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C A T O's 




Printed for W. WILKINS, T. WOOD- 


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C A T O's 
L E T T E R S 


HILE I have been read- 
ing Hillory, or confider* 
ing the State of humane 
Affairs, how wofully they 
are negle&ed, how fjol- 
i{hly managed, or how 
wickedly difconcerted and 
confounded, in the molt 
and beft Countries : When 
I have remembered how 
large, every where, is the Source of Mifchief, 
how eafily it is fet a running, and how plenti- 
fully it flows j how it is daily breaking into 
new Channels, and yet none of the old om-s 
V O L, II. A x arc 


are ever fuflfered to wax dry ; I have been apt 
to wonder, that the general Condition of Man- 
kind, tho' already vaftly unhappy, is not ftill 

Pope JEneas Sylvius muft have had fuch Re- 
fle&ions as thefe, when he faid, that This World 
did, in a. great Me a fur e, govern It f elf. He had 
many Examples before his Eyes, how eafy it 
Was to govern wretchedly, and yet continue to 
govern. The Papacy it ifelf might particularly 
have furnifhed him with many Examples It 
is a Fairy Dominion, founded upon Non- Enti- 
ties, Inventions, and Abominations ; fupported 
by Lies and Terrors ; exercifed with Cruelty, 
Craft, and Rapine ; and producing Meannefs, 
Delufion, and Poverty, where-ever it prevails. 

What could appear more ftrange, incredible,' 
and (hameful, than to fee a mean Monk, reading 
an a Corner of the World, and ruling and 
plundering it all ; living in Crimes, Pride, and 
Folly, and controlling Cbriftendom by the 
Sounds of ^ Humility, Holinefs, and Infallibili- 
ty ^fubfifting upon the Spoils and Induftry of 
3Siations, and engaging Nations in a blind 
Confpiracy againft themfelves, for the Defence 
of tneir Oppreflor ; pronouncing the Peace of 
God^ to Mankind, and animating Mankind to 
continual Quarrels and Slaughters ; declaring 
himfelf the Vicar of Chrift, and making un- 
relenting War againil the Followers of Chrift ; 
and, finally, the Father of Chriftendom, and 
the Deftroyer of Chriftians. 

^ All this Villainy and Impudence was ob- 
vious to common Senfe, and felt by long Ex* 
pcrience. But how lictl^ do Men fee, when 



they are taught to be afraid of their Eye-fight ! 
Even the Reformation, one of the greateft 
Bleilings that ever hefel Europe, has but par- 
tially removed this mighty and enormous U- 
furpation, The Root of the Evil ftill remains ; 
and Men are not yet weary of fighting about 
Words, Subtilties, Chimeras, and about the 
Shape of their Thoughts and Imagination ; a 
Thing as much out of their own Power, as the 
Shape of their Limbs, or the Motion of the 
Winds : The IiTue and Defign of all which is, 
that their Leaders in Strife reap the Fruits of 
it, and gather the Spoils, the \\holeSpoils of 
thole Battles, in which Craft only -blows the 
Trumpet, while Ignorance weilds the Sword, 
and runs all the Danger. 

If in this, as in other Wars, none would 
fight but thofe that are paid, or find their Ac- 
count in fighting, the Combatants would foon 
be reduced to a few ; and they too would 
quickly leave a Field where there was no 

Will the World never learn, that one Man's 
Corn grows not the worfe, becaufe another 
Man ules different Words in his Devotion ? Thar 
Pride and Anger, Wealth and Power, are of 
no Religion ? And that Religion is inseparable 
from Charity and Peace ? 

Lam told, that the famous Combuftion, 
raifed fome Years ago at Hamburgh^ by one 
Kjrumbult%, a Divine, and in which that free 
City had like to have perifhed, was occafion'd 
by this momentous Queftion, namely, whether 
in the Lord's Prayer we fhould fay, Our Father y 
or, Bather our * A hopeful Point of De- 



bate, to be the Caufc of Civil Diffention, and 
a true Specimen of the Importance and Con- 
lequences of Ecclefiafrical Difputes, and of the 
Spirit of thofe that manage them ! 

^It is a fharnefu] Satire upon the Wickednefs 
of fbme, and the Weaknefs of others, thus to 
endanger the Peace of Society and their own, 
for^rhe Sake of a Sound ; to be thus eager for 
Trifles ; and thus to concern Heaven and Earth 
in behalf of Conceits, which of themfelves 
concern neither : but, as they are generally 
managed, do both provoke God and hurt Men. 
But Ib it \vjil ever be, as long as Men, in 
Pofleilion-pf Reverence, find their Ends and 
Gratifications in fetching knotty Diftin6tions 
out of ^ihe plain Word of God, and making 
them of equal Importance with it. 

Thus unhappy has the great ell Part of the 
World been, and is in its Ghoftly Govern- 
ment ; two Words which are a Contradiction 
10 each other ; lince the Mind and Under- 
ftanding, in which alone all Religion that Is 
rational doth relide, can never be altered or 
controuled by any other Means, than that of 
Counfel, Reafbning, and Exhortation ; which 
Method is utterly inconfiftent with Force and 
pofitive Authority, as the fame are implied in 
the Idea of Government. 

Nor can I fay, that Mankind have been 
more happy in their Civil Lot, and in their 
Adminiftration of their Temporal Affairs, 
which are almoft every where in a wretched 
Situation, and they themfelves under the Iron 
Hand of the Oppreflbr. The whole Terra- 
queous Globe cannot fhew Five free Kingdoms; 



r.or perhaps half fb many Kings, who make 
the Eafe and Profperity of their People their 

In enflaved Countries, (that is, in all Coun- 
tries, except our own, and a very few more) 
the Good of the Governed is fb far from en- 
tring into the Hearts and Counfels of the Go- 
vernors ; rhat it is oppofite to the Genius of 
their Politicks, either to do them good, or to 
fufifer them to acquire it for themfelves. Their 
Happinefs and Security, which are the very 
Ends of Magiftracy, would be terrible to their ; who, being the publick Enemies 
of their Country, are forced, for their own 
Safety, to leave their People none. 

How vile is that Government, and thofe 
Governors, whofe only Strength lies in Whips 
and Chains ; a fort of Inftruments of Servi- 
tude, which it would much bet er become 
the Bafenefs of thefe Mcns Natures to wear 
themfelves, than to inflict upon others! ^A 
Prince of Slaves is a Slave ; he is only the big- 
geft and the worft ; juft as the Chief of the 
Banditti is one of them. Such a Prince is but 
a National Executioner, and for a Scepter he 
carries a bloody Knife. 

Such, for the moft part, by far the moft: 
parr, are the Governors of the World : They 
derive their whole Greatnefs, Plenty, Splen- 
dor, and Security, from the Mifery, Poverty, 
Peril, and Deftruclion of the Governed. Who- 
ever makes juft, equal, and impartial Laws, 
does, by doing fb, but declare to the People, 
Bf Wicked At your Peril : But he who rules them 
by Terrors and Standing Armies, does, in Ef- 

A 4 

8 C^rO's LETTERS. 

fe<9", tell them in a terrible Tone, be Hafpy if 
you dare. 

Who that has humane Compaffion, can help 
feeling the Sorrows of his wretched Race, and 
behold, unconcerned, the forlorn and abject 
State of Mankind ? Monks deceiving, alarm- 
ing, and fpunging them , their Governors tax- 
ing, mulcting, and fqueezing them ; Soldiers 
haraliing, opprelling, and butchering them ! 
And, in fhort, all the bitter Evils and crying 
Miferies in humane Power to inflict, delibe- 
rately and daily inflicted upon them ! Ncr do 
Things mend ; on the contrary, the Mifchiefs 
and Misfortunes of the World grow hourly 
greater, and its Inhabitants thinner. 

All thefe black Confiderations would lead a 
Man, who had no other Spirit or Guide bur 
that of Nature, to think that Providence, 
tempted by the Sins of Men, had long ago re- 
nounced them, or figned a Decree of Venge- 
ance againft them, which has ever fince been 
dreadfully executed, and continues to be. 

If one was to confider Mankind in Theory 
only, his own Species would make no fmall 
Figure in his Imagination ; he would fee them 
formed by a divine Hand, and according to a 
divine Model; poflefled of all the Advantages 
of Strength and Contrivance, guided by Rea- 
fbn, made wife by Obfervation, and cautious 
by their own Forefight and the Experience of 
others ; directed by Laws and humane Con- 
ftitutions ; rendered difcerning by the frequent 
Trials of Good and Evil, and many of them 
enlightened by divine Revelation : He would 
fee them Lords of the Creation, Arbiters of 



their own Condition and Felicity, inveded 
with the Property and life of Sea and Land,, 
and with Dominion over every other Creature. 

Thus Mankind appear in Speculation, pow- 
erful, wife, juft, equal, and happy. But view'd 
in another Light, they make another Appear- 
ance. They u(e one another worfe than they 
do the Beads of the Field ; and, by the 
wretched and monftrbus Oeconomy and Go- 
vernment, almoft every where found amongft 
them, they would feem not to have more Un- 
derdanding, as they have certainly lefs Happi- 
nefs. The Beads do no where appoint ^or fuf- 
fer one of their own Herd to monopolize the 
whole Soil, to engrofs every Advantage to 
himfelf, and to deprive them of all; and to 
kill and dedroy, to difperfe and to darve them.; 
at his Pleafure. Every one of them equally en^ 
joys the Shelter and Padure, the Air and^ the 
Water, which Nature makes common to them 

But Men, their Mafters, cannot bo a ft fudh 
Security and Juftice ; they generally live at the 
meer Ndercy of One, one of themfelves^ whofe- 
Views fuffer him to have no Mercy. He is 
often a Madman, often an Idiot, and often a 
Deftroyer ; and the whole Art of his Govern- 
ment confiding in oppreffirrg and terrifying,, 
no other Talent is required, but a raercilefs 
Spirit and brutal Force. 

Such is an Arbitrary Prince, and the Defceri- 
dents of Adam know few others. Sometimes 
a Creature is feen to dart into Imperial Power,, 
whom the World never knew before, or knew 
ealy for his Infamy : Taken out of the Stewi> 

A. 5; oar 

io Giro's LETTERS. 

or out- of a Dungeon, into a Throne; and 
without knowing how to rule him felf, he rules 
an Empire ; living a Reclufe, and feen by no 
Body, he governs all but the Women or Para- 
fites, who govern him ; Millions of Men, and 
their Properties, are at the fble Difcretion of 
one who has none, and a Creature void of Hu- 
manity difpofes wantonly of a great Part of hu- 
mane Kind. 

This is the difmal State of all AfiA and of all 
l Afr{cA) excepc a few free Towns. The Spirit 
of their Monarchs, which is generally alike, 
may be (een in a Story (among many others) 
which I\nox tells us of the King of Ce/lon, who, 
being in Danger of Drowning, was faved by 
the officious AffecHon or Ambition of one of 
his Slaves, who leap'd into the Water, and 
ventured his own Life to preferve his Matter's. 
This, one would think, was the greateft and 
in oft heroick Kindnefs that one Man could do 
another. But mark how the Monarch requites 
it ! why, the firft Thing he did after he came 
to himfelf, was to order the Belly of his Pre- 
lerver to be rip'd up, for daring to touch the 
Perfbn of his Gcrcd Majefty. 

Nature has prepar'd many Advantages and 
Pleafures for the Ufe of Mankind, and given 
them Tafte to enjoy them, and Sagacity to im- 
prove them : But their Governors do, alrhojl 
universally, fruftrate the kind Ptirpofes of Na- 
ture, nnd render her Beneficence abortive, and 
jnarr all human Happinefs. They have fuc- 
cc -fsfully fhidfed the Arts of Miiery, and pro- 
pagarcd the Practice. 



It is a melancholiy Reflexion, that when 
human Affairs are put into a bad Way, where 
they do not fpeedily recover, they never re- 
cover, or rarely ever. One great Reafon is, 
that Power is always on the worft Side, and 
either promoting Mi (chief, or preventing its 
Removal ; and the Champions of Difhonefty 
nnd Oppreiiion are more artful and better paici, 
than the Patrons of Juftlce and Innocence. 

It has hitherto been the good Fortune of 
England, (and I hope always will be) when 
Attempts have been made upon its Liberty, to 
recover it before 5t was quire gone, at leaft be- 
fore the Senfe of it was gone. And therefore it 
flill fubfifis in fpight of all the powerful, po- 
pular, and ian6r.ified Attacks that have been 
made, and frequently made, upon it. Let us 
make much of it ; while it remains, it will 
make us amends for all the Loffes and Mif- 
carriages which we have fallen under, or may 
fall under, and will enable us to get the better 
of them. It is the Root of our Felicity, and 
all our Civil Advantages grow from it. By it 
we exceed almofl all other Nations many more 
Degrees, than fbme of them exceed us in Sun 
and Soil : We are Men, and they are Slaves, 
Only Government founded upon Liberty, is a 
publick Bleffing ; without Liberty, it is a pub- 
lick Curfe, and a publick Warrant fo? Depreda- 
tion and Slaughter. 

Let us therefore remember the mighty Dif- 
ference between our felves and other Nations, 
and the glorious Caufe of it, and always dear- 
ly cherifh it, We are not the Prey of Monks, 
or Janizaries, or Dragoons, nor the blind Slaves 


T^ C A T O's L E T T E R S. 

of unaccountable Will and Pleafure. Our 
Lives and Properties are fecur'd by the bed 
Bulwark in the World, that of Laws, made 
by our felves, and executed by our Magiftrates> 
who are likewife made by us ; and when they 
are difhonefty executed, or wilfully negleled, 
our Conftitution affords a Remedy, a tried 
and a practicable Remedy. And as no Nation 
ever loft its Liberty but by the Force of foreign 
Invaders, or the domeftick Treachery of its own 
Magistrates; we have the Sea and a great Navy 
for our Defenders againft the former ; and Ex- 
orbitances of the other are prevented or re- 
ftratn'd by an excellent Counterpoise, in the 
Frame of our Legiflature. 

That we may be for ever able to boaft of alt 
thefe BlelUngs, thefe glorious and uncommon 
Bleffings, is the cordial Wifli and pallionate 
Prayer of 

Yours 9 

I Shall, in this Paper, eonfider and cifciiis a 
great Point, namely, Whether the Killing 
of yuliut Crtfar was a Virtue, or a Crime? And 
becaufe Dr. Pridsaux^ who condemns it, does 
not only fpeak his own Senfe, but that of a 
great Party, 1 (hall here tranfcribe what he fays 
of it. 

" He was murder'd in the Senate-Houfe, by 
a Conspiracy of Senators. This was a moft 

"' bale 

3 LETTERS. 13 

* bafe and villainous Aft, and was the more fb 
ft in that the prime Authors of it, Marcus 
* Brutus, Declmus Brutus, Caffnts, and Trebonius, 
^ and fbme others of them, were fuch as Ctfar 
" had in the higheft Manner^ oblig'd ; yet it 
" was executed under the Notion of an high 
" heroick Virtue, in thus freeing their Country 
" from one whom they calPd a Tyrant ; and 
" there are not wanting fuch as are ready, evert 
" in our Days, to applaud the At.. But di- 
ct vine Juil ice declared it (elf otherwife in this 
" Matter : For it purfued every one of them 
" that were concerned herein, with fuch a juft 
" and remarkable Revenge,^ that they were 
" every Man of them cut off in a fhort Time 
" after, in a violent Manner, either by their 
" own, or other Mens Hands. 

Thefe are the Doctor's Words, and this his 
Judgment, which is roundly pafs'd ; bur how 
juftly, I hope to make appear before I have 
ended this Letter. He has not told us what it 
was, that, in his Opinion, rendered the Perfbiv 
of Ctfnr fo very inviolable, That Cecfar had 
for his Title, only Power and Succefs gain'd by- 
Violence, and all wicked Means, is moft cer- 
tain. That the acquiring and exercifing of 
Power by Force, is Tyranny, is as certain j. 
nor did ever any reafonable Man fay, that Suc- 
cefs was a Proof of Right. They who make- 
the Perfon of Cafar facred, declare the Perfbn of 
a Tyrant, and an Ufurper, to be facred- ; for 
no Man ever lived, to whom thofe two Cha- 
racters do more notorioufiy belong. And if all 
the Privileges and Impunity belonging to a law- 
ful Magiftrate, who protects his People, and 



rules himfelf and them by Law, and their own 
Confenr, do alfo appertain to a lawlefs Intruder, 
who is ftronger than all, by being worfe than 
all ; and under the mock Name of a publick 
Magiftrate, is a publick Oppreffor, Scourge, 
Ufurper, Executioner, and Plunderer: Then 
all thefe bleffed Confequences follow : That 
there is an utter End of all publick and private 
Right and Wrong; every Magiftratemay be a 
Tyrant, and every Tyrant is a lawful Magi-' 
ftrate : That it is unlawful to refill the greateft 
humane Evil; that the neceflary Means of Self- 
Prefervation are unlawful; that tho 1 "tis lawful 
and expedient to deftroy little Robbers, who 
have as much Right, and more Innocence, than 
Great Ones, and who are only fo for Subiift- 
ence; yet it is impious and unlawful to oppofe 
great Robbers, who out of Luft, Avarice, 
Cruelty, or Wantonnefs, take away Life and 
Property, and deftroy Nations at Pleafure : 
That real, great, and general Mifchief, is de- 
fended by giving it a good Name, by which he 
who commits it Is protected ; and that Vio- 
lence, Fraud, and Oppreffion may be com- 
mitted with Security, if they be but call'd 
Magiftracy ; and the execrable Authors of them 
are not only fafe, but facred, if they be but 
call'd Magiftrates : That tho'ir be unlawful to 
be a publick Deftrpyer and Murderer, yet it is 
unlawful to deiiroy him ; that is, it is unlaw- 
ful to prevent or punifh that which is mo ft 
impious and unlawful : And finally, that any 
Man who can opprefs and enflave the World, 
and deftroy Nations, with the moft and bed 
Men in them,, may do ail this with Impunity. , 



If Julius Gtfar was a lawful Magistrate, then 
every Man who has Force and Villainy enough, 
may make himfelf a lawful MagJftrate ; and 
lawful Magiftrates are, or may be made by 
Force and Villainy. But if Magillracy is not 
acquired by over-turning with the Sword all 
Law and Magiftracy, then Julius Cccfar was no 
Magiftrate; and if he was not, how came he 
by the Rights and Impunity with which lawful 
Magiftrates only are vetted ? 

Againft any Man ufmg lawlefs Fo^ce, every 
Man has a Right to ufe Force. What Crime 
would it have been in any Reman, or Body of 
Romans, even without any Commiillon from 
j^jw/?, to have (bin Afaric^ or Attila, or Bre n- 
nus, when they invaded the Roman Territories ? 
And what more Right had C<efnr than they ? 
In Truth, his Crime was infinitely greater than 
theirs, as he added the Sins of Ingratitude, 
Treachery, and Parricide, to that of Ufurpa- 
tion. The Goths and Gauls did indeed violate 
the Laws of Nations, in molefting and invading 
a Country, that owed them neither Subjection 
nor Homage : But Ctfar violated the Laws of 
Nature, and of his Country, by enilaving 
thofe whom he was entrufted and bound to 

Every Body, I believe, will own, that when 
he firft made War upon his Country, his Coun- 
try had a Right to make War upon him : and 
to deitroy him, who fought to deftroy them* 
And how caoie that Right to ceafe after he 
had, by his Succels in Villainy and Usurpation, 
added to his Crimes, and made Death ftill more 
his Due r Or is it lawful to refill and kill a 


t6 Giro's LETTERS. 

Robber before he has taken away your Money, 
but not after he has done it ? And does a Vil- 
lain grow iacred and inviolable, by the meer 
Merit of compleating his Villainy ? If defar 
had forfeited his Life, as he certainly had by 
all the Laws of fyme ; why was it not as law- 
ful to take it away by the Hands of Thirty 
Men, as by the Arms of Thirty Thoufand, 
and in the Senate as well as in the Field ? 

The Reafon why one private Man mud not 
kill another in Society, even when he does that 
which deferves Death, is, That in Society no 
Man mud be his own Judge, or take his own 
Revenge ; but the more equitable Law mull 
give it him, and there are Judges edablifhed for 
that Purpofe. But if the Offender fets himfelf 
above the Law and the Judges, he leaves a 
Right to the Perfon injured to feek Redrefs his 
own Way, and as he can get it. Whoever 
puts himfelf in a State of War againft me, 
gives me a Right of War againft him ; and 
Violence is a proper Remedy for Violence, 
v/hen no other is lefr. 

That Right which, in the State of Nature, 
every Man had, of repelling and revenging In- 
juries, in fuch manner as every Man thought 
bed, is transferred to the Magiftrate, when 
Political Societies are formed, and Magiftracy 
edabllfhed ; but mud return to private Mem 
again, when the Society is diffolved : Which 
Diffolution may happen either through the na- 
tural Demife of the Perlbns entruded with the 
publick Authority, where there is no Provifion 
made in the Condirution for others to fucceed 
them i or when by a fuperior unlawful Force, 


C A T O's L E T T E R S. 17 

they are reftrained from anfwering the great 
End of their Truft, in prote&ing the Innocent; 
an End for which alone Men part with their 
natural Rights, and become the Members and 
Subjects of Society. 

It is a moft wicked and abfurd Pofition, to 
fay that a whole People can ever be in fiich a 
Situation, as not to have a Right to defend and 
preferve themfelves, when there is no other 
Power in Being to protect and defend them ; 
and much more fo, that they muft not oppofe a 
Tyrant, a Tray tor, an universal Robber, who 
by Violence, Treachery, Rapine, infinite Mur- 
ders and Devaftations, has deprived them of 
their legal Protection. 

Now, that all thefe black Characters be- 
longed to Cf/rf?-, is indifputable Fact \ nor was 
there ever a Traytor and a Tyrant in the 
World, if he was not one. He broke, outra- 
geoufiy broke, every Tye that can bind a hu- 
mane Soul ; Honour, Virtue, Religion, Law, 
Truft, Humanity, and every Thing that is 
facred and valuable amongft Men. He was a 
Subject and Servant of the [(em tin Common- 
wealth, greatly honour'd and trufted by it ; he 
was a Senator and High-Prieft^ he had been 
Conful : he was General of one of its greateft 
Armies, and Governor of one of its greateft 
and beft Provinces. All this Power and Credit, 
all thefe Offices and Forces, he turn'd ungrate- 
fully, barbaroufly., and traiteroufly upon his 
Mafters, and made a Prey of his Country with 
its own Money and Arms. 

The Means by which he did this mighty and 
confummate Evil, were fuitable to the End. He 


i8 C^fO's LETTERS. 

ftuck at nothing ; nor was any Pitch of Bafe- 
nefs too high or too low for him. He even 
fubmitted his Perfbn to infamous and unnatural 
Proftitution, for the Ends of Ambition ; and 
from a Boy was in every Faction for embroil- 
ing and overturning the State ; fir ft in the 
bloody Meafures of Mar i us ; and afterwards in 
the more terrible Confpiracy of Catiline^ to 
murder the Confiils and the Senate, to burn 
Rome, and to enfluve the Commonwealth : 
And tho' he failed in that C'jnfpiracy, he went 
on confpiring \ he corrupted the People, and 
headed Parties of Defperadoes, to frighten thofe 
whom he could not bribe : He opprefs'd the 
Provinces, and deflroy'd their Inhabitants ; he 
robb'd the Publick Temples ; he flaughter'd 
the Armies of the Republick ; he feiz'd the 
publick Treafure \ and at laft, he feiz'd the 
World, and extinguifhed its Liberty. Hear 
the difmal Dread of the Roman Senate and 
People, upon that dreadful Occafion, as the 
fame is defcribed by Lucan. 

~ - Fuit }}^c mcnfurn 
Velle putstnt qnocunque j pot eft 
Omnln dcftir erat \ private curia vocis 
Tcflls a,deft. Sedere pAtres, cenfere 
Si regnum, fi "Tempi a fibl^ jugu I unique 
Exiliumque petat- 

Lucan, Pharfal. L. 3. v. 99. 

Thus Fell I(ome, the Glory and Miftrefs of 
the Earth, and the Eanh with it, under the 
Yoke of a Tyrant, wh'jfe Parts encreafed his 
Guilt, and made him the more dreadful, From 



the numberlefs Mifchiefs he had done to get 
Power, the higheft were apprehended from him 
now he was poflefled of it ; and it was not 
doubted but he would have proceeded to Mafc 
facre and Conflagration, had he been provoked 
by Oppofition. 


Namque ignlbus titris 

Creditur ut ctfta returns 'Mania Romt, 

Lucan. ut fupra, v. 108, 

And therefore mofl of the Senators were fled 
with Pompej, and Rome was left defencelefs to 
the Sword of the Ufurper. 

What now had the Romans to do in this ca- 
lamitous Cafe, under this enormous Oppreffor; 
owing them Duty and Allegiance as one of their 
own Citizens, but like a barbarous Conqueror 
and an Alien, holding them in Bonds with his 
Sword at their Throats ? Law, Liberty, and 
Appeals were no more ! A Tyrant was their 
chief Magiftrate, and his Will their only Law, 
Becaufe he had murderd one half of the Peo- 
ple, had he therefore a Right to govern the 
reft? And becaufe he had robbed them of moft 
of their Property, were they obliged to give 
him the Remainder? Does the huccefs of a 
Criminal fanclify his Crime, or are Crimes 
fanCTiried by their Greatnefs ? If only an In- 
tention to deftfoy the State, was High Treafon 
and Death ; how did the executing of that 
execrable Intention become lawful Govern- 
ment:, and acquire a Right of Allegiance? 

I fay, what remain'd now'tothe Romans to 
be done for Relief ? As to legal Procefs sgairiil 

io C A T O's L E T T E R S. 

there could be none ; omnia C^far erat ! Nor 
was there any publick Force great enough to 
oppofe him. He had before deftroyed or cor- 
rupted the Armies of the Commonwealth. Or, 
if a new Army could have been drawn toge- 
ther, ought an Opportunity to have been given 
him to have deftroyed that too? Or, was it 
lawful to kill him and Twenty or Thirty 
Thoufand Men with him, and perhaps with 
the like Slaughter on the other Side, and with 
the Lofs of the beft and braveft Romans whom 
his Ambition had left unmurthered ; and yet 
was it unlawful to kill him, without all this 
Apparatus, Expence, and Mifchief? Strange J 
that the killing by Surprize a (ingle Traytor 
and Parricide, who had forfeited his Life by 
all the Laws of God and Man, fhould be e- 
fteemed a heinous and crying Crime ; and yet 
that the furprizing and cutting to Pieces a 
whole Armv fhould be reckoned heroick Vir- 
tue ! 

Lt was a known Maxim of Liberty amongll 
the great, the wife, the free Antients, that a 
Tyrant was a Be-all: of Prey, which might be 
killed by the Spear as well as by a fair Chace, 
in his Court as well as in his Camp ; that every 
Man had a Right to deftroy one who would 
deftroy all Men ; that no Law ought to be 
given him who took away all Law ; and that, 
like Hercules's Moniters, it was glorious to rid 
the World of him, whenever, and by what 
Means fbever, it could be done. 

If we read the Stories of the mod celebrated 
Heroes of Antiquity, (Men of whom the pre- 
fent World is not worthy) and confider ^the 


's LETTERS, ^i 

A&ions that gain'd them their higheft Reve- 
rence and Renown, and recommended their 
Names to Pofterity with the moft Advantage ; 
we (hall find thofe in the firft Rank of Glory, 
who have refitted, deftroyed, or expelled Ty- 
rants and Ufurpers, the Pefts, the Burthens, 
and the Butchers of Mankind. What can be 
more meritorious, what more beneficent to the 
World, than the faving of Millions of Men at 
the Ex pence of one grand Murderer, one mer- 
cilefs and univerfal Plunderer ! And can there 
be any better or other Reafon given for the 
killing of any guilty Man, but the preferving 
of the Innocent ? Indeed, an AHon fb glori- 
ous to thofe that did it, and fb benevolent and 
advantageous to thofe for whom it was done, 
could never have been cenfured in the World, 
if there had not lived in all Ages, abjeS Flat- 
terers, and fervile Creatures of Power, always 
prepared to fan&ify and abet any the moft 
enormous Wickednefs, if it was gainful : And 
thefe are they who have often miffed good Men 
into the worft Prejudices. 

Timoleon, one of the wifeft and moft virtuous 
Men that ever blefTed this Earth, fpent a long 
and glorious Life in deftroying Tyrants ; he 
killed or caufed to be killed his own Brother, 
when he could not perfwade him to lay down 
an ufurp'd Power, and no other Means were 
left to fave his Country. And if this Action 
coft him afterwards much Grief and Melan- 
cholly, it was owing to his own tender Heart, 
and the Curfes snd Reproaches of a Mother 
otherwife indulgent. He was even cenfured 
for this his Sorrow, as if it got the better of 



his Love to Mankind ; and when he at laft 
overcame it, he fhew'd that it was not occa- 
fioned for having flain a Tyrant, but his Bro- 
ther ; for he immortalized the reft of his Life 
in doing nothing elfe but deftroying Tyrants, 
and reftoring Liberty. 

But if the killing Cxfitr was Co great a Crime," 
how conies Catiline to be ftill fo universally de- 
tefted for only intending what dtfar accom- 
plifhed ? It is true, C<efar did not burn Rome, 
nor did he lave it out of any Tendernefs to it, 
but favcd it for himfelf : He fpared Fire only, 
becaufe the Sword was fufficient. I would 

here ask another Queftion If Oliver Crom- 

vpei had died by any of the numerous Confpi- 
racies formed to take away his Life ; would 
Pofterity have condemned the A6lion for this 
Reafbn alone, that it was done the only Way 
it could be done ? 

But there is an Inftance in the Roman Hi- 
flory, that will let this Matter yet in a fuller 
Light - it is the Story of Sfartacus^ a Thrti- 
clan Slave and Gladiator, who bid fair for be- 
ing Lord of the Roman World, He feems to 
me to have had perfbnal Qualifications and 
Abilities, as great as thofe of CVf/*r, without 
Cafar's Birth and Education, and without the 
Meafure of Cf/*r's Guilt. For I hope all 
Mankind will allow it a lefs Crime in any 
Man to attempt to recover his own Liberty, 
than wantonly and cruelly to deftroy the Li- 
berty of his Country. 

l r is aftonifhing to confider, how a poor 
Slave from the Whip and the Chain, and fol- 
lowed only by about Seventy fugitive Gladia- 


tors, {hould begin a Revolt from the moft 
powerful State that ever the World faw ; fhould 
gather and form by his Courage and Dexterity 
a formidable Army ; ihould infpire Refblution 
and Fidelity into the very Dregs of Mankind ; 
fhould qualify his fudden Soldiers, compofed of 
Thieves and Vagabonds, to face and defeat 
the I(oman Legions, that were a Terror to the 
World, and had conquer'd it ; and (hould keep 
together, without Pay or Authority, a raw 
and lawlefs Rabble, till he had vanquifhed' 
Two Roman Armies, and one of them a Pr<e- 
forian Army : And even when Crixus, his Fel- 
low-Commander, envying his Glory and Suo 
cefs, had withdrawn from him, and carried 
with him a great Number of his Forces, and 
was cut to Pieces with Twenty Thousand of 
of his Men, by ^ Arrius the Praetor, yet he 
ftill continued to conquer. He beat that very 
Arrius that had killed Crixus ; he defeated Len- 
tulus the Conful ; and he overcame L. Gellius 
another Conful ; and in all likelihood, had he 
not been weakened by the above Defe&ion of 
Crixus^ he had beat Qrtiffus too, and feen him- 
felf Lord of fyme. 

Now I would ask the Advocates of lawlefs 
Power, the Friends to the Life and Name of 
Ctfar, whether Spartacus, if he had fucceeded 
in his laft Battle againft Crsiffus, had been law- 
ful and irrefiftible King of Upme ? And whether 
the Senate and People of Rome, with the great- 
eft Part of the known World, would have 
owed him Duty and Allegiance ? Or would 
he not have continued ftill a Thief and a 
Robber ? And if he had continued fo, then by 


14 C^ros LETTERS. 

all the Laws of Nature and Self.PrefervationJ 
as well as by the municipal Laws of every 
Country in the World, every Man was at Li- 
berty^ to feize him how he could, and to kill 
him if he refitted, or run away. 

^Tell me. O ye unlimited Slaves, ye Beads 
of lawlefs Power, ye loyal Levellers of Right 
and Wrong ! how came Ccefar by a better Title 
to Dominion than Spartacus had, whofe Sword 
was as good, tho* not quite fb profperous and 
deftruflive, as Cf/ir's ? Tell me where lay the 
Difference between them, unlefs in their dif- 
ferent Succefs, and that Spartacus was as great 
a Man, but C.-efar a greater Traytor and Ty- 

Indeed, had Sir tylert Filtner] or any other of 
the honed and fage Difcoverers of Adam* 
right Heir, lived in thofe Days (as they have 
done fince, and plainly pointed him out) and 
complimented Cafar 9 as doubtlefs they would, 
with a lineal and hereditary Title from &ne- 
tiSt wandering Prince of Troy ; he might have 
been called the Lord's Anointed, as well as 
others, and his Aflailination accounted Rebel- 
lion, and worle than the Sin of Witchcraft. 
But as I do not find that C^zr, tho' he valued 
himfelf upon his Defcent from the pious Trojan 
Heroe, did yet claim any dt&atorial Right by 
Virtue of his illuftrious Parentage ; I have 
therefore taken Liberty to treat him as a meer 
Traytor, an Ufurper, and a Tyrant. 

J am, 6cc, 


HAving proved in my laft, I think unan- 
fwerably, that C-efar was rightly killed ; 
I will here inquire, whether Brutus and ^ the 
other Tyrannicides did right in killing him ? 
And methinks, if it has been fhewn that he 
ought to have been (lain as an Enemy to ever/ 
Horn an Citizen, and virtuous Man ; every /ty- 
man Citizen, and every virtuous Man, had a 
Right to (lay him. 

But fince there are in our World (b many 
little and cramped Spirits, who dare not think 
out of the vulgar Path, tho' ever fb crooked and 
dark, and perhaps firft ftruck out by Ignorance 
or Fraud : Narrow Minds, which lock'd up in 
received Syftems, fee ali Things through falfe 
Mirrors, and as they are reprefented by ftrong 
Prejudices, prevailing Cuftoms, and very often 
by Corruption and Party- Intereft : I fliall, as I 
have Occafion, endeavour to diiperfe the/e 
thick and deceitful Mifts from before weak 
Eyes, and (hall confider the preterit Queftion, 
as well as all others that come before me, as 
they appear in their own Nature, independent 
on the Quirks of Pedants, and the narrow Ju- 
riiHi&ion of inferior Tribunals : I fhall bring 
them before the great Tribunal of Heaven ; 
and aflert the Caufe of Liberty and Truth, by 
Arguments deduced from common Senfe, and 
the common Good of Mankind. 

VOL, II. B It 

Giro's LETTERS. 

It is generally alled^ed againft Brutus^ and 
feme of thofe who joined with him in this great 
Action, that they were highly obliged by C<e- 
fa> ; which is a ftrange Objection. How were 
they obliged ? He gave Brutus a Life, which 
he could not take from him without Murther j 
and did a mighty generous Thing in not mur- 
thering Brutus for defending his Country, ani- 
mated by his own virtuous Spirit, and the 
known Laws of fy'me ! This is the Obligation 
of a Highwayman, who, taking away your 
Money, which is all he wants, kindly leaves 
you your Life. Are you obliged in Honour, 
Conference, or common Senfe, to fpare the 
Robber, becaufe he was not a Murderer ? Or 
&re you obliged not to purfue and take htm.* 
and to kill him, if he refufes to fubmit ? In 
'Truth, C<efar was one of the greateft Robbers 
and Murderers that ever lived : Every Man 
fluin in that un'jutr., bloody, and unnatural 
War, which he wantonly and maliciouily made 
upon his Country, was murdered : And the 
World was the mighty Spoil he gained by uni- 
verfal Murder and Rapine. He was, in (hort, 
a Man (b confummately wicked, that the 
ftrongeft Words you can ufe, and the bittereft 
Inftances you can bring, to paint out him and 
his AdYions, will be but faini compared to him 
and his A6Hons. 

As to the Places and Favours conferred up- 
on Brutus, by C<efar, they were not C^r's, but 
Rome's. He Was only ^nftl Largitor. Cafar had 
no Right to the Publick, nor to difpofe of it, 
or its Emoluments. It was all barefaced Ufur- 
pation. Be fides, when Favours of this, or 



any kind, withhold a Man from his Duty, they 
are mifchievous Baits and Corruptions ; and 
ought to bind no Man, as they never will a 
virtuous Man. And we fee how Brunu, who 
was the moft virtuous Man upon Earth, un- 
derftood and difregarded them. 

They were only the artful Shackles of a 
Tyrant,^ intended to bind the bold and free 
Mind of Bmtus to his Imereft : But he, who 
owed no Allegiance but to the Commonwealth, 
fcorn'd the deceitful Smiles and Generofity of 
its Oppreflbr ; who was bribing him to be 
his Slave, with the Gifts and Offices of his 
Country, to which he himfelf had no Title, 
but Brutus had every Title. This therefore 
was a Piece of impudent Civility, which Bru- 
tus could not but deteft, as it was a fhameful 
and melancholly Proof of Cc/uy's Tyranny, 
and of his own and Rome's Vaflalage. They 
were hollow and deftru&ive Favours ; and it 
was High-Treafon to be the Author of them : 
And was not Death Ggnally due to fuch High- 
Treafbn ? Brutus therefore made the propereft 

Citfar had ufurped the Roman World, and 
was cantoning it out to his Creatures as be- 
came a Tyrant, and paying his perfbnal Crea- 
tures with the publick Bounty. As the worft 
Tyrants muft have fome Friend ; and ss the 
beft Men do them the moft Credit, and bring 
them the moft Support, if fuch can be get ; 
oy/ir had Senfe enough to know, that he could 
never buy Brutus too dear, and fb paid him 
great Court. But Brutus faw the Tyrant's De- 
(ign, and his own Shame ; and every Civility 

B z was 

2.8 Giro's LETTERS. 

was ?- frefh Provocation. It was, as if a Thief 
breaking into a Ht>ufe to rob a Lady of her 
Jewels, fpoke thus to her Son ; SzV, ^ay permit 
?ne, or ajfift me to cut your Mothers Threat: and 
Jei^e her Tre/ifure, find I mil genercujly reward you 
with your Life, and lend you one or two of her Dia- 
monds to fpaikje in as long as I thinly fit- Could 
flich a villainous Civility as this engage the 
Son, efpecially a virtuous Son to any thing 
but Revenge ? And would not the only Way 
he could take it be the beft Way ? 

Ctcfar took from Brutus his Liberty, and his 
legal Title to his Life and Eftate, and gave 
him in Lieu of it a precarious one during his 
own arbitrary Will and Pleafure : Upon the 
fame Terms, he gave him fbme mercenary 
Employments, as Hire for that great good 
IVIan's AlTiftance to fupport his Tyranny. 
Could the great and free Soul of Brutus brook 
this ? Could Brutus be the Inftrument or Con- 
federate of lawlefs Luft ? Brutus receive Wa- 
ges from an Oppreflbr ! That great, virtuous, 
and popular Brutus ; who, if the Common- 
wealth had fubfifted, might from his Reputa- 
tion, Birth, Abilities, and his excellent Worth, 
have challenged the moil honourable and ad- 
vantageous Offices in it, without owing Thanks 

to drfar. 

So that the Injuries done by dcf/ir to Brutus, 
were great, heinous, and many ; and the Fa- 
vours none. All the Mercy fhewn by dcfar 
was Art and Affe&ation, and pure Self- Love. 
He had found in the f(cman People fo univer- 
fal a Deteftation of the bloody Meafures of 
Marias, Cinna, and Sylla : He law the whole 



Empire fb reduced and enervated by repeated 
Profcriptions and Maflacres, that he thought 
it his Intereft to eftablifh his new ere6ted Do- 
minion by different Meafures; and to recon- 
cile, by a falfe and hypocritical Shew of Cle- 
mency, the Minds of Men, yet bleeding with 
their late and former Wounds, to his Ufurpa- 
tion. That Cafyr, the ufurping and deftruc- 
tive Cefar 9 who had Slaughtered Millions, and 
wantonly made Havock of humane Race, had 
any other fort of iv/ercy, than the Mercy of 
Policy and Deceit, will not be pretended by 
any Man, that knows his and the Roman Story. 
Brutus therefore being the moil reverenced ana* 
popular Man in P^cme, it became the Craft of 
the Tyrant to make Brunts his Friend ; it was 
adding a fort of Sanclitv to a wicked Caufe : 
Whereas the Death of Brutus by defer, would 
have made C<cfar odious and dreadful even a- 
mongft his own Followers. 

But it is faid, that Brutus fubmitted to Cr/Vr, 
and was bound by his own Aft. Here rhe 
Allegation is true, but the Confequence falfe, 
Did not Brutus fubmit to C.c//rr, as innocent: 
Men are often forced to fubmit to the Gallics, 
the Wheel, and the Gibbet ? He fubmitted as 
a Man robbed and bound fubmits to a Houfe- 
breaker, who with a Piftol at his Heart, forces 
from him a Difcovery of his Treafure, and a 
Promife not to profecute him. Such Engage- 
ments are not only void in themfelves, but ag- 
gravate the Injury, and become themfelves frefh 
Injuries. By the Law of Nature and Reafon, 
as well as by the pofitive Inftitutions of every 
Country, all Promifes, Bonds, or Oaths, ex- 

B toned 


torted by Durefs, that is, by unlawful Imprl- 
fonrnents or Menaces, are not obligatory : h 
is, on the contrary, a Crime to fulfil them ; 
becaufe an Acquiekence in the Impofitions of 
lawlefs Villains, is abetting iawlefs Villains. 

Befides, k was not in the Power of Brutus 
to alter his Allegiance, which he had already 
rngaged to the Commonwealth, which had 
done nothing to forfeit the fame. For how 
lawful fbever it is for Subjects to transfer their 
Obedience to a Conqueror, in a Foreign War, 
when the former Civil Power can no longer 
protect them- ; or to a new Magiftrate made 
by Confent, when the old had forfeited or re- 
ilgned : It is ridiculous to fuppofe they can 
transfer it to a domeftick Tray tor and Robber ; 
\vho is under the lame Ties of Allegiance with 
themfclves, and by all Ab of Violence, Trea- 
ion, and Ufurpation, extorts a Submhlion from 
his opprefled Mailers and Fellow-Subjedb 
At lea ft fuch Allegiance can never be re en- 
gaged, whilft any Means in Nature are left 
to rid the World of fuch a Monller. 

It is a poor Charge againft -Brutus, that Cttfor 
intended him for his Heir and Succeffcr. Bru- 
tus (corned to fucceed a Tyrant : And what 
more glorious for Brutus, than thus to own 
that the dangerous and bewitching Profpecl: of 
the greateft Power that ever mortal Man pof- 
leffed, could not {hake the firm and virtuous 
Heart of Brutus, nor corrupt his Integrity ? 
To own that no perfonal Confiderations, even 
the higheft upon Earth, could reconcile him to 
a Tyrant ; and that he preferred the Liberty of 
the World, to the Empire of the World ! 



The above Charges therefore apainft 
can hardly come from any bur rrnfe. who, like 
the profane and flavifh /*#, would fell their 
Birthright for a Mefs of Pottage ; would h- 
cririce their Duty to their Interefl: ; and, un- 
concerned what becomes of the reft of Man- 
kind, would promote Tyranny, if they rnighc 
but fhine in its Trappings. But an honeft 
Mind, a Mind great and virtuous, fc>rns and 
hares all Ambition, but that of doing Good to 
Men, and to all Men ; it defpifes momentary 
Riches, and ill-gotten Power ; it enjoys no vi- 
cious and hard-hearted Pleafures, ariling from 
the Miseries of others : But it wifhes and en- 
deavours to procure impartial, difFufive, and 
uuiverfal Happinefs to the whole Earth. 

This is the Character of a great and good 
Mind ; and this was the great and fublime Soul 
of the immortal E- ntus. 

From this Mention of the (lippery and dan- 
gerous Favours of Tyrants, 1 would juit ob- 
ferve as I go along, that to any Man who va- 
lues Virtue or Liberty, Twenty Pounds a Year 
in a free Country, is preferable to the being 
Firft Minifter to the Great Tw>'t ; whofe Mini- . 
fters, by their Station and Allegiance, are ob- 
liged to be Oppreflors, and are often rewarded 
with the Row-ftring for their moil faithful Ser- 
vices to their Mailer, and for Services perhaps 
performed by his Command. 

But to return to Brutus : He had on his Side,' 
the Law of Self-Prcfervation, and the Spirit of 
the t(omnn Conflitutions, and of thole Laws of 
Liberty, which had fubfifted near Five Hun- 
dred Years, but were now deftroyed by the 

B 4 Ufurper, 

3^ Core's LETTERS. 

Ufurper. And during all thofe long and re- 
nowned Ages of Liberty, the deftroying of Ty- 
rants was ever accounted Glory and Heroifm. 
And, as every Law of the Commonwealth was 
againft Cafar, who was an open Enemy to the 
Commonwealth ; the Commonwealth, and all 
its Laws, were for Brutus, its greateft and beft 
Subject. O/4r*s Laws were none, and worie 
than none ; but the whole Life and Actions of 
Brutes were agreeable to the Confutation of hi's 

Suppofe Brutus, having kill'd O//JT-, had 
fucceeded him : He could not have been a 
greater Ufurper than C<efar was. And yet 
would he, in that Cafe, have been Jels facred 
and inviolable than dffar ? I hope the oppre> 
fing of Mankind, is not a lefs Crime than the 
killing of their Oppreffor. 

Our Brutus could not have greater Ties of 
Affe6Uon to the Tyrant C.cfn^, who ufurp'd 
Itynie, and deilroy'd its Liberties ; than the 
elder Brutus had to his own Sons, whom he put 
to Death, for a Plot to reftore the Tyrant 
Tartjuin, a Thoufand times more innocent than 
C.tpir : And as to the fudden manner of putting 
him to Death, Murtus Sc.tvo'a is immortalized 
for a bold Attempt, to kill by Surpize the 
Tufcan King Porfenna, who was a foreign Ene- 
my, making unjuft War upon Rome, to reftore 
Tarquin: And the like Immortality is beftow'd 
upon Judith, for killing Holophernes deceitfully, 
when it could be done no other Way. Now 
both thele Men were publick Enemies ; but 
neither of them a publick Traitor: C^far was 
both i and dolus an virtus quis in bofte require * 



Was ever Aratus mentioned with Reproach, or 
does Dr. Prideaux mention him with Reproach, 
for furprizing and expelling Xicocles, Tyrant of 
Scicyon^ or has he not gain'd deathlefs Fame^by 
that worthy A6tion ? And how comes the little 
Tyrant Nicocles to be lefs facred than the great 
Tyrant Ctfar, who did Millions of Mifchiefs 
more than Nicocles ? 

Let us now fee what Dr. Prideaux fays of 
Ctcfar. After having told us, that he was excited 
by Ambition and Malice, that he j-tiflly bad fir thr 
J(ewi r d thereof that Deftru&ron by which he 
fell ; the Do&or adds thefe Words : " He is 
" faid to have {lain Eleven Hundred and Nine- 
<c ty Two Thoufand Men ; which proves him: 
4W Co have been a terrible Scourge in the Hanc! 
" of God, for the Punifhment of the Wicked- 

** nefs of that Age And confequently, he 

" is to be reputed the greateft Pelt and Plague* 
<c that Mankind had therein : But notwith- 
" Handing this, his Actions have with many 
" acquired great Glory to his Name : Where- 
w as true Glory is due only to thofe who benefit^ 
*' not to thofe who deftroy Mankind." 

All this is hontftly and j'uftly faid ; but I' 
cannot reconcile it to what he has faid beFore ? 
about the Death of that Deftpoyer. Sure, up- 
on his own Principles, never was true Glory 
more due to any mortal Man, than to Urutus !' 
Mis Life and Studies were laid out in doing: 
good to Mankind whereas C<efar was indeed 
the greatcftPeft and Plague that Mankind had. 
For, befides all the Wickednefe he did with his 
own wicked Hands and Counfels, lie frcftrarcct 1 
all the Purpofes, Virtue, ar.d Bravery of the 

B. < eld; 

3 4 Cafe's LETTERS. 

eld fymtns, in eftablifhing Liberty, and in 
quering, polifhing, and fetting free great part 
of the barbarous World. All the Battles they 
fought, were fought for him i all the Blood 
they fpilt, was fpilt for him. Cfjft*- took all,, 
and over-turn'd all. Befides, all the number- 
3e(s and heavy Mifchiefs, that the Roman World 
fuffered from fucceeding Tyrants, were, in a 
great Meafure, owing to Cc/dr, who eftabliftied 
a Government by Tyrants. He was in this 
Senfe the Author of all the Barbarity, Rapine* 
and Butcheries, brought upon the Empire, by 
the Goths, Huns, Vandals, and other Barbarian?, 
who eafily mattered an Empire, weakened, and 
already almoft deftroyed, by the Folly, Mad- 
fiefs, Cruelty, and Prodigality of the Imperial 
Tyrants, his Succeffors. 

The Doclor takes Notice, that Caffius Par. 
menjis, being the only remaining Tyrannicide, 
was put to Death by the Command of Auguflus* 
And he obferves upon it, that Murder ieldom 
efcapes the vindictive Hand of God, and efpe- 
cially the Murder of Princes. All this may be 
true ; and yet, What is all this to Julius 
Ctffar ? If Cacfnr was a Prince, any Robber or 
Murderer that has Force and Villainy enough, 
may be a Prince; and Blood, arid Wounds* 
and Treafon, conftitute a Prince. Every 
Soldier in dyer's Army had as good a Right to 
the Government of tywe, as Cjjar had. \\'as 
bfs Stile like that of a Prince, or the Father of 
his Country, when he told his Soldiers, accord- 
ing to Petronius, and agreeably to what he did 


Ite furentes 

Ite mei comites, & cnufkm dicite ferro. 
Judice fortunn cndat alea. : Sumite bellum ; 
Inter tot fortes armatus nefcio vinci, 

Was not this fetting up openly Violence and 
the Sword for a Title ? If tyb %y had con- 
quer'd Scotland, with his barbarous Highland 
Hoft ; would he have been a Prince, Prince of 
Scotland ? Was Cromwell a Prince ? And would 
'Mtijjianello and Jack Straw, had they fucceeded, 
have been Princes ? 

As to Csfars Parts, they added vaftly to his 
Crimes, and were, as he applied them, only a 
great Capacity to do great Mifchref? Curfe en. 
bis Vinnes\ they have undone bis Country. Be- 
fides, there were doubtlefs many Men m %cme 9 
who had equal Parts, and infinitely more Merit. 
Brutus particularly -had The Devil has much 
greater Abilities than Captr had, and is alfb a 
Prince, and a very great Prince and the Exe- 
cutioner of God's Vengeance too, and the 
greateft Executioner : And yet are v/e not ex- 
prefly commanded to refift him ? The Plague 
is ofren the Inflrument of God's Judgment, are 
we therefore not to refill the Plague, by proper 
Diet and Antidotes ? The Bite of an Adder 
may be the Judgment of God ; Is it therefore a 
Sin to tread upon the Adder's Head and kill 
Jiim ? Or are Antidotes again ft all other Plagues 
lawful ; but none lawful againft the wcrft, the 
moft lading and deftru&ive of all Plagues, the 
Plague of Tyranny ? Or is an Adder lefs facred 
than a Tyrant ? And why ? I hope God made 
Adders as well as dtfar t A Storm may be 

\6 CAT 'O's LETTERS. v 


Judgment ; muTFwesriot: therefore difcharge a 
great Gun againft it, in order to difperfe it ? 
Or pray how comes one Sort of the Inftruments 
oF God's Judgment to be more facred thati 
another ? I am fure, God detefts Tyrants; and 
if they are God's Minifters, fb are Plagues and 
Serpents, and Ib is Satan himfelf. 

Brutus was one of the properefl Perfons to 
kill Ccfar ; as he was of all the Men in Rome 
the moft reverenced and popular. His Will 
dom, and Virtue, and publick Spirit, were 
known and adored : And the Confent of the 
Senate, and of all good Men, was with him; 
and none but the proflitute Creatures ofr Power, 
and thofe that ambitioufly fought it^ with their 
deceived and hireling Followers, eondemn'd 
Shun ; nor durft even they at firft. But Brutus 
out of his too great Goodnefs and Generofity, 
ipared Anthony, who ought to have accompanied 
Ctffar. But while the wild Anthony remain'd, 
the Root of the Evil was not quite pluck'd up, 
He began a new War upon his Country. The 
Senate however declar'd for the Tyrannicides, 
and declar'd Mark Anthony a. publick Enemy 
for making War upon Decimiis 'Brutus^ who was 
one of them ; and fent both the Confuls with 
ari: Army againft Anthony 9 , and in Defence of 
Brutus : And had it not been for the treache- 
rous and ungrateful young-C,r//tr, the Common- 
wealth would have been, in all likelihood, 
thoroughly edablirhed. But this- young Traitor,, 
like his Uncle Julius, turn'd the Arms of the? 
Commonwealth upon- the Commonweakh, and 
ipined with its Enemy Mark Anthony , to oppress 



The terrible Proceedings and bloody Pro- 
fcriptions that followed this Agreement are well 
known. Nor is it at all ftrange, that not one 
of the Tyrannicides furvived the Civil War, 
or died a natural Death. They were almofl: all 
Soldiers and Commanders, and were either 
moftly (lain in Battle, or by the Command of 
Conquerors : Their Enemies got the better, 
and they had no where to fly to. The World 
was pofiefs'd by the Ufarpers. And if Brutus- 
and Coffins kiird themselves, rather than fall 
into their Enemies Hands, and adorn the Tri- 
umphs of fuccefsful Traitors ; feveral of the 
Chiefs of the other Party did alfb kill themfelves 
during the War ; particularly Dolobella, and 
many of the Principals of his Party at Antiocb^. 
when Cajjlus befreg'd them there. Was this 
alfb a Judgment ? 

