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Full text of "The Catholic encyclopedia; an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic Church"

FEB 21 1997 



The Catholic Encyclopedia 



VOLUME ELEVEN 
New Mexico-Philip 



THE CATHOLIC 
ENCYCLOPEDIA 



AN INTERNATIONAL WORK OF REFERENCE 

ON THE CONSTITUTION, DOCTRINE, 

DISCIPLINE, AND HISTORY OF THE 

CATHOLIC CHURCH 



EDITED BY 

CHARLES G. HERBERMANN, Ph.D., LL.D. 

EDWARD A. PACE, Ph.D., D.D. CONDE B. PALLEN, Ph.D., LL.D. 

THOMAS J. SHAHAN, D.D. JOHN J. WYNNE, S.J. 

ASSISTED BY NUMEROUS COLLABORATORS 



FIFTEEN VOLUMES AND INDEX 
VOLUME XI 

SPECIAL EDITION 

UNDER THE AUSPICES OF 

THE KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS CATHOLIC TRUTH COMMITTEE 




mew 13orf? 
THE ENCYCLOPEDIA PRESS, INC. 



Nihil Obstat. February 1, 1911 
REMY LAFORT, S.T.D. 



Imprimatur 

+JOHN CARDINAL FARLEY 

ARCHBISHOP OF NEW TORE 



Copyright, 1911 
By Robert Appleton Company 

Copyright, 1913 
By the encyclopedia PRESS, INC. 

The articles in this work have been written specially for The Catholio 
Encyclopedia and are protected by copyright. All rights, includ- 
ing the right of translation and reproduction, are reserved. 




Contributors to the Eleventh Volume 



AHAUS, HUBERT, S.T.D., Ph.D., St. Joseph's BARRY, WILLIAM CANON, S.T.D., Leamington, 
College, Mill Hill, London: Orders, Holy. England: Oxford Movement; Parables. 



AHERNE, CORNELIUS, Rector, Professor of 
New Testament Exegesis, St. Joseph's Col- 
lege, Mill Hill, London: Pasch or Passover. 

AHERNE, JAMES, South Omaha, Nebraska: 
Omaha, Diocese of. 

ALDASY, ANTAL, Ph.D., Archivist of the Li- 
brary OF THE National Museum, Budapest: 
Oldh, Nicolaus. 

ALL.ARIA, ANTHONY, C.R.L., S.T.D., Abbot op 
S. Teodoro, Lector of Philosophy and Theol- 
ogy, Genoa: Peter de Honestis; Peter Fourier, 
Saint; Peter Nolasco, Saint; Peter of Arbues, 
Saint; Peter of Verona, Saint. 

ALMOND, JOSEPH CUTHBERT. O.S.B., Supe- 
rior of Parker's Hall, Oxford: Oates's Plot; 
Oblati; Olivetans. 

AMADO, RaMON RUIZ, S.J., LL.D., Ph.L., Col- 
lege of St. Ignatius, Sarria, Barcelona: 
Orense, Dincese of; Orihuela, Diocese of; Osma, 
Diocese of; Oviedo, Diocese of; Palencia, Diocese 
and University of; Pamplona, Diocese of. 

ANGLIN, HON. FRANCIS ALEXANDER, K.C., 
Puisne Judge, Supreme Court op Canada, 
Ottawa: Ontario. 

AREXDZEN, J. P., Ph.D., S.T.D., M.A. (C-intab.), 
Profe.ssor of iSacred Scripture, St. Edmund's 
College, Ware, England: Occult Art, Occult- 
ism. 

ATTERIDGE, ANDREW HILLIARD, London: 
Periodical Literature, Catholic, England. 

AUGUSTINE, FATHER, O.S.F.C, Franciscan 
Capuchin Monastery, Dublin: Nugent, Fran- 
cis. 

AUSTIN, SISTER MARY STANISLAUS, St. 
Catharine's Convent op Mercy, New York: 
O'Reilly, Hugh. 

AVELING, FRANCIS, S.T.D., London: Phenom- 
enalism. 

BACCHUS, FRANCIS JOSEPH, B.A., The Ora- 
tory, Birmingham, England: Pachomius, Saint; 
Pammaehius, Saint; Pamphilius of Cacsarea, 
Saint; Pantsnus; Paul the Hermit, Saint; Paul 
the Simple, Saint; Peter of Alexandria, Saint; 
Philastrius, Saint. 

BANDELIER, AD. F., Hispanic Society of Amer- 
ica, New York: Pedro de Cordova. 

BANGHA, ADALBERT V., S.J., Member of the 
Catholic Philosophical Society of Thomas 
Aquinas (Budapest), Innsbruck, Austria: 
Pdzmdny, Peter. 

BARNES, Mgr. ARTHUR STAPYLTON, M.A. 
(,OxoN. AND Cantab.), Cambridge, England: 
Passion of Jesus Christ in the Four Gospels. 

BARRETT, MICHAEL, O.S.B., Buckie, Scotland: 
Ogilvie, John, Venerable. 



BAUMBERGER, GEORG, Knight of the Order 
OF St. Sylvester, Editor-in-Chief, "Neue 
ZtJRicHER J^achrichten", Zurich: Periodical 
Literature, Catholic, Switzerland. 

BAUMGARTEN, Mgr. PAUL MARIA, J.U.D.. 
S.T.D., Rome: Old Catholics. 

BECHTEL, FLORENTINE, S.J., Professor op 
Hebrew and Sacred Scripture, St. Louis 
University, St. Louis: Noe; Paralipomenon, 
The Books of; Pharao. 

BENIGNI, Mgr. UMBERTO, Prothonotary 
Apostolic Partecipante, Professor op 
EccLESi ASTiCAL History, Pontificia Ace ADEMi A 
DEI NoBiLi Ecclesiastici, Rome: Nicastro; 
Nicosia; NicoteraandTropea, Diocese of; Nocera, 
Diocese of; Nocera dei Pagani, Diocese of; Nola, 
Diocese of; Non Expedit; Norcia, Diocese of; 
Noto, Dioc&se of; Novara, Diocese of; Nusco, 
Diocese of; Ogliastra, Diocese of; Oppido Mamer- 
tina. Diocese of; Oria, Diocese of; Oristano, Dio- 
cese of; Orvieto, Diocese of; Osimo, Diocese of; 
Ostia and Velletri, Diocese of; Otranto, Arch- 
diocese of; Pacca, Bartoloinmeo ; Padua, Diocese 
and University of; Pagano, Mario; Palermo, 
Archdiocese and University of; Palestrina, Dio- 
cese of; Parma, Diocese of; Paruta, Paolo; 
Passaglia, Carlo; Passionei, Domenico; Patti, 
Diocese of; Pavia, Diocese and University of; 
Penne and Atri, Diocese of; Periodical Literature, 
Catholic, Italy; Perugia, Archdiocese of; Pesaro, 
Diocese of; Pescia, Diocese of. 

BERTRIN, GEORGES, Litt.D., Fellow of the 
University', Professor of French Litera- 
ture, Institut Catholique, Paris: Olivier de 
la Marche; Ozanam, Antoine-Fr(5d(Sric. 

BEWERUNGE, H., Professor of Church Music, 
Maynooth College, Dublin : Organ. 

BIHL, MICHAEL, O.F.M., Lector op Ecclesiasti- 
cal History, Collegio San Bonaventura, 
QuARACCHi, Florence: Orbellis, Nicolas d'; 
Pacificus of Ceredano; Pacificus of San Severino, 

Saint. 

BLANC, JOSEPH, S.M., Nukualofa, Tonga 
Islands: Oceania, Vicariate Apostolic of. 

BLANCHIN, F., O.M.I., S.T.D., Oblate Scholas- 
ticate, Ottawa, Canada: Oblates of Mary 
Immaculate. 

BLENK, JAMES H., S.M., S.T.D., Archbishop op 
New Orleans, Louisiana: Penalver y Cardenas, 
Louis. 

BOUDINHON,AUGUSTE-MARIE,S.T.D.,D.C.L., 
Director, "Canoniste Contemporain", Pro- 
fessor OF Canon Law, Institut Catholique, 
Paris: Nomination; Nomocanon; Notaries; 
Notoriety, Notorious; Ordinariate; Ordinary; 
Parish; Parochial Mass; Penitential Canons. 

BOWDEN, HENRY SEBASTIAN, The Oratory, 
London: Oratory of St. Philip Neri, The. 



CONTUIHUTOUS TO THE ELEVENTH VOLUME 



BRAUN, JOSEPH, S.J., St. Ic.natius College, 
Valkenuuku, Holland: Pallium; Pectorale. - 

BRAlXSnEHGER, OTTO, S.J., St. Ignatius Col- 
lege, A'alkenbuuo, Holland: Peter Canisius, 
Blessed. 

BRfiHIER, LOUIS-RENfi, Professor op Ancient 
AND Medieval History, University of 
Clermont-Ferhand, Pi'y-dk-Dome, France: 
Nogaret, Guillauine dc; Pnlirofjntphy; Pastou- 
roaux, Crusade of the; Peter do Blois; Peter the 
Hermit. 

BREXNAX, M. H., Devil's Lake, North Dakota: 
North Dakota. 

BRIDGE, JAMES, S.J., M.A. (Oxon.), Liverpool, 
England: Xorris, Sylvester; Persecution. 

BROWN, CHARLES FRANCIS WEMYSS, Locn- 
ton Castle, Perthshire, Scotland: Perugia, 
University of. 

BRUCKER, JOSEPH, S.J., Editor op "Etudes", 
Paris: Parrenin, Dominique. 

BRUNAULT, J. S. HERMANN, S.T.D., Bishop of 
Nicolet, Province op Quebec, Canada: 
Nicolet, Diocese of. 

BRUXET, FRANCIS XAVIER, Vice-Chancellor, 
Archdiocese of Ottawa, Canada: Ottawa, 
Archdiocese of. 

BLTITON, EDWIN, S.T.D., F.R.Hist.Soc, Vice- 
President, St. Edmund's College, Ware, 
England: Nicholson, Francis; Noble, Daniel; 
Northcotc, James Spencer; Norwich, Ancient 
Diocese of ; Odo, Saint, Archbishop of Canter- 
burjs Ofifa, King of Mercia; Old Hall (St. Ed- 
mund's College); Oldham, Hugh; Palmer, Wil- 
liam; Pandulph; Panzani, Gregorio; Paulinus, 
Saint, Archbishop of York; Pecock, Reginald; 
Penal Laws, I. In England, II. In Scotland; 
Pendleton, Henry; Peyto, William. 

BYRNE, JEROME FRANCIS, Superior General, 
Brothers of St. Patrick, Tullow, Ireland: 
Patrician Brothers. 

CABROL, FERNAND, O.S.B., Abbot op St. 
Michael's, Farnborough, England: Nocturns; 
None; Occurrence; Octavarium Romanum; Oc- 
tave; Office, Divine; Office of the Dead; Pax in 
the Liturgy. 

CALfeS, JEAN, S.J., Professor of Old Testament 
Exegesis, Enghien, Belgium: Osee. 

CALLAN, CHARLES J., O.P., S.T.L., Professor 
OF Philosophy', Dominican House op Stud- 
ies, Washington: Orthodoxy. 

CAMERLYNCK, ACHILLE, S.T.D., Member op 
the"Soci£T6 Belge de Sociologie", Professor 
OF Sacred Scripture and Sociology, Episco- 
pal Seminary-, Bruges, Belgium: Philemon. 

CARROLL, JAMES J., S.T.D., Bishop of Nueva 
Segovia, Philippine Islands: Nueva Segovia, 
Diocese of. 

CASTETS, J., S.J., Professor of Philosophy and 
Political Science, St. Joseph's College, 
Trichinopoly, India: Nobili, Robert de'. 

CHAPMAN, JOHN, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), Prior, 
St. Thomas's Abbey, Erdington, Birmingham, 
England: Novatian and Novatianism; Optatus, 
Saint; Papias, Saint; Patrology; Paul of Samo- 
sata; Peregrinus. 



CHISHOLM, JOSEPH ANDREW, K.C, M.A., 
LL.B., Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nova Scotia. 

CLUGNET, JOSEPH-LfiON-TIBURCE, Litt.L., 
Bourg-la-Reine, Seine, France: Ouen, Saint; 
Perpetuus, Saint. 

CONWAY, KATHERINE ELEANOR, Boston: 
O'Reilly, John Boyle. 

COSSIO, ALUIGI, S.T.D., S.S.D., J.U.D., Bacca- 
laureus and Licentiatus of the University 
OF Padua, Rome: Paulinus II, Saint, Patriarch 
of Aquileia. 

CRAM, RALPH ADAMS, F.R.G.S., F.Am.Inst. 
Architects, President, Bo.ston Society of 
Architects, Boston: Niche; Palladio, Andrea. 

CRATIN, SISTER M. MAGDALEN, Baltimore, 
Maryland: Oblate Sisters of Providence. 

CRIVELLI, CAMILLUS, S.J., Professor op Gen- 
eral History, In.stituto CiENTfFico, City of 
Mexico: Periodical Literature, Catholic, Mexico. 

CROFT, Mgr. WILLIAM PROVOST, P.A., V.G., 
DiocESE OF Nottingham, Lincoln, England: 
Nottingham, Diocese of. 

CROFTON, K., New York: Parahyba, Diocese of. 

CRONIN, Mgr. CHARLES JOHN, S.T.D., Vice- 
Rector, English College, Rome: Petitions 
to the Holy See. 

CROW, FREDERICK AIDAN CANON, O.S.B., 
Llanishen, Cardiff, Wales: Newport, Diocese 
of. 

CUTHBERT, FATHER, O.S.F.C, Crawley, Sus- 
sex, England: Persico, Ignatius. 

D' ALTON, E. a., LL.D., M.R.I.A., Athenry, Ire- 
land: C'Connell, Daniel; O'Fihel}', Maurice; 
O'Hanlon, John; O'Neill, Hugh; O'Neill, Owen 
Roe; O'Reilly, Edmund; Ossory, Diocese of; 
O'SulIivan Beare, Philip; Penal Laws, III. In 
Ireland. 

DALY, JOSEPH J., S.J., Professor of English 
Literature, Ateneo de Manila, Philippine 
Islands: Nueva Cdccres, Diocese of. 

DEASY, JOHN A., M.A., LL.B., Cincinnati, 
Ohio: Ohio. 

DEDIEU, JOSEPH, LiTT.D., Institut Catholique, 
Toulouse, France: Peter of Auvergne; Peters- 
sen, Gerlac. 

DEGERT, ANTOINE, Litt.D., Editor, "La 
Revue de la Gascoigne", Professor of Latin 
Literature, Institut Catholique, France: 
Nicolas, Auguste; Noailles, Louis-Antoine de; 
Nonnotte, Claude-Adrien; Ossat, Arnaud d'. 

DELAMARRE, LOUIS N., Ph.D., Instructor in 
French, College op the City of New York: 
Nic6ron, Jean-Pierre; Paris, Alexis-Paulin; Paris, 
Gaston-Bruno-Paulin; Perrault, Charles. 

DELANY, JOSEPH, S.T.D., New York: Obedience; 
Occasions of Sin; Omission; Parents; Perjury. 

DEVINE, ARTHUR, C.P., St. Paul's Retreat, 
Mount Argus, Dublin: Passionists; Passionist 
Nuns; Passions; Paul of the Cross, Saint; Per- 
fection, Christian and Religious. 

DE WULF, MAURICE, Member of the Belgian 
Academy, Professor of Logic and Esthetics, 
University' op Loua'ain: Nominalism, Realism, 
Conceptualism. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ELEVENTH VOLUME 



DOUGLAS, ROBERT MARTIN, M.A., LL.D., 
Greensboro, North Carolina: North Carolina. 

DRISCOLL, JAMES F., S.T.D., New Rochelle, 
New York: Nicodemus; Ointment in Scrip- 
ture; Onias; Oriental Study and Research; 
Ozias; Patriarch; Pectoral; Pharisees. 

DRISCOLL, JOHN THOMAS, M.A., S.T.L., 
Fonda, New York: O'Callaghan, Edmund 
Baily. 

DRUM, WALTER, S.J., Professor op Hebrew 
AND Sacred Scripture, Woodstock College, 
Maryland: Parallelism; Patrizi, Francis Xavier; 
Paul of Burgos; Pereira, Benedict; Perrone, 
Giovanni; Pesch, Tilmann. 

D'SOUZA, ANTHONY XAVIER, Bombay, India: 

Passos (Santos Passes). 

DUBRAY, C. A., S.M., S.T.B., Ph.D., Professor 
OF Philosophy, Marlst College, Washing- 
ton: Nourrisson, Jean-FeH.\. 

DUHEM, PIERRE, Professor of Theoretical 
Physics, University- of Bordeaux: Orcsmc, 
Nicole. 

DUNN, JOSEPH, Ph.D., Professor of Celtic 

Languages and Literature, Catholic LIni- 
versity of .\merica, Washington: O'Braein, 
Tighernach; O'Growney, Eugene; O'Hussey, 
Maelbright. 

EGAN, ANDREW, O.F.M., Professor of Theol- 
ogy, The Friary, Forest Gate, London: 
Pecham, John. 

ENGELHARDT, ZEPHYRIN, O.F.M., Santa 
Barbara, California: Padilla, Juan de; Palou, 
Francisco; Pareja, Francisco; Payeras, Mariano; 
Perez, Juan. 

ESPINOSA, AURELIO MACEDONIO, M.A., 
Ph.D., Profes.sor of the Spanishuaengag L, 
Leland Stanford University, San Francisco, 
Californi.a.: New Mexico; Penitentes, Los 
Hermanos. 

EWING, JOHN GILLESPIE, M.A., New York: 
Newton, John. 

FANNING, WILLIAM H. W., S.J., Professor of 
Church History and Canon Law, St. Louis 
University, St. Louis: Obreption; Oratory; 
Papal Elections; Parish, In English Speaking 
Countries; Pension, Ecclesiastical. 

FENLON, JOHN F., S.S., S.T.D., President, St. 
Austin's College, Washington; Professor 
OF Sacred Scripture, St. Mary's Seminary, 
Baltimore: Olier, Jean-Jacques. 

FERET, p. canon, Saint-Maurice, France: 
Paris, University of. 

FISCHER, JOSEPH, S.J., Professor of Geogra- 
phy and History, Stella Matutina College, 
Feldkirch, Austria: Nicolaus Germanus; Orte- 
liu3 (Oertel), Abraham. 

FLAHERTY, MATTHEW J., M.A. (Harvard), 
Concord, Massachusetts: O'Meara, Kathleen. 

FLOOD, JAMES, New Norcia, Australia: New 
Norcia. 

FORD, JEREMIAH D. M., M.A., Ph.D., Profes- 
sor of the French and Spanish Languages, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts: Ojeda, Alonso de; Parini, Giuseppe; 
Pellico, Silvio; Petrarch, Francesco. 



FORGET, JACQUES, Professor of Dogmatic 
Theology and the Syriac and Arabic Lan- 
guages, University of Louvain: Nicole, 
Pierre. 

FORTESCUE, ADRIAN, Ph.D., S.T.D., Letch- 
worth, Hertfordshire, England: Nikon, 
Patriarch of Moscow; Nilus, Saint; Nilus the 
Younger; Nonnus; (Ecumenius; Offertory; Orate 
Fratres; Oremus; Orientius; Orsisius; Orthodo.\ 
Church; Orthodoxy, Feast of; Palladius; Patri- 
arch and Patriarchate; Paulicians; Peter Mon- 
gus. 

FOX, WILLIAM, B.Sc, M.E., Associate Profes- 
sor OF Physics, College of the City of New 
York: Nollet, Jean-Antoine; Palmieri, Luigi; 
Peuerbach, Georg von. 

FREELAND, JOHN, Bedford, England: North- 
ampton, Diocese of. 

FRERI, Mgr. JOSEPH, D.C.L., Director General 
IN THE L^nited States of the Society' for 
the Propagation of the Faith, New Y'ork: 
Peter-Louis-Marie Chanel, Blessed. 

FUENTES, VENTURA, B.A., M.D., Instructor, 
College of the City of New Y'ork: Perez de 
Hita, Gincs. 

GABRIELS, HENRY, S.T.D. (Louvain), Bishop 
of Ogdensburg, New York: Ogdcnsburg, 
Diocese of. 

GARESCHE, EDWARD FRANCIS, S.J., St. 
Louis LIniversity, St. Louis: Nicholas of 
Tolentino, Saint; Nicolas, Armella. 

GEDDES, LEONARD WILLIAM, S.J., St. Beu- 
No's College, St. Asaph, Wales: Person; 
Personality. 

GERARD, JOHN, S.J., F.L.S., London: Perry, 
Stephen Joseph. 

GEUDENS, FRANCIS MARTIN, C.R.P., Abbot 
Titular of Barlings, Corpus Christi Priory, 
M.\NCHESTER, Engl.ind: Norbert, Saint; Park, 
Abbey of the. 

GHELLINCK, JOSEPH DE, Professor of Pa- 
trology and Medieval Theological Liter- 
ature, Louvain: Petau, Denis; Peter Cantor; 
Peter Comestor; Peter Lombard. 

GIETMANN, GERARD, S.J., Teacher of Classi- 
cal Languages and ^Esthetics, St. Ignatius 
College, Valkenburg, Holland: Niessen- 
berger, Hans; Nimbus; Oppenordt, Giles-Marie; 
Orme, Philibert de 1'; Perrault, Claude; Peruzzi, 
Baldassare. 

GILLET, LOUIS, Paris: Painting, Religious; Peru- 
gino. 

GILLOW, EULOGIO GREGORIO, S.T.D., Arch- 
bishop of Oaxaca, Mexico: Oaxaca, Arch- 
diocese of. 

GLOUDEN, ATHANASE, Ph.D., Litt.D., Profes- 
sor OF LlTEH.\TURE, CoLL^GE St-MiCHEL, 

Editor, " Le Patriote", Brussels: Periodical 
Literature, Catholic, Belgium. 

GOYAU, GEORGES, Associate Editor, " Revue 
DES Deux Mondes", Paris: Nice, Diocese of; 
Nimes, Diocese of; Normandy; Odo, Bishop of 
Bayeux; Ollc-Laprune, L6on; Oran, Diocese of; 
Oriflamme ; Orleans, Councils of ; Orleans, Diocese 
of; Pamiers, Diocese of; Paris, Archdiocese of; 
P(?rigueux, Diocese of; Periodical Literature, 
Catholic, France; Perpignan, Diocese and Uni- 
versity of. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ELEVENTH VOLUME 



GRATTAX-KLOOD, W. H., iM.R.LA., iMus.D., 
llosKMoiNT, ENM.sroKTiiY, Ikki.and: O'Hanan, . 
Thouiiis; O'Loglili-n, Michael; O'Reilly, Mylcs 
William Patrick; Periodical Literature, Catholic, 
Ireland. 

GREY, P'RANCIS W.. LL.D., Ottawa, Canada: 
Ottawa, University of. 

HAGEX, JOHN C... S.J., Vatican Observatory, 
Rome: Nicholas of Cu.sa; Paul of Middelburg. 

HANDLKY, MARIE LOUISE. New York: Niccola 
Piisano; Nola, Giovanni Muiliano da. 

HANNA, EDWARD J., S.T.D., Professor of Dog- 
m.atic Theology and P.athology, St. Ber- 
nard's Se.minary, Rochester, N. Y.: Penance. 

H.\N8EN. NIELS, M..\., Copenhagen, Denmark: 
Olaf Haraldson, Saint. 

HARENT, STftPHANE, S.J., Professor of Dog- 
.M.\Tic Theology, Ore Place, Hastings, Eng- 
l.and: Original Sin. 

H.VRTIG, OTTO, As.sistant Librarian of the 
Royal Library, Munich: Nubia. 

HASSETT, Mgr. MAURICE M., S.T.D., Harris- 
burg, Pennsylvania: Orans; Orientation of 
Churches; Palm in Christian Symbohsm; Paph- 
nutius. 

HEALY, PATRICK J., S.T.D., Assistant Profes- 
sor of Church History, Catholic University 
OF America, Washington: Nicolaites; Para- 
bolani. 

HECKMANN, FERDINAND, O.F.M., Lector of 
Church History, Franciscan Monastery, 
W.\shington: Nicholas Pieck, Saint; Peter 
Baptist and Twenty-five Companions, Saints; 
Peter de Regalado, Saint. 

HENRY, H. T., Litt.D., Rector of Roman Cath- 
olic High School for Boys, Professor of 
English Liter.^ture and of Gregorian 
Chant, St. Charles Seminary, Overbrook, 
Pennsylvania: Nunc Dimittis; O Antiphons; 
O Deus Ego Amo Te; O Filii et Filia;; O Salu- 
taris Hostia; Range Lingua Gloriosi. 

HERBERT, JOHN ALEXANDER, Assistant in 
the Department of MSS., British Museum, 
London: Odo of Cheriton. 

HIGHLEY, MONT F., Assistant Attorney Gen- 
eral, Oklaho.ma City, Oklahoma: Oklahoma. 

HILGERS, JOSEPH, S.J., Rome: Novena. 

HOEBER, KARL, Ph.D., Editor, "Volkszeitung" 
AND "Akademlsche Monatsblatter", Co- 
logne: Otho, Marcus Salvias; Pertinax, Publius 
Hehaus; Pescennius Niger. 

HOFMANN, MICHAEL, S.J., Professor of 
Canon I,aw, University of Innsbruck, Aus- 
tria: Nille.s, Xikolaus. 

HOLWECK, FREDERICK G., St. Louis, Mis- 
souri: Our Lady, II('lp of Christians, Feast of; 
Paschal Tide; Passion of Christ, Commemora- 
tion of the. 

HUDLESTON, GILBERT ROGER, O.S.B., Down- 
side Abbey, Bath, England: Ninian, Saint; 
Obedientiaries; Odo of Cambrai, Bles.sed; 
Peterborough Abbey. 

HUGHE-S, JAMES, Liverpool, England: Nugent, 
James. 



HULL, ERNEST R., S.J., Editor, "The Exami- 
ner", Bombay, India: Par.sis (Parsees). 

HUNTER-BLAIR, SIR I). ()., Bart., O.S.B., M.A., 
Fort Augustus Abbey, Scotland: O.vford; 
Oxford, Uni\ersity of; Periodical Literature, 
Catholic, Scotland. 

HYDE, DOUGLAS, LL.D., Litt.D., M.R.I.A., 
Frenchpark, Co. Roscommon, Ireland: O'Car- 
olan, Torlogh; O'Conor, Charles; O'Curry, 
Eugene; O'Daly, Donogh Mor; O'Dugan, John. 

HYVERNAT, HENRY, S.T.D., Professor op 
Semitic Languages and Biblical Archeology, 
Catholic University of America, Washing- 
ton: Persecutions, Coptic. 

INGOLD, A. M. P., Director, " Revue d' Alsace", 
Colmar, Germany: Oratory, French Congre- 
gation of the. 

ISENRING, JOHN JAMES, O.S.F.S., Childs, 
Maryland: Oblates of St. Francis de Sales; 
Orange River, Vicariate ApostoUc of. 

JARRETT, BEDE, O.P., B.A., (Oxon.); S.T.L., 
St. Dominic's Priory, London: Papal Arbitra- 
tion. 

JIMfiNEZ, ENRIQUE, S.J., Lic.Sc, Professor op 
Mathematics, Instituto de Artes t Indus- 
trias, Madrid: Periodical Literature, Catholic, 
Spain. 

JONES, ARTHUR EDWARD, S.J., Correspond- 
ing Member of the Minnesota, Ontario, and 
Chicago Hlstorical Societies; Hon. Member 
OF THE Missouri Historical Society; Member 
OF THE International Congress of Ameri- 
canists; Archivist of St. Mary's College, 
Montreal: Petun Nation. 

JOYCE, GEORGE HAYWARD, S.J., M.A. 
(Oxon.), St. Beuno's College, St. Asaph, 
Wales: Papacy. 

JUNGUITO, F. X., Bishop of Panama: Panama, 
Republic and Diocese of. 

KAMPERS, FRANZ, Ph.D., Professor of Medie- 
val and Modern History, University op 
Breslau: Notker Physicus; Notker, nephew of 
Notker Physicus; Notker, Provost of St. Gall; 
Otto I; Otto II; Otto III; Otto IV; Pepin the 
Short; Peter de Vinea. 

KAUFMANN, CARL MARIA, Editor "For- 

SCHUNGEN ZUR MONUMENT. Th. UND VERGLEICH- 

enden Rel.-Wiss.", Frankfort-on-the-Main: 
Ostraka, Christian; Overbeck, Friedrich. 

KEILY, JARVIS, M.A., Grantwood, New Jersey: 
Penal Laws in the English Colonies in America. 

KELLY, BLANCHE M., New York: Norton, 
Christopher; Notre Dame de Sion, Congregation 
of. 

KELLY, JOSEPH IGNATIUS, Ph.D., LL.D., Late 
Professor of Law and Dean op the Law 
School, Louisiana State University, Chicago, 
Illinois: Pandects. 

KENNEDY, DANIEL J., O.P., S.T.M., Professor 
OF Sacramental Theology, Catholic Uni- 
versity of America, Washington: Ory, 
Matthieu; Paludanus, Peter; Pelargus, Ambrose: 
Peter of Bergamo. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ELEVENTH VOLUME 



KENNEDY, THOMAS, B.A. (National Univer- 
sity OF Ireland), London: New Pomerania, 
Vicariate Apostolic of; Osaka, Diocese of. 

KIRSCH, MoR. JOHANN P., S.T.D., Professor 
OF Patrology and Christian Archeology, 
University' of Fribourg: Nicephorus, Saint; 
Nicetas, Bishop of Remesiana; Nicetius, Saint, 
Bishop of Trier; Nicholas I, Saint, Pope; Nicome- 
des. Saint; Notitia Dignitatum; Notitia Pro- 
vinciarum et Civitatum Africae; Nuncio; Nuncia- 
ture Kc)ii)rts; Odilia, Saint; Oldoini, Augustino; 
Olyminas, Saint; Ordeals; Orosius, Paulus; Orsi, 
Giuseppr Agostino; Orsini; Palatini; Pallavicino, 
Pietro Sforza; Paschal I, Pope; Paul I, Pope; 
Pelagia; Peter, Saint; Peter of Sebaste, Saint; 
Peter Urseolus, Saint; Petronilla, Saint; Petron- 
ius, Saint; Petrus Bernardinus; Petrus de Natali- 
bus; Philip, Saint, Apostle. 

KRUITWAGEN, BONAVENTURE, O.F.M., Pro- 
fessor OF Ecclesiastical History, Convent 
OF the Friars Minor, Woerden, Holland: 
Periodical Literature, Catholic, Holland. 

LAPPIN, HENRY P. A., O.C.C, Carmelite Col- 
lege, Trendre, Ireland: Paoli, Angelo, Vener- 
able. 

LATASTE, JOSEPH, LiTT.D., Superior of the 
Seminary, Aire-sur-Adour, Landes, France: 
Pascal, Blaise; Pellissier, Guillaume; Perraud, 
Adolphe; Peter of Poitiers. 

LAUCHERT, FRIEDRICH, Ph.D., Aachen : Nihus, 
Barthold; Nikolaus von Dinkelsbiihl ; CEcolam- 
padius, Johann; Older, Aloys Karl; Pfefferkorn, 
Johannes; Pfister, Adolf; Philanthropinisin. 

LECLERCQ, HENRI, O.S.B., London: Nica;a, 
Councils of. 

LEJAY, PAUL, Fellow of the University of 
France, Professor, Institdt Catholique, 
Paris: Paulinus of Pella. 

LEROY, ALEXANDER A., C.SS.P., Bishop of 
Alinda, Superior General of the Congre- 
g.\tion of the Holy Ghost, Paris: Nigeria, 
Upper and Lower. 

LETANG, H. E., B.C.L., B.D., Pembroke, Prov- 
ince OF Ontario, Canada: Pembroke, Diocese 
of. 

LETELLIER, A., S.S.S., Superior, Fathers of the 
Blessed Sacrament, New York: Perpetual 
Adoration, Religious of the ; Perpetual Adoration, 
Sisters of the; Perpetual Adorers of the Blessed 
Sacrament. 

LINDSAY, LIONEL ST. GEORGE, B.Sc, Ph.D., 
Editor-in-Chief, "La Nouvelle France", 
Quebec: Peltrie, Madeleine de la; Periodical 
Literature, Catholic, Canada. 

LINEHAN, PAUL H., B.A., Instructor, College 
OF the City op New York: Nunez, Pedro; 
Ozanam, Jacques; Pacioli (Paciuolo), Lucas. 

LINS, JOSEPH, Freiburg, Germany: Nuremberg; 
Osnabriick, Diocese of; Paderborn, Diocese of; 
Palatinate, Rhenish; Passau, Diocese of. 

LOEHR, AUGUST OCTAV RITTER VON, Ph.D., 
Assistant Director, Imperial Collection 
OF Coins and Medals, Vienna: Numis- 
matics. 



LOFFLER, KLEMENS, Ph.D., Librarian, Uni- 
versity OF MtJNSTER: Notker, Balbulus; Not- 
ker, Labeo; Odilio, Saint; Odo, Saint, Abbot of 
Cluny; Ostrogoths; Otto, Saint; Overberg, 
Bernhard Heinrich; Pannartz, Arnold; Panta- 
leon. Saint; Paschasius, Saint; Paulinus, Saint, 
Bishop of Nola; Peasants, War of the; Periodi- 
cal Literature, Catholic, Germany; Pez, Bern- 
hard and Hieronymus; Pforta. 

♦LOUGHLIN, Mgr. JAMES F., S.T.D., Philadel- 
phia: Paschal II, Pope; Paul III; Paul IV, Paul 
V, Popes; Philadelphia, Archdiocese of. 

MAAS, A. J., S.J., Rector, Woodstock College, 
Maryland: Pentateuch. 

MacERLEAN, ANDREW A., New York: Northern 
Territory, Prefecture Apostolic of the; Nyassa, 
Vicariate Apostolic of; Olinda, Diocese of; 
Pasto, Diocese of; Pelotas, Diocese of; Perth, 
Diocese of. 

MacERLEAN, JOHN, S.J., Professor of Hebrew 
and Ecclesiastical History, Jesuit Scho- 
LASTicATE, MiLLTOWN Park, Dublin: O'Brua- 
dair, David. 

McGAHAN, FLORENCE RUDGE, M.A., Youngs- 
town, Ohio: Paulists; Penitential Orders; 
Penitents, Confraternities of. 

McGUIRE, EDWARD J., M.A., LL.B., New York: 
New York, State of. 

McHUGH, JOHN AMBROSE, O.P., S.T.D., Lector 
OF Philosophy, Dominican House of Studies, 
Washington: Omnipotence. 

McKENNA, CHARLES F., Ph.D. (Columbia), 
Vice-President, Catholic Home Bureau, 
New York: Orphans and Orphanages. 

McNEILL, CHARLES, Dublin: O'Brien, Terence 
Albert; O'Cullenan, Gelasius; O'Devany, Cor- 
nelius; O'Donnell, Edmund; O'Hely, Patrick; 
O'Herlahy, Thomas ; O'Hurley, Dermod; 
O'Queely, Malachias. 

MACPHERSON, EWAN, New York: Nicaragua, 
Republic and Diocese of. 

MacSHERRY, HUGH, Titular Bishop of Justini- 
anopolis. Vicar Apostolic of Eastern Dis- 
trict OF the Cape of Good Hope: Orange 
Free State. 

MacSWEENEY, PATRICK, M.A. (N.U.I.), Lec- 
turer in English, Maynooth College; 
Professor of Modern Literature, Holy 
Cross College, Clonliffe, Dublin: O'Dono- 
van, John. 

MAGNIER, JOHN, C.SS.R., London : Pas.serat, 
John, Venerable; Perpetual Succour, Our Lady 
of. 

MANN, HORACE K., Headmaster, St. Cuth- 
bert's Grammar School, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
England: Pelagius I, Pope; Pelagius II. 

MARIQUE, PIERRE JOSEPH, Instructor in 
French, College of the City of New York: 
Nothomb, Jean-Baptiste. 

MARSH, ERNEST, S.C, New York : Patagonia. 

MARTIN, CAROLINE L., Rel. of the Perpet^ 
UAL Ador., Washington: Perpetual Adoration, 
Religious of the. 

* Deceased. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THR ELRMONTII VOLUME 



MARTINDALE, CYRIL C, S.J., B.A. (Oxon.), 
OuK Place, Hastings, England: Oracle; 
Pnpanism. 

MARY JOSEPHINE, SISTER, Notre Dame Con- 
VKN'T, MiLWAVKEE, WISCONSIN: Notrc Dame, 
School Sisters of. 

MEEHAN, ANDREW B., S.T.D., J.U.D., Pro- 
KKssoR OF Canon Law and Liturcy, St. Ber- 
naud's Seminary, Rochester, New York: 
Pall; Pax. 

MEEHAN, THO\IAS F., New York: Oertcl. John 
James Maximilian; O'Hara, Theodore; O'Hig- 
gins, .Ambrose Bernard; O'Reilly, Bernard; 
O'Korkc. Patrick Ilenrj-; Parmenticr, .Vntoine- 
.Vugustin; Periodical Literature, Catholic, Uni- 
ted States; Peter, Sarah. 

MERSHMAN, FRANCIS, O.S.B., S.T.D., Profes- 
sor OK Moral Theology, Canon Law and 
I.iTi uc^v. St. John's College, Collegeville, 
-Minnesota: Otlilo; Otto of P:v,ssau; Palm Sun- 
day; P;uision Offices; Passion Sunday; Passion- 
tide; Patroniige of Our Lady, Feast of the; Peter 
Gonzales, Saint; Pflug, Julius von. 

MEYNELL, ALICE, London: Patmorc, Coventry. 

MIDDLETON, THOMAS COOKE, O.S.A., S.T.M., 
Lector in Philosophy, Villanov.\ College, 
Pennsylvania: Our Lady of Good Counsel, 
Feast of. 

MOLONEY, WILLIAM A., C.S.C, Notre Dame, 
Indiana: Notre Dame du Lac, University of. 

MOONEY, JAMES, L'nited St.\tes Ethnologist, 
BiREAC OF -American Ethnology, Washing- 
ton: Pakawd Indians; Pano Indians; Pdpago 
Indians ; Peba Indians ; Penelakut Indians ; 
Penobscot Indians ; Peoria Indians ; Pericui 
Indians. 

MOONEY', JOSEPH F., LL.D., Ph.D., Prothono- 
tary Apostolic, Vicar-General of the Arch- 
diocese OF New York: NewY^ork, Archdiocese 
of. 

MOORE, THOMAS V., C.S.P., St. Thomas Col- 
lege, Washington: Occasionalism; Optimism; 
Panpsychism. 

MORAN, PATRICK FRANCIS CARDINAL, 
.Vrchbishop of Sydney, Prim.\te op Austra- 
lia: Palladius, Saint; Patrick, Saint. 

MORENO-LACALLE, JULIAN, B.A., Editor, 
" Pan-.\merican Union", Washington: Para- 
guay; Peru. 

MULLALY, CHARLES, S.J., Tortosa, Spain: 
Oriol, Joseph, Saint. 

O'BOYLE, FRANCIS JOSEPH, S.J., St. Louis 
Unh-ersity, St. Louis: Omer, Saint. 

OBRECHT, EDMOND M., O.C.R., Abbot of 
Gethsemani, Kentucky: Obazine, Monastery 
of. 

O'CONNOR, JOHN B., O.P., St. Louis Bertrand's 
CoNVE.NT, Louisville, Kentucky: Nichohis of 
Gorran. 

O'CONNOR, RICHARD ALPHONSUS, S.T.D., 
Bishop of Peterborough, Province of 
Ontario, Canada: Peterborough, Diocese of. 

O'HAGAN, THOMAS, M.A., Ph.D., Chicago, 
Illinois: Pardons of Brittany. 



O'HARA, EDWIN V., Portland, Oregon: Oregon; 
Oregon City, Archdiocese of. 

OJETTI, BENEDETTO, S.J., Consitltor, S.C.P.F., 

CoNStlLTOR, S.C.C., CoNSULTOR OF THE COM- 
MISSION ON THE Codification of Canon Law, 
CiREcioRiAN University, Rome: Palniieri, Dom- 
eiiico. 

O'LEARY, EDWARD, M.R.I.A., Portahlington, 
Ireland: O'Lcarj-, Arthur. 

OLK^ER, LIVARIUS, O.F.M., Lector of Eccle- 
siastical History, Collegio S. Antonio, 
Rome: Nicholas of Osimo; Obregonians; Olivi, 
Pierre Jean; Pacificus; Panigarola, Francesco; 
Papini, Nicholas; Parkin.son, Anthony; Paulinus 
a St. Bartholoma-o; Peter of Aquila. 

OTT, MICHAEL, O.S.B., Ph.D., PnoFESisoR of 
THE History of Philosophy, St. John's Col- 
lege, Collegeville, Minnesota : Nicholas 
Justinani, Blessed; Nicholas of Fliie, Blcs.scd; 
Nicholiis of Myra, Saint; Nirschl, Joseph; No- 
nontola; Notburga, Saint; Odo of Glanfeuil; Oet- 
tingcn; Oil of Saints; Olesnicki, Zbigniew; Oliva; 
Orlandini, Niccolo; Orval; Othmar, Saint; Ot- 
tobeuren ; Our Lady of the Snow, Feast of; 
Pagi, Antoine; Palafox y Mcndoza, Juan de; 
Panvinio, Onofrio; Peter Cellensis; Peter Fullo; 
Petit-Didier, Matthieu. 

OTTEN, JOSEPH, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania: 
Okegheni, Jean d'; Oratorio; Palestrina, Gio- 
vanni Picrluigi da; Passion Music; Pergolesi, 
Giovanni Battista; Petrucci, Ottavio dei. 

OUSSANI, GABRIEL, Ph.D., Professor, Eccle- 
sia.stical History, Early Christian Liter.i- 
TURE, AND Biblical Arch.eology, St. Joseph's 
Seminary, Dunwoodie, New York: Persia. 

PACE, EDWARD A., Ph.D., S.T.D., Professor of 
Philosophy, Catholic University of Amer- 
ica, Washington: Pantheism. 

PALMIERI, AURELIO, O.S.A., S.T.D., Rome: 
Nihilism; Periodical Literature, Catholic, Poland. 

PARI, HECTOR, S.J., Ph.D., B.C.L., S.T.D., 
Professor of Canon Law, Woodstock Col- 
lege, Maryland: Pastor. 

PARKER, E. STANISLAUS ANSELM, O.S.B., 
M.A., Master of Parker's Hall, Oxford: 
Norfolk, Catholic Dukes of; Odo of Canterbury; 
Osbald; O.sbern; Osmund, Saint; Oswald, Saint, 
Archbishop of York; Oswald, Saint, King; 
Oswin, Saint; Owen, Nicholas. 

PARKINSON, HENRY, S.T.D., Ph.D., Rector, 
Oscott College, Birmingham, England: 
Oscott (St. Mary's College); Patron Saints. 

PARSONS, J. WILFRID, S.J., Boston: Oostacker, 
Shrine of. 

PfiREZ GOYENA, ANTONIO, S.J., Editor, 
"Raz<^n y Fe", Madrid: Niereinberg y Otin, 
Juan Eu.sebio. 

*PfiTRIDfeS, SOPHRONE, A.A., Profes.sor, 
Greek Catholic Seminary of Kadi-Keui, 
Cqn.stantinople: Ny.ssa; Obba; Olba; Olympus; 
Orcistus; Pacandus; Paleopolis; Panemotichiis; 
P.anetoniiuii; Parlais; Parnas.sus; Paroccopolis; 
Patara; Pcdiiclissus; Perge; Pessinus; Petinessus; 
Pha.selis; Philadelphia. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ELEVENTH VOLUME 



PFEIL, NICHOLAS, B.A., Cleveland, Ohio: 
Notre Dame, Sisters of (Cleveland). 

PHILLIMORE, JOHN SWINNERTON, M.A. 
(OxoN.), Professor of Humanities, Univer- 
sity OF Glasgow: Paley, Frederick Apthorp. 

PHILLIPS, EDWARD C, S.J., Ph.D., Woodstock 
College, Maryland: Odington, Walter; Oriani, 
Barnaba; Pardies, Ignace-Gaston. 

PILCZ, ALEXANDER, Member of the French 
Academy, Extraordinary Professor, Uni- 
versity of Vienna: Pathology, Mental. 

PLASSMAN, THOMAS, O.F.M., Ph.D., S.T.D., 

St. Bonaventure's Seminary, St. Bonaven- 
TURB, New York: Nicholas of Lyra. 

POHLE, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Ph.D., J.C.L., Profes- 
sor OF Dogmatic Theology, University of 
Breslau: Paschasius Radbertus, Saint; Pelagius 
and Pelagianism. 

POINTS, MARIE LOUISE, Editor, "The Morning 
Star", New Orleans, Louisiana: New Orleans, 
Archdiocese of. 

POLLEN, JOHN H., S.J., London: Oaths, English 
Post-Reformation; Odescalchi, Carlo; Oldcorne, 
Edward, Venerable; Percy, John; Persons, 
Robert; Petre Family. 

POYET, CLAUDIO, ParanX, Argentine Repub- 
lic: Parand,, Diocese of. 

PRAT, FERDINAND, S.J., Member of the Bibli- 
cal Commission, CollJige St. Michel, Brus- 
sels: Origen and Origenism; Paul, Saint. 

PRESTAGE, EDGAR, B.A. (Oxon.), Commend.a^- 
DOR, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago; Corre- 
sponding Member of the Lisbon Roy'AL 
Academy of Sciences and the Lisbon 
Geographical Society, Bowdon, England: 
Oporto, Diocese of ; Periodical Literature, 
Catholic, Portugal. 

RANDOLPH, BARTHOLOMEW, CM., M.A., 
Teacher op Philosophy and Church History, 
St. John's College, Brookly'n, New York: 
Odin, John Mary. 

REAGAN, P. NICHOLAS, O.F.M., Collegio S. 
Antonio, Rome: Peter of Alcdntara, Saint. 

REILLY, THOMAS X KEMPIS, O.P., S.T.L., 
S.S.L., Professor of Sacred Scripture, 
Dominican House of Studies, Washington: 
Nicholas of Strasburg; Pagnino, Santes. 

REMY, ARTHUR F. J., M.A., Ph.D., Adjunct- 
Professor OF Germanic Philology, Columbia 
University, New York: Otfried of Weissen- 
burg; Peutinger, Conrad. 

ROMPEL, JOSEF HEINRICH, S.J., Ph.D., Stella 
Matutina College, Feldkirch, Austria: 
Parlatore, Filippo. 

RUSSELL, MATTHEW, S.J., Dublin; O'Hagan, 
John; O'Reilly, Edmund. 

SACHER, HERMANN, Ph.D., Editor, "Konver- 

sationslexikon". Assistant Editor, "Staats- 
lexikon" of the Gorresgesellschaft, Frei- 
burg, Germany: Oldenburg. 



ST. EUPHROSINE, SISTER, Montreal: Notre 
Dame de Montreal, Congregation of. 

ST. IGNACE de LOYOLA, SISTER, St. Damien, 
Province of Quebec, Canada: Perpetual Help, 
Sisters of Our Lady of. 

SALTET, LOUIS, S.T.D., Litt.Lic, Professor of 
Church Hi.story, Institut Catholique, Tou- 
louse, France: Paula, Saint. 

SALZER, ANSELM, O.S.B., Seitenstetten, Aus- 
tria: Passion Plays. 

SAUVAGE, G. M., C.S.C, S.T.D., Ph.D., Profes- 
sor of Dogmatic Theology, Holy Cross 
College, Washington: Ontologism; Pehsson- 
Fontanier, Paul; Perreyve, Henri. 

SCANNELL, THOMAS B. CANON, S.T.D., Wey- 
bridge, England: Nicholas V, Pope. 

SCHEID, N., S.J., Stella Matutina College, 
Feldkirch, Austria: Pauli, Johannes. 

SCHEUER, PIERRE, S.J., Profe.ssor of Phi- 
losophy, College of St. John Berchmans, 
Louvain: Para du Phanjas, Fran5ois. 

SCHLAGER, HEINRICH PATRICIUS, O.F.M., 

St. Ludwig's College, Dalheim, Germany: 
Nithard; Nuyens, Wilhelmus; Ostiensis; Otto 
of Freising; Otto of St. Blaise; Paulus Diaconus. 

SCHROEDER, JOSEPH, O.P., St. Dominic's 
Priory, Benicia, California: Nicolai, Jean; 
Niger, Peter George. 

SCHWICKERATH, ROBERT, S.J., Holy Cross 
College, Worce.ster, Mas.sachusetts: Pach- 
tler, Georg Michael; Pestalozzi and Pcstalozzian- 
ism. 

SCOTT, JOHN ASKEW, M.A., LL.B., Editor, 
"New Zealand Tablet", Dunedin, New 
Zealand: New Zealand. 

SENFELDER, LEOPOLD, M.D., Teacher of the 
History' of Medicine, Univer.sity of Vienna: 
Paracelsus, Theophrastus ; Peru, Ambroise. 

SHANNON, JAMES, Peoria, Illinois: Peoria, 
Diocese of. 

SHARPE, ALFRED BOWi^ER, M.A. (Oxon.), 
London: Pessimism. 

SIEGFRIED, FRANCIS PATRICK, Professor 
OF Philosophy, St. Charles Seminary', Over- 
brook, Pennsylvania: Ontology. 

SLATER, T., S.J., St. Beuno's College, St. 
Asaph, Wales: Obligation. 

SLOANE, CHARLES WILLIAM, New York: 
O'Conor, Charles; Partnersliip. 

SLOANE, THOMAS O'CONNOR, M.A., E.M., 
Ph.D., New York: Pelletier, Pierre-Joseph; 
Pelouze, Th6ophile-Jules. 

SMITH, IGNATIUS, O.P., Dominican House op 
Studies, Washington: Nider, John; Peter 
Chrysologus, Saint. 

SMITH, SYDNEY F., S.J., London: Nonconfor- 
mists; Non-Jurors. 

SMITH, WALTER GEORGE, M.A., LL.B. (U. op 
P.), Philadelphia: Peace Congresses; Penn- 
sylvania. 



SAGMiJLLER, JOHANNES BAPTIST, Professor SOLLIER, JOSEPH FRANCIS, S.M., S.T.D., San 
op Theology, University of Titbingen : Francisco : Paraclete ; Pavilion, Nicolas ; Per- 

Patron and Patronage. severance. Final. "^ 



CONTRIBUTORS TO TIIK ELEVENTH VOLUME 



SORTAIS, GASTON, S.J., Assistant Editor, 
"Eti'des", Paris: Orcjxgna (Andrea di Clone); 
Palma \'ecoluo; Parmigiano, 11. 

SOirVAV, CHARLES L.. CM., S.T.D., Ph.D., 
Professor ok Sacred Scrii>ture, Hebrew, and 
LiTURiiY, Kexrick Seminary, St. Louis: OfTer- 
ings (Oblations); Olivet, Mount; Ophir; Para- 
sceve; Patnios; Pentapolis; Pentecost (of the 
Jews), Feast of; Phasga. 

STANISFORTH, OSWALD, O.M.Cap., Lector of 
Doum.\tic Theology and Sacred Scriituhe, 
Capuchin Monastery, Olton, England: Pascal 
Baylon, Saint. 

SUAU, PIERRE, S.,T., Castres, France: Olivaint, 
Pierre; Peter Claver, Saint; Peter Faber, Blessed. 

TACCHI VENTURL LUIGL LL.D., Commenda- 
tore of the Order of the Crown of Italy, 
Ro.me: Oliva, Gian Paolo. 

THURSTON, HERBERT, S.J., London: Numbers. 
Use of, in the Church; Ordincs Ronumi; Osten- 
soriuni; Paris, Matthew; Paschal Candle; Pas- 
sion of Jesus Christ, Devotion to the; Paten; 
Peterspence. 

TIERNEY, JOHN J., M.A., S.T.D., Professor op 
S.^cred Scripture and Semitic Studies, Mt. 
St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Maryland: 
New Year's Day. 

TOKE, LESLIE ALEXANDER ST. LAWRENCE, 
B.A., Stratton-on-the-Fosse, Bath, England: 
Peter Damian, Saint. 

TOLTRSCHER, FRANCIS E., O.S.A., Regent, St. 
Thomas's College, Villanova, Pennsylvania: 
Noris, Henry; Paulus Venetus. 

TRABERT, WILHELM, Ph.D., Director of the 
I.mperial Roy.4l Central Institute of Mete- 
orology and Geodynamics, Vienna: Pcmter, 
Joseph Maria. 

URIBE, ANTONIO JOSE, Bogota, Colombia: 
Nueva Pamplona, Diocese of. 

URQUHART F. F., Fellow and Lecturer in 
Modern History, Balliol College, Oxford: 
Northmen; Ordericus Vitalis. 

VAILHE, SIMEON, A. A., Member op the Russian 
Archaeological Institute of Constantinople, 
Professor of S.\cred Scripture and History', 
Greek Catholic Seminary of Kadi-Keui, 
Constantinople: Nica;a; Nicomedia; Nicopo- 
lis (Armenia); Nicopolis, Diocese of; Nicopo- 
lis (Epirus); Nicosia, Titular Archdiocese of; 
Nilopolis; Nisibis; Notitia; Episcopatuum; Ole- 
nus; Ombus; Oropus; Orthosia; Ostracina; 0.\y- 
rynchus; Palmyra; Paltus; Panopolis; Paphos; 
Paralus; Parium; Patras; Pella; Pelu.sium; Pen- 
tacomia; Pergamus; Petra; Phacusa; Pharbaetus; 
Pharsalus. 

VAN DER ESSEN, LfiON, Litt.D., Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor OF History, University op Louvain: 
Pamelius. 

VAN DER HEEREN, ACHILLE, S.T.L. (Lou- 
vain), Professor of Moral Theology and 
Librarian, Grande Sfi.vixAiRE, Bruges, Bel- 
gium: Oaths; Peter, Epistles of Saint. 

VAN HOVE, A., D.C.L., Professor of Church 
History and Canon Law, U.niversity of 
LotrvAiN: Nicol6 de' Tudeschi; (Economus, 
Episcopal; Option, Right of; Paleotti, Gabriel; 
Papiensis, Bcmardus; Pena, Francisco; Person, 
Ecclesiastical. 



VERMEERSCII, ARTHUR, S.J., LL.D., Doctor 
of Social and Political Sciences, Professor 
of Moral Theology and Canon Law, College 
OF St. John Berchmans, Louvain: Novice; 
Nuns; Obedience, Religious. 

VOGEL, JOHN, Vicar Provincial of the Pious 

Society op Missions, Brooklyn, New York: 
PoUotti, Vincent Mary, Venerable. 

WA.^GEN, LUKAS, .Assistant State Geologlst, 
Vienna: Pala;ontology. 

WAINEWRIGHT, JOHN BANNERMAN, B.A. 
(OxoN.), London: Nichols, George, Venerable; 
Nutter, Robert, Venerable; Osbaldeston, Ed- 
ward, Venerable; Page, Anthony, Venerable; 
Palasor, Thomas, Venerable; Patenson, William, 
Venerable. 

WALKER, LESLIE J., S.J., M.A. (Lond.), St. 
Beuno's College, St. Asaph, Wales: Parallel- 
ism, Psycho-Physical. 

WALSH, JAMES J., M.D., Ph.D., LL.D., Dean of 
the Medical School, Fordham University, 
New York: Nussbaum, Johann Nepomuk von; 
O'Dwyer, Joseph; Pasteur, Louis. 

WALSH, REGINALD, O.P., S.T.D., Professor 
OP Theology, S. Clembnte, Rome: O'Daly, 
Daniel. 

WARD, Mgr. BERNARD, Canon of Westmin- 
ister, F.R.HisT.Soc, President, St. Edmund's 
College, Ware, England: Oakeley, Frederick; 
Old Chapter, The; Oliver, George; O.xenham, 
Henry Nutcombe. 

WARREN, KATE MARY, Lecturer in English 
UNDER University of London .\t Westfield 
College, Hampstead, London : Occleve, 
Thomas; Oxenford, John. 

WEBER, N. A., S.M., S.T.D., Professor of Funda- 
mental Theology and Church History, 
Marist College, Washington: Nicholas II, 
Nicholas III, Nicholas IV, Popes; Orange, 
Councils of; Paul II, Pope; Perraaneder, Franz 
Michael; Peter Igneus, Blessed; Petrobrusians; 
Petrus, Diaconus; Petrus ALfonsus. 

WEIMAR, ANTON, Vienna: Periodical Literature, 
Catholic, Austria. 

WELCH, SIDNEY READ, S.T.D., Ph.D., J.P., 
Editor, " The Catholic Magazine for South 
Africa", Cape Town: Pfanner, Franz. 

WILHELM, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Ph.D., Battle, Eng- 
land: Nicene and Niccno-Constantinopolitan 
Creed. 

WILLIAMSON, GEORGE CHARLES, Litt.D., 
Ldndiin: Oggione, Marco D'; Orley, Barent van; 
Ortolano Ferrarese; Pa.ssignano, Domenico. 

WITTMANN, PIUS, Counsellor for the Ar- 
chives and Archivist for Prince Ysenburg- 
BtJDiNGEN, Royal Bavarian Counsellor for 
the Archives, Budingen, Germany: Norway; 
Orkneys. 

WOLFSGRUBER, COELESTINE, O.S.B., Vienna: 
Olmiitz, Archdiocese of; Parenzo-Pola, Diocese 
of. 

ZELLE, JOSEPH, S.J., Paray-le-Monial, France: 
Paray-le-Monial. 

ZEVELY, J., New York: Petropolis, Diocese of . 



Tables of Abbreviations 

The following tables and notes are intended to guide readers of The Catholic Encyclopedia in 
interpreting those abbreviations, signs, or technical phrases which, for economy of space, will be most fre- 
quently used in the work. For more general information see the article Abbreviations, Ecclesiastical. 



I. — General Abbreviations. 

a article. 

ad an at the year (Lat. ad annum). 

an., ann the year, the years (Lat. annus, 

anni). 

ap in (Lat. apud). 

art article. 

Assyr Assyrian. 

A. S Anglo-Saxon. 

A. V Authorized Version (i.e. tr. of the 

Bible authorized for use in tlie 
Anglican Church — the so-called 
''King James", or "Protestant 
Bible"). 

b born. 

Bk Book. 

Bl Blessed. 

C, c about (Lat. circa); canon; chap- 

ter; compagnie. 

can canon. 

cap chapter (Lat. caput — used only 

in Latin context). 

cf compare (Lat. confer). 

cod codex. 

col column. 

concl conclusion. 

const., constit. . . .Lat. constitutio. 

cura by the industry of. 

d died. 

diet dictionary (Fr. dictionnaire) . 

disp Lat. disputalio. 

diss Lat. dissertatio. 

dist Lat. distinctio. 

D. V Douay Version. 

ed., edit edited, edition, editor. 

Ep., Epp letter, letters (Lat. e.pistola). 

Fr French. 

gen genus. 

Gr Greek. 

H. E., Hist. Eccl. .Ecclesiastical History. 

Heb., Hebr Hebrew. 

ib., ibid in the same place (Lat. ibidem). 

Id the same person, or author (Lat. 

idem). 



inf below (Lat. infra). 

It Italian. 

1. c, loc. cit at the place quoted (Lat. loco 

citato) . 

Lat Latin. 

lat latitude. 

lib book (Lat. liber). 

long longitude. 

Mon Lat. Monumenta. 

MS., MS3 manuscript, manuscripts. 

n., no number. 

N. T New Testament. 

Nat National. 

Old Fr., O. Fr. . . .Old French. 

op. cit in the work quoted (Lat. opere 

citato). 

Ord Order. 

O. T Old Testament. 

p., pp page, pages, or (in Latin ref- 
erences) pars (part). 

par paragraph. 

passim in various places. 

pt part. 

Q Quarterly (a periodical), e.g. 

"Church Quarterly". 

Q., QQ., qusest. . . .question, questions (Lat. qucestio). 

q. V which [title] see (Lat. quod vide). 

Rev Review (a periodical). 

R. S Rolls Series. 

R. V Revised Version. 

S., SS Lat. Sanctus, Sancti, "Saint", 

"Saints" — used in this Ency- 
clopedia only in Latin context. 

Sept Septuagint. 

Sess Se.ssion. 

Skt Sanskrit. 

Sp Spanish. 

sq., sqq following page, or pages (Lat. 

sequens). 

St., Sts Saint, Saints. 

sup Above (Lat. supra). 

s. V Under the corresponding title 

(Lat. sub voce). 

torn volume (Lat. tomus). 



TAHL.es op AHHKKVIATIONS. 



tr translation or translated. Uy it- 
self it means "English transla- 
tion", or " tninslateil into Eng- 
lish by". AVlicre a translation 
is into any other language, the 
language is stated. 

tr., tract tractate. 

V see (Lat. vUle). 

Ven Venerable. 

Vol Volume. 

II. — Abbreviations op Titles. 

Acta SS Acta Sanctorum (BoUandists). 

Ann. pont. cath Battandier, Annuaire pontifical 

catholiqtie. 

Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath.Gillow, Bibliograplucal Diction- 
ary of the English Catholics. 

Diet. Christ. Antiq.. .Smith and Cheetham (ed.), 
Dictionary of Christian An- 
tiquities. 



Diet. Christ. Biog. . . Smith and Wace (ed.). Diction- 
ary of Christian Biography. 

Diet, d'arch. clirot. . .Cabrol (ed.), IHctionnaire d'ar- 
cheologie chritienne et de litur- 
gie. 

Diet, de th6ol. oath. . Vacant and Mangenot (ed.), 
Dictionnaire de ihiologie 
catholique. 

Diet. Nat. Biog Stephen and Lee (ed.), Diction- 
ary of National Biography. 

Hast., Diet, of the 

Bible Hastings (ed.), A Dictionary of 

the Bible. 

Kirchenlex Wetzer and Welte, Kirckenleri- 

con. 

P. G Migne (ed.), Patrcs Graeci. 

P. L Migne (ed.), Patres Latini. 

Vig., Diet, de la Bible. Vigouroux (ed.), Dictionnaire de 
la Bible. 



Note I. — Large Roman numerals standing alone indicate volumes. Small Roman numerals standing alone indicate 
chapters. Arabic numerals standing alone indicate pages. In other cases the divisions are explicitly stated. Thus " Ra.shdall, 
Universities of Europe, I. Lx" refers the reader to the ninth chapter of the first volume of that work; "I, p. ix" would indicate the 
ninth page of the preface of the same volume. 

Note II. — Where St. Thomas (Aquinas) is cited without the name of any particular work the reference is always to 
"Summa Theologica" (not to "Summa Philosophise"). The divisions of the "Summa Theol." are indicated by a system which 
may best be understood by the following example; " I-II, Q. vi, a. 7, ad 2 um " refers the reader to the seventh article of the 
tilth question in the firsl part of the second part, in the response to the second objection. 

Note HI. — The abbreviations employed for the various books of the Bible are obvious. Ecclesiasticus is indicated by 
Ecdus., to distinguish it from Ecclesiastes (Eccles.). It should also be noted that I and II Kings in D. V. correspond to I and II 
Samuel in A. V. ; and I and II Par. to I and II Chronicles. Where, in the spelling of a proper name, there is a marked difference 
between the D. V. and the A. V., the form found in the latter is added, in parentheses. 



Full Page Illustrations in Volume XI 

Frontispiece in Colour p^^g 

New Orleans — St. Roch's Chapel and Cemetery, etc 14 

St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York 26 

Norwich Cathedral 122 

Typical Coins of Twenty-five Centuries 152 

Daniel O'Connell 202 

Church of Santa Maria de Naranco, Oviedo 364 

Oxford — Balliol, Christ Church, the Sheldonian, and Brasenose 368 

Basilica of S. Antonio, commonly called The Santo, Padua 384 

The Empress Theodora and her Suite 394 

Altar-piece of the Lamb, Hubert and Jan Van Eyck, Ghent 398 

Among the Lowly — Leon Lhermitte 402 

Cathedral, Palencia 416 

Cathedral, Palermo 420 

Notre-Dame de Paris 494 

Cathedral and Baptistery, Parma 504 

The Crucifixion — From the Passion Play of Oberammergau 530 

Louis Pasteur in his Laboratory — A. Edelfclt 536 

St. Paul— Ribera (Spagnoletto) 572 

Paul III and his Nephews, Alessandro and Ottavio Farnese — Titian 578 

The Certosa, near Pavia 592 

Perugia — The Porta Urbica Etrusca, etc 736 

Perugino — Madonna with Four Saints, etc 738 

St. Peter— Ribera (Spagnoletto) 750 

Blessed Peter Canisius — C. Fracassini 758 

Philadelphia 794 



Map 

Panama 438 



THE 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA 



N 



New Mexico, a territory of the United States now 
(Jan., 1911) awaiting only the completion of its Con- 
stitution and the acceptance thereof by the Federal 
authorities to rank as a state. It lies between 31° 20' 
and 37° N. lat., and between 103° 2' and 109° 2' W. 
long.; it is bounded on the north by Colorado, on the 
east b}' Oklahoma and Texas, on the south by Texas 
and the Republic of Mexico, and on the west by Ari- 
zona. It is about 370 miles from east to west, 33.5 from 
north to south, and has an area of 122,580 sq. miles, 
with mountain, plateau, and valley on either side of the 
Rio Grande. The average rainfall is 12 inches, usually 
between July and September, so that spring and sum- 
mer are dry, and agriculture and grazing suffer. The 
climate is uniform, the summers, as a rule, moderate, 
and, the atmosphere being dry, the heat is not opjjres- 
sive. In the north-west and north-east the winters 
are long, but not severe, while in the central and south- 
ern portions the winters are usually short and mild. 
In the United States census of 1900 the population 
was 141,282, of which 33 per cent was illiterate; in 
the census ofl910 the population was 327,396. About 
one-half of the inhabitants are of Spanish descent. 

The soil in the valleys is a rich and sandy loam, 
capable, with irrigation, of producing good crops. It 
is also rich in gold and silver, and important mines 
have been opened near Deming, Silver City, and 
Lordsburg, in the south-western part of the state. 
There are copper mines near Glorieta in the north, 
and near Santa Rita in the south; while coal is found 
in great abundance near Gallup, Cerillos, and in the 
north-west. The mineral production of ISfew Mexico 
for 1907 was $7,517,843, that of coal alone amounting 
to .$3,832,128. In 1909 the net product in coal, 
shipped from the mines, was 2,708,624 tons, or a total 
value of $3,881,508. A few forests exist in the east- 
ern plains, and abundant timber is found in the north- 
western and central districts. Though mining and 
commerce as well as agriculture are now in process of 
rapid development, New Mexico is still a grazing 
country. Sheep-farming is the most important 
and lucrative industry; cattle-farming is also of 
importance. In 1908 and 1909 severe droughts 
caused the sheep industry to decline somewhat. In 
1909 New Mexico shipped 700,800 head of sheep; in 

1908, 835,800; in 1907, 975,800. The wool shorn in 

1909, from over 4,000,000 .sheep, was 18,000,000 lbs., 
which brought an averageof 19 cents per lb., yielding a 
cash production of .$3,420,000. The shipments of cat- 
tle in the same year amounted to 310,326, and 64,380 
hides were handled in the .same period. Farming is 
successfully carried on in the Rio Grande and other 
valleys, Indian corn, wheat, and garden products 
being the principal crops. For the year 1907 the ter- 
ritorial governnor's report placed the value of the 
agricultural products at $25,000,000, but this was a 

XI.— 1 



gross overestimate. The important manufacturing 
interests are those connected with mining, railroads, 
etc. Lumbering is being developed by capital 
brought from the East, and large lumber mills are now 
in operation, notabh' at Albuquerque. There are 75 
banks (41 national and 34 territorial) in the state, 
with an aggregate capital of .$3,274,086. The bonded 
debt of the state is $1,002,000, of which $89,579.49 is 
covered by the sinking fund. 

GeneralHistorv. — In April, 1536, there arrived at 
Culiacdn, in the Mexican Province of Sinaloa, Alvar 
Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, Andres Dorantes, Alon.so del 
Castillo Maldonado, and the nc^V" K.sfcvanico, the 
only survivors of 
the ill-fated expe- 
dition of Narvlez 
whichhad left Spain 
in 1528. Mendoza, 
the Viceroy of 
Mexico was fold 
astonishing tales l)y 
Cabeza de Vaca 
concerning tlic 
wealth of the couji- 
try to the north, 
and lie forthwith 
commanded Coro- 
nado, governor of 
the Province of 
Nueva Galicia, to 
prepare an expe- 
dition. The preparations went slowly, and Men- 
doza ordered Friar Marcos de Niza to make a prelim- 
inary exploration of the northern country. The 
Franciscan left Culiacd,n in 1539, accompanied by 
Estevanico and a few Indians. After untold hard- 
ships he reached the famous pueblo of ZuiSi, took pos- 
session of all the surrounding country, planted the 
cross, and named the territory "The New Kingdom of 
St. Francis". Marcos de Niza is, therefore, rightly 
called the discoverer of New Mexico and Arizona. He 
then returned to Mexico, and his narrative, especially 
what he said about the seven cities of Cibola, was an 
incentive to Coronado, who set out from Culiacdn in 
1540, accompanied by Marcos and a large body of 
Spaniards and Indians. Coronado crossed Sonora 
(now Arizona) and entered New Mexico in July, 1.540. 
The expedition returned in 1542, but, although many 
regions were discovered, no conquests were made nor 
colonies established. In 1563 an expedition was led 
into New Mexico by Francisco de Ibarra: it is worth 
mentioning only for the reason that de Ibarra re- 
turned in 1565 with the boast that he had discovered 
"a new Mexico", which was, probably, the origin of 
the name. Espejo entered New Mexico in 1581, but 
accomplished nothing. In this same year a Francis- 




Mexico 



NEW MEXICO 



NEW MEXICO 



can Friar, Augustin Rodrtguos!, entered with a few 
companions, and lost his hfe in tlio cause of (Christian- 
ity. In 15S1 Espejo ('aUed New Mexico Niieva An- 
dalucia. By IMS the name Nuevo Mejico was evi- 
dently well known, since Villagrd's epic is called 
"Historia del Nuevo Mejico". 

The expediticiii.s of Isspejo and Father Agustin Ro- 
driguez were followed by many more of an unimpor- 
tant character, and it was not until 1.598, when Don 
•luan de Onate, accompanied by ten Franciscans under 
Father .\lonso Martinez, and four hundred men, of 
whom one hundred and thirty were accompanied by 
their wives and families, marched up alongside the 
Rio Grande, and settled at San Juan de los Caballeros, 
near the junction of the Chama with the Rio Grande, 
thirty miles north of Santa Ft'. This was the first per- 
manent Spanish settlement in New Mexico. Here 
was established, also, the first mission, and San Juan 
de los Caballeros (or San Gabriel a few miles west on 
the Chama river?) was the capital of the new province 
until it was moved to Santa F6 some time between 
1602 and 1616. The colony prospered, missions were 
established by the Franciscans, new colonists arrived, 
and by the middle of the seventeenth century general 
prosperity prevailed. In the year 16S0, however, a 
terrible Indian rebellion broke out under the leader- 
ship of Pope, an Indian of the pueblo of San Juan. All 
the Spanish settlements were attacked, and many peo- 
ple massacred. The survivors fled to Santa Fe, but, 
after three days' fighting, were compelled to abandon 
the city and were driven out of the province. 

Thus was destroyed the work of eighty years. The 
Spaniards did not lose courage: between 1691 and 1693 
Antonio de Vargas reconquered New Me.xico and en- 
tered it with many of the old colonists and many 
more new ones, his entire colony consisting of 800 peo- 
ple, including seventy families and 200 soldiers. The 
old \-illages were occupied, churches rebuilt, and the 
missions re-established. A new villa was founded, 
Santa Cruz de la Canada, around which most of the 
families which had come with De Vargas untler Padre 
Farfdn were settled. The colonies, no longer seri- 
ously tiireatened by the Indians, progressed slowly. 
By the end of the eighteenth century the population 
of New Mexico was about 34,000, one-half Spaniards. 
The first half of the nineteenth centurj' was a period 
of revolutions — rapid transformations of government 
and foreign invasions, accepted by the Spanish inhab- 
itants of New Mexico in an easy-going spirit of sub- 
mission unparalleled in history. 

In 1821 the news of Mexican independence was re- 
ceived, and, although the people of New Mexico were 
ignorant of the events which had preceded it, and 
knew absolutelj' nothing of the situation, they cele- 
brated the event with great enthusiasm and swore 
allegiance to Iturbide. In 1824, just three years after 
independence, came the news of the fall of Iturbide 
and the inauguration of the Republic of Mexico: 
throngs gathered at Santa F6, the people were ha- 
rangued, and the new regime was applauded as a bless- 
ing to New Mexico. When war was declared between 
the United States and Mexico — an event concerning 
which the New Mexicans were ignorant — General 
Stephen Watts Kearny was sent to conquer New 
Mexico. In 1846 he entered the territory, and Gen- 
eral Armijo, the local military chiei, fled to Mexico. 
Kearny took possession of the territory in the name of 
the United States, promising the people all the rights 
and liberties which other citizens of the United States 
enjoyed. The people joyfully accepted American 
rule, and swore obedience to the Stars and Stripes. At 
one stroke, no one knew why or how, a Spanish colony, 
after existing under Spanish institutions for nearly 
three centuries, was brought under the rule of a for- 
eign race and under new and unknown institutions. 
After the military occupation by Kearny in 1846, 
Charles Bent was civil governor. He was murdered 



at Taos, in 1847, by .some Spaniards whom he had 
gro.ssly offended. In 1847-48 Donaciano Vigil was 
civil governor. 

In 1S4S, by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, New 
Mexico was formally ceded by Mexico to the United 
States, and in 1850 it was regularly organized as a ter- 
ritory (which included Arizona until 1863), and James 
S. Calhoun was the first territorial governor. The 
first territorial Legislative Assenibly met at Santa F6 
in IS.'jl : most of the members were of Spanish descent, 
and this has been true of all the Assemblies until the 
end of the century. Up to 1910 the proceedings of the 
Legislature were in Spanish and English, interpreters 
being always present. During the years 1861-62 the 
Texan Confederates entered New Mexico, to occupy 
Albuquerque and Santa F6, but Federal troops ar- 
rived from Colorado and California and frustrated the 
attempt. During the years from 1860 to 1890 New 
Mexico progressed very slowly. Education was in a 
deplorable state (no system was established until 
1S90), the surrounding Indians continually harassed 
the inhabitants, and no railroad was constructed until 
after 1880. In 1860 the population was 80,567; in 
1870, 90,573; in ISSO, 109,793. Nine-tenths of the 
population in 1880 was of Spanish descent: at pres- 
ent (1911) this element is only about one-half, owing 
to the constant immigration from the other states of 
the Union. Since 1890 New Mexico has progressed 
rapidly. Education is now enthusiastically supported 
and encouraged, the natural resources are being rapidly 
developed, and the larger towns and cities have all 
the marks of modern civilization and progress. Since 
1850 many unsuccessful attempts have been made 
to secure statehood; at last, in June, 1910, Congress 
passed an Enabling Act: New Mexico is to adopt a 
Constitution, subject to the approval of Congress. 

MissioN.s OP New Mexico. — The Franciscan Friar 
Marcos de Niza, as we have seen above, reached New 
Mexico near the pueblo of Zuni in 1539. This short 
expedition may be considered, therefore, as the first 
mission in New Mexico and what is now Arizona. 
With the expedition of Coronado (1540-42) several 
Franciscans under Marcos de Niza entered New 
Mexico. There is some confusion about their exact 
number and even about their names. It seems rea- 
sonably certain, however, that Marcos had to abandon 
the expedition after reaching Zuni, and that two 
Franciscan priests, Juan de Padilla and Juan de la 
Cruz, and a lay brother, Luis de Escalona, continued 
with the expedition into New Mexico, remained as 
missionaries among the Indians when Coronado re- 
turned in 1542, and were finally murdered by them. 
These were the first three Christian missionaries to re- 
ceive the crown of martyrdom within the present 
hmits of the United States. Forty years after the 
Niza and Coronado expeditions of 1539-42, it was 
again a Franciscan who made an attempt to gain the 
New Mexico Indians to the Faith. This was Father 
Agustin Rodriguez, who, in 1581, left San Bartolome 
in Northern Mexico and, accompanied by two other 
friars, Juan de Santa Maria and Fr. Francisco L6pez, 
and some seventeen more men, marched up the Rio 
Grande and visited many of the pueblos on both sides 
of the river. The friars decided to remain in the new 
missionary field when the rest of the expedition re- 
turned in 1.582, but the Indians proved intractable 
and the two friars received the crown of martyrdom. 

When news of the fate of Agustin Rodriguez reached 
San Bartolome in Nueva Vizcaya, Father Bernardino 
Beltrdn was desirous of making another attempt to 
evangelize New Mexico, but, being alone, would not 
remain there. It was in 1.598 that Don Juan de Onate 
made the first permanent Spanish settlement in New 
Mexico, at San Juan de los Caballeros. Ten Francis- 
can friars under Father Alonso Martinez accom- 
panied Ofiate in his conquest, and established at San 
Juan the first Spanish Franciscan mission. Mission- 



NEW MEXICO 



NEW MEXICO 



ary work was begun in earnest, and in 1599 Onate sent 
a party to Mexico for re-enforcements. With this 
party went Fathers Martinez, Salazar, and Vergara to 
obtain more friars. Salazar died on the way, Marti- 
nez did not return, but a new Franciscan comisario, 
Juan de Escalona, returned to New Mexico with Ver- 
gara and eight more Franciscans. New missions were 
being estabhshed in the near puehlos, and prosperity 
was at hand, but Onate's ambitions proved fatal: in 
1601 he desired to conquer the coimtry to the north 
and west, and started on an expedition with a small 
force, taking with him two Franciscans. The people 
who remained at and near San Juan de los Caballeros 
were left unprotected. Civil discord followed, and 
the newly-settled province was abandoned, the set- 
tlers, with the friars, moving south. Father Escalona 
remained, at the risk of his life, to await the return of 
Onate; but he had written to the viceroy, asking that 
Onate should be recalled. Oiiate, with a new comi- 
sario, Francisco Escobar, and Father San Buenaven- 
tura, set out on another counter expedition, and Es- 
calona and the other 
friars continued 
their missionary 
work among their 
neophytes. New re- 
enforcements arrived 
between 1605 and 
1608, in spite of 
Onate's misrule. In 
1608 Father Alonso 
Peinado came as co- 
misario and brought 
with him eight more 
friars. By this time 
8000 Indians had 
been converted. By 
1617 the Franciscans 
had built eleven 
churches and had 
converted 14,000 In- 
dians. 

In 1620 Father 
Ger6nimo de Zdrate 
Salmer6n, a very 
zealous missionary, came to New Mexico. There he 
worked for eight years, and wrote a book on Chris- 
tian doctrine in the language of the Jemez. By 1626 
the missions numbered 27; 34,000 Indians had been 
baptized, and 43 churches built. Of the friars only 16 
were left. In 1630 Fr. Benavides desired to establish 
a bishopric in New Mexico, and went to Spain to lay 
his petition before the king. In his memorial he says 
that there were in New Mexico, in 1630, 2.5 missions, 
covering 90 pueblos, attended by 50 friars, and that 
the Christian natives numbered 00,000. The mi.ssions 
established in New Mexico in 1630, according to this 
memorial, were the following: among the Piros, or 
Picos, 3 missions (Socorro, Senecii, Sevilleta) ; among 
the Liguas, 2 (Sandia, Isleta); among the Queres, 3; 
among the Tompiros, 6; among the Tanos, 1; among 
the Pecos, 1 ; among the Toas, or Tehuas, 3; at Santa 
F6, 1 ; among the Taos, 1 ; among the Zuni, 2. The 
other two are not mentioned. However, the wrongs 
perpetrated by local governors exasperated the In- 
dians, and the missionaries were thus labouring under 
difficulties. By 1680 the number of missions had 
increased to 33, but the Indian rebellion broke out. 
All the missions and settlements were destroyed, the 
churches burned, and the settlers massacred. The 
number of victims among the Spaniards was 400. Of 
the missionaries, 11 escaped, while 21 were massacred. 

With Don Diego de Vargas, and the reconquest of 
New Alexico in 1691-95, the Franciscans entered the 
province again. Father San Antonio was the guard- 
ian, but in 1694 he returned to EI Paso, and, with 
Father Francisco Vargas as guardian, the missions 




were re-established. Not only were most of the old 
missions again in a prosperous condition, but new ones 
were established among the Apaches, Navajos, and 
other tribes. Towards the middle of the eighteenth 
century, petty disputes arose between the friars and 
the Bishop of Durango, and the results were unfav- 
ourable to the missions, which at this time numbered 
from 20 to 25, Father Juan Mirabal being guardian. 
In 1760 Bishop Tamar6n of Durango visited the prov- 
ince. From this time on the Franciscan missions in 
New Mexico changed, the friars in many cases acted 
as parish priests, and their work did not prove so 
fruitful. 

During the last half of the eighteenth century, and 
during the last years of Spanish rule (1800-1821), the 
missions declined more and more The Franciscans 
still remained, and received salaries from the Govern- 
ment, not as missionaries but as parish priests. They 
were under their guardian, but the Bishop of Durango 
controlled religious affairs, with a permanent vicar 
in New Mexico. The Mexican rule of 1821-1846 was 
worse than the Span- 
ish rule, and the mis- 
sions existed only in 
name. At the time 
of the American oc- 
cupation, in 1846, the 
missions, as such, no 
longer existed. 

The missionary 
work in what is now 
Arizona was in some 
fuses that of the 
\( \v Mexican friars, 
A lid from the begin- 
<\\t.\'i_ of their labours 
irinl.il their mis- 
M- :iiii(ingtheZuni 
.^iiil the Moquis. A 
irw uf these missions, 
1 1< iwever, had no con- 
I II -xion whateverwith 
ilir missionary work 
1 )t New Mexico. After 
Niza's exploration in 
1540, we know little of the missionary work in Ari- 
zona proper, until 1633, when Fray Francisco Par- 
ras, who was almost alone in his work, was killed 
at Aguatevi. In 1680 four Franciscans, attending 
three missions among the Moquis, were killed dur- 
ing the New Mexican rebellion of that year. In 
Northern Mexico, close to the Arizona line (or, as then 
known, Pimeria Alta), the Jesuits were doing excellent 
mission work in 1600-1700. It was a Jesuit, also. 
Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, who explored what is 
now southern Arizona, in 1687. No missions were es- 
tablished, however, in Arizona before Father Kino's 
death in 1711, though churches were built, and many 
Indians converted. The work of Father Kino was 
abandoned after his death, until 1732, when Fathers 
Felipe Segesser and Juan B. Grashoffer established 
the first permanent missions of Arizona at San Xavier 
del Bac and San Miguel de Guevavi. In 1750 these 
two missions were attacked and plundered by the 
Pimas, but the missionaries escaped. In 1752 the mis- 
sions were reoccupied. A rivalry between the Fran- 
ciscans and the Jesuits hindered the success of the 
missions. 

In 1767, however, the controversy between Jesuits 
and Franciscans was ended, and the Jesuits exijelled. 
The Government, not content with their exiuilsion, 
confiscated the mission property, (hough the Francis- 
cans were invited to the field. Four Franciscans ar- 
rived in 1768 to renew the missionary work and found 
the missions in a deplorable state, but they persuaded 
the Government to help in the restoration and to re- 
store the confiscated property. It is to be observed 



NEW MEXICO 



NEW MEXICO 



that these missions of Arizona, as well as many of 
those of Sonora in Mexico, wore, until 1873, under the 
control of the College of Santa Cruz (just across the 
Arizona line in Northern Mexico), separated from 
17S3 to 17!)1, and united in 1791. The two important 
Arizona Missions, San Xavier del Rac and San Miguel 
de Guevavi, became prosperous, the former under the 
famous Franciscan, Father Francisco Garc^s from 
17l)S to 1774. Father Garci^s laboured continually 
among the Indians until he lost his life, in 1781, in his 
missionary work near the Colorado River in Califor- 
nia. The missions of Arizona declined after 1800, and 
in 1828 tlie Mexican Government ordered their aban- 
donment. From this time until 1859, when Bishop 
Lamy of Santa F(5sent the Rt. Rev. J. P. Macheboiuf 
to minister to the spiritual needs of Arizona, there 
were no signs of Chri.stianity in Arizona other than 
abandoned missions and ruined churches. 

Prese.nt Conditions (1910). — Pending the full ad- 
mission of New Mexico to statehood, its government 
is still that of a territory of the United States, regu- 
lated by the provisons of the Federal Statutes. Ac- 
cordingly, t he governor and other executive officers are 
appointed by the executive authority of the United 
States and paid by the F'ederal Treasury; the Legisla- 
ture (House of Representatives and Council) is elected 
by the people of the territory; the Territorial Judi- 
ciary (a chief justice and five associate justices) is ap- 
pointed by the President of the United States for a 
term of four years, but justices of the peace are elected 
for two years. 

Education. — The educational system of New 
Mexico dates from 1890 and is still in process of de- 
velopment. The public-school system is governed by 
a territorial Board of Education consisting of seven 
members. This board apportions the school funds, 
prepares teachers' examinations, selects books, etc. 
There are also the usual county and district officers. 
At present there are approximately 1000 public 
schools in New Mexico, with about 50,000 pupils, of 
whom 20,000 are Spanish and 100 negroes. There are 
70 denominational schools, with 5,000 pupils, and 18 
private schools, with 288 pupils. Futhermore, there 
were, in 1908, 25 Indian schools with 1933 pupils. 

The Catholic schools of the territory number 23, 
with about 100 teachers and about 1500 pupils (esti- 
mated in 1910; 1,212 in 1908). The most important 
Catholic school in New Mexico is St. Michael's Col- 
lege at Santa F6, founded in 1859 by Bishop J. B. 
Lamy. The sisters' charitable institutions (hospi- 
tals, etc.) are state-aided. In 1909 the appropri- 
ations for these purposes amounted to .?12,000. The 
other denominational schools are distributed as fol- 
lows: Presbyterian, 25; Congregational, 9; Methodist, 
11; Baptist, 2. The territorial (or state) univensity 
was established in 1889 at Albuquerque. It is sup- 
ported by territorial appropriations and land revenues. 
For the year 1909-10 the income was .$40,000. Its 
teaching force consisted, in 1909-10, of 16 professors, 
associate professors, and instructors, and the number 
of students in attendance was 130. There are three 
normal schools, one at Las Vegas, one at El Rito, and 
one at Silver City; a military school at Roswell; a 
school of mines at Socorro; and a college of agriculture 
and mechanic arts at Mesilla Park — the best equipped 
and most efficient school in New Mexico, receiving 
both federal and territorial aid aggregating .$100,000 
a year (1909-10), having a teaching force of 40 profes- 
sors, a.ssistant professors, and instructors, and an at- 
tendance of 285 .students (1909-10). The combined 
valuation of the territory's educational institutions is 
about 81,000,000, while the annual expenditures 
aggregate S275,000. 

Religion. — In 1850, when New Mexico was organ- 
ized as a territory of the United States, it (including, 
till 18()3, Arizona and part of Colorado) was made a 
vicariate Apostolic, under the Rt. Rev. John B. Lamy. 



In 18,53 New Mexico (with exceptions noted below) 
was made the Diocese of Santa F^, and the vicar 
Apostolic became its first bishop. In 1865 this dio- 
cese became the Archdiocese of Santa F6, and Bishop 
Lamy became its first archbishop. The archdiocese 
includes all of New Mexico, except Dona Ana, Eddy, 
and Grant Counties, which belong to the Diocese of 
Tucson. The present Archbishop of Santa F6 is the 
Rt. Rev. John B. Pitaval. The C.itholic population 
of the territory in 1882 was 126,000; in 1906 it was 
121,558 (U. S. Census Bulletin, no. 103, p. 36). But 
the figures for 1882 (given by H. II. Bancroft) must 
include the Catholic population of Arizona and prob- 
ably also of Colorado. In 1906 the Catholics were 
more than 88 per cent of the church membership of 
the territory, which was 137,009, distributed as fol- 
lows : — 

Roman Catholics 121,558 

Methodists 6,560 

Presbyterians 2,935 

Baptists 2,403 

Disciples, or Christians 1,092 

Protestant Episcopalians 869 

Unclassified 1,592 

Total IST^OOg 

At present (1910) the total Catholic population of 
New Mexico mav be estimated at not less than about 
130,000, about 120,000 being of Spanish descent. No 
definite statistics are available on this last point. The 
large Catholic population of New Mexico is due to its 
having been colonized by the Spaniards, whose first 
thought on founding a colony was to build churches 
and estabhsh missions. The recent Cathofic immi- 
gration has been from the Middle West, and this is 
largely Irish. 

Catholics distinguished in Public Life. — The fact 
that until about the year 1890 the population of the 
territory was mostly Spanish, and therefore Catholic, 
is the reason why most of the men who have figured 
prominently in the history of New Mexico have been 
Catholic Spaniards. Among the more prominent 
may be mentioned: Donaciano Vigil, military gov- 
ernor, 1847-48; Miguel A. Otero, territorial secretary, 
1861; delegates to the Federal Congress, Jos6 M. Ga- 
llegos, 1853-54; Miguel A. Otero, 1855-60; Francisco 
Perea, 1863-64; .Jose F. Chaves, 1865-70; Jos6 M. 
Gallegos, 1871-72; Trinidad Romero, 1877-78; Mari- 
ano S. Otero, 1879-80; Tranquilino Luna, 1881-82; 
Francisco A. Manzanares, 1883-4. The treasurers 
and auditors from 1863 to 1886 were all, with but one 
exception. Catholic Spaniards. 

Legislation affecting Religion. — (1) Absolute free- 
dom of wor.ship is guaranteed by the Organic Act con- 
stituting the territory, and by statute preference to 
any religious denomination by law is forbidden. (2) 
Horse-racing and cock-fighting on Sunday are forbid- 
den; labour, except works of necessity, charity, or 
mercy, prohibited, and the offence is punishable by a 
fine of from $5 to $15. (3) No religious test .shall be 
required as a qualification to any office or public trust 
in this territory. Oaths are administered in the usual 
fashion, but an affirmation may be used instead when 
the individual has conscientious scruples against tak- 
ing an oath. (4) No statutory enactment punishing 
blasphemy or profanity has ever been passed in this 
territory. (5) It is customary to open the sessions of 
the Legislature with an invocation of the Supreme 
Being, but there is no statutory authority either for or 
against this ceremony. Until the present time (1910) 
this function has always been diseiiarged by a Catholic 
priest. (6) Christmas is the only religious festival 
observed as a legal holiday in New Mexico. New 
Year's Day is also a legal holiflay, but Good Friday, 
Ash Wednesday, All Souls' Day, etc., are not recog- 
nized. (7) There has been no decision in the courts of 
New Mexico regarding the seal of confession, but it is 



NEW NORCIA 



NEW ORLEANS 



to be presumed that, in the absence of any statutory 
provision covering the point, the courts of the terri- 
tory would follow the general rule: that confession to a 
priest is a confidential communication and therefore 
inviolable. (8) Churches are, in the contemplation of 
the laws of New Mexico, in the category of charitable 
institutions. (9) No religious or charitable institu- 
tion is permitted to hold more than $50,000 worth of 
property; any property acquired or held contrary to 
the aliove prohibition shall be forfeited and escheat to 
(he United States. The property of religious institu- 
tions is exempt from taxation when it is being used 
and devoted exclusively to its appropriate objects, 
and not used with a view to pecuniary profit. The 
clergy are exempt from jury and military service. 
(10) Marriage may be either by religious or by civil 
ceremony. The male must be eighteen years of age, 
and the female fifteen, for marriage with parents' con- 
sent; after the male is twenty-one and the female 
eighteen they may marry regardless of parents' con- 
sent. Marriages between first cousins, uncles, aunts, 
nieces and nephews, half-brothers and sisters, grand- 
parent and grandchildren, are declared incestuous and 
absolutely void. (11) Education in the public schools 
must be non-sectarian. (12) No charitable or reli- 
gious bequests are recognized unless made in writing 
duly attested by the lawful number of witnesses. (13) 
There are no restrictions as to cemeteries other than 
that they must not be near to running streams. (14) 
Divorce may be obtained for cruelty, adultery, de- 
sertion, and for almost every ground recognized as 
sufficient in any state of the tjnion. The party seek- 
ing divorce must have been a bona fide resident of the 
territory for more than a year prior to the date of fil- 
ing the action. Service on the defendant must be per- 
sonal, if the defendant is within the territory ; but may 
be by publication, if the whereabouts of the defendant 
are unknown. Trials of divorce are without a jury. 

BANf'ROFT, H. H., History of New Mexico and Arizona (San 
Francisco, 18S8); Biennial Report of the State Superintendent of 
Puhlic Instruction of New Mexico (Santa F^, 1908) ; Blackmab, 
Spanish InstU-ulions in the Southwest (Baltimore, 1891) ; Compiled 
Laws of New Mexico (Santa Ff , 1897 and 1908) ; Catholic Direc- 
tory for 1910; U. S. Census Bureau, Bulletin no. lOS (Washing- 
ton, 1906) : Enqelhardt, The Missions and Missionaries of Cali- 
fornia, I (San Francisco, 1908); II (San Francisco, 1910); Vl- 
llaqrA, Historia de la Nuem Mcjico (Alcald de Henares, 1610; 
Mexico, 1900); Illustrated History of New Mexico (Los Angeles, 
1907) ; CouES, On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer (tr. of the diary of 
Father Francisco Garc^s) (New York, 1900) ; Report of the Gov- 
ernor of New Mexico to the Secretary of the Interior (Washington, 
1909) ; Shea. History of the Catholic Church in the United States 
(New York, 1892) ; Register of the University of New Mexico. 1909- 
10 (Albuquerque, 1910); Register of the New Mexico College of 
Agriculture and Mechanic Arts (Santa F«, 1910); Pmo, Noticias 
histdricas y estadisticas sobre la antigua provincia del Nuevo Mejico 
(Cadiz, 1812; Mexico, 1839; 1849); The Journey of Antonio de 
Vargas and Conquest of New Mexico in 1891-3 (MS. in Library of 
the New Mexico Historical Society, Santa F6) ; Publications of the 
New Mexico Historical Society (Santa F6, 1898-1910). 

AURELIO M. ESPINOSA. 

New Norcia, a Benedictine abbey in Western Aus- 
tralia, founded on 1 March, 1846, by a Spanish Bene- 
dictine, Rudesindus Salvado, for the christianizing of 
the Australian aborigines. It is situated eighty-two 
miles from Perth, the state capital: its territory is 
bounded on the south and east by the Diocese of Perth, 
and on the north by the Diocese of Geraldton. This 
mission at first had no territory. Its saintly founder, 
like the Baptist of old, lived in the wilderness, leading 
the same nomadic life as the savages whom he had 
come to lead out of darkness. His food was of the 
most variable character, consisting of wild roots dug 
out of the earth by the spears of his swarthy neophytes, 
with hzards, iguanas, even worms in times of distress, 
or, when fortunate in the chase, with the native kan- 
garoo. After three years of unparalleled hardships 
amongst this cannibal race, Salvado came to the con- 
clusion that they were capable of Christianity. As- 
sisted by some friends, he started for Rome in 1849 to 
procure auxiliaries and money to assist him in prose- 



cuting his work of civilization. While in Rome he was 
appointed Bishop of Port Victoria in Northern Aus- 
trafia, being consecrated on 15 August, 1849. Before 
he left Rome, all his people of Port Victoria had aban- 
doned the diocese for the goldfields. Bishop Salvado 
thereupon implored the pope to permit him to return 
to his beloved Australian blacks. He set out for 
Spain, and obtained there monetary assistance and 
over forty young volunteers. All these afterwards 
became Benedictines. They landed in Australia in 
charge of their bishop on 15 August, 18.52. 

Bishop Salvado, with his band of willing workers, 
commenced operations forthwith. They cleared land 
for the plough, and introduced the natives to habits of 
industry. They built a large monastery, schools and 
orphanages for the young, cottages for the married, 
flour-mills to grind their wheat, etc. An important 
village soon sprang up, in which many natives were 
fed, clothed, andmadegood Christians. On 12 March, 
1867, Pius IX made New Norcia an abbey nidlius and 
a prefecture Apostolic with jurisdiction over a terri- 
tory of 16 square miles, the extent of Bishop Salvado's 
jurisdiction until his death in Rome on 29 December, 
1900, in the eighty-seventh year of his age and the 
fifty-first of his episcopate. Father Fulgentius Tor- 
res, O.S.B., was elected Abbot of New Norcia in suc- 
cession to Bishop Salvado on 2 October, 1902. The 
new abbot found it necessary to frame a new policy 
for his mission. Rapid changes were setting in; 
agricultural settlers were taking up the land, driving 
out the sheep and cattle lords, and absorbing the la- 
bour of the civilized natives. The mission had now 
to provide for the spiritual wants of the white popula- 
tion, and Abbot Torres boldly faced the situationby 
entering upon a large scheme of improvements in and 
around the monastery. With the approbation of the 
Holy See, he had the boundaries of the abbey extended 
to embrace the country between 30° and 31° 20' S. 
latitude, and between the sea and 120° E. longitude — 
a territory of over 30,000 sq. miles (nearly as large as 
Ireland or the State of Maine). Abbot Torres 
brought out many priests and young ecclesiastics for 
the monastery and parochial work, and built churches 
in the more settled districts of his new territory. 
Since Abbot Torres became superior in 1901, the num- 
ber of churches has increased from one to ten. To 
foster higher education. Abbot Torres has erected a 
magnificent convent and ladies' college, and has in 
hand a similar institution for boys. He has already 
completed a large and commodious girls' orphanage. 
All these works have been accomplished at the ex- 
pense of the Benedictine community. Abbot Torres 
has not confined his energies solely to New Norcia. 
He founded the " Drysdale River Aborigines Mission ", 
2000 miles away, in the extreme north-west of Aus- 
tralia, an unexplored land inhabited only by the most 
treacherous savages. This mission was opened on 12 
.luly, 1908, with a party of fifteen in charge of two 
priests. 

Abbot Torres was consecrated bishop in Rome on 22 
May, 1910. On the fourth of the same month, by a 
Decree of the Propaganda, he was appointed adminis- 
trator Apostolic of Kimberley, and had the " Drystlale 
Mission " erected into an abbey nullius. He has now 
under his jurisdiction a territory of 174,000 sq. miles^ 
an area nearly as large as five important states of the 
United States — viz., Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, W. 
Virginia, and Maine. The present position (1910) 
of the mission is: churches, 10; priests, 17 (secular, 7) 
monastic students, 9; other religious, 33; mins, 18 
high school, 1; primary schools, 4; charitable institU' 
tions, 2; children attending Catholic schools, 3.50 
Catholic population, 3000. 

James Flood. 

New Orleans, Archdiocese of (Nov^ Auhe- 
Li^), erected 25 ApriV4793, as the Diocese of Sain^ 



NEW ORLEANS 



NEW ORLEANS 



Louia of New Orloaiis; raisod to its present rank and 
title 19 July, 1S50. Its original territory comprised 
the ancient Louisiana Purchase and Kast and 
\\'est Florida, being bounded on the north by the 
Canadian line, on the west by tlic Rocky Mountains 
and the Kio Perdito, on the cast by the Diocese of Ral- 
timore. and on the south bj- tlic Diocese of Linares and 
the Archdiocese of Durango. The jircscnt boundan<'S 
include the State of Louisiana, between the twenty- 
ninth and thirty-first degree of north latitude, an area 
of 28,208 square miles. 'I'he entire territory of 
Louisiana has undergone a series of changes which 
divide its history into four distinct periods. 

L Early Colom.\l Pehiod. — The discoverers and 
pioneers, De Soto, Iberville, La .Salle, Bienville, were 
accompanied by missionaries in their expeditions 
through the Louisiana Purchase, and in the toilsome 
beginnings of the first feeble settlements, which were 
simply military posts, the Cross blazed the way. 
From the beginning of its history, Louisiana had been 
placed under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Quebec; 
m 1696 the priests of the Seminary of Quebec peti- 
tioned the second Bishop of Quebec for authority to 
establish missions in the West, investing the superior 
sent out by the seminary with the powers of vicar-gen- 
eral. The field for which they obtained this authori- 
zation (1 May, 169S) was on both banks of the Missis- 
sippi and its tributaries. They proposed to plant 
their first mission among the Tamarois, but when this 
became known, the Jesuits claimed that tribe as one 
already under their care: they received the now mis- 
sionaries with personal cordiality, but felt keenly the 
official action of Bishop St-Vallier, in what they re- 
garded as an intrusion. Fathers JoUiet de Montigny, 
Antoine Davion, and Frangois Busion de Saint-Cosme 
were the missionaries sent to found the new missions 
in the Mississippi Valley. In 1699 Iberville, who had 
sailed from France, with his two brothers Bienville 
and Sauvolle, and Father Du Ru, S.J., coming up the 
estuary of the Mississippi, found Father Montigny 
among the Tensas Indians. Iber\'ille left Sauvolle in 
command of the little fort at Biloxi, the first perma- 
nent settlement in Louisiana. Father Bordenave was 
its first chaplain, thus beginning the long line of zeal- 
ous parish priests in Louisiana. 

In 1703 Bishop St-Vallier proposed to erect Mobile 
into a parish, and annex it in perpetuity to the sem- 
inary; the seminary agreed, and the Parish of Mobile 
was erected 20 July, 1703, and united to the Seminary 
of Foreign Missions of Paris and Quebec. Father Roul- 
leaux de la Vente, of the Diocese of Bayeux, was ap- 
pointed parish priest and r'ather Huve his assistant. 
The Biloxi settlement being difficult of access from the 
sea, Bienville thought it unsuitable for the headquar- 
ters of the pro\'ince. In 1718, taking with him fifty 
men, he selected Tchoutchouma, the present site of 
New Orleans, about 1 10 miles from the mouth of the 
Mississippi River, where there was a deserted Indian 
village. Bien\nlle directed his men to clear the ground 
and erect buildings. The city was laid out according 
to the plans of the Chevalier Le Blond de La Tour, 
chief engineer of the colony, the plans including a 
parish church, which Bienville decided to dedicate 
under the invocation of St. Louis. The old St. Louis 
cathedral stands on the site of this first parish church, 
and the presbytery in Cathedral Alley is the site of the 
first modest clergy hou.sc. Bienville called the city 
New Orleans after the Due d'Orldans, and the whole 
territorj' Louisiana, or New France. 

In August, 1717, the Due d'Orlilans, as Regent of 
France, issued letters patent establishing a joint- 
stock company to be called "The Company of the 
West", to which Louisiana was transferred. Tlie 
company was obliged to build churches at its own ex- 
pen.se wherever it should establish s<'l-tlements; al.so to 
maintain the necessary number of duly appro\id 
priests to preach, perform Divine service, and admin- 



ister the sacraments under the authority of the Bishop 
of Quebec. Bienville experienced much opposition 
from the Company of tlu; West in his attempt to re- 
move the colony from Biloxi. In 1721 Father P'ran- 
<;ois-Xavier de Charlevoix, S.J., one of the first his- 
torians of Louisiana, made a tour of New France from 
the Lakes to the Mississippi, visiting New Orleans, 
which he describes as "a little village of about one 
hundred cabins dotted here and there, with little at- 
tempt at order, a large wooden warehouse in which I 
said Mass, a chapel in course of construction and two 
storehouses". But under Bienville's dircrliiin the city 
soon took shape, and, willi the eonsent <if the com- 
pany, the colony was moved to this site in 1723. Fa- 
ther Charlevoix reported on the great spiritual desti- 
tution of the province occasioned by the missions 
being scattered so far apart and the scarcity of priests, 
and this compelled the council of the company to 
make efforts to improve conditions. Accordingly, the 
company applied to the Bishop of Quebec, and on 16 
May, 1722, Louisiana was divided into three ecclesias- 
tical sections. The district north of the Ohio was en- 
trusted to the Society of Jesus and the Priests of the 
Foreign Missions of Paris and Quebec ; that between 
the Mississippi and the Rio Perdito, to the Discalced 
Carmelite Fathers, with headquarters at Mobile. The 
Carmelites were recalled, not long after, and their dis- 
trict was given to the Capuchins. 

A different arrangement was made for the Indian 
and new French settlements on the lower Mississippi. 
Because of the remoteness of this district from Que- 
bec, Father Louis-Frangois Duplessis de Mornay, a 
Capuchin of Meudon, was consecrated, at Bishop 8t- 
Vallier's request, coadjutor Bishop of Quebec, 22 
April, 1714. Bishop St-Vallier appointed him vicar- 
general for Louisiana, but he never came to America, 
although he eventually succeeded to the See of Que- 
bec. When the Company of the West applied to him 
for priests for the lower Mississippi Valley he offered 
the more populous field of colonists to the Capuchin 
Fathers of the Province of Champagne, who, however, 
did not take any immediate steps, and it was not 
till 1720 that any of the order came to Louisiana. Fa- 
ther Jean-Matthieu de Saint-Anne is the first whose 
name is recorded. He signs himself in 1720 in the 
register of the parish of New Orleans. The last entry 
of the secular clergy in Mobile was that of Rev. Alex- 
ander Huve, 13 January, 1721. The Capuchins came 
directly from France and consequently found applica- 
tion to the Bishop of Quebec long and tedious; Father 
Matthieu therefore applied to Rome for special pow- 
ers for fifteen missions under his charge, representing 
that the great distance from the Bishop of Quebec 
made it practically impossible for him to apply to the 
bishop. A brief was really issued (Michael a Tugio, 
"Bullarium Ord. FF. Minor. S.P. Francisci Capuci- 
norum", Fol. 1740-52; BLI., pp. 322, 323), and Father 
Matthieu seems to have assumed that it exempted 
him from episcopal jurisdiction, for, on 14 March, 
1723, he signs the register "P^re Matthieu, Vicaire 
Apostolique et Cure de la Mobile". 

In 1722 Bishop de Mornay entrusted the spiritual 
jurisdiction of the Indians to the Jesuits, who were to 
establish missions in all parts of Louisiana with resi- 
dence at New Orleans, but were not to exercise any 
ecclesiastical function there without the consent of the 
Capuchins, though they were to minister to the French 
in the Illinois District, with the Priests of the Foreign 
Missions, where the superior of each body was a vicar- 
general, just as the Capuchin superior was at New Or- 
leans. In the spring of 1723 Father Raphael de Lux- 
embourg .nrrived to asstmie his duties as superior of 
the Capueliin Mission in Louisiana. It was a difficult 
task that the Capuchins had assumed. Their congre- 
gations were scattered over a large area; there was 
much poverty, suffering, and ignorance of religion. 
Father Raphael, in the cathedral archives, says that 



NEW ORLEANS 



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when ho hmded in New Orleans he could hardly secure 
a room for himself and his brethren to occupy pending 
the rebuiltiinf; of the presbytery, much less one to con- 
vert into a chapel; for the population seemed indiffer- 
ent to all that savoured of religion. There were less 
than thirty persons at Mass on Sundays; yet, undis- 
mayed, the missionaries set to work and soon saw 
their zeal rcwardecl with a greater reverence for reli- 
gion and more faitliful attendance at church. In 1725 
New (Jrlcaiis liad liecome an important settlement, 
the CaiUK-hins liaving a flock of six hundred families. 
Mobile had declined to sixty families, the Apalache 
Indians (Catholics) numbered six-ty families, there 
were six at the Balize, two hundred at St. Charles or 
Les Allemandes, one hundred at Point Couple, six at 
Natchez, fifty at Natchitoches and the other missions 
which are not named in the " BuUarium Capucinorum " 
(Vol. VIII, p. 330). 

The founder of the Jesuit Mission in New Orleans 
was Father Nicolas-Ignatius de Beaubois, who was 
appointed vicar-general for his district. He visited 
New Orleans and returned to France to obtain Fa- 
thers of the Society for his mission. Being also com- 
missioned by Bienville to obtain sisters of some order 
to assume charge of a hospital and school, he applied to 
the Ursulines of Rouen, who accepted the call. The 
royal patent authorizing the Ursulines to found a con- 
vent in Louisiana was issued 18 Sept., 1726. Mother 
Mary Tranchepain of St. Augustine, with seven pro- 
fessed nuns from Rouen, Le Havre, Vannes, Ploermel, 
Hennebon, and Elbceuf, a novice, Madeline Hau- 
chard, and two seculars, met at the infirmary at Henne- 
bon on 12 January, 1727, and, accompanied by Fa- 
thers Tartarin and Doutreleau, set sail for Louisiana. 
They reached New Orleans on 6 August to open the 
first convent for women within the present limits of 
the United States of America. As the convent was 
not ready for their reception, the governor gave up his 
own residence to them. The history of the Ursulines 
from their departure from Rouen through a period of 
thirty years in Louisiana, is told by Sister Madeline 
Hauchard in a diary still preserved in the Ursuline 
Convent of New Orleans, and which forms, with Fa- 
ther Charlevoix's history, the principal record of those 
early days. On 7 August, 1727, the Ursulines began 
in Louisiana the work which has since continued with- 
out interruption. They opened a hospital for the care 
of the sick and a school for poor children, also an acad- 
emy which is now the oldest educational institution 
for women in the United States. The convent in 
which the Ursulines then took up their abode still 
stands, the oldest conventual structure in the United 
States and the oldest building within the limits of the 
Louisiana Purchase. In 1824 the Ursulines removed 
to the lower portion of the city, and the old converit 
became first the episcopal residence and then the di- 
ocesan chancery. 

Meanwhile Father Mathurin le Petit, S.J., estab- 
lished a mission among the Choctaws; Father Du 
Poisson, among the Arkansas; Father Doutreleau, on 
the Wabash; Fathers Tartarin and Le Boulenger, at 
Kaskaskia; Father Guymonneau among the Metcho- 
gameas; Father Souel, among the Yazoos; Father 
Baudouin, among the Chickasaws. The Natchez In- 
dians, provoked by the tyranny and rapacity of Cho- 
part, the French commandant, in 1729 nearly de- 
stroyed all these missions. Father Du Poisson and 
Father Souel were killed by the Indians. As an in- 
stance of the faith implanted in the Iroquois about this 
time there was received into the LTrsuline Order at 
New Orleans, Marv Turpin, daughter of a Canadian 
father and an Illinois mother. She died a professed 
nun in 1761, at the age of fifty-two with the distmc- 
tion of being the first American born nun in this coun- 
try. From the beginning of the colony at Biloxi the 
inimigration of women had been small. Bienville 
made constant appeals to the mother country to send 



honest wives and mothers. From time to time shipa 
freighted with girls would arrive; they came over in 
charge of the Grey Nuns of Canada and a priest, and 
were sent by the king to be married to the colonists. 
The Bishop of Quebec was also charged with the duty 
of sending out young women who were known to be 
good and virtuous. As a proof of her respectability, 
each girl was furnished by the bishop with a curiously 
wrought casket; they are known in Louisiana history 
as "casket girls". Each band of girl.s, on arriving at 
New Orleans, was confided to the care of the Ursulines 
until they were married to colonists able to provide 
for their support. Many of the best families of the 
state are proud to trace their descent from "casket 
girls". 

The city was growing and developing ; a better class 
of immigrant was pouring in, and Father Charle- 
voix, on his visit in 1728, wrote to the Duchesse de 
Lesdiguieres: "My hopes, I think, are well founded 
that this wild and desert place, which the reeds and 
trees still cover, will be one day, and that not far dis- 
tant, a city of opulence and the metropolis of a rich 
colony." His words were prophetic: New Orleans 
was fast developing, and early chronicles say that it 
suggested the splendours of Paris. There was a gov- 
ernor with a military staff, bringing to the city the 
manners and splendour of the Court of Versailles, and 
the manners and usages of the mother country 
stamped on Louisiana life characteristics in marked 
contrast to the life of any other American colony. The 
Jesuit Fathers of New Orleans had no parochial resi- 
dence, but directed the UrsuUnes, and had charge of 
their private chapel and a plantation where, in 1751, 
they introduced into Louisiana the culture of the 
sugar-cane, the orange, and the fig. The Capuchins 
established missions wherever they could. Bishop St- 
Vallier had been succeeded by Bishop de Mornay, 
who never went to Quebec, but resigned the see, after 
five years. His successor, Henri-Marie Du Breuil de 
Pontbriand, appointed Father de Beaubois, S.J., his 
vicar-general in Louisiana. The Capuchin Fathers 
refused to recognize Father de Beaubois' authority, 
claiming, under the agreement of the Company of the 
West with the coadjutor bishop, de Mornay, that the 
superior of the Capuchins was, in perpetuity, vicar- 
general of the province, and that the bishop could 
appoint no other. Succeeding bishops of Quebec 
declared, however, that they could not, as bishops, ad- 
mit that the assent of a coadjutor and vicar-general to 
an agreement with a trading company had forever de- 
prived every bishop of Quebec of the right to act as 
freely in Louisiana as in any other part of his diocese. 
This incident gave rise to some friction between the 
two orders which has been spoken of derisively by 
Louisiana historians, notably by Gayarre, as "The 
War of the Capuchins and the Jesuits ' ' . The archives 
of the diocese, as also the records of the Capuchins in 
Louisiana, show that it was simply a question of juris- 
diction, which gave rise to a discussion so petty as to 
be unworthy of notice. Historians exaggerate this be- 
yond all importance, while failing to chronicle the 
shameful spoliation of the Jesuits by the French Gov- 
ernment which suddenly settled the question forever. 

In 1761 the Parliaments of several provinces of 
France had condemned the Jesuits, and measures were 
taken against them in the kingdom. They were ex- 
pelled from Paris, and the Superior Council of Louis- 
iana, following the example, on 9 June, 1763, just ten 
years before the order was suppressed by Clement XI V, 
passed an act suppressing the Jesuits throughout the 
province, declaring them dangerous to royal author- 
ity, to the rights of the bishops, and to the public 
safety. The Jesuits were charged with neglecting 
their mission, with having developed their plantation, 
and with having usurped the office of vicar-general. 
To the first charge the record of their labours was suffi- 
cient refutation;" to the-second, it was assuredly to the 



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credit of the Jesuits that they made their plantation 
BO productive as to inaintiiin tlu-ir missionaries; to tlie 
tliird. the aetion of tl\e liishops of (tuelicc in a])p<iiiit- 
ing the vicar-^eneral and tli;it of llie Suiicrior C'ouncil 
itself in sustaining him wast lie answer. Nevertheless, 
the unjust decree was carried out, the Jesuits' prop- 
erty was confiscated, and they were forbidden to use 
the name of their Societv or to wear tlieir habit. 
Their property was sold" for .?1S0,000. -Ml their 
chapels were levelled to the ground, leaving exjjosed 
even the vaults where the dead were interred. The 
Jesuits were ordered to give up their missions, to re- 
turn to New Orleans and to leave on the first vessel 
sailing for France. The Capuchins forgetting their 
difTorcnce interfered in behalf of the Jesuits: and find- 
ing their petitions unavailing went to the river bank 
to receive the returning Jesuits, offeretl them a home 
alongside of their own, and in every way showed tlieir 
disapproval of the Council's action. The Jesuits 
deepl}- grateful left the Capuchins all the books they 
had been able to save from the spoliation. 

Father Boudoin, S.J., the benefactor of the colony, 
who had introduced the culture of sugar-cane and 
oranges from San Domingo, and figs from Provence, 
a man to whom the people owed much and to whom 
Louisiana to-day owes so much of its prosperity, alone 
remained. He was now seventy-two years old and 
had spent thirty-five in the colony. He was broken 
in health and too ill to leave his room. They dragged 
him through the streets when prominent citizens in- 
tervened and one wealthy planter, Etienne de Bor(5, 
who had first succeeded in the granulation of sugar, 
defied the authorities, and took Father Boudoin to his 
home and sheltered him until his death in 1766. The 
most monstrous part of the order of expulsion was 
that, not only were the chapels of the Jesuits in lower 
Louisiana — many of which were the only places where 
Catholics, whites and Indians, and negroes, could 
worship God — levelled to the ground, but the Council 
carried out the decree even in the Illinois district 
which had been ceded to the King of England and 
which was no longer subject to France or Louisiana. 
They ordered even the vestments and plate to be de- 
livered to the king's attorney. Thus was a vast terri- 
torj' left destitute of priests and altars, and the growth 
of the Church retarded for many years. Of the ten 
Capuchins left to administer to this immense terri- 
tory, five were retained in New Orleans; the remainder 
were scattered over the various missions. It is inter- 
esting to note that the only native Louisiana priest at 
this time and the first to enter the holy priesthood. 
Rev. Bernard Viel, born in New Orleans 1 October, 
1736, was among the Jesuits expelled from the colony. 
He died in France, 1821. The inhabitants of New 
Orleans then numbered four thousand. 

II. Spanish Period. — In 1763 Louisiana was ceded 
to Spain, and Antonio Ulloa was sent over to take pos- 
session. The colonists were bitterly opposed to the 
cession and finally rose in arms against the governor, 
giving him three days in which to leave the town. 
(See LotJisiAN.\.) The Spanish Government resolved 
to purush the parties who had so insulted its represent- 
ative, Don Ulloa, and sent Alexander O'Reilly to as- 
sume the office of governor. Lafr^niere, President of 
the Council, who chiefly instigated the passing of the 
decree expelUng the Jesuits from the colony, and the 
rebelhon against the (Government, was tried by court 
martial and with six of his partners in his scheme, was 
shot in the Place d'Ariries. O'Reillj' reorganized the 

Crovince after the Spanish model, The oath taken 
y the officials shows that the doctrine of the Immacu- 
late Conception was then officially recognized in the 

Spanish dominions. "I appointed 

swear before God . . .to maintain . . . the mystery 
of the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady, the Vir- 
gin Mary." 

The change of government affected ecclesiastical 



jurisdiction. The Province of Louisiana passed under 
the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Santiago de Cuba, the 
Right Rev. Jaime Jo.s6 de Echeverrla, and Spanish 
Cajjuchins began to fill the places of their French 
brethren. Contradictory reports reached the new 
bishop about conditions in Louisiana and he sent 
Father Cirilo de Barcelona with four Spanish Capu- 
chins to New Orleans. These priests were Fathers 
Francisco, Angel do Revillagades, Louis de Quintan- 
ilia, and Alenian. They reached New Orleans, 19 
July, 1773. The genial ways of the French brethren 
seemed scandalous to the stern Spanish disciplinarian, 
and he informed the Bishop of Cuba concerning what 
he considered "lax methods of conduct and adminis- 
tration". Governor Unzaga, however, interfered in 
behalf of the French Capuchins, and wrote to the 
bishop censuring the Spanish friars. This offended 
the bishop and both referred the matter to the Spanish 
Court. The Government expressed no opinion, but 
advised the prelate and governor to compromise, and 
so preserve harmony between the civil and eccelsiasti- 
cal authorities. Some Louisiana historians, Charles 
Gayarr^ among others, speak of the depravity of the 
clergy of that period. These charges are not borne 
out by contemporary testimony; the archives of the 
cathedral witness that the clergy performed their 
work faithfully. These charges as a rule sprang from 
monastic prejudices or secular antipathies. One of 
the first acts of Father Cirilo as pastor of the St. 
Louis Cathedral was to have the catechism printed in 
French and Spanish. 

The Bishop of Santiago de Cuba resolved to remedy 
the deplorable conditions in Louisiana, where confirm- 
ation had never been administered. In view of his 
inability to visit this distant portion of his diocese, he 
asked for the appointment of an auxiliary bishop, who 
would take up his abode in New Orleans, and thence 
visit the missions on the Mississippi as well as those in 
Mobile, Pensacola, and St. Augustine. The Holy See 
appointed Father Cirilo de Barcelona titular Bishop 
of Tricali and auxiliary of Santiago. He was conse- 
crated in Cuba in 1781 and preceded to New Orleans 
where for the first time the people enjoyed the presence 
of a bishop. A saintly man, he infused new life into 
the province. The whole of Louisiana and the Flor- 
idas were under his jurisdiction. According to official 
records of the Church in Louisiana in 1785, the church 
of St. Louis, New Orleans, had a parish priest, four 
assistants; and there was a resident priest at each of 
the following points: Terre aux Boeufs, St. Charles, 
St. John the Baptist, St. James, Ascension, St. Ga- 
briel's at Iberville, Point Coupee, Attakapas, Ope- 
lousas, Natchitoches, Natchez, St. Louis, St. Gene- 
vieve, and at Bernard or Manchac (now Galveston). 
On 25 November, 178.5, Bishop Cirilo appointed as 
parish priest of New Orleans Rev. Antonio Ildefonso 
Morenory Arze de Sedella, one of the six Capuchins 
who had come to the colony in 1779. Father Antonio 
(popularly known as "Pere Antoine") was destined 
to exert a remarkable influence in the colony. Few 
priests have been more assailed by historians, but a 
careful comparison of the ancient records of the cathe- 
dral with the traditions that cluster about his memory 
show that he did not deserve on the one hand the in- 
dignities which Gayarr6 and Shea heap upon him, 
nor yet the excessive honours with which tradition has 
crowned him. From the cathedral archives it has 
been proven that he was simply an earnest priest 
striving to do what he thought his duty amid many 
difficulties. 

In 1787 a number of unfortunate Acadians came at 
the expense of the King of France and settled near 
Plaquemines, Terre aux Boeufs, Bayou Lafourche, 
Attakapas, and Opelousas, adding to the already 
thrifty colony. They brought witli them the precious 
Register of St. Charles aux Mines in Acadia extending 
from 1689 to 1749, only six years before their cruel 



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deportation. These were deposited for safe keeping 
with the priest of St. Gabriel at Iberville and are now 
in the diocesan archives. St. Augustine being re- 
turned to Spain by the treaty of peace of 1783, the 
King of Spain made efforts to provide for the future 
of Catholicism in that ancient province. As many 
English people had settled there and in West Florida, 
notably at Baton Rouge and Natchez, Charles III ap- 
plied to the Irish College for priests to attend the Eng- 
lish-speaking population. Accordingly Rev. Michael 
O'Reilly and Rev. Thomas Hasset were sent to Flor- 
ida. Catholic worship was restored, the city at once 
resuming its own old aspect. Rev. William Savage, a 
clergyman of great repute, Rev. Michael Lamport, Rev. 
Gregory White, Rev. Constantine Makenna, Father 
Joseph Denis, and a Franciscan with six fathers of his 
order, were sent to labour in Louisiana. They were 
distributed through the Natchez and Baton Rouge dis- 
tricts, and were the first Irish priests to come to Louis- 
iana, the pioneers of a long and noble hne to whom 
this archdiocese owes much. In 1787, the Holy See 
divided the Diocese of Santiago de Cuba, erected the 
Bishopric of St. Christopher of Havana, Louisiana, 
and the Floridas, with the Right Rev. Joseph de 
Trespalacios of Porto Rico as bishop, and the Right 
Rev. Cirilo de Barcelona as auxiliary, with the 
special direction of Louisiana and the two Floridas. 
Louisiana thus formed a part of the Diocese of Ha- 
vana. 

Near Fort Natchez the site for a church was pur- 
chased on April 11, 1788. The earliest incumbent of 
whom any record was kept was Rev. Francis Len- 
nan. Most of the people of Natchez were English 
Protestants or Americans, who had sided with Eng- 
land. They enjoyed absolute religious freedom, no 
attempt to proselytize was ever made. On Good 
Friday, 21 March, 1788, New Orleans was swept by a 
conflagration in which nine hundred buildings, in- 
cluding the parish church, with the adjoining convent 
of the Capuchins, the house of Bishop Cirilo and the 
Spanish School, were reduced to ashes. From the 
ruins of the old irregularly built French City rose the 
stately Spanish City, Old New Orleans, practically 
unchanged as it exists to-day. Foremost among the 
public-spirited men of that time was Don Andreas 
Almonaster y Roxas, of a noble Andalusian family and 
royal standard bearer for the colony. He had made a 
great fortune in New Orleans, and at a cost of $50,000 
he built and gave to the city the St. Louis Cathedral. 
He rebuilt the house for the use of the clergy and the 
Charity Hospital at a cost of $114,000. He also re- 
built the town hall and the Cabildo, the buildings on 
either side of the cathedral, the hospital, the boys' 
school, a chapel for the Ilrsulines, and founded the 
Leper Hospital. 

Klean while rapid assimilation had gone on in 
Louisiana. Americans began to make their homes in 
New Orleans and in 1791 the insurrection of San Do- 
mingo drove there many hundreds of wealthy noble 
refugees. The archives of the New Orleans Diocese 
show that the King of Spain petitioned Pope Pius VI 
on 20 May, 1790, to erect Louisiana and the Floridas 
uito a separate see, and on April 9, 1793, a decree for 
the dismemberment of the Diocese of Havana, I<ouisi- 
ana, and the Provinces of East and West Florida was 
issued. It provided for the erection of the See of St. 
Louis of New Orleans, which was to include all the 
Louisiana Province and the Provinces of East and 
West Florida. The Bishops of Mexico, Agalopli, 
Michoacan, and Caracas were to contribute, pro rata, 
a fund for the support of the Bishop of New Orleans, 
until such time as the see would be self-sustaining. 
The decree left the choice of a bishop for the new see 
to the King of Spain, and he on 2.5 April, 1793, wrote 
to Bishop Cirilo relieving him of his office of auxil- 
iary, and directing him to return immediately to Cata- 
lonia with a salary of one thousand dollars a year, 



which the Bishop of Havana was to contribute. 
Bishop Cirilo returned to Havana and seems to have 
resided with the Hospital Friars, while endeavouring 
to obtain his salary, .so that he might return to Europe. 
It is not known where Bishop Cirilo died in poverty 
and humiliation. 

