMADO, RAMON RUIZ. S.J., LL.D., PH.L., Col- DWIGHT, WALTER, S.J., Associate Editor, 

"America", New York: Dwight, Thomas. 

Superior General Congregation op the 
Sisters op St. Brigid, Tullow, Ireland: 
Brigidines, Institute of the. 

worth, Hertfordshire, England: Aquileian 

del Salvador, Bdenos Aires: Alarc6n, Pedro 
Antonio de; Andres, Juan; Cuyo, Virgin of; 
Lossada, Luis de; Menendez y Pelayo, MarceUno ; 
Rioja, Francisco de; Saavedra, Fajardo Diego 

GERR.'UID, TH0M.\S L., Chelmsford, Essex, 
England: Eugenics, The Church and. 

It.\ly: MarignoUi, Giovanni de.'. 

GOYAU, GEORGES, Associate Editor, "Revue 
DES Deux Mondes", Paris: Charette de la 
Con trie. Baron Athanase-Charles-Marie; Dax, 
Diocese of; Fischer, Antonius; Leroy-Beaulieu, 
Anatole; Menestrier, Claude-Frangois; Vaison, 
Ancient of. 

RosE.MOUNT, Enniscorthy, IRELAND : Capocci, 

GUINEY, LOUISE IMOGEN, Oxford, England: 
Johnson, Lionel Pigot. 

HANDLEY, marie LOUISE, New York: Dupre, 
Giovanni; Mino di Giovanni; Rossellino, An- 
tonio di Matteo di Domenico. 

HEALY, PATRICK J., S.T.D., Professor op 
Church History, Catholic University of 
America: Macarius the Alexandrian; Macarius 
the Egj-ptian, or the Elder; Peace of the Church. 

HENRY, H.T., Litt.D., LL.D., Rector op Roman 
Catholic High School for Boys, Philadel- 
phia, Professor of English Literature and 
Gregori.\n Chant, St. Charles SEinNAHY, 
OvERBUooK, Pennsylvania: Gloria Laus Et 
Honor; Jesu Dulcis Memoria 

HYVERNAT, henry, S.T.D., Profes.sor of 
Se.mitic Languages and Biblical Archeol- 
ogy, Catholic Uni\t;rsit»' of America, Wash- 
ington: Coptic Literature; Versions of the 
Bible, Coptic. 

lege of St. Ion.\tius, Sarrl4, Barcelona: 
Guadix, Diocese of. 

S.T.D., Rome: Cardinal Vicar. 

BECHTEL, FLORENTINE, S.J., Professor of 
Hebrew ant) Sacred Scripture, St. Louis 
University, St. Louis: Bickell, Gustav. 

BENIGNI, MGR. UMBERTO, Prothonot.«y 
Apostolic Partecipante, Professor of Ec- 
clesi.^stical History, Pontificia Accademia 
DEI NoBiLi EccLESi.\STici, RoME : Capecelatro, 

BOLOS, RAM6N, S.J., B.^^rcelona: ComeUas y 
Cluet, Antonio. 

.Abbey. Bath, England: Celestine Order; 
MalUng Abbey; Meaux. 

BUTITON, EDWIN, S.T.D., F.R. Hist. Soc, Vice- 
President, St. Edmund's College, Ware, 
Engl.4Nd: Archpriest Controversy. 

Abbey, Bath, England: Butler, General Sir 
William Francis. 

CALLAN. CHARLES J., O.P., S.T.L., Professor op 
Philosophy, Dominican House of Studies, 
Washington: Gonzdlez, Zeferino; Gotti, Vin- 
cent Louis. 

CAMPBELL, JOHN M., M.A., LL.D., Phil.<.del- 
phia: Campbell, James. 

House, Roehampton, Lo.vdon: Foley, Henrj'. 

COYLE, MOIRA K., New York: Bismarck, Dio- 
cese of; Cali, Diocese of; Fiji, Vicariate .Apostolic 
of; Kearney, Dioce-se of; Kottayam, Vicariate 
Apostolic of. 

CRIVELLI, CAMILLUS. S.J., Rector, Sacred 
Heart College, Puebla, Mexico: Eguiara y 
Eguren. Juan Jose; Hidalgo, Miguel; Martin, 

CUTHBERT, FATHER, O.S.F.C, St. Anselm's 
House, Oxford: Piatus of Mons. 

DANIEL, J.E., Oblate Schola.sticate, Ottawa, 
Canada: Keewatin, Vicariate Apostohc of. 

DEVLIN, WILLIAM, S.J., Boston College, Bos- 
ton: Shirley, James. 


JACKMAN, MGR. ARTHUR, D.D., London : Eng- 
lish Hierarchy, Reorganization of the. 

Maryland: Harland, Henry. 


Lithuanians in the United States. 

KELLEHER, JOHN, S.T.L., B.C.L., Professor, 
St. John's College, Waterford, Ireland: 

KELLY, BLANCHE M., New York: Hopkins, 
Gerard Manley; Lesueur, Jean-Fran(;ois; Maffei, 
Marchese Francesco Scipione; Queen's Daugh- 

KENNEDY, DANIEL J., O.P., S.T.M., Professor 
OF Sacramental Theology, Catholic Uni- 
versity of America: Deza, Diego. 

KERNAN, THOMAS P., B.A., Utica, New York: 
Devereux, John C; Devereux, Nicholas. 

KIRSCH, MGR. JOHANN P., S.T.D., Professor 
of Pathology .4.nd Christian Arch.«ology', 
University of Fribourg, Switzerl.\nd: Ana- 
stasius BibUothecarius. 

many: Rossellino, Bernardo. 

LA FAROE, JOHN, S.J., Leonardtown, Mary- 
land: La Farge, John. 

LENHART, JOHN M., O.M.Cap., Lector of 
Philosophy, St. Fidelis Monastery, Vic- 
toria, Kansas: Tibet, Missionaries, Language 
and Literature of. 

Editor-in-Chief, "La Noua-elle France", 
Quebec: Maisonneuve, Paul de Chomedey de. 

LCFFLER, KLEMENS, Ph.D., Libr.arian, Univer- 
sity of Mijnster: Constantius, Flavins Julius; 
Savigny, Karl Friedrich. 

MacERLEAN, ANDREW A., LL.B. (Fordham), 
New York: Claret y Clard, Antonio Maria, 
Venerable; Cross, Daughters of the; Cross, 
Daughters of the, French; Cross, Daughters of 
the Holy; Diocese; Ernakulam, Vicariate Apos- 
toMc of; Lambert, Louis A.; Lanigan, John; 
McCarthy, Justin; MacMahon, Heber; Maginn, 
Edward; Prefecture Apostolic; Tallaght, Mon- 
astery of; Vicariate Apostohc. 

MacERLEAN, JOHN, S.J., Professor of Hebrew 
and Ecclesiastical History, Jesuit Scholas- 
ticate, Milltown Park, Dublin: Bourke, 
Ulick Joseph; Keating, Geoffrey; Kickham, 
Charles Joseph; MacCarthy, Bartholomew. 

McGIVNEY, JAMES A., S.J., St. Andrew-o.\- 
HuDSON, Poughkeepsie, New York: Ceva, 

MEEHAN, THOMAS F., New York: Barron, 
Edward; Griffin, Martin Ignatius Joseph; 
Lathrop, George Parsons; Murray, John 
O'Kane; Walsh, Patrick; Webb, Benjamin 

OTT, MICHAEL, O.S.B., Ph.D., Professor of the 
History of Philosophy, St. John's College, 
Collegeville, Minnesota: Andechs; Aulne 
Abbey; Averbode; Chorepiscopi. 

OTTEN, JOSEPH, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: 
Haberl, Francis Xavier; Morales, Crist6bal. 

OTTEN, SUSAN TRACY, Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 
vania: Hello, Ernest. 

*PETRIDES, SOPHRONE, A.A., Professor, 
Greek Catholic Seminary of Kadi-Iveui, 
Constantinople: Colonia; Lyrba. 


Bona\'enture's Seminary', St. Bonaventure, 
New York: Elbel, Benjamin; Musso, Cornel- 
ius; Schatzgeyer, Caspar; Smits, William. 

POTAMIAN, BROTHER, F.S.C., D.Sc. (Lond.), 

Professor of Physics, Manhattan College, 
New York: Beccaria, Giovanni Battista. 

Teacher of Philosophy and Church History, 
St. Joh.n's College, Brooklyn, New York: 
Bor^, Eugene. 

REZEK, ANTOINE IVAN, Houghton, Michigan: 
Leopoldine Society, The. 

RICHARZ, HERMAN, S.V.D., President of St. 
Joseph's Institute, Techny, Illinois: Jans- 
sen, Arnold. 

ROBINSON, PASCHAL, O.F.M., Professor of 
Medieval History, C.\tholic Unr-ersity 
op America: Alvarus Pelagius; Celestines; 
Christopher Numar of Forli. 

S.T.M., L.Sc, Rector, University of the 
EscoRiAL, Spain: Camara y Castro, Tomds. 

SACHER, HERMANN, Ph.D., Editor, "Kon\er- 
s.ationslexikon", Assist.^nt Editor, "Staats- 
lexikon" of the Gorresgesellsch.aft, Frei- 
burg, Germany: Centre, The. 

SCHEID, N., S.J., Stella Matutina College, 
Feldkirch, Austria: Baumgartner, Alexander. 

SENFELDER, LEOPOLD, M.D., Teacher of the 
History of Medicine, University of Vienna: 
Caldani, Leopoldo Marco Antonio; Ingcn- 
Housz, Jan. 

mond, Indiana: Barzynski, Vincent; Dabrow- 
ski, Joseph. 

• Deceasod 


zona; Masses, Bequests for. 

SPILLANE, EDWARD P., S.J., Associate Editor, 
"America", New York: Crawford, Francis 

ombiere, Claude de la. Venerable; Gracida, 

♦TAYLOR, A.W., B.A. (Worc. Col., Oxford), 
Hove, Sussex, England: Aarhus, Ancient See 
of; Bergen, Ancient See of; Borglum, Ancient 
See of; Hamar, Ancient See of; Linkoping, 
Ancient See of; Odense, Ancient See of; Oslo, 
Ancient See of; Ratzeburg, Ancient See of; Ribe, 
Ancient See of; Roskilde, Ancient See of; Skara, 
Ancient See of; Stavanger, Ancient See of; 
Strengnas, Ancient See of; Vexio, Ancient See of; 
Viborg, Ancient See of. 

THIRION, J., S.J., LouvAiN : Plateau, Joseph-Antoine. 

THURSTON, HERBERT, S.J., London: Basilica; 
Cistercians in the British Isles; Herbert of Lea, 
Lady Elizabeth. 
• Deceased. 

TURNER, WILLIAM, B.A., S.T.D., Professor 
OF Logic and the History of Philosophy, 
Catholic University of America: Adclard 
of Bath. 

VERMEESCH, ARTHUR, S.J., LL.D., Doctor of 
Social and Political Sciences, Professor 
OF Moral Theology and Canon Law, Lou- 
vain: Descl^e, Henri. 

WEBER, N.A., S.M., S.T.D., Professor of Church 
History, Marist College, Washington: 
lUuminati; Pectorius of Autun. 

eral of Moral Theology and Canon Law, 
Professor of Canon Law, Franciscan Mon- 
astery, Paterson, New Jersey: Baptista 
Varani, Blessed. 

WYNNE, JOHN J., S.J., New York: Ballerini, 
Antonio ; Breviary, Roman, Reform of the. 

Honolulu, Hawaii: Bachelot, Alexis-John- 


Articles, aiMUiomd to the complete work, .■oippli/ing infurmntion chiefly about prominent persons deceased, dioceses 

erected, ecck.tiwilical legislation ciiiicltd, (iitti xiil)Jecls sitffycstcd xince the issue of Die vuluiiies 

in which these subjects miijhl have appeared in alpluil)etical order. 

Aarhus (Arusia), Ancient See op (Arusiensis), (Luke i, 1-4; Acts i, 1-2). The unity of their author- 
in Denmark. The diocese inchided the provinces ship can be proved critically by their language, style 
(amter) of Aarhus and Randers, the islands of Samso and plan of narrative, and by their unity of scope and 
and Tuno, and, after 1396, part of the province of Vi- doctrine. The occasional substitution of the first per- 
borg. Frode, King of Jutlanil, buili the church of the son plural for the third person so far from impairing 
Holy Trinity at Aarhus about 900. In 948 Arch- only establishes more strongly their unity of compo- 
bishop Adaldag^of Hamburg consecrated Reginbrand sition and authenticity. The relations of Luke with 

as missionary Bishop of Aarhus. After the latter's 
death in 988 all Jutland was united in one diocese, 
with Ribe or Viborg as its centre. It was redivided 
in 1060, and one Christian was ordained Bishop of 
Aarhus by Adalbert I, Archbishop of Hamburg. 
Another bishop, Ulfketil (1102-34) planned the town 
of Aarhus. The warUke Svend . Udsson (1166-91) 
founded the Cistercian abbey at Om. His successor, 
Peter Vagnsen, began in 1201 the Cathedral of St. 
Clement. Near it lay the wooden church built by 
Bishop Ulfketil in 1102 to contain the relics of St 

the chief founders of the Church in Palestine, and 
with Paul, the Apostle of the Gentiles; his industry 
and dihgence as an eye-witness and in examining 
witnesses; the remarkable agreement of the Acts of 
the Apostles with the Epistles of Paul and with the 
more genuine historical records, all go to show that 
Luke had at his command most trustworthy sources, 
and that he used them in such a manner as to make 
his work historically authoritative. This authority 
is not diminished by the difficulties alleged against 
the supernatural facts he records, by his manner of 

Clement. About 1150 the Venerable Niels, Prince of condensing statements, by apparent disagreements 

Denmark, died and was buried in St. Clement's 
churchyard. The offerings at his tomb facilitated 
the commencement of the new stone cathedral. This 
waa finished about 1263, but in 1330 the greater part 
of it was burnt down. Peter Jensen Lodeliat (1.386- 
95) and Bo Magnus.sen (139.5-1423) were the prelates 
mainly concerned in the erection of the fine btlilding 
extant to-day. The Catholic bishop, Ove Bilde 
(imprisoned 1536), and Paulus Helia?, prior of the Car- 
melite monastery at Elsinore, attempted in vain to 
stay the progress of the Reformation at Aarhus. There 
were in the diocese: a chapter with 34 prebendaries at 
Aarhus cathedral; Benedictines at Essenbeck, Voer, 
Ailing, and Veirluv; August inian Canons at Tviluni, 
Cistercians at Om, who suri'ived tiU 1560; and Car- 
thusians at Aarhus. There were also Franciscans at 
Horsens and Randers, Dominicans at Aarhus, Hor- 
sens, and Randers, Carmelites and a hospital of the 
Holy Spirit at Aarhus. There were Hospitallers of St. 
John till 1.568 at Horsens. Lastly there were Brigit- 
tines at Manager from 1412 to 1592. 

At Aarhus there is now a Jesuit.s' college with a fine 
church, as well as a large hospital in charge of the 

with profane or BibUcal history, or by apparent in- 
consistencies with his own or with other scriptural 

Ada ApoitoUccc Sedis (26 June, 1913) ■ Rame (.5 July, 1913). 

Adelard of Bath, a twelfth-century Scholastic phi- 
losojjher, b. about 1100. Adelard was probably an 
Enghshman by birth; he seems to have studied at 
Tours and Laon and probably taught at Laon and at 
Paris. He was one of the first medieval scholars to 
seek knowledge by traveUing in Greece and .\sia Minor. 
It was these journeys that, apparently, brought him 
into contact with the learning of the Arabians, which 
he utilized especially in the discussion of physical and 
physiological problems. He wrote a translation of 
Euchd's geometry from the Arabic, and composed two 
original treatises entitled "De eodem et diverso" and 
"Quaestiones naturales". The former was edited in 
1903 and printed in Baumker's "Beitrage"; the latter 
exists in an edition dated 1477. Adelard was a pro- 
noiinced Platonist in psychology' and metaphysics, 
while he opposed the Platonic doctrine of realism in 
his theory of universals. His position in regard to 

Sisters'of St. Joseph of Chamb^ry, who also have the latter question was that of Walter of Montague, 
— -- - ---- and the other Indmerentists. His most noteworthy 

contribution to psychology is his attempt to localize 
mental functions, in which he shows the influence of 
Galen and the Arabians. 

Baumker, Beitrage zur Oesch. der Phil, des MiUelaUers, IV 
(Munster. 1903). 1; De Wulf. Hist, of .Medieval Phil., tr. Cofpet 
(New York. 1909). 186; Tdrner, History of Philonovhy (Boston, 
1903). 283 sqq. 


Alarcdn, Pedro Antonio de, novelist and poet, 
b. at Guadix, Spain, in 1833; d. at Valdemoro, near 
Madrid, in 1891. After having shown abihty for 
various questions about the Acts: The author of journalism at his native place he went to Madrid 
the Acts of the Apostles is Luke the Evangelist, as where he came into prominence, especially when at 
is clear from Tradition, internal evidence in the Acts the outbreak of the Revolution of July, 18.54, he 
themselves and in their relation to the third Go.spel edited the republican journal "El Ldtigo". A year 
XVI.— 1 1 

hospitals at Horsens and Randers, which last two 
towns also contain Catholic churches. 

Bacdrillart, Dictionnaire d'histoire ecclisiastique, I (Paris, 
1909-12), coll. 3. 4 : .Hcriplores rerum danicarum, V, 231-302; 
VI, 176-519; VII. 209-216; Hoffmeyeh, Blade af Aarhus Bys 
HiUarie. I (Copenhagen, 1904-06). 

A. W. Taylor. 
Abo, Antient See op. See Finland, Grand 

DrcHY OF. 

Acts of the Apostles. — The Biblical Commission, 
12 June, 1913, published the following answers to 



later, in 1855, he published "El final de Norma", a 
work written when he was only seventeen years old. 
As a volunteer he went in 1859 to the African war, 
where he wrote the most interesting and probably 
the most lasting of all his writings, "Diario de un 
testigo de la guerra de Africa" (1860). Some parts 
of this work, as "La bataUa de Castillejos" and ''La 
toma de Tetudn", have not been surpassed for vivid- 
ness of description and grace of narrative by any 
Spanish writer. Similar to this work are Alarc6n's 
historical sketches "Historietas nacionales", which 
perhaps will have a more lasting fame than his novels. 
"El sombrero de tres picos" (Madrid, 1874; tr. 
M. Springer, New York, 1899) is the novel that car- 
ried its author's name througliout Europe. The 
following year he pubUshed "El Escdndalo", the 
pubUcation of which created as much of a sensation as 
Coloma's "Pequeneces". Better and more worthy 
of being known is the fantastic novel he wTote in the 
latter part of his life "El niiio de la Bola" (Madrid, 
1880; tr. M. J. Serrano, New York, 1892). _ His 
poetical quaUties are revealed in "Poeslas serias y 
humoristicas" and "Comedias escogidas" (1886), and 
particularly in the play "El hijo prodigo". He was 
all his hfe a practical Catholic. 

Plummer, ContempoTary Spain as shown in her Novelists 
(New York. 1899); Springer, The Three Crowned Hat (New York, 
1899), 3-15; Blanco GARcfi, Hiatoria dela literatura espatlola en 
el Siglo XIX. II (Madrid, 1891), 454; Valbdena. La ciencia 
cristiana, XIII (Madrid, 1880), 551; Nocedal, Discursos de 
recepcidn en la Real Academia (Madrid, 1877); Fitzmaubice- 
Kelly, History of Spanish lAterature (New York, 1910). 

W. Furlong. 

Albomoz, Gil Alv.4rez Carillo de. See Gil de 
Albornoz, Alvarez Cabillo, Vol. vi, p. 558. 

Alvarus Pelagius (Alvaro Pelato), celebrated 
writer, b. in Spain about 1280; d. at Seville, 25 Jan., 
1352. Alvarus studied canon law at Bologna, but in 
1304 resigned his benefices, and entered the Francis- 
can Order. He is said to have been a pupil of Duns 
Scotus and to have been tutor to the cliildren of Don 
Pedro, Regent of Portugal. Certain it is that he be- 
came penitentiary to Pope John XXII at Avignon, 
that he enjoyed much favour with this pontiff, and 
was employed by him to refute the claims of the anti- 
pope Pietro Rainalducci of Corbario. In 1233 Alva- 
rus became titular Bishop of Coron in Achaia, and 
two years later was appointed to the See of Sylves in 
Portugal. He also served as Apostohc nuncio in 
Portugal, but was not created cardinal, as some writers 
have asserted. He was buried in the Monastery of 
St. Clare at Seville. 

Alvarus is chiefly remarkable for his work "De 
planctu ecclesia? hbri duo". This work, begun at 
Avignon in 1330, completed in 1332, corrected in 
1335 and again in 1340 at Compostella, is notable not 
only for its extreme defence of ecclesiastical rights 
but still more, perhaps, for the freedom and force 
with which the autlior assails and rebukes the eccle- 
siastical abuses of liis time. Alvarus has been re- 
proached by St. Antoninus and others with having 
too far favoured the error of the Fraticelli about 
poverty, but, as Sbaralea shows, it is not difficult 
to justify him against tliis charge. On the then 
agitated question of poverty in the Franciscan 
Order lie wrote with less passion and with more weiglit 
tlian Ubertino da Ca,sale, although lie addressed al- 
most th(! same reproaches as the latter to the relaxed 
friars within the order. The "De planctu" was 
first publi.slied at Ulm in 1474. This edition is very 
rare, and is not free from error. Later editions ap- 
peared at Venice (1.500) and at Lyons (1517). Be- 
sides the "De planctu", Wadding attriljuted to Al- 
varus the following: "Collyrium adver.sus hsrescs"; 
"Speculum regum" (one hook); "Super sentcnt. 
libros 4"; "Apologia contra Marsilium Patav. et 
Gulicl. Ocham"; and other unedited works. 

Arthtjr, Martyrologium franciscanum,2S9; Wadding, Annales 
minorum ad ann. IMS. LiS'J. atui IS^fl; Idem, Script, ord. 
min. (19(IS). It; SuvKvin, ,s ,,.,,/,„,. ../,,m (edit., 1908), Pt. I, 
.■fl-:J2; .■<,:■■ ul„,n ,„,.,,', , , , i - .:xT[ER (189S), p. clxi; 
Ren*, //in/. ■/'..'/'" )'^. N. Francois (1909), 94; 

OlioER, £V;/"Ki/io r. ,;>//.i (I'Mji, |. ,-,,,,, 

Paschal Robinson. 

Anastasius Bibliothecarius, librarian of the 
Roman Church, b. about 810; d. 879. He was a 
nephew of Bishop Arsenius of Orta, who executed 
important commissions as papal legate. Anastasius 
learned Greek from Greek monks, and obtained 
an unusual education for his era, so that he 
appears to be the most learned ecclesiastic of Rome 
in the barbaric period of the ninth century. During 
the reign of Nicholas I (855-67) Anastasius was 
abbot of the monastery of the Virgin Mary on the 
farther side of the Tiber (in Trastevere), and he was 
employed by the pope in various matters. He was 
also active as an author, and translated Greek works 
into Latin, one of these being the biography of St. 
John the Almsgiver, which he dedicated to Nicholas I. 
The successor of Nicholas, Adrian II (867-72), ap- 
pointed Anastasius Ubrarian of the Roman Church, an 
important office which gave him much influence at the 
papal Court. In 869 he was sent by Emperor 
Louis II as envoy to Constantinople, with two men 
of higli rank in the Frankish Empire, to negotiate 
a marriage between the oldest son of the Byzantine 
emperor and the daugliter of the emperor in the West. 
When the envoys arrived at Constantinople the 
Eighth (Ecumenical Council was still in session, and 
Anastasius, who attended the last session (F'ebruary, 
870), zealously defended the papal cause and was of 
much service to the papal legates. On their way 
home the papal legates were robbed, and the "Acts" 
of the coimcil were carried off. However, they had 
given most of the declarations of obedience of the 
Greek bishops to Anastasius, who also had a copy 
of the "Acts", and was thus able to bring these 
documents to the pope. At the pope's order he 
translated the "Acts" into Latin. The succeeding 
pope, John VIII (872-82), also esteemed Anastasius, 
confirmed him in the office of librarian, entrusted im- 
portant affairs to him, and encouraged him to further 
literary work. Anastasius was in correspondence 
with the deposed Byzantine patriarch, Photius, and 
sought to mediate between the patriarch and the 
pope and also to assuage the controversy over the 
Holy Ghost by assuming that tlie Latins understood 
the procession (processio) of the Holy Ghost from the 
Son in the sense of transmission (missio). 

If a passage in tlie annals of Hincmar of Reims is 
genuine (Mon. Germ. Hist.: Script ores, I, 447) and 
Hincmar has not confused two men, then the librarian 
Anastasius is identical with the Roman presbyter 
Anastasius who in 874 became titidar priest of St. 
Marcellus, and in 848 fled from Rome, and resided 
in various cities. On account of his flight he was 
excommunicated by a Roman synod in 850, and, as 
he did not return, was anathematized and deposed 
by another synod in 853. After the death of Leo IV 
in 855 this Anastasius was elected as antipope by the 
imperial party, but tlie rightfully elected pope, 
Benedict III, gained the supremacy, .ind acted 
kindly towards the usurjier. During the pontifi- 
cate of Adrian II Anastasius became invohed in 
serious difficulties, in 868 a near relative of his 
named Eleutherius forcibly carried off the daughter of 
the pope, and soon after killed both her and her 
mother. The murderer was executed and .'\n.astasius, 
who was regarded as the instigator of the mvinler, was 
punished by excommunication and dcpo.sition. He 
lived at the imperial Court, and sought by th(- inter- 
vention of the em])eror to exculiiato liiiiisclf before the 
pope. Hergennither (Photius, II, 230-;-240) main- 
tains, with good reason, that the hbrarian and the 
presbyter Anastasius (the antipope) were one and 



the same person, and weaves all the statements con- 
cerning the latter into the biography of Anastasius, 
wliile Langen (Goscliiehte der rdinischcn Kirohe. 
Ill, 270 sqq.) considers them diiTcrcnt jxTsons. In 
August, 879, Zacliarias of Anagni ai)i)e:us as librarian 
of the Roman Church, so tliat Anastasius must have 
died shortly before this date. 

Anastasius translated from Greek into Latin the 
"Acts " of the Seventh and Eighth (Ecumenical Coun- 
cils, as well as several legends of saints, and other 
writings. He also compiled a liistorical work, " Chron- 
ographia tripartita", from the Greek writings of 
Theophanes, Nicephorus, and Syncellus, and made a 
collection of documents concerning the affairs of 
Pope Honorius. Several important letters written 
by him have been preserved. His writings arc to be 
found in P. G., XXIX; P. L., LXXIII, CXXII, 
CXXIX. The "Liber Pontificahs", which was 
formerly ascribed to him, was not written by him; 
he seems to have shared in the revision of the "Life" 
of Nicholas I. 

Lap6tre, De Anastasio Bibliothecario (Paris, 1884); Krcm- 
BACHER, Geschichte der byzanfinischen Litteralur, 2nd ed., 344 sq. ; 
Friedrich, Ein Brief des Anastasius Bibliolhecaritis an den 
Bischof Gaudcricus von Vellevri in Sitzungsber, der bayer. Akademie 
der Wiss. phil.-hist. Ktasse (1892-93), 393 sqq.; d'Avril, La leltre 
d'Anastase le BibliotMcaire in Revue de I'Orient chritien (1896), 
124 sqq. 

J. P. KiRSCH. 

Andechs, a Benedictine monastery and famous 
place of pilgrimage on a hill about two miles cast of 
the Ammersee in Upper Bavaria. Its site was 
originally occupied by a castle belonging to the counts 
of Diessen and probably of Roman origin. Its 
fame as a place of pilgrimage dates back to 955, when 
the relics which St. Rasso, one of the counts of 
Diessen, had brought from Rome and the Orient to 
his monastery at Worth (later called Grafath) were 
transferred hither to save them from the ravages of 
the Huns. In the twelfth century three Sacred 
Hosts, two of which are reputed to have been conse- 
crated bv Pope Gregory I (Joannes Diaconus, " Vita 
S. Gregorii ", in P. L., LXXV, 103) the other by Pope 
Leo IX, were added to the rehcs of Andechs, which 
henceforth became popularly known as "Der heilige 
Berg". The earliest mention of these Hosts is found 
in a thirteenth-century missal of Andechs, now pre- 
served at the state hbrary of Munich (Cod. Lat. 3005). 
The collegiate church which Duke Ernest had erected 
in 1438 was changed into a Benedictine monastery 
by Duke Albert III in 1455, and colonized with monks 
from Tegernsee. In 1458 it was raised to an abbey, 
and thenceforth enjoyed a period of uninterrupted 
prosperity until its secularization in 1803. It was 
re-established in 1850 as a Benedictine priory, affiliated 
to the Abbey of St. Boniface in Mimich. 

Sattler, Chronik von Arulechs (Donauworth, 1877); Heindl. 
Der heilige Berg Andechs (Munich, 1895). 

Michael Ott. 

Andres, Juan, lilteraleur and historian, b. at 
Phines, Valencia, Spain, in 1740; d. in Rome in 
1S17. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1754. 
When the Jesuits were expelled from Spain in 1767 
Andres made his abode at Ferrara (Italy) and taught 
philosophy there. After the sujipression of the 
Society in 1773 he travelled through Europe to col- 
lect matter for a history of universal literature; this 
work he wrote at intervalsfrom 1782 to 1799, and pub- 
hshed underthe title " Dell'origine, progresso e stato 
attuale d'ogni Irtteratura". Under this title was 
included not only hterature but also Holy Scripture, 
theology, philosophy, and the sciences. Mr. Hallam 
styles the work "an extraordinary performance, 
embracing both ancient and modern literature in its 
full extent" ("Introduction to the Literature of 
Europe", New York, 1842, I, 8). 

The inexactness of some of the statements and the 
superficiality of some of Andrds's criticisms are almost 

negligible when we consider the cleverness of the 
general surveys and the original remarks met with 
frequently in the course of his great work. His 
Italian style, according to Ciaii (Gesuiti spagnuoli 
letterati in Italia, p. 15), is not inferior to that of his 
contemporaries for charm and clearness. Andres has 
been severely criticized for ascribing to the Arabs an 
extraordinary influence on modern poetry. He 
is also the author of "Saggio della filosofia del 
Gahleo", an essay in which he shows the systematic 
philosophical ideas of the famous scientist. The 
volumes of his "Cartas familiares" evidence the 
versatile genius of their author, and are full of in- 
teresting reviews on hterary topics. Joseph Bona- 
parte and Murat highly appreciated his talents. 
The former ajjpointed him royal librarian. At the age 
of sixty-four Andres re-entered the Society of Jesus 
shortly after its restoration in the kingdom of Naples. 

Men-^ndez y Pelato. Revista critica de historia y titeratura 
(January, 1896); Historia de lis ideas estHicas en EspaHa, IV 
(Madrid, 1890); Ticknor, History of Spariish Literature, III 
(New York, 1854), 374; Pastor t FnsTER, Biblioteca de 
escritores ValenciaTiOS , I (Valencia, 1827-30); Caballero, 
BibliothectB scriptorum Societatis Jesu supplementa (Rome, 1814- 
1816) ; Clan, L'immigrazione dei Gesuiti spagnuoli letterati in 
/(aiia (Turin, 1895); TiRABOscHl, /s/on'a della letteratura italiana, 
VIII (Florence, 1812), 170 andpassiin;SoMMERvooEL,£»&£to^/ii^gue 
de la Compagnie de Jesus. 

W. Furlong. 

Aquileian Rite. — The See of Aquileia fell into 
schism during the quarrel of the Three Chapters (under 
Bishop Macedonius, 539-56) and became a schismati- 
cal patriarchate, which lasted till the year 700. A 
number of allusions teU us that Aquileia and certain of 
its suffragan sees had a special rite (generally called 
the "ritus patriarchinus"); but they do not give us 
any clear indication as to what this rite was. The 
earliest and most instructive document of the Patri- 
archincRiteisa capitulare of the eighth century added 
by a Lombard hand to the "Codex Riehdigeranus" 
(sixth century). Dom G. Morin (Revue bdn6dic- 
tine, 1902, p. 2 sq.) and H. F. Haase, who edited the 
Codex (Breslau, 1865), show reason to suppose that 
this capitulare represents the use of Aquileia. Sup- 
posing this, it gives us valuable information about 
the Aquileian Calendar for the time it covers (Advent 
to June). Advent had five Sundays; St. Stephen's 
Day is 27 Dec., as in the Rites of Jerusalem-Antioch 
and their descendants. There is no Septuagesima; 
two Sundays (Sexiiagesima and Quinquagesima) pre- 
pare for Lent. The " tradition of the symbol" is on 
the Sunday before Easter. It and Maundy Thursday 
have each two Masses, as in the GaUican Rites. There 
is a "Mid- Pentecost" feast, as in many Eastern Rites. 
We have then many indications of thedi\'ergeiice from 
Rome; this fragment of a calendar points to Galilean 
usages mixed wit h some from the East . If we accept 
the most probable theory that the GaUican Rite is 
Eastern (Antiochene) in origin, we may consider the 
local Aquileian Use as one more variant of the wide- 
spread GaUican family. For the rest we are reduced 
to mere conjecture about this liturgy. There are 
many theories, especiaUy aS to its relation to 
the rites of Milan, Ravenna, and the fragments in 
"De sacrament is", IV, 4-6. Dr. Ruchwald defends 
the view that the prayers in " De Sacr. " are Aquileian. 
Aquileia adopted them from Alexandria, under whose 
influence she stood (so a synod of Aquileia declared in 
381; op. cit., 47). Rome then took her Canon from 
Aquileia about the fifth century (Weidenauer, Stu- 
dien, I, 190r,, pp. 21-56). If tliis be true, the influ- 
ence of Aquileia on the Western liturgy has been enor- 
mous. Aquileia would be the gate by which our 
Roman Canon came to Europe. Baumslark a.scribes 
" De sacr. " to Ravenna. Hut he agrees that it came 
from Alexandria and that Aquileia used the same 
rite. The "ritus patriarchinus" t lien would be the. same 
astheRiteof the Exarchate, which he defends (" Litur- 
gia romanae liturgiadell' esarcato", Rome, 1904, pp. 



168-73) . We may accept as certain that Aquileia had 
from the time of the formation of separate rites 
(fourth century) its own use, that this use was not the 
same as that of Rome, that probably it was one more 
variant of the large groupof Western Rites, connected 
by (Eastern?) origin, which we call GaUican, that it 
was probably really related to the old Milanese Rite 
and perhaps still more to that of Ravenna. 

In the later Middle Age we hear of the "ritus patri- 
archinus" as yielding steadily to the Roman Rite. 
Ebner has pubhshed a very curious and important 
variant of our "Hanc igitur" prayer, in htany form, 
attributed to Paulinus of Aquileia (about 850) . For the 
importanceof this see the author's work, "The Mass" 
(London, IQri, pp. 149-150). De Rubeis in his 
"De sacris foroiuliensium ritibus" (Venice, 1754, pp. 
228 sqq.) prints part of the Aquileian scrutiny of cate- 
chumens, of the ninth century. This is practically 
that of the contemporary Roman Ordines; so the 
Roman Rite was already replacing the other one (cf . 
DonidePuniet,"L'anneeliturgiquea Aquilee" in "Re- 
vue b^n^d.", 1902, p. 1). Walafrid Strabo (ninth cen- 
tury) mentions "hymns" composed by Paulinus of 
Aquileia and used by him "in. private Masses at the 
offering of the sacrifice" (deeccl. rerum ex. et increm. 
25) . In 1250 Peter IV, Bishop of Castello in the Aquil- 
eian province, desired to adopt the Roman Rite. In 
1308 and again in 1418 an attempt was made to restore 
the Aquileian Use at Venice. But in 1456 Callistus III 
granted permission to the Patriarch of Grado and 
Aquileia to follow Rome. After the Council of 
Trent and Pius V's missal (1570) one after 
another of the cities which had kept the Aquileian 
Use conformed toRome:Triest in 1586, Udine in 1596. 
Como alone made an effort to keep the old local use. 
In 1565 and 1579 diocesan synods still insisted on this. 
But in 1597 Clement VIII insisted on Roman Use 
here too. Only the Church of St. Mark at Venice 
kept certain local peculiarities of ritual, which ap- 
parently descended from the "ritus patriarchinus", till 
the fall of the repubUc in 1807. But long before its 
final disappearance the Aquileian Rite in these local 
forms was already so romanized that little of its orig- 
inal character was left. Francis Bonomio, Bishop of 
Vercelli, who went to Como in 1579 to persuade its 
clergy to adopt the Roman Breviary, says that the 
local rite ^vas almost the same as that of Rome "ex- 
cept in the order of some Sundays, and the feast of the 
Holy Trinity, which is transferred to another time". 
So the "Missale pro s. aquileyensis ecclesiae ritu", 
printed at Augsburg in 1494, breviaries and sacramen- 
taries (rituals) printed for Aquileia, Venice, and Como 
in the fourteenth century, although still bearing the 
name of "ritus patriarchinus" (or"patriarchalis"),are 
hardly more than local varieties of the Roman Rite 
(for all this, see Le Brun, op. cit., and Baumstark, 
"Liturgia romana", pp. 170-73). 

Le Brun, Ancien rii d' Aquilee appeU le Patriarckin in his Ex- 
pUcation de la messe. Ill (Paris, 1777). 220 sqq.; Bona, Rerum 
lilurgicarum, II, ed. Sala (Turin, 1747), Appendix: De ritu 
antiquo Aquilejensis patriarchino nuncupato: de Rubeis, 
Monumenta ecclesia Aquilejensis {^VT&shuT^, 1740); Althan, Iter 
liturgicuin foToiuliense (Rome, 1749); Burn, Nicetas of Remesiana 
(Cambridge, 1905) ; DiCHUCH, Rito veneto antico detto Patriar- 
chino (Venice, 1823). 

Adrian Fortescue. 

Archpriest Controversy. — This controversy 
arose in l''ngl:iiL(l on the iippointment of George Black- 
well as archpricsl with juri.-idiction over the secular 
clergj' of England and Scotland, by the Holy See on 
7 March, 1.598. The last member of the ancient 
hierarchy, Goldwell, Bishop of St . A.saph's, had died 
in 1.585, and thenceforth C:inlin;d .\llen exercised in- 
formal jurisdiction with the ii(<iiii('scence of the pope 
and by common cons(>nt of the missionary priests, 
then numbering about three hundn'd. After Allen's 
de.ath in 1.594 the want of a superior made itself felt. 
For some years there had been trouble at the English 

College in Rome, resulting in difficulties between the 
Jesuits and the secular clergy, which were accentuated 
by the dissensions among the priests imprisoned at 
Wisbech. In 1597 Father Persons, who had general 
charge of the Jesuit mission in England, went to 
Rome, where the troubles at the English College had 
come to a head, and settled matters by becoming 
rector there himself. Some of the secular clergy, 
resenting the growing influence of the Society in the 
affairs of the Enghsh Cathohcs and distrusting the 
political views of Father Persons, drew up a memorial 
against the Jesuits to be presented to the pope. 
Others wished for concord with the Jesuits, and be- 
heved that the true solution of difficulties so deeply 
prejudicial to CathoUc interests in England lay in 
the appointment of a bishop. Persons himself at 
first favoured the appointment of one or more 
bishops, preferably one to live and work in England 
and another to live in the Low Countries so as to 
organize and direct affaira while free from personal 
danger. But this plan was given up, the appoint- 
ment of an archpriest being decided on and effected 
by Cardinal Cajetan, Cardinal-Protector of England. 
This absolutely new form of ecclesiastical govern- 
ment was actively resented by a small but influential 
body of secular priests, who claimed that they had 
the sympathy of a larger number of their brethren. 
Two of them, William Bishop and Robert Charnock, 
were sent to Rome to dispute the vaUdity of the 
appointment and to explain their grievances, but on 
their arrival in December, 1598, they were arrested 
and confined as prisoners in the Enghsh College. 
On 6 April, 1599, a Brief was issued confirming the 
appointment of the archpriest, and the imprisoned 
priests were released and dismissed from Rome, but 
forbidden to return to England. In England Thomas 
Lister, a Jesuit, charged the appellant priests with 
schism, in a pamphlet which stirred up a controversy 
in which both sides employed unmeasured and violent 

Though the Brief confirming the archpriest 
was at once accepted by the secular clergy, 
Blackwell insisted that the appellant priests should 
make reparation for the guilt of schism. They denied 
that they were guilty of schism in appealing to the 
pope, and referred the question to the University of 
Paris, which decided in their favour. Blackwell 
issued a decree condemning this judgment, and 
renewed another decree which he had published in 
the previous January , forbidding t he publication of any 
defence of the appellants' conduct under pain of 
suspension. On 17 November a formal appeal to 
Rome was signed by thirty-three priests. This they 
supported by various pamphlets, which had been 
pubhshed early in 1601. The Enghsh Government 
now knew of the trouljle, and the Protestant Bis- 
hop of London entered into negotiations with 
Bluet, one of the imprisoned priests, with the 
result that Bluet was brought before the Privy 
Council and induced them to "banish" four of 
the appellant priests that they might prosecute 
their appeal. Bagshaw, Champney, Bluet, and 
Barneby were chosen, but finally Mush and Cecil 
took the places of Bagshaw and Barneby. Bagshaw 
pubhshed a violent work called the "True Relation", 
and Watson, a priest, issued extravagant tirades 
against Hhickwell and the Jesuits. On 26 January, 
1602, BkukwcU published a Brief dated 17 August, 
1601, which had been in his possession since Michael- 
mas. This again confirmed the appointment, but 
condemned the archpriest's irritating conduct, sup- 
pressed all publications about the controversy, re- 
fused to admit any appeal, and urged mutual charity. 

In Rome, however, the appellants succeeded with the 
hell) of the French ambassador in gaining a hearing, 
anci on 5 October, 1602, a new Brief wa.-* issued (text 
in Tierney, op. cit. infra, III, clxxxi) which Tierney 



summarizes as "condemning the conduct of the 
arehpriest, and justifying the appellants from the 
charges of schism and rebellion, which had been 
urged against them. ... It limited his jurisdiction 
to the priests educated in the foreign seminaries; for- 
bade him, in future and for the sake of peace, to com- 
municate either with the superior of the Jesuits in 
England, or with the general of the Society in Rome 
on the concerns of his office; commanded him to 
supply the first three vacancies that should occur in 
the number of his assistants with persons selected 
from amongst the appellant priests, and, having or- 
dered him to receive and transmit all appeals to the 
Cardinal Protector, concluded by condemning the 
past, and prohibiting all future pubUcations in any 
manner connected with the present controversy". 
On the other hand the appellants failed to secure 
episcopal government, or the prohibition, which they 
sought, to restrain priests, whether secular or regular, 
from provoking the Government by interference in 
political affairs. Nor did they obtain their request 
that all Catholics should be bound to manifest any 
designs against the queen or State of w hich they should 
learn. Elizabeth and her ministers were disap- 
pointed at the tenor of the Brief and retaliated by a 
proclamation (5 November, 1602) for the banishment 
of all Catholic missionaries. In reply to this thirteen 
of the appellants, including two future martyrs, drew 
up their famous address to the queen assuring her of 
their loj'alty. (See Tierney, op. cit. infra. III, 55-56, 
andclxxw'iiisqq.) The papal Brief of 5 October, 1602, 
finally settled the question, but an unfortunate legacy 
of mutual distrust and sore feeling remained behind 
and embittered the relations of the parties for many 
years to come. Government by arehpriest never worked 
well, and the secular clergy became unanimous in 
their desire for a bishop. This was granted to them 
after the death of William Harrison, the third arch- 
priest, in 1621, when the Holy See selected William 
Bishop, one of the leading appellants, to be the first 
Vicar Apostolic of England. 

TiERXEY. Dodd's Church History of England, III (London, 
1840): Law, The Arehpriest Controversy (2 vols., Camden Sooiety, 
1896-98) ; Idem. Jesuits and Seculars in the reign of Queen Bliza- 
belk (Ix)ndon, 1889), with a bibliography of contemporary 
pamphlets: Gerard, The Arehpriest Controversy in The Month 
(January, 1897^. 

Edwin Burton. 

Arizona. — On 12 Feb., 1912, Arizona became a 
state, the forty-eighth of the United States ("Amer- 
ica", 4 .Jan., 1913; "Official Congressional Direc- 
tory", 3rd ed., April, 1912). The Constitution of 
the state (61st Congress, 3rd session, Senate, 31 
Jan., 1911) defines its boundaries as Mexico, 
New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California, and the 
Mexican Territory of Lower California (art. I). 
Phoenix is to be the state capital, subject to change 
by election on or after 31 Dec, 1925 (art. XX). 
The governor is to be elected for a term of two 
years (art. V); the legislature is to meet biennially 
(art. IV, sect. .3); the judiciary is elective (art. VI). 
The Constitution, as amended by vote, 5 Nov., 
1912, extends the right of suffrage to women 
("American Year Book", 1912, p. 182; Constitution, 
art. VII, sect. 1). It defines the "mitiative" and 
"referendum" to be "reserved powers" of the 
people (art. IV, sect. 1), and the right of "recall" 
includes judges tus well as all other public officers 
(Constitution, art. VIII, sect. 1). There is to be 
no rehgious qualification for pubfic office or employ- 
ment (art. II), and to every inhabitant there is to 
be secured "perfect toleration of rehgious senti- 

ment" without molestation in person or property 
on account of religious worship or its lack. " Polyg- 
amous or plural marriages or polygamous cohabita- 
tion are forever prohibited" (art. XX). Under the 
"general and uniform public school system" (art. 
XI, sect. 1), there is to be "no sectarian instruc- 
tion" or religious test or quahfication required of 
teacher or pupil (art. XI, sect. 1). Neither public 
money nor property is to be appropriated for or 
applied "to any religious worship, exercise or in- 
struction or to the support of any rehgious estabUsh- 
ment" (art. II), nor is any tax to be laid or appropria- 
tion made of pubUc money "in aid of any church 
or private or sectarian school" (art. IX, sect. 10). 
But "property of educational, charitable and religious 
associations or institutions not used or held for profit 
may be exempted from taxation by law" (art. IX, 
sect. 2). Statistics of the Catholic Church in 
Arizona are given in the articles Tucson and United 
States; according to the "Bureau of the Census, 
Religious Bodies, 1906" there were in the state 
6175 Latter-Day Saints, 2884 Presbyterians, 2667 
Methodists, 1034 Baptists, 1059 Protestant Episco- 

Charles W. Sloane. 

Assumption. — The earliest known literary refer- 
ence to the Assumpt ion is found in the Gre^k work 
"De obitu S. Doming;". Cathohc faith, however, 
has always derived our knowledge of the mystery 
from Apostohc Tradition. 

Aulne Abbey (Alna), a former Cistercian monas- 
tery near Landelies on the Sambre in the Diocese of 
Li^ge. Originally it was a Benedictine monastery, 
founded by Saint Landelinus about 656. Before 
974 the Benedictines were replaced by secular clerics 
leading a common life, who, however, embraced the 
Rule of St. Augustine in 1144. .\t the instance of 
Bishop Henry de Leyen of Lifege it came into the 
hands of Cistercian monks from Clairvaux in 1147 
with Franco de Morvaux as its first Cistercian abbot. 
Henceforth it flourished as a Cistercian monastery 
until the French burned it at the end of the eight- 
eenth century, only a short time after it had been re- 
built in larger dimensions. The library, which 
contained 40,000 books and 5000 manuscripts, was 
also destroyed. 

BouLMONT, L'abbaye d' Aulne, ou origines, splendeurs, fpreuves, 
et mines de la perle monaslique d' Entre-Sambre-et- Meuse (Namur, 
1898): Cloquet. L'abbaye d' Aulne (Mons, 1904); Lebbocqdt, 
Histoire de l'abbaye d' Aulne (Paris, 1862). 

Michael Ott. 

Averbode, a Premonstratensian abbey belonging 
to the circary of Brabant and situated near Diest in 
the .\rchdiocese of Malines. It was founded about 
1 132 by Count Arnold of Losen and continued with- 
out interruption till the general suppression of the 
Belgian monasteries in 1796. The abbey was re- 
stored in 1834, and comprises at present 82 priests, 
20 clerics and novices, and 36 lay brothers. Of these, 
27 priests and 21 lay brothers are labouring among 
the Indians in Brazil, where, at the request of Leo 
XIII, they estabhshed a missionary monastery at 
Pirapora in the Diocese of Sao Paulo, in 1896, and a 
college at Jaguarao in the Diocese of Sao Pedro do Rio 
Grande do Sul in 1901. Recently two priests and 
three lay brothers from Averbode opened a mission 
house at Veile in Denmark. 

Huoo, S. ordinis Pra-monstralensis nnnales, I (Xancy. 17.34-6), 
210-223; Catalogut generalis ordinis Pram. (Prague. 1900). 

Michael Ott. 


Bachelot, Alexis John Augustine, Prefect Apos- 
tolic of the Sandwich Islands, b. at Grand Beauchet, 
commune of St. Cyr (Orne), France, 22 Feb., 1796; d. 
at sea, 5 Dec, 1837. He entered the preparatory semi- 
nary of Picpus (Paris) at the age of ten, and made vows 
in the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts at Cahors 
on 2 Feb., 1813. At the completion of his theological 
studies in the Irish College at Paris, he was ordained 
priest in 1820, and forthwith appointed its rector. 
Four years later he was made superior of the prepara- 
tory seminary at Tours. When in 1825 the Propa- 
ganda entrusted the Picpus Fathers with the estab- 
lishment of a mission in the Sandwich Islands, Father 
Bachelot was created the first prefect Apostolic of the 
new mission. On 20 Nov., 1826, he embarked at 
Bordeaux in company with Fathers Patrick Short and 
Abraham Armand and three lay brothers. They ar- 
rived off Honolulu, July, 1827, and though they were 
refused residence in the Islands, they landed while the 
matter was still under discussion by the chiefs. As 
matters remained in suspense for some time and no 
formal permission was forthcoming, the missionaries 
rented an enclosure containing three huts, removed 
their baggage from the vessel on 13 July, and Father 
Bachelot offered the first Mass in the Hawaiian 
Islands on the following morning. A fortnight after 
their arrival, La Plassard, captain of La Comete, was 
ordered before the queen, and commanded to re-em- 
bark the priests. This he refused to do, and departed 
before the missionaries could be forcibly put on board. 
The members of the Protestant mission which had 
been established in the Sandwich Islands seven years 
earlier saw with displeasure the arrival of the mis- 
sionaries of a rival creed, and persuaded the chiefs to 
expel them. As a result Fathers Bachelot and Short 
(Father Armand having left for France in November, 
1829) were forcibly embarked on the brig Waverly 
on 24 Dec, 1831. They landed at San Pedro Bay, 
California, on 21 Jan., 1832, and were received by the 
Franciscan Father then in charge of San Gabriel 
Mission. Father Short went to Monterey, where, 
conjointly with an English convert, Mr. Edw. Hart- 
nell, he started a college; Father Bachelot remained at 
San Gabriel. After the death of the old Franciscan 
the Californian authorities offered Father Bachelot an 
annual net income of $3000 if he would consent to 
take charge of the mission. He agreed to remain, 
but refused the salary in order to be free to leave at 
any time. 

On 28 March, 1837, Father Bachelot, having re- 
ceived information which seemed to warrant a fresh 
attempt to return to the Sandwich Islands, embarked 
with Father Short for them, and landed unmolested at 
Honolulu, 17 April. The missionaries obtained a pro- 
visional permission from the governor, Kekuanaoa, to 
remain on shore for some time; but on 29 April the 
king issued a proclamation stating that he would not 
permit papal missionaries to remain in his dominions, 
and ordered them to dcitart on the same vessel on which 
they had come. Father Short left Honolulu for Val- 
paraiso on 30 October. Father Bachelot remained 
behind, intending (o embark on a schooner, the near 
arrival of which had been announced. Meant ime an- 
other priest of the same society, Father Maigret, ar- 
rived off Honohilu. The authorities forbade his 
landing. The vessel for which Father Bachelot wjw 
wailing having failed loappe:ir, it became imperative 
to extricate both I''ather Maigret and the captain, who 
liniuiiht him, from .-i dillicult situation. Father 
H.acliclot decided therefore to purchase a small 
Bchooncr, then lying in port. They rechristened the 

vessel the Notre-Dame de Paix, and sailed on it on 
23 November. Father Bachelot, who was very ill at 
the time of embarkation, died during the voyage. 
On 13 Dec. the vessel arrived off Ponape, and on the 
following day the remains of the first Apostle of the 
Sandwich Lslands were interred in the little island of 
Na, near the mouth of Metalanim harbour. 

Father Bachelot is the author of an Hawaiian 
grammar and dictionary, "Notes grammaticales sur 
la langue sandwichoise suivies d'une collection de 
mots de la meme langue" (Paris, 1834), and two 
catechisms in the same language: "He Ninau ma ke 
Ao ana Kiritiano" (Catechism of the Christian 
Doctrine) and "He Ninauhoike no na Kakarema 
ahiku" (Catechism of the Seven Sacraments), both 
pubhshed at Ma^ao in 1831; a second edition ap- 
peared at Paris, 1841. A prayer-book in the native 
tongue, printed together with this second edition and 
entitled, "Na Olelo Pule no ka Poe Kiritiano o ko 
Havaii Pae-aina" (Prayers for the Christians of the 
Hawaiian Archipelago), is also probably by the same 

Anrmh of the Propagation of the Faith, vol. I; Supplement to the 
Sandwich Island Mirror (15 Jan., 1840). reprinted by the Catholic 
Truth Society (San Francisco, 1897} ; Bingham, Sandwich Islands 
(Hartford, 1848). 

Reginald Yzendoorn. 

Ballerini, Antonio, b. at Medicina, near Bologna, 
10 October, 1805; d. in Rome, 27 November, 1881. 
He entered the Society of Jesus, 13 October, 1826. 
He was professor of philosophy at Ferentino, of eccle- 
siastical history at Rome and at Fermo, of moral 
theology at the Roman College. He took a promi- 
nent part in the controversies on the writings of 
Rosmini, on the moral system of St. Alphonsus 
Liguori, and on the relations between the hierarchy 
and the religious orders, especially in England. He 
contributed valuable treatises to the discussion of the 
subject of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary. He assisted Boero in the compilation 
of the "Menology" of the Society, and published a 
valuable compendium of Gury, which was adapted for 
the seminaries of the United .States by Sabetti and 
later by Barrett. His chief work, the commentary on 
Busenbaum's "Medulla", was completed and pub- 
lished by Palmieri (q. v.). His brother Francis, also a 
Jesuit (b. 5 April, 1805; d. in Rome IS Aug., 1874), 
composed several devotional works. 

SoMMEEVOGEL, Bibl. de la C. de JHus, I (Brussels. 1890). 

John J. Wynne. 

Baptista Varani (Varano), Blessed, an ascetical 
writer, b. at Camerino, in the March of Ancona, 9 
Apr., 1458; d. there, 31 May, 1.527. Her father, 
Julius Ca-sar Varano or de Varanis, Duke of Came- 
rino, belonged to an illustrious family; her mother, 
Joanna Malatesta, was a daughter of Sigismvmd, 
Prince of Rimini. At baptism Baptista received the 
name of Camilla. Of the first ten and the last 
twenty-three years of her hfe little or nothing is 
known; our knowledge of the intervening years is de- 
rived almost entirely from her own writings. This 
revelation of herself was brought about through the 
influence of her confes.sor. Blessed Peter of Mogliano, 
provincial of the Franciscans in the Marches (1490). 
It seems to have been the eloquence of Mogliano that 
brouglit abiiut the "conversion" of Baptista, who, for 
a time at least, appears to have been captivated by the 
glamour of I he world. Her father did all in his power 
to force his daughter into a brilliant marriage, even to 
the extent of imprisoning her. But Baptista resisted 
his plans so firmly that after two years and a half he 



restored her to liberty, for fear, as he said, of drawing 
upon himself the Divine vengeance, and gave his con- 
sent to her becoming a mm. On 14 Nov., 1481, Bap- 
tista entered the monastery of the Poor Clares at 
Urbino. Not long afterwards her father founded a 
new monastery of that order at Camerino, and pre- 
sented it to his daughter. Baptista introduced the 
primitive observance of the rule there, and thence- 
forth her vigorous and impressive personality found 
scope not only in the administration of this mon- 
astery, of which she became the first abbess, but also 
in the production of various literary works. These 
include the: "Recordationes et instructiones spirit- 
uales novem", which she wrote about 1491; 
"Opus de doloribus mentalibus D. N. J. C", written 
during 1488-91 and first pubhshed at Camerino in 
1630; "Liber sua; conversionis", a story of her 
life, written in 1491 and first published at Macerata 
in 1624. These works have been edited by the Bol- 
landists in connexion mth some of Baptista's letters. 
But most of her "Epistolae spirit ualcs ad devotas 
personas" as well as her "Carmina pleraque latina et 
vulgaria" are stiU unpubUshed. 

As a whole the writings of Baptista are remarkable 
for originahty of thought, striking spirituality, and 
vividly pictorial language. Both fit. Phihp Neri and 
St. Alphonsus have recorded their admiration for this 
gifted woman who wrote with equal faciUty in Latin 
and ItaUan, and who was accounted one of the most 
brilliant and accomplished scholars of her day. 
Baptista died on the feast of Corpus Christi, and 
was buried in the choir of her monastery. Thirty 
years later her body was exhumed and was found in a 
state of perfect preservation. It was reburied to be 
again exhumed in 1.593. The flesh was then reduced to 
dust but the tongue still remained quite fresh and 
red. The immemorial cultus of Baptista was ap- 
proved by Gregory XVI in 1843, and her feast is kept 
in the Franciscan Order on 2 June. 

Ada SS. May, VII (Antwerp, 1688), 476-514; Wadding, An- 
nates MinCTum ad annum 1509, n. 25: Idem, Scriptores ord. Min. 
(3rd ed., 1906), 36; Sbaralea, Supplemmtum, pt. I (1908), 
il3-114: Leon de Clary. Lives of the Saints and Blessed of the 
Three Orders of St. Francis, II (Taunton, 1886), 315-48; De 
Rambuteau, Im Bienheureuse Varani, Princesse de Camerino et 
Teligieuse franciscaine (Paris, 1906): Jorgensen, / det Hoje 
(Copenhagf^n, 1908), German tr. in Excelsis (Kempten and 
Alunich, 1911), which contains a charming sketch of Baptista 
and gives us a glimpse of her poetic talent. For an appreciation, 
of her poetry see Crescimbeni, Utoria delta volyare poesia, I, 
lib. 2, cap. xilL 

Stanislaus \\'oywod. 

Barron, Edward, missionarj', b. at Waterford, 
Ireland, 1801; d. at Savannah, Georgia, U. S. A., 
12 Sept., 1854. His ecclesiastical studies were made 
at the Propaganda College, Rome, where he received 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity. Several years were 
then spent in Ireland, after which he volimtecrcd for 
the missions in the United States, attaching himself 
to the Diocese of Philadelphia, where he became in 
time pastor of St. Mary's Church, Philadelphia, 
president of St. Charles Borromeo's Theological 
Seminarj', and then vicar-general of the diocese. 
When in 1840 the Holy See requested tlie American 
bishops to care for the negro Catholics of Liberia, 
Africa, he offered his ser\'iccs with tliose of the Rev. 
John Kelly of New York, and li'ft Baltimore, 21 Dec., 
1841, for Cape Mesurado. The work there was 
successfid at first, and so Barron returned to Europe 
and the United States for more help. While in Rome 
he was consecrated, 22 Jan., 1842, titular Bishop of 
Constantia and Vicar Apostolic of the two Guineas. 
He returned to Africa, 30 Nov., 1813, with several 
missionaries of the Society of the Sacred Ileart of 
Jesus and continued his labours in the mission until 
184.5, when he was forced by fever he had contracted 
to resign his vicariate and lo return to the Uni1c(l 
States. Here, as far .-us his impaired health tdlowed. 
he again took up the duties of a missionary priest and 

assisted in the work of the episcopate in Philadelphia, 
St. Louis, and Florida. He died of yellow fever at 
Savannah while helping the bishop of that see during 
an epidemic. (See Liberia.) 

Shea, Hist. Cath. Ch. in U. S. (New York, 18.56); Clarke, 
Lives Deceased Bishops, U. S., II (New York, 1872), appendix; 
KiRUN. Catholicity in Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1909); Flynn, 
Cath. Church in New Jersey (Morristown, 1904); Catholic Al- 
manac, 1856; Freeman's Journal (New York, 1854-55), files. 

Thomas F. Meehan. 

Baxzynski, Vincent, b. at Stdislawice, Sandomir, 
Russian Poland, 1838; d. at Chicago, 2 May, 1899. 
The son of Joseph and Mary (Sroczynska) Barzynski, 
in baptism he received the name Michael, but dm-ing a 
grievous illness was placed under the protection of 
St. Vincent Ferrer and henceforth called Vincent. 
Because of frail health he was educated privately. 
In 1856 he entered the diocesan seminary at Lubhn 
and was ordained priest, 28 Oct., 1861. After six 
months illness spent at the home of his father, he was 
appointed vicar at Horodlo, member of the chapter of 
the collegiate church of the Zamojscy, and later 
transferred to Tomaszew, which was the scene of great 
miUtary activity during the uprising of 1863. As or- 
ganizer, appointed by the secret Pohsh national Gov- 
ernment, he provided the insurrectionists with mili- 
tary suppUes. Compelled soon after to flee to Cra- 
cow, he foimd refuge with the Franciscan fathers in 
that city. After fifteen months of wandering he re- 
ceived his passport enabUng him to leave for Paris in 
1865. Here he fell under the influence of that re- 
markable band of mystics, Semenenko, Kajsewicz, 
Jelowicki, and Micldewicz, the poet, who dreamed of 
Poland's resun-ection tlirough the spiritual regenera- 
tion of the Poles. Going to Rome, he joined the 
newly founded Congregation of the Resurrection and 
soon after receiving the special blessing of Pius IX set 
out for America (1866). After several years' labour 
in the Diocese of San Antonio, Texas, he was ap- 
pointed pastor of St. Stanislaus parish, Chicago, in 
1874. The parish then comprised about 450 families; 
in 1881 the number of baptisms was 988, and in 1887 
reached 1700. 

Vincent Barzynski became the dominant influence 
throughout the most critical period of Polish immi- 
gration. He first gave the American Poles a class 
consciousness, amalgamated the various units into a 
compact working phalanx, and despite seemingly in- 
surmountable difficulties crushed the forces that 
threatened the faith of Pohsh immigrants. Criticized 
for centralizing within his own person all authority, it 
must be recalled that he had to deal single-haiicled 
with every difficulty, that in large part the Pohsh 
American clergy of his day were deserving of little 
confidence, that the mass of Polish immigration was 
from the oetty artisan and peasant class, and that the 
smaU number of brighter minds coming to America 
had left an imsavoury past behind them. It is clear 
that there was no alternative. The spirit of re- 
bellion, "independence", schism fanned by the 
Pohsh National Alliance, and thi.s organization Father 
Barzj-nski so successfully combated that it was only 
after his death that the Alhance grew in members. 

St. Stanislaus parish, divided again and again, 
seenied never to decrease; Father Barzynski there or- 
ganizetl nearly forty societies, confraternities, and 
sodahties. He a.ssisted in the organization of nearly 
every Pohsh parish in Chicago established before his 
death. He built the magnificent St. Sl:iMislaus 
Chiu-ch and the great school (since destroyed by fire 
and rebuilt), where seventy nuns teach ne;irly five 
thf)U.>ian(l children; g:ive the Poles an orphanage; 
founded St. St:uiisl:tus College; introduced the Sisters 
of the Holy Fiitiiily of N:iz:irclli into the United 
S(;ites; fornieil witji very niw materiid a corps of 
Polish te;ich(Ts in his own .school; interested the 
School Sisters of Notre Dame in Polish immigi-ation. 
Largely due to his influence, 800 Polish women 


entered this community. He founded the first Polish 
CathoUc paper, the "Gazeta Katolicka", his per- 
sonal organ for many years, and established the first 
PoUsh daily Catholic paper in America, the "Dzien- 
nik Cbicagoski", which for nearly twenty-five years 
has been a vaUant defender of the Faith against the 
inroads of the Uberal press, particularly the "Zgoda", 
the insincerely "neutral" organ of the PoUsh Na- 
tional Alliance. To him are due the first PoUsh 
American te.\t-books, and first Sunday-school papers. 
He saw the necessity of organizing the Poles along 
strictly CathoUc Unes, and founded the PoUsh Roman 
Catholic Union. His greatest enemies admit him to 
be the most commanding figui-e in the brief but 
dramatic history of the American Poles. Despite 
constant criticism from both clergy and laity, he re- 
mained indefatigable. He was a man of genuine 
piety and deep faith, strict with himself alone, con- 
siderate of others. He was humble, resourceful, dar- 
ing, and patriotic and was possessed of real genius for 
organization. The noblest monument he has left is 
the faith that abides in three million Poles. 

Felix Thomas Sbrocztnski. 

Basilica, as a term used by canon lawyers and 
Uturgists, is a title assigned by formal concession or 
immemorial custom to certain more important 
churches, in virtue of which they enjoy privileges of 
an honorific character which are not always very 
clearly defined. Basilicas in tliis sense are divided 
into two classes, the greater or patriarchial, and the 
lesser, basiUcas. To the former class belong primarily 
those four great churches of Rome (St. Peter's, St. 
John Lateran, St. Mary Major, and St. Paul-without 
the-waUs), which among other distinctions have a 
special "holy door" and to wliich a visit is always 
prescribed as one of the conditions for gaining the 
Roman Jubilee (q.v.). They are also called patriarchial 
basiUcas, seemingly as representative of the great 
ecclesiastical provinces of the world thus sj-mboUcally 
united in the heart of Clu-istendom . St. John Lateran 
is the cathedral of the pope, the Patriarch of the 
West. St. Peter's is assigned to the Patriarch of 
Constantinople, St. Paul's to the Patriarch of Alex- 
andria, St. Mary Major to the Patriarch of Antioch. 
St. La wrence-outside-the- Walls is also reckoned as a 
greater basilica because it is speciaUy attributed to 
the Patriarch of Jerusalem. Moreover, a few other 
churches, notably that of St. Francis at Assisi and 
that of the Portiuncula (q. v.), have received the 
pri\'ilege of ranking as patriarchial basilicas. As 
such they possess a papal throne and an altar at 
which none may say Mass except by the pope's per- 
mission. The lesser basilicas are much more numer- 
ous, including nine or ten different churches in Rome, 
and a number of others, such as the Basilica of the 
Grotto at Lourdes, the votive Church of the Sacred 
Heart at Montmartre, the Church of Marienthal in 
Alsace, etc. There has been a pronounced tendency 
of late years to add to their number. Thus the " Act a 
ApostoUcffi Sedis" for 1909 contain six, and the 
"Acta" for 1911 eight, such concessions. In the 
Brief of erection the pope declares: "We, by our 
apostoUc authority, . . . erect (such and such a 
church) to the dignity of a lesser basiUea and bestow 
upon it all the privileges which belong to the lesser 
basilicas of this our o\\7i cherished city". These 
"privileges", besides conferring a certain precedence 
before other churches (not, however, before the cathe- 
dral of any locaUty), include the right of the cono- 
pmum, the bell, and tin- cajypa magna. The cono- 
panim is a sort of unibiclla (also called papilin, 
sinicchio, etc.), whicli together with the bell is carried 
processionally at the head of tlie clergy on state oc- 
casions. The rappa itiai/iia is worn by the canons or 
members of the cdllegiale chapter, if seculars, when 
assisting at Office. Tlie form of the conopttitm, 


which is of red and yellow silk, is well shown in the 
arms of the cardinal camerlengo (see vol. VII, p. 
242, coloured plate) over the cross keys. 

Heuser in Kirchenlexikon, II, 22; Ferrahis in Bibliotheca 
canomca (Rome, 1896). s. v.; IVIontault, L'armfe liturniaue d 
Rome (Paris, 1857). 

Herbert Thurston. 

Baumgartner, Alexander, poet and writer on the 
history of literature, b. at St. GaU, Switzerland, 
27 June, 1841; d. at Luxemburg, 5 Sept., 1910. His 
father was GaUus Jakob Baumgartner, a prominent 
statesman. At the 
abbey school of 
Maria Einsiedeln 
in Switzerland, 
where Alexander 
when fourteen 
years old began 
his higher studies, 
a decisive influ- 
ence was exercised 
over the impres- 
sionable spirit of 
the pupil by the 
well-known poet 
and scholar, 
Father Gall Mo- 
rel. The intel- 
lectual bent there 
fii'st developed 
was confirmed at 
the Jesuit school 
at Feldkirch, 
where the boy 
spent his last two 
gymnasial years. 

Alexander Baumgahtkeb 

After passing an excellent examination he entered the 
Society of Jesus in 1860. After his studies in 1874 
he was assigned to the editorial staff of the periodical 
"Stimmen aus Maria-Laach", which had been 
founded three years before. For thirty-six years he 
devoted his pen to this journal as a loyal collaborator, 
so that scarcely a number appeared without some 
article from him. Owing to the expulsion of the 
Jesuits from Germany, he repeatedly changed the 
place of pubhcation of the periodical. He also took 
two long journeys. In 1883 he went to Iceland, the 
Faroe Islands, Scandinavia, and the provinces of the 
Baltic as far as St. Petersburg. Three years later he 
visited Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. Both tours 
are commemorated in the weU-knowTi books of travel, 
"Nordische Fahrten" (1889 and 1890). Other and 
shorter vacation trips had more for their object the 
physical and intellectual relaxation of the over- 
strained powers which, however, gave way at too 
early an age. He was buried in the cemetery at 
Luxemburg near his old friend and countrjTnan, 
Father Joseph Spillman, S.J. 

Father Baumgartner was bom with a poetic nature. 
His talent was best evidenced in his poems for special 
occasions. His best work of this kind is his "Fest- 
spiel zur Calderonfeier" (1881), which appeared first 
in the "Stimmen aus Maria-Laach", but was soon, 
owing to repeated requests, published in book form 
with a brief biography of the Spanish poet. A trans- 
lation into Spanish by Orti y Lara of the artistic work 
soon followed. His "Lauretanische Litanei" in 
fifty-nine sonnets was also written for a special occa- 
sion and was printed for the first time in 18S3 and 
translated into Dutch in 1S9(). His talent for poetry 
was shown no less brilliantly in his fine translations of 
foreign poetry. In 1884 appeared, as a small book, 
the translation of an Icelandic poem of the four- 
teenth century to the Virgin, "Die Lilie". 

Baunigartner's fame rests on his writings on the 
history of literature. His nvnnerous articles in the 
"Stimmen aus Maria-Laach", which were collected 



and issued in 1912 as a supplementary volume to his 
"Geschichte der Weltliteratur", were all written with 
the intent that they should form part of his larger 
history and life work. In earlier years, as preparatory 
writings, he had issued "Lessings religiosen Entwick- 
lungsgang" (1877), "Longfellow" (1887), an apprecia- 
tion of the poems of the American poet which passed 
into a second edition ten years later, " Joost van den 
Vondel" (1882), a biography of the great Dutchman 
translated four years later into Dutch, and lastly the 
celebrated biography of Goethe in three volumes 
(1879). In addition he published two works as ex- 
pressions of gratitude and piety: "Erinnerungen an 
Bischof Greith" (1884), and "Gallus Jakob Baum- 
gartner" (1892). Two years previously he had issued 
the unfinished work of his father, " Die Geschichte des 
Kantons St. Gallen", in three volumes. The six 
volumes of his history of the Literature of the world 
are well known: "VVestasien und die Nillander" 
(1897); "Indicn und Ostasien" (1897); "Die klas- 
sische Literatur der Griechen und Romer" (1900); 
"Die lateinische und griechische Literatur der 
christUchen Volker" (1900); "Die franzosische 
Literatur" (190.5); and lastly "Die italienische 
Literatur" (1911),during the writing of which he died. 
It is hardly necessary to say that a man of such 
spirit was also a fine critic. The thoroughly Catholic 
point of view in all his works is also self-evident. 
His strong religious convictions led him to take part 
in the dispute over Catholic Uterature by the publica- 
tion of the pamphlet "Die SteUung der deutschen 
Kathohken zur neucren Literatur". Father Baum- 
gartner, however, was not contentious by nature; he 
was rather a lover of peace, although a harmless love 
of mischief showed itself at times in his writings. \s 
a loyal son of his Order he always felt that with the 
pen he exercised a sacred office for the defence of truth 
and the honour of God. 

Siimmen au» Maria-Loach, LXXIX (1910). 349-372; Scheid, 
BaumgaTlTier, ein Gedenkblalt seines Lebens und Wirkens (Hamm, 

N. Scheid. 

Beaufort, Henry. See Plantagbnet, Henry of, 
Vol. XII, p. 148. 

Beccaria, Giovanni Battista, physicist, b. at 
Mondovi, 3 October, 1716; d. at Turin, 27 May, 1781. 
.\t the age of sixteen he entered the Order of Clerks 
Regular of St. Joseph Calasanctius, and succes8i\-ely 
taught in the Scuole Pie of Palermo and Rome. His 
ability as instructor being soon recognized, he was 
appointed by royal authority professor of physics in 
the University of Turin (1748). Here he ardently 
devoted himself to researches on atmospheric elec- 
tricity, in which he made hberal use of kites, rockets, 
and iron wire for the purpose of exploring the elec- 
trical conditions of the atmo.sphere. Henley's 
pith-ball electroscope was his recording instrument. 
In broken or stormy weather, positive and negative 
electrification were detected; whereas in calm, serene 
weather "the excessive or positive was always 
found ". The sinuous or forked character of hght ning 
was attributed to the resistance of the air; and the 
rupture of the shoes of a man struck by a flash, to the 
"moisture of the feet flying into vapour". Beccaria 
confirmed the ob.servation of Andrew Gordon (q. v.) 
that water evaporates more rapidly when electrified; 
also the conclusion of Abb6s NoUrt and Menon that 
animals (rats, pigeons, chaffinches) lose weight when 
subjected to prolonged electrification, the being 
ascribed to increased "transpiration" under electri- 
cal stimulus. He was also among the first to recog- 
nize and clearly state that the electrical charge on a 
conductor is confined to the surface. An experimen- 
tal demonstration of this law of electrostatics was 
devised by Cavendish in 177.5 and independently by 
Coulomb in 17SS and popularized in IMO by Blot, 
whose name it usually bears. Beccaria adopted the 

two-fluid theory of Frankhn as well as the views of the 
American philosopher on the preventive and protec- 
tive functions of lightning conductors. 

In 17.5.5 Beccaria was elected Fellow of the Royal 
Society, and in 176() he contributed a paper to the 
"Philosophical Transactions", in which he describes 
(in Latin) five of the more important of his experimen- 
tal researches. In 1770 he contributed a second 
paper (also in Latin) in which he expounds five 
theorems followed by fifteen corollaries in electro- 
statics. His principal work is his treatise "Dell' 
elettricismo artificiale e naturale" (1753), which was 
translated into English in 1778. Other works are 
"Lettere suU' elettricismo" (17.58); "Experimenta 
atque observationes quibus electricitas vindex late 
constituitur" (17(")9); and "Dell' elettricita terrestre 
atmosferica a cielo sereno" (1775). 

Tana, Elogio del P. Giov. BaUa. Beccaria (1781); Eandi, 
Memorie storiche inlorno agli studii del P. Beccaria (17S3). 

Brother Potamian. 

Bergen (Berga, Bergensis), Ancient See of, in 
Norway. The diocese included the Provinces of 
Nordre and Sondre Bergenhus, and the district of 
Sondmor in the Province of Romsdal. The discovery 
at Selo in 996 of the supposed remains of St. Sun- 
niva and her companions led King Olaf Trygveson to 
build a church there. It was not, however, till 1068 
that a bishopric and a monastery were founded at 
Selo by King Olaf Kyrre. Bernard the Saxon was 
the first bishop, but later on he removed to the newly 
founded city of Bergen, where he died as its first 
bishop about 1090. In 1152 Bergen became a suffra- 
gan bishopric of the new metropolitan See of 'Trondh- 
jem, and a cathedral chapter was set up there. 
Bishop Paul (1156-94) saw the completion of the 
Cathedral of Christ Church in time for the holding of a 
provincial council there and for the coronation of 
King Magnus Erlingson, the first coronation of a Nor- 
wegian king, in 1164. In 1170 the relics of St. Sun- 
niva were translated to the cathedral. During the 
episcopate of Bishop Arne (1226-56), namely on 29 
July, 1247, Cardinal Wilhelm of Sabina crowned King 
Haakon Haakonsson. In 1271 the Royal Chapel of 
the Holy Apostles at Bergen was made collegiate. 
From 1275 to 1302 King Magnus built a great church 
(the finest in Norway), as his new royal chapel, to re- 
ceive a relic of the Crown of Thorns. The dean took 
tlie title of Master of the (fourteen) Royal Chapels 
and was granted the right to use the episcopal orna- 
ments. Bishop Arne Sigurds.s6n (130.5-14) re- 
garded the privileges of the Chapel Royal at Bergen 
as an encroachment upon the rights of his see. He 
could not, however, deprive the dean, Finn Haldors- 
son, of his .semi-independent position, as the latter had 
the support of the Holy See. Arne also asserted in 
vain his claim that the bishops of the Fferoe Islands 
should be chosen amongst the clergy of the Diocese of 
Bergen. He was, however, successful in compelling 
the German mercliants at, Bergen to pay tithe 
Bishop Thorstein (1342-49) ilied of the Black Death, 
as did nearly all the Norwefri:tn bishops. To his 
successor, the Englishman Ciisbritli (1349-69), we owe 
the Bergen Manuscript (Bjiirgynjar knifskinn). As- 
lak Bolt, Bishop of Bergen from 1 lOS, was trans- 
lated to the See of Trondhjem in 1430. Bishop Thor- 
leif Olafsson (1430-50), having joined Ohif Nikson at 
the Brigilline Convent of Munkaiif, was killed there 
bv the (iermans of the Hans;i on 1 S<'ptember, 14,55. 
The last Catholic bishop, Olaf Thorkelssiin (1.523-35) 
allowed the Cathedral of Christ Church, the Royal 
Chapel of the ."Apostles, the Dominican convent, and 
otherecelesi;istical buildings at Bergen to bede.stroyed, 
when the fortress of Bergenhus was enlarged. His 
successor, (icble Pederssdn, became a 

Eighteen provincial councils were held at Bergen. 
The most inii)ort;int were the following: The council 
of 1164 confirmed arrangements made in 1152 by the 




legate, Cardinal Nicholas Breakspear, with regard to 
the Norwegian Church. Their object was the estab- 
lishment of the hierarchy by the following means: 
(1) the establishment on a firm basis of the Ai-ch- 
bishopric of Trondhjem; (2) the foundation of cathe- 
dral chapters; (3) the assertion of the right of tlie 
Church to inherit property by will; (4) the enforce- 
ment of clerical ceUbacy . The council of 1 190 decreed 
the excommunication of all guilty of sacrilege, violence 
towards clerks, rape, or of unlawfully bearing arms in 
church and at public assemblies. King Sverre's Chris- 
tian Law (Chrislenrcl) was pubUshed at this council. 
The council held in 1273 decided that parish churches 
in Iceland should belong to the bishop of the diocese 
and not to the landowners. A number of articles were 
also framed with a view to a reconciliation between 
Church and State, but they were never accepted eit lier 
by pope or king. In 1280 many rules with regard to 
excommunication were made but not carried into 
effect, as the quarrel between Church and State broke 
out with renewed violence. At the council of 1320 
a large number of regulations were made with regard 
to discipline. In 1327 the canons adopted at the pro- 
vincial synod dealt with the relations between Church 
and State. The last provincial synod at Bergen was 
held in 1435. It dealt with the collection of money 
for the maintenance of the Council of Basle, the 
superstitious observance of Saturday, which was for- 
bidden, and unauthorized begging on the part of re- 

Among the religious institutions in the Diocese of 
Bergen before the Reformation, were the following: 
The cathedral with a chapter of 3 prelates and 12 
canons, the Collegiate Church of the Apostles (Chapel 
Royal), 12 canons and a dean; priories of Dominicans 
(from at least 1240) and Franciscans (dating from the 
same period). There were also at St. Mary's, Bergen, 
Cistercian nuns from 1150-1507 and Canons Regu- 
lar of St. Anthony of Vienne from 1507-28. At St. 
John's, Bergen, there were Canons Regular of St. 
Augustine from about 1180 to 1489. The Hospitals 
of St. Catharine (for women) and of All Saints (for 
men) provided for the sick. Finally, the great Abbey 
of St. Michael's, MunkaUf (Benedictine monks, 1108- 
1426; Brigittines, 1426-70 and 1479-1531; Cister- 
cian nuns, 1470-79), lay close to Bergen. The city 
and its suburbs contained in all no less than 26 
churches. Elsewhere there were the Cistercian Ab- 
bey of Lyse, colonized from Fountains Abbey, York- 
shire, in 1146, and the Hospital of the Holy Spirit at 
Halsno (about 1200-1539). 

Penrose, The Legend of St. Sunnef a in The Antiquary, V (Lon- 
don, i882), 18-23; Diplomatarium norpeflicitm (Christiania, 1849- 
1903): Norges gavile Love (Christiania, 1846-1895); Keyser, Den 
norske Kirkes Historie under Katholicismen (Christiania, 1856-8) ; 
Nielsen, Bergen (Christiania, 1877); Lange, De norske Ktoslrea 
Historie i Middelalderen (Christiania, 1856) ; Munch, Registrum 
prtrdiorum et redituum ad ecclesiaa diocesis bergensis sasculo p. C 
XIV"' perlinmlium, Bjdrgynjar Kdlfskinn (Christiania. 1843); 
Codex diploTiialarius monasterii St, Michaelis Bergensis (MuJi- 
kalif) (Christiania. 1845). 

A. W. Taylor. 

Biblical Commission. See Acts of the Apos- 
tles; Luke, Gospel of Saint; Matthew, Gospel 

OF Saint. 

Bickell, Oustav, Orientalist, b. at Cassel, 7 July, 
1S3S; (1. :il Vicima, 15 Jan., 1906. His father, Johaiin 
WilhcliM Birkcli, was professor of canon law at the 
University of Marburg, and died (1848) as minister of 
justice of Hcsse-Cassel. In 1862 Gustave became 
PrivaUlozenl of Semitic and Indo-Germanic languages 
at Marburg, but the following year he went in the 
same capacity to the University of Giessen. The 
finding of a clear testimony in favour of t he Immaculat e 
Conception in the hymns of St. Ephraem, which he 
was transcribing in London, led him to enter the 
Catholic Church, 5 Nov., 1865. After his conversion 
he entered the seminary of Fulda, where he was 


onlained priest, 22 Sept., 1865. He then taught 

Oriental languagrs :if (hr \(:iilcniy of Minister, and 

in 1871 was aiipniiiicd i \i i,i.,r.|iiiary professor. At 

this period he Ijnanic l\ Kihaih by his vigorous 

defence of papal infallihiUty. in 1874 lie went to 

the L'niversity of Innsbruck as professor of Christian 

archaeology and 

Semitic languages, 

which position he 

held till 1891, 

when he was called 

to the chair of 

Semitic languages 

at the University 

of Vienna. 

He was an en- 
thusiastic student 
and one of the 
foremost Semitic 
scholars of modern 
times. Besides 
numerous contri- 
butions to different 
reviews he pub- 
Ushed the follow- 
ing works: "De 
indole ac ratione 
versionis Alexan- 
drinae in interpro- 
tando libro Jobi" (Marburg, 1862); "S.EphraemiSyri 
Carmina Nisibena", with prolegomena fixing the laws 
of Syriac metre (Leipzig, 1866); "Grundriss der he- 
braischen Grammatik" (ib., 1869-70), translated into 
Enghsh by Sam. I. Curtiss under the title "Outlines of 
Hebrew Grammar" (ib., 1877); "Griinde ftir die 
Unfehlbarkeit des Kirchenoberhauptes" (Miinster, 
1870); " Conspectus reiSyrorumhtterariae" (ib., 1871); 
||Messe und Pascha" (Mainz, 1872), tr. \V. F. Skene, 
"The Lord's Supper and the Passover" (Edinburgh, 
1891); "Schriften und Gedichte svTischer Kirchen- 
viiter" (vols. 71 and 72 of the "Sammlung der 
Kirehenvater " of Kempten); "S. Isaaci Antiocheni 
opera omnia" (2 vols., Giessen, 1873-77); "Kalilag 
und Damnag" (Leipzig, 1876); "Metrices bihlicae 
regulae exemphs illustrata; " (Innsbruck, 1879); 
"Synodi brixinenses siec. quindecimi" (ib., 1880); 
"Carmina V. T. metrice" (ib., 1882); "Dichtungen 
der Hebraer" (3 vols., ib., 1882-84); "Der Prediger 
(Koheleth) fiber den Wert des Dasiens" (ib., 1886); 
"Das Buch Job" (Vienna, 1894). 

F. Bechtel. 

Bismarck (Bismarckiensis), Diocese of, in 
Nortli Dakota. — Tliis diocese was erected on 31 
Deccinlx'i', l'.t09, and is suffragan to the Archdiocese 
of St. Paul, Minnesota. It comprises the counties of 
Adams, Billings, Bowman, Burke, Burleigh, Divide, 
Dunn, Emmons, Hettinger, !McKenzie. McLean, 
Mercer, Morton, Mountrail, Ohver, Renville, Stark, 
Ward, and Williams, — an area of 42,316 square 
miles. Mgr. Vincent Wehrle was elected its first 
bishop on 9 April, and was consecrated at St. Paul, 
19 May, 1910. Born at Berg, Switzerland, 20 
December, 1855, Bishop Wehrle made his profession 
at the Benedictine Monastery of Einsiedeln, 3 Decem- 
ber, 1876, and was ordained priest on 23 April, 1882. 
Appointed to the American apostolate shortly after- 
wards, he founded nimierous missions and parishes in 
North Dakota. In 1884 he erected the Priory of St. 
Gall, and in 1901 St. Mary's Abbey at Ricliardton, of 
which he wsis elected abbot in 1903. The diocese re- 
ceives its name from the city of Bismarck (5443 in- 
habitants), the capital of thestate. The early Cath- 
olic history of the territory has been treated in the 
article Xourn Dakota. According to the latest 
statistics the diocese contains: 1 bishop; 25 secular 
and 28 regular (Benedictine) priests; 34 churches with 




resident priests (3 for Indians); 53 missions with 
churches ^5 for Indians); 43 stations without churches 
(2 for Indians); S parochial schools; 3 Cathohc hos- 
pitals; 2 Catholic Indian boardiiig-srho<ils; about 
27,000 Catholics (1200 Indians), In IDl 1 there were 
2596 confirmations and 1012 baptisms (83 of adults). 
The Sisters of St. Benedict (4S in all) have houses at 
Bismarck, Dickinson, Fort Yates, Glen Ullin, Rich- 
ardton, and Elbow Woods. The Ursuline Sisters 
(11) have a convent at St. Anthony, and the Fran- 
ciscan Sisters (4) have charge of the hospital at 

Catholic Directory (New York, 1912); and bibliography to 
North Dakota. 


Bore, EuGjfcNE, Orientalist, b. at Angers, 15 Aug., 
1809; d. at Paris, 3 May, 1878. From the college of 
Anger he went to the College Stanislas in Paris, where 
at eighteen he won the prize in philosophy in a com- 
petition of all the colleges of France, one rival being 
Alfred de Musset. 
.\fter a year at 
law he devoted 
himself to the 
s t]u d y of 1 a n - 
gu'ages. In 1829 
with his brother 
Leon, also a lin- 
guist and a noted 
translator, he 
joined the coterie 
of the Abb6 F61i- 
oite de Lamen- 
luiis (q. v.), to 
which he intro- 
duced his college- 
mate, Maurice de 
G u e r i n . With 
Montalambert he 
tried to persuade 
Lamennais to sub- 
mit and did not 
give up hope of 
the latter's return to the Church until 1851. 

Member of the Asiatic Society in 1833, he won fame 
in the "Journal Asiatique". He was professor of 
.\rmenian (1833-34) at the CoD^ge de France. Sent 
to Venice, he published the results of his literary 
labours there in the convent of the Mechitarists. 
Spending six months of 1837 in study at Constanti- 
nople, he went with Father Scaffi, C. M., to Erzerum 
in .\rmenia. At Tauris he started a school as an 
opening wedge for Christ ianit3', whose service was 
always his chief concern. The Shah of Persia hon- 
oured him for the excellence of his school. In addi- 
tion to many learned studies sent to France, his 
interesting letters were pubUshed as "The Cor- 
respondence of a Traveller in the Orient". In 1841 
he secured Lazarist missioners for Persia. For ser- 
vices to France in that land he was given the cross of 
the Legion of Honour. Gregory XVI made him 
Knight of the Golden Mihtia in 1842 and Knight of 
St. Gregory the Great in 1843. Knowing forty Ori- 
ental idioms, most of them thoroughlj', he published 
in some of these tongues excellent controversial works. 
He was eager for the return of the schismatics to the 
Church and was aided in his apostolate by his wide 
acquaintance with the most learned and influential 
men of France and Italy. He published an illumi- 
nating report of the condition of the Holy Land whither 
hewaasent by France toinvestigatein 1847. Entering 
the Congregation of the Mission in Jan., 1849, at 
Constantinople, he was ordained there, 7 April, 1850, 
and made his vows in Paris in Jan., 1851. Sent to 
Constantinople, as head of the College of Bebek.he 
remained fifteen j-ears doing zealous work for Mus.sul- 
mans as well as Christians especially on the battle- 

field during the Crimean War. In Paris in 1866 he 
was made secretary general, and was elected superior 
general of the Congregation of the Mission, 11 Sept., 
1874. His incumbency of the latter office cut 
short at the end of four years by a mi I ' i'li s. 

De la Rallwe, Eugine Bore et les i>i lion 

d'ftrient (Paris et. L,vons, 1894); Eiiijene Bor^. hi que 

auivic d'exlrails de son journal et de sa cori^ \muila 

of the Cong, of the Mission, no. 68 (Emmitsburji, M<l., llilO). 

B. Randolph. 

Borgluiu (Burglanum), Ancient See of (Bur- 
GLANENSis), in Denmark, embraced the ancient dis- 
tricts of Vendsyssel and Thy, that is, the whole of the 
extreme north of Jutland beyond the Limfjord. The 
see was first at Vestervig, the diocese liaving been 
formed out of that of Viborg, which then included the 
whole of Jutland, on the death of Bishop Val in 1059. 
Magnus, first Bishop of Vestervig, was drowned in the 
Elbe about 1060, when returning home after his con- 
secration by Adalbert I, Archbishop of Hamburg. 
Albrik, Dean of Bremen, was the second bishop 
(1066-85). Vestervig was the residence of St. 
Thoger, a missionary from Thuringia and chaplain to 
St. Olaf. .•Vfter tha't king's death in 1030 Thoger re- 
tired to Vestervig, where he built a church of thatch 
and wattle, and preached Christianity to the inhabi- 
tants of the surrounding district. He died on 24 June, 
1067, and was canonized in spite of the opposition of 
King Svend Estridsen and Bishop Albrik. Eventu- 
ally St. Thoger became the patron saint of the diocese. 
Albrik's successor. Bishop Henry, was chaplain to 
King St. Canute, and was with him during_his stay in 
Vendsyssel in June, 1086. Bishop Sylvester (1134- 
36) transferred the see to the Preraonstratensian Ab- 
bey of Borglum. It became the cathedral of.the new 
diocese, and its canons formed the diocesan chapter 
with power to elect the bishop. The last two bishops 
led very inconsistent hves. Their names were Niels 
Stygge (Rosenkrantz) and his nephew, Stygge 
Krumpen. Niels Stygge (b. 1455) was Bishop of 
Borglum from 1486-1533. Stygge Ivrumpen became 
coadjutor bishop in 1519, and diocesan bishop in 
1533. He made some efforts to stay .the progress of 
Protestantism, but he was imprisoned from 1536 to 
1542. He was then endowed with the property of 
the nunnery of Asmild near Viborg, though obliged 
to maintain the nuns; he died there in 1.551. In the 
territory of the former Diocese of Borglum there are 
fine old churches at Vestervig and Borglum, the 
former dating from the beginning of the twelfth 
century. Besides the Abbey of Borglum (founded 
1128) the dioce-se contained the following Benedictine 
nunneries: Vreilef (1268-1554), Hundslund (1268- 
1536), and Oekloster (1160-1542). There were also 
the Abbey of Vestervig (Augustinian canons), which 
lasted from 1110 to 1526, the Commandery of the 
Knights of St. John at Dueholm (1351-1539), and 
the Carmelite Priory at Sa-by (Klaristed), which 
lasted from about 1460 to 1536. 

JoRGENSEN, Den nordiske Kirkes Grundlceggelse, II (Copen- 
hagen, 1878): Nielsen. Kirke-leksikon for Norden. I (.\arhue, 
1900). 4.38-39: Dacoaard. Danske Klostre (Copenhagen, 1830); 
Trap, Danmnrk, IV (Copenhagen, 1902): Scriplores rerum Dani- 
carum, VI (Copenhagen, 1786), 545-51; Aarbdger for iiordiak 
Oldkyndifjhfd, XI (Copenhagen, 1876). 1-55; Bricka, Dansk 
biografisk Leksikon (Copenhagen, 1887-1905), IX, 555-57, XIV, 
276. 277; Gertz, Vilm sanctorum danorum, pt. I (Copenhagen, 
1900), 1-26. 

A. W. Tatlor. 

Bourke, Ulick Joseph, Irish scholar and writer, b. 
29 Dec, 1829, at Castlebar, Co. Mayo; d. there, 22 
Nov., 1887; son of Uhck Bourke and (iecilia Sheridan, 
a cousin of John MacHale, Archbishop of Tuam. He 
was educated first at an academy in Castlebar fiy 
Matthew Archdeacon, the author of " Connaught in 
'98"; next at Errew Monastery near Castlebar, where 
ho studied Irish under the eminent Irish scholar and 
historian, James Hardiman. He entered St. Jarlath'a 
College, Tuam, in May, 1846, and Maynooth in 1849. 




He was ordained on 25 March, 1858, at Tuam by Arch- 
bishop MacHale. While a student at Maynooth he 
wrote the "College Irish Grammar" for his fellow 
students in that college and the students of the then 
recently founded Catholic University of Ireland. On 
leaving Maynooth he was appointed Professor of Irish, 
logic, and humanities at St. Jarlath's College, which 
subjects he continued to teach there from 1859 to 1877. 
He was President of St. Jarlath's from 1865 to 1877; 
was elected a member of the Royal Irish Academy in 
1866; and was made a canon of the Cathedral of 
Tuam in 1872. During his stay at St. Jarlath's he 
acted for some time as private secretary to Archbishop 
MacHale. He was a member of the Society for the 
Preservation of the Irish Language, but seceded from 
it with its original founders, and in March, 1880, 
established the Gaehc Union, which afterwards devel- 
oped into the Gaelic League. In 1878 he was named 
Parish Priest of Kilcolman (Claremorris). He was 
one of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into 
the alleged apparitions of the Blessed Virgin at Knock, 
Co. Mayo, 1879. Canon Bourke died at Castlebar, 
and was buried at Bearnacarrol, 25 Nov., 1887. 

His wTitings are as follows: — 

"The College Irish Grammar" (Dublin, first edi- 
tion, 1856; fifth edition, 1868); "Easy Lessons or 
Self-instruction in Irish", which appeared first in 
"The Nation", and was reprinted in book form 
(Dublin, I860), and which went through seven or 
eight editions during the lifetime of the author; 
"The BuU IneffabiUs Deus" (The Definition of the 
Immaculate Conception) in four languages, Latin, 
Irish, French, and English, printed in parallel 
columns (Dublin, 1868), containing a dissertation on 
the art of illuminating in the past and present; "The 
Aryan Origin of the Gaelic Race and Language, con- 
taining Essays on the Round Towers, Brehon Laws, 
etc." (London, 1875; 2nd edition, 1876). In this work 
he defends the pagan origin of the Round Towers of 
Ireland; " Seventeen sermons in Irish Gaehc by the 
Most Rev. James O'Gallagher, Bishop of Raphoe 
(1725-1737) and of Kildare (1737-1752), with an Eng- 
lish translation and an Irish-EngUsh vocabulary" 
(edited, DubUn, 1877). This work contains a life of 
the bishop and an interesting account of the arrest and 
killing of the Rev. O'Hegarty, P. P. of Killygarran, 
1734. "The Life and Laboui's of St. Augustin, Bishop 
of Hippo Regius, with an account of the Canons 
Regular and of the Augustinian Friars in Ireland" 
(Dublin, 1879); "The Doctrine of the Immaculate 
Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary" (Dublin, 
1880); "The Dignity, Sanctity and Intercessory 
Power of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God" 
(Dublin, 1881); "The Life and Times of the Most 
Rev. Dr. MacHale, Archbishop of Tuam" (Dubhn, 
1882); "Beatha Sheaghdin Mhic H6il, Airdeaspoig 
Thuama" (Life of John MacHale, Archbishop of 
Tuam), edited for the Gaehc LTnion in the "Gaelic 
Journal",!, II (1882-1886). This Irish Life of Dr. 
MacHale is a different work from the English Life of 
the Archbishop. Nine chapters of it were WTitten 
before the English Life was begun, but it was never 
completed. Only twenty-four chapters had appeared 
at the time of the author's death, and they were never 
published in book form; " A Plea for the Evicted Ten- 
ants of Mayo" (Dublin, 1883), addressed to William 
Ewart Gladstone; " Prechristian Ireland, a treatise on 
Early Irish History, Ethnology, the origin of the 
Round Towers, etc., with the Portrait of the Author" 
(Dublin, 1SS7); "A Complete Irish Dictionary", 
on which he was cngaKed for years, but it was not 
coni])l<'t('d wlu'ii his last illness came. The beginning 
of it was published in "The Nation." In 186S Canon 
Bourkr (■slitl)lisheii Mir " Keltic Journal " at Manches- 
ter, un<lcr till' editorship of James Ronan; only nine 
numbers of I his p('ri<i(lical a])peared. He brought out 
an edition of the catechism in Irish, and in collabora- 

tion with Father John Nolan and David Comyn wrote 
three elementary Irish grammatical works, published 
under the auspices of the Society for the Preservation 
of the Irish Language. He acted as editor of "The 
Last Monarch of Tara" (Dublin), and it was under 
his supervision that all the Irish works of Archbishop 
MacHale were published or republished. He also 
wrote a " Life of St. Jarlath ", which appeared in the 
"Tuam News". 

Canon Bourke's works popularized the results of 
the philological researches of Continental scholars, 
such as Pictet, Bopp, Zeuss, and Ebel, and did much 
to keep ahve the interest of Irish studies in Ireland. 
His "Easy Lessons" and "College Irish Grammar" 
are in some respects still the most complete hand- 
books of Modern Irish. Though several of his 
theories are now antiquated, lus Enghsh works, 
written in an easy flowing style, still form a popular 
introduction to Irish philology and archaeologj'. 

Irish Catholic Directory (1860-1888); J. GIltnn], a sketch in 
Dublin Journal (March, 1887), republished in the Tuam News 
(0 May, 1887) ; Catholic Fireside (London. January, 1888) ; Free- 
man's Journal (23-26, Nov., 1887), and the various worka of the 
author, and information supplied by John Glynn, Esq., Tuam. 
Co. Galway. 

John MacErlean. 

Boycotting. — The name of boycotting was first ap- 
plied to a practice which had its origin in Ireland 
during the most stirring days of the land agitation. 
It was comparatively easy to arouse popular en- 
thusiasm, and to elicit a general readiness for self- 
sacrifice for a cause which touched the people so 
closely and so vitally. But the shghtest remissness 
or backsUding would be fatal to the entire project. 
An insignificant number who refused to abide by the 
common understanding would be sufficient to render 
all the efforts of the Land League futile. If landlords 
could count on finding tenants for their vacant farms, 
they might afford to laugh at the schemes of agita- 
tors. And it was inevitable that a number of "grab- 
bers" should appear on the scene at that time. The 
land hunger was always proverbially strong in Ire- 
land, and the opportunity of acquiring farms on 
easy terms was a temptation too strong to be re- 
sisted by ambitious self-seekers such as are to be found 
in all classes of society. The difficulty of dealing 
with "grabbers", therefore, was acute from the very 
commencement of the Land League. Agrarian 
outrages had been well-known in Ireland for some 
years previously and there was serious danger of a 
more violent and widespread outbreak now. This 
the leaders of the new agitation knew and feared for 
various reasons. 

At a pubhc meeting in 1880 Parnell put the ques- 
tion to his audience: — "Wliat are we to do with a 
tenant who bids for a farm from which his neighbour 
has been evicted?" The more violent spirits recom- 
mended shooting, but Parnell himself had a proposal 
to offer which he rightly believed could be made far 
more effective. He expounded it at length, clearly, 
and emphatically. In substance it was, that such a 
person should "be left severely alone, put into a moral 
Coventry, isolated from his kind as if he was a leper 
of old ". This was the weapon which he put into the 
hands of the Land Leaguers, and which was destined 
to be used with such drastic etTect throughout the 
various vicissitudes of the land agitation in Ireland 
and to be introduced into disputes that were not 
agrarian and into countries other than Ireland. It is 
pertinent to ob.serve that from its first adoption, this 
severe isolation, this consignment to a moral Coventry 
affected not only the prime offender but equally any- 
one convicted of violating the common understanding 
of having no social intercourse with him. It was 
put in motion immediately against Cai)tain Boycott 
of Connemara, agent of Lord Erne, who sent a process 
server to serve ejectment notices on a number of 
tenants for non-payment of rent. All his servants 




were induced to leave him, tradesmen were prevented 
from working for him, and shopkeepers from supply- 
ing him with goods. 

From this case the practice received the name of 
"boycotting" and immediately the word became cur- 
rent in the language, The practice spread rapidly 
through every part of the country. The Government 
found itself utterly unable to deal with organized 
boycotting. The powerlessness of the common law 
was demonstrated by the failure of the Government 
to convict a number of the leaders of the Land League 
for unlawful consi)iracy, when in January, ISSl, the 
jury declared themselves unable to agree and the de- 
fendants were acquitted. Thereupon followed a 
succession of coercion and special Crimes Acts, the 
only effect of which was to render the people more 
determined and more lawless. Violence and out- 
rages increased or diminished with the hostility of the 
Government. After a temporary abatement disorder 
began to rage fiercely again in 1SS6, when the Plan of 
Campaign was established and met by a new Crimes 
Act. On 23 April, 1888, the Congregation of the 
Holy Office declared that it was not lawful to make 
use of the Plan of Campaign and boycotting. A 
short time afterwards the Plan of Campaign was 
perceived to be a failure and boycotting was gradu- 
ally discontinued. It had a brief revival about the 
year 1899. In 1902 boycotting was practically de- 
stroyed in Ireland, when a number of defendants 
were convicted in a civil action and damages to the 
amount of £20,000 were given against them by a jury 
presided over bj' Chief Baron Pallas. 

Boycotting, therefore, in its strict, original sense, 
means a complete ostracism. It operates by leaving 
the obnoxious party severely alone and its effective- 
ness is increased enormously by the threat that any- 
one who \aolate8 its terms will be regarded as sharing 
in the offence and will be made to share also in the 
ostracism of the prime offender. In a wider, but still 
legitimate, sense of the word it is used of every at- 
tempt, through the denial of one or more of the ad- 
vantages or amenities of ordinary social intercourse, 
to compel an individual or group of individuals to do 
something which they are legally entitled not to do, 
or to abstain from doing something which they are 
legally entitled to do. In this latter sense it may be 
used of the efforts of a trust, for in.stance, to compel 
a particular railroad to use only coal from a mine in 
which it is interested, by the threat that, unless this is 
done, this railroad will not be allowed any share in 
the business of carrying the trust's products. A 
combination or conspiracy is commonly assumed to be 
of the essence of boycotting. But, although it is 
true that boycotting generally operates through a 
combination, the combination does not appear to be 
at all essential to it. An iron trust or even an iron 
king may be as well able to exert pressure of the 
kind pecuhar to boycotting as any combination of 
Irish tenant farmers. At jiresent there is a growing 
tendency to use the word boycotting in a wider 
sense still. It is now very generally u.sed of any 
discrimination in social or business matters against 
individuals or sects because of prejudice as to char- 
acter, tenets, or practices. 

The lawlessness and outrages which accompanied 
boycotting in Ireland in the eighties seem to have 
impressed it with certain features which distinguish 
it from other forms of social ostracism, and these 
features coupled with the condemnation by the Holy 
Office have cau.sed boycotting to be regarded as 
affected with a moral taint. For a long time to 
brand a practice as boycotting was tantamount to 
labelling it immoral. The ethics of boycotting was 
discus,sed at considerable length in a number of 
articles in "The Irish Theolopic'il (Quarterly" in the 
years 1907 and 1908. Tlw ccnchisions of the con- 
tributors of the articles differed very widely. As a 

result it may at least be safely held that boycotting 
cannot under all circumstances be pronounced im- 
moral. The condemnation by the Holy Office may 
certainly be taken as applying only to the concrete 
situation as it e-visted at the time in Ireland. Since, 
therefore, we cannot declare off-hand that boy- 
cotting is either moral or immoral, and since more- 
over different instances of boycotting will be found 
to present very different moral considerations, in 
practice each case w'ill have to be decided strictly on 
its merits according to the ordinary moral principles 
that are apphcable to it. 

Mere discrimination in social or business matters, 
however much it may savour of bigotry or narrow- 
mindedness in certain circumstances, cannot be 
called immoral. It is only what everyone does to a 
certain extent; the most conscientious of men prefer 
to deal and dine with those whom he knows best or 
with whom he has most interests in common. As for 
the element of comiiulsion, the attempt to compel a 
person to do something in itself moral, which he is 
legally entitled not to do, that too, in certain cir- 
cumstances, is perfectly lawful. It is constantly be- 
ing done in everyday fife by people whom no one 
thinks of accusing of immorahty. But there are 
other points substantial in the matter of moraUty, the 
restraint put on the ordinary liberty of citizens, the 
use of combination for this purpose, and the liabihty 
of the practice to grave abuse. These must be con- 
sidered in every case of boycotting; but they should be 
considered without prejudice, precisely as they are 
considered in understandings amongst business men 
or professional etiquette amongst lawj-ers and doctors. 

There is no denying that boycotting constitutes a 
grave menace to social equity and peace. It may 
sometimes be used to resist oppression, but un- 
fortunately it is an instrument that may be made to 
cut more effectively in the other direction. It is 
moreover a most powerful instrument in the hands of 
discontented and vindictive demagogues for produc- 
ing social turmoil and indulging private spleens. 
Although facts do not make a particular case 
of boycotting immoral, where there is a good to be 
gained great enough to outweigh the evils and suffi- 
cient to justify the danger of, still, from the 
point of view of public welfare, they might render it 
necessary for the legi-slature to prohibit the practice 
altogether. The boycotting that once prevailed in 
Ireland has now happily disappeared with the condi- 
tions in which it had its origin. It is not hkely that 
any of the -speaking Governments will be 
called on ever again to take action in connexion 
with it. The undue advantage taken of their 
economic strength by certain trusts and companies 
is much more likely to produce inequity and to call 
for legislative action. 

O'Brien. The Life of Charles Stewart Parnell (I-ondon, 1898); 
MoRLET, The Life of William Ewart Gladstone (London, 1905); 
The Irish Theol.Quar.. I, II (Dublin. 1907-08); Lemkchl, Theol. 
mor. (Freiburg. 1910) ; Vermeersch, Qua:stiones de Justitia 
(Bruges, 1901). 

John Kelleher. 

Breviary, Roman, Reform of the. — By the Apos- 
tolical Constitution "Divino Afflatu" of Pius X 
(I Xovember, 1911), a change was made in the 
psalter of the Roman Breviary. Instead of print- 
ing, together with the psalms, those portions of the 
Office which sijccially require rubrics, such as the 
invitatorv, hymns for the sea.sons, blessings, absolu- 
tions, chapters, suffrages, dominical prayers, Bene- 
dictus, M:ignifi(;it, Te Dcum, etc., these are now all 
in due order printed by themselves under the title 
Ordinary. The ps;ilms, under the title Ps.altery, are 
printed together, so arranged that the entire psalter 
may be ch;mted or recited each week, and so distrib- 
uted, or, when too long, divided, that approximately 
there may be the same number of verses for each 




day's Office. This change has been made with a 
view to restoring the original use of the liturgy, which 
provided for the chant or recitation of the entire 
Psaltery each week- It became necessary by the fact 
that as the saints' days, with common or special 
Offices, grew more numerous, the ordinary Sunday 
and week-day or ferial Offices, and consequently cer- 
tain of the psalms, were rarely recited. In making 
the change, occasion was taken to facilitate the read- 
ing of the Office by the separation of the Ordinary 
and Psaltery proper, but chiefly by allotting about 
the same number of verses for each day. It is only 
a first step in the revision of the entire Breviary, as 
agreed upon at the Vatican Council. It was proposed 
by a committee of liturgists appointed by Pius X, 
adopted by the Congregation of Rites, and sanctioned 
by the pope to go into effect on 1 January, 1913, in ac- 
cordance with the new rubrics regulating thenceforth 
the reading of the Divine Office. 

Each day, therefore, has its own psalms, as ar- 
ranged in the new Psalter, except certain feast days, 
about 125 in number, viz., all those of Christ and 
their octaves, the Sundays within the octaves of the 
Nativity, Epiphany, Ascension, Corpus Clu-isti, the 
vigil of the Epiphany, and the day after the octave of 
the Ascension, when the Office is of these days; the 
Vigil of the Nativity from Lauds to None and the 
Vigil of Pentecost; all the feasts of the Blessed Virgin, 
of the angcLs, St. John Baptist, St. Joseph, and the 
Apostles, as well as doubles of the first and second 
class and their entire octaves. Theirs is the Office to be 
read as appointed either in the Breviary, or in the 
Ordo of a diocese or institute, the psalms for Lauds, 
the Hours and Complin to be taken from Sunday; 
those for Matins and Vespers from the Common of 
the Office, unless others specially be assigned. The 
Office for the last three days of Holy Week remains 
unchanged, except that the psahns for Lauds are 
from the con-esponding days of the week in the Psal- 
ter, and for Complin those of Sunday. For all other 
feasts and for ferias in Paschal time the p.sahns are 
those of the new Psalter; the rest of the Office is from 
the Proper or Common. When a feast has special 
antiphons for any of the major hours, it retains them 
with its own psalms. Except for certain feasts the 
lessons of the first Nocturn are to be the current les- 
sons from Scripture, though the responsories are to 
be taken from the Common or Proper. Any feast that 
has its own proper lessons retains them; for feasts 
with their own responsories, those with the common 
lessons are to be read. 

The criteria given to regulate the precedence of 
feasts are: gradation of rite, classification, as primary 
or secondary, personal dignity of the one honoured, 
external solemnity, local importance or privilege. 
Provision is made for the transfer of feasts that must 
make way for others more important occurring, 
whether occasionally or perpetually, on the same day, 
especially for the Sundays. The suffrages of the 
saints are now invoked in the one prayer "A cunctis". 
The Athanasian Creed is to be said only on Trinity 
Sunday and the Sundays after the Epiphany and when the Office is of the Sunday; but even 
on these days, when there is a commemoration of a 
duplex, or of an octave or day within an octave, the 
suffrages, prayers and .symbol and the third Collect 
are not to be said. Tiie week-day and other votive 
Offices gi-aiited by the general ind'ult of .5 July, 1883, 
are no longer alloweil. Nor is there now the obliga- 
tion of reciting in clioir the Ijittlc Office of the Bles.sed 
Virgin, the Office of the Dead, the Gradual, and the 
Penitential Psalms. The fea.sts of the dedication of 
a church, of a cathedral, and of the patrons of dio- 
ceses, are to be observed as doubles of the first class, 
and the feast of tlie Laleran Basilica and its titular 
feast of the 'I'ransfigurat ion, as doubles of the 
second cl;iss. Directions are given for conforming the 

Missal with the Breviary, especially for the Masses 
of Sundays, Lenten ferias. Collects, and also for 
conventual Masses. On All Souls' Day, the Office 
and Mass of the current day are to be omitted, and 
the Office and Mass of the Dead only are to be re- 
cited; on All Saints' Day, the Ve.spers of the day, and 
of the Dead, are to be recited as liitherto. 

The members of the Revisory Commission were: 
Mgr. P. La Fontaine, titular Bishop of Carystos, 
Secretary of the Congregation of Rites (President), 
Mgr. Scipio Tecchi, ISIgr. P. Piacenza, Mgr. J. 
Bressan (Private Secretary to the Pope), Mgr. A. 
Gasparri, Father P. Brugnani, O.M., Father L. 
Fonck, S.J., Father J. d'Isengard, CM., and Rev. 
F. Brehm. The complete reform of the Breviary, 
committed to another commission, involves a reform 
of the calendar; the revision of the historical lessons; 
the omission of lessons not authenticated; the correc- 
tion of texts; the new general rubric; the Common of 
certain classes of saints, as of confessors, holy women, 
and others, in order to commemorate them on one 
day instead of assigning a day for each. 

PiAcExz.t, In Constitutionem 'Diiino Affiatu' et in rubncas 
commenlarium (Rome, 1912); Idem, Guida praclica per la re- 
cila del divino Officio (Rome, 1912); BrRTON axd Myers. The 
New Psalter and Its I7se (London. TM'J' f- --riixHON, Le Psal- 
terium Brenarii Romani et les nm, " , . , (Paris. 1912); 

Welsh, The New Rubrics CEdiiil.-,: ! ^ I Iftherington, 
Notes on the New Rubrics and tht i >.■ \ i Psalter (Lon- 

don, 1912); Am. Eccl. Rev. (Februaij ai.,! Ai,nl. Iill2). 

John J. Wynne. 

Brigidines (Sisters of St. Brigid), Institute of 
THE, was established by Most Rev. Dr. Delany, Bishop 
of Kildare and Leighlin, at TuUow, Co. Carlow, Ire- 
land, in. 1807. Bishop Delany, keenly alive to the 
lamentable state to which reUgion had been reduced 
by the Penal Laws and bj' the disastrous effects of 
the Rebelhon of 1798, began to remedy the evil by 
applying himself to secure the proper observance of 
the Lord's Day, and the religious instruction of the 
children and adult women of his parish and diocese. 
He resided at TuUow, and to inaugurate his work 
there he formed catechism and reading classes to be 
held in the church on Sundays. To carry out this 
purpose he selected a number of exemplary young 
women to form a religious community. He allowed 
them to make vows, and thus laid the foundation of 
the Brigidine Institute, one of the first of the kind 
founded in Ireland since the Reformation. 

The sisters immediately opened schools for the 
poorer and higher classes of children in the neighbour- 
hood. This work proving successful, a building was 
erected for the accommodation of boarders who pre- 
sented themselves, but who had until then to lodge in 
the town. Soon many came to a^•ail themselves of the 
advantages of religious and secular education afforded 
by the Brigidine Sisters. The institute, although 
several times sanctioned by the Holy See, continued 
a diocesan congregation until 1892, when Pope Leo 
XIII, on being solicited to place all the houses of the 
institute under a mother-general, issued a Decree ap- 
proving of change in government for five years by 
way of experiment, and in 1907 Pope Pius X con- 
firmed, in perpetuity, the constitution of the new 
r6gime. Before and since that date several founda- 
tions have been made in Australia and New Zealand, 
where there are at ijreseni fourteen houses of the 
institute. There are five convents in Ireland: 
at TuUow, Mountrath, .\bbeyleix, Goresl)ridge, 
and Ballyroan, all in the Diocese of Kildare and 

The pupils of the Brigidines (boarding and benefit 
schools) are prepared for the Intermediate, Univer- 
sity, Senior Oxford, and Kensington Examinations, 
for those of the Incorporated Society of Music, and 
the technical courses. 

Mother de Chantai. Fenneult. 




Butler, General Sir William Francis, b. at 
Suirville, Co. Tippeiary, Ireland, 31 Oct., 1838; d. 7 
June, 1910, was the son of Richard and Ellen Butler. 
His family had been settled on their estates in Tip- 
perary since Thomas Butler, tenth Earl of Ormonde, 
had received 
grants of land 
from Queen Eliz- 
abeth after the 
supjiression o f 
the Desmond re- 
lielhon in 1.584. 
The great famine 
of 1S47 and scenes 
of suffering and 
eviction were 
amongst his ear- 
liest recollections. 
lie was educated 
chiefly by the 
Jesuits at Tulla- 
licg College, 
Kiiiii's Co. In 
1S.")S he received 
a commission in 
the 69th Regi- 
ment, which he 
joined at the 
de]iot at Fermoy, 
and after two 
The regiment re- 
and on the way 

.Sir William Butler, K. 
From a photogr.iph taken 

years he was sent to Madras, 
turned to England in 1864, 

Butler visited the Island of St. Helena, led thither 
by his profoimd veneration for Napoleon. In 1867 
he visited Canada for the first time, and went 
back there again after a brief visit to Ireland, 
with a mission from Colonel Wolseley to find out 
the true state of feeling in the Red River settlement. 
In Oct., 1870, he was intrusted with a fresh mission to 
report on the need of troops, the fur trade, the In- 
dians etc., in Saskatchewan, following the course of 
the Saskatchewan Ri\-cr from Carlton to the Rocky 
Mountains. The story of this winter journey and his 
share in the Red River expedition is told in "The 
Great Lone Land", first pubUshed in 1872. 

Sir Garnet Wokeley made his famous expedition to 
Ashanti in West Africa in 1873. To Butler he en- 
trusted the task of intercepting the Ashanti Army 
whilst retreating across the River Prah. This proved 
impossible, for though he induced 1400 Akims to move 
forward with him to within 20 miles of Coomassie 
they took alarm at the last moment and went home. 
The full story of his share in the A.shanti War is given 
in "Akim-foo, the History of a Failure" (London, 
1875). WoLseley reported of him: " He has effected a 
most important diversion in favour of the main body 
and has detained before him all the forces of one of 
the most powerful Ashanti chiefs. " He was now pro- 
moted major and made a Companion of the Bath. 
The opening months of 1875 saw him start for Xatal 
on the staff of Sir Garnet Wolseley, who had been sent 
out as governor and high commissioner. Butler was 
named protector of Indian immigrants and had to re- 
port on the land system then existing in the colony. 
To the insight then gained into South African prob- 
lems he attributes, to a great extent, the accuracy of 
certain warnings of his a quarter of a century later 
before the outbreak of the Boer War. 

At the close of 1875 lie joined the staff of the War 
Office, and in 1877 he married Miss Elizabeth Thomp- 
son, the painter of the "Roll Call", "Quatre Bras", 
and other famous battle .scenes. After the disaster of 
Isandula in the Zuhi War, he wa-s sent again to Natal, 
but through ill luck w;i.s kept at the base and saw no 
fighting. Promotion to lieutenant-colonel followed 
on his return to England, for services in Natal, and tlie 
Marquis of Ripon, Viceroy of India, proposed him for 

his private secretary, but Gladstone refused his sanc- 
tion on the score of Butler's being a Catholic. In the 
Egyptian campaign of 1882 he saw much hard service, 
and was present at the engagements of El Magfar, 
Tel-el-Mahouta, Kassassin, and the night attack on 
the Egyptian lines at Tel-el-Kebir. 

After the campaign he returned to England and 
started once again for "the great prairies and the pine 
forests" of Canada. He visited many of the scenes 
of his earlier travels, but within a few months was 
back in London, and was discussing with Lord Wol- 
seley the various routes by which the garrisons at 
Khartoum might be reached, and General Gordon 
saved. To Butler were entrusted, when at last the re- 
lief e\-pedition was a certainty, the procuring of 400 
boats, and the getting of these boats, with their troops 
and provisions, up the cataracts of the Nile. This 
was effected by almost superhuman efforts against 
time and the unfavourable state of the Nile, then 
rapidly falling. His task accomplished, he was sent 
on under General Earle, who led tlie ri\-er column of 
advance upon Khartoum. He took part in the heavy 
fighting at Kirbekam, and indeed tlie success of that 
action lias always been attributed to his foresight. 
After the fall of Khartoum, he was left in command 
at Meroe, and brought the troops stationed there in 
safety to Dongola. In Sept., 1885, he was in com- 
mand at Wacly Haifa, and successfully kept the 
forces of the Mahdi at bay till re-enforcements arrived 
from England. He commanded the division of Gen. 
Stephenson's army engaged in the action at Ginniss 
and was mentioned in the highest terms in despatches. 
Finding no appointment open to him in England on 
his return, he betook himself to Brittany with his 
family, where he wrote "The Campaign of the Cata- 
racts" (1887) and "The Life of General Gordon" 
(1889), and subsequently to Ireland, where he made 
the acquaintance of Parneil. During his stay in Brit- 
tany he was made K.C.B. (Knight Commander of the 
Bath) for his services in Egypt and the Sudan. In 
1890 he returned to Egypt to take command at 
Alexandria, and was promoted major-general in 1892. 
During the intervals of leave from his duties at 
Alexandria he travelled a great deal, visiting, amongst 
other places, the sacred sites of Palestine, which had 
always had a deep interest and attraction for him. 
From 1893 to 1896 he commanded a brigade at Alder- 
shot, being transferred in the latter year to the com- 
mand of the South-Eastern district of England. In 
the autumn of 1898 he went to South Africa as com- 
mander-in-chief and high commissioner during the ab- 
sence of Sir Alfred Milner. In the latter capacity he 
strove to avert a war which he saw was bound to re- 
sult in calamity both for England and South Africa, 
and as commander-in-chief he tried to show the Gov- 
ernment the inadequacy of their preparations and 
what a war with the Transvaal would really mean. 
His attitude did not find favour at home and he was 
severely criticised for having stated in his capacity 
as high commissioner that he considered South Africa 
in need of "no .surgical operation". 

In Sept., 1899, he resigned his command and came 
home. He saw no active service during the war, 
remaining in command of the Western District of Eng- 
land. He also commanded at Aldershot and in the 
Southern District. In 1903 he headed the commis- 
sion of enquiry into the scandals connected with 
stores and supplies during the war, and in Oct., 1905, 
having reached the age limit of sixty-seven, he was 
placed on the retired Ust. The few years of life which 
remained to him he spent in Ireland, devoted chiefly 
to the of education. He was a frequent lec- 
turer both in Dublin and the provinces on historical,, and economic quest ions. He was a member of 
the .senate of the National University of Irehmd, and a 
commissioner of the Board of National Education. 
In .lune, 1906, he was appointed Knight of the Grand 




Cross of the Order of the Bath, and in 1909 he was 
made a member of the Irish Privy Council. He died 
fortified by the rites of the Church, and was buried 
with fuUmiUtary honours at KiUardrich,Co.Tipperary. 
Besides the books already mentioned. Sir WiUiam 
Butler was the author of several important works, 
chief among which are the military biographies of Sir 
Charles Napier (1890) and Sir George Colley (1899). 

The latter appeared a few months liefore the out- 
break of the Boer War. He was working at the last 
chapters of his autobiography at the time of his 

■Sir William Butler, an Autobiography (London, 1911); Woi/- 
SELET, Story oj a Soldier's Life (2 vols.. London, 1906); Colville, 
History of the Sudan Campaign (London, 1887). 

R. Urban Butler. 

Caldani, Leopoldo Marco .\ntonio, anatomist 
and physiologist, b. at Bologna, 21 Nov., 1725; d. at 
Padua, 20 Dec, 1813. He studied medicine in his 
native city, and received a medical degree there in 
1750. He was appointed professor of practical medi- 
cine at Bologna in 1755 on condition that he was to 
study anatomy under Morgagni's direction for five 
years more. Caldani left Bologna apparently on ac- 
count of enemies and went to Padua, where, as one of 
Morgagni's best pupils, he was later made professor 
of theoretical medicine, and in 1771, after Mor- 
gagiii's death, was made professor of anatomy. He 
retained this latter professorship until he retired in 
1805. Caldani was a zealous champion of Haller's 
theory of irritability; he is noted for his experimental 
studies on the function of the spinal cord and for the 
introduction of electricity in the phj-siology of the 
nerves. His most celebrated work is liis anatomical 
atlas, in which he was aided by his nephew Floriano. 
His works are: "SuU' intensivita et irritabilita di 
alcune parti degli animaU" (Bologna, 1757); "Lettera 
sopra rirritabiUta et insensivita Halleriana" (Bologna, 
1759); "Lettera sull' uso del muschio nella idrofobia" 
(Venice, 1767); "Esame del capitolo settimo _dell' 
ultima opera dii Antonio de Haen" (Padua, 1770) ; 
"Iimesto felice del vajuolo" (Padua, 1768); "Institu- 
tionespathologicae" (Padua, 1772, 1776; Leyden, 1784; 
Venice, 1786; Naples, 1787), translated into German 
by Reuss (1784), and issued at Prague (179.3), in con- 
ne.xion with " Institutioncs physiologies"; "Dialoghi 
difisiologiaedipathologia" (Padua, 1778, 1793); "In- 
Btitutiones physiologicse" (Padua, 1773, 1778; Leyden, 
1784; Venice, 1786; Naples, 1787); " Institutioncs 
semeiotica;" (Padua, 1808); "Icones anatomicae" 
with 5 vols, of "ExpUcatio iconum" (Venice, 

Wermch-Hirsch, Biographisckes Lexikon der Arzte, 1, 643. 

Leopold Senfblder. 
Call, Diocese of (Caliensis), Colombia, South 
America, founded on 7 July, 1910. Cah is a city, 
district, and province in the Department of Valle. 
The Province of Valle is bounded on the north by the 
Province of Arboleda, on the south by Santander 
(Department of Cauca), on the east by Pahnira, and 
includes the districts of Cah, Jamundi, Pavas, Dagua, 
Vijes, and Yumbo. Its area is about 4175 square 
miles, and its chief products are gold, sugar, cacao, 
coffee, and cattle. The city of Cah, the seat of the 
new diocese, is situated on a small river of the same 
name, and possesses a population of about 35,000. 
It was founded by Captain Miguel L6pez Muiioz by 
order of the Spanish conqueror Sebastidn de Belalcd- 
zar on 25 July, 1536. Although many of its impor- 
tant buildings were destroyed li\' an earthquake in 
1885, the city quickly recovered, and the recently 
built railroad connecting it with the port of Buenaven- 
tura and the Pacific Ocean has greatly increased its 
commercial importance and that of the surrounding 
country. The immense plantations of cacao and 
coffee," which encircle the city, and its charming 
suburbs render it a delightful phice of residence. It 
celebrated the centenary of ils national independence 
by .an industrial and artistic oxhiliition on 20 July, 
1910. Among it numerous modern buildings of im- 

portance the beautiful churches of San Francisco 
(Ionian style) and San Pedro call for special mention. 
Notable also are: the magnificent convent of the 
Franciscan Friars; the Colegio Superior de Santa 
Librada for women; the Presentation School for girls; 
the asylum for honest, indigent women; and a splen- 
did hospital. The Catholic population of the new 
diocese Is about 150,000. Mgr. Aladio Perlaza, for- 
merly Vicar-General of Cah, was elected its first 
bishop on 11 August, 1911. 


Camara y Castro, ToiLis, Bishop of Salamanca, 
Spain, b. at TorreciUa de Cameros, Logrorio, 19 Sep- 
tember, 1847; d. at Villaharta, 17 May, 1904. His 
father, D. Leonardo Cdmara, was a physician in this 
town. Tomds studied Humanities at Burgos, and at 
the age of fifteen took the habit of the Augustinians at 
Valladohd, where he finished his theology and was 
appointed professor in the college. His activity was 
inexhaustible, and among the many works which he 
accompUshed during Ms episcopate were the founda- 
tion in Salamanca of the Colegio de Calatrava for the 
promotion of ecclesiastical courses, the erection of a 
handsome ^hurch to San Juan de Sahagun, patron of 
the city, and of six smaller churches in other cities. 
Bishop Cdmara was primarily a polemicist and orator. 
His great learning, extraordinary talents, varied inter- 
ests, and untiring activity made him one of the most 
prominent figures of the Spanish episcopate during 
the nineteenth century. No great work was under- 
taken for the Church in which he did not figure in the 
foremost rank, in posts of danger and enterprises of 
the greatest importance, making him beloved by the 
Catholics and feared by the enemies of the Church. 
In congresses, assemblies, the Senate, the press, and 
in every situation where noble and sacred interests 
were to be safeguarded, he was to be found. His 
Lenten conferences, preached in 1884 and 1885, were 
attended by a representative audience of the most dis- 
tinguished men of letters, pohtics, sciences, and arts. 

Among the numerous works of Bishop Cdmara the 
following are the most important: "Contestaci6n 
& la historia del conflicto entre la religi6n y la ciencia 
de .luan Guillermo Draper" (3 editions); "Vida y 
escritos del Beato Alonso de Orozco, del Orden de San 
Agustin, Predicador de Felipe II"; " Conf erencias y 
demds discursos hasta hoy publicados del Ilmo. P. 
Cdmara, Obispo de Salamanca"; "Vida de S. Juan 
de Sahagun, del Orden de S. Agustin, Patr6n de Sala- 
manca"; "La Venerable Sacramento, Vizcondesa de 
Jorbaldn, Fundadora de las Senoras Adoratrices." 

DEL Moral, La Cuidad de Dios: Biografla del Exmo. ( Ilmo. 
Sr. D. Fr. Tomds Cdmara y Castro; MuiNos S.vENZ, Semblanza 
del Ezmo. i Ilmc. Sr. D. Fr. Tomds Cdmara y Castro. 


Campbell, James, b. at Philadelphia, 1 Sept., 1812; 
d. there, 27 Jan., 1893. His father was Anthony 
Campbell, and his gr;indfather George Campbell, a 
native of Fiiitona. County T.NTone, Ireland. James 
w:is e(hic:ite(l at the private school of Gernldus Stock- 
dale, studied law with Hon. Hobert D. Ingraham, was 
admitted to the Bar on 14 Sept., 1833, was made a 
conmiissioner of the district of Southwark the day 
after his admission, and served until his appointment 




to the board of education. He offered, 16 Apr., 
1840, the resolution which estabhshed the Girls' High 
School of Philadelphia. He served on the board of 
education until 1840, when he was appointed, by 
Governor David R. Porter, judge of the courts of 
common pleas, orphan's court, and courts of oyer 
and terminer, which po.sition he filled until 1 Jan., 
1851, when the judicial positions in Pennsylvania 
became elective. Nominated for judge of the su- 
preme court, at a period when Knownothingism and 
anti-Catholic feeling was rife, he was defeated, al- 
though his four colleagues on the Democratic ticket 
were elected. Governor William Bigler appointed 
him Attorney-General of Penn.sylvania, in which 
office he .served until 4 Mar., 1853, when he entered 
President Pierce's Cabinet as postmaster-general, 
serving until 4 Mar., 1857. In 1861 he was a candi- 
date for the United States senate against Charles R. 
Buckalew but w;is defeated by one vote. In 1873 he 
was elected a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of Pennsj'lvania, but declined to serve owing to 
the condition of his health. For twenty-five years he 
was president of the board of trustees of Jefferson 
Medical College, and for forty-five years was Vice- 
president of Saint Joseph's Orphan Asylum, the oldest 
incorporated Roman Catholic asylum in the United 
States, chartered in 1807. On 3'Sept., 1869, he was 
appointed by the judges of Philadelphia County a 
member of the board of city trusts, which has under 
its care 42 city trusts, including Girard College and 
Wills' Eye Hospital. He served in these positions 
until his death. Judge Campbell looked upon his obhga- 
tions, whether as ijublic official or as trustee, as duties 
of the highest order and of great value to society, and 
he was a just and severe judge upon himself as to the 
manner and the faithfulness with which these duties 
were discharged. Even with all the cares that sur- 
rounded him, he was always ready to respond to the 
slightest call from any of the refuges of the poor and 
the ill. He made visits almost daily to St. Joseph's 
Orphan Asylum, to Girard College, and to the hos- 
pital, examining conditions in detail, and considering 
them with as much care as if they referred to his own 
life or to the lives of those of his own household. 

John M. Campbell. 

Capecelatro, Alfonso, Cardinal, ArchbLshop of 
Capua, and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Marseilles, 5 
Feb., 1824; d. 14 Nov., 1912. He was descended 
from the family of the dukes of Castel Pagano. His 
father served with distinction under Murat, adopted 
the political principles of the Napoleonic period, and 
voluntarily exiled himself to Malta and Marseilles, 
when Ferdinand of Naples, after his restoration by 
the Congress of Laibaeh, set about the repression of 
pohtical Liberalism. The family returned to Italy 
in 1826 and to Naples in 18:i0. At sixteen Alfonso 
entered the Oratory of St. Philip Neri at Naples. 
Ordained priest in 1847, he zealously devoted himself 
to the confessional, preaching, and various charitable 
enterprises, without, however, neglecting his ecclesi- 
astical studies, and giving especial attention to 
ecclesiastical history. He was more particularly 
drawn to St. Peter Damian, St. Catherine of Siena, 
St. Phihp Neri, and St. Alphonsus Liguori, the great 
figures who at various times represented religious 
revival in Italy, and whose biographies he wrote. 
He refuted Renan's "Life of Christ" then widely 
circulated in Italy, and afterwards himself published 
a "Life of .Icsus Christ", wherein without entering 
into details of criticism and polemics, he gathered 
the results of modern researches on the topography 
and the contemporary history, customs, usages, and 
opinions of the Hebrews. He devoted three volumes 
to an ex])osilion of Catholic doctrine and two to the 
Christian virtues, and published several volumes of 


Meanwhile he maintained personal relations with 
various persons, particularly priests and religious 
at Naples, among them the Franciscan Ludovicn 
da Casovia, whose biography he wrote, anfl two 
priests Persico and Casanova, with whom he often 
discussed methods of catechetical instruction. He 
corresponded with other Liberal Catholics, among 
them Manzoni, Cesare CantCl, Dupanloup, and 
Montalembert. These friendships indicated that 
he was tending towards "Catholic Liberalism". 
His own family antecedents better explained both 
this and Capecelatro's "eonciliatorist" tendencies 
after 1870. "These tendencies were not unknown to 
Leo XIII, who, one year after his elevation to the 
papacy, summoned the learned Oratorian to Rome, 
together with Padre Luigi Tosti, and made him 
assistant hbrarian, wishing thereby not only to 
honour a learned man, but also to make use of him 
for the work of reconciliation which occupied his 
mind until 1887. In 1880 Capecelatro was appointed 
Archbishop of Capua. There he passed his life in 
the administration of his diocese, literary labours, 
and works of charity. He was made a cardinal by 
Leo XIII in 1885. In the pastoral letters and other 
minor works published in the last years of his life 
he treats the great questions of modern times, 
especially those relating to public life in Italy. His 
writings are distinguished by purity and simplicity 
of style. He received some votes in the conclave 
of 1903. He had no influence in ecclesiastical 
politics; but his correspondence will unquestionably 
supply valuable material for the politico-reUgious 
history of Italy in his time. Cardinal Capecelatro, 
particularly in recent years, was overwhelmed by the 
course of events and by that Modernist crisis which 
had long been preparing and so violently burst out 
in the Church. He remained immured in his old 
ideal of "God and Liberty", in the old dream of 
"the pope arm-in-arm with the King of Italy". 
He did not understand the new movement and the 
hard lessons which it brought with it. But that did 
not prevent Pius X from calling him with reason, 
on the occasion of his canlinalilial jubilee, "a learned 
theologian, an elegant and prf)lific writer, a scrupulous 
hagiographer, and, as a bishop, a tender and com- 
passionate father' . 

U. Benigni. 

Capocci, Gaetano, musical composer and maestro, 
b. in Rome, 16 Oct., 1811; d. there, 11 Jan., 1898. 
As a boy he studied the organ under Sante Pascoli, 
organist of St. Peter's, Rome, and he completed his 
musical studies under Valentino Fioravanti and 
Francesco Cianciarelli. In 1831 he was granted a 
diploma as organist by the Academy of St. Cecilia, 
and, in 1833, he received a diploma in the art of 
composition. Almost immediately he was appointed 
organist of the Church of St a Maria Maggiore, in 
1839. So successful was he that in 1855 he was 
appointed marstrn direttore of the Cappella Pia 
of the Lateran, where he laboured with conspic- 
uous distinction during the remainder of his life. 
Solely devoted to church music, Capocci composed 
numerous masses and motets. He also wrote two 
oratorios, "Battista" and "Assalonne". His chief 
fame rests on his " Responsori " for Holy Week. His 
son I^ilippo (b. 11 May, 1840) has even ecUpsed the 
fame of his father, whom he succeeded as maestro at 
the Lateran in 1808. Both as an organist and com- 
poser he r.anks high. 

Grove. Did. of Munc and Afuaicmns, I (London, 1904), 
s. v.; Ddnstan, Vydopirdic Did. of Music {Lonrlon, 1909). 