Brutus and CaJJius kilPd themfelves ! And 
what then ? Was it not done like fym/Ms, like 
virtuous old Romans, thus to prefer Death to 
Slavery ? It was a fyman Spirit, and thofe who 
poflefsYl it, did as much difdain to be Tyrants,, 
as to fubmit to Tyranny ; a Spirit that fcom ? d 
an ignominious Life, held only at the Mercy of 
an Ufurper ; or by flattering his Villainy and 
abetting his llfurpations ; and a Spirit, which 
thofe that want it can never admire. Great- 
Souls are not comprehended by Small ! It is; 
undoubtedly true, that by the Precepts of 
Chriftianity we not at Liberty to difpofe 
of our own Lives; but are to wait for the Call 
of Heaven to alleviate or end our Calamities :: 
But the Hi-mans had no other Laws to aft by,, 
but the natural Dictates of uacorrjpted 


fbn ? I call uon the great Pretenders to Philo- 
fophy and refined Morals, to affign one fair 
Reafon, why a Hpman y why Brutus and Ctijjius, 
fhould prefer a miferable Life to an honourable 
Death ; (hould bear Vaflalage.; Chains, and 
Tortures of Body or Mind, when all thofe 
Evils were to be avoided by doing only that, 
which by the Courfe of Nature every Man 
mud foon do. It is better not to be, than to 
be unhappy ; and the fevered: Judgment on the 
Wicked is, that they [hall live for ever, and 
can never end their Miferies : Much lefs can it 
be any Service to Society, to keep alive by Art 
or Force a melancholy, miferable, and ufelefs 
Member, grown perhaps burdenfbme too by 
Age and Infirmities. 

In this Light we mud view the Actions of 
the old fymans, guided only by Nature, and 
unreftrain'd from Suicide by any Principles of 
their Religion. We find, on the contrary, in 
Hiftorv, many Examples of the great and mag- 
nanimous Heroes of Antiquity, chunng volun- 
tary Death, often in themidft of Health, with 
the greateft Calmnefs of Mind \ fbmetimes 
from Satiety of Life and Glory, either when 
they could gain no more \ or apprehending that 
the future Caprices of unconftan: Fortune might 
fully the part ; and oftner ftill, to avoid fub- 
mittingto Difgraceand Servitude. 

A voluntary Death from fuch Motives as 
thefe, was, among the Ancients, one of the 
Paths to Immortality ; and, under certain Gir- 
cumflances, none but mean and abject Minds 
declined it. Roman Ladies often chofeit. And 
Qiieen c-f &gyt) chofc a lon.c [.-re- 



fnedltated Death, rather than be led Captive to 
Upme. And when Per fens fent to P. &miii&i 
befeeching him with all Earneftnefs, That fo 
great a Prince, late Lord of Macedon, and good 
part of Greece, might not be led, like a SLve^ 
in Chains at his Chariot Wheels, to grace his 
Triumph ; he received this fhort Anfvver, that 
It was in bis own Power to prevent it : Thus fig. 
nifying to him, that he deserved the Difgrace, 
if he would live to bear it 

Even under the Difpenfations of a new Reli- 
gion, which God Almighty condefcended per- 
fbnally to teach Mankind, Humane Nature 
has prevailed fo far over revealed Truths, that 
in Multitudes of Inftances a voluntary Death is 
approved, at leaft not condemned, by almoft 
the greateft part of the World. Men in ex- 
treme Pain and Agonies do often refufe Phy- 
fick, and the Means of preserving their Lives, 
Days, Weeks, and Months longer. Men in 
lingring and defperate Diftempers go, uncalPd, 
to mount a Breach in a Siege, or into the mid ft 
of the Battle, to meet certain Death. Great 
Commanders have done the fame, when the 
Day went againft them, rather than furvive 
being beaten. Commanders of Ships have blown 
up themfelves and their Ships, rather than be 
the Prey of the Conqueror. Towns beiieged, 
when they could defend themfelves no longer, 
have fir il burnt theirTown, and then precipitated 
themfelves defperately amongft their Enemies, 
to procure an honourable Death and Revenge. 
Even .common Malefactors often chufe to dye, 
rather than difcover their Accomplices :, and al- 
ways get Credit by doing To. And the Stories 



of the Dec//, of Catanus, of the great Cato, and 
even of Otho, and many other of the greac 
Examples of Antiquity, made immortal by this 
A& of ancient Heroifrn, are ftill read with 

^ I fhall, for a Conclusion of this long Paper, 
give my Readers the Sentiments of the excellent 
Mr. Cow ley, concerning Brutus and C^rr, in his 
Ode, intitled B I(VTU 5. 

Can we [land by and fee 
Our Mother roWd, nnd bound, and ravffid be^. 

Yet not to her Ajfiftance flir, 

Pleased with the Strength and Beauty cfthe fyvijker * 
Qr fliall we fear to kill him^ If before 

The cnncelTd Name of Friend he bore ? 
Ingrateful Brutus do they call ? 
Ingrttteful Caefar, who could Rome inthrall 
An Aft. more barbarous and unnatural 
(In tb' exaft Batlance of true Virtue tried) 
Than his Succeffor Nero'/ Parricide I 

t Mercy could the Tyrant's Life deferve 

From him who killed himfelf rather than ferve ? 


What Joy can humane Things to us afford^ 
tftfjen we fee ferifo thus by odd Events, 
By ill Men and wretched Accidents, 
The bcft Caufe, andbeft Man that ever drew a Sword ft 

When we fee 

The falfe O6i:aviu5 and wild Anthony, 
God-fify, conquer Thee ? 

I am, &c, 
S I 

's LETTERS. 41 


I Intend to entertain my Readers with Dif- 
fertatlons upon Liberty in fome of my liic- 
ceeding Letters ; and (hall, as a Preface to that 
Defign, endeavour to prove in this, that Li- 
berty is the unalienable Right of all Man- 

All Governments, under whatfbever Form 
they are adminiftred, ought to be adminiftred 
for the Good of the Society ; and when they 
are otherwife adminiftered, they ceafe to be 
Government, and become Usurpation. This 
being the End of all Government, even the 
mod Defpotick have this Limiration to their 
Authority : And, in this Refpe6t, the only 
Difference between the moft abfblute Princes 
and limited Magiftrates is, that in free Go- 
vernments there are Checks and Reftraints ap- 
pointed and cxprefled in the ConfHtution it 
felf ; and in defpotick Governments, the Peo- 
ple fubmit themfelves to the Prudence and Dif- 
cretion of the Prince alone : But there is ftill 
this tacit Condition annex'd to his Power, that 
he muft acl by the unwritten Laws of Dif- 
cretion and Prudence, and employ it for the 
fole Intereft of the People, who give it to him, 
or Tufter him to enjoy it, which they ever do 
for their own Sakes. 

Even in the moft free Governments, fingle 
Men are often trufted with difcretionary Power: 


4^ C,4fO's LETTERS. 

But they mud anfwer for that Difcretion to 
thofe that truft them. Generals of Armies, 
and Admirals of Fleets have often unlimited 
Commiilions, and yet are they not anfwerable 
for the prudent Execution of thofe CommiiTions? 
The Council of Ten, in Vwce, have abfolute 
Power over the Liberty and Life of every Man 
in the State : But if they fhould make ufe of that 
Power to flaughter, abolifh, or enflave the Se- 
nate and, like the Decsmviri of fyme, to fet 
up tbemfelves ; would it not be lawful for 
thofe, who gave them that Authority for other 
Ends, to put thofe Ten unlimited Traitors to 
Death, any Way they could ? The Crown of 
England has been for the moft part enrrufled 
with the fble Difpofal of rhe Money given for 
the Civil Lift, and often with the Application 
of great Sums raifed for other publick Ufes; 
and yet, if the Lord-Treafurer had applied this 
Money to the Dishonour of the King, and 
Ruin of the People, (rho' by the private Di- 
rection of the Crown it feif) will any Man fay 
that he ought not to have compenfated for his 
Crime, by the Lois of his Head and his 
Eflate ? 

I have Aid thus much, to fhew that no Go- 
vernment can be abfolute in the Senfe, or ra- 
ther Nonfenfe, of our modern Dogmati?,ers, 
and indeed in the Senfe too commonly pradtifed. 
No barbarous Conqueft : no extorted Content 
of miierable People, fubmitting to the Chain 
to efcape the Sword \ no repeated and heredita- 
ry A6h of Cruelty, tho' called Succeilion ; no 
Continuation of Violence, tho' named Pre- 
fcription j can alter, much lefs abrogate thefe 

fund a- 


fundamental Principles of Government it ft If, 
or make the Means of Prefervation the Means 
of Deftru6Hon, and render the Condition of 
Mankind infinitely more miierablc than that of 
the Beafts of the Field, by the fole Privilege of 
that Reafbn which diftinguifhes them from the 
Brute Creation. 

Force can give no Title but to Revenge, and 
to the life of Force again : Nor could it ever en- 
ter into the Heart of any Man, to give to another 
power over him, for any other End but to be 
cxercifed for his own Advantage : And it there 
are any Men mad or foolifh enough to pretend 
to do otherw'ife, they ought to be treated as 
Idiots and Lunaticks ; and the Reafbn of their 
Condu6i muft be derived from their Folly and 

All Men are born free : Liberty is a Gift: 
which they receive from God h'mfelf ; nor can 
they alienate the fame by Content, tho' poilibly 
they may forfeit it by Crimes. No Man has 
Power over his own Life, or to difpofe of his 
own Religion, and cannot ccnfcquently transfer 
the Power of either to any body eife : Much 
lefs can he give away the Lives and Liberties, 
Religion or acquired Property of his Pofterity, 
who will be born as free as he himfelf was born, 
and can never be bound by his wicked and ridi- 
culous Bargain. 

The Right of the Magiftrate arifes only from 
the Right of private Men to defend therofelves, 
to repel Injuries, and to punifh thole who com- 
mit them : That Right being conveyed by the 
Society to their publick Reprefentarive, he can 
execute the fame no further than theBenefitand 


44 Giro's LETTERS. 

Security of that Society requires he fliould. 
When he exceeds his Commiilion, his Acls are 
as extrajudicial as are thofe of any private 
Officer ufurping an unlawful Authority, that is, 
they are void ; and every Man is anfwerable 
for the Wront* he does, A Power to da 
Good, can never become a Warrant for doing 

But here arifes a grand Queftion, which has 
perplexed and puzzled the greateft part of 
Mankind : And yet, I think, the Anfwer to it 
is eafy and obvious. The Queftion is, Who 
(hall be Judge whether the MagHfrate a6h juft- 
ly, and purfues his Truft ? To this it is juftly 
faid, that if thofe who complain of him are to 
judge him, then there is a fettled Authority 
above the chief Magiftrate, which Authority 
mud be itfelf the chief Magiftrate ; which is 
contrary to the Supposition ; and the fame 
QuefHon and Difficulty will recur again upon 
thi? new Magiftr'acy'. All this I own to be 
abfurd , and I aver it to be at lead as ab- 
furd ro affirm, that the Perfbn accufed is to 
be the decifive Judge of his own Actions, when 
it is certain he will always judge and determine 
in his own Favour ; and thus the whole Race 
of Mankind will be left helplefs under the 
heavieft Injuftice, Oppreilion and Mifery that 
can afflict humane Nature. 

But if neither Magiftrates, nor they who 
complain of Magiftrates, and are aggriev'd by 
them, have a Right to determine decifively, 
the one for the other ; and if there is no 
common eftablifh'd Power, to which both are 
fubjedl : Then every Man interefted in the 



Succefs of the Conteft, mud a& according to 
the Light and Dictates of his own Conference, 
and inform it as well as he can. Where no 
Judge is or can be appointed, every Man muft 
be his own ; that is, -when there is no dated 
Judge upon Earth, we muft have Recourfe to 
Heaven, and obey the Will of Heaven, by 
declaring our felves on that which we think the 
jufter Side. 

If the Senate and People of Pome had dif- 
fered irreconcileably, there could have been no 
common Judge in the World between them ; 
and confequently no Remedy but the lad : for 
that Government confifting in the Union of 
the Nobles and the People, when they differed, 
no Man could determine betv/een them : and 
therefore every Man muft have been at Liber- 
ty to provide for his own Security, and the 
general Good, in the beft Manner he was able. 
In that Cafe the common Judge ceafing, every 
one was his own : The Government becoming 
incapable of acYing, differed a political Demife : 
The Conftitution was diflblved, and there be- 
ing no Government in Being, the People were 
in the State of Nature again. 

The fame muft be true, where two Abfblute 
Princes, governing a Country, come to quar- 
rel, as fometimes two C^cfms in Partnerfhip did, 
efpecially towards the latter End of the Rgman 
Empire ; or where a Sovereign Council govern 
a Country, and their Votes come equally to 
be divided. In fucb a Circumftance, every 
Man muft take that Side which he thinks molt 
for the Publick Good, or chufe any proper 
Meafures for his own Security. For, if I owe 



my Allegiance to two Princes agreeing, or to 
the Major'ty of a Council ; when between 
thefe Pr4nces there is no longer any Union, nor 
in that Council anv Majority, no Submiilion 
can be due to that which is not ; and the Laws 
of Nature and Self prefervation muft take place, 
where thrre are no other. 

The Cafe is ftill the frr-e, when there is 
any, D.ifpute about rhe Titles of Abfblute 
Princes, who govern u;dept ndently on the 
States of a Country, and call none. Here too 
every Man mull judge for himfelf what Party 
he will take, and to which of the Titles he 
will adhere; and the like private Judgment 
muft guide him, whenever a Queftion arifes 
whether the faid Prince is an Idiot or Luna- 
tick, and confequently whether he is capable 
or incapable of Government. Where there 
are no States, there can be no othei Way of 
judging ; but by the Judgment of private Men, 
the Capacity of the Prince muft be judged, 
and his Fate determined. Lunacy* and Id iot- 
ifm are, I think, allowed by all to be certain 
DifquaHrications for Government j and indeed 
they are as much To, as if he were deaf, blindj 
and dumb, or even dead. He who can neither 
execute an Office, nor appoint a Deputy, is 
not lit for one. 

Now I would fain know, why private Men 
may not as well ufe their Judgment in an In-" 
ftance that concerns them more; I mean that 
of a Tyrannical Government, of which they 
hourly feel the fad Effects, and forrowful Proofs ; 
whereas they have not by far the equal Means 
of coming to a Certainty about the natural 




Incapacity of their Governor. The Perfonsof 
great Princes are known but to few of their 
Subjects, and their Parts to much fewer and 
feveral Princes have, by the Management of 
their Wives, or Minifters, or Murderers, reign'd 
a good while after they were dead. In Truth, 
I think 'tis as much the Bufmefs and Right of 
the People to judge whether their Prince 'be 
good or bad, whether a Father or an Enemy, 
as to judge whether he be dead or alive ; un- 
lefs it be (aid (as many fuch wife Things have 
been faid) that they may judge whether he 
can govern them, but not whether he does ; 
and jhat it behoves them to put the Admini- 
ftration in wifer Hands, if he is a harmlefs 
Fool, but it is impious to do it, if he is only 
a deftruclive Tyrant ; that Want of Speech is 
a Difqualification, but Want of Humanity 

That Subjects were not to judge of their 
Governors, or rather for themfelves in ihe Bu- 
finefs of Government, which of all humane 
Things concerns them moft, was an Abfurdity 
that never entered into the Imagination of the. 
wile and honeft Ancients : Who, following for 
their Guide that everlafting Reafon, which is r 
the bed and only Guide in humane Affairs, 
earned Liberty and humane Happinefs, the le- 
gitimate Offspring and Work of Liberty, to 
the higheft Pitch that they were capable of ar- 
riving at. But the above Abfurdity, with ma- 
ny others as monftrous and mifchievous, were 
rcferved for the Difcovery of a few wretched 
and dreaming Mahometan and Chriftian Monks, 



who, ignorant of all Things, were made, or 
made themfelves, the Dire&ors of all Things ; 
and bewitching the World with holy Lies, and 
unaccountable Ravings, drefTed up in barba- 
rous Words and uncouth Phrafes, bent all their 
Fairy-Force agatnft common Senfr and com- 
mon Liberty and Truth, and founded a perni- 
cious, abfurd, and vifionary E^mpire upon their 
Ruins. Syftems without Senfe, Prcoofitions 
without Truth, Religion without Reafon, a 
rampant Church without Charity, Severity 
without Juftice, and Government without Li- 
berty or Mercy, were all the blefTed Handy- 
Works of thefe religious Madmen, and godly 
Pedants ; who, by pretending to know the 
other World, cheated and confounded this. 
Their Enmity to common Senfe, and W 7 ant of 
it* were their Warrants for governing rhe Senfe 
of all Mankind : By Lying, they were thought 
the Champions of the Truth ; and by their 
Fooleries, Impieties, and Cruelty, were e- 
fteemed the Favourites and Confidents of the 
God of Wifdom, Mercy, and Peace. 

Thefe were the Men, who having demo- 
limed all Senfe and humane Judgment, firft 
made it a Principle, that People were not a 
Judge of their Governor and Government, nor to 
meddle with it, nor to preserve themfelves from 
publick Deilroyers, falfely calling themfelves 
Governors : And yet thefe Men, who thus fet up 
for the Support and Defenders of Government, 
without the common Honefty of diftinguifhing 
the Good from the Bad, and Protection from 
Murder and Depredation, were at the fame 



time themfelves the conftant and avowed 
Troublers of every Government which they 
could not direcl: and command ; and every 
Government, however excellent, which did not 
make their Reveries its own Rules, and them- 
felves alone its peculiar Care, has been ho- 
noured with their profefled Hatred ; whilft Ty- 
rants and publick Butchers, who flattered them, 
have been deified. This was the poor State of 
Chriftendom, before the Reformation, and I wi{h 
I could fay, of no Parts of it fince. 

This barbarous Anarchy in Reafbning and 
Poljticks, has made it neceflary to prove Pro- 
pofitions which the Light of Nature had de- 
monftrated. And, as the Apoftles were forced 
to prove to the mifled Gentiles, that they were 
no Gods which were made with Hands ; I am 
put to prove, that the People have a Right to 
judge, whether their Governors were made for 
them, or they for their Governors ? Whether 
their Governors have neceflfary and natural 
Qualifications ? Whether they have any Go- 
vernors or no ? And whether, when they have 
none, every Man muft not be his own ? I 
therefore return to Inftances and Illuftrations 
from Fab, which cannot be denied, tho' Pro- 
pofitions as true as Fa6ls may, by thofe efpe- 
cially who are defective in Point of Modefly 
or Difcernment. 

In Poland, according to the Conftitution of 
that Country, it is neceffary, we are told, that, 
in their Diets, the Confent of every Man pre- 
fent muft be had to make a Refolve effectual : 
And therefore, to prevent the cutting of Peo- 
ple's Throats, they have no Remedy but to 

VOL. II. C cue 

5 o Giro's LETTERS. 

cut the Throats of one another ; that is, they 
mud pull out their Sabres, and force the re- 
fra&ory Members (who are always the Mi- 
nority) to fubmit. And amongft us in England^ 
where a Jury cannot agree, there can be no 
Verdit ; and fo they mud fad till they do, or 
till one of them is dead, and then the Jury is 

This from the Nature of Things themfelves, 
-mud be the conftant Cafe in all Difputes be- 
tween Dominion and Property. Where the 
Entered of the Governors and that of the Go- 
verned clalh, there can be no dated Judge be- 
tween them : To appeal to a Foreign Pov/er, 
Is to give up the Sovereignty ; and for either 
Side to fubmit, is to give up the Quedion : 
And therefore, if they themfelves do not ami- 
cably determine the Difpute between them- 
felves, Heaven alone mud. In fuch Cafe, Re- 
courfe mud be had to the firft Principles of 
Government itfelf ; which being a Depamire 
from the State of Nature, and a Union of ma- 
ny Families forming themfelves into a political 
Machine for mutual Protection and Defence, 
it is evident, that this form'd Relation can 
continue no longer than the Machine fubiiils 
and can acl: ; and when it does nor 3 the Indi- 
viduals mud return to their former Srare again. 
No Conditution can provide againd what will 
happen, when that Conditution is diflblved. 
Government is only an Appointment of one or 
more Perfons, to do certain Actions for the 
Good and Emolument of the Society , and 
if the Perfons thus intruded, will not act at 
or a6t contrary to their Trud, their Power 



inuft return of Courfe to thofe who gave 

Suppofe, for Example, the Grand Monarch 
had bought a neighbouring Kingdom and all 
the Lands in it, from the Courtiers, and the 
Majority of the People's Deputies, and amongft 
the reft, the Church-Lands, into the Bargain, 
with the Confent of their Convocation or Sv- 
nod, or by what other Name that AfTembly 
was called ; Would the People and Clergy 
have thought obliged to have made 
good this Bargain, if they could have help'd 
it ? I dare fay neither would ; but, on the 
contrary, that the People would have had the 
Countenance of thefe reverend Patriots to have 
told their Reprfentatives in round Terms, that: 
they were chofen to acr. for the Intereil of thofe 
that fent them, and not for their own ; that 
their Power was given them to protect and de- 
fend their Country, and not to fell and enflave 
k. . 

This Supposition, as wild as it feems, yet 
is not abfblutely and univerfally impoifible. 
King John actually fold the Kingdom of Eng- 
land to his Holinefs : And there are People in, 
all Nations ready to fell their Country at 
Home \ and fuch can never have any Princi- 
ples to withhold them from felling it Abroad. 

It is foolifh to fay, that this Doctrine can 
be mifchievous to Society, at leaft in any 
Proportion to the wild Ruin and fatal Cala- 
mities which rnuft befal, and do befal the 
World, where the contrary Doctrine is main- 
tained : For, all Bodies of Men fubfilling upon 
their own Subftance, or upon the Profits of 

C 'L their 


their Trade and Induflry, find their Account 
fb much in Eafe and Peace, and have juftly 
fiich terrible Apprehenfions of Civil Difbrders, 
which deftroy every Thing they enjoy ; that 
they always bear a Thoufand Injuries before 
they return one, and (land under the Burthens 
as long as they can bear them, as I have in 
another Letter obferved. 

What with the Force of Education, and the 
Reverence which People are taught, and ha ye 
been always ufed to pay to Princes; what with 
the perpetual Harangues of Flatterers, the gau- 
dy Pageantry and Outfide of Power, and its 
gilded Enfigns, always glittering in their Eyes; 
what with the Execution of the Laws in the 
Ible Power of the Prince ; what with all the 
regular Magiftrates, pompous Guards and 
Handing Troops, with the fortified Towns, 
the Artillery, and all the Magazines of War, 
at his Difpofal ; befides large Revenues, and 
Multitudes of Followers and Dependents, to 
fupport and abet all he does '. Obedience to 
Authority is fb well fecured, that it is wild to 
imagine that any Number of Men, formidable 
enough to difturb a fettled State, can unite to- 
gether and hope to overturn it, till the publick 
Grievances are fb enormous, the OpprefHon fb 
great, and the Difaffe6Hon fb universal, that 
there can be no Queftion remaining, whether 
their Calamities are real or imaginary, and 
whether the Magiftrate has protected or en- 
deavoured to deftroy his People. 

This was the Cafe of Richard the Second, 
Edward the Second, and James the Second, 
and will ever be the Cafe under the fame 



Circumftances. No Society of Men will groan 
under Oppreffions longer than they know how 
ro throw them off whatever unnatural Whim- 
fies and Fa ; r Motions idle and ledentary Bab- 
blers mav utter frcia Colleges and Cloifters ; 
and teach to others for vile Self-ends, ~D ;h ines, 
which the/ th^'.rQlves are famous for not: 

Upon this Principle of People's Judging for 
the: selves, and refilling lawlefs Force, (lands 
our late happy %evolntion, and with ir the juil 
and rightful Title of our mod excellent So- 
vereign King Gecrg? 9 to the Scepter of thefe 
Realms ; a Scepter which he has, and I doubt: 
not wtll ever fway, to his own Honour, and 
the Honour, Protection^ and Proiperity of us 
his People, 

I on. 

THere is no Government now upon Earth^ 
which owes its Formation or Beginning 
to rhe immediate Revelation of God, or can 
derive its Exiilence from fuch Revelation : It 
is certain, on the contrary, that the Rife and 
Inftitution or Variation of Government, from 
Time to Time, is within tfce Memory of Men 
or of Hiftories ; and that every Government, 
which we know at this Day in the World, was 
eftablifhed by the Wifdom and Force of raeer 
Men, and by the Concurrence of Means and 

C Caufes 


Caufes evidently humane. Government there- 
fore can have no Power, but fuch as Men can 
.give, and fuch as they actually did gix r e, or 
permit for their own Sakes : Nor can any Go- 
vernment be in Facl: erected but by Confent, 
if not of every Subject, yet of as many as 
can compel rhe reft ; fince no Man, or Coun- 
cil of Men, can have perfbnal Strength enough 
to govern Multitudes by Force, or can claim 
to themfelves and their Families any Superi- 
ority, or natural Sovereignty over their Fel- 
low-Creatures naturally as good as them. Such 
Strength, therefore, wherever it is, is civil and 
accumulative Strength, derived from the Laws 
and Conilitutions of the Society, of which the 
Governors "themfelves are but Members. 

So that to know the JurifclicHon of Gover- 
mrs, and irs Limits ; we muft have recount 
to the Infritution of Government, and afcertain 
thofe Limits by the Meafure of Power, which 
Men in the State of Nature have over them- 
felves and one another: And as no Man can 
rake from many, who are ftronger than him, 
what they have no Mind to give him , and he 
who has not Confent mud have Force, which 
is itfelf the Confent of the Stronger ; fo no Man 
can give to another either what is none of his 
own, or what in its own Nature is Inseparable 
from himfelf ; as his Religion particularly is. 

Every Man's Religion is his own : nor can 
the Religion of any Man, of what Nature or 
Figure foever, be the Religion of another 
Man, unlefs he alfb chufes it , which A6Hon 
utterly excludes all Force, Power, or Govern- 
ment, Religion can never come without Con- 


viclion, nor can Conviction come from Civil 
Authority ; Religion, which is the Fear of 
God, cannot be Tub] eel: to Power, which is the 
Fear of Man. It is a Relation between God 
and our own Souls only, and confifts in a Dif- 
pofition of Mind to obey the Will of our great 
Creator, in the Manner which we think mod 
acceptable to him. It is independent upon all 
humane Directions, and fuperior to them ; and 
confcquently uncontroulable by external Force, 
which cannot reach the free Faculties of the 
Mind, or inform the Undcrftanding, much left 
convince it. Religion therefore, which can never 
bei(ubjscttQ the Jurifcli&ion of another, can never 
be alienated to another, or put in his Power. 

Nor has any Man in the State of Nature, 
Power over his own Life, or to take away the 
Life of another, uniefs to defend his own, or 
what is as much his own, namely his Property. 
This Power therefore, which no Man has, no 
Man Can transfer to another. 

Nor cp'jld any Man, in the State of Nature, 
have a Right to violate the Property of another, 
that is, what another had acquired by his Arc 
or Labour ; or to interrupt him in his Induflry 
and Enjoyments, as long as he himfelf was not 
injured by that Induflry and thofe Enjoyments. 
No Man therefore could transfer to the Ma- 
gi (Irate that Right which he had not himfelE 

No Man in his Senfes v/as ever fb wild as to 
give an unlimited Power to another to take a- 
way his Life, or the Means of Livings accord- 
ing to the Caprice, Pailion, and unreafbnable 
Pleafure of that other : But if any Man re- 
ftrained himfeif from any Part of his Pleafures, 

C 4 or 


or parted with any Portion of his Acquisitions, 
he did it with the honeft Purpofe of enjoying 
the reft with the greater Security, and always 
in Subiervlency to his own Happinefs, which 
no Man will or can willingly and intentionally 
give away to any other whatfcever. 

And if any one, through his own Inadver- 
tence, or by the Fraud or Violence of another, 
can be drawn into fb foolifli a Contra6t, he is 
reiievable by the eternal Laws of God and 
Reafon. No Engagement that is wicked and 
unjuir, can be executed without Injuftice and 
Wickedncfs : This is fb true, that I queftion 
.whether there be a Confritution in the World 
which does not afford, or pretend to afford, a 
Remedy for relieving ignorant, dift reflect and 
unwary Men, trepaned into fiich Engagements 
by artful Knaves, or frightned into them by 
imperious ones. So that here the Laws of Na- 
ture and general Reafon fuperfede the municipal 
and poiitive Laws of Nations ; and no where 
oftner than in England. What elfe was the 
Deiign, and ought to be the Bufmefs of our 
Courts of Equity ? And I hope whole Coun- 
tries and Societies are rio more .exempted from 
the Privileges and Protection of Reafbn and 
Equity, than are private Particulars. 

Here then is the natural Limitation of the 
Magiilrate's Authority : He ought not to take 
what no Man ought to give, nor exact what 
no Man ought to perform : All he has is given 
him, and thole that gave it mud: judge of the 
Application. In Government there is no fuch 
Relation as Lord and Slave, lawlefs Will and 
blind Submiffion j nor ought tobeamongftMen: 



But the only Relation is that of Father and 
Children, Patron and Client, Protection and 
Allegiance, Benefaclion and Gratitude, mutual 
AffedHon and mutual Ailiftance. 

So that the Nature of Government does not 
alter the natural Right of Men to Liberty,, 
which in all political Societies is alike their due ; 
But (brae Governments provide better thaa 
others, for the Security and impartial Difrribu- 
fion of that Right. There has been always 
fuch a conftant and certain Fund of Corruption 
and Malignity in humane Nature, that it has 
been rare to find that Man, whofe Views ancf 
Happinefs did not center in the Gratification of 
his Appetites, and worft Appetites, his Luxury, 
his Pride, his Avarice and Luft of Power ; and 
who confidered any publick Truft repofed in, 
him, with any other View, than as the Means 
to fatiate fuch> unruly and dangerous Dehres ! 
And this has been moft eminently true of Great 
Men, and thofe who afpired to Dominion, 
They were firfl made Great for the Sake of the 
Publick, and afterwards at its Expence. And 
if they had been content to have been moderate- 
Traytors^ Mankind would have been dill mo- 
derately happy ; but their Ambition and Trea- 
Ion obferving no Degree?, there was no Degree 
of Vilenefs and Mifery, which the poor People- 
did net often feeL 

^The Appetites therefore of Men, especially 
of Great Men, are carefully to be obferved 
and fbpp'd, or elfe they wiil never (lop them- 
frives. The Experience of ev.v. ry Age con- 
vincf.s u.5, that we muft not i'-idge of Men by 
wtiat ih-jy ought to do, but by what they will 

C 5 


and all Hiftory affords but few Inftances of 
Men trufted with great Power without abuilng 
it, when with Security they could. The Ser- 
vants of Society, that is to fay, its Magiftrates, 
did^ almoft univerfally ferve it by feizing it, 
felling it, or plundering it ; efpecially when 
they were left by the Soc'ety unlimited as to 
their Duty and Wages. In that Cafe, thefe 
Faithful Stewards generally took all ; and being 
Servants, made Slaves of their M afters. 

For thefe Reafons, and convinced by woful 
and eternal Experience, Societies found ft ne- 
ceflary to lay Reftraints upon their Magi (bates 
or pubiick Servants, and to put Checks upon 
thole who would otherwife put Chains upon 
them ; and therefore theft Societies fer them- 
felves to model and form national Conftitutions 
with fuch Wifdom and Art, that the pubiick 
Intereft fhould be confulted and carried on at 
the fame Time, when thofe entrufted with the 
Adminiftration of it were confulting and pur- 
fuing their own. 

Hence grew the DiftincHon between Arbf- 
trary and Free Governments : Not that more or 
lefs Power was veiled i n the one than in the other ; 
nor that either of them lay under lefs or more 
Obligations, in jullice, to protect their Sub- 
jects, and ftudy their Eaie, Profperity and Se- 
ciiriry, and to- watch for the fsm-e. But the 
Power and Sovereignty of MagTftrates in free 
Countries was fo qualified, and fb divided into 
different Channels, and^ committed to the Di- 
redlion of fb many different Men, with diffe- 
rent Interefts and Views, that the Majority of 
them could feldora or never find their Account 


in betraying their Truft in fundamental In- 
ftances. ' Their Emulation, Envy, Fear, or 
Intereft, always made them Spies and Checks 
upon one another. By all which fvleans, the 
People have often come at the Heads of thofe 
who forfeited their Heads, by betraying the 

In defpotick Governments, Things went far 
otherwife, thole Governments having been fra- 
med otherwife ; if the fame could be called 
Governments, where the Rules of publick 
Power were dilated by private and lawleis 
Luft ; where Folly and Madnefs often fway'd 
the Scepter, and blind Rage weilded the Sword, 
The whole Wealth of the Stale, with its Civil 
or Military Power, being in the Prince, the 
People could have no Remedy but Death and 
Patience, while he opprefled them by the 
Lump, and butchefd thc-m by Thoufands i 
llnlefs perhaps the Ambition or perfbnal Re- 
fentments of fbme of the Inftruments of his 
Tyranny procured a Revolt, which rarely 
mended their Condition. 

The only Secret therefore in forming a Free 
Government, is to make the Intereils of the 
Governors and of the Governed the fame, as 
far as humane Policy can contrive. Liberty 
cannot be preserved any other Way. Men have 
long found, from the Weaknefs an^ Depravity 
of themfclves and one another, that moit Men 
will acSl for Intereflr, againft Duty, as often as. 
they dare. So that to engage them to their 
Duty, Intereft mull be linked to the Observance 
of it, and Danger to the Breach of it, Per- 
lbnal Advantages and Security, mud be t. 


<?o C A T O's L E T T E R S. 

Rewards of Duty and Obedience ; and Dif- 
grace, Torture, and Death, the Punifhment of 
Treachery and Corruption. 

Humane WifHom has yet found out but one 

certain Expedient to effect this ; and that is, 

to have the Concerns of all directed by all, as 

far as poffibly can be : And where the Perfons 

interefted are too numerous, or live too diftant 

to meet together on all Emergencies, they muft 

moderate Neceffity by Prudence, and acl: by 

Deputies whofe Intereft is the fame with their 

own, and whofe Property is fo intermingled 

with theirs, and fo engaged upon the fame 

Bottom, that Principals and Deputies muft 

Irand and fall together. When the Deputies 

thus a& for their own Intereft, by acting for 

the Intereft of their Principals ; when they can 

make no Law but what they themfelves, and 

their Pofterity, mud be fcbjecfc to ; when they 

can give no Money, but what they muft pay 

their Share of; and when they can da no Mi 

chief, but what muft fall upon their own Heads 

in common with their Countrymen; their Prin~ 

cipals may then expect good Laws, little Mi 

chief, and much Frugality. 

Here therefore lies the great Point of Nicety- 
and Care, in forming the Conftitution, that the- 
Perfons entrufted and reprefeming, fhall either- 
never have an Intereft detached from the Per- 
fons entrusting and reprefented, or never the 
Means t:> purfue it. Now to corn pa Is this great- 
Point efk % 6i:ualiy, no other Way is left,, but one- 
of thefe two, or rather both ; namely, to make 
the Deputies fo numerous, that that there may 
be no. Poiiibility of corrupting the Majority ;, 


or, by changing them fo often, that there is no 
fufficient Time to corrupt them, and to carry 
the Ends of that Corruption. The People may 
be very fure, that the major Part of their De- 
puties being honeft, will keep the reft fo ; and 
that they will all be honeft, when they have 
no Temptations to be Knaves. 

We have fbme Sketch of this Policy in the 
Conftitudon of our leveral great Companies, 
where the general Court, ccmpos'd of all its 
Members, conftitutes the Legiflature, and the 
Confent of that Court is the Sanction of their 
Laws ; and where the Adminiftration of their 
Affairs is put under the Conduct of a certain 
Number chofen by ihe Whole. Here every 
Man concerned, faw the Neceffity of fecuring 
Part of their Property, by putting the Perfons 
intrufted under proper Regulations ; however 
remifs they may be in taking Care of the Whole; 
And if Provihon had been made, that, as a- 
third Part of the Directors are to go out every 
Year, (b none fhould ftay in above three, (as I 
am told, was at firlt promifcd) all Jugling with 
Courtiers, and raifmg great Eitates by Con- 
federacy, at the Expence of the Company, 
had, in a great Meafare been prevented ; tho j 
there were ftill wanting other Limttation.%. 
which might have efte&uali^ obviated all thofe 

This was the ancient Conftitution of England? 
Our Kings had neither Revenues large enough,, 
nor Offices gainful and numerous enough in, 
their Diipofai, to corrupt any coniiderable 
Number of Members ; nor any Force to* 
them. : Beiides, the fame Parliament 



feldom or never met twice : For, the ferving 
in it being found an Office of Burden and no 
Profit, it was thought reafbnable that all Men 
qualified fhould, in their Turns, leave their 
Families and domeftick Concerns, to ferve the 
Publick ; and their Boroughs bore their Charges, 
The only Grievance then was, that they were 
not called together often enough, to redrefs the 
Grievances which the People fuffered from the 
Court during their Interraiinon : And there- 
fore, a Law was made in Edward, the Third's 
Time, that Parliaments fhould be held once a 

But this Law, like the Queen's Peace, did 
not execute it felf ; and therefore the Court 
leldom convened them, bur when they wanted 
Money, or had other Purpofes of their own to 
ferve ; and fbmetimes raifed Money without: 
them : Which arbitrary Proceeding brought up- 
on the Publick numerous Mifchiefs ; and, in 
the Reign of King Charles the Firft, along and 
bloody Civil War. In that Reign an AcT: was 
pafled, that they fhould meet of themfelves, 
if they were not called according to the Di- 
rection of that Law, which was worthily re- 
peaFd upon the Reiteration of King Charles the 
Second : And in the fame kind Fit, a great Re- 
venue was given him for Life, and continued 
to his Brother. By which Mean?, thejfe Princes 
were enabled to keep ftanding Troops, and to 
corrupt Parliaments, or to IFve without them j 
and to commit fuch A&s of Power as brought 
about, and indeed forced the People upon the 
late happy Revolution. Soon after which, a 
new A6t was paffed, that Parliaments (hould 



be rechofen once in three Years : Which Law 
was alfb repealed, upon his Majefty's Acceffion 
to the Throne, that the prefent Parliament might: 
have Time to re6Hfy thofe Abufes which we 
laboured under, and to make Regulations pro- 
per to prevent them All for the future. All 
which has been fince happily effected.; and, I 
blefs God, we are told, that the People will 
have the Opportunity to thank them, in ano- 
ther Election, for their great Services to their 
Country. I (hall be always ready, on my 
Part, to do them Honour, and pay them my 
Acknowledgments, in the moil: effectual man- 
ner in my'Power. But more of this in the 

fucceeding Papers, 


S I 

TH E mod reafbnable Meaning that can 
b-e put upon this Apothegm, that Virtu? 
is its own Reward^ is, that it feldom meets with 
any other. God himfelf, who having made us^ 
beft knows our Natures, does not truft to the 
jntrinfkk Excellence and native Beauty of Ho- 
linefs alone, to engage us in its Interefts and 
Purfuits, but recommends it to us by the ftronger 
and more affecting Motives of Rewards and 
Punifhments. No wife Man, therefore, will 
in any Inftanee of Moment truPt to the meer 
Integrity of another. The Experience of all 
Ages may convince us, that Men, when they 


6 4 Giro's LETTERS. 

are above Fear, grow for the mpft part above 
Honetty apd Shame : And this is particularly 
and certainly true of Societies of Men, when 
they are numerous enough to keep one another 
in Countenance ; for when the Weight of In- 
famy is divided amongft many, no one finks 
under his own Burden. 

Great Bodies of Men have leldom judged 
what they ought to do, by any other Rule than* 
what they could do. What Nation is there 
that has not oppreffed any other, when the 
fame could be done with Advantage and Secu- 
rity ? What Party has ever had Regard to the 
Principles which they profeffed, or ever re- 
formed the Errors they condemned ? What 
Company, or particular Society of Merchants 
or Tradelmen, has ever acled for the Irttereft 
of general Trade, tko' it always filled their 
Mouths in private Conversion? 

And yet Men, thus form'd and qualified, are 
the Materials for Government. For the Sake 
of Men it is inflituted, and by the Prudence of 
Men it muft be conducted , and the Art of 
political Mechanifm is, to erecl 3 firm Building 
with fuch crazy and corrupt Materials. Ths 
ftrongeft Cables are made out of loofe Hemp 
and Flax ; and the World it {elf may, with 
the Help of proper Machines, be moved by 
the Force of a Tingle Hair ; and fo may the 
Government of the World as well as the World 
it felf But whatever Dlfcourfes 1 fhai I here- 
after make upon this great and uieful SubjecT, 
1 (hall confine my (elf in this Letter to free 
monarchical Conititutions alone, and to the 
Application of (bine of the Principles laid down 
in my lait It 

C A T O's L E T T E R S. 6; 

It is there faid, that when the Society confifts 
of too many, or when they live too far apart to 
be able to meet together, to take Care of their 
own AfTairs, they can no otherwife preferve 
their Liberties, then by chufing Deputies to re- 
prefent them, and to acT: for them; and that 
thefe Deputies muft be either fo numerous, that 
there can be no Means of corrupting the Majo- 
rity, or fb often changed, that there fhall be 
no Time to do it fo as to anfwer any End by 
doing it. Without one of thefe Regulations, or 
both, I lay it down as a certain Maxim in Po- 
liticks, that it is impoilible to preferve a tree 
Government long. 

I think I may with great Modefty affirm, 
that in former Reigns, the People of England 
found no fufficient Security in the Number of 
their Reprefentatlves. What with the Crowd 
of Offices in the Gift of the Crown, which 
were poflefTed by Men of no other Merit, nor 
held by any other Tenure, but merely a Ca- 
pacity to get into the Houfeof Commons,, and 
the Diflervice they could and would do their 
Country there : What with the Promifes and 
Expectations given to others, who by Court- 
Influence, and often by Court-Money, carried 
their Elections: What by artful Carefles, and 
the familiar and deceitful Addreffes of great 
Men to weak Men: What with luxurious Din- 
ners and Rivers of *BuYgundy^ Champaign and, 
Tc^ry, thrown down the Throats of Gluttons ; 
and what with Penfions, and other perfonal 
Gratifications, befbowed where Wind and Smoke 
would not pafs for current Coin : What with 
Party Watch-words and imaginary Terrors, 


66 C^fO's LETTERS* 

fpread amongft the drunken 'Squires, and the 
deluded and enthufiaftick Bigots, of dreadful 
Defigns in Embric, to blow up the Church, 
and the Proteftant Intereft ; and fbmetimes with 
the Dread of mighty Invafions juft ready to 
break upon us from the Man in the Moon : I 
fay, bjr ail thefe corrupt Arts, the Reprefenta- 
tives of the EngHJh People, in former Reigns, 
have been brought to betray the People, and to 
join with their Qppreflprs. So much are Men 
governed by artful Applications to their private 
Paflions and Intereft. And it is evident to me, 
that if ever we have a weak or an ambitious 
Prince, with a Miniftfy like him, we muft find 
out fome other Reiburces, or acquiefce in the 
Lofs of our Liberties The Courfe and Tranfl- 
ency of humane A flairs, will not fufFer us to 
live always under the prcfent righteous Admi- 

So that I can fee no Means in humane Policy 
to proierve the publick Liberty -and amonarchb 
cal Form of Government together, but by the 
frequent frefh Elections of the People's Depu- 
ties : This is what the Writers in Politicks call 
Rotation of Magiftracy. Men, when they firft 
enter into Magiftracy, have often their former 
Condition before their Eyes : They remember 
what they rhemfelves fuffered, with their Fel- 
low Subjects, from the Abufe of Power, and 
how much they blamed it ; and fb their^ firft 
Purposes are to be humble, modeft and juft ; 
and probably, for fome Time, they continue 
fo. But the Pcffeilion of Power loon alters 
and viciates their Hearts, which are at the 
fame time fure to be leavened, and puffed up 


LETTERS. <j}r 

to an unnatural Size, by the deceitful Incenfe 
of falfe Friends, and the proftrate SubmilTlcn 
of Para fires. Firft, they grow indifferent to all 
their good Deligns, and then drop them: Next 
they lofe their Moderation; afterwards, they 
renounce all Meafures with their^old Acquaint- 
ance anc 1 old Principles, and feeing themfelves 
in magnifying Glaffes, grow, in Conceit, a 
different Species from their Fellow Subjects ; 
and fo by. too fudden Degrees become in'olenty 
rapacious and tyrannical, and ready to catch at 
all Means, often the vileft and moil oppreiiive, 
to raife their Fortunes as high as their imagi- 
nary Greatnefs. So that the only Way to put 
them in mind of their former Condition, and 

, consequently of the Condition of other People, 
is often to reduce them to it ; and to let others 
oF equal Capacities (hare of Power in their 
Turn ; and this alfo is the only Way to qualify 
Men, and make them equally fit for Dominion 
and Subjection. 

A Rotation therefore, in Power and Magi- 
ftracy, is effentially necefTary to a free Govern- 

I ment : It is indeed the Thing it felf ; and con- 
flitures, animates, and informs it, as much^ as 
the Soul conftitutes ttie Man. It is a Thing 
facred and inviolable, wherever Liberty is 
thought facred ; nor can it ever be committed 
to the Difpofal of thofe who are truited with 
the Prefervation of National Conftitutions : For 
tho' they may have the Power to model it for 
the publick Advantage, and for the more 
effe&ual Security of that Right ; yet they can 
have none to give it up, or, which is the fame 
Thing, to make it ufelefs. 


68 Giro's LETTERS. 

The Condi tut ion of a limited Monarchy, 
is the joint Concurrence of the Crown and of 
the Nobles (without whom it cannot fubfift) 
and ot the Body of the People, to make Laws , 
for the cominon Benefit of the Subject ; and 
where the People, trough Number or Diflance, 
cannot meet, they muft fend Deputies to fpeak 
in their Names, and to attend upon their In- 
tereft : Thefe Deputies therefore al by, under, 
and in fbbferveticy to the Conftitution, and 
have not a Power above it and over it. 

In Holland, and fbme other free Countries* 
the States are often obliged to confult their 
Principals ; and, in fbme Inftances, our own 
Parliaments have declined entring upon Que- 
ilions of Importance, till they had gone into 
the Country, and known the Sentiments of 
thofe that fent them ; as in all Cafes they ought 
to confult their Inclinations as well as their In- 
tereft. Who will fay that the Rump, or Fag- 
end of the Long Parliament of Forty One, had 
any Right to expel fuch Members as they did 
not like ? Or to watch for their Abfence, that 
they might feize to themfelves, or give up to 
any body elfe, the Right of thofe from whofe 
Confidence and Credulity they derived the Au- 
thority which they a&ed by ? 

With Thanks to God, I own, we have a 
Prince fb fenfible of this Right, and wh j owes 
his Crown fb intirely to the Principles laid 
down, and I think fully proved in thefe Letters; 
that it is impoilible to fiifpecl:, either from his 
Inclinations, his Interelt, or his known Juftice,. 
that he mould ever fall into any Meafures to 
deftroy that People, who have given him his 



Crown, and fupported him in it with fb much 
Generofity and Expence , or that he fhould 
undermine, by that Means, the Ground upon 
\vhich he ftands. I do therefore the lefs regard 
the idle Sufpicions and Calumnies of difaffered 
Men, who would iurmiie, that a Defign is yet 

on Foot to continue this Parliament a Re- 

fledion the moft impudent ^and invidious that 
can be thrown upon his Majefty, his Miniiters, 
or his two Houfes ; and a Reflexion that can 
come from none but profeffed, or at leaft from 
concealed Jacobites. 

It is no lefs than an Insinuation, that our mod 
excellent Sovereign King George has a Diftruft of 
his faithful Subjects ; that he will refufe them 
the Means of their own Prefervation, and the 
Prefervation of that Conftitution which they 
chofe him to preferve ; that he will {hut his 
Ears againft their modeft, juft, and dutiful 
Complaints; and that he apprehends Danger 
from meeting them in a New and Free-chofen 
Parliament. This is contrary to the Tenour 
of his whole Life and AdHons; who, as he has 
received Three Crowns from their Gift, fb he 
lies under all the Ties of Generofity, Gratitude, 
and Duty, to cherifh and protect them, and 
to make them always great, free, and happy. 

It is a moft fcandalous Calumny upon Hi's 
faithful Servants, to fugged that any of them, 
confcious of Guilt and Crimes, feared any thing 
from the moil ftricl: and rigorous Infpe&ion into 
their Proceedings. Some of them have already 
flood the fiery Tryal, and come off triumphant 
with general Approbation. They have, befides 
the Advantage of his Majefty's mod gracious 


70 C^rO's LETTERS. 

Pardon, which trrey did not want, and which 
was not pafled for their Sakes. Who there- 
fore can fufpe<St that Patriots fb uncorrupt, fp 
prudent, and fo popular, will difhonour their 
Mailer, give up the Conftitution, ruin their 
Country, and render themfelves the Objects 
of univerfal Scorn, Deteftation and Curfes, by 
advifing the moil odious, dangerous, and de- 
ft ru&ive Meafures, that ever Counfellors gave 
a Prince. 

It is a moil ungrateful Return to our illuflri- 
ous Reprefenatives, to fugged, that Men who 
have left their domeftick Concerns to ferve 
their Country at their own Expence, and with- 
out any perfbnal Advantages, and have be- 
llowed their Labours upon the Publick for a 
much longer Time than their Principals had at 
firfl a Right to expecl: from them ; and have, 
during all that Time, been rectifying the 
Abufes which have crept into our Conftitution ; 
and have ailifted his Majelly in going through 
two very ufeful and nectflary Wars, and have 
regulated our Finances, and the Expence of our 
Guards and Garrifons, and corrected many 
Abufes in the Fleet and the Civil Adminiftra- 
tion ; and have taken effectual Vengeance of 
all thofe who were concerned in promoting, 
procuring, aiding, or ailliling the late dreadful 
South- Sea Project. I fay, after fo many 
Things done by- them for the publick Ho- 
nour and Profperity, it is the bafeft Ingrati- 
tude to (iirmlie, that any of them would give 
up that Conilitution which they were chofen, 
and have taken fb much Pains, to preferve. 



I do indeed confefs, if any Invasion was to 
be feared from ?.Wmy, Mtckfenburo-. Spain* 

f*f rr> I T n ^ ' 

or Civitn Veccbia ; it new r rovmces were to 
be obtained Abroad, new Armies to be railed, 
or new Fleets to be equipped upon warlike 
Expeditions : If new Provifion was wanting 
for the Civil Lift, and new Taxes to be levied, 
or -new Companies to be erected to pay off the 
publick Debts : If the Univerfities were to be 
further regulated, or any Infpe&icn was necefc 
fary into the Increafe of Fees -and Exa6Hons of 
Civil Officers ; if there was the lead Ground 
to fufpe6t Bribery or Corruption in a Place 
where it fhould not be ; or if there was any 
new Project on Foot to banifh tyrannical and 
popifh Principles far out of the Land : I fay, 
that in fcch a Scene of Affairs, I dare not be 
altogether fb pofitive in my AfTertion, that we 
ought to venture, and at all Events to leave to 
Chance that which we are in PofleJlion of 
already. But as we are at prefent in the 
happy State of Indolence and Security, at 
Peace with all the World and our own Con- 
fciences ; as little more Money can be raifed 
from the People, mod of it being -already in 
-Hands, which, according to the Rules of good 
Policy, unite Dominion and Property ; as our 
Benefactors too are generous and honourable, 
our Boroughs not infenfible or ungrateful, nor 
the Counties themfelves inexorable to (hining 
Merit : So ii is much to be hoped, that another 
Parliament may be chbfen equally deferving, 
and as zealous for the publick Intercft ; or at 
worfr, there are honed and tried Meafures at 
Hand; which will undoubtedly make them f>. 


Giro's LETTERS. 

And. I offer this as a conclufive, and I think a 
moft convincing Argument, that the Kingdom 
will be obliged with a new Eleclion. 

I am, &c. 