The Right Rev. Lms PeiSalver y Cardenas was ap- 
pointed first bishop of the new See of Saint Louis of 
New Orleans. He was a native of Havana, born 3 
April, 1719, and had been educated by the Jesuits of 
his native city, receiving his degree in the university 
in 1771. He was a priest of irreproachable character, 
and a skillful director of souls. He was consecrated in 
the cathedral of Havana in 1793. The St. Louis 
parish church, now raised to the dignity of a cathe- 
dral, was dedicated 23 December, 1794. A letter from 
the king, 14 August, 1794, decreed that its donor, Don 
Almonaster, was authorized to occupy the most prom- 
inent seat in the church, second only to that of the 
viceregal patron, the intendant of the province, and 
to receive the kiss of peace during the Mass. Don 
Almonaster died in 1798 and was buried under the al- 
tar of the Sacred Heart. 

Bishop Peiialver arrived in New Orleans, 17 July, 
1795. In a rejjort to the king and the Holy See he be- 
wailed the indifference he found as to the practice of 
religious duties. He condemned the laxity of morals 
among the men, and the universal custom of concubin- 
age among the .slaves. The invasion of many persons 
not of the faith, and the toleration of the Government 
in admitting all classes of adventurers for purposes 
of trade, had brought about disrespect for religion. 
He deplored the establishment of trading posts, 
and of a lodge of French Freemasons, which counted 
among its members city officials, officers of the garri- 
son, merchants and foreigners. He believed the peo- 
ple clung to their French traditions. He said that the 
King of Spain possessed "their bodies but not their 
souls". He declared that "even the LTrsuline Nuns, 
from whom good results were obtained in the educa- 
tion of girls, were so decidedly French in their inclina- 
tions that they refused to admit Spanish women, who 
wished to become members of their order and many 
were in tears because they were obliged to read spirit- 
ual exercises in Spanish books". It was a gloomy pic- 
ture he presented : but he set faithfully to work and on 
21 December, 1795, called a synod, the first and only 
one held in the diocese of colonial New Orleans. 
He also issued a letter of instruction to the clergy de- 
ploring the fact that many of his flock were more than 
five hundred leagues away, and how impossible it was 
to repair at one and the same time to all. He en- 
joined the pastors to walk in the footsteps of Jesus 
Christ and in all things to fulfil their duties. This let- 
ter of instruction bearing his signature is preserved in 
the archives of the diocese, and, with the call for the 
synod, forms the only documents signed by the first 
Bishop of New Orleans. 

Bishop Penalver everywhere showed himself active 
in the cause of educational progress and was a gener- 
ous benefactor of the poor. He was promoted to the 
See of Guatemala, 20 July, 1801. Before his depar- 
ture he appointed, as vicars-general, Rev. Thomas 
Canon Hasset and Rev. Patrick Walsh, who became 
officially recognized as "Governors of the Diocese". 

Territorially from this ancient see have been erected 
the Archbishoprics of St. Louis, Cincinnati, St. Paul, 
Dubuque, and Chicago, and the Bishoprics of .Alexan- 
dria, Mobile, Natchez, Galveston, San .'\ntonio. Little 
Rock, St.. Augustine, Kansas City, St. Joseph, Daven- 
port, Cheyenne, Dallas, Winona, Duluth, Concordia, 
Omaha, Sioux Falls, Oklahoma, St. Cloud, Bismarck, 
and Cleveland. 

Right Rev. Francis Porro y Peinade, a Franciscan 
of the Convent of the Holy Apostles, Rome, was ap- 
pointed to succeed Bishop Penalver. But he never 
took possession of the^see. Some old chronicles in 



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Louisiana say that lio was never consecrated; others 
that he w;is. ami ilioil on the eve of leaving Rome. 
Bishop Portion i,8paklins's "Life of Hishop I'laget "), 
sjus that he wa-s translated to the See of Tarrazona. 
The See of New Orleans remaincil vacant many years 
after the departure of Bishop I'cnalver. 

In 1798 the Due d'OrU'ans ^a^ter^vards King Louis- 
Philipi)eof i-'rance) with liis two brothers, the Due de 
MimtpensicT and the Count de Bcaujolais, visited 
New Orleans. They were received with honour, and 
when Louis-Philippe became King of France lie re- 
membered many of those who had entertained him 
when in exile, and was generous to the Church in the 
old French province. 

IIL FuKNCH .\ND American Period. — By the 
Treaty of San Ildefonse, the Spanish King on 1 Octo- 
ber, ISOO, engaged to letrocede Louisiana to the 
French Kepublic .«ix months after certain conditions 
and stipulations had been executed on the part of 
France, and the Holy See deferred the appointment of 
a bi.shop. 

On 30 April, 1803, without waiting for the actual 
transfer of the province, Napoleon Bonaparte by the 
Treaty of Paris sold Louisiana to the United States. 
De Laussat, the French Commissioner, had reached 
New Orleans on 26 March, 1S03, to take possession of 
the province in the name of France. Spain was pre- 
paring to evacuate and general confusion prevailed. 
Very Rev. Thomas Hasset, the administrator of the 
diocese, was directed to adclress each priest and ascer- 
tain whether they preferred to return with the Si^an- 
ish forces or remain in Louisiana; also to obtain from 
each parish an inventory of the plate, vestments, and 
other articles in the Church which had been given by 
the Spanish Government. Then came the news of the 
cession of the province to the United States. On 30 
April, 1803, De Lau.ssat formally surrendered the col- 
ony to the United States commissioners. The people 
felt it keenly, and the cathedral archives show the dif- 
ficulties to be surmounted. Father Hasset, as admin- 
istrator, issued a letter to the clergy on 10 June, 1803, 
aimouncing the new domination and notifying all of 
the permission to return to Spain if they desired. Sev- 
eral priests signified their desire to follow the Spanish 
standard. The question of withdrawal was also dis- 
cussed by the Ursuline Nuns. Thirteen out of the 
twenty-one choir nuns were in favour of returning to 
S[)ain or going to Havana. De Laussat went to the 
convent and assured them that they could remain un- 
molested. Notwithstanding this Mother St. Monica 
and eleven others, with nearly all the lay sisters ap- 
plied to the Marquis de Casa Calvo to convey them to 
Havana. Six choir nuns and two lay sisters remained 
to begin again the work in Louisiana. They elected 
Mother St. Xavier Fargcon as superioress, and re- 
sumed all the exercises of community life, maintaining 
their academy, day school, orphan asylum, hospital 
and instructions for coloured people in catechism. Fa- 
ther Hasset wrote to Bishop Carroll, 23 December, 
1803, that the retrocession of the province to the 
United States of America impelled him to present to 
his consideration the present ecclesiastical state of 
Louisiana, not doubting that it would soon fall under 
his jurisdiction. The ceded province consisted of 
twenty-one parishes some of which were vacant. 
"The churches were", to use his own words, "all de- 
cent temples and comfortably supplied with orna- 
ments and everything necessary for divine services. 
... Of twenty-six ecclesiastics in the province only 
four had agreed to continue their respective stations 
under the French Government; and whether any more 
would remain under that of the Uni(r<l States only 
God knew." Father Ha.sset .said thai for his own part 
he felt that lie could not with projiricty, reliii(|uish his 
post, and con.sequentlv awaited suiicriiirorders to take 
his departure. He said that the Rev. Patrick Walsh, 
vicar-general and auxiliary governor of the diocese, 



Iiad declared that lie would not abandon his post pro- 
vitling he could hold it with propriety. Father 1 las.set 
died in April 1804. Father Antonio Sedclla had re- 
turned to New Orleans in 1791, and resumed his du- 
ties as parish priest of the St. Louis Cathedral to 
which he had Ix'cii apjiointcd liy Bishop Cirilo. After 
the (session a dispute arose between him and Father 
Walsh, and the latter, 27 March, 180.5, established the 
Ursuline Con\-ent as the only place in the parish for 
the administration of the sacraments and the cele- 
bration of the Divine Office. On 21 March, 1804, 
the Ursulines addressed a letter to Thomas JefTerson, 
President of the United States, in which they solicited 
the passage of an Act of Congress guaranteeing their 
property and rights. The president replied reassuring 
the Ursulines. "The principles of the constitution of 
the United States", he wrote, "are a sure guaranty 
to you that it will be preserved to you sacred and 
inviolate, and that your Institution will be per- 
mitted to govern itself according to its own voluntary 
rules without interference from the civil authority. 
Whatever diversity of shades may appear in the re- 
ligious opinions of our fellow citizens, the charitable 
objects of your Institution cannot be of indilTerence to 
any; and its furtherance of the wholesome purpose by 
training up its young members in the way they should 
go, cannot fail to insure the patronage of the govern- 
ment it is under. Be assured that it will meet with all 
the protection my office can give it." 

Father Walsh, administrator of the diocese, died on 
22 August, 1806, and was buried in the UrsuHne chapel. 
The Archiepiscopal See of Santo Domingo, the metro- 
poUtan of the province, to which the Diocese of Louis- 
iana and the Floridas belonged, was vacant, and not 
one of the bishops of the Spanish province would in- 
terfere in the New Orleans Diocese, though the Bishop 
of Havana extended his authority once more over the 
Florida portion of the diocese. As the death of Father 
Walsh left the diocese without any one to govern it. 
Bishop Carroll, who had meanwhile informed himself of 
the condition of atTairs, resolved to act unfler the decree 
of 1 Sept., 1805, and assume administration. Father 
Antoine had been openly accused of intriguing against 
the Government; but beyond accusations made to 
Bishop Carroll there is nothing to substantiate them. 
He was much loved in New Orleans and some of his 
friends desired to obtain the influence of the French 
Government to have him appointed to the Bishopric of 
Louisiana. However, there is in the archives of the 
New Orleans cathedral a letter from Father Antoine 
to the Bishop of Baltimore declaring that having 
heard that some members of the clergy and laity had 
applied to Rome to have him appointed to the Bish- 
opric of Louisiana, he hereby declared to the Bishop 
of Baltimore that he could not consider the proposi- 
tion, that he was unworthy of the honour and too old to 
do any good. He would be grateful to the bishop if he 
would cut short any further efforts in that direction. 

Bishop Carroll wrote to James Madison, secretary 
of State (17 November, 1806) in regard to the Church 
in Louisiana, and the recommending of two or three 
clergymen one of whom might be appointed Bishop of 
New Orleans. Mr. Madison replied that the matter 
being purely ecclesiastical the Government could not 
interfere. He seemed, however, to share the opinions 
of Bishop Carroll in regard to the character and rights 
of Father Antoine. In 1806 a decree of the Propaganda 
confided Louisiana to the care of BLshop Carroll of Bal- 
timore, and created him administrator Apostolic. He 
appointed Rev. John Olivier (who had been at Caho- 
kia until 1803), Vicar-General of Louisiana and chap- 
lain of the LTrsuline Nuns at New Orleans. Father 
Olivier presented his documents to the Governor of 
Louisiana, and also wrote to Father Antoine Sedclla 
apprising him of the action of the Propaganda. leather 
Antoine called upon Father Olivier, but he was not 
satisfied as to Bishop Carroll's authorization. The 



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11 



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vicar-general published the decree and the bishop's 
lottpi- at t ho convent chapel. The Rev. Thomas Flynn 
wmti' I'nim St. Louis, 8 Nov., 1806, that the trustees 
wiiv:il>niii 1(1 install him. He describes the church as 
a t;ouil (•ur with a tolerably good bell, a high altar, and 
conmioilious pews. The house for the priest was con- 
venient but in need of repair. Except Rev. Father 
Maxwell there was scarcely a priest in Upper 
Louisiana in 1807. 

As tlie original rescript issued by the Holy See to 
Bishop Carroll had not been so distinct and clear as to 
obviate objections, he applied to the Holy See asking 
that more ample and distinct authorization be sent. 
The Holy See placed the Province of Louisiana under 
Bishop Carroll who was requested to send to the New 
Orleans Diocese either Rev. Charles Nerinckx or some 
secular or regular priest, with the rank of administra- 
tor Apostolic and the rights of an ordinary to continue 
only at the good will of the Holy See according to in- 
structions to be forwarded by the Propaganda. Bishop 
Carroll did not act immediately, but on 18 August, 
1812, appointed the Rev. Louis C!. V. Dubourg Admin- 
istrator Apostolic of the Diocese of Louisiana and the 
two Floridas. Dr. Dubourg's authority was at once 
recognized by Father Antoine and the remainder of 
the clergy. The war between the United States and 
Great Britain was in progress and as the year 1814 
drew to a close. Dr. Dubourg issued a pastoral letter 
calling upon the people to pray for the success of the 
American arms. During the battle of New Orleans 
(8 January, 1815) Gen. .\ndrew Jackson sent a mes- 
senger to the Ursuline Convent to ask for prayers for 
his success. When victory came he sent a courier 
thanking the sisters for their prayers, and he decreed a 
public thanksgiving; a solemn high Mass was cele- 
brated in the St. Louis Cathedral, 2.3 January, 181.5. 
The condition of religion in the diocese was not en- 
couraging, seven out of fourteen parishes were vacant. 
Funds were also needed, and Dr. Dubourg wont to 
Rome to ask for aid for his diocese. There the Propa- 
ganda appointed him bishop, 18 September, 1818, and 
on 24 September he was consecrated by Cardinal 
Joseph Pamfili (see Dubourg). 

Bishop Dubourg proposed the division of the dio- 
cese and the erection of a see in Upper Louisiana, but 
the news of troubles among the clergy in New Orleans 
and the attempt of the trustees to obtain a charter 
depriving the bishop of his cathedral so alarmed him 
that he solicited the Propaganda to allow him to take 
up his residence in St. Louis and establish his seminary 
and other educational institutions there. He sailed 
from Bordeaux for New Orleans (28 June, 1817), 
accompanied by five priests, four subdeacons, eleven 
seminarians, and three Christian Brothers. He 
took possession of the church at St. Genevieve, a 
ruined wooden structure, and was installed by Bishop 
Flaget. He then established the Lazarist Seminary 
at Bois Brule ("The Barrens"), and brought from 
Bardstown, where they were temporarily sojourn- 
ing, Father Andreis, Father Rosati, and the semi- 
narians who had accompanied him from Europe. 
The Brothers of the Christian Doctrine opened 
a boys' school at St. Genevieve. At his request 
the Religious of the Sacred Heart, comprising Mes- 
dames Philippe Duchesne, Berthold, Andre,and two 
lay sisters reaching New Orleans, 30 May, 1818, 
proceeded to St. Louis and opened their convent at 
Florissant. In 1821 they established a convent at 
Grand Ooteau, Louisiana. The Faith made great prog- 
ress throughout the diocese. On 1 Januari', 1821, 
Bishop Dubourg held the first synod since the Pur- 
chase of Louisiana. Where he had found ten super- 
annuated priests there were now forty active, zealous 
men at work. Still appeals came from all parts of the 
immense diocese for jiriests; among others he received 
a letter from the banks of the Columbia in Oregon 
begging liim to send a priest to minister to 1500 Cath- 



olics there who had never had any one to attend to 
them. The Ursuline Nuns, frequently annoyed by 
being summoned to court, appealed to the Legisla- 
ture claiming the privileges they had enjoyed under 
the French and Spanish dominations. Their ancient 
rights were recognized and a law was passed, 28 Janu- 
ary, 1818, enacting that where the testimony of a nun 
was required it should be taken at the convent by 
commission. It had a far-reaching effect in later days 
upon legislation in the United States in similar cases. 

Spain by treaty ceded Florida to the United States, 
22 February, 1818, and Bishop Dubourg was then 
able to extend his episcopal care to that part of his 
diocese, the vast extent of which prompted him to 
form plans for the erection of a metropolitan see west 
of the AUeghanies. This did not meet with the ap- 
proval of the bishops of the United States; he then 
proposed to divide the Dioc&se of Louisiana and the 
Floridas, establishing a see at Nev/ Orleans embracing 
Lower Louisiana, Mississippi, .Alabama, and Florida. 
Finally, 13 August, 1822, the Vicariate Apostolic of 
Mississippi and Alabama was formed with the Rev. 
Joseph Rosati, elected Bishop of Tenagra, as vicar 
Apostolic. But Archbishop Marcchal of Baltimore 
remonstrated because in establishing this vicariate, 
the Propaganda had inadvertently invaded the rights 
of the Archbishop of Baltimore as the whole of those 
States except a small portion south of the thirty-first 
degree between Perdido and Pearl River belonged to 
the Diocese of Baltimore. Bishop Rosati also wrote 
representing the poverty and paucity of the Catholics 
in Mississippi and Alabama, and the necessity of his 
remaining at the head of the seminary. Finally his 
arguments and the protests of the Archbishop of Bal- 
timore prevailed, and the Holy See suppressed the vi- 
cariate, appointing Dr. Rosati coadjutor to Bishop 
Dubourg to reside at St. Louis. Bishop Rosati was 
consecrated by Bishop Dubourg. at Donaldsonville, 25 
March, 1824, and proceeded at once to St. Louis. 
In 1823 Bishop Dubourg took up the subject of the 
Indian Missions and laid before the Government the 
necessity of a plan for the civilization and conversion 
of the Indians west of the Mississippi. His plan met 
with the approval of the Government and an allowance 
of $200 a year was assigned to four or five missionaries, 
to be increased if the project proved successful. 

On 29 August, 1825, Alabama and the Floridas were 
erected into a vicariate Apostolic, with the Rev. 
Michael Portier the first bishop. The Holy See di- 
vided the Diocese of Louisiana (18 July, 182f)) and 
established the See of New Orleans with Louisiana as 
its diocese, and the Vicariate Apo.stolic of Mississippi 
to be administered by the Bishop of New Orleans. 
The country north of Louisiana was made the Diocese 
of St. Louis, Bishop Rosati being transferred to that 
see. Bishop Dubourg, though a man of vast projects 
and of great service to the Church, was little versed 
in business methods; discouraged at the difliculties 
that rose to thwart him he resigned his see and was 
transferred to Montauban. Bishop Rosati, appointed 
to the See of New Orleans, declined the appointment 
urging that his knowledge of English qualified him to 
labour better in Missouri, Illinois, and Arkansas, while 
he was not sufficiently versed in French to address the 
people of New Orleans with success. On 20 March, 
1827, the papal Brief arrived permitting hirn to re- 
main in St. Louis but charging him for a while with 
the administration of the See of New Orleans. He 
appointed th<> Rev. Leo Raymond de Neckere, CM., 
vicar-general, and strongly recommended his appoint- 
ment for the vacant see. Father de Neckere, then 
in Belgium whither he had gone to recuperate his 
health, was summoned to Rome and appointed bishop. 
Returning to Now Orleans he was consecrated, 16 
May, 1830. Bishop de Neckere was born, June, 
1800, at Wevelghem, Belgium, and while a seminarian 
at Ghent, was acceptedf or the Diocese of New Orleans 



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12 



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by Bishop DubourR. He joined tlip Lazarists and 
was ordained in8t. I.ouis, ^IissouI•i, 13 October, 1822. 
On 23 February, 1S32, lie convoked a synod attended 
by twenty-one i>riesls. Regulations were promulgated 
for better discipline and steps were taken to form an 
association for the dissemination of good literature. 

Americans were now pouring into New Orleans. 
The ancient French limits had long since disappeared. 
Such w;is the entcrjirise on all sides th;it in 1S30 New 
Orleans ranke<l in iinportance inmiediately after New 
York, Philadelphia, and Boston. It \v;i.s the greatest 
cotton and sugar market in the world. Irish emigration 
also set in, and a church for the English-speaking peo- 
ple was an absolute necessity as the cathedral and the 
old I'rsuline chapel were the only places of worship in 
New Orleans. X site was bought on Camp Street 
near Julia, a frame church, St. Patrick's, was erected 
and detlicatcd on 21 April, 1S33. Rev. Adam Kinde- 
lon was the pastor of this, the first English-speaking 
congregation of New Orleans. The foundation of 
this parish was one of tlie last official acts of Bishop de 
Neckere. The year was one of sickness and death. Chol- 
era and yellow fever raged. The priests were kept busy 
day and" night, and the vicar general. Father B. Rich- 
ards, and Fathers Martial, Tichitoli.Kindelon fell vic- 
tims to their zeal. Bishop de Neckere, who had retired 
to a convent at Convent, La., in hope of restoring his 
shattered health, returned at once to the city upon the 
outbreak of tlie epidemic, and began visiting and min- 
istering to the plague-stricken. Soon he too was seized 
with fever and succumbed ten days later, 5 September, 
1833. Just before the bishop's death there arrived in 
New Orleans a priest who was destined to e.xercise for 
many years an influence upon the life and progress of 
the Church and the Commonwealth, Father James 
Ignatius Mullen; he was immediately appointed to 
the vacant rectorship of St. Patrick's. Upon the 
death of Bishop de Neckere, Fathers Anthony Blanc 
and V. Lavadiere, S.J., became the administrators of 
the diocese. In November, undismayed by the epi- 
demic which still continued, a band of Sisters of Char- 
ity set out from Emmitsburg, to take charge of the 
Charity Hospital of New Orleans. The sisters had 
come into the diocese about 1832 to assume the direc- 
tion of the Poydras Asylum, erected by Julian Poy- 
dras. a Huguenot. Seven of the new colony from 
Emmitsburg were sent to the Asylum and ten to the 
Charity Hospital. Bishop de Neckere had invited 
the Tertiary Sisters of Mount Carmel to make a foun- 
dation in New Orleans, which they did on 22 October, 
1833, a convent school and orphanage being opened. 

Father Augustine Jeanjean was selected by Rome 
to fill the episcopal vacancy, but he decUned and 
Father .\nthony Blanc was appointed and consecrated 
on 22 November, 1835 (seeBLANC, Anthony). Bishop 
Blanc knew the great want of the diocese, the need of 
priests, whose ranks had been decimated by age^ pes- 
tilence, and overwork. To meet this want Bishop 
Blanc asked the Jesuits to establish a college in Louisi- 
ana. They arrived on 22 January, 1837, and opened 
a college at Grand Coteau on .5 January, 1838. He 
then invited the Lazarists and on 20 December, 1838, 
they arrived and at once opened a diocesan seminary 
at Bayou Lafourche. In 1836, Julian Poydras having 
died, the Asyium wdiich he founded passed entirely 
under Presbj'terian auspices, and the Sisters of Char- 
ity being compelled to relinquish the direction, St. 
Patrick's Orphan .'\sylum, now New Orleans Female 
Orphan .\sylum, was founded and placed under their 
care. In 1841 the Sisters Marianites of Holy Cross 
came to New Orleans to assume charge of St. Mary's 
Orphan Boys' Asylum. They opened also an Acad- 
emy for young ladies and the Orphanage of the Immac- 
ulate Conception for girls. The wants of the coloured 
people also deeply concerned Bishop Blanc, and he 
worked assiduously for the proper spiritual care of the 
slaves. After the insurrection of San Domingo in 



1793 a large number of free coloured people from tliat 
inland who were slave-holders thems<'Ivcs took refuge 
in New Orleans. Thus was created a free colnuicd 
))opulation among which succc'ssive cpideinics jilayed 
havoc leaving agi'd and orphans to lie cared for. Ac- 
cordiiiglv in IS 12 Hi.shdp Hlaiie and Father Kousselon, 
V.G., founded the Si.sters of the Holy Family, whose 
duty was the care of the coloured orphans and tlie aged 
coloured poor. It was the first coloured sisterhood 
foundeil in the United States, and one of the only two 
that exist. 

Bishop Blanc planned the erection of new parishes 
in the City of New Orleans, and St. Joseph's and the 
Annunciation were founded in 1844. The foundation 
of these parishes greatly diminished the congregation 
of the cathedral and the trustees seeing their influence 
waning entered upon a new war against religion. 
Upon the death of Father Aloysius Moni, Bishop Blanc 
appointed Father C. Maenhaut rector of the cathe- 
dral, but the wardens refused to recognize his appoint- 
ment, claiming the right of patronage formerly en- 
joyed by the King of Spain. They brought an action 
against the bishop in the parish court, but the judge 
decided against the trustees, and the case was appealed 
to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court decided 
that the right to nominate a parish priest, or the jus 
patronatus of Spanish law, was abrogated in the state, 
and the decision of the Holy See was sustained. But 
the wardens refused to recognize this decision and 
the bishop ordered the clergy to withdraw from the 
cathedral and parochial residence. One of the mem- 
bers of the board, who was a member of the city 
council, obtained the passage of a law punishing by 
fine any priest who should perform the burial service 
over a dead body except in the old mortuary chapel 
erected in 1826 as part of the cathedral parish. Under 
this ordinance Rev. Bernard Permoli was prosecuted. 
The old chapel had long outlived its purpose, and on 
19 December, 1842, Judge Preval decided the ordi- 
nance illegal, and the Supreme Court of the United 
States sustained his decision. The faithful of St. 
Patrick's parish having publicly protested against the 
outrageous proceedings, the tide of public opinion .set 
in strongly against the men who thus defied all church 
authority. In January, 1843, the latter submitted 
and received the parish priest appointed by the bishop. 
Soon after the faithful Catholics of the city petitioned 
the Legislature to amend the Act incorporating the 
cathedral, and bring it into harmony with ecclesiasti- 
cal discipline. Even after the decision of the Legis- 
lature the bishop felt that he could not treat with the 
wardens as they defied his authority by authorizing 
the erection of a monument to Freemasons in the 
Catholic cemetery of St. Louis. To free the faithful, 
he therefore continued to plan for the organization of 
parishes and the erection of new churches. Only one 
low Mass was said at the cathedral, and that on Sun- 
day. Bishop Blanc convened the third synod of the 
diocese on 21 April, at which the clergy were warned 
against yielding to the illegal claims of trustees, and 
the erection of any church without a deed being first 
made to the bishop was forbidden. For the churches 
in which the trustees system still existed special regu- 
lations were made, governing the method of keeping 
accounts. At the close of 1844 the trustees, defeated 
in the courts and held in contemi)t by public opinion 
throughout the diocese, yielded completely to Bishop 
Blanc. 

This controversy terminated, a period of remarkable 
activity in the organization of parishes and the build- 
ing of new churches set in. The cornerstone of St. 
Mary's, intended to replace the old LTrsuline chapel 
attached to the bishop's house, was laid on 16 Feb., 
184,5; that of St. Joseph's on 16 April, 1846; that of 
the Annunciation on 10 May, 1846. The Redemptor- 
ists founded the parish of the Assumption, and were 
installed in its church on 22 Oct., 1847. "The parish 



NEW ORLEANS 



13 



NEW ORLEANS 



of Mater Dolorosa at Carrollton (then a suburb) was 
founded on 8 Sept.; that of the Holy Name of Mary at 
Algiers on IS Dec, 1848. In 1849 St. Stephen's par- 
ish in the then suburb of Bouligny under the Lazarist 
Fathers and Sts. Peter and Paul came into existence. 
The corner-stone of the Redemptorist church of St. 
Alphonsus was laid by the famous Apostle of Temper- 
ance, Father Theobald ISIathew, on 11 April, 1850; 
two years later it was found necessary to enlarge this 
church, and a school was added. In 1851 the founda- 
tion-stone of the church of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion was laid, on the site of a humbler edifice erected 
in 1848. This is said to have been the first church in 
the world dedicated to the Immaculate Conception. 
The parishes of St. John the Baptist in the upper town 
and of St. Anne in the French quarter were organized 
in 1852. 

The French congregation of Notre-Dame de Bon 
Secours was organized on 16 Jan., 1858. In the 
midst of great progress yellow fever broke out and five 
priests and two Sisters of Charity swelled the roll 
of martyrs. The devoted services of the Sisters of 
Charity, especially during the ravages of the yellow 
fever, in attending the sick and caring for the orphans 
were so highly appreciated by the Legislature that in 
1846 the State made them a grant of land near Donald- 
sonville for the opening of a novitiate, and a general 
subscription was made throughout the diocese for 
this purpose. The sisters established themselves in 
Donaldsonville the same year. 

In 1843, anxious to provide for the wants of the in- 
creasing German and Irish emigration, Bishop Blanc 
had summoned the Congregation of the Redemptorists 
to the diocese and the German parish of St. Mary's 
Assumption was founded by Rev. Czackert of that 
congregation. In 1847 the work of the Society of 
Jesus in the diocese, which had been temporarily 
suspended, was resumed imder Father Maisounabe as 
superior, and a college building was started on 10 June. 
In the following year Father Maisounabe and a bril- 
liant young Irish associate, Father Blackney, fell vic- 
tims to yellow fever. The population of New Orleans 
now numbered over fifty thousand, among whom were 
many German immigrants. Bishop Blanc turned over 
the old UrsuUne chapel to the Germans of the lower 
portion of the city, and a church was erected, which 
finally resulted in the foundation of the Holy Trinity 
parish on 26 October, 1847. In 1849 the College of St. 
Paul was opened at Baton Rouge. On 1.3 July, 1852, 
St. Charles College became a corporate institution with 
Rev. A. J. Jourdan, S.J., as president. In 1849 Bishop 
Blanc attended the Seventh Council of Baltimore at 
which the bishops expressed their desire that the See 
of New Orleans be raised to metropolitan rank. On 
19 July, 1850, Pius X established the Archdiocese of 
New Orleans, Bishop Blanc being raised to the archi- 
episcopal dignity. The Province of New Orleans 
was to embrace New Orleans with Mobile, Natchez, 
Little Rock, and Galveston as suffragan sees. The 
spirit of Knownothingism invaded New Orleans as 
other parts of the United States, and Archbi.shop 
Blanc found himself in the thick of the battle. Public 
debates were held, conspicuous among those who did 
yeoman service in crushing the efforts of the party in 
Louisiana being the Hon. Thos. J. Semmes, a dis- 
tinguished advocate, Rev. Francis Xavier Leray and 
Rev. N. J. Perche, both afterwards Archbishop of New 
Orleans. Father Perche founded (1844) a French 
diocesan journal "Le Propagateur Catholique", 
which vigorously assailed the Knownothing doctrines. 
On 6 June a mob attacked the office of the paper, and 
also made a fierce attack on the Ursuline Convent, 
breaking doors and windows and hurling insults at 
the nuns. 

In 1853 New Orleans was desolated by the worst epi- 
demic of yellow fever in its history, seven priests and 
five sisters being among its victims. On 6 March, 



1854, the School Sisters of Notre Dame arrived in 
New Orleans to take charge of St. Joseph's Asylum, 
founded to furnish homes for those orphaned by the 
epidemic. St. Vincent's Orphan Asylum was also 
opened as a home for foundUngs and infant orphans, 
and entrusted to the Sisters of Charity. On 29 .July, 
1853, the Holy See divided the Diocese of New Or- 
leans, which at that time embraced all Louisiana, and 
established the See of Natchitoches (q. v.). The new 
diocese contained about twenty-five thousand Catho- 
lics, chiefly a rural population, for whom there were 
only seven churches. The Convent of the Sacred Heart 
at Natchitoches was the only religious institution m 
the new diocese. In 1854 Archbishop Blanc went to 
Rome and was present at the solemn definition of the 
dogma of the Immaculate Conception. In his report 
to the Propaganda he describes his diocese as contain- 
ing forty quasi-parishes, each with a church and one or 
two priests and a residence for the clergy; the city had 
eighteen churches. The diocese had a seminary under 
the Priests of the Mission with an average of nine stu- 
dents; the religious orders at work were the Jesuits 
with three establishments. Priests of the Mission with 
three, and Redemptorists with two. The Catholic 
population of 95,000 was made up of natives of French, 
Spanish, Irish, or American origin, French, Germans, 
Spaniards, and Italians. Distinctive Catholic schools 
were increasing. The Ursulines, Religious of the Sa- 
cred Heart, Sisters of Holy Charity, Marianites of the 
Holy Cross, Tertiary Carmelites, School Sisters of 
Notre Dame, and the Coloured Sisters of the Holy 
Family were doing excellent work. Many abuses had 
crept in especially with regard to marriage, but after 
the erection of new churches with smaller parochial 
school districts, religion had gained steadily and the 
frequentation of the sacraments was increasing. 

In 1855 the Fathers of the Congregation of the Holy 
Cross came to New Orleans to establish a manual in- 
dustrial school for the training of the orphan boys who 
had been rendered homeless by the terrible epidemic 
of 1853. They established themselves in the lower 
portion of New Orleans, and became inseparably iden- 
tified with religious and educational progress. In 1879 
they opened their college, which is now one of the lead- 
ing institutions of Louisiana. On 20 January, 1856, 
the First Provincial Council of New Orleans was held, 
and in January, 1858, Archbishop Blanc held the 
fourth diocesan synod. In 1859 the Sisters of the 
Good Shepherd were called by Archbishop Blanc to 
New Orleans to open a reformatory for girls. Bishop 
Blanc opened another diocesan seminary in the same 
year, and placed it in charge of the Lazarist Fathers. 
He convoked the second provincial council on 22 Janu- 
ary, 1860. Just before the second session opened he 
was taken so seriously ill that he could no longer at- 
tend the meetings; he rallied and seemed to regain 
his usual health, but he died 20 June following. 

Right Rev. John Mary Odin, Bishop of Galveston, 
was appointed successor to Archbishop Blanc, and ar- 
rived in New Orleans on the Feast of Pentecost, 1861. 
The Civil War had already begun and excitement was 
intense. All the prudence and charity of the arch- 
bishop were needed as the war progressed. An earnest 
maintainer of discipline. Archbishop Odin found it 
necessary on 1 January, 1863, to issue regulations re- 
garding the recklessness and carelessness that had pre- 
vailed in the temporal management of the churches 
the indebtedness of which he had been compelled to 
assume to save them from bankruptcy. The regula- 
tions were not favourably received, and the arch- 
bishop visited Rome returning in the .spring of 1863, 
when he had obtained the approval of the Holy See 
for his course of action. It was not till some time later 
that through his charity and zeal he obtained the cor- 
dial support he desired. His appeals for priests while 
in Europe were not unheeded and early in 1SG3 forty 
seminarians and five Ursulines arrived with Bishop Du- 



NEW ORLEANS 



14 



NEW ORLEANS 



buis of Galveston. Among the priests were Fathers 
Gustave A. Rouxel. later Auxiliary Bishop of New Or- 
leans under Archbishop Chapelle, Thomas lleslin, 
afterwards Bishop of Natchez, and J. K. Bogaerts, 
vicar-gencral under Archbishop Janssens. In IStiO the 
Dominican Nuns from Cabra, Ireland, came to New 
Orleans to take charge of St. John the Baptist School 
and open an academy. In 1804 the Sisters of Mercy 
came to the city to assume charge of St. .Mphonsus' 
School and .Vsylum and open a convent and boariling- 
school, and the Marists were ofF(>r('<l the Church of St. 
Michael at Convent. La. On 12 July, lSli4, they as- 
sumed charge of Jefferson College founded by the 
State in 1S;3.5, and donated to them by Valcour.\ime, a 
wealthy planter. The diocese was incorporated on 15 
Augvist. 1800, the legal name and title being "The Ro- 
man Catholic Church of the Dioce.so of New Orleans". 
In ISO" during a terrible epidemic of yellow fever and 
cholera. Fathers Spies.sberger and Seelos of the Re- 
demptorists died martvTs of charity. Father .Seelos 
was regarded as a saint and the cause of his beatifica- 
tion has been introduced in Rome (190.5). In 1806, 
o^vingto financial trials throughout the South, the di- 
ocesan .seminary wasclosed. In Februarj', 1868, .\rch- 
bishop Odin founded "The Morning Star" as the offi- 
cial organ of the Archdiocese, which it has continued 
to be. 

During the nine years of Bishop Odin's administra- 
tion he nearly doubled the number of his clergy and 
churches. He attended the Council of the Vatican, 
but was obUged to leave Rome on the entry of the 
Garibaldian troops. His health was broken and 
he returned to his native home, .\mbierle, France, 
where he died on 25 May, 1870. He was born on 25 
February, 1801, and entered the Lazarists. He came 
as a no\"ice to their seminary. The Barrens, in St. 
Louis, where he completed his theological studies and 
received ordination (see Galveston, Diocese of). 
He was an excellent administrator and left his diocese 
free from debt. 

Archbishop Odin was succeeded by the Rev. Napo- 
leon Joseph Perche, bom at Angers, France, January, 
1805, and died on 27 December, 188.3. The latter com- 
pleted his studies at the Seminary of Beaupre, was or- 
dained on 19 September, 1829, and sent to Murr near 
Angers where he worked zealously. In 1837 he came to 
America with Bishop Flaget and was appointed pastor 
of Portland. He came to New Orleans with Bishop 
Blanc in 1841, and he soon became famous in Louis- 
iana for his eloquence and learning. Archbishop Odin 
petitioned Rome for the appointment of Father 
Perche as his coadjutor with the right of succession. 
His request was granted and, on 1 May, 1870, Father 
Perche was consecrated in the cathedral of New Or- 
leans titular Bishop of .\bdera. He was promoted to 
the see on 25 May, 1870. One of his first acts was 
the re-establishment of the diocesan seminar>'. The 
Benedictine Nuns were received into the diocese in 
1870. 

The Congregation of the Immaculate Conception, a 
diocesan sisterhood, was founded in the year 1873 by 
Father Cj-prien Venissat, at Labadieville, to afford 
education and assistance to the children of families 
impoverished by the war. In 1875 the Poor Clares 
made a foimdation, and on 21 November, 1877, the 
Discalced Carmelite Nuns of St. Louis sent two mem- 
bers to make a foundation in New Orleans, their mon- 
astery being opened on 11 May, 1878. In 1878 the 
new parish of the Sacred Heart of Jesus was organized 
and placed in charge of the Holy Cross Fathers from 
Indiana. On 12 October, 1872, the Sisters of Perpet- 
ual Adoration opened their missions and schools in 
New Orieans. In 1879 the Holy Cro,ss Fathers opened 
a college in the lower portion of the city. Owing to the 
financial difficulties it was ncccs-sarj- to clo.se the di- 
ocesan .seminary in 18,81. Archbishop Perche was a 
great scholar, but he lacked administrative abihty. In 



his desire to relieve Southern families ruined by the 
'war, he gave to all largely and royally, and thus 
plunged the diocese into a debt of over $tiOO,000. He 
was growing very feeble and an application was made 
to Rome for a coadjutor. 

Bishop Francis Xavier Leray of Natchitoches was 
transferred to New Orleans as coadjutor and Apostolic 
administrator of affairs on 23 October, 1879, and at 
once set to work to liquidate the immen.se debt. It 
w:is during the administration of Archbishop Perche 
and the coadjutorship of Bishop Leray that the Board 
of Trustees of the cathedral which formerly had caused 
so much trouble passed out of existence in July. 1881, 
and transferred all the cathedral property to Arch- 
bishop Perche and Bishop Leraj- jointly, for the bene- 
fit and use of the Catholic population. Archbishop 
Leray was born at Chdteau Giron, Brittany, France, 
20 April, 1825. He responded to the appeal for 
priests for the Diocese of Louisiana in 1S43, and com- 
pleted his theological studies at the Sulpician seminary 
in Baltimore. He accompanied Bishop Chanche to 
Natchez and was ordained by him on 19 Marcli, 1852. 
He was a most active missionarj' in the Mississippi 
district and in 1860 when pastor of Vicksburg he 
brought the Sisters of Mercy from Baltimore to estab- 
Ush a school there. Several times during his years 
of activity as a priest he was stricken with yellow 
fever. 

During the Civil War, he ser\-ed as a Con- 
federate chaplain; and on several occasions he was 
taken prisoner by the Federal forces but released as 
soon as the sacred character of his office was estab- 
Ushed. On the death of Bishop Martin he was ap- 
pointed to the See of Natchitoches, and consecrated 
on 22 April, 1877, at Rennes, France; on 23 Octo- 
ber, 1879, he was appointed coadjutor to Archbishop 
Perche of New Orleans and Bishop of Janopolis. His 
most difficult task was the bringing of financial order 
out of chaos and reducing the enormous debt of the 
diocese. In this he met with great success. During 
his administration the debt was reduced by at least 
S300,(K)0. His health, however, became impaired, and 
he went to France in the hope of recuperating, and 
died at Chateau Giron, on 23 September, 1887. 

The see remained vacant for nearly a year, Verj' 
Rev. G. A. Rouxel administering the affairs of the dio- 
cese, until the Right Rev. Francis Janssens, Bishop of 
Natchez, was promoted to fill the vacancy on 7 Au- 
gust, 1888, and took possession on 16 September, 
1888. Archbishop Janssens was born at Tillburg, 
Holland, on 17 October, 1843. At thirteen he began 
his studies in the seminary at Bois-le-Duc; he re- 
mained there ten years, and in 1866 entered the Amer- 
ican College at Louvain, Belgium. He was ordained 
on 21 December, 1867, and arranged to come to Amer- 
ica. He arrived at Richmond in September, 1868, 
and became pa.stor of the cathedral in 1870. He was 
administrator of the diocese pending the appointment 
of the Right Rev. James (later Cardinal) Gibbons to 
the vacant see; Bishop Gibbons appointed him \ncar- 
general, and five years later when he was appointed to 
the Archiepiscopal See of Baltimore, Father Janssens 
became again administrator of the diocese. On 7 
April, 1881, the See of Natchez became vacant by the 
promotion of Right Rev. Wm. Elder as Archbishop 
of Cincinnati and Father Janssens succeeded, ^^'hile 
Bishop of Natchez he completed the cathedral com- 
menced forty years before by Bishop Chanche. Not 
the least of the difficulties that awaited him as .-Vrch- 
bishop of New Orleans was the heavy indebtedness 
resting upon the see and the constant drain thus made 
which had exhausted the treasurj'. There was no 
seminarj- and the rapid growth of the population aug- 
mented the demand for priests. He at once called a 
meeting of the clergy and prominent citizens, and 
plans were formulated for the gradual liquidation 
of the debt of the diocese, which was found to be 



NEW ORLEANS 



15 



NEW ORLEANS 



8324,759. Before his death he had reduced it to about 
$130,000. Notwithstanding this burden, the diocese, 
through the zeal of Archbishop Janssens, entered upon 
a period of unusual activity. One of his first acts, 
March, 1890, was to found a little seminary, which 
was opened at Pontchatoula, La., 3 September, 1891, 
and placed under the direction of the Benedictine 
Fathers. He went to Europe in 1889 to secure priests 
for the diocese and to arrange for the sale of bonds for 
the Uquidation of the debt. In August, 1892, after 
the lynching of the Italians who assassinated the chief 
of police, the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart, 
founded in Italy by Mother Cabrina for work among 
Italian emigrants, arrived in New Orleans and opened 
a large mission, a free school, and an asylum for Italian 
orphans, and began also mission work among the 
Italian gardeners on the outskirts of the city and at 
Kenner, La. The same year a terrific cyclone and 
storm swept the Louisiana Gulf coast, and laid low the 
lands along the Caminada Cheniere where there was a 
settlement of Italian and Spanish and Malay fisher- 
men. Out of a population of 1500 over 800 were 
swept away. Rev. Father Grimaud performed the 
burial services over 400 bodies as they were washed 
ashore. Father Bedel at Buras buried over three 
huntlred, and went out at night to succour the wander- 
ing and helpless. Archbishop Janssens in a small 
boat went among the lonely and desolate island settle- 
ments comforting the people and helping them to re- 
build their broken homes. 

In 1893, the centenary of the diocese was celebrated 
with splendour at the St. Louis Cathedral ; Cardinal 
Gibbons and many of the hierarchy were present. 
Archbishop Janssens was instrumental, at this time, in 
establishing the Louisiana Lepers' Home at Indian 
Camp, and it was through his offices that the Sisters 
of Charity from Emmitsburg took charge of the 
home. He was deeply interested in the work of the 
coloured Sisters of the Holy Family, now domiciled in 

the ancient (juadr i Hall Room and Theatre of on(e- 

bellum days, which had been turned into a convent 
and boarding-school. Through the generosity of a 
coloured philanthropist. Thorny Lafon, Archbishop 
Janssens was enabled to pro\ade a larger and more 
comfortable home for the aged coloured poor, a new 
asylum for the boys, and through the legacy of .S20,000 
left for this purpose by Mr. I^afon, who died in 1883, 
a special home, under the care of the Sisters of the 
Good Shepherd, for the reform of coloured girls. The 
St. John Berchman's chapel, a memorial to Thorny 
Lafon, was erected in the Convent of the Holy Family 
which he had so befriended. At this time Archbishop 
Janssens estimated the number of Catholics in the 
diocese at 341,613; the value of church property at 
$3,861,075; the number of baptisms a year 15,000 and 
the number of deaths, 5000. 

In 1896 the Catholic Winter School of America was 
organized and was formally opened by Cardinal 
SatoUi, then Apostolic Delegate to the United States. 
After the death of Archbishop Janssens the lecture 
courses were abandoned. The active hfe led by the 
archbishop told heavily upon him. Anxious to Uqui- 
date entirely the debt of the diocese he made arrange- 
ments to visit Europe in 1897, but died aboard the 
steamer Creole, 19 June, on the voyage to New York. 

Most Rev. Placide Louis Chapelle, D.D., Arch- 
bishop of Santa Fe, was appointed to the vacant See of 
New Orleans, 1 December, 1897. Shortly after com- 
ing to New Orleans he found it imperative to go to 
Europe to effect a settlement for the remainder of the 
diocesan debt of $130,000. While he was in Europe 
war was declared between Spain and the United 
States, and, upon the declaration of peace. Archbishop 
Chapelle was appointed Apostolic delegate extraor- 
dinary to Cuba and Porto Rico and charge d'affaues 
to the Philippine Islands. Returning from Europe 
he arranged for the assessment of five per cent upon 



the salaries of the clergy for five years for the liquida- 
tion of the diocesan debt. In October 1900 he closed 
the little seminary at Ponchatoula and opened a 
higher one in New Orleans, placing it in charge of the 
Lazarist Fathers. The Right Rev. G. A. Rouxel was 
appointed auxiliary bishop for the See of New Orleans, 
and was consecrated 10 April, 1899. Right Rev. J. M. 
Laval was made vicar-general and rector of the St. 
Louis Cathedral on 21 April, and Very Rev. James 
H. Blenk was appointed Bishop of Porto Rico and con- 
secrated in the St. Louis Cathedral with Archbishop 
Barnada of Santiago de Cuba, 2 July, 1899. Arch- 
bishop Chapelle was absent from the diocese during 
the greater part of his administration, duties in the An- 
tilles and the Philippines in connexion with his position 
as Apostolic Delegate claiming his attention, never- 
theless he accomplished much for New Orleans. The 
diocesan debt was extinguished, and the activity in 
church work which had begun under Archbishop Jans- 
sen continued ; returning to New Orleans he introduced 
into the diocese the Dominican Fathers from the 
Philippines. In the summer of 1905, while the arch- 
bishop was administering confirmation in the country 
parishes, yellow fever broke out in New Orleans, and, 
deeming it his duty to be among his people, he re- 
turned immediately to the city. On the way from 
the train to his residence he was stricken, and died 9 
August, 1905 (see Chapelij;, Placide Louis). Auxil- 
iary Bishop Rouxel became the administrator of the 
diocese pending the appointment of a successor. 
The Right Rev. James Hurhert Blenk, S.M., D.D., 
Bishop of Porto Rico, was promoted to New Orleans, 
20 April, 1906. 

IV. CoNTEMroHARY CONDITIONS. — Arclibishop 
Blenk was born at Neustadt, Bavaria, 28 July, 1856, 
of Protestant parentage. While a child, his family 
came to New Orleans, and it was here that the light of 
the true Faith dawned upon the boy; he was baptized 
in St. Alphonsus Church at the age of twelve. His 
primary education having been completed in New 
Orleans, he entered Jefferson College where he com- 
pleted his classical and scientific studies under the 
Marist Fathers. He spent three years at the Marist 
house of studies in Belley, France, completed his pro- 
bationary studies at the Marist novitiate at Lyons, 
and was sent to Dublin to follow a higher course of 
mathematics at the Catliolic University. Thence he 
went to St. Mary's College, Dundalk, County Louth, 
where he occupied the chair of mathematics. Later 
he returned to the Marist house of studies in Dublin 
where he completed his theological studies. 16 
August, 1885, he was ordained priest, and returned 
that year to Louisiana to labour among his own peo- 
ple. He was stationed as a professor at Jefferson 
College of which he became president in 1891 and held 
the position for six years. In 1896, at the invitation 
of the general of the Marists, he visited all the houses 
of the congregation in Europe, and returning to New 
Orleans in February, 1897, he became the rector of the 
Church of the Holy Name of Mary, Algiers, which was 
in charge of the Marist Fathers. He erected the 
handsome presbytery and gave a great impetus to re- 
ligion and education in the parish and city, being chair- 
man of the Board of Studies of the newly organized 
Winter School. He was a member of the Board of 
Consultois during the administration of Archbishop 
Janssens and of Archbishop Chapelle; the latter se- 
lected him as the auditor and secretary of the Apos- 
tolic Delegation to Cuba and Porto Rico. He was ap- 
pointed the first bishop of the Island of Porto Rico 
under the American occupation 12 June, 1899. A 
hurricane overswept Porto Rico just before Bishop 
Blenk left to take possession of his see; through his 
personal efforts he raised over $30,000 in the United 
States to take with him to alleviate the sufferings of 
his new people. The successful work of Bishop Blenk 
is a part of the history -of the reconstruction along 



NEW ORLEANS 



16 



NEW ORLEANS 



American lines of the Antilles. He returned to New 
Orleans as arohhisliop, 1 July, 190G, and new life wsis 
infused into every department of religious and edu- 
cational and charitable endeavour. Splendid new 
churches and schools were erected, especially in the 
country parishes. Among the new institutions were 
St. Joseph's Seminary and College at St. Benedict, 
La.; St. Charles College, Grand Coteau, built on the 
ruins of the old college destroyed by fire; Lake 
Charles Sanitarium; Marquette tJniversity; and the 
Seaman's Haven, where a chapel was opened for sail- 
ors. The new sisterhoods admitted to the diocese 
were the Religious of the Incarnate ^\■or^l in charge of 
a sanitarium at Lake Charles; the Religious of Divine 
Pro\-idence in charge of the school in Broussardville; 
and the French Benedictine Sisters driven from 
France, who erected the new Convent of St. Gertrude 
at St. Benedict, La., destined as an industrial school 
for girls. A large industrial school and farm for 
coloured boys under the direction of the Sisters of the 
Holy Family was opened in Gent illy Road, and two 
new parishes outlined for the exclusive care of the 
coloured race. In 1907, the seminarj' conducted by 
the Lazarist Fathers was closed and Archbishop 
Blenk opened a preparatory seminary and placed it in 
charge of the Benedictine Fathers. The diocese as- 
sumed full charge of the Chinchuba Deaf-mute Insti- 
tute, which was established under Archbishop Jans- 
sens and is the only Catholic institute for deaf-mutes 
in the South. It is in charge of the School Sisters of 
Notre Dame. 

New Orleans' priesthood, like the population of 
Louisiana, is cosmopolitan. The training of the 
priesthood has been conducted at home and abroad, 
the diocese owing much to the priests who came from 
France, Spain, Ireland, Germany, and Holland. Sev- 
eral efforts were made to establish a permanent semi- 
nary and recruit the ranks of the priesthood from the 
diocese itself. At various times also the diocese had 
students at St. Mary's and St. Charles Seminary, 
Baltimore, the American College, Louvain, and has 
(1910) twelve theological students in different semi- 
naries of Europe and America. Each parish is incor- 
porated and there are the corporate institutions of the 
Jesuits and other religious communities. The houses 
of study for reUgious are the Jesuit scholasticate at 
Grand Coteau, and the Benedictine scholasticate of 
St. Benedict at St. Benedict, La. The Poor Clares, 
discalced Carmelites, Benedictine Nuns, Congrega- 
tion of Marianites of the Holy Cross, Ursuline Nuns, 
ReUgious of the Sacred Heart, Sisters of St. Joseph, 
Sisters of Perpetual Adoration, Sisters of the Immacu- 
late Conception, Sisters of the Holy Family (coloured). 
Sisters of Mount Carmel, have mother-houses with 
no\'itiates in New Orleans. In early days there were 
distinctive parishes in New Orleans for French-, Eng- 
lish-, and German-speaking Catholics, but with the 
growing diffusion of the English language these parish 
lines have disappeared. In all the churches where 
necessary, there are French, English, and German ser- 
mons and instructions; there are churches and chapels 
for Italian emigrants and Hungarians, a German set- 
tlement at St. Leo near Rajme, domestic missions for 
negroes under the charge of the Holy Family Sisters 
and Josephite Fathers and Lazarists at New Orleans 
and Bayou Petite, Prairie. 

The educational system is well organized. The 
principal institutions are: the diocesan normal school; 
the Marquette University under the care of the 
Jesuits; 7 colleges and academies with high school 
courses for boys with 180.3 students; 17 academies for 
young ladies, under the direction of religious communi- 
ties, with 2201 students; 102 parishes with parochial 
schools having an attendance of 20,000 pupils; 117 
orphan asylums with 1.341 orphans; 1 infant asylum 
with 164 infants; 1 industrial school for whites'with 
90 inmates; 1 industrial school for coloured orphan 



boys; 1 deaf-mute asylum with 40 inmates; 3 hospi- 
' tals; 2 homes for the aged white, and 1 for the aged 
coloured poor; 1 house of the C.ochI Slieplierd for the 
reform of wayward girls; a ScaiiKiii's Ilaven. The 
state asylums for the blind, etc., hos|)itals, prisons, re- 
formatories, almshouses, and secular homes for incur- 
ables, consumptives, convalescents, etc., are all visited 
by Catholic priests. Sisters of Mercy, conferences of 
St. Vincent de Paul, and St. Margaret's Daughters. 
There is absolute freedom of worship. The first St. 
Vincent de Paul conference was organized in 1852. 

The diocese has one Benedictine abbey (St. Joseph's, 
of which Right Rev. Paul Schauble is abbot); 156 
secular priests, 123 priests in religious communities, 
making a total of 279 clergy; 133 churches vnth 
resident priests and 90 missions with churches, making 
a total of 223 churches; 35 stations and 42 chapels 
where Mass is said. The total Catholic population is 
5.50,000; yearly baptisms include 15,155 white chil- 
dren, 253 white adults, 3111 coloured children, and 
354 coloured adults (total number of baptisms 18,- 
873); the communions average 750,180; confirmations 
11,215; converts, 817; marriages, 3.533 (including 323 
mixed). The large centres of church activity are 
the cities of New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Plaque- 
mine, Donaldsonville, Thibodeaux, Houma, Franklin, 
Jeannerette, New Iberia, Lafayette, Abbeville, Mor- 
gan City, St. Martin, Crowley, Lake Charles. The 
churches and schools are all insured; an association 
for assisting infirm priests, the Priests' Aid Society, 
has been established and mutual aid and benevolent 
associations in almost every parish for the assistance 
of the laity. Assimilation is constantly going on 
among the ditTerent nationalities that come to New 
Orleans tlirough intermarriage between Germans, 
Italians, French, and Americans, and thus is created a 
healthy civic sentiment that conduces to earnest and 
harmonious progress along lines of religious, charita- 
ble, educational, and social endeavour. The Catholic 
laity of the diocese is naturally largely represented 
in the life and government of the community, the 
population being so overwhelmingly Catholic; Cath- 
olics hold prominent civil positions, such as governor, 
mayor, and member of the Bar, State Legislature, and 
United States Congress. A Catholic from Louisiana, 
Edward D. White, has been recently (1910) appointed 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United 
States. Catholics are connected with the state nor- 
mal schools and colleges, are on the board of the state 
universities and public libraries, and are represented 
in the corps of professors, patrons, and pupils of the 
Louisiana State and Tulane universities. Three 
fourths of the teachers of the public schools of Louisi- 
ana are Catholics. 

The laity take a very active interest in the religious 
life of the diocese. Every church and convent has its 
altar society for the care of the tabernacle, sodalities 
of the Blessed Virgin for young girls and women. The 
Holy Name Society for men, young and old, is estab- 
lished throughout the diocese, while conferences of St. 
Vincent de Paul are established in thirty churches. 
St. Margaret's Daughters, indulgenced like the Society 
of St. Vincent de Paul, has twenty-eight circles at 
work, and the Total Abstinence Society is established 
in many churches. Besides the Third Order of St. 
Francis, the diocese has confraternities of the Happy 
Death, the Holy Face, the Holy Rosary, and the Holy 
Agony; the Apostleship of Prayer is established in 
nearly all the churches, while many parishes have 
confraternities adapted to their special needs. The 
Catholic Knights of America and Knights of Colum- 
bus are firmly established, while the Holy Spirit So- 
ciety, devoted to the defence of Catholic Faith, the 
diffusion of Catholic truth, and the establishment of 
churches and schools in wayside places, is doing noble 
work along church extension lines. Other societies 
are the Marquette League, the Society for the Propa- 



NEW POMERANIA 



17 



NEW POMERANIA 



gation of the Faith, which traces its origin to Bishop 
Dubourg of Louisiana, the Society of the Holy Child- 
hood, and the Priests' Eucharistic League. ReHgious 
life in the diocese is regular and characterized by strict 
discipline and earnest spirituality. Monthly confer- 
ences are held and ecclesiastical conferences three 
times a year. 

The religious communities in the diocese are: (1) 
Male: Benedictines, Fathers and Brothers of the Holy 
Cross, Dominicans, Jesuits, Josephites, Lazarists, 
Marists, Redemptorists, and Brothers of the Sacred 
Heart; (2) Female: Sisters of St. Benedict, French 
Benedictine Sisters, Discalced Carmelite Nuns, Sis- 
ters of Mount Carmel, Poor Clares, Sisters of Charity, 
Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word, Sisters of 
Christian Charity, Sisters of Divine Providence, 
Dominican Sisters, Sisters of the Good Shepherd, Sis- 
ters of the Holy Family, Sisters of the Immaculate 
Conception, Sisters of St. Joseph, Little Sisters of the 
Poor, Sisters Marianites of the Holy Cross, Sisters of 
Mercy, School Sisters of Notre Dame, Sisters of Our 
Lady of Lourdes, Religious of the Sacred Heart, Ursu- 
line Sisters, Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart, 
Sisters of Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment. Coloured Catholics: The works in behalf of the 
coloured race began in the earliest days in Louisiana, 
when the Jesuits devoted themselves especially to the 
care of the Indians and negroes. After the expulsion 
of the Jesuits the King of Spain ordered that a chap- 
lain for negroes be placed on every plantation. Al- 
though this was impossible owing to the scarcity of 
priests, the greatest interest was taken in the evan- 
gelization of negroes and winning them from super- 
stitious practices. The work of zealous Catholic 
masters and mistresses bore fruit in many ways, and 
there remains to-day in New Orleans, despite the 
losses to the Faith occasioned by the Civil War and 
during the Reconstruction Period when hordes of 
Protestant missionaries from the north flocked into 
Louisiana with millions of dollars to proselytize the 
race, a strong and sturdy Catholic element among the 
coloured people from which much is hoped. The Sis- 
ters of the Holy Family, a diocesan coloured order of 
religious, have accompUshed much good. In addition 
to their academy and orphanages for girls and boys 
and homes for the coloured aged poor of both sexes, 
located in New Orleans, they have a novitiate and 
conduct an academy in the cathedral parish and 
schools in the parishes of St. Maurice, St. Louis, Mater 
Dolorosa, St. Dominic, and St. Catherine in New Or- 
leans, and schools and asylums in Madisonville, Don- 
aldsonville, Opelusas, Baton Rouge, Mandevilles, 
Lafayette, and Palmetto, Louisiana. Schools for 
coloured children are also conducted by the following 
white religious orders: Sisters of Perpetual Adoration, 
Sisters of Mercy, Mount Carmel Sisters, Religious of 
the Sacred Heart, Sisters of St. Joseph. Six coloured 
schools in charge of lay Catholic teachers in vari- 
ous parishes, St. Catherine's church in charge of the 
Lazarist Fathers, and St. Dominic's in charge of the 
Josephite Fathers in New Orleans are especially es- 
tablished for Catholic negroes. 

Archives of the Diocese of New Orleans: Archives of the St. Louis 
Cathedral: She.i, The Cath. Church in Colonial Days (New York, 
1886) ; Idem, Life and Times of Archbishop Carrol (New York, 
1888) ; Idem, Hist, of the Cath. Church in the U. S.. 1808-85 (2 vols., 
New York. I'S'W; r;M\RHE, Hist, de la Louisiane (2 vols.. New 
Orleans, !Mt' 7 : * ii wu.evoix. Journal d'un Voyage dans 
I'Amiriqu. > \I (Paris, 1744); DE LA Harpe, Jourrea/ 

Hist, de /'/-'' ' '"■ d^s Francais d la Louisiane (New Or- 
leans, 1831) . Ki:-u. .v.. ,u ,le Bienville (New York, 1893) ; DlMlTHT, 
Hist, of Louisiana (New York, 1892); Dumont. Memoires Histor. 
sur la Louisiane (Paris. 1753); Le Page dh Pr.itz, Hist, de la L. 
(3 vols., Paris, 1758); Fobtieb, L. Studies (New Orleans, 1894); 
Idem, Hist, of L. (4 vols., New York, 1894); Martin, Hist, of L. 
from the earliest Period (1727) ; King and Ficklen, Hist, of L. 
(New Orleans. 1900) ; Archives of the Ursuline Convent, New Or- 
leans, Diary of Sister Madeleine Hachard (New Orleans. 1727-65); 
Letters of Sister M. H. (1727) ; Archives of Churches. Diocese of 
New Orleans (1722-1909); Le Propagateur Catholique (New Or- 
leans), files; The Morning Star {New Orleans, 1868-1909), files; 
Le MoniteuT de La Louisiane (New Orleans, 1794-1803), files; 

XL— 3 



French and Spanish manuscripts in archives of Louisiana His- 
torical Society; Chambon, In and Around the Old St. Louis Cathe- 
dral (New Orleans, 1908); The Picayune (New Orleans, 1837- 
1909), files; Camille de Rochementeix, Les Jisuites et la Nou- 
velle France au X VHP Siecle (Paris, 1906) ; Castellanos, New 
Orleans as it Was (New Orleans, 1905); Member op the Order 
OF Mercy, Essays Educational and Historic (New York. 1899); 
LoW'ENSTEiN, Hist, of the St. Louis Cathedral of New Orleans 
(1882): Member op the Order of Mercy, Cath. Hist, of Ala- 
bama and the Floridas: Centenaire du Pkre Antoine (New Orleans, 
1885); Hardey. Religious of the Sacred Heart (New York, 1910). 

Marie Louise Points. 

New Pomerania, Vicariate Apostolic op. — New 
Pomerania, the largest island of the Bismarck Archi- 
pelago, is separated from New Guinea by Dampier 
Strait, and extends from 148° to 152° E. long, and 
from 4° to 7° S. lat. It is about 348 miles long, from 
12 1/^ to 925^ miles broad, and has an area of 9650 sq. 
miles. Two geographical regions are distinguishable. 
Of the north-eastern section (known as the Gazelle 
Peninsula) a great portion is occupied by wooded 
mountain chains; otherwise (especially about Blanche 
Bay) the soil is very fertile and admirably watered by 
rivers (e. g. the Toriu and Kerawat), which yield an 
abundance of fish. The white population is practi- 
cally confined to the northern part of this section, in 
which the capital, Herbertshohe, is situated. The 
western and larger section also has extensive mountain 
chains, which contain numerous active volcanoes. 
The warlike natin-e of the natives, who fiercely resent 
as an intrusion every attempt to land, has left us al- 
most entirely ignorant of the interior. 

The natives are finely built, coffee brown in colour, 
have regular features, and, when well cared for as at 
the mission stations, approach the European stand- 
ard, though their lips are somewhat thick and the 
mouth half or wide open. While resembling the south- 
eastern Papuan, they use weapons unknown to the 
latter — e. g. the sling, in the use of which they possess 
marvellous dexterity, skilfully inserting the stone with 
the toes. They occupy few towns owing to the con- 
stant feuds raging among them. One of their strang- 
est institutions is their money (dewarra), composed of 
small cowrie shells threaded on a piece of cane. The 
difficulty of procuring these shells, which are found 
only in very deep water, accounts for the value set on 
them. The unit is usually a fathom (the length of 
both arms extended) of dewarra. The tribes have no 
chiefs; an individual's importance varies according to 
the amount of dewarra he possesses, but the final de- 
cision for peace or war rests with the tribe. This en- 
tire absence of authority among the natives is a great 
obstacle in the way of government. The natives are 
very superstitious: a demon resides in each volcano, 
and marks his displeasure by sending forth fire against 
the people. To propitiate the evil spirits, a piece of 
dewarra is always placed in the grave with the corpse. 
The celebrated "institution of the Duk-Duk is simply a 
piece of imposture, by which the older natives play 
upon the superstitions of the younger to secure the 
food they can no longer earn. This "spirit" (a na- 
tive adorned with a huge mask) arrives regularly in a 
boat at night with the new moon, and receives the 
offerings of the natives. The standard of morality 
among the natives of New Pomerania is high com- 
pared with that observed in New Mecklenburg (the 
other large island of the Bismarck Archipelago), 
where the laxity of morals, especially race suicide and 
the scant respect shown for marriage, seems destined 
rapidly to annihilate the population. In Nov., 1884, 
Germany proclaimed its protectorate over the New 
Britain Archipelago; New Britain and New Ireland 
were given the names of Neupommern and Neumeck- 
lenburg, and the whole group was renamed the Bis- 
marck Archipelago. The great obstacle to the devel- 
opment of the islands is their poisonous climate, 
neither native nor European being immune from the 
ravages of fever. The native population is estimated 
at about 190,000; the foreign population (1909) at 773 



NEWPORT 



18 



NEWTON 



(474 white). About 13,464 acres are under cultiva- 
tion, the principal products being copra, cotton, coffee, 
and rubber. 

The vicariate .\postoUc was erected on 1 Jan., 1SS9, 
and entrusted to the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart 
of Issoudun. Since Sept.. 190."). when the Marshall 
Islands were made a separate vicariate, its territory is 
confined to the Bismarck Archipelago. The first and 
present vicar .\postolic is Mgr Louis Cou))pe, titular 
Bishop of Leros. The mis.sion has already made re- 
mark.ahle progress, and numbers according to the 
latest statistics 1.'),2L'3 Catholii's; 2S missionaries; 40 
brothers; 27 Sisters of Our Lady of the Sacred Ili'art; 
55 nati\'e catechists; 77 churches and chapels; 1)0 sta- 
tions (26 chief); 29 schools with over 4000 pupils; 13 
orphanages. 

iMonalshefle (les Missiorishauses von HillTup; Deutsche Kolonial- 
blalt (190S). suppl. ,78sqq. 

Thomas Kennedy. 

Newport (England), Diocese of (Neoporten- 
Sls). — This diocese takes its name from Newport, a 
town of about 70,000 
inhabitants, situated 
at the mouth of the 
river Usk, in the 
county of Mon- 
mouth. Before the 
restoration of hier- 
archial government 
in England bv Pius 
IX in 18.50, the old 
"Western District'' 
of England had, since 
1S40, been divided 
into two vicariates. 
The northern, corn- 
prising the twelve 
counties of Wales 
with Monmouth- 
shire and Hereford- 
shire, was called the 
Vicariate of Wales. 
When the country 
was divided by an 
ApostolicBricf dated 
29 Sept., 1S50, into dioceses, the six counties of South 
^\'ales, with IVIonmouthshire and Herefordshire, be- 
came the Diocese of Newport and Menevia. Mene- 
via is the Latin name for St. David's, and the double 
title was intended to signify that at some future day 
there were to be two distinct dioceses. The first 
bishop of the Diocese of Newport and Menevia was 
the Right Reverend Thomas Joseph Brown, O.S.B., 
who had already, as vicar Apostolic, ruled for ten 
years the Vicariate of Wales. A further re-adjust- 
ment of the diocese was made in March, 1895, when 
Leo XIII separated from it five of the counties of 
South Wales, and formed a new vicariate, which was 
to consist of all the twelve Welsh counties except Gla- 
morganshire. Since that date the name of the dio- 
cese has been simply "Newport ", and it has consisted 
of Glamorganshire, Monmouthshire, and Hereford- 
shire. The Catholic population (1910) is about 45,000, 
the general population being about 1,0.50,000. 

The diocesan chapter, in virtue of a Decree of the 
Congregation of Propaganda, 21 April, 1852, issued at 
the petition of Cardinal Wiseman and the rest of the 
hierarchy, was to consist of monks of the English 
Benedictine Congregation resident in the town of 
Newport. As the congregation, up to this date 
(1910), have not been able to establish a house in New- 
port, permis.sion from the Holy See has been obtained 
for the members of flic chapter to reside at St. Mi- 
chael's pro-cathedral, Belmont, near Hereford. The 
chapter comprises a cat hcdral prior and nine canons, of 
whom four are allowed to be non-resident. Their choral 
habit is the cuculla or frock of the congregation with 




a special almuce. In assisting the bishop they dispense 
~wit h t he f!/ri(//n, and wear the almuee over the siirjiliee. 
The present bishop, the Right Reverend John Cuth- 
bert Iledley, O.S.B., was consecrated as auxiliary on 
29 September, 1873, and succeeded in February, 
1881, to Bi.shop Brown. IIc^ resides at Bishop's 
House, Llanishen, Cardiff. The pro-cathedral is the 
beautiful church of the Benedictine priory at Bel- 
mont. There are in the diocese about 40 secular di- 
ocesan priests, 21 Benedictines (of whom 15 work on 
the Mission), and 14 Rosminian Fathers. There are 
five deaneries. The principal towns are Cardiff, 
Newport, Swansea, and Merthyr Tydvil. The only 
religious house of men is the Cathedral Priory, Bel- 
mont, which is the residence of the cathedral prior and 
chapter, and is also a house of studies and novitiate 
for the English Benedictines. Of religions women 
there are houses of Poor Clares, Our Lady of Charity, 
the Good Shepherd, Sisters of Nazareth, I'rsiilines of 
Chavagnes, St. Joseph of Annecy, St. Vincent de Paul, 
and others. There are four certified Poor Law 
schools; one for boys, 
at T r e f o r e s t , and 
three for girls — two, 
at Hereford and Bul- 
lingham respectively, 
conducted by the Sis- 
ters of Charity, one 
at Cardiff, conducted 
by the Sisters of 
Nazareth. There 
are 50 churches in 
the diocese, besides 
several school chapels 
and public oratories. 
There are about 11,- 
000 children in the 
Catholic elementary 
schools. There are 
four secondary 
schools for girls, and 
one centre (in Car- 
dilT) for female pupil 
teachers. 
*°""-^''=''' F. A. Crow. 

Newport, Richard, V'enerable. See Scot, Wil- 
liam, O.S.B. , Venerable. 

New Testament. See Te.stament, The New. 

Newton, John, soldier and engineer, b. at Norfolk, 
Virginia, 24 August, 1823; d. in New York City, 1 
May, 1895. He was the son of General Thomas New- 
ton and Margaret Jordan. In 1838 he was appointed 
from Virginia a cadet in the U. S. Military Academy, 
and graduated in 1842, standing second in a class that 
included Rosencrans, Pope, and Longstreet. Com- 
missioned second lieutenant of engineers, he was en- 
gaged as assistant professor of engineering at West 
Point, and later in the construction of fortifications 
and other engineering projects along the coasts of the 
Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. Commissioned first 
lieutenant in 1852 and promoted captain in 18.56, he 
was appointed chief engineer of the Utah Expedition 
in 1858. At the opening of the Civil War he was 
chief engineer of the Department of Penn.sylvania, 
and afterwards held a similar position in the Depart- 
ment of the Shenandoah. Commissioned major on 6 
August, 1861, he worked on the construction of the 
defences of Wa.shington until March, 1862. He was 
commissioned on 23 Sept., 1861, brigadier-general of 
volunteers, and received command of a brigade en- 
gaged in the defence of the city. He served in the 
army of the Potomac under McClellan during the 
Peninsular Campaign, and distinguished himself by 
his heroic condui^t in the actions of West I^oint, 
Gaines Mills, and Glendale. He led his brigade in 
the Maryland campaign, taking part in the forcing 



NEW WESTMINSTER 19 

of Crampton Gap and in the battle of Antietam, and 
was for his gallant services brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel of regulars. He led a division at Fredericks- 
burg in the storming of Marye Heights, and was 
rewarded on 20 March, 1863, with the rank of major- 
general of volunteers. He commanded divisions at 
Chancellorsville and Salem Heights, and, at the death 
of Reynolds on 2 July, 1S63, was given command of 
the First Army Corps, whii-li ho led on the last two 
daysof thebattlciircic'ttyslnirg. OnSJuly, lS63,for 
gailant service at ticttyshurg, he was brevetted 
colonel of regulars. He engaged in the pursuit of the 
Confederate forces to Warrenton, Virginia, and 
towards the end of 1S63 was active in the Rapidan 
Campaign. In May, 1864, he was transferred to the 
Army of the Cumberland, and commanded under 
General Thomas the Second Division, Fourth Corps. 
He fought in all the actions during the invasion of 
Georgia up to the capture of Atlanta. For his gallan- 
try in this campaign, especially in the battle of Peach 
Tree Creek, he was brevetted on 13 March, 1865, 
major-general of volunteers and brigadier-general and 
major-general of regulars. He then took command of 
various districts in Florida until, in January, 1866, he 
was mustered out of the volunteer service. 

Commissioned lieutenant-colonel of engineers in the 
regular service on 28 December, 186.5, Newton was 
ordered in April, 1866, to New York City, where he 
thenceforth resided, engaged on the engineering la- 
bours that made his name famous. He was superin- 
tendent engineer of the construction of the defences on 
the Long Island side of the Narrows, of the improve- 
ments of the Hudson River, and of the fortifications at 
Sandy Hook. He was also one of the board of engi- 
neers deputed to carry out the modifications of the de- 
fences around New York City. The proposed en- 
largement of the Harlem River, and the improvements 
of the Hudson from Troy to New York, of the channel 
between New Jersey and Staten Island, and of the 
harbours on Lake Champlain were put under his 
charge. On 30 June, 1879, he was named colonel, and 
on 6 March, 1884, chief of engineers in the regular ser- 
vice with the rank of brigadier-general. Among New- 
ton's achievements, the most notable was the removal 
of the dangerous rocks in Hell Gate, the principal 
water-way between Long Island Sound and the East 
River. To accomplish this task successfully, required 
the solution of difficult engineering problems never 
before attempted, and the invention of new apparatus, 
notably a steam drilling machine, which has since 
been in general use. Newton carefully studied the 
problem, and the accuracy of his conclusions was 
shown by the exact correspondence of the results with 
the objects sought. Hallett's Reef and Flood Rock, 
having been carefully mined under his directions, 
were destroyed by two great explosions (24 September, 
1876; 10 October, 1885). This engineering feat ex- 
cited the universal admiration of engineers , and many 
honours were conferred upon him. On Newton's vol- 
untary retirement from the service in 1886, Mayor 
Grace of New York, recognizing his superior skill, ap- 
pointed him commissioner of pubhc works on 28 Aug. 
This post he voluntarily resigned on 24 Nov., 1888. 
On 2 April, 1888, he accepted the presidency of the 
Panama Railroad Company, which position he filled 
until his death. In 1848 General Newton married 
Anna M. Starr of New London, Connecticut. In his 
early manhood he became, and until his death re- 
mained, an earnest and devout member of the Catho- 
lic Church. 

Powell, List of Offit.ers of the V. S. Army. 1778-1900; Cui^ 
LUM, Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the 
U. S. Military Academy; Appleton's Encycl, Amer. Biog., s. v.; 
Smith, In Memoriam of General John Newton (New York, 1895). 

John G. Ewing. 

New Westminster. See Vancouver, Archdio- 
cese OF. 



NEW YEAR'S DAY 

New Year's Day. — The word year is etymologi- 
cally the same as hour (Skeat), and signifies a going, 
movement etc. In Semitic, T\T^, year, signifies "repe- 
tition, sc. of the course of the sun" (Gesenius). Since 
there was no necessary starting-point in the circle of 
the year, we find among different nations, and among 
the same at different epochs of their history, a great 
variety of dates with which the new year began. The 
opening of spring was a natural beginning, and in the 
Bible itself there is a close relationship between the 
beginning of the year and the seasons. The ancient 
Roman year began in March, but Julius Caesar, in 
correcting the calendar (46 B. c), made January the 
first month. Though this custom has been univer- 
sally adopted among Christian nations, the names, 
September, October, November, and December(i.e. the 
seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth), remind us of the 
past, when March began the year. Christian writers 
and councils condemned the heathen orgies and ex- 
cesses connected with the festival of the SaturnaUa, 
which were celebrated at the begi nning of the year : Ter- 
tuUian blames Christians who regarded the customary 
presents — called sirena: (Fr. etrennes) from the goddess 
Strenia, who presided over New Year's Day (cf . Ovid, 
"Fasti", 185-90) — as mere tokens of friendly inter- 
course (De Idol, xiv), and towards the end of the sixth 
century the Council of Au.xerre (can. I) forbade Chris- 
tians "strenas diabolicas observare". The II Coun- 
cil of Tours held in 567 (can. 17) prescribes prayers 
and a Mass of expiation for New Year's Day, adding 
that this is a practice long in use (patres noslri sta- 
tuerunt). Dances were forbidden, and pagan crimes 
were to be expiated by Christian fasts (St. Augustine, 
Serm., cxcvii-viii in P. L., XXXVIII, 1024; Isidore of 
Seville, "De Div. Off. Eccl.", I, xli; Trullan Council, 
692, can. Ixii). When Christmas was fixed on 25 
Dec, New Year's Day was sanctified by commem- 
orating on it the Circumcision, for which feast the 
Gelasian Sacramentary gives a Mass (In Octabas Do- 
mini) . Christians did not wish to make the celebra- 
tion of this feast very solemn, lest they might seem to 
countenance in any way the pagan extravagance of 
the opening year. 

Among the Jews the first day of the seventh month, 
Tishri (end of September), began the civil or economic 
year "with the sound of trumpets" (Lev., xxiii, 24; 
Num., xxix, 1). In the Bible the day is not mentioned 
as New Year's Day, but the Jews so regarded it, so 
named it, and so consider it now (Mishnah, Rosh 
Hash., I, 1). The sacred year began with Nisan 
(early in April), a later name for the Biblical abhibh, 
i. e. "month of new corn", and was memorable "be- 
cause in this month the Lord thy God brought thee 
out of Egypt by night" (Deut., xvi, 1). Barley 
ripens in Palestine during the early part of April; and 
thus the sacred year began with the harvest, the civil 
year with the sowing of the crops. From Biblical 
data Josephus and many modern scholars hold that 
the twofold beginning of the year was pre-exilic, or 
even Mosaic (cf. "Antiq.", I, iii, 3). Since Jewish 
months were regulated by the moon, while the ripen- 
ing barley of Nisan depended upon the sun, the Jews 
resorted to intercalation to bring sun and moon dates 
into harmony, and to keep the months in the seasons 
to which they belonged (for method of adjustment, see 
Edersheim, "The Temple, Its Ministry and Services 
at the Time of Jesus Christ", x). 

Christian nations did not agree in the date of New 
Year's Day. They were not opposed to 1 January as 
the beginning of the year, but rather to the pagan ex- 
travagances which accompanied it. Evidently the 
natural opening of the year, the sijringtime, together 
with the Jewish opening of the sacred year, Nisan, sug- 
gested the propriety of putting the beginning in that 
beautiful season. Also, the Dionysian method (so 
named from the Abbot Dionysius, sixth century) of 
dating events from the coming of Christ became an 



NEW YORK 



20 



NEW YORK 



Important factor in Now Year oalculations. The An- 
nunciation, with which Dionysiusl)i'f;;iii the Christian 
era, was lixcil on 2.") Mardi, ami lircaiiic Xinv Year's 
Day forKnjilaml. iiu'urlytinirsaiul I'roiii thclhirlrcnth 
century to 1 Jan., 1752, wlicii the proscnt custom 
was introduced there. Some countries (c. g. Ger- 
many) began with Christmas, thus being almost in 
harmony with the ancient Germans, who made tlie 
winter solstice their starting-point. Notwithstanding 
the movable character of Easter, France and the Low 
Countries took it as tlie first day of the year, while 
Russia, up to the eighteenth century, made September 
the first month. The western nations, however, 
since tlie sixteenth, or, at the latest, the eighteenth 
century, have adopted and retained the first of Janu- 
ary, in Christian liturgy the Church does not refer 
to the first of the year, any more than she does to the 
fact that the first Sunday of Advent is the first day of 
the ecclesiastical year. 

In the United States of America the great feast of 
the Epiphany has ceased to be a holyday of obligation, 
but New Year continues in force. Since the myste- 
ries of the Epiphany are commemorated on Christmas 
— the Orientals consider the feasts one and the same in 
import — it was thought advisable to retain by prefer- 
ence, under the title "Circumcision of Our Lord Jesus 
Christ", New Year's Day as one of the six feasts of 
obligation. The Fathers of the Third Plenary Coun- 
cil of Baltimore petitioned Rome to this effect, and 
their petition was granted (Con. Plen. Bait., Ill, pp. 
lOosqq.). (See Circumcision, Fea,st OF the; Chro- 
nology; Christmas.) 

ScHROD in Kirchentex,, s. v. Neujahr; Welte, ibid., s. v. 
Feste; .Abr.vh.vms in Hastings, Diet, of the Bible, a. v. Time; 
Macdon.\ld, Chronologies and Calendars (London, 1S97) ; Eder- 
8HE1M, The Temple, Its Ministry and Services at the time of Jesus 
Christ, X, xv; Browne in Did. Christ. Antiq., s. v.; Harper's 
Classical Did. (New York, 1897), s. v. Calendarium; Feasey, 
Chrislmastide in Amer. Ecd. Rev. (Dec, 1909); The Old English 
New Year, ibid. (Jan., 1907) ; Thurston, Christmas Day and the 
Christian Calendar, ibid. (Dec, 1898; Jan.. 1899). For Rab- 
binic legends see Jewish Encycl., a. v. New Year. 

John J. Tiernet. 

New York, Archdiocese of (Neo-Eboracensis); 
see erected 8 .\pril, 1808; made archiepiscopal 19 July, 
18.50; comprises the Boroughs of Manhattan, Bronx, 
and Richmond in the City of New York, and the 
Counties of Dutchess, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, 
SuUivan, Ulster, and Westchester in the State of New 
York; also the Bahama Islands (British Possessions); 
an area of 4717 square miles in New York and 4466 in 
the Bahama Islands. The latter territory was placed 
in 1886 under this jurisdiction by the Holy See because 
the facilities of access were best from New York; it 
formerly belonged to the Diocese of Charleston. The 
suffragans of New York are the Dioceses of Albany, 
Brooklyn, Buffalo, Ogdensburg, Rochester, and Syra- 
cuse in the State of New York, and Newark and Tren- 
ton in New Jersey. All these, in 1808, made up the 
territory of the original diocese. The first division 
took place 23 April, 1847, when the creation of the 
Dioceses of Albany and Buffalo cut off the nort,hern 
and western sections of the State; and the second, in 
1853, when Brooklyn and Newark were erected into 
separate sees. 

New York is now the largest see in population, and 
the most important in influence and material pros- 
perity of all the ecclesiastical divisions of the Church 
in Continental United States. 

I. Colonial Period. — Nearly a century before 
Heiuy Hudson sailed up the great river that bears 
his name, the Catholic navigators Verrazano and 
Gomez, had guided their ships along its shores and 
placed it under the patronage of St. Anthony. The 
Calvini.stic Hollanders, to whom Hudson gave this 
foundation for a new colony, manifested their loyalty 
to their state Church by ordaining that in New 
Netherland the "Reformed Christian religion ac- 
cording to the doctrines of the Synod of Dordrecht" 



should be dominant. It is probable, but not certain, 
that there were priests with Verrazano and Gomez, 
and that from a Catholic altar went up the first 
prayer uttered on the site of the [jresent great metrop- 
olis of the New World. While public worship by 
Catholics was not tolerated, the generosity of the 
Dutch governor, William Kieft, and the people of 
New Amsterdam to the Jesuit martyr. Father Isaac 
Jogues, in 1643, and after him, to his brother Jesuits, 
Fathers Bressani and Le Moyne, must be remembered 
to their everlasting credit. Father Jogues was the 
first priest to traverse the Slate of New York; the 
first to minister within the limits of the Diocese of 
New York. When he reached Manhattan Island, 
after his rescue from captivity in the summer of 1643, 
he found there two Catholics, a young Irishman and a 
Portuguese woman, whose confessions he heard. 

St. Alary's, the first rude chajiel in which Mass was 
said in the State of New York, was begun, on 18 
November, 16.5.5, on the banks of the lake where the 
City of Syracuse now stands, by the Jesuit mission- 
aries. Fathers Claude Dablon and Pierre Chaumonot. 
In the same year another Jesuit, Feather Simon Le 
Moyne, journeyed down the river to New Amster- 
dam, as we learn from a letter sent by the Dutch 
preacher, Megapolensis (a renegade Catholic), to the 
Classis at Amsterdam, telling them that the Jesuit 
had visited Manhattan "on account of the Papists 
residing here, and especially for the accommodation 
of the French sailors, who are Papists and who have 
arrived here with a good prize." The Church had no 
foothold on Manhattan Island until after 1664, when 
the Duke of York claimed it for an English colony. 
Twenty years later, the Catholic go\'ernor, Thomas 
Dongan, not only fostered his own faith, but enacted 
the first law passed in New York establishing rehgious 
liberty. It is believed that the first Mass said on the 
island (30 October, 1683) was in a chapel he opened 
about where the custom house now stands. With 
him came three English Jesuits, Fathers Thomas 
Harvey, Henry Harrison, and Charles Gage, and they 
soon had a Latin school in the same neighbourhood. 
Of this Jacob Leisler, the fanatical usurper of the 
government, wrote to the Governor of Boston, in 
August, 1689: "I have formerly urged to inform your 
Honr. that Coll Dongan, in his time did erect a Jesuite 
Colledge upon cullour to learn Latine to the Judges 
West — Mr. Graham, Judge Palmer, and John Tudor 
did contribute their sones for sometime but no boddy 
imitating them, the colledge vanished" (O'Callaghan, 
"Documentary Hist, of N. Y.", II, 23). 

With the fail of James II and the advent of William 
of Orange to the English throne, New York's Catholic 
colony was almost stamped out by drastic penal laws 
(see New York, State of). In spite of them, how- 
ever, during the years that followed a few scattered 
representatives of the Faith drifted in and settled 
down unobstrusively. To minister to them there 
came now and then from Philadelphia a zealous Ger- 
man Jesuit missionary, Father Ferdinand Steinmayer, 
who was commonly called "Father Farmer". Gath- 
ering them together, he said Mass in the house of a 
German fellow-countryman in Wall Street, in a loft 
in Water Street, and wherever else they could find ac- 
commodation. Then came the Revolution, and in 
this connexion, owing to one of the prominent politi- 
cal issues of the time, the spirit of the leading colonists 
was intensely anti-Catholic. The first flag raised by 
the Sons of Liberty in New York was inscribed "No 
Popery". When the war ended, and the president 
and Congress resided in New York, the Catholic 
representatives of France, Spain, Portugal, with 
Charles Carroll, his cousin Daniel, and Thomas Fitz 
Simmons, Catholic members of Congress, and officers 
and soldiers of the foreign contingent, merchants and 
others, soon made up a respectable congregation. 
Mass was said for them in the house of the Spanish 



NEW YORK 



21 



NEW YORK 



minister, Don Diego de Gardoqui, on Broadway, 
near the Bowling Green, in the Vauxhall Gardens, 
which was a hall on the river fi-ont near Warren 
Street, and in a carpenter's shop in Barclay Street. 
Finally, an Irish Capuchin, Father Charles Whelan, 
who had served as a chaplain in De Grasse's 
fleet, and was acting as private chaplain to the Portu- 



was named: a letter sent on 8 Nov., 1808, by Father 
Kohlmann, who was then acting as the administrator 
of the diocese, to his friend Father Strickland, S. J., of 
liOndon, England, says, "Your favour of the 6th Sept. 
was delivered to me at the beginning of October in the 
City of New York, where our Right Rev. Bishop Car- 
roll has thought proper to send me in the capacity 



guese consul-general, Don Jos6 RoizSilva, took up also of rector of this immense congregation and Vicar 
the care of this scattered flock, which numbered less Generalof this diocese till the arrival of the Right Rev. 
than two hundred, and only about forty of them Richard Luke Concanen, Bishop of New York. The 
practical in the observances of their faith. congregation chiefly consists of Irish, some hundreds 

Through efforts led by the French consul. Hector St. of French, and as many Germans, in all, according to 
John de Crevecoeur (q. v.\ an act of incorporation the common estimation, of 14,000 souls. Rev. Mr. 
was secured, on 10 June, 178.5, for the "Trustees of Fenwick, a young Father of our society, distinguished 
the Roman CatholicChuroh of the Cily (if.Xi'w York." I'or his l<'arning and piety, has been sent along with 

in which Josi5 Roiz Silva, me. I was no sooner arrived 

James Stewart, and Henry , in the city and, behold, the 

Duffin were associated with \ trustees, though before our 

him as the first board. An | arrival they had not spent a 

unexpired lease of lots at ? cent for the reparation and 

Barclay and Church streets ^m. furniture of their clergy- 

was bought from the trustees ^Wk man's house, laid out for the 

of Trinity church, Thomas KMe ^^'"^ purpose above $800. All 

Stoughton, the Spanish Con- V'*l^»i "^^'^ seem to revive at the 

sul-general, and his partner ^ /^ I { mI '^fty name of the Society of 

Dominick Lynch, advancing j I ffl Jesus though yet little known 

the purchase money, one 1 j^ I 18B m this part of the country." 

thousand pounds, and there I I ^^B ^^ h it rapid progress was 

on 5 Oct., 1785, the corner- f S-^^fvBU. made he indicates, two years 

stone of St. Peter's, the first --<i^'^ HBh liter when, again writing to 

permanent structure for a jjWj HSI .rJfiSI Sx ^ thf rStrickland,on 14Sept., 

Catholic church erected in ^ IT ■^aii^ ^ S afe 1^10 he tells him: "Indeed 

the State of New York, was ^&^ L . ^WHBi|HBfe|^^i|,. it is but two years that we ar- 

laid by the Spanish minister, |H^ ^^--^-^^^SM^^SHSBH '''^^'^ "^ ^'^'^ ^'^^ without hav- 

Gardoqui. The church was ^^S^^S^^^. H^^^^SB^S^^ '"^ ^ "^'^^ '" ^'"^ pocket, not 
opened 4 Nov., 1780. The M^K^^ S] lHWiM Wiiffhir>^ '^'^" °^'^ passage money, 

first resident pastor was Fa- lim^si^ ^^,- HJPfflfflnllitfflfc ^* " '^"^'^ ^^'^ trustees paid for 
ther Whelan, who, however, WBMSg^^^& " ^SB^StmmM ^I^^I^^ 1 at her Fenwick and me . . . 
was forced to retire owing to ilP^^STin HBraHWIMMl la^SSI md to see things so far ad- 
the hostility of the trustees »|i&||a||^ J I ^Jjiff XTk^IT^W '^ ^''"^'^ ^^ *° ^®® °°* ""'-^ *''® 
andof another Capuchin, the tj ' i3^ Mil ^jMiillllliilll7 i WjtTF*~ Cathohc religion highly re- 
Rev. Andrew Nugent, lipfore Mfc^T3^ "*«;. '1 C3^ J» f 1 T ^P^*^' ed by the first characters 
the Church was opened. The liOTiMteeB ^^SSr^^S^ ^ 'I "^'M "' th<? '''tyi but even a Cath- 
prefect Apostolic, the vener- l^r'^^^~M^S^B^W?^r^--"'Vi|y , ■^ olic college estabUshed, the 
able John Carroll, then ^^^gSKHn^E^jJlt^ {!fff^B**ilf i '^'^"'"'^ ^''" furnished both in 
visited New York to admin- ?M Wpf BS i^^^^^^SfciP^!ti44 ^fc^i^ '""" "^nd in the college im- 
ister confirmation for the laaMft^Siia |Ma|a^^^^i,,^.- IH 1 1 ta BE^^ p ovements made in the col- 
first time, and placed the gBHHBMH^^^^^F^^^^^^ 1 U ge [sic] for four or five hun- 
church in charge of a Domin- ^■■^^^BIHHB^^BHV'**^ '""^ dollars ... is a thing 

ican. Father William O'Brien, " — ^ — T TT. ^ 3 ^v- " w hich I am at a loss to con- 

who may be regarded as the ^ld St. Peter b CHtmcH, Barclay br. u,>>o) ^^^^^ and ^hj^h J cannot 

organizer of the parish. He had as his assistants ascribe but to the infinite liberality of the Lord, to 
Fathers John Connell and Nicholas Burke, and, in his whom alone, therefore, be all glory and honour. The 
efforts to aid the establishment of the church, went as college is in the centre not of Long Island but of 
far as the City of Mexico to collect funds there under the Island of New York, the most delightful and most 
the auspices of his old schoolfellow, the archbishop of healthy spot of the whole island, at a distance of four 
that see. He brought back S.5920 and a number of small miles from the city, and of half a mile from the 
paintings, vestments, etc. Father O'Brien and his East and North rivers, both of which are seen from the 
assistants did heroic work during the yellow fever house; situated between two roads which are very 
epidemics of 1795, 1799, 1801, and 1805. In 1801 he much frequented, opposite to the botanic gardens 
established the parish school, which has since been which belong to the State. It has adjacent to it a 
carried on without interruption. The church debt at beautiful lawn, garden, orchard,^ etc."— This_ spot is 



now the site of St. Patrick's Cathedral on Fifth ave- 
nue. 

We can judge from the family names on the register 
of St. Peter's church that the early Catholics of New 
York were largely Irish; next in number come the 
French, then the Germans, followed by those of Ital- 
ian, Spanish and English origin. There were enough 
Germans in 1808 to think themselves entitled to a 
Kohlmann (q. v.), was sent to take charge. It was church and pastor of their own nationality, for on 2 
at this time that the Holy See determined to erect March of that year Christopher Briehill, John Kner- 
Baltimore into an archbishopric and to establish the inger, George Jacob, Martin Nieder, and I'rancis 
new Dioceses of New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and Werneken signed a petition which they sent to Bishop 
Bardstown, Ky. Carroll praying him "to send us a pastor who is capa- 

II Creation of the Diocese.— We have a picture ble of undertaking the spiritual Care of our Souls i n the 
of the situation in New York when the first bishop German Language, whiciris our Mother Tongue. 



this time was .$6,500; the income from pew rents 
.11120, and from collections, .S360, a year. The Rev. 
Dr. Matthew O'Brien, another Dominican, the Rev. 
John Byrne, and the Rev. Michael Hurley, an Au- 
gustinian, were, during this period, assistants at St. 
Peter's. In July, 1807, the Rev. Louis Sibourd, a 
French priest, was made pastor, but he left in the fol- 
lowing year, and then the famous Jesuit, Anthony 



NEW YORK 



22 



NEW YORK 



Many of us do not know any English at all, and those 
who have some knowledge of it are not well enough 
versed in the Knglish Language as to attend Divine 
Serviee with any utihty to themselves. As we have 
not yet a plaice of worship of our own we have made 
application t.i Ihr Trustees of the English Catholic 
Church in this 
city to grant us 
permission to per- 
form our worsliip 
in the German 
Language in their 
eliurch at such 
times as not to 
interfere with 
tlu'ir regular ser- 
vices. This per- 
mission they have 
readily granted 
us. During the 
Course of the year 
we shall take care 
to find an oppor- 
tunity to provide 
ourselves with a 
suitable building 
of our own, for 
we have no doubt 




RicH-\RD Luke Concanen 
First Bisliop of New York 



that our number will soon considerably increase. 
Nothing came of this petition, and no separate Ger- 
man congregation was organized in New York until a 
quarter of a century after its date. But Father Kohl- 
mann saw to it that another church should be started, 
and St. Patrick's was begun "between the Broadway 
and the Bowery road" in 1809, to meet the needs of 
the rapidly increasing number of Catholics on the 
east side of the city. It was also to serve as the cathe- 
dral church of the new diocese. The corner-stone was 
laid 8 June, 1809, but, owing to the hard times and the 
war of 1812 with England, the structure was not 
ready for use until 4 May, 1815, when it was dedicated 
by Bishop Cheverus who came from Boston for that 
purpose. It was tlien far on the outskirts of the city, 
and, to accustom the people to go there, Mass was 
said at St. Peter's every other Sunday. The ground 
on which it was built was purchased in 1801 for a 
graveyard, and the interments in it from that time 
until the cemetery was closed in 1833 numbered 32,- 
153. Some of the Catholic laymen prominent during 
this period were Andrew Morris, Matthew Reed, 
Cornelius Heeney, Thomas Stoughton, Dominick 
Lynch, Benjamin Disobrey, Peter Burtsell, uncle of 
the Rev. James A. Neil, the first native of New York 
to be admitted to the priesthood, Joseph Icard, mer- 
chant and architect, Hugh McGinnis, Dennis Doyle, 
Miles F. Clossey, Anthony Trapanni, a native of 
Meta, Italy, pioneer Italian merchant and the first 
foreigner to be naturalized under the Constitution, 
Francis Varet, John B. Lasala, Francis Cooper, George 
Gott.sberger, Thomas O'Connor, Thomas Brady, Dr. 
William James Macneven, and Bernard Dornin, the 
first Catholic publisher, for whose edition of Pasto- 
rini's "History of the Church," issued in 1807, there 
were 318 New York City subscribers. 

III. The Hierarchy. — A. When Bishop Carroll 
learned that it was the intention of the Holy See to 
recognize the growth of the Church in the United 
States by dividing the Diocese of Baltimore and creat- 
ing new sees, he advised that New York be placed un- 
der the care of the Bishop of Boston till a suitable 
choice could be made for that diocese. Archbishop 
Troy of Dubhn, however, induced Pius VII to appoint 
as New York's first bishop an Irish Dominican, Father 
Richard Luke Concanen, who had resided many years 
in Rome as the agent of the Irish bishops and was 
much esteemed there. He was prior of St. Clement's 
at Rome, librarian of the Minerva, and distinguished 



for his learning. He had refused a nomination for a 
see in Ireland and was much interested in the missions 
in America, about whicli he had kept up a correspond- 
ence with Bishop Carroll. It was at his suggestion 
that Father Fenwick founded the first house of the 
Dominicans in Kentucky. He was consecrated first 
Bishop of New York at" Rome, 21 April, 1808, and 
some time after left for Leghorn on his way to his see, 
taking with him the pallium for Archbishop Carroll. 
After waiting there for a ship for four months he re- 
turned to Rome. Thence he went to Naples, expect- 
ing to sail from that port, but tin' French military 
forces in possession of the city detained him as a 
British subject, and, while waiting vainly to be re- 
leased, he died of fever, 19 June, 1810. Finding that 
he could not leave Italy, he had asked the pope to ap- 
point the Rev. Ambrose Mar^chal to be his coadjutor 
bishop in New York. The American bishops cor- 
dially endorsed this choice and considered that the ap- 
pointment would be made. Archbishop Carroll, 
writing to Father C. Plowden, of London, 25 June, 
1815, said: "It was known here that before the death 
of Dr. Concanen his Holiness at the Dr's entreaty in- 
tended to assign to him as his coadjutor the Rev. Mr. 
Marechal, a priest of St. Sulpice, now in the Seminary 
here, and worthy of any promotion in the Church. 
We still expected that this measure would be pursued; 
and that we made no presentation or recommendation 
of any other for the vacant see." 

B. — Archbishop Troy, of Dublin, however, with 
the other Irish bishops, proposed to the pope another 
Irish Dominican, the Rev. John Connolly, for the 
vacant see of New York, and he was consecrated at 
Rome, 6 Nov., 1814 (see Connolly, .Iohn). It was a 
selection which might have proved embarrassing to 
American Catholics, for Bishop Connolly was a 
British subject, and the LTnited States was then at 
war with Great Britain. "I wish," wrote Archbishop 
Carroll to Father Plowden, 25 June, 1815, "this may 
not become a very dangerous precedent fruitful of 
mischief by draw- 
ing upon our reli- 
gion a false opin- 
ion of the servility 
of our principles." 
Owing to his own 
views of the situ- 
ation in the din- 
cese. Bishop Cmi- 
nolly did nut 
announce his :i|i- 
pointment to lii- 
fellow-members of 
the hierarchy or to 
the administrator 
of the diocese. 
Father Kohlmann 
was, therefore, in 
anticipation of the 
bishop's arrival, 
recalled by his su- 
periors to Mary- 
land, the college 
was closed, and John Connolly 

the other Jesuits Second Bi.stiop of New York 

soon after left the diocese. Finally, Bishop Con- 
nolly arrived in New York unannounced, and with- 
out any formal local welcome, 24 Nov., 1815, his 
ship taking sixty-eight days to make the voyage from 
Dublin. In the diocese he found that everything 
was to be created from resources that were very small 
and in spite of obstacles that were very great. The 
diocese embraced the whole State of New York and 
half of New Jersey. There were but four priests in 
this territory. Lay trustees had become so accus- 
tomed to having their own way that they were not 
disposed to admit even the authority of a bishop. 




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23 



NEW YORK 



Dr. Connolly was not wanting in firmness, but the 
pressing needs of the times, forcing an apparent con- 
cession to the established order of tilings, subjected 
him to much difficulty and many humiliations. He 
was a missionary priest rather than a bishop, as he 
wrote Cardinal Litta, Prefect of Propaganda, in Feb- 
ruary, ISIS, but he discharged all his laborious duties 
with humility and earnest zeal. His diary further 
notes that he told the cardinal: "I found here about 
13,000 Catholics. . . . At present there are about 16,- 
000 mostly Irish; at least 10,000 Irish Cathohcs ar- 
rived at New York only within these last three years. 
They spread through all the other states of this con- 
federacy, and make their religion known everywhere. 
Bishops ought to be granted to whatever here is will- 
ing to erect a Cathedral, and petition for a bishop. 
. . . The present dioceses are quite too extensive. 
Our Cathedral owes $53,000 borrowed to build it. . . . 
This burden hinders us from supporting a sufficient 
number of priests, or from thinking to erect a semi- 
nary. The American youth have an invincible re- 
pugnance to the ecclesiastical state." 

He made a \nsitation of the diocese, no mean accom- 
plishment at that time; provided churches for the peo 
pie in Brooklyn, Buffalo, Albany, Utiea md Pater- 
son; introduced the Sisters of Charit\ st utr 1 the 
orphan asylum, and encouraged the openmg it p iii h 
schools. He died at liis residence, 512 Bioi 1\\ i\ > 
Feb., 1825, worn out by his labours and iii\i( tn 
Notable men of this period were Fxthers Muhi 1 
O'Gorman and Richard Bulger — the lattir tin fii t 
priest ordained in Xew York (1820) — Chxiks IJ 
Ffrench, John Power, John Farnan, Ihonns C L( \ 
ins, Philip Larisey and John Shannahan There v. i r 
several distinguished converts, including Molh i 
Seton, founder of tiic American branch of tli ^i t i 
of Charity; tlic Hiv. \irgil Barber and his wil il 
Rev. John Richards, the Rev. George K(«l \ tli 
Rev. George E. Ironside. Keating Lawson md othcis 
Two years elapsed before the next bishop v, is \p- 
pointed, and the Rev. Dr. John Power during tint 
period governed the diocese as adinini trit n Brook 
lyn's first church was organized durin^ tin timr It 
was during Bishop Connnlly's administration also, 
that New York's first Catholic paper "The Truth 
Teller" was started, on 2 April, 1825. 

C. — The choice of the Holy See for the third bishop 
was the Rev. Dr. John Dubois, president of Mount 
St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg (see Dubois, John), 
and he was consecrated at Baltimore, 29 October, 
1826. The Rev. William Taylor, a convert who had 
come from Cork, Ireland, in June, 1818, at the sugges- 
tion of Bishop England of Charleston, endeavoured 
to be himself made bishop, going to Rome in Jan- 
uary, 1820, for that purpose. This visit to Rome 
being fruitless, Taylor went to Boston, where he 
remained several years with Bishop Cheverus, re- 
turning to New York when that prelate was trans- 
ferred to France. He was exceedingly popular with 
non-Catholics because of his liberality. He preached 
the sermon at the consecration of Bishop Dubois and 
used the occasion to expatiate on what he called "dis- 
astrous experiences wliich resulted to religion from 
injudicious appointments", hinting at coming trouble 
for the bishop in New York. He left New York simul- 
taneously with the arrival of the bishop there, and 
sailed for France, where his old friend Mgr Cheverus, 
then Archbishop of Bordeaux, received him. He died 
suddenly, while preaching in the Irish college, Paris, 
in 1828. 

None of the predicted disturbances happened when 
Bishop Dubois took possession of his see, though the 
abuse of trusteeism, grown more and more insolent 
and unmanageable by toleration, hampered his efforts 
from the very start. Fanaticism w.as aroused among 
the Protestant sects, alarmed at the numerical in- 
crease of the Church through the immigration at- 



tracted by the commercial growth of the State. But in 
spite of all, he went on bravely visiting all parts of 
the State, building and encouraging the building of 
churches wherever they were needed, obtaining aid 
from Rome and from the charitable in Europe. He 
found but two churches in the city when he came; to 
these he added six others and multiplied for his flock 
the facilities for practising their religion, his constant 
endeavour being to give his people priests, churches, 
and schools. With the trustees in New York City 
and in Buffalo he had many sad experiences, but he 
unflinchingly upheld his constituted authority. In 
1834 he organized, with the Rev. John Raffeiner as 
pastor, the first German Catholic congregation in New 
York in a small disused Baptist church at Pitt and 
De Lancey Streets, which became the church of St. 
Nicholas. It was about this time, too, that a public 
controversy over Catholic doctrine raged between the 
Calvinist ministers. Rev. John Breckenridge and Rev. 
WUUam Brownlee, and the \iciv-'_'i'!i>M-il, H>'v. Dr. 




Fifth .\venue aad Fiftietli Street. Ne 
preaent Cathedr; 

Power, assisted by Fathers Varela, Levins, and Schnel- 
ler. It was followed by the fanatical attack on Cat ho- 
hc reUgious communities known as "The Awful Dis- 
closures of Maria Monk". Dr. Dubois "had then 
reached the age of seventy and, though still a vigorous 
combatant when necessary, was disinclined to religious 
controversy. Perhaps he did not understand the 
country and the people as well as the younger men 
who had grown up in America; perhaps he was de- 
terred by his memories of the French Revolution" 
(Herbermann, "Hist. Records and Studies", I, Pt. 2, 
333). 

At length the many burdens and anxieties of his 
charge told on the bishop, and he asked for a coadju- 
tor, naming the Right Rev. P. F. Kenrick, Coadjutor 
of Philadelphia, as his first choice, and the Rev. 
Thomas F. Mulledy, S.J.. and the Rev. John Hughes, 
of Philadelphia, as alternates. Father Hughes, of 
Philadelphia, who had been his pupil at Emmitsburg, 
was selected and consecratcil titular Bishop of Basileo, 
7 January, 18:38. His youth and vigour soon put. new 
life into the affairs of the Church in New York, and 
were especially efficient in meeting the aggn'ssions of 
the lay trustees. Bishop Hughes had fully realized 
the dangers of the system as shown in IMiiladrlphia, 
and he lost no time in meeting and crushing it in New 
York. Bishop Dubois, through ill health, had to re- 
linquish the details of his charge more and more to his 
youthful assistant, v/Uohv. activity he warmly wel- 
comed. Several attacks of paralysis warned him to 
give up the management ot-the diocese. His remain- 



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24 



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ing days ho spent quietly preparing for the end, his 
coadjutor ever treating him with respectful kindness 
and sympathy. He died 20 December, 1S40, full of 
years and merits. Those of his assistants who were 
notably prominent were Fatlier Felix \'arela, an emi- 
nently pious and versatile priest, an exile from Cuba, 
and the Revs. Jo.se]>h Sehncller, Dr. Constantine C. 
Pise, Alexander Mupietti, .lolin KafTeiner, the pioneer 
German pastor; Hatton Walsh, P. Malou, T. Ma- 
guire, Michael Curran, Gregory B. Pardow, Luke 
Berry, John N. Neumann, later a Redemptorist and 
Bishop of Philadelphia, and John \A'alsh, long pastor 
of St. James, Brooklyn. 

D. — Bishop Hughes, the administrator, at once as- 
sumed the title of the see as its fourth bishop, and is 
the really great figure in the constructi\-e period of 
New York's history. "It was a day of great men in 
the civil order", says the historian, Dr. John Gilmary 
Shea, "the day of Clay, Webster, Calhoun, yet no 
man of that era spoke so directly or so effectively to 
the American peo- 
ple as Bishop 
Hughes. He was 
not an ortlinary 
man. It had been 
well said that in 
any assemblage he 
would have been 
notable. He 
was full of noble 
thoughts and aspi- 
rations and de- 
voted to the 
Church; every 
plan and every 
proj ect of his mind 
a i m e d at the 
i;r(^atergood of the 
country". The 
>inry of his event- 
ful career is told in 
a separate article 
(see Hughes, 
John), and it will 
sufEce to mention here some of the many distinguished 
men who helped to make his administration so impor- 
tant in local records. Among them were the Rev. Wil- 
liam Quarter, afterwards first Bishop of Chicago, and 
his brother, the Rev. Walter J. Quarter, the Rev. Ber- 
nard O'Reilly, first Bishop of Hartford; the Rev. John 
Loughlin, first Bishop of Brooklyn; the Rev. James R. 
Bayley, first Bishop of Newark and Archbishop of 
Baltimore; the Rev. David Bacon, first Bishop of 
Portland; the Rev. William G. McCloskey, first rec- 
tor of the American College at Rome and fourth 
Bishop of Louisville, Ky., son of one of the Brooklyn 
pioneers; the Rev. Andrew Byrne, first Bishop of Lit- 
tle Rock; the Rev. John J. Com'oy, Bishop of Albany; 
the Rev. William Starrs, vicar-general; the Rev. Dr. 
Ambrose Manahan, the Rev. Dr. J. W. Cummings, 
Archdeacon McCarron, the Rev. John Kelly (Eugene 
Kelly's brother), who went as a missionary to Africa 
and then became first pastor at Jersey City. These 
are only a few of the names that are prominent. 
Among the notable converts of this period may be 
mentioned the Rev. Thomas S. Preston, J. V. Hun- 
tington, F. E. White, Donald McLeod, Isaac T. 
Hecker, A. F. Hewit, Alfred Young, Clarence W^al- 
worth, and Edgar P. Wadhams, later Bishop of 
Cgdensburg. 

E. — As the successor of Archbishop Hughes, Bishop 
John McCloskey of Albany was promoted to be the 
second archbishop. He had been consecrated Coad- 
jutor of New York, with the right of succession, in 
1844, but resigned both offices to become the first 
Bishop of Albany in 1847 (see McCloskey, John). 
He returned to New York in spite of his own protests 




John Dubois 
Third Bishop of New York 



of unworthiness, but with the unanimous approval 
and rejoicing of the clergy and laity. He was born 
in Brooklyn, 10 March, ISIO, and was therefore the 
first native bishop, as li<' was i lie second native of New 
York to be ordained to the priesthood. He was a 
gentle, polished, ainialile l)relate, and accomplishefl 
nuich for the ]>rogre.-is of Catlmlie New York. The 
Protectory, the Foundling Asyhuii, and the Mi.ssioii of 
the Immaculate Virgin for hdineless children were 
founded under his auspices; he resumed work on the 
new Cathedral, and saw its comi)lction; the provincial 
seminary at Troy was organized; churches, schools, 
and charitable institutions were everywhere increased 
and improved. In the stimulation of a general ap- 
preciation of the necessity of Catholic education the 
cardinal (he was elevated to the Purple in 1875) 
was incessant and most vigorous. He saw that the 
foundations of the structure, laid ilecp by his illustri- 
ous predecessor, upheld an edilicc in which all the re- 
quirements of modern educational mctliods should be 
found. Like him, also, as years crept on, he asked 
for a coadjutor, and the Bishop of Newark, Michael 
Augustine Corrigan, was sent to him. 

F. — Born in Newark, 31 August, 1839, his college 
days were spent at Mt. St. Mary's, Emmitsburg, and 
at Rome. Ordained in 1863, Bishop Corrigan be- 
came president of Seton Hall College in 1868, Bishop 
of Newark in 1873, Coadjutor of New York in 1880, 
and archbishop in 188.5 (see Corrigan, Michael A.). 
He died, from an accidental fall during the building of 
the Lady Chapel at the Cathedral, 5 May, 1902. It 
was said of him by the New York "Evening Post": 
"The memory of his life distils a fragrance like to that 
of St. Francis." By some New Y'orkers he was for a 
time a much misunderstood man, whose memory time 
will vindicate. Acute thinkers are appreciating his 
worth as a civilian as well as a churchman, and the fact 
that, for Catholics, he grappled with the first menac- 
ing move of Socialism and eft'ectually and permanently 
checked its advance. He was an administrator of 
ability and, socially, a man of winning personality. 
To the serious problem of providing for the spiritual 
need of the inrushing thousands of European immi- 
grants he gave successful consideration. The splen- 
did seminary at Dunwoodie is his best memorial. Its 
beautiful chapel he built at a cost of $60,000 — his 
whole private inherited fortune. During his admin- 
istration controversy over the school question was 
waged with a certain amount of acrimony. He was 
regarded as the leader of those all over the country 
who stood for uncompromising Catholic education. 
Archbishop Corrigan was also drawn into conflict 
with the Rev. Dr. Edward McGlynn, rector of St. 
Stephen's church, a man of considerable ability, but 
whose radical views on the ownership of land had 
brought on him the official censure of Cardinal Si- 
meoni, Prefect of Propaganda. In the municipal elec- 
tion of 1886, in spite of the archbishop's warnings, he 
became the open partisan of Henry George who was 
the candidate for mayor of the Single Tax party. As 
a consequence, he was suspended, and, as an alumnus 
of the College of Propaganda, was summoned to 
Rome to answer the charges made against him. He 
refused to go and was excommunicated. — For details 
and text of official letters, see Archbishop Corrigan's 
statement to New York papers (21 January, 1887) and 
Dr. McGlynn's formal answer in Henry George's 
"Standard" (5 February, 1887).— Dr. McGlynn's 
partisans organized themselves into what they called 
the Anti-Poverty Society. He addressed this body 
every Sunday until about Christmas, 1892, when, 
having willingly accepted the conditions laid down by 
the pope, he was absolved from censure and recon- 
ciled by Mgr Satolli, the Apostolic delegate. Ac- 
cording to a published statement by Mgr Satolli, the 
conditions were in this form : "Dr. McGlynn had pre- 
sented a brief statement of his opinions on moral- 



NEW YORK 



25 



NEW YORK 



economic matters, and it was judged not contrary to 
the doctrine constantly taught by the Church, and as 
recently confirmed by the Holy Father in the encych- 
cal 'Reruni Novarum'. Also it is hereby made 
known that Dr. McGlynn, besides publicly professing 
his adiicrciiii' Id all the doctrines and teachings of the 
Catholic C'liun li, has expressed his regret (saying that 
he would lie the lirst to regret it) for any word or act 
of his that may have seemed lacking in the respect due 
to ecclesiastical authority, and he hereby intends to 
repair as far as he can any offense which may have 
been given to Catholics. Finally, Dr. McGlynn has 
of his own free will declared and promised that, 
within the limits of a not long period of time, he will 
go to Rome in the spirit and intention which are be- 
coming to a good Catholic and a priest." In 1S94 
Dr. AIcGlynn was appointed pastor of St. Mary's 
church, Newburg, where he remained quietly until 
his death in 1001. 

Archbishop Corrigan made his last visit ad Umina 
in 1890 and after his return, until his death in 1902, 
devoted himself entirely to the duties of his high 
office. His death brought out the fact that he was 
the foremost figure of the community in the respect 
and affection of his fellow-citizens. His unassuming 
personality and his gentle method, his considerate 
kindness and his unaffected piety were pathways to 
the love and veneration of his own flock. His stead- 
fast adherence to principle, as well as his persuasive 
manner of, not only teaching, but also of acting out 
the doctrines of his reUgion, his profound scholarship, 
his experienced judgment, were ever employed when 
there was question of a religious, moral, or civil import 
to his fellow-men. The truth of this is to be found in 
the testimony of Leo XIII, himself, of the civil digni- 
taries of the land, of his brethren in the episcopate, 
of his own clergy and laity, on the mournful occa- 
sion of his death. Under the second and third arch- 
bishops, Mgr ^\'illiam Quinn, V.G., was a prominent 
figure, and among his associates of this era were Mgr 
Thomas S. Preston, Mgr Arthur J. Donnelly, Mgr 
James McMahon, Mgr P. F. McSweeny, Fathers 
M. Curran, William Everett, W. H. Clowry, Felix H. 
Farrelly, Eugene McGuire, Thomas Farrell, Edward 
J. O'Reilly, M. J. O'Farrell (later Bishop of Trenton), 
and Edmund Aubril. 

G. — As fourth archbishop, the Holy See confirmed 
the choice of the diocesan electors, and appointed to 
fill the vacancy the auxiliary, the Right Rev. John 
Murphy Farley, titular Bishop of Zeugma, who was 
promoted to the archbishopric 15 September, 1902. 
He was born at Newton Hamilton, County Armagh, 
Ireland, 20 April, 1842. His primary studies were 
made at St. McCartan's College, Monaghan, and, on 
his coming to New York, were continued at St. John's 
College, Fordham. Thence he went to the provincial 
seminary at Troy for his philosophy course, and after 
this to the American College, Rome, where he was 
ordained priest 11 June, 1870. Returning to New 
York, he ministered as an assistant in St. Peter's 
parish, Staten Island, for two years, and in 1872 was 
appointed secretary to the then Archbishop McClos- 
key, in which office he served until 1884, when he was 
made pastor of St. Gabriel's church. New York City. 
He accompanied the cardinal to Rome in 1878, for the 
election of Leo XIII, which event, however, took place 
before their arrival. In 1884 he was made a private 
chamberlain; in 1892 he was promoted to the domes- 
tic prelacy, and in 1895 to be prothonotary apostolic. 
In 1S91 he was chosen vicar-general of the diocese by 
Archbishop Corrigan, and, on 21 December, 1895, was 
consecrated as his auxiliary, with the title of Bishop of 
Zeugma. At the death of Archbishop Corrigan, he 
was appointed his succe.s.sor, 15 Sept., 1902, and Pius 
X named him assistant at the pontifical throne in 
1904. He made progress in Catholic education in the 
diocese the keynote of his administration, and within 



the first eight years added nearly fifty parochial 
schools to the primary list, encouraged the increase 
also of high schools, and founded Cathedral College as 
a preparatory seminary. 

In the proceedings of the annual convention of the 
Catholic Educational Association held in New York in 
1903, and of the National Eucharistic Congress in 1904, 
Archbishop Farley took a most active and directive 
part. Synods were held regularly every third year, 
and theological conferences quarterly, to give effect 
to every instruction and legislative act of the Holy 
See. A monthly recollection for all the priests of the 
diocese assembled together was instituted. Provision 
was made for the religious needs of Italians and other 
Catholic immigrants — the Italian portion of his flock 
numbering about 400,000 souls. The great work of 
issuing The Catholic Encyclopedia owed its 
inception and progress to his help and stimulus. 
The centenary of the erection of the diocese was 
celebrated under his direction by a magnificent festi- 
val lasting a week 
(April 27-May 2, 
1908); the Lady 
Chapel of the Ca- 
thedral was com- 
pleted, the Cathe- 
dral debt was paid 
off, and the edifice 
consecrated 5 Oc- 
tober, 1910, Car- 
dinal V i n c e p z o 
Vannutelli, papa! 
legate to the 
Twenty -first Eu- 
charistic Con- 
gress, Cardinal 
Logue, Primate of 
All Ireland, Car- 
dinal Gibbons of 
Baltimore,70prel- 
ates, 1000 priests, 
and an immense 
congregation of 
the laity being 
present at the 
Mass of the day. 
Archbishop Farley was given an auxiliary in the 
Right Rev. Thomas F. Cusack, who was consecrated 
titular Bishop of Themiscyra, 25 April, 1904. Bishop 
Cusack was born in New York, 22 Feb., 1862, and 
made his classical course at St. Francis Xavier's 
College where he graduated in 1880. His theological 
studies were pursued at the provincial seminary, Troy, 
where he was ordained priest in 1885. He was a very 
successful director of the Diocesan-Apostolate (1897- 
1904) before his consecration as bishop, after which he 
was appointed Rector of St. Stephen's parish. 

IV. — Diocesan Institutions. — The Cathedral. — 
St. Patrick's Cathedral, standing on the crest of New 
York's most magnificent thoroughfare, is the noblest 
temple ever dedicated, in any land, to the honour of 
the Apostle of Ireland. It is an edifice of which every 
citizen of the great metropolis is justly proud. Its 
style is the decorated and geometric Gothic of which 
the cathedrals of Reims, Amiens, and Cologne are 
prominent examples. It was planned in 1853 by 
James Renwick of New York ; construction was begun 
in 1858, and the building was formally opened and 
dedicated on 25 May, 1879 (building ojierations hav- 
ing been susprndi ,1, nwiiig to I lie Civil War, from 18(il 
-06). The Hlf 1.1 III.- c-alheihal. flic block bounded 
by Fifth A\(iiiic. 1 iliiclh Street, I'ourth Avenue, and 
Fifty-first Street, has been in the possession of the 
church authorities, and used for ecclesiastical purposes, 
except during a very brief interval (1S21-1S2S), since 
1 March, ISIO. The block on which the Cathedral 
stands was purchased at its then marketable value 




. Augustine Corrigan 
Tliird Arclibiahop of New York 



NEW YORK 26 

and thoroforo never was a gift or donation from tlie 
i-ity, iis lias been said sometimes, either ignoraiitly or 
even with eoiiseious maliee. The eorner-stone wa.s 
laul on the aflerncM.n of Sunday, 15 August, IS.OS, by 
Arelihishop lluglirs, m llie presenee of an asseml)lage 
estimated at one liundrcd tliousand. The address de- 
hvered by t he arehl )ishop is reKanl,.,! as (ine of t he most 
eloquent and mem(iial)lc he ev;T ut lired. The -al her- 
mg maybeeonsidercdlhelirst pubhc manilr-^tMli.m of 
that great Calhulie New York which h.'caiii.. Ihr uoii- 
diTand a(hiiiralion of tlie ninetci'nlli cnidiry. and it 
lent inspnation and power to the magic of liis riiiKiiig 
wurds of joy and triumph. 

St. Patriek's Cathedral is the eleventh in size among 
tile great ehurehes of the world. Its dimensions are 
as tnllows, tlie Lady Chapel e.xcluded: E.vterior:— Ex- 
treme length (with Lady Chapel), 398 feet; extreme 
breadth, 174 feet; general breadth, 132 feet; towers at 
base, ._i2 feet: height of towers, 330 feet. Interior:— 
Length, 370 feet; breadth of nave and choir (e.xclud- 
ing ehapels), 96 feet; breadth of nave and choir (in- 
cluding chapels), 120 feet ; length of transept, 140 feet • 
central aisle, 48 feet wide, 112 feet high; side aisles! 
24 feet wide, 54 feet high; chapels 18 feet wide, 14 feet 
high 12 feet deep. The foundations are of verv large 
blocks of blue gneiss, which were laid in cement mortar 
up to t he level of the surface. Above the ground-line 
the hrst base-course is of granite, as is also the first 
course under all the columns and marble works of the 
interior. Above this base-course the whole exterior 
ot the building is of white marble. The cost of the 
buikiing was about four million dollars. In the origi- 
nal plan there was an apsidal Lady Chapel, but work 
on this was not begun until 20 July, 1901, during the 
admimstration of Archbishop Corrigan. It was fin- 
ished by Archbishop Farley in 1906. The architect 
was Charles T. Mathews whose design was thirteenth- 
century French Gothic. This chapel is 56^.5 feet 
long by- 28 feet wide and 56 feet high. The building of 
the Lady Chapel was started by a memorial gift for 
that purpose from the family "of Eugene Kelly the 
banker, who died in New York, 19 Dec, 1894 'Eu- 
gene Kelly was born in County Tyrone, Ireland, 25 
Aov., 1808, and emigrated to" New Y'ork in 1834 
Ilere he engaged in the drj'goods business, and later 
?Ln 'i •"'■'^' ^^°' ■"''lence he went to California in 
IboO during the gold excitement. As a banker and 
merchant there, he amassed a considerable fortune the 
interests of which took him back to New York to live 
m 1856. He was a trustee of the Cathedral for several 
terms and indentified with the Catholic charitable 
educational, and social movements of the city In 
the crypt of the chapel the deceased archbishops are 
buried, and the vault of the Kelly family is at the rear 
01 the sacristy under the Chapel. 