W. H. Grattan-Flood. 

Cardinal. — Members of the College of Cardinals, 

Aghardi, Antonio, Bishop of Albano; Aguirrc y 
Garcia, Gregorio Maria, Archbishop of Toledo; 




Almaraz y Santos, Enrique, Archbishop of Seville; 
Amette, Leon-Adolpho, Archbishop of Paris; Andrieu, 
Paulin-Pierre, Archbishop of Bordeaux; Arcoverde 
de Albuquerque Cavaleanti, Joaquin, Archbishop of 
Rio Janeiro; iiaciUeri, Bartolomeo, Bishop of Verona; 
Bauer, Franz von Sales, Archbishop of Olmutz; Bil- 
lot, Louis, S. J.; Bisleti, Gaetano; Bourne, Francis, 
Archbishop of Westminster; Boschi, Giulio, Arch- 
bishop of Ferrara; Cagiano de Azevedo, Ottavio; 
Cassetta, Francesco di Paola, Bishop of Frascati; 
Cavallari, Aristide, Patriarch of Venice ; Cos y Macho, 
Jose Maria de. Archbishop of VaUadolid; DubiUard, 
Frangois-Virgile, Archbishop of Chambery; Falconio, 
Diomede, O.F.M.; Farley, John Murphy, Arch- 
bishop of New York; Ferrari, Andrea, Archbishop 
of Milan; Ferrata, Domenico; Francica - Nava di 
Bontif(5, Giuseppe Maria, Bishop of Catania; Gas- 
parri, Pietro; Gennari, Casimiro; Gibbons, James, 
Archbishop of Baltimore; Gotti, Girolamo Maria, O. C. 
, C; Granito PignatelU di Belmont e, Gennaro; Hornig, 
Karl Baron von, Bishop of Veszprem; Katschthaler, 
Johann Baptist, Archbishop of Salzburg; Kopp, 
George, Prince-Bishop of Breslau; Lai, Gaetano de. 
Bishop of Sabina and Abbot of Farfa; Logue. Michael, 
Archbishop of Armagh; LorenzeUi, Benedetto ; Lualdi, 
Alessandro, Archbishop of Palermo; Lugon, Louis- 
Henri-Joseph, Archbishop of Reims; Lugari, Giambat- 
tista; Maffi, Pietro, Archbishop of Pisa; Martin de 
Herrera y de la Iglesia, Jose Maria, Archbishop 
of Compostela; Martinelli, Sebastiano, O.S.A.; 
Mercier, Desire-F^Hcien-Frangois- Joseph, Archbishop 
of Mechhn; Merrv del Val, Raffaele, Papal Secre- 
tary of State; Netto,Jose Sebastiao, O.F.M.; O'Con- 
neli, WilUam, Archbishop of Boston; Oregha di Santo 
Stefano, Luigi, Bishop of Ostia; Pietro, Angelo di; 
Pompilj, Basiiio; Prisco, Giuseppe, Archbishop of 
Naples; Rampolla del Tindaro, Mariano, Archpriest 
of the Vatican; Richehny, Agostino, Archbishop of 
Turin; Rinaldini, Aristide; Rov6rie de Cabrieres, 
Frangois-Marie-Anatole de. Bishop of MontpeUier; 
Skrbensky-Hriste, Leo von, Archbishop of Prague; 
Vannutelli, Serafino, Archbishop of Porto and Santa 
Rufina; VannuteUi, Vincenzo, Bishop of Palestrina; 
Van Rossum, Willem, C.SS.R.; Vaszary, Claudius, 
O.S.B., Prince-Archbishop of Gran; Vico, Antonio; 
Vives y Tuto, Calasanz, O.M.Cap.; Volpe, Francesco 
Salesio della. 

Cardinal Vicar. — The organization of the Roman 
vicariate, as described in an earlier \olume of this 
Encyclopedia (see Cardinal Vicar, III, 341) rested 
largely on usage; it was not constructed as a compact 
whole at one single time. The most important or- 
dinances respecting it were issued at various times 
during the course of the last two centuries, showing 
that for a long time the inadeciuacj' of its organiza- 
tion, especially as regards the great length of time 
necessary for the settlement of matters brought before 
it, had been severely felt, more, however, by the 
subordinates of the vicariate than by its higher 
officials. It could not be said that its methods of 
btisiness were in any way compatible with modern 
ideas as to efficient management. The lack of har- 
mony was doubly evident after the entire central 
administration of the Church had been reformed by 
the Constitution "Sapienii Consilio", of 29 June, 
190S. During the past various difficulties had .stood 
in the way of a thorough reform of the Roman vi- 
cariate. Not the le;ist of these was the laok of space- 
in the former office of the vicariate. It was not until 
after the purchase of the Palazzo Mariscotti near San 
Francesco alle Stimmate, which W!is assigned to the 
cardinal vicar and his officials and arranged for their 
use, that Pius X able to carry out his long 
cherished i)lan for a thorough reform of the Roman 

Pius X published his new ordinances respecting the 

administration of his Diocese of Rome in the Apostolic 
Constitution "Etsi nos in", of 1 Jan., 1912, and the 
law entered into force, as provided in it, on 15 Jan., 
1912, the day it was promulgated in the "Acta 
Apostolicae Sedis". Of the regulations for the period 
of transition, which were naturally necessary in so 
thorough a reorganization, only one need be men- 
tioned. This is that the former vicegerent (vicesger- 
ens), whose office and title are in future to be sup- 
pressed, is permitted as a personal privilege to con- 
tinue to bear the title as long as he is connected with 
any of the transactions of the vicariate. 

The Curia Urbis or the Vicariate of the City of 
Rome is now divided into four departments {officio), 
of which the second is again divided into four sec- 
tions. The first department (officium) has under its 
care all the church services and the ApostoUc visita- 
tion of the diocese. The second department watches 
over the behaviour of the clergj- and the Christian 
people. Judicial matters are settled in the third 
department, and the fourth department is devoted 
to the economic administration of the entire vicariate. 
The head of all these bureaus is the cardinal who is 
the vicar-general of the pope in Rome. His office 
and the extent of his power are always the same and 
are permanent, so that they do not cease even when 
the Papal See is vacant. This fact distinguishes the 
cardinal vicar as he is called, for the designation is 
not an official title, from all other vicars-general 
in the world, and gives him his pecuUar legal position. 
In the same way it is a noticeable exception that the 
four departments can carry on their customary 
business, even when the vicar is not able to supervise 
what is done on account of the conclave or of some 
other impediment. Even should the vicar die the 
work of the departments goes quietly on. Formerly 
this was not the ease to so large a degree, as is shown 
by the deputation of 17 Dec, 1876, on the death of 
Cardinal Vicar Patrizi (manuscript record of the 
vicariate, "Diverse deputazioni del vicario daU' 
anno 1759", p. 290). 

The head of the first department is a commissary, 
of the second an assessor, of the third an auditor, and 
of the fourth a prefect. Their respective rank follows 
the order given above. Among the offices mentioned 
in the former article those of the vicegerent {ricesger- 
ens), the locutii lenens, the secretaiy, and the auditor 
in the earlier form were abolished. None of (he four 
new presiding officers of the departments is permitted 
under any pretext whatever to interfere in the affairs 
of another, except in purely internal matters of ad- 

First Department. — At present the canonical 
visitation of the Diocese of Rome is in the hands of a 
commission of cardinals. The president of the com- 
mission is the vicar, and its members by virtue of 
their office are the prefects of the Congregation of the 
Council and of Rehgious Orders. The secretary of 
this official board is the commissarj- just mentioned. 
The first appointee as secretarj' and commissarj- was 
the former vicegerent (vicesgerens) . The archives 
and compendiums of abstracts of the former Congre- 
gation of the Apostohc Visitation, which has been 
suppressed since 1908, belong to the new commission. 
Even,' five years, the next falling in 1916, a canonical 
visitation of Rome is to be held without any express 
papal command being is.sued before the visitation. 
Six paragraphs (12-17) regulate the det.ails of the 
procedure to be observed in the visitation. 

The treasury of relics (lijisanothcrn), the archfpc- 
logical commi.ssion, and the committee on church 
music are included in this department and are under 
the supervision of the vicar. A commission on ec- 
clesiastical art has been estabhshed; its competence 
includes the erection of churches, their maintenance, 
restoration, and adornment. The first department is 
obliged to keep an exact fist of all (he churches in 




Romp, in one of which is noted the object and pe- 
culiarities of each church. 

Second Department. — The second department 
has four sections, the head of each of which is a 
secretary: the first section has to do with theclerg>-; 
the second, with the convents for women; the third, 
with the schools, colleges, and other institutions for 
education in the city; the fourth, with the brother- 
hoods, unions, and social societies. All four sections 
are subordinate first to the vicar and next to the 
assessor. The powers of the first section are laid 
down in twelve ordinances, the details of which 
cannot here be entered into. Mention should, how- 
ever, be made of the stringent rule that no clergy- 
man, regardless of whether he belongs to the Roman 
clergy or to another diocese, can be called to an office 
or a benefice bj' anyone, even a cardinal, unless it has 
been previously established by a secret letter to the 
vicar that the vicariate has no objection to his ap- 
pointment. This regulation puts an end finally to 
an old abuse of historic growth which in past times 
led to much that was disadvantageous. 

This department has to keep a register of all mem- 
bers of the secular and regular clergy of the city, giv- 
ing the name, age, residence, kind of employment, and 
other personal notes. The ^^car is aided in the settle- 
ment of all matters regarding the clergy by the 
examiners of the clergj-, in the settlement of questions 
as to the transfer or deposition of parish priests by 
(he consultors, in all questions as to offices and 
benefices by the general supervisorj- council, the 
deputies for the seminaries, and the advisory council 
(commissio directiua). Detailed regulations are given 
as to the examiners of the clergy in paragraph 30, 
a to i. The .second section of this department is 
charged with the supreme direction and supervision 
of the numerous convents for women; the details 
are regulated in seven paragraphs. Paragraphs 
38-46 are concerned with the schools, colleges, and 
other educational institutions for the laity. The 
care of these is the duty of the third section. Its 
secretary must ket-p an exact list of all such institu- 
tions, of their teachers and principals, and exact 
statistics respecting the pupils. He attend the 
meetings of the school board, keep its minutes, and 
must execute all the orders of the vicar or the super- 
visory council respecting these in.stitutions. Para- 
graphs 47-57 regulate in detail the work of the fourth 
section, which has under its charge the brotherhoods, 
unions, and social societies. It consists of a council 
of six members with a secretary of its own. 

Third Department. — .\11 previously existing judi- 
cial bodies are suppressed and the pope has made the 
vicar the ordinary and sole judge in the first instance 
for all suits brought in the court of the Roman dio- 
cese. The vicar pa.sscs judgment only in those cases 
which he has expressly reserved for himself; in other 
cases his auditor acts as judge, forming with the 
\'icar one and the same court. The auditor is re- 
garded as the official of the curia of the Roman and tries the suits according to common law. 
The office and jurisdiction of the camerlengo of the 
Roman clergy- have been suppres.sed and his faculties 
and jurisdiction have been transferred completely 
to the auditor, who is provided with a substitute. 
\Anien according to common law a suit is to be decided 
not by a single judge but by a full bench, the auditor 
is then held to be the presiding judge, in case the 
vicar does not reserve I lie position of presiding officer 
to himself. The appointment of the associate 
judges belongs to the pope; for the individual case 
the vicar has the right to select Ihe a.ssociate judges 
from those appoint eil by the pope. This ordinance 
is especially worth noticing. The other ordinances 
cannot here be discus,spd in detail. 

Fourth Department. — The fourth department 
is directed by a prefect. It has charge of all the 

purely administrative affairs of the vicariate, its 
principal work being the care of finances; it has also 
charge of the purchase of supplies, as the formularies, 
suppfies for the chancellery, etc. The organization 
effected offers nothing that requires any particular 
comment. The head of the department is called a 

Order of Business op the Vicariate. — The 
necessary changes being made, the essential ordinances 
of the Constitution "Sapienti consiUo" and the enact- 
ing ordinances afterwards issued for the congrega- 
tions and curial authorities in regard to the manner 
in which business should be transacted also apply to 
the vicariate. It should be observed that a secret 
and a pubhc archive have been established for the 
vicariate. The vicar is to submit to the pope for 
approval the rules respecting office hours and holi- 
daj's. Of much importance is the closing formula 
of the Constitution which was drawn up in accordance 
with the new formulary of the Apostolic Chancellery. 
After the formulary has been tested for a time by 
practice it is to be jjublished. It says: "Decernentes 
pra?sentes litteras firmas, validas et efficaces semper 
esse et fore, suosque plenarios et integros effectus 
sortiri et obtinere a die promulgationis in Commen- 
tario de Apostolicae Scdis actis". 

A comparison with the earlier article shows that the 
reconstruction of the vicariate is not an organic 
continuation of the former condition but that an 
entirely new organization has been created. There 
is in this change an evident effort to organize the 
official bodies as servants of the public and to do this 
on the basis of the modem method of carrying on 
business, as it is found everywhere in countries that 
lead in civihzation and in well-organized central 
boards of authorities. Formerly the administration 
was a cumbrous one, impeded by traditional ob- 
stacles; it may perhaps be said to have regarded itself 
as the primary object and the pubhc which it shoukl 
serve as of subordinate consideration. This state of 
things is now past, thanks to the energj- of the reign- 
ing pope, which overcame all obstacles. Now, any- 
one who has business with the vicariate knows ex- 
actly to which department, w-hich official, he must 
go in order to have the matter in question speedily 
settled. It is to be expected that in the course of 
time the third department owing to the test of 
practical working may undergo slight changes, as it 
is not probable that all ordinances will prove capable 
of permanent execution. The characteristics of the 
new organization are division of work and rigid 
separation of the judiciary from the executive ad- 
ministration, together with an ample supply of 
officials for the different departments. In the re- 
organization customs that had become historical 
were taken into consideration only in so far as they 
could be combined without difficulty with modern 
methods of business. 

To inspire greater confidence in the newly-created 
offices of the vicariate, the pope, in May, 1912, ap- 
pointed a superior board of control, composed of 
three cardinals, whose duty it is to supervise the 
business affairs of the vicariate. Cardinals Lugari, 
Pompilj, and Van Rossum were the first to be named 
for this important and influential board. These nom- 
inations of the pope were received by the clergy of 
Rome with unanimous expressions of good will and 

P. M. Baumgarten. 

Celestine Order (also called the Hermits of 
St. Damian or Hermits of Murrone). — This Bene- 
dictine congregation must not be confused with the 
Franciscan congregation of the same name. The 
order was founded in 12.54 by Pietro di Murrone, 
afterwards Celestine V. At first the saint gave no 
written rule to hia monks, but by his own life he 




provided an ideal for them to strive after. In 1264 
Urban IV confirmed the order, and gave to it the 
Rule of St. Benedict. It was again confirmed by 
Gregory X in 1274. Celestine himself confirmed the 
constitutions drawn up by Abbot Humphrey, and 
also granted many privileges to his order. Among 
other things he ordered the general chapter to be 
held every year, thus departing from the Decrees of 
the Fourth Lateran Council. The administration of 
the order was carried on .somewhat after the pattern of 
Cluny, that is all monasteries were subject to the 
Abbey of the Holy Ghost at Sulmona, and these 
dependent houses were divided into provinces. The 
ruling body of the congregation or, as it was called, 
"The Definitorium", was chosen as follows: all the 
Ijriors of the province and a delegate from each house 
elected the provincial and five definitors, the pro- 
vincial and the five definitors chose the priors of the 
various houses. The Celestines had 96 houses in 
Italy, 21 in France, and a few, most of which unfor- 
tunately joined the Reformers, in Germany. The 
order became extinct in the eighteenth century. 
The choir dress of the monks was a black cowl and 
hood; the working habit consisted of a white tunic 
with a black scapular and hood, the lay brothers wore 
a brown habit with the badge of the order — a cross 
with the letter "S" entwined round the foot — em- 
broidered on the scapular. 

Beurrier, Histoire du vwnastkre de Parin (1634) ; Constilw 
Hones. . . Cffie.srtnorum (1.590); Constituliones . . . CaleslinOTum 
; franco-gaUiccE (Paris. 1670) : Heimbucher, Orden u. 


I (Paderborn, 1907). 

Paul Brookfield. 

Celestines, the name given to certain extreme 
"Spiritual" Franciscans of the Marches, because 
they were taken by Celestine V under his special 
protection. These Franciscan Celestines are not to 
be confounded with the Order of Celestine hermits, a 
branch of the Benedictine Order, which the same 
pope founded about 1254 before his accession to the 
papacy. It was in the autumn of 1294 that Pietro 
da Macerata, Pietro da Fossombrone, and some other 
"Spiritual" Franciscans who had lately returned 
from Armenia made their way to the Papal Curia, 
then at Aquila, and obtained from Celestine V leave 
to live as hermits under the Rule of St. Francis, but as 
a separate fraternity and without dependence upon 
the superiors of the Minorite Order. They were to 
obey Celestine V and, under him, Pietro da Macerata, 
who changed his name to Liberate, while his compan- 
ion Pietro da Fossombrone took the name of Angelo 
Clareno, by which he is better known (see Angelo 
Clareno da Cingoli). Liberate, when placed at 
the head of the new fraternity, was given full power 
by the pope to receive new members. Celestine, 
moreover, appointed Cardinal Nicholas Orsini, pro- 
tector of the Pauperes Heremitcc Domini Coeleslini 
(Poor hermits of the Lord Celestine), as Liberato, 
Angelo, and their followers were called, and he 
charged the abbot of his own order of (Benedictine) 
Celestines to put some hermitages at their disposal. 
The statues of the new foundation were somewhat 
peculiar. Strictly speaking, these "Poor Hermits" 
could not be callcil either Celestines or Minorites for 
they did not depi'tid upon the authority of either order 
and, althouKh ])r<)fi-ssinf; the Rule of the Friars Minor, 
they lived in licnnitagcs Uk<' the Celestines. 

After the "^rcat reiumciation" of Pope Celestine 
(13 Dec, 1294) the Poor Honnits lost their protector, 
and his successor Boniface VTII revoked and nullified 
in 129.5 all the lonccssions made in their favour by 
Celestine iml<'ss the same were approved anew by 
him.self. Thereupon Liberato, Angelo, and some 
others — for not all of llieir followers seem to have 
accomp.anied them — betook themselves to the Island 
of Trixoma in the Gulf of Corinth and later to 
Thos.saly. .\fter many vicissitudes they returned to 

Italy in 1303 and attempted a vindication of their 
rights. In 1307 liberato died and Angelo became 
the head of the fraternity, which was suppressed by 
John XXII in 1317. The subsequent history of the 
"Poor hermits of the Lord Celestine" is merged in 
that of the FraticeUi (see Fraticelli; Friars 
Minor; Spirituals). 

HoLZAPFEL, Manuale hisloricB Ord. Frai. Minorum (Freiburg, 
1909), 45 sqq. ; Ren£, Histoire des s-pirituels dans I'ordre de S. 
Francois (Paris, 1909). iv-vi; Tocco, Sludii francescani (Suplea, 
1909), XI: / Fraticelli o poveri eremite di Celestine secondo i 
nuovi documenti, 239-310. 

Paschal Robinson. 

Centre (Centre Party), The. — This name is 
given to a pohtical party in the German Reichstag 
and to a number of parties in the diets of the various 
states of the German Empire. The oldest party 
which bears this name is that in the Prussian Chamber 
of Deputies (Abgeordnetenhaus) ; the Centre Party of 
the German Reichstag was formed on 21 March, 1871 . 
From the beginning both these parties have stood 
in close relation to each other, since both parliaments 
have their seats in Berlin and a number of the mem- 
bers usually belong to both assembhes, and finally 
because, Prussia being the leading state of the Ger- 
man Empire, the leading statesmen of the German 
Empire are also Prussian ministers and the govern- 
mental policies of both parliaments are in their funda- 
mental principles the same. A predecessor of both 
parties is found in the Catholic Party in the Prussian 
Chamber of Deputies, which in 1859 had adopted the 
name of the " Party of the Centre " . In view of the hos- 
tile attitude of the Prussian Government towards the 
Church (the Raumer Decrees) this party was formed 
in 1852 for the defence of the freedom guaranteed in 
the Constitution and of the independence of the 
Church. Under the guidance of distinguished leaders 
(e. g. the brothers Reichensperger, Hermann von 
Mallinckrodt, Bishop von Ketteler, etc.), the party 
proved of vast service to the Catholic cause, but the 
denominational principle on which it rested was found 
too narrow and unsuitable for a parliamentary party 
in a constitutional state. The Catholic Party, which 
at its height never numbered more than fifty mem- 
bers, voluntarily dissolved, and after 1867 its last 
members allied themselves with others of the regular 
political parties. 

Meanwhile Liberalism had secured an outspoken 
parliamentary representation in Prussia and other 
German states. As a counterpoise to the anti- 
Cathohc Liberals a new party was needed. The 
more immediate cause of the formation of the present 
Centre were the attacks on the monasteries at 
Moabite (Berlin, 1869), the anti-Catholic measures 
proposed in the Prussian Chamber of Deputies by 
the well-known professor of public law Gneist in con- 
nexion with these attacks, and the fierce attacks made 
on the Church and the pope which followed the 
Vatican Council and the declaration of papal infal- 
hbiUty. On 11 June, 1870, Peter Reichensperger in 
the columns of the "Kolnische Volkszeitung" called 
upon Catholics to unite by drawing up a common 
programme for the elections then approaching. The 
cardinal point of this programme, Reichensperger 
maintained, was the maintenance of the independence 
of the Church in the arrangement and administration 
of its affairs (especially with regard to the formation 
and development of religious associations), which was 
guaranteed by the Prussian Constitution. A con- 
vention of the Catholic societies of the Rhine Prov- 
inces and Westph.alia declared its entire adhesion to 
these i)ropos;ds, but proposed that the societies should 
work sinuiltaneously for the removal of social griev- 
ances and the jjromotion of all the intercuts of the 
labouring classes by .sound Christian legislation. The 
Soester Prngrnmni' oi 28 October, 1S7(), sketched in 
clear and terms a comprehensive imigramme. 
On 13 December, 1S70, the eve of the opening of the 




newly-elected Prussian Diet, at the suggestion of Peter 
Reichensperger, Karl Friedrich von Savigny, and 
Friedrich von Kehler the Centre Party of the Prussian 
Chamber of Deputies was formed (Zenlrumsfrakiion 
dcs preussischcn Abgenrdnetcnhnuses); this was im- 
mediately joined by forty-eight members. On 21 
March, 1871 , sixty-three of the newly-elected members 
of the first German Reichstag united and formed the 
Centre Party of the German Reichstag {Zentrums- 
fraktion des deutschen Reichstags). 

The programmes of both Centres, which include 
men from every part of the empire and of the most 
different stations, are the same even to-day, more than 
forty years after the foundation of the parties. The 
statutes of both parties are identical (except for un- 
essential differences), and both reject enforced party 
allegiance, that is the obligation of the member to vote 
according to the direction of the party as a whole. 
" Justitia fundamentum regnorum" and "P^ur Wahr- 
heit, Recht, und Freiheit" (For truth, justice and 
liberty) are the mottoes which the Centre has always 
placed at the head of its programme. The pro- 
gramme declares the guiding-stars of its activity to 
be: (1) the preservation of the constitutional principle 
of the empire as a confederation of states, viz. unity 
only in essentials and in everything else the free de- 
cision by the individual states; (2) the promotion of 
the moral and material welfare of all classes of the 
population, the securing of constitutional guarantees 
for the civil and religious freedom of all subjects of 
the empire, and especially the defence of the rights 
of rehgious bodies against the attacks of the legis- 
lature. From the first the Centre has been accused 
by its adversaries (who did not become extinct with 
Bismarck) of furthering only religious and exclusively 
Catholic interests and with being an exclusively 
Cathohc and not a political party: consequently it 
was claimed that its existence was not justified in a 
state founded on the principle of parity; that even in 
non-ecclesiastical questions the Centre received in- 
structions from the papal Curia, etc. The programme 
of the Centre, the adherence of a large number of 
Protestant members, and its parliamentary activity 
throughout the last forty years refute accusa- 
tions. In 1909, when various disputes broke out 
concerning the character of the party, its leaders 
again declared: "The Centre is essentially a political, 
non-denominational party; it takes its stand on the 
constitution of the German Empire, which requires 
of the deputies that they regard themselves as the 
representatives of the whole German people." True 
however to its programme, the Centre has regarded 
as its first and most urgent task the defeat of all legis- 
lative measures directed against the Catholic section 
of the community; and, just as during the Kultur- 
kampf, so also to-day the preservation of the civil 
equality of the Catholic minority is considered the 
chief duty of the party. Apart from its programme, 
the fact that almost all the deputies of the Centre and 
their electors belong to the Catholic Church furnishes 
a sufficient guarantee that the party will most strenu- 
ously represent the interests of German Catholics in 
every sphere of public life. 

Soon after its foundation the Centre was compelled 
by Chancellor Bismarck to engage in a long and diffi- 
cult struggle for the liberty and independence of the 
Church (see Kri,TURK.\MPF). By this heroic defence 
of the flouted rights of the Church and of the Cath- 
olic population, by its struggle for the restoration of 
religion as the principle of both public and private 
life in legislation and administration, by its devotion 
to constitutional liberty, and by its respect for its 
own rights and the rights of others, the party per- 
formed the most valuable services. The era of the 
open Kulturkampf pa-ssed. Bismarck was reason- 
able enough to lay aside a policy which he saw had 
been wrecked by the unity of the Catholic people. 

The year 1879 brought the great development of the 
economic politics of the German Empire. The place 
of a Liberalism which refused co-operation was taken 
by the Centre, whose assistance had a decisive effect 
in initiating the new era of economic development 
based on protection. With the influential '■o-opera- 
tion of the Centre the financial basis of the empire 
was simultaneously laid. Early in the eighties the 
Empire devoted its attention to great social measures. 
With the eager and encouraging assistance of the 
same party the great German scheme of social in- 
surance, the comprehensive law for the protection of 
labourers (1890), and later the law for the protection 
of workmen were placed on the statute book. From 
1895 to 1906 the Centre held the balance of power 
between the parties in the German Reichstag. Dur- 
ing this period the uniform civil code for the German 
Empire was drawn up, the German colonial polity 
was guided into sounder channels, and foreign re- 
spect for the empire ensured by the creation of a 
strong fleet and by the development of miUtary 
resources. Finally, a new law for the protection of 
home industries by the tariff was passed in 1902; the 
beneficial effect which this measure has exercised on 
agriculture, industry, and commerce is to-day beyond 
all doubt. Nevertheless, through hatred of the 
CathoUcs, the Liberals especially have not ceased 
their accusations against the Centre and its sup- 
porters of want of patriotism, of treachery towards 
their native land, and of showing allegiance to the 
pope to the detriment of Germany. When the 
Centre refused to meet an unimportant demand of 
the Government connected with the German war in 
South-West Africa, the Reichstag was dissolved (13 
December, 1906), and a vindictive campaign against 
the Centre initiated. The adherents of the Centre 
did not waver in their allegiance to the party. The 
Liberal-Conservative Block, then formed and ani- 
mated with hostility to the Centre, collapsed in 1909. 
With the help of the Centre the Cierman Empire was 
then set on a soimder financial basis (Imperial Finance 
Reform of 1909). The great slanders of the united 
Liberals and Social Democrats did little damage to 
the Centre in the elections of 1912. Although it does 
not possess quite its old strength, it is still powerful 
and feared and hated bj' its adver.saries. In 1912 it 
took a prominent part in the strengthening of the 
German army. 

Especially important in the history of the Centre 
are the years 1887 and 1892. In both years the Ger- 
man Government sought to influence the Centre in 
favour of new military laws with the assistance of 
the Holy See. On both occasions, however, the 
Centre deprecated the intervention of the Vatican 
in purely political affairs, on the ground that its posi- 
tion would be prejudiced and that its adversaries 
(who are for the most part also the adversaries of the 
Catholic Church) would seize the opportunity for 
reproaching the Centre with its dependence on 
foreign powers. In view of the peculiar nature of the 
German Constitution, the defence of the liberty and 
the legal position of the Catholic Church is the task of the Centre in the Reichstag than of the corre- 
sponding parties in the state diets, since religious and 
educational questions are, fundamentally considered, 
not within the competence of the empire. Not alone 
in the Prussian Chamber of Deputies, however, but 
also in the German Reichstag, the Centre has always 
found it necessary to represent Catholic interests 
(even since the close of the Kulturkampf). Even 
during the Last few years this was again the cjise, 
when the Liberals in union with the Evangelical 
League {Evnnqi-lisrher Bund) and the adherents of 
Monism sought to make the measures of the Vatican 
fthe Borromeo Encyclical, the Oath against Modern- 
ism, etc.) a pretext for .a war ag.ainst Geriii.'in (^,iit holies 
and the Holy See, and when a new seirct Kulturkampf 




against. Catholicism and against every positive view 
of life is gradvially growing in strength. While the 
Kulturkampf legislation in Prussia, at least in so far 
as its most oppressive features are concerned, has 
been long repealed, the Jesuit Law still remains in 
force, forbidding the members of this order (even 
though they are subjects of the empire) to settle in 
Germany. So far the Centre has been able to secure 
a mitigation of this law (the removal of §2), but not 
its complete repeal. Vain have been its previous 
efforts to carry the so-called "Tolerance Law", which 
aims at securing full religious liberty for Catholics in 
all the states of the German Empire. The Centre 
has to wage a constant warfare against the slighting 
of Catholics in public life. Even to-day complete 
equality with their Protestant fellow-citizens is with- 
held from Catholics. This is especially seen in the 
exclusion of Catholics from the higher offices in the 
state, for only very rarely is a practical Catholic en- 
trusted with such an office, although more than one- 
third of the population of Germany belongs to the 
Catholic Church. Since the end of the Kulturkampf 
an additional and most important task of the Centre 
Party in the Prussian Chamber of Deputies has been 
the defence of Christian and Catholic principles in 
public education, while it has also had to fight con- 
stantly against the difficulties placed in the way of 
the foundation of religious institutions, etc. 

The chairmen of the Centre were: (a) in the Reichs- 
tag: Karl Friedrich von Savigny (1871-75); Freiherr 
von und zu Franckenstein (1875-90); Franz Graf von 
Balle.strem (1890-93); Alfred Graf von Hompesch 
(1893-1909); Freiherr von Hertling (1909-11); Presi- 
dent of the High Court of Appeal, Dr. Spahn (1911-); 
(b) in the Prussian Chamber of Deputies: Karl Fried- 
rich von Savigny (1870-75) ; Freiherr von Schorlemer- 
Alst (1875-89) ; Freiherr von Heeremann (1889-1901) ; 
Sheriff (Landrat) Fritzen (1901-03); Councillor of 
Justice Dr. Porsch (1904 — ). The most celebrated 
leaders of the Centre were Dr. Ludwig Windthorst 
and Dr. Ernst Maria Lieber. From 1879 to 1912— 
with the exception of the Cartel and the Block periods 
(1887-90; 1907-09)— the Centre was always repre- 
sented in the presidency of the Reichstag. In the 
Reichstag elected in 1912 the Centre renounced its 
claim to a presidential position on account of the 
alliance between the Liberals and Socialists. In 
1879-87 the Centre secured the appointment of 
Freiherr von Franckenstein as first vice-president; in 
1890-93 of Count Ballestrem; in 1893-95 of Freiherr 
von Buol-Bercnberg. When in 1895 the Conser- 
vative president resigned because the majority of the 
Reichstag refused to vote for the official congratulat ion 
of Prince Bismarck on the occasion of his eightieth 
birthday, a member of the Centre (Freiherr von Buol- 
Berenberg) for the first time occupied the presidential 
chair. This honour remained with the Centre until 
the dissolution of the Reichstag in 1906, and the ex- 
ceptional skill with which Count; Bellestrem conducted 
the business of the Reichstag was universally recog- 
nized. In 1910-11 the leader of the Centre, Dr. 
Spahn, was first vice-president. In the Prussian 
Chamber of Deputies the Centre has appointed the 
first vice-president since 1882; since 1903 Dr. Porsch 
has filled this position. An "Imperial Committee of 
the German Centre Party" (15 members), to deal 
with all the interests of the party throughout the 
empire, was founded in 1911. Previous to that 
date there were only the still existing national com- 
mittees for the different states. In important affairs 
representatives of the other states of the confederacy 
are invited to the sessions of the Prussian national 
committee. Of the 397 members of the German 
Reichstag, the Centre (■luime<l (•>3 in 1S71 ; 93 in 1877; 
94 in 1878; 100 in ISSl ; 9!) in ISSl; 98 in 1887; 106 
in 1890; 96 in 1893; 102 in 1S9S; 100 in 1903; 109 in 
1907; 92 in 1912. Of the 433 (since 1906, 443) mem- 

bers of the Prussian Chamber of Deputies the Centre 
numbered 54 in 1870, 86 in 1873, and since that date 
always over 90 (since 1909, 104). 

(a) Bavakia. — In 1869 the "Bavarian Patriotic 
Party" was founded in Bavaria. It was called into 
existence by the strong opposition to the surrender of 
the Bavarian claims to the sovereignty in favour of 
Prussia (i. e. of the North German Confederacy), and 
also for the purpose of opposing the anti-religious 
policy of Liberahsm, which found ex-pression espe- 
cially in the Bavarian School Bill of 1868. The first 
leader of the Patriotic Party was Dr. Edmund Joerg 
(1819-1901), who performed such valuable service 
during his long occupancy of the editorial chair 
(1853-1901) of the Catholic periodical "Historisch- 
poUtische Blatter." Through their affection for and 
sympathy with neighbouring Austria, whose peo- 
ple were descended from the same stock and were 
kindred in their ideas, and through their dishke and 
suspicion of Prussia, which was little friendly towards 
Catholics, Joerg and a section of the Patriotic Party 
opposed the union of Germany under the leadership 
of Prussia in 1870-71. They voted against the war 
appropriation moved by the Bavarian Government 
on the outbreak of the Franco-German War, sup- 
ported oidy the armed neutrality of Bavaria, and 
voted against the Treaty of Versailles. The Patriotic 
Party, however, later acquiesced in the reorganization 
of the relations of the German states, and did not 
refuse its consent to the extension of the competence 
of the German Empire. 

From 1871 to 1875 the party waged a vigorous 
warfare against the Bavarian Government in view 
of the anti-CathoMc legislation introduced after the 
Prussian model and of its extensive support of the 
Old Catholic movement. Even in 1875, when the 
party had the majority in the Chamber, the Govern- 
ment cont-nued the Kulturkampf (Minister of Public 
Worship von Lutz), although now in an underhand 
manner. Only since 1890 have the Old Catholics no 
longer been officially considered as Catholics, and in 
that year was passed the vote for the recall of the Re- 
demptorist Fathers (expelled in 1872). The attempt of 
Dr. Johann Sigl (editor of the extravagantly particu- 
laristic daily paper "Das bayrische Vaterland") to 
found a "Catholic Popular Party" in 1876, because in 
the minds of individuals the Patriotic Party had not 
been sufficiently energetic in ecclesiastical questions, 
proved unsuccessful. In 1887 the Patriotic Party 
adopted the name of the "Bavarian Centre Party". 
In 1890, owing to the gi-owth of the Bavarian Peas- 
ants' League, the party lost its majority in the diet. 
The quarrel between Church and State having 
ceased, the Centre inserted in its programme a sys- 
tematic policy in favour of agi'iculture and small in- 
dustries (1893), and in the elections of 1899 again 
secured a majority. This they still (1912) retain in 
spite of the attacks of the united Liberal and Social 
Democratic parties. During this period the Party 
took the lead in the constitutional development of the 
Bavarian legislation and administration as regards 
both education and economics. In 1912 a member of 
the Centre was for the first time appointed president 
of the Bavarian Ministry (Freiherr von Hertling). 
The most celebrated leaders of the party, after the 
retirement of Joerg, were: Councillor of the High 
Court of Appeal Geiger (1S33-1912) and Dr. von 
Daller, gymnasial rector and professor of theology 
(1835-191 1). The most prominent leaders of to-day 
(1912) are Dr. von Orterer (b. 1849), gymnasial rector 
and councillor for higher studies, Dr. Pichler (b. 
1852), provost of the cathedral of Passau, and Dr. 
Heim (b. 1865), leader of the Peasants. The leader 
of tlie B;ivari;in Centre in the German Reichstag is 
Dr. S( luidliT (b. 1852), cathedral dean of Bamberg. 
Of the 159 (since 1905, 163) members of the Bavarian 
Chamber the Patriotic Party (i. c. the Centre) 




claimed 80 in 1869; 79 in 1875; 68 (83) in 1881; 79 
in 1887; 74 in 1893; 84 in 1889; 102 in 1905; 98 in 
1907; and 87 in 1912. 

(b) WiJRTEMBERG. — The Centre Party of Wiirtem- 
berg was founded on 11 July, 1894, to contest the 
diet elections of 1895. In 1895 and 1900 the Centre 
secured 20 deputies; in 1906 they numbered 25 
deputies (out of a total of 92 deputies). Before 1894 
the Catholic deputies had been allied either with the 
regular "National Party" or with the so-called 
"Left". An alliance of all the deputies who defended 
the rights and hberties of the Catholic Church was 
less necessary during the seventies and eighties in 
VViirtemberg than in other German states, since 
Wiirteniberg was spared a KuUurkampf, thanks to 
the good sense of the Government and the benevo- 
lence of the Protestant king. It was only in the last 
decades that denominational differences began to 
play a more prominent part in public life. The first 
leader of the Wurtemberg Centre and of the Catholics 
of Vi^Urtemberg was Rudolf Probst (1817-99), Direc- 
tor of the Life Insurance Bank; the most prominent 
leaders of the present day (1912) are Adolf Grober, 
Provincial Court Director, Johann von Kiene, Presi- 
dent of the Senate in the High Court of Appeal, and 
the brothers Alfred and Viktor Rembold (both bar- 
risters). The Centre of the German Reichstag 
received one deputy from Wiirtemberg in 1871; since 
1880 it ha,s received always four deputies as members. 

(c) Baden. — .\ fierce war betwen State and Church 
broke out in Baden in the early sixties. Although 
two-thirds of the population of Baden were Catholics, 
the Diet of Baden contained no champions of Catholic 
rights, partly owing to the unjust state of the fran- 
chise and partly because the majority of the Catholics, 
influenced by the anti-Roman theologian Ignaz von 
Wessenberg, inclined towards Liberal ideas and a 
national Church. The anti-religious attitude of the 
Government and of the Liberal Party, however, 
gradually awakened the Catholic conscience. In 
1867 the "Catholic Popular Party" was formed, its 
first, and for some time its only, representative 
being the merchant Jacob Lindau (1833-98). In 
1869, however, four Catholic deputies were elected. 
Although originally the Catholic Popular Party 
favoured union with Austria, it expressed in 1870-71 
its entire adhesion to the treaties which laid the 
foundation of the German P^mpire. The deputies 
elected in Baden on the programme of the Catholic 
Popular Party for the German Reichstag joined the 
German Centre Party as early as 1871. In the 
seventies, while the Kultiirkampf raged in Baden, the 
Party defended with great boldness, and not without 
some success, in the Diet of Baden the rights of the 
Church. In 1881, when the party had twenty-three 
mandates, it adopted a new constitution, and recog- 
nized in their entirety the principles of the Centre 
Party of the German Reichstag as its own. In the 
middle of the eighties a serious crisis within the 
party was occasioned by the question whether the 
policy of the party was to be friendly to the Govern- 
ment or strictly defensive of Catholic interests. The 
number of deputies of the Catholic Popular Party fell 
from 23 to 9. In 1888 the party was reorganized 
under thenameof the Badi/sche Zcntrumiipartei (Centre 
Party of Baden). To terminate the swamping of the 
pohtical life of Baden by the anti-religious policy of 
the National Liberals was declared to be its most 
important ta,sk. Since then the party has been al- 
most unceasingly gaining ground, and has performed 
notable services in furthering the welfare of the coun- 
try and in defending the rights of the Church. It is 
bitterly opposed by the Liberals and Social Demo- 
crats, who have been united in the Grosshlock (Great 
Block) since 1905. Of the 73 members of the Cham- 
ber the party claimed 28 in 1905 and 26 in 1909. The 
reorganizer and able leader of the Centre of Baden is 

Theodor Wacker, pastor of Zahringen. He is assisted 
by Konstantin Fehrenbach, a barrister, and Johann 
Zehnter, President of the Nalimud Court. 

(d) ALSACE-LoRnAiNE. — The Ceiiire Party of .M- 
sace-Lorraine was formed in 1906 from the "Catholic 
National Party", which had in turn been formed in 
1903 from the "Elsasser" and the "Lothringer" (the 
"Alsatians" and the "Lorrainians"). Although the 
Centre of Alsace-Lorraine joined the Centre in the 
Reichstag, various causes prevented a complete under- 
standing being arrived at, especially because the 
Centre Party in the Reichstag was opposed to the 
particularistic and separationist ideals of a portion of 
the Centre of Alsace-Lorraine. The leader of the 
separationist division is Abbe \Yetterl6. As the Centre 
in the Reichstag accepted the new Constitution for 
Alsace-Lorraine in a form unacceptable to the Centre 
of these states, all relations between the two bodies 
were broken off. Since 1912, however, attempts 
have been made to re-establish unity. The chairman 
of the Centre of Alsace-Lorraine is Karl Hauss, 
editor-in-chief of the "Elsasser Boten" (a daily 
paper). In the Diet of Alsace-Lorraine the Party 
had 27 deputies in 1911 (out of a total of 60); in the 
German Reichstag it numbered 7 out of the 397 mem- 
bers in 1912. 

(e) Hesse. — A Catholic Popular Party was formed 
in the Grand Duchy of Hesse as early as the forties. 
Shortly after the formation of the Centre in the 
Reichstag, this party also took the name "Centre". 
While the KuUurkampf raged in Hesse during the 
seventies, the party energetically championed the 
interests of the oppressed Catholics. In 1911 the 
party claimed 9 deputies out of a total of 50. Its 
leader is . the counsel. Dr. Schmitt-Mainz. The 
Grand Duchy sends 9 deputies to the German Reich- 
stag, but none of these belongs- to the Centre Party. 

(f) Oldenburg. — Until 1910 there was no organ- 
ized Centre Party in the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg. 
The Catholics, who constitute about one-fifth of the 
population of Oldenburg, live to the south in the dis- 
trict known as the MUnsterland, which until 1803 was 
under the rule of the Prince-Bishop of Mtinster. 
Since the introduction of the Constitution this Cath- 
olic section has chosen representatives of its own 
religion — at first 6, but later, with the increase 
of the population, 8. From the beginning these 
representatives have stood for the principles of the 
Centre in the German Reichstag, and championed 
the Christian outlook in public life. The Catholic 
deputies have performed a specially useful service 
in recent years by their firm advocacy of a movement 
to introduce new school laws, based on a Christian 
and denominational foundation, for the three divi- 
sions of Oldenburg. Until recently party politics 
did not play any prominent part in the Diet of Olden- 
burg, as such tactics did not appeal to even the non- 
Catholic deputies. Since about 1870 the Govern- 
ment has showed a benevolent attitude towards the 
Catholic ecclesiastical authorities, and the Kulttir- 
kampf obtained no footing in Oldenburg. The need 
of a definite partj' organization first arose when the 
Social Democrats captured some seats in the diet, 
and the direct franchise wa-s introduced in 1909. 
The organization of the Centre was therefore adopted 
in 191(), and on this programme 9 deputies (out of 
a total of 45) were elected in 1911. The able 
leader of the Catholic deputies of Oldenburg and of 
the Centre is Dr. Franz Driver, counsel to the ad- 
ministrative high court. The grand duchy sends 
three deputies to the Reichstag; one of these, elected 
by the Catholic south, has been from the first a mem- 
ber of the Centre in the Reichstag. 

(g) Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. — .Among the twenty- 
three deput ies elected to the Diet of this grand duchy 
the Centre has one deputy, elected by the Catholic 
section of the Oberland in Eisenach. 




(h) The other diets of the German federal states 
have no Centre deputies, inasmuch as the states are 
almost entirely Protestant. In the Kingdom of Sax- 
ony, however, there is a well-organized Centre Party 
which devotes attention to the elections to the Reich- 
stag and the national Diet. Owing to the relatively 
small number of its adherents in this almost purely 
Protestant state (95% Protestant), the party cannot 
secure the election of any candidate of its own; 
still the votes of its members in individual con- 
stituencies are decisive in the case of second ballots. 

In very recent times (since about 1910) alliances 
between the councillors of various municipalities and 
towns, who have been elected on the Centre pro- 
gramme (or who favour that programme), have 
developed or been formed immediately into "Com- 
munal Centre Parties". .A.lmost everywhere in the 
cities and larger communities of the German federal 
states and provinces a great prejudice against the 
Catholic section of the community may be noticed. 
Apart from the inaction of the Cathohcs, the cause of 
this injustice may be traced to the plutocratic fran- 
chise, which almost everywhere places great power in 
the hands of the few wealthy people, who for the 
most part hold Liberal views. As the communal 
franchise gradually becomes more democratic, how- 
ever, the representation of the Catholics who take 
their stand on the Centre programme also increases. 
This increase is indeed accompanied by a growth in 
the number of Social Democrats, with whom the Lib- 
erals in very frequent instances ally themselves in 
opposition to Catholics and the Centre. For the 
introduction of the principles of the Centre Party into 
communal administration, the formation of the com- 
munal representatives who favour the Centre into 
Communal Centre parties has been effected. Regular 
unions of the Centre members of the communal 
bodies in larger areas (counties, provinces, states) 
have also been formed in many places, e. g. in Bavaria, 
the Rhine Provinces, Westphalia, and Upper Silesia; 
these unions bear the name of "Communal Confer- 
ences of the Centre". In Prussia attempts have also 
been made to elect adherents of the Centre to county 
and provincial diets to counteract the decisive in- 
fluence of the higher state officials, whose views are 
mostly National Liberal or Free Conservative. 

Von KETTELEn, Die Zenlrumsfraktion (Mainz, 1872); Das 
Zenlrum im Landtag w. Reichstag, von einem rheinischen Juristen 
(Cologne, 1874} ; Anon., Die Zentrumsfraktion an der Jahrhun- 
dertwende (Cologne. 1900); SPAHN. Das deutsche Zentrum 
(Mainz. 1907); Erzberger, Das deutsche Zentrum (Amsterdam. 
1910), Eng. tr. (ibid., 1912); Von KrOckemeteh, Zentrum und 
Katholizismus (.-im.stordam. 1913); Bergbtrasber. S(udi>n zur 
Vorgesch. der Zentrumspartei (Tubingen, 1910) ; Schnabel. Der 
Zusammenschluss des poUt. Katholizismus in Deutschland im 
Jahre 1848 (Heidelberg. 1910); Donner, Die kathol. Fraktion in 
Preussen 1SSS-S8 (Leipzig, 1909) ; HoEBER, Das Streit urn den 
Zeiitrumscharakter (Cologne, 1912). 

Die Zenstrumspolitik im Reichstag is treated bv Erzbekqer (6 
vols., Berlin, 1911); Die Tdtigkeit der Zetitrums/raklian des preuss. 
Abyeordnetenhauses has been treated since 1904: the sessions 
1904-09 (5 vols.) are edited by von Savignt. and the Reports of 
the later sessions by the Secretariate of the National Committee 
of the Prussian Centre Party (Berlin); Die Zentrumspolitik auf 
dem badischen Landtage has been treated since 1905-06 by Schofer 
(3 vols., Baden-Baden); Eckhard, Die Tdtigkeit der Zentrums- 
fraktion in Wurttemberg (4 vols.. Stuttgart): .Schroder in .-Im. 
Calh. Quart. Bee. (1890), 390; (1891), 515. 

Hermann Sacheb. 

Ceva, Thomas, mathematician, b. at Milan, 21 Dec, 
1648; d. there, 23 Feb., 1737. In 1063 he entered 
the Society of Jesus. He was a prolific WTiter on a 
variety of subjects, especially mathematics and 
poetry. He is known to-day only for the theorem 
in geometry which bears his name. Ceva's Theorem 
is: three concurrent lines drawn through the vertices 
of a triangle divide the opposite sides so that the 
product of the three distance-ratios is equal to 
unity. Ceva published this important proposition 
in 167S. It is the dual of the theorem of Monelaus. 

Bibliothique de la Compagnie de Jesus, II, 101,^1023. 


Charette de la Contrie, Baron Athanase- 
Charle,s-Marje, b. at Nantes, 3 Sept., 1832; d. at 
Basse-Motte (Ille-et-Vilaine), 9 Oct., 1911. His 
father was a nephew of the famous General Charette 
who was shot at Nantes, 29 March, 1795, during the 
rising of the Ven- 
dee. His mother, 
Louise, Countess 
de Vierzon, was 
the daughter of 
the Due de Berry 
and Amy Brown. 
As the Duchesse 
de Berry was at 
that time in hid- 
ing at Nantes, 
and Charette's 
father was being 
sought by the 
police, the child's 
birth was con- 
cealed ; he was 
secretly taken 
from Nantes on 
17 Sept. and was 
registered in the 
commune of 
Sainte - Reine as 
born on 18 Sept. UnwilUng, by reason of his legiti- 
mist antecedents, to serve in France under Louis 
PhiUppe, young Charette, in 1846, entered the Mili- 
tary Academy of Turin; he left in 1848 to avoid 
serving Piedmont, the revolutionary policy of that 
kingdom being evident to him. In 1852 the Duke of 
Modena, the Comte de Chambord's brother-in-law, 
appointed Charette sub-Ueutenant in an Austrian regi- 
ment stationed in the duchy. He resigned in 1859 when 
the French were on the eve of a campaign against Aus- 
tria. In May, 1860, when two of his brothers, like him 
eager to fight the Itahan revolutionaries, offered their 
services to the King of Naples, he went to Rome and 
placed himself at the service of Pius IX, who had com- 
missioned Lamoriciere to organize an army for the de- 
fence of the Papal States. Charette was appointed 
captain of the first company of the Franco-Belgian 
Volunteers, known after 1861 as the Pontifical Zou- 
aves, and was wounded at the battle of Castelfidardo 
(Sept., I860). After the taking of Rome by the 
Piedmontese, Charette negotiated with Gambetta for 
the employment of the French Zouaves in the service 
of France against Germanj-; he was i^ermitted to or- 
ganize them as "Volunteers of the West". Wounded 
at Loigny, Charette was made prisoner; but he es- 
caped, and on 14 Jan., 1871, the Provisional Govern- 
ment of France made him a general. He was elected 
to the National Assembly by the Department of 
Bouches-du-Rhone, but resigned without taking his 
seat. Thiers proposed his entering the French army 
with his Zouaves, but Charette declared his intention 
of remaining at the pope's disposal. On 15 Aug., 
1871, his Zouaves were mustered ovit of the French 
army. Retiring into private life, Charette passed his 
last thirty years serving the cause of reUgion and 
hoping for the restoration of the monarchy. He was, 
in the nineteenth century, a sujierb tx-jie of the valiant 
knight, devoted heart and soul to thi' defence of the 
pope's temporal sovereignty, antl consecrated himself 
to that cause in the same spirit which actuated the 
Crus;i(les of the Middle Ages. 

Melrvili,?;, Correspandant (10 Dec, 1911). 

Georges Gotau. 
Chorepiscopi (x'>'pfir(into7roi = rural bisliops\ a 
name originally given in the Eastern Church to 
bishops whose jurisdiction was confined to rural 
districts. The earliest ehorepiscopus of whom we 
have any knowledge was Zoticus, whom Eusebius 
designates :is bishop of the village Cumana in Phrygia 




in the latter half of the second rentury. In the be- 
ginning the chorepiscopi seem to have exercised all 
episcopal functions in their rural districts, but from 
the second half of the third century they were subject 
to the city bishops. The thirteenth canon of the 
Synod of AncjTa (314) and the tenth canon of the 
Synod of Antioch (341) forbade them to ordain 
deacons or priests without the wTitten permission 
of the bishop; the sixth canon of the Synod of Sardica 
(343) decreed that no chorepiscopus should be conse- 
crated where a priest would suffice; and the fifty- 
seventh canon of the SjTiod of Laodicea (380) pre- 
scribed that the chorepiscopi should be replaced by 
ireptoSevTal, i.e. priests who have no fixed residence 
and act as organs of the city bishops. Thus the 
chorepiscopi in the Eastern Church gradually disap- 
peared. The Second Council of Xicaea (787) is the last 
to make mention of them. Among the Nestorians 
they existed till the thirteenth century, and they still 
exist among the Maronites and Jacobites. In the 
Western Church they are of rare occurrence before 
the seventh centup', and, as a rule, have no fixed 
territory or see, being mere assistants of the bishops. 
Their ever-increasing influence during the Carlo- 
vingian period led to repeated sjTiodical legislations 
against them (Synods of Paris in 829, Aachen in 836, 
Meaux in 845), so that despite such able defenders 
of their cause as Rabanus Maurus ("De chorepisco- 
pis", in P. L., ex., 119.5-1206) they gradually disap- 
peared in the tenth and eleventh centuries, and were 
replaced by the archdeacons. 

BEROi:RE, Etude historique sur tes chorHiques (Paris, 1905^; 
GiLLMANN, Das Institutder Chorbischofe im Orient (Munieti, 1903) ; 
Parisot, Les ehorirgques in Revue de VOrient Chretien, VI (Paris, 
1901), 137-171, 419-443; Grisar in CiritlA Cattolica (Rome, 
15 Oct., 1904; 25 Jan., 1905; 18 March, 1905); Leclercq, 
La Uffialation conciliaire reUitive aux chorltSques in his tr. 
of Hefele, Concitiengeschichle, III (Paris, 1908), 1197-1237; 
Weizacker. Der Kampf gegenden Chorepiscopat dea frdnkischen 
Reichs (Tubingen, 1S59). ^IICHAEL OtT. 

Christopher Numax of Forli, minister general of 
the Friars Minor and cardinal, date of birth uncer- 
tain; d. at Ancona, 23 Mar., 1.528. In his youth he 
studied at Bologna and, after joining the Friars 
Minor, was sent to complete his studies at Paris. In 
1507 he was elected vicar provincial of his order at 
Bologna, in 1514 vicar general of the Cismontane 
Franciscan families, and in 1517 he became minister 
general of the whole order of Friars Minor. Less 
than a month later he was raised, in spite of his 
protests, to the cardinalate by Leo X, who in presence 
of the Sacred College paid a splendid tribute to 
Christopher's great learning and prudence and to his 
still greater holiness of life. In 1520 he became 
Bishop of Alatri and Isernia in Italy, and in 1526 of 
Riez in Provence. He subsequently fulfilled with 
eminent success the office of Apostolic legate to the 
King of France, and later became Apostolic nuncio 
and commissary for the construction of the Vatican 
Basilica, being then invested with the temporal 
dominion of Bcrtinoro. During the siege of Rome by 
the soldiers of the Duke of Bourbon in 1527 Chris- 
topher suffered many hardships and insults, on ac- 
count of which he received letters of condolence from 
Clement VII, Francis I of France, and Henry VIII of 
England. His remains were transferred from An- 
cona, where he had taken refuge, to Rome and placed 
in the Church of Ara Coeli. Besides an "Exhortatio 
ad Galliarum rcgem Franciscum I in Turcas" and a 
number of letters addressed to that king and the other 
rulers concerning the liberation of Clement VII, 
Christopher is said by Wadding and others to have 
written several treatises on theological and ascetical 
questions, all of which appear to have perished during 
the sacking of Rome. 

Waddin-o. Annalea Minorum ad annum ISt7, XVI, nn. xxiv 
and iiiv; Sbahalea, Supplementum. Pt. I (1908), 207; PicooNI, 
Cenni biograHre xugli uomini illuatri delta francesrana prorincia 
di B„logna, I (1894). 380. PaSCHAL RoBINSON. 

Cistercians in the British Isles. — St. Stephen 
Harding, third Abbot of Clteaux (1109-33), was an 
Englishman and his influence in the earl}' organiza- 
tion of the Cistercian Order had been very great. It 
was natural therefore that, when, after the coming of 
St. Bernard and his companions in 1113, foundations 
began to multiply, the project of sending a colony of 
monks to England should find favourable considera- 
tion. In Nov., 1128, with the aid of Wilham Giffard, 
Bishop of Winchester, a settlement was made at 
Waverly near Farnham in Surrey. Five houses were 
founded from here before 1152 and some of them had 
themselves produced ofTshoots. But it was in the 
north that the order assumed its most active develop- 
ments in the twelfth century. William, an Eng- 
lish monk of great virtue, was sent from Clairvaux by 
St. Bernard in 1131, and a small property was given 
to the newcomers by Walter Espec "in a place of 
horror and dreary solitude" at Rivauk in Yorkshire, 
with the hearty support of Thurston, Archbishop of 
York. By 1143 three hundred monks had entered 
there, including the famous St. Aelred, known for his 
eloquence as the St. Bernard of England. Among the 
offshoots of Rivaulx were Melrose and Revesby. 
Still more famous was Fountains near Ripon. The 
foundation was made in 1132 by a section of the monks 
from the great Benedictine house of St. Mary's, York, 
who desired to lead a more austere life. After many 
struggles and great hardships, St. Bernard agreed to 
send them a monk from Clair\'aux to instruct them, 
and in the end they prospered exceedinglj'. The 
great beauty of the ruins excites wonder even to-day, 
and before 1152 Fountains had many offshoots, of 
which Newminster and Meaux are the most famous. 
Another great reinforcement to theorder was the acces- 
sion of the houses of the Savig;ny foundation, which 
were incorporated with the Cistercians, at the in- 
stance of Eugenius III, in 1138. Thirteen Enghsh 
abbeys, of which the most famous were Fumess and 
Jervaulx, thus adopted the Cistercian rule. By the 
year 11.52 there were fifty-four Cistercian monas- 
teries in England, some few of which, hke the beauti- 
ful Abbey of Tintern on the Wye, had been founded 
directly from the Continent. Architecturally .speak- 
ing the Cistercian monasteries and churches, owing 
to their pure style, may be counted among the most 
beautiful rehcs of the Middle Ages. To the wool and 
cloth trade, which was especially fostered by the 
Cistercians, England was largely indebted for the 
beginnings of her commercial prosperity. 

After tlie overthrow of monastic foundations at the 
Reformation the Cistercian habit was not seen in the 
British Isles until some monks of the austere reform 
of La Trappe (hence often called Trappists), driven 
out by the French Revolution, came to England in- 
tending to proceed to Canada. This intention was 
accidentally frustrated and in 1794 they were re- 
ceived at Lulworth in Dorsetshire by Thomas Weld. 
Most of them afterwards aided in restoring the great 
Abbey of Mount Melleray in Brittany and still later 
in estabhshing a new ISIount Melleray in Ireland. 
This flourishing house at Cappoquin, Co. Waterford, 
now has a community of nearly 70, of them 29 are 
priests. Another and more recent foundation at 
Roscrea, Co. Tipperary, in the Diocese of Killaloe, 
numbers 66 monks with 28 priests. In England, St. 
Bernard's Abbey, Coalville, Leicestershire, founded 
in 1835, is on a smaller scale and numbers only 7 
priests. The only convent of Cistercian nuns in the 
British Isles is at Stapehill near \\imborne, Dorset- 
shire. It has a community of 42 members. 

Cooke in The English HiM<rrical Review (Ix>nrlon. 1893), 625- 
76; Daloairns, Life nj St. Stephen Harding. pH. Thurston (Lon- 
don, 1898); Concise History o/ the Cislercinn Order by a CisK^r- 
cian monk (I^ondon, 1852); Fowler, Cistercian Statistics (Lon- 
don. 1890); McRPHY, Triumphalia Monaslerii S. Crneis (Dublin, 
1891); CooNASSO, Acta cistercicnsia in Rdmische Quartalschri/t 

(•^'2)- Herbert Thurston. 




Claret y. Clara, Antonio MakIa, Venerable, 
Spanish prelate and missionary, born at Salient, near 
Barcelona, 23 Dec, 1807; d. at Fontfroide, Nar- 
bonne, France, on 24 Oct., 1870. Son of a small 
woollen manufacturer, he received an elementary 
education in his native village, and at the ago of 
twelve became a weaver. A little later he went to 
Barcelona to speciahze in his trade, and remained 
there till he was twenty. Meanwhile he devoted 
his spare time to study and became proficient in 
Latin, French, and engraving; in addition he enlisted 
in the army as a volunteer. Recognizing a call to 
a higher life, he left Barcelona, entered the seminary 
at Vich in 1829, and was ordained on 13 June, 1835. 
He received a benefice in his native parish, where 
he continued to study theology tiU 1839. He now 
wished to become a Carthusian; missionary work, 
however, appealing strongly to him he proceeded 
to Rome. There he entered the Jesuit novitiate 
but finding himself unsuited for that manner of Ufe, 
he returned shortly to Spain and e.xeroised his 
ministry at Valadrau and Gcrona, attracting notice 
by his efforts on behalf of the poor. Recalled by 
his superiors to Vich he was engaged in missionary 
work throughout Catalonia. In 1848 he was sent 
to the Canary Islands where he gave retreats for 
fifteen months. Returning to Vich he estabhshed 
the Congregation of the Missionary Sons of the Im- 
maculate Heart of Mary (16 July, 1849), and founded 
the great religious library at Barcelona which bears 
his name, and which has issued several miUion cheap 
copies of the best ancient and modern Catholic 

Such had been the fruit of his zealous labours and 
so great the wonders he had worked, that Pius IX 
at the request of the Spanish sovereign appointed 
him Archbishop of Santiago de Cuba in 18.51. He 
was consecrated at Vich and embarked at Barcelona 
on 28 Dec. Having arrived at his destination he 
began at once a work of thorough reform. The 
seminary was reorganized, clerical discipline strength- 
ened, and over nine thousand marriages validated 
within the first two years. He erected a hospital 
and numerous schools. Three times he made a 
visitation of the entire diocese, giving local missions 
incessantly. Naturally his zeal stirred up the enmity 
and calumnies of the irreligious, as had happened 
previously in Spain. No less than fifteen attempts 
were made on his life, and at Holguin his cheek was 
laid open from ear to chin by a would-be assassin's 
knife. In February, 1857, he was recalled to Spain 
by Isabella II, who made him her confessor. He 
obtained permission to resign his see and was ap- 
pointed to the titular see of Trajanopolis. His in- 
fluence was now directed solely to help the poor and 
to propagate learning; he lived frugally and took up 
his residence in an Italian hospice. For nine years 
he was rector of the Escorial monastery where he 
established an excellent scientific laboratory, a 
museum of natural history, a library, college, and 
schools of music and languages. His further plans 
were frustrated by the revolution of 1868. He con- 
tinued his popular missions and distribution of good 
books wherever he went in accomj)anying the 
Spanish Court. When Isabella recognized the new 
Government of United Italy he left the Court and 
hastened to take his place by the side of the pope; 
at the latter's command, however, he returned to 
Madrid with faculties for absolving the queen from 
the censures she had incurred. In 18(59 he went to 
Rome to prepare for the Vatican Council. Owing 
to failing hi';illli he withdrew to Prades in Fr.ance, 
where he was still harassed by his calumnious Sp.anish 
ewiuies; shorlly afterwards he retired to the Cister- 
cian ;ibbey at I'ciiilfroide where ho expired. 

His zealous life and the wonders he wrought l)oth 
before and after his death testified to his sanctity. 

Informations were begun in 1887 and he was declared 
Venerable by Leo XIII in 1899. His relics were 
transferred to the mission house at Vich in 1897, 
at which time his heart was found incorrupt, and 
his grave is constantly visited by many pilgrims. 
In addition to the Congregation of the Missionary 
Sons of the Heart of Mary (approved definitively by 
Pius IX, 11 Feb., 1870) which has now over 110 houses 
and 2000 members, with missions in W. Africa, and in 
Choc6 (Colombia), Archbishop Claret founded or drew 
up the rules of several communities of nuns. By his 
sermons and writings he contributed greatlj' to bring 
about the revival of the Catalan language. His 
printed works number over 130, of which we may 
mention: ''La escala de Jacob"; "Maximasde moral 
lamdspura"; "Avisos"; "Catecismo explicado con 
Uminas"; "La Uave de oro"; "Selectos panegiricos" 
(11 vols.); "Sermones de misi<5n" (3 vols.); "Mi.si6n 
de la mujer"; " Vida de Sta. M6nica"; "LaVirgendel 
Pilar y los Francmasones" ; and his "Autobiografia", 
written by order of his spiritual director, but still 

Aquilar. Vida admirable del Venerable Antonio Maria Claret 
(Madrid, 1894); Bl.ANcH,Fi(io del Venerable Antonio Maria Claret 
(Barcelona. 1906): Clotet, Compendia de la tida del Siervo de 
Dios Antonio Maria Claret (Barcelona, 1880): Memorias ineditas del 
Padre Clotet in ttie archives of the missionaries of Aranda de 
Duero: Villaba HehvAs, Recuerdos de cinco lustros IS43-JS63 
(Madrid, 1S96): Estudi bibliografich de les obres del Venerable 
Sallenti (Barcelona, 1907). A. A. MacErLEAN. 

Colombiere, Claude de la, Venerable, mission- 
ary and ascetical writer, b. of noble parentage at 
Saint-Symphorien-d'Ozon, between Lyons and \ienne, 
in 1641 ; d. at Paray-le-Monial, 15 Feb., 1682. He en- 
tered the Society of Jesus in 1659. After fifteen 
years of rehgious life he made a vow, as a means of at- 
taining the utmost possible perfection, to observe 
faithfully the rule and constitutions of his order under 
penalty of sin. Those who Uved with him attested that 
this vow was kept with great exactitude. In 1674 
Father de la Colombiere was made superior at the 
Jesuit house at Paray-le-Monial, where he became the 
spiritual director of Blessed ISIargaret Mary and was 
thereafter a zealous apostle of the devotion to the 
Sacred Heart of Jesus. In 1676 he was sent to Eng- 
land as preacher to the Duchess of York, afterwards 
Queen of Great Britain. He lived the life of a re- 
ligious even in the Court of St. James and was as active 
a missionary in England as he had been in France. 
Although encountering many difficulties, he was able to 
guide Blessed Margaret Mary by letter. His zeal soon 
weakened his vitality and a throat and lung trouble 
seemed to threaten his work as a preacher. While 
awaiting his recall to France ho was suddenly arrested 
and thrown into prison, denounced as a conspirator. 
Thanks to his title of preacher to the Duchess of York 
and to the protection of Louis XIV, whose subject he 
was, he escaped death but was condemned to exile 
(1679). The last two years of his life were spent at 
Lyons where he was spiritual director to the young 
Jesuits, and at Paray-le-Monial, whither he repaired 
for his health. His principal works, including "Pious 
Reflections", " Meditations on the Passion ", "Retreat 
and Spiritual Letters", were published under the title, 
"ffiuvres du R. P. Claude de la Colombiere" (Avig- 
non, 1832; Paris, 1864). His relics are preserved in 
the monastery of the Visitation nuns at Paray-le- 

Sequin. Vie Su P. de la Colombiire (Paris, 1876), tr. in 
Quarterhi Series (London, 188.'?): Luben, Dcr ehrumrdige Diener 
(Joltc.i P. Claudius de la Cnlombiire (Einsiedcln, 1S84): Letierce, 
I.c Sacri Ctrnr, ses apOtres et ses sancitiaires (Nancy, 1SS6): 
Lettrcs tniditts de la bienbeureuse Marguerite Marie (Toulouse, 
ISml): CinHRiEH, Ilistoire du V. P. Clatule de la Colombiirt 
(I'nris, 1S!14): Yi^mawv, Histoire dc la hienheureuse Marguerite 
Marie (Toulouse. 19(X)): (Emres completes du R. P. de la Colom- 
biire (Grenoble. IflOl): Hattler, Lebensbild der ehnmrdige P. 
Claudius de la Cohimbiirc (I'.KW); P0UPI..1RU, Notice sur te scr- 
viteuT de Dieu, le K. P. Claude de la Cohmbiire. 

Gerthi'de Dana Steele. 




Colonia, titular see in Armenia Prima. Colonia 
should be identified with Kara Hissar, chief town of a 
sanjak of the vilayet of Sivas. It has about 10,000 
inhabitants, all Mussulmans, excepting 700 Greeks, 
and 2500 Armenians (1500 Gregorian, 700 Protestant, 
and 300 CathoUc). It trades in agricultural products 
and alum from the neighbouring mines. Colonia 
retained its importance under the Seljukian Turks and 
even under the Ottomans, who captured it in 1473. 
In the present city there are the curious ruins of the 
citadel built by Justinian, and rebuilt and enlarged 
during the Middle Ages. Colonia was one of the 
centres of the Paulician heresy. 

For the identification of Colonia see Ramsey, Asia Min(yr, 57, 
267; F. AND E. CnMO.vr, Studia Ponlica (Brussels, 1906), 296-302. 
For the modern city see Cthnet, La Turquie d'Asie. I. 779. 

S. PiiTRinfes. 

Cornelias y Cluet, Antonio, philosopher, b. at 
Berg.a, in the Province of Barcelona, 1& Jan., 1832; d. 
there, 3 June, 18S4. ComeUas studied philosophy 
and theology at Vich, and entered the diocesan sem- 
inary at Solsona. After his ordination (17 May, 
1S56) he continued to teach Latin at Solsona until 
1862, when he was appointed professor of theology. 
During his stay there he published two pamphlets, in 
which he gave ample evidence of his learning. The 
first was a discourse, delivered at the opening of the 
scholastic term, 186(5-67, in which he essayed to ex- 
plain in a new manner the procession of the Three 
Divine Persons, and the second a translation, accom- 
panied by prologue and interesting notes, of a work 
by Reginald Baumstark, " Pensamientos de un 

Erotestaate sobre la invitaci6n del papa a la reconci- 
aci<5n con la Iglesia cat6lica romana" (Barcelona, 
1869). To be able to devote himself to his chosen 
line of work, a few months after the appearance of 
his philosophic, he resigned his chair of theology in 
1871, and withdrew to Berga. Before 1880 he 
published " Demostraci6n de la armonla entre la 
.religi6n cat<51ica y la ciencia", a work of an apolo- 
getic nature, WTitten to refute William Draper's 
"Conflict Between Science and Religion". In 1883 
he wrote his philosophic work, "Introducci6n 6. la 
filosofia, 6 sea doctrina, sobre la direcci6n al ideal de la 
ciencia" (Barcelona). G6mez Izquierdo, his biogra- 
pher, says, that "as a philosopher, he [ComeUas] was 
the only thinker who obeying the impulse of his 
scientific inquisitiveness, rather than the influence 
and stimulus of about him, devoured all the 
most interesting philosophical literature of Europe of 
his time" and that "in his active mind the echoes of 
the spiritualism of the Catalonian School and the 
first murmurs of the Thomistic revival reverberated ". 
One of the distinguishing features in the career of 
ComeUas is that he is to be considered as one of the 
precursors of the neo-.Scholastic movement in Spain. 

G6mez Izquierdo. Un filoitfifo cataldn, Antonio Cornelias y 
duel in CuUura espatiola (Madrid 1907); OrtI t Lara in 
La ciencia crisliana (Madrid, 1S.S3); SardA y SalvaN'Y in Revista 
popular (Barcelona. 20 March, 1885); Casals in La Dinaslin 
(Barcelona. 2 August, 1890) ; de Moi.ins in Diccionario bin- 
ordfico y bihliogrdfico de esrritores y artistns catalanes del siglo 
XIX, I, 487; Men£ndez y Pelayo, Historia de los heitrodoxos 
espafioles, III, 824. 

R. BoLOS. 

Conaty, Thomas James. See Monterey and 
Los An(;eles, Diocese of, Vol. X, p. 532. 

Constantius, Flavius Jflics, Roman emperor 
(337-361), b. in lUjTia, 7 Aug., 317; d. at the Springs 
of Mopsus (Mopsokrene near Tarsus), 3 Nov., 361. 
He wa.s the son of Constantine the Great and his first 
wife Fausta. On S Nov., 324, he wa.s made Cxsar. 
After the death of the father (337) he received the 
Provinces of EgA-pt, Oriens, Asia, and Pontua, and be- 
came the sole ruler of the Roman Empire after the 
death of his brothers Constantine II (340) and 
Constans I (3.">0) and of Magnentius (.3.')3). He was 
not successful in his wars, in which the Persians were 

his chief foe. As regards his religious poUcy he 
commanded in 353 the closing of the heathen temples 
and the abolishment of sacrifices under penalty of 
death, but these edicts were not rigidly executed. 
Even less logical were his actions in leaving the 
higher schools and the instruction of the higher classes 
of society in the hands of the pagan philosophers, and 
in continuing to fiU the positions in the priesthood in 
the ancient manner. Won over to Arianism by the 
Eusebians, he acted as its protector, persecuted the 
orthodox Catholic bishops, and used violence against 
the synods. He showed especial hatred towards St. 
Athanasius. For a time, however, he assumed a 
friendly manner towards the saint, because after the 
murder of his brother Constans by the usurper Mag- 
nentius he had to exercise caution in order to main- 
tain his position, and he was glad to make use of the 
influence of Athanasius over the common people. 
But, after the overthrow of Magnentius the emperor 
at once altered his conduct, and Ustened willingly to 
the accu.sation of the Eusebians against Athanasius. 
Pope Liberius caUed the Synod of Aries (353) to ad- 
just the matter, but Constantius terrified the bishops, 
so that Athanasius was declared guilty and deposed. 

At another synod held at Milan in 355 the emperor 
was present behind a curtain and finaUy rushed into 
the assembly with drawn sword. Consequently this 
synod also passed such decrees as lie desired. Who- 
ever was not compliant was exiled or thrown into 
prison. Pope Liberius, however, had not confirmed 
these decrees, and as he resolutely refused to give his 
approval he was banished to Beroea in Thrace; sev- 
eral Italian bishops, as well as Hosius of C6rdova and 
Hilary of Poitiers, were also exiled. Athanasius fled 
into the wilderness. From this time Constantius 
deposed bishops according to his whims, and ap- 
pointed in their stead others who were his tools. He 
was a mouthpiece for the most contradictory dogmas 
and formulae; for example, he favoured both the 
Anomreans and the Semi-Arians. It is true that at 
the Sj-nod of Constantinople (360) he avoided show- 
ing himself an open partisan of the strict Arians, but 
soon after, when Meletius of Antioch was deposed, he 
openly accepted their confession of faith. He seemed 
to have clearly in mind only one aim: the destruction 
of Catholic doctrine. 

Hilary of Poitiers is not unjust when he describes 
Constantius ("Contra Constantium imperatorem", 
P. L., X, 578 sqq.) as excessivelv presimiptuous, 
ruthless towards God and the Church, and, although 
apparently a Christian, yet an enemy of Jesus Christ; 
one who drew up confessions of faith yet who lived 
contrary to the faith, hke an "impious person who 
does not know what is sacred, who drives the good 
from the dioceses in order to give these to the wicked, 
who by intrigues encourages discord, who hates yet 
wishes to avoid su.spicion, who hes but wishes no one 
to see it, who is outwardly friendly but within lacks 
all kindness of heart, who in reality does only what he 
wishes yet wishes to conceal from everyone what it 
is that he wishes". Constantius died 'of an illness 
while engaged in a campaign against his nephew 
Julian; shortly before his death he had been baptized 
by the Arian Bishop Euzoios. 

De Brogue, L'Eglire et V empire romain am siMet III et IV; 
Heroenrother, llandhuch der allgcmrinen Kirchengrsrhichte. I 
(Freiburg, 1911), .360 gq.; DnRCTY, Hisloire ,lrs Romains VII 
(Paris. 18851, 214-327. KlEMENS LoFFLER. 

Coptic Literature.— Since the publication of the 
artirle Egypt (above V, 329-.363), under which 
Coptic literature was treated, important discoveries of 
entirely new Sahidir material have taken place, and 
considerable [)ortioiis of the S:ihidic Version from 
manuscripts known already have been given to the 
public by very competent 

The Morqan Collection.— The most important of 




these discoveries was undoubtedly that of the Ubrary of 
the Monastery of St. Michael in the Fayum (Spring, 
1910). Most of the fifty-eight volumes of which it 
consisted found their way to Paris, where they were 
purchased by J. Pierpont Morgan (Dec, 1911), in 
whose library (at New York) they are now preser\ed. 
5000 volumes remained in Egypt, and, with a few 
fragments of the same origin, are kept in the Egj'ptian 
Museum at Cairo. With the exception of one Fayil- 
mic and one Bohairic manuscript the whole collection 
is in the Sahidic dialect. This had its home in Upper 
Egypt, but evidently it had spread in the Faytlm as a 
literary language as early as the eighth century, for 
some of oiu- manuscripts are dated in the first quarter 
of the following centiu-y. The numerous colophons, 
however, all in the local Fay<imic idiom, show that 
the latter still obtained as a spoken language. One of 
the most important features of the Morgan collection 
is that it consists of complete volumes, while other 
collections, yet reputed so valuable, those of Rome, 
Paris, and London (see below under British Museum 
Collection), to name the princiijal ones, consist mostly 
of fragments. It is an inveterate habit with the 
Arabs of Egypt to tear the manuscripts they discover 
or steal, so as to give each member of the tribe his 
share of the spoils, and also in the hope of securing 
higher prices by selhng the manuscripts piecemeal, a 
process fatal to hterature, for while some leaves so 
treated will be scattered throughout the pubhc or pri- 
vate collections of Europe and America, a good many 
more will either meet destruction or remain hidden in- 
definitely by the individual owners. Most of the 
manuscripts of the JMonastery of St. Michael had al- 
ready been divided into small lots of leaves and dis- 
tributed among a number of Arabs when they were 
rescued at the cost of untold toil and expense. 

Mr. Morgan's collection is no less remarkable as a 
group of dated manuscripts of absolutely certain 
provenance. We had a number of much older volumes 
or fragments, the ages of which, however, could not be 
determined with sufficient approximation, for lack 
of points of comparison, chronologically not too dis- 
tant. The only points of comparison, so far, were two 
manuscripts dated a.d. 1006 (British Museum Or. 
1320) and 1003 (Naples, Zoega, XI). There are in- 
deed a few colophons in Paris with dates almost 100 
years earher but those colophons are generally sepa- 
rated from the manuscripts to which they belonged 
and consequently are of little or no use, the script of 
colophons being as a rule different from that in the 
body of the manuscript. Now the Morgan collection 
contains eighteen dates ranging from A. d. 832 to 914, 
so that our point of comparison is thrown practically 
200 years nearer the older manuscripts in question. 
Many of the manuscripts are still in their original 
bindings, which are possibly the oldest, and certainly 
the best-authenticated, specimens of the art of book- 
binding in that remote period. They consist of thick 
boards made of layers of papynis sheets taken from 
older manuscripts. The covering is brown or deep- 
ened leather stamped with geometrical patterns, or 
cut through so as to show pieces of the same material, 
but of different colours (generally red or gold), 
slipped between the board and cover. In one case the 
decoration, exceedingly elaborate, was obtained by 
means of narrow strips of red parchment delicately 
stitched on the gilded cover of the boards and on the 
inner face of one of I ho bonrds, the name of the mon- 
astery is reproduced in the same manner on the 
turned-in edge of the leather covering. A dozen of 
the volumes are adorned with full-page miniatures 
representing the Virgin with her Divine Son at her 
l)rcast or silting in her lap, angels, martyrs, ancho- 
rites, and other saints. A we;dlh of decorations from 
the vegetable and animal realms runs along the mar- 
gins and around the titles of the inilividual treatises, 
in almost all the volumes. It is the earliest and most 

complete attempt at illustrating and decorating yet 
discovered in Sahidic manuscripts. 

The Ubrary of the Monastery of St. Michael was 
clearly a hturgical hbrary, that is all its books were 
used in church. The following classified list of contents 
will give a fair idea of what a Coptic monastic Hbrary 
of that time was while it will also show the lacunae 
with which it has come down to us. 

Bible. (1) Old Testament. — Six complete books of 
the Sahidic version, namely, Leviticus, Numbers, 
Deuteronomy, I and II Kings (Samuel), and Isaias, 
excepting i, 1-19, and vii, 7-viii. (2) New Testa- 
ment. — The Four Gospels (excepting Luke, iv, 33-ix, 
30; ix, 62-xiii, 17), the fourteen Epistles of St. Paul, 
and the seven Catholic Epistles (I and II Peter, I-III 
John, James, and Jude). There is also a manuscript 
of the Bohairic Version of the Four Gospels, frag- 
mentary, unfortunately, and without indication of 
provenance or date, and it remains to decide whether 
it belonged to the Monastery of St. Michael. Still it ia 
probably older than any of the manuscripts so far 
known of that version and on that account it may 
prove of considerable value for textual criticism. 

Liturgy. (1) A complete Lectionary containing 
much valuable information as to the Hturgical, sanc- 
toral, and the general run of the ecclesiastical year, and 
explaining several popular names for the various Sun- 
days which, so far, were either unknown or obscure, 
and Uable to misinterpretation. (2) A Breviarj' and 
(3) an Antiphonary, two books of which we had noth- 
ing but a few fragments that challenged all attempts at 
reconstruction. The sanctoral of the antiphonarj- is 
the oldest document of that kind in the Coptic 

Synaxary. — Over 100 homilies, discourses, eulogies. 
Acts of martjTs, hves of saints, and miscellaneous 
treatises, to be read in church on the various Sundays 
and feasts of the Hturgical year. These have been 
recently classified by categories of feast, retaining, 
however, in each category, the order of the calendar.' 

(1) Feasts of Our Lord: Nativity (Choiac 29 = 
25 Dec), discourse by Demetrius, ^Archbishop of An- 
tioch; Epiphany (Tybi 11=6 Jan.), two discourses by 
St. Epiphanius of Constance (Cyprus), and St. Peter 
of Alexandria; Passion, discourse by St. Athanasius 
of Alexandria; Resurrection (Holy Saturday, Easter 
Sunday, Easter Wednesday, and \\'hitsunday), one 
discourse by Evodius, Archbishop of Rome (probably 
error for Antioch), one by St. John Chrysostom, and 
five discourses by St. CjtU of Jerusalem; Pentecost, 
discourse by St. Athanasius of Alexandria; Feast of 
the Holy Cross (Thoth 17 = 14 Sept.), discourse by 
St. Cyril of Jerusalem, also a discourse by Theophilus 
of Alexandria on the Cross and the Good Thief, not 
assigned to any date. (2) Feasts of the Blessed Vir- 
gin Mary: Nativity and Death (Tybi 21 = 16 Jan.), 
discourse by St. Cyril of Jerusalem; Assumption 
(Mesori 16 = 15 Aug.), discourse by Theophilus of 
Alexandria. (3) Feasts of Angels: St. Gabriel 
(Choiac 22 = 18 Dec, Feast of the Annunciation?), 
discourse by .Archelaus, Bishop of NeapoUs; St. 
Gabriel's Investiture in Heaven, by St. Stephen; St. 
Michael, patron saint of the monastery (AthjT 12 = 
8 Nov.), two discourses by Macarius, Bishop of Tk6ou 
and Severus of .\ntioch; St. Michael's Investiture in 
Heaven, by St. John the Evangelist; three discourses 
by St. .\thana.sius of Alexandria, Sevcrianus, Bishop 
of Gabala, and Timothy of Alexandria. There are 
also discourses without mention of date in the titles, 
but very likely pronounced also on Athyr 12: two by 
St. Basil, five by St. Athanasius, Eustathius of 
ThrakC, Severianiis, St. John Chrysostom, and St. 
Gregory the theologian, also one bv St. .Vthanasius 
on St. Michael and St. Gabriel. (4) Feasts of .\poc- 
alypiic Spirits: The Four Incorporeal .\ninials 
(Athyr 8=4 Nov.), discourse by St. John Chrysos- 
tom; The Twenty-four Elders (Athyr 24=20 Nov.), 




discourse by Proclus of Cyzicus. (5) Feasts of 
Patriarchs and Prophets: Isaac (Mesori 24 = 17 Aug.), 
dormilio: Joseph (without date), his history by 
Ephrem the Anchorite; Jeremias (without date), 

(6) Feasts of Saints of the Gospels and Acts: St. 
John the Baptist (Thoth 2=30 Aug.), discourse by 
Theodore, Archbishop of Alexandria; Sts. Peter and 
Paul (Epiphi 5=29 June), discourse by Severi- 
anus of Gabala; the Twelve Apostles, St. Mark, and 
St. Luke (same day), Eulogy of the Twelve Apostles 
and Life of St. Mark (acephalous; author unknown. 
In Cairo) ; St. Stephen [no date in the Lectionary (see 
above)], Stoning of St. Stephen (Thoth 15 = 12 
Sept.), Life {iroXireia). (7) Feasts of Martyrs: 
ShnMe and Brothers (Phaophi 7=4 Oct.), Acts of 
martyrdom; Cyprian [and Justina] (Phaophi 20 = 
17 Oct.), Conversion of Cyprian, his Acts of martjT- 
dom; Menas (.\thyr 10 = Nov.), Acts of martyr- 
dom, eulogy by John, Archbishop of Alexandria, 
miracles; Cosmas and Damianus (Athyr 22 = 18 
Nov.), Acts of martyrdom (acephalous); Mercurius 
(Athyr 25=21 Nov.), Acts of martjTdom, two eulo- 
gies by Acacius of Neo-Ciesarea and St. Basil of 
Cffisarea; Paese and Thecla (Choiac 8=4 Dec), Acts 
of martjTdom; Pteleme (Choiac 11=7 Dec), Acts 
of martyrdom; Psote (Choiac 27=23 Dec), Acts of 
martyrdom; Leonitius the Arab and Publius (Tybi 1 
= 27 Dec), Acts of martyrdom; Theodore the Ana- 
tolian, Leonitius the .\rab and Panegvris (Tybi 12 = 

7 Jan.), Acts of martyrdom; Philotheus (Tybi 16 = 
11 Jan.), Acts of martyrdom; Apa loule and PtelemS 
(Tybi 21=16 Jan.), Acts of martjTdom; Apa EUa 
(Pharmouthi 16 = 11 April), Acts of martyrdom, 
eulogy by Stephen of Hues (both in Cairo); Victor, 
son of Romanes (Pharmouthi 27=22 April), eulogy 
by Theopemptos, .\rchbishop of Antioch; Coluthus 
(Pachon 24 = 19 May), Acts of martyrdom, eulogy by 
Isaac, Bishop of Antinoou ; Phoibamon (Payni 1 = 
26 May), Acts of martyrdom, miracles; Claudius 
(Payni 11=5 June), Acts of martj-rdom, eulogy by 
Severus of Antioch, two eulogies by Constantine of 
Siout; Epiana (Epiphi 8=2 July), Acts; Nabra (same 
date). Acts (in Cairo); Theodore Stratelates (Epiphi 
20 = 14 Jul)'), Acts of martjTdom, narrative by Anas- 
tatius. Bishop of Euchaitos; The Seven Sleepers 
(Mesdri 20 = 13 Aug.), Acts of martyrdom, Isidorus, 
his mother Sophia, and his sister Euphemia (no date 
legible). Acts of martjTdom (Cairo). (8) Feasts of 
Anchorites and Cenobites: Phib (Phaophi 20 = 17 
Oct.), life bv Papohe; Samuel of Kalomon (Choiac 

8 = 4 Dec), life; Archellites (Tybi 13=8 Jan.), life 
by Eusebius "the historiographer of Rome"; Maxi- 
mus and Dometius (Tybi 14 and 17=9 and 12 Jan.), 
lives bv Pohoi; Hilaria (Tybi 21=16 Jan.), hfe by 
Pambo; St. Anthony (Tybi 22=7 Jan.), life by St. 
Athanasius, eulogy by John, Bishop of Ashmdnein; 
Longinus and Lucius (Mechior 2=27 Jan.), lives, 
eulogy by Basil, Bishop of Pemje; Pachomius 
(Pach6n 14=9 May), Hfe (acephalous); Onuphrius 
(Payni 16 = 10 June), life; Apollo (Payni 20 = 14 
June), eulogy by Stephen, Bishop of Hues. 

(9) Feasts of Bishops: Macarius of Tkoou (no 
date, Phaophi 21 =18 Oct.. more probably, however, 
on the same day a-s Dioscorus of Alexandria, Thoth 
7=4 Sept.), eulogy by Dioscorus, .Vrchbishop of 
Alexandria (when in exile at Gangra) ; St. Athanasius 
of Alexandria (Pachon 7=2 May), two eulogies by 
Constantine, Bishop of Siout. (10) Miscellaneous. 
It has as yet been impossible to assign the following 
treatises to any special flays of the liturgical year, 
but it is very likely that they, too, were once part of 
the SjTiaxary; some of them may have been read on 
ordinary Sundays: from St. John Chrysostom, homily 
on the sinning woman who repented (Luke, vii, 
34 sqq.); from St. Athanasius, two homilies, one on 
the parable of the man who borrowed three loaves 

from his friend (Luke, xi, 5 sqq.) and another on the 
resurrection of Lazarus; from St. Cyril of Alexandria, 
homily on some passages of the Apocalypse from 
John, Archbishop of Alexandria, answers on various 
questions of theology, put to him by one of his priests, 
Theodore by name; from Shenute, a volume on indif- 
ference in church-going. It is needless to say here 
that almost every one of the treatises under sections 1 
to 6 of the Synaxarj' is either downright apocryphal 
or at least based on apocryphal literature. 

An official and detailed catalogue of this rich collec- 
tion is in course of preparation and there is every 
prospect that the editing and translating of these 
venerable relics will begin without unavoidable delay. 

The British Museum's Recent Acquisitions. — 
The British Museum acquired of late a number of 
valuable Sahidic manuscripts. Three of these. Or. 
5000, Or. 5001 (both found together in a ruined mon- 
astery of Upper Egypt), and Or. 7594 (bought from a 
native antiquarian at Ghizer, Cairo) are on papyrus, 
and bear the appearance of high antiquity, especially 
Or. 7594, which the authorities of the British Mu- 
seum date in the middle of the fourth century. The 
others. Or. 6780-6784, 6799-6804, 6806, 7021-7030, 
are on parchment, excepting a few on paper, and 
their dates of writing, so far as they are given, vary 
from A. D. 979 to 1053. These probably all come 
from the Monastery of St. Mercurius in the desert 
west of Edfil (Upper Egypt). The following is a 
summary of contents of the twenty-five manuscripts: 

Bible. (1) Old Testament. — Deuteronomy (except- 
ing ii, 20-iv, 48; viii, 3-ix, 6; xiii, 17-xiv, 17; xviii, 
11-xix, 1 ; XX, 6-xxii, 2; xxvi, ll-xx\'ii, 26, and a num- 
ber of smaller lacunae); Jonas (complete). Or. 7594; 
The Psalter (complete, including the uncanonical 
Ps. cli. Or. 5000, assigned to beginning of the seventh 
century). (2) New Testament. — The Acts of the 
Apostles (excepting xxiv, 16-xxvi, 31), and a number 
of verses lacunous or entirely missing [Or. 7594]; 
The Apocalypse of St. John (excepting i, 1-8; xxii, 
15-21), Or. 6803, paper, eleventh or twelfth century. 

Liturgy. — Lections and antiphons for the feasts of 
St. Miciiael [Or. 6781], St. Mercurius [6801], and St. 
Aaron, cenobite [7029]. 

Synaxary. — (I) Our Lord: discourse of Demetrius, 
Archbishop of Antioch, on the Nativity of Our Lord 
[Or. 7027], an account of the Descent of Our Lord to 
Hell, by the Apostle Bartholomew [*Or. 6804], dis- 
course of St. Cyril of Jerusalem on the Cross [Or. 
6799]; (2) The Blessed Virgin Mary: discourse of 
Theophilus of Alexandria on the Blessed Virgin 
Mary [Or. 6780], discourse of St. Cyril of Alexandria 
on the same [Or. 6782), twenty-first exegesis of St. 
CjTil of Jerusalem on the same [Or. 6784]. (3) An-, 
gels: discourse of Theodosius, Archbishop of Alex- 
andria, on St. Michael [Or. 6781 and Or. 7021], an- 
other discourse on the same subject by Timothy of 
Alexandria [Or. 7029], discourse of Celestine of Rome 
on St. Gabriel [Isegins Or. 7028, continues on a frag- 
ment in the collection of Mr. Freer of Detroit, ends 
on Or. 6780], discourse by St. John Chrysostom on 
St. Raphael [Or. 7023], the investiture of' Raph.ael, a 
discourse by Severus of Antioch [Or. 7028, two folios 
only), discourse by Timothy of Alexandria on Ab- 
baton, the angel of death (Or. 7025). (4) Apocalyptic: 
Apocalyi)se (? acephalous) "written by Timothy and 
Mark at the re(|urst of St. Paul" (Or. 7023). (5) 
Saints in Gospel and .\cts: discourse of St. John 
Chrv.sostom on St. John the Baptist [Or. 7024), 
death of St. John the Apostle [* Or. 6782], the 
Mysteries of John the Apostle learned by him in 
Heaven [Or. 7026). (6) MartjTs : yrdom of Eusta- 
thius and Placidus [* Or. 6783], martvrdom of Mer- 
curius (Or. 6801], fragments of the same [* Or. 6802], 
miracles by St. Mercurius (ibid.), eulogj' of the same 
by Acacius of Ca'.''area [ibid.], eulogy of Theodore, 
Archbishop of Antioch [Or. 7030]. (7) Anchorites 




and cenoliites: Life of Cyrus by Panibo of Scete 
[* Or. 6783], Life of John Calybites [ibid.], Life of 
Onuphrius [Or. 7027], eulogy of the same by Pisen- 
thio.s of Coptos [Or. 6800]. (8) Bishops: eulogy of 
Demetrius, Archbishop of Antioch, by Flavins of 
Ephesus [* Or. 6783]; Life of Pesynthius of Coptos 
[Or. 7026]. (9) Miscellaneous: "Asceticon" of St. 
Ephrem the SjTian [* Or. 6783], epistle of the same 
[ibid.]; three homilies of St. Athanasius — on mercy 
and judgment [* Or. 5001, 3], on the parable of the 
man who went out early on the morning to hire work- 
men for his vineyard [ibid., 5], and on the soul and 
the body [ibid., 9); discourse of St. John Chrysostom 
on repentance and temperance [ibid., 1], exegesis of 
the same on Susanna [iliid., 2]; homily of St. Basil 
on the dissolution of the world and the temple of 
Solomon and on death [ibid., 8]; discourse of Theo- 
philus of Alexandria on repentance and temperance, 
also that man must not put off repentance until sur- 
prised by death [ibid., 4]; homily pronounced by 
Proclus of Cyzicus in the great church of Constanti- 
nople, the Sunday before Lent, on the doctrine of 
Nestorius, who was present [ibid., 7|; homily of the 
same pronounced in the church of Anthemius, in 
Constantinople, on Easter Sunday, when he was in- 
stalled, while Nestorius was present [ibid., 6]; dis- 
course of Eusebius of Ca-sarea on the Chanaanite 
woman [ibid., 10]. See also: Versions of the Bi- 
ble, Coptic, in this volume, and Egypt, Coptic 
Literature, in Vol. V, 356-362. 

On Or. 5000 .ind Or. 5001 cf. Crum, Catalogue of the Coptic Mss. 
of the Brit. Museum (London, 1905), Nos. 940. 171; Walli3 
Budge. The earliest known Coptic Psalter in the Dialect of Upper 
Egypt from the unique Papyrus oriental 5000 in the Brit. Museum 
(London, 1908); Idem, Coptic Homilies in the dialect of Upper 
Egypt (from Or. 5001 test and English tr., London, 1910). On Or. 
7594 and Or. 6S03 cf. Walus Bcdge. Coptic Biblical Texts of 
Upper Egypt, with ten plates (London, 1912), with contributions 
by Kenyon and Bell. On the St. Mercurius (Edftt) collec- 
tion, cf. RusTAFJAELL, Light of Egypt, in which several of the 
MSS. are described and illustrated. The above account, however, 
is based on the writer's personal, though cursory inspection of 
most of the manuscripts. For those marked with an asterisk (•) 
he had to depend on the list kept in the Oriental Room of the 
British Museum. 

H. Htvernat 

Crawford, Francis Marion, novelist, b. of Ameri- 
can parents at Bagni di Lucca, Italy, 2 .4ug., 1854; d. 
at his home near Sorrento, Italy, 9 April, 1909. In 
early manhood he 
became a convert 
to the Cathohc 
Faith. His father, 
Thomas Craw- 
ford, was a dis- 
t inguished sculp- 
tor; his mother, 
Louisa Ward, was 
a sister of Mrs. 
Julia Ward Howe. 
The greater part 
of his j'outh was 
passed at Rome, 
and, after having 
studied in various 
colleges in Ameri- 
ca, England, and 
( iermany, he ter- 
minated his stud- 
ies in the Roman 
University, where 
he attended the 
lectures in San- 
skrit and comparative philology given by the learned 
Professor Lignana. At the same time he was already 
occupied with English literature. He afterwards 
passed four vears and a half in the East Indies and 
the United States as journalist, critic, and finally 
novelist, up to the time of his marriage in 1884, when 
he took up his residence at the villa he had bought 

and remodelled for himself near Sorrento on the Bay 
of Naples. 

With the pubUcation in 1882 of "Mr. Isaacs", his 
first and in some respects most characteristic novel, 
he suddenly leaped into fame. While it was running 
tlirough the press Crawford began a more carefully 
composed novel, "Dr. Claudius" (1883), which 
more than repeated the success of "Mr. Lsaacs". His 
tliird novel, "A Roman Singer", ran serially through 
the pages of the "Atlantic Monthly" and was published 
in 1884. It was this third novel which opened out 
to Mr. Crawford his true field, the description of 
Italian life and character with its many cosmopolitan, 
and especially its American and English, affiliations. 
He was the author of some forty novels and one 
play, "Francesca da Rimini", and his publications 
commanded a larger sale than those of any con- 
temporary writer of fiction in England or in the 
United States. Besides those mentioned his princi- 
pal works of fiction are the following: "Zoroaster" 
(1885); "A Tale of a Lonely Parish" (18.S6); "Sar- 
acinesca" (1887); "Marzio's Crucifix" (1887); "Paul 
Patoff" (1887); "Greifenstein" (1889); "Sant' 
Ilario" (1889); "A Cigarette Maker's Romance" 
(1890); "The Witch of Prague" (1891); "Don 
Orsino" (1892); "Pietro Ghisleri" (1893); "The 
Ralstons" (1895); "Corleone" (1897); "Via Crucis" 
(1899); "In the Palace of the King" (1900); "Mari- 
etta, A Maid of Venice" (1901); "The Heart of 
Rome" (1903); "Whosoever Shall Offend" (1904); 
"Soprano, A Portrait" (1905); "Fair Margaret" 
(1905); "The Primadonna" (1907); and "The Diva's 
Ruby" (1908). Crawford did not confine his attention 
to fiction. History, biography, and description are 
represented in his: "Constantinople" (1895); "Ave, 
Roma Immortalis" (1898); "The Rulers of the South" 
(1900) — renamed "Sicily, Calabria and Malta" 
(1904); "The Life of Pope Leo XIII" (1904); and 
"Gleanings from Venetian Historj'" (1905). In 
1904 he published an essay entitled "The Novel: 
What it is", in which he gives his views upon the art 
of which he was a master. 

While Marion Crawford in his public life always 
professed himself a Catholic, he can scarcely be called 
a Catholic novelist, and his treatment of Cathohc 
subjects in several of his works does not recommend 
itself to his coreligionists. In his Philip II, for ex- 
ample, he follows the traditional Protestant view and 
unjustly represents that monarch as a brutal bully, 
cruel, sensual, and base. During his last illness, 
Marion Crawford received all the comforts of religion. 
He chose the neighbouring chapel of the Franciscans 
for the ceremonies of his requiem. 

Fraser, a Diplomatist's Wife in Many Lands, I (New York, 
1910), ix.: Career of Crawford \ii Outlook (17 .\pril, 1909) ; CAron- 
ological list of Crawford's Works in Nation (15 •■ipril, 1909); 
Crawford's Influence on Literature in Forum (Mav. 1909);Egan, 
Francis Marion Crawford in The Ave Maria (29 Sept., 1900). 

E. P. Spillane. 

Cross, Daughters of the, a Belgian religious 
congregation founded in 1833 at Liege, by Jean- 
Guillaume Habets, cure of the Holy Cross, and Mile. 
Jeanne Haze (later Mere Marie-Th6rese). The 
institute is under the protection of the Blessed Virgin 
and St. Teresa, and its rules are based on those of 
St. Ignatius. "The nuns, who received papal recogni- 
tion on 1 Oct., 1845, and had their statutes approved 
by the Holy See on 9 May, 1851, recite the Office of 
the Blessed Virgin daily. They make perpetual 
vows, which are renewed annually on 8 Sept. The 
chief end of the institute is to honour Christ in His 
weak and suffering members and to cultivate devo- 
tion fo Our Lady of Sorrows. The main work of 
the Sisters is the education of poor girls, but. they 
have established orphanages, and homes for the 
poor; they nurse the sick, and have shown their devo- 
tion on the battlefield in the German wars of 1866 




and 1870. At present- they have 40 cstabhshment8 
in Belgium, IS in the German Kinpirc, 12 in India, 
and 16 in England, wliii her they first went in 1SG3. 
In April, 1S99, they opened a new lOnglish novitiate at 
Carlshalton, Surrey. Mere iMarie-Thereso was born at 
Liege on 27 February, 1782 and died there on 8 Feb., 
1876, having passed forty-three years in religion. 
The process of her beatification has been commenced 
and the decree for the " Commissio Introductionis 
Causs" was signed by Pius X on 13 Dee., 1911. 

Steele. Convents of Great Britain (London. 1902), 232-5; 
Heimbccher, Die Orden und Kongregationen. Ill, 387, 

A. A, MacErlean. 
Cross, Daughters of the, a French institute. 
The first steps towards the foundation of this society 
were taken in 162.5 at Roy, Picardy, by Pere Pierre 
Gu^rin, Frangoise Unalet, and Marie Fannier to pro- 
vide for the Christian education of girls. The 
members were not bound by vows. After a happy 
beginning the organization was almost wrecked by 
a series of civil misfortunes. A few years later, 
however, some of its adherents came in contact 
with Mme. Marie I'Huillier de Villeneuve, who be- 
came interested in their work and was encouraged 
to assist in it by St. Vincent de Paul. She established 
a house near Paris, in 1651, and with the approval 
of Archbishop Jean-Fran(,ois de Gondi of Paris, 
introduced the obligation of making vows. This 
innovation was opposed by the older houses, and 
led to the formation of two branches of the society, 
one secular, and the other rehgious; papal approba- 
tion was obtained for the latter in 1668. Both 
institutes spread rapidly throughout France, under 
diocesan control, and noteworthy constitutions were 
drawn up by Mgr. de Rochebonne, Bishop of Noyon, 
in 1728. During the French Revolution the sisters 
were utterly dispersed. A community was estab- 
lished again at St. Quentin on 23 March, 1828; it 
continued, however, to languish, till Mgr. Simony, 
Bishop of Soissons, reorganized the institute in 1837, 
basing his rules partly on those of St. Ignatius, and 

Eartly on the old regulations. These were approved 
y the Holy See on 15 April, 1847. Thereafter the 
organization spread widely and branches were 
established eventually at La Louviere, Belgium, and 
in England at Boscombe, Southsea, and Ryde, 

Bahezre, Filles de la Croix de Paris pendant la Revolution 
(Paris. 1908): Heimbccher, Die Orden und Kongregationen, 

III (Paderborn, 1908), 542; H^lyot, Diet, des ordres religieux, 

IV (Paris, 1859), 335-42; Strebeb in Kirchenleiikon. VII. 

A. A. MacErlean. 

Cross, Daughters of the Holt, also called the 
Sisters of St. Andrew. — -The aim of this congrega- 
tion is to instruct poor country girls, to provide 
refuges for the young exposed to temptation, to 
prepare the sick for death, and to care for churches. 
The sisters make yearly vows for five years, after 
which the vows are perpetual. The congregation, 
which is subject to diocesan control, was established 
at Guinnetiere, near Bi5thines, in the Diocese of Vienne, 
France, in ISOfi, In Dec, 1811, the mother-house 
was erecte<l at Maill6, and six years later the constitu- 
tions were ap[)rov('d by Mgr. de Beauregard, Bishop 
of Montauban, (Jovernment recognil ion was granted 
in 1819 and renewed in 1S26. In 1820 the foundress 
purchased the ancient abbey at La Puye, which then 
became the headquarters of the in.stitute. In 1839 
Pius VIII granted many indulgences and spiritual 
favours to the members. The establishment of a 
branch at Issy, near Paris, in 1817 under the protec- 
tion of the royal family, helped to develop the 
congregation, which spread rapidly, and foundat ions 
were made at Parma in 1851 under ducal patronage, 
and at Rome in 18.56. At the time of the dispersion 
of the French orflers in 1905, the Sisters of St. Andrew 
had 4(X) houses in P>ance, 9 in Italy, and 9 in Spain, 
with a membership of over 3(XK) nuna. The two 

founders of the congregation were: Andr(>-Hubert 
Fournet, Vicar-General of Poitiers, b. ,it Maille on 
6 Dec, 17.52: edui-.itcd .■tt ( 'hatdliTaud and Poitiers; 
ordained 177S; wlio died at La Puyc^ on 13 May, 
1834; and JeaiiiKvMariivKlizabeth-Lueie Bi(^hier des 
Ages, born near Le Blanc, Indre, on 3 July, 1772; 
she had been a prisoner for the Faith during the 
Revolution, and died at La Puye on 26 Aug., 1838. 

Heimbucher, Die Orden und Kongregationen. Ill (Paderborn, 
1908), 380; H^LYOT, Diet, des ordres religieux, IV (Paris, 1859), 

A. A. MacErlean. 

Cuyo, Virgin of, at Mendoza, Argentine Republic. 
Historians tell us that the statue of the Virgin of Cuyo, 
styled Nuestra Senora de Cuyo or Nuestra Seiiora del 
Carmen de Mendoza, was venerated from the times 
of the earUest Spanish settlers. Though its origin 
is uncertain, its antiquity admits of no doubt. Ac- 
cording to V. Gamb6n this statue is probably the one 
which, together with the church in which it stood, was 
given to the Franciscans when the Jesuits were ex- 
pelled (1767) from the country by Charles III. In 
18G4 the church was ruined by an earthquake, and in 
its place the Franciscans erected the new church 
where the statue is now venerated. 

The celebrity of the shrine has resulted more from 
national gratitude for one great favour than for the 
countless miracles connected with it. Jos6 de San 
Martin (1778-18.50), to whom more than to any 
other single person the South American republics 
owe their independence, had great devotion to Our 
Lady of Cuyo. After confronting Napoleon in Spain, 
San Martin returned to his native country at the out- 
break of the War of Independence to organize the 
forces of his country. Well fitted to command, and 
possessing the full confidence of his countrymen, he 
soon gathered about him a little army, which he led 
to invariable success in battle, until his good fortune 
was checked by the Viceroy of Peru. Withdrawing 
to the Province of Cuyo (the territory which now in- 
cludes the three Provinces of San Luis, San Juan, 
and Mendoza), San Martin soon strengthened his 
forces previous to his invasion of Chile. Before cross- 
ing the Andes he ordered the statue of Our Lady of 
Cuyo to be brought from the church and placed in a 
conspicuous position. As his troops passed in review 
before the statue, every man jubilantly proclaiming 
Our Lady as his especial patron in the campaign, San 
Martin, confident of victory, led his army across the 
Andes; the Spaniards gave way before him. The in- 
habitants of Chile flocked to his standard, and with 
colors flying followed their liberator into the capital, 
Santiago. The famous victories of Chaeafjuco, 
12 Feb., 1817, and of, 5 Apr., 1818, followed. 
From the scene of his victories, San Martin sent his 
commander's .staff, the insignia of his position, as a 
votive offering of thanksgiving to Our Lady; and to 
the superior of the Franciscans there he addressed 
the following letter under date of 12 Aug., 1812: 
"The remarkable protection granted to the Army of 
the Andes by its Patron and General, Our Lady of 
Cuyo, cannot fail to be observed. I am obliged as a 
Christian to acknowledge the favour and to present 
to Our Lady, who is venerated in your Reverence's 
church, my .staff of command which I hereby send: 
for it belongs to her and may it be a testimony of her 
protection to our Army." 

Three years later San Martin, accompanied by 
Bernardo O'lliggins, marched into Peru, entered 
Lima, drove the resisting Spaniards into the interior, 
and declared Peru independent. San Martin diea 
in France, but his body was brought back to the Ar- 
gentine Republic and placed in a mausoleum in the 
cathedral at Buenos Aires. His love for Our Lady 
of Cuyo has made the statue famous throughout the 
coimtrv. \i the suggestion of Leonardo M. Maldo- 
nado, O.S.F., the Argenlinos asked the pope's permis- 




aion to crown the statue. Pius X readily gave his 
consent, and, in accordance with the pontifical decree ^j^^^' 
of 21 Dec, 1910, the solemn coronation took place 
8 Sept., 1911. The ceremony was attended by the 
most eminent men of the country. The crown of gold 
is said to be worth more than $75,000. 

Mitre, Hisloria de San Martin y de la emancipacidn sud- 

(Buenoa Aire.-!. 1890), abbr. tr. by Pilhinq (London, 
Estrada. Lecn6ne!i /ie historia argentirux, II (Buenos 
S). 183; EsPEjo. Vi,in de San Martin: El paso de los 
Andes (Bueno.s Airps, 1S82) ; (iTERO, Maria y la Republica Argen- 
lina: Acndemia dr In Plata (Buenoa Aires. 1904); Cath. Reading 
Circ. Rev. (June. 1.S93); Yani. Otero, andGAMBON in La Semana 
(Buenoa Airea, Sept. 1911): Cdrbiek, Lands of the Southern 
Cross (Washington, 1912), 141-2. 

William Furlong. 


Dabrowski, Joseph, founder of the Sts. Cyril and 
Methodius Seminary, Detroit, Michigan, b. at Zol- 
tance, Ilussian Poland; d. at Detroit, 15 Feb., 1903. 
He studied at the Gymnasium of Lublin and at the 
University of Warsaw. During the PoUsh RebeUion 
of 1863 he participated in many engagements, and in 
1864 fled to Dresden; thence to Lucerne and Berne 
where he continued his studies in mathematics. 
Going to Rome, he came under the direction of the 
famous Resurrectionist, Father Semenenko, and was 
ordained priest, 1 August, 1869. In 1870 he went to 
America, and in a letter dated 22 Jan., from St. 
Francis Seminary, Milwaukee, to Father Semenenko 
he betrays a remarkable grasp of the demoralized con- 
ditions among the Poles in the United States, of 
whom he had actually seen so httle. He urged the 
Resurrectionists to come to Chicago or Milwaukee 
and there establish schools of higher education 
whence they might send out missionaries to the scat- 
tered Poles. In 1870 he was appointed pastor of 
Polonia, Wisconsin, where for five years he fought 
against the unfortunate conditions existing in one of 
the oldest Polish communities in the United States. 
LTnable to close the demoralizing inns about the 
church he obtained by gift from an Irishman twenty 
acres of land for the erection of new parish buildings 
and abandoned the old site. In 1879 the rectory was 
destroyed by fire and in 1880 fire totally destroyed 
the church and the new rectory. Undismayed, Father 
Dabrowski rebuilt all. In 1882 failing health forced 
him to resign and leave for Detroit, Michigan. In 
1874 he introduced into the United States the Felician 
Sisters from Cracow, whose community multiplied its 
branches throughout the country, welcoming the im- 
migrants, teaching thousands of Polish children, and 
caring for a multitude of Polish orphans and working 

At the suggestion of Cardinal Ledochowski, who 
was unable to meet the constant appeals of American 
bishops for Pohsh priests and ecclesiastical students. 
Father Leopold Moczygemba, a P'ranciscan who had 
laboured in America and was then penitentiary of St. 
Peter's, Rome, went, with papal approval, to Amer- 
ica and collected funds ($8000) for a PoUsh seminary. 
Being advanced in years Father Moczygemba felt 
unable to prosecute the work with vigour, and en- 
trusted the task to Father Dqbrowski. The latter 
began the building of the seminary in 1884, and on 
24 July, 18S5, Bishop Ryan of Buffalo in the presence 
of Bishop Borgess of Detroit blessed the cornerstone. 
The seminary was opened in 1887, and for nineteen 
years Father Di^browski was its rector. In 1902 it 
was enlarged, and in 1909 was removed to Orchard 
Lake, Michigan. Always the champion of authority, 
his counsel was ever gentle and calm. He was simple, 
quiet, and retiring, and entirely devoted to the promo- 
tion of God's glory and the welfare of his fellowmen. 
A few days before his death Father Dabrowski 
was compelled to expel from the seminary twenty- 
nine students for open rebellion. On 9 Feb., 1903, 
he suffered a paralytic stroke and died, grieved by the 
ingratitude of those whom he had served so nobly 
and so long. 

li^Lix Thomas Seroczvnski. 

Dalby, Ancient See op. See Lund infra. 

Dax, Diocese op, an ancient French diocese which 
was suppressed by the Concordat of ISOl, its terri- 
tory now belonging to the Diocese of Aix and Bay- 
onne. It is not certain that the patron of the dio- 
cese, the martyr St. Vincent, was a bishop. His cult 
existed in the time of Charlemagne, as is proved by a 
note of the WoLfenbiittel manuscript of the "Hier- 
onymian Martyrology". The oldest account of his 
martyrdom is in a breviary of Dax, dating from the 
second half of the thirteenth century, but the author 
knows nothing of the martyr's period. Excavations 
near Dax proved the existence of a Merovingian sem- 
inary on the site of a church dedicated to St. Vincent 
by Bishop Gratianus. Gratianus, present at the 
Council of Agde (506), is the first historically known 
bishop. Among the other bishops of the see were 
St. Revellatus (early sixth century), St. Macarius 
(c. 1060), Cardinal' Pierre Itier (1361), Cardinal 
Pierre de FoLx (1455), founder of the University of 
Avignon and the CoUege de Foix at Toulouse. The, 
synodal constitutions of the ancient Diocese of Dax, 
pubhshed by the Abb(§ Degert, are of great historical 
interest for the study of the ancient constitutions 
and customs of the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- 
turies. M. Degert in the course of this publication 
has succeeded in rectifying certain errors in the epis- 
copal lists of the "GaUia Christiana". About 1588 
St. Vincent de Paul made his first studies with the 
Cordeliers of Dax, but good secondarj' education at 
Dax dates only from the estabhshment of the Bar- 
nabites in 1640. 

Gallia Christiana, nova, I (1715), 1035—62; instr,, 173-75; 
Duchesne, Fastes episcopaux, II. 97, 140-^2; Dufourcet, Les 
Mques de Dai in Bulletin de la sociiti de Borda, IV (1879), 
205-30; LAHABQOn, Le collige de Dax (Paris, 1909); Idem, Le 
grand seminaire de Dax (Paris, 1909); Degert, Constitutions 
synodales de Vancien dioclse de Dax (Dax, 1898) ; Idem, Uancien 
collige de Dax (Paris, 1909). 

Georges Gotau. 

De Andreis, Felix. See Andrbis, Felix de, Vol. I, 

Desclee, Henri (1830 — ) and Jules (182S- 
1911), natives of Belgium, founders of a monastery 
and a printing establishment. Among the religious 
orders, which at the close of the nineteenth century 
were driven out of Germany by the Kiillurk-ampf and 
sought refuge in Catholic Belgium, were the Bene- 
dictines of a congregation established by the Wolter 
brothers, two German monks of St. Paul's-witliout- 
the-Walls. With Dom Hildebrand de Hemptinne, a 
Belgian monk of that congregation (now Abbot Pri- 
mate of the Benedictine Order), Jules Descli^e had 
been a captain of the Pontifical Zouaves. Baron 
John B6thune, inspired by the same motive :»s the 
Desck'e brothers for the restoration of Christian art, 
had attached his school of St. Luke to the Institute of 
the Brothers of the Christian Schools: it was there- 
fore natural for the Desclde brothers to look to a re- 
Hgious order for the realization of their plan, and the 
traditions of the Benedictine Onh-r fitti'd in perfectly 
with their designs. Moreover, a Count de Hemp- 
tinne had been amongst the foumlers of the first school 
of St. Luke C1862). Accordingly the brothers chose a 




[lioluresque site on an estate of Henry Deaclee's in the 
Province of Nainur, for the erection of a monastery in 
which to establish the monies of Heuron. The mon- 
astery of Mareilsous, ronstriictrd in the purestr 
Gothic style of the thirteenth century after the plans 
of Baron Bethime, is one of the finest and most re- 
markable masterpieces produced in Belgium by the 
movement for the restoration of the architectural art 
of the Middle Ages. Its 120 monks devote their hves 
to the liturgy, study, and education. Maredsous has 
thus become an important centre of religious influence 
and the practice and teaching of Christian art. A 
college or abbey school and a technical school were 
added to the monastery in 1S82 and 1902. The 
monks have also taken an active part in the reform of 
the religious chant . 

In 1882 the Descl6e brothers also founded an im- 
portant printing estabUshment at Tournai, under the 
title of the Society of St. John the Evangelist, their 
object being to restore Christian art in liturgical pub- 
lications. The aesthetic principles by which their en- 
terprise was to be directed were those of the Middle 
Ages. Here also Baron John Bcthune assisted them. 
At first the society relied upon English workmen, com- 
positors, and printers, England being the country in 
which the old traditions had been best preserved. 
The first publications attracted the attention of con- 
noisseurs, and the technical perfection of the work 
soon earned for the house a world-wide reputation. 
The Society, following first the work of the Rev. Dom 
Pothier, and afterwards the studies of the Benedic- 
tines of Solesmes, issued the first publications for the 
re-establishment of the liturgical chant, commonly 
called "plain chant". These editions served as a 
basis for the edition brought out. by the Vatican print- 
ing press, and imposed by Pius X on the universal 
Church. About 1880 the Descl^e brothers resolved 
to apply to other branches of Catholic literature the 
same principles of artistic restoration which had met 
with such success in the liturgical domain. Under 
the title of the Society of St. Augustine they founded a 
separate business, devoted to the publication of all 
kinds of books relating to ecclesiastical studies, as- 
cetic theologj', religious history and literature, hagio- 
p-aphy, art, archaeology, education, etc. The produc- 
tion of religious images forms also an important part 
of the work of the society, which possesses two estab- 
lishments, one at Bruges in Belgium, and the other at 
Lille in France. 

A. Vermeersch. 

Devereux, John C, b. at his father's farm, 
The Leap, near Enniscorthy, Co. Wexford, Ire- 
land, 5 Aug., 1774; d. at Utica, New York, on 11 
Dec, 1848. He came from a patriotic and pious 
family, and was a son of Thomas Devereux and Cathe- 
rine Corish. His brother Walter was in several 
battles in the Rebellion of '98, and a price set on 
his head ; while his brother James was killed in the 
battle of Vinegar Hill. His sister Catherine became 
Superioress of the Presentation Convent, Ennis- 
corthy. John C. Devereux landed at New York 
about 1797, gave dancing lessons in Connecticut, 
and in 1802 opened a store in Utica, New York. He 
was successful and became wealthy; was public 
8pirit<'d and enterprising. He was elected the first 
mayor of Utica in 1840. He and his brother Nicholas 
founded the LHica Savings Bank. Dr. Bagg in "The 
Pioneers of Utica" says, "a settler of 1802 and a 
very prince among his fellows was John C. Devereux 
whose honourable career and many deeds of charity 
left behind him a memorj' as verdant as that of 
the green isle whence he came". He loved his Church 
and its institutions, and in 1813 was a trustee of 
St. Mary's, Albany. Visiting mi.ssionary priests 
always stayed at Devercux's home, where local 
Catholics heard Mass on Sundays. He and his 
XVI— 3. 

brother Nicholas brought the Sisters of Charity to 
Utica to open an orphanage and each gave $5,000 
towards the object. He was twice married but had 
no children; he was buried in the grounds of the 
Sisters of Charity. 

Thomas P. Ivernan. 

Devereux, Nicholas, b. near Enniscorthy, Ire- 
land, 7 June, 1791; d. at Utica, New York, 29 Dec, 
185.5, was the youngest brother of John C. Devereux. 
Nicholas reached New York in 1806; on the first Sun- 
day following his arrival he attendedMass in St. Peter's, 
Barclay Street, and put on the plate one of his last 
three gold coins. God blessed his generosity; when 
he died fifty years later he had amassed as a 
merchant half a million dollars. He purchased from the 
Holland Land Company four hundred thousand acres 
of land in Allegany and Cattaraugus counties, New 
York, and started there an Irish settlement. He 
gave largely towards the foundation of churches, 
colleges, and charitable institutions. He visited 
Rome in 1854 accompanied by his wife, his daughter 
Mary, and Rev. Michael Clarke. He brought to 
America six Franciscan Fathers and gave them 
$10,000 towards building a monastery at Allegany, 
N. Y., which has now become the Franciscan college 
and seminary of St. Bonaventure. On his return 
from Italy he wrote a letter to the New York "Free- 
man's Journal" offering to be one of one hundred 
persons who would each give $1,000 towards found- 
ing a seminary at Rome, for the education of 
American priests. He had, moreover, several con- 
versations with Cardinal Wiseman who promised 
to use his influence with Pius IX to carry out the 
project. After his death his widow carried out his 
wishes and thus was begun the foundation of the 
American CoUege, Rome. 

Nicholas Devereux was a lover of the Holy 
Scriptures and read the entire Bible through seven- 
teen times. To circulate the New Testament he 
had an edition of it printed at Utica at his own 
expense. The plates of this edition were afterwards 
purchased by Messrs. Sadlier, of New York, and 
about 40,000 copies printed. He taught Sunday- 
school in St. John's Church, Utica, and gave a copy 
of the New Testament to any boy or girl who 
memorized the Gospel of St. John. In 1817 he 
married Mary D. Butler. His daughter Hannah 
married United States Senator Francis Kernan; his 
daughter Mary became a Sister of Mercy and 
laboured for thirty years in the convents in Houston 
and 81st streets, New York. Nicholas Devereux 
was very charitable and hospitable — a cultured, 
pious, progressive Irish-.\merican. He was proud 
of his nationality and of his faith, and this pride 
was expressed in action whenever and wherever the 
opportunity arose. He was always glad to help 
the Church, deeming it a privilege to give and thus 
to be the instrument used by Providence in establish- 
ing and building up our Catholic institutions. A 
noted instance of his spontaneous generosity refers 
back to the early days of the (Church in Connecticut. 
Happening to be at Hartford one Sunday he learned 
that owing to the bigotry and Knownothing .sentiment 
in the town, it was impossible for the parishion{^rs 
to obtain a certain piece of property for their church, 
as they were too few and too poor to provide the 
ready cjish demanded. Devenmx, thovigh a stranger, 
did not need to be appealed to, he immediately 
advanced the required sum of $10,000, without 
asking or receiving any assurance that the money 
would ever be returned to him, though the grateful 
pioneer Catholics did in fact repay him later. 

Thomas P. Kernan. 

Deza, DiEOo, theologian, archbishop, patron of 
Christopher Columbus, b. at Toro, 1444; d. 1523. 




Entering the Order of St. Dominic in his youth, he be- 
came successively: professor of theology at St. 
Stephen's, Salamanca; (iitor to Prince John, son of 
Ferdinand and Isabella; Bishop of Zamora, of Sala- 
manca, of Jaen, of Palcncia; Archbishop of Seville 
(1505). In 1523 he was apjjointed Archbishop of 
Toledo and Primate of Spain, but died before he had 
taken possession of that see. He left several the- 
ological works, the principal one being a "Defensor- 
ium Doctoris Angelici, S. Th. Aquinatis" (Seville, 
1491) . Historians generally have not emphasized the 
importance of Deza's friendship for Columbus and 
the bearing of this friendship and patronage on the 
discovery of America. In a letter dated 21 Dec, 
1504, Columbus wrote to his son Diego: "The Lord 
Bishop of Palencia (Diego Deza) has always favoured 
me and has desired my glory ever since I came into 
Castile." Then he added this significant dec- 
laration: "He is the cause of their Highnesses' pos- 
sessing the Indies and of my remaining in Castile, 
when I was already on the road with the intention 
of leaving it." 

Mandonnet, Les Dominicains et la decouverte de VAmerique 
(Paris, 1893); O'Neil, The Columbian Celebration (Louisville, 
1892); Irving, Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (New 
York, 1868); T.^rducci, The Life of Christopher Columbus, tr. 
Brownson (Detroit, 1890); Thatcher, Christopher Columbus 
(New York, 1903); TotjRON, Hist, des hommes illust. de Vordre 
deS.Dom.. Ill (Paris, 1746), 722: Qu^TlF and EcHARD, Smptores 
Ord. Prad., I (Paris, 1721), 51. 

D. J. Kennedy. 

Diocese. — Pope Pius X recognizing how necessary 
it is for the Church to develop in proportion to the 
opening up of new regions through greater facilities 
for communication, and the consequent wave of 
emigration, has continued the policy of Leo XIII, 
and erected each year a number of new sees or vicari- 
ates. As a result many dioceses have come into being 
since this encyclopedia was begun. The following 
Ust gives a brief account of the dioceses not de- 
scribed above, and in a few instances notes changes of 
boundaries of sees already described (see Prefecture 
Apostolic and Vicariate Ai'ostolic, infra). 

Ai.MER, Diocese of (Aimerensis). — On 22 May, 
1913, the Prefecture Apostolic of Rajpootana (q. v.) 
was erected into a diocese, suffragan to Agra. The 
see was fixed at the town of Aimer, which gives its 
name to the new diocese; the ecclesiastical bound- 
aries are unchanged. Mgr. Henri Caumont, Capuch- 
in, in religion R. P. Fortunatus a Turone was ap- 
pointed first bishop, 22 May, 1913. 

Akera, Diocese op (Akerensis), in Kurdistan, a 
Chaldean see united to that of Amadia on 23 April, 
1895, from which it was separated on 24 Feb., 1910. 
It has been entrusted temporarily to the government 
of Mgr. Joseph Emmanuel Thomas, Patriarch of 
Babylon, who is empowered to appoint a vicar re- 
movable ad nulum to rule the diocese, which has 8 
priests, 7 stations, 2 schools, and a cathoUc popula- 
tion of 1500. 

Alexandria, Diocese of (Alexandrinensis), in 
U. S. A., see Natchitoches, Diocese of. 

Alexandria, Diocese of (Alexandrinensis in 
America), Canada. — To prevent ambiguity owing to 
the existence of the Diocese of Alexandria in the 
U. S. A., the official name of the Canadian see was 
changed on 15 Nov., 1910, to Alexandria in Ontario. 

Andros, Diocese of (Andrbn.sis), is administered 
by tlie Bishop of Tinos and Mykonos (q. v.). 

Aracayu, Diocese op (Aracayuensis), in Brazil, 
suffragan of Sao Salvador de Bahia, erected on 15 Dec, 
1909. It comprises the State of Sergipe (area 15,00() 
sq. miles), with 550,000 inhabitants in 28 parishes. 
It was previously part of the Archdiocese of Sao 
Salvador de Bahia. Mgr. Jos6 Thomi"- Gomes da 
Silva, b. at Martino, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, 
4 .Aug., 1S73, ordained, 15 Nov., 1S9(), appointed to 
the see, 12 May, 1911, ia the first bishop. 

Barqui.simeto, Diocese of, also called Carabobo 
(q. V. infra). 

Bismarck, Diocese of (Bismarkiensis), see this 
volume supra, s. v. 

Botucato, Diocese of (Botucatuensis), in Brazil, 
suffragan of Sao Paolo, erected 7 June, 1908; it 
comprises 52 parishes in the southwestern part of the 
State of Sao Paolo, previously part of the Archdio- 
cese of Sao Paolo. Its cathedral is dedicated to Our 
Lady of Sorrows. Mgr. Lucio Antunes da Souza, b. 
at Sao Sebastiao de Rio Verde, Minas Geraes, 13 
April, 1863; ordained, 21 Dec, 1891; appointed to 
the see, 17 Oct., 1908, and consecrated at Rome, 15 
Nov., 1908, is the first bishop. 

Cajamarca, Diocese of (Cajamarcensis), in Peru, 
suffragan of Lima, erected in 1909 ; it comprises the De- 
partment of Cajamarca (area 12,400 sq. miles), with a 
population of 442,000, which was previously part of 
the Dioceses of Chachapoyas and Trujillo. The town 
of Cajamarca (population 12,000) is situated in the 
Andes, 8700 feet high. It was there Atahualpa was 
captured by Pizarro. The town contains 6 churches, 
that of Santa Catalina being the cathedral, and has 
6 primary schools for boys with 900 pupils, and 4 for 
girls with 300 pupils; there are 150 students in the 
secondary school of San Ram6n, an old Bethlehemite 
convent. Mgr. Francisco de Paula Grosso, b. at 
Cajamarca, 8 March, 1852; ordained in 1875; nomi- 
nated to the see, 21 March, 1910; consecrated at 
Lima, 10 July, 1910, is the first bishop. 

Calbayog, Diocese of (Calbay'ogaNje), in the 
Philippine Islands, suffragan of Manila, erected on 
10 April, 1910; it comprises Capul, Leyte, Samar, 
Biliran, and some smaller islands, and was previously 
part of the Diocese of Cebu. It contains 49 secular 
priests, 35 religious (chiefly Franciscans in Samar), 
75 parishes, 195 missions, and 812, 148 Catholics. The 
diocesan seminary is under the care of the Lazarists; 
the Sisters of Charity have the College of the Mirac- 
ulous Medal for girls; both these institutes are at 
Calbayog. Mgr. Pablo Singzon de la Anunciaci6n, b. 
in the Philippine Islands; appointed to the see on 12 
April, 1910; consecrated on 12 June following in the 
Church of San Francisco, Manila, is the first bishop. 
He resides at Calbayog in Samar. 

Cali, Diocese of (Caliensis), in Colombia, see 
this volume supra, s. v. 

Calgary, Diocese op (Calgariensis), in Canada, 
suffragan of Edmonton, erected on 30 Nov., 1912; it 
was previously the southern portion of the Diocese of 
St. Albert. Its boundaries are: east, the Provinces 
of Alberta and Saskatchewan; south, the Canadian 
and United States frontier; west, British Columbia; 
north, the line separating the series of townships 
XXX and XXXI. On 1 June, 1913, Right Rev. 
John Thomas MacNally, D.D., ordained on 4 April, 
1896, parish priest of Almonte, Lanark, Ontario, in 
the Diocese of Ottawa, was consecrated at Rome, 
first Bishop of Calgary. 

CAMAGtJEY, Diocese of (CamagiJeyensis), in 
Cuba, suffragan of Santiago de Cuba, erected on 10 
Dec, 1912. It comprises the Province of Camagiiey 
(.area 10,400 sq. miles), with a population of 121,000, 
which was previously part of the Diocese of Santiago 
de Cuba. The town of Camaguey contains 35,000 
inhabitants, a Piarist coUege, several convents, and 
an ancient Catholic hospital, San Lazaro. 

Campanha, Diocese op (Campanhensis), in Bra- 
zil, suffragan of Marianna, erected in 1907; it lies in 
the State of Minas Geraes, and is bounded on the 
north and east by the Rio Grande, on the west by the 
Rio Furvo and Rio Sapucalvy, and on the south by 
the former limits of the Dioceses of Sao Paolo and 
Pouso Alegre. It contains 30 parishes and was pre- 
viously part of the Diocese of Pouso -Vlegre. Mgr. 
Joao d'.Uiiieichi Fcrrao, born at Campanha, 14 Aug., 
1853; ordained, 25 June, 1870; appointed to the see. 




29 April, 1909; and consecrated on 12 Sept.. following 
19 the first bishop. 

C-4JVIPINAS, Diocese op (Campinensis), in Brazil, 
suffragan of Sao Paolo, erected on 7 June, 1908. It 
has 35 parishes formerly part of the Archdiocese of 
Sao Paolo. The town of Campinas contains 16,000 
inhabitants. Mgr. Joao Baptista Correa Nery is the 
first bishop. He was born at Campinas, 6 Oct., 1863; 
ordained, 11 April, 1886; appointed to the See of 
Spirito Santo, 22 Aug., 1896; consecrated on 1 Nov. 
following; transferred, 18 May, 1901, to the See of 
Pouso Alegre, and to Campinas on 9 Aug., 1908. 

Carabobo, Diocese of (de Carabobo), in Ven- 
ezuela, suffragan of Caracas, erected on 4 May, 1847. 
It was formerly called the Diocese of Barquisimeto 
(q. v.), but by a Decree of 12 Feb., 1907, the epis- 
copal residence wa.'^ changed to Valencia, the capital 
(if the State of Carabobo, and the name of the see 
was changed to Carabobo. The present bishop is Mgr. 
Aguedo Felipe Alvarado, b. at Bobara, 5 Feb., 1845; 
appointed 16 Aug., 1910. (See XV, 333.) 

Cat.wiarca, Diocese of (Catamarcensis), in the 
Argentine Republic, erected on 21 Jan., 1910; it com- 
prises the Province of Catamarca (area, 47,530 sq. 
miles), with 107,000 inhabitants, and the Territory 
of the Andes (area, 35,100 sq. miles), with 2500 
inhabitants (mostly Indians). See TucumXn, XV, 85. 

CoRPDS Chhisti, Diocese of (Corporis Christi), 
in Texas, U. S. A., suffragan of New Orleans, erected 
on 23 March, 1912, before which it had formed the 
Vicariate Apo.stolic of Brownsville (q. v.). At the 
beginning of the year 1913 there were in the diocese 
73 churches and chapels, 35 priests, 19 of whom are 
Oblates of Mary Immaculate, 9 parochial schools and 
5 academies with 1150 pupils, and a Catholic popu- 
lation of 82,400 out of 116,850 inhabitants. Rt. Rev. 
Paul J. Nussbaum C. P. (b. Philadelphia, 1870) was 
consecrated first bishop on 20 May, 1913. 

Corrientes, Diocese of (Corrientensis), in the 
Argentine Republic, suffragan of Buenos Aires, 
(reeled on 21 Jan., 1910; it comprises the Provinces 
(if Corrientes (area, 31,800 sq. miles), with 322,000 
inhabitants, and Misiones (area, 8500 sq. miles), 
with 44,000 inhabitants, which were formerly part of 
the Diocese of Parand. (q. v.). At the time of the 
■■reparation Corrientes was a vicariate forane, with 20 
Iiarishes, while Misiones had 1 parish and 3 chaplain- 
cies. Mgr. Luiz A. Niella, b. at Corrientes, 24 April, 
1^.54; ordained, 2 Feb., 1879; appointed, 3 Feb., 1911; 
consecrated, 4 June, 1911, is the first bishop. 

CoRUMBA, Diocese of (Corumbensis), in Brazil, 
suffragan of Cuyabd, erected on 10 March, 1910. It 
was formerly part of tlie Diocese of Cuyabd. The 
town of Corumbd, situated on the Rio Paraguay, in 
the southwest of the State of Matto Grosso, is 
strongly fortified and contains about 15,000 inhabi- 
tants. The principal churches are those of Nossa 
.Senhora de la Candelaria and Nossa Senhora de los 
Remedios. The first bishop is Mgr. Cirillo de Paula 
Kreitas, who was born at Capellinha, Matto Grosso, 
15 March, 1860; ordained, 30 May, 1885; appointed 
coadjutor Bishop of Cuyabd and titular Bishop of 
Eucarpia, 27 March, 1905; he was consecrated on 7 
Jan., 1906, and transferred to Corumbd on 13 March, 

Crookston, Diocese of (Crookstonensis), in 
Minnesota, U. S. A., suffragan of St. Paul, erected on 
31 Dec, 1909. It was formerly part of the Archdio- 
cese (if .St. Paul and comprises the following counties: 
I'.i I 1<. r, Beltrami, Clay, Clearwater, Hubbard, Kitt- 
sdii, .Marsliall, Mahnomen, Norman, Pennington, 
I'olk, Red Lake, and Rosseau, having an area of 
lt),.598 sq. miles. In the diocese there are 34 priests, 
(if whom 19 are secular; 21,147 Catholics; .52 churches, 
12 stations and 4 chapels; 7 parochial schools with 
995 pupils; 2 orjihan asylums; 2 Indian industrial 
schools with 260 pupils, and 2 hospitals. The Sisters 

of St. Benedict have charge of the industrial schools 
and the hospitals; the Sisters nf St. Joseph have 2 
academies for girls with oln |iu|iiN; flu- Benedictine 
f^ithershaveO mi.ssionsanidiif; lliel 'lii|i|i(\va Indians. 
Right Rev. Timothy Corbctl, b. at JMondotta, Min- 
nesota, in ISt'il ; ordained, 12 June, 1886; appointed 
to the see, 9 .\pril, I'.UO; and consecrated at St. Paul 
on 19 May following, is the first bishop. 

Cdyaba, Archdiocese of (Cuyabensis), in Matto 
Grosso, Brazil, was raised to the archiepiscopal rank, 
10 March, 1910, when the Diocese of Sao Luiz de 
Cdceres and Corumbd were separated from it. The 
present occupant of the see, Mgr. Carlos Luiz d' 
Amour, was born at Sao Luiz de Maranhao, 3 July, 
1836; consecrated, 28 April, 1878, and made arch- 
bishop on 5 April, 1910. 

Des Moines, Diocese op (Des Moinensis), suf- 
fragan of Dubuque, erected on 12 August, 1911. It 
comprises the 23 counties previously forming the 
western half of the Diocese of Davenport. The dio- 
cese contains 60 secular priests, 3 Benedictine Fa- 
thers, 4 communities of Sisters of St. Benedict, 3 of the 
Sisters of Charity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 9 of 
the Sisters of Mercy, who have an hospital at Des 
Moines, and two at Council Bluffs, 3 of the School 
Sisters of St. Francis, 2 of the Sisters of the Holy 
Humility of Mary, 1 of Franciscan Tertiary Sisters, 
and 1 of Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration. 
There are also 79 churches, 3 stations, 6 chapels, 17 
parish and mission schools with 2437 pupils, 2 girls' 
academies and about 25,000 Catholics. The first 
bishop is the Right Rev. Austin Dowling, ordained, 
24 June, 1891; appointed to the see, 31 Jan., 1912; 
and consecrated on 25 April, 1912. 