IHave (hewn in a late Paper, wherein con- 
iifts the Difference between Free and Arbi- 
trary Governments, as to their Frame and Con- 
ftitution ; and in this and the following, I fhall 
(hew their different Spirit and Effects. But firft 
I will ihew wherein Liberty it felf confifts. 

By Liberty, I under ftand the Power which 
every Man has over his own Actions, and his 
Right to enjoy the Fruits of his Labour, Art, 
and Indultry, as far as by it he hurts not the 
Society, or any Members of it, by taking from 
any Member, or by hindering him from enjoy- 
ing what he himfelf enjoys. The Fruits of a 
Man's honeft Induftry are the juft Rewards of 
it, afcertain'd to him by natural and eternal 
Equity, as is his Title to ufe them in the Man- 
ner he thinks fit : And thus, with the above 
Limitations, every Man is fole Lord and Arbiter 
of his own private Aclions and Property 
A Character of which no Man living can 
diveft him but by Ufurpation, or his own 

The entring into political Society, is fo far 
from a Departure from this natural Right, that 



to preferve it, was the fole Reafbn why Men 
did fb ; and mutual Protection and Ailiilance 
is the only reasonable Purpofe of all reasonable 
Societies. To make fuch Protection practica- 
ble, Magiftracy was formed, with Power to 
defend the Innocent from Violence, and to 
punifh thofe that offered it ; nor can there be 
any other Pretence forMagiflracy in the World. 
In order to this good End, the Magiftrate is 
intruded with conducting and applying the uni- 
ted Force of the Community ; and with exact- 
ing fuch a Share of every Man's Property, as 
is neceflary to preferve the Whole, and to de- 
fend every Man and his Property from foreign 
and domeftick Injuries, Thefe are Boundaries 
of the Power of the Magiftrate, who deferts his 
Function whenever he breaks them. By the 
Laws of Society, he is more limited and re- 
ftrained than any Man amongft them ; iince, 
while they are abfblutely free in all their 
Actions, which purely concern themfelves ; all 
his Actions, as a publkk Perfon, being for the 
Sake of the Society, rnuft refer to it, and 
anfwer the Ends of it. 

It is a miftaken Notion in Government, that 
the Intereft of the Majority is only to be cor> 
fulted, fmce in Society every Man has a Right 
to every Man's Afliftance in the Enjoyment ar.d 
Defence of his private Property ; otherwife the 
greater Number may fell the lefler, and divide 
their Eftates amongft themfelves ; and fo, in- 
ilead of a Society, where all peaceable Men 
are protected, become a Confpiracy of the 
Many againft the Minority : With as much 
Equity may one Man wantonly difpofe of all, 



and Violence may be fancHfied by mere 

And it is as foolifh to fay, that Govern- 
ment is concern'd to meddle with the private 
Thoughts and Actions of Men, while they 
injure by neither the Society, or any of its 
Members. Every Man is, in Nature snd Rea- 
fon, the Judge and Difpofer of his own do- 
meftick Affairs ; and, according to the Rules 
of Religion and Equity, every Man mud carry 
his own Confcience. So that neither has the 
Magiftrate a Right to direct the private Be- 
fiaviour of Men ; nor has the Magiftrate, or any 
Body elfe, any manner of Power to model 
People's Speculations, no more than their 
Dreams. Government being intended to pro- 
tect Men from the Injuries of one another, and 
not to direct them in their own Affairs, in 
which no one is interefted but themfelves ; it is 
plain, that their Thoughts and domeftick Con- 
cerns are exempted intirely from its Jurifdicli- 
on : In truth, Mens Thoughts are not fubjecl: 
to their own Jurifdidtion. 

Idiots and Lunaticks indeed, who cannot 
take Care of themfelves, muft be taken Care 
of by others: But whilft Men have their five 
Senf s, I cannot fee what the Magistrate has to 
do with Actions by which the Society cannot 
be affected ; and -where he docs meddle with 
Tuch, he does it impertinently or tyrannically. 
Muft the Magiftrate tye up every Man's Legs, 
becaufe (bme Men fall into Ditches ? Or, muft 
he put out their Eyes, becaufe with them they 
fee lying Vanities ? Or, would it become the 
Wifdom and Care of Governors to eftablifh a 



travelling Society, to prevent People by a pro- 
per Confinement from throwing themfelves in- 
to Wells, or over Precipices ? Or to endow a. 
Fraternity of Phyficians and Surgeons all over 
the Nation, to take Care of their Subjects 
Health, without being confulted; and to vomit, 
bleed, purge, and fcarify thern^ at Pleafure, 
whether the/ would or no, juft as thefe 
eftablifhed Judges of Health (hould think fit ? 
If this were the Cafe, what a Stir and Hubbub 
fhould we foon fee kept about the eftablilhed 
Potions and Lancets ; every Man, Woman, 
and Child, tho' ever fb healthy, mufl be a Pa- 
tient, or woe be to them ! The beft Diet and 
Medicines would fbon grow pernicious from any 
other Hand ; and their Pills alone, however 
ridiculous, infufficient, or diftafteful, would be 
attended with a Bleffing. 

Let People alone, and they will take care of 
themfelves, and do it beft j and if they do not, 
a fiifficient Punifhment will follow their Ne- 
glect, without the Magiftrate's Jnterpofition 
and Penalties. It is plain that fuch bufy Care 
and officious Intrusion into the perfonal Aftairs, 
or private Action?, Thoughts, and Imagina- 
tions of Men, has in it more Craft than Kind- 
nefs ; and is only a Device to miflead People., 
and pick their Pockets, urrder the falfe Pretence 
of the publick and their private Good. To 
-quarrel with any Man for his Opinions, Hu- 
mours, or the Fafhion of his Cloths, is an Of- 
fence taken without being given. What is ic 
to the Magiftrate how I warn my Hands, or 
cut my Corns, what Fafhion or Colours 1 
wear, or \vhat Notions I entertain, or what 

D a. Gcftures 

euro's LETTERS. 

Gef.v.rts I .ufe, or what Words I pronounce," 
when they pleafe me, and do him and my 
ISTeighbour no hurt ? As well may he deter- 
mine the Colour of my Hair, and controul my 
Shape and Features. 

True and impartial Liberty is therefore the 
Right of every Man to purfue the natural, 
reafbnable, and religious Dilates of his own 
Iviind ; to think what he will, and adl as he 
thinks, provided he acls not to the Prejudice of 
another ; to fpend his own Money himfelf, 
and lay out the Produce of his Labour his 
own Way ; and to labour for his own Pleafure 
and Profit, and not for others who are idle, 
and would live and riot by pillaging and op- 
prefling him, and thofe that are like him. 

So that Civil Government is only a partial 
Reftraint put by the Laws of Agreement and 
Society upon natural and abiblute Liberty, 
which might otherwise grow licentious : And 
Tyranny is an unlimited Reilraint put upon 
natural Liberty, by the Will of one or a few. 
Magistracy, amongft a free People, is the Exer- 
cife of Power for the fake of the People ; and 
Tyrants abufe the People, for the fake of 
Power. Free Government is the protecting the 
People in their Liberties by ftatcd Rules ; Ty- 
ranny is a brutifh Struggle for unlimited Li- 
berty to one or a few, who would rob all others 
of their Liberty, and a6l by no Rule but law- 
lefs Luft. 

So much for an Idea of Civil Liberty. I 
will now add a Word or two, to (hew how 
much it is the Delight and Paifion of Mankind ; 
and then fiiew its Advantages. 


euro's LETTERS: 77 

The Love of Liberty is an Appetite fb ilrong^ 
ly implanted in the Nature of all living Crea- 
tures, that even the Appetite of Sel f- prefer va- 
tion which is allowed robe the ftrongeft, (eems : 
to be contained in it ; fince by the Means of 
Liberty, they enjoy the Means of preferving 
themfelves, and of fatisfying their Defires In? 
the Manner which they themfelves chuie and 
like beic. Many Animals can never be tamed, 
but feel the Bitter- - Reftraint in the midir 
of the kindeft U rather than bear it, 

grieve or ftarve themfelves to Death ; and fomc 
beat out their Brains againfr. their Prifbns. 

Where Liberty is loft, Life grows precarious, 
always miferabie, and often intolerable. Li- 
berty is to live upon one's own Terms ; 
Slavery is to live at the sneer Mercy of ano- 
ther 5 and a Life of Slavery is to thofe who 
can bear it, a continual State of Uncertainty 
and Wretched nefs, often an Apprehenfion oF 
Violence, and often the lingring Dread of a 
violent Death : But by others, when no other 
Remedy is to be had, Death is reckoned a good 
one, And thus to many Men, and to many 
other Creatures as well as Men, the Love of 
Liberty is beyond the Love of Life. 

This Paflion for Liberty in Men, and their 
Poffeliion of it, is of that Efficacy and Impor- 
tance, that it feems the Parent of all the Vir- 
tues : And therefore, in free Countries there 
feems to be another Species of Mankind, than 
. is to be found under Tyrants. Small Armies 
of Greeks and -Romans defpifed the greateft Hofb 
of Slaves ; and a Million of Slaves have been 
fmnetimes beaten and conquered by a few 

D Thou- 

78 Giro's LETTERS. 

Thoufand Freemen, Infomuch, that the Dif- 
ference feem'd greater between them than be- 
tween Men and Sheep. It was therefore well 
faid by Lucullus, when, being about to engage 
the great King 7igranes\ Army, he was told by 
iorne of his Officers, how prodigious great the 
fame was, confiding of between three and four 
Hundred Thoufand Men : No matter, faid that 
brave Reman, drawing up his little Army of 
Fourteen Thouiand, but Fourteen Thoufand 
Remaps : No matter ; The Lion never enquires into 
the Number of the Sheep. And thefe Royal Troops- 
proved no better ; for the Romans had little elfe 
to do but to kiii and purfue ; which yet they 
eould fcarce do for laughing ; fo mucb more 
were rn-ey diverted than animated by the ridi- 
culous Dread and fudden Flight of thefe Impe- 
rial Slaves and Royal Cowards. 

Men eternally cowed and opprefled by haugh- 
ty and infolent Governors, made baft thenv 
felves by the Bafenefs of that fort of Govern* 
rnent, and become Slaves by ruling over Slaves, 
want Spirit and Souls to meet in the Field 
Freemen, who fcorn Oppreflbrs and are their 
own Governors, or at leaft meafure and direct 
the Power of their Governors. 

Education alters Nature, and becomes (tron- 
ger. Slavery, while it continues, being a per- 
petual Awe upon the Spirits, deprefles them, 
and finks natural Courage ; and Want and 
Fear, the Concomitants of Bondage, always 
produce Defpondency and Bafenefs : Nor will 
Men in Bonds ever fight bravely, but to be 
free. And indeed, what elfe mould they fight 
for j fines every Victory they gain for a Ty- 


's LETTERS. 79 

rant, makes them poorer and fewer ; and, in- 
creaiing his Pride, increases his Cruelty, and' 
their own Mifery and Chains ? 

Thofe, who from Terror and Deluiion, the 
frequent Caufes and certain EfFeds of Servi- 
tude, come to think their Governors greater 
than Men, as they find them worfe, will be as-- 
apt to think thernfelves lefs : And when the 
Head and the Heart are thus both gone, the 
Hands will fignify little : They who are' 
ufed like Beads, will be apt to degenerate into 
Beads. But thofe, on the contrary, who by 
the Freedom of their Government and Educa- 
tion, are taught and accuftomed to think freely 
of Men and Things, find, by comparing one 
Man with another, that all Men are naturally 


alike ; and rh t their Governors, as they have 
the fame Face, Conftitution, and Shape with 
themfelves, and are fubjecT: to the lame Sick- 
nefs, Accidents, and Death with the meanefr 
of their People ; fo they poffefs the fame Paf- 
fions and Faculties of the Mind which their 
Subjects poflefs, and not better. They there- 
fore (corn to degrade and proftrafe themfelves, 
to adore thofe of their own Species, however 
covered with Titles, and difguifed by Power : 
They confider them as their own Creatures ; 
and, as far as they furmount thernfelves, the : 
Work of their own Hands, and only the chief 
Servants of the State, who have no more Power 
to do Evil than one of thernfelves, and are 
void of every Privilege and Superiority, but to 
ferve them and the State. They know it is a. 
Contradiction in Religion and Reafbn, for any 
Man to have a Right to do Evil ; and that not. 

D 4 

So euro's LETTERS. 

to refill any Man's Wickednefs, is to encourage 
it ; and that they have the lead Reafon to bear | 
Evil and OpprefFion from their Governors, I 
who of all Men are the moft obliged to do 
them good. They therefore deteft Slavery, 
and defpife or pity Slaves ; and adoring Liberty 
alone, as they who fee its Beauty and feel its 
Advantages always will, 'tis no wonder they 
are brave for it. 

Indeed, Liberty is the divine Source of all 
.humane Happineis. To poiTefs, in Security, 
the Effects of our Induftry, is the rn oft power- 
ful and reafbnable Incitement to be induftnous: 
And to be able to provide for our Children* 
and leave them all that we have, is the bell 
Motive to beget them. But where Property is 
precarious, Labour will languifh, The Pri- 
vileges of thinking, faying, and doing what 
we pleafe, and of growing as rich as we can* 
without any other ReftriKbn, than that by all 
this we hurt not the Publick, nor one another, 
are the glorious Privileges of Liberty ; and 
its Effects, to li v /e in Freedom, Plenty, and 

Thefe are Privileges that increafe Mankind, 
and the Hpppinefs of Mankind. And there- 
fore Countries are generally peopled in Propor- 
tion as they are free, and are certainly happy 
in that Proportion : And upon the fame Tracl: 
of Land that would maintain a Hundred Thou- 
fand Freemen in Plenty, Five Thoufand Slaves 
would ftarve. In Italy, fertile Italy, Men die 
fbmetimes of Hunger amongft the Sheaves, 
and in a plentiful Harveft; for what they fow 
and reap is none of their own ; and their cruel 



and greedy Governors, who live by the LaBour 
of their wretched Vaffals, do not fufrer them 
to eat the Bread of their own Earning, nor to 
fuftain their Lives with their own Hands. 

Liberty naturally draws new People to it, as 
well as encreafes the old Stock ; and Men as 
naturally run when they dare from Slavery^ and 
Wretchednefs, whitherfbever they can help- 
themfelves. Hence great Cities lofing their- 
Liberty become Defarts, and little Towns by 
Liberty grow great Cities^: as will be fully 
proved before I have gone through this Argu- 
ment. 1 will not deny, but that there are- 
fome great Cities of 'Slaves : Burfuch are only 
Imperial Cities, and the Seats of great Princes, 
who draw the Wealth of a Continent to their" 
Capital, the Center of their Treafure and: 
Luxury. Babylon, Anticch^ Sehucia^ an-d Alex- 
andria, were great Cities peopled by Tyrants,, 
but peopled partly by Force, partly by the.- 
above Reafon, and partly by Grants and In- 
dulgences. Their Power, great and bcundle/s 

: as it was, could not alone people their Cities-; 

' but they were forced to fbfren Authority by 
Rindnefs ; and having brought the Inhabitants- 
together by Force, and oy driving themCaptr/e-' 
like Cattle, could not keep them together with- 
out beftowing on them many Privileges, to en- 
courage the tirft Inhabitants to flay, and to in- 
vite more to come. 

This was a Confeilicn in thofe Tyrants,., 
that their Power- was mii'chjevous and unjuft; 
fince they could not erec~t one great City, and' 
make it fiourifh, without renouncing in a great: 
Meafure their Power over it ; which- by grant- 

D 5. ingg 

Giro's LETTERS. I 

ing it thefe Privileges, in Effect they did. Thefe 
Privileges were nYdLaws, by which the Trade 
and Induftry of the Citizens was encouraged^ 
and their Lives and Properties ascertained and 
protected, and no longer fub']eted to the Law 
of mere Will and Pleafure : And therefore,, 
while thefe free Cities, enjoying their wn Li- 
berties and Laws, flourifhed under .iiem ; the 
Provinces were miferably haraifed, pillaged, 
dispeopled, and impoverifhed, and the Inha- 
bitants exhaufted, ftarved, butchered, and car- 
ried away Captive. 

This fhews that all Civil Happinefs and 
Profperity is infeparable from Liberty; and 
that Tyranny cannot make Men, or Societies 
of Men, happy, without departing from its 
Nature, and giving them Privileges inconfiftent 
with Tyranny. And here is an unanfwerable 
Argument amongft a Thoufand others, againft 
abfolute Power in a Tingle Man. Nor is there 
one Way ^ in the World to give Happinefs to 
Communities, but by fheltering them under 
certain and exprefs Laws, irrevocable at any 
Man's Pleafure. 

There is not, nor can be, any Security for a 
People to truft to the mere Will of One, who, 
while his Will is his Law, cannot protect them 
if he would. The Number of Sycophants and 
wicked Counfellors, that he will always and 
necetfariiy have about him, will defeat all his 
good Intentions^ by reprefenting Things falfly, 
and Ptrfons maliciocily ; by fuggefting Danger 
where it is not, and urging Neceiiiry where 
there is none : by filling their own Coffers un- 
der Colour of filling his, and by raifing Money 


CATffs LETTERS. 83: 

forthemfelves, pretending the pubiick Exigen- 
cies of the State ; by facrificing particular Men* 
to their own Revenge, under Pretence of pubiick 
Security ; and by engaging him and his Peo- 
pie in dangerous and deftructive Wars, for 
their own Profit or Fame ; by throwing pub- 
lick Affairs into perpetual Confufion, to pre- 
vent an Enquiry into their own Behaviour; and 
by making him jealous of his People, and his- 
People oF him, on purpofe to manage and mi- 
lead both Sides. 

By all thefe, and many more wicked Arts g % , 
they will be confhntly leading him into cruel, 
and oppreillve Meafures, deitruclive to his 
People, and fcandalous and dangerous to him- 
felf; but entirely agreeable to their own Spirit: 
and Defigns, Thus will they commit all Wick- 
ed nefs by their Matter's Authority, againft his 
Inclinations, and grow rich by the People's Po- 
verty, without his Knowledge , and the Royal 
Authority will be firft a Warrant for Oppref- 
fion, and afterwards a Protection from the.' 
PunifLment due to it, For, in fhort, the Power" 
of Princes is often little elfe but a {talking, 
Horfe to ihe Intrigues and Ambition ot their" 

But if the Difpofition of fuch a Prince be 
evil, what muflr be the forlorn Condition of" 
his People, arid what Door of Hope can re- 
main for common Protection ! The belt Princes 
have often evil Councilors, and the Bad will 
have no other : And in fuch a Cafe, whan 
Bounds can be let to their Fury, and to the - 
Havock they will make? The Infrruments and: 
Advliers of Tyranny and Depredation always 

thi" n ^ 


thrive belt and are neareft their Ends, when 
Depredation and Tyranny run higheft : Vv hen. 
moil: is plundered from the People, their Share 
is greater!: ; we may x therefore fuppofe every 
Evil willbefal fuch a People, without fuppofing 
extravagantly. No Happfnefs, no Security, 
but certain Mifery, and a vile and precarious 
Life, are the blefled Terms of fuch a Govern- 
ment- - A Government, which neceflarily in*- 
troduces all Evils, and from the fame Neceility 
neither muft nor can redrefs any. 

The Nature of his Education, bred up as he 
ever is in perpetual Flattery, makes him haugh?- 
ty and ignorant ; and the Nature of his Go- 
vernment, which fubfifts by brutifti Severity 
and Oppreflion, makes him cruel. He is ir> 
acceilible, but by his Minifters, whofe Study 
and Intereft will be to keep him from knowing 
or helping the State of his miferable People. 
Their Mailer's Knowledge in his own Affairs, 
would break in upon their Scheme and Power, 
they are not likely to lay before him Reprefen^ 
rations of Grievances caufed by themfelves^ 
nor, if they are the Effects of his own Barba- 
rity and C ommand, will he hear-them. 

Even where abfblute Princes are not Tyrants,' 
there Miniilers will be Tyrants. But it is in- 
deed impoflible for an Arbitrary Prince to be 
otherwife, fince Oppreiiion is absolutely ne- 
ceilary to his being fo Without giving his 
People Liberty, he cannot make them happy ; 
and by giving them Liberty, he gives up his 
own Power. So that ro be and continue Arbi- 
trary, he is doomed to be a Tyrant in his own 
Defence. The Oppreiiion of the People, Coi> 



hiption, wicked Counfels, and pernicious 
Maxims in the Court, and every where Bafe- 
nefs, Ignorance, and Chains, mtift fupport 
Tyranny, or it cannot be fupported. So that 
in fuch Governments there are inevitable Grie- 
vances, without poffible Redrefs : Mifery, with* 
out Mitigation or Remedy; and whatever is 
good for the People, is bad for their Gover- 
nors ; and what is good for the Governors, is 
pernicious to the People. 

I am, Sec. 

S 1 

I Go on with my Configurations upon Liber- 
ty, to fhew that all Civil Virtue and Hap- 
pinefs, and every moral Excellency, all Polite- 
nefs and all good Arts and Sciences, are pro- 
duced by Liberty ; and that all Wickednefs, 
Bafenefs, and Mifery, are immediately and ne- 
ceflarily produced by Tyranny ; which being 
founded upon the DeftrucHon of every thing 
that is valuable, dehrable, and noble, muft 
lubfift upon Means durable to its Nature, and 
remain in everlafting Enmity to all Goodnels 
and even human Blelling. 

By the Eftablifhnien't of Liberty, a due Df- 
frribution of Property and an equal Didribu- 
tion of Tuftice is eRablifHed and fecured. As 
Rapine is the Child of OppreJ'flon, J-uftice is 
the Offspring of Liberty, and her Hand-maid ; 
it is the Guardian of Innocence, and the Ten. 


86 CA 7"0's LETTERS. 

ror of Vice : And when Fame, Honour, and 
Advantages are the Rewards of Virtue, (lie will 
be courted for the Dower fhe brings ; other- 
wife, like Beauty without Wealth, fhe may be 
praifed, but more probably will be calumni- 
ated, envied, and very often perfecuted ; while 
Vice, when it is gainful, like rich Deformity 
and profperous Folly, will be admired and 
purfued. Where Virtue is all her own Reward, 
{he will be feldom thought any ; and few will' 
buy that for a great Price, which will fell for 
none. So that Virtue, to be followed, muft be- 
endowed, and her Credit is beft fecured by her 
Intereft ; that is, fhe muft be (lengthened and 
recommended by the publick Laws, and em- 
bellilhed by publick Encouragements, or elle - 
(he will be (lighted and fhun'd. 

Now the Laws which encourage and encreafe 
Virtue, are the fix'd Laws of general and im- 
partial Liberty ; Laws, which being the Rule 
of every Man's Actions, and the Meafure of 
every Man's Power, make Honefty and Equity 
their Intereft. Where Liberty is throughly 
eftablifh'd, and its Laws equally executed, every 
Man will find hi? Account in doing as he would 
be done unto, and no Man will take from ano- 
ther what he would not part with himfelf: 
Honour and Advantage will follow the Upright:," 
and Punifhment overtake the Oppreffor.' The. 
Property of the Poor will be as facred as the* 
Privileges of the Prince, and ^the Law will be 
the only Bulwark of both. Every Man's ho- 
ned Induftry and ufeful Talents, while they 
are employ a for the Publick, will be employed, 
for himfelf: and while he ferves hinifelc, he- 


will ferve the Publick : Publick and private In- 
tereft will fecure each other ; and all will chear- 
fully give a Part to preferve the Whole, and 
be brave to defend it. 

Thefe certain Laws therefore are the only 
certain Beginnings and Caufes of Honefty and 
Virtue amongft Men. There may be other 
Motives, I own ; but fuch as only fway parti- 
cular Men, few enough, God knows : And 
univerfal Experience has {hewn us, that they 
are not generally prevailing, and never to be 
depended upon. Now thefe Laws are to be 
produced by Liberty alone, and only by fuch 
Laws can Liberty be lecured and increafed : 
And to make Laws certainly good, they mud 
be made by mutual Agreement, and have for 
their End the general Intereft. 

But Tyranny muft ftand upon Force ; and 
the Laws of Tyranny being only the fickle 
Will and unfteady Appetite of one Man, which 
may vary every Hour ; there can be no fettled 
Rule of Right or Wrong in the variable Hu- 
mours and fudden Paiiions of a Tyrant, who, 
though he may fbmetimes punifh Crimes more 
out of Rage than Juftice, will be much more 
likely to perfecute and opprefs Innocence, and 
to deftroy Thoufands cruelly, for one that he 
protects juftly. There are Inftances of Princes* 
who, being out of Humour with a Favourite, 
have put to Death all that (poke well of him, 
and afterwards all that did nor : Of Princes 9 
who put fome of their Minifters to Death, for 
ufmg one or two of his Barbers and Buffoons 
ill ; and other?, for ufmg a whole Country 
well : Of Princes, who have deilroyed a wheie 


a? euro's LETTERS 

People for the Crimes or Virtues of one Marr; 
and who, having killed a Minion in a Pailion, 
have, to revenge themfelves upon thofe who 
had not provoked them, deftroyed, in the fame 
unreafbnable Fury, a Hundred of their Servants 
who had no Hand in it, as well as all that had'; 
who yet would have been deftroyed, had they 
not done it : Of Princes, who have deftroyed 
Millions in fingle mad Projects and Expedi- 
tions : Of Princes, who have given up Cities 
and Provinces to the Revenge or Avarice of a 
vile Woman or Eunuch, to be plundered, or 
maOacred, or burned, as he or the thought fit 
to direct : And of Princes,, who, to gratify the 
Ambition and Rapine of a few lorry Servants, 
have loft the Hearts of their whole People, 
and detach'd themfelves from their good Sub- 
jects, to protect thefe Men in their Iniquity, 
who yet had done them no other Service, but 
that of deflroying their Reputation, and fha- 
king their Throne, 

Such are Arbitrary Princes, whofe Laws are 
nothing but fudden Fury, or lafting Folly and 

Wickednefs in uncertain Shapes. Hopeful 

Rules thefe, for the governing of Mankind, 
and making them Happy ! Rules which are 
none, fince they cannot be depended upon for 
a Moment; and generally change for the worfe, 
if that can be. A Subject worth Twenty 
.Thoufand Pounds to Day, may, by a fudden 
Edicl: iffucd by the dark Coun-fel of a Tray- 
tor, be a Beggar to Morrow, and lofe his. Life 
without forfeiting the fame. The Property of 
a whole Kingdom fnaSl be great, or little, or 
none, juft at the Mercy of a Secretary's Pen, 



guided by a Child, or a Dotard, or a foolifh 
woman, or a favourite Buffoon, or a Game- 
fter, or whoever is uppermoft for the Day ; 
and the next Day fhall alter entirely the Yefter- 
day's Scheme, tho' not for the better; and the 
fame Men, in different Humour?, (hall be the 
Authors of both. Thus in Arbitrary Coun- 
tries, a Law aged Two Days is an old Law ; 
and no Law is fuffered to be a Handing Law, 
but fiich as are found by long Experience to be 
fb very bad, and fb throughly deftru&ive, that 
human Malice, and all the Arts of a Tyrant's 

Court cannot make them worfe A Court 

which never ceafeth to fqueeze, kill, and op- 
prefs, till it has wound up human K'lifery fb 
high, that it will go no further, This is fb 
much Fact, that I appeal to all Hiftory and 
Travels, and to thofe that read them, whether 
an Arbitrary Countries, both in Europe and out 
of it, the People do not grow thinner, and their 
Milery greater ; and whether Countries are not 
peopled^ and rich in Proportion to the Liberty 
they enjoy and allow. 

It has been long my Opinion, and is more 
and more fb, that in flaviO) Countries the Peo- 
ple mud either throw off their cruel and de- 
ilroying Government, and fet up another m 
its Room, or in fbme Ages the Race of Man- 
kind there will be extinct. Indeed, if it had 
not been for free States, that have repaired and 
prevented in many Places the Mifchiefs done 
by Tyrants, the Earth had been long {ince a 
Defart, as the fineft Countries in it are at this 
Day by that Means. The Gardens of the 
World, the fruitful and lovely Countries of the 


^o Giro's LETTERS. 

lower Alia) filled formerly by Liberty with 
People, Politeness, and Plenty, are now glori*- 
oufly peopled with Owls and Grafhoppers ; 
and perhaps here and there, at vale Di fiances, 
with Inhabitants not more valuable, and lefs 
happy ; a few dirty Huts of Slaves groaning, 
ftarving, and perifhing under the fatherly Pro- 
teHon of the Sultan, a Prince of the molt 
Orthodox Standard. 

The Laws therefore of Tyrants are not 
Laws, but wild A&s of Will, counfelled by 
Rage or Folly, and executed by Dragoons* 
And as thefe Laws are evil, all forts of Evil 
muir concur to fupport them. While the Peo- 
ple have common Senfe left, they will eafily 
fee whether they are juftly governed and well 
or ill uled ; whether they are protected or 
plundered : They will know that no Man. 
ought to be the Dire&or of the Aftairs of All, 
without their Content ; that no Content can 
give him unlimited Power over their Bodies 
and Minds, and that the Laws of Nature can. 
never be entirely abrogated by pofitive Laws ; ' 
but that, on the contrary., the entring into So- 
ciety, and becoming fubjecl: to Government, is 
only the parting with natural Liberty in fome 
Inftances, to be protected ia the Enjoyment of 
it in others. 

So that for any Man to have Arbitrary Ppw* 
er, he muft have it without Confent ; or if ir 
is unadvifedly given at firft, they who gave it 
fbon repent when they find its Effects. And 
in Truth, all thofe Princes that have fuch Pow- 
er, do, by keeping up great Armies in Time 
of Peace, effc6i:ually confe^ that they rule 



without Content, and dread their People, whofe 
worfl Enemies they undoubtedly are. An Ar- 
bitrary Prince therefore muft preferve and exe- 
cute his Power by Force and Terror ; which 
yet will not do, without calling in the Auxi- 
liary Aids and ftri6fc Allies of Tyranny, Im- 
pofture, and conftant Oppreilion. Let his 
People be ever fb low and miserable, if they 
are not alfo blind, he is not fafe. He muft 
have eftabliflied Deceivers to mislead them \vith 
Lies, and terrify them with the Wrath of God, 
in cafe they ftir Hand or Foot, or fb much as 
a Thought, to mend their doleful Condition ; 
as if the good God was the San&ifier of all 
Villainy, and the Patron of the worfl of all 
Villains ! And he mult have a Band of ftand- 
ing Cut throats to murder all Men .who would 
facrilegioufiy defend their own. And both his 
Cut throats and his Deceivers mud go Shares 
with him in his Tyranny. 

Men will naturally fee their Intereft, and feel 
their Condition ; and will quickly find that 
the Sword, the Rack, and the Spunge, are noc 
Government, but the Height of Cruelty and 
Robbery ; and will never fubmit to them, but 
by the united Powers of Violence and Dera- 
tion : Their Bodies muft be chained, and their 
Minds enchanted and deceived, and the Sword 
muft be kept conftantly over their Heads, and 
their Spirits kept low with Poverty, before they 
can be brought to be ufed at the wanton and 
brutifh Pleaiure of the moft dignified and lofty 
Oppreflbr. So that God muft be belied, and 
his Creatures muft be fettered, frightened, de- 
ceived, and ftarved, and Mankind made bafe 



and undone, that one of the word of them may 
live riotoufly and fafely amongft his Whores, 
Butchers, and Buffoons. 

Men, therefore, mud ceafe to be Men, and 
in Stupidity and Tamenefs grow Cattle, before 
they can become quiet Subjects to fuch a Go- 
vernment ; which is a Complication of all the 
Villainies, Falfhood, Oppreiiion, Cruelty, and 
Depredation, upon the Face of the Earth : Nor 
can there be a more provoking, impudent, 
fhocking, and blasphemous Pofition, than to 
aflert all this Groupe of Honors, or the Author 
of them, is of God's Appointment. 

If fuch Kjngs A-C ly God appointed, 
Satan may be the Lcrd^s Anointed. 

And whoever /carters fuch a Doctrine oughtv 
by all the Laws of God, Reafon, and Self-Pre- 
lervation, to be put to Death as a general Poilbn- 
er 5 and an Advocate for publick Deftruclion. 

All Men own, that it is the Duty of a Prince 
to protect his People : And fbme have faid, 
that it is their Duty to obey him, when he 
Butchers them An admirable Conlcquence^ 
and full of fweet Confolation ! His whole Bu- 
finefs and Office is to defend them, and to do 
them good ; therefore, they are bound to let 
him deftroy them."- -Was ever fuch Impu- 
dence in an enlighten'd Country ? It is perfect- 
ly agreeable to the Doctrines and Followers of' 
Mahomet : But fhall Englifomen, who make 
their own Laws, be told, that they have no 
Right to the common Air, and to the Life and 
Fortune which God has given them j but by 



the Permiflion of an Officer cf their own mak- 
ing ; who is what he is only for their Sakes and 
Security, and has no more Right to thefe 
Bleifings, nor to do Evil, than one of thern- 
felves? And (hall we be told this by Men, who 
are eternally the firft to violate their own 
Doclrines ? Or fhali they after this have the 
Front to teach us any Doctrine, or to recom- 
mend to us any one Virtue, when they have 
thus given up all Virtue and Truth, and every 
Blefiing that Life affords ? For there is no Evil, 
Mifery, and Wickednefs, which Arbitrary Mo- 
narchies do not produce, and muft produce ; 
nor do they, or can they produce any certain, 
general or diifufive Good. 

I have fhewn, in my lail, that an Arbitrary 
Prince cannot protect his People if he would ; 
and I add here, that he dares not. It would 
difguft the Infbruments of his Power, and the 
Sharers in his Oppreiiicn, who will confider 
the Property of the People as the Perquifite of 
their Office, and claim a Privilege of being 
little 1 yrants, for making him a great one : So 
that every Kindnefs to his Subjects will be a 
Grievance to his Servants, and he muft af- 
fert and exercife his Tyranny to the Height 
for their Sakes, or they will do it for him. 
And the Inftances are rare, if any, of any 
Abiblute Monarch's protecting in earned his 
People againft the Depredations of his Minifters 
and Soldiers, but it has cod him his Life ; 
as may be (hewn by many Examples ,in the 
Roman Hiftory : For this the Emperor Pertinax 
was murder'd, and fo was Galba. 


94 C^rO's LETTERS. 

jMachtavel has told us, that it is impofiibk 
for fuch a Prince to pleafe both the People and 
his Soldiers : The one will not be fatisfied with- 
out Protection, nor the other without Rapine: 
To comply with the People, he muft give up 
his Power ; and to comply with his Soldiers, 
he muft give up his People. So that to con- 
tinue what he is, and to preferve himfelf from 
the Violence of his Followers, he mult coun- 
tenance all their Villainies and Oppreiiion, and 
be himfelf no more than an Imperial Thief at 
the Head of a Band of Thieves ; for which 
Character he is generally well qualified by the 
bafe and cruel Maxims of that Ibrt of Power, 
and by the vile Education always given to fuch 
a Prince, by the worft and moft infamous of all 
Men, their iupple and lying Sycophants. 

Even the Chriftian Religion can do but little 
or no Good in Lands of Tyranny, fmce Mi- 
racles have ceafed ; but is made to do infinite 
Harm, by being corrupted and perverted into 
a deadly Engine in the Hands of a Tyrant and 
his Importors, to rivet his Subjects Chains, 
arid to confirm them thorough Wretches, Slaves, 
and Ignorants I cannot indeed fay, that they 
have the Chriftian Religion at all among!!: 
them, but only ule its amiable Name to coun- 
tenance abominable Falfhoods, and Nonfenfe, 
and heavy Oppreiiion ; and to defend furious 
and implacable Bigotry, which is the direcl: 
Chara&erjftick and Spirit of Mahometamfm^ 
and deltroys the very Genius and firft Princi- 
ples of Chriftianity. All this will be further 
(hewn hereafter. I (hall conclude with obfer- 
ving, that Arbitrary Monarchy is a confrant 



War upon Heaven and Earth, and againft the 
Souls as well as Bodies and Properties of 

1 am, d<C. 

S I 

I Have in former Letters began to (new, by an 
Induction of Particulars, and (hall hereafter 
more fully fhew, that Population, Riches, true 
Religion, Virtue, Magnanimity, Arts, Sciences 
and Learning, are the neceffary Effects, and 
Productions of Liberty ; and fhall fpend this 
i Paper, in proving that an extenfive Trade, Na- 
| vigation, and Naval Power, entirely flow from 
the fame Source : In this Cafe, if natural Ad- 
vantages and Encouragements are wanting, Art, 
I Expence, and Violence, are loft and thrown 
away. Nothing is more certain than that 
Trade cannot be forced ; (he is a coy and hu- 
Imorous Dame, who mud be won by Flattery 
land Allurements, and always flies Force and 
Power; (he is not confined to Nations, Sets, 
I or Climates, but gravels and wanders about the 
Earth, till (he fixes her Refidence where fhe 
finds the bed Welcome and kindeft Reception; 
her Contexture is fo nice and delicate, that {he 
cannot breathe in a tyrannical Air ; Will and 
Pleafure are fo oppofite to her Nature, that but 
touch her with the Sword and (lie dies : But if 
you give her gentle and kind Entertainment, 
(he is a graceful and beneficent Miftrefs ; (he 


9 6 Giro's LETTERS. 

will turn Defarts into fruitful Fields, Villages 
into great Cities, Cotages into Palaces, Beg- 
gars into Princes, convert Cowards into He- 
roes, Blockheads into Philofbphers, will change 
the Coverings of little Worms into the richeft 
Brocades, the Fleeces of harmlefs Sheep into 
the Pride and Ornaments of Kings, and by a 
farther Metamorphofis will tranfimite them a- 
gain into armed Hofts and haughty Fleets. 

Now it is abfolutely impoilible, from the 
Nature of an Arbitrary Government, that (he 
{liould enjoy Security and Protection, or indeed 
be free from Violence, under it. There is not 
one Man in a Thoufand that has the Endqw- 
ments and Abilities neceflary to govern a State 9 
and much fewer yet that have juft Notions how 
to make Trade and Commerce ufeful and ad- 
vantageous to it; and amongft thefe,'tis rare to 
find one who will forgo all perfbnal Advan- 
tages, and devote himfelf and his Labours 
wholly to his Country's Intereft : But if fuch a 
Phoenix fhould arife in any Country, he v/ill 
find it hard to get Accefstoan Arbitrary Court, 
and much harder yet to grapple with and (tern 
the reigning Corruptions in it, where Virtue 
has nothing to do, and Vice rides triumphant ; 
where .Bribery, fervile Flattery, blind Submit 
fion, riotous Expence, and very often Luft and 
unnatural Prostitutions, are the Ladders to 
Greatnefs ; which will certainly be fupported 
by the fame Methods by which it is obtained. 

What has a virtuous Man to do, or what can 
he do, in fuch Company ? If he pities the Peo- 
ple's Calamities, he (hall be called Seditious ; 
if he recommends any Publick Good, he (hall 



be called Preaching Fool; if he fiiould live 
fober[y and virtuoufly himfelf, they will think 
him fit only to be fent to a Cloyfter ; if he does 
not flatter the Prince and his Superiors, he will 
be thought to^envy their Profperky ; if he pre- 
fumes to advife his Prince to purfue his true 
Intereilr, he will be efteemed a formidable Ene- 
my to the whole Court, who will unire to de- 
ftroy him : In fine, his Virtues will be Crimes, 
Reproaches, and of dangerous Confequence to 
thofe who have none. As Jayls pick up all the 
little pilfering Rogues of a Country, fo fuch 
Courts engrofs all the great Ones ; who have 
no Bufmefs there but to grow rich, and to riot 
upon the publick Calamities, to uCe all the 
Means of Oppreffion and Rapine, to make 
hafty Fortunes before the Bow-ftring over- 
takes them, or a fudden Favourite fupplants 

^Now what Encouragement or Security can 
Trade and Induftry receive from fuch a Crew 
of Banditti? No Privileges and Immunities, 
or even Protection, can be obtained but for 
Money, and are always granted to thofe who 
give moft ; and thefe again (hall be curtailed, 
altered, abrogated, and cancelled, upon the 
Change of a Minifter, or of his Inclinations, 
Intereft, and Caprices : Monopolies, exclufive 
Companies, Liberties of Pre-emption, &c. (hall 
be obtained for Bribes or Favour, or in TruH: 
for great Men, or vile and worthlefs Women, 
Some Merchants (hall be openly encouraged 
and protected, and get Exemptions from 
Searches and Duties, or (hall be connived at in 
efcaping them others fhall be burthened, 

VOL. II. opprc-ffed, 


oppreffcd, manacled, flopr, and delayed, to 
extort Prefents, to wreak Revenge, or to give 
Preference of Markets to Favourites, Gover- 
nors of Port-Towns, or of Colonies, who have 
purchafed their Employments at Court, (hall 
be indulged and countenanced in making Re- 
prifals upon the Traders, and to enable them, 
to fatisfy the yearly Prefents due to Minions : 
Admirals and Commanders of Men of War 
fhall prefs their Sailors, or be paid for not do- 
ing it, and Military Officers and Soldiers (hall 
moleft and interrupt them in the Courfe of their 
Commerce and honeftlnduftry. 

Nor (hall it be in the Power of the moft vi- 
gilant, a&ive, and virtuous Prince to prevent: 
thefe and a Thoufand other daily Oppreifions; 
lie muil fee with his Miniflers Eyes, and hear 
v/ich their Ears ; nor can there be any Accefs 
to him but by their Means, and by their 
Leave : Conftant Spies fhall watch and obferve 
the [nil- Intentions, or leaft Approaches to a 
Complaint ; and the Perfcn injured fhall be 
threatned, way-laid, imprifoned, and perhaps 
murdered ; but if he efcapes all their Treache- 
ries, and can get to the Ear of his Prince, 'tis 
great odds but he will be treated and punifhed 
as a Calumniator, a falfe Accufer, and a fedi- 
tious Difturber of his Majefly's Government : 
]Sk> Witnefs will dare to appear for him, and 
many falfe ones will be fuborned againft him ; 
and the whole PofTe of Minifters, Officers, Fa- 
vourites, Parafites, Pathicks, Strumpets, Buf- 
foons, Fidlers, and Pimps, will confpire to ruin 
him, as a common Enemy to their common 





But if all thefe Mifchiefs could he avoided, 
the Neceilities of fuch a Prince, arifing from 
the Profufion and vad Expence of his Court, 
from his foolifh Wars, and the Depredations, 
Embezzlements, and various Thefts of his 
Minifters and Servants, will be always calling 
for new Supplies, for new Extortions, which 
mud be raifed by all the Means by which they 
can be raifed : New and fudden Impofitions 
(hall be put upon Trade, new Loans be exact- 
ed from Merchants ; Commodities of general 
life (hall be bought up by the Prince's Order, 
and perhaps upon Trud, and afterwards re- 
tailed again at extravagant Advantages : Mer- 
chants (hall be encouraged to import their 
Goods upon Promifes of eafy and gentle Ufage, 
and thefe Goods when imported (hall be fub- 
]e6red to exorbitant Impofitions and Cuftoms, 
and perhaps confifcated upon frivolous Pre- 
tences. But if thefe, and infinite other Op- 
preiiions, could be prevented for fome time, 
by the Vigilance of a wife Prince, or the Care 
of an able Minider, yet there can be no pro- 
bable Security, or even Hopes of the Conti- 
nuance of honed and prudent Meafures in fuch 
a Government; for One wife Prince fo educated, 
there will be Twenty foolifh ones, and for One 
honed Minifter, there will be a Thoufand cor- 
rupt ones. 

Under fuch natural Difadvantages, perpetual 
Uncertainties, or rather certain Opprejiions, 
no Men will embark large Stocks and extenfive 
Talents for Bufmefs, breed up their Children to 
precarious Employments, build Forts or plant 
Colonies, when the Breath of a weak Prince, 

2, or 

ioo CATffs LETTERS. 

or the Caprice of a corrupt Favourite, (hall 
dafh at once all their Labours and their Hopes; 
and therefore it is impoilible that any Trade 
can fubfift long in fuch a Government, but 
what is neceflary to fupport the Luxury and 
Vices of a Court \ and even furh Trade is, for 
the mod part, carried on by the Stocks, and 
for the Advantage of free Countries, and their 
own petty Merchants are only. Factors to the 
others. True Merchants are Citizens of the 
World, and that is their Country where they 
can live bed and mod fecure ; and whatever 
they can pick up and gather together in tyran- 
nical Governments, they remove to free ones. 
Taver-aicr inveded all the Riches he had amaC 
fed by his long Ramble over the World in the 
"barren Rocks of Switzerland: And being asked 
by the laftKing of France, how it came to pafs 
that he, who had feen the fined Countries on 
the Globe, came to lay out his Fortune in the 
word ; he gave his haughty Majedy this fhort 
Anfv.'er, That he was willing to have fome- 
thing which he could call his own. 

As I think it is evident by what I have faid 
before, that Trade cannot long fubfift, much 
lefs fhurifli, in Arbitrary Governments ; ^ fo 
there is fo clofe and infeparable a Connexion 
between that and Naval Power, that I dare 
boldly affirm, that the latter can never arrive 
to any formidable Height, and continue long 
in that Situation, under fuch a State. Where 
there is an extenfive Trade, great Numbers of 
able-bodied and courageous Sailors, Men bred 
to Fatigues, Hardfhips, and Hazards, ard 
confcquently Soldiers by Profdiion, are kept in 

' condanc 

's LETTERS. 101 

conflant Pay ; not only without any Charge to 
the Publick, but greatly to its Benefit ; not 
only by daily adding to irs Wealth and Power, 
but by venting and employing Abroad, to their 
Country's Honour and Safety, thofe turbulent 
und unruly Spirits that would be Fuel for 
Fad ions, and the Tools and Inftruments of 
ambitious or diicontented Great Men ar Home. 
ThefeMen are always ready at their Country's 
Call, to defend the Profeiilon they live by, and 
with it the publick Happinefs: They are, and 
ever -mult be, in the publick Interefr, with 
which their own is fo dofely unired ; for they 
(ubfift by exporting the Productions of the 
People's Induflry, which they condanrly en- 
crcafe by fb doing : 1 hey receive their Pay 
from the Merchants, a Sort oF Men always in 
the Intereds of Liberty, from which alone they 
can receive Protection and Encouragement. 
And as this Race of Men contribute vaftly to 
the publick Security and Wealth, fb they take 
nothing from it : They are not quartered up 
and down their native Country, like the Hands 
of deipotick Frinces, to opprels their Subjects, 
interrupt their Iriduftry, debauch their Wives 
and Daughters, infult their Perfbns, to be Ex- 
amples of Lewdnefs and Prodigality, and to 
be always ready at Hand to execute the bloody 
Commands of a Tyrant. 

No Monarch was ever yet powerful enough 
to keep as many Seamen in ccnftant Pay at his- 
own Expence, as fmgle Cities have been able to 
do without any at all : The Pay of a Sailor, with 
his Provifion, is equal to that of a Trooper in Ar- 
bkrary Governments^ nor can they learn their 

T 7 T* ' 

ii- ^ 1 raae t 


Trade, by taking Sea-Air for a few Summer. 
Months, and wafting about the Coails of their 
own Country : They gain Experience and 
Boldnefs, by various and difficult Voyages, 
and by being conftamly inured to Hardfhips 
and Dangers. Nor is it poilible for fmgle 
Princes, with all their Power and Vigilance, 
to have fuch regular Supplies of Naval Provi- 
fions, as trading Countries mud have always in 
Srore. There mult be a regular and condar.t 

iercourfe with the Nations from whom thefe 
Supplies come ; a certain and regular Method 
of raying for them ; and condant Demands 
\vi!l produce condant Supplies. There are al- 
ways numerous Magazines in the Hands of 
rrivate Merchants, ready for their own life or 
Sale; There mud be great Numbers of Ship-. 

"ighrs, Anchor-Smiths, Rope and Sail-Ma- 
JUTS, and infinite other ArtUiccrs 5 fure always 
. i" cerdtart Employments ; and \vho, if they 
ai : . . : r cfled by one Mailer, may go to ano- 

'T. There rri'ud be Numbers of Ships ufed 
r,jr Trade, that, upon Occafions, may be em- 
ployed for Men of War, for Tranlports, for 
Firefhips, and Tenders. Now all thefe Things, 
or fcarce any of them, can ever be brought 
about by Arbitrary Courts; Stores will be em- 
bezzled, exhauded, and worn out before new 
ones are Supplied ; Payments will not be 
punctually made ; Artificers will be difcou- 
raged, opprefled, and often left without Em- 
ploy : Every thing will be done at an exorbi- 
tant Expence, and often not done when it is 
paid for ; and when Payments are made, the 
greated Part fhall go in Fees, or for Bribes, or 
in fee ret Trulb. 


For thefe Reafuns, and many others 5 defpo- 
tick Monarchs, though infinitely powerful ac 
Land, yet could never rival Neptune^ and ex- 
tend their Empire over the liquid World ; for 
though great and vigorous Efforts have been 
often made by thefe haughty Tyrants of Man- 
kind, to fiibjedt that Element to their Ambi- 
tion and their Power, being taught by woful 
Experience, arifing from perpetual Lofles and 
Disappointments, cf what vail Importance that 
Dominion was to unllmke j ana unlverfal Sove- 
reignty ; yet all their Riches, Application and 
Pride have never been able, in one In (lance,, 
to effect ir. Sometimes indeed, like a .Phan- 
tome, fhe has made a faint Appearance at an 
Arbitrary Court, but difappear'd again jit the 
firft Approach of the Morning Light : She is 
the Portion of free States, is married to Liber- 
ty, and ever flies the foul and polluted Em- 
braces of a Tyrant. 

The little Srate of Athens was always able to 
humble the Pride, 2nd put a Check to the 
growing Greatnefs of the towering Per fan Mo- 
narchs, by their Naval Power ; and vh 
flripp'd of all their Territories r-y Land, and 
even their Capital City, the Seat of their Com- 
monwealth, yet had Strength enough left to 
vanquifh their numerous Fleets, which almoib 
covered the Sea, and to defeat an Expedition 
carried on by Armies that drank up Rivers, 
and exhaufted all the Stores of Land. 

The fingle City of Venice has proved it felf 
and Over-match in Naval Power to the great 
Ottoman Empire, porTefled of fo many Iflands^ 
ufeful Ports, enviroad with fb many Sea C6*s, 

E 4 an4 

104 C^TO's LETTERS. 

and abounding with all forts of Scores necefTary 
to Navigation ; and in the Year Fifty fix, gave 
them fb fignal an Overthrow at the Dardanels, 
JLS put that State in fuch a Confirmation, that 
they believed their Empire at an End ; and 'tis 
thought if the Venetians had purfued their Vic- 
tory, they had driven them out of Conftertti- 
vcp/e, and even out of Europe ; for the Grand 
Seignior himlelf was preparing to fly into Afin. 
The little I (land of Rjjodes defended itfelf for 
fome Ages againfl the whole Power of the 
Sultan, tho' encompafled by his Dominions ; 
and it was with great Difficulty, Hazard, and 
Expence, that he at laft overcame them, and 
drove the Inhabitants to Malta, where they 
have ever fince braved his Pride, and live up- 
rn the Plunder of his Subjects: And notwith- 
ftar.ding all his numerous and expensive Efforts 
to fhare with the Chriftians the Dominion of 
the Sea ; yet there are no other Seeds or Tra- 
ces of it left through his great and exterifive 
Territories, but what are found in the free 
Py.ratical States of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. 

Neither the Sophi of Per/I* , the Great Mcgul, 
the many Kings \vho command the Banks of 
the Ganges, nor all the haughty Potentates of 
Afii and Affick^ are able to contend at Sea 
with the Englifh or Dutch Eaft-India Companies, 
or even to defend their Subjects againit but few 
Pyrites, with all their Population, and their 
Mines of Gold and Diamonds. 

Spain in all her Pride, with the Wealth of 
both Indict, with Dominions fb vail and exten- 
V*ve, that the Sun rifes and frts within them, 
and a Sea-Line 3 which if extended would en- 

's LETTERS. 105- 

viron the Earth, yet was not able to difpute 
their Title to that Element with a few revolted 
Provinces, who grew up through the Courle 
of an expenfive War to that amazing Great- 
riefs, that in lefs than a Century they faw 
themfelves, from a few Fisher-Towns encorn- 
pafied with Bogs and Morafles, become a mcfl 
Formidable State, equal to the greateil Poten- 
tates at Sea, and to moft at Land ; to have 
great Kings in a diftant World fubmit to be 
-their Vaflals ; and, in fine, to be Proteclors of 
that mighty Nation from whom they revoked-. 
Here is a ftupendious Inftance of the Effech of 
Liberty, which neighbouring Monarchs with 
Twenty times the Territory tremble at, and 
Pofterity will hardly believe. 

France with all its Oeconomy, Addrefs, and 
Power, with its utmoft and moft expenfive 
Effort?, and the Affiftance of neighbouring and 
rival Kings, has not been able to eftablifh an 
Empire upon that coy Element. She faw it, 
like a Mufhroom, rife in a Night, and wicher 
again the next Day. It's true, at irnmenfe Ex- 
pence and infinite Labour, (he got together 
a formidable Fleet, and with it got Victories^ 
and took Thoufands of rival Ships ; yet every 
Day grew weaker as her Enemies grew ftronger, 
and could never recover a (ingle Defeat, which 
in Holland would have been repaired in a few 
more Weeks than the Battle was Days m fight- 
ing : So impoflible it is for Art to contend 
again ft Nature, and Slavery to difpute the Na- 
val Prize with Liberty. 