Education— In the cause of Catholic education the 
Uiocese of ^ew York can claim the proud distinction 
01 being the pioneer, the unceasing and uncompromis- 
ing advocate. In 16S5 the .Jesuit Fathers Harvey and 
Harrhson began the first Catholic educational institu- 
tion in the state; the New York Latin School, which 
stood near the present site of Trinity Church, Wall 
street and Broadway, and was attended bv the sons 
01 the mo.st influential colonial families, this school 
was closed by the fanatical intolerance which followed 
the Dongan administration in 1638. In 1801 Father 
Matthew O'Brien, O.P., pastor of St. Peter's church, 
opened the free school of the parish which has been 
earned on ever since without interruption. During 
the hrst five years it was supported entirely by the 
people of the parish, but in 1806 the legislature of the 
state, by an act pa.ssed 21 March, placed the school 
on the same footing as those of other religious denomi- 
nations in the city; all of them received state support 
at the time, and Father O'Brien's school received its 
share of the public money. After St. Patrick's church 
was commenced, Father Kohlmann, S.J., began the 



NEW YORK 



New York Literary Institution, the first collegiate 
school of the diocese, in a house on Mott Street oppo- 
site the church. It was an immediair succ.-ss and 
was soon removed to a house on Hnj:idw:i\- iid 'then 
111 March, 1812, to a suburban site m (i;,' yi\Wae of 
Elgin, now Fiftieth Street and Fifth Avenue, the site 
of St. Patrick s Cathedral. Although well patronized 
by the best families of the city, the inability of the 
Jesuit coMiinumty to keep up the teaching staff forced 
the abandonment of tlie enl.Tprise in 1815. To sup- 
ply traclicrs for girl.s, I'ather Kohlmann secured sev- 
eral Lrsuhne Nuns from Cork, Ireland, who arrived in 
the city 9 April, 1812. Their convent was located 
near the Literary Institution, and the Legislature bv 
the Act of 25 March, 1814, incorporated ''The Ursu- 
li^lvo^vent of the City of New York", by which 
Christine I- agan, Sarah Walsh, Mary Baldwin and 
others are incorporated for the purpose of teaching 
poor children '. After a year, as no other subjects 
joined their community, and they were not satisfied 
with the location, which was too remote from the city 
tor them to receive daily spiritual direction from a 
chaplain, these nuns gave up the school and returned 
to Ireland. 

lof^}" ^^^u'^^''?L°{ ?,'^'*°P Connolly to the diocese 
(24 November, 1815) St. Patrick's parochial school 
was opened in the basement of the cathedral The 
Cathohc Almanac" for 1822 relates that "there are 
in this city two extensive Catholic schools conducted 
upon a judicious plan and supported partly by the 
tunds of the State and partly bv moneys raised twice 
a year by the two congregations". The report of the 
trustees of St. Peter's church to the superintendent of 
common schools, in 1824, states that the average num- 
ber of scholars m St. Peter's and St. Patrick's schools 
Irom their opening had been about 500 each. These 
two were the pioneer schools of that great Cathohc 
parochial system of free schools throughout the dio- 
cese which has been the example and stimulus for 
Cathohc education all over the United States On 
28 June, 1817, three Sisters of Charitv, sent to her 
native city by Mother Seton, arrived "in New Y'ork 
from Emmitsburg to take charge of the orphan asylum 
and school of St. Patrick's church. In 1830 these 
bisters of Charity took charge of St. Peter's school and 
opened two academies. In 1816, owing to the con- 
flict between the French rule of their institute for- 
bidding the care of boys, and other details of discipline 
which greatly mterfered with diocesan progress 
Bishop Hughes received permission to organize an in- 
dependent community with diocesan autonomy This 
was established ,S December, 1S40, with the election of 
Mother Elizabeth Boyle a.s tlie first superior. The 
novitiate was oijened at 35 East Broadway, but in 
1847 was moved to Fifth Avenue and One Hundred 
and Fifth Street, where the academy for girls and 
mother-house of Mount St. Vincent was estabUshed 
len years later the city took this property for Central 
Park, and the community moved to the banks of the 
Hudson, just below Yonkers, where the College of 
Mount St. Vincent, and the headquarters of the com- 
munity now are. There are about eighteen hundred 
of these sisters teaching in more than sixty parish 
schools and in charge of diocesan institutions. 

In 1841 a community of the ReUgious of the Sacred 
Heart was sent to the diocese by Mother Barat, and 
established their first school at Houston and Mulberry 
Streets. A year later this was moved to Astoria, 
Long Island, and in 1846 to the present site of the 
convent at Manhattanville, w^here, under the direc- 
tion, for many years, of the famous Mother Mary 
Aloysia Hardey, it became, not only a popular educa- 
tional institution but the centre whence radiated most 
of the progress made by the Institute throughout the 
United States. When the first Religious of the Sacred 
Heart arrived in New York, 31 Julv, 1827, on their 
way from France to make the first foundation in the 




ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL, NEW YORK 



NEW YORK 



27 



NEW YORK 



United States at St. Louis, Missouri, Bishop Dubois 
was most favourably impressed by them, and wished 
to have a community for New York also. A letter 
which he wrote to Mother Barat in the following 
October expresses this desire and gives a view of his 
charge at that time. "It was my intention", he says, 
"to visit you and your pious associates in Paris in 
order to give you a better idea of our country before 
asking you to establish a house in New York. There 
is no doubt as to the success of an order Uke yours in 
this city; indeed it is greatly needed; but a consider- 
able sum of money would be required to supply the 
urgent needs of the foundation. The Catholic popu- 
lation, which averages over thirty thousand souls, is 
very poor, besides chiefly composed of Irish emigrants. 
Contributions from Protestants are so uncertain and 
property in this city so expensive that I cannot prom- 
ise any assistance. All I can say is that I believe one 



As has been said, the state appropriation for educa- 
tion was divided at first among all schools. Public 
education in New York, at the opening of the nine- 
teenth century, was denominational, and under the 
direction of the Public School Society organized in 
1805 "to provide a free school for the education of 
poor children in the city who do not belong to, or are 
not provided for by any religious denomination". In 
1808 the name was changed to the "Free School Soci- 
ety of New York" and again in 1826 to the "Public 
School Society of New York", with power "to provide 
for the education of all children not otherwise pro- 
vided for". This society gradually became, under 
the control of intolerant sectarian ministers, a com- 
bination against Catholic interests so that, when, in 
1840, the eight Catholic parish schools, with an at- 
tendance of about 4000 pupils, made a dernand for the 
share of the school appropriations to which the law 



of your schools, commenced with sufficient money to entitled them, it was refused by the Board of Alder- 
purchase property and support itself until the ladies men after a memorable hearing of the Catholic peti- 
have time to make themselves known, would succeed tion in the City Hall on 29-30 October, 1840, at which 
beyond all our expectations. ... I have the sorrow Bi-shop Hughes made one of his greatest oratorical 

of witnessing an efforts. As a result 

abundant harvest | I of this contest the 

rotting in the earth, Public School Society 

through lack of Apos- was soon after abol- 

tolic labourers and ished, and the pres- 

have a school then |^p^irBB||^^^^^^^^ ^^U a^ ^ ,' ' ! ,^,^^ , I k e parish schools. 

Mercy, Sisters of St. '^ . „ ^ ?ens of the Repub- 

Dominic, School Sis- 



St. .Joseph's Seminary. Dunwoodie 



ters of Notre Dame, and other teaching communi- 
ties followed in the course of the succeeding years, 
until now (1910) the parish schools of the archdiocese 
are in charge of twenty-six different reUgious com- 
munities, twenty-two of Sisters and four of Brothers. 
In 1829 an Irishman named James D. Boylan with the 
approbation of Bishop Dubois attempted to establish 
a religious community on the lines of the Irish Broth- 



lie, and the day will 
come when you viiW enforce recognition". 

To supply priests for the diocese Bishop Dubois es- 
tablished a" seminary at Nyack-on-Hudson, in 1833, 
but it was burned down just as it was ready to be 
opened. Cornelius Heeney then offered the bishop 
the ground in Brooklyn on which St. Paul's church 
now stands, refusing, however, to give the diocese the 
title to the property immediately, and the design to 



ers of Charity to teach the boys' schools, and opened build in Brooklyn was abandoned. In 1838 the es- 

two schools. The attempt failed in the course of the tate of John Lafarge, Grovemont, in Jefferson County, 

year, owing to want of business tact and the inimical was purchased and the seminary begun there Ihe 

spirit of trusteeism. The Christian Brothers opened place was then so inaccessible and impracticable that 

their first school in New York in September, 1848, in it was given up, and, on 24 June, 1841, Bishop 

St. Vincent de Paul's parish, at 16 East Canal Street. Hughes, administrator of the diocese, opened with 

La Salle Academy was opened in Canal Street in 18.50, thirty students the new St John s seminarj- and mI- 

moved to Mulberry Street in 18.56 and East Second lege at Fordham then a village just outside the city. 

Street in 1857. Manhattan College was opened in The Rev John McCloskey, later Arclibishop of New 

1853. These Brothers have charge also of the De La York and first cardinal in the United States,^ was its 

Salle Institute, the Cla.sson Point Military Academy, first president The seminary remained at Fordham 

twenty-six parish schools, and the great Catholic Pro- until 24 Oct., 1864, when it was moved again to Troy 

tectory. Bishop Hughes, in 1846, invited the Jesuits where St. Joseph's seminary began with hfty-scven 

to return to the diocese and take charge of St. John's students transferred from Fordham. The faculty 

College and Seminary at Fordham, which he had wsus composed of secular priest 



opened there in the old Rose Hill manor house, 24 
June, 1841. The seminary was moved to Troy in 
1864, and St. John's remained as part of Fordham 
University. St. Francis Xavier's College was begun 
at the school of the church of the Holy Name of Jesus, 
EUzabeth Street, in 1847. It was burned down in 



under the direction of the Very Reverend 11. Vandcr- 
hende. Here the seminary remained until IS'.Xi, dur- 
ing which period more than 700 priests were ordained 
there. The building was then given over to the Sis- 
ters of St. Joseph of the Diocese of Albany as a noviti- 
ate and training-school, and, on 12 August,, 1896, the 



the following year, reopened in Third Avenue near new Provincial seminary at Dunwoo.lie was solem^^^ 

Twelfth Street and finally located in West Sixteenth dedicated by Cardinal Satolh, then Apostolic delegate 

StTeet in 18.50 Loyola School wius opened by the to the Unified States . 'h- -re of this seminar™ 

Jesuits in 1899 at Park Avenue and Fifty-third street, entrusted to the bulpician_Fathers, but these retired 



NEW YORK 



28 



NEW YORK 



in 1906. and the work was continued by the secular 
clergy of the arclidiocoso. A further stop in provid- 
ing fiicilitios for soiniiiarv training was taken up by 
Archbishop Farley in Soplciuber, 1903, by tlic o)H'ning 
of Cathedral College for the preparatory studies of 
ecclesiastical students. 

In the cause of education the work done by the 
Catholic publishers must be noted; for New York, 
with the increase of its Catholic population, dovelojied 
also into a great producing and distributing centre for 
Catholic literature of all kinds. It is claimed for 
Bernard Domin who arrived in New York in ISOo, an 
exile from Ireland, that he was the first publisher 
of exclusively Catholic works in the United .States. 
His edition of Pastorini's "History of the Christian 
Church" (1807) was the first Catholic book published 
in New York. The next year he issued an edition of 
Dr. Fletcher's "Reflections on the Spirit of Religious 
Controversy", for which he had 144 city subscribers. 
There were 318 for the Pivstorini book, and these two 
lists make an interesting directory of Catholic New 
York families at the opening of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. Dornin left New York for Baltimore In 1809. 
He was followed in New York by Matthew Field who 
pubhshed "at his library 177 Bowery within a few 
doors of Delancey St." the first American year book, 
"The Catholic Laity's Directory to the Church Ser- 
vice: with an almanac for the year 1817". About 
1823 John Doyle began to pubhsh books at 237 Broad- 
way, and, up to 1849, when he went to San Francisco, 
he had issued many books of instruction and devotion. 
Most of the Doyle plates were taken over by Edward 
Dunigan, who had associated with him in business his 
half-brother James B. Kirker. He was the first pub- 
lisher to encourage Catholic authors to give him their 
writings. John Gilmary Shea's early histories were 
published by this firm, as was a fine edition of Hay- 
dock's Bible (1844) and many school-books and stand- 
ard works. In 1837 Dennis and James Sadlier began 
to issue Butler's "Lives of the Saints" and an edition 
of the Bible in monthly parts, and thus commenced 
what later developed into one of the largest book 
concerns in the United States. The list of their pub- 
lications is as varied as it is lengthy, and remark- 
able for the time was their series of "Metropolitan" 
school books. Patrick O'Shea, who had been associ- 
ated with the Dunigan concern, began for himself in 
1854 and, until his death, in 1906, was a very indus- 
trious producer of Catholic books, his publications 
including, besides a great number of school books, 
many editions of valuable works, such as Darras' 
"History of the Church", Digby's "Mores", Brown- 
son's "American Republic", Lingard's "History of 
England", Wiseman's and Lacordaire's works. Ben- 
ziger Brothers, in 18.53, opened the branch of their 
German house that developed into the great concern, 
covering all branches of the trade. Father Isaac T. 
Hecker, C.S.P., as part of his dream for the evan- 
geUzation of his non-Catholic fellow-countrymen, 
founded, in 1866, the Catholic Publication Society. 
Into this enterprise his brother, George V. Hecker, 
also a convert, unselfishly put thousands of dollars. 
Its manager w;is Lawrence Kehoe, a man well versed 
in all the best ideals of the trade, who sent out its 
many books, bound and printed in a lavishness of 
style not attempted before. 

Charities. — New York gave early evidence of the 
characteristic of heroic charity. In a letter written 
by Father Kohlmann, 21 March, 1809, he mentions 
"applications made at all houses to raise a subscrip- 
tion for the relief of the poor by which means $3000 
have been collected to be p.aid constantly each year". 
New York then had only one church for its 16,000 
Catholics. An orphan asyhnn was opened in 1817 in 
a small wooden house at Mott and Prince Streets, the 
"New York Catholic Benevolent Society", for its 
support and management, was incorporated the same 



year by the Legislature — the first Catholic Society so 
legalized in the state — and Mother Seton sent three of 
her Sisters of Charity from Eiiuiiitsburg to take care 
of the children. This lusylum was moved in 1851 to 
the block adjoining the Cathe<lral in Fifth Avenue 
and remained there until this jiroperty was sold and 
the institution located in Westchester County, in 
1901. A Union Emigrant Society, to aid immigrants, 
the precursor of the Irish l'".migrant Society and the 
Emigrant Industrial Savings Hank (see EMKiRANT 
Aid Societies) wius organized in 1829. St. Patrick's, 
the first New York Conference of the Society of St. 
Vincent de Paul, was afliliated to the Paris Council in 
1849, and in the steady increase of the organization 
throughout the diocese opened a new field for Catho- 
lic charity. The sturdy fight that had to be made 
against the raids on poor and neglected Catholic chil- 
dren in the public institutions was mainly through its 
members, and out of their efforts, in great measure, 
also grew the great Catholic Protectory, the Mission 
of the Immaculate Virgin, the Foundling Asylum, and 
the more recent Fresh Air and Convalescent Homes, 
Day Nurseries, and other incidental details of modern 
philanthropy. 

V. Statistics. — The following religious communi- 
ties now have foundations in the diocese (1910): 
Men. — Augustinians, Augustinians of the Assumption, 
Fathers of the Blessed Sacrament, Benedictines, Ca- 
puchins, Carmelites, Dominicans, Franciscans, Jes- 
uits, Fathers of Mercy, Fathers of the Pious Society 
of Missions, Missionaries of St. Charles, Missionary 
Society of St. Paul the Apostle, Redemptorists, Salc- 
sian Fathers, Brothers of Mary, Christian Brothers, 
Marist Brothers, Brothers of the Christian Schools, 
Missionaries of La Salette. Women. — Sisters of St. 
Agnes, Little Sisters of the Assumption, Sisters of St. 
Benedict, Sisters of Bon Secours, Sisters of Charity, 
Sisters of Christian Charity, Sisters of the Divine 
Compassion, Sisters of Divine Providence, Sisters of 
St. Dominie, Sisters of the Order of St. Dominic, 
Felician Sisters, Missionary Sisters of the Third Order 
of St. Francis, Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis, 
Sisters of St. Francis, Franciscan Missionaries of 
Mary, Sisters of the Good Shepherd, Helpers of 
the Holy Souls, Sisters of the Holy Child Jesus, 
Marianite Sisters of Holy Cross, Sisters of the Holy 
Cross, Sisters of Jesus Mary, Sisters of the Sacred 
Heart of Mary, Sisters of Mercy, Sisters of Miseri- 
corde. School Sisters of Notre Dame, Sisters of the 
Congregation of Notre Dame, Little Sisters of the 
Poor, Sisters of the Atonement, Reparatrice Nuns, 
Religious of the Cenacle, Presentation Nuns, Religious 
of the Sacred Heart, Religious of the Visitation, Mis- 
sionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart, LTrsuline Sisters, 
Missionary Franciscan Sisters of the Immaculate Con- 
ception, Mission Helpers of the Sacred Heart. 

The progress of the diocese is shown by the records 
kept of the gradual growth of population which made 
a great metropolis out of the small provincial city. 
The notable increase begins with the immigration 
during the canal and railroad-building period, after 
1825, the exodus from Ireland following the famine 
year of 1847, and the German flight after the Revolu- 
tionary disturbances of 1848. In 1826 in New York 
City there were but three churches and 30,000 Cath- 
ohcs; and in the whole diocese (including New Jersey) 
only eight churches, eighteen priests, and 150,000 
Catholics. The diocesan figures for 1850 are recorded 
as follows: churches, 57; chapels, 5; stations, 50; 
priests, 99; seminary, 1, with 34 students; academies, 
9; hospital, 1; charitable institutions, 15; Catholic 
population, 200,000. In 1875 the increase is indicated 
by these figures: churches, 139; chapels, 35; priests, 
300; ecclesiastical students in seminary, 71; colleges, 
3; academies, 22; select schools, 18; hospitals, 4; 
charitable institutions, 23; religious communities of 
men, 17, of women, 22; Catholic population, 600,000. 



NEW YORK 



29 



NEW YORK 



In 1900 we find these totals: churches, 259 (city, 
111; country, 148); chapels, 154; stations, 34; priests, 
676 (regulars, 227); 112 ecclesiastical students; 60 
parish schools for boys in city, with 1.8,953 pupils; 
61 for girls, with 21,199 pupils; parish schools outside 
city for boys, 32, with 3743 pupils; for girls, 34, with 
4542 pupils; in colleges and academies, 2439 boys and 
2484 girls; schools for deaf mutes, 2; day nurseries, 4; 
emigrant homes, 5; homes for aged, 3; hospitals, 15; 
industrial and reform schools, 26; infant asylum, 1; 
orphan asylums, 6; total of young people under Cath- 
olic care, 68,269; Catholic population, 1,000,000. 
The figures for 1910 are: archbishop, 1; bishop, 1; 
churches, 331 (city, 147; country, 184); chapels, 193; 
stations (without churches) regularly visited, 35; 
priests, 929 (secular, 605; regular, 324); theological 
seminary (Dunwoodie), 1; students, 165; students 
(Rome), 11; preparatory seminary, 1; students, 235; 
pupils in colleges and academies for boys, 3407; in 
academies for girls, 3812; parish schools, New York 
City, for boys, 90, with 27,899 pupils; for girls, 90, 
with 31,004 pupils; outside New York City, 58, with 
6377 male pupils, 6913 female; total in parish schools, 
72,193; schools for deaf mutes, 3; day nurseries, 15; 
emigrant homes, 5; homes for the aged, 4; hospitals, 
23 ; industrial and reform schools, 36 ; orphan asylums, 
7 ; asylums for the blind, 2 ; total of young people under 
Catholic care, 101,087 ;CathoUc population, 1,219,920. 
Besides those for English-speaking Catholics, there 
are now churches and priests in New York for Ger- 
mans, Italians, Poles, French, Hungarians, Bohemians, 
Lithuanians, Greek Albancse, Greek Sj-rians, Greek 
Ruthenians, Slovaks, Spaniards, Chinese, for coloured 
people and for deaf mutes. 

Shea. Hist, of Cath. Ch. in U. S. (New York, 1886); Idem, 
Cath. Ch's of N. Y. (New York, 187S); Ecclesiastical Records, 
State of New York (Albany, 1902) ; O'Callaghan, Documentary 
Hist, of New York (.ilbany, 1849-51); B.atlev, Brief Sketch of the 
Early Hist., Cath. Ch. on the Island of New York (New York, 
1854) ; FiNOTTi, Bibiiographia Americana (New York, 1872) ; 
Flvnn, The Cath. Ch. in New Jersey (Morristown. 1904); White, 
Life of Mrs. Eliza A. Seton (New York, 1893); Clarke, Lives of 
the Deceased Bishops, U. S. (New York, 1872-8G); Seton, Mem- 
oir, Letters and Journal of Elizabeth Seton (New York, 1869); 
Farley, History of St. Patrick's Cathedral (New York, 1908) ; 
Smith, Hist. Cath. Ch. in New York (New York, 1905) ; Reuss, 
Biog. Cycl, Cath. Hierarchy, U. S. (Milwaukee, 1S9S);. The Catho- 
lic Directory; U. S. Cath. Hist. Society, Historical Records and 
Studies (New York, 1899-1910); Memorial, Most Rev. M. A. 
Corrigan (New York, 1902); Hassard, Life of the Most Rev. John 
Hughes (New York, 1866); Brann, Most Rev. John Hughes (New 
York, 1893) ; Campbell, Pioneer Priests of North America (New 
York, 1909-10); Mary Aloysia Hardey (New York, 1910); New 
York Truth Teller, files; Freeman's Journal, files; Metropolitan 
Record, files; Tablet, files: Catholic News, files; Brownson, H. F., 
Brownson's Early, Middle and Later Life (Detroit, 1898-1900); 
Bennett, Catholic Footsteps in Old New York (New York, 1909); 
ZwiERLElN, Religion in New Netherland (Rochester, 1910). 

Joseph F. Moonbt. 

New York, State of, one of the thirteen colonies of 
Great Britain, which on 4 July, 1776, adopted the 
Declaration of Independence and became the United 
States of America. 

Boundaries and Area. — The State of New York 
lies between 40= 29' 40" and 45° 0' 2" N. lat. and be- 
tween 71° 51' and 79° 45' 54" W. long. It is bounded 
by Lake Ontario, the St. Lawrence River, and the 
Dominion of Canada on the north ; by Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts, and Connecticut on the east; by Pennsyl- 
vania, New Jersey, and the Atlantic Ocean on the 
south, and by Pennsylvania, Lake Erie, and the Ni- 
agara River on the west. It has an area of 49,170 
square miles, of which 1550 square miles is water sur- 
face. From east to west it is 326-46 miles in width; 
it is 300 miles long on the fine of the Hudson River. 

Physical Ch.^racteristics. — The physical geog- 
raphy of New York is very varied. It includes the 
high range of the Adirondack Mountains in the north- 
ern part. In the southern and eastern part lie im- 
portant portions of the Appalachian system, of which 
the principal branches are: the Catskill Mountains on 
the west bank of the Hudson River below Albany; the 




ranges of the Blue Ridge, which cross the Hudson at 
West Point and form the Litchfield and Berkshire 
Hills and the Green Mountains on the eastern boun- 
dary of the State and in Connecticut, Massachusetts, 
and Vermont, and the foothills of the AUeghanies in 
the south-western portion. The highest peak in the 
State is Mount Marcy in the Adirondacks, which has 
an altitude of 5344 feet. The valley of the Mohawk 
divides the mountainous district in the eastern part 
of the State, and forms a natural channel in which the 
Erie Canal now lies, and which affords easy communi- 
cation by water and rail between the Great Lakes and 
the Hudson River valley. On the Niagara River is 
one of the great cataracts of the world, Niagara Falls, 
which is a mile wide and 164 feet high. The preserva- 
tion of its natural beauty has been ensured by the 
erection of a State Park, which adjoins a similar park 
established by the Canadian Government. 

Geologically, the State of New York is most inter- 
esting. The Hudson River valley and the Adiron- 
dacks form part of the Arch;ran continent, which is 
regarded as the old- 
est portion of the 
earth's surface. 
The Hudson River 
rises in the Adiron- 
dack country. It 
is navigable for 1 .^' I 
miles, from Troy i o 
the sea. The Pali- 
sades of thelliii 1>( ■!; 
are among the im i.-i 
interesting and im- 
portant examples 
of basaltic rocks in 
the world. The 
principal rivers of 
the State, besides 
the great Hudson River and it.s tributary, the Mo- 
hawk, are the Susquehanna River, wliich rises in 
Lake Otsego in the central part of the State ; the Dela^ 
ware, which rises on the western slope of the Catskill 
mountain country, and the Allegheny, which rises in 
the south-western corner of the State. None of these 
is of commercial importance within the State of New 
York, all passing on to form the principal rivers of 
Pennsylvania. The series of large inland lakes in 
central New York form a marked feature of its physi- 
cal geography. They are of great natural beauty, 
besides being of importance for transportation and 
commerce, and many of the large cities and towns of 
the State have grown up on their banks. The land 
surrounding them and the valleys of the brooks and 
small rivers which form their feeders and outlets are 
of remarkable fertiUty. The forests of the State are 
extensive. They lie principally in the Adirondack, 
Catskill, and Blue Ridge country. They are the rem- 
nants of the primeval forests that once covered most 
of the State. The State has established by constitu- 
tional provision and statutory enactments an exten- 
sive system of forest preserves. They are the Adiron- 
dack Preserve, containing approximately 1,500,000 
acres, and the Catskill Preserve, containing 110,000 
acres. Provision is made by law for increasing their 
area from year to year. The beautiful valleys of the 
Hudson aiid its tributaries extend from the sea into 
the foothills of the .Vdirondacks at Lake George. The 
valley of Lake Cliaiiiphun on the eastern slope of the 
Adirondacks adjoins tlic valley of Lake George, and 
continues it, except for a divide of about two miles at 
its beginning, into the. Dominion of Canada and the 
St. Lawrence valley. The great central plain of the 
State, lying between the mountainous districts of the 
south and west and the Great Lakes and the Adiron- 
dacks and the eastern mountain ranges on the north 
and east, is renowned for the fertility of its soil and the 
extent of its manufactures. 



NEW YORK 



30 



NEW YORK 



The only sea-coiist of the State is formed by LoriR 
Island, and oxtends for i:50 miles from New York 
Harbour to Montauk Point, whioh is nearly opiiosite 
the boundary line between the States of Connecticut 
and Rhode Island. The waters lying between bong 
Island and the mainland form Long bland Sound, one 
of the most important waterways of the United 
States. From the head of navigation on the Hudson 
River at Troy, a distance of 1.51 miles from the .-^ea, 
there extends across the Slate to bake iM-ie one of its 
great possessions, the Krie Canal, completed in 1,S12."). 
It is 3S7 miles long. From Troy to Whitehall at the 
head of Lake Champlain extends another of the .Stale's 
great works, the Chamijlain Canal, establishing water 
connexion with the St. Law'rence valley on the north. 
Ample communication by water from the Lake States 
on the west and from Canada on the north to the 
Atlantic Ocean at New York Bay is provided by this 
canal system. There are also three other important 
interior canals owned by the State, the Oswego, the 
Ca\^lga and Seneca, and the Black River canals. In 
1909 the goods carried free on these state canals 
valued nearly sixtj' million dollars. There is now un- 
der construction bv the State the Great Barge Canal, 
which it is estimated will cost more than $60,000,000. 
It is intended to [jrovide navigation for modern canal 
barges of 1000 tons from Lake Erie to New York City. 

The physical geograjjhy of the State has been an 
important factor in its growth. The easy communi- 
cation afforded by its great rivers and its convenient 
waterways has made it the favoured liighway for do- 
mestic trade and commerce and emigration for more 
than a century, while its possession of the greatest 
seaport of the North Atlantic Ocean has made the 
State the principal gateway for the world's trade with 
North America. The ice-free and deep-channelled 
port of New York, lying at the mouth of the Hudson 
River, with its w-ide roadsteads and anchorages and 
vast transportation facilities is indeed the greatest 
property of the State of New York. The port has a 
total water front of 444 miles. 

Me.\.vs of Communication. — The means of com- 
munication within the State are admirable. 

Railroads. — In 1907 there were 8505 miles of railway 
and 3950 miles of electric railway tracks. The great 
railroad of the St ate is t he New York Central system be- 
tween New York and Buffalo which provides com- 
munication between New York City and the principal 
places in all parts of the United States by its own lines 
and their direct connexions. The great New England 
system, the New York, New Haven and Hartford 
Railroad, besides having its terminal in New York 
City, crosses the southern part of the State into the 
coal and iron country of Pennsylvania. It controls 
also the extensive New York, Ontario, and Western 
Railroad, extending diagonally across the State from 
Oswego on Lake Ontario to the Hudson River at Wee- 
hawken, opposite New York. The Erie system, in ad- 
dition to being one of the trunk lines to Chicago, is 
probably the greatest freight carrier in the Union. Its 
passenger traffic around New York City is also of 
great extent. Its terminal is in Jersey City opposite 
New York. The Delaware and Hudson Railroad ex- 
tends from its connexion with the Grand Trunk of 
Canada, at Rouse's Point on Lake Champlain, to Al- 
bany, where it forms a connexion with a network of 
roads extending into many of the important centres 
of central and western New York. The Delaware, 
Lackawanna, and Western Railroad runs parallel to 
the southern boundary of the State in New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania, and has its eastern terminal at Ho- 
bokcn on the Hud.son River also opposite New York 
City. It extends also to the north a most important 
line from Binghamton to liuffalo, Utica, and Oswego. 
It is the greatest of the anthracite coal carriers. The 
Buffalo, Rochester, and Pitt.sburg Railroad connects 
the three large cities named in its title, and serves one 



of the important agricultural, manufacturing, and 
- mining districts of the States of New York and I'enn- 
sylvania. The Pennsylvania Railroad, one of the 
great national trunk lines, with its Hudson tunnels 
and its new vast terminal in New York City, is one of 
the great institutions of New York. Its main lines 
centre about I'hil.ulelphia. It owns and operates in 
addition to ils oilier pniperties the entire railroad sys- 
tem of populdus Long Island, whose wonderful growth 
in populalidii and industry seems but a presage of 
still niiirc extensive develoiMuent. The Hudson Tun- 
nels imder the Huds(>n River connect the City of New 
York with the terminals of most of the railroads on 
the New Jersey side of the Hudson; recently opened 
(1910) tunnels under the East River bring the Long 
Island Railroad into direct connexion with the Penn- 
sylvania system, and thus with the rest of the conti- 
nent. These tunnels are a marvellous achievement 
in subaqueous construction. The development of the 
terminals of these trunk lines and of their accessories 
especially about the port of New York is a great ob- 
ject lesson in the astounding development of the West- 
ern Hemisphere in less than eighty years. The first 
railroad in the State, the Hudson and Mohawk, was 
built in 1831. It was 17 miles long and ran from Al- 
bany to Schenectady on the Mohawk. It was one of 
the earliest steam railroads in the world. 

Water Routes. — The communication by water 
within New York State is not less wonderful. To the 
ocean navigation that fills the port of New York must 
be added the Iraflicon the rivers, lakes, and canals of 
the State and upon Long Islanil Sound. The prosper- 
ous cities and towns which are ranged along the banks 
of the Hudson River, across the State on the lines of 
the canals and lakes and rivers, and upon the shores of 
Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, and the St. Lawrence River 
are sustained largely by it. 

Wagon Roads. — The improved system of State high- 
ways, begun in late years, has given modern highways 
to many of the rural districts and laid out avenues be- 
tween the cities. It is based upon subventions of 
highway improvements by means of loans and aids 
from the State treasury to the various local authori- 
ties. The growth of vehicular traflnc by electric tram- 
ways and by automobiles has greatly promoted this 
work. 

Climate. — The cUmate of the State is salubrious, 
and corresponds generally with that of the north tem- 
perate zone. In 1909 — which was somewhat abnor- 
mal, it is true — the extremes of temperature were 102° 
above zero maximum and 35° below zero minimum. 
For 1909 the mean annual temperature of the entire 
State was 45.8°. The average rainfall throughout the 
State for the same year was 36-03 inches. New York 
State is divided by the Department of Agriculture of 
the Unil<(l States into three climatological districts: 

(1) the Hudson, Delaware, and Susquehanna basins, 

(2) the Allegheny River, and (3) the Great Lakes and 
the St. Lawrence. The great extent of the State 
causes very variable climatic conditions within its 
boundaries. In 1909 the mean annual temperature 
for one part of the Adirondack region was 39° and for 
the vicinity of New York City 52°. The rainfall dur- 
ing the year 1909 averaged from 18T0 inches in Liv- 
ingston County to 62-7 inches in Jefferson County. 
The winters in the Adirondack country, the St. Law- 
rence, and the Champlain valleys arc generally severe, 
while tlie Hud.son Valley, Long Island, and the vicin- 
ity of New York City have moderate winters and hot 
summers. 

Population. — New York has been since 1820 the 
most populous state in the Union. The Federal Cen- 
sus returns of 1910 place the population at 9,113,- 
279; the State Census of 1905 placed it at 8,067,308. 
The City of New York in 1910 comprised 4,766,883 
souls, it is one of the centres of the population of the 
world. In a circle of 680 square miles area with its 



NEW YORK 



31 



NEW YORK 



centre at the Bat tory (tlic sanio area as that of Greater 
London) thcio air dwclliiis six millions of pooplo, or 
scarcely a million less than in the London district, 
which it is to be remembered is not a municipality. 
This metropolitan district is the most cosmopolitan 
community in the world. Its urban character is most 
varied and interesting. One division of it , the City of 
New York proper, is so large that if divided it would 
make three cities such as Chicago, Philadelphia, and 
Pittsburg. Yet nearly a million and a half of people 
live outside the limits of the city and within the indi- 
cated area. 

The cities of Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse, Albany, 
and Troy are the five next in size; according to the 
census of 1910 they include respectively 42.3,715, 
218,149, 137,249, 100,2.'53, and 76,813 people. In 
1905 there were 4821 Indians still on the State Reser- 
vations. There were 47 municipalities in New York 
in 1900 having a population of more than SOOO people, 
and in them 6S'5 per cent of the people dwelt. In 
1900 there were 3,614,780 males and 3,6.54,114 females 
in the State. There were 99,232 coloured people. 
1,900,425 of the population or a little less than one 
quarter were foreign born. Of these there were 480,- 
026 Germans, 425,5.53 Iri.sh, 182,248 Italians, 165,610 
Russian (mostly Hebrews), and 135,685 English — to 
mention only the largest groups. The population of 
the whole State in 1790 was 340, 1 20 by the first Federal 
Census. In 120 years it has increased more than 
twenty-six times. 

In i906, according to the Federal Census Bureau, 
there were 2,285,768 Roman Catholics in New Y'ork, 
forming 63.6 per cent of the total of 3,591,974 reli- 
gious communicants or church members in the State 
of New York. It is the largest religious denomina- 
tion in the State. However, only 43-7 per cent of the 
people of the State claimed membership in any church 
or denomination. In 1906 there were 278 Roman 
Catholics for each 1000 of the population, a gain of 
8-6 per cent over the figures of the census reports of 
1890. The number of Protestant Episcopalian com- 
municants at the same date in theState was 24 for each 
1000 of the population. In 1906 the Federal Census 
reports show that in the State of New York the num- 
ber of churches and halls for worship was 9193, having 
a seating capacity of 3,191,267. There were also 
presbyteries valued at $22,283,225. The Sunday 
schools were 8795 in number and attended by 1,247,- 
051 scholars. The entire value of all church property 
was $255,166,284, on which the debt was .$28,382,866. 
The Catholic Annual for 1910 shows the following 
carefully gathered for the dioceses of New York State. 
All these dioceses, it should be noted, are wholly in- 
cluded within the State boundaries and together com- 
prise the whole State; 



Dioceses 


"S p. 


i 


1 

■a 


ll 


l^ 3*0 


New York — 

Albany 

Brooltlyn. . . . 

Buffalo 

Ogdensburg... 
Rochester. . . . 
Syracuse 


1,219,820 
193.525 
700.000 
244.739 
92,000 
121,000 
151.463 


331 
171 

195 
194 
154 
129 
106 


929 
232 
426 
346 
135 
163 

"• 


148 
47 
76 

111 
15 
54 
18 


101.087 
20,362 
78,567 
36,405 

4,079 
19,779 

9,141 


Totals 


2,722.547 


1280 2350 


469 


269,420 



These Catholic estimates are interesting for the pur- 
poses of comparison with those of the official docu- 
ments, and particularly as being in advance of the re- 
sults of the Federal Census of 1910, which are now 
being prepared but cannot be published in detail for 
some years to come. The present population of the 



State of New York, according to the census of 1910, 
is 9,113,279, about one-tenth of the entire population 
of the United States. 

Wealth and Resources. — New York is the wealth- 
iest State in the Union. The aggregate value of all 
the property within the State in 1904, as estimated by 
the Federal Census Bureau, was $14,769,042,207, (if 
which $9,151,979,081 represented real property and 
improvements. The revenue of the State Govern- 
ment in 1908-9 was $.52,285,239. The City of New 
York received the enormous revenue of $368,696,334 
in 1908, and had in the same year a funded debt of 
$598,012,644. _ The resources of the State of New 
York lie first in its commerce, and then in its manu- 
factures, agriculture, and mining. 

Commerce. — In 1908 New Y'ork City was the third 
shipping port of the world, being surpassed only by 
London and Liverpool. Its imports were of the value 
of approximately 780 millions and its exports 600 
millions. The tonnage movement of foreign trade 
for the year ending 30 June, 1909, was: entered, 12,- 
528,723 "tons; cleared, 11,,S66,431 tons. The shipping 
of the inland waters and of the Great Lakes controlled 
by the State of New York is of equally vast extent. 
Buffalo, with a population of over 40(5,000, receives 
in its port on Lake Erie a large portion of the shipping 
trade of Canada and of the Lake States of the Union. 
The other ports of Lakes Erie and Ontario are simi- 
larly prosperous. 

Manufactures. — New York is the leading State of 
the Union in manufactures. In 1905 it had invested 
in manufactures more than $2,000,000,000, and the 
value of its manufactures products was approximately 
$2,.5OO,O0O,O0O. In the .same year it produced 47 per 
cent of the men's and 70 per cent of the women's 
clothes made in the LTnited States. The value of its 
textile output in the same yearwas $114,371,226. 

Agriculture. — In 1900 there were in New York 226,- 
720 farms of a total area of 22,648,100 acres, of which 
15,599,986 acres were improved land. The principal 
crops are maize, wheat, oats, potatoes, and hay. The 
wool clip in 1908 was estimated at 5,100,000 pounds. 
The largest dairy interests in the United States are 
within the State of New York. 

Mining. — The mines of the state in 1908 yielded 
products valued at $45,609,861 ; the quarries produced 
building stone valued at $6,137,279. The Onondaga 
salt springs produced in the same year products of the 
value of $2,136,738, while the petroleum wells yielded 
$2,071, .533 worth of crude petroleum. 

PnBLic Debt. — The State of New York has no 
funded debt except for canals and highways. Its out- 
standing bonds for these purposes on 30 September, 
1909, aggregated $41,2,30,660. It has no direct taxa- 
tion. It has a surplus in its treasury. The assessed 
valuation of the taxable propertv within the State for 
1909 was just short of $10,000,000,000. The title of 
"Empire State", given to New York by common 
consent, is well deserved. 

Educational System. — The public educational 
system of New Y'ork is extensive and arranged upon 
broad plans. It is governed by a general revised stat- 
ute of more than 2000 sections called "Education 
Law", adopted in 1910. This law provides for a cen- 
tral organization called the "Education Department" 
composed of the regents of the Lnivrrsity of the State 
of New York, who are the legislative branch, .and the 
Commissioner of Education, who is made the chief 
executive officer of the system and of the regents. 
The work of the Educational Department is divided 
into three parts, the common schools, the academic or 
secondary schools, and the colleges and universities. 
The head of the regents of the miiversity is the chan- 
cellor. Executive control, however, is entrusted to 
the commissioner of education, who, with his a.ssi8t- 
ants and subordinates, has charge of the enormous de- 
tails of the entire educational system of the State 



NEW YORK 



32 



NEW YORK 



under the legislative control of tlio roponta and tlio di- 
rection of the statutes of tlic>Statci>asscd by the legis- 
lature. The colli'fjes and universities of the State arc 
separate corporations, formed cither by the regents or 
by special statutes. They are under either private or 
municipal control. There is no State university as 
such, although Cornell University has been given 
many of the privileges and State aids usually granted 
to such an institution. These corporations are sub- 
ject, however, to the provisions of the I'iducation Law 
and the jurisdiction of the E<liicati()n Department. 
The academies or secondary schools are also either 
private or public. The public secondary schools are 
directly in charge of the school boards and boards of 
education of the various divisions of the State. The 
private academies may enroll themselves under the 
Department of Education, and receive the privi- 
leges of the public academies in respect to examina- 
tions and certificates from the Education Depart- 
ment. There is, however, no legal compulsion put 
upon them in this respect. The common schools of 
the State are divided generally into those which are 
controlled by the local boards of education in the cities 
and more populous centres, and tho,se which are con- 
trolled by the local school officers elected by the peo- 
ple in the school districts in other parts of the State. 
Woman suffrage is granted in school officers' elections. 
In the great cities of the State the common and sec- 
ondary schools are usually placed in charge of school 
boards and officers provided for in the city charters, 
which are in the form of statutes enacted by the legis- 
lature. 

In New York City is situated the large college 
known as the College of the City of New York, main- 
tained at public expense. It has the most extensive 
buildings for educational purposes in the city and an 
enrolment of more than 3736 pupils. On the Hudson, 
at West Point, is situated the famous United States 
MiUtary Academy for the training of officers for the 
army. It is entirely under Federal control through 
the War Department, and has 525 cadets in attend- 
ance. The professional schools of the State of all 
classes are controlled by the Education Department 
under stringent provisions. Admission to the secular 
professions generally is granted by State certificates 
awarded after rigid examinations by State examining 
boards. The schools for the training of teachers are 
also either under departmental control or, in the more 
populous centres, under the control of the several 
boards of education of the localities. Primary edu- 
cation is compulsory between the ages of seven and 
Buxteen years. The state does not interfere, however, 
with the liberty of choice of schools by parents. No 
discrimination is made against parochial and private 
schools, which have enrolled themselves with the 
Education Department: they receive, however, no 
pubhc financial aid, if the small grant made by the 
Department to defray the cost of examinations in the 
enrolled secondarv schools be excepted. 

In 190S there were 1,841,638 children between five 
and eighteen years of age in New York State; there 
were 1,273,754 pupils and .36,132 teachers in the pub- 
lic schools. The academies or secondary schools of 
the State had 95,1 70 pupils and 1.523 teachers; the col- 
leges and universities 22,097 students and 2699 teach- 
ers. There were 12,068 public school buildings, 144 
public secondary schools or academies, and 30 colleges 
and universities. The appropriation of public mon- 
eys for educational purposes in New York State for 
the year 1907 was §71,838,172. The City of New 
York alone paid in 1909 for public school education 
$36,319,624. Its schools contained 730,234 pupils 
and had 17,073 teachers and directors. The public 
statistics of the Department of Education of New 
York available show that 451 parochial schools, be- 
sides numerous academies and colleges, were con- 
ducted under the auspices of the Catholic Church in 



New York in 1908. The number of pupils in the 
Cat hiilie educational institutions of the State cannot be 
ascertained with certainty. A large number of Cath- 
olic schools and academies make no public reports, 
but it is conservatively estimated that 210,000 pupils 
were in the Catholic schools in 1908. The State Edu- 
cation Department reported that in 1907, 179,677 
pupils were registered as in the Koman Catholic Ele- 
mentary Schools alone. The Catholic Annual of 1910 
est imates the number of young people under CathoHc 
care including the orphans and other inmates of char- 
itable institutions as 269,420. 

There are many excellent high schools and acade- 
mies in the State conducted by the Catholic teaching 
orders of men and women and by secular priests and 
laymen. The colleges under Catholic auspices are: 
Fordham University, St. Francis Xavier College, 
Manhattan College, Brooklyn College, St. Francis 
College, St. John's College, Brooklyn — all in New 
York City; Canisius College at Buffalo, Niagara Uni- 
versity at Niagara Falls, and the College of New Ro- 
chelle, a flourishing college for women in charge of the 
Ursuline Nuns. All of these institutions are under 
the jurisdiction of the Education Department of the 
State of New York. In 1S94 there was inserted in 
the Constitution of the State a provision that neither 
the State nor any subdivision thereof should use its 
property or credit or any i>ublic money or authorize or 
permit either to be used directly or indirectly in aid or 
maintenance other than for examination or inspection 
of any school or institution of learning wholly or in 
part under the control or direction of any religious 
denomination or in which any denominational tenet 
or doctrine is taught. The Catholic seminaries for 
the education of priests are flourishing. The great 
novitiates of the Jesuits, Redemptorists, and Christian 
Brothers, and several others maintained by various 
religious orders, are in the Hudson Valley, south of 
Albany. The seminary of the Archdiocese of New 
York at Dunwoodie, Westchester County, which is the 
monument of the late Archbishop Corrigan, is one of 
the leading seminaries of the United States. The dioc- 
esan seminaries of St. John's at Brooklyn, St. Bern- 
ard's at Rochester, and the Seminary of Our Lady of 
Angels, conducted by the priests of the Mission at 
Niagara Falls, in the Diocese of Buffalo, .are of the 
highest standing for scholarship and training. 

Militia. — The militia of the State, which is com- 
posed exclusively of volunteers, numbers 17,038 
trained officers and men in all the arms of the military 
service. It is intended to form the nucleus of a mili- 
tary force in time of need by training volunteer citi- 
zen-soldiers in the military art. It is most liberally 
supported by the State and most carefully trained in 
co-operation with the Federal Government. 

Libraries. — The libraries of the State are numer- 
ous and important. The Education Department 
maintains a generous system for the establishment of 
hbraries and provides generous State aid for their sup- 
port. The great library of the State is the New York 
Public Library in the City of New York, which in 1909 
owned 1,. 549,260 books and 295,078 pamphlets, in all 
1,844,338 volumes. It w'ill soon (in 1911) occupy the 
magnificent building erected by the City of New York 
in Bryant Square at Fifth Avenue and Forty-second 
Street, which has just been completed. It is largely 
endowed by the testamentary gifts of John Jacob 
Astor, James Lenox, and Samuel J. Tilden, and re- 
ceives aid from the City Treasury. 

History. — The territory which now forms the 
State of New York may, as regards its history, be di- 
vided into two parts. The first part includes the 
Hudson River valley, the valley of the Mohawk, the 
land arounfl Newark Bay and New York Harbour, 
and the western end of Long Island — which, speaking 
generally, were, together with the sparse Delaware 
River settlements, the only portions of New Nether- 



NEW YORK 



33 



NEW YORK 



land actually occupieil by the Dutch when the prov- 
ince was granted by the English Crown to the Duke of 
York in 16G4. The second part comprises the rest of 
the State excluding eastern Long Island: this was the 
Indian country, the home of the Iroquois and the 
other tribes forming the Five Nations, now mostly re- 
membered from the old romances, but a savage and 
fierce reality to the Dutch and English colonists. As 
late as 1756 there were only two counties to be found 
in the entire province west of the Hudson River. In- 
terposed between the French and the Dutch (and 
afterwards the P^nglish), and brought from time to 
to time into their quarrels for supremacy, the Indians 
kept the land between the Great Lakes, the Hudson, 
and the St. Lawrence truly "a dark and bloody 
ground " until the end of the eighteenth century, when, 
as part of the military operations of the Revolution, 
the expedition of the American forces, sent by Wash- 
ington under command of General John Sullivan, fi- 
nally broke their power at the Battle of Newton near 
Elmira in 1779. 

Although their military power was thus destroyed, 
the Indians still remained a menace to the settlers in 
remoter districts for many years. Gradually, how- 
ever, their opposition was overcome, and they finally 
became the wards of the State, living on reservations 
set ai)art for their exclusive occupancy. A remnant 
of them (4S21 in the year 190.5) still survives. Early 
in the nineteenth century large grants of land began to 
be made by the State at small prices to land companies 
and promoters for the purpose of fostering occupation 
by settlers. Systematic colonization was immedi- 
ately undertaken, and a large emigration from Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Dutch 
settlements in the Hudson Valley began to flow into 
the Iroquois country. This continued prosperously, 
but not rapidly until De Witt Clinton, one of the 
great figures in the history of New York, upon his taking 
the office of Governor in 1818, pressed forward vigor- 
ously the long-standing plans for the construction and 
completion of the great artificial waterways of the 
State, the Erie and the Champlain canals. European 
immigration then became essential to supply the la- 
bour needed for the success of these plans. Stalwart 
men and women flocked from the British Islands and 
Germany in astounding numbers, and in forty years 
the population of New York City increased more than 
six times (from 33,131 in 1790 to 202,.')89 in 1830). 
The labouring men, who worked outside the cities on 
the public works, with their families became settlers 
in the villages and towns that grew up along the 
canals. The general prosperity which succeeded the 
successful completion of these works and their opera- 
tion, and the consequent enormous development of 
the State's resources, drew others into the territory. 
The population of the State of New Y'ork itself in- 
creased from 340,120 in 1790 to 1,918,608 in 1830. 

The European immigration thus begun included of 
course a large proportion of Catholics. Bishop Du- 
bois estimated that in 1830 there were 35,000 Catho- 
lics in New Y'ork City and 150,000 throughout the 
rest of the State and in northern New Jersey, made up 
chiefly of poor emigrants. The Irish element was 
very large, and the first Catholic congregations in 
New York were in some cases almost wholly Irish. To 
them soon came their devoted missionary priests to 
minister to them in the Faith which had survived 
among their race and grown even brighter in the night 
of the iniquitous penal days, which had then but just 
begun to pass away. The State of New Y'ork, be- 
cause of the uncertain boundaries of the old Dutch 
province of New Netherland, at first laid claim to the 
country which now comprises the State of Vermont, 
and also to part of the land now lying in western Mas- 
sachusetts and Connecticut. These claims were set- 
tled by mutual agreement in due course and the 
boundaries were fixed. The State of Vermont there- 
XL— 3 



upon became the fourteenth State of the Union in 1791, 
being the first admitted after the adoption of the 
United States Constitution in 1789. The first com- 
plete State Constitution framed after the Revolution 
was that of New York. It was adopted on 20 .\pril, 
1777, at Kingston on the Hudson. John Jay, George 
Chnton, and Alexander Hamilton were its principal 
framers. The City of New Y'ork became the capital 
of the State after the Revolution, as it had been the 
capital of the Province of New York before. Upon 
the adoption of the United States Constitution in 
1789 it became the capital of the United States. Presi- 
dent Washington was inaugurated there at Federal 
Hall at the head of Broad Street, the first capital of 
the United States. His house stood at the foot of 
Broadway. Its site is now occupied by the Washing- 
ton Building. In 1790 the capital of the United 
States was removed to Philadelphia, and in 1797 the 
capital of the State was removed to Albany where it 
has since remained. Since 1820 the City of New 
Y'ork has been the commercial and financial centre of 
the continent of North America. 

Ecclesiastical History. — On 8 April, 1808, the 
Holy See created the Diocese of New York coinci- 
dently with the establishment of the American Hier- 
archy by the erection of Baltimore to be an Archi- 
episcopM See with New Y^ork, Philadelphia, Boston, 
and Bardstown (now Louisville) as suffragan sees. 
Doctor Richard Luke Concanen, an Irish Dominican 
resident in Rome, was appointed first Bishop of New 
York, but died at Naples in 1809, while awaiting an 
opportunity to elude Napoleon Bonaparte's embargo 
and set out for his see. After a delay of six years 
his successor Bishop John Connolly, also a Dominican, 
arrived at New Y'ork in November, 1815, and min- 
istered as the first resident bishop to his scattered 
congregations of 17,000 souls (whom he describes as 
"mostly Irish") in union with the four priests, who 
were all he had to help him throughout his immense 
diocese. He died on 5 February, 1825, after a de- 
voted and self-sacrificing episcopate, and is buried 
under the altar of the new St. Patrick's Cathedral. 
During the vacancy of the see, preceding the arrival 
of Bishop Connolly (1808-15), the diocesan affairs 
were administered by Father Anthony Kohlmann (q. 
v.). He rebuilt St. Peter's church in Barclav Street, 
and in 1809 bought the site of old St. Patrick'"s Cathe- 
dral in Mott Street, the building of which he finished 
in 1815. He also bought in 1809 the land and old 
residence in the large block on J'ifth Avenue at Fif- 
tieth Street — part of which is the site of the present 
St. Patrick's Cathedral — and there established a 
flourishing boys' school called the New York Literary 
Institution. 

In 1822 the diocesan statistics were: two churches 
in New Y'ork City, one in Albany, one in Utica, one 
in Auburn, one at Carthage on the Black River, all 
of which were served by one bishop and eight priests. 
Bishop Connolly was succeeded on 29 October, 1826, 
by John Dubois (q. v.), a Frenchman who had been 
a fellow student of Robespierre and was one of the 
emigre priests of the French Revolution. He was one 
of the founders of Mount St. Mary's, Emmitsburg, 
Maryland — "the mother of priests", as it has been 
called — and passed through the cholera epidemic of 
1832, when 3000 people died in the City of New York 
between July and October. He increased the churches 
and brought to his diocese zealous priests. It is 
noteworthy that he ordained to the priesthood at St. 
Patrick's in June, 1836, the Veneralde John N. Neu- 
man (q. v.), afterwards the .-iuiiilly Bishop of Phila- 
delphia. After a life of arduous laliour, trial, and 
anxiety both as a missionary, an educator, and a pio- 
neer bishop, his health broke down, and he was 
granted in 1837 as coadjutor John Hughes (q. v.), 
who justly bears the most distinguished name m the 
annals of the AmericanJiierarchy even to this day. 



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Bishop Huglies was consecratpd on 9 February, 1838. 
A stroke of paralysis attacked the venerable liishop 
Dubois almost iiiinieiliately aflerwanls. and he was an 
invalid until his death on 20 December, IS 12, where- 
upon he was sueceedeil by his coadjutor as Bishop of 
New York. In April, 1847, the Sees of Albany and 
Buffalo were created. Bishop .John McCloskey {q. 
v.), afterwards the first American cardinal, who was 
then Coadjutor Bishop of New York, was transferred 
to Albany, and Reverend John Timon, Superior of I lie 
Congregation of the Mission, was made Bishop of 
BufTalo. In October, 18.50, the Diocese of New York 
was erected into an archiepiscopal see with the Sees of 
Boston, Hartford, Albany, and Buffalo as its suffra- 
gans. Archbishop Hughes sailed for Rome in the 
following nioiilh, and received the pallium from the 
hands of Pius IX hinisi<lf. 

The career of .Yrchbishop Hughes and the history 
of his archdiocese and its sufTragan sees are fully 
treated under their appropriate titles, and need not 
be discussed here. The life of Archbishop Hughes 
marked the great formative period in the history of the 
pioneer Church in New York. His great work in the 
cause of education, in the establishment of the paro- 
chial schools, the establishment of the great teaching 
and other religious orders, and the erection of semi- 
naries and colleges for the training of candidates for 
the priesthood, as well as in the solution of the tremen- 
dous problems connected with the building up of the 
churches and charities and the preservation of the 
Faith, had a profound effect upon the attitude of the 
State of N('w York towards religious institutions and 
persons and ecclesiastical affairs. The Knownothing 
movement of the fifties (see Knownothingism) was 
profoundly felt in New York, but the number and im- 
portance of the Catholic population protected them 
from the cowardly assaults made upon the Catholics 
in other places. The presence of Archbishop Hughes 
was ever a tower of strength in the conflict and in pro- 
ducing the overwhelming defeat which this un-Amer- 
ican movement met. The only effect of this sectarian 
agitation upon the legislation of the State was the 
passage in 18.').5 of a plainly unconstitutional statute 
which sought to prevent Catholic bishops from hold- 
ing title to property in trust for churches or congre- 
gations. It proved of no avail whatever. In 1862, 
after the Civil War began, it was quietly repealed. 

In 1853 the Dioceses of Brooklyn in New York and 
of Newark in New Jersey were established, the first 
Bishop of Brooklyn being Reverend John Loughlin 
and the first Bishop of Newark Reverend James 
Roosevelt Bayley (q. v.), who later became Arch- 
bishop of Baltimore. In 18fi8 the Diocese of Roches- 
ter was separated from Albany, and the venerable and 
beloved apostle of Catholicism in north-western New 
York, Bishop Bernard J. McQuaid (q. v.), appointed 
its first bishop. 

In 1872 the Diocese of Ogdensburg was created, 
and in November, 1886, the youngest diocese of the 
State, Syracuse. It is unnecessary to sketch further 
here the history of Catholicism in New Y'ork State 
during the incumbency of the archiepiscopal office by 
Cardinal McCloskey, Archbishop Hughes's successor, 
and that of his successor Archbishop Corrigan, or of 
his Grace, John M. Farley, its present archbishop. It 
is sufficient to record the continual progress in the ad- 
vancement of Catholic interests, in the building up of 
the Church, and in adjusting its activities to the needs 
of the people. 

Distinguished Catholics. — The Catholics of New 
York State have produced their full proportion of per- 
sons of distinction in the professions, commercial, 
political, and social life. Of the ninety-seven justices 
who now sit in the Supreme Court seventeen are of 
the Catholic faith. Among the justices of the lower 
courts are many Catholics. Since 1880 three mayors 
of New York City (Messrs. Grace, Grant, and Gilroy) 



have been Catholics. Francis Kernan was United 
States Senator for New York from 1876-82. Denis 
O'Brien closed a distinguished career as Judge of 
the Court of Appeals, the court of last resort, by his 
retirement for age in 1908 after a continuous service 
of eighteen years. The first Catholic Justice of the 
Su])reme Court was .John R. Brady, elected in 1859, 
and loyal sons of the Church have been on that bench 
ever since. Mayors of the great cities of the State, 
sen.-itoi-s, a.sscmblyman. State officers and represen- 
tatives in Congress, and a multitude of other public 
officers have been chosen from the Cithcilic citizen- 
ship ever since the beginning of the niiicdi'iilh cen- 
tury and have rendered distingui.shed seixicc to the 
State. For many years the two brilliant leaders of the 
New York Bar weie Charles O'Conor and James T. 
Brady, sons of Irish Catholic emigrants. In medi- 
cine Gunning S. Bedford and Thomas Addis Kmmet 
kept for many years the Catholic name at the top of 
the profession, and they have now worthy successors. 
In.tlie great public works and industries of the State 
Catholics have had more than their share of the labour 
and its rewards. In the commercial life of New Y'ork 
some of the largest fortunes have been honourably 
gathered by Catholic men, who have been most gen- 
erous to the religious and charitable works of the 
State. 

Legal. — The State of New York has a constitu- 
tional government. It was the model of that of the 
United States of America. The union of the executive, 
legislative, and judicial branches of government under 
a written constitution is its principle. Its execu- 
tive head is the governor. The legislature has two 
houses, t he Sen.'ite and Assembly, which meet annually 
at ;\ll)any, the State capital. Its courts are composed 
princiijally of a Court of Appeals (the highest court) 
and the Supreme Court, which is divided into four 
Appellate Divisions, and numerous courts of first 
instance, divided into districts throughout the State. 
There are many minor and local courts supplementing 
the Supreme Court. 

The State of New Y'ork has always been foremost in 
the pursuit of freedom of worship and religious toler- 
ation. It is true, however, that her first Constitution 
in 1777 excluded all priests and ministers of the Gospel 
from her legislature and offices, and put a prohibitory 
religious test upon foreign-born Catholics who applied 
for citizenship. Herein we find an echo of the bitter in- 
tolerance of the eighteenth century, which was strongly 
opposed in the Convention. The naturalization dis- 
ability disappeared very soon on the adoption of the 
Federal Constitution in 1789, and, by .subsequent 
constitutional amendments, all these remnants of an- 
cient bigotry were formally abolished. It is remark- 
able to find John Jay, otherwise most earnest in the fight 
for civil liberty, the leader in the.se efforts to impose 
religious tests and restraints of liberty of conscience 
upon his Catholic fellow-citizens. This Constitution, 
nevertheless, proclaimed general religious liberty in 
unmistakable terms. The provision is as follows: 
"The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profes- 
sion and worship without discrimination or preference 
shall forever hereafter be allowed within this State to all 
manki ml provided that the liberty of conscience hereby 
granted shall not be so construed as to excuse acts 
of licentiousne.ss or justify practices inconsistent with 
the peace or safety of this State." The statutes of the 
State which permitted the formation of religious cor- 
porations without restraint, and gave to them when 
formed, freedom to hold property and conduct their 
affairs unhampered by the civil power, are contempo- 
raneous with the restoration of order within its borders 
after tlie British evacuation in November, 1783, and 
were among the first statutes adopted by the legisla- 
ture in 17.S4. The laws of New York which relate to 
matters of religion have been in many instances models 
for the other States. The Dutchmen who settled in 



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New Netherland, and the other emigrants and their 
descendants who came within their influence in the 
Province of New York, early learned the value and 
reason of religious toleration. The Dutchmen in 
America did not persecute for religion's sake. 

The present civil relations of the Catholic Church to 
the State of New York and their history form an in- 
teresting study. The Dutch Colony of the seven- 
teenth century was officially intolerantly Protestant, 
but was, as has been noted, in practice tolerant and 
fair to people of other faiths who dwelt within New 
Netherland. When the English took the province 
from the Dutch in 1664, they granted full religious 
toleration to the other forms of Protestantism, and 
preserved the property rights of the Dutch Reformed 
Church, while recognizing its discipline. The Gen- 
eral Assembly of the province held in 1682 under the 
famous Governor Thomas Dongan, an Irish Catholic 
nobleman, adopted the Charter of Liberties, which 
proclaimed religious liberty to all Christians. Al- 
though this charter did not receive formal royal sanc- 
tion, the factof religioustolerationwas nevertheless uni- 
versally recognized. In 1688 the Stuart Revolution 
in England reversed this policy of liberality, and the 
Province of New York immediately followed the e.\- 
amplo of the mother-country in all its bitter intoler- 
ance and persecution by law of the Catholic Church 
and its adherents. In 1697, although the Anglican 
Church was neverformallyestal>li.shed in the Province 
of New York, Trinity Church was founded in the City 
of New York by royal charter, and received many 
civil privileges and the munificent grants of land which 
are the source of its present great wealth. The Dutch 
Reformed Churches continued, however, to enjoy 
their property and the protection of their rights un- 
disturbed by the new Anglican foundation, the inhabi- 
tants of Dutch blood being then largely in the ascend- 
ant. This condition continued many years, for it is 
a fact that, when the Revolution occurred in 1776, 
the majority of the inhabitants of the Province of New 
York were, contrary to general belief, not of English 
descent. 

The political conditions at home, and also the long 
contest between England and France for the control 
of North .America resulted, as has been stated, in the 
enactment by the provincial legislature from time to 
time of proscriptive laws against the Catholic Faith 
and its adherents — laws which are savage in their 
malignity. Catholic priests and teachers were or- 
dered to keep away from the province or, if they by 
any chance came there, to depart at once. Severe 
penalties were provided for disobedience to these laws, 
extending to long imprisonment or even death. These 
laws were directed in many cases principally against 
the Catholic missionaries among the Iroquois, who 
were almost exclusively Frenchmen. They were 
adopted also, it is consoling to think, against the pro- 
test of many of the best of the colonial legislators and 
under the urging of authority, and were rarely en- 
forced. This was not so in the case of the unfortunate 
schoolmaster John Ury, however. In the disturbances 
and panic of the so-called Negro Plot of 1741 he was 
actually tried in New York and executed under these 
statutes for the crime of being a "Popish priest" and 
teaching his religion. Although it is held by some 
that Ury was not a Catholic priest. Archbishop Bayley 
gives good reason for believing the contrary, citing 
especially the fact that the record shows that he 
never denied the accusation at any time, and therefore 
died as a priest. The entire body of this legislation 
was formally repealed at the first session of the Legis- 
lature of the State of New York. 

The condition of the few Catholics who dared pro- 
scription and persecution in the province of New York 
before the Revolution of 1776 was deplorable from a 
religious point of view. These Catholics must have 
been recruited in numbers from time to time from sea- 



faring people, emigrants, Spanish negroes from the 
West Indies, and at least part of the 7000 Acadians, 
who were distributed along the Atlantic seaboard in 
175.5 after the awful expatriation winch that devoted 
people suffered, although the annals are almost bare of 
references even to their existence. Father Farmer 
from Philadelphia came to see the oppressed Catho- 
lics during his long service on the missions between 
1752-86, but his visits have no history. They had 
no church or institutions of any kind. As Arch- 
bishop Bayley truly said, a chapel, if they had had 
means to erect one, would have been torn down. The 
first mention of their public worship shows them hear- 
ing Mass in a carpenter shop, and afterwards in a 
public hall in Vauxliall Garden (a pleasure ground on 
the Hudson near Warren Street), New York, between 
the years 1781-8.3 when they had begun to take 
heart because of the religious libertj' which was to be 
theirs under the new republican government whose 
arms had already triumphed over England at York- 
town. Their number at this time was reported as be- 
ing about two hundred, with only twenty odd com- 
municants, as Father Farmer lamented. 

The Revolution of 1 776 overthrew entirely the system 
of government churches and all religious proscrip- 
tion by law, and the State Constitution of 1777 pro- 
vided, as has been seen, for general religious liberty. 
The Legislature in 1784 carried out the declaration. 
It provided "that an universal equality between every 
religious denomination, according to the true spirit 
of the Con.5titution, toward each other shall forever 
prevail", and followed this by a general act providing 
for the incorporation of churches and religious soci- 
eties under clear general rules, few, simple, and easy 
for all. This law made a most unusual provision in 
aid of justice for the vesting in these corporate bodies 
immediately of "all the temporalities granted or de- 
vised directly to said church, congregation or society, 
or to any person or persons in trust to and for their 
use and although such gift, grant or devise may not 
have strictly been agreeable to the rigid rules of law, or 
might on strict construction be defeated by the opera- 
tion of the statutes of mortmain." It made provision 
also with great prescience for the protection of clergy- 
men from the exercise of arbitrary power by the lay 
directors of religious corporations by taking from the 
trustees of the church the power to fix the salary of the 
clergyman and by requiring the congregation to fix it at 
special meetings. To prevent abuses, however, and in 
accordance with legal tradition and precedent, restric- 
tions upon the amount nf nal est a I o and personal prop- 
erty which a church cuul'l ImM wen- maile, and the 
Courtof Chancery was|ilac((l ill lunl ml of all such mat- 
ters by requiring that annual n-po its shouUl be made by 
the churches to it. The final cl.ause of the act crystal- 
lized the principle of the Constitution, that, while the 
State protects and fosters religion in its beneficent 
work, it must not interfere in religious matters. It is 
as follows: "Nothing herein contained shall be con- 
strued, adjudged, or taken to abridge or affect the 
rights of con.science or private judgment or in the least 
to alter or change the religious constitutions or govern- 
ments of either of the said churches, congregations or 
societies, so far as respects or in any wise concerns the 
doctrine, discipline or worship thereof." 

The Constitution of 1777 and the legislation of the 
Revolutionary period in aid of it are remarkable for 
deep sagacity and great grasp of princii)les, as well as 
for the conservative and sane treatment of the inno- 
vations and novelties which the radical changes in the 
government made necessary. This is the more re- 
markable when it is remembered that ( his Clonstit.ution 
was adopted in time of war by ddcgal cs who laid down 
their arms in most cases to join in t he (Icliheral ions upon 
it, and that the Legislature first met imnicdiHlely 
after the close of this war time. It was besides a ven- 
ture in an almost virgin fieH. Its wisdom, knowledge, 



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and broadness arc priooloss treasures of the citizens of 
New York. The wisdom of the Constitution is shown 
particukirlv in tlie provision creating the bodv of the 
law for the State. Itenacted that the law of tl'u- State 
should be constituted of the Common Law of iMighmd 
and of the Act s of t he Legislature of the Colony of New 
York, as together forming the law of the colony on 19 
April, 1775 (the day of the battle of Concord and Lex- 
ington). It was expressly declared, however, "that 
all such parts of the said Common Law and all such of 
the said Statutes and Acts aforesaid or parts thereof 
as may be construed to establish or maintain any par- 
ticular denomination of Christians or their ministers, 
are repugnant to this constitution and hereby are ab- 
rogated and rejected." 

To New York belongs the honour of having been the 
first of all English-speaking states from the time of 
the Protestant Reformation, to protect by its courts 
and laws, the secrecy and sanctity of auricular confes- 
sion. In June, 1S13, it was judicially determined that 
auricular confession as a jjart of church discipline pro- 
tects the priest from being compelled in a court of law 
to testify to statements made to him therein. The 
decision was made by De Witt Clinton, presiding in 
the Mayor's Court of New Y'ork City on the trial of 
one Phillips for theft, and the priest, whose protest 
was there considered, was the revered Father Anthony 
Kohlmann mentioned above. The decision is more 
remarkable because it w;is contrary to the principles 
of the English cases, and the opposite view had the 
support of respectable authorities. 

Although no form of religion is considered by the 
State of New Y'ork as having rights superior to 
any other, yet the fact of the existence of the Chris- 
tian religion as the predominating faith of the peo- 
ple has been uniformly recognized by the courts, 
constitutional conventions, and legislatures. As 
early as ISll, Chancellor Kent, writing the opinion 
of the Court in the case of People vs. Ruggles (8 
Johnson 294), made the celebrated dictum: "We are 
a Christian people and the morality of the country is 
deeply ingrafted upon Christianity." This famous 
case arose on the conviction of the defendant for blas- 
phemy in maliciously reviling Jesus Christ in a public 
place. In the absence of a specific statute the question 
was presented whether such an act was in New York 
a crime at common law. The Court held that it was, 
because to vilify the Author of Christianity under the 
circumstances presented was a gross violation of de- 
cency and good order, and blasphemy was an abuse 
of the right of religious liberty. The court further 
held that, though the Constitution discarded religious 
establishments, it did not forbid judicial cognizance 
of those offences against religion and morality which 
have no reference to any such establishment or to any 
particular form of government, but are punishable be- 
cause they strike at the root of moral obligation and 
weaken social ties; that the Constitution never meant 
to withdraw religion in general, and with it the best 
sanctions of moral and social obligation, from all 
consideration and notice of the law; and that the 
framers intended only to banish test oaths, disabilities 
and the burdens, and sometimes the oppressions, of 
Church establishments, and to secure the people of 
the State freedom from coercion and an equality of 
right on the subject of religion. 

This decision of the Supreme Court that, although 
Christianity is not the religion of the State, considered 
asapolitical corporation, it is nevertheless closely inter- 
woven into the texture of society and is intimately con- 
nected with all the .social haliits, customs, and modes 
of life of the people, gave offence in cert.ain quarters. 
In view of this Ruggles case, an amendment was i)ro- 
posed in the Constitutional Convention of 1821 to the 
effect that the judiciary should not declare any partic- 
ular religion to be the law of the land. It was rejected 
after a full debate in which its opponents, whOe differing 



in details, agreed "that the Christian religion was en- 
grafted upon the law and entitled to protection as the 
bivsis of morals and the strengi h of (lovernment." In 
1861 a similar question was presented for decision in 
the well-known case of Lindcnmuller vs. People (33 
Harbour Rejiorts .")4S). The plaintiff sought from the 
court an injunction to restrain Ihc police of New Y'ork 
City from interfering with theatrical performances on 
Sunday. The opinion of the Supreme Court wiis 
written by Justice William F. Allen, a most distin- 
guished jurist, and was afterwards (1877) adojjtcd by 
the Court of Appeals as the decision of the highest 
court. It contains an admirable and exhaustive study 
of the Sunday laws. It takes the claim of the plain- 
tiff, stated broadly, to be that "the Bible, and religion 
with all its ordinances, including the Sabbath, are as 
effectually abolished by the Constitution as they were 
in France during the Revolution, and so effectually 
abolished that duties may not be enforced as duties to 
the J^tate because they have been heretofore asso- 
ciated with acts of religious worship or connected with 
religious duties." It then proceeds: "It would be 
strange that a people. Christian in doctrine and wor- 
ship, many of whom or whose forefathers had sought 
these shores for the privilege of worshipping God in 
simplicity and purity of faith, and who regarded re- 
ligion as the basis of their civil liberty and the founda- 
tion of their rights, should, in their zeal to secure to all 
the freedom of conscience which they valued so highly, 
solemnly repudiate and put beyond the pale of the law 
the religion which was as dear to them as life and de- 
throne the God, who, they openly and avowedly pro- 
fess to beUeve, had been their protector and guide as a 
people." The Court announced the broad decision 
that every act done, maliciously tending to bring re- 
ligion into contempt, may be punished at common 
law, and the Christian Sabbath, as one of the institu- 
tions of religion, may be protected from desecration 
by such laws as the Legislature in their wisdom may 
deem necessary to secure to the community the privi- 
lege of an undisturbed worship, and to the day itself 
that outward respect and observance which may be 
deemed essential to the peace and good order of so- 
ciety, and to preserve religion and its ordinances from 
open revihng and contempt. I( further held that this 
must be considered, not as a duty to God, but as a 
duty to society and to the State. This decision firmly 
established the proposition that, as a civil and politi- 
cal institution, the establishment and regulation of a 
Sabbath are within the just powers of civil govern- 
ment. It remains the law of the State confirmed by 
many decisions up to this time. 

Many interesting questions have arisen from time 
to time in the courts as to how far the English doc- 
trines as to "superstitious uses", mortmain, and 
charities, especially in relation to the ownership of 
lands by religious corporations and charitable corpo- 
rations and as to their capacity to take charitable be- 
quests and devises, remained the law of tin ■ State imder 
the Constitution. As to superstitious uses, it has been 
expressly held that that English post-Reformation 
doctrine has no place in this State; that those profess- 
ing the Roman Catholic Faith are entitled in law to 
the same respect and protection in their religious ob- 
servances as those of any other denomination, and 
that these observances cannot be condenmed as super- 
stitious by any court as matter by law. The right to 
make provision for Ma.s.ses for the dead by contracts 
made inter vivos was expressly proclaimed by the 
Court of Appeals. Direct beciuests for Masses are 
in law "charities" and to be considered as such. As 
to these charities generally, the Court of Appeals in 
1888 settled finally after much discussion that the 
Engli.sh ddctrini' of trusts for charitable uses, with all 
its retinemeuts, was not the law in New York; that the 
settled policy of the States was clear, and consisted in 
the creation of a system of jjublic charities to be ad- 



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ministered through the medium of corporate bodies, 
created by legislative power and endowed with the 
same legal capacity to hold property for their corpo- 
rate purposes, as a private person or an ordinary pri- 
vate corporation had to receive and hold transfers of 
property. It was decided, therefore, in the leading 
case of Holland vs. Alcock (108 New York Reports 
329), that direct bequests for Masses cannot be made 
definitely as such except to incorporated churches or 
other corporations having legal power to take property 
for such purposes. There is no difficulty in practice, 
however, in this regard, as Mass legacies are now 
either given to an incorporated church directly, or are 
left as personal bequests accompanied by requests, 
which in law do not derogate from the absolute 
quality of the gift. 

However, it is to be noted that the rules laid down 
by the Court of Appeals in the matter of charities have 
been radically changed by legislation since 1888. The 
decision of the Court of Appeals in the Tilden will case, 
by which the elaborate plans for public charity made 
by Samuel J. Tilden were defeated by the application 
of these rules, was followed almost immediately by 
Chapter 701 of the Laws of 1893, which provides that 
gifts by will for charitable purposes shall not be de- 
feated because of indefiniteness in designating the 
beneficiaries, and that the power in the regulation of 
the gifts for charitable purposes formerly exercised 
by the Court of Chancery under the ancient law of 
England should be restored and vested in the Supreme 
Court as a Court of Equity. The Court of Appeals 
construing this statute has held that the existence of 
a competent corporation or other definable trustee 
with power to take is no longer necessary for the va- 
lidity of a trust for charitable uses, and that any legal 
trust for such purposes may be executed by proper 
trustees if such are named, and, if none are named, the 
trust will be administered by the Supreme Court. It 
is important to note, however, that this act must be 
confined to the cases to which it applies, and that it 
does not enable an unincorporated charity or associa- 
tion to take bequests or devises. 

There exist, however, notwithstanding the liberal- 
ity of the New York system, some important re- 
strictions upon the conduct of religious and charitable 
corporations. The better opinion and the weight of 
judicial authority are, that, notwithstanding the re- 
pealing act of the Legislature of 1788 above noted, 
the English statutes of Elizabeth, which restricted re- 
ligious and charitable corporations, may hold in the 
alienation and encumbering of their real estate, have 
been adopted as the law of this State, and that such 
acts can only be lawfully done under the order of the 
Supreme Court. Limitations upon the value of the 
property and the amount of the income of religious 
and charitable corporations have also been uniformly 
made by the New York Statutes. The present law, 
however, is most liberal in this respect, the property 
of such corporations being limited to .$6,000,000 and 
the annual income to $600,000, and provision is also 
made that no increase in the value of property arising 
otherwise than from improvements made thereon by 
the owners shall be taken into account. By recent 
act also the strict requirements for accounting to the 
Supreme Court, the successor of the Court of Chan- 
cejy, as to their property and income, which in the 
early statutes controlled such corporations, are con- 
fined to cases where the attorney-general intervenes 
for the purpose by petition to the Supreme Court upon 
proper cause being shown. 

The law of New York on the general subject of the 
Church and the legal position of the latter before the 
law has been defined by the statutes and numerous 
decisions. The results may be briefly stated as fol- 
lows: Religious societies as such are not legal en- 
tities, although as an aggregation of the individuals 
composing them, for motives of convenience, they are 



recognized as existing in certain cases. They can 
neither sue nor be sued in civil courts. They cannot 
hold property directlj', although they may control 
property held by others for their use or upon trusts 
created by them. The existence, however, of the 
Church proper, as an organized legal entity, is not 
recognized by the municipal law of New York. There 
is no statute which authorizes the incorporation of 
the Church at large. The incorporation is generally 
made of the congregation or assemblage of persons 
accustomed statedly to meet for Divine worship, al- 
though provision has been made for the incorporation 
of special ecclesiastical bodies with governing author- 
ity over churches. For example, the Catholic dioceses 
of .Albany, Buffalo, and Brooklyn have been thus 
incorporated formally. The general plan provides 
specially for the incorporation and government of the 
churches of the separate denominations, as gathered 
into congregations. Each important denomination, 
therefore, has its own particular provisions in the Re- 
ligious Corporation Law, the general statute of the 
State which has codified these laws and decisions. In 
the case of the Roman Catholic Church, incorporation 
is obtained in this way. A certificate of incorpora- 
tion must be executed by the archbishop or bishop, 
the vicar-general of the diocese, the rector of the con- 
gregation, and two laymen thereof, selected by such 
officials or a majority of them. It must state the 
corporate name of the church, and also the municipal- 
ity where its principal place of worship exists or is in- 
tended to be located. On filing such certificate with 
the clerk of the county in which the principal place of 
worship is or is intended to be, or with the Secretary 
of State in certain cases, the corporation is created. 

Questions of the civil rights of persons, relating 
either to themselves or to property, whatever may be 
their relations to church organizations, are as a matter 
of course the subject of adjudication in the civil tri- 
bunals. But judicial notice will be taken of the exist- 
ence of the church discipline or government in .some 
cases, and it is always the subject of evidence. When, 
therefore, personal rights and rights of property are 
in cases in the courts dependent upon questions of 
doctrine, discipline, church government, customs, or 
law, the civil court will consider as controlling and 
binding the determinations made on such questions 
by the highest tribunal within the Church to which 
they have been presented. While a clergyman, or 
other person, may always insist that his civil or prop- 
erty rights as an individual shall be determined ac- 
cording to the law of the land, his relations, rights, and 
obligations arising from his position as a member of 
some religious body must be determined according to 
the laws and procedure enacted by that body for such 
purpose. Where it appeared, therefore, in one case 
that questions growing out of relations between a 
priest and his bishop had been submitted by the par- 
tics to an ecclesiastical tribunal which the church it- 
self had organized for hearing such causes and was 
there decided by it, it was held by the Court of Ap- 
peals that the civil courts were ju.stificd in refusing 
to proceed further, and that the decision of the Church 
judicatory in the matter was a bar and a good defence 
(Baxter vs. McDonnell, 155 New York, 83). The 
Church at large, however, under the law of New York 
depends wholly upon moral power to carry on its 
functions, without the possibility of ajipeal to the 
civil authorities for aid cither through tlic Legislature 
or tlu^ Court. Where there is no incorporation, those 
whd divil with the Church must trust for the perform- 
anci' nf ii\ il (.hligalions to the honour and good faith 
of the iiicriil]iT.-<. The congregations formed into civil 
corporations arc governed bv the principles of the 
common law and statute law. With their doctrinal 
peculiarity and (h-nominationaf character the courts 
have nothing to do, except to carry out the statutes 
which protect their righla^in this respect. However, 



NEW YORK 



38 



NEW YORK 



these statutorj' riKhts are, as will be seen, very - 
extensive. Generally speakin;;. whatever the eorpo- 
ration chooses to do that is within their corporate 
power is lawful except where restricted by express 
statute. 

Control of Churches. — From time to time important 
restrictions ujjon the general power of the religious 
corporations in particular denominations have been 
made. The present Religious Corporation Law, for 
example, recjuires the trustees of such a body to ad- 
minister the temporalities of the church in .accordance 
with the discipline, rules, and usages of the religious 
denomination or ecclesiastical governing body, if any, 
with which the corporation is connected, and in accor- 
dance with the provisions of law relating thereto, and 
further for the suiiport and maintenance of the corpora- 
tion and its denominational or charitable work. It re- 
quires also the consent of the bishops and other offi- 
cers to the mortgage, lease, or conveyance of the real 
property of certain churches. In the case of Catholic 
churches it is expressly provided also that no act or 
proceeding of the trustees of any such church shall be 
valid without the express sanction of the archbishop 
or bishop of the diocese or, in case of his absence, of 
the vicar-general or administrator. To prevent the 
creation of abuses from the generality of any of its 
provisions, the statute contains a further section 
directing that no provision thereof shall authorize 
the fixing or changing of the time, nature, or order of 
public or social or other worship of any church in any 
other manner or bj' any other authority than in the 
manner and by the authority provided in the laws, 
regulations, practice, discipline, rules, and usages of 
the religious denomination or ecclesiastical governing 
body, if any, with which the church corporation is con- 
nected, except in churches which have a congrega- 
tional form of government. 

Ecclesiastical Persons. — The relations of ecclesiasti- 
cal persons one to the other have also been considered 
by the courts. It has been held that the personal 
contracts of a bishop are the same as those of a layman 
as far as their form, force, and effect are concerned. 
It has been determined, however, that the relation 
of master and servant does not exist between a bishop 
and his priests, but only that of ecclesiastical superior 
and inferior. Finally, the courts have ruled that a 
priest or minister in any church by assuming that 
relation necessarily subjects his conduct in that 
capacity to the law and customs of the ecclesiastical 
body from which he derives his office and in whose 
name he exercises his functions. 

Marriage. — Until very recent times New York fol- 
lowed the common law respecting marriage. All that 
was required for a valid marriage was the deliberate 
consent of competent parties entering into a present 
agreement. No ceremony or intervention of a civil 
authority was necessary. 

However, it is now provided that, although the 
contract of marriage is still in law a civil contract, 
marriages not ceremonial must be proven by writings 
authenticated by the parties under strict formalities 
and in the presence of at least two witnesses and re- 
corded in the proper county clerk's office. It is now 
provided also that ceremonial marriages must not be 
celebrat(>d without first obtaining a marriage licence. 
It Ls to be noted, however, that a failure to procure 
the marriage licence does not invalidate a ceremonial 
marriage, but only subjects the offending clergyman 
or magistrate who officiates thereat to the penalties of 
the statute. All clergymen and certain magistrates 
are given power to solemnize marriages. No partic- 
ular form is required except that the parties must ex- 
pres.sly declare that they take each other as husband 
or wife. In every case one wit ness besides the clergy- 
man or magistrate must be present at the ceremony. 
It is provided, however, that modes of solemnizing 
marriage adopted by any religious denomination are 



to be regarded as valid notwithstanding the statute. 
This amending statute was passed at the session of 
1907, and there are as yet no important adjudications 
upon it. 

Annulment of Marriage. — An action to annul her 
marriage may bo brought by a woman where she was 
under sixteen years of age at the time of the marriage 
and th(^ consent of her parents or guardian was not 
had and the marriage was not consummated and not 
ratified by mutual as.sent after she attained the age of 
sixteen years. Either the husband or wife may sue 
for annulment of marriage for lunacy, nonage, prior 
valid marriage, or because consent was obtained by 
force, duress, or fraud, and finally for physical in- 
capacity under certain rigid restrictions. The tend- 
ency of the courts of late years is to construe the pro- 
vision as to fraud liberally, and annulment has been 
granted on this ground where the husband has been 
convicted of a felony and concealed the fact bi'f<ire the 
marriage, and again where false representations had 
been made before the marriage by the woman as to 
the birth of a child to the plaintiff. The Court of Ap- 
peals in the last ease held, as the reasonable construc- 
tion of the statute, that the essential fact to be shown 
was that the fraud was material to the degree that, 
had it not been practised, the party deceived would 
not have consented to the marriage (Di Lorenzo vs. 
Di Lorenzo, 174 New York, 467 and 471). This de- 
cision, it should be noted, was put squarely on the 
groimd that in New York marriage is a civil contract 
to which the consent of parties capable in law of con- 
tracting is essential, and, where the consent is obtained 
by legal fraud, the marriage may be annulled as in 
the case of any other contract. Condonation of the 
force, duress, or fraud is required to be assumed from 
the fact of voluntary cohabitation after knowledge of 
the facts by the innocent party, and will, if established, 
defeat the action. Provision is also made for an ac- 
tion for the annulment of a marriage in certain cases 
at the instance of any relative having an interest in 
having it annulled or by a parent or guardian or next 
friend either in the lifetime of a party or after his or 
her death, where such an action will further the cause 
of justice. 

Divorce. — Actions for absolute divorce and the dis- 
solution of marriage can be maintained only for the 
cause of adultery. The New York Courts will hear 
no action for divorce unless both parties were residents 
of the State when the offence was committed, or were 
married within the State, or the plaintiff was a resi- 
dent of the State at the time of the offence and is 
resident when the action is commenced, or finally 
when the offence was committed within the State and 
the injured party is a resident of the State when the 
action is commenced. Divorces obtained by citizens 
of New York in the courts of foreign jurisdiction are 
not recognized as valid in the State of New York un- 
less personal jurisdiction of both of the parties is 
properly obtained by the foreign courts. Collusion of 
the parties is strictly guarded against. Condonation 
of the offence is made a defence. The action must be 
brought within five years after the discovery of the 
offence. Adultery by the plaintiff is a complete de- 
fence to the action. The pro\'isions for the custody 
of the children of a dissolved marriage and for the 
maintenance of the innocent wife and children are 
very detailed and effective. Remarriage is forbidden 
to the guilty party during the life of the spouse, unless, 
after five years have elapsed, proof is made of his or 
her uniform good conduct, when the defendant may 
be permitted by the Court to marry again. The 
practical effect of these prohibitions is very slight be- 
cause the entire validity of the subsequent marriages 
of guilty parties in New York divorce actions, when 
they are made out of the State of New York, is recog- 
nized by tlu^ New York courts, the only penalty pro- 
vided for the disobedience to the decree being the 



NEW YORK 



39 



NEW YORK 



punishment of the offender for contempt of court, 
and the infliction of this penalty is unheard of at 
the present day. The divorce law of New York, it 
may be noted, is more conservative than that of any 
other state in the Union except South Carolina, where 
no divorce a vinculo is permitted. Limited divorce or 
decree of separation a mensa et thoro is granted for 
numerous causes, viz: cruel and inhuman treatment, 
abandonment, neglect or refusal to provide for the 
wife, and conduct making it unsafe and improper for 
the plaintiff to cohabit with the defendant. The 
usual purpose of actions for limited divorce is to pro- 
vide support for the children and alimony for the wife 
out of the husband's funds after the husband and wife 
have separated. These actions are comparatively in- 
frequent. The judgment in them has of course no 
effect upon the validity of the marriage bond. It is 
granted only for grave cause, and the necessary bona 
fide residence of the parties in the State is of strictest 
proof, under the terms of the statute. 

Charities. — The system of charities which has grown 
up within the State of New York, whether religious or 
secular, is one of the features of its social life. As was 
said by the Court of Appeals in 1888 in the famous 
case of Holland vs. Aloock above noted: "It is not 
certain that any political state or society in the world 
offers a better system of law for the encouragement 
of property limitations in favour of religion and learn- 
ing, for the relief of the poor, the care of the insane, of 
the sick and the maimed, and the relief of the desti- 
tute, than our system of creating organized bodies by 
the legislative power and endowing them with the 
same legal capacity to hold property which a private 
person has to receive and holfl transfers of property." 
A charitable or benevolent corporation may be 
formed under the Membership Corporation Law by 
five or more persons for any lawful, charitable, or 
benevolent purpose. It is subject in certain respects 
to the supervision of the State Board of Charities and 
of the Supreme Court, but this power of visitation is 
not oppressive and never exercised except in case of 
gross abuse and under .strict provisions as to proce- 
dure. State and municipal aid to private charitable 
corporations is permitted by law. Some of the great 
private charities of the Catholic Church receive such 
aid in large amounts, particularly in the great cities. 
The public subvention of private charitable corpora- 
tions is an old custom in the State, beginning when al- 
most all charities were in Protestant hands and the 
Catholic charities were very few and poor. Although 
vigorously attacked in the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1904, it was sustained and continued by the 
action of that convention and ratified by the people of 
the State. The system has done much for the cause 
of the education and maintenance of defective, de- 
pendent, and delinquent children, and for the building 
up of the hospitals for the destitute sick and aged in 
all the religious denominations. The Catholic pro- 
tectories of New York and Buffalo and the Catholic 
foundling and infant asylums throughout the State 
are the models for such institutions in the whole 
United States. The charities under Catholic auspices 
which receive no State aid are, however, in the vast 
majority, and are found in great numbers in every 
quarter of the State, caring for the children and the 
aged, the sick and the destitute. They are served by 
an army of devoted religious, both men and women. 
The State institutions for the care of the insane and 
juvenile delinquents are numerous, and the alms- 
houses, hospitals, and other charitable agencies under 
the care of the counties and other municipalities 
abound throughout the State. There are alone six- 
teen great State hospitals for the insane, conducted 
most carefully and successfully. 

Restrictions on Bequests and Devises. — No person 
having a parent, husband, wife, or child can legally 
devise or bequeath more than one-half his estate to 



benevolent, charitable, or religious institutions, but 
such disposition is vaUd to the extent of one-half. In 
addition, certain kinds of corporations are still further 
restricted in respect to the portion of the estate of such 
persons which they may receive: in some cases it 
is only one-fourth. In respect to the invalidity by 
statute of legacies or devises made by wills executed 
within two months of the testator's death, this limita- 
tion was formerly widely applicable. Recent amend- 
ments, however, have restricted it to the corporations 
formed under the old statutes, and it applies now to 
very few others, and these mostly corporations cre- 
ated by special statutes. Bequests and devises to un- 
incorporated churches or charities, are, as has been 
stated, invalid. Foreign religious and charitable cor- 
porations, however, may take bequests and devises if 
authorized to do so by their charters. They are also 
permitted to carry on unhampered their work in the 
State of New York. The legacies and devises to re- 
ligious, charitable, and benevolent corporations are 
exempt from the succession tax assessed upon legacies 
and devises in ordinary cases. 

Exemption from Taxation. — The Tax Law provides 
that the real and personal property of a "corporation 
or association organized exclusively for the moral or 
mental improvement of men or women or for religious, 
Bible, tract, charitable, benevolent, missionary, hos- 
pital, infirmary, educational, scientific, literary, li- 
brary, patriotic, historical, or cemetery purposes or 
for the enforcement of law relating to chiklren or ani- 
mals or for two or more such purposes and used ex- 
clusively for carrying out thereupon one or more of 
such purposes", shall be exempt from taxation. Great 
care is taken, however, to protect against the abuse of 
this right of exemption. In some few cases further 
exemptions are also made; thus, for example, real 
property not in exclusive use for the above corporate 
purposes is exempt from taxation, if the income there- 
from is devoted exclusively to the charitable use of the 
corporation. Property held by any officer of a reli- 
gious denomination is entitled to the same exemption 
under the same conditions and exceptions as property 
held by a religious corporation itself. 

Freedom of Worship. — It is expressly provided by 
statute that all persons committed to or taken charge 
of by incorporated or unincorporated houses of refuge, 
reformatories, protectories, or other penal institutions, 
receiving either public moneys or a per capita sum 
from any municipality for the support of inmates, 
shall be entitled to the free exercise and enjoyment of 
religious profession and worship without discrimina- 
tion or preference, and that these provisions may be 
enforced by the Supreme Court upon jietition of any 
one feeling himself aggrieved by a violation of it 
(Prison Law Section 20). It is further provided that 
all children committed for destitution or delinquency 
by any court or public officer shall, as far as practica- 
ble, be sent to institutions of the same religious faith 
as the parents of the child. 

Liquor Law. — The eoicise legislation of the State is 
treated in an elaborate general statute called the 
"Liquor Tax Law", but better known as the "Raines 
Law" from the name of the late Senator John Raines 
who drafted it. In substance it provides for a Slate 
Department of Excise presided over by a commis- 
sioner of excise, appointed by the governor and con- 
firmed by the Senate, who is given charge of the 
issuance of all licences to traffic within the State in in- 
toxicating liquor, and also of the collection of the li- 
cence fees and the supervision of the enforcement of 
the drastic penalties provided for violations of t he law. 
Its purpose was to take away the granting of excise 
licences by the local authorities, who had in some 
cases greatly abused the power, and also to subject 
local peace and police officers to the scrutiny, and in 
some cases the control of the State authorities in excise 
matters. It has resulted^nerally in a great improve- 



NEW ZEALAND 



40 



NEW ZEALAND 



ment in excise conditions throughout the State, as well . 
as incitlcntally in an enormous increase in the revenue 
of the State from this source. It h;u< caused the al- 
niosl complete disappearance of unlicenccd liijuor- 
selling, and has improved general order and decency 
in tlie business of Irtillicking in liquor, especially in the 
congested i)arts of the cities. The principle of high 
licence is carefully followed. I'he fee for a saloon 
liceni-e, for example in the Borough of Manhattan, is 
Sr2(K) per annum, the charge decreasing, according to 
the circumstances, to •S1.')0 per annum in the rural dis- 
tricts. The State is divided into excise districts which 
are in charge of deputy commissioners suiiervised by 
the staff of the commissioner of excise at Albany. Al- 
though it is an unusual jirovision which thus central- 
izes the power over the licjuor traffic at Albany, and it 
Bcems to violate the principle of home rule adopted by 
all the public parties, the experiment is on the whole 
regarded with satisfaction. It should be noted that 
this law liiis created a very great abuse because of its 
provision attaching the right to sell liquor on Sunday 
to the keejiing of hotels. There have thus sprung into 
existence the "Raines Law Hotels", which, satisfying 
the very inadequate provisions of the statute, obtain 
hotel licences without any legitimate business reason, 
and primarily for the purpose of selling liquor on Sun- 
day. They are generally conducted as to their hotel 
accommodations in such a way a.s to be a menace to 
public order and decency in the poorer residential dis- 
tricts of the large cities of the State. They often defy 
police control, and their legal status makes their regu- 
lation or supervision most difficult. Earnest efforts 
have been made for many years to remedy the evil, 
but have met w-ith but partial success. Ample provi- 
sion is also made for local option as to prohibitive 
liquor licences in all localities of the State excepting 
the larger cities. It has worked well in practice. 

Clergymen. — Priests and ministers of the Gospel are 
exempted from service on juries and from service in 
the militia of the State. A clergyman's real and per- 
sonal property to the extent of S1500 is exempt from 
taxation, if he is regularly engaged in performing his 
duty, is permanently disabled by impaired health, or 
is over seventy-five years old. The dwelling-houses 
and lots of religious coqjorations, actually used by 
the officiating clergymen thereof, are also exempt to 
the extent of $2000. Any clergjTnan is empowered 
at his pleasure to visit all county jails, workhouses, 
and St ate prisons when he is in charge of a congregation 
in the town where they are located. 

liolidai/s. — The legal holidays of the State are New 
Year's Day, Lincoln's Birthday (12 February), Wash- 
ington's Birthday (22 February), Memorial Day (30 
May), Independence Day (4 July), Labour Day (first 
Monday of September), Columbus Day (12 October), 
and ChrLstmas Day. If any of these days fall on Sun- 
day, the day following is a public holiday. The statute 
also provides that the day of the general election, and 
each day appointed by the President of the United 
States or by the Governor of the State as a day of 
"general thanksgiving, general fasting and prayer, or 
other general religious observances ", shall be holidays. 
Each Saturday, which is not a holiday, is a half-holi- 
day. There is of course no religious significance in 
the creation of any of these holidays, as far as the 
State is concerned. Good Friday, by general custom, 
is observed as a holiday throughout the State, al- 
though it is not designated as a legal holiday. The 
rules of the local school boards throughout the State 
also provide Uberty to both Christian and Jewish 
scholars to take time from the school attendance 
for religious observances on their respective holy- 
days. 

Lamb, Hist, of City of New York (New York. 1877); Baylet, 
Hist, of Calk. Church on Island of N. Y. (New York, 1869); U. S. 
Catholic Ilii^torical Society, Records and Studies (New York), es- 
pecially for Oct., 1900, and Nov.. 1907; United Stales Census 1900: 
New York Stale Census J90S; Lincoln, Conslilulionat Hist, of 



N. Y. (Rochester, 1906) ; Alexander. Political Hist, of the State of 
N. Y. (New York, 1900) ; Wilson. Memorial Hist, of City of N. Y., 
Slalesman's Year Book- for lillfl (New York, \9W);Report of N. Y. 
Chamber of Conmurn- (New York, I'.llll); U. S. Census Bulletin, 
Hclllliou.': Bodies UIIU; (VV;,.Hiii.iKt.,Tl. VMV.W; O'Cali.ahhan. Imws 
ami Ordinances nf New i\\H,rrla,„l . C.h.nial Laws of N. Y. (Al- 
bany); Durum, III.-: rrliiliiiii to Colonial Hist. (Albany, lSS.'i-87); 
P'OWLER. lull. •.luiii. Ill !,i Bradford's Imws (New York, 1894); 
Sampson. Calli,.h.' l.ii„.-.li,iii in America (New York. 1813); De- 
bates of the i'niiMitiitiunal Convention of 1821; Birdseye, Cdm- 
Mixtj and Gilbert. Consolidated Laws of N. Y. (New York, 
lau'.l); Ecclesiastieal Records of N. Y. (1901-5); Revised Slatutes: 
Reports of Revisers; Smith. N. Y. City in 1789 (New York, 1889); 
Rtimrl III l'i,mmi.<sioner of Excise (Albany. 1910); Shea. Hist, of 
Call' I ' . ' ' '/.. ('. S. (New York. 1886); Clarke. Lives of the 
Dri. /■ .'f Ike Cath. Church in the V. S. (New York. 

1S7J I ■,. . . II ;/ /. iifthe City of N. Y. (New York. 1880) ; Bccleai- 
a,^^.ll' /I'.i",/ -I ,V. Y. (official) (Albany. 1901); DeCourcy- 
Shea, I'aiie.i III IHsl. of Cath. Church in U. S. (New York, 18,57); 
Farley. Hisl. of SI. Patrick's Cathedral (New York. 1908) ; Zwier- 
LEiN. Religion in New Netherland (Rochester. 1910). 

Edward J. McGuire. 

New Zealand, formerly described as a colony, has, 
since September, 1907, by royal proclamation, been 
granted the style and design.ation of "Dominion", 
the territory remaining, of course, as before under 
British sovereignty. It consists of three main islands 
(North Island, South Island, sometimes also called 
Middle Island, and Stewart Island) and several 
groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from 
the principal group. The smaller groups included 
within the dominion are the Chatham, Auckland, 
Campbell, Antipodes, Bounty, Kermadec, and Cook 
Islands, along with half a dozen atolls situated outside 
the Cook Group. The total area of the dominion — 
104,751 square miles — is about one-seventh less than 
the area of Great Britain and Ireland. The quantity 
and quality of the grazing land .available has made 
New Zealand a great wool, meat, and dairy-produce 
country. Its agricultural capabilities are very con- 
siderable; its forests yield excellent timber; and its 
mineral resources, though as yet but little developed 
and not very varied in character, form one of the 
covmtry's most valuable assets. Volcanoes, one of 
which, Ngauruhoe, the highest cone of Mount Ton- 
gariro, was in active eruption in 1909, and a volcanic 
belt mark the centre of the North Lsland. In the 
North Island also is the wonderland of the boiling 
geysers — said by geologists to be the oldest in the 
world, with the exception of those in Wyoming and 
Idaho — and the famous "Hot Lakes" and pools, 
which possess great curative virtue for all rheumatic 
and skin diseases. An Alpine chain, studded with 
snow-clad peaks and mantled with glaciers of greater 
magnitude than any in the Alps of Europe, descends 
along the west coast of the South Island. In the 
South Island also are the famous Otago lakes (Wan- 
aka, Wakatipu, Te Anau, and Manapouri) of which 
the late Anthony Trollope wrote, " I do not know that 
lake scenery could be finer". The south-west coast 
of the island is pierced by a series of sounds or fiords, 
riv;illing in their exquisite beauty the Norwegian and 
Alask;ui fiords; in the neighbourhood is a water- 
fall (the Sutherland Falls) over 1900 feet in height. 
Judged by mortality statistics the clim.ate of New 
Zealand is one of the best and healthiest in the world. 
The tot.al population of the dominion on 31 December, 
190S, was 1,020,713. This included the Maori popu- 
lation of 47,731, and the jjoijulation of Cook and other 
Pacific islands, aggregating 12,340. 

I. Civil History. — Tasman discovered the islands 
in 1642 and called them "Nova Zeelanda", but Cap- 
tain Cook, who surveyed the coasts in 1769 and fol- 
lowing years, first made them known. The colony was 
planted in 1840 by a company, formed in England 
and known first as the New Zealand Company, after- 
wards as the New Zealand Land Company, which 
with auxiliary associations founded successively the 
settlements of Wellington, Nelson, Taranaki, Otago, 
and Canterbury. New Zealand was then constituted 
a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales 



NEW ZEALAND 



41 



NEW ZEALAND 



(Australia), but on 3 May, 1841, was proclaimed 
a separate colony. A series of native wars, arising 
chiefly from endless disputes about land, began in 
1843 and ended in 1869, since which time unbroken 
peace has prevailed. A measure of self-government 
was granted in 1852, and full responsible government 
in 1856. The provincial governments created by the 
Constitution Act were abolished in 1S76, and one 
supreme central government established. The Gov- 
ernment consists of a governor, appointed by the 
crown, and two houses of Parliament — the legislative 
council, or upper chamber, with members nominated 
by the governor for life (except those nominated 
subsequently to September 17, 1891, after which date 
all appointments are for seven years only), and the 
house of representatives with members elected tri- 
ennially on an adult suffrage. The first Speaker of 
the New Zealand House of Representatives (1853-60), 
the late Sir Charles Clifford, was a Catholic, and his 
son, Sir George CUfford, one of New Zealand's promi- 
nent public men, though born in the dominion was 
educated at Stonyhurst College, and has shown his 
fidelity to old ties by naming his principal New Zea- 
land residence "Stonyhurst " . There are a number of 
Catholic names in the list of past premiers, cabinet 
ministers, and members of Parliament who have 
helped to mould the laws and shape the history of the 
dominion. The present premier (1910), the Right 
Hon. Sir Joseph Ward, P.C, K.C.M.G., is a Catholic, 
and out of a legislative council of forty -five members 
five are Catholics. 

The prominent feature of the political history of the 
past twenty years has been the introduction and de- 
velopment of that body of "advanced" legislation for 
which the name of New Zealand has become more or 
less famous. The mere enumeration of the enact- 
ments would occupy considerable space. It must 
suffice to say that, broadly speaking, their purpose is 
to fling the shield of the State over every man who 
works for his livelihood; and, in addition to regulating 
wages, they cover practically every risk to life, limb, 
health, and interest of the industrial classes. It 
should be mentioned that there is no strong party of 
professed State-Socialists in the dominion, and the re- 
forms and experiments which have been made have in 
all cases been examined and taken on their merits, 
and not otherwise. Employers have occasionally pro- 
tested against some of the restrictions imposed, as 
being harassing and vexatious; but there is no politi- 
cal party in the country which proposes to rejjeal 
these measures, and there is a general consensus of 
opinion that, in its main features, the "advanced 
legislation" has come to stay. In 1893 an Act came 
into force which granted the franchise to women. The 
women's vote has had no perceptible effect on the 
relative position of political parties; but it is generally 
agreed that the women voters have been mainly re- 
sponsible for the marked increase in recent years of the 
no-Ucence vote at the local option polls. Elections 
are quieter and more orderly than formerly. 

II. The Maoris. — The New Zealand natives, or 
Maoris, as they call themselves, are generally acknowl- 
edged to be intellectually and physically the finest 
aboriginal race in the South Sea Islands. Their mag- 
nificent courage, their high intelligence, their splendid 
physique and manly bearing, the stirring part they 
have played in the history of the country, the very 
ferocity of their long-relinquished habits, have all 
combined to invest them with a more than ordinary 
degree of interest and curiosity. Of their origin it can 
only be said, broadly, that they belong to the Polyne- 
sian race — ethnologists have tried to trace a likeness to 
the Red Indians of North America — and according to 
tradition they came to New Zealand about twenty- 
one generations ago (i. e., about five hundred and 
twenty-five years) from Hawaiki, an island of the 
Pacific not identified with any certainty. After being 



robbed and despoiled by the early white civilization 
and by trader-missionaries, tardy justice has at length 
been done to the native race. To-day the Maoris 
have four members in the house of representatives and 
two in the legislative council, all men of high lineage 
and natural orators. Until recent years it was sup- 
posed that the Maoris were dying out, but later statis- 
tics show the contrary. The official figures show that 
the Maori population fell from 41,993 in 1891 to 39,- 
854 in 1896, increased to 43,143 in 1901, and further to 
47,731 in 1906 (last census year). 

III. The Catholic Church in New Zealand.— 
The first Catholic settler in New Zealand was an Irish- 
man named Thomas Poynton, who landed at Hoki- 
anga in 1828. Until ten years later the footsteps of 
a Catholic priest never pressed New Zealand soil. 
Poynton's brave and pious wife, a native of Wexford 
County, took her first two children on a journey of 
over two thousand weary miles of ocean to be baptized 
at Sydney. Through Poynton's entreaties for a mis- 
sionary the needs of the country became known, first 
at Sydney and next, at Rome. In 1835 New Zealand 
was included in the newly created Vicariate Apostolic 
of Western Oceanica. In the following year its first 
vicar Apostolic, Mgr Jean Baptiste Frangois Pompal- 
lier, set out for his new field of labour with seven mem- 
bers of the Society of the Marist Brothers, which only 
a few months before had received the approval of 
Pope Gregory XVI. On 10 January, 1838, he, with 
three Marist companions, sailed up the Hokianga 
River, situated in the far north-west of the Auckland 
Province. The cross was planted in New Zealand, 
and the first Mass celebrated in the house of the first 
Catholic settler of the colony. Irish peasant emi- 
grants were the pioneers of Catholic colonization in 
New Zealand; the French missionaries were its pioneer 
apostles. Four years later (in 1842) New Zealand 
was formed into a separate vicariate, Mgr Pompallicr 
being named its first vicar Apostolic. From this time 
forward events moved at a rapid pace. In 1848 the 
colony was divided into two dioceses, Auckland 
with its territory extending to 39° of south latitude 
forming one diocese, WelUngton with the remaining 
territory and the adjoining islands forming the second. 
(See Adckland, Diocese of.) Bishop Pompallier 
remained in charge of Auckland, and Bishop Viard, 
who had been consecrated his coadjutor in 1846, was 
appointed administrator of the Diocese of Wellington, 
which was entrusted to the Society of Mary. By 
Brief of 3 July, 1860, Bishop Viard ceased to be 
coadjutor and was constituted first Bishop of Welling- 
ton. In 1869 the Diocese of Dunedin, comprising 
Otago, Southland, and Stewart's Island, was carved 
out of the Diocese of Wellington, and the Right Rev. 
Patrick Moran who died in 1895 was appointed its 
first bishop. His successor (the present occupant of 
the see), the Right Rev. Dr. Verdon, was consecrated 
in 1896. In 1887, at the petition of the Plenary 
Synod of Australasia, held in Sydney in 1885, the hier- 
archy was established in New Zealand, and Welling- 
ton became the archiepiscopal see. The Most Rev. 
Dr. Redwood, S.M., who had been consecrated 
Bi.shop of Wellington in 1874, was created archbishop 
and metropolitan by papal brief, receiving tlic pallium 
from the hands of the Right Rev. Dr. Luck, Bishop of 
Auckland. The same year (18S7) witnessed the erec- 
tion of the Diocese of Christchurch. The first and 
present bishop is the Right Rev. Dr. Grimes, S.M., 
con.'if'crafed in the same year. Ten years later New 
Zealand, liiiliMto 1 1, prudent on Australia, was made a 
seiKirat rli -i.i-l i^mI province. 

Some idr.n.f t lie Lipid growth of the Catholic popu- 
lation, botli in nuinbens and in activity, may be gath- 
ered from the following figun^s. In IS 11), when New 
Zealand was declared a colony, the number of Catho- 
lic colonists was not above 50() in a total population of 
some 5000. Eleven years later they numbered 3472 



NEW ZEALAND 



42 



NEW ZEALAND 



in a total population of 2G,707. At the last Govern- 
ment census (1900) the Catholic total had amounted 
to rjti.il',)"). The total population of tlie dominion 
(exclusive of JMaoris), according to the same census, 
was SMS,r)7S, so tlial the Catliolic population is slightly 
over one-seventh of the whole. To-day (1910J the 
estimated Catholic population of New Zealand is over 
130,000, with 4 dioceses, 1 archbishop, 3 suffragan 
bishops, 212 priests, 02 religious brothers, 8,55 nuns, 
333 churches, 2 ecclesiastical seminaries (comprising 
1 provincial ecclesia-stical seminary and 1 ecclesiasti- 
cal seminary for members of the ^iarist Order), 2 col- 
leges for boys, 32 boarding and high schools, IS supe- 
rior day schools, 15 charitable institutions, and 112 
Cathohc primary schools. According to the "New 
Zealand t)(hcial Year-Book" for 1909 (a Government 
publication) the total number of Catholic schools in 
the dominion is 152 and the number of Catholic pupils 
attending is 12,0,50. New Zealand has added one 
new religious congregation (the Sisters of Our Lady of 
Compassion), founded in 1SS4 by Mother Mary Au- 
bert, to "Heaven's Army of Charity" in the Catho- 
lic Church. Under the direction of their venerable 
foundress the members of the order conduct schools 
for the Maoris at Hiruharama (Jerusalem) on the 
Wanganui Kiver, a home for incurables, Wellington, 
and a home for incurable children, Island Bay, Well- 
ington. The order has quite recently extended its 
operations to Auckland. 

The ordinary organizations of the laity, as usually 
found in English-speaking countries, are well and 
solidly established throughout the dominion. For 
benefit purposes New Zealand formed a separate dis- 
trict of the Hibernian Australasian Catholic Benefit 
Society. Thanks to cajjable management, due to the 
fact that the society h;is drawn to its ranks the ablest 
and most representative of the laity, the organization 
is making remarkable progress. On 30 January, 1910, 
the membersliip was reported at 2632; the funeral 
fund stood at £7795:2:2 (nearly .$40,000) and the 
sick fund amounted to £12,558:5:0 (over .?02,000). 
The Society of St. Vincent de Paul was probably the 
earliest lay organization established in New Zealand, a 
conference formed at Christehurch in July, 1807, by 
the Rev. Fr. Chastagner, S.M., being the first founded 
in Australasia. In almost every parish there are 
young men's clubs, social, literary, and athletic; in con- 
nexion with these a federation has been formed under 
the name of the Federated Catholic Clubs of New 
Zealand. In 1909 a Newman Society, on the lines 
of the Oxford University Newman Society, but with 
wider and more directly practical objects, was inau- 
gurated by the Catholic graduates and undergraduates 
of New Zealand University. As the number of uni- 
versity men amongst New Zealand Catholics is now 
veiy considerable, the new society promises to prove 
an important factor in the defence and propagation of 
the faith. 

IV. Missions to the Maoris. — From the outset, 
the conversion of the native race was .set in the fore- 
front of the Church's work in this new land. When 
the Marist Fathers, having been withdrawn to the 
Diocese of Wellington, left the Diocese of Auckland 
in 18.50, they had in that part of the North IslaW 
5044 neophji^es. In 1853 there were about a thou- 
sand native Christians in the Diocese of WeUington. 
Homes and schools for native children were founded 
by the Sisters of Mercy at Auckland and Wellington; 
and in 1857 the governor. Sir George Grey, in his offi- 
cial report to Parliament, gave high praise to the 
Catholic schools among the Maoris. Up until 1860 
the Maori mission was most flourishing. Then came 
the long-drawn years of fierce racial warfare, during 
which the natives kept their territory closed against 
all white men; and the Catholic missions were almost 
completely ruined. They are being steadily built up 
once more by two bodies of earnest and devoted men, 



the Marist Fathers in the Archdiocese of Wellington 
and Diocese of Christehurch, and the Mill Hill Fa- 
thers in the Dioccso of -Vuckland. The progress made 
during the last twenty-five years may be gathered 
from the following summaries, (a) The Archdiocese 
of Wrllingtun and Dioccso of Christehurch (districts: 
Otaki, lliniliarania, Haetihi, Wairoa, aiidokatti) liave 
about 40 st:itions and 19 churches, served by 7 priests. 
There are also 4 native schools; 1 highly cfiicienl. na- 
tive high school, maintained by tli<' Sisters of Our 
Lady of the Missions; and 1 orphaiuige, conducted by 
the Sisters of Our Lady of Compassion. The total 
number of Catholic Maoris is about 2000. Several 
very successful conventions of Maori tribes have been 
held in Otaki since 1903. At the last (held in June, 
1909), which was attended by His Grace Archbishop 
Redwood, tlic institution of a Maori Catholic maga- 
zine was decided upon and has since been carried out. 
(b) The Diocese of Auckland (districts: Rotorua, head- 
quarters of the provincial of the mission, Matata, 
Tauranga, Hokianga, Okaihau, Whangaroa, Whan- 
garci, DargaN'ille, and Coromandel) has 57 stations 
and 22 churches, served by 16 priests, of whom 9 are 
wholly and 7 are partly engaged on the Maori mission. 
There are 4 native schools conducted by the Sisters of 
St. Joseph. The total number of Catholic Maoris is 
about 4000. Throughout the three dioceses the Ma- 
ori population is extremely scattered, and the mission- 
aries have frequently to travel great distances. As 
the deleterious influence of Maori tolmngaism (belief 
in wizards and "medicine-men") is on the wane, and 
the rancorous feelings engendered by the war are now 
subsiding, the prospect in this distant outpost of the 
mission field is most hopeful and promising. 

V. Education. — Primary education is compulsory 
in New Zealand; and of every 100 persons in the do- 
minion at the time of the census of 1906, 83.5 could 
read and write, 1.6 could read only, and 14.9 could 
neither read nor write. As mentioned above, New 
Zealand became a self-governing colony in 1852. 
Each province had its separate legislature and the con- 
trol of education within its borders, and most of the 
provinces subsidized denominational schools. The 
provincial legislatures were abolished by the Acts of 
187.5-6, and one of the early measures (1877) of the 
centralized New Zealand Government was to abolish 
aid to denominational schools and to introduce the 
(so-called) national system known as "free, secular, 
and compulsory". From that day to this the entire 
public school system of New Zealand has remained, 
legally, purely secular. 

From the first CathoHcs have protested against the 
exclusion of Christian teaching from the schools; and 
they have refused, and continue to refuse (unless 
where forced by circumstances) to send their children 
to schools from which their religion is excluded. As 
in other countries, so here. Catholics have shown the 
sincerity of their protest by creating, at enormous and 
continual sacrifices, a great rival system of educa- 
tion under which some 13,000 Catholic children are 
nurtured into a full and wholesome development of 
the faculties that God has bestowed upon them. With 
scarcely an exception. Catholic primary schools follow 
precisely the same secular curriculum as that pre- 
scribed under the Education Act for the public schools; 
and they are every j'ear inspected and examined, under 
precisely the same conditions as are the public schools, 
by the State inspectors. The cost of carrying on the 
public school system is not derived from any special 
rate or tax, but the amount is paid out of the Consoli- 
dated Fund, to which Catholics, as taxpayers, con- 
tribute their share. Catholics are thus subjected to a 
double impost: they have to bear the cost of building, 
equipping, and maintaining their own schools, and 
they are compelled also to contribute their quota of 
taxation for the maintenance of the public school sys- 
tem, of which, from conscientious motives, they cannot 



NICiEA 



43 



NIC^A 



avail themselves. New Zealand Catholics have never 
asked or desired a grant for the religious education 
which is imparted in their schools. But they have 
urged, and they continue to urge, their claim to a fair 
share of that taxation to which they themselves con- 
tribute, in return for the purely secular instruction 
which, in accordance with the Government pro- 
gramme, is given in the Catholic schools. Their 
standing protest against the injustice so long inflicted 
on them by the various governments of the country, 
and their unyielding demand for a recognition of the 
right of Christian taxpayers to have their children 
educated in accordance with Christian principles, con- 
stitute what is known, par excellence, as "the educa- 
tion question" in New Zealand. It is unhappily 
necessary to add that of late years, for no very ob- 
vious or adequate reason. Catholic agitation on the 
subject has not been so active as it once was; and un- 
less a forward movement is made, the prospects of 
success for the cause, on behalf of which such splendid 
battles have been fought and such heroic sacrifices 
have been endured, are exceedingly remote. 

VI. Literature and Catholic Journalism. — 
There is no New Zealand literature in the broad and 
general acceptation of the term. The usual reason 
assigned is that so young a country has not yet had 
time to evolve a literature of its own; but perhaps an 
equally important factor in producing and maintain- 
ing the existing condition of things is the smallness 
of the market for literary wares, in consequence of 
which New Zealand writers possessing exceptional 
talent inevitably gravitate towards Sydney or Lon- 
don. In general literature the one conspicuous name 
is that of Thomas Bracken, Irishman and Catholic, 
author of several volumes of poems, which have at- 
tained great popularity both in Australia and in New 
Zealand. Amongst scientific writers, notable Cath- 
olic names are those of the late W. M. Maskell, for- 
merly Registrar of New Zealand University, and the 
Very Rev. Dr. Kennedy, S.M., B.A., D.D., F.R.A.S., 
present Rector of St. Patrick's College, both of whom 
have made many valuable contributions to the pages 
of scientific journals and the proceedings of learned 
societies. 

As usually happens in countries that are over- 
whelmingly Protestant, by far the greater portion 
of the purely Catholic literature that has been pub- 
lished in New Zealand is apologetic in character. 
"What True Free-masonry Is: Why it is condemned ", 
published in 1885 by the Rev. Thomas Keane, is a 
detailed and extremely effective treatment of the sub- 
ject. "Disunion and Reunion", by the Rev. W. J. 
Madden, is a popular and ably written review of the 
course and causes of the Protestant Reformation. 
One of the most learned and certainly the most pro- 
lific of the contributors to Catholic literature in New 
Zealand was the Very Rev. T. Le Menant des Ches- 
nais, S.M., recently deceased. His works include 
"Nonconformists and the Church"; "Out of the 
Maze"; "TheTemukaTournament" (a controversy) ; 
a volume on "Spiritism"; "The Church and the 
World"; etc. The last-named work, published only 
a few years before the venerable author's death, was 
very favourably reviewed by English and American 
papers. A notable addition to the Catholic literature 
of the dominion has been the recent publication of 
three volumes from the pen of the editor of the "New 
Zealand Tablet" the Rev. H. W. Cleary, D.D. 
These works, "Cathohc Marriages", an exposition 
and defence of the decree "Ne temere", "An Im- 
peached Nation; Being a Study of Irish Outrages"; 
and "Secular versus Religious Education: A Discu.s- 
sion", are thorough in the treatment of their respec- 
tive subjects and possess value of a permanent char- 
acter. A modest beginning has been made towards 
the compilation of a detailed history of the Cathohc 
Church in the dominion by the pubUcation, a few 



months ago, of "The Church in New Zealand: Mem- 
oirs of the Early Days", by J. J. Wilson. 

The history of Catholic journalism in New Zealand 
is in effect the history of the "New Zealand Tablet", 
founded by the late Bishop Moran in 1873, the Cath- 
olics of this country having followed the principle t hat 
it is better to be represented by one strong paper than 
to have a multiplicity of publications. From the first 
the paper has been fortunate in its editors. In the 
early days the work done by its revered founder, in 
his laattle for Catholic rights, and by his valued lay 
assistant, Mr. J. F. Perrin, was of a solid character. 
The prestige and influence of the paper was still fur- 
ther enhanced by the Rev. Henry W. Cleary, D.D., 
who made the "New Zealand Tablet " a power in the 
land, and won the respect of all sections of the com- 
munity not only for the Catholic paper but for the 
Catholic body which it represents. In February, 
1910, Dr. Cleary was appointed Bishop of Auckland, 
and was consecrated on 21 August in Enniscorthy 
cathedral, Co. Wexford, Ireland. It is safe to say that 
there are few countries in the world in which, in pro- 
portion to size and population, the Catholic press has 
a higher status than in New Zealand. 

PoMPALLlER, Early History of the Catholic Church in Oceania 
(E. T., Auckland. 1888); Moran, History of the Catholic Church 
in Australasia (Sydney); Australasian Cntholic Directory for 1910; 
Wiuion, The Church in New Zeala^i I 1/.,., <i lli,: Early Days 

(Dunedin, 1910); Dilke, Greater /; ; . , Davitt. Life 

and Progress in Australasia (Lontloti i '- I'' i \ r.s, New Zea- 
land (X'Ondon, a. d.); JosB, History ^'f 1 ' ' f/ ' (' I Sydney, 1901); 
Reeves, The Long White Cloud (London, IsilS); Wright and 
Reeves, New Zealand (London, 1908) : New Zealand Official Year- 
Book for 1906 (last census year) and for 1909; D0CGL.1S, The 
Dominion of New Zealand (London, 1909); Hocken, A Bibliog- 
raphy of the Literature Relating to New Zealand (Wellington, 
1909), issued by the New Zealand Government — the most com- 
plete bibliography that has been published. It is no mere list of 
books, but gives a full account of each item, from Tasman's 
Journal of 1(343 onwards, with explanatory notes, biographical 
information and criticism, synopsis of important periodicals, and 
a full index. 

J. A. Scott. 

Nicsea, titular sec of Bithynia Secunda, situated on 
Lake Ascanius, in a fertile plain, but very unhealthful 
in summer. It was first colonized by the Battaji and 
was called Ancora or Helicora. Destroyed by the 
Mysians, it was rebuilt about 315 b. c. by Antigonus, 
after his victory over Eumenius, and was thenceforth 
called Antigonia. Later Lysimachus enlarged it and 
called it Nica^a in honour of his wife. At first the 
kings of Bithynia resided there almost as often as at 
Nicomedia between which and Nicoea aro.se a struggle 
for influence. It was the birthplace of the astrono- 
mer Hipparchus and the historian Dio Cassius. Pliny 
the Younger frequently mentions the city and its 
public monuments. Numerous coins of Nica-a attest 
the interest of the emperors. After the first CEcu- 
menical Council, held there in 325, Constantine gave 
it the title of metropolis, which Valens afterwards 
withdrew, but which it retained ecclesiastically. In 
the fifth century it took three suffragans from the juris- 
diction of Nicomedia, and later six. In 787 a second 
fficumenical Council (the seventh) was held there 
against the Iconoclasts, which, like the first, assembled 
more than 300 bishops. Among its archbishops, of 
whom Le Quien (Oriens Christ., I, 639-56) names 
forty-six, those worthy of mention are Theognis, the 
first known bishop, a partisan of Arius at the council 
of 325; Anastasius, a sixth-century writer; Sts. Peter 
and Theophanes Graptos, two victims of the Icono- 
clasts in the ninth century; Ignatius, the biographer 
of the patriarchs Tarasius ami Nicei)horus; Gregory 
Asbestus, former metropolitan uf Syracuse and the 
consecrator cf Photius; Eustratiu.s, coinmenlator on 
Aristotle and poleniist under .Vlexius Comnenus; and 
Bessarion, afterwards ciirdinal. 