Edmonton, Archdiocese of (Edmontonen.sis), 
in Canada. — On 30 Nov., 1912, when the southern 
half of the Diocese of St. Albert was erected into a 
new diocese, Calgary, the remaining portion, was 
erected into an archdiocese and the episcopal resi- 
dence transferred from the towTi of St. Albert to 
Edmonton, which gives its name to the new metro- 
pohtan see. The suffragans of Edmonton are the 
Diocese of Calgary, and the Vicariates Apostolic 
of Athabaska and Mackenzie. Mgr. Emile Joseph 
Legal, O. M. I., born at St. Jean de Boiseau, France, 
on 9 Oct., 1849, is the first archbishop. 

Floresta, Diocese op (Florestensis), in Brazil, 
suffragan of Olinda, erected on 5 Dec, 1910, com- 
prises 18 parishes lying beyond the Rio Maxat6 and 
previously part of the Diocese of Olinda. Mgr. 
Augusto Alvaro Alvares da Silva, b. at Recife, 8 
April, 1876; ordained in 1900; and appointed to the 
see on 12 May, 1911, is the first bishop. 

Gibraltar, Diocese of (Gibraltariensis), in 
Spain, was raised from being a Vicariate Apostolic to 
the rank of a diocese on 19 Nov., 1910. It is immedi- 
ately subject to the Holy See, and has been entrusted 
to the care of the Benedictines of the Monte Ca.ssino 
Congregation. Right Rev. Henrv Gregorv Thomp- 
son, O. S. B., born at Mold, Wales, 27 March, 1871; 
professed, 15 Aug., 1896; appointed to the see, 10 
Nov., 1910, and consecrated at Ramsgate, England, 
on 21 Nov., 1910, is the bishop. Gibraltar con- 
tains about 1(),000 CaUKilics; 46 priests, of whom 19 
are .secular; and 7 churches and chapels. 

Hajdu-Dorogh, Diocese of (H.udu-Doroghen- 
sis), Greek Rite, erected on 8 June, 1912, for the Cath- 
olics of pure Greek Rite scattered through Hungary. 
The diocese has been endowed by the Hungarian 
Government, and is under the jurisdiction of the 
Propaganda. It comprises 8 parishes in Eperies, 70 
in Munkacs, 35 in Fogaras, 1 in Gran, 44 in Gross- 
wardein (Greek), and 4 in Szamos-Ujvdr. After 
three years the solc^ liturgical language is to be ancient 
Greek. Hajdu-Dorogh is suffragan to the Latin See 
of Gran. See "Acta Apost. Sedis", IV (1912), 




LiPA, Diocese of (Lipexsis), suffragan of Manila, 
erected on 10 April, 1910, comprises the Provinces of 
Batangas, Lagima, Mindoro, Tayabas, with the dis- 
tricts of Infanta and Principe having an area of 12,- 
208 sq. miles. Tayabas was formerly part of the 
Diocese of Nueva CAceres. The diocese contains 75 
priests, of whom several in Mindoro are Augustin- 
ians, and a few in Laguna, Minims; 72 churches and 
a number of mission chapels, and about 650,000 
Catholics. The first bishop is Mgr. Giuseppe 
Petrelli, born in the Diocese of Fermo, Italy, 1871; 
appointed 12 Apr., 1910 ; consecrated 12 June, 1910. 

Lourdes (Lapurdensis). — As the sanctuary of 
Our Lady of Lourdes is situated in the Diocese of 
Tarbes, the name of Lourdes, by a Decree of 29 
March, 1912, has been added, merely ad honorem, to 
that of Tarbes in the official title of the see. 

Matanzas, Diocese of (Matanzensis), in Cuba, 
suffragan of Santiago de Cuba; erected on 10 Dec, 
1912, comprises the Province of Matanzas formerly 
part of the Diocese of San Crist6bal de la Habana. 
The town of Matanzas lies 54 miles east of Havana 
and has a population of 36,000. The first bishop is 
the Right Rev. Charles Warren Currier, born in St. 
Thomas, West Indies, 22 March, 1857, ordained 24 
Nov., 1880, at Amsterdam, Holland, and consecrat- 
ed at the CoUegio Pio Latino Americano, Rome, on 
6 July, 1913. 


in Brazil, suffragan of Marianna, erected on 10 Dec, 
1910. It was separated from the Diocese of Diaman- 
tina, and comprises the northern portion of the old 
diocese, lying beyond the rivers Jacquetahy, Jequi- 
tinbonha, Machubas, Sao Francisco, and Urucuja. 
The first bishop is Mgr. Joao Antonio Pimenta, b. at 
CapeUinha, Minas Geraes, 12 Dec, 1859; ordained, 
10 June, 1883; consecrated, 20 May, 1906, as coad- 
jutor Bishop of Sao Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul and 
titular Bishop of Pentacomia. He was transferred to 
Montesclaros on 7 March, 1911. 

Mont Lattrier, Diocese of, Canada, erected 1 
Aug., 1913, comprises the former northern part of 
the Diocese of Ottawa, with 30,000 inhabitants, 50 
priests, and 36 churches. Mgr. F.-X. Brunet is the 
first bishop. 

Natal, Diocese op (Natalensis), in Brazil, suf- 
fragan of Olinda; erected on 11 Nov., 1909. It com- 
prises the State of Rio Grande do Norte, having an 
area of 22,196 sq. miles and a population of 407,000 
inhabitants. This territory was formerly part of the 
Diocese of Parahyba. The town of Natal is a sea- 
port, lying about 150 miles north of Pernambuco, and 
contains 13,700 inhabitants. The first bishop is Mgr. 
Joaquim Antonio de Almeida, b. at Goyaninha, Rio 
Grande do Norte, 17 Aug., 1868; ordained, 12 Dec, 
1894; consecrated Bishop of Piauhy, 4 Feb., 1906; 
and transferred to Natal on 23 Oct., 1910. 

Olinda, Archdiocese of (Olindensis), in Brazil. 
— On 5 Dec, 1910, the Diocese of Olinda (q. v.) was 
raised to the archiepiscopal rank. Its suffragan sees 
are Floresta, Fortaleza, Natal, and Parahyba. Mgr. 
Luiz Ramon da Silva Britto is the first archbishop. 

San Miguel, Diocese of (Sancti Michaelis), in 
Salvador, suffragan of San Salvador, erected on 11 
Feb., 1913. It is boimded on the north by Honduras, 
on the east by Honduras and the Bay of Fonseca, on 
the south by the Pacific Ocean, and on the west by 
the Rfo Lempa; thus it comprises the Provinces of 
San Miguel, La Uni6n, Morazan, and Usulut;ln, for- 
merly part of the Diorcsc of San Salvador. The town 
of San Miguel luis a jiopulation of 25,000. 

San Salvador, Archdiocese of (Santissimi Sal- 
VATORis). — By a Decree of 11 Feb., 1913, the Dio- 
cese of San Salvador (q. v.), was withdrawn from the 
metropolitan jurisdiction of Guatemala, and its 

territory divided into three parts; the western por- 
tion becoming the Diocese of Santa Ana, the eastern 
that of San Miguel, and the central retaining the 
name of San Salvador. Santa Ana and San Miguel 
were made suffragans to San Salvador. The arch- 
diocese now comprises the Provinces of Cabaiias, 
Chalatenanco, Cuscatldn, La Libertad, La Paz, San 
Salvador, and San Vicente. The first archbishop is 
Mgr. Antonio Adolfo P^rez, b. at San Salvador on 
20 March, 1839. 

Santa Ana, Diocese op (Sanct.e Aksje), in 
Salvador, suffragan of San Salvador, erected on 11 
Feb., 1913; it comprises the western portion of the 
old territory of the Diocese of San Salvador, thus in- 
cluding the Provinces of Ahuachapdn, Santa Ana, 
and Sonsonate. The town of Santa Ana has a popu- 
lation of 48,000, Sonsonate has 17,000. 

Santissima Concei(;ao do Araguaya, Abbey 7iul- 
lius of (Sanctissim.e Conceptionis de Araguay- 
ana), in Brazil, erected on 11 July, 1911. On 26 
Aug., 1912, Mgr. Raymond-Dominique Carrerot, 
O. P., prior of the Convent of Concei^ao from 1900, 
was appointed first prelate. He was born at Pamiers, 
France, on 1 Jan., 1863, studied at Salamanca, was 
ordained in 1885; in 1887 he went to Brazil to evan- 
gelize the Indians. He was consecrated at Toulouse 
on 10 Oct., 1912. The boundaries assigned to the 
new prelature are: on the S. the Rio Tapirap6, on the 
E. the Araguaya from the mouth of the Tapirap6 to 
the town of Sao Joao, where the Araguaya meets 
the Tocatins; on the N. the Tocatins as far as Jaraba 
thence a right line drawn to Alta M ira on the Xingu ; 
on the W. the Xingu as far as the mouth of the Fresco, 
thence to the source of the Fresco, and then a right 
line to the source of the Tapirap(5. This comprises 
the southeast corner of the State of Para and the 
northeast of the State of Matto Grosso, and roughly 
lies between 5° and 13. S. lat. and 49° and 53° W. long. 
The population consists mainly of Cayapos, Caraja, 
Taraja, and Chavante Indians. This mission was 
begun in 1896 and the town of Concei<^ao founded by 
the Dominicans. There is a convent of Dominican 
Sisters at Concei^ao. 

Simla, Archdiocese of (Simlensis), in India. — 
When this see was raised to the archiepiscopal rank 
in 1910, the Holy See postponed the designation of its 
suffragan sees. On 22 May, 1913, the new ecclesias- 
tical province was completed and the Diocese of 
Lahore, and Prefecture Apostolic of Kafiristan and 
Kashmir were made suffragans of Simla. 

A. A. MacErlean. 

Dupre, Giovanni, sculptor, b. of remote French 
ancestry at Siena, 1 Mar., 1817; d. at Florence, 
10 Jan., 1882. Duprfi was in youth a woodcarver, 
and taught himself the art of sculpture. In 1836 he 
married. In a contest opened by the Academy he 
won first prize with his "Judgment of Paris", took 
his rank as a sculptor with the life-size recumbent 
figure of the dead "Abel" in marble (c 1839), Pitti 
Palace, Florence, and followed this with the "Cain" 
(1840), also in the Pitti, the "Giotto", "Pius 11" for 
the Church of S. Domenico, Siena, and the "S. An- 
tonino ", Florence. A period of ill-health was followed 
by renewed vigour, which resulted in the brooding 
"Sappho", considered one of his best subjects (1857), 
the so-called "Tazza", surrounded by figures in re- 
lief; the Ferrari monument in S. Lorenzo, Florence 
(1859); the "Putti dell' Uva" (the Grape Children); 
the " .\ddolorat a " for Sta Croce, Florence (1860), and 
the much discussed relief of the "Triumph of the 
Cross" over the entrance to the same cluirch. In 
1863 Dupr6 touclied higli-water mark with the noblest 
of all his creations, the "Pieta", for the family tomb 
of the Marchese Bichi-Ruspoli in the cemetery of the 




Mispricordia, Siena. This group was awarded the 
Grande medaille d'honneur at the International 
Exhibition in Paris. The "San Zanobi" for the 
fagade of the Duomo, the "Risen Christ" for the 
Dupre memorial chapel, the Cavour monument in 
Turin, the bronze bust of Savonarola in his cell at 
the monastery of S. Marco, Florence, and a number 
of minor works complete the list of Dupr<'>'s produc- 
tions. His last work, the "St. Francis" inside the 
Cathedral of S. Rufino, Assisi, was finished by his 
eldest daughter and pupil, Amaha. Time failed him 
to execute the crowning figure of the Madonna for 
Sta Maria del Fiore. The sculptor left a volume of 
memoirs of great interest to artists and critics: 
"Pensieri sull'arte e ricordi autobiografici" (Flor- 
ence, 1884-1906), tr. by F. Peruzzi (Edinburgh, 1886). 
Frieze, Giovanni Dupr'^ (I^ndon, 1886); Conti, Del bello net 
two e dialoghi sull'arte (Florence, 1880); Powers, Giovanni 
Duprl and his Pieta in Ave Maria (Feb., 1912). 

M. L. Handley. 

Dwight, Thomas, anatomist, b. at Boston, 1843; 
d. at Nahant, 8Sept., 1911. The son of Thomas 
Dwight and of Mary Collins Warren, with his mother 
he became a Catholic in 1856. He attended Har- 
vard College and graduated from its medical school 
in 1867. After studying abroad, he was appointed in 
1872 instructor in comparative anatomy at Harvard, 
lectured also at Bowdoin, and in 1883 succeeded 
Oh ver Wendell Holmes as Parkman professor of anat^ 
omy. Dr. Dwight's talent for organization enabled 
him to effect a needed reconstruction of the Harvard 
Medical School. In 1872 he published his "Frozen 
Sections of a Child", and in 1907 "A Clinical Atlas 
of Variations of the Bones of the Hands and Feet". 

He was also a frequent contributor to scientific jour- 
nals. In the Warren Museum of Anatomy Dr. 
Dwight arranged 
a .section of oste- 
ology which is 
considered the 
best in existence, 
and he enjoyed an 
international rep- 
utation as an an- 
atomist. Long a 
zealous member 
of a conference 
of St. Vincent de 
Paul, he died pres- 
ident of the cen- 
tral council. In 
1883 Dr. Dwight 
married Miss Sa- 
rah C. lasigi of 
Boston and eight 
children were 
born to them. His 
"Thoughts of a 
Catholic Anato- 
mist "( New York , 
1911) is a valua- 
ble work of Christian apologetics, for neither in his life 
nor in his writings had Dr. Dwight any difficulty in 
reconciling faith and science. 

The American Catholic Qiiarlerly Review (Jan., 1912); America 
(30 .Sept.. 1911); Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (4 Jan.. 
1912); Anatomical Record (Nov., 1911). 

Walter Dwight. 


Eguiara y Eguren, Juan Jos£, b. in Mexico tow- 
ards the close of the seventeenth century; d. 29 Jan- 
uary, 1763. He received his education in the Jesuit 
College of San Ildefonso of Mexico and later was 
named rector of the University of Mexico. His 
learning was extensive, covering theology, canon law, 
philo.sophy, mathematics, and letters, to which was 
added an exceptional gift of oratory. Resenting the 
levity with which the famous Dean of Alicante, 
Manuel M.arti, had characterized the attainments of 
the men of letters of the New World in his "epistolas 
latinas" printed in Madrid in 1735, denying them any 
merit, Eguiara, determined to vindicate the honour 
of his compatriots, began his work "Bibhoteca Mexi- 
cana". He gave it this name because of his love of 
Mexico and thereby incurred the ill-will of the other 
Spanish-American provinces. He published the first 
volume, which comprised the letters A, B, and C, and 
left in manuscript many biographies down to J. In 
the preface he refutes the charges of Dean Marti with 
much spirit and patriotism. The "Bibhoteca Mexi- 
cana" is written in Latin and, besides the fact that it 
is incomplete, a certain pomposity of style detracts 
from its merits. Notwithstanding this it has been 
extremely valuable, being the first work of this kind 
published in Mexico and perhaps in the whole of Eguiara was elected Bishop of 
YucatSn, but resigned the dignity to continue his 
literary work. Besides the work already mentioned, 
the complete title of which is "Biblioteca Mexicana 
sive eruditorum historia virorum qui in America 
Boreali n;iti, vel alibi geniti, in ipsam domicilio aut 
studiis asciti, quavis lingua scripio ali(|uid triidi- 
derunt. Ferdinando VI Hisp.ani:iruni Rcgi (":ith(ilic(i, 
Nuncupata Mexici 1755", he publislicd " P;iii(giri- 
cos", printed separately in Mexico (1727-.57); "Klo- 
gios fdnebrea" (17.5.5-66); "Pra'lectiones" (Mexico, 
1746); fourteen volumes in theological and juridical 

questions; twenty volumes of sermons and instruc- 
tions; and several other treatises. 

Beristain, Biblioteca hispano-americnna (Ameoameca. 1883); 
Diccionario encidopidico hispano-americano (Barcelona, 1893). 

Camillus Crivelli. 

Elbel, Benjamin, a first-class authority in moral 
theology, b. at Fricdberg, Bavaria, in 1690; d. at 
Soflingen in 1756. He belonged to the Stra.sburg 
Franciscan province, was lector of theologj-, and held 
high positions in the order. His classical work, 
"Theologia moralis decalogalis et sacramentahs" 
(Venice, 1731), passed rapidly through several edi- 
tions, and has recently been brought up to date by 
Irenaus Bierbaum, O.F.M., under the title "Theolo- 
gia morahs per modum conferentiarum auctore clar- 
issime P. Benjamin Elbel ..." (3 vols., Pader- 
born, 1891-92). Elbel advocates probabihsm. His 
doctrine is sound and solid; his style simple and un- 
assuming. He shows admirable facility in giving 
exact and lucid expression to abstract principles, 
and in applying them to strikingly practical cases. 
The eminent qualities of his work have ehcited praise 
from all theologians. It is constantly referred to by 
St. Alphonsus, and has been largely copied by modern 

HuRTER. Nomenclator lit., IV (3rd ed.), 163,5; Eubel, 0«- 
schichte der oberdeutitcken Minorilenprovinz (Wurzburg. 1886); 
Bee also preface to Bierbaum's edition (mentioned above). 

Thomas Plassmann. 

English Hierarchy, Reorganization of the. — 
On 29 Sept., 1S.50, by the Bull " Universahs Ecclesia>", 
Pius IX restored the Catholic hierarchy in England 
which had become extinct with the fle.ith of the last 
Mari.'in bishop in the reign of Eliz;ibetli. West- 
minster became the metropolit:in sec :in(l its occupant 
the lawful successor of the ("jitholic iirchbishoiis of 
Canterbury. The suffragan sees were S(iu(hw:irk, 
He.xham (changed to Hexham and Newcastle in 1861). 


Beverley, Liverpool, Salford, Shrewsbury, Newport and 
Menevia, Clifton, Plymouth, Nottingham, Birming- 
ham, and Northampton. In 1878 Beverley was divided 
into the two new Dioceses of Leeds and Middles- 
borough. And in 1895 Wales, except Glamorganshire, 
was separated from the Dioceses of Newport anfl 
Menevia, and of Shrewsbury, and formed into the 
Vicariate of Wales. The vicariate was erected into the 
Diocese of Menevia in 1898. The Diocese of Portsmouth 
was formed in 1882, by the division of the Diocese 
of Southwark into the Dioceses of Southwark and 
Portsmouth. Thus, the province of Westminster 
having fifteen suffragan sees was numerically the 
largest in the world. By letters Apostohc, "Si qua 
est", of 28 Oct., 1911, Pius X erected the new prov- 
inces of Birmingham and Liverpool. With West- 
minster remained the suffragan Sees of Northhamp- 
ton, Nottingham, Portsmouth, and Southwark; to 
Birmingham were assigned those of CUfton, Newport, 
Ph-mouth, Shrewsbury, and Menevia; and to Liver- 
pool, Hexham and Newcastle, Leeds, Middlesborough, 
and Salford. 

It had for many years been felt that some such 
division would have to be made, but there had always 
been the fear of causing disunion thereby, especially 
if it meant as in pre-Reformation times a division 
between north and south. Such a result was obviated 
by ignoring the precedent of York and Canterbury, 
and arranging for three instead of two provinces; and 
also by the grant in the Apostolic Constitution of 
"certain new distinctions of preeminence, for the 
preservation of unity in government and policy, to 
the archbishop of Westminster for the time being, 
comprised under the following three heads: He 
will be permanent chairman of the meetings of the 
Bishops of all England and Wales, and for this reason 
it will be for him to summon these meetings and to 
preside over them, according to the rules in force in 
Italy and elsewhere. (2) He will take rank above 
the other two Archbishops, and wiU tlvroughout all 
England and Wales enjoy the privilege of wearing 
the Pallium, of occupying the throne, and of having 
the cross borne before him. (3) Lastly, in all 
dealings with the Supreme Civil Authority, he will 
in his person represent the entire Episcopate of 
England and Wales. Always, however, he is to take 
the opinion of all the Bishops, and to be guided by 
the votes of the major part of them". Thus, though 
the Archbishop of Westminster was vested with more 
powers and privileges than primates usually enjoy, 
unity of action has been safeguarded. The grouping 
of the dioceses is rather curious. Instead of the 
natural division into a northern, a midland, and a 
southern province, formed by drawing a line from 
the Humber to the Mersey, and another from the 
Wash to the Bristol Channel, the Westminster or 
eastern province and the Birmingham or western 
province reach from the south-east and south-west 
to the Humber and Mersey respectively. In this 
way the northern province is contiguous to the other 
two, bringing all three into closer intercommunica- 
tion. It is interesting to note that in 787 an attempt 
was made to have a third province with the metro- 
politan at Lichfield, but in 803 it was abandoned 
and the bislinjis of central England were again made 
subjecl to Canterbury. 

The English hierarchy was reorganized to "promote 
the greater good of souls and the devclc.piiiciit nf the 
Catholic religion". And before new ^n s .(.iil.l he 
formed it was felt necessary to erect iiion- ecclesi- 
astical provinces out of the already abnormal exten- 
sive province of WestniinstxT. That this was the 
obj(!ct in view seems clear from the conc'luding words 
ol the Bull: "We have reserved to o\irselves the 
taking of further measures in this matter of th<! re- 
eonstitution of English dioceses, as shall seem op- 
portune, and as experience may suggest and the good 


of souls require." In accordance with the instruc- 
tions of the Constitution the present Archbishop of 
Westminster, Francis Cardinal Bourne, executed 
these new ordinances by Decree dated 1 Dec., 1911, 
which was ordered to be read at the meetings of the 
metropolitan and other cathedral chapters throughout 
England and Wales. 

The Catholic Directory (1S51-1912), passim. 

Arthur Jackman. 

Epiphanius of Constantia. See Salamis. 
Epiphanius of. Vol. XIII, p. 393. 

Emakulam, Vicariate Apostolic of, in India. — 
In May, 1887, the churchesof Syrian Rite in Malabar 
were separated from those of the Latin Rite and 
formed into the Vicariates of Trichur and Kottayam 
under European prelates. In response, however, to 
the petitions of the Syrian Catholics desirous of 
obtaining bishops of their own race and rite, Leo 
XIII by his Brief "Qua; Rei Sacra;" (28 July, 1896) 
divided the territory anew into three vicariates: 
Trichur, Changanacherry, and Ernakulam. The 
last comprises all the churches of Syrian Rite be- 
tween the Chalakudy River and Lake Vempanatu, 
excluding the Suddhist churches of Bramangalam, 
Caringoth, and Chumkam. The Suddhists are Syro- 
Malabar Christians, descended from the fourth- 
century Syrian immigrants; they were formed into 
a distinct ecclesiastical unit on 29 Aug., 1911, when 
the Vicariate ApostoUc of Kottayam was revived 
for them. The Vicariate of Ernakulam contains 
about 814,000 inhabitants, of whom 101,400 are 
Catholics; the chief language spoken is Malayalam. 
Mgr. Aloysius Pareparambil, titular Bishop of Tie 
(b. on 1 Aug., 1848, named first vicar Apostolic on 11 
Aug., 1896), was consecrated at Kandy, Ceylon, on 
25 Oct., 1896, and resides at Ernakulam. On 29 
Aug., 1911, Mgr. Augustine Kaudatkil was appointed 
coadjutor bishop. There are 81 parish churches, 
20 chapels with resident pastors, 112 secular priests, 
32 divinity students at PuthenpaUy and 11 at the 
Papal Seminary, Kandy, Ceylon; 6 convents, 116 
native Carmelite Tertiary nuns and 28 postulants; 
2 catechumenates; 1 orphanage with 25 orphans; 7 
boarding-schools with 267 pupils, 201 primary and 
secondary schools with 12,386 pupils; 412 converts 
in 1911; 39 Jacobite churches with 32,000 members; 
1 industrial school. In the printing-press attached 
to this school there are published the "Messenger of 
the Sacred Heart" (monthly) and "Sathianadam" 
(weekly), both in Malayalam; "Eucharist and Priest", 
an English monthly periodical of the Priests' Eucha- 
ristic League, and " Promptuarium Canonico-Litur- 
gicum", a Latin monthly for the missionary clergy. 
There is a Lazarist community of 3 Fathers and 1 
lay brother at Thotacam. The Syro-Chaldaic Car- 
melite Congregation of Malabar has 4 convents and 
31 members in the vicariate; this institute, the first 
of its kind in India, was begun at Mannanam in 1831. 
The first priests were professed on 8 Dec, 1855, and 
on 1 Oct., 1860, the congregation was affiliated to 
the Discalced Carmehtes. Its rules and constitutions 
were approved by the Holy See tentatively on 1 
Jan., 1895, and definitively on 12 March, 1906. 

Catholic Directory 0/ India (Madras, 1913). 

A. A. MacErlean. 

Eugenics, The Chubch and. — Eugenics literally 
means "good breeding". It is defined as the study 
of agencies under social control that may improve or 
impair the racial qualities of future generations either 
physically or mentally. Both the word and the defi- 
nition were fixed by Sir Francis Gallon, the founder 
of the movement. The science has two chief divi- 
sions, namely, heredity and environment, (ialton 
believed that heredity was by far the more important. 
He derived his main idea from the breeding of the 
race-horse. Just as we can breed horses for points. 




so also, it is contended, can we breed men for points. 
The eugenics movement, however, consists of more 
than study. It includes public action in the way of 
legislation, administration, and the influencing of 
human conduct. 

Galton was born in 1822. His parents were people 
of means, and so he was enabled to receive a very 
liberal education and to devote his life to scientific 
research. Ho was educated at King Edward's School,, and Trinity College, Cambridge. He 
travelled in Syria and Central Africa. Charles Dar- 
win was his cousin, both being grandsons of Dr. 
Erasmus Darwin. As early as 1865 Galton began his 
work of measuring the human faculties and of tracing 
similarities and differences in definite famiUcs through 
several generations. He founded several antliropo- 
metric laboratories. The chief of these is now carried 
on under Professor Karl Pearson at University College, 
London. Galton was much impressed by the heredi- 
tary phenomena of the Fellows of the Royal Society. 
From the information which he collected concerning 
their families he formed the basis of his future re- 
searcli. He also made use of the stud-book of the 
basset-hounds belonging to Sir J. E. Millais. His 
earlier studies led him to formulate what he called the 
ancestral law. .According to this, the contribution to 
the making of any one individual is by each parent 
one quarter, by each grandparent one sixteenth, and 
so on. In 1869 he pubUshed his "Hereditary Genius, 
an Inquiry into its Laws and Consequences". In 
this he essayed to show a law of distribution of ability 
in families. In each group of ten illustrious men who 
have illustrious relations, there are three or four emi- 
nent fathers, four or five eminent brothers, and five 
or six eminent sons Hence it is inferred that by 
mating eminent people with eminent people, we can 
produce eminent people. 

It has been objected, however, that such breeding 
would make the race unbalanced. All the good, few 
in number, would be at the top, and all the bad, many 
in number, at the bottom. Galton replied to this 
criticism with his "law of regression towards medio- 
crity". A lower stratum, he said, would produce an 
offspring, on the whole, superior to itself. This in 
turn would produce a still better offspring, and so on 
until mediocrity was reached. Then more careful 
artificial selection would be needed. During the last 
ten years, through the work of Professors Bateson and 
BifFen of Cambridge, the principles of MendeUsm have 
been brought into the question. These threaten to 
modify Galton's law of regression towards mediocrity, 
and indeed to nullify his ancestral law. The per- 
manence of dominant qualities and the disappearance 
of recessive qualities (see Mendel, Mendelism) show 
that experiments are of little value which have not 
been .spread out over at least three generations. Men- 
dehan experiments, however, on human beings have 
not yet been conspicuously successful. Owing to 
disturbing and amplifying factors only few normal 
characters, eye-colour for instance, have been demon- 
strated to follow jMendelian laws. Abnormal char- 
acters can be more easily verified. Deaf-mutism, for 
instance, acts as a recessive. Selection impUes rejec- 
tion. Thus the science is divided into positive eugen- 
ics and negative. The one encourages parenthood 
of the fit or worthy, whilst the other discourages 
parenthood of the unfit or unworthy. Thus eugenics 
concerns itself largely with selection in marriage and 
with the exercise of the marital function. Negative 
eugenics also seeks to eradicate the racial defects of 
alcohol, venereal disease, lead poisoning, feeble- 
mindedness, and consmnption. But the Church, too, 
h.-us a doctrine concerning marriage and its use, and 
also a doctrine and a method of dealing with racial 
defects. The Church therefore has no fault to find 
with race culture as such. Rather does she encour- 
age it. But she wi.shcs it carried out on right lines. 

The root difference between Catholic teaching and 
that of modern eugenics is that the one places the 
final end of man in eternal life, whilst the other places 
it in civic worth. The effectual difference is that the 
Chiu-ch makes bodily and mental culture subservient 
to morahty, whilst modern eugenics makes morahty 
subservient to bodily and mental culture. But we 
must admit that modern eugenics shows a growing 
tendency to acknowledge the claims of religion. Dr. 
Saleeby is an advance on Galton, and Professor Whet- 
ham is an advance on Saleeby. In dealing with 
racial poisons, the Church provides the most radical 
remedies. Against alcohol she sets the virtue of 
temperance, against white-lead the virtue of justice, 
against venereal disease the virtue of purity. She 
provides for proper selection in marriage by setting 
impediments against unworthy marriages. The 
spirit life of the married pair and of the children is 
protected bj- the prohibition of mixed marriages. 
The proclamat ion of banns protects the parties against 
possible fraud or mistake. The requirement of con- 
sent of parents tends to promote prudent marriages. 
The impediment of a previous engagement unre- 
leased is a safeguard against rash promises and heart- 
less breach of promise. The impediments of con- 
sanguinity and affinity are universally acknowledged 
to have a great eugenic value. Moreover, since the 
most necessary and most difficult eugenic reforms 
consist in the control of the sex appetite, the practice 
of celibacy is an important factor in race culture. It 
is the standing example of a Divinely aided will 
holding the sensual passion in check. 

The crux of the eugenic question is in the proposals 
for segregation and sterilization. Both may be 
either voluntary or compulsory. The aim is to 
prevent defectives from propagating their kind. Seg- 
regation means not only the separation of defectives 
from the rest of the community but also separation 
of the sexes from each other amongst the defectives 
themselves. Sterilization is a surgical operation by 
which the subjects are made incapable of procreation. 
Formerly it consisted of castration in men and excis- 
ion of the ovaries in women. But recently two much 
simpler operations have been discovered, namely, 
vasectomy for men and ligature of the Fallopian tubes 
(Kehrer's method) for women. They are not grave 
when considered as dangerous operations, but they 
are grave as regards their moral effects. Herein lies 
the difficuhy of judging them. The Holy Office has 
not yet given any decision concerning them. Specu- 
latively speaking, therefore, the ciuestion is open. 
The following, however, may be taken to be the preva- 
lent teaching of CathoUc theologians and physicians. 
Vasectomy or hgature of the Fallopian tubes is no 
remedy against concupiscence; and even if it were, 
mutilation could not be permitted as a means of 
avoiding temptation. The operation would open the 
door to immoral practices which would constitute a 
worse evil than the one avoided. Being in itself 
slight and almost painless, it would be useless as a 
punishment for criminals or as a deterrent for others. 
If the principle were admitted it would encourage the 
abuse of matrimonial relations. The welfare of the 
State, if seriously threatened by the degenerate, 
could be better protected by segregation. Therefore 
the operation is not permissible, except .as a necessary 
means to bodily health, and consequently excejjt for 
this necessity may not be performed even with the 
patient's con.scnt. The Church has never regarded 
the marriage of degener.ates .as unlawful in itself: they 
cannot be deprived of their right without a grave 
reason. Even eugenists like Dr. Saleeby and Dr. 
Havelock Ellis disapprove of compulsory surgery. 
As for compulsory segregation it seems to be both 
right and good, provided (hat all due safeguards are 
taken in respect of the grades of feel)lenes8. The 
spirit of the Church is to extend rather than curtail 




the freedom of the individual. The Catholic con- 
science guards against the State being unduly exalted 
at the expense of the family. The latest activity of 
the eugenics movement was the First International 
Congress held in London in 1912. It was divided 
into four chief divisions: (1) The bearing upon eu- 
genics of biological research, (2) the bearing upon 
eugenics of sociological and historical research, (3) the 
bearing upon eugenics of legislation and social cus- 
toms, (4) the consideration of the practical applica- 
tions of eugenic principles. See Marriage ; Mendel, 

Galton, Hereditary Genius (Ix>ndon, 1869 and 1892); Idem, 
Human FaciiUy (London, 1883) ; Idem, tiecord of Family Facilities 
(London. 1884); Idem, Natural Inheritance (London, 1889); 
Galton and Schusteb, Noteworthy Families (London, 1906); 

Galton. Essays in Eugenics (London. 1909); Idem, Memories 
of My Life (London, 1908); Saleeby, Parenthood and Race Cul- 
ture (London, 1909) ; Idem, The Methods of Race Regeneration 
(London, 1911); Thompson, Heredity (London, 1908); Bateson, 
The Methods and Scope of Genetics (London, 1908) ; Idem, Mendel's 
Principles of Heredity (London. 1909); Peakbon, National Life 
from the Standpoint of Science (London, 1905) ; Idem, The Scope 
and Importance to the State of the Science of National Eugenics 
(London, 1907) ; Crackenthorpe, Population and Progress 
(London, 1907) ; Rentoul, Race-Culture or Race-Suicide (London, 
1906); Ellis, The Problem of Race Regeneration (London, 1911); 
Newsholme, The Declining Birth Rate (London, 1911); Forel, 
Die sexuelle Frage (Munich, 1907), tr. Marshall (London, 
1910); Day, Marriage, Divorce and Morality (London. 1912), 
Gerhard, Marriage and Parenthood (New York, 1910); Idem; 
The Church and Eugenics (London and New York, 1912); 
Idem in Catholic World (June. 1912); Slater in Irish Theol. 
Quart. (October, 1911); De liceitate vasectomiw in American Eccl, 
Rev. (1910-13); The Eugenics Review. 

Thomas J. Gerhard. 

Fiji, V1CAR1.A.TE Apostolic op, comprising the 
islands belonging to the Fiji Archipelago. This 
archipelago forms the central portion of Western 
Polynesia, and extends between 15° and 20° South 
latitude and between 170° and 180° West longitude. 
It includes about 2.50 islands, of which some 90 are 
inhabited; its total land area is 743.5 square miles, 
while the population in 1911 was 139,.541 (3707 Euro- 
peans; 87,096 Fijians; 42S6 Indiana; the remainder of 
other eastern races). The islands were discovered by 
Captain Cook in 1773. There was, however, little 
European intercourse with them until the arrival of 
Wesleyan missionaries in 1S35, and the first thorough 
survey was that of the United States Exploring Ex- 
pedition of 1S40. After long internecine troubles the 
government of the islands was unconditionally ceded 
by the native chiefs to Great Britain in 1874. The 
Fijians belong to the Melanesian (Papuan) stock, 
much crossed with Polynesian strains, and are in 
many ways superior (physically and mentally) to 
other branches of the same famOy. Their religion, 
which is being rapidly displaced by Christianity, is a 
species of ancestor-worship; the spirits of their chiefs, 
heroes, and other ancestors are included among 
the gods of subordinate rank, although they are es- 
teemed to be still hable to human passions and even 
to death. Besides the malicious deities (of whom 
there are many), the natives have four classes of gods. 
While the most widely worshipped deity is Ove, who 
is regarded as the maker of aU men, Ndengei un- 
doubtedly occupies the most impressive place in the 
native pantheon. This deity is worshipped under the 
form of a serpent, and to him spirits proceed imme- 
diately after death for purification or to receive sen- 
tence. To reach the judgment seat of Ndengei, how- 
ever, the spirit must pass an ever-vigilant giant 
armed with a mighty axe, and if wounded it may not 
present itself before Ndengei. Whether the spirit 
escapes unscathed or not is unfortunately ascribed to a 
stroke of luck (not to previous conduct during hfe), 
and to this want of any just notion of rehgious or 
moral obUgation may be traced the many revolting 
practices which were until late years almost univer- 
sally cultivated among the imchri-stianized natives 
(cannibahsm, the putting to death of parents when 
they were advanced in years, suicide, immolation of 
wives at the funerals of their husbands, human sacri- 
fices, etc.). 

The Fiji Islands were included in the territory of the 
old \icariate Apostolic of Central Oceania, created by 
Propaganda in 1S42. The first Cathohc mission in 
Fiji was foimded in 1844, and on 10 March, 1803, the 
territory was erected into a prefecture Apostolic. 
On .5 May, 1887, the present vicariate was establislied 
and entrusted to the Mariat fathers. The first and 
present vicar Aposloli(! is (he Right Hev. .Julian 
Vidal, D.D., S.M., titular Bishop of Abydos (conse- 

crated 27 Dec, 1887). Catholic missions have been 
already established on the islands Viti Levu, Ovalau, 
Vanua Levu, Tavenui, Kavavu, and Rotuma, the 
official residence of the vicar Apostohc being at Suva 
on the first mentioned island. The latest statistics 
for the vicariate show: 30 priests (Marist fathers), 
who tend 18 central stations and 273 villages; 11 
Little Brothers of Mary (Marist brothers), who have 
charge of a boarding and day school at Suva, of a sem- 
inary and college at Cawaci, and of an English school 
for natives at Rewa; 24 European and 31 native 
Sisters of the Third Order of Mary (with 14 houses; 
novitiate at Sole\'u), who conduct the majority of 
schools for girls; 8 sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny (2 
houses), who conduct the parochial; school at Suva; 
10 Sisters of the Holy Name of Mary (Marist Sisters), 
who have charge of the schools and orphanage at 
Le\'uka, a school at Ba, and assist the Marist broth- 
ers in the seminary and college at Cawaci; 12 native 
brothers (novitiate at Loretto) in 4 communities. 
The English college at Cawaci for the training of 
catechists and the children of the chiefs has on its roU 
42 catechists, 80 boys, and 12 girls. In the central 
stations the Marist brothers and sisters teach read- 
ing, wTiting, etc., as well as religion, to 500 boys and 
450 girls, while in the villages 315 catechists give ele- 
mentary instruction to about 20(X) children. The 
churches and chapels number 65, and the total Cath- 
olic population is about 12,000 (300 Europeans). A 
station for lepers is conducted on Makogai Island by 
one Marist father and two sisters of the Third Order 
of Mary. 

Australasian Catholic Directory (Sydney, 1912) ; Thomson, 
The Fijians (London, 1908); Piolet, Missions cath. fran(., IV 
(Paris, 1902), 183-220. 


Fischer, Antonius, Archbishop of Cologne and 
cardinal, b. at JiiUch, 30 May, 1840; d. at Neuenahr, 
30 July, 1912. The son of a professor, he was edu- 
cated at the Friedrich Wilhelm Gymnasium at Co- 
logne, making his theological studies at the University 
of Bonn and the Academy of Miinster. Ordained 
priest, 2 Sept., 1863, he was for twenty-five years pro- 
fessor of religion at the Gymnasium at Essen. In 
1886 he received his doctorate at the University of 
Tubingen, his thesis being "De salute infidelium". 
He was preconized titular Bishop of Juhopolis, 14 
Feb., 1889, and was thenceforth associated in the 
administration of the Diocese of Cologne iis assistant 
to the auxiliarj' Bishop Baudri, then very old. \\'hen 
Baudri died (29 June, 1893), Fischer succeeded him; 
in 1901 tlie See of Cologne became vacant, by the 
death of Mgr. Theophilus Siraar, and Fischer was ap- 
pointed archbishop (26 Nov., 1002). On 23 June, 
1903, Pius X made him a cardinal. During the ten 
years of his episcopate Cardinal Fischer consecrated 
in the diocese several hundred churches and more 




than one thousand altars. He was a most devoted 
protector of the religious orders, and the confidence 
placed in him by th(^ Government, was singularly 
beneficial to the spread of Catholic life. On several 
occasions during rehgious or national celebrations he 
spoke of William II in very warm terms, which 
caused much comment. Greatly attached to the in- 
terests of workingmen, at the Congress of Liege in 
1890 he called for the intervention of the State in 
matters of labour legislation. Addres-sing himself to 
the workingmen, he declared "xVspiration towards 
progress, towards the betterment and preservation 
of eartlily well-being is deeply enrooted in human 
nature and does not contradict the Cliristian moral 
laws." On 13 Nov., 1905, he advised the Catholic 
miners assembled in Congress at Essen to co-operate 
with non-Catholic workmen in the discussion of com- 
mon economic questions. He was likewise the de- 
fender with the Holy vSee of Christian interdenomina- 
tional syndicates, whose headquarters were at 
Miinchen-Gladbach, and he exerted himself to coun- 
terbalance the influences brought to bear in behalf of 
purely sectarian syndicates by the Catholics of Ber- 
lin, the Bishop of Trier, and the Cardinal-Bishop of 

Kstnische Volkszeitung (August, 1912); Germania (.\ugust, 

Georges Gotau. 

Foley, Henry, b. at Astley in Worcestershire, 
England, 9 Aug., 1811; d. at Manresa House, Roe- 
hampton, 19 Nov., 1891. His father was the Prot- 

estant curate in charge at Astley. After his early 
education at home and at a private school at Wood- 
chester, Henry was articled to a firm of solicitors in 
Worcester, and, in course of time, practised as a so- 
licitor, at first in partnership with another, then by 
himself. Under the influence of the O.xford ]\Iove- 
ment he was led to embrace the Cathohc Faith in 
1S40, and five years later, on the death of his wife 
Anne, daughter of John Vezard of Gloucestershire, he 
sought admission as a lay brother into the Society of 
Jesus. Urged to enter as a scholastic and to prepare 
for the priesthood, he said it was Our Lady's wish 
tliat he should be a lay brother. For thirty years he 
occupied the post of lay brother sociiis to the English 
provincial, during which time he produced his gi- 
gantic work, "The Records of the English Province of 
the Society of Jesus" (8 octavo volumes), a compila- 
tion of immense labour and original research and an 
invaluable store of historical detail put together 
with a persevering assiduity rarely found even in the 
most painstaking of historians. Brother Foley de- 
serves to share with Father Henry More the title of 
historian of the Society. He also wrote "Jesuits in 
Conflict", a work describing the sufferings of some of 
the English Jesuit confessors of the Faitli. As a re- 
ligious, Brother Foley was a model of every virtue. 
His bodily austeritiesjwere remarkable, whOe his spirit 
of prayer led him at all free moments to the chapel. 

Letters and Notices of the English Province, S.J., XXI, 282 sqq.; 
Litiera annuce prov. anglic. S.J, (1892). 

P. J. Chandlery. 


Gardar, Ancient See op. See Greenland. 

Gloria, Laus et Honor, a hymn composed by 
St. Thcodulph of Orleans in 810, in Latin elegiacs, of 
which the Roman Missal takes the first six for the 
hymn following the procession on Palm Sunday (the 
use to which the hymn was always dedicated). The 
first couplet, 

Gloria, laus et honor tibi sit Rex Christe, Redemptor, 
Cui puerUe decus prompsit hosanna pium, 
is sung by chanters inside of the church (the door 
having been closed), and is repeated by the proces- 
sional chorus outside of the church. The chanters 
then sing the second couplet, the chorus responding 
with the refrain of the first couplet, and so on for the 
remaining couplets until the subdcacon strikes the 
door with (he staff of the cross, whereupon the door is 
opened, the hymn ceases, and the procession enters 
the church. The words of the refrain ("puerile 
decus") suggested the assignment of the hymn in the 
Middle Ages to boy chanters (thus at Salisbury, 
York, Hereford, Rouen, etc.). The hymn is foundra 
on Psalm xxiii (Vulgate), 7-10; Psalm cxvii, 26; 
Matt, xxi, 1-16; Luke xix, 37-38. 

Mearns in JuUAN, Diet, of Hymnology (2nd ed., London, 
1907). s. V. To this list of tra. add: Donahoe, Early Christian 
Hymns (New York. 1908); Missal for the Use of the Laity 
(Ijoadoa, 1903). For the legend concerning ita origin, see 
AIearns. loc. cif.: Kayser, Beitrage z. Gesch. u. Erktdruno der 
alien Kirchenhymnen (Paderborn, 1886), 313-322, full tcit and 
much comment. 

H. T. Henry. 

Gon2&]ez, Zeferino, Dominican, cardinal, the- 
ologian, .and philosopher, b. at Villoria in the Province 
and Diocese of Oviedo, Spain, 28 Jan., 1831; d. at 
Madrid, in the Dominican Convent of La Pa«i6n, 
29 Nov., 1894. On 28 Nov., 1844, in the CoUege of 
Ocania Gonzdlez entered the Dominican Order, and a 
year later took his solemn vows. He was sent to 
Manila in 1848 to complete his studies, and in Jan., 
18.53, he was made a lector of philo.sophy. The fol- 
lowing year he was ordained priest. After teaching 

philosophy and theology for many years in the 
University of Manila, he returned to Spain in 1867, 
where, the year following, he was elected rector of 
Ocania College, discharging the duties of this office for 
three years. In 1874 he was named Bishop of 
Mdlaga, but, before taking charge of this diocese, he 
was consecrated bishop of the Diocese of C<5rdova in 
Oct., 1875. Eight years later he was removed to the 
archicpiscopal See of Seville, and in Nov., 1884, he 
was created cardinal by Pope Leo XIII, with Santa 
Maria sopra Miner\'a as his titular church. In 
May, 1885, Cardinal Gonzdlez was appointed to the 
primacy of Spain, was made Patriarch of the Indies, 
vicar-general of tlie army, and major-chaplain to the 
royal chapel. After many ye.ars of sjilcndid service 
Gonzalez, in Dec., 1889, resigned all his offices and 
dignities, except that of the cardinalate, and retired 
from active hfe. The remaining five years of his life 
were spent in study and prayer. He was honoured 
with medals of Isabella the Catholic and Charles III, 
he was appointed chancellor of Castile, was chosen as 
royal adviser, made a member of the Royal .\cademy 
of Languages, of History, of Political and Moral 
Sciences, and of the Roman Academy of St. Thomas 
Aquinas. Among his several works are: "Estudios 
sobre la filosofia de Sto Tomas"; "Estudios re- 
ligiosos, politicos y sociales"; "Philosophia elemen- 
taria"; "Historia de la filosofia"; "La Bibha y la 
ciencia"; "La infahbilidad pontificia" (pamphlet): 
"Di.scurso de recepci6n en la .\cademia Espanola 
(pamphlet); "Discurso de rccepri6n en la Aca<lemia 
de Ciencias politicas v morales" (i)araphlet). 

Ada Cap. Ord. Prad. CRome. 1885); Hurter, Nomencl. lit.. 
Ill (Innsbruck, 1895), 1499; VioiL, La orden de medicadoret 
(Madrid, 1884), 297. 

Chas. J. Callan. 

Gotti, Vincent Lotns, cardinal and theologian, 
b. at Bologna, 5 Sept., 1664; d. in Rome, 18 Sept., 
1742. He received part of his early education from 
the .Jesuits, .and at the age of sixteen entered the 
Dominican Order. He so excelled others in the 




study of philosopliy that liis superiors sent him to 
Salamanca, Spain, for the best possible training in 
the sacred sciences. Having completed his studies 
with great success he returned to Italy in 1688, and 
was sent to Mantua to teach philosophy in the con- 
vent of the order there. Hardly had he undertaken 
his duties when he was recalled to Rome by the 
master general to fill the chair of pliilosophy in the 
Minerva convent. Next he was ordered to estabUsh 
a new coui'se of philosophy at Bologna, where in 
1695 he was made pubhc professor of theology by the 
senate of the university. In 1708 he was elected 
prior of the Dominican convent at Bologna; re- 
elected in 1714; and, two years later, made superior 
of that entire province. In 1715 Clement XI ap- 
pointed him general inquisitor of the Faith in the 
city of Milan. Although most unwilling to receive 
this appointment, Gotti zealously discharged its 
arduous duties for two years, when, after repeated 
requests, the pope released him from the office. 
Returning to Bologna, he was given the chair of 
polemical theology in the university, and in 1720 
was, for the third time, elected prior of the convent 
there. On 30 April, 1728, Benedict XIII made him 
cardinal-priest, and appointed him Patriarch of 
Jerusalem. He was then made a member of nine 
different congregations, to all of which he gave his 
um-emitting attention. With his many duties as 
cardinal, he never relaxed in the reUgious observances 
of his hfe, and found, moreover, ample time for much 
private study. He was present at the conclaves of 
Clement XIII and Benedict XIV. 

Cardinal Gotti possessed an acuteness of inteUect 
and a solidity of judgment altogether uncommon. A 
tireless student, he amassed a fund of knowledge, and 
acquired a faciUty of expression which placed him 
in the foremost ranks of the greatest minds of his 
time. Special tributes to his abihty and sanctity 
of hfe were repeatedly paid by Popes Clement XI 
and XII, and Benedict XIII and XIV, by various 
members of the Sacred College, by Victor Amadeus II, 
and his son Emmanuel, and by the Princess Maria 
Clementine Sobieski. 

Among the best known works of Gotti are: (1) "La 
vera chiesa di G. Christo dimonstrata dai segni et 
dai dogmi contro i due Ubri di Giacomo Picenino" 
(4 vols., Bologna, 1719), translated into Latin with 
added notes by Vincent Thomas Covi, O.P., and 
pubhshed at Milan (1734) and Bologna (1750); (2) 
"Concordia matrimonii cum ministro", which was 
pubhshed at Bologna in 1727 under the title, "Col- 
loquia theologica polemica intres classes distributa"; 
(3) "Theologia scholastico-dogmatica juxta mentem 
Divi Thomse Aquinatis" (Bolognaj 1727-35), which 
filled eight volumes and was divided into sixteen 
parts: the first part comprises the prolegomena and 
loci theologici, and all the rest follow the order of the 
"Summa" of St. Thomas, except the last part, which 
deals with the state of the soul after death, the end of 
the world, general judgment, etc.; this same work was 
again published at Venice in 1750. (4) "Veritas re- 
hgionis christians; et librorum, quibus innititur contra 
atheos, polytheos, idololatras, mohammedanos et 
judajos demonstrata" (3 vols., Rome, 1735-36); 
(5) "Veritas religionia christian£E ex genere, con- 
ceptu, ortu, gestis, raysteriis ac prodigiis Jesu Christi, 
necnon Virginis Deiparte confirmata" (4 vols., Rome, 

1737); " ex mirabiU ejus propagatione per apos- 

tolos et eorum gesta comprobata" (5 vols., Rome, 

1737) ; " ex prodigiis eius inter paganorum perse- 

cutioncs augmento et mirabili constantia martyrum" 

(6 vols., Rome, 1738); " ox devictis haeresibus 

directe eius veritatem impugnantibus" (7 vols., 
Rome, 1738-40). 

HoRTER, Novirndalor, II (Innsbruck, 1893), 1291 .sqq.; 
EcHAHD, Srriiil. Oril. Prird., II, 814; TouRON, Hist, des humm. 
iUtist.. VI (Paria, 1749), 640. 

Chas. J. Cai,l,4j<. 

Gracian (Gratian), Baltasar, Spanish writer, 
b. at Belnionte, a suburb of CalatajTid, Aragon, 
8 Jan., 1601; d. at Tarragona, 6 Dec., 1658. He 
came of a noble family and was reared in the home 
of his uncle Antonio Gracidn, hcentiate at Toledo. 
His mother's name was Morales, and it is supposed 
that she and his father died when Gracidn was a 
child. His three brothers, Fehpe, Pedro, and 
Raimundo, entered rehgious orders, and Baltasar 
entered the Society of Jesus in 1619, being among 
the first to receive an education according to the 
principles of the Ratio Studiorum. He taught in 
various colleges of the order, and at the time of his 
death was rector of the College of Tarragona. He 
was on terms of intimacy with King Philip III. 
His correspondence with a gentleman of Huesca, 
Vincencio Juan de Lastanosa, is no longer extant. 
He is the author of a number of works which exercised 
a wide influence on the literature of his country by 
the extreme artificiality of their style. The subject 
matter of most of his works is the ideal Spanish 
gentleman. The critical exposition of the stilo ciilto 
Gracian adopted in his " Agiideza y arte de ingenio". 
He is best knoivn through his " Ordculo manual 6 arte 
de prudencia" (1647). This was his most finished 
work, the earhest known edition of which is in the 
British Museum. It has been translated into Italian, 
French, Enghsh, Latin, Hungarian, Pohsh, German 
and Dutch. His other works are "El Heroe" 
(Madrid, 1630); "El poUtico Fernando el Cat61ico" 
(1641); "El Discreto", dedicated to Don Baltasar 
Carlos of Austria (Huesca, 1645); "El Critic6n" 
(1st part, Madrid, 1650; 2nd and 3rd parts, Huesca, 
1653); "El Comulgador", devotions for Commu- 
nion (Madrid, 1655). The last named work, as 
also his eulogy of Ferdinand the CathoUc, are ex- 
ceptions to his usual choice of subject. Whatever 
may be thought of the evils of his style, it is 
a brilliant medium for his wisdom and frequently 
exalted sentiments. 

Jacobs, Introduaion to The Art of Worldly Wisdom (London, 
1904); Duff in Fortnightly Review (March, 1877); De B.acker, 
Bibl. de la Cornpagnie de Jesus: Fitzm.icbice-Kellt, History 
of Spanish Literature (London. 1S9S). 

Gertrude Dana Steele. 

GriflBn, Martin Ign.'vtius Joseph, journalist, his- 
torian, b. at Philadelphia, 23 Oct., 1842; d. there, 
10 Nov., 1911. In early manhood he was associated 
as contributor and editor with various Cathohc pubh- 
cations. Appointed in 1872 secretary of the Irish 
CathoUc Benevolent Union he founded and edited its 
organ from 1873 to 1S94, first with the title the 
" I. C. B. U. Journal", and then as " Griffin's Journal". 
His articles on local Cathohc history printed in this 
"Journal" led to the founding, 22 July, 1884, of the 
"American Catholic Historical Society" of Phila- 
delphia, of which he was hbrarian at his death. In 
January, 1887, he began the pubUcation of the 
"American Catholic Historical Researches", which he 
continued to edit t ill he died . An indef at igable delver 
into the byways of the past, he collected a large 
amount of original data that will be of much value and 
assistance to the historian of the development of the 
Church in the United States. His most important 
publications are the "History of Commodore John 
Barry" (Philadelphia, 1903), and "Catholics and the 
American Revolution" (3 vols., Philadelphia, 1907- 
1911). Monographs on the history of old St. Joseph's 
and several other Philadelphia churches (lSSl-1882), 
on Bishop Michael Egan, O. S. F. (1885), ThomasFitz- 
Simons (1887), and "The trial of John Ury" (1899) pre- 
serve many details otherwitse neglected. Mr. Griffin 
was also very active in the promotion of the cause of 
total abstinence, and of the building and loan associa- 
tions that did so much good in the industrial com- 
munity of his native city. 

Catholic Historical Researches (Pliiladelp)ua. April, 




1912); American Catholic Whos Who (St. Louis, 1911); Catholic 
Standard and Times (Philadelphia), files. 

Thomas F. Meehan. 

Guadiz, Diockse of (Gdadicensis), in Spain, 
comprises the greater part of the Province of Gra- 
nada and a portion of the Province of Almerla. Acoi 
(Accitum) was the name of tlie old city situated in the 
region of the Bastetanos, the capital of which was 
Baza. It is not known for certain whether it is of 
Phoenician or of early Spanish origin. According to 
Macrobius, the primitive inhabitants paid homage to 
Mars under the name of Neton. Juhus Ca-sar estab- 
lished the Roman colony called Julia Gemella. The 
legend of the Seven Apostolic men preserved in the 
Miizarabie Missal places the episcopal see of St. 
Tcjrqiiatus in Guadix, and names him as one of the 
seven. The matron Luparia built a baptistery and 
primitive church. From then until 303, when Felix 
presided at the Council of Elvira, there is no record 
preserved of the Accitanian bishops. Liliolus at- 
tended the Third Council of Toledo in 589, and the 
names of the Accitanian bishops are to be found 
among those who attended the other Toletan coun- 
cils; Clarencius at the fourth and fifth; Justus at the 
sixth; Juhan at the eighth; Magnarius at the nmth 
and tenth; and Ricila, the last bishop whose name 
has come down to us before the Mohammedan inva- 
sion, at subsequent ones. In the Mozarabic period the 
diocese of Guadix continued to exist. Isidorus 
Pacensis mentions Frodoarius, who presided seven 
years over the See of Guadix. Quiricus assisted at 

the Council of C6rdoba before 839. The Alniohades, 
in the t.welftli <'pntury, destroyed this together with 
the oilier Amlalusian sees; it was not restored until 
the time of (he C'alliolic sovereigns. Cardinal Pedro 
Gonzdlez de iVlontloza, Archbishop of Toledo, erected 
the new see on 21 May, 1492, in virtue of the Apos- 
tolic commission of Innocent VHI granted on 4 
August, 1486, restoring, by right of postliminium, the 
Apostolic rank possessed by the see previous to the 
Mohammedan invasion. The See of Baza, founded 
in 1306, was united to the See of Guadix in 1493. 
The modern cathedral, on the site occupied by the 
principal mosque, was commenced in 1710 and com- 
pleted in 1796. The Seminary of St. Torquatus was 
founded by Bishop Juan Jos6 Fonseca in 1595; 
Charles IV founded an hospice in 1803, and the 
present hospital occupies the ancient Jesuit college. 
The present Bishop of Guadix is Mgr. Timotes Her- 
nandez Mulas, b. at Morales del Vino, in the Diocese 
of Zamora, 22 Aug., 1856, ordained in 1882, conse- 
crated at Cuenca, 26 April, 1908, succeeded Mgr. 
Maximiano Ferndndez del Rincon y Soto Ddvila in 
the See of Guadix. The diocese contains about 
116,000 Cathohcs, 62 parishes, 87 churches, 87 chap- 
els, and 162 priests. There is a Franciscan friary at 
Baza, homes of the Little Sisters of the Poor at Gua- 
dix and Baza, Presentation, Franciscan, Conception- 
ist, and Poor Clare nuns at Guadix. 

Pedro SuArfz. Hist, del obispado de Guadix; Fl6rez, Espafla 
saffrada. Ill, IV, VII; Espafia^ sus monumentos y artes: Granada 
(Barcelona, 1885). 

Ram6n Ruiz Amado. 


Haberl, Francis Xavier, historian of sacred 
music, editor, b. at Oberellenbach, Lower Bavaria, 
12 April, 1840; d. at Ratisbon, 5 Sept., 1910. He 
made his classical and theological studies at Passau, 
Bavaria, where he was ordained priest, 12 August, 
1862. Showing decided aptitude for music, he was 
given every opportunity for study of the art, and was 
entrusted with the direction of music in the seminary. 
From 1867 to;_1870 Haberl resided in Rome, where he 
was active as choirmaster at the German national 
church, Santa Maria del Anima, and also made his- 
tcirical and archa-ological researches. From 1871 to 
1SS2 he directed the choir at the Ratisbon cathedral, 
his incumbency forming one of the most brilliant 
periods in the history of this famous institute. In 
1S74 Haberl founded a school for church musicians at 
Ratisbon, thus realizing the desire of his predecessors 
and co-workers in the cause of church mu.sic reform. 
This school, which began with three professors. Dr. 
Haberl, Dr. Jacob, and Canon Haller, and only three 
pupils, has since become the centre whither priests 
and laymen from every country in Christendom have 
gone to equip themselves with the necessary knowl- 
edge to execute reform measures in their dioceses. 
By his foresight and practical wisdom Haberl not 
only secured permanency for the school in the shape 
of endowment, but he built next to it a church, dedi- 
cated to St. Cecilia, where pupils are given opportu- 
nities for practising the knowledge they have acquired 
in theory. In 1X68 Haberl re-edited the IMedicxa 
version of the Gregorian chant, and the Holy See de- 
clared his edition authentic and official for the uni- 
versal Church. This form of the chant has since been 
superseded by the traditional version now in course of 
publication under the name of "Editio Vaticana". 

As president of the St. Cecilia Society, which posi- 
tion he held from 1899 until his death, as editor of 
"Musica Sacra" and "Fliegende Blatter fiir Kirchen- 
musik", the official organ of the society, as the author 
of "Magister Choralis", now in the twelfth edition, 
and of innumerable articles on historical, theoretical, 

and scientific subjects, but especially as director of 
the school which he founded. Dr. Haberl wius always 
the champion of the spirit and authority of the 
Church in musical matters and a bulwark against the 
modernizing tendencies of the present day. For 
thirty years he gathered data and material for a criti- 
cal edition of the works of Palestrina, completed in 
1908 in thirty-three volumes, the first ten of which 
were prepared by the joint labour of Th. de Witt, 
J. N. Ranch, Fr. Espagne, and Fr. Commer. A 
similar edition of the works of Orlando Lasso, under- 
taken by him in company with Dr. Sanberger, he 
left unfini-shed. In a time of frequent and vehement 
controversies, of which he was often the object. Dr. 
Haberl was always a model of charitv. 

Musira mora (Ratisbon, WIO) ; Flieseiide' Bldller far Kirrhen- 
mu«ih (Ratisbon, 1910); RiEMANN, Musiklexikon (Leipzig, 1908). 

Joseph Otten. 

Hamar (Hamahcopia), Ancient See of (Ha- 
MAUENSis), in Norway, embraced Hedemarken and 
Christians Amt, and was formed in 1152 out of that of 
Oslo, when Arnold, Bishop of Gardar, (Jreenltmd 
(1 124-52), W!is appointed first Bishop of Hamar. He 
began to build the now ruined cathedral of Christ 
Church, which was completed about the time of 
BLshop Paul (1232-52). Bishop Thorfinn (1278-82) 
was exiled and died at Ter Doest in Flanders. Bishop 
Jorund (1285-86) was transferred to Trondlijem. A 
provincial council was held in 1380. The last Cath- 
olic bishop, Mogens (1513-37), was taken pri.soncr in 
his ca-stle at Hamar by Truid Ulfsltind, a Danish 
noble, and sent to Antvorskov in Denmark, where he 
was mildly treated until his death in 1542. There 
were at Hamar a cathednd chapter with ten canons, a 
school, a Dominican Priory of St. Olaf, and a monas- 
tery of the Canons Regular of St. Anthonv of Vienne. 

Hansen. Hamar oa dels Bishopper (Hamar. 18(56); Ramsetb, 
Hamars Bys Historic (ibid., 1899); Lanoe, De nnrske Klostres His- 
toric (Christiania, 18.i6), 374-77, .')S9-91; Hislorisk Tidntkrift. 
3rd series. I (Christiania, 1890), 113-40, 244-69, 277-334; III 
(Christiania, 1895), 379-411. 

A. W. Taylor. 




Harland, Henry, novelist, b. of New Englan<l 
parentage, at St. Petersburg, 1 Mar., 1861; d. at San 
Renio, 20 Dec, 1905. His father, Thomas Harland, 
of Norwich, Conn., was a New York lawyer of great 
ability. Henry attended the College of the City of 
New York. In 1881 he went to Harvard, where he 
studied theology for a year. The next year was 
spent in Italy, cliiefly in the best social and artistic 
circles of Rome. Returning a Cathohc at heart, he did 
not join the Church out of regard for his wife. Due at 
nine at his desk in the Surrogate's Court of New 
York, he rose at four a. m. and worked till eight on his 
first novel "As It Was Written" (New York, 1885). 
"Mrs. Peixada" and "The Yoke of the Thorah" fol- 
lowed. They form a sort of Jewish trilogy. His in- 
terest in the race grew out of his friendship for a 
young Hebrew. These and seven other successful 
novels were signed "Sidney Luska", a name and 
books which Harland, now a fastidious stylist, 
wished to sink in oblivion. Going to Paris in 1887, 
Harland and his wife soon settled in London. Their 
experiences he parodied in a l^lay, "The Light Sov- 
ereign" (1889). Henry Harland for years wrote only 
short stories of exquisite workmanship for various 
reviews. Some of them are over-redolent of the 
Latin-Quarter: they have been collected in "Made- 
moiselle Miss" (London, 1S93), "Grey Roses" 
(London, 1895), and "Comedies and EiTors" (Lon- 
don, 1898). 

The centre of a coterie of litterateurs, Harland pro- 
jected a quarterly for them, the black and white 
work being doneby Aubrey Beardsley (q. v.). Appear- 
ing in Jan., 1894, "The Yellow Book" made Harland 
and Beardsley the lions of t he hour, and the vogue con- 
tinued till Harland's faiUng health stopped the publica- 
tion in 1897. In this year Harland and his wife were 
received into the Church. In 1898 appeared "The 
Cardinal's Snuff Box", a delightfully buoyant novel 
of Italian life. It is so pervaded with the beauty of 
the Catholic Faith (as are all Harland's wi-itings from 
this on) that it has made converts. In 1902 was pub- 
lished his masterpiece, "The Lady Paramount", 
likened by John Oliver Hobbes to a Shakesperian 
comedy. In 1904 came "My friend Prospero", in 
the same charming vein. "The Royal End" (1909) 
was incomplete when Hai'land died. His wife 
finished it according to his notes. Despite ill health, 
Harland, always whimsically joyous, was, still more 
than Beard.sley, a "boy who never grew up". At 
thirty his physician gave him two years to hve, but 
he prolonged them to fourteen most fruitful ones. In 
sight of the home built by the family at Norwich, 
Conn., before 1776, Henry Harland hes buried near 
his people, but in consecrated ground, with a Roman 
cross at his head. 

GLASTONBOTtT (Mrs. Henrt Harland), The Life and Works 
of Henry Harland in Irish Monthly (Dublin, April, 1911), this, 
the only accurate account of Harland, ia reprinted from The 
Redwood (Santa Clara. California); Burke. Novels of Mr. Henry 
Harland in C'alh. World (New York, April, 1903); James, The 
Story Teller at Large in The Fortnightly Rev., LXIX (London); 
Athenamm (London, 30 Dec. 1905) ; The Times (London, 22 Dec, 
1905): The Bookman. XXII (New York, 1905-6), XXIX (1909); 
The Lamp, XXVI (New York); Current Literature, XL. 

Regina Randolph Jenkins. 
Hello, Ernest, French philosopher and essayist, 
b. at Lorient, Brittany, 4 Nov., 1828; d. at K6roman, 
near Lorient, 14 July, 1885. His father belonged to 
the French judiciary and was at the time of his 
death councilor at the Court of Cassation in Paris. 
He bequeathed to his son, besides a share in the 
little ancestral patrimony, K<5roman, an honourable 
name and an invincible veneration and love for the 
truth. Ernest Hello was from infancy extremely 
frail of physique, and this delicacy of h(^ulth, pursuing 
him tliniugli life, was a great obstacle in his labours 
and UMilcjublcdly the source of the tinge of melancholy 
which underlies his writings. From his earliest years 
H(?ll() manifested unusual power of intellect. At 

school at Rennes and later at the College Loiiis-le- 
Grand, in Paris, whence he graduated at the age of 
fifteen, he was first in his classes. In accordance with 
his father's wishes he read law, and was admitted after 
the most brilliant examinations, but refused to em- 
brace the profession because of a decision of his com- 
rades to the effect that a lawyer might not in 
conscience defend an unjust cause. Influenced by his 
admii-ation for Gratry and Lacordaii-e, he was at- 
tracted to theology and was instructed in this science 
by Abbe afterwards Bishop Baudry, then a professor 
at St-Sulpice. The thorough knowledge of principles 
which Hello thus acquired enabled him later to use 
his own powers of perception with perfect freedom 
and orthodoxy. In 1857 he married Zoe Berthier, 
daughter of an army officer and herself a WTiter of 
some ability. In the same year in conjunction with 
Georges Seigneur, he founded "Le Crois6", a daily 
paper devoted to the Catholic cause. Among his 
collaborators were Leon Gautier, Louis VeuiUot, Pere 
Ventura, Dubosq de Pesquidoux, Oscar Haward, and 
Numa IBoudet. The success of the journal was 
almost immediate, but after two years it was aban- 
doned, owing to some disagreement between the two 
founders. This was the great disappointment of 
Hello's Ufe. Thereafter he wrote for the press at 
large in France, Belgium, and even the LTnited States, 
"Le Propagateur" of New Orleans receiving some 
of his contributions. 

Hello's first book, "Renan, I'Allemagne et I'Athfi- 
isme" (1858), was a refutation of Renan, who had 
just published his "Etudes d'histoire rehgieuse". 
The book was received with acclaim and recognized 
as accomplishing the defeat of the famous apostate, 
but, yielding to the temper of the times. Frenchmen 
continued to read Renan and soon forgot Hello. 
An enlarged edition of this work under the title 
"Philosophic et ath^isme" appeared shortly after the 
author's death. It is, perhaps, the greatest of his 
works, exhibiting the full powers of his great mind, 
his remarkable gra.sp of basic truths, his perfect 
control of the instruments of philosophy and his 
own striking style. Hello made masterly transla- 
tions of the writings of Bl. Angela of Foligno and of 
the mystic Ruy.sbroeck. Besides these his published 
works are: "L'Homme", "Physionomies des saints", 
"Contes extraordinaires", "Paroles de Dieu", 
"Plateaux de la balance", and "Le Siecle". 
"L'Homme" is looked upon by his critics as his 
chief work. It is a collection of essays arranged under 
the three heads, fife, science, art, and imited by the 
Catholic standpoint of their author and their bearing 
upon the different departments of human activity. 
Since his death his works have passed through several 
editions, the seventh edition of "L'Homme" ap- 
pearing in 1905. Disdaining the spirit of compromise 
characteristic of his times Hello rejected the method 
inaugurated by Descartes and generally adopted in 
the systems of that day, making use, instead, of the 
principles of theology and philosophy as found in 
Scripture. His clear perception of fundamental princi- 
ples joined to his simple, lofty style won for him a 
small but intelligent and appreciative audience through 
whom his influence has spread. The "Physionomies 
des saints" has been translated into English under 
the title "Studies in Saintship" (London, 1903). 
Translations of some of the essays in "Plateaux de la 
balance" appeared some years ago in "The Catholic 
Review" (St. Louis), but the individuahty of his 
style defies successful translation. 

TERRE, Ernest Hello (Paris, 1895); Laserre, Preface to 
L'Homme and Le Siicle (Paris. 1905); Crawford. Introduction 
to Studies in Saintship (London, 1903); Barbey d'Al'Revilly 

in Lts rriti(iue3 ou le^ jiiges jugis (Paris, 1S85). 

Susan Tract Otten. 

Herbert of Lea, L.^dy Elizabeth, authoress, and 
philanthropist, b. in IS'22; d. in London 30 Oct., 1911. 




Lady Herbert was the daughter of General Charlea 
A'Court, who was a member of Parliament as well as a 
soldier, while her uncle, who afterwards became Lord 
Heytesbury, was British ambassador at St. Peters- 
burg. At the age of twenty-four EUzabeth A'Court, 
who moved in the best circles of early Victorian so- 
ciety, married one of the most promising and inde- 
pendent of the young politicians of the day, Sidney 
Herbert, the second son of the Earl of Pembroke. 
Naturally the wife made herself the sharer of her hus- 
band's interests. In the forties she was an ardent 
Peelite and, when young Herbert was made Secretary 
of War during the Crimean campaign, she became the 
ally and ardent helper of Florence Nightingale. In 
IStil Sidney Herbert, shortly after being created 
Baron Herbert of Lea, died, leaving her a widow with 
four sons and three daughters. Two of her sons suc- 
ceeded to the Earldom of Pembroke but only one of 
her children, who afterwards became by marriage 
Lady Mary von Hiigcl, followed Lady Herbert in her 
change of faith. This took place at Palermo in 1866 
and was largely due to the influence of Mamiing, who 
had been the friend both of herself and of her hus- 
band. From the time of her conversion Lady Her- 
bert became the centre and most zealous promoter of 
all Catholic charities and interests. The pen more 
cspeciallj' was consecrated to the cause, and for many 
years she produced a large number of books in rapid 
succession, partly original and partly translations, 
which found for the most part a ready sale. Among 
the best known of these may be mentioned: "Impres- 
sions of Spain" (1866); "Cradle Lands", i. e. Egypt 
and Palestine (1867); "Wives and Mothers of the 
Olden Time" (1871); "Wayside Tales" (ISSO). Be- 
sides these there were several stories, some of them 
autobiographical and a number of Lives, mostly 
translated or abbreviated from French originals, e. g. 
those of St. Monica, St. John Baptist de Rossi, Mgr. 
Dupanloup, Garcia Moreno, Mgr. de Merode, etc. 
Lady Herbert was a familiar figure in Rome, which she 
visited annually until almost the close of her long life. 
Apart, from many autobio)^aphical details incidentallv included 
in her writings, see also The Tablet (4 and 11 Nov., 1911). 

Herbert Thurston. 

Hidalgo, MiGrEL, b. on the ranch of San Vicente 
in the district of Guanajuato, 8 May, 17.53; executed 
at Chihuahua, 30 July, 1811. Hidalgo studied in the 
city of Valladolid, the present Morelia, and was or- 
dained priest in 1778. He occupied the chair of 
theolog}' and was later named rector of the College 
of San Nicholas, and finally appointed parish priest 
of Dolores in the state of Guanajuato. The town is 
now known as Dolores Hidalgo. He was a good 
French scholar and had read Rousseau, Beccaria, and 
Montesquieu. Manuel Abad y Queipo, afterwards 
canon and Bishop-elect of Michoacdn, also an ad- 
mirer of the French writers, was his warm friend, and, 
owing to their partiality for these writers, the Inqui- 
sition instituted secret proceedings against them in 
1800, but they were not pressed. While Hidalgo 
was parish priest of Dolores he encouraged the 
cultivation of the grape vine and silk worm. 

In 1810 a general wave of unrest swept over the 
whole of New Spain. Napoleon's invasion of Spain 
had fired the patriotism of the Spaniards, revealing 
to the Creoles the meaning of patriotism and love of 
country. The taxes levied on the colonies for the 
benefit of the mother countn.' al.«o bred discontent. 
These were the im|)elling forces that led to Mexican 
independence. A committee was organized under 
the name of Academia Literaria, whose secret plan 
was to work to obtain independence from Spain, and 
after some hesitation on his part the Cura Hidalgo 
was induced to join it. Through the treacherj- of 
one of the members the committee and its workings 
were exi)osed to the colonial Government and the 
order was issued to seize all those connected with the 

plot. Hidalgo was warned by Dona Josef a Ortiz 
of the betrayal of the committee, and without further 
delay he declared openly for independence on 16 Sej)t ., 
1810, the day upon which Mexico celebrates the 
anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. 
Augmenting his forces by recruits, mostly Indians, 
who joined him along the line of march, and selecting 
the banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe for his standard, 
Hidalgo marched to the important city of Guana- 
juato. After a brief struggle, the Alh6ndiga de 
Granaditas, where the municipal authorities and the 
Spanish citizens had taken refuge, was captured. 
Acts of violence and unwarranted pillage were com- 
mitted which will ever remain a stain upon the 
memory of the perpetrators. Hidalgo then turned 
toward Valladolid. Manuel Abad y Queipo, Bishop- 
elect of Michoacdn and former friend of Hidalgo, 
published an edict of excommunication against him 
and threatened with the same penalty, ipso jncto 
incurred, all those who should follow him. Several 
of the bishops followed his example. The historian, 
Miguel Migu^lez, O.S.A., remarks that "the inten- 
tion was to discredit Hidalgo by whatever means pos- 
sible, and if the latter erred in making use of religion 
to further the work of independence, the former were 
equally guilty in employing the same means to sup- 
press it". The fact remains that these edicts were 
most unfavourably received, as the oflicial deposition 
of Fray Sim6n de Mora, ^Iercedarian, made before 
the Inquisition, 20 Dec, 1810, amply bears witness. 

From ValladoUd Hidalgo turned his army towards 
the capital, and vanquished the colonial forces, com- 
manded by TrujiUo and Iturbide (the future em- 
peror), on the mount of Las Cruces, a short distance 
from the City of Mexico. Notwithstanding this 
victory Hidalgo did not dare march on to the capital, 
but returned to Queretaro. He was overtaken and 
vanquished at Aculco by Calleja, who had come from 
San Luis Potosi at the urgent call of the Viceroy 
Venegas. The movement he had initiated had, how- 
ever, spread throughout a greater part of the colonial 
possessions. After the defeat of Aculco Hidalgo 
went first to ValladoUd and then to Guadalajara, 
where he esfabhshed his headquarters. On 14 Jan. 
he was defeated by Calleja in the battle of Puente 
Grande near Guadalajara, and he surrendered the 
command of the army and retired to Zacatecas, and 
afterwards to Saltillo. He was captured on the 
charge of treason at Acatita de Bajan and taken to 
Cjhihuahua with his followers, the principal ones 
being Allende, Aldama, and Jimenez, and after 
being degraded was shot. 

Miou^LEZ, La independencia de Mixico (Madrid, 1910); 
AlamAn, Historia de Mixico (Mexico, 1849): P^rez Vkrdia, 
Compendio de la historia de Mixico (Mexico, 1911); Zarate, 
Mixico d traris de los sigtcs. III (Barcelona). 

Camillus Crivelli. 

Holar, Ancient See of. See Iceland. 

Hopkins, Gerard Maxley, Jesuit and poet, b. 
at Stratford, near London, 28 July, 1844; d. at 
Dublin, 8 June, 1S,S9. His early education was 
received at Cholmondeley School, Highgate, where 
he gave evidence of fine intcllectuid endowments, 
scholarly tastes, and poetical gifts above the ordinary. 
The numerous conversions from Anglicanism to the 
Catholic Church in the middle of the nineteenth 
centur}' together with the spirit of the Oxford Move- 
ment were not without their effect on the young 
student, and in Octob<T, I8()(i, he was received into 
the Church. In the following year he entered Balliol 
College, Oxford, having been prepared for his classical 
course by Walt<'r Pater. \'ciy soon his religious 
vocation manifestetl itself and he left tlu university, 
going to the Birmingham Oratory, where he spent 
a short time with Father Newman. In l.StiS he 
entered the Society of Jesus. After ordination he 




was sent to Liverpool where his work lay among 
the poor of the slums of that city. His next post was 
that of preacher in London, after which he was 
stationed at St. Aloysius' Church, Oxford, where the 
Baron and Baroness de Paravicini have erected a 
memorial to him. In 1884 he was elected fellow of the 
Royal University of Ireland and appointed classical 
examiner at Dublin, where he died of a contagious 
fever. While still at school he had WTitten verses 
of distinctive merit but in his ardour as a novice he 
destroyed his poems, a single fragment surviving, 

and he wrote no more for nearly ten years. The 
poetry which he subsequently wrote at various periods 
until the year of his death is of a very high quality. 
It resembles the poetry of Crashaw in its exuberance 
of language, its l>Tic qualities, and its daring meta- 
phors. The poems have never been collected, but 
many of them have been publi.shed in various anthol- 
ogies such as Beeching's "Lyra Sacra" and Miles' 
"Poets and Poetry of the Century". 

Br^qt, The Poeta' Chantry (London, 1912), 70-SS. 

Blanche M. Kellt. 


niuminati (.\lumbrados), the name assumed by 
some false mystics who appeared in Spain in the 
sixteenth century and claimed to have direct inter- 
course with God. They held that the human soul 
can reach such a degree of perfection that it con- 
templates even in the present life the essence of God 
and comprehends the mystery of the Trinity. All 
external worship, they declared, is superfluous, the 
reception of the sacraments useless, and sin im- 
possible in this state of complete union with Ilim 
Who is Perfection Itself. Carnal desires may be 
indulged and other sinful actions committed freely 
without staining the soul. The highest perfection 
attainable by the Christian consists in the elimination 
of all activity, the loss of individuality, and complete 
absorption in God (see Quietism). The peasant 
girl known as La Beata de Piedrahita (d. 1511) is 
cited among the early adherents of these errors; but 
it is not certain that she was guilty of heresy. At 
Toledo, which was one of the main centres of Illumin- 
ism, Isabella of the Cross is said to have carried on 
an active propaganda. More celebrated was Mag- 
dalen of the Cross, a Poor Clare of Aguilar near 
C6rdova, who, however, in 1546, solemnly abjured 
the heresjf. So rapidly did the errors gain ground 
that the Inquisition proceeded with relentless energj- 
against aU suspects, even citing before its tribunal 
St. John of Avila and St. Ignatius of Loyola. In 
spite of this determined action, however, the heresy 
maintained itself until the middle of the seventeenth 
century and some of its features reappear in the 
Quietism of the Spaniard Michael de Molinos. 

Men'^ndez t Pelayo, Historia de los heterodoxos espaflolea 
(Madrid, ISSOj. II. 521-585; 111,403-408: SraCTZ in Kirchen- 
Ifxikoti, s. V. ETleuchtete; Moroni, Dizionario di erud. stor-ecdetti- 

N. A. Weber. 

Ingen-Housz, .J.\n, investigator of the physiology- 
of plants, physicist, and physician, b. at Breda in 
North Brabant, 8 Dec, 1730; d. at London,? Sept., 
1799. He attended the Latin school at Breda, studied 
at Louvain, and later at Leyden, medicine, physics, 
and chemistry, and received the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine, although when and where the degree was 
obtained is unknown. Originally (from 1757) he 
practised medicine at Breda, but after the death of his 
father and on the invitation of the royal physician 
John Pringle he settled in London (1765), where he 
became acquainted wnth William Hunter, Alexander 
Monro, and George Armstrong. He studied the 
inocidation of children for small-pox, then a new 
theory, under Armstrong, and became a zealous advo- 
cate of it. In the spring of 1768 he wa-s called to 
Vienna to inoculate the imperial family, a task which 
he accomjilislu'd successfully, notwithstanding the 
hostility of the Viennese physician Anton de Haen. 
In 1780 he travelled from Vieiuia to Paris in order 
to make tlie acquaintance of Benjamin Franklin. 
The great, veneration he felt for Franklin caused 
Ingcn-Housz to determine to settle in America, b\it 

unex-pected occurrences, a long illness, and the death 
of Frankhn in 1790 prevented the carrying out of 
this plan. He returned, therefore, to London to re- 
gain his health, and to await the restoration of 
political peace before returning to Vienna. The re- 
mainder of his Ufe was .spent at London. In 1775 he 
married Agatha Maria Jacquin, sister of the Viennese 
botanist Nicholas Jacquin; the marriage was childless. 

To Ingen-Housz is due the discoverj' of the ex- 
change of gas in plants under the influence of light. 
The gi'een parts of plants, especially the leaves, exhale 
oxygen and absorb carbonic acid. In the dark the 
green parts exhale carbonic acid. The latter process 
goes on almost continuously in the parts of plants 
that are not green, as well as in the flowers and fruits. 
Before this Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) had ex- 
plained the exhalation of oxygen as a result of the 
growth of plants, but later he adopted the views of 
Ingen-Housz, without mentioning the latter; the 
same course was followed by Jean Senebier (1742- 
1809). Ingen-Housz discovered the vegetable char- 
acter of alga? and introduced in microscopies the use of 
the cover glasses (mica-scales). Fired by Franklin's 
discoveries he devoted himself as early as 1757 to the 
study of electricity; the ])late electrical machine is his 
invention. He supported the theory of Franklin's 
lightning conductor with a pointed tip, while in Eng- 
land a metal ball was used at the tip. Under his 
direction the palace and the powder-magazine at 
Vienna were equipped with Franklin's lightning- 
conductor. Mention should be made of his pro- 
posals concerning the construction of the ship's 
compass, the discover^' that platinum is paramagnetic, 
the experiments begim with Franklin on the con- 
duction of heat by metals, the discovery of oxv-- 
hydrogen gas, and the invention of an air pistol with 
electrical ignition. Besides introducing inoculation 
for small-pox into Austria Ingen-Housz proposed the 
inhalation of oxygen in diseases of the lungs. 

His most unportant works are, in botany: "Ex- 
periments upon Vegetables Discovering Their Great 
Power of Purifying the Common Air in the Sunshine" 
(London, 1779; German, 1780, 178t>-1790; Dutch. 
1780; French, 1780, 1785); "An Essay on the Food 
of Plants and the Renovation of Soils" (London, 
1796; German, 1798; Dutch, 1797); in physics: 
treatises in "Philosophical Transactions": "Easy 
Methods of Measuring the Diminution of Bulk, 
taking place upon the mixture of common and 
nitrous air, together with experiments on platina" 
(1776); "Electrical Ex-periments to Exi^lain how far 
the Phenomena of the Elect rophorus may be ac- 
counted for by Dr. Franklin's Theory" (1778); "On 
Some New Methods of Suspending Magnetic Needles'' 
(1779); "Account of a New Kind of Inflammable Air 
or Gas". "Vermischte Schriften ))hysiscli-medizin- 
ischen Inhaltes", transl.atcd by Nikl:i.s Karl Molitor 
(Vienna, 17S2; ^nd ed., 2 vols., 1784), contains all the 
papers which aii|)eared in the " Philosophical Transac- 
tions". The same iniscc-llany appeared in French 
and Dutch in 1785; "Miscellanea physico-medica", 


od. Jo. Andreas Scherer (Vienna, 1795). Manuscript, 
rollections of letters are privately owned, excepting 
the letters to Franklin which belongto the"American 
Philosophical Society" of Philadelphia; 27 letters 
written by Ingen-Housz are in the Imperial Library 
at Vienna; Franklin's letters, verbally in part, are to 


be found in the "Auktionskatalog VIH" of 11 Mar., 
1901, issued by Gilhofer and Ranschburg of Vienna. 
Old biographies by M. J. Godefroi (1875) and Theub (1880). 
in De Gids, No. 9, both in Dutch. The late-st biographv and an 
exhaustive one is by VViesner, Jan Ingen-Housz, Sein Leben und 
sein Wirken nls Naturjorscher und Arzt (Vienna, 1905). 

Leopold Senfelder. 

Janssen, Arnold, founder and first superior- 
general of the Society of the Divine Word, b. at 
Goch in the Rhine Province, Germany, 5 Nov., 1837; 
d. at Steyl, Holland, loJan., 1909. At a very tender age 
he manifested an inclination for the priesthood. 
After completing 
'^i. VQi '", ijil^i'i- I his Classical stu- 

■r i; /W&'. t iuQCk' dies at the dioce- 

san college of 
Gaesdonck in the 
northern Rhine 
Province, he took 
up the study of 
philosophy at the 
Academy of Mun- 
ster, and then 
entered the LTni- 
vcrsity of Bonn. 
Having c o ni - 
pleted his theolog- 
ical studies at 
Bonn and at MUn- 
ster, he was or- 
dained, 15 Aug., 
1861. He de- 
voted some years 
to pastoral work 
and the teaching 
of Christian doc- 
trine, in 1873 be- 
coming chaplain 
and director at theUrsuIine convent of Kempen. As 
diocesan president of the Apostleship of Prayer he 
laboured for the propagation of that association, and 
in this capacity felt called to foimd a missionary cen- 
tre for Germany. The result was the establishment 
of the Mission House of St. Michael at Steyl, Hol- 
land, 8 Sept., 1875. Out of this grew the Society of 
the Divine Word, which received canonical approba- 
tion in 1901. The congregation now has flourishing 
missions in all parts of the world, and, besides that at 
Stejd, has four mission houses in Germany and 
Austria and two in the United States. The institu- 
tion at Techny, 111., called St. Mar)-'s Mission House, 
was opened 2 Feb., 1909, and was followed by an- 
other mission house, opened September, 1912, at 
Girard, Pa, the object of both institutions is to edu- 
cate priests for the heathen missions in charge of the 
society. The spirit of the founder lives also in the 
many educational institutions conducted by the mem- 
bers of the Society of the Divine Word. In conjunc- 
tion with his missionary work Father Janssen in 1889 
founded the congregation of the Servant Sisters of 
the Holy Ghost, who assist the priests in their 
missionary undertakings. This congregation num- 
bers some 600 sisters, who have a home for the aged 
at Techny, 111. In 1912 Father Jan.ssen's society 
numbered 625 priests, 1250 students for the priest- 
hood, and 800 lay brothers. 

Herm. Richarz. 

Jesu Dulcis Memoria, a poem ranging from forty- 
two to fifty-three stanzas (in various manuscripts), 
from which the Roman Breviary takes twelve stanzas 
to form the three hymns of the Office of the Holy 
Name: "Jesu dulcis memoria" (Ve.spers), "Jesu rex 

admirabilis" (Matins), "Jesu decus angelicum" 
(Lauds). A feature of the long poem is the single 
rhymic scheme for a stanza, e. g.: 

Jesu dulcis memoria, 
Dans vera cordis gaudia, 
Sed super mel et omnia 
Ejus dulcis praesentia. 

The ascription of authorship to St. Bernard is general 
and, thinks Mcarns (Diet, of Hyninology, 1892), 
probable — a view which he is still "inclined "to in the 
second edition of the "Dictionary" (1907). Gu6r- 
anger thought that certain manuscripts "prove be- 
yond a doubt" that it was composed in the fourteenth 
century by a Benedictine abbess — a view contra- 
dicted by the MSS. cited by Mearns, of about 1200. 
Blunie (.see Hymnody and Hymnology) denies its 
authorship by St. Bernard, and Dom Pothier (Re\T]e 
bencdictine, X, 147) in a MS. of the eleventh 
century, ascribed to a Benedictine abbess (St. Bernard 
was born in 1090). 

Mearns in liirtinnnry of Hymnology (2nd cd.. London, 1907), 
585, 15.3(1, lt'-')r.: to the list should be added trs. by Bagshawe, 
Breviary Jlymns nn,l Missal Sequences (London, 1900); Donahoe, 
Early Chrislian Hymns, series I (New York, 1908); Henry in 
American Ecclesiastical Review (Jan., 1900), Latin text, tr.. and 
comment, and (Feb., 1900), comment on authorship. 

H. T. Henry. 

Johnson, Lionel Pigot, b. at Broadstairs on the 
Kentish coast, 15 Mar., 1867; d. 4 Oct., 1902. He 
was the youngest son of Captain William Victor 
Johnson, of the 90th Light Infantry, and his wife 
Catharine Delicia, only daughter of Robert Walters, 
Esq., barrister-at-law. The family is that of the 
Johnsons of Bath, Baronets, allied to many well- 
known houses. Lady Johnson, Lionel's paternal 
grandmother, was a Philipse of Rhual in Flintshire, 
daughter of the landowner who gave his name to 
Philipsburg, New York. Her father-in-law. General 
Sir Henry Johnson, was Governor of Ross Castle, 
Ireland, in 1798, and remorselessly active in putting 
down the patriot insurrection of that year. He mar- 
ried Rebecca, daughter of David Franks, a wealthy 
Hebrew citizen of Philadelphia. These direct an- 
cestral details throw light upon Lionel Johnson's 
equitable and liberal spirit, and point the natural 
origin of his love for Wales, his understanding of 
American ideals, and his intense enthusiasm for Ire- 
land, which in his later years flamed far above his 
feeling for his own country. Only by courtes}' can 
he be called an Irishman. As a convert Catholic 
Nationalist, he stood as the obverse of the Anglo- 
Irish Protestant Tory of his blood ju,st mentioned. 
In all branches of this family and as far back as the 
pedigree goes, its men were and are officers in the 
British army; and a certain soldierliness, elements of 
order, strength, andauthority, are evident under Lionel 
Johnson's literary fabric. He was educated tit Win- 
chester College, always dear to him, and at New Col- 
lege, Oxford, where he graduated with honors in I.S90. 
On St. .Vlban's Day, 1891, he was received into the 
Catholic Church byFr. Lockhart. at St. Etheldreda's, 
Ely Phice, London. From 1S91 to 1001 he wrote 
constantly, living alone in Gray's Inn Squ.are, Lin- 
coln's Inn Squ.are, and Clifford's Inn respectively. 
He never married. He died from the results of a 




slight fall, and was buried in St. Mary's Cemetery, 
Kensal Green. There is a lovinglj' inscribed tablet 
to his memory in Winchester College cloisters. 

Lionel Johnson published only three books: "The 
Art of Thomas Hard)'", a singularly ripe essay and 
study (1894); his "Poems" (1895); and a second 
collection, "Ireland and Other Poems" (1897). 
Besides these, many of hi.s critical papers and fugitive 
reviews, with a brief memoir, have been gathered by 
an American editor, and issued by Elkin Mathews, 
London, under the title of "Post Liminium" (1911). 
There have been three small imprints of his selected 
verse, one of these (1912) containing a partly bio- 

graphical study of the poet from "The Atlantic 
Monthly". He was a small, frail, young-looking 
man, with a fine head and brow, quick of foot, gentle 
of voice, and with manners of grave courtesy. He 
greatly loved his friends in a markedly spiritual way, 
always praying for them, absent or present. His 
sound Cathohc principles, his profound scholarship, 
his artistic sensitiveness, his play of wisdom and 
humor, his absolute literary honour, with its "passion 
for perfection" from the first, show nobly in his prose 
work. His lyrics are full of beauty and poignancy, 
but perhaps have in them something taxing. 



Kearney, Diocese of (Kearnbtiensis), Ne- 
braska. By Decree of the Sacred Consistorial Con- 
gi-egation of 8 March, 1912, Pius X divided into two 
parts the territory of the Diocese of Omaha, erecting 
the western part into a new and distinct diocese with 
its see at Kearney. The first Bishop is Right Rev. 
James Albert Duffy, ordained, 27 May, 1893, ap- 
pointed to the see, 25 January, 1913. He resides 
at Kearney. The diocese comprises an area of 
38,000 square miles, and includes the following coun- 
ties: Keyapaha, Rock, Garfield, Valley, Sherman, 
Buffalo, Cheyenne, Kimball, Banner, Scotts, Bluff.s, 
Sioux, Dawes, Box Butte, Morrill, Garden, Sheridan, 
Cherry, Grant, Hooker, Thomas, McPherson, Logan, 
Custer, Blane, Loup, Brown, and part of the counties 
of Dawson, Lincoln, Keith, and Deuel. The new dio- 
cese was made suffragan to Dubuque. The Cathohc 
population is about 15,200. There are 58 churches, 21 
parishes, 35 missions, 34 stations (without churches), 
1 academy, and 3 parochial schools with over 680 
pupils. The Sisters of St. Francis ihave schools at 
Ashton and Alhance, and an hospital at AUiance. 
(See Nebraska; Omaha, Diocese of). 


Keating, Geoffrey, Irish theologian, historian, 
and poet, b. at Burgess in the parish of Tubbrid, Co. 
Tipperary, about 1569; d. at Tubbrid about 1644. 
He studied first at a Latin school near Cahir, and 
afterwards frequented various Irish schools in Mun- 
ster and Leinster. In accordance with the custom 
which prevailed in Ireland during the period of 
Protestant persecution he was ordained a Mass- 
priest at the age of twenty-four and then sent 
abroad for his philosophical and theological studies. 
He formed one of the band of forty students who 
sailed in November, 1603, under the charge of the 
Rev. Diarmaid MacCarthy to Bordeaux to begin 
their studies at the Irish College which had been 
founded in that city by the Archbishop of Bordeaux, 
Cardinal Francois de Sourdis, in that same year. 
On his arrival m France he WTote a poetical "Fare- 
well to Ireland", and a "Lament on the Sad State of 
Ireland", when the news of the Flight of the Earls 
(14 Sept., 1607) reached him. After obtaining the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity at the University of 
Bordeaux he returned about 1610 to Ireland and was 
appointed to the cure of souls at Uachtar Achaidh in 
the parish of Knockraffan, near Cahir, where he put 
down the then prevalent abuse of delaying Mass until 
the neighbouring gentry arrived. 

In 1613 a spy reported "Dr. Keating in the Countie 
of Tiperario", and in 1615 another spy reported that 
there was "in the diocese of Lismore Father Geoffrey 
Keating, a preacher and Jesuit, resorting to all parts 
of tlie diocese". About 1620, his fearless preaching 
aroused the anger of a lady of rather loose morals, 
EUinor Laffan, wife of Squire Mockler. She invoked 
the aid of her relative, Donough O'Brien, Earl of 

Thomond, President of Munster, then residing at 
Limerick. The penal laws were put in force against 
Keating and he had to take refuge in a cave. Poll 
Grdnda, in Gleann Eatharlach in the recesses of 
the Galtees. When the storm had abated some- 
what, he resolved to devote himself to literary work 
and he travelled through the country in disguise under 
an assumed name. During the next six years he 
collected materials for his historical and theological 
works, visiting Leinster, Connaught, and Ulster. In 
spite of all obstacles he finished the preface to his 
history in 1629, the first part in 1631, and the second 
part in 1632 or somewhat later. The same year, 1631, 
also saw the completion of his "Trl Biorghaoithe an 
Bhdis" (The Three Shafts of Death), a series of moral 
reflections on death and on the conduct of human 
life, and his " Eochairsciath an Aifrinn" (The Key- 
Shield of the Mass), a defence of the Mass against 
heretics and an explanation of it for the faithful. A 
small silver chalice bearing the following inscription: 
"Dominus Galfridus Keatinge, Sacred (os) Sacra 
Theologiae Doctor me fieri fecit 23 Februarii 1634", 
is still preserved in the parish church of Cappoquin, 
Co. Waterford. He composed a poetical elegj' on 
Edmund Butler, third Lord Dunboyne, 17 March, 1640, 
and another on Thomas and John Butler, sons of 
Lord Dunboyne, who fell in battle. He had already 
written elegies on James Butler, son of the Earl of 
Knocktopher, 1620, John 6g Fitzgerald, Lord of the 
Decies, 1 March, 1626, and Thomas Butler, fourth 
Lord Cahir, 1627. 

In 1644 during the supremacy of the Catholic 
Confederation a small oratory, called Teampul 
Chiarain, was built in the north-east corner of the 
graveyard of Tubbrid, his native parish, and a slab 
over the door of it bears an inscription which seems to 
indicate that Keating was dead at that time. The 
few poems of later date ascribed to him in some manu- 
scripts are probably the work of Pddraigln Haic^.id, a 
contemporary poet. In addition to his poems and the 
three great prose works above mentioned, "Eochair- 
sciath an Aifrinn", "Tri Biorghaoithe an Bhdis", and 
"Forus Feasa ar Eirinn", Keating also WTote two 
smaller devotional treatises, "Psaltair Mhuire" 
(The Psalter of Mary), a series of meditations on 
the Rosary of the Blessed Virgin, pubHshed for the 
first time in the "Irish Rosary" (Dubhn) August, 
1908-August, 1909, by Richard Foley, and a similar 
work still unpublished, "Cor6in Mhuire" (The Crown 
of Mary). Geoffrey Keating was proficient in the, Latin, and Enghsh languages and his wTitings 
prove him a consummate master of Cathohc theology, 
Irish style, native history, and legendary lore. His 
history has been undeservedly criticized. It has 
been blamed for the inclusion of legends, which is in 
fact one of its greatest nierits and lias earned for him 
the title of the Irish llerodotus. But besides legends 
he has also preserved us some important early 
ecclesiastical records which would otherwise have 




been lost, such as the Acts of the Synod of Rath 
Breasail at the beginning of the twelfth century when 
Ireland was first divided into its modern dioceses. 
Eugene O'Curry remarks that: "It would be more 
becoming those who have drawn largely and often 
exclusively on the WTitings of these two eminent men 
(Father John Colgan and Dr. Geoffrey Keating) and 
who will continue to draw on them to endeavour to 
imitate their industry and scholarship than to at- 
tempt to elevate themselves to a higher position of 
literary fame by a display of critical pedantry and 
what the}' suppose to be independence of opinion 
in scoffing at the presumed croduhty of those whose 
labours have laid in modern times the very ground- 
work of Irish history." 

The following is a list of the first complete editions 
of each of Keating's works: — "Tri Biorghaoithe an 
Hhiiis" (The Three Shafts of Death), ed. Robert 
Atkinson, LL.D., for the RojmI Irish Academy (Dub- 
hn, 1S90); " Eochairsciath an Aifrinn", ed. Patrick 
O'Brien (Dublin, 1895); "Ddnta, Amhrdin is Ca- 
ointe" (Poems, Songs and Elegies), ed. Rev. John C. 
MacErlean, S.J., for the Gaehc League (Dublin, 
1900); "Forus Feasa ar fiirinn" (The History of Ire- 
land), text and translation, ed. David Comyn, vol. I 
(London, 1902), and Rev. Patrick S. Dineen 
vol. II and III (London, 1908), for the Irish Texts 
Society (London); "Psaltair Mhuire", ed. Richard 
Foley, serially in the "Irish Rosary" (Dublin), 
.\ugust, 1908-August, 1909. None of these works 
has been translated into English except the "His- 
tory", of which three different complete English trans- 
lations have been pubhshed : by Dermod O'Connor 
(London, 172.3), frequently reprinted ; by John O'Ma- 
hony (New York, 1886), second edition, and by David 
Comyn and Rev. P.S. Dinneen (London. 1902-1908). 

Calendar of State Papers: Ireland (1619): G. F. [John Roche], 
VindiciT Hibernim, etc. (Antwerp, 1621); the anonymous Dia- 
aertation prefixed to the Clanrickarde Memoirs (London, 1722) ; 
MacCjJeogbegan, //isioirede r/rtondeancienne el modeme (Paris, 
175S). 63; Ordinance Survey Letters, Co. Derry (1835); Bubke in 
Journal of the Waterford Archieological Society (1895-1907). For 
Lives of Geoffrey Keating see Henbgan in Mor^ri. Diciionnaire 
historique (Paris, 1759) ; Halliday. preface to Forus Feasa ar 
Eirt'nn (Dublin. 1811): Mac Eblean. preface toDnn'a. Amhrdin, 
is Caninle Shealhruin Ciitinn (Dublin, 1900); FoLEV, Saoglmlrt 
Shealhr,iin CMinn (Dublin, 1908). j^gj, MacErlE.^N. 

Keewatin, Vicariate Apostolic of, includes the 
northern half of the Province of Saskatchewan, and is 
bounded on the north by the Arctic regions, on the 
south by the .\rchdiocese of St. Boniface, on the east 
by Temiskaming Vicariate, and on the west by the 
Diocese of St. Albert and the Vicariate of Athabaska. 
The country in general is barren and uninteresting, 
though possessing some timber and mineral resources; 
it is sparsely inhabited by Indians, half-breeds, and a 
few whites. It was first visited by pioneer mission- 
aries in the nineteenth century, when Mgr. Pro- 
vencher. Bishop of St. Boniface, sent Abb(^ Thibault 
to Ile-a-la-Crosse (184.5), .\bb6 Lafleche (later Bishop 
of Three Rivers) to explore the Cumberland district 
(1846), and Father Tach6, O.M.I, (later Archbishop 
of St. Boniface), to join Lafleche at Ile-i-la-Crosse 
(1846), and thence visit Lake Caribou (1847). These 
and surrounding missions were subsequently served 
by Oblates of the Manitoba or Alberta-vSaskatchewan 
Provinces. Prominent among these since 1887 has 
been the Rev. Ovide Charlebois who.«e administrative 
capacities, proved during sixteen years' ministry at 
Fort Cumberland, led in 19(X) to his nomination as 
Visitor of the Cumberland District Indian Missions 
in 1903, to his appointment as director of Duck Lake 
Indian Industrial school, .and, in 1010, to his preconiza- 
tion as titular Bishop of Berenice and Vicar Apostolic 
of Keewatin, with residence at Le Pas. There are in 
the vicariate; I.t Ob!;ite Fathers of Mary Immaculate, 
,8 Oblate Brothers of Mary fmm:iculate, 12 Orey Nuns 
(Montreal), 10 Oblate Sisters of the Sacred Heart .and 
Mary Immaculate (St. Boniface), 4 Grey Nuns (St. 

Hyacinth), 10 churches with 16 out-stations; 11,000 
Indians, Montagnais, Cree, and Esquimaux, of whom 
7000 are Catholics and 5000 non-Catholics or pagans 
(chiefly Esquimaux). Indian boarding-schools at Nor- 
way House (Oblate Sisters, 20 pupils), Lac Laplonge 
[Grey Nims (Montreal), 50 pupils], a general hospital 
at Le Pas [Grey Nuns (St. Hyacinth), 25 beds], a 
Cathohc (French-Enghsh) school at Le Pas [Grey 
Nuns (St. Hyacinth) ]. 

Tach^, Vingt annees dc missions; Benoit, Vie de Mgr. Tachi, 
I (Montreal), passim; Charlebois, Debuts d'un evtque mission- 
naire (Montreal). j_ ^ Q^^^^_ 

Kickham, Charles Josei'h, patriot, novelist, and 
poet, b. at Mullinahone, Co. Tipperary, Ireland, 1828; 
d. at Blackrock, Co. Dubhn, 22 Aug., 1882. He was the 
son of John Kickham, a wealthy draper of MuUina- 
hone, and Anne O'Mahony, lovingly described in his 
novel "Sally Cavanagh", a kinswoman of the Fenian 
chief, John O'Mahony. When he was about fifteen 
years old, his siglit and hearing were permanently 
injured by the explosion of a flask of damp gun- 
powder which he was drying. He took part in the 
Young Ireland Movement in 1848, and helped to 
found the Confederate Club at Mullinahone. After 
the failure of the rising at Ballingarry, near his home, 
he was forced to hide for a time. A little later he 
joined the Tenant Right League, and when it failed 
he lost faith in legal agitation. He joined the 
Fenians about 1860, and was appointed one of the 
editors of "The Irish People", the organ of the 
Fenian Party, along with John O'Leary and T. C. 
Luby. Arrested at Fairfield House, Sandymount, 
Dublin, 11 Mar., 1865, he was tried for treason felony 
at Dublin, 5 Jan., 1856, and sentenced by Judge 
Keogh to fourteen years' penal ser\-itude. On his 
way to his cell he picked up a piece of paper from the 
ground. It was a picture of the Blessed V'irgin. 
He kissed it reverently, saying to the warder: "I 
have been accustomed to have the likeness of the 
Mother of God morning and evening before my eyes 
since I was a child. Will you aak the governor if I 
may keep this?" His health, always weak, gave way 
in prison, but he bore up bravely. The question of 
his ill-treatment in prison was raised in Parliament 
(7-26 May, 1867) by John Francis Maguh-e, M.P. for 
Cork, and, from sohtary confinement at Pentonville, 
Kickham was removed to the invalid prison at 
Woking, and finally released in March, 1869, when 
his health had been shattered and he had practically 
lost his eyesight. He was returned as member of 
Parliament for Co. Tipperary (1869), but defeated 
upon a scrutiny, 26 Feb., 1870. Thenceforth he con- 
fined himself to literary work. 

Kickham contributed largely to Irish national 
periodicals, such as "The Nation" (1848), "The 
Irishman" (1849-.50), "The Celt" (1857), another 
paper called "The Irishman" (1858), "The Irish 
People" (1865), "The Shamrock", "The Irish 
Monthly" (1881). His articles in these papers ap- 
peared over various signatures, e. g. "K. MulUna- 
hone", "C. J. K.", "Slievenamon", "J." "Momonia". 
His best known poems are: "The Priest and his 
People"; "Rory of the HiU"; "The Irish Peasant 
Girl", who hke himself "Uved beside the Anner at 
the foot of Slievenamon"; and "Patrick Sheehan". 
Among his shorter prose writings are his "Memoir 
of Edward Walshe"; "Poor Mary Maher"; "Annie 
O'Brien"; "Never Give Up"; "Joe Lonergan's Trip 
to the Lower Regions". During his imprisonment 
he wrote his first novel, "Sally Cavanagh or the 
Untenanted Graves" (published in 1869 with a 
portrait of the author), a .simple tale of love among 
the sm.all f.aniier, describing the tragic rcsiihs of 
landlordism and emigration but enlivened with 
touches of humour. "Knocknagow or the Homes of 
Tipperary" (1879) is his masterpiece, and is con- 
sidered by many the greatest of Irish novels. It 




consists of a series of pictures of life in a village in 
Co. Tipperary so true to nature that they could not 
have been WTitten but by one who knew and loved 
the people. He left behind another novel, "For the 
Old Land or a Tale of Twenty Years ago" (published 
in 1886), treating also of the small farmers under the 
old land system. His serial "Elsie Dhu " began in the 
"Shamrock" of 24 June, 1882, shortly before his 
death. No writer has produced more faithful pic- 
tures of Irish country life. He had wonderful powers 
of observation and delicate analysis of character. 
He wrote with restrained simphcity, and was skilful 
in intermingling humour and pathos. No other 
novels give a truer insight into the character and 
CathoUc spirit of the Irish peasantry. 

M. R., Introduction to Knocknagow, ed. Duffy (Dublin. 1879) ; 
Hamilton in Did. Nat. Biog., s. v.: O'DoNOGHnE, The Poets of 
Ireland (Dublin, 1912). s. v.; O'Leary, Recollections of Fenians 
and Fenianism (Dublin, 1896); Irish Book Lover, II, III (1910- 
1912) ; Brown, Reader's Guide to Irish Fiction (Dublin, 1910). 

John MacErlean. 
Kottayam, Vicariate Apostolic of, on the Mal- 
abar Coast, India. — This vicariate forms part of the 
territory of the ancient Church of Malabar, which 
was founded by St. Thomas and was governed by 
Syro-Chaldean bishops until the end of the sixteenth 
century. In 1600 the Portuguese authorities sub- 
stituted Latin for the Syro-Chaldean bishops, and 
from this date until 1887 the Syro-Chaldean CathoUcs 
remained under the jurisdiction of the Latin bishops 
of Verapoly and Cranganore and, on the suppression 
of that see, of Goa. By the Brief "Quod jampri- 

dem" of 20 May, 1887, Leo XIII separated the 
churches of the Syrian Rite on the Malabar Coast 
from the Latin churches, and, while leaving the lat- 
ter under the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Ver- 
apoly and the Bishop of Cochin, erected the SjTian 
churches into two vicariates ApostoUc for Northern 
and Southern Malabar, styUng them the Vicariates 
of Trichur and Kottayam and declaring them inde- 
pendent of the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical prov- 
ince of Verapoly. By the Brief "Queb rei sacra;" of 
28 July, 1896, a new division of the territory was 
effected; namely, into the three Vicariates of Trichur, 
Ernakulam, and Changanacherry, Kottayam being 
thus suppressed. On 29 August, 1911, however, 
Pius X, by the Decree "In Universi Christiani" 
restored the Vicariate Apostolic of Kottayam for the 
section of the SjTO-Malabar Christians known as the 
Suddhists, and it now includes all the Suddhist 
churches and chapels in the vicariates of Ernakulam 
and Changanacherrv. The vicar Apostolic is the 
Right Rev. Mary NIatthew Makil, D.D., Bishop of 
Tralles (b. on 27 ISIarch, 18.51 ; consecrated on 2.5 Oct., 
1896), who was transferred from Changanacherry by 
the Brief " Magni momenti" of 13 August, 1911. The 
latest statistics for the vicariate show: 1 bishop; 30 
(secular) priests; 12 seminarists; 19 sisters in 2 con- 
vents; 3 secondary schools for boys and 2 for girls; 
35 parochial schools; 2 boarding schools; 1 orphan- 
age; 29,530 Catholics. 

Catholic Directory of India (Madras, 1912). 


LaFarge, John, painter, decorator, and writer, b. 
at New York, 31 March, 1835; d. at Providence, 
Rhode Island, 1-1 Nov., 1910. His parents were John 
Frederick de LaFarge, a French naval officer, and 
Louise Josephine Binsse (de St. Victor). Though his 
interest in art was 
aroused during his 
college training at 
Mount St. Mary's 
and For d h a m 
only the study of 
law in \iew imtil 
he returned from 
his first ^^sit to 
Paris, where he 
studied with Cou- 
ture and enjoyed 
the most brilliant 
literary society of 
I he day. Even 
his earliest draw- 
ings and land- 
si-apes, done in 
Newport, Rhode 
Island, after his 
marriage in 1861 
with IVIargaret 
Mason Perry, show marked originality, especially in the 
handling of colour values, and also the influence of Jap- 
anese art,, in the study of which he was a pioneer. La 
Farge's inquiring mind led him to exiieriment with col- 
our problems, especially in the medium of .stained glass. 
He succeeded not only in rivalling the gorgeousness 
of the medieval windows, but in adding new resources 
by his invention of o])alesccnt glass and his original 
methods of superimposing and welding his material. 
Among his many masteriiicces are the "Battle Win- 
dow" at Harv;ir<l and (he rUiisoiini "Peacock Win- 
dow" in the Worcester .\rt Museum. During 1859- 
70 he illustrated "Enoch Arden" and Browning's 
"Men and Women". Breadth of observation and 

structural conception, and a vivid imagination and 
sense of colour are shown by his mural decorations. 
His first work in mural painting was done in Trinity 
Church, Boston, in 1873. Then followed his decora- 
tions in the Church of the Ascension (the large altar- 
piece) and St. Paul's Church, New York. For the 
State Capitol at St. Paul he executed, in his seventy- 
first year, four great lunettes representing the history 
of rehgion, and for the Supreme Court building at 
Baltimore, a similar series with Justice as the theme. 
In addition there are his numberless minor paintings 
and water colours, notably those recording his exten- 
sive travels in the Orient and South Pacific. 

LaFarge's writings include: "The American Art 
of Glass" (a pamphlet); "Considerations on Paint- 
ing" (New York, 1895); "An Artist's Letters from 
Japan" (New York, 1897); "The Great Masters" 
(New York); "Hokusai: a talk about Japanese 
painting" (New York, 1897); "The Higher Life in 
Art" (New York, 1908); "One Hundred Great Mas- 
terpieces"; "The Christian Story in Art"; and the 
unpublished "Letters from the South Seas"; and 
"Correspondence". His labours in almost every 
field of art won for him from the French Government 
the Cross of the Legion of Honour and membership in 
the principal artistic societies of America, as well as 
the presidency of the Society of Mural Painters. 
Enjoying an extraordinary knowledge of languages 
(ancient and modern), Uterature, and art, by his 
cultured personality and reflective conversation he 
greatly influenced all who knew him. Though natur- 
ally a questioner he venerated the traditions of 
religious art, and preserved always his childlike 
Catholic Faith and reverence. 

W^ERN John LaFarge in Portfolio Series: CoRTissoz, John 
LaFarge (New York, 1911); New York Evening Post (15 Nov.. 
iniO) ; BouROET, Outre Mer; LaFarge in .America (27 May. New 

Y'lrk, 1911). John LaFarge. 

Lambert, Louis A., priest and journalist, b. at 
Ch;irl.i()i, Pinn.svlvania, 13 .Vpril, 1835; d. at New- 
foundland, New'jersey, 25 Sept., 1910. Educated 
at St. Vincent's College and the Seminary of St. 




Louis, he was ordained for the Diooose of Alton in 
18.59. During the Ci^nl War he was chaplain to the 
Eighteenth Regiment of Illinoi.<; Infantry (1861-.3), 
and was under fire in many engagements, inchiding 
the battle of Shiloh. From 1863 to 1,868 he was on 
the mi.ssion at Cairo and Shawneetown, Illinois, and 
later at Seneca Falls and Waterloo in New York. 
When the Paulist Fathers established their house of 
studies at New York, Lambert was given the chair of 
moral theologj". From 1890 till his death he was 
pastor of Scotts\'ille, New York. For many years 
Dr. Lambert devoteid his efforts to the upbuilding 
of the Catholic Press; he founded and edited the 
"Catholic Times" of Buffalo (1S74-80), which was 
amalgamated with the "Catholic llnion", and became 
chief of the editorial staff of the Philadelphia "Cath- 
olic Times" (18S0-.S2), and New York "Freeman's 
Journal" (1894-1910). When the Buffalo papers 
were amalgamated Dr. Lambert was engaged to 
contribute a series of articles to the "CathoUc 
Union"; he selected as his theme the teachings of 
. Robert IngersoU, the leading .\merican agnostic. 
Ingersoll, though quite ignorant of even natural 
theologj' or the principles of logic, wild in his asser- 
tions, and badly informed, was, notwithstanding, 
gifted with an eloquent, witty tongue and facile pen 
and had WTOught great havoc among the j-ounger 
generation of Americans, and the learned attempts of 
non-Catholic writers to silence him were unavaiUng. 
In his series of articles, published later in book form 
as "Notes on IngersoU", Dr. Lambert pointed out in 
familiar language the agnostic's multitudinous errors 
in religion, history, science, and even grammar. His 
method was simple, suited to the mental capacity of 
his untrained readers and so to Ingersoll's. The 
latter failed to reply, and as a result his immense 
popularity waned at once. Since then, wherever the 
agnostic's WTitings have been propagated, the "Notes 
of IngersoU" has provided an excellent antidote, and 
has been utilized largely by non-Catholics. Dr. 
Lambert wTOte later his "Tactics of Infidels" (Buffalo, 
1887), a more scientific work, exposing the methods 
resorted to by the opponents of Chri.stianity. In addi- 
tion he compo.sed "Thesaurus biblicus", a handbook 
of Scriptural references, and "A Reply to Inger-soU's 
Christmas Sermon"; edited "Catholic Belief" by 
Faadi Bruno; and translated "The Christian Father", 
and "Instructions on the Gospels of the Year"; but 
his memory is best assured by his simple and com- 
plete refutation of Ingersoll. In his last illness he 
WTote for the Eucharistic Congress of Montreal 
(1910) a paper on "Some popular Objections to Belief 
in the Real Presence", which was read in his absence 
and received the highest praise from the delegates. 

Brief biographira! notice in Notes on Ingersoll (London, 1884J: 
Smith in Are Maria, LXXI (Notre Dame, Indiana, 1910), 

A. A. MacErle.\x. 

Lanigan, Joh.v, church historian, b. at Cashel, 
County Tipperary, Ireland, in 1758; d. at Finglas, 
Dublin, 8 July, 182.5. He was one of the Ui Langa- 
chain of Hy Coonagh, near the Crotta Cliach, and 
the eldest son of Thomas Lanigan, a schoolmaster, 
and his wife, Mary .Vnne Dorkan. He received his 
early training from his father and in a private Prot- 
estant Cla-ssical school at Cashel, similar Catholic 
schools being forbidden in Ireland at that time hy 
law. In 1776 he went to the Irish College at Rome 
to study for the priesthood, and after a r.apid and 
brilliant course was ordained. By the advice of 
Pietro Tamburini he left Rome and accei)ted the 
chair of ecclesiastical history and Hebrew in the 
University of Padua. In 1786 he refused to take 
part in the famous diocesan Synod of Pistoia, though 
offered the position of theologian to the synod. In 
179.'} he published his " In.stitutionum biblicarum 
pars prima" (Pavia), a learned work containing much 

valuable matter concerning the history of the books 
of the Old and New Testaments; the two other parts 
which he planned were not written. On 28 June, 
1794, he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
from his university. On the Napoleonic invasion 
two years later he retvirned to Ireland, arriving at 
Cork destitute. His application to Bishop Moylan 
of Cork for pecuniary assistance was unheeded, prob- 
ably because the bishop suspected him of Jansenism 
owing to his association with Tamburini and the 
Pavian clergj-. A similar result following his efforts 
to be accepted in his native archdiocese, he wandered 
on to Dublin, where he was taken in as an assistant 
priest by the vicar-general, leather Hamil, a fellow 
student of his Roman days. Soon afterwards he was 
appointed professor of Scripture and Hebrew in May- 
nooth CoUege on the recommendation of the Arch- 
bishops of Armagh and Dublin. Dr. Moylan, however, 
raised difficulties; he proposed that Lanigan should 
first sign a formula used to test the Cathohcity of the 
numerous French clergy who were taking refuge in 
Ireland at that time. Lanigan, seeing no justification 
for this proposal, refused and resigned. 

On 2 May, 1799, Lanigan accepted a position aa 
assistant librarian and foreign correspondent of the 
Royal Dublin Society, and began to work on hia 
"Ecclesiastical History of Ireland from the first in- 
troduction of Christianity among the Irish to the 
beginning of the thirteenth centurv", which was not, 
however, published till 1822 (4 vols., 8vo, Dublin). 
This masterly work, still the leading authority on 
its subject, did much to ex-pose the inaccuracies 
of Archdall, Ledwich, Giraldus Cambrensis, and 
other writers on Irish church history. In it Lanigan 
supports the theorj' of the pagan origin of the Irish 
round towers. In 1808 he assisted Edward O'Reilly, 
William Halliday, and Father Paul O'Brien in found- 
ing the Gaelic Society of DubUn, the first effort in recent 
times to save the Irish language. He wrote frequently 
to the Press in favour of religious equality for Cathohcs, 
and fought vigorously against the proposed Royal 
\'eto in connexion with Irish episcopal elections. 
In 1813 his health began to fail, and he returned to 
his home at Cashel; he recovered sufficiently to 
resume his duties in Dublin, but eventually had to 
enter a sanatorium at Finglas, where he died. His 
grave in the neighbouring country churchyard is 
marked by a cross, bearing an Irish and a Latin 
inscription, erected in 1861 by his Uterary admirers. 
Besides his writings mentioned above we may cite: 
"De origine et progressu hermeneuticEe sacrse" 
(Pavia, 1789); "Saggio suUa maniera d'inscgnare ai 
giovani ecclesiastici la scienza de' libri sacri" (Pavia), 
written in vigorous and eloquent language; "The 
Present State. . .of the Church of England and the 
Means of effecting a Reconcilation of the Churches", 
prefaced to the "Protestant Apologv for the Roman 
Catholic Church" (Dublin, 1809), by "Christianus" 
[Wm. Talbot]. He prepared for publication the first 
edition of the Breviarv' printed in Ireland, and edited 
.\lban Butler's "Meditations and Discourses" (which 
appeared in 184.5). That the humiliation and suffer- 
ing he underwent as a restilt of Dr. Moylan's suspicions 
of his orthodoxy were imdeser\-ed is apparent from 
Lanigan's writings as well as from the testimony of 
his intimate clerical friends. 

FiTzp.\TRicK. Irish Wits (inH Worthies (Dublin, 187.3) ; Coopek, 
in Diet. Xat. Biog., a. v.; Dublin Review (Deo., 1847), 489. 

A. A. MacErlean. 

Lathrop, George Par.sons, poet, novelist, b. 
at Honolulu, Hawaii, 2.5 Aug., 18.51 ; d. at New York, 
19 Apr., 1898. He was educated at New York and 
Dresden, Germany, whence he returned to New 
York, and decided on a literary career. Going to 
England on a visit he was married in London, 1 1 Sept., 
1871, to, daughter of Nathaniel Hawthorne. 
In 1875 he became associate editor of the " Atlantic 




Monthly", and remained in that position two years, 
leaving it for newspaper work in Boston and New 
York. His contributions to the periodical and daily 
Press were varied and voluminous. In 1883 he 
founded the American Copyright League, which 
finally secured the international copyright law. He 
was also one of the founders of the Catholic Summer 
School of America. In March, 1891, he and his wife 
became CathoUcs, and were received into the Church 
at New York. After his death his widow, as Mother 
M. Alphonsa, organized a community of Dominican 
tertiaries. The Servants of Relief for Incurable 
Cancer Patients, who took charge of two cancer 
hospitals at New York. Among his published works 
are: "Rose and Rose-tree" (1875), poems; "A Study 
of Hawthorne" (1876); "Afterglow" (1876), a novel; 
"Spanish Vistas" (1883), a work on travel; "New- 
port" (1884), a novel; "Dreams and Days'* (1892), 
poems; "A Storj' of Courage" (1894), centenary his- 
tory of the Visitation Convent, Georgetown, D. C. 
He edited (1883) a complete, and the standard, edi- 
tion of Hawthorne's works, and adapted "The 
Scarlet Letter" for Walter Damrosch's opera of that 
title, which was produced at New York in 1896. 

Tke Catholic Reading Circle Rei'iew_(April, 1898); The Catholic 
News; The Freeman' s Journal (New York) , contemporary file?. 

Thomas F. Meehan. 

Leopoldine Society, The, established at Vienna 
for the purpose of aiding the Cathohc missions in 
North America. When the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of Faith was founded at Lyons, in 1822, it did 
not spread beyond the French borders for a consider- 
able time. Other nations were not unwiUing to co- 
operate, but were deliberating whether to start a simi- 
lar society of their own or to join the one already 
in existence. At this time, in 1827, Bishop Fenwick 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, sent his vicar-general. Father 
Rese, to Europe to recruit German priests and to 
obtain assistance for his diocese. Father Rese 
reached Vienna in the latter part of 1828. He was 
received everywhere most cordially and inspired 
those with whom he came in contact with a great 
interest in the American missions. His graphic 
descriptions of the New World, the great possibilities 
for the Church, the scarcity of priests, and the pre- 
vailing poverty of the missions awoke a general 
public interest in the welfare of the American mis- 
sions. To strengthen this feeling and encourage the 
formation of a society similar to the French society 
he published a description of the Diocese of Cincin- 
nati ("Abriss der Geschichte des Bisthums Cin- 
cinnati in Nord-America", Vienna, 1829), an excerpt 
from Father Theodore Badin's work. The Arch- 
bishop of Vienna, Leopold Maximilian Graf von 
Firmian, was so well disposed towards the noble 
undertaking that he brought it to the notice of the 
imperial family. Father Rese was granted an 
audience with the emperor, whose brother, Arch- 
duke Rudolph, Cardinal Archbishop of Olmutz, 
assumed the protectorate of the missionary work. 

The sanction of the Church was next obtained. 
Leo XII in the Bull "Quamquam plura sint", dated 
30 Jan., 1829, approved of the nascent society. 
Meanwhile the founders were busying themselves 
with the internal workings of the society. A public 
meeting was held on )3 March, 1829, at the archi- 
episcopal palace. Canon Joseph Plctz, of the Metro- 
politan Church of St. Stephen, spoke on the propaga- 
tion of the Gospel and its civilizing influences upon 
the nations of the world. A month later, 15 April, 
1829, the statutes wore adopted. These were drawn 
up much after the pattern of the I'rcnch .soi-icly. 
The only (iivergent points which need be mentioned 
were that the society was to be known as tlu! 
Leopoldine Society — Leo|)oldinen Stiftung — to per- 
petuate the memory of the Emjircss of Brazil, 
LcoiioUlina, a favoiu'ite daughter of Francis I and 

wife of Pedro I; and that the society should exist 
only in Austria-Hungary. On 13 May, 1829, the 
first executive session was held. A pamphlet was 
designed and in it incorporated the oration of Canon 
Pletz together with the statutes and the correspond- 
ing regulations. This brochure was translated into 
all the languages spoken in the monarchy. The head 
office was estabUshed in the Dominican monastery 
and Herr Anton Carl Lichtenberg became its first 
actuar}' and Dr. Caspar Wagner its treasiu'er. 

The seed was sown. Five kreutzers a week — 
about two cents — was a small contribution; however, 
little by little the fund commenced to swell so that 
from July to October, 1830, the collection amoimted 
to $19,930. On 30 April, 1830, a first draft of 
$10,256.04 was sent to Bishop Fenwick and four 
months later a second one of $5200, "to afford 
ample help and not to deal out the money in small 
bits and give reUef practically to nobody" (Berichte 
der Leopoldinen Stiftung, I). The general interest 
awakened by the society for the American missions 
not only brought out funds but donations of church 
utensils, Mass paraphernalia, paintings, statuary, etc. 
These objects were often donated by members of 
the imperial house. Directly due to the society were 
many vocations to the missions from among the 
priesthood. First amongst these was the Rev. 
Frederic Baraga, afterwards Bishop of Marquette. 
His example was foOowed bj' Neumann (afterwards 
Bishop of Philadelphia), Hatscher, Sanderl, Viszoczky, 
Belleis, Pisbach, Hammer, Kundeck, Cvitkovich, 
Schuh, Levic, Pirec, Skolla, Godec, Krutil, Veranek, 
Burg, Buchmayr, Bayer, Hasslinger, Count Couden- 
hove, Mrak (afterwards Bishop of Marquette), 
Skopec, Etschmann, and many others — all of whom 
entered the missions before 1850. 

The beneficiaries of the society are principally the 
dioceses in the United States. Among the older ones 
Cincinnati has been most bountifully considered, but 
St. Louis, Bardstown, Charleston, Philadelphia, 
Baltimore, Mobile, Boston, Detroit, New York, New 
Orleans, Nashville, Dubuque, Natchez, Vincennes, 
Richmond, Pittsbiu'g, Chicago, St. Paul, Hartford, 
Milwaukee, Marquette, Galveston, Little Rock, 
received generous support. Then, besides the travel- 
hng expenses of the different missionaries and personal 
aid to them, religious communities were enabled with 
the society's assistance to send workers to the New 
World. The society's fund built numerous schools 
and churches and enabled many a zealous priest to 
devote his life to the missions, kindling and keeping 
the light of faith in the hearts of men who otherwise 
must have hved and died without it. The Leopoldine 
Society expended upon the American Catholic mis- 
sions, "from 1830 to 1910, the sum of 3,402,211 kronen 
(about 680,500 dollars). The society still exists and 
although its collections are small it continues its 
mission. The contributions chiefly come from the 
Austrian emperor, the Dioceses of Vienna, Sankt 
Polten, Brun, Seckau, Prague, Koniggriitz. Eighty- 
one official reports, "Berichte der Leopoldinen 
Stiftung", have appeared. These are replete with 
the struggles and glories of the American missions 
and missionaries and invaluable for data in the 
American church history. 

Fondazione Leopolditia (Vienna, 1829); Berichte der Leopoldinen 
Stiftung (Vienna, 1831-1910). 

Antoine Ivan Rezek. 

Leroy-Beaulieu, Anatole, French publicist, b. at 
Li.-iieux, Calvados, in 1S42; d. at Paris, 15 June, 1912. 
After publishing in 1866 a romance entitled "Une 
troupe de coniediens", a kind of historical romance 
dealing willi the Italian risnrgimctilo, lie directed his 
attention to political and historical studies. His 
articles on Napoleon 111, Victor Ennnanuel, and 
Pius l.\, collected in 1S79 in a volume entitled " Un 
empereur, un roi, un papc, une restauration", are 




very important for the history of the second French 
Empire. His article in the "Revue des Deux 
Mondes" (1 Dec, 1874) on the restoration of histori- 
cal monuments was a most original protest against the 
false tendencies which impelled \'iollet-le-Due and his 
disciples, under pretext of restoration, to rebuild the 
Gothic cathedral according to certain preconceived 
systems, instead of making the necessary repairs with 
conscientiousness and moderation. Leroy-Beaulieu's 
three volumes entitled "L'empire des tsars et les 
Russes" (1883-87) are an important work: the in- 
formation they contain with regard to the Russian 
religion and the various sects scattered throughout 
the Slavic empire wiU long retain its value. His 
work on Milutin gives a stirring account of the eman- 
cipation of the serfs under Alexander II. He is like- 
wise the author of detailed studies on the Liberal 
Catholics of France in the nineteenth centun,', and his 
book entitled "La papaute, le socialisme, et la d(5mo- 
cratie" was the first to welcome Leo XIII's Encycli- 
cal "Rerum Novarum". In principles he was op- 
po.sed to all such doctrines which he called doctrines 
of hate; in 1S97 he gave a conference against Antisemi- 
tism at the Institut CatholiQUe of Paris; in 1903, when 
the policy of anticlericahsm dealt a serious blow in the 
Levant to the religious influence of France and the 
protectorate of the missions he sounded an alarm in 
the "Revue des Deux Mondes". 

Though much attached to all ideas of liberty, 
Leroy-Beaulieu did not share the blind enthusiasm of 
the Liberals of the first half of the nineteenth century 
for the principles of the Revolution; he was able to 
form a critical opinion of the liberalism and individual- 
ism which had proceeded from the Revolution, and his 
admiration for the Declaration of the Rights of Man 
did not prevent him from asserting in his book, "La 
revolution et le libcralisme", that "the idea of duty 
should be restored to its place beside that of right . 
In 1906 he became director of the Free School of Politi- 
cal Science, where he had long been teaching, and he 
retained this position till his death. He had belonged 
to the Acad(5mie des Sciences Morales since 1887. 

Cbarmes in Revue des Deux Mondes (1 July, 1912); Fagniez in 
Kefurme sociate (Ifi .lulv, 1912): DE Quirielle in Rene hcbdoma- 
daire (13 July, 1912). 

Georges Goyau. 

Lesueur, Jean-Francois, composer, b. at Drucat- 
Ples.siel, near Abbeville, 15 Feb., 1760; d. at Paris 
6 October, 1837. He came of an ancient and illu.s- 
trious family of Picardy, his greatuncle being the cele- 
brated painter, Eustache Lesueur. At seven he be- 
came a chorister at Abbeville. From 1774 to 1779 he 
studied music at the College of Amiens, then became 
music-master at the cathedral of Seez, and later 
ii-ssistant-master at the Church of the Holy Innocents 
at Paris, where he studied under Abb6 Roze. He 
was appointed music-master at Dijon in 1781, at Le 
Mans in 1782, at Tours in 1783, and at the Holy In- 
nocents, Paris, in 1784. In 1786 he competed for the 
musical directorship of Notre-Dame-de-Paris and re- 
ceived the appointment. Allowed by the chapter to 
install a complete orchestra, he at once proceeded to 
put in practice his novel ideas concerning sacred music. 
It was his aim to arouse devotion by an appeal to the 
imagination, and he so far carried out his theories as 
to preface one of his ma-sses with an operatic over- 
ture; this caused a stir in the musical world. In 1787 
came an anonymous attack on his compositions and 
his methods, to which Le-sueur replied in a pamphlet 
entitled "Expos^ d'une musique imitative et particu- 
li6re S, chaque solennite" (Paris, 1787). At this 
period he became an abb<^, but never received Holy 
orders. The chapter of Notre-D.ame having reduced 
the orchestra because of the heavy expense, Lesueur 
was unable to produce his masses, and resigned his 
directorship in 1788. He withdrew to the country 
home of his friend M. Bochart de Charapigny, where 

he remained four years, working on his compositions. 
In 1793 he produced a three-act opera, "La Cav- 
erne", at the Theatre Feydeau, Paris. Its success 
wa*i immediate and brilliant and it was followed at 
the same theatre by "Paul et Virginie" (13 Jan., 
1794) and "Telemaque" (May, 1796), which latter 
had been accepted by the Royal Academy of Music. 
He was appointed professor in the Ecole de la 
Garde Nationale, 21 Nov., 1793, and an inspector of 
instruction at the Conservatoire de Musique from its 
foundation in 1795. On the rejection of two of his 
operas, "Ossian, ou les Bardes" and "La mort 
d' Adam" (which had been accepted by the Academy), 
in favour of Catel's "Semiramis", Lesueur published 
anonymously a pamphlet entitled "Projet d'un plan 
gcnijral de I'instruction musicale en France", in 
which he violently attacked not only the methods of 
instruction followed at the Conservatoire, but his rival 
Catel and Catel's patron, the director of the Con- 
servatoire. Lesueur's dismissal followed (23 Sept., 
1802), and the cessation of his salarj' had brought him 
to the verge of extreme poverty w-hen he was ap- 
pointed mailre de chapdle to the First Consul. The 
musician was now free to produce his "Ossian"; its 
first performance (10 July, 1804) was a great success 
and inaugurated the new title of the theatre as 
Acad^mie Imperiale. He was rewarded with the 
Cross of the Legion of Honour. For the emjjeror's 
coronation he composed a mass and a Te Deum. He 
collaborated with Persuis in his "L'inauguration du 
temple de la victoire" (2 Jan., 1807) and "Le 
Triomphe de Trajan" (23 Oct., 1807). On 21 March, 
1809, he produced "La mort d'Adam et son^ apoth- 
6ose", which proved to be lacking in dramatic action. 
In 1813 Lesueur succeeded Gretry at the Institut, and 
in the following year was appointed superintendent 
and composer of the chapel of Louis XVTII, retaining 
this post until the suppres.sion of the chapel in 1830. 
On 1 Jan., 1818, he was appointed professor of com- 
position at the Conser\'atoire, his classes being large 
and numbering distingiiished members, of whom the 
following gained the prix de Rome: Bourgeois, Ermel, 
Paris, Guiraud, Berlioz, Provost, Ambroise Thomas, 
Elwart, Boulanger, Besozzi, Boisselot (who Isecame 
Lesueur's son-in-law), and Gounod. Lesueur wrote 
the Te Deum and other music for the coronation of 
Charles X at Reims (29 May, 1825) His other com- 
positions were: three oper:is which had been accepted 
by the Opera but were never performed in his lifetime, 
"Tyrh^e", "Artaxerse", and "Alexandre k Baby- 
lone"; a Christmas mass or oratorio (1826); a solemn 
mass for four voices, choir, and orchestra; two 
Passion oratorios (i;'29); "Rachel",! an oratorio; 
"Super flumina Babylonis" (1833); "Ruth et Booz", 
oratorio; a cantata for the marriage of the Emperor 
Napoleon I. He also wrote "Notice sur la Melop(?e, 
la Rhythmop6e, et les grandes caracterea de la 
musique ancienne" (Paris, 1793); and an unpub- 
lished treatise on the music of the Greeks. Lesueur 
had both originality and genius, and, while it is im- 
possible to rank him with Cherubini and M(5hul, it ia 
nevertheless true that the French school of the early 
nineteenth century is greatly indebted to his initiative 
and passion for his art. 

Beblioz. Les musiricns (Paris, 1870), 59. 68; Cbodqcet in 
Did. of music and musicians (New York, 1900). 