Sweden and Dewnar^ though pofTefFed of the 1 
Naval Stores of Europe * who fubfift by that 

E 5; 

xoS Giro's LETTERS. 

Commerce, and are conftantly employed to 
build Ships for their Neighbours, yet are not 
able, with their united Force, to equip, man 
out, and keep upon the Sea for any confider- 
able Time, a Fleet large enough to dilpute 
with an Englifh or Dutch Squadron ; and I dare 
venture my Reputation and Skill in Politicks, 
by boldly averting, that another vain and un- 
natural Northern Apparition will fbon vanifli 
aad disappear again, like the Morning Star at 
the Glimmering of the Sun, and every one (hall 
ask, H 7 bere is it ? 

I am, 

I Have {hewn in my laft, that Trad^ and 
Naval Power are produced by Liberty only; 
and (hall fhew in This, that Military Virtue- 
can proceed from nothing elfe, as I have in a 
good Meafure (hewn already. 

In free Countries, as People work for them-' 
felves, fo they fight for themfelves : But in 
Arbitrary Countries, 'tis all one to the People, 
in Point of Intereft, who conquers them ; they 
cannot ^be worfe ^ufed ; and when a Tyrant's. 
Army is beat, his Country is conquered : He 
has no Refburce, his Subjects having neither 
Arms, nor Courage, nor Reafon to fight for 
him: He has no Support but his Itanding Forces^ 
who, for enabling him to opprefs. go Sharers in 
hisOppreillon and fighting for themfelves while 
they fight for him, do fbmetimes fight well i 


's LETTERS. 107 

Bat his poor People, who are opprefled by 
him, can have no other Concern for his Fare*, 
than to wifh him the worft. 

In Attacks upon a free State, every Man will 
fight to defend it, becaufe every Man has 
fornething to defend in it. He is in love with 
his Condition, his Eafe, and Property, and 
will venture his Life rather than lofe them, be-^ 
caufe with them he lofes all the Blefilngs of 
Life. When thefe Bleilings are gone, it is 
Madnefs to think that any Man will fpill his 
Blood for him who took them away, and i& 
doubtlefs hfs Enemy, tho' he may call himfelf 
his Prince. It is much more natural to wifti 
his Deftru&ion, and help to procure it. 

For thefe Reafbns, Imall free States have 
conquered the greateft Princes; and the greateft 
Princes have never been able to conquer free 
States, but either by furpnzing them bafely 7 
or by corrupting them, or by Forces almoit infi- 
nitely fuperior, or when they were diffracted and 
weaken'd bydomeflickDivifions and Treachery. 

The Greeks thought fcarce any Number of 
Perfians too great for their own fmall Armies^ 
or any Army of their own too frnaii ^for the 
greateft Number of Perfians. Agefilmts invaded 
the great Per fan Empire, the greateft then int 
the World, at the Head of no more than Ten 
Thoufand Foot, and Four Thoufand Horfe* 
and carried all before him ; he defeated the 
Jfatick. Forces with fo much Eafe, that they 
fcarce interrupted his March ; he fubdued their 
Provinces as fa ft as he entered them, and he 
took their Cities without felling down before 
t-hem :. And had he not been recalled by his; 

io8 Giro's LETTERS. 

Countrymen, to defend his own City againft 
a Confederacy of other Greek, Citie?, much 
more terribly Foes than the greateft Armies of 
the great King, it is very probable that that 
brave old S far tan would have foon robbed him 
of his Empire. 

^And not long before this, when Cyrus made 
War upon his Brother Artaxerxes for the Crown, 
Thirteen Thoufand auxiliary Greeks entertained 
by him for that End, routed the Emperor's 
Army of Nine Hundred Thoufand Men, 2nd 
got the Victory for Cyri/j, had he cutliv'd the 
Battle to enjoy k And though they had now 
loft the Prince they fought for, and afterwards 
Clearchus their Genera], who with other of their 
Officers was treacheroufly murdered by the 
ferjiA^s when they had brought him to a Par- 
Jey ; tho' they were in great Srreights, defti- 
rute of Horfes, Money, and Provifions, far 
from Home, in the Heart of an Enemy's Coun- 
try, xv arched and diftrcffed by a great Army 
of Four Hundred Thoufand Men, who waited 
for an^Occafion to cut them off in their Re- 
treat, if they attempted It ; yet thefe excellent 
Soldiers, excellent by being Freemen, com* 
minded by the famous Xenopbon, made good 
that Retreat of Two Thoufand Three Hun* 
dred Miles over The Bellies of their Enemies, 
through Provinces of PC- fans, and in fpight of 
a yaft Hoft of ?c;-finm, who coailed 'and ha, 
rals'd them all the Way. 

Alexander of Macedon, with his free-Greeks^ 
attack'd the Perfans, and beat them at all Di 
advantages in the open Fields, when they were 
five, tai, nay, twenty Times his Number; 



and having pafled the Hellefpont with not Fif- 
teen Thoufand Pounds in his Treafury, and 
not above Thirty-five Thoufand Men in his 
Army, he made himfelf Mailer of that great 
and overgrown Empire, with as much Expedi- 
tion as he could travel over it ; and though 
he fought three Battles for it, he fcarce loft in 
them all one Regiment of his Men. 

Leonidas, at the Head of Four Thoufand 
Greeks, fought Xerxes at the Head of Six and 
twenty Hundred Thoufand Perfitxs, according 
to Herodotus, in the Streights of Thermopylae for 
two Days together, and repulfed them at every 
A {fault with vaft Slaughter ; nor did they at 
laft get the better of him, till being led by a 
treacherous Greek, a fecret Way over the Moun- 
tains, they fell upon him in the Rear, and fur- 
rounded him with their Numbers ; neither did 
he then defert his Poft, tho ? all his Men re- 
treated, except Three Hundred Spartans, who 
refolutely ilood by him, and were all (lain with 
him upon the Spot ; with Twenty Thoufand 
Perjj/tns round them. 

The F(omans, enjoying the fame Liberty, and 
animated by it, vanquifhed all the enOaved 
Nations of the known World, with the fame 
Eaie, and upon the fame unequal Terms. The 
fubduing of free Countries coil them long La- 
bour and Patience, great Difficulty, and a; 
World of Blood , and they differed many De- 
feats before they got a decifive Victory : The 
Inhabitants being all Freemen were all brave, 
all Soldiers, and were exhaufted before their 
States could be conquered : And the Volfcifim, 
y Tufca-ns, and Samnltcs preferved their 



Liberties, as long as they had Men left to de- 
fend them. The Samtrifes particularly declared 
in their Embaffy to Hannibal, that having often 
brought great Numbers of Men into the Field 
againft the Upmans, and Sometimes defeated 
the Roman Armies, they were at laft fb wafted 
that they could not refifl one Rowan Legion. 

But when the Romans came to War againft 
great and arbitrary Kings, they had little elfe 
to do but to (hew their Swords ; they gained 
Battles almoft without fighting, and Two or 
Three Legions have routed Three or Four 
Hundred Thoufand Men. One Battle gene- 
rally won a Kingdom, and fometimes two or 
three. Antiochus was fb frightened wich one 
Skirmifh with Acliius at Thermofykg) that he 
run away out ofQrfece% and left all he pofTefled 
there to the Romans ; and being beaten after- 
wards by Sczplc, the Brother of Africanus, he 
quitted to them all his Kingdoms and Terri- 
tories on this fide Mount Taurus. And Paulas 
SSLmiliiiSi by one Battle with Perfeits^ became 
Mailer of Macedonia. Tigranss, Ptolemy , and 
Sypbax, all Monarchs of mighty Territories, 
were ftill more eafily vanquifhed. So that the 
great Kingdoms of A/ia, sEgypt, Numidia, and 
Macedon, were all of them much more eafily 
overcome, and differed much fewer Defeats 
than the Stimnites alone, though inhabiting a 
fmall barren Province. 

The only dreadful Foes the Remans ever 
found, were People as free as themielves ; and 
the mod dreadful of all were the Carthaginians. 
Hannibal alone beat them oftner, and flew mere 
of iheir Men in Battle, than all the Kings Jn 


's LETTERS, in 

the World ever did, or could do. But for all 
the great and repeated Defeats he gave them, 
though he had deftroyed Two Hundred Thou- 
iand of their Men, and many of their excel- 
lent Commanders ; and though, at the fame 
Time, their Armies were cut off in Spain, and 
with them the two brave Scipio's ; and though 
they had differed great Loffes in Sicily, and at 
Sea ; yet they never funk nor wanted Soldiers,- 
nor their Soldiers Courage ; and as to great 
Commanders, they had more and better than 
ever they had before : And having conquered 
Hannibal, they quickly conquered the World. 

This vait Virtue of theirs, and this uncon- 
querable Spirit, was not owing to Climate or 
Complexion, but to Liberty alone, and the 
Equality of their Government, in which every 
f(oman had a Share : They were nurfed up in 
the Principles of Liberty , in their Infancy they 
were inftrucl:ed to love it. and Experience af- 
terwards confirmed their Affections, and fhew- 
ed them its glorious Advantages : Their own 
happy Condition taught them a Contempt and 
Indignation for thole wretched and barbarous 
Governments, which could neither afford their 
Subjects Happinefs nor Protection : And when 
they attacked thefe Governments and their 
wretched People, they found themfelves like 
Lions amongft Sheep. 

It is therefore Government alone that makes 
Men cowardly or brave : And Bcccalini well 
ridicules the abfurd Complaint of the Princes 
of his Time, that their Subjects wanted than 
Love for their Country which was found in 
free States, when he makes Apollo tell them^ 



that no People were ever in Love with Ra- 
pine, Fraud, and Oppreffion \ that they muft 
mend their own Adminifbation, and their Peo- 
ples Condition ; and that People will then love 
their Country, when they live happily in it. 
The old Romans were Matters oF Mankind ; 
but the prefent Race of People in Rr<me t are 
not a Match for one of the Swifs Cantons ; 
nor could thefe Cantons ever be conquered, 
even by the united Forces of the Houfe of Au- 
jlrin. Charles Duke of 'Burgundy was the laft 
that durft invade them ; but tho' he had been 
a long Terror and conftant Rival to Louis the 
XI th of France, a crafty, politick, and power- 
ful Monarch ; and often too hard for him; 
he paid dear for his Bravery in attacking the 
Swt^ers, and loft by doing it Three Armies, 
and his own Life. They were a free People, 
and fought in their own Quarrel; the- greatefl 
Incitement upon Earth to Boldnrfs and Mag- 
nanimity. The Swi tiers had a Property, the/ 
in Rocks; and were Freemen, though amongft 
Mountains. This gives them the Figure they 
-make in Europe ; fuch a Figure, that they are 
courted by the greateft Princes in it, and have 
fupported fome of them in their Wars, when 
their own native Slaves could net fupport 

The Dutch, having revolted from the greaf- 
eft Potentate then in Europe, defended them- 
felves agamQ all his Power for near an Hun- 
dred Years, and grew rich all the Time, while 
he grew poor ; fo poor, that Spain has never 
yet recovered its Lodes in that War : And 
though they are in their Conliuution more 



formed for Trade than War, yet their own 
Bravery in their own Defence is aftonifhing to 
thofe that know not what the Spirit of Liberty 
can do in any People : Even their Women 
joined to defend their Walls ; as the Women 
of Sparta once did, and as the Women of 
J*r.r:slcna more lately did, tho' the united Force 
of the Two Monarchies of France and S^afn 
had at lad the Honour to take that City, 
especially when We, who had engaged them 
in the War, had alfo given them up. 

Thefe fame Dutch in that War, when they 
were clofely befieged in one of their Towns 
by the Spanifh Army, let in the Sea upon their 
Country, trufting rather to the Mercy of that 
Element, than to the Mercy of an invading 
Tyrant ; and the Sea iaved them. It mufl be 
remembred too, that they had the Power of 
the Emperor, as well as that of Spain, to con- 
tend wirh ; both thefe mighty Monarchs ha- 
ving joined their Cotinfels and Arms to fubdue 
Seven little Provinces, which yet they never 
were able to fubdue: The Ciry of Oflend alone 
cod them a Three Years Siege, and an Hun- 
dred and Thirty Thoufand Men , and when 
they took it, they took only a Heap of Rub- 
l>i{h, to which it was reduced before it was 
fur rendered. 

In free States, every Man being a Soldier, cr 
quickly made fo, they improve in a War, and 
every Campaign they fight better and better : 
Whereas the Armies of an abfblute Prince grow 
every Campaign worfe ; efpecially if they are 
composed of his own Subjects, who being 
Slaves, are with great Difficulty and long Dif- 


H4 Cafe's LETTERS. 

cipline made Soldiers, and Icarce ever mads 
good ones ; and when his old Troops are gone, 
his ne\v ones fignlfy little. This was eminent- 
ly (hewn in the late War with France, which 
degenerated in Arms every Year ; while the 
Englijk and Dutch did as- evidently mend. And 
doubtlefs, if the French Barrier of fortified 
Towns had been quite broken through, as it 
was very near. One Battle would have corn- 
pleated the ConquePt of Francs, and perhaps it 
would net have coPc a Battle. 

And if free States fupport thernfelves better 
in a War than an -ite Prince, they do 

like wife much fooner retrieve their Loffes by 
it. The Dutch, vihen they had been beaten 
twice at Sea by Cromwell's Admirals and Englijh 
Seamen, wirh great Slaughter and Lofs of 
Ships, did notwithstanding, in Two Months 
Time after the fecond great Defeat, fit out a 
Third Fleet of a Hundred and Forty Men of 
War, under the famous Van Trump : Upon 
this Lord Clarendon obferves, that " there can- 
" not be a greater Inftance of the Opulency 
*' of that People, than that they fhould be 
able 3 afrer fo many LoiTes, and fo late a 
great Defeat, in fo ftiort a Time, to fet out 
a Fleet ftrong enough to vifit thofe who had 
" (b lately overcome them," This is what no 
Arbitrary Prince in Europe, or upon the Face 
of the Earth, could have done ; nor do I 
believe, that all the Arbitrary Monarchs in 
Europe, Africa, and Ajia, with all their united 
Powers together, could do it at this Day. The 
whole Strength of the Spaniflo Monarchy could 
not fit out their famous Armada, without the 



Miftance of Money from the little free State 
of Genoa ; and that invincible Armada, being 
beatea by theEnglt/h and quite deftroyed, Spain 
has never been able, with all her Indies, and 
her Mountains of Silver and Gold, to make 
any Figure at Sea fince, nor been able to pay 
that very Money which equip'd that its la ft 
great Fleet. 

The little City of Tyre gave Alexander tie 
Great more Refinance, and cofl him more La- 
bour to take it, than to conquer the great Mo- 
narchy of A(IA\ and tho', when with infinite 
Labour and Courage he had taken it, -he burnt 
it to the Ground, flew eight thoufand Tynans 
in tVe Sackage of their Town, crucified two 
thoufand more, and fold all the reft for Slaves ; 
yet iome of the Citizens, with their Wives and 
Children, being efcaped to Carthage, (a Colony 
of their own) and others being conveyed away 
and favecl by their Neighbours the Sidonians 
during the Seige, they returned and rebuilt their 
deflated City ; and in fo finall a Time as 
nineteen Years afterwards, endured another 
Seige cf fifteen Months from Anti genus, the 
rnoft powerful of all Alexanders Succeilors ; 
nor could he take it at lafi:, but upon honour- 
able Terms. What an Inftance of the Bleiiings 
and Power of Liberty and Trade! 

From the Moment the fymans loft their Li- 
berty, their Spirit was gone, and their Valour 
fcarce ever afrer appeared. In the Beginning 
of Augtiftus^s Reign, the befr and braveft of 
them perifhed by the Sword, either in the Civil 
War, where Romans fighting againft Romans, 
Multitudes were (lain with Brutus and Cfffms^ 



the lad brave Men that ever drew a Sword for 
the Commonwealth, or in the bloody Pro- 
fcriptions that followed ; wherein all the ex- 
cellent Men and Aifertors of Liberty, who 
efcaped the Battle, were gleaned up and mur- 
dered by Soldiers and Informers, and amongfi: 
the reft, the divine Cicero. Afterwards, when 
Anguftus had got the World to himfelf, Jura 
omnium in fe traxit ; Flatterers were his only 
Favourites, and none were preferred to Magi- 
ftracy, but the fervile Creatures of his Power ; 
Liberty was extinct, and irs Spirit gone, and 
tho 5 there was a univerfal Peace, yet the Power 
of the Empire continually decayed. Augufiits 
himfelf was fo fenfible of this, that the Loft of 
two or three Legions under Va^us in Germany t 
frightened h'm, and had almoft broke his 
Heart , net from any Tendernefs in it, for he 
had butchered Myriads, and enflaved all ; but 
he knew that now tyman Legions were hard to 
be got, and (carce worth getting. Having de- 
ft roy'd fb many brave Romans ^ and made the 
reft bafe by Slavery, and by the Corruptions 
which fupport it, he knew the Difficulty of 
forming a fty-man Army. 

His Succeilbrs were worfe ; they went on in 
a perpetual Series of Slaughters, dreading and 
deftroying every Thing that had the Appear- 
ance of Virtue or Goodnefs , and even fo early 
as jiberius's Reign, T hat Emperor, fays Tacitus* 
knew magis Fawn quam vi flare res fusts, that his 
Empire was fcpported more by the Reputation 
of tyman Greatnefs, than by the real Strength 
of the fymans, who grew every Day more and 
more weak and wretched j and tho' they had 



now and then a little Sun-fhine in the Reign of 
a good Emperor, yet the Root of the Evil re- 
mained : They were no longer Freemen ; and 
for far the moft part, their Government was 
nothing elfe but aconftant State of OppreiLon, 
and a continued Succeiiion of Mafiacres. Ty- 
rants governed them, and Soldiers created and 
governed the Tyrants, or butchered them if 
they would not be Butchers. 

As to military Virtue, it was no more : The 
Prastorian Bands were only a Band of Hang- 
men with an Emperor at their Head ; Italy and 
the Provinces were exhaufted; the Ionian Peo- 
ple were nothing but an idle and debauched 
Mob, who cared not who was uppermoft, ib 
they had but a little Victuals and faw Shews : 
The provincial Armies were foreign Hirelings, 
and there was not a Upman Army in the I^ctnan 
Empire. Inops Italia, plebs tirbana tmbejtis, ni- 
bil in exercittlus validum prater externum. This 
was (aid not long after the Death of Auguftw ; 
nor do I remember an Inflance of one great 
Roman Captain after Germanics and Corlulo; the 
rirft murdered by Tiberius, his Uncle and Fa- 
ther by Adoption ; and the ether by Xm>, for 
whom he reconquered and fettled the Eafl ; and 
after Vefpajinn and Titw 9 every fyman Emperor 
cf remarkable Bravery v/ns a Foreigner, and 
every Victory gained by them, was gained by 
Foreigners ; who being all Mercenaries, were 
perpetually letting up and pulling down their 
own Monarchs At length, being pofiefTed of 
. the whole Power cf the Empire, they took it 
to thcrnfelvcs ; and thus it ended, and became 
dismembered by feveral Nations, and into fe- 




veral Governments, according to their Fortune; 
and it is remarkable, that tho' thofe Nations 
had frequent Wars amongft themfelves about 
the Countries they invaded, yet they had no- 
thing to apprehend from the P^omans while they 
were feizing Roman Provinces. 

Tyrants are fb feniible that when they have 
loft their Army, they have loft all., that a- 
mongft their other deftru6tive Expedients to 
preferve themfelves, whatever becomes of their 
People, one of their Methods is to lay whole 
Counties wafte, and to keep them wafte, to 
prevent an Invader from fubfifting ; and their 
bed Provinces are by this Means turned often 
into Wilderneffes. For this Reafbn a March to 
Conftantimplc is fcarce practicable to an Enemy 
from any Quarter. 

I will conclude with anfwering an Objecti- 
on : It may be faid, that the Armies of Ty- 
rants do often right bravely, and are brave ; 
and I own it is true in many Inftances : But I 
defire it may be remembered, that in Arbitra- 
ry Countries, nothing flouri (lies except the Court 
and the Army. A Tyrant muft give his Spoilers 
Part of the Spoil, or elfe they will fight but 
faintly for it, or perhaps put him to death if 
he does not. The moil abfblute Princes mud 
therefore ufe their Soldiers like Freemen, as 
they tender their own Power and their Lives ; 
and under the greateft Tyrants, the Men of 
War enjoy great Privileges, even greater than 
in Free States. The Privileges and Immunities 
they enjoy, conftitute a Sort of Liberty, dear 
to themfelves, but terrible always to the Sub- 
je&, and often pernicious to the Prince : ^ it 



feeing the certain Condition of a Tyrant, that 
to be able to opprefs his People, or plague his 
Neighbours, he muft empower his Soldiers to 
deftroy himfelf. 

The chief Forces therefore of an Arbitrary 
Prince, confift of Freemen : Such were the 
Prxtorian Bands of the R$man Emperors, and 
fuch are the Turlyjh Janizaries ; and both of 
them, tho' they maintained the Tyranny, have 
frequently kill'dthe Tyrants; and fuch are the 
Grand Seignior's %aims, Tymaricts, or Horfe- 
men, who have Lands given them in the Pro- 
vinces, and are the only Nobility and Gentry 
there : And fuch too were the Mamatukes of 
Egypt) which Country at laft they ufurped for 
themfelves, having put the King their Mailer 
to death. 1 might mention here the Swift 
Guards, and Gens d^armes of a neighbouring 
Prince, which are his Janizaries. As to the 
Turkjfh Janizaries, I own the Sultan may put 
particular Men of them to death, but no Sul- 
tan dares touch their Privileges as a Body ; and 
two or three of their greateft Emperors were 
depofed and deftroyed by them for attempting 

Meer Slaves can defend no Prince, nor en- 
able him even to rule over Slaves : So that by 
giving Liberty, or rather Licentioufnefs, to a 
few, the Slavery of All is maintained. 

All this does, I think, fully prove, that 
where there is no Liberty, there can be no 
Magnanimity. It is true, Enthufiafm has in- 
fpired Armies, and moll: remarkably of all (he 
Snracen Armies, with amazing Refblution and 
Fury j but e?en that was Fiercenefs for Liberty 


no Giro's LETTERS. 

of Opinion to themfelves, and for fubduing all 
Men to it , and betides, this Courage of En- 
thufiafm is rarely eminent, except in the firft 
Rife of States and Empires. 

I am, &cc. 

I Shall (hew in this Paper, that neither ^ 
Chriftian Religion, nor Natural Religion, 
nor any thing elfe that ought to be called Re- 
ligion, can fubfift under Tyrannical Govern- 
ments, now that Miracles are ceafed. I readily 
confefs, that fuch Governments are fertile in 
Superftition, in wild Whimfies, delufive Phan- 
toms, and ridiculous Dreams, proper to terrify 
the humane Soul, degrade its Dignity, deface 
its Beauty, and fetter it with flaviih and un- 
manly Fears, to render it a proper Object of 
Fraud, Grimace, and Impofition ; and to make 
Mankind the ready Dupes of gloomy Impoilors, 
and the tame Slaves of raging Tyrants. Servi- 
tude eftablifned in the Mind, is ben: efta- 

But all thefe bewildered Imaginations, thefe 
dark and dreadful Horrors, which banifh Rea- 
fon, and contract and imbitter the Heart, 
what have they to do with true Religion, un- 

lefs to deftroyit? That Religion, which 

improves and enlarges the Faculties of Men, 
exalts their Spirits, and makes them brave for 
God and themfclves ; that Religion, which 


o's LETTERS. i 

gives them great and worthy Conceptions of 
the Deity ; and that Religion, which infpires 
them with generous and beneficent Affections 
to one another, and with univerfal Love and 
Benevolence to the whole Creation. No Man 
can love God, if he loves not his Neighbour ; 
and whoever loves his Neighbour, will neither 
injure, ^ revile, nor opprels him : Nor can we 
otherwife fhewour Love to God, than by kind, 
humane and affe&ionate A6tions to his Crea- 
tures : A new Commandment, fays our blelTed 
Saviour, I give unto you, tlmt je love c-ni 

Almighty God, the great Author of our 
Nature, and of all Things, who has the Hea- 
vens for his Throne, and the Earth for his Foot- 
ftool, is raifed far above the Reach of our 
Kindnefs, ^our Malice or our Flattery. He de- 
rives infinite Happinefs from his own infinite 
Perfections ; nor can any frail Power or Actions 
of ours leifen or improve it ; Religion there- 
fore^ from which he can reap no Advantage, 
was infticuted by him for the Sake of Men, as 
the beft Means and the (Irongeft Motive to their 
own Happinefs, and mutual Happinefs ; and 
by it Men are taught and animated to be ufe* 
ful, aflifting, forgiving, kind and merciful one 
to another. But to hurt, calumniate or hate 
one another for his Sake, and in Defence of 
any Religion, is a flat ( ontradi&ion to his Re- 
ligion, and an open Defiance of the Author of 
ReHgion : And to quarrel about Belief and 
Opinions, which do not immediately and ne- 
ceffarily produce practical Virtue and focial 
Duties, is equally wicked and abfurd. This is 

VOL. 11. F to 

Giro's LETTERS. 

to be wicked in behalf of Righteoufnefs, and 
to be cruel out of Piety. A Religion which 
begets Selfifhnefs and Partiality only to a few, 
and its own Followers, and which infpires Ha- 
tred and Outrage toward all the reft of the 
World, can never be the Religion of the mer- 
ciful and impartial Maker and Judge of the 
World. Speculations are only fo far a Part of 
Religion, as they produce the moral Duties of 
Religion, general Peace and unlimited Charity, 
publick Spirit, Equity, Forbearance, and good 
Deeds to all Men : And the Worfhip of God 
is. no longer the Worihip of God, than as it 
warms our Minds with the Remembrance of his 
gracious Condefcenfions, his indulgent Gire, 
Bounty, and Providence, exercifed towards us; 
and as it raifes and forms our Affcdiions to an 
Imitation of fuch his divine and unreftrained 
Goodnefsj and to ufe one another kindly by his 
great Example, who ufes us all fb. So that 
our worthy, tender, and beneficent Behaviour 
to one another, is the bed Way to acknowledge 
his to us : It is the mofl acceptable Way we can 
\vorfhip him, and the Way he will heft accept 
our Worfhip : And whatever Devotion has not 
this Effe&, or a contrary EffeCr, is the dry or 
mad Freaks of an Enthufiafr., and ought to be 
called by another and a properer Name. 

This is a general Idea of true Religion, and 
thefe are the certain and only Marks of it : All 
which, as they are oppofite to the EfTence and 
Spirit of an Arbitrary Government ; fb every 
Arbitrary Government is an Enemy to the Spi- 
rit of true Religion, and defeats its Ends. In 
thefe Governments, in Defiance of Religion, 



Humanity, and common Senfe, Millions mufl 
be miferable to exalt and embellifh one or a few, 
^nd to make them proud, arrogant, and great : 
Prote&ion and Security are no more ; the Spirit 
of the People is funk ; and their Induftry dif- 
couraged and loft, or only employed to feed 
Luxury and Pride : and Multitudes ftarve, that: 
a few may riot and abound. All Love to Man- 
kind is extincl:, and Virtue and publick Spirit 
are dangerous or unknown ; while Vice, Fal 
hood and lervile Sycophancy become neceffary 
to maintain precarious Safety and an ignomi- 
nious Life : And, in line, Men live upon the 
Spoils of one another, like ravenous Fiflies and 
Beads of Prey : They become rapacious, bru- 
tiih and favage to one another, as their cruel 
Governors are to them all ; and as a further Imi- 
tation of fuch M afters, their Souls are abjeclr, 
mean, and villainous. To live upon Prey, and 
worry humane Race, is the Genius and Sup- 
port of Tyrants, as well as of Wolves and 
Tygers ; and it is the Spirit and Practice of 
Men to refemble their Governors, and to at 
like them. Virtue and Vice in Courts, run 
like Water in a continual Defcent, and quickly 
overflow the inferior Soil. 

Tcrva Leaena lupum, cc. 

Now, what can be found here to anfwer the 
Spirit and Precepts of the Chriftian Religion, 
which is all Love, Charity, Meeknefs, mutual 
Aliiftance, and mutual Indulgence ; and muft 
either deftroy Tyranny, which deftroys all thefe, 
or be deftroyed by it ? A Religion given by 

F z God 


G--H to infplre Men with every foclal Virtue^ 
.and ro furn ; fh them with every Argument far 
iVi-al Happmefi, will never find Quarter, much 
]<-fs Pr.) region, from a Government, which 
f.ibfifb by an unrelenting War againft every 
Virtue, and all 'humane Felicity, On the con- 
trary, all its divine Doctrines (hall be perverted, 
-,all its divine Principles mangled, and botl^ its 
Principles and its Precepts corrupted, difguifed 
:and wrefted, to be made free of the Court: 
Truth will 'be made to patronize Impofiure, 
:and Meeknefs to fupport Tyranny : ^Obedience 
#o equal Laws, and Submililon to juft Autho- 
rity, ill allbe turned intoaiervile and crouching 
Subieclion to blind Rage and inhumane Fury \ 
complaint and refpective Behaviour into fla- 
vi{h 'Flattery, and fupple Homage to Power; 
Meeknefs and Humility into Dejection, Poor- 
Tiefs of Spirit, and bodily Probations ; Cha- 
fity, Benevolence, and Humanity, into a fiery 
.and outrageous Zeal, to propagate fafhionable 
.and gainful Opinions: Chrililan Courage fball 
l)e changed into Cruelty and brutifh Violence; 
impartial Juilice into (avage Severity j Pn> 
fe6tion into Oppreflion and Plundering ; the 
Fear of God into the Fear of Man ; and the 
Worfhip of the Deity into an idolatrous Ado- 
ration of a Tyrant. 

Tho' God Almighty fent his only Son into 
the World to teach his Will to Men, and to 
confirm hts Minion by Wonders and Miracles; 
yet, having once fully manifefted himfelf and 
his Law, he has left it to be propagated and 
earned on by humane Means only, according 
to rlie Holy Writings inlpired by him ; and if 



the Powers of the World will nor fubmit to 
thofe Directions, -and will neither purfue thenr 
themfelves, nor fiifter their Subjects to purfue 
them, nor leave them the Means of doing it ; 
then the Chriftian Religion mud take the Fate 
of all fublunary Things,- and he loft from a- 
mpngfr. Mcn, a unlefs Heaven interpofes again, 
miraculoufly in its Favour. Now the Expe- 
rience of alleges will convince us, that all, 
tyrannical Princes will be agaihft the Religion*, 
which is agair.ft them ; and either abolifh it,, 
or, which is much worfe, pervert it into a 
deadly and unnatural Engine, to encreafe and' 
defend that Pride and Power, which Chriftiani- 
ry abhors ; and to promote thofe Evils and 
Miferies, which Chriftianity forbids, and were 
it left to itfelf, would prevent or relieve, A. 
Religion modelled by ufurped Power, to coun- 
tenance Ufurpation and Oppreiiion, is as oppo- 
fi: e to the Chriflian Religion, as Tyranny is 
to Liberty, and Wickedness to Virtue. When 
Religion is 'taught to fpeak Court-Language.,, 
and none are fuffered to preach it, but fuch. 
as fpeak the fams Dialecl ; when thofe who are- 
IViinifters of the Gofpel, mud be alfb the Mi- 
n'fters of Ambition, and either fandify Falf- 
hood and Violence, by the W 7 ord of Mercy and 
Truth, or hold their Tongues; when Prefer- 
ments and worldly Honours are on the Si'de oF 
Itnpofture, and Gal lies, Racks, and Dungeons 
are the Rewards of Confidence and Piety ; the 
Good and Efficacy of Chriftianity will be ar 
effectually gone, as if it were formally ex- 
changed for "Mahomet anifin ; and under thofe 
Circumftances if its Name is retained, it is only 

F ^ retainedi 

3i<5 CATffs LETTERS. 

retained to do Evil, and might be innocently 
banifhed with the Thing. The Chriftian Re- 
ligion has as rarely gained by Courts, as Courts 
have improved by the Chriftian Religion; and 
Arbitrary Courts have fe'idorn meddled with it, 
but either to perfccute it, ordebafe and corrupt 
it ; nor could the Power and Fury of Tyrants 
ever hurt or weaken it fb much as their pre- 
tended Favours and Countenance have dorse : 
By appearing for ir, they turned their Power 
moil effectually againft it. Their avowed Per- 
fecution of Chriftianity, did only deftroy 
Chriftians but afterwards, while they fet up 
for protecting none but the true Chriftians^ 
that is, thofe that were as bad as themfelves, 
and having no Religion of their own, adopted 
blindly the Religion of their Prince ; and for 
punifhing all who were not true Chriftians, 
that is, : 11 that were better than themfelves, 
and v/ould take their Religion from no Man's 
Word, but only from the Word of God ; they 
lifted Chriftians agamft Chriftians, and di(- 
figured, undermined and banifhed Chriftianity 
Me If, byfalfe Friendfhip to its Profeflbrs : And 
thcfe ProfeiTors thus corrupted, joining a holy 
Title to an impious Caule, concurred in the 
Confpirscy, and contended fiercely in the Name 
of Chrift for fecular Advantages, which Chrift 
never gave nor took, and for a fecular Sove-. 
reignty, which he rejected, and his Gofpel for- 
bids. Thus one fort of Tyranny was artfully 
made to fupport another, and both by a Union 
ot Interefts maintained a War againft Religion 
under Colour of defending it, and fought the 
Author of it under his own Banner ; that is, as 



Dr. Tillotfon finely fays, lley lied for the Truth, 
find killed for Go<s Sak/. 

The many various anci contradi&ory Opi- 
nions of weak Enthufiafts, or of defigning Men, 
and all the different and repugnant Interpreta- 
tions of Scripture, publifhed and contended 
for by them, could have done but fmall Preju- 
dice to Religion and Society, if humane Au- 
thority had not interpofed with its Penalties 
and Rewards, annexed to the believing or not 
believing fortuitous Speculations, uielefs No- 
tions, dry Idea's, and the inconfiftent Reveries 
of disordered Brains; or the felfifh Inventions 
of ufurping Popes, ambitious Synods, and tur- 
bulent and afpiring Doctors, or the crafty 
Schemes of discontented or opprefllve Statefc 
men : For all thefe have been the important 
Caufes, and the wicked Fewel of religious Wars 
and Perfections. 

It is fo much the general fntereft of Society 
to perform and to encourage all its Members to 
perform the practical Duties of Religion, that 
if a ftronger and more prevailing Intereft were 
not thrown by Power into the contrary Scale, 
there would be no Difference amongll Men 
about the Nature and Extent of their Duties 
to Magiftrates, to Parents, Children, and to 
Friends and Neighbours : And if thefe fbcial 
Duties (the only Duties humane Society, as 
fuch, is concerned to promote) were agreed 
upon and pradlifed, the Magiftrate would have 
no more to do with their Opinions than witrr 
their- Shape and Complexion ; nor could he- 
know, if he would, by what Method to alter 

F 4 them,. 


them. No Man's Belief is in his own 
r can be in the Power of another. 

The utmoil Length the Power of the 
giilrate can in this Matter extend, beyond that 
0f Exhortation, which is in every Man's Power, 
can be only to make Hypocrites, Slaves, Fools, 
or Atheids. When he has forced his Subjetls 
to bely their Conferences, or to a6l againft 
them, he has in effect driven them out of all 
Religion, to bring them into his own ; and 
when they thus fee and feel the profeifed De- 
fender of Religion overturning all its Precepts, 
exhorting by Bribes, and rebuking by Stripes, 
Confiscations, and Dungeons," and making 
Cbriftiariity the Inflrument of Fury, Ambi- 
tion, Rapine, and Tyranny ; what can they 
think, but either that he is no Chriftian, or 
that Chriflianity is not true ? If they come to 
fufpecl: it of Impqftute, they grow Infidels-; 
and if they grow into a Belief that Religion, 
countenances Bitternefs,, Outrage, and Severi- 
ties, nay, commands them, they become Bi- 
gots ; the \yorft and moil mifchievous Character 
of the Two : For, Unbelievers, guided by the 
Rules of Prudence or Good-nature, may be 
good Neighbours and inoffenfive Men ; but 
Bigotry, {landing upon the Ruins of Reaion, 
and being conducted by no Light but that of 
an inflamed Imagination, and a four, bitter, 
and narrow Spirit, there is no Violence nor 
Barbarity which it is not capable of wifhing or 

Happinefs is the chief End of Man, and the 
living of his Soul is his chief Happinefs ; lo 
that every Man is moil concerned for his own-. 


Soul, and more than any other can be : And 
if no Obftruftion is thrown in his Way, he- 
will for the moft part do all in his Power for' 
his own Salvation, and will certainly do it 
beft ; and when he has done all that he can, 
he has done all that he ought : People cannoc 
be faved by Force, nor can all the Powers in 
the World togeiher make one true Chr5ftian 5 
or convince one Man. Conviction is rhe Pro- 
vince and Effecl: of Reafon ; and when that 
fails-, nothing but the Grace of God can fup- 
ply it : And what has the Power and Penalties 
of Men to do either with Reafon or Grace ; 
which being both the Gifts-of God, are net to - 
be conquered by Chain?, tho' they may be 
weakened, and even banifhed by worldly AT- - 
luremenrs blended with Chriftiariity, and by 
the worldly Pride of its Profeffors ? 

The Methods of Power are repugnant to 
the Nature of Convidion, which mi; ft" either - 
be promoted by Exhortation, Kindnefs, Ex- 
ample, and Arguments, or csn never be pro- 
moted at all : Violence dees, on the contrary 
but provoke Men, and confirm them in Error ; 
nor will they ever be brought to believe, that : 
thofe who barbaroufly rob them of their pre-^ 
fenr Happinefs,- can be charitably concerned : 
for their future. 

It is evident in Fa&, that moil of the dif- 
ferent religious Inftitutions now fubfifting im 
rhe Worid, have been founded upon Anibluc 
and Pride, and were advanced, propagated, 
r,nd eftabliftied by Ufurpatton, Faclion, ar . 
Oppreliion : They were begun for the mad : 
part by Enthufiuib, or . by deiigniag and urr- 

F 5 prelentd... 


preferred Churchmen ; or at lead occafioned 
by the continued Ufurpatlons and Infults of 
cruel and opprefiive ones, and always in Times 
of FaHon and general Difcontent. Turbulent 
and afpiring Men, difcarded and difcontented 
Courtiers, or ambitious and defining Stated- 
men, have taken Advantage from thefe general 
Di (orders, or from the hot and giddy Spirits 
of an enthufiaftieal or oppreffed People ; and 
from thence have formed Parries, and fitting 
themfelves at the Head, formed National Efta- 
blifhments, with the Concurrence of weak 
Princes, and fometimes in Oppofition to them, 
by the Affirmance of factious Clergymen and 
factious Aflemblies, and often by Tumults and 
popular Indirections ; and at laft, under Pre- 
tence of faving Mens Souls, they feized their 
Property. A fmall Acquaintance with Ecclefi- 
aftical Hiftory, and the Hlftory of the Turks 
and Saracens, will (hew fuch Caufes as thefe to 
have given Rife to moft of the National Re- 
ligious Eftablifhments upon Earth : Nor can I 
fee how any future Ones can arife by other 
Means, whilft Violence and worldly Imereil 
have any thing to do with them. 
^Such therefore as is the Government of a 
Country, fuch will be made its Religion ; and 
No-body, I hope, is now to learn what is, and 
ever wiil be, the Religion of moil: Ststfemen ; 
even a Religion of Power, to do as little Good 
and as^ much Mifchief as they pleafe. Nor 
have Churchmen, when they ruled States, had 
ever^ any other View ; but having double Au- 
thority, had generally double Infolence, and 

remarkably Ids Mercy and Regard to Con- 




fcience or Property, than others who had Fewer 
Ties to be merciful and juli: : And therefore 
the fbreft Tyrants have been they, who united* 
in one Perfon the Royalty and Priefthood. 
The Pope's Yoke is more grievous than that of 
any Chriftian Prince upon Earth; nor is- there 
a Trace of Property, or Felicity, or of the Re- 
ligion of Jefus Chrtft, found in the Dominions 
of this Father of Chriftendom ; all is Ignorance,, 
Bigotry, Idolatry, Barbarity, Hunger, Chains,, 
and every Species ofMifery. And the Caliphs; 
of JEgypt, who founded the Saracen Empire- 
there, and maintained it for a great while 9 . 
were at once Kings and Priefts , and there ne- 
ver lived more raging Bigots, or more furious 
and oppreilive Barbarians, The Monarchy oF 
Pe'-fia, which is alib a fevere Tyranny, has the* 
Priefthood annexed to it ; and the Sophy is at 
the fame time the Caliph. The Turkjjh Reli- 
gion is- founded on Impoilure, blended with 
outragious and avowed Violence ; and by their 
Religion, the imperial Executioner is, next to 
their Alcoran, the moft (acred Thing among!*: 
them :. And though he is not himfelf Chief-" 
Pried, yet he creates and uncreates him at: 
Pleaiure, and is without the Name of Mw//-/,, 
the chief Doctor, or rather Author of their 
Religion ; and we all know what fort of a-. 
Religion it is. 

In Far, as Arbitrary Princes- want a Reli- 
gion fuited to the Genius of their Power, they 
model their Religon fb as to (erve all the Pur~ 
pofes of Tyranny, and debafe, corrupt, dif^- 
couragei or perfecute all Religion which is a- 
gainil Tyranny, as ail true Religion, is : .Fos 


this Reafbn, not one of the great Abfblute 
Princes in Europe embraced the Reformation, 
nor would fuffer his People to embrace it,, but 
they were all bitter and profefTed Enemies to 
it : Whereas all the great free States, except 
Poland, and moil of the (mail free States, be- 
came Proteftants. Thus the Englifo, Scotch, the 
Dutch) the Bohemians, and Sweden and Denmark^, 
(which were then free Kingdoms) the greatefi 
Part of Switqerlandy with- Geneva, and all the 
Hans-Towns, which were not awed by the Em- 
peror, threw off the Pcpifh Yoke : And not 
one of the free Pcpifh States, out of Italy, could 
le ever brought to receive the Inquifyion ; and 
the State of Venice, the greateft free State there^ 
to fhew that they received it againft their Will, 
have taken wife Care to, render it ineffectual : 
And many of the Popi/h free States v/ould ne- 
ver come into Perfecution, which they knew 
would impoyerifh and difpeople them ; and 
therefore the Srates of Arragon^ Valencia, and 
Catalonia, oppofcd, as much as they were able, 
the Expulfion of the Moors, which was a pure 
At of Regal Power, to the undoing of -Spain, 
and therefore a deftrudtive and barbarous A 6k 
of Tyranny. As to the Proteflant Countries* 
which have finco loft their Liberties, there is 
much mlferable Ignorance, and much bitter 
and implacable Bigotry, but little Religion^ 
and no Charity amongft them. 

We- look upon Mantc%uma, and other Ty* 
rants, who v/.orfnipped God with humane Sa- 
crifice, as fo.many Monfters, and hug our fclves 
that we have no fuch Sons of Moloch here in 
Europe j npt coniideriiig, that every Man. put 



to Death for his Religion, by the 

and elfewhere, is a real humane Sacrifice, as 

it is burning and butchering Men for God's 


I think No- body will deny but that in King 
Jtmes's Time, we owed the Preservation of 
our Religion to our Liberties, which both our 
Glergy and People almoft unanimoufly con- 
curred to defend, with a Refolution and Bold- 
nefs worthy of Britons and Freemen. And as 
the Caufe and Bleflings of Liberty are flili 
better underftood, its Spirit and Intereft do 
daily increafe. Moft of the Bifhops, and ma- 
ny of the inferior Clergy, are profefledly in 
the Principles of Civil and Religious Liberty, 
notwithftanding the ftrong and early Prejudices 
of Education. And 1 hope foon to fee them 
all as thorough Advocates for publick Liberty^ 
as their PredecefTors were, upon Grounds lefs 
juft, in the Times of Popery and then there 
will be an End of the pernicious and knavifh 
Diftin&ion of Whig and Toy and all the 
World will unite in paying them that Refpedfc 
which is due to their holy Office. 

I (hall conclude with this fhort Application^ 
That as we love Religion, and the Author of 
it, we ought to love and preserve our Liber- 

s i 

i 3 4 A T0>s LETTERS. 

s i 

'Avlng already fiiewn that Naval Trade- 
and Power cannot fubfiil but in free 
Countries alone, I will now flhcw, that the 
fame is true of domeftick Arts and Sciences ; 
and that both thefe, and Population, which is 
their conftant Concomitant, and their chief 
Caufe as well as their certain Effect, are born 
of Liberty, and nurfed, educated, encouraged,, 
and endowed by Liberty alone. 

Men will not fpontaneoufly toil and labour 
but for their own Advantage, for their Pleafure 
or their Profit, and to obtain fomething which 
they want or defire, and which, for the mo ft 
part, is not to be obtained but by Force or 
Confent. Force is often dangerous ; and when- 
employed to acquire what is not ours, it is al- 
ways unj'uft ; and therefore Men, to procure 
from others what they had not before, mufb 
gain their Confent , which is not to be gained, 
but by giving them in lieu of the Thing de- 
fired, fomething which they want and value 
more than what they part with. This is what 
we call Trade; which is the Exchange of one 
Commodity for another, or for that which pur- 
chafes all Commodities, Silver and Gold. 

Men, in their firft State, content themfelves 
with the fpontaneous Productions of Nature, 
the Fruits of the Field, and the liquid Stream, 
and fuch occafional Supplies as they now and 



then receive from the Deftru&ion of other 
Animals. But when thofe Supplies become 
kifufficient to fupport their Numbers, their 
next Refburce is to open the Bofbm of the 
Earth, and by proper Application and Cul- 
ture, to extort her hidden Stores : And thus 
were invented Tillage and Planting. And an 
Hundred Men thus employed, can fetch from 
the Bowels of our common Mother, Food and 
Suftenance enough for Ten Times their own 
Number ; and one Tenth part more may poffi- 
bly be able to fupply all the Inftruments of 
Husbandry, and whatever is barely neceffary 
to fupport thefe Husbandmen : So that all the 
reft of the People muft rob or ftarve, unlefe 
either the Proprietors of the Land will give 
them the Produce of their Eftates for nothing, 
or they can find fomething wherewithal to 
purchafe it. 

Now in Countries where no other Arts are 
in life, but only Husbandry and the Profeiilons 
neceflary to it, and to fupport thofe who are 
employed about it ; all the other Inhabitants 
have no Means of purchasing Food and Rai- 
ment, but by felling their Perfons, and becom- 
ing vile Slaves and Vaifals to their Princes, 
Lords, or other Proprietors of the Land ; and 
are obliged, for neceflary Suftenance, to follow 
them in their wild Wars, and their perfbnal 
and factious Quarrels, and to become the bafe 
Inftruments of their Ambition and Pride. Great 
Men will rather throw their Eftates into Forefls 
and Chafes, for the Support of wild Beaftp, 
and for their own Pleafure in hunting them, 
than into Farms, Gardens, and fruitful Fields, 



if they can get nothing from the Productions of 

This is the forlorn Condition 0f Mankind, 
in moft of the wild Empires of the Eaft ; this 
was their Condition in all the Gothic^ Govern- 
ments ; and this is the Condition of Poland 
and of the Highlands of Scotland ; where a few 
have Liberty, and all the reft are Slaves. And 
nothing can free Mankind from this ab]e6l and 
forlorn Condition, but the Invention of Arts 
and Sciences ; that is, the finding out of more 
Materials and Expedients to make Life eafy 
and pjeafant ; and the inducing People to be- 
lieve, what they will readily believe, that other 
Things are neceffary to their Happinefs, be- 
fides thofe which Nature has made neceffary. 
Thus the Luxury of the Rich becomes the 
Bread of the Poor. 

As fbon as Men are freed from the Impor- 
tunities of Hunger and Cold, the Thoughts 
and Defrre of Con-veniency, Plenty, Ornament 1 , 
and Poiitcnefs, do prefently fucceed : And thea 
follow after, in very quick Progre/lion, Emu- 
lation, Ambition, Profufion, and the Love of 
Power : And all thefc, under proper Regula- 
tions, contribute to the Happi-nefs$ Wealth, 
and Security of Societies, It is natural to Men 
and Socitr ies, to be letting their Wits and their - 
Hands to work, to find out all Means to fatifr 
fy their Wants and Defires, and to enable them 
to live in Credit and Comfort, and to make 
fiiitable ProvHion that their Pofterky inay live 
fb after them. 

Necellity is the Mother of Invention, and fo 
Is the Opinion o Neceility. Whiiil Things 



are in their own Nature neccflary to us, or t . 
from Cuftom and Fancy, marie neceflary ; we 
will be turning every Thought, and trying 
every Method, how to come at them ; and 
where they cannot be got by Violence and Ra- 
pine, Recourfe will be had to Invention and 
Induftry. And here is the Source of Arts and 
Sciences ; which alone can fupport Multitudes 
of People, who will never be wanting to the 
Means which bring them Support. 

Wherever there is Employment for People, 
there will- be People ; and People, in moft 
Countries, are forced, for want of other Em- 
ployment, to cut the Throats of one another, 
or of their Neighbours ; and to ramble after 
their Princes in all their mad Ccnquefls, ridi- 
culous Contentions, and other mifchievous 
'Maggots and all to get, with great Labour, 
Hazard, and often with great Hunger and 
Slaughter, a poor, precarious, and momentary 

And therefore, whatever State gives more 
Encouragement to its Subjects, than the neigh- 
bouring States do, and finds them more Work, 
and gives them greater Rewards for that Work ; 
and by all thefe hud able Ways makes humane 
Condition eafier than it is elfewhere, and (e- 
cures Life and Property better; that State will 
draw the Inhabitants from the neighbouring 
Countries to its own ; and when they are 
there, they will, by being richer and fafer, 
multiply fatter. Men will naturally fly from 
Danger to Security, from Poverty to Plenty, 
and from a Life of Miiery to a Life of Feli- 



And as there will be always Induftry where- 
ever there is Protection ; fo "wherever there is 
Induftry and Labour, there will be the Silver, 
the Gold, the Jewels, the Power, and the Em- 
pire. It does not import who they are that 
have conquered, or inhabit the Countries where 
Silver and Gold are Natives, or who they are 
that toil for them in the Mine, fmre they wilt 
be the PoiFeilors of the Coin, who can pur- 
chafe it afterwards with the Goods and Ma- 
nufa&ures which the Proprietors of the Mine 
and their People want. One Artificer in Eng- 
land, or H^lland^ can make Manufacture enough 
in a Week to buy as much Hlver and Gold "at 
the Mine, as a Labourer there can dig and 
prepare in a Month, or perhaps Two : and all 
the while that Spain and Portugal leffen their 
Inhabitants, we encreafe ours : They lofe their 
People by fending them away to dig in the 
Mines ; and we, by making the Manufactures 
they want, and the Inftruments they ufe, mul- 
tiply ours. By i this Means every Man they 
fend out of their Country is a Lofs to it, be- 
caufe the Return and Produce of their Labour 
goes to enrich rival Nations ; whereas every Man 
we fend to our Plantations, adds to the Number 
of our Inhabitants here at Home, by maintain- 
ing fb many of them employed in fo many Ma- 
nufactures which tliey take off there ; befides To- 
many Artificers in Shipping, and all the nume- 
rous Traders and Agents concern'd in managing 
and venting the Produce of the Plants tions, when 
5 tis brought hither, and in bringing it hither : 
So that the EvgHfo Planters in Amtricn^ befides 
maintaining themfeives and Ten times as many 


maintain likewife great Numbers of 
their Countrymen in England. 

Such are the Bleffings of Liberty, and fuch 
is the Difference which it makes between Coun- 
try and Country ! The Spanijh Nation loft much 
more by the Lofs of their Liberties, followed 
with the Expulfion of the Moors, than ever they 
got by the Gold and Silver Mountains of Mexico 
and Peru, or could get by all the Mines of Gold, 
Silver, and Diamonds upon Earth. 

Where there is Liberty, there are Encou- 
ragements to Labour, becaufe People labour for 
themfelves ; and no one can take from them the 
Acquisitions they make by their Labour : There 
will be the greateft Numbers of People, be- 
caufe they find Employment and Protection ; 
there will be the greareft Stocks, becaufe mod 
is to be got, and eafieft to be got, and fafeft 
\vhen it is got , and thofe Stocks will be al- 
ways encreafmg by a new Acceiiion of Money 
acquired elfewhere, where there is no Security 
of enjoying it j there People will be able to work 
cheapeft, becaufe lefs Taxes will be put upon 
their Work, and upon the NeceiTaries which 
mud fupport them whilft they are about it: 
There People will dare to own their being rich, 
there will be mod People bred up to Trade, 
and Trade and Traders will be moft refpefced ; 
and there the Intereft of Money will be lower, 
and the Security of pcffdling it greater, than 
it ever can be in Tyrannical Governments, 
where Life and Property, and all Things muft 
depend upon the Humour of a Prince, the 
Caprice of a MInifier, or the Demand of a 
Harlot. Under thofe Governments, few People 




can have Money, and they that have muft lock 
it up, or bury it to keep it, and dare not en- 
gage in large Defigns, when the Advantages 
may be reaped by their rapacious Governors, or 
given up bv them in a fenfelefs and wicked 
Treaty : Befitfes. fuch Governors contemn 
Trade and Artificers; and only Men of the 
Sword, who have an Intereft" incompatible with 
Trade, are encounagejd by them. 