Niciea grew more important during the Middle 
Ages. Captured by the Seljukids at an unknown 
date, perhaps subsequont to the revolt of Melissenus 



NIC^A 



44 



NICiEA 



against Nicephorus Botaniatos, it was afterwards 
owled to the Turks by Alexius C'onineiuis. In 1()'.)(> 
the troops of Peter tlie lleriiiit, h:iviiiK attempted to 
capture the town, were eotnplctely defcMtcil and nius- 
saereil. In June, 1097, the city" was taken, after a 
memorable siege, by the Crusaders and ceded liy tlieni 
to the (ireek Emperor Alexius 1. It was retained, 
but with great diffieulty, durinfi; the twelfth century. 
After the capture of Constantinople hv tlie Latins in 
1204 Xica-a, restored, fortifieil, and cinhellished. be- 
came until 1201 the capital of the new Byzantine 
Empire of the Lascari or I'ala-ologi. For nearly sixty 
years it played ainost important part. It was finally 
captured by the Turkish Sultan ( )rkhan in 13.3.3, from 
which time it has formed a part of the Ottoman Em- 
pire. To-day Xicavi is called Isnik. It is a village 
of l.")00 Greek and Turkish inhabitants in the sandjak 
of Erthogrul and the vilayet of Brusa. The Greek 
metropolitan resides at (diemlek, the ancient Chios. 
The ramparts, several times restored and now in a 
good state of preservation, are 4S41 yards in circum- 
ference. There are 238 towers, some of them very 
ancient. Four ancient gates are well preserved. 
Among the monuments may be mentioned Yechil- 
Djami, the Green Mosque, and the church of the As- 
sumption, probably of the ninth century, the mosaics 
of which are very rich. 

Smith, Diet. Greek and Roman Geog., II (London. 1870), 422; 
Texier, Asie Mineure (Paris, 1S62), 91-110; Cuinet, La Turquie 
d'Asie, IV (Paris, 1894), 185-90; Wulf. Die Koimesis Kirche in 
Nicaa und ihre Afosaihen (Strasburg, 1890). 

S. VAILHfi. 

Nicsea, Councils of, respectively the First and 
Seventh CEcumenical Councils, held at Nicaea in 
Bithynia (see above). 

I. The First Council op Nicea (First CEcumeni- 
cal Council of the Catholic Church), held in 325 on the 
occasion of the heresy of Arius (see Arianism). As 
early as 320 or 321 St. Alexander, Bishop of Alexan- 
dria, convoked a council at Alexandria at which more 
than one hundred bishops from Egypt and Libya 
anathematized Arius. The latter continued to offi- 
ciate in his church and to recruit followers. Being 
finall3' driven out, he went to Palestine and from there 
to Xicomedia. During this time St. Alexander pub- 
lished his "Epistola encyclica", to which Arius re- 
plied; but henceforth it was evident that the quarrel 
had gone beyond the possibility of human control. 
Sozomen even speaks of a Council of Bithynia which 
addressed an encyclical to all the bishops asking them 
to receive the Arians into the communion of the 
Church. This discord, and the war which soon broke 
out between Constantine and Licinius, added to the 
disorder and partly explains the progress of the reli- 
giou.s conflict during the years 322-23. Finally Con- 
stantine, having conquered Licinius and become sole 
emperor, concerned himself with the re-establishment 
of religious peace as well as of civil order. He ad- 
dressed letters to St. Alexander and to Arius depre- 
cating these heated controversies regarding questions 
of no practical importance, and advising the adversa- 
ries to agree without delay. It was evident that the 
emperor did not then grasp the significance of the 
Arian controversy. Hosius of Cordova, his counsel- 
lor in religious matters, bore the imperial letter to 
Alexandria, but failed in his concihatory mission. 
Seeing this, the emperor, perhaps advised by Hosius, 
judged no remedy more apt to restore peace in the 
Church than the convocation of an oecumenical coun- 
cil. 

The emperor himself, in very respectful letters, 
begged the bishops of every country to come promptly 
to Nicaea. Several bishops from outside the Roman 
Empire (e. g., from Persia) came to the Council. It is 
not historically known whether the emperor in con- 
voking the Council acted soiely in hi.s own name or in 
concert with the pope; however, it is probable that 



. Constantine and Silvester came to an agreement (see 
Silvester I, Saint, Pope). In order to ex-pedite the 
assembling of tlie Council, the emperor i>laced at the 
disposal of the bishops the public c(iMvey:uices and 
])(istsof tlieempire; moreover, while theCnuneillasted 
lie provided abundantly for the maintenance of the 
members. The choice of Niea'a was f:ivourable to tlie 
assembling of a large n umber of bi.shops. It w:is easily 
accessible to the l)isho|)s of nearly all the provinces, 
but especially totho.seof Asia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, 
Greece, and Thrace. The sessions were hekl in the 
principal church, and in the central hall of the imperial 
palace. A large place was indeed necessary to receive 
such an assembly, though the exact number is not 
known with certainty. Eusebius speaks of more than 
250 bishops, and later Arabic manuscripts raise the 
figure to 2000 — an evident exaggeration in which, 
however, it is impossible to discover the approxi- 
mate total number of bishops, as well as of the priests, 
deacons, and acolytes, of whom it is said that a great 
number were also present. St. Athanasius, a member 
of the council, speaks of 300, and in his letter "Ad 
Afros" he says explicitly 318. This figure is almost 
universally adopted, and there seems to be no good 
reason for rejecting it. Most of the bishops present 
were Greeks; among the Latins we know only Hosius 
of Cordova, Cecilian of Carthage, Mark of Calabria, 
Nicasius of Dijon, Donnus of Stridon in Pannonia, and 
the two Roman priests, Victor and Vincentius, repre- 
senting the pope. The assembly numbered among 
its most famous members St. Alexander of Alexandria, 
Eustathius of Antioch, Macarius of Jerusalem, Euse- 
bius of Nicomedia, Eusebius of Ca;sarea, and Nicholas 
of Myra. Some had suffered during the last persecu- 
tion; others were poorly enough acquainted with 
Christian theology. Among the members was a young 
deacon, Athanasius of Alexandria, for whom this Coun- 
cil was to be the prelude to a life of conflict and of 
glory (see Athanasius, Saint). 

The year 325 is accepted without hesitation as that 
of the P^irst Council of Nica?a. There is less agree- 
ment among our early authorities as to the month and 
day of the opening. In order to reconcile the indica- 
tions furnished by Socrates and by the Acts of the 
Council of Chaleedon, this date may, perhaps, be 
taken as 20 May, and that of the drawing up of the 
symbol as 19 June. It may be assumed without too 
great hardihood that the synod, having been convoked 
for 20 May, in the absence of the emperor held meet- 
ings of a less solemn character until 14 June, when 
after the emperor's arrival, the sessions properly so 
called began, the symbol being formulated on 19 June, 
after which various matters — the paschal controversy, 
etc. — were dealt with, and the sessions came to an end 
25 August. The Council was opened by Constantine 
with the greatest solemnity. The emperor waited 
until all the bishops had taken their seats before mak- 
ing his entry. He was clad in gold and covered with 
precious stones in the fasliion of an Oriental sovereign. 
A chair of gold liad been made ready for him, and 
when he had taken his place the bishops seated them- 
selves. After he had been addressed in a hurried 
allocution, the emperor made an address in Latin, 
expressing his will that religious peace should be re- 
established. He had opened the session as honorary 
president, and he a.ssisted at the subsequent sessions, 
but the direction of the theological discussions was 
abandoned, as was fitting, to the ecclesiastical leaders 
of the council. The actual president seems to have 
been Hosius of Cordova, assisted by the pope's 
legates, Victor and Vincentius. 

The emperor began by making the bishops under- 
stand that they had a greater and better business in 
hand than personal quarrels and interminable recrimi- 
nations. Nevertheless, he had to submit to the in- 
fliction of hearing the last words of debates which had 
been going on previous to his arrival. Eusebius of 



NICiEA 



45 



NIC^A 



Cssarea and his two abbrcviators, Socrates and Sozo- 
men, as well as Rufinus and Gelasius of Cyzicus, re- 
port no details of the theological discussions. Rufinus 
tells us only that daily sessions were held and that 
Arius was often summoned before the assembly; his 
opinions were seriously discussed and the opposing 
arKuinriit.s uttentively considered. The majority, 
e.spci'i.illx' I 1m ISO who were confessors of the Faith, ener- 
gotirally iloclared themselves against the impious doc- 
trines of Arius. (For the part played by the Eusebian 
third party, see Edsebius of Nicomedia. The adop- 
tion of the term 6/iiooi5crios by the Council is fully 
treated under Homoodsion. For the Creed of Euse- 
bius, see Eusebius of C^sarea: Life.) St. Athana- 
sius assures us that the activities of the Council were 
nowise hampered by Constantine's presence. The em- 
peror had by this time escaped from the influence of 
Eusebius of Nicomedia, and was under that of Hosius, 
to whom, as well as to St. Athanasius, may be attrib- 
uted a preponderant influence in the formulation of 
the symbol of the First (Ecumenical Council, of which 
the following is a literal translation : — 
We believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of 
all things visible and invisible; and in one Lord 
Jesus Christ, the only begotten of the Father, that 
is, of the substance [(k tti^ oi)(r(os] of the Father, God 
of God, light of light, true God of true God, begot- 
ten not made, of the same substance with the Fa- 
ther [biiooiuiov Tif) irorpi], through whom all things 
were made both in heaven and on earth ; who for us 
men and for our salvation descended, was incarnate, 
and was made man, suffered and rose again the 
third day, ascended into heaven and cometh to 
judge living and dead. And in the Holy Ghost. 
Those who say: There was a time when He was 
not, and He was not before He was begotten; and 
that He was made out of nothing (i^ ow 6yTwv) ; or 
who maintain that He is of another hypostasis or 
another substance [than the Father], or that the 
Son of God is created, or mutable, or subject to 
change, [them] the Catholic Church anathematizes. 
The adhesion was general and enthusiastic. All 
the bishops save five declared themselves ready to 
subscribe to this formula, convinced that it contained 
the ancient faith of the Apostolic Church. The op- 
ponents wore soon reduced to two, Theonas of Mar- 
marica and Secundus of Ptolemais, who were exiled 
and anathematized. Arius and his writings were also 
branded with anathema, his books were cast into the 
fire, and he was exiled to Illyria. The lists of the sign- 
ers have reached us in a mutilated condition, disfig- 
ured by faults of the copyists. Nevertheless, these 
lists may be regarded as authentic. Their study is a 
problem which has been repeatedly dealt with in mod- 
ern times, in Germany and England, in the critical edi- 
tions of H. Gelzer, H. Hilgenfeld, and O. Contz on the 
one hand, and C. H. Turner on the other. The lists 
thus constructed give respectively 220 and 218 names. 
With information derived from one source or another, 
a list of 2.32 or 237 fathers known to have been present 
may be constructed. 

Other matters dealt with by this council were the 
controversy as to the time of celebrating Easter and 
the Moletian schism. The former of these two will be 
found treated under Easter, Easier Controversy; the 
latter under Meletius of Lycopolis. 

Of all the Acts of this Council, which, it has been 
maintained, were numerous, only three fragments 
have reached us: the creed, or symbol, given above 
(see also Nicene Creed); the canons; the synodal 
decree. In reality there never were any official acts 
besides these. But the accounts of Eusebius, Socrates, 
Sozomen, Theodnrot, and Rufinus may be considered 
as very important soun-cs of historical information, as 
well as some data pnx r\ cd by St. Athanasius, and a 
history of the Council of Nictea written in Greek in the 
fifth century by Gelasius of Cyzicus. There has long 



existed a dispute as to the number of the canons of 
First NicEea. All the collections of canons, whether in 
Latin or Greek, composed in the fourth and fifth cen- 
turies agree in attributing to this Council only the 
twenty canons, which we possess to-day. Of these 
the following is a brief resume: Canon i: On the admis- 
sion, or support, or expulsion of clerics mutilated by 
choice or by violence. Canon ii : Rules to be observed 
for ordination, the avoidance of undue haste, the de- 
position of those guilty of a grave fault. Canon iii: 
All members of the clergy are forbidden to dwell with 
any woman, except a mother, sister, or aunt. Canon 
iv: Concerning episcopal elections. Canon v: Con- 
cerning the excommunicate. Canon vi: Concerning 
patriarchs and their jurisdiction. Canon vii confirms 
the right 6f the bishops of Jerusalem to enjoy certain 
honours. Canon viii concerns the Novatians. Canon 
ix: Certain sins known after ordination involve invali- 
dation. Canon x: Lapsi who have been ordained 
knowingly or surreptitiously must be excluded as soon 
as their irregularity is known. Canon xi: Penance to 
be imposed on apostates of the persecution of Licinius. 
Canon xii: Penance to be imposed on those who up- 
held Licinius in his war on the Christians. Canon xiii : 
Indulgence to be granted to excommunicated persons 
in danger of death. Canon xiv: Penance to be im- 
posed on catechumens who had weakened under per- 
secution. Canon xv: Bishops, priests, and deacons 
are not to pass from one church to another. Canon 
xvi: All clerics are forbidden to leave their church. 
Formal prohibition of bishops to ordain for their dio- 
cese a cleric belonging to another diocese. Canon xvii : 
Clerics are forbidden to lend at interest. Canon xviii 
recalls to deacons their subordinate position with re- 
gard to priests. Canon xix: Rules to be observed with 
regard to adherents of Paul of Samosata who wished 
to return to the Church. Canon xx^ On Sundays and 
during the Paschal season prayers should be said 
standing. 

The business of the Council having been finished 
Constantino celebrated the twentieth anniversary of 
his accession to the empire, and invited the bishops to 
a splendid repast, at the end of which each of them re- 
ceived rich presents. Several days later the emperor 
commanded that a final session should be held, at 
which he assisted in order to exhort the bishops to 
work for the maintenance of peace; he commended 
himself to their prayers, and authorized the fathers to 
return to their dioceses. The greater number hast- 
ened to take advantage of this and to bring the reso- 
lutions of the council to the knowledge of their 
provinces. 

II. Second ConNciL op Nic^ba (Seventh fficumeni- 
cal Council of the Catholic Church), held in 787. (For 
an account of the controversies which occasioned this 
council and the circumstances in which it was con- 
voked, see IcoNOCLASM, I, II.) An attempt to hold a 
council at Con.stantinoijle, to deal with Iconoclasm, 
having been frustiHtcd by the violence of the Icono- 
clastic soldiery, t lie pajial icgiitcs left that city. When, 
however, they liud reai'licd Sicily on their way back to 
Rome, thoy were rci-allcd by the Enil)ress Irene. She 
replaced Ihc mvitinous troops at Const<uilinuple with 
troops commanded by officers in whom she had every 
confidence. This accomplished, in May, 787, a new 
council was convoked at Nica>a in Bithynia. The 
pope's letters to the empress and to the [latriarch (see 
Iconoclasm, II) prove superabundantly that the 
Holy See approved the convoi-ation of the Council. 
The pope afterwards wrote to Charlemagne: "Et sic 
synodum istam, secundum nostram ordinationem, 
fecerunt" (Thus they have held the synod in accord- 
ance with our directions). 

The empress-regent and her son did not assist in 
person at the sessions, but they were represented there 
by two high officials: the patrician and former consul, 
Petronius, and the imperial chamberlain and logo- 



NICARAGUA 



46 



NICARAGUA 



thotc John, with whom was associated as secretary the 
former patriarch, Xicepliorus. The acts represent as 
constantly at tlie head of the ecclesiastical members 
the two Roman legates, the archpricst I'cter and the 
abbot Peter; after them come Tarasius, Patriarch of 
Omstantinople, and then two Oriental monks and 
priests, John and Thomas, representatives of the Patri- 
archs of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusaloiii. The 
operations of the council show that Tarasius, ])roperly 
speaking, conducted the sessions. The monks .lohn 
and Thomas professed to re[)res(-nt the Oriental pa- 
triarchs, though these did not know that the coun- 
cil had been convoked. However, there was no fraud 
on tlu'ir part: they had been sent, not by the patri- 
archs, but by the monks and priests of superior rank 
acting scdibiis impedilis. in the stead and place of the 
patriarchs who were prevented from acting for them- 
selves. Necessity was their excuse. Moreover, John 
and Thom.as did not subscribe at the Council as vicars 
of the patriarchs, but simply in the name of the Apos- 
tolic sees of the Orient. With the exception of these 
monks and the Roman legates, all the members of the 
Covmcil were subjects of the Byzantine Empire. Their 
number, bishops as well as representatives of bishops, 
varies in the ancient historians between 330 and 367; 
Nicephorus makes a manifest mistake in speaking of 
only 150 members: the Acts of the Council which we 
still possess show not fewer than 308 bishops or repre- 
sentatives of bishops. To these may be added a cer- 
tain number of monks, archimandrites, imperial secre- 
taries, and clerics of Constantinople who had not the 
right to vote. 

The first session opened in the church of St. Sophia, 
24 Sept., 787. Tarasius opened the council with a 
short discourse: "Last year, in the beginning of the 
month of August, it was desired to hold, under my 
presidency, a council in the Church of the Apostles at 
Constantinople; but through the fault of several bish- 
ops whom it would be easy to count, and whose names 
I prefer not to mention, since everyone knows them, 
that council was made impossible. The sovereigns 
have deigned to convoke another at Nic»a, and Christ 
will certainly reward them for it. It is this Lord and 
Saviour whom the bishops must also invoke in order 
to pronounce subsequently an equitable judgment in a 
just and impartial manner." The members then pro- 
ceeded to the reading of various official documents, 
after which three Iconoclastic bishops who had re- 
tracted were permitted to take their seats. Seven 
others who had plotted to make the Council miscarry 
in the preceding year presented themselves and de- 
clared themselves ready to profess the Faith of the 
Fathers, but the assembly thereupon engaged in a 
long discussion concerning the admission of heretics 
and postponed their case to another session. On 26 
September, the second session was held, during which 
the i)oj)e's letters to the empress and the Patriarch 
Tarasius were read. Tarasius declared himself in full 
agreement with the doctrine set forth in these letters. 
On 28, or 29, Sept., in the third session, some bishops 
who had retracted their errors were allowed to take 
their seats; after which various documents were read. 
The fourth session was held on 1 October. In it the 
secretaries of the council read a long series of citations 
from the Bible and the Fathers in favour of the ven- 
eration of images. Afterwards the dogmatic decree 
was presented, and was signed by all the members 
present, by the archimandrites of the monasteries, and 
by some monks; the papal legates added a declaration 
to the effect that they were ready to receive all who 
had abandoned the Iconoclastic heresy. In the fifth 
session on 4 October, passages from the Fathers were 
read which declared, or seemed to declare, against the 
worship of images, but the reading was not continued 
to the end, and the council decided in favour of the 
restoration and the veneration of images. On 6 Octo- 
ber, in the sixth session, the doctrines of the concilia- 



hulum of 7.53 were refuted. The discussion was end- 
less, but in the course of it several noteworthy things 
were said. The next session, that of 13 October, was 
especially important; at it was read the Spos, or dog- 
matic decision, of the council [see Images, Vkxkua- 
TION OF (6)]. The last (eighth) session was held in 
the Magnaura Palace, at Constantinople, in presence 
of the empress and her son, on 23 October. It was 
spent in discourses, signing of names, and acclama- 
tions. 

The council promulgated twenty-two canons relating 
to points of discipline, which may besummarizerl as fol- 
lows: Canon i : The clergy nuist observe " the holy can- 
ons," which include the Apostolic, those of the six pre- 
vious fficumenical Councils, thoseof particular synods 
which have been published at other synods, anrl those 
of the Fathers. Canon ii: Candidates for bishop's 
orders must know the Psalter by heart and nnist have 
read thoroughly, nol cursorily, all the sacred Scrip- 
tures. Canon iiicondriiins I he a])pointment of bishops, 
priests, and deacons by srcular princes. Canon iv: 
Bishops are not to diiiKiml iiioncy of their clergy: any 
bishop who through (•iixctini^ncss deprives one of his 
clergy is himself deposed. Canon v is directed against 
those who boast of having obtained church preferment 
with money, and recalls the Thirtieth Ajxi^lolic Canon 
and the canons of Chalcedon against those who buy 
preferment with money. Canon vi : Provincial synods 
are to be held annually. Canon vii: Relics are to be 
placed in all churches: no church is to be consecrated 
without relics. Canon viii prescribes precautions to 
be taken against feigned converts from Judaism. 
Canon ix : All writings against the venerable images are 
to be surrendered, to be shut up with other heretical 
books. Canon x: Against clerics who leave their own 
dioceses without permission, and become private 
chaplains to great personages. Canon xi: Every 
church and every monastery must have its own a^co- 
nomus. Canon xii: Against bishops or abbots who 
convey church property to temporal lords. Canon 
xiii: Episcopal residences, monasteries, and other ec- 
clesiastical buildings converted to profane uses are to 
be restored their rightful ownership. Canon xiv: 
Tonsured persons not onlained lectors must not read 
the Epistle or Gospel in the ambo. Canon xv: 
Against pluralities of benefices. Canon xvi: The 
clergy must not wear sumptuous apparel. Canon 
xvii: Monks are not to leave their monasteries and 
begin building other houses of prayer without being 
provided with the means to finish the same. Canon 
xviii: \A'omen are not to dwell in bi.shops' houses or in 
monasteries of men. Canon xix : Superiors of churches 
and monasteries are not to demand money of those 
who enter the clerical or monastic state. But the 
dowry brought by a novice to a religious house is to be 
retained by that house if the novice leaves it without 
any fault on the part of the superior. Canon xx pro- 
hibits double monasteries. Canon xxi : A monk or nun 
may not leave one convent for another. Canon xxii : 
Among the laity, persons of opposite sexes may eat to- 
gether, provided they give thanks and behave with 
decorum. But among religious persons, those of op- 
posite sexes may eat together only in the presence of 
several God-fearing men and women, except on a 
journey when necessity compels. 

Hefele-Leclercq, Hisl. des Concihs (Paris, 1906); Braun, 
De s. NiccEJta synods: Syrische Texle (1898) ; Revillout, Le Con- 
cite de Nic&e d'apres tes textes copies (Paris, 1889) (these two re- 
ferring to the First Nicffia). — For the literature of the Arian, 
the Easter, and the Iconoclastic controversies, see bibliographies 
given under Arianism; Athanasics, Saint; Homoousion; 
Easter, Easter Controversy; Iconoclasm; Images, Venera- 
tion OF. 

H. Leclercq. 

Nicaragua, Repttblic and Diocese of (de Ni- 
CARAorA). — The diocese, suffragan of Guatemala, is 
coextensive with the Central American Republic of 
Nicaragua. This republic (see Chile, Map of South 



NICASTRO 



47 



NICCOLA 



America), lying between Honduras and Costa Rica, 
the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean .Sea, has an area 
of 49,200 square miles and a population of about 
600,000 inhabitants. The great mass of the inhabi- 
tants are either aborigines, or negroes, or of mixed 
blood, those of pure European descent not exceeding 
1500 in number. The legislative authority is vested 
in a single chamber of thirty-six members, elected for 
six years; the executive, in a president, whose term of 
office is also six years, exercising his functions through 
a cabinet of nine responsible ministers The country 
is traversed by a deep depression, running parallel to 
the Pacific cciast. wilhin which are a chain of volcanoes 
(among thciii, .M<in(>tombo, 7000 feet) and the great 
lakes, Slana^jua and Nicaragua (orCocibolga). From 
the latter (a body of water 92 miles long and, at its 
widest, 40 miles wide) the country takes its name, de- 
rived from Nicarao, the name of the aboriginal chief 
who held sway in the regions round about Lake Coci- 
bolga when the Spaniards, under Ddvila, first explored 
the country, in 1522. From that time, or soon after, 
until 1 822 Nicaragua was a Spanish possession , forming 
part of the Province of Guatemala. From 1822 until 
1839 it was one of the five states constituting the Cen- 
tral American Federation; from 1840 until the present 
time (1911) it lias been an independent republic, with 
its capital at Managua (pop., about 35,000). The 
aborigines of the jMosquito Coast, a swampy tract ex- 
tending along the Nicaraguan shores of the Caribbean, 
were nominally under British protection until 1860, 
when, by the Treaty of Managua, this protectorate 
was ceded by Great Britain to the republic; in 1905, 
another treaty recognized the absolute sovereignty of 
Nicaragua over what had been, until then, known as 
the Mosquito Reservation. Since the time of its ac- 
quiring political independence, Nicaragua has been in 
almost continuous turmoil. Commercially, the coun- 
try is very poorly developed; its chief exports are 
cofTee, cattle, and mahogany; a certain amount of gold 
has been mined of recent years, and the nascent rubber 
industry is regarded as promising. 

The Diocese of Nicaragua was canonically erected 
in 1534 (according to other authorities, 1531), with 
Diego Alvarez for its first bishop. It appears to ha\-e 
been at first a suffragan of Mexico, though some au- 
thorities have assigned it to the ecclesiastical Province 
of Lima, but in the eighteenth century Benedict XIV 
made it a suffragan of Guatemala. The episcopal res- 
idence is at Leon, where there is a fine cathedral. A 
concordat between the Holy See and the Republic of 
Nicaragua was concluded in 1861, and the Catholic is 
still recognized as the state religion, though Church 
and State are now separated, and freedom is constitu- 
tionally guaranteed to all forms of religious worship. 
After 1894 the Zela.ya Government entered upon a 
course of anti-Catholic legislation which provoked a 
protest from Bishop Francisco Ulloa y Larrios, and 
the bishop was banished to Panama, tfpon the death 
of this prelate, in 1908, his coadjutor bishop, Simeone 
Pereira, succeeded him. The returns for 1910 give 
the Diocese of Nicaragua 42 parishes, with 45 priests, 
a seminary, 2 colleges, and 2 hospitals. 

Gamez, Archivo Histdrico de la Republica de Nicaragua (Mana- 
gua, 1896) : Squier. Nicaragua (London, 1852) ; Belt, The Natu- 
ralist in Nicaragua (London, 1873) ; The Stalesmari's Year Book 
(London, 1910). E. MacPHERSON. 

Nicastro (Neocastrensis), a city of the Province of 
Catanzaro, in Calabria, southern Italy, situated on a 
promontory that commands the Gulf of St. Euphemia; 
above it is an ancient castle. The commerce of the 
port of Nicastro consists of the exportation of acid, 
herbs, and wine. The cathedral, an ancient temple, 
with the episcopal palace, was outside the city; having 
been pillaged by the Saracens, it was restored in the 
year 1100, but it was destroyed in the earthquake of 
1638, with the episcopal palace, under the ruinsof which 
most valuable archives were lost. For a long time. 



the Greek Rite was in use at Nicastro. The first bishop 
of this city of whom there is any record was Henry 
(1090); Bishop Tancredo da Monte Foscolo (1279) 
was deposed by Honorius IV for having consecrated 
John of Aragon, King of Sicily, but he was reinstated 
by Boniface VIII; Bishop Paolo Capisucco (1533) was 
one of the judges in the case of the marriage of Henry 
VIII of England; Marcello Cervino (1539) became 
Pope Marcellus II ; Giovanni Tommaso Perrone (1639) 
built the new cathedral. In 1818 the ancient See of 
Martorano, the former Mamertum (the first bishop of 
which was Domnus, in 761), was united to the Diocese 
of Nicastro. The diocese is a suffragan of Reggio in 
Calabria; it has 52 parishes, with 110,100 inhabitants; 
71 churches and chapels, 2 convents of the Capuchins, 
and one orphan asylum and boarding-school, directed 
by the Sisters of Charity. 

Cappelletti, Le Chiese d' Italia, XXI (Venice, 1870), 200. 

U. Benigni. 

Niccola Pisano, architect and sculptor, b. at Pisa 
about 1205-07; d. there, 1278. He was the father of 




modern plastic art. When barely psist adolescence, 
he came to the notice of Frederick II of Swabi;i who 
took him to attend his coronation in Rome, thinner lo 
Naples, to complete Castel Capuano and Castel dell' 
Uovo (1221-31). In 1233 Niccola was in L\i<-ca; the 
alto-rilievo of the Deposition over the side door of the 
cathedral may be of this date. The marble urn or 
Area made to contain the body of St. Dominic in the 
church bearing his name in Bologna, is said to be an 
early work, but shows maturity; the charming group 
of the Madonna and Child upon it, foreshadows all 
the Madonnas of Italian art. From Niccola's designs 
was built the famous basilica of St. Anthony in Padua, 
the church of the Fcari in Venice is also attributed to 
him, possibly on insufficient grounds. In Florence he 
designed the interior of Sta. Trinity which Michelangelo 
loved so much that he called it his lady, "la mia 
Dama". Having been ordered by the Ghibcllines to 
destroy the Baptistery frequented by the Guelphs, 
Niccola undermined the tower called Guardo-morlo, 
causing it to so fall that it did not touch the precious 



NICE 



48 



NICE 



edifice. On his return to Pisa, the architect erected 
the campanile for (he church of S. Niccol6 which con- 
tains the remarkable windinjj stair unsupported at its 
centre; an invention repeated hy HranKUilc for tlie 
"Belvedere", and by San (iallo in the renowned 
well at Orvieto. In 1242 Niecola superintended the 
building of the cathedral of Pistoja, and in 12t)3 the 
restoration of S. Pietro Maggiore. He remodelled S. 
Doinenico at Arezzo, the Duomo at Volterra, the 
Pieve and Sta. Marpherita at Cortona. Much of his 
work at Pisa is believed to have perished in the fire of 
IGIO. A wonderful creation (1260) is the hexagonal, 
insulated pulpit of the Baptistery. It is supported by 
seven colunms, three of them resting on lions. The 
panels have reliefs from the New Testament ; the [ledi- 
ments, figures of virtues; the spandrels, ))ni])hi'ts and 
evangelists. The areliitertural part is Italian ( iolhie: 
the sculptures are mainly pure re])roduetions of the 
antique. .\ second 
pulpit for the Duomo 
of Siena followed in 
1206. Niccola's early 
sculpture shows 
clumsiness, if we are 
to believe that the 
figures outside the 
MisericordiaVecchia 
in Florence are his. 
In later life, whether 
from Rome or from 
his own Camposanto 
at Pisa (Roman sar- 
cophagus used for t he 
Countess Beatrice of 
Tuscany; Greek vase 
with figures he repro ■ 
duced) he learned to 
create with the free- 
dom, beauty, and 
power of ancient art . 
Ruhmer suggests 
aptly that he may 
have used clay for his 



Pulpit in tuk C 



the 5'outhful St. Pontius about 200, had also a see, held 
,in the middle of the fifth century by St. Valerianus; a 
rescript of St. Leo the tireat, issued after 4.50 and con- 
firmed by St. Hilarus in Ki.'i, united the Sees of Nice 
and Cimiez. This newly-formed see remained a suf- 
fragan of Embrun up to the time of the Revolution 
(.see Gap, Diocese op). Mgr Duchesne has not dis- 
covered sufficient historical proof of the episcopate 
at Nice of St. Valerianus (43:i-4:5), of St. Deutherius 
(490-93), martyred by the Vandals, of St. Sjagrius 
(d. 787), Count of Brignoles and son-in-law perhaps of 
Charlemagne. St. An.sehn, a former monk of I.erins, 
is mentioned as Bishop of Nice (1100-07). Bishops 
of Nice bore the title of Counts of Drap since the dona- 
tion of property situated at Drap, made in 1073 by 
Pierre, Bishop of Vaison, a native of Nice, to Ray- 
mond I, its bishop, and to his successors. Charle- 
magne, when visiting Cimiez devastated by the Lom- 

bards in 574, caused 

St. Syagrius to build 
on its ruins the mon- 
astery of St. Pon- 
tius, the largest Al- 
pine abbey of the 
Middle .\ges. 

II. Diocese of 
Grasse. — The first 
known Bishop of 
Antihesis Armentar- 
ius who attended the 
Council of Vaison in 
4-12; Mgr Duchesne 
admits as possible 
that the Remigius, 
who signed at the 
Council of Nimes in 
39() and in 417 re- 
ceived a letter from 
Pope Zosimus, may 
have been Bishop of 
Antibes before Ar- 
inentarius. About 
the middle of the 




initial model, a method then unpractised in Italy. One thirteenth century the See of Antibes was transferred 
of Niccola's last works in architecture was the abbey to Grasse. Bishops of Grasse worthy of mention are: 
and church of La Scorgola, commemorating Charles Cardinal Agostino Trivulzio (1537-164S); the poet 



Antoine Godeau (1636-53), one of the most cele- 
brated habitues of the Hotel de Rambouillet, where 
he was nicknamed "Julia's dwarf" on account of his 
small stature. 

III. Diocese of Vence. — The first known Bishop 
of Vence is iSeverus, bishop in 439 and perhaps as early 
as 419. Among others are: St. Veranus, son of St. 
Eucherius, Archbishop of Lyons and a monk of L6rins, 
bishop before 451 and at least until 465; St. Lambert, 
first a Benedictine monk (d. 1154); Cardinal Alessan- 
dro Farnese (1.50.5-11). Antoine Godeau, Bishop of 
Grasse, was named Bishop of Vence in 1038; the Holy 
See wished to unite the two dioceses. Meeting with 
opposition from the chapter and the clergy of Vence 
Godeau left Grasse in 1653, to remain Bishop of Vence, 
which see he held until 1672. 

The following saints are specially honoured in the 
Diocese of Nice: The youthful martyr St. Celsus, 



of Anjou's victory at TagUacozzo, now in ruins; in 
sculpture, the statuettes for the famous Fonte Mag- 
giore at Perugia, erected after his design (1277-80). 

CicOGNAHA, Storia ddla scuUuTa (Venice, 1813) ; Perkins, 
Tuscan sculptors (London. 1864) ; Lubke, History of sculpture, tr. 
Burnett (London, 1862-72). 

M. L. Hand LET. 

Nice, Diocese op (Niciensis), comprises the De- 
partment of Alpes-Maritimes. It was re-established 
by the Concordat of 1801 as suffragan of Aix. The 
Countship of Nice from 1818 to 1860 was part of the 
Sardinian States, and the see became a suffragan of 
Genoa. When Nice was annexed to France in 1860, 
certain parts which remained Italian were cut ofT 
from it and added to the Diocese of Vintimille. In 
1862 the diocese was again a suffragan of Aix. The 
arrondissement of (Jlrasse was separated from the 
Diocese of Fr^jus in 1880, and given to Nice which now 

unites the three former Dioceses of Nice, Grasse, and whom certain traditions make victim of Nero's perse- 
Vence. cution; St. Vincentius and St. Orontius, natives of 

I. Diocese of Nice. — Traditions tell us that Nice Cimiez, apostles of Aquitaine and of Spain, martyrs 
was evangelized h\ St. Barnabas, sent by St. Paul, or under Diocletian; St. Hospitius, a hermit of Cap Fer- 
else by St. Mary ^Iagdalen, St. Martha, and St. Laz- rat (d. about 581); Blessed Antoine Gallus (1300-92), 
arus; and they make St. Bassus, a martyr under De- a native of Nice, one of St. Catherine of Siena's 
cius, the fir.st Bishop of Nice. The See of Nice in Gaul confes.sors. The martyr St. Reparata of Csesarea in 
existed in 314, since the bishop sent delegates to the Palestine is the patroness of the diocese. The chief 
Council of Aries in that year. The first bishop his- pilgrimages of the diocese are: Our Lady of Laghet, 
torically known is .\mantius who attended the Coun- near Monaco, a place of pilgrimage since the end of 
eil of Aquileia in 381. Cimiez, near Nice, where .still the seventeenth century; the chapel of the Sacred 
can be seen the remains of a Roman amphitheatre. Heart of ,Jesus at Roquefort near Grasse; Our Lady 
and which was made illustrious by the martyrdom of of Valcluse; Our Lady of Brusq; Our Lady of Vie. 



NICENE 



49 



NICENE 



Prior to the application of the law of 1901 against 
associations, the diocese counted Assumptionists, 
Capuchins, Cistercians of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, Jesuits, Priests of the Christian Doctrine, Fran- 
ciscans, Lazarists, Discalced Carmelites, Oblates of 
Mary Immaculate, Salesians of Dom Bosco, Camil- 
lians, several orders of teaching Brothers. The Sis- 
ters of St. Martha, devoted to teaching and nursing 
and founded in 1832, have their mother-house at 
Grasse. At the beginning of the twentieth century 
religious congregations of the diocese conducted 4 




creches, 16 day nurseries, 2 institutions for crippled 
children, 1 boys' orphanage, 10 girls' orphanages, 3 
sewing rooms, 1 1 hospitals or asylums, 4 convalescent 
homes, 6 houses for the care of the sick in their own 
homes, 1 insane asylum, 1 asylum for incurables. 
The Diocese of Nice, whither every year the warm and 
balmy climate of the, Cote d'Azur attracts innumer- 
able foreigners, counted in 1909 about 260,000 inhabi- 
tants, 32 parishes and 185 succursal parishes. 

Gallia Christiana (nova. 1725), III, 1160-87, 1212-33. 1267-96, 
and InstTumenta, 189-200, 212-52; Duchesne, Faxtes Episcopaux, 
I, 99, 279, 285-8; Tisser.\nd, Chronique de Provence: hist. civ. et 
relis. de la cite de Nice el du departement des Alpes- Maritimes 
(2 vols Nice 1S62) ; Albin DE Cigal.4, Nice chrtt., guide hist, et 
artist, des pnroisscs (Paris. 1900); Cais de Piehlas ant) S.iiGE, 
Charlrier de fahbaye de Sainl-Pons hors les murs de Nice (Mon- 
aco 1903) • Cais de Pierlas, Cartulaire de Vancienne cathedrale 
de 'Nice (Turin, 1888); Chapon, Statuts sj/reodaiii (Nice, 1906); 
TissERAND, Hist, de Vence, citi, ivlche, baronnie (Paria, 1860). 

Georges Goyau. 

Nicene and Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed. 

—The origin and history of the Nicene Creed are set 
forth in the articles: Nic.ba, Councils of; Arius; 
Arianism; EnsEBitTS of C.t^sarea; Filioque. As 
approved in amphfied form at the Council of Constan- 
tinople (381) q. v., it is the profession of the Chris- 
tian Faith common to the CathoUc Church, to all the 
Eastern Churches separated from Rome, and to most 
of the Protestant denominations. Soon after the 
Council of Nica-a new formulas of faith were com- 
posed, most of them variations of the Nicene Symbol, 
to meet new phases of Arianism. There were at least 
four before the Council of Sardica in 341, and in 
XI.^ 



that council a new form was presented and inserted 
in the Acts, though not accepted by the council. The 
Nicene Symbol, however, continued to be the only one 
in use among the defenders of the Faith. Gradually 
it came to be recognized as the proper profession of 
faith for candidates for baptism. Its alteration into 
the Nicene-Constantinopolitan formula, the one now 
in use, is usually ascribed to the Council of Constanti- 
nople, since the Council of Chalcedon (451), which 
designated this symbol as "The Creed of the Council 
of Constantinople of 381" had it twice read and in- 
serted in its Acts. The historians Socrates, Sozomen, 
and Theodoret do not mention this, although they do 
record that the bishops who remained at the council 
after the departure of the Macedonians confirmed the 
Nicene faith. Hefele (II, 9) admits the possibility of 
our present creed being a condensation of the "Tome" 
(t4/xos), i. e. the exjjosition of the doctrines concerning 
the Trinity made by the Council of Constantinople; 
but he prefers the opinion of R6mi Ceillier and Tille- 
mont tracing the new formula to the "Ancoratus" 
of Epiphanius written in 374. Hort, Caspari, Har- 
nack, and others are of the opinion that the Con- 
stantinopolitan form did not originate at the Council 
of Constantinople, because it is not in the Acts of 
the council of 381, but was inserted there at a later 
date; because Gregory Nazianzen who was at the 
council mentions only the Nicene formula adverting 
to its incompleteness about the Holy Ghost, showing 
that he did not know of the Constantinopolitan form 
wliich sujjplies this deficiency; and because the Latin 
Fatliers apixuently know nothing of it before the 
micldle of the fifth century. 

The following is a literal translation of the Greek 
text of the Constantinopolitan form, the brackets in- 
dicating the words altered or added in the Western 
liturgical form in present use: — 

"We believe (I beheve) in one God, the Father 
.Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and of all 
things v'isililc and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus 
Christ, the only licRotten Son of God, and born of the 
Father before ail ages. (God of God) light of light, 
true God of true God. Begotten not made, consub- 
stantial to the Father, by whom all things were made. 
Who for us men and for our salvation came down from 
heaven. And was incarnate of the Holy Ghost and 
of the Virgin Mary and was made man; was crucified 
also for us under Pontius Pilate, suffered and was 
buried; and the third day he rose again according to 
the Scriptures. And ascended into heaven, sitteth 
at the right hand of the Father, and shall come again 
with glory to judge the living and the dead, of whose 
Kingdom there shall be no end. And (I believe) in 
the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of life, who pro- 
ceedeth from the Father (and the Son), who together 
witii the Father and the Son is to be adored and glori- 
fied, who spake by the Prophets. And one holy, 
catholic and apostolic Church. We confess (I con- 
fess) one baptism for the remission of sins. And we 
look for (I look for) the resurrection of the dead and 
the Ufe of the world to come. Amen". 

In this form the Nicene article concerning the Holy 
Ghost is enlarged; several words, notably the two 
clauses "of the substance of the Father" and "God 
of God", are omitted as also are the anathemas; 
ten clauses are added; and in five places the words are 
tUfferently located. In general the two forms contain 
what is common to all tlic l)ai)lisTii;il formulas in the 
early Church. Vos.sius (l.')77-l(il'.n w:i.-< tlic hrst to 
detect the similarity betw<'cn tlic crci'd sit forth in the 
"Ancoratus" and the b:ipti.sMial formula nl llicClmrch 
of .Jerusalem. Hort (1S7ti) lield tlial ilir svml.ol is a 
revision of the Jerusalem forniula, in wliirli (hr most 
important Nicene statements coiicrniiiig the Holy 
Ghost have been inserted. The aiitlior of the revision 
may have been St. Cyril of Jerusalem (315-386, q. v.). 
Various hypotheses are offered to account for the 



NICEPHORUS 



50 



NICEPHORUS 



tradition that the Niceno-Coiistantiiiopolitan symbol 
origiiiatod with the Council of Constantinople, but 
none of them is satisfactory. Wliatcver be its origin, 
the fact is tliat the Council of Chalcedon (4.')1) attrib- 
uted it to tlie Council of Constantinople, and if it was 
not actually composed in that council, it was adopted 
and authorized by the Fathers assembled as a true ex- 
pression of the Faith. The history of the creed is 
comiiletcd in the article Filioque. 

De.nzinger. Eitchiridion Sj/mWorum (10th ed.. Freiburg, 
190S). for texts of creeds in Greek and Latin; Hefele. Concilien- 
eeschichle, land II, Fr. tr. Leclerq, II, pt. I. 11-1.3 (trans- 
lator's note) ; Harnack in Realencyclop&die Jut protest. Thcologie 
(Leipzig. 1907), s. v. Konstantinopolitaniaches Symbol; KGllner, 
Symbolik aller Confessionen (1837), 28-52; LnMBY, Hist, of Creeds 
(2nd ed., London. 1880); Casp.\ri, Quellen zur Gesch. d. Taufsym- 
bols, I-IV (Christiania. 1866 sq.); Swainson, The Niccne and 
Apostles' Creeds, etc. (London, 1S75); Hort, Two Dissertations, 
II: on the Constantinopolitan Creed and the other Eastern Creeds of 
the fourth century (Cambridge, 1876) ; KtJNZE, Das n. k. Symbol 
in Sludien zur Gesch. der Theol. u. Kirche (Leipzig, 1898) ; Idem, 
Martin Eremita, ein neuer Zeuge fiir das altkirchl. Taufbekennt- 
niss (Leipzig, 1895). J. WiLHELM. 

Nicephorus, Saint, Patriarch of Constantinople, 
80G-SI.5, b. about 7.58; d. 2 Jime, 829. This champion 
of the orthodox view in the second contest over the 
veneration of images belonged to a noted family of 
Constantinople. He was the son of the imperial secre- 
tary Theodore and his pious wife Eudoxia. Eudoxia 
was a strict adherent of tlie Church and Theodore had 
been banished by the Emperor Constantine Coprony- 
mus (741-75) on account of his steadfast support of 
the teaching of the Church concerning images. While 
still young Nicephorus was brought to the court, 
where he became an imperial secretary. With two 
other officials of high rank he represented the Empress 
Irene in 787 at the Second Council of Niciea (the 
Seventh CEcumenical Council), which declared the 
doctrine of the Church respecting images. Shortly 
after this Nicephorus sought solitude on the Thracian 
Bosporus, where he had founded a monastery. Here 
he devoted himself to ascetic practices and to the 
study both of secular learning, as grammar, mathemat- 
ics, and philosophy, and the Scriptures. Later he was 
recalled to the capital and given charge of the great 
hospital. Upon the death of Patriarch Tarasius (25 
February, 806), there was great division among the 
clergy and higher court officials as to the choice of his 
successor. Finally, with the assent of the bishops 
Emperor Nicephorus (802-11) appointed Nicephorus 
as patriarch. Although still a layman, he was known 
by all to be very religious and highly educated. He 
received Holy Orders and was consecrated bishop on 
Easter Sunday, 12 April, 806. The direct elevation of 
a layman to the patriarchate, as had already happened 
in the case of Tarasius, aroused opposition in the ec- 
clesiastical party among the clergy and monks. The 
leaders were the abbots, Plato of Saccadium and Theo- 
dore of Studium, and Theodore's brother. Archbishop 
Joseph of Thessalonica. For this opposition the Ab- 
bot Plato was imprisoned for twenty-four days at the 
command of the emperor. 

Nicephorus soon gave further cause for antagonism. 
In 795 a priest named Joseph had celebrated the un- 
lawful marriage of Emperor Constantine VI (780-97) 
with Theodota, during the lifetime of Maria, the right- 
ful wife of the emperor, whom he had set aside. For 
this act Joseph had been deposed and banished. Em- 
peror Nicephorus considered it important to have this 
matter settled and, at his wish the new patriarch, 
with the concurrence of a sjTiod composed of a small 
number of bishops, pardoned Joseph and, in 806, re- 
stored him to his office. The patriarch yielded to the 
wishes of the emperor in order to avert more serious 
ev\\. His action was regarded by the strict church 
party as a violation of ecclesiastical law and a scandal. 
Before the matter was settled Theodore had written 
to the patriarch entreating him not to reinstate the 
guilty priest, but had received no answer. Although 



the matter was not openly discussed, he antl his fol- 
~ lowers now held virtually no church communion with 
Nicephorus and the priest, Joscjjh. But, through a 
letter written by Archbishop .losi'ph, the <'()urse which 
he and the strict church p:uly followed l)ci-;iiMe pubHc 
in SOS. ;ind c:iused a sensation. Theodore set forth, by 
speech and writing, the reasons for the action of the 
strict parly ;uid firmly maintained his position. De- 
fending himself against the accus:ition that he and his 
companions were schismatic, he declared that he had 
kept silent as long as possil)le, had censured no bi.sh- 
ops, and had always included the name of the patri- 
arch in the liturgy. He asserted his love and his 
attachment to the patriarch, and said he would with- 
draw all opposition if the patriarch would acknowl- 
edge the violation of law by removing the priest 
Joseph. Emperor Nicephorus now took violent meas- 
ures. He commanded the patriarch to call a sj'nod, 
which was held in 809, and had Plato and several 
monks forcibly brought before it. The opponents of 
the patriarch were condemned, the Archbishop of 
Thessalonica was deposed, the Abbots Plato and The- 
odore with their monks were banished to neighbouring 
islands and cast into various prisons. 

This, however, did not discourage the resolute op- 
ponents of the "Adulterine Heresy". In 809 Theo- 
dore and Plato sent a joint memorial, through the 
Archimandrite K])ii)hanius, to Pope Leo III, and later. 
Theodore laid the matter once more before the pope 
in a letter, in which lie besought the successor of St. 
Peter to grant a hel]iing hand to the East, so that it 
might not be overwhelmed by the waves of the "Adul- 
terine Heresy". Pope Leo sent an encouraging and 
consolatory reply to the resolute confessors, upon 
which they wrote another letter to him through 
Epiphanius. Leo had received no communication 
from Patriarch Nicephorus and was, therefore, not 
thoroughly informed in the matter; he also desired to 
spare the eastern emperor as much as possible. Con- 
sequently, for a time, he took no further steps in the 
matter. Emperor Nicephorus continued to persecute 
all adherents of Theodore of Studium, and, in addi- 
tion, oppressed those of whom he had grown suspi- 
cious, whether clergy or dignitaries of the empire. 
Moreover, he favoured the heretical Paulicians and 
the Iconoclasts and drained the people by oppressive 
ta.xes, so that he was universally hated. In July, 811, 
the emperor was killed in a battle with the Bulgarians. 
His son Stauracius, who had been wounded in the 
same fight, was proclaimed emperor, but was deposed 
by the chief men of the empire because he followed 
the bad example of his father. On 2 October, 811, 
with the assent of the patriarch, Michael Rhangabe, 
brother-in-law of Stauracius, was raised to the throne. 
The new emperor promised, in writing, to defend the 
faith and to protect both clergy and monks, and was 
crowned with much solemnity by the Patriarch Nice- 
phorus. Michael succeeded in reconciling the patri- 
arch and Theodore of Studium. The patriarch again 
deposed the priest Joseph and withdrew his decrees 
against Theodore and his partisans. On the other side 
Theodore, Plato, and the majority of their adherents 
recognized the patriarch as the lawful head of the 
Byzantine Church, and sought to bring the refractory 
back to his obedience. The emperor had also recourse 
to the papacy in reference to these quarrels and had 
received a letter of approval from Leo. Moreover, the 
patriarch now sent the customary written notification 
of his induction into office (Synodica) to the pope. In 
it he sought to excuse the long delay by the tyranny of 
the preceding emperor, interwove a rambling confes- 
sion of faith, and promised to notify Rome at the 
proper time in regard to all important questions. 

Emperor Michael was an honourable man of good 
intentions, but weak and dependent. On the advice of 
Nicephorus he put the heretical and seditious Pauli- 
cians to death and tried to suppress the Iconoclasts. 



NICEPHORUS 



51 



NICERON 



The patriarch endeavoured to establish monastic dis- 
cipline among the monks, and to suppress double mon- 
asteries which had been forbidden by the Seventh 
(Ecumenical Council. After his complete defeat, 22 
June, 813, in the war against the Bulgarians, the em- 
peror lost all authority. With the assent of the patri- 
arch, he resigned and entered a monastery with his 
children. The popular general, Leo the Armenian, 
now became emperor, 11 July, 813. When Nice- 
phorus demanded the confe.ssion of faith, before the 
coronation, Leo put it off. Notwithstanding this, 
Nicephorus crowned him, and later, Leo again refused 
to make this confession. As soon as the new emperor 
had assured the peace of the empire by the overthrow 
of the Bulgarians his true opinions began gradually to 
appear. He entered into connexion with the oppo- 
nents of images, among whom were a number of 
bishops; it steadily grew more evident that he was pre- 
paring a new attack upon the veneration of images. 
With fearless energy the Patriarch Nicephorus now pro- 
ceeded again.st the machinations of the Iconoclasts. 
He brought to trial before a synod several ecclesias- 
tics opposed to images and forced an abbot named 
John and also Bishop Anthony of Syla'um to submit. 
Bishop Anthony's acquiescence was merely feigned. 

In December, 814, Nicephorus had a long confer- 
ence with the emperor on the veneration of images but 
no agreement was reached. Later the patriarch sent 
several learned bishops and abbots to convince him of 
the truth of the position of the Church on the venera- 
tion of images. The emperor wished to have a de- 
bate between representatives of the opposite dogmatic 
opinions, but the adherents of the veneration of im- 
ages refused to take part in such a conference, as the 
Seventh fficumenical Council had settled the question. 
Then Nicephorus called together an assembly of 
bishops and abbots at the Church of St. Sophia at 
which he excommunicated the perjured Bishop An- 
thony of Syteum. A large number of the laity were 
also present on this occasion and the [xitriarch with 
the clergy and people remained in the church the en- 
tire night in prayer. The emperor then summoned 
Nicephorus to him, and the patriarch went to the im- 
perial palace accompanied by the abbots and monks. 
Nicephorus first had a long, private conversation with 
the emperor, in which he vainly endeavoured to dis- 
suade Leo from his opposition to the veneration of 
images. The emperor received those who had accom- 
panied Nicephorus, among them seven metropolitans 
and Abbot Theodore of Studium. They all repudi- 
ated the interference of the emperor in dogmatic ques- 
tions and once more rejected Leo's proposal to hold a 
conference. The emperor then commanded the ab- 
bots to maintain silence upon the matter and forbade 
them to hold meetings. Theodore declared that si- 
lence under these conditions would be treason and 
expressed sympathy with the patriarch whom the em- 
peror forbade to hold public service in the church. 
Nicephorus fell ill; when he recovered the emperor 
called upon him to defend his course before a synod of 
bishops friendly to iconoclasm. But the patriarch 
would not recognize the synod and paid no attention 
to the summons. The pseudo-synod now commanded 
that he should no longer be called patriarch. His 
house was surrounded by crowds of angry Icono- 
clasts who shouted threats and invectives. He was 
guarded by soldiers and not allowed to perform any 
official act. With a protest against this mode of pro- 
cedure the patriarch notified Leo that he found it 
necessary to resign the patriarchal see. Upon this he 
was arrested at midnight in March, 815, and banished 
to the monastery of St. Theodore, which he had built 
on the Bosporus. 

Leo now raised to the patriarchate Theodotus, a 
married, illiterate layman who favoured iconoclasm. 
Theodotus was consecrated 1 April, 815. The exiled 
Nicephorus persevered in his opposition and wrote 



several treatises against iconoclasm. After the mur- 
der of the Emperor Leo, 25 December, 820, Michael 
the Amorian ascended the throne and the defenders of 
the veneration of images were now more considerately 
treated. However, Michael would not consent to an 
actual restoration of images such as Nicephorus de- 
manded from him, for he declared that he did not wish 
to interfere in religious matters and would leave every- 
thing as he had found it. Accordingly Emperor Leo's 
hostile measures were not repealed, although the per- 
secution ceased. Nicephorus received permission to 
return from exile if he would promise to remain silent. 
He would not agree, however, and remained in the mon- 
astery of St. Theodore, where he continued by speech 
and writing to defend the veneration of images. The 
dogmatic treatises, chiefly on this subject, that he 
wrote are as follows: a lesser "Apology for the Catho- 
Hc Church concerning the newly arisen Schism in re- 
gard to Sacred Images" (Migne, P. G., C, 833-849), 
written 813-14; a larger treatise in two parts; the first 
part is an "Apology for the pure, unadulterated Faith 
of Christians against those who accuse us of idolatry" 
(Migne, loc. eit., 535-834); the second part contains 
the "Antirrhetici", a refutation of a writing by the 
Emperor Constantine Copronymus on images (loc. 
cit., 205-534). Nicephorus added to this second part 
seventy-five extracts from the writings of the Fathers 
[edited by Pitra, "Spicilegium Solesxnense", I (Paris, 
1852), 227-370]; in two further writings, which also 
apparently belong together, passages from earlier 
writers, that had been used by the enemies of images 
to maintain their opinions, are examined and ex- 
plained. Both these treatises were edited by Pitra; 
the first 'EirtKpicns in "Spicilegium Solesmense", I, 
302-335; the .second ' AvTipp-qjis in the same, I, 371- 
503, and IV, 292-380. The two treatises discuss pas- 
sages from Macarius Magnes, Eusebius of Caisarea, 
and from a writing wrongly ascribed to Epiphanius of 
Cyprus. Another work justifying the veneration of 
images was edited by Pitra under the title " Antirrhe- 
ticus adversus iconomachos" (Spicil. Solesm., IV, 
233-91). A final and, as it appears, especially impor- 
tant treatise on this question has not yet been pub- 
lished. Nicephorus also left two small historical 
works, one known as the "Breviarium", the other the 
"Chronographis", both are edited by C. de Boor, 
"Nicephori archiep. Const, opuscula historica" in the 
"Bibliotheca Teubneriana" (Leipzig, 1880). At the 
end of his life he was revered and after death regarded 
as a saint. In 874 his bones were translated to Con- 
stantinople with much pomp by the Patriarch Metho- 
dius and interred, 13 March, in the Church of the 
Apostles. His feast is celebrated on this day both in 
the Greek and Roman Churches; the Greeks also ob- 
serve 2 June as the day of his death. 

Vita Nicephori auciore Ignatio diacono in Acta SS., March, II, 
294 sqq. (Latin), 704 sqq. (Greek), and in Mione, P. C, C, 37 
sqq.; Bibliotheca hayiographica gra^ca, ed. Boi.landists (2nd ed.), 
186; Hergenrotheh, Pholius. I (Ratisbon, 1867), 261 sqq.; 
Idem, Kirchenge.sc.hic.hte (4th ed. Kiksch). II, 31 sqq.; Krum- 
BACHER, Gesch. der byzantinischen Litt. (2nd ed. Ehrhard), 71 
sqq., 349 sqq. ^ „ .,, 

J. P. KiRSCH. 

Nicephorus Blemmydes. See Blemmida, Nice- 
phorus. 

Nicephorus Gregoras. See Hesychasm. 

Niceron, Jean-Pierre, French lexicographer, b. in 
Paris, 1 1 March, 1685, d. there, S July, 1738. After his 
studies at the College Mazariu, he joined the Barna- 
bites (Augu.st, 1702). lie tauglit rhetoric in the col- 
lege of Loches, and soon after ;it Mont argis, where he 
remained ten years. While engaged in tc;iching, he 
made a thorough study of inodi'rn languages. In 
1716 he went to Paris arid devoted liis time to literary 
work. His aim was to put togcthiT. in a logiciillv ar- 
ranged compendium, a. series of biographical and bibli- 
ographical articles on the men who had ilistinguished 
themselves in literature and sciences since the time of 



NICETAS 



52 



NICETAS 



the Renaissance. It required long research as well as 
great industry. After eleven years he published the 
first volume of his monumental work under the title 
of "AK'moires pour servir ;\ I'liistoirc des hommes 
illustrc.< de la republi(iue dcs lettres awe. le cata- 
logue raisonne de Icurs ouvrages" (Paris, 1727). 
Thirty-eiglili volunu-s followed from 1728 to 1738. 
The last volume from his pen w;v« published two years 
after the author's dcatli (Paris, 1740). Father Oudin, 
J.-B. Michauld, and Abbi'; Goujet later contributed 
three volumes 1o the collection. A German transla- 
tion of it was publislied in 1747-1777. It has been 
often repeated that this work lacks method, and that 
the length of many articles is out of proportion to the 
value of the men to whom they are devoted. This 
criticism, however true it may be, does not impair the 
genuine qualities and importance of the whole work. 
Even now, these "M^moires" contain a great amount 
of information that could hardly be obtained else- 
where. Moreover, thej' refer to sources which, but 
for our author, would be easily overlooked or ignored. 
Besides this original composition, he translated various 
books from English, among which should be men- 
tioned: "Lc voyage de Jean Ovington a Surate et en 
divers autres licux de I'Asie et de I'Afrique, avec I'his- 
toire de la revolution arrivee dans le royaume de Gol- 
'conde" (Paris, 172.5); "La Conversion de I'Angle- 
terre au Christianisme compar^e avec sa pretendue 
reformation" (Paris, 1729). 

D'Artignt, Mimoires d'histoire el de litUrature, I (Paris. 1749); 
Gon.iET, Eloae de J. P. Nicermi in vol. XL of Memoires (Paris, 1840) ; 
Chacffepi^, Diet, historique el critique (Amsterdam, 1850-56). 

Louis N. Delamarre. 

Nicetas (Niceta), Bishop of Remesiana (Roma- 
tiana) in what is now Servia, b. about 3.35; d. about 
414. Recent investigations have resulted in a more 
definite knowledge of the person of this ecclesiastical 
writer. Gennadius of Marseilles, in his catalogue of 
writers ("De viris illustribus", xxii) mentions a 
"Niceas Romatians civitatis episcopus" to whom 
he ascribes two works: one, in six books, for cate- 
chumens, and a httle book on a virgin who had fallen. 
Outside of this reference no wTiter and bishop of the 
name of Niceas is known. This Niceas, therefore, 
is, without doubt, the same as Nicetas, " Bishop of the 
Dacians", the contemporary and friend of St. Pau- 
linus of Nola. The identity is shown by a comparison 
of Gennadius (loc. cit.) with Paulinus in his "Car- 
mina" (xvii, xxvii), and, further, by the agreement 
in time. In Dacia, where, according to Paulinus, his 
friend Nicetas was bishop, there was a city called 
Romatiana (now Bela Palanka) on the great Roman 
military road from Belgrade to Constantinople, and 
this was the see of Nicetas. He is mentioned a num- 
ber of times in the letters and poems of St. Paulinus 
of Nola, especially in Carmen .xxvii (ed. Hartel in 
"Corp. Script, eccl. lat.", XXX, 262 sqq.), and in 
Carmen xvii "Ad Nicetam redeuntem in Daciam " (op. 
cit., 81 sqq.), written on the occasion of Nicetas's 
pilgrimage to Nola, in 398, to visit the grave of St. 
Felix. In this latter poem Paulinus describes how his 
friend, journeying home, is greeted everywhere with 
joy, because in his apostolic labours in the cold regions 
of the North, he has melted the icy hearts of men by 
the warmth of the Divine doctrine. He has laid the 
yoke of Christ upon races who ne\er bowed the neck 
in battle. Like the Goths and Dacians, the Scythians 
are tamed; he teaches them to glorify Christ and to 
lead a pure, peaceable life. Pauhnus wishes his de- 
parting friend a safe journey by land and by water. 
St. .lerome, too, speaks of the apostolic labours of 
Nicetas and says of him that he spread Christian 
civilization among the barbarians by his sweet songs 
of the Cross (Ep. Ix, P. L., XXII, .592). 

This is all that is known concerning the life of 
Nicetas. Particulars concerning his literary activity 
are also given by Gennadius and Pauhnus. The 



tradition concerning his writings afterwards became 
confused: his works were erroneously ascribed to 
Bishoj) Nicetas of Aquileia (second half of the fifth 
centurj) and to Nicetius of Trier. It was not until 
the researches of Dom Morin, Burn, and others that 
a larger knowledge was attained concerning the works 
of Nicetas. Gennadius (loc. cit.) mentions six books 
written by liini in simple and clear style (xiiiiplici et 
nilido sermone), containing instructions for candidates 
for baptism {com jtelcides) . The first book dealt with 
the conduct of the candidates; the second treated 
of erniiicdus ideas of heathens; the third, of belief in 
one Divine Majesty; the fourtli, of su|)erstitious cus- 
toms at the birth of a child (.calculating nativities); the 
fifth, of confession of faith; the sixth, of the sacrifice of 
the paschal lamb. The work has not been preserved 
in its entirety, yet the greater part is still extant. 
Four fragments are known of the first book, one frag- 
ment of the second, the third probably consists of the 
two treatises, usually separated, but which undoubt- 
edly belong together, namely, "De ratione fidei" 
and "De Spiritus sancti potentia" (P. L., LII, 847, 
853). Nothing is known of the fourth book. The 
fifth, however, is most probably identical with the 
"E.xplanatio symboli habita ad competentes" (P. L., 
LII, 865-74); in the manuscripts it is sometimes 
ascribed to Origen, sometimes to Nicetas of Aquileia, 
but there are very strong reasons for assigning it to 
the Bishop of Remesiana. Nothing is known of the 
sixth book. Gennadius mentions another treatise 
addressed to a fallen virgin, "Ad lapsam virginem 
libellus", remarking that it would stimulate to refor- 
mation any who had fallen. This treatise used to be 
wrongly identified with the " De lapsu virginis conse- 
crata;" (P. L., XVI, 367-84), traditionally assigned 
to St. Ambrose. Dom Morin has edited a treatise, 
unknown until he published it, "Epistola ad virginem 
lapsam" [Revue Benedictine, XIV (1897), 193-202], 
which with far more reason may be regarded as the 
work of Nicetas. 

Paulinus of Nola praises his friend as a hymn-writer ; 
from this it is evident that Gennadius has not given a 
complete list of the writings of Nicetas. It is, there- 
fore, not impossible that further works, incorrectly 
ascribed by tradition to others, are really his. Morin 
has given excellent reasons to prove that the two 
treatises, "De vigiliis servorum Dei" and "De 
psalmodi* bono", which were held to be writings of 
Nicetius of Trier (P. L., LXVIII, 36.5-76), are in 
reality the work of Nicetas ["Revue Biblique Inter- 
nat.", VI (1897), 282-88; "Revue Benedictine", 
XIV (1897), 385-97, where Morin gives for the first 
time the complete text of "De p.salmodia; bono"]. 
Particularly interesting is the fresh proof produced — 
again by Morin — to show that Nicetas, and not St. 
Ambrose, is the author of the "Te Deum" [Revue 
Benedictine, XI (1894), 49-77, .377-345]. Paulinus, 
like Jerome, speaks of him particularly as a hymn- 
writer. (See Te Deum.) According to the testi- 
mony of Cassiodorus (De instit. divinarum litterarum, 
xvi) the "Liber de Fide" of Nicetas was, in his time, 
included in the treatise "De Fide" written by St. 
Ambrose, which shows that at an early date some 
were found to credit the great Bishop of Milan with 
works due to the Dacian bishop. The first complete 
edition of the works of Nicetas is that of Burn (see 
bibliography below). 

Burn. Nicrtn nf Remesiana, His Life and Works (Cambridge, 
1905); Weym \ :. /'/. F^'ifn^ prittceps des Niceta von Remesiana in 
Archivfilrhil' '■! -/rapAic, XIV (1905), 478-507; HOm- 

PEL, Nicein / /.■•mesiana (Erlangen, 1895); Czapla, 

Cennarlim iil / ,. ..,.w . ,;..r (Munster. 1898), 56-61; Tchneh, 
Niceta and Anil>ni.\in.-<h'! m ,/ournal of Theological Studies, VII 
(1906), 203-19, 355-72; Patin, Niceta Bischof von Remesiana a(.! 
Schriflsteller und The.olog. (Munich, 1909) ; Bardenhewer, Patrol- 
ogi/, tr. Rhahan (St. Louis, 1907) ; Kihn, Patrologie, II {Pader- 
born, 190S), VM-Xn. 

J. P. KiRSCH. 

■ Nicetas Akominatos. See Akominatos. 



NICETIUS 



53 



NICHE 



Nicetius, Saint, Bishop of Trier, b. in the latter 
part of the fifth century, exact date unknown; d. in 
563 or more probably 566. Saint Nicetius was the 
most important bishop of the ancient See of Trier, in 
the era when, after the disorders of the Migrations, 
Prankish supremacy began in what had been Roman 
Gaul. Considerable detail of the life of this vigorous 
and zealous bishop is known from various sources, 
from letters written either by or to him, from two 
poems of Venantius Fortunatus (Poem., Lib. Ill, ix, 
X. ed. Leo, in Mon. Germ. Hist.: Auct. antiq., IV 
(1881), Pt. I, 63-64 sq.) and above all from the state- 
ments of his pupil Aredius, later Abbot of Limoges, 
wliich have been preserved by Gregory of Tours (De 
vitis Patrum, xvii; De Gloria Coufessorum, xciii-xciv). 
Nicetius came from a Gallo-Roman family; his home 
was apparently in Auvergne. The Nicetius mentioned 
by Sidonius ApoUinaris (Epist. VIII, vi) may have 
been a relative. From his youth he devoted himself 
to religious life and entered a monastery, where he de- 
veloped so rapidly in the exercise of Christian virtue 
and in sacred learning that he was made abbot. It 
was while abbot that King Theodoric I (511-34) 
learned to know and esteem him, Nicetius often re- 
monstrating with him on account of his wrong-doing 
without, however, any loss of favour. After the death 
of Bishop Aprunculus of Trier, an embassy of the 
clergy and citizens of Trier came to the royal court to 
elect a new bishop. They desired Saint Gallus, but the 
king refused his consent. They then selected Abbot 
Nicetius, whose election was confirmed by Theodoric. 
About 527 Nicetius set out as the new bishop for 
Trier, accompanied by an escort sent by the king, 
and while on the journey had opportunity to make 
known his firmness in the administration of his office. 

Trier had suffered terribly during the disorders of 
the Migrations. One of the first cares of the new 
bishop was to rebuild the cathedral church, the resto- 
ration of which is mentioned by the poet Venantius 
Fortunatus. Archa-ological research has shown, in 
the cathedral of Trier, the existence of mason-work 
belonging to the Prankish period which may belong 
to this reconstruction by Nicetius. A fortified castle 
(caslelluin) with a chapel built by him on the river 
^loselle is also mentioned by the same poet (Poem., 
Lib. Ill, n. xii). The saintly bishop devoted himself 
with great zeal to his pastoral duty. He preached 
daily, opposed vigorously the numerous evils in the 
moral life both of the higher cla-sses and of the com- 
mon people, and in so doing did not spare the king and 
his courtiers. Disregarding threats, he steadfastly 
fulfilled his duty. On account of his misdeeds he 
excommunicated King Clotaire I (511-61), who for 
some time was sole ruler of the Prankish dominions; in 
return the king exiled the determined bishop (560). 
The king died, however, in the following year, and 
his son and successor Sigebert, the ruler of Austrasia 
(561-75), allowed Nicetius to return home. Nicetius 
took part in several synods of the Prankish bishops: 
the synod of Clermont (535), of Orleans (549), the 
second synod of Clermont (549), the synod of Toul 
(550) at which he presided, and the synod of Paris 

(555). . , ,. ■ 

Nicetius corresponded with ecclesiastical digm- 
taries of high rank in distant places. Letters are ex- 
tant that were written to him by Abbot p'lorianus 
of Romain-Mofttier (Canton of Vaud, Switzerland), 
by Bishop Rufus of Octodurum (now Martigny, in 
the Canton of Valais, Switzerland), and by Arch- 
bishop Mappinius of Reims. The general interests 
of the Church did not escape his watchful care. He 
wrote an urgent letter to Emperor Justinian of Con- 
stantinople in regard to the emperor's position in the 
controversies arising from Monophysitism. Anotlier 
letter that has been preserved is to Clodosvinda, wife 
of the Lombard King Alboin, in which he exhorts this 
princess to do everything possible to bring her hus- 



band over to the Catholic faith. In his personal life 
the saintly bishop was very ascetic and self-mortify- 
ing; he fasted frequently, and while the priests and 
clerics who lived with him were at their evening meal 
he would go, concealed by a hooded cloak, to pray in 
the churches of the city. He founded a school of his 
own for the training of the clergy. The best known 
of his pupils is the later Abbot of Limoges, Aredius, 
who was the authority of Gregory of Tours for the 
latter's biographical account of Nicetius. Nicetius 
was buried in the church of St. Maximin at Trier. 
His feast is celebrated at Trier on 1 October; in the 
Roman Martyrology his name is placed under 5 
December. The genuineness of two treatises as- 
cribed to him is doubtful: "De Vigiliis servorum Dei" 
and "De Psalmodiae Bono". 

Nicetius Oprrn in P. T.. I.XIII, 361 sqq.: H0NTHEI.M, Hisioria 
Trevirensir. ,/ :,^.f?j,j,'i, ,t I ' \iiiT-hurg, 1750). Ix, 35 sqq.: Idem, 
Prodronn, ■ ' / 1 (Augsburg, 1757), 416 sqq.; 

Mabillii-., I ,' ./icK, I (Paris, 1668), 191 sqq.; 

Marx, (/../" /,/, .,, /;, , <, ;v, it, I (Trier, 1858), 82 sq.; 11, 
377 sq.; M\:-.ut.»>..\.,i. Lin- .•.iltuften des hi. Nicetius. Bischof von 
Trier (Mainz, 18o0j ; Kayser, Lebeii und Schri/ten des hi. Nicetius 
(Trier, 1873) ; Morin in Revue binedictine (1897), 385 sqq. 

J. p. KiRSCH. 

Niche, a recess for the reception of a statue, so de- 
signed as to give it emphasis, frame it effectively, and 
afford some measure of protection. It hardly existed' 
prior to the twelfth century, and is one of the chief 
decorative characteristics of Gothic architecture. The 
constant and often lavish use of sculptured images of 
the saints was an essential part of the great style 
that was so perfectly to express the Catholic Faith, 
and that had its beginnings in Normandy as a result 
of the great Cluniac reformation; and from the mo- 
ment the roughly chiselled bas-relief swelled into the 
round and detached figure, the unerring artistic in- 
stinct of the medieval builders taught them — as it 
had taught the Greeks — that figure sculpture becomes 
architectural only when it is incorporated with the 
building of which it is a part, by means of surrounding 
architectural forms that harmonize it with the fabric 
itself. In Romanesque work this frame is little more 
than flanking shafts supporting an arch, the statue 
being treated as an accessory, and given place wher- 
ever a space of flat wall appeared between the col- 
umns and arches of the structural decoration. The 
convenience, propriety and beauty of the arrangement 
were immediately apparent, however, and thence- 
forward the development of the niche as an independ- 
ent architectural form was constant and rapid. Not 
only did the canopied niche assimilate the statue in 
the architectural entity and afford it that protection 
from the weather so necessary in the north; it also, in 
conjunction with the statue itself, produced one of the 
richest compositions of line, light, and shade known 
to art. The medieval architects realized this and 
seized upon it with avidity, using it almost as their 
chief means for obtaining those spots and spaces of 
rich decoration that gave the final touch of perfection 
to their marvellous fabrics. In the thirteenth century 
the wall became recessed to receive the statue, the 
fl:uiking .-shafts became independent supports for an 
arched and gabled canopy, wliile a jjcdestal was intro- 
duced, still further to tir tin- sniliiture into the archi- 
tecture. Later the .sect I nil nl i lie cinlinisure became 
hexagonal or octagon:il, thc;iirhr(li':LiU)])y wiiscu.sped, 
the gable enriched willi criickcls and |)inn:icles, and 
finally in the fourteenth :ind fifteenth centuries the 
entire feature bec:une nhnostun imlcijcndent composi- 
tion, the canopy being developed into a thing of mar- 
vellous complexitj' and riclmess, while it was lavi.shed 
on almost every part of the building, from the doors 
to the spires, .aiid within as well as without. Protes- 
tant .and revolution;u-y icoiiocl.-isni have left outside of 
France few ex;imjiles of niches properly filled by their 
original statues, but in such masterpieces of art as the 
cathedrals of Paris, Chartres, Amiens, and Reims, one 



NICHOLAS 



54 



NICHOLAS 



may see in their liighost perfection these unique mani- 
festations of the subtility and refinement of the per- 
fect art of CathoUc civihzation. 

Ralph Adams Cram. 

Nicholas I, Saint, Pope, b. at Rome, thite un- 
known; (1. 13 November, 867; one of the great popes 
of tlie Middle Ages, who exerted decisive influence 
upon the historical development of the papacy and its 
position .among the Christian nations of Western Eu- 
rope. He was of a dist inguished family, being the .son 
of the Defensor Theodore, and received an excellent 
training. Already dist inguished for his piety, benevo- 
lence, ability, knowledge, and eloquence, he entered, 
at an early age, the service of the Church, was made 
subdeacon by Pope Sergius II (844-47), and deacon 
by Leo IV (S47-.5.5). He w.os employed in all impor- 
tant matters during the pontificate of his predecessor, 
Benedict III (S.'),5-5S). After Benedict's death (7 
April, 8.58) the Emperor Louis II, who was in the 
neighbourhood of Rome, came into the city to exert 
his influence upon the election. On 24 April Nicholas 
was elected pope, and on the same day was conse- 
crated and enthroned in St. Peter's in the presence of 
the emperor. Three days after, he gave a farewell 
banquet to the emperor, and afterwards, accompanied 
by the Roman nobility, visited him in his camp before 
the city, on which occasion the emperor came to meet 
the pope and led his horse for some distance. 

Christianity in \\'estern Europe was then in a most 
melanclioly condition. The empire of Charlemagne 
had fallen to pieces. Christian territory was threatened 
both from the north and the east, and Clmstendom 
seemed on the brink of anarchy. Christian morality 
was despised; many bishops were worldly and un- 
worthy of their office. There was danger of a univer- 
sal decline of the higher civilization. Pope Nicholas 
appeared as a conscientious representative of the Ro- 
man Primacy in the Church. He was filled with a high 
conception of his mission for the vindication of Christian 
morality, the defence of God's law against princes and 
dignitaries, and of ecclesiastical law against powerful 
bishops. Archbishop John of Ravenna oppressed the 
inhabitants of the papal territory, treated his suffragan 
bishops with violence, made unjust demands upon 
them for money, and illegally imprisoned priests. He 
also forged documents to support his claims against 
the Roman See and maltreatecl the papal legates. As 
the warnings of the pope were without result, and the 
archbishop ignored a thrice-repeated summons to ap- 
pear before the papal tribunal, he was excommuni- 
cated. Having first visited the Emperor Louis at 
Pavia, the archbishop repaired, with two imperial 
delegates, to Rome, where Nicholas cited him before 
the Roman synod assembled in the autumn of 860. 
Upon this John fled from Rome. Going in person to 
Ravenna, the pope then investigated and equitably 
regulated everything. Again appealing to the em- 
peror, the archbishop was recommended by him to 
submit to the pope, which he did at the Roman Synod 
of November, 861. Later on, however, he entered 
into a pact %vith the excommunicated Archbishops of 
Trier and Cologne, was himself again excommuni- 
cated, and once more forced to make his submission to 
the pojje. Another conflict arose between Nicholas 
and Archbishop Hincmar of Reims; this concerned the 
prerogatives of the papacy. Bishop Rothad of Sois- 
sons had appealed to the pope against the decision of 
the Synod of Soissons, of 861, which had deposed him; 
Hincmar oppo.sed the appeal to the pope, but eventu- 
ally had to acknowledge the right of the papacy to 
take cognizance of important legal causes {causw ma- 
jores) and pa,S8 indept'ndent judgment upon them. A 
further dispute broke out between Hincmar and the 
pope as to the elevation of the cleric Wulfad to the 
archiepiscopal See of Bourges, but here, again, Hinc- 
mar finally submitted to the decrees of the Apostohc 



See, and the Prankish synods passed corresponding 
ordinances. 

Nicholas showed the s:iiiie zeal in other elTorts to 
maintain ecclesiastical discipline, especially as to the 
marriage laws. Ingiltrud, wife of Cotmt Boso, had 
left her husband for a paramour; Nicholas comniaiKled 
the liishops in the dominions of Charles the Bold to 
excommunicate her imless she returned to lier hus- 
band. As she paid no attention to the summons to 
apijcar before the Synod of Milan in 860, she was put 
under the ban. The pope was also involved in a des- 
perate stmggle with Lothaii' II of Lorraine over the 
inviolability of marriage. Lothair had abandoned 
his lawful wife Theutberga to marry Waldrada. At 
the Synod of Aachen, 28 April, 862, the bishojis of Lor- 
raine, unmindful of their duty, approved of tliis illicit 
union. At the Synod of Metz, June, 863, the papal 
legates, bribed by the king, assented to the .Aachen de- 
cision, and condemned the absent Theutberga. Upon 
this the pope brought the matter l)efore iiis own tribu- 
nal. The two archbishops, Gunther of Cologne and 
Thietgaud of Trier, who had come to Rome as dele- 
gates, were summoned before the Lateran Synod of 
October, 863, when the pope condemned and deposed 
them as well as John of Ravenna and Ilagano of Ber- 
gamo. The Emperor Louis II took up the cause of 
the depo.sed bishops, while King Lothair advanced 
upon Rome with an army and laid siege to the city, so 
that the pope was confined for two days in St. Peter's 
without food. Yet Nicholas did not waver in his de- 
termination; the emperor, after being reconciled with 
the pope, withdrew from Rome and commanded the 
Archbishops of Trier and Cologne to return to their 
homes. Nicholas never ceased from his efforts to 
bring about a reconciliation between Lothair and his 
lawful wife, but without effect. Another matrimo- 
nial case in which Nicholas interposed was that of 
Judith, daughter of Charles the Bold, who had mar- 
ried Baldwin, Count of Flanders, without her father's 
consent. Prankish bishops had excommimicated 
Judith, and Hincmar of Reims had taken sides against 
her, but Nicholas urged leniency, in order to protect 
freeflom of marriage. He commanded Hincmar to 
bring about a reconciliation between father and daugh- 
ter, and succeeded in obtaining Charles's consent to 
the marriage. In many other ecclesiastical matters, 
also, he issued letters and decisions, and he took active 
measures against bishops who were neglectful of their 
duties. 

In the matter of the emperor and the patriarchs of 
Constantinople Nicholas showed himself the Divinely 
appointed ruler of the Church. In violation of ec- 
clesiastical law, the Patriarch Ignatius was deposed in 
857 and Photius illegally raised to the patriarchal see. 
In a letter addressed (8 May, 862) to the patriarchs of 
the East, Nicholas called upon them and all their 
bishops to refuse recognition to Photius, and at a Ro- 
man synod held in April, 863, he excommunicated 
Photius. He also encouraged the missionary activity 
of the Church. He sanctioned the union of the Sees 
of Bremen and Hamburg, and confirmed to St. An- 
schar. Archbishop of Bremen, and his successors the 
office of papal legate to the Danes, Swedes, and Slavs. 
Bulgaria having been converted by Greek missiona- 
ries, its ruler. Prince Boris, in August, 863, sent an em- 
bas.sy to the pope with one hundred and six questions 
on the teaching and discipline of the Church. Nicho- 
las answered these inquiries exhaustively in the cele- 
brated "Responsa Nicolai ad consulta Bulgarorum" 
(Mansi, "Coll. Cone.'', Xy, 401 sqq.). The letter 
shows how keen was his desire to foster the principles 
of an earnest Christian life in this newly-converted 
people. At the same time he sent an embassy to 
Prince Boris, charged to use their personal efforts to 
attain the pope's object. Nevertheless, Boris finally 
joined the Eastern Church. 

At Rome, Nicholas rebuilt and endowed several 



NICHOLAS 



55 



NICHOLAS 



churches, and constantly sought to encourage reli- 
gious hf e. His own personal life was guided by a spirit 
of earnest Christian asceticism and profound piety. 
He was very highly esteemed by the citizens of Rome, 
as he was by his contemporaries generally (cf. Regino, 
"Chronicon", ad an. 86S, in "Mon. Germ. Hist.: 
Script.", I, 579), and after death was regarded as a 
saint. A much discussed question and one that is im- 
portant in judging the position taken by this pope is, 
whether he made use of the forged pseudo-Isido- 
rian papal decretals. After exhaustive investigation, 
Schrors has decided that the pope was neither ac- 
quainted with the pseudo-Isidorian collection in its 
entire extent, nor did he make use of its individual 
parts ; that he had ]5erhaps a general knowledge of the 
false decretals, but did not base his view of the law 
upon them, and that he owed his knowledge of them 
solely to documents which came to liim from the 
Frankish Empire [Schrors, "Papst Nikolaus I. und 
Pseudo-Isidor " in " Historisches Jahrbuch", XXV 
(1904), 1 sqq.; Idem, "Die pseudoisidorische 'Ex- 
ceptio spolii' bei Papst Nikolaus I" in "Historisches 
Jahrbuch", XXVI (1905), 275 sqq.]. 

Roy, St. Nicholas /(London, 1001), in Snh.l S, ^ :. . Xi.olai 
pp. I. Epistolee, in J.\ffe, Rcgesla Rom. Pijnf I . ! ' ::42 
sqq., and in Mansi, CuH. Cojic, XV. 143 sciM-: ''is, 

ed. Duchesne, II, 151 sqq.; L.^emmer, Pap-:t .\ : ' ', / / ,/,e 

byzantinische Staatskirche seiner Zeit (Berlin, i.^o7j; Ihiel, De 
Nicolao I commentationes du(e hi^lorico-canonicas (Braunsberg, 
1859); Gbeinacher, Die Anschauungen des Papstes Nikolaus I. 
aber das Verhdltiiis von Stoat und Kirche (Berlin, 1909) : Langen, 
Geschickte der rornischen Kirche, III: Von Nikolaus Ibis Gregor 
VII (Bonn, 1892), 1 sqq.; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, II (4th 
ed.), 112 aqq., ed. Kirsch; 236 sqq. See also bibliography to 

HlNHMAR, ,\RCirDISHOP OF ReIMS; IgN.ATIUS OF CONSTANTINOPLE, 

Saint; Photius. J. p. Kihsch. 

Nicholas II, Pope (Gerhard of Burgundy), b. at 
Chevron, in what is now Savoy; elected at Siena, De- 
cember, 1058 ;d. at Florence 19 or 27 July, 1061. Like 
his predecessor, Stephen X, he was canon at Liege. In 
1046 he became Bishop of Florence, where he restored 
the canonical life among the clergy of numerous 
churches. As soon as the news of the death of Stephen 
X at Florence reached Rome (4 April, 105S). the 
Tusculan party appointed a successor in the person of 
John Mincius, Bishop of Velletri, under the name of 
Benedict X. His elevation, due to violence and cor- 
ruption, was contrary to the specific orders of Stephen 
X that, at his death, no choice of a successor was to be 
made until Hildebrand's return from Germany. Sev- 
eral cardinals protested against the irregular proceed- 
ings, but they were compelled to flee from Rome. 
Hildebrand was returning from his mission when the 
news of these events reached him. He interrupted his 
journey at Florence, and after agreeing with Duke 
Godfrey of Lorraine-Tuscany upon Bishop Gerhard 
for elevation to the papacy, he won over part of the 
Roman population to the support of his candidate. 
An embassy dispatched to the imperial court secured 
the confirmation of the choice by the Empress Agnes. 
At Hildebrand's invitation, the cardinals met in De- 
cember, 1058, at Siena and elected Gerhard who as- 
sumed the name of Nicholas II. On his way to Rome 
the new pope held at Sutri a well-attended synod at 
which, in the presence of Duke Godfrey and the im- 
perial chancellor, Guibert of Parma, he pronounced 
deposition against Benedict X. The latter was driven 
from the city in January, 1059, and the solemn corona- 
tion of Nicholas took place on the twenty-fourth of 
the same month. A cultured and stainless man, the 
new pontiff had about him capable advisers, but to 
meet the danger still threatening from Benedict X and 
his armed supporters, Nicholas empowered Hildebrand 
to enter into negotiations with the Normans of south- 
ern Italy. The papal envoy recognized Count Richard 
of Aversa as Prince of Capua and received in return 
Norman troops which enabled the papacy to carry on 
hostilities against Benedict in the Campagna. This 
campaign did not result in the decisive overthrow 



of the opposition party, but it enabled Nicholas to 
undertake in the early part of 1059 a pastoral vis- 
itation to Spoleto, Farfa, and Osimo. During this 
journey he raised Abbot Desiderius of Monte Cas- 
sino to the dignity of cardinal-priest and appointed 
him legate to Campania, Beuevento, Apulia, and 
Calabria. Early in his pontificate he had sent St. 
Peter Damiani and Bishop Anselm of Lucca as his 
legates to Milan, where a married and siraoniacal 
clergy had recently given rise to a reform-party known 
as the " Pataria". A synod for the restoration of ec- 
clesiastical discipline was held under the presidency of 
these envoys who, in spite of a tumultuous uprising 
which endangered their lives, succeeded in obtaining 
from Archbishop Guido and the Milanese clergy a 
solemn repudiation of simony and concubinage. 

One of the most pressing needs of the time was the 
reform of papal elections. It was right that they 
should be freed from the nefarious influence of the 
Roman factions and the secular control of the empe- 
ror, hitherto less disastrous but always objectionable. 
To this end Nicholas II held in the Lateran at Easter, 
1059 a synod attended by one hundred and thirteen 
bishops and famous for its law concerning papal elec- 
tions. Efforts to determine the authentic text of this 
decree caused considerable controversy in the nine- 
teenth century. That the discussions did not result 
in a consensus of opinion on the matter need not sur- 
prise, if it be remembered that thirty years after the 
publication of the decree complaints were heard re- 
garding the divergency in the text. We possess to-day 
a papal and an imperial recen.sion and the sense of the 
law may be stated substantially as follows." (1) At the 
death of the pope, the cardinal-bishops are to confer 
among themselves concerning a candidate, and, after 
they have agreed upon a name, they and the other 
cardinals are to proceed to the election. The remain- 
der of the clergy and the laity enjoy the right of ac- 
claiming their choice. (2) A member of the Roman 
clergy is to be chosen, except that where a qualified 
candidate cannot be found in the Roman Church, an 
ecclesiastic from another diocese may be elected. (3) 
The election is to be held at Rome, except that when a 
free choice is impossible there, it may take place else- 
where. (4) If war or other circumstances prevent the 
solemn enthronization of the new pope in St. Peter's 
Chair, he shall nevertheless enjoy the exercise of full 
Apostolic authority. (5) Due regard is to be had for 
the right of confirmation or recognition conceded to 
King Henry, and the same deference is to be shown to 
his successors, who have been granted personally a like 
privilege. These stipulations constituted indeed a 
new law, but they were also intended as an implicit ap- 
probation of the procedure followed at the election of 
Nicholas II. As to the imperial right of confirmation, 
it became a mere personal privilege granted by the 
Roman See. The same synod prohibited simoniacal 
ordinations, lay investiture, and assistance at the 
Mass of a priest living in notorious concubinage. The 
rules governing the life of canons and nuns which were 
published at the diet of Aix-la-Chapelle (817) were 
abolished, because they allowed private property and 
such abundant food that, as the bishops indignantly 
exclaimed, they were adapted to sailors and intemper- 
ate matrons rather than to clerics and nuns. Beren- 
garius of Tours, whose views opposed to the doctrine of 
Christ's real presence in the Eucharist, had repeatedly 
been condemned, also appeared at the Council and 
was compelled to sign a formula of abjuration. 

At the end of June, 1059, Nicholas proceeded to 
Monte Cassino and thence to Melfi, the capital of Nor- 
man .Apulia, where he held an important synod and 
concluded the famous alliance with the Normans 
(Julv-August, 1059). Duke Robert Guiscard was in- 
vested with the sovereignty of Apulia, Calabria, and 
Sicily in case he should reconquer it from the Saracens; 
he bound himself, in return, to pay an annual tribute, 



NICHOLAS 



56 



NICHOLAS 



to hold his lands ns the pope's vassal, and to protect . 
the Roman Soo, its possessions, and the freedom of 
papal elections. A similar agreement was coiicIiKlcd 
witli Prince Hicliard of Capiia. After holding a synod 
at Benevento Nicholas returned to Rome with a Nor- 
man army which reconquered Pra-neste, 'I'usculum, 
and Xumentamim for the Holy See and forced Bene- 
dict X to capitulate at Galcria (autumn of 1059). 
Hildebrand, tlie soul of the pontificate, was now 
created archdeacon. In order to secure the general 
acceptance of the laws enacted at the synod of 1059, 
Cardinal Stephen, in tlie latter part of that year, was 
Bent to l'"r;ince where lie presidetl over the synods of 
Vienne (.'U .lanuary, KMiOj and Tours (17 February, 
1060). The decree wliiih introduced a new method of 
papal election liad caus<-d great dissatisfaction in Ger- 
many, because it reduceil the imperial right of confirma- 
tion to the precarious condition of a personal privilege 
granted at will; but, assured of Norman protection, 
Nicholas could fearlessly renew the decree at the 
Latcran synod held in 1060. After this council Car- 
dinal Stephen , who had accomplished his mission to 
France, appeared as papal legate in Germany. For 
five days he vainly solicited an audience at court and 
then returned to Rome. His fruitless mission was 
followed bj' a German sjTiod which annulled all the 
ordinances of Nicholas II and pronounced his deposi- 
tion. The pope's answer was a repetition of the de- 
cree concerning elections at the synod of 1061, at 
which the condemnation of simony and concubinage 
among the clergy was likewise renewed. He lies 
buried in the church of St. Reparata at Florence of 
which city he had remained bishop even aftir Iiis ele- 
vation to the papal throne. His pontifie;ite, tlmuuh 
of short duration, was marked by events fraught with 
momentous and far-reaching consequences. 

Jaff:6, Regesta Pontif. Roman., I (2nd ed., Leipzig, 18S5), 557- 
66; Diplovmta, Epistola, Decreta in P. L., CXLIII, 1301-66; 
Clavel. Le Pape Nicolas II (Lvons, 1906) ; Delarc, Le Ponti- 
fical de Nicolas II in Rev. des Quesl. Hist., XL (18S6), 341-402; 
WUKM, Die Papslwahl (Cologne, 1902), 24-8; Hefele, Concilien- 
geschichte, IV (2nd ed., Freiburg, 1879), 798-850; Mann, Lines 
of the Popes. VI (St. Louia, 1910), 226-60; Funk, tr. Cappa- 
DELTA, Church History, I (St. Louis, 1910), 263-4. 274. For bibli- 
ography of the election decree, see Hergenrother-Kirsch, 
Kirchcngeschichte, II (Freiburg, 1904), 342-4. 

N. A. Webeh. 

Nicholas III, Pope (Giovanni Gaetani Orsini), 
b. at Rome, c. 1216; elected at Viterbo, 25 November, 
1277; d. at Soriano, near Viterbo, 22 August, 12S0. 
His father, Matteo Rosso, was of the illustrious Ro- 
man family of the Orsini, while his mother, Perna 
Gaetana, belonged to the noble house 
of the Gaetani. As senator Matteo 
Rosso had defended Rome against 
Frederick II and saved it to the 
papacy. He was a friend of St. 
P>ancis of Assisi and belonged to his 
third order, facts not without influ- 
ence on the son, for both as cardinal 
and pope the latter was ever kindly 
disposed towards the Franciscans. 
Arms of We have no knowledge of his edu- 

NicHoi.As III cation and early life. Innocent IV, 
grateful for the services rendered to the Holy See by his 
father, created the young Orsini (28 May, 1244) car- 
dinal-deacon with the title of St. Nicholas in Carcere 
TuUiano, and gave him benefices at York, Laon, and 
Soissons. Probably at an earlier date the adminis- 
tration of the Roman churches of San Lorenzo in 
Damaso and of San Cri.sogono had been entrusted to 
him. One of five cardinals, he accompanied Innocent 
IV in his flight from Civil ;\ Vecchia to Genoa and 
thence to Lyons (29 .lurie, 12 U). In 1252 he was dis- 
patched on an unsuccessful mission of peace to the 
warring Guelphs ;ind ( Ihibellincs of Florence. In 1258 
Louis IX i)ai<l an elo(|ucnt tribute to his independence 
and impartiality by suggesting his selection as equally 
acceptable to England and to France for the solemn 




ratification of the peace concluded between the two 
countries. His integrity was likewise above reproach, 
for he never accepted gifts for his services. So great 
was his influence in the Sacred College that the elec- 
tion of Urban IV (1201) was mainly due to his inter- 
vention. Urban named him general inquisitor (1262) 
and protector of the Franciscans (1263). Under 
Clement IV (1265-68) he was a member of the delega- 
tion of four cardinals who invested Charles of Anjou 
with the Kingdom of Naples (28 June, 1265). Later 
he played a prominent part at the elections of Gregory 
X, who received the tiara at his hands, and of John 
XXI, whose counsellor he became and who named him 
archpriest of St. Peter's. After a vacancy of six 
months he succeeded John as Nicholas III. 

True to his origin he endeavoured to free Rome 
from all foreign influence. His policy aimed not only 
at the exclusion of the ever-troublesome imperial au- 
thority, but also sought to check the growing influence 
of Charles of Anjou in central Italy. At his request 
Rudolf of Habsburg renounced (1278) all rights to the 
possession of the Romagna, a renunciation subse- 
quently approved by the imperial princes. Nicholas 
took possession of the province through his nephew, 
Latino, whom he had shortly before (12 March, 1278) 
raised to the cardinalate. He created Berthold, an- 
other nephew. Count of the Romagna, and on other 
occasions remembered his relatives in the distribution 
of honourable and lucrative places. He compelled 
Charles of Anjou in 1278 to resign the regency of Tus- 
cany and the dignity of Roman Senator. To insure 
the freedom of papal elections, he ordained in a con- 
st it utimi of 18 July, 1278, that thenceforward the 
seiKiliiiial power and all municipal offices were to be 
rcser\ed to Roman citizens to the exclusion of emperor, 
king, or other potentate. In furtherance of more har- 
monious relations with the Byzantine court., the pope 
also aimed at restricting the power of the King of Naples 
in the East. To his efforts was due the agreement 
concluded in 1280 between Rudolf of Habsburg and 
Charles of Anjou, by which the latter accepted Pro- 
vence and Forcalquier as imperial fiefs and secured the 
betrothal of his grandson to dementia, one of Ru- 
dolf's daughters. The much-discussed plan of a new 
division of the empire into four parts is not sufliciently 
attested to be attributed with certainty to Nicholas. 
In this partition Cierinany, as hereditary monarchy, 
was to fall to Rudolf, the Ivingdom of Aries was to 
devolve on his son-in-law, Charles Martel of Anjou, 
while the Kingdoms of Lombardy and Tuscany were 
to be founded in Italy and bestowed on relatives of the 
pope. Nicholas's efforts for the promotion of peace 
between France and Castile remained fruitless. Un- 
able to carry out his desire of personally appearing in 
Hungary, where internal dissensions and the devasta- 
tions of the Cumani endangered the very existence of 
Christianity, he named, in the fall of 1278, Bishop 
Philip of Fermo his legate to that country. A synod, 
held at Buda in 1279 under the presidency of the papal 
envoy, could not complete its deliberations owing to 
the violent interference of the people. King Ladis- 
laus IV, instigator of the trouble, was threatened in a 
papal letter with spiritual and temporal penalties if 
he failed to reform his ways. The king temporarily 
heeded this solemn admonition, and at a later date 
suppressed the raids of the Cumani. The appoint- 
ments of worthy incumbents to the Archbishoprics of 
Gran and Kalocsa-Bacs made under this pontificate 
further helped to strengthen the cause of Christianity. 

The task of Nicholas III in his dealings with the 
Eastern Church was the practical realization of the 
union accepted by the Greeks at the Second Council of 
Lyons (1274), for political reasons rather than out of 
dogmatic persuasion. The instructions to the legates 
whom he sent to Constantinople contained, among 
other conditions, the renewal by the emperor of the 
oath sworn to by his representatives at Lyons. The 



NICHOLAS 



57 



NICHOLAS 



efforts of Rudolf of Habsburg to receive the imperial 
crown at the hands of the new pope were not success- 
ful. His failure was partly due to the estrangement 
consequent upon the attitude assumed by the pope 
in the question of the Sicilian surrrssion. As feudal 
suzerain of tli<' 
kingdom, NichnI: i > 
annulled t li ■■ 
treaty, conclude 1 
in 1288 through 
the mediation of 
Edward I of Eng- 
land, which con- 
firmed James of 
A r agon in the 
possession of the 
island. He lent 
his support to the 
rival claims of the 
House of Anjou 
and crowned 
Charles II King of 
Sicily and Naples 
at Rieti, 29 May, 
12S9, after the lat- 
ter had expressly 
acknowledged the 
suzerainty of the 
Apostolic See and 
promised not to accept any municipal dignity in the 
States of the Church. The action of the pope did not 
end the armed struggle for the possession of Sicily nor 
did it secure the kingdom permanently to the House 
of Anjou. Rudolf of Habsburg also failed to obtain 
from the pope the repeal of tlie authorization, granted 
the French king, to levy tithes in cert 'in ( ;ittii;iii ijis- 
triots for the pro.secution of the war : '! use 




NrCHOLA8 IV 

Benozzo Gozzoli, Church of S. 
Francesco, Alontefalco 



maintenance of the Greek Rite was granted only in so 
far as papal authority did not consider it opposed to 
unity of faith; those of the clergy opposed to reunion 
were reciuired to obtain absolution of the incurred 
censures from the Roman envoj's. These were more 
rigorous conditions than had been imposed by his pre- 
decessors, but the failure of the negotiations for re- 
union can hardly be attributed to them, for the Greek 
nation was strongly opposed to submission to Rome 
and the emperor pursued temporal advantages under 
cover of desire for ecclesia.stical harmony. At the 
request of Abaga, Khan of the Tatars, the pope sent 
him in 1278 five Franciscan missionaries who were to 
preach the Gospel first in Persia and then in China. 
They encountered considerable obstacles in the former 
country and it was not imtil the pontificate of Nicho- 
las IV that their preaching produced appreciable re- 
sults. The realization of the pope's desire for the 
organization of a Crusade was frustrated by the dis- 
tracted state of European politics. On 14 August, 
1279, he is.sued the constitution "Exiit qui seminat", 
which is still fundamental for the interpretation of the 
Rule of St. I'"rancis and in which he approved the 
stricter observance of poverty (see Fr.^ncis, Rdlb op 
S-4IXT). While the Vatican had been occupied from 
time to time by some of his predecessors, Nicholas III 
established there the papal residence, remodelled and 
enlarged the palace, and secured in its neiglibourhood 
landed property, subsequently transformed into the 
Vatican gardens. He lies buried in the Chapel of St. 
Nicholas, built by him in St. Peter's. He was an ec- 
clesiastically-minded pontiff of great diplomatic abihty 
and, if we except his acts of nepotism, of unblemished 

Gat. Les Registres de Nicolas III (Paris. 189S-19CM) : Pott- 
bast, Regesln P.mtif. Roman.. 11 (Berlin, 1S75), 1719-.56; Savio, 
Niccolb III 111 I , ./'.i (--'■-'m ., -ir. XV-XVI (Rome, 1894-0); 
Demski. /''ly ' >. /// \i ui^tiT. 1903); Sternpeld, ZJcr 

Kardinal J.'l • ' I J 1 1-77) (Berlin, 1905) : MiRBT 

in T/ic AVir N' .'...;■-//. I ■'; ;." , .' .nr -/w, s. v. 

N. A. Weber. 

Nicholas IV, Pope (GiROLA-MoM.A.sci),b. at Ascoli 
in the March of Ancona; d. in Rome, 4 April, 1292. He 
was of humble extraction, and at an early age entered 
the Franciscan Order. In 1272 he was sent as a dele- 
gate to Constantinople to invite the participation of 
the Greeks in the Second Council 
of Lyons. Two years later he suc- 
ceeded St. Bonaventure in the gen- 
eralship of his order. While he « as 
on a mission to France to promod' 
the restoration of peace between 
that country and Castile, he was 
created cardinal-priest with the titlr 
of Santa Pudenziana (1278) and in 
1281 Martin IV appointed him Bish- 
AK5IS OF op of Palestrina. After the death 

Nicholas IV of Honorius IV (3 April, 12S7), 
the conclave held at Rome was for a time hopelessly 
divided in its selection of a successor. When fever 
hail carried off six of the electors, the others, with tlie 
sole exception of Girolamo, left Rome. It was not 
until the following year that they reassembled and on 
15 February, 1288^ unanimously elected him to the 
papacy. Obedience and a second election however 
(22 February) were alone capable of overcoming 
his reluctance to accept the supreme pontificate. He 
was the first Franciscan pope, and in loving reniein- 
brance of Nicholas III he assumed the name of Nicho- 
las IV. 

The reign of the new pope was not characterized by 
sufficient independence. The undue influence exer- •' ■ ■ ' Nichoi-as IV 

cised at Rome bv the Colonna is especially noteworthy m. .m irv .>iaj<.r ». Rome 

and was so apparent even during his lifetime that ofAragon. When he appointed his son Albert to suc- 
Roinan wits represented him encased in a column— ceedLadislaus IV of Hungary (31 August, 1290), Nich- 
the distinctive mark of the Colonna familv— out of olas claimed the realm as a papal hcf and conferred it 
which only his tiara-covered head emerged. The upon Charles Martcl, son of Charles II of Naples. 





NICHOLAS 



58 



NICHOLAS 



In 1291 the fall of Ptolemais put an end to Christian 
dominion in the East. Previous to this tragic event. 
Nicholas had in vain endeavoured to orpinize a cru- 
sade. He now called upon all the Chri.-itiaii princes 
to take u[) arms ajtainst the Mussuluuin and insti<;at<Ml 
the holding of council.-; to dcvi.se the means of .scmlin}; 
assistance to the Holy Land. Thc.se .synods were to 
discuss likewise the advisability of the union of the 
Knights Templars and Knights of St. John, as the 
dissen.sions among them had partly caused the lo.ss of 
Ptolemais. The pope himself initiated the prepara- 
tions for the crusade and fitted out twenty ships for 
the war. His appeals and his example remained un- 
heeded, however, and nothing of permanent value was 
accomplished. 

Nichohis IV sent missionaries, among them the 
celebrated John of Montecorvino (q. v.), to the Bul- 
garians, Ethiopians, Tatars, and Chinese. By his 
constitution of 18 July, 1289, the cardinals were 
granted one half of the revenues of the .\postolic See 
and a share in the financial administration. In 1290 
he renewed the condemnation of the sect known a.s the 
Apostolici (q. v.). Nicholas was pious and learned; he 
contributed to the artistic beauty of Home, building 
particularly a palace beside Santa Maria Maggiore, 
the church in which he was buried and where Sixtus 
V erected an imposing monument to his memory. 

Laxglois. Les Rigistres de Nicolas IV (Paris. 1886-93); Pott- 
bast, Regesta pontificum Romanorum, II (Berlin, 1875), 1820- 
1915: Kaltenbrcnner, Aktensliicke zur Gesch, des Dn,r , ':■ ,i 
Retches unter Rudolf I und Albrecht I (Vienna, ISSli* !:; ; - 

MONT. Gesch. der Stadt Rom, II (Berlin, 1867), 611-14: s 

Studien zur Gesch. Papst Nikolaus, IV (Berlin, 1897): XU — i. 
Niccold IV (Sinigaglia, 1905); Schaff, History of the t'fui^fnnt 
Church, V, pt. I (New York, 1907), 207, 2S7, 410. 

N. A. Weber. 

Nicholas V, Pope (Tomm,\so Parentdceli.i), a 
name ne\-er to be mentioned without reverence by every 
lover of letters, b. at Sarzana in Liguria, 1.5 November, 
1397; d. in Rome, 24-5 March, 145.5. While still a 
youth he lost his father, a poor but skilful physician, 
and was thereby prevented from 
completing his studies at Bologna. 
He became tutor in the families of 
the Strozzi and Albizzi at Florence, 
where he made the acquaintance of 
the leading Humanist scholars of 
the day. In 1419 he returned to 
Bologna, and three years later took 
his degree as master of theology. 
The saintly bishop of Bologna, Nic- 
Arms of cold Albergati, now took him into his 

Nicholas V ser\'ice. For more than twenty years 
ParentuceUi was the bishop's factotum, and in that 
capacity was enabled to indulge his passion for build- 
ing and that of collecting books. Unlike many biblio- 
philes he was as well acquainted with the matter con- 
tained within his volumes as with their bindings 
and value. Some of them are still preserved, and 
contain many marginal notes in his beautiful writing. 
His knowledge was of the encyclopedic character 
not unusual at a time when the learned undertook 
to argue de omni re scibili. His mind, however, 
was receptive rather than productive. Neverthe- 
less, he could make good use of what he had studied, 
as was shown at the Council of Florence where his 
familiarity with Patristic and Scholastic theology 
gave him a prominent place in the discussions 
with the Greek bishops. He accompanied Alber- 
gati in various legatine missions, notably to France, 
and was always watchful for rare and beautiful 
books. Eugene IV wished to attach such a bril- 
liant .scholar to his own person; but ParentuceUi re- 
mained faithful to his patron. On the death of the 
latter he was appointed to succeed him in the See of 
Bologna, but was unable to take possession owing 
to the troubled state of the city. This led to his be- 
ing entrusted by Pope Eugene with important diplo- 




matic missions in Italy and Germany, which he carried 
otit with such success that he obtained as his reward 
a cardinal's hat (Dec, 141(1). I'/irly next year (23 
Feb.) Eugene died, and Parciilucclli was elected in his 
place, taking as his name Nicholas m memory of his 
obligations to Niccolo AlbcrKali ((1 March, M17). 

As soon as the new pontilT w:is linnly se;iled on his 
throne, it was felt th.at a new spirit had come into the 
papacy. Now that there was no longer any danger 
of a fresh outbreak of schism and the Council of Con- 
stance had lost all influence, Nicholas could devote 
himself to the accomplishment of objects which were 
the aim of his life and had been the means of raising 
him to his present exalted position. He designed to 




The Vati. 



i.XV CKN-rrRv) 



n. Ko 



make Rome the site of splendid monuments, the home 
of literature and art, the bulwark of the papacy, and 
the worthy capital of the Christian world. His first 
care was to strengthen the fortifications, and restore 
the churches in which the stations were held. Next 
he took in hand the cleansing and paving of the 
streets. Rome, once famous for the number and 
magnificence of its aqueducts, had become almost en- 
tirely dei^endent for its water supply on the Tiber and 
on wells and cisterns. The "Aqua Virgo", originally 
constructed by Agrippa, was restored by Nicholas, 
and is to this day the most prized by the Romans, un- 
der the name of "Acqua Trevi". But the works on 
which he especially set his heart were the rebuilding 
of the Leonine City, the Vatican, and the Basilica 
of St. Peter. On this spot, as in a centre, the glories 
of the papacy were to be focused. We cannot here 
enter into a description of the noble designs which he 
entertained (see Pastor, "History of the Popes", II, 
173 sqq., Eng. tr.). The basilica, the palace, and the 
fortress of the popes are not now what he would have 
made them; but their actual splendours are due in no 
small measure to the lofty aspirations of Nicholas V. 
He has been severely censurecl for pulling down a por- 
tion of the old St. Peter's and planning the destruction 
of the remainder. He defended his action on the 
ground that the buildings were on the verge of ruin 
(Mlintz, "Les Arts k la Cour des Papes", p. 118); but 
the almost equally ancient Basilica of San Paolo 
fuori le Mura was preserved by judicious restorations 
until it was destroyed by fire in 1823. The pontiff's 
veneration for antiquity may have yielded to his de- 
sire to construct an edifice more in harmony with the 
classical taste of the Renaissance school, of which 
he himself was so .ardent an adherent. Nothing but 
praise, however, can be given to him for his work in 
the Vatican Palace. Indeed it was he who first made 
it the worthy residence of the po))es. Some of his 
constructions still remain, notably the left side of the 
court of St. Damasus and the chapel of San Lorenzo, 
decorated with Fra Angelico's frescoes. 



NICHOLAS 



59 



NICHOLAS 



Though a patron of art in all its branches, it was 
literature that obtained his highest favours. His Ufe- 
long love of books and his delight in the company of 
scholars could now be gratified to the full. His im- 
mediate predecessors had held the Humanists in sus- 
picion; Nicholas welcomed them to the Vatican as 
friends. Carried away by his enthusiasm for the New 
Learning, he overlooked any irregularities in their 
morals or opinions. He accepted the dedication of a 
work by Poggio, in which Eugene was assailed as a 
hypocrite; Valla, the Voltaire of the Renaissance, was 
made an Apostolic notary. In spite of the demands 
on his resources for building purposes, he was always 
generous to deserving scholars. If any of them mod- 
estly declined his bounty, he would say: "Do not 
refuse; you will not always have a Nicholas among 
you." He set up a vast establishment in the Vatican 
for translating the Greek classics, so that all might be- 
come familiar with at least the matter of these master- 
pieces. "No department of literature owes so much 
to him as history. By him were introduced to the 
knowledge of western Europe two great and unrivalled 
models of historical composition, the work of Hero- 
dotus and the work of Thucydides. By him, too, 
our ancestors were first made acquainted with the 
graceful and lucid simplicity of Xenophon and with 
the manly good sense of Polybius" (Macaulay, 
Speech at Glasgow University). The crowning glory 
of his pontificate was the foundation of the Vatican 
Library. No lay sovereigns had such opportunities of 
collecting books as the popes. Nicholas's agents ran- 
sacked the monasteries and palaces of every country 
in Europe. Precious manuscripts, which would have 
been eaten by the moths or would have found their 
way to the furnace, were rescued from their ignorant 
owners and sumptuously housed in the Vatican. In 
this way he accumulated five thousand volumes at a 
cost of more than forty thousand scudi. " It was his 
greatest joy to walk about his library arranging the 
books and glancing through their pages, admiring the 
handsome bindings, and taking pleasure in contem- 
plating his own arms stamped on those that had 
been dedicated to him, and dwelling in thought on the 
gratitude that future generations of scholars would 
entertain towards their benefactor. Thus he is to be 
seen depicted in one of the halls of the Vatican library, 
employed in settling his books" (Voigt, quoted by 
Pastor, II, 213). 

His devotion to art and literature did not prevent 
him from the performance of his duties as Head of the 
Church. By the Concordat of Vienna (1448) he se- 
cured the recognition of the papal rights concerning 
bishoprics and benefices. He also brought about the 
submission of the last of the antipopes, Felix V, and 
the dissolution of the Synod of Basle (1449). In ac- 
cordance with his general principle of impressing the 
popular mind by outward and visible signs, he pro- 
claimed a Jubilee which was the fitting symbol of the 
cessation of the schism and the restoration of the au- 
thority of the popes (14.50). Vast multitudes flocked 
to Rome in the first part of the year ; but when the hot 
weather began, the plague which had been ravaging 
the countries north of the Alps wrought fearful havoc 
among the pilgrims. Nicholas was seized with a 
panic; he hurried away from the doomed city and fled 
from castle to castle in the hope of escaping infection. 
As soon as the pestilence abated he returned to Rome, 
and received the visits of many German princes and 
prelates who had long been upholders of the decrees of 
Constance and Basle. But another terrible calamity 
marred the general rejoicings. More than two hun- 
dred pilgrims lost their lives in a crush which occurred 
on the bridge of Sant' Angelo a few days before 
Christmas. Nicholas erected two chapels at the en- 
trance of the bridge where Mass was to be said daily 
for the repose of the souls of the victims. 

On this occasion, as in previous Jubilees, vast sums 



of money found their way into the treasury of the 
Church, thus enabling the pontiff to carry out his de- 
signs for the promotion of art and learning, and the 
support of the poor. As the Jubilee was the proof 
that Rome was the centre towards which all Christen- 
dom was drawn, so at its conclusion Nicholas sent 
forth his legates into the different countries to assert 
his authority and to bring about the reform of abuses. 
Cardinal D'Estouteville was sent to France; Cardinal 
Nicholas of Cusa, one of the most devout antl learned 
men of his day, was sent to North Germany and Eng- 
land; and the heroic Franciscan, St. John Capistran, 
to South Germany. They held provincial and other 
synods and assemblies of the regular clergy, in which 
wholesome decrees were made. Nicholas of Cusa 
and St. John preached the word in season and out 
of season, thereby producing wonderful conversions 
among both clergy and laity. If they did not succeed 
in destroying the germs of the Protestant revolt, they 
certainly postponed for a while the evil and nar- 
rowed the sphere of its influence. It should be noted 
that Cusa never reached England, and that D'Es- 
touteville initiated the process for the rehabilitation 
of Bl. Joan of Arc. The restored authority of the 
Holy See was further manifested by the coronation of 
Frederick III as Sovereign of the Holy Roman Empire 
— the first of the House of Habsburg raised to that 
dignity, and the last of the emperors crowned in 
Rome (1452). 

Meantime the pontiff's own subjects caused him 
great an.xiety. Stefano Porcaro, an able scholar and 
politician, who h.ad enjoyed the favour of Martin V 
and Eugene IV, made several attempts to set up a re- 
public in Rome. Twice he was pardoned and pen- 
sioned by the generous Nicholas, who would not sacri- 
fice such an ornament of the New Learning. At last 
he was seized on the eve of a third plot, and con- 
demned to death (Jan., 1453). A deep gloom now 
settled down on the pontiff. His magnificent designs 
for the glory of Rome and his mild government of his 
subjects had not been able to quell the spirit of re- 
bellion. He began to collect troops and never stirred 
abroad without a strong guard. His health, too, 
began to suffer seriously, though he was by no means 
an old man. And before the conspiracy was thor- 
oughly stamped out a fresh blow struck him from 
which he never recovered. We have seen what a 
prominent part Parentucelli had taken in the Council 
of Florence. The submission of the Greek bishops 
had not been sincere. On their return to Constan- 
tinople most of them openly rejected the decrees of 
the council and declared for the continuance of the 
schism. Eugene IV vainly endeavoured to stir up 
the Western nations against the ever-advancing 
■Turks. Some help was given by the Republics of 
Venice and Genoa; but Hungary and Poland, more 
nearly menaced, sujjplied the bulk of the forces. A 
victory at Nish (1443) had been followed by two ter- 
rible defeats (Varna, 1444, and Kosovo, 1449). The 
whole of the Balkan peninsula, except Constantinople, 
was now at the mercy of the infidels. The emperor, 
Constantine XII, sent messages to Rome imploring 
the pope to summon the Christian peoples to his aid. 
Nicholas sternly reminded him of the promises made 
at Florence, and insisted that the terms of the union 
should be observed. Nevertheless the fear that the 
Turks would attack Italy, if they succeeded in captur- 
ing the bulwark of the east, induced the pontiff to take 
some action — especially as the emperor professed his 
readiness to accept the d(-crees of the council. In 
May, 1452, Cardin:d Isidore, an cut husia-stic Greek 
patriot, was sent .as legate to ('onstaiiliiiople. A .sol- 
emn function in honour of the union was celebrated 
on 12 Dec, 14.52, with prayers for the pope and for 
the patriarch, Gregorius. But the rlergy and the 
populace cursed the Uniates and boasted that they 
would rather submit to the turban of the Turk than 



NICHOLAS 



60 



NICHOLAS 



to the tiara of the Roman Pontiff. After many oU- 
stadcs and delays a force of ten papal galleys anil a 
number of vessels furnished by Xaples, (!enoa, and 
Venice set sail for the Ivist, but before they rcticlicd 
their destination the imperial city had fallen and the 
Emperor Constantine was no more (29 May, 1 l"i:>). 
Whate\'er may have been the dilatoriness of Nicholas 
up to this point — and it must be acknowhHlgeti tliat 
he luui good reason for not helping the Clreeks — he 
now lost no time. He addressed a Bull of Crusade 
to the whole of Christendom. Kvery sort of induce- 
ment, .spiritual and temporal, was held out to those 
who should take [lart in the holy war. Princes were 
exhorted to sink their dilTereuces and to unite against 
the common foe. Hut t he days of chivalry were gone: 
most of the nations took no notice of the appeal; some 
of them, such as Clcnoa and Venice, even solicited 
the friendship of the infidels. 

The gloom which had settled upon Nicholas after 
Porcaro's conspiracy grew deeper as he realized that 
his warning voice had been unheeded. Gout, fever, 
and other maladies warned him that his end was at 
hand, ."summoning the cardinals around him, he de- 
livered to them the famous discourse in which he 
set before them the objects for which he had laboured, 
antl enumerated with pardonable pride the noble 
works which he had accomplished (Pastor, II, 311). 
He died on the night between 24 and 2.5 of March, 
1455, and was laid in St. Peter's by the side of Eugene 
IV. His splendid tomb was taken down by Paul V, 
and removed to the crypt, where some portions of it 
may still be seen. His epitaph, the last by which any 
pope was commemorated, was written by iEneas 
Sylvius, afterwards Pius II. 

Nicholas was small in stature and weakly in consti- 
tution. His features were clear-cut; his complexion 
pale; his eyes dark and piercing. In disposition he 
was lively and impetuous. A scholar rather than a 
man of action, he underrated difficulties, and was im- 
patient when he was not instantly understood and 
obeyed. At the same time he was obliging and cheer- 
ful, and readily granted audience to his subjects. 
He was a man of sincere piety, simple and temper- 
ate in his habits. He was entirely free from the 
bane of nepotism; and exercised great care in the 
choice of cardinals. We may truly say that the lofty 
aims, the scholarly and artistic tastes, and the noble 
generosity of Nicholas form one of the brightest pages 
in the history of the popes. 

Platina, Lives of the Popes CEnglish translation, London); Ves- 
PASIANO DA BiSTlccr, Vite di uomini ittustri del secolo X V (Rome, 
1839); Sforza. Rieerche su Niccold V (Lucca, 1884); Muntz. 
Les Arts d la cour des papes pendant le xW et le xvi" Steele 
(Paris, 1878-9); Pastor, History of the Popes, II, 1-314, very 
complete and well documented (Eng. tr., London, 1S91); Gre- 
GOROvius, Gesch. der Stadt Rom (Stuttgart. 1894) ; Reumont, 
Gesch. der Stadt Rom. Ill (Berlin, 1867-70); Ckeiohton, History 
of the Papacy, III (London, 1897); GciRAtlD, Ueglise romaine et 
les origines de la renaissance (Paris, 1904); MiLMAN, History of 
Latin Christianity, VIII (London, 1867). 

T. B. SCANNELL. 

Nicholas Justiniani, Blessed, date of birth un- 
known, became monk in the Benedictine monastery 
of San Niccold del Lido at Venice in 1153. When, in 
a military expedition of the Venetians in 1172, all the 
other members of the family of the Justiniani per- 
ished in the JDgean Sea near the Island of Chios, the 
Republic of Venice mourned over this disaster to so 
noble a family as over a public calamity. In order 
that the entire family might not die out, the Venetian 
Government sent Baron Morosin and Toma Falier as 
delegates to Alexander III, with the request to dis- 
pense Nichohis from his monastic vows. The dis- 
pensation was granted, and Nicholas married Anna, 
thedaughter of Uoge Michieli, becoming through her 
the parent of five new lines of his family. Shortly 
after 1179 he returned to the mona-stery of San Niecolo 
del Lido, having previou.sly founded a convent for 
women on the Island of Aniano, where his wife took 



the veil. Both he and Ills wife died in the odour of 
sanctity and were \'ener.ated by the pcoi)le, though 
neither was r\ CI fuiin;ill\ JH-.iified. 

Gennahi, A '■ ^ : 1 rnlo Giustiniani, monaco di 

S. Nicclo del I I Pi. l,M \,.iice, 1845); Giurtiniano, 

Epistola ad I'i'i /'/n, ,,',-( < i <: i ^.^irnum in qua B. Nicholai 

Justiniani Vettrti mori'irhntia^ n fnhulis i'«7itsf/KC commentis asseri- 
tur (Trent, 1746); MnKATOKI, Rerum Italicarum scriptores, XII, 
293 and XXII, 503 aq. 

Michael Ott. 
Nicholas of Clemanges. See Clemanges, 

Mathieu-Nicolas Poillevillain de. 

Nicholas of Cusa, German cardinal, philoso])her, 
and administrator, b. at Cues on the MoscU,', in 
the Archdiocese of Trier, 1400 or 1401 ; d. at Todi, 
in Umbria, 11 August, 1464. His father, Johann 
Cryfts (Krebs), a wealthy boatman (naula, not a 
"poor fisherman"), died in 14.50 or 1451, and his 
mother, Catharina Roenurs, in 1427. The legend 
that Nicholas fled from the in-lrciiliiicnt of his father 
to Count Ulrich of Mandirsclicid is doubtfully re- 
ported by Hartzheim (Vita N. de Cu.sa, Trier, 1730), 
and has never been proved. Of his early educa- 
tion in a school of Deventer nothing is known; but 
in 1416 he was matriculated in the University of 
Heidelberg, by Rector Nicholas of Bettenberg, as 
"Nicolaus Cancer de Coesze, eler[icus] Trever[ensis| 
dioc[esis]". A year later, 1417, he left for Padua, 
where he graduated, in 1423, as doctor in canon law 
(decretorum doctor) under the celebrated Giuliano 
Cesarini. It is said that, in later years, he was hon- 
oured with the doctorate in civil law by the Univer- 
sity of Bologna. At Padua he became the friend of 
Paolo Toscanelli, afterwards a celebrated physician 
and scientist. He studied Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and, 
in later years, Arabic, though, as his friend Johannes 
Andrea;, Bishop of Aleria, testifies, and as appears from 
the style of his writings, he was not a lover of rhetoric 
and poetry. That the loss of a lawsuit at Mainz 
should have decided his choice of the clerical slate, 
is not supported by his previous career. Aided by 
the Archbishop of Trier, he matriculated in the Uni- 
versity of Cologne, for divinity, under the rectorship 
of Petrus von Weiler, in 1425. His identity with the 
"Nicolaus Trevirensis", who is mentioned as secre- 
tary to Cardinal Orsini, and papal legate for Germany 
in 1426, is not certain. After 1428, benefices at 
Coblenz, Oberwesel, Miinstermaifeld, Dypurgh, St. 
Wendel, and Liege fell to his lot, successively or si- 
multaneously. 

His public career began in 1431, at the Council of 
Basle, which opened under the presidency of his for- 
mer teacher, Giuliano Cesarini. The cause of Count 
Ulrich of Manderscheid, which he defended, was lost 
and the transactions with the Bohemians, in which he 
represented the German nation, proved fruitless. His 
main efforts at the council were for the reform of the 
calendar and for the unity, political and religious, of 
all Christendom. In 1437 the orthodox minority sent 
him to Eugene IV, whom he strongly supported. The 
pope entrusted him with a mission to Constantinople, 
where, in the course of two months, besides discover- 
ing Greek manuscripts of St. Basil and St. John Dam- 
ascene, he gained over for the Council of P'lorence, 
the emperor, the patriarch, and twenty-eight arch- 
bishops. After reporting the result of his mission 
to the pope at Ferrara, in 1438, he was created papal 
legate to support the cause of Eugene IV. He did 
so before the Diets of Mainz (1441), Frankfort (1442), 
Nuremberg (1444), again of Frankfort (1446), and 
even at the court of Charles VII of France, with such 
force that jEneas Sylvius called him the Hercules of 
the Eugenians. As a reward Eugene IV nominated 
him cardinal; but Nicholas declined the dignity. It 
needed a command of the next pope, Nichohis V, to 
bring him to Rome for the acceptance of this honour. 
In 1449 he was proclaimed cardinal-priest of the title 
of St. Peter ad Vincula. 