Blanche M. Kelly. 
Linkoping (Lincopia), Ancient See op (Lin- 
coPENsis), in Sweden, originally included Ost ergot- 
land, the Islands of Gotland and Oland, and Smaa- 
land. The district of Viirend in Smaaland was taken 
from Linkoping and formed into the Diocese of 
Vexio about 1160. From 990 to 1100 the Diocese of 
Skara embraced the whole country of the Goths 
(Gauthiod); it was then divided into those of Sk.ara 
and Link6])ing. The first three bishops of Linkdi)ing 
were Herbert, Richard, and Gisle (c. 11,38-48). Then 




came Stenar, who apparently resignetl in 1160 and 
subsequently became Bishop of Vexio; Kol (c. 1160- 
95), who was killed at Rotala, Esthonia, 8 August, 
1220, when fighting against the heathen; and Bene- 
dict (1220-37), the first of a long line of pious and 
munificent prelates, who built and endowed the fine 
cathedral, which had been begun in 11.50 but was not 
finished at the Reformation. Among these was 
Blessed Nicholas Hermansson (1374-91); educated at 
the University of Orleans, he had been tutor to 
Charles and Birger, the sons of St. Bridget, whose 
body he received when it was brought to Vad.stena by 
St. Catherine. He composed a beautiful Office in 
honour of St. Bridget, which included the hymn 
"Rosa rorans bonitatem". The last Catholic Bishop 
of Linkoping was Hans Brask (b. 1464; bishop, 1513- 
27; d. 30 July, 1539), the valiant champion of the Old 
Learning, who was compelled to leave his diocese in 
1527 owing to the adoption of Lutheranism as the 
state rehgion at the Diet of Westeraas. 

The cathedral of Linkoping, the abbey church of 
Vadstena, and the numerous interesting churches on 
the Island of Gotland bear witness to a splendid 
Catholic past. Of the numerous provincial and 
diocesan synods held in the Diocese of Linkoping the 
Council of Skenninge was the most important. The 
papal legate, Cardinal WUham of Sabina, presided 
and the celibacy of the clergy was strongly enforced. 
The following religious institutions were set up in the 
diocese between the twelfth and the sixteenth cen- 
turies: The cathedral chapter, which consisted at the 
time of the Reformation of a dean, an archdeacon, a 
sub-dean, nine canons, and fifteen other prebendaries; 
the Cistercians, who had three houses for men, the ab- 
beys of Alvastra, the mother-house of the Cistercian 
Order in Sweden, in Ostergotland, Nydala in Smaaland, 
both founded in 1143, and Gutvalla (Roma) in Got- 
land; also four nunneries, Vreta (1160), Askaby, 
Byarum, dissolved about 1250 and the mms trans- 
ferred to Sko (Upland), and Solberga (Gotland); 
the Brigittines, who had the great Abbey of Vadstena 
(q. v.) ; the Dominicans, who possessed priories at 
Skenninge (1220?), Visby (1240), and Calmar, as well 
as nunneries at Skenninge (1260) and Cahnar (1286). 
There were hospitals at Linkoiiing, Visby (2), Soder- 
koping (2), Skenninge (2), Calmar.. (2), Norrabygd 
(Uknaback), and on the Island of Oland. Most of 
these institutions were destroyed at the Reformation. 

BcMPUs, The Cathedrals of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark 
(London, 1908), 187-96, 220-66; Scriptorea rerum svecicarum, III 
(Upsala, 1876), pt. ii, 102-12, 282-98; Reuterdahl, Svenska 
kyrkans Hisloria (5 vols., Lund, 1S3S-66); Martin, Gustave 
Vasa et la reforme en SuMe (Paris, 190G); Schuck, Rosa rorans. 
Ett Birgitta-officium in Acta Vniversitatis Lundensis (Lund, 1902); 
Meddelanden fra del literatur-historiska Seminariet, 37-51 ; An- 
NELL, Bidrag till Biskop Hans Brasks Lefnadsteckning (Stockholm, 
1904) ; LuNDQviST, Bidrag till Kdnnedomen om de svenska Dom- 
kapitlen (Stockholm, 1897); Nilsson, Klosterv&sendet inom 
LinkHpings stift till ach med aar 1344 (Linkoping, 1879); Hall, 
Bidrag till Kdnnedomen om Cistercienserorden i Sverige (Gefle, 1899) , 
school programme; Reuteroahl, Statuta synodalia veteris ecctesife 
Sveo-Gothiccp. (Lund, 1841); Skrifter utgifna af Kyrkohistoriska 
Foreningen, II; Synodalstatuter, ed. Gdmmerus (Stockholm, 

A. W. Taylor. 

Lithuanians in the United States. — The Lithu- 
anians {Lieluvyx; adjective, liduviskas) are a people 
of Russia, occupying the territory of ancient Lithu- 
ania (Lieluva), now the present Governments or 
Provinces of Suwalki, Kovno, Vilna, Grodno, Vitebsk, 
Minsk, and IMohilefT. Between 1300 and 1600 they 
formed an independent kingdom, but in 1500 their 
kingdom became practically united with Poland 
under a common sovereign and in 1569 the Diet of 
Lublin decreed a permanent union of Poland and 
Lithuania into a single kingdom with a Polish elective 
king. After the conquest and p:irtiti(iii of Poland 
in 1795 Lithuania became separate Russian jirovinces, 
apart from Poland, and bo continues, with the excep- 
tion of Suwalki, down to the present time. Although 

the Lithuanian people were first under Polish and 
then under Russian domination they nevertheless 
presei-ved their nationality and language, and in late 
years their language has had a great revival. They 
are not a vSlavic people, although surrounded by the 
Poles and the Russians. They are the descendants 
of the original races dwelling on the shores of the 
Baltic Sea but have of course absorbed many Slavic 
traits and ex-pressions. Their language is unlike the 
Polish or the Russian, the nouns and adjectives having 
but two genders (masculine and feminine) unUke the 
three in Russian and Polish; and unlike them it has 
three numbers: singular, dual, and plural; and has 
an elaborate verbal inflection instead of the simpler 
one of the Slavic tongues. It has no article, not 
even the suffix forms used in Russian and Bulgarian. 

Immigration. — The famine in Lithuania in 1867- 
68 drove many Lithuanians abroad. Some of them 
crossed the Atlantic and landed at New York. The 
first arrivals worked on farms around New York 
City or in brickyards along the Hudson River and 
in the Catskills. Later on they were attracted to 
north-eastern Pennsylvania to build railroads and 
they eventually went into the anthracite coal mines 
around Shamokin, Shenandoah, and other towns. 
Many of them went to Chicago after the great fire 
in that city in 1872. Others established themselves 
in the tailoring business in New York, Brooklyn, and 
Baltimore. Even at the present time Lithuanian 
tailors are comparatively numerous in large cities 
along the Atlantic coast, including Philadelphia and 
Boston. In the early eighties of the last century a 
permanent drop in the prices of Lithuanian rye and 
flax coupled with the overpopulation of the country 
caused an exodus of the young and enterprising men 
towards the large cities such as Riga, St. Petersburg, 
etc., but this large flow of emigration was immediately 
diverted towards America. Beginning with 1890 the 
Lithuanians began to come in large numbers, until 
at present it is estimated that nearly one-fifth of the 
nation is on American soil. Lithuanian immigration 
during the past decade shows the following yearly 
figures: in 1900, 10,311; 1905, 18,604; 1907, 25,884; 
1910, 22,714; 1912, 24,119; and it is probable that 
many of them have been reckoned in the immigra- 
tion reports as Poles instead of Lithuanians. Con- 
servative estimates place the number of Lithuanians 
in the United States in 1912 at approximately 600,000, 
including the immigrants and the native-born. 

In 1909 the Lithuanians of America celebrated the 
fortieth anniversary of Lithuanian immigration to 
the United States. They are distributed over large 
areas of the north-eastern states, being .settled in the 
industrial centres of New England, and in and around 
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Pittsburg, Cleve- 
land, and Chicago (in the latter city about 70,000). 
They are in large numbers in the anthracite coal 
fields of Pennsylvania (about 60,000), and are like- 
wise settled in the soft coal regions. Small numbers 
of them are scattered over the western states. Several 
hundred have settled in Montreal, Canada. Large 
Polish centres, such as Milwaukee, Detroit, and 
Buffalo, have had but little or no attraction for them. 
There are comparatively few Lithuanian farmers in 
America and these have not been very successful. 
All attempts to colonize them in Arkansas, lUinois, 
Wisconsin, and New York have failed. Generally 
speaking, the Lithuanians prefer to be employed in 
factories, closed shops, and mines, and seem to dis- 
like work in the open air. They have not met with 
any great success in business enterprises and there 
are few rich persons among them. 

Rkligion. — In order to understaiKl properly the 
develo])ment of religious life among the Lilhuanians 
in America sonic facts in Ihcir iL-iliiin:il life should 
be recalled. The Lithuanians received tlu'ir Chris- 
tianity from Pohuul in KiSti, through the conversion 




of King Jagello, who became Regent of Poland upon 
his marriage. Subsequent, political union with 
Poland had a disastrous and depressing effect upon 
the national development of the Lithuanians. For 
five centuries they were more or less polonized by 
the nobility and land-owning classes and even through 
the Church, and this process is not entirely at an 
end but is even reinforced by Russian pressure. 
Lithuanians were made to believe that they were a 
sort of inferior race and that their language was 
fitting only for a pagan people. Attempts to awaken 
their national consciousness in 1850 and 1860 and 
to create a national literature were suddenly arrested 
by the Russian Government, which in 1864 absolutely 
prohibited the publication and distribution of Lithu- 
anian books printed in Latin characters. From that 
time the Lithuanians were deprived for over forty 
years of hterature printed in their own language, 
since they absolutely refused to adopt the Russian 
characters. Even prayer-books and other hterature 
had to be printed abroad and secretly introduced 
into Lithuania, where they were often confiscated 
by the Government and burned. Their only avenue 
towards literary and religious development was 
chiefly Polish during that period. 

The Lithuanian national movement started in 
1883 when Dr. John Basanavicius in conjunction 
with some other enthusiasts in Prussia began to 
jiublish a patriotic newspaper called "Ausra" (The 
Dawn). In a short time many Lithuanians — both 
clergy and laity — were thoroughly aroused and rallied 
to the support and ideas of the paper. This was the 
beginning of a national movement which was destined 
to play a distinct role even in the religious life of the 
nation. The most difficult task for the young patriots 
was to draw the Lithuanians away from the Pohsh 
language and Pohsh ideals. Unfortunately some 
leaders of the national movement who had been 
educated in the anti-Cathohc Russian schools soon 
brought an anti-religious propaganda into this na- 
tional movement, on the groimd that everything 
taken from Polish sources, — even the Cathohc re- 
ligion — was detrimental to the Lithuanian nation. 
So hand in hand with this national awakening there 
came into play an atheistic teaching which soon 
estranged the clergy and laity. Even now when 
Lithuanians use the word "national" it is often 
taken to mean something which is non-Cathohc or 
non-reUgious. And this is why Protestantism and 
the so-called "independent" movements have taken 
no root among the Lithuanians, although in a few 
places under peculiar local conditions there have 
been attempts to found parishes along the lines of 
the Pohsh "national" or "independent" churches. 
When Lithuanians began to come to America 
there had been no national awakening among them. 
They then leaned towards the Poles and built churches 
jointly with the Poles. The first purely Lithuanian 
congregation was organized in 1885 at New York, 
but it ceased to exist the following year owing to 
the unfavourable attitude taken by its organizer, 
John Szlupas, who was a freethinker although secretary 
of the parish. However there is now at New York 
the Church of Our Lady of Vihia. The first Lithu- 
anian church (St. Casimir) was built by Father A. 
Burba in Plymouth, Pennsylvania, in 1889. It was 
undertaken when the Poles refu.sed on account of 
his nationality to accept him as rector of a Plymouth 
church which had been built some years previously 
principally by the Lithuanians and had always hither- 
to been in charge of a Lithuanian priest. Soon after- 
wards separate Lithuanian churches were built in 
other places: St. Ciusimir at Pittston, Pa. (1890); 
St. .losepli, .Mahanov City, Pa. (1891); St. John 
Baptist, Baltimore, Md. (1891); St. George, Chicago, 
111. (1802); etc. At present (191.3) there are in the 
United States 72 exclusively Lithuanian parishes 

with resident priests, and one (St. Casimir) in Mont- 
real, Canada. There are also about 15 churches and 
chapels attended from adjacent parishes and others 
in the course of erection. 

Schools. — In th(' beginning of 1913 the Lithu- 
anians in Anu>rica had one academy for girls and 22 
day-schools taught by the Sisters of St. Casimir, 
Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth, Sisters of 
the Holy Ghost, and the Dominican Sisters; some ten 
schools had lay teachers. Nearly 5000 children 
attend these schools. In 1907 Bishop J. W. Shanahan 
of Harrisburg got permission from Rome to found in 
his diocese the Institute of St. Casimir, the object 
of which was to teach Lithuanian schools, take care 
of Lithuanian orphans and the like. The first three 
sisters came from Ingenbohl, Switzerland, to Mount 
St. Mar3''s Seminary of the Sisters of the Immaculate 
Heart at Scranton, Pa., in 1905 and made their pro- 
fession there in August, 1907. Immediately after- 
wards they went to Mt. Carmel, Pa., where they 
started a Lithuanian school whilst other postulants 
were left for training in Scranton. In 1910 the 
Sisters of St. Casimir moved to Chicago and occupied 
their newly-built mother-house at the corner of West 
67th and South Rockwell Streets. There are at 
present (1913) 17 professed sisters, 25 novices, and 
25 postulants and aspirants. They also have in the 
mother-house an academy for girls, both a boarding- 
and day-school. So far they have four parochial 
schools under their care: Chicago, Waukegan, Phila- 
delphia, and Mt. Carmel. The St. Casimir Institute 
is still under the general charge of the Sisters of the 
Immaculate Heart. Its finances are supervised by 
Father A. Staniukynas who has been interested in 
the institute since 1905, and on giving up parish 
work in 1906 he has ever since devoted all his time 
and energy to the growth of this educational institu- 

Societies. — About forty per cent of the Lithuani- 
ans belong to some kind of organization. Every 
parish has one or more Cathohc beneficial societies; 
the)' are often Catholic only so far as the fulfilment 
of Easter duty is demanded from their members 
under penalty of expulsion from the society. The 
Lithuanians of America since 1886 had a general 
alliance of their societies, but in 1901 it split into 
two branches, the Cathohc and the National. At 
present the Catholic branch has about 6500 members, 
while the National has about 6000. In Sept., 1912, 
Lithuanian Cathohc beneficial societies at their con- 
vention in Newark, N. J., formed still another alliance, 
whose membership has not yet been reported. In 
April, 1906, the Lithuanian Roman Catholic Federa- 
tion was formed but it has not been active since 
1908. In the New England states a Lithuanian 
Young People's (men and women) Federation is 
being formed. The Lithuanian Cathohc Temperance 
As.sociation was formed in 1909, but in 1911 a large 
number seceded and formed a separate Confedera- 
tion of Total Abstainers, membership over 1000. 
The Lithuanian Roman Catholic Priests' Associa- 
tion, established 5 May, 1909, devotes its energy 
to the publication of Catholic literature. It issues 
a weekly paper "Draugas" (The Companion) in 
Chicago. "The Apostleship of Prayer" under the 
direction of Rev. P. Saurusaitis of Watorbury, Conn., 
circulates in many parishes. There is also a Lithu- 
anian Cathohc Educational Society, "Motinele", 
which was founded in 1900. There are other societies 
which arc socialistic, atheistic in their aims, or devoid 
of any religious character whatever. 

Periodicals. — There are more than twenty-five 
Lithuanian periodicals published in America, but 
only two weeldies, "Draugas" in Chicago and 
"Zvaigide" (The Star) in Philadelphia, and one 
monthly, "Sviesa" (The Light) in Waterbury, are 
strictly speaking Cathohc publications. The Lithu- 




anian publications of tho largest, circulation are 
"Lietuva" (Lithuania) of Chicago, "Keleivis" (The 
Wanderer) of Boston, and "Vienybe Lietuvniku" 
(Lithuanian Union) of Brooklyn, but these are all 
non-Catholic. Five of these Lithuanian journals are 
more or less anticlerical, sLx are rabidly atheistic and 
socialistic, one free-thought, whilst the remainder of 
the non-CathoUc ones are "national", permeated 
with irrehgion, although not openly antagonistic to 
the faith. 

Jonas, Lietuviai Amerikoje (Chicago, 1897); Kaupas, The 
Lithuanians in America in Charities (New York, 1905); An-ka, 
H Amerikos lietuviu gyvenimo in Viiniaus Zinios (Vilna, 1905- 
1907): Reports of the Commissioner of Immigration (1900-12). 

A. B. Kaupas. 

Lossada, Luis de, philosopher, b. at Quiroga, 
Asturias, Spain, in 1681; d. at Salamanca, in 1748. 
He entered the Society of Jesus in 1698, and, after 
completing his studies, taught theology. Scripture, 
and philosophy with great success at Salamanca. 
His first publication was the "Vida y virtudes del 
P. G. Dutari" (1720). One year later he pubhshed 
his " Institutiones dialectics", commonly styled 
"Summulffi". This book was a worthy introduction 
to his "Cursus philosophici Regalis Collegii Sal- 
manticensis, in tres partes divisus", which he pub- 
lished in 172-4 (last edition, 10 vols., Barcelona, 1883). 
It discusses all the branches of philosophy with gi'eat 
erudition and clarity. Lossada generally follows 
Sudrez, though in some points he departs from his 
master. Urrdburu was an admirer of Lossada's 
"egregium et gravissimum eursum" (Institutiones 
philosopliicae, I, 87), and followed him very closely. 
Lossada took part in the famous discussion on the 
descent of Saint Dominic, and his learned writings 
on this point were published by the BoUandists in 
their "Acta Sanctorum" of 1755. The satirical 
vein in Lossada's works led him to be credited with 
Isla's famous novel "Fray Gerundio". Lossada and 
Isla wrote together the curious and amusingly absurd 
work "La juventiid triunfante". 

DE Yedra, Breve noticia de la vida del P. L. de Lossada (Sala- 
manca. 1745); FiTA, Galeria de Jesuitas ilustres (Madrid, 1S80); 
Ruiz, Ensayos crUicos (Lugo, 18(58), 366; .Sommervogel, Biblio- 
thkqu.e de la compagnie de Jestis; Amado, Historia de la cducacidn y 
de la pedagogia (Barcelona, IQll). 

William Furlong. 

Luke, Saint, Gospel op — The following answers to 
questions about this Gospel, and that of St. Mark, 
were issued, 26 June, 1913, by the Biblical Commis- 

sion (q. v.). That Mark, the disciple and interpreter 
of Peter, and Luke, a doctor, the assistant and com- 
panion of Paul, are really the authors of the Gospels 
respectively attributed to them is clear from Tradi- 
tion, the testimonies of the Fathers and ecclesiastical 
writers, by quotations in their writings, the usage of 
early heretics, by versions of the New Testament in 
the most ancient and common manuscripts, and by 
intrinsic evidence in the text of the Sacred Books. 
The reasons adduced by some critics against Mark's 
authorship of the last twelve versicles of his Gospel 
(xvi, 9-20) do not prove that these versicles are not 
inspired or canonical, or that Mark is not their author. 
It is not lawful to doubt of the inspiration and canon- 
icity of the narratives of Luke on the infancy of 
Christ (i-ii), on the apparition of the Angel and of 
the bloody sweat (xxii, 43-44) ; nor can it be proved 
that these naiTatives do not belong to the genuine 
Gospel of Luke. 

The very few exceptional documents attributing 
the Magnificat to EUzabeth and not to the Blessed 
Virgin should not prevail against the testimony of 
nearly aU the codices of the original Greek and of the 
versions, the interpretation required by the context, 
the mind of the Virgin herself, and the constant tra- 
dition of the Church. 

It is according to most ancient and constant tra- 
dition that after Matthew, Mark wrote liis Gospel 
second and Luke thii-d; though it may be held that 
the second and thu-d Gospels were composed before 
the Greek version of the first Gospel. It is not law- 
ful to put the date of the Gospels of Mark and Luke 
as late as the destruction of Jerusalem or after the 
siege had begun. The Gospel of Luke preceded his 
Acts of the Apostles, and was therefore composed 
before the end of the Roman imprisonment, when the 
Acts was finished (Acts, xxviii, 30-31). In view of 
Tradition and of internal evidence it cannot be 
doubted that Mark wi-ote according to the preaching 
of Peter, and Luke according to that of Paul, and 
that both had at their disposal other trustworthy 
sources, oral or written. 
Acta Apostolical Sedis (30 June. 1913). 

Lyrba, titular see in Pamphylia Prima; the ruins 
are south-east of Kiesme, vilayet of Koniah; there 
have been found some inscriptions, tombs, and the 
remains of a Byzantine church. 

Radet in Revue des itudes ancienneSy XII (Bordeaux, 1910), 

S. PfoRinfes. 


Macarius, the name of two celebrated contem- 
porary Xitriun monks of the fourth century: — 

Macarius the Alexandrian, also called 6 iroXiriKis 
either in reference to his city birth or polished man- 
ners;d. about 405. Hewas ayounger contemporary of 
Macarius the Eg>'ptian, but there is no reason for con- 
founding or identifying him with his older namesake. 
More tlian any of the hermits of the time he exempli- 
fied the spirit of emulation characteristic of this stage 
of monaslicisra. He would be excelled by none in his 
austerities. Palladius asserts "if he ever heard of 
any one having performed a work of asceticism, he 
was all on fire to do the same". Because the monks 
of Tabennisi eschewed cooked food in Lent he 
abstained for seven years. Once, in expiation of a 
fault, he lay for six months in a morass, exposed to the 
attacks of the African gnats, whose sting can pierce 
even the hide of a wild boar. When he returned to 
his companions he w:is so much disfigured tliat he 
could be recogiii/c<l only by his voice. lie is credilod 
with the composition of a rule for monks, though his 
authorsliii) is now generally denied. 

Macarius the Egyptian or the Elder, one of the 
most famous of the early Christian solit:iries, b. about 
A.D. 300; d. 390. He was a discijile of St. Anthony and 
founder of a monastic community in the Scetic desert. 
Through the influence of St. Anthony he abandoned 
the world at the age of thirty, and ten years later was 
ordamed a jjriest. The fame of his sanctity drew 
many followers, and his monastic settlement at his 
death numbered thousands. This community, which 
took up its residence intheNitrian and Scetic deserts, 
was of the semi-eremitical type. The monks were not 
bound by any fixed rule; their cells were close together, 
and they met for Di^■ine worship only on Saturdays or 
Sundays. The principle which held them together 
was one of mutual helpfulness, and the authority of 
the elders was recognized not as that of monsislic 
superiors in the strict sense of the word but rather 
as that of guides and models of jierfection. In a oom- 
miuiity whose members were striving to excel in 
m(irlifi<-ation :uid renunciation the pre-eminence of 
Macarius w;i3 generally recognized. Several monas- 
teries in the Libyan desert still bear the name of 




Macariiis. Fifty homilies have been preserved which 
bear his name, but these and an "Epistle to the 
monks", with other dubious pieces, cannot be ascribed 
to him with absolute certainty. 

Hist. Lausiaca, xvii; Hist, monachorum, xrviii: a Coptic Life 
was edited by Am^uneau in Monuments pour servir d I'histoire 
dt VEgyple c'hrttienne au IVt, V,, VUet V7/. siec/es (Paris. 1895), 
S>Tiac tr. by Bedjan in Acta sanctorum et martyrum syriace, V, 
1895; BCTLER, The Ijausiac History of Palladius. II, 193; ZoCK- 
LEB. Askese u. Moncbihum (Frankfort. 1897), 226. For the 
homilies ascribed to MACARina see P. L.. XXXIV, 409 sqq.; 
of. Barde.nhewer, Patrology, tr. Sh-^han (St. Louis, 1908), 266 

Patrick J. Healv. 

MacCarthy. Bartholomew, Irish scholar and 
chronologist, b. at Conna, Ballynoe, Co. Cork, 
12 Dec, 1843; d. at Inniscarra, Co. Cork, 6 Mar., 
1904. He was educated at Mount Melleray Semi- 
nary, Co. Waterford, and at St. Colman's College, 
Fermoy, Co. Cork, afterwards studying at Rome, 
where he was ordained in 1869. On his return to 
Ireland he was appointed professor of Classics at St. 
Colman's, where he remained about three years. 
He then went as curate to Mitchelstown (where he 
was at the time of the famous Mitchelstown Massacre), 
and afterwards to Macroom and Youghal. In 1895 
he was appointed parish priest of Inniscarra, near 
Cork, where he died. He was the author of the 
following works: (1) "Essays on various Early Irish 
Ecclesiastical Fragments", written while he was in 
Rome and pubhshed mostly anonymously in the 
"Irish Ecclesiastical Record" (1864 sqq.); (2) "The 
Stowe Missal", perhaps his most celebrated work, 
published in the "Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy", XXV II (1886), 135-268, in which he es- 
tablishes the date of Moelchaich's recension as about 
750 or at least the eighth century, and proves that 
the so-called Middle Irish corruptions can be paral- 
leled from old Irish MSS., none of which are later than 
the ninth century; he also separates the earher portion 
of the text into (a) the original Mass, dating from at 
least A.D. 500, called "Missa Patricii" in the "Book 
of Armagh" (a. d. 807), and (b) later augments and 
Roman contents; (3) Four Dissertations on the Codex 
Palatino-Vaticanus, No. 830 (Chronica Mariani 
Scottij, published in the Todd Lecture Series of the 
Royal Irish Academy, III (1892), illustrated by 
studies on old Irish PiletriC; the Synchronisms from 
the "Book of Ballymote", Paschal computation.s, 
and various Irish historical documents: (4) "New 
Textual Studies on the Tripartite Lifeof St. Patrick" 
puljlished in the "Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy", XXIX, 183 sqq., in which he proves that 
portion of the material of the "Vita Tripartita" must 
date back to the middle of the sixth centurj'; (5) 
"The Annals of Ulster". On the death of Wilham 
M. Hennessey, Dr. MacCarthy was asked by the 
Government to continue the editing of this most im- 
portant collection of Irish Annals in the Rolls Series. 
He published vols. II (1893), III (1895), and IV 
(1901). In the introduction to the fourth and final 
volume of these annals he treats in detail of various 
important questions connected with the history of 
chronology among the nations of western Europe. 
Of peculiar interest are his discussions of the ancient 
Paschal Cycle of 84 years and other Paschal com- 
putations in vogue in Ireland, the origin of a.d. 
dating in Irish annals, the methods of rectifying errors 
in the same, and the history of the various British or 
Irish faLsifications which appeared during the disputes 
regarding Easter in the insular churches of the West, 
such as the "Acts of Ca'sarea", the "Athanasian 
Tractate", the "Book of Anatolius", and the 
"EpLstle" of Cyril. 

MacCarthy was a man of great ability and wide 
learning and was recognized as one of the foremost 
of Irish scholars and as the highest aulhoritj' on all 
matters of Irish chronology, especially on 
touching the Paschal question. A few months before 

his death he had been chosen by the Government on 
the recommendation of the Council of the Royal 
Irish Academy to edit the "Annals of Tighearnach". 
As a critic he was excessively inclined to fault- 
finding. He often spoke slightingly of the labours of 
his predecessors, for instance of John Colgan, O.S.F., 
theO'Clerys, Eugene O'Curry, etc., while his carping 
criticisms of contemporary scholars often led to 
warm discussions (cf. "Irish Ecclesiastical Record", 
1883, and "Gaelic Journal", I, 8, 263). A rather 
bitter letter of his criticising a favourable review of 
John Salmon's "Ancient Irish Church as a Witness 
to CathoUc Doctrine" in the "Irish Ecclesiastical 
Record" (.\ugust, 1897, 16t>-170) led to a learned 
controversy between these two Catholic scholars, 
which was carried on in that periodical the following 
year. At the same time it cannot be denied that his 
extensive knowledge and critical acumen contributed 
very much to the elucidation of many an obscure 
point in Irish history both ecclesiastical and profane. 
Irish Catholic Directory (1870-1905); Minutes of the Royal Irish 
Academy (Session, 1903-4); Gaelic Journal, I, II; Irish Ecclesiasti- 
cal Record (1864-189S) ; and the various works of the author. 

John MacErlean. 

McCarthy, Justin, Irish politician, journalist, 
novelist, and historian, b. at Cork, 22 Nov., 1830; 
d. at Folkestone, England, 24 June, 1912. He was the 
son of Michael McCarthy, and was educated at a 
private school in his native city. .4t the age of 
eighteen he ob- 
tained a position 
on the literary staff 
of the "Cork Ex- 
aminer". In 1853 
he went to Liver- 
pool as a journal- 
ist; in 1860 be- 
came Parliamen- 
tary reporter of 
the London 
"Morning Star", 
which he edited 
later (1864-68). 
From 1868 till 
1871 he lectured 
with great success 
throughout the 
United States of 
America and was 
one of the assist- 
ant editors of the 
New York "Inde- 
pendent". On his 
return to England he contributed frequently to 
the "Nineteenth Century", the "Fortnightly 
Review", and the "Contemporary Review", 
and for many years was leader wTiter for the Lon- 
don "Daily News". From 1879 till 1896 he was 
a member of the British Parhament, represent- 
ing the Irish constituencies of County Long- 
ford, Derry City, and North Longford. In Novem- 
ber, 1880, he joined the Irish Land League, which 
won so many victories for the Catholic pe.asant ry ; two 
years later he became chairman of the National Land 
and Labour League of Great Britain. In 1886 he re- 
visited the United St.atcs. From 1890 till 1,S96 he 
was chairman of the Irish Parliamentary party in suc- 
cession to Parnell, having previously been vice-chair- 
man for many years. His courtesy and moderation 
won him the respect of ail parties in Parliament. 
Though participating so actively in the political life of 
Ireland, McCarthy took more interest in letters than 
in poUtics. Ilia novel, "The Wjiterdale Neigh- 
bours", appeared in 1867, and was followed by about 
twenty others, many of which are still popular. Of 
these the chief are: "Dear Lady Disdain" (1875); "A 
Fair Saxon" (1873); "Miss Misanthrope" (1877) 

Justin McC. 




and "The Dictator" (1893). Other publications 
were: "Con Amore", a vokime of essays (1868), and 
biographies of Sir Robert Peel (1891), Leo XIII 
(1896), and Gladstone (1897). McCarthy's popu- 
larity as a writer depends rather on his historical 
writings, which ai"e always lucid, forceful, and won- 
derfully free from party spirit. Of these works the 
most important are: "History of our own Times" 
(7 vols., London, 1879-1905), dealing with the events 
from the year 1830 to the death of Queen Victoria 
and supplemented by "Reminiscences of an Irish- 
man" (1899); "A short History of our own Times" 
(1888); "The Epoch of Reform, 1830-1850" (Lon- 
don, 1874); "History of the Four Georges" (4 vols., 
1884-1901), of which vols. 3 and 4 were written in 
collaboration with his son, Justin Huntly McCarthy, 
well-known as a novelist and play-writer; "Ireland 
and her Story" (1903); "Modern "England" (1899); 
"Rome in Ireland" (1904). Failing health and old 
age could not induce McCarthy to lay down his pen, 
and even as late as November, 1911, he published his 
"Irish Recollections", describing with his wonted 
charm the events of his earlier life. He was an ardent 
advocate of Catholic rights, and, though he had been 
indifferent for many years, in his old age he returned 
to the practices of his religion. 

McCarthy, Irish Recollections (London, 1911); Idem, Reminis- 
cences of an Irishman (London, 1899) ; Idem, An Irishman's Story 
(London, 1904); The Times (London, 26 April, 1912) ; O'Connor, 
Justin McCarthy in Amer. Cath. Quart. Rev.. XXXVII (Phil- 
adelphia, 1912), 387-407. 

A. A. MacErlean. 
MacMahon, Heber (Emer or Ever), Bishop of 
Clogher, Ireland, and patriotic leader, born at 
Farney, County Monaghan, 1600; executed at Ennis- 
kiUen in 1650; son of Turlogh ^lacMahon and his 
wife Eva O'Neill, and nephew of Sir Patrick MacAj-t 
MacMahon. His family, having become impover- 
ished by a bill of attainder confiscating the land of 
those who had struggled for Ireland's hberty, withdrew 
to KUlybegs, and Heber received his early education in 
the Franciscan convent at Donegal, some twenty miles 
away. He went to the Irish College at Douai in 1617 
and later to Louvain, where he studied under Hugh 
MacCaghwell, was ordained in 1625, after which he 
returned to the Diocese of Clogher. He laboured there 
for some years with great zeal and fruit among 
his flock who had been despoiled of their lands, 
robbed of their churches, and forced to worship 
secretly in the mountains, and soon he was ap- 
pointed vicar-general. On 10 Feb., 1642, he was 
nominated to the See of Down and Connor and was 
present at the Synod of Kells in that year. Before 
his consecration, however, he was transferred to 
Clogher, 2 June, 1643. When the struggle for free- 
dom began in 1()41 ne became a steadfast adherent 
of Owen Roe O'Neill, and energetically supported 
the papal envoys, Scarampi in 1643 and Rinuccini 
in 1645, in opposition to Ormonde and the majority 
of the Supreme Council of the Irish, whom he be- 
lieved to be sacrificing the interests of religion for the 
sake of peace. In 1647 the opponents of Rinuccini 
endeavoured to get rid of MacMahon by sending 
him on a mission to France, which, howe\er, he re- 
fused to accept. In April, 1648, he condemned the 
truce with Inchiquin as inimical to the Catholics of 
Ireland. Finding his efforts fruitless he withdrew 
with Owen Roe O'Neill to Ulster, whereupon they 
were proclaimed traitors to Ireland by the Supreme 
Council. In 1649 he was captured by Sir Phelim 
O'Neill and imprisoned, but escaped shortly after- 
wards. In October, 1649, Ormonde and Owen Roe 
O'Neill made peace, the better to resist the Crom- 
wellian invasion. In March, 1650, MacMahon was 
chosen to lead the Ulster forces, O'Neill having died 
some months earlier. Encouraged by some early 
successes he risked a serious conflict with the English 
army under Sir Charles Cootc at Scariffhollis, County 

Donegal, on 21 June, 1650, was defeated and cap- 
tured two days later near Omagh, and though 
promised quarter was shortly afterwards put to 
death by Cootc, despite the efforts made by Major- 
general King, governor of Enniskillen, to obtain a 
commutation of the death sentence. His head was 
stuck on a spike at Enniskillen Castle and his trunk 
buried by some Catholics in Devenish Island, with 
the permission of Governor King. 

Meehan, Irish Franciscan Monasteries (Dublin, 1870). 234-52; 
Brady, Episcopal Succession in England, Ireland and Scotland, I 
(Rome, 1876); Moran, Spicilegium Ossoriense, 1, 11 (Dublin, 
1874-81); B.iQWELLin Did. Nat. Biog., s. v. 

A. A. MacErlean. 

MaSei, Marchese Francesco Scipione, Italian 
litterateur and archaeologist, b. at Verona, 1 June, 
1675; d. there, 11 Feb., 1755. He sprang from an 
ancient and illustrious family which came originally 
from Bologna; his brother was General Alessandro 
Maffei, whose "Memoirs" he published. He began 
at an early age to \\Tite poetry which, however, was 
marred by the bad taste of the period, but associa- 
tion with such men as Pastorini and Maggi and the 
study of the great Italian poets brought about a 
change in his style. In 1699, during a sojourn in 
Rome, he became a member of the Accademia degli 
Arcadi and on his return to Verona estabUshed in 
that city a branch of the Roman Arcadia. In 1703 
he enlisted in the Bavarian army, in which his brother 
held the rank of heutenant-colonel and in 1704 took 
part in the battle of Donauworth. In 1709 he went 
to Padua, where he shared with Apostolo Zeno the 
editorship of the "Giornale de Letteraria d'ltalia", 
but soon abandoned the work. In 1710 he spent 
some time at Turin for the purpose of studj'ing the the Royal Library, and whilethere he arranged 
the collection of objects of art which Charles Em- 
manuel had brought from Rome. Declining posts 
proffered by Pope Clement XI and King Victor 
Amadeus he returned to Verona, where he devoted 
himself to the study of the Italian drama, with the 
object of raising it from its state of decadence, and 
his efforts in this direction may be regarded as the 
beginning of the rehabilitation of the ItaUan theatre. 

Maffei had already devoted some years to archaxi- 
logical and artistic studies and in this connexion had 
amassed in his palace a very valuable collection. 
In particular his scholarly publications on the history 
of his birthplace aroused such enthusiasm on the 
part of the Veronese that it was only with difficulty 
that he prevailed on them not to erect a statue to 
him during his lifetime. His famiharity with charters 
and other medieval documents resulted in his "Istoria 
diplomatica" (Mantua, 1727), a work which added 
much of importance to the history of diplomatics. 
In 1732 he went to the south of France for purposes 
of archaeological research and from there he went to 
Paris, where he remained four years and was received 
as member of the Acad(5mie lies Inscriptions. At this 
time also the Jesuits requested him to write in defence 
of the orthodox system of grace against the doctrine 
of the Jansenists. In compliance he wTote his 
"Istoria teologica delle doctrine e delle opinione 
corse ne cinque primo secoli della chiesa in proposito 
della divina grazia, del libero arbitrio e della prede- 
gfinazione" (Trent, 1742; Latin tr., Frankfort, 1765). 
Prior to the appearance of this work he went to 
London (1736), visited Oxford, where he obtained 
the degree of doctor, and was received in London 
by the most noted men of the country. In the 
same year he returned by way of Holland and 
Germany to Verona, where he thenceforth remained, 
save for oc<';isional :ib.'<ences. He built a mu.seuin, 
which togclher with his v:iUi:ible collection he be- 
queathed lo his native city. Hesides his historical 
and archaiological studies he interested himself in 
physics and astronomy, and oven built an observa- 




tory that ho might study the movements of the stars. 
At the age of eighty he began to study Hebrew and 
he is said to have learned it in a few months. The 
following is a list of his most important works: 
"Per la nascita del principe di Piemonte genetliaeo" 
(Rome, 1699); "Conclusioni di amore" (Verona, 
1702); "La prima radunanza della colonia arcadica 
Veronese" (Cervia, 1705); "La scienza cavalleresca" 
(Rome, 1710), a treatise against duelling, which was 
instrumental in diminishing the practice in Italy; 
"De fabula equestris ordinis Constantiniani" (Zurich, 
1712; Paris, 1714), written to prove that aU the 
orders of knighthood date only from the Crusades 
and affording valuable information concerning the 
aristocracy of the early Middle Ages; "Merope", a 
tragedy (Venice, 1714; since published in numerous 
editions and translations); "DeU' antica condizione 
di Verona" (Venice, 1719); "Istoria diplomatica" 
(Mantua, 1727), containing documents not previously 
pubhshed and a discourse on primitive Italy; "Teatro 
del Marchese MaflFei" (Venice, 1730); "Verona illus- 
trata" (2 vols., Verona, 1732; a corrected edition 
according to the author's notes was issued in 4 vols., 
Milan, 1825-27); "Gallia; antiquitates qua>dam se- 
lects" (Paris, 1733), on the inscriptions and monu- 
ments observed by MafTei during his sojourn in 
France and dedicated to Louis XV; "Graecorum 
siglae lapidariae coUcctae atque explicatie" (Verona, 
1746); "Della forraazione dei fulmini" (Verona, 
1747); "II Raguet" (Verona, 1787), a comedy; 
"Museum Veronense" (Verona, 1749); "Supple- 
mento al Tesoro delle Inscrizioni di Muratori" 
(Lucca, 1765); this was published by Donati accord- 
ing to notes collected by Maffei for a complete work 
on the subject. Besides these original works Maffei 
also collaborated in editions of the works of St. 
Hilary (Verona, 1730), St. Jerome (1734), and St. 
Zeno (1739). He bequeathed his collection of MSS. 
to the canons of the cathedral of Verona. 

BocOAlNMLLE, Eloge de Maffei in Hist, de I'Acad. des In- 
itrip.. XXVII; Pindemo.ste, £(0910 (Verona. 17S4). 

Blanche M. Kellt. 

Maginn, Edward, Coadjutor Bishop of Derry, 
b. at Fintona, Ireland, 16 Dec, 1802; d. at Derry, 
17 January, 1849, the son of Patrick Maginn, a 
farmer, and his wife, Mary Slevin, whose families gave 
many distinguished priests to the Irish Church in the 
eighteenth century. He was educated by his uncle, 
parish priest of Monaghan, and later by Thomas 
MacColgan, at Buncrana, Donegal, and entered the 
Irish College, Paris, in 1818. He was ordained in 1825 
at Derry, and was soon appointed curate of jMoville, 
where he remained till 1829, labouring with great 
fruit and winning renown as a preacher. He op- 
posed energetically the efforts made by the Episco- 
paUan body to proselytize his flock, and took a 
prominent part in a public controversy held at Derry 
concerning Catholic doctrines, a report of which 
was published later in book form (Dublin, 1828). 
In 1829 he became parish priest of Fahan, and applied 
himself to the .suppression of agrarian secret societies, 
while appealing to the Government to protect the 
peasantry against the abuse of power by the local 
non-Catholic magistrates. He was one of the most 
zealous advocat es of Cat holic Emancipat ion, supported 
O'ConncU in the Repeal movement, and endeavoured 
to heal the breach between the yoimg Irelanders and 
the Liberator. Though recognizing the glaring de- 
fects of the "national school" system he accepted it, 
and by his protests prevented the withdrawal of the 
schools from clerical control. He repudiated the 
Queen's Colleges, lielped to bring about their con- 
demnation at Rome, and enthusiastically advocated 
the establishment of a Catholic university, which, 
however, he diil not live to see. On 18 .Tim., 1S46, 
he was consecrali'd titular Bishop of Orthosia and 
coadjutor to Dr. MacLaughlin of Derry. Seized 

with typhus fever on 14 Jan., 1849, he expired three 
days later in St. Columb's College and was buried 
at Buncrana, Donegal. Dr. Maginn was an im- 
portant factor in the rehabilitation of the Church in 
Ulster after Emancipation; he devoted himself, 
moreover, to the temporal welfare of the peasants, 
and his letters on land and the Poor Law administra- 
tion, together with his evidence before the Devon 
Commission (Report published at Dublin, 1847), con- 
tain valuable information on the social condition of 
Ireland in the first half of the nineteenth century. 
The gross incompetency and partiality of the govern- 
ment officials during the famine of 1847-49 inspired 
him with an abhorrence of English misrule. Not the 
least useful of his writings was a series of letters in 
reply to Lord Stanley, who in the House of Lords, 23 
Nov., 1847, had accused the Irish clergj' of using the 
confessional to encourage lawlessness and crime 
("Refutation of Lord Stanley's Calumnies against the 
Catholic Clergy of Ireland", reprint, Dublin, 18.50). 
McGee, Life of Bishop Maginn (New York. lSo7). 

A. A. MacErlean. 
Maisonneuve, Pacl de Chomedet de, founder of 
Montreal, b. in Champagne, France, early in the 
seventeenth century; d. in Paris, 9 Sept., 1676. He 
served in the Dutch war at the age of thirteen. At- 
tracted to Canada by reading the Jesuit " R.elat ions ", 
he was proposed by Father Jerome Lalemant to 
command the company sent by Roycr de la Dauver- 
siere to found Ville-Marie on the Island of Montreal, 
which had been ceded by ex-Governor Lauzon for an 
annual rent of ten pounds of fish. The future found- 
ress of the Hotel-Dieu, Jeanne Mance, joined the 
party. Governor Montmagny strove to prevent this 
seemingly foolhardy enterprise and retained the 
colonists at Sillery during the winter of 1641-42. 
Maisonneuve, who in the faU of 1641 had gone to 
take possession of the island, landed there with his 
followers on 17 May, 1642. The Jesuit Vimont said 
the first Mass, and the Blessed Sacrament remained 
exposed all day with a phial containing fireflies as a 
sanctuary lamp. The settlement was dedicated to 
the Blessed \ irgin under the name of Ville-Marie. 
Situated at the point of convergence of the chief 
waterways, the colony was kept constantly on the 
alert by dread of the Iroquois. To guard against 
surprise and secure mutual assistance, Maisonneuve 
later commanded that all workers outside the fort 
should muster and disband at the sound of the bell. 
At sixty leagues' distance from Quebec and thirty 
from Three Rivers, the nearest fort, the position was 
most perilous, constantly demanding heroic courage. 
Yet Maisonneuve was to remain twenty-five years at 
his post. When, in 1644, 200 Iroquois invaded the 
island, he encountered the enemy with only 30 men. 
Overpowered by numbers, he retreated successfully 
after killing the chief. At the expiration of Mont- 
magny's term of office, the governor-generalship was 
offered by Louis XIV to Mai-sonneuve, who thought 
fit to decline. He encouraged colonization by facili- 
tating well-as.sorted marriages, attracted allies by his 
liberality, and, while inspiring the Iroquois "with 
terror, he gained their confidence and saved from 
torture many French captives. As a magistrate he 
judged with equity and impartiality. In 16.53 he 
returned from a voyage to France with Marguerite 
Bourgeoys, foundress of the Congregation of Notre 
Dame. A troop of soldiers arrived with them. After 
a third voyage, he brought with him the Sul- 
picians who came to Canada (16.59). In 1660 he 
authorized the heroic vent ure of Dollard and his six- 
teen companions, which saved New France from de- 
struction. Maisonneuve's action showed itself par- 
ticularly in the organization of defence. Though he 
seldom fought, his presenc^e was felt everywhere 
planning and ordering. His character wjis a blending 
of reserve, calmness, and foresight, and, at the same 




time, of spontaneousness, initiative, and intrepidity. 
He saw to the military training of his followers and 
was the first to conceive the utility of flying camps to 
keep the Indians at a distance. In imitation of the 
ancient mihtary orders, he founded a corps called the 
"Militia of the Holy Family", which maintained for 
many years the security of Montreal. He likewise 
favoured agriculture, commerce, and education, and 
was like a father to the colony, attending equally to 
its spiritual and temporal wants. When, in 1663, 
the Company of Montreal ceased to exist through the 
assumption of Canada by Louis XIV, Maisonneuve's 
public career was drawing to its close. His departure 
coincided with the arrival of Viceroy de Tracy and his 
regular troops (1665). He left Ville-Marie founded, 
well-fortified, municipally constituted, and civiUy 
organized. He not only returned empty-handed 
but donated to the pious foundation all rents and dues 
accruing to him. Heedless of renown, he left no 
memoirs. He ended lus days in retirement, never 
forgetting his colony nor ceasing to pray for its wel- 

Gabneao, Hist, du Canada (Montreal, 1882); Ferland, 
Hist, du CaTiada (Quebec, 1882) ; Rousseau, Vie de M. Paul de 
Chomedey (Montreal, 1886); SouvenxT de Maisonneuve (Montreal, 
189fi); Campbell, Pioneer Priests of North America, II: Among 
the Hurons (New York, 1910). 

Lionel Lindsay. 
Mailing Abbey, an abbey of Benedictine nuns, 
a,t West Mailing in the County of Kent, England. 
The earliest mention of the nunnery occurs in 
Doomsday book (1080). The church land of Mailing 
having fallen to the share of Bishop Odo of Bayeux 
at the time of the Norman Conquest, Lanfranc, then 
Archbishop of Canterbury, succeeded in making him 
restore them to him in 1076. In the next year Gundulf 
was appointed Bishop of Rochester; it was he who 
built the Abbey of Mailing. The date of Gundulf'g 
foundation is doubtful; it is given as early as 1078 
and as late as 1106. In recognition of its subjection 
to the See of Rochester the abbey paid the annual 
tithe of ten pounds of wax and one boar. In the 
year 1190 a fire broke out which destroyed both the 
abbey and village, but they were very soon rebuilt. 
At the dissolution the abbess. Dame Vernon, and her 
community of eleven nuns, signed the surrender 
and the abbey with its land fell into the hands of 
Cranmer. Little of the original building is now 
standing; the tower is Norman up to the first two 
stories and Early English above. Attached to the 
tower are some remnants of the church, one of the 
transepts and a wall of the nave; the refectory is also 
standing. The cloisters were re-erected in the 
fourteenth century. Since the dissolution in 1538 
it had been in the hands of private owners until 1893 
when it was bought for an Anglican community 
founded by "Father Ignatius" of Llantony. 

Dugdale, Monaslicon, III (1846), 381; Downside Review, XVII, 

Paul Brookfield. 

Marignolli, Giovanni de', b. at Florence about 
1290; place and date of death unknown. When quite 
a youth he received the Franciscan habit at the con- 
vent of Santa Croce, Florence; later on, as he himself 
tells us, he held the chair of theology at the Univer- 
si(y of Bologna. Nothing more is known of his re- 
ligious life until Benedict XII sent him with other 
Franciscans on a mission to the Emperor of China, as 
a result of the Chinese embassy which arrived at 
Avignon in 1338. Marignolli became one of the 
greatest tnivellers in Asia, and ha-s left an account of 
liis itinerary much sliidicd lo-day bv geographers of 
the extreme K:ist. In Dec, 133S', he' left .Vvignoii, ;ir- 
riving at Naples, oti 10 Feb., 1339, and on 1 May 
reached the Court of Andronicus III at Constanti- 
nopli^ where he tre;itcd in vain with the clergy 
concerning the reunion with Rome. I'^rom there he 
passed to the Crimea and thence to Sanii, carrying 

papal letters to Usbek, Khan of Kiptchak, who sent 
an escort with him as far as Armalec, where he arrived 
in the winter of 1340. Towards the end of 1341 he 
left Armalec and crossed the desert of Gobi to Peking, 
where he was received with great honours at the 
Chinese Court. After three years at Peking he 
travelled through the greater part of southern China as 
far as Columbum (Quilon) and Cape Comorin. He 
visited Ceylon, Java, Sumatra, and other islands of 
the Indian Ocean, and then returned to the Coro- 
mandel Coast. There he embarked for Malabar, and 
thence took the route to Europe by the Persian Gulf, 
Ormuz, Gezd, Ispahan, and then by Mesopotamia, 
Syria, Palestine, Cyprus, Egypt, arriving at Naples 
in 1353. From there he went to Florence and arrived 
at Avignon after fifteen years' absence. In March, 
1354, the pope named him Bishop of Bisignano; and in 
1356 Florence sent him as papal legate to Avignon. 
In 1357 Emperor Charles IV called him to be his 
councillor with the office also of court historian. 
Some years afterwards he compiled his "Chronicon 
Bohemiie", in which he described his eastern travels. 
The work was edited by Dobner in "Monumenta 
historica Bohemian" (Prague, 1768). 

Melnert, Johanjies von Marignola minder Bruders und papst- 
lichen Lcgalen, Reise in das Morgenland, tr. from Latin, in 
Abhandt. der kUnigl. bdhm. Gesellschaft der Wissenscfiaft , VII 
(Prague, 1820) ; Kunstmann in Histor.-polit. Blatter, XXXVIII, 
701-19, 793-813; Yule, Cathay and the Way Thither, II (London, 
1866), 309-94; DE (^ubernatis in Storia dei viaggiatori italiani 
nelle Gudie Orientati (Leghorn, 1875), 142-60; da Civezza. Saggio 
di bibliografia San Francescana (Prato, 1879), 372-83. Cf. also 
Ferussac in Bulletin de la soc. de geographie, II (1824), 115-20; 
Palacky in Wtirdigung der alien bohm. Geschichtschreiber (Prague, 
1830), 164-72; Amat da S. Filippo, Sludi bibl. e biogr., etc. 
(Rome, 1871), 103-9: Fottbast, Bibliotheca hist, medii mi, 1,767; 
RoHRicHT, Bibliotheca geographies Palestince (Berlin, 1890), 
n. 207. 

Girolamo Golubovich. 

Mark, Gospel of Saint. See Luke, Gospel of 
St. (supra, p. 56) , for decision of Biblical Commission, 
26 Jan., 1913. 

Marriage, Mixed. — Since the article on this sub- 
ject was written, the following decisions have been 
issued by the Congi'egation of the Holy Office, 21 
June, 1913. The dispensation from the impediment 
of disparity is never to be granted except with all the 
exphcit guarantees or safeguards. If granted, it is not 
valid, and the ordinary can declare the nullity in 
such cases, without recourse to the Holy See for a 
definitive sentence. The prescription of the Decree 
"Ne Temere" on the asking and receiving by the 
parish-priest, for the vaUdity of marriage, of the con- 
sent of the parties, in mixed marriages in which due 
guarantees are obstinately refused by them, hence- 
forth does not apply, but strict observance is to be 
paid to preceding concessions and instructions of the 
Holy See on the subject, especially of Pope Gregory 
XVi, Apo.stolical Letter, 30 April, 1841, to the 
Bishops of Hungary. 

Martin, Enrico, date and place of birth unknown; 
d. in Mexico in 1632. According to some he was of 
Spanish descent; Humboldt says that he was either 
a German or Dutchman, and according to others a 
Mexican educated in Spain, but in all probabihty he 
was a Frenchman, Henri Martin hispanicized under 
the form of Enrico Martin or M;irtinez. He was 
cosmographer to the king, inteipreter for the In- 
quisition, publisher, and distinguished in his career 
as ;in hy<lraulic engineer. In 1607 the Viceroy D. 
Luis (le \'el;isco entrusted to him the difficult task of 
driiiiiiiig I lie valley surrounding the City of Mexico. 
The valley formed ;i cUised liasin, and wjien the rains 
were hivivy I lie l.:ikes nf Zunip;irigo and San Cristobal 
nisi' higher tlum tluit of Te.\coco and overflowed into 
tlie liasiii, inunihiting the city and threatening it with 
dist ruction. Martin's plan wjis to open a canal jis 
out let to tiie Lake of Zunipango to prevent its over- 
llow. The work began on 28 Nov., 1607, and was 




terminated by 13 May, 1609. Corrosion and the 
constant action of the water caused caving-in in the 
interior of the tunnel, and obstructed tlie passage to 
such an extent that, during the viceregency of Arch- 
bishop Fray Garcia Guerra (1611-12), in reply to the 
inquiry made by PhiUp III for information concern- 
ing the utihty of the work, the amount so far ex- 
pended, and what would still be required to complete 
it, the archbishop and the municipal government re- 
plied that the work done by Martin was not sufficient 
to place the citv beyond the danger of inundations 
and that 8413,325 had been expended and 1,126,650 
workmen engaged in the work. Martin wrote to the 
king contradicting this information. 

The viceroy, D. Diego Ferndndez de Cordoba, 
Marques de Guadalcazar (1612-21), the successor of 
Fray Garcia Guerra, was sent from »?pain with special 
instructions concerning the work of the draining of the 
valley. At the same time Philip III commissioned 
the Spanish ambassador to the Court of France, D. 
Inigo Contreras, to find a competent engineer for the 
work and the Hollander Adrian Boot, who arrived in 
Mexico in 1614, was selected. At the suggestion of 
the viceroy, Boot with Martin and the auditor Otalora 
visited the works and each made a report. Boot re- 
ported that Martin's canal called Huehuetoca or 
Nochistongo was inadequate and presented plans 
for a new work which would cost $18.5,900; Martin 
offered with 300 men and $100,000 to finish the work, 
and to moreover divert into the course of the canal 
the waters of the River Cuauhtitlan, which, when it 
rose, overflowed into the valley of Mexico. Boot's 
plan was rejected, and that presented by Martin was 
accepted with the king's approval. The royal ap- 
probation was obtained 3 April, 1616, and Mar- 
tin received his instructions to begin the work at 

In 1623 when the work was still in an unfinished 
state the Viceroy Marques de Bclvez (1621-24) to 
test the utility of the canal directed the work to be 
suspended and the waters, including that of the Kiver 
Cuauhtitlan, which was then discharging through the 
tunnel, to be once more diverted into the lakes of the 
valley. This caused a flood in 1627 and the municipal 
government petitioned the Viceroy Cerralvo (1624- 
35) to rectify the trouble and avert a disaster. The 
viceroy entrusted the matter to Boot, Martin, and 
several others who had studied the situation, and all 
submitted reports. Between disputes and meetings 
the time up to 1629 was lost and the mouth of Mar- 
tin's tunnel having become practically obstructed, the 
waters of the Cuauhtitlan overflowed into the Lake of 
Zumpango and the City of Mexico was placed in 
great peril. The viceroy had Martin arrested and 
imprisoned on the charge of having purposely closed 
the mouth of the tunnel, to which he replied that the 
lack of funds had prevented the repairs being made in 
the roof of the tunnel, and that the portions that had 
caved in had impeded the flow of the water. A few 
days later (21 Sept., 1629) he was relea.sed and the 
work of repairing the tunnel put into his hands. It 
was, however, too late, as the following day the 
greatest of all the floods occurred, water rising in the 
city proper to the height of two metres. The ravages 
of the water were terrible, the greater portion of the 
houses were rendered uninhabitable, and according 
to some historians 30,000 persons lost their lives. 
Some years later the auditor, D. Juan de Villabona 
Cubiaurre, was appointed chief superintendent of the 
work and submitted an unfavourable report on the 
work of Martin. The aged engineer defended him.self 
against these imputations, but his opinion was 
treated with so much scorn that he died the following 
year, crushed by the injustice and disappointment. 
In 1789 the tunnel was converted into an open canal 
which is still to be seen. Within very recent years 
an entirely new project has been carried out by which 

the water.s of the valley discharge through the Tequis- 
quiac tunnel. 

IVIartln left a number of works among which may be 
mentioned: "Repertorio de tienipo e historia natural 
de NuevaEspana" (Mexico, 1606); " .Vgricultura de 
Nucva Kspana sobre la cria de ganados, labores, 
huertas, jardines, etc."; "De fisionomia de rostros"; 
"Discurso sobre la magna conjunci6n de los planetas 
Jupiter y Saturno acaecida el 24 de Diciembre de 
1603"; "Treinta y dos mapas de la costa del sur de 
Nueva F/Sinfm , de sus puertos, ensenadas, cabos, etc." 

Diccion'i: ' " 'h'co hispano-americano (Barcelona, 

1893); Sill. i I,' , nolucidn social (.Mexico, 1901) ; BERia- 

TAIN, Bihl '-'imericana septentrioTial (Amecameca, 

1883); Paumiu, .\Uj.,.j a Iravfs de los sigtos. III (Barcelona). 

Camillus Crivelli. 

Masses, Bequest.s for. — "The efficacy of prayers 
for the dead", remarks the Court of Appeals of the 
State of New York in HoUand v. Alcock, 108 New 
York Court of Appeals Reports, page 312, "is one of 
the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church . . . 
and those professing that belief are entitled in law to 
the same respect and protection in their rehgious ob- 
servances thereof as of any other denomina- 
tion" (p. 329). But the court held to be of no effect 
a bequest by a testator to his executors of money "to 
be applied by them for the purpose of having prayers 
olTered in a Roman CathoUc Church to be by them 
selected for the repose of my soul and the souls of my 
family and also the souls of all others who may be in 
purgatory". And foOowing this decision the same 
court, in a later case, declared to be of no effect a be- 
quest by a testator to his executors of a sum of money 
"to be expended in having masses said for the repose 
of his soul" (see O'Conner v. Gifford, 117 New York 
Court of Appeals Reports, p. 276), or, as rather in- 
felicitously expressed by the judge writing the opin- 
ion of the court, "disposed of in the purchase of 
masses" (p. 283). Notwithstanding "respect and 
protection" due to "Roman Catholic" religious ob- 
servances, these legacies failed, because "religious or 
pious uses were, when the Roman Catholic religion 
prevailed in England, recognized as charities" (108 
ibid., p. 325), and the court held that the English 
legal doctrine on which the validity of charitable 
uses and trusts depended was not a part of the law of 
the State of New York. And, since in that state the 
bequests could not be upheld as charities, their vahd- 
ity was deemed to be open to an objection fatal to 
the validity of any trust not charitable, namely, 
"absence of an ascertainable beneficiary" (108 ibid., 
p. 329; Fosdick v. Town of North Hempstead, 125 
ibid., p. 591). 

The court in the Holland case calls attention to 
the circumstance that its decision adverse to the ex- 
istence in New York of the English legal doctrine of 
charities is a denial of the correctness of the Court of 
Appeals in the previous case of Williams v. Williams, 
decided in 1853 (8 New York Court of Appeals Re- 
ports, p. 525), the doctrine of that case being that 
charitable trusts are a part, of the law of the state, 
"that they came to us Ijy inheritance from our Brit- 
ish ancestors and as part of our common law" (108 
ibid., p. 3.36). The Holland case was decided in 1888, 
the O'Conner in 1.SS9. The highest court of the 
state having thus decided that the legal doctrine of 
the same court in 18.53 was erroneous and to be no 
longer adhered to, the legislature of the state enacted 
in 1893 a statute (Laws of 1893, chapter 701), which 
has been declared by the Court of Appeals "to re- 
store the ancient doctrine of charitable uses and 
trusts as a part of the law of this State" (Bowman v. 
Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society, 182 Court 
of Appeals Reports, p. 498, decided in 1905), "the 
law of charitable trusts as declared in the Williams 
case" (Allen v. Stevens, 161 ibid., p. 141, decided 
in 1899). As if to approve legislatively what is thus 




declared judicially, the legislature, by laws becoming 
effective in 1909 (see Personal Property Law, section 
12; Real Property Law, section 113) has re-enacted 
(with changes immaterial for our present purposes) 
the statute of 1S93. 

The reason on whicli Holland v. Alcock was based 
having thus ceased to exist, we might, perhaps, doubt 
wliether the law of that case could be deemed to sur- 
vive. But in this connexion a case decided in 1907 
ought to be noticed. This case (Johnston v. Hughes, 
187 New York Court of Appeals Reports, p. 446) 
involved the validity of a bequest of proceeds of real 
estate to a hospital conducted by a corporation, "The 
Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis" incorporated for 
"the gratuitous care of the sick, aged, infirm and 
poor", the testator adding to the bequest these words 
"for the benefit and use of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
purgatorial fimd of said hospital". There had never 
been maintained any such fund in the hospital. But 
there was "a chapel", observes the court "connected 
with the hospital in which they have morning Mass 
and religious devotions during the day, in which 
prayers are offered for departed souls" (p. 452). 
And the court surmises that from knowledge of the 
observance of these religious practices, persons under 
the charge of the Sisters may derive "comfort and 
peace of mind", conducive to the physical welfare 
which the corporation had been chartered to promote 
(p. 453). The court holds that "an imperative in- 
tent on the part of the testator not to make the gift 
absolute" does not api)ear (p. 451), and that "the 
gift was absolute and valid", for the legal purposes 
of the corporation (p. 454). The Sisters, as individ- 
uals and apart from regard for the inmates of the 
hospital, might feel morally bound to pray for the 
dead; but the corporation was held to take the be- 
quest for the purposes of the corporate charter, and 
these were certainly Umited to the welfare of the liv- 
ing, "the sick, aged, infirm and poor". The bequest 
being thus sustained because deemed to be for pur- 
poses within the corporate functions of the legatee, 
the court intimates that if the legatee had not been 
a corporation, the decision might have been that 
the bequest was invalid, and invalid on the au- 
thority of the Holland case. " In this case ", remarks 
the court, "the bequest was to a corporation duly 
organized, and it is not therefore subject to the ob- 
jection that was made in the case of Holland vs. 
Alcock" (p. 453). The fact is not alluded to that 
the reason for sustaining this objection was the non- 
existence in New York of the Enghsh law of charities, 
a reason no longer tenable under the statute of 1893 
as construed by the court. We may well regret that 
this recognition in 1907 of Holland vs. Alcock was 
unaccompanied by any reference to this intervening 

Incorporation of "Roman Catholic" Churches has 
been provided for by the statutes of New York since 
the year 1863 (see Laws of 1863, chapter 45; and 
Religious Corporations Law, in effect 1909). The 
views expressed in the Holland case, in conjunction 
with the statute of 1893, seem favourable to the legal 
competency of a church thus incorporated to accept 
a testamentary gift charged with a trust of offering 
public masses for the dead {In re Davidson, English 
Law Reports, 1 Chancery, page b72, anno 1909; of. 
Bowman v. Domestic and Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety svp.). By chapter 732 of the Laws of 1911, "any 
property devised or bequeathed for religious cere- 
monies, observances or commemorative services of 
or for the deceased donor" is exempted from transfer 
tax. This exemption seems to embrace devises and 
bequests whether to individuals or to coriJorations, 
and Masses for the repose of his soul might, perhaps, 
be considered to be "commemorative services . . . for 
the deceased donor" (chapter 795, Laws of 1913). 
And, possibly, some case involving a question of li- 

ability to payment of this tax may cause the Court of 
Appeals to settle the question whether, notwithstand- 
ing the Statute of 1893, bequests and devises for 
Masses are to be deemed void in the State of New 
York in accord with the ruhngs of the Court in the 
Holland case and the O'Conner case. 

Charles W. Sloane. 

Matthew, Saint, Gospel of. — Since the publica- 
tion of this article, the following answers have been 
given by the Biblical Commission (q. v.) to inquiries 
about the Gospel of St. Matthew: In view of the 
universal and constant agreement of the Church, as 
shown by the testimony of the Fathers, the inscrip- 
tion of Gospel codices, ancient versions of the 
Sacred Books and hsts handed down by the Holy 
Fathers, ecclesiastical writers, popes and councils, 
and finally by hturgical usage in the Eastern and 
Western Church, it may and should be held that 
Matthew, an Apostle of Christ, is really the author 
of the Gospel that goes by his name. The belief that 
Matthew preceded the other Evangehsts in writing, 
and that the first Gospel was written in the native 
language of the Jews then in Palestine, is to be con- 
sidered as based on Tradition. 

The preparation of this original text was not de- 
ferred until after the destruction of Jerusalem, so 
that the prophecies it contains about this might be 
written after the event; nor is the alleged uncertain 
and much disputed testimony of Irenaeus convincing 
enough to do away with the opinion most conformed 
to Tradition, that their preparation was finished even 
before the coming of Paul to Rome. The opinion of 
certain Modernists is untenable, viz., that Matthew 
did not in a proper and strict sense compose the Gos- 
pel, as it has come down to us, but only a collection 
of some words and sayings of Christ, wliich, accord- 
ing to them, another anonymous author used as 

The fact that the Fathers and all ecclesiastical 
writers, and even the Church itself from the very be- 
ginning, have used as canonical the Greek text of the 
Gospel known as St. Matthew's, not even excepting 
those who have expressly handed down that the Apos- 
tle Matthew wrote in his native tongue, proves for 
certain that this very Greek Gospel is identical in sub- 
stance with the Gospel wi-itten by the same Apostle 
in his native language. Although the author of the 
first Gospel has the dogmatic and apologetic pur- 
pose of proving to the Jews that Jesus is the Messias 
foretold by the prophets and born of the house of 
David, and although he is not always chronological 
in arranging the facts or sayings which he records, 
his narration is not to be regarded as lacking truth. 
Nor can it be said that his accounts of the deeds and 
utterances of Christ have been altered and adapted 
by the influence of the prophecies of the Old Testa- 
ment and the condition of the growing Church, and 
that they do not therefore conform to historical 
truth. Notably unfounded are the opinions of those 
who cast doubt on the historical value of the first two 
chapters, treating of the genealogy and infancy of 
Christ, or on certain passages of much weight for 
certain dogmas, such as those which concern the 
primacy of Peter (xvi, 17-19), the form of baptism 
given to the Apostles with their universal missions 
(xxviii, 19-20), the Apostles' profession of faith in 
Christ (xiv, 33), and others of this cliaracter .specially 
emphasized by NIatthew. 

Ada Aposlolicce Sedis (26 June, 1911); Rome (8 
July, 1911). 

Meauz (Melsa), a Cistercian abbey about four 
miles east of Beverley in the East Riding of Yorkshire. 
It was founded in the year 11.50 by William le Gros, 
Earl of Albemarle, and was dedicated to Our Lady. 
The history of the abbey is a sad one. On reading the 




olironicle compilod by Abbot, Burton we see that the 
abbey was hardly ever free from litigation; three times 
the monks were forced to disperse thniUKh jioverty; 
once, in the year 1349, four-fifths of I lie monks were 
carried off by the ])estilence; and once by incniriinf!; 
the anger of a king they barely escajied dissolution. 
Richard Draper, the last abbot, signed the surrender 
of the abbey, and received a pension from Henry VIII. 
Chronica monasleriide Mehainin Rolls Scries, XLIII; DroDALE, 
Afonasticon, V (1846), 388; Janauscbek, Orig. Cislerc. I (1877), 

Paul Brookfield. 

Menendez y Pelayo, Marcelino, poet, historian 
and literarv critic, b. at Santander, Spain, in 18.56; 
d. at Santander in 1912. After having made his 
first studies in his native town, he went in 1871 to the 
University of Barcelona, where he passed two years and 
won the admiration of his fellow-students, his teachers 
and of the Government, by which he was given exten- 
sive means for making Uterary, critical, and historical 
researches. At the age of twenty-two he was appointed 
to the chair of literature in the University of Madrid, 
and three years later was received into the Spanish 
Academy. In 1876 he pubhshed his "Estudios 
criticos sobre poetas ISIontaneses" and in 1880 his 
" Heterodo.xos Espanoles". This work, which is a 
proof of the writer's incomparable knowledge and 
skill, deals with the poUtical and literary history of 
Spain in its relation to the Catholic Church from the 
time of Priscilian down to our age. A new phase of 
his genius was displaj-ed in "Horacio en Espaiia". 
Himself a lyric poet of no mean abiUty, as his "Oda & 
Horacio" and "La galerna del sdbado de gloria" 
bear witness, he was fitted to undertake the task of 
collecting and criticizing the numerous Spanish trans- 
lations and imitations of Horace. 

His extensive "Historia de las ideas est^ticas en 
Espana" includes not only a complete exposition of 
the sesthetic ideas of Spanish writers but also an 
elaborate and finished treatise on aesthetic ideas in 
Europe. Four volumes have been pubhshed on 
"Los origines de la nov'ela en Espana", a treatise on 
the origin of the Spanish novel. This is one of the 
most learned and original of Mendndez y Pclayo's 
works. From a national as well as from a CathoUc 
viewpoint the "Ciencia espanola" (1887) is one of 
the most valuable pubUcations of this writer. The 
work is chiefly a collection of letters and essays which 
demonstrate that Spain is one of the richest nations 
in original and sound philosophy and is endowed 
with many scientists of remarkable genius. Here 
also he proves that the Inquisition did not hinder 
culture in Spain, but fostered it. Other works of 
Menendez y Pelayo are: "Obras completas de Lope 
de Vega", "Antologia de poetas llricos castellanos", 
"Critica Uteraria" and " Poetas hispano-americanos". 
In the five volumes contained in the "Critica liter- 
aria" are published his essays on the "Mystic poetry 
of Spain", "Saint Isidore", "History considered asan 
Art", "Tirso de Mohna", etc. Menendez y Pelayo 
was the president of the Academia Heal de la Histona, 
director of the "Revista de archivos", "BibUotecas 
y museos", editor of the "Nueva biblioteca de 
autores castellanos", and member of countless lit- 
erary and scientific societies both in Spain and in the 
other European countries. 

In point of style Mendndez y Pelayo is regarded as 
the superior of all writers who have flourished since 
the Golden Age of Spain. His first essays as well as 
his last works are composed with all his youthful 
enthusiasm and poetic taste. Every page of his 
writings reveals a wealth of strong common sense, 
clear perception, and a vein of wonderful and ever 
varying erudition. Thoroughly Catholic in spirit, 
he found his greatest dehght, he declared, in devoting 
all his work to the glory of God and the exaltation of 
the name of Jesus. 

GarcIa Romero, Apuntes para la biografia de D. M. Menhuiel 
V Pelayo (Madrid. 1879); Pidal y Mon, Discursos y artlculos 
literarios (Madrid, isstl; Vm.kka. Ilominnjf :d Sr. Mmhlitez y 

PcJai/o (Madrid. '^'" I ,i,ir...l>;. ,, ,.i,„,,, i l;, i-., . , ( iARcfA. 

Histori<i lie la 111' r ^ ilsni), 

III; Boris dk I - : i ■ / ' ' I 'aria, 

1902): DEL Vali.k I;i 1.- / .Mi'iii.l, l'iii:i); DE 

Vassal, Menendez v /'Wi, i " ' .' i ni Etudes. VXXXll 
(Paris. 20 Aug.. 1912), 452-1, , \I,m \ asquez Mella, Mar- 
•riNEZ, Discursos sobre Meu,^ , / ( .Madrid, 1912) ; Razdn 

y Fe, XXXIII (Madrid. 3nt\. I'M.', 277-318 contains four 
studies on Men6ndez y Ppl;i\o: VtnKz Goyena, Biografia de 
DonM.yP.: Portillo, Obras de M. y P.: Astrain, M. y P.: 
examen critico de sus obrag; EgcIa Ruiz, ^ M. y P. poeta? 

William Furlong. 

Menestrier, Claude-F^an^ois, antiquarian, b. at 
Lyons, 9 March, 1631; d. at Paris, 21 Jan., 170.5. He 
inherited a taste for antiquities, his great-uncle 
Claude Menestrier having been employed by Cardinal 
Barberini (Urban VIII) as librarian to coUect art ob- 
jects and medals. A pupil of the CoUege of the 
Trinity, Lyons, which was in charge of the Jesuits, he 
entered the Society there, and at the age of fifteen was 
professor of rhetoric; in this capacity he composed the 
ballets "Destinies de Lyon" and "L'autel de Lyon" 
and arranged the plays which were performed before 
Louis XIV when he visited Lyons in 16.58. He also 
directed the festivities which took place at the time of 
the marriage of Fran^oise d'Orldans and Charles Em- 
manuel, Duke of Savoy, as also of the solemnities 
wherewith the Visitandines of Chambdry celebrated 
the canonization of St. Francis de Sales. But he was 
more than an organizer of spectacles; he issued im- 
portant, imbhcations on heraldry which led him into 
violent disputes with Claude le Laboureur, provost of 
L'ile Barbe; he also made a study of emblems and 
mottoes. Stationed at Paris from 1670, he preached 
successfully for twenty-five years in the principal 
towns, during which time he also composed Latin in- 
scriptions for LeBrun's prints, for the battle pictures 
of Van der Meulen, as well as supervising the decora- 
tions for Turenne's obsequies and writing, among 
other important books, "Histoire de Louis le Grand 
par les m6dailles, devises, inscriptions et armoiries" 
(1689) and "Histoire civile on consulaire de la ville de 
Lyon" (1696). He had planned a vast synthesis of 
knowledge, the "Philosophic des images", in which 
were to be included his numerous and strangely varied 
volumes. In 1682 he had discovered in the Cister- 
cian abbey at ViUiers the tomb of Queen Anne or 
Agnes of Russia, second wife of Henry I. In 1770, in 
the second edition of the "GaUia Christiana", he was 
accused of falsehood in this connexion, but the dis- 
covery by Prince Labanofi' in 182.5 of a diploma bear- 
ing the seal of this queen vindicated Menestrier's 
memory. The bibliography of Menestrier's works is 
so considerable that it disconcerts bibliophiles. 

ALLtrr, Rcchcrrhes sur la vie et sur les auvres du P. Claude-Fran- 
cois Menestrier (Lyons, 1856): Renard, Catalogue des ceuvres im- 
primies de Claude-Franfois Menestrier (Lyons, 1883); Sommer- 
VOGEL, BibliotMque de la C. de J., V. (Paris, 1894), 905-45; Le 
Bulletin du bibliophile (1898). 

Georges Goyau. 

Mino di Giovaimi, called da Fiesole, b. 1431 ; 
d. 14,S4. He is inscribed in the "Libro della Matri- 
cola" of the Florentine masters of stone and wood- 
work as "Minus Johannis Mini de Pupio", whence 
some have concluded he was born at Poppi, Casen- 
tino; elsewhere he is "Mino di Giovanni di Mino da 
Firenze". As a sculptor he is noted for the delicate 
fineness and finish of his handicraft. A large number 
of portraits and subjects in low-relief are attributed to 
him : the circular Madonna and Child on a bracket 
(Bargello, Florence) ; the busts of Piero and Giovanni 
de'Medici (Bargello); that of Rinaldo della Luna, 
dated 1461; a remarkable portrait of Isotta da Rimini 
(Camposanto, Pisa) ; an open-air relief of the Madonna 
and Child (Via Zannetti, Florence). Two important 
works are in the cathedral at Fiesole: an altar-piece 
with figures of the Madonna and Child, an infant St. 




John, St. Leonard, and St. Remigius, the architce- 
tural setting surmounted by a bust of the Saviour; and 
in a side chapel the monument of Bishop Salutati, 
with a portrait bust (U()4-6()). Equally important, 
in the Church of the Badia, Florence, is I he monument 
to its founder, the famous Margrave Hugo of Ande- 
burg (finished 1481), and an earlier work, the tomb of 
Bernardo Giuigni (146(j); here also is a relief of the 
Madonna and saints. In the sacristy of Santa Croce 
there is a marble ciborium with angels. Mino worked 
with Antonio Rosellino on the pulpit in the cathedral 
at Prato, contributing two reUefs from the life of the 
Baptist. In 1473 he went to Rome where he re- 
mained apparently about six years. It is doubtful if 
all the monuments there attributed to him are of his 
own hands; there is no question about the tomb of the 
Florentine Francesco Tornabuoni in the Church of 
Santa Maria sopra Minerva, the remains of the mon- 
ument to Paul II in the crypt of St. Peter's, and the 
tabernacle in S. Maria in Trastevere bears the in- 
scription "Opus Mini". Monuments attributed to 
him, noted for purity and elegance of design, are 
those of Cristoforo della Rovere (S. Maria del Popolo) ; 
Cardinal Niccolo Forteguerra (S. Cecilia) ; and Pietro 
Riario (SS. Apostoli). Further attributions are the 
tomb of Bartolomeo Roverella (S. Clemente); that 
of the Scotch Bishop Alan (S. Prassede); and the 
Piccolomini tomb (S. Agostino). Other works are 
the ciborium in the cathedral at Volterra; a marble 
bust of the Baptist (Louvre, Paris); Madonna and 
Child, a bust of a young Florentine woman, and a 
portrait of Niccolo Strozzi dated 1454, in the museum, 

Perkins, Tuscan Sculptors (London. 1864); Muntz, Hist, de 
I'aTt pendant la Renaissance (Paria. 1895); Bode, Denkm^ler der 
Renaissance Sculplur Toscanas (Munich. 1905); Semper and 
Barth, Hervorragende Bildhauer-Architekten der Renaissance 
(Dresden, 1880) 

M. L. Handlet. 
Morales, Christ6bal, composer, b. at Seville, 
2 Jan., 1.512; d. at Mdlaga, 14 June, 1.553. From 
1 Sept., 1535, to 4 April, 1.540, he was a member of the 
papal choir. Formed in the Netherland School, he 
belonged to that group of distinguished Spaniards — 
da Vittoria, de Baema, del Encina, Ribera, Penalosa, 
and others — whose musical achievements in the six- 
teenth century won for their country a renown which 
has since declined. His style is original in a marked 
degree. Many contrapuntal devices invented by him 
came into general use after his time. Among his com- 
positions are numerous masses for four, five, and six 
voices, settings of the "Lamentations" for four and 
six voices, a large number of motets for from three to 
six voices, and settings of the "Magnificat" according 
to the Gregorian modes for four and six voices. The 
latter are considered by Ambros to be Morales' most 
finished works. Besides the papal archives, where 
five masses, his "Lamentations", "Magnificats", 
and a number of other works are preserved, Proske's 
"Musica divina" and Eslava's "Lira sacra" contain 

works of the master. In Wooldridge's "Oxford His- 
tory of Music" (Vol. II) is reproduced a three-part 
motet which offers a striking example of the style of 
this composer. 

WooLDRiDGE, Ox/ord History of Music (0-\ford, 1905); Am- 
bros, Gesch. der Musik, II, III, IV. V (Leipzig. ISSl); Haberl, 
Bausteine fur Musikgeschichte, II, III (Leipzig. 1888). 

Joseph Oiten. 

Murray, John O'Kane, phj'sician, historian, b. 
in County Antrim, Ireland, 12 Dec, 1847; d. at 
Chicago, Illinois, U. S. A., 30 July, 1885. He emi- 
grated to New York with his parents in 1856, and 
was sent to St. John's College, Fordham, to make his 
studies. After finishing these he took the medical 
course at the University of the City of New York 
and practised as a physician in Brookhm until 1880. 
The last five years of his life were spent in a vain 
effort to ward off the ravages of tuberculosis to which 
he fell a victim. He was a constant contributor to 
the Catholic Press and periodicals, and compiled a 
number of books, the most notable of which were : a 
"Popular History of the Catholic Church in the 
United States ' ' ( 1 876) ; ' ' Poets and Poet ry of Ireland ' ' 
(1877); "Catholic Heroes and Heroines" (1878); 
"Little Lives of the Great Saints" (1879); "Catholic 
Pioneers of America" (1881); "Lessons in English 
Literature" (1883). He also revised Kearney's 
"General History" and brought it down to date and 
had begun to do the same to Lingard's "England". 
What he wrote was very widely read and always 
exerted a good influence. 

Catholic Review and Freeman's Jourrml (New York), contem- 
porary files; .\LLiBONE. Diet, of Authors, supplement, a. v.; 
Appleton's Cyclopcedia of American Biog., s. v. 

Thomas F. Meehan. 

Musso, Cornelius, Friar Minor Conventual, 
Bishop of Bitonto, prominent at the Council of Trent ; 
b. at Piacenza, 1511; d. 1574. He was, perhaps, the 
most renowned orator of his day, and has been justly 
styled the "Italian Demosthenes". Returning to 
ancient patristic models, he has raised the homily to 
its highest form of perfection. He was among the 
first three bishops present at the Council of Trent, 
where he delivered the inaugural oration, distin- 
guishing himself especially at the debates on Justi- 
fication. In 1,560 he was sent as papal legate to Em- 
peror Ferdinand. He wrote: "De divina historia 
libri tres" (Venice, 1585; 1587); "Comment, in epist. 
ad Romanes" (Venice, 1588); "De operibus sex 
dierum" (Venice, 1.598). His "Conciones evangelio- 
rum" and "Sermones" (ed. by Jos. Musso, Venice, 
1580) were translated into Latin by Michael of Isselt 
(Cologne, 1594). Musso was buried in the Church 
of the Twelve Apostles, Rome. 

Gaudentius, Beitr&ge z. Kirchengesch. d. 16, und 17. Jahrh. 
(Bozen, 1880), 48 sqq.; Maniuile dei Minori Conventuali, 324 sq.; 
Pallavicino, Jsion'a de concilia di Trento {Rome, 1883), passim; 
Keppler in Theologische Ouartalschrift (TObingen, 1892), 98; 
HnRTER, Namenclator lit.. Ill (3rd ed.), 84 sqq. 

Thomas Plassmann. 


Odense (Othinia), Ancient See of (Othonien- 
si.s), in Denmark. The diocese included (he islands of 
Fiinen, L;ingoland, Tiuisinge, Laaland, Falster, Als, 
and Aerii. It was founded before 9SS from Schleswig, 
and the chm-cli liuilt at () was dedicated to 
St. Mary. Othhikiir Hvide the Elder, a missioniiry 
bishop in Sweden, is said to have preaclied Christian- 
ity in Fimen, but the first Bishop of Odense 
name is known with certainty is Reginbert (Reginar), 
an Englishman consecrated by .\ri-hbisliop Alnoth of 
Canterbury in 1020 or 1022 aiid sent liy King C;inute 
the Great to Denmark. Reginlicrt w;is succeeded by 
Eilbert, a clerk of Bremen (about 10415-72). After 

his death the diocese was vacant and subject to the 
Bishop of Roskilde, until lOSti, ;it the earliest, when 
the English Benedictine monk Hubald was ap- 
pointed its bishop. On 10 July, 1086, King St. 
Canute was murdered in the Church of St. Alban, 
Odense. The fame of his miracles and the bad har- 
vests which followed upon his murder led to his 
canonization and to the translation (19 April, 1101) 
of his relics by Bishop Hub;d(l to the new Church of 
Our Ladv ;iiiii St. .\lban. At King Eric Eiegod's re- 
quest Williiim II, King of EngLind. induced the Abbot 
of Evesham, Worcestershire, to send over twelve of 
his monks to Odense in 1100. They served the 




newly-erected Cathedral of St. Canute, and later they 
and their successors formed the chapter. The Church 
of St. Canute, which was at first of wood, and con- 
nected with the great Benedictine monastery of the 
same name, was bvu'nt down more than once, and the 
present fine building was not begun until the time of 
Bishop Gisico (12S7?-1300?). It is built of brick in 
pure Gothic stvie and is considered one of the largest 
jmd finest ecclesiastical edifices in Deiunark. Its 
construction was c<intinued under his successor, Peter 
Pagh (1304-39), who apparently assisted, even if he 
did not found, the school at (Idense. The next bish- 
op, Nicholas Jonsen (134(M)2), made the school a free 
one in 1349; before this the jiupils paid half the cost 
of their education. Bishop Mogens Krasse (1460- 
74) seems to have finished the cathedral. His suc- 
cessor, Charles Riinnow (1474-1.501), who had been 
provost of the Church of Our Lady, was hostile to 
the Benedictine monks at St. Canute's, and in 1474 
dro\e them from the cathedral, replacing them with 
regular canons. It was not till 14S9 that the monks 
were brought back, at the command of Innocent 

Long before this Odense was one of the richest 
bishoprics in Denmark. It was so exclusively re- 
garded as belonging to the nobiUty that the famous 
Bishop Jens Andersen Bcldenak endured much perse- 
cution on account of his humble origin. In 1529 he 
resigned his bishopric to Canute Henriksen Gylden- 
Btjeme, Dean of Viborg. The latter can scarcely be 
regarded as a Catholic bishop. His election was 
never confirmed by the pope, and though imprisoned 
in 1.536 he was released in 1.537. From the beginning 
of his episcopate he had practically been a Lutheran, 
and after 1.537 he married and lived as a rich lay 
nobleman until his death (lo68). Besides the cathe- 
dral atl with its crypt, containing the' bodies 
of St. Canute and of his brother Prince Benedict, and 
its glorious reredos, etc., there are many fine churches 
at Nyborg, Svendborg, and elsewhere. Before the 
Reformation the diocese contained Augustinian 
Canons at St. Mary's, Odense; Benedictines at the 
cathedral, Odense, and at Halsted (Laaland); Bene- 
dictine (?) nuns at St. Gertrude's, Odense; Augustin- 
ian nuns at Dalum; Cistercian monks at Holm (In- 
sula Dei), now BrahetroUcborg; Franciscans at 
Odense,' Svendborg, Nysted, and Nykjobing (Falster); 
Dominicans at Odense; CarmeUtes at Assens; a con- 
vent of Poor Clares at Odense; and a Brigittine ab- 
bey at Maribo (Laaland), the latter until 1620. 
Finally there were hospitals of the Holy Spirit at 
Odense, Assens, Faaborg, and Nakskov, and a 
Commandery of the Knights of St. John at 

At present there are Catholic churches at Odense 
(Church of St. Alban, dedicated in 1907), Svendborg, 
Nyborg, Assens, Maribo, and Glorup, as well as 
schools. There are also Rodemptorists of the Aus- 
trian province at Odense and Franciscans at Maribo. 
The Sisters of St. Joseph have a hospital at Odense, 
while those of St. Hcdvig have a sanatorium in the 
ancient nunner>' of D.ilutn besides creches and kinder- 
gartens at Odense and Nyborg. 

ScTipl. rer. ilan., HI (Copenhagen, 1774), .•il7-^22; VII (ed. 
1792), 216-43: SamU<i{i<r til F}/ens Hislorie (Odense, 1861-62), I 
24.5-328; II. 18-121: Daucaard. De danske Kt6slre i MiddelnU- 
eren (Copenhagen. 1H.'J0): Mi>ller. Jens Anrleraen Beldenak 
(2nd ed.. Odense. I.S.17); Bkicka. Dnnnk bioijra/Uk Leksikon. VII 
(Copenhagen, 1892); Knud llemlrik.ien Gyldemtjernt, 378-83; 
Metzler, Biskop Johannes von Euch (Copenhagen, 1910) ; Gertz, 
ViicE sanctorum danorum, I (Copenhagen. 1908), 27-166. 

A. W. Taylor. 

Oslo (Asloia), Ancient See op (Asloensis), in 
Norwaj'. Oslo occupied part of the site of Christiania 
(founded 1624). After the formation of the Diocese 
of Hamar (q. v.) in 11.52, the Diocese of O.slo was 
limited to the Provinces of Christiania, Smaalenene, 
XVI— .5. 

Jarlsberg and Laurvik, and Akershus in Norway, and 
the Counties of Goteborg (Gothenburg) and Bohus 
in Sweilen. Although Rudolf, a court bishop brought 
by St. Olave from Rouen, lived at Sarpsborg (1015- 
30) and worked in the surroimding district, Asgaut 
(1047-72?) is usually regarded as the first Bishop of 
Oslo. Of his successors Nicholas Arnesson (1190- 
1225) played a great though unhappy part in Nor- 
wegian politics. Bishop Haakon (1248-65) was very 
generous towards the chapter of Oslo; he was trans- 
ferred to Trondhjem. Helge II (1.304-21) was also a 
munificent benefactor of his diocese. Bishop Solo- 
mon (1322-52) was the only Norwegian bishop who 
survived the Black Death in 1349. In 13.50 he con- 
secrated Gisebert, Bishop of Bergen, and Gyrder 
Ivar.s.s6n, Bishop of Skalholt (Iceland). In 13.52, by 
a provision of Pope Clement VI, Gyrd Asles.s6n, Bishop 
of Oslo, was compelled to exchange bishoprics with 
Bishop Sigfrid of Stavanger. Bishop Eystein of 
Oslo (1385-1407) and Dean Arne of the Royal Chapel 
at Oslo took a prominent part in the negotiations 
connected with the union of Denmark, Norway, and 
Sweden under Queen Margaret in 1397. Bishop As- 
lak Harniktsson Bolt of Oslo exchanged bishoprics in 
1408 with Bishop Jakob Knutsson of Bergen, from 
which see Bolt was transferred to Trondlijem. In 
1.522 Hans Mule, a favourite of Christian II and com- 
mandant of the Castle of Akershus, forced Bishop 
Andrew Muus to resign. Mule was consecrated 
bishop in 1524, but was drowTied the same j'ear. He 
was succeeded in 1525 by Hans Reff (d. 1.545), the last 
Catholic bishop. Although originally a partisan of 
Christian II, RefT paid homage to Frederick I in 
1532. He resigned his bishopric into King Christian 
Ill's hands in 1536, but was appointed as Lutheran 
superintendent of the Dioceses of Oslo and Hamar in 

The cathedral of Oslo, which originated from the 
foundation of the town by King Harald Hardraade 
(c. 1060), was the finest building in the diocese. It 
was dedicated to St. Halvard, a cousin of Kings 
Harald Hardraade and St. Olaf, who had been killed 
when defending a pregnant woman from her pursuers, 
and whose body was cast up on the shore near Oslo. 
His silver shrine was placed in the cathedral, when it 
was rebuilt after Oslo had been burnt by the Danes in 
1137, and it remained there tiU the Reformation. 
Important councils were held at Oslo in 1306 and 
1436. The first of these was largely concerned with 
the maintenance of discipUne in religious houses. It 
also issued an exhortation to bishops to have a priest 
always ready to hear confessions in every cathedral 
church. In 1436 canons were made with regard to 
the payment of tithe and other matters. Besides the 
cathedral chapter with an archpriest and canons, 
founded soon after 11.50, there w;vs a collegiate church 
at Oslo, namely, the Royal Chapel of St. Mary, with a 
provost, six canons, and six vicars. In 1314 Haakon 
V united the provostship of St. Mary's, Oslo, with the 
dignity of chancellor of the kingdom. The city also 
contained a Benedictine nunnery (Nonneseter) dedi- 
cated to .St. M.ary and founded before 11.50, as well as 
a Dominican priory (St. Olave's) from before 1240 
and a Franciscan priory founded about 1286. The 
great Cistercian Abbey of Hovedoe lay close to Oslo 
and was founded by monks from Kirk.stead in Lincoln- 
shire (England) in 1 147. Other religious houses in the 
diocese were the Premonstr.atensian Abbey of St. Olaf 
at Tonsberg founded from Pri?montr(5 (c. 1190), and 
the Benedictine nunnerj' at Gimsoe (c. 1110). There 
were also I'ranciscan (Minorite) priories at Tonsberg, 
Konghelle, and ISIarstrand (Sweden). Dragsmark 
(Mariskog, Silva Sanctae Maria;), in the Swedish part 
of the diocese, seems to have belonged to the Premon- 
stratensians. Lastly there were the Hospital of St. 
John of Jerusalem at Varna, for the benefit of the 
king's courtiers and followers, and the house of 




Aueustiiiian canons, Kastcllp near Konglielle, both liania (2nd ed.. Christ: 
founded about 1198. <rK.,=t,„„.„ ,«7q. ,« 

WiLLSON, History o/ Church and State in Norway (Weatmin- 
8ter, 1903): JoRGENSEN, Den nordiske Kirkes Grundlmggelae, I-II 
(Copenhagen, 1S74-7S); Keyser, Den norske Kirke under Kathol- 
icismen (2 vols., Christiania, lS5(i-58); Diplomatarium riorve- 
gicum (16 vols., Christiania, 1849-1903); Daae, Del gamle Chris- 

. 1S9I), 1-22 ; Idem. Norges kelgnes 
(Christiania, 1879), 163-69: Storm, Monumenta historica Nor- 
vegice (Christiania, 1880), 155-58, 190; Samlinger til del norske 
Folks Sprog og Historic (Christiania, 1833), I. 264-304, ,553-63; II, 
171-213; L.^nge, Norske Kloslre (Christiania, 1856); Historisk 
Tidsskri/t, third series, II (Christiania, 1892), 82-94. 

A. W. Taylor. 

Peace of the Church. — This is the designation 
usu;illv ^ipiilird to the condition of the Church after 
the |)ulihc:i1ion at Milan in 313 by Emperor Constan- 
tine of an edict of toleration by which the Christians 
were accorded complete liberty to practise their re- 
ligion without niole.station. The freedom of con- 
science demanded by the Christian religion was incom- 
patible with the theocratic or absolutist views which 
had prevailed regarding the relations of the State and 
religion prior to the time of Christ. This funda- 
mental difference as to the extent and province of the 
civil power together with other reasons of a religious, 
social, and economic character led to the prescription 
of the followers of Christ in the Roman Empire. 
The attitude of the civil authorities changed as the 
Christians increased in numbers and importance. At 
first looked on merely as Jewish schism.atics, the 
Christians were afterwards persecuted as enemies of 
the State and estabhshed institutions. A new stage 
was reached when, in the middle of the third century, 
the Church as such was made the object of attack. 
This attitude, inaugurated by Emperor Decius, made 
the issue at stake clear and well-defined. The im- 
perial authorities convinced themselves that the 
Christian Church and the pagan Roman State could 
not co-exist; henceforth but one solution was possible, 
the destruction of Christianity or the conversion of 
Rome. For half a century the result was in doubt. 
The failure of Diocletian (28-1-305) and his colleagues 
in the last and bloodiest of the persecutions to shake 
the resolution of the Christians or to annihilate the 
Church left no open to prudent statesmen but 
to recognize the inevitable and to abandon the old 
concept of government, the union of civil power and 

The first decisive step in this direction was taken by 
the beaten and implacable Galerius, who pubUshed 
from Nicomedia in 311 an edict of toleration in which 
he confessed that the efforts to "reclaim the Chris- 
tians" had failed. This edict was the result of utter 
impotency to prolong the contest. Complete am- 
nesty and freedom were attained two years later 
when Emperor Constant ine, after defeating Maxen- 
tius, published early in 313 with his colleague Licin- 
ius the famous Edict of Milan by which Christians 
were giuaranteed the fullest liberty in the practice of 
their religion. Without detracting from the credit of 
Constantine, the important social and political 
changes implied in this act must be looked on as a 
triumph of Clii'istian principles over pagan narrow- 
ness. The absolute independence of religion from 
state interference, which formed the keynote of this 
famous document, produced a new concept of society, 
and may be looked on as the first official exjjression of 
what afterwards came to be the medieval idea of the 
State. It was in Western Europe the first declara- 
tion on the i)art. of any one vested with civil authority 
that the State should not interfere with the rights of 
conscience :uid religion. In addition to removing the 
l)!m from the Christ i;ins Constantine ordered that tlie 
property of which they had been deprived during the 
persecutions by seizure or confisc;iti<m should be re- 
turned to them at the exjiense of the State. For the 
Christians the immunities and gu;iranties contained 
in this act had most iiiipcirt;int results. Then for the 
first time if became possilile to observe the Liturgy in 
its fullness, and seriously and earnestly to attempt to 

mould the life of the empire according to Christian 
ideals and standards. The joy of the Christians at 
this change in their public status is admirably ex- 
pressed by Eusebius in his "Church Historv" (X, ii). 

Galerius, Edict of toleratiminEvaKBlVB, Hist, eccl., VIll. svii; 
Edict of Constantine in Hist eccL, X, v. A large part of the edict in 
the original Latin can be found in Lactantius, De mortibus 
persecut,, ilvii. See also Mason, Persecution of Diocletian; Ai/- 
lard, Histoire des persecutions, VI; and bibliography under 

Patrick J. Healt. 

Pectorius of Autun, the name with which the 
important tlocument frecjuently known as the Inscrip- 
tion of Autun concludes. Nothing is known of the 
personal history of Pectorius. The inscription in 
which his name occurs, the authorship of which is 
usually attributed to him, was discovered, 24 June, 
1839, in the cemetery of St. Pierre I'Estrier at Autun. 
It is written in Greek metre and engi-aved on a marble 
tablet which was recovered in a fragmentary, though 
sufficiently complete, state to permit of the recon- 
struction of the entire text. The fragments are 
preserved in the museum of Autun and constitute one 
of the most remarkable epigraphic monuments of the 
early Christian Church. The following is a literal 
rendering of the inscription: "Divine race of the 
heavenly fish preserve a pure heart ha\ing received 
among mortals the immortal source of Divine waters. 
Refresh, O friend, thy soul with the everflowing waters 
of treasure-bestowing wisdom. Receive the sweet 
food of the Saviour of the Saints, eat with delight 
holding the fish in thy hands. Nourish (thine) with 
the fish, I pray, Master and Saviour; Sweetly may 
mother slumber, I beseech thee, Light of the Dead. 
Ascandios father, beloved of my heart with sweet 
mother and my brothers in the peace of the fish re- 
member Pectorius". The inscription considered in 
its content naturally falls into three parts, the first of 
which addresses itself to the Christians, the second to 
Christ, and the third contains a loving appeal to 
Pectorius's deceased relatives. The language of the 
first part stands alone in its jjurity, wliereas parts 
two and three contain traces of decadence. Various 
dates ranging from the second to the sixth centuries 
have been assigned for the composition of the in- 
scription. Its language, sjinbolism, and pateo- 
graphic characteristics refer it with great probability 
to the end of the second or beginning of the third 
century. In its inteniretation the use of the fish 
among the early Christians as a symbolical designa- 
tion of Christ Himself should be remembered. The 
document bears witness to some of the fundamental 
truths of the Catholic Faith, viz. the Divinity of 
Christ, the doctrines of transubstantiation, of prayer 
for the dead, and of the communion of saints. It 
clearly states the manner of distribution of the Holy 
Eucharist which in early times was placed in the 
hands of the recipient. 

Leclercq, Dictionnaire d'archiologie (Paris, 1907), s. v. Autun; 
PoHL, Das Ichthys Monument von Aultin (Berlin, 1880); Marri- 
ott, Testimony of the Catacombs (London, 1870). 

N. A. Weber. 

Pentateuch. — Some decisions of the Biblical Com- 
mission ((|. V.) in reg.ard to the chief subject of this 
article, viz.. Genesis, are as follows: The various ex- 
egetical systems which exclude the literal and histor- 
ical .sense" of the first three chapters of the Book of 
Genesis are not ba.sed on a solid foundation. It 




shoulrl not be taught that these tliree chapters do 
not contain true narrations of facts, but only fables 
derived from the mythologies and cosmogonies of 
earlier peoples, purged of their polytheistic errors and 
accommodated to monotheism; or allegories and 
symbols, with no objective reality, set forth in the 
guise of history to inculcate religious and philosoph- 
ical truths; or, finally, legends partly historical and 
partly fictitious put together for instruction and ed- 
ification. In particular, doubt shoidd not be cast on 
the literal and historical sense of passages which touch 
on the foundations of the Christian religion, as, for 
instance, the creation of the universe by God at the 
beginning of time; the special creation of man; the 
formation of the first woman from the first man; the 
unity of the human race; the original happiness, in- 
tegrity, and immortality of our first parents in the 
state of justice; the precept given by God to man to 
try his obedience; the transgression of the Divine 
precept, at the suggestion of the Devil, under the 
form of a serpent; the fall of our first parents from 
their original state of justice; the promise of a future 

In explaining such pa,ssages in these chapters as the 
Fathers and Doctors interpreted differently, one may 
folUjw and defend the opinion which meets his ap- 
proval. Not every word or in these chapters is 
always necessarilj- to be taken in its literal sense so 
that it may never have another, as when it is mani- 
festly used metaphorically or anthroponiorijhically. 
The literal and historical meaning of some pii&sages 
in these chapters presupposed, an allegorical and 
prophetical meaning may wisely and usefully be em- 
l)loved. As in writing the first chapter of Genesis 
the purjjose of the sacred author was not to expound 
in a scientific manner the constitution of the universe 
or iIk^ complete order of creation, but rather to give 
to the people popular information in the ordinary 
language of the day, adapted to the intelligence of 
all, the strict propriety of scientific language is not 
always to be looked for in their terminology. The 
expression six days and their division may be taken 
in the ordinary sense of a natural day, or for a certain 
I)eriod of time, and exegetes may dispute about this 
Acta Apostolica Sedis (15 July, 1908); Rome (17 July, 1909). 

Piatus of Mons (secular name, Jean-Joseph 
LoisE.\ux), b. 5 Aug., 1S1.5; d. in the Monastery of 
Ste. Claire, Bruges, 21 April, 1904. As a student for 
the priesthood he distinguished himself in moral 
theology and canon law. After his ordination as a 
secular priest of the Diocese of Tournai, Belgium, in 
183.S, he continued his study of canon law at Louvain. 
In 1S4IJ he wa.s appointed a vicar of the cathedral of 
Tournai, but the following year he went to Rome, 
and there spent two years in the Belgian college, 
studying canon law and working for the congrega- 
tions. He returned to Belgium in 1S46 and the next 
year was appointed to the chair of canon law and 
ecclesiastical history at Louvain. In 1847 in co- 
operation with Abb6 Felise he founded the quarterly 
magazine, "Melanges theologiques", and later the 
"Revue thC-ologique " and the "Nouvelle revue 
thtologique". The first was concerned chiefly with 
canon law; the second with liturgy. He continued to 
edit the "XouveUe revue thcologique" until 189.5, 
when it pas.sed into tlie hands of the Redemptorists. 
He twice refused the Bishopric of Tournai. In 1871 
he entered the Order of Capuchin Friars Minor. His 
chief works are: "Pra>lectiones juris regularis"; a 
dissertation, "De sententia S. Bonaventura; circa 
essentiam sacramenti Poenitentia)"; "Trait6 du 
jubil*-". He WTOte a great number of articles in 
theological reviews. 

AnnUrla Ord. FF. Min. Capp. (Rome, July, 1904); Etudes 
franciscaines (Ixiuvain, May, July, and .\ugufit, 1912). 

Father Cuthdert. 

Plateau, Joseph-Antoine, Belgian physicist, b. 
at Brussels, 14 Oct., 1801; d. at Ghent, 15 Sept., 
1883. His father, a flower-painter, wished him to 
be an artist, and, after his elementary studies, he 
was sent to the Academic de Dessein at Brussels. 
Left an orphan at fourteen, Joseph Plateau became 
the ward of a maternal uncle, an advocate, who 
intended him to study law. His intermediate studies 
were made at the Ath(5n6e Royal at Brussels, and in 
1822 he entered the University of Liege, being en- 
rolled as a student both of jihilosophy and letters 
and of science. He graduated doctor of physical 
and mathematical sciences, 3 June, 1829. After a 
brief period of teaching in the Ath^nco Royal at 
Liege, he was appointed, in 183.5, professor of experi- 
mental physics in the University of Ghent. His 
thesis for the doctorate had been "On certain proper- 
ties of the impressions produced by light upon the 
organ of sight". This line of researcli he followed 
for many years, studying successively the persistence 
of luminous impressions on the retina, accidental 
colours, irradiation, the contrast of colours, coloured 
shadows, etc. Many of the results obtained by him 
are stiU classical. In the course of these researches 
he once kept his naked eye fixed on the sun for 
twenty-five seconds, and this imprudence brought 
on a choroid inflammation which, in 1843, resulted 
in total blindness. Being obliged to give up teaching, 
he nevertheless continued his experimental work with 
admirable courage and marvellous success, helped by 
his elder son, F6Ux Plateau, the naturalist, his son- 
in-law, Van der Mensbruyghe, the physicist (1835- 
1911), and some friends and colleagues in the Uni- 
versity of Ghent. To this period belong almost all 
his famous researches on the statics of liquids 
freed from pressure, on surface tension, and on the 
properties of thin liquid plates. After 1844 Joseph 
Plateau had no laboratory but his study in his own 
modest home. He himself planned all the experi- 
ments and arranged all the details in advance. His 
assistants would announce in a loud voice everything 
they were doing, all that they observed, and th(' 
results of each process. Joseph Plateau would then 
dictate the notes and, later on, the text of the memoirs 
for publication. In this way he worked until he was 
upwards of eighty. Joseph Plateau was a sincere 
Christian, faithful to all the duties of a practical 
Catholic. He wa.s a member of the Royal .4cademy 
of Belgium, punctually attending all its meetings, a 
correspondent of the Institute of France, and a mem- 
ber of most of the academies and learned societies of 

A complete list of Plateau's works with sources 
indicated will be found in Van der Mensbruyghe, 
"Notice sur J. A. F. Plateau" (extract from the An- 
nuaire de I'acadcmie royale de Bclgi(|iu' fur 188.5). His 
p;ipers on visual phenomena have not bi-cii i)ubli.shed 
separately: they are scattered through -Memoires and 
Bulletins of the Academic Royale of Belgium. His 
researches on liquids have been corrected, arranged, 
and published by the author in G. Plateau, "Statique 
exp(''rimentale et theorique des liquides soumise aux 
seules forces inoleculaires" (2 vols., Pari,-<-London, 
1873). The best and most eoin])lete study of his scien- 
tific work is that of Joseph Delsaulx, S.J., published 
under the title of "Les travaux scientifiques de 
Joseph Plateau" in the "Revue des questions scien- 
tifiques" (1st .series, XV, 114-58, 518-77; XVI, 
3S3-437). J. Thirion. 

Prefecture Apostolic. — An account is here 
given of the prefectures -Vpostolic that have been 
erecte<l or changed during the publication of the 
earlier volumes of this work. 

Bar-ei^Gaz.\l. — This mis,sion was separated from 
the Vicariate .Vpostohc of the Sudan, and formed into 
a prefecture Apostolic on 30 May, 1913. It was 



entrusted to the care of the Congregation of the 
Sons of the Sacred Heart. Its boundaries were fixed 
as follows: on the north, the 10° N. lat. from the 
British Sudan frontier to the river Bar-el-Arab, 
then tlie rivers Bar-el-Arab, Bar-el-Gazal, Bar-el- 
Gebel, and Lobat as far as the British-Abyssinian 
border; on the east, the Abyssinian border from the 
Baro to Naita mountain, and thence to Foweira on 
the Victoria Nile; on the south the Victoria Nile, 
the northern shore of Lake Albert, and the Belgian- 
British frontier. On the west the Belgian-British 
and British-French frontiers as far as the 10° N. 
lat. By a Decree dated 30 May, 1913, R. P. An- 
tonio Stoppani, of the Verona Institute of the Sons 
of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, was appointed 
first prefect Apostolic. 

Betafo. — This mission was separated from the 
Vicariate ,\postolic of Central Madagascar (or 
Tananarive) by a Decree dated 15 May, 1913, and 
made a prefecture Apostolic. It is entrusted to 
the care of the Missionary Fathers of La Salette. 
The following boundary was assigned to the new 
prefecture: on the north, the 19° S. lat, from the 
Mozambique Channel to the borders of the Province 
of Itasy, then the southern limits of the province 
to the Kitsamby, then the northern and eastern 
borders of Faratsiho, to the latitude of Mount 
Faratsiho, and from there to the western border of 
Yatomandri; on the east, the border of Vatomandri 
as far as the 20° S. lat.; on the south, the Vicariate 
Apostolic of Fianarantsao; on the west, the Mozam- 
bique Channel from the 19° to 20° S. lat. 

Choco, in Colombia. — This prefecture was erected 
on 28 Aijril, 1908, and entrusted to the care of the 
Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. The 
superior of the mission is R. P. Juan Gil y Garcia. 

CiMBEBASiA, Lower. — The boundary between 
this prefecture and that of Great Namaquuland was 
modified slightly by a Decree of 2 June, 1913, which 
provided that the southern boundaries of the districts 
of Gobabis, Windhuk, Karibib, and Swakopmund, 
should be the line of delimitation between the two 
prefectures. The mission contains about 185,000 
inhabitants, of whom are 907 native and 636 European 
Catholics; there are 378 catechumens, 20 priests 
(Oblates of Mary Immaculate), 23 lay brothers, 10 
catechists, 11 stations, 24 schools with 520 pupils, 
and 16 Franciscan Missionary Sisters. The prefect 
Apostolic is R. P. Eugene KlaeylS, b. at Mutzig, 
Alsatia, in 1879; ordained, 1903; superior of the 
mission since 30 Nov., 1909. 

Caroline Islands. — This prefecture Apostolic 
and that of the Mariana Islands were suppressed by 
a Decree dated 1 March, 1911, and replaced by a 
new vicariate Apostolic, called that of the Mariana 
and Caroline Islands (q. v.) 

Drisdale River, Australia, erected on 4 May, 
1910; the territory, bounded by the 128° E. long, 
and 16° S. lat. and the ocean, was separated from the 
Vicariate Apostolic of Kimberley, when a mission 
was established for the conversion of the aborigines. 
It is at present under the jurisdiction of the Abbot 
of New Norcia, but is later to be erected into an 
abbacy millius. 

Erythrea, in East Africa. — This prefecture was 
erected into a vicariate Apostolic on 7 Feb., 1911. 

Ho-NAN, Western, in China. — This was erected 
into a vicariate Apostolic on 2 May, 1911. 

Kafpa, Southern, in Abyssinia, a mission se- 
parated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Galla ((i. v.), 
by a Decree dated 28 Jan., 1913; and committed to 
the care of the Turin Institute of the "Coiisoluta" 
for the Foreign Missions. Its boundaries arc: on 
the north, the Baro from the Abyssinian-British 
frontier to its source in Mount Secia, next the Goggeb 
till it falls into the Omo, and then a line directly 
east to the Arussi Mountains; on the east, the 

watershed between the Indian Ocean and Lakes 
Margherita, Ciarao, and Stefania; on the south, 
a Une from the extremity of that watershed to the 
eastern shore of Lake Rudolph, at 4° N. lat.; on 
the west, the Abyssinian-British frontier between 
the River Baro and Lake Rudolph. R. P. Gau- 
dentius Barlassina was appointed prefect Apostolic 
on 6 May, 1913. 

Katanga. — This mission was separated from the 
Vicariate .\postohc of Belgian Congo on 5 Aug., 
1910. Its boundaries were fixed as follows: on the, the Lualaba and the Luvua as far as Lake 
Moero, thence eastward along the Luapula to Lake 
Banguelo. From the source of the Luapula to the 
source of the Lualaba, the eastern and southern 
boundary of the prefecture is the Congo-Rhodesian 
frontier. The mission is entrusted to the Brazilian 
Congregation of the Benedictines of the Abbey of 
Saint-.\ndr6, of Lophem-les-Bruges, Belgium; as 
it is intended to erect the mission into an abbacy 
iiullius. Three Benedictine priests and two lay 
brothers left Belgium for the mission on 18 Aug., 
1910. The first prefect Apostolic is Dom Jean de 
Hemptinne, appointed, Aug., 1910. 

Katanga, Southern. — This mission, which formed 
the eastern portion of the Prefecture Apostolic of 
Upper Kassai, was separated from it and erected 
into a distinct prefecture on 30 June, 1911; it has 
been entrusted to the Fathers of the Holy Ghost 
and the Immaculate Heart of Mar}'. Its boundaries 
are: on the north, a right line from the mouth of 
the Elila to the town of Benakamba; on the west, 
the Lomani from Benakamba to its sources; on the 
south, the Lovoi; on the east, the Lualaba from 
the mouth of the Lovoi to the Elila, R. P. Emile 
Callawaert was appointed first prefect Apostolic on 
25 July, 1911. 

KoROGO, in Equatorial Africa. — On 17 Nov., 1911, 
the Prefecture Apostolic of the Ivory Coast, was 
di\ ided into two parts. The northern portion was 
formed into the Prefecture ApostoUc of Korogo, and 
entru.sted to the Lyons Society of the African Missions. 
R. P. Pierre-Marie Kernivinen was appointed first 
prefect Apostolic on 10 Jan., 1912. 

Mariana Islands. — This prefecture and that of 
the Caroline Island were suppressed by a Decree of 
1 March, 1911, when the two missions, with the 
exception of the Island of Guam, were formed into 
the Vicariate .\postolic of the Mariana and Caroline 
Islands (infra, p. S2\ 

Matadi, in Belgian Congo. — This mission was 
separated from the Vicariate of Belgian Congo and 
formed into a prefecture Apostolic on 1 July, 1911, 
and confided to the Redemjjtorists. Its boundaries 
are: on the north, the Congo from the mouth of the 
Kodio to that of the Binza, then the Binza to its 
source; next a line from that point to the mouth of 
the Binza-Nzau, finally the Congo to the Prefecture 
Apostolic of Kwango; on the east, the Prefecture 
of Kwango; on the south, the Belgian Congo frontier; 
on the west, the Bidizi to its source, thence a line 
through the mountains to the source of the 
Lukokote; then the course of the Lukokote and 
the Kodia to the Congo. R. P. Joseph Heintz 
was appointed the first prefect .\postolic on 1 Aug., 

Namaqualand, Gre.\t, South .\frica. — Theboimd- 
ary between the Prefectures of Great Namaqualand 
and Lower Cimhcbasia was changini on 2 June, 1913 
.and is now the southern limits of the districts of 
Gobabis, Windhuk, Karibib, and Swakopmund. 

XicF.iiiA. ICastern, in Equatorial .\frica. — By a 
Decree datwti 24 .Aug., 1911, the mission of the Upper 
Niger was divided into two parts, following the 8° 
E. long.; the name Upper Niger was drojjped and 
the two inis.sions called Ivistern and Western Nigeria. 
Both were made prefectures .\postolic. The Ciustern 




mission wa.s entrusted to the Lyons Society of African 
Missions. R. P. Oswald Waller, b. at Bennwihr, 
Alsatia, 24 Jan., 1866; ordained, 10 July, 1892, 
sent to the mission in Egypt, then to Dahomey in 
1898, and to Nigeria in 1906; was appointed first 
prefect Apostolic on 26 Sept., 1911. He resides at 
Shendam, Demshi. 

Ntgata, in Japan. — This mission was erected into 
a prefecture Apostolic on 13 Aug., 1912, and com- 
mitted to the care of the Society of the Divine Word, 
of Steyl. It comprises the Provinces of Akita, 
Yamagata, Nygata, formerly part of the Diocese 
of Hakodate: and Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui, 
part of the Archdiocese of Tokio and the Diocese of 
Osaka. On 19 Nov., 1912, R. P. Joseph Reiners 
was appointed the first prefect Apostolic. He re- 
sides at Nygata. 

PcTDMAYO, in Peru. — This mission was erected 
into a prefecture Apostolic on 4 Oct., 1912, and was 
confided to the Friars Minor; R. P. Leo Sambook 
was appointed first prefect Apostolic in Nov., 1912. 
The establishment of this mi,ssion was the outcome 
of the agitation stirred up in the British Parliament 
by a detailed account of the atrocities perpetrated on 
the unfortunate Indians b.v the officials of a British 
rubber company operating in Putumayo, a distant 
district of Peru, at the head waters of the .Amazon. 
For years this company had forced the Indians to 
collect crude rubber for them in the forests, and 
enforced their orders by tortures and scourging, 
inflicted by negro overseers imported from the 
Barbados for the pun'ose. Even women and children 
were not spared. The charges made by Sir Roger 
Casement, who visited the district at the request of 
the British Government, were in the main corrobor- 
ated by the report of Romulo Paredes, a special 
independent investigator sent to the region by the 
Peruvian Government. For years the few mis- 
sionaries in the district had appealed to the Peruvian 
authorities, when the opportunity presented itself, 
to protect the Indians, but until the agitation pro- 
voked by the revelations in England occurred and 
action was taken by the British and United States 
governments, no attention was paid to their petitions 
on behalf of the suffering natives. 

Teffe, in Brazil, erected by a Decree dated 23 
May, 1910, when together with the prefecture 

Apostolic of Upper Solimoes it was se))arated from 
the Diocese of Araazonas or Manaos. The missions 
in Tf'ff^ and and Upper Solimoes were undertaken in 
1897 by the Fatliers of the Holy Ghost and the Im- 
maculate Heart of Marj-, under R. P. Libermann at 
the request of Mgr. da Costa-Aguiar, Bishop of 
Amazonas, whose immense diocese erected only five 
years earlier was practically devoid of priests. The 
first mission was established by R. P. Berthon in 
June, 1907 at Teff6, a town on the .Amazon 700 miles 
from Manaos, and 1600 miles from the Atlantic. 
It is situated at the confluence of the Teffe and the 
Solimoes (or Upper Amazon), opposite the mouth 
of the Jai)ura; the missionaries have been greatly 
aided in their work by the co-operation of the local 
government authorities. They have established at 
Teff6 a large orphanage and industrial school for 
the young Indians, on a site donated for the purpose 
by the municipal authorities. The first prefect 
Apostolic is R. P. Michel-Alfred Barat, b. at Cler- 
mont, France, on 12 Nov., 1864; missionary in the 
Amazon district since 1897; appointed superior of 
the prefecture in May, 1910. 

Tripoli. — This prefecture was erected into the 
Vicariate Apostolic of Libya by a Decree dated 
23 Feb., 1913. 

Welle.— By a Decree of 18 Dec, 1911, the 
Prefecture Apostolic of WelliS was divided into 
Eastern and Western Well6; the line of separation 
being the 26° 30' E. long. Each division was made 
a prefecture Apostolic. Western Well6 remained 
under the care of the Premonstratensians of the 
Abbey of Tongerloo, Belgium. Eastern Well6 was 
entrusted to the Dominicans; its first prefect 
Apostolic is R. P. Reginald Van Schoote, who was ap- 
pointed on 12 Jan., 1912. He resides at Amadi. 

Zambesi. — The eastern boundary of the Zambesi 
mission was changed by a Decree of 28 June, 1912, 
and is now: the Portuguese Mozambique territory 
to 15° S. lat., then the rivers Luangwa, Lukasashi 
and Mlembo as far as the south-east corner of Belgian 

Acta Apostolica Sedis (Rome, 1909 — ); Battandier, An- 
nuaire pontifical catholique (Paris, 1908-13); Missiones ca~ 
tholiccB (Rome, 1907); Piglet, Les missions eathotiques /ran- 
caises au XIX> aiicle (Paris, 1901-03). 

A. A. MacErlean. 


Queen's Daughters (Daughters of the Queen 
OF Heaven, Filit, Regin.e Cceli), a religious and 
charitable society founded at St. Louis, Mo., 5 Dec, 
1889, by Miss Mary Ho.xsey. It was organized to 
supplement the work done for the poor in their homes 
by the members of the Conference of St. Vincent 
de Paul. The project received tlie approbation and 
encouragement of the Very Rev. P. P. Brady in 
whose parish it was inaugurated, and several years 
later the papal sanction and blessing were accorded 
(17 July, 1894). The society has since spread to 
numerous parishes of the United States and there 
are now thirty-five associations affiliated to 
at St. Louis. The constitution of the society pro- 
vides that it shall be governed by a general council 
composed of subordinate councils and associations. 
Five or more associations in a diocese have the right 
of forming a subordinate council with its own by- 
laws and officers. The society was incorporated 
on 6 Jan., 1902. The Queen's Daughters visit the 
poor in their homes and afford them spiritual and 
material aid. They eiiileavour to influence those 
who neglect their religious duties or the rehgious 
training of their children, they teach Christian doctrine 
in mission Sunday-schools, and assist in preparing 

persons for baptism, and in providing suitable 
clothing for the first Communion of children whose 
parents are unable to make such provision. Their 
organizations include sewing-guilds, cooking-schools, 
boai'ding-liomes for women and girls, sanctuary 
guilds :ind altar societies. At their Saturday in- 
dustrial schools for children the children of the poor 
are taught to sew and be self-helpful. Here also 
they are brought in contact with the members of 
the Gu;irdian Angel Bands, th(! children of well-to-do 
parents, who are taught to make garments for the 
poor and to be gcn(-rally helpful and sympathetic 
to their poorer companions. The usual work in 
connexion with juvenile courts is done according 
to instructions provided by court officials. The 
members of several religious congregations are honor- 
ary members of the as.sociation. Representative of 
these are the White Sisters of the Nazareth Home, 
Providence, R. I., who maintain a day nur.sery and 
visit the sick poor in their homes and to whom the 
society is pledged to contribute a specified sum 
monthly. The patroness of the society is the Blessed 
Virgin; and its motto "Ad Majorcm Dei 

Blanche M. Kelly. 





Rantoma Kai, Ancient See of. See Finland, 
Grand Duchy of. 

Ratzeburg (Racebdrgum), Ancient See of 
(Raceburgensis), in Germany, suffragan to Ham- 
burg. The diocese embraced the Duchy of Lauen- 
burg (Holstein) in the Prussian Province of Schleswig- 
Holstein, the Principality of Ratzeburg in the Grand 
Duchy of Meclvlenburg-Strehtz, and the western part 
of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, in- 
cluding Wismar but not Schwerin. The whole of it 
IS now included in the Diocese of Osnabriick. Ratze- 
burg was one of the dioceses formed about 1050 by 
Adalbert I, Archbishop of Hamburg, who appointed 
St. Aristo, who had just returned from Jerusalem, 
to the new see. Aristo seems to have been but a 
wandering missionary bishop. In 1066 the Wends 
rose against their German masters, and on 15 July, 
1066, St . Ansuerus, Abbot of St. George's, Ratzeburg 
(not the later monastery bearing that name), and 
several of his monks are said to have been stoned to 
death. It was not however till 1154 that Henry the 
Lion, Duke of Saxony, and Hartwich, Archbishop 
of Hamburg, refounded the See of Ratzeburg, and 
Evermodus became its first bishop. A disciple of 
St. Norbert and provost of the Monastery of Our 
Lady at Magdeburg, Evermodus was, like many of 
his successors, a Premonstratensian monk and a 
model of all virtues. In 1157 a chapter was attached 
to Ratzeburg cathedral by Pope Adrian IV. In 
1236 Bishop Peter was invested by Emperor Frede- 
rick II with temporal jurisdiction over the land of 
Butin and a number of villages outside it (the Princi- 
paUty of Ratzeburg). The succeeding bishops re- 
tained this jurisdiction in spite of the frequent at- 
tempts which the dukes of Sachsen-Lauenburg made 
to deprive them of it. In 1504, during the episcopate 
of Bishop John V von Parkentin, the Premonstra- 
tensian canons of Ratzeburg cathedral were, with 
Papal consent, made secular canons. Bishop George 
von Blumenthal (1524—50) was the last Cathohc 
bishop. In 1552 the cathedral was plundered by 
Count Volrad von Mansfeld. In 1566 the dean 
and chapter went over to Lutheranism. 

The cathedral of Ratzeburg dates ifrom the begin- 
ning of the twelfth century. It was restored, and 
additions were made to it in the fifteenth century. 
The diocese also contained a number of other beauti- 
ful churches at MoUn, Wismar, Biichen, and else- 
where. Besides the cathedral chapter of Ratzeburg 
with its provost or dean and twelve canons, there 
were in the diocese the Benedictine Abbeys of St, 
George, Ratzeburg (refounded in 1093), and of 
Wismar, where Benedictines expelled from Lubeck 
founded a monastery in 1239; also convents of the 
same order at Eldona founded in 1229, by Bishop 
Gottschalk of Ratzeburg, and burnt in 1290, at 
Rehna founded in 1237 by Bishop Ludolfus, and at 
Zarrentin founded in 1243. There were also Fran- 
ciscans (1251) and Dominicans (1293) at Wismar. 

Mecklenburgisches Urkundenbuch (23 vols., Schwerin, 1863); 
Codex diplomaticiis lubecensia (11 vols., Lubeck, 1S43-1902); 
Di-plurruUarium raceburgense in De Wesphalen. montimenta. 
itiedita rerum germanicarum (Leipzig, 1740), coll. 1997-233.5; 
SchrSder, PapisHsches Mecklenburg (2 voU., Wismar, 1739- 
41): Vaterldndiaches Archiv des Vereins far das Herzogthum 
Lauenburg, I (Ratzeburg, 1857) : Archiv des Vereins fur die 
Geschichte Lauenburgs, new series, I-V, VII (Molln, 1884 — ), 
pt. 2; Masch, Geschichte des Bisthuma Ratzeburg Rostock, 
1832); Neuendobff, Die Stiftsl&nder des ehemaligen Bisthums 
Ratzeburg (Rostock, 1832), with a map of the diocese in 1231. 
A. W. Taylor. 

Ribe, Ancient See of (Rip.e, Ripen.sis), in Den- 
mark (Jutland). The diocese (29 ileaneries, 278 
parishes) consisted of the modern Danish Provinces 
of Ribe, Vejle, and Ringkjobing, and of part of 

Xorth Schleswig. The first church built at Ribe 
was founded by St. Ansgar in 860, served by his 
biographer and successor, St. Rembert, and destroyed 
during the heathen reaction after the latter's death 
in 888. It was rebuilt towards 948, in which year 
St. Leofdag, first Bishop of Ribe, was consecrated 
by Archbishop Adaldag of Hamburg, probably at 
the Council of Ingelheim (Germany), which the Jutish 
bishops attended. Leofdag is said to have been 
martyred by the heathen at Ribe. LTntil the death 
of his third known successor Vale (1044-59) the 
bishops of Ribe, Schleswig, and Aarhus wandered 
about Jutland on missionary tours. In 1060, how- 
ever, Jutland was divided into the four Dioceses of 
Ribe, Aarhus, Viborg, and Vestervig (Borglum). 
Bishop Thure (1125-34) began to build the fine 
Cathedral of Our Lady at Ribe, which was finished 
under Bishop Elias (1142-66), who founded the 
chapter in 1145. His successor Radulf (1170-71), 
an Englishman and chancellor to King Valdemar 1, 
translated to the cathedral the relics of St. Leofdag, 
who, however, was never formally canonized. He 
began the foundation of the Cistercian Abbey of 
Logum (Locus Dei) in North Schleswig, which was 
completed by his successor Stephen (1173-77), 
formerly Abbot of Herrisvad (Scania). Bishop Onier 
(1178-1204) reduced the number of the canons of 
Ribe to twelve. Bishop Christian II (1288-1313) 
in 1298 greatly enriched the cathedral school, which 
had been founded in 1145. Bishops Eskil (1388- 
1409) and Henry Stangberg (1455-65) published 
synodal statutes with a view to reforming both 
clergy and laity. Ivar Munk was elected bishop 
in 1499 but not consecrated till 1513. Although he 
was unable to prevent Duke Christian from protes- 
tantizing North Schleswig, he kept the new doctrine 
out of the rest of his diocese. Ivar Munk opposed 
Christian's election as King Christian III of Denmark 
in 1533, being however compelled as a privy coun- 
cillor for Jutland to join that monarch's party, Ivar 
Munk resigned his bishopric in 1534 in favour of 
his nephew, Olaf Munk. The bishop's palace at 
Ribe was bestowed upon Ivar Munk and there he 
died in 1539. Like the other Danish bishops Olaf 
Munk was imprisoned on 12 August, 1536. When 
released he had to promise to marry as well as to 
comply with the conditions imposed upon all the 
Danish bishops. On the fulfillment of his promise 
the Abbey of Tvis was bestowed upon him, he was 
later readmitted to the privy council, and he live<l 
the life of a rich nobleman until his death in 1569. 

The cathedral of Ribe (restored in 1904), a Ro- 
manesque building with Gothic additions and a tower 
dating from 144tT, contained besides the shrine of 
St. Leofdag a chapel dedicated to St. Lambert, which 
was a great centre for pilgrimages. St. Lambert was 
the patron of Ribe as well as of Liege in Belgium, and 
his cultus at Ribe is doulitless due to the trading con- 
nexion between that city and the Low Countries. 
The abbey church of Logimi, the Romanesque 
churches near Ribe, like the cathedral built of 
volcanic stone brought from Andernach on the Rhine, 
and the earliest Christian monument in Denmark, 
the great carved stone set up by King Harold Blue- 
tooth near the funeral mounds of his parents, King 
Gorm the Old (d. 940) and tjueen Tliyra IJaneb.Hl 
(d. 945) at Jellinge near Veile, are all mi'inorials of 
the Catholic past of the Diocese of Ribe. The 
cathedral chapter consisted of four prelates and 
twenty-one prebendaries (twelve resident). There 
were eight minor canons and nearly fifty chaplains. 
In the city there were also the Benedictine Convent 
of St. Nicholas (founded before 1215), a Franci.scan 
and a Dominican priory, each dating from 1259, and 





a hospital of the Holj' Spirit, ami a commandery of 
theKnightsof St. Johnof Jenisalem.both dating from 
about 1300. Elsewhere there were the Cistercian 
.Abbeys of Tvis, near Holstebro (founded by Prince 
Buris in 1163), of Logum, and of Seem, the last 
having been a Benedictine abbey till 1171. There 
were Benedictine convents at Gudumand at Stubber, 
a Dominican priory at Wile, and a Franciscan priory 
at Kolding. M present (1912) there are Cathohc 
churches, schools, and hospitals at Esbjerg, Kolding, 
Fredericia, and Veile. 

Riis, The Old Tou-n (.New York. 1909); Langebek Script, rer. 
dan. V (Copenhagen. 1783). 534-70: VII (1792). 182-209; 
Kirkehistoriske Samlinger. II (Copenhagen, 1853-56). 490-500; 
III (18.57-59). 68-91. 3S8-41S. 584-648; Terpageb. Ripx 
cimbriccE descriptio (Flensburg. 1736) : KlscH, Ribe Bys Historie, 

I (Ribe. 1869); Helms and .^mberg. Ribe Domkirke (Copen- 
hagen. 1906); O. NlELSo.v, Ribe Oldemoder (Copenhagen. 1869); 
Bricka. Dangk Biog. Leks. (Copenhagen, 1SS7-1905), 

A. W. Taylor. 

Rioja, Fr.incisco de, poet, b. at Seville, 15.S3; d. 
at Madrid, 16.59. Rioja a canon in the cathedral at 
Seville and a member of the Supreme Inquisition. His 
poems will keep his name forever remembered by his 
countrymen. Quintana considers them the first at- 
tempts at descriptive poetry in the Castilian language. 
The style is original, the thoughts beautifully ex- 
pressed, the taste refined, and the versification well 
adapted and harmoniously blended with the theme. 
The ode "A Ijis ruinas de ItaUa", which belongs to 
Rodrigo Caro, and the "Epistola moral", whose 
author is probably- Francisco de Andrada, were, until 
late, ascribed to Rioja, who, although despoiled of 
these literary gems, is highly esteemed by all Spanish 
scholars. >Ien6ndez y Pelayo fehcitously WTites that 
Rioja's "Ode to Summer", and those "To Tran- 
quillity", "To Constancy," "To Riches" and "To 
Poverty" are, after the lyrics of Fray Luis de Le6n, 
the best moral odes of the Ca-stilian poetical treasure. 

Ram6x FERN.ixDEZ. Pnesias de Francisco de Rioja y de otros 
poetas andaluces (Madrid, 179S) ; Sismondi. Hist, de la literaiura 
espafiola. II (Seville. 1842), 173; Ticknob, Hist, of Spanish Lit., 

II (New York. 1854), 545; Ferx.I.vdez-Espisg. Curso hist, crllico 
de la lit. espafiola (Seville. 1S95). The be-iit edition of Rioja's 
poems ia that of Barreha (Aladrid. 1867) ; Adicione^ d las 
poesias de Rioja (Madrid, 1872). 

William Furlong. 
Roman Colleges. — The Apostolic Constitution 
"In praecipuis", 29 June, 1913, promulgates the new 
regulations concerning the tr.aining of the Roman and 
Italian clergy. In brief, there are to be two semi- 
naries: a smaller, for "gj'mnasial" students, in the 
present Vatican Seminary; and a greater, for philos- 
ophers and theologians, in the new Lateran building. 
To the latter are transferred the Seminario S>S. 
Ambrogio e Carlo, now to be part of the Roman 
Seminary; and the Seminario Pio, which retains 
the laws as to its scope and character. The faculties 
of philosophy and theologj- of the Roman Seminary 
are to be in the Lateran Seminary; the law depart- 
ment goes to the Collegio Leoniano, but remains a 
school of the .Seminary. The Collegio Leoniano shall 
receive only priests, duly authorized to pursue higher 
studies. The Academia Theologica of the >Sapienza 
remains at S. ApoUinare. All Italian clerical students 
must abide in the Lateran or the Vatican Seminaries, 
excepting those preparing for the heathen missions 
or who are ehgible for the Collegio Capranica. 

Roskilde (Roschildia), Ancient See of (Ros- 
KlLDE.Nsis), in Denmark, .suffragan to Hamburg, 
about 991-1104, to Lund, 1104-1.53(5. The diocese 
included the Danish Islands of Zealand and Moen and 
the Prussian I.sland of Riigen (Pomerania). About 
960 King Harold Bluetooth built a wooden church 
dedicated to the Holy Trinitv at his new capital of 
Roskilde. Godebald (991-1()21), Gerbrand (1022- 
30), and .\age or Avoco (10.30-48) were the first three 
bishops of Roskilde. Godebald and Gerbrand were 
both Englishmen. Scania (Sweden) was subject to 

Roskilde from 991 to 1021, to Lund, 1021-1030, and 
again to Roskilde from 1030 to 1060, when Scania was 
divided between the Diocese of Lund and the short- 
lived Diocese of Dalby. Bishop \\'illiam (1048-76) 
began, and Bishop Svend Norbagge (1076-88) fin- 
ished, with the help of King St. Canute, the first 
stone cathedral at Roskilde in 1080. The following 
year he enl.arged the existing mona-sterj- of Canons 
Regular, and made it into a chapter with fifteen preb- 
endaries. Bishop .Svend also completed the founda- 
tion of the Benedictine Abbey of Ringsted begun by 
King Svend Estrids.sen. During the episcopate of 
Arnold (1089-1124) a nobleman named Peter Bodilsen 
led a popular movement in Zealand directed against 
the marriage of the clergy. About this time the 
skull of Pope Saint Lucius 1 (253-5.5) was brought to 
Roskilde cathedral, of which he became the patron 
saint. This famous relic was given a year or two ago 
by the Danish Government to the vicar Apostolic for 
Denmark. Other prominent bishops were Eskil and 
the Danish national hero .\bsalon (see Absalon of 
Lund; Eskil; Lund). Absalon founded Copenhagen 
in 1168, and gave it to the See of Roskilde in 1191. 
The Island of Riigen was incontorated in the Diocese 
of Roskilde by papal Bull in 1 1(59. On 2.5 June, 1 170, 
Valdemar I saw his father St. Canute Lavard's relics 
enshrined and his own son Canute (VI) crowned on 
the same day in the .\bbey of Ringsted. It was the 
first Danish coronation. In 1171 Bishop Absalon 
published the Ecclesiastical Laws of Zealand. Peter 
Sunesen, a former Canon Regular of St. Augustine, 
and a pupil of Abbot Stephen of Saint Genevieve's, 
Paris, and of Abbot St. William of Ebehoft, suc- 
ceeded Absalon as Bishop of Roskilde in 1 191. He be- 
gan the present cathedral of Roskilde about A. D. 1200, 
in imitation of the cathedral of Tournai, Belgium, 
where Abbot Stephen was bishop from 1192 till 1203. 
Peter Sunesen died in 1214. Bishop Niels Stigsen 
(1225-49) turned the canons of the cathedral from 
regulars into seculars. His successor, Jacob Erland- 
sen, the great champion of the claims of the Church, 
as against the .State, who was Bishop of Roskilde 
from 1249 until hLs transition to Lund in 1254, 
founded schools for poor boys at Roskilde and at 
Lund, and greatly favoured the Franciscans. Bishop 
Olaf I (1,301-20) added to Roskilde cathedral the 
lady-chapel, which was taken down in 1772 in order to 
make room for the ugly building in which the Danish 
monarchs are still buried. Bishop Peter (V) Jensen 
Lodehat, formerly Bishop of Vexio (Sweden) and then 
of Aarhus, signahzed his translation to the Sec of Ros- 
kilde in 1413 by forciblv removing the body of his 
benefactress Queen Margaret from Soroe abbey to the 
cathedral. On Bishop Peter's death in 1416 King 
Eric of Pomerania took possession of Copenhagen, 
which henceforward ceased to be episcopal property. 
Bishop Jens .\ndersen (1416-31) refurnished the 
choir of the cathedral, which however was greatly 
damaged when most of the town was destroyed by 
the great fire of 14 M.ay, 1443, during the episcopate 
of Jens Pedersen (1431-48). Consequentlv it was 
not till 1464 that Bishop Olaf Mortensen Baden 
(1461-85) was able to consecrate the restored cathe- 
dral and the Chapel of the Three Kings added to it 
by King Christian I. The same monarch founded the 
University of Copenhagen in 1479 in virtue of a Bull 
from Sixtus IV. Bishop Bjidcn w^as its first chancel- 
lor. The Last truly Catholic bishop was the learned 
Lage Urne (1512-29) who, like his predeces,sors for 
many generations, also High Chancellor of Den- 
mark. He managed to keep Lutheranism out of the 
diocese for the most part, and it not till the time 
of his succe-s-sor Joachim Ronnov, nominal Bishop of 
Roskilde (1.529-36), that the deluge came. Ronnov neither received confirmation, nor had be 
been consecrated. All episcopal functions were per- 
formed by the Franciscan Vincent Lange, titular 




Bishop of Gardar, Greenland. Although Ronnov 
had made great concessions to Lutheranism, he was 
imprisoned, hke the other bishops, in 1536, and, un- 
like them, kept in prison until his death in the Castle 
of Copenhagen in 1544. The cathedral of Roskilde, 
the abbey churches of Soroe, Ringsted, and Skovklos- 
ter (now Herlufsholm), the five-towered church at 
Kallundborg, the unique fifteenth-century Carmelite 
Priory of St. Mary's, Elsinore (Helsingor), all of 
whose buildings are intact, which was the home of the 
Catholic controversialist Paulus HeUx or Poul Hel- 
gesen (1480-1536?), and is not even mentioned in any 
English guide-book, these, the Romanesque churches 
of Zealand and Rugen, and many other buildings and 
works of art testify to the importance of the diocese 
before the Reformation. Of the institutions then 
existing, the chapter of Roskilde, dating from about 
1080, and the chapter of the Collegiate Church of Our 
Lady at Copenhagen, each consisted of a numerous 
clergy. There were Benedictines at Ringsted, where, 
besides St. Canute Lavard, the holy King Eric Plov- 
penning (d. 1250) and good Queen Dagmar (d. 1212) 
were buried. The Abbeys of Esrom, Soroe, the home 
of Saxo Grammaticus the historian and the burial 
place of Absalon, and Skovkloster, formerly at St. 
Peter's Nsstved, belonged to the Cistercians. There 
was an abbey of Canons Regular of St. Augustine at 
Ebelholt, and the Knights of St. John had a great 
house at Antvortskov. The Canons of St. Anthony 
of Vienne had a house at Praestoe. As elsewhere in 
Denmark, there were Franciscan, Dominican, or Car- 
melite convents, as well as hospitals of the Holy 
Spirit and sometimes leper-houses (as at Copenhagen 
and Kallundborg) in the towns. The Benedictine 
(afterwards Cistercian) nunnery of St. Mary at Ros- 
kilde contained the body of St. Margaret of Oele- 
shove (Olsemagle) near Kjoege, who was beatified in 
1176. Another famous local saint was St. Andrew, 
priest of St. Peter's, Slagelse, who rode from Jerusa- 
lem to Slagelse one Easter Day according to the 
thirteenth-century legend. On the Island of Riigen 
there was the Cistercian nunnery of Bergen. 