For thefe H ?afbns, Trade cannot be carried 
on fb cheap as in free Countries : and whoever 
fupplies the CommodTty ch^apeft, will com- 
mand the Marker. In f ee Countries, Men bring 
out their Money for iheir life, Pleafure, and 
Profit, and think" of all Ways to employ it for 
their Intereft and Advantage. New Projects are 
every Day invented, new Trades fearched after, 
new Manufactures fet up ; and when Tradef- 
men have nothing to fear hur from thofe whcnr 
they truft, Credit will run hgh, and they will 
venture in Trade ft)r many times as much as 
they are worth : But in Arbitrary Countries, 
Men in Trade are every Moment liable to be 
undone, without the Guilt of Sea or Wind, 
without the Folly or Treachery of their Cor* 
refpondents, or their own want of Care or In-- 
duilry; their Wealth (hall be their Snare, and* 
their Abilities, Vigilance, and their Succefs 
fhall either be their undoing, or nothing to their 
Advantage : Nor can they truft any one elfe, 
or any one elfe them, when Payment and Per- 
formance muft depend upon the Honefty and 
Wifdom of thofe who often have none. 

Ignorance of Arts and Sciences, and of every 
Thing that is good, and Poverty, Mifery, and 


-Defblation, are found for the mod part all to- 
gether, and are all certainly produced by Ty- 
ranny. In .all the great Empires of Morocco, 
Abyfjiniti, Pr/w, and India, there is not amongft 
the Natives fuck a Thing as a tolerable Archi- 
tect , nor one good Building, unlefs we except a 
Palace built by a Portuguese for the Alyjjinian 
Emperor; and perhaps there may be in all 
thefe vaft Continents, a few more good Houfes 
built by Europeans. The ^Ethiopians have fcarce 
'fuch a Thing as an Artificer amongft them j 
their only Weavers are the Jews, who are like- 
wife their-Smiths, whofe hlghen Employment 
in Iron is to make Heads for their Spears ; and 
for Artiils of their own, their wretched Trum- 
peters and Horn-winders feem to be the high- 
eft ; and when the Jefuits built a few Churches 
and Chappels in their Country, the whole Na- 
tion were akrm'd, taking them for fb many 
Caftles and FortrefTes. The reft of their Con- 
dition is of a-piece \ they are abjectly miferable, 
in fpight of their Soil, which in many Pkces is 
luxuriant, and yields Three Crops a Year : Of 
fuch fmall Effect are the Gifts of God to his 
Creatures, when the Breath of a Tyrant can 
blaft them ! 

In YerfiA, the Carpenters and Joyners have 
but Four Tools for all rhHr Work, and v% 7 e 
may gtitfs what fort of Work they make ; they 
have a Hatchet, a Sawe, and a Chizzel, and 
one fort of Plainer, brought thither not long 
fmce by a Frenchman. As to Printing, they have 
none , nor any Pape r bur coarfe brown Stuff, 
which cannot be folded without breaking to 
Pieces, In Painting, they do not go beyond 



Birds and Flowers, and are utterly ignorant of 
Figures and Hiftory. 

Egypt was once the Mother of Arts and Sci- 
ences, and from thence Greece had them : But 
Egypt lofing its Liberties, loft with them all 
Politenefs, as all Nations do ; and the Pyramids 
were built by the fit ft Egyptian Tyrants, while 
the Knowledge of Arts was not yet loft in Bar- 
barifrn, and before the Country was difpeopled, 
elfe they never had been built. Nor could all 
the Power of the Ottoman Empire build fuch 
in the Place now, tho' the Turks were not Sa- 
vages in the Sciences, as they are. u Till the 

Timeofllamfbjimtus, fays Herodotus,t}iQ Egyfr 
" tians report, that Liberty flourifhed, and the 
* 6 Laws were the highefl Power." Then he 
tells us, that Cheops^ the Succeflbr of that Kin& 
falling into all Debauchery and Tyranny, cm- 
ployed a hundred thoufand of his People in 
drawing of Stone ; Diodoms Siculus fays, three 
hundred and (ixty thoufand were employed in 
this inhumane Drudgery and then he began 
a Pyramid. The Egyptians grew afterwards in 
Ignorance, Barbarity, and Vilenefs, and al- 
moft any Body that invaded them, mattered 
them ; and when they were defended, the free 
Greeks defended them, a Band of them being 
generally entertained for that End by the Egyp- 
tian Kings. It is true, one or two of the Pto- 
lomies, particularly the Firft, attempted to re- 
vive Arts, and Learning amongft them ; but the 
Attempt came to nothing : They were Slaves, 
incapable either of tafting or producing Em- 
be! li foments and Excellencies of Liberty, of 
which they had been long deprived , and there- 


fore the Greek. Art! (Is, and Profeflbrs in 
had the Glory of every Improvement to rhem- 
felves, as indeed they were the Authors of all. 
The Remans afterwards left there many Monu- 
ments of their Grandeur and Politenefs : But 
their free Government ended ; as Tyranny fuc- 
ceeded , fb did Barbarity, all over the Empire,' 
and no where more than in Egyft, which is 
at this Day the Prey of robbing and thiev- 
ing Arabs, and ot opprdlive and devouring 

I (hall here fubjoin ^a flimmary Account given 
us by that great and judicious Traveller Mon- 
SeurTavernier, concerning the Condition of the 
Three great Eaftern Empires, beft known to 
us. It is in his laft Chapter of The Hiftory of the 
Great Mogul. 

There is, fays he, almofl no Perfbn fecure 
from the Violence of the Governors, Tima-riots, 
and Farmers of the Royal Rents; nor can the 
Princes, tho' they were difpofed, hinder thefe 
Violences, nor prevent the Tyranny of their 
Servants over their People ; which (hould be 
the chief Employment of a King. This Ty- . 
ranny is often fo extenfive, that it leaves to the 
Peafanrand Tradefman neither Food nor Rai- 
ment, but robs them of the common Necefla- 
rics of Life, and they live in Mifery, and die 
with Hunger: They either beget no Children ; 
or if they do, they fee them perifli in their In- 
fancy, for want of Food : Sometimes they de- 
fert their Hutts and Land, to become Lacqueys 
to the Soldiers, or fly to Neighbouring Na- 
tions, (where their Condition is net mended.^ In 
ihort, the Land is not till'd but by Force, and 


144 C^ro's LETTERS, 

therefore wretchedly tilPd ; and great Part of 
it lies waile and is toft : There is no Body to 
clear the Ditches and Water- Courfes; no Body 
to build Houfts, or ro repair thofe that are ruin- 
ous. The Timan.,t will not improve the 
Ground for his Succeflor, not knowing how 
foon he may come : nor will the Peafant work 
for a Tyrant, and ftarve while he does it : And 
neither T/w/mV nor Peafant will labour for 
Bread which orhers are to eat. So the Peafant 
Is left to ftarve, and the Land to become & 

Hence it is, that we fee thofe vaft States in 
'Afia run and running to wretched Ruin : Moltj 
oif their Towns are railed with Dirt and Earth; 
and you fre nothing but ruinous Towns, and 
tieferted Villages: And hence It 5s, that thofe 
celebrated Regions of MefcfntAmia, Anatolia, 
Paleftina, with thofe admirable Plains of An- 
tioch, and fo many other Countries, anciently 
Ib well manured, fo fertile, ar=d fbfuli of Peo- 
ple, are all at preterit half deferte4 abandoned, 
and unfilled, or become peftllent and uninhabi- 
table Bogs. E;*ypt is in the like Condition; and 
within thefe fourfcore Years, above the tenth 
Part of its incomparable Soil is loft by Pover- 
ty, and want of Hands to fcour the Channels 
of the NHe, and remove the Sand which covers 
their Fields. 

From the fame Caufes, Arts languifii and 
ftarve in thofe Countries : For with what Heart 
can an Artizan labour and ftudy for ignorant 
Beggars, who are not Judges of his Work, and 
cannot pay him for it, or For Grandees who will 
cot ? He is fb far .from any Profped of Re- 

L ETTERS. 145- 

ward, that he is not only without all Hopes of 
Wealth, Office, or Lands; but, to avoid being 
thought rich, he muft live poorly : He mull 
never eat a good Meal, never wear a decent 
Coat, and never appear to be worth Six-pe^ 
Kay, he is happy if he can efcape the j^nv^; 
a terrible Whip exercifed by the great Lords 
upon the Artiib, the Encouragement of In- 

Indeed, the Knowledge and Beauty of Arts 
had been loft in theft- Countries long fmce, were 
it not that the Kings and Grandees give Wages 
to certain Handicraftfinen, who work in thtir 
Houfes, and to efcape the Whip, do their bell : 
Befides, the rich Merchants, who fhare their 
Gains with Men in Power, to be protected by 
tr.erri, do give thefe Handicraftfmen a little more 
Pa 7, and but a little. We mud not therefore 
think, upon feeing rich Eaftern Stuffs here, that 
the Workman there is in any Condition or 
Efteem : He works not for himfelf, and only 
Neceility and the Cudgel makes him work ; 
and let him work how he will, he is doomed 
to live milerably, to cloath himlelf meanly, 
and to eat poorly. 

TraflRck alfb in thofe Countries, is faint and 
decaying : For how many are there that care to 
take much Pains, to make dangerous Voyages, 
and take long Journies ; to be conftantly run- 
ning up and down , to write much, to live in 
perpetual Anxiety and Care, and to rifque all 
Hazard and Chances and all for a precarious 
Gain, which is at the Mercy of the next greedy 
Governor ? 


VOL II. G This 

Giro's LETTERS. 

This whole Chapter of Tavernier deferves e 
very Man's reading : I have only Room to add 
Part of another Paragraph. Talking of the 
Turkjfh Empire : We have travell'd, fays he, 
through a ltt\ oft all the Parts of it ; we have 
(ten how woruliy it is ruined and diipeopled ; 
and how 5n the Capital City, the raifing of five 
or fix thoufand Men, requires three whole 
Months: And we know what a Fall it muft 
have had before now, had it not been for the 
Supplies of Chriftian Slaves and Captives 
brought thither every Year, from all Parts. 
Without doubt, if the fame Sort of Govern- 
ment continue, that State will deftroy itfelf : 
It is at this Day maintained by its own Weak- 
nefs, and muft at laft fall by it. The Governors 
are frequently changed to make Room for new 
Opprefibrs ; but neither has anyone Governor, 
or one Subject in the whole Empire, a Penny 
that he can call his own, to maintain the leaft 
Party ; nor, if he had Money, are there any 
JVlen to be had in theft wide delolate Provinces. 
J\ blefled Expedient this, to make a State Tub- 
lift ! An Expedient, much like that of a Brama, 
of Pegu, who, to prevent Sedition, command- 
ed that no Land (hould be til I'd for fbme Years 
together ; and having thus deftroyed half the 
Kingdom with Hunger, he turned it intoFor- 
refts : Which Method, however, did not an-" 
fwer his End, nor prevent Diviiions in that 
State, which was reduced fb low, that a Hand- 
ful of Chinefe Fugitives were like to have taken 
and maftered the Capital City, Ava. 

Thus far Tavernier. Sir Paul F(icaut tells us, 
that it is a reigning Maxim in the Turkifh Po- 


Iky, to lay a great Part of their Empire wade- 

A Maxim, which they need take no Pains 

to pra&ife; fince without deftroying deliberate- 
ly their People and Provinces, which yet they 
do, the dreadful Spirit of their Government 
creates Defolation fait enough in all Con- 

The whole City of Dibit, the Capital of 
India, is obliged to follow the Great Mogul 
their Emperor, when he takes a Journey, their 
whole Dependence being upon the Court and 
the Soldiery ; for they cannot fupport them- 
felves j nor is the Country round them, which. 
is either wafte, or its Inhabitants ftarving, able 
to fupport them. So that the Citizens of this 
mighty Metropolis, are only the wretched Sut- 
tlers to a Camp ; and they are forced to leave- 
their Houfes empty, and (troll after their Mo- 
narch, whenever he is gracioufly difpofed to 
take a Jaunt ; and are abfent fbmetimes from 
home a Year and a half together. 

The Jefuit, Niche Us Pimenta, who was in 
Pegu about an hundred and twenty Years ago, 
gives this Account of it : The lad King, ffiys he, 
was a mighty King, and could bring into the 
Field a Million and fixty thoufand Men, taking 
one out of ten : But his Son had, by his Wars, 
his Opprelfions, his Murders, and other Cru- 
elties, made fuch quick Difpatch of his Sub- 
jects, that all that were left did not exceed 
(even Thoufand, including Men, Women, 
and Children. What an affecting Inltance 
is here of the Peftilential Nature of Ty- 
ranny J 

G x It 

s 4 8 CATO's LETTERS. 

It is not unlikely that fome of thefe fatal 
Wars were made by this inhumane Prince, for 
White Elephants ; and that iie either made or 
provoked Invasions upon that Score, as I have 
inftanced in another Paper : And I fhall here 
add fbmcthJng to make this Conjecture ftill 
more probable. Mr. fylph Fitch, a Merchant 
of London^ was at Pegu thirteen or fourteen 
Years before Pitneiti/t, in the Reign of the above 
potent King ; and he fays, " Such is the E- 
** fteem that this King has for an Elephant of 
" this Colour, that amongft his other Titles, 

he, is called King of the White Elephant , a 

Title, which to him feems as lofty as any of 
64 the reft. And that no other Prince round 
" about him may wear this glorious Title, 
* c therefore none of them mull keep a White 
* c Elephant, tho 9 Nature gave it them ; but 

mull fend it to him, or an Army fhall fetch 
* c it ; for rather than not have it, he will make 
" War for it." 

Ke fays, that the Houfes of thefe Creatures 
are fpcndidly gilt, and fo are the Silver Veflels . 
out of which they are fed. When they 'go to 
the River to be wafhed, which they do every 
Day, fix or feven Men bear up a Canop>y of 
Cloth of Gold or Silk over them ; and as many 
more march with Drums and mufical Inftruments 
before them ; and when they come out of the 
Water, their Feet were .wafhed in great Silver 
Bafons by Perfbns of Quality, whole Office it 
js thus to ferve them. TWermVrfays, the Great 
Mogul allows fixt Peniions (and fbmetimes very 
large ones) to every Elephant, with proper 
Attendance ; nay, two Men are employed in 


LETTERS. 14$* 

the fultry Months, to Hand, one on each Side, 
to Fan them. 

I only mention this, to-fhew how much more 
Care the fe Tyrants take of their Beads, than 
of their People* And it is too true of all Ar- 
bitrary Princes ; their Stable of Horfes is dear- 
er to them than their People, and live infinitely 

This is nlmoft uniVerfally true wherever there 
are fiich. Nay, they value their Dogs more 
than they do the LU 7 es of Men. Y\ hen the 
Grand Seignior goes a Hunting, a gneat Number 
of Peafants mult enclofe the Ground for feveral 
Leagues round, and keep in the Game ; and 
this they mud often do for many Days toge- 
ther, fometimes in Ice and Snow, with hungry 
Bellies. By which Means their Work is neg- 
lected, their Grounds are deftroyed, and the/ 
themfelves are many times killed in the Sport, 
or ftarved in attending it ; and k often hap- 
pens, that forty or fifty of his own Followers 
perifh in a Day. Sultan Ma/wmet's grand Fal- 
coner had once the Honefty and Boldnefs to re- 
prelent to his Mafter all this Deftruclion and 
Carnage which attended hisendlefs Pailion for 
Hunting ; but all the Anfwer which he received 
from this Father of the Faithful, was, ~By nil 
Means take Care of the Dogs, let them have Cloath- 
ing find other Accommodations. 

This Paper upon Arts and Population grows. 
too long 1 {hall therefore referve to another 
what 1 have to fay further upon this Subjeh 

1 am, 

G s i 


IHere fend you what 1 have to fay further 
upon Arrs, Induftry, and Population. To 
live fecurely, happily, and independently, is 
the End and Effect of Liberty ; and it is the 
Ambition of all Men to live agreeably to their 
.own Humours and Difcretion. Nor did ever 
any Man that could Jive fatisfacborily without 
a Matter, defire to live under one ; and real or 
fancied Neceflky alone makes Men the Ser- 
vants, Followers, and Creatures of one ano- 
ther. And therefore all Men are animated by 
the Pailion of acquiring and defending Pro- 
perty, becaufe Property is the bed Support of 
that Independency, fo paflionately defired by 
all Men. Even Men the moft dependent have 
it conftantly in their Heads and their .Wifhes, 
to become independent one Time or other ; 
and the Property they arc acquiring, or mean 
to acquire by that Dependency, is intended to 
bring them out of it, and to procure them an 
agreeable Independency. And as Happinefs is 
the Effect of Independency, and Independency 
the EfTecl: of Property, fb certain Property is 
the Effect of Liberty alone, and can only be 
fecured by the Laws of Liberty ; Laws which 
are made by Confent, and cannot be repealed 
without it. 

t All thefe Bleffings, therefore, are only the 
Gifts and Confequences of Liberty, and only 


C A ro's LETTERS, i ji 

to be found in free Countries ; where Power is 
fixed on one Side, and Property fecured on the 
other ; where the one cannot break Bounds 
without Check, Penalties, or Forfeiture, nor 
the other fuffer Diminution without Redrefs ; . 
v/here the People have no Matters but the 
Laws, and fuch as the Laws appoint ; where 
both Law and Magiftracy are formed by the 
People or their Deputies, and no Demands are 
made upon them, but what are made by the 
Law ; and they know to a Penny, what to 
pay before it is asked ; and where they that 
exact from them more than the Law allows, 
are punifhable by the Law ; and where the 
Legiflators are equally bound by their own 
A els, and equally involved in the Confe- 

There can be no Good, v/here there are 
none of theCauies cf Good ; and coniequently 
all the Advantages of Liberty muft be loft with 
Liberty, and all the Evils of Tyranny muft 
accompany Tyranny. I have in my laft taken 
a View of the E&ftern Monarchies, with Re- 
gard to the miferable Decay of their People 
and Arts ; I {hall in this confine myfelf, for In- 
fiances, to Europe, and begin with Mufcovy, 
by far the greateft Empire for Territory in 
Chriftendem : And becaufe the beft fhort Ac- 
count that I have feen of that Government, js 
given by Dr. Giles Fletcher, who v/as there in 
the latter End of Q. Elizabeth's Time, I ftiali 
here tranfcribe Part of that Account. 

Talking of the many wicked and barbarous 
Arts ufed by the late C^ars of I(ujpa, to drain 
and opprels their People, he 6ys : They 

G 4 ^ would 

151 Giro's LETTERS. 

would fuSer their People to give freely to the 
Monafteries, (as many do, efpecially in their 
iaft Wills} and this they do, becaufe they 
" may have the Money of the Realm mere 
ready at Hand, when they lift to take it, 
which is many Times done ; the Friars part- 
ing freely with fome rather than lofe all. 

John Bafilowit% pretended to refign the 
Crown to the Prince of Ca%an 9 and to retire 
for the reft of his Life to a Monaftery : He 
then caufed this new King to call in all the 
Ecclefiaftical Charters, and to cancel them. 
Then pretending to d alike this Facr, and 
the Mifrule oi the new King, he refumed 
the Scepter, poflefTed as he was of ail the 
Church Lands, of which he kept what he 
would, and gave new Charters tor the reft. 
By this he wrung from the Ecclefiafticks a 
vaft Sum, snd yet hoped to abate the ill 
Opinion of his Government, by {hewing a 











" worfe. 





When they want to levy a new Tax, they 
make a Shew of Want , as was done by 
Duke Theodore, who, tho' left very rich by 
his Father, yet (old moil of his Plate, and 
coined the reft, that he might feern in Ne- 
ceiiity ; whereupon prefently came out a 
new Tax upon his People. 
" They would (bmetimes fend their Meflen- 
gers into the Provinces to foreftal and en- 
grofs the Commodities of the Country, ta- 
king them at (mall Prices, what they them- 
felves lift, and felling them again at exceiilve 
Prices to their own Merchants, or to Stran- 
gers. If they refute to buy them, then they 

" force 

5 LETTERS, ijj 

" force them into it : The like they do, when 
".any Commodity thus engroffed, Foreign or 
" Native, fach as Cloth of Gold, Broad Cloth,. 
" and the like, happens to decay, by lying up- 
" on Hand, it is forced upon the Merchants 
" at the Emperor's Price, whether they will or 
*' no. 

*' Befides the engroffing of foreign Comma* 
<{ diiies, and forcing them upon the Merchants, 
44 they make a Monopoly for a Seafbn of ail 
<c fuch Commodities as are paid the Prince for 
" Rent or Cuftjm ; and this they do to en- 
<e hance the Price of them : Thus they mono- 
cc polize Furrs, Corn, W r ood, &c. during ail 
tc which Time, none muft fell of the fame 
" Commodity, till the Emperor's be all fold. 

<c " The above mention'd Join Bafjfowt^ fent 
" into Permit ( a Country of the poor Srf- 
" moldes ) for certain Loads of Cedar, tho' he 
" well knew that none grew there ; and ths- 
" Inhabitants returned Anllver, that 'hey could 
" find none. \Vhereupon he raxed the Coun- 

^ try in Twelve Thoufand Rubles. - 

" Again, he fent to the City of Mcfecw to pro- 
"vide for him a Meafure full of Fleas fo a 
" Medicine. They answered, that the Th!ng : 
" was- impoiiible ; "and if tliey could get theny 
14 yet they could not meafure them because of 
" their leaping cut. Upon which, he iet a 
" Mui5i upon them of Seven Thoufand Ru- 

u bles. 

" To thefe may be added, their Seizures 

* s and Confifcations uyon fuch as are undtr 
u Difpleafure, and the Connivance at the Op- 

4t preiiions and Extortions of the Governor* 

r^ i^ ^C 

Cj -T 


* f of the Provinces," till their Time be expired, 
** and then turning all their wicked Plunder 
into the Emperor's Treafury, but never a 
" Penny back again to the right Owner, how 
"** great or evident foever the Injury be. 

** As to the People, they are of no Rank or 
" Account, and efteemed no better thanVillains, 
and fb they fubfcribe themfelves in all their 
" Writings to any of the Nobility, as they 
of the Nobility do to the Emperor : And in- 
deed, no Bond Slaves are kept more in Awe 
and Subjection, than the common People 
" are, by the Nobility, Officers, and Soldiers; 
fb that when a poor Moufick. (one of the 
Commonalty) meets any of them upon the 
High- way, he muft turn himfelf about, as 
not daring to look them in the Face, and 
fall down with his Head tp the very 
" Ground. 

" And as to the Lands and Goods of theie 
miferable People, they are fb expofed to the 
Rapine of the Nobility and Soldiers, befides 
the Taxes, Cuftoms, and Seizures, and other 
" publick Exactions laid upon them by the 
** Emperor, that they are utterly difcouraged 
from following their Trades and Profeiliions ; 
becaufe the more they have, the more Dan- 
ger they are in, not only of their Goods, 
" but even of their Lives : And if they hap-* 
" pen to have any thing, they convey it into 
" Monafteries, or hide it in Woods or under 
"" Ground, as Men do when they are in fear 
u of a Foreign Invafion. So that many Vil- 
" lages and Towns are intirely without Inha- 
" Litants ; and in the Way tov/ards Mofcew, 

" be- 

's L E T T E R $. 

61 betwixt Volaghda and Tareftave, for about art 
" Hundred Engli/h Miles, there are at lead 
" Fifty Villages, fome half a Mile long, fbme 
" a whole Mile long, that ftand wholly defb- 
" late, without a fingle Inhabitant. The like 
" Defblation is feen in all : other Places of the 
" Realm, as I have been told by thole that 
" travelled the Country. 

" In every great Town the Emperor hath a 

" Drinking Houfe, which he rents out : Here 

" the Labouring Man and Artificer many times 

" fpeads all from his Wife and Children 1 , 

" Some drink away all they wear about them, 

to their very Shirts, and fo walk naked ;. 

" and all for the Honour of the Emperor. 

Nay, while they are thus drinking them- 

" felves naked, and ftarving their Families, 

" No- body muft call them away, upon an/ 

Account, becaufe he would hinder the Em^ 

" peror's Revenue. 

* fr The capital Punifhments upon the People- 
** are very cruel ; but if Theft or Marder 
be committed upon them by one of the No- 
bility, he is feldom punilhed, or fo much as 
' called to account for it, becaufe the People 
" are the Slaves of the Nobility : Or if thefer 
Crimes are committed by a Gentleman Sol- 
dier, perhaps he may be imprifbned at the 
Emperor's Pleafure, or perhaps fined * 

" and that is all. 

I make this Quotation upon Memory, having 
only taken down fbme Hints when I read it ; 
but I can affert it to be a jtifr. one, and alrao{ 
wholly in the Dodlcr's Words* 

I know 

156 Giro's LETTERS. 

1 know much has been faid of the Improve- 
ments made by the prefent O^r, and of his- 
many Pro*]ech in Favour of Arts and Trade : 
And it is very true, that he is a Prince of a 
very adYive and inquifitive Genius. But tho' 
be has made himfelf a more powerful Prince 
than any of his Predece(Tors were, I do not find 
that the Numbers of his People are increafed, 
or their general wretched Condition much 
mended. He has a vaft Army conftantly n 
Foot, and keeps vaft Numbers of his poor 
Subjects conftantly employed in making Havens 
and Canals ; great Taxes are raifed, and great 
and daily Wafte made of his People, who are 
like wife miferably opprefTed by his Boyars, to 
whom he ftill leaves the railing of Money and 
the Direction of Trade : So that the general 
Oppreilion remains, Trade is deadened and 
diftreffed, and the People burdened beyond 
Meafure ; fudden and arbitrary Duties are lafd 
upon Commodities imported ; the old Way of 
Monopolies is continued ; the State of the Ex- 
change, and the Aliay and uncertain Value of the 
current Coin, are as bad as they can be ; Arts 
and Ingenuity are really difcou raged, and thole 
who have Skill in any Art muft conceal it, to 
avoid working for nothing ; there are Grie- 
vances without Number, and like to be, for 
he who complains is certainly undone, and Pe- 
titions are anfwered with Stripes, and fbme- 
times with Death itfelf. In fliort, the Condi- 
tion of the fyjfian People is much upon the 
fame Foot as it was in Dr. Fiefcfo/s Time ; and 
whoever doubts it, may find full Conviction 
from Capr, Berry's State of JtyJjM, under the 
prefeut C^ar. In 

's LETTERS, i 

In Poland, nothing can be more miferable 
than the Condition of the Peafants, who are 
fubjecl: to the mere Mercy of the great Lords, 
as to Life and Death and Property ; and mult 
labour Five Days in the Week, nay, fbmetimes 
Six, for thele Lords ; and if they cannot fubfiil 
themfelves and their Families up^n one Day's 
Labour in Seven, they mud famifh. The 
State of the other Northern Kingdoms is, with 
refpecl; to the People, as wretched as any yet 
named : They have many Soldiers, endlefs 
Taxes, dreadful Poverty, few People, and 
gaudy Courts. It is indeed (aid of fome Ar- 
bitrary Princes in fome Parts of Europe, that 
they are merciful to their Subjects, and do not 
ufe them barbaroufly ; that is, they do not 
deliberately butcher them, but only take all 
they have, and leave them to darVe peace- 
ably upon the red : Ail the Riches of the 
Country are to be feen at Court, and the Peo- 
ple are wretchedly poor. Cant/tbit VACNVS 

A Countryman once complained to General 
Kjrki that his Soldiers had plundered him of 
all he had in the World ; Thou art a L/tpPy M/rw, 
fays the General, for then they wilt plunder thee 
no more. 

The woful Decay of People and Plenty m 
many States in Italy is fb adonifhing, that were 
it not obvious to every Eye that fees it, and fo 
well atteded to thofe who have not feen it, by 
thofe who have, it would feem beyond all Be- 
lief. " When I came into the Pope's Terri- 
tories at ?~i:t Centino, (fays Dr. Bur-net) there 
was a rich Bottom all uncultivated, and riot 
" fb much as ftock'd with Cattle : But 2<^ I 

*' paflect 

158 CA ro's LETTERS. 


" paflfed from Montifiafcone to Viterlo, this ap- 
peared yet more amazing ; for a vaft Cham- 
pain Country lay almoft quite deferred. And 
" that wide Town, which is of fo great Com- 
pafs, hath few Inhabitants, and thofe look'd 
poor and miserable. When I was within a 
" Day's Journey of fyme, I fancied the Neigh- 
" bourhood of fb great a City mult mend the 
" Matter, but I was much difappointed ; for 
" a Soil that was fo rich, and lay fb fweetly 
" that it far exceeded any thing I ever faw 
" out of Italy, had neither Inhabitants in it 
** nor Cattle upon it, to the Tenth part of 
" what it could bear. The Surprize this gave 
" me increafed upon me, as 1 went out of 
" f(ome on its other Side, chiefly all the Way 
^ to Naples, and on the Way to Chitn Vecchia ; 
" for that vaft and rich Champain Country 
" which runs all along to Terracing which from 
" Chita Vecchia. is a Hundred Miles long, and" 
" is in many Places Twelve or Twenty Miles 
" broad, is abandoned to fuch a Degree, that as 
" far as one's Eye can carry ore, there is often 

" not fb much as a Houfe to be feen The 

" Severity of the Government hath driven 
" away the Inhabitants , and their being driven 
" away hath reduced it to fuch a Pafs, that it 
c; is hardly pofiible to people it." He adds, 
that in Rome itfelf, " it is not poilible for the 
" People to live and pay Taxes ; which has 
" driven, as 'tis believ'd, almoft a Fourth 
" Part of the People out of Rome during this 
" Pontificate. 

He tells us el fe where, that the "Pope buys in 
all the Corn of St. Peter's Patrimony. "' He 

" buys 


cc buys it at Five Crowns their Meafure, and 
" even that is ftowly and ill paid. So that 
" there was Eight Hundred Thoufand Crowns 
" owing upon that Score when I was at Home. 
' In felling this out, the Meafure is leflen'd a 
** Fifth Part, and the Price of the Whole is 
" doubled ; fo that what was bought at Five 
" Crowns is fold out at Twelve ; and if ^the 
** Bakers, who are obliged to take a determin'd 
46 Quantity of Corn from the Chamber, can- 
u not retail out all that is impofed upon them, 
" but are forced to return fome Part of it 
" back, the Chamber difcounts to them only 
I 1 the firft Price of Five Crowns. 

It is obferved by another noble Author of 
our Country, that Mario Cblgl^ Brother to Pope 
Alexander the Vllth, by one fordid Cheat upon 
the Sale of Corn, is faid within Eight Years to 
have deftroyed above the Third part of the 
People in the Ecclefiaftical State ; and that that 
Country, which was the Strength of the I(c- 
mans in the Carthaginian Wars, fuffered ^more 
by the Covetoufnefs and Fraud of that Villain, 
than by all the Defeats received from Hannibal. 

The Country of Ferrtira was formerly very 
populous, and the Lands being fertile, were 
well cultivated ; but fmce the Pope has got: 
Pofleilion of it, it is almoft depopulated ; the- 
Lands are nigh defolate, and for want of Peo- 
ple, it is like the reft of the Ecclefiaftical State, 
unhealthy to live in. His Hoiinefs has reduced 
the Inhabitants from above an Hundred Thou- 
fand, to about a Dozen. In the City itfelfi 
Grafs grows in the Streets, and moft of the 
Houfes are empty. 


160 C4TO's LETTERS. 

The Great Duke's Dominions lie much in the 
fame difmal Solitude. When Sienna and Piftt 
were free States, they fwarmed with People, 
and were rich in Trade and Territory : Sienna 
alone was computed to have had above half a 
Million of Subjects ; but in a matter of a hun- 
dred and fourfcore Years, during which Time 
it has been in the Poifefiion of his Highnefs of 
Florence, they are funk below twenty thoufand, 
and thefe miferably poor. The fame is the ab- 
jel Condition of Pifa, Piftoja, Aretfo, Cortonn, 
and many other great Towns. Florence, his 
Capital particularly, which in the Days of Li- 
berty, could by the Ringing of a Bell, bring, 
together, of its own Citizens and the Inhabi- 
tants of the Valley of Arno, a hundred and 
thirty- five thoufand well armed Men in a few 
Hours Time, is now fb poor and low, that it 
could not bring together three tolerable Regi- 
ments in thirteen Months. 

The City of Pifa alone was reckoned, when 
it was free, to have had a hundred and fifty 
thoufand Inhabitants, all happy in Liberty and 
Commerce ; and now they are about ten thou- 
fand, without Liberty, and Commerce, and 
Bread. Formerly an hundred of its Citizens 
could fit out an hundred Gallics, and maintain 
them during a War, at their own Charge ; and 
now the whole City could not furnifn out nor 
maintain one. Their (lately Palaces are def- 
late, like their Territory, or let out for Stables, 
or any other forry life, at three or four Pounds 
a Year Rent. Their Streets are covered with 
Grafs ; their Territory, by being wafte, is 
grown unwholefome, and their few Remains of 



's LETTERS. 161 

People are ftarving. And that great ^ State 
which the Great Duke could not mafter without 
the Armies of Spain, are not now able to coa- 
tend with his infamous Crew of Tax-gather- 
ers. The People are famiflvd Slaves, their 
Houfes are Ruins, their Trade is gone, their 
Land unmanured, and yet their Taxes are not 
leflencd ; and if there be any Plenty amcngft 
them, 'tis only Plenty of Beggars, 

The fame is the Condition of the Mi I an e^ 
atrd other Countries under the fame fort of Go- 
vernment * the People ftarve in the beft Soils : 
Whereas in Switzerland, and in the Territories 
cf Genoa, Luce?., and the Grifens, they are nume- 
rous, and live happily in the word. The 
" People in France, (fays the Author of the 
" Supplement to Dr. Burnett Travels) efpecial- 
" iy the Peafants, are very poor, and mpft of 
them reduced to great Want and jViifery , 
*' and yet France is an extraordinary good 
" Country. The People of Switzerland (which 
" K a Country cf Mountains] cannot be (aid to 
" be very rich, but there are very few, even 
" of the' Peafants, that are mifcrably poor. 

The moft Part of them have enough to 

live on. Every where in France, even in the 
beft Cities, there are Swarms of Beggars ; 
and yet fcarce any to be feen throughout all 
Switzerland The Houlcs of the Country 
" People in France are extreamly mean ; and 
" in them no other Furniture is to be found 
" but poor naily Beds, Straw- Chairs, with 
<s Plates and Difnes of Wood and Earth. In 
" Switzerland^ the Peafants have their Houfes 
" furniihed v/ith good Feather-Beds, good 

" Chairs 



l6^ C^O's LETTERS. 

Chairs, and other convenient Houfhold^ 
Stuff; their Windows are all of Glafs, al- 
ways kept mended and whole ; and their 
Lfnnen, both for Bedding and their Tables, 
* is very neat and white." 

This was written above thirty Years ago, 
when France was in a much better Condition 
than it has been face The Glory of their 
late Grand Monarch coft them much Mift-ry, 
and many Myriads of People. And yet even 
thirty Years ago, their Mi/cries were great and 
meeting I As I came from Pans to Lnns, 
; fay.s Dr. Burner,) I -y a s amazed to fee fo 
' much Mifery as appeared not only in Vil- 
lages, but even in big Towns, where all the 
Marks of an extreme Poverty (hewed them- 
felves, both in the Buildings, the Cloths, 
and aimoit in the Lo< ks of the Inhabitants : 
And a general dJfpe:.piing in all the Towns, 
was a very vifible tffe< of the Hard/hips 
under which they lay.' What blefied Clr- 
cumftances that great Kingdom is in now, 
Mr. Law, who is amonpft us, can bell tell ; 
tho' we all pretty well know. It is really a 
Science, and no eafv one, to know the Names, 
Numbers, and Quality oF their Taxes ; which 
are fo miny, fo various, and fb heavy, that 
one of their own Writers calls them, Inventions 
proper to impovertjh the People, and to enrich the 
Diftionaries. ' Bulion, Trea/urer to Lewis XIII. 
told his Matter, that bis Subjecls were too happy, 
they were not yet reduced to eat Grafs And the 
cruel Spirit and Politicks of that Minifler were 
afterwards fo well improved, that 1 am apt to 
think their prefent Felicity is no Parr of their 
Misfortunes. Such 


Such Inftances (hew what hopeful Methods 
fuch Governments take to encreafe People, 
Trade, and Riches. 

As to the politer Arts, I own feveral of them 
have flourifhed under fome of the Popes them- 
felves, and fome other Arbitrary Princes ; fuch 
as Painting, Architecture, Sculpture, and Mu- 
fick. But thele Arts, and the Improvements 
of them, were fb far from owing any Thing 
to that Sort of Government, that by Liberty 
alone, and the Privileges given to the Profef- 
fors of them, they came to excel in them ; nor 
would they ever have excelled upon the com- 
mon Foot and Condition of their other Sub- 
jects : So that to make them Excellent, they 
made them Free. And thus even Tyrants, the 
Enemies of Liberty, were, for their Furniture, 
Luxury, Pomp, Pleafure, and Entertainment, 
forced to be beholding to Liberty; and for theft 
particular Purpofes, they gave it to ^ particular 
Men. But for the reft of their Subjects, they 
were left by them in the Condition of Brutes, 
both in Point of Livelihood and Knowledge, 
for it is more Liberty than Shape, that makes 
the Difference; fince Reafbn without Liberty 
proves little better, and fometirnes worfe than 
none. Servitude" marrs all Genius, nor is either 
a Pen or a Pencil of any life in a Hand that is 

I am, dec. 

164 Giro's LETTERS. 

I !(., 

I Beg Leave to interrupt my Difcourfe upon 
General Liberty for one Poft ot more, as 
Occafioh (hail prefent, and defire you will pub- 
l;(h the encloied Letter in your Journal, in the 
Place which ufed to be tilled v/ith one to your 

To tbs Freeholders, Citizens, And Burghers of 
the Counties, Cities, and Towns of Great- Britain. 


Here is no Natural or Political Body but is 
fub]e6t to the Variations and Injuries of 
Time. Both are compofed of Springs, Wheels, 
and L'gaments, all in perpetual Motion, and 
all liable to wear out and decay: And as the 
Farts are mortal, the Whole muft be mortal 
too. But as natural Bodies may continue their 
Exigence, and preferve their Duration, by 
A&ion, by the Addition of new Particles, or 
by removing from Time to Time all occafion- 
al Obilruclions which clog their Motion, a rod 
check: their Vigour, as long as their Stamina, 
firft Principles, or original Conftituticn is ca- 
pable of fubfifting : fb a political Machine may 
do the fame : And fbme Writers in Politicks 
have aflerted, that the fame might be immor- 
tal ) which is not my Opinion. 



But whether this is true or nor, certain it is 
i that in many Refpects a Political Body has the 
I Advantage of a Natural One. We can often 
i look into its inmcft Frame and Contexture ; 
j and when any of its condiment Parts are de- 
j cayed or worn out, can fupply it with new 
ones : (which cannot he done in the other wich- 
| out a total Diffblution of the Fabrick :) And we 
can frequently annex additional Props and But- 
j trefTes to fupport for fbme Time a tottering 
i Building, and hinder it from falling upon our 
! Heads. This is often all that can be done in 
I decayed Governments, when a State Is in a 
Catahexy ; and this is what is every honeft 
Man's Duty to do, when he can do no better. 
But, I thank God, the Cpnftitution of Eng- 
land is yet (bund and vigorous : Many of its 
Parts are active and flrong; and if fbme Mem- 
bers are corrupted or decayed, there are Ma- 
terials at Hand to fupply the Defeat. There is 
Wealth and Power in being : Our Country a- 
bounds with Men of Courage and Underftand- 
ing ; nor are there wanting thofe of Integrity 
and publick Spirit : There is an ardent Defire 
and diffufive Love of Liberty throughout the 
Kingdom \ and many begin to be tired, fide, 
and afhamed of Party-Animofities, and of quar- 
relling with their Neighbours, their Relations, 
and often with their bed Friends, to gratify the 
Pride, the Ambition, and Rapine of thofe, 
who only fell and beiray them. It is yet in our 
Power to fave our felves, and moft Men have 
Inclinations to do it; and it i?. only owing to 
the Art and Addrefs of cur common Enemies, 

if we do not agree on the Means of doing 

it. I 

s.66 CATffs LETTERS. 

I dare therefore affirm, that there is fuch a 
general Difpofition towards Liberty through the 
whole Kingdom, that if there (hall be found 
in the next Houfe of Commons as many honeft, 
bold, and wi(e Men, as would have faved 
Sodom and Gomoirah, England is yet fafe, in 
fpi^ht of all the Efforts of Delufion and Bri- 
bery : And I dare as freely affirm, that if fbme 
vigorous and bold Refblutions are not there 
taken to allift our m^H: excellent King towards 
difcharging the publick Debts, and in redreffing 
all forts of publick Corruptions, the Liberty 

of Great Britain My Heart can fpeak no 


It lies upon you, Gentlemen, to give Mo- 
tion to the Machine : You are the firft Springs 
that give Life to all virtuous Refblutions : Such 
as you (hew your felves, fuch will be your Re* 
prefentatives : Such as is the Tree, fuch will 
be the Fruit. Chute honed Men, free and in- 
dependent Men, and they will a6t honeftly for 
the publick Intereft, which is your Intereft. 
It is not to be expected that Criminals will de- 
ftroy their own Handywork ; that they will 
either reform or punifh themfelves j or, that 
Men, who have brought our Misfortunes upon 
us, will go about in good Earned to redrefs 
them, or even own that there are any fuch. 
Befides, deep Wounds mull be probed and 
fearched to the Core, before they can be cured; 
and thofe who gave them can feldom bear to 
fee the Operation, much lefs will they pay for 
the Cure, if they can be at eafe by the Death 
of the Patient. 



Let us not therefore, my Countrymen, de- 
(eit or deceive our felves, or think we can be 
fafe, if ever fuch Men can get into Power. 
Let us not again be deluded with falfe Promifes 
and deceitful Aflurances, but let us judge what 
Men will do by what they have done. What 
warm and plaufible Remon flrances have you 
formerly heard an 4 received ? What impetuous 
Srcrms and Hurricanes of falfe and counterfeit 
Zeal againft OpprelTions and Mifcarriages in 
the- late Reigns; againft exorbitant Penfions, 
outrageous Taxes, wild and expensive Expedi- 
tions ; againft encreafing the publick Debts ; 
againft ftanding Troops quartered up and down 
your Countries ; againft oppreflive Companies, 
to the DeftrucYion of your Trade and Induftry; 
againft private Mens raifing immenfe Eftates 
upon your Ruin ; and againft their bribing and 
corrupting the Guardians of the jDublick Li- 
berty ? And are you at laft perfectly eafy in 

every one of thofe Complaints ? 

Now, therefore, my beft Friends, is the 
Time to help your (elves : Now aft honeftly 
and boldly for Liberty, or forget the glorious 
and charming Sound. Let not a publick 
Traitor come within the Walls of your Cities 
and Towns, without treating him as an Enemy 
to your King and Country deferves. Throw 
your Eyes about your feveral Countries, and 
chufe your Patrons, your Prote&ors, your 
Neighbours and your known Friends ; chufe 
for your Reprefentatives Men whofe Interefts 
are blended with your own ; Men who have 
no Hands dipt in the publick Spoils, but have 
fufiered by them as much as you your felves 



have fuffered \ Men who have not jobbed for 
Stock, nor for Wage?, nor for you. 

Make not fo foolifh a Bargain, as for a little 
loofe Money, to give up defperately all you 
have ; your Liberties, your Eftates, your Fa- 
milies. Is it for your Sakts, think you, that 
thefe Jobbers of Stocks, and of Honelly, and 
of their Country, come to carefs you, flatter 
you, and bow to you ? Do you, or can you 
believe that they come to impair their own j 
Fortunes, to encreafe yours ? Or think you not 
that they will have their Pennyworths out of ! 
you ? Depend upon it, they will ; and, for 
every Bucket of W 7 ater thrown into yourW r ells, I 
they' will pump out Tuns. 

Reafcn not therefore, as too many of you 
have done, and I fear^ yet do, That fince thofe 
you truft make perfonal Advantages of your 
Confidence and Credulity, you ought to fhare 
in thofe Advantages. But throw your Choice 
upon fuch who will neither buy you nor fell 
you.- Whoever purchafes an Office at more 
than it is honeftly worth, mud be fupportedby 
him who fells it, in all difhoneft Gains; or 
elfe he will call for his Money again, if he 
knows how to get it. No Man will bribe you 
into your own Interefts, or give you Money 
that he may have leave to ferve you by his 
own Labour, and at his farther Expence ; but 
will think himfelf at Liberty to make Repri- 
fils : He will find no Difficulty in himfelf to fell 
thofe, who have before fold themfelves and 
their Cur.try: Nor can you have any Right 
or Pretence to reprove one that does fo. 



Miftake not, my Countrymen, in believing, 
that Men in your Condition and Circumftances 
are too low for the Scythe, and that you can 
fhrink out of puhlick Misfortunes. For you, 
Gentlemen, are the firft Principles of Wealth 
and Power. From your Labour and Induftry 
arifes all that can be called Riches, and by 
your Hands it muft be defended : Kings, No- 
bility,^ Gentry, Clergy, Lawyers, and milita- 
ry Officers, do all fupport their Grandeur by 
your Sweat and Hazard, and in Tyrannical 
Governments upon the Peoples Spoils : They 
there riot upon the Subfiftance of the poor Peo- 
ple, whofe Poverty is their Riches. Incorrupt 
Adminiftratipns, your Superiors of all Kinds 
make Bargains, and purfue Ends at the pub- 
lick Expence, and grow rich by making the 
People poor. 

You feel the firft Effects of tyrannical Go- 
vernment, and Great Men are generally made 
the Inftruments of it, and reap the Advantages. 
Exorbitant Taxes, want of Trade, Decay of 
Manufactures, Difcouragernent of Induftry, 
Infolence and OppreiTion of Soldiers, Exactions 
of Civil Officers, Ignorance, Superftition, and 
Bigotry, are all the conftant Concomitants of 
Tyranny, and always produce it, and are pro- 
duced by it. And all thefe terrible Evils muft 
fall moft fignally upon the middle and inferiour 
Ranks of Mankind : There muft be a great 
Number of Slaves to furbifh up one grand Mo- 
narch, and the poor People muft be thofe 
| Slaves, He muft engage many in his Intereft, 
before he can eftablifh a Power which deftroys 
1 the reft ; and all thefe Many muft be fupported, 

VOL. II. H and 

170 Giro's LETTERS. 

and have their Condition befter'd by the 
Change ; and all this Charge and Expence the 
wretched People mud work for and pay 

Forget therefore, Gentlemen, the fool ifh and 
knavifh Diftinction of High Church and Low 
Church, Whig and Tory ; Sounds which continue 
in your Mouths when the Meaning of them is 
gone, and are now only ufed to (et }tou toge- 
ther by the Ears, that Rogues may pick your 
Pockets. I own my felf to be one of thofe, 
whom one Side in Re(pe&, and the other in 
Contumely, call Whigs ; and yet I never dif- 
courfed with a candid and fenfible Tory, who 
did not concur with me in Opinion, when we 
explained our Intentions. We both agreed in 
our Notions of old Engttjh Liberty, in a Paffion 
for Freedom to our {elves, and to procure it 
for every one elfe : We were both for prefer- 
ving the EngHJh Monarchy, and the Legal 
Conftitution of the National Church againft 
its enthufiaftick Friends and Enemies ; and were 
for giving Liberty of Conference to thofe, who 
through a prejudiced Education, or, as we be- 
lieved, a lefs Capacity of Judging, were fo un- 
happy as to think differently from our (elves, in 
an Affair which concerned us not, and which we 
had nothing to do with. 

We both honoured and refblved to preferve 
upon the Throne our moft Excellent Sovereign 
King G E I^G E, and to endeavour to continue 
him a glorious King over honeft Men, and 
Freemen ; and not to attempt to make him, 
what he fcorns to be made, a Patron of Para- 
fites, and a Lord of Slaves : And we thought 
we could not (hew our Durv co him more 



effe^lually, than in bringing to exemplary Pu- 
ni foment, all who had betrayed him and us : 
We wifhed the old Names of Diftin&ion and 
Faction buried deep as the Center, and nothing 
heard in their Room, but Court and Country, 
Proteftantand Papift, Freemen and Slaves. It 
will lie at your Door, Gentlemen, to put am 
End to the above filly and wicked Gibber ifti. 
Choofe thofe who have no Intereft to continue 
it, and it will not be continued. 

Confider, my dear Friends and Countrymen, 
what I have (aid, and think what you are do- 
ing, while you are raifing Hue and Cry after 
Men who will betray you ; while you are 
(fending afar for Courtiers, for Directors of Bub- 
bles, for Company-men, and publick Pick- 
pockets, to represent you; while you are giving 
up, perhaps for ever, to the Mercy of B!ood- 
Suckers, your honed Induftry, and the juft 
Profits of your Trade, for a poor momentary 
Share of their infamous Plunder ; and thereby 
bringing a Canker upon your Subfiftence, and 
the jufe Refentment of Heaven upon your En- 
deavours, Shew your felves once, and once 
for all, Britons and Freemen, and not foreign 
and faleable Slaves ; {hew that you know hov/ 
to honour your King, and yet to keep your 
Liberties ; that you obey him out of Choice, 
and not out of fervile Fear ; that you know 
how to diftinguifh your Loyalty to your Prince, 
from a blind SubmifHon to his and your own 
Servants ; and that you can make your Duty to 
him confident with a vigorous Refolution to 
pum(h all who betray him and you, 

If you did but know, Gentlemen, how you 
are uled abovc f by thofe who think it worth 

H % their 


their Time to flatter you below, and to your 
Faces, you would not want my Advice and 
Admonitions You are called the Mobb, the 
Canal, the ftupid Herd, the Dregs and Beads 
of the People, and your Intereft is never 
thought of by thofe Men, who thus mifcal you ; 
Men who have no more Wit, and much lefs 
Honefty than yourfelves; and Men whofe In- 
fblence and Saucinefs are owing to Wealth, 
which they have plundered from you. It de- 
pends now upon your felves, whether you will 
ideferve thefe bafe and reproachful Names, or 
not ; fhew that you are Men, and you will be 
ufed like Men ; but if you fell your (elves like 
the Beafts in the Field, the Purchafers will have 
a Right to fell you again, and make honed 
Gains out of a villainous Bargain. 

For my own Particular, I cannot give my 
felf leave to defpair of you, becaufe I muft at 
the fame time defpair of old En^lifh Liberty : 
You are our Alpha and Omega, our firft and laft 
Refburce ; and when your Virtue is gone, all 
is gone. It is true, you have a wife and virtu- 
ous Prince at prefent, who will not take Ad- 
vantage of your Follies, and you may depend 
upon the fame Security from his Son : But nei- 
ther he nor his Son, nor his Family, are Immor- 
tal 3 and therefore, I hope you will adit wifely, 
and truft to your lelves alone. But whatever Part, 
Gentlemen, you (hall think fit to take, you 
Jhall not do it blindfold, and in the Dark. You 
lhall have the fair and dark Side of your Con- 
duct laid before you, and then you may chufe 
whether you will be Freemen or Vaflals ; whe- 
ther you will fpend your own Money and 
Efiates, or lee oihers worfe than you fpend 



them for you : Methinks the Choice fhould be 
eafy. You (hall hear more from me upon this 
Subject , and you may believe me^ 


Tour very fin cere and 

moft affeftionate- humble Servant 

A Second Letter to the Englidi Freeholders* 


\7 O U are born to Liberty, and it is your 
JL Intereft and Duty to prefcrve it. The 
Confutation you live under is a mixed Monar- 
chy,where your Governors have every Right to 
protect and defend you, and none to injure 
and opprefs you. You have a large Share in 
the Legislature ; you have the fole Power over 
your own Purfes; and you have an undoubted 
Right to call to Account and purpfh the Inftru- 
ments of your Oppreffion : But it depends up- 
on your felves alone to make thefe Rights of 
yours, thefe noble Privileges, of u(e to you. . 
The Deft Laws give no Security if they * re not 
executed, but indeed become worfe than no- 
Laws ; and they never will be executed, ^unlefe 
thofe who are entrufted with the Exfcutioa of 
them have an Intereft in their Execution. 