NICHOLAS 



61 



NICHOLAS 



His new dignity was frauglit with labours and 
crosses. The Diocese of Brixen, the see of which was 
vacant, needed a reformer. The Cardinal of Cusa 
was appointed (1450), but, owing to the opposition 
of the chapter and of Sigmund, Duke of Austria and 
Count of the Tyrol, could not take possession of the 
see until two years later. In the meantime the cardi- 
nal was sent by Nicholas V, as papal legate, to 
Northern Germany and the Netherlands. He was to 
preach the Jubilee indulgence and to promote the 
crusade against the Turks; to visit, reform, and cor- 
rect parishes, monasteries, hospitals; to endeavour to 
reunite the Hussites with the Church; to end the 
dissensions between the Duke of Cleve and the 
Archbishop of Cologne; and to treat with the Duke 
of Burgundy with a view to peace between England 
and France. He crossed the Brenner in January, 
1451, held a provincial synod at Salzburg, visited 
Vienna, Munich, Ratisbon, and Nuremberg, held a 
diocesan synod at Bamberg, presided over the pro- 
vincial chapter of tlie Benedictines at Wiirzburg, 
and reformed the monasteries in the Dioceses of 
Erfurt, Thuringia, 
Magdeburg, Hildes- 
heim, and Minden. 
Through the Nether- 
lands he was accom- 
panied by his friend 
Denys the Carthu- 
sian. Inl452hecon- 
cluded his visitations 
by holding a provin- 
cial synod at Co- 
logne. Everywhere, 
according to Abbot 
Trithemius, he had 
appeared as an angel 
of light and peire, 
but it was not to be 
so in his own duH i ^e 
The troubles ixgui 
with the Pool ( Ui< s 
of Bri.xen and the 
Benedictine nuns of 
Sonnenburg who 
needed reform ition, 
but were shielded b> 
Duke Sigmund. The 
cardinal had to take refuge in thestronghold of Audraz, 
at Buchcnstein, and finally, by special authority re- 
ceived from Pius II, pronounced an interdict upon 
the Countship of the Tyrol. In 1460 the duke made 
him prisoner at Burneck and extorted from him a 
treaty unfavourable to the bishopric. Nicholas fled 
to Pope Pius II, who excommunicated the duke and 
laid an interdict upon the diocese, to be enforced by 
the Archbishop of Salzburg. But the duke, himself 
an immoral man, and, further, instigated by the anti- 
papal humanist Heimburg, defied the pope and ap- 
pealed to a general council. It needed the strong in- 
fluence of tbe emperor, Frederick III, to make him 
finally (1464) submit to the Church. This took place 
some days after the cardinal's death. The account 
of the twelve years' struggle given by Jager and, after 
him, by Prantl, is unfair to the "foreign reformer" 
(see Pastor, op. eit. infra, II). The cardinal, who had 
accompanied Pius II to the Venetian fleet at Ancona, 
was sent by the pope to Leghorn to hasten the Genoese 
crusaders, but on the way succumbed to an illness, 
the result of his ill-treatment at the hands of Sig- 
mund, from which he had never fully recovered. He 
died at Todi, in the presence of his friends, the phy- 
sician Toscanelli and Bishop Johannes Andreie. 

The body of Nicholas of Cusa rests in his own titu- 
lar church in Rome, beneath an effigy of him sculp- 
tured in relief, but his heart is deposited before the 
altar in the hospital of Cues. This hospital was the 




cardinal's own foundation. By mutual agreement 
with his sister Clare and his brother John, his entire 
inheritance was made the basis of the foundation, and 
by the cardinal's last will his altar service, manuscript 
library, and scientific instruments were bequeathed to 
it. The extensive buildings with chapel, cloister, and 
refectory, which were erected in 1451-56, stand to this 
day, and serve their original purpose of a home for 
thirty-three old men, in honour of the thirty-three 
years of Christ's earthly life. Another foundation of 
the cardinal was a residence at Deventer, called the 
Bursa Cusana, where twenty poor clerical students 
were to be supported. Among bequests, a sum of 260 
ducats was left to S. Maria dell' Anima in Rome, for 
an infirmary. In the archives of this institution is 
found the original document of the cardinal's last will. 
The writings of Cardinal Nicholas may be classified 
under four heads: (1) juridical writings: "De concor- 
dantia catholica" and "De auctoritate prjesidendi in 
conciho generali " (1432-35), both written on occasion 
of the Council of Basle. The superiority of the general 
councils over the pope is maintained; though, when 
the majority of the 
assembly drew from 
these writings start- 
ling conclusions un- 
favourable to Pope 
Eugene, the author 
seems to have 
changed his views, 
as appears from his 
art ion after 1437. 
The political reforms 
)>iii]iosed were skil- 
liillv utilized bv 
I .urresin 1814. (2") 
In his philosophical 
-'iitings, composed 
liter 14.39, he set 
aside the definitions 
and methods of the 
"Aristotelean Sect" 
antl replaced them 
by deep speculations 
and mystical forms 
of his own. The best 
known in his first 
treati.se, "De docta 
ignorantia" (1439-40), on the finite and the infinite. 
The Theory of Knowledge is critically examined in 
the treatise "De conjecturis" (1440-44) and espe- 
cially in the "Compendium" (1464). In his Cosmol- 
ogy he calls the Creator the Possest (]>osse-est, the 
possible-actual), alluding to the argument: God is 
possible, therefore actual. His itiicrocosmos in created 
things has some similarity with the "monads" and 
the "emanation" of Leibniz. (3) The theological 
treatises are dogmatic, ascetic, and mystic. "De 
cribratione alchorani" (1460) was occasioned by his 
visit to Constantinople, and was written for the con- 
version of the Mohammedans. For the faithful were 
written: "De quaerendo Deum" (1445), "Defiliatione 
Dei" (1445), " De visione Dei " (14.53), "Excitationum 
libri X" (1431-64), and others. The favourite sub- 
ject of his mystical speculations was th(! Trinity. 
His concept of God has been much disputed, and has 
even been called pantheistic. The coni cxf of his writ- 
ings proves.however, that they are all st rict ly Christ ian. 
Scharpff calls his theology a Thomas a Kcnipis in phil- 
osophical language. (4) The scientific writings con- 
sist of adozen treatises, mostly short., of which the " Re- 
paratio Calendarii" (1436), with a correction of the 
Alphonsine Tables, is the most important. (For an ac- 
count of its ('ontents and its results, see Lilius, Aloi- 
sius.) The shorter malheinalical treati.scs are ex- 
amined in Kiistner's "History of Mathematics", II. 
Among them is a claim for the exact quadrature of the 



NICHOLAS 



62 



NICHOLAS 



circle, which was refuted by Rogiomontanus [see 
MiJLLER (Regiomontanus), Johann], The astro- 
nomical views of tlie cardinal are scattered through 
his philosoiihical treatises. They evince complete 
independence of traditional doctrines, though they are 
based on symbolism of numbers, on combinations of 
letters, and on abst ract speculations rather than obser- 
vation. The earth is a star like other stars, is not the 
centre of the universe, is not at rest, nor are its jioles 
fi.xcd. The celestial bodies are not strictly spherical, 
nor are their orbits circular. The difference between 
theory and appearance is explained by relative mot ion. 
Had Copernicus been aware of these assertions he 
would probably ha\e been encouraged by them to 
publish his own monumental work. The collected 
editions of Nicholas of Cusa's works are: Incunabula 
(before 1470) in 2 vols., incomplete; Paris (1514) in 3 
vols.; Basle (156.5)^ in 3 vols. 

Dux, Der deutsche Kardirtal Xiko~ 
iaus ron Cusa und die Kirche seiner 
ZcU (Ratisbon, 1S47); Clemens, 
Giordano Bruno u. Nikotaits ron Cusa 
(Bonn, 1847); Zimmermann. Dpt 
Kardinal N. C. ah Vorkiufer Lcibni- 
lens in Sitzungsber. Phil. Kl. VIII 
(Vienna, 1852) ; Jager. Der Streit des 
Kardinals N. v. C. (Innsbruck, 1861) ; 
Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, VII 
(Freiburg, 1869): Scharpfp, Der 
Kardinal u. Bischof N. r. C. (Tu- 
bingen, 1871) I Gbube in Hist. Jahrb. 
d. aerres-GeseUscha.n, I (1880), Die 
Legaiionsreise; Uebinger, Philoso- 
phie d. N. C. (Wurzburg. 1880). dis- 
sert. : Idem in Hist. Jahrb. d. Gijrres- 
Ges., VIII (1887), Kardinnllegat N. 
V. C: Idem, ibU., XIV (1.S93), Zur 
Lebensgesch. des N. C; Idem, Die 
Gottestehre des N. C. (Miinster and 
Paderbom, 1888): B:rk in Theal. 
Quartalschr., LXXIV (Tubingen, 
1892); Janssen. Geschichte des dcut- 
schen Volkcs, I (Freiburg, 1897). .3-6, 
tr. Christie (London and St. Louis, 
1908) : Pastor. Geschichte der Pdpste, 
II (Freiburg. 1904), tr. Antrobus 
(St. Louis, 1902) : MARx,FerzeicAni.ss 
der Handschr. des Hospitals zu Cues 
(Trier, 1905); Idem, Geschichte des 
Armen-HospUals . . . ru Cues (Trier, 
1907) ; Valgib, La Crise religieuse du 
XV' siicle (Paris, 1909). 

J. G. Hagen. 

Nicholas of Fliie (Db Cari.inm nl 

Rdpe), Blessed, b. 21 March, Portrait in ihu h....i,iial 
1417, on the Fliieli, a fertile plateau near Sachspln, 
Canton Obwalden, Switzerland; d. 21 March, 1487, 
as a recluse in a neighbouring ravine, called Ranft. 
He was the oldest son of pious, well-to-do peasants and 
from his earliest youth was fond of prayer, practised 
mortification, and conscientiously performed the 
labour of a peasant boy. At the age of 21 he entered 
the army and took part in the battle of Ragaz in 1446. 
Probably he fought in the battles near the Etzel in 
1439, nearBaar in the Canton of Zug in 1443, and as- 
sisted in the capture of Zurich in 1444. He took up 
arms again in the so-called Thurgau war against 
Archduke .Sigismund of Austria in 1460. It was due 
to his influence that the Dominican Convent St. 
Katharinental, whither many Austrians had fled after 
the capture of Diessenhofen, was not destroyed by 
the Swiss confederates. Heeding the advice of his 
parents he married, about the age of twenty-five, a 
pious girl from Hachseln, named Dorothy Wyssling, 
who bore him five sons and five daughters. His 
youngest son, Nicholas, born in 14(57, became a priest 
and a doctor of theology. Though averse to worldly 
dignities, he was elected cantonal councillor and judge. 
The fact that in 1462 he was one of five arbiters ap- 
pointed to settle a dispute between the parish of Stans 
and the monastery of Engelberg, shows t he esteem in 
which he was held. After living about twenty-five 
years in wedlock he listened to an inspiration of God 
and with the consent of his wife left his family on 
16 October, 1467, to live as a hermit. At first he in- 



tended to go to a foreign country, but when he came 
into the neighbourhood of Basle, a divine inspiration 
ordered him to take up his ahode in the Ranft, a val- 
ley along the Melcha, about :ui hour's walk from Sach- 
seln. Here, known as" Brother Kl;uis", he abode over 
twenty years, without t;ikiiig :uiy bodily food or 
drink, as was est:il)lished through ;i careful investiga- 
tion, made by the civil as well us (he ecclesiastical au- 
thorities of his times. He wore neither shoes nor cap, 
and even in winter was clad merely in a hermit s 
gown. In 1468 he saved the town of Sarnen from a 
conflagration by his prayers und the sign of the cross. 
God also favoured him with niuiicrous visions and the 
gift of prophecy. Distinguished iiersons from nearly 
every country of Europe came to him for counsel in 
matters of the utmost importance. At first he livefl in 
a narrow hut, which he himself had built with branches 
and leaves, and came dail)' to 
Mass either at Sachseln or at 
Kerns. Early in 1469 the 
civil authorities built a cell 
:inil u chapel for him, and on 
2i) .^i^ril of the same year the 
chapel was dedicated by the 
vicar-general of Constance, 
Thomas, Bishop of Ascalon. 
In 1479 a chaplain was put in 
charge of the chapel, and 
tlieiiceforth Nicholas always 
rciiKiiued in the Ranft. When 
III I IM) delegates of the Swiss 
ciiiiii'ilerates assembled at 
.■^tuns to settle their differ- 
ences, and civil war seemed 
inevitable, Henry Imgrund, 
the pastor of Stans, hastened 
to Nicholas, begging him to 
prevent the shedding of blood. 
The priest returned to the 
(leleg;ites with the hermit's 
ciiun.selsand propositions, and 
civil war was averted. Nicho- 
las was beatified by Pope 
Clement IX in 1669. Numer- 
ous pilgrims visit the chapel 
near the church of .Sachseln, 
where his relics are preserved, 
on 21 March. 

Ml /• '. <im Flue, seinLeben und Wirkenii 

voU , I ■: I ' ' ON' Ah. Des seligen Einsiedlers Niko- 

/«(/,s(' //.. - /.' 'h^h (Einsiedeln. 1887): Badmberger, 

Der .-o'l. Mkol,iu.i run Fli,e (Kempten and Munich, 1906): .icia 
SS., Ill, March, 398-439; Wetzel, Der set. Nikolaus von Flue 
(Einsiedeln. 1887; Ravensburg, 1896) tr. into Italian, Mondada 
(Turin, 1888) ; de Belloc, Le bienheureux Nicolas de Fliie et la 
Suisse d'autrefois (Paris, 1889) ; Blake, A hero of the .Swiss Repub~ 
He in The Catholic World, LXV (New York, 1897), 658-673. 

Michael Ott. 

Nicholas of Gorran (or Gorrain), medieval 
preacher, and scriptural commentator; b. in 1232 at 
Gorron, France; d. about 129,5. He entered the Do- 
minican Order in the convent of his native town and 
became one of its most illustrious alumni. His tal- 
ents singled him out for special educational opportuni- 
ties, and he was sent accordingly to the famous convent 
of St. James in Paris. In this convent he subse- 
quently served several terms as prior. His piety and 
sound judgment attracted the attention of Philip IV 
of France, whom he served in the double capacity of 
confessor and adviser. In most of his ecclesiastical 
studies he does not seem to have excelled notably ; but 
in preaching and in the interpretation of the Scrip- 
tures he was unsurpassed by any of his contempo- 
raries. His scriptural writings treat of all the books of 
the Old and the New Testament, and possess more 
than ordinary merit. Indeed, in such high esteem 
were they held by the doctors of the University of 
Paris that the latter were wont to designate their au- 




Hi 



NICHOLAS 



63 



NICHOLAS 



thor as excellens postulator. The commentaries on the 
Books of Ecclesiastes, Ezechiel, and Daniel, while gen- 
erally attributed to Nicholas of Gorran, have at times 
been ascribed to a different authorship. His commen- 
tary on the Epistles of St. Paul is remarkably well 
done, and his gloss on the Apocalypse was deemed 
worthy of the highest commendation. Besides his 
Scriptural writings he commented on the Lombard's 
Book of Sentences and on the Book of Distinctions. 
His commentaries on the Gospels were published in 
folio at Cologne (1573) by Peter Quentel; and at Ant- 
werp (1(317) by John Keerberg. His commentaries 
on the Epistles of St. 
Paul were published 
at Cologne (1478); 
Hagenau(1502) ; Paris 
(1521); Antwerp 
(1617). 

QU^TIP - ECHARD. SS. 

Ord. Prad.. I; I-.^jard, 
Histoire litt. de Francp, XX 
(Paris, 1842). .324-50: 



Den 



1 Cha 



Chartulariun 
sien., II (Paria, ISUl). 
John B. O'Connor. 

Nicholas of Lyra 

(Doctor planus rt iili- 
Hs), exegete, b. at 
Lvra in Normandy, 
1270;d. at Paris, 1340. 
The report that he 
was of Jewish descent 
dates only from the 
fifteenth century. He 
took the Franciscan 
habit at Verneuil, 
studied theology, re- 
ceived the doctor's de- 
gree in Paris and was 
appointed professor . 
at the Sorbonne. In 
the famous contro- 
versy on the Beatific 
Vision he took sides 
with the professors 
against John XXII. 
He laboured very 
successfully, both in 
preaching and writ- 
ing, for the conversion 
of the Jews. He is the 
author of numerous 




I (II Moretto) 



theological works, some of which are yet unpublished. 
It was to exegesis that Nicholas of Lyra devoted his 
best years. In the second prologue to his monumental 
work,"Postill£e perpetuie in universamS.Scripturam", 
after stating that the literal sense of Sacred Scripture 
is the foundation of all mystical expositions, and that 
it alone has demonstrative force, as St. Augustine 
teaches, he deplores the state of Biblical studies in 
his time. The literal sense, he avers, is much ob- 
scured, owing partly to the carelessness of the copy- 
ists, partly to the unskilfulness of some of the cor- 
rectors, and partly also to our own translation (the 
Vulgate), which not infrequently departs from the 
original Hebrew. He holds with St. Jerome that 
the text must be corrected from the Hebrew codices, 
except of course the prophecies concerning the Divin- 
ity of Christ. Another reason for this obscurity, 
Nicholas goes on to say, is the attachment of scholars 
to the method of interpretation handed down by 
others who, though they have said many things well, 
have yet touched but sparingly on the literal sense, 
and have so multiplied the mystical senses as nearly to 
intercept and choke it. Moreover, the text has been 
distorted by a multiplicity of arbitrary divisions and 
concordances. Hereupon he declares his intention 



of insisting, in the present work, upon the literal 
sense and of interspersing only a few mystical inter- 
pretations. Nicholas utilized all available sources, 
fully mastered the Hebrew and drew copiously from 
the valuable commentaries of the Jewish exegetes, 
especially of the celebrated Talmudist Rashi. The 
"Pugio Fidei" of Raymond Martini and the com- 
mentaries of St. Thomas Aquinas were laid under con- 
tribution. His exposition is lucid and concise; his 
observations are judicious and sound, and always 
original. The "Postilla?" soon became the favourite 
manual of exegesis. It was the first Biblical com- 
mentary printed. The 
solid learning of Nich- 
olas commanded the 
respect of both Jews 
and Christians. 

Luther owes much 
to Nicholas of Lyra, 
but how widely the 
principles of Nicholas 
differed essentially 
from Luther's views is 
best seen from Nicho- 
las's own words : "I 
protest that I do not 
intend to assert or 
determine anything 
that has not been 
manifestlydeter- 
mined by Sacred 
Scripture or by the 
authority of the 
Church .... Where- 
fore I submit all I have 
said or shall say to 
the correction of Holy 
Mother Church and 
of all learned men ..." 
(Prol. secund. in Pos- 
tillas., ed. 1498). 
Nicholas taught no 
new doctrine. The 
early Fathers and the 
great schoolmen had 
n'pcati'dly laid down 
the same sound cxe- 
gi'lii'al principles, but, 
owing to adverse ten- 
dencies of the times, 
their efforts had partly 
failed. Nicholas car- 
ried out these principles effectively, and in this lies 
his chief merit — one which ranks hiin among the fore- 
most exegetes of all times. 

Wadding, Atmales (Rome. 1733). V, 264-7; VI, 237-9; Idem, 

A'criyjiores (Rome. 1906), 3. v.: .Sba " 

1806), s. v.; Fabbicics, Bilil. Int. , 
1736), 114 sqq.; Hain, ijcpx ... , .; 
CoPINQER, Supplement to II 
1902). a. v.; Denifle and ( ii i 
II (Paris. 1891). passim; FtK, i ; 
docteurs les plus cilhbres, l\\ i . 
crii. des commenlaires d. \ . I I 
crit. des princip, commenl'i'< 
Bergeu. Quam nolitiam litn/:/ i /. 
<rvi in Callia (Nancv, 1893) ; ( 
Test. Hhros sacros. t (Pi ' ' 
the sluiln of the Script 



I'nris. 

.. Hist. 
. Hist. 
1(193); 

utr. 



, 1885), 660-2; GiaoT, Gen. Introd. to 
(Now York), 444 sq.; Neumann, Influ- 

^iinfsxur 



: Hachi et d'autres com. 
in Revue des itudes juivesj X\\ \ Is''.;. I,.-' |.| 
230 sqq.; Maschkowski, /i'.. ' / ' - 

leg. d. Exodus in Zeitschr. f. 'i I' ' n 
sgg. ; Lahuosme. BioffT. ei oi" .' •'' \ i I m/'"/ 
XVI ii'iiii,), ;in:; wiq.; XVII (1907). 4si) «|(|.. , 
l.iii sqq., 368 sqq.; Bml.. Hot N. 



no.flilles de Lyra 
\XVII (1893). 
/-. in d. Aus- 
\I (1891). 268 
fronciscaines, 
r>93 sqq.; XIX 
u. L. in Erfurt 
. _. Vereins /. thilring. Oesch. u. AUertum., 
sqq.; see also a paper on Nicliolaa of Lyra by 
Mahchal m .Innuaire de I'universM cath. .de Loumin (1910), 
432 sq. ThOM.\S PlaSSMANN. 

Nicholas of Myra (or of Bari), Saint, Bishop of 
Myra in Lycia. <i. 6 December, 345 or 352. Though 



/. 



XX \ I I 1'. 



NICHOLAS 



64 



NICHOLAS 



he is one of the most popular saints in the Greek as 
well .'IS the Latin Church, there is scarcely anything 
historically certain about liini except that he was 
Bishop of Myra in the fourth century. Some of the 
main points in his leuenii are as follows: He was born 
at Parara, a city of Lycia in Asia Minor; in his youth 
he made a pilcrimaKc to ICnypt and I'ali'sline; shortly 
after his return ho became llisliop of Myra; east into 
prison durinp; the i)ersecution of Diocletian, he was 
released after the accession of Constantino, and was 
present at the Council of Nica;a. In 1087 Italian 
merchants stole his body at Myra, bringing it to liari 
in Italy. 

The numerous miracles St. Nicholas is said to have 
wrought, both before and after his death, are out- 
growths of a long tradition. There is reason to doubt 
his presence at Niciea, since his name is not mentioned 
in any of the old lists of bishops that attended this 
council. His cult in the Greek Church is old and es- 
pecially popular in Russia. As early as the sixth cen- 
tury Emperor Justinian I built a church in his honour 
at Constantinople, and his name occurs in the liturgy 
ascribed to St. Chrysostom. In Italy his cult seems to 
have begun with the translation of his relics to Bari, 
but in Germany it began already under Otto II, 
probably becai:se his wife Theophano was a Grecian. 
Bishop Reginald of Eichstadt (d. OOU is known to 
have written a metric, "Vita S. Nicholai". The 
course of centuries has not lessened his popularity. 
The following places honour him as patron: Greece, 
Russia, the Kingdom of Naples, Sicily, Lorraine, the 
Diocese of Liege; many cities in Italy, Germany, Aus- 
tria, and Belgium; Campen in the Netherlands; Corfu 
in Greece; Freiburg in Switzerland; and Moscow in 
Russia. He is patron of mariners, merchants, bakers, 
travellers, children etc. His representations in art 
are as various as his alleged miracles. In Germany, 
Switzerland, and the Netherlands they have the cus- 
tom of making him the secret purveyor of gifts to chil- 
dren on 6 December, the day on which the Church cele- 
brates his feast; in the United States and some other 
countries St. Nicholas has become identified with the 
popular Santa Claus who distributes gifts to children 
on Christmas eve. His rehcs are still preserved in the 
church of San Nicola in Bari; up to the present day an 
oily substance, known as Mayina di S. Nicola, which is 
highly valued for its medicinal powers, is said to flow 
from them. 

The traditionary legends of St. Nicholas were first collected and 
written in Greek bv Metaphrastes in the tenth century. They 
are printed in y. 6'., CXVI sq. A Latin translation by Giusti- 
NIANI (Venice, l.'>02 and 1513) is printed in SuBltJS, De probatis 
sanctorum historiis, 6 December. There is an immense amount 
of ancient and modern literature. The following modern authori- 
ties are noteworthy: (Iai:ta, N. Xicold di Bari, vescovo di Mira 
(Naples, 1904); Bi i " s. Nicold, vescom di Mira 

(Monza, 1900): Gi ' ' delle reliquie di s. Nicold di 

Bari in Bassarion, "HJ), 317-328; Schnell, Si. 

Xickolaus der hcil. I: I '- r/reund (Brunn, 1883-5, and 

Ravensburg, 188G) ; ruAXM\ui:i{. Der h. Nikolaus u. seine Vereh- 
runff (Miinster. 1894); Laroche. Vie de s. Nicholas, eviQue de 
Myre. patron de la Lorraine (Paris, 1886, 1893) ; Idem, La manne de 
t. Nicholas in Revue Suisse Calholique, XXI (Freiburg, 1890), 56- 
68. 122-137: Kayata, Monographic de Veglise grecque de Marseille 
etviedes. Nicholas de Myre (Marseilles, 1901). 

Michael Ott. 

Nicholas of Osimo (AtrxiMAXus), celebrated 
preacher and author, b. at Osimo, Italy, in the second 
half of the fourteenth century; d. at Rome, 1453. 
After having studied law, and taken the degree of 
doctor at Bologna, he joined the Friars Minor of the 
Observants in the convent of San Paolo. Conspicuous 
for zeal, learning, and preaching, as companion of St. 
James of the Marches in Bosnia, and as Vicar-Provin- 
cial of Apulia (1439), Nicholas greatly contributed to 
the prosperity of the Observants for whom (1440) he 
obtained complete independence from the Conven- 
tuals, a privilege shortly after revoked according to 
the desire of St. Hemardine. He was also appointed 
Visitator and afterwards Superior, of the Holy Land, 



but many difficulties seem to have hindered him from 
the discharge of these offices. Nicholas wrot(! both in 
Latin and Italian a niunber of treatises on moral theol- 
ogy, the spiritual life, and on the Rule of St. Fran- 
cis. Wo mention the following: (1) "Supplomonlum 
Sununa' Magi.stratiie sen Pisanclhe", a revisoti and 
increased edition of the "Summa" of Bartholomew 
of San Concordio (or of Pisa), O.P., completed at 
Milan, 1444, with many editions before the end of 
the fifteenth century: Venice, 1473 sqq.; Genoa, 
1474; Milan, 1479; Reutlingon, 1483; Nuremberg, 
1494. (2) "(Juadriga Spirituale", in Italian, treats 
in a popular way what the author considers the 
four principal means of salvation, viz. faith, good 
works, confession, and prayer. These arc like the 
four wheels of a chariot, whence the name. 'I'he work 
was printed at Jesi, 147.5, and under the name of St. 
Bernardino of Siena in 1494. 

Wadding, Scriptores Ord. Min. (Rome. 1806), 179 (Rome, 1906), 
17fi; Idem, Annales Minorum ad an. US7, n. 13-16, 2nd ed.. X 
(I!. .mo, 17!H, 1li)-.30; ad an. HS8, n. 21-23, XI (Rome, 1734), 
,i'i 1' ' '".n. 29, XI (Rome, 1734), 111 passim; Sbabai-ea, 

.s;/. Home, 1806), 550; SpEZl.rre OpereHe rotoari (/» 

/■'/,■ \ oimo. Irf^ti dilinqun inrrliti tratli da' codici Vati- 

Ml,, ,l;..ii,. '.-'■'.•. pr,-fn,.r-- I T-ir^i I,^ v,„p,,vo, Cenni cronolo- 

gim-l,ui,„.r " /' / ■ ' hiMraechi, 1SS6), 

161, 221: M /, I'iiria, 1826), I, 

i, n. 214'.>-7.. , ,1'-. .-' II. J 11 III- w. . ' ;. .,. \i nih-n und Litera- 
tur des Caiti^ni^'Jiiu 7,',. /<:,.„ ,,.„. (.-.j.'i.j/, :.,., mij ,hf Gegenwarl, I 
(Stuttgart, 1877), 435-37; Dietterle. Die Summa: Conjessorum 
in Zeitschriftfur Kirchengeschichte, ed. Brieger, XXVH (Gotha, 
1906), 183-88. 

LivAEius Oliger. 

Nicholas of Strasburg, mystic, flourished early in 
the fourteenth century. Educated at Paris, he was later 
on lector at the Dominican convent, Cologne. Ap- 
pointed by John XXII, he made a canonical visitation 
of the German Dominican province, where great dis- 
cord prevailed. Relying on two papal briefs dated 1 
August, 1325, it appears that the sole commission re- 
ceived from the pontiff was to reform the province in 
its head and members, and to act as visitor to the sis- 
ters. Nicholas, however, assumed the office of in- 
quisitor as well, and closed a process already begun by 
Archbishop Heinrich (Cologne) against Master Eck- 
hart, O.P., for his teachings on mysticism, in favour 
of the latter (1326). In January, 1327, the arch- 
bishop renewed the cause and arraigned Nicholas as a 
patron of his confrere's errors. Almost simultane- 
ously, Hermann von Hbchst, a discontented religious 
on whom Nicholas had imposed a well-merited pen- 
alty, took revenge by having him excommunicated. 
Nicholas, however, was soon released from this sen- 
tence by Pope John, that he might appear as definitor 
at the general chapter of his order convened at Per- 
pignan. May 31, 1327. He is last heard of after the 
settlement of the process against Eckhart as vicar of 
the German Dominicans, 1329. Thirteen extant .ser- 
mons show him to have been of a rather practical turn 
of mind. 

Having realized the inherent necessity of solid piety 
being based upon the principles of sound theology, he 
urges in clear, pregnant, and forceful stylo the sacred 
importance of good works, penitential (iraclices and 
indulgences, confession and the Holy Eucharist. Only 
by the use of these means can the love of C!od be well- 
regulated and that perfect conversion of the heart at- 
tained which is indispensable for a complete remission 
ofguill. Built up on so firm a groundwork, there is noth- 
ing to censure but much to commend in his allegorical 
interpretations of Sacred Scripture, which are other- 
wise consistent with his fondness for parable and ani- 
mated illustration. " De Adventu Christi ", formerly 
attributed to Nicholas, came originally from the pen 
of John of Paris. 

Preger, Meistcr Eckhart und die Inquisition (Munich, 1869) ; 
Idem, Oesch. der deutsch. Mystik im MiUelalter, II (Leipzig. 1881); 
Denifle, ActeiislUcke zu Meister Eckharts Prozess in Zeitschr. f. 
deutachcs Altertum u. deutsche Literatur, XXIX (XVII) (1885); 
Idem, Der Ptagialor, Nich. von Strassb. in Archiv /. Lit. u. Kirchen- 



NICHOLAS 



65 



NICHOLS 



gesch., IV (1888); Pfeiffer, Deutsche MysHker des I4. Jahrh., I 
(Leipzig. 1845). 

Thos. a. K. Reilly. 

Nicholas of Tolentino, Saint, b. at Sant' Angelo, 
near Fermo, in the March of Ancona, about 1246; d. 
10 September, 1300. He is depicted in the black 
habit of the Hermits of St. Augustine — a star above 
him or on his breast, a Hly , or a crucifix garlanded with 
hlies, in his hand. Sometimes, instead of the lily, he 
holds a vial filled with money or bread. His parents, 
said to have been called Compagnonus de Guarutti 
and Amata de Guidiani (these surnames may merely 
indicate their birth-places), were pious folk, perhaps 
gentle born, living content with a small substance. 
Nicholas was born in response to prayer, his mother 
being advanced in years. From his childhood he was 
a model of holiness. He excelled so much in his 
studies that even before they were over he was made 
a canon of St. Saviour's church; but hearing a sermon 
by a hermit of St. Augustine upon the text: "Nolite 
diligere munilum, nee ea qute sunt in mundo, quia 
mundus transit et concupiscentia ejus", he felt a call 
to embrace the religious life. He besought the hermit 
for admittance into his order. His parents gave a 
joyful consent. Even before his ordination he was 
sent to different monasteries of his order, at Recanati, 
Maeerata etc., as a model of generous striving after 
perfection. He made his profession before he was 
nineteen. After his ordination he preached with 
wonderful success, notably at Tolentino, where he 
spent his last thirty years and gave a discourse nearly 
every day. Towards the end diseases tried his pa- 
tience, but he kept up his mortifications almost to the 
hour of death. He possessed an angelic meekness, 
a guileless simplicity, and a tender love of virginity, 
which he never stained, guarding it by prayer and ex- 
traordinary mortifications. He was canonized by 
Eugene IV in 1446; his feast is celebrated on 10 
September. His tomb, at Tolentino, is held in ven- 
eration by the faithful. 

Acta SS.,"Sept., Ill, 636: Butlek, Lives of the Saints, III (Balti- 
more), 440; Hagele in Kirchenlex,, a. v. 

Edward F. Garesch6. 

Nicholas Pieck (also spelled Pick), Saint, Friar 
Minor and inartvr, li, at Gorkum, Holland, 29 August, 
1534; (1. at Uriel, Holland, 9 July, 1572. He cameof 
an old and honourable family. His parents, John 
Pieck and Henrica Clavia, were deeply attached to 
the Catholic faith, and the former on several oc- 
casions distinguished himself by his zeal against the 
innovations of Calvinism. Nicholas was sent to 
college at Bois-le-Duc ('S Hertogenbosch), and as 
soon as he had completed his classical studies he 
received the habit of tlie Friars Minor at the convent 
in that town. After his profession he was sent to 
the convent at Louvain to follow the course of study 
at the celebrated university there. Nicholas was or- 
dained priest in 1558 and thenceforth devoted himself 
to the apostolic ministry. He evangelized the prin- 
cipal towns of Holland and Belgium, combating 
heresy everywhere, strengthening Cathohcs in their 
faith, and distinguishing himself by his singular 
humility, modesty, charity, and zeal for the honour 
of God and the salvation of souls. He was of an open 
disposition, gay and genial, and his whole bearing 
inspired affection and respect. His superiors, ap- 
preciating his fine qualifies, appointed him guardian 
of the convent at Gorkum, his native town. 

When this place was threatened by the Calvinists, 
Nicholas delivered several discourses to his fellow- 
townsmen, forewarning them against the dangerous 
errors of Calvinism. In particular, he proved by un- 
answerable arguments the dogma of the Real Pres- 
ence, showing it to be a marvellous extension of the 
Incarnation, and he left nothing undone to bring his 
two brothers back to the true fold. When the citadel 
XI.— 5 



of Gorkum was taken by the Watergeuzen, the heretics 
detained the priests and religious, and confined them 
in a dark and foul dungeon. (See Gorkum, The 
Martyrs of.) During the first night the Calvin- 
ists vented their rage particularly against Nicholas. 
Tying about his neck the cord which girded his 
loins, they first suspended him from a beam and then 
let him fall heavily to the ground. This torture was 
prolonged till the cord broke, and the martyr, seem- 
ingly lifeless, fell to the floor. They then applied a 
burning torch to his ears, forehead, and chin, and 
forced open his mouth to burn his tongue and palate, 
either to find out whether he was still alive or in 
order to torture him. Meanwhile, the two brothers 
of Nicholas were busy taking steps to obtain the 
deliverance of the captives. This was promised them 
only on condition that the prisoners would renounce 
the authority of the pope, and, as nothing could make 
Nicholas and his companions waver in their faith, 
they were taken to Brief, where they all gained the 
crown of martyrdom. Nicholas and his companions 
were beatified by Clement X, 24 November, 1675, 
and canonized by Pius IX, 29 June, 1S67. 

Clary. Lives of the Saints and Blessed of the Three Orders of 
Saint Francis. II (Taunton. 1886), 4.57-65; SEDULins, Historia 
Seraphica (Antwerp, 161.3). 671 sq.; Schoutens, Martyrotogium 
Minoritico-Belgicum (Antwerp. 1901). 114-15; EsTlus. Histiiriie 
Martyrum Gorcomiensium in Ada SS., II. .lulv (ed. 1867), 804- 
808; WADniNO. Annates Minorum, XX. 381-418. (For further 
bibliography see Gorkum. The Martyrs of.) 

Ferdinand Heckmann. 

Nichols (or NicoLLs), George, Venerable, Eng- 
hsh martyr, b. at Oxford about 1550; executed at 0.x- 
ford, 19 October, 1589. He entered Brasenose Col- 
lege in 1564 or 1565, and was readmitted 20 August, 
1567, and supplicated for his B.A. degree in 1570-1. 
He subsequently became an usher at St. Paul's School, 
London. He arrived at Reims with Thomas Pilchard 
(q. v.), 20 Nov., 1581; but went on to Rome, whence 
he returned 21 July, 1582. Ordained subdeacon and 
deacon at Laon (probably by Bishop Valentine Doug- 
las, O.S.B.) in April, 1.583, and priest at Reims (by 
Cardinal Archbishop Louis de Guise) 24 Sept., he 
was sent on the mission the same year. Having con- 
verted many, notably a convicted highwayman in Ox- 
ford Castle, he was arrested at the Catherine Wheel 
Inn, opposite the east end of St. Mary Magdalen's 
Church, Oxford, together with Humphrey Prichard, 
a Welsh servant at the inn, Thomas Belson (q. v.), 
and Richard Yaxley. This last was a son (probably 
the third, certainly not the sixth) of William Ya.xlcy of 
Boston, Lincolnshire, by Rose, daughter of John Lang- 
ton of Northolme. Arriving at Reims 29 August, 
1582, he received the tonsure and minor orders 23 
Sept., 1583, and the subdiaconate 5 or 6 April, 1585, 
from the cardinal archbishop. Probably the same 
hand conferred the diaconate on 20 April. Tlie priest- 
hood was conferred at Reims by Louis de Brez6, 
Bishop of Meaux,21 Sept., 1,585. Yaxley left Reims 
for England 28 January, 1585-(!. All four prisoners 
were sent from Oxford to the Bridewell prison in Lon- 
don, where the two priests were li:ui;;e(l u|> for five hours 
to make them betray their hosts, but. without avail. 
Yaxley was sent to the Tower as it clo.-ie prisoner 25 
May, 1589, and appears to have been racked fre- 
quently. Belson was sent to the (i;itehou.se. The 
other two remained in Bridewell, Nichols being put 
into "a deep dungeon full of venomous vermin". On 
30 June all four were ordered back to Oxford to take 
their trial. All were condemned, the priests for trea- 
son, the laymen for felony. Nichols suffered first , then 
Yaxley, then Belson, and last Prii'.hanl. The i)riest8' 
heads were set up on the castle, and their quarters on 
the four city gates. 

Challoner^ Memoirs of Missionary Priests, I. no3. 73-5; Poi/- 
LEN. Catholic Record Society, V (London. 1908). passim: DasenT, 
Acts of the Privy Council. XVII (London, 1800-1907). 203, 329; 
Knox. First and Second Diaries of English College, Douai (London, 
1878), passim; Harleian Societu Publications, LII (London, 1904), 



NICHOLSON 



66 



NICOLAi' 



1124; Oxford Hislorical Socitlu Publications, XXXIX (Oxford, 
189»). 109, 110; LV (Oilord, 1910). 33. 

John B. Wainewric.ht. 

Nicholson, Francis, a controversial writer; b. at 
Manchester, IO.'jO (biiptized 27 Oct.); d. at Lisbon, 13 
AiiR., 1731. The son of Henry or Thomas Nicholson, 
a Manchester citizen, when sixteen he entered TTniver- 
sitvCollege, Oxford, asaservitor, and took liisdenrees 
as Bacholorof Arts (IS June, 16G9) and Master of Arts 
(4 June, 1673). Ordained an Anglican clergyman, he 
officiated, fir.st about Oxford, afterwards near Canter- 
bury, where he gained some success in reconciling 
Nonconformists to the Church of England. A ser- 
mon preached at St. Mary's, Oxford, on 20 June, 1680, 
led to his being chargeil with unorthodox doctrine 
and the fact that he had been a pupil of Obadiah 
Walker caused him to be suspected of Catholic tend- 
encies. The actual date of his reception into the 
Church is unknown, but during the reign of James II 
(16S.5-SS) he was a professed Catholic and busied him- 
self in the king's interests. At this time he wrote the 
appendix on the doctrine of the Church of England 
concerning the Real Presence, and the "Vindication 
of two recent discourses" on the same subject, added 
to Abraham Woodhcad's "Compendious Discourse on 
the Eucharist ", published in 1688. After the revolu- 
tion he joined the Carthusians at Nieuport in Flanders, 
but his health was unequal to this austere life, and in 
1692 he returned to England. There he entered the 
service of the (^ueen Dowager, Catharine of Braganza, 
whom he accompanied back to Portugal. For some 
years lie resided at the Portuguese Court and then 
retired to an estate which he had bought at Pera, half 
a league south of the Tagus, and not, as the writer 
in the " Dictionary of National Biography " oddly as- 
serts, the "suburb of Constantinople". He spent a 
considerable period there in devotion and study, until 
reaching his seventieth year he made over all his real 
and personal property to the English College at 
Lisbon, subject to the discharge of his debts, the pro- 
vision of board and lodging for the remainder of his 
life, and a small annuity. Three years before his 
death at the college he sent back to the Catholic anti- 
quary. Dr. Cuthbert Constable, all the surviving 
MSS. of Abraham Woodhead, which had passed into 
his hands as executor of Obadiah Walker. With 
them also he sent his MS. life of Constable, published 
with additions in his edition of that author's "Third 
Part of a Brief Account of Church Government". 

Anthony a Wood, AtheiKB Oionienses, II, reprinted from 
DODD, Church History, III, 462; Catholic Magazine, VI (May, 
1835), 208; Foster, Alumni Oxonienses (Oxford, 1891); Gillow, 
Bibl. Did. Eng. Calh., s. v. Nicholson and Constable: Sdtton in 
Diet, Nat. Biog.; (I^koft, Kirk's Historical Account of Lisbon College 
(London, 1902). 

Edwin Burton. 

Nicodemus, a prominent Jew of the time of Christ, 
ment ioncd only in the Fourth Gospel. The name is of 
Greek origin, but at that epoch such names were 
occasionally borrowed by the Jews, and according to 
Josephus {.Ant. of the Jews, XIV, iii, 2) Nicodemus 
was the name of one of the ambassadors sent by Aris- 
tobulus to Pompey. A Hebrew form of the name 
(po'lpJ, Naqdimon) is found in the Talmud. 
Nicodemus w.as a Pharisee, and in his capacity of 
sanhedrist (John, vii, .50) was a leader of the Jews. 
Christ, in the interview when Nicodemus came to him 
by night, calls him a master in Israel. Judging from 
John, xix, 39, Nicodemus must have been a man of 
means, and it is probable that he wielded a certain 
influence in the Sanhedrim. Some writers conjecture 
from his question: "How can a man be born when he 
is old?", that he was already advanced in years, but 
the words are too general to warrant such a conclusion. 
He appears in this interview as a learned and intelli- 
gent believer, but timid and not easily initiated into 
the mysteries of the new faith. He next appears 



(John, vii, 50, 51) in the Sanhedrim offering a word 
in defence of the accused C!alile:in; and we may infer 
from this passtige th:it hi- finbraced the truth as soon 
as it was fully made known to him. He is mentioned 
fiii.dly in .John, xix, 39, where he is shown co-operating 
with ,Iosc'ph of Arimathea in the embalming and 
buri:d of ,I(sus. His name occur.s later in some of the 
apocryphal writings, e. g. in the so-called "Acta 
Pilati", a heterogeneous document which in the six- 
teenth century was published under the title "Evan- 
gclium Nicodemi" (Go.spel of Nicodemus). The 
time of his death is unknown. The Roman Martyrol- 
ogy commemorates the finding of his relics, together 
with those of Sts. Stephen, Gamaliel, and .\bibo, on 
3 August. 

Conybeare, Studia Biblica, IV (Oxford, 1896), 59-132; Le 
CAMU.S, La vie de N.-.'i. Jfsus-Christ (Paris. 1883), I. 251 sqq.; II, 
24 sqq., .W? sqq., tr. HiCKEY (3 vols.. New York, 1906-08). 

James F. Dulscoll. 

Nicodemus, Gospel of. See Acta Pilati. 

Nicolai, Jean, celebrated Dominican theologian 
and controversialist, b. in 1594 at Mouzay in the Dio- 
cese of Verdun, France; d. 7 May, 1673, at Paris. En- 
tering the order at the age of twelve, he made his 
religious profession in 1612, studied philosophy and 
theology in the convent of St. James at Paris, obtained 
(1632) the doctorate in theology at the Sorbonne, and 
taught these branches with distinction in various 
houses of the order. He was highlj' esteemed for 
strict observance of the rule, prudence, rare erudition, 
and power of penetration. Besides Latin and Greek 
he was conversant with Italian, Spanish, and He- 
brew. He was a member of the commission appointed 
to examine the works and teachings of the 
Jansenists and to prevent the further dissemina- 
tion of their doctrine in the Sorbonne. In the 
disputes on grace between the Thomists and Mo- 
linists, which the teaching of Jansenius revived, he ad- 
hered strictly to the Thomistic doctrine. His numer- 
ous works fall into three classes: (a) new editions of 
older theologians which he supplied with commen- 
taries and explanatory notes; (b) his own theological 
works; (c) his poetical and political writings. The 
most important of the first class arc "Raineri de Pisis 
[1351] ord. Fr. Prsed. Pantheologia sive universa the- 
ologiaordine alphabetico per varios titulosdistributa" 
(Lyons, 1670): to each of the three volumes of this 
work he added a dissertation against the Jansenists; 
"S. ThomiB Aq. Expositio continua super quatuor 
evangelistas" (Lyons, 1670); "S.Thoma'Aq. commen- 
taria in quatuor libros sententiarum P. Lombardi" 
(Lyons, 16.59); "Commentarius posterior super Ubros 
sententiarum" (Lyons, 1660); "S. Thomse Aq. quse- 
stionesquodlibetales" (Lyons, 1660); "S. ThomoeAq. 
Summa theologica innumeris Patrum, Conciliorum, 
scripturarum ac dccretorum testimoniis ad materias 
controversas vel ad moralem disciplinam pertinenti- 
bus . . . illustrata" (Lyons, 1663); "S. Thoma; Aq. 
explanatio in omnes d. Pauli Ap. epistolas commen- 
taria" (Lyons, 1689). His important theological 
works are: "Judicium seu censorium sufTragium de 
propositione Ant. Arnaldi sorbonici doctoris et sociiad 
qua?stionem juris pertinente" (Paris, 1656); "Theses 
theologies de gratia seu theses molinisticae thomisticis 
notis expuncta;" (Paris, 1656); "Apologia naturae 
et gratia;" (Bordeaux, 1665). Against Launoy, the 
champion of the "Galilean Liberties", he wrote: "De 
jejunii christiani et Christiana; abstinentia; vero ac legit- 
imoritu" (Paris, 1667); "De Concilio plenario, quod 
contra Donatistas bapti.smi quffstionem ex Augustini 
sensu definivit" (Paris, 1667); "De plenarii Concihi 
et baptismatis hereticorum as.sertione dissertatio pos- 
terior anteriorem firmans" (Paris, 1668); "De bapj 
tismi antiquo usu ab Ecclesia instituto, dissertatio 
(Paris, 1668) ; " De Constantini baptismo, ubi, quando 
et a quibus fuerit celebratus historiea dissertatio" 
(Paris, 1680). The purpose of his poetical and pohti- 



NICOLAITES 



67 



NICOLAS 



cal writings seems to have been to extol the dignity 
and glory of France and her lyings. Thus, he delivered 
in Rome in 162S a panegyric in honour of the victory 
of Louis XIII at La Rochelle and in 1661 composed a 
poem in honour of the son of Louis XI V. He was highly 
esteemed at the royal court and received a pension of 
600 francs. He was buried in the chapel of the con- 
vent of St. James in Paris, and a marble stone beside 
the grave bears a long inscription recounting his vir- 
tues, his learning, and his services to his country. 

Qu^TiF-EcH-^RD, SS. Ord, Prmd., II, 647; Journal des Savants, 
II, 340. 4S2. 

Joseph Schroeder. 

Nicolaites (Nicolaitans), a sect mentioned in the 
Apocalyp.se (ii, 6, 15) as existing in Ephesus, Perga- 
mus, and other cities of Asia Minor, about the charac- 
ter and existence of which there is little certainty. 
Irena;us (Adv. Hasr., I, xxvi, 3; III, xi, 1) discusses 
them but adds nothing to the Apocalypse except that 
"they lead lives of unrestrained indulgence". Ter- 
tuUian refers to them, but apparently knows only 
what is found in St. John (De Praiscrip. xxxiii; Adv. 
Marc, I, xxix; De Pud., xvii). Hippolytus based his 
narrative on Irenteus, though he states that the deacon 
Nicholas was the author of the heresy and the sect 
(Philosoph., VII, xxvi). Clement of Alexandria 
(Strom., Ill, iv) exonerates Nicholas, and attributes 
the doctrine of promiscuity, which the sect claimed to 
have derived from him, to a malicious distortion of 
words harmless in themselves. With the exception of 
the statement in Eusebius (H. E., Ill, xxix) that the 
sect was short-lived, none of the references in Epi- 
phanius, Theodoret etc. deserve mention, as they are 
taken from Irena>us. The common statement, that 
the Nicolaites held the antinomian heresy of Corinth, 
has not been proved. Another opinion, favoured by 
a number of authors, is that, because of the allegorical 
character of the Apocalypse, the reference to the 
Nicolaitans is merely a symbolic manner of reference, 
based on the identical meaning of the names, to the 
Bileamites or Balaamites (Apoc, ii, 14) who are 
mentioned just before them as professing the same 
doctrines. 

HiLGENFBLD, Kctzergeschichte des Urchristentums (Leipzig, 
1884); Seeseman, Die Nikolaiten. Bin Beitrag zur dlteren Haresi- 
ologie in Theol. Studien und Kritiken (1893). 

P. J. Healy. 

Nicolas, Armella, popularly known as "La 
bonne Armelle", a saintly French serving-maid held 
in high veneration among the people, though never 
canonized by the Church, b. at Campen^ac in Brit- 
tanny, 9 September, 1606, of poor peasants, George 
Nicolas and Francisca Neant; d. 24 October, 1671. 
Her earlv years were spent in the pious, simple life of 
the hard-working country folk. When she was 
twenty-two years of age her parents wished her to 
marry, but she chose rather to enter service in the 
neighbouring town of Ploermel, where she found more 
opportunity for her pious works and for satisfying her 
spiritual needs. After a few years she went to the 
larger town of Vannes, where she served in several 
families, and for a year and a half was portress at the 
Ursuline monastery. She here forined a special 
friendship with a certain sister, Jeanne de la Nativity, 
to whom she told from time to time many details of 
her spiritual life, and who noted down these com- 
munications, and afterwards wrote the life of Armella, 
who could herself neither read nor write. Even the 
lowly work at the convent did not satisfy her craving 
for toil and humiliation, and she returned to one of her 
former employers, where .she remained to the end of her 
life. To her severe trials and temptations she added 
many works of penance and was rewarded by the 
growth of her inner life and her intimate union with 
God. During the last years of her life a broken leg 
caused her great suffering, patiently borne. Many 



recommended themselves to her prayers and her 
death-bed was surrounded by a great number of per- 
sons who held her in special veneration. Her heart 
was preserved in the Jesuit church, and her body 
was buried in the church of the Ursulines. Near her 
grave was erected a tablet to "La bonne Armelle"; 
her tomb is a place of pilgrimage. Armella has been 
claimed, but without good grounds, as an exponent of 
Quietism (q. v.). If some of her expressions seemed 
tinged with Quietist thought, it is because the con- 
troversy which cleared and defined many notions con- 
cerning Quietism had not yet arisen. On the other 
hand her simple, laborious life and practical piety 
make any such aberrations very unlikely. 

JuNQMANN in Kirchenlexikon, s. v. Nicolas; Stoltz, Legende der 
Heiligen, 2Jf October; BussoN, Vie d' Armelle Nicolas etc. (Paris, 
1844) ; Tehsteeqen, Select Lives of Holy Souls, I, 2nd ed. (1754). 

Edward F. Gahesch:^. 

Nicolas, AuGusTE, French apologist, b. at Bor- 
deaux, 6 Jan., 1807; d. at Versailles 18 Jan., 1888. 
He first studied law, was admitted as an advocate 
and entered the magistracy. From 1841-49 he was 
justice of the peace at Bordeaux; as early as 1842 he 
began the publication of his apologetical writings 
which soon made his name known among Catholics. 
When in 1849 M. de Falloux became minister of pub- 
lic worship he summoned Nicolas to assist him as 
head of the department for the administration of the 
temporal interests of ecclesiastical districts. He held 
this office until 1854 when he became general inspector 
of libraries. In 1860 he was appointed judge of the 
tribunal of the Seine and fanally councillor at the 
Paris court of appeals. 

Nicolas employed his leisure and later his retirement 
to write works in defence of Christianity taken as a 
whole or in its most important dogmas. He showed his 
accurate conception of apologetics by adapting them 
to the dispositions and the needs of the minds of his 
time, but he lived in a period when Traditionalism 
still dominated many French Catholics, and this is re- 
flected in his works. He aimed no doubt at defending 
religion by means of philosophy, good sense, and 
arguments from authority; but he also often appeals 
to the traditions and the groping moral sense of man- 
kind at large. The testimonies, however, which he 
cites, are often apocryphal, and frequently also he 
interprets them uncritically and ascribes to them 
a meaning or a scope which they do not possess. Be- 
sides, his apologetics speedily grew out-of-date when 
ecclesiastical and critical studies were revived in 
France and elsewhere. His writings also betray at 
times the layman lacking in the learning and pre- 
cision of the theologian, and some of his books were 
in danger of being placed on the Index. Some bishops, 
however, among them Cardinals Donnet and Pie, in- 
tervened in his behalf and certified to the uprightness 
of his intentions. Otherwise the author addressed 
himself to the general public and especially to the 
middle classes which were still penetrated with Vol- 
tairian incredulity, and he succeeded in reaching 
them. His books were very successful in France and 
some of them even in Germany, where they were 
translated. Among his works may be mentioned: 
"Etudes philosophiques sur le Christiatiisinc" (Paris, 
1841-45), a philosophical apology for the cliicf Chris- 
tian dogmas, which reached a twenty-sixth edition 
before the death of the author; "La Vierge Marie et 
le plan divin, nouvelles (Studes philosophiques sur le 
Christianisme" (4 vols., Paris. 18.52, 1853, 1S61), in 
which is explained the- rcMe of the Blessed Virgin in the 
plan of Kedi'inption, and which was triiii.slati'd into 
German, and rcai^hed the eighth edition during the 
author's lifetime; " Du protestanti-sme et de toutes les 
h6r6sies d,ans leur rapport avec le socialisme" (Paris, 
1852, 2 vols., 8 editions); "L'Art de croire, ou prepa- 
ration philosophique au Christianisme" (Paris, 1866- 
67), translated into German; "La Divinit6 de Jdsus- 



NICOLAUS 



68 



NICOLE 



Christ, ddmonst ration nou velle " ( 1 864) ; " J&us Chriat 
introduction i I'Evangilc 6tudi6 et mdditd k I'usage 
dcs temps nouveaux" (Paris, 1875). As semi-reli- 
gious and semi-political may be mentioned: "La 
Monarchic et la question du drapeau" (Paris, 1873); 
"La Revolution et I'orde chr^tien" (Paris, 1874); 
"L'Etat contre Dicu" (Paris, 1879); "Rome et la 
Papaut6" (Paris, 1883); and finally the works in his- 
torico-philosophic vein: "Etude sur Maine de Biran" 
(Paris, 1858); "Etude sur Eugdnie de Gu(;rin" 
(Paris, 1863); "M6raoires d'un pdre sur la vie et la 
mort de son fils" (Paris, 1860); "Etude historique et 
critique sur le Pere Lacordaire" (Toulouse, 1886). 

LAPETRk:, Auffiiste Nicolas, sa vie ct ses (euvres d'aprts ses AU' 
moires inidiU, ses papiers et sa correspondance (Paris, 1892). 

Antoine Degert. 

Nicolaus Gennanus (often called "Donis" from a 
misappr(>hensi(inof thetitle"Donnus"or "Donus"an 
abbreviated form of "Dominus"), a fifteenth-century 
cartographer, place of birth, and date of birth and 
death unknown. The first allusion to him of authentic 
date is an injunction of Duke Borso d'Este (15 March, 
1466) to his referendary and privy counsellor, Ludo- 
vico Casella, at Ferrara, to have the "Cosmographia 
of Don Nicolo " thoroughly examined and then to de- 
termine a recompense for it. The duke, on the thir- 
tieth of the same month, called upon his treasurers for 
100 florins in gold "to remit as a mark of his apprecia- 
tion to Donnus Nicolaus Germanus for his excellent 
book entitled 'Cosmographia' ". On 8 April, 1466, 
the duke again drew thirty golden florins to present to 
the Rev. Nicolaus, who "in addition to that excellent 
Cosmography" (ultra illud excellens Cosmographie 
opus) had dedicated to the duke a calendar made to 
cover many years to come (" librum tacuini multorum 
annorum"). The "Co.smographia" as preserved in 
the Bibliotheca Estensis at ^Iodena comprises a Latin 
translation of the Geography of Ptolemy with maps. 
The version of the geographical text is substantially 
the same as that dedicated in 1410 to Pope Alexander 
V by Jacopo Angelo, a P'lorentine. In the execution 
of the maps, however, Nicolaus, instead of adhering to 
the flat projection of Ptolemy, chose what is known as 
the "Donis-projection", because first worked out 
by him, in which the parallels of latitude are equi- 
distant, but the meridians are made to converge to- 
wards the pole. He likewise introduced new modes 
in delineating the outlines of countries and oceans, 
mountains and lakes, as well as in the choice of carto- 
graphic proportions. He reduced the awkward size 
to one which was convenient for use; the obscure and 
often unattractive mode of presentation he replaced 
by one both tasteful and easily intelligible; he en- 
deavoured to revise obsolete maps in accordance with 
later information and to supplement them with new 
maps. While his first recension embraced only the 
twenty-seven maps of Ptolemy (one map of the world, 
ten special maps of Europe, four of Africa, twelve of 
Asia), the second comprised thirty (including in ad- 
dition modern maps of .Spain, Italy, and the Northern 
countries: Sweden, Norway, and Greenland). The 
last-named enlarged recension he dedicated as priest 
to Pope Paul II (1464-71). He dedicated to the 
same pontiff' his third recension, containing thirty- 
two maps, adding modern maps of France and the 
Holy Land. The works of the German cartographer 
were of great value in diffusing the knowledges of 
Ptolemy's Geography. The fir.st recension, probably 
the very copy in the Lenox Library (Now York), is 
the basis of the Roman editions of Ptolemy bearing 
the dates 1478, 1400, and 1.507; on the third, certainly 
the copy preserved in Wolfegg Castle, are based the 
Ulm editions of 14.82 and 1486. By combining the 
Roman and Flm editions Wald.seemiiller produced the 
maps of Ptolemy in the Stra.sburg edition of 1513, 
which wasfrequently copied. The modern mapof the 



Northern countries, made by Claudius Clavus, which 
Nicolaus embodied in his .second recension of Ptolemy, 
was pcrliaps the source of I lie Zeiii map which had such 
far-reaching influence, and likewise of the maritime 
charts of the Canerio and Cantino type. The revised 
map of the Northern countries in the third recension of 
Nicolaus, which placed Greenland north of the Scan- 
dinavian Peninsula, was a powerful factor in c'lrtog- 
raphy for a century, especially as Waldscciniiller gave 
the preference to this representation in his world and 
wall map of 1507, "the baptismal certificate of Amer- 
ica". Because of these and other services to geog- 
raphy and cartography, as for example, by the re- 
vision of Buondclmonte's "Insularium", it would be 
desirable to have it established whether Nicolaus 
was really, as I conjecture, a Benedictine father of 
the Badia at Florence. 

Fischer, Nicolaus Germanus in Entdeckungen der Normannen 
in Amerika (Freiburg, 1902), 75-90, 113 sqq. (Eng. tr., London, 
1903), 72-86, 108 sqq. 

Joseph Fischer. 

Nicole, Pierre, theologian and controversialist, 
b. 19 October, 1625, at Chartres; d. 16 November, 
1695, at Paris. He studied at Paris, became Master 
of Arts, 1644, and followed courses in theology, 1645- 
46. Under Sainte-Beuve's direction he applied him- 
self earnestly to the study of St. Augustine and St. 
Thomas, devoting part of his time to teaching in the 
schools of Port-Royal. In 1649 he received the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Theology, and then withdrew to 
Port-Royal dcs Champs, where he fell in with the Jan- 
senistic leaders, especially Antoine Arnauld, who 
found in him a willing ally. He returned to Paris in 
1654 under the assumed name of M. de Rosny. Four 
years later, during a tour in Germany, he translated 
Pascal's "Provinciales" into classic Latin, adding 
notes of his own and publishing the whole as the 
work of William Wendrock. In 1676 he sought ad- 
mission to Holy orders, but was refused by the BLshop 
of Chartres and never got beyond tonsure. A letter, 
which he wrote (1677) to Innocent XI in favour of the 
Bishops of Saint-Pons and Arras, involved him in dif- 
ficulties that obliged him to quit the capital. In 1679 
he went to Belgium and lived for a time with Arnauld 
in Brussels, Liege, and other cities. About 1683 de 
Harlay, Archbishop of Paris, to whom he had sent a 
sort of retractation, authorized Nicole to return to 
Chartres, then to Paris. Here he took part in two cele- 
brated controversies, the one involving Quietism in 
which he upheld Bossuet's views, the other relating 
to monastic studies in which he sided with Mabillon 
against the Abbe de Rancey. His last years were sad- 
dened by painful infirmities and his death came after a 
series of apoplectic attacks. 

Pierre Nicole was a distinguished writer and a vig- 
orous controversialist and, together with Pascal, con- 
tributed much to the formation of French prose. As 
a controversialist, he too frequently placed his talent 
at the service of a sect ; however, many are of the opin- 
ion that he did not wholly share the errors of the ma- 
jority of the Jansenists. At any rate, we generally 
find in him only a mitigated expression of these errors 
clothed in great reserve. On the other hand, hcstarted 
the resistance fund known as "la bolte k Perrette". 
(See Jansenius.) Niceron (Mcmoires, XXIX, Paris, 
1783) enumerates no less than eighty-eight of his 
works, several of which were, however, very short. 
The principal works of Nicole relating either to Prot- 
estantism or Jan.senism are: "Les imaginaires et les 
visionnaires" or "Lettres sur I'h^r^^-sie imaginaire", 
namely, that of the Jansenists (Lifge, 1667) ; "La per- 
pf^'tuite de la foi catholique touchant rEucharistie", 
published under Arnauld's name, but the first three 
volumes of which (Paris, 1669-76) are by Nicole, 
the fourth and fifth (Paris, 1711-13) by the Abb^ 
Renaudot ; " Pr^juges legitimes contre les Calvinistes " 
(Paris, 1671); "X-a defense de I'Eglise" (Cologne, 



NICOLET 



69 



NICOMEDES 



1689), being a reply to the "Defense de la Reforma- 
tion" written by the minister, Claude, against the 
"Pr^jug^s legitimes"; "Essais de morale" (Paris, 
1671-78); "Les pr^tendus R^formes convaincus de 
schisme" (Paris, 1084); "De I'unit^ de I'Eglise" or 
"Refutation du nouveau systeme de M. Jurieu" 
(Paris, 1687), a condensed and decisive criticism of the 
theory of the "fundamental articles"; "Refutation 
des principales erreurs des Qui^tistes" (Paris, 1695); 
"Instructions theologiques et morales sur les sacre- 
ments" (Paris, 1706), "surleSymbole" (Paris, 1706), 
"sur I'Oraison dominicale, la Salutation ang^lique, la 
Sainte Messe et les autres prieres de I'EgUse" (Paris, 
1706), "sur le premier commandement du Decalogue" 
(Paris, 1709); "Traitc de la grace generale" (Paris. 
1715), containing all that Nicole had written at 
different times on grace; "Traite de I'usure" (Paris, 
1720). 

GoujET, Hisloire de la vie et des ouvrages de Nicole (Paris, 1733) ; 
Besoigne. Vie de Nicole in the Histoire de Port-Royal, V; (Both 
of these authors are Jansenists and write as such.) an anonymous 
Biography of Nicole in the Continuation des essais de morale (Lux- 
emburg. 1732); Cerveau, V esprit de Nicole (Paris, 1765); Mer- 
BAN, Pensfes de Nicole (Paris, 1806); Floss in Kirchenlex., a. v.; 
HuRTER, Nomenclator, II. 

J. Forget. 

Nicolet, Diocese OF (Nicoletana), in the Province 
of Quebec, Canada, suffragan of Quebec. It com- 
prises the counties of Nicolet, Yamaska, Arthabaska, 
Drummond, and a small part of Shefford and Bagot. 
The see takes its name from the town of Nicolet (pop- 
ulation 3915), situated on the south bank of the St. 
Lawrence, opposite Trois-Rivieres. 

It was erected into a bishopric on 11 July, 1885, by 
separation from the Diocese of Trois-Rivi^res, the 
first occupant of the see being Mgr Elphege Gravel. 
He was born on 12 October, 1838, at Saint-Antoine de 
Richelieu, (Juebec; consecrated at Rome on 2 August, 
1885, and died, 28 January, 190-4. His successor, 
Mgr Joseph-Simon-Herman Brunault, the present 
occupant of the see, was born at St-David, Quebec, on 
10 January, 1857; educated at the seminary of Nico- 
let and the Canadian College, Rome; ordained, 29 
June, 1882. Having ministered two years in the cathe- 
dral of St. Hyacinth and taught for many years in the 
seminary of" Nicolet, first as professor of literature, 
and then of theology, he was named coadjutor to Mgr 
Gravel and consecrated titular Bishop of Tubuna, 27 
December, 1899; and succeeded as Bishop of Nicolet, 
28 January, 1904. The seminary of Nicolet was 
founded in October, 1803, and affiliated to the Laval 
University of Quebec, in 1863; it contains over 320 
students; a grand seminaire, likewise affiliated to the 
University of Laval, was established at Nicolet, 22 
February, 1908. 

The religious in the diocese are as follows : Sceurs de 
I'Assomption de la Sainte- Vierge, teachers, founded at 
St-Gregoire (Nicolet) in 1853, have eighteen houses in 
the diocese; Sceurs Crises (de Nicolet), hospitallers, 
three houses; Congregation de Notre-Dame (of Mont- 
real), teachers, at Arthabaskaville, and Victoriaville; 
Sceurs de la Presentation de la Bienheureuse Vierge Ma- 
rie, teachers, at St-David and Drummond ville; Sirurs 
Crises de la Croix (of Ottawa), teachers and nurses, 
with academy and school of house-keeping at St-Fran- 
9018 du Lac, and a school at Pierreville (Abenaki Indian 
village); Rrligicuscs hosiiitulirrcs di- St- Joseph (of 
Montreal), hospit;dlrrs, al .\ith:il):isk,-uillf; Sirurs du 
Precieux-Sang,:in(lSu'urs (Ida Saiiitc-Faniille at Nico- 
let; the Freres des Ecoles Chretiennes have schools at 
Nicolet, Arthabaskaville, La Bale, and St-Grcgoirc ; I he 
Frfires de la Charit6 are at Drummond ville; and the 
Frferes du SacriJ-Cceur teach at Art-habaska-ville, and 
Victoriaville. General Stalistics. — Secular priests, 140; 
brothers, 120; sisters, 400; churches with resident 
priests, 65; mis.sion, 1; theological seminary, 1; college 
seminary, 1; commercial colleges and academies for 
boys, 11; students, 1500; academies for young ladies 



in charge of sisters, 28 ; students, 1800; normal school 
for young ladies, 1 ; parochial schools, 500; children at- 
tending parochial schools, 20,000; orphan asylums, 1; 
orphans, 120; hospitals, 3; population: Catholic 
French Canadians, 90,000; Irish Canadians, 600; 
Protestants, 1800; total population, 92,400. 

J.-S.-Herman Brunault. 

Nicolo de' Tudeschi ("abbas modernus" or "re- 
centior", "abbas Panormitanus " or "Siculus"), a 
Benedictine canonist, b. at Catania, Sicily, in 1386; 
d. at Palermo, 24 February, 1445. In 1400 he entered 
the Order of St. Benedict; he was sent (1405-06) 
to the University of Bologna to study under Zabar- 
ella; in 1411 he became a doctor of canon law, 
and taught successively at Parma (1412-18), Siena 
(1419-30), and Bologna (1431-32). Meanwhile in 
1425, he was made abbot of the monastery of Man- 
iacio, near Messina, whence his name "Abbas", to 
which has been added "modernus" or "recentior" 
(in order to distinguish him from "Abbas antiquus", 
a thirteenth century canonist who died about 12SS); 
he is also known as "Abbas Siculus" on account of his 
Sicilian origin. In 1433 he went to Rome where he 
exercised the functions of auditor of the Rota and 
Apostolic referendary. The following year he relin- 
quished these offices and placed himself at the service 
of Alfonso of Castile, King of Sicily, obtaining the 
See of Palermo in 1435, whence his name "Panor- 
mitanus ". During the troubles that marred the pon- 
tificate of Eugene IV, Nicolo at first followed the 
party of this pontiff but subsequently allied himself 
with the antipope Felix V who, in 1440, naitied him 
cardinal. In his "Tractatus de conciHo Basileensi" 
he upheld the doctrine of the superiority of a general 
council to the pope. It was his canonical works, 
especially his "Lectura in Decretales" "In Sextum", 
and "In Clementinas", that won him the title of 
"lucerna juris" (lamp of the law) and insured him 
great authority; he also wrote "Consilia", "Qua;s- 
tiones", "Repetitiones", " Disputationes, discepta- 
tiones et allegationes", and "Flores utrius(iue juris". 
A fine edition of his works appeared at \ciiii-ciii 1477; 
amonglater, frequent editions, that piiMislicdi II 1617- 
18 (Venice) in 10 fnli.. \o1iiiim- 1- ( -p^riillv notable. 

ScHULTE, Die C. . I ',' ' ' rlien Rechtes, 

II (Stuttgart, 18771 ;l : i : " documentata 

della Reale Univerxil., ,,(■'-;,.: i ,t n,i i, I ^'i^ ' , I" hi]. Brandi- 
LEONE, Notizie su GraHnno e sa .\„-rold dr Twlrsrlns Iralte dn una 
cronaca inedita. Studi e memorie per la storia dclV Universita di 
Bologna, I (Bologna, 1909), i, 18-21. 

A. Van Hove. 

Nicomedes, Saint, martyr of unknown era, whose 
feast is observed 15 September. The Roman Mar- 
tyrologium and the historical Martyrologies of Bede 
and his imitators place the feast on this date. The 
Gregorian Sacramentary contains under the same date 
the orations for his Mass. The n;ime does not appear 
in the three oldest and most inip<irt:iiit MSS. of the 
" Martyrologium Hieronymianum ", hut \v:is in.serted 
in later recensions ("Martyrol. Ilicronymianuin", ed. 
De Rossi-Duchesne, in Acta SS., Nov., II, 121). The 
saint is without doubt a martyr of the Roman Church. 
He was bviried in a catacomb on the Via Nomentana 
near the gate of that name. Three seventh century 
Itineraries make exi)licit reference to his grave, and 
Popi^ Adrian I restored the church built over it (De 
Rossi, "Roiii.a Sotterranea", I, 178-79). A titular 
church of Home, iiiciitioned in the fifth century, was 
dedic:ited to him (liltdusi S. Nicomi-dis). Nothing is 
known of the circuiiist:mces of his de:ith. Tlie legend 
of the martyrdom of Sts. N<-reus ;uid .\cliilliMis intro- 
ducers him as a presbyter and places his death ;it the 
end of the first century. Other recensions of the 
martyrdom of St. Nicomedes ascribe the sentence of 
death to the Emperor Maximianus (beginning of the 
fourth century). ^,, „_,„ „„ 

Acta .S'.S., Sept.. V, 5 sqq.; Analceta Bnllandmna, XI, 2»8-H9; 
MoMBBiTins, Sanctuarium, II, 160-61 ; Bibliotheca hagtograpkica 



NICOMEDIA 



70 



NICOPOLIS 



latina, cd. Boll-vndists. II, 901-02; DpFOnRCQ, Les Oesia Mat- 
tyntm romains, I (Paris, 1900), 209-10; Marucchi, Les calacombcs 
romaines (Homo, 1900), 254-56. 

J. P. KiRSCH. 

Nicomedia, titularscc of Rilliyni;i I'rim;i. foundod 
by Kins Zi]iiicics. About 2t')l H. c. liis son Xicdilcmps 
1 declirati'd tlir city imew, gave it his name, made it 
his capital, and adorned it with raasnilit'pnt monu- 
ments. At his court the vanquished Hannibal sought 
refuge. When Bithynia became a Roman province 
Nicomedia remained its capital. Pliny the Younger 
mentions, in his letters to Trajan, several public 
edifices of the city, — a senate house, an aqueduct 
which he had built, a forum, the temple of Cybele, etc. 
He also proposed to join the Black Sea with the Sea of 
Marmora by a canal which shoidd follow the river 
Sangarius and empty the waters of the Lake of 
Sabandja into the Gulf of Astacus. A fire then almost 
destroyed the town. From Nicomedia jjerhaps, 
he wrote to Trajan his famous letter concerning the 
Christians. Under Marcus Aurelius, Dionysius, 
Bishop of Corinth, addressed a letter to his commu- 
nity warning them against the Marcionites (Eusebius, 
"Hist. Eccl.", IV, xxiii). Bishop Evander, who 
opposed the sect of the Ophites (P. L., LIII, 592), 
seems to have lived at the same time. Nicomedia 
was the favourite residence of Diocletian, who built 
there a palace, a hippodrome, a mint, and an ar- 
senal. In 303 the edict of the tenth persecution 
caused rivers of blood to flow through the empire, 
especially in Nicomedia, where the Bishop .\nthimus 
and a great many Christians were martyred. The 
city was then half Christian, the palace itself being 
filled with them. In 303, in the vast plain east of 
Nicomedia, Diocletian renounced the empire in favour 
of Galerius. In 311 Lucian, a priest of .^ntioch, de- 
livered a discourse in the presence of the judge before 
he was executed. Other martyrs of the city are 
numbered by hundreds. Nicomedia suffered greatly 
during the fourth century from an invasion of the 
Goths and from an earthquake (24 Aug., 354), which 
overthrew all the public and private monuments; fire 
completed the catastrophe. The city was rebuilt, on 
a smaller scale. In the reign of Justinian new public 
buildings were erected, which were destroyed in the 
following century by the Shah Chosroes. Pope Con- 
stantine I visited the city in 711. In 1073 John 
Comnenus was there proclaimed emperor and shortly 
afterwards was compelled to abdicate. In 1328 it 
was captured by the Sultan Orkhan, who restored its 
ramparts, parts of which are still preserved. 

LeQuien (Oriens Christ., I, 581-98) has drawn up 
a list of fifty metropolitans, which may easily be com- 
pleted, for Nicomedia has never ceased to be a met- 
ropolitan see. Some Latin archbishops are also 
mentioned by Le Quien (III, 1017) and by Eubel 
(Hierarchia Cathohca medii aivi, 1, 381). As early as 
the eighth century the metropolitan See of Nicomedia 
had eight suffragan sees which disappeared by degrees. 
Among its bishops, apart from those already men- 
tioned, were: the three Arians, Eusebius, Eudoxius, 
and Demophilus, who exchanged their see for that of 
Constantinople; St. Theophylactus, martyred by the 
Iconoclasts in the ninth century; George, a great 
preacher and a friend of Photius; Philotheus Bryen- 
nios, the present titular, who discovered and pub- 
lished Ai-Saxv tOiv diroa-TdXav. To-day Nicomedia is 
called Ismidt, the chief town of a sanjak directly de- 
pendent on Constantinople. It has about 25,000 in- 
habitants, who are very poor, for the German port 
of Haidar Pacha has completely ruined its commerce. 
Since 1891 the Augustinians of the Assumption have 
a mission and school, and the Oblates of the .Assump- 
tion, a school and a dispensary. The Latin Catholics 
number about 2.50 in the region of the mission, seventy 
of them hving in the city. The Armenian Catholic 
parish numbers 120. 



Texier, Asic Minrmc (Pari.i, 1802), 00-68; Ccinet, La Tut- 
Quie d'Aaie (Paris), IV, 355-04. 

S. \^\^Mt. 

Nicopolis, a titular see, suffragan ot S<'l);u-iteia, in 
Armenia Prima. Foun<lccl by Poinpcy uflcr his de- 
cisive victory over Mithridatcs. it was inhabited by 
veterans of his army and by mcnibcrs of I he neigh- 
bouring pea.santry, and w;is delightfully situated in a 
beautiful, well-watered plain lying at the bxse of a 
thickly-wooded mountain. All the Roman highways 
intersecting that portion of the country and leading to 
Comana, Polemonium, Neocai-sarea, Sebasteia, etc., 
radiated from Nicopolis which, even in the time of 
Strabo (XII, iii, 28), boasted quite a large population. 
Given to Polemon by Anthony, in Sti b. c, Nicopolis 
was governed from A. D. 54, by Aristobulus of Chal- 
cis and definitively annexed to the Roman Empire by 
Nero, A. D. 04. It then became the metropolis of 
Lesser Armenia and the seat of the provincial diet 
which elected the Armeniarch. Besides the altar of 
the Augusti, it raised temples to Zeus Nicephorus and 
to Victory. Christianity reached Nicopolis at an early 
date and, under Licinius, about 319, forty-five of the 
city's inhabitants were martyred; the Church vener- 
ates them on 10 July. St. Basil (P. G., XXXII, 896) 
calls the priests of Nicopolis the sons of confessors and 
martyrs, and their church (P. G., XXXII, 834) the 
mother of that of Colonia. About 472, St. John the 
Silent, who had sold his worldly goods, erected a 
church there to the Blessed Virgin. 

In 499 Nicopolis was destroyed by an earthquake, 
none save the bishop and his two secretaries escaping 
death (Bull. Acad, de Belgique, 1905, 557). This dis- 
aster was irreparable, and although Justinian rebuilt 
the walls and erected a monastery in memory of the 
Forty-five Martyrs (Procopius, " De ^Edificiis ", III, 4), 
Nicopohs never regained its former splendour. Under 
Heraclius it was captured by Chosroes (Sebeos, "His- 
toire d'Heraclius", tr. Macler, p. 62) and thenceforth 
was only a mediocre city, a simple see and a suffragan 
of SebaslciM in Lesser Armenia, remaining such at 
least until I he clcxinth century, as may be seen from 
the various "Nut ilia; episcopatuum". To-day the 
site of ancient Nicopolis is occupied by the Armenian 
village of Purkh, which has a population of 200 fami- 
lies and is near the city of Enderes, in the sanjak 
of Kara-Hissar and the vilayet of Sivas. Notable 
among the eight bishops mentioned by Le Quien is St. 
Gregory who, in the eleventh century, resigned his 
bishopric and retired to Pithiviers in France. The 
Church venerates him on 14 March. 

Le QtJlE.v, Oriens chrisHanua (Paris, 1740), I. 427-30; Acta 
Sanctorum, July, III, 34-45; CuMONT, Studica Pontica (Brussels, 
1906), 304-14. 

S. Vailh£. 

Nicopolis, Diocese of (Nicopolitana), in Bul- 
garia. The city of Nicopolis (Thrace or Moesia), sit>- 
uated at the junction of the latrus with the Danube, 
was built by Trajan in commemoration of his victory 
over the Dacians (Ammianus Marcellinus, XXXI, 5; 
Jornandes, "De rebus geticis", ed. Savagner, 218). 
Ptolemy (III, xi, 7) places it in Thrace and Hierocles 
in Mcesia near the Ha;mus or Balkans. In the "Ec- 
thesis" of pseudo-Epiphanius (Gelzer, "Ungedruckte 
. . . Texte der Notitiae episcopatuum", .535), Nico- 
polis figures as an autoeephalous archbishopric about 
640, and then disappears from the episcopal lists, 
owing to the fact that the country fell into the hands 
of the Bulgarians. Le Quien (Oriens christianus, I, 
1233) has preserved the names of two ancient bishops: 
Marcellus in 458, and Amantius in 518. A list of the 
Latin titulars (1.3.54-1413) may be found in Eubel 
(Hierarchia catholica medii a;vi, Mijnster, I, 381). 
The city is chiefly noted for the defeat of the French 
and Hungarian armies (25 September, 1396) which 
made the Turks masters of the Balkan peninsula. 



NICOPOLIS 



71 



NICOSIA 



The Latin mission of Bulgaria, subject during the six- 
teenth century to the Archbishops of Antivari, after- 
wards received Franciscan missionaries from Bosnia, 
and in 1624 formed an independent province called 
" eustodia Bulgariio ". In 1763 it was confided to the 
Baptistines of Genoa and in 17S1, to the Passionists 
who have no canonical residences in the country, sim- 
ply parishes. One of them is usually appointed 
Bishop of Nicopolis. The Franciscan bishops for- 
merly resided at Tchiprovetz, destroyed by the Turks 
in 16S8, but after the war and the pestilence of 1812, 
the bishop established himself at Cioplea, a Catholic 
village which the Bulgarians had just founded near 
Bucharest and where his successors resided until 1883, 
when the Holy See created the Archbishopric of Bu- 
charest. The Bishop of Nicopolis, ceasing then to be 
apostolic administrator of Wallachia, chose Roust- 
chouk as his residence and still lives there. In the 
diocese there are 13,000 Catholics; 24 priests, 5 of 
whom are seculars; 17 Passionists and 2 Assumption- 
ists; 15 churches, and 3 chapels. The Assumptionists 
have a school at Varna, the Oblates of the Assumption 
a boarding-school in the same city, and the Sisters of 
Our Lady of Sion a boarding-school at Roustchouk. 

Plolemy, ed. MfJLLER, I (Paris), 481; Le Roulx, La France en 
Orient au XIV' siecle. I (Paris. 1886), 211-99; Bchos d'Orient, 
VII (Paris). 207-9; Missiones catholicce (Rome, 1907). 

S. Vailh£. 

Nicopolis, a titular see and metropolis in ancient 
Epirus. Augustus founded the city (b. c. 31) on a 
promontory in the Gulf of Ambracia, in commemora- 
tion of his victory over Anthony and Cleopatra at 
Actium. At Nicopolis the emperor instituted the 
famous quinquennial Actian games in honour of 
Apollo. The city was peopled chiefly by settlers from 
the neighbouring municipia, of which it was the head 
(Strabo III, xiii, 3; VII, vii, 6; X, ii, 2). According 
to Pliny the Elder (IV, 2) it was a free city. St. Paul 
intended going there (Tit., iii, 12) and it is possible 
that even then it numbered .some Christians among 
its population; Origen sojourned there for a while 
(Eusebius, "Hist, eccl.", VI, 16). Laid waste by the 
Goths at the beginning of the fifth century (Procopius, 
"Bell, goth.", IV, 22), restored by Justinian (Idem, 
" De vEdificiis", IV, 2), in the sixth century it was still 
the capital of Epirus (Hierocles, "Synecdemus", ed. 
Burchhardt, 6.51, 4). The province of ancient Epirus 
of which Nicopolis was the metropolis, constituted a 
portion of the western patriarchate, directly subject 
to the jurisdiction of the pope; but, about 732, Leo 
the Isaurian incorporated it into the Patriarchate of 
Constantinople. Of the eleven metropolitans men- 
tioned by Le Quien (Oriens christianus, II, 133-38) 
the most celebrated was Alcison who, early in the 
sixth century, opposed the Monophysite policy of 
Emperor Anastasius. The last known of these bish- 
ops was Anastasius, who attended the fficumenical 
Council in 787, and soon afterwards, owing to the 
decadence into which Nicopolis fell, the metropolitan 
see was transferred to Naupactus which subsequently 
figured in the Notitise episcopatuum. Quite exten- 
sive ruins of Nicopolis are found three miles to the 
north of Prevesa and are called Palaio-Prevesa. 

Smith, Diet. Greek and Roman Geography, II (London, 1870), 
426; Leake, Northern Greece, I, 185; Wolfe, Journal of Geo- 
graphical Society, III, 92 sq. 

S. VailhS. 

Nicosia, a city of the Province of Catania, in Sicily, 
situated at a height of about 2800 feet above the level 
of the sea. In its neighbourhood are salt mines and 
sulphur springs. The town is believed to stand on the 
site of the ancient Otterbita, which was destroyed by 
the Arabs. It has a fine cathedral, with a magnificent 
portal and paintings by Velasquez. Santa Maria 
Maggiore, also, is a beautiful church. The episcopal 
see was erected in 1818, its first prelate being Mgr 
Cajetan M. Averna. Nicosia was the birthplace of 



the Blessed Felix of Nicosia, a Capuchin lay brother. 
Within the diocese is the ancient city of Triona, which 
was an episcopal see from 1087 to 1090. Nicosia is a 
suffragan of Messina, from the territory of which that 
of Nicosia was taken; it has 23 parishes, with 60,250 
inhabitants, 4 religious houses of men, and 5 of women, 
and 3 schools for girls. 

Cappelletti, Le Chiese d'ltalia, XXI (Venice. 1857). 

IJ. Benigni. 

Nicosia, Titular Archdiocese of, in the Province 
of Cyprus. It is now agreed (Oberhuramer, "Aus 
Cvpern" in "Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fiir Erd- 
kunde", 1890, 212-14), that Ledra, Leucotheon, 
Leucopolis, Leucosia, and Nicosia are the same city, 
at least the same episcopal see. Ledra is first men- 
tioned by Sozomen (H. E., I, 11) in connexion with its 
bishop, St. Triphyllius, who lived under Constantine 
and whom St. Jerome (De scriptoribus ecclesiasticis), 
pronounced the most eloquent of his time. Mention 
is made also of one of his disciples, St. Diomedes, ven- 
erated on 28 October. Under the name of Leucosia 
the city appears for the first time in the sixth century, 
in the "Synecdemus" of Hierocles (ed. Burckhardt, 
707-8). It was certainly subsequent to the eighth 
century that Leucosia or Nicosia replaced Constantia 
as the metropolis of Cyprus, for at the CEcumenical 
Council of 787 one Constantine signed as Bishop of Con- 
stantia; in any case at the conquest of the island in 
1191 by Richard Cceur de Lion Nicosia was the capi- 
tal. At that time Cyprus was sold to the Templars 
who established themselves in the castle of Nicosia, 
but not being able to overcome the hostility of the 
people of the city, massacred the majority of the 
inhabitants and sold Cyprus to Guy de Lusignan, who 
founded a dynasty there, of which there were fifteen 
titulars, and did much towards the prosperity of the 
capital. Nicosia was then made a Latin metropolitan 
see with three suffragans, Paphos, Limassol, and Fa- 
magusta. The Greeks who had previously had as many 
as fourteen titulars were obliged to be content with 
four bishops bearing the same titles as the Latins but 
residing in different towns. The list of thirty-one Latin 
archbishops from 1196 to 1502 may be seen in Eubel, 
"Hierarchia catholica medii a;vi", I, 382; II, 224. 
Quarrels between Greeks and Latins were frequent 
and prolonged, especially at Nicosia, where the two 
councils of 1313-60 ended in bloodshed; but in 
spite of everything the island prospered. There were 
many beautiful churches in the possession of the 
Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians, Carmelites, 
Benedictines, and Carthusians. Other churches be- 
longed to the Greeks, Armenians, Jacobites, Maro- 
nites, Nestorians etc. In 1489 Cyprus fell under the 
dominion of Venice and on 9 November, 1.570, Nicosia 
fell into the power of the Turks, who committed atro- 
cious cruelties. Nor was this the last time, for on 9 
July, 1821, during the revolt of the Greeks in the Ot- 
toman Empire, they strangled many of the people 
of Nicosia, among them the four Greek bishops of the 
island. Since 4 June, 1878, Cyprus has been under 
the dominion of England. Previously Nicosia was 
the residence of the Mutessarif of the sandjak which 
depended on the vilayet of the Archipelago. Since 
the Turkish occupation of 1,571 Nicosia has been the 
permanent residence of the Greek archbishop who 
governs the autonomous church of Cyprus. The 
city has 13,000 inhabitants. The Franciscans admin- 
ister the Catholic mission which is dependent on the 
Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, and has a school for 
boys. The Sisters of St. Joseph have a school for 
girls 

ItOiuN Oru:i cirttiwii TI (Pirn 1740) W7<>; Acta 
S , 1 1 1 I 1 I I (Brussels, 

I Id latins de 

II I rl ^ Orthodox 
CI III I I KB, Cyprus 
(Athcru IMI) m Greek CuiMBLniiiM. Linmi Nicosienses 
(Paris, 1894) S. VaILH^. 



NICOTERA 



72 



NIEREMBERG 



Nicotera and Tropea, Diocese of (Nicotbren- 
818 ET Tropeiensis), siilTniRiin of RpKSio f'i Calabria. 
Nicotera, thp ancient Mcdaina, isacity of the Province 
of Catanzaro, in Calal)ria, Italy; it was destroyed by 
tlie eartliquake of 1783. Its lirst known bishop was 
Proculus, to whom, with others, a letter of St. Gregory 
the Great was written in 599. With the exception of 
Sergius (787), none of its bi.shops is known earlier 
than 1392. Under Bishop Charles rinli. the city was 
pillaged by the Turks. In ISIS, it wasiinitcd on equal 
terms {irqiir i)nitcipiililrr) with tlic Diocese of Tropea. 
This city is situated on a reef, in the gulf of St. Euphe- 
mia connected with the mainland by a narrow strip. 
It is the birtlijilaceof the jiainter Span6, the anato- 
mists Pictro and Paolo Voiani, and (he philosopher 
Pasquale Galluppi. It has a beautiful cathedral, re- 
storeil after its destruction by the earthquake of 1783. 
Here the Greek Rite was formerly used. Only three 
bishops before the Norman conquest are known; the 
first, .Joann.'-s, is referred to the year 649; among its 
other prelates was Nicold Acciapori (1410), an emi- 
nent statesHjan. The diocese has 72 parishes, with 
78,000 inhabitants, a Franciscan nouse, and a house 
of the Sisters of Charity. 

Cappelletti, Le Chiese d' Italia, XXI. 

U. Benigni. 

Nictheroy, Diocese of. See Petropolis. 

Nider, John, theologian, b. 1380 in Swabia; d. 13 
August, 1438, at Colinar. He entered the Order of 
Preachers at Colmar and after profession was sent to 
Vienna for his philosophical studies, which he finished 
at Cologne where he was ordained. He gained a wide 
reputation in Germany as a preacher and was active 
at the Council of Constance. After making a study 
of the convents of his order of strict observance in 
Italy he returned to the University of Vienna where in 
1425 he began teaching as Master of Theology. 
Elected prior of the Dominican convent at Nurern- 
berg in 1427, he successively served as socius to his 
master general and vicar of the reformed convents of 
the German province. In this capacity he main- 
tained his early reputation of reformer and in 1431 he 
was chosen prior of the convent of strict observance at 
Basle. He became identified with the Council of 
Basle as theologian and legate, making several em- 
bassies to the Huissites at the command of Cardinal 
Julian. Sent as legate of the Council to the Bohe- 
mians he succeeded in pacifying them. He journeyed 
to Ratisbon (1434) to effect a further reconciliation 
with the Bohemians and then proceeded to Vienna to 
continue his work of reforming the convents there. 
During the discussion that followed the dissolution 
of the Council of Basle by Eugene IV, he joined the 
party in favour of continuing the Council in Germany, 
aljandoning them, however, when the pope remained 
firm in his decision. He resumed his theological lec- 
tures at Vienna in 1436 and was twice elected dean of 
the university before his death. As reformer he was 
foremost in Germany and welcomed as such both by 
his own order and by the Fathers of the Council of 
Basle. As a theologian his adherence to the princi- 
ples of St. Thomas and his practical methods made 
him distinguished among his contemporaries. The 
most important among his many writings is the "For- 
micarius" (5 vols., Douai, 1602) atreatise on the phil- 
osophical, theological, and social questions of his day. 
Among his theological works are the following: "Com- 
mentarius in IV libros Scntentiarum" (no longer ex- 
tant); " Pra?ceptorum divina> legis" (Douai, 1612, 
seventeen other editions before 1500); "Tractatus de 
contractibus mercatorum" f Paris, 1514, eight edi- 
tions before 1.500); "Consolatorium timoratie consci- 
entiic" (Rome, 1604); "De Morali lepra" (Regia, 
1830,1; ''Manualead instnic^tionem spiritualium Pas- 
torum" (Rome, 1513); "Alphabetum Divini Amoris" 
(Antwerp, 1705, in works of Gerson); "De modo bene 



Vivendi " (commonly atttributed to St. Bernard) ; " De 
Reformatione Religiosorum Libri Tres" (Paris, 1512; 
Antwerp, 1611). Besides these there arc several letters 
written to the Boheiiiiaiis and to the Fathers of the 
Council of Basle, printed in "Monum. Concil. Gen- 
eral., siEC. XV, Concil. Basil. Scrip.", I (Vienna, 1857). 

Qu^TiF-EcHABD, ScHptortst 0. p., I, 792 sqq.; II, 822; TnuRON, 
llhlnlrr tirs ftommcs illuslres de iordre de iit. Dominique, III, 218- 

7(',, Si ITTlTTn in Kirrhridd. ^.\. Nider: CoLVENEIlIUS, J. Nider 

/■' ii),,ii,; I'lOLM; Steill, Qrd. Prad, Ephemerides 

Ji II hillinK, 1692). 2:i0; SrniELEH, Magieter 

,l.,i.: \;'. , < ', urn Orden der Prcdiger-Brader (Mainz, 

l,SS.,l; Aini.r Jtumunr.nne. Vll (1895). 7.-J1-40; HaiN. Rep. Bibl., 

Ill (isai); Bkumer. Prediiierorden in Wien (1887); Chevalier, 
Repertoire des Sources historiques du Moyen A(ic, II, 3;J60. 

Ignatius Smith. 

Nieremberg y Otin, Juan Eusebio, noted theolo- 
gian and polygra])liist, b. of German parents at Mad- 
rid, 1595; d. there, 1658. Having studied the classics 
at the Court, he went to Alcald for the sciences and 
from there to Salamanca for canon law, where lie en- 
tered the Society of Jesus in 1614, much against the 
wishes of his father who linally obliged him to leave 
the novitiate of Villagarcia. He remained firm in his 
resolution and was permitted to return to Madrid to 
finish his probation. He studied Greek and Hebrew 
at the Colegio de Huete, arts and theology at Alcald, 
and was ordained in 1623, making his profession in 
1633. At the Colegio Imperial of Madrid he taught 
humanities and natural history for sixteen years and 
Sacred Scripture for three. As a director of souls he 
was much sought, being appointed by royal command 
confessor to the Duchess of Mantua, granddaughter 
of Philip II. Remarkable for his exemplary life, and 
the heights of prayer to which he attained, he was an 
indefatigable worker, and one of the most prolific 
writers of his time. Seventy-three printed and eleven 
manuscript works are attributed to him; of these, 
twenty-four at least are in Latin. Though his works 
are distinguished for their erudition, those in Spanish 
being characterized according to Capmani, by nobil- 
ity and purity of diction, terse, well-knit phrases, for- 
cible metaphors, and vivid imagery, certain defects 
mar his style, at times inelegant and marked by a cer- 
tain disregard for the rules of grammar and a too pro- 
nounced use of antithesis, paronomasia, and other 
plays upon words. Lack of a true critical faculty 
often detracts from the learning. The Spanish Acad- 
emy includes his name in the " Diccionario de 
Autoridades". His principal works are: (1) "Del 
Aprecio y Estima de la Divina Gracia" (Madrid, 
1638), editions of which have been issued at Sara- 
gossa, Barcelona, Seville, Majorca, also a second edi- 
tion of the Madrid edition; it has been translated 
into Italian, French, Latin, German, Panayano, and 
condensed into English (New York, 1866, 1891)- (2) 
"De la Diferencia entre lo Temporal y Eterno' (Ma- 
drid, 1640), of which there are fifty-four Spanish edi- 
tions, and translations into Latin, Arabic, Italian, 
French, German, Flemish, and English (1672, 1684, 
1884), Portuguese, Mexican, Guaranian, Chiquito, 
Panayano; (3) "Opera Parthenica" (Lyons, 1659), in 
which he defends the Immaculate Conception of the 
Blessed Virgin, basing it upon new, although not al- 
ways absolutely reliable, documents; (4) "Historiana- 
tura; maxime peregrina^ Libris XVI, distincta" (Ant- 
werp 1635); (5) "De la afici6n y amor de Jesds . . . 
Idem de Maria" (Madrid, 1630), of which there are 
five Spanish editions and translations into Latin, 
Arabic, German, Flemi.sh, French, Italian, Portu- 
guese and an English translation of the first edition 
(1849 1880); one edition of (6) "Obras Christianas 
espirituales y filos6ficas" (Madrid, 1651, fol. 3 vols.), 
and one of (7) "Obras Christianas" (Madrid, 1665, 
fol. 2 vols.), are still extant. It was customary in 
many of the Spanish churches to read selections from 
these books every Sunday. , , , . „„t ,o . 

Andrade Varones ilustres de la CompaMa de Jesus, VIII (2nd 
ed., Bilbao (1891), 699-766; Capmani y de Montpalah, Tealro 



NIESSENBERGER 73 

Histdrico critico de la Elocuencia espaHola, V (Barcelona, 1848), 
271: R. P. Joannis Eusebii Nierembergii e Societate Jesu Opera 
Parthenica. . . . Vita Ven. Patria . . . . CoUecta ex kis quw his- 
paiiice scripserunt PP. Alpkonsus de Andrade et Joannes de Ygarza 
ejus. Soc. (Lyons, 1689); Sommervoqei,, Bibliot., V, 1725; Guii^ 
HERMY, Menologe de la Compagnie de Jesus, Assistance d'Espaane 
pt. I (Paria, 1902). '^" ' 

Antonio P]6hez Goyena. 

Niessenberger, Hans, an architect of the latter 
part of tlic Miildlc Ages, whose name is mentioned 
with comparative frequency in contemporaneous lit- 
erature. But information about his personality and 
his works is somewhat more difficult to find. It seems 
however, that he was born in Gratz, Styria ("Seckauer 
Kirchenschmuck", ISSO, p. 56). He worked on the 
choir of the Freiburg cathedral from 1471 to 1480; in 
the latter year he was compelled to leave the task of 
building and to swear that he would not try to revenge 
himself for this. In 14S(J he worked on the church of 
St. Leonhard at Basle; in 1482, on the cathedral at 
Strasburg; and in the following year he probably was 
engaged on the great cathedral of Milan with a yearly 
salary of ISO guilders — at least there is a "Johannes 
of Graz" mentioned as architect in Ricci, "iStoria 
deir archit. italiana", II, .388. The choir at Freiburg 
was turned over to him in 1471; the contract is inter- 
esting and instructivi\ showing as it does the manner 
in which buildings of tliis kind were erected during the 
latter part of the Middle Ages, and how the working 
hours, wages, etc., were determined upon (Schreiber, 
"Munster zu Freiburg", Appendix, 15 sq.). The 
choir possesses great beauty, but it also manifests the 
peculiarities of Late Gothic. It is long, like the main 
church, with the nave higher, the side aisles lower and 
somewhat narrower than in the front, and surrounded 
by twelve chapels, enclosed on two sides by fluted 
columns. The arched roof, supported by beautifully 
carved columns, forms a network. The windows are 
characteristically Late Gothic, and the arches are 
wonderfully delicate. The whole is the work of a 
master. 

ScHRErBER, op. cit.; Kdqler, Gesch. der Baukunst, II (1859); 
OlTE. Kunst-Archdologie (5th ed.. 1884); Kempf, Das MUnster zu 
Freiburg im Breisgau (Freiburg, 1898). 

G. GlET.MANN. 



NIGERIA 



Niger (Nigri, Ger. Schwartz), Peter George, 
Dominican theologian, preacher and controversialist, 
b. 1434 at Kaaden in Bohemia; d. between 1481 and 
1484. He studied at different universities (Sala- 
manca, Montpellier, etc.), entered the order in 1452 
at Eichstiitt, Bavaria, and after his religious pro- 
fession took up philosophy and theology at Leip- 
zig, where he also produced his first literary work 
"De modo prffidicandi" (1457). In 14.59 he defended 
publicly in Freiburg a series of the.ses so success- 
fully that the provincial chapter then in session 
there sent him to the University of Bologna for ad- 
vanced courses in theology and canon law. Recalled 
after two years, he was made lector of theology and 
engaged in teaching and preaching. In 14G5 he 
taught philosophy and was regent of studies in Co- 
logne; in 1467 taught theology at Ulm; in 1469 or 
1470 was elected prior in Eichstatt; on 31 May, 1473, 
the newly founded University of Ingolstadt conferred 
on him the degree of Doctor of theology; in 1474 he 
taught theology in the convent at Ratisbon and in 
1478 became professor of Old-Testament exegesis in 
the University of IngoLstadt. Shortly after, upon 
the invitation of the patron of learning, Matthias 
Corvinus, King of Hungary, he became rector of his 
newly-erected Academy of philosophy, theology, and 
Sacred Scripture at liuda, in gratitude for which 
honour he dedicated to his royal friend his "Cly- 
peus Thomistarum adversus omnes doctrinae doctoris 
angehci obtrectatores " (Venice, 1481), in which he 
defends the teaching of St. Thomas against the 
Scotists and Nominalists. Niger ranks among the 



most eminent theologians and preachers of the latter 
half of the fifteenth century. He was a keen disciple 
of St. Thomas, zealous for the integrity of his teach- 
ings and adhering strictly to the traditions of his 
school. In his few theological works he hmits him- 
self almost entirely to the discussion of abstract ques- 
tions of logic and psychology. He devoted most of 
his time to preaching to the Jews. He had learned 
their language and become familiar with their liter- 
ature at Salamanca and Montpellier by associating 
with Jewish children and attending the lectures of the 
rabbis. At Ratisbon, Worms, and Frankfort-on-the- 
Main he preached in German, Latin, and Hebrew, 
frequently challenging the rabbis to a disputation. 
He wrote two anti-Jewish works, one in Latin, 
"Tractatus contra Perfidos Juda;os" (Esslingen, 
1475), which is probably the earhest printed anti- 
Jewish work, and in which he severely attacked the 
Jews and the Talmud. The other, written in German, 
is entitled "Stern des Messias" (EssUngen, 1477). 
ReuchUn in his " Augenspiegel " declared them ab- 
surd. Both works are furnished with appendices 
giving the Hebrew alphabet in Hebrew and Latin 
type, rules of grammar and for reading Hebrew, the 
Decalogue in Hebrew, some Messianic texts from 
the Old Testament, etc. They are among the earli- 
est specimens of Hebrew printing in Germany, and 
the first attempt at Hebrew grammar in that country 
by a Christian scholar. They were afterwards pub- 
lished separately as "Commentatio de primis lingua; 
Hebraicse elementis" (Altdorf, 1764). Peter Tcuto, 
O.P. (Quetif, I, 855), and Peter Eystettensis (Eck, 
"Chrysopassus Cent.", XLIX) are most probably to 
be identified with Peter Niger. 

Qu^TIF-EcHAHD, SS. Ord. Pnrd.. I, Sfil aqq.; TouRON, Horn. 

III. de t'ordre de S. Dom., III. '• :j- :;l . l;i i sch, Atlg. d. Biogr., 
XXXIII, 247 sq.; JocHER. -I / ■ -i/.on. s. v.; Prantl, 
Gesch. der Logik im Abcmll. > I n . - I , ' , "J21 sq. ; Katholik, I 
(1891). 574; II (1902). 310; .1. ' ■ '/ /Vrrf., II. 367; Wolf, 
Bibliotheca Hebraica (Hamburg, 1721), 11, 17, 1037, 1110 sqq.; 

IV, 525 sqq. 

Joseph Schroeder. 

Nigeria, Upper and Lower, a colony of British 
East Africa extending from the Gulf of Guinea to 
Lake Chad (from 4° 30' to 7° N. lat., and from 5° 30' 
to 8° 30' E. long.), is bounded on the north and west 
by French Sudan, on the south-west by the English 
colony of Lagos, on the south by the Atlantic, on the 
east by Gennan Kamerun. It derives its name from 
the River Niger, flowing through it. The Niger, 
French from its source in the Guinean Sudan to the 
frontier of Sierra Leone and Liberia, enters Nigeria 
above Ilo, receives the Sokoto River at Gomba, and 
the Benue at Lokodja, the chief tributaries in English 
territory. Though the establishment of the English 
dates only from 1879, numerous explorers had long be- 
fore reconnoitred the river and the neighbouring coun- 
try. Among the most famous were Mungo Park 
(1795-1805), Clapperton (1822), Ren6 Caill6 (1S25), 
Lander, Barth, Mage, and recently the French oflicers 
Gallieni, Mizon, Hourst, and Lenfant. InlS79,onthe 
initiative of Sir George Goldie, the English societies 
established in the region purchased all the French and 
foreign trading stations of Lower Niger and in 1SS5 
obtained a royal charter which constituted them the 
"Royal Company of the Niger". The Hoyal Com- 
pany developeil nipidly and acquired inuiiensc terri- 
tories, often :it the i-ost of bloodshed. The monopoly 
of navigation which it claimed to exercise, contniry to 
the stipulations of the General .Vet of Berlin, its oppo- 
sition to the undertakings of France and Germnny, its 
encroachments on neighbouring territories, aroused 
numerous diplomatic quarrels which finally brought 
about the revocation of its privileges (1 Jan., 1900). 
It then became a simple commercial company with 
enormous territorial pos.sessions ; the conquered lands, 
reunited to the old Protectorate of the Niger Coast 
organized in 1884, constituted the British colony of 



NIHILISM 



74 



NIHILISM 



Nigeria. France, however, retained two colonies at 
Bailjibo-Arenberg and at Forcados; navigation was 
free to all. 

Politically Nigeria is divided into two provinces, 
Southern or Lower Nigeria, Northern or i'i)|)er Ni- 
geria, separated by the parallel which i)assos tlirough 
Ida. Each division is governed by a high coiniiii.'^sioner 
named directly by theCrown. Northern Nigeria with 
an area of over 123.400 square miles is as yet only 
partly settled, and has nine constituted provinces. 
The ancient capital, (iebha, is now replaced by Wush- 
ishi on the Kaduna. The chief cities are Lokodja, Ilo, 
Yola, Gando, Sokoto, Kano, etc. Kano, situated two 
hundred miles to the north, is a remarkable city and 
one of the largest markets of the whole world. For 
more than a thousand years the metropolis of East 
Africa, Kano contains about fifty thousand inhab- 
itants, is surrounded by walls built of hardened clay 
from twenty to thirty ft. high and fifteen miles in 
circumference. Every year more than two million 
natives go to Kano to exchange their agricultural 
products or their merchandise. The chief articles 
of commerce are camels, cattle, ivory, sugar, ostrich 
plumes, and kola nuts. Kano is also a great inrlus- 
trial centre, renowned for its hides and its cotton 
materials; sorghum and many kinds of vegetables and 
cereals are cultivated. The natives are very good 
workmen, especially in the cultivation of the fields. 
Although nominally subject to England, some chiefs, 
or sultans, have remained almost independent, for in- 
stance those of Sokoto and Nupe. English money, 
however, has circulated everywhere and three-penny 
pieces are very popular. Northern Nigeria has a popu- 
lation of about fifteen million inhabitants, divided into 
several tribes, each speaking its own tongue, the chief 
of which are the Yorubas, the Nupes, the Haussas, 
and the Igbiras. English is the official language of the 
administration. 

Constantly pressing to the south, Islam has pene- 
trated as far as the markets of the Lower Niger, and 
carries on a \'igorous proselytism, aided by the repre- 
sentatives of the English Government. Mussulman 
chiefs and instructors are often appointed for the 
fetishistic population. Powerful English Protestant 
missions have unsuccessfully endeavoured to gain a 
foothold. Catholic missionaries explored a portion of 
these same regions as early as 1 883, but only now have 
they undertaken permanent establishments. Nigeria 
is divided into two prefectures Apostolic; that of the 
Upper Niger is confided to the Society of African Mis- 
sions of Lyons (1884), and that of the Lower Niger to 
the Fathers of the Holy Ghost (1SS9). The first com- 
prises all the territory west of the Niger from For- 
cados and north of the Benue to Yola. Its hmits were 
only definitively constituted by the decrees of 15 Janu- 
arj- and 10 May, 1894. The prefect Apostolic resides 
at Lokodja. The mission is chiefly developed in the 
more accessible part of Southern Nigeria, where Islam 
is still almost a stranger. Its chief posts, besides Lo- 
kodja, are Assaba, Ila, Ibsel(5, Ibi, Idu, etc. The 
twenty missionaries are assisted by the Religious of 
the Queen of the Apostles (Lyons) ; in 1910 there were 
about 1.500 Catholics and an equal number of catechu- 
mens. The Prefecture Apostolic of the Lower Niger 
comprises all the country situated between the Niger, 
the Benue, and the western frontier of German Kam- 
erun. Less extensive than that of the Upper Niger, its 
population is much more dense, almost wholly fetish- 
istic, and even cannibal. Towns of five, ten, and 
twenty thou.sand inhabitants are not rare; the popula- 
tion is chiefly agricultural, cultivating the banana and 
the yam. In the delta and on Cross River the palm 
oil harvest is the object of an active commerce. Sev- 
eral tribes are crowded into these fertile districts; the 
Ibo, Nri, Munchis, Ibibio, Ibani, Ibeno, Efik, Akwa, 
Arc, etc. Their religion is fetishism, with ridiculous 
and cruel practices often admitting of human sacri- 



fices, exacted by the ju-ju (a corruption of the native 
word eijugu), a fetish which is supposed to contain the 
spirit of an ancestor; but purer religious eli'iiicnts are 
found beneath all these superstitions, belief in God, 
the survival of the soul, distinction between good and 
evil, etc. 

The Mussulmans are located in important centre8 
such as the market of Onitcha. Moreover, wherever 
the English Government employs Haussas as militia 
the latter carry on an active propaganda, and where 
they are^ a movement towards Islam is discernible. 
This is the case at Calabar, Lagos, Freetown, and nu- 
merous points in the interior and on the coast. Eng- 
lish Protestant missions have long since penetrated 
into this country and have expended, not without 
results, enormous sums for propaganda. Native 
churches with pastors and bishops have even been or- 
ganized on the Niger, constituting what is called the 
native pastorate. At Calabar the United Presbyte- 
rian Church dates from 1846, strongly established 
throughout the country. In 1885 the Catholic mis- 
sionaries of Gabon established themselves at Onitcha, 
the centre of the Ibo country and a city of twenty 
thousand inhabitants. Several native kings, among 
them the King of Onitcha, have been converted, nu- 
merous schools have been organized, towns and vil- 
lages everywhere have asked for missionaries, or lack- 
ing them, for catechists. Until 1903 no establishment 
could be made at Calabar, the seat of the Government 
and the most important commercial centre of South- 
ern Nigeria, but once founded the Catholic mi.s.sion 
became very popular, adherents came in crowds, the 
schools were filled to overflowing. There is need of 
labourers and resources for the immense harvest. 
The Fathers of the Holy Ghost are seconded in their 
efforts by the Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny. The 
progress of evangelization seems to necessitate in the 
near future the division of the mission into two pre- 
fectures, one of which will have its centre at Onitcha, 
the other at Calabar. 

Missions catholiques au XIX' sikcle; Missions d*Afrique (Paris, 
1902); Missiones Catholicm (Rome, 1907). 

A. Le Roy. 

Nihilism. — The term was first used by Turgeniev in 
hisnovel, ''Fathers and Sons" (in "Russkij VCstnik", 
Feb., 1862) : a Nihilist is one who bows to no authority 
and accepts no doctrine, however widespread, that is 
not supported by proof. The nihilist theory was for- 
mulated by Cernysevskij in his novel "Cto delat" 
(What shall be done, 1862-64), which forecasts a new 
social order constructed on the ruins of the old. But 
essentially. Nihilism was a reaction against the abuses 
of Russian absolutism; it originated with the first 
secret pohtical society in Russia founded by Pestel 
(1817), and its first effort was the military revolt of 
the Decembrists (14 Dec, 1825). Nicholas I crushed 
the uprising, sent its leaders to the scaffold and one 
hundred and sixteen participants to Siberia. The 
spread (1830) of certain philosophical doctrines (He- 
gel, Saint'Simon, Fourier) brought numerous recruits 
to Nihilism, especially in the universities; and, in 
many of the cities, societies were organized to com- 
bat absolutism and introduce constitutional govern- 
ment. 

Theoretical Nihilism. — Its apostles were Alexan- 
der Herzen (1812-70) and Michael Bakunin (1814- 
76), both of noble birth. The former, arrested (1832) 
as a partisan of liberal ideas, was imprisoned for eight 
months, deported, pardoned (1840), resided in Mos- 
cow till 1847 when he migrated to London and there 
founded (1857) the weekly periodical, "Kolokol" 
(Bell), and later "The Polar Star". The "Kolokol" 
published Russian political secrets and denunciations 
of the Government; and, in spite of the police, made its 
way into Russia to spread revolutionary ideas. Her- 
zen, inspired by Hegel and Feurbach, proclaimed the 
destruction of the existing order; but he did not advo- 



NIHILISM 



75 



NIHILISM 



cate violent measures. Hence his younger followers 
wearied of him; and on the other hand his defense of 
the Poles during the insurrection of 1S63 alienated 
many of his Russian sympathizers. The "Kolokol" 
went out of existence in 1M6S and Herzen died two 
years later. Bakunin was extreme in his revolution- 
ary theories. In the first numljer of "L' Alliance In- 
ternationale de la Democratic Socialiste" founded by 
him in 1869, he openly professed Atheism and called 
for the abolition of marriage, property, and of all so- 
cial and religious institutions. His advice, given in 
his "Revolutionary Catechism", was: "Be severe to 
yourself and severe to others. Suppress the senti- 
ments of relationship, friendship, love, and gratitude. 
Have only one pleasure, one joy, one reward — the tri- 
umph of the revolution. Night and day, have only 
one thought, the destruction of everything without 
pity. Be ready to die and ready to kill any one who 
opposes the triumph of your revolt." Bakunin thus 
opened the way to nihilistic terrorism. 

Propaganda (1867-77). — It began with the forma- 
tion (1861-62) of secret societies, the members of 
which devoted their lives and fortunes to the dissemi- 
nation of revolutionary ideas. Many of these agita- 
tors, educated at Zurich, Switzerland, returned to 
Russia and gave Nihilism the support of trained intelli- 
gence. Prominent among them were Scrgius Necaev, 
master of a parochial school in St. Petersburg, who was 
in constant communication with nihilist centers in 
various cities, and Sergius. Kovalin who established 
thirteen associations in Cernigor. These societies 
took their names from their founders — the Malikovcy, 
Lavrists, Bakunists, etc. They enrolled seminarists, 
university students, and young women. Among the 
working men the jjropaganda was conducted in part 
through free schools. The promoters engaged in 
humble trades as weavers, blacksniil lis, and carpenters, 
and in their shops inculcated nihilist doctrine. The 
peasantry was reached by writings, speeches, schools, 
and personal intercourse. Even the nobles shared in 
this work, e. g.. Prince Peter Krapotkin, who, under the 
pseudonym of Borodin, held conferences with work- 
ingmen. As secondary centres, taverns and shops 
served as meeting-places, depositories of prohibited 
books, and, in case of need, as places of refuge. Though 
without a central organization the movement spread 
throughout Russia, notably in the region of the Volga 
and in that of the Dnieper where it gained adherents 
among the Cossacks. The women in particular dis- 
played energy and self-sacrifice in their zeal for the 
cause. Many were highly cultured and some belonged 
to the nobility or higher classes, e. g., Natalia Armfeld, 
Barbara Batiuskova, Sofia von Herzfeld, Sofia Pero- 
vakaja. They co-operated more especially through 
the schools. 

The propaganda of the press was at first conducted 
from foreign parts: London, Geneva, Zurich. In this 
latter city there were two printing-offices, established 
in 1873, where the students published the works of 
Lavrov and of Bakunin. The first secret printing- 
office in Russia, founded at St. Petersburg in 1861, 
published four numbers of the Velikoruss. At the 
same time there came to Russia, from London, copies 
of the "Proclamation to the New Generation" (Kmo- 
lodomu pokolfiniju), and "Young Russia" (Molodaja 
Rosija), which was published in the following year. 
In 1862, another secret printing-office, established at 
Moscow, published the recital of the revolt of 14 De- 
cember, 182.5, written by Ogarev. In 1862, another 
secret press at St. Petersburg published revolutionary 
proclamations for officers of the army; and in 1863, 
there were pubhshed in the same city a few copies of 
the daily papers, "Svoboda" (Liberty) and "Zemlja 
i Volja" (The Earth and Liberty); the latter contin- 
ued to be published in 1878 and 1879, under the edi- 
torship, at first, of Marco Natanson, and later of the 
student, Alexander Mihailov, one of the ablest or- 



ganizers of Nihilism. In 1866, a student of Kazan, 
Elpidin, published two numbers of the "Podpolnoe 
Slovo", which was succeeded by the daily paper, the 
" Sovremennost " (The Contemporary), and later, Ijy 
the "Narodnoe Delo" (The National Interest), which 
was published (1868-70), to disseminate the ideas of 
Bakunin. Two numbers of the "Narodnaja Ras- 
prava" (The Tribunal of Reason) were published in 
1870, at St. Petersburg and at Moscow. In 1873, 
appeared the "Vpred" (Forward!), one of the most 
esteemed periodicals of Nihilism, having saUent social- 
istic tendencies. A volume of it appeared each year. 
In 187.5-76, there was connected with the "Vpred", 
a small bi-monthly sup]ilement, which was under the 
direction of Lavrov until 1876, when it passed under 
the editorship of Smironv, and went out of existence 
in the same year. It attacked theological and reli- 
gious ideas, proclaiming the equality of rights, freedom 
of association, and justice for the proletariat. At Ge- 
neva, in 1875 and 1876, the "Rabotnik" (The Work- 
man) was published, which was edited in the style 
of the people; the "Nabat" (The Tocsin) appeared 
in 187.5, directed by Thacev; the "Narodnaja Volja" 
(The Will of the People), in 1879, and the "Cernyi 
Peredel", in 1880, were published in St. Petersburg. 
There was no fixed date for any of these papers, and 
their contents consisted, more especially, of proclama- 
tions, of letters from revolutionists, and at times, of 
sentences of the Executive Committees. These print- 
ing offices also produced books and pamphlets and 
Russian translations of the works of Lassalle, Marx, 
Proudhon, and Buchner. A government stenogra- 
pher, My.skin, in 1870, established a printing-office, 
through which several of Lassalle's works were pub- 
lished; while many pamphlets were published by the 
Zemlja i Volja Committee and by the Free Russian 
Printing-Office. Some of the pamphlets were pub- 
lished under titles like those of the books for children, 
for example, "Dedu.ska Egor" (Grandfather Egor), 
"Mitiu.ska", Stories for the Workingmen, and others, 
in which the exploitation of the people was deplored, 
and the immunity of capitalists assailed. Again, 
some publications were printed in popular, as well as 
in cultured, language; and, in order to allure the peas- 
ants, these pamphlets appeared at times, under such 
titles as "The Satiate and the Hungry"; "How Our 
Country Is No Longer Ours". But all this propa- 
ganda, which required considerable energy and sacri- 
fice, did not produce satisfactory results. Nihilism 
did not penetrate the masses; its enthusiastic apostles 
committed acts of imprudence that drew upon them 
the ferocious reprisals of the Government ; the peasants 
had not faith in the preachings of those teachers, 
whom, at times, they regarded as government spies, 
and whom, at times, tlic,\' ilcTiouiici'd. The books and 
pamphlets that were disl iibiilnl ;tmong the country 
people often fell into tlu- IkhmIs (if the cinomiki (gov- 
ernment employees), or of the popes. Very few of the 
peasants knew how to read. Accordingly, Nihilism 
had true adherents only among students of the uni- 
versities and higher .s<iiii.ils, ainl unions the middle 
classes. The peasants :iiid wiukinrn did not under- 
stand its ideals of destrui-l imi :iim1 nf s(i(i:il revolution. 
NiHiLLST Terrorism. — Propagation of ideas was 
soon followed by violence: 4 Ai)ril, lSf)6, Tsar Alex- 
ander II narrowly escaped the shot fired by Deme- 
trius Karakozov, and in consequence took severe 
measures (rescript of 23 May, ISCili) against the revo- 
lution, making the universities and the press objects 
of special vigilance. To avoid detection and spying, 
the Nihilists formed a Central Executive Connnittee 
whose sentences of death were executed by "i)unish- 
ers". Sub-committees of from five to ten members 
were also organizcil and statutes (12 articles) drawn 
up. The a|ii)licanl for admission was required to con- 
secrate his life to the cause, sever ties of family and 
friendship, and observe absolute secrecy. Disobcdi- 



NIHUS 



76 



NIHUS 



ence to the head of the association was punishable 
with death. The Government, in turn, enacted 
stringent laws against secret societies and brought 
hundreds before the tribunals. \ notable instance 
w:is tlie trial, at St. Petersburg in October, 1877, of 
VXi |)ersons: 94 went free, 3t) were sent to Siberia; the 
others received light sentences. One of the acciused, 
Myskin by name, who in addressing the judges had 
characterized the procediire as "an abominable com- 
edy", Wiis condenine<i to ten years of penal -servitude. 
Another sen-sational trial (April, 1S7S) was that of 
Vera Sassulio, who had attempted to murder General 
Frepov, chief of police of St. I'etershurg. Her ac- 
quittal was frantically apjilauded and she found a ref- 
uge in Switzerland. Among the deeds of violence 
committed by Nihilists may be mentioned the assassi- 
nation of General Mezencev (4 .\ug., 1,S7S) and Prince 
Krapotkin (lS7fl). These events were followed by new 
repressive measures on the part of the Government 
and by numerous executions. The Nihilists, however, 
continued their work, held a congress at Lipeck in 
1879, and (2t) Aug.) condemned Alexander II to death. 
An attempt to wreck the train on which the Tsar was 
returning to St . Petersburg proved abortive. Another 
attack on his Ufe was made by Halturin, 5 Feb., 1880. 
He was slain on 1 March, 1881, by a bomb, thrown by 
Grineveckij. Six conspirators, among them Sofia 
Perovskaja, were tried and executed. On 14 March, 
the Zemlja i Volja society issued a proclamation incit- 
ing the peasants to rise, while the Executive Committee 
wrote to Alexander III denouncing the abuses of the 
bureaucracy and demanding political amnesty, na- 
tional representation, and civil liberty. 

The reign of Alexander III was guided by the dic- 
tates of a reaction, due in great measure to the coun- 
sels of Constantine Pob6donoscev, procurator general 
of the Holy Synod. And Nihilism, which seemed to 
reach its apogee in the death of Alexander II, saw its 
ecUpse. Its theories were too radical to gain prose- 
lytes among the people. Its assaults were repeated; 
on 20 March, 1882, General Strglnikov was assassi- 
nated at Odessa; and Colonel Sude^kin on the 28th of 
December, 1883; in 1887, an attempt against the life 
of the tsar was unsuccessful; in 1890, a conspiracy 
against the tsar was discovered at Paris; but these 
crimes were the work of the revolution in Russia, 
rather than of the Nihilists. The crimes that reddened 
the soil of Russia with blood in constitutional times 
are due to the revolution of 1905-07. But the Ni- 
hilism, that, as a doctrinal system, proclaimed the 
destruction of the old Russia, to establish the founda- 
tions of a new Russia, may be said to have disap- 
peared ; it became fused with Anarchism and Sociahsm, 
and therefore, the history of the crimes that were mul- 
tiphed from 190.5 on are a chapter in the history of 
poUtical upheavals in Russia, and not in the history 
of Nihilism. 

IsKANDER (the pseud, of Hebzen), Du d6veloppement des id^es 
rivolulionnaires en Russie (Paris, 1851); Schedo-Ferhoti, Eludes 
suT Va-cenir de la Russie (Berlin. 1867); Alex^i, Les nihilisles ou 
lea dames russes emancipies (London, 1867) ; Max Nettlau, 
Life of Michael Bakunin (3 vols., London); GIolovin, Der rus- 
sische Nihiliamus (Leipzig, 1880); Lavigne, Introd. d Vkist. du. 
nihiliame en Russie (Paris, 1880) ; Lubomirski, Le nihilisme en 
Rusiie (Paris, 1879) ; Armando, It nihilismo (Turin, 1879) ; Idem, 
Waaittder Nihitismusr (Leipzig, 1881); Gerbet^Karlowitsch, 
Die Atlentals-Periori in Ruasland (Heiltironn, 1881); Gally- 
BouTTEViLLE, Tzarisme et nihilisme (Paris, 1881): Leroy- 
Beauueu, L'empire des tzars el les russes, II (Paris. 1882), 544- 
66; Stepniak (pseud.). La Russia soUerranea (Milan, 1882); 
Les nihilisles et la rSvolittion en Russie (Paris, 1882); Der Czaren- 
mord am IS. Marz 1881 (Dresden. 1882) ; Bouoard, Les nihi- 
lisles russes (Zurich, 1881) ; TauN. Gesch. der revotulionaren Bewe- 
gungen in Russland (Leipzig, 1883), tr. Polish (London, 1893), 
Russian (Moscow, 1905); Scherr, Die Nihilislen (Leipzig, 1885); 
Ieoorov, Aus den Mysterien des russ. Nihilismus (Leipzig, 1885) ; 
Stepniak, Le tzarisme et la rholution (Paris, 1866) ; Thomibov, 
Conspiraleurs et palriciens (Paris, 1887) ; Fr£d^, La Russie et le 
nihilisme (Paris, 1887); Oldenbebo, Der russ. Nihilismus von 
seinen Anfangen Ins zur Geoenwart (Leipzig, 1888); Milinkqv, 
La crise russe (Paris, 1907) ; Michelet, Essai sur I'hist. de Nicolas 
XT, et le debut de la rHolution russe (Paris, 1907); Schlesinger, 
Russland im XX. Jahrh. (Berlin, 1908); Istorja molodoi Rossii 



[Hisloru of Young Russia] (Moscow, 1908); Rddolf Urba, Die 
Revolution in liussland; (2 vols., Prague, 1906); Lognet and 
Sli.uEH, Tcrroristes et policicrs (Paris, 1909); Buioe (The Past), 
I-XII (Paris, 1908-9), review conducted by Boucerv, contains 
documents bearing on the history of Nihilism. 