Copenhagen is now (1912) the residence of the 
vicar Apostolic for Denmark and Iceland. There are 
about seven Catholic churches at Copenhagen, Jesuit 
colleges (of the German province) at Copenhagen and 
Ordrup, a house of Austrian Redemptorists, a com- 
munity of Marists, various convents of the Sisters of 
St. Joseph of Chamb^ry (Savoy) including a novi- 
tiate, as well as convents of the (German) Sisters of 
St. Elizabeth and of the Assumptionist nuns. The 
Jesuits conduct schools (including a grammar school) 
at Copenhagen and Ordrup; the Christian Brothers 
have one at Frederiksberg. The Sisters of St. 
Joseph and the Assumptionist Sisters keep secondary, 
and the former four elementary, schools, as well as an 
orphanage. The Sisters of St. Joseph and the Sisters 
of St. Elizabeth possess splendid hospitals. There is 
also a training-home for young servants (Mariehjeni) 
at Copenhagen. At Roskilde there are a church with 
two priests, a school, and a fine hospital kept by the 
Daughters of the Divine Wisdom (Filles de la Sa- 
gesse). At Elsinore there is a church with a school 
conducted by the Sisters of St. Vincent de Paul. 
There are also churches at Kjoge, Na^stved, Ring- 
sted, and Slagelse. The Island of RUgen now forms 
part of the Diocese of Breslau, and is under the im- 
mediate superintendence of the provost of Berlin as 
delegate of the prince-bishop. There is a Catholic 
church at Bergen. 

Lanoebek. Srriptoreii rtrum danicaruw., I (Copenhagen, 
1772): III (1774), 205-75; VII (1792), l-lSri: Joroensen, Den 
nordiske Kirkcs (Inrndlagadse (2 vols., Copenhagen, 1874-7.S). 
TliAP. DanvuiTk, I-II (ibid.. IflOG, 1898); Kornerijp, Roskilde 
Domkirke in Danske Mindexmrrrker, II (ibid., 1S77); Aar- 
baeger far nordixk OUlkyndighed. IX (ibid., 1874), 393-441; 
second series, III (1888), 114-28; V (1890), 105-84, 30.^-75; 
XII (1897), 22,')-4fi; Bricka, Dansk biografisk Lekxikon (19 
vols,, Copenhagen, 1887-1905); Danske Magasin, IV, R. II 

(ibid., 1873), 62-69; V, R. Ill (1893-97), 350-77; Olbik, Absalon 
(2 vols., ibid., 1908-09); Muller, Vila Lagonis Urne (ibid., 
1831-33): Knudsen, Joachim Ronnov (ibid., 1840); Manuate 
curatorum (ibid., 1513); Freisen, Katholisches liitualbuch der 
danischen Diozese Roskilde (Paderborn, 1898); Breviarium 
Roi^kildensc (Paris. 1517); Canon secundum usuni Ecclesi(E 
Roschildensis (Nyborg, 1522): Diurnale Roskildense (Paris, 
loll); Daugaard, De danske Klostre i Middelalderen (Copen- 
hagen, 1830); Kirkehistoriske Samlinger, IV. R. 1. (ibid, 1889-91), 
66-91, 741-757; IV, E. V (1897-99), 503-543. 787-794; Metz- 
leh, Bi.ikop Johannes von Buch (ibid., 1910); Gertz, Vita: Sanc- 
torum Danorum (ibid., 1908-12), 285-390, 409-45; Helved, De 
danske Domkapitter (ibid., 1855). 

A. W. Taylor. 

Rosselino, Antonio di Matted di Doiienico, 

the youngest of five brothers, sculptors and stone 
cutters, family name Gamberelli (1427-78). He is 
said to have studied under Donatello and is remark- 
able for the sharpness and fineness of his low relief. 
His most important work is the monument of Cardinal 
Jacopo of Portugal in the Church of S. Miniato al 
Monte, Florence (1461-67). The portrait bust of 
Matteo Palmieri in the Bargello is signed and dated 
1468. In 1470 he made the monument for the 
Duchess of Amalfi, Mary of Aragon, in the Church of 
Monte Oliveto, Naples; the relief of the Nativity over 
the altar in the same place is also probably his. A 
statue of St. John the Baptist as a boy is in the 
Bargello; also a delicate relief of the Madonna and 
Child, an Ecce Homo, and a bust of Francesco Sas- 
setti. The so-called Madonna del Latte on a pillar 
in the Church of S. Croce is a memorial to Francesco 
Ncri, who fell by the stab intended for Lorenzo de' 
Medici. Other reliefs of the Madonna and Child are 
in the Via della Spada, Florence, and in the South 
Kensington Museum, London. In the latter place is 
the bust of Giovanni di S. Miniato, a doctor of arts 
and medicine, signed and dated 1456. Working in 
conjunction with Mino da Fiesole, Rossellino executed 
the reliefs of the Assumption of Mary and the mar- 
tyrdom of St. Stephen for the pulpit at Prato. A 
marble bust of the boy Baptist in the Pinacoteca, 
Faenza, and a Christ Child in the Louvre are at- 
tributed to Antonio by some authorities. 

MuNTZ, Histoire de I'art pendant la Renaissance (Paris, 1895) ; 
Perkins, Tuscan Sculptors (London, 1864); Sturgis, Dictionary 
of Architecture (New Yorlt, 1904) ; Bode, Denkmdler der Renaissance 
Sculptur Toacanas (Munich, 1905). 

M. L. Handle Y. 

Rosselino, Bernardo (properly Bernardo di 
Matted Gambarelli), b. at Florence, 1409; d. 1464. 
Rosselino occupies the first place among the archi- 
tects and sculptors of second rank who flourished 
during the Early Renaissance. As an architect he 
built the Rucellai palace at Florence from the plans 
of his celebrated countryman Leon Battista Alberti, 
and had an important share in the working out of the 
details. Another striking work is the facade of the 
building of the Fraternity, della Misericordia at 
Arezzo which he erected on a Gothic substructure. 
He won his greatest fame as an architect, however, 
while in the service of Nicholas V and Pius II. 
During the pontificate of Nicholas V he aided Alberti 
in working for the pope's plans resiiecting a new 
Church of St. Peter and the reconstruction of the 
Vatican. The choir which Rosselino began was used 
later by Bramante. At the order of Pius II he built 
in the pope's native town C;istel Corsignano, later 
called Pienza, a cathedral, a palace, and a residence for 
a bishop. At the pope's reqviest the cathcnlral was 
erected as a Gothic chiirch with all the aisles of the 
same height, hke the Gothic churches of Austria. 
He also, at the pope's command, prepared the designs 
for the P;il;izzo Nerucci and the beautiful Palazzo 
Picciilomini ;it Sien:i. 

Pos.'icliiio shows his great architectural talent in his 
work :\K sculiilor; his imjiortancc for the sculiitureof 
the K:irly Hcnai.ssancc n^sts more in the structiu'e as 
a whole and in the relation of the parts than upon the 
execution of individual figures, which still showed 




lack of life and spirit. This is especially true of the 
sepulchral monuments of Florence to which he gave 
their permanent form. Tlie tomb he built to the 
Florentine secretary of State, Leonardo Bruni, in 
Santa Croce at Florence, was used as a model through- 
out the entire Early Renaissance. Bruni is represented 
88 lying with the head slightly turned on a raised 
sarcophagus in a niche; in tlie semicircular background 
of the niche the Madonna and Child are shown with 
two worshipping angels. Among other works of the 
same character he designed the tomb of Beata Villana 

in the Church of Maria Novella at Florence, that of 
the jurist, FiUppo Lazzari, in the Church of San Do- 
minico at Pistoja, a richly ornamented marble doorway 
in the Palazzo Publico at Siena, and a terra cotta 
panel representing the Annunciation in the cathedral 
at Aiezzo. 

MuNTz, Hiatoire de I'art pendant la Renaissance, 1 (Paris, 
18SS), 104, 306, 423, 543; Bukckhardt-Bode, Cicerone (Leipzig, 
1901), 446 sq.: Pastor, Hist, of the Popes (London, 1902—), 

I, 43; II, 183; V, 71; VI, 460, 483, 

Beda Kleinschmidt. 

Saavedra, Fajakdo Diego de, statesman and 
author, b. at Algezares, Murcia, Spain, in 1584; d. at 
Madrid in 1048. He made his studies at the Uni- 
versity of Salamanca where he received his degree in 
law. After having been the secretary of Cardinal 
Borgia, Spanish ambassador at Rome, he succeeded 
him in that position. Saavedra enjoyed the full con- 
fidence of Philip IV, conducting the political and 
diplomatic affairs of the latter during the course of 
thirtj'-five years in Italy, Germany, and Switzerland. 
His qualities and abilities as a statesman are shown 
as well in his works as in his deeds. His "Idea de un 
principe . . . representado en cien empresas" (Ma- 
drid, 1640), translation by J. Astry (London, 1700), is 
characterized b}' grace of style, penetrating judgment, 
and sound morality. The same qualities appear in 
his "Repiiblica literaria" (Madrid, 1670), translation 
by J. E. (London, 1827), embodied in a pleasing garb 
of humour. Other secondary works of Saavedra are: 
"Corona grttica" (1670), " Locuras de Europa" and 
'■Politica y raz6n de estado del Rey Cat61ico D. 
Fernando". A complete edition of all his works ap- 
peared at Madrid in 1853. Saavedra is not only one 
of the foremost prose ^Titers of Spain but is also one 
of the greatest glories of Spanish diitlomacy. 

TicKNOR, History of Spanish Literature, III (New" York, l,S.i4), 
185: Men^ndez y Pelayo, Historic de las ideas est^iras en 
Espaila, III (Madrid, 1888); de Pn-nr.xQiE, Ilisloire comparte 
des litt^ateures espagnole el fran<:aise (Paris, lS.i4); C0RTINE8 
T MuRUBE, Ideas juridicas de Saavedra Fajardo (Madrid, 1908); 
this latter work is prefaced by a ver>' good account of Saavedra's 
life and diplomatic niisaions. 

William Furlong. 

Savigny, Karl Friedrich, diplomatist, b. at Ber- 
lin, 19 Sept., 1814; d. at Frankfort -on-the-Main, 
11 Feb., 1875. He was the son of the great jurist 
Friedrich Karl von Savignj', who was then privy 
councillor of the court of appeals, member of the 
Pru.s.sian council of State, and professor at the Uni- 
versity of Berlin, and of his wife, Kunigunde Bren- 
tano, sister of the poet Klemens Brcntano. The 
father was a Protestant, but the mother was a Catholic, 
and the children were allowed to follow the reUgion of 
the mother. Karl Friedrich was first taught at 
home, then attended the French Gymvasuim at Ber- 
lin, the Collegium Romanura at Rome, and the Col- 
legium Sob.istianum at Naples. He studied law at 
Berlin, Munich, and Paris. In 18.30 he became an 
auscultator at Berlin; in 18.57 he was a referendar in 
the court at Aachen, in 1840 secretary of legation at 
London and Dresden, in 1842 at Lisbon, in 1848 at 
London. In 1849 he was councillor of legations and 
member of the ministry of foreign affairs, and in 1850 
ambassador at Karlsruhe. While here he was able to 
win over the Government of Baden for the Prussian 
pohcy, and, as Bismarck testified, "by cautious and 
tactful hearing to win a conmianding position at 
Karlsruhe for the Prussian government." 

From 1859 Karl Friedrich was Prussian ambassador 
at Dresden, from 1862 at Brussels, and from 1804 he 
was minister with full powers at the Diet of the Ger- 
man Confederation at Frankfort. In 1866 he offered 

at the Diet the Prussian motion for the reform of the 
German Confederation, and when it was rejected on 
14 June, 1866, he declared the withdrawal of Prussia, 
upon which the Austro-Prussian war began. Later 
in connexion with Bismarck he was plenipotentiary in 
making a treaty 
of peace with the 
states of southern 
Germany and 
Saxony. He was 
the presiding offi- 
cer of the govern- 
ment conferences 
for the drafting 
of a constitution 
for the North 
German Confed- 
eration, and was 
a plenipotentiary 
at the Reiohst;!}! 
which decided the 
Thus he per- 
formed important 
services in nation- 
al affairs. In 
1868 he retired 
partially, and in 
1871 entirely, from government positions in 
order to become one of the parliamentary leaders 
of the Catholics. From 1867 he was a mem- 
ber of the Lower House of the Prussian Diet, from 
1868 a member of the Lower House of the Diet of the 
North German Confederation, and later of the Ger- 
man Reichstag, or Parliament of the German Empire. 
In 1871 he took part in the founding of the Centre 
Party. He was not particularly distinguished as a 
speaker, but his knowledge, distinguished person- 
ality, and connexions were of much benefit to the 
Catholic cause. 

Vnsere Zeit, XI, Pt. I (Leipzig, 1875), 466-69; Allegemeine 
deutache Biographic, 3. v.; Pastor, August Reichenspcrger , I, Pt. 
II (Freiburg, 1899), passim. 

Klemens Loffler. 

Schatzgeyer, Caspar, a foremost opponent of the 
Protestant Reformers; b. at Landshut in 146.3 or 1464; 
d. at Munich, 18 Sept ., 1527. For many years he was 
guardian at Munich, and since 1517 provincial of 
the Strasburg province of the Friars Minor, .and defin- 
itor-general. In 1523 he was appointed inquisitor for 
Germany. Schatzgeyer energetically opposed the new 
errors both in word and writing. It is in great part 
due to him and his confreres that the Catholic Faith 
held its ground in southern Germany, and tliat the 
Bavarian Government strenuously defended its 
cause. Within a few years he published \iinv;irds of 
twenty-three works in which he defended the C:itliolic 
position on such doctrines as gr.ace, the veneration of 
saints, monasticism, the indissolubility of marriage, 
the Mass, purgatorj-, etc. His writings have received 
the highest praise from Jolm Eck, who collected and 




published them at Ingolstadt in 1543. The dukes of 
Bavaria recommended them to all ecclesiastics. 

Gbeiderer, Germania franciscana, II (Innsbruck, 1777-81), 
418 sq.; Druffel, Der haierische Minorit der Observ. C. Schatzger 
u. seine Schri/ten in SUzungsbericht der kon. haier. Akademie der 
Wissenschafl: philog. u. hist. Klasse (1890), 397-133; Minges, 
Geschichte der Franziskaner in Bayern (Munich, 1896); Paulds, 
C. Schatzyeier ein Vork&mpfer der kath. Kirche in Siiddeuschland 
(Freiburg, 1898); Hcrter, Nomenclalor lit.. II (3rd ed.), 1253 
3qq. _ ^ 

Thomas Plassmann. 

Shirley, James, poet and dramatist, b. in London, 
18 Sept., 1596; d. there Oct., 1666. As a boy he at- 
tended the Merchant Taylors School, from October, 
1608, to June, 1612, matriculating at St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford, in the latter year; he there won the es- 
teem of Laud, the president of the college. In 1617 he 
took his degree of B.A. at St. Catherine's Hall, Cam- 
bridge, and soon after taking orders in the English 
Church (1619), was assigned curate in a parish near 
St. Albans, where he remained until his conversion to 
the CathoUc Church. After his conversion he taught 
for a livelihood and became master in the Edward VI 
School at St. Albans, on the failure of which he re- 
moved to Gray's Inn, London, 1625, as he said "to 
set up for a play maker". That he was faithful in the 
practice of his rehgion is gleaned from his works. 
His praise of the Benedictines in the "Grateful Ser- 
vant" betrays an intimacy with the monks of that 
order. His first poem, "Eccho or the Infortunate 
Lover", appeared in 1618. There is no known copy 
of this under that title but it is supposed to be identi- 
cal with "Narcissus or the Self Lover", still extant, 
which was pubUshed in 1616 and is an evident imita- 
tion of "Venus and Adonis". The beginning of his 
literary career was coincident with the accession of 
Charles I, who was enthusiastic over his comedy 
"The Gamester" and is even said to have suggested 
the plot. Shirley was a loyalist as evidenced by his 
poem on "The Prince's Birth", 1630, and he received 
great encouragement from Queen Henrietta Maria. 
His "Maide's Revenge" (1639), however, shows him 
to have been no lover of court flattery. He enjoyed 
great popularity as a playwright, and before 1640 he 
produced over thirty plays. "Love's Tricks" (1631) 
was the first, followed by: "The Traitor", a tragedy 
(1635); "Hyde Park", comedy (1637); "The Game- 
ster", comedy (1637); "The Royal Master", senti- 
mental comedy (1638); "The Ball", comedy, in col- 
laboration with Chapman (1639). 

During the plague in London (1636-37), when the 
theatres were closed there, the 'dramatist went to Dub- 
lin, probably under the patronage of George Fitzgerald, 
16th Earl of Kildare, to whom he dedicated "The 
Royal Master". Here he produced three or four 
plays, among them "St. Patrick for Ireland" and 
"The Royal Master", in Ogilby's Theatre (built in 
1635), the first pubUc theatre in Ireland. He returned 
to England a few years before the revolution in 1642 
when the Long Parhament ordered all the theatres 
closed. From Nov., 1642, to July, 1644, Shirley 
fought under the Duke of Newcastle, to whom, in 
gratitude for former kindness, he had dedicated his 
tragedy "The Traitor" (1635). On the decHne of the 
king's fortune he returned to London and his old occu- 
pation of teaching at the academy in Whitefriars, 
numbering among his students many afterwards 
eminent men. For these pupils he wrote several 
text-books, among them: the "Via ad latinam lin- 
guam complanata", with rules "for the greater de- 
light and benefit of readers in both English and Latin 
Verse"; "Rudiments of Grammar" with rules in Eng- 
lish verse. However, the attraction of the theatre 
was too strong and he soon returned to the composi- 
tion of plays. In 1646 he wTote "The Triumph of 
Beauty , on the familiar theme of Peele's "Arraign- 
ment of Paris", and "The Contest of Ajax and 
Ulysses". In the latter is found the now famous 

dirge beginning "The glories of our Mortal State are 
shadows, not substantial things", which is said to have 
terrified Oliver Cromwell. "The Cardinal", his mas- 
terpiece in tragedy, appeared in 1652, followed in 
1653 by "Six Newe Plays" and in 1655 by two more. 
In a preface to a work in 1659 he informed his readers 
that this is "likely to be the last of liis dramatic pro- 
ductions" and he held to this resolution. Driven 
from his home in Fleet Street during the great fire of 
London, 1666, he took refuge in the parish of St. 
Giles where he and his wife died on the same day, sur- 
vived by tliree sons and a married daughter. They 
were buried in the Church of St. Giles-in-t he-Fields, 
29 Oct., 1666. 

James Shirley was the last of the great Elizabethan 
dramatists linking the Golden Age with the period of 
the Restoration. Though at times original in the inven- 
tion of his plot, which was always ingenious and inter- 
esting, his mind was not that of a great master open- 
ing up new and untried ways. He was rather a dih- 
gent student and painstaking imitator of his great 
contemporaries and predecessors. He was an honour 
student in a school of which Shakespeare, Massinger, 
and Fletcher chiefly were the masters. He owes more 
to Fletcher perhaps than to any other; but he is often 
also reminiscent of Shakespeare. A critic said of him 
that what lie borrowed from others lost nothing in his 
hands. He borrowed characters, situations, and 
ideas, but the manipulation of them was his own aa 
was also tlie poetic language which enriched them. 
He numbered among his friends such men as 
Massinger, Ford, and Habington; his admiring imi- 
tators are found for two centuries after his death. 
"The Gamester" was frequently adapted by Garrick 
in 17.58 and 1773, and by Poole in "The Wife's Strata- 
gem" in 1827. He was quick to observe the follies 
of his time and his pen was facile in delineating them. 
He is often reminiscent of Shakespeare, as when he 
introduces into one of his masques an imitation of the 
famous comic portion of a Midsummer Night's 
Dream where the shepherd "Bottle" takes the place 
of Bottom the Weaver. His tragedy "The Politi- 
cians" brings back memories of Hamlet. With the 
exception of Shakespeare no dramatist knew better 
than he how to enhance his narration with striking 
images or to intersperse his dialogues with poetic pas- 
sages of rare workmanship, while he was far in ad- 
vance of his day in grasping the idea of making the 
whole play centre in one striking scene (la schne i 
faire). Splendid examples of this may be seen in the 
three classes of drama in which he exercised his pen, 
in the tragedies, "The Traitor" and "The Cardinal", 
in the tragi-comedy, "The Royal IMaster", and in his 
comedy "The Gamesters". If lacking in patlios or in 
deep knowledge of the human heart, he possesses one 
quality not prevalent in the writings of his contem- 
])oraries. His plays are clean morally, and of "The 
Young Admiral", a romantic comedy licensed 3 July, 
1633, we read that it was fit to serve "for a pat- 
terne to other poetts not only for the bettring of man- 
ers and language, but for the improvement of the 
quality [i. e., the actors] wliich hath received some 
brushings of late". The plays of Shirley, once pro- 
duced in the famous cockpit at Drury Lane, are pre- 
served for us in the only complete edition of liis works 
ever made and edited by GitTord and Dyce (6 vols., 
London, 1833). The revival of interest in his dramas 
is due to the svmpathetie criticism of Charles Lamb. 

Wood in .ilhena; OTOnienses. ed. Bliss, III (London. 1S17). 
737-44; Fleay, Biographical chronicle of the English Drama (Lon- 
don, 1S91); Ward, History of English Dramatic Literature (Lon- 
don, 1S75\ ; Ouarterly ReneuwVw (April and July. 1833); Gibber, 
Lives of the Poets (London, 1753); Ward in Diet. Nat. Biog., a. v. 

William Devlin. 
Skalholt, Ancient See of. See Iceland. 

Skara (Soar.*;), .-Vncient See of (Skaronensis, 
ScARENSis), in Sweden, suffragan to Hamburg (990- 



1104), to Lund (1104-64), and finally to Upsala (1104- 
1530). This diocese, the most ancient in Sweden, in- 
cluded the Counties of Skaraborg, Elfsborg, and 
Vermland. It was founded about 990 at Skara, the 
capital of the country of the Goths (Gauthiod), the 
whole of which it embraced until about 1100, when 
the eastern portion of the Diocese of Skara was 
formed into that of Linkoping. At the beginning 
there was no strict division of the country into dio- 
ceses, and the missionary bishops went about preaching 
wherever they would. Thus it is that, though Odinkar 
Hvite the Elder was apparently the first bishop 
stationed at Skara about 990, Sigurd, a court bishop 
of King Olaf Tryggve.«!on of Norway, is named as the 
first Bishop of Skara in the list of bishops written 
down about 1325 as an appendi.x to the Laws of the 
Western Goths (Vestgotalagen). It is added that he 
founded three churches in \'estergotland, and he also 
seems to have baptized Olaf Skotkonung, first Chris- 
tian King of Sweden, at Husaby near Skara in lOOS. 
Odinkar's successor was Thurgaut, first diocesan 
Bishop of Skara (about 1012-30). He was nominally 
succeeded by Gotskalk, a monk of the Benedictine 
abbey at Liineburg, who never left his abbey, al- 
though he had been consecrated to the See of Skara 
by Liavizo of Hamburg (1030-32). 
Meanwhile Sigurd, or Sigfrid, an Englishman of 
Scandinavian origin and a monk of Glastonbury (?), 
took possession of the See of Skara about 1031, and 
remained there till after 1043. Although he en- 
tered into communication with Bremen and sent his 
relative and successor Osmund to be educated there, 
both Sigurd and Osmund seem to have been regarded 
as intruders by the Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. 
Osmund was consecrated in Poland, and refused to 
acknowledge the primacy of Hamburg. In this re- 
fusal he w!vs supported by King Anund Jacob. Con- 
sequently when Adalvard the Elder, subdean of 
Bremen, who had been consecrated Bishop of Skara 
by Archbishop Adalbert on the death of Bishop 
Gotskalk, came to Skara about 10.50 to take po.ssession 
of his see, he was prevented from doing so, and had to 
wait for Osmund's departure for England in 1057 (?) 
before he could become Bishop of Skara dc facto. 
Adalvard the Elder died in 1060 and was buried near 
the first Cathedral of St. Mary, which he had built. 
Acelin, dean of Bremen, was consecrated bishop in 
1061, but never took possession of the see. Adalvard 
the Younger, who had visited and buried his elder 
namesake in 1060, was invited on his expulsion from 
the See of Sigtuna in 1067 to become Bishop of Skara, 
but was recalled to Bremen by Archbishop Adalbert. 
Of the next four bishops of Skara hardly anything 
is known. Concerning Bishop Oedgrim the fdllowing 
facts arc recorded. He was present at the consecra- 
tion of Lund cathedral in 1145. During his episco- 
pate the abbey at Varnhem was founded (1150) by 
some Cistercians of Clair\'aux who came from Alvas- 
tra. Finally in 1151 Bishop Oedgrim consecrated 
part of the present cathedral, which Bishop Benedict 
I (11.58-90) enlarged and furnished. The latter also 
built the Churches of St. Nicholas and of St. Peter at 
Skara as well ;i,s many roads and bridges. Bishop 
Jerptilf n 191-1201) persuaded a popular assembly 
at A.skubeck to assign to the bishop part of the tithe. 
Benedict II (1217-30) founded several secular canon- 
ries in 1220, and thus originated the cathedral chapter. 
St. Bryniolph Algotsson (1248?-1317) is the best 
known bishop. He studied for eighteen years at 
Paris, became dean of Linkoping, and in 1278 Bishop 
of Skara. He issued statutes in 1231, and composed 
hymns and other works, amongst them a "Life of 
St. Helena of Skoffde" (Schedvia), who was murdered 
in 1140 and was canonized by Pope Honorius III, 
and whose remains were translated to Upsala in 1164. 
She w;us also greatly venerated at Tidsvilde (Zealand) 
and elsewhere in Denmark. St. Bryniolph died on 

6 February, 1317. In 1499 Alexander \T granted 
leave for the translation of his relics, but St. Bry- 
niolph was never formally canonized. Under him 
and his successor. Bishop Benedict III Tunnesson 
(1317-21), that is between 1312 and 1320, the whole 
of the cathedral was restored. Bishop Swen the 
Great (1435-48?) painted it in fresco. 

Bishop Bryniolph III Gerlaktsson (1478-1505) 
regulated the frontier between his diocese and that of 
Lund. His successor, Bishop Vincent Hennings, was 
beheaded by Christian II at the Massacre of Stock- 
holm on 8 November, 1520, although he protested 
aloud on his way to the scaffold against the injustice 
of his condemnation. He was succeeded by Didrik 
Slaghek (1520-22). Then came Magnus Haraldsson 
(1.523), whose election was not confirmed by the pope 
in spite of King Gustavus I Vasa's request. Johannes 
Franciscus de Potentia, a Franciscan, was nominated 
Bishop of Skara the same year by papal provision, 
but the king refused to receive him. Bishop Magnus 
Haraldsson, though at first submissive towards Gus- 
tavus I, led his diocesans to Larf to take part in the ris- 
ing of 1529. He was accordingly deposed by the king, 
who appointed in 1530 a Protestant, Svend Jacobsson, 
in his place. Besides Skara cathedral and the abbey 
church at Varnhem, there are interesting Romanesque 
churches at Asklanda and elsewhere. At Husaby 
there was a spring dedicated to St. Brigid of Kildare. 
This Irish dedication may be accounted for by the 
fact that Olaf Skotkonung was, as mentioned above, 
baptized there in 1008 by Sigurd, court bishop of King 
Olaf Tryggveson, who had many connexions with 
Ireland. St. Olaf was specially venerated at Dalby 
and Elgaa in Vermland. 

At Skara the cathedral chapter consisted latterly of 
a dean, an archdeacon, a subdean, and twenty-one 
canons. There were also in the town a Franciscan 
priory dating from about 1242 and a Dominican 
priory from about 1260. At Lodose there were also 
Franciscans from 1283 and Dominicans from 1286. 
Finally there were the Cistercian monastery at 
Varnhem and the Cistercian nunnery at Gudhem; the 
latter was founded about 1160. 

Scriplores rerum siiecicarum, in I; !-, JO, 135- 


(Stockholm, 1889); Jorgensen. / ',rund- 

Utggehe (2 vols., Copenhagen, l^^, i '/, XI 

(Stockholm, 1891), 73-88; A,',' I r>sala, 

1910), 214-20; Reuterdahi , - ,' i vols., 

Lund, 1.S38-66); Idem, ,-' , svio- 

oolhica (Lund, 1S41): > I'Hska 

/dreningen, 111: C. ' ^ ' li-lm. 1902), 

8-20. 25-29, 46-^. -< i.:i, 1.M2-16); 

LiNDBERG, VeM'ii: W - Khi U'. Skara 

Sli/ls Kyrkor. (.' . H :.ii.ihm>, Skara 

Domkyrk'i i>iii< I ! • l • '' il ; < n^nlrjt i Srerige 

(Gefic. IN'i' i I I -' I! ■ I of Skoffde see 

Chevamjk /■ ' I li i '" 1 . Fro.ndin and 

FoRssENii ^, .^■1'- ■ . :'" ■: ' r.'i/'uin i> >'- ' j.! nrbe (Upsala 

1734-36), disputation; Museum, pt. 11 l(•c^).•^llagen, 1895), 
1-34. For St. Bryniolph see Acta SS., Feb., 1 (Antwerp, 1G58), 

A. W. Taylor. 

Smits, William, Orientalist and exegete, b. at 
Kevelaer in the Duchy of Geldern, 1704; d. 1 Dec, 
1770. He entered the Order of Friars Minor, in the 
Belgian province, at the age of eighteen. As a re- 
ligious he applied himself with reinark;ible success to 
the study of Biblical languages and Siicred Scripture 
and was appointed lector. From 1732 to 1744 he 
published, at Antwerp, seveml Biblical theses dealing 
chiefly with questions of textual crit icisni and chronol- 
ogy. In one of these, " Isagoge Homano-Catholica ad 
textumhebrxum . . .", he shows that the Latin Vulgate 
is substantially a faithful translation of the original 
Hebrew; and in another, "Isagoge Romano-Cat holica 
ad textum gra^cum vulgo LXX . . .", he states the 
rciusons why the LXX is preferable to the actual He- 
brew text. Yielding to the entreaties of Cardinal 
Thomas Philip of Alsace, then Archbishop of Mechlin 
Smits undertook the translation of the entire Bible 




into Flemish. But far from merely rendering the Vul- 
gate into his native tongue, he has left us a volumi- 
nous and learned work of monumental importance. 
The title is: " Biblia Sacra Vulgatse editionis, versione 
belgica, notis grammaticalibus, literalibus, criticis, 
. . . elucidata per FF. Minores Recollectes musae 
philologico-sacri antwerpiensis." Of this series he 
lived to finish only thirteen Sacred books, which were 
published, in seventeen volumes, from 1744 to 1767. 
The work was continued by his collaborator and 
former pupil, Peter van Hove. In 1765 Smits was 
appointed the first prefect of the "Musaum philo- 
logico-sacrum ", a Franciscan biblical institute at 
Antwerp which, though shortlived, has a glorious 

Dirks, Histoire litthaire f! /-,' / ./' j// m/,,, ,;, /,,.- M^rifi/ra 

(Antwerp, 1885), 318 sqq., :iMi ,: - -,'.■ ran 

het voormaliu MinderbToe'l' i i ^ \! wrrp, 

1908), 1(59-99; HOLZAPFEL, //^.,'., ' .; '-■ ,(,',, .', I i,in:is- 
kanerordens (Freiburg. 1909), oli.'), .09."). 

Thomas Pl.^ssmann. 
Stavanger (Stavangria), Ancient See of (Sta- 
VANonENsis), in Norway, included the Provinces of 
Stavanger, Lister and Mandal, and Nedenes. It was 
formed early in the twelfth century out of the south- 
ern portion of the Diocese of Bergen, which had in- 
cluded until then the whole of Western Norway 
(Gulathingslagen). Reginald, an Englishman and 
most probably a Benedictine monk from Winchester 
cathedral, was the first Bishop of Stavanger. With 
the money given him in 1128 by King Sigurd Jorsala- 
farer, for allowing that monarch to marry one Cecilia 
during the lifetime of his consort Queen Mahnfrid, 
Reginald began the cathedral and founded the chap- 
ter. He was hanged at Bergen in 11.35 by King 
Harald Gille upon his refusing to impoverish his see 
by paying fifteen marks of gold to that monarch, who 
suspected him of concealing the treasures belong- 
ing to King Magnus IV. Reginald's successor, John 
Birgersson, was translated to Trondhjem in 1152, as 
was also Bishop Eric Ivarsson in 1188. The great 
quarrel lasting from 1294 to 1303, which Bishop Arne 
(1276-1303) had with his chapter, was terminated 
only by the intervention of King Haakon, who de- 
cided in favour of the chapter and decreed, among 
other things, that they should have a voice in all 
nominations to, and deprivations of, benefices in the 
diocese. Bishop Gutterm Paalsson (1343-50) died of 
the Black Death. His successor, Arne Aslaksson, 
also died suddenly at Avignon, whither he had gone to 
seek a dispensation super defcctu nataliutn. Conse- 
quently Clement VI appointed Sigfrid, a Swedish 
Dominican, Bishop of Stavanger by papal provision 
in 1351. Most of his successors were appointed in the 
same way after agreement with the king. In 1352 
Sigfrid was transferred to Oslo, while Gyrd Aslesson, 
who had just been appointed to that bishopric, had to 
accept in 1354 the less lucrative See of Stavanger. 
He was soon succeeded by Botolph Asbjornsson 
(13.5.5-81), who gave his library to the chapter and 
compiled a Domesday Book (Jordebog) for the dio- 
cese. It has since disappeared. Bishop Audun 
Eivindsson (1426-55) built many churches and gave 
the episcopal tithes of Valdres to the Brigittines of 
Munkalif near Bergen in 1441 in their hour of need. 
The last Catholic bishop was Hoskold Hoskoldssiin 
(1513-37), who was taken prisoner by Thord Rod at 
Bergen .and died there. 

The fine Cathedral of the Holy Trinity and St. 
Swithiinj with its twelfth century Norman nave and 
its Gothic choir (from r27.")-07), which once contained 
the shrine of Saint Swilhun, the chapel of the old 
Bishop's Palace (Munkkirken) dating from the same 
period as the cathedral choir, King Olaf Tryggvesou's 
church (from 91»5) on the Island of Moster, the fine 
thirteenth-ccnlurv church at .\valdsiies, and many 
other buildings are monuments of the Catholic i)ast. 
The cathedral chapter consisted of dean, archdeacon, 

subdean, and ten canons. The Church of St. Olaf, 
Avaldsnes, was collegiate, though most often it was 
served by only one priest. It was a royal chapel, as 
were also the chapels of St. Peter at Saurboe (Ry- 
fylke), of St. Lawrence at Huseby (Lister), and 
another chapel dedicated to St. Lawrence at Eger- 
sund. The last three chapels were not collegiate. 
The only monastery of importance was the Augustin- 
ian Abbey of Utstein founded about 1280. The 
bishops of Stavanger had many disputes with the 
abbots of Utstein. In 1537 the abbey was handed 
over to Thrond Ivarsson, who had, however, to main- 
tain the monks. Other monasteries are said to have 
existed in the Diocese of Stavanger, but little or noth- 
ing is known of them. There was a hospital dedicated 
to St. Peter at Stavanger itself. There is now a 
Catholic church at Stavanger. 

Thorkelin, L iplomatarium arna—magnaanum (2 vols.. 
Copenliagen, 17SG) ; Diptomalarium norvegicu-m, especially 
IV (Christiania, 1858); Daae, Stamnger Stifl i Middalderem \n 
Hislorisk Tidssk-rifl, third series, vol. V (Christiania, 1899), 218- 
36; Norijes Land og Folk, IX-XI (ibid., 1888. 1893, 1894); 
Munch, Pavdigt Nunliers Regnskabs-og DagbOger, lg8g-lS34 
(Christiania. 1864) ; Storm, Afgifter fra den norske Kirkeprovins, 
tSll-16SS (ibid., 1S97), 30-39, 113, 114. 

A. W. Taylor. 

Strengnas (Strence, Strengnesia), Ancient 
See of (Strengenensis), in Sweden. The diocese 
consisted of the County of Nykoping, the County of 
Stockholm south of Lake Malar, and the southern 
half of the County of Orebro. In S29 St. Anschar and 
his companion, Witmar, having reached Bjoerkoe 
(Birca), an island on Lake Malar and a great centre 
of trade, were well received and made many converts. 
Returning to Germany in 831, St. Anschar was made 
first Archbishop of Hamburg by Gregory IV and 
given a share in the superintendence of the Northern 
Mission hitherto exercised by Ebbo, Archbishop of 
Rheims. Ebbo's relative Gautbert (Simon) became 
Archbishop of Sweden and built a church at Bjoerkoe. 
This success incurred the enmity of the heathen, who 
drove him from the country in 837, and slew his rela- 
tive Nithard. St. Anschar sent Ardgeir to Sweden in 
844, but he did not stay long. St. Anschar revisited 
Bjoerkoe in 853, when a law tolerating Christianity 
was passed, and until 865 St. Rimbert, the biographer 
and successor of St. Anschar, and other missionaries 
worked there. In 936 Archbishop Unni visited 
Bjoerkoe and died there. In 1066 the city was utterly 
destroyed. About 1080 St. Eskil, an English bishop, 
while at Sodermanland, disturbed a heathen sacrifice 
held at Strengiis and was killed. Botvid, a native 
layman converted in England, continued the preach- 
ing of Christianity until his murder, 28 Jidy, 1120, by 
a Slavonic captive whom he had redeemed. About 
this time St. Ragnhild, wife of King Inge II, died and 
was buried at Sodertelje, of which town she became 
the patron saint. In 1 152 the limits of the Diocese of 
Strengnas were determined at an assembly at Lin- 
koping. The first bishop was Gerder (1129-59), who 
founded a school at the Cluniac monastery of Streng- 
nas. He was succeeded bv Bishop William (1160- 
1208). In 1160 the Ci-stercian Abbey of Juleta was 
founded. In 1165 Nericia (Xerike) was added to the 
diocese. About this time the building of Strengnas 
cathedral was begun. In 1176 or 1179 the new stone 
church at Botkyrka consecrated by Bishop Wil- 
liam and Archbishop Stephen of I'psala; the relics of 
St. Botvid were translated thither. A hospital of 
St. ,Tohn of Jerusalem Wivs built over the grave of St. 
F.skil, and was restored in 1255. Bishoji Olaf or Ulf 
Bonde (120S-24), called Bassatiimir, a nephew of 
King St. I'ric IX, was transferred to Upsala. The 
.see hiy vacant for nine years, but in 1233 Bisho)) Tro- 
gil was elected. About this time the Cistercian nun- 
nery of Va.arfrubcrga (Mons Marioe) on the Island of 
Fogdoe and in 1234 the Franciscan priory at Nykop- 
ing were founded. About 1250 Frogil was succeeded 




by Colo or Kol (Charles ?), who resigned in 1257 and 
was succeeded by Bisliop Finved (1257-75). About 
1268 the Dominican priory at Strengnas was founded. 
lu 1291 Bishop Anund (1275-91) consecrated the 
cathedral, which was burnt down on the same day, 
and rebuilt by Isarus, the next bishop (1291-1308). 
In 1.305 it was decided that the city of Stockholm 
belonged to Upsala, but that Sodermalm belonged to 

The most famous of the later bishops was Conrad 
Rogge (1479-1501), a doctor of Perugia and a learned 
humanist. He built the present cathedral choir 
about 14S1, and founded a charterhouse at Svartsjo 
about 1493 and a hospital for aged and infirm priests 
at Strengnas in 1490. In 1495 he had the Breviary 
of Strengnas printed at Stockholm in a revised 
edition. His successor, Matthias Grsgerson Lilje, 
was the protector^pf "the Swedish Luther", Olaus 
Petri Phase (b. at Orebro, 1493), who, having studied 
as a disciple of Luther and Melanothon at Witten- 
berg (1516-18), returned to Strengnas in 1519. The 
bishop made him chancellor of tlic diocese and master 
of the cathedral school, and in 1520 he was ordained 
deacon and became canon of Strengnas. There he 
taught Lutheranism, with which heresy Bishop Gre- 
gerson was entirely unacquainted. On S \ov., 1520, 
that unfortunate prelate was beheaded during the 
massacre at Stockholm. King Christian II gave the 
bisliopric to Jens Andersen Beldenak, Bishop of 
Odense, who, however, returned to Denmark in 
April, 1.521. During the vacancy the diocese was 
governed by Laurent ius Andrea; who had become 
archdeacon of Strengnas in 1520. He greatly favoured 
Olaus Petri, and as chancellor of King Gustavus 
Vasa (1523) he promoted the interests of Protestant- 
ism. The last Catholic Bishop of Strengnas, if he can 
be called so, was Magnus Sommar (1528-36), dean of 
Strengnas in 1518, nominated bishop by Gustavus 
Vasa in 1522, and consecrated without papal con- 
firmation by Petrus Magni, Bishop of Westeraas, 6 
Jan., 1528. Messenius states that the bis!iops elect 
signed a document in which they promised to go to 
Rome to seek papal confirmation, and thus persuaded 
Petrus Magni to proceed to the consecration. Mag- 
nus Sommar was very submissive towards the king, 
but his concessions did not save him. For a slight 
offense he"w;i8 deposed and imprisoned, and only re- 
leased in order that he might retire to the monastery 
of Krokek. 

The cathedral of Strengnas with its numerous 
chapels, one of which now contains a fine museum of 

ecclesiastical art, the bishop's palace, built about 
1490, now the cathedral school, the fine Church of St. 
Nicholas at the interesting old town of Orebro, and 
numerous ancient village cliurches bear witness to ttie 
piety of the inhabitants in Cathoho times. Three 
provincial synods were held at Telge in the Diocese of 
Strengnas in 1279, 1341, and 1380. The first, two 
issued statutes on matters concerning the discipline 
of the clergj-, while the synod of 1380 threatened with 
divers penalties those wlio molested the tenants of 
church lands. The "Sodermannalagen", a code of 
laws published early in the fourteenth century for the 
people of Siidermanland, contains a number of eccle- 
siastical laws. Among other institutions, there was 
in the diocese the chapter of the cathedral, founded 
about 1288, which counted thirteen members at the 
end of the fifteenth century, besides which there were at 
least eighteen chaplains, who served the eighteen altars. 
To the institutions mentioned throughout the article 
must be added the charterhouse of Mariefred (1491- 
1526), and the CarmeUte priory of Orebro founded 
in 1418. 

Pertz, Monumenia fjermaiiia; historica; Script., II (Hanover, 
1829); Viia S. Anskarii, cc. i, xi, xxv, x.\vii, pp. 697, 710-12; 
JoRGEN'SEN, Den nordishe Kirkes GrundlTggelse (2 vols., Copen- 
haifen 1S7+-7S): .Smpforcs rrrijm ^rwnriim. 11 (Upsala, 1S2.S), 
.■^77_(i1-t- IIT '1^7i;> 2^n-=i3: T\n>-nKTi"-, !<^ul,-r,j,„„l,i„,h Min- 


; Reu- 

TERDAUL. Statula ^yiw!'! 
1S41); .ScHLYTER, Sweri:. 
(Lund. 1838); Hall, Bi ! 
den (Gefle, 1899); LnxDyi. ., .- u ::.::: inll.-,i (Stock- 
holm. 1897); Ahlenius, Sceriui., IV uStuckholm, 1909); Acta SS., 
June, II (.\lltwerp, 1688), 598-600; July, VI (1729). 633-38. 

A. W. Taylor. 

Synoptics. — In answer to questions about the mu- 
tual rel:itioiis between the first three Gospels, the 
Biblical Commission (q. v.), decided (26 June, 1913), 
that it is not inconsistent with their decisions already 
issued to explain the similarities or dissimilarities 
between these Gospels, to dispute freely the various 
conflicting opinions of authors, and to appeal to 
hypotheses of oral or written tradition, or to the de- 
pendence of one Gospel on another or on both that 
preceded it. The hypotheses known as the "two 
sources" is no longer tenable: to wit, the attemjit to 
explain the composition of the Greek Gospel of Mat- 
thew and the Gospel of Luke mainly by their de- 
pendence on the Gospel of .Mark and on the so-called 
Sayings of the Lord. 

Ada Apoatolica: Scdis, V (1913); Home, .XIV (1913). 

Tallagbt, Monastery of. — The name Tallaght 
(Irish Tartilnchtri), derived from (am, plague, and Iriiil, 
stone monument, records the burial ))lace of some of 
the earliest inhabitants of Ireland, the Parthalonians, 
who were swept off by a plague about A. M. 2600. 
Tallaght is situated in the barony of Uppereross, 
5 miles south of Dublin. The monastery was founded 
by St. Maelruain (d. 7 July, 792), the site having been 
given in honour of ("od and St. Michael by Cellach 
(d. 18 July, 771) of the Ui Donnchada, grandson of a 
Leinster king, Donogh (d. 726). One of Maelruain's 
companions was St. Aengua the Culdee (q. v.), who 
with him compiled the "Marlyrology of Tallaght". 
Other saints a.s.sociated with T;illaght were .\irennan 
(10 February), second abbot; Eochaid (2S .January), 
second bishop; Jo.seph (5 January); and DIchull (d. 
889). In 1179 Tallaght, with its subsidiary chapels 
of Killohan and St. Bride's, united to ihe .\rch- 
diocese of Dublin by a Bull of .Mcxaixler III (20 .Vpril, 
1179). In 1223 Ihe deanery of Tallaght was annexed 
to St. Patrick's Cathedral by .Vrchbishop Henry do 

Loimdres. In 1324 .\Iexander de Bicker built or 
restored an archiepiscopal manor at Tallaght, which 
was fortified later to protect the English in Dublin 
from Ihe attacks of tlie O'Byrnes. .\t the Reforma- 
tion it pa.ssed mto the hands of the Protestant .\rch- 
bishops; its ruins and grounds were acquired in 184"2 
by the Dominicans, who have erected a novitiate and 
church there. 

.^RCHDALL, Monasticon hibernicum, ed. Morav (Dublin, 
1873); FiTzoERALD in Joum. KM. Archaot. Soc., V (Dublin, 
1908); D'Alton, Hist, of Co. Dublin, 761 sqq. 

A. A. MacErlean. 

Tibet, Mis.sionaries, Language, and Literature 
OF. — The missionaries of Tibet were the first Tibetan 
scholars. The .Jesuit Ilippolito Desideri laid the 
foundation of Christian 'I'ibetan literature by the 
composition (1716-21) of two apologetic works, one 
against the erroneous belief that everybody could 
be saved by his own religion, the other ag;iinst trans- 
migration of souls. The Capuchin Francesco Orazio 
della Pcnna (b. 16S1; d. at Patan in Nepal, 1745) 




translated into Tibetan for the neophytes Cardinal 
Bellarmine's "Christian Doctrine" and Thurlot's 
"Treasure of Christian Doctrine". He compiled 
with the assistance of his confreres the first Tibetan 
dictionary, containing 35,000 words in Tibetan charac- 
ters with corresponding Italian translation. He also 
translated from Tibetan into Itahan "History of the 
life and works of Shakiatuba, the restorer of Lama- 
ism", "Three roads leading to perfection", "On 
transmigration and prayer to God" ("Anal. Ord. 
Cap.", VI, Rome, 1890, 349). These were the first 
translations made from Tibetan or from any Indian 
language into a European language. All remained 
unpublished, unless the Tibetan-Italian Dictionary 
"executed by some Roman missionary and collected 
and arranged by F. C. G. Schroeter of the (Protestant) 
Church Missionary Society and edited by J. Marsh- 
man of the Baptist Missionary Society at Serampore 
(India) in 1826, consisting of nearly 500 quarto 
pages" (Bagster, "Bible of Every Land", London, 
1851, p. 17 sq.) is the afore-mentioned work com- 
piled by the Capuchin Fathers. The first printed 
dictionary and grammar of the Tibetan language is 
the "Alphabetum Tibetanum missionum apostoli- 
carum commodo editum" (Rome, 1762) by the 
Italian Augustinian Antonio Agostino Giorgi (d. 1797; 
cf. Cath. Encycl., VII, 285; Heimbucher, "Orden 
u. Congregationen", II, Paderborn, 1907, p. 202). 
"Much valuable information derived from notes and 
letters written by the Jesuit and Capuchin Fathers 
in Tibet is found in this work" (Rockhill, "Journey 
through Mongolia and Tibet", Washington, 1894, 
p. X, note). The origin of Tibetan studies among 
Europeans, generally accorded to the Hungarian 
savant Oosma de Koros (d. 1842), must be given 
to the Catholic missionaries and, above all, to the 

Augustinian Giorgi. For a century after his time 
this study was cultivated only by some European 
scholars and a few Protestant missionaries, but their 
works, especially the Tibetan translation of the Bible 
by Protestant missionaries, owe much to the re- 
searches of the older Catholic missionaries. The 
zealous priests of the Foreign Missions, especially 
Renou (d. 1863) and Desgodins, took up the work of 
their predecessors. 

Aimlecta Capuccinorum, VI (Rome, 1890), 349; Baujj- 
GARTN'ER, Gesck. der WeUliteratur, II (Freibvirg, 1902), 431, 
443; Kalholische Misaionen (Freiburg, 1897), 170; HEiMsncHER, 
Die Orden u. Kongregationen, II (Paderborn, 1907), 399-400. 

J. M. Lenhart. 

Timothy and Titus, Epistles to (The Pas- 
TORALS). — Under date 12 June, 1913, the Biblical Com- 
mission gave the following answers to questions about 
these epistles: The tradition of the Church shows 
that they were written by the x\postle Paul himself 
and that they were always considered genuine and 
canonical. They were not made up from fragments 
of epistles or from lost Pauline epistles after St. Paul's 
time. The opinion on their genuineness has been in 
no way lessened by the difficulties advanced from the 
style and language of the author, from errors of the 
Gnostics, which are represented as current at the 
time, or from the state of ecclesiastical authority. 
They were written during the period between the 
Lberation of the Apostle from his first imprisonment 
and his death, since both history and ecclesiastical 
tradition, the testimony of the Eastern and Western 
Fathers, the abrupt conclusion of the book of the 
Acts and the Pauline Epistles \\Titten at Rome, es- 
pecially II Timothy, establish the truth of the opin- 
ion as to the two Roman imprisonments of the 
Apostle Paul. 

Acta Aposlolica Sedis (26 June, 1913); Rome (5 July, 1913). 


Vaison, Ancient Diocese of (Vasionensis) . This 
was suppressed by the Concordat of 1801, and its terri- 
tory is now included in the Dioceses of Avignon and 
Valence. St. Albinus (d. 262) was incorrectly placed 
by the Carthusian Polycarpe de la Riviere among the 
bishops of Vaison. The oldest known bishop of the 
see is Daphnus, who assisted at the Council of Aries 
in 314. Others were: St. Quinidius (Quenin, 556- 
79), who valiantly resisted the claims of the patrician 
Mummolus, conqueror of the Lombards; Joseph- 
Marie de Suares (1633-66), who died in Rome while 
filling the office of librarian of the Vatican, and who 
left numerous works. Vaison, the capital of the 
Voconces, was very important during the Celtic 
period and under the Roman domination; it belonged 
in turn to the Visigothic and Austrasian Kingdoms. 
The disputes which broke out in the twelfth century 
between the counts of Provence and the bishops, both 
of whom were in possession of half the town, were 
injurious to its prosperity; they were ended by a 
treaty negotiated in 1251 by the future Clement IV. 
The apse of the Church of St. Quenin seems to 
date from the eighth century; it is one of the oldest 
in France. As a whole the cathedral dates from the 
eleventh century, but the apse and the apsidal 
chapels date from the Merovingian period. St. 
Rustieala (b. at Vaison, 551 ; d. 628) was abbess of the 
monastery of St. Cicsarius at Aries. Two rather im- 
portant councils as regards Galilean ecclesiastical dis- 
cipline were held at Vaison in 442 and 529, the latter 
under the presidency of St. Cxsarius. 

Gallia Christiana, iiom, I, (1715), 919-40, 1329-30, instr. 
151-54; Duchesne, Fastes ipiscopaux, I, 2.54; Boyeb de 
Saivte-Marthe, Uistoirede Viqlise cathMrate de Vai«on (2 vols. 
Avignon, 1731) ; Cot'ktet, Notice historique et arch^ologiquf ,sur 
VaiHOnXnRemtcarchMnaiqHf.XnUiarA), 30G-22; Labanoe, La 
catMdrale de Vaison (Cuen, 1905). C.EORGES GOYAO. 

Versions of the Bible, Coptic. — Dialects. — 
The Coptic language is now recognized in four prin- 
cipal dialects, Bohairic (formerly Memphitic), Fay- 
flmic, Sahidic (formerly Theban), and Akhmimic. 
The relative antiquity of these as Hterary idioms 
is much debated. But the fact is that no Bohairic 
manuscript and probably no Fayilmic manuscript is 
older than the ninth century, while some Sahidic 
and Akhmimic codices are apparently as old as the 
fifth and even the fourth century. In the ninth 
century Bohairic was flourishing, in Northern Egj-pt, 
particularly in the Province of Bohairah (hence its 
name) south-west of .-Alexandria and in the monasteries 
of the Desert of Nitria, while Sahidic was spread 
throughout Upper Egypt or Sahid (hence the name 
of Sahidic) inclusive of Cairo, having alreadj' super- 
seded FayAmic in the Province of Fa3'iim (ancient 
Crocodilopolis) and Akhmimic in the region of 
Akhmim (ancient Panopolis). Later (eleventh cen- 
tury?) when the Patriarch of Alexandria moved his 
residence from that city to Cairo, Bohairic began to 
drive out Sahidic and soon became the liturgical 
language of the Copts throughout Egypt. 

Versions. — There are versions of the Bible in all 
four dialects. All of them are now incomplete, but 
there is hardly any reason to doubt that they once 
existed in their entirety. It is now considered certain 
that they were made independently and that their 
differences are to be traced to a difference between 
the Greek recensions from which they were translated. 
There is much discussion between specialists as to 
the age of the Coptic versions, especially as to which 
of them was made first. The present writer in his 
"fttude sur les versions copies de la Bible" (Revue 
biblique, 1897, p. 67) concluded that some Coptic 
version must have been in existence as early as the 




end of the second century. On the other side Forbes 
Robinson (Hastings, "Diet, of the Bible", IV, 570) 
does not think that there is sufficient ground for 
beheving that a Coptic version existed before the 
fourth century (see also Burkitt in Cheyne, "Encycl. 
Bibhca", IV, 5008 seq.). However, in proportion 
as older manuscripts are discovered, and Coptic 
versions are submitted to a closer study, the pendulum 
of opinion is swinging back to the former view. 
Leipoldt agrees that the Sahidic version was com- 
pleted about A. D. 350 ("Gesch. der christlichen 
Literaturen", VII, 2, Leipzig, 1907, p. 139). Dr. 
Kenyon goes one step further: "If, therefore, we put 
the origin of the Coptic versions about a. d. 200, 
we shall be consistent with all extant evidence, and 
probably shall not be very far wrong" ("Textual 
Criticism of the New Testament", 154, quoted by 
Budge in "Coptic Biblical Texts", p. LXXXIII). 
More emphatic still is Horner: "If, with Harnack, 
relying on Leipoldt we may conjecture, though we 
cannot prove, that the Sahidic version partly goes 
back to the third century, there seems some reason 
for supposing that need of a vernacular version arose 
as early as the time of Demetrius [a. d. ISS). Where 
history fails us, the internal character of the Sahidic 
supplies confirmation of a date earlier than the third 

century the traces of early mixture shown 

by the definite tinge of Western influence can hardly 
be explained except by reference to a date as early 
as possible. If Christianity did not exist at all in 
Upper Egypt before A. D. 1.50, then we must come 
down to the date of Demetrius as the earliest possible 
date of the version ; but if, as is more likely, the Chris- 
tian religion had spread by means of theXile imme- 
diately after it began to be preached in Alexandria, 
and had already become infected by heretical and 
semi-pagan superstitions in the second century, we 
may provisionally conclude from the character of the 
Sahidic version that it was made at that time" ("The 
Coptic Version of the New Testament in the Southern 
Dialect", III, O.xford, 1911, p. 398). 

All agree as to the great value of the Coptic 
versions. The Sahidic version is especially of im- 
portance for the study of the Septuagint, as it was 
made, it seems, from Greek manuscripts free from 
Hexapla influence. However, the critical value of 
those versions cannot be fully realized until we have 
a more comprehensive study of them, based on 
critical editions as we already have for the New 
Testament in Bohairic and the Gospels in Sahidic 
by Horner. The following is a synopsis of the 
material on hand for the study of the several Coptic 
versions. (See the writer's "fitude des versions 
copies de la Bible" in "Rev. bibl." (1896-7) for a 
fuller account of the Bohairic material and in the 
case of the other three versions for an account up 
to that date.) 

The Bohairic Version. — The only complete books 
of the Old Testament known to be extant in Bohairic 
are the Pentateuch, the Prophets with Lamentations, 
the Psalms, and Job. Of the others we have frag- 
ments only, mostly taken from lectionaries. The 
New Testament is complete, ('hief editions: Penta- 
teuch, Wilkins (London, 1731); P. de Lagarde 
(Leipzig, 1867); Prophets and Lamentations, Tattam, 
Prophetse majores (Oxford, 18.52); Prophetae minores 
(ibid., 1836); Psalms, Tuki (Rome, 1744), Ideler 
(Berlin, 1837), Schwartze (ibid., 1851); Job, Tattam 
(London, 1846). The older editions of the New 
Testament have all been outranked by the recent 
Oxford edition; "The Coptic Version of the New 
Testament in the Northern Dialect, otherwise called 
Memphitic or Bohairic", by Geo. Horner (4 vols. 
Clarendon Press, 1898-1905). The only new manu- 
script of importance is one of those ret-cntly acquired 
by thelate J.P. Morganof New York. It issuppo.seil to 
have come from the Monastery of St. Michael in the 

Faydm as the rest of the collection. It contained 
once the four Gospels. Many leaves unfortunately 
are now missing. Still it may prove of considerable 
value as it is from one to two hundred years older 
than the oldest known Bohairic manuscript of the 
Gospels (Bodl. Huntington 17, A. D. 1174). 

The Sahidic Version. — Of this version until recently 
we had almost nothing but fragments, representing 
several hundred manuscripts, chiefly from the monas- 
tery of AmbaShnildah (Shenoute) near Sohag province 
of Akhmim, generally known as the "White Monas- 
tery". The only complete books were those of the 
Wisdom of Solomon and the Wisdom of Jesus son 
of Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), and some of the minor 
Epistles. Of late, however, this nimiber has been 
considerably increased, see above, Coptic Litera- 
ture, Morgan collection, and British Museum, Recent 
acquisitions. The most important editions since 
1897 (besides those mentioned in the article just 
referred to) are the following: 

A. Old Testament.— (\) Rahlfs, "Die Berliner 
Handschrift des sahidischen Psalters" (Abhandlungen 
der kSniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenchaften, zu 
Gottingen, philolog.-hist. Klasse, IV, 4), Berlin, 1901. 
This codex, which Rahlfs ascribes to about A. D. 400, 
contained in the neighbourhood of 129 leaves out of 
which 98 are still extant in a rather dilapidated con- 
dition. The greatest lacuna (about thirty leaves), 
between leaf 94 and 95, covered Psalms 106-143. 
Six pages are reproduced in collotype at the end of 
the book. (2) "A Coptic Palimpsest containing 
Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Judith, and Esther", by Sir 
Herbert Thompson (Oxford Univ. Press, London, 
1911). This palimpsest is the manuscript Add. 
17,183 of the British Museum known already from 
the descriptions of W. Wright, "Catalogue of the 
Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum", II, 
89, no. DCCCXII, and Crum, "Catalogue of the 
Coptic Manuscripts of the British Museum", no. 12. 
Specimens of the script, which can be dated in the 
seventh century, were published by the present 
writer in "Album de paloographie copte" (Paris, 
1888), pi. VII, 1, and LVI, 1. Some twenty-five 
folios of the original MS. are now missing, leaving 
as lacunse: Joshua, ii, 1.5-iii, 5; .\, 26-36; xvii, 17- 
.xviii, 6; xix, 50-xx, 1, 6; xxii, 14-20; Judges, vii, 
2-6, 15-19; viii, 11-19; viii, 28-i.x, 8; x, 7-14; xvi, 
19-xvii, 1; xviii, 8-21; xix, 8-15; xx, 16-23; xx, 48- 
xxi, 6; xxi, 15 end; Ruth, iv, 3-9; Judith, ii, 6-iv, 5; 
V, 6-14; v, 23-vi, 3; vii, 2-7; vii, 18-21; xvi, 7-xvii, 16; 
Esther (according to Sweet's Greek edition): A, 
11-i, 11; ii,8-15; iii, 13-B,4; iv, 1.3-C, 6; D, 9-vi, 5; 
viii, 2-E, 6; E, 17-viii, 12. (3) "The Coptic (Sahidic) 
version of certain books of the Old Testament from 
a Papyrus in the British Museum" by Sir Herbert 
Thompson (Oxford Univ. Press, London, 1908). 
This papyrus (British Museum, Or. 5984), once in 
ordinary book form, now consists of fragments only, 
preserved in 62 numbered glass frames. Originally 
it contained the Books of Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastcs, 
Canticle of Canticles, Wisdom, and Ecclesiasticus 
(Sirach). Of Job only x.x.xviii, 27-xxxix, 12 is left. 
Of Proverbs there are considerable portions from 
iv, 16 to the end; of Ecclesiastes, from vi, 
6 to ix, 6; of Canticle of Canticles, from the beginning 
to the end; of Wisdom, from the beginning to xix, 8; 
of Ecclesiasticus from the beginning to xl, 18. The 
script (illustrated by a plate reproducing Ecclesi- 
asticus Prol. 1-i, 12) is pronounced by Crum (Proc. 
of the Soc. of Bibl. Archaeology) to be "Perhaps of 
the sixth or -seventh century". (4) "Sahidisch- 
griechische Psalmenfragmente" by C. Wessely in 
"Sitzung.sber. d. kais. Akad. d. Wissenschaften, 
philos.-histor.", vol. 155, I (Vienna, 1907). 
In this the learned curator of the Rainer collection 
gives us some very important fragments of the 
Psalms, among which are twenty-four leaves of a 




papyrus codex containing once the whole Psalter 
both in Greek and Sahidio on opposite pages, and 
shorter fragments of two other bilingual parchment 
manuscripts of the Psalms, and other parchment 
fragments in Sahidic only. Another bilingual frag- 
ment of the Psalms, from the same collection, was 
published by Wessely in his "Griechische u. kop- 
tische Texte theologischen Inhalts I" in "Studion 
zur Palaographie u. Papyruskunde ", IX (Leipzig, 
1909), no. 17. 

(5) The latter volume of Wessely contains also 
several fragments of the Old Testament in Sahidic, 
along with some Psalms in Greek only. (6) 
"Textes de I'ancien testament en copte sahidique" 
by Pierre Lacau in "RecueU de travaux relatifs a 
la philologie et k I'archeologie dgyptiennes et assyri- 
ennes", XXIII (Paris, 1901). From the library of 
the Institut Fran(;ais, Cairo, one leaf of an Old- 
Testament lectionary (Borgia, XXXII), and six 
leaves of a manuscript of Isaias; from the Biblio- 
theque Nationale, Paris, one leaf of the latter manu- 
script. (7) Winstedt. Some unpublished Sahidic 
fragments of the Old Testament in "Journ. of 
Theol. Studies", X (Oxford, 1909), 233-54. Those 
are the nos. 5, 15, 44, 19, 20, 40, 43, 45, 46, 47, 53, 
51, 52, 56, 59, and 14 of Crum's "Catalogue of the 
Coptic Manuscripts in the British Museum" (Lon- 
don, 1905). (8) "Sahidische Bibel-Fragmente aus 
dem British Museum zu London I and 11" in 
" Sitzimgsberichte der kais. Akademie d. Wissen- 
schaften in Wien, philos.-hist. Klasse", vol. 162, 
VI, and 164, VI (Vienna, 1909-11) by J. Schleifer 
and " Bruchstticke der sahidischen Bibeliibersetzung," 
(ibid., vol. 170, I, Vienna, 1912) by the same author. 
Those are the nos. 11, 43, 48, 47, 21, 51, 40; 1, 4, 
5, 7, 10, 13, 23, 8, 938; 9, 934, 935, 936, 953, of 
Crum's "Catalogue" (see above), plus one fragment 
from Eton College Library, London, and one from 
the Bibhotheque Nationale of Paris (131', fol. 36). 
With reference to the edition of the Paris Old- 
Testament fragments published by G. Maspero, 
"Memoircs do la Mission," etc. (Paris, 1886) we 
must mention: (9) S. Gaselee's "Notes on the 
Coptic Version of the LXX, I" in "Journ. of Theol. 
Studies", XI (1909-10), 246-55, in which the writer 
BuppUes from the originals quite a number of correc- 
tions and some additions, to the text, of the historical 
books in that edition. Also (10) Deiber's "Frag- 
ments coptes inf5dits de Jerdmie", supplying likewise 
one leaf of Jeremias (xxxiii, 13b-xxxiv, 4), over- 
looked by Maspero. (11) Finally, an excellent con- 
tribution to the Old-Testament Sahidic fragments 
by A. Hcbbelynck in his "Manuscrits coptes sahi- 
diques du Monastere Blanc, 1", reprinted from the 
"Musfon" (Louvain, 1911). The author identifies 
the fragments scattered throughout Europe which 
belonged once to the same codices as the thirty-two 
Borgian fragments. We are informed that this work 
of identification will be extended to the other frag- 
ments of the whole Monastery outside of the Borgian 

B. New Testament. — (1) "Sacrorum bibUonim 
fragmenta copto-sahidica musaei Borgiani, vol. Ill, 
Novum Tcstamentum edidit P. J. Bale.stri O.S.A." 
(Rome, 1904), with forty full-page collotype specimens 
under special cover. (2) "The Coptic Version of 
the New Testament in the Southern Dialect other- 
wise called Sahidic and Thebaic, with Critical Ap- 
paratus, Literal English translation. Register of 
fragments and estimate of the version ', I-III 
(Oxford, 1911), with photogi'aphic specimens of the 
most important manuscripts. In this masterpiece 
of patient scholarship, the author (whose n.ame does 
not appear on the title page). Rev. George Horner, 
has succeeded in reconstructing the whole of the 
Four Gospels (a few verses excepted) out of 744 
fragments ecattered throughout the pubUc and private 

collections of the world. These fragments belonged 
once to some 150 different manuscripts, the identifica- 
tion of which by the author is perhaps not the least 
merit of his work. Unfortunately some valuable 
fragments, in particular those in the Rainer collec- 
tion, now incorporated with the Imperial Library 
of Vienna were not accessible to Horner in time to 
be used for his edition. (3) Since then, the New- 
Testament fragments of that rich collection have 
been published in autography with the most minute 
palaiographical details by the curator C. Wessely, 
"Griechische u. koptische Texte theologischen 
Inhalts, I-III" in "Studien zur Palaographie u. 
Papyruskunde", IX, XI, XII (Leipzig, 1909-12). 

C. Mixed Editions. — Fragments both of the Old 
and the New Testament have also been edited since 
1897 (inclusive). (1) By Pleyte and Boeser from 
the Leyden Museum in their "Catalogue des manu- 
scrits coptes du Mus6e d'antiquites des Pays-Bas" 
(Leyden, 1897). (2) By Leipoldt, from the Museum 
of Berlin in "Aegj-ptische Urkunden aus den 
koniglichen Museen zu Berlin, koptische Urkunden", 
I (Berlin, 1904). (3) By O. v. Lemm, from the 
British Museum, the Bibliotheque Nationale of 
Paris, the Golenishef Collection, St. Petersburg, and 
the Berhn Library in his "Sahidische Bibelfragmente 
III" in "Bulletin de I'Academie imper. des Sciences," 
V' ser., XXV, 4 (St. Petersburg, 1906). Most of the 
New-Testament fragments in the pubUcations just 
mentioned have been used by Horner for his edition. 
But they are not the less welcomed in their independ- 
ent actual condition, especially when printed page 
by page and line by line, as done, for instance, by 
Wessely, O. v. Lemm, and Schleifer, so as to give 
to all students of the Coptic version the means of 
reconstructing as far as possible the ancient codices 
as they originally were. 

Fayilmic Version. — E. Chassinat edited anew and 
more correctly the fragments once published by Bou- 
riant (Bull, de I'lnst. Frang. d'arch. or. au Caire, II) 
and showed that they belonged to the same codices 
as the Borgian "Fragmenta Basmurica", I-III. 
Other additions to the same fragments were made 
from the Rainer collect ion by C. Wessely in " Sitzungs- 
ber. der kais. Akad. d. Wisscnsch. in Wien, philos.- 
hist. Klasse", vol. 158, 1 (Vienna, 1908), and Jos. 
David from the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris in 
"Revue biblique" (1910), 80 sqq.. There are also 
a dozen more fragments rather short, on papyrus or 
on parchment, described and published as far as they 
could be deciphered by W. E. Crum, " Catalogue of 
the Coptic MSS. in the British Museum" (London, 
1905), nos. 493-510, 1221. Three of those, 500, 
502 and 504 are bilingual, one side of the leaf 
exhibiting the Greek and the other the Faytlmic 
text. Since the completion of Crum's "Catalogue," 
the British Museum has acquired a new fragment. 
Or. 6948, Acts, vii, 14-28, ix, 28-39. It was published 
bv S. Gaselee in "Journ. of Theol. Studies", XI 
(1909-10), 514-7. 

Akhmimic Version. — A considerable addition since 
1897 has been made to the material for our knowledge 
of this version, in the discovei'y of a whole pap>TUS 
codex containing the Proverbs of Solomon. It is 
to be hoped that this valuable manuscript, now pre- 
served in the Berlin Library, will soon be pub- 
lished. Apart from that the only other important 
additions are papyrus fragments of the Gospel of 
St. John (bilingual, Ch. x, complete in Akhmimic, 
w. 1-10, in Greek; xi, complete in .Akhmimic, vv. 
1-8, 45-52, in Greek; xii, 1-20, in Akhmimic, xiii, 1, 
2, 11, 12, in Akhni.) and the Epistle of St. James 
(i, 13-v, 20). They were published by Rosch, in 
"Bruchstiickc des ersten Clemensbriefes" (Stras- 
burg, 1910). The famous parchment codex of the 
twelve lesser Prophets in the Rainer collection is 
unfortunately still unpublished. But the short 




papjTiis fragments published by Bouriant have been 
given out anew in a more correct edition by Lacau 
in "Bulletin de I'lnstitut Frangais d'arch^.ologie 
orientalc", VIII (Caii-o, 1911), 43-107 (see Coptic 
Literature in this volume; and Egypt). 

H. Hyvernat. 

Vestervig. See Borglum, Ancient See of. 

Vexio, Ancient See of (Wepionensi.<?), in 
Sweden, comprised the County of Kronoberg and 
the hundreds of Ostra, Westra, Ostbo, and Westbo 
in the County of Jonkoping. John Sigfrid, an 
Englishman from Northumbria, who had been court 
bishop to King Olaf Tryggvasson from 977 to 1000, 
left Norway for Sweden in 1002 and worked si.x years 
in Westergotland (sccSkara, Ancient See of). About 
1008 he arrived at Vexio, and with great success 
preached Christianity to the heathens of Varend. 
He built a wooden church at Vexio and remained 
there till his death about 1030. In 1158 he was 
canonized by Adrian IV and his shrine was, till the 
Reformation, the glory of the Cathedral of St. John 
the Baptist and St. Sigfrid at Vexio. He had no 
immediate successors and in 1126 King Sigurd 
Jorsalafarer of Norway led a crusade to Smaaland 
to Christianize its inhabitants. Varend was included 
in the Diocese of Skara until 1100, when it formed 
part of the Diocese of Lmkoping. About 11.50 the 
Diocese of Vexio was re-erected. The first bishop 
was Stenar, who is mentioned in two letters dating 
from 1183. In 1191 he quarrelled with the Bishop 
of Linkoping concerning the frontiers of their re- 
spective dioceses. Stenar was succeeded in 1193 
by John Ehrengisleson. In 1205 the biography of 
St. Sigfrid was written. Bishop Gregory (about 12-11), 
or his successor, renewed the boundary dispute with 
the Bishop of Linkoping, which was settled by the 
pope in 1248 or 1249. Bishop Bo (1287-91) appealed 
in a dispute to the Archbishop of Lund, which was 
regarded as an insult to the Archbishop of Upsala. 
Conflict was averted by Bo's death and a declaration 
of obedience to the Archbishop of Upsala, issued by 
the chapter of Vexio. The most famous of the later 
bishops was Nicholas Ragwaldi (1426-38), present 
at the Council of Basle, and in 1438 translated to 
Upsala. The last Catholic bishop was Ingemar 
Petri (consecrated 1495), who, by judicious conces- 
sions, remained at Vexio until his death in 1530. 
He took no part in episcopal consecrations during 
Gustavus I's reign. The chapter of Vexio consisted 
of dean, archdeacon, subdean, and eleven prebenda- 
ries. There was also a schoolmaster. The cathedral 
was burnt down in 1740 and rebuilt in 1755. There 
were apparently no religious houses in the diocese. 

HistoTiSKt geogT'iphiskt och slatistiskt Lcxikim d/ver Sverige, 
VII (Stockholm. 1S76), 32fi, 327, 440, 444; Scriplores rerum 
tnecicaram, U (Upsala, 1828), 344-76; III (1876), 129-31; 
JoRQENSEN, Den nordiske Kirkes Grundtfrggelse (Copenhagen, 
1874-78), 413-18; supplement no. VIII, 52-55; Hislorisk Tid- 
tkrift, XI (Stockholm, 1891), 73-88; Kyrkohistorisk Aarsskrifl, 
XI (Upsala. 1910), 214-19; Recterdahl, Srenska kyrkans 
Hisloria (5 vols., Lund. 1838-66). The last five works contain 
information concerning the identity of the various Sigurds. 
Ll'SDQvlaT. De menska DomkapiUen (Stockholm, 1897), 42. 43. 

A. W. Taylor. 

Viborg, Ancient See of (Viberg.e, Viberg- 
ENsis), in Denmark, comprised the Province of 
Viborg, the town of Aalborg, and the hundreds of 
Fleskum, Hornum, Helium, Hindsted, Aars, Gislum, 
and Slet in the Province of .4alborg. The hundreds 
of Gjerlev, Onsild, Norhald. and Stovring in the 
Province of Banders also belonged to the Diocese 
of Viborg until 1.396 when ihev were transferred to 
that of Aarhus. The diocese was founded in 1065 
after the death of Bishop Vale (see Hire, Ancient 
See of), Herbert was first Bishop of Viborg (106.5- 
1100?). In 1080 St Canute endowed the bishopric 
and chapter The latter consisted of Canons Regular 
XVI— 6. 

of St. Augustine. Bishop Svend I (1106-1112) was 
drowned in the Elbe by the Count of Stade, and 
Eskild (1112-33), who began rebuilding the cathedral 
about 1130, was murdered during Matins in the 
Church of St. Margaret by command of King Eric 
Emun. Svend II (1135-51) was succeeded as provost 
of the chapter by Willo, and he by St. Kjeld or Ketil 
(d. 27 Sept., 1150). Bishop Niels I (1153-91) was 
very generous towards his chapter. He founded the 
hospital of St. Michael, Viborg, in 1159, and the 
Cistercian nunnery of Asmild in 1169, and finished 
the original Romanesque cathedral, of which only 
the crypt now remains. It is also largely due to 
him that St. Kjeld was beatified, and his body trans- 
lated to the shrine, suspended from the vaulting of 
his chapel on 11 July, 1189. 

Bishop Gunner was one of the greatest men of 
his time. He was born in 1152 and educated at the 
University of Paris, where he acquired a great knowl- 
edge of law. In 1208 he entered the Cistercian 
Abbey of Om (Cara Insula), of which he was chosen 
abbot in 1216. In 1222 he was elected Bishop of 
Viborg by the chapter on the advice of Cardinal 
Gregory of Crescent ia. As bishop he devoted special 
care to the training of the clergy. He probably wrote 
out the Law of Jutland (Jydske Lov) and composed 
the original preface to it, and was present when it 
was published at Vordingborg in 1241. He died at 
Asmild, 25 Aug., 1251, and was buried in front of 
the shrine of St. Kjeld. Thorleif Olafsson (1438-50) 
was translated to Bergen (q. v.), and succeeded at 
Viborg by Canute Mikkelsen (1451-78), dean of the 
Church of Our Lady at Copenhagen, and rector of 
the University of Erfurt in 1434. A great diplomatist 
and jurist, he was author of the Latin notes appended 
to the first two editions of the Law of Jutland and 
of a popular treatise on the plague. The last Catholic 
bishop was Jorgen Friis (1-521-36). He was aworldly- 
minded man and quite unable to cope with the move- 
ment to which the preaching of Hans Tausen at 
Viborg (1525) gave rise. In 1530 the cathedral was 
in the possession of the Protestants. Friis retired 
to the Castle of Hald, where he was imprisoned in 
his own dungeon in 1536. Two years later he was 
released on promising to submit to the new order 
of things. In 1540 he was endowed with the lands 
of the Abbey of Vrejiev and some of the property 
of the see, and though he never m;irried, he led the 
life of a lay nobleman until his death in 1.547. 

Though the Danish Reformation began at Viborg, 
certain Catholic usages were kept up in its cathedral 
longer than anywhere else in Denmark. The shrines 
of St. Kjeld and St. Willehad were removed to the 
choir of the cathedral in 1538, but Lutheran ministers 
continued to recite daily the Office of the Dead for 
the soul of King Eric Clipping (d. 1286) from 15(j0 
to 1630. The Protestant Bishop Hans Wandal 
shortened and Protestantized the service and en- 
trusted its performance to the senior curate of the 
cathedral and twelve of the school boys. These all 
benefited by the en<iowment, and continued the 
service until 1684. Of the twelfth-century cathedral 
nothing remains but the crypt. The upper church 
built in 1876 contains splendid frescoes by Joachim 
Skovgaard begun in 1895 and a seven-branched 
candlestick from 1494. The abbey church of 
Grinderslev, the Church of St. Botolph, at Aalborg, 
and numerous village churches are memorials of the 
Catholic past. At Karup there wa.s a pilgrimage to 
Our Lady's Well. The chapter of the (':ilhedral 
of St. Mary and St. Kjeld was secularized in 1440, 
after which it consisted of a dean, an archdeacon, 
a precentor, and twelve secular canons. There were 
also at Viborg the Benedictine nunnery of St. Botolph, 
a Franciscan friary from 1235, and a Dominican 
friary from 1246, as well as the hospitals of St. 
Michael and of the Holy Ghost. At Aalborg there 




were a Benedictine nunnery and a Franciscan friary. 
The Cistercian Abbey of Vidskild (Vita; Schola) 
founded in 1158, the Augustinian abbey at Grinders- 
lev founded before 1176, and the Augustinian nunnery 
of Asmild were all situated in the diocese, as were 
also the Benedictine (?; nunnery of Sibber, and the 
hospitals at Tesdrup and Karup. In 1523 there were 
236 churches in the Diocese of Viborg. Now (1912) 
the Camillians have a church and hospital at Aalborg, 
while Viborg is one of their out-stations. 

Ursin. Stiftsladen Viborg (Viborg. 1849); Heise. Diploma- 
tarium vibergense (Copenhagen. 1879); Trap, Danmark, IV 
(Copenhagen, 1902) ; Jorgensen, Den nordiske Kirkes Grund- 
Icaggehe (2 vols., Copenhagen, 1874-78); Gertz, Vila sanc- 
torum danorum (Copenhagen, 1908-12), 249-83; Vita Gunneri 
episcopi viberge7isi:i in Scriptores rerum danicarum, V (Copen- 
hagen, 1783), 574-80; Bricka, Dansk biografisk Leksikon (19 
vola., Copenhagen, 1887-1905) ; Rordam, Nykirkehistoriske 
Samlinger, I (Copenhagen, 1857-59), 526-37; III (1864-66), 
1-46, 292-367; V (1869-71), 522-81, 703-71; VI (1872-73). 
716-32; Kirkehistoriske Samlinger, 3rd aeries. II (Copenhagen, 
1877-80). 674-77; III (1881-82). 186-201; 4th series, V (1897- 
99), 84-125, 299-333; Samlinger til Judsk Historie og Topo- 
grapki, II (Aalborg, 1868-69). 97-107; 3rd series, I (Copen- 
hagen, 1896-98), 485-93; V (1906-08), 347-66; Historisk Tids- 
skrift, 7th series, V (Copenhagen, 1904-05), 299-364; La 
cathcdrale de Viborg (Ministry of Public Worship. Copenhagen. 
1909), in Danish with a summary in French; Pontoppidan, 
Marmora daniea, II (Copenhagen, 1741), 191-252; Daugaabd, 
Danske Klostre (Copenhagen, 1830). 

A. W. Taylor. 

Vicariate Apostolic — The following is an ac- 
count of the newly-erected vicariates Apostolic and 
of those changed so recently as not to have been 
included in the earlier volumes of this work. 

Bagamoyo in Equatorial Africa. — By a decree 
dated 7 May, 1913, the boundary between the 
Vicariates Apostolic of Bagamoyo and Dar-es-Salam 
or Zanzibar was changed so as to conform with civil 
hmits; the new boundary is the line separating 
Bagamoyo and Morogoro from Dar-es-Salam and 
Rufifi, then the rivers Ruaha, and Umeroke, and 
finally the railway from the Indian Ocean to the 
town of Tabora. 

Banguelo, in Equatorial Africa, erected on 27 
Jan., 1913, and committed to the care of the White 
Fathers. It was previously the northern portion of 
the Vicariate ApostoUc of Nyassa. 

Basutoland, in South Africa. — The Prefecture 
Apostolic of Basutoland (q. v.) was erected into a 
vicariate Apostohc with unchanged boundaries by 
a Decree dated 18 Feb., 1909. The vicariate at the 
close of the year 1912 contained 23 priests, all 
Obl.ates of Mary Immaculate, 5 Oblate brothers, 7 
Marist brothers, 41 European and 21 native nuns, 
21 churches, chapels, and stations, 12 convents (9 
of the Sisters of the Holv Family, and 3 of Sisters of 
the Holy Cross), 17 schools, about 10,000 Catholics 
and 800 catechumens out of 400,000 inhabitants. 
The first vicar ApostoUc is the Right Rev. Jules 
Joseph Cenez, O. M. I., titular Bishop of Nicopolis, 
who was born at Hampont, Lorraine, on 9 May, 
1865; was ordained, 8 Sept., 1890; head of the 
mission since 1895, appointed to the titular see 27 
Feb., 1909, and consecrated at Metz on 1 May 

Brownsville, in United States of America, 
was erected into the Diocese of Corpus Christi, on 
23 March, 1912. 

Caroline Islands. See below Mariana and 
Caroline Islands. 

Central Africa, Vicariate Apostolic of. See 
below Khartum. 

Che-kiang, Western, in China, erected on 10 
May, 1910. At the request of Mgr. Paul-Marie 
Rcynaud, Vicar Apostolic of Che-kiang, the western 
portion of his mission was erected into a new vicariate, 
that of We.storn Che-ki.ang; at the same time word 
"Eastern" w:is iiddcd to the oflicial 1-itle of tlie old 
vicariate. The mission of Western Che-ki;ing com- 
prises the civil prefectures of Kia-shing, llu-chu. 

Hang-che, Yen-che, Hin-chu, and King-hoa. Its 
boundaries are: on the north the Vicariate of Kiang- 
nan, and Lake T'ai-hu; to the west, the Vicariates 
of Kiang-nan, and Eastern Kiang-Si; to the south 
the Vicariates of Eastern Che-kiang and Fu-kien; 
and to the east, the Vicariate of Eastern Che-kiang 
and the Chinese Sea, or the Bay of Ham-chu. The 
mission is entrusted to the Lazarists. The first 
vicar Apostohc is Mgr Paul-Albert Faveau, C.M., 
b. at Crochte, France, 5 April, 1859; appointed to 
the vicariate, 10 May, 1910, with the title of Bishop 
of Tamassus. 

Chi-li, Maritime, in China, erected on 27 April, 
1912; it comprises the civil prefecture of Tientsin- 
fu, previously part of the Vicariate of Northern 
Chi-li or Peking. Boundaries: on the north the 
Vicariate of Peking, on the east the Gulf of Chi-li; 
on the south the missions of Changtong and South- 
eastern Chi-li; on the west the missions of South- 
western Chi-li and Northern Chi-h. It is entrusted 
to the care of the Lazarists. The first vicar ApostoUc 
is Mgr Paul Dumond, CM., born at Lyons, 2 April, 
1864; ordained, 10 Aug., 1888; appointed Vicar 
ApostoUc of Maritime Chi-U, 27 April, 1912, and 
consecrated at Peking titular Bishop of Curubis on 
30 June following. 

Chi-li, Central, in China, erected on 14 Feb., 
1910; comprises the civil Prefectures of Pao-ting-fu, 
and Y-tchu, formerly part- of the Vicariate of Northern 
Chi-li. Its boundaries are: on the north the pre- 
fecture of Suen-hoa-fu, on the east, Chun-tien-fu, 
on the south, Ho-kiang-fu; on the west, Ting-chu, 
Chang-ting-fu, and Shan-Si. The cathedral at 
Pao-ting-fu is dedicated to Sts. Peter and Paul. 
The mission is undertaken by the Lazarists, and 
contains about 72,530 Catholics, 38 priests, 255 
churches and chapels, and 914 schools. The first 
vicar Apostolic is Mgr Joseph Fabregues, CM., 
born at MontpeUier, France, 26 Nov., 1872, appointed 
to the vicariate, 26 Feb., 1910, and consecrated 
titular Bishop of AlaU on 22 May, 1910 by Mgr. 
Stanislas Jarlin, at Pao-ting-fu. 

Congo, Upper. — The mission of the Upper Congo 
was begun on 21 Sept., 1880; it was erected into a 
vicariate Apostolic on 10 Dec, 1895, its boundaries 
being: on the north, a Une from the mouth of the 
Elila to Lake Edward Nyanza at the 30° E. long.; 
on the east the Congo Free State frontier to the 
mouth of the river K:ifu at Lake Tanganyka; thence 
along its course and the western boundaries of 
Urungu and Loemba to Lake Banguelo; on the 
south and west Lake Banguelo and the river Congo 
to the mouth of the Lira. On 8 April, 1911, a decree 
was published changing the eastern and southern 
lines separating the Vicariate of the Upper Congo 
from the missions of N. and S. Victoria Nyanza, 
Unyanyembe, Tanganika, and Nyassa. The bound- 
ary now is: on the east, the Belgo-British and Ger- 
mano-Belgian frontiers, that is, a line from the south 
shore of Lake Albert Edward to Sabingo Mountain, 
thence by Lake Kion, along the Rusizi, and through 
Lake Tanganika; on the south, a Une from Lake 
Tanganika to Lake Moero; that is, the BelgoBritish 
frontier. The mission is entrusted to the White 
Fathers. It contains 300,000 inhabitants, of whom 
5520 are Catholics, 5148 neophytes, and 29,019 
catechumens; there are 7 chief stations and 27 
chapels, 31 missionary priests, 8 lay brothers, 9 
White Sisters of Notre-Dame d'Afrique, 45 negro 
cathechists teaching 2960 children in 55 schools, 
14 orphanages, 7 hospitals, 22 dispensaries, and 1 
home for widows. The first vicar Apostolic is Mgr 
Victor Roelens, b. .at Ardoye, Belgium, 21 Feb., 
18.53; appointed to the vicariate on 30 Miircli, 1895; 
he resides at Baudoinville, and is titul:ir Bishop of 
Girba. On 24 March, 1909, he received ;is co:idjutor 
Mgr Augustc- Leopold Huys, b. at Bruges, 9 July, 




1S71, who has been working; as a missionary in the 
Congo since 1897. He is titular Bishop of Rusicade. 

CoREA. — The name of this vicariate has been 
changed to Seoul (q. v.). 

Delta of the Nile, in Egypt, erected 17 Sept., 
1909; the boundaries of the mission remained un- 
changed. It is entrusted to the care of the Society 
of African Missions of Lyons. The first vicar 
Apostolic is Mgr. .\uguste Duret, b. in the Diocese 
of Nantes, 2 Jan., 1840; ordained, 17 Dec, 1870; 
missionary in Oran in 1878; Prefect Apostolic of the 
Delta of the Nile in 188.5; appointed vicar Apostohc 
on 17 Sept., 1909, and consecrated titular Bishop of 
Bubastis on 24 Feb., 1910. 

Diego Suarez, in Madagascar. — By a Decree of 
Propaganda dated 20 May, 191.3, the name of the 
Vicariate .Apostolic of Northern Madagascar (q. v.) 
was changed to Diego Suarez, which is the name of 
the chief town in the mission. 

Erythrea, in East Africa. — On 13 Sept., 1894, 
the Italian colony of Erythrea or Eritrea, previously 
part of the Lazarist mission of Abyssinia, was formed 
into a prefecture Apostolic, with R. P. Michele da 
Carbonara (b. at Carbonara, Italy, 10 Oct., 1836; 
d. there, 24 June, 1910), a Capuchin, as superior. 
The mission comprises the territory on the coast of 
the Red Sea from Ras Kasar (18° 2' N.) to the 
French possessions at the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb 
(12° 30' N.), and is bounded on the interior by the 
Sudan, Abyssinia, and French Somahland. It in- 
cludes likewise all the islands in the adjacent part 
of the Red Sea, subject to the Italians. The in- 
habitants, mostly of a semi-nomadic disposition, 
number about 4.^0,000. Of these 12,200 belong to 
the Latin Rite, about one-half being Italians; 1.5,000 
are Copto-Ethiopians, about 80,(X)0 are Mono- 
physites, and the remainder fetishists or Mohamme- 
dans. The ordinary people speak Arabic, Tigrai, 
and Tigre; and the upper .\maric; while 
Ghez is the liturgical language. On Feb. 7, 1911, 
after the death of R. P. Michele da Carbonara, the 
mission was made a vicariate Apostolic. It contains 
9 Capuchin fathers and 6 brothers, with 5 residences, 
42 native priests, 22 Daughters of St. Anne, some 
Franciscan tertiarj' lay sisters (native), 8 churches, 
30 chapels in the back-country, served by native 
Catholic priests of Copto-Ethiopic Rite, 2 seminaries 
(at Achur and Ashcrem) with 48 students, 5 schools 
with over 200 pupils and 2 orphanages. The mission 
is confided to the Capuchins of the province of Rome. 
The vicar Apostolic is Mgr Francesco Carrara, 
Capuchin, b. at Albino, in the Diocese of Bergamo, 
Italy, on 14 March, 1871; professed on 8 Sept., 
1887; minister provincial of Lombardy in 1902; 
appointed to the vicariate in January, 1911, and 
consecrated at Milan, 26 Feb. following, as titular 
Bishop of Agathopolis. 

Fernando Po, in Africa. — In 1855 a mission 
was established in the islands of Annob6n, Corisco, 
and Fernando Po under R. P. Miguel Martinez, of 
Toledo. In 1857 the mission became a prefecture 
.\postolic and was entrusted to the Jesuits; in 1860 
their jurisdiction was e.xtended to the mainland. 
After thirteen years' labour they gave up the mission 
owing to difficulties with the Spanish Government, 
as well as to the severity of the climate. Till 1883 
there was only one priest in the mi.ssion, the parish 
priest of Santa EUsabeth in Fernando Po. In 1883 
the prefecture was revived and the mission entrusted 
to the Congregation of the Missionary Sons of the 
Immaculate Heart of Mary. On 35 April, a large 
territory on the continent was added to the mission, 
which on 5 May, 1004, was made a vicariate Apostohc. 
The vicariate now comprises the Islands of Annob6n 
(11 sq. miles), Corisco (11 sq. miles), Elobey, 
Fernando Po (780 sq. miles), and Spanish Guinea 
(12,000 sq. miles), extending from the Muni river 

to the Campo and to Kamerun, the eastern boundary 
being the meridian of 11° 20' E.; it has in all an 
area of about 12,814 sq. miles and a population of 
235,000. The languages ordinarily spoken in the 
mission are: Bubi in Fernando Po; Benga in Corisco; 
Ambu in Annab6n, and Pamwe and Korabe on the 
mainland. The climate in the mission territory is 
torrid and enervating, and malaria is prevalent. 
There are 6274 Catholics and 370 catechumens; 42 
missionary priests; 10 catechists; 13 churches; 9 
chapels, 27 stations; 18 parochial schools with 1170 
pupils; 4 hospitals. The Sisters of the Immaculate 
Conception have 6 houses with 26 nuns. The finst 
Vicar Apostohc is Mgr Pedro Armengaudio Coll, of 
the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of 
Mai-y, appointed on 10 May, 1904. He is titular 
Bishop of Thignica, and resides at Santa Isabel, 
Fernando Po. 

Fianakantsoa, in Madagascar, erected on 10 
May, 1913, and committed to the care of the Jesuits, 
formed previously the southern part of the Vicariate 
of Central Madagascar. Its boundaries are: on the 
north the 20° S. lat., the southern Hmits of Autsirabe, 
the 20° S. lat. again, and then to the Indian Ocean; 
on the east the Indian Ocean from 20° to 22° S. lat.; 
on the south the Vicariate Apostolic of Fort Dauphin 
(formerly Southern Madagascar); on the west the 
Mozambique Channel from 20° to 22° S. lat. On 16 
May, 1913, R. P. Charles Givelet, S.J., was appointed 
first vicar Apostolic. 

Fort-Dauphin, in Madagascar. — In order to 
distinguish more easily the various vicariates in 
Madagascar, the Holy See decreed on 20 May, 1913, 
that the vicariates should be called in future by the 
name of the town in which the vicars reside. Hence 
the name of the Vicariate Apostolic of Southern 
Madagascar was changed to Fort-Dauphin. 

GuA.M, Island of, in the Mariana Islands. — The 
Mariana Islands with the exception of Guam 
belong to Germany; Guam is held by the United 
States of America. By a Decree dated 1 March, 
1911, Guam was withdrawn from the jurisdiction 
of the Prefect Apostolic of the Mariana Islands, 
and made a vicariate Apostohc, to prevent troubles 
arising from ditTerences of nationality. The new 
vicariate was entrusted to the Capuchins, and Mgr 
Francisco Xavier Ricardo Vila y Mateu, O.F.M. 
Cap., b. at Arenys de Mar, Spain, was appointed 
on 25 Aug., 1911, vicar Apostohc and titular Bishop 
of Adraa. In 1911 the population was 12,240, of 
whom 11,877 were natives; there are about 2500 
non-Catholics. The vicariate has 10 Capuchin 
priests, 3 lay brothers, 6 parishes, and 10 churches. 
The Island of Guam hes at the vSouthern end of 
t he Mariana group and was ceded to the United States 
in 1898; it is about 30 miles long and 6^ miles 
wide, and has an area of about 200 sq. miles. The 
natives are Chamorros, with a mixture of Tagal and 
Spanish blood. Education has been compulsory since 
the American occupation; San Ignacio de Agana 
(population over 7000) is the capital of the island. 

Ho-nan, Western, in China. — The Prefecture 
.Vpostohc of Western Ho-nan was erected into a 
vicariate Apostolic by a Decree of 2 May, 1911, its 
boundaries remaining unchangc^d, that is, on the 
north, the Yellow River, on the eiist, the Shen-si, 
on the south the prefecture of Nan-Yang-fu; on 
the west that of Kai-fong-fu. The mission is en- 
trusted to the mi.ssionaries of the Parma Seminary 
of St. Francis Xavier for the Foreign Missions. It 
contains about eight milhon inhabitants, of whom 
2717 are Catholics, 4006 catechumens; 9 priests, 
3 churches, 9 chapels, and 5 schools. The first 
vicar .Vpostolic is M^ Luigi Calza, b. at Rocca 
Prebalza, Italy, 26 July, 1872; ordained in 1902; 
appointed Prefect .\postolic of Western Ilo-nan, 
23 June, 1906, and vicar Apostolic on 18 Sept., 




1911. He was consecrated at Parma on 21 April, 

1912, as titular Bishop of Termessus. 

Ivory Coast, in Equatorial Africa. — On 17 Nov., 

1911, the Prefecture Apostolic of the Ivory Coast 
was erected into a vicariate Apostohc. The mission 
had been formerly part of the Prefecture Apostolic 
of the Gold Coast, from which it was separated on 
28 June, 1895. Its boundaries are: on the east, the 
Gold Coast; on the south, the sea from the Gold Coast 
to Liberia; on the west, Liberia. The inhabitants 
numlDer over 3,000,000, of whom 1100 are Catholics, 
400 catechumens, about 400 Protestants, and the 
remainder fetishists. The vicariate is under the 
care of the Society of the African Mission of Lyons, 
and has 13 churches and chapels, 12 stations, 6 
schools, 10 orphanages, 7 Sisters of the Queen of 
Angels, and 27 missionary priests. The first vicar 
Apostolic ig Mgr Jules-Joseph Moury, titular Bishop 
of Ariassus. He was born at Agnat, France, 11 
Oct., 1873, and ordained 30 May, 1897; set out for 
the Ivory Coast on 25 Sept., 1899; founded the 
mission of Abidjan in 1904 and that of Katiola in 
1908; was appointed prefect Apostolic of the Ivory 
Coast, 18 Jan., 1910, and vicar Apostolic, 17 Nov., 
1911; he was consecrated at Lyons on 6 June, 1912. 
The episcopal residence is at Abidjan. 

Khartum, in the Sudan. — On 26 May, 1913, the 
Prefecture .■Vpostolic of Bar-el-Gazal was formed from 
the Vicariate of the Sudan or of Central Africa; and 
by a Decree foiu: days later, the name of the vicari- 
ate was changed to that of Khartum. 

KiEN-CHANG, in China, was formed on 12 Aug., 
1910, by separating from the Vicariate Apostolic of 
Southern Sze-ch'wan, the southwestern portion 
called Kien-chang; its boundaries were fixed as 
those of the civil Province of Nin-yuen-fu. At the 
request of the vicar Apostolic of Southern Sze- 
ch'wan, the civU sub-prefecture Tsinkyhiem was 
transferred from his jurisdiction to that of the Vicar 
of Kien-chang, on 30 April, 1912. The mission is 
under the care of the Society of Foreign Missions 
of Paris. The first vicar Apostohc is Mgr Jean- 
Baptiste-Marie de Guebriant, b. at Paris, 11 Dec, 
1860; ordained 5 July, 1885; appointed vicar 
Apostohc 12 .\ug., 1910, and consecrated at Su-fu 
on 20 Nov. following. He resides at Nin-yuen-fu. 

Kilima-Njaro, in Equatorial Africa, erected from 
the northern part of the Vicariate Apostohc of 
Bagamoyo, by a Decree of 13 Sept., 1910. Its 
boundaries are: on the north, the Vicariate of 
Zanzibar; on the east, the Indian Ocean; on the 
west, the Vicariate of Unyanyembe; on the south, 
from the mouth of the river Msangassi to Mgera, 
thence westerly to the boundary of the Vicariate 
of Unyanyembe, near Lake Balangidda, north of 
Irangi. The vicariate is entrusted to the Fathers of 
the Holy Ghost and the Immaculate Heart of Mary. 
It has 9 missions, with 20 priests, 12 lay brothers, 
25 nuns, more than 4500 Cathohcs. The first vicar 
Apostolic is Mgr Louis Munsch, b. at Felleringen, 
Alsatia, 5 Oct., 1869; ordained in 1896, after which 
he went on the East African mission ; he was appointed 
to the vicariate, 13 Sept., 1910, and was consecrated 
as titular Bishop of Magnesia on 5 Feb., 1911. He 
resides at Kilema (founded 1891), the oldest station 
in the mission; it contains over 1500 Cathohcs. 

Kivu, in Equatorial Africa, erected on 12 Dec, 

1912, and committed to the care of the Society of 
African Missionaries. The district of Kivu lies beyond 
the western hmits of the Vicariate of Southern 
Victoria Nyanza and Unyanyembe. T!ie boundaries 
of the new vicariate are: on the north, the British 
frontier from the river Kagera to the Belgian frontier, 
thence to Lake Kivu; on the west, the Belgian 
frontier; on the south, the northern boundaries of 
Uvinza and Ujiji; on the east, the Kagera and 
Ruinvu, then the western boundary of Ussurvi 

and the eastern boundary of Uha. The first vicar 
Apostohc is Mgr Jean-Joseph Hirth, titular Bishop 
of Theveste, appointed on 12 Dec, 1912; he was 
at the time of this appointment Vicar Apostohc of 
Southern Victoria Nyanza. 

Libya, in North Africa.— On 23 Feb., 1913, the 
Prefecture Apostolic of Tripoli was erected into a 
vicariate Apostohc and its name changed to Libj'a. 
The boundaries of the old prefecture remained as 

Mad.^gascar. — By a Decree dated 20 May, 1913, 
the Propaganda to prevent any ambiguity as to the 
vicariates in Madagascar, ordered that they should 
be called by the name of the place of residence of 
the vicar Apostohc Therefore the \'icariate Apos- 
tolic of Northern Madagascar takes the name of 
Diego Suarez; that of Central Madagascar the name 
of Tananarive; and that of Southern Madagascar 
the name of Fort-Dauphin. 

Mariana and Caroline Islands. — By a Decree 
of 1 March, 1911, the Prefectures Apostolic of the 
Mariana Islands and of the Caroline Islands were 
suppressed, and in their stead a new vicariate was 
erected, embracing both groups of islands, except the 
Island of Guam. The mission is under the care of 
the Capuchins of Westphalia. Tlie first vicar 
Apostolic is Mgr Peter Salvator Walleser, O.F.M. 
Cap., b. at Wieden, near Freibourg im Breisgau, 22 
Oct., 1874; professed, 4 Oct., 1898; ordained, 15 
Aug., 1901; missionary in the Palau Isles in 1906; 
appointed vicar Apostohc and titular Bishop of Tan- 
agra on 21 Aug., 1912. He is the author of a Palau 
grammar and dictionary. The vicariate in 1911 
contained 4500 Catholics, 15 Capuchin priests, 14 
lay brothers, 11 nuns, 14 stations, 14 churches and 
chapels. There were 14 mission schools in the Caro- 
line Islands, but none in the Mariana group, as the 
Government claims there a monopoly in educational 

Morocco. — On 14 April, 1908, the Prefecture 
Apostohc of Morocco (q. v.) was erected into a 
vicariate. Mgr Francisco INlaria Cervera, of the 
Friars Minor, titular Bishop of Fessa, is the first 
vicar Apostolic. He was born at Valencia, Spain, 
13 March, 1858; was professed, 19 Nov., 1878; 
ordained in 1880 and made Prefect Apostolic of 
Morocco in 1906; appointed vicar Apostohc, 8 
April, 1908, and consecrated at Madrid, 23 May, 
1908. He resides at Tangiers. 

Napo, in Ecuador, erected on 3 Feb., 1893, and 
confided to the Jesuits. The superior of the mission 
is R. P. Andres Perez, S.J. 

Norway and Spitzberg. — By a Decree of 1 June, 
1913, the archipelago of Spitzbergen was placed 
under the jurisdiction of the Vicar Apostolic of 
Norway, and at the same time the words "and 
Spitzberg" were ordered to be added to the official 
title of the vicariate. 

Nyassa, in Equatorial Africa. — -The portion of 
this vicariate lying north of the watershed between 
the Luangwa and the Zambesi, and then of the 
13° S. lat., was separated on 28 Jan., 1913, and 
formed into the Vicariate Apostolic of Banguelo; 
the remaining part of the vicariate retains its old 

Seoul, in Corea. — On 7 April, 1911, two civil 
prefectures, Kieng-siang-to and Tiyen-la-to, were 
separated from the Vicariate Apostohc of Corea and 
formed into a new mission, Tai-kou. In consequence 
of this the official name of the old vicariate was 
changed from Corea to Seoul. 

Shensi, Central, in China. — By a Decree of 12 
April, 1911, the Vicariate .Vpostolic of Northern 
Shensi was divided, and the northern portion formed 
into a new mission. The name of the vicariate 
therefore was changed from Northern Shensi to 
Central Shensi. 




Shensi, Northern, in China. — On 12 April, 1911, 
two civil prefectures, Yu-lin-fu and Yen-an-fu, with 
14 subprefectures and two towns were detached 
from the vicariate of Central (then called Northern) 
Shensi, and erected into a new vicariate, which from 
its position with regard to the old vicariate was 
given the name of Northern Shensi. The mission 
is confided to the Friars Minor. The first vicar 
Apostohc is Mgr Celestius Ibanez Aparicio, titular 
Bishop of Bagi, who was appointed on 12 April, 1911. 

Solomon Islands, Southern. — The Prefecture 
Apostolic of the Southern Solomon Islands was 
erected into a vicariate Apostolic on 1 Juno, 1912, 
its boundaries remaining unchanged. The first vicar 
Apostohc is Mgr Jean-Ephrem Bertreux, Marist, 
b. at Saint-Jean-de-Boiseau, France, in Jan., 18.53; 
ordained in June, 1878; went on the foreign mission 
in the Fiji Islands, 1879; appointed, 2 June, 1912, 
and consecrated at Nantes on 28 Oct. following. 
He is titular Bishop of Musti, and resides at Rua- 

Sudan. — By a Decree of 14 Feb., 1911, the northern 
limits of the Prefecture Apostolic of Ubanghi-Chari 
were extended to the 13° N. lat., the new territory 
being taken away from the Vicariate Apostohc of 
the Sudan. Furthermore, as on May, 1913, the 
Prefecture Apostolic of Bar-el-Gazal was formed by 
separation from the Sudan mission, it was decreed 
on 30 May, 1913, that the official name of this mis- 
sion should be changed to the Vicariate Apostolic of 

Sze-ch'wan, Southern, in China. — On 30 April, 
1912, the civil subprefecture of Tsinkyhiem was 
transferred from the jurisdiction of the Vicar Apostolic 
of Southern Sze-ch'wan to that of the Vicar Apostolic 
of Kien-chang. 

Taiku comprises Kieng-siang-to and Tij'en-la-to, 
two civil prefectures formerly part of the Vicariate 
of Corea (now Seoul). It was erected on 7 April, 
1911, and committed to the care of the Society of 
Foreign Missions of Paris. The first vicar Apostolic is 
Mgr Florien Demange, b. at Saulxures-les-Salles, 
France, 2.5 April, 1875; ordained, 20 June, 1898; 
set out for the foreign mission in Corea on 3 Aug. 
following; appointed vicar Apostolic, 8 April, 1911; 
and consecrated at Seoul on 11 June, 1911, as titular 
Bishop of Adrassus. 

Tananarive, in Madagascar. — This new name 
was given by a Decree of 20 May, 1913, to the 
Vicariate Apostolic of Central Madagascar {q. v.) 

Tientsin, in China. — This is another name for 
the Vicariate Apostohc of Maritime Chi-li (q. v.) 

Zanzibar (Zancuebar), Northern. — In 1860 a 
mission was begun in the island of Zanzibar tlirough 
the efforts of Mgr Amand Maupoint, Bishop of 
St. Denis (Reunion); on 12 Nov., 1802, this was 
made a prefecture Apostohc under Mgr Maupoint 
as Apostolic delegate. The mi-ssion was confided 
to the F'athers of the Holy Ghost on 9 Sept., 1872; 
on 13 Nov., 1883, it was erected into a vicariate 
Apostolic, from which were separated later the 
Prefectures Apostolic of Benadir and Kenia, the 
Vicariate Apostolic of Southern Zanzibar and on 

11 May, 1906, that of Bagamoyo or Central Zan- 
zibar. It now comprises the British East Africa 
territory (except the district of Kenia) and the 
Islands of Zanzibar and Pemba. The chief languages 
spoken are Kiswahili and Kikuya. There are about 
3,000,000 inhabitants, of whoni 44.50 are Cathohcs, 
and 4800 catechumens; the mission has 34 priests, 
22 lay brothers, 8 catechists, 31 nuns (Sisters of 
St. Joseph, and Dominican Tertiaries), 17 stations, 

12 schools with 1000 children, 26 orphans, 1 leper 
asylum, 2 hospitals, and 11 pharmacies. An agree- 
ment was made on 24 Oct., 1906, between the Sultan 
of Zanzibar and the vicar Apostolic by which the 
bishop was to take care of all the lepers and the 
poor of Zanzibar, to feed them and care for them, 
and provide Sisters to look after their wants, while 
the Government was to build and furnish two homes. 
The vicar Apostohc is Mgr Emile-Auguste Allgeyer, 
b. at Rixheim in Alsatia, in 1856, appointed to the 
vicariate, 17 Feb., 1897, as titular Bishop of Ticeha. 

Zanzibar, Southern or Dar-es-Salem, in German 
East Africa. — This mission was erected into a pre- 
fecture Apostolic, under the care of the German 
Benedictines of St. Odila for the Foreign Missions, 
on 16 Nov., 1887. Previously it had formed part 
of the Vicariate of Zanguebar (Zanzibar). On 10 
July, 1897, its southern boundaries were extended 
to Cape Delgado, and its inland limits made to em- 
brace Magwangwara. On 10 Sept., 1902, it was 
made a vicariate Apostolic, the first vicar being 
R. P. Cassian Spiess, who was slain by the natives 
in Aug., 1905. Mgr Spiess was born at Sankt 
Jacob in Austria, 12 July, 1866. He was appointed 
vicar Apostolic and titular Bishop of Ostracina on 15 
Sept., 1902. With him were slain two lay brothers 
and two Benedictine Sisters. The name of the 
vicariate was changed on 10 Aug., 1906, to Dar-es- 
Salem — the name of the town where the vicar 
Apostolic resides. The boundary between the 
Vicariates of Bagamoyo and Dar-es-Salem was 
modified by a Decree of 7 May, 1913; it is now the 
line separating Bagamoyo and Morogoro from Dar- 
es-Salem and Rufiji; then the rivers Ruaha and 
Umeroke and finally the railway from the Indian 
Ocean to Tabora. The vicariate contains about 
1,000,000, most of whom speak Kiswahili, which 
language was reduced to writing and a grammar 
and dictionary of two of its dialects compiled by 
the missionaries in 1904; there are 3967 Cathohcs, 
2600 catechumens, 14 missionary priests, 18 lay 
brothers, 55 catechists, 11 chief and 36 secondary 
stations, 66 schools with 2577 pupils, 15 orphanages, 
and 18 Benedictine nuns. The second and present 
vicar Apostolic is Mgr Thomas Spreiter, O.S.B., 
b. at Ratisbon, 28 Dec, 1865; professed, 2 Feb., 
1888; ordained, 28 July, 1897; sent to the Zanzibar 
mission in 1900; appointed vicar, 13 March, 1906, 
and consecrated at Augsburg, on 6 Dec, 19(X), as 
titular Bishop of Tha^na;. 

Ada Aposlolicd .Sprfi.i (Rome. 1909—); Battandier. An- 
nuairr. pontifical calholiiiue (Paris, 1909- la); Missiones calho- 
lica (Rome, 1907); Baudrillart, Did, d'hist. et de giog. eccl. 
(Paris, 1911— ). . . ,, T- 

A. A. Mac Erlean. 


Walsh, Patrick, journalist. United States sena- 
tor; b. at Ballingary, Co. Limerick, Ireland, 1 Jan., 
1840; d. Augusta, Georgia, U. S. A., 19 March, 1900. 
With his parents he emigrated in 1852 to Charleston, 
South Carolina, where he was apprenticed to a 
printer. While working at this trade he attended 
night school, and saved money enough to enable 
him to enter as a student at Georgetown College, 
D. C, in 1859, where he remained until the Civil 

War, in 1861, when he returned to Charleston and 
joined the state militia as a lieutenant of the Meagher 
Guards of the Regiment, Carolina Rifle Militia. 
In 1862 he moved to Augusta, Georgia, and became 
one of the editorial staff of the daily "Constitutional- 
ist", thus beginning a connexion with the press of 
that city which extended over thirty-two year.s, and 
included service on the "Pacificator" (1864); "Banner 
of the South" (1867); and "Chronicle and Sentinel", 




which he purchased in 1877, combined with the 
"Constitutionalist", and retained until his death. 
In addition to his editorial work he was agent of 
the New York Associated Press, 1866-92, and general 
manager of the Southern Associated Press. He was 
a member of the state Legislature, 1872-74-76; 
delegate-at-large to tlie Democratic National Con- 
vention, 18S4, and a member of the World's Colum- 
bian Fair Commission. To fill an unexpired term 
he was appointed by the governor, as a Democrat, 
a United States senator from Georgia, 2 April, 1894, 
and then was elected to the same office by the 
Legislature, 3 March, 1895. 

Biographical Congressional Directory (Washington, 1903); 
Lamb, Biog. Did. of U. S. (Boston, 1903); Chronicle (Augusta, 
Ga.), Morning Star (New Orleans), contemporary files. 

Thomas F. Meehan. 

Webb, Benjamin Joseph, editor, historian, b. at 
Bardstown, Kentucky, 25 Feb., 1814; d. at Louisville, 
Kentucky, 2 Aug., 1897. His father, a convert, was 
one of the pioneers of Kentucky in 1774. Benjamin 
was educated at St. Joseph's College, Bardstown, 
which he left at an early age to learn the printer's 
trade. He was foreman of the office of the "Jour- 
nal", a newspaper in Louisville, when, in 1836, the 
Rev. Dr. Reynolds (later Bishop of Charleston, South 
Carolina), who had been one of his teachers at St. 
Joseph's, persuaded him to undertake the pubhca- 
tion at Bardstown of the "Catholic Advocate". 
This paper, with the assistance of Bishops Spalding, 

David, and Flaget, he successfully conduCi,ed; he re- 
moved its oiBce to Louisville in 1841, and in 1847 re- 
tired from its management. He continued, however, 
to defend CathoUc interests, notably in connexion 
with George D. Prentice, editor of the Louisville 
"Courier-Journal" in 1855, in a series of letters on the 
intolerance of Knownothingism, which had disgraced 
the city by the atrocities of "Bloody Monday". These 
letters were printed subsequently in book form with 
the title, "Letters of a Kentucky CathoUc". On 1 
May, 18.58, at the instance of Bishop Spalding and in 
connexion with other members of the Particular Coun- 
cil of the St. Vincent de Paul Society of LouisviUe, 
he issued the "Cathohc Guardian", which the 
Civil War troubles ended in July, 1862. He was also 
a contributor to the "CathoUc Advocate" on its re- 
vival in 1869. His long association with Catholic 
interests in Kentucky prompted him to compile 
"The Centenary of Catholicity in Kentucky" 
(Louisville, 1SS4), a volume invaluable in its records 
of the men and times of the pioneer era. He served 
as a member of the state senate from Louisville during 
the years 1867-75, and in 1868 wrote, at the request of 
the Legislature, "Memoirs of Gov. Lazarus W. Powell 
and Gov. John L. Hehu" (published by the State). 
During his life he was justly regarded as the foremost 
Catholic layman of Kentucky. 

History of the Ohio Falls Cities (Cleveland, 1S82); The Record 
and Catholic Advocate (Louisville), contemporary files. 

Thomas F. Meeh.^n. 


Directions for the Use of the Index 

There is no need of special directions for the use of the Index of The Catholic 
Encyclopedia. The running foothne is a sufficient key to it. 
The references it contains are: 

1. subjects of articles; 

2. leading points or divisions of subjects occurring in the articles themselves; 

3. references to these subjects occurring in other articles; 

4. subjects on which there are no special articles. 

In addition, the title of every article contained in the work has been entered 
under various classified headings, such as Art, Literature, Science, Education, 
Music, Philosophy, Theology, History, Sociology, etc. 

Only those subjects have been entered in the Index concerning which specific 
information is given at the place indicated; The Encyclopedia contains countless 
allusions and references which on this principle have not been given a place in 
the Index. Mere dictionary definitions have not been entered, nor have foreign 
words unless they have at least a technical currency in English. 

All the references have been arranged in alphabetical order according to the 
system followed in the work itself, that is, the letters of every title are treated as 
constituting a unit or single word. In inverted titles the second part of the name, 
usually a Christian name, influences the alphabetization only when a name or sur- 
name occurs more than once. Names consisting of several words, where no inversion 
occurs, are treated as one word. Where there are numerous references to persons 
bearing the same given name the arrangement is as follows: 

1. Saints or Blessed not otherwise classified; 

2. Popes in their chronological order; 

3. civil rulers according to the name of kingdom or principality; 

4. persons whom it is impossible to class according to place; 

5. bishops, abbots, etc. according to the names of their sees or monasteries. 
Saints, beatified persons, popes and civil rulers are entered under their given 

names. Wliere several forms of the same name occur, all the references are grouped 
under one spelling to which the other forms are duly cross-referenced. 

As a general rule the English spelling of Christian names has been adopted, unless 
there is an article under another spelling, in which case the article is followed. In 
Biblical references the spelling of the Douay version has been used, but all other 
approved spellings are given in their proper alphabetical place and cross-referenced 
to the Douay form. 




I A., abbr. I-27b 

U. See Ea 

^CHEN I-la; Benedictine as- 
sembly (817) IV-73b: X-747C; 
candlestick III-249a 

—cathedral I-2a; (ill.) I-facing 2; 
interior (ill.) I-2b; Charle- 
magne, tomb of Ill^USa; Kin- 
hard rebuilds V-367a: lectern 
IX-llOb; metal-work X-223a: 
mosaics X-oS7a; pulpit XII- 

—Charles V, coronation VI- 
500b; collegiate church IV- 

—conarcsses: (1748) VIII-612a; 
(1818) I-ld; XI-il7a; X-246a; 
(1862) IV-242d 

-Councils I-2d; (789) I-2d; on 
canons III-252d: 289b; on 
cathedrals III-43Sb; on clergy, 
education of III-3.Wb; (799) 
I-2d; IXHI73a; (802) Collec- 
tio Dionvsio-Hadriana IV- 
392a; (803) church music III- 
618d; (802-803) Saxons, Law of 
the IX-208C; (809) Filioque 
VI-74c; VII-413a; holidays 
III-163a; (816) I-2d; Bene- 
dict of .\niane II— 467b; on 
canons III-2o2d; chapter house 
III-o84c; Chrodegang, Rule of 
•St., approved III— 185c; cu- 
culla IV-419d; invitatorium 
regulated VIII-89c; (817) I- 
2d; on abductions I-33b; 
Canons Regular, constitutions 
II-81a; collation IX-154a; on 
education VIII-56b; hospitals 
VII-J82C; (818) I-2d; (819) 
I-2d; (835) on Bede II-385a; 
(836) I-3a; XVI-2.5a; St. Ald- 
ric I-281a: on extreme unction 
V-723c; hospitals VII-482C; 
(860) I-3a; Lothair II. divorce 
of VII-88a; (862) Lothair II, 
divorce of vn-88a; XI-54c 

-Cross of Victory IV-525c; 
Crown of Thorns, relics IV- 

-Diet of (802) IX-61C; Chrode- 
gang, Rule of St., III-310b; 
(817) and Lateran synod (lO.W) 
XI-55d; (818) blasphemy, law 
against II-59.5d 

—Dispersion, feast V-46c; Fred- 
erick I, coronation VI-252d; 
Frederick II, coronation \'III- 
14d; Gondulphus, legend VI- 
fi33d; Holy Nails X-r,72d; 
Henry l\ . enthronization X\'- 
410a; learning, centre of I- 
277a; Otto I, coronation XI- 
.354a; Otto IV, coronation 
VIII-14a: palace, Einhard 
builds V'367a; palace church, 
vestibule X\'-387d; pilgrimage 
XII-88a; Rathaus, frescoes 
(ill.) Ill-facing 612; relics, in- 
ventory X I I-738a ; royal school, 
Alcuin IV^8a 

—Treaty of (1668) I-lc; Clement 
IX IV-28C; (1748) I-lc; IX- 
664a; X-76.3b; XI-1.36b: XV- 
1.58d; Indian peace XIII-384d; 
terms XI-50.5d; (1818) VII- 

lage. Bishop of Roskilde XVI- 


Aageson, Svend, chronicler I\'- 

Aahmes, pharao XII-41c 

Aal, Norway, church door XV- 

Aalberse, P. J., editor XI-6Slb 

Aalborg, Lutheran diocese IV- 
723c; Catholic population IV- 

Aalu, fields of V-529c 

Aar, river, bridges H-508a; XII- 

Aar, periodical XI-679d; pub- 
lishers XII-583d 

Aargau, Switzerland, and Berne 
II-SOSc; Capuchins III-324a; 
ecclesiastical organization II- 
340b; monastic houses sup- 
pressed II-351d; periodicals 

AARHTJS, ancient see of XVI- 
la; IV-724C; 70c; 79a; cathe- 
dral IV-731d; Catholic popu- 
lation IV- 7 23d; Dominican 
foundation XVI-lb; mission 
founded IV-725d; Lutheran 
diocese IV-723C- 

Aaron, Saint IX-503d; XII- 
772a; XV-5S5a 

— Saint, cenobite XVI-29d 

— Blessed, Bishop of Au.xerre 

— Bishop of Cracow I V-464c 

— Bishop of Waitzen XV-525b 

AARON, high priest I-3a; X- 
596b; XII-407d; Asses, feast 
of I-799a; Christ typified I-5d; 
consecration of XII-413a; high 
priesthood I-5b; death VI- 
440c; Golden Calf VI-62SC; 
VII-637c; imposition of hands 
VII-698b; as judge II-55Jd; 
plagues of Egypt XII-143b; as 
prophet XII-477b; at Raphi- 
dim I-378a; rationale XII- 
651d; rod of I-721d; I-724c; 
XlV-oOlb; sacrifice of XIII- 
314a; tomb I-4d; Strazza's 
statue (ill.) XII-411d; in Tanis 

— family of, priesthood I-5b 
XII^OGb; 411c 

— ben Elias, exegete III-329c 
IV- 1.59a 

— ben Joseph, exegete III-329c 
IV- 159a; V-702C 

Aataentsic. ,Sc« Eataentsic. 

'Aa'tam CAa'tam-akimfiU), In- 
diana. .SV« Pima Indians 

Ab., A.B., abbr. I-23b 

A.B.A., abbr. I-27b 

Aba, Magyar king XV-417b 

—Areka, rabbi XIV-43Sb 

Abaah, ford, .Ionian VIII-.501b 

Abachilda, and St. Lebwin IX- 

Abachum, Saint IX-671b 

Abaco and Cays, island, popula- 
tion (1901) II-204C 

ABADDON I-.5d; in Apocalypse 
I-,W0c; and Asmodeus I-792d; 
Coptic MS. XVI-29d 

Abadia, Juan de la, and St. 

Peter Arbues XIII-649b 
Abadie, Paul, architect XI-4S8d; 

Abad 7 Quiepo, Manuel, Bishop- 
elect of MichoacAn XVI-15b; 

Abffi, oracle of XI-205d 

Abaga, khan X-481d; John XXI, 
embassy to VIII-430d; mis- 
sionaries, request for XI-57a 

— tribe X-480a 

Abaganur, tribe X-480a 

AbaUard. See ,\belard. 

Abaka, khan. See Abaga 

Abakivis. See Abenakis 

Abamya, writer XIV-409b 

Abana CAin Fije), river, Pales- 
tine VI-431b; IX-104d; XIV- 

Abancay, battle (l.-)37i I-327a 
Abandoned Children, Society for, 

Pans XI -492c 
Abandoned Lands, U. S. Bureau 

of X\ -173d 
Abani Indians. .See Avane 
Abantus, admiral IV-296d 
Ab Apostolici, encyclical of Leo 

XIII IX-786d 
'Abaqir. See Abbas Cjtus 
Abarbanel. See Abrabanel 
Abarca, Pedro I-6a 
— -Sancho. .See Sancho Garcia I, 

King of Navarre 
Abarim, mountains I-6b; VI- 

Abaritte (Pindemonte) XII- 

Abarner, Thomas de. Bishop of 

Sultanyeh X-482a 
Abaron, Eleazar. .See Eleazar. 

son of Mathathias 
Aba Samu, King of Hungary 

Abascal, Jose Fernando, Viceroy 

of I'.TU XI-7.i4b 
Abascia. See Abyssinia 
Abati, Bella IV r,2Sa 
—Durante di Scolaio IV-628a 
— Ventura degli. Bishop of Berti- 



Abavila, John de, cardinal XII- 

ABBA I-6b 
— See of. See Obba 
Abbacomites I-17c 
Abbacy. .See .\bbot 
Abbadia, observatory I-6d 
— Arnauld-Michel d' I-6d; (ill.) 

— de St. -Germain, director-gen- 

er;d lX-:!N0b 
Abba D'rabbutha IX-591d 
Abban, in Aria Thoma; XIV- 

SAINT I-C.d; nephew of St. Vll-nisb 
Abbanstown. .See ,\damstown 

Abbas, Persian poet XI-720a 
Abbas I, shah XI-71Sb; Armenia, 

invasion of XI-722b; mission- 
aries VIII-192d; della Valle, 

reception of XV-260C 
— n, shah, Charles II, appeal of 

— (Abbot) I-l.-)d 
Abba Salama. .See Abuna 
Abbas Castrensis I-17c 
— Cyrus ad Elephantum, Rome 


— Cyrus de Militiis, Rome IV- 

— Cyrus de Valeriis, Rome IV- 

Abbasid caliphs. See Abbas- 

Abbas laicus. .See Lay Abbot. 

— Marianus I-180a 

— miles. .See Lay Abbot. 

— modernus. See Nicold de' 

— Palatinus I-17c 

— Panormitanus (recentior; Sicu- 
lus). See Nicolo de' Tudeschi 

Abbassides, caliphs XI-718a; 
capital II-202b; and Christian- 
ity I-780C; Jews under I-779d; 
and learning I-67.5a; and Om- 
mavyads XV-S8d; Palmyra 

Abbas the Great. .See .^bbas I 

Abbatocomes. .See Lav Abbot 

Abbaton. .See Abaddon 

Abbaye-aux-Dames, Caen XI- 
lo.jc: (ill.) Vl-OiJSb; vault VI- 

Abbaye-aux-Hommes, Caen XI- 
105c; vault VI-669b 

ABBE I-7a 

Abbe commendataire (Delfau) 
n'-ti97d; Gerberon, share of 

Abbelen, P. M. XI-I31C 

Abbeloos, nuirlvr III-071C; IX- 


ABBESS I 7b; XI-lB,5d; age I- 
207d; arms VII-247d; author- 
ity I-8c; Benedictine (ill.) II- 
455a; benediction I-8b; IX- 
292a; Brigittine H-786a; of 
canonesses III-255C; Eastern 
Church X-470C; confession to 
I-9b; at councils I-8d; IV- 
424c; election I-7d; eligibility 
I-8a; Fontevrault VI-129d; 
Greek term I-375c; illegiti- 
mates II-580c; jurisdiction 
XV-697C; monasteries, double 

— Protestant I-9d; in Germany 

—secular (in Austria) I-lOb; 
Spanish, prculiaritv II-45.ic; 
veil XV-:i2ld: and vows I-Sc 

Abbet, Julius Mauritius, Bishop 
of Sion 

Abbeville, Alabama, school I- 

— monastery. France, VI-556a; 
architecture VI-679b; Wul- 
fram, St.. relics of XV-716b 

— Gerard d', and the Sorbonne 

— Juan de, and Palencia Univer- 
sitv XI-41.Sc 

ABBEY I-lOd: I-16d; or abthain 
I-74d: architecture I-13d: 
Bcnedirtine I-12a; Carthusian 
I-12d; cellarer I-14C; chamber- 
Iain I-14d; chapter house I- 
13b; Cistercian I-!2c; cloister 
I-12c; in commendam IV- 
15.5d; dormitory I-1.3b; double 
I-Uc; Eastern I-lld; emptor 
I-14c; greater, in England I- 
15a; hospitality I-13a; I-14d; 
infirmarian I-14c: infirmary I- 
13d; kitchener I-14c; Lateran 

;,arge type indicates titles of articles; other tyjics, topics treated; (ill.) = illustrations. 

a, b, c, d, quarter of page. 


Kotnan Dumeral indicates volume; arabic, page; 


Council, decrees of IX-165b; 
locutorium I-12c; raensa X- 
194a: refectory I-13b; routine 
I-I4b; Western Monasticism 
I-12a; xenadochia I-13a 

Abbeyleix, Abbey of VIII-638C; 

Abbey Theatre, Dublin VIII- 

Abbiategrasso, facade, II-736C 

Abbo, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre 


—Bishop of iMetz X-248a 

— goldsmith, and St. Eligius V- 

386a. .See also ,\bbon, Saint 
— CERNUUS I-lob; Paris, siege 

of XI-4>s2b 
Abboltonan, Elia, patriarch XI- 

ABBON. SAINT I-loc; and .A.dso 

I-lGlc; as canonist IX-62b; 

Capitula III-286b; death II- 

683d; and Fulbert of Char- 

tres VI-313a; on Te Deum 

Abbo of Fleury. 5eeAbbon, Saint 
— Parisiensis. See Abbo Cer- 

ABBOT I-15d; XII-417c; abso- 
lution from censures III-531d; 
or abthain I-74d: and advo- 
cates I-16Sd; age I-207d; 
authorit.v of I-18c; altar-stone, 
consecration IV-280b 

— Benedictine II-438a; I-16b; 
I-17a; II-439a; 472b; ad- 
dress, form of I-139b; (ill.) 

—benediction of \-lSb; litany of 
the Saints IX-292a 

—Celtic I-507d; censures I-18d; 
chalices, consecration of III- 

— commendatory. See Commen- 
datory -Abbot 

— at councils I-19d 

—crosier (ill.) IV-516b; in her- 
aldry (ill.) VII-246 

—dalmatic, use of IV-608c; devo- 
lution, right of IV-768b; 
dimissorial letters IV-797c; 
distribution of I-20b; election 
of I-17d; feasts of, in Ambro- 
sian Rite I-399a; general I- 
17a; 695b; gloves, episcopal 
VI-589C; in Greek Church 
VI-741d; illegitimates II-5S0c; 
indulgences VII-784b; investi- 
ture VIII-84C; irregularity II- 
564a; kinds I-16c; lamaist 
XIV-718d; Lateran Council, 
regulations IX-17a 

— lay. See Lav Abbot 

—manumission, right of XIV- 
38c; Mass, application of 
X-23b; minor orders, minister 
of I-19b; X-333c; mitre, her- 
aldic use of VII-245d; 246a 

— mitred X-405a; form of ad- 
dress I-139d; crosiers, use of 
IV-515b; crosier, veiling of 
IV-515d; as judge IV-67Sa; 
and plenary council XII-lGSc; 
tonsure, bestowal of XIV- 
779a: at Vatican Council IV- 

— 1,1.1, ,;,.i. rii-, ,1m,i1,1(. X-452d 
1,.., I ..iiTii X-468d 

17 11, I li;d; I'.lb; 19c 

I„i ,',, 1 1 ' i< .-- \ I -tin la: plenary 
cotiniil Xll-l">.^)C: pontificalia, 
use of I-19c: .\II-232a; 233a; 
president I-17a; and prior, 
claustral XII-427d; prior, con- 
ventual, Xn-428a; at provin- 
cial councils XII-515d: regular 
I-16c; rights and privileges 
I-19a; ring Xni-60b 

— secular. See Lay .\bbot 

— staff l-19d; subsidy, charitable 
XIV-322C: Sylvestrine XIV- 
373a; throne XIV-709c 

— titular I-17b; episcopal in- 
signia, bestowal of VI-4fi.5a 

— Trappist I-17b: as vassal XIV- 
512d; at Vatican Council IV- 

• — ^in commendam. See Com- 
miriiiiitury Abbot 

— primate I 17a; Benedictine 
11 4.-,3b: 

—Austin, death V-478a 

■ — George, .\rchhishop of Canter- 
bury, and lie Dominis V-113d; 
Parker, action regarding I- 


—Henry I-21a: VIII-670c 

— John, martyred I-468d 

— Robert, Bishop of Salisbury, 
and William Bishop III-450a" 

Abbotesbury, confraternity XII- 

Abbots Leigh, Devonshire, 
Thomas More, relics XIV- 

Abbott, Thomas Kingsmill, an- 
gels, invocation of IV-132b 

Abbreviatio of Pecock XI-600b: 

Abbreviationes chronicorum, of 
iJiceto IV-77Sb: of Higden 


—METHODS OF I-21a; Apos- 
tolic rescripts I-22d; Carlovin- 
gian reform XI-407d; Cata- 
comb inscriptions I-26b: Goth- 
ic script XI— 408b; Greek script, 
medieval XI-405a; in Greek 
uncials XI-404a; .Justinian I- 
2Sc; Leo XIII I-29c: in MSS. 
X 1-4080 

preparation of III-57c: consti- 
tutions of, present I-29c; in- 
stitution I-28d; Knights of 
the Golden Cross, creation of 
IV-668a; of the Lower Bar I- 
29a: Pius II XII-1.58C: as pre- 
lates I-29a: regulations I-29a; 
titles I-29c: 30a; of the Up- 
per Bar I-29a; writing I- 

A. B. C, periodical, Spain XI- 
690d; XIV-188C 

ABC. See Alphabet 

ABCturium, Ambrosian Rite I- 

Abdallab, father of Mohammed 

— ben-Abdallasis, Zamora, siege 
of XV-74Sb 

— ibn Thamir. See Harith (prince) 

'Abd-al-Malik. See .\bd-el-.\Ie- 

Abdalong, Saint, Bishop of Mar- 
sii'illes lX-71()b 

Abd-Alwasi Jabali, Persian wri- 
ter XI-720b 

Abdas of Susa, martyr XI-716a 

Abdeel, tribe I-664d 

Abdelaziz, emir XIV-178c; at 
Orense XI-295C 

Abd-el-Kader, Algerian leader 

— el-MeIek, caliph, and Chris- 
tians IV-612b: and St. John 
Damascene VIII-459C; mosque, 
Jerusalem VIII-360d; X-5S8b; 
and Sebastian of Portugal 

— el-Messiah, Jacobite Patriarch 
of Alexandria I-302a 

— el-Rezzac, historian VI-349c: 

Abdenago, titles I-30a; -Azarias 

ABDERA I-30a; founded XIV- 
r<l3b: ruins XII-223d: 

Abd-er-Rahman I, caliph III- 
OlSb: XIV-178d; C6rdova, 
mosfiue IV-359b; at Zamora 

—II, caliph XIV-178d 

—in, caliph VI-723C; XIV-179a; 
Jews, treatment by VIII-392d; 
Le6n, war with III-411a; .Se- 
govia subject to Xlll-eS.'ia 

— el Gafequi, emir XIV-I78C; 
and Charles Martel XlI-lSOc 

Abderraman. .See Abd-er-Rah- 

Abd-er-Rhamman. See Abd-er- 

— Hiba, King of Jerusalem II- 

ABDLAS, prophet I-30a; III- 
270d: Arabia, theory I-665c; 
and Elias V-381c; in Sarepta 
.Xni-476d; tomb XHI-4I6d 

— of Babylon I-30d; apocryphal 
Ac-tM I-lilOd 

ABDICATION I-31a; papal I- 

Abdinghof, monastery XI-3S4a; 
founder X-148b; Gobelinus 
VI-(i07d; relics X-148c; sup- 
pression XV-604C 

Abdisho, Chaldean patriarch III- 
559d: Intlia, mission III- 


— bar Bahriz, writings XIV- 

— bar Brika, writings XIV-413b 

Abd-Kelal, martyr 1-67 la 

— Melkarth, King of Tyre XII- 

Abdo, Saint. See .Abdon 
Abdon, town, Palestine I-775a; 

ABDON, SAINT I-32a; tomb 

III-512d; relics XI-700d 
Abd-Starte I, King of Tvre XII- 

ABDUCTION I-32b; Chalcedon 
III-558b: Constantine, legis- 
lation IV-300a: dispensations 
I-35a: as impediment VII- 
696b; 697b; locality, change of 
I-34a: motive I~34c; penalties 
I-34d; V-691a: sin IX-438c; 
violence I-34b 
Abdul-Aziz, sultan XV-98c 
— Hamid II, sultan XV-98c; ab- 
dication XV-99a; and Leo 
Abdullah, caliph, census XIV- 
403d; defeated XI-148b; insur- 
rection XIV-325b 
Abdul Maiek (Abdulmeiek). See 

— Medjid, sultan XV-98C 
— Muttalibibn Hashim, and Ab- 


Abdus. ,S,r All. Ion. 