All Men defire naturally Riches and Power ;, 
and almoft all Men will take every Method, 
juft or unjuft, to attain them. Hence the JDirfi- 
culty of governing Men, and of mftituting 



Government equally proper to reflrain them 
and protect them ; and hence the Inefficiency 
of fimple Forms of Government, to provide 
for the Happmefs and Security of Societies. 
An Arbitrary Prince will quickly grow into a 
Tyrant \ the uncontroul'd Dominions of the 
Nobles will as certainly produce Oligarchy , or 
the Tyranny of a Few ; that is, Pride, Com- 
bination, and Rapine in the Sovereigns, and 
Mifery and Dejection in the Many : and the 
unreftrained Ltcentioufnefs of the Multitude 
will beget Confufiori and Anarchy. To provide 
againft thefe certain and eternal Evils, mixed 
Forms of Government v/ere invented, where 
Dominion and Liberty arefb equally tempered, 
and fb mutually checked one by another, that 
neither of them can have Intereft and Force 
enough to opprefs the other. 

Thefe Inftitutions have provided againft ma- 
ny Evils, but not againft all \ for, whilft Men 
continue in this State of Degeneracy, that is* 
whilft Men are Men, Ambition, Avarice, and 
Vanity, and other Pa/lions, will govern their 
A6Hons ; and in fpight of all Equity and Rea- 
fon, they will be ever ufurping, or attempting 
to ufurp upon the Liberty and Fortunes of one 
another, and all Men will be Itriving to en- 
large their own. Dominion will always defire 
Increafe, and Property always to preferve it 
(elf, and thefe oppolite Views and Interefts 
will be caufing a perpetual Struggle : But by 
this Struggle Liberty is preferved, as Water is 
kept fweet by Motion. 

The Nature and Reafbn of this fort of Go- 
vernment, is to make the feveral Parts of it 



controul and counterpoife one another, and fb 
keep all within their proper Bounds. The In- 
tereft of the Magiftracy, which is the Lot and 
Portion of the Great, is to prevent Conftifion, 
which levels all Things : The Jntereft of the 
B.idy of the People, is to keep Power from 
Oppreifion. a *\d their Magiftrates from chang- 
ing into Plunderers and Murderers ; and the 
Intereft of the (landing Senate, which^ is, or 
ought to be compoled of Men diftinguiftiable 
for their Fortunes and Abilities, is to avoid 
Ruin and Diflolurlon from cither of thefe Ex- 
tremes : So that, to preferve Liberty, all thefe 
co-ordinate Powers muft be kept up in their 
whole Strength and Independency. 

Names will not defend you, Gentlemen, 
when the Thing figniHed by them is gone. 
The Emperors of Home were as abfolute with 
the Shew of a Senate, and the Appearance of 
the Peoples chufmg their Praetors, Tribunes, 
and other Officers of the Commonwealth, as 
the Eaftern Monarchs are now without thefe 
feeming Checks, and this Shew of Liberty : 
And in fome Refpe&s they were more fecure* 
as the Infamy of their Tyranny was fhared by 
theie Affemblies, and the Advantages were all 
their own ; and the Condition of the People 
was rather the worfe for thefe Mock Magi- 
ftrates and pretended Reprefentatives, who, 
under the Colour and Title of the Protectors, 
of the People, were, at the Peoples Expenee^ 
the real Helpers and Partakers of the Tyrant's 
Iniquity. The Kings of France have Parlia- 
ments, but Parliaments which dare not dispute 
their Royal Pleafure j and the poor People 

H 4. would 

176 Giro's LETTERS. 

would not fare one Jot the better, if rhefe 
Parliaments were bribed not to difpute it. 

This wretched Cafe, Gentlemen, will be 
yours, and the wretched Cafe of your Pofte- 
rity^if ever an ambitious Prince and defigning 
JVlinifter (hall hereafter be able to corrupt or 
awe your Reprefentatives. And whatever 
wicked Bargains are then made, will be made 
at your Expence, and you mufl pay the ter- 
rible Reckoning at laft. You have a King at 
prefent, from whom you have none of thefe 
Things to fear. But, alas I Gentlemen, how 
few Titus's and Trojans were there found a- 
mongft the R^oman Emperors ! and how few can 
England (hew fmce the Conqueft ! It requires 
therefore your beil Thoughts and moft vigo- 
rous Refblutions to preferve your Conftitution 
in tire in all its Parts, without fuftering any one 
Part to prevail fb far over the other, as to re- 
duce it, in Effect, though not in Name, to a 
ft m pie Form of Government, which is always 
Tyranny. It will be all one to you, whether 
this is brought about by Confederacy or by 
Force. Whatever be the villainous Means, 
Violence. Oppreifion, and every Rank of Evil, 
v/ill be the End. 

In order to this honeft or publick Defign, 
you oughr to ehufe Reprefentatives, whofe In- 
tereits are at prefent the fame with your own, 
and likely to continue the fame ; Reprefenta- 
tives, who are not already pre-in gaged, nor, 
from their Circumftances, Education, Profef- 
fion, or Manner of Life, likely to be engaged, 
in a contrary Intereft. He will prove but a 
lorry Advocate, who takes Fees from your Ad- 

verfary i 

CATtfs LETTERS. 177 

verfary ; and as indifferent a Plenipotentiary* 
who receives a Pention from the Prince whom- 
he is commiilioned to treat with : Nor can 
there be any Security in the Fidelity of one, 
who can find it more his Intereft to betray you r 
than to ferve you faithfully. 

Virtue and Vice will be but ill ballanced 9 , 
when Power and Riches are thrown into the^ 
wrong Scale. A great Proteftarit Peer of 
France, having changed his Religion in Com- 
pliance with his Mailer, Henry the Fourth of 
F'vrwre, who had changed too, was fbon after 
asked by that Monarch publickly, which oF 
the two Religions he thought the beft ?' The- 
Proteftant^Sir, undoubtedly is the left, fald the Peer, 
by your own P^yal Confejfion : jjnce in the Exchange 
for it) your Mfijefly Las given me Popery, and a 
"Ma* flaPs Staff to beet. Where Boot is given, 
there is always -2 tacit Confeillon that the Ex- 
change is uncqu.u without it. Chufe not there- 
fore fuch who are likely to truck away your 
Liberties for an Equivalent to thernfelves, and 
to fell you to thofe againft v> 7 hom it is their 
Duty to- defend you. When their Duty is ira 
one Scale, and a Thoufand Pounds a Year, or 
more, or even lefs, is thrown into the contrary 
Scale, you may eafily guefs, as- the World goey, 
how the Ballance is like to turn. 

It is the Right and Duty of the Freeholders' 
and Burghers of Great Britain, to examine in- 
to the Conduct, and to know ihe Opinions an$ 
Intensions of fuch as offer therniclves to their 
Choice. Hov/ can any of them be truly rcpre- 
(ented, when they know not who represents- 
them-? And as k v/as alway $ their. Right,, the/ 

H -y had. 


had once the frequent Means and Opportunity 
to refent efle&ually the Corruptions of thofe 
who had bafely betrayed their facred Truft ; 
and of rejeing with Scorn and Deteftation* 
fuch Traiterous Parricides; and of fending up 
honefter and wifer Men in their Room. This, 
my dear Countrymen, we had once the fre- 
quent Means of doing : Make life now, O 
worthy and free Britons ! make good life of 
this prefent Dawn, this precious Day of Li- 
berty, to recover once more that invaluable 
Privilege. Do not wildly chufe any One, who 
has given up, or attempted to give up your 
Birthrights ; and above all, that Right which 
fecures all the reft. Admit no Man to be fb 
much as a Candidate in your Counties and 
Burroughs, till he has declared in the cleared 
Manner, and in the moft exprefs and folemn 
Words declared, his moft hearty and vigorous 
Resolutions, to endeavour to Repeal all Laws 
which render you incapable to ferve your King, 
or to punifh Traitors, or to prefer ve your ori- 
ginal and elTential Rights. This, Gentlemen,. 
Js your Time ; which, if you fuffer it to be 
loft, will probably be for ever loft. 

There are a fort of Men who proul about 
the Country to buy Boroughs ; Creatures, 
who acccft you for ycur Votes with the Spirit 
and Deiign, and in the Manner of Jockeys; 
find treating you like Cattle, would purchafe 
you for lefs or more, julr as they think they 
can fell you again. Can you bear this Infuit, 
Gentlemen, upon your Honefty, yoir; Reafbn, 
and your Liberties ? Or if there are any a- 
mongtt you, who countenance fuch vile and 



execrable Bargains, which affecl: and involve- 
you all in their Confequences, ought they not 
to be treated like publick Enemies, as indeed 
they are, and be hunted from amongft you * 
1 have often wondered how a little contempti- 
ble Corporation, confuting, as foine of them 
do, of Broom makers, Hedge- breakers^ andi 
Sheep-ftealers, could (land the Looks and Re- 
bukes of a rich and honcft Neighbourhood^, 
after thefe dirty Rogues had openly fold at: 
the Market-Crofs, perhaps for Forty Shillings- 
a-piece, not only their own Liberties, but, as 
far as in them lay, the Liberties of that rich 
Neighbourhood, and of all England. Such, 
faleable Vermin ought to be treated as Perfbns 
excommunicate, as the Pells and Felons of 
Society, v.'hich they would fell for Porridge r 
And if proper Abhorrence were every where 
fhewn towards them, and no Commerce held 
wirh them, they would fcon grow honeft our 
of Neceffity , or if they did nor, they might 
juftly fear, like guilty Cain, that every Man 
they met would kill them. If this Meth< 
was taken, it would cure Corruption of this 
kind : Let thofe who fell rheir Country be- 
every where renounced and fhun'd by their 
Neighbourhood and their Country, and ich- 
Sale will foon be over. 

The Majority of you, Gentlemen, are ye: 
uncorrupted : ]ndeed none but a few of the- 
worft and puoreft of you are yet corrupted*. 
The Body of the Freeholders know not what 
it is to take Money ; and chufe their Repre- 
ientatives from amongft themielves, and from< 
a thorough- Acquaintance, either with the Mem 


180 Giro's LETTERS. - 

or with their Chara&ers. The little beggarly 
Boroughs only are the Pools of Corruption y 
with them, Money is Merit, and full of Re- 
commendation. They engage for Men with- 
out knowing their Names, and chufe them 
fbmetimes without feeing their Faces ; and yec 
their Members, when they are chofen, are as 
good as yours; that is, their Votes are as good. 
It is in your Power, Gentlemen, and in that 
of your honefl Neighbours, to cure this migh- 
ty Evil, which has hitherto been incurable, 
or not fuffered to be cured. They are but a 
Few, and an inconfiderable few, in Comparifbn- 
of you ; and cannot live without you, though 
you can without them. 

Try the Expedient which I propofe ; nei- 
ther buy nor fell with thole Reprobate Merce- 
naries, who fell themielves and you. Confide* 
how much it imports you , your All is con- 
cern'd in it. This is not a Difpute about 
Dreams or Speculations, which afler. not your 
Property ; but it is a Difpute whether you (hall 
have any Property, which thefe Wretches- 
throw away, by chufmg for the Guardians of 
Property Men whom they know not, or who 
are only known to them by a very bad Token, 
that of having corrupted them. 

Lay not out your Money with thofe who- 
for Money fell your Liberties, which is the 
only Source of your Money, and of all the 
Happinefs you enjoy. Remember how, when 
your All is at Slake, as it always is in an 
Election of thole who are either to guard, or 
to give up your All; 1 fny, remember, how 
wanttmly and blindly upon that Occafion, thefe- 



Wretches furrender themfelves, and you, and : 
your All, and all England, to the bed Bidder, 
without knowing, often, who he is. What 
Mercy do thefe cruel Slaves deferve at your 
Hands ? The moft horrible Thing that they 
can do againft you and your Pofterity, they 

When Hannibal ha^ gamed his laft and 
greateft Battle againft the Romans, and many 
of the Nobility were deliberating about leaving 
J{ome, the young Scffio entred the Room with 
his Sword drawn, and obliged every Man pre- 
fent, to bind himfelf with an Oath nor to de- 
fert their Country. And will you, Gentlemen, 
fufFer the little Hireling Inhabitants of Bo* 
roughs, who receive from you and your Neigh- 
bours their daily Bread ; will you, can you 
fuffer them to betray you, to give up your 
Fortunes, and to comprehend you as they doj 
in the Sale they make of Themfelves ? Do you 
not know how much you are at the Mercy oP 
their Hbnefty, how much it depends upon 
their Breath whether you are to be Freemerr 
or Slaves : And yet will you ftand flupidly by,. 
and fee them truck you away for looie Gui- 
neas ? Would you allow the Common Laws 
of Neighbourhood to fuch as iteal or plunder 
your Goods, rob you of your Money, feize 
your Houfes, drive you from your Poffejlions, 
enfiave your Perlbns, and ftarve your Families ?' 
No (lire, you would not. And yet will you, 
and can you continue to treat as Neighbours 
and Friends, thofe ra(h, wicked, and mercilefs 
Profligates ; who, as far as in them lies, would 
bring upon you and your Poilcritv, all tho-fe 



black and melancholly Evils, by committing 
the mighty and facred Truft of all your Lives 
and Properties to Men, who hire them to be- 
tray it ; and having firft made them Rogues, 
may afterwards, for ought they know, make 
them Slaves, and you with them. 

Can you bear this, Gentlemen ? It is the 
Root of all your heavy Sufferings, and may 
yet produce worfe and more heavy. You are 
Freemen, and Men of Reafon and Spirit ; 
awaken your Spirit, exert your Reafon, and 
alfert your Freedom. You have a Right to 
petition the Parliament, you have a Right to 
addreis the King, to propofe your Thoughts 
and Grievances to Both ; and to be heard and 
relieved when you fufTtr any. And from the 
fame Reafbn and Equity, you, Gentlemen 
Freeholders, have a Right and a near Concern 
to advife your neighbouring Boroughs in the 
Choice of their Members , arid to warn them 
of the Confluences, if they make a bad one, 

For God's fake, Gentlemen, and for your 
own, and for all our lakes, (hew your Spirit, 
your Underftanding, and your Activity, upon 
this Occafion j and the hearty Prayers and 
Wifhes of every honed Man will attend you. 

Alas ! Gentlemen, with Tears I tell you, 

the Cure of Corruption is left to you 

A Cure from another Quarter is cruelly de- 
nied to us. A worthy Attempt was lately 
made to deftroy it effectually ; and we hoped 
that no Man, or Set of Men, pretending to 
common Honefty, would have had the Face 
to difcourage or fruftrate that Attempt ; but itr 
was fruftrated, and we know where, and by 



whom, and for what Ends. Thofe who owe 
their whole Figure, and Fortune, and Force 
to Corruption, rather than part with it, feem 
determined to fee the Nation confumed and 
perifh in it- Your Help mud be from God 
and your felves ; be honed, and make your 
Neighbours honed ; both are in your Power, 
and 1 glory that they are. As you love your 
Liberties, exercife your Virtue ; they depend 
upon it. Remember the true but difmal Pic- 
ture I have given you of Slavery and arbitrary 
Power ; and if you would avoid them, be vir- 
tuous, {corn Bribes, and abhor the Man that 
offers them, and expofe him. Confider him 
as an accurfed Tempter, and a barbarous Ra- 
vifher, who would buy you out of your Inte- 
grity, and fpoil you of your Liberties. 

Give me leave now, Gentlemen, to mark 
out to you more particularly, what fort of Men 
you ought not to chufe : Chufe not thofe who 
live at a great Didance from you, and whofe 
Abilities, Probity, and Fortunes are not well 
known to you. When you have chofen them, 
it will be too late to know them. Chufe not 
the elded Sons of Noblemen, who muft be na- 
turally in the Intereft of the Nobility, as the 
Nobility generally are in the Intereft of the 
Court, whatever it be. Reject Bigots of all 
Kinds, and Sides : Thcfe Men, whofe Minds 
are (hut up in Band boxes, and who walk upon 
Stilts, have not Thoughts large enough for go- 
verning Society. Even their Honeftf, when 
they have any, is uielefs to the Publfck ; and 
is ofcen, on the contrary, made an ill Indru- 
ment in the Hands of thole who have none. 



alfo all timorous, fearful, and daftardly 
Spirits ; Men, who having good Principles,[]ei- 
ther dare not own them, or dare not act ac- 
cording to them. Chufe not Men who are 
noted for Non- Attendance, and who have been 
Members of Parliaments, without waiting 
upon the Bufmefs of Parliament ; Men, who 
will probably be engaged in a Fox-Chace, in 
a Tavern, or in other debauch'd Houfes, tho ? 
the Kingdom were undoing. While your 
Happinels or Mifery depends fo much upon 
the Breath of your Representatives ; it is of 
great Importance to you, thar their Attend- 
ance be as conftant as their Behaviour is honefr. 
What Excufe can they offer for themfelves, 
when by their wanton Abfence, a Vote may 
pal's which may coil you Millions? We know 
what bold Advantages have been taken' in-former 
Parliaments, of a thin Houfe, to raife great 
and unexpected Sums from the Nation, to 
enable its woril Foes to carry on an unnatural 
Confpiracy againft it. 

Reject with Indignation thofe Men, who, in 
the late execrable South-Sen Confpiracy, took 
Stock for Votes , and for an infamous Bribe 
in Stock, vored your Liberties, and Purfes, in- 
to the mercilefs Claws of the South-Sen Trai- 
tors, and are iince many of them juftly un- 
done by the Bargain, And think you, Gen*. 
rlemen, that thefe Men who could fell their 
Country, when they had a Stake in it, will 
not fell it for lefs, when they have none ? You 
ught to add to the fame Clafs, and treat in 
the fame Manner, all thole v/ho headed and: 

' abetted 


abetted that deftru&ive Scheme, or endea- 
voured to protect thofe who did fo. 

You are to be particularly careful, that thofe 
you chufe be duly qualified according to Law, 
and that no Deceit is pra&ifed in obtaining 
temporary Qualifications. You ought to en- 
quire into their Eftates, and how they came 
by them ; and if they have none, as many 
who Hand Candidates, I am told, have not, 
you may guefs who ailifts them, and what 
hopeful Services are expecled from them. 
Such Men you may be lure will never fpeak 
your Senfe in Parliament nor even their 
own, if they have any ; nor be fuffered to 
coniult your Intereft. They muft work for 
their Matters againft you, who ought to be 

Neither can you expect to be well ferved by 
Men, whole Eirates are embarked in Compa- 
nies : They themfelves will be engaged with 
their Fortunes in the particular Intereft of fuch 
Companies, which are always againft the In- 
tereft of general Trade ; and they will be but: 
too apt to fall into the Juggling and Artifices 
of Courts, to raife their Stock to imaginary 

Values A certain and known Method to 

promote Cheating, and to fink Trade. 

Shun likewife all thofe who are in the Way 
of Ambition ; a Paiiion which is rarely grati- 
fied by Integrity, and an honeft Zeal for your 
Good ; fhun all Men of narrow Fortunes, 
who are not for your Purpofe, from obvious 
Reafbns ; fhun all Lawyers, who have not 
eftablimed Practice or good Eftates, and who 
are, confequently more liable to Corruption-, 



and whom the Court has more Means of cor- 
rupting, than other Men ; fhun all Men in- 
voived in Debt, all Men of ill Morals, and 
debauched and difhoneft Lives, all Gamefters, 
and all Men who fpend more than their In- 
come. Their Extravagance makes them ne- 
cefiitous, and their Neceillties make them 

We do not ordinarily truft a Man with a 
fmall Sum without a Note, or Mortgage, or a 
Bond ; and fuch Security is but reasonable; 
and is it not as reafonable, that, when we 
truft Men with all we have, as we do our Re- 
prefenratives, we ought to feck and procure all 
the Security which the Nature of the Thing 
will admit ? Would it not be direft Madnefs 
to truft our All, our whole accumulative Por- 
tion in this Life, to thofe whom no Man would, 
in a. private Way, truft for Five Shillings ? 
Call to mind, Gentlemen, whether fbme of 
you have never formerly made fiich a ram and 
dangerous Choice and for God's Sake mend 
it now. 

I fuppofe thus far you will all agree with 
me; as 1 dare fay you will, when I tell you 
that the Gentlemen of the Sword are not pro- 
per Reprefcntat'ves of a People, whofe Civil 
Conftitunon abhors (landing Armies, and can- 
not fubfift under them. The Fortunes and Ex- 
pectations of rhefe Gentlemen, depend upon 
obferving the Word of Command ; and it is 
but natural they fhould fi'pport Power in which 
they are Sharers. You muft not therefore ex- 
peel: that they will ever concur in a Vote, or 
an Addrefs, to disband or reduce themfelves ;, 



however defirable or neceflary the fame may 
be to you. Thofe of them who deferve well 
of you, as very many of the prefent Officers, 
do, are doubtlefs entitled to Thanks and good 
Ufage from you > but to (hew them Refpecl: 
by giving them Seats in Parliament, is by no 
means a proper, prudent, or natural Way of 
doing it. Befides, it will create a great and 
unjuft Partiality to particular Boroughs, and 
fbme (hall be burdened with Soldiers, when 
others (hall be free from them ; juft at the 
Mercy and Expectations of the commanding 

It is indeed a Misfortune to the Army it felf, 
to have any of its Officers Members of the 
Houfe of Commons, fince the greateft Merk 
in the Field (hall not recommend a Man fb 
much to juft Preferment, as the want of Merit 
fometimes (hall in that Houfe. A Complaint, 
however, which I hope there is no Ground for 
at prefent. 

Chufe not, Gentlemen, any fort of Men* 
whofe Intereft may at any Time, and in any 
Circum fiance, confift in Confuiion. Neither 
are Men in Employments the propereft Men 
for your Choice. If ever your Intereft comes 
in Competition with their Places, you may 
eafily guefs which muft give Way ; I think 
there are but few Inftances where they them- 
felves fuffer and fall in that Struggle. Under 
this Head, I would defire you, Gentlemen, to 
obferve the Behaviour of the Officers of the 
Cuftoms and Excife, upon the enfuing Eledi- 
ons ; and remember that they forfeit one hun- 
dred Pounds, if they perfiiade or deal with any 


i88 Giro's LETTERS. 

Perfon, to vote or to forbear voting, and are 
made for ever incapable of holding any Em- 
ployment under the Crown. If you find them 
bufy and intermeddling in this Ele6Hon, take 
the Advantage the Law gives you, and fee it 
hoheftly put in Execution aga'nft them : Be- 
(ides, flich ConduiSfe of theirs, and Profecutiort 
of yours, may give Occafion to a new Law, 
with more terrible Penalties upon that fort of 
Men, whom our Misfortunes have made nu^ 

For a Conclufion. Confider, Gentlemen, Oh f 
confider what you are about, and whether you 
will bring Life or Death upon us. Oh ! take 
Care of your felves, and of us All : We are 
all in your Hands, and fb at prelent are your 
JR.eprefentativ*s ; but very quickly the Scene 
will be (Tufted, and both you and we will be in 
theirs. Do not judge of them by their prefent 
humble :>eeches and condescending Carriage; 
but think what they are like to be when they 
are n. longer under your Eye, when they are 
no Imger fuing to you, nor want you. Thefe 
humble Creatures, who now bow down before 
you, will fbon look down upon you- Oh !. 
Chufe fuch as are likely to do it with moft Pity 
and Tendernefs, and are moft likely to relieve 
you of thofe Burdens under which we all fad- 
ly groan, and under which we mult certainly 
fink never to rife again., if we are not relieved. 

I am, Gentlemen, with exceeding Sincerity, 
and all good Wifhes, 

Your m.ft affeftionate humble Servant ; 

S JK, 


s i 

1N the firft Rife and Beginning of States, a 
rough and unhewn Virtue, a rude and favage 
Fiercenefs, and an unpolifhed Paffion for Li- 
berty, are the Qualities chiefly in Repute : To 
thefe fucceed military Accomplifhments, do- 
meftick Arts and Sciences, and fuch political 
Knowledge and Acquirements, as are neceffary 
to make States great and formidable Abroad^ 
and to preferve Equality and domeflick Hap- 
pmels and Security at Home ; and laftly, when 
thefe are attained, follow Politenefs, fpeculative 
Knowledge, moral and experimental Philofb- 
phy, with other Branches of Learning, and the 
whole Train of the Mufes. 

The Romans were long Mafters of the Arts of 
War and Policy, before they knew much of the 
Embelliftiments of Letters. 

Sertis emm Gratis admcvit ttcumina Ch/irtis, 
Et, poft Punica "Bella, quietus quaere cepit, 
Quid Sophocles & Tbefpis, &A<fchilus lit liefer rent. 

Thefe wye the Effects of Eafe, Leifure, Se- 
curity, and Plenty, and the Productions of Men 
retired from the Hurry and Anxieties of War, 
and fequeftered from the Tumults of the World ; 
of Men not ruffled by Difappointment, nor 
feared with the Noife of foreign Invafions, or 
diilurbed with civil Tumults ; and of Men not 


190 C^rO's LETTERS. 

diftrefled by Want, or wholly employed with 
the Cares of Life, and folicitous for a Support 
to themfelves and Families ; 


fitter laudem nullius avarls. 

The Romans had fecured their Conquefts, and 
fettled their Power, before they grew fond of 
the Ornaments of Life. 

Hcwjkould my Memmius have Time to ready 
When by his Anceftors fanfd Glory led 
To Noble Deeds, he mufl efpoufi the Catife 
Of his dear Country 3 Liberties and Laws ? 
Amongft rough Wars how can Verfe fmoothly flow] 
Or midfl fuch Storms the learned Laurel grow? 

L. Memmius was one of the principal Men of 
Rome, and yet fo late as the taking of Corinth, 
he was fo ignorant in the polite Arts, that when 
he was Shipping off the glorious Spoils of that 
great City of Rome, he ridiculoufly threatned 
the Matters of the VefTels, that if they broke 
or loft any of the Statues, Paintings, or of the 
other curious Gree^ Monuments, they (hould be 
obliged to get others made in their Room at their 
proper Expence. 

But the Romans quickly improved in their 
Tafte, and quickly grew fond of Works of 
Genius of every Kind, having now Leifure to 
admire them, and Encouragement to imitate 
them. And the Greeks, from whom the Romans 
bad them, were firft great in Power, and their 
civil Oeconomy was excellently eftablifhed, 
before they grew eminent in Politenefs and 
Learning, gut 


But neither will the (ingle Invitations of 
Leifiire and Eafe, prove fufficient to engage 
Men in the Purfuits of Knowledge as far as "it 
may be purfued. Other Motives muft be thrown 
in ; they muft find certain Protection and En- 
couragements in fuch Purfuits, and proper Re- 
wards at the End of them. The Laurel is 
often the chief Caufe of the Victory. The 
Greeks, who encouraged Learning and the Sci- 
ences more, and preferved them longer, than 
any People ever did, kept {rated, publick and 
general Aflemblies, on Purpofe for the Trial 
and Encouragement of Wit and Arts, and for 
the diftinguifhing of thole who profefled them; 
and thither reforted all who had any Preten- 
Cons thatWay, or had engaged in Performances 
of that Kind and all the mod illuftrious Men 
in Greece, the Nobility, the Magiftracy, and 
the Ambafladors of Princes, and fbmetimes 
Princes themfelves, were the Auditors and 
Judges : % By thefe Merit was diftinguifhed, the 
Contention for Glory decided, and the Victory 
declared, and by thefe the Rewards of it were 
beftowed. Thus glorious was the Price of 
Excelling, and thus equitable, publick, and 
loud was the Fame of it. It is therefore no 
Wonder that it was courted by the Greeks with 
as much Ardour and Application, as the chief 
Dignities in a State ar courted by others. And 
confidering how ftrong were the Stimulations of 
the Greeks to (ludy, Horace might well fay, 

Gratis Ingenium, Graifs dedit ore rotunda 



Before this augufl Aflembly, Herodotus repeated 
his Hiftory with great Applaufe ; which fb 
animated Thucydides, then very Young, that in 
Emulation of Herodotus, he writ a better Hifto- 
ry than that of Herodotus. Here Cleomenes re- 
commended himfelf, by only repeating fbme 
Verfes skilfully collected out or Empedocles ; 
and here Euripides and Xenocles contended for 
Preference in the Drama. 

Indeed the Honours attending a Victory up- 
on thefe Occafions were exceffive, and accord- 
ing to Cicero did almoft equal thofe of a L\oman 
Triumph. The Victors were reckon'd to have 
arrived to the higheft humane Felicity, and to 
have entailed Glory upon all that belonged to 
them ; upon their Families, Friends, their Na- 
tive City, and the Place of their Education.' 
Elogiums were made upon them, Statues were 
creeled to them, and ever after they met every 
where the fame Preference which they had 
met at the O'ymflcl^ Aflemblies. >A Prefer- 
ence which fb fired the Emperor Nero, that, 
when he had ridiculoufly flood Competitor at 
a finging Match, and taken a Journey to Greece 
on Purpofe, he firir. declared himfelf Viclor ; 
and then to deftroy all Marks and Memory of 
thofe who had been Ib before him, he com- 
manded all their Pictures and Statues to be 
pulled down, and thrown into the Privies. 

The Romans ^ as fbon as they had Leifure 
from their long and many Wars, fell quickly 
into the fame Studies, and into the fame Emu- 
lation to excel in them. They no fboner had 
any Acquaintance with Greece, but they were 
poflefled with a Fondnefs for all her Refine- 


Gr<ecta capta fertim vi&orem cetit, & arfes 

Intiilit arei Latio 

The fierce Romans fubdued Greece by thei? 
Arms ; and Greece made ruftick Italy a Captive 
to her Arts. All the Youth of J(cme were 
charmed with the Beauties of Learning, and 
eager to poiTefs them ; and many of the Sena- 
tors were caught by the fame PafHons ; and 
even the elder Cato 9 who was at firft againft 
thefe Improvements, which he fear'd would 
foften too much the rough tyman Genius, yet 
changed his Opinion fo far afterwards, as to 
learn Greek^ in his old Age. 

This prodigious Progrefs of the Remans in 
Learning, had no other Caufe than the Free- 
dom and Equality of their Government. The 
Spirit of the People, like that of their State, 
breathed nothing but Liberty, which no Power 
fought to controul, or could controul: The 
Improvement of Knowledge, by bringing no 
Terror to the Magistrates, brought no Danger 
to the People. Nothing is too hard for Liber- 
ty; and that Liberty which made the Greeks , 
and remain MaPters of the World, made them 
Matters of all the Learning in it : And when 
their Liberties perimed, fb did their Learning, 
That Eloquence, and thofe other Abilities and 
Acquifitions, which raifed thofe who had them 
to the higheft Dignities in a free State, became 
under Tyranny a certain Train to Ruin, un- 
lefs they were proftituted to the Service of the 

VOL, II. I That 

194 Giro's LETTERS. 

That Knowledge, and thofe Accomplifli- 
menrs, wivch create Jealoufy inftead of Ap- 
plaufc, and Danger inftead of Reward, _will be 
but rarely and faintly purfued , and for the 
moft part not at all. No Man will take great 
Pains, fpend his Youth and loofe his Pleafures, 
to purchafe Infamy or Punifhment : And there- 
fore when fuch Obilacles are thrown in his 
Way, he will take Counfel of Self-love, and 
acquiefce in the fafhionable Stupidity, and pre- 
fer gilded and thriving Folly to dangerous and 
forbidden Wifdom. 

Ignorance accompanies Slavery, and is intro- 
duced by it. People who live in Freedom will 
think with Freedom ; but when the Mind is 
enflaved by Fear, and the Body by Chains, 
Inquiry and Study will be at an End. Men 
will not purfue dangerous Knowledge, nor 
venture their Heads to^ improve their Under* 
(landings. Befides, their Spirits, dcje6red with 
Servitude and Poverty, will want Vigour as 
well as Leifure to cultivate Arts, and propagate.- 
Truth, which is ever High-Treafon againft 
Tyranny. Neither the Titles nor the Deeds of 
Tyrants will bear Examination ; and their 
Power is concerned to ftupify and deftroy the 
very Faculties of Reafbn and Thinking : Nor 
can Rea(bn travel far, when Force and Dread 
are in the Way ; and when Men dare not fee, 
their Eyes will (bon grow ufelefs. 

In TV- ^y, Printing is forbid, left by its Means 
common Senfe might get the better of Violence, 
and be too hard for the Imperial Butcher. It is 
even Capital, and certain Death there, but to 
reafbn freely upon their Alcortn A fure Sign 


LETTERS. 195- 

of Impofture ! But by Impofture, Stupidity, 
and Janizaries, his Throne is fupported ; and 
his vaft, but thin Dominions, know no Inhabi- 
tants but barbarous, ignorant, and miferable 

Nor is Printing in other Arbitrary Countries 
of much ufe but to rivet their Chains: It is per- 
mitted only on one Side, and made the further 
Means of Servitude. Even inChri ft ian Coun- 
tries, under Arbitrary Princes, the People are 
for the moft part as ignorant and implacable 
Bigots as the Turl(s are. And as it is rare to 
find a Slave who is not a Bigot, no Man can 
fhew me a Bigot who is not an ignorant Slave ; 
for Bigotry is a Slavery of the Soul to certain 
religious Opinions, Fancies, or Stones, of which 
the Bigot knows little or nothing, and damns 
ail that do. 

The ieaft Cramp or Reftraint upon Reafon- 
ing and Inquiry of any Kind, will prove fbon a 
mighty Bar in the Way to Learning. It is very 
true, that all forts of Knowledge, at lead all 
forts of fublime and important Knowledge, are 
(b complicated and interwoven together, that it 
is impoiiible to learch into any Part of it, and 
to trace the fame with Freedom to its fir ft Prin- 
ciples, without borrowing and taking in the 
Help of moft, if not all of the other Parts. 
Religion and Government, particularly, are ac 
the Beginning and End of every Thing, and 
are the Sciences in the World the moft necefTary 
and important to be known ; and as thefe are 
more or lefs known, other Knowledge will be 
proportionably greater or fmaller, or none : 
But where thefe cannot be freely examined, and 

I % their 


their Excellencies fearched into and under- 
ilood, all other Wifctom will be maimed 
and ineffectual, and indeed Icarce worth ha- 

Now, in all Arbitrary Governments, and 
under all created and impofmg Religions, no- 
thing muft be found true in Philofoplvy, which 
thwarts the received Scheme, and the upper- 
mod Opinions : The molt evident mathemati- 
cal Demonftrations muft not difprove orthcdox 
Dogma's and eftablifhed Ideas ; the fineft poeti- 
cal Flights muft be reftrained and difcouraged, 
when they would fly over the narrow Enclofures 
and Prifon Walls of Bigots : Nor muft the beft, 
the ftrongelt, and the moft beautiful Reafbning 
dare to break through popular Prejudices, or 
attempt to contend with powerful and lucrative 
Usurpation, A Bifhop was burned before the 
Reformation, for difcovering the World to be 
round > and even in the laft Century, the ex- 
cellent Galilei was put into the difmal Prifon 
of the Jnquifition, for maintaining the Mo- 
tion of the Earth round the Sun, as her Cen- 
ter, which ftood ftiil. This Proportion of 
his, which he had demon ftrated, he wss forced 
to recant, to fave his Life, and fatisfy the 

Where Religion and Government are moft 
deformed, as Religion ever is where 'tis fup- 
ported by Craft and Force, and Government 
ever is when 3 tis maintained by Whips and 
Chains; there all Examination into either, and 
ail Reafbning about them, is moft ft r idly for- 
bid and difcouraged : And as one fort of In- 
quiry and Knowledge begets another ; and as, 



when the Wits of Men are fuffered to exert 
them (elves freely, no body knows where their 
Purfuits m;iv end ; (o no Tyranny of any kind 
is fafe where general, impartial, and ufcFal 
Knowledge is purfued. Inhumane Violence 
and it i, pid Ignorance, are the certain andneccfc 
fary Stay of Tyrants ; and every Thing that 
is good or valuable in the World is againft 

In the Efifl (if we except China) there is not 
a Glimmering of Knowledge, iho' the Eairera 
People are, from their natural Climate and 
Genius, vaffly capable of all Knowledge. Tu- 
vemicr^ mentioning the Cruelty of the Govern- 
ment, and the great Mifery of the People there. r . 
fays, From the fame Caufe a grofs and .pro- 
found Ignorance reigns in thoie Stales. Nor 
is ir poiiible there Pnould be Academies and 
Colleges well founded in them. Where are 
' fuch Founders to be met with ? And if they 
were, where are the Scholars to be had? 
Where are thole who have Means fufricienj 
to maintain the'r Children in Colleges ? And 
if there were, who durft appear to be rich ? 
And if they would, where are thofe Benefice.v 
Preferments, and Dignities, which require 
Knowledge and Abilities, and animate young. 
" Men to Study ? 

I will not deny, but that in Arbitrary 
Countries there are fbmetimes found Men of 
great Parts and Learning. But thefe are either 
Ecclehafticks, who even in the greateft Tyran- 
nies, at lead in Eurcpe^ are blefd'd with great Li- 
berry, and many Independent Privileges, and are 
Freemen in the midilof Slaves, and have fuit- 

i?8 C^70's LETTERS. 

able Leifure and Revenues to fupport them in 
their Studies ; or they are Men invited and 
encouraged by the Prince to flatter his Pride, 
and adminifter to his Pomp and Pleafures, and 
jo recommend his Perfbn and Power. For 
thefe Reafons alone they are careffed, protected, 
and rewarded. They are endowed with the 
Advantages of Freemen, merely to be the In- 
ftruments of Servitude. They are a fort of 
Src//}, hired to be the Guards of their proud 
Matter's Fame, and to applaud and vindicate 
all his Wickednefs, Wildnefs, Ufurpations, 
Prodigalities and Follies. This therefore is the 
word of all Proftitutions, and the molt immoral 
of all fort of Slavery j as it is fupporting Ser- 
vitude with the Breath of Liberty, and afTault- 
ing and mangling Liberty with her own Wea- 
pons. A Creature that lets out his Genius to 
hire, may fometimes have a very good one ; 
but he muft have a vile and beggarly Soul, and 
his Performances are at beft but the bafeft Way 
of petitioning for Alms. 

France could boaft many Men of Wit and 
Letters in the late Reign, trio' it was a very 
fqvere one, and brought infinite Evils upon ail 
France and Europe. But thele great Wits were 
many of them the Inftruments and Parafites of 
Power, who bent the whole Force of their 
Genius to fandlify domeftick Oppreflicn and 
foreign llfurpation : Such were the Charaters 
and Employment of Peliffon, Botleau* /^rcmr, 
and feveral others. France faw at the fame 
Time feveral Churchmen of great and exalted 
Talents, fuch as the late Archbifhop of Cam- 

> LETTERS. 199 

'bray, the Cardinal dc Ket$, Claude Joh, * the 
prefent Abbot Vertot, and many more excellent 
Men, all Lovers of Liberty, which by being 
Churchmen, they poflefs'd. 

But tho 7 it be true that the 'late French King 
encouraged all forts of Learning, that contri- 
buted to the Grandeur of his Name and Court, 
and did not contradict his Power, and courted 
great Writers all over Europe, either to write 
for him, or not againft him ; yet the Nature 
of his Government was fo conftant a Damp 
upon general Learning, that it was at lait 
brought to a very low Pafs in that Kingdom, 
even in his Time. Monfieur Des Mai^eaux 
tells us, in his Dedication of St. Esmond's 
Works to the late Lord Halifax, That the 
great Genius's of France were, about the Time I 
fpeak of, fo cor.ftrained, * either to have forbore 
writing at all, or to have exprejfed what they thought 
by halves ; That la Bruyere complains, that the 
French are cramped in Satire ; That Regis, the 
famous Pbilofipber, /elicited Ten Tears for a Li- 
cence to fMjfh his Cottrfe of Philofophy, and at 
lafl obtained it only on this Condition, to retrench 
whatever difpleafed the Cenfors ; That Monfieur 
de Fontenelle bath been obliged to depart from the 
Freedom which he ufed in the frfi Works be fub- 

* Caude Toly, Canon of Noftsc Dame, Paris, bath 
ivblittud t'tfettije, intituled, Rccueil dc Maximcs vcrita- 
blcs 6c imporrantcs p->vw rinftitutiou du Roy, contrc la 
fauffe Politique du Cardinal Maaarin } wherein he Jbems, 

.1 . .r- rr- . / ;^J IM *l*at /if thftr tLiiAtti 

aoo C A T O's L E T T E R S. 

tifhed ; That but few of the prefent French Au- 
thors diftinguifh themfehcs either by their Learning 
or Wit j and that all this is to be attributed to 
the Nature of the Government j which is unque- 
ftionably true. 

What Mr. Dss Mai^eaux fays upon this Ar- 
gument, is fb judicious and juft, that I fhall 
borrow another Paragraph from the fame De- 
dication. " Liberty, fays he, infpires a noble 
and elevated Confidence, which naturally 
enlarges the Mind, and gives it an Emula- 
tion to trace out new Roads towards attain- 
ing the Sciences ; whereas a fervile Depend- 
ence terrifies the Soul, and fills the Mind 
with a timorous CircumfpecHon, that ren- 
ders it mean and groveling, and even de- 
bars the life of its moft refined Natural 

" Talents Greece and Italy never had il- 

" luftrious Writers, but whilft they preferved 
their Liberty. The Lofs of that was fol- 
lowed by the Decay of Wit, and the Ruin 
of polite .Learning. Greece, formerly the 
4< Seat of the Mufes, is now involved in a 
frightful Barbarity, under the Slavery of the 
Ottoman Empire ; and Italy, which under the 
Influence of a Senate, was fb fruitful in 
great and learned Men, now fubjecl to the 
Tribunal of the Infufftton^ produces no 
*' considerable Works of Erudition or Polite- 
" nefs. 

All the great Genius's who lived in the Days 
of du*uftus, were born and educated in the 
Days of Liberty ; and he borrowed from the 
Commonwealth all the Ornaments of his Court 
and Empire. In fpight of all his boafled Tafte 






LETTERS- soar 

ef Letters, and the Encouragement he gave; 
them I do not remember one extraordinary 
Genius bred under his Influence : On the con- 
trary, ail that were fo, died in his Time, with- 
out leaving any Succeftbrs. Qgidquid ^manv 
facundia babet quod infolenti Gr^cia; attt offottar 
tut prtfcrat, circa Ciceronem efflorititr. Omm* 
wgeniA qua lucem fiudiis wflrls attulerunt tune 
*ata Cunt. In deter lus deinde quotidic data res 
til, fays- Seneca the Father. " Every Improve- 
" raent in the tymtn Eloquence, which eithe: 
" ecuals- or excells that of Greece, fiourdhed 
" in- the Time of Cicero ; and all the great: 
" Wits, that now animate and direct our btu- 
<c dies, were then born. But ever fmce then,. 
" Wit daily decays, and grows lower and 

" lower. r 

This Decay began in the Time of Aug^m? 
who began his Reign with butchering Cicero* 
his Patron, his Father, and his Friend, ancE 
tlv Prodigv of Roman Eloquence and Learning; 
and that Decay encreafed fo fail, that from 
the firft toman Emperor to the lalf, tor the 
Space of about Five Hundred Years, the great 
City of Home did net produce five great Oe- 
n'fjs's; and rhofe that it did produce, were pro- 
duced near the Times of Liberty, when they 
were yet warmed with its Memory, and be- 
fore the Tyrants had yet Time utterly to abo- 
lifh all that, was good, though they made inh- 
nlte Hade, Tacitus was their lalt great Hiito 
rian, and Juvenal their laft great Poet, bom 
paflionate Adorers of Liberty, it w melan- 
cholly what the former lays upon this bubjec-n 
Poll Itellatum.aPud Adium, *:qus omnem 

J ' I 

^o^ CA T &$ LETTERS. 

tern ad itmim conferrc pads interfuit, magnt i 
ingenia cefftre. The Romans had no longer any 
great Genius's than while they were free. 

The Greeks preferved Learning fbme Time 
after the Romans had loft it ; for tho' they 
were conquered by the Romans, yet many of 
the ^Gree^ Cities were fuffered to enjoy their 
ancient Liberties and Laws, and they paid on- 
ly an eafy Homage, and no Troops were quar- 
tered among them, as in the other Provinces. 
However, as they were at the Mercy of Fo- 
reign Mailers, the Vigour of their Spirit was 
gone, and they produced but few good Au- 
thors ; Dion and Plutarch are the chief. It is 
the pbfervation of the learned, polite, and in- 
genious Author of the ^flexions Critiques fur la 
1'otfie & fur In Peintwe, That Greece had more 
great Men of all Kinds in the Age of Plato 
alone, when its Liberties flourished, than in all 
the many Ages between Pe>feus, the laft King 
of Mncedon^ and the taking of Conflantinoplc by 
the Tartly amounting to Seventeen Hundred 

The feveral Attempts made by Vefpajian, Ti- 
tus, and Trajan, to reftore Learning, proved 
almoft vain. The Mufes, who, frightened by 
Tyranny, were now tied out of the World, 
could not be allured back to tyme, where 
Bafenefs, Terror?, and Servitude had long 
reigned, and where their Seats were filled by 
pedanrkk Praters, and by babbling and hypo- 
critical Philofophers .- For, the Itch and Name 
of Learning dill fubfifted , and therefore Seneca 
fays, ut omnium rerum^ fa literal urn qucque inr 
temper Ahtia laboramus. 


LETTERS. 10 j 

The Root of the Evil remained, and the 
Empire of mere Will had ufurped the Th^ne 
of the Laws, and; the Place of Learning. 1 he 
Genius, that bold and glorious Genius, inlpir 
by Liberty, was gone ; and the 1 ryal t re* 
flore Learning without reftormg L^erty, ofl^ 
ferved to ftew that they who would do trooci 
to a Community, which is ill confuted or 
corrupted, muft either begin with the yy ern ' 
menr, and alter or reform that, or defpair of 
Succefs, Alt that the beft ^nnn Emperors 
could at laft do, was, not to butcher nor op- 
prefs their People ; which yet they could ncl 
reftrain therr Minifters from doing. *?#*** 
blackened the Reign of Kfpfi* by to PiWe, 
Infolence, and Cruelties ; and the Mmifters 
of Nffnw, under Colour of pumlhing the 
formers, a Crew of Rogues licenfed and en- 
couraged by the former Emperors, to enlnare 
and deftroy their dreadful Foes, the Innocent 
and Virtuous, made life of that good Prince s 
Authority and his Hatred of thefe Vermin, to 
banifh, plunder, kill, and ruin many ot th 
beft Men in Rome. 

The Government, the arbitrary hngie Oo- 
vernment, had long difcouraged and baniihed 
every Thing that was good, and with the 
Learning irretrievably. 

C A T O's L E T T E R S. 

THE Advocates for Abfolute Monarchy 
argue as ignorantly as perverfely, and- 
build without a Foundation ; fince, while they 
contend for unlimited Submiilion to the Mo- 
narch's Will, they muft either fuppofe, that- 
all A6rs of Power proceed from his Will, or 
cife that the Will of his Minifters is alfb un- 
limited, and their Orders are irrefiftible : So 
that either all his Servants, Inftruments, and 
Executioners, are Abfolute Monarchs too ; 
which none but a Madman will fay : Or that 
he himfelf does immediately direct every thing 
that is done ; which no Man of common Senfe 
will affirm. Indeed fuch Princes have the lea/1: 
Share of their own Power, and feldom know 
what is done, or care. 

Monfieur Tbevcnct tells us, rhat the Grand 
Seignior minds nothing but his Pleafures, the 
Pranks of Mutes and Buffoons, who are his 
conflant Attendants, and always ftudying new 
Freaks and Grimaces to divert him ; and the 
Dalliances of Women, fent to him from alt 
Quarters by his Bq/haws, His Power is abfo- 
iutely defpotick : His Will, that is to fay, his 
Lufr, his Maggots, or his Rage, is his only 
Law, and the only Bounds to the Authority 
of this Vicegerent of God. By Virtue of this 
facred Power, he may rob any Man, or all 
Men, of rheir Ellares, and no Man has a 
Right to complain : He may put the bed Men 
to the moil ignominious and barbarous Death, 



and exalt the vileft Criminals to the higheft 
Dignities ; and no Man muft ask why. This 
unlimited Power of the Sultan, fays Monfieur 
Thevenot, is founded on the Mahometan Religion, 
which enjoins a blind Sitbmiffwn to nil his Com- 
vnfinds, on -pain of Damnation. 

A bleffed and beneficent Religion this, and 
a (ingle Sovereignty with a Witnefs ! But this 
raonftrous^and formidable Power, which is held 
by him, is directed by his Minifters without 
him, They employ both him and rhemfelv-es ; 
him far from his Duty in unmanly Pleasures, 
and jhemfelves-in the Mismanagement of his 
Affairs, and in proftituting his Name and Au- 
thority, to ferve their own Views He wears 
the Crown, and lives in a Brothel ; and they 
fway the Scepter, fuck the Peoples Blood, and 
fill their own Coffers. The Grand Vifier or 
Firft Minifter, is in Effect King over his 
Matter; he has the Cuftody of the Imperial 
Power, and difcharges the Office of the Grand 
Seignior : And as to the 'Baf^aws^ who are like- 
Wife fo many Kings in their Provinces, Theve- 
not fays, They abufe their Authority, and 
are more arbitrary than the Sultan himfelf 
their Defign and Bufmefs being to raife fucU 
den Fortuilfs by their Spoils and Oppre-ll'ion. 
And the Grand Seignior is forced to diffem- 
ble^his Knowledge of this Rapine and Ex- 
orbitancy, for want of Power to punifii or 
redrefs them ; for that thefe Men have the 
Soldiers more at their Devotion than he 

As to the Turkifh Civil Officers and Judse?, 
he lays they do what they will, and judge" as 



they pleafe ; for all their written Laws being 
contained in the Alcoran, which is but a (hort 
Book, they are fb arnbiguoufly exprefled, and 
fo loofely delivered, that the Cadi, as well as 
the Bfljkwt wrefts them as he pleafes ; and 
judging without Appeal, both thefe greedy and 
rapacious Officers turn Juftice into OppreilioHj 
and make it a Stale to their Avarice. 

Such is the Spirit and Effe&s of lawlefs 
Power, lodg'd in one Man ; every Officer and 
Creature of his will have it ; and by fetting 
up one Tyrant, a Thoufand are fet up. As 
this Power is never to be got or preferved, 
but by Violence and OppreiTion ; all Men^ 
who have any Share in executing, and minf- 
ftring, and defending the fame, mud be Op- 
preflors too.. As no Man is an Oppreffor for 
the meer Pleafure and Security of another, but 
only for his own Sake and Gratification ; (o 
all the Servants of Tyranny do, in their Ma- 
fter's Name, but rob and fpoil for themfelves , 
and every Servant is a Mafter. All over the* 
Ottoman Empire, there is a great Turl^ in every 
Town, and he at Conftantinople is perhaps the- 
idled and moft harmlefs of them all ; and the 
Exercife of the Turl^/Jb Government, is nothing 
elfe but a daily and general Plunder, and a 
Contention between the Governors, who fhalL 
fpoil bed and get mod. Nor,, let them plunder 
and butcher as they will, is there any Redrels 
lo the opprefled and expiring People ; for tho* 
the Imperial Oppreflbr often forces his minifte* 
rial Oppreflbrs to difgorge, and fpoils the 
Spoiler of his Booty and his Life, where he- 
dares j yet, there being no Reftitution made,. 


C A Tffs LETTERS. 107 

the Condition of the Opprefled is not mended : 
It is Mock-Juftice, and worfe than none ; every 
A& of Power, every Degree of Office there,. 
is Robbery and Violence ; and every Officer, 
the leaft and loweft, is an irreliftible Tyrant. 

Single and abfolute Monarchy therefore, or 
the ruling All by the Will of One, is Nonfenfe 
and a Contradiction ; it is rather a Multipli- 
cation of Monarchs, and in Fact the worft 
fort of Oligarchy. Now fuppofe we were to 
obey blindly the Will of the Prince ; are we 
alfb to obey blindly the Will of his Eunuchs, 
Miftrefles, and Janizaries, who opprefs without 
his Knowledge, or againft his Will ? Sure the 
Inftruments and Delegates of Tyranny, are not 
alfb the Lord's Anointed. How therefore fhall 
we know their Mind from his, which perhaps 
contradicts theirs ? Or how (hall we know whe- 
ther he wills any Thing at all, and whether they 
do not will for him ? This is almoft always the 
Cafe ; and then here is a Monarchy of Mini- 
fters ; and Parafites,Pathicks, Buffoons, W 7 omen^ 
and Butchers, rule for him, and over him. 

Is this Government too by Divine Right ? 
If it is, let us rail no longer at Anarchy ; 
which, being the Abfence of all Government, 
though it leaves every Man to do what he 
lifts, yet It likewife leaves every Man a Right 
to defend himfelf : Befides, this fort of Anar- 
chy, where every One is absolutely free, will 
quickly fettle into Order, and indeed cannot 
fubfift long. But (ingle Monarchy, which is 
a long Gradation of Tyrants, where Many on 
one Side do what they will againft the Mofl 
on the other Side, and where Cruelty and Luft 


ao8 Giro's LETTERS, 

revel without Controul ; where wanton and 
inhumane Power has no Limits, and heavy 
and forrowful Oppreifion no Remedy nor End ; 
where the Innocent and Harmlefs fuffer rnoft*. 
and the Word and Vileft thrive beft, and 
where none are fecure ; where WJckednefs 

^^ j 

fuppprts Power, and Property is* the Spoil of 
Armies : I fay, this Abfolute Monarchy is 
"worfe than Abfolute Anarchy, by not being fo 
general It is a partial Anarchy, with worfe 
Effects and no Remedy. 