A. Palmieki. 

Nihus, Barthold, conv(Tt and controversialist, b. 
at Holtorf in Hanover, 7 February, 1,590 (according to 
other sources in 1,5S4 or 1589, at Wolpe in Bruns- 
wick); d. at Erfurt, 10 March, 10.57. He came from a 
poor Protestant family, obtained his early education 
at Verden and Goslar, and from lt)07 studied philoso- 
phy and medicine at the University of Helmstedt, 
where, on account of his poverty, he was the famulus 
of Cornelius Martini, professor of philosophy. Hav- 
ing become master of philosophy in 1612, his inclina- 
tions then led him to study Protestant theology. Con- 
tentions among the professors at Helmstedt made 
further stay there unpleasant, and when two students 
of noble family went in 1616 to the University of .Jena, 
he accompanied them as preceptor. Later he became 
instructor of the young princes of Saxe-Weimar, 
among whom was the subsequently famous Bernhard 
of Saxe-Weimar. The inability of the Protestant 
theologians to agree upon vital questions caused him 
first to doubt and then to renounce Protestantism. He 
went to Cologne in 1622, and entered the House of 
Proselytes founded by the Brotherhood of the Holy 
Cross; in the same year he accepted the Catholic 
Faith and, after due preparation, was ordained priest. 
Chosen director of the House of Proselytes, and in 
1627 provost of the nunnery of the Cistercians at Alt- 
haldensleben near Magdeburg, two years later he be- 
came abbot of the monastery of the Premonstraten- 
sians, from which he was expelled after the battle of 
Breitenfeld in 1631. He fled to Hildesheim where he 
became canon of the church of the Holy Cross, thence 
to Holland where he came into close relation with Ger- 
hard Johann Vossius. In 1645 Nihus was called to 
MUnster by the papal nuncio, Fabio Chigi (later Alex- 
ander VII), then in MUnster attending the Westpha- 
lian Peace Congress. A few years later he was in- 
duced to come to Mayenee by Johann Philip von 
Schonborn, Archbishop of Mayenee, at whose request 
he went to Ingolstadt in 1654 to obtain information 
regarding the Welt-Priester-Institut of Bartholomew 
Holzhauser, and to report, to the archbishop. Schon- 
born, in 1655, appointed him his suffragan bishop for 
Saxony and Thuringia, with residence in Erfurt, where 
he died. 

After his conversion Nihus had sent to the Helm- 
stedt professors, Calixtus and Hornejus, a letter in 
which he presented his reasons for embracing Catho- 
licism; his chief motive was that the Church needs a 
living, supreme judge to exi^lain the Bible and to settle 
disputes and difficulties. Calixtus attacked him first 
in his lectures and later in his writings, whence origi- 
nated a bitter controversy between Nihus and the 
Helmstedt professors The most important of Nihus' 
numerous writings are: (1) "Ars nova, dicto S. Scrip- 
tura; unico lucrandi e Pontificiis plurimos in partes 
Lutheranorum, detecta non nihil et suggesta Theolo- 
gis Helmstetensibus, Georgio Calixto prajsertim et 
Conrado Hornejo" (Hildesheim, 1633); (2) "Apolo- 
geticus pro arte nova contra Andabatam Helmsteten- 
sem" (Cologne, 1640), in answer to the response of 
Calixtus to the first pamphlet : " Digressio de arte nova 
contra Nihusium"; (3) "Hypodigma, quo diluuntur 
nonnulla contra Catholicos disputata in Comelii Mar- 
tini tractatu de analysi logica" (Cologne, 1648). As- 
sisted by his friend Leo Allatius (q. v.) he devoted con- 
siderable time to researches pertaining to the "Com- 
munion" and the "Missa prasanctificatorum " of the 
Greeks, and also took charge of the editing and pub- 
lishing of several works of AUatius, some of which — as 
the "De Ecclesise occidentalis et orientalis perpe- 
tua consensione" (Cologne, 1648) and "Symmicta" 



NIKOLAUS 



77 



NIKON 



(Cologne, 1653) — he provided with valuable additions 
and footnotes. 

Koch, Die Erfurter Weihhischdfe in Zeitschrift filT ihHringische 
Cesch., VI (Jena, 1865), 104-9; RXss, Die Convertiten seil der Re- 
formation, V (Freiburg im Br., 1867), 97-103; Westermayer in 
Kirchenlex. 3. v.; Idem in Atlg. deutsche Biog., XXIII, 699 aq. 

Friedrich Ladchert. 

Nikolaus von Dinkelsbiihl, theologian, b. c. 1360, 
at Dinkelsbiihl; d. 17 March, 1433, at Mariazell in 
Styria. He studied at the University of Vienna, 
where he is mentioned as baccalaureus in the faculty 
of Arte in 1385. Magister in 1390, he lectured on 
philosophy, mathematics, and physics until 1397, and 
from 1402 to 1405. PVom 1397 he was dean of the 
faculty; he studied theology, lecturing until 1402 on 
theological subjects, first as cursor biblicus, and later 
on the "Sentences " of Peter Lombard. In 1405 he be- 
came bachelor of Divinity, in 1408 licentiate, and in 
1409 doctor and member of the theological faculty. 
Rector of the university, 1405-6, he declined the hon- 
our of a re-election in 1409. From 1405 he was also 
canon at the cathedral of St. Stephen. The supposition 
of several early authors that he was a member of the 
Order of the Hermits of St. Augustine is incorrect, for 
he could not have been rector of the university had he 
been a member of any order. Eminent as teacher and 
pulpit orator, Nikolaus possessed great business acu- 
men, and was frequently chosen as ambassador both 
by the university and the reigning prince. He repre- 
sented Duke Albert V of Austria at the Council of 
Constance (1414-18), and the University of Vienna in 
the trial of Thiem, dean of the Passau cathedral. 
When Emperor Sigismund came to Constance, Niko- 
laus deUvered an address on the abolition of the schism 
("Sermo de unione Ecclesiee in Concilium Constan- 
tiense," II, 7, Frankfort, 1697, 182-7). He took part 
in the election of Martin V, and delivered an address 
to the new pope (Sommerfeldt, " Historisches Jahr- 
buch", XXVI, 1905, 323-7). Together with John, 
Patriarch of Constantinople, he was charged with the 
examination of witnesses in the proceedings against 
Hieronyraus of Prague. Returning to Vienna in 
1418, he again took up his duties as teacher at the uni- 
versity, and in 1423 directed the theological promo- 
tions as representative of the chancellor. Duke Al- 
bert V having chosen him as his confessor in 1425, 
wished to make him Bishop of Passau, but Nikolaus 
declined the appointment. During the preparations 
for the Council of Basle, he was one of the committee 
to draw up the reform proposals which were to be pre- 
sented to the council. His name does not appear 
thereafter in the records of the university. 

His published works include " Postilla cum sermoni- 
bus evangeliorum dominicalium" (Strasburg, 1496), 
and a collection of "Sermones" with tracts (Stras- 
burg, 1516). Among his numerous unpublished 
works, the manuscripts of which are chiefly kept in the 
Court library at Vienna and in the Court and State 
library at Munich, are to be mentioned his commen- 
taries on the Psalms, Isaias, the Gospel of St. Mat- 
thew, some of the Epistles of St. Paul, the "Sen- 
tences" of Peter Lombard, and "Questiones Sen- 
tentiarum"; a commentary on the "Physics" of 
Aristotle, numerous sermons, lectures, moral and 
ascetic tracts. 

AacHBACH, Gesch. der Wiener UniversiUl, I (Vienna, 1865), 
430-40; Stanonik in Allg. de,U. Biog., XXIII (1.S86), 622 sq.; 
EssER in Kirchenlex.. s. v. Nicolaus von Dinkelsbiihl: HcRTER. 
Nomen., II (Innsbruck, 1906), 830-32. 

Friedrich Lauchert. 

Nikon, Patriarch of Moscow (1652-1658; d. 1681). 
He was of peasant origin, born in the district of Nish- 
ni-Novgorod in 1605, and in early life was known as 
Nikita. Educated in a monastery, he married, be- 
came a secular priest, and for a time had a parish 
in Moscow. After ten years of married life, his 
children having died, he persuaded his wife to become 



a nun and he entered the Solovetski monastery on the 
White Sea, according to Orthodox custom, chang- 
ing his name to Nikon. In accordance also with a 
common custom he next became a hermit on an isl- 
and near by, dependent on the monastery. But a dis- 
agreement about the alleged misuse of some alms 
caused him to break with the Solovetski monks and 
join the Kojeozerski community in the same neigh- 
bourhood, of which he became hegumen in 1643. 
Later he made a great impression on the emperor, 
Alexis, who made him Archimandrite of the Novos- 
paski Laura at Moscow in 1646, and in 1649 Metro- 
politan of Novgorod. Here he founded almshouses, 
distinguished himself by his many good works, and 
succeeded in putting down a dangerous revolt in 
1650. Meanwhile he was in constant correspon- 
dence with the Tsar, at whose court he spent part of 
each year. Already during this time he began to 
prepare for a revision of the Slavonic Bible and Ser- 
vice books. In 1652 the Patriarch of Moscow died 
and Nikon was appointed his successor. 

As head of the Church of Russia Nikon set about 
many important reforms. One of the first questions 
that engaged his attention was the reunion of the 
Ruthenians (Little Russians) with the Orthodox 
Church. When Poland held Little Russia, the Synod 
of Brest (1596) had brought about union between its 
inhabitants and Rome. Under Alexis, however, the 
tide turned; many Ruthenians arose against Poland 
and united with Russia (1653). A result of this was 
that the Russians were able without much difficulty to 
undo the work of the Synod of Brest, and to bring 
the Metropolitan of Kief with the majority of his 
clergy back to the Orthodox Church. This greatly 
increased the extent of the Russian patriarch's juris- 
diction. Nikon was able to entitle himself patriarch 
of Great, Little, and White Russia. During the reign 
of Alexis, Nikon built three monasteries, one of which, 
made after the model of the Anastasis and called 
"New Jerusalem," is numbered among the famous 
Lauras of Russia. 

The chief event of Nikon's reign was the reform of 
the service books. The Bible and books used in 
church in Russia are translated from Greek into old 
Slavonic. But gradually many mistranslations and 
corruptions of the text had crept in. There were also 
details of ritual in which the Russian Church had for- 
saken the custom of Constantinople. Nikon's work 
was to restore all these points to exact conformity 
with the Greek original. This reform had been dis- 
cussed before his time. In the sixteenth century the 
Greeks had reproached the Russians for their altera- 
tions, but a Russian synod in 1551 had sanctioned 
them. In Nikon's time there was more intercourse 
with Greeks than ever before, and in this way he con- 
ceived the necessity of restoring purer forms. While 
Aletropolitan of Novgorod he caused a committee of 
scholars to discuss the question, in spite of the patri- 
arch Joseph. In 1650 a Russian theologian was sent 
to Constantinople to inquire about various doubtful 
points. One detail that made much trouble was that 
the Russians had learned to make the sign of the cross 
with two fingers instead of three, as the Gn^'ks did. 
As soon as he became patriarch, Nikon published an 
order introducing some of these reforms, which im- 
mediately called forth angry opposition. In 1654 
and 1655 he summoned Synods which continued the 
work. Makarios, Patriarch of Aniiocli, who came 
to Russia at that time was able to help, and there was 
continual correspondence with the Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople. At last, with the approval of the Greek 
patriarchs, Nikon published the reformed service 
books and made laws insisting on conformity with 
Greek custom in all points of rilu:il (I655-1('>.")S). A 
new Synod in 1656 confirmed this, excommunicated 
every one who made the sign of the cross exc(!pt with 
three fingers, and forbade Uie rebaptizingof Latin con- 



NILE 



78 



NILLES 



verts (still a peculiarity of the Russian Church). This 
aroused a strong party of opposition. The patriarch 
was accused of anti-national .-icntimpnts, of trying to 
Hellenize tlie Hiis.-iian Churcli, of corrupting tlu' old 
faith. Nikon'.s strong will would have crushed the o])- 
position, had he not, in some way not yet clearly ex- 
plained, fallen foul of the tsar. It is generally said 
that part of his ideas of reform was to secure that the 
Church should be independent of the .state and that 
this aroused the tsar's anger. In any ease in the year 
1658 Nikon suddenly fell. He olTered his resignation 
to the tsar and it was accepted. He had often 
threatened to resign before; it seems that this time, 
too, he did not mean his ofTer to be taken seriously. 
However, he had to retire and went to his New .Jeru- 
salem monastery. A personal interview with.\lexis 
w-as refused. The patriarchate remained vacant and 
Nikon, in spite of his resignation, attempted to regain 
his former place. Meanwhile the opposition to him 
became stronger. It was led by a Greek, Paisios 
Ligarides, Metropolitan of Gaza (unlawfully absent 
from his see), who insisted on the appointment of a 
successor at Moscow. All Nikon's friends seem to 
have forsaken him at this juncture. Ligarides caused 
an appeal to be made to the Greek patriarchs and their 
verdict was against Nikon. In 1664 he tried to force 
the situation by appearing suddenly in the patriarchal 
church at Moscow and occui)ying his place as if noth- 
ing had happened. But he did not succeed, and in 
1667 a great synod was summoned to try him. The 
Patriarchs of Alexandria and .\ntioch came to Russia 
expressly for this synod; a great number of Russian 
and Greek metropolitans sat as judges. The tsar 
himself appeared as accuser of his former friend. 
Nikon was summoned and appeared before the synod 
in his patriarch's robes. He was accu.sed of neglecting 
his duties since 1658, of having betrayed his (3hurch 
in a certain letter he had written to the Patriarch of 
Constantinople (in which he had complained of the 
Russian clergy), of harsh and unjust conduct in his 
treatment of the bishops. Nikon defended himself 
ably; the synod lasted a week; but at la.st in its eighth 
session it declared him deposed from the patriarchate, 
suspended from all offices but those of a simple monk, 
and sentenced him to confinement in a monastery 
(Therapontof) on the White Sea. The archimandrite 
of the Trinity Laura at Moscow, Joasaph, was elected 
his successor (Joasaph II, 1667-72). Joasaph con- 
firmed Nikon's reform of the Service books and rites. 
The party that opposed it formed the beginning of the 
Russian dissenting sects (the Raskolniks). 

For a time Nikon's impri.sonment was very severe. 
In 1675 he was taken to another monastery (of St. 
Cyril) and his treatment was lightened. Alexis to- 
wards the end of his life repented of his harsh treat- 
ment of the former patriarch, and from his death-bed 
(1676) sent to ask his forgiveness. The next tsar, 
Feodor II (1676-82) allowed him to return to his 
New Jerusalem monastery. On the way thither 
Nikon died (17 August, 1681). He was buried with 
the honours of a patriarch, and all decrees against him 
were revoked after his death. His tomb is in the 
Cathedral church of Moscow. Nikon's fall, the ani- 
mosity of the tsar, and of the synod that deposed 
him remain mysterious. The cause was not his re- 
form of the Service books, for that was maintained by 
his successor. It has been explained as a successful 
intrigue of his personal enemies at the court. He 
certainly had made enemies during his reign by his 
severity, his harsh manner, the uncompromising way 
he carried out his reforms regardless of the intensely 
conservative instinct of his people. Or, it has been 
said, Nikon brought about his disgrace by a premature 
attempt to free the Russian Church from the shackles 
of the state. His attitude represented an opposition 
to the growing Erastianism that culminated soon after 
his time in the laws of Peter the Great (1689-1725). 



This is no doubt true. There are sufficient indications 
that .\lexis' quarrel with Nikon was based on jealousy. 
Nikon wanted to be too independent of the tsar, and 
this independence was concerned, naturally, with 
ecclesiastical matters. Some writers have thought 
that the root of the wliolc matter wiis that he became 
at the end of his reign a l.atinizer, that he wanted to 
bring about reunion with Rome and saw in that re- 
imion the only safe protection for the Church against 
the secular government. It hiis even been said that 
he became a Catholic (Gerebtzoff, " Essai ", II, 514). 
The theory is not impossible. Since the Synod of 
Brest the idea of reunion was in the air; Nikon had 
had much to do with Ruthenians; he may at last have 
been partly convinced by them. And one of the 
accusations against him at his trial was that of Latin- 
izing. A story is told of his conversion by a miracle 
worked by Saint Josaphat, the great martyr for the 
union. In any case the real reason of Nikon's fall 
remains one of the difficulties of Russian Church 
history. He was undoubtedly the greatest bishop 
Russia has yet produced. A few ascetical works 
of no special importance were written by him. 

P.lLMER, The Patriarch and Ike Tsar (6 vols., London, 1871- 
76): SuBBOTi.v, The Trial of Nikon, in Russian (Moscow. 1862); 
Makabios. The Patriarch Nikon, Russian (Moscow. 1881); 
Philaret, Geschichte der Kirche Russlands, German tr. by Blu- 
MENTHAL (Frankfort, 1872) ; Mouhavieff. .4 History of the Church, 
of Russia. EnElish tr. by Blackmohe (Oxford, 1842) ; Nikon in 
Lives of Eminent Russian Prelates (no author) (London, 1854); 
Gerebtzoff, Essai sur I'histoire de la civilisation en Russie (Paris, 
1858). 

Adrian Fortescue. 

Nile, VicARi.\TE Apcstolic of the Upper. See 
Upper Nile, Vicariate Apostolic op the. 

Nilles, NiKOLAUS, b. 21 June, 1828, of a wealthy 
peasant family of Rippweiler, Luxemburg; d. 31 
January, 1907. After completing his gymnasium 
studies brilliantly, he went to Rome where from 
1847 to 18.53, as a student of the Collegium Ger- 
manicum, he laid the foundation of his ascetic life 
and, as a pupil of the Gregorian University, under the 
guidance of distinguished scholars (Ballerini, Franze- 
lin, Passaglia, Perrone, Patrizi, Schrader, Tarquini), 
prepared the way for his subsequent scholarly career. 
When he left Rome in 1853, he took with him, in 
addition to the double doctorate of theology and 
canon law, two mementoes which lasted throughout 
his life: his grey hair and a disease of the heart, the 
result of the terrors which he had encountered in 
Rome in the revolutionary year 1848-9. From 1853 
to 1858 he laboured in his own country as chap- 
lain and parish priest, and during this time made his 
first literary attempts. In March, 18.58, he entered 
the Austrian Province of the Society of Jesus and, in 
the autumn of 1859, was summoned by his superiors to 
Innsbruck to fill the chair of canon law in the theo- 
logical faculty, which Emperor Francis Joseph I 
had shortly before entrusted to the Austrian Jesuits. 
Nilles lectured throughout his life — after 1898 usually 
to the North American theologians, to whom he gave 
special instructions on canonical conditions in their 
country, for which task no one was better qualified 
than he. His "Commentaria in Concilium Balti- 
morense tertium" (1884-90) and his short essay, 
"Tolerari potest", gained him a wide reputation. 

His literary achievements in the fields of canon 
law, ascetics, and liturgy were abundant and fruitful. 
Martin Blum enumerates in his by no means complete 
bibliography fifty-seven works, of which the two 
principal are: "De rationibus festorum sacratissimi 
Cordis Jesu et purissimi Cordis Mariae libri quatuor" 
(2 vols., 5th ed., Innsbruck, 1885) and "Kalenda- 
rium manuale utriusqueF^cclesiajorientaliset occiden- 
talis" (2 vols., 2nd ed., Innsbruck, 1896). Through 
the latter work he became widely known in the 
world of scholars. In particular Protestants and 
Orthodox Russians expressed themselves in terms of 



NILOPOLIS 



79 



NILUS 



the highest praise for the Kalendarium or Heorto- 
logion. Professor Harnack of Berhn wrote of it in 
the "Theologische Literaturzeitung " (XXI, 1896, 
350-2): "I have . .; . frequently made use of the 
work . . . and it has always proved a reliable guide, 
whose information was derived from original sources. 
There is scarcely another scholar as well versed as the 
author in the feasts of Catholicism. His knowledge 
is based not only on his own observations, but on 
books, periodicals, papers, and calendars of the past 
and present. The Feasts of Catholicism! The title 
is self-explanatory; yet, though the basis of these ordi- 
nances is uniform, the details are of infinite variety, 
since the work treats not only of the Latin but also of 
the Eastern Rites. The latter, it is well known, are 
divided into Greek, Syriac, Coptic, Armenian . . ." 
Of the second volume Harnack wrote (ibid., XXXIII, 
1898, 112 sq.): "Facts which elsewhere would have 
to be sought under difficulties are here marshalled in 
lucid order, and a very carefully arranged index facil- 
itates inquiry. Apart from the principal aim of the 
work, it offers valuable information concerning recent 
Eastern Catholic ecclesiastical history, also authori- 
ties and literature useful to the historian of liturgy 
and creeds. . . . His arduous and disinterested toil 
will be rewarded by the general gratitude, and his 
work will long prove useful not only to every theo- 
logian 'utriusque', but also 'cuiusque ecclesia;'". 
The Roumanian Academy at Bucharest awarded a 
prize to this work. Soon after the appearance of 
the second edition of the "Kalendarium", the Russian 
Holy Synod issued from the synodal printing office 
at Moscow a "Festbildcratlas" intended to a certain 
e.xtent as the official Orthodox illustrations for the 
work. Nilles was not only a distinguished university 
professor, but also a meritorious director of ecclesiasti- 
cal students. For fifteen years (1860-7.5) he presided 
over the theological seminary of Innsbruck, an inter- 
national institution where young men from all parts 
of Europe and the United "States are trained for the 
priesthood. 

Blum, Dos Collegium Germaiiicum zu Rom u. seine ZHglinge aus 
dem LuiemburgeT Lande (Luxemburg, 1899); Zeitschr. fiir kath. 
Theol. (Innsbruck, 1907), 396 aqq.; Korrespondemblatl des Pries- 
ter-GebetS'Verein, XLI (Innsbruck), 37 sqq. 

M. HOPMANN. 

Nilopolis, a titular see and a suffragan of Oxyryn- 
chos, in Egypt. According to Ptolemy (IV, v, 26) the 
city was situated on an island of the Nile in the Her- 
aclean nome. Eusebius ("Hist, eccl.", VI, xli) states 
that it had a bishop, Cheremon, during the persecu- 
tion of Decius; others are mentioned a little later. 
"The Chronicle of John of Nikiou" (5.59) alludes to 
this city in connexion with the occujiation of Egypt 
by the Mussulmans, and it is also referred to by Ara- 
bian medieval geographers under its original name of 
Delas. In the fourteenth century it paid 20,000 di- 
nars in taxes, which indicates a place of some impor- 
tance. At present, Delas forms a part of the inoudi- 
rieh of Beni-Suef in the district of El-Zaouict, and has 
about 2500 inhabitants of whom nearly 1000 are 
nomadic Bedouins. It is situated on the left bank of 
the Nile about forty-seven miles from Memphis. 

Le Quien. Oriens chrislianus. II (Paris. 1741). 587; .\m£uneac. 
La geographie de I'Egypte d I'epoque copte (Paris, 1893), 136-138. 

S. Vailh^;. 

Nilus, Saint (NeiXos), the elder, of Sinai (d. c. 430), 
was one of the many disciples and fervent defenders of 
St. John Chrysostora. We know him first as a lay- 
man, married, with two sons. At this time he was an 
officer at the Court of Constantinople, and is said to 
have been one of the Pra?torian Prefects, who, accord- 
ing to Diocletian and Constantine's arrangement, 
were the chief functionaries and heads of all other 
governors for the four main divisions of the empire. 
Their authority, however, had already begun to de- 
cline by the end of the fourth century. 



While St. John Chrysostom was patriarch, before 
his first exile (398-403), he directed Nilus in the study 
of Scripture and in works of piety (Nikephoros Kal- 
listos, "Hist. Eccl.", XIV, 53, 54). About the year 
390 (Tillemont, "Memoires", XIV, 190-91) or per- 
haps 404 (Leo Allatius, " De Nilis", 11-14), Nilus left 
his wife and one son and took the other, Theodulos, 
with him to Mount Sinai to be a monk. They lived 
here till about the year 410 (Tillemont, ib., p. 405) 
when the Saracens, invading the monastery, took 
Theodulos prisoner . The Saracens intended to sacri- 
fice him to their gods, but eventually sold him as a 
slave, so that he came into the possession of the Bishop 
of Eleusa in Palestine. The Bishop received Theo- 
dulos among his clergy and made him door-keeper of 
the church. Meanwhile Nilus, having left his monas- 
tery to find his son, at last met him at Eleusa. The 
bishop then ordained them both priests and allowed 
them to return to Sinai. The mother and the other 
son had also embraced the religious life in Egypt. St. 
Nilus was certainly alive till the year 430. It is un- 
certain how soon after that he died. Some writers 
believe him to have lived till 451 (Leo Allatius, op. 
cit., 8-14). The Byzantine Menology for his feast 
(12 November) supposes this. On the other hand, 
none of his works mentions the Council of Ephesus 
(431) and he seems to know only the beginning of the 
Nestorian troubles; so we have no evidence of his life 
later than about 430. 

From his monastery at Sinai Nilus was a well- 
known person throughout the Eastern Church; by his 
writings and correspondence he played an important 
part in the history of his time. He was known as a 
theologian. Biblical scholar and ascetic writer, so peo- 
ple of all kinds, from the emperor down, wrote to 
consult him. His numerous works, including a mul- 
titude of letters, consist of denunciations of heresy, 
paganism, abuses of discipline and crimes, of rules and 
principles of asceticism, especially maxims about the 
religious life. He warns and threatens people in high 
places, abbots and bishops, governors and princes, 
even the emperor himself, without fear. He kept up a 
correspondence with Gaina, a leader of the Goths, 
endeavouring to convert him from Arianism (Book I 
of his letters, nos. 70, 79, 114, 115, 116, 205, 206, 286); 
he denounced vigorously the persecution of St. John 
Chrysostom both to the Emperor Arcadius (ib., II, 265 ; 
III, 279) and to his courtiers (I, 309; III, 199). 

Nilus must be counted as one of the leading ascetic 
writers of the fifth century. His feast is kept on 12 
November in the Byzantine Calendar; he is commem- 
orated also in the Roman martyrology on the same 
date. The .Armenians remember him, with other 
Egyptian fathers, on the Thursday after the third 
Sunday of their Advent (Nilles, "Kalendarium Man- 
uale", Inn.sbruck, 1897, II, 624). 

The writings of St. Nilus of Sinai were first edited 
by Possinus (Paris, 1639); in 1673 Suarcz pubHshed 
a supplement at Rome; his letters were collected 
by Possinus (Paris, 1657), a larger collection was made 
by Leo Allatius (Romi", 1668). All these editions are 
used in P. G., LXXIX. The works are divided by 
Fessler-Jungraann into four classes: — (1) Works 
about virtues and vices in general: — "Peristeria" 
(P. G., LXXIX, 811-968), a treati.se in three parts 
addressed to a monk .\gathios; "On Prayer" (irepi 
Trpoffevxv^, ib., 116.5-1200); "Of the eight spirits of 
wickedness" (Tepi rdp 'irveviidToip ttjs Trovvp^at, ib., 
114.5-64); "Of the vice opposed to virtues" («pi t^s 
ivTitfyovs Turn dpTjTWP KaKlai, ib., 1140-44); "Of various 
bad tliiiughts" (irepi 5iatp6piov irovripCiv Xo7i(T;iiiir, ib., 
12()0-1234);"Onthewordoft!ieGo.>ipclof Liike",xxii, 
3(i (ib., 1263-1280). (2) "Works about tiie monastic 
life": — Concerning the slaughter of monks on Mount 
Sinai, in seven parts, telling the story of the author's 
life at Sinai, the invasion of the Saracens, captivity 
of his son, etc. (ib., 590-694); Concerning Albianos, 



NILUS 



80 



NIMBUS 



a Nitrian monk whose life is held up as an example 
(ib., (595-712); "Of Asceticism" (AA70S (Io-kijtikAj, 
about the monastic ideal, ib., 719-810); "Of volun- 
tary poverty" (vfpl iKTrnioavyrit, ib., 968-1000); "Of 
the superiority of monks" (ib., 1061-1094); "To 
Eulogios the monk " (ib., 1093-1140). (3) "Admoni- 
tions" (TI'u^lal) or "Chapters" (xf^dXaia), about 200 
precepts drawn up in short maxims (ib., 1239-62). 
These are probably made by his disciples from his 
discourses. (1) "Letters": — Possinus published 355, 
Allatius 101)1 Irttors, divided into four books (P. G., 
LXXIX, S1-5S5). Many are not complete, several 
overlap, or are not really letters but excerpts from 
Nilus' works; some are spurious. Fessler-Jungmaun 
divides them into classes, as dogmatic, exegetical, 
moral, and ascetic. Certain works wrongly attributed 
to Nilus arc named in Fessler-Jungmann, pp. 125-6. 

NiKEPHOROs K.\LLiST08, Nist. EccL, XIV, xliv; Leo Allatids, 
Diatriba de Nitis et eorum scriptis in his edition of the letters 
(Rome, 1668); Tillemont, Mdnoires pour servir A I'histoire 
eccUsiastigue, XIV (Paris, 1693-1713), 189-218; Fabricius- 
Harles, Bibliotheca grtcca, X (Hamburg, 1790-1809), 3-17; 
Ceiluer. Uistoire ginlrale des auteurs sacris, XIH (Paris, 1729- 
1763), iii; Fessler-Jungmann, Instituliones PatrologicE, II (Inns- 
bruck, 1896), ii, 108-128. 

Adrian Fortescoe. 

Nilus the Younger, of Rossano, in Calabria; 
b. in 910; d. 27 December, 1005. For a time he was 
married (or lived unlawfully); he had a daughter. 
Sickness brought about his conversion, however, and 
from that time he became a monk and a propagator 
of the rule of St. Basil in Italy. He was known for 
his ascetic life, his virtues, and theological learning. 
For a time he lived as a hermit, later he spent certain 
periods of his life at various monasteries which he 
either founded or restored. He was for some time at 
Monte Cassino, and again at the Alexius monastery 
at Rome. When Gregory V (966-999) was driven out 
of Rome, Nilus opposed the usurpation of Philogatos 
(John) of Piacenza as anti-pope. Later when Philo- 
gatos was tortured and mutilated he reproached 
Gregory and the Emperor Otto III (993-1002) for 
this crime. Nilus' chief work was the foundation of 
the famous Greek monastery of Grottaferrata, near 
Frascati, of which he is counted the first abbot. He 
spent the end of his life partly there and partly in a 
hermitage at Valleluce near Gaeta. His feast is kept 
on 26 September, both in the Byzantine Calendar and 
the Roman martyrology. 

Viti S. Nili abbatis Crypice FerratoE, probably by Bartholomew, 
Abbot of Grottaferrata (d. 1065), in the Acta Sanctorum, VII, Sept., 
283-343; P. L., LXXI, 509-588; P. G., IV, 616-618; Minasi, 
jS. Nilo di Calabria (Naples, 1892) ; Krumbacher, Byzantinische 
LiUeralur (2nded., Munich, 1897), 195, 198. 

Adrian Fortescue. 

Nimbus (Lat., related to Nebula, veififKrj, properly 
vapour, cloud), in art and archaeology signifies a shin- 
ing light implying great dignity. Closely related are 
the halo, glory, and aureole. 

In Nature. — All such symbols originate in natural 
phenomena, scientifically accounted for in textbooks 
on physics (M tiller-Peter, " Lehrbuch der kosmischen 
Physik"; Pemter, " Meteorologische Optik"). There 
are circular phenomena of light in drops or bubbles of 
water and in ice crystals which by the refraction of 
light reveal in greater or less degree the spectral col- 
ours. Of the accompanying phenomena the hori- 
zontal and vertical diameters, the "column of light", 
may be mentioned. The curious rings of light or colour 
similar to the above, which often form themselves be- 
fore the iris of the eye even in candle light, are more 
gorgeous on the mountain mist (Pilatus, Rigi, and 
Brocken), if the beholder has the sun behind him; 
they surround his shadow as it is projected upon the 
clouds. The dewdrops in a meadow can produce an 
appearance of light around a shadow, without, how- 
ever, forming distinct circles. Occasionally one even 
sees the planet Venus veiled by a disc of light. The 



phenomena of discs and broad rings are more usual in 
the sun and moon. The Babylonians studied them 
diligently (Kugler, "Sternkunde und Stcrndienst in 
Babel", II, 1). The terminology of the.se phenomena 
is vague. The disc or circle around the sun ciin be cor- 
rectly called "anthelia", and the ring around the 
moon "halo". A more usual name is "aureole", 
which in a restricted sense means an oval or cilipitical 
ray of light like a medallion. If the brightness is 
merely a luminous glow without definitely forming 
ring, circle, or ellipse, it is usually spoken of as a 
"glory". The types in nature in which rays or beams 
of light with or without colour challenge attention, 
suggested the symbolical use of the nimbus to denote 
high dignity or power. It is thus that Divine charac- 
teristics and the loftiest types of humanity were de- 
noted by the nimbus. 

In Poetry, this symbol of light is chiefly used in the 
form of rays and flames or a diftused glow. Holy Writ 
presents the best example: God is Light. The Son of 
God, the Brightness of His Father's glory (Hebr., i, 
3). An emerald light surrounds God and His throne 
(Apoc, iv, 3), and the Son of Man seems to the pro|)het 
a flame of fire (Apoc, i, 14 sq.). So also He appeared 
in His Transfiguration on Tabor. On Sinai, God ap- 
peared in a cloud which at once concealed and revealed 
Him (Ex., xxiv, 16, sq.) and even the countenance of 
Moses shone with a marvellous light in the presence 
of God (Ex., xxxiv, 29, sq.). Such descriiitions may 
have influenced Christian artists to distinguish God 
and the saints by means of a halo, especially around 
the head. They were also familiar with the descrip- 
tions of the classical poets whose gods appeared veiled 
by a cloud; e. g. according to Virgil, divinity appears 
"nimbo circumdata, succincta, effulgens" (bathed in 
light and shining through a cloud). 

In Art. — In the plastic arts (painting and sculp- 
ture) the symbolism of the nimbus was early in use 
among the pagans who determined its form. In the 
monuments of Hellenic and Roman art, the heads 
of the gods, heroes, and other distinguished persons 
are often found with a disc-shaped halo, a circle of 
light, or a rayed-fillet. They are, therefore, associ- 
ated especially with gods and creatures of light such 
as the Pha'nix. The disc of light is likewise used in 
the Pompeian wall paintings to typify gods and demi- 
gods only, but later, in profane art it was extended to 
cherubs or even simple personifications, and is simply 
a reminder that the figures so depicted are not human. 
In the miniatures of the oldest Virgil manuscript all 
the great personages wear a nimbus (Beissel, "Vati- 
kanische Miniaturen "). The custom of the Egyptian 
and Syrian kings of having themselves represented with 
a rayed crown to indicate the status of demi-gods, 
spread throughout the East and the West. In Rome 
the halo was first used only for deceased emperors as a 
sign of celestial bliss, but afterwards living rulers also 
were given the rayed crown, and after the third 
century, although not first by Constantine, the simple 
rayed nimbus. Under Constantine the rayed crown 
appears only in exceptional cases on the coin, and was 
first adopted emblematically by Julian the Apostate. 
Henceforth the nimbus appears without rays, as the 
emperors now wished themselves considered worthy 
of great honour, but no longer as divine beings. In 
early Christian art, the rayed nimbus, as well as the 
rayless disc were adopted in accordance with tradi- 
tion. The sun and the Phcenix received, as in pagan 
art, a wreath or a rayed crown, also the simple halo. 
The latter was reserved not only for emperors but 
for men of genius and personifications of all kinds, al- 
though both in ecclesiastical and profane art, this 
emblem was usually omitted in ideal figures. In other 
cases the influence of ancient art tradition must not 
be denied. 

The Middle Ages scarcely recognized such influence, 
and were satisfied to refer to Holy Writ as an example 



NIMBUS 



81 



NIMBUS 



for wreath and crown or shield shaped discs as marks 
of honour to holy personages. Durandus writes: 
"Sic onines sancti pingiintur coronati, quasi dicerunt. 
Filia> Jerusalem, venite et videte martyres cum coronis 
quibus coronavit eas Dominus. Et in Libro Sapien- 
tiae: Justi accipient regnum decoris et diadema speciei 
de manu Domini. Corona autem huiusmodi deping- 
itur in forma scuti rotundi, quia sancti Dei protectione 
divina fruuntur, unde cantant gratulabundi: Domine 
ut scuto bon;p voluntatis tuae coronasti nos" (Thus 
all the saints are depicted, crowned, as if they would 
say: O Daughters of Jerusalem, come and see the 
martyrs with the crowns with which the Lord has 
crowned them. And in the Book of Wisdom: The 
Just shall receive a kingdom of glory, and a crown of 
beauty at the hands of the Lord. And a crown of 
this kind is shown in the form of a round shield, be- 
cause they enjoy the divine protection of the Holy 
God, whence they sing rejoicingly: O Lord, Thou hast 
crowned us as with ashieldof Thygood-will.) (Ration- 
ale divin. offic, I, 3, 19, sq.). Furthermore the Mid- 
dle Ages are almost exclusively accredited with the 
extension of symbolisni inasmuch as they traced, 
sometimes felicitously, allusions to Christian truths 
in existing symbols, of which they sought no other 
origin. Durandus adds to the passage quoted above, 
the nimbus containing a cross, usual in the figures of 
Christ, signifying redemption through the Cross, and 
the square nimbus which was occasionally combined 
with it in living persons, to typify the four cardinal 
virtues. Judging by the principal monuments, how- 
ever, the square nimbus appears to be only a variant 
of the round halo used to preserve a distinction and 
thus guard against placing living persons on a par 
with the saints. The idea of the cardinal virtues, the 
firmness of a squared stone, or the imperfection of 
a square figure as contrasted with a round one was 
merely a later development. In the cross nimbus the 
association of the nimbus with an annexed cross must 
be conceded historical ; but that this cross is a " signum 
Christi crucifixi" Durandus probably interprets cor- 
rectly. 

Origin. — As stated above the nimbus was in use 
long before the Christian era. According to the ex- 
haustive researches of Stephani it was an invention of 
the Hellenic epoch. In early Christian art the nimbus 
certainly is not found on images of God and celestial 
beings, but only on figures borrowed from profane 
art, and in Biblical scenes; in place of the simple nim- 
bus, rays or an aureole (with the nimbus) were made 
to portray heavenly glory. Hence it follows that 
Holy Writ furnished no example for the bestowal of a 
halo upon individual saintly personages. As a matter 
of fact the nimbus, as an inheritance from ancient 
art tradition, was readily adopted and ultimately 
found the widest application because the symbol of 
light for all divine, saintly ideals is offered by nature 
and not infrequently used in Scripture. In conteni- 
porary pagan art, the nimbus as a symbol of Divin- 
ity had become so indefinite, that it must have been 
accepted as something quite new. The nimbus of 
early Christian art manifests only in a few particular 
drawings, its relationship with that of late antiquity. 
In the first half of the fourth century, Christ received 
a nimbus only when portrayed seated upon a throne, 
or in an exalted and princely character; but it had al- 
ready been used since Constantine, in pictures of the 
emperors, and was emblematic, not so much of divine 
as of human dignity and greatness. In other scenes, 
however, Christ at that time was represented with- 
out this emblem. The "exaltation" of Christ as in- 
dicated by the nimbus, refers to His dignity as a 
teacher and king rather than to His Godhead. Before 
long the nimbus became a fixed .symbol of Christ and 
later (in the fourth century), of an angel or a lamb 
when used as the type of Christ. The number of 
personages who were given a halo increased rapidly, 
XL— 6 



until towards the end of the sixth century the use of 
symbols in the Christian Church became as general 
as it had formerly been in pagan art. 

Miniature painting in its cycle represents all the 
most important personages with haloes, just as did the 
Virgil codex, so that the continuity of the secular and 
Christian styles is obvious. This connexion is defi- 
nitively revealed when royal persons, e. g. Herod, 
receive a nimbus. Very soon the Blessed Virgin 
Mary always, and martyrs and saints usually, were 
crowned with a halo. More rarely the beloved dead 
or some person conspicuous for his position or dignity, 
were so honoured. Saints were so represented if they 
constituted the central figure or needed to be dis- 
tinguished from the surrounding personages. The 
nimbus was used arbitrarily in personification. Gospel 
types, and the like. Official representations clearly 
show a fixed system, but outside of these there was 
great variety. Works of art may be distinctly differ- 
entiated according to their birthplace. The nimbus 
in the Orient seems to have been in general use at an 
early period, but whether it was first adopted from 
ecclesiastical art is uncertain. In general the customs 
of the East and West are parallel ; for instance, in the 
West the personifications appear with a nimbus as 
early as the third century and Christ enthroned no 
later than in the East (in the time of Constantine). 
Their nature makes it apparent that in every depart- 
ment of plastic art the nimbus is more rarely used 
than in painting. 

Form and Colour. — The form of the symbol was 
first definitely determined by Gregory the Great, 
who (about 600) permitted himself to be painted with 
a square nimbus. Johannus Diaconus in his life of 
the pope, gives the reason : " circa verticem tabula; sim- 
ilitudinem, quod viventis insigne est, prsfercns, non 
coronam" (bearing around his head the likeness of 
a square, which is the sign for a living person, and 
not a crown.) (Migne, "P. L.", 75, 231). It appears 
to have already been customary to use the round nim- 
bus for saints. In any event the few extant examples 
from the following centuries show that, almost with- 
out exception, only the living, principally ecclesiastics, 
but also the laity and even women and children, were 
represented with a square nimbus. The aureole, that 
is the halo which surrounds an entire figure, naturally 
takes the shape of an oval, though if it is used for a 
bust, it readily resumes the circular form. The radia- 
tion of light from a centre is essential and we must 
recognize the circle of light of the sun-god in ancient 
art as one of the prototypes of the aureole. The medal- 
lion form was for a long time in use among the ancient 
Romans for the Imagines clipcatir. The gradations of 
colour in the aureole reveal the influence of .\poc., i y, 3, 
where a rainbow was round about the throne of God. 
Indeed, in very early times the aureole was only used 
in representations of God as the Dove or Hand, or 
of Christ when the divinity was to be emphatically 
expressed. 

In early Christian times (as now) the mmd nim- 
bus was by far the most usual designation of Christ 
and the saints. The broad circle is often replaced 
by the ring of light or a coloured disc, especially 
on fabrics and miniatures. In pictures without 
colour the nimbus is shown by an engraved line 
or a raised circlet, often by a disc in relief. In the 
aureole blue indicates celestial glory, and it is used in 
th<- nimbus to till in the surface, as are yellow, gray, 
and other I'olours while the margins an; sharply de- 
fined in different tints. In many haloes the inner i)art 
is white. In mosaics, since the fifth and sixth cen- 
turies, blue has been replaced by gold. From this 
jjcriod also, the frescoes show a corresponding yellow, 
as seen for instance, in paintings in the catacombs. 
Gold or yellow prevails in miniatures, but there is a 
great deal of variety in illustrated books. Blue as a 
symbol of heaven has the j)reference, but gold, which 



NIMBUS 



82 



NIMBUS 



later became the rule, gives a more obvious impression 
of light. The explanation of the cross nimbus variety " 
is obvious. Since the sixth century it has character- 
ized Christ and the Lanib of (!od, but occasionally 
it is given to the other Persons of the Trinity. In 
connexion with it, in the fourth and fifth centuries, 
there was a manoyram nimbus. The cross and the 
monogram of Christ were besiile or above the heatl 
of Chri.st and the Lamb. In the fifth century they 
were brought to the U])pcr edge of the nimbus and 
finally both were concentrically combined with it. 
In more recent times the monogram and the mono- 
gram nimlnis have become more rare. The letters 
A and S2 for Christ and M and A for Mary, were in- 
tended for monograms and frequently accompanied 
the nimbus. 

Development. — In orderto understand the nimbus 
and its history, it is necessary to trace it through the 
different branches of art. The frescoes in the cata- 
combs have a peculiar significance inasmuch as they 
determine the period when the nimbus was admitted 
into Christian art. The numerous figures lacking 
this symbol (Christ, Mary, and the Apostles) show 
that before Constantine, representations of specifi- 
cally Christian character were not influenced by art 
traditions. Only pictures of the sun, the seasons, and 
a few ornament al heads carried a nimbus at that date. 
The single exception is found in a figure over the well- 
known "Ship in a Storm" of one of the Sacrament 
chapels. But it is to be observed that in this case we 
are not dealing with a representation of God, but 
merely with a personification of heavenly aid, which 
marked a transition from personifications to direct 
representations of holy personages. The figure 
seems to be copied from pictures of the sun god. 
On the other hand, several pictures of Christ in the 
catacombs, dating from the fourth century, indicate 
the period when the nimbus was first used in the 
way familiar to us. Besides the Roman catacombs, 
others, especially that of El Baghaouat in the great 
oasis of the Libyan desert, must be taken into account. 
For the period succeeding Constantine, mosaics fur- 
nish important evidence since they present not only 
verj' numerous and usually definite examples of the 
nimbus, but have a more official character and give 
intelligent portrayals of religious axioms. Although 
allowance must be made for later restorations, a con- 
stant development is apparent in this field. The 
treatment of the nimbus, in the illuminating and illus- 
trating of books, was influenced by the caprices of the 
individual artist and the tradition of different schools. 
In textiles and embroidery the most extensive use was 
made of the nimbus, and a rich colour scheme was tle- 
veloped, to which these technical arts are by nature 
adapted. LInfortunately the examples which have 
been preserved are only imperfectly known and the 
dates are often difficult to determine. 

Sculpture presents little opportunity for the use of 
the nimbus. In some few instances, indeed, the nim- 
bus is painted on ivory or wood carvings, but more 
often we find it engraved or raised in relief. Figures 
with this emblem are rare. On the sarcophagi we 
find that Christ and the Lamb (apart from the sun) 
alone appear with a circle or disc, the Apostles and 
Marj-, never. In ivorj' neither Mary nor Christ is 
so distinguished. 

In the course of centuries the Christian idea that 
God, according to Holy Scripture the Source of Light 
and Divine things, must always be given a halo, be- 
came more pronounced. This applied to the three 
Divine Persons and their emblems, as the Cross, 
Lamb, Dove, Eye, and Hand; and since, according to 
Scripture, saints are children of Light (Luke, xvi, 8; 
John, xii, 36), as such they should share the honour. 
Preference was shown for the garland or crown (corona 
el gloria corona) of Christ which was also bestowed by 
God as a reward upon the saints, either spiritually in 



this life or in the Kingdom of Heaven (Ps. xx, 4; 
Heb., ii, 7 sc].). Garlands and crowns of glory are 
frequently mentioned in Holy Writ (I Peter, v, 4; 
Apoc, iv 4, etc.). The nimbus also takes the form 
of a shield to emphasize the idea of Divine protection 
(Ps. V, 13). A truly classic authority for the explana- 
tion of the nimbus may be found in Wis., v, 17: the 
Just shall "receive a kingdom of glory, and a crown of 
beauty at the hands of the Lord: for with His right 
hand He will cover them, and with His holy arm He 
will defend them." (In Greek, "Holds the shield 
over them".) Whereas in pagan art, the rayless nim- 
bus signified neither holiness nor Divine protection, 
but merely majesty anil power, in Christian art it was 
more and more definitely made the emblem of such 
virtue and grace, which, emanating from God, ex- 
tends over the saints only. LIrban VIII formally 
prohibited giving the nimbus to persons who were not 
beatified. Since the eighteenth century the word 
"halo" has been incorporated into the German lan- 
guage. In Western countries John the Baptist is the 
only saint of the Old Testament who is given a halo, 
doubtless because before his time the grace of Christ 
had not yet been bestowed in it.s fvdlne.ss. 

We have already found that t lie aureole may be con- 
sidered exclusively a device of Christian art, especially 
as it was reserved at first for the Divinity, and later 
extended only to the Blessed Virgin. Instead of sim- 
ple beams it often consists of pointed flames or is 
shaded off into the colours of the rainbow. This form 
as well as the simple nimbus, by the omission of the 
circumference, may be transposed into a garland of 
rays or a glory. A glory imitating the sun's rays was 
very popular for the monstrances; in other respects 
the lunula suggests the nimbus only because the cost- 
liness of the material enhances the lustre. The aure- 
ole obtained the Italian name of mandorla from its 
almond shape. In Germany the fish was agreed upon 
for the symbol of Christ, or a fish bladder if it had the 
shape of a figure 8. God the Father is typified in later 
pictures by an equilateral triangle, or two interlaced 
triangles, also by a hexagon to suggest the Trinity. If 
there is no circle around the cross nimbus, the three 
visible arms of the cross give the same effect. Oc- 
casionally the mandorla is found composed of seven 
doves (type of the Seven Gifts of the Holy Ghost), or 
of angels. The latter are used in large pictures of the 
Last Judgment or heaven, for instance in the "glories" 
of Italian domes. In painting, haloes of cloud are 
sometimes used for delicate angel heads, as in Ra- 
phael's works. Angels also form a nimbus around the 
head of the Mother of God. She is also given the 
twelve stars of Apoc, xii, 1. Saint John Nepomucene 
has five or seven stars because of the great light which 
hovered over his body when he was drowned in the 
Moldau by order of King W'enceslaus. Artists have 
developed many varieties of the nimbus and aureole. 
Since the Renaissance it has been fashioned more and 
more lightly and delicately and sometimes entirely 
omitted, as the artists thought they could suggest the 
characteristics of the personage by the painting. It is 
true that the nimbus is not intrinsically a part of the 
figure and at times even appears heavy and intrusive. 
A distinguishing symbol may not, however, be readily 
dispensed with and with the omission of this one the 
images of the saints have often degenerated into mere 
genre pictures and worldly types. A delicate circlet 
of light shining or floating over the head does not 
lessen the artistic impression, and even if the charac- 
ter of Christ or the Madonna is sufficiently indicated 
in the drawing, yet it must be conceded that the 
nimbus, like a crown, not only characterizes and dif- 
ferentiates a figure but distinguishes and exalts it as 
well. 

Stephani, Ueber den Nimbus u. Strahtenkraitz in den Werkeri der 
alleren Kunsl in Mimoires de V Acadimie de Sl.-P(tersbourg (I8b9) ; 
Krucke. Der Nimbus u, verwaTldte Attribute in der frUchristl, 
KuTut (Straaburg, 1905); Mendelsohx, Heiligenschein in der 



NIMES 



83 



NIMES 



italien. Malerei seit Giotto CBerlin 1903); Kraus, Realmzuklo- 
padie der christl. AUertUmer (1882-86) ; various works by Didbon 
and Menzel, 

G. GlETMANN. 

Nimes, Diocese of (Nemadsensis), suffragan of 
Avignon, comprises the civil Department of Gard. 
By the Concordat of 1801 its territory was united with 
the Diocese of Avignon. It was re-established as a 
separate diocese in 1821, and a Brief of 27 April, 1877, 
grants to its bishops the right to add Alais and Uzes to 
their episcopal style, these two dioceses being now com- 
bined with that of Nimes. 

That Nimes (Nemausus) was an important city in 
Roman antiquity is shown by the admirable Maison 
Carrce, the remains of a superb amphitheatre, and the 
Pont du Gard, four and a half leagues from the city. 
Late and rather contradictory traditions attribute the 
foundation of the Church of Nimes either to Celido- 
nius, the man "who was blind from his birth" of the 
Gospel, or to St. Honestus, the apostle of Navarre, 
said to have been sent to southern France by St. 
Peter, with St. Saturninus (Sernin), the apostle of 
Toulouse. The true apostle of Nimes was St. Bau- 
dilus, whose martyrdom is placed by some at the end 
of the third century, and, with less reason, by others at 
the end of the fourth. iSIany writers affirm that a cer- 
tain St. Felix, martyred by the Vandals about 407, 
was Bishop of Nimes, but Duchesne questions this. 
There was a see at Nimes as early as 396, for in that 
year a synodical letter was sent by a Council of Nimes 
to the bishops of Gaul. The first bishop whose date is 
positively known is Sedatus, present at the Council of 
Agde in 506. Other noteworthy bishops are: St. John 
(about 511, before 526); St. Remessarius (633-40); 
Bertrand of Languissel (1280-1324), faithful to Boni- 
face VIII, and for that reason driven from his see for a 
year by Philip the Fair; Cardinal Guillaume d'Es- 
touteville (1441-49); Cardinal Guillaume Brigonnet 
(1496-1514) ; the famous pulpit orator Flochier (1687- 
1710); the distinguished polemist Plantier (1855-75) 
whoso pastoral letter (1873) called forth a protest from 
Bismarck; the preacher Be.sson (1875-88). Urban II, 
coming to France to preach the crusade, consecrated 
the cathedral of Nimes in 1096 and presided over a 
council. Alexander III visited Nimes in 1162. Clem- 
ent IV (1265-68), born at iSaint Gilles, in this diocese, 
granted the monastery of that town numerous favours. 
St. Louis, who embarked at Aigues-Mortes for his two 
crusades, surrounded Nimes with walls. In 1305, 
Clement V passed through the city on his way to 
Lyons to be crowned. In consequence of disputes 
about the sale of grapes to the papal household, Inno- 
cent VI laid an interdict on Nimes in 1358. The dio- 
cese was greatly disturbed by the Religious Wars: on 
29 Sept., 1567, five years before the Massacre of St. 
Bartholemew, the Protestants of Nimes, actuated by 
fanaticism, perpetrated the massacre of Catholics 
known in French history as the Michelade. Louis 
XIII at Nimes issued the decree of religious pacifi- 
cation known as the Peace of Nimes. 

The first Bishop of Uzes historically known is Con- 
stantius, present at the Council of Vaison in 442. 
Other bishops were St. Firminus (541-53) and St. Fer- 
r6ol (553-81). In the sixteenth century, Bishop Jean 
de Saint Gelais (1531-60) became a Calvinist. The 
celebrated missionary Bridaine (1701-67) was a na- 
tive of the Diocese of Uzes. This little city was for 
seventy days the enforced residence of Cardinal Pacca, 
after his confinement at Fenestrelles (1812). The 
town of Pont Saint Esprit, on the Rhone, owes its 
names to a bridge built there between 1265 and 1309 
with the proceeds of a general collection made by the 
monks. 

About 570, Sigebert, King of Austrasia, created a 
see at Arisitum (Alais), taking fifteen parishes from the 
Diocese of Nimes. In the eighth century, when Septi- 
mania was annexed to the Prankish Empire, the Dio- 



cese of Alais was suppressed and its territory returned 
to the Diocese of Nimes. At the request of Louis XIV, 
a see was again created at Alais by Innocent XII, in 
1694. The future Cardinal de Bausset, Bossuet's biog- 
rapher, was Bishop of Alais from 1784 to 1790. After 
the Edict of Nantes, Alais was one of the places de 
surete given to the Huguenots (see Huguenots, His- 
tory). Louis XIII took back the town in 1629, and 
the Convention of Alais, signed 29 June of that year, 
suppressed the political privileges of the Protestants. 
The chief pilgrimages of the present Diocese of 
Nimes are: Notre Dame de Grace, Rochefort, dating 




The Cathedral, Nimes 
Consecrated by Urban II in 1093 

from Charlemagne, and commemorating a victory 
over the Saracens. Louis XIV and his mother, Anne 
of Austria, established here a foundation for perpetual 
Masses. Notre Dame de Grace, Laval, in the vicinity 
of Alais, dating from not later than 900. Notre Dame 
de Bon Secours de Prime Combe, Fontanes, since 887. 
Notre Dame de Bonheur, founded 1045 on the moun- 
tain of I'Aigoual in the vicinity of Valleraugucs. Notre 
Dame de Belvezet, a shrine of the eleventh century, 
on Mont Andavu. Notre Dame de Vauvcrt, whither 
the converted Albigenses were sent, often visited by 
St. Louis, Clement V, and Francis I. The shrine of 
St. Vdrcdeme, a hermit who died Archbishop of Avi- 
gnon, and of the martyr St. Baudilus, at Trois Fon- 
taines and at Valsainte near Nimes. The following 
Saints are especially venerated in the present Diocese 
of Nimes: St. Castor, Bishop of Apt (fourth to fifth 
century), a native of Nimes; the priest St. Theodoritus, 
martyr, patron saint of the town of Uzes; the Athe- 
nian St. Giles (.^ilgidius, sixth cent.), living as a recluse 
near Uzes when he was accidentally wounded by King 
Childeric, later abbot of the monastery built by Chil- 
deric in reparation for this accident, venerated also in 
England; Blessed Peter of Luxemburg who made a 
sojourn in the diocese, at Villeneuve-lez-Avignon 
(1369-87). 

Prior to the Associations Law of 1901 the diocese 
had Augustinians of the A.ssumption (a congregation 
which originated in the city of Nimes), Carthusians, 
Trappists, Jesuits, Missiojiaries of the Company of 



NIMROD 



84 



MISIBIS 



Mary, Franciscan Fathers, Marists, Lazarists, Sul- 
picians, and various orders of teaching brothers. The 
Oblates of the Assumption, for teaching and foreign 
missions, also foiiiided lu-re, and tlie Besan(,'oii Sisters 
of Charity, teachers and nurses, have llieir mother- 
houses at \imes. At t lie beginning of the century the 
rehgious congregatit)ns conducted in this diocese: 3 
creches, .53 day imrserics, U boys' orphanages, 20 girls' 
orphanages, 1 employment agency for females, 1 house 
of refuge for penitent women, C houses of mercy, 20 
hospitals or tisylums, 11 houses of visiting mn-ses, 3 
houses of retreat, 1 home for incurables. In 1905 the 
Diocese of NJmes contained 420,S3t) inhabitants, 45 
parishes, 239 succursal parishes, 52 vicariates subven- 
tioned by the State. 

Gallia Christiana Nova. VI (1739), 426-516; 608-53, 1118-1121, 
1123, and Imlrumenta, 165-226, 293-312; Duchesne, Pastes Epis- 
copaiu. I (1900). 299-302; Germain. Histoire de Viglise de Ntmes 
(Paris. 1838-42); Goiffon, Catalogue analytique des ivSgues de 
NImes (1879); Duband, Nemausiana, I (Ntmes. 1905); Boulen- 
GER, Les Protestants d Nimes au temps de VMit de Nantes (Paris. 
1903) ; Iloux. Ntmes (Paris. 1908) ; Durand. L'iglise Ste Marie, ou 
Notre Dame de Ntmes. basilique cathidrale (Ntmes. 1906) ; Char- 
vet, Catalogue des hifques d' Uzhs in Mimoires et Comptes rendus 
de la Sociili Scienlifique d'Alais, II (1870). 129-59; Taulelle, 
L'abbaye d'Alais: histoire de S. Julien de Valgalffue (Toulouse. 

1905). Georges Goyau. 

Nimrod. See Nemrod. 

Ninian, Saint (Ninias, Ninus, Din.\n, Ringan, 
RiNGENi, bishop and confessor, date of birth unknown; 
d. about 432; the first Apostle of Christianity in Scot- 
land. The earliest account of him is in Bede (Hist. 
Eccles., Ill, 4) : "the southern Picts received the true 
faith by the preaching of Bishop Ninias, a most rever- 
end and holy man of the British nation, who had been 
regularly instructed at Rome in the faith and myster- 
ies of the truth; whose episcopal see, named after St. 
Martin the Bishop, and famous for a church dedicated 
to him (wherein Ninias himself and many other saints 
rest in the body), is now in the possession of the Eng- 
lish nation. The place belongs to the province of the 
Bernicians and is commonly called the White House 
[Candida Casa], because he there built a church of 
stone, which was not usual amongst the Britons". 
The facts given in this passage form practically all we 
know of St. Ninian's life and work. 

The most important later life, compiled in the 
twelfth centur}' by St. Aelred, professes to give a de- 
tailed account founded on Bede and also on a "liber 
de vita et miraculis eius" (sc. Niniani) "barbarice 
scriptus", but the legendary element is largely evi- 
dent. He states, however, that while engaged in 
building his church at Candida Casa, Ninian heard 
of the death of St. Martin and decided to dedicate the 
building to him. Now St. Martin died about 397, so 
that the mission of Ninian to the southern Picts must 
have begun towards the end of the fourth century. 
St. Ninian founded at Whithorn a monastery which 
became famous as a school of monasticism within a 
centurj' of his death; his work among the southern 
Picts seems to have had but a short-lived success. 
St. Patrick, in his epistle to Coroticus, terms the Picts 
"apostates", and references to Ninian's converts hav- 
ing abandoned Christianity are found in the lives of 
Sts. Columba and Kentigern. The body of St. Ninian 
was buried in the church at Whithorn (Wigtown- 
shire), but no relics arc now known to exist. The 
"Clogrinny", or bell of St. Ringan, of very rough 
workmanship, is in the Antiquarian Museum at 
Edinburgh. 

Bede, Hist. Eccles.. tr. Sellar, III (London, 1907), 4; Aelred, 
Vita S. Niniani in Forbes. Historians of Scotland, V; Acta SS.. 
Sept., V. 321-28; Caporave, Nom Legenda Anglice (London, 
1516); O'CONOR, Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores (Dublin. 1825); 
CoLOAN. Ada SS. Hibern. (Louvain, 1647), 438; Challoner, 
Britannia Sancta, II (London, 1745), 130; Stanton, Menology of 
Brigland and Wales (London. 1887), 448. 669; MacKinnon, 
Ninian und seinEinfluss auf die Ausbreitung des Christenthums in 
Nord-Briiannien (Heidelberg, 1891). this is the most authorita- 
tive work on the subject; see also Idem, Culture in Early Scotland; 
Anakda BoUandiana, XII, 82; Revue Binidictine, IX. 526. 

G. Roger Hudleston. 



Ninive (Nineveh). See Assyria. 

Nirschl, Joseph, theologian and writer, b. at 
Dunlifurth, Lower Bavaria, 24 February, 1823; d. 
at \\ lirzburg, 17 January, 1901. He was ordained in 
1851 and graduated as doittor of (hcnlogy in 1.S.54 
at Munich. He was appointed te;i(h(r of Chri.stian 
doctrine at Passau in 1855 and in 18('i2 pnifcs.sor of 
church history and p;itrology. In 1879 he became 
profcs.sor oi I'liurcli liistoiv at Wiirzburg, and was ap- 
pointe.1 dean of the cathedral in 1892. Of his numer- 
ous works, mostly on patrislics, the most important 
are: "Lehrbuch der Patrologic vmd I'atristik" (3 vols., 
Mainz, 1881-5); "Urspruiig und Wosen des Bosen 
nach der Lehre des hi. Augustinus" (Katisbon, 1854): 
"Das Dogma der unbeflecktcn Empfiingnis Maria' 
(Ratisbon, 1855); "Todesjahr des hi. Ignatius von 
Antiochien" (Passau, 1869); "Die Theologie des hi. 
Ignatius von Antiochien" (Passau, 1869, and Mainz, 
1880); Das Haus und Grab der hi. Jungfrau Maria 
(Mainz, 1900). He translated into German the letters 
and the martyrium of St. Ignatius of Antioch (Kemi)- 
ten, 1870) and the Catecheses of St. Cyril of Jerusalem 
(Kempten, 1871). He defended the genuineness of 
pseudo-Dionysius and of the apocryphal letter of King 
Abgar of Edessa to Jesus. 

Lauchert in Biogr. Jahrb. und deutscher Nekrotog (Vienna, 
1904). 169 sq. 

Michael Ott. 

Nisibis, titular .iVrchdiocese of Mesopotamia, situ- 
ated on the .Mygdonius at the foot of .Mt. Masius. It 
is so old that its original name is vmknown. In any 
case it is not the Achad (Accad) of Genesis, x, 10, as has 
been asserted. When the Cireeks came to Mesopo- 
tamia with Alexander they called it Antiochia Myg- 
donia, under which name it appears for the first time 
on the occasion of the march of Antiochus against the 
Molon (Polybius, V, 51). Subsequently the subject 
of constant disputes between the Romans and the 
Parthians, it was captured by Lucullus after a long 
siege from the brother of Tigranes (Dion Cassius, 
XXXV, 6, 7); and by Trajan in 115, which won for 
him the name of Parthicus (ibid., LXVHI, 23). Re- 
captured by the Osrhoenians in 194, it was again con- 
quered by Septimius Severus who made it his head- 
quarters and established a colony there (ibid., LXXV, 
23). In 297, by the treaty with Narses, the province 
of Nisibis was acquired by the Roman Empire; in 363 
it was ceded to the Persians on the defeat of Julian the 
Apostate. The See of Nisibis was founded in 300 by 
Babu (d. 309). His successor, the celebrated St. 
James, defended the city by his prayers during the 
siege of Sapor II. At the time of its cession to the 
Persians, Nisibis was a Christian centre important 
enough to become the ecclesiastical metropolis of the 
Province of Beit-Arbaye. In 410 it had six suffragan 
sees and as early as the middle of the fifth century 
was the most important episcopal see of the Persian 
Church after Seleucia-Ctesiphon. A great many of its 
Nestorian or Jacobite titulars are mentioned in Cha- 
bot ("Synodicon orientale", Paris, 1902, 678) and Le 
Quien (Oriens christ., II, 995, 1195-1204) and several 
of them, e. g. Barsumas, Osee, Narses, Jesusyab, 
Ebed-Jesus, etc., acquired deserved celebrity in the 
world of letters. Near Nisibis on 25 June, 1839, 
Ibrahim Pasha, son of Mehemet Ali, Viceroy of Egypt, 
won a great victory over the troops of Mahmud II. 
To-day Nezib is a town of 3000 inhabitants in the 
sandjak of Orfa and the vilayet of Aleppo. Its oil is 
considered very fine. 

The first theological school of Nisibis, founded at 
the introduction of Christianity into the town, was 
closed when the province was ceded to the Persians, 
great persecutors of Christianity. St. Ephraein re- 
established it on Roman soil at Edessa, whither 
flocked all the studious youth of Persia. In the fifth 
century the school became a centre of Nestorianism. 



NITHARD 



85 



NOAILLES 



Archbishop Cyrus in 489 closed it and expelled mas- 
ters and pupils, who withdrew to Nisibis. They were 
welcomed by Barsumas, a former pupil of Edessa. 
The school was at once re-opcnod at Nisibis under the 
direction of Narses, called the harp of the Holy Ghost. 
The latter dictated the statutes of the new school. 
Those which have been discovered and pubUshed be- 
long to Osee, the successor of Barsumas in the See of 
Nisibis, and bear the date 496; they must be substan- 
tially the same as those of 489. In 590 they were 
again modified. The school, a sort of Catholic uni- 
versity, was established in a monastery and directed 
by a superior called Rabhan, a title also given to the 
instructors. The administration was confided to a 
majordomo, who was steward, prefect of discipline, and 
librarian, but under the supervision of a council. Un- 
like the Jacobite schools, devoted chiefly to profane 
studies, the school of Nisibis was above all a school of 
theology. Tlie two chief masters were the instructors in 
reading and in the interpretation of Holy Scripture, 
explained chiefly with the aid of Theodore of Mopsues- 
tia. The course of studies lasted three years and was 
entirely gratuitous; but the students provided for 
their own support. During their sojourn at the uni- 
versity, masters and students led a monastic life under 
somewhat special conditions. The school had a tri- 
bunal and enjoyed a civil personality, being able to 
acquire and possess all sorts of property. Its rich li- 
brary possessed a most beautiful collection of Nesto- 
rian works; from its remains Ebed-Jesus, Metropolitan 
of Nisibis in the fourteenth century, composed his 
celebrated catalogue of ecclesiastical writers. The 
disorders and dissensions, which arose in the sixth cen- 
tury in the school of Nisibis, favoured the develop- 
ment of its rivals, especially that of Seleueia; how- 
ever, it did not really begin to decline until after the 
foundation of the School of Bagdad (832). Among its 
literary celebrities mention should be made of its 
founder Narses; Abraham, his nephew and successor; 
Abraham of Kashgar, the restorer of monastic life; 
John; Babai the Elder; three catholicoi named Jesus- 
yab. 

Smith, DictionaTy of Greek and Roman Geography, II (London, 
1870), 440; GniDl, GK Staluti delta Scuola di Ninbi in Giornale 
della Society asiatica italiana, IV, 165-195; Ch.^bot, L'Bcole de 
Nisibe. Son histoire, ses slatuts (Paris, 1896) ; Labouht. Le chris- 
tianisme dans Vempire perse (Paris, 1904), passim; Duval, La 
Utteralure syriaque (Paris, 1899), passim; CniNET, La Turquie 
(t'Asie, 11 (Paris), 269. 

S. Vailhe. 

Nithard, Frankish historian, son of Angilbert and 
Bertha, daughter of Charlemagne; d. about 843 or 844 
in the wars against the Normans. Little is known 
about his early life, but in the quarrels between the 
sons of Louis the Pious he proved a zealous adherent of 
Charles the Bald, by whose command he went as am- 
bassador to Lothair in 840, though without success. 
At the battle of Fontenoy, in 841, he fought bravely 
at the side of Charles, and afterwards wrote, at the 
request of that prince, the history of the period in or- 
der to establish the right of Charles the Bald. This 
work, which usually bears the title: "De dissensioni- 
bus filiorum Ludovici Pii ad annum usque 843, seu 
Historiarum libri quattuor 841-843", recites in rather 
uncouth language the causes of the quarrels and de- 
scribes, minutely and clearly, the unjust behaviour of 
Lothair, sometimes a little partially, but with under- 
Standing and a clear insight into the conditions. He 
was the only layman of his time who devoted himself 
to the writing of a history, and he reported earnestly 
and truthfully what he himself had seen and heard. 
It is very probable that he was lay abbot of St. 
Riquier. His body was buried there, and when it 
was found, in the eleventh century, Mico, the poet 
of the abbey, composed a lengthy rhymed epitaph. 
Nithard's historical work has been published by 
Migne, in "P. L.", CXVI, 45-76; also in the "Mon. 
Germ. Hist.: Script.", II, 649-72, and in "Scriptores 



rerum Germanicarum in usum Scholarum" (Hanover, 
1830, reprinted 1907). Cierman translations by Jas- 
mund appeared at Berlin, 1859; third edition, by Wat- 
tenbach, Leipzig, 1889. 

Wattenbach. Dcutschlands Geschichlsquellcn, I (Berlin, 1904), 
233-37; Potthast, Bibliotheca, H (Berlin, 1S96), 856 sq. 

Patricius Schlager. 
Noah. See Noe. 

Noailles, Lonis-ANXoiNE de, cardinal and bishop, 
b. at the Chat.eau of Teyssiere in Auvergne, France, 27 
May, 1651 ; d. at Paris, 4 May, 1729. His father, first 
Due de Noailles, was captain-general of Roussillon; 
his mother, Louise Boyer, had been lady-in-waiting to 
Queen Anne of Austria. Louis de Noailles studied 
theology at Paris in the College du Plessis, where 
Fcnelon was his fellow-student and friend, and ob- 
tained his doctorate at the Sorbonne, 14 March, 1676. 
Already provided with the Abbey of Aubrac (Diocese 
of Rodez), he was, in March, 1679, appointed to the 
Bishopric of Cahors, and in 1680 transferred to ChA- 
lons-sur-Marne, to which see a peerage was attached. 
He accepted this rapid removal only at the formal 
command of Innocent XL In this office he showed 
himself a true bishop, occupying himself in all kinds of 
good works. He confided his theological seminary to 
the Lazarists, and founded a petit setninaire. 

The regularity of his conduct, his family standing, 
and the support of Mme de Maintenon induced Louis 
XIV to make him Archbishop of Paris, 19 August, 
1695. At Paris he was what he had been at Ch&lons. 
Lacking in brilliant qualities, he was po.ssessed of piety, 
zeal, and activity. He was simple in manners and ac- 
cessible to poor and rich alike. In 1709 he sold his sil- 
ver plate to provide food for the famine-stricken. His 
generosity towards churches was also remarkable, and 
he spent large sums from his private fortune in deco- 
rating and improving Notre-Dame. The decorum of 
public worship and the good conduct of the clergy 
were the particular objects of his care. Inspired more 
by customs prevalent in France than by the prescrip- 
tions of the Council of Trent, he caused the Breviary, 
Missal, and other liturgical books of Paris already 
published by his predecessor de Harlay, to be reprinted. 
To these he added the Rituale, the Caeremoniale, and 
a collection of canons for the use of his Church. By 
decrees issued on his accession (June, 1696) he im- 
posed for the first time on aspirants to the ecclesiasti- 
cal state the obligation of residing in seminaries for 
several months before ordination. He organized ec- 
clesiastical conferences throughout his diocese and 
conferences in moral theology once a week at Paris; 
priests were obliged to make an annual retreat, wise 
rules were drawn up for the good conduct and regu- 
larity of all ecclesiastics, the Divine service, the assi.st- 
ance of the sick, and the primary schools. Seminaries 
for poor clerics were encouraged and supported, and 
one was founded which served as a shelter for poor, 
old, or infirm priests. 

While still Bishop of Chdlons he took part in the 
conferences held at Issy to examine the works of Mme 
Guyon (q. v.). His part was only secondary, but he 
succeeded in having the accused's entire defence 
heard. Shortly afterwards he became involved in a 
controversy with Fenelon (q. v.) concerning the lat- 
ter's "M;ixiiiic.s rlc^s Saints," which w;is (■(inilcnined by 
the Bishojjs of Mi-aux, Chartres, and de Nn.-iillcs him- 
self. In 1700 he w;i,s made a cardinal by Innocent 
XII. Several months later de Noailles presided at the 
General Assembly of the French clergy. This assem- 
bly exerted great inlluence on the teaching of moral 
theology in France, and after Bossuet no one had so 
great a share as de Noailles in its decisions. He be- 
came prior of Navarre in 1704, head of the Sorbonne 
in 1710, and honorary dean of the faculty of law. Ex- 
cept for his :illituilc "towards Jansenism the cardinal's 
career would be deserving only of praise. Uc :dway8 
denied being a Jansenist, and condemned the five 



NOBILI 



86 



NOCERA 



propositions constituting the essence of Jansenism, 
but he always inclined, both in dogma and morals, to 
opinions savouring of .lansonisni; he favoured its [)ar- 
tisans and was ever hostile to the Jesuits and the ad- 
versaries of the Jansenisls. Shiirlly before his eleva- 
tion to the See of Paris he had approved (June, Itii):')) 
the "Reflexions morales" of Pcre Quesnel, an Orato- 
rian already known for his ardent attacliment to 
Jansenism and destined soon to be its leader. He ear- 
nestly reconuneiuled it to his priests. This approba- 
tion was the source of all the cardinal's troubles. 

Believing themselves thenceforth certain of his sym- 
pathy the Janseiiists. on dc Xoailles' elevation to the 
bee of Paris, i)ublislu'd a jiosthumous work of de Bar- 
cos (q. v.), entitled "Exposition de la foy", really the 
explanation ami defence of the Janscnistic doctrine of 
grace already condeinnctl by Rome. De Noailles con- 
demned the book (20 August, 1696), at least in the first 
part of his instruction, but in the second he set forth a 
theory on grace and predestination closely resembling 
that of de Barcos. No one was satisfied; the ordinance 
displeased both the Jansenists and the Jesuits. The 
former did not fail to call attention to the contradic- 
tory attitudes of the Bishop of Chalons, who approved 
Quesnel, and the Archbishop of Paris, who condemned 
de Barcos. An anonymous pamphlet published under 
the title "Problcmeecclesia-stique", placed side by side 
twenty-nine identical propositions which had been 
approved in the Quesnel's work and condemned in de 
Barcos'. Parliament condemned the lampoon to be 
burned; six months later it was put on the Index (2 
June, 1699) and proscribed by the Holy Office. 

The controversies occasioned by the publication of 
the "Cas de Conscience" and Quesnel's "Reflexions 
morales" (for which see Jansenius, in Vol. VIII, 
291-2) involved de Noailles deeply in the Jansenist 
quarrel. In spite of repeated papal decisions of the 
Holy See, the cardinal, for many years, would not ac- 
cept the Bull "Unigenitus". Finally he yielded in 
May, 1728, and on 11 October following published his 
unconditioned acceptance of the Bull. He afterwards 
retracted various writings, which seemed to cast 
doubt on the sincerity of his submission; he restored to 
the Jesuits the faculties of which he had deprived them 
thirteen years before. He died two months later, aged 
78. regarded by all with respect and esteem. His weak 
and uncertain character caused him to offend every- 
body — Jesuits and Jansenists, pope and king, partisans 
and adversaries of the Bull " Unigenitus". He lacked 
discernment in the choice of his confidants; he bore a 
great name, and played an important part in his time, 
but lacked many qualities of a great bishop. His 
works — diocesan ordinances and parochial instruc- 
tions — are mostly collected in the "Synodicon ec- 
clesise Parisiensis" (Paris, 1777). 

De Barth^lemy, he Card, de Noailles d'a-prhs aa correspondance 
(Paris, 1886) ; Saint-Simon, Mimaires, ed. Boilisle, II (Paris, 
1879): [Villefore], Anecdotes ou Memoires secrets (s.l., 1730): 
Lafitau, Re/titalion des Anecdotes {Aix, 1734); Picot, Mem, pour 
servir i Vhist. eccles. pendaiU le XVI I It Steele (Paris, 1853), I, II; 
(Guillon), Hist. gin. de I'iglise pendant le XVIII' siecte (Beaan- 
Con, 1823); Le Roy, La France et Rome de 1700 d 1715 (Paris, 
1892); Cbou8l£, Finelon et Bosauel (Paris, 1895). 

Antoinb Degert. 

Nobili, Robert de', b. at Montepulciano, Tus- 
cany, September, 1.577; d. at Mylapore, India, in 
16.56. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1597, at 
Naples, and after a brilliant course of studies sailed for 
the Indian mission in October, 1604, arriving at Goa, 
20 May, 1605. After a short stay at Cochin and the 
FLshery Coast, he was sent in November, 1606, to 
Madura to study Tamil. Within a year he had ac- 
quired a complete mastery of Tamil, Telugu, and San- 
skrit. In his zeal to convert the Brahmins he adopted 
their mode of life and so had to cut himself off com- 
pletely from intercourse with his fellow missionaries. 
He worked in Madura, Mysore, and the Karnatic till 
old age and almost complete blindness compelled him 



to retire to Mylapore. (For an account of his mission- 
ary methods see M.^L.\B.in Rites.) De' Nobili trans- 
lated into Sanskrit or compo.'icfl therein niiuiy prayers 
:uul several longer works, esprcially an abridgtririit of 
Christian Doctrine and a life of Our Lady, in Sanskrit 
verse. Nearly all these productions were lost during 
his imprisonment in Madura (1()39-41). His principal 
work in Tamil is his "Larger Catechism", in four hooks, 
printed after his death (partly reprinted, Trichinojioly, 
1891-1906). It is a course of tlieology adapted to 
the needs of the country. In addition lie wrote: "A 
Treatise on the Eternal Life", "A Dialogue on the 
Faith", "A Disproof of Transmigration", "A Man- 
ual of Rules of Perfection", numerous hymns and 
several instructions not yet edited, two small cate- 
chisms still in actual use, "The Science of the Soul", 
and many prayers. He translated into Telugu several 
of his Tamil works, among them the two small cate- 
chisms. In Tamil and Telugu he enriched the vocabu- 
lary with appropriate Christian terms. 

Bertrand, La Mission da Maduri (Paris, 1847); Lettres (di- 
fiantes. Collection Martin^ II, 263-60; for the pseudo-Veda, or 
rather paeudo-Veda hoax, see Asiatic Researches, XIV (London, 
1818). 35; pseudo-Vedas seem clearly a non-Christian production: 
for diatribes on de' Nobili, see D'Orsay, Portuguese Discoveries 
(London, 1893), 254-58. 

J. Castet.s. 

Noble, Daniel, phy.sician, b. 14 Jan., 1810; d. at 
Manchester, 12 Jan., 1885. He was the son of Mary 
Dewhurst and Edward Noble of Preston, a descendant 
of an old Yorkshire Catholic family. Apprenticed to 
a Preston surgeon named Thomas Moore, Noble was 
in time admitted a member of the Royal College of 
Surgeons and a licentiate of Apothecaries Hall. In 
1834 he began to practise in Manchester, and soon 
showed the special interest in mental disease which 
afterwards distinguished his career. In the following 
year he published his first work, "An Essay of the 
Means, physical and moral, of estimating Human 
Character", the tendency of which is indicated by the 
fact that he is described as President of the Manches- 
ter Phrenological Society. His practise increased, 
and in 1840 he married Frances Mary Louisa Ward, of 
Dublin; they had eight children, one of them Frances, 
the novelist. Cardinal Wiseman stood sponsor to his 
eldest child. From the University of St. Andrews he 
received the degrees of M.D. and M.A., and in 1867 he 
was elected a fellow of the College of Physicians. His 
other works are: — "Facts and Observations relative 
to the influence of manufactures upon health and 
life" (London, 1843); "The Brain and its Physiology, 
a critical disquisition of the methods of determining 
relations subsisting between the structure and func- 
tions of the encephalon" (London, 1846); "Elements 
of Psychological Medicine: an Introduction to the 
practical study of Insanity" (London, 1853-55); 
"Three Lectures on the Correlation of Psychology 
and Physiology" (London, 1854) ; "The Human Mind 
in its relations with the Brain and Nervous System" 
(London, 1858); "On certain popular fallacies con- 
cerning the production of epidemic diseases" (Man- 
chester, 1859); "On the fluctuations in the death- 
rate" (Manchester, 1863); "Evanescent Protestantism 
and Nascent Atheism, the modern religious problem " 
(London, 1877); "On causes reducing the effects 
of sanitary reform" (Manchester, 1878) and several 
contributions to various medical journals, the best- 
known of which was a paper called "Mesmerism True 
— Mesmerism False", which was translated into Ger- 
man and Dutch. 

GiLLOW, Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath.. V, 181. 

Edwin Burton. 
Nocera, Diocese op (Nucebinensis), in Peru- 
gia, Umbria, Italy, near the sources of the Tina, 
famous for its mineral waters, especially the Fonte 
Angelica. According to a legend, the first Bishop of 
Nocera was St. Crispoldus, a disciple of the Apostles, 
but his Germanic name renders this doubtful; more 



NOCBRA 



87 



NOCTURNS 



credible is the tradition of the martyrdom of SS. Felix, 
Constance, and Felicissimus. The Bishops Felix, to 
whom Pope Innocent addressed a letter in 402, and 
Coelius Laurentius, the competitor of Pope Symma- 
chus (498), were not Umbrian prelates, but bishops of 
Nocera, near Naples (Savio, "Civ. Cattol.", 1907). 
The first authentic Bishop was Liutardus (824) ; other 
prelates were Blessed Rinaldo d'Antignano (1258) and 
Blessed Filippo Oderisi (1285), monks of Fonte Avel- 
lana; Blessed Alessandro Vincioli, O.M. (1363); An- 
tonio Bolognini (1438) restored the cathedral; Varino 
Favorino (1514), anotedhumanist; Gerolano Maunelli 
(1545), founder of the seminary; Mario Battaglini 
(1690), diocesan historian; Francesco Luigi Piervisani 
(1800), exiled in 1809 because he refused the oath of 
allegiance to Napoleon. It is immediately dependent 
on Rome, with 82 parishes; 59,731 inhabitants; 7 re- 
ligious houses of men and 9 of women. 

Cappelletti, Le CAtese d'/faiio. VI. U. BenIGNI. 

Nocera del Pagani (of the pagans), Diocese op 
(XrcEuix I'ah wonr.M), in Salerno, Italy, at the foot 
of .Mt. Alhinid. im the Sarno River; it is the Nuceria 
Alfaterna of the Xuvkrinum coins, captured by Fa- 
bius Maximus in the Samnite War (.307), and sacked 
by Hannibal (215). 
The appellation "of 
the pagans" dates 
probably from the 
ninth century, be- 
iau.se of a Saracen 
riilony established 
there with the con- 
n i V a n c e of the 
rXikes of Naples. In 
1 132 King Roger 
nearly destroyed 
the town because it 
took part with In- 
nocent II, and in 
1382 Charles of Du- 
ra zzo besieged 
there Urban VI 
Nocera is the birth- 
place of Hugo de 
Paganis (Payus), 
one of the founders 
of theTemplars;St. 
Ludovico, Bishop of 
Tolosa, a son of 
Charles II of An- 
jou; Tommaso de Acerno, historian of Urban VI; 
and the painter Francesco Solimena. St. Alphonsus 
Liguori founded his order there. At Nocera is the 
sanctuary of Mater Domini, which contains the tomb 
of Charles I of Anjou; the ancient church was rebuilt 
in the eleventh century, and given to some hermits; 
Urban VIII gave it to the Basihans, and when these 
were driven away in 1809 and 1829, it came into the 
hands of the Franciscans. Among its bishops were 
St. Priscus, the first bishop, not St. Priscus of Nola; 
and Ccelius Laurentius, competitor of Symmachus 
(498). In 1260 the assassination of the bishop caused 
the suppression of the diocese, but Urban VI restored 
it in 1386. Later bishops were Giovanni Cerretani 
(1498), a jurist; the historian Paul Jovius (1528), suc- 
ceeded by his nephew Julius and his great-nephew 
Paul, who rebuilt the episcopal palace; Simone Luna- 
doro (1602), diocesan historian. United to the See 
of Cava in 1818, it was re-established in 18.34. A 
suffragan of Salerno, it has 28 parishes; 60,350 inhab- 
itants; 4 religious houses of men, and 11 of women; a 
school for boys, and 5 for girls. 

, Le Chiese d' Italia, XX. U. BeNIGNI. 




Paolo Giovio. Bishop of Nocera 

DEI Paoani (1528) 

Painter Unlmown, UfEzi, Florence 



Noctums (Noclurni or Nocturna), a very old term 
applied to night Offices. Tertullian speaks of noc- 



turnal gatherings (Ad. Uxor., II, iv); St. Cyprian, of 
the nocturnal hours, "nulla sint horis nocturnis pre- 
cum damna, nulla orationum pigra et ignava dispen- 
dia" (De orat., vcJx). In the life of Melania the 
Younger is found the expression "nocturne honis", 
"nocturna tempora" (Anal. BoUand., VIII, 1889, jip. 
49 sq.). In these passages the term signifies night 
prayer in general, and seems synonymous with the 
word vigilias. It is not accurate, then, to assume that 
the present division of Matins into three Nocturns rep- 
resents three distinct Offices recited during the night 
in the early ages of the Church. Durandus of Mende 
(Rationale, III,n. 17) and others who follow him assert 
that the early Christians rose thrice in the night to 
pray; hence the present division into three Nocturns 
(cf. Beleth, Rupert, and other authors cited in the 
bibliography). Some early Christian writers speak of 
three vigils in the night, as Methodius or St. Jerome 
(Methodius, "Symposion", V, ii, in P. G., XVIII, 
100); but the first was evening prayer, or prayer at 
nightfall, corresponding practically to our Vespers or 
Complines; the second, midnight prayer, specifically 
called Vigil; the third, a prayer at dawn, correspond- 
ing to the Office of Lauds. As a matter of fact the 
Office of the Vigils, and consequently of the Nocturns, 
was a single Office, recited without interruption at 
midnight. All the old texts alluding to this Office (see 
Matins; Vigil) testify to this. Moreover, it does 
not seem practical to assume that anyone, considering 
the length of the Office in those days, could have risen 
to pray at three difTerent times during the night, be- 
sides joining in the two Offices of eventide and dawn. 

If it is not yet possible to assign exactly the date of 
the origin of the three Nocturns, or to account for the 
significance of the division, some more or less probable 
conjectures may be made. In the earliest period there 
was as yet no question of a division in the Office. The 
oldest Vigils, in as far as they signify an Office, com- 
prised certain psalms, chanted or sung either as re- 
sponses or as antiphons, intermingled with prayers 
recited aloud, or interrupted by a few moments' medi- 
tation and readings from the Old or the New Testa- 
ment. On certain days the Vigil included the celebra- 
tion of Mass. 

It was during the second period, probably in the 
fourth century, that to break the monotony of this 
long night prayer the custom of dividing it into three 
parts was introduced. Cassian in speaking of the sol- 
emn Vigils mentions three divisions of this Office (De 
coenob. instit.. Ill, viii, in P. L., XLIX, 144). We 
have here, we think, the origin of the Nocturns; or at 
least it is the earliest mention of them we possess. In 
the " Peregrinatio ad loca sancta", the Office of the 
Vigils, either for week-days or for Sundays, is an unin- 
terrupted one, and shows no evidence of any divi- 
sion (cf. Cabrol, "Etude surLa Peregrinatio Sylvia ", 
Paris, 1895, pp. 37 and 53). A little later St. Benedict 
speaks with greater detail of this division of the Vigils 
into two Nocturns for ordinary days, and tlirec for 
Sundays and feast-days with six [isalms and lessons 
for the first two Nocturns, three canticles and lessons 
for the third: this is exactly the structure of the Noc- 
turns in the Benedictine Office to-daj-, and practically 
in the Roman Office (Regula, ix, x, .\i). The very ex- 
pression " Nocturn", to signify the night Office, is used 
by him twice (xv, xvi). He also uses the term Noc- 
iiirna laiis in speaking of the Office of the Vigils. The 
proof which E. Warren tries to draw from the ".Xn- 
tiphonary of Bangor" to show that in the Celtic 
Church, according to a custom older than the Bene- 
dictino-Roman practice, there were three separate 
Nocturns or Vigils, is based on a confusion of the 
three Offices, " Initium noctis", "Nocturna", and 
"Matutina", which are not the three Nocturns, btit 
the Office of Eventide, of the Vigil, and of Lauds (cf. 
The Tablet, 16 Dec, 1893, p. 972; and Biiumer- 
Biron, infra, 1, 263, 264); 



NOE 



88 



NOE 



The division of the Vinils into two or three Noc- 
turns in the Roman Churrli dates back at least to the 
fifth century. We may conjcoturo that St. Benedict, 
who, in the composition of the iiKiiia.stic cursus, fol- 
lows the arranjicmrnt of tlic Roman Office so closely, 
must have been inspired equally by the Roman cus- 
toms in the composition of his ()ffice. Whatever 
doubt there may be as to priority, it is certain that the 
Roman system bears a strong analogy to that of the 
Nocturns in the Benedictine Office even at the present 
time, and the differences subsisting are almost en- 
tirely the result of transformations or additions, which 
the Roman Oflice has been subjected to in the course 
of time. On Sundays and feast-days there are three 
Nocturns, as in the Benedictine Office. Each Noc- 
turn comprises three psalms, and the first Nocturn of 
Sunday has three groups of four psalms each. The 
ferial days have only one Nocturn consisting of twelve 
psalms; each Nocturn has, as usual, three lessons. For 
the variations which have occurred in the course of 
time in the composition of the Nocturns, and for the 
different usages see M.itins. These different usages 
are recorded by Dom Martcne. For the terms, " Noc- 
tumales Libri", "Nocturnse", see Du Cange, "Glos- 
sarium infim;e latinitatis", s. vv. 

See Matins; Vioil; C.issi.in, Decmnoh. instil., II, x; Beleth, 
Rationale, xx; Liber Diurnus, P. L., CV, 71; DuH.vNDua or 
Mexde, Rationale, III, n. 7; Rupert, De din. offidis, I. x; Mar- 
t£:ne, De antiquis Monach. rit., IV, 4 sq.; Zaccaria, Onomasticon, 
50, 51; B.vUMER-BlRON. Histoire du Briviaire, I (Paris, 1905). 74 
Bq., 78, 99, 263, 338-361, etc. 

F. Cabrol. 

Noe [Heb. nj (Noah), "rest"; Gr. Nwe; Lat. 
Noc], the ninth patriarch of the Sethite line, grandson 
of i\lathusala and son of Jjamech, who with his family 
was saved from the Deluge and thus became the sec- 
ond father of the human race (Gen., v, 2.5 — ix, 29). 
The name Noah was given to him because of his fa- 
ther's expectation regarding him. " This same", said 
Lamech on naming him, "shall comfort us from the 
works and labours of our hands on [or more correctly 
"from", i. e. which come from] the earth, which the 
Lord hath cursed." Most commentators consider 
Lamech's words as the expression of a hope, or as a 
prophecy, that the child would in some way be instru- 
mental in removing the curse pronounced against 
Adam (Gen., iii, 17 sqq.). Others rather fancifully 
Bee in them a reference to Noe's future discovery of 
wine, which cheers the heart of man; whilst others 
again, with greater probability, take them as ex- 
pressing merely a natural hope on the part of Lamech 
that his son would become the support and comfort of 
his parents, and enable them to enjoy rest and peace 
in their later years. Amid the general corruption 
which resulted from the marriages of "the sons of 
God" with "the daughters of men" (Gen., vi, 2 sqq.), 
that is of the Sethites with Cainite women, "Noe 
was a just and perfect man in his generations" and 
"walked with God" (vi, 9). Hence, when God de- 
creed to destroy men from the face of the earth, he 
"found grace before the Lord". According to the 
common interpretation of Gen., vi, 3, Noe first re- 
ceived divine warning of the impending destruction 
one hundred and twenty years before it occurred, and 
therefore when he was four hundred and eighty years 
old (cf. vii, 11); he does not seem, however, to have 
received at this time any details as to the nature of 
the catastrophe. After he reached the age of five 
hundred years three sons, Sem, Cham, and Japheth, 
were born to him (vi, 10). These had grown to man- 
hood and had taken wives, when Noe was informed 
of God's intention to destroy men by a flood, and re- 
ceived directions to build an ark in which he and his 
wife, his sons and their wives, and representatives, 
male and female, of the various kinds of animals and 
birds, were to be saved fvi, 1.3-21). How long before 
the Deluge this revelation was imparted to him, it is 
impossible to say; it can hardly have been more than 



, seventy-five years (cf. vii, 11), and probably was con- 
siderably less. 

Noe had announced the impending judgment anfl 
had exhorted to repentance (II Pet., ii, h), but no 
heed was given to his words (Matt., xxiv, :{7 sqq.; 
Luke xvii, 2(), 27; I Pet., iii, 20), and, wIkm the fatal 
time arrived, no one except Noe's immediate family 
found refuge in the ark. Seven days before the waters 
began to cover the earth, Noe was commanded to 
enter the ark with his wife, his three sons and their 
wives, and to take with him seven pairs of all clean, 
and two pairs of all unclean animals and birds (vii, 
1-4). It has been objected that, even though the 
most liberal value is allowed for the cubit, the ark 
would have been too small to lodge at least two pairs 
of every species of animal and bird. But there can 
be no difficulty if, as is now generally admitted, the 
Deluge was not geographically universal (see Deluge; 
Ark). After leaving the ark Noe built an altar, and 
taking of all clean animals and birds, offered holo- 
causts upon it. God accepted the sacrifice, and made 
a covenant with Noe, and through him with all man- 
kind, that He would not waste the earth or destroy 
man by another deluge. The rainbow would for all 
times be a sign and a reminder of this covenant. 
He further renewed the blessing which He had pro- 
nounced on Adam (Gen., i, 28), and confirmed the 
dominion over animals which He had granted to man. 
In virtue of this dominion man may use animals for 
food, but the flesh may not be eaten with the bloorl 
(viii, 20-ix, 17). Noe now gave himself to agricul- 
ture, and planted a vineyard. Being unacquainted 
with the effects of fermented grape-juice, he drank 
of it too freely and was made drunk. Cham found his 
father lying naked in his tent, and made a jest of 
his condition before his brothers; these reverentlj' 
covered him with a mantle. On hearing of the oc- 
currence Noe cursed Chanaan, as Cham's heir, and 
blessed Sem and Japheth. He lived three hundred 
and fifty years after the Deluge, and died at the age of 
nine hundred and fifty years (ix, 20-29). In the later 
books of Scripture Noe is represented as the model of 
the just man (Ecclus., xliv, 17; Ezech., xiv, 14, 20), 
and as an exemplar of faith (Heb., xi, 7). In the 
Fathers and tradition he is considered as the type 
and figure of the Saviour, because through him the 
human race was saved from destruction and recon- 
ciled with God (Ecclus., xUv, 17, 18). Moreover, as he 
built the ark, the only means of salvation from the 
Deluge, so Christ established the Church, the only 
means of salvation in the spiritual order. 

The Babylonian account of the Deluge in many 
points closely resembles that of the Bible. Four cune- 
iform recensions of it have been discovered, of which, 
however, three are only short fragments. The com- 
plete story is found in the Gilgamesh epic (Tablet xi) 
discovered by G. Smith among the ruins of the library 
of Assurbanipal in 1872. Another version is given 
by Berosus. In the Gilgamesh poem the hero of the 
story is Ut-napishtim (or §it-napishti, as some read 
it), surnamed Atra-hasis "the very clever"; in two 
of the fragments he is simply styled Atra-hasis, which 
name is also found in Berosus under the Greek form 
Xisuthros. The story in brief is as follows: A council 
of the gods having decreed to destroy men by a flood, 
the god Ea warns Ut-napishtim, and bids him buihl 
a ship in which to save himself and the seed of all 
kinds of life. Ut-napishtim builds the ship (of which, 
according to one version, Ea traces the plan on tlie 
ground), and places in it his family, his dependents, 
artisans, and domestic as well as wild animals, after 
which he shuts the door. The storm lasts six days; 
on the seventh the flood begins to subside. The ship 
steered by the helmsman Puzur-Bel lands on Mf. 
Ni§ir. After seven days Ut-napishtim sends forth a 
dove and a swallow, which, finding no resting-place 
for their feet return to the ark, and then a raven, which 



NOEL 



89 



NOLA 



feeds on dead bodies and does not return. On leaving 
the ship, Ut-napistim offers a sacrifice to the gods, 
who smell the goodly odour and gather like flies over 
the sacrificer. He and his wife are then admitted 
among the gods. The story as given by Berosus 
comes .somewhat nearer to the Biblical narrative. 
Because of the striking resemblances between the 
two many maintain that the Biblical account is de- 
rived from the Babylonian. But the differences 
are so many and so important that this view must be 
pronounced untenable. The Scriptural story is a 
parallel and independent form of a common tradition. 
HuMMELAUER, CoTtim, in Geii. (Paris, 1895), 257 sqq.; Hoberg. 
Die Genesis CFreiburg, 1908), 74 sqq.; Selbst, Handbuch zur 
bibl. Gesch. (Freiburg. 1910), 200 sqq.; Skinner, Critic, and 
Exeg. Comm. on Gen. (New York, 1910), 133 aqq.; Dillmann, Gen- 
esis, tr., I (Edinburgh, 1897), 228 sqq.; Dhorme, Textes religieux 
assyro-babyl. (Paris, 1907), 100 sqq.; ViGOuHOui, La bible el les 
decouv. mod,, I (6th ed., Paris, 1896), 309 sqq.; Schrader, Die 
KeilinschriSt, u. das A. T. (2nd ed., Giessen. 1882), 55 sqq.; Jen- 
sen in Schrader. Keilinschrifll. Bibliolhek, VI, i (Berlin, 1889 — ), 
22S stiq.; Vigouroux, Diet, de la Bible, a. vv. Ararat, Arche, and 
Noe: HlLPHECHT. The earliest version of the Babylonian deluge story 
(Philadelphia. 1910). 

F. Bechtel. 
Noel Alexandre. See Alexander Natalis. 
Noetus and Noetianism. See Monarchians. 

Nogaret, Gdillaume de, b. about the middle of 
the thirteenth century at St. Felix-en-Lauragais; d. 
1314; he was one of the chief counsellors of Philip the 
Fair, of France (12S.5-1.314), said to be descended from 
an Albigensian family and was a protege of the lawyer, 
Pierre Flotte. He studied law, winning a doctorate 
and a professorship, and was appointed, in 1294, royal 
judge of the seneschal's court of Beaucaire. In 1299 
the title of knight was conferred on him by Philip the 
Fair. Imbued, from his study of Roman law, with 
the doctrine of the absolute supremacy of the king, 
no scruple restrained Nogaret when the royal power 
was in question, and his influence was apparent in the 
struggle between Philip and Boniface VIII. In 1300 
Philip sent him as ambassador to the Holy See to ex- 
cuse his alliance with Albert of Austria, usurper of 
the Empire. Nogaret, according to his own account, 
remonstrated with the pope, who replied in vigorous 
language. After the death of Pierre Flotte at the 
the battle of Courtrai (1302), Nogaret became chief 
adviser and evil genius of the king. On the publica- 
tion of the Bull "Unam Sanctam" he was charged 
with directing the conflict against the Holy See (Feb- 
ruary, 1303). At the Assembly of the Louvre (12 
March, 1303), he bitterly attacked the pope, and later, 
allying himself with the pope's Italian enemies (the 
Florentine banker, Musciatto de Franzesi, and 
Sciarra Colonna, the head of the Ghibelline party), 
he surprised Boniface in his palace at Anagni and 
arrested him after subjecting him to outrageous treat- 
ment (7 September). But the inhabitants rescued 
the pope, whose death (11 October), saved Nogaret 
from severe retribution. Early in 1304, at Langue- 
doc, he explained his actions to the king, and received 
considerable projjcrty as recompense. Philip even 
sent him with an embassy to the new pope, Benedict 
XI, who refused to absolve him from the excommuni- 
cation he had incurred. Clement V, however, ab- 
solved him in 1311. 

Nogaret played a decisive part in the trial of the 
Templars. On 22 September, 1.307, at Maubuisson, 
Philip made him keeper of the seal and the same 
day the Royal Council issued a warrant for the arrest 
of the Templars, which was executed on 12 October; 
Nogaret himself arrested the Knights of the 'Temple 
in Paris and drew up the proclamation justifying the 
crime. It was he who directed all the measures 
that ended in the execution of Jacques de Molai 
and the principal Templars (1314). The same year 
Nogaret, who displayed untiring energy in drawing 
up the documents by which he sought to ruin his 
adversaries, undertook to justify the condemnation 



of the Templars by annoimcing the plans for a new cru- 
sade, the expenses of which were to be defrayed by the 
confiscated goods of the Order. In this Latin docu- 
ment, addressed to Clement V, the author attributes 
the failure of the crusades to the Templars and de- 
clares that Philip the Fair alone could direct them 
successfully, provided that he obtained the help of 
all the Christian princes to secure the funds required 
for the expedition ; all the property of the Templars 
should be given to the king, likewise all legacies left 
for the crusades and all the benefices in Christendom 
should be taxed. The other military orders, the ab- 
beys, the churches should retain only the property 
necessary for their support, the surplus should be 
given for the Crusade. No one took this document 
seriously, it was probably intended as a solemn hoax. 
Nogaret's influence may be seen in the trial for sorcery 
against Guichard, bishop of Troyes (1308). A zealous 
but unscrupulous royal partisan, a fierce and bitter 
enemy, Nogaret died before Philip the Fair, at the 
time when the regime he had devoted himself to 
establishing was beginning to be attacked on all sides. 

Hist, de Languedoc, IV, 551-4; Holtzmann. Wilhdm v. Nogaret 
(Freiburg, 1898); Boutaric, Notices et extmi! .h .'. > ,un, nts ini- 
dits relatifs d Vhist. de France sous Phili/'j ■ /'. I, i m, Not. 
et extraits des manuscrits Bibl. Nat., XX. ii - : 1 ' i i i:[i- and 
Renan, Etude sur la politique religieuse du ;.-/', /. /'/,///;<;i, le Bel 
(Paris. 1899); cl. Hist. litt. de la France, X.\V1-.\.\VU; Kigadlt, 
Le proems de Guichard, evegue de Troyes (Paris, 1896). Inventory 
of Nogaret's papers is in the Biblioth^que Nationale, Collect. 
Dupuy 635, f. 101; the list of his political writings is to be found 
in the Hist. litt. de la France, XXVII, 359-64. 

Louis Brehier. 

Nola, Diocese of (Nolana), suffragan of Naples. 
The city of Nola in the Italian Province of Caserta, in 
Campania, is said to have been founded by the Etrus- 
cans or by Chalcideans from Cuma?. On the most 
ancient coins it is called Nuvlana. In the Samnite 
War (311 B. c.) the town was taken by the Romans, 
in the Punic War it was twice besieged by Hannibal 
(215 and 214), and on both occasion.s splendidly de- 
fended by Marcellus. In the war willi the Ahirsi, the 
latter took Nola, in 90b. c, but, notwilhstamling their 
brilliant defence of the city, it was retaken from them in 
the year 89, and its recapture put an end to that war. 
The city was sacked by Spartacus, for which reason 
Augustus and Vespasian sent colonies there. In a. d. 
410 it was sacked by Alaric, in 453 by the Vandals, in 
806 and again in 904 by the Saracens. From the time of 
Charles I of Anjou to the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, Nola was a feudal possession of the Orsini. The 
ijattle of Nola (1459) is famous for the clever stratagem 
by which John of Anjou defeated Alfonso of Aragon. 
Nola furnished a considerable portion of the antiquities 
in the museum of Naples, especially beautiful Greek 
vases. In the seminary there is a collection of ancient 
inscriptions, among which are some Oscan tablets. 
The ruins of an amphitheatre and other ancient re- 
mains are yet to be .se<>n in this city, where the Em- 
peror Augustus, whodied there, h;id a famous temple. 
Nola was the birthplace of Giordano Bruno, of Luigi 
Tausillo, the philosopher and i)oet, of the sculptor 
Giovanni Merliano, whose work is w(^ll repres(>nted in 
the cathedral, and of the phy.sician Ambrogio Leo. 

The ancient Christian memories of Nola are con- 
nected with the iieiglibouring Cimitile, the name of 
which recalls the site of an ancient cemetery. There 
is the basilica of St. l''elix, the iniirtvr. built, and poet- 
ic:dlv described bv St, I'aulinus, liisli(i|) of the city, 
whci'slmws that no s:inctuarv, ;ifler the tombs of the 
Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, was visited by :ts many 
pilgrims as came to this shrine. St . I'clix, who lived 
between the middle of t hi! second ceni ury and the mid- 
dle of the third, was the first Bisho]) of Nola. The city 
has several other martyrs, among them, Sts. Itepara- 
tus, Faustillus, and Acacius, companions of St . Janu- 
arius, besides St. Felix, confessor. Other bishops of 
Nola were St. Marinus (about the year 300); St. Pris- 
cus, who died in 328 or, -according to Mommaen, in 



NOLA 



90 



NOMINALISM 



623: St. Quodvultdeus, who died in 387 and was suc- 
ceeaed by St. Paulinus. The body of the last-named 
Baint wa.< taken to Benevento in S'.'i'.), ami in the vear 
1000 was given to Otho III by the iicciplc of Bene- 
vento in exchange for the body of .St. ISartholomew; in 
190!) it was restored to Nola. In the hftli century the 
archpresbytcr St. -Vdeodatus flourished at Nola; his 
metrical epitaph has been preserved. In 4.S4 Joannes 
Taloias. Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, having 
been driven from his diocese, was maile Bishop of 
Nola. It was St. Paulinus III (c. 505) who became a 
slave to free a widow's son; this heroic deed was after- 
wards attributed to St. Paulinus I. Bishop Lupicinus 
(780) restored several sacred buildings. Francis Scac- 
ciani (1370) erected the Gothic cathedral, which was 
finished by Bishop Gian .\ntonio Boccarelli (1469). 
Antonio Scarampi (1549) founded the seminary and 
introduced the reforms of the Council of Trent. Fa- 
brizio Gallo (1.5.S5) founded several charitable institu- 
tions; G. B. Lancellotti (101.5-56), who was Apostolic 
nuncio to Poland from 1622 to 1627, did much for the 
diocese; Francis M. Carafa (1704), a Theatine, was 
zealous for the education of the clergy; Traiano Ca- 
racciolo (1738) constructed the new seminary. 

The diocese is a suffragan of Naples; has 86 par- 
ishes, with 200,000 inhabitants, 9 religious houses of 
men, and 19 of women, several educational establish- 
ments and asylums, and four monthly and bi-monthly 
periodicals. 

Cappelletti, Le Chiese d' Italia, XXI; Remondini, Storia delta 
dUA e diocesi di Nola (Naples, 1747-57). 

U. Beniqni. 

Nola, Giovanni Marliano da, sculptor and archi- 
tect, b., it is said, of a leather merchant named Giu- 
seppe, at Nola, near Naples, 1488; d. 1558 (?). He 
studied under Agnolo Aniello Fiore and then went 
to Rome, being attracted by the fame of Michel- 
angelo, whose work he studied closely. On his return 
to Naples he was employed in churches, palaces, 
and piazze. Among his works may be mentioned the 
monument of Galeazzo Pandono in S. Domenico 
(1514) ; the tombs of the three youths Jacopo, Ascanio, 
and Sigismondo (who died of poison) in their family 
church of S. Sevcrino (1516) ; various sculptures in the 
church of Monte Oliveto (1524), notably a fine group 
of the Mother and Child with infant St. John and, in 
the choir, tombs of Alphonsus II and Guerrero Origlia; 
in the church of S. Chiara, the simple and touching 
recumbent figure of the girl Antonia Gandino (1530). 
Outside of Italy the noble monument of the Spanish 
Duke of Cardona (about 1532) in the Franciscan 
church of Belpuch is among the best known. The 
decorations made by Nola for the reception of Empe- 
ror Charles Vin Naples (1.535) are still to be seen on 
the Porta Capuana. In 1537 he carved a beautiful 
standing Madonna and two Saints for the church of 
S. Domenico Maggiore. In 1553 the Spanish viceroy, 
Peter of Toledo, caused him to erect the mausoleum 
to himself and his wife in the church of S. Giacomo 
degU Spagnuoli. Further works of Nola's, also in 
Naples, are the Piet^ and tomb of a child, Andrea 
Cicara, in the church of S. Severino; a Madonna della 
Misericordia in S. Pictro ad Aram; an altar-piece 
at S. Aniello, representing the Mother and Child 
seated on a crescent moon ; and a fine set of wooden 
bas-reliefs depicting the hfe of Christ, in the sacristy 
of the Annmiziata. Nola is one of the most justly 
lauded representatives of a rather poor school of 
Renaissance sculpture in Naples. 

CicooNABA, Sloria detta scuUura (Venice, 1813 — ); Perkins, 
Italian Sculptors (London, 1868); Lt^BKE, History of Sculpture, tr. 
BuBNETT (London, 1872). 

M. L. Handle Y. 

Noli. See Savona and Noli, Diocese of. 

Nollet, Jean-Antoine, physicist, b. at Pimprfi, 
Oise, France, 19 November, 1700; d. at Paris, 25 



April, 1770. His peasant parents sent him to study 
at Clermont and Beauvais. He went later to Paris to 
prepare for the priesthood. In 172S he received the 
deaconship and applied immcdialely for ])crmission to 
preach. Soon love of science hccainc uppermost and 
together with Dufay and Hcauiuur he devoted him- 
self to the study of physics and especially to research 
work in electricity. Abbe Nollet was the first to 
recognize the importance of sharp points on the 
conductors in the discharge of electricity. This was 
later applied practically in the construction of the 
lightning-rod. He also studied the conduction of 
electricity in tubes, in smoke, vapours, steam, the in- 
fluence of electric charges on evaporation, vegetation, 
and animal life. His discovery of the osmosis of wa- 
ter through a bladder into alcohol was the starting- 
point of that branch of physics. 

In 1734 Nollet went to London and was admitted 
into the Royal Society. In 1735 he started in Paris, 
at his own expense, a course in experimental physics 
which he continued until 1760. In 1738 Cardinal 
Fleury created a public chair of experimental physics 
for Nollet. In 1739 he entered the Academy of 
Sciences, becoming associate member in 1742, and 
pensionary in 1758. In April, 1739 the King of Sar- 
dinia called him to Turin to instruct the Duke of 
Savoy, and to furnish the instruments needed for the 
new chair of physics at the university. After lecturing 
a short time at Bordeaux, he was called to Versailles to 
instruct the dauphin in experimental science. He was 
appointed professor of experimental physics at the 
Royal College of Navarre, in 17.53. In 1761 he taught 
at the school of artillery at M(?zieres. Nollet was also 
a member of the Institute of Bologna and of the 
Academy of Sciences of Erfurt. He was calm and sim- 
ple in manner, and his letters and papers showed that 
he had been devoted and generous to his family and his 
native village. Nollet contributed to the " Recueil de 
I'Acad^mie des Sciences" (1740-67) and the "Philo- 
sophical Transactions of the Royal Society"; his 
larger works include among others: — "Programme 
d'un cours de physique experimentale " (Paris, 1738); 
"LeQons de physique experimentale" (Paris, 1743); 
"Recherches sur les causes particulieres des phd- 
nomenesdlectriques" (Paris, 1749); " L'art des experi- 
ences" (Paris, 1770). 

Grandjean de Foucht, Eloge de J.-A. Nollet; Histoire de 
V Academie Royale des Sciences (Paris, 1773). 121-36. 

William Fox. 

Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism. — These 
terms are used to designate the theories that have 
been proposed as solutions of one of the most impor- 
tant questions in philosophy, often referred to as the 
problem of universals, which, while it was a favourite 
subject for discussion in ancient times, and especially 
in the Middle Ages, is still prominent in modern and 
contemporary philosophy. We propose to discuss in 
this article: I. The Nature of the Problem and the 
Suggested Solutions; II. The Principal Historic Forms 
of Nominalism, Realism, and Conceptualism; III. 
The Claims of Moderate Realism. 

I. The Problem and the Suggested Solutions. — 
The problem of universals is the problem of the cor- 
respondence of our intellectual concepts to things ex- 
isting outside our intellect. Whereas external objects 
are determinate, individual, formally exclusive of all 
multiplicity, our concepts or mental representations 
offer us the realities independent of all particular de- 
termination; they are abstract and universal. The 
question, therefore, is to discover to what extent the 
concepts of the mind correspond to the things they 
represent; how the flower we conceive represents the 
flower existing in nature; in a word, whether our ideas 
are faithful and have an objective reality. Four solu- 
tions of the problem have been offered. It is neces- 
sary to describe them carefully, as writers do not 
always use the terms in the same sense. 



NOMINALISM 



91 



NOMINALISM 



A. Exaggerated Realism holds that there are univer- 
sal concepts in the mind and universal things in na- 
ture. There is, therefore, a strict parallelism between 
the being in nature and the being in thought, since the 
external object is clothed with the same character of 
universality that we discover in the concept. This is a 
simple solution, but one that runs counter to the dic- 
tates of common sense. 

B. Nominalism. — Exaggerated Realism invents a 
world of reality corresponding exactly to the attri- 
butes of the world of thought. Nominalism, on the 
contrary, models the concept on the external object, 
which it holds to be individual and particular. Nom- 
inalism consequently denies the existence of abstract 
and universal concepts, and refuses to admit that the 
intellect has the power of engendering them. What 
are called general ideas are only names, mere verbal 
designations, serving as labels for a collection of 
things or a series of particular events. Hence the 
term Nominalism. jSfeither Exaggerated Realism 
nor Nominalism finds any difficulty in establishing 
a correspondence between the thing in thought 
and the thing existing in nature, since, in different 
ways, they both postulate perfect harmony between 
the two. The real difficulty appears when we assign 
different attributes to the thing in nature and to the 
thing in thought; if we hold that the one is individual 
and the other universal. An antinomy then arises be- 
tween the world of reality and the world as repre- 
sented in the mind, and we are led to inquire how the 
general notion of flower conceived by the mind is ap- 
plicable to the particular and determinate flowers of 
nature. 

C. Conceplualism admits the existence within us of 
abstract and universal concepts (whence its name), 
but it holds that we do not know whether or not the 
mental objects have any foundation outside our minds 
or whether in nature the individual objects possess 
distributively and each by itself the realities which we 
conceive as realized in each of them. The concepts 
have an ideal value; they have no real value, or at 
least we do not know whether they have a real value. 

D. Moderate Realism., finally, declares that there are 
universal concepts representing faithfully realities 
that are not universal. " How can there be harmony 
between the former and the latter? The latter are 
particular, but we have the power of representing 
them to ourselves abstractly. Now the abstract type, 
when the intellect considers it reflectively and con- 
trasts it with the particular subjects in which it is 
realized or capable of being realized, is attributable 
indifferently to any and all of them. This applicabil- 
ity of the abstract type to the individuals is its univer- 
saUty" (Mercier, "Criteriologie", Louvain, 1906, p. 
343). 

II. The Principal Historical Forms of Nomi- 
nalism, REALiSiM, AND CoNCEPTDALiSM. — A. InGreek 
Philosophy. — The conciliation of the one and the 
many, the changing and the permanent, was a favour- 
ite problem with the Greeks ; it leads to the^ problem of 
universals. The typical affirmation of Exaggerated 
Realism, the most outspoken ever made, appears in 
Plato's philosophy; the real must possess the attri- 
butes of necessity, universality, unity, and immutabil- 
ity which are fountl in our intellectual representations. 
And as the sensible world contains only the contin- 
gent, the particular, the unstable, it follows that the 
real exists outside and above the sensible world. 
Plato calls it eiSos, idea. The idea is absolutely stable 
and exists by itself (^j-tus 6^; avri Ka8' avri), isolated 
(xwpio-Ta) from the phenomenal world, distinct from 
the Divine and the human intellect. Following logic- 
ally the directive principles of his Realism, Plato 
makes an idea-entity correspond to each of our ab- 
stract representations. Not only natural species 
(man, horse) but artificial products (bed), not only 
substances (man) but properties (white, just), rela- 



tions (double, triple), and even negations and noth- 
ingness have a corresponding idea in the suprasensible 
world. "What makes one and one two, is a participa- 
tion of the dyad (Svas), and what makes one one is a 
participation of the monad (^iSras) in unity" (Pha?do, 
Ixix). The exaggerated Realism of Plato, investing 
the real being with the attributes of the being in 
thought, is the principal doctrine of his metaphysics. 

Aristotle broke away from these exaggerated views 
of his master and formulated the main doctrines of 
Moderate Realism. The real is not, as Plato says, 
some vague entity of which the sensible world is only 
the shadow; it dwells in the midst of the sensible 
world. Individual substance (this man, that horse) 
alone has reality; it alone can exist. The universal is 
not a thing in itself; it is immanent in individuals and 
is multiplied in all the representatives of a class. As 
to the form of universality of our concepts (man, just), 
it is a product of our subjective consideration. The 
objects of our generic and specific representations can 
certainly be called substances (owiai), when they 
designate the fundamental reality (man) with the ac- 
cidental determinations (just, big) ; but these are 
Seirepai ovatai (second substances), and by that Aris- 
totle means precisely that this attribute of universal- 
ity which affects the substance as in thought does not 
belong to the substance (thing in itself) ; it is the out- 
come of our subjective elaboration. This theorem of 
Aristotle, which completes the metaphysics of Hera- 
clitus (denial of the permanent) by means of that of 
Parmenides (denial of change), is the antithesis of 
Platonism, and may be considered one of the finest 
pronouncements of Peripateticisra. It was through 
this wise doctrine that the Stagyrite exercised his as- 
cendency over all later thought. 

After Aristotle Greek philosophy formulated a 
third answer to the problem of universals, Conceptu- 
alism. This solution appears in the teaching of the 
Stoics, which, as is known, ranks with Platonism and 
Aristoteleanism among the three original systems of 
the great philosophic age of the Greeks. Sensation is the 
principle of all knowledge, and thought is only a collec- 
tive sensation. Zeno compared sensation to an open 
hand with the fingers separated; experience or multi- 
ple sensation to the open hand with the fingers bent ; 
the general concept born of experience to the closed 
fist. Now, concepts, reduced to general sensations, 
have as their object, not the corporeal and external 
thing reached by the senses (ri/ix'"''"') , but the ^cktSv 
or the reality conceived; whether this has any real 
value we do not know. The Aristotelean School 
adopted Aristotelean Realism, but the neo-Platonists 
subscribed to the Platonic theory of ideas which they 
transformed into an emanationistic and monistic con- 
ception of the universe. 

B. In the Philosophy of the Middle Ages. — For a long 
time it was thought that the problem of universals 
monopolized the attention of the philosophers of the 
Middle Ages, and that the dispute of the Nominalists 
and Realists absorbed all their energies. In reality 
that question, although prominent in the Middle 
Ages, was far from being the only one dealt with by 
these philosophers. 

(1) From the commencement of the Middle Ages 
till the end of the 12th century.— It is impossible to 
classify the philosophers of the begiiuiiiig of tlie Mid- 
dle Ages exactly as Nominalists, Moderate and Exag- 
gerated Realists, or C^onccptualists. And the reason 
is that the problem of the ITnivcrsals is very complex. 
It not merely involves the metaphysics of the individ- 
ual and of "the universal, but also raises important 
questions in ideology — questions about the genesis 
and validitv of knowledge. But the earlier Scholas- 
tics, unskili(Ml in such delicate matters, did not per- 
ceive the.sc various aspect.^ of the i)roblem. It did not 
grow up spontaneously in the Middle Ages; it was be- 
queathed in a text of Porphyry's "Isagoge", a text 



NOMINALISM 



92 



NOMINALISM 



that seemed simple and innocent, thouph somewhat 
obscure, but one which force of circumstances made 
the necessary startiiifx-point of the earhest medieval 
speculations about the I'niversals. 

Porphyry divides the problem into three parts: (1) 
Do genera and speoirs exist in nature, or lio they con- 
sist in mere proclucts of the intellect? (2) If they are 
things apart from the mind, are they corporeal or in- 
corporeal things? (3) Do they exist outside the (in- 
dividual) things of sense, or are they realized in the 
latter? " Mox de generibus et speciebus illud quidem 
sive subsistant sive in nudis intellectibus posita sint, 
eive subsistentia corporaha sint an incorporalia, et 
utruni separata a sensibilibus an in sensibilibus posita 
et circa hiec subsistentia, dicere recusabo." Histori- 
cally, the first of those questions was discussed prior to 
the others: the latter could have arisen only in the 
event of denying an exclusively subjective character 
to universal realities. Now the first question was 
whether genera and species are objective realities or 
not: sive subsistant, sive in nudis intellectibus posita 
sint? In other words, the sole point in debate was the 
absolute reality of the universals: theirtruth, their re- 
lation to the understanding, was not in question. The 
text from Porphj'ry, apart from the solutions he else- 
where proposed in works unknown to the early Scho- 
lastics, is an inadequate statement of the question; for 
it takes account only of the objective aspect and neg- 
lects the psychological standpoint which alone can 
give the key to the true solution. Moreover, Por- 
phyry, after proposing his triple interrogation in the 
" Isagoge ", refuses to olTer an answer (dicere recusabo) . 
Boethius, in his two commentaries, gives replies that 
are vague and scarcely consistent. In the second com- 
mentary, which is the more important one, he holds 
that genera and species are both subsistentia and intel- 
lecla (1st question), the similarity of things being the 
basis (subjectum) both of their individuality in nature 
and their universality in the mind; that genera and 
species are incorporeal not by nature but by abstrac- 
tion (2nd question), and that they exist both inside 
and outside the things of sense (3rd question). 

This was not sufficiently clear for beginners, though 
we can see in it the basis of the Aristotelean solution of 
the problem. The early Scholastics faced the problem 
as proposed by Porjihyry: limiting the controversy to 
genera and species, and its solutions to the alternatives 
suggested by the first question: Do the objects of our 
concepts (i. e., genera and species) exist in nature (sub- 
sistenlia), or are they mere abstractions (nuda intel- 
lecta)? Are they, or are they not, things? Those who 
replied in the affirmative got the name of Reals or 
Realists; the others that of Nominals or Nominalists. 
The former, or the Realists, more numerous in the 
early Middle Ages (Fredugisus, R^my d'Auxerre, and 
John Scot us Eriugena in the ninth century, Gcrbert 
and Odo of Tournai in the tenth, and William of 
Champeaux in the twelfth) attribute to each genus 
and each species a universal essence (subsistentia), 
to W'hich all the subordinate individuals are tribu- 
tary. 

The Nominalists, who should be called rather the 
anti-Realists, assert on the contrary that the individ- 
ual alone exists, and that the universals are not things 
realized in the universal state in nature, or subsistentia. 
And as they adopt the alternative of Porphyry, they 
conclude that the universals are nuda inlellecta (that 
is, purely intellectual representations). 

It may be that Roscelin of Compiegne did not go 
beyond these energetic protests against Realism, 
and that he is not a Nominalist in the exact sense we 
have attributed to the word above, for we have to de- 
pend on others for an expression of his views, as there 
is extant no text of his which would justify us in say- 
ing that he denied the intellect the power of forming 
general concepts, distinct in their nature from sensa- 
tion. Indeed, it is difficult to comprehend how Nom- 



inalism could exist at all in the Middle Ages, as it is 
possible only in a sensist philosophy that denies all nat- 
ural distinction between sensation and the intellect- 
ual concept. Furthermore there is little evidence of 
Sensism in the Middle Ages, and, as Sensism and Scho- 
lasticism, so also Nominalism and Scholasticism are 
mutually exclusive. The different anti-Realist sys- 
tems anterior to the thirteenth century are in fact 
only more or less imperfect forms of the Moderate 
Realism towards which the efforts of the first period 
were tending, phases through which the same idea 
passed in its organic evolution. These stages are nu- 
merous, and several have been studied in recent mon- 
ographs (e. g. the doctrine of Ad<5lard of Bath, of 
Gauthier de Mortagne, Indifferentism, and the theory 
of the collectio). The decisive stage is marked by Ab(5- 
lard (1079-1142), who points out clearly the r61e of 
abstraction, and how we represent to ourselves ele- 
ments common to different things, capable of realiza- 
tion in an indefinite number of individuals of the same 
species, while the individual alone exists. From that 
to Moderate Realism there is but a step; it was suffi- 
cient to show that a real fundamentum allows us to 
attribute the general representation to the individual 
thing. It is impossible to say who was the first in the 
twelfth century to develop the theory in its entirety. 
Moderate Realism appears fully in the writings of 
John of Salisbury. 