ABECEDARIA I-3.5b; I-93a 

Abecedarian poems, in Bible I- 


Abecedarium (St. .\ugustine) V- 

A Becket, Thomas. See Thomas 
Becket, Saint 

Abed Jesu, Chaldaean patriarch 

Abednego. .See Abdenago 

Abeel, David, mission III-679b 

Abeele, Peter van, medallist 

Abeillard. .See .\belard 

ABEL, son of Adam I-35d; altar 
I-360a; Apostolic Constitu- 
tions I-571d: in Archontic 
teaching I-697a 

— in art: m catacombs III-»25d; 
Dupr6 XVI-36d; work of 
Titian XIV-744a 

— and Cain III-142c: in Canon 
III-264b: Christ typified I- 
36b; in Genesis I-130c; in 
Gnostic system VI-598a; in 
Huron mythology VII-572b; 
in liturgy I-54d: IX-309b; 
amongst martyrs I-36c: in 
Nasora!anism X-707a: sacri- 
fice I-36a; XIII-312d; 318a 

Abel (Arne) I-746b 

ABEL (Bib. geog.) I-36d; VI- 
433a. See also .ibelsatim 

— Duke of Schleswig XIII-543a 

— Karl von. Bavarian minister, 
and Dollinger V-9Sa: 97a; 
downfall IX-lOb 

— Laurent, Bishop of Sidon XI- 

— (Abell), Thomas, Blessed. See 
Thomas .\bel. Blessed 

Abela and Maacha. See Abel- 

Abel-Beth-Maacha I-36d 

ABELARD, PETER I-36d; on I-li:3a; Alexander of 
Hales I-29sa: appropriation, 
theory of I-659b: and Arnold 
of Brescia 1-74 7d: on Atone- 
ment II-57b; 5Sa: Berenger 
defends II-489a; and St. Ber- 
nard II-SOOc: and Cclestine II 
III-478C; condemnation I-38a; 
III-520C; on conscience IV- 
270d: epithet V-74d; Gerhoh of 
Rcichersberg VI-^72c; Gilbert 
dc la Porr«e VI-555a; as hym- 
nologist VII-603b; immanence 
VII-683a; John of Cornwall 
VIII-470c; Limbo IX-257b; 
logic IX-326d; Neo-Adop- 
tionism I~151a; at Paris 
schools XI-49.5b; Peter Lom- 
bard XI-768d; Peter of Mont- 
boissier X-526a: as philoso- 
Dher XIII-.'i49d; 550a: .5,50c; 
Pullen XII-,563b; Rationalism 
XIII-548d; sacraments XIII- 
300b; as Scholastic XII-32a; 
Sens, Council of XIII-72Qb: 
and summa* Vn-522a: as 
theologian XII-3Sb; and St. 
Thoma.s Aquinas XIV-672a; 

Trinitarian teaching XV-52d: 
universals XI-92c; Walter of 
Mortagne XV-544b; Walter of 
St. Victor XV-544C 

Abeldomus and Maacha (Abel- 
domus Maacha). See .\bel- 
Beth .Maar-lia 

Abele (AiH.ri) i-30Sd 

Abelians lAbebtes), sect I-36a 

Abel-Keramim I-36d; X-678a 

Abell, fainilv, .Maryland II-229b; 

—Robert A., in Louisville IX- 
3S8a: in Tennessee X-705a 

— Thomas, Blessed. See Thom- 
as Abel 

Abella, physician XIII-398C 

595b: on St. Vincent de Paul 
X-358d: X-360a: Zaccaria 

Abel-Maim. See Abel - Beth 

Abelmechola. .See Abelmehula 

Abelmehula (Abelmeula) I-36d 

Abel-Mizraim I-;jOd; X-678b 

Abels, Conrad, Vicar Apostolic, 
Eastern Mongolia III-677b; 

Abelsatim (Abelshittim; Settim) 
I-30d: II-SSSc; VI-433a; 

ABENAKIS I-39b; ni-240d; X- 
380a: Auberv Il-66d: in Can- 
ada II l-229d; confederacy XI- 
644d; in Maine IX-546a 

— missions III-233d: V-164b; 
XII-287c; St. Francis mission 
XIII-348d; Point Pleasant 
chapel (ill.) I-39c: Rile I-312a; 
XII-635d; Society of Jesus 
XII-28Sa; Vetromile XI-645b 

Abenaquiois. See Abenakis 

Aben-Boen (Bib.) VI-433a 

Abencerrages, P^rez de Hita 

Abendlandische Schriftausleger 
bis Luther (Denifle) VI- 

Abenezer, name X-678b 

ABEN-EZRA I-39d; II-21d; IV- 
15Sd; V-702C; VII-272d: He- 
brew poetry XII-175b: on Job 
II-30c: on Pentateuch XI- 
652c: 655d: on Torah XIV- 
780c: work V-702C 

Abenner, king, legend II-297a 

Abensberg, Conrad I von, .Arch- 
bishop of Salzburg III-lS6d; 
VI-472b; XIII-412b; and Hen- 
ry V VIII-607d 

Abeokuta, hospital II— 480c 

Abeona, deity I-684d 

Abercius, Bishop of Hieropolis 
I-40a; VII-322C; 340b 

XII-2B3d; in Lateran Museum 
IX-14b; (ill.) Vlll-facing 44; 
symbolism XIV-374C 

— Marcellus I-41a: identity VII- 

Abercrombie, James, general, at 
Tironilcrufa XV-l,59c 


—Sir Ralph in-297c; Trinidad 

—Robert I-41b: XIII-620a 

Abercrossan, Scotland, founder 



Aberdeen, town. Scotland, Irish 
popiiliitioM Vlll-l,-i4b 

41d: Xlll-i;i.->c. Hreviarv II- 
777b; Ulairs College XIII- 
622a; cathedral, Barbour be- 
quest to II-2.S8a; built I-4Id; 
map Xlll-facing 620; semina- 
ries XIII-700b; shrine XIII- 
761b: university I-42b 

— Lady, suffragist XV-693b 

Aberdour, Scotland, patron IV- 

Abergavenny, monastery IX- 


Abernethy. Culdc.s ,it IV-564c: 
monastic church .\1II 631d 

— John, surgeon X-M2b 

Abert, Frederick Philip von, 
Archbishop of Bamberg II- 
24 .-.b 

Abes (Bib.) VI-433b 

Abesan (Ibzan), Israelite Judge 

Abez. Sec Abes 

Large t^'pc indicates titles of articles; other types, topics treated; (ill.) =^ illustrations. 


^bfalter, Melchtor, and the 
Kirchcnlexikon Vni-6Ud 

kb-Galuga, Samaritan poet 

136c; i;09d; 610a: V-88b 

Lbgar IX, King of Edessa and 
Bardcsanes II-293b; legend I- 
iJlOb: and Lucius V-379b 

Lbgarun, and Bardeaanes II- 

_ 293c 

Abb, month III-167C 

Lbhan, Saint, See Abban of 


ibhibb, month III-167c: XI- 

19d. See Nisan 
Lbhidbamma-pitaka III-29b 
ibi, and Ezechias V-737a 
ibia X-077c: Christ's genealogy 

ibiam, King of Juda VIII-19Sb; 

I'tsc: ti,i4b: 656a: 657a; chro- 

iKilijiv III-734C 
lBIATHAR I-43d; and Adonias 

I-U6c: at Anathoth I-457a; 

Ark I-72:!d: and Chusai III- 

766a: father VIII-500a; SoIch 

mon XII~JOSa 
.bib, month. See 'Abhtbh 
.bi~Baal, father of Hiram of 

Tyr.- Xll-tlc 
.bibus. Bishop of Doliche V- 

.bida, Gnostic II-294a 
-son of Madian IX-5Ua 
.bienus, father of Pope Severinus 

.bigail, wife of David III-lo7d; 

wif.-of Nabal IV-64.3a 
.bihail, father of Esther V- 


■ Abii 


BILA I-43d; VI-433b: XIV- 
:i'.<:tc; tetrarchy IX-427a 

.bilgaard, Sbrea, painter IV- 

.bilene, district, Syria VI-432d 

-town. Coele-SjTia XIV-400a 

-See nlso Abila 

bilius, Bishop of Alexandria V- 
3.'. Id 

bimelech, son of Gedeon XIII- 

-King of Gerara VI-400a: Abra- 
ham" I-olc: II-518C; Isaac 
VIII-175C; and Sara XIII- 

-S^, r,h,> Achimelech 

bina. Tiilmud XIV-43Sb 

binadab, ann ol Saul VIII-500a 

-of Cariathiarim, Ark I-723b: 
XII 21d 

bingdon, town, Lollard uprising 

-ABBEY OF I-4.3d; Clovesho 
l\"-tisc: educational influence 
lI-4.->7a; library IX-230c: 
shrine XIII-760b 

-Eleonora, Countess of, Dry- 

clrn « .■InCV V-lt>9b 

bington, Edward I— 14a 
-THOMAS I-44a 

em lAbinoam), father of 




BIOGENESIS II-571a; Haeckel 

BIPONES I-44b: Dobrizho£ter 


birara. See Abiron 
bi-ramu. See Abraham 
biron I-4b: IV-361a; X-597b; 

name X-677a 

bisag, the Sunaraiteas I-147a 
BISAI I-t4c; and Absalom I- 

bisha CAbisai), great-grandson 

of Aaron XllUlSb pod XIII-419C 
bishua. King of Babylonia II- 

bitene, martjTs of V-121d 
biu, son of Aaron I-4a; V-373c: 


bivate', general III-474C 
B JURATION I-»4c: de formali 

I-45C: de levi I— 1,5c: de vehe- 

menti I -4.5c 
-Oath of, under Commonwealth 

XI I7',ia: Jesuit attitude XIV- 

Jlution, in baptism II-26Id: in 
l.inaiing II-.569b: and Ritual- 
ists Xni-91c: in Ruthenian 

Rite XIII-278a: in Sarum Use 
XIII-480C: water used in XV- 
564c: wine, non-use of I-66d 

Abnakis. See Abenakis 

ABNER I-45d: and David IV- 

. 643a: in Hebron VII-lS4d 

Abo, See of VI-76d: XV-207d 

'Aboda Zara, Talmudic treatise 

Aboin, Saxon king, baptized II- 

Abolmondar el Blanco, Count of 
Ca.Milo. execution III-411b 

TION I-4iia 

Abondio, Antonio, medallist X— 

Abonouteichos flonopolis) VIII- 
93b: oracle XI-2fi6b 

Aborigini, .Xea-leniy of I-S4b 

Abortifacients \'III-2b 

ABORTION I-46d: accidental I- 
47a: ancient I— 48b: Aristotle 
VI-159b: causes I-49c: Chris- 
tian view II-43a; condemned 
1-4 7c: criminal I-47c: and il- 
legitimacy VII-651b: inten- 
tional I-47b; irregularity VIII- 
171c: and irremovability VIII- 
174b: obstetrical I-47c: I-48d: 
among pagans XIV-521b: pen- 
alty I-48c: V-«90b 

49c: VIII-2a 

'Aboth, Talmudic treatise XIV- 

Abou. See Abu Elephantine 

Aboukir (Canopus) III-297b: 
battle (179S) III-297b; (1799) 
III-297c: X-089a: (1801) III- 

Abouna (Abouna Salama). See 

Abp., abhr. I-23b 

Abra, Saint Xll-lSOd 

IV-159a: V-702c: Pentateuch, 
authorship of XI-652c: minis- 
tcT of finance VIII-395d; work 

— Samuel, minister Vin-396a 

ABRA DE RACONIS I-,50b: and 
St. Vincent de Paul XV-437a 

Abraba, King of Himyar. See 

Abraham, name X-676b 

—Plains of, battle (1759) XV- 

— Saint, Bishop of Flaviopolis 

ABRAHAM, patriarch I-51a: and 
Abimelech VIII-7]c: adoration 
I-152b; altars I-3(i0a: Am.alri- 
eian teaching I-379d: angels, 
visit of I-479d: Apocalypse 
of I-604C: Arab tradition I- 

— in art: Ambrosian Basilica I- 
.389c; Corneille IV-374b; van 
Diepenbeeck IV-786b; Fari- 
nato V-788b; Gaddi I-762d: 
Ghiberti (ill.) VIII-175; St. 
Mary Major's XI-396b: Ra- 
phael XII-645C; Del Sarto, 
work of XIII-479b; Ravenna 

— astronomy ascribed to II- 
21c; Babylonia II-180b; at 
Bersabee il-518c: burial place 
VII-184b: IX-.503a; Byzan- 
tine drama III-123d; in Cha- 
naan VIII-19.3d; Christ's gen- 
ealogy VI-410b; 410d; chro- 
nology III-73.3a: circumcision 
XIII-296a; criticism, higher 
I-52b; descent from I-52d: 
Druze theology V-167a; era of 
III-740b; feast, Carmelite Rite 
XIII-73d: history, profane I- 
.5.3b: Isaac VIII-17.5b; Ismael 
VIII-192a: and kings I-441b: 
language VII-178c: legend I- 
.54 a 

— in iiturgy: I-.54d: Apostolic 
Constitutions I-571b: brevian' 
l-5.5a; canon III-264b: mar- 
tyrology I -55a: missal I-55b; 
pontifical I-55c: ritual I-55a 

—Lot IX-366a: Madian IX- 
51.3d: Melchisedech X-156d: 
Messianic promise X-212d; 
modern theory I-655a: Mo- 
hammedan teaching X-426b: 
mosque of, at Orfa V-283b: 
Nemrod X-741c; N.-T. view 
I-.52c: Philo Judeeus XII-2.3c: 

as prophet XH-477d: sacrifice 

III-191d; 192a: XIII-312b: 

sanctuary of VII-lS5a: ,Sara 

XIII-16Sa; tithes XIV-741b; 

as type II-546C 
—BOSOM OF I-5.5d; IX-9Bb 
Abraham by Hroswitha VII- 

— archimandrite V-63Id 
— I, Armenian primate, excom- 
municated V-234d 
— Bishop of Freising X-631b; 

—Bishop of Ispahan (497) VIII- 

192c: (554) VIII-192C 
—Bishop of Malabar ni-561b; 

XIV-683d: 6S4b 
— Archbishop of Ochrida VI— 

—Bishop of Ostracine XI-347b 
— Bishop of Przemysl XII-533b 
— Bishop of .St. Asaph XIII-333a 
— Bishop of Suzdal X-594C 
— William, Bishop of Waterford 

X-16Sa: XV-566C 
— al-Qabasi, .Samaritan poet 

XIII-419C; Abraham and Isaac 


I-56b: as preacher II-126d; 

VI-104d: as satirist VI-522d; 

portrait I-56c 
— bar Daschandad, writings 

— bar Kardahe, writings XIV- 


244c: and Selden V-<;39c 
— Ibn Ezra. See Aben-Ezra 
Abrahamites, Bohemian Deists 

— Byzantine martyrs I-o7d 
— S.\Tian heretics l-57d 
Abrahamius, Saint, Bishop of 

Carrha> ni-378d 
Abraham of Antioch I-57d 
— of Beit Rabban, writings XIV- 


— of Hakel, Maronite scholar 
IX-6S7d: and Bollandists II- 

— of Kashkar, reforms XI-717b; 
writing.') XIV-409d 

—of Smolensk, life XIII-268C 

— Ust|ue, Bible XV-371C 

Abram, name X-676b. See also 


Abramos, King of Himvar I- 
672b: at Mecca XIII-286a 

Abran (Bib.) VI-433b 

—Saint XII-729b 

Abrantes, Compostela comman- 
derv XIII-3.53C 

ABRASAX I-58a: Basilideaon II- 
328a: (ill.) I-58C 

Abrasaxtes I-58b 

Abravanel. See Abrabanel 

Abraxas. .See Abrasax 

Abraxoides I-5Sb 

Abreu, Casimiro de, poet XII- 

— Sebastiio de Xn'-S,Sa 

Abril, Pedro Simon de XIII- 

Abrincis, William de, and Folke- 
stone Abbey VI-125C 

Abrogation (of laws) IX-6.5a: and 
derogation IV-739b; and dis- 
pensation V-41a 

Abroja, convent of, Charles V at 

Abnizzi, Italy VIII-220b; capi- 
tal XIV-514C; emigration 
Vin-225b; n!ime XIV-514b 

Abs., abhr. I-23b 

ABSALOM, son of David I-58d; 
IV-643b: 64.ic; VIII-648C; 
Achitopel I-l(12c: Chusai III- 
76i;a; cle.nih 1 00a: VIII-406a; 
in llel.ron Nil 'l.S4d; Pillar of 
(ill.) \lII-.->03b: tomb of I- 
60b: VIlI-346a 

— father of Jonathan I-60b 

60b; IX-43.5a: geograiAy VI- 
44Sa: literature IV-7.iOb: at 
Roskilde XVI-71C: and Saxo 
Grammaticus VI-448a: XIII- 
497a: and William of Paris 

Absam, pilgrimage II-795c 

Absay. See Si 

Absberg, Heinrich IV von, Bishop 
of liatisbon X!I-6.5Sb 

Absidiale. See Apsidiolc 


Absinthe I-60b 
Absoluc, abhr. I-22d 
ABSOLUTE, THE I-fiOc; at- 
tributes II -64c: cause, first 
VI-610c: Chinese teaching 
III-667b: concept of I-218C; 
Cousin IV-212b: Hamilton I- 
217a; von Hartmann V-560a; 
Hegel III-465d; XI-448b; 
knowledge of I-217a: VI-60Sc; 
Monism VIII-5d: X-485b; 
.Schelling XI-448b: XV-18b; 
self - consciousness VII-6S4b; 
.Spencer I-217c: V-425d: Spin- 
ozistic teaching XIV-219a 

ABSOLUTION I-61b: of accom- 
plice V-687d: ad cautelam 
in-531b; ad reincidentiam 
Ill-531b; African Church I- 
196b: Cardinal Allen's work I- 
323b: Anglican Church I-66C; 
495b: XIII-300d; Apotactics 
I-6.5()a: of apparently dead 
IV-662c; approbation I-657a: 
Armenian Rite XIII-80a; in 
articulo mortis X-144b: Augs- 
burg Confession V-760d: Balti- 
more Council II-240a; Biel II- 
559c: biretta II-S77d; St. Cal- 
listus III-184c; 185c: at cata- 
falque III-427C; censure I- 
046b: III-531a: conditional I- 
6.5b; III-531b; conditions III- 
532a; by deacons IV-649d; of 
dead V-681c: declarative I- 
509b; deprecatory I-63c; I-64d 
from excommunication I-456c; 
V-6S4b; faculties, delegation of 
IV-697a: form I-64c: granting 
of I-65d; in Hebrew sacrifice 
XIII-314b; indicative I-64d: 
I-163c; indirect I-65d: and in- 
dulgences VII-786a: from in- 
terdict VIII-74a: keys, power 
of I-62d: kiss VIII-fi63d; 
Lent I-ri9a: Lollard teach- 
ing IX-334b: Medina X-144C: 
minister I-64a: Office, Di- 
vine VI -426c; Oriental 
Churches I-05a; Penance, Sac- 
rament of XIV-587a; XI- 
623a: penitent, disposition of 
I-65d; Prayer Book II-6Sla; 
XIII-654C; Protestant teach- 
ing XI-620b; Qucsnel XV- 
129a; requiem service III-74d; 
75a; 77c: 7.8a: IX-214c: reser- 
vation of VI-250b: XII-784a: 
785b; .Scotist teaching V-in7d: 
XIII-610d: .Symbolism XIV- 
375a: hv telecmph ..r tele- 
phone I-C-.d: T.rfnlhM, XIN'- 
524b; ■|i:..L;' t I, ,i, hihL- I e,;(d; 
for venial -;i. M\ 1 1 id , \ i, nna 
XV-41SC; \\i,,.m1 XV 5',)Ub 

-crosses IV .53.5b 

Absolutism, Civil, II-2b: and the 
Church VII-369a; Confucian 
system IV-227c: in France 
III-703b: and Liberalism IX- 
212b: and papal supremacy 
XI-J.54C: Plato on XII-lGld; 
and Reformation XII-70Ib: 

— in philosophy, and Monism X- 
48.5b: and relativism XII- 
732c: 733a; truth, theory of 

Absolve, Collect III-74b 

Absor. See Ossero 

Absorus. .See Arbe 

Absoute in-74d 


ABSTINENCE I-67b: XV-473d; 
.\dvent I I'.Oc: I-160b; Acriua 
of Pontus I-174C; age, canon- 
ical I-20.8b: I-209a: Alhigen- 
sians I-26Sb: from alcohol I- 
274b; Armenian Church I-72a; 
XIII-79b; Augustine. St., Rule 
of II-80a; Australia I-70b; 
Baltimore, petition ol n-24la; 
Buddhist I-72c: Brahman I- 
72c: Canada I-70b; and chas- 
tity III-638a: Colettines IV- 
99d: Copts I-72b; Congrega- 
tion of the Council XIII-141d 

— d<i«« of I-fi.8d; in Byzantine 
Rite IV-315d; Ember davs 1- 

— Eneratiles V-412d; Gnostic 
teaching VI-598a: Great Brit- 
ain and Ireland I-70a: Greek 
Church I-70b; and holy days 
XIV-34.3a; Holy Officc'XIII- 
1.38b; Jacobites I-71c; 71d; 
St. Jerome I-768a; Jewish I- 

Roman numeral indicates volume; arabic, page; a, b, c, d, quarter of page. 



68a; 768c; Lent r-69a; Mar- 
onitcs I-71d; IX-6S5b; Mo- 
naaticism. Eastern X-469d; 
Montanism X-521d; Neato- 
rians 1-7 Id; physicians, duties 
of X-143C; present legislation 
I-68a ; Pythagoreans XII-587c ; 
religious XH-742d; rogation 
days I-69d; Hussian Church 
I-71b; Saturday II-160a; spir- 
itual results I-73b; Strasburg 
dispensation I- 344a; Syrian 
Church I-71c; and Temperance 
XIV-481C; Testament, New I- 
68a; Testament, Old I-67c; 
United States I-69d; vigils I- 
69c. See also Fast 


— Total. See Total Abstinence 

— Society for Priests XIV-485d 

Abstract, Arabian phiIo.sophy I- 
676a: metaphysics, object of 

—Ideas I-74C 

ABSTRACTION I-74b; and acci- 
dents I-97a; in analysis I-4ola: 
Aristotle I-715a; Realism XI- 

AbtaJion, Jewish teacher VII- 

Abtei, Ilarione da, Prefect Apos- 
tolic of Bcltiah II-539a 


Abthane (Abthania). .See Abthain 

Abthanry I-75a 

Abthanus. See Abthain 

Abthany I-75a 

Abu Abbas, caliph IV-612b 

— Ali el-Hosein. See Avicenna 

— Ali Shatranji, writer XI-720b 

— Amoud XIV-o52b 

Abubacer, physicist XII-48d 

Abu-Bekr, ciiiph X-424b; 42ob; 
and Jews VIII-SDld 

— Bekr ibn el-Tofeil. .See Abu- 

— Bekr Muhammed. .See Rhazes 

op of Caria I-7.5a; Y-356b; 
IX-6S7a; on soul IV-47fia 

AbQ Daba, Wady (Seboim) VI- 

Abu Daut Soleiman, physician 

— Dshafer Ahmed, physician X- 

— Giafar al Mansur. See AI- 
Mansur abu Jaffar 

Abu-Habb§ (Sippara) Il-lSOa; 
VI-445b; expedition II-9b 

— Hafs, dynasty founded by 

Abu-Hammed, town XI-147C 

— Ishak ibn al-Bitrogi. See AI- 

— Jacub Jusuf, caliph II-lSOc 

— Ja'far, Harun. See Harun al 

Abu Jakub Ishak, Egyptian Jew- 
ish physician X-124d 

—Jusuf jacub, physician X-124C 

Abukara, Theodore. See Abu- 
cara, Theodore 

Abukhalima, liturgical book IX- 

— See also Elias III; Metropolitan 
of Nisibis 

Abula (Avila) II-160C 

Abutfaradj, Gregory. See Bar 

Abulfaradsch. Sec Bar Hebneus 

Abul-Faraj Harun, Caraite com- 
mentator IV-158d 

— Faraj Runi, Persian writer XI 

Abulfaraquis. .See Bar Hebrau 

Abulfaray. Sec Bar Hebrteus 

Abul Fath, chronicleof XIII-419d 

Abulfeda, historian I-G70d; VIII- 
(i94b; on Prcster John XII- 

Abul-Fida. See Abulfeda 

— Hasan, Samaritan poet XIII- 
4 1 9c 

AbuT Hassan Bar Bahlul, writ- 
iims XIV-112C 

Abul ibn Roshd. See Averroi-s 

— Kasim Chalaf, .surKeon X-I24d 

— Kasim Mansur. See Kirdausi 

Abulpharagius, Gregory. See Bar 

Abu MansOr Muwaffak, Persian 
writer XI-720a 

— Mashar. Sec Abumassar 

Abumassar, astrologer II-21d 

Abumombasi, town XV-115b 
Abuna V-282a; title I-77a; III- 

455a; V-233c; 570d; X-29d 
Abundantius, Bishop of Palencia 

— Bishop of Trajanapolis XV- 

—Bishop of Trent XV-36a 
Abundio. See Abundius 
ABUNDIUS, Bishop of Como I- 

76a; IV-183d; Te Deum, 

authorship XIV-469a 
— Mozarabic martyr IV-359C; 

Abu Noah of Aubar XIV-411b 
-Obed-el-Bekrii, writer XI-266C 
— Obediah IV-612b 
•Abuqir, Abbas Cyrus IV-597d 
Abu Sa'id, Pentateuch -XIII- 

— Said aJ-jannabi, loader of 

Karamita VIII-361a 
— Said Bahadur, Persian leader 

— Sa'id ibn Abu-1-Khair, Persian 

poet XI-72IJb 
— Salama (Abouna Salama). See 

— Salik, Persian poet XI-720a 
Abuse, Appeal from. See Appeal 
Abu Serai (Circesium) III-776d 
— Sharain (Eridu) n-179d 
— Simbel, colossus (ill.) V-340b; 

Rock of fill.) V-336a 
Abusir (Busiris) II1-S7C; papy- 
rus IX-620d 
Abu-Talib, and Mohammed X- 

AbHtig, Jacobite diocese V-355d 
Abutments, ot arch I-688a 
Abu-'Ubaidah, Moslem 

der VIII-360b 
— Zakerijja Jahja, phys 




-Zeid Honein. 

Abydos, EK\'pt, liturgy V-349a 

—Tables of"(ill.) V-facing 348b 

— .See also Abvdus 

ABYDUS I-7.5b 

Abyla. .See Ceuta 

Abyss I-75b: in Jewish theology 


— Church in: St. Athanasius II- 
38a; .\xum II-163a; Catholic 
population VI-176d; Charity, 
Sisters of III-606C; Christian- 
ity I-76b; constitution I-76d; 
Jesuits VI-450d: Lazarists X- 

—missions IV-441d; VII-9c; 
Capuchin IIl-32.5a; Edesius 
and Frumentius V-281d; Fer- 
nandez VI-44C; Franciscan 
VI-293C; Lazarist I-189d; X- 
364c; .364d; modern I-76c; 

— monasteries X^72a; Propa- 
ganda XII-45Tb; 4.57d; re- 
ligious statistics, tabulated 
XIV-280a; Swedish Protestant 

— Uniats I-76c; V-236d: VI- 
756a; Liturgj' I-306b; Propa- 
ganda XII^i>7b; Vicariate of 
I-76d: 77b. See also Abyssin- 
ian Church 

—ethnalogy: I-76a; XII-626C; 
X1II-709C; Semitic element 

— geography I-75b; and Arabia 
I-6(56d; Axum II-163a; cli- 
mate I-7.5d; and Ethiopia V- 
568b; Galla VI-348c; Jesuit 
mapVT-451a; Kaffa. Southern 
XVI-68d; Paradise XIV-520b: 
physical features 1-7 .'ic; and 
Prcater John's kingdom XII- 
402b; vicariate, map I-facing 

— history: and Arabia I-fi66a; II- 
163b; British expedition I- 
78a; Galla VI-348C; Himvarite 
kingdom 1-67 lb; 672a; Jews in 
I-ISdc; VIII-399C: Mohamme- 
dans in X-425d; name, deriva- 
tion ot I-186b; political revo- 
lutions I-77c; Polo, Marco 
XII-21.Sc; population V-233c 

Abyssinian Church I-78c: V- 
233c; in Africa, statistics I- 
190a; creed XV-l,3Sd; Euchar- 
istic host VII-49nb; icons VII- 
669c; Immaculate Conception, 
feast of VII-680d; levitate 

IX-694d: liturgical lessons IX- 
196b; marriage of clergy III- 
4S8b; Matthew, St., Acts of 
I-612d; Nativity of Mary, 
feast of X-713a: ordination 
decision I-495C ; ornaments 
(ill.) I-7Sd; Pilate, feast of 
— Chronicles II-164a 
—Rite I-306b; Gloria VI-583c; 
Jerusalem VIII-371a; Kyrie 
Eleison in VIII-716C; language 
VI-774C: lessons VII-193d; 
source VI-775d 
A. C, abbr. I-23b 
ACACIA I-79a; 721b 
—See also Setim Wood 
Acacianism. .See Acacians 
ACACLANS I-79b; 81c; 710b: 
VII-218d; XI-770b; XIII- 
533d; Acacius of Caisarea I- 
79d: Aetians I-SOa: Anomoeans 
I-79b; at Antioch X-161d; 
Ariminum, Synod of I-79d; 
Constantius I-79b; Eusebians 
I-79b; Felix III, action of VI- 
31a; Gelasius I, writings VI- 
40Gd; Homoousion I-79b; 
Lampsacus, synod I-80a; 
monks X— 470d; Seleucia, syn- 
od I-79d: Sirmium conference 
I-79c; Symmachus. Pope XIV- 
378b; Trinitarian teaching VII- 
409a; Ursacius I-79d; Valens 
Acacius, Saint, mart\T XI-89d 
— Bishop of Aleppo XII-619a 
—Bishop of Amida XIV-409b _ 
— Bishop of Beit Aramage X- 

ACACIUS, Bishop of Beroea I- 
SOb; Cvril of Alexandria. St. 
I-SOd; and Flavian I-SOb; John 
Chry.sostom, St. I-80c; VIII- 
454d; reconciliation sought 
Vlll-lld; Rome, embassy to 
ACACIUS, Bishop of Csesarea 
I-81a; ni-134d: and Acacians 
I-79b; canons III-284d; con- 
troversial work XIII-394b; and 
Cyril of Jerusalem IV-69oc; 
VIII-358a: Horaoean party 
XIII-694a; and St. Mercurius 
ACACIUS, Patriarch of Constan- 
tinople I-S2b; Anastasius II I- 
454d; Chalcedon XIV-2d: Ge- 
lasius I VI^OGa; and Hcnoti- 
con VII-218d: Hormisdas, for- 
mula IV-434b; John Talaia 
VIII— 485c: Leo II, coronation 
IV-3S1C: Peter Mongus V- 
— Bishop of Cotenna IV-421d 
—Bishop of Malta IX-576b 
ACACIUS, SAINT, Bishop of 

Melitene I-83b 
— (the younger), Bishop of Meli- 
tene I-83b; XIV-409b, and 
Armenians I-737c: death X- 
166b; at Ephesus V-492d 
— Bishop of Pessinus XI-742c 
— Bishop of Scvthopolis XIII- 

— Bishop of Seleucia XIV-109b; 

Academia, Catholic association, 

Prague XII-344b 
Academia Aymara, periodical, 

— Ecclesiastica, Rome I-113C 
— Fisiocritica, Siena XIII-782b 
— Inquietorum, Bologna X-5G7d 
— Juridica Aragonesa, Saragossa 

XIV is'ib 
— litteratorura \'-53d 
Academia Paleoslovenica, pcri- 

odiral. IV-llOfic 
— Universitaria Catolica, Madrid 

XIV- 175b 
Academic, educational course 

Academic de France. See Acad- 
emy. French 
— des Sciences, Paris V-lS7c 
— des Sciences Morales, and Le- 

r.)y-Re.iulicu XVI-53a 
— Frangaise. .See .-Vcademy, 

— des Inscriptions, and MafTei 


Academies, Portuguese XII-309d 

— ROMAN I-83b; American I- 

SSd: dcgli Arcadi I-85b; XVI- 

5Sc; di Archeologia I-S7a: 

Benedict XIV II-434d; di Con- 
ferenze di Sacra Archeologia I- 
88d; di Conferenze Storico- 
Giuridiche I-S8a; Eccleaiaatica 
I-113c; English I-88d: Filar- 
monica I-87d; Fine Arts I-88b: 
de France I-8Sd; Immacolata 
Concezione 1-8 7d; dei Lincei 
I-84c; Liturgica I-S6c; Medica 
I-88a; dei Nobili Ecclesiaatici, 
I-88a; Nuovi Lincei I-85a: 
di Pomponio Leto VIl-540a; 
RaJFaele Sanzio I-88d; di Re- 
ligione Cattolica I-86c; Santa 
Cecilia I-88c; schools I-88a; 
di Spagna I-88d ; Teologica I- 
86b; Thomas .\quinas I-88a; 
Tiberina I-86d; Vatican III- 

— Spanish XIV-1.88d 

Academius, Bishop of Pappa XI- 
504 c 

Academus, Grove of I-713b; 
Platonic School, XII-161d 

Biot II-576C: Dictionary I- 
S9c; F^nelon Vl-3Sc; Cresset 
VII-29b: Grcuze VII-29d; "Le 
Cid", criticism IV-374d; Le- 
coy de La Marche IX-109c; 
I-90b; Mignard X-290b; ori- 
gin VI-622b; Paris, Gaston 
XI-498d; suppressed I-89d 

—Platonic I-83c; V-142b; XII- 

— Vatican, III-619c 

ACADIA I-90d; Aubery II-67a; 
boundar\' disputes I-90d; col- 
onized 'Ill-231d; IX-545d; 
English possession I-91a: III- 
233d; XV-lSSc; French pos- 
sessions XIV-439a; French 
settlers I-91a; French, depor- 
tation of 1-9 Id 

—missions III-232b; of Biard 
II-541d; Capuchin III-327a; 
French I-.562d 

— population, statistics I-91b 

Acadia College II-2S0C 

Acadians, in Baltimore I-777a; 
in Georgia VI-462a; in Long 
Island II-799a; Maine IX- 
547d; .Maryland II-228d: Mas- 
sachusetts II-703d: Prince Ed- 
ward Island, missions III- 
632c; Saint-Pierre XIII-376b: 
statistics III-237a 

Acadius, Bishop of Salamis IX- 

Acafaxi, Thomas, Blessed. See 
Thomas Acafaxi 

Acalli, in Aztec tradition X-252a 

Acamas, Soli XIV-134c; Synnada 

Acanda, Sec of XI-380a 

ACANTHUS, See of I-92a 

ACANTHUS, plant I-92b 

Acarie, Madame. See Marie de 
rincarnation. Blessed 

— Pierre IX -667c 

Acarius, ot Noyon-Tour- 
nai \--3si;b 

Acarnania and Naupactia, See of 

ACATHISTUS I-92b; Deipara 
church I-92c: Incarnation I- 
93b: \"irKin Mary I-92c 

Acatl Il-171a 

Acca, town. .See .Acre 

—Bishop of Hereford VII-255C 

—SAINT, Bishop of Hexham 
I-9:jb: VII-318C; Cross (ill.) 
I-93d; Gregorian controversy 

Accad. See .\chad 

Accademici, conspiracy of XII- 
74 b 

Accain VI- 133b 

Acca of Galloway. Sec .Acca, St., 
Bi,..hni, of Hexham 

Accarigi, Francesco XIII-782b 

ACCARON (EkTon) I-93d: VI- 
438b: Ark at I-723a: god of 
II-3SSd; Jonathan I.X-494d; 
nnmcX-67Sa; Sennacherib II- 

Accault, Michel VII-217«; and 
Du I.hut XIII-367b; in Min- 
nesota XV-GS8C 

Acce. See Acre 

Accellini. See Balbus, Hierony- 

Accentus ecclesiasticus I-94a : 

577c: X-lb 
Accepimus Nuper, Bull of Leo X 


Large type indicates titles of articles; other types, topics treated; (ill.) ^^ illustrations. 


ACCEPTANCE (canon law) I- 

ACCEPTANTS I-94d; Appellants 
I-95b; Hossuet I-P4d; Cle- 
ment XI l-!)5a; Louis XIV I- 
95a; Louis XV I-95c; Noailles 
I-95a: Quesnel I-94c; Soanen 
I-95c; Sorbonne I-95a; "Uni- 
genitus" I-9Da 

Acceptus, Bishop of Kr^jus VI- 

ACCESSION (in law) I-95d: 
VIII-o7:ic; IX-Slb; election 
bv IV- 194b 

—Treaty of (1867) XV-527b 

—Declaration Act (1910) XIII- 

ACCESSUS I-9Ga; IV-194a 

Accetta, Giulio XV-93b 

Acchd. 'S' ' Acre 

Acci lAccitum), See of XIV-7oJd; 

Accia, ancient diocese IV-397b 

Acciaioli(Acciajolil. Sec Acciajuoli 

nal I-96b; Vl-llla; Gliirlan- 
dajo's fresco VI-547a 

— FILIPPO, cardinal I-96b; IV- 

— Franco, Duke of Athens II- 

— Gian Battista, Bishop of Ces- 
ena lUrATa 

— NICCOLO, cardinal I-96b; 

—Roberto, nuncio XI-163b 

Acciajuolo. See Acciajuoli 

Acciapori, Nicold, Bishop of 
Tropea XI -72a 

ACCIDENT (philosophy) I-Olic; 
absolute I-96d: Aristotle I- 
714d: and being X-227c; Car- 
tesianism I-96d; categories I- 
96d: change III~461c: existence 
V-196a: Eucharistic I-97b; 
V-581d; Guitmund of Aversa 
VII-81a; Kant III-465c: ob- 
jectivity I-96d; phenomena 
I-97b: quality XII-589c; quan- 
tity XII-091b; XIV-lli7d; 
Scholasticism I-90d; XIII- 
5Sld; Scotus Xni-HUa; scnsi- 
biles I-97b: subjectivity I- 
96d; and substance XIV-322d; 
323c; Tongiorgi, theory of 

Accidental grace. See Grace, ac- 

— occurrence XI-200a 

Accion Popular, periodical, XI- 

Accipe Spiritum Sanctum IV-79c 

Accitum. S" Arn 

ACCLAMATION i in civic life) 
I-'.l7c; aor.ssi.iris IX-3.Sb; cor- 
onation, imperial IV-3S2b; at 
councils I-99a 

— lilurffioil I-9Sa; African I- 
19od; Alleluia I-319b; Greek 
Office I-lOdb 

ACCLAMATION (in papal elec- 
ticinsl I-9SC: 99b; V-37IJC 

AccoIti, Benedetto, cardinal II- 
724c; XII-tj66d 

—Michael, Jesuit XIII-440C 

— Pjetro, Bishop of Ravenna 
Xll-liOlid: aa vicar of Rome 

CAL I -99b; V-r,94d: allusive 
I-99c; extensiv.' I -99c 

ACCOMPLICE I-10l)a; absolu- 
tion of V-687d; as witness 
XV -678a 

Accon. See Acre 

Accoramboni, Geronimo, physi- 
cian VII-.V^; XIII-177d 

— Ottavio, Apostolic collector 


— Vittoria, and Or^ini XI-32Slb 
Accordee de village (Creuzn) 

VII-30b; (ill.l VII 30 
Accorselli, Benedetto Mateucci, 

Bishop of Sarsina XIII^78d 
Accorso. See Accursius 
Accursius, lay brother, mission 

— Cervottus I lOOd 
—FRANCESCO, the Elder I- 

IfXId; IX-ssd 
—FRANCESCO, the Younger I- 

— Guglielmo I-10()d 
Ace. See Acre 

Acebedo, Fernando de, Bishop of 
Osma XI-340a 

Acebes, Diego de, Bishop of 
Osma .\l-339c 

Acedura iCenedai III-.';i9b 

Aceituno, Mateo I\'-7.'>4a 

Aceldama. See Haceidama 

Acelin, Bishop of Skara XVI- 

a Centauri, star II-28a; in O. T. 

Acentejo, battle XIV-.507a 

ACEPHALI I-lOOd; Isidore of 
Seville VIII-186d; Justinian 

— See Clerics. Regionary 

Acepsiraas, Saint IV-597a 

Acerata, hermitage XI-764d 

Acerbo nimis, Kncvclical of Pius 
X V-sdc; ,x3a:' 414a; XII- 

OF I-lUla; map Vlll-facing 

Acereto, Colonel X-S4a 

Acemo, See of XII-613d 

— Tommaso de. Bishop of Lu- 
cera IX-4n6c 

Acerra, See of .X-0S7b 

Acevedo, Alfonso de, jurist XII- 

Acha, and St. Oswald XI-348d 

Achab, name X-tj77a 

ACHAB, King of Israel I-lOlb; 
VIII-199a; 655b; 0o6a; 657br 
and Elias V-.381b; family de- 
stroyed V-3S7b; idolatn- II- 
176c; and Jezabel Vin^04d; 
Joaaphat VIII-503a; Mesa X- 
210b; Micheas. prophecy X- 
277d; XII-47Sc; prophets, 
false XII-47Sb: reign, date 
of III-734d 

Achad, Kingdom of II-181b; 
182d; lS5c; Baltasar II-227b; 
deluge, account of IV-702c 

— (Accad) Il-lla; ISOa; XI-84c 

Achadh-Chonnaire. See .■Vchonry 

Achaean League I-lOlc 

Achaemenian Dynasty. See 

AchiEmenidffi Il-l.Wd; 156c 

Achjeus, King of I.aodicea VIII- 
794b; Seise, siege of XIII-692b 

Achagua, tribe IX-5.53c 

ACHAIA I-lOIc; and Bvzantine 
Empire III-112b; Andrew, St.. 
apostolate I— 471c; capital I\'- 
364c: ecclesiastical arrange- 
ments II-4.5a 


Achaius. See Eochy, John 

Achamoth (Gnostic) IV-708b; 
V-39SC; VI~594d 

Achan, death I-103b; 455d 

Achar, Saint, Bishop of Tournai 
XIV-79SC: 798d 

Achard, Saint, .\bbot of Jumi^ges 

—anti-bishop of Aries II-1.59d 

— de St. Victor. See St. Victor, 
Achard de 

Achatius, Saint. See Acacius 

Achaval, Jose Wenceslao, Bishop 
of San Juan XIII-447a 

Achaz, name .X-676c 

ACHAZ, King of Juda I-lOld; 
VIII-199a; 347b; 6.54b; 6.56c; 
fi.57d; altar I-36!a; and As- 
syria III-31.5C; birth VIII- 
65Sb; Christ, genealogy of VI- 
410b; Damascus IV-6lId; Em- 
manuel, question of V-404d: 
idolatry II-170d; Jeni.salem 
VIII-fi5.5b; prophecy to I- 
326b; XV-404Bd; religions pol- 
icy V-737a; .sacrifife. human 
XIII-3I2C; Temple, changes 
in XlV-oOId; and Theglath- 
phalasar III II-13b: VIII- 

Achazib a?ib.) VI-433b 

Achbar, name X-670c 

Achedune, John. .Sec Acton, 

Acheer, Anne V-.391C 

—John \-391c 

Acheiropoielffi I-4.3c; IV-536d 

Acbelis. Hans, on .\po8tolic Con- 
stitutions I r,36d; Nereus and 
Arhilleus, Acts of X-751d 

Achelis-Baumgarten, encvclopc- 
.lia V -1 1.5c 

Achelous. See of VI-738d 

Achemenes, satrap V-343b 

Achenbach, Heinrich von VII- 



• I-2.53b; X-735b 

Acherontia. See Aoerenza 
Acherusian Lake \ -.531a 
Achery, Saint .\IIN34.5c 

.■an..nir„l ,-,,ll..clion IV-,392b; 

an.l Mai. ill. .11 IX 4S0a 
Achiacharus I 1112b; XIV-733a 
Achias, pri.>t \-t"7d 
Achiltus. ^V<' .Vchiliius. 
Achillas, Patriarch of Alexandria 

I-301b; and Arius I-718d; and 

Meletius of Svcopolis X-164c 
Achilleion, Corfu IV-363b 
AchUleis, poem in-123c 
Achilles, Saint, martvr XV-250a 
—Bishop of Cus» IV-57ob 
— Greek hero, in art. Carducci 

III-345b; Ingres VIII-9a;Jeau- 

rat VIII-32SC; Pichler XII- 

— Greek hero, and Dracontius 

V-I.53a: at I.arissa IX-lb 
Achilleus, Saint III-.505b 
—Bishop of Spol.-to XIV-233d; 

in Rome II -(■..■.9a; and Flavia 

Domitilla in-513c 
Achilli, Giovanni Giacinto, Xew- 

man trial lX-211c; X-797d; 

Bellii-sis 11-4 14a 
Achillides, in Ephesus legend V- 

Achillini, Alessandro I-459c; at 

Bologna II-642d; at Padua XI- 

387c; aa physicist XII-53c; 

.56c; sonnet I-S5c 
Achill Island IX-500a; XV-80b 
Achillius, Saint, Bishop of Larissa 

Achim, Christ's genealogy VI- 

ACHIMAAS, father-in-law of Saul 

— son of .Sadoc, the priest I-102b 
— prefect of Solomon I-102C 
ACHIMELECH.a Hethitc I-102c 
ACHIMELECH, priest of Nobe 

I-!02c; and Da\'id IV-642d; 

ACHIMELECH, son of Abiathar 

— King of Geth. See Achis 
— .See also Abimelech 
Achinoam, wife of Saul XIII- 

499d; 4S7b 
Achior, nephew of Tobias. See 

— the Ammonite VIII-554a 
Achis (Achish), King of Geth, 

and David I-379a; IV-642d 
Achitob, father of Sadoc XI- 

ACHITOPEL I-59d; 102c; VIII- 

Achleutner, .\bbot of Krems- 

milnster VIII-701d 
Achmetha. See Ecbatama 
Acholius. Sir Aschalius 

102d; map Vlll-facing 114: 

seminaries XIII-700b 
Achoris, King of Egypt V-343b 

Achradine, Syracuse, Sicily XIV- 

ACHRIDA (Achris, Ochrida), an- 
cient see I-103c: in-46b: 46c; 

414d: Vl-744a; 755a: 76Sd: 

Achris. See Achrida 
Achsa. .See Axa 
Achsaph Vl-l,33b 

HEINRICH I-!04b: VII-27,Sd 

WILLIAM I-104c; Pietii (ill.) 

1-104; tomb III-22.5C 
Achtichat, See of III^54c; and 

St. Cregory the Illuminator 

I-737a; Synod of I-7.37b 
Achtum, Ilungarian ruler III-18b 
Achudemma, Jacobite bishop 

XI -7 17b 
Achzid. See Ach.azib 
Acilii Glabriones. SecGlabriones, 

Acilins Glabrio. .See Glabrio, 

Acilizene. See Justinianopolis 
Acircius, King of Northumbria. 

See Ealdfrith 
ACI-REALE I-10.5a 
Acisclus, martyr XIV-177a 
Acka, Bishop of Scleucia. See 




Acklins, island, statistics (1901) 

Ackridge, John, confessor V-478a 
— Thomas, confessor V-478b 
Acmonia I-105b 
A. C. N., abbr. I-23c 
A Codex. See Codex Alexandri- 

ACCEMETiE I-10.9b: X-470b; 
foundation I-105b; Irenaion I- 
10,5c; Office, Divine I-105C 

Acolhuas, tribe X-251b 

ACOLOUTHIA I-105d; Apo- 
deipnon I-lU6c; hours, canon- 
ical I-lOOc; (Jrthros I-106b; 
Vespers, greater I-106b; Ves- 
pers, little l-106b 

ACOLYTE, I-106d; age I-207a; 
Boniface V, decree of II-661c: 
as candle bearers III-247b: 
IX-246C; celibacy III-485a: 
I-196c: classes I-I07b; dal- 
matic IV-609d: duties I-106d: 
in early Church I-107a: 196c; 
Eastern churches I-107a: 
humeral veil VII-542c; Lavabo 
IX-44d; at iMass IX-79Sc: 
Mass. Papal I-107c; Mass, 
Pontifical XII-232d; oath of 
I-313a; order of X-333a; VII- 
323c; ordination I-108a: XI- 
286d: ordination, Gallican Rite 
VI-365b: origin I-106d; school 
for I-107d; stole XIV-301d; 
titular I-107c; tunic XV-88b; 
vestments X\'-389b; Western 
churches I-107b 

Acoma, pueblo, inhabitants (1910) 

A(ominatus. .See Akominatus 

Aconche, mission station XIV- 

Acosmism, theor\' X-4S3C 

ACOSTA, JOAQUIN, naturalist 

— JOSE DE, I-108c: scienti6c 
research VHola 

— Pedro Alvarez d'. Bishop of 
Osma XI-:i39d 

A' Court, Charles, general XVI- 

— William, Lord Heytesbury 

Acqua Paola, fountain. Rome VI- 
126d; XIII-175d 

OF I-109a; t.jwii \IIl-219b 

Acquaroni, John Baptist, Lazar- 
iat .\-:i60c 

Acquasparta, Matteo d*. Bishop 
of Porto XII-290C: and Dante 
1V-028C; and Dies Irie IV- 
788a; Florence, mission to II- 
663c; Giotto's fresco VI-566d 

Acquaviva, See of I-345d 

— Andrea, military leader XIV- 

— CLAUDIUS, General of the 
Society of Jesus I-109c; XIV- 
8.5a; St. Aloysius I-331d; grace, 
system of VI-713a; homiletic 
work VII 44lid; Monita Recre- 
ta X-4s7b; p<.rlr.ait XIV-89d; 
retr.-ats Xn-790a 

—FRANCESCO, rar.linal I-109b 

— Giosia, Duke of Tcramo XIV- 

Bishop of -Melfi and Rapolla I- 
I09b; X-16.5b 

—GIULIO, cardinal I-109b; and 
Cervantes III-543a 

. — Orazio, Bishop of Caizzo III- 

— OTTAVIO, the Elder, cardinal 
I-in9b; X-687a 

— OTTAVIO, the Younger, I- 

—PASQUALE, cardinal I-I09C 

— Rinaldo di. Bishop of Girgenti 

— Rudolph. .See Rudolph Ac- 
quaviva. Blessed 

— TROIANO, cardinal I-109b 

ACQUI I-llOb; and Alessandria 

Acqs (Dax). Diocese of I-237a 

Acra, citadel. Jerusalem VIII- 
348b; capturerl VIII-.388a 

Acrabatane, region, Idumea VI- 

— Juda>an toparchy VI-433b 

Acrabim (Maalehacrabim) VI- 
433b: X-«78a 

Roman numeral indicates volume; arabic, page; a, b, c, d, quarter of page. 


Acragas (Girgenti) \'I-rj7ia; Car- 
thaginians capture XIII^773c 

ACRE (Ptolemais, Saint-Jean- 
d'Acre) I-UOd; VIII-266c; X- 
161a; fall of Vm-364d; IX- 
97b; Jacques de Vitry VIII- 
266c; Polo. Nicolo XII-217b; 
siege of (1190) IV-548d; Thi- 
baut de Champagne XIV-635a 

Acroatic writings, of Aristotle I- 

Acron, philosopher VI-571C 

Acropolis, Athens, churches II- 
44a; episcopal residence II— 
44d; 45d; (ill.) Vl-facing 740 

—Baalbek II-177a 

AcropoUta (Acropolites), George 
historian III-llGc; Lyons. 
Council of (1274) IX-477c 

ACROSTIC l-Ula; Babylonian 
II-189a: papyrus, ancient I- 
5S0a; Syriac hymnody XIV- 

Act, Conventicle. See Conventi- 

— Five Mile. See Five Mile Act 

—Test. .See Test Act 

Acta, imperial I-9Sb 

Acta Apostolicffi Sedis, period- 
ical XI-68.5b; circulation XV- 
302b: letters, papal, publica- 
tion of IX-203b; promulgation 
through XII-454C; XIV-612c; 

— Johannis 1-6 11a; Amen in I- 

— Martyrum. See Martyrs, Acts 
of the 

— Ordinis Minorum VI-287b 

— Ordinis S. Benedict! I-102b 

— Pauli I-612a; XI-567b: source 

—Pauli et Theclffi I-612b; XI- 
.567b: original MS. V-3o8a 

— Philippi I-612c; Agrapha I- 

— PILATI (Gospel of Nicode- 
mus) I-lUb; VI-056d; XI- 
66c: and English literature 
VII-144a: Grail legend VI- 
720c: .Simeon in XIII-794d 

— Poatificia, periodical XI-6S5b 

Actardus, Bishop of Nantes X- 


— Sanctorum (Bollandists) II- 
630a; Badius II-201b: Baert 
II-201d; Breviary lessons II- 
772d; De Buck III-26d; Leg- 
ends of the Saints IX-129a; 
Plantin press prints I-590b; 
Surius III-391b 

— Sanctorum (Benedictine) IX- 


— Thoma I-610c; 611b: XIV- 
6.5Sb: 6.">8c: on chrism VI-,'i97b 


Acte Additionnel X-698c 

Actes des Apdtres XI-675d 

Actherius, Saint, Bishop of Aux- 




Actio, African Rite I-198b 

Action, Divine, of Christ X-503C 

— (law) III-466d; RomanlX-Sob 

— (philosophical) I-124c; cate- 
gory I-714d; 1II-433C; and 
cause III-464a; 464c; Deu- 
tinger's system IV-762a: and 
images VII-673C: immanent 
VII-6S2a; Kant'steachinglll- 
465c: in metaphysics I-96d: 
and substance XIV-323b 

Action Catholique, periodical 

Action Populaire, periodical VI- 

— Liberale Populaire, periodical 
IV-24lic: Vl-lH7d 

— Sociale, periodical, Canada 

— Sociale Catholique, periodical, 
Canada XIl-.597b 

Actio Spolii, plea, V-776c 

Actisanes, King of Ethiopia 
Xlli 19b 

Actistetfe, Monophysite sect V- 
(13.0C: X^9.5d 

Active Intellect. Sec Intellect, 

Active Love of our Neighbour, 

Confraternity of X-7()3d 
Active Perseverance. See Perse- 

, Active 

Act of Berlin. See Berlin Act. 

— of Charity. See Charity, Act of 

— of Explanation. .See Act of 
Settlement, Irish 

— of Faith. See Faith 

— of Hope. .Se*' Hope 

— of Settlement, British V-452c; 

—of Settlement, Irish I-112a; 
VIII-104C; XI-616b; Act of 
Explanation (1664) I-112a; 
(166.5) I-113a; VIII-104C; 
XI-615b; Articles of Peace 
I-112c; Charles I I-112b; 
Charles II I-112c; conBsca- 
tion of lands I-112b; Crom- 
welliana I-lI3a: effect I-113b; 
innocent Catholics I-112d: 

— of Supremacy. See Supremacy, 
Act of 

RIDS, cardinal I-11.3b; Cas- 
wall III-417b: and hierarchy. 
English X\-li72a 

—JOHN, .anonist I-113d 

DALBERG, BARON, historian 
I-114a: and Dollinger V-95d; 
XV-306b; and Kenrick XV- 
.307d; on Knox XIV-763b: and 
Oscott XI-336b: The Ram- 
bler XI-674b; XII-637d; and 
Simpson XIV-4a 

SIR, statesman I-114d; and 
Acton. Cardinal I-113b 

— LORD. See Acton, John Eme- 
rich Edward Dalberg 

—RICHARD, SIR, diplomatist 

Acton Burnell, Benedictines at 

Actors, baptism of XIV-559d; in 
Passion Plav XI-,533c; Rome, 
legal status XIV-569a 

capitular I-115c; civil and ec- 
clesiastical I-115b; conciliar I- 
115c; documentary I-11.5c; 
priv ate I-115a; public I-114d 

— HUMAN I-llod; Avempace's 
teaching II-1.50a; Divine co- 
operation XIV-584d; doubt 
V-143C: Duns Scotus' teach- 
ing V-197d; duty V-215a; 
ethics V-o56b; fear VI-21a; 
foreknowledge, Di\nne VI- 
619a; freedom I-115d; 116a; 
habit VII-99d; intention VIII- 
69c; jurisdiction of Church 
XIV-251d; jurisdiction of State 
XIV-251C ; morahty I-116a; 
XIV-4c; and necessity I-116d; 
properties I-l 16a: sinXIV-7c; 
theology, moral XIV-602b; 
Thomistic doctrine XIV-667c; 
700a; violence, effect on XV- 
446c: views, recent I-116b 

—INDIFFERENT I-l 16c; de- 
nial of I-l 17a 

— and Martyrdom of St. Matthew 

— and Monuments. See Book 
of .Martvrs 

—of Andrew I-609b; filOc; 611a 

— of Andrew and Matthew (Mat- 
thias) 1-01 lb 

— of Andrew and Thomas, and 
Apotactics I-6o0a 

— of a Wonder-Working Triad. 
See Acta Triadis Thauma- 

—of Barnabas I-61.3a 

— of Bartholomew 1-61 Ic 

— of James the Greater l-l)12c 

— of James the Less I-612c 

— of Luke l-iU3b 

—of Mark l-lil3b 

— of Matthew I-012c 

— of Patrick I-70()a 

—of Peter I-OlOc: filla. .See 
Actus IVlri .11... Si...on.. 

— of Peter and Andrew 1-61 lb 

— of Peter and Paul I (illd; Pi- 
late. rcp..rt .)f I r.ll9c 

TIONS I-12:!a; 1\' 1-.70C: ac- 
ccssil.ilitv l-121a: disciplinurv 
I-I2:ib: doctrinal l-123b: kinds 
I-123a: preservation I-124a: 
not public I-124a 

— of Simon and Jude I-612d 

— of Thaddeus I-612d 

Abdias. psr'ii.lii l-31a: agrapha 

in I-226c; apocryphal I-610b: 
611d: motive I-610d; Arator. 
work of I-678d; authenticity I- 
120b; 120c; 121a: authorship 
IX-422b; XIV-525a; Biblical 
commission on XVI-lb; chro- 
nology III-737C; contents 
XIV-530C; datel-122c; XIV- 
531b; XVI-56d; disciples V- 
29b; East Syrian Rite XIV- 
415b; Encratites V-413a; and 
Galatians. Epistle to VI-340a: 
Gnostic 1-6 1 la; and Gospels 
VI-65Sd; object I-119c; opin- 
ion, critical IV-496a; and 
•St. Paul I-121a: texts I-122c; 
Theodore of Antioch. commen- 
taries of XI\'-572a: Tiibingen 
School IV-42d; Virgin Mary in 
XV-469a: We passages I-120b 

— of the Apostles, mystery play 

— of the Apostles, Raphael's 
painting VI-a72b: XII-644d 

— of Thecla I-7S7d 

— of the Councils. See Councils. 
Acts of the 

— of the Martyrs. 5ee Martyrs, 
Acts of the 

— of the Saints. See Acta Sanc- 

— of Timothy I-613b 

— of Titus 1-6 13b 

— of Uniformity. See Uniformity 

— of Xanthippe and Polyxenia I- 

Actual Grace. .Sec Grace. Actual 

Actualism, philosophical theory 

Actuality (actus) I-124c: Aristot- 
le on III-460d;of being I-71.5c; 
461d; first I-125c; God as I- 
125d; 126a; and potentiality I- 
124d: 125d; pure I-60c; 298c; 
II-63d; and soul I-716c; theo- 
ries I-125b 

Actual Sin. See Sin, actual 

Actuarius. See Notary 

Actum Praeclare, Brief of Pius 
X XII-294C 

— Praeclare Brief of Leo XIII 
III-770C; VII-155a; Xll-lOlb 

Actus. See Actualitv 

— ET POTENTLA I-124c: dis- 
tinction I-12.'>a: relation I-124d 

— Petri cum Simone, Gnostic 
work I-611a: VI-600a 

—PRIMUS I-12.5C 

— PURUS I-125d: Alexander of 
Hales I-298C; Aristotle I-715c; 
as attribute, primarv II-63d; 
Avicebron II-157a; God I-GOc 

— secundus I- 125c 

— Sorbonnicus XlV-loOb; intro- 
duction X-91C 

Acuanltee, Manichsean heretics 

ACUAS, heretics I-12(;b 

Acuna, Antonio, Bishop of Za- 
mora XV-74Sd 

— Figueroa, Francisco. See Fi- 
gucroa, Francisco .AcufSa de 

—Manuel, writer XIV-203d 

Acuta crui IV-519c 

Acutius, martyr VIII-295a 

Acuto, adventurer. See Hawk- 
wood. Sir John 

Acutus (music) X-766C 

Acyton. Melos X-169c 

A. D., abbr. I-23c: 26b 

Ad, monastery V-380a 

Ada, wife of Lamoch III-143a 

Ad Abolendam, decree of Lu- 
cius III VIII-.3.5C 

Ada Codex V-iuic 

Adad, KinK of Ednm. See Adar 

— (Ramman), dcitv II-17b; 188d; 

Adada (Adadah), town VI^33b; 

Adad-nirari. See Ramman-ni- 
rari III 

Adadremmon, town VI-433b; X- 

Adaes Indians XIV-547b 

Adah. Ser Ada 

Adai (Adayes) Indians III-129b 

Adaidah. .S,. Iludaia 

Adaikalaburam, town, India, in- 
stitutions XV-41a 

Adakas, in Nasorieanism X-707a 

Adala. .See .\dela 

Adalar, Bishop-elect of Erfurt II- 

ADALARD, SAINT I-126b; and 

.St. Paschasius XI-518a 
— Viscount of Flanders, founda- 
tion XHI-108b 
Adalberht, Archbishop of York. 

.See Ethelbert 
Adalbero, Bishop of Augsburg II- 

—Bishop of Bamberg II-243b 
— H, Bishop of Ukge III-435d; 

— Count of Liitzelburg VII-227d 
— IV, Bishop of Metz I-259C 
—Bishop of Reims XII-726a; 
and Hugh Capet VI-167b: 
—Bishop of Verdun XIII-39Sa 
— .'ibbot of Wessobrunn X V-591c 
— of Lambach,. Saint, Bishop of 
Wurzburg XV-719c: and St. 
Stephen's Abbey XV-721b 
— of Montreal. See Albero 
— See Adalbert 
Adalbert, heretic, condemned II- 

— I, Margrave of Austria II-122d 
—Bishop of Basle II-33Sd 
—Saint, Bishop of Chur III-743d 
—Abbot ot Echternach. Bishop 

of Spoleto XIV-234a 
—I, Archbishopof Hamburg-Bre- 
men I-120c: I I-757a: VI 1-12 Ic; 
IX-434C: XVI-la; lie; 70a; 
Cadalus I-541c: and Henry IV 
VI-489C; \'II-230c; missionary 
activities I-416d 
^n. Archbishop of Hamburg- 
Bremen II-757a: VII-121d; 
—Bishop of Julin XI-334a 
— I, Archbishop of Mainz I-127a: 
and Frederick of Swabia \'I- 
— n. Archbishop of Mainz IX- 

—Bishop of Mende VII-603C 
—I, Bishop of Metz IX-364a; 

X-248b: 24Sc; 
—Abbot of Pforta XI-788b 
—Bishop of Pomerania XII-225C 
—SAINT, Apostle of Prussia I- 
127c: Ill-lSa: XII-33Sd;339a: 
Bruno.St.. life of III-18b;relics 
VI-392b; shrine \I-590c; and 
St. Willigis XV-645d 
— Bishop of Salzburg XIII-412c 
—SAINT, Apostle of the Slavs 
I-127b; IX-525C; XIII-254b: 
relics II-122C 
— Bishop of Spoleto. See Adal- 
bert. Abbot of Echternach 
— Abbot of Tegernsee XIV-471d 
— Count of Warngau Xn'-471c 
— (AJber, Alberus), Bishop of 

Wlociawck XV-6S1C 
—Bishop of Wurzburg XIII-412a 
— of "Tuscany I-140d; Papal 

States, invasion of XIV-261d 
— the Great. See .Adalbert, 

Bishop of Hamburg-Bremen 
Adalberto, Bishop of Boiano II- 

622d; XIV-261d 
Adalbertinum XII-343a 
Adaldag, Saint, Bishop of Bre- 
men II-257a: VII-121C: Ben- 
edict V II-42,Sb; XVI-la; 70c 
Adalgar, Saint, Archbishop of 
Bremen II-756d; and Hermann 
of Cologne VI-140d 
Adalghis (Adelchis), Lombard 

frince III-612c; 613a; and 
rene III-371d 
Adalgisil, mayor ot the palace 

Adalgisus, Saint, missionary XV- 

434 c 
—Bishop of Novara XI-135a; 

foundation XV-351d; at Ve- 
rona XV-361a 
Adalhalm, Abbot of Ottobeuren 

Adalhelmus, Saint, Bishop of S^ez 

Adalia. .^.vAttnlia 
Adalid, p.T..idical XV-766b 
Adaloald, l...iiil.ard king IX-33Sd 
Adalrich. L.'ll f.,iii..lcr XIV-47;!a 
Adalricus, Saint .\\-(,sb 
Adalvard, the Elder, of 

Skiira XVl-7.5b 
— the Younger, Bishop of Skara 

Adalward, Bishop of Vorden, 

among Slavs X-107C 
Adalwif, and St. Poppo XII- 


Large type indicates titles of articles; other t.\-pes, topics treated; (ill.) = illustrations. 

Adalwin, Archbishop of Salzburg 

ADAM (first man) I-129a: and 
abstinence, law of I-C'b; in art 
1 1 1-i2oa: St. Augustine II-99a; 
X II-377b ; in Babvlonian my th- 
ology II-lSOc; burial place VII- 
184b; Calvinist teaching III- 
198d: 2(X)b; XII-378b; chapel 
of Jerusalem III-192a; Chi- 
nese counterpart III-6Slb; 
Christ, analogy with I-131c; 
XIV-505a; Christ, genealogy 
of VI-410d; chronology I- 
, 552a; III-7.32C; and concupis- 
cence IV-208b; demon wife 
IV-715b; 715d; in Druze 
theology V-l(i7a; Ebionite 
teaching V-243c; Encratites 
V— 412d; expulsion, festival of 
XV-388a; as father of chosen 
people XII-370d; in Gen- 
esis XI-4GSa; in Gnosticism 
VI-596C; in Huron mythology 
VII-572b; integrity, Augus- 
tine, St., teaching II-96c; in 
Jewish and Christian tradition 
I-131d; last I-131C; in Mani- 
chffian cosmogony IX-593a; 
Michelian teaching X-279b; 
Mohammedan teaching X- 
426b; in Nasorfeanism X-707a; 
new I-lSlc; in New Testa- 
ment I-131b; in paradise XIV- 
520b; Pelagius' teaching XI- 
604d; sacrifice XIII-320a; in 
Samaritan Chronicle XIII- 
419d; Scotist teaching XIII- 
611b; sin, original XI-312a; 
XIV-5d; skull. Jewish tradi- 
tion III-191b: supernatural 
gifts XIV-338c; and tempta- 
tion XIV-504d; as t>'pe II- 
I- 1 32a 
— mir.ide plav X-348b; XIV- 

—Abbot of Barlings II-298a 
—Abbot of Evesham. V-648c 
—Abbot of Langheim VIII-788d 
— Vicar Apostolic of Gaboon VI- 

—Bishop of Orkney VII-423C 
—Bishop of St. Asaph XIII-333a 
—Abbot of St. Denis I-37c 
—Apocalypse of l-i:i2a: Vl-.'ingc 
— Book of the Daughters of I- 

132a; 1.32d 
— Book of the Penance oi I- 

132a; i:i2d 
—BOOKS OF I-132C; 131d 
— GuiUaume d*» Archbishop of 

Sultameh IV-552d 
— Johann, Bishop of Leitmeritz 

—John 1-134C 

— Life of. See Jubilees. Book of 
—Nicholas I-134d 
—Revelations of VI-.599C 
— Testament of. See Testament 

nf A. lam 
Adama lAdonah) town VI-433b; 

\I-64«b; XIV liiOa 
Adamah. Se*: lOdema 
Adam and Eve, in art: Baldung 
II-220b; 220c; Deger IV-677c; 
Durer V-2I0c; Gegenbauer. 
fresco by VI-403d; iMasaccio 
—and Eve, church, Dublin XI- 

—and Eve. Book of I-I32c 
— and Eve, Contradiction of I- 

—and Eve. Penitence of I-132d 
—and Eve, Struggle of I-132a 
— Anglicus (Anglo Scotus). See 

Adam Scotu,'! 
Adamantius, Anti-Gnostic VI- 

6111c; IX-649b. See Origen 
Adamas, in Gnosticism VI-596b; 

m .Manicha-ism IX-.592d 
Adam du Petit-Pont, theologian 

Adames, Nicholas, Bishop of 

Luxemburg IX-4l-,.id 
Adami, location VI-4:i:!b 
—Raymond. Sirvito .\' III 737c 

musirian I I3:.a 

ADAMITES I-l.i.ia: extrTriiina- 

led MI .-.ssb; lal.lp of N.V.ld 


I-I3.jb; Arculf, itinerarium of 

VIII-255a; on St. Baithen II- 
209b; canon of I-135b; chalice, 
description of III-561d; and 
St. Columba IV-137b; XIII- 
631b; on St. Ernan V-.523c; 
on Saint George VI-454c; at 
lona VIII-90b; 90c; at Lindis- 
farne IX-269b; and Mayo. 
School of VI-464C; X-89c; on 
llswald XI-34'Jc; in Raphoe 

ADAM OF BREMEN, historian 
I-132d; VII-121C; 375c; on 
Lund IX-434a; on Norse dis- 
coveries I-116d; on Upsala XV- 

—OF FULDA, musician I-133d 

— of Hertford, cardinal, tomb 

— of Marisco. See Marisco, Adam 

—OF MURIMUTH, chronicler 

—OF PERSEIGNE, preacher I- 

I-134a; on St. Catherine III- 
44.5c; as hymnodist VII-603b; 
and Immaculate Conception 
XI-489C; Lauda Sion IX- 
37c; at Paris XIII-388C; poems 
III-294C; Sequence XII^86c; 
and Victimffi Paschali XV- 

—OF USK, chronicler I-134b 

— See Adami 

— Peak, Ceylon, pilgrimage XII- 

Adams, Abigail, feminist XV- 

—Alva, election ilispute IV-130b 

—Herbert, .iculptnr XIII-647d 

—JAMES, author 1-135C 

—JOHN, Venerable, martyr I- 

—John, President of U. S. A., 
XV-165d; 166a; and Alien Act 
VIII-677d; Boston church, con- 
tributions II-704d; and de 
Cheverus III-650c 

— John Couch, a.stronomer II- 
26c; at Cambridge 11 1-2 12b 

— John Quincy, President of U. 
S. A. XV-lt>7a; .\bolitionist 
movement XV-170a; and Ben- 
tham II-4S:!a; and Hughes, 
Archbishop VI 1-5 17b; and Pur- 
cell XII-572C 

— Richard, martyr V-478a 

— Samuel, statesman XV-160b 

ADAM SCOTUS, theologian I- 

Adamson, John, philosopher XII- 

Adamstown, monastery I-6d 

Adamu. See ,\dapu 

Adamus, Johannes, Bishop of 
Koniggriitz \in-688d 

Adan, Bishop of Plasencia XII- 

ADANA (LAMUS), Armenian 
diocese I-13.M; VIII -771c: 
Catholic population I-791C: 
councils I-136a 

Adane. See Aden 

Ad Anglos, Encyclical of Leo 
XIII IX-171b 

Adapa legend II ISOc; l.SSd 

TIS APICEM, letter of Inno- 
ci-nl IV I 127d 

— Apostolicffi Sedis fastigium, 
Rnrf of Pius I.\ V-55b 

— Apostolicam Sedem, Bull of 
Pms I.X I-7:»d 

— Apostolicum, Bull of Pius IX 

Adaptation, Kant VIII-60.')d 

Adapu (Adamu). See Adapa 

ADAR (Addar; Adder), town. 
Chanaan I-136b;VH33c 

— Ass\Tian month II-15C 

— .lewish month I-136b; III-167C 

—King of Edom I-136b 

—deity I-136b; colour II-177d 

Adarezer, King of Soba VII-307a 

Adarsa (Adazer, Khirbet 
'Adaseh), town VI-433b 

Adarzo, Gabriel de, Mercedarian 

Adaseh. See Adarsa 

Adauctus, Saint, martyr VI-.32d; 
tomb Ill-.".13b 

Ad Audientiam Nostram, Bull 
of Gregory XI I-307a 

Adaulfus I, Bishop of Iria IV- 

—II, Bishop of Iria IV-lSSc 

Adayes. See Adai 

Adazer. See Adarsa 

Ad Ccenam Agni Providi, hvnin 
V-J2.-,d; Paiostrina III-255b 

—commune Asise, rescript I-788d 

— complendum, Postcommunion 

— Concilia Sanctorum, church, 
Brescia II-760C 

— conditorem canonum. Bull of 
John XXII VI-212d; 283d; 
Michael of Cesena X-275a 

— Cor, in .Salve mundi salutare 

dinal I-136b; and Ellis V-:i'.l2c; 
in England IX-349a; XIII- 
8a; and Petre, Edward XI- 

— Theresa de, and G^ramb VI- 

Addai (Addeus), Bishop of Amid 

. — .See Addeus 

Addan. .See Adon. 

Addar. See Adar. 

Addas I-136b; IX-595a 

Addax I-S17d 

Ad decorem, Bull of Benedict 
Xn III-293C 

Adder. See Adar. 

Addeus (Addai: Thaddeus) in 
Ahpar legend I-42d; 136c; 
610a; 612d: V-29b; in Persia 
XI-720d; XV-582d 

— Doctrine of. .See Doctrine of 

I-136c; 137b; Anaphora XIV- 
414d; Edessa I-136d; Nesto- 
rians I-136d; origin I-136c; 
use VI-763b 

Addi, genealogy of Christ VI- 

Addington, Henry, minister VIII- 
107d; 12Sc 

Addison. A.lexander, judge, de- 
cision iii-.3s:!c 

—Joseph, author V^66a; and 
Pope XII-260b; portrait V- 
463;onBl. Thomas More XIV- 

Addo (Iddo), prophet XV-741b; 
annals XII-478C 

Addolorata (DuprC-) XVI-36d 

Ad Dominici gregis custodiam. 
Bull of Leo XII II-19l>b; VI- 
315a; VII-299d; XV-207a; 

Addon. .See Adon 

Addosio, D*, Lazarist mart\T IX- 
748a; and Bl. Jean-Gabriel Per- 
bovre IX-747a 

CAL I-137d; abbreviations I- 
22c; X-.MOc; 510a; in English 
speaking countries I-139C 

Address to the English (Wulf- 
stan) V-4."i'.ld 

Ad duas lauros, cemetery, fresco 

Addula, Abbess of Pfalzel VII- 

Addus. See Adiada 

Ad ea. Bull of Gregory XIII 

— ea quse in omnipotentis Dei 
gloriam, Brief of Callistus III 

Ad ecclesiae regimen, Bull of 
Pius IV XV-:)4b 

Adela, Blessed VII-21b; XV- 

ELHEID), SAINT, empress I- 
14nd; marriage XI-354d; re- 
gency XI-3.56d 

—BLESSED, Polish Princess 

cathedral (ill.) Il-facing 116; 
statistics I-140c; II-117b 

—SAINT, Abbess of Cologne I- 
I40c; blessing XV-.564d 

— Countess of Chalon, founda- 
tion XI-476d 

—Duchess of Hungary VII-.'J4Sb 

— Saint, Abbess of Kitzingen 

— Countess of Klettenberg. foun- 
dation XV-.537b 

— Duchess of Pomerania XII- 


— Princess of Susa. See Adelaide 
of Turin 

— of Aquitaine, wife of Hugh 
Capet Vn-515d 

—of Turin, Princess of Susa XIV- 
34oc; foundation XII-102b; 
Lodi Vecchia IX-322d; mar- 
riage XIII-492C; tomb XIV- 

Adela of Blois, and Saint Anselm 

Adelar. Saint, Bishop of Erfurt 

Adelard, Bishop of Santa Agata 
dei Goti XIII-454C 

—Bishop of Verona XV-361d 

—OF BATH X\I-ld; realism 
XI-!)2c; Scholasticism XII- 
32a' translations XII— 49a 

Adelardus. Sec Adelard 

Adelbert (Adalbert), Bishop, im- 

gostor VII-699C 
ishop of Trent XV-36b 

—Bishop of Treviso XV-39a 

— .See Adalbert; Ethelbert 

Adelberto, Bishop of Pesaro XI- 

Adelchis. .See Adalghis 

Adelelmus, Saint, Abbot of La 
Chaise-Dieu XII-181a 

—See Aldhelm 

Adelfius, Bishop of Mater X-41c 

Adelhaid. .See Adelaide 

fessor of the Faith I-)41a; V- 

Adelhard, Saint, .\bbot of Corbie 
IV-355d; death V-723b 

Adelhausen, Dominican convent 
VI -264c 

Adelheid. .See Adelaide 

Adelhelm, Blessed, Abbot of En- 
gclherg V-429b 

Adelin, Saint, Abbot of Crispin 

—Saint. .See Adalhelmus. Saint 

Adeline, Saint, and Vitalis of 
Savigny XV— 4S6c 

Adeliza, Countess of Chester VII- 

Adelm, Saint. .See Aldhelm 

ADELMANN, Bishop of Brescia 
I-141b; and Berengarius II- 

— Bernhard, and OEcolampadiua 

Adelmar, .\bbot of Wesaobrunn 

Adelme. .See Aldhelm 

Adelog, Bishop of Hildesheim 

Adelold, Abbot of Pforta XI- 


Adelphians. .See Messalians 

Adelphius, name X-674b 

-Bishop of Tuy XV-10,5b 

— Claudius Celcinus, Roman 
prefect XII-440d 

Adelphus, Abbot of Remiremont 

Adelstenfostre, King of Norway. 
See Hakon I 

Adelung, encyclopedist V-415a 

Adeltrude, Saint X-98d 

Adelwulf. .See Ethelwulf 

Ad£mar (Adhemar), name X- 

—Bishop of I.e Puy. See Ad«mar 
of Monteil 

— Viscount, and Tulle Abbey 

—Prince of Salerno XIII-.396d 

. — of Chabannes, hymnodist VII- 

— of Monteil, Bishop of Le Puy 
IV-546c; IX-186b; X-248d; 
XIII-409b; XV-211b; 250d 

Ademes VI-,598b 

Aden (Adane), town, Arabia, Al- 
bufiuer<iuc at I-270c; govern- 
ment I-IUi3b; Jcwsl-779d 

-province, Marco Polo XII- 


Adeney, Walter Frederic, com- 
mentator lV-162c: 162d; VIII- 
,Sl)d: on Saint Justin, VI-657b 

Adeodata. name X-fi74b 

Adeodatus I. pope. .See Deusdedit 

—II, SAINT, pope I-142b: XII- 

ADEODATUS, son of St. Augus- 
tine I-141d 

Roman numeral indicates volume; arabiv, page; a, b, c, d, quarter of page. 

Adeodatus, cardinal, legate XV- 

-Saint, Bishop <>« No\a XI MUa 
—Bishop of Siena >II';7'*>'?.,,_ 
-Bishop of Silva Candida XII 
—Bishop of Velletn XI |-lba 
—Bishop of Zarai XV-7MC 
See Deodatus; Deusdedit 
Adeona, deity I\-6S4* 

Adeptus, n=""'"J"p„„s,itution of 
Ad eradicandam, tonstiiui.o 

Benedict XIN V-IJ?»b 
Aderaldus, Saint >-yf° XV- 
Adericus, Bishop of IW 
Ade''piirre"-Au^s.e, chemist V- 

Ad'eva'! episcopal residence V- 
-ei^ediendos. Bull of Innocent 

IV IN-'J'.'l': _ ,, { Innocent 
— exstirpanda, tiuii oi lu" 

— extirpandas, Bull oi 
_fac7em,'.n Salve Mundi Salu- 
_lrms"ub«elUull of Martin 
IV VI-2S3a . p 

Tare Xlll-lOSb 

A<"^^T^H •;S'''4e''t"xiII-t02c; 
Adherbaidjan, ftee oi .-v-m 

AdhilrmrRama^ana, Bernini' 


Ad mUitantis, Constitution of 


l-657b; diocesan It'*'"'' ". 
^Mb- V-4c; dispensing, power 
^"-Sic; institutions^ 
tical I-144a; parochial I-14Ja 
Ad^strator Apostohc and 
Consistory, eongregation ol 
XTII-139d; councils, pro-nn 

i^al XII-5l5d; d'?f„S"°^' 

ol juuus '" iciherbaidjan 

iSa"%dits;-^Sd,. town 
VI-433C; 440a tiv-^'?Od- 

Adib Sablr, writer XI-720b 


Ad^Tl'lum diem, ^Encyclical of 

Adtaanms; ^lanic\a!an IX-595c^ 

-,cir,b' it Lampsacus \lU-/'ia 

AdSmarlRobert^odegU, Bishop of 

Volterra \\-oOoc _, vy- 
Adimirus. Bishop of Tdy XV 

Ad^Sari, Alamanno. Bishop of 

Pisa XII-1 lid „„ 

Ad incensum luceniffi, hymn AV 

Adi'oriJt, chieftain VI-336b 

Adjacensis. Hee Ajaccio 
irtiiinction, accession by l-aoa 
^d'jS^tIoN I-U2b; depreca- 
t,,rv I-U2c; early church l. 
Wt^d; imprecatory I-lf/,. P"" 
vRte l-143a; solemn l-14.ia 
Adjustus. lay brother, mission 

AdUnd, John. See Adelham 

Ad latus, in Salve Mundi ialu- 

Adle" mkLn°Nathan, Biblical 

-|Su"etW?al 'ociety founder 

Adi'gasse;, Anton Cajetan. musi- 

Ad^'i'ibimmr' in Rubrics XIII- 

tare XIII-40Sb 


_!,MI Ultr in early Churc. 
Ad'nlirable'Doctor I-39d; XIII- 

Admonet nos Constitution of 

piu3VV-689d , 

Admonitio generabs, of Char 


I-U4d; III-529a; legal I-U.'ia. 
Ar;i°i'o 'synodalis. on vest- 

ed XIII-il2b; library II-4oM 
Adm. Rev., abbr. 1-2JC ,,., 
Adnet, Catholic missionary \ m 

Ado'lAdon), Blessed, foundations 

-Arthbishop of Vienne. See 

Ado of Vienne 
Adobe, buildings pf H-l ' "= 

t^s&. j;£f:^-p of 

Soissons XlV-lJia 
Adolf. See Adolphus 
AdoLs. in Ephesus legend V- 

Adonis (Nahr Ibrahim) , river IX- 
—in art (Bonvicino) U-<J(»a. 
322d; (Michelangelo) Hj-ol? 
-iempes; at Amathus I-3bla, 

at Byblos III-92d . 
Adoniyah. See Adonias 
Adoniyahuh. See .Wonias 
Adonizedec, name X-t)/ iO 
— Kine of Jebus VIII-34bc 
Ado of Viem>e(Adon,, Saint I- 
14od; egends ol \il f »• 

marti-rololy i-^<^<''^h'lUb 

Adorno, palape.Genoa \ I^-Od 
— Anselm, pilgrim l^-2^»(,b 
— Antoniotto, doge.XIII-490b 
— Caterina Fieschi. . See Cath- 
erine of Genoa. Saint 
—FRANCIS I-lo4d 
—Giovanni Agostino, foundation 

-Giuui^o and St. Catherine of 

Genoa m^^.'^?,,.,,^ 
Id^ORoTe DEVOTE I-154d 

4Hniifl .S'*' AduU3 , . 

n-;„f nf P US \ II Xlll-4ia 

i pastoraus "'BH',"'"?, ,_ , ,= 
marty.o,ogy .-»...^,-,- ,,-,,: _^^. T^^^^' Salu- 
S'^^o^MS^^-^ _^ef M^ Mundi sain- 
,nd Usuard XV-23ob ^^^ XIII-408b 

&ti6n:'.canonicax I- 

147c; impediment V "rt'SJ.fgb 
tivU, Hammurabi V U 1-bD 
of orphans X;324C and K„ 

°*° ^^ UBja'l-UTb 


tare XIII-408b 
— populum, Postcommumon 

prayer XII-318C rhal- 

— ^uercum, council. See Chai 

cedon. . . r.^r;, 

Adra, Phoenicians in l-4b5c 
Adraa, titular see X\ l-»3a 

-^ailMCy*^'Tu7b. ^^^e.':ctAra^eIe\t).deity 

-fr/hf'^^A^oK Ad^^V -i;il^fennacheribll-15c 

99a;;cause,forinalI-149b »d . a ^.. ,..„.„,.,„>. townM 



-l.VSb^t, Bishop of Merseburg, 

and von Alfeld H-'ja . . , 

-Sf Essen, and Dommic ol 

n™jHolste\n VII-483b; Lu- 

-?eck ^X^Ola-, Mecklenburg 


—of Luxemburg I^"*"" ,, .,. 
-of Nassau, emperor, and M 

conquest of VU ■;;?, ,04b 
-of Schaumburg-Lippe XIII- 


tnoNAI i-uob " criti- 

^cUm textual •xlV-.'i27a; and 
S'vah yn^329a; Kab- 


Adonias, niinHj>t^'" '"^ 


T-. _ ■ 1 T_i Ji'.h- 1\ -o4 

??h'r\s'tTl5 a oTman VI-553C 

A^5i!¥lONISM 1-150? .X:j448c 

Aachen, Council of C<?9) 1 -n. 


278C-, Bonosianism \\^[^: 
and Char emagne I I 614b 

|[iUdus of Toledo X-6 Id 
iX?" of theThureh XIV- 


GWs, Society for. Pans XI- 
Ador. See Aduram 

triSus'^l^ffie. Anerio's 
setting I-t'od 

716b coronation ceremony I\^ 

382a; of creatures I-l^-^^f ^ 

ment. fundamental l-l-"!*:."^ 

yjiages III-372a; JP^^'^n ^V,, 

4"?!; of Precious Bl°°d ^j\V 

■iTia and sacrifice XIU •"*?• 

a^d ^rship VII-670d; X\- 

Ado'raU (Carracci) in-375d 

-election by XlV-33d 

—Nocturnal I-l?*^' ^^ ""' 

^ivT^n'iition I-154b 

— pfSpETUAL I-152d; Acce- 

„fof I-105d- first recorded 

n,eta! 1 '"^v. p tv Hours 

instance I^IMO. J^o";;\. ^i 

1-1 Vic- France I-lo3Q, auu 

Geissel' VI-403c; history I- 

VStf- origin I-153a; Rome I- 

itsd' °s"? Perpetual Adoration 

—if the Blessed Sacrament and 

-"^ork of Poor Ch""hes Arch^ 

-iV^Sie Golden Calf (Tintoretto) 

Ji^y^amb (Van Eyck) V- 

732b; VI-544b . 


...iV Il->19d: (Castiglione) 

ffwlOb -(Ghirlandaio) VN 

u7h- (iin IX-facing S-!*. 

?Mu;il"^ ^-"''"'=: (^fe'?^ 

(0"; V,,,, .,..,i.rrato)XIII- 

X'.y T-!! I.- \lll-(i88a; (da 


Adorator, Samt lX--'^«xI-09Sc 

Adtrna thalamum tuum, Sion. 


and Dona \-1341) 

and SennacheriD ii-ij>- 

Adiamiti (Adrumetum) , town \ I- 

Al5^A:^^licEy^.E I-155a; 

. r'T'cUk ^cl.-- VIII-80a 
11aiSi.martyr\Gorkum), feast 

-sint: mlrtyr (Marseilles) IX- 

^oi,r:nrch&e ni: 

XU-45d 456b; XIII-65C; XI\- 
260c; death ni-^^'Vo^al 

Hermes, relics "{ /"Ji^i nd 

vindication of I^ -o3 ' a ,^ ba.^ 
I^SmTdinXni^Ob; Saxon 

had XV-62Sb; York, Synod of 



Ld Hincmar of Laon VU^ 
?'^f 33°o fnd Sal^t Ignatius 


noplc XII-44d; and bla\onic 
_i"ri?SA!NT,p'o;;"i-156c; XII- 
J^^^^kespear Nicolas). Pope 

Ill 1-2^ a^ ■!"" xin-168d; 
Brescia l-.4sa. -y' yj, 

S?^d'*a"d''BosS n 69"d; and 
253d, ana uu ..(-35^. and 

reland. D^nf^r^^Ue'r V- 

Pans -vi-; j Scandina 

"''"XI 77,4 and Sopt-Fon. 
^H-207crtomb XIII-373.;. . 


459b; tomb XV-487D 



Adrian VI, Pope I-159c;XII-274c 
arms (ill.) I-159d; and Balbus 
II-217c; and Campeggio III- 
223b; Carv-ajal XII-158b; and 
censorship of books III-521c; 
and Charles V I-272b; III- 
625b; and Chieregati III-658d; 
Excelsus Dominus II-4SIC; 
and Heidelberg VII-197a; and 
Ingolstadt VIII-8a; and Bless- 
ed .lohn of Parma II-649d; and 
military orders XIII-353d; 
and Peter MartvT d'Anghiera 
IX-740C; Pighius XII-S2b; 
Rimini XIII-58b; and Schin- 
ner Xni-528d; and Spain XV- 
73 la; tomb I-514d; XIII-17oc; 
at Tortosa XIV-7S5d; and 
Vasa XII-706C 

— Saint, Bishop of Chalcedon 

— Patriarch of Moscow VII-429d; 

— Roman emperor. See Hadrian 

— de Corneto. See Adrian of 

— Fortescue, Blessed. Sec For- 
tescue, Adrian 

Adrianists vn-127a 

Adriano, Paolo di. Sec Paul of 

SAINT I-160c; IX-209d; 572c; 
and Albinus I-269d; and Saint 
Aldhelm I-280b; and Saint 
Benedict Biscop II— 441d; and 
ritual I-510b 

34Sa; Vn-2.Wd 

— of.Nisita, abbot XV— 4S5c; and 
Liudisfame Gospel XV-51Sd 

— of Utrecht. See Adrian VI, 

—Sec Hadrian 

LIS) I-161a; Assumptionists 
II-105a; battle (313) X-77d; 
XI-709a; (324) IV-296c; (378) 
VI-729C; (1205) IV-530b; XV- 
430a; founded VII-104c; Isaac 
Angelus IV-548d; See of VI- 
73Sb; treaty of (1829) XIII- 
226c; 249c; 734a; XV-98c; 
Turks seize (1361) VI-739a; 
(1365) IV-553d 

—(in Epirus), See of VI-738d 

Adrian the African, Saint. See 
Adrian of Canterbury 

theologian I-161C; on Way of 
the Cross XV-570b 

Adrichomius, Christianus Cni- 
cius. .Sft- Adrichem 

Adrogation I-l !7c; IX-SOc 

Ad R o m a n i Pontificis curam. 
Constitution of Clement VIII- 

Ad Romani Pontificis providen- 
tiam. Constitution of Urban 
VIII I-99b 

Ad Romanum spectat. Constitu- 
tion of .Sixtus V IV-63d 

Adrowald, monastery II-522C 

Adrumetum (Adrumetus). See 


Ad sacram ordinis. Bull of Alex- 
ander VI XV-278d 

Ad sanctam Beati Petri sedem 
I-128a; 294d; 743a; VIII-2S9a; 
XII-375d; XV-»4Ga 

ADSO, abbot I-161c; Montier 
en Der VI-669d 

Ad statum. Brief of Martin V 

Ad te levavi, Mass VIII-82a 

CO, hi^toriun I-Ii',ld 

Adulis (Adulej, Inscription of I\'- 

ADULLAM (Adhullum; OdoUam; 
Odullam), cave I-162b; IV- 

Adulph, and Saint Botulph II- 

Ili2b; of altar-mn.- I-35Sd 

Adulterine heresy XIV-574a 

Adulterini, and illogitimarv IX- 

ADULTERY I-163b; and absolu- 
tion I-62b: and bigamy 11- 
502b: and crime IV— 189d; and 
divorce V-56b; 6.3b: Eng- 

lish law XV-695C; extent of 
IX-696a; guilt of I-164b; in 
Hammurabi's code VII-126a; 
heinousness I-164b; 164d; im- 
pediment VII-697C; Jews II- 
549b: Mohammedanism X- 
427c; obligations entailed I- 
165a; punishment ecclesias- 
tical XIV-605C; restitution 
XII-78Sd; sin of IX-438C 

AdiUtress I-164b; VIII-141c;'in 
art (Boccaccino) II-607a; 
(Poussin) XII-323C 

Adults, insane, baptism VIII- 
42c; sacraments VIII-70a; sal- 
vation XIII-407d 

Aduma. See Idumea 

Adumas, tribe VI-329b 

Adummim. See Adommim 

Ad universalis Ecclesice, Consti- 
tution of Pius IX I-12SC 

Ad universam. Bull of Leo XIII 
II-341b; IV-572d 

Aduram (Ador; Adoram), town 

Adurpawa, martjT VIII-626c 

Ad uxorem (Tertullian) XIV- 

Adv., abbr. I-23c 

Advaita, in Upanishads XIV-626C 

Advancement of the Interests of 
Labour, Association for XIV- 

ADVENT I- 165b; abstinence I- 
69c; Agnus Dei I-223a; alle- 
luia I-3I9d; Ambrosian Rite 
I-397d; Anglo-Saxon Church, 
Antiphons I-326c; 610b; XI- 
173b; Aquileian Rite XVI-3d; 
Armenians I-72b; Australia I- 
70b; A^-ranches II-162d; Bob- 
bio Missal III-502a: Canada I- 
70b; candles I-347d: cloister 
IV-61d; duration I-165d; East 
Syrian Rite XIV-416c; Ethi- 
opian Church V-570d; fasts 
I1-240C; III-I66a; V-790a; 
Galilean Rite VI-360a; Gau- 
dete Sunday VI-394b; Gloria 
VI-5S4a; 5S4b; Gospels VI- 
660c; Gradual VI-716a; Greek 
Church I-7«c; lessons I I-773a; 
IX-19.5C; 198b; marriage VII- 
697a ; X-5c ; Mozarabic V-7 1 2b ; 
X-615b; O Antiphons I-510b; 
XI-173b ; military orders X II I- 
353c; origin I-166a; period of 
I-16.5b; ritual I-165d; Rorate 
Coeli XIII-183b; sequence 
Xn-lS.3b; symbolism I-163c: 
Truce of God XV-69a; in 
United States 1I-240C; V-790a 

Advent Christians I-166d; in 
New Hampshire X-7S9b 

Adventinus, Saint, Bishop of 
Chartres III-635b 

ADVENTISTS I-166c; Age-to- 
come I-167a; Evangelical I- 
166d; Seventh Dav I-166d; in 
United States XIV-2S0a 

Advent of Christ. See Second 

Adventius, Bishop of Metz IX— 

Adventor, Saint, martyr XV-94b 

Adventurers, English, in Ireland 
I-I12b: .^ct of Explanation I- 
113a; Act of Settlement I- 

Adventus, Bishop of Chartres 

Adversum gentes (St. Athana- 
aius) n-30d 

Adversus aleatores, tract VII- 

— haereses (St. Epiphanius of 
Salamis) IX-596c; (St. Ire- 
na^us) VI-601b: VIII-130d: 
IX-272d; XII-26,3b; XV-136a 

— Valentinianos VI-601d 

OF I-ir,7a 

Ad vitanda. Constitution of 
Martin V III-528C 

Advocate, for beatiBcation II- 
367d; consistorial I-167d; fis- 
cal, of Holy Office XIII-137c; 
obligations of XII-192a; rulers 
called Vl-63a; simple I-168a; 
titular I-I68a 

— periodical, Melbourne II-120b; 

— C. T. A. U., periodical, United 
States of America 

— ecclesiastical. See Advocatus 

Advocate of the Devil. .Sfi 
.advocatus Diaboli 

Advocates, periodical, U. S. A. 

—Pious Society of I-lfi7d 

Advocates' Library, Edinburgh 


—OF ST. PETER I-16Sa; col- 
leges of I-16Sa 

Advocati, John, Dominican XIV- 

Advocatia X 1-34 lb 

Advocatus, niartvr V-124C 

—DIABOLI I-l'68b; XIII-144c 

— ECCLESI.a; I-168c; VII-324a; 
as clerics X-333a; duties VIII- 
54.5d; XI-417b; patron as I- 

ADVOWSON I-lG9a; appendant 
J-169d; collative I-169c; do- 
native I-169b; in gross I-170a: 
and jus regaliie XII-712d; 
presentative I-169b 

Adyta. .Sc(" Presbytery 

ADYTUM 1-1 70a 

Adze tonsure 1II-639C 

Adzer, .\rctibishop of Lund. See 

—sculptor IV-732b 

Ae, deitv. See Ea. 

.fficci. Bishop of Dunwich XI-1 21d 

/Economus I-693c; XII-238d 

Aed. .See Aedh 

Aeda AUain. See Aedh Allain 

170b. See Maedoc. Saint 

.£deluald of Lichfield, Bishop 

JEdesius. See Edesius 

Aedh, Saint, Bishop of Sletty 
I-73.3d; VIII-639a 

— Saint, nephew of St. Patrick 

—Prince of Hy-Briuin VI-325a 

— Ainmire. See Aedh mac Ain- 

— Allain, Irish king III-495a; 

495b; IX-284b 
— Dubh. See Aedh of Kildare, 

• — Finn, King of Ossory I-170c 
— mac Ainmire, High King of 

Ireland I-170b; ni-495b 
— mac Brendain, lord of Teffia 

— of Leinster, Saint. See Aedh of 

Kildare. .Saint 
— of Ossory. .See .\edh Finn 
Aedh-og. See .\edan of Ferns 
AedhOimidh. Irish king VI-156a 
— Slaine. See Aedh Allain 
—the Cleric. .Sec Aedh Finn, 

King of Ossor\' 
iEdiUrid. See Ethelfrid 
^dnotfa, prior of Ramsey XII- 

— Abbot of Ramsey XII-63Sb 
iEduinus. .See Edwin 
.ffidward, monk. IX-269C 
.£dwulf. Bishop of Crediton III- 

.ffifleda. .See Elfieda 
Aega VI-240C 
iEgffi, oracle of XI-266b 
Mge&t John of. See John of .^gea 
^geas, Roman governor I-471d; 

.£geathes. .See .Egeas 
Aeger, Henry. .See Henry of 

^gialeia. See Achaia 
iEgidian Constitutions XIV-2r)4b 
/Egidian school IV-127d; VII- 

ISc: 2S4d 
.ffigidius. Saint. See Giles 
—Bishop of Modena X-414b 
—Bishop of Phoca-a XII-41b 
— Bishop of Tusculum, and Ana- 

cletus II IX-17a; in Poland 

— Roman count I V-70b ; VI-239a 
— a Columna. See Colonna. 

— Corboliensis, physician X-126c 
— of Assisi, Blessed I-l 70c; 

Dicta I-171a; and St. Fran- 
cis VI-223a 
— of Rome. .See Colonna. Egidio 
—OF VITERBO, cardinal I- 

171a; Vn-2S3a; 28.53; Alex- 
ander VI. censure I-292b; and 

Lanciano VIII-774d; and Zara 


^gidiusRomanus. .See Colonna. 

Aegil, Abbot of Fulda III-245b 

.£gilius de Fuscaranis, canonist 

^gina. See of VI-738d 

.^gineta, Paulus, medical writer 

Aegir, deity V-280b 

Aeizanes, King of Axum, and 
Constantius II-163b; conver- 
sion \'-282a; inscription II- 

Aelbel, Johann, passion play XI- 
534 b 

iElberht (.Albert). Archbishop of 
York. .See Ethelbert 

.ffildhelm, Saint. See Aldhelm 

Aelen, John, Vicar Apostolic of 
-Madras IX-51.5C 

jElfege. iSec Elphege 

.^Ifgar, Bishop of Elmham XI- 

Aelfheah. .See Elphege 

Aelfhere. .See Elfhere 

.ffiUhun, Bishop of Dunwich XI- 

— Bishop of London IX-347d 

.ffilfleda. Saint. See .Mfrida 

— Abbess of Whitbv XV-609c; at 
River Nith Svnod I-9a 

.ffilfred the Great. See Alfred 

.£lfric. Archbishop of Canter- 
bury I-171C; III-299d; Greg- 
ory V \l-790d 

—Bishop of Crediton IX-572d 

—I, Bishop of Elmham XI-122a 

— n. Bishop of Elmham XI-122a 

— in. Bishop of Elmham XI- 

OF EYNSHAM, abbot I-171c; 
V-459d; on Ash Wednesday 
ceremony I-775d; canons of 
III-563a; Gospels XV-374d; 
homdies 1-51 Id; VII-143d; 
448a; on marriage, clerical III- 
4S6d; on sign of the cross XIII- 
786c; on wake III-77b 

— Puttoc, Archbishop of York 
VIII-470a; XV-704a; 734b 

.ffilfrid. See Alfred 

^Ifrith, Iving of Northumbria 

^Ifsige, Abbot of Bath II-347b 

— Archbishop-elect of Canterbury 
V-200d; and Odo XI-209d 

— I, Bishop of W^inchester XV- 

— n. Bishop of Winchester XV- 

— in, Bishop of W^inchester XV- 

^Ifstan, Bishop of London, and 
Saint Dunstan V~201a 

■ — Bishop of Rochester, England 

MUwaidf Bishop of London IX- 

£|{wig. Bishop of London IX- 
34 7d 

^Ifwin, prince V-327a 

—Bishop of Elmham XI-122a 

— Bishop of Winchester XV-650C 

.ffilfwold. See .\lfwold, Saint 

iElia Aurelia Mactaris. .See Mac- 

— Capitolina (Jerusalem) IV- 
.529d; VII-104C; VIII-201b; 
344c: 356b; 390c; XII-104C; 
founded VIII-344C 

— Eudocia. See Eudocia 

— Flacilla, empress XIV-57Sa 

£lianus. Bishop of Selinus XIII- 

Mila, King of Deira XI-348d; 
death V-32:!d 

.Slle, Six-.n clii.dain III-fi.57c 

.ffiLNOTH, biographer I-172a 

.ffilphege. Ser I'.lphege 

.ffiLRED, SAINT, Abbot of Rie- 
v.iviix M7i;b; II-462d; VI- 
.55iid: Xin-.'-.4c; on St. Acca 
I-9:Sd: Dalgairn's life of IV- 
604c; Edwanl the Confessor, 
prophecy of XII-47.'Jd 

£lthric. Archbishop of Y'ork XV- 

JElthryth, Saint. .Sec Alfrida 

.£lurus, Timotheus. See Timo- 
thy .Elurus 

.£milia, Iialy. St. Ambrose ad- 
ministration of l-384b; schism 
1-66 Id 

.Smiliana, Saint VI-780d 

.£milian Basilica, Rome Il-SZSa; 
XIII-I67a; 176a 

XVI— 7 

Roman numeral indicates volume; arabic, page; a, b, c, d, quarter of page. 



^milianus, martyr IV-2yob 

— Saint, Bishop of Nantes X- 

—Bishop of Trevi XIV-234d 
— Saint, Bishop of Valence XV- 

— Saint, Bishop of VercelU XV- 

—Prefect of Egypt XI-707d; V- 

— prefect at Spoleto XIV-233a 
— Asellius, general XI-739C 
— Hieronymus. See Jerome Emi 

iiani. Saint 
^milius, lapsus IV-584a 
— Paulus, military leader XIV- 

— Regillus, prcetor, and PhocEea 

^naria (Ischia), town VIII-185a 
^neas, healed by St. Peter I- 

— Greek Bishop of Geraaa VI- 

— Irish prelate. See Aengus, 

Saint, The Culdee 
—Trojan prince VI-333b; in art 

(Giorgione) VI-565a; (Kauff- 

mann) VHI-BlOb 
—OF GAZA, philosopher I-172d; 

— of Paris, bishop XI^S2a: and 

Prudentius of Troves XII-51Sd 
— Sylvius. See Pius II 
.£nedina. Saint, veneration of 

£neid (Vergil), divination by 

^nesidemus,philosopherX-742c ; 

XII-29a; XIII-617b 
.ffinezeh, tribe XIV-4U0C 
DEE I-173a; Feilire of II- 

795c: III-162d; VII-677d; St. 

Fothad VI-156a; hymns III- 

504b; O'Hanlon XI-224d; St. 

Maelruain XVI-77b; in Tal- 

lacht monastery IX-520C 
— prince, baptism XI-557d 
— mac Ailill, ordained IV-635b 
— mac Natfraich, King of Cashel, 

conversion Ill-JOla 
— mac Tipraite, poet VIII-121b 
— Osrithe, King of Ossory XI- 

Mnnoa. See JEnoa 
.ffiNON (Ennonl, town I-173c; 

Vni-345b; SUlb 
^noudt. See .\rnoudt 
.£olus .£oIa (Gegenbauer) VI- 

.ffiONS (Gnosticism) I-173d: V- 

398c; VI-40Sb; 594c; 595a; 

XII-553d; XV-256b; divisions 

I-174a; Docetism V-71d; Man- 

ichffiism IX-592a; Marcion 

IX-647a; Marcosian system 

IX-649d; Nasorajan X-706d 
— in Phoenician cosmogony IV— 

410d; XII-553d 
.ffionus. Bishop of Aries III-135b 
^pinus, scientific researches XII- 

£qua ( Vico Equense) , ancient see 

^quarn reputamus, Constitution 

of Paul III IV-OOlb 
.ffiquiprobabilism I-339d; XII- 

441c: 442d; 443d; 445a; XIV- 

(ilOc; Thomistic School XIV- 

.ffiquitius, patrician XIV-.321C 
.ffiquum reputamus. Bull of Pius 

V XlV-Sld 
AER I-174b; in burial III-78a; 

Ruthenian Rite XIII-278a 
.£ria. .See Thasos 
Aerius, Bishop of ZephjTiura XV- 

—OF PONT0S I-174c: XII- 

410a: IV-65.')C: on purgatory 

IV-05.5c: XII-,576a 
Aeromancy V-48d; XIV-339b 
Aeronautics, Biot II 57fib; Gus- 

mao VII-89C; Lana VIII-772c; 

Lana's machine (ill.) VIII- 

772d; Montgolfier X-.541d 
Aerostats, Bacon's theory XIII- 

Aertnys, Josephus Antonius, the- 
ologian XII-44.ia 
Aerts, priest XIII-13.5a 
Aertselaer, Jerome Van, Vicar 

Apostolic of Central Mongolia 

III-(i77b: X-4,S2b 
Aes. See Hai-iah 

.ffischines, heretic X-449d; 523b 

— rhetorician X-303d 

.£schylus, astrology II-20a; eth- 
ical teachings XI-391c; fate, 
V-791d; pessimism XI-740d 

.£scivio. Bishop of Dorchester 

.^sculapius, deity X-123a; Ath- 
ens, shrine II-44a: emblem, in 
Ambrosian Basilica I-389c ; Epi- 
daurus, temple V-154b; Gir- 
genti VI-57Ib; XI-390a: at 
Lepanto IX-lSld; miracles 
XII-332a; oracles of XI-205d; 
266a; Paphlagonia I-297d; 
temples Vll^SOd; XI-390a; 
Tricca XV-40c 

.ffiscwulf. Bishop of Dunwich 

iEsemia (Isernia), town VIII- 

Aeshmo Daeva, demon II-155c; 

Aesbun, demon IV-409a 

.£sina. See Jesi, Diocese of 

Aesir, deity IV-412b 

.£sis. See Jesi 

.ffisop. Book of XII-307d 

.£sop's Fables, Chinese trans- 
lation III-673a; Portuguese 

^thelbert. See Ethelbert 

.ESTHETICS I-174C; Batteux 
II-350b; England I-176c; 
France I-176c; Germany I- 
176c; history I-176b; Kant 
VIII-605d; and naturalism X- 
714d; philosophy of I-174d; of 
Plato I-761a; Neo-Scholas- 
ticism X-748b; Stockl XIV- 
29Sb: systems and methods I- 

^sticampianus, Joannes Rhagius, 
humanist IV-4G0a: VII-540d 

.£tas, ethnological classification 

Mtema. Christi munera, hvmn 
I-393b: \'II-600c 

Sterne rerum Conditor, hjTun 
I-:','i:!c: \n-0(i(ic 

.ffiTERNI PATRIS, Encyclical of 
l.eo XUl I-177a: iV-415d; 
V-414a: 755b; VIII-667b; IX- 
172b; X-749a ;XIV-591a;666a; 
702a; on Scholasticism XIV- 
672a; on semmaries XIII-699b; 
.St. Thomas Aquinas XIV- 
(>68b; 67 Id; 672b; 672c; 672d; 

—PATRIS, Encyclical of Pius IX 
I-176d; XII-136c; XV-303c 

— Patris, periodical, Italy XI- 

— Patris Filius, Bull of Gregory 
XV I-99b; III-312b; IV-193a; 
V-677c; VII-5b 

^thelbald. King of Mercia XI- 
215b; Clovesho IV-68d; Croy- 
land Abbey IV-541c: eccle- 
siastical privilege IV-5S0a; 
Guthlac VII-92C 

— King of Wessex I-309d 

— Bishop of Sherborne XI-209C 

—Bishop of York XV-734b 

.ffithelbeorht. Bishop of York. 
See Ethelbert 

.Ethelbert. See Ethelbert 

.ffithelburh. See Ethelburga 

Mthel&ssd, Lady, and St. Dun- 
stan V-199d 

—queen IX-002a 

iEthelfrith. See Ethelfrid 

.ffithelhard. .See Ethelhard 

.ffithelbeard. Bishop of Winches- 
ter XV-650b 

iBthelhelm, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury II-347C 

^thelhere, and St. Hereswitha 

iEthelhun, Bishop of Worcester 

.£thelmaer. Bishop of Elmham 

.£thelred. Bishop of Worcester. 
.See Heathured 

—.Sec .«Ired; Ethelred 

iEthelsige. .See Hclsin 

.ffithelstan. Bishop of Elmham 
XI- 122a 

— Danish leader. See Guthnim 

.ffithelwald. Bishop of Lichfield 
lll-4',)7b; IX-232d 

.ffithelweald, of Elmliam 
XI- 122a 

— Saint, Bishop of Winchester 

.ffithelweald U, Bishop of Win- 
chester XV-650C; foundation 

.Sthelwine V-201b 

.ffithelwold. See Ethelwold 

.Sthelwulf. .See Ethelwulf 

.Etheria. See Silvia of Aquitaine 

iGtherianus. .See Etherianus 

.£therius. Saint, Bishop of Bour- 
ges II-720b 

— Saint, Bishop of Lyons IX-472d 

— (Etherius). Saint, Bishop of 
Osma I-lSOc; XIV-lSOc 

— Bishop of Pompeiopolis XII- 

— Bishop of Tyana XV-106a 

— Saint, Bishop of Vienne VII- 

.£thilnoth, Bishop of London IX- 

.ffithra. See Thasos 

Aetians, heretics V-605b; and 
Acacians I-80a; baptism II- 

.Etiology, in philosophy. See 

Aetius, heretic I-80a: V-605b; 
X-161d; Divine Nature, teach- 
ing on II-64b; monograph 

— Bishop of Isaura Nova VIII- 

— Bishop of Lydda IX-46Sc; 

AETIUS, Roman general I-177c; 
and Albinus IX-154d; Attila 
II-61b; Orleans XI-318d 

— of Amida, physician X-124b 

iEtswinapath, Council of I-280a 

Etus, See of VI-738d 

Afdabuddin Kashi, poet XI-720b 

Afer Victorinus. See Victorinus 



Affability XV-47.3c 

Affaires de Rome (Lametmais) 

Affari vos, Encyclical of Leo 
XIII XII-597b 

Affections, Alvarez de Paz I- 
374c; Plato V-750c; Stoic con- 
ception V-o58c 

Affective impulses, Comte I-369b 

— prayers IV-325b 

Affiliation, regulations I-693a 

AFFINITY (Bib.) I-177d 

—(canon law) I-178b: as beget- 
ting affinity I-179a; by bap- 
tism II-270a 

—(civil) adoption I-147d; con- 
sanguinity IV-26Sa; and eu- 
genics XV1-39C; impediment 
VII-696C; 697c; and incest 
VII-717b: as relationship XII- 
731c; Sacraments, Congrega- 
tion of XIII-140c; spiritual II- 


AiSacius, Johannes, physician X- 
120b: Xni-39Sb 

Affleck, Annie E., wife of_ Sir 
John .Sparrow Thompson XIV— 

Afflek, James, poet Xin-624c 

Afflighem, abbey I-179d; II- 
450c; Cassinese reform II- 

Afflitti, Annibale degU, Bishop of 
Reggio di Calabria XII-717c 

Affonso, Pedro, Bishop of Oporto 

— Christian name. See .\lfonso. 

Affranchisement. See Manumis- 
sion of Christian Slaves 

Archbishop of Paris I-180a; 
II-6a; XI^84d; and Balmes 
II-225b; Dupanloup V-202b; 
tomb (ill.) I-180b; de Ravig- XII-6fi8b 

Affricus, Saint XIV-796d 

Affusion. .See Infusion 

Afga (Apheka), temple of Venus 

Afghanistan, Christianity I-782b; 
VII-725a; Jews I-779d; Mo- 
hammedans X^2od; popula- 
tion I-777d 

Afghans, ethnological classifica- 
tion XII-626C; levirate IX- 
694d; Persia, conquest of 
VIII-193a; XI-718b 

Afiarta, Paul, papal chamberlain 
XIV-2.S9b; and Adrian I I- 
155b; treachery III-G12b 

Afikoman, portion of unleavened 
cake X 1-5 13c 

Afka (Apheca), town VI-434a 

Afora, tribe I-lS3a 

Afra, name X-674b 

—SAINT I-lSOd; tomb II-78a 

Afre. See Hugbern 

AFRICA I-181b 

—Church I-188b; Benedict VII, 
action of II-428d; betrothal 
II-53Sc: Canon law IX-61c; 
Catholic jurisdictions, table of 
I-190a: celibacy, clerical III- 
4S5a: Christianity I-186d: Deo 
Gratias, use of IV-737c: dio- 
ceses in 1906 I-191a; V-5c; 
Dominicans XII-368C: Good 
Shepherd convents VI-64Sb; 
graves, early Christian III- 
505d; Holy Family. Sisters of 
the VII-408a; Holy Ghost, 
Congregation of the VII-417b; 
Jesuits VI-450d ; Latin, eccle- 
siastical IX-20b; Lavigerie IX- 
51b; Lazarists X-361d; litera- 
ture. Christian I-192d; liturgy 
I-194b; Mary Immaculate, Ob- 
lates of XI-186b; Mercy of 
Jesus, Sisters of the VII-489a; 
Premonstratensians XII-390c: 
Primate XII— 124a: Propagan- 
da XII-457b; 457d; Propaga- 
tion of Faith XII-462a; Sale- 
sians XIII-399b; Scheutveld 
missionaries VII-167d. See 
African Church, Early 

— Education: Charity of Jesus 
and Mary, Sisters of HI-609c; 
Christian instruction, Brothers 
of III-712a 

— Geography I-iSlb; desert (ill.) 
V-facing 330; exploration in 
VI-451a: Henr\- the Navigator 
VI-449a: map. I-facing 180; 
North, map, V-facing 362; Pro- 
consular I-199b: pro\nnce III- 
387b; Prussian colonies XII- 
522a; Roman, extent of I-191b; 
titular sees, see under geograph- 
ical divisions of Africa 

• — History: adultery, punishment 
of I-163c; Arabs take III-104a; 
blindness, statistics of V-306a; 
deaf, statistics V-320c; dia- 
lects I-194b; inhabitants I- 
182a; Italian colonies VIII- 
244c: Justinian III-102C ; mean- 
ing, ancient I-181b: negroes 
XII-627a; polygamy IX-695a; 
population XIV-280d: Portu- 
guese crusades II-162b; Pres- 
ter John's country XII— 102b; 
Romans subject (146) XIII- 
166d; Russians in XIV-4Sb; 
slave trade XIV-39b: trade 
centres, ancient II-163a: Van- 
dals in XV-26SC: writers of 
third century VI-6d 

— Missions: Baptist II-280d; 
Comboni IV-152c: Jesuits 
XIV-94C; (1912) XIV-103c; 
Lazarists X-364d; Protestant 
missions I-187b; II-280d; 
Scotch Established Church 
XHI-630d; statistics I-190a 

— Religions and sects: Baptists, 
statistics II-281d; deity, prim- 
itive notions of IV-686d: fet- 
ishism ^'I-54a; Islamism I- 
185d; Judaism I-lS5b; mason- 
ry in, statistics L\-778d; 
Methodism X-240C: Moham- 
medanism I-779b: X-^25a; 
425d: Presbyterianism XII- 
394a; Reformed Church XII- 
7Ilc: religion XIII-317c: sta- 
tistics, Christian, tabulated 
XIV-2Slb; statistics, religious 
XlV-L'Tsd: 2S0a: 2Slb: Totem- 
ism XI\-7.S9b 

African Association, International. 
See International African .\sso- 

— CHURCH, EARLY I -191b; 
Agape I-201d: Agapette I- 
202b; baptism controversy I- 
232b: II-264d; in-3S6d; 387c; 
baptismal vessels l-334b: burial 
rites I- 196d ; canon of Scriptures 
III-272d; 27Sa; canons III- 
2S3b; Carthage III-3S.5b; Car- 
thage, Calendar of Ill-161d; 
Circumcellions V-125a; Com- 
munion, private IV-176C; Dc- 
cian persecvition I-191d; de- 
struction of I-192d; Donatists 
I-191d; V-I21c: feast and fasts 
I-197c; Gospel VI-<i39<l; liter- 

Large type indicates titlea of articles; other types, topics treated; (ill.) = illustrations. 



ature I-192d; liturgj I-194a; 
Mas8l-197d: metropolitan see 
I-691b; Office, Divine I-19Sd; 
organization I I'.v.tb; Pil;it-'i:iii 
controversy Il-^^d; |.r.:ntiin;i, 
rulell-87a: ;in.l l!"Tii' 1 •'•■'la: 
JI-659c; litiOb; III-:<s:>d. .isi'.d; 
subdiaconate XI\-3J0d: \ an- 
dal invasions I-192b; 239a; 
worship I-194d 
African Councils. See African 

—LITURGY I-194b; 197a; IX- 
313b; assemblies I-194d; bap- 
tism I-195d; burial I-196d; 
calendar I-197c; catechumens, 
dismissal of I-19Sa; Holy 
Eucharist I-195c; Mass I- 
197d; matrimony I-196c; Of- 
fice. Divine I-19Sd; ordmation 
I-196c; penance I-196b; sac- 
raments I-198C 
— Methodist Episcopal Church -V- 

241c: missions. Africa I-18(d 
— Missionaries (o! Algiers). See 

White Fathers 
— Missions, Priests of (Lyons) 
I-189d; IX-476a; XI-74b; 
XIII-586d; XVI-80d; 82a; 
seminary Xll^SSb; 458c; stat- 
istics I-191a 
—Missions, Society of (America) , 
in Georgia Vl-4tJ3a: XII-()2yd 
— Missions, Society of (France), 

collection VI-175C 
Africa Nova, province III-385b 
Acts I-200a; St. Augustine II- 
87c; canons III-283b; classifi- 
cation XIV-389a; clergy I- 
199d; enumeration I-200c; 
synods of 416 and 417 II-109a; 
national XIV-389a;3S9c; scope 
— Union Methodist Protestant 

Church X-241C 
Africanus, Saint Xlll-lOSd 
— Constantine. See Constantino 

— Julius. See Julius Africanus 
African Version, New Testament 

Afringans, in .\ vesta II-153b 
Afshars, Turkish tribe I-789d 
Afsi mission V-56Sd 
Afuleh,El (Aphec),townVI-434a 
Aga, Hussein, revolt Il-i'tt'ic 
Agabio, Jacopo Gabrielli d , 

Florentin.- \T-lll7d 
Agabius, Saint, Bishop of Novara 

Agabus, name X-ti76d 
AGABUS I-200d; III-5S9C 
Agaces, tribe XI-470b 
Agada. See Hagada 
Agade. Sec Achad 
Agag, Amalecite king I-45od; 

death I-378d , 

Agaldus, Abbot of Valladolid. 

See Saltus 
Agamatanu (Ecbatana), town X- 

118a ,. - J 

Agamemnon, dream \-l.>4d; of 

.fischylus V-1.54d 
Agapse. See Agape 
Agape, Saint XIV-634b 
— Priscillianist IX-«50b; XII- 
429c • , ,. 

Agape I-200d; III-594c; aboli- 
tion I-202a; ampullae I-439d; 
Abyssinian Church I-78c; in 
early African Church I-19.5a; 
in celte III-488d; deacons, 
office of IV-648b; fresco III- 
515a; pagan idea of I-620C; 
for poor III-426C; 59.5d; .597a; 
Sandemanians XIII-435b; 
Tunkera II-281a; XV-90d 
— Aurelia, epitaph III-513b 
Agapemonists VII-703a 
AGAPET^,virgin3 1-202b; Gnos- 
tics I-202c; name X-674b 
martyr IX-89d; tomb III- 

—I, SAINT, Pope I-202d; XII- 
273b; and Anthimus of Con- 
stantinople X-491a; at Con- 
stantinople X-190a; and Justi- 
nian I-in3c; library IX-22Sd; 
oecumenical title VI-759d 

— n. Pope I -203b: XII-273d; and 
Otto I XI-3.54d 

— deacon I-202C 

— Bishop of Seleucia Trachsea 

— Saint, Bishop of Synnada or 

Svnnaus (4th cent.) XIV-387d 
— Bishop of Svnnada (406-25) 

XIV :i,s7d 
Aeapitus, Saint, martyr IX-S9d; 

t,.i„l. Ill-514d. 
— .s'.v Apapctus 
Agapius, Saint, martyr (20 Sept.) 

— Saint, martyr (19 Aug.), Gaza 

XIV-564b , , 

— m, Melchite Patriarch of An- 

tioch X-160a 
—Bishop of Cirta. martyr I V-295b 
— Patriarch of Jerusalem MII- 

— Manichsean writer IX-596b 
Agar, name X-676C 
— concubine of Abraham I-51c; 

Arabia I-6G4d; and Sara XIII- 

46Sa; modern theory I-66.5a 
—WILLIAM SETH, canon I- 

Agarenus, Mohammedan II-315d 

Agar's WeU (Bib.) V-395d; VI- 
433c J ^„ 

Agas, Ralph, map of London IX- 

Agasshi, orphanage II-343d 

Agassiz, Louis, anatomy I-461a; 
and Darwinism V-658b; fos- 
sils, theory of XI-llOc; on 
Preadamism XII-371b 

Agata dei Goti, Santa. See Santa 
Agata dei Goti 

Agate, stone XIV-305b; 306d 

Agatha, town. See Agde 

—SAINT I-203c; Acts I-204a; 
feast of III-161d; 163b; patron- 
age of. special XI-566C 

— mother of St. Margaret IX- 

—bread I-204b 

—Lin, martyr VIII-714a 

Agathange de Vendome, Blessed 
I 77c: lll-324d 

AGATHANGELUS, biographer 
I-2ll4b: \Tl'21b 

AGATHIAS, historian I-204b; 
IIl-lir,a; ll'.ia 

AGATHO, SAINT, pope I-204d: 
XII-273C; Canterbury dispute 
XIV-571b; XV-622b; and 
Monothelites IV-310a; VII- 
454b; X-507b; musical com- 
pilation I-5S0C 

— Patriarch of Jerusalem VIll- 

— Bishop of Montefeltro X-52Sd 

— Bishop of Syracuse XIV-397b 

Agathocles, tyrant of Syracuse 

XIV-396d; Carthage, wars 

with XII^2d; XIII-773d; 

and Catanians III-429d; Cro- 

ton IV-422d; Hippo Diarrhy- 

tus VII-360a; ^le.ssina X- 

216d; Reggio XII-717b 

Agathon, Christian Brother VIII- 

Agathonice ( Agathonica) of Per- 
gamus. Saint, mart.vr X-523a 

Agathonicus, Saint, martyr XIII- 

Agathopolis, See of XIV-166d 

Agau, ethnological classification 
XII-fi2l)c; Azevedo II-167d 

AGAUNUM, town I-205a; cus- 
tom of I-206a; psalmody I- 
206a; reliquarv I-206a; The- 
ban legion X-75b 

er I-206b; XI-270C 

— Alphonsus, rector English Col- 
logc. Romp IV^Sc: V-i73a 

2iir,c; Vl-:-;':t7b; X-546b; XIV- 
3^9d: XVI-:l2c; on altars, con- 
secration of IV-279C; on bless- 
ing, episcopal VI-361a: cate- 
chumenatc. decree III^31c; 
on Christmas III-727c; com- 
munion precept V-588c: XI- 
517b: deposition IV-737d; di- 
vination, decree V^9c: Office. 
Divine, regulation XI-220a; 
false witness, punishment of 
IV-692a; head-dress, regula- 
tions VII-113b; oratories III- 
57.5c: slavers- XIV-37d; on sub- 
deacons III-485b 
— Diocese of X-.546a 
Agdistis (Cybele), a deity XI- 

Age, Chinese method of reckon- 
ing I-208C; definition of I- 
206d; Eucharist XII-590b 

—CANONICAL I-206c; of chil- 
dren VIII-587a; of delegation 
IV-G9Gb; cloister, transgression 
of IV-Ulb; marriage, civil IX- 
692a: and irregularity VIII- 
172b;iudge. ecclesiastical Vni- 
546a; ministry, Apostolic XIH- 
585d; novice XI-144b; reason 
—Old, term of I-206d; of patri- 
archs XI-548b 
Aged Poor Society, London IX- 

Agellius, Biblical commentator 

Agello, Nicol6, Archbishop of 

Salerno XIII-397d 
Agelnothus. Sec Ethelnoth 
Lazarist seminary X-361b; 
map Vl-facing 188 
Agenda, canon of Mass III-256b: 

in African Church I-198b 
—ritual. Evangelical Church V- 
643b; medieval IX-299d; 302b 
Agens in Rebus I-209c 
Agents-General, French I-797c 
Age of discretion, limits of I- 

— of man. See Man, Age of 
—OF REASON I-209a 
—of the World. See World, An- 
tiquity of 
Agericus, Saint, Bishop of Verdun 

Ager Drsulanus, Cologne XV- 

— Vaticanus, Rome XV-276c 
Age-to-Come Adventists I-167a 
Aggai, Bishop of Edessa V-282c: 

in legend of .\bgar V-88c 
— Papa bar, Bishop of Seleucia 

Ctcsiphon \-I-758a 
Aggeson, Swen, chronicle XIII- 

AGGEUS, prophet I-209d; XII- 
478d; Psalms, authorship of 
XII-537b; and Great Syna- 
gogue XIV-381a; on Temple 
XIV-499b; 502b 
— Book of 1-2 10b; canonicity 

Aggith. See Haggith 
Aggregation, regulations I-693a 
Aghaboe Abbey nl-2.50b 
Aghadoe VIIH;27b 
Aghagower, Diocese of XV-Sla 
Agha Mohammed, shah XI- 

71Sb; 722d 
Aghasi, Mirza, Persian minister 

Aghatamar, Pec of III-4."i4d 
Aghionlian, Maurice Sebastien, 

Huron chief VII-582d 
Aghob rV, Patriarch of Etsch- 

maidzin I-739b; V-572a 
Aghouanghks, evangelization of 

Agia, Saint, XI-319d 
Agiensis, identity IV-581C 
Agilas, Visigothic king XIV-177d 
Agilbert, Saint, Bishop of Paris 

—Bishop of Tongres IX-236b 
— Bishop of the West Saxons XV- 

icler I-210d 
Agility of glorified body VII- 

174c; XII-793d 
Agilolfing, family II-354c; 355d 
Agiltrude, empress VI-140d 
Agilulf. See Agilulfus 
Agilulfus, Saint, Bishop of Bour- 

ges II-720C 
— Saint, Bishop of Cologne I- 

211a; IV-117d 
— King of the Lombards IX- 
33Sd; St. Columbanus IV- 
139b; conversion II-605c; Cre- 
mona IV-483C; Padua XI- 
3S6a; Turin XV-93d 
Agilulph. See Agilulfus 
Agilus (Aile), Saint, Abbot of 
Rebais X-9Sd; mission in Ba- 
varia II-4.56a 
— Viscount of Orleans. See Ay 
Agincourt, battle a41.5) VI-168d; 
archerv III-fi92d: St. John of 
Beverly I I-540b ; oriflamme 
XI-306b; XIII-.344a 
— S6roux d*. See S(^roux d' Agin- 

Aginnum. See Agen 
AGIOS O THEOS I-2Ilb; addi- 
tion I-211c; in .Apostolic Con- 
stitutions, Amen I^OSa; Arme- 
nian Kilo l-2Ud; blessing of 
Il-6l)lb; canticle III-302C; at 
Constantinoiilf I-576c: East 
Syrian Kite XIV-115a; Epini- 
kion and XIII-433a; Gloria 
VI-384b; on Good Friday VI- 
644a; Greek Rite I-212a; in 
Improperia VII-704a; as intro- 
ductory prayer IV-761c; Jac- 
obite Rite XlV^lSb; John 
Damascene, St. VIII-460d; 
Latin Rite I-212a; legend I- 
211c; in Liturgy XIII-725d; 
in Liturgy of .\ddeus and Maris 
I-137a; in Liturgy of St. James 
I-572c; 573c; in Liturgy of St. 
Mark I-304C; Monophysite ad- 
dition V-385b; 635d; XI-768b; 
in Mozarabic Mass X-619b; in 
Office, Divine I-106b; origin 
I-211b; in Svriac Liturgy of 
St. James I-573c; in Testament 
of Adam I-132b 
Agiprand, Duke of Spoleto XIV- 

Agios, Ambrose, Apostolic dele- 
gate, council IX-59SC 
Aglabites, kingdom XV-SSd; in 
Sicily XIII-775a; in Tripoli- 
tana XV-59C 
Aglar (Aquileia), town I-661C 
Agli, monastery VII-649C 
Agliardi, Antonio, cardinal XVI- 
1 7d; Ceylon I U-550C; Hungary 
II-13.5d; church in commen- 
dam VII-719b; India I-316d: 
III-154b; Russia, mission of 
Aglibert, Saint, XI-489a 
Aglio, Antonio, Bishop of Fiesole 

Aglioni, Bartolomeo, Bishop of 

Todi XIV-7.54C . 

Aglipay, Gregorio, schismatic XI- 

149d; XII-15d 
Agmarus, Saint, Bishop of Senlis 

Agnan, Saint See Aignan, Saint 
Agnates (Roman Law) IX-83b 
Agnelli, Giacomo, pubhsher XIII- 

—GIUSEPPE, writ«r, I-212a 
— GUGLIELMO, sculptor I-212b 
Agnellus, martyr IV-627b 
— Bishop of Bolsena XI-332C 
—Saint, Bishop of Naples X- 

686d ^,, 

— Saint, Bishop of Ravenna XII- 
663c; 662d; ambo XII-564b; 
crosses V-25Ia 
—Bishop of Rimini XIII-5SC 
—Bishop of Telese XIV-176d 
— Bishop of Terracina XIV-518C 

relics III-326C 

historian I-212d; XI-762d 
Agnensi, Astorgio, cardinal. Bish- 
op of Milcto X-303b 
Agnes, name X-674a 
— Saint, .Abbess of Poitiers I-8b; 
Xll-lSla; and Fortunatus 
— princess, foundation VIII-671d 
—wife of Alfonso VI X-612b 
— margravine of Austria II-123a 
— daughter of St. Hedwig VII- 

—sister of St. Hedwig VII-189a 
— ^wife of Henry the Long XI- 

—daughter of Duke of Meran 

—Abbess of Nivelles VI-534a 
— ^wife of Otto the Illustrious XI- 

41 5c 
— Beats Virginis, hymn I-214c; 

mathematician I-214d; II-642d 

—Witch of 1-21. =.b 

2i:ia; and St. Clare IV-6a 

21'!d \n-339d; and Innocent 
IV XII 2.-.2b 

— of Burgundy, countess, founda- 
tion IX (id 

SAINT 1-21 .id 

—of Poitou, empress VII-229b: 
and Alexander II VII-63C; 

Roman numeral indicates volume; arable, page; a, b, c, d, quarter of page. 



„„,Ie assembly. I-2S6c; 'H- 
12Sd- coronation i.l-'o*o. 
kMebrand VI-792a; regency 


_gf ROME SAINT 1:124. 

44c; and St. Enwrenhana ^ 
401c; feast of I"-!"*: f^l 

_i^^u1s?a':-'^rL^""of Russia 

AGNETZ, Eucharistac bread 1- 
21.5b; 5B2c; Ruthenian Rite 
Agnew,~"CoraeUus, ophthalmol- 
ogist X-141c iv_68.5d; 
Agm, deity II 7dua, 1 

cosmogony ^"7;'" •TT_7-.2b- 

XV-SlSc; sacrifice il-ZJ-io. 

XIII-309b . . ,yT 

Agnier Indians. nii|?>9° "^ 

%32d; Tracy's war Y -bb 
Agnie-ronan, MohawK im" 

Ag^Utoma^^acriacial beverage 

A^ius. fidouard, martyT IX 

ACTo?'l>iirch 11-34 ic 


Andrea del 
-Donato d'. See Bramante 

AGNOSTIcisM I-215C; and the 
* ak" ,,r,P I-60d; and Anthropo- 

Gethsemani VI-MOb; Luke 
St Gospel of XI-531a; b> n- 

ig'oSTimr PAOLO, musician 

^gigSrii^^ei?^^). ^- 

Ag?i'S"Georg n. Bishop of 

Lavant IX-!9b 
Agrimensores, land-surveyors I- 

i^b?ltlS'53'^drand A&o- 
4o??.hism I-559C; and atheisni 
TI-41a- 41c; 42a; attributes, 
'oMne' II-64C; and Catholi- 

fa° y ^oflilSbf Hamilton I- 
iied; n India XII-409b; and 
the Infinite VI-613d; Kant I- 
Il6c; VIII-605a; and kno^I^ 
edge I-21Sa; and miracles X 
340b; 344b; mod"!?, .^"rino- 
and Monism \7f,** .- P us 
aoohic system Xll-/»c. ri^^ 
X on XII-138b ; Pos.tivists \ - 

f3?r: andSdgorXU-TYli; 


Vatican Counci VI-61bb 
Agnus, Euchanstic bread \U 

AGNUS DEI I-220b; blessing 1- 

use I-220d , „„, .„ 

_(IN LITURGY) 1-22 la; Am- 
^ite XIII-76b; htanies I-2^t'^. 