All this does flill further prove, that Men 
and Societies have no poliible humane Security 
but certain and exprefs Laws, fetting expreis: 
Bounds to the Power of their Magiftrates, a 
certaining the Meafure of Power as well as 
Subjection, and retraining alike the Exorbi- 
tances of both Prince and People, It is eter- 
nally true, that fuch as is the Nature of the 
Government, fuch will 'be the Nature of the 
People ; and that as they are hnppy or mife- 
rable, fb they will be good or bad, as their- 
Government and Governors are good or bad,;, 
end that their whole Integrity and Virtue, or 
all their Corruption and Bafenefs, does arife 
from that fingle Source. 

" Princes, fays Macbiavel, do, but with little 
Reafon and>an ill Grare, complain of the 
Tranfgrefiions and Faults of their Subjects ; 
' fmce by the Negligence and debauched Ex- 
ample of their Prince alone, the People are 
and rnuft be debauched : And if the People 
of cur Times are infamous for Thefts, and 
Robberies, and Plunderings, and preying 
' 4 upon one another, and the like Enormities ; 


C A T O's L E T T E R S. 209 

" it is all owing to the Exorbitances and Ra- 
" pacioufhefs of their Governors. -- ^mania 
" was a Place full of all DifTolutenefs and Ini- 
" quity, every Day and every trivial Occafion 
" producing notorious Murders and Rapines : 
" Which Evils were not derived fb much from 
any Depravity in the Nature of the People 
(as fome would falfely fuggeft) as from the 
" vile Corruption of their Princes : For being 
" poor themfelves, and yet ambitious to live 
" in Splendor, Luxury, and Magnificence, (tie 
" true Caufes cf their Poverty !) they were forced 
" upon execrable Courfes for Money, and i-n- 
" deed refilled none that could fupply them. 

" To pals by their many other fpunging 

" Proje6ts ; one of their deteilable Schemes 

" was to make Laws againft fuch and fuch 

" Things, and after thefe Laws were publifn- 

" ed, they themfelves would be the firft to 

" break them, and to encourage others to do 

ct the fame : Nor was any Man ever rebuked 

or puniihed for his Unobfervante, till they 

1 few enough involved in the fame Penalty 

and Premunire ; and then forfooth, the Laws 

" were to be executed with all Stri6lnefs and 

Sever- ty, not out of any Zeal for juftice,. 

but from a ravenous Appetite to be finger- 

ing the Fines. From whence it followed, 

that by grievous Mulcts and Expilations, 

the People being impoverifhed, were con- 

ftrained to ufe the fame Violences upon thofe 

who were lefs potent than they themfelves 

" were. By which Means the People were 

not corrected for doing Evil, but mftru&ed 

" how to do it. And all thele Mifchiefs pro- 

" ceeded 

^lo CA ro's LETTERS. 

I ceeded fblely from the Bafenefs and Iniquity 
" of their Princes. 

Thus it is that fuch Courts, being continu- 
ally in a Confpiracy againft the Property and 
Felicity of their People, and preying continu- 
ally upon them by all vile Means and Pretences, 
teach their People to confpire againft Honefty, 
and to prey upon one another ; nay, by rob* 
bing them, they make it neceflary for them to 
rob. Thus readily, neceffarily, and naturally, 
is the Spirit of the Governors transfused into 
the Governed, who are ever taught civil Cor- 
ruption by their Superiors, before they prac- 
tife it themfelves. 

Father le Ccmpte^ giving an Account of the 
Government of Cbin* 9 and (hewing the wife 
Provifion made by the Laws to check the great 
Power of the Emperor, fays, - u Nor is 
Intereft a lefs Motive than Reputation to 
the Emperor, to be guided by the ancient 
Cuftoms, and to adhere to the Laws which 
are framed fb much for his Advantage, that 
he cannot violate them without obvious Pre- 
judice to his own Authority, nor alter them 
without bringing his Kingdom into Confu* 
(ion : For fuch is the Temper of the Chi- 
nefes^ that when the Emperor is governed 
by Violence and PaiTion, and grows negli- 
gent of his Affairs, the fame perverfe Spirit 
poffefles his Subjects : Every Mandarin thinks 
himfelf Sovereign of his Province or City : 
The Chief Minilters fell Offices and Places 
to worthless Wretches : The Vice-Rnys be- 
come Co many little Tyrants : The Gover- 
" nors obferve no Rule of Juftice ; and the 

" People 




C A TO's LETTERS. 211 

People thus opprefled, are eafily flirred up 
" to Sedition : Rogues multiply and commit 
" Villainies in Companies, and court all Occa- 
" fions to do Mifchief, and to break the Peace. 
" Such Beginnings have occafioned fatal Con- 
" fequences, and put China under the Com- 
" mand of new Matters ; fo that the Empe- 
" ror's fureft Way to preferve his Crown, is 
" to obferve the Laws, and give an entire O- 
" bedience to them. 

Every Abfolute Prince and his Deputy-Ty- 
rants are only the Inftruments of one another. 
Bv their Hands he executes his Luft, Avarice, 
and Rage, and by his Authority they execute 
their own. He is their Dupe, and they are his 
Tools j and however they may differ in particular 
Views, they are always ftrongly united in Cru- 
elty and Oppreffion. And therefore, whenever 
there is any Contention amongft them, it is 
only who (hall be the uppermoft Tyrants; 
for Tyranny is the Aim, the Darling, and the 
Praftice of All : And when the fupenor and 
fubordinate Tyrants butcher one another, as 
they often do ; the People, tho' they lee the 
Revenge, yet feel no Relief. Whoever bears 
the Iron Rod, They feel its Sharpnefs and its 
Weight : For almoft every Tyrant grows worie 
and worfe ; and yet generally leaves a Succel- 
for worfe than himfelf. What unutterable and 
encreafmg Woe muft be the Lot of their poor 
Subjects under continual Harrows of Iron, 
made daily more poignant and heavy ! Nor is 
the killing of a Tyrant any Cure, unlefs the 
Tyranny be killed with him. The Nature of 
his Power breathes nothing but Deftru6hon, 


Giro's LETTERS. 

private Ruin, and publick Defolation ; the 
common Maxims of Juftice and Mercy are nor 
known to him, or known only for High-Trea- 
fbn, and the very contrary are conftanrly 
practifed ; and his MinSfrers, to be faithful 
Servants, mud be the worft of Men, and alt 
Tyrants like himfelf. 

Thefe Kings (of the E/?/r) fays Monfieur 
Hernier, fee no Men about them, but Men of 
nothing ; Slaves, Ignoranrs, Brutes, and fuch 
Courtiers as are raifed from the Duft to Digni- 
ties ; who, for want of good Education, do 
almofr. always retain fomewhat of their Origi- 
nal, and of the Temper of Beggars enriched* 
'hey are proud, infufrerable, cowardly, in- 
fcnfible of Honour, perfidious, and void of 
Affection, and of all regard for their King 
and Country. 

Thefe Kings, fays he, muft ruin all, to find 
Means to defray thofe prodigious Expences, 
which they cannot avoid for the Support of 
their great Court, which has no other Source 
of Subfnlance but their Coffers and Treafiires ; 
and for maintaining constantly the vaft Number 
of Forces neceffary to keep the People in Sub- 
jection, and to-prevent their running away, and 
to force them to work, in order to draw from 
them the Fruits of their Work. For, the Peo- 
ple, being kept continually under the dreadful 
Yoke of Oppreilion, and made to labour 
through Fear, for the Benefit of their Go- 
vernors only, are perfectly wild and defperate, 
and ready to do any Acl: of Defpair, Captain 
Perry fays the fame of the Mvfcoyhes ; that 
made defperate by Oppreflion and Want, they 



run eagerly into Tumults, Murders, arid Rebel- 
lions: &ndDr.F.letcher fays, they are fo enraged 
with Hunger and Cold, that they beg in a wild 
and defperate Tone j -Give wf, and cut me : Help 
we, and kjil me, &C. 

I would obferve here, how much more eafy, 
as well as glorious, it is to govern Freemen than 
Slaves. It is true, that Freemen go (bmetimes 
much further in their Oppofition to unjuft 
Pow^r, than Slaves go or can ,go \ becaufe they 
have more Spirit,. Senfe, Virtue, and Force : 
But that they are with more Difficulty go- 
verned, is absolutely falfe. It is indeed diffi- 
cult to opprefs them, and their Rebellion is 
generally no more than their diftinguifhing of 
.Government from Oppreffion \ a DiftincTrion 
which their Governors do but too feldom make, 
and which Slaves, born to Oppreiiion, know 
not how to make. In truth. Government is a 
Thing not fo much as known in the greateil, 
by far the greatefl Part of the Earth. Govern- 
ment fuppofes, on one J L Jde, a rational Execu- 
tion of rational Handing Laws, made by the 
Confent of Society; and on the other Side, a 
rational Subjection to thofe Laws. But what 
has Arbitrary Will, wanton and outrageous 
Lud, Cruelty and Oppreiiion, to do with Go- 
vernment, but to dellroy it ? 

But to (hew yet further the Anarchy of Ab- 
fblute Monarchy, I fhall infert here what 
Monfieur Bemier fays of the Education of (uch 
Sort of Princes. He fays, that one of the 
principal Sources of the Mifery, of the Mil" 
government, of the Diipeopling, and of_ the 
Decay of the Eaftern Empires, proceeds from 


ii4 CATffs LETTERS. 

hence, that the Children of their Kings are 
brought up only by Women and Eunuchs, who 
generally are no other than wretched Slaves from 
fyjjia, Circaffiti) Gurgiftan, Mingrclia, and Ethi- 
opia ; Creatures of mean and infblent, fervik 
and ignorant Souls. 

Thefe Princes become Kings, without In- 
ftru&ion worthy of Men, and without know- 
ing what it is to be a King. They are amazed 
when they come out of the Seraglio, as Perfbns 
coming out of another World, or out of fbme 
fubterraneous Cave, where they had fpent their 
whole Lives. They wonder at every Thing 
they meet, like fb many Ignorants. They 
either fear all and believe all, like Children; or 
nothing at all, like Idiots. They are common- 
ly high and proud, and feemingly grave : But 
this their Loftinefs and Gravity is fb flat, ip 
diftafteful, and Ib unbecoming them, that it is 
vifibly nothing but Brutality and Barbaroufhefs, 
and the Effect of fbme ill-ftudied Document?. 
Sometimes they run into (bme childifh Civili- 
ties, ftill more unfavoury ; or into fuch Cruel- 
ties as are blind and brutal ; or into the vile 
and mean Vice of Drunkennefs, or into a grofs 
and excefllve Luxury ; and either ruin their 
Bodies and Underftandings with their Concu- 
bines, or abandon themfelves to the Pleafure of 
Hunting, like fome carnivorous Animals, and 
prefer a Pack of Dogs before fb many poor Peo- 
ple, whom they force to follow them in the 
Purfuit of their Game, and fuffer to perifli with 
Hunger, Heat, Cold, and Mifery. 

In a Word, they always run into one Ex- 
treme or another, and are entirely Irrational or 



Extravagant, according as they are carried away 
by their Temper, or by the firft Impreifions 
made upon them. And thus remaining, almoft 
all, in utter Ignorance of their Duty, and of 
the State of their Country, and of all publick 
Concernments, they abandon the Reins of the 
Government to fbme Vizier (in Englifk, a firft 
Minifter) who entertains them in their Igno- 
rance, and encourages them in their PaiTions 
and Follies ; and their Ignorance, Paillons, and 
Follies, are the ft rongeft Supports thefe Viziers 
can have to maintain their Dominion over their 
M afters. 

Thefe Kings are alfb frequently given up 
entirely to thefe Slaves, their Mothers, and to 
their own Eunuchs, who often know nothing 
but to contrive Plots of Cruelty to ftrangle 
and banifh one another, and fbmetimes they 
murder the King himfelf : Nor is any one elfe 
lafe in Life or Property. Thus far Bemier. 

Thus do thefe Princes live fhut up in Brothels, 
Strangers and Enemies to their People ; and 
when an Appetite for War is added to their 
Spirit of Cruelty and Qppreffion, all the Ad- 
vantage from it to their Subjects is, that in the 
warlike Havock, a quicker End is put to their 
Miferies, by ending their Lives with a Gun or 
a Scimitar inftead of Famine. 

As to the Redrefs of their Grievances, and 
the doing Juftice upon the Authors of them, it 
is abfblutely impracticable in any Country 
which has no States and Reprefentatives ; and 
certain and irretrievable Mifery, as abfolute as 
its Government, is entailed upon it to all Gene- 
rations, till there be an utter End either of the 


ai6 Giro's LETTERS. 

Government or of the People. The Cover* 
nor of Scbtras pays for his. Government to the 
King of Perfia, vaft Sums of ready Money, 
with fine Hor/es, and all the fine Things and 
Rarines to be found within his Province : And 
befides thefe exceiiive Prefents to the King, he 
is obliged to make the like to all the great Lords 
and Favourites at Court, who are never to be 
gained but by continual Bribes ; fb that to de- 
fray this great and endlefs Expence, the wretched 
People mud fuffer great and end Ids Burdens 
and Exactions, and the Governor muft be a 
Tyrant to preferve his Government. Nor can 
they have any poilible Relief, tho' they have 
fometimes attempted to find it : But when two 
or three Villages at a Time have come to com- 
plain to the King, they have, after long wait- 
ing, been -forced away without any Redrefs, 
with empty Purles and hungry Bellies, becaufe 
they who fhould have given them Admifiion, 
were bribed to debar them : So that they moll: 
flupidly fubmit to the barbarous Extortions of 
a ravenous Vizier. This, fays Bernirr, is the 
Policy praftifed by all the Governors and Kens 
in the Pe--fim Dominions : And he tells us, that 
one Day, when Shafefl was hunting, (a Prince, 
whofe Juftice and Punifliments were only A6is 
of Cruelty) a poor Man, deputed by a neigh- 
bouring Village, to make fome Complaint to 
the King, appeared behind a Rock with a 
Paper in his Hand : But while the poor Wretch 
was declaring his Errand, and praying for 
Jurtire, his mo ft gracious Majefty, without 
making any Anfwer, drew his Bow, and (hoot- 
ing two Arrows into his Body, inftantly 'flew 
him. Nor 

's LETTERS. 417 

Nor was this execrable Royal Aft of his any 
more agreeable to the Genius of that Prince than 
to the Genius of that fort of Government, which 
is naturally barbarous and favage. An Arbitrary 
Prince is only the moft exalted and fuccefsful 
Beaftof Prey in his own Dominions, and all the 
many Officers under him are but (b many fubor- 
dinate Beads of Prey, who hunt and rob and 
devour his People for him and themfelves; and 
he a-nd his Officers do but conilitute a long Link 
of armed Tygers terrible to behold, who leap 
furioufly upon every Man and every Thing that 
tempts their Eye or their Appetite. 
^So that under a Tyrant, there is no End of 
Tyrants : From him that fways the Scepter to 
him that carries a^ Musket, all are Tyrants, 
and every one for himfeif as far as he dares. 

If any Thing concerning thefe unintermitdng 
Pefts of humane Race, could po/fibly raife in a 
humane Soul any other Paiiion but Grief and 
Horror, it would create Mirth to hear mention 
made, as fbmetimes in Books of Hiilory and 
Travels there is mention made, of a Tyrant's 
fitting in his Seat of Juftice, once in fo many 
Days, to hear equally all Caufes and Perfbn?. 
What Mockery 1 It is really a Farce, but a 
melancholly one, to hear the Word Juftice come 
out of the Mouth of a Tyrant ; who, by being 
fo^is a fettled Enemy to the common Laws cf 
Juftice and Mercy, and common Senfe, and to 
all that is good or lovely, or defirable amongft 
Men. As well may he fet apart one Day in fix 
to cure all the Difeafts of his Subjects, or to 
make their Cloths, and cook their Victuals, if 
he leaves them any to make and cook. As 

V O L. II, K every 

Giro's LETTERS. 

every Subject in his Dominions is oppreffed, 
and he and his Inftruments are the Oppreffors, I 
know no Way upon Earth for him to do them 
any general Juftice, but to deftroy himfeif and 
all his Deputy Tyrants. 

I am, 5cc. 

S 7 

I Intend to finifh in this Paper, what I have 
fo largely handled in fb many others, the 
.Subjecl of Liberty and Tyranny ; a noble Sub- 
ject, fuperior to all others, and to the greateft 
Genius, but fit for the Confideration of every 
Genius, and of every Rank of Men. It con- 
cerns the whole Earth, and Children ought to 
be inftru6ted in it as ibon as they are capable of 
Inftruclion. Why fhould not the Knowledge 
and Love of God be joined to the Knowledge 
and Love of Liberty, his beft Gift, which is 
the certain Source of all the civil Rlefiings of 
this Life ; and I have (hewn that Religion can- 
not fubfift without it ? And why fhould not the 
Dread and Hatred of Satan be accompanied 
with the Dread and Hatred of Tyrants, who 
are his Inftruments, and the Inftruments of all 
the civil Miferies in this Life? I have often 
thought that the Barbarians, who worfhip the 
Devil, have borrowed their Idea of him from 
the Character and Behaviour of their own ' 
Princes. One might indeed defy any Thing 
out of Hellj or even in it, and all that are in it, 



to do half the Mifchief upon this Earth that 
Tyrants do. 

They reduce Mankind to the Condition of 
Brutes, and make that Reafon, which God 
gave them, ufelefs to them : They deprive them 
even of the Bleffings of Nature, and flarve 
them in the midft of Plenty, and fruftrate the 
natural^Bounty of the Earth to Men ; and Na- 
ture fmiies in vain where Tyranny frowns : The 
very Hands of Men, given them by Nature 
for their Support, are turned by Tyrants into 
the Inftrumer.ts of their Mifery, by being em- 
pi oyed^ in vile Drudgeries or deftru6rive Wars, 
to gratify the Luft and Vanity of their execra- 
ble Lords, who fufFer neither Religion, not 
Virtue, nor Knowledge, nor Plenty, nor any 
kind of Happinefs, to dwell within the Extent 
of their Power. 

Nothing that is good or dcfirable can fubfifl 
under Tyrants, nor within their Reach ; and 
they themfelves fubfift upon nothing but what 
is dereRable and wicked, They are fupported 
by general Ruin, and live by the Deftiu&ion 
of Mankind; and as Fraud and Villainy, and 
every Species of ^Violence and Cruelty, are the 
Props of their Throne \ fo they meafure their 
own- Happmefs and Security, and Strength, by 
the Mifery and Weaknefs of their People ; and 
continued Oppreliion and Rapine are their flu- 
died and necerfary Arts of Reigning,, as is every 
Art by which they can render their People poor, 
nbjecTt and wretched ; tho 5 by fuch Methods 
they do in effect render themfelves fb, and 
consequently become eafy Preys to the next In- 
vader. That Wealth, which difpcrfedamongft 

K 7, their 

a ib C^rO's LETTERS. 

their Subjects, and circulated in Trade and 
Commerce, would employ, encreafe, and en- 
rich them, and return often again with Interefl 
into their own Coffers, is barbaroufly robbed 
from the People, and engrofied by themfelves, 
and generally laid out by them to adorn their 
Palaces, to cover their Horfes or Elephants, or 
to embellifh their own Perfons, and thofe of 
their Concubines and Attendants, or lock'd up 
in dark Caverns far from humane Sight and 

Whilft it is yet in the Mine, it is within the 
Reach of Pickaxes and Shovels, and by the 
Labour and Induflry of Men, may be made 
iifeful and beneficial to Men : But in the Den 
of a Tyrant, it is more fecurely and more irre- 
trievably buried and guarded from the ufe of 
Men. Here are literally Pluto's Brafs Walls 
and Adamantine Gates , and here are Thou- 
fands of real Cerbernss, who never deep ; and 
all to encompafs and fectire this dead Treafure, 
and to reftrain a general Gift of God from the 
life of his Creatures : From thence it is rarely 
fetched, even upon the greateit Emergences, 
or for any Purpofes but ill ones, till at laft it 
becomes the Prize and Booty of a conquering 
Enemy. Alexander found more Riches in the 
'Perfmn Treafures, than in the Hands of Free- 
men would have conquered the World ; and 
5 tis thought there are more at this Day in that 
of the great Mogul, than would ptrfchafe the 
greatefl and wealthieft Kingdom in Europe-, and 
it h?is been computed that there are thirty Mil- 
lions Sterling buried in the fecret Vaults of the 
Seraglio, the Plunder of the People, or 



of tbofe who plundered them ;. and yet they 
are^ ftill plundered and miferabiy] opprefled, 
to increafe this dead, ufelefs, ana 1 pernicious 

By thefe and the like inhumane Means, the 
Countries of Tyrants are come to be in the 
Condition which ! have elfewhere defcribed, 
defolate and uncultivated, and proper Recepta- 
cles for fuch favnge Monfters and ravening 
Beads of Prey, \vho rather chu(e to live iii 
barren Fields, unhofpitable Defarts, and ia 
difpeopled^ and empty Towns, than amongfl 
Freemen in happy Climates, filled with rick 
and numerous Cities, abounding in Inhabitants.,. 
who are pofTeiTed of Liberty, and will be bold 
to dei'end it, 

Now where can all tms d'frnal Ruin, th : ;^ Pepopyjatipn end ? If a continued; 
Decay^n the natural Body certainly end^Iri the. 
Extinction of Life ; in what can a con|].n.ued 
and hafty Decay of Mankind end, but in the 
Extinaion of Men ? So that if the World lads 
many Centuries more in its prefent wafting and 
rpournful Situation, there mufc be a Diffolu- 
tipn ^of humane Race, before the World is 

Several new Tyrannic? have fprutig up, like 
fo many new Plagues, within the iVJemory of 
Man, and like them have kid waite, but with, 
a more regular and continued Ruin, Countries 
once ftrong m Liberty and People: And as> 
Tyranny, like every other full-grown Mill 
chief, becomes more and more infuppor table' 
every Day, the Condition of Mankind under 
it muft necelfarily, and does actually grow 

K 3 every/ 

aiz Giro's LETTERS. 

every Day worfe and worfe, and they them-' 
/elves fewer. And even when their Numbers 
and their Subdance are leffened, or rather ex- 
panded, the Demands of the Tyrant upon 
them are not lefftned, nor his Rapine abated, 
nor his Expences and Exactions retrained. 

When a Tyrant has reduced a Million of 
People to half that Number by his Cruelty and 
Extortions, he madly expe&s from the re- 
maining Half the fame Revenue and Aflift- 
2nce of Men, which he had from the Whole, 
and like the red, they mud perifh to make 
good his Expectations ; and he often encreafes 
his Troops as fail as his People decreafes ; fa 
that his Expence is enlarged as there becomes 
lefs to fapport it \ but he will be fupported, and 
his poor perifhing People mud do it, tho' they 
dellroy thernfelves. 

Such is the pcdilent, favage, and unfatiable 
Nature of this fort of Monfter, whofe Figure, 
Throne, and Authority is edablifhed upon the 
Ruins of Reafbn, Humanity, and Nature : He 
takes all his Subjects have, and deilroys them 
to get more. 

A late great Prince, when he had loft and 
dedroyed Two Millions of his People out of 
Twelve, and reduced the Whole to a Degree of 
Poverty and Servitude fcarce to be exprclfed, 
what Impofitions did he recall, what Taxes 
abolifh, what Troops disband for their Relief? 
Not One On the contrary, the Swellings of 
his mfblent Hean continued, as did his mer- 
cilefs Extortions upon his People, and h : s per- 
fidious Defigns and Encroachments upon his 
Neighbours- and he lived and died the Plague 



and Curfe of CJmflendom. Nor can it be 
fhewn, that other Princes who govern by the 
fame Authority, that is, according to their own 
Whims and Caprice, leave their Subjects more 
Plenty or Happineis, or cheat or harrafs their 
Neighbours lefs, according to the Meafure o 
their Power; In truth, the whole Tribe are 
perpetually taking Advantages, and ufurping 
upon one another, and are conftant Goads and 
Thorns in one another's Sides, and in the Sides 
of their People : Nor can the Subjects of a 
Prince of this Caft have one tolerable l\ea- 
. ion under the Sun to defend him againd an- 
other, but that he lives amongil them, and 
fpends with them Part of their own Plunder, 
and probably the other would not : As his 
whole Reliance muft be upon his Soldiers, 
he muft encreafe them in Proportion to his 
Diilruil of his People, which is a Confdficn 
of a mutual Enmity : Neither is it enough 
that his Soldiers opprefs and famifh his Peo- 
ple, for his Sake and their own, (for both he 
and they are fupported by tbe Spoils of the 
People) but he muPc keep them as conftamly 
employed as he can ; becaufe, if they are not 
employed in plundering, invading, and (bed- 
ding of Blood, they will grow unbt for fuch 
beneficent and necedary Work, and may pro- 
bably degenerate into Humanity and Mer- 
cy , than which a more terrible Change could 
not befal their Royal iVlailer ; fb that in 
meer Duty they mud be conflantly pra&U 
(ing Mifchief and Rapine at Home or A- 

K 4 Thus 

22,4 C^ro's LETTERS. 

Thus do thefe general Deftroyers proceed to 
lay wafte the World : The beft and moil Coun- 
iries in it are already, many of them, almoft 
defolate, and fbme of them altogether, as I 
have fhewn in many Inftances ; and the Defo- 
laricn gains Ground daily : Nor, when fome 
Cciforries are dlfpeopled, are there fufficient 
Recruits, or indeed any, to be had from others 
as formerly. The North, formerly the Hive 
of Nations, is now as much dispeopled as any 
of the Southern Countries, which, fome Cen- 
turies ago, were peopled from it ; and both 
North and South have been difpcopjed by 
Tyranny. ^ tibia^ which once overrun the 
Y'/orld with Multitudes, is now ss defolare as 
the reft of the World which they over- run-. 
The Country of the Ckotyri, which was a vaft 
Empire, within thefe Four Hundred Years, is 
iv ,-w quite uninhabited, tho' great Part of it is 
ft fertile and beautiful Country; and in its laft 
Struggle with T.imerlane, brought Five Hundred 
Thouiand Men into the Field : Such a Force 
of People were there fo lately in a Country 
where now then? are none .' 1 think 

fays, ^ he travelled Two Months through Sr, 
and in all the Time faw neither Man nor 
Be.ift, but many great ruinous Towns and Ci- 
ties, particularly one which had Eight Hun- 
dred Churches in it lefs than Four Hundred 
Years ago, but now has not one Inhabitant. 

What can be more affe6iing than this In- 
fiance ? Not a fmgle Soul to be met with in a 
vail and noble Country, which a few Centu- 
ries ngo was a potent Empire, and contained 
Millions 1 In all probability, Countries and 



Empires, which now rocke a great Noite and' 
Buttle in the World, will be lying, two or 
three Centuries hence, in the fame woful and 
filent Solitude, if they laft fo long ; for Depo- 
pulation makes every where, except in a few 
remaining free States, a prodigious and flying 
Progrefs ; even in Europe, as I have before 
proved in many Inftances; And in fome ot 
thole free States, the Seeds of Servitude, the-- 
true Guife of Depopulation, and of every Mi- 
'"fery, feem to-be fewn deep, Alas ! Power en- 
croaches daily upon Liberty, with a Succefs top- 
evident ; and the Ballance between them is- 
aim oft loft. Tyranny has engrofled almoft the 
whole Earth, ?nd {hiking at Mankind Rope 
and Branch, makes the World a Slaughter-houfe;; 
and will certainly go on to deftroy, till it is ei- 
ther deftroyed itfelf, or, which rs moft likely,, 
has left nothing elfe to deftroy. 

The Bulk of the Earth being evidently at- 
moft a Defart already, made fo by Tyrants ; 
it is Demonftration that the Whole muft be 
fo, and muft foon be entirely fo, jf the Growth* 
of Tyranny is not reftrairred ; elfe if the gene- 
ral and wide Wafte gees on, Men will become 
too few for -the Management of Societies, and 
for Cultivation and Commerce ; all which 
are fupported by Numbers ; and then degene- 
rating into abf'hte S;,vages, they v/ill live 
"ftragllng and rdccd in Woods- and Wilder- 
neife, like wild Beafts, and be devoured by 
th-m ; c r: like rlv-m, devour one another, or 
perifn'wic: - er And thus there will be 

an End of M n unlefs thofe States that are 
yet free, rcrelerve, in the mid ft of this general 

Jl $ Wad 


Wafte, their own Liberties and People, and, 
like the ancient /Egyptians and Greeks, fill the 
World again, in Procefs of Time, with Colo^ 
nies of Freemen. 

That there is fuch a terrible Wafte of Peo- 
ple in the World, cannot be denied ; and it 
is as evident, that Tyrants are the conftant, 
regular, and necefiary Caufe of it. They are 
indeed fb manifeftly the Authors of all that is 
ruinous and wicked, that if God Almighty 
had left it to Satan to invent an Engine for 
the deftroying of the World, and for defacing 
every Thing beautiful, good, or defirable in 
it, that Minifter of Vengeance, and Enemy to 
God and Man, would doubtlefs have invented 
Tyrants, who by their wonderful Succefs in 
fuch Miniftration have ever fhewn, and do frill 
mew, their eminent Fitnefs for it. They fhew 
every where fuch a conftant and ftrong Anti- 
pathy to the Happinefs of Mankind, that if 
there be but one free City within their Ken, 
they are reftlefs in their Defigns and Snares 
againft it, and never defend it but againft one 
another, and pracYife the vileft and themeanell 
Rogueries to become Mafters of it. There are 
Inftances in this Age of free Cities falling into 
the Claws of Tyrants, and of the miferable 
Difference between their former Opulency, and 
their prefent Poornefs : They have never fmcc 
put oft their Mourning, which grows daily 
more black and difmal. 

The Breath of a Tyrant blafts and poi/bns 
every Thing, and changes Blefllngs and Plenty 
into Curfes and Mifery, great Cities into 
gloomy Solitudes, and their rich Citizens into 



Beggars and Vagabond's : I could name Cities 
which, while they governed themfelves, could 
maintain Armies, and now enflaved can fcarce 
maintain the poor proud Rogues who govern 
them. It is certain, that whatever Country 
or Place is fubdued by a Prince who governs 
by his Will, is ruined by his Government. 

It is confeffed, that the Arbitrary Princes i*n 
Europe have not yet, like thofe in Afia^ declared 
themselves Matters of the Soil ; and their Peo- 
ple have a fort of Property. How longjhis 
will continue, I know not preci/elv. This is 
certain, that the Condition of their Subjects-, 
which was always bad, grows hourly worfe ;.. 
and their Nobility, which were once rich and 
powerful, are now reduced very low, and 
greatly impoverifiied ; and they who were the 
Supports of Royalty, having created Jealoufy 
as if they had eciipfed it, have felt the terrible 
Effects of Arbitrary Power as well as others, 
tho' not fb much : Befides, when the common 
People, already wholly exhaufted, and ftarving 
under OppreJiion, can fupply the exorbitant 
Demands of their Prince no longer, the Eftatt-* 
of the Nobility will be the next Refource ; 
and like the Maftiff Dog at the Bee-hive, when, 
he has fueled up all the Honey, he will fw al- 
low the Comb : And then moil of Europe will 
be in the Condition, of Twr^, as many Parra 
of it are at prefent not much better ; and } ike 
the Great Turk., molt of its Princes will be fole 
Proprietors of the Land, as they now make 
themfelves of irs PrcdiK) which very near 
anfwers the fame End, When Tenants, ex- 
hauiled by Taxes,, sure unable to pay Rent,, the 


*i3 Giro's LETTERS. 

Land yielding no Profit, is as bad as none ; 
and m fome Inftances worfe than none, as we 
are particularly told by the noble Author of 
the Account of Denmark, where fome Landlords 
have begged the King upon their Knees to eafe 
them of their Land, by taking it from them 
for good and all ; for that it was taxed more 
tnan it was worth. 

Moft of the Princes of Europe have been 
long introducing the Tur^/h Government into 
Europe ; and have fucceeded fo well, that I 
ould rather live under the Turk than under 
Wof them. They pradife the Cruelties 
Sppreffipns of the Turks, and want the 
tolerating Spirit of the Ti/rjt; and if feme un . 
een Check is not thrown in their Way, 
he whole Polity of favage Trfc will be eftk! 
bliflied by them in all. its Parts and Barbarity 
as tf the Depopulation, which is already fa 
quick, and taking fuch dreadful Strides, were 
11 too flow. It is not enough for Tyrants 
to have confumed Mankind fo fail, that our 
on wenty Parts, they have within thefe Two 
Jhoufand Years deftroyed perhaps Nineteen, 
(For fo much at Jeaft I take to be the Difpro- 
portionj but Frefli Machines of Cruelty are 
it hi lought afrcr, be/id es never laying afide any 
Dt the^Qld, till the Dcftruaion is fully corn- 
pleated, fhey feem to think, that they (hall 
have Enemies as long as any Men remain ;"which- 
indeed is a reasonable Apprehension : But it is 
a.ronifhing at firft View, that Mankind fhould 
have Jo long born thcfe unrelenting Slaughter- 
ers of Mankind. But, alas ! who knows 
not the Force of Corruption, Ddufion, and 
itanding Armies j r>h 


Oh Liberty, oh Servitude ! how amiable, 
how deteftable, are the different Sounds ! Li- 
berty is Salvation in Politicks, as Slavery is Re- 
probation ; nor is there any other Diftindnon 
but that of Saint and Devil, between the 
Champions of the one and of the other. 

And here I conclude this noble Subject of 
Libtrty, having made fbme weak Attempts to 
(hew its glorious Advantages, and to fet off the 
oppofite Mifchiefs of raging, relentleU, and 
confuming Tyranny, < a Task to which 

no humane Mind is equal. For neither the 
fublimeft Wits of Antiquity, nor the brighteft 
Genius's of late or modern Time, ailided with 
all the Powers of Rhetorick, and all the Sti- 
mulations of poetick Fire, and with the warm- 
eft and boldeft Figures in Language, ever did, 
or ever could, or ever can defcribe and heigh- 
ten fufficiently the Beauty of the one, or the 
Deformity of the other \ Language fails in it, 
and Words are too weak, 

Thofe who do not groan under the Yoke of 
heavy and pointed Vaifalage, cannot poffibly 
have Images equal to a Calamity which they 
. do not feel : And thofe who feel it are ftupi- 
fied by it, and their Minds depreffed ; nor can 
they have Conceptions large, bright, and com- 
prehenfive enough, to be fully fenlible of their 
own wretched Condition : and much lefs can 
they paint it in proper Colours to others. W 7 e, 
who- enjoy the precious, lovely, and invaluable 
Bleilsng of Liberty, know that nothing can 
be paid too dear to purchafe and preferve it. 
Without it the World is a WMderaefr, and 
Life precarious and a Burden : Death is a 


130 C A TO's LETTERS. 

Tribute which we all owe to Nature, and 
muft pay j and it is infinitely preferable, in 
any Shape, to an ignominious Life : ,.Nor can 
we reftore our Beings back again into the 
Hands of our great Creator, with more Glory 
to him, more Honour to our felves, or more 
Advantages to Mankind, than in Defence of 
all that is valuable, religious, and praife-wor- 
thy upon Earth, or include all that is fb. 

How execrable then and infamous are the 
Wretches, who, for a few precarious, momen- 
tary, and perhaps imaginary Advantages, 
would rob their^Country, their happy Coun- 
try, for ever, of every Thing that can render 
humane Life defirable ; and, for a little Tinf el- 
Pageantry, and falfe and fervile Homage, un- 
worthy of honeft Men, and hated by wife 
Men, would involve Millions of their Fellow- 
Creatures in lafting Mifery, Bondage, and 
Woe, and charge themfelves with their juft 
Hatred and bitter Curfes ! Such unnatural Par- 
ricides, unworthy of the humane Shape and 
Name, would fill up the- Meafure of their 
Barbarity, by entailing Poverty, Chains, and 
Sorrow upon their own Pofterity. And often 
it happened, that fuch Men have, unpitied, 
fuftert-d in their own Perfons, the fad Effects 
of thofe cruel Counfels and Schemes which, 
they intended for the Ruin of all but them- 
felves, and have juftly fallen into that Pit 
which they had traiteroully digged for others, 

i\Vc lex eft jtijiior 

Quam ticcis Artifices arts per Ire fun. 

I am, 


5 i 

Othing is more provoking than to hear 
Men talk magi{lerially,and with an Aire 
of Teaching, about Things which they do not 
underftand, or which they have an Interefl to 
have underftood wrong. We have, all of us, 
heard much of the Duty of fubduing our Ap- 
petites, and extinguifhing our Paflions, from 
Men, who by thefe Phrafes (hewed at once 
their Ignorance of humane Nature, and yet 
that they aimed at an Abfblute Dominion over 

Wrong Heads and knavifh Defigns are 
frequently found together ; and Creatures 
that you would not trui't with laying out 
Ten Shillings for you in an Inftance where 
you truft to your own Underftanding, fhall 
fometimes, by the meer Sound of their 
Voice, and an unmeaning Diftinciion, make 
themfelves Matters of your Mind and your 
Fortune. It is by trufting to thefe that Men 
come to know fb little of themfelves, and to 
be fb much the Prey of others as ignorant and 
more diffionett. I know no Man fb fit as him- 
feif to rule himfelf, in Things which purely 
concern himfelf. How happy would this plain 
Rule make the World, if they could be brought 
to.cbferve it, and to remember that Brown is 
as virtuous a Colour as Black ; that the Al- 
mighty poffefles alike every Quarter of the 

World r 

Giro's LETTERS. 

World ; and that in his fight Fifh and Flefh it? 
point of Merit and Innocence are the fame-! 
Thefe Things are felf-evident, and yet the Mi- 
fery of Mankind is in a great Meafiire owing 
to their Ignorance of them. 

The ancient Stoicks had many admirable and 
virtuous Precepts, but their Philofbphy was 
too ngid to be very popular ; they taught Men 
an abfolute Indifference for fenfual Pain and 
Pleafure; but in this, their Do&rine was neither 
ufeful nor practicable. Men were not to be 
thus dealt with \ they could not ceafe to be 
Men, nor change Nature for Philofbphy. Be* 
fides, thefe Teachers being Pagans, and argu- 
ing only from theTopicks of Wifdom trained 
roo high, had no Equivalent to offer to their 
Difciples for parting with their Appetites and 
their Senfes. But when fome of their Soph ills 
came into Chriftianity, and brought along with 
them the fevere Notions of their Seel, they 
fpread and recommended the lame with more 
Succefs, by tacking to thefe their Opinions the 
Rewards and Terrors of the World to come, 
which had nothing to do with them : However, 
they faid it had, and quickly foundCredit enough 
to make it dangerous to contradict them. 

Thefe favourite Dreams of theirs, added to 
fome Sayings and Pa'flages of the Gofpel, ill 
unaerdood, were vehemently urged, as if they 
had been fo many certain PaiTports to Paradife; 
and fbon turned Mens Brains, and made them 
really fond of Poverty, Hardfhips, and Mifery, 
and even of Death itfelf : Emhufiafrn conquer'd 
Reafbn, and inflamed Nature, and Men 
devour grew diitradted. 



This came of ftifling the Paflions and fub- 
! duing Nature, as the Phrafe was. But the 
Folly and Mifchief of this Do&iine thus ex- 
travagantly pufhed, were not greater than its 
Falfhood : For, as there is no fuch Thing as 
departing from Nature, without departing from 
Life, it is certain that they who were remark- 
able for retraining fome of their Appetites, 
were as remarkable for indulging others ; fo 
that their boafted Mortification was no more 
than the Exchange oi 7 one Pailion. for another, 
and often of a better for a worfe. Thus there 
are many Saints in the Romiflo Calendar, who 
pra&ifed a religious Abftinence from all forts 
of Fltfh living or dead, and yet made it^the 
Duty of their Profeilion, and the Bufinels of 
their Lives, to ftir up DifTention and War a- 
mongft Men, and to promote Slaughter and 
Defolatlon : They abftained Jrom Women, 
and yet v/ere the Authors 01 inhnite Rapes and 
Adulteries: Their gentle "and falsified Souls 
would not allow them to kill, much lefs to eat 
any Part, of an Animal made to be killed and 
eaten ; but they avowedly and pioufly preacn 4 
up humane and Chriftian Butcheries, and have 
frniled over the Carcafles of a Nation maffacred 
at their Infttgation. 

It is the Weaknefs and Misfortune of hu- 
mane R.ace, that a Man, by the Means of one 
Virtue, or the Appearance of it, is often able 
to do a Thoufand Mifchiefs \ and it is the 
Quality of humane Nature, that when any one 
of its Appetites is violently retrained, others 
break out into proportionable Excciles. Thus 
Men grow raflh and precipitate by trampling 


134 CATO's LETTERS. ' 

upon Caution and Fear ; and thus they become 
Cowards, by QSflbg the Love of Glory z 
Whereas, if the Appetite for ^Danger were 
checked by the Appetite of Self-prefervation ; 
and the lazy Love of Safety by the Love of 
Fame, RaQineis and Cowardice would be no 

It is the highefl: Stupidity to talk of fubduing 
the Paiiions, in the common Acceptation of 
that Phraie ; and to rail at them in grols, is 
as fooliih. The greateir. Evils often proceed 
from the bell Things abufcd, or ill applied , 
and this is particularly true of the Paflions, 
which are the conftituent Parts of a Man, and 
are good or ill as they are managed. 

The Exercife therefore of Reafbn is nothing 
elfe but the? indulging or controlling of the 
Paiiions, with an impartial Hand, and giving 
them all fair Play : It is an equal Adminiftra- 
tion of the Appetites, by which they are re- 
ftrained from outrunning one another : Thus 
for Example, if Mens Fears were always as 
powerful as their Hopes, they would rarely run 
into Danger; or, if iheir Hopes ballanced their 
Fears, they never would defpair. 

Every one of the leading PaiTions is as ne- 
cefifary as another ; all the Difficulty is to keep 
them well marfhalled : They are only terrible 
by breaking out of their Ranks ; and when 
they do, they are all alike terrible, though the 
World generally thinks otherwife. But it is 
certain, that thole Patiions to which the kind- 
eft Ideas are annexed, do as much Mifchief, 
when they get out of their Bounds, as do thoie 
to which we annex the harfhell Ideas ; and 


C A ro's LETTERS. 235* 

Love and Hope, which bear foft and mild 

Names, are in Exccfies as s&ive and a? formi- 
dable Pail ons, as are Anger and Revenge, the 
Names of which are apt to (hock us ; and An- 
ger and Revenge are, In their proper Limits, 
more defirable Pafiions than are Love and Hope 
out of their proper Limits ; that is, they are 
all equally good, or all equally evil, juft as 
they are let loofe or retrained. A Man who 
cuts another's Throat out of Love to his Wife, 
commits the fame Wickednefs r.s if he did it 
cut of Revenge. Extravagant Joy for the He- 
Jloratj'tn (which was doubtlefs a great and ex- 
traordinary Rieilifig) had well nigh coil Eng- 
land its Religion and Liberty; and afterwards 
the awakening Fears of Popery faved both. 
No Nation has been more flefh'd in Blood than 
the Turk : ; principally, becaufe the faife Hopes 
6f Mabornefs hifcivious Paradife animated them 
in their Butcheries. 

The only Way therefore of dealing with 
Mankind, is to deal with their PalFions ;^ and 
the Founders of all States, and of all Religions, 
have ever done fo : The fSrft Elements, or 
Knowledge of Politicks, is the Knowledge cf 
the Paflions ; and the Art of Governing, is 
chiefly the Art of applying to the Pailions. 
When the publick Pailions (by which I mean 
every Man's particular Warmth, and Concern 
about publick Tran factions and Events) $ are 
well regulated and honeftly employed, this is 
called Government, or the Art of Governing ; 
and when they are knavifhly raifed and ill em- 
ployed, it is called Fa6Uon, which is the gra- 
tifying of private-Pailicn by publick Means. 


Giro's LETTERS. 

And becaufe Paffion and Opinion are fb. 
nearly related, and have fuch Force upon each 
:her, Arbitrary Courts and Crafty Church- 
have ever endeavoured to force, or 
nghten* or deceive the People into a Unifor- 
mity of Thoughts, efpecially of Religious 

^ U , ghts ~~ "" A Thing tyrannical and im- 

rffcble ! And yet a whole People do often,. 
thr . ou / h ] gnorance, or Fear, feem of one 
Mind; and but feem, for if they came to ex- 
plain, they would find their Ideas differ widely,, 
tiio their Words agree. Whereas in a well- 
governed free State, diverfify of Speculations. 
lojar/rpm clogging the publick Good, 
it evidently promotes the fame, all Men 
being equally engaged in the Defence of that, 
r hich all Men are indifferently protected. 
So that to attempt to reduce all Men to one 
Standard or Thinking, is abfurd in Phllofoplw 
3 f PIOUS mlleligion, and Fa6Hon in the State. 
And tho the mortifying of the Appetites, is a 
veryplaufcblePhrafe, and, in a retrained Senfe, 
a laudable Thing ; yet he who recommends it 
you, docs often mean nothing but this, 
Mtktyeur Pajfynt. tame, that I mny ride them. 
There is fcarce any one of the Paffions but 
is truly laudable, when it centers in the 
1 ublick, and makes that its Obje6t. Ambiiion. 
Avarice, Revenge, are all fo many Virtues, 
when they aim at the general Welfare. I know 
it is exceeding hard and rare, for any Man to 
leparate his Pailjons from his own Perfon and 
Intereft ; but it is certain there have been fiich 
Men. Brutus, Cato, I{egulus, Timoleon, Dlon r 
and Eprtminondas, were fuch, as were many 


3 LETTERS. 137 

-mote ancient Greskj and Romans ; and, I hope, 
England has ftill fbme fuch. And tho' in pur- 
fuing publick Views, Men regard themfelves 
and their own Advantages ; yet if they regard 
the Publick more, or their own in Subferviency 
to the Publick, they may juftly be efteemed 
virtuous and good. 

No Man can be too ambitious of the Glory 
and Seciiriry of his Country, nor too angry a't 
its Misfortunes and illlifage; nor too revenge- 
ful againft thofe that abufe and betray it ; nor 
too avaricious to enrich it, provided that in 
doing it, he violates not the Rights of o- 

Tacitus giving the Character of the Emperor 
G.i!ba 9 who doubtlefs was an honeft Man, and 
had many Virtues, after faying that he coveted 
no Man's Money, and was fparing of his own, 
-adds, that he was greedy of publick Money 
- - Pecuni<e aliens ncn fippetens, fu.e parcus^ 
publics Avar u 5 ; which publick Avarice in him 
was a publick Vertue, and coft him his Life : 
He was not fuffered to reign, becaufe he would 
not lavifh away the publick Money in Bribes ; 
Milites (t fe ellgi ncn emi. So dangerous and 
-even fatal was perfonal Virtue in that corrupt: 
State! And fb hard and impoflible is it in any 
State, to ftay the Progrefs of Corruption ! 
Galbn would have reformed the Roman State ; 
but the Vices of his Predecefibrs, and long ufe, 
made it impracticable, and he loft his Life in 
the Attempt. The Paliions of Men were de- 
tached from the Commonwealth, and placed 
upon their own perfonal Security or Gain, and 
they had no Senle of the Publick, and as little 



Knowledge of its Affairs ; For that great Peo- 
ple, and aim oil :hewholeWorld,had been long 
the fole Property^of a fingle Man, who took 
Couniel only of his Lull. 

I am. &c. 


IT is melancholly to confider how every 
Thing in the World is abufed : The Rea- 
fon is, that^Men having themfelves chiefly in 
view, confider all Things with an Eye to 
themfelves only; and thus ir is th-at general 
eflmgs ceafe to be fb by being converted into 
private Property, as is always done where 'tis 
fafe or poflible to be done, 

^Inquiring how it comes to pafs that the beft 
Things in the World, fuch as Religion, Pro- 
perry, and Power, are made to do fo much 
hurt ; I find 'it to proceed principally from 
hence, that Men are never fatisfied with their 
prefent Condition, which is never perfectly 
happy i and perfe-ft Happinefs being their chief 
Aim, and always out of their Reach, they 
are relUeily grafping at what they never can 

So chimerical is the Nature of Man ! his 
greateft Pieafures are always to come, and 
therefore never come. His Content cannot 
poffibly be perfect, becaufe its higheft Objects 
arc conflantly future ; and yet it is the more 
perfect; for their being future. Our higheft 


LETTERS. 2,39 

Enjoyment is of that which is not ; our Pleafure 
is Deceit, and the only real Happinefs we have 
is derived from Non-Entities. We are never 
fatisfied with being juft what we are ; and 
therefore, tho'you give us all we defire, or can 
conceive, yet we (hall not have done defiring. 
The prefent PolTeiiions give but little Joy, let 
them be ever^fb great , even as great as can be 
grafped : It is the Enjoyment to come that is 
only or mod valued. When we fay, that if 
fuch a Thing happened, we would be eafie ; 
we can only mean, or ought onlv to mean, that 
we would be more eafie than we are : And in 
that too we are often miftaken :, for new Acqui- 
fitions bring new Wants, and imaginary Wants 
are as pungent as real ones. So that there is the 
fame End of Wifhing as of Living, and Death 
only can llill the Appetites. 

Publick Bieiiings would really be fo to every 
Man, if every Man would be content with 
his Share : But every Man would have more ; 
nor would more fatisfy him, whatever he may 
think ; but his Defires would rife with his Po 
feilions or his Power, and his lad Wifh would 
be to have All : Nor would the Pofleiiicn of 
All quiet the Mind of Man, which the whole 
W 7 orld cannot fill. Indeed, he who has moft, 
wants moft ; and Care, anxious Care, as it is 
the clofe Companion of Greatnefs, fb it is fur* 
theft from him who has leaft to care for. 

I own, that many have Teemed to dcfpife 
Riches and Power, and really decline the Means 
of acquiring them : But they deceived them- 
felves, if they thought that this Conduct of 
theirs was owing to a real Contempt for the 


140 Giro's LETTERS. j 

Things themfelves ; when in truth, it was only 
a Diflike of the Terms upon which they were 
to be had, Difintereftednefs is often created by 
Lazinefs, Pride, or Fear ; and then it is ^no 
Virtue. There is not, perhaps, a Man living 
but would be glad of Wealth and Grandeur, 
if he could acquire them with Speed, and 
poffels them with Eafe ; and almoft all Men 
would risk, and do daily risk, Eafe, Reputa- 
tion, Life and all, to come at them. Do we 
not fee that Men venture being Beggars to be 
rich,, lofe their Reft for the Sake of Quiet, 
and acquire Infamy to earn Honour ? We live 
in a Hurry, in order to come at a refting 
Place, and in Crowds to purchafe Solitude. 
Nor are we the nearer to our End, tho' the 
Means fucceed : Humane Life is a Life of Ex- 
pectation and Care, and he who rejects the 
Conditions mult quit it. 

Every Paflion, every View that Men have, 
is fcliifn in fbme "Degree ; but when it does 
Good to the Publick in its Operation and Con- 
fequence, it may be juftly called difmterefted 
in the uiual Meaning of that Word : So that 
when we call any Man difmtcreiled, we mould 
intend no more by it, than that the Turn of 
his Mind is towards the Publick, and that he 
has placed his own perfbnal Glory and Pleafure 
in ferving it. To ferve his Country is his pri- 
vate Pleafure, the Welfare of Mankind is his 
Miftrefs, and he does good to them by gratify- 
ing hlmfelf. 

Difintereftednefs in any other Senfe than this, 
there is none. For Men to at independently 
on their Paflions, is a Contradiction, fince 



their Paflions enter into all they do, and are the 
Source of it: And the belt A&ions iVkn per- 
form, do often arife from Fear, Vanity, Shame, 
and the like Caufes. When the Paiiions of 
Men^do good to others, it is called Virtue and 
Publick Spirit ; and when thev do hurt to 
others, it is called Selfifhnefs, Difhonefty, Luft, 
and other Names of Infamy. The Motive of 
every Man's Conduct is fetched from within, 
and has a good or an ill Name, according to 
its Effect upon others and fometimes the great 
Difference between an honeft Man and a 
Knave, is no other than a piece of Humour, or 
a piece of Chance. As the Patfions of Men, 
which are only the Motions raffed within us by 
the Motion of Things without us, are fbothed 
or animated by external Caufes it is hard to 
determine, whether there is a Man in theWorld 
who might not be corrupted by fome Means 
and Applications; the Nicety is, to chufe thofe 
that are proper. 

^ All thefe Difcoveries and Complaints of the 
Crookedness and Corruption of humane Na- 
ture, are made with no malignant Intention to 
break the Bonds of Society ; but they are made 
to (hew, that as Selfifhnefs is the itrongeft Biafs 
of Men, every Man ought to be upon his Guard 
againft another, that he become not the Prey of 
another. The too great Confidence which 
many Men have placed in One, has often ruined 
Millions. How many fbrrowful Experiences 
have we, that Men will be Rogues where they 
dare ; and that the greateft Opportunities al- 
ways make the greateft ! Give them what you 
can, they will (till want more than you give 
VO L. IL L 3 

Giro's LETTERS. 