C. From the Thirteenth Century. — In the thirteenth 
century all the great Scholastics solved the problem of 
the universals by the theory of Moderate Realism 
(Thomas Aquinas, Bonaventure, Duns Scotus), and 
are thus in accord with Averroes and Avicenna, the 
great Arab commentators of Aristotle, whose works 
had recently passed into circulation by means of trans- 
lations. St. Thomas formulates the doctrine of Mod- 
erate Realism in precise language, and for that reason 
alone we can give the name of Thomistic Realism to 
this doctrine (see below). With William of Occam 
and the Terminist School appear the strictly concept- 
ualist solutions of the problem. The abstract and uni- 
versal concept is a sign (signum), also called a term 
(terminus; hence the name Terminism given to the 
system), but it has no real value, for the abstract and 
the universal do not exist in any way in nature and 
have no fundamentum outside the mind. The univer- 
sal concept (intentio sccunda) has as its object internal 
representations, formed by the understanding, to which 
nothing external corresponding can be attributed. 
The r6le of the universals is to serve as a label, to hold 
the place (supponere) in the mind of the multitude of 
things to which it can be attributed. Occam's Con- 
ceptualism would be frankly subjectivistic, if, together 
with the abstract concept, he did not admit within us 
intuitive concepts which reach the individual thing, as 
it exists in nature. 

D. In Modern anil Contemporary Philosophy. — We 
find an unequivocal affirmation of Nominalism in 
Positivism. For Hume, Stuart Mill, Spencer, and 
Taine there is strictly speaking no universal concept. 
The notion, to which we lend universality, is only a 
collection of individual perceptions, a collective sen- 
sation, "un nom compris" (Taine), "a term in habit- 
ual association with many other particular ideas" 
(Hume), "un savoir potentiel emmagasind" (Ribot). 
The problem of the correspondence of the concept to 
reality is thus at once solved, or rather it is suppressed 
and replaced by the psychological question: What is 
the origin of the illusion that induces us to attribute a 
distinct nature to the general concept, though the lat- 
ter is only an elaborated sensation? Kant distinctly 
affirms the existence within us of abstract and general 
notions and the distinction between them and sensa- 
tions, but these doctrines are joined with a character- 
istic Phenomenalism which constitutes the most orig- 
inal form of modem Conceptualism. Universal and 
necessary representations have no contact with ex- 



NOMINATION 



93 



NOMINATION 



ternal things, since they are produced exclusively by 
the structural functions (a priori forms) of our mind. 
Time and space, in which we frame all sensible im- 
pressions, cannot be obtained from experience, which 
is individual and contingent; they are schemata which 
arise from our mental organization. Consequently, 
we have no warrant for establishing a real correspond- 
ence between the world of our ideas and the world of 
reality. Science, which is only an elaboration of the 
data of sense in accordance with other structural de- 
terminations of the mind (the categories), becomes a 
subjective poem, which has a value only for us and not 
for a world outside us. A modern form of Platonic or 
Exaggerated Realism is found in the ontologist doc- 
trine defended by certain Catholic philosophers in the 
middle of the nineteenth century, and which consists 
in identifying the objects of universal ideas with the 
Divine ideas or the archetypes on which the world was 
fashioned. As to Moderate Realism, it remains the 
doctrine of all those who have returned to Aristotele- 
anism or adopted the neo-Scholastic philosophy. 

III. The Claims of Moderate Realism. — This 
system reconciles the characteristics of external ob- 
jects (particularity) with those of our intellectual 
representations (universality), and explains why sci- 
ence, though made up of abstract notions, is valid 
for the world of reality. To understand this it suffices 
to grasp the real meaning of abstraction. When the 
mind apprehends the essence of a thing (quod quid 
est; t4 Ti ^v chai), the external object is perceived 
without the particular notes which attach to it in na- 
ture {esse in singularibus), and it is not yet marked 
with the attribute of generality which reflection will 
bestow on it (esse in uilcllniii). The abstract reality 
is apprehended with perfect, indifference as regard.s 
both the individual state without and the universal 
state within: abstrahit ab utroque esse, secundum 
quam considerationem consideratur natura lapidis vel 
cujus cumque alterius, quantum ad ea tantum qua; 
per se competunt ilh naturie (St. Thomas, "Quod- 
libeta", Q. i, a. 1). Now, what is thus conceived in 
the absolute state (absolute considerando) is nothing 
else than the reality incarnate in any given individual : 
in truth, the reality, represented in my concept of 
man, is in Socrates or in Plato. There is nothing in 
the abstract concept that is not applicable to every 
individual; if the abstract concept is inadequate, be- 
cause it does not contain the singular notes of each 
being, it is none the less faithful, or at least its ab- 
stract character does not prevent it from correspond- 
ing faithfully to the objects existing in nature. As to 
the universal form of the concept, a moment's consid- 
eration shows that it is subsequent to the abstraction 
and is the fruit of reflection: "ratio speciei accidit na- 
turiE humanse". Whence it follows that the univer- 
sality of the concept as such is the work purely of the 
intellect: "unde intellectus est qui facit universalita- 
tem in rebus" (St. Thomas, "De enteet essentia", iv). 

Concerning Nominalism, Conceptualism, and Ex- 
aggerated Realism, a few general considerations must 
suffice. Nominalism, which is irreconcilable with a 
spiritualistic philosophy and for that very reason with 
Scholasticism as well, presupposes the ideological 
theory that the abstract concept does not differ essen- 
tially from sensation, of which it is only a transforma- 
tion. The Nominalism of Hume, Stuart Mill, Spen- 
cer, Huxley, and Taine is of no greater value than 
their ideology. They confound essentially distinct 
logical operations — the simple decomposition of sen- 
sible or empirical representations with abstraction 
properly so called and sensible analogy with the pro- 
cess of universalization. The Aristoteleans recognize 
both of these mental operations, but they distinguish 
carefully between them. As to Kant, all the bonds 
that might connect the concept with the external 
world are destroyed in his Phenomenalism. Kant is 
imablc to explain why one and the same sensible im- 



pression starts or sets in operation now this, now that 
category; his a priori forms are unintelUgible accord- 
ing to his own principles, since they are beyond experi- 
ence. Moreover, he confuses real time and space, 
limited like the things they develop, with ideal or 
abstract time and space, which alone are general and 
without limit. For in truth we do not create whole- 
sale the object of our knowledge, but we beget it within 
us under the causal influence of the object that reveals 
itself to us. Ontologism, which is akin to Platonic 
Realism, arbitrarily identifies the ideal types in our 
intellect, which come to us from the sensible world by 
means of abstraction, with the ideal types consubstan- 
tial with the essence of God. Now, when we form our 
first abstract ideas we do not yet know God. We are 
so ignorant of Him that we must employ these first 
ideas to prove a posteriori His existence. Ontologism 
has lived its life, and our age so enamoured of obser- 
vation and experiment will scarcely return to the 
dreams of Plato. 

Zeller, Die Philosophic der Griechen (.5 vols., 5th ed., Tiibingen, 
1903), tr. CosTELLOE AND MuiRHEAD, Aristotle and the earlier PeH- 
patetics (2 vols., London and New York, 1897); Piat, Aristote 
(Paris, 1903) : Brochard, Sur la logique des stoiciens in ArcMv fur 
Gesch. der Philos. (1892) ; LoEWE, Der Kampf zw. dem Realismus u. 
Nomiiialismus im Mittelalter in Abhandl. d. k. bdhm. Gesellschaft d. 
Wissenschaft, VIII (1876) ; De Wulf, Hist, of Medieval Philos., 
tr. Coffey (New York and London, 1909); Idem, Lr pmhlime 
des universaux dans son evolution historiqiir .-fu TX- 'i' XTIT" 

siicle in Archiv fur Gesch. d. Philos., IX, iv ( 1 ^ Ii ^ ' i , l/ist. 

of Philos. (Boston, 1903); Reinebs, Der .;,. /. • >/» tn 

d. Frilhscholastik (Aachen, 1907); Idem, Drr .\ , -. . , in d. 

Friihscholastik in Beitrtlge zur Gesch. d. Philu.i.. \ 111. i t.Miaiater, 
1910) ; Stockl, Hist, of Philos., tr. Finlat (Dublin, 1BU3) ; De- 
hove, Qui prfTCLTpui fuerint labente XII smculo ante introductam 
arabum philosophiam temperati realismi antccessores (Lille, 1908) ; 
Mercieb, Criteriologie ginirale (Louvain, 190.5). 

M. De Wulf. 

Nomination. — The various methods of designating 
persons for ecclesiastical benefices or offices have been 
described under Benefice; Bishop; Election; In- 
stitution, Canonical. All these methods are more 
or less included in the ordinary sense of the terra nom- 
ination; but in its strict canonical sense, nomination 
is defined as the designation of a person for an ecclesi- 
astical benefice or office made by the competent civil 
authority and conferring on the person named the 
right to be canonically instituted by the ecclesiastical 
superior. It follows the rules of patronal presentation, 
being based on the same grounds as the right of pat- 
ronage, viz. the endowment of churches or benefices 
by kings, princes, or communities. Its method of ac- 
tion is designed to keep the prerogatives of the two 
powers clearly separated, the intervention of the secu- 
lar power taking effect in the free choice of a fit person, 
the spiritual jurisdiction being reserved intact to the 
ecclesiastical superior, who alone can give canonical 
institution. At the present time appointments to ben- 
efices by right of nomination, esijecially to bishop- 
rics, is generally settled by negotiation and previous 
understanding between the two powers. I'niler the 
old regime tlic noniinati'il person himself a])plied for 
canonical institution; tlie .superior made inijuiry as to 
the applicant and, unle.ss the inquiry disclosed un- 
worthiness or unfitness, granted canonical institution 
according to the customary forms — mo.st ofleii by con- 
sistorial preconiz.ation. Whatever procedure may be 
followeil, the person named by the civil iinwer luis no 
spiritual juri.sdiclion until he has been caminicaUy in- 
stituted; and if li<' should dare to intrude in the admin- 
istration of the dioiMsc with no other title than his 
nomination by the secular authority, not only would 
all iiis acts l)c riull and void, but he, and with him those 
who sliould li.ave coiisiMiled to his acts, would incur 
exconiiiiunication and (jther penalties; moreover, he 
would forfeit the right resulting from his nomination 
(Const. "Romanus pontifex", 28 Aug., 1873, and the 
texts there cited. Cf. Excommunication, vol. V, p. 
G91, col. 1). 

The most important apphcation of the right of iiom- 



NOMOCANON 



94 



NOMOCANON 



ination by princes is, without doubt, that which relates 
to the major, or eonsistorial, benefices, especially bish- 
oprics. Without RoinR back to the intrusions of 
royal power in episcopal elections in the barbarian 
kingdoms, or in the Carlovin};ian ICinpire. or tlie 15y- 
zantine, it must be remembered th:it tlie C'oncordat of 
Worms (1121), which ended the ConHict of Investi- 
tures (q. v.), included an initial measure for I he separa- 
tion of the ijarts and [jrerogatives of the two powers in 
the choice of bishojis. The emperor recognized the 
freedom of episcopal elections and consecrations; the 
pope, on his side, agreed that elections should be held 
in the emperor's presence, without simony or restraint, 
that the emperor shoukl decide in case of dispute, that 
he should give temporal investiture, by the sceptre, 
to the bishop-elect, while investiture by ring and 
crosier, sjTnbolic of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, should 
be combined with the consecration. The custom of 
election of bishops by chapters, which was the com- 
mon law of the thirteenth century, left, officially, no 
opening for royal interference, but princes none the 
less endeavoured to have their candidates elected. 
This became more difficult for them when, by succes- 
sive reservations, the popes had made themselves mas- 
ters of all episcopal elections, thus occasioning serious 
inconveniences. While in Ciermany the Concordat of 
1-148 re-established capitular elections, in France, on 
the contrary, after the difficulties consequent upon 
the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourgcs (1438), the quarrel 
ended with the Concordat of 1516. In this instru- 
ment we find the right of nomination guaranteed to 
the kings of France for consistorial benefices, bishop- 
rics, abbacies, and priorates; and thence the arrange- 
ment passed into most of the subsequent concordats, 
including that of 1801 (cf. Nussi, "Quinquaginta con- 
ventiones", Rome, 1869, tit. v). The royal ordinance 
of Francis I promulgating the Bull of Leo X says: 
"Such vacancy occurring, the King of France shall be 
bound to present and name [the Bull says only nobis 
nominabit] a master . . . and otherwise fit, within six 
months . . . that we may appoint his nominee to the 
vacant see." If this person is rejected, the king will 
nominate another within three months; if not, the 
pope can himself appoint. The same right of nomi- 
nation is extended to abbacies and priorates, with 
some exceptions. The Concordat of 1801 (articles 
4 and .5) accords to the First Consul the same right 
of nomination, but only for bishoprics, and without 
fixing a limit of time for its exercise. In other coun- 
tries (e. g. Spain) the right of the temporal ruler in- 
cludes other benefices besides bishoprics. 

Such being the nature of the very definite right of 
nomination, nothing but malicious provocation can 
be discerned in the conflict brought on by M. Combes, 
when Prime Minister of France (1902-.5), in regard to 
the nobis nominavit, the expression which figured in the 
Bulls for French bishops. By a note dated 21 Dec, 
1902, the French Government demanded the suppres- 
sion of the nobis, as if to make it appear that the head 
of the State nominated bishops absolutely, like gov- 
ernment officials. The Vatican explained the true 
nature of the nomination as the designation of a per- 
son by the head of the State, the latter indicating to 
the pope the cleric whom he desires as head of such a 
diocese, the pope accordingly creating that candidate 
bishop by canonical institution. The fact was pointed 
out that the word nobis is found in the episcopal Bulls 
of all nations which have by concordat the right of 
nomination; also that, with very rare exceptions, it 
appears in all the Hulls for France under the Concor- 
dat of 1.516 a.s under that of 1801; that previously, in 
1871, the French Government having obtained with- 
out any difficulty the suppression of the word prcesen- 
tavit, had, upon representations made by Rome, with- 
drawn its demand for the suppression of the nobis; 
above all, it was insisted on that the letters patent of 
the French Government to the pope had from time 



immemorial contained the words: "We name him [the 
candidate] and present him to Yovir Holiness, that it 
may please Your Holiness, upon our nomination and 
presentation, to provide for the said bishopric", etc. 
The Vatican nevertheless fleclared that it did not de- 
sire to refuse any satisf.-icldry revision; various form- 
uUe were pruposcd (ni cilhir side, without success; at 
last the Holy Sci' (•(insciilrd to suppress the word nobis 
in the Bulls, I'Dnlciitiiig itself wiili the Government's 
employing the usual formula in drafi ing letters patent. 
(On this confiict see the " Livre HIanc du Saint Siege"; 
"La separation de I'Eglise et I'Etat en France", ch. 
vi, in "Acta S. Sedis", 15 Jan., 1906.) This conces- 
sion, as we know, did not delay the separation which 
the French Government was determined to have at 
any price. (See Benefice; Bishop; Concordat; 
Election; Institdtion.) 

Canonists on the title De prabendis. III, v; H^ricodrt, Loix 
eccUsiaatiques de France, E, IV; Cavagnis. Instiiutiones juris 
ecclesiastici, II {Rome. 1906), 13, 2.56; S^vestre, L'histoire, le 
teste et la deslinee du Concordat de 1801 (Paris, 1905) ; Verino, 
Kirchenrechl (Freiburg im Br., 1893), §86; Sagmuller, Lihrbuch 
des kath. Kirchengeschichte (Freiburg, 1909), § 73 sq. 

A. Boudinhon. 

Nomocanon (from the Greek yi/itos, law, and 
Kivuv, a rule), a collection of ecclesiastical law, the ele- 
ments of which are borrowed from secular and canon 
law. When we recall the important place given to 
ecclesiastical discipline in the imperial laws such as the 
Theodosian Code, the Justinian collections, and the 
subsequent "Novella;", and "Basilica", the utility 
of comparing laws and canons relating to the same 
subjects will be readily recognized. Collections of 
this kind are found only in Eastern law. The Greek 
Church has two principal collections. The first, dat- 
ing from the end of the sixth century, is ascribed, 
though without certainty, to John Scholasticus (q. v.), 
whose canons it ut ilizes and completes. He had drawn 
up (about 550) a purely canonical compilation in fifty 
titles, and later composed an extract from the "No- 
vellae" in eighty-seven chapters (for the canonical col- 
lection see Voellus and Justellus, "Bibliotheca juris 
canonici", Paris, 1661, II, 449 sqq.; for the eighty- 
seven chapters, Pitra, "Juris ecclesiastici Grsecorum 
historia et monumenta", Rome, 1864, II, 385). To 
each of the fifty titles were added the texts of the im- 
perial laws on the same subject, with twenty-one ad- 
ditional chapters nearly all borrowed from John's 
eighty-seven (Voellus and Justellus, op. cit., II, 603). 
In its earliest form this collection dates from the reign 
of Emperor Heraclius (610-40), at which time Latin 
was replaced by Greek as the official language of the 
imperial laws. Its two sections include the ecclesias- 
tical canons and the imperial laws, the latter in four- 
teen titles. 

This collection was long held in esteem and passed 
into the Russian Church, but was by degrees sup- 
planted by that of Photius. The first part of Pho- 
tius's collection contains the conciliar canons and 
the decisions of the Fathers. It is in substance the 
Greek collection of 692, as it is described by canon 
ii of the Trullan Council (see Law, Canon), with 
the addition of 102 canons of that council, 17 canons 
of the Council of Constantinople of 861 (against Ig- 
natius), and of 3 canons substituted by Photius for 
those of the oecumenical council of 869. The nomo- 
canon in fourteen titles was completed by additions 
from the more recent imperial laws. This whole col- 
lection was commentated about 1170 by Theodore 
Balsamon, Greek Patriarch of Antioch residing at 
Constantinople (Nomocanon with Balsamon's com- 
mentary in Voellus and .Justellus, II, 815; P. G., CIV, 
441). Supplemented by this commentary the col- 
lection of Photius has become a part of the "Pidalion" 
(■ir7i56,\iov, rudder), a sort of Corpus Juris of the 
Orthodox Church, printed in 1800 by Patriarch Neo- 
phytus VIII. In the eleventh century it had been 
also translated into Slavonic for the Russian Church; 



NONANTOLA 



95 



NONCONFORMISTS 



!t is retained in the law of the Orthodox Church of 
Greefi', and inchided in the "Syntagma" pubhshed 
by Uliallis and Potlis (Athens, 1852-9). Though 
called the "Syntagma", the collection of ecclesiastical 
law of Matthew Blastares (c. 1339) is a real nomoca- 
non, in which the texts of the canons and of the laws are 
arranged in alphabetical order (P. G., loc. cit.; Bev- 
eridge, "Synodicon", Oxford, 1672). A remarkable 
noraocanon was composed by John Barhebra?us (1226- 
86) for the Syrian Church of Antioch (Latin version 
by Asseraani in Mai, "Script, vet. nova collectio", X, 
3 sqq.). Several Russian manuals published at Kiev 
and Moscow in the seventeenth century were also 
nomocanons. 

Vering. Lehrb. des Kirchenrechts (Freiburg. 1S93), §§ 17-19; 
Schneider, Die Lehre von den Kirckenrechtsquellen (Ratisbon, 
1892), 50, 199: also bibliographies of Law, C.\non; John Scholas- 
Ticus; Photius, etc. 

A. BOUDINHON. 

Nonantola, a former Benedictine monastery and 
prelature iiiilliiis, six miles north-east of Modena, 
founded in 7.')2 by St. Anselm, Duke of Friuli, and 
richly endowed by Aistulph, King of the Longobards. 
Steplien II appointed .\n.selni its tir-^t aliliot, and pre- 
sented the relics of St. Sylvester t(j tin- abbey, named 
in consequence S. Sylvester de Xunantula. After the 
death of Aistulph (756), Anselm was banished to 
Monte Cassino by the new king, Desiderius, but was 
restored by Charlemagne after seven years. In 883 
it was chosen as the place of a conference between 
Charles the Fat and Marinus I. Up to 1083 it was an 
imperial monastery, and its discipline often suffered 
severely on account of imperial interference in the elec- 
tion of abbots. In the beginning of the Conflict of 
Investitures it sided with the emperor, until forced to 
submit to the pope by Mathilda of Tuscany in 1083. 
It finally declared itself openly for the pope in 1111. 
In that year the famous monk Placidus of Nonantola 
wrote his "De honore Ecclesiae", one of the most 
able and important defences of the papal position 
that were written during the Conflict of Investitures. 
It is printed in Fez, "Thesaurus Anecdot. noviss." 
(Augsburg, 1721), II, ii, 73 sq. The decline of the 
monastery began in 1419, whenit came under the juris- 
diction of commendatory abbots. In 1514 it came into 
the possession of the Cistercians, but continued to de- 
cline until it was finally suppressed by Clement XIII 
in 1768. Pius VII restored it 23 Jan., 1821, with the 
provision that the prelature nullius attached to it 
should belong to the Archbishop of Modena. In 1909 
the exempt district comprised 42,980 inhabitants, 31 
parishes, 91 churches and chapels, 62 secular priests 
and three religious congregations for women. The 
monastery itself was appropriated by the Italian Gov- 
ernment in l.Slil). 

TlRABOscni. Sluria ddV augusta badia di S. Sihesfro di Nonan- 
tola (2 voLs.. Modena. 17.S4-5); Gahdenzi in Bull dell' Istituto 
stor. ital. XXII (1901), 77-214; Cohradi, Nonantola. abbazia 
imperiale in Rivista Slorica Benedettina, IV (Rome, 1909), 181-9; 
MuRATORi, Rer. Ital. Script., I, ii, 189-196; Notitia codicum mo- 
nasterii Nonantulani anni 1166 in Mai, Spicilegium Romanum 
(Rome, 1839-14), V, i, 218-221; Becker, Catalogi bibliothecarum 
antiqui (Bonn, 1885), 220 sq.; Giorgi in Rivista delle Biblioteche e 
degli archivi, VI (Florence, 1895), 54 sq. 

Michael Ott. 

Nonconformists, a name which, in its most gen- 
eral acceptation, denotes those refusing to conform 
with the authorized formularies and rites of the Es- 
tablished Church of England. The apphcation of 
the term has varied somewhat with the successive 
phases of Anglican history. From the accession of 
Elizabeth to the middle of the seventeenth century 
it had not come into use as the name of a religious 
party, but the word "conform", and the appellatives 
"conforming" and "nonconforming", were becoming 
more and more common expressions to designate 
those members of the Puritan party who, disapproving 
of certain of the Anglican rites (namely, the use of the 



surplice, of the sign of the cross at baptism, of the ring 
in marriage, of the attitude of kneeling at the reception 
of the sacrament) and of the episcopal nnlii- iif Church 
government, either resigned themsel\ cs t'j i hese usages 
because enjoined, or stood out agaiu,st tliein at all 
costs. However from 1662, when the Fourth Act of 
Uniformity had the effect of ejecting from their ben- 
efices, acquired during the Commonwealth, a large 
number of ministers of Puritan proclivities, and of 
constraining them to organize themselves as separatist 
sects, the term "Nonconformist" crystalhzed into the 
technical name for such sects. 

History. — The history of this cleavage in the ranks 
of English Protestantism goes back to the reign of 
Mary Tudor, when the Protestant leaders who were 
victorious under Edward VI retired to Frankfort, 
Zurich, and other Protestant centres on the continent, 
and (|uarrelled among themselves, some inclining to 
the nidie iiKiderate Lutheran or Zwinglian positions, 
otlieis develiijjing into uncompromising Calvinists. 
When (lie accession of Elizabeth attr,acted them back 
tti England, the Calvinist section, which soon acquired 
tlie nickname of Puritans, was the more fiery, the 
larger in numbers and the most in favour, with the ma- 
jority of the Protestant laity. Elizabeth, however, 
who had very little personal religion, preferred an 
episcopal to a presbyterian system as more in har- 
mony with monarchism, and besides she had some 
taste for the ornate in public worship. Accordingly 
she caused the religious settlement, destined to last 
into our own times, to be made on the basis of episco- 
pacy, with the retention of the points of ritual above 
specified; and her favour was bespoken for prelates 
like Parker, who were prepared to aid her in carrying 
out this programme. For those who held Puritan 
views she had a natural dislike, to which she some- 
times gave forcible expression, but on the whole she 
saw the expediency of showing them some considera- 
tion, lest she should lose their support in her campaign 
against Catholicism. 

These were the determining factors of the initial 
situation, out of which the subsequent history of Eng- 
hsh Protestantism has grown by a natural develop- 
ment. The result during Elizabeth's reign was a 
state of oscillation between phases of repression and 
phases of indulgence, in meeting the persistent en- 
deavours of the Puritans to make their own ideas 
dominant in the national Church. In 1559 the third 
Act of LTniformity was passed, by which the new edi- 
tion of the Prayer Book was enjoined under severe 
Iienalifies on all ministering as clergy in the country. 
In 1566, feeling that some concession to the strength 
of the Puritan opposition was necessary. Archbishop 
Parker, on an understanding with the queen, pub- 
lished certain Advertisements addressed to the clergy, 
requiring them to conform at least as regards wearing 
the surplice, kneeling at communion, using the font 
for baptism, and covering the communion table with a 
proper cloth. These Advertisements were partially en- 
forced in some dioceses, and led to some deprivations, 
but that their effect was small is clear from the bold- 
ness with which the Puritans took up a more advanced 
position a few years later, and demanded the substi- 
tution of a presbyterian regime. This was the de- 
mand of Thomas Cartwright in his First and Second 
Admonitions, published in 1572, and followed in 1580 
by his Book of Discipline, in which he collaborated 
with Thomas Travers. In this latter book he pro- 
pounded an ingenious theory of cla.'ises, or boards of 
clergy for each district, to which the episcopal powers 
should be transferred, to be exercised by them on pres- 
byterian principles, to the bishops being reserved 
only the purely mechanical ceremony of ordination. 
So great was the influence of the Puritans in the coun- 
try that they were able tO~introduce for a time this 
strange system in one or two places. 
In 1588 the Marprelate tracts were published, and 



NONCONFORMISTS 



96 



NONCONFORMISTS 



by the violence of their laiigua(;e against the queen 
and the bisliops stirred up tjie (nieen to tul<e dnvstic 
meivsures. Perry and I'dal. antliors of the tracts, 
were tried and executed, and Cartwright was impris- 
oned; whilst in 1593 an act wa.s passed inflicting the 
punishment of imprisonment, to be followed by exile 
m ease of a second offence, on all who refused toat- 
tend the parish church, or held separatist meetings. 
This caused a division ii\ the party; as many, though 
secretly retaining their beliefs, preferred mil ward con- 
formity to the loss of their henelic<'s, whilst I he ex- 
tremists of the party left the country and settled in 
Holland. Here 1 hey were for a time called Hrownists, 
after one who had been their leader in sejiaratioM, but 
later they took the name of Independents, as indicat- 
ing their peculiar theory of the governmental inde- 
pendence of each separate congregation. From these 
Brownists came the "Pilgrim Fathers" who, on 6 
December, 11)20, sailed from Plymouth in the "May- 
flower", and .settled in New England. 

With the death of Elizabeth the hopes of the Puri- 
tans revived. Their system of doctrine and govern- 
ment was tlominant in Scotland, and they hoped that 
the Scottish King James iiiiglit be induced to extend it 
to England. So they met him on his way to London 
with their Milli'Uary Petition, so called though the 
signatories numbered only about eight hundred. In 
this document they were prudent enough not to raise 
the question of episcopal government, but contented 
themselves for the time with a request that the ritual 
customs which they disliked might be discontinued in 
the State Church. James promised them a confer- 
ence which met the next year at Hampton Court to 
consider their grievances, and in which they were 
represented by four of their leaders. These had some 
sharp encounters with the bishops and chief Anglican 
divines, but, whilst the Puritans were set more on 
domination than toleration, the king was wholly on 
the side of the Anglicans, who in this hour of their tri- 
umph were in no mood for concessions. Accordingly 
the conference jjroved abortive, and the very same 
year Archbishop Bancroft, with the king's sanction, 
carried through Convocation and at once enforced the 
canons known as those of 1604. The purpose of this 
campaign was to restore the use of the rites in ques- 
tion, which, in defiance of the existing law, the Puritan 
Incumbents had succeeded in putting down in a great 
number of parishes. This result was eflfected to some 
extent for the time, but a quarter of a century later, 
when Laud began his campaign for the restoration of 
decency and order, in other words, for the enforce- 
ment of the customs to which the Puritans objected, 
he was met by an opposition so widespread and deep- 
rooted that, though ultimately it had lasting results, 
the immediate efTect was to bring about his own fall 
and contribute largely to the outbreak of the Rebel- 
lion, the authors of which were approximately co- 
extensive with the Puritan party. 

During the Civil War and the Commonwealth the 
Puritan mobs wrecked the churches, the bishops were 
imprisoned and the primate beheaded, the supremacy 
over the Church was transferred from the Crown to 
the Parliament, the Solemn League and Covenant was 
accepted for the whole nation, and the Westminster 
Assembly, almost entirely composed of Puritans, was 
appointed as a permanent committee for the reform of 
the Church. Next the Anglican clergy were turned 
out of their benefices to make way for Puritans, in 
who.se behalf the Presbyterian form of government 
was introduced by Parliament. But though this was 
now the authorized settlement, it was found impossi- 
ble to check the vagaries of individual opinion. A re- 
ligious frenzy seized the country, and sects holding 
the most extravagant doctrines sprang up and built 
themselves conventicles. There was licence for all, 
save for popery and prelacy, which were now perse- 
cutod with equal severity. When Cromwell attained 



to power a struggle set in between the Parliament 
which was predominaiilly Presbyterian, and the army 
%vhich was predcimiiiautly Independent. The disgust 
of all .sober minds with thi' rcsidliiig jiandemonium 
had nuich to do with creating the desire for the lies- 
toration, anil when this was acc^oiuiilished in KifiO 
measures were at once taken to undo the work of 
the interregnum. The bishops were restored to their 
sees, and the vacancies filled. The Savoy Confer- 
enci' was held in accordance with the precedence of 
Hampton Comt Conference of lliOl, but proved sim- 
ilarly alxirtive. The CoMvoc:ition in 1()()2 revi.sed the 
Prayer Hook in an anti-Piuitaii direction, antl, the 
Declaration of Hreila notwillistandiiig, it was at once 
enforce<l. .VU holding bcnefic-cs in the country were 
to u.se this revised Prayer Book on and after the Feast 
of St. Bartholomew of tliat year. It was through 
this crisis that the term Nonconformist obtained its 
technical meaning. When the feast came round a 
large number who refused to conform were evicted. 
It is in dispute between Nonconformist and Anglican 
writers how many these were, and what were their 
characters: the Nonconformist winters (see Calamy, 
" Life of Baxter") maintain that they exceeded 2000, 
while Kennett and others reduce that number consid- 
erably, contending that in the majority of cases the 
hardship was not so grave. At least it must be ac- 
knowledged that the victims were suffering only what 
they, in the tlays of their power, had inflicted on their 
opponents, for many of whom the ejection of the 
Puritans meant a return to their own. The fact that 
they organized themselves outside the Established 
Church under the name of Nonconformists, naturally 
made them the more offensive to the authorities of 
Church and State, and, during the remainder of the 
reign of Charles II, they were the victims of several 
oppressive measures. In 1661 the Corporation Act 
incapacitated from holding office in any corporation 
all who did not fii-st (lualify by taking the sacrament 
according to the .\nglican Kite; in 16()4 the Conven- 
ticle Act inflicted the gravest penalties on all who took 
part in any private religious service at which more 
than five persons, in addition to the family, were 
present; in 1065 the Five Mile Act made liable to 
imprisonment any Nonconformist minister who, not 
having taken an oath of non-resistance, came within 
five miles of a town without obtaining leave; and in 
1673 the scope of the Corporation Act was extended 
by the Test Act. 

In 1672 Charies II attempted to mitigate the lot of 
the Nonconformists by publishing :\ Declaration of 
Indulgence in which he used in tlicii- favoiu- the dis- 
pensing power, till then recognized as vested in the 
Crown. But Parliament, meeting the next year, 
forced him to withdraw this Declaration, and in re- 
turn passed the Test Act, which extended the scope of 
the Corporation Act. James II, though despotic and 
tactless in his methods like all the Stuarts, was, what- 
ever prejudiced historians have said to the contrary, a 
serious believer in religious tcjieration for all, and was, 
in fact, the first who .sought to im|)ress that ideal on 
the legislature of his country. By his two Declara- 
tions of Indulgence, in 1687-88, he dispensed Non- 
conformists just as much as Catholics from their 
religious disabilities, and his act was received by the 
former with a spontaneous outburst of gratitude. It 
was not to their credit that shortly after they should 
have been induced to cast in their lot with the Revolu- 
tion on the assurance that it would give them all the 
liberties promised by King James without the neces- 
sity of sharing them with the Catholics. This prom- 
ise was, however, only imperfectly carried out by the 
Toleration Act of 16S9, which permitted the free exer- 
cise of their religion to all Trinitarian Protestants, but 
did not relieve them of their civil disabilities. Some, 
accordingly, of their number practised what was 
called Occasional Conformity, that is, received the 



NONE 



97 



NONE 



Anglican sacrament just once so as to qualify. This 
caused much controversy and led eventually in 1710 
to the Occasional Conformity Act, which was devised 
to check it. This Act was repealed in 1718, but many 
of the Nonconformists themselves disapproved of the 
practice on conscientious grounds, and, though it was 
often resorted to and caused grave scandals, those 
who resorted to it cannot be fairly taken as represen- 
tatives of their sects. The Test Act was not repealed 
till 1828, the year before the Catholic Emancipation 
Act was passed ; the Catholics and the Nonconformists 
combined their forces to obtain both objects. 

Although Ijy the passing of the Toleration Act of 
1689 the condition of the Nonconformists was so much 
ameliorated, they lapsed in the second quarter of the 
eighteenth century into the prevailing religious torpor, 
and seemed to be on the verge of extinction. They 
were rescued from this state by the outbreak of the 
great Methodist movement, which resulted both in 
arousing the existing Dissenting sects to a new vigour, 
and in adding another which exceeded them all in 
numbers and enthusiasm. 

Present Condition. — At the present day the 
Nonconformists in England, the only country to which 
this name with its implications applies, are very nu- 
merous and constitute a powerful religious, social, 
and political influence. As they have effectually re- 
sisted the taking of a religious census by the State 
Census department, it is impossible to ascertain their 
numbers accurately, for their own statistics are sus- 
pected of exaggeration. According to Mr. Howard 
Evans's statistics (as given in the Daily Mail "Year 
Book of the Churches" for 1908), the Baptists then 
reckoned 405,7.55 communicants, the Congregational- 
ists 459,983, and the various denominations of Meth- 
odists 1,174,462 — to which figures are to be added 
those of the highly indeterminate number of "adher- 
ents" who are not accepted as communicants. It 
will be seen from this list that the Methodists are by 
far the larger of these three principal denominations, 
but they are likewise the mo.st subdivided. It will be 
noticed, too, that the Presbyterians, once so numerous 
in the country, have no place among the larger sects. 
The Society of Friends, commonly called Quakers, are 
allotted 17,767 communicants by Evans. Besides 
these there are innumerable small sects, of which the 
Plymouth Brethren and the Swedenborgians are the 
most conspicuous. (For the separate denominations 
see the special articles. Baptists; Congregation.4l- 
ism; Methodism; Presbyterianism; Friends, Soci- 
ety OF.) 

Neal, Hist, of the Puritans, or Protestant Nonconformists, 1517^ 
less (2nd ed., London, 1822) ; Price, Hist, of Protestant Noncon- 
formity in England from the Reformation under Henry VIII (2 
vols., London, 1836) ; Bogue and Bennett, Hist, of Dissenters, 
1688-1808 (4 vols., London, 1808); Bennett, Hist, of Dissenters, 
180S-18S8 (London. 1839) ; Wil,son, Hist, and Antiquities of the 
Dissenting Churches (4 vols., London, 1808); Wakeman, The 
Church and the Puritans, 1.570-1660 in Creighton, Epochs of 
Church History (London. 1887); Overton, Life in the English 
Church, 1660-1714 (London, 1885); Abbey and Overton, The 
English Church in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1878): Skeats 
AND Miall, Hist, of the Free Churches of England, 1688-1861 
(London, 1891) ; Rees, Hist, of Protestant Nonconformity in Wales, 
1633-1861 (London. 1861); Hetherinqton. Hist, of the West- 
minster Assembly of Divines (Edinburgh, 1878); Gould, Docu- 
ments relating to the Settlement of the Church of England by the Act 
of Uniformity of 1662 (2 vols., London, 1862); Calamy. Abridg- 
ment of Mr. Baxter's Hist, of his Life and Times, with an account 
of many . . . ministers who trfrr ijected . . . and a continuation 
of their history tilUI,, ■,<■• ;• '/ ' \..~u.Um. \~02); The Nonconform- 
ist's Memori'i!. In u : ' / ///,' Ministers who were ejected 
or silenced iiflir III, I: ' \i,\^., L.indon, 1775), abridged 
and corrected cliii.,!, l.^ I'm mi u i Lniidnn, 1802); Walker, An 
attempt towards rcconrinii uii account of the numbers and sufferings 
of the clergy of the Church of England. . . in the late times of the 
Grand Rebellion (London, 1714), a set-off against Calamy's ac- 
count of the sufferers in 1662; Kennett, Register and Chronicle 
. . . containing matter of fact, with notes and references towards dis- 
covering and connecting the true history of England from the Restora- 
tion of Charles II (London, 1728), a careful criticism of Calamy's 

statistics. Sydney F. Smith. 

None. — This subject will be treated under the fol- 
lowing heads: I. Origin of None; 11. None from the 
XI.— 7 



Fourth to the Seventh Century; III. None in the 
Roman and Other Liturgies from the Seventh Cen- 
tury; IV. Meaning and Symbolism of None. 

I. Origin of None. — According to an ancient 
Greek and Roman custom, the day was, like the night, 
divided into four parts, each consisting of three hours. 
As the last hour of each division gave its name to the 
respective quarter of the day, the third division (from 
12 to about .3) was called the None (Lat. nanus, nana, 
ninth). For this explanation, which is open to objec- 
tion, but is the only probable one, see FrancoUnus, 
"De tempor. horar. canonicar.", Rome, 1571, xxi; 
Bona, "De divina psalmodia", III (see also Matins 
and Vigils). This division of the day was in vogue 
also among the Jews, from whom the Church bor- 
rowed it (.see Jerome, "In Daniel," vi, 10). The fol- 
lowing texts, moreover, favour this view: "Now 
Peter and John went up into the temple at the ninth 
hour of prayer" (Acts, iii, 1); "And Cornelius said: 
Four days ago, unto this hour, I was praying in my 
house, at the ninth hour, and behold a man stood be- 
fore me" (Acts, x, 30); "Peter went up to the higher 
parts of the house to pray, about the sixth hour" 
(Acts, x, 9). The most ancient testimony refers to 
this custom of Terce, Sext, and None, for instance 
TertuUian, Clement of Alexandria, the Canons of Hip- 
polytus, and even the "Teaching of the Apostles". 
The last-mentioned prescribed prayer thrice each day, 
without, however, fixing the hours (AiSaxi tQv 'Liroa- 
ToXuiv, n. viii). 

Clement of Alexandria and likewise TertuUian, 
as early as the end of the second century, expressly 
mention the hours of Terce, Sexi:., and None, as 
specially set apart for prayer (Clement, "Strom.", 
VII, vii, in P. G., IX, 455-8). TertuUian says ex- 
plicitly that we must always pray, and that there is no 
time prescribed for prayer; he adds, nevertheless, these 
significant words: "As regards the time, there should 
be no lax observation of certain hours — I mean of 
those common hours which have long marked the di- 
visions of the day, the third, the sixih, and the ninth, 
and which we may observe in Scripture to be more 
solemn than the rest" ("De Oratione", xxiii, xxv, in 
P. L., I, 1191-3). 

Clement and TertuUian in these passages refer only 
to private prayer at these hours. The Canons of Hip- 
polytus also speak of Terce, Sext, and None, as suitable 
hours for private prayer; however, on the two station 
days, Wednesday and Friday, when the faithful as- 
sembled in the church, and perhaps on Sundays, these 
hours were recited successively in public (can. xx, xxvi). 
St. Cyprian mentions the same hours as having been 
observed under the Old Law, and adduces reasons for 
the Christians observing them also ("De Oratione", 
xxxiv, in P. L., IV, 541). In the fourth century there 
is evidence to show that the practice had become obli- 
gatory, at least for the monks (see the text of the Apos- 
tolic Constitutions, St. Ephraem, St. Basil, the author 
of the "De virginitate" in Baiimer-Biron, op. cit. 
in bibliography, pp, 116, 121, 123, 129, 186). The 
prayer of Prime, at six o'clock in the morning, was not 
added till a later date, but Vespers goes back to the 
earliest days. The texts we have cited give no infor- 
mation as to what these prayers consisted of. Evi- 
dently they contained the same elements as all other 
prayers of that time — psalms recited or chanted, canti- 
cles or hymns, either privately comijosed or drawn 
from Holy Writ, and litanies or prayers properly so- 
called. 

II. None from the Fourth to the Seventh Cen- 
tury. — The eighteenth canon of the Council of Lao- 
dicea (between 343 and 381) orders that the same 
prayers be always said at None and Vespers. But it is 
not clear what meaning is to be attached to the words 
\eiTovpyla twp eixui', used in the canon. It is likely 
that reference is made to the famous litanies, in which 
prayer was offered for the catechumens, sinners, the 



NON EXPEDIT 



98 



NON EXPEDIT 



faitliful, and generally for all the wants of tho Church. 
Sozomon (in a passafio, ho\vo\('r. which is not consid- 
ered very authentic) si)cak,s of Ihrcp psahns which the 
monks recited at None. In any case, this number be- 
came traditional at an early period (Sozonien, "Hist, 
eccl.", Ill, xiv, in P. G., LXVII, 107i;-7; cf. Baiimer- 
Biron, op. cit., I, 136). Three psalms were recited 
at Terce, six at Scxt, and nine at None, as Ciissian 
informs us, though ho remarks tliat the most common 
practice was to recite three psalms at each of these 
hours (Cassian, "Dc ccrnob. instit.", Ill, iii, in P. L., 
XLIX, IIG). St. Ambrose speaks of three hours of 
prayer, and, if with many critics we attribute to him 
the three hymns "Jam surgit hora tertia", " Bis ternas 
boras cxplicas", and "Ter horas trina solvitur", we 
shall have a new constitutive element of the Little 
Hours in tiie fourth century in the Church of Milan 
(.Ambrose, "De virginibus". III, iv, in P. L., XVI, 
225). 

In the "Pcregrinatio ad loca sancta" of Etheria 
(end of fourth century), there is a more detailed 
description of the Office of None. It resembles 
that of Sext, and is celebrated in the basilica of the 
Anastasis. It is composed of psalms and antiphons; 
then the bishop arrives, enters the grotto of the Resur- 
rection, recites a prayer there, and blesses the faithful 
("Peregrinatio", p. 46; cf. Cabrol, "Etude sur la Per- 
egrinatio Sylvia;", 45). During Lent, None is cele- 
brated in the church of Sion ; on Sundays the office is 
not celebrated; it is omitted also on Holy Saturday, 
but on Good Friday it is celebrated with special sol- 
emnity (Peregrinatio, pp. 5.3, 66, etc.). But it is 
only in the succeeding age that we find a complete 
description of None, as of the other offices of the 
day. 

III. None in the Roman and Other Litukgies 
PROM THE Seventh Century. — In the Rule of St. 
Benedict the four Little Hours of the day (Prime to 
None) are conceived on the same plan, the formulae 
alone varying. The office begins with Deus in ad- 
jutorium, like all the Hours; then follows a hymn, 
special to None; three psalms, which do not change 
(Ps. cxxv, cxxvi, cx.xvii), except on Sundays and Mon- 
days when they are replaced by three groups of eight 
verses from Ps. cxviii; then the capitulum, a versicle, 
the KjTie, the Pater, the oratio, and the concluding 
prayers (Regula S. P. Benedicti, x\ni). In the Roman 
Liturgy the office of None is likewise constructed after 
the model of the Little Hours of the day; it is composed 
of the same elements as in the Rule of St. Benedict, 
with this difference, that, instead of the three psalms, 
cxxv-vii, the three groups of eight verses from Ps. 
cxviii are always recited. There is nothing else char- 
acteristic of this office in this liturgy. The hymn, 
which was added later, is the one already in use in the 
Benedictine Office — "Rerum Deus tenax vigor". In 
the monastic rules prior to the tenth century certain 
variations are found. Thus in the Rule of Lerins, as 
in that of St. Ciesarius, six psalms are recited at None, 
as at Terce and Sext, with antiphon, hymn, and capi- 
tulum. 

St. Aurelian follows the same tradition in his 
Rule "Ad virgines", but he imposes twelve psalms 
at each hour on the monks. St. Columbanus, St. 
Fructuosus, and St. Isidore adopt the system of three 
psalms (cf. Martene, "De antiq. monach. rit.", IV, 
27). Like St. Benedict, most of these authors include 
hymns, the capitulum or short lesson, a versicle, and 
an oratio (cf. Martene, loc. cit.). In the ninth and 
tenth centuries we find some additions made to the 
Office of None, in particular litanies, collects, etc. 
(Martfine, op. cit., IV, 28). 

IV. Meaning and Symbolism of None. — Among 
the ancients the hour of None was regarded as the 
close of the day's business and the time for the baths 
and supper (Martial. "Epigrams", IV, viii; Horace, 
"Epistlea", I, vii, 70). At an early date mystical rea- 



sons for the division of the day were sought. St. Cyp- 
rian sees in the hours of Terce, Sext and None, which 
come after a lapse of three hours, an allusion to the 
Trinity. He adds that these hours already conse- 
crated to prayer under the Old Dispensation, have 
boon sanctified in the New Teslanu'nt by great mys- 
teries — Terce by the descent of the Holy Ghost on the 
Apostles; Sext by the prayers of St. Peter, the recep- 
tion of the Gentiles into the Church, or yet again by 
the crucifixion of Our Lord; None by the death of 
Christ ("De oratione", xxxiv, in P. L., IV, 541). St. 
Basil merely recalls that it was at the ninth hour that 
the Apostles Peter and John wore wont to go to the 
Temple to pray (" Regida' fusius tract.", XXXVII, n. 
3, in P. G., XXXI, lOi:! sq.). Cassian, who adopts 
the Cyprian interpretation for Terce and Sext, sees in 
the Hour of None the descent of Christ into hell (De 
coenob. instit.. Ill, iii). But, as a rule, it is the death 
of Christ that is commemorated at the Hour of 
None. 

The writers of the Middle Ages have sought for 
other mystical explanations of the Hour of None. 
Araalarius (III, vi) explains at length, how, like the 
sun which sinks on the horizon at the Hour of None, 
man's spirit tends to lower itself also, he is more open 
to temptation, and it is the time the demon selects to 
try him. For the texts of the Fathers on this subject 
it will suffice to refer the reader to the above-men- 
tioned work of Cardinal Bona (c. ix). The same writ- 
ers do not fail to remark that the number nine was 
considered by the ancients an imperfect number, an 
incomplete number, ten being considered perfection 
and the complete number. Nine was also the number 
of mourning. Among the ancients the ninth day was 
a day of expiation and funeral service — novemdiale 
sacrum, the origin doubtless of the novena for the 
dead. 

As for the ninth hour, some persons believe that it 
is the hour at which our first parents were driven from 
the Garden of Paradise (Bona, op. cit., ix, § 2). In 
conclusion, it is necessary to call attention to a prac- 
tice which emphasized the Hour of None — it was the 
hour of fasting. At first, the hour of fasting was pro- 
longed to Vespers, that is to say, food was taken only 
in the evening or at the end of the day. Mitigation of 
this rigorous practice was soon introduced. Tertul- 
lian's famous pamphlet "De jejunio", rails at length 
against the Psychics (i. e. the Catholics) who end 
their fast on station days at the Hour of None, while 
he, Tertullian, claims that he is faithful to the ancient 
custom. The practice of breaking the fast at None 
caased that hour to be selected for Mass and Com- 
munion, which were the signs of the close of the day. 
The distinction between the rigorous fast, which was 
prolonged to Vespers, and the mitigated fast, ending 
at None, is met with in a large number of ancient docu- 
ments (.see Fast). 

Francountts, De temp, horar. canonicar. (Rome, 1571), xxi; 
Amalarius, De ecde.^. njUcit.^, IV. vi: Durandus, Rationale, V, i 
eq.; BotiA, De divi'Ki /- ^ilni.'^ii.i , iw'DvCA'SOE.GlossaTiuTninfima 
Latinitatis,9.v. U'T' ] \'ir\i, Glossariummediw GrcEcita- 

tis, 8. v.'JJpai; Mil: I. I /' , nch. rit., IV, 12, 27, 28, etc.; 

Haeften. ZJisguiNi/, 1/ , , '■ i i r:i(-t. ii, ix, etc.; Probst, fireiner 
u. Breviergebet (Tuhingcn, islj.s), 22 etc.; Baumer-Biron, Hist, 
du Breviaire, I, G3, 7'.i, 11(3, etc.; Cabrol and Leclercq, Monum. 
Liturg. (Paris, 1902), gives the texts from the Fathers to the 
fourth century: Talhofer, Handbuch der kathol. Liturg., II 
(1893), 458.. 

F. Cahrol. 

Non Espedit (It is not expedient). — Words with 
which the Holy See enjoined upon Italian Catholics 
the policy of abstention from the polls in parliamen- 
tary elections. This policy was adopted after a period 
of uncertainty and of controversy which followed the 
promulgation of the Constitution of the Kingdom of 
Italy (1861), and which was intensified by laws hos- 
tile to the Church and, especially, to the religious 
orders (1865-66). To this uncertainty the Holy 
Penitentiary put an end by its decree of 29 February, 



NON-JURORS 



99 



NONNOTTE 



1868, in which, in the above words, it sanctioned the 
motto: "Neitiier elector nor elected". UntU then 
there had been in the Italian Parliament a few 
eminent representatives of Catholic interests — Vito 
d'Ondes Reggio, Augusto Conti, Cesare Cantil, and 
others. The principal motive of this decree was 
that the oath talcen by deputies might be interpreted 
as an approval of the spoliation of the Holy See, as 
Pius IX declared in an audience of 11 October, 1874. 
A practical reason for it, also, was that, in view of the 
electoral law of that day, by which the electorate was 
reduced to 650,000, and as the Government manipu- 
lated the elections to suit its own purposes, it would 
have been hopeless to attempt to prevent the passage 
of anti-Catholic laws. On the other hand, the masses 
seemed unprepared for parliamentary government, 
and as, in the greater portion of Italy (Parma, Mo- 
dena, Tuscany, the Pontifical States, and the King- 
dom of Naples), nearly all sincere Catholics were 
partizans of the dispossessed princes, they were liable 
to be denounced as enemies of Italy; they would also 
have been at variance with the Catholics of Piedmont 
and of the provinces wrested from Austria, and this 
division would have further weakened the Catholic 
Parliamentary group. 

As might be expected, this measure did not meet 
with universal approval: the so-called Moderates 
accused the Catholics of failing in their duty to 
society and to their country. In 1S82, the suffrage 
having been extended, Leo XIII took into serious 
consideration the partial abolition of the restrictions 
established by the Non Expedit, but nothing was 
actually done (cf. "Archiv fiir kathol. Kirchenrecht ", 
1904, p. 396). On the contrary, as many people 
came to the conclusion that the decree Non Expedit 
was not intended to be absolute, • but was only an 
admonition made to apply upon one particular 
occasion, the Holy Office declared (30 Dec, 1886) 
that the rule in question implied a grave precept, 
and emphasis was given to this fact on several subse- 
quent occasions (Letter of Leo XIII to the Cardinal 
Secretary of State, 14 May, 1895; Congregation of 
Extraordinary Affairs, 27 January, 1902; Pius X, 
Molu proprio, 18 Dec, 1903). Later, Pius X, by his 
encychcal "II fermo proposito" (11 June, 1905) 
modified the Non Expedit, declaring that, when there 
was question of preventing the election of a "subver- 
sive" candidate, the bishops could ask for a sus- 
pension of the rule, and invite the Catholics to hold 
themselves in readiness to go to the polls. (See Mar- 

GOTTI, GlACOMO.) 

Cimltd Callolica (Rome), ser. VIII, IV, 652; VI, 51; VIII. 653; 
VIII, 362; Queslioni politico-rdigiose (Rome, 1905). 

U. Benigni. 

Non-Jurors, the name given to the Anglican 
Churchmen who in ItlS!) refu.sed to take the oath of 
allegiance to William ami Mary, and their successors 
under the Protestant Succession Act of that year. 
Their leaders on tlie episcopal bench (William San- 
croft, Archbisho]) of Canterbury, and Bishops Francis 
Turner of Ely, William Lloyd of Norwich, Thomas 
White of Peterborough, William Thomas of Worcester, 
Thomas Ken of Bath and Wells, John Lake of Chi- 
chester, and Thomas Cartwright of Chester) were re- 
quired to take the oath before 1 August, under pain 
of suspension, to be followed, if it were not taken 
by 1 Feb., by total deprivation. Two of them died 
before this last date, but the rest, persisting in their 
refusal, were deprived. Their example was followed 
by a multitude of the clergy and laity, the number 
of the former being estimated at about four him- 
dred, conspicuous among whom were George Hickes, 
Dean of Worcester, Jeremy Collier, John Kettle well, 
and Robert Nelson. A list of these Non-jurors is 
given in Hickes's "Memoirs of Bishop Kettlewell", 
and one further completed in Overton's " Non-jurors". 
The original Non-jurors were not friendly towards 



James II; indeed five of these bishops had been among 
the seven whose resistance to his Declaration of Indul- 
gence earlier in the same year had contributed to t he 
invitation which caused the Prince of Orange to come 
over. But desiring William and Mary as regents 
they distinguished between this and accepting them as 
sovereigns, regarding the latter as inconsistent with 
the oath taken to James. Deprived of their benefices 
the bishops fell into great poverty, and suffered occa- 
sional though not systematic persecution. That they 
were truly conscientious men is attested by sacrifices 
courageously made for their convictions. Their lives 
were edifjdng, some consenting to attend, as laymen, 
the services in the parish churches. Still, when cir- 
cumstances permitted, they held secret ser\'ices of 
their own, for they firmly believed that they had the 
tnie Anglican succession which it was their duty to 
preserve. Hence they felt, after some hesitation, that 
it was incumbent on them to consecrate others who 
should succeed them. The first who were thus conse- 
crated, on 24 Feb., 1693, were George Hickes and John 
Wagstaffe. On 29 May, 1713, the other Non-juring 
bishops being all dead, Hickes consecrated Jeremy 
Collier, Samuel Hawes, and Nathaniel Spinkes. When 
James II died in 1701, a crisis arose for these separat- 
ists. Some of them then rejoined the main body of 
their co-religionists, whilst others held out on the 
ground that their oath had been both to James and to 
his rightful neirs. These latter afterwards disagreed 
among themselves over a question of rites. The 
death of Charles Edward in 1788 took away the raison 
d'etre for the schism, but a few lingered on till the end 
of the eighteenth century. In Scotland in 1689 the 
whole body of Bishops refused the oath and became 
Non-jurors, but the resulting situation was somewhat 
different. As soon as the Revolution broke out the 
Presbyterians ousted the Episcopalians and became 
the Established Kirk of Scotland. Thus the Non- 
jurors were left without rivals of their own commun- 
ion, though they had at times to suffer penalties for 
celebrating unlawful worship. Their difficulties ter- 
minated in 1788, when on the death of Charles Ed- 
ward they saw no further reason for withholding the 
oath to George III. 

Hickes, Memorials of the Life of John Kettlewell (London, 
1718); Lathburt, A history of the Non-jurors, their controversies, 
and writings (London, 1845); Grub, An Ecclesiastical History of 
Scotland (4 vols., Edinburgh, 1861); Overton, William Law, 
Non-juror and Mystic (London, ISSl) ; Plumptree, Life of Thomas 
Ken (2 vols., London, 1S8S) ; Carter, Life and Times of John 
Kettlewell (London, 1895) : Overton, The Non-jurors, their Lives, 
Principles, and Writings (London, 1902). 

Sydney F. Smith. 

Norma, Saint. See Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint. 

Nonnotte, Claude-Adrien, controversialist; b.in 
Bcsangon, 29 July, 1711; d. there, 3 September, 1793. 
At nineteen he entered the Society of Jesus and 
preached at Amiens, Versailles, and Turin. He is 
chiefly known for his writings against Voltaire. When 
the latter began to issue his "Essai sur les moeurs" 
(1754), an attack on Christianity, Nonnotte published, 
anonymously, the " Examen critique ou Refutation du 
livre des moeurs"; and when Voltaire finished his 
publication (1758), Nonnotte revised his book, which 
he published at Avignon (2 vols., 1762). He treated, 
simply, calmly, and dispassionately, all the historical 
and doctrinal errors contained in Voltaire's work. 
Nonnotte's work reached the sixth edition in 1774. 
Voltaire, exasperated, retorted in his "Eclaircisse- 
ments historiques ", and for twenty years continued to 
attack Nonnotte with sarcasm, insult, or calumny. 
Nev(>rtheless Nonnotte's publication continued to 
circulate, and was translated into Italian, German, 
Polish, and Portuguese. After the suppression of the 
Jesuits, Nonnotte withdrew to Bcsangon and in 1779 
added a third volume to the "Erreurs de Voltaire", 
namely, "L'esprit de Voltaire dans ses Merits", for 
which it was impossible to obtain the approval of the 



NONNtTS 



100 



NORBERT 



Paris censor. ARiiinst the "Dirtionnairp jiliilnso- 
phiciuc", in which Voltaire had recapitulated, inidcr 
a popuhir form, all his attacks on Cliri.sliaiiil v, 
Nonnotte publislicd (he "Diclionnairc plul(isoplii(|uc 
de la religion" (.\vignon, 1772). in which lie rcijlicd 
to all the objections (lion brought aKaiii.st rcliKi<in. 
The work Wiis (raiisl;L(c(l into Kalian .and German. 
Tow.ards the end of hi.s life Xoniiottc published "Les 
philosophes des (rois premiers sircles" (Paris, 1789), 
m which he con(ras(eil (he ancient and (he modern 
philosophers. The work was transla(ed into (ierman. 
He also WTote "Lettre i un ami snr les honn,etetes 
litt<;raires " (Paris, 17G()), and "Reponsc aux Ecl.air- 
cissements historiques et au.x additions de Voltaire" 
(Paris, 1774). These publications obtained for their 
author a eulogistic Brief from Clement XIII (1768), 
and the congratulations of St. Alphonsus Liguori, 
who declared that he had alwaj's at liand his "golden 
works" in which the chief truths of the Kaith were de- 
fended with learning and propriety against the objec- 
tions of Voltaire and his friends. Nonnotte was also 
theauthorof "L'emploi de I'argent" (.Vvignon, 1787), 
translated from MalTei; "Le gouvernement des pa- 
roisses" (posthumous, Paris, 1802). All were published 
under the title''CEuvresdeNonnotte"(Besan9on, 1819). 

L'ami de la religion, XXV, 385; Sabatier de Castres, Les 
tTois siicles de la littiralure fran,:aise (The Hague, 1781); Sommer- 
TOQEL, Bib. de la C. de J(sus (Paris, 1894), V, 1803-7; IX, 722. 

Antoine Degert. 

Nonnus, of Panopolis in Upper Egypt (c. 400), the 
reputed author of two poems in hexameters; one, 
AwfvamKd, about the mysteries of Bacchus, and the 
other the "Paraphr.ose of the Fourth Gospel". 
Draseke proposes Apollinaris of Laodicea (Theolog. 
Litteraturzeitung, 1891, 332), and a fourteenth-cen- 
tury MS. suggests Ammonius as the author of the 
"Paraphrase", but the similarity of style makes it 
very probable that the two poems have the same au- 
thor. Nonnus would then seem to have been a pagan 
when he wrote the first, and afterwards to have be- 
come a Christian. Nothing else is known of his life. 
The "Paraphrase" is not completely extant; 3750 
lines of it, now divided into twenty-one chapters, are 
known. It has some importance as evidence of the 
text its author used, and has been studied as a source 
of textual criticism (Blass, "Evang. sec. loh. cum 
varise lectionis delectu", Leipzig, 1902; Janssen in 
"Texte u. Untersuchungen", XXIII, 4, Leipzig, 
1903). Otherwise it has little interest or merit. It 
is merely a repetition of the Gospel, verse by verse, 
inflated with fantastic epithets and the addition of 
imaginarj' details. The "Paraphrase" was first pub- 
lished by the Aldine Press in 1.501. The edition of 
Heinsius (Leyden, 1627) is reprinted in P. G., XLIII, 
749-1228. The best modem edition is by Scheindler: 
"Nonni Panopolitani paraphrasis s. evang. loannei" 
(Leipzig, 1881). 

Fabricics-Harles. Bibl.graca, VIII (Ilamburg, 1802), 601-12; 
KoECHLT, Opuscula philaloaiea, 1 (Leipzig, 1881), 421-46; Kinkel, 
Die Ueberlieferung der Paraphrase des ev. loh. von Nonnos, I 
(Zurich, 1870); Tiedke, Nonniana (Berlin, 1883). 

Adrian Fortescue. 

Norbert, Saint, b. at Xanten on the left bank of the 
Rhine, near We.sel, c. 1080; d. at Magdeburg, 6 June, 
1134. His father, Heribert, Count of (3ennep, was 
related to the imperial house of Germany, and his 
mother, Hadwigis, was a descendant of the ancient 
house of Lorraine. A stately bearing, a penetrating 
intellect, a tender, earnest heart, marked the future 
apostle. Ordained subdeacon, Norbert was ap- 
pointed to a canonrj' at Xaiitcn. Soon after he was 
summoned to the Court of Frederick, Prince-Bishop of 
Cologne, and later to that of Henry V, Emperor of 
Germany, whose almoner be became. The Bishopric 
of Cambray was olTered to him, but refused. Nor- 
bert allowed himself to be so carried away by pleasure 
that nothing short of a miracle of grace could make 



him lead the life of an earnest cleric. One day, while 
riding to Vreden, a village near .\;inten, he was over- 
t:ikcn by a storm. A tliunilerbolt fell at his horse's 
feet; tlie frightened animal threw its rider, and for 
ne:irly an hour he lay like one dead. Thus humbled, 
Norbert became a sincere penitent. Henouncing his 
ai)pointment at Court, he retired to Xanten to lead a 
life of penance. 

Understanding, however, that he stood in need of 
guidance, he placed himself under the direction of 
Cono, Abbot of Siegburg. In gratitude to Cono, 
Norbert founded the Abbey of I'iirstenberg, endowed 
it with a portion of his property, and made it over to 
Cono and his Benedictine successors. Norbert, was 
then in his thirty-fifth year. Feeling that he was 
called to the priesthood, he presented himself to the 
Bishop of Cologne, from whose hands he received 
Holy Orders. After a forty days' retreat at Siegburg 
Abbey, he celebrated his first Mass at Xanten and 
preached an earnest discourse on the transitory char- 
acter of this world's i>lcasures and on man's duties 
towards God. The insuKs of some young clerics, one 
of whom even spat in his face, he bore wi( h wonderful 
patience on that occasion. Norbert often went to 
Siegburg Abbey to confer with Cono, or to the cell of 
Ludolph, a holy and learned hermit-priest, or to the 
Abbey of Klosterrath near Rolduc. Accused as an in- 
novator at the Council of Fritzlar, he resigned all his 
ecclesiastical preferments, disposed of his es(ate, and 
gave all to the poor, reserving for himself only what was 
needed for the celebration of Holy Mass. Barefooted 
and begging his bread, he journeyed as far as St. Giles, 
in Languedoc, to confer with Pope Gelasius concerning 
his future life. Unable to keep Norbert at his court, 
Gelasius granted him faculties to preach wherever 
he judged proper. At Valenciennes Norbert met 
(March, 1119) Burchard, Bishop of Cambray, whose 
chaplain joined him in his apostolic journeys in France 
and Belgium. After the death of Pope Gelasius (29 
January, 1119) Norbert wished to confer with his 
successor, Calixtus II, at the Council of Reims (Oct., 
1119). The pope and Bartholomew, Bishop of Laon, 
requested Norbert to found a religious order in the 
Diocese of Laon, so that his work might be per- 
petuated after his death. Norbert chose a lonely, 
marshy valley, shaped in the form of a cro.ss, in the 
Forest of Coucy, about ten miles from Laon, and 
named Pr6montr6. Hugh of Fosses, Evermode of 
Cambray, Anthony of Nivelles, seven students of the 
celebrated school of Anselm, and Ralph at Laon were 
his first disciples. The young community at first 
lived in huts of wood and clay, arranged like a camp 
around the chapel of St. John the Bapti.st, but they 
soon built a larger church and a monastery for the 
religious who joined them in increasing numbers. 
Going to Cologne to obtain rehcs for their church, 
Norbert discovered, through a vision, the spot where 
those of St. Ursula and her companions, of St. Gereon, 
and of other martyrs lay hidden. 

Women also wished to become members of the now 
religious order. Blessed Ricwera, widow of Count 
Raymond of Clastres, was St. Norbert's first spiritual 
daughter, and her example was followed by women of 
the best families of France and Germany. Soon after 
this, Norbert returned to Germany and preached in 
Westphalia, when Godfrey, Count of Kappenberg, 
offered himself and gave three of his castles to be made 
into abbeys. On his return from Germany, Norbert 
was met by Theobald, Count of Champagne, who 
wished to become a member of the order; but Nor- 
bert insisted that God wished Theobald to marry 
and do good in the world. Theobald agreed to 
this, but begged Norbert to prescribe a rule of life. 
Norbert prescribed a few rules and invested Theobald 
with the white scapular of the order, and thus, in 
1122, the Third Order of St. Norbert was instituted. 
The aaint was soon requested by the Bishop of Cam' 



NORBERTINES 



101 



NORFOLK 



brai to go and combat the infamous heresies which 
Tanchelin had propagated, and wliich had their cen- 
tre at Antwerp. As a result of his preaching the 
people of the Low Countries abjured their heresies, 
and many brought back to him the Sacred Species 
which they had stolen and profaned. In commem- 
oration of this, St. Norbert has been proclaimed the 
Apostle of Antwerp, and the feast of his triumph over 
the Sacramentarian heresy is celebrated in the Arch- 
diocese of Mechlin on 11 July. 

The rapid growth of the order was marvellous, and 
bishops entreated Norbert to found new houses in 
their dioceses. Floreffe, Viviers, St-Jo.sse, Ardenne. 
Cuissy, Laon, Liege, Antwerp, Varlar, Kappenberg 
and others were founded during the first five years of 
the order's existence. Though the order had already 
ijeen approved by the pope's legates. Norbert, ac- 
companied by three disciples, journeyed to Rome, in 
112.5, to obtain its confirmation by the new pope, 
Honorius IL The Bull of Confirmation is dated 27 
February, 1126. Pas-sing through Wiirzburg on his 
return to Pr6montr6, Norbert restored sight to a blind 
woman: the inhabitants were so full of admiration 
for him that they spoke of electing him successor to 
their bishop who had just died, but Norbert and his 
companions fled secretly. Soon after this, on his way 
to Ratisbon, he passed through Spier, where Lothair, 
King of the Romans, was holding a diet, the papal 
legate being present. Deputies from Magdeburg had 
also come to solicit a successor to their late archbishop, 
Rudger. 

The papal legate and Lothair used their authority, 
and obliged Norbert to accept the vacant see. 
On taking possession of it, he was grieved to find that 
much property belonging to the Church and the poor 
had been usurped by powerful men, and that many 
of the clergy led scandalous lives. He succeeded in 
converting some of the transgressors, but others only 
became more obstinate, and three attempts were made 
on his life. He resisted Pietro di Leoni, who, as anti- 
popp, had assumed the name of Anacletus and was 
master in Rome, exerting himself at the Council of 
Reims to attach the German Emperor and the Ger- 
man bishops and princes more firmly to the cause of 
Pope Innocent II. 

"Though his health was increasingly dehcate, Nor- 
bert accompanied Lothair and his army to Rome to 
put the rightful pope on the Chair of St. Peter, and 
he resisted the pope's concession of the investiture to 
the emperor. Norbert, whose health was now much 
impaired, accompanied the Emperor Lothair back to 
Germany and for some time remained with him, as- 
sisting him as his chancellor and adviser. In March, 
1134, Norbert had become so feeble that he had 
to be carried to Magdeburg where he died on the 
Wednesday after Pentecost. By order of the em- 
peror, his body was laid at rest, in the Norbertine 
Abbey of St. Mary, at Magdeburg. His tomb be- 
came glorious by the numerous miracles wrought 
there. The BoUandists say that there is no docu- 
ment to prove that he was canonized by Innocent 
III. His canonization was by Gregory XIII in 1582, 
and his cultus was extended to the whole church 
by Clement X. 

On 2 May, 1627, the saint's body was trans- 
lated from Magdeburg, then in the hands of Protes- 
tants, to the Abbey of Strahov, a suburb of Prague in 
Bohemia. The Chancery of Prague preserved the 
abjurations of six hundred Protestants who, on the 
day, or during the octave, of the translation, were 
reconciled to the Catholic Church. On that occasion 
the Archbishop of Prague, at the request of the civil 
and ecclesiastical authorities, proclaimed St. Norbert 
the Patron and Protector of Bohemia. (For history 
of the order, see Premonstratensi.^n Canons.) 

Until the middle of the last century, the principal source for the 
biography of St. Norbert was a MS. usually attributed to Hugo, 



the saint's first disciple and successor, of which numerous copies 
had been made. That belonging to the Abbey of Romersdorf, 
near Coblentz, Vita Norherti, auctore canonico prcBadjuvantc Hu~ 
gone ahhate, Fossense, is now in the British Museum. An abridg- 
ment of this by SuRlus was printed in 1572: the whole MS., with 
variants, was published by Abbot Vander Sterre in 1656; again, 
with commentaries and notes, by P.vpebroch in Acta 5S.. XX. 
Then followed: Vander Sterre. Het leven van den H, Norbertus 
(Antwerp, 1623): on Pr^, La Vie de S. Norbert (Paris, 1627); 
Camus. U Homme apostolique en S, Norbert (Caen, 1640) ; C. L. 
Hugo. La Vie de S, Norbert (Luxemburg. 1704) ; Illana. Historia 
del Gran Padre y Patriarca 5. Norberto (Salamanca. 1755). 

In 1856 a MS. Life of St. Norbert discovered in the Royal Li- 
brary, Berlin, was published in Pertz, Mon. Germ. Hist., differing 
in many particulars from the Hugo MSS. mentioned above. The 
discovery occasioned a great revival of interest in the subject, and 
there followed: Tenkoff, De S. Norberto Ord. Pram. Conditore 
commentatio historica (Munster. 1855); Scholz. Vita S. Norherti 
(Breslau. 1859); Winter, Die Prdmonstratenser der IS. Jahrh, 
(Berlin. 1865): Rosenmund. Die oltesten Biographien des h. Nor- 
bertus (Berlin. 1874); Hertel, Leben des h. Norbert (Leipzig. 
1881): MuHLBACHER. Die streitige Papstwahl des Jahres 1130 
(Innsbruck. 1876). In the following three works, the publication 
of Pertz and other lately discovered documents have been used: 
Geudens. Life of St. Norbert (London. 1886) ; Madelaine. His- 
toire de S. Norbert (Lille. 1886) (the fullest and best-written biog- 
raphy of the saint so far published) ; van den Elsen. Levensge- 
schiedenis van den H. Norbertus (Averbode. 1890). 

F. M. Geudens. 

Norbertines. See Premonstbatensian Canons. 

Norcia, Diocese op (Norsin), a city in Perugia, 
Italy, often mentioned in Roman history. In the 
ninth century it was a republic. The Dukes of Spoleto 
often contended with the popes for its possession; 
when, in 14.53, the communes of Spoleto and Cascia de- 
clared war against Norcia, it was defended by the 
pope's general Cesarini. It was the birthplace of St. 
Benedict; the abbots St. Spes and St. Eutychius; the 
monk Florentius; the painter Parasole; and the physi- 
cian Benedict Pegardati. The chief industry is pre- 
serving meats. 'The first known bishop was Stephen 
(c. 495). From the ninth century, Norcia was in the 
Diocese of Spoleto, as it appears to have been tem- 
porarily in the time of St. Gregory the Great. The see 
was re-established in 1820, and its first bishop was 
Cajetan Bonani. Immediately dependent on Rome, 
it has 100 parishes; 28,000 inhabitants; 7 religious 
houses of women ; 3 schools for girls. 

Cappelletti, Le Chiese d' Italia, IV. 

U. Benigni. 

Norfolk, Catholic Dukes of. Since the Refor- 
mation. — Under this title are accounts only of the 
prominent CathoHc Diikos of Norfolk since the Refor- 
mation; a list of the Dukes, from the time the title 
passed to the Howard family, is prefixed. 

1. John (1430-1485), created fir.st duke of the 

Howard line in 1483, died in battle in 1485. 

2. Thomas (1443-1524), son. Became duke in 

1514. 

3. Thomas (1473-1554), son. Succeeded m 1524. 

4. Thomas (1536-1572), grandson. Succeeded 

in 1554. Beheaded in 1572. 

5. Thomas (1627-1677), great-great-grandson. 

Dukedom restored in 1660. 

6. Henry (1628-1684), brother. Succeeded in 

1677. 

7. Henry (165.5-1701), son. Succeeded in 1684. 

8. Thomas (1683-1732), nephew. Succeeded in 

1701. 

9. Edward (1685-1777), brother. Succeeded in 

1732. 

10. Charles (1720-1786), descendant of seventh 

duke. Succeeded in 1777. 

11. Charles (1746-1815), son. Succeeded in 1786. 

12. Bernard Edward (1765-1842), third cousin. 

Succeeded in 1815. 

13. Henry Charles (1791-18.56), son. Succeeded 

in 1842. 

14. Henry Granville (1815-1800), son. Succeeded 

in 1S56. 

15. Henry Fitzalan (1847- ), son. Succeeded 

in"l860. 



NORFOLK 



102 



NORFOLK 



Thomas, Thihd Di'kk. was the eldest son of mart vioIokisI ", was assigned as his tutor, probably to 

Thoinsis Howard, the second duke, and Klizabeth, eilucalc him in I'roleslant principles. In l!i!>'S, when 

daughter of Sir F. Tilney of Ashwellthorpe Hall, Nor- Mary released his gramlfather from prison, Bishop 

folk. In 14().T he w:vs married to Lady Anne, daugh- White of Lincoln became his tutor. Thomas suc- 

ter of I'^dward 1\'. He fought as captain of the van- ceeded his grandfather, as duke, in 1.').54, and became 

guard at Flodden Field in I'A'S. In 1.514 he was earl-marshal. He married, in 1.5.5f), Lady Mary 



created Karl of Surrey, and joined his father in oppos- 
ing Wolsey's policy of depressing the old nobility. 
In 1520-21 he endeavoured to keep peace in Ireland; 
recalled, he took command of the Fnglish fleet against 
France, and successfully opposed the French in .Scot- 
land. In l.')24 he became duke, and was apjiointed 
commissioner to treat for peace with France. With 
peace abroad came the burning question of Henry's 



Fitzalan, daughter of Henry, twelfth Earl of Arundel; 
in l.')."iS, Margaret, daughter of Tliomas Lord Audley 
of Walden; and, in 15(17, Klizabeth, widow of Thomas 
Dacre of CSilsland, who had three daughters. By 
obtaining a grant of their wanlship and intermarrying 
with them his own three sons, the issue of former 
marriages, he absorbed the great estates of the Dacre 
family. In 1568, he was again a widower, the only 



divorce. Norfolk, uncle of Anne Boleyn, sided with English duke, the wealthiest man in England, popular 
the king and. as president of the privy council, hast- and ambitious. Elizabeth was eager to win one of 



ened the cardinal's ruin. He 
became Henry's tool in dis- 
honourable purjioses and he 
acquiesced in his lust for the 
spiritual supremacy. With 
Cromwell, he obtained a grant 
of a ijortion of the possessions 
of the Priory of Lewes and 
other monastic spoils. He 
W!us created earl-marshal in 
1533. In 1.535 Norfolk was 
a leading judge in the trial 
of Sir Thomas More. In 1.536 
he disbanded the "Pilgrim- 
age of Grace" with false as- 
surances, but returned next 
year to do "dreadful execu- 
tion". In 1.536 he hanged in 
chains, at York, Fathers 
Rochester and Walworth, two 
Carthusians. Drastic meas- 
ures of devastation marked 
his whole career as a mili- 
tary leader. He shared the 
King's zeal against the in- 
roads of German Protestant- 
ism. In 1534 he had "staid 
purgatory" and was always 
in favour of the old ortho- 
doxy, as far as he might be 
allowed tosupport it. In 1.5.39, 




Norfolk's position and he was 
given a part in the' expulsion 
of the French troops from 
Scotland. With other com- 
missioners, he was appointed 
to sit at York and inquire into 
the causes (jf the variance be- 
tween Mary Stuart and her 
subjects. Circumstances, at 
the beginning of 1.569, com- 
bined to awaken the fears of 
English nobles, and Arundel, 
Pembroke, Leicester, and 
others saw the advantage to 
be gained by the marriage, 
first suggested Ijy Maitland, 
between Norfolk and Mary; 
that wlien married she might 
be safely restored to the Scot- 
tish throne and be recog- 
nize( 1 as Kl izabet h's successor. 
Protestant nobles, however, 
looked on the affair with sus- 
picion, and Catholic lords in 
the north were impatient of 
long delay. But, even after 
the council had voted for 
the settlement of the Kng- 
lish succession by Marys 
marriage with an English 
noble, Norfolk proceeded 



Thomas Howard, Third Dcke of Norfolk 

Hans Holbein the Younger, Windsor Caatle 

when the bishops could not agree concerning the prac- with great caution, withdrew from court, aroused 
ticesof religion, Norfolk propo.sed the Six Articles to the Elizabeth's suspicion and was committed to the 
Lords, theology thus becoming matter for the whole Tower, in October, 1569. On his abject submission 
House. As an old man he served against a rising in to the queen and renunciation of all purpose of his 
Scotland, and in the French wars of 1544. In 1546 he alliance with Mary, he was released in 1570. He did 
was accused of high treason. Evidence, however, was not keep his promise; he continued to correspond with 
not conclusive against him until Hertford, and other the Queen of Scots, was found to be in negotiation 
keen enemies, prevailed upon him, as a prisoner in with Ridolfi, and through him with Philip and the 
the Tower, to sign his confession and throw himself Catholic Powers abroad, concerning an invasion of 
on the King's mercy. A bill of attainder was passed England. He was arraigned for high treason in 1571. 
in Parliament, and orders for his immediate execution After eighteen weeks' confinement in the Tower, de- 
would have been carried into effect had not Henry prived of books, informed of the trial only on the 
died on the previous evening. He remained a pri.sone'r previous evening, kept in ignorance of the charges 
in the Tower the whole of Edward VI's reign but was until he heard the indictment at the bar, and refused 
released on Mary's accession, and restored to the the aid of counsel to suggest advice, on the evidence 
dukedom in 1553. of letters and extorted confessions from others, he 
His long experience as lord high steward and lieu- was condemned to death by the Earl of Shrewsbury, 



tenant-general made him usefid to the queen, but 
he lost favour by his rashness and his failure to crush 
Wyat's rebellion. (See Gairtln('r, "Lollardy and the 
Reformation" (London, 1908); Gairdner, "Hist, of 



the Lord High Steward, and twenty-six peers as as- 
sessors (judges, all selected by the queen's ministers 
and many of them his known enemies). After much 

hesitation on the p.art of Elizabeth and a petition 

Engl. Church in With Century" (London, 1902); from Parliament, on 2 .June, 1572, he was executed. 
"Letters and Papers, Henry VIII", various vol- His .sympathy seemed to be always with the Catholic 
umes; Creighton, "Diet, of Nat. Biog.", X (London, party, but his policy was two-faced, and he was a 
1908).] professed adherent of the Reformed religion. Cir- 

Thomas, Fourth Duke, was the son of Henry cumstanees made it expedient for him always to tem- 
Howard, Earl of Surrey and Frances Vere, daughter porize. He seems to have been led on by the course 
of .John, Earl of Oxford. After the execution of his of events and not to have realized the result of his 
father, in 1547, he was, by order of privy coimcil, actions. [See State Trials, I (London, 1776), 82; 
committed to the charge of his aunt, and Foxe, "the Froude, "Hist, of Eng.", IV (London, 1866), XX; 



NORIS 



103 



NORIS 



Labanoff, "Lettrcs, etc. de Marie Stuart" (1844), 
earlier ed. tr. (1842); Anderson, "Collections relating 
to Marv" (Edinburgh, 1727); Creighton in "Diet, of 
Nat. Biog.", X (London, 1908). 

Henry, Sixth Duke, the second son of Henry 
Frederick Howard, third Earl of Arundel and Lady 
Elizabeth Stuart, was educated abroad, as a Cath- 
olic. In 1669 he went as ambassador extraordinary 
to Morocco. In 1677 he succeeded his brother as 
duke, having previously been made hereditary earl- 
marshal. During the Commonwealth and Protecto- 
rate he lived in total seclusion. In January, 1678, he 
took his. seat in the House of Lords, but in August 
the first development of the Titus Gates Plot was 
followed by an Act for disabling Catholics from sitting 
in either house of Parliament. He would not comply 
with the oath and, suspected of doubtful loyalty, 
withdrew to Bruges for three years. There he built a 
house attached to a Franciscan convent and enjoyed 
freedom of worship and scope for his munificence. 
He was a man of benevolent disposition and gave 
away the greater part of his splendid library, and 
grounds and rooms to tlie Royal Society, and the 
Arundelian marbles to Oxford University. Jealous 
of the family honour, he compounded a debt of 
£200,000 contracted by his grandfather. [See Eve- 
lyn's "Miscellaneous Writings" (London, 1825).] 

Henry, Seventh Duke, son of Henry, si.xth Duke, 
and Lady Anne Somerset, was at first a good Catho- 
lic and for four months held out against subscribing 
to the oath as a peer in the House of Lords. After- 
wards he became a pervert. 

Thomas, Eighth Duke, was brought up a Catholic 
but perverted on succeeding to the dukedom. 

Edw.\rd, Ninth Duke, did much to promote a 
more liberal treatment of Catholics by offering a 
home at Norfolk House to Frederick, Prince of Wales, 
and his wife at the time of the birth of their son, after- 
wards George III. 

Charles, Tenth Duke, son of Charles Howard of 
Greystoke, Cumberland, and Mary Paylward, was 
brought up a Catholic. Though he signed a petition 
for relief from the pressure of the penal laws, he led 
a very retired life. In 1764 he published "Considera- 
tions of the Penal Laws against the Roman Catholics 
in England and the new-acquired colonies in Amer- 
ica"; and in 1768, "Thoughts, Essays, and Maxims, 
chiefly Religious and Political". 

Charles, Eleventh Duke, educated at the Eng- 
lish College at Douai, was a man of dissolute life and 
had conformed to the State religion by 1780. 

Bernard Edward. Twelfth Duke, eldest son of 
Henry Howard of Glossop, and Juliana, daughter of 
Sir William Molyneux of Willow, Nottinghamshire. 
In 1789 he married Elizabeth Bellasis, daughter of 
Henry, Earl of Fauconberg. but was divorced, by Act of 
Parliament, in 1794. On the death of his third cousin, 
in 1815, he succeeded to the dukedom. Although 
a Catholic, he was allowed, by Act of Parliament 
in 1824, to exercise the hereditary office of earl- 
marshal. After the Relief Bill of 1829 he was ad- 
mitted to the full exercise of his ancestral privileges; 
he took his seat in the House of Lords, where he was a 
steady supporter of the Reform Bill, and in 1830 was 
noniinated as privy councillor. [See Gent. Mag., I 
(1842), 542.] 

Henry Charles, Thirteenth Duke, only son of 
Bernard Edward and Elizabeth Bellasis. He was 
baptized a Catholic but did not practise his religion. 
In 1814 he married Lady Charlotte Leveson-Gower, 
daughter of George, Duke of Sutherland, and in 1815 
he became, as heir, Earl of Arundel and Surrey. In 
1829, after the Catholic Emancipation Act, he took 
the oath and his seat in the House of Commons (the 
first Catholic since the Reformation). In 1841 he 
eat in the House of Lords. In politics he was a 
stanch member of the Whig party. In 1842 he suc- 



ceeded his father as Duke of Norfolk. He died at 
Arundel in 1856. Canon Tierney was chaplain at 
the time of his death. [See London Times (19 Feb.', 
1856); Gent. Mag. (April, 1856), 419.] 

Henry Granville Fitzalan, Fourteenth Duke, 
eldest son of Henry Charles Howard and Charlotte, 
daughter of the Duke of Sutherland, was educated 
privately, and at Trinity College, Cambridge. He en- 
tered the army but retired on attaining the rank 
of captain. In 1839 he married the daughter of 
Admiral Sir Edmund (afterwards Lord) Lyons, the 
ambassador at Athens. From 1837 to 1S42 he was a 
member of the House of Commons, a Whig, until he 
broke with his party on the introduction of the Eccle- 
siastical Titles Bill of 1850. In 1850, as Duke of 
Norfolk, he took his seat in the House of Lords. In 
1839 he attended the services of Notre-Dame in Paris 
and made the acquaintance of Montalembert. This 
resulted in his conversion to Catholicism, and Monta- 
lembert describes him as "the most pious layman of 
our times". Cardinal Wiseman, in a pastoral letter, 
at the time of his death in 1860, referred to his benevo- 
lent nature: "There is not a form of want or a 
peculiar application of alms which has not received his 
relief or co-operation". He wrote: "Collections 
relative to Catholic Poor Schools throughout Eng- 
land", MS. folio, 134, pp. 1843; "A few Remarks on 
the Social and Political Condition of British Cath- 
olics" (London, 1847); Letter to J. P. Plumptre on 
the Bull " In Ccena Domini" (London, 1S4S); "Ob- 
servations on Diplomatic Relations with Rome" 
1848. He edited from original MSS. the "Lives of 
Philip Howard and Anne Dacres" (London, 1857 and 
1861). [See "Gent. Mag." (Jan., 1861); "London 
Times" (27 Nov. and 4 Dec, 1860); "London Table" 
(1 Dec, 1860); H. W. Freeland, "Remarks on the 
Letters of the Duke of Norfolk" (1874); Monta- 
lembert, "Le Correspondant" (25 Dec, 1860), 766- 
776, tr. by Goddard at the end of his Montalembert, 
"Pius IX and France" (Bo.slon, Mass., 1861).] 

Tierney. Castle and I,,';,,,--. .' \rundd (London, 1834); 
Howard. Memorials of ih. // ' .,,l,v Castle, 1834); Gll/- 

how, Biog. Dicl.of Engl. r,,'. . I ,, |,,,i, lSS.5-1902) ; Lingard, 

History of England (Lonili-n, l^i", /iirl. ^at. Biog. (London, 
1908), s. V. Howard. 

S. Anselm Parker. 

Noris, Henry, Cardinal, b. at Verona, 29 August, 
1631. of English ancestry; d. at Rome, 23 Feb., 1704. 
He studied under the Jesuits at Rimini, and there en- 
tered the no\'itiate of the Hermits of Saint Augustine. 
After his probation he was sent to Rome to study 
theology. He taught the sacred sciences at Pesaro, 
Perugia, and Padua, where he held the chair of church 
history in the university from 1674 to 1692. There 
he completed "The History of Pelagianism", and 
"Dissertations on the Fifth General Council", the 
two works which, before and after his death, occa^ 
sioned much controversy. Together with the " Vindiciae 
Augustinianis" they were printed at Padua in 1673, 
having been approved by a special commission at 
Rome. Noris himself went to Rome to give an ac- 
count of his orthodoxy before this commission; and 
Clement X named him one of the qualificators of the 
Holy Office, in recognition of his learning and sound 
doctrine. But, after the publication of these works, 
further charges were made against him of teaching the 
errors of Jansenius and Baius. In a brief to the pre- 
fect of the Spanish Inquisition, 31 July, 1748, ordering 
the name of Noris to be taken off the list of forbidden 
books, Benedict XIV says that these charges were 
never proved; that they were rejected repeatedly by 
the Holy Office, and repudiated by the popes who had 
honoured him. In 1692 Noris was made assistant Li- 
brarian in the Vatican by Innocent XII. On 12 
December, 1695, he was nanied Cardinal-Priest of the 
Title of S. Agostino. In 1700 he was given full charge 
of the Vatican Library. His works, apart from some 



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minor controversial Iroatisi's, arc highly valued for ac- 
curacy aiul thorounlnicss of research. In addition to 
(hose already named, the most important are: "Annus 
ot Kpochie Syro-Macedonum in Vctustis Urbium 
Syria' Kxposita^"; "Fsisti Consulares Anonimi e 
Manuscripto Hibliotheca; Ca!sare« Deprompti"; 
"Historia Controversial de I^no ex Trinitate Passo"; 
"Apolopia Monaclioruiii Scythi;e"; " Historia Dona- 
tistarum o Sehedis Xiirisiaiiis I'Ac'crpta'"; "Storia 
delle Investiture delle Difinita Iscclesiasliehe". Select 
portions of his works have been frequently reprinted, 
at Padua, H>73-1(>7S, 1708; at Louvain, ltO'2; at Bas- 
sano, edited by Bert i, 17tJ9. The best is the edition 
of all the works, in five vols, folio by the Ballerini 
Brothers, Verona, 1729-1741. 

HvRTEH, NofnaicUilor. KalhoUk, I (:SS4), 181; Pietro and 
GiROLAMO Ballerini, Vita Norisii in tlicir ed. of Noris" works, 
IV (Verona. 172'.1-41); a shorter Life is prefixed to the edition of 
Padua. I70S; Lantf.ri, Poslrema Stecuta 6'ex Religionis Augus- 
(miun.f. III (Tolentino, 18.58), 64 sq. 

Francis E. Tourscher. 

Normandy, ancient French province, from which 
five "departments" were formed in 1790: Seine-Inferi- 
eure ( Archdiocese of Rouen), Eure (Diocese of Evreux), 
Calvados (Dioce.se of Bayeux), Orne (Diocese of Seez), 
Manche (Diocese of Coutances). The Normans, orig- 
inally Danish or Norwegian pirates, who from the 
ninth to the tenth century made numerous incursions 
into France, gave their name to this province. In the 
Gallo-Roman period Normandy formed the so-called 
second Lyonnaise province {Secunda Lugdunensis). 
At Thorigny within the territory of this province was 
found an inscription very important for the history 
of the worship of the emperors in Gaul and of the 
provincial assembUes; the latter, thus meeting for this 
worship, kept up a certain autonomy throughout the 
conquered territory of Gaul. Under the Merovin- 
gians the Kingdom of Neustria annexed Normandy. 
About 843 Sydroc and his bands of pillagers opened 
the period of Northman invasions. The policy of 
Charles the Bald in giving money or lands to some of 
the Northmen for defending his land against other 
bands was unfortunate, as these adventurers readily 
broke their oath. In the course of their invasions they 
slew (858) the Bishop of Bayeux and (8.59) the Bishop 
of Beauvais. The conversion (862) of the North- 
man, Weland, marked a new policy on the part of the 
Carlo\angians; instead of regarding the invaders as 
intruders it was admitted that they might become 
Christians. Unlike the Saracens, then disturbing 
Europe, the Northmen were admitted to a place and a 
role in Christendom. 

The good fortune of the Northmen began with 
Rollo in Normandy itself. It was long believed that 
Rollo came by sea into the valley of the Seine in 876, 
but the date is rather 886. He destroyed Bayeux, 
pillaged Lisieux, besieged Paris, and reached Lorraine, 
finally establishing himself at Rouen, where a truce 
was concluded. His installation was considered so 
definitive that in the beginning of the tenth century 
Witto, Archbishop of Rouen, consulted the Arch- 
bishop of Reims as to the means of converting the 
Northmen. Rollo's settlement in Normandy was rat- 
ified by the treaty of St. Clair-sur-Epte (911), prop- 
erly speaking only a verbal agreement between Rollo 
and Charles the Simple. As Duke of Normandy 
Rollo remained faithful to the Carlovingian dynasty 
in its struggles with the ancestors of the future Cape- 
tians. Thes(; cordial relations between the ducal 
family of Normandy and French royalty provoked 
under Rollo's succe.ssor William Long-sword (931-42) 
a revolt of the pagan Northmen settled in Cotentin 
and Bessin. One of their lords (jarh), Riulf by name 
was the leader of the movc^ment. The rebels re- 
proached the duke with being no longer a true Scandi- 
navian and "treating the French as his kin.smen". 
Triumphant for a time, they were finally routed and 



the aristocratic spirit of {.\u-jiiiin had to bow before the 
nioiiari-hical princiijles which William Long-sword 
infused inlii his government. 

Anotlu:r attempt at a revival of paganism was made 
under Richard 1 Sans Peur (the T'earless, 942-96). 
He was only two years old at his father's death. .V 
year later (943) the Scandinavian Sctric, landing in 
Normandy with a band of pirali's, induced a number 
of Christian Northmen to a])cistatizc; among them, 
one Turmod who sought to make a pagan of the young 
duke. Hugh the (ireat, Duke of France, and Louis 
IV, King of France, defeated these invaders and after 
their victory both sought to set up their own power 
in Normandy to the detriment of the young Richard 
whom Louis IV held in semi-captivity at Laon. The 
landing in Normandy of the King of Denmark, 
Harold Bluetooth, and the defeat of Louis IV, held 
prisoner for a time (94.'j), constrained the latter to 
sign the treaty of Gerberoy, by which the young Duke 
Richard was re-established in his possessions, and be- 
came, according to the chronicler Dudon de Saint- 
Quentin, a sort of King of Normandy. The attacks 
later directed against Richard by the Carlovingian 
King Lothaire and Thibaut le Tricheur, Count of 
Chartres, brought a fresh descent on France of the 
soldiers of Harold Bluetooth. Ascending the Seine 
these Danes so devastated the country of Chartres 
that when they withdrew, according to the chronicler 
Guillaume of Jumieges, there was not heard even the 
bark of a dog. When Eudes of Chartres, brother-in- 
law of Richard II the Good, again threatened Nor- 
mandy (996-1020), it was once more the Scandinavian 
chieftains, Olaf of Norway and Locmaii, uiio came to 
the duke's aid. So attached were these Scandinavi- 
ans to paganism that their leader Olaf, having been 
baptized by the Archbishop of Rouen, was slain by 
them. Although they had become Christian, all 
traces of Scandinavian paganism did not disappear 
under the first dukes of Normandy. Rollo walked 
barefoot before the reliquary of St. Guen, but he 
caused many relics to be sold in England, and on his 
death-bed, according to Adhemar de Chabannes, 
simultaneously caused prisoners to be sacrificed to the 
Scandinavian gods and gave much gold to the 
churches. Richard I was a great builder of churches, 
among them St. Ouen and the primitive cathedral of 
Rouen, St. Michel du Mont, and the Trinity at Fe- 
camp. Richard II, zealous for monastic reform, 
brought from Burgundy Guillaume de St. B(5nigne; 
the Abbey of Fecamp, reformed by him, became a 
model monastery and a much frequented school. 

All these dukes protected the Church, but the 
feudal power of the Church, which in many States at 
that time limited the central power, was but little 
developed in Normandy, and it was to their kinsmen 
that the dukes of Normandy most often gave the 
Archdiocese of Rouen and other sees. Ecclesiastical 
life in Normandy was vigorous and well-developed; 
previous to the eleventh century the rural parishes 
were almost as numerous as they are to-day. Thus 
Normandy for nearly a century and a half was at once 
a sort of promontory of the Christian world in face of 
Scandinavia and at the same time a coign of Scandi- 
navia thrust into the Christian world. Henceforth 
those Danes and Scandinavians who under the name 
of Normans formed a part of Christendom, never 
called pagan Danes or Scandinavians to their aid 
unless threatened in the possession of Normandy; un- 
der their domination the land became a .stronghold of 
Christianity. The monastery of Fontenelle (q. v.) 
pur.sued its religious and literary activity from the 
Merovingian period. The "Chronicon Fontanel- 
lense", continued to 1040, is an important source for 
the history of the period. The ducal family of Nor- 
mandy early determined to have an historiographer 
whom they sought in France, one Dudon, dean of 
the chapter of St. Quentin, who between 1015-30 



NORMANDY 



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NORMANDY 



wrote in Latin half verse, half prose, a history of the 
family according to the traditions and accounts trans- 
mitted to him by Raoul, Count of Ivry, grandson of 
Rollo and brother of Richard I Alinea. Duke Robert the 
Devil (1027-35) was already powerful enough to inter- 
fere efficaciously in the struggles of Henry I of France 
against his own brother and the Counts of Champagne 
and Flanders. In gratitude the king bestowed on 
Robert the Devil, Pontoise, Chaumont en Vexin, and 
the whole of French Vexin. It was under Robert the 
Devil that the ducal family of Normandy first cast 
covetous glances towards England. He sent an em- 
bassy to Canute the Great, King of England, in order 
that the sons of Ethelred, Alfred and Edward, might 
recover their patrimony. The petition having been 
denied he made ready a naval expedition against 
England, destroyed by a tempest. He died while on 
a pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre. 

It was reserved for his son William the Bastard, 
later called William the Conqueror, to make England 
a Norman colony by the expedition which resulted in 
the victory of Hastings or Senlac (1066). It seemed, 
then, that in the second half of the eleventh century a 
sort of Norman imperialism was to arise in England, 
but the testament of William the Conqueror which 
left Normandy to Robert Courte-Heuse and England 
to William Rufus, marked the separation of the two 
countries. Each of the brothers sought to despoil the 
other; the long strife which Robert waged, first against 
William Rufus, afterwards against his third brother 
Henry I Beauclerc, terminated in 1106 with the battle 
of Tinchebray, after which he was taken prisoner and 
brought to Cardiff. Thenceforth Normandy was the 
possession of William I, King of England, and while 
forty years previous England seemed about to become 
a Norman country, it was Normandy which became 
an English country; history no longer speaks of the 
ducal family of Normandy but of the royal family of 
England. Later Henry I, denounced to the Council 
of Reims by Louis VI of France, explained to Callistus 
II in tragic terms the condition in which he had found 
Normandy. "The duchy", said he, " was the prey of 
brigands. Priests and other servants of God were no 
longer honoured, and paganism had almost been re- 
stored in Normandy. The monasteries which our 
ancestors had founded for the repose of their souls 
were destroyed, and the religious obliged to disperse, 
being unable to sustain themselves. The churches 
were given up to pillage, most of them reduced to 
ashes, while the priests were in hiding. Their pa- 
rishioners were slaying one another." There may 
have been some truth in this description of Henry 
I; however, it is well to bear in mind that the Nor- 
man dukes of the eleventh century, while they had 
prepared and realized these astounding political 
changes, had also developed in Normandy, with the 
help of the Church, a brilliant literary and artistic 
movement. 

The Abbey of Bee was for some time, under the 
direction of Lanfranc and St. Anselm, the foremost 
school of northern France. Two Norman monaster- 
ies produced historical works of great importance; the 
"Historia Normannorum", written between 1070-87 
by Guillaume Calculus at the monastery of Jumieges; 
the "Historia Ecclesiastica" of Ordericus Vitalis, 
which begins with the birth of Christ and ends in 
1141, written at the monastery of St. Evroult. The 
secular clergy of Normandy emulated the monks; in a 
sort of academy founded in the second half of the 
eleventh century by two bishops of Lisieux, Hugues of 
Eu and Gilbert Maminot, not only theological but also 
scientific and literary questions were discussed. The 
Norman court was a kind of Academy and an active 
centre of literary production. The chaplain of 
Duchess Matilda, Gui de Ponthieu, Bishop of Amiens, 
composed in 1067 a Latin poem on the battle of Has- 
tings; the chaplain of William the Conqueror, WilUam 



of Poitiers, wrote the " Gesta" of his master and an ex- 
tant account of the first crusade is due to another 
Norman, Raoul de Caen, an eyewitness. At the 
same time the Norman dukes of the eleventh century 
restored the buildings, destroyed by the invasions 
of their barbarian ancestors, and a whole Romance 
school of architecture developed in Normandy, ex- 
tending to Chartres, Picardy, Brittany, and even to 
England. Caen was the centre of this school; and 
monuments like the Abbaye aux Hommes and the 
Abbaye aux Dames, built at Caen by William and 
Matilda, mark an epoch in the history of Norman art. 
In the course of the twelfth century the political 
destinies of Normandy were very uncertain. Henry 

I of England, master of Normandy from 1106-3.5, 
preferred to live at Caen rather than in England. His 
rule in Normandy was at first disturbed by the par- 
tisans of Guillaume Cliton, son of Robert Courte- 
Heuse, and later by the plot concocted against him by 
his own daughter Matilda, widow of Emperor Henry V, 
who had taken as her second husband Geoffrey Plan- 
tagenet, Count of Anjou. When Henry I died in 1 135 
his body was brought to England; his death without 
male heirs left Normandy a prey to anarchy. For 
this region was immediately disputed between Henry 
Plantagenet, grandson of Henry I through his mother 
Matilda, and Thibaut of Champagne, grandson of 
William the Conqueror through his mother Adele. 
After nine years of strife Thibaut withdrew in favour 
of his brother Stephen who in 1135 had been crowned 
King of England. But the victories of Geoffrey 
Plantagenet in Normandy assured (1144) the rule of 
Henry Plantagenet over that land, which being 
thenceforth subject to Angevin rule, seemed destined 
to have no further connexion with England. Sud- 
denly Henry Plantagenet, who in 11.52 had married 
Eleanor (Alienor) of Aquitaine, divorced from Louia 
VII of France, determined to assert his rights over 
England itself. The naval expedition which he con- 
ducted in 1153 led Stephen to recognize him as his 
heir, and as Stephen died at the end of that same year 
Henry Plantagenet reigned over all the Anglo-Nor- 
man possessions, his territorial power being greater 
than that of the kings of France. A long series of 
wars followed between the Capetians and Plantag- 
enets, interrupted by truces. Louis VII wisely fa- 
voured everything which paralyzed the power of Plan- 
tagenet, and supported all his enemies. Thomas 3, 
Becket and the other exiles who had protested against 
the despotism which Henry exercised against the 
Church, found refuge and help at the court of France; 
and the sons of Henry in their successive revolts 
against their father in Normandy, were supported 
first by Louis VII and then by Philip Augustus. 

The prestige of the Capetian kings grew in Nor- 
mandy when Richard Coeur de Lion succi-cdcd Henry 

II in 1189. Philip Augustus profited by tlic enmity 
between Richard and his brother Jolin Lackl.-iud to 
gradually establi-sh French domination in Norniandy. 
A war between Richard and Philip Augustus resulted 
in the treaty of Issoudun (1195) by which Philip 
Augustus acquired for the French crown Norman 
Vexin and the castellanies of Nonancourt, Ivry, 
Pacy, Vernon, and Gaillon. A second war between 
John Lackland, King of England in 1199 and Philip 
Augustus, was terminated by the treaty of Goulet 
(1200), by which John Lackland recovered Norman 
Vexin, but recognized the French king's possession of 
the territory of Evreux and declared himself the 
"liege man" of Philip Augustus. Also when in 1202 
John Lackland, having abducted Isabella of Angou- 
leme, refused to appear before Philip .Augustus, the 
court of peers declared John a felon, under which sen- 
tence he no longer had tire right to hold any lief of the 
crown. Philip II Augustus sanctioned the judrment 
of the court of peers by invading Normandy which 
in 1204 became a French possession. The twelfth 



NORMANDY 



106 



NORMANDY 



century in Normandy was marked by tlio produc- 
tion of important works, oliicf of wtiicli was tlic " Ro- 
man do Kou" of Robert or rather Richard Wacc 
(ll()()-7r>),acanoiiof Ravoux. In this, wliich consists 
of nearly 17,(100 hnes and was continvied liy Benoit dc 
Sainte-^Ior(■, Wace relates the history of the dukes of 
Normandy down to the battle of Tinchcbray. Men- 
tion mu.st also be made of the great I'^rencli poem 
which the Norman Ambroise wrf)te somewhat prior to 
119t5 on the Jerusalem pilgrimage of Richard Co'iir de 
Lion. As early as the twelfth century Xonnandy 
was an important commercial centre, tluillaumc de 
Neubrig wrote that liouen was one of the most cele- 
brated cities of Europe and that the Seine brought 
thither the commercial products of many countries. 
The "Etablissements de Rouen" in which was drawn 
up the "custom" adopted by Rouen, were copied not 
only by the other Norman towns but by the cities with 
which Rouen maintained constant commercial inter- 
course, e. g. Angouleme, Bayonne, Cognac, St. Jean 
d'.\ngely, Niort, Poitiers, La Rochelle, Saintes, and 
Tours. The ghilde of Rouen, a powerful commercial 
association, possessed in England from the time of 
Edward the Confessor the port of Dunegate, now 
Dungeness, near London, and its merchandise entered 
London free. 

Once in the power of the Capetians, Normandy be- 
came an important strategical point in the struggle 
against the English, masters of Poitou and Guyenne in 
the south of Erance. Norman sailors were enrolled 
by Philip VI of France for a naval campaign against 
England in 1340 which resulted in the defeat of 
Ecluse. Under John II the Good, the States of Nor- 
mandy, angered by the ravages committed by Edward 
III of England on his landing in the province, voted 
(1348-50) subsidies for the conquest of England. The 
Valois dynasty w;vs in great danger when Charles the 
Bad, King of Navarre, who possessed important lands 
in Normandy, succeeded in 13.56 in detaching from 
John II of France a number of Norman barons. John 
II appraising the danger came suddenly to Rouen, 
put several barons to death, and took Chcarlcs the 
Bad prisoner. Shortly afterwards Normandy was 
one of the provinces of France most faithful to the 
Dauphin Charles, the future Charles V, and the 
hope the English entertained in 13.59 of seeing Nor- 
mandj' ceded to them by the Preliminaries of London 
was not ratified by the treaty of Br^tigny (1300); 
Normandy remained French. The \'ictories of Charles 
V consolidated the prestige of the Valois in this prov- 
ince. In 1386 Normandy furnished 13S7 vessels for 
an exjjedition against England never executed. In 
1418 the campaign of Henry V in Normandy was 
for a long time paralyzed by the resistance of Rouen, 
which finally capitulated in 1419, and in 1420 all Nor- 
mandy became again almost English. 

The Duke of Clarence, brother of Henry V of Eng- 
land, wa-s made lieutenant-general in the province. 
Henry VI and the Duke of Bedford founded a uni- 
versity at Caen which had faculties of canon and civil 
law, to which Charles VII in 14.50 added those of the- 
ologj', medicine, and arts. This last attempt at Eng- 
lish domination in Normandy was marked by the 
execution at Rouen of Blessed Joan of Arc. English 
rule, however, was undermined by incessant conspir- 
acie.s, especially on the part of the people of Rouen, 
and by revolts in 143.5-36. The revolt of Val de Vire 
is famous and was the origin of an entire ballad liter- 
ature, called " Vaux de Vire", in which the poet Ohver 
Basselin excelled. These songs, which later became 
bacchic or amorous in character, and which subse- 
quently developed into the popular drama known as 
"Vaudeville", were in the beginning chiefly of an 
historical nature recounting the invasion of Normandy 
by the English. Profiting by the public opinion of 
which the " Vaux de Vire" gave evidence, the Consta- 
ble de Richemont opposed the English on Norman ter- 



ritory. His long and arduous cfTorts in 1449-50 made 
Normandy once more a French province. Thence- 
forth the possession of Normandy by France was 
considered so essential to the security of the king- 
dom that, Charles the Bold, for a time victorious 
over Louis XI, in order to weaken the latter, exacted 
in 146.5 that Normandy should be held by Duke 
Charles de Berry, the king's brother and leader of 
those in revolt against him; two years later Louis XI 
took Normandy from his brother and caused the 
States General of Tours to proclaim in 1468 that Nor- 
mandy could for no reason whatever be dismembered 
from the domain of the crown. The ducal ring wjis 
broken in the presence of the great judicial court 
called the Echiquier (Exchequer) and the title of 
Duke of Normandy was never to be borne again 
except by Louis XVII, the son of Louis XVI. 

The Norman school of architecture from the thir- 
teenth to the fifteenth century produced superb 
Gothic edifices, chiefly characterized by tlie height of 
their spires and bell-towers. Throughout the Middle 
Ages Normandy, greatly influenced by St. Bernard 
and the Cistercians, was distinguished for its venera- 
tion of the Blessed Virgin. It was under her pro- 
tection that William the Conqueror placed his expedi- 
tion to England. One of the most ancient mural 
paintings in France is in the chapel of the Hospice 
St. Julien at Petit-Quevilly, formerly the manor 
chapel of one of the early dukes of Normandy, por- 
traying the Annunciation, the Birth of Christ, and the 
Blessed Virgin suckfing the Infant Jesus during the 
flight into Egypt. As early as the twelfth century 
Robert or rather Richard Wace wrote the history of 
Mary and that of the establishment of the feast of 
the Immaculate Conception. The Norman students 
at Paris placed themselves under the patronage of the 
Immaculate Conception which thus became the 
"feast of the Normans"; this appellation does not 
seem to date beyond the thirteenth century. During 
the modern period the Normans have been distin- 
guished for their commercial expeditions by sea and 
their voyages of discovery. As early as 1366 the Nor- 
mans had established markets on the coast of Africa 
and it was from Caux that Jean de Bethencourt set 
out in 1402 for the conquest of the Canaries. He 
opened up to Vasco da Gama the route to the Cape 
of Good Hope and to Christopher Columbus that to 
America. Two of his chaplains, Pierre Bontier and 
Jean le Verrier, gave an account of his expedition 
in a manuscript known as "Le Canarien", edited in 
1874. Jean Ango, born at Dieppe about the end of 
the fifteenth century, acquired as a ship-owner a 
fortune exceeding that of many princes of his time. 
The Portuguese having in time of peace, seized (1530) 
a ship which belonged to him, he sent a flotilla to 
blockade Lisbon and ravage the Portuguese coast. 
The ambassador sent by the King of Portugal to 
Francis I to negotiate the matter, was referred to the 
citizen of Dieppe. Ango was powerful enough to 
assist the armaments of Francis I against England. 
He died in 1551. 

Jean Parmentier (1494-1543), another navigator 
and a native of Dieppe, was, it is held, the first 
Frenchman to take ships to Brazil; to him is also as- 
cribed the honour of having discovered Sumatra in 
1529. Poet as well as sailor, he wrote in ver.se (1536) 
a "Description Nouvelle des Merveillesde ce monde". 
The foundation by Francis I in 1517 of the "French 
City" which afterwards became Havre de Grace, 
shows the importance which French royalty attached 
to the Norman coa.st. Normandy's maritime com- 
merce was much developed by Henry II and Cath- 
erine de Medicis. They granted to the port of Rouen 
a sort of monopoly for the importation of spices and 
drugs arriving by way of the Atlantic, and when they 
came to Rouen in 1.550 the merchants of that town 
contrived to give to the nearby wood the appearance 



NORRIS 



107 



NORTHAMPTON 



of the country of Brazil "with three hundred naked 
men, equipped'Uke savages of America, whence comes 
the wood of Brazil". Among these three hundred 
men were fifty real savages, and there also figured in 
this exhibition "several monkeys and squirrel mon- 
keys which the merchants of Rouen had brought from 
Brazil." The description of the festivities, which 
bore witnc.-fs to active commercial intercourse between 
Normandy and .Viiierica, was published tdsethcr with 
numerous figures. After the Reformation religious 
wars interruptei.1 1 he maritime activity of the Normans 
for a time. Rouen took sides with the League, Caen 
with Henry IV, but with the restoration of peace the 
maritime expeditions recommenced. Normans founded 
Quebec in 1608, opened markets in Brazil in 1612, 
visited the Sonda Islands in 1617, and colonized 
Guadeloupe in 1635. The French population of Can- 
ada is to a large extent of Norman origin. During the 
French Revolution Normandy was one of the centres 
of the federalist movement known as the Girondin. 
Caen and Evreux were important centres for the Gi- 
ronde; Buzot, who led the movement, was a Norman, 
and it was from Caen that Charlotte Corday set out 
toslaythe "montagnard" Marat. The royalist move- 
ment of "la Chouannerie" had also one of its centres 
in Normandy. 

Duchesne, llistorim Nornmnnorum scriptores antiqui (Paris, 
1G19); Liquet, Histoire de la Normandie jusqu'd la conquite de 
VAngleterTe (Paris, 18.55); Labuttk, Hist, ilea ./iirs ,1,: Normandie 

jusqua la marl dc GuiUaumr !>■ r ,:,;,,,„, iT:nl , ivnr,;, Waitz, 

Ueber die QiulUii ziir ll.s.h '. I:. ■ ' / ",-cr*fa 

Herrsclier n, Franhnich in (. ' ; ' ' 1 ■ ilslHi); 

BoUMEIi, Kirrl:y and Slanf in l::n,l.n,.l „, , ,,.- ,/, , ,\. '.:.,.(,../).• im 
XI. and XII. Jahrhuadrrl U.oipziE. i:«K)); Saruazi.n. Jeanne 
d'Arc el la Normandie aa X V' siicle (Rouen, lS9a) ; Legrelle, 
La Normandie saus In monarchie absolue (Rouen, 1903); DE Fe- 
lice, La Basse Normandie, etude de geographie rigionale (Paris, 
1907) ; Sign, Les paysans de la Normandie Orientale: pays de Caux 
(Paris, 1909); Sgrel, Pages normandes (Paris, 1907); Prentout. 
La Normandie (Paris, 1910); CocHET, Normandie monumentale et 
pittoresQue (Rouen, ISOl); Bla^k, Normandy and Picardy, their 
relics, castles, churrin m /' f-'t ^yints of William the Conqueror 
(London, 1904) ; M i m : /'■ in Normandy (London, 1905) ; 

Freeman, ffisf. "/'A < \ - inest of England (.0\loTd,\S7a- 

76); Palghave, A'.., ». . , , ,, hn.iland (2 vols., 1851-57); Lap- 
PENQERG, Anglo-Normnn Kin!/-<: Ngrgate, England under the 
Angevin Kings (Oxford, 1SS7); Kearv. The Vikings in Western 
Christendom A. D. 789 to A. D. SSS (London, 1891). 

Georges Gotau. 

Norris, Sylve.ster (alias Smith, Newton), contro- 
versial writer and English missionary priest; b. 1570 
or 1572 in Somersetshire; d. 16 March, 1630. After 
receiving minor orders at Reims in 1590, he went to 
the English College, Rome, where he completed his 
studies and was ordained priest. In May, 1596, he 
wa.s sent on the English mission, and hisenergetic char- 
acter is revealed by the fact that he was one of the ap- 
pellant clergy in 1600. In the prosecutions following 
upon the (lunpowder Plot, he was committed to 
Bridewi^ll Gaol. From hi.s prison he addressed a letter 
to the Earl of Salisbury, dated 1 Dec, 1605, in which 
he protests his innocence, and in proof of his loyalty 
promises to repair to Rome, and labour that the pope 
shall bind all the Catholics of England to be just, true, 
and loyal subjects, and that hostages shall be sent 
"for the afferminge of those things". He was there- 
upon banished along with forty-six other priests 
(1606), went to Rome, and entered the Society of 
Jesus. He was for some time employed in the Jesuit 
colleges on the Continent, but in 161 1 returned to the 
English mission, and in 1621 was made superior of the 
Hampshire district, where he died. 

He wrote: "An Antidote, or Treatiseof Thirty Con- 
troversies; With a large Discourse of the Church" 
(1622); "An Appendix to the Antidote" (1621); "The 
Pseudo-Scripturist" (1623); "A true report of the 
Private Colloquy between M. Smith, alias Norrice, 
and M. Walker" (1624); "The Christian Vow"; 
"Discour.se proving that a man who believeth in the 
Trinity, the Incarnation, etc., and yet believeth not 
all other inferior Articles, cannot be saved"(1625). 

SOMMEEVOQEL, Btbl. de la C. de J., V (1808-09) ; Foley. Rec- 



ords of the English Province, .S. J., VI, 184; III, 301; Oliver, Col- 
lections towards Illustrating the Biography of S. J., a. v.; GiLLOW, 
Bibl. Did. Eng. Cath., V, s. v. 

James Bridge. 

Northampton, Diocese op (Noutantoniensis), 
in Mii^hind, iMjiiipiises the Counties of Northampton, 
Hcdlnrd, Buckingham, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Nor- 
folk, and Suffolk, mainly composed of agricultural dis- 
tricts and f enlands, where Catholics are comparatively 
few (see, in article England, Map of the Ecclesiasti- 
cal Province of Westminster) . The number of secular 
priests is 70, of regular 18, of chapels and stations, 73, 
and of Catholics, 13,308 (1910). Among the more 
important religious orders are the Benedictines, the 
Franciscans, the Carmelites, and the Jesuits. Of con- 
vents the most notable are those of tlie Benedictines 
at East Bergholt, the Sisters of Notre Dame at North- 
ampton and Norwich, the Sisters of Jesus and Mary 
at Ipswich, the Poor Sisters of Nazareth at Northamp- 
ton, and the Dames Bernardines at Slough, who at 
their own expense built a fine church for that parish. 
The principal towns are Norwich, Ipswich, and Cam- 
bridge, the university town where, according to tradi- 
tion, St. Simon Stock, of the Order of Carmel, received 
the brown scapular from Our Lady. The Decorated 
Gothic Catholic church at Cambridge, one of the most 
beautiful in the kingdom (consecrated in 1890), is ded- 
icated to Our Lady and the English Martyrs. It is 
the gift of Mrs. Lyne Stephens oi^ Lynford Hall, Nor- 
folk. Norwich possesses one of the grandest Catholic 
churches in England, built by the munificence of the 
present Duke of Norfolk in the Transitional Norman 
style, after the designs of Sir Gilbert Scott, and com- 
pleted in 1910. The cathedral at Northampton is a 
commodious but unpretentious building designed by 
the younger Pugin. The first Bishop of Northampton, 
William Wareing, had been Vicar Apostolic of the 
Eastern District before the restoration of the Catholic 
hierarchy; he resigned the see in 1858, and died in 
1865. His successor, Francis Kerril Amherst, was 
consecrated 4 July, 1858, and resigned in 1879, the see 
being occupied the following year by Arthur Riddell, 
who d. 15 Sept., 1907. The present Bishop of North- 
ampton (1910), Frederick William Keating, b. at Birm- 
ingham, 13 June, 1859, was consecrated 25 Feb., 1908. 

Northampton was the scene of the last stand made 
by St. Thomas of Canterbury against the arbitrary 
conduct of Henry II. Bury St. Edmund's, anciently 
so renowned as the place where the body of St. Ed- 
mund, King and Martyr, was enshrined and venerated 
as well as for its Benedictine abbey, has become famil- 
iar to the modern reader mainly through Carlyle's 
"Past and Present," in the pages of which Abbot 
Samson (1135-1211), the hero of Jocelin's Chronicle, 
occupies the central position. The Isle of Elj^ and St. 
Etheldreda are famous in English ecclesiastical his- 
tory. Canute, King of England, was accustomed to 
row or skate across the fens each year to be present on 
the Feast of the Purification at the Mass in the Abbey 
Church of Ely, and Thomas Eliensis ascribes to him 
the well-known lines beginning, "Sweetly sang the 
monks of Ely". At Walsingham, also in this diocese, 
only ruins are now left of a shrine whirli, in the Middle 
Ages, was second only to the Holy Hou.se of Loreto, 
of which it was a copy. Many gri':it names of the 
Reformation period are connected with the district 
covered by the Diocese of Northampton. Catherine 
of Aragon died at Kimbolton and was buried at Peter- 
borough, where the short inscription, "Queen Cath- 
erine", upon a stone slab marks her resting-place. 
From Framlingham Castle, the ruins of which are still 
considerable. Queen Mary Tudor set out, on the death 
of Edward VI, to contest with Lady Jane Grey her right 
to the throne. At Ipswich, the birthplace of Cardinal 
Wolsey, is still to be seen.the gateway of the College 
built by him. At Fotheringay, Mary Queen of Scots 
was beheaded (1587), and at Wisbech Castle, where so 



NORTH CAROLINA 



108 



NORTH CAROLINA 



many missioiiiirv iiricsts, durinj; prnal times, were im- 
prisonnl, Williaiu Watson, llii' la.st l>iit (iiic of the Ma- 
riaii hisliciiis, (lii'd, a prisoner for the Faith (15X1). Sir 

Henry H(Mliiii;telii.t h<'raitlil'ul follower of (^1 n Mary 

and the f;entle "Jailor of the I'ririeess l)lizal)elh", is 
assoeiated with this ilioeese thron};h <)xliiir(;h Hall, 
his mansion, still occupied hy anotlier .Sir Henry Bed- 
ingfeld, his direct descendant. The Pastonsof I'aston 
are memorable in connexion with the celebrated " I'as- 
ton Letters". Many of the priests who sufTer<'d 
death under the penal laws belonged to the districts 
now included in the Diocese of Ndrthaii]i)ton, in p;ir- 
ticular, Henry Heath, born, UiOO, at I'eterboronsh; 
Venerable Henry Walpole, S.J., (d. 1595), a natiye of 
Norfolk, and \eiierable Robert Southwell, S.J., (15150- 
95), the Catholic poet , also born in Norfolk. In more 
recent times Bishop Milner was connected with the 
preseryation of the Faith in this part of England. 
Alban Butler, the liagiographer, was born in North- 
amptonshire and was resident priest at Norwich from 
1754-56. Dr. Husenbeth resided for some years at 
Cossey, where ho is buried (see Husenbeth, Fred- 
brick Ch.\rles). Father Ignatius Spencer, the Pas- 
sionist, son of Earl Spencer, and formerly Rector of 
Brington, was recei\-ed into the Catholic Church at 
Northampton, and Faber, the Oratorian, Iield the 
Anglican living of Elton, Huntingdonshire, before his 
conyersion. 

The Catholic Directory (London); Riddell. General Statistics, 
MS.; Bede, Hist. Eccl.; Historia Eliensis; Watebton, Pietas 
Mariana. 

John Freeland. 

North Carolina, one of the original thirteen States 
of the United States, is situated between 33° 53' and 
36° 33' N. lat., and 75° 25' and 84° 30' W. long. It is 
bounded on the north by Virginia, east and south-east 
by the .-Atlantic Ocean, south by South Carolina and 
Georgia, and west 
and north-west by 
Tennessee. Its ex- 
treme length from 
east to west is 503 
miles, with an ex- 
treme breadth of 
187 miles, and an 
average breadth of 
about 100 miles. 
Its area is 52,250 
si|uare miles, of 
which 3670 is wa- 
ter. Originally it 
included the pres- 
.. ^ ent State of Tcn- 

Seal of North Cahou.na nessee, ceded to the 

United States in 1790. In 1784-5 the people of that 
section made an unsuccessful effort to set up an in- 
dependent state named Franklin, w'ith John Seyier 
as governor. It is divided into ninety-eight counties 
and has (1910) ten Congressional districts, with a 
population of 2,206,287. The capital is Raleigh, situ- 
ated nearly in the geographical centre of the state; 
the principal cities are Wilmington, Charlotte, Ashe- 
ville, Greensboro, and Winston. 