799a; musical se«ing:||3|; 
tropes I-222b; >;V-66a „ 
Aboard. Saint, martyr Xl-4»9a 
Awtodr Archbishop of Lyons 
IX-173a; deposed II-496b' on 
duelting V-1S4C; iconoclasm 
Vn625d;.as liturgis XII- 
7Ma- on w tchcraft XV-b/oo 
Agolbio, Angioletto d'. painter 

AeofVe'dus, Saint. See Aifroy 
Aloirnti, Chiata. See Clare of 

Ago;?'B,shop of Poitiers XXI- 
AGONISTICI, hej'"','.';';^^ l--iM. 
Agoi'^'i^g'HearT of Jesus, Arch- 

^Holy. .Sec Holy Agony. Arch- 

oonfrulernily of . ,, 

—Church of the, Gcthsemani \ 1- 

_Of' CHRIST I-224a; VIII- 
382ar Angel of the ^^4778 

ED I-224b; Augustiman consti- 

Agoughouk deay L-^.4S^d^^^^_ 

STANCE b'. Bishop of Pamiers 

—Countess d', and Liszt IX 

A^a!* province yll-726a; Tai 
^Ikhal (ill-) 100 


niissiou. -,,,-^. Yil_730a 
CESE OF I-22oc; map \ H 
facing 5G0; university 1-2ZM, 

AGRAPHA I-225d; genuineness. 
criteria I-226b •vttt_93Sc 

T_f>27a* 227c; revolution i 
""ot r^SUS), VENERABLE I- 

2.29a' and Amort 1-43..^ M^s^ 

SriageIX-703b; 'revelations 

XIII-5C; Virgin Mary, tomb 

of XIV-775b . .,, 

A^eement, and contract IV- 

-i^d** DiSerence, method of, 
Bacon II-192d 

at Berytos II-392C; and Calig- 
ula I-46c; and Christians 
Vlll^SOb; XI-747b; death 

_rTe^-^h\-uf' VII-291C; at 

XIV-504b; Temple VIII-350b; 
Tiberias XIV-716b . 
—Castor, controversialist n 

— m1 reus Vipsanius, emperor, 

A^esdSs (Agrestius), Bishop of 
A^evTus^Vatat. Bishop of Le 


chapel II-214C; Pyrkers^ork 

XII-586d . ,. „.„ 

-Corpus Christ, plays X-350a, 

■ „ Pl»v XI-.i33a; seminary 
sion rlay -vi •'•^•^ ■\rTTT-fi72a- 
XII-5S6d; siege VIII b7^j 
Wallenstein's murder Av 
539b , . . 

Agrice. SeeAgricius 



48Gb; relics I\-o4a 
-Saint. Bishop of Avignon II- 

-Spnt, Bishop of Nevers X- 

— heretic XI-424b , . 

-ALEXANDER, musician I-230d 
— Chris toph, controversialist 

Xn-118d . „ vT- 

-Cneius Julius, statesman XI 

316d; XV-380C 

fherl-Se-ia; proverbs \I-o21d, 
teaching I-5li4d ._ 

—Michael, translator, Bible .-s.^ 

Agricultural SisJersn-.,Ma^^.^_^^ 

I'lHns Vl! li.^d; 7r.ld: ancient 

J ;;i:sn;iv Xn-0>a; .... raf^ U 
Ifi'ld- Sabbatical year X"' 
289b'; Silesia XIII-7?0c;LHop a 

XV-243C; Zoroastrianism 11- 

-TVf arcus vipsanius, cuh^." 
PinthconXIII-170b; andPon. 
pey XIII-774b; and Santamier 

-ok'nettesheim, hein- 

RICH CORNELIUS, occultist 

l-231d . . T 

—the Great. See Agrippa 1 
Agripoina, the Elder, empress 

Xlil-309d , 


AgriM^Patriarch of 
— Sain/. Ks'hoP of Benevento 11- 
AGRffPINUS, Bishop of Car- 
thage I-232b: council (220) 
I-ligc; III-38.^c 
—Saint, Bishop of Como IV-18^a 
—Saint; Bishop of Naples X 

686d .. . . 

Agritius. See Agricivia. 
Agrcecius. See Agncius . . 

Agron, Illvrian ruler 11-6950, 

Agro PomeiU'o Vlll-im 

Romano, in Lazio Vlll ^i»" 

Agru"nia (Pannuchis), religious 

ciTcmony V -64, d 
Agsbach, monastery ll-'--;''„csb 
Aismi, Anna, foundress IX -6S8b 
Aiua Caliente Indians X-3^-d 
Aiuado, Juan de, discoverer I\ - 

A^it* Calientes. state, Mexico 

town population X-250C 

-DIOCESE OF I-232b^ , -""P 
X-facing 268; Our Lady pt 
Guadakfpe, Church of (ilU 
A^ccw! Girolamo, cardinal V- 
Aglda*, Chinese emperor III-681d 
AgiiercRiva, President of 1 eru 

Am^se^au. Henri-Fransois d'. 

A^gli?nT Baldo d', condemns 

aX?F -^scoBe^nab| 

Tc"bishop of Santiago de 

-^.t'ciL'^T'd'i'Asis. Bishop of 

ScKOjbe Xin-Gs4b 
— Gerommo, n X\ J«o 

Z^^^ochori^ac^o Antonio. 
A^libert^.'sainf, Abbess of Jou- 
A^ier^Ra^ondd'. SeeAgiles 
A^inalXEmilio, insurrectionist 
^11 13c; XV-178d; prisoners 

Released III-579d 
A^irre, Bautista, writer XIN 

— Greeorio, cardinal ni-67c 
-JOSEPH SA.ENZ DE, cardinal 

-y Garcia, Gregorio Maria, car- 
A^Tkal^mZKing.of Babj-- 
^nia II-lS2d; inscription H 
A^^ in Proverbs XII-M6b 

Atrustin, Antonio. Archbishop of 
Trarragona XIV-460C; on False 
Decretals V-773d 
Agwe. mission IV -6U4a 
Ah. Josef Ignace von. editor XI- 

692b , , 

Ahab. See Achab „.,,.vt 

Ahalab (Helba).townI-774d;VI- 

433c ., . 

Aharman. See Ahrmian 
Ahlron bar Madani, Bishop of 

Mardin XIV-413a 
Ahas. See Achaz 
Ahasuerus. cobbler IX-12bD 

— .Sff Assuerus - 

Ahat-Keui (Acmonia), tow-n 1- 

Ahavt river VI-433c; fast by I- 

Ahflz See Achaz _ 

^Inobkrbus, Lucius Domitius, 

con° ulXr'52<:; and Dom.tiopo- 
Ahi'' ^n'^Hi^du mythology II- 

730d . ^. 

Ahiah. S^Achias 
Ahiakar the Wise I-"'2I>- X^' 

710c; and Tobias 3^1/-' P'L'', 
Ahialon, judge of {fael V^; " ' ^j*^! 
Ahias, prophet VIII-340C. Xll 

AhIcAM (AHKAM), court of- 

Ahikar.^SwAhikar the Wise 

Ahimaaz. ■^".A^'Sech 
Ahimalech. M'. '>'^'"?t ,?Jd 
Ahimsa, lu Hinduism U-1D40 

Ahinoam. f ;-,A<=''i°?f?723c 

Ahio, son of Abinadab ^.23c 

Ahion (Aion), town VI^33c 

Ahiia, tribe X-/50a 

Ahithiophel. .S« Achitopel 

Ahitub. Sec Achitob 

Ahlab. Sec Ahalab 

Ahlami, Semite people XIU 

70Sb; subjugated I I-l-a 
Ahlert. architect xy-77oc 
Ahli of Shiraz, poet XI-720C 
Ahlwin See Alcuin , 

^ed I, sultan IV-SOod; and 
^otectorate of missions XU 

-Sfsultan, and Corfu IV-363a 
Ahmedabad convent^ II-b4ob 


Tripoli XV-u9c 
— Ibn Ibrahim, emir V-oBUa 
— Mirza, shah XI-( 180 


Ahmed Khan X-4S2a 

c;hah ^nd Sikhs Xlll-isyi' 
lias e'llMedineh (Hanes), town 

Aholiab. SfOoliab 
Ahone, deity IV-686d 
^oudemmeh, Monophysite X- 

AHWMAN, Avestic demon I- 
233a; II-154c; I\-408b. m 
Bundahis IV-108c; and de- 
IV-714d; propitiation Aiii 
310a; worship I%-'586a 

Ahron, Bishop of Ispahan MU 

Ahudenuneh, bishop IX-635C 
Ahuis, Heinrich von. See Hem- 
rich von Ahaus . Y 
AhiltzoU, Emperor of Mexico X- 


Viceroy of Mexico X--b-c 
Ahunavaiti, in Avcsta ii ,;;-/-, 
Ahura (Ahura Mazda). See ur 

mUZ.l . _. Q-Oa 

Ahwaste Indians X-3'-a „. 
Aialon (Of Dan^ °";° VlisSd; 
—(of Zabuloni^ town M-ioou. 



Aici;a?d,'%Abbot of Jumi^ 

AICH1NGEr1"'gREG0R, com. 

Aif'hne'r.^srmon. Bishop of Brixe, 

II 7QlcIX-i'3<i;on census HI- 

"wc; and S.apf X;^IV.-248C 

Aicholti. Johann, physician X 




Aichspalter, Peter, Archbishop of 



Aidan, Scottish king IV-136d 

— See Aedh 

— of Fems. See Maedoc, Saint, 
and Aedan of Ferns 

— of LlandaCf, bishop. See 

233c: birthplace VIII-OlSc; St. 
.Cuthbert's vision of I\'-57Sc; 
Lindisfarne III-o37b; VII- 
31Sc; IX-269a; X-452c; mis- 
sionary labours I-50Gb; VIII- 
100c; XI-349b; shrine XIII- 

Aidanus, Bishop of Llandaff IX- 

Aidin (Aidin Guzel Hissar; Tral- 
les), town. Catholic population 
I-791C; XV-16d 

Aidulf, Venerable, Bishop of 
Auxerre XIII-71Sb 

Aldus, Saint, Bishop of Ferns. 
See Maedoc, Saint 

— of Kildare, Saint. See Aedh 
of Kildare 

Aifroy, Saint, abbot V-671c 

Aiglon, 1'. See Reichstadt, Duo 

Algnan, Saint, Bishop of Origans 
XI-31Sc; and Attila II-61c; 
relics XI-320a: title V-203b 

Aigrefeuille, Guillaume d'. Bish- 
op of Sabina XIII-291b 

Aigremont, Odelric d*, founda- 
tion X-570a 

Aiguebelle, monastery X-570a 

Aigueblanche, Pierre d*. Arch- 
bishop of Hereford XIV-454C 

Aigues Mortes, treaty VI-208a 

Aiguille, organization VIII-729b; 

Aiguilles, Raymond d'. See Agiles 

charitN- X\'-13lib: funeral ora- 
tion lI-7S9a; hospital XII- 

— Emanuel-Armand Duke of III- 

Aigulphus, Abbot of L^'rins II- 

Aiguptiaka Hypomnemata 
(Manetho) V-335c 

Aiken, Charles F., on Buddhist 
polygamy I-773a 

Aikenhead, David, physician I- 

— MARY, religious foundress I- 
234b: Atkinson's biography of 
II~.51a: in Botany Bay VIII- 
147b: portr.-iit I-234b 

AILBE, SAINT, Bishop of Emiy 
I-234C. .See Albinus 

Ailbertus, Venerable, Abbot of 
Rolduc Xlll-llSb 

Aile, Saint, Abbot of Rebais. .See 


Ailill, king, baptism VIII-637d 

AILLEBODST, D', family I-23.';b 

— BARBE D', reUgious foundress 

JOSEPH H',fli,u-^m:m l-2.',:,d 

—LOUIS D', -tat.- rrian 1 23.-.b 

Aillon, Joseph de la Roche d'. 
See La Roche d'Aillon. 

AILLY, PIERRE D", cardinal I- 
2.3.5d: III-2IOb; on astrology 
II-22a: and Benedict XIH IX- 
432c: calendar, reform of IX- 
24Sc: and Charles VI IV-llc; 
at Constance IV-2S8c: VIII- 
43.5a; on consubstantiation IV- 
322d; on councils VI-354a: en- 
cyclopedia V-lMd: Gallican- 
ism VI-35.5C: and Gerson VI- 
S30d; Haudriettes' rule VII- 
1.50c: and Hus IV-292a; St. 
Joseph, devotion to V-543c: 
Men of Understanding X-191b ; 
nivsticism X-664c; and papacy 
XIV-.592a: and Roger Bacon 
VI-45nb: Rouen chapter XIII- 
210b: and Schism I-23fia; XII- 
11.3a: XIII-.53od: .540d 

Ailoaios, ill Gnosticism VI-595d; 

Ailoeiil, in Gnosticism VI-,596a 

Ailred, Saint. .See /Elrcd, Saint 

Ailuros (^lurus), Timothy. .See 
Timothy .Elurus 

— es-Sultftn, Fountain of Elisous 

VI-431C: VIII-340a 
Ailwine, Saxon noble XII-638b 
Ailworth, confessor V-477b 
Aimee de Jesus, Mother. .See 

Dullaert, Klodie 
AIMERICH, MATEO, philologist 

Aimeric (Amaury) of Limoges, 

patriarch XIV-40,5b 
Aimery, Count of Narbonne VI- 

Aimo II, Bishop of Sion XIV-1.5a 
Aimu, Cedarene general III-474C 
Ain, town VlH133d 
— department, France, church in 

II-41.5C: map Vl-facing 188 
'Ain 'Arik (Archi) VI-434b 
Ainay, church of, Lyons IX-472b; 

— monastery II-444a 
Aindre, monastery X-G82a 
'Ain-Dflk (Doch) ' VI-438a 
— el-Kezbeh (Achazib) VI-433b 
— es Sultan, Fountain of Eliseus 

VI-431C: VIII-340a 
— Fije (Abana) IX-l(14d 
— Gadis ('Ain Qadis) III-130C 
— Hadra (Haseroth) VI-140b 
— Jidi (Engaddi) \'-42.Sd 
— Kana (Cana) III-22()d 
— Karim (Carem) III-.345C 
Ainmire (Ainmerech), king III- 

495a: VI-558a 
Ainos, race VIII-297b; 311a; 
ethnology XII-626a: Deniker's 
classif'ication XII-624b: 
Fritsch's classification XII- 
625c; (ill.) VII-116b 
'Ain Qadis (Cades) 1 1 1- 130c 
— Shems (Bethsames) VI-43()b 
— Siniya (Jesania) VI-441b 
— Sitti Mariam, II-53(;d; III- 

470a: VIlI-310b; XII-23.5b 
Ainswort, Henry, rhymed Bible 

'Ain Tounga (Thignica) ruins 

Ain-Traz, seminary X-lGOd; sy- 
nod (1835) X-160b 
Ain Umm e(J-Derej. See Virgin, 

Fountain of the 
Ainun, village I-173C 
Ain-Zarba (Anazarbus) , village 

Aion. See Ahion 
Air (element) Aristotle I-71Bb; 
divination by XIV-339c; Io- 
nian philosophy VIII-93b; and 
life IX-239a; XIV-220d; Man- 
ichteism IX-592b; Phoenician 
cosmogony IV-410C; Simonian 
doctrine 'XIII-797a; as sub- 
stance VIII-93a; weight, Pas- 
cal XII-GOc 
Airard, abbot of St-Remi XII- 

Aird-rinn, in Irish poetry VIII- 

Aire, nobles II-753d 
—DIOCESE OF I-237a; map 

Vl-facing 188 
Aireboli (Chariopolis), village III- 

Airennan (Aireran), Saint, Abbot 

of T:illaKhl XVl-77b 


MARIA, Scriptural scholar I- 


Airy, Saint. Sec Agericus, Saint 

Aiseray, Claude Bossuet d', 

.scholar II G9Sc 
Aislabie, Sir William, and Foun- 
tains Abbey VI-161b 
AISLE I-237b; ambulatory I- 
406c; apse I-659b; of basilicas 
I-.346a; 388d; II-326b: V- 
259b; Carlovingian VI-667c; 
centre I-237b; of circular 
church V-262b; roofs I-237b; 
side I-237b: side, vestries I- 
Aisne, department, map Vl-fac- 

ing 188 
Aissaoua, Mohammedan associa- 
tion X-422C: 423b 
King of the Lombards I-237c: 
IX-33Sd; 339a; and Si. 
Anselm I-.5.50a: at Barcelona 
III-428b; Carpi cathedral III- 
374c: law IX-208d; Nonan- 
tola XI-9.ja: and papacy XIV- 
2.59c: 20na; Ravenna XII- 
664c. States of the f'hurrh in- 

vaded by XIV-288d; and Ste- 
phen II XI-0G3b 
Aitalaha, patriarch III-559d 
Aitia (philosophy) III-459d 
AitiliatiS, Bishop of Edessa V- 

Aitre St. Maclou, cemetery, Rouen 

'AitQn, Khirbet (Etam), town 

Aiutamicristo, palace, Palermo 

Aiuti, Andrea, cardinal III-550d 
Aivally, Hindu temple Vll-734a 
Aivati (Lete), village IX-2()nb 

Boisgelin's episcopate II-624b: 

cathedral I-238c 
— Council of: (789) on usury XV- 

236a; (1409) Ailly at I-236a: 

(1585) VI-376C 
— Crown of Thorns I-174b: map 

Vl-facing 188: Otto II XI- 

35Ga; Otto III XI-357b: eccle- 
siastical province, map Vl-fac- 
ing 188; rt^gale, droit de XII- 

— University of I-23SC 

OF I-238d: (1012) I-238d: 

(1838) I-238d; (1850) I-23Sd 
Aixe-sur-Vienne, pilgrimage IX- 

Aix-la-Chapelle. See Aachen 
Ajaccio, town IV-397a 
—DIOCESE OF I-238d; cathe- 
dral I-239a:mapVI-facing 188 
Ajass. .See Avash 
Ajebihat (Jegbaa), town VI-441b 
Ajiki, Confucian scholar VIII- 

'Ajlan, Khirbet (Eglon), town 

Ajoubite dynasty IV-551b 
Ajunta, temple VII-733d 
Ajus, in Gallican Rite 1-21 Ic; 

VI-361C; X-619b 
Akademiker, periodical XII-140a 
Akademische Bonifatius - Korre- 

spondenz, periodical II-672b 
Akje-namax Indians II-003b 
Akte-pokax Indians II-603a 
Akakios. .See Acacius 
Akala, in Indian cosmogony IV- 

Akallism, theory I-176a 
Aka Manah, in Zoroastrianism 

1 1- 1.5.5c 
Akansas (Akansea) Indians. .See 

Akarnania and Naupaktos, Greek 

•see VI-740d 
Akaroa (Canterbury), town. New 

Zealand III li'ldb 
Akathistos. >-' \i iiln '.m 
Akbar, Cin;ii \l- ,i \ \l 7..'-.b: 

VI!I-742d: I- . i ' . > IV 

50Sa; Xl\ 'Mc ., I I'^rtu- 

guese III-1.5L'b 
Akeldemac. .See Haceidama 
Akensas Indians, .s.e Qiini>aw 

I-376a: XVI-34b 
Akerman, treaty of (1826) XIII- 

Akhenaten. .See Amenhotep IV 
Akhetaton (Tell-el-Amama) , city 

V-339d: XIV-477d 
Akhinos (Echinus) , village V-270c 
Ak-Hissar (Thyatira), town VI- 

Akbmim. .See Akhnitn 
— and Girgeh, Jacobite Diocese 

of V-35Sd 
Akhmimic dialect V-357a; XVI- 

7Sd: Bible version XV-368a; 

AKHMIN, citv and province I- 

239a; XVI-78d; Coptic codex 

VI-600b; Henoch MS. I-G02c; 

St. Peter. Apocalvpse of. MS. 

I-614c: Gospel of St. Peler. 

MS. I-608C; monastery XIV- 

Akhsenaya of Mabbogh. .See 

Philoxenus of Mabbogh 
Akhsharumoff, author XIII- 

Akhtebolou (Agathopolis), town 

Akiba, rabbi Vn-31Gc: Book of 

Creation VIII-501a; Talnuid 

XrV-43Ga: Torah IV-1.5Sb 
Ak' im Beg, title XV-95d 
Akims, tribe XVI-I.5b 
Akir (AccarOD), town I-94a 

Akka, tribe I-182b; ethnology 
X1I-G25C; 626d 

'Akka, town. .See Acre 

Akkad. See Achad 

Akkadians, Turanian invaders I- 

Akko (Ak-ku-u). See Acre 

Akmolinsk, settlement, Siberia 

Akoimetas. .See Acoemette 

Archbishop of Athens I-239c; 
II-44d; III-118a; in Chios 

-Nicetas, theologian and his- 
torian I-239c; Ill-118b 

Akor. .See Achor \alley 

Akouanake Indians Vli-566a 

Akouasa. .Sec Cuspe 

Akra, Diocese of. See Akera 

—tribe IV-685C 

Akrili, ruins VI-384d 

Akron, town IV-56a; 56b 

Akropolis. See Acropolis 

Aksa, mosque, Jerusalem XV— 

Aksakoff, Ivan, author XIII- 
272c: 275a 

Aksum. .See Axum 

Aku, tribes I-182d 

Akula, See of I-669d 

Akur-Gal, King of Shirptirla II- 

A-kwa, tribe I-lS2b 

Al., abbreviation I-23c 

ALABAMA I-240a; aborigines 
III-646a: 692d: Bazin, mission 
II-361C; Catholic church I- 
242b; cemetery case III-509a; 
Civil War 1-24 la; De .Soto ex- 
plorations IV-754C; ecclesias- 
tical organization II-232b; ed- 
ucation I-241d: French Ameri- 
cans VI-27:3b; historv I-240c; 
liquor traffic laws XIV-491a; 
massacres XIV-509C; Masses, 
bequests for X-33d; negro pop- 
ulation (1900) X I I-628b: phys- 
ical features I-240a: popula- 
tion I-241b; Protestants I- 
243a; religion, laws affecting 
I-243c; seal (ill.) I-240a: Span- 
ish colonization I-H2d: statis- 
tics I-241C: XV-170a: temper- 
ance movement XIV-491C; 
university 1-24 la: 24 Id 

— and Florida, Vicariate of I-242d 

—Claims, Ripon's influenceXIII- 

ALABANDA, titular see I-244b 


Alabasters, sculptors XIII-644d 

Alabastrites l-244b 

Alacalufe Indians XIII^26c 

Alacci, Leo. ,S.e Allatius. Leo 

Alacoque, Margaret Mary (Marie), 
Margaret Mary 




Alagon, Leonardo, rebeUion 

Alagona, faiiiilv XIII-776a 
— PIETRO, tlieologian I-244C 
Alain, mis.-^ionary III-632C 
— Chartier. Sec Chartier. Alain 
— DEL'ISLE, theologian I-244d: 
on attrition II-65c: as deduc- 
tioniat XII-30a: as hymnodist 
VII-G0.3c: as Scholastic XII- 
32a: surname V-74d 
— of Lille (the Great, von Ryssel). 

Sec Alain de I'lsle 
Alais, peace (1629) VII-533C 
—.See oi XI-83b 
Alajulapu. See Santa Ines Mis- 
ALALIS (Alalius), titular see 

ALAMAN, LUCAS, historian I- 

Alamandus, Louis. See Louis 

Alamanni, and Aurelian XII- 
70b; confederations XIII-497C; 
defeated V-78.5a; and Gal- 
lienus VI-300b; and Gratian 
VI-729C; in Helvetia XIV- 
358d; 362c: Law IX-208c: 
and Pepin XI-C63a; tcrritorj- 
— Luigi, poc4 VIII-2.50b 
— NICCOLO, antiquary I-245C 
Alamannia (Swabia) , territory 
III-611b; Saint Boniface II- 

Roman uimieral indicates volume; arable, page; a, b, c, d, quarter of page. 


Alamannians. .See Alamanni 
Alamannicus, Alexander, theolo- 
gian V-74C 
Alamanus, Louis, aee uoms ai 

lemand , ,. 

Alaminos, Anton de, discovery 

Alammelech. See Elimelech 
Alamo, Texas, mission Xlll- 
4'i5b- XIV-547b; 548d; mis- 
sfon chapel (ill.) XIII-425a 
Alamun, King of Toledo XIII- 

*J85b ,^^ .i^rj 

Alan, Carmelite UI-Z55A 
—family name. See Allen 
—Lord of Galloway, tomb V-191C 
Alana, Jose Xavier de, mission 

Aliaf^n'spain XIV-177C 
Alania Sih- of \l-<lj/a 

XlAn'oF TEWKESBURY, biog- 




—OF WALSINGHAM, architect 

Alanus, Venerable, Bishop of Au- 

xerre XIII-71Sb 
—Abbot of Farfa \II-447d 
—Abbot of Saint James XV-721C 
— ab Insulis (de Insulis). See 

Alain de r Isle ^ „ , 

— de la Roche. See Alanus de 

— DE RUPE, orator 1-2466 
Alapanis, chronological table 1- 

Alarcon, Diego de, theologian 

XV-275C , ,,, 

—Hernando de, explorer IV- 



— Prospero Maria, Archbishop of 

Mexico V1I-505C 
Alarcdn y Mendoza, Juan de. Sec 

Ruiz de Alarc6n y Mendoza. 

AlfrTs,'*baltIe (119.5) III-150c; 


Alaric I, Visigothic kins; .\V- 

476d; at Cosenza lV-4ll.ia; 

and Oalla Placidia Xll-142b; 

and Innocent I \III-lla; 

at Lateran I-364b; at Nola 

XI-S9d; at Padua XI-3!>ba; 

at Pozzuoli XII-331b; at 

Rome III-700b; ^Il-^plb; 

XIII-167d; at Simgagha XIV- 

iSb; and Stilicho VII-460d; 

at Thermopyte XIV-629d 

— n, Visigothic king XV-477a 

Breviarium IX-207d; and 

Saint Caesarius IIl-13oc, 

Clovia's expedition I\-< Id 

Alashan Mung-ku, tribe X-4!>uc 

Ala-Shehir (Philadelphia), town 

ni-)S9d; XI-793a 
ALASKA I-246c; aborigines, lan- 
guage 1-4 lib; area I-2«'d: 
boundary dispute XV-179a; 
chmate I-247c; education 1- 
247d- French Americans VI- 
273b-, gold-fields I-247b; gov- 
ernment and revenue 1-24 ic; 
history- I-240c; liquor traffic 
laws XIV-491a 
—Mi^iom I-249b; 249d; IV- 
719a-, Jesuit (1912) XIV-103c; 
map I-24Sd; Protestant I- 
2494; Russian I-249b; \I- 
— Prefecture Apostolic I-2o0c; sta- 
tistics XV-177C 

religion, I-248d; resources 1- 

247b; Russian colony I-412c; 
seal (ill.) I-246c; seal of con- 
fession XIII-661d; statistics 
XV-177a; tribes I-248a; United 
States purchase I-246d; X\ - 
I66d „ , „ 

—Russian Orthodox See of. Sec 

Alcutia and Alaska 
Alassada (Alexandria) lll-32d 

Sivlin 1, rL-licH X1V-31C 
Alaunium (Aulun), town I-490a 
Alava, Alvara de, university pro- 
fessor XIII :i93b 
Alaya (Coracesium), town I\- 

Alaydon, Jean-Baptisle, Mauriat 

Alb., 1-23C 

ALB (Alba), vestment I-251b: 
.W-.ssb; 3S8a; and amice 
I-428d; Anglican rubric XIJ}- 
90d; Armenian church XIII- 

80c; of Boniface VIII VIII- 
732a; and cincture III-'7ba; 
and colobium sindonis XII- 
713c; colour I-252b; for cross- 
bearer IV-539a; deacons IV- 
608c; in Eastern Rite XV- 
388b; form I-252a; (ill.) I- 
251b; material I-252b; origin 
I-251c; ornamentation Irf^^*; 
Ornaments Rubric XIII- 
90d; and surplice \I^.-344a: 
symbolism 1-25 le I ^J,"??!^: 
S'yrian Rite, East XIV-416b; 
use I-251d ^ . 

Alba, monastery. See Weissenau 
—song VI-570C 
— Duke of. See Alva 

Tuan de. See Albi, Juan de 

Albacchi, Melchiore, Piarist 

XIII-5S8b , ^ „,. 

Albach, Abbey of, reform X\- 

6S3b . . , ,,. 

Albacina, Constitutions of 111- 

321c; 321d 
Alba de Tormes, Carmelites 
XIV-51Cb; 516c; St. Teresas 
tomb XIV-516C 
Albadia, ecclesiastical province 

Alba Grffica (Smederevo) II-407C 
—Julia See Gyula-FehSrvir 
Albalat, Andres, Bishop of Val- 
encia XV-252a; 252c 
Alba Longa (Albano) XIII-166b 
Alban, Kingdom of XIII-614b 
ALB AN, SAINT I-252d; relics 
I-172a; shrine XII-95a; XIll- 
— (Albinus), Saint I-253a 
Albana, river VI-433a 
Alband, Saint, Bishop of Toul 

X-680b , . . ,,, 

Albanel, Charles d', mission 111- 
233b; IX-689C; Ne-w France 
XIV-439b; Ungava XV-127D, 
Wisconsin XV-662C „co«,. 

ALBANENSES, heretics I-253D, 

Albanes, chronicler VI-351C 
Albanese. See Albamans 
ALBANI, family I-255b 
—villa I-255C 
— ALESSANDRO, cardinal I- 

Albanopolis, St. Bartholomew's 
martyrdom II-314a 

Alban Roe, Venerable. See Roe, 

Albans, Saint. See Saint Albans 

Albanus, name X-674a 

Albany, town, N. Y., charter V- 
130d; population XI-31a 

DIOCESE OF I-256b; bishops 

I-257C; cemetery I-258c; chari- 
table institutions XII-247a; 
churchesl-257b; colonial period 
I-256c; Dominicans XII-370b; 
French Canadian parishes VI- 
274d; German Catholics VI- 
480a; ItahansVIII-206a; Ken- 
wood convent VII-134C: Poles 
XII-211a; statistics I-2oSc; 
XI-31b; XV-176d; Temper- 
ance union XIV-491C 
— John Stuart, and Beaton 11- 


Set Stuhl- 

— AliNIBALE, cardinal I-255c; 
collection XV-295a; SMana 
in Cosmedin XIII-170b; and 
Winckelmann XV-651a 

— Filippo I-255d 

— Francesco. See Clement XI 

— GIAN GIROLAMO, cardinal 

cardinal, I-25.5d 

GIUSEPPE, cardinal I-255a 

— Scipio, biographer Vin-344a 
ALBANIA I-253b; abduction I- 

— Church in: Christian Brothers 
in VIlI-60c; ecclesiastical or- 
ganization III-454d- Jesuit 
missions (1912) XIV-103C; 
protectorate of missions All- 
491b- Saint Alexander Orosci, 
abbey of I-284d _, , . . 

—Geography. See under Turkish 
Empire (in Europe) 

—History: insurrectionists 11- 
enoc; Serbs and Croats XIV- 
50b; Stephen Duachan con- 
quers XIII-733a; Turkish pos- 
session XV-97b , . 

Religion I-254a; statistics 1- 


AlbaniJB, nation. Glasgow Uni- 
versity Vl-.-)7sd . 

Albanian College, bcutari XU- 
230c; 45Sb 

—League I-2.54d , 

Albanians (Albanese), in Asia 
Minor I-7Sfld; in Bosma II- 
694d; in Bova II-72-lb; eth- 
nological classification^ XII- 
62Cc; evangelization X-211c; 
in Greece III-97C; Greek Rile 
VI-752b; history I-2r,3c; in 
Turkish Empire XV -100b; 

ALBANO I-25.5d; XIV-324b; 
basilica I-255d; oatacombs 
III-127b; Vl-lt'.llc; Desidenus 
(Victor III! at XV-41()d; Gui- 
bert of H:iv.nna al VII-04b; 
map VI 11 facim: 241 

— Antonio Sisto, Hisluip of SRo 
Luiz dc MaraoliRo XllHfi.5c 

— Reale (Regalis). 

weissenburg ,.,tt ,n.j 

— Romana I-251b; Xin-104d 
Al-Bashir, periodical II-393d 
Albasin, siege (1684) III-6/9d; 

(1689) III-683a 
Albaspinseus, Bishoo of Orleans. 

See Aubespine. Gabriel de 1 
Albategnius (Al-Battam),Massah 
Allah, astronomer II-21d; Xll- 
Albati. See Penitents. White 
AI-Battani. See Albategnius 
Albelda, convent X-721c 
Albemarle, town XI-109a; XIV- 


258d; cathedral (ill.) VIII- 

facing 224 , , c 

Alber, Bishop of Wloclawek. See 

—Erasmus II-316C 
— Johann Nepomuk VIII-81a 
— Matthaus, and Zwingli IX- 

452a. See Adalbertus 
Albera, Salesian XIII-399c 
Alberbury, England, Grandmon- 

tines in VI-726C 
Alberdingk Thijm. See Thijm 
Alberetti, coin X-336a 
Albergaria, canomcal. See rro- 

ALBERGATI, N1CC0l6, car- 
dinal I-238d; III-391a; at 
Basic II-330b; 337b; at Ferrara 
VI~47b; H2c - 

Albergheria, dell', church, Paler- 
mo XI-419C 

Albergonius, Scotist XIII-612d 

Alberic, Dominican inquisitor 

—I, Duke'^of Spoleto XIV-233c: 

262a; coins X-334b 
— n, Duke of Spoleto XIII-168C; 

XIV-233C; and Odo of Cluny 

V-786b; IX-160a: XIII-l<2b; 

and papacy VI-243d; VIII- 

426a; XIV-262b 
—Bishop of Bourges VIII-13a 
—Bishop of Cambrai III-210a 
—Saint, .\bbot of CIteaux II- 

— Bishop of Como iy-l?4a 
—Bishop of Rimini XIII-SSc 
—Count of Tusculum II-429a 
—Bishop of Vestervig XVI-l ic 
-Abbot of V6zclay ^III"' /'*„, 
— de Besancon, poet Vlll-ib'lc 
dinal I-259a; as hymnodist 
VII-603a . 

—OF OSTIA, cardinal I-259b; 
XI-346C; Albigensian mission 
I-T.Sc- in Denmark IX-434d 
—of Reims xni-7S4b . 

—of Three Fountains, chronicle 
I-53.5b; nn jubilee VIII-fl32c 
Alberini, Giovanni, tomb XIII- 

Albero, Bishop of Metz IX- 

Albers, P., church historian VII- 

Albert, Saint, archpriest IV-107b 
^I, Duke of Austria. See Albert 

I. Emperor of Germany 

— m, Duke of .Austria XV-417d; 

Vienna University XV-421a 
— V, Duke of Austria. See Albert 

II. Emperor of Germany 

— VI, Duke (Archduke) of Austria 

VI-267C ^,,„ „. 

—HI, Duke of Bavaria XVI-3b 

— IV, Duke of Bavaria II-354d; 

— V, Duke of Bavaria II-354d; 
and Baden-Baden II-195a; and 
Saint Benno's rehcs II-481d; 
and Society of Jesus V-369a 
—Duke of Bohemia VIII-697d 
— I, Margrave of Brandenburg 
II-738d; XIII-499b; Witten- 
berg XV-678d 
— King of the East Angles. See 
Ethelbert , „ , j 

— Prince Consort of England 
XIII-494C; Christmaa tree 
— I, Emperor of Germany II- 
123c; VI-494a; and Boniface 
VIII II-664d; chancellor V- 
364d; death II-220d; Salzburg 
feud XIII-413a; Steinle's por- 
trait XIV-285b; tomb XIV- 
216a „ ,,, 

— n. Emperor of Germany VI- 
■b- VII-55'2a; and Hussites 

— bk MONTREUIL, Archbishop 
of Trier I -2590 ; XV-43a; Bal- 
deric on 11-21 xd 

I--2r,(la; ,,11.1 rhilip \ M\- 
lS4b; I'iacenza College^ XI-- 
70b; at San Marino IV-.JIO, 
XIII-149b; Spanish grants 

Alber'o of Chiny. Bishop of Ver- 
VII-352a; XV-351b 

VII-5S8d; Jewish policy VIII- 
395b; and Kannthia V 111- 
607d; Margrave of Moravia 
X-562d; and Sigismund of 
Hungary XIII-7S5b 
—Duke of Haag VI-234d 
— Count of Hohenberg Xlll- 

219a „ „ 

— n. King of Hungary. See 

Albert II, Emperor of Ger- 

— n, Count of Lurn VI-654C 
—Count of Manafeld. and 
Luther XII-704c; and Smal- 
kaldic League XIV-5Sb 
— n, Duke of Mecklenburg X- 
lOSc; as Swedish king XIV- 
352a ,, ^ .. 

V Duke of Mecklenburg A- 

lOSc; Rostock University 
XI1I-205C „, ,, V, 

Vn, Duke of Mecklenburg 

X-108d .^. ,,-v 

— in. Prince of Monaco X-447l> 
— n, Count of Namur X-679b 
—I, Duke of Saxony XIII-499b 
—Duke of Wurtemberg XV- 
716d ^.„. , 

—biographer of WllUam of 

Maleval XV-633C 
—hermit III-205a 
—Abbot of Afflighem I-180a 
—Archduke of Austria, governor 
of Netherlands I-590a; X- 
762b; and Carmelites IX- 
319a- in Catholic League IX- 
lOla; death XIV-661a;_ eccle- 
siastical restoration X\-701c: 
and Mohna X-436c; periodical 
literature XI-671a 
Prince-Bishop of Bamberg 11- 

— Bishop of Bobbio. See Albert, 
Blessed. Patriarch of Jerusalem 

—Bishop of Freising X-631C 

—BLESSED, Patriarch of Jeru- 
salem I-261a; II-606C; Car- 
melite Rule II-364b; III- 
355b; feast XIII-74a 

—SAINT, cardinal. Bishop of 

— JaLBRECHTIH. Archbishop of 
Magdeburg I-260C; and Utto 

—Archbishop of Mainz. See 
Adalbert I , . , i. ty 

—Abbot of Maria-Laach IX- 
6,50b ,,. ^,.. 

—Bishop of Prague IV -516d 

— (ALBRECHT), Bishop of Riga 

—III", ' .Vrchbishop of Salzburg 

—Abbot of Wal<lsa.sson XV-530d 
— Etienne d'. Bishop of C lermont 

ichoolmaster XIII- 

— Gabriel, 

— Louis d* 


cardinal, tomb XlII- 

Largo type indicat^TTi^of articles; other types, topics treated, (iU.) = iUustratiPW, 

Albert, Paul d\ Bishop of Sens 

Alberta, province XIH-iS2a; 
aboriginea II-0U3C; education 
III-240d; XIII-570d; educa- 
tional statistics III-231b: XII- 
599d; 600a: immigration III- 
239c; Indians X-3S4a; mar- 
riageable age in I-208d: 
Masses, bequests for X-30d; 
natives II-o91a; Ruthenian 
Greek Catholics VI-750a; reli- 
gious statistics III-242a 
Albert Alcibiades, margrave XI- 

Albertario, David, editor XI- 

—Code, in Italy VIH-236d; 

— de Castro-di-Gualteri. See 
Albert, Blessed, Patriarch of 
— Frederick Augustus, King of 

Saxnnv Xlll-aOla 
Albert!, family Vl-lOSd; XIII- 

— Alberto degli. Bishop of Cam- 

erino III-210d 
— Bernardino, Venerable IV- 

— Francisco, auxiliary Bishop of 

La Plata VIII-798C 
— LEANDRO, historian I-262d; 

work XII-3i)7c 
I-263a; XVI-72d; Mantua 
work IX-r)12c; portrait VIII- 
24.Sa; Rimini work IX-566C; 
Xin-57d; writings VIII-249b 
— Luigi, theologian VII-285a 
— Petrus, epithet V-74b 
— Valentin, theologian XII-Slc 
— de Prato. See Albertini, Nicold 
AlbertiUa. See Saxony, Albert 

Albertina, Accademia, Turin XV- 

— Library, Leipzig IX-020a 
Albertinelli (Aubertini), Mariotto, 

artist II-31Sa 
Albertini, Francesco, Bishop of 
T.rracina XIII-373C; arch- 
confrattrnitv XIV-123C 
— Jacopo, Bishop of Venice XV- 

340d , 
TO) I-2f,3b; XII-3fi2b; 36SAd 
—Paul, Scrvite XIII-737C 
Alberto degli Abbati, Saint XV- 

— di Novaro, Blessed, Bishop of 

Savona XTII-inOb 
Albert Odo, of Clunv, poet IX- 


—OF AACHEN (Albertus 

Aquensis), chronicler I-261d; 

on Peter the Hermit IV-546a; 

and William of T.\Te XV-639d 

— of Aix. .See Albert of Aachen 

— of Apeldera, Bishop of Livonia 

— of Behaim, Archbishop of 

Passau. VI-707b 
— of Bodenstein. Abbot of Butb- 

felil 11 1 -Sic 
nal l-2f,2a: II-73nb; confirma- 
tion fees IX-KiOb; and indul- 
gences IX— t41d: at Magdeburg 
IX-525d: at .Mainz IX-5.52a; 
and Moritz of Saxony XII- 
705a; and Rabanus Maunis's 
relics XII-617b; and Reforma- 
tion VII-299b; at .Speyer Diet 
— of Brandenburg-Anspach, Duke 
of Prussia, and Lutheranism 
XII-1S4C: 495d; and Teutonic 
Order XIV-.542a; Trier XV- 
43d; and Wild XV-621b 
— of Bulsano. See Knoll, Albert 

—OF CASTILE, historian I-262b 
— of Danzig, sword-cutler V-13.5d 
—of Eyb. See Eyb, Albrecht 

— of Helmstiidt. See Saxony, 

.\lbert of 
— IT, of Ortenburg, Bishop of 

Trent XV-3r,b 
— of Padua, theologian IV-127d 
— of Parma. See Albert. Blessed, 

Patriarch of Jerusalem 

— of Pisa, general of Friars Minor 

— of Ricmerstorp, university rec- 
tor XIII-.W4C 

— n, of Saxe-Wittenberg XV- 

— of Saxony, Archbishop of 
Mainz IX-.55!d 

— of Saxony, physicist. See 

Saxony. Albert of 

— of Saxony-Teschen, prince 


—of Sicily, Saint III-356b 
—OF STADE, chronicler I-262c 
— of Stauf, Bishop of Ratisbon 

—of Strasburg VII-524a 
—of York. .See Ethelbert 
Albertoni, Lodovico, tomb XIII- 

Alberto Pandoni, Blessed, Bishop 

of Ferrara VI-47a 
— Pio, duke III-374c 
— Quadrelli, Bishop of Lodi 

IX 322d 
TIST 1 -Jlvfd 
Albert Sigismund, Bishop of 

Freising X-632a 
—the Bear. See Albert I, Mar- 
grave of Brandenburg 
— the Bold, Duke of Saxony 
VI-457b; and Meissen XIII- 
— the Great. See Albertus 

Albertus, Bishop of Novara 

— Saint, Bishop of VercelU XV- 

— Aquensis. .See Albert of 

XII-3.5SC; on absolution I-63c; 
on adoption I-149b: analogy 
I-449C; and Arabian philos- 
ophy I-676a; and .\ristotel- 
ianism XII-362C; XIII-610b; 
ascetical theology XIV-61.Sc; 
and iSaint Augustine Il-lOOa; 
on Avempace II-150b; and 
Averroism XII-49C; and Avice- 
bron II-157b; and Avicenna 
II-lo7d; bestiary II-530a; 
Bible commentary XII-363c; 
biology II-572d; Bishop of 
Ratisbon XII-658b; and Com- 
pendium theologiie VII-524a; 
on confession. XI-626c; on 
confirmation IV-220b; on con- 
suljstantiation IV-322d; on 
creation IV-471b; on Cross 
IV-531b; and Crusade II-521J); 
and Dante IV-631a; on 
demonology I\'-713d; on fos- 
sils XI— 410b; geographical re- 
search VI-4.50a ; homiletic work 
Vn-J46c; idealogy VII-634d; 
on indulgences VII-7S4d; in- 
fluence I-265a: on intellect 
VIII-67c; lay confession IX- 
94d; XI-623d; Life I-2r>4b; 
life theory IX-239b; on logic 
I-266c: IX-327a; and Mai- 
monides IX-540c; on matter 
X-.56b; as philosopher XII- 
36.3d; XIII-549a; as physicist 
X-126d; 127a; on predestina- 
tion XII-383d; on projectiles 
XII-SIc; and Pselhis XII- 
54.5b: on psvchologv XII-.54fia; 
Realism I-26f>b; ii SchoListic 
I-266a: XII-32b; as scientist I- 
26.5c; .Sentences, Book of XII- 
3f)4a; and Siger of Brabant 
XIII-784b; on spiritualism 
XIV-220d; 229d; theology 
I-266d; XIV-.590d; on Saint 
Thomas Aquinas XIV-664c; 
664d; and Thomism XI V-698d ; 
on Virgin Mary VII-678d; 
works I-2r)4d 
— Magnus Association, in Bava- 
ria II-3.56d 
—Parvus. See Saxony, Albert of 
Albertutius. See Saxony, Al- 
bert of 
Al-Beruni, on Manichaeans IX- 

Alberus, Bishop of Schleswig 
XIII ,>t3b 

—See A.lnllHTt 


2117a; r.ilhc.lral III-.57r,d; fill.) 
VI-lfi9; Catholic congress 
(190.5) IV-246a; ecclesiastical 

province, map. Vl-facing 188; 
Lazarists X-361c 
— Congregation of 11-2700 
—COUNCIL OF (12.54) I-267c 
—(ALBA). JUAN DE, Biblical 

scholar I-267c 
ALBIANOS, Nitrian monk XI- 

bishop of Prague I-267d; 
ALBIGENSES, heretics I-267d; 
XIV-761C; Albi, Council of 
(1254) I-267c; Aries, Council 
of (353) I-238c; Aries. Council 
of (1234) I-238c; Aries, Council 
of (1236) I-727b; Avignon, 
Council of (1209) II-159d; in 
Avignonet XIV-798a; and bap- 
tism, infant I— 445c; and Saint 
Bernard VI-427C; in Bosnia- 
Herzegovina II-697b; and CiE- 
ear of Speyer III-139a; Cathari 
called III-435a; and Conrad 
of Urach IV-261a; and Cro- 
siers IV-516d; doctrine I- 
268a; XII-249b; and Saint 
Dominic V-lOOc; and Eriu- 
gena V-521d; and Gregory 
IX VI-797d; history I-26Sb; 
and Honorius III VII-45Sc; 
and Innocent III Vlll-lOb; 
Lateran Council, Third I-268a; 
Lateran Council, Fourth IV- 
425c; liturgy I-269b; and 
Montfort, Simon de VIII-16C; 
X-541a; moral teaching I- 
268b; Muret. battle (1213) 
XIII-189b; organization I- 
269b; origin I-268b; at Pam- 
iers XI-436a; and papacy 
I-561a; 561c; and Peter. Bish- 
op of Sabina XIII-291b; and 
Philip II. of France XII-2a; 
on Purgatory XII-576a; on 
Resurrection XII-792C; and 
Waldenses XII-249C; XV- 
S29c; and Wyclif XV-723d 
Albilius, Patriarch of Alexandria 

Albini, Filippo, Bishop of Santa 

Agata dei Goti Xni-454c 
— Giuseppe, on blood of St. 

Januarius Vni-296b 
Albinos XII-622a; among Indi- 
ans VII-747d 
— (Aubin), Saint, ma^t^T I-253a 
—Saint, at Vaison XVi-7Sb 
ALBINUS, English monk I-269d 
— (Ailbe), Irish monk IV-4Sa 
— m.agistrate, and Aetius IX- 

— cardinal, Bishop of Albano 

— Saint, Bishop of Angers XV- 

— Saint, Bishop of Embrun VI- 

— procurator of Judea VIII-350b 
—Bishop of Quimper XII-611d 
—Bishop of Rieti XIII-.54a 
— Bernhard Sigtnund, anatomist 

— Clodius, military leader XI- 
739c; and Severus XIII-721b 
— .See .Ailbe; Alouin; Witta 
Albisi, Bartholomew, biographer 

II-3I6C: 31(,d 
Albium Intemelium (Ventimig- 

lia). town XV-343a 
Albius, Thomas. See White, 

Albizzi, family VI-109a 
— cardinal, on exclusion, right of 

— Giovanna degli VI-546d 
— Maso degli, Florentine states- 
man VI-108d 
Alboff, M., author XIII-274b 
Albofledis, sister of Clovis IV- 

Alboin, Lombard king IX-33Ra; 
338d; XI-5.3b; in Italy II-60,5c; 
Milan, siege of (.568) X-300c; 
Pavia. siege of (.538) XI-.592d; 
at Verona XV-361a 
Albolderode Abbey. See Reifen- 

Albon, Saint, relics XV-271d 
— Antoine d'. Archbishop of Ly- 
ons IX-474b 
Albonese, and Snint Charles 

Borromco IIl-r,20d 
Albornoz, Frias de, at Mexico 

Universitv X-2.59d 
—Gil de. .See Gil de Albornoz 


— Jeronimo de. Bishop of Tecu- 

man X-186b 
—Chapel, Cuenca IV-562c 
Albrand, Stephen, Viear Apos- 
tolic of Kwei-chou VIII-714a 
Albrecht, Christian name. See 

— Wilhelm, at Leipzig IX-141a 

HANN G., composer I-270a 

Albret, Amanieu d', cardinal, at 

Comminges XIV-79Ud; at Pa- 

miers XI-43r,a 

— Charlotte d'.marriage I-292b 

— Jean d'. King of Navarre. 

See John d' Albret 
— Jeanne d'. Queen of Navarre, 

See Jeanne d' Albret 
Albright, Jacob, founds sect I- 

—BRETHREN, sect I-270b; in 
Indiana VII-742b; in Japan 
Albrik. See Alberic 
Albrinck, J. C. III-775C 
Albrizio, cardinal, and Maratta 

Albuin I, Bishop of Brixen II- 

Album, periodical, Italy XI- 

Albumazar, astronomer XII-55b 
Albuquerque, university, New 

Mexico XI-4b 
SO DE I-270C; as crusader 
IV-555b; at Goa VI-604C; 
Mozambique settlement X- 
— Bernardo de, at Tehuantepeo 

—Bras de, writer XII-308d 
— Gonzallo de I-270c 
— Jeronymo de, at Maranhao 

— Joao ASonso d'. Archbishop 

of Goa VI-294d; 604a 
— Cavalcanti, Joaquin Arcoverde 

de, cardinal H26c 
Alburga, Saint, Abbess of Wilton 

Alburgh, mission III-Slc 
Alcacer (Alcazar), battle (1578) 

AlaciEus (Raphael) XII-644b 
Alcala, Parafan de Rivera, Duke 
of, Viceroy of Naples V-708a 
— de Henares, town IX-516a; 
Irish College VIII-159c; ordi- 
nance XIV-186d; population 
IX-51,Sc; wheat granaries 
— de Henares, Diocese of IX- 
SLSd; Carmelites III-361d; 
XIV-516b; Synod (1347) VI- 
XIII-401d; XV-730b; charter 
XII-766a; on grace IV-239a; 
(ill.) I-271a; Lilius's calendar 
IX-250d; and Pamplona XI- 
438c; Polyglot Bible XII- 
222a; XIII-724b; theology 
XIV-593a; Thomism XIV- 
— Gateway, Madrid IX-516c: 

(ill.) XlV-faeing 190 
Alcalde, among Aj mar4 II-165a 
— Antonio, Bishop of Guadala- 
jara VII-»2c 
Alcamo, Cielo d'. See Camo, 

Ciclo dal 
Alcaniz, and Calatrava Knights 

DER OF I-L'Tld: XIV ISla; 
and \-,-,7l)a; rule 
II-.||-,la: nn.l.r Spanish Crown 
XIIl-:!.-,:)d: hiatus XIV-188a 
— Pedro d'. X'icar Apostolic of 
Ma,lr-,s IX :,1.5c 


of Alcantara. Saint 
—town I-271d 
Alcantarines. See Friars Minor, 

Alcaron. Pedro Antonio de, 

writer XlV-L'Olb 
Alcazar, battle. .See Aleacer 
—Seville Xni-74.5d; (ill.) XIII- 

746; Anima Christi I-51.5d; 

Carrefio's work III-377d 
— Luis de. Biblical commentator 

— de Hercules, Tarazona XIV- 


Roman numeral indicates volume; arable, page; a, b, c, d, quarter of page. 




—y Herrera, Dionisio del-272c 
Alcester, cell V-648c 
Alcfrid. See Aldfnth „. 

Alchas, Bishop of Toul ^r®80» 
irrrrPMY I-272d; Alhertus 
"^M^nus I-26oa; 265d; Berthe- 
lot on I-273b; coinage XI- 
157a; Schmieder on 1-2731). 

Alche/'of Clairvaux, on man 
AlcUrith, ICing of Northumbria. 
N«- Alclfrith tji7=;k. 

Alchindi, philosopher l-oioo, 

AlJhmund, Saint. See Alcmund 
A l'c i"atT' (ALCIATUS), AN- 

t:u^tiims ll-Ulod . 

—Giovanni Paolo, Socinian lli- 

197d; XIV-U3C 
Alciato, Francesco, f ™??''. 

Bishop of Cmtate XIII-403C 

and Ireland I-159b; and Samt 

Charles III-619a . 
Alciatus. See Alciati 
Mc bSdes, the Athenian, blas- 

nhemv II-.595d; Cyzicus, bat- 

?le"ri(5 B. c.) IV-598C; at 

P?oconnesus XII-449d; at Se- 

Ivmbria XIII-C92d 
_-<rf Apamea, Elcesaite leader 

V-S72a ^ 

Alcidamas, tyrant of Regg.o 

Aldme'des','' Bishop of Silandus 
XIII-789d .. 

AlCIMUS, high priest I-27.ia, 
IX-494C; and Assideans i- 

— Scius, Saint. See Avitus 
Alcisoo, Bishop of Nicopolis XI- 

SAINT I-273b 

—King of Saxony V-295c 

—Military order «* X-27Ja 
Alcobar, Juan, martjT 111-6704, 

AlM«rfbattle (995) III-411b 
ATCOCK JOHN, Bishop of 
"-Rochester V273d;X'III-102c; 

at Worcester XV-704a 
—Sir Rutherford 1117684b 
Alcohol, in altar wine I-359a, 
consumption XIV-482b; Swiss 
t°U.e XIV-4S6b; Villanovanus 
and X-127d , 

ALCOHOLISM I-274a; and 
divorce V-68b; and eugenics 
XVI-39b; 39c; and imagina- 
tion VII-673b; and leprosy 
IX-182d; and psychotherapy 
XII-552b; and psychosis XI- 
542d; and temperance Alv 
481d; temperance movements 
XIV-4S2a; 482b; 486c , 
—General German Union for 

Combating XIV-4S4d 
Alcolti. Francesco, jurisconsult 
at Pi»;i XIl-112b 

Alcora"; little (1096) IIM12C 
Alcorn. James L, governor 01 

Mississippi X-3y^c 
Alcot, religious foundress Vll- 

633a; De virtutibus et vitiis 
XIV-61Sa; on confirmation 
IV-219C; and Eanbald 1 V- 
2''4b- on Echternach XV- 
645c;' and education I-276c; 
III-350C; on Egbert y-32bc. 
and Einhard V-366d: and 
Ethelbert V-554a; and Ethel- 
hard V-355b: Ffoulkes on 
II-34C; Forster's edition \ 1- 
145a: and Fredegis of Tours 
VI-252b; homiliarium VU- 
448a; aa hymnodist VII-602b 

448a; aa hymnoaist > "-""r"' 
on kneeling VI-423d; librarian 
IX-229d; and Latin literature 
IX-30c; and liturgist I-2;^9a; 
IX-312a; on logic IX-32tic. 
and Saint Ludger IX-il.)D; 
manuscripts IX-618a: minia- 
ture painting lX-fa24D, on 
MissaUs libellus ^^rlf^J ""j 
Mozarabic Rite X-611d; and 
Osbald XI-335a; and Paulmus 
II XI-5S6b; on philosophy 
vTT_ot;i1- T^lnin chant Xll— 

Alcott, Amos Bronson, Tran- 

sccndenUilist XV-lSc 
Alcoutim, Peace of (1-571) X.11 

301c . . , ,:,, ouqu 

AIcov. Autrustinians at V llrr'^-^" 
I-276b; at Aaohcu ll-.ioOa 
IV-4Sa; at Aachen, Council of 
(799) I-2d; on Adoptiomsm 
I-l.TOd; 151a; and Amalanus 
of Mctz I-376c; and Saint 
Angilbert I-49nb; '«"}»lj' {- 
r-j^'b- "11 arts, liberal 1-7626, 
Uedc' on 11-3868; on charity 
III-597d; and Charlcmagno 
VI-358d; on classic.i IX-33c; 
and Coclchu IV-92b; comes 
IX-19.5C; on confession -\i- 

11 Al-OBOu; ou I-"-— ■.-/-■•• 
XII-25d; Plai" , *??A .^, hT 
147a; prayer-books Xll-3oip. 
and Rabanus Maurus XU- 
617a; Sacramentary 1-2 (90, 
on sin XIV-Sc; is theologian 
I-278a; at Tours XV-3b; \ul- 
gate revision IV-394<1; XV- 
370b; 519a; Werner on U 
131d; and Saint WiUehad XV- 
628a; on Yorkminster XV- 
734c- and Zacharias Chryso- 
politanus XV-743c 
Alda (Aude), Samt, and St. Cene- 

vieve XI-489a 
—wife of Alberic IX-160a 
Aldabrand, discovery I-421a 
Aldama, Ignacio XVI-4od 
Aldana, Francisco de, writer 

Aldazor, Nicolas, Bishop of ban 

Juan XIII-447a 
Aldberht. See Ethelbert 
Aldebaran, star, m Old Testa- 
ment ll-30d ^, ^. , 
Aldebert III, Venerable, Bishop 

of Mende X-lSOb . ^ „. , 
Aldebrando Faberi, Saint,_Bi3hop 

of Fossombrone Mrjaja 
Aldegarius, Viscount Il-b2B 
Aldegonde. See Aldegundis 
Aldegrin, Saint II-52od 
ALDEGUNDIS, Samt I-279b, 
foundation III-210C; X-98d; 
Binet on II-570a , _ ,. 
Aldemar, cardinal, and Ostiensia 

Ald'enburg^. .Sfe Oldenburg 
Alderete, Diego Gracian de. See 

Graci4n de Alderete, Diego 
— Jeronimo de, conquistador V- 

Alderic, ^Saint, Bishop of Sens 

Alderottj, Thaddeus, physician 

ALDERSBACH, abbey I-279C; 

architecture XI-520d 
Aldersgate, ,I;?u<l°J? I>^-3-42c, 

destroyed IX-345b 
Aldetrude, Saint, Abbess of 
Maiibeuge III-210c; XV-434b 
ALDFRITH, King of North- 
umbria I-2S0a; and Saint 
Adamnan I-135c; 699c; monu- 
mpnt I-509d; XV-621d; at 
"hmore IX-284d; at Whitby 
XV-MOa; and Saint WUfrid 
\:V-621d; 622c 
Aldgatt Lindon IX-342c; de- 
""sfroyed IX-34.5b 
—priory, suppressed IX-34.ia 
Aldham, John Placid. Sec Adol- 

ham. John Placid 
Aldhame, church 11-22UA. 
M:,linrs\.u,v, Hishop of Sher- 
Imriic 1 2Sl)b; on altars XV- 
4tr!a- on embroideresses V- 
25'2a; and Geruntius III-494b; 
on Gregorian a°t'P'>5""''' L" 
SSOd; on Saint James 1V-1S8I>, 
Latin works IX-30C; and Mail- 
dubh IX-572C: at Malmes- 
burv IX-572c; on iii:'tre3 
I-280a; and Saint O'^-'i"!! 
XI-340d; and Scrgius I XJl- 
728c; at Sherborne X H-7o -b 

Alditha, name X-675a 
Aldnestun, leper houses ix- 

Aldo, Bishop of Piacenza XII- 

Aldobrandeschi, family, and 
Grosseto VII-39d; at Savona 

Aldobrandini, family, tomb XUl- 
172d; Vatican fresco xy-29ob, 
villa, Frascati VI-244b; XII- 

— Ippolito. See Clement VIII 

— Pamplo, Bishop of Monte- 
Bascone X-529b 

Pietro, cardinal. Archbishop ot 

Albano. See Peter Igneus 

— Pietro, cardinal. Archbishop of 
Ravenna, and Domemchino \ - 
102d- at Ferrara VI-46d; and 
Leo XI IX-167b; at, Ravenna 
XII-6fi7a; at Sabina XIII-291C 

Pallavicino, Isabella, academ> 

Aldobrandinus of Este, Blessed, 

Bishop of Adria I-15ob 
Aldred, glossator I V-5i 9c 
—Bishop of Chester-le-Street 
V-211d , , „,., 

—Archbishop of York, and Wil- 
liam the Conqueror X\ -643b 
ALDRIC, SAINT, Bishop of Le 
Mans I-2Sla; IX-143d; and 
forged Bull V-780b 
—Saint, Abbot of Fe"'^""- 

Archbishop of Sens .> I-50a 
Aldringen, and Tillv XIV-/2.5d 

library II-643a 
Aldualdus, Saint, Bishop of 

Bagnorea II-203C 
Alduin, Abbot of Angenacum 

Aldulf, Bishop of Lichfield IX- 

232d , T^ 1. «.. 

Aldun, Bishop of Durham. See 

Aldhun ... 

Aldus, Peter, Bishop of Bobbie 

II-60,5d; 606b 
— Manutius. See Manutius 

Aldwin. See Aldhun 
Aldwini, Bishop of Lichfield IX- 

232d , . ^^. -__. 

Aldwyn, foundation IX-5/'B 
^e I-''74c; adulteration. i-lbi!'', 

alcohol I-274d 
Ale mission V-568d . . 

ALEA, LEONARD, polemicist I- 

Aleandro (Aleander), Fratice_sco 
Archbishop of Bnndisi II-'f^8b 

— Girolamo, cardin.-il, -^rctt- 
bishop of Bnndisi II-- 88a 
and Tharles V III-625d; and 
Erasmus V-512d; in Germany 
V-272b; IX-446a; XJ-163b; 
and Renaissance XII-/67d 

Aleatico, wine VIII-228C 

Alebrand, Bezzelm, Bishop of 
Bremen VII-12IC; cathedral 

Alegam'^T^itar king XIII-216a 

alegreI^fkancisco XAVIER, 

historian I-281d; on Wadding. 

Michael .\V-524d 
Alekseieff. "riter Xin-271b 
Aleman, Louis. See Louis AUc- 

mand . vt\- 

Aleman, Mateo, writer Xl\- 

199b; 202d 
Alemanni. See Alamanm 
Alemannia. See Alamannia 
Alemannus, Fredericus, and 

(;erman cemetery 111--20D 
Alemanus, Louis. See Louis 

728c; at Sherborne Xni-7ol>D; 

on virginity XIV-5C3d; and 

Wessex III-494d 
Aldhun (Aldwin), Bishop of 

Durham V-211d 
Aldii IX-338b 


^;;i:;''^;ii-.-m; iv^'iob! 

at Baltimore Council II-^,3-j'b' 
236b; and education .\1U 
580c; at Monterey X.-.).i-B. 
XIlI-t40b; portrait l-2b.a, 
and tertiirics XIV-640C 

— AgUStin, I'rL'fect Apostolic of 
Ucavali XV-117d 

Alcmbert, Jean le Rond d , \ 
41Sb- on astronomy ll-.;t>c. 
and Clement XIII iy-34b; and 
Deism I-622a; on J<'\>.'L'i» ' V . 
35c: aa nh>sicist XII-b3a, 
portrait VII-499C; and \o\- 
taire V-I20a 

Alemeth. See Almath 
Alemquer, Pero d', explorer IV- 

Alencar, Jose de, dramatist XII- 

Alenjon, castle, William the 

Conqueror at XV-643a 
Margaret, Duchesse d'. See 

Margaret of Lorraine, Blessed 
Philippe d', in Western Schism 

—point, lace VIII--29d 
ALENIO, GIULIp, astronomer 

I-2S3b; at K'ai-feng III-680a 
Aleph, in Hebrew alphabet V 11- 

176c: mvstical meaning 1- 

332d; in Old Testament XI\ - 

Alepi.'^Greek Melchites XIV-60d 

Aleppians. See Aleppmes 

Aleppines, Maronite congrega- 
tion IX-6S4d; X^72d; in 
Svria XIV-J04C 

Aleppo (Haleb), town, ancient 
name II-514a; discoveries_V 11- 
30x; Persians at XI-716d: 

OFI-2S3b: Basilian congrega- 
tion II-323d; statistics I-283C; 
XIV-404d: Syro Catholics 

— Latin vicariate ApostoUc XIV- 

— Maronite diocese IX-684a 
Melchite diocese X-lDia, 

XIV-404b , . 

Alerding, Hermann Joseph. 

Bishop of Fort Wayne \ I- 

151a; VII-741d . 

Aleria, Ancient See of. Corsica 

I-23Sd; ruins XIII;4o9c 
Aleric, Antipope I-08JD: ai 

Alls.^'Adhemar d', on TertuUian 

Alesio, Mateo Perez de, artist 

Al^sa'ndri, family., tomb II-490a 

— Alessandro degl., V tear Apos- 
tolic of Cochin China II-302C 


Alessandrina, Vatican collection 
XV-296d , ... 

Alessandrino, Michele, cardinal. 
See Bonelli, Michele 

AUessandrius, Mfchael. Arch- 
bishop of Jerusalem \III-370a 

Alessandro, Bishop of ForU VI- 

— Prince of Parma, and England 

— Vindoli, Blessed, Bishop of 
Nocera XI^8'a , ., . 

ALESSI, GALEAZZO, architect 
I-284a: work, Genoa \ 1-4.0* 

Giuseppe, populist leader XIU- 

— Raffaele degli. Bishop of 

5S-'c- Miridite .\bbey X-352C 
Alet, Diocese of III-332a; abbey 

III-33'^a; Lazarists X-JolD, 

Al^tSTc^'nosUcism VI-595C 
. ^ISodoris. See .^pollodorus 
Aleth of Montbard. and Saint 

Bernird II-49Sd 
Aletin, Mocovl '*'oU.'^V 539c- 
Aleut Indians . I-248a, ^ -539<=' 

VII-754a: mission V-5401) . 
Aleutia and ^Alaska_,^^ Russian 

—and' NOTth'Amerka,^ Russian 

Alellti'^''lslands^ i;2.j7"a: natives 

1-2 isa 
Aiyw[ct°Ab'bot'*of Reichenau 


I'Tb- Vl-7isd: Mil- I'uc 
^...rj. -^-TT_-i7'in ■ cemetery l- 

2s"d7'xll-273a; cemetery I- 

Pope I-2s6b; Xll-27*a; on 
\mbro«ian Rite I-39,-.c; .at 
B e I-379d; and Berengarms 
n-4S7c; on bination II-5fi8d 
and Cadalous I--86C, 111 
129a; and Camaldoleso 111- 

XI- Aiaii i.\.-,3oou ^ . — - 



204d: as canonist IX-67d: on 
consanguimty IV-265a: elec- 
tion I-2S0b; European policy 
I-2S6C; and Greek Church 
VI-765d; and Guibert of 
Ravenna VII-63b; and Hilde- 
brand VI-792b; at Lucca IX- 
405a; at Milan XI-55c; at 
Monte Cassino X-527d; and 
Moiarabic Rite X-612a; XIV- 
ISOd: and ordeals XI-27Sb; 
reforms I-286b; Regesta XII- 
716b: and Trinitv. feast XV- 
5Sb; and William the Con- 
queror XV~ti4;ib 

ORLANDO), i'ope I-2S7a; 
XII-274a; on baptism II-262d; 
on Bartholomew of Exeter 
Xlll-lllb; and Boso II-698a; 
at Bourges II-720c; burial I- 
287c; on canonizations II-366a; 
XII-I79a; and Cathari III- 
435d; and Centuriators III- 
S35c;atChartresIII-636a; and 
Cistercians XIV— 454b; at Cler- 
mont IV-54C; and Cruciferi 
IV-537b: decretist IX-62d; at 
D6ols II-720d; on deposition 
IV-738a: on droit de regale 
XII-713a; on education XIII- 
556c: election I-287a; and 
England XIII-717c; and 
Etherianus V-ooOa; founda- 
tion VII-288b; and Frederic I 
I-158C; 2S7b; 449a; III-702b; 
743c; VI-254b; 492a; and 
Geoffrey of Clairvaux VI- 
427c; and Saint Germain XI- 
482d; and Golden Rose VI- 
629d; and Guelphs XIII-412c; 
and Henry II of England I- 
287b: 802d; II-162d; and 
heretics VIII-2Sb: and Saint 
Hildegard VII-352d; on Jesus 
Christ I-151b; and Jews VIII- 
393b; and John of Salisbury 
III-635C: Lateran Council, 
Third I-287c; 312d; IX-17b; 
and Laudabiliter I-158d; 
on legacies IX-116d; and Le 
Puy IX-1S6C; Licet de 
vitand& III-33Ga; on mar- 
riage, clandestine IV-lc; on 
marriage, dissolution V-59c; 
62a; on papal elections XI— 
457a; at Paris XI-482C; 485a; 
on property, ecclesiastical IX- 
117c; XII-471C; and Portugal 
XII-29SC; and Prester John 
XII-400d; Regesta XII-716b; 
Reims, synod XII-730b: and 
Roger, Bishop of Worcester 
Xlll-lUb: Saint Vincent's 
restored VI-473d: at Sens 
XIII-717C; and Sept Fons 
Abbey XIII-720d; and Tal- 
laght XVI-77b; and Saint 
Thomas Becket I-802d; V- 
436d; XIV-678a; at Tours 
XV-4a; on usury XV-236a; 
Vatican XV-276d; and Vau- 
dois XIV-037b; Venetian le- 
gend I-2S7b; at Veroli XV- 
359c; and William of Ebelholt 
XV-632d; writings I-287d 

I-287d; XII-274b; and Alfonso 
the Wise XIII-740b; and 
Annibaldi I-5-lOc; arms fill.) 
I-288a: and Augustinians VII- 
280d; 281b; XII-752a: XIII- 
736b; XV-644d; and Bernard 
of Botone II-498C: and cardi- 
nals III-335b; and Saint Clare 
IV-6b; on consecration XIII— 
413a; on disputations V-34b; 
Dominicans XII-355d: 3.56a: 
368Ab; 368Dc: and England I- 
288a: and Franciscans I-28,Sb; 
III-341b: and Germany I- 
288a: and Gregory IX VI- 
798b; and Hugh of Saint Cher 
XII-359b: and Inquisition 
VIII-32b: and Joachists VIII- 
407b: and La^arists IX-97a: 
and Lubeck privileges IX- 
401b; and ^Iendicant^ II- 
649b; X-18-lb; at Ostia XI- 
346d; on P,iri3 University 
XH97a: on Salamanca I'ni- 
versity XIII-392d; and .Selbv 
Abbey XII-232c; and Scrvitea 
XIII- 5 12a; and .Sorbonne 
XIV-150b; at Velleiri XI- 

346d; and William of Saint 
Amour I-264b; XIV-0G5a; 
XV-637d; and witchcraft XV- 

DIAi, I'op,- I L'ssb: IX-7_',-,b; 
XII Tlld: i;74b: .)n A.iuil.ia 
I-IJli2b; arms nil.) I-2f>Sc; and 
Dietrich von Nieheim IV- 
7S9d; election I-2S9a: XII- 
113d; H4a; epithet V-74d; 
and Germany VI— 496b; and 
Leipzig University IX-139b; 
140c; at Milan X-301a; at 
Novaro XI-135a; and papal 
schism XV-145d; at Pavia 
XI-594b; at Piacenza XII- 
70d: and Pisa, council XII- 
lUd: XIII-413C; and Poggio 
Bracciolini XII-177d; por- 
trait I-28Sd; Scotist XIII- 
612b; and Simon of Crainaud 
XIII-799a; and WvclifEsm 

Pope I-289b: XII-274c: 7G6c; 
and Aberdeen University II- 
610a; at .\lbano I-256b; and 
Alcald University 1-27 lb; and 
Annius of Viterbo I-541a; and 
Annunciades I-543b; Apostolic 
sacristan XIII-748b; Appart>- 
amento Borgia XV-284a; arms 
(ill.) I-289b: and Augustinians 
VII-284C: and Ariz, Knights 
of II-162C; and Bohemian 
Brethren II-617b; and Bra- 
mante II-73GC; and Briconnet 
II-799d: and Bull, Bernard 
1-114; III-lOc; Bvzantine pol- 
icv VI-770a; and Carafia 
XIII-291b; as cardinal I- 
289b; and Carvajal, Bernar- 
dino L6pez de III-393b: on 
censorship of books III— 
521b; XIII-143a; and Charles 
VIII I-291a: IV-555b: and 
Christ. Knights of III-698d; 
and Cistercians III-783a; and 
Columba of Rieti IV-121d: 
coronation I-289d: death I- 
293a; Demarcation, Bull of I- 
290b; II-748b: IX-7.5d: X- 
261d; XI-155b; XII-t89c; 
election I-2S9c; 294c; _and 
Ferdinand of -dragon I-272b; 
French policy I-291d; foreign 
policy I-290b: and Friars 
Alinor VI-2S.5C; Hadrian's 
tomb restored XIII-170b; and 
Holy Sepulchre, Order of IV- 
669a: on Immaculate Concep- 
tion XV-661b; immorality 
XII-766d; and Italian barons 
I-292C: and Ivan the Great 
XIII-246a; and Jews VIII- 
396a; jubilee indulgence XIV- 
.539c: and Julius II VIII- 
562c: Maffei on IX-.522c; 
military operations I-29Ic; 
on Mirandola III-521b; nepo- 
tism I-290c; and Pius III 
XII-128d: and Pinturicchio 
XII-104a: pontificate XIV- 
264b: at Porto XII-290d; por- 
trait I-292a; XV-284d; and 
Quimper cathedral XII-6I2b; 
and Roman University XIII- 
177d: 178b; in Rome I-290a: 
29.ia: and Savonarola XIII- 
491b: 491c; and Signatura 
XIII-149a: and Spanish sov- 
ereigns VIII-177d; XIV-183b: 
and Subiaco XIV-321d; and 
Tivoli XIV-747C: tomb III- 
512c; XIII-37.3a; Vatican XV- 
27Sc: Vatican librari- XV- 
29fia; and Vergil XV-353C 

-Vn (CHIGI, FABIOl, Pope I- 
294b;XII-274c: Xin-402c:on 
abstinence Ul'.vc: and acolytes, 
college of I-ll)7d; Ad Sacram 
XII-37.5d; Alexandrian Libra- 
r\- Xni-17Sb; and Allatius I- 
318a: and Altieri IV-29a; and 
Amelole I-407a; arms (ill.) I- 
294b: on attrition II-fi6b: and 
Augustinus I-128a; on Beati 
II-.59Sa; and Bollandists II- 
632d; 6.3.3c; and Bona II-645d; 
and Bonalists II-647a: and 
canons regular III-29.5a; and 
Canranica College XIII-132a; 
and Casanata IIt-396d: Chair 
of Peter III-437d; III-5.53d: 

chaplains III-5Slb; and Chigi 
XIII-378C: Chinese calendar 
XIII-522a; Chinese rites III- 
671d; X-557a: Xni-3Sb; and 
Christina III -i^'-. r- =. •, j ,,,-, 
III-783b; 7^ M Mil - '!. > 
Crutched I r , i , 
lion (165.51 Ml . ■,. , :..: ,- 
larv I-294d; llH.j^c. Irench 
policy I-294C: Golden Hoses 
VI-629C; and Grimaldi, Gio- 
vanni Francesco VII-35b; and 
Hospitallers of St. Joseph VII- 
477c; and Immaculate Con- 
ception VII-680C; and Imola 
VII-693C; Index III-522d; 
Inter cateras V-689d; XII- 
387a: Jansenism I-12Sa: 743a; 
VIII-289a; and Jesuits III- 
671d: and laxism XII-442c: and 
Lazarists XII-7o7d: on litany 
IX-290b; and Lorraine, Claude 
de IX-361d: and Louis XIV 
IX-373c; XII-7n7d; and Lu- 
pus, Christian IX-43Gd: and 
Marca, Pierre de I.X-G37b; 
and Marat ta. Carlo IX-G36d; 
Marcus Aurelius, arch XIII- 
176a; Master of the Sacred 
Palace, regulation concerning 
X-40b; Molo, medals of X- 
443b; monasteries 1 1 1-4 58c: 
monument XIII-372c; in Nar- 
do X-704a: nepotism I- 
294c; and Pallaricino XI-427b; 
Pascal XII-442b; and Pavil- 
ion, Nicolas XI-594C: Piarists 
XIII-588b: portrait I-29.5a; 
on prelatures, real, XII-3S7a; 
Probabiliorism XII-442C: and 
Probabilism XII-368Ga; XIV- 
609d; propositions, condemned 
V-688c: and Rospigliosi IV- 
28b; Scala Regia, erection of 
XV-298C: 766a: Siam, Vicar- 
iate of XIII-766a: and Simeon 
IV III-.->GOa; and Society of 
Jesus XIV-Soc: Spiritual Ex- 
ercises XIV-228d: and theol- 
ogy, moral II-304b: and 
■Thomas of Villanova, Saint 
XIV-696d; tomb Il-olOd; Ur- 
ban College Xni-1.34c: Vat- 
ican Library XV-2<16d 

Pope I-295b: XII-274C; and 
Adami d:i Bolsona I-13.5a; 
arms (ill.) I-2'.i.-.b: and Bailey 
Il-2llc,b: an.l Hianchini. Fran- 
cesco II-r,41b: li;«hr,prirs XII- 
304a; elcclir.r, II 7:;-.h: and 
Jansenism 1--, \l\ 7i,7h: and 
Leopold l\ :l.i liK. - of 
Queen Chri^iu, , ,.-,uii I W- 
296d: and Luui, Xl\ \ I-.;.',4d: 
IX-374b: monument XIII- 
372c; XI-206a; and O'Daly, 
Daniel XI-20Ga; Piarists XIII- 
588c; and Polignac XII-212C; 
in Porto XII-290d: proposi- 
tions, condemned V-68SC; on 
redemption VI-699C; Roman 
Vacabili rcvf-nuc Xni-Iida; 

inSabinaXIII -"". I -rar- 

latti XIII-:.I .1 M i i.l.ilo- 
sophical XI \ -b ii liius 

XII-i42b: tl.,:.,ir.- .\1\ ..1,1b; 
Vatican library X V-290d : 297a 

— Byzantine emperor III-107d 

—I, of Epirus IV-403a; Sinon- 
tum IX;-5S8c; Taranto XlV- 

— Grand-duke of Lithuania IX- 

—I, King of Poland XII-lS4c; 
Golden Rose VI-630C 

—I, Tsar of Russia XIII-24Sd; 
and Catholics XIII-257b; con- 
cordat XV-555d: crowned XII- 
187c: and HaQy VII-153a; 
Holy Alliance VII-398b; Jews, 
treatment of VIII-398C; and 
de Maistre IX-554C; Napoleon 
X-691b; and peasants XIII- 
2.3Sb: and Pius VII XV-iJ55d; 
portrait XII-74d; Rumanian 
Church XIII-37.5d: St. Alex- 
ander's Chtirch XV-556d; St. 
Paul without the Walls, gift 
of XIII-369C: Tira.spol XIV- 
739b; universities XIII-241b; 
and Warsaw XII-187b; XV- 

—11, Tsar of Russia XIII-249d; 
XVI-5.3a:and Catholics XIII- 
2.5Sc; and education XIII-241b; 

Jens, treatment of VIII-398C; 
and Leo XIII IX-171a: memo- 
rial X-.595c: .(ill.) X-593b; 
Nihilists XI-75d: Paris, Treaty 
-■ \ 7()(tc; serfdom, abolition 
^1(1 J :sb; and Tischendorf 
I 1: Uniats X-429a: me- 

- :i I X-.595C; (ill.) X-59.3b 
—III, iaar of Russia Xin-250c; 
and Catholics XIII-259a; and 
Jews VIII-398C; and Leo XIII 
— I, King of Scotland XIII-615b; 
ecclesiastical changes V-193d; 
and Honorius IIlI-500a; mo- 
nastic foundation III-291c; 
— n, liing of Scotland XIII- 

616b; foundation V-2S6a 
— m. King of Scotland, mar- 
riage VIII-328d; foundations 
XII-171a: XIII-616C 
— rson of Anthony, and the Ke- 

lendres inscription I-40a 
—Prince of Servia XIII-734d; 

— Duke of Wurtemberg X V-716d 
— Saint, martyr, Csesarea XI- 

— Saint, martjT, Drusipara V- 

— Saint, martyr, Marcianopolis 

• — Saint, mart\T, Rome VI-28b 
— son of Anthony I-JOa 
— Dominican, emba-ssy to China 

ALEXANDER, Kphesian apostate 

I-2s.".a: lll-.a.'Sla 
ALEXANDER, Ephesian copper- 
smith I-287>a 
— Gnostic VI-598d 
— monk, church historian VII- 

— Montanist X-522b 
—false prophet VIII-93b 
—son of Herod VII-290a; IX- 

ALEXANDER, Jewish councillor 

I-2S.5a; I-.537a 
ALEXANDER, St. Paul, defender 

of I-2S.5a 
ALEXANDER, son of Simon of 

Cvrenc I-285a: IX-676C 
—SAINT, Patriarch of Alexan- 
dria I-29Gb; 301b; and Alex- 
ander of Byzantium I-285b; 
and Arius I-708d; 718d; II- 
37a; and Athanasius, St. II- 
35d: council XI-44b: encyclical 
V-623c; and Eusebius of Ca;- 
sarea V-619b; 621d; and Mele- 
tiu5V-35.5c; X-164C; and Orig- 
en XI-308C 
—Saint, Bishop of Brusa III-21a 
— Bishop of Ciesarea IV-46c 
—Bishop of Colophon IV-129a 
—SAINT, Bishop of Comana I- 

295d; IV-151b: V-llc 
— SAINT, Bishop of Constanti- 
nople I-2S5b: IV-302C 
—Bishop of Corvdallus IV-402C 
—Saint, Bishop of Fermo VI-44b 
—Saint, Bishop of Ficsoli- VI-70b 
—Saint, Bi-liop of Forli XV-419b 
—Abbot of Gonion I-10.5C ; founds 

Acffimcta; I-lOSb; XIl-750b 
— SAINT, BLshop of Jerusalem I- 
295d; 285c; VII-425c; VIII- 
35Gc; IX-228c:and Demetrius, 
Saint IV-706d; at Flavius VI- 
99b: and Origen XI-306d; 308a 
• — Patriarch of Jerusalem VIII- 

— Bishop of Kamenetz IX-465b 
—Bishop of Lincoln ^'-133c; IX- 
267a: and Gilbertines VI-556b; 
and Ncwhouse Abbey X-789d 
—Bishop of Lycopolis IX-468b 
— Bishop of Magnesia IX-533C 
— Administrator of Merseburg 

— Bishop of Pisa XII-lllc 
— Bishop of Porphyrion XII- 

— Bishop of Thessalonica XIV- 

—Bishop of Tipasa XIV-738b 
^Bishoi) of Tomi XIV-775d 
-Abbot of Wilhering XV-fl24a 
■ — Michael Samuel, AnglicanBisb- 
op of St. James (Jerusalem) 
—Sarah VlII-139d 
• — Tiberius, procurator of Judea 

Roman numeral indicates volume; arable, page; a, b, c, d, quarter of page. 


Alexander, Sir WiUiam IX-756d: 
XIlI-ti-Bc; in Acadia l-»ia, 

—William Menzies, on demoniac 
-TTmiieoJ'l'ie Alexander 
of San Elpido , „ . , „„.,. 
— BALAS. King of Syria I-^S-'J' 
lV-707b; IX-494d; and Jona- 
than Maohabeus I-94a; rebel- 
lion of SjTia XIII-690C 

-l^liT^ 'Bt-ESSEg I-296C: 

JiTui.M.:"'s!e Alexander of 

-Kattis. see Alexander 

_5iS^ui"^'ni-3S8a. at Beth- 

Iran II-315b; Gaza \ I-400C, 

tt Geraaa VI^69b| at Hese- 

bon VII-298b; at Hippos VII- 

362c; and Hyrcanua IX-4951J, 

at Pella XI-608d 

—Jonathan. See Alexander Jan- 

— Land (Northern Territory) XI- 
115b , ,_- 

IV-626d; on Donation ol Oon 
stantine V-119C; Gal icanisni 
IV^SSa; VI-355C; historical 
wo^ XII-368GC; homiletio 
work VII-447a; Jansen.^" 

XIV-703a; Zaccaria's edition 
_Ne''wJi'.''Grand-duke of Nov- 


Vlll-ySb; and Marcus AureUus 
—of Albano Il-539a . 

-Sf' ANiioCH l-285a; and 

Innocent I VIII-lKl 
—of Aphrodisias, phijos"??" 

VIII-67c: Averrocs ll-loio, 


II-329b . , „ I 

—of Battenberg, Pnn« .<>VnT_ 
garia II 1-4 7a ; and Kussm XIII 
isOd: and Serbs XIII-' 34c 
-of Bergamo, Saint II-489d 
—of Bonini, works I-298b 
ander, Saint, Bishop of Con- 
—of Eumema, Samt X-523a 
—OF HALES, theologian I-298a. 
Vll^a; XIII-299b; 302a; 
Lga- on absolution I-63c; on 
adoption I-ugb; on angeis 
II-157b; and Bonaventure 
II-fi49b; 65Qd; 651c; 653a; 
on Church III-797C; on eon- 
fession XI-623d; confirmation 
IV-2''nb- consubstantiation 
IV-322d; Cross IV-531b; death 
VI-385C; Francis, rule ot bt. 
VI-213a; Immaculate Concep- 
tion, controversy VII-679a, 
confession XI-623d, man /A 
581b; Mass X-22d; matter X- 
66b; ontological argument 1- 
549c; on Peter Lombard XIV- 
606c; predestination, theory of 
XII-383d; psychological teach- 
ing I-298d; rule, interpretation 
of VI-213a; Scholasticism XII-- 
32b; 76Ba; XIV-590d; and 
Scotism XIV-591C; on soul 
IV-47fia; XV-15a; synderesis 
IV-271a- temporal jurisdiction 
III-797C; thclogicM system 
I-298b;XIV .-,'l(ld; and Thom- 
as Aquinas XH ■>91a ^ 
— of Hierapolis (Euphratensis) 1- 

—^^le'rusalem" See Alexander 
Saint, Bishop of Jerusalem 


—of Juliers, Bishop of Li«ge IX- 
-^fLycopolis I-299a; IX-468b 
-^f Miletus (Polyhistort I-1S5C 
—of Miszin, bishop XV-b8ia 
—of Neckam. See Neckam, Al- 

—^f skint John of the Cross VI- 

— if^stn Elpidio, Bishop of Melfi 
VII-285a; X-165a 

of Tralles, physician X-1^4D 

ZlAmi.BLESSED I-299b; XI- 
593d; and St. Charles III- 
623b; Puget on XII-557d 

— Severus. See Severus, Alex- 

— the'^Good, Moldavian prince 

— TfflEGRZAT, King of Mace- 
don I-285a; and Alexander of 
Epirus IX-58SC; Alexandria 1- 
299d; Ammon, -worship ot i 
430d; on amulet Ir443c; at 
AncjTa I-513a; Aristotle .1- 
713c; Avesta II-152b; . burial 
nlace IV-664d; Byzantine ro- 
Elance III-123c; CaUimcus 
III-183b; chronology .IV-Wd. 
Conquests I-784d; Cyzicus IV- 
59Sc; Daniel's prophecy IV- 
622b; Darius H-Sa; deified I- 
650b' era of III-740b; V-334d; 
Gabriel's prophecy yl-\30a: 
Gaza VI-400C; Gordian knot 
VIII-561a;Hellenism VI-735d; 
in India VII-724d; Issus, bat- 
tle VIII-201C; and Jaddua XI" 

386d; Judea. annexation Vlll 
■i44d- in literature 1U-1'!^J. 
XIV-354d; and Myndus X- 
iYnj. T3.,.olo X'I-713b; Phceni 

XIV-354a; anu ivivu^uo — 
660d; Persia XI.-713b; Ph^m: 
cia XII-42a; Pnene Xll^OSd, 
Sagalassus XIII-324c; at Sa- 
maria XIII-416C; Scandma- 
vian hterature >b^ f 5*"^ 

sus XIV-478d; Tenedos XIV-- 
506d; Termessus XlV--»lia, 
Thebes XIV-562C; tomb IV- 
664d; T>Tre XV-llla . 
—the Oracle-Monger (Lucian) 1- 

-Ifbtnas IV-707C; XIII-690d 
Alexandra, virgin, martyr XIV 

— empress VI-4D4a 
—mother of Mariamne VII-289d 
—Queen of England, pectoral 

cross IV-534a 
— Feodorovna, empress xiii 

-lalJme VII-638d; Vin-388a; 


-Noiil.^'s''' Aloxanaer Nat^lis 

de Sainte Therese. Carmelite 

Vn-219b , ,. . 

Alexandretta (Cambysopolis Is- 


iV-792e . ,r • • 

Alexandria, mission, Virginia, 
UnSed/statea of America 

ALEXANdW, to-B-n, Ecypt l- 
299d- Amru takes III-105b, 
S, Anthony I-554b;_ anti- 
quities, Christian X-64-c;Ari- 
5, at i-70Sd; 718d; astrology 
II-20C; Bible, translation ot 
Xin-723a; XV-367b: Bruchc- 
ion destroyed I-303C; cemetery 
V-592c; Codex I\-80c, Con- 
stantinople _,V-19b: era Ol 
V-333d; 334d: ghetto IV-776b, 
Gnosticism Vl-.WSb; Hellen- 

lT-157d; V' 3hlc; Latins cap- 
ture XV-21.^d; meibcal school 
Il-m- X-124C; Mohamme- 
dans capture I-303c; Napoleon 
X-689a; and No- Ammon .\- 
671a; and Pergamon I-,103b , 
Persians capture XI-7( lo 

-fhilosorhical .<'W V-276C ; edu- 
cational system I--01b; cma- 
nationism V-:!98a . 

—pillaged (1.365) \ II-4 < 9b sen- 
ate VsMd; Seraneum XU - 
578c; siege (260) V-bJJa 

Zenobia's rebellion in the 

-CHURCH OpVliOOd; V-350d; 
VL-758d; VII-324C; XIII- 
535d; and Abyssirnan Church 
I-76d; Apostolicity I-*-'"'. 
640d; IX-673C; ascetics 1-7 .Oa , 

and Bobbio II-BOSb; bread un- 

feavened I-3«t^6r2?7c 
Testament nl-276d; 277c 
-Catechetical ScAooi II-35d, IV 
i'ic- V-301C; VI-6b; Did>mu3 
the Blind IV-784a; exegesis 
V-703a; and Orige-i X -306c 
Pantainus XI^46d, Pi"i"8 
XI-437a; Trinitarians X\ -54c 
-cathedra' III-554b ; Catholic 
schools in ^I"-565'^ . 53'^°'! 
Constantinople Xlli 53 /a^ 
Coptic patriarchate, map I 
f«cing 180; deacons IV-bOUC, 
dechne I-642a; Ill-lOla; XIII- 
?Irc- Easter V-228d: episco- 

davs !-314b; Gospel, att tude 
VI-661a; Gospel, reader of VI 
fi60d- Greeks, Orthodox 1 
306c' V-232a; VI-744a; 744b; 
758c: Xl-336a; Jacobites I- 
301c: 302c; V-355d; Julius I 
VIII-561C; jurisdiction, early 

I-301c;VI-755d^X-160c 160d 
Monophysites VI- - 62d Na 


nrimkcy IX-lSc; P™Paganda 

S;ll-457d; rank I-301a' "*?;! 

XI-549C; Roman Basilica XV 

8b; Uniat Copts, Diocese of 

_ioUNdas"oF'l-300c; (231) 
I-°300cr(306) I-300C; (321) I- 
300c; Ariua I-719a; (326) I 
300c; (340) I-300C XI-281d, 
(350) I-300c; (361) II-34b 
(362 I-300c; 710b; II-18a 


Origenism condemned -N-lv 
625d; (430) l-300d; (633) I- 
300d; (1898) on clerical celi- 

-^YJCESE OF, Canada I-302d; 
XI-2.56a; XVI-34b; map X- 
facing 546; Polish popu ation 
l^'^^f-. VTT_911b: statistics. 

4t); roiisii ij«i^"— -; — 
(1907) XII-211b; statistics 

-DIOCESE^OF. United States 
of America X-710b; statistics 

—ad Caucasum II;-32d 

—ad Issum 111-2166 

—Minor III-216b 

Alexandrian Codex. See Codex 

^^;cT."en;Sohsm V^OOa; Exi- 

XIII-17Sb; destruction 1-303C 


AlJxindrian Version, New Tes- 

tament XIV-.T33d 
—Version, Old Testament, 

Alex^ndrifof Troas. St. Paul's 

-S^^rbCTsa^r'ambysopolis known 

Alexanirine'codex. -Sec Codex 

-LITURGY I-303d .; V I^ ' 63b 
'7'7A^. Aonileinn Rite X\i .in 

-LITURUJ., i-'"-i?'.„ vVT-3d' 
774c; Aquileian Rite X\ I 3d, 
Canon, Roman III-258c264<l, 
Confiteor IV-222c; .C^P'-c '»: 


Ma?k I-304b; VI-"5d; and 

385d; Surplices "Ir^ ''^.'^^^'^ 
VI-76:!c; uses I-306b; IX-J13D 
—Version. See Septuagint 
Alexandrinum, mosaic X-5S4a 

Alexandrinus, Peter, Bishop of 

Alexandria XI-70Sb 
Alexandrists XII-53b 
Alexandrou 1 Alexandroukarnbou- 

sou, CambysopoUs) Ill-21bc 
Alexei, metropolitan of Moscow, 

writings X1II-26SC 
Alexi, Alexis a Sancto Andrea, 

theologian Xnl-588c 
— Johann, Bishop of Armenopolis 

I-740a , , .„, 

Alexiad (Anna Comnena) I-531a, 

ALEXIANS I-306d; Aachen I-2c, 
•iDuroved XII-752b; charitable 
;™rk ill-599a; (ill.) I-307a; 
United States VI-482b 
Alexianus. Sec Severus, Alex- 

Alexios! Agallianos, and Beccus 

ALEXIS, SAINT I-307d; patron 
of Alexians I-307a; Konrad of 
Wilrzburg, on VIII-691d, le 
eend VII-199b; legend, origin 
Sf V-282d; Gaston Pans oil 
XI-498d; Waldes influenced 
bv XV-528b 
—(1875), Oblate of Mary Immac- 
ulate, murder of X-3S3c 
—^(1246), Dominican m Kussia 
XII-368Dd , 

—son of Peter the Great XIII- 

247d; 24Sa „ 

—Alexius, and Luther IX-439C 
-Brothers of Samt. i^ee 

Alexians , 

— Willibald, novelist \ I-526d 
and St. Juliana Falconieri 
VIII-556b; Servants of Mary 
XIII-736a; Servites Xlli- 

-MiUiaUovitch, ■Tsar of Russia 
XIII-247a; and Catho icisin 
XIIl-25Ga; and the Church 
XIII-202d; and Patriarch Ni- 
kon XI-77c; and Peter the 
Great XIII-247a . 

Alexius, Xaverian superior AY 

— "^Comnenus), Byzantine em- 
peror Ill-UOa; XIV-442C, 
and Anna Comnena I-531a, 
TLs, Mount "-^8|^.B°g- 
mih repressed II-bl2l), coin 
(ill ) III-llOc; Corycus for- 
tress IV-402b; and crusaders 
IV-546c; Guiscard defeats V- 
9nqn- VII-73C; and Godfrey of 
louiilon VI-624d; and heresy 
VIII-29C; hospital founded 
■VII-4Sld; and Isaac, Prmce 
IX-622d; Italos refuted by 
V'l-676d; Leo persecuted by 
III-554d; Nica!a ceded Al- 
44a- Notitia episcopatuum 
XI-125a; and Paulicians XI- 
584d; Peter the Hermit XI- 
775d and Raymond IV of 
Sa^t-Giles XII-669d: and 
Robert of. Flanders j^.-o^d; 
Rome union with l\-045a. 
andTancred XIV-633b ; and 

Trcbizond. f'^P''??'' vV-21 la- 
2Sd; and ^^'fjan II XV-211a, 
and Venice X \ -3360 . 
-n Comnenus), Byzan ine em- 
neror Ill-llOa; death IlI-lUC 
-ffl (Angelus), Byzantine em- 
peror I H-l 10a; Ulc; and 
feandolo IV-619d; and Inno- 
cent III IV-549C; and Isaac 
Angelus IV-304a 
—W Byzantine emperor lU- 
10a- deposed I\-550a 
-V Muytzuphlos). Byzantine 
■^-.lla- usurps throne 1\-3U4D 
-DeUado BLESSED, Jesuit 

niartyr XlV-109d 
AlUma, Orde'r' of "st'.' George of 

X «l.b; XlIl-3.Wd 
Alf^nt.,p of Cavaillon 

Al-¥aVabi,"pl.ilosopher I-675b; 

\ll-49a. XIV 217b; cmana- 

iWmism V-39Sd 
Alfaro,' Uruguayan missionary, 

in China III-b<oa 



Alfeld, Augustin von. See Au- 

gU3tin von Alfeld 

Alfere, E:irl of Mercia V-323C 

Alferio Pappacarbona, Saint III- 

Alfgar, Biahop of Lichfield IX— 

Alfheim, in Scandinavian mythol- 
ogy I -775b 

Alfield, Robert XIV-663b 

— Thomas. .See Thomas Alfield, 

Alfieri, Antonio I-30Sc 

— Benedetto, count I-308c 

— Enrico, Friar Minor VI-284c 

— PIETRO I-308d 

— VITTORIO, count I-308b; 
VIII-252a; autobioKraphy I- 
308d; portrait VIII-252 

Alfius, forgery V-124b 

Alfonsina, theological test at Al- 
cali 1-27 Id 

Alfonsine Code, publication XII- 

Alfonso,sonof John^,andBa^rien- 
tosII-309a: and Giron III-lolc 

— I, King of Aragon III-412c; 
and Bull of Gelasius II IV- 
543b; castle of, at lachia (ill.) 
Vlll-facing 238; Granada VI- 
723c; military orders estab- 
lished XlV-ls'la; 181b; Monti- 
Arajon, tomb of VII-513c; and 
Munio XIII-391c: and Na- 
varre X-721d; Saragossa XI- 
438a; XIII-469b; Segovia 
XIII-68.5b; Tarazona XIV- 
452c; Tudela taken XV-Soc; 
Zaraora captured XV-748a 

—II, King of Aragon, Count of 
Barcelona III~412c; VII-477a: 
Tarragona XIV-460b; and 
Waldenses XV-529b 

—in. King of Aragon II-663a; 
1 1 1-41 2c; VII-460a; Catalonia 
XIV-182a; at Minorca X- 
332c; Sardinia, investiture of 

— rV, King of Aragon III-412C 

—V, King of Aragon III-412d; 
XIII-776b; XIV-lS2a: Al- 
berti, mediation of III-216d: 
Barcelona University, founded 
bv I I-290d; Catania University 
founded bv III-430b; and 
Doria V-134b; and Eugene IV 
V-602a; Gaeta besieged VI- 
333c: and Joanna II of Naples 
X-686a; and John of Segovia 
XtII-354b; and Orihuela XI- 
315c; Sicily X-685d; Sulmona, 
battle of (1451) XV-264d; and 
Valla XV-257b; Van Eyck, 
painting of X-21od 

—I, King of .\3turias XIV-179d; 
180b; Gothic Fields XI-418a: 
Le6n recaptured IX-175b; 
Moorish conquest XIII-391C; 
Santander XIII-45SC 

— II, Iving of Asturias XI-363c; 
XIV- 180a; 180b; founds abbey 
XIII-458C; Orense and Lugo, 
Dioceses of XI-295c; Servua 
servorum Dei XIII-737d 

— in. King of Asturias and Le6n 
XIV-180a; Burgos in-411a; 
Castile retaken III-67b; Orenao 
retaken XI-29.5c; Zamora con- 
quered XV-748a 

— V, King of Asturias and Le6n 
VI-558C; Hemeterius and Cele- 
donius, Abbey of Sts. XIII- 
458c; Le6n rebuilt IX-175C 

— Vra, King of Castile Ill-illd; 
XI\'-lS0c; Aragon, allied with 
III-412d: daughter XIII-392a; 
Hemeterius and Celedonius, 
Abbey of Sts. XIIH.58C; legis- 
lation XIV-18fpb; Moorish 
struggle XIV-179b; Osma. See 
of XI-339d; Palencia Univer- 
sity founded XHlSb; Pla- 
sehcia city founded XII-1.57d; 
St. James of Compostela, Order 
of XIII-353b; Santiago, 
Knights of XIII-3.i3b; Vitoria, 
conquest of XV-J89C 

—VI, King of Castile and Le«n 
III-411c; 769b; VII-.52.5b: 
XIV-lSOc; 181c; and Burgos, 
Council of III-67b; and the 
Cid III-67a; and Ferdinand 
the Great VII-526a; Jews, 
treatment of Vni-392d; and 
Navarre X-721d; Roman Rite 

X-612b; Segovia Castle XIII- 
686b; Spanish conquests XIII- 
7S8a; and Toledo XIV-179b; 
756a; 758a; Valladolid ceded 

— Vn, King of Castile and Leon 
III-411C; 412d; X-722a; XIV- 
ISOc; 181c; and Alfonso I of 
Portugal Xn-298c: Calatrava 
III-150a; Coimbra monastery 
IV-95c: Coria cathedral IV- 
363c; Golden Rose VI-630c; 
Hemeterius and Celedonius, 
Abbey of Sts. XIII-458C; 
Segovia XIII-685b; Sigiienza 
XIII-78Sa; Tarazona XIV- 

-X, Iving of Castile and Ledn 
IX-248b;XIV-181d; 182a; and 
Alexander IV I-2S8a; chron- 
icle XIV-196b; college, Val- 
ladolid I-309b; confessor III- 
3S4d; and crusade IH-150d; 
VIII-i30b; German crown 
claimed VI-798d; and Jaime I 
III— 412c; Jews, treatment of 
VIII-394a; XIV-182d;andLa- 
tini IX-34d; legislation XIV- 
186c; 197b; literature XIV- 
196d; marriage XV-258d; Ori- 
huela taken XI-315c; Portu- 
gal XII-300b; Salamanca uni- 
versitv XIII-392c; 393a; Se- 
ville schools XIII-746b; tomb 

-XI, King of Castile and Le6n 
III-411d; XIV-182a; and Al- 
fonso IV of Portugal XII-301b: 
coronation VII-512d; and Gil 
de Albornoz VI-55Sc; Jews, 
treatment VIII-394b; and Lu- 
cero XIII-391d; minority XV- 
258d; marriage XV-258d; 
Moors X-722b; XIV-179c: 
Portuguese war V-391c; tomb 
XIII-745c; Valladolid univer- 
sity XV-2.';9c 

-IX, King of Le6n XIV-lSlc; 
Alcantara I-271d; Aldonza de 
Le6n XII-228b;andd'Azevedo 
V-106c; Celestine III III- 
479a; Cuenca IV-562c; ex- 
communicated VIII-15d; and 
Ferdinand III of Spain VII- 
458c; and Gir.iud de Borneil 
VI-570b; Isidore the Labourer, 
St., legend VIII-189c; legisla- 
tion XIV- ISfib: marriage XIII- 
391c; policv IX-17.5d; Sala- 
manca university XIII-392b; 
son XIII-392a 

-I, King of Naples. See Alfonso 
V, King of Aragon 

-II, King of Naples X-686a; 
abdicates I-291b; and Alex- 
ander VI I-2Gla; and George 
of Trehizond VI-4.56C; and 
John II of Navarre X-722c; 
and Malatesta, Roberto IX- 
566d; marriage IX-IOc; and 
Patrizio VI-334a; and Robert 
of Rimini XIII-S8b; and Tos- 
canelli XIV-787a; 

-I, King of Portugal XII-298c; 
XIII-353C; Beia II-393d; and 
Crusades II-162b; IV-5.5.5b; 
Knights, grant of II-162a: Lis- 
bon IX-28Ic; St. Michael's 
Wing. Knights of. X-273a; 
Moors defeated II-464b; Por- 
tuguese kingdom Vni-761d: 

-IT, King of Portugal VII-4.')8c; 
Church, attitude of Xn-299b; 
marriage annulled Vin-1.5d: 

-HI, King of Portugal XII- 
.300b; and the Church XI- 
260d; XII-.300C; and Innocent 

IV Vlll-lSa 

-IV, King of Portugal V-391b; 
Xn-3nib; Coimbra univer- 
sity IV-95d 

-V, King of Portugal XII-302b; 
and .\brabanel I-50c; and Al- 
buquerque I-270c: and Cala- 
trava Knights III-151d; and 
Isabel of Burgundy II-16Sc; 
and Isabella of Castile VIII- 
177c; and .loan of Castile 
VIII-177d; and .Joanna of Por- 
tugal. Blessed Vlll-inOa 

-VI, King of Portugal XII-304a; 
in Angra II-16Sd; and Vieira 

-I, King of Sicily. See Alfonso 

V of Aragon 

— Xn, King of Spain XIV-186a; 
and Cardinal Gonziilez XVI- 
41d; Order of XIV-188a 

— XIII, King of Spain XIV-186b: 
marriage IX-706d 

— Duke of Calabria. See Alfonso 
II. King of Naples 

—Duke of Gandia VIII-474d 

—I, Bijhop of Tuv XV-105C 

—II, Bishop of Tuv XV-105C 

—Bishop of Vizeu XV-497a 

— de Aragon. See Alfonso of 

— de las Navas. See Alfonso 
VIII, King of Castile 

— de Portugal, Bishop of Evora 

— de Vaena, Blessed, Jesuit mar- 
tyr XIV-ll()a 

— DE ZAMORA I-309a 

— el Batallador. See Alfonso I, 
King of Aragon 

— el Bravo. See Alfonso VI, King 
of Castile and Le6n 

— el Casto. .See Alfonso II. King 
of the Asturias and Le6n 

— el Catolico. See Alfonso I, 
Iving of the Asturias 

— el Conquistador. .See Alfonso I, 
King of Portugal 

— el Emperador. .See Alfonso 
VII. King of Castile and Ledn 

— el Gordo. .See Alfonso II, King 
of Portugal 

— el Magnfinimo 5ee .\lfonso V, 
King of Aragon 

— el Magno. See Alfonso III, 
King of Le6n 

—el Noble. .See Alfonso V. King 
of the Asturias and Le6n 

— el Sabio. .See .Alfonso X, King 
of Castile and Leon 

— Henriquez el Conquistador. 
.See Alfonso I. King of Portugal 

. — of Aragon, Archbishop of Sara- 
gossa VI-213d; XIII-469b; 

— of Aragon, .\rchbishop of Va- 
lencia XV-252b 

— of Aragon, Grand Master of 
Calatrava III-151C 

— of Bourbon, and duelling V- 

—OF BURGOS I-309a; XI- 
41,8b: and College of .St. Gre- 
gory XII-36SFc: XV-259b 

— the Brave. .See Alfonso VI, 
King of Castile and Le6n 

— the Catholic. .See Alfonso I, 
King of the Asturias 

— the Chaste. See .Alfonso II, 
King of the Asturias and Le6n 

— the Conqueror. See Alfonso I, 
King of Portugal 

— the Emperor. See Alfonso VII, 
King of Castile and Leon 

— the Fat. See Alfonso II, King 
of Portugal 

— the Fighter. .See Alfonso I, 
King of Aragon 

— the Great. See Alfonso III, 
Iving of Le6n 

— the Magnanimous. .See Al- 
fonso V, King of Aragon 

— the Noble. .See Alfonso V, 
King of Asturiaa and Le6n 

— the Wise. .See .\Ifonso X, King 
of Castile and Le6n 

—.See Alphonsus 

Alford, Henry, Biblical scholar 
IV-161b; on Angels of the 
Churches I— 486a; on Gospels 
IX-680C; and Incarnation Vll- 
TlOd: and Morris, John X- 
577a: Testament. New V-292b 

—MICHAEL, annalist I-309b 

Alfred, son of Ethelred II V-323a 

- — sacrist of Durham. .See Alured 

—jewel 1-51 ic; V-251c; (iU.) I- 

— of Beverley, chronicler IX- 

—of Liechtenstein, prince, school 
bill II-133d: 

—THE GREAT I-309c; IX- 
342a; Abingdon Abbey I-43d; 
and Asser I-79Sc: Athelney 
Abbe.y founded II— 42b; on 
beards II-363b; Benedict III 
visited II-428a: Bilfrid. relics 
of St. II-22flb; Boethius trans- 
lated II-611d: as copyist IX- 
61Sc: culture under I-511c; 
and Edward the Elder XIII- 
649d; homilies transkated VII- 
488a; and India XIII-383b; 


Jewel 1-51 Ic; V-251c; (ill.) I- 
309d; and John VIII VIII- 
425a; as lawgiver IX-69a; leg- 
islation, ecclesiastical I-507a; 
Leo IV anoints IX-159b; and 
Malabar Christians XIV-659a; 
Oxford, foundation of XI- 
205d; and Plegmund XII- 
164a; psalter XII-350d: XV- 
375a; step-mother XIII-60d; 
University College, tradition 
XI-369b; Wilton Convent 
XV-647d; writings V-459c 

Alfric, Abbot of Eynsham. See 

—Biahop of Hereford VII-255d 

ALFRIDA, SAINT I-310b; and 
St. Ethelbert V-553b; and Ofta 

Alfritha, Saint. See Alfrida. Saint 

Alfsin, .Archbishop of Canterbury 

Alfuros XII-626d 


—son of Hercswiiha VII-256a 

Algar, king, and Frideswide VI- 

Aigardi, Alessandro, sculptor 
XIII-646a; Retreat of Attila 

Algarroba, use by Mataco In- 
dians X-llb 

Algau, revolt XI-598b 

AI-Gazgli, Abu Hamid Moham- 
med, philo.sopher I-675c; XII- 
49a: and Aibertus Magnus I- 
265d: and Averroes II-150d 

Algazel. See Al-Gaz&li 

Algebra, Cardan's work III-332c; 
Gcver discovers XIII-745b; 
Ruffini and XIII-220C 

Algeciras, conference at (1906) 
VI-515b; X-574d: siege of 
(1344) VI-5.58C; ancient epis- 
copal title III-13IC 

Algeria, art. influence on VI— 
309c: Catholic statistics VI- 
176d; Constanrine IV-295a; 
ecclesiastical organization I- 

— Geography: Algiers I-311a; 
Cajsarea Mauretania" III-134a; 
Constantinc IV-295a: Fussola 
VI-326d; Ghardaia VI-542c; 
Gratianopolis VI-730d: Hippo 
Regius VII-360b; Lesbi IX- 
190b: Macri IX-508b: Madau- 
rus IX-512c;Milevum X-304b; 
Oran XI-266C; Tubuna XV- 
84b; Rusicade XIII-230a; Sit- 
ifis XIV-30C; Tadama XIV- 
429a; Thagaste XIV-553b; 
Thagora XIV-653c; Theveste 
XIV-634c; Tipasa XIV-738b; 
Zarai XV-752b 

— Holy Cross Congregation VII- 
404a: Jews I-185d: VIII-399c; 
missions, Protestant I-188a: 
Mohn">medans I-186b; X- 
425d; funis XV-S9a 

Algerine Act XIII-130a 

—War, Acton in I-114d 

1,2c: on canon law IV-392b; on 
impanati.iM V1I-694C 

Algerus of Liege. See Alger of 


31(ld; and BiBarehio II-.'i81a 
I-311a; and Constantine IV- 
29.5a; council of (1873) III- 
387d; Franciscans VI-293b. 
hospital I-233d; Italo-Greeks 
VI-755C; Lazarists X-359a 
364d; map I-facing ISO; Sa- 
cred Heart Society II-283d: 
— Missionaries of. See White 

— Programme, and French bishops 

Algonquian period XV-705b 
ALGONptriNS (Algonkins; AI- 
gonquians), Indians I-;mc: 
V1I-748C: Canada I1I-229C; 
241c: and Chaniplain I-311d; 
dictionary, page from I-311b; 
ethnological classification XII- 
626d; and Iroquois VIII-170a; 
language I-312a; 411b: Marie 
de I'lncarnation XV-229d; mis- 
sions I-312a; VI-3md: VII- 
680a; X-37Sb: XIII-563a: 
Picquet, Francois XII-75d; 
religion I-312b; statistics I- 

Roman numeral indicates volume; arable, page; a, b, c, d, quarter of page. 


312b; totemiain XIV-791d; 

tribal limita 1-31 Ic 
Algsacupe. See Purisima Con- 

repcion misaioa 
Aleue, Jose, scientist IX-601b 
Alium. tree XII-150C 
Al-Hakea n. Emir of Cordova 

XIV-179a , ^, . . 

Al-Hakim, caliph, and Christians 

IV -r.l.'ic; and Holy Sepulchre 

\ 111 -301b; and Jews VIll- 

Alhaja. .See Cabeza de Vaca 
Alhama (Aquae BUbitanorum), 

town XIV-452b; captured 

Alhambra (ill ) XIV-li7d 
Al-Hawiyat, lirll X-42Gd 
Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haitam), philos- 

uplier I-li7oc; XII-49b 
Alhondiga de Granditas, battle 

Al-Hutama, hell X-42Bd 
Ali, caliph I-074a; and Jews 

vni-392a; and Persia XI- 

— Abbas, physician X-124d 
Alia (Thessalonica), region XI V- 

Alias felicis. Bull of Urban VIII 

Alibert, Jean-Louis X-140d; on 

Galvani VI-372a 
Alibrandi, Girolamo, painter X- 

— Ilario d' I-S7c 
Alice, Blessed X-104b 
— of Champagne, Queen of Cy- 
prus. See Mix of Champagne 

of Vienne, and Jean de Braine 

Alidosi, Fausto, militarj- leader, 

at Imola VII-692d 
— Lippo, pontifical vicar, at Imola 
VII-693a ^. , , 

Alidosio, Francesco, Bishop ol 

Pavia XI-593C 
Alien Act, United States of Amer- 
ica VIII-677d: XV-16l3a 
Alienation, restraint on Ill-592a 
— of church property I-115a; 

III-533d; XII-471a 
Alienor, Queen of England, bee 

Eleanor of Aquitaine 
Aliens, and Tametsi decree IV-2c 
Alig, Louis M., pioneer priest 
Alighieri, Alighiero di Bellincione 

—Beatrice IV-628d . . 

— Dante. See Dante Alighieri 
— Jacopo IV-628d 
— Pietro IV-628d 
Alikulufan Indians VII-75Sa 
Alima VH33d; mission XV- 


eran decree IX-17d 
Alimentatura XII-23Sa 
Alimonda, Cajetan, Bishop of 

Turin XV-94C 
ALIMONY I-313c: V-68c 
Alioliab. See Ooliab 
Ali-Pasha, and John VIII I- 

Aliscamps, monastery III-136d 

Alise. See Alcssio 

Alison, Sir Archibald, on seal of 

confession XIII-660C 
Alisubbo (Lisbon), town IX- 

281c , „ , 

Alithus, Saint, Bishop of Cahors 

Aliuffi, Giuseppe, Bishop of 

Bacnon-Li 11 2n3c 
Alix of Champagne, Queen of 

Cyprus VIII-3r)2d; and St. 

Aipaix XI-319d: and Thibaut 

de Champagne XIV-634d 
Al-Jah!m, heU X-426d 
Aljaz, Jacob, in Krain VIII- 

Alkansas. See Arkansas 
Al-Kasr, expedition II-9b . 
Alkendi (Alkindi). See Alchindi 
Alkitab. .■■..■ Koran 
Alkmaar, ^h>!<. (1573) I-371C 
Alkosh, iiMiiKistery X-472C 
Alkotm4ny, periodical VII-.'')B2b 
Al-Kown, periodical VI-7.'>2a 
Al-Kuds (Jerusalem), city VIII- 

Al-Kussije. See El-Koustyet 
Alia, King of Dcira. See JFM- 


See .\illy, 

Allaco, Petrus de. 

ALLAB ' I-316a; VIII-693c; 

beads II-362d „„ 


I-316C; cathedral VII-734b; 
congre33 (1903) I-317a; sta- 
tistics VII-730a; university 
Allaid, priest, martyr IV-168C 
— Vicar Apostolic of Natal X- 

708a: Roma II-346b 
— PAUL, historian I-317b; »t. 
Agatha. Acts of I-204a: and 
De Rossi IV-740C: Theban 
Legion I-205d; Thundering 
Legion II-109d 
AUarmet. See Brogny, Jean 

Allarmet , , ^ 

Allatae sunt. Encyclical of Bene- 
dict XIV V-239a 
ALLATIUS, LEO I-317d; and 
Bollandists II-633c; controv-er- 
sial works XIV-593C; on Gen- 
nadius II VI-416c; and Goar 
VI-606d; and Metaphrastes 
X-225d; and Petau XI-744d; 
on the protopope XII-503d 
All-being VIII-4C 
Allbless Leper Home, Bombay 

All-Blessed, church. Constanti- 
nople Vl^ied . . 
All-colours, African ethnic divi- 
sion I-183a 
Alleaume, Saint. See Adelelmus, 

Allectus IX-342a 
Allegany, New York State t ran- 

ciscan monastery XVI-33C 
Allegheny, Pennsylvania, Croa- 
tian parish IV-513C 
—See of XII-125b; St. Bon- 
aventure'3 (ill.) _III-facing 38; 
seminary Xin-700d 
Allegiance, breach of XIV-7/2a 

Civil. See Civil Allegiance 

—Declaration of, Irish XIV-433b 
—Oath of VII-S4c; XI-l/7c; 
Ireland XIII-124a; 126b; Jesu- 
its XIV-92a; Paul V XI- 
582c: penal laws XI-613a; 
and Wright XV-715C 
— Protestation of XI-177C 
Allegorism V-695c; Origen XI- 


TONIO, artist I-31Sb; Christ 
and Mary Magdalen (ill.) IX- 
facing 760; Cignani III-771a; 
IlGiornodll.) VIII-342; pagan 
spirit XII-769C; paintings, re- 
ligious XI-401a; and II Par- 
migiano XI-506d; school 1- 
318c; Parma, work in XI-505a; 
505b; Piacenza XII-70b; St^. 
Placidus and Flavia (ill.) XII- 
142d; in Vatican XV-28.3b 
— GREGORIO, composer I-319a; 

X-353C; 601c; 649c 
— ^Lorenzo 1-3 ISb 
— Pomponio, artist 1-31 Sb 
Allegrini, Angelica VII-55C 
Allelouia. See Alleluia 
ALLELUIA I-319b; VI-716b; 
Advent I-165d; ancient usage 
XI-22nd: burial I11-74C: III- 
78a- Bvzantine Rite I-319d: 
VI-717C; Celtic Rite ni-499c; 
501a: Damascus III-257d; in 
Eastern Church I-319C; III- 
78a; and O Filii et Fi'ia; XI- 
222a; Gallican Rite VI-362b: 
and Gradual VI-715a; Gregory 
the Great VI-782d; Hebrew 
I-319C; in Mass of catechu- 
mens I-198a: Mozarabic Rite 
X-615d; music X-3d: Roman 
Rite I-319d; IX-38b; XII- 
144c; Paschal-tide Vlll-oSld; 
XI-5I7b: Pentecost I-319d; in 
psalmodic chant XII-787c; as 
refrain I-576b; Requiem XII- 
777c- St. James, liturgy of 
I-.^>72d; St. Mark, liturgy of 
I^32(la; in Scripture I-319b; 
in Sciucnce Xn-4S2b 
—Age of the Xtl-3«0c 
-Scourging of the VlII-790c 
— dulce carmen, hymn XlU-7J2a 
— perenne X-til.'id 
^Saturday. See Holy Saturday 
— victory \'l-473b 
See Hallelujah 

ALLEMAND, JEAN, orientalist 

I-320c; X-182d . 

— Louis d', cardinal. See Louis 


Bishop of Mobile I-320d; X- 
—Ethan, patriot I-320d; X\ - 

—FRANCES, nun I-320d; II- 
286c; hospital III-S2b; por- 
trait I-321b 
—GEORGE, educator I-321C 
— Grant, astheticism I-176b; 

and Positivism XII-33d 
— Harrison, anatomist I-461a 
— Heman, at Baltimore congress 

— JOHN, Archbishop of Dublin 
1-321C; V-174d; hospital VII- 
—JOHN, mart>T I-322a 
—John, on land-books VI-60D; 

on Lingard IX-271d 
— Richard, on expedition 111- 

— Samuel Webster, Bishop of 

Shrewsbury XIII-760a 
—WILLIAM, cardinal I-322a; 
V-13Sa; and Alfield XIV- 
663c; and Andleby I-468c; 
and Bailv II-207C; on bishops, 
deposed II-722d; and Cam- 
pion V-294a; and Counter- 
Reformation IV-444a; Douay 
Bible V-140b; IX-72Sb; XV- 
376d: on Elizabethan execu- 
tions II-723a: XV-28a; Eng- 
lish College, Douai I-322b: 
III-211a: on Fowler \T-164d; 
and G^nebrard VI-412a: and 
Gifford. William VI-552d; 
lurisdiction XVI-4b: Knox s 
life of XI-273d; on Matthew, 
Gospel of X-64a; and Mar- 
tiall. John IX-722b; missions 
I-322d: and Persons XI-730a; 
portraits I-323c; proclamation 
I-729b; Spanish policy I-323a; 
Stanley, defense of I-777b; 
as theologian XIV-593b: works 
I-323b; and Worthington 
Thomas XV-714a 
— William F., jurist XI-36c 
Allen V. Stevens, and bequests 

for Masses XVI-61d 
Allende, XV 1-450 
Allenhause, Conrad von. Abbot 

of .Abdinghof X-148C 
AUersheim, battle (1645) XIV- 

AUGUST, missionary I-323C; 
III-673b; Chinese research 
VI-452C: on Kogler VIII- 
686c . 

Allessio, Giuseppe d', Messina 

insurrection X-6S6b 
Allet, d', missionary X-379a 
Alley (arch.) I-237b 
Allgemeine deutsche Biographie 

Allgemeiner deutscher Frauen- 

verein XV-B92d 
—Religions- und Kirchenfreund 
u n d Kirchenkorrespondenz, 
periodical n-4Slb i , 

Allgemeine Rundschau, period- 
ical XI-079d 
Allgemeiner Tiroler Anzeiger. 

periodical XI-670a 
Allgemeines Literaturblatt, XI- 
fi70b ... , 

Allgemeine Zeitung, periodical 


Allgeyer, Emile-Auguste, Vicar 

■Vpnstolic of Northern Zanzibar 


All-Hallows, convent, Brisbane 

(ill.) II-790a . ,_. 

—priory, Dublin I-314d; IX- 

— i^ollege. Salt Lake City XIII- 

— Feast of. See All Souls' Day 

—COLLEGE, Dublin 1-3 14d; 

XIII-694C; 700a; Lazansts 

X-366b: mission training ^J^" 

230c; and Propaganda XII- 

Alliance. vessel Il-Sllb; VIII- 

— Holy. See Holy Alliance 
— Masonic, in Belgium II-400C 

— Polish National, in America 

— Turners', Polish, in America 

XI1-208C . 

— Abstinence Union, Swiss XI v- 

— Annual, periodical, England 

— catholique savoisienne XI- 

— des grands-seminaires, con- 
gress of (imiS) IV-247b 
— for Polish Women. See Zwiazeli 

— Internationale de la demo- 

cratie socialiste, founded XI- 

— of the Cross, society XIV- 

— religieuse universelle XIV- 

624b „,„ 

— socialiste republicaine XIV- 

Alliche. Se» HaUsh 
Allies, Mary H., biographer I- 

— Thomas, Protestant clergyman 

— THOMAS WILLIAM, hisl orian 
I-323d; VII-379a; on Anglican 
Church V-445C; conversion 
XI-377b; and Dublin Review 
XI-073d: Latin prose I-324a; 
works I-324d 
Allignol, Augustin, religious m- 

Dovator XV-494a 
— Charles-Regis, religious inno- 
vator XV-194a 
Ailing, Benedictine foundation 

Allingham, Wilham, poet vlli- 

lical scholar I-32.5a; IV-160d; 
Bible revision XV-372C; at 
Munich University X-634a 
Allisio infantum VI 1-4 19c 
ALLISON, WILLIAM, confessor 

of the Uaith I-325b; V-477C 
Altmiinsterkloster IX-55pc 
Allodial land X-579d 
Allogenes, Gnostic VI-599C 
Alloir, in Celtic Rite ni-,500a 

painter. I-323d: XIII-479a 

(II Bronzino), painter 1-325C 

— CRISTOFANO, painter I- 

325d; Judith (ill.) Vlll-facing 

Allorus, Saint, Bishop of Quimper 

scholar I-326a 

ALLOUEZ, CLAUDE, mission- 
ary explorer I-326a: lll-233b; 
690c; V1I-394C; 741b: IX- 
689a; 769a; X-3S8a; XI-662c; 
XV-662b ; 657d ; Algonquin 
mission 1-3 12a; and Dablon 
IV-601a; and DruiUettes V- 
164d ; Illinois Indians VII-660c; 
Kaskaskia Indians VIII-608d; 
Kickapoo Indians VIII-636a; 
Miami Indians X-271c; Men- 
ominee Indians X-192d; in 
Michigan I.V-758b; X-281a; 
Potawatomi IndiansXII-320b, 
SaultSainte Marie XIII-48<c; 
Shea on XIII-753c: Sioux In- 
dians X-3S9b; XlV-lSa 
Allowance System, English lli- 

All-perfect I-217b; 218d 
All-Russia, Orthodox missionary 

society of VI-773a 
ALL SAINTS, feast I-31Sc; VI- 
790a; XIV-342d: in Byzantine 
in Greek Church in-Ifiec; 
XIV-342d; indulgence \1I- 
789a; and Requiem Xll-i79a, 
in United States 11 23Sd 
— town. See Kandoucho 
—monastery. Angers I- '^I'l^^.,, . 
—abbey. Black Forest lX-235d 
—hospital, Bergen X\ 1-lOb 
— priorv. Dublin I-314d 
— church, Evesham \-(>4sa 
-hospital, Goa VI-Oor,b 

church, Leicester, font (ill.) 

Il-faoing 274 
— church. Lund IX-43.!c 
—church, Munich X-033d 
—church, Philadelphia XI-795C 

Large type indicates titles of artiolea; other tjTes, topics treated; (ill.) = illustrations. 



All Saints church. Vilna XV-433d 
— litany of. See Litany of The 

— (Durcr). See Adoration of the 

All-Seed, in Gnosticism II-327c; 

All Souls CoUege, Oxford III- 
657b; XI-3tjSb 

ALL SOULS' DAY I-315d; altars, 
privileged I-34Nd; Anglican 
Church XIII-92b; iu Anglo- 
Saxon Church IV-173a; in 
Armenian Church V-227a; By- 
zantine Rite IV-31od; Cluny 
XII-572d; conventual Mass 
IX-790d; Dies Irs IV-787b; 
dupHcation of Masses X-23a; 
lantern III-507c: Libera me 
IX-214d; Mass of XII-779d; 
nuptial Mass X-5d; Office of 
the Dead XI-221b; in Spain 
and Portugal II-o(i9b 

Allstedt, church VII-12Sb 

All tlie year round, periodical, 
England Xll-toOd 

Allucingoli, Ubaldo. See Lucius 
III. pope 

Alluvion l-05d; IX-SIb 

Allyre, Saint See lllidius 

Allys, Eugene-Marie, ^■icar Apos- 
tolic of Xortheru Cochin China 

ALMA, Hebrew word I-326b 

— Adolphina, Fulda university 

— Benedictina XIII-4Uc 

Almachius, Turicius III-472b 

Almadura, Peter. See Peter of 

Almagest (Ptolemv) II-21a: 2od; 
X-62SC; XII-47b: 47d; XV- 

Elder, explorer I-32(id; XV- 
265b; and .\lvarado. Alonzo de 
I-372b: and .\lvarado, Pedro 
de I-373a; and Arias de Avila 
I-711b: Berlanga, arbitration 
of II-493a: execution XI- 
733b; and Pizarro XII-HOc 

— DIEGO, the Younger I-327b 

Almah, of Isaias Vlll-lSOa 

Almainus, James, Scotist XIII- 
612c: and Gallicanism VI-355C 

Al-Makin, historian V-639d 

Almalik, Mongoliau capital X- 
481b; XV-9.5C 

Alma Mater, Bull of Clement V 

Alman, Ebelinck, Centuries 11 1- 

Almanac, oldest Christian III- 

Almanach de Gotba, statistics 

— du clerge catholique XI-6Slc 

Almanacs, farmers' II-23b 

Almannus, Louis. See Louis 

Al-Mansur, Abu Ja£far Abdallah, 
caliph, astronomy II-21d: Bag- 
dad II-202b; at Melitene 
X-166a; and patriarchs I-674a 

■ — Jacub, caliph, and -\verroes 

Almansur (Almanzor), regent of 
C6rdova XIV-179b; 180c: 
Barcelona IIlHl28c; cam- 
paigns III— 111b; Giralda Tow- 
er. Seville XIII-745a; Jews, 
treatment of VlII-392d; 
ego VIII-761d; Zamora XV- 

TER I-326c: in .\ngclu3 I- 
4Sfib; in Chaucer I-576d; 
Hermann Contractus VII- 
266c; molodv I-57oc; in Moj!- 
arabie Hile X-61Sc 

Almarez y Santos, Enrique, car- 
dinal XVI-18a 

Almaric, .\bbot of Floreffe VI- 
10.50; foundation XII-38Sd 

— Bishop of Jerusalem VIII- 

—Sec Amalric 

Al-Mashriq, periodical n-393d 

Almath VI-l33d 

Almeda, Barnabas Rodriguez, 
and Rathhorne XII-6.->la 

— y Brea, CirUlo, Franci-can VI- 

Almeida, Fialho d', writer XII- 

— Francisco d', \"iceroy of India 
I-270C; IV-77c; and Magellan 
IX-o26d: in Mozambique X- 

— ^Joaquim Antonio de, Bishop 
of Natal XVI-36b 

— IMEADE), JOHN, missionary 

— Juan Ferreira, Bible XV-371C 

— Manoel, geographical research 

— Thomas de, Patriarch of Lis- 
bon IX-283b: Bishop of Oporto 

— Ferrao, Joao d*. Bishop of 
Cai.ipanha XVI-35a 

— Garrett, Joao Baptista da Silva 
poet VI-633a; IX-2S2b; XII- 
307c; 310c 

Almelon, ChaldfiDan king I-552C 

Almemar, in synagogue XIV- 

Almendaris, Alfonso Henriquez 
de, Mercedarian X-197d 

Almendrales 1 1- 193d 

Almeras, Rene, Lazarist X-359b 

Almeria, town, Spain, early in- 
habitants I-465C; Ferdinand 
and Isabella capture VIII- 
178b; Genoa takes VI-419c; 
inhabitants, early I— 105c; 
Moorish state I— 465d 

172d; map XlV-facing 200 

Almericus, Abbot of Bursfeld 

Almeyda. See .\Imeida 


Almiphona, sequence XII— 185c 

Almir (Almirus), Saint XI-319a 

—hermit IX-144b 

Almith (^Almon, Almath\ Khirbet 

Almo CoUegio Capranicense. See 
Capranica. .\hno CoUegio 

Almodad. See Eiraodad 

Almodis, Countess of Barcelona 

Almogavares, Catalonian routiers 

Almohades, at Alcdntara I-271d 
and Alfonso VIII IlHUd 
XIV-179b; Andalusia I-465d 
Aschbaeh. work of I-773c; Ca- 
latrava knights III-150C; at 
Guadix XVI-43c; Granada VI- 
-23c; Seville XIII-744d; in 
Tunis XV-89a 

Almon. See Almith 

Almouaster y Roxas, Andres de, 
hospital endowment VII-488b; 
St. Louis cathedral XI-9b 

ALMOND, JOHN, confessor I- 
:f_'sb; V-17sb 

I-32sb: V^70d; XI-178d 

—OLIVER, missionary I-328c; 
on Ampleforth Abbey I-439c 

Al Mondar, Bedouin chief XI- 
710d; and Na'aman XI-717d 

Almoner I-14d; of chapter III- 
583a; papal XIII-153b; XV- 
30 Id 

Almonry. See .\umbr>- 

Almoravides, in Spain I-465d; 
XI\"-17'.ib; XV-251d 

Al-Motawakel, caliph, and Jews 
VI 1 1-3920 

Al-Mourad (Al-Mouradeh.) See 

32Sc; XII-236d; XIV-617d; 
and abstinence I-344a; Ber- 
gen. Council of XVI-lOa; in 
Christian life III-595a; in early 
Church IV-104C; VII-331b; 
XII-238C; clerics, obligations 
of X-lS7b; for dead IV-656a; 
indulgences VII-787b; VIII- 
429c; mercv. work of X-199a; 
of Mohammedans III-.594a; 
X-427a; monastic III-.596d; 
598a; among Xazarenos I- 
I32c; as penance III-597d: 
XII-236d; redemption, peni- 
tential XII-6S2c; relatives, 
duties of XII-731d; rich, 
duties of XV-572a; in sacra- 
mentals XIII-293b; satisfac- 
tion, means of XI-B28c; slaves. 
enfranchisement of XIV-37b; 
sub gravi I-329d; St. Thomas' 
teaching III-,Mrtd; Tobias. 

Book of XIV-751b: Tridentine 
discussion XV-34c; Vatican 
XV-301d: as Viaticum XV- 

Alms-box, in early Church III- 
595b; IV-10.5a; XII-23Sd; in 
Temple III-7U2a 

Alms-folks IV-657b 

Almshouse, early Church III- 
.590d; XII-239a 

Almuce IV-420b; VII-464b; ar- 
morial VII-247d; of Canons 
Regular III-295a; and Mozetta 

Almugavares. See .Mmogavares 

Al-Mundhir, prince of Hira I- 

Almutia. .See Almuce 

Alna, abbey. See Aulne 

Alne, 3\-nod XV-71a 

ALNOtH, SAINT, mart jt I-331b 

— Bishop of Canterbury XVI- 
64 b 

Alnwick, battle VII-221d; Pre- 
monstratensian foundation X- 

— William, Bishop of Norwich 

Alodia, Saint, virgin martyr XI- 
437d: 43Sa 

Aloes X1I-154C 

ALOGI, heretics I-331b; X-449b; 
on .Apocal>T>se I-595a; Christ- 
ology X-449b; and Hippolytus 
VII-361a; and Millenarianism 

Aloisi-Masella, Gaetano, cardinal 

Aloisini, Giulio, Bishop of Fos- 
somljrone VI-155a 

Alomancy XIV-339d 

Alonsar, Angela, foundation XV- 

Alonso, Martin, Abbot of Valla- 
dolid XV-25Sb 

— Mateo, sculptor I-705d 

— de Ids Angeles XIII^02b; 

Alonzo Rodriguez. See Alphon- 
sus Rodriguez. Saint 

Alori, Saint. See AMorua 

Alorus, Chalda-an king I-552c 

Alost (Eenhan), town VI-94d; 
town hull VI~677b 

Alouzier, Jean. .See Brogn.v 

Aloysie, Mother. .See INIainy, 

I-331d; and Bellarmine II- 
4I2a; canonization XI\'-440d; 
and Saint Charles III-623d; 
communions in honour of IV- 
774d; and Gonzaga, Scipione 
VI-635c; Mass of II-598b; 
miracle of liquefaction VIII- 
296c; patron XI-S66c; and 
Blessed Peter Canisius XI- 
761b; portrait I-332a; tomb 

— Legionensis. See Le6n, Luis 

Alpaide, Blessed XIII-719d 

— (Alpais), mistress of Pepin II 
VI-241c; VIII-757C 

Alp-Arslan, Seljuk. in Armenia 
I-738d; Byzantine war III- 
110d;in Persia XI-718b 

Alpedrinha, Jorge da Costa d\ 
cardinal XV-496d 

Alpenblumen, periodical XV- 

Alpes Poeninae, Roman province 

Alpetragius, astrologer II-21d; 
XII-4'.tc: planetary theory 

lAN USAGE I I-.332b; 332d 
(ills.); 33.3a: 333b 


—(SCRIPTURAL) I-332b: on 
amulets I-»4.3a; Christian us- 
age I-332b; on medal I-i43b 

Alphabet, abecedaria I-35b; abe- 
cedarian poems I-llla; Ar- 
menian I-738a; Albanian, non- 
existence of I-2.54a; VIII- 
176a; X-211b; 211c; XIII- 
7.Sc: Cherokee III-fi46a; Cop- 
tic V-357a; Cyrillic VI-575d; 
57fia: deaf and dumb. Bonet 
II-6.5.5b; Glagolitic VI-.S75d; 
.57fia; Gnostic I-3.34b; Grazh- 
danslca VI-57.'>d; learning, 
method of I-3.5c: in musical 

notation VII-65c; in SjTiac 
hymnody XIV-407b 

— Greek, Alpha and Omega I- 
332b; Copts adopt V-357a; 
dedication ceremony I-334a; 
in letters commendatory I- 
333d; minuscule script XI- 
404d; number 666, I-598d 

— Hebrew Vll-176c; in dedica- 
tion ceremony I-334a; litur- 
gical use I-333c; mystical 
letters I-332d; in old Testa- 
ment XIV-529b 

—Irish VIII-116b 

— Latin XI-406a; dedication 
ceremony I-334a; of the litterae 
formatm I-333d: manual V- 
320a; (ill.) V-320a 

■ — national XI-405c; Phcenician 
XIII-710a; Russian, Rutheni- 
ans use VI-745d; Semitic 
XIII-2S6b; 707c; in Sweden 
XIV-350d; 353d 

I-333C; Amen, mystical mean- 
ing I-409a 

— church, consecration of I-133d: 
III-504a; IV-281d; 526a; Am- 
brosian Rite I-103c; Galilean 
Rite VI-365C 

Alphabetic Psalms. 5ee Psalms, 

Alphaeus. See Alpheus 

Alpbage, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. See Elphege, Saint 

Alphanus, bishop VII-603a; 

Alpharts Tod, epic VI-519a 

Alpheus, father of James II-767a: 
IV-lSd; IX-749a 

— father of Matthew X-57a 

Alphilde, Thomas. .See Thomas 

Alphius, Bishop of Myndus X- 

— Bishop of Rhinocolura XIII- 

Alphonsinc Tables XIV-197b; 
and Gregorian reform IX- 
249d; 250a; in Seville XIII- 

Alphonso. See Alfonso; AlphOn- 

Alphonsus, Saint, Bishop of Em- 
brun VI-37Sb 

II-561d; on Abelly I-39b; on 
acts, indifferent I-116d; on 
adultery I-163c; vEquiprob- 
abiUsm I-339d; XII-442d; 
on .\gricola I-565b; on alms- 
gi^nng I-330a; and Amort 
I— 134d: aseetical theology 
XIV-620c; Ballerini's work 
XVI-6c; on baptism II-269C; 
bilocation I-339b; IV-38b; 
on blasphemy II-595c; Blessed 
Sacrament, visits to V-581C: 
Busembaum's commentary 
III-86d; Capecelatro on XVI- 
17b; casuistry III-417a; char- 
acter I-338c; clairvoyance I- 
339b; clausura of women, 
formal IV-61c: Coninck. opin- 
ion IV-253C: on consolation, 
spiritual XIV-256c: on con- 
templation IV-325c: contri- 
tion, perfect, rule for eliciting 
IV-340a; as doctor of the 
Church I-3.38d; ecstasy I- 
339b; and episcopate I-337b; 
Falcoia. relations with XII- 
682d; as homiletic writer 
VII-447a; on Ignatian Exer- 
cises XIV-22SC; infirmities I- 
337c; on Jesuits, suppression 
of XIV-99a; letters I-340b; 
on Majella. Gerard VI-t68a; 
on Mass. irregularity of I-66d: 
on Mass. lights at I-347d: 
missionary work I-33Sd; 336d; 
X-392a ; as pastoral theologian 
XIV-til2c: on penance, sacra- 
ment of I-6.5a; and Pius VI I- 
338a; portrait I-335a; prayer 
I-339b; on priests, duties of 
XII-407a; Probabilism I-339d; 
XII-368Gb;XIV-610b; on pur- 
gatory XII-579d; rapture I- 
339b; Redemptoriats, founda- 
rion of I-3.)6c; XII-6S.3a; 
Regolamento I-338a; retreats, 
practice of XII-7fl6c; and rigor- 
ism I-339d;andSalmanticen8es 
XIII-t02c; Santa Agata <lei 
Goti, Bishop of XIII-4MC; and 

Roman numeral indicates volume; arable, page; a, b, c, d, quarter of page. 