Physical Characteristics. — North Carolina has 
a remarkable variety of topography, soil, climate, and 
production and falls naturally into three divisions. 
The eastern or Tidewater section begins at the ocean 
and extends north- west wardly to the foot of the hills; 
the land is level, with sluggish streams and many 
marshes and swamps, including part of the great Dis- 
mal Swamp. It is the home of the long leaf pine, with 
its products of pitch, tar, and turpentine, long a source 
of wealth. The principal productions are cotton, 
com, and rice; while "truck gardening" has recently 
grown into an important industry, "rhe fisheries are 
also valuable. The central or Piedmont section, com- 
prising nearly half the state and extending westward 




to the eastern foot of the Blue Ridge, is more or less 
liilly, but the ricli intervening valleys produce prac- 
tically all the general crops, including cotton and to- 
bacco, with fruits of all kinds. The soil, though not 
naturally rich, is c.-ipable of a high degree of cultiva- 
tion. The westward section, which runs to the Ten- 
nes.see line, is mostly mountainous, with rich valleys 
and sheltered coves. Its principal productions are 
those of the central section, modified .somewhat by 
its greater elevation. It contains some lofty peaks, 
Mount Mitchell being the highest peak ea.st of the 
Rocky Mountains. The st:ite is well waliTcd, liaving 
numerous rivers, which, though not generally naviga- 
ble, in their rapid descent furnish enormous water- 
power, much of which has been recently developed. 
They may be divided into three classes, those flowing 
indirectly into the Mississippi, those flowing into the 
Great Pedee and the Santee, and those flowing into 
the Atlantic. The coast line, nearly four hundred 
miles long, includes Capes Fear, Lookout, and Hat- 
teras; and, at varying distances from the ocean, run a 
series of sounds, chief of which are Currituck, Albe- 
marle, and Pamlico. There are good harbours at 
Edenton. New Bern, \\ asliington, Beaufort, and Wil- 
mington, including Soutlijiort. The climate is gener- 
ally equable, and North Carolina produces nearly all 
the crops grown in the rnitcd States with the excep- 
tion of sub-tropical cane and fruits. Four of the wine 
grapes, the Catawba, Isabella, Lincoln, and Scuppcr- 
nong, originated here. It has al.so large areas of valu- 
able timber of great variety. With a few rare excep- 
tions all the known minerals are found in the state. In 
1905, taking the fourteen leading industries, includ- 
ing about 90 per cent of the total, there were 3272 
manufacturing cstahrLshinents, with a capital of 
$141,ti:!0,()0(), producing yearly products of the value 
of .$M2,.")liO,770. The principal manufactured prod- 
uct was cotton, in which North Carolina ranked 
third among all the States, and tobacco, in which she 
ranked second. 

Railroads and Banks. — There are in operation 
within the State 4387 miles of railroads, besides 911 
miles of sidings, with a total valuation of $86,347,553, 
but capitalized for a much larger amount. The 
state has 321 banks organized under the state law; 
with an aggregate capital stock of $7,692,767; and 69 
national banks with a capital of $6,760,000. The 
entire recognized state debt is $6,880,950, the greater 
part of which could be paid by the sale of certain 
railroad stock held by the state. 

History. — North Carolina was originally inhabited 
by various tribes of Indians, the three principal ones 
being the Tuscaroras in the east, the Catawbas in the 
centre, and the Cherokees in the west. A small body 
of Cherokees is still located in the mountain section. 
In 1584 Queen Elizabeth granted to Sir Walter 
Raleigh the right to discover and hold any lands not 
inhabited by Christian j)eople. This charter consti- 
tutes the first step in the work of English colonization 
in America. Five voyages were made under it, but 
without succe.ss in establishing a permanent settle- 
ment. In 1663 Charles II granted to Sir George 
Carteret and seven others a stretch of land on the 
Atlantic coast, lying between Virginia and Florida, 
and running west to the South Seas. The grantees 
were created "absolute lords proprietors" of the 
province of Carolina, with full powers to make and 
execute such laws as they deemed proper. This grant 
was enlargcfl in 1665 both as to territory and juris- 
diction, and in 1669 the lords proprietors promul- 
gated the "Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina", 
framed by John Locke, the philosopher, but they 
proved too theoretical for practical operation. The 
lords proprietors made every effort to colonize their 
province, which already contained one or two small 
settlements and for which they appointed governors 
at various times, frequently with local councils. 



NORTH CAROLINA 



109 



NORTH CAROLINA 



Albemarle, the name originally given to what now 
constitutes North Carolina, was augmented by settle- 
ments from Virginia, New England, and Bermuda. 
In 1674 the population was about four thousand. 
In 1729, Carolina became a royal province, the king 
having purchased from the proprietors seven-eighths 
of their domain. Carteret, subsequently Earl Gran- 
ville, surrendered his right of jurisdiction, but re- 
tained in severalty his share of the land. It gained 
considerable accessions in population by a colony of 
Swiss at New Bern, of Scotch Highlanders on Cape 
Fear, of Moravians at Salem, and of Scotch-Irish 
and Pennsylvania Dutch, who settled in different parts 
of the state. For many years, however, there has 
been very little immigration and the population is 
now essentially homogeneous. 

The people of North Carolina were among the 
earliest and most active promoters of the Revolution. 
The Stamp Tax was bitterly resented; a provincial 
congress, held at New Bern, elected delegates to the 
first Continental Congress in September, 1774, and 
joined in the declaration of Colonial rights. As 
early as 20 May, 177.5, a committee of citizens met in 
Charlotte and issued the "Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence", formally renouncing allegiance to 
the British Crown. In December, 1776, the provin- 
cial congress at Halifax adopted a State constitution 
which immediately went into effect, with Richard 
Caswell as governor. The delegates from this state 
signed the Declaration of Independence and the Arti- 
cles of Confederation. In 1786 the General Assembly 
elected delegates to the Federal Constitutional Con- 
vention and its delegates present signed the Constitu- 
tion; but the General Assembly did not ratify it 
until 21 November, 1789, after the Federal Govern- 
ment had been organized and gone into operation. 
During the Revolution the state furnished the Con- 
tinental army with 22,910 men. Important battles 
were fought at Guilford Court House (between Green 
and Cornwallis, 15 March, 1781), Alamance, Moore's 
Creek, Ramsour's Mill, and King's Mountain on the 
state line. There was a predominant Union senti- 
ment in North Carolina in the early part of 1861 ; and 
at an election held 28 February, the people voted 
against calling a convention for the purpose of seces- 
sion; but after the firing on Fort Sumter and the 
actual beginning of the war, a convention, called by the 
Legislature without submission to the people, met on 
20 May, 1861, passed an ordinance of secession, and 
ratified the Confederate Constitution. Fort Fisher 
was the only important battle fought in the state. 
The State sent 125,000 soldiers into the Civil War, the 
largest number sent by any southern state. In 1865 
a provisional government was organized by President 
Johnson, and later the state came under the Recon- 
struction Act p.assed by Congress, 2 March, 1867. 
On 11 July, 1868, the state government was restored 
by proclamation of the presitient. 

The Constitution of 1776 had some remarkable 
provisions. It allowed free negroes to vote because 
they were "freemen", all slaves, of course, being dis- 
franchised because in law they were considered 
chattels. Any freeman could vote for the members of 
the House of Commons; but must own fifty acres of 
land to vote for a senator, who must himself own at 
least three hundred acres, and a member at least 
one hundred acres. The governor must own a free- 
hold of five thousand dollars in value. The borough 
towns of Edenton, New Bern. Wilmington, Salisbury, 
Hillsboro, and Halifax were each allowed a separate 
member in the House of Commons apart from the 
counties. It declared: "That all men have a natural 
and inalienable right to worship Almighty God, ac- 
cording to the dictates of their own conscience"; but 
that no person who denied the truth of the Protestant 
religion should hold any civil office of trust or profit. 
No clergyman or preacher of any denomination should 



be a member of either house of the Legislature while 
continuing in the exercise of his pastoral functions. 
All of these provisions, except the declaration of re- 
ligious freedom, have since been abandoned. The 
Convention of 1835 adopted many amendments, rati- 
fied in 1836; among others, all persons of negro blood 
to the fourth generation were disfranchised; and 
the Protestant qualification for office omitted. The 
Constitution of 1868 restored negro suffrage, but in 
1900 amendments, adopted by the Legislature and 
ratified by the people, provided that every qualified 
voter should have paid his poll tax and be able to read 
and write any section of the Constitution; but that 
any person entitled to vote on or prior to 1 January, 
1867, or his lineal descendant, might register on a 
permanent roll until 1 November, 1908. This ia 
called the "Grandfather Clause". 

Education. — In early times there were no schools; 
private teachers furnishing the only means of educa- 
tion. Beginning about 1760, several private classi- 
cal schools were established in different parts of the 
state, the most prominent being Queen's College 
at Charlotte, subsequently called Liberty Hall. The 
State University was opened for students in February, 
1795; but want of means and a scattered population 
prevented any public school system until long after 
the Revolution. The Civil War seriously interfered 
with all forms of education; but the entire educational 
system is now in a high state of efficiency. The fol- 
lowing are under State control, but receive aid from 
tuition fees and donations: the State University, 
situated at Chapel Hill, endowment, $250,000; total 
income, $160,000; annual St ate appropriation, $75,000; 
faculty, 101; students, 821; the North Carolina State 
Normal and Industrial College for women at Greens- 
boro, founded in 1891, buildings, 13; annual State 
appropriation, $75,000; faculty, 63; students, 613; 
North Carolina College of Agricultural and Mechanic 
Arts at West Raleigh, opened in 1889, annual State 
appropriation, $37,000; annual Federal appropriation, 
$49,4.50; faculty, 42; students, 446; the Agricultural 
and Mechanical College for the coloured race at 
Greensboro, annual State approjiriation, $10,000; an- 
nual Federal appropriation, $11,5.50; faculty, 14; 
students, 173. A training school for white teachers 
has just been established at Greenville. There are 
three State Normal Schools for the coloured race. 
The official reports of public schools for the year 
1908-9 show a total school population of whites, 490,- 
710 ; coloured, 236,855 ; schoolhouses, 7670 ; white 
teachers, 8129; coloured teachers, 2828; total avail- 
able fund, $3,419,103. There are a large number of 
flourishing denominational colleges both for men and 
women, several of which belong to the coloured race. 
AmongtheState institutions are: a large central peni- 
tentiary, three hospitals for insane, three schools for 
deaf, dumb, and blind, and a tuberculosis sanitarium. 

Relicuous Conditions. — Under the lords propri- 
etors there was much religious discrimination and 
even persecution; but there was little under the Crown 
except as to holding office and celebrating the rite 
of matrimony. The disqualification for office involved 
in denying the truth of the Protestant religion re- 
mained in the Constitution until the Convention of 
1835. In 1833 William Gaston, a Catholic of great 
ability and noble character, was elected associate 
justice of the Supreme Court for life. Regarding the 
religious disqualification as legally and morally in- 
valid, he promptly took his seat without opposition. 
While still remaining on the bench, he was elected a 
delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1835, 
and attended its session. His great speech against 
any religious discrimination was conclusive, and the 
obnoxious clause was stricken out of the Constitution. 
Since then there has been no legal discrimination 
against Catholics. All-persons denying the existence 
of Almighty God have been disqualified from holding 



NORTH CAROLINA 



110 



NORTH CAROLINA 



office under every constitution. The preamble to 
the present Constitution recognizes the dependence 
of tlic people upon Almighty (iod, and their Kratitude 
to llini for the existence of their civil, political, and 
religious liberties. The Legislature is opened uilh 
prayer. The law reiiuires the observance of Siuiday, 
and" punishes any disturbance of religious congrega- 
tions. The following are legal holidays: 1 January; 
19 January (Lee's birthday I; 22 February; 12 April 
(anniversary of Halifax Kesoluiion); 10 May (Con- 
federate Decoration Day) ; 20 May (anniversary Meck- 
lenburg Declaration of Independence); 4 July; 1st 
Monday in September (Labour Day); general elec- 
tion day in November; Thanksgiving; and Christmas. 
Neither .Sundays nor holidays are regarded as diet 
non exeej)! in certain liniilcd cases. Religious bodies 
may become incorporated either under the general 
law or by special act . If not specifically incorporated 
they are reganled as quasi corporations, and may ex- 
ercise many corporate powers. The Protestant Epis- 
copal bishop h;us been created a corporation sole by 
special act of the Legislature. All real and personal 
property used exclusively for religious, charitable, or 
educational purposes, as also property whose income 
is so used, is exempt from taxation. Ministers of the 
Gospel are exemi)t from jury duty and their private 
libraries from taxation. The only privileged com- 
munications recognized are those between lawyers and 
their clients, anil physicians and their patients. There 
is no statute allowing this exemption to priests, and 
therefore they stand as at common law; but there is 
no recorded instance in which they have ever been 
asked to reveal the secrets of the confessional. 

Marri.\ge and Divorce. — Originally in this colony 
legally valid marriages could be solemnized only by 
ministers of the Church of England, of whom there 
were few, nearly all in the eastern part of the colony. 
In 1715 this power was conferred upon the governor; 
in 1741 upon justices of the peace; in 1766 upon minis- 
ters of the Presbyterian Church, and finally in 1778 
upon the ministers of all denominations. The cere- 
mony can now be performed by an ordained minister 
of any religious denomination or a justice of the peace; 
and the peculiar marriage custom of the Friends is 
recognized as valid. Males under sixteen and females 
under fourteen are legally incapable of marriage, and 
all marriages of those related by consanguinity closer 
than the degree of first cousin, and between whites 
and negroes or Indians are void. A marriage licence 
is required, and the Registrar is forbidden by law to 
issue licences for the marriage of any one under 
eighteen years of age without written consent of the 
parent or one standing in loco parentis. Absolute 
divorce (a vinculo) may be granted for the following 
causes: pre-existing natural and continued impotence 
of either party; if they shall have lived separate and 
apart continuously for ten years, and have no chil- 
dren; adultery by the wife, or pregnancy at the time 
of marriage unknown to husband and not by him; 
continued fornication and adultery by the husband. 
Either party may remarry, but no alimony is allowed. 
Divorce a mensa el toro may be granted with alimony 
for the following causes: if either party shall abandon 
his or her family, or turn the other out of doors, or 
shall by cruel and barbarous treatment endanger the 
life of the other, or shall offer such indignities to the 
person of the other as to make his or her life intoler- 
able, or shall become an habitual drunkard. Upon 
such a divorce parties cannot remarry. 

Bequests for charitable purposes must be clearly 
defined, as the cy-pris doctrine is not recognized; 
and there must be some one capable of taking the 
bequest. Whether a bequest for Masses would be 
specifically enforced by the courts, has not been de- 
cided; but it is not probable that it would be interfered 
with, as the courts have never invoked the doctrine 
of Superstitious Uses. Cemeteries are provided for 



" and protected by law. In administering oaths, the 
party sworn must "lay his hand upon the Holy ICvan- 
gelists of .Mmighty (Jod"; but those having conscien- 
tious scruples may appeal to (Iod with uplifted hand; 
ami "Quakers, Piloravians, Dunkers, and Mennon- 
ites" may athrm. 

Prohibition. — For many years prohibition senti- 
ment has been growing until it culminated, in 1908, in 
the passage by the General Assembly of an act mak- 
ing it unlawful to make or sell any spirituous, vinous, 
fermented, or malt liquors within the state, except 
for sacramental purposes, or by a registered pharma- 
cist on a physician's prescription. Native ciilers may 
be sold without restriction; and native wines at the 
place of manufacture in sealed or crated packages 
containing not less than two and a half gallons each, 
which must not be opened on the premises. 
RELiGiona Statistics 
(From the Census of Religious Bodies, 1906) 



Denomination 


6% 


2 
■% 


1 


Value of 
Church Prop. 


All denominations 


8592 

2397 

1358 

192 

54 

130 

63 

179 

2141 

954 

655 

258 

31 

ISO 


824,385 

235,540 

165,503 

15,909 

2,699 

13,637 

6,752 

17,740 

191,760 

85.522 

60,555 

13,890 

3,981 

10,897 


8188 

2305 

1192 

188 

47 

128 

63 

173 

2065 

925 

656 

261 

35 

150 


$14,053,505 
3,056,889 




1,266,227 




194,315 


Congregationalists .... 


42,361 
151,605 




90,525 




445,525 


Methodist, white 

Methodist, co! 

Presbyter, and Refer. . . 
Protestant Episcopal . . 
Roman Catholic 


3,523,354 

1,366,238 

2,247,923 

987,925 

375,360 

305,258 







In the above, the Catholic population was reduced 
by deducting 15 per cent for children under nine years 
of age. 

North Carolina, Vicariate Apostolic of, was 
canonically established and separated from the Dio- 
cese of Charleston, South Carolina by Bull, 3 March, 
1868, with James (now Cardinal) Gibbons as first vicar. 
It comprised the entire state until 1910, when eight 
counties were attached to Belmont Abbey. The latest 
statistics, for the entire state, show secular priests, 17; 
religious, 16; churches, 15; missions, 34; stations, 47; 
chapels, 5; Catholics, 5870. The Apostolate Com- 
pany, a corporation of secular priests at Nazareth, 
maintains a boys' orphanage and industrial school, 
and publishes "Truth", amonthly periodical. There 
is a girls' school and sanatorium at Asheville, and hos- 
pitals at Charlotte (Sisters of Mercy) and Greensboro 
(Sisters of Charity). There are parochial schools 
at Asheville, Charlotte, Salisbury, Durham, Newton 
Grove, Raleigh, and Wilmington. The vicariate is 
subject to the Propaganda, and its present vicar is the 
Abbot Ordinary of Belmont. 

Belmont Cathedral Abbey. — By Bull of Pius X, 8 June, 
1910, the Counties of Gaston, Lincoln, Cleveland, 
Rutherford, Polk, Burke, McDowell, and Catawba 
were cut off from the vicariate to form the diocese of 
the Cathedral Abbey at Belmont, canonically erected 
Ijy Mgr Diomede Falconio, Apostolic Delegate in the 
United States, on IS October, 1910. The vicariate re- 
mains under the administration of the abbot ordinary 
at Belmont until a diocese can be formed in the state. 
Belmont Abbey, situated in Gaston County, was 
erected into an abbey by Papal Brief dated 19 Decem- 
ber, 1884, its first abbot being Rt. Rev. Leo Haid. He 
was born at Latrobe, Pennsylvania, 15 July, 1849, 
ordained priest in 1872, and served as chaplain and 
profes.sor in St. Vincent's Abbey until 1885. Ap- 
pointed Vicar Apostolic of North Carolina in 1887, he 
was consecrated titular Bishop of Messene 1 July, 



NORTHCOTE 



111 



NORTH DAKOTA 



1888. The abbey itself has many extra-territorial de- 
pendencies, i. e. military colleges in Savannah, Georgia 
and Richmond, Virginia, and parishes in both of these 
cities, besides various missions in the state itself; and 
forms legal corporations in Virginia, North Carolina, 
and Georgia. To it also is attached a college for secu- 
lar education and a seminary for the secular and regu- 
lar clergy. To the abbey proper belong 32 priests, 2 
deacons, 6 clerics in minor orders, and 37 lay brothers. 
At Belmont is also a college for the higher education of 
women under the Sisters of Mercy, wit lilil) pupils, an or- 
phanage for girls and a preparatory school for little boys. 

PromiiK'iil Cdlholics. — Tliough there are few Catho- 
lics in tlie state, an unusual proportion have occupied 
prominent ollicial positions. Thomas Burke was gov- 
ernor, and William Gaston, M. E. Manly, and R. M. 
Douglas were associate justices of the Supreme Court. 
R. R. Heath, W. A. Moore, and W. S. O'B. Robinson 
were Superior Court judges, and R. D. Douglas attor- 
ney general. Prominent benefactors were Dr. D. 
O'Donaghue, Lawrence Brown, and Raphael Guas- 
terino. Mrs. Francis C. Tiernan (Christian Reid) is a 
native of North Carolina. 

Shea, Hist, of the Catholic Church (New York,1892) ; O'Connell, 
Catholicity in the CaroUaaa and Georgia (New York. 1879); Official 
Catholic Directory (New York, 1910) ; Pub. of U. S. Bureaus of 
Census and Eitncalian; Ann. Rep. of State Officers (Raleigh); Ban- 
croft, Hist, of U. S. (Boston, 1879) ; Lawson. Hist, of Carolina 
(LoDdon, 1714; Raleigh, 1860); Brickell, Natural Hist, of N. C. 
(Dublin, 1737); Williamson, Hist, of N. C. (Philadelphia, 1812); 
Martin, Hist, of N. C. (New Orleans, 1829) ; Wheeler, Hist, of 
N. C. (Philadelphia, 1851); Hawks, Hist, of N. C. (Fayetteville, 
N. C, 1857); Moore, Hist, of N. C. (Raleigh. 1880); Foote, 
Sketches of N. C. (New York, 1846); Reichel, Hist, of the Mora- 
vians in N. C. (Salem, N. C, 1857); Bebnheim, Hist, of the Ger- 
man Settlements in N. C. (Philadelphia, 1872) ; Cabhthers, The 
Old North State in 1776 (Philadelphia, 1884); Idem, Life oj Rev. 
David Caldwell (Greensboro, N. C, 1842); Hunter, Sketches of 
Western N. C. (Raleigh, 1877) ; Vass, Eastern N. C. (Richmond, 
Va.. 1886) ; Wheeler, Reminiscences and Memoirs of N. C. (Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, 1881); Cotton, Life of Macon (Baltimore. 1840); 
Rumple, Hist, of Rowan County (Salisbury, N. C, \%m)\ Schenck, 
N. C. (Raleigh, 1889) ; Ashe, Hist, of N. C. (Greensboro, N. C, 
IflOS); Battle, Hist, of the Univ. of N. C. (Raleigh, 1907); Ashe, 
Biog. Hist, of N. C. (Greensboro, 1905); Clark, A^. C. Regi- 
ments 1861-S (Raleigh, 1901); Conner, Story of the Old North 
State (Philadelphia, 1906) ; Hill, Young People's Hist, of N. C. 
(Charlotte, N. C, 1907); Haywood, Gov. Tryon (Raleigh, 1903); 
Jones Defense of Revolutionary Hist, of N. C. (Boston and Ra- 
leigh 1S34); Pub. of N. C. Hist. Commission (Raleigh, 1900-10); 
Smith, Hist, of Education in N. C. (Govt. Printing Office. 1888); 
TvRLETON, Hist, of the Campaign of 17S0-1 (London, 1787); 
Princeton College during the Eighteenth CetUury (New York. 1872) ; 
DE Bow, Industrial Resources of the SotUh and West (New Or- 
leans. 1852); PoOHE. Constitutions. Colonial Charters and Organic 
Laws of the U. S., II (Govt. Printing Office, 1878), 1379; Colonial 
and State Records of N. C. (25 vols., 1886-1906) ; Public Laws of 
N C ■ The Code of tSSS: The Revisal of IBOB (published by State, 
Raleigh); Clark, The Supreme Court of N. C. (Green Bag, Oct., 
Nov., Dec., 1892). There is also a large mass of valuable histori- 
cal matter in magazine articles and published addresses both 
before and since 1895; see Weeks, Bibl. of the Hist. Lit. of N. C. 
(issued by Library of Harvard Univ., 1895). 

Robert M. Dodglas. 

Northcote, James Spencer, b. at Feniton Court, 
Devonshire, 2B May, 1821; d. at Stoke-upon-Trent, 
Staffordshire, 3 March, 1907. He was the second son 
of (ieorge Barons Northcote, a gentleman of an an- 
cient Devonshire family of Norman descent. Educated 
first at Ilmington Grammar School, he won in 1837 a 
scholarship at Corpus Christi College, O.xford, where 
he came under Newman's influence. In 1841 he be- 
came B.A., and in the following year married his 
cousin, Susannah Spencer Ruscombe Poole. Taking 
.Anglican Orders in 1844 he accepted a curacy at Ilfra- 
combe; but when his wife was received into the Catho- 
lic Church in 184.5, he resigned his office. In 1846 he 
himself was converted, being received at Prior Park 
College, where he continued as a master for some time. 
From June, 18.52, until September, 1854, he acted as 
editor of the "Rambler", and about the same time 
helped to edit the well-known "Clifton Tracts". After 
his wife's death in 1853 he devoted himself to prepara- 
tion for the priesthood, first under Newman at Edgbas- 
ton, then at the CoUegio Pio, Rome. On 29 July, 1855, 
he was ordained priest at Stone, where his daughter 



had entered the novitiate. He returned to Rome to 
complete his ecclesiastical studies, also acquiring 
the profound erudition in Christian antiquities which 
was later to be enshrined in his great work "Roma 
Sotterranea". In 1857 he was appointed to the mis- 
sion of Stoke-upon-Trent, which he served until 1860, 
when he was called to Oscott College as vice-president, 
and six months later became president. Under his 
rule, which lasted for seventeen years, the college 
entered on an unprecedented degree of prosperity, 
and his influence on education was felt far outside 
the walls of Oscott. Failing health caused him to re- 
sign in 1876, and he returned to the mission, first at 
Stone (1878), and then at Stoke-upon-Trent (1881), 
where he spent the rest of his life revered by all for his 
learning, his noble character, and his sanctity. Dur- 
ing the last twenty years of his life he suffered from 
creeping paralysis, which slowly deprived him of all 
bodily motion, though leaving his mind intact. He 
had been made a canon of the Diocese of Birmingham 
in 1861, canon-theologian in 1862, and i)rovost in 
1885. In 1861 the pope conferred on him the doctor- 
ate in divinity. Dr. Nort.hcote's wide scholarship is 
witnessed to by many works, chief among which is 
"Roma Sotterranea", the great work on the Cata- 
combs, written in conjunction with William R. Brown- 
low, afterwards Bishop of Clifton. This work has 
been translated into French and German; and it won 
for its authors recognition as being among the great- 
est living authorities on the subject. Other works 
were: "The Fourfold Difficulty of Anglicanism" 
(Derby, 1846); "A Pilgrimage to La Salette" (Lon- 
don, 1852); "Roman Catacombs" (London, 1857); 
"Mary in the Gospels" (London, 1867); "Celebrated 
Sanctuaries of the Madonna" (London, 1868); "A 
Visit to the Roman Catacombs" (London, 1877); 
"Epitaphs of the Catacombs" (London, 1878). 

Barrt, The Lord my Light (funeral sermon, privately printed, 
1907) ; Memoir of the Very Rev. Canon Northcote in The Oscotian 
(July, 1907) ; Report of the case of Fitzgerald v. Northcote (London, 

1866). Edwin Burton. 

North Dakota, one of the United States of Amer- 
ica, originally included in the Louisiana Purchase. 
Little was known of the region prior to the expedition 
of Lewis and Clark, who spent the winter of 1804-5 
about thirty miles north-west of Bismarck. In 1811 
the Astor expedi- 
tion encountered a 
band of Sioux near 
the boundary of 
North and South 
Dakota on the Mis- 
souri. Settlement 
was long delayed 
on account of the 
numerous Indian 
wars, and the land 
was practically 
given up to hunters 
and trappers. In 
1849 all that part 
of Dakota east of 
the Missouri and 
White Earth 

Rivers was made part of the Territory of Minnesota, 
and in 1854 all to the west of the said rivers was in- 
cluded in the Territory of Nebraska. Finally, 2 
March, 1861, President Buchanan signed the bill 
creating the Territory of North Dakota, with Dr. 
William Jayne of Springfield, 111., as first governor; 
and on 2 November, 1889, the State of North Dakota 
was formed. North Dakota is bounded on the north 
by Saskatchewan and Manitoba, on the south by 
South Dakota, on the east by Minnesota (the Red 
River dividing), and on the west by Montana. The 
surface is chiefly rolling prairie, with an elevation of 
from eight hundred to nine hundred feet in the Red 




Dakota 



NORTH DAKOTA 



112 



NORTH DAKOTA 



River valloy, from thirtc-rn luinilml to fifteen hundred 
feet in tlie I')evirs Lake region and froin two thou- 
sand to twenty-eight hundrcil fcot west of Minot. The 
chief rivers are the Missouri, Hed, Shej'enne, James, 
Mouse, and their tributaries. The state forms a 
rectangle, measuring approximately two himdred and 
fourteen miles from north to south and three hundred 
and thirty from east to west, and has an area of 7(1,795 
square miles, of which (i.")() is water. The poi)ulation 
(1910) was 577,056, an increiise of 82.8 per cent, since 
1900. 

Resources. — Agriculture. — The number of farms 
in the state in 1910 w-as 64,442, number of acres in 
cultivation over 13 millions. Wheat is the dominant 
crop, the Red River Valley being perhaps the most 
famous wheat-producing region in the %vorld. Oats 
flax, and barley are also produced in large quantities . 
The prairies offer fine ranching ground and the state 
has 1,. 315, 870 head of live stock. Her forests aggre- 
gate 95,918 acres; there are 135,150 cultivated fruit 
trees, and 2381 acres of berries. Besides many natural 
groves, very rich in wild small fruit, there are a vast 
number of cultivated farm groves, and some fine 
nurseries, the largest of which is near Devil's Lake 
and consists of about 400 acres. 

Mining. — In the western part of the state. North 
Dakota has a coal supply greater than that of any 
other state in the Union; coal is mined at Minot, 
Burlington, Kenmare, Ray, Dickinson, Dunseith, and 
other places; the supply is cheap and inexliaustible 
for fuel, gas, electricity, and power. In 1908 there 
were 88 mines in operation and 289,435 tons mined. 
Clays for pottery, fire and pressed brick abound in 
Stark, Dunn, Mercer, Morton, Hettinger, and Bil- 
Ungs counties. Cement is found in Cavaher County 
on the border of Pembina. The artesian basin is in 
North Dakota sandstone at the base of the upper 
cretacean, at a depth of from eight hundred feet in 
the south-east to fifteen hundred feet at Devil's Lake. 
Good common brick clay may be found practically 
all over the state from deposits in the glacial lakes. 
North Dakota has 5012 miles of railroad, and four 
main lines cro.ss the state. There is direct railway 
communication with Winnipeg, Brandon, and other 
points on the Canadian Pacific. 

Matters Affecting Religion. — North Dakota is a 
code State. The civil and criminal codes prepared 
by the New York commission but not then adopted 
by that State, were adopted by Dakota Territory in 
1865; a probate code was adopted the same year, and 
thus the Territory of Dakota was the first English- 
speaking community to adopt a codification of its 
substantive law. The territorial laws, compiled in 
1887, were revised by the State in 1895, 1899, and 
1905. Section 4, Article 1 of the State Constitution 
pro\'ides: "The free exercise and enjoyment of re- 
ligious profession and wor.ship, without discrimination 
or preference, shall be forever guaranteed in this State, 
and no person shall be rendered incompetent to be a 
witness or juror on account of his opinion on matters 
of religious belief; but the liberty of conscience hereby 
secured shall not be so construed as to excuse acts 
of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent 
with the peace or safety of this State." The statute 
makes it a misdemeanour to prevent the free exercise 
of religious worship and belief, or to compel by threats 
or violence any particular form of worship, or to dis- 
turb a religious a.ssemblage by profane discourse, in- 
decent acts, unnecessary noise, selling liquor, keeping 
open huckster shops, or exhibiting jilays without 
licence, within a mile of such assemblages. Servile 
labour (except works of necessity or charity) is for- 
bidden on Sunday; also public sports, trades, manu- 
factures, mechanical eniployment, and public traffic 
(except that meats, milk, and fish may be sold before 
nine a.m., also food to be eaten on premises. Drugs, 
medicines, and surgical appliances may be sold at 



any time). Service of process excejit in criminal 
cases is prohibited on Sunday. A person uiiiforndy 
keeping another day of the week as holy time, may 
labour on Sunday, provided he do not interrupt or 
disturb other persons in iiliscrxing the first day of the 
week. The fine for Sabbath-breaking is not less than 
one dollar <ir more th.an ten tlollars for each offence. 
It is a misdemeanour to serve civil process on Sut\irday 
on a person who keci)s that day as the Sabbath. 

Oaths. — Section 533 of the code of 1905, amended 
1909, provides: "The following officers are authorized 
to administer oaths: each judge of the supreme court 
and his deputy, clerks of the district court, clerks of 
the county court with increased jurisdiction, county 
auditors and registers of deeds and their deputies 
within their respective counties, county commission- 
ers within their respective counties, judges of the 
county court, public administrators within their re- 
spective counties, ju.stices of the peace within their 
respective counties, notaries public anywhere in the 
State upon complying with the provisions of sections 
545 and 546, city clerks or auditors, township clerks 
and village recorders within their respective cities, 
townships, and villages; each sheriff and his deputy 
within their respective counties in the cases provided 
by law ; other officers in the cases especially provided by 
law". It is a misdemeanour to take, or for an officer 
to administer, an extra-judicial oath, except where the 
same is required by the provisions of some contract 
as the basis or proof of claim, or is agreed to be re- 
ceived by some person as proof of any fact in the per- 
formance of any contract, obligation or duty instead 
of other evidence. Blasphemy consists in wantonly 
uttering or publishing words, reproaches, or profane 
words against God, Jesus Christ, the Holy Ghost, the 
Holy Scripture, or the Christian religion. Profane 
swearing consists in any use of the name of God, Jesus 
Christ, or the Holy Ghost, either in imprecating 
Divine vengeance upon the utterer or any other per- 
son, in a light, trifling, or irreverent speech. Blas- 
phemy is a misdemeanour, and profane swearing is 
punishable by a fine of one dollar for each offence. 
Obscenity in a public place or in the presence of 
females, or of children under ten years of age is a 
misdemeanour. 

Exemptions from Taxation. — "All public school 
hou.ses, academies, colleges, institutions of learning, 
with the books and furniture therein and grounds 
attached to such buildings, necessary for their proper 
occupancy and use, not to exceed forty acres in area 
and not leased or otherwise used with a view to profit; 
also all houses used exclusively for public worship 
and lots and parts of lots upon which such houses 
are erected; all land used exclusively for burying 
grounds or for a cemetery; all buildings and contents 
thereof used for public charity, including public 
hospitals under the control of religious or charitable 
societies used wholly or in part for public charity, 
together with the land actually occupied by such in- 
stitutions, not leased or otherwise used with a view to 
profit, and all moneys and credits appropriated solely 
to sustaining and belonging exclusively to such insti- 
tutions, are exempt from taxation." All churches, 
parsonages, and usual outbuildings, and grounds not 
exceeding one acre on which the same are situated, 
whether on one or more tracts, also all personal 
property of religious corporations, used for religious 
purposes, are exempt. 

Matters Affecting Religious Work. — The law pro- 
vides for corporations for religious, educational, benev- 
olent, charitable, or scientific purposes, giving to 
such corporations power to acquire property, real and 
personal, by purchase, devise, or bequest and hold 
the same and sell or mortgage it according to the by- 
laws or a majority of votes of the members. Catholic 
church corporations, according to diocesan statutes, 
consist of the bishop, vicar-general, local pastor, and 



NORTH DAKOTA 



113 



NORTH DAKOTA 



two trustees. No corporation or association for reli- 
gious purposes shallacquire or hold real estate of greater 
value than $200,000 (lawsof 1909). Charitable trusts 
are favoured if conformable to the statute against per- 
petuities, which forbids suspension of power or of alien- 
ations for a longer period than the lives of persons in be- 
ing at the creation of condition (Hager vs. Sacrison, 
123 N. W. Rep., 51S). Cemetery corporation may be 
formed with powers of regulation. The net proceeds 
must go to protect and improve the grounds and not 
to the profit of the corporation or members. Inter- 
ment lot inalienable, but any heir may release to an- 
other heir. Cemetery grounds are exempt from all 
process, lien, and public burdens and uses. 

Marriage and Divorce. — Any unmarried male of 
the age of eighteen or upwards and any unmarried 
female of the age of fifteen or upwards, not otherwise 
disqualified, are capable of consenting to marriage, 
but if the male is under twenty-one or the female under 
eighteen, the licence shall not be issued without the 
consent of parents or guardian, if there be any. Mar- 
riages between parents and children including grand- 
parents and grandchildren, between brothers and sis- 
ters, of half or whole blood, uncles and nieces, aunts 
and nephews, or cousins of the first degree of half or 
whole blood, are declared incestuous and absolutely 
void, and this applies to illegitimate as well as legiti- 
mate children and relations. A marriage contracted by 
a person having a former husband or wife, if the former 
marriage has not been annulled or dissolved, is illegal 
and void from the beginning, unless the formerhusband 
or wife was absent and Ijelieved by such person to be 
dead for five years immediately proceeding. Judges 
of all courts of record and justices of the peace, within 
their jurisdiction, "ordained ministers of the Gospel ", 
and "priests of every church" may perform the mar- 
riage ceremony. The form used by Friends or 
Quakers is also valid. Licences, issued by the county 
judge of the county where one of the contracting 
parties resides, must be obtained and the persons per- 
forming the ceremony must file the certificate thereof, 
and such licence with the county judge within thirty 
days after the marriage, such certificate to be signed 
by two witnesses and the person performing the cere- 
mony. Indians contracting marriage according to 
Indian custom and co-habiting as man and wife, are 
deemed legally married. All marriages contracted 
outside of the State and valid by the laws of the State 
where contracted, are deemed valid in this State. 
The original certificate and certified copy thereof are 
eviflences of marriage in all courts. Marriages may 
be annulled for any of the following causes existing 
at the time: (1) if the person seeking annulment was 
under the age of legal consent, and such marriage 
was contracted without the consent of parent or 
guardian, unless after attaining the age of consent, 
they lived together as husband and wife; (2) when 
former husband or wife of either party was living and 
former marriage then in force; (3) when either party 
was of unsound mind imless after coming to reason 
the parties lived together as husband and wife; (4) 
when consent was obtained by fraud, unless after full 
knowledge of facts the party defrauded continued to 
live with the other in marriage relation; (5) when 
consent was obtained by force, unless afterwards 
they lived freely together; (6) incapacity. 

.'Actions for annulment where former husband or 
wife is living, and where party is of unsound mind, 
may be brought at any time before the death of either 

Earty. Actions for annulment for other causes must 
e brought by the party injured within four years after 
arriving at age of consent or by i)arent or guardian 
before such time, also for fraud within four years after 
discovery. When a marriage is annulled children 
begotten before the judgment are legitimate and suc- 
ceed to the estate of both parents. Marriages be- 
tween white persons and coloured persons of one 
XL— 8 



eighth or more negro blood are null and void by Act 
of 1907, and severe penalty is provided against parties, 
officials, and clergy for violation of the law. Divorce 
may be granted for (1) adultery, (2) extreme cruelty, 
(3) wilful desertion, (4) wilful neglect, (5) habitual 
intemperance, (6) conviction of felony. Neither 
party to a divorce may marry within three months 
after decree is granted. Wilful desertion, wilful 
neglect, or habitual intemperance must continue for 
one year before it is a cause for divorce. As to proof 
in divorce cases the Statute provides that no divorce 
can be granted on default of the defendant or upon the 
uncorroborated statement, admission, or testimony 
of parties, or upon any statement or finding of facts 
made by referee, but the court must in addition to 
any statement or finding of referee, require proof 
of facts alleged. The court has held that the fact 
of marriage alleged in complaint may be admitted in 
answer without other corroboration. The restriction 
as to corroboration apphes to testimony, not to plead- 
ing, and is intended to prevent collusive divorce. 
This statute is more restrictive as to proof than the 
proposed resolution. No. 13, of proceedings of the 
National Congress on Uniform Divorce which reads: 
"A decree should not be granted unless the cause is 
shown by affirmative proof, aside from any admissions 
on the part of the respondent." A residence of one 
year in the State is required for the plaintiff in an ac- 
tion of divorce. Dower and Curtesy are abolished, 
and a deed of the homestead must be signed by both 
the husband and wife. Labour of children under 
fourteen years of age is prohibited, and stringent rules 
provide for regulation of those under sixteen, and 
no woman under eighteen years of age may be com- 
pelled to work over ten hours ; age of consent is eigh- 
teen years. 

Wills. — A woman is of age at eighteen, and any 
person of sound mind may, on arriving at that age, 
dispose of his or her real and personal property by 
will. A married woman may will her property with- 
out the consent of her husband. A nuncupative will 
is hmited to .$1000, and to cases where the testator 
is in military service in the field, or on board ship, 
and anticipates death, or where death is anticipated 
from a wound received that day. There must be two 
witnesses who are requested by the testator to act as 
such, ."^n olographic will is one dated, written, and 
signed by the hand of the testator, and requires no 
other formalities. Other wills must be executed by 
the testator in presence of two witnesses, who in his 
presence and in the presence of each other, subscribe 
as witnesses. 

Edvcation. — The educational system in North 
Dakota is on a broad basis. Sections 16 and 36 of each 
Congressional township are given to the common 
schools by Congress, also 5 per cent of the net proceeds 
of the sale of public lands subsequent to admission, 
to be used as a permanent fund for schools, interest 
only to be expended for support of common schools. 
The enabling act also gives 72 sections for university 
purposes, to be sold for not less than ten dollars per 
acre, proceeds to constitute a permanent fund, interest 
only to be expended. .\lso 90,000 acres for the Agri- 
cultural College, 40,000 acres each for the School of 
Mines, Reform .'school, Deaf and Dumb School, 
Agricultural College, .'>tate riiiversity, two State 
Normal Schools; 50,000 acres for capital buildings and 
170,000 acres for such other educational and chari- 
talili' iii.slitutions as the legislature may determine. 
No part of the school fund may be wupA for support of 
any.sectarian or denominational school. <'oIlege, oruni- 
versity. The Normal Schools are located at .Mayville 
and Valley City, the Industrial Training ."School at 
Ellendale, the School of J^orestry at Bottineau, the 
Agricultural College at Fargo, the State University 
(Arts, Law, Engineering, Model High School, State 
School of Mines, Pubhc Health Laboratory and 



NORTH DAKOTA 



114 



NORTH DAKOTA 



Gradiiato Dopartnieiits) :it (Irimd I"(irks; numbor of 
professors, instructors, and assistants, (iS; leoturprs, 
13; students, loot). ClKuital)le institutions are the 
Deaf and Dumb School at IJevil's Lake, tlie Hospital 
for Feeble Minded at (irafton. the Insani- .\sylum at 
Jamestown, the .Sehool for the Blind at liathgate, the 
Soldiers' Home at Lisbon, the Heforni School at Man- 
dan. The permanent school and institutional fund 
amounted to about .SIS.OOO.DOO in 1!K)S; the appor- 
tionment from that fund in 1903 was $274, 348. .SO; 
in 1908, $54.5,814.66. Ample provisions are made for 
State and county institutes, and teachers are required 
to attend. Third Grade Certificates are abolished. 
The minimum salary for teachers is $45 a month. 
Provisions are made for the extension of the High 
School system, and also for consolidated schools and 
transportation of children to the same. The legis- 
lative appropriation in 1909 for the university was 
$181,000. 

Prisons and Reformatories. — The keeper of each 
prison is required to provide at the expense of the 
county for each prisoner who may be able and desires 
to read, a copy of the Bible or New Testament to be 
used by the prisoner at seasonable and proper times 
during his confinement, and any minister of the Gospel 
is permitted access to such prisoners at seasonable 
and proper times to perform and instruct prisoners in 
their moral and religious duties. Suitable provisions 
are made for reduction of time for good behaviour, for 
indeterminate sentences, and paroling prisoners. 

Sale of Liquor. — The manufacture, importation, 
sale, gift, barter, or trade of intoxicating liquors by 
any person, association, or corporation as a beverage, 
is prohibited by Article 20 of the State constitution 
and by statute. Exceptions are made in favour of 
sale in limited quantities on affidavit of applicant by 
druggists for medicinal, mechanical, scientific, and 
sacramental purposes, under permit granted at the 
discretion of the district court. Not more than one- 
half pint may be sold to any one in one day and the 
purchaser must sign affidavit stating the particular 
disease for which the same is required. Sales to 
minors, habitual drunkards, and persons whose rela- 
tives forbid, are prohibited. Places where intoxicat- 
ing liquors are sold or kept for sale or where persons 
are permitted to resort for purpose of drinking intox- 
icating liquors are declared to be common nuisances. 
The keeper is liable criminally and in an action the 
nuisance may be abated and the premises closed for 
one year. The statute also provides for civil liability 
against persons violating the law, in favour of those 
taking charge of and providing for intoxicated per- 
sons, and in favour of every wife, child, parent, 
guardian, employer, or other person injured in person 
or property or means of support by any intoxicated 
person. 

Staiislics of the Protestant Churches. — The Epis- 
copalian Church has 4664 members; 1224 families; 
97 Sunday School teachers; 741 pupils; 42 churches 
and chapels; 5410 sittings; 16 rectories; 795 mem- 
bers in guilds. The value of the churches, chapels, 
and grounds is $158,055; rectories $49,000; other 
property $42,850. There are 6 parishes; 36 organized 
missions; and 44 unorganized missions. Total offer- 
ings for all purposes for the y*ar ending 1 June, 1910, 
were $.32,496.28. The Methodist Episcopal Church 
had in the State in 1908, 223 church buildings valued 
at $600,000, and 101 parsonages valued at $150,000, 
with a membership of about 11,000. The most im- 
portant fact in connexion with this organization is the 
affiliation of Wesley College with the State university, 
where the Methodists aim to give religious and other 
instruction in their own buildings and arrange for 
their pupils to get the benefit of secular instruction 
at the State university. The plan suggests a possible 
solution of the much vexed question of division of the 
school fund. The Presbyterian Church has 7 presby- 



teries; 175 ministers; 7185 members, 9411 Sunday 
School members. They contributed for all purposes 
in the past year $150,1)35. There arc 1.S5 church 
organizations; 50 preaching stations; 132 church 
buildings, and 62 manses. Value of church manses 
and educational property was estimated at $.800,000 
in 1908. This denomination has recently located at 
Jamestown, the Presbvtiiian unixcrsii v, said to have 
.an endowment fund of alicmt 8200, ()()(). ' T\u- Liilhiran 
Church is composed chieily of Norwegians and other 
Scandinavians. According to the "Norwegian Amer- 
ican ", published in Norwegian at Minneapolis in 1907, 
there were in the State in 1905, of Norwegian birth 
and descent. 140.000. The Lutheran church had 3S0 
congregations, and about 240 churches. The Baptist 
Church in 1908 had a membership of 4161, a Sunday 
School enrollment of 3164; 53 churches, valued at 
$191,430; and 28 parsonages valued at $35,772. 

Ecclesiastical History. — The establishment of Catho- 
lic missions in North Dakota cannot bo reliably 
traced to an earlier date than 1818. In that year Rt. 
Rev. J. Octave Plessis of Quebec sent Rev. Joseph 
Provencher and Rev. Josef Severe Dumoulin to Fort 
Douglas, as St. Boniface was then called, and after the 
grasshoppers had destroyed the crops, the Selkirk 
colonists went in large numbers to Pembina. Father 
Provencher sent Father Dumoulin in September, 1818, 
to minister to the spiritual w-ants of the colonists, 
with instructions to spend the winter at Pembina. 
When that i)lacewas foimd to be within the United 
States, Father Dumoulin was recalled. Rev. George 
Anthony Beleourt became the second resident priest 
of North Dakota. A gifted linguist, well versed in 
the Algonquin languages which included the Chip- 
pewa, he taught the latter to the young missionaries 
and composed an Indian grammar and dictionary, 
still standard works. He w.as resident priest from 
1831-8 and often said Mass in every camping place 
from Lake Traverse to Pembina and in the in- 
terior of North Dakota. It was customary in the 
sunnner for the settlers to go to the south-western part 
of the State to hunt bison on the prairies, and to take 
their families with them. The priest always accom- 
panied them and in those camps for the first time the 
children were given an opportimity of religious in- 
struction. Father lielcourt is said to have evangel- 
ized the whole of the Turtle Mountain Chippewa, a 
circumstance which kept that tribe at peace with the 
government during the Sioux troubles following the 
Minnesota massacre in 1862. Father De Smet spent 
a few weeks with the Mandans on the Missouri in 1840 
and baptized a number of their children. Father 
Jean Baptiste Marie Genin is credited with establish- 
ing a mission at St. Michael's, Fort Totten, in 1865. 
His name is honourably and extensively associated 
with much of the missionary history of the State. The 
first real missionary work anjoiig the Sioux of North 
Dakota dates from 1874 when Alajor Forbes (a Cath- 
olic), Indian Agent at Fort Totten, with the help of 
the Catholic Indian Bureau, induced the Sisters of 
Charity (Grey Nuns) of Montreal under Sr. Mary 
Clapin to establish themselves in his agency. Father 
Bonnin came as their chaplain. Rev. Claude Ebner, 
O.S.B., was stationed at Fort Totten, 1877-86. 
Rev. Jerome Hunt, O.S.B., has devoted his talent 
and zeal to the welfare of the Indians at Fort Totten 
Reservation since 18.82, and has written and published 
in the Sioux language, a Bible history, prayerbook 
with instruction and hymns, and a smaller book of 
prayer, and for eighteen years has published an Indian 
paper in Sioux. The Grey Nuns at Fort Totten have 
conducted a sehool since 1874. 

Rt. Rev. Martin Marty, O.S.B., was Vicar Apos- 
tolic of Dakota until 27 December, 1889, when Rt. 
Rev. John Shanley became Bishop of Jamestown; the 
see was later changed to Fargo. The number of 
churches increased from 40 in 1890 to 210 in 1908. 



NORTHERN 



115 



NORTHMEN 



After the death of Bishop Shanley, the diocese was 
divided. Rt. Rev. James O'Reilly, as Bishop of 
Fargo, has charge of the eastern part, and Rt. Rev. 
Vincent Wehrle, O.S.B., rules over the western part as 
Bishop of Bismarck. According to the census of 1907, 
the Catholic population was 70,000 but a subsequent 
count shows the number much larger, and the latest 
estimate by Father O'DriscoU, secretary of the Fargo 
diocese, places it at about 90,000. There are in the 
two dioceses, 140 priests; 14 religious houses; 1 mon- 
astery; 7 academies; 5 hospitals; and about 250 
churches. The Sisters of St. Joseph have a hospital at 
Fargo and one at Grand Forks, and an academy at 
Jamestown. The Sisters of St. Benedict have estab- 
lishments at Richardton, Glen Ellen, Oakes, Fort 
Yates, and a hospital at Bismarck. The Presentation 
Nuns have an academy and orphanage at Fargo. Sis- 
ters of Mary of the Presentation are established at 
Wild Rice, Oakwood, Willow City, and Lisbon. The 
Ursuline Sisters conduct St. Bernard's Academy at 
Grand Forks. Three Sisters of Mercy opened a mis- 
sion school at Belcourt in the Turtle Mountains among 
the Chippewa in 1SS4, and continued to teach until 

1907, when their convent was destroyed by fire. They 
established at Devil's Lake, St. Joseph's hospital in 
1895 and the Academy of St. Mary of the Lake in 

1908. The State has several active councils of the 
Knights of Columbus and Courts of the Catholic 
Order of Foresters. Among the Catholics distinguished 
in public life are John Burke, three times elected 
governor; John Carmody, Justice of the Supreme 
Court; Joseph Kennedy, Dean of the Normal College, 
State University; W. E. Purcell, U. S. Senator; and 
P. D. Norton, Secretary of State. 

Slale Hist. Society, I, II (Bismarck, 1906-8); History and Biog- 
raphy of North Dakota (Chicago, 1900); Irving, Astoria (New 
York); Willahd, Story of the Prairies (Chicago, 1903); North 
Dakota Blue Books (Bismarck. 1899-1909) ; North Dakota Maga- 
zines, pub. by Comm. of -Agriculture (Bismarck, 1908); Catholic 
Almanac (1910): Journal of the :i6th Annual Convocation of the 
Episcopalian Church (Fargo, 1 10); 10th Biennial Report of Supt. 
Pub. Instruction (Bismarck, 1908) ; Minutes of Gen. Assembly of 
Presbyterian Church (Philadelphia, 1910); L.irned. Reference 
Digest; New .imerican Ency (1876); Norwegian American in 
Norwegian (Minneapolis, 1907) ; Clapp, Clays of North Dakota in 
Economic Geology, II, no. 6 (Sept. and Oct., 1907); North Dakota 
Codes (1905); Session Laws (1907-9); R003EVELT, Winning of the 
West, IV (New York. 18S9-96); University Catalogue (1910); The 
Bulletin, a diocesan publication (Fargo, March and May. 1909). 

M. H. Brennan. 

Northern Missions. See Germant, Vic.\riate 
Apostolic of Northern; Denmark; Norway; 

Sweden. 

Northern Territory, Prefecture Apostolic op 
THE. — The Northern Territory, formerly Alexander 
Land, is that part of Australia bounded on the north 
by the ocean, on the south by South Australia, on the 
east by Queensland and on the west by Western Aus- 
traha. It thus Ues almost entirely within the tropics, 
and has an area of 523,620 square miles. It is crown 
land, but was provisionally annexed to South Austra- 
lia, 6 July, 1863. It is practically uninhabited; the 
population is roughly estimated at between 25,000 and 
30,000, of whom less than a thousand are Europeans, 
about 4000 Asiatics mostly Chinese, the remainder 
being aborigines. There are but two towns, Palmens- 
ton at Port Darwin, with a population of 600, and 
Southport on Blackmore River, twenty-four miles 
south. There is transcontinental telegraphic com- 
munication (over 2000 miles) established in 1872, be- 
tween Palmerston and Adelaide, but railroad com- 
munication extends only 146 miles south of the former 
town, a distance of over 1200 miles from the northern 
terminal of the railway. There are large navigable 
rivers in the north, and Port Darwin is probably sur- 
passed in the world as a deep water port by Sydney 
Harbour alone. The annual rainfall varies from sixty- 
two inches on the coast, where the climate resembles 
that of French Cochin China to six inches at Char- 
lotte Waters. Droughts, cattle disease, and the finan- 



cial crisis of 1891 have combined to retard the devel- 
opment of the country. John McDouall Stuart, the 
pioneer explorer, and his successors declare that large 
tracts in the interior are suitable for the cultivation of 
cotton and the breeding of cattle, while the govern- 
ment officials at Port Darwin have grown spices, fibre 
plants, maize, and ceara rubber with great success. 
The crown lands (only 473,278 of the total 334,643,522 
acres have been leased) are regulated by the North 
Territory Crown Lands Act of 1890-1901. 

Northern Territory has a varied ecclesiastical his- 
tory. In 1847, by a decree of the Sacred Congregation 
(27 May), it was made a diocese (Diocese of Port Vic- 
toria and Palmerston), Joseph Serra, O.S.B., conse- 
crated at Rome, 15 August, 1848, b^ing appointed to 
the see. He, however, was transferred in 1849 before 
taking possession to Daulia, and nominated coadjutor 
"cum jure successionis", and temporal administrator 
of the Diocese of Perth; he retired in 1861 and died in 
1886 in Spain. He was succeeded by Mgr Rosendo 
Salvator, O.S.B., consecrated at Naples on 15 .August, 
1849, but he was not able to take possession of his see, 
for in the meantime the whole European population 
had abandoned the diocese; consequently he returned 
to the Benedictine Abbey of New Norcia in Western 
Australia where he resided as abbot nullius. Resign- 
ing the See of Port Victoria, 1 August, 1888, he was 
appointed titular Bishop of Adrana, 29 March, 1889. 
Seven years previously the Jesuits of the Austrian 
Province were commissioned to establish a mission 
for the purpose of civilizing and converting the 
aborigines; about sixteen members of the order 
devoted themselves to the work and stations were 
established at Rapid Creek (St. Joseph's), seven 
miles north-east of Palmerston, Daly River (Holy 
Rosar}') and Serpentine Lagoon (Sacred Heart of 
Jesus). There were 2 churches, 1 chapel, and 2 mixed 
schools. In 1891 there were about 260 Catholics in 
the mission. However the work did not thrive and 
after about twenty years' labour the Jesuits withdrew, 
Father John O'Brien, S.J., being the last administrator. 
On their withdrawal the diocese was administered by 
Bishop William Kelly of Geraldton. Somewhat later 
the mission was confided to the Missionaries of the 
Sacred Heart of Issoudun and established in 1906 as 
the Prefecture Apostolic of the Northern Territory. 
Very Rev. Francis Xavier Gsell, M.S.H.,b. 30 Octo- 
ber, 1872, was elected administrator Apostolic on 23 
April, 1906. He resides at Port Darwin. At present 
there are in the prefecture 3 missionaries, 2 churches, 
and 1 chapel. 

Missiones Catholicce (Rome, 1907); Australasian Catholic Di- 
rectory (Sydney, 1910) ; Gordon, Australasian Handbook for 1891; 
Basedow, Anthropological Notes on the North-Western coastal 
tribes of the Northern Territory of South Australia in Trans., Proc. 
and Reports of the Royal Society of South Australasia, XXXI (Ade- 
laide, 1907), 1-62; Parsons, Historical account of the pastoral and 
mineral resources of the North Territory of South .4 ustralia in Proc. 
of the Royal Geog. Soc. of Australasia, South .\ustnilin Branch, V 
(Adelaide, 1902), appendix, 1-16; Holtze, CapnhiUties of the 
Northern Territory for tropical agriculture (Adelaide, 1902), appen- 
dix, 17-27. 

Andrew A. MacErlean. 

Northmen, the Scandinavians who, in the ninth 
and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of West- 
em Eiu'ope and its islands and then turned from raid- 
ers into settlers. This article will be confined to the 
history of their exodus. 

Tacitus refers to the "Suiones" (Germ., xliv, xlv) 
living beyond the Baltic as rich in arms and ships 
and men. But, except for the chance appearance 
of a small Viking fleet in the Meuse early in the 
sixth century, nothing more is heard of the Scan- 
dinavians until the end of the eighth century, 
when the forerunners of the exodus appeared as 
raiders off the English and Scotch coasts. In their 
broad outlines the pohtical -divisions of Scandina\aa 
were much as they are at the present day, except that 
the Swedes were confined to a narrower territory. 



NORTHMEN 



116 



NORTHMEN 



The Finns occupied the northern part of modern Swe- 
den, and the Danes the southern extremity and the 
eastern shores of the Ciittogat, while tlic N'orwi'KiatiH 
stretclied down the coast of the Skagcr-liurk, culliiii^ 
off tlu' Sweili's from the Western si'a. The inhabi- 
tants of those kingdoms liore a general resemblanee to 
the Teutonii- pccples, with whom they were connected 
in race and language. In their social condition and 
religion they were not unlike the Angles and Saxons of 
the sixth century. Though we cannot account satis- 
factorily for the exodus, we may say that it was due 
generally to the increase of the population, to the 
breaking down of the old tribal system, and the efforts 
of the kings, especially of Harold Fairhair, to consoli- 
date their power, and finally to the love of adventure 
and the discovery that the lands and cities of Western 
Christenilom lay at their mercy. 

The Northmen invaded the West in three main 
streams; the most southerly started from South Nor- 
way and Denmark 
and, passing along 
the German coast, 
visited both sides of 
theChannel, rounded 
the Hret(m promon- 
tory, and reached the 
mouths of the Loire 
and the Garonne. 
It had an offshoot to 
the west of England 
and Ireland and in 
some cases it was 
prolonged to the 
coasts of Spain and 
Portugal (where 
Northmen came into 
contact with Sara^ 
cen) and even into 
the Mediterranean 
and to Italy. The 
midmost stream 
crossed from the same region directly to the east and 
north of England, while the northern stream flowed 
from Norway westwards to the Orkneys and other 
islands, and, dividing there, moved on towards Ice- 
land or southwards to Ireland and the Irish Sea. The 
work of destruction which the first stream of North- 
men wrought on the continent is told in words of de- 
spair in what is left of the Frankish Chronicles, for the 
pagan and greedy invaders seem to have singled out 
the monasteries for attack and must have destroyed 
most of the records of their own devastation. A 
Danish fleet appeared off Frisia in 810, and ten years 
later another reached the mouth of the Loire, but the 
systematic and persevering assault did not begin till 
about 835. From that date till the early years of the 
following century the Viking ships were almost annual 
visitors to the coasts and river valleys of Germany and 
Gaul. About 850 they began to establish island 
strongholds near the mouths of the rivers, where they 
could winter and store their booty, and to which they 
could retire on the rare occasions when the Frankish 
or English kings were able to check their raids. Such 
were Walcheren at the mouth of the Scheldt, Sheppey 
at that of the Thames, Oissel in the lower Seine, and 
Noirmoutier near the Loire. For over seventy years 
Gaul seemed to lie almost at the mercy of the Danes. 
Their ravages spread backwards from the coasts 
and river valleys; they penetrated even to Auvergne. 
There was httle resistance whether from king or count. 
Robert the Strong did, indeed, succeed in defending 
Paris and so laid the foundations of what was after- 
wards the house of Capet, but he was killed in 866. In 
the end the success of the Danes brought this period 
of destruction to a close; the raiders turned into col- 
onists, and in 911 Charles the Simple, by granting 
Normandy to Rollo, was able to estabUsh a barrier 



Viking Boat, Norway 



against further invasion. Meanwhile, England had 
been assailed not only from the Channel and the south- 
west, but also by Viking ships crossing the North Sea. 
Till' Danes for a time had been even more successful 
than in tiaul, for Nortliern and Eastern <listricts fell 
altogether into their hands and the fate of Wessex 
seemed to have been decided by a succession of I )anish 
victories in 871. Alfred, however, succeeded in re- 
covering the upper hand, the country was |)artitioned 
between Dane and West Saxon, and for a lime further 
raids were stopped by tlie formation of a fleet and the 
defeat of Hastings in 893. 

To Ireland, too, the Northmen came from two 
directions, from south and north. It was one of the 
first countries of the West to suffer, for at the begin- 
ning of the ninth century it was the weakest. The 
Vikings arrived even before 800, and as early as 807 
their ships visited the west coast. They were, how- 
ever, defeated near Killamey in 812 and the full fury 
of the attack did not 
fall on the country 
till 820. Twenty 
years later there ap- 
jiear to have been 
three Norse "king- 
doms" in Ireland, 
those of Dublin, Wa- 
terford, and Limer- 
ick, with an over- 
king, but the Irish 
won a series of vic- 
tories, while war 
broke out between 
the Danes coming by 
the Channel .and the 
N orwegians descend- 
ing from the north. 
For the next century 
and a half the Dan- 
ish wars continued. 
Neither party gained 
a distinct advantage and both the face of the coun- 
try and the national character suffered. Finally in 
1014, on Good Friday, at Clontarf, on the shores of 
Dublin Bay, the Danes suffered a great defeat from 
Brian Born. Henceforth they ceased to be an aggres- 
sive force in Ireland, though they kept their position in 
a number of the coast towns. 

During the earlier attacks on Ireland the Scotch Is- 
lands and especially the Orkneys had become a per- 
manent centre of Norse power and the home of those 
who had been driven to a life of adventure by the cen- 
tralization carried out by Harold Fairhair. They even 
returned to help the king's enemies; to such an extent 
that about 885 Harold followed up a victory in Norway 
by taking possession of the Orkneys. The result was 
that the independent spirits amongst the Vikings 
pushed on to the Faroes and Iceland, which had been 
already explored, and established there one of the 
most remarkable homes of Norse civilization. About 
a hundred years later the Icelanders founded a colony 
on the strip of coast between the glaciers and the sea, 
which, to attract settlers, they called Greenland, and 
soon after occurred the temporary settlement in Vin- 
land on the mainland of North America. But the 
prows of the Viking ships were not always turned 
towards the West. They also followed the Norwe- 
gian coast past the North Cape and established trade 
relations with "Biarmaland" on the shores of the 
White Sea. The Baltic, however, provided an easier 
route to the east and in the ninth and tenth centuries it 
was a Swedish Lake. By the middle of the ninth cen- 
tury a half-mythical Ruric reigned over a Norse or 
"Varangian" Kingdom at, Novgorod and, in 880, one 
of his successors, Oleg, moved his capital to Kiev, and 
ruled from the Baltic to the Black Sea. He imposed 
on Constantinople itself in 907 the humihation which 



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NORTHROP 



117 



NORWAY 



had befallen so many of the cities of the West, and 
" Micklegarth " had to pay Danegeld to the Norse 
sovereign of a Russian army. The Varangian ships 
are even said to have sailed down the Volga and across 
the remote waters of the Caspian. There is, however, 
a second stage of Norse enterprise as remarkable, 
though for different reasons, as the first. The Nor- 
man conquests of Southern Italy and of England and 
in part the Crusades, in which the Normans took so 
large a share, prove what the astonishing vitality of the 
Northmen could do when they had received Chris- 
tianity ami l''rankish civilization from the people they 
had ijlunilcrcd. 

It is imi)us.sible to account for the irresistible activ- 
ity of the Northmen. It is a mystery of what might 
be called "racial personality". Their forces were 
rarely numerous, tlieir ships small and open, suited 
to the protected waters of their own coasts, most un- 
suitable for ocean navigation, and there was no guid- 
ing jjower at home. Their success was due to the 
intioinitahlc courag(> of each unit, to a tradition of dis- 
cipline which niailc their compact "armies" superior 
in figliting qualities and activity to the mixed and ill- 
organized forces which Prankish and English kings 
usually brought against them. Often they are said 
to have won a battle by a pretended flight, a dangerous 
mana'uvrc cxi'i'iit witli \v('Il-dis(i]ilined troops. Until 
Alfred collcclcd a firct fur tlic pnitection of his coast 
they had tlic undisputed counnand of the sea. They 
were fortunate in the time of their attack. Their 
serious attacks diil notbegin till the empire of Charle- 
magne was weakened from within, and the Teutonic 
principle of tlivision among heirs was overcoming the 
Roman principle of unity. When the period of recon- 
stitution began the spirit of discipline, which had given 
the Northmen success in war, made them one of the 
great organizing forces of the early Middle Ages. 
Everywhere these "Romans of the Middle Ages" ap- 
pear as organizers. They took the various material 
provided for them in Gaul, England, Russia, Southern 
Italy, and breathed into it life and activity. But 
races which assimilate are not enduring, and by the 
end of the twelfth century the Northmen had fin- 
ished their work in Europe and been absorbed into the 
population which they had conquered and governed. 

There is no complete history of the Northmen and their work 
in Europe. Keary, Vikings in Western Christendom, can be con- 
sulted with profit ; much is to be found in the histories of the coun- 
tries they attacked, especially in Palgr.we, England and Nor- 
mandy, I : cf. Helmolt, World's History, VI (London, 1907). The 
Saga literature is all of a later date and throws little trustworthy 
light on this early period of Norse history: cf. ViaFussoN, Pro- 
legomena to the Sturlunga Saga (Oxford, 1879). 

F. F. Urqdhart. 
Northrop, Henry P. See Charlkston, Diocese 

OP. 

Norton, Christopher, martyr; executed at Ty- 
burn, 27 May, 1.570. His father was Richard Norton 
of Norton Conyers, Yorkshire, and his mother, Susan 
Neville, daughter of Richard, second Baron Latimer. 
Richard Norton, known as "Old Norton", was the 
head of his illustrious house, which remained faithful 
to the Catholic religion. Despite this fact he held 
positions of influence during the reigns of Henry VIII 
and Eilward VI, was Governor of Norham Castle 
under Mary, and in 1.568-69 was sheriff of Yorkshire. 
He had been pardoned for joining in the Pilgrimage of 
Grace, but he and his brother Thomas, his nine sons, 
of whom Christopher was the seventh, and many of 
their relatives hastened to take part in the northern 
uprising of 1.569. He was attainted and fled to Flan- 
ders with four of his sons, two of his sons were par- 
doned, another apostatized, Christopher and his 
father's brother having been captured proved them- 
selves steadfast Catholics, were hanged, disem- 
bowelled, and quartered. Edmund, who apostatized, 
and a sister are the subject of Wordsworth's "White 
Doe of Rylstone". 



Sahtees, Hist, of Durham. I. clx; Linqahd, Hist, of Eng, fed. 
1849), VI, 195; Records of English Catholics I, U. 

Blanche M. Kelly. 
Norton, John. See Port Adgusta, Diocese op. 
Norton, John, Venerable. See Palasor, 

Thomas, Venerable. 

Norway, comprising the smaller division of the 
Scandinavian peninsula, is bounded on the east by 
Lapland and Sweden, and on the west by the Atlantic. 
The surface is generally a plateau from which rise pre- 
cipitous mountains, as Snahatten (7566 feet) and 
Stora Galdhi.ppigen (about 8399 feet). The west 
coa.st is deeply indented by fiords. In eastern and 
southern Norway the valleys are broader and at times 
form extensive, fruitful plains. There are several 
navigable rivers, as the Glommen and Vormen, and 
lakes, of which the largest is Lake Myosen. The nu- 
merous islands along the coast, some wooded and 
some bare, promote shipping and fishing; in the Lo- 
foten Islands alone twenty million cod are annually 
caught. The chmate is only relatively mild, with rain 
almost daily. Agriculture consists largely in raising 
oats and barley, but not enough for home consump- 
tion. Rye and wheat are grown only in sheltered 
spots. Bread is commonly made of oats. The culti- 
vation of the potato is widespread, a fact of much im- 
portance. There are in the country only about 160,- 
000 horses; these are of a hardy breed. Cattle-raising 
is an important industry, the number of cattle being 
estimated at a million, that of sheep and goats at over 
two millions. Of late attention has been paid to the 
raising of pigs. The Lapps of the north maintain over 
a hundred thousand reindeer in the grassy pasture 
land of the higher plateaus. The most important 
trees are pine, fir, and birch; oak and beech are not so 
common. 

Forestry was long carried on unscientifically ; con- 
siderable effort has been made to improve conditions, 
and wood is now exported chiefly as wrought or partly 
wrought timber. Silver is mined at Kongsberg, and 
iron at Roraas, but the yield of minerals is moderate. 
Coal is altogether lacking. The peasants are skilful 
wood-carvers, and in isolated valleys still make all 
nece.ssary household articles, besides spinning and 
weaving their apparel. The Northmen were always 
famous seamen, and Norwegians are now found on 
the ships of all nations. The merchant marine of 
about 8000 vessels is one of the most important of the 
world. Good roads and railways have greatly in- 
creased traffic. A constantly increasing number of 
strangers are attracted by the natural beauties. Al- 
though in this way a great deal of money is brought 
into the country, the morals and honesty of the people 
unfortunately suffer in consequence. The area is 
123,843 sq. miles; the population numbers 2,250,000 
persons. 

The great majority belong officially to the Lutheran 
state Church, but on account of hberal laws there is a 
rapid development of sects. Catholics did not regain 
religious liberty until the middle of the nineteenth 
century. Reports as to their numbers vary from 1500, 
as given in the Protestant "Tagliche Rundschau", to 
100,000, as given in the Catholic "Germania" (.see be- 
low). Norway is a constitutional monarchy, its 
ruler since 18 November, 1905, has been King Haakon 
VII, a Danish prince. The colours of the flag are red, 
white, and blue. The country is divided into 20 
counties and 56 bailiwicks. Justice is administered by 
district courts {sorenskrif verier) . Eccleciastically the 
country is divided into 6 dioceses, with 83 provosts or 
deans, and 450 pastors. The largest city and the 
royal residence is Christiania (230,000 inhabitants), 
the seat of government, of the Parliament (Storthing), 
of the chief executive, of the state university, and of 
other higher schools. The- most important commer- 
cial city is Bergen (80,000 inhabitants), important 
even in the Middle Ages and for a long time controlled 



NORWAY 



118 



NORWAY 



by the Hanscatie League. Trnndlijein, formerly 
Niiiaros, a city of 40,000 iiihahituiits, was earlier tlie 
Bee of the Catholic archbishops, ami the jilace where 
the Catholic kings were crowncil ami huricd. Its fine 
cathedral, now in process of restoration, contains the 
bones of St. Olaf, the patron .saint of Norway. The 
army is not highly trained; men lietwecu twenty-three 
and thirty-three years of age are liable for mihtary 
duty. The modest w-cU-manned navy is only used for 
coast defence. 

History. — Unlike the Swedes and Danes, the Nor- 
wegians were not organized even so late as the ninth 
centurj-. The name of king was borne by the chiefs 
and heads of separate clans, but their authority was 
limited and the rights of the subjects very exten- 
sive. Only by marauding expeditions were the Vik- 
ings able to gain honour and wealth, and at times also 
to acquire control of extensive districts. Their early 
history is lost in the fabulous tales of the bards. In 
872, Harold Haarfager (Fair-Haired), after a decisive 
sea-Hght near Stavanger, establishetl his authority 
over all th<' clans. Those refusing to submit left the 
country and their possessions were confiscated. When 
Harold divided his kingdom among several sons, its 
permanence seemed once more uncertain, but Hakon 
the Good (q. v.) restored a transient unity and pro- 
cured an entrance for Christianity. Olaf Trygvesson 
continued the work of union after Hakon's death, and 
promoted the spread of the new faith, but in a sea-fight 
with the united forces of the Danes and Swedes he was 
killed about 1000 near Svalder (of uncertain location). 
The kingdom now fell apart, some portions coming un- 
der Cnut the Great of Denmark. 

Finally Olaf, son of Harold Grenske and a descend- 
ant of Harold Haarfager (1015), re-established the 
boundaries of Norway, and aided Christianity to its 
final victory. At a later date Olaf became the patron 
saint of Norway. His severity so embittered the 
great families that they combined with Cnut and 
forced him to flee the country. Returning with a small 
army from Sweden, he was defeated and killed in the 
battle of Stiklestad (29 July, 10-30) . His heroic death 
and the marvellous phenomena that occurred in con- 
nexion with his body completely changed the feeling 
of his opponents. His son, Magnus the Good, was 
unanimously chosen his successor (1035), and the 
Danish intruders were driven away. Magnus died 
childless in 1047, and the kingdom went to his father's 
half-brother Harold, son of Sigurd. Harold had won 
fame and wealth as a viking, and had been an impor- 
tant personage at the Byzantine Court. On accoimt 
of his grimness he was called Hardrada (the Stern). 
Impelled by ambition, he first waged a bloody war 
with Denmark and then attacked England. On an 
incursion into Northumberland, he was defeated at 
the battle of Stamford Bridge (1066). His son, Olaf 
the Quiet, repaired the injuries caused the country by 
Harold Hardrada's policy. Olaf 's successor, Magnus, 
conquered the Scotch islands, waged successful war 
with Sweden, and even gained parts of Ireland, where 
he was finally killed. One of his sons, Sigurd Jorsala- 
fari (the traveller to Jerusalem), went on a crusade to 
the Holy Land, while another son, Eystein, peacefully 
acquired .Jemtland, a part of Sweden. With Sigurd's 
death (1130) the kingdom entered upon a period of dis- 
order caused partly by strife between claimants to the 
throne, partly by rivalry between the secular and ec- 
clesiastical dignitaries, whose partisans (known as the 
Birkebcinar and the Baglar) perpetrated unbehevable 
outrages and cruelty on each other. The power of the 
king sank steadily, while that of the bishops increased. 
For a time Svcrre (1177-1202) seemed successful, but 
lasting peace was not attained until the reign of his 
grandson, Hakon the Old (1217-63). Hakon ruled 
with wisdom and force and w'as highly regarded by 
the rulers of other countries. During his reign Nor- 
way reached its greatest extent, including Greenland 



and Iceland. He died in the Orkney Islands (12C3) 
while returning from an expedition against the Scotch 

His piMK-e-loving son Magnus LdijuUiHie (the Law- 
Mi'iidcr) tried to eslalilish law and order and prepared 
a book of laws. His elforls to i)roni<ilc coinmi'rce and 
intercourse resulted unfiirtunalcly, as the llanseatic 
League, to which he granted many prixilcgcs, used 
these to the detriment of the (■(juntry, and gradually 
brought it into a state of grievous (h'pendence. With 
the death (1319) of the vigorous younger son of Mag- 
nus, Hakon V, the male line of Harold Ilarfager 
became extinct. The crown went to the three year 
old King Magnus Eriksson of Sweden, son of Hakon's 
daughter, Ingeborg; this brought about for the first 
time a close imion between the two kingdoms of north- 
ern Scandinavia. When King Magnus assumed the 
government (1332), it was soon evident that, al- 
though possessing many good qualities, he lacked 
force, fie seldom came to Norway, and the Norwe- 
gians felt themselves neglected. They forced him, 
when holding court at Varberg (1343), to send his 
younger son Hakon as viceroy to Norway, where 
Hakon so'on gathered an independent court, and in 
1335 became the actual ruler. Seven years later he 
was elected King of Sweden by a part of the Swedish 
nobihty, but had to j'ield to Duke Albert of Mecklen- 
burg, chosen by an opposing faction. In 1363 Hakon 
married Margaret, daughter of King Waldemar of Den- 
mark, and won with her a claim to the Danish throne. 
As Waldemar, when he died in 1375, left no male de- 
scendants, he was succec(l<>(l by their son, Olaf. Olaf 
also became King of Norway upon the death of his 
father, and died in 1387. His mother, an able and ener- 
getic ruler, entered at once upon the administration of 
Denmark. In Norway she was not only made ruler for 
life, but her nephew, Eric of Pomerania, was acknow- 
ledged as the lawful heir. Meanwhile, Albert of Meck- 
lenburg, greatly disliked in Sweden and the estates, 
entered into negotiations with Margaret, whose troops 
took him prisoner (1389). The same year Eric was 
acknowledged King of Norway, and in 1395-6 as King 
of Denmark and Sweden. In 1397 the chief men of 
the three countries met at Kalmar to arrange a basis 
for a permanent legal confederation (the Union of Gal- 
mar). The plan failed, as no one country was willing 
to make the sacrifice necessary for the interest of all, 
but Eric was crowned king of the three united lands. 

LTp to 1408 Margaret was the real ruler. With un- 
wearied activity she journeyed everywhere, watched 
over the administration of law and government, cut 
down the great estates of the nobles for the benefit of 
the crown, and protected the ordinary freeman. 
Denmark was always her first interest. She placed 
Danish officials in Sweden and forced the Church of 
that country to accept Danish bishops; the result was 
often unfortunate, as in the appointment of the Arch- 
bishop of Upsala (1408). Margaret's efforts to re- 
gain former possessions of the three Scandinavian 
countries were successful only in one case; she pur- 
chased the Island of Gotland from the Teutonic 
Knights. She died suddenly (1412) in the harbour of 
Flensburg whither she had gone to obtain Schles- 
wig from the Counts of Holstein. Left to him.self, 
the headstrong and hot-tempered Eric made one mis- 
take after another and soon foimd all the Hanseatic 
towns on the Baltic against him. Conditions were 
still worse after the death of his one faithful coun- 
sellor, his wife Phihppa, daughter of Henry IV of 
England. In Sweden increasing taxes, constant dis- 
putes with the clergy, and the appointment of bad 
officials aroused a universal discontent, which led 
later to dangerous outbreaks. Vain attempts were 
made (1436) to restore the tottering union. Disre- 
garding his promises, Eric withdrew to Gotland, where 
he remained inactive. In 1438 his deposition was de- 
clared by Norway and Sweden, and his nephew, Duke 
Christopher of Bavaria, was elected king. Upon 



NORWAY 



119 



NORWAY 



Christopher's early death (1448) the union was vir- 
tually dissolved: the Swedes chose Karl Knutsson as 
king, and the Danes called Count Christian of Old- 
enburg to the throne. At first Norway wavered 
between the two, but Christian was able to retain 
control. 

Of Christian's two sons Hans was at first only ruler 
of Denmark and Norway, but, by an agreement made 
at Calmar, he was able to gain Sweden also. Yet it 
was only after defeating Sten Sture that his position 
in Sweden was secure. King Hans I was succeeded 
(1.513) in Denmark and Norway by his son. Christian 
II. Christian's cruelty to the conquered Swedes pre- 
pared the way for the defection of that country to 
Gustavus Vasa; consequently, he was indirectly re- 
sponsible for the withdrawal of Sweden from Catholic 



last Bishop of Holum in Iceland, Jon Arason, died a 
martyr. The king and the nobility seized the lands 
of the Church. The chief nobles acquired inordinate 
influence, and the landed proprietors, once so proud 
of their independence, fell under the control of foreign 
tyrants. 

As regards territorial development in the Middle 
Ages, Norway had a number of tributary provinces — 
in the north, Finmark, inhabited by heathen Lapps; 
various groups of islands south-west of Norway as: the 
Farve Islands, the Orkneys, the Shetlands, and the 
Isle of Man in the Irish Sea, to which were added later 
Iceland and Greenland. During the period of the 
union, Norway also included Bohuslan, Hiirjedalen, 
Jeratland, and some smaller districts, all now belong- 
ing to Sweden. With these islands and outlying ter- 




unity. Christian .soon aroused dissatisfaction in his 
own country. Undue preference granted to the lower 
classes turned the nobility against him, and his un- 
disguised ctlorts to open the way for the teachings of 
Luther repelled loyal Catholics. Serious disorders 
followed in Jutland, and Christian, losing courage, 
sought to save himself by flight. With the aid of the 
Hanseatic League his uncle, Duke Frederick of Schles- 
wig-Holstein, soon acquired possession of his king- 
doms. The new king and his son. Christian III, were 
fanatical adherents of the new doctrine, and by craft 
and force brought about its victory in Denmark 
(15.39). In Norway Archbishop Olaf of Trondhjem 
laboured in vain for the maintenance of Catholicism 
and the establishment of national independence. 
The majority of the peasants were indifferent and the 
impoverished nobility, who hoped to benefit by the 
introduction of the "pure Go.spel", urged Christian 
on. After the departure of the church dignitaries 
Christian acquired the mastery of the country (1.537). 
Norway now ceased to be an independent state. 
While retaining the name of kingdom it was for nearly 
three hundred years (until 1814) only a Danish prov- 
ince, administered by Danish oflieials and at times out- 
rageously plundered. Here, as in Sweden and Den- 
mark, people were gradually and systematically turned 
away from the Catholic Faith, though it was long be- 
fore Catholicism was completely extinguished. The 



ritories the monarchy comprised about 7000 square 
miles. The Scotch islands were lost towards the end 
of the fifteenth century, and at a later period the col- 
onies in Greenland were totally neglected. Originally 
the kingdom had consisted of four provinces, each 
with its own laws, but when a system of law for the 
entire country was introduced, it was divided into 
eleven judicial districts. The most closely settled 
districts were the fertile lowlands on the inlets of 
the sea, now Christiania and Trondhjem fiords. The 
waterway from Trondhjem to Oslo, near the present 
Christiania, was the most important route for traflic. 
There was also much intercourse by water between 
Oslo and Bergen. Through the mountain districts 
huts for the convenience of travellers (Spdlashigor) 
were erected, and developed later into inns and tav- 
erns. The country was unprepared for war. The 
topography and economic conditions made it difficult 
to mobilize the land forces. The soldiers were not 
paid, but only fed. The chief state officials lived in 
Bohus, Akershus, Tunsberg, and the royal fortified 
castles on the harbours of Bergen and Trondhjem. 
Ecclesiastically, Norway was at first under the direc- 
tion of the Archbishop" of Lund (1103); later (11.52) 
under the Archbishop of Trondhjem, who had juris- 
diction over the Bishops of Bergen, Stavanger, Oslo, 
Hamar, Farve, Kirkwall (Orkney Islands), Skalholt 
and Holar (Holum) in Iceland, and Gardar (Garde) iu 



NORWAY 



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NORWAY 



Greenland. Jemtland was subject to the Swedish 
Arclulioccse of ITpsala. There were a thousand well- 
endowed ohurehes, thirty monasteries, and various 
orders of women: Henedietines, Cistercians, Pnemon- 
stratcnsians, Dominicans, l''ranciscans, Augustinians, 
and IJrigittines. Schools were attached to the cathe- 
drals and to most of the monasteries. For higher ed- 
ucation Norwegians went to foreign universities, es- 
pecially to Paris. 

From the reign of Christian III Norway shared the 
fortunes of Denmark. Christian's son, Frederick II 
(1559-88), paid no attention to Norway, but much was 
done for the country during the long reign of Chris- 
tian IV (1588-1648), who endeavoured to develop the 
country by encouraging mining at Konsberg and . 
Roraas, and to protect it from attack by improving 
the army. Jemtland and Hcrj\ulalc!i, however, had 
to be ceded to Sweden. Frederick III 1 1(148-70) was 
alsoobhgedto cede Bohuslan. Frederick V (174(5-66) 
encouraged art, learning, commerce, and manufac- 
tures. Prosperity strengthened the self-reliance of 
the people and their desire for poUtical independence. 
In 1807 they were granted autonomous administra- 
tion, and in 1811 a national university was founded at 
Christiania. Political events enabled Sweden to force 
Denmark in the Treaty of Keil to relinquish Norway. 
Many of the Norwegians not being in favour of this, 
a national diet, held at Eidsvold (17 May, 1814), 
agreed upon a constitution and chose as king the 
popular Danish prince. Christian Frederick. But the 
Powers interfered and ratified the union with Sweden. 
The Swedish monarchs, Charles John XIV, Oscar I, 
Charles XV, and Oscar II, had a difficult position to 
maintain in Norway. Notwithstanding zealous and 
successful efforts to promote the material and intel- 
lectual prosperity of the land, they never attained 
popularity, nor could they reconcile national disUkes. 
Friction increased, the Norwegian parliament growing 
steadily more radical and even becoming the exponent 
of republican ideas. From 1884 the Storthing, which 
now possessed the real power, steadfastly urged the 
dissolution of the union, and on 7 June, 1905, declared 
it to be dissolved. The Swedish Government nat- 
urally was unwilling to consent to this revolutionary 
action. Negotiations were successfully concluded at 
the Convention of Karlstad, 23 September, 1905. 
The Norwegians elected as king Prince Charles of 
Denmark, who, under the title of Hakon VII, has 
since then reigned over the country. 

Ecclesiastical History. — Little is known of the 
religious ideas of the heathen Norwegians, and this 
little rests on later sources, chiefly on the Eddas of the 
thirteenth century. It seems certain that not only 
animals, but also human beings (even kings), were 
sacrificed to the gods, of whom first Thor (later Odin) 
was the most important. The early Norwegians were 
characterized by reckless courage and a cruelty that 
alternated with generosity and magnanimity. Hakon 
the Good and Olaf Tryggoesson laboured to introduce 
Christianity, and during the reign of ( )laf llarold.sson 
Christianity became, nominally at least, the prevail- 
ing religion. Olaf Haroldsson was a zealous adherent 
of the new faith. He built churches, founded schools, 
and exerted influence by his personal example. After 
his death he was revered as a saint : the church built at 
Nidaros (now Trondhjcm) over his grave was replaced 
later by the cathedral of Trondhjem, the finest build- 
ing in Norway. The Dioceses of Nidaros, Bergen, 
Oslo, and Stavanger were soon founded, monks and 
nuns carried on successful missionary work, and in a 
short time the land was covered with wooden churches 
(Stovkirken) of singular architecture; the few that 
remain still arouse admiration. Gradually stone 
churches with a rich equiijment were erected. 

The Norwegian l)ishops were und(T the jurisdiction 
of the Metropolitan of Lund until 1152, when the 
papal legate, Nicholas of Albano, transferred the juris- 



diction over the Norwegian Church to the Bishop of 
TroMdhjcm and his succe.s.sors. The suffragans of the 
new arclibisliopric wiTc: Ilamar, Farve, and Kirkwall 
in the (Orkneys, Skalhuil, and llolar in Ireland, and 
Gardarin (ii-cenlaud. The tillics, lcgall>' established 
before lloO in the reign of Sigurd .lonsalafari, made 
possible the foundalion of a huge number of new par- 
ishes and strengthened those already existing. The 
Diocese of Oslo coiit.iincil the largest number, namely 
300 parishes; Nidaros had 280. There was a chapter 
for each see. Not much is known of the morals 
and religious spirit of the people; it is certain that 
in the Catholic period nuich more in ijroportion 
was given for purposes of religion than after the 
Reformation. There are few details of the pas- 
toral labours of bishops and clergy, but the works 
of Christia 1 charity, hospices, lazarettos, inns for pil- 
grims, bear ready testimony to their efforts for the 
advancement of civihzation. Nor was learning neg- 
lected. As early as the twelfth century the monk 
Dietrich of Trondhjem wrote a Latin chronicle of the 
country, and in 12.50 a Franciscan wrote an account 
of his journey to the Holy Land. Norwegian students 
who desired degrees went to the Universities of Paris 
and Bologna, or, at a later period, attended a univer- 
sity nearer home, that of Rostock in Mecklenburg. 
With the abandonment of the old Faith and its insti- 
tutions was associated the loss of national independ- 
ence in 1537. As early as 1519 Christian II had be- 
gun to suppress the monasteries, and Christian III 
abetted the cause of Lutheranism. Archbishop Olaf 
Engelloechtssen and other dignitaries of the Church 
were forced to flee; Mogens Lawridtzen, Bishop of 
Hamar, died in prison in 1642, and Jon Arason of 
Holar was executed on 7 November, 1550. 

The large landed possessions of the Church went 
to the king and his favourites. Many churches were 
destroyed, others fell into decay, and the number of 
parishes was greatly reduced. The salaries of the 
preachers, among whom were very objectionable per- 
sons, were generally a mere pittance. Fanatics of the 
new belief thundered from the pulpit against idolatry 
and the cruelty of the "Roman Antichrist"; whatever 
might preserve the memory of earlier ages was doomed 
to destruction ; the pictures of the Virgin were cut to 
pieces, burned, or thrown into the water; veneration 
of saints was threatened with severe punishment. 
Notwithstanding this, it was only slowly and by the 
aid of deception that the people were seduced from 
the ancestral faith. Catholicism did not die out in 
Norway until the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. The pope entrusted the spiritual care of Nor- 
way, first to the Nunciature of Cologne, and then to 
Brussels, but the Draconian laws of Denmark made 
Catholic ministration almost impossible. Whether 
the Jesuits appointed to Norway ever went there is 
unknown. A Dominican who reached the country 
was expelled after a few weeks. The Norwegian con- 
vert Rhugius was permitted to remain, but was not 
allowed to exercise his office. Conditions remained 
the same later, when the supervision was transferred 
from Brussels to Cologne, from Cologne to Hilders- 
heim, and thence to Osnabriick. 

There was no change until the nineteenth century 
when the laws of 184i5 and succeeding years released 
all dissenters, including Catholics who had come into 
the country, from the control of the Lutheran state 
Church. From the time of its foundation the Luth- 
eran Church had wavered between orthodoxy and 
rationalism, and was finally much affected by the 
Pietistic movement, led by Ilaugue. In 1843 a small 
Catholic parish was formed in Christiania, and from 
this centre efforts were made to found new stations. 
In 1869 Pius IX created an independent prefecture 
Apostolic for Norway. The first prefect was a French- 
man, Bernard, formerly prefect of the North Pole 
mission. He was followed by the Luxemburg priest 



NORWICH 



121 



NORWICH 



Fallize, later Bishop of Alusa, under whom the mission 
has steadily developed, although not yet large. 
Especially noteworthy among the men who of late 
years have been reconciled to the Church are the 
former gymnasial rector Sverenson, and the author 
Kroogh-Tonning, doctor of theology, originally a 
Lutheran pastor at Christiania. All monastic orders, 
Jesuits excepted, are allowed, but there are no mon- 
asteries for men. On the other hand the missionaries 
of the female congregations. Sisters of St. Elizabeth, 
Sisters of St. Francis, and Sisters of St. Joseph of 
Chambery, numberingabout thirty, have gained useful 
and active fellow-workers. There are a few thousands 
of Catholics, for whom there are churches in Chris- 
tiania (St. Olaf and Halvard), in Bergen, Trondhjem, 
Fredrikshald, Tromso. Fredrikstad, Altengaard, Ham- 
erfest. Cathohc hospitals exist in Christiania, Ber- 
gen, Drammen, and Christiansand, and there is a num- 
ber of Catholic schools towards which the Protestant 
population has shown itself friendly. In 1897, for the 
first time in three hundred years, the feast of St. Olaf 
was celeljrated at Trondhjem. 

HisTORV OF .\rt. — During the Middle Ages art was 
closely connected with reUgion, and its chief task was 
the building and embellishment of churches. Some 
twenty old wooden churches {Slavkirker) , still in exist- 
ence, show with what skill Norwegians made use of 
the wood furnished by their forests. At a compara- 
tively early date, stone was used, first in the Roman- 
esque, then in the Gothic buildings. Some of the 
work thus produced has a singular and characteristic 
charm. Besides primitive churches of one aisle with 
rude towers and belfries, as at Vossevanger, there are 
in existence churches of three aisles with pleasing, 
and at times relatively rich ornamentation. The 
fagades of some of these are flanked by two towers, as 
at Akers, Bergen, and Stavanger. The most striking 
achievements of Norwegian architecture are the cathe- 
dral of St. Magnus at Kirkwall in the Orkneys, and, 
what is even finer, the cathedral at Trondhjem. The 
latter has had a chequered history. Built originally 
in 1077 by Olaf the Quiet (Kyrre) as a "Christ 
Church" of one aisle over the bones of St. Olaf, it 
served at first as the burial place of the kings. When in 
1152 Trondhjem (Nidaros) was made an archdiocese, 
it became a place of pilgrimage for the entire kingdom, 
and the gifts of the faithful made possible the neces- 
sary enlargement of the cathedral. In 1161 Arch- 
bishop Eystein Erlandson began its restoration in the 
Romanesque style. Obliged to flee from King Sverri, 
he became acquainted during his stay in England 
with Gothic architecture and made use of this style 
on his return. This is especially evident in the unique 
octagon erected over St. Olaf's grave, evidently an 
imitation of "Becket's Crown" in Canterbury cathe- 
dral. Eystein's successors completed the building 
according to his plans. The cathedral was twice 
damaged by fire but each time was repaired (in 1328 
and in 14.32). It fell into almost complete ruin after 
the great fire of 5 May, 1.531, and for several hundred 
years no attention was paid to it. A change came 
with the awakening of national pride, and the restora- 
tion of the cathedral is now nearing completion. Its 
most valuable treasures, the body of the great Apostle 
of Norway St. Olaf and the costly shrine that enclosed 
it, have disappeared. In 1537 the shrine was taken to 
Copenhagen, robbed of its jewels, and melted, while 
the bones of the saint were buried by fanatics in some 
unknown place to put an end forever to the veneration 
of them. The wood-carv'ings, paintings, and other 
objects of art, which formerly adorned Norwegian 
churches, have been either carried off or destroyed. 

This was not so frequently the case in the northern 
part of the country, and in other districts .some few 
objects escaped. Among the works of art especially 
interesting m.ay be mentioned; (in wood-carving) the 
altar of the Virgin in the Church of Our Lady at Ber- 



gen, and the altar in the Ringsacker church on Lake 
Nysen; (in painting) the antependium at Gal; (in re- 
hef work) the doorways of the churches at Hyllestad 
and Hemsedal ; the baptismal font at Stavanger, reli- 
quaries, as at Hedal ; censers, as at Hadsel ; crucifixes 
and vestments. The finest medieval secular building 
is King Haakon's Hall, a part of the former royal palace 
at Bergen. Beautifully carved chairs, rich tapestries, 
and fine chased work are further proof of the degree of 
culture attained by Catholic Norway. 

History of Literature. — Norway can hardly be 
said to have an indigenous literature. As regards 
material and arrangement, the clu-onicles and narra- 
tives are very much the same both in the north and the 
south (for Icelandic Sagas see Icelan dig Liter.ature). 
We here treat specifically Protestant literature only 
so far as individual writers, such as the brothers 
Munch, refer in poetry or prose to the Catholic era in 
Norway, and thus indirectly further the interests of 
the Church. The historical investigations and writ- 
ings of Bang, Dietrichson, Daae, and Bugge have 
overthrown many historical misstatements and judg- 
ments prejudicial to Catholicism. These works have 
influenced even Protestant theology in Norway, so 
that its position towards Rome is relatively more 
friendly than in other countries. If heretofore no 
Norwegian Cathohc has made a great contribution to 
the national hterature the reason is obvious. Of 
late years, however, various books have been pub- 
lished of an edifying, apologetic, or of a polemical 
nature. There is a Cathohc weekly, the "St. 
Olav". 

When not otherwise noted, the place of publication is Chris- 
tiania: Diplomatarium Norwegicum (1849 — ); Munch, Det 
norske fotkets histoHt (8 vols., 1852-63); Sahs, Udsigt over den 
norske historie (189.3 — ); Odhner, L&rohok i Sveriges, Norges och 
Danmarks hisloria (7th ed., Stockholm, 1886); Zohn, Staat u. 
Kirche in Norwegen bis z. IS. Jahrh. (Munich, 1875); Ketser, 
Den nOTftke Kirkes Historie under Katolicismen (2 vols., 1856-S); 
R \v^., J'^hi'!* nr'-r den Norske Kirkes Historie under Katolicismen 
( i ^ - : i ; 1 1 . 1 ^ ' f -l^igt over den Norske Kirkes Historie e/ter Refor- 
mr : -" ; Storm, Hist, topogr. Skrijter om Norge og norske 

7,, J. , h: i Norge i det 16de Aarhundrade (1895) \ BavH' 

UAKi:.i..u, .\<-,i;,„tAe Fahrten, II (Freiburg, 1890); Dietrichson, 
De Norske Ulackirker (1892); Idem, Vore Faedres Verk; Norges 
Kunst i Middelalderen (1906) ; Idem, Omrids af den norske Litera- 
tura Historie (Copenhagen, 1866-9); Schweitzer. Phil. Gesch. 
der skand. Literatur (3 vols., Leipzig, 1886 — ); Oestergaard, 
Illustreret Dansk Lileraturhistorie (1907); Halvorsen, Norsk 
For/atterlexikon 1S74-1S81 (1883 — ); Kirkeleksikon /or Norden 
(Copenhagen, 1897 — ), 53 pts. already issued: Die kathol. Mis- 
sionen (Freiburg, 1873 — ) ; Hermens and Kohlschmidt, Protest. 
Taschenbuch (Leipzig, 1905). 

P. Wittmann. 

Norwich (Nordoviciim; Norvicum), Ancient 
Diocese of. — Though this see took its present name 
only in the eleventh century, its history goes back five 
hundred years earlier to the conversion of East Anglia 
by St. Felix in the reign of King Sigeberht, who suc- 
ceeded to the kingdom of his father Redwald on the 
death of his half-brother Eorpweald in 628. St. Felix 
fixed his see at Dunwich, a sea-coast town since sub- 
merged, the site of which is in Southwold Bay. From 
Dunwich, St. Felix evangelized Norfolk, Suffolk, and 
Cambridgeshire, the counties which formed the dio- 
cese. He was succeeded by Thomas (647), Beorhtgils 
(Boniface), who died about 669, and Bisi, on whose 
death, in 673, St. Theodore, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, divided the see into two, with cathedrals at 
Dunwich and Elmham. The following are the lines of 
episcopal succession based on the most recent re- 
search, with approximate dates of accession where 
known : — 

Dunwich: Mcc\, 673; Alric; vEscwulf; Eardred; 
Ealdbeorht I; Eardwulf; Cuthwine; Ealdbeorht II; 
Ecglaf; Heardred; .Elfhun, 790; Tidfrith, 798; Waer- 
mund; Wilred, 825. Elmham: Beaduwine, 673; 
Nothbeorht; Heathulac; ^thelfrith, 736; Eanfrith; 
vEthclwulf; Ealhheard; Si_bba; Hunfrith; St. Hun- 
beorht; Cunda (there is some doubt as to whether 
Cimda was Bishop of Ehnham or Dunwich). 



NOTARIES 



122 



NOTARIES 



The See of Elmhatn came to an end about S70, when 
St. Edmund, KinR of the East Angles, and Hishop St. 
Hunheorh were niurdcredby the Danes). The country 
wa.s r:Lva};ed, the eliun-hes and nionasterie.s destroyed, 
and Christianity wa.f only iiraeti.-ied with dilheulty. 
Bishop \\ ilred ol' Dunwieh seems to have reunited the 
dioi'cscs, choosing lOlmham as his see. His successors 
at I'ihuham were: — 

Husa; .Ethelweald; Eadwidf ; .Elfric I; Thcodred I; 
Theodred II; .Ethelstan; .Elfgar, 1001; .Elfwine, 
1021 ; .Elfrie II ; .Elfrie III, 10:i!»; Stigand, 1040; Grim- 
cytel, 1042; Stigand (restored), 1043; iEthelmaer, 
1047; llerfast, 1070. Bishop Herfast, a chaplain to 
William the Conqueror, removed his bishop's chair 
to Thctford. He died in 1084, and was succeeded by 
Wilham de Uellofago (de Beaufeu), also knov^Ti as Wil- 
liam Gal.sagu.s (10S6-91). William de Bellofago was 
succeeded by Herbert de I^osinga, who made a simoni- 
aeal gift to King William Rufus to secure his election, 
but being subsequently struck with remorse went to 
Rome, in 1094, to obtaui absolution from the pope. 
He foumled the priory of Norwich in expiation for his 
sin anil at the same time moved his see there from 
Thetfonl. The chapter of secular canons was dis- 
solved and the monks took their place. The founda- 
tion-stone of the new catliedral was laid in 1096, in 
honour of the Blessed Trinity. Before his death, in 
1119, he had completed the choir, which is apsidal and 
encircled by a procession path, and which originally 
gave access to three Norman chapels. His successor, 
Bisho]) Eborard, completed the long Norman nave so 
that the cathedral is a very early twelfth-century 
building though modified by later additions and al- 
terations. The chief of these were the Lady chapel 
{circa 1250, destroyed by the Protestant Dean Gardi- 
ner 1573-89); the cloisters (circa i;300), the west 
window {circa 1440), the rood screen, the spire and 
the vault spanning the nave {circa 1450). The cathe- 
dral suffered much during the Reformation and the 
civil wars. 

The list of bishops of Norwich, with the dates of 
their accession, is as follows: — 

Herbert Losinga, consecrated in 1091, translated 
the see to Norwich in 1094; Eborard de Montgomery, 
1121; Wilham de Turbe, 1146; .John of Oxford, 1175; 
John de Grey, 1200; Pandulph Masea, 1222; Thomas 
de Blun\-ille, 1226; Ralph de Norwich, 1236; vacancy, 
1236; William de Raleigh, 1239; vacancv, 1242; Wal- 
ter de Suffield, 1245 ; Simon de Walton, 125S ; Roger de 
Skeming, 1266; Wilham de Middleton, 127S; Ralph 
de Walpole, 1289; John Salmon, 1299; William de 
Ayerminne, 1.325; Anthony Bek, 1337; William Bate- 
man, 1344; Thomas Percy, 1356; Henry le Despenser, 
1370; Alexander de Totiiigton, 1407; Richard Courte- 
nay, 1413; John Wakering, 1416; Wilham Alnwick, 
1426; Thomas Brown, 1436; Walter Lyhart, 1446; 
James Goldwell, 1472; Thomas Jane, 1499; Richard 
Nykke, 1501; William Rugg (schismatic), 1536; 
Thomas Thirleby (schismatic but reconciled in Mary's 
reign), 1550; John Hopton, 1554, who died in 1558, 
being the last Catholic Bishop of Norwich. 

The diocese, which consisted of Norfolk and 
Suffolk with some parts of Cambridgeshire, was di- 
vided into four archdeaconries, Norfolk, Norwich, 
Suffolk, and Sudbury. At the end of the seventeenth 
century there were 1121 parish-churches, and this 
number had probably not changed much since Catho- 
lic times. 

The chief religious houses in the diocese were: 
the Benedictine Abbeys of Bury St. Edmund's, 
Wymonilham, and St. Henet's of Hulm, the cathedral 
priory of Norwich, the Cistercian Abbey of Sibton, 
the abbeys of the Augustinian Canons at Wendling, 
Langley, and Laystone. The Dominicans and Fran- 
ciscans were both found at Lynn, Norwich, Yarmouth, 
Dunwieh, and Ipswich ; the Dominicans also had houses 
at Thetford and Sudbury ; the Franciscans at Bury St. 



Edmund's and Walsingham, where the great shrine of 
Our Lady was; the Carmelites were at Lynn, Nor- 
wich, Yarmouth, and Blakeney; and the Augustinian 
friars at Norwich, Lynn, and Orford. There were no 
Carthusians in the diocese. The arms of the see were 
azure, three mitres with their labels, or. 

Bbitton, Hint, of the See and Cath. of Norwich (London, 1816); 
Cotton, UiH. Angticarm necnon Lihrr fie nrrhiepifrojns el e-piscO' 
pis Angliu: (London, 18.W': ,li«s,,,.,., /■„.,■ //,./ ,.f A',.r„',rl, (Lon- 
don, 1884): QUENNELL, A' ' f) , / ..// < ^. ,, I ,,,.,!,, n, IS! IS): 

Visitations of the Diocesi:' \ ,,: i, ,. m ,!,.:ii- 

don, 1888) ; Winkle, Cuf/" , • / , II -./.s. II 

(London, 1851); Goululi^.. a.-.u S\ ;.i..nl..,. L,j,, /,;,,,... uhU :sc}- 
mons of Herbert de Losinga (LonUuu, 1878) ; ANHTUuTutii, Eliis- 
tola Herberti de Losinga (London. 1846) ; Hist. MSS. Commission, 
First Report (giving a list of principal records in the bishop's 
registry); Searle, Anglo-Saxon Bishops, Kings, and Nobles (Cam- 
bridge, 1899). 

Edwin Burton. 

Notaries (Lat. notarius), persons appointed by 
competent authority to draw up official or authentic 
documents. These dooiments are issued chiefly from 
the official adininislrative bureaux, the chanceries; 
secondly, from triliunals; lastly, others are drawn up 
at the request of individuals to authenticate their 
contracts or other acts. The public officials appointed 
to draw up these three classes of papers have been 
usually called notaries. 

Etymologically, a notary is one who takes notes. 
Notes are signs or cursory abbreviations to record the 
words uttered, so that they may be reproduced later 
in ordinary writing. Notaries were at first private 
secretaries, attached to the service of jjensons in posi- 
tions of importance. It was natural for the science of 
notes to be in high esteem among those employed in 
recording the transactions of public boards, and for 
the name notary to be applied to these officials; so that 
before long the word was used to signify their occupa- 
tion. 

The title and office existed at the Imperial 
Court (cf. Cod. Theod., VI, 16, "De primicerio et 
notariis"), whence they passed into all the royal 
chanceries, though in the course of time the term no- 
tary ceased to be used. This was the case also with the 
chanceries of the pope, the great episcopal sees, and 
even every bishopric. There are grounds for doubting 
whether the seven regional notaries of the Roman 
Church, one for each ecclesiastical district of the Holy 
City, were instituted by St. Clement and appointed 
by him to record the Acts of the martyrs, as is said 
in the "Liber Pontificalis" ("Vita Clementis", ed. 
Duchesne, I, 123); they date back, however, to an 
early age. Not only were there notaries as soon as a 
bureau for ecclesiastical documents was establislied, 
but in very ancient days we find these notaries form- 
ing a kind of college presided over by a primicerius; 
the notice of Julius I in the "Liber Pontificalis" re- 
lates that this pope ordered an account of the property 
of the Church, intended as an authentic document, 
to be drawn up before the -primicerius of the nota- 
ries. 

The latter were in the ranks of the clergy and must 
have received one of the minor orders; for the notariate 
is an oflttce and not an order. At intervals the popes 
entrusted the notaries of their curia with various mis- 
sions. Their chief, the primicerius, with whom a 
secundicerius is sometimes found later, was a very im- 
portant personage, in fact, the head of the pontifical 
chancery; during the vacancy of the papal chair, he 
formed part of the interim Government, and a letter 
in 640 (Jaff6, "Regesta", n. 2040) is signed (the pope 
being elected but not yet consecrated) by one 
"Joannes primicerius et servans locum s. sedis apos- 
tolicK". 

There were of course many notaries in the service of 
the pontifical chancery; the seven regional notaries 

E reserved a certain pre-eminence over the others and 
ecame the prothonotaries, whose name and office 




NORWICH CATHEDRAL 



NOTARY 



123 



NOTHOMB 



continued. The ordinary notaries of the chancery, 
however, were gradually known by other names, ac- 
cording to their various functions, so that the term 
ceased to be employed in the pontifical and other 
chanceries. The prothonotaries were and still are 
a college of prelates, enjoying numerous privileges; 
they are known as "participants", but outside of 
Rome there are many purely honorary prothono- 
taries. The official duties had insensibly almost 
ceased ; but Pius X in his reorganization of the Roman 
Curia has appointed participant prothonotaries to 
the chancery (Const. "Sapienti", 29 June, 1908). A 
corresponding change occurred in the bureau.x of the 
episcopal churches, abbeys, etc. ; the officials attached 
to the chancery ha\'e ceased to be known as 
notaries and are called chancellor, secretary, etc. 
Lastly, mention must be made of the notaries of the 
synodal or conciliar assemblies, whose duties are 
limited to the duration of the assembly. 

Society in former times did not recognize the separa- 
tion of powers; so, too, in the Church the judicial 
authority was vested in the same prelates as the ad- 
ministrative. Soon, however, contentious matters 
were tried separately before a specially appointed 
body. The courts required a staff to record the trans- 
actions; these clerks were likewise notaries. In most 
civil courts they are, however, called registrars, clerks 
of the court, etc., but in the ecclesiastical tribunals 
they retain the name notary, though they are also 
called actuaries. Thus the special law of the higher 
ecclesiastical tribunals, the Rota and the Signatura, 
reorganized by Pius X, provides for the appointment 
of notaries for these two tribunals (can. v and xx.w). 
The reason why the head official charged with drawing 
up the documents of the Holy Office is called the no- 
tary, as were the clerks who in former times drew up 
the records of the Inquisition, is, doubtless, that of all 
the Roman Congregations the Holy Office is the only 
real judicial tribunal. The notaries of ecclesiastical 
tribunals are usually clerics; the duties may however 
be confided to laymen, except in criminal cases 
against a cleric. 

Finally, there is the class of persons to whom the 
term notary is restricted in common parlance, to wit, 
those who are appointed by the proper authorities 
to witness the documentary proceedings between pri- 
vate persons and to impress them with legal authen- 
ticity. They are not engaged in the chanceries, in 
order that they may be within easy reach of private 
individuals; they have a public character, so that their 
records, drawn up according to rule, are received as 
authentic accounts of the particular transaction, 
especially agreements, contracts, testaments, and 
wills. 

Consequently, public notaries may be appointed only 
by those authorities who possess jurisdiction in foro 
externa, and have a chancery, e. g. popes, bishops, em- 
perors, reigning princes, and of course only within the 
limits of their jurisdiction; moreover, the territory 
withiri which a notary can lawfully exercise his func- 
tions is expressly determined. There were formerly 
Apostolic notaries and even episcopal notaries, duly 
commissioned by papal or episcopal letters, whose 
duty it was to receive documents relating to ecclesi- 
astical or mixed affairs, especially in connexion with 
benefices, foundations, and donations in favour of 
churches, wills of clerics, etc. They no longer exist; 
th^ only ecclesiastical notaries at present are the of- 
ficials of the Roman and episcopal curia;. Moreover 
these notaries were layman, and Canon Law forbids 
clerics to acts as scriveners (c. viii, "Ne clerici vel 
monachi", 1. Ill, tit. 50). 

Du Cangb, GlossaHum, s. v. Notarius; Ferraris, Projnpta 
bihliotheca, a. v. Nolariu^i; Fagnani, Corimentaria in c. Sicut te, 8, 
A^e Clerici vel Tnonafhi ; and in c. //i ordinando, I, De simonia; 
H^RicouRT, Les lois ecclesiastiques de France (Paris, 1721), E, 
xiii; GiRY, Manuel de diplomatique (Paria, 1894). 

A. BOUDINHON. 



Notary. See Prothonotary. 

Notburga, Saint, patroness of servants and peas- 
ants, b. c. 1265 at Rattenberg on the Inn; d. c. 16 
September, 1:313. She was cook in the family of 
Count Henry of Rothenburg, and used to give food to 
the poor. But Ottilia, her mistress, ordered her to 
feed the swine with whatever food was left. She, 
therefore, saved some of her own food, especially on 
Fridays, and brought it to the poor. One day, ac- 
cording to legend, her master met her, and com- 
manded her to show him what she was carrying. She 
obej'ed, but instead of the food he saw only shavings, 
and the wine he found to be vinegar. Hereupon Ot- 
tilia dismissed her, but soon fell dangerously ill, and 
Notburga remained to nurse her and prepared her for 
death. 

Notburga then entered the service of a peasant 
in the town of Eben, on condition that she be per- 
mitted to go to church the evenings before Sundays 
and festivals. One evening her master urged her to 
continue working in the field. Throwing her sickle 
into the air she said: " Let my sickle be judge between 
me and you," and the sickle remained suspended in 
the air. Meantime Count Henry of Rothenburg was 
visited with great reverses which he ascribed to the 
dismissal of Notburga. He engaged her again and 
thenceforth all went well in his household. Shortly 
before her death she told her master to place her 
corpse on a vvagon drawn by two oxen, and to bury 
her wherever the oxen would stand still. The oxen 
drew the wagon to the chapel of St. Rupert near 
Eben, where she was buried. Her ancient cult was 
ratified on 27 March, 1862, and her feast is celebrated 
on 1-1 September. She is generally represented with 
an ear of corn, or flowers and a sickle in her hand; 
sometimes with a sickle suspended in the air. 

Her legendary life was first compiled in Germany by Guari- 
NONI, in 1646, Latin tr. Roschmann in Acta SS., September, IV, 
717-725; Hattler, St. Notburg, die Magd des Herrn, den glaub- 
wuerdigen Vrkunden treuherzig nacherzaehll, 5th ed. (Donauworth, 
1902); Stadleh, Heiligen-Lezikon, IV (Augsburg, 1875), 586- 
592; DoNBAR, Dictionary of Saintly Women, II (London, 1905), 
111-U2; Baring-Gould, Lives of the Saints, 14 Sept. 

Notburga, legendary daughter of Dagobert I, who 
is said to have lived in a cave near Hochluiuscn on the 
Neckar in Baden. Many legends an- icliitcd as to the 
sanctity and holiness of her life. After her death her 
body was placed on a chariot drawn by two white 
oxen to the place of buiial, where at present stands 
the church of Hochhausen. It is very probable that 
the legend of St. Notburga, the daughter of Dagobert 
I, is merely a distortion of that of St. Notburga of 
Rattenberg. 

Du Blois, La vie et la Legende de Madame Sainte Notburga 
(Paris, 1868) ; Clock, Ein Bield aus Badens Sagemvelt (Karlaruhe, 
1883): Stammingeh, Fronconwi Sancta (Wurzburg, 1881), 22-34; 
HuFFscHMiD, Hochhausen am Neckar und die heil. Notburga in 
Zeitschrift fiir die Geschichte des Oberrheins, new series, I (Freiburg 
im Br., 1886), 285-401; T>\jtis\n, Dictionary of Saintlg Womcn.U 
(London, 1905), 110. 

Michael Ott. 

Nothomb, Jean-Baptiste, Belgian statesman, b. 3 
July, 1805, at Messancy, Luxemburg; d. at Berlin, 16 
September, 1881. He received his secondary educa^ 
tion at the alhenee of Luxemburg, studied law in the 
University of Liege, and was awarded a doctor's de- 
gree in 1826. He practised law in Luxemburg, then in 
Brussels, where he took an active part in tlie war that 
was then waged in the press in behalf of the independ- 
ence of Belgium. During the riots of August, 1830, 
he was in his native pro\'ince; but hearing of the fight 
which had taken place between the patriots and the 
troops of the Prince of Orange he hurried back to the 
capital. 

The provisional government appointed him secre- 
tary of the committee which was preparing the 
first draft of a new constitution. Three electoral dis- 
tricts of Luxemburg chose him as their representative 



NOTITIA 



124 



NOTITIA 



in the first legislature of Belgium. He declared for 
the district of Arlon to which, in 1831. he g.ave proof 
of his gratitude by doing his utmost to prevent its 
union with Germany. Nothomb, who was the young- 
est incniber of the legislative a.ssembly, was appointed 
one of its secretaries and a member of the committee 
on foreign affairs. In the chamber he strongly op- 
posed the advocates of the union of Belgium with 
France and those who were for a repubhcan govern- 
ment. His political ideal, which he defended with 
great oIdciuciicc, was a representative monarchy with 
two hduses, lilierty of the press, and complete inde- 
pendeuci', in their own spheres, of the secular and re- 
ligious powers. 

From 18.31-36 he was general secretary for foreign 
affairs; ^-ith Devaux he went to London to carry 
on secret negotiations at the conference which had 
met in that city to settle the new state of affairs cre- 
ated by the Belgian revolution, and did much to re- 
move the difficulties which had delayed the departure 
for Belgium of Leopold of Saxe-Coburg. He pub- 
lished in 1833 his "Essai historique et politique sur la 
revolution beige", a remarkable work which was 
translated into German and ItaUan and was reprinted 
three times in the same year. In 1836 Nothomb re- 
signed as general secretary for foreign affairs and in 
1S37 became minister of Public Works in the Catholic 
administration of dc Theux. He gave a powerful 
impetus to the construction of railroads and when he 
resigned in 1840 more than 300 kilometres had been 
built. In the same year he was sent as an extraordi- 
nary envoy to the German Confederation and in 1841 
became minister of the interior in a unionist adminis- 
tration; but the positions of the parties were not what 
they had been in the preceding decade, and Nothomb 
Boon realized that a union of the Catholics and Lib- 
erals was no longer possible. In 1845 he withdrew 
from the political arena to enter the diplomatic corps. 
Ho was for many years minister plenipotentiary of 
Belgium in Berlin. In 1840 he had become a member 
of the Royal Academy of Brussels; and he received 
many distinctions from foreign countries. 

Nothomb, Alphonse, brother of Jean-Baptiste, b. 
12 July, 1817; d. 15 May, 1898. He had a briUiant 
career in the magistracy, was minister of justice in 
1855, and became a member of the lower house of Par- 
liament in 1859. In 1884 he was made a minister of 
State. Like his brother he was a staunch Catholic; 
in the latter part of his life he had become a convert to 
the pohtical creed of the new Catholic democratic 
party. 

Juste, Le Baron Noihomb (Bnissela, 1874) ; Thonissen, His- 
toire du rkgne de lAo-pold /•"■ (Louvain, 1861); Htmans, Histoire 
parlementaire de la Belffique (Brussels, 1877-80). 

P. J. Maeique. 

Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Offices), the 
official liaiullioiik of the civil and military officials in 
the later Roman Empire. The extant Latin form be- 
longs to the early fifth century. The last addenda con- 
cerning the Eastern Empire point to the year 397 as the 
latest chronological limit, while supplementary notices 
concerning the Western Empire extend into the reign 
of Valentinian III (42.5-55). The bulk of the state- 
ments, however, point to earlier years of the fourth 
century, individual notices showing conditions at the 
beginning of this century. The first part of the " No- 
titia" gives a list of the officials in the Eastern Empire: 
"Notitia dignit.atum omnium tam civilium quam mil- 
itarium in partibus Orientis"; the second part gives a 
corresponding list for the Western Empire: "Notitia 
... in partibus Occidentis". Both give, first the 
highest official positions of the central administration, 
then the officials in positions subordinate to the.se, and 
also the officials of the various "dioceses" and prov- 
inces, the civil officials being regularly stated along 
with the miUtary. In addition, the insignia of the of- 



ficials and of the army divisions are shown by draw- 
ings. This register was used in the imperial chan- 
cery; the chief official of the chancery {primiariua 
jtotariorum) found in it all necessary information for 
drawing up the announcements of the ajiiiointiMent of 
officials and of their positions, Tlie "Notitia", pre- 
served as it is in an incomplete condition, is |)artly an 
abstract, partly an exact tjanscripl of tliis dflicial reg- 
ister. It shows that at vaiinus pn imls, cxtriiding as 
late as the first part of tlirii 111 I ccnl my, :u Mil ions were 
made to the state register and gives tlii' essential form 
of the list in the era just mentioned. It is, therefore, 
a very important authority for the divisions of the 
Empire, for an understanding of the Uoiiian bureau- 
cracy, and for the distribution of the army during the 
late Roman Empire. The first printed edition was 
"Notitia utraque cum Orientis turn ()<Tidontis" 
(Basle, 1552) ; the latest editions were edited bv Bock- 
ing (2 vols., Bonn, 1839-53), and O. Seeck, ""Notitia 
dignitatum. Accedunt Notitia urbis Constantino- 
politana; et Laterculi provinciarum " (Berlin, 1876). 
Seeck, Quwstiones de Nnlilin dignitatum (Berlin. 1872); Idem, 
Die Zeit des Vegeliiif: in Hrrmrs, XI (Berlin. 1876). 77 sqq.; 
Idem, Zur Kritik ,l,r X^.nim ,h<i„ilatum in Hermes, IX (1875), 
217 sqq.; Steffen'hai.i n, l)-r u.,tfiir/er Codex der Notitia dignita- 
tum in Hermes, XIX ^!^^!l, t."is sqq.; Mommsen, Die Conscrip- 
tionsordnung der rom. Kauazi il m Hermes. XIX (1884), 233 sqq.; 
Tedffei^Schwabe, Oesch. der romischen Literatur (5tb ed., 
Leipzig, 1890), 1163. 

J. P. KiRSCH. 

Notitiae Episcopatuum, the name given to official 
documents that furnish for Eastern countries the list 
and hierarchical rank of the metropolitan and 
suffragan bishoprics of a Church. Whilst, in the 
Patriarchate of Rome, archbishops and bishops were 
classed according to the seniority of their conse- 
cration, and in Africa according to their age, in 
the Eastern patriarchates the hierarchical rank of 
each bishop was determined by the see he occupied. 
Thus, in the Patriarchate of Constantinople, the first 
metropolitan was not the longest ordained, but who- 
ever happened to be the incumbent of the See of Ca'sa- 
rea; the second was the Archbishop of Ephesus, and so 
on. In every ecclesiastical province, the rank of each 
suffragan was thus determined, and remained un- 
changed unless the fist was subsequently modified. 
The hierarchical order included first of all, the patri- 
arch; then the greater metropolitans, i. e., those who 
had dioceses with suffragan sees; the autocephalous 
metropolitans, who had no suffragans, and were di- 
rectly subject to the patriarch; next archbishops who, 
although not differing from autocephalous metropoli- 
tans, occupied hierarchical rank inferior to theirs, and 
were also immediately dependent on the patriarch; 
then simple bishops, i. e., exempt bishops, and lastly 
suffragan bishops. It is not known by whom this very 
ancient order was estabfished, but it is likely that, in 
the beginning, metropolitan sees and simple bishop- 
rics must have been classified according to the date of 
their respective foundations, this order being modified 
later on for political and religious considerations. We 
here append. Church by Church, the principal of 
these documents. 

A. Constantinople: The "Ecthesis of psetido-Epi- 
phanius", a revision of an earlier Notitia episcopa- 
tuum (probably compiled by Patriarch Ejiiphanius 
under Justinian), made during the reign of Ileraclius 
(about 040); a Notitia dating back to the first years 
of the ninth century and differing but little from 
the earlier one; the "Notitia of Basil the Armenian", 
drawn up between 820 and 842; the Notitia coni- 
piled bv Emperor Leo VI the Philo.soiilier, and Patri- 
arch Nicholas Mvsticus between 001 and !K17, modify- 
ing the hierarehical ord( r wliifh had liccii cst.alilished 
in thesevenlh century, but had been disturbed by the 
incorporation of the ecclesiastical provinces of Illyri- 
cum and .Southern Italy in the Byzantine Patriar- 
chate; the Notitise episcopatuum of Constantine Per- 



NOTITIA 



125 



NOTKER 



phyrogenitus (about 940), of Tzimisces (about 980), 
of Alexius Comnenus (about 1084), of Nil Doxapatris 
(1143), of Manuel Comnenus (about 1170), of Isaac 
Angelus (end of twelfth century), of Michael VIII 
PaliEologus (about 1270), of Andronicus II Palxolo- 
gus (about 1299), andof Andnmicus HI (about 1330). 
All these Notitiae are published in ( Idzer, "Unge- 
druckte und ungentigend veroffentliclitc Texte der 
Notitise episcopatuum" (Munich, 1900); Gelzer, 
"Georgii Cyprii Descriptio orbis romani" (Leipzig, 
1890); Gelzer, "Index lectionum lente" (Jena, 1892); 
Parthey, ' " Hieroclis Synecdemus" (Berlin, 1866). 
The later works are only more or less modified copies 
of the Notitia of Leo the Philosopher, and therefore do 
not present the true situation, which was profoundly 
changed by the Mussulman invasions. After the cap- 
ture of Constantinople by the Turks, another Notitia 
was written, portraying the real situation (Gelzer, 
"Ungedruckte Texte der Notitise episcopatuum", 
613-37), and on it are bascfl nearly all those which 
have been since written. The term Synlagmation is 
now used by the Greeks for these documents. 

B. We know of only one "Notitia episcopatuum" 
for the Church of .\ntioch, viz. that drawn up in the 
sixth century by Patriarch Anastasius (.see Vailhfi 
in"Echos d'Orient",X, pp. 90-101, 139-145, 363-8). 
Jerusalem has no such document, nor has Alexan- 
dria, although for the latter Cielzer has collected 
documents which may help to supply the deficiency 
(Byz. Zeitschrift, II, 23-40). De Rouge (Geogra- 
phie ancienne de la Basse-Egypte, Paris, 1891, 151- 
61) has published a Coptic document which has not 
yet been studied. For the Bulgarian Church of Ach- 
rida, see Gelzer, "Byz. Zeitschrift", II, 40-66, and 
"Der Patriarchat von Achrida" (Leipzig, 1902). M. 
Gerland has just announced for 1913 a critical and 
definitive new edition of all the Notitiie episcopa- 
tuum of the Churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, 
Antioch, Jerusalem, Cyprus, Achrida, Ipek, Russia, 
and Georgia. 

In addition to the works cited, a supplementary bibliography 
will be found in Krumbacher, Gesch. der byz. Litt. (Munich, 
1897), 416. S. VAILHfi. 

Notitia Provinciarum et Civitatum Africse 

(LLstof thr I'r.ivin.v.sanilC'ilicsof AlVicni.alistof the 
bi.sho])s and tlicir.<ii'i's in the Latin pnivniccs of North 
Africa, arranged according to provinces in this order: 
Proconsularis, Numidia, Byzacena, Mauretania Cie- 
sariensis, Mauretania Sitifensis, Tripolitana, Sar- 
dinia. The cause of its preparation was the summon- 
ing of the episcopate to Carthage, 1 P^ebruary, 484, 
by the Arian King of the Vandals, Hunerich (477-84). 
It names also the exiled bishops and vacant sees, and 
is an important authority for the history of the African 
Church and the geography of these provinces. It is 
incorporated in the only extant manuscript to the his- 
tory of the Vandal persecution by Bishop Victor of 
V