Santa Casadi Loreto III-455b; 
and Sarnelli. Januarius XIII- 
477b; 477c; on scandal, in- 
direct XIII-507C; scruples I- 
339a; XIII-640d; aeniinariea, 
regulations XUI-699c; and 
Sportelli XIV-236c; statue 
by Joseph Sibbel XIII-767b 
and syncretic system VI-713c 
as theologian I-339c; XIV- 
595b; 607d; 6I0b; as Thomist 
XIV-703a; on thought, natural 
XII-653d; title bestowed upon 
XII-6S5C; and Tourn^ly XfV- 
800c; on Viaticum XV-398a; 
vows of I-338d; writings I- 
339b; and Zaccaria XV-740d: 
works of I-339b; XlV-eUa 

Alphonsus of Bolano, Prefect 
Apostolic of Guinea VI-293C 

— of Castro, theologian XIV- 

— of Poitiers, and Toulouse XIV- 

— Pacheco, Blessed, martyr IV- 

568a; o68d; XlV-llOa 
— Petrus. See Petrua, Alphon- 
XIV-109d; and Peter Claver 
— Tostatus. See Tostado, Alonso 
— See Alfonso 

Alpina, masonic lodge IX-7S3b 
AlPINI, PROSPERO, botanist 

I-341c; X-130d 
Alpinian IX-263d 
Alpinus, Saint, Bishop of Lyons 
IX-472c; foundation III-5G6b 
Alpirsbach, abbey XV-7I7a 
Alpuhans, Archbishop of Salerno 

Alquier, Charles - Jean - Marie, 

ambassador VI-51a; X-GUld 
Alquoussiah. See El-Kouslyet 
AlqOsh X-670b 
Air., abbr. I-22d 
Alric, Bishop of Dunwich XI- 

Alsace, art monuments I-344c; 
Burgundy, annexation of HI- 
69d; Church in I-341d; Church 
and State I-342b; church 
taxes I-343a; collections I- 
344b; diocesan administration 
I-342b; education, elementary 
I-344b; and France VI-504C; 
VII-533d; XIV-657a; and Ger- 
many VI-174d; parishes I- 
342b; population I-342a; Re- 
demptorists XII-GS4b; revolt 
XI-598b; seminaries I-343c 
— ^Lower, ecclesiastical organiza- 
tion I-342a; Strasburg stipends 
— Thomas Philippe d'. Arch- 
bishop of Mechlin X-105a 
— Upper, ecclesiastical organiza- 
tion I-342a; gymnasia, epis- 
copal I-343d 
— Lorraine I-341d; Centre Party 
XVI-23C; charity, institutions 
of I-344d; and Germany VI- 
512d; religious establishments 
I-343a; societies I-345b; sti- 
pends I-342C 
Al-Sair, hell X-426d 
Al-Saqar, hell X-126d 
Alsea Indians XIH-791d; myth- 

oloKv XlII-792b 
Alsfelder, Passion Play XI-533a 
Al-Sham. Sec Syria 
Alsted, Johann Heinrich, ency- 
clopedia V-414d 
Alston, John, l)Hnd, method of 

teachini; \ ,i(i;)d; 31()d 
Alt, Saint. ,S. , Alto, St. 
Al-Taban, Rabban, astrologer II- 

Altach, abbey. SeeNiederalteich; 

Altacomba. See Hautecombe 
Altahmo Indians, missions X- 

Altamirano, Catalina Pizarro 

mollHr<,f C:<)rf69lV-398a 
rian I-34.">d; and Mocovl In- 
dians X-112C 
— Ignacio Manuel, writer XIV- 

—Juan Caoezas, Bishop of 

Guatemala VII-54b 
■ — ^Luis, missionary in Paraguay 
Xlt «'>9a 

Altamura, town, Italy VIII-222a 
—AND ACQUAVIVA, archipres- 

bytorate I-345d 
Altaquu. See Elthece 
ALTAR (Greek Church) I-359b; 
IV-316a; antimensiuml-563d; 
board I-3o9d; cloths I-359c; 
consecration service I-359d; 
and Latin altar I-359b; mate- 
rial I-359c; portable I-563d; 
side I-359b; shape I-359c; 
tabernacle I-359c; vesting I- 
359c; washing I-359d 
—(liturgy) I-346a; Arcosolia I- 
699b; Armenian XIII-79b; 
Auriol (ill.) I-366a; balda- 
chinum II-217c; baroque peri- 
od XV-701C; basilica I-659d; 
bell I-349b; 400b; III-263d; 
Blessed, dedication II-598a; 
Blessed, images H-598b; Book 
of Common Prayer II-6S0b; 
burse III-84b; bye-altar III- 
92c: candles I-346c; III-24,8d; 
candlesticks I-350b; III-249b 
—canopi/ I-351a; 366a; 366c; 
IV-533b; Apocalypse, refer- 
ence in V-25Sc; (ill.) I-364a 
— cards I-351b; carpets I-351b; 
cavity I-351c ; Chanaanite wor- 
ship III-571b; chancel I-364b; 
ciborium I-363d; III-7B7a 
—cloths I-351d; 365d; blessing 
I-352b; corporal I-355c; Greek 
Church I-348C; 359c; material 
IV-3S7a; prayer over I-396d 
— confessio I-363b 
— consecration I-364d; III-43a' 
504a; IV-279b; Abraham men- 
tioned I-5Sc; ashes I-776c; 
crosses IV-535d; Gelasian sac- 
ramentary I-365a; sepulchre 
of VII-717a; unconsecrated 
portions I-346b 
—cover I-356b 

— cross IV-533a; on baldachinum 
II-217d; crucifix I-352c; IV- 
— curtain I-3o3b; Apocalypse ref- 
erence to V-25SC 
— dedication XIII-710d; domes- 
tic, in Japan VIII-305d; 
double I-348b 
—fixed I-346a; 347b; consecra- 
tion, loss of IV-749a 
—Florence (ill.) 1-353; flowers I- 

357a; form I-346d 
—frontal I-353c; Alpha and 
Omega I-333c; Ambrosian ba- 
silica I-365d; carved I-365d; 
colour IV-135b; Gal XI-121c; 
golden, Basle cathedral I-366a; 
Ramsey Abbey XII-638b 
—hair cloth VII-114a; herse 

—high VII-346d; candlestick I- 
350c; ciborium I-353b; lights 
I-354d; position I-346c; Pavia 
Certosa (ill.) I-facing 346; 
reredos I-366c; screen I-356b- 
steps I-356d 
^horns I-354b; illumination I- 
350c; iconostaais I-364b: of 
incense XIV-501b; 502b; 503c; 
incensing I-356b; in Sarum 
use XIII-180d; kinds I-347b 
— fa'ssinffof III-261d; VIII-665a; 

Milan I-401b 
—Lady I-35Sd; XV-463a; lamp 
I-354b; lantern I-354d; Lat- 
eran IX-15c; ledge I-3S4d 
— lighlji I-350c; and Ritualists 

— linens I-355a; 355d; material 
I-346b; Mosaic Law XI-659b; 
Nicene decree I-563d; number 
VII-347a; orientation I-365b; 
Xl-.'.ll-fl: ,,n;.i„ XII-742b; 

— steps I-356d; carpets I-351b- 
of reredoa I-366d 

— atole I-357a 

—stone I-348b; I-357a; conae- 
cration of IV-280b; conaecra- 
tion, loas of IV-749a; Miserere 
X-353b; crosses IV-535C; Mass 
without Il-llSd 

— stripping I-349a; 351c; 352c 

— aupporta I-346b; tabernacle I- 
.364c; XIV-424a; table I-346b; 
XIV-496b; tomb I-357a; XIV- 
773d; tower V-145b: waahing 



I '.'la 

mrlal.i, I ..;,.,, iisb; 3.'..„, 
.Il-;i.;'.ib, iM.^liiip ll-589a; con- 
secration of XV-401d; relics I- 

■position I-346a; privileged I- 

34Sd; prot,, 
I-.346b; 35 Id 
4.37b; rail I : i. : | 

3r.6c; and sM,r \ni ;l'(i 

319a; St. Aless:ili.lni (ill ) I 
36.3a; St. Clement's (ill.) I 
362c; St. Denis I-36Gd; Si 
Peter's XIII-371c; screens I 
350b; seven IX-l.'ia 

\ II ■ 


Kou; lower V-140D; washmi 
I-349a; XIII-373c; XV-504c, 
women, ministrations of XV- 
697c; wood XV-700b 
— (in Scripture) I-360a; Apoca- 
lypse I-221C; V-258b; Apostolic 
times X-9c; brazen I-360d; 
XIV-501c; of burnt-offerings 
— golden I-361d; in Apocalj-pse 

— 0/ holocausts I-360b; XIV- 
499c; 502d; setim-wood I-79a; 
Solomon's I-360d; symbolism 
IV-446d; of Tabernacle I- 
— of incense I-79a; 361c; 724a: 
XIII-313b; XIV-425a; 501b; 
602b; 503b 
— of Noe IV-702b; portable I- 
360c; primitive I-360a; Testa- 
ment, New I-362a 
— Christian, History of I-362b; 
V-33c; ancient rule III-576a; 
material and form I-362c 
Altarage I-359a 
Altaragium I-359a 
Altar-boys I-106d 
— breads. See Host 
Altare I-362b 
Altarist I-359a 
Altarium I-362b 
Altar of Victory, Roman XIV- 

Altar-piece I-352d; 356a; Palen- 

que (ill.) X-facing 84 
— rail I-356b. .See also com- 
munion rail ; communion bench 
— side I-356d 
— societies XIIl-322c 
— thane I-359a 
— vase I-357a 

—vessels I-357b; 375c; dese- 
cration I-358d 
— wine I-358d: V-585b; Arme- 
nian Rite XIII-80b; Milan 
ceremony I-401d; as offering I- 
375c; rV-105b; unconsecrated, 
use of III-563b 
Alta Silva, Johannes de. See 

Hautcaeille, Jean de 
Altavilla, Goffredo d', architect 

Altbreisach, convent VI-371b 
Alt-Briinn, monastery VII-2S4b 
Alt-Celle and Leubus, convent 

Altdorf, monaatery XV-576C 
Alt-Dresden, monastery V-157c 
Altemir, Bartolome, Franciscan 

Altemps, Biblioteca, Vatican XV- 

— Marco Sittico, cardinal IV- 

2S7d; VI-244b 
— Ortensia d', countess and St. 

Charles I11-622C 
Altenburg, conference (1568-69'' 

— Scots Abbey of X-167b 
— See Saxe-Altenburg 
Altenmedingen, Cistercian mon- 
astery Vll-^129b 
Altenstadt, basilica II-7Sa 
Altenstein, Karl von, minister 

Altenweisel, Joseph, Bishop of 

Brixen II-794c 
Altenzelle, abbey II-190b 
Alter, Franjois-Charles, New 

Testament l\--503a 
Altercatio Luciferiani et Ortho- 
dox! (St. Jerome) VIII-341b 
Alterius orbis papa V-434a 
Altessera, Antonio. See Haute- 

aern-. Antoinc Dadin d' 
Alte und Neue Welt, periodical 

II-l,s4c: Xl-092b 
Alteus, Saint, Bishop of Sion 
Altfeld, monaatery XV-537b 
Altfried, Abbot of Werden XV- 

Large type indicates titles of articles; other types, topics treated; (ill.) = illustrations. 

Altfrid, nephew of St. Ludger 

Al^eeld, John Peter, governor 

Altham, John, missionary II- 
228c; IX-756b; XII-114d; 
Althann, Michael, Bishop of 
Auu ^"""S, -^'---^'"b; XV-525b 
Althaus, Clemente, writer XIV- 

Althelmus. .See Aldhelm 
Althing, Icelandic I-746c; VII- 

Althoff, miasionary I-250b 
Altichiero da Zevia, artist XI- 

385d; 398d 
Alticozzi, Lorenzo, theologian 

Altieri, palace, Rome IV-29b; 

— Emilio. See Clement X 
— Giambattista, cardinal, Biahop 

of Todi XIV-754C 
— Laura Caterina, marriage IV- 

— Paluzzo Albertoni, and Coli- 
seum IV-102a; and Ireland 
X-442c; and Montefiascone 
X-529b; and Palestrina XI- 
421d; and_ Sabina XIII-291c 
Altimira, Jose, pioneer missionary 

Altimura Ponticensis, Stephanus 

de. .See Lc Quien 
Altinum, council XI-586C 
Altinus, Saint, Bishop of Orleans 
XI-:!lsc; XIII-716C; at Char- 
tres ni-l!3.5d 
Altitona. .See Hohenburg 
Altitude divini consilii. Bull of 

Paul lU XV-76.Sa 
Altlerchenfeld, church of, Vienna 
II-131a; Filhrich, work of 
of Passau XI-ol9d; XIII- 
412b; Gottweig II-123a; VI- 
682c; at Kremsmiinster VIII- 
701b; in Sankt Polten XIII- 
447b; I-367a 
— Saint. See Altmann, Blessed 
Altmark, truce (1629) XIV-652d 
Altmayer, delegate Aoostolic to 
Mesopotamia II-202'c; X-211a 
ALTO, SAINT, miasionary I- 

367b; XI-350d 
Altofen, university II-124C 
Altomiinster, monastery II-786C; 
X-631a; XIII-589d; history 
I-367b ; monka transferred 
Alton, Count d' X-764a 
657a; charitable inatitutions 
XII-247a; mission VII-657C; 
Poles (1907) Xll-211b: synod 
(1SS9) I-36Sa; statiatica X\'- 
368b; XI-643b; XII-124d; 
125c; charitable institutions 
XII-247a: Italians VIII-206a; 
Poles (1907) XII-211a; Slovak 
churches XIV-55c; statistics 
Alto Peru II-629a 
Altorf, monastery XIV-363C 
Alto-rilievo, in sculpture II-341d 
Allotting. .See Oettingen 
Altovita, Jacopo, Biahop of 

Fiesc.le VI -70c 
Altoviti, Odde, monument, Flor- 

eiH-e .\ni-212d 
— Philip IX-,')i;nd 
Altranstadt, treaty of (1707) II- 

Altrida. See Alfrida, Saint 
Altroth. .See Ethroth 
ALTRUISM I-369a; XII-29c; 
Catholic teaching I-370a; and 
Heaoniam VIl-lS8b; sin, de- 
nial of XIV-Oc 
Altsfeld, Passion plays IV-61Sa 
Altshausen, Wolverad II von. 

Count \II-26i;a 
Altus Prosator IV-137a 
Altwin, Uishop ul Drixcn II~794a 
Aluberht (Alubertl, .\rclibishop 

..f \ Ork. See lOtlu-lbert 
Al-ud-deen's Gateway, Delhi 

(ill.) VII-faciiiK 729 
Alumbrados. iS'ee 1 1 1 u m i n a t i 


Aluminum, in altar vessels I- 
:io7c; iliscoverv of XIII-346d; 
in United States XV-157b 

Aiumnaticum XIV-322b 

ALUMNUS I-:i70c . 

ALUNNO, NICCOLO, painter I- 
370<J; and Perugino XI-737d 

Alured, Abbot of Dorchester V- 

— Bishop of Worcester XV-704a 

—sacrist of Durham I-273b 

Alus (Alush) VI-433di VIII- 

Alusharshid, Babylonian king 
II-180d; 181b 

Altites. See Fatimites 

Alva, Saint, monk XI-319a 

— Fadrique de Toledo, Duke of 

VII-9oa; at Antwerp I-5S9d; 
and Armada I-72Sb; burial 
place XIII-392b; and Cath- 
erine de' Medici III-143d; and 
Charles IX XIII-334a; and 
Egmont V-32Sa; Flanders, 
rule in III-6b; and Jesuits 
XIV-91a; Netherlands X- 
761a: Palestrina, occupation 
of XI-t21b; and Philip II 
XIII-333d; Tivoli XIV-747C 

— ^Julian d'. Bishop of Portalegre 

Alvan, kingdom of II-182d 

Alvarado, Aguedo Felipe, Bishop 
of Carabobo (Barquisimeto) 
XV-332d; 333c; XVI-35a 

— ALONZO DE, conquistador I- 
372b; and Palencia VI-44d; 
and Pizarro XII-141d 

— Diego de, in Guatemala VI- 

— Francisco, "WTiter XI-690a; 

— Francisco de, missionary I-372C 

— Gomez de, conquistador VII- 

— Maria de. See Amarilis 

— PEDRO DE, conquistador I- 
372d; XIV-473c; and Cortez; in Guatemala X- 
2o3d ; and Mayan Indians XII- 
604a; and Pizarro XII-Ulc; 
in Salvador XIII-451b; signa- 
ture (ill.) I-372d 

Alvarenga, Manoel Ignacio da 
Silva, writer .\II-310b 

Alvares, Francisco. See Fran- 
cisco .\ivare3 

— Gaspar. See Caspar Alvares 

— Manoel. See Manoel .\lvares 

— da Silva, Augusto ^ Alvaro, 

- Bishop of Floresta XVI-35d 

Alvarez, Blessed XV-569d 

— n, Congolese chief IV-235a 

— Ana XV-265a 

— Andrea, Franciscan IX-6S2d 

— Arturo Celestino, Bishop of 
Zulia XV-333d; 766a 

—BALTHAZAR I-373b; and 
Gregory of Valencia VII-22a: 
Lapuente, life of IX-3b 

— Bemardin, foundation VII- 

—Catharine VIII-4S0a 

—DIEGO, theologian I-373d; 
XII-368d; XIV-202d; o94a; 
XV-260a; and Bdnez II-248a; 
and Congregatio de .\uxiliis 
IV-239b; on Divine knowl- 
edge X— 440a: and Gregory of 
Valencia Vn-23c; and Lemos 
IX-148b; on reprobation. Di- 
vine XII-383C: tomb VI-530c; 
at Trani XV-17b 

— Diego, Bishop of Nicaragua 

— Francisco, Bishop of Sigiienza 

— Gaspar Alfonso, Bishop of 
Mvlapur XII1-384C 

— Joao VI-40a 

— Jose Maria, prefect .\postolic 
of Shi-koku XIII-75Sd 

—MANOEL, educator I-374a ^ 

— Nufio, Bishop of Le6n IX- 

— Rodrigo, and St. Teresa XV- 

— Tricio, XIII-7SSd 

— de Albomoz, Fernando, .\bbot 
of VullH.lolid XV-2.5SC 

— de Castro, at Gerona VI-.530b 

— DE PAZ, DIEGO, mystical 
writer I-374c; IX-398c: XIV- 

619d; 622c: on meditation XII- 

— de Pineda, explorer XIV-545d 
— de Toledo, Fernando, Duke pt 

Alva. See .\lva, Fernando ,\1- 

— de Toledo, Gutierre, Bishop of 

Plasencia XII-157d 
— of Coimbra, pioneer priest X- 

Alvaro, Bishop of Zamora XV- 

— Mendes, Blessed XIV-109d 
Alvarus, Paulus IV-359c; V- 


th.-oloKian I-372a 
Alvear, Carlos Maria de, general 

Alveldianus (Alveldt). See Au- 

guatin von Alfeld 
Alvelha, Vasco Martins de, 

Bishop of Guarda VII-49b 
Alveredus, sacrist of Durham. 

See .-Mured 
Alvernia. See Verna, La 
Alves, Castro, poet XII-311b 
— Francisco Rodrigues, President 

of Brazil II-74Hd 
— de Mattos, Jose, auxiliary 

Bishop of Lisbon IX-2S3C 
Alveus, Saint, foundation IX- 

Alviella, Goblet d', on Buddhism 

III-33b: Protestant propa- 
ganda lipoid 
Alvinczi, Peter, reformer VII- 

Alvinzi, Joseph, Baron von 

Barberok X-6SSa 
Alvitus (Alvito), Saint, Bishop of 

Lr6n IX-175d; tomb IX-177a 
Alwin, priest, in Domesday Book 

— .\bbot of Hol.vTood VII-423C 
— Bishop of Worcester. See 

Alxinger, Johann von, and Hasch- 

*Aly, son-in-law of Mohammed 

Alyattes, King of Lydia XIV- 

Alypius, Saint, stvlite XIV-317d 
—Bishop of Selinus XIII-692C 
—SAINT, Bishop of Tagaste 

I-374d: XIV-o53b; and St. 

Augustine I-142a; II-85a; at 

Carthage "Collatio" V-128c; 

and St. Melania the Younger 

X-154d; monastic life II-80b 
— of CEesarea, and Lampetius 

Alyscamps, cemetery I-238c 
Al-Zarkali, scientist XII-48C; 

.Wa , 


374d; Xl-fiSfia 

37.ia: VII :'.7Na; and Gams 

VI-377a; on G,, VI-622d; 

on Kraus VlII-7()ub; portrait 

Alzon, Emmanuel-Joseph II- 

lO.ic; XV-I.54C 
A. M., abbr. I-23C 
AMA, title I-375C 
—vessel I-375C; 
Amaad rAmad) VI-433d 
Amaatti, Egj-pt. See Emath 
Amabiles fructus. Bull of Mar- 
tin V VI-212d 
Amabilis, Saint IV-54a 
Aniacuecan Indians XI-3S5b 
Amad. Ser Amaad 
Araadana X-1 18a 
Amade, Ladislas, writer VII- 



Amadeans, Franc 

Amadeo, Andrea I-37.5d 

37,ic; Bergamo II^90a; Cer- 

tosa of Pavia fill.) IV-60C 
— Protasio I-375c 
Amadeus, Pa-ssionist XI-524a 
— rrsiiline X-518d 
—I, Count of Savoy XIII-4fl2c 
— n. Count of Savov. crusade 

IV-.5.53d; and Henrj- IV XIII- 

— m. Count of Savoy Xlll-gfid; 

crusade XIII-492d 
—IV, Count of Savov XIII- 

492d; and Pinerolo XII-102a 

—V, Count of Savov XII-76d; 

— VI, Count of Savoy, and Ber- 

trand XIV-454b; and Mar- 
garet of Savoy IX-655c; 

victories XIII-492d 
— Vm, Count of Savoy. See 

Felix V, antipope 
— IX, Blessed, Count of Savoy 

VII-681a; XIII-493a; St. 

Claude, pilgrimage to XHI- 

341d: and Louise of Savoy 

XIII-342b: Winding Sheet, 

Chapel of III-566d 
—I, King of Spain XIV-lS6a: 

abdication IX-516c 
— Saint, Bishop of Lausanne 

— n. Bishop of Valence XV- 

— of Portugal. See Mendes de 

Silva. Joao 
Amadi, mission XII-390c; XV- 

— Francisco VI-421c 
CESE OF I-376a: XIII-S5d; 

statistics I-37fia 
Amadis of Gaul, Portuguese 

lit.'raiun- MI-307d; Spanish 

litrralurf IlI-.-.14a; XIV-19SC 
Amadists. .s'" Amadeans 
Amador, Rafael, Bishop of Hua- 

ju4pam de Le6n VII-505c 
— de los Rios, Jose, writer XIII- 

4.';0b; XIV-201d 
Amadour, Saint III-141a; XIII- 

Amagat, in Shamanism XIII- 

Amagua, tribe II-746d 
Amahuaca, tribe XIII-470d 
Am'ak of Bokhara, writer XI- 

Amal, pastor VII-536a 
Amalacites. See Amaleo 
Amalafried (Fortunatus) VI- 

Amalaric, King of Visigoths IV- 

67c; 72b: XV-177a 

X-24Sb; on altars I-346a; on 

nmictiia I-lL'Sd; antiphonarv 
ninod XII-608a; 




matic n'-GD'.ic; on extreme 
unction V-723a: and Florus 
VI-122b; and Helisachar of 
Trier XII-788a; as liturgist 
I-577a: IX-247a: XIII-72a; 
at Lyons IX-i73b; on None 
XI-98c; on octave XI-204c; 
on office of the dead XI-221a: 
on Ordines Romani XI-2S4d; 
2S5b; on palms XI-4:J2d: 
responsorial chant XII-787d; 
on Septuagesima XIII-721d; 
on service books I-379a; on 
vestments XV-.3S'.)c; 391d; on 
washing of fci-t XV-557d; on 
week, liturgical XV-576a 

—of Treves (Trier) I -376b; 
Cajetan'a life of III-145C 

Amalasuntha VI 1 1-2 17b; XIII- 
793c: and Cassiodorus III- 
406a; and Catholics VI-31b; 
death XI-332c: 348a; relic 

Amalasvintha (Amalaswintha). 
See Amalasuntha 

(Sth century) I-377b 

— Saint, virgin (12th centurv-) 

—(AMELIA) SAINT, widow I- 
377a; and St. Gudula VII-56b 

Amalberte, Saint, abbess III- 

Amalchams, tribe XIV-439d 

AMALEC I-377b: and Cinites 
I II-770C; exterminated I-379a: 
and Gedeon VI-102d; Israel, 
wars with I-3c: 377d: 722b: 
VIII-197a: Judges, period of 
I-37.Sc; and .Moses X-597a: 
on Mount Thabor XIV-552a; 
origin I-377b: in Palestine 
VI-432c; and Raphidim XI- 
64Sd; and Saul I-378d; VIII- 
fi48a; Xin-I87b: scat I-377C 

Amalecite. Str Maliaoet Indians 

Amalecites (Amalek, Amele- 
kites). .S-,.- Aiiialcc 

Amalfi, republic. Robert, Count 
of Apulia conquers X-685b 


—town, Italy VIII-221d; history 

I-379b: Pandects of Justinian 

I-379b: and Pisa Xll-llla; 

siege XI-440C; William I I- 


Capuchin convent (ill.) VIII- 

facing 224; cathedral (ill.) 

VI 1 1-2 13 
Amalfian Tables VIII-221d 
Amalie, princess VII-25b 
Amalivaca, Tamanac Indian 

AmaUe, abbot XV-517b 
Amalric I, King of Jerusalem 

VIII-3G2a; at Carmel III- 

3.52a; at Damietta IV-615C 
— n. King of Jerusalem VIII- 

362c; Alexandria captured XI- 

551a: as King of Cyprus IV- 

549b: VII-478d 
— Bishop of Tours, educational 

fee Xlll-.lofia 
Amalric of Bena I-379c: XIV- 

372b; and David of Dinant 

IV-645C: and immanence VII- 

6S3a; Fourth Lateran Council 

condemns IX-18b: and mysti- 
cism X-664c; and Robert of 

Courcon XIII-96d 
— of Chartres. See Amalric of 

— of Limoges, Patriarch of An- 

tioch .\lV-405b 
Amalricus, Arnold. See Arnold 

Amalteo, Pomponio, painter XV- 

Amam VI-433d 
Aman V-549c 
Amana VI-433d 
— Community XIV-69C; founded 

IV-182c; present condition 

Amand. See Amandus 
— Jean-Pierre. See Aulneau 
Amandinus, Bishop of Ch&lons 

Amandus, Blessed. See Henry 

Suso, Blessed 
— Bishop of Bordeaux II-682C 
— SAINT, Bishop of Maastricht 

I-380b; IX-6b: 413c: X-104a; 

6S2a; abbey founded by III- 

210d; and St. Aldegundis I- 

279c; VI-S47d: annals I-532c; 

feast III-163b: and St. Itta 

VI-533d: in Karinthia VIII- 

607b: at Tongres IX-236b 
— Saint, Bishop of Moissac X- 

— Bishop of Potenza IX-719a 
— Saint, Bishop of Rennea XII- 

— Saint, Bishop of Sorrento XIV- 

— Saint, Bishop of Strasburg 

— the Presbyter, and St. Paulinua 

of Nola XI-.5S.5d 
Amanguchi, mission VI-44d 
Amanieu, Guillaume, Archbishop 

of Bordeaux II-683a 
Amankul, See of XI-148a 
Amans, Bishop of Vannes XV- 

Amantes de la Croix, nuns, in 

Indo-China VII-77.5a; 777d; 

77Sd; in the United States 

Amantia, See of VI-738d 
Amantius, Saint, Bishop of Como 

—Bishop of Nice XI-48b 
—Bishop of Rodez XIII-108a 
—Saint, Bishop of St. Paul- 

Trois-Ch.^teaux XV-250b 
Amanus, Mt., cedar trees III- 

Amarah, Carmelites II-202d 
Amaral, Luiz do. Bishop of Vizeu 

Amarandus, Saint, Abbot of 

Montauban X-525a; tomb 

Amarante, Pedro d*, missionary 

Amari, Michele, writer VIII- 
2.")2d; on Sicilian Vespers XV- 
Amarilis, poetess XIV-204a 
Amama. See Tell-ol-Amarna 
Amaro the Pilgrim, Saint III- 

Roman numeral indicates volume; arable, page; a, b, c, d, quarter of page. 


Amartolos. See George Hamar- 

Amaru, Tupac, Inca king XII- 
605c; La Paz, siege of \m- 
795c , , 

Amarudu. See Marduh 

Amarus Vaz, Blessed, martyr 

Amasa, nephew of David \111- 
40(ja; e4S 

Amasacus, Romolo \L-if:ta 

Amasea. See Amasia _ 

Amasia, Galatia. school I-/90b 

AMASIA I-38pd; Saint Theo- 
dore martyrdom of XIV-6i3b, 

Amasiah. See Amasia 

Amasianus, Saint, Bishop ot 
Tiranto XIV-451a 

Amasias, priest, and Amos l- 

-I^ng of Juda VIII-lOTa; 
347b; 654b; 656c; 657c; birth 
VIII-65Sb; and Isaias VUl- 
ISOa- and Ozias XI-379C; hela 
XI-777C; Petra VM41b 

Amasio, Romulo, humamst Vll- 

Amasis, King of Eg>-pt V-342d 
Amasius, Saint, Bishop of hpoleto 

XIV-234a „ ,,. 

—Saint, Bishop ot Teano lU- 

Amasserah. See Amastns 
Amat, Felix, church l"8to"an 

VII-37Sd; version oi tne 

—Manuel de,' Viceroy of Peru 

-THADDEUS I-3S0d; X-367b; 

532d „ . 

Amatha. See Haniatha 
Amathi, father of Jonas \ Ul 

AMATHUS, titular see (Cyprus) 

—titular see (S>Tia} I-3Sla 

Amati, Girolamo, Tusculum, ex- 
cavations at VI-243C 

—Nicholas, violin maker Xi\ 
311b; birthplace Iv-*''tf , ,„„ 

Amato, Archbishop of fealerno 

a4"^^^^^'-" 1^-=*^^'= ^'^" 

—Saint, Bishop of Autun II-144a 

—Saint, Bishop of Auxerre Alll- 

lOOb- 718a; and St. Germain 

of Auxerre VI-473a; relics 

IIH41b ^ „ YV 

—Saint, Bishop of Troyes XV- 

Amatus, Saint, a^*orite VII- 

26d; IX-363a; XII-764b 
—Saint, Bishop of Nusco XI- 

— of Bordeaux, apostolic legate 

Al^auricus. See Amalric of Bena 
Amaury de Bene (de Chartres). 
See Amalric of Bena 

Ambiorix, leader of the Eburones 
IX— 166c 

Amberes. See Antwerp 

Amberg, Germany, Jesmt Col- 
lege X-76d; pilgrimage Xll- 
657c . ., 

AMBITION I-3Slc; and pride 

Ambitiosae, Constitution of Paul 
II V-690d; 715d; XlI-4/lb; 
Ambivius, Marcus, Procurator 

of Judea VIII-350a 
AMBO I-381d; Epistle IX-194c; 
Gospel VI-661a; Gradual VI- 
715c; (ill.) I-3S2; at Milan 
I-400b; VI-662b; as pulpit 
III^37d; XII-563d; response 
chanted I-579b; in San Cle- 
mente, Rome XlU-lila; in 
Santi Nereo e Achil eo. Rome 
X-175a; two-storied l-3i.iD; 
tract VI-717a 
AMBO (in Russian and OreeK 
churches) I-3S2c; in Sancta 
Sophia's, Constantinople 1- 
382b; III-96b 
Ambohidempona, Madagascar, 

Jesuit observatory V I-453C 
Amboise, Concordat of U4/^) 
IX-371b; conspiracy of (lobU) 
III-197d; 443b; VII-75a; X\- 
4b; Edici of (1563) IH-l^d; 
Vli-531d; IX-210a; XII-707C 

Charles d', cardinal, and bolari 

— GEORGE D', cardinal I-£«^5' 
382d; and d'Armagnac l-iiaa; 
manuscripts IX-BWavVA.' 
211a; at Montauban X-5^4C, 
at Narbonne III-332a; at 
Rouen XIII-210a 
—Louis d', bishop III-360d 
—Louis d'. Viscount de Thouars, 
and Blessed Frances d' Amboise 
VI-205C . .1- • 

Amboyna, St. Francis Xavier at 

Ambracia. See Larta 
Ambras, castle II-126b 
Ambresbury, England, monas- 
tery V-323C . , 
Ambricho, Bishop of Ratisbon 
XII-657d . , , „ , 
Ambrogini, Cervini Angelo. See 
Politian, Angiolo o •_. 
Ambrogio Sansedoni, Saint 

Ambroise, Franciscan at Ville- 

franche Xlll-lOSb 
— poet XI-106a TT_ii=;^- 

Ambronay, monastery 11-413C, 

496a; X-71C „,, 


on Cross, adoration of IV- 
524c; in Confiteor I^OOd; 
conscience, doctrine of Iv- 
270a; defects Vl-Sb; De Fide 
ad Gratianum Augustum 1- 
385c; education I-384a; elec- 
tion I-3S4b; exegetical works 
I-387a- on extreme unction 
V-720d; on fear II-65c; feast 
III-163c; V-75c; and Fritigil 
II-613c; funeral oration 1- 
3S6a; and St. Gaudentius \ 1- 
393c; St. Gervasius and Pro- 
tasius VI-537b; and Gratian 
VI-729d; VII-168d; heretics^ 
condemns execution of XI V 
768c; Holy Ghost, doctrine of 
the Vll^lla; as hymnodist 
I-199a; 389d; 390a; 392c; 
VII-597C; 59Sa: 600b; XII- 
144b; 676d; 782c; 783a; XI\- 
479a; XV-341c; 348a; on 
images VII-666b; in India 
XIV-683d; influence XIV- 
5S9b; and Justina Xy-2ooc; 
on power of the Xi- 


I-3S3a; X-649b 
Ambrose, centurion, martyrdom 

VI-42d . „ , , Y 

— Franciscan, in NebrasKa -v- 

fUliauij «" ; ■- 732c 

^^^pn^jL^fe^ent and ^l^^^^l^^^r^^oe. 
Schall von Bell Xlll-o-lb _ -Bishop of Cahors IH-Hlb 

—SAINT, Bishop of Milan 1- 
383c; X-300c; and St. Ador- 
ator IX-264C; on St. Agnes 
I-214b; Alexandrian bchool 

Amaya, town, "Pai? Jll-f}]^ 
Amayden, Theodorich I-ol4d. 
Amaziah, Amazias. See Amasias 

Amazon, river, B^f vv'slsb-' 
746a; discovered Xy-3»00, 
explorations XIII-109b; Fritz 
IV-758b; VI-308b 

-river, Peru XIII-lTOc; P.zarro, 
exploration of XII-141d 

— river, Venezuela AV-.i-'o 

Amazonas, Prefecture Apostolic 
of. See San Le6n del Ama- 
zona.-) . 

Amazones, "ty I-3,81b 

-DIOCESE 6F I-381b 

Amazons, at Amisus I-4-«'0; 
Areopagus, legend of l-'"'a, 
fable I-7Slb; George Hamar- 
tohis. ilir.ini.lf of VI-456a 

AMBARlcli? PETER I-3Slb 

Ambarualia, pag;m festival XI- 
■390d . ,,\-i 

Amba Shnudah, monastery X\ 1- 

Aoibassadors, chapels l""'";": 
napal, precedence of XI W'oc, 
ffthe Pope II-69b;m United 
States, appo.nU,ient^XV-164d 

Amberger of Ratisbon, ana 
Hirscher VII-364d 

Ambianum. See Amiens 

Arobigua, definition IIl-.i-i2a 


XII-31d; on alnw8i\'°8 A: 
329a; and St. Alj-pms I-374d, 
Ambrosian Liturgy l-394a, 
402a; and Ambrosiast_er 
I^06b; on angels I-477d, 
486a; antiphonal method -;vll- 
144b; at Aquileia, Council of 
(3S1) I-385c; Arians I-3sob; 
in art I-365d; IX-643C; 770b; 
XV-49''a- as ascetical theolo- 
gian XIV-61Sa; St. Augustine 
I-142a; 384d; II-S5c; 86c; 
95a- and Auxentius Junior 
II-144d; on baptism, quoted 
II-263C; 265a; 26bb; 268b, 
besieged "»„ bas''!™ „l7?>*-'f' 
on Black Fast n-590c; in 
Bobbio Canon II I-500c; Can- 
ticle of Canticles, "se of IIl- 
304a; and Celcstine I III-4"c. 
censorship of books III-520d, 
chant I-389c; chrism, reference 
to III-696d; and St. Chro- 
matins III-730b; on Church 
and State XI-452d; on com- 
munion of saints I\-17-c; on 
confession XI-627b; on con- 
fir,>,.,.ion IV~218c; IV-218d; 

^., i^V tV- 

,Li St. Lawrence IX 
literature IX-25b; 26a; 
as liturgiologist XIIl- 
n love XIV-614C; and St. 
Marc"ellina IX-637c; on mar- 
riage V-39c; IV-lb; IX-709b: 
on the Mass IX-791b; XII- 
777a- 780b; and Maximus 
I-385d; at Milan XIII-16-d; 
monasticism I-403d; and St. 
Monica X^82d; on music, 
ecclesiastical X-648d; as ora- 
tor VII-443d; panegjTics I- 
3S7d; on papal authority 
XIII-531C; as pastoral theo- 
logian XIV-612a; on St 
Pelagia of Antioch Xl-bOlo, 
on penance XI-631d; Peretti, 
edits works of XIV-33d; on ■ 
St. Peter XIII-531c; portrait 
(ill.) I-383d; Prfficonium pas- 
chale XI-515d; on prayer XII- 
348b; XIII-747C; Prayer of, 
in Stowe Missal IIM99a; 
on predestination X11-3S4D, 
and Priscillian VIII-27C; Pris- 
cillianists XII-429d; on prop- 
erty XII-214d; on psalms 
XII-537a; 537b; 543b; on 
purgatory XII-577d; on relics 
XII-734d; rings XIII-60c; 
on sacred vessels IV-283a; 
on saints, invocation of V lU- 
72b; on satisfaction XI-629a; 
and Savinus XII-70c; onSt. 
Thomas Apostle XI\^o8d 
on science and the tiiurch 
XIII-603d; at Sens XIII- 
716d; on sin IX-256d; XI- 
314d- XIV-6a; on singing 
I-390a; X-653c; and Pope 
Siricius XIV-26C; on Spirits 
XIV-221a; on Station fasts 
XIV-268b; statue by Mar- 
chesi IX-643c; and Theodosms 
I-384d; 385d; XIV-578c; the- 
ology of XIV-605b: Tobias. 
Book of XIV-751C; tomb 
I-386c; III-506b; translation, 
feast of I-39SC; on . Tnmty 
II-263d; and Valentinian II 
I-386b; II-265d; 266b; X\ - 
255b; and VigUiua XV-f26c; 
on Virgin Marj' Ml-biod; 
XV-448c; 460d; 464Ga; 
464Hd; St. Vitalis and Agri- 
cola, relics of XV^S6b;^ on 
wealth III-762d; XV-oi2b; 
writings I-386d; 387b 
—Saint, Oblates of. See Oblates 

of St. Ambrose 
—Saint, Order of. See Ambro- 

— Saint, Sisters ot. See .Annun- 
ciates of Lombardy . 
—Bishop of Sariijevo Xn-(>49b 
-Bishop of Sasima -Xn.H^;* 
—Bishop of Terracina XlV-olsc 
—Alice X-7S7C 

— Corianus. See Ambrose of Cora 
— of Alexandria, deacon^ and 

Oricon nl-l9nc; \I-30,d 
3SSb; Il-J2d; 111 ^l.-.b; \II- 
539b; a. Bm.^Io Il-:S37a; am 
Greeks Vl-17b; n.- humamst 
Vll-lla; VIII-249a; and Man- 
uel Chysolara.'..IX-lil4b 
of Cora (Coriolanus), theo- 
logian VI I-'2S5a 

—of Racconigi, artist Xin-(3-c 
BLESSED I-388c; Holy 
Name, devotion to VII-420b 
Ambrosia, and Eucharist y-5/3D 
Ambrosiana. See Ambrosian 

Ambrosian Antiphonary I-579c 
— Antiphones I-397a 
—BASILICA I-3S8d; altar I- 
365d; Ambrose. St., tomb 111- 
506b; ambulatory I-406d; bra- 
zen serpent I-389c; dedicated 
I-364d; relics I-364d; siege 
I-389a; 394d; Pala d oro (ill.) 
I-facing 388 
—Breviary I-397c; hymns I- 

—Brothers I-i04b_ 
— ceremonial I-397c 
—CHANT I-385d; 3S9c; antiph- 
onal singing I-390a- classifi- 
cation IX-305d; and &re«onan 
VI-779d; illustrations I-390D 
—hymn. See Te Deum 
— hymnary I-390a 
— HYMNOGRAPHY „^I-392c; 
3S6d; 393a; VII-59Sb; 600b; 
authorship I-399d; St. Hilary 
of Poitiers I-390c; metre 
I-393C; origin I-3?4d 
Ambrosiani, hymns I-392d 
Ambrosian lectionary 1-3970 

Library i-393d; x-302a 

abusing, penalties for I-394a, 
Assumption of Moses, Mb. 1 
603b; Bangor Antiphonary 11- 
249b; Bobbio volumes II-«Obb. 
Bonvicino, work of Il-o7Sa, 
description I-394a: Dungals 
books V-192C;. MSS. in IX- 
619d; Muratorian Canon A- 

^07aIII^96a;VI-"ob; Vlll- 
isd; IX-311b; 312a; 313b; 
abolition, attempts at 1- 
iq5c- X-612a; Advent 1- 
ifd'; Agnus Dei I-222b; 4020; 
aliturgical days I-314a; Alle- 
luia I-401a; altar III-o,6b, 
altar-bell I^OOb; ambo I- 
3S2b; Ambrosians 1-4U4D, 
amice I^28d; Ambrose, St. 
I-394d; Annunciation, feast ot 
I-398a; 542d; Antiphonse 1- 
399c; Antiphoner I-397b; area 
I-395d; Armio Sacramentary 
I-397a- Assumption, feast ot 
II-6d; baptism I-403a; 
Bedero Missal I-397b; Ber- 
gamo Sacramentary 1-39 i_D, 
Biasca Sacramentary l-3.i/a. 
calendar I-397d; Canon of 
Mass I-401d; cathedrals I- 
400c; and Celtic Rite III-^ 
498d ; ceremonial i-39/c , 
chants I-389C; character IX- 
312a; Charlemagne l-jasp, 
Christmas I-398a; colours 1- 
398d; IV-135C; Communion 
I^02c; Complenda I-39aa, 
Completoria I-399d; Com- 
pline I-400b; Confiteor I-- 
400d; Consecration I-40ja, 
Creed "Olc: IV-l'9b; 4,9d 
deacon, use of stole n-boOb, 
Easter I-398b; embo.ism of 
the Lords Prayer I-^-21oa 
and Ephesine Rite ,I-396b, 
Epiphany I-39Sa; Epistle I- 
401a; Extreme l nction 1- 
403b; feasts, classification 1- 
3q8b- feasts, occurrences 1- 
39Sc: funeral III-77c; and 
Gallican Rite I-39ba; \.]- 
3S7c; Gloria I-iOOd; M"; 
-,S4b- Cuspel I^flla; Gradual 

I H 

, I-394d; Holy 
Hours, Canon- 
Ninns I-399d; 
nd; Introit 
i-4(iiid \ lllMc; 81d; Kyrie 

rleison l-tOOd; VlII-716c; 
i..,,;,,aEi- Xlll-70d; laity, obla- 
t ,n"?.v 1 li'lc; Lauds I-tOOa; 
i\' ^s," 1 l^ tli' I-102a; Lent 
isi I, ..n. in IX-194C: 
, '. ■ I \ vi.d: liturgical 

U 1\ -^';a; Lodrino Sac- 

,iit.ntir\- I-:-i9~a; I.ucernaria 
l'-399d; Lugano ll-341b; man- 
iril I-397a; manuscripts 1- 
:W6d; Mass I-lOOb; ^latins 
I-399d; Monia Sacramentarj 

'Larg^eTudi^atestrtleTof'ti^ticles; other types, topics treated; (ill.) = iUustrations. 


I-397b: None I-400a; obla- 
tions I-tOIc; Offertory I-401b; 
IX-i4d; XI-21Sb; 210a 

Ambrosian Office. Divine I-39!)a; 
IV-479C; .\-52b; Holy Week 
I-399c; Lenten I-399c 

— ordeal I-395b: ordinations 
I-403c; origin I-395d; IX- 
797c; Pater Noster I-402b; 
pax I-402c; Pentecost I-39&b; 
pontificals I-397c; Preface I- 
401c: Prime I— 400a ; psallendfe 
I-399d; Psalms XII-542b; 
Psalter I-399a; psaltery I- 
390a; Responsoria I-399c; rit- 
uals I-397c; XIII-90a; and 
Roman Rite I-395a; 396c 
Sacramentary I-396d; 397a 
saints I-39Sb; Sanctus I^Old 
San Michele di Venegono Sac- 
ramentary I-397b; San Satiro 
Sacramentary I-397a; services, 
occasional I— 403a; Sest I-400a; 
Terce I-400a; Tridentine rule 
I-395c; variations XI-220d; 
Vespers I-400a; XV-3S2a; 
vigils V-t>4Sa 

— manuals I-397a 

— missals I-397b 

— psalters I-397a 

—pontificals I-397a 

— Rite. See Ambrosian Liturgy 
and Rite 


— Oblxites of St. .■imbroae, foundation 

—Oblales of SI. Charles, London 
I-JOoc; XV-572d; 594d; 673d; 
foundation IX-606d; organiza- 
tion I— lOob; Raives, Henry 
XII-669a; Taunton, Etbelred 

—Oblates of St. Hilary XII-76b 

— See Annunciates of Lombardy 

Ambrosian Sacramentary I-396d; 


o'.lbd; ap.joat astasia I-600b; 

on authority, papal XIII-o31c; 

on damnation IX-256d; on 

hierarchy, early VII-342b; on 

Romans, Epistle to XIII-lo7b 
Ambrosio, Bishop of Cranganore 

and .Mylapur XIII-3S3c 
— Femandes, Blessed XlV-UOa 
Ambrosius, name X-674b 
— ad-nemus. See Ambrosians 
— Camaldulensis. See ,'\jnbrose 

of Camaldoli 
— Catherinus, Thomist XIV- 

— -Ste Aiubrose 
Ambry. See Aumbry 
Ambulacnmi, Carthusian III- 

AMBULATORY I-106c; of apse 

I-660b; of baptistery II-27Bd; 

of basilica II-326a; early V- 

Amdain, abbey. See St. Hubert, 

Abbey of 
A. M. D. G., abbr. I-23c 
Ame, Saint, Abbot of Remire- 

mont XIII-34ob 
— Saint, Bishop of Sens XIII- 

Amedeo, Christian name. .See 

— Giovanni Antonio. .See Ania- 

<leo, Giovanni Antonio 
Amegalarus, chronological table 


Amelgerio, Bishop of Civitate 

Amelia, Saint. See Amalberga, 
?it., widow 

— Alessandro Gerardini d*. Bishop 
of Lucera I,X-4Q8c 


— of Brunswick, Golden Rose 

AmelU, Pietro. See Amelias 

Amelineau, Emile-CIement, Cop- 
tic research XI-30.>a; on Saint 
George VI— 4.>4a; Gnosticism, 
theory of VI-,593b; on Pach- 
omian monasticism XI-381d: 
on Tentyris XIV-.512C 

Amelio, d', philosopher XIII- 
4.53b: work of XI-6!>4d 

Amelius, Peter, Ordo Romanua 
XI-2S8a; XIII-216b 

Amelli, Church historian VII- 

— Ambrogio, on Biblical Com- 
miaaion II-557C 

AMELOTE, DENIS, scriptural 

scholar I-407a 
Amelung, family, and Osnabriick 

Amelungsbom, monastery III- 

19c: VII-12i)a 
Amempsinus, chronological table 

Amen I-t07a: in Bulls III-o.5c; 
Christ, application I-407c: 
after Communion I— 408d; after 
Consecration I-40Sb; litur- 
gical use I^07d; IX-307b; 
Mass, papal I-40Sd: origin 
I^07a: in Scripture I-407b; 
Synagogue XIV-3Sld 
— Eg\ptian deity. See Ammon 
Amendment, Act of XII-256b; 

Amendments, to Constitution of 

the United States XV-16ob 
Amenemhat I, pharao, Ethiopia 

V-56Gd: teaching V-349b 
—in, pharao XI-7S9a 
Amenemopet, pharao XI-789b 
Amengol, Saint, Bishop of Urgel 

Amenhotep I, pharao V-339c; in 

Ethiopia V~566d 
— ni, pharao VII-306b: VIII- 
194b; XI-147c; and Radash- 
man-Bel II-183a; record XIV- 
— rV, pharao V-339d; 345d; VII- 
306b; VIII-194b; and Asiatic 
kings Il-llb; and Burna- 
buriash II II-183b; hymns 
V-349a: record XIV-478a: 
religious reforms XII-410c; 
solar worship IV-^13b 
Amenmeses, King of Egypt 

Ame - no - minakanushi, deity 

Amenophis (Amenothes). See 

Ame-no-Tokotachi, deity VIII- 

Amenpach, Vitus, capitularies 

Ament. See Mflt 
Amenti, Egyptian eachatology 

Amerbach, Bonifacius, humanist 

— ^Johaon, and Heynlin VII-319b 
— VEIT I-409b 
Ameretat, in Zoroastrianism II- 

—Chirch I-41od; 41Sc; and 
Alexander VI I-290b; 290c; 
413d; Catholic population I- 
416a; Charity, Brothers of 
III-605a; Charity, Sisters of 
III-606c; Christian Brothers 
VIII-60d; dioceses tabulated 
V-5b; Dominicans XII-368Ec; 
368Ha; Friars Minor VI-298a; 
Hungarian Cathohcs VII- 
545a; Maronites IX-684a; 
negro missions X-376c; Oblates 
of Mary Immaculate XI-186b; 
papal infallibility XV-305a; 
Pious Society XII-107a; Poor 
of Saint Francis Sisters XII- 
257d; Precious Blood con- 
fraternity XII-373C; Presen- 
tation Order XII-397d; see, 
oldest V-llla; Servites XIII- 
737a; vicar Apostolic, first 
— Education: education higher 
I-757c; school, first classical 
— Ethnology: aboriginea I-409c: 
409d; 410c; 410d; 411a; 411d: 
X-376b; negroes 1-4 15c; III- 
397d; XII-627b 
— fauna I^20b; Freemasonry 

— Geography: Clavus IV-lOb; 
discovery XV-3St>a; maps I- 
facing 408; facing 410. See 
under United States, Canada, 
— History: Augsburg, merchants 
II-75a; Cabot III-126d; Cab- 
rillo III-12.Sc; Charles V III- 
627a; colonies I-^19c; Colum- 
bus IV-14.3a; English coloni- 
zation I-41.5a: English juris- 
prudence IX-71a; Eric the 
Red 1-4 17a; expedition of 
1266 I-»20c; French coloniza- 

tion I— 414b; independence I- 
415d; Irish immigration II- 
703b; Moravians II-61»d; 
namcl-133b;412a; XIII-34,5c; 
XV-386d; 3S7a; 531a; Polish 
immigration XVI-7d; Portu- 
guese colonization I-413d; Ver- 
razano X-364a 

— hospitals VII-4S7d; leprosy 

— Literature: drama, first I-461c. 
See under United States, etc. 

— polyandry IX-ti49c 

— Religions and sects: Greek 
Catholics VI-744d; 772b; 
Lutherans IX— 460d; statistics 
XIV-279a; 281b; 2Slc; Unita- 
rians XV-15Sb; load 

— witchcraft XV-677b 

—Latin. See Latin America 

ERY I^ltld; A. lam of Bremen 
on l-41(jd; Ari Thorgileson 
1-4 17a; St. Brendan II-759a; 
Greenland 1-4 17a; 420c; Hcl- 
luland I-tlSd; Hiatoria Xor- 
wegise I— 122b; Karlsefni I- 
41Sa; Leif the Lucky I-417b; 
location I— 119a; maps I— 421a; 
Markland I-il9b; Norse dis- 
coveries I-416d; Northmen 
expelled I— 422c; political con- 
ditions 1-4 10b; Skrajlings I- 
418b; Ubygdear I-422a; Vin- 
land 1-4 17c 

— Catholic Knights of. See Cath- 
olic Knights of America 

America, periodical. New York 
XI-696a; XlV-llOd 

— periodical, Shenandoah VI- 

American Academy, Rome I-8Sd 

— and British Archeeological So- 
ciety. See British and Ameri- 
can .\rchiEoIogicai Society 

— and Foreign Bible Society II- 

— Baptist Home Mission Society 

— Baptist Missionary Union I- 
lS7d; II-2S0b 

— Baptist Publication Society 

— Bible Society II-545a; schisms 
from n-546a 

—Bible Union II-546a 

— Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions, Africa I- 
lS7d; Central Turkey I-136a; 
Persia XI-724d 

— Catholic Historical Researches, 
periodical XI-096b; XVI-12d 

— Catholic Historical Society 

— Catholic Quarterly Review, pe- 
riodical VII-310a; XI-696C; 

— Catholic Review, periodical IV- 

—Celt, periodical, IX-493a; XI- 
69.3c; 693d 

— Christian Convention, Japan 

—COLLEGE, Louvain I-424d; 
X-375b; XII-230C; 458b; 
XIII-700a; America, priests 
in I-425C; foundation XIV- 

—COLLEGE, Rome I-423b; X- 
375a; XIII-1.3.5a; 164d; alumni 
association I-424b; Devereux 
XVI-33d; foundation VII- 
518a; (ill.) I-facing422; Italian 
government I— 424c; McCloskey 
IX-488a; ordination, first I- 
424a; Spalding 
liams II-707a 

I-425d; VI-381d; XII-136d; 
(ill.) I-42.->d 

— Colonization Society, organized 
(1817) XV-169C; work of IX- 

— Copyright League XVI-52a 

—Dante Society n-(>32d 

— Episcopal Church. .s'f'e Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church 

— Ethnology, Bureau of 

—Fur Company X-517b; XIV- 

— Indians. See Indiana, Amcr- 


Americanism XIV-537b; 5S3a; 
IX-172b; Hecker VII-187c; 
Leo XIII IX-171C 

American Museum, periodical 

— Orthodox Messenger VI-773b: 

— Party. Sec American Protective 

— Philosophical Society, Phila- 
delphia XVl-47a 

TION I-426c; activity centres 
I-426d; failure I-128a; bill, 
forged I-427a; foundation I- 
426d; growth I— 427a; Indian 
missions VII-746c; member- 
ship I— I27c; opposition to 
I— 427b; political interests I- 
427d: publications I— 427a; pur- 
pose I— 426c; success I— 427c; in 
Wisconsin X~319d 

—Republicans VIII-678b 

—Republics XI-597b 

— Review of History and Poli- 
tics, periodical XI-696b; XV- 

— Robert College, Constantinople 

— Russian Messenger, periodical 

—Secular Union XIII-676c 

— Standard Revised Version, 
glosses VI-5S7C 

— States, International Confer- 
ence of XI-o97b 

— System XV-166C 

— Temperance Society XIV- 
4.S3b; 4'J()d 

— Tyler-Keystone, Masonic pub- 
lication lX-784a 

— Unitarian Association XV-156a 

— Waldensian Aid Society XV- 

America's Certificate of Baptism 

Americ de Plaisance XIV-635b 

Amerigi. See Morigi, Michelan- 

Amerika, periodical VI— 4S3d 

Amerikai Magyar Szovetseg, or- 
ganized VI1-546C 

Amerikai Nemzetor, periodical 

Amerikanski Slovenec, period- 
ical XIV-56d 

— Srbobran, periodical XIV-54b 

Amerikansky Pravoslavny Viest- 
nik, periodical VI-773b 

— Russky Viestnik, periodical 
VI-749C; XIV-54a 

Amerique, tribe I-412c 

Amerling, Karel, writer IV-600d 

Amesbury, Benedictine convent 
n-1.54c; VI-131b; Asser I- 

Amesha-Spentas I-481a: II- 
looa; lV-eS6a; XIV-751d 

Amess. .Sfc .\iiiice 

Amet, Frangois ^■II-284a 

Amethyst iiii Bihlei XIV-305b 

Amethystizontes carbuncles XIV- 

Amette, Leon, Archbishop of 
Paris II-.358c; IV-245d; V- 
594a; XI-484d; XVI-18a 

Amezaga, Mathias, abbot XIII- 

Amharic, dialect V-o71a; XIII- 
709c: versions of the Bible 

RIL, Bishop of Northampton 
— Jeffrey, poneral VIII~14Sd 
— Mary Agnes, .^ister XII-509b 
—William KerriU I-42Sa 
— William Pitt, Lord, embassy 

Amheuser, Gabriel XII-121b 
A M H N, on letters commenda- 
Am Hof, \icnna. Jesuit College 

I I- 125c 

Amiata, monastery XV-518a 
AMICE I-42,8b; XV-388a: an- 
athema I-456c; Armenian 
Church XIII-SOc; cross-bearer 
IV-539a; Dominican Rite 
XIII-76b: Franciscan Rite 
XIII-76d; history I-428c; (ill.) 
XV-390b; at Mass X-20d; 
XII-232d; papal I-428d; pur- 
pose I-»28b; Servite Rite 


Roman numeral indicates volume; arabic, page; a, b, c, d, quarter of page. 


XIII-7Sa: symbolism XIV- 

375b; XV-392b 
Amich, Jose, missionary XIV-25a 
Amici, Poor Catholics XII-250a 
— Giovanni Battista, astronomer 

— L., Gregory XVI, monument 

(ill.) VII-8b 
Amicis, Ruggiero de, poet VIII- 

24 lid 
Amico, periodical XIII-4oGc 
—ANTONIO, historian I-429b 
—BERNARDINO, Franciscan I- 

—FRANCESCO, theologian I- 

— Gianbattista, physicist XII- 

— Vito, library IH-130b 
— CattoUco, periodical XI-683d 
— dei fanciuUi, periodical V-63d 
— del Popolo, periodical XI-6S4b 
— of Ascoli, and Colonna XIII- 

Amictus (Amict). See Amice 

Amicus, Blessed, Bishop of 
Savona XIII-490a 

— Francis, theologian XIV-594C 

I-429c; II-202d; Xlll-Sod; 
mission I-739c; Persian inva- 
sion XI-717d; and Selim I 
XV-98a; statistics I-429c; 
synod (1616) III-560b; and 
Samosata XIII-422b 

Amidano, Guglielmo, Bishop of 
Novara XI-135a 

Amidei, feud VI-106b; VII-57C 

— Bartolomeo degli. Servant of 
Marv XIII-736a 

—Jerome, Servite XIII-737b 

Ami de la Religion, periodical 
IHsib; V--'iac: VI-334b; 
VII-21'.id: XI-C.76a 

— du clerge, periodical XI-677d 

— du Foyer, periodical XI-187a 

Amiens, town, museum, frescoes, 
XII-585b; treaty (1802) III- 
54Sb: X-690b; XIII-376b 

—DIOCESE OF I^29d; Adora- 
tion, Perpetual I-153d 

—Cathedral I-430a; XIII-97C; 
aisles I-237c; architecture VI- 
672b; apsidal chapels I-660c; 
Chapel of St. John Baptist 
VI-679b; choir III-693d; dedi- 
cation XV^62b; facade V- 
747a; (ill.) I-facing 430; V- 
facing 746; lady chapel III- 
576d; labTOnth VIII-728d; 
pulpit (ill.) Xll-facing 562; 
restoration XV-446d; sculp- 
tures XIII-644C; stalls XIV- 
244b; XV-700b; Tarisel, work 
of XIV-458a; 458b 

— Saint John the Baptist, relic 
VlII-490d; Lazarist seminary 
X-361b; map Vl-facing 188; 
and Reims XII-727a; Sacred 
Heart convent II-283d; XIV- 
llld; School, Apostolic II- 
286b; XIII-5S6a; synod (1853) 

Amigd, Jaime, organ builder 

Amigo, Peter Emmanuel, Bishop 
of Southwark IX-350b; XIV- 

— de la Verdad, periodical, Mex- 
ico XI-6S7b 

— del obrero, periodical XIII- 

— de Ids Hombres, periodical, 
Mexico XI-GSIJC 

— del Pueblo, periodical, Mexico 

Amigoe di Curasao, periodical, 
Curacao IV-570b 

Amil Marduk. See Evil Mero- 

Aminadab V-373c; VI-410b; 
410d; VIII-.5.36d 

Amiot, Gertrude, and Garneau 

430b: II I -67.3d; and Cibot 

Amira, George, scholar IX-f>H7c 

— Gregory, patriarch IX-flS7d 

Amir Mu'izzi, wrili-r XI-720b 

— ShShi, iioct XI-720C 

Amish Mennonites. See Upland 
Mennonitca . 

AMISUS (SAMSUN), titular See 
of I-430b; 790b; XII-2.34c; 

Amita. See Amitabha 
Ainitabha, deity III-31b; 31d; 

Amital, daughter of Lobna VIII- 

Amittai. .See .\mathi 
Amleth, legend XIII-497b 
Amma VH33d 
Amman III-21d 
— (Rabba, Rabbath) I-432a; VI- 

— John Conrad, deaf, education 

of V-317a 
Ammanati, Giacomo. See Picco- 

lomini-.^mmanati, Jacopo 
Anmiannati, physician XII-112b 
— Bartolomeo, sculptor XIII- 
Ammaus V-405d 
AMMEN, DANIEL, naval expert 

—Jacob I-430C 
—balsa I-430C 
Ammendale I-430c 
Ammenon, chronological table 

Ammi. See Ammo 
Ammia, martyr XIII-221b 
— prophetess X-522c; XI-793a 
Ammianus, Marcellinus, histo- 
rian IX-736d; on Constantiue 

IX-218b ; Valois edits XV-264a 
Ammiato, abbey III-691a 
Ammiel, name X-677C 
Ammi-rabi. See Hammurabi 
Ammirati, Scipione IX-108a 
— Tommaso, Bishop of Lecce 

Ammi-titana, Iving of Babylonia 

Ammizaduga, King of Babylonia 

Ammo, <lcitv II-214C 

— (AMON-RA), deity I-430d; 

774c; IV-4n7c; 0S5d; V-334C; 

339d; 344a; 344d; 345c; VII- 

312c; XI-470a; Xll-olla; 

XIII-311b; XIV-563a; in es- 

chatology V-347b; 348b; at 

Napata V-56Sa; oasis of I- 

430d; priesthood of V-566d; 

567a; of Thebes XIV-563b; 

worship of IV-685b; VII-638a 
— (Benamme), son of Lot I- 

431c; IX-366c; X-409d. See 

— Friedrich August von X-141a 
Ammonarion, martyr V-llc 
Ammonas, Bishop of Bernice 

Ammonia, See of. See Parse- 

Ammoniaca, Grotta dell', Pozzu- 

oli XII-331C 

431a; in Codex .Alexandrinus 

IV-Sla; in Codex Ephrsjmi 

Rescriptua IV-85a 
AMMONITES I-431C; and .\mo8 

I-435d; civilization I-431d; 

country I-431d; VIII-193d; 
irance I-433a; and 

VIII-193C; 197a; XIII-708a; 
and Jeroboam II I-435c; lan- 
guage I-431C; and Woabitea 
X-109c; Sargon II II-14b; 
Saul XIII-487a; Sennacherib 

Ammonius, father of Arius I- 

— grammarian XIV-118d 

— legate V-511C 

-martyr XI-709C 

— monk IV-592d 

— Bishop of Pelusium XI-611a 

— Bishop of Ptolemais (Egypt) 

— Bishop of Stauropolis XIV- 

— Saint, Bishop of Syene XIV- 

—Bishop of Thmuis VII-242c; 
deposed 1-30 la 

— of Alexandria, Gospel Har- 
mony I 431a; XIII-(>3Sd; Par- .\I-10()a; and Zacha- 
rias Chrvsopolilaniia XV-743C 

— of Diospolis XIV .")i;3b 

— Saccas, pliilos,,|,l„-r IV-J.ic; 
\-742c; XIl-31d; lOld 

Ammon-Ra (Ammon-Re). See 
Anmion, deity 

Ammoricus Xlil-118b 

Ammu, name I-441b 
Ammuladi, King of Cedar III- 

Ammurabi-Uu (Ammurapi, Am- 

muralipu) . See Hammurabi 
Amnicola, Paul. See Bachmann, 

Amnon, son of David IV-643b; 

slain I-S9c: Thamar I-59b 
Amnos, asterisk II-17d 
Amcena, sequence XII-4Soc 
Amolon, Archbishop of Lyons 

Amolone, Bishop of Turin XV- 

Amon, name X-676d 
—King of Juda VIII-200b; 347d; 

654b; 656c; 657d; birth VIII- 

658b; in genealogy of Christ 

— deity. .See Ammon 
Amona VI-433d 

Amondus, Bishop of Toul X-6S0b 
Ambneberg, abbey II-656d: 

U57c; VlI-29Sd 
Among the Lowly (Lhermitte) 

(ill.) Xl-faciug 402 
Amon of Dyfed XIII-422d 
Amon-Ra-is. .See Ammon 
Amontons, Guillaume XII-60d 
Amor, monk I-433a 
Amora'im, scholar XIV-436b; 

43Sb: 7SSa 
AMORBACH, abbey l-433n; 

organ I-433b 
Amorbrunnen I-433a 
Amore Christi nobilis, hynm I- 

Amoretti, Eusebius, Piariat 

Amorgos, island IV-581a; pil- 
grimage XII-88b 
Amorim, Gomes de. See Gomes 

de Amorim 
— e Pessoa, Joao Chrysostome d', 

Archbishop of Goa VI-604b 
AMORIOS, See of I-433b 
Amorites. See Amorrhites 
Amorium. See .\morios 
AMORRHITES I-433b; and Am- 

moriit.s I-431d; in Babylonia 

II-lMd; extt-nt I-433c; and 

Israelite." I-434b; and Moab- 

ites X-410a; origin III-570c; 

in Palestine VI-432C: race 

I -4 34a 
AMORT, EUSEBIUS, theologian 

I-434c; VIII-686c; XIV-595a; 

oniEquiprobabilism XII-442d; 

as canonist IX-65c; on St. 

Elizabeth of Schonau V-392b; 

on Terill XIV-517d 
Amortization X-579a 
Amos, name X-676c; 676d 
— (Amoo), father of Isaias I- 

435b; VIII-179d; Targums, 

Jerusalem XIV-457c 
AMOS, prophet I-435b; XII- 

478d; 480a; Abdias I-30c; 

Ammonites I— 132d; Arabia, 

theory of I-665c: Ass, Feast of 

I-799a; at Bersabee II-518d 
— booh of I— 435d; 436c; canoni- 

city III-270d; eclipses, refer- 
ences to II-30a: genealogy of 

Christ VI-410C 
— and Nahum X-670a; religious 

teachings I^36d; visions I- 

436b; vocation XII-479a 
— Johann. See Comenius 
Amosa VI-433d 

Amosis, King of Egj-pt V-339a 
Amosites 11-6 17b 
Amour, Carlos Luiz d*. Arch- 
bishop of CuyabA XVI-35C 
Amoy, island III-663d; trade 

ni-683c; treaty port III-6S6c 

I-437c; III-678b 
Amoz. .See Amos 
Ampalacad, monastery XV-41b 
Ampelius, Bishop of Vaga XV- 

Ampere (electricity) I— 43Sb; XV- 

50tc , 
—ANDRE-MARIE, scientist I- 

437c: \II-li4b: XV-.-.04c 
— Jean-Jacques I— 137d; and Oza- 

nnm XI 37sa 
Amphibalus, Saint I-252d; feast 

—(chasuble) III-63Hb 
Amphibians I-OSb 
Amphictyonic Council XIII-31l)b 
Amphilochia (Photius) XI I -46a 

Amphilochius of Cyzicius XII- 

619d; on Christmas III-725b; 
and Macedonianism XII-174c; 
and Messalians X-212b; and 
Pneumatoraachi XII-174C 

—OF SIDA I-138d: XIII-778a; 
on Chalcedon V-637c 

Amphilochus, soothsayer IX- 

Amphion, Saint, Bishop of Epi- 
phania V-503d 

Amphipolis. See Europus 

Amphiprostyle XIV-498a 

Amphiraos, oracular shrines X— 

Amphitheatre, Flavian. See Col- 
Amphitryon (Dryden) V-169b; 
(Moli(^re) X-434d 

AMPHORA I-439a; in fresco 

Ampitiya, town VIII-597a 

I-i39b; II-20Sa; library I- 
439d: Oxford foundation II- 
457d; XI-369d 

—College, foundation XIII-573b 

Ampliatus, Crypt of III-513d: 
frwcoes V-IWb 

Amplitudo Vestra I-138b 

Ampudia, Pedro de, general, at 
Monterey IX-26(>a 

AMPULLiE I-!39d; at Akhmtn 
I-239b; blood I-}40a; in 
catacombs III-426d: contro- 
versy III-27a; English regalia 
XII-713c; in Monza (ill.) 
1^39; for oils VII-422d; of 
Reims_ XII-727b 

Ampurdan. .Sif^ .\mpurias 

Ampurias lEmporium) III-42Sb; 

OF I -440c 

Amr, invades Gaza (637) VI- 

AMRA, of Columcille I^40c; of 
Conall of Iniskeel I-440d;Con- 
roi I-440d: Senain I-440d 

AMRAH I-440d 

Amram, father of Aaron and 
.Moses I-3b: X-596b 

— Eleazar ben, poet XIII-419C 

Amrapel. .Set .Amraphel 

AMRAPHEL, King of Senaar 
I-441b: II-lS6a; and Ham- 
murabi VII-125C: inscriptions 
I-53d; Kings, war of I-51b; 
Pentapolis, invasion of XI- 

Amr ben el-Asi'S XI-147d 

Amri, name X-676C 

—King of Israel VIII-198b; 
19Sd; 655b; 656a; 657b; and 
Achab I-lOlb; Ass^Tia II-12c; 
Samaria XIII-416a 

Amr ibn Mundhir, Prince of 
Hira I-669c 

Amritsar, temple XIII-7S9a: 

Amru, general, Alexandria I- 
299d; 303c; III-105b: X-505d: 
Arsinoe I-754d: and Cjtus of 
Alexandria I\'-59Sa 

Amsdorf, Nicholas von, Lutheran 
XI-787C: XII-704d; on good 
works X-204b; and Luther 
IX-456d; and Melanchthoc 
X- 1.1.3a 

Amselfeld (Amsfeld). See Kosova 

AMSTERDAM, town, Nether- 
lands I-441d: Arminius. 
preaching of I-741a: Catholic 

fopulation I-441d: deanery 
-442c; miracle I-441d; plague 
I-442b; Reformation I-442a; 
St. Nicholas, church of (ill.) 
Amuescho Indians, Peru XV- 

Amuhia, wife of Nabuchodonosor 

Amula, vessel. See Ama 

AMULET 1-4 13a: and Agnus 
Dei I-220b: tiivination by 
XIV-339C: .lavagea I-lS4b 

OF I 443d: X-lllc 

Amulo, Bishop 'if I yona, on ex- 
treme unction V-723b 

Amun. See .\iiinion. St. 

Amun£tegui, Miguel Luis de, 
Chilian writer XlV-206d 

Amun-Ra, deity. See Ammon 

Large type indicates titles of articles; other type;*, topics treated; (ill.) = iltuatrationa. 


Amurath I, sultan XIII-733b; 

Adrianople I-161a: Bulgaria 

ni-t6c: in Servia XIII-784C 
— n, sultan, Christians defeated 

Amurru (Hethites> VII-306b; 

land of VII-I2.",a; XIV-399(1 
Amus. See Ainnn^n, St. 
Amussat, Jean-Zulema, surgeon 

Am'was (Emmaus) V-405b 
Amwn, college XV-586a 
AMYCL.S, See of I-444d: VI- 

Amyclaei fratres I-445a 
Amyclanus. See Weathers, 

Amyntas, Iving of Galatia I-785d; 

VI-336C; at AncjTa I-513a; 

Derbe IV-738d; Isaura VIII- 

lS4d; Pisidiana conquered 

Amyot, Jacques, Bishop of Aux- 

crri- H45a; XIII-71Sc 
— Michel, missionarj' ^'II-582c 
Amyraut, Moise, controversialist 

AmyrtEeos, King of EgjTpt V- 

An., aliljr. I- 23c 

Ana, alibr. I-23c 

Ana, Anglo-Sason king, defeated 

— Balnlonia VI-433d 

— (Onol, EgMJt VI-443b 

Anab VI-433d 

387c; and Abecedarians I-35d; 
and Adrianists \'II-127a: Am- 
sterdam, rising of I-442a; 
Antinomianism I-585c; Apoca- 
tastasis I-600d: Apostolici I- 
647c; baptism VI-704C; XIII- 
300c; and Calvin III-202a; 
202c; and Canticle of Canticles 
III-303a; Cassander, George 
III^03b; Catrou, history of 
III— 156c; communism IV-180c; 
doctrinal principles I-445b: 
England I-446c; II-278d; Ger- 
many III-62Sb; and Guise 
VII-74b; Hungarj- VII-553d; 
infant baptism ^■I-704c; Men- 
nonites X-Hinb; Mnrnvi,! X- 
563a; Miinstir I-l li.b: X-i'.ii.a; 
XV-603C; origin I -M.'.c. partic- 
ular judgment VIII-551b; re- 
form policy XII-702C; results I- 
446c; and Sabbatarians XIII- 
287b; Saxony I— 445d; Switzer- 
land I-446a; XIV-362d; tenets 
XII-709a; in Thuringia I- 
44.5d; XIV-713a; in Transyl- 
vania XII-708a; Trent, con- 
demnation of II-259b: and 
Zwingli XV-773d 

Inabathmoi I-576a 

^abaticon. See Ascension of 

Inablay, Pietro d', Bishop of 
Palfstrina XI-421C 

Inaboladium (Anabolium) 1- 

^nabolagium (fanon) V-785b 

Vnaclet, Christian Brother VIII- 

I-446d; XII-273a; St. Paul, 
memorial of III-5l.3a; St. 
Peter, memorial of III-512a. 
See Cleti.s 

LEONE). Ant 


intipope 1-4 
VII-3.")la; V: 

12c; IX-17a: 412b; XII- 
274a; XIII-.i34a; XIV-263C; 
and St. Bernard II-500a; 
council against Xll-llld; ex- 
communicated Xn-728a; Gen- 
oese VI-llUc; Innocent II 
with VIII-12C; St. Norbert 
Xl-lOlb; Regeata XII-716b; 
Roger of Sicily VI-491C; and 
William of Aquitaine Xll-lSla 
Lnacostan Indians, mission XV- 


Lnacostia. See Nacochtank 
inacreon, poet, birthplace XIV- 

51.3b; in Samoa XIII-421d; 

Raphael's fresco XII-644b 
inadarko, mission Vlll-COla 
-tribe. See Nadako 
inadates, deity .XV-7."i3d 
ina de Austria, of 

Hiielg.a,, de Burgos VII-.513b 
madoli lAsia Minor) I-782d 

AN.SSTHESIA I-447d; local 

I-148C; .ipinal I-44Sd 
Anaghra raocao I\'— 40Sc 
Anagni, town, Italy VIII-219d 
Anagni, battle, date XI-320a 
335b; Boniface VIII II-668a; 
cathedral of (ill.) VIII-219a; 
Cosmati mosaic I V— 405c ; Coun- 
cil of (1160) I-449a; Leo XIII 
IX-172b: pope imprisoned 
Anagnostes, in Greek Rite I-626C 
Anagogical sense \'-695c 
Anagolagium I— 42sd; V-7S5b 
Anaharath \'I-434a 
Anaitis (Anahata; Anahita), deity 
II-loOc; VII-24a; X-402b; 
Anakims. See Enacim 
Analabus, vestment XIII-508d 
Anak. assassin VII-23d 
Analecta BoUandiana, periodical 

II-638b; XI-672a 
Analecta Ecclesiastica, periodical 

Analecta Franciscana, periodical 

Analecta hymnica (Dreves) 

Analecta Ordinis PrEedicatorum, 

periodical XII-3(J9b 
Analecta Sacra, Gnostic work 

Analectes de I'Ordre de Pr6- 

montre, periodical XI-504b 
Analects, of Confucius. See Lunyu 
Analepsis, feast I-7tl7b 
Anales de los Sacerdotes Ado- 

radores, periodical XII-423c 

Anales de Nuestra Senora del 

Sagrado Corazon, periodical 


Anales protestantes, founded 

Analibla, .See of III-204b 
Analisi ragionata del libri nuovi, 

periodical XI-683C 
Analogical concepts. See Con- 
cepts, analogical 
Analogion I-382d; XII-563d 
ANALOGY I-449b; in analysis 
I— 451a; appropriation I-658c: 
attributes. Divine I-559c; in 
faith I— i50a; God, knowl- 
edge of I-450a; intlirect I- 
449d; in metaphysics I-449c; 
mysteries, knowledge of I- 
450c; object I-450d: process 
I— 450d; of proportionalitv I- 
449d; and ReveLation I-450c; 
Scholasticism I-449c; in sciences 
I-149b; in theology I-149d 
Analogy of Religion (Butler) I- 

ANALYSIS I-450d; abstraction 
I-4ola; advantages I-451d; 
connotation I— 451b; Cartesian 
system IV-745b: dissociation 
I-451a; ideas of I^51a; induc- 
tion I-450a; necessity I-451c: 
object of I— 451a; proof of 
I-451b; qualities necessary I- 
451d; and synthesis I-451b 
Analysis of Religion (Bentham) 

Analytic I-7I4c; IX-324b; meth- 
od IV-674C 
Analytica Posteriora (.\ristotle) 

I-714d; 71Sb 
Analytica Priora (Aristotle) I- 

714d; 71Sb 
Anamimnesis (Anamnesis) III- 
2i;4a; Addeus and Maris I- 
137b; Apostolic Constitutions 
I-571d; Bvzantine Rite IV- 
317d; .St. James, Liturgy I- 
S72d; St. Mark, Liturgy of 
Anan. See Carailes 
—ben David III-329C; IV-I58d: 

Ananda College, Cevlon III- 

Anania (Ananiah) VI-434a 
Ananias, Bishop of Alexandria. 

See Anianus 
—Bishop of Damascus IV-612a 
— high priest I-.JBlb; XIII^4.5d 
— (N. T.) I-llsa;; XI-474a 
-to. T.l IV-tJ20b; 622a 
Anan-Isho, Syrian work XI-426b 
Ananism. See Caraites 
Ananos (Ananus). See Annaa 
ANAPHORA I-451d; XII-384c; 
Abyssinian MS.S. I-306b; Ad- 

deus and Maris I-137b; Am- 
brosian I-402a; Apostolic Con- 
stitutions I-571C; Basil ian 
of II-321d; Byzantine IV- 
317d; and Canon Ill-25fja; 
258a; Clementine Epistle IV- 
16a; Coptic I-306a; of St. 
Cyril I-306a- East SjTian Rite 
XIV-415C; Gallican VI-362d; 
Gregorian I-306b; Jacobite I- 
402a; 573c; IV-15a; XIV- 
418c; of St. James I-,572d; 
573b; James of Edessa VIII- 
277d; John Chrysostom I- 
306b; of John the Evangelist 
I-306b; of St. Mark I-304d; 
Maronite XIII-83c; 84b; of 
Nica?a I-306b; of Serapion of 
Thmuis XIII-432C 
Anaphora Pilati I-609d 
ANARCHY I^52b; II-1.37c; 
communistic IV-179b; first 
use I-452d; Kantian theory 
IX-54d; publications 1^535; 
and .Socialism I-452d; IX- 
213c; XIV-62C; 63a; 64d; 385d; 
Syndicalism XIV-3S.5d 
Ana Rosa, Setebo convert XIII- 

Anasco, Juan de, explorer IV- 

754a; 754b 
Anassius, Bishop of Polemonium 

Anastasi, Filippo, Bishop of Sor- 
rento XIV-lSlc 
Anastasia, name X-674b 
— churches. See Anastasis 
—Saint, martjT, Rome II-329d 
—SAINT, mart\T, Sirmium I- 
453d; III-74'2d; XIV-552d; 
patronage XI-566c 
Anastasi, Corrado, expelled VI- 

Anastasie, religious XV-669b 

— (Lagania) VIII-741a 
— (Sergiopolis) XIII-728a 
— (Telmessus) XIV-47.Sd 
Anastasios. See Anastasius 
Anastasis (Anastasia), church, 
Constantinople I-454b; II- 
105a; VII-I2a 
— Jerusalem V-oOoc; VIII-357b; 
XI^33a; columns I-364c; ded- 
ication IV-536b: Eastern cus- 
tom III-576b; orientation I- 
365c; Palm Sunday XI-433a; 
restoration VIII-3"60a; 365d. 
See Holy Sepulchre, church, Je- 
—See Resurrection 
—I,_ SAINT, Pope I-454d; XII- 
273b; on Origenistic contro- 
versy XII-716a; tomb III-512d 
ANASTASIUS H, Pope I-454d; 


ANASTASIUS IV, Pope I-455a: 
XII-274a; and .St. Hildegard 
— AntipopeI-5S2b;II-427d; IX- 

159b; XII-273c; XVI-2d 
—I, Emperor III-99C ; and Church 
VII^70b; and Clovis IV-71d; 
coronation IV-3Slc; and Elias 
of Jerusalem V-385a: and 
Euphemius V-606b; Gelasius I 
VI^06a; and Isaurians III- 
100c; Monophvsites VII-219a; 
Persian policy Ill-lOOd; reli- 
gious policy III-103b; andSev- 
erus X:^90d; and Svnimachus 
XIV-378b; venationes, III- 
100a; wall IV-303a 
— n. Emperor in-104b: Mono- 
thelitism VI-4S4b; X-607d; 
and Philippicus Bardanes IV- 
294d; wall IV-303a 
— consul, diptych V-23b 
— hvmn writer XIII-lS4b 
— SAINT, Bishop of Antioch 
I-454c; IV-628a; Notitia XI- 
— n. Bishop of Antioch I-454d 
—Bishop of Athens II-4.5b 
—Saint, Bishop of Brescia I I-760C 
— Bishop of Ca-sarea PalrestiniB 

—Bishop of Cagli III-140a 
— Patriarch of Constantinople 
VI^84d; 762c; Vll-020d; 
62Ic; and Gregorj- II VI- 


— Bishop of Euchaiotos XVI-29b 
— Patriarch of Jerusalem VIII- 

359b; 361c 
— Bishop of Jotabe I-668c 
— Bishop of Linoe IX-272d 
— Abbot of St. Margaret's XII- 

— n. Bishop of Naples X-687a 
— Bishop of Nicsea XI-43d; at 

Chalcedon ni-557c 
— Bishop of Nicopolis XI-71b 
— Saint, Bishop of Pavia XI- 

—Blessed, Bishop of Penne and 

Atri XI-638d 
— Bishop of Samos XIII-422a 
—Saint, Bishop of Sens XIII- 

—Bishop of Tavium XIV-467b 
— Bishop of Tenedos XIV-506d 
— Bishop of Thcopolis VII-668d 
— Bishop of Thessalonica IX- 

— Bishop of Tiberiopohs XIV- 


—Bishop of Tuv XV-105b 


VII-375b; and Basil III-016a; 

Historia tripartita VI-464a; 

and Liber Pontificalis IX-224b 

— of St. Euthymius, on Trisagion 

— SINAITA, SAINT I-455b; on 
confession XI-G27b; as exegete 
Anat4 (Anathoth) I-457a; VIII- 

Anath, deitv XII^3a 
Anathalon, Saint X-300b 
ANATHEMA I-45.5c; IX-569c; 
Amen in I-409a; converts I- 
45c; of councils I-456a; IV- 
676c; formula I-456b; New 
Testament I-455d 
Anathematisms (Origen) X-190b 
Anathomia (Mondino) I-457a: 

Anathoth, name X-678b 
Anathoth, deity I-457a 
Anathoth, town I-457a; Baruch at 

Anathoth, son of Bechor I-457b 
Anathoth, subscriber to Covenant 

Anatolia (Asia Minor) I-782d; 

Turkish possession XV-97c 
—SAINT r-4o7b 
Anatolic Theme I-7S2d 
Anatolius, Saint, Bishop of Adana 

— Saint, Bishop of Brescia II-760c 
—SAINT, Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople I-4.57C; V-20b; 
IX-645a; X-489d; Marcian 
coronation of IV-381b; on 
synods VII-429a 
— SAINT, Bishop of Laodicea I- 
457b; Alexandria, siege of V- 
623a; and Leo I V-622c; and 
Origen XI-30.8a 
—Bishop of Satala XIII-486a 
— Bishop of Sebaste XIII-667C 
ANATOMY I-457d; America I- 
460d; antiquity I-45.Sa; Bo- 
logna X-127b; Caius III-144b; 
Caldani XVI-16a; classes I- 
457d; comparative I— 461a: 
XV-444b; defined II-572b; 
development X-129d; 137a; 
Dwight XVI-37a; Eustachius 
V-626d; Fabricius V-745b; 
Fallopio V-772a; Fortunato 
of Brescia VI-148d; Galen 
X-124a; history I-458a; medi- 
eval I-458c; modern I-459d; 
Mondino X-476d; Morgagni, 
work of X-568a; papal decree 
I-458d; Steno XIV-286a; Bo- 
logna X-127b; 132c; van Bene- 
den, researches XV-266c; Vesa- 
lius I-459d; II-573a; XV- 
379b; Vinci, Leonardo da XV- 
440c; Win.slow XV-659b 
Anaumed (Anauved), sister of 

St. Tcilo XIV-173d 
Anaiagoras, philosopher VII- 
594a; VIII-93a; X-713d; XII- 
31b; birthplace IV-lOc; cos- 
mological teaching X-486a; on 
creation IV— 172b; on matter 
II-51C; mind, theory of X- 
.321a; scepticism Xni-516d; 
soul, theory of V-530d; spiri- 
tualistic teaching XIV-229C 
Anazilas, son of Alcidamas XII- 
717b; Zancic X-216d 

Roman ntuneral indicates volume; arable, page; a, b, c, d, quarter of page. 



Anarimander, ph!l5'A°P?Ap. los 
92d; X-303d; ^IV-160<=; ''°!: 
mological theory 1^-41°*; 
soul, conception of MV-103C, 

on substance vlll-^wa 
AXimenes of Lampsacus, ora- 
tor VIII-771a „_ 
_of MUetus, philosopher yui 
92d; X-303d; XII-311), on 
substance VIII-93a 
Anaya, Homobono, Bishop oi 

Chilapa III-tH>9t> R;<iV,r,n 

i^a*.?rPef;one. *e E'^^er 

—PEDRO DE, the Younger I- 

Ancalano. Jacobus. .See Jacobua 

AntiyS .,m Persian Uter- 

An^carig. ^ ^Vf "Thorney Abbey 
Ancelet. Mahiet .I^-b2od 
Ancestors, reversion to II-32d 

Ancestor worship ^ Il-!i*''^VlT- 
rica I-lS4a; Annamites Vll 
771d 'Asia XIV-279C; in China 

"fa^XYWOb; and idolatry 
IV-689b; Jesuits, attitude of 
\li^7ld; and monotheism 
TV-687C; and religion 1-o.!mc. 
xV-745b; Spencer^ theory 
I-52Sb; statistics XIV-.<bD 
281d; and Toteniism XIII 
qiqd' XIV-7S9d; 790b 
Ancestr'allaw. of Galton XVI- 

Andfaiano, Jacobus ab. See 

Jacobus de Teranio 
— Pietro, canonist IV-b/2c. at 
Siena XIII-7S2a 

j^'hrnfrA.- "joseph: VEN 

*-'iyrm^T_l.nb: and Alnieid; 

Xin-t66a; 46t)b; Latin writ- 

Jc^^o's^MoL legend V-497a 

Anchin, coUege y-139a 

— monastery XI-.;llc 

ANCHOR I-162a; and cross 1- 
■!^^- IV-521b: -538; cruciform 
l2o2c (ills) I-443b; 462a 
lll-42id; XIV-374C; on rings 

Anchirages, Carmelite III-369b 
^cSoreL.' Quichua grammar 
XII-60fid , ,,.,K 

fSretea^'onV-S? Coptic 
MSS XVI-29b; 29d; as her- 
mits VII-280a; kinds I-463b. 
™ monks X-488a; Pachomian 
rule XIII-527c; rules XU- 
AJchorites (Velizque.) X V--326d 
Ancienne Lorette. Sec Lorette 
Ancient Order of Hibernians. 

See Hibernians 
Ancients,, in Apocalypse ^I---lc 

Ulc; Sign of the Cross XIII- 

7 Slid' 
— Wisse I-464b 
Ancud, Diocese of. See ban 

Carlos de Ancud 
—(music) X-768b vTTI- 

Ancus Marcius, and Ostia VUi 

219brxi-346b; and Sabmea 

AnSt""George Casimir, Bishop 

of Vilna XV-433a 
Ancuvarman, sovereign of Nepal 

Augustus. Acts of I-464d; bat- 
Ue^U02) IV-oMa; Persians 
take I-574C; III-105»,.,,4^ i_ 

—CouncUs o{ I-tboa; (^W i 

Vol, Agapeti I-202b; bishops^ 
rural I-788a; IV-659C, on 
celibacy III-484c; divination, 
decree V-49b; laps. IX-3a 
witchcraft XV-b'5a (358) 
I-465a: V-605b: XIII-394t), 
693cf(372) VII-17b: (375) I- 

-CKillsse Keui), See of, Phrygia 

M65a; XIV-3S2C 
Ancyranum, Monumentum. edi- 
tions II-107C ,^ncA 
Anczyc. dramatist XH-^pOd 
Andachkhroch, mission \II-5S0« 
Andagoya, Pascual de XI-- 33a, 

Andald, Brancaleone degli Xlii 
ANDALUSIA. I-46oa; d\a'ect I"- 
405c: Ferdinand I"."!^^,;?^ 
X-fil-^c- Herniengild V n 
o76b; name XIV-177C-, organ- 
ization XIV-171d 


Ancients, in APO^?'>.S. VlU- 
— Council of the X-b88d, Xlll 

-Jn'sanhedrin XnH«b 
--of Sxuacogue XI\ -38 lb 
ANCILLA DEI, title 1-4 >!c 
Ancina, Giovenale, Saint. .S^e 

An'douSal Bianco dall'. writings 

ANCONif'ciRIACO D', an- 

X-209b: Desiderius "cijes -^1" 
(>77d; France seizes vU-7a, 
Maniel I III-lll;."""i''^°'^: 
1,58a: VI-558d; Napo'coi^ X- 
mb Otto IV i-260d: VII I- 
Hd: papal mmt X-334d, pU- 

* CESE OF 1 IWd 
Ancora (Nicrea) \1 13d 


ANCREN^RIWLE I-4n4b: fac- 
shiiile 1-464; on Blessed Sac- 
rament XV;484b- grace in 
XiV-555b; Hail Ma ry VII- 

Andaq^an Indians, habitation 

AnValte Indians. •'^«f "P^'Jfg 

Andecavenses Fo™"'j-".'yv_ 

ANDECHS, abbey II-*=>la, XV 

591c- XVI-3b; church II- 

78a; Crown of Thorns IV- 

54U; VI-33a; suppression X- 

AntTechs - Meran. Counts of, 

Kr;uits II-794a 
^^:ro!%o^r4S. Count 
Antio^Xa'jJof (5l7) II-360C; 

An'del^l'nionastery X-452c; reUc 

V-671d ,j iKjH- 

Andenne, monastery U-4b4a, 

A j-.,i ^.roniTt-Iized X\^93c 


I-160b; IX-t.oSd; XIV-10t>0 
Andemach, battle of (933) XI 
— Gtother von, anatomist X-1 30a 


AndiUy, Robert Arnauld d . See 

Arnauld d'And.lly. Robert 
Andlau, convent 11^61^ 
— Heinrich Bemhard von. Aee 

Andlauer, Modeste, martJT Hi 
HARD VON, statesman I-iti8a 
Ando, Joseph P^t"f"^.^,^:'iv- 
Andochius, Samt II-144a, iv 

Andor. novelist VII-562a 
Andorra, Church in XV-223a. 

statistics XIy-2<8a 
Andouagne, deity ly-o^';^, 
Andover, seminary !»--*'? 
XnDRADA. ALONZO, biogra- 

liher I-4liSd 


-T^omat See Thomas of Jesus 
—DE PAYVA, DIEGO.theologian 

Andrade^, Arsenic, Bishop of 
Riobamba XIII-61d; at Ibarra 
VII-613C , .,„ 

—Francisco de, poet Xli-Ju»c, 
XVI-71a , 

— Freire de, governor-general 
XII-3Ud . 

— Jacintho Freire de XII-309C 

—Miguel Leitao de, chronicler 
XII-308d .^ ,.,,, 

— Olegario Victor, writer XIV- 

—Simon de III-082c 
Andrado Pessanha, Sebastiao d , 
VI-(i04b ,,-_ 

Andrsmon, Ionian leader l.v 

Andragatius VIII^53a . 
Andral, Gabriel, anatomist A- 

Andr'avilla, Diocese of XI-240C 

Andre, on?^'^'-^"!!! I'S-'d 
—Bishop of Cochin 111-15-0 
—BERNARD, poet laureate 1- 

— Louis, missionary VII-394c; 
IX-6S9C; XV-662b; .Menom- 
inee mission X-192d; in Mich- 
gan IV-758b; Saskatchewan 
XII-427c; Sault Sainte Mane 

Andr",'petit''-P«e. See Boulan- 

AN'DRE.°m:S-MARIE mathe- 
matidan I-469b; in Lomsiana 
Xl-llb , D ■ IT 

Andrea, Archbishop of Ban U 

—Bishop of Brindisi IJr^S? 
-Bishop of Caserta III-40f)a 
— Alessio d', artist Xll-U.-b 
—GIOVANNI D', canonist I- 
469d; IV-672C; VI-o8.9b, IX 
K'!^ -^-'fic- 227b; epithet V- 

ANDREA PISANO (Pontadera) 
I-470a- Florence cathedral 
(ill ) 1-470; Florence baptist- 
ery door VI-UOc; and Orcagna 
XI-276a; Pistoia baptistery 
XII-117c; Rieti palace XIU- 
54b; Vol terra cathedral XV- 
Andreas, name X-b74b 
—Saint, Ambrosian canon 1-4020 
—Bishop of Cidyessus III-' (Ob 
—Bishop of Colossa. See An- 
drew of Rhodes 
—Bishop of Ina IVtI^S^.,, „„,h 
—Bishop of Kruszwica X\ -bMD 
—I, Bishop of XII-339b 
-Bishop of Pales.tnna XI-421C 
—Bishop of Pcnigia XI-736d 
—Bishop of Prague XII-339d 
—Vicar of Rome 1117342c 
— H, King of Rumama, and Bur- 
"enland XV-20d: and Malta 
Knights of XIII-228a: and 
Teutonic Order XIIl7228a 
—Bishop of Silandus XIII-789d 
—Bishop of Taranto XI\;;4ola 
—Bishop of Theodosiopolis Xl\ - 

—Bishop of Tlos Xiy-749a 
— Antonius, epithet y--(4D 
—Bernard. See Andrfe 
— Lauientius, reformer Xiy-349b 
— Colossensis. See Andrew of 

-Gons^ves, Blessed XIV-109d 
Andreasi, Alessandro, Bishop of 

Mantua IX-«13a 
Andreas of ^Austria, cardmal. 

Bishop of Bnxen 1.1-7941) 
—of Bnin, and Hussites VI-591a 
Hof Crete. See Andrew;^of Crete 
—of Randuf, abbot I\ -. 90b 
—Presbyter, catena II I-434b 
— Pyrrhos. hymnodist MI-o99c 
Andree. Richard, on Flood stones 
IV-704a . . -TIT 

Andreeff, Leomd, writings XIII- 


—Johannes von, mom^ »p y™- 
Anders, .\rchbishop of Lund 

An^"sri:'Hans Christian, writer 



I-46lic , „. 

Tames. JoHUit XIN-93d 

-fiSNEL ALBERT I^bbd^ 


and Scots College XIU bJ.D 

—William. See Richardson, 

Anderssein \TI-192d 
Anderton, Christopher I-4b7b 
-JAMES l-*':"b _,„^ 
—Lawrence, "";r^,i„jnVp I- 

—ROGER, editor I^67d 
—THOMAS, histonan I-46<a, 

Popish Plot XI-1-4C 
inr;Tgo^1f'xV-706a; Christ 

of the I-70.^d 
Andhra. kingdom \ "-\-.^?_r,7io 
Andiatae, Huron town Ml ■>"^ 
Andiao. See AntipI.ellos 

!ld' 'at Perugia XI-737b; at 

Pisa xn-n2a 

— Girolamo d', cardinal VU-8'C 
Andrea, John Valentin and Rosi- 
i^rea da Pisa.^(da^Po°W'i"»'- 
-deginrnP^ccatr^See Castagno 
— deUe Fratte, Rome, indulgence 
— defsa^to. See Sarto, Andrea 

j^'r<.=tp11ana See Scalimoli 
ll'oTTL BLESSED I-469d. 
Andrese (Andreas). Antonius, 

Scotist XIII-612b 
—Conrad, and Portiuncula XII 

-Jakob, theologian X\ S3D^ 
ind Jeremias 11 ^ I-""^. oii 
Lutheran divisions Y'^l": 
and Peter Canisius Xl-7bua, 
and Union, ecclesiastical X* 

-Jphlnnes, Bishop of Aleria 

—Johannes, canonist. See An- 
dro-i Giovanni d , 

Andreevski, Sergei, poet XIII- 

AiTdrtgoto, Queen of Xavarr,-^ 

Ai;dreiniV''"sabeUa, birthplace- 

An'oMIS, FELK de I-470b. 
X-366C; on Lazansts X-Jbhc 
in Louisiana Xl-llD, on 
missions X-366c: .and Rosati 
XIII-360a; portrait H'UC 

— T L. II-235a 

AndreUnus, Faustus, and Glarean 
VI-577b . . 

Andreoli, Giorgio Ml-ood 

ANDRES, JUAN, canomst I- 

— JUAN, historian XIV-200d; 

\VI-3b . . 

— de la Madre de Dios, canonist 

ANDRiw,''sAINT, Apostle I- 
471a; Acts VI-600a; Arnalfi. 
relics I-379c; apocr^-phal litera- 
ture I-611a; 613b; Burgundy, 
'patronage XIII-342a; By|an- 

tine legend I\--50iV, . fioss 
537a; at Canalll-i^Ta, Cross 
l%nd: XII-567b; Dolci V- 
93: (Ul.) 1-471; emblem I- 

_g'^s^cYo-?%09b; Greece VI 


ingVIII-799a IatrasXI-04^0 


■n'>l- Vigil of, in Scotlani 

ililk: and sons of Zcbede. 

J^o^y'lt See Saint Andrew 

rlTsu" of. See Cross, Daugh 

Aniirew. Saint, Irish, tomb VI 

71a , ,r-j 

—archdeacon I-lo/o ,, ,.^, 
—I, King of Hungary Vll J4.i 


Andrew IT, King of Hungarj' 
Vir-4:iNb: .'.,'>na: crusade IV- 

r.riild; VII-4.57C; and St. Eliza- 

h.'ih V-:jS^ib; VII-189a: and 

Emeric of Hungary VIII-16a; 

and Hermann of Salza VII- 

26Sa; and Vincent of Kadlubek 

— in, King of Hungary II-664d; 

IV-5Ub; VII-550d 
— archdeacon I-4o7d 
—Bishop of Flaviaa VI-99b 
—Abbot of Melrose X-171b 
—Bishop of Oria XI-302a 
—Bishop of Rhestena XIII-19a 
— Bishop of Samosata XIII- 

422b; and St. C.vril X-7o7a 
—Bishop of Tius XIV-747a 
— .\bbot of Vaux-de-Cernav XV- 

—Abbot of Wigraoro XIII -3SSc 
— James Osgood, Methodist 

bishop X-23Ud 
—John Albion, governor III-93b 

.\n'-.-,,->7d; and St. Ch.Trles 

— of Austria, cardinal. Bishop of 

Constance IV-287d; tomb I- 

—OF CffiSAREA, bishop I- 

473a; 701b; III-133d; Apoc- 
alypse, Commentary on XI- 

— of Colaczy I-474c 
— of Colossus (of Constanti- 

ilOBle). Scr Andrew of Rhodes 
—OF CRETE, SAINT I-47.ia; 

Aagelic salutation Vll-Ula; 

St. Anne, feaat of conception 

VII-677b; Assumption II-6b; 

canon I— 47.3c; a.s hvmnodist 

in-121c; VII-.599C: on Mary's 

Nativity XV-464Fc 
— of Faenza, Abbot of Monte 

Cassino X-.527d 
— of Hungary, prince, and Naples 

— of Jerusalem. See Andrew of 


on embassy III~670a 
—of Newcastle, epithet V-74c 
—of Oporowa, Bishop of 

Wloolnwek XV-681C 
—of Perugia, missionary VI-294C 
—of Perugia, Bishop of Gaitun 

— of Posen, .\rticles of Constance. 


2,ia: at Ferrara VI-47C; 112c 
-of Slagelse, Saint XVI-72b 
-of Strumi, abbot XV-203b 
—of Vallombrosa, Blessed XV- 


Indrews, family, Baltimore II- 
231c; and Catholic University 

—Emily Augusta XI-546d 

— Lgjicelot, Bishop of Winchester 
X-370b; on Antichrist I-.Mlc; 
on deposing power XI-I7Sd; 
influence I-.503d; and oath of 
allegiance XI-17Sd; on Roman 
Catholic Xni-123b 

-O., bencfacti.m III-456a 

and Dcnman IV-722c; Ortho- 
dox Journal XI-67.3c; Truth- 
teller .\I-69.3a; XIII-120d 

Indrews's Constitutional Precep- 
tor I-47.5b 

^drews's Orthodox Journal XI- 



Indrian, Carlos, geodetic re- 

s.:irrh VI-i:.2d 

Indriatis, rolKction XIII-2fi7a 
Udrieu, Paulin-Pierre, cardinal, of Bordeaux XVI- 

Vndrijaseyic, Dominicus, Bishop 

of Snutari XIII-fi48b 
^ndrocles, prince V-490c 
^ndromaque (Racine) VI-196c; 


Indromeda, meteors II-27b; 

nehula II-26d 
\ndromeda (I-ope de Vega) IX- 

\ndromede (Comeille) IV-374d 

Andronicus, Saint, martvr I\'- 
607b: XIV-4.Wb 

—apostle VII-333a; 334d 

—Bishop of Sardes XIII^72b 

—Apostle of Slavs XIV-15b 

— I (Commenus), emperor III- 
110a; 111b; Latins, massacre 
of IV-304a 

■ — 11, emperor III-112a; VI- 
765d; and reunion II-.381a; 
Tralles XV-ltJd 

—III, emperor Ill-llld; 112a; 
VII-302b; Notitia episcopat- 
uum XI-125a 

— rV. emperor Ill-lUd; 112a; 

— of Rhodes, and Aristotle I- 
717c; eclecticism V-276b; XII- 
31c; metaphysics X-226a 

Andros, island, West Indies, 
statistics (1901) II-204C 

—Diocese of IV-581b; VI-742d; 

— Sir Edmund, governor IV- 
732d; V-130d; X-791C 

Androutsos, publisher VI-772a 

Andfijar (Diturgis) VIII-267b 

Aneb (Aneb-u). See Memphis 

Anegada, island, ecclesiastical 
government XIII-191C 

Aneitumese, versions of the 
Bible XV-374a 

Anel, Dominique, ophthalmology 

Anem ^■I-434a 

ANEMURIUM, .See of I-475d 

Anencletus. .SeeAnacletus;Cletu3 

Aner VI-434a 

Anerbenrecht I-227c 

o35d; X-601b; XI-432a; 
chants I-579a; Medicean Grad- 
ual XII-146b; Te Deum music 


Anes, John, Archbishop of Lisbon 

Anet, chateau of, architect XI- 

Anethan, Anna Margareta von 

— Hugo Frederick von VII-463d 

Anexicrates, at Salamis, siege of 


—Frances VIlI-419d 

Angaput wizards XIII-751a 

Ange, Pere. See Joyeuse. Henri 

Angecourt, Perrin d* (ill.) VI- 



— Gardien, periodical XV-400a 

ANGEL 1-J76c; Abraham's vi- 
sion I-51c; of the Abyss I- 
596c; as Divine agents I-477d; 
of the Agony I-224a; 477a; 
XIV-505b; Apocalypse I-596c; 
archangels I— 478c; Archontic 
teaching I-697b 

— in art I-363d; 485a; in Ambro- 
sian Basilica I-389c; Fra An- 
gclico I-484a; Boccaccio II- 
660d; Correggio I-318c; Ghirl- 
andajo VI-.'J46d: Verrocchio 
(ill.) XV-442a 

— astronomy II-21c; avenging 
I-479a; Avicebron's teaching 
II-156b: Babjionian concep- 
tion I^SOc; 480d; Biblical 
evolution I^81c; Book of 
I-733d; of Bottomless Pit 
I^79b; in Canon III-264d; 
Cerinthus' teaching ni-539b; 
Chapel of the. Nazareth X- 
72fic; cherubim I-478a; III- 
646a: Christ t\-pified bv XI- 
81b: choirs I-47.8b; in Clem- 
entine Epistle IV-16b; coin 
XIV-304a; in Colossians IV- 
132a; communion of saints 
IV-171d; court of heaven 
IV— 446c: and creation IV-471c; 
XIV-584d: critical view of 
IV-494d; cult I-477d; 485d; 
and daemons IV-710d; Daniel's 
vision I-476d: dominations 
I— 478c; Duns Scotus' teaching 
V-19nb: 197c: of Ephesus 
XIII-611b; XIV-727c; essence 
and existence V-544b: Essene 
V-547b; \'I-408b; in Euchar- 
istic prayer XIII-432d; Exo- 

dus I-479d; of the Face I- 
604d; fall I^7Sd; IV-764a: 
764b; feasts, in Coptic liturgy 
XVI-28d; in Gnoaticism I- 

173d; II-327b; \' 71h: , d 

and bad I-47^d '^ ' ' 
VI-720b; of Ci- ' ,•! ' I 

479c; .571d: 1:11:1.1 :,:j,.| 

VII-19d; Hcii.j.i,, l;,,,,K .,1 
I-602c; hierarchies I-47Sb; 
of His presence I^77a; inter- 
cession I-477d: VIII-71C; in- 
vocation I-486a; in Irvingite 
Church VIII-175a; of Jehovah 
I-4Slc; Jewish I-173d; Josue's 
vision (ill.) VIII-525d; Jubi- 
lees. Book of I-604d; VIII- 
536b: judgment, participation 
in VIII-551d; knowledge of 
XIII-611a; and man V-28b: 
marriage with daughters of 
men IV-716a: Mohammedan 
belief VIII-191a; X^26b; on 
monstrance I-358b; month 
X-543b; of the Mount III- 
24c; national I-477b; nature 
I-12.5d; number I-478c; Office 
of XII-426b; Origen's teaching 
XI-310a; in papal arms VII- 
24 7d; in Passion of Christ 
XIV-505b; Pauline teaching 
IV-132b; of Penance. Clem- 
entine I-62a; powers I-47Sc; 
Preface. Roman IX-793c; 
principalities I-478c; proba- 
tion of IV-765C; as prophets 
XII-474a: Pseudo - Areopag- 
ite'a teaching V-14c: reason 
XII-674b: redemption IV- 
784d; of the Resin-rection XII- 
790b: Sabaoth XIII-286d; 
Sadducees XIII-323c; Saint 
Marv Major I-485c; San Vitale 
mosaic (ill.) I-485b; 486a; of 
the Schools X I V-674d; Scotus' 
teaching V-196b; 197c; sera- 
phim I— 478a; as spirits XIV- 
221a; as substance XIV-323a: 
in Septuagint I-479c; seven 
I-477a; 47Sa: 69()c; Simonian 
doctrine Xni-797a; Sweden- 
borgian teaching XIV-3.56a; of 
the Testament XIV-597c; in 
New Testament I^81b; in 
Testament of I-132b; 
in theology XIV-585a; Thom- 
istic teaching VII-763b; XIV- 
699c; 700b; thrones I-47SC; 
Tobias' vision XIV-751d: 
752d; veneration of I-152c; 
II-.364d; VIII-71a; XV-710a; 
virtues I-478C: votive Masses. 
Gloria VI-584b; Zend-Avesta 
I-4Sla: 481b; Zoroastrian I- 
4Slb; n-I.V2d: l.'')4d: l.S.'ia 
4Sld; X-2llL'a; uiiraruious cure 
I-!s_'b; i.nrlniit I-l.s2a; and 
Ursuliues X-082b; XV-227d; 


482b; XIV-622b; XVl-44d; 

mystical marriage IX-703b: 

stigmata XIV-295b 
— of St. Teresa, Carmelite. See 

Mudd, Angela 
Angelarius, Saint, Bishop of 

Canosa II-29.5d 
Angel Choir, Lincoln XII-738C 
Angelelmus, Blessed, Bishop of 

Auxorre XlII-71Sb 


Angelica, library. Rome I-394c; 

IX-232b: XIII-lOOc; 170c 
—school. Rome XIII-165C 
Angelical Hymn. See Gloria in 



—of St. Paul, founded I-.';88b 

Angelic Doctor. .Sec Thomaa 

Aquinas. St. 
—Night. Srr Holy Saturday 
Angelico (Minerva), college, 
Rome Xni-16.'-.b; 369a: XIV- 
7n2a; sf.qii.slratcd XV 7.Wb 
ETROl I ls3b; Annunciation. 
Florence (ill.) I-facing 482; 
Christ. Head of (ill.) VIII- 
facing 3.84: Sts. Cosmas and 
Damian (ill.) IV-404: Goodly 
Fellowship (ill.) XII-477d; 
St. Lawrence (ill.) IX-faeing 


90; Orvieto cathedral XI- 
331d; Our Lady, Help of the 
Sick XIII-513a: paintings, 
religious XI-399b; St. Peter 
Martyr (ill.) Xl-facing 772; 
portrait I-483b; St. Stephen 
(ill.) XIV-287b; as Thomiat 
XIV-702C: tomb XIII-172d; 
Vatican XV-280a; 283b 
— da Fiesole. .See Angelico. Fra 
Angelic Pastor XIV-477d 
—Salutation. See Hail Mary 
Angelina of Marsciano, Blessed 

VI-217d; XIV-642C; 643d 
Angelini, Giuseppi, sculptor X- 

Angelique, Mere. .Sec Arnauld, 

— Roussel (Mary of the Holy 

Ghost), martyr XIV-517b 
Angelis, Bernard de, Jesuit XIV- 

— De, Archbishop of Athens II- 

— Filippo de, canonist IX-65c; at 
Vatican Council XV-304b 

— Francesco degli. See Angeli, 
Francesco degli 

— Guido ab, writer VII-44oc 

— Jerome de. See Angeli, Giro- 
lamo degli 

Angelita, work on litanies IX- 

Angelites. See Tetradites 

Angelo, Bishop of Morocco X- 

-Bishop of Taranto XIV-451a 

—Michael, of Naples XV-523d 

—Vincent d'. Naples X-6S3c 

BLESSED I-4S4b: XIV-606b 

484d; XVI-20b: Fraticelli VI- 
24.5b; on Franciscan Rule VI- 
211c: Hi.storia III-320C 

Angelopoli. .Sec Tlascala 

Angeloptes, Joannes, Bishop of 
Kavcnna XII-666a 

Angelovich, Anton, Bishop of 
Przemysl XII-533C 

ANGELS, early Christian repre- 
sentations I-485a 

— church of, Assisi XV— 42Sc 

— Hymn of the. See Gloria in 

—Chapel, St. Sulpice XI-402a 

Angel Sodality V-.'i3d 

I-4S6a: 47sb; III-749C; VII- 

— of the Seven Planets X-426c 

Angel's Rule. See Pachomius, 
.St., Rule 

ANGELUS I-486b: attitude VI- 
425c; clapper I-349b; as cursus 
IX-21d; evening I-4S6c; Fran- 
ciscans VI-293b; history I- 
4Sfic: indulgence I-486b; VII- 
789b: midday I-487b: morn- 
ing I-4S7a; origin II-650a; 
present usage I-486b; in Rome 
II-422a; at Saintes IX-6d 

Angelus (Millet) X-311c; (ill.) 
X-facing 312 

— periodical. Cincinnati XI-695a 

Angelus, Saint, feast, Carmelite 
Rite XIII-74a 

— See Mason, Richard Angelus a 
S. Francisco 

—grandfather of Isaac II III- 

— Isaac, Notitia Episcopatuum 

—BELL I-487d; midday ringing 
III-187b: St. Mark's convent, 
Florence (ill.) I-488a 

— Cerletus. See Angelo Carletti 
di Chivasso 

— de Mattia, Franciscan XIV- 

—Francis of St. Teresa XV- 

— of Chivasso. See Angelo Car- 
letti di Chivasso 

— of St. Joseph, martvr III- 
36.5b: VIII-107b 

.522c; Xin-.525d 

Angennes de Rambouillet, 
Claude d'. Bishop of Le Mans 

ANGER I-4S9a; 656c; XI- 
.534c: XIV-61(ia: Aristotle's 
teaching A'I-148b; character 
III-585C; as sin XIV-5C 

Roman numeral indicates volume; arable, page; a, b, c, d, quarter of page. 


Aneeriacum, monastery IX-Gd 

abbev I-7-iod; Il-lo-ib; cathe- 
dral I-489c; IV-541b 

—Congresn: Catholic (1S87) IV- 
246a; (1908) IV-246b; Euchar- 
iatic(1901) V-593b 

—Councils of (453) X\-2'lb: 
(455) XII-751b; (1062) V-61/a 

—Easter custom V-227d; formu- 
laries VI-142b; House of Good 
Shepherd VI-648a; Our Lady 
of Calvary Convent m- 
191a; Plantagenets, tombs of 
I^89c; St. Laud's church II- 
509c; Sts. Sergius and Bacchus, 
church II-7S4b; Society of 
the Blessed Sacrament XIV- 


198a . 

Anges, France, pilgrimage Xll- 

Anghiera, Peter Martyr d'. bee 

Martyr d'Anghiera, Peter 
Angilbe'rga, queen, foundation 

VII-(j25a; IX-92C 

— n. Bishop of Milan I-386c 

AngUram, Bishop of Metz X- 
24Sb; Capitula II-106C; III- 
310b ,,^,^ 

Angiolieri, Cecco, poet Vlll- 


Angiolo da Orvieto \ II-o5d 
Angiosperms XI^12a; in Cre- 
taceous era V-064b 
Angitia, deity IX-718d 
Angkor Wat, temple of VII-773a 
Anglade, Francis, at Maynooth 

X-89a , ^.,„ 

Angles, in Britain I-50od; XIII- 
497d; conversion of XV-584a; 
early I-S05b; evangelization 
of III-175a; VI-781d; in 
Scotland XIII-614b; in Wales 
— Joseph, Scotist XIII-612C 
ORY OF I-4',i(ld 
Anglesola, Raimundo de. Bishop 

of Vich XV-4or>b 
Anglet, religious congregations 

445b; absolution I-66c; ad- 
vertisements. Book of I-167b; 
Allies' works on I-324b; V- 
445b; AngUcan revival I-504a; 
archbishops I-692a; archdea- 
cons I-694b; Arches, Court of 
I-695a; and Athanasian Creed 
II-35a; Athens VI-743C; Aus- 
tralia II-116b; 118a; baptism 
IV-479b; beliefs I^99c; bene- 
fices I-170a; Biblical inspira- 
tion VIII-49C; St. Birinus 
II-57Sb; and Bohemian Breth- 
ren II-617d; 619c; Book of 
Common Prayer II-678d; 
Branch Theory III-7o8a; XI- 
403c; and Bucer III-26b; and 
Calvin III-197d; at Cambridge 
III-215c; in Canada III-241b; 
XII-595a; canon law XIII- 
652a; canons III-253b; cate- 
chism V-79b; and Catholicity 
III-151b; and Catholic Truth 
Society XV-78a: in Ceylon III- 
550b; chancel III-572c; Chris- 
tian Knowledge, Society for 
Promoting III-720C; Church, 
definition III-759a; clergj', con- 
vocation of IV-348b; clerical 
disability V— 457a; Communion 
service X-353b: Xin-68b; 
comprehensiveness V-143a; on 
concupiscence IV-20SC; con- 
fession XI-633d: XIII-G54a; 
confirmation IV-222b; con- 
gresses XV-149d; continuity 
claim I-504b; e42b; III- 
757a; V-439b; Creed IV-479b; 
crosier, armorial use VII-246d; 
crosses IV-537d; deacons IV- 
651b; deaconesses IV-6.52d; 
deans IV-660b; deutero-canon- 
ical books nl-273d; develop- 
ment and parties I-503b; divi- 
sions XV-144a; in Dublin 
V-174d; education xni-572a: 
encyclicals V-414b; Establish- 


ment V-548c; Eucharist V- 
574b; X-6d; extreme unction 
V-717a; faith, rule of V-768a; 
formularies I-501b; 501c; 501d; 
S03a; foundation I-oOOc; 
VII-224b; XII-708d; govern- 
ment I-499d; XII-.392d; and 
Greek Church VI-770d; 771a; 
heraldry VII-244a; hierarchy 
VII-325c; history, early I- 
501b; in Honduras Vll^SOd; 
host, Eucharistic VII-490b; 
images VII-670b; in India 
VII-728C; 733a; infalUbility, 
conciliar VII-796a; infalUbi- 
lity, oecumenical VII-791b; 
intercession of saints VIII- 
71c; in Ireland I-113b; 322a: 
V-174d; in Jamaica MII- 
273d; in Japan VIII-309b; at 
Jerusalem VIII-371b; judicial 
committee I-SOOd; in Liberia 
XIII-783a; liturgical changes 
XIII-6Sa; Low Church I- 
499b; IX-399b; Magmficat 
— Marriage II-257C; banns of 
II-257C; ritual IX-704b; ser- 
vice V-146a 
—in Marviand II-22Sb; minister 
X-326b; mitre, in heraldry 
(ill.) VII-246a; in Newfound- 
land X-782C; non-jurors XI- 
99b; Office, Divine, Creed IV- 
479c; Orders I-491a; XII- 
775b; Oxford Movement I- 
503d; V-454c; XI-370a; papal 
supremacy controversy XII- 
261d; in Paris XI-491a; pass- 
ing bell II-i21d; precentor 
XII-372b; present position 
I-504c; Pusey and Puseyiem 
XII-582b; and pre-Reforma- 
tion period I-499d; and re- 
union IV-699c; XV-147c; 
149a; 149b; 314c; reWval I- 
504b; Ritualists XIII-90b; 
Roval supremacy I-499c; 
.500a- 500d; XI 1-7 13d; sacra- 
ments II-680c; XIII-297b; 
301c; in Scotland I-692d; 
XIII-68b; seal of confession 
XIII-651d; statistics I^99a; 
499b: temperance work XIV- 
483d; tithe XIV-742a; United 
States XII^93d: unity, no- 
tion of XV-149b; 180a; and 
Utraquism XV-244d; vest- 
ments XV-390d: via media 
XIII-532c; Virgin Mary, de- 
votion to XV-462d; visibility 
III-754b; Wales XV-537a 
Barlow I-494d; Bonner II- 
676b; controversy, history of 
I^93a; Courayer I^94b; de- 
fects I-497c; under Edward 
VI I^92b; Edwardine Ordinal 
I_494c; under Elizabeth I- 
492b; form I-495b; intention 
I-495d; Leo XIII I-496b; 
497d- 498b; 49Sc; 644c; IX- 
171b; Nag's Head story I- 
493b; non-jurors XI-99b; or- 
dinals. Catholic I-491b; ordi- 
nation, form I^92a; ongin 
I-491d; Parker I-492c; refor- 
mation 1-49 lb; reordination 
I-492d; XII-755b; validity 
I^92d: Cardinal Vaughan 
XV-590a; works, modern I- 
404c ^, 

Anglicus, Thomas. Sfe Thomas 

l-,504d; XI-673a; 673b 

Angloardus, Abbot of Priim XII- 

Anglo-Chinese Convention (of 
1S90). Tibet XIV-720a 

Anglo-Continental Society VI- 

Anglo-Lusitano, periodical VII- 


OF I -Slid 
Anglo-Saxon, script XI-407b 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, facsimile 

-■• ■7d; l.urius. letter of I- 




.505b; abbesses I-Sd; abbots 
I-19d; administration IV- 
fi62d; St. Ailrian of Canterbury 
I-160C; under Alfred the Great 
I-607a; Apostolico; Sedis. Bull 

XV-314d; and authority, secu- 
lar I-o07a; autocephali I-142d; 
Baccanceld. Synod of II-189c; 
Bewcastle Cross (ills.) I-facing 
508; 510a; bishoprics I-505c; 
508b; bishops' oath V-555c; 
Bradford church (ill.) 1-507; 
calendars in-163b; 164d; 
canons III-284c; canonical in- 
stitute III-292a; catechetical 
instruction V-78b; celibacy, 
clerical III-486c; and Celtic 
Church I-493b; 506c; ceme- 
teries III-507a; 508a; chal- 
ices III-562d; clergy I-508d; 
communion of saints IV-173a; 
conversion I-505d; courts I- 
S02c; crosses (ill.) I-facing 
SIO; 510a; crosses, consecra- 
tion IV-535d; St. Cuthbert's 
Gospel (ill.) I-510d; 511; under 
Danish dynasty I-507c; dean 
IV-659C; diocese I-169a; Eas- 
ter V-229b; St. Dunstan, rule 
of V-199a; ecclesiastical ob- 
servances I-509b; embroidery 
V-252a; funeral dues VI-321a; 
last rites IV-662d; Lent I- 
314c; XII-5S9a; literature and 
art I-511d; liturgy I-olOb; 
IX-311b; 312a; marriage IX- 
706b; menologium IIl-164a; 
X-192c; missions I-510c; mo- 
nastic reform I-507b; monas- 
teries I-508C; organization I-- 
507c; parishes I-507d; paschal 
tables l-532a; penance I-5()?b; 
penitential system I-62d; XI- 
632d; Peterspence I-509d; XI- 
774a; prayer for the dead I- 
509c; ritual I-510b; Roman 
authority I-506b; sacramental 
system I-510a; saints, venera- 
tion of I-510b; and Scandinavia 
I-126d; stone church II^41d; 
Sunday XIV-336b; tithes I- 
509c; and Welsh Church X\- 

Anglo-Saxons, in Britain I-505b; 
and Rome I-642d; saints, royal 
I-642d; in Scotland XIII-613C 

Anglus, Thomas. See Thomas 
of Jorz; White, Thomas 

Angnolo, Donato d". See Bra- 
manti*. Donato 

CESE OF I-512d; X1I-305C; 
Barreira II-308d; map I-facmg 
ISO; missions I-lS9b; Prot- 
estant missions I-lS8a 

Angoni, tribe Xin-25d 

Angontenc, Huron town VII- 

Angora (Ancyra), town I-464d; 
battle (1402) I-513a; 785c; 
III-113a; IV-305a 
— DIOCESE OF I-513a: Ar- 
menian school I-739d; statis- 
tics I-791C 

513b; IX-263C 
—Cathedral (ill.) 1-512; domes 

V-lOlb; vaulting V-262C 
— Eucharistic congress y-593c; 
Lazarist seminarj' X-361C; 
map VI-188 
• — Margaret d', Duchess of Berry 

lll-196a ^ 

— Marie-ThSrese-Charlotte, Du- 

chesse d' IX-6G6b 
Angoumois, province XII— 4c; 

churches I-513c 
— Philippe d', Compagnie du 

Saint-Sacrement IV-184a 
Angourous, tribe XIII-759b 
Il-lliSc; cathedral II-169a; 
map XIV-200^ 
Angrians. See Engern 
Angro-Mainyu. .s'lf Ahriman 
Angstrom, Anders Jons, astron- 
omer II-2Sd 
Anguanis, Michael de, Carmel- 
ite III-.3.59d . . , 
Anguilla, island, ecclesiastical 

government XIII-191C 
Anguillara, family, Rome XIII- 

17tid; palace Xni-17C.d 
— Francesco, coins X-334b 
Anguiscen, Pierre d'. Bishop of 

Montefiascnne X-529a 
Angulo, Gonzalo de, bishop XV- 

—PEDRO 1 .11 3d 
Angus, King of the Picts, founda- 

— Archibald Douglas, sixth Earl 

of II-374a 
— William Douglas, tenth Earl of 

Angweyn, mission VIII-672C 
Anhalt, John of. See John of 

— Margaretha von, princess X- 


513d; map VI-.il4; under Prop- 
aganda XII-457b 
Anher, deity V-344d 
Ani, Armenia, fortress II-293c; 

destroyed Ill-llOd 
Aniago, college X-012d 
Anian, Bishop of Bangor II-250a 
— I, Bishop of St. Asaph XIII- 

333a ^.,„ 

— n. Bishop of St. Asaph XIII- 

Aniane, abbey II-467b; IX-473a; 

X-546C: XIV-5Sd 
Anianus, Patriarch of Alexandria. 

See Annianus 
—Saint, Bishop of Chartres III- 

^Saint, Bishop of Orleans. See 

Anibarro, Manuel Martinez III- 

614b; Xll-273a; chronology I- 
446d; IV-13d; identity VII- 
194d; and St, Polycarp XII- 
220b; Te Deum XIV-469d 
Anician library in-145d 
Anicium (Le Puy) IX-186a 
Anidha, liturgical book IX-303C; 

An'Ua, Bishop of T(iy XV-105b 

Anima, hospital IV-789d 

THE, Home I-514c; XIII- 

— CHRISTI I-515C; II-50oa 

Animal food, Albigenses I-268b; 

— magnetism, Mesmer on Vll- 
605a; and Spiritism XIV-222b 

Animals, Alaskan mythologj- 1- 
249a; anatomy I-457d; Aris- 
totle II-572d; in Ark IV-zOSb; 
Balmes' theory II-225d; bless- 
ing of Il-OOlb; Brahmimsm II- 
731c; Buddhist teaching I- 
77'd- III-30C; Byzantine dia- 
logues III-119c; Caddo In- 
dians III-129b; Cartesian the- 
ory XIV-156b; Condillac on 
IV-210d; consciousness in I- 
449b; cruelty to IV-542a; dis- 
section of I-458a: holocausts 
VII-396c; instinct VIII-51a; 
Jainism VIII-270c; Lamarck 
on V-656b; and man I-lSOc; 
mind X-321j; nutritive in- 
stinct I-SOOc; offspring of, as 
Eropertv I-9od ; organisms, 
chwann XIII-592d; and rea- 
son VIlI-66d; XII-675b; re- 
demption of XII-6S2a; sacred 
XI-377d; souls of. Aristotle I- 
716c; sufferings of V-649c; in 
symbolism I-516c; in Totem- 
ism XIV-790C; unclean I-67d; 
72a; llSd; vivisection XV- 
494d; 495a „„ „„„ 

—worMp 0/ I-132b; VII-638a; 
XIV-339d; Egyptian V-344a; 
XI-3SSb; among Mazatec In- 
dians X-93d; nature of X- 
717b; and Totemism XIV- 
7S9d; Vedistic II-731a 
— Zoroastrian teaching II-15_4a 
— Four incorporeal. Feasts XVI- 

bestiaries II-529d; Christ 
preaching (ill.) III-99a; C^Tene 

tion XIII-332b 

„„,„ (ill.) I-. .- 

144c- Gothic period I-5I6C 
—IN THE BIBLE I-517a: Addai 
I-517d; Adder I-517d; Ant 
I-517d; Antelope I-517d; Ape 
I-517d: Asp I-517d; Ass I- 
51Sa;.\ss'scolt I-51Sc:.^ttacua 
I-518d; Aurochs I-51Sd; Bab- 
oon I-519a; Badger I-519a: 
526a; Bald-locust I-51Sd; Barn- 
owl I-523d; Basilisk li'lfla: 
Bat I-519b; Bear I-.;)19b; 
Bearded-vulture I-.523C; Bear- 
rat l-r,2M: Bee l-519b; Beetle 
I-519c; Behemoth I-524a; Bird 
I-519d; Birds of prey I-523a; 

type indicates titles of articles; other tj-pea, topics treated; (ill.) = illustrations. 


Bison I-519d; Bittern I-519d; 
Blast I-519d; Blindworni I- 
525a: Bruchus l-520a; Bubale 
I-517d; Buffalo I-o2Ua; Buffle 
I-520a: Bull I-51Sd: Bullock 
I-51Sd; Buzzard I-a20a; Cat 
I-520b; Camel I-S20b; Camel- 
opardalus I-520b; .^Canker- 
worm I-520C; Cat I-o20c: Cat- 
erpillar I-526d; Cattle I-520C, 
Centipede I-526d: Cerastes 1- 
518a; Chameleon 1-a.uc, 
Chamois I-520b; Charadnon 
I-520d; CherogriUus I-520a, 
classification I-517b; Cobra 1- 
518a; Cochineal I-520d; Cock 
I-521a; Cockatrice l-a2la; 
Colt 1-52 la: Coney I-o20d: 
Coral I-521a; Cormorant 1- 
519d; Cow I-521b; Crane I- 
521b; Cricket I-519d; 521b, 
625a; Crocodile I-521b; Cuckoo 
I-521b; Daman I-520d; Deer 
I-521c: Demons I-521C; De\Tl3 
I-521C; Dipsas I-521c; Dog I- 
521c; Dog-fly I-522d; Donkey 
I-51Sa: Dormice I-o25b; Uove 
I-521d; Dragons I-519b; Drom- 
edary I-522a: Dugong I- 
S19a; Dyed-bird I-159d; Lagle 
I-522a- Eagle-owl I-524b; 
Eg5-ptian vulture I-523b; Ele- 
phant I-522b; Ericms I-o—b, 
Ewe I-522c; Falcon 1-522C, 
Fallow-deer I-522c; Faun I- 
522c: Fig-faun I-o22d; F ea 1- 
522d; Flock I-522d; Fly I- 
522d; Fowl I-523a: Fox I- 
523a: Francolin I-525c: Frog 
I-523a: Gad-flies I-623a: Ga- 
Klle I-517d; 523b; Gecko I- 
5''3b- Gier-eagle I-523b; Gi- 
raffe' I-520b: Glede I-520a; 
Gnat I-523a; Goats I-522d, 
Grasshopper l-523c; Griffon I- 
523c; Griffon-vulture I-523C, 
Grype I-523c; Haje I-523d, 
Hamsters I-525b: Hare I- 
523d: Hart I-523b; Hawk I- 
523d: Hedgehog I-522b; Hen 
I-521a; Heron I-520d: 523d; 
Hind I-521c: Hippopotamus 
I-5l9c; Hobby I-524a; Hoo- 
poe I-524a: Hornet I'^-if- 
Horse I-524a; Horse-leech I- 
524d; Houp I-524a; House-fly 
I-523a; Hyena I-519d; Ibex I- 
624b: Ibis I-524b: Ichneumon 
I-524b; Irchin I-524b; Jackal 
I-522a; Jay I-525d: Jerboa I- 
624c: Kestrel I-524c; Kid I- 
524c; Kine I-524c; Kite I- 
520a; 524c; Lamb I-524c; La- 
mia I-524c: Lammergeyer I- 
624c; Landmonitor I-520d: 
Lapwing I-524b; Larus I-o24d; 
Leopard I-524d; Leviathan 1- 
522a; Lion I-524d: Lizard I- 
620d; 525a; Locust 1-518(1; 
525a; Louse I-525a: ^Iagpl6 
I-525d; Merlin I-523d; Mil- 
dew I-525a: Mole I-52oa: 
r.lole-rat I-525a; Monitor 1- 
525a; Mosquito I-52ob: Moth 
I-525a ; Mouflon I-520C; Mouse 
I-525b: Mule I-625b; Night- 
hawk I-523d; Night-raven 1- 
526a: Ophiomachus l-o2oD; 
Oryx I-517d: Osprey J-g^b; 
Ostrich I-525b: Owl I-523d; 
Palmerworm I-520c; Partndge 
I-525c: Peacock l-525c; Peli- 
can I-519d; Pharao's Hen I- 
623b; Phoenix I-525c: Plunger 
I-525a; Pigeons I-521d; Pole- 
cat I-526c; Porcupine I-p2oc; 
Porphyrion I-525c; Porpoise 1- 
522a; Poultry I-521a; Plgarf 
I-517d- Quail I-525d: Rabbit 
I-520d: 525d: Rats I-S25b; 
Raven I-525d; Rhinoceros 1- 
518d; Ringtail I-526a; Rock- 
doves I-521d; Roe I-517d; Roe- 
buck I-517d; Sand-grouse I- 
525c; Satyr I-526a: Scarlet I- 
526a: Sciniph I-526a: Scor- 
pion I-526a; Scytale I-ol8«: 
Sea-gulls I-521b: Seal I-ol9a; 
Sea-monster I-524d: Serpents 
I-517d: Shear-water I-o21b; 
Sheep I-522c; Shrew I-526a; 
Bhrew-mouse I-523b; Singing- 
bird I-519d; Siren I-o2f.a; 
Snail I-52Cb: Snake I-51/d; 
Sparrow I-526b: Sparrow-hawk 
I-523d: Spcckled-bird l-519d; 

Spider I-526b: Stellio I-525a: 
Stork I-524a; 526b; Swallow 
l-521b: 526b: Swan I-o2oc: 
Swine I-526c; Thrush I-526a: 
Tiger I-526c; Turtle-dove 1- 
521d; Unicorn I-518d; Viper I- 
61Sa: Vulture I-526c: Wasps 
I-524a: Water-hen I-526c: 
Weasel I-526c; Whale I-526c: 
Wild-ass I-518c: Wild-beast 1- 
519b; Wild-boar I-520a: Wijd- 
goat I-517d: Wild Ox I-51/d;