.and therefore the highefl Trulls are the mod 
apt to be broken. 

Thofe who have talked moft of the Dignity 
of humane Nature, feem to have underftood 
it but little. Men are fb far from having any 
Views purely publick and difmterefted, that 
Government hVfl: arofe from every Man's taking 
Care of himlelf j and Government is never 
abufed and perverted, but from the fame 
Caufe. Do we not know that one Man has 
flaughtered a Million, and overturned Nations, 
for the gaining of one Point to himfelf; and 
that almoft all Men would follow Evil, if they 

found their greateft Advantage or Pleafore in 

" > 


Here therefore lies the Source of all the Evil 
which Men fuffer from Men, that every Man 
loves himfelf better than he loves his whole 
Species, and more or lefs confults himfelf in 
all he does. He naturally purfiies- what is plea- 
fant or profitable in his own Eyes, tho 5 in doing 
it he entails Mifery upon Multitudes. So that 
we have no other Security againft tfie Malice 
and Rapine of each other, but the Security of 
Laws, or our own Force. By Lav/s, Societies 
fubfift within themfelves, and by Force they 
defend themfelves againft each other. And as 
in the BuGnefs of Faith and Leagues between 
Nation and Nation, Treaties are made by 
Confenr, but kept by Fear and Power, and 
obferved or violated juft as Intereft, Advantage, 
and Opportunities invite, without Regard to 
Faith and good Conscience, which are only 
Words of Good-Breeding, with which Courrs 
complement: one another and themfeives ; fo 



Between Subject and Subject, and between 
Magiftrates and Subje&s, Concord and Security 
are preferved by the Terror of Laws, and the 
Ties of mutual Intereft ; and both Intereft and 
Terror derive their Strength from the Impulfes 
of Self-Love. 

Thus one Man is only fafe, while 'tis the In- 
tereft of another to let him alone ; and Men are 
Knaves or honeft Men, according to the Judg- 
ment they make of their own Intereft and Eafe, 
.snd of the Terms upon which they chufe to 
live in the World. Many Men are honeft, 
without any Virtue, or indeed a Thought of 
Honefty ; as many others are Rogues, without 
any Malice; and both Sorts mean only their 
own perlbnal Advantage, but take different 
Roads to arrive at it. This is their great Aim ; 
and that Conftirution which trufts more than it 
needs to any Man, or Body of Men, has a 
terrible Flaw in it, and is big with the Seeds of 
its own Deftru&ion. Hence arofe Tyrants and 
Tyranny, and Standing Armies ; Marius and 
dcfar 9 and Oliver Cromwell. How prepofleroufly 
do Men ar. ! By too great Confidence in one 
Man, or a few Men, they become Slaves ; and 
by a general Diftruft of each other, they con* 
tinue fb 1 

It may be obje&ed, that fince Men are fuch 
a wretched Race, made fo by the Apoftacy of 
Adam^ they are not worth ferving ; that "the 
moft unhappy of them, are but what they 
themfelves would make others, and therefore 
their Fate is juftupon them. 

In anfwer to this, I readily own what I have 
proving, that Men are very bad where 

L x thej; 

2.44 euro's LETTERS. 

they dare, and that all Men would be Tyrants, 
and do whar they pleafe But ftill let us pre- 
ferve juilice and Equality in the World. Why 
fhould he, who is bad himfeif, opprefs others 
who are no worfe than him ? Befides, the Lot 
of Humanity^ being an unhappy one, it is an 
honeft Ambition, that of endeavouring to mend 
it, and to improve Nature by Virtue, and to 
mend Mankind by obliging them to obferve 
Rules that are good. We do not expect phi- 
lofophical Virtue from them, but only that they- 
follow Virtue, as their Intereft, and find it 
penal and dangerous to depart from it. And 
this is the only Virtue the World wants, and 
the only Virtue it can trull to. 

J am 6cc. 


I Send you a Translation of the Speech of the 
Emperor Galbn to Pife, when he adopted 
him his Partner and Succefibr in the Emp ; re ; 
a Speech full of great Senfe, great Honefty, 
and noble Sentiments. Indeed, Galba. feems to 
have come to the Government with worthy In- 
tentions to mend it. To reftore the ancient 
Liberty was impoJlible. Things had run long in 
another Channel People were accuftcmed to 
the Largefles and falfe Bounty of their Princes, 
to the awful and founding Names of the Cr/V.r, 
and to the Luxury, Pomp, and Tinfel of a 
Court. The Soldiers would have an Emperor, 



nor could the Senate withftand the Soldiers:, 
The venerable Orders of the Commonwealth 
had been long abolifhed, her ancient Virtues 
extinct, Nihil iifqueim prifci G) inte^ri moris^ and 
the Commonwealth itfelf was forgot : Qnotus 
quifque reliquw qui rem -publicam vidiffet ! fays 
(peaking of the End of the Reign of 
. In fhort, the Emperor was all in all 
Illtic cunfta vergere. The State was over- 
turned mangled, and changed: The old Laws 
of Equality were utterly loft in the Imperial 
Power, and that was fu; ported by the Sword. 
There- was no Safety but in Servitude, Juff* 
principis ajpeftare- All the other Magistrates 
were but Shadows with fine old Names. 

The chief Aim, therefore, of Gall^ fince 
he coulti not reftore, was to reform : a worthy 
Attempt, but he failed in it: So irrefiftible was 
the Tide of Corruption ! Two Things princi- 
pally obftru&ed his Dtfign, and fhortened his 
Life and Reign, the Avarice of the Soldiery, 
and the vile Conduct of his Servants. 

As to the Soldiers, he had honefrly, but un- 
fortunately -faid, that he would them, but 
not buy them : a Saying which they never for- 
gave him. Befides, as he praciifed himfelf the 
rigid old fyman Difcipline, he would oblige his 
Army to pra6tife it ; a Thing new to them, 
and intolerable. They had been long tifed to 
Luxury and Sloth, and were grown as fond of 
the Vilenefs and Vices of their Princes, as the 
old Republican Armies had been of the Tem- 
perance, Modefty, and other Virtues of their 
C ommanders : They, therefore, could not bear 
-the. Severity and Frugality of Gnlbn^ nor would 


Giro's LETTERS. 

Gafba depart from his Temper and hisPurpofes. 
Money would have made them his Friends, but 
he would part with none. The Refle&ion of 
the Hiftorian upon this Conduct of his, is fine, 
but melancholy, 1 Nccuit antihunt Rjgor, & 

nimia feverifaS) ctti jam pares nonfumw. 'He 
4i was ruined by reviving unreasonably the 
4t fevere Virtue of our Anceftors : Alas we are 
no longer equal to it." To conclude this 
Head, the Soldiers butchered an Emperor that 
would not bribe them. 

As to the part of Galbas Servants, in the 
Tragedy of their Mailer, it was no fin all one : 
They made him odious by their own Crimes j 
and in his Name committed Cruelties and Ra- 
pine, which blackened his Character ; and 
when they had brought him under a general 
Diilike, none of his own good Qualities could 
recover him his good Name , Invifo fernel prin- 
cipc, feu ber.e feu male faRa premunt. Their 
Avarice was imputed to him, and called his, 

Jatn rffciebant -venalia cunRa prjpctenfes Li- 

iertl. They were refblved to make the moft 
of his (hort Reign, and by doing fo made it 

fhorter, Servorum mantts Juhitis fividtf, & tan- 

qufim apud fenem feftlnantes. He paid dear for 

their Wicked nefs,^ Odlo flagitiorum oner a turn 

deftruebant. His Character, in relation to his 
Friends and Servants, was, That he was indul- 
gent to them, if they were good ; s and blind to 
their Faults, if they were bad. Vbl in bcnos 
inddiffet, fine rep* ehevfione patient : Si mail fs- 
rent* ufqus ad cu/pam ignarus. 

The rell of his Character, taken from Ta- 
cttw. from whom I have taken the Whole, is, 


LETTERS. 2,47; 


That being Seventy Years old, he had lived in 
Profperity during five Reigns, more happy in 
them than in his own : That he was of a 
Family Ancient, Great, and Noble, and Matter 
of great Wealth : That he had a moderate 
Capacity, and more Innocence than Abilities : 
That he neither courted Fame, nor defpifedk : 
That he coveted no Man's Money^ was fparing 
of his own, and greedy of publick Money 
That a Nobleman of his great Birth and Qua- 
lity, having lived fo fecurely in fuch dangerous 
Times, was a Thing fo furpri zing and rare, 
| that his good Fortune paffed for Wifdom, and 
his real Indolence for real Art : That in the 
Vigour of his Years, he acquired great Renown 
in the German Wars : That being Proeonful in 
Africa, he governed that Province, and after- 
wards Spain, with great^ Equity : That he 
Teemed greater than a Subject while he was but 
a Subject, and that in the Opinion of all Men, 
he was equal to the Empire, if he had never 
been Emperor. 

So much for the Character of Galba-, which 
1 thought neceffary to introduce his Speech to 
Pifo, who was every Way worthy of the A 
doption, and of a better Fortune, which, how- 
ever was of a piece : He was long an Exile 
under Nero, who had murdered his Brother 
Cr<i]fus,2S had LlaudliK his Brother Magnus : He 
himfelf was but Four Days Ctfnr, and then 
butchered, as was his eldeft Brother prefently 
after him : He was of a noble Race, both by 
Father and Mother, and had arsarniable and po- 
pular Character for the Severity of his Man- 
ners, and his many Virtues \ and during the 

L 4 

2,48 CA rO's LETTERS, 

few Days of his highefl Power and Adverfiry, 
he behaved himfelf with great Modefty and 
Firmnefs, and feemed to make good every Hope 

concerning him But Virtue and Goodnefs 

were then pernicious, and we fee what he got 
1'V having them. The whole Story, and par- 
ticularly his Fate in ir, affects me. " 

The Speech cf Galba to Pifb. 

yy Hile I was yet a private Man, I had a 
" Right by the Law to adopt you for 
my Son, to the Credit and Glory of us both : 
M 7 Family would have been enriched with a 
Delcent of the great Pcmpey and .'Marcus 
Crajfus ; and the Nobility of your Houle 
would have derived new Splendor from the 
Fame and Quality of the Sulfinj and Lutatif. 
But being no longer a private Man, thefe 
Confiderations are no more. I am now, by 
the united Content of God and Man, called 
to the Empire ; a Power for which our An- 
" cefrors contended by Arms, and a Power 
" which I by Arms have acquired I got it by 

But you receive it not from me upon thofe 

Terms ; you have it without demanding it : 

" It is the Reward of your Worth ; nor do any 

" other Regards fway me in this Gift, than the 

Love of my Country, and your own great 

" Qualifications. 

*" I have, befides the Example of Auguftw for 
ic what I do: That great Prince took fucce/uve- 
" ly for his Partners in Power, firft, his Sifter's 

" Son 

CATffs LETTERS. 245) 


" Son Marcellus ; next his Son-in-Law, 

" fa ; afterwards his Grandfons ; and laftly, his 

" Wife's Son Tiberius. 

" But AuguftiiSi who would entail the Em- 
" pire upon his own Houfe, in his own Houfe 
" fought a SuccefTor. I am guided by another 
" Spirit : I chufe out of the Commonwealth, 
" an Heir for the Commonwealth. Nor am I 
reduced to this Choice by the want of Re- 
lations to my Blood, or of "Fellow Com- 
" manders in War : I have both. But having 
" arrived to the fupreme Power, neither by 
" Ambition nor Defcent, 1 am biafs'd by nei- 
* ther in conferring it; and my thus overlook- 
" ing your Relations as well as my own, is ^ 
" Proof of the Sincerity of my Judgment in 
*' preferring you to both. You have a Bro- 
*' ther, your Equal in point of Nobility, and 
cc your Superior in point of Years ; a Man 
" worthy of this Fortune, had I not in you 
" found one flill more worthy, 

" You are of an Age now paft the Giddinefs 
" and Impetuofity of Youth ; and your paft 
" Life is unblameable. But hitherto, you have 
*'' had only an adyerie Fortune to contend with: 
" One more dangerous abides you. Grandeur 
" and Profperity do much more powerfully try 
" the Temper of the Soul, and call forth all 
" Irs Weaknefle?. We can bear the Blows of 
" Fortune, but her Gifts and Smiles betray us 
into Error and Comjption, 
t4 You propofe no doubt to retain, and cul- 
tivare with your ufjal Firmnefs, that Faiib 
and Integrity, that Candour and Magnani- 
miry, and all other noble Endowments c 






ajo Giro's LETTERS. 

the humane Soul, for which you are con- 
fpicuous. But the Flattery of others will^.. 
in fpight of your felf, be breaking in upon 
you, and unfettling your bed Refolutions, 
and flaming your Virtue : Flattery, the moft 
pernicious Poifbn to an honeft Mind ! Every 
Man who has your Confidence will be ma- 
king you his Property and Prey. 

You and 1 indeed converfe together upon 
this Occafion, with Sincerity and Upright- 
nefs : But we muft not expect the fame ho- 
nefl Treatment from others. They make 
their AddrefTes to our Fortune and Power, 
and not to us : Nor can we expect any other. 
To deal freely and openly with Princes, to.' 
fhew them their Duty, and prefs them to 
perform it, is a daring, a difficult, and a 
dangerous Office; but to fboth and deceive 
any Prince whatfbever, is an eafy Task,. 
and performed without Difficulty, as it is 

" meant without Regard or Affection. 

" If this mighty Empire could fabfift, and 
be governed without a fmgle Ruler, as it; 
once was, 1 fhould glory in rtfigning, and 
being the ftrft Emperor that refigned, the 
Power of the Republick into her own, 
Hands. But this is impracticable ; her Af- 
fairs are long fince come to fuch a fatal State 
of Neceffiry and Corruption, that all the 
Good my old Age renders me capable of do- 
ing to the Rinnan People, is to leave them a 
good Succelfor ; nor can you with all your 
Youth, do more for them than to afford. 

" them in your ieif a beneficent Prince. 

" Under 

LETTERS, 25 r 

" Under Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius, we 
were all of us no more, and the whole I(oma 
M World was no more, than as the Property 
" and Inheritance of one Family ; and that the 
Empire has begun in me to be Elective, is a, 
46 Sign of our ancient Liberty, and Tome Equi- 
valent for it it is the only Liberty we 

are now capable of enjoying. The Julian 
" and Ctaudian Houfes being now extin&^the 
bed Men have a fair Chance to be the high- 
44 eft-. To be born of a Royal Race, is a 
" Thing of Chance, and void of Merit ; bur 
" Adoption is rhe \Vork and Effect of Deli- 
beration, and in a free Choice general Con- 
" fent (Lews the Merit of the Chofen, 

44 Remember Kero, and the Circumdances or 
his Life and Fall Kero, who blown up- 
as he was with a long Genealogy of the O- 
fars 9 his Anceftors, and -(ecu-re in the Splen- 
dor and Terror of their Names, could never 
have been depofed by Julius Vindex, the Go- 
vernour of a Province, unprovided with 
Arms ^ nor by me abided by a fmgle Le- 
gion-.: No, his own .Madnefs, Tyranny, and 
" Debauchery, Bung down the Tyrant from 
riding on the Necks of Mankind : Nor was 
there till then, any Indance of- aa Emperor 
" fentenced and -. depofed.- 

61 We who fucceed him by a different Title 9 , 
'the vSword and common Confent, (hall reap 
*' Glory in fpight of Envy. Nor ought you 
" to be alarmed, though in this general Up- 
** roar of the World, a Couple of Legions 
" continue dill turbulent ; it was my own Lot-: 
" to be called to an unsettled State , and as to, 


my old Age, the only Objection to my Go- 
vernment, 'tis now no longer one, fmce I 
am, by adopting you, become young in my 

Nero will always be lamented by the Bad : 
Let it be our Care and Concern that he be 
not alfo lamented by the Good. 

To fay more in this Way of Advice and 
Infr.ru6t.ion, the prefent Conjuncture fiiffers 
not ; nor is it neceffary : If I have chofen 
well, I have fulfilled every Purpofe, and an- 
fwered every End. Your belt and fhorteft 
Rule will be to behave yourfelf fo towards 
your Subjects, as, were you a Subject, you 
would wifh your Prince to at towards 
you - Let this be your Standard of 
Good and Evil, this your Art of Reigning. 
You muft particularly remember that it is 
not with us as with barbarous and tyrannized 
Nations, who, hardened by the Yoke of 
Servitude, feel not its Weight, but live all 
blind Slaves to one Lordly Houfe. -- - 
You have the Romans to govern ; a People, 
who having now too little Virtue to bear 
Abfoluie Liberty, have Hill too much Spirit 





to bear Abfolute Dominion. 

S I /I, 

*"T^ HE MUchiefs that are daily done, and 
JL the Evils th?t a-re daily fullered in the 
World, are fad Proofs how much humane Ma- 


lice exceeds humane Wifdom. Law only pro- 
vides againft the Evils which it knows or fore- 
fees ; but when Laws fail, we rnuft have Re- 
courfe to Reafbn and Nature, which are the 
only Guides in the making of Laws. Stir f em 
Juris A Natura repertam, fays Cicero ; There 
never would have been any Law againft any 
Crime, if Crimes might have been fafely com- 
mitted, againft which there was no Law : For 
every Law fuppofes fome Evil, and can only 
punifti or reftrain the Evils which already 
exift. ^ 7 

But as pofinve Laws, let them be ever fb 
full and perfpicuous, can never intirely prevent 
the Arts of crafty Men to evade them, or the 
Power of great ones to violate them ; hence 
new Laws are daily making, and new Occa- 
iions for more are daily arifing : So that the 
utmoft that Wifdom, Virtue, and Law can 
do, is tojeflen or qualify, but never totally 
a.boli(h Vice and Enormity. Law is therefore a 
Sign of the Corruption of Man j and many 
Laws are Signs of the Corruption of a State. 

Poiitive Laws deriving their Force from the 
Law of Nature, by which we are directed to 
make occafio'nal Rules, which we call Laws, 
according to the Exigences of Times, Places, 
and Pcrfons, grow obfblete or ceafe to be, as 
fbon as they ceafe to be neceflary : And it is as 
much againft the Law of Nature to execute 
Laws, when the firft Caufe of them ceafes, as 
it is to make Laws, for which there is no 
Caufe, or a bad Caufe. This would be to 
fubjecl: Reafbn to Force, and to apply a Pe- 
nalty where there is no Crime. Law is right 

Reafbn a 


Reafon, commanding Things that are good, 
and forbidding Things that are bad ; it is a 
D5flin6Hon and Declaration of Things juft and 
unjuir., and of the Penalties ^or Advantages an- 
nexed to them. 

The Violation therefore of Lav; does not 
conftitute a Grime where the Law is bad ; but 
the Violation of what ought to be Law, is a 
Crime even where there is no Law. The Ef- 
fence of Right and Wrong, does not depend up- 
on Words and Claufes Jnferted in a Code, or a 
Statute-Book, much lefs upon the Conclufions 
and Explications of Lawyers ; but upon Reafon 
and theNature of Things, antecedent to all Laws* 
In all Countries, Reafon is or ought to be con- 
fulted, before Laws are enaled ; and they arc 
always worfe than none, where it is not con- 
fulted. Reafon is in fbme Degree given to all 
Men ; and Cicero fays, that whoever has Rea- 
fon, has right Reafon ; that Virtue is but per- 
fect Reafon ; and that all Nations having Rea- 
fon for their Guide, all Nations are capable of 
arriving at Virtue. 

From this Reafbning of his, it would follow,, 
that every People are capable of making Laws, 
and good Laws ; and that Laws, where they 
are bad, are gained by Corruption, Faction, 
Fear, or Surprize ; and are rather their Mif- 
fortune, than the Effe6h of their Folly. The- 
A6h of Cdfar were confirmed by the Senate and 
the People, but the Senate was aw'd, arid the 
Tribunes and People were bribed : Arms and 
Money procured him a Law to declare him 
lawlefs. But, as the moft pompous Power can 
never unfettle the everlafting Land- marks be- 


tween Good and Evil, no more than thoie be- 
tween Pleafure and Pain ; Cafnr remained ftill 
a Rebel to his Country, and his Ads remained 
wicked and tyrannical. 

Let this ftand for an Inflance, that Laws are 
not always the Meafure of Right and Wrong, 
And as pofitive Laws often fpeak when the 
Law of Nature is fiient, the Law of Nature 
fornetimes fpeaks when poikive Laws fay no- 

thing neque Ofinione^ fed natura conftitutnm 

e/fe Juf. That brave Reman, Horatius Codes, was 
bound by no written Law to defend the Wood- 
en Bridge, over the Tiber , againft a whole Ar- 
my of Tufcans ; nor was there any Law, that I: 
know of, in Uprne, againft Adultery, when the 
younger Tarquin ravifh'd Lucretia : And yet the 
Virtue of Horathis was juftly rewarded, and 
the Vilenefs of Targuin juftly punilhed, by the 

It is impolTible to devife Laws fufficient to 
regulate and manage every Occurrence and 
Circumdance of Life, becaufe they are often 
produced and diverfified by Caufes that do not 
appear ; and in every Condition of Life, Men 
mull have, and will have, great Allowances 
made to their own natural Liberty and Difcre- 
rion : But every Man who confents to the ne- 
ceffary Terms of Society, will alfb confent to 
this Propoiition, that every Manjhould do all the 
Good, and prevent nil the Evil be can. This is 
the Voice of the Law of Nature, and all Men 
would be happy by it, if all Men would prac- 
tife it. This Law leads us to fee, that the 
Eftablifhment of Falfhood and Tyranny (by 
Which I mean the Privilege of One or a Few 



to miflead and opprefs Ail) cannot be jufily 
called Law, which is the impartial Rule of 
Good and Evil, and can never be the Sanction 
of Evil alone. 

It has been often faid, that Virtue is its own 
Reward ; and it is very true, not only from 
the Pleafure that attends the Confcioufhefs of 
doing well, and the Fame that follows it, but 
in a more extenlive Senfe, from the Felicity 
which would accrue to every Man, if all Men 
would purfue Virtue : But as this Truth may 
appear too general to allure and engage parti- 
cular Men, who will have always their own 
fmgle (elves moft at Heart, abftracled from all 
the reft :, therefore in the making of Laws, the 
Pleafures and Fears of particular Men, being 
the great Engines by which they are to be go* 
verned, mult be confulted : Vice muft be ren- 
dered deteftable and dangerous, arid Virtue a- 
miabls and advantageous Their Shame and 
Emulation muft be raifed, and their private 
Profit and Glory, Peril and Infamy laid before 
them. This is the Meaning of T/J/y, when he 
lays, Vitiorum emendfltrlcem legem cjfe oportef 9 
commendatricemque virtntum. 

Rewards and Puni(hments_do therefore con- 
ilitute the whole Strength of Laws ; and the 
Promulgation of Laws, without which they 
are none, is an Appeal to the Senfe and intereft 
of Men, which of the two they will chufe. 

The two great Laws of humane Society, 
from whence all the reft derive their Courfe 
and Obligation, are thofe of Equity and Self- 
prefervation : By the Firft, all Men are bound 
alike not to hurt one another , and by the Se- 

LETTERS. 2,57 

cond, all Men have a Right alike to defend 
themfelves : Nam jure hoc evenit tit quod fjuifque 
cb tuteUm comports fui fecerit, jure feciffe exifli- 
metur, fays the Civil Law ; that is, " it is a 
Maxim of the Lav/, that whatever we do in 
the Way, and for the Ends of Self defence, 
we lawfully do ; *' all the Laws of Society 
are entirely reciprocal, and no Man ought to 
be exempt from their Force ; and whoever vi- 
olates this primary Law of Nature, ought by 
the Law of Nature to be deftroyed. He who 
obferves no Law, forfeits all Title to the Pro- 
te&ion of Lav/. It is Wickednefs not to de- 
ftroy a Deflroyer; and all the ill Confluences 
of Self defence are chargeable upon him who 
occafioned them. 

Many Mifchiefs are prevented, by deflroying 
One who fhews a certain Difppfition to com- 
mit many. To allow a Licence to any Man 
to do Evil with Impunity, is to make Vice 
triumph over Virtue, and -Innocence the Prey 
of the Guilty. If Men are obliged to bear 
great and publick Evils, when they can upon 
better Terms oppofe and remove them ; they 
are obliged by the fame Logick, to bear the 
total Deftruclion of Mankind. If any Man 
may deftroy whom he pleafes without Refift- 
ance, hejmay extinguifh humane Race with- 
out Refinance, For, if you fettle the Bounds 
of Refiftance, you allow it ; and if you do 
not fix its Bounds, you leave Property at the 
Mercy of Rapine, and Life in the Hands of 

It is faid, that the Do&rine of Refiftance 
would deftroy the Peace of the World ; But it 


Cafe's LETTERS. ' 

may be more truly faid, that the contrary 
Doctrine would deftroy the World it felf, as ft 
has already fbme of the beft Countries in it. 
I muft indeed own, that if one Man may de- 
ilroy all, there would be great and lading 
Peace, when No-body was left to break it. 

The Law of Nature does not only allow us, 
but oblige us to defend our felves. It is our 
Duty, not only to our felves, but to the So- 
ciety ; Vitam till ipfifi negas, multis negas, fays 
Seneca : If we fuffer tamely a lawlefs Attack 
upon our Property and Fortunes, we encourage 
it, and involve others in our Doom. And Ci- 
cero fays, " He who does not refift Mifchief 

when he may, is guilty of the fame Crime 

as if he deierted his Parents, his Friends, 
" and his Country. 

So that the Conduct of Men, who when- 
they are ill treated, ufe Words rather than 
Arms, and praclife Submijlion rather than Re- 
fiftance, is owing to a prudential Caufe, be- 
cauie there is Hazard in Quarrels and War^ 
and their Cafe may be made worfe by an En- 
deavour to mend it ; and not to any Confeflion- 
of Right in thofe that do them Wrong. When 
Men begin to be wicked, we cannot tell where 
that Wickednefs will end ; and we have Reafcn* 
to fear the worft, and provide againft it. 

Such is the Provifion made by Laws : They 
are Checks upon the unruly and partial Appe- 
tites of Men, and intended for Terror and 
Prote&ion. But as there are already Laws fuf- 
ficient, every where, to preferve Peace between 
private Particulars, the great Difficulty has hi- 
therto been to find proper Checks for thofe 


's L E T T E R S. 

who were to check and adminifter the Laws. 
To fettle therefore a thorough Impartiality in 
the Laws, both as to their End and Execution, 
is a Task worthy of humane Wifdom, as it 
would be the Caufe and Standard of Civil Fe- 
licity. In the Theory, nothing, is more eafy 
than this Task ; and yet who is able perform 
it, if they who can will not ? 

No Man in Society ought to have any Pri- 
vilege above the reft, without giving the So- 
ciety fbme Equivalent for fuch his Privilege. 
Thus LegiflarorSj who compile good Laws, 
and god Magiftrates who execute them, ^do, 
by their honeft Attendance upon the Publick, 
deferve the Privileges and Pay which the Pub- 
lick allows them ; and Place and Pov/er are 
the Wages paid by the People to their own 
Deputies and Agents. Hence it has been well 
faid, that a Chief Magiftrate is major fingulis, 
omnibus minor - " He is above the private 
" Members of the Community, but the Con> 
u munity itfelf is above him. 

Wherever, therefore, the Laws are honeftly! 
intended and equally executed, fo as to com- 
prehend in their Penalties and Operation the 
Great as well and as much as the Small, and 
hold in awe the Magiftrate as much as the 
Subject, that Government is good, and that 
People are happy. 

1 am. 


C A T O's L E T T E R S. 

ALL Men have an Ambition to be confi- 
derable, and take fuch Ways as their 
Judgments fugged to become fb. Hence pro- 
ceeds the Appetite of all Men to rife above 
their Fellows, and the conftant Emulation that 
always has been, and always will be in the 
World, arnongft all forts of Men, Nature 
has made them all equal, and moft Men feem 
well content with the Lot of Parts which Na> 
tu e has giv^n them ; but the Lot of Fortune- 
never thoroughly fatisfies thole who have the 


The fir ft ^p^n.2 therefore of Inequality is m 
hu-nsne Nature, and the next in the Nature of 
Society In order that many may live toge- 
ther in perfect Fqtiality, it is neceflary that 
fome fhould be above the many, who other- 
wife will be ufing Frauds and Violence to get 
above one another. Some Inequality there 
muft be ; the Danger is, that it be not too 
great : Where there is abfolute Equality, all 
Reverence and Awe, two Checks Jndifpenfible 
in Society, would be loft ; and where Inequa- 
lity is too great, all Intercourfe and Communi- 
cation is loft. 

Thus in Turl^y, where there are no natural 
Links, nor proper Degrees of Subordination in 
the Chain of their Government, there is a 
monftrous Gap between the Subject and the 



Throne. The Grand Signior preferves no Un- 
jjerftanding with his People : Nothing is to be 
leen but the Terrors of Abfolute Monarchy 
and the abject Poftures of crouching Slaves. 
Power does not glide there, as it ought every 
where, down an even and eafy Channel with 
a gentle and regular Defcent, but pours from 
a Precipice with dreadful Din, Rapidity, and 
Violence, upon the poor and paffive Vallies 
below, breaking down all beforc-ir, and laying 
waite wherever it comes. 

it All Men in the World are fond of making a 
I igure in it. This being the great End of all 
Men, they take different Roads to come at it 
according to their different Capacities, Opi- 
nions, Tempers, and Opportunities. No Man 
would chufe to have any Man his Equal, if he 
could place himfelf above all Men. All would 
be Pampas. But tho it has fallen to the Share 
but of few Men to be above all Men ; yet as 
every Man may, or thinks he may, excel fome 
Men, there is a perpetual Spur in every De- 
icendantof Adam to be afpiring. Every Man 

has Self-love, and Self-love is never defertedby 

But this Spirit in every Man of rifing above 
other Men, as it confutes the Happinefs of 
private Individuals, who take great Compla- 
cency in their favourable Opinion of themfelves 
and their own Abilities , fo is it the great Catife 
ot pubhck and private Evils, Wars, Frauds 
Cruelty, and Oppreilion The Ambition of 
excelling in every Station by honeft Means, is 
not only lawful but laudable, and produces great 
Good to Society : But as nothing produces 



Good in this World but what may and general- 
ly does produce Evil ; and as Fame, Riches, 
and Power may be honeilly got, but wickedly 
ufed, it ought to be the Care of Society to pro- 
vide that fuch Emulation amongft its Members 
be fb directed and controuPd, as to be always 
beneficial, but never dangerous. But this is a 
Felicity at which few Nations have arrived* 
and thofe that had it rarely preserved it long. 

It is a nice Point of Wifdom, perhaps too 
nice for humane Judgment, to fix certain and 
lafting Bounds to this Spirit of Ambition and 
Emulation amongfr Men. To flop it too fbon, 
fruftrates its life ; and not to flop it at all, in- 
vites its Mifchief. The Venetians , by dilcou- 
raging it, have never, OF very rarely, felt its 
Advantages ; and the Athenians found their 
OftrAcifm, an Expedient invented for this very 
Purpofe, ineffectual to prevent their great Men, 
who had done great Good to the State, from 
growing terrible to the State it felf : Pericles 
in particular, by his Arts, Eloquence, and Po* 
pularity, made himfelf Mailer of it, and did 
almoft what he pleafed in it all his Life ; That 
fingle Man was fb potent in that free City, that 
he broke the Power of the Areopagus, the Senate 
Q$ Athens^ a Court of Magiftrates that ballanced 
the Power of the Populace, who being fet free 
from that Reftrainr, ran into all manner of 
Licentioufnefs and Corruption. 

The People of Athens became the Subjects of 
Pericles : By having done them much good, he 
found Credit enough to deftroy their Govern- 
ment and their Virtue. From the Character of 
a Benefactor, he ftoie into that of a Mailer : 


3 LETTERS. 163 

So narrow and invifible are the Bounds between 
the Benefactor and the Betrayer J Valerius Maxi- 
mus obferves very finely, that the " only Dif- 
ference between Pififtratus and Pericles was, 
that the latter rexercifed by Art the fame 
Tyranny that the other had exercifed by 

** A rr-,o " J 

Good and Evil thus often flowing from the 
fame Root, and Mifchief being frequently in- 
troduced by Merit, (hews great Difcernment 
and Virtue in a People, and a happy Spirit in 
their Laws, if they can encourage and employ 
the Capacity and Genius of their principal Men, 
fo as to reap only the good Fruits of their 

This was the Practice and good Fortune of 
the old fymans for feveral Ages : Virtue was 
the only Road to Glory ; it was admired, Tup- 
ported, applauded, and recompenced; but they 
who had fhewn the greateft, found no Sanftu- 
ary from it, when they committed Crimes that 
deferved none. This is particularly verified in 
the Cafes of Coriolanus and Manlius Capitoliniis. 
They were both brave Men, and had deferved 
well of their Country; and were both, in Re- 
compence, diftinguifhed with great Honours ; 
and yet were both afterwards condemned by 
their Country, the one for a Confpiracy againft 
it, and the other for defpifing its Laws. Their 
Services and Crimes were properly Separated 
and rewarded. 

Emulation therefore, or the Paflion of one 
Man to equal or excel another, ought to be en- 
couraged, with thefe two Reflriftions : Firft, 
That no Man, let his Merit be what it will, 


164 Giro's LETTERS. 

fliould take his own Reward ; Secondly, That 
he fhould have no more than comes to his Share. 
Scipio, afterwards called Africanus, was chofen 
as the greateft and beft Man in I{ome, to invade 
the Territories of Carthage ; and he performed 
it with great Glory to himfelf and great Emo- 
lument to his Country. He defeated Hannibal, 
and conquered Carthage. The like Praife is alfb 
due to Metellus, Lucullus, to T. Flaminius, Pnulus 
Emilius, and, many other fyman Commanders, 
who all conquered for their Country, and were 
rewarded by their Country with its Laurels, 
and its Dignities. 

But Julius C<efar, being alfo employed by the 
Commonwealth to conquer for it, fucceeded 
in his Commiilion ; but, as a Reward, took the 
Commonwealth for his Pains : He paid himfelf 
with the whole fyman World, for having con- 
quered Part of it. Alexander the Great^ and 
mo ft other Conquerors, had the fame Modefty 
and the fame Wages ; they took All to them- , 

When Men are left to meafure their own 
Merit, and the Reward due to it, they rarely 
flint themfelves ; all they can get is the leatt 
they expect : And to defcend to lefler Inftances, 
the World has always abounded in Men, who, 
tho' they deferved Contempt or a Prifon, yet 
could never be fatiated with Places and Power. - 
And all Men who have obfcrved the Affairs of 
the World, will remember and acknowledge, 
thai: feme-times one Man has poileffed many 
Pods, to whom the pubiick Suffrage and Con- 
(cat never gave one. 



In my Refleaions upon this Subject, I have 
often amufed, and even diverted my felf with 
thus Imagination ; namely what a wonderful 
and epidemical Ceflation of Power and Place 
would enfue a fucMen and univerfa] Removal 
from thence of every Man who defer v,-d nci- 
1 handed [ faw the whole Inhabitants of 
everal Countries, towards every Quarter of 
.he Sky, gaping round them for Magistrates at 
leaft for one lingle MagiftW, and finding none 
and yet even in this State of Anarchy, con- 
gratulatiog one another and thenifelves upon 
the wonderful Amendment of their Govern 
mentJ I law all ^, the whole amde Dom". 
nions or the Tin*,, and many potent Kingdoms 
nearer home, all in an abfolute State of Ni 
ture : In the large Bofom of the r^mifh Church 
notaPneft was tobefeen; and in feme Po! 
telrant Countries, the good People were erea 'v 
ft, where to get a Man in a proper Ho- 
bit to lay pubiick Prayers. Mere *n 
indeed, I found a different Face of Thi'naf 
more Comfort : For, tho' at prefent wl have 
no 1 arnarnent (imng, and tho' in other Places 
Maw difmal Solitude, and numberTds Vacan- 
cies ; yet I perceived many worthy Perfons'in 
Church and Stare, doing their fiffi and 
counting their Gains, with great Atten tbn and 
Alacrity, but greatly diitreffed how to find 
new Perfons for old Places. 

conclude in the 

that^Con^d^^^^^"^' 1C IS rrue 
^ mane Frailty -"and Come* ^ ' & ^ ' hu " 

i extended to thofe who c 

Vui.. a. VI 


9.66 Giro's LETTERS. 

*' having dop r - : rnp^mnt Services: But a State 
<c caj.o^t f iilr. ill, which, compenfating evil 
*' Actions wiih good, gives Impunity to dan- 
*" gerous Crimes, in remembrance or any Ser- 
*' vices whatever. He that does well, performs 
" his Duty, and ought always to do Jo ; Ju- 
" ftice and Prudence concur in this; and it is 
44 no lefs juft than profitable, that every A&i- 
*' on be confidered by it felf, and fuch a Re- 
6C ward allotted to it, as in Nature and Pro- 
" portion it belt deferves." 

I am, &C. 

S I R, 

R. Bayle, in the Article of Epicurus, 

<c That Multitudes of Chriftians believe 
*' well, and live ill : But Epicurus and his Fel- 
* c lowers had, on the contrary, very ill Opi- 
nions, and yet lived well." The Truth i?, 
the worft Opinions that are can do but little 
harm, when they are impracticable, or when 
no Advantages are gained by reducing them 
into Practice; and the bell can do but little 
good, when they contradict the darling Plea- 
lures and prevailing Interejls of iVSen. 

Dry Reafoning has no Force : If you would 
have your Doctrine fuccefTful, you mud prove 
it gainful. And as in order to lay down good 
Rules for well governing the Commonwealth, 
you muftfirft know the Common wealth; fb in 
order to perfwade and govern Men, you mud 



know what will pleafe or frighten them. The 
Good they do to one another, they do not be- 
caufe it is juft or commanded ; "nor do they 
forbear mutual Evil, becaufe it is unjufr. or for- 
bid : But thefe Things they do out of Choice 
or Fear, and both thefe center in themfeives : 
tor Choice is Pleafure, and Fear is the Appre- 
nenfion of Pain : So that the heft Things Men 
do, as well as the worft, are felfim . and Self love 
is the Parent of Moral Good and Evil 

What Mr. SeUen fays of Humility,' mav be 
faid of every other Virtue. " Humility, fays 
that wife Man, is a Virtue that all preach, 
none pradtife, and yet every Body is cement 
to hear : The Mafkr thinks it good Doctrine 
his Servants, the Laity for the Clergy 
and the Clergy for the Laity," Thus we* 
deal wirh all the Virtues we leave and recom- 
mend rhe Practice of them to others, and re- 
lerve the Advantage and Praife of them to our 

All this, and the reft of this Letter, is meant 
to fhew that this W r orld is governed by Paffion, 
and not by Principle ; and it ever will be fo as 
long as Men are Men. 

There are rarely any Men, and never any 

Body of Men but what profefs fome fort of 

Religion ; and every Religion profefTes to pro- 

Peace of Mankind, and the Happi- 

nets of humane Society, and the Security of 

the World ; and for Proof of this, refers to its 

Principles, Jo^rines and Decifions. And it is 

very true that all Parties in Religion contend 

mbmdfion to the State, as long as the State 

humours them, or iubmits to them 3 but their 

M % Obedi, 


Obedience and good Humour never hold longer. 
All their Principles ply in the Day ofTryal, and 
are either thrown away, or diftinguifned away ; 
which is tlic fame Thing, rho' not fo honed:. 
Nature Is then the bell Guide, and Paillon the 
rr.oft popular Preacher. 

Men fiiit their Tenets to the Circumilances 
they are In, or would be in ; and when they 
'have gained their Point, they forget their Te- 
rets. I could give In (lances of this from all 
Sorts of Men, and even from many whofe 
Names are great and venerable. 

Gregory Na$ian%en 9 that eloquent and eminent 
Greel^ Father, being himfelf Orthodox, con- 
tended for Toleration to the Arinns^ while 
the An An s were uppermoft, and had the Em- 
peror on their Side : But as foon as Things took 
a contrary Turn, and his own Party had the 
Imperial Power on their Side, he changed his 
Stile, and then it was unpardonable Boldnefs 
and a horrible Attempt, for the An tins and 
Macedonians fo much as to meet together to 
worfhlp God their own Way. 

St. Auftin had the fame Spirit and Inconfift- 
ency : He was once in the Sentiments of Cha-, 
riry and Toleration towards Hereticks; but his 
Difpute afterwards with the Donatifis fo inflam'd 
him, that he changed without any Ceremony 
from White to Black, and maintained with 
Violence, that Hereticks ought to be compelled, 
perircuted and exterminated. 

Thus it is that Men bear witnefs againfl 
themftrlves, and pra&ife the Evils which they 
condemn. " The Pirnf/ins, fays Mr Se/Jen 9 
" who will allow no Free- Will at all, but God 





" does all, yet will allow the Sub jeer, his Li- 
berty to do, or nor to do, notwithftanding 
ct the King, who is God upon Earth : The- 
^ ArrninianS) who hold that we have Free- 
^ ill, do yet fay, when we come to the King, 
we mull; be all Obedience; and no Liberty is 
to be flood for. 

V, hiie Spain was the moil renowned Power 
in Europe, the Jefutts, feys Mr. tiaylc, were 
all Spaniards', as well thofe born at Paris or 
tyme, as thofe born in OldCaftile. Ever iince 
the Decay of the Houfe of Auflrf^ and the 
Eicvation of Lewis te Grwd^ the Jcfuits are- 
all F'eiicb) at ^me^ at Vienna^ at 'Madrid^. 

as well as in the College of Clermont. In- 
thofe Days the Liberties of the GnUicfin 
Church appeared to them not well grounded:- 
They never ceafed writing for the Rights 

' of the Pope againft thofe of our Kings.' One 

might fill a Library with the Defences- 
corn pofed by the Society, and condemned by 

the Parliament and the Sorbcv. At prefent 

his Majefty has not truftier Pens than theirs 
in his Differences with the Pope. It is now 
the Turn of the Court of fyme to cenfure 
the Books of the Reverend Fathers. It feems- 
the King's Profperity and Succeffes have 
attorded them new Lights." 

It is with Laymen and Civil Societies as with 
Religious : They have one Set of Principles 
when they are in Power ; and another, and a 
contrary, when they are out of it. They 
that command, and they that obey, have feldomv 
or never the fame Motives. Men change with 
tfeeir Condition, and Opinions change with: 

M 2 

a 7 o Giro's LETTERS. 

Men. And thus js verified that Maxim of 
f(6ckefoitcau-lt\ that the Underftanding is the 
Dupe or Tool of the Heart ; that is, our Sen- 
timents follow our Pafilons. 

Nor has Religion been fuffered to mend Na- 
ture : On the contrary, being inftituted as a 
Rettraint, and an Antidote againft Sin, it has 
been and is frequently perverted into a Reafon 
for finning : Yes, to the Shame and Misfortune 
of the World, Men often make War upon 
Truth, Confcience, and Honefty, in behalf of 
their Religion ; and there are others, who, 
\vhen "they have wantonly wounded Virtue,- 
have recourfe to Religion for aBalfam. 

All Men (peak well of Religion, either na- 
tural or revealed, and readily pra&ife every 
Thing in Religion that Js eafy, indifferent, or 
advantageous to them : But in aim oft every 
OcnremL-n between Religion and the Appetites, 
the Victory remains to Nature ; that i?, JVfcw 
are never dijkoneft without Temptation, and rarefy 
hone ft figair.ft it. 

Thus their Principle is Interest or Plcafure ; 
and when they fay they a& from Principle, 
how can we believe them, unlefs we fee they 
do it againft Intereft ? A Proof which they 
rarely give us ! Had the feveral Contracts and 
Treaties between Nation and Nation been 
observed, there would never have been War 
above once between any \ or had every free 
Nation oblerved its own Laws, every free Na- 
tion would have continued free; or had private 
Men obferved the common Laws of Equity, 
and thofe of mutual Compact between each 
other, evesy private Man would have lived in 



Peace and Security. But Treaties, 

and Laws., are only fb far ftrong as no Body 

dares break them. 

I think it is ^uvsna!, who fbmewhere brings 
in a ( ouple of falfe WitneiTes perjuring them- 
felves for Hire ; one is a religious Rogue, and 
believes in the Gods ; the other is an Infidel,, 
who disbelieves or delpiles them. But tho' they 
difagree in their Sentiments, they agree in the 
Thing, with this very fmall Difference ; the 
Atheift forfwears himfelf boldly without Re- 
morfe; the Believer forfwears himfelf too, but 
does it with a Ihiall Qualm, which is presently 

-VcndeP feffvri'a fiimma 

Exigna, Cereris tangent aramque pedemque; 

very humoroufly engages a "Mandarin 
of China, of the Se6t of the Literati, in a Di- 
alogue with the Jefuits, and with a Dutch Em- 
feamdor : The Jefuits tell the Mandarin, that: 
the Emperor had no Subjects in his Dominions,, 
whofe Obedience was fo lee tire to him, as that 
of their Converts, the Chriftians ; and none 
whole Allegiance was fo precarious as that of 
the Literati, who were Arheids. 

Hold, cries the Mandarin ; let us not afTert 

too much without proving it: What Reafbn 

have you to fay that the Submiiiion of the 

Chriftians to the Orders of the Emperor, is 

more certain than that of all his other Sub- 

" je&s ?" That Boot hjpired by God, anfwers 

the Jefuits ; That Boct^ which is the I{ti'e of cur 

Faith, commands us .exfrefiy to iubmif our .'el.vcs. 

* M 4 EO 


to the higher Powers : Tak? the Trouble, 
j..crd, to redd in it fitch and fitch Pajfages : Nothing 
is more dear, nothing fo psecife'y determined. 

But, fays the Mandarin, turning to the 
" Embafiador, are not you in Europe divided 
44 about the Meaning of thefe Paifages ? 

44 So divided, replies the Dutchman, that one 
44 Room would not contain the Volumes writ- 
44 ten for and againft the Right of Subjects to 
44 reiiil and depofe their Prince : And both 
44 Sides take particular Care in all their Wric- 
44 ings, to examine accurately every Text of 
* J Scripture, which the reverend Fathers refer 
44 yoiMo. This Difcuilion of Texts has there- 
" fore begot two Proportions, flatly contradicl- 
" ing each other. One Party aliens, that in 
44 departing from your Obedience, you depart 
44 from the Bible : The other fays, they refill 
44 with, the Bible on the j ir Side. We have in 
44 Chriftendom'tnany Inftances of Princes at- 
" tacked by Parties of their Subjects, bereft of 
" their Sovereignty, banifhed, beheaded, af- 
44 fallmated, and generally for the Interefl of 
4C Religion. Nor is there any End of the Books 
publifhed on this Occalion ; we have every 
Day printed Accufations, and every Day 
printed Apologies ; and both they who ac- 
cufe, and they who defend, appeal to God, 
and refer to his Word. As to the Jefuits in 
particular, it becomes them the leaft of all 
Men to talk in this Manner ; no Society of 
44 Men have ever writ fo much in behalf of 
44 popular Infurreclions they have openly con- 
44 tended for Rebellion, and praclifed it; they 
44 have been the Authors of Royal Aflaflina- 

44 tions, 








s LETTERS, z;; 

' rions, and have been turned out of States for 

. diiturbing them. 

cc If thefe Things are fo, concludes- the 

^ Mandarin^ you Gentlemen of the Order o? 
Jefii* have no Reafon to boaPr in behalf" 
of your felves -and your Followers, as if 
you were better Subjects than other Men, 
This your pretended Article of Faith a- 
bout the ubmiilion of the c uHe6r, is 
couched fo obfcurely in your Book of fa- 

^ cred Laws, that you will never find iir 
there, when you have Occafion for a Re^ 

^ beliion, or a Revolution; Events, which 
I find are frequent enough in your Coun- 


" try/' 

ihe fame Bay/e obferves, That the fame 
Party of Chriftians, namely, the French Ca* 
tholicks, who had maintained, under Charles 
the^Ninth and Henry the Third, That it was 
agamft all Law, humane and divine, for 
Subjects to take Arms againft their Prince ; 
did alfb maintain, even before the Death c? 
Henry the Third, that it was agreeable to 
Laws, humane and divine, to take up Arms 
agamft' one's Prince. The other Parry of 
Chrifiians, namely, the Proreftants. were not 
more confident. They maintained, during 
the Reigns of Charles the Ninth and HCWV 
the Third, That Laws, humane and divine 
allowed the fmaller Part of the Subiefts to 
arm thernfelves againft the greater Part e- 
ven with the King at their Hesd : But -f-' 
rcr the Death of Henry the Third, when 
tney had got a King ot their own Rcligi- 
on, they maintained, That both the Law 

^ 7 4 Giro's LETTERS. 

of God, and the Law of Man, forbid even 
the greater Part of the Subjects to arm them- 
felves againft the fmaller Part, with the King 
at their Head. 

It were needlefs to give more Proofs, and 
endlefs to give all that might be given, Al- 
moft every Thing that Men do, is an Evi- 
dence that their Friendmip for themfelves 
does efte&ually extinguifh their Regard for 
all the reft of their Species and that they 
adopt or re]e6t Principles, juft as theie Prin- 
ciples promote or contradict their intereft and 

Nor are religious or moral Principles the 
worfe for being thus ufed ; but Men (hew 
their own unconquerable Malignity and Selfifh- 
nefs in uling them thus. 

Upon the whole, I think it is very plain, 
that if you feparate from the Principles of 
Men, the Penalties and Advantages which 
are annexed to them by Laws humane and 
divine, or which every Man has annexed 
to them in his own Mind, you will hardly 
leave fuch a Thing as Principle in the World , 
the World is not therefore governed by Prin- 

"\.t ' 



/JEN are naturally equal, and none ever 
1 rofe above the* reft but by Force or Con- 
tent : No Man was ever born above all the 
reft, nor- below them all ; and therefore there 
never was any Man in the World fo good or 
fb bad, fo high or fo low, but he had his Fel- 
low. Nature is a kind and benevolent Parent; 
fhe conftitutes no particular Favourites with 
Endowments and Privileges above the reft^but 
for the molt part fends all her Offspring into* 
the World furnidaed with the Elements of tin- 
derftanding and Strength to provide for them- 
felves : She gives them Heads to confult their 
own Security, and Hands to execute their own; 
Counfels ; and according to the life that they 
make of their Faculties, and of the Opportu- 
nities that they find, Degrees of Power arid 
Names of DiftincHon grow amongft thenv 
and their natural Equality is loft. 

Thus Nature, who is their Parent, deals 
with Men : But Fortune, who is their Nurfe, 
is not fo benevolent and impartial ; fhe acls-; 
wantonly and capriciously, and otten cruelly ^ 
and counterplotting Juftice as well as Nature,. 
fhe frequently fers the Fooi above the wife 
Ivlan, arid the beft bebw f he wo ft. 

And ;-rom hence it is. that the nioft Part of 
the World, attending mu 'i more to the 
Condudt and glaring Effects of Fortune, 



to the quiet and regular Proceedings of Na- 
ture, -are mifled in their Judgment upon this 
Subject: They confound Fortune with Nature, 
and too often afcribe to Natural Merit and 
Excellency the Works of Contrivance or 
Chance. This, however, (hews that Reafbn 
snd Equity run in our Heads, while we en- 
deavour to find a jiift Caufe for Things that 
are not juft and this is the Source of the Re- 
verence we pay to Men whom Fortune forne- 
times lifts on high, though Nature had placed 
them below. The Populace rarely fee any 
Creature rife, but they find a Reafon for it in 
his Parts ; when probably the true one will be 
found in his own Bafenefs, or another Man's 

From the fame Reafbning may be feen why 
it is, that let who will be at the Head of a 
Party, he is always extolled by his Party as fu- 
perior to the reft of Mankind > and let who 
will be the firft Man of his Country, he will 
never fail being complimented by many as the 
firft of his Species. But the Iffue and their 
own Behaviour do conftantly (hew that the 
higheft are upon a level with the reft, and of- 
ten with the loweft. Men that are high are 
almoft ever feen in a falfe Light ; the moft 
Part fee them at a great Diitance, and through 
ji magnifying Medium ; fbme are dazled with 
their Splendor, and many are awed by their 
Power. Whatever appears (Lining or terrible 
appears great, and is magnified by the Eye and 
the Imagination. 

That Nature has made Men equal, we know 
and [eel j and when People come to think other- 


wife, there is no Excels of Folly and Su perdi- 
tion v/hich they may not be brought to prac- 
tife. Thus they have made Gods of dead 
Men, and paid divine Honours to many while 
they were yet living : They faw them to be 
but Men, yet they worshipped them as Gods. 
And even they who have not gone quite fb far,, 
have yet, by their wild Notions of Inequality, 
done as much Mifchief ; they have made Men, 
and often wicked Men, Vice-Gods ; and then- 
made God's Power (falfly fb called) as irre- 
filHble in the Hands of Men as in his own, 
and more frightful, 

It is evident to common Senfe, that there 
ought to be no Inequality in Society, but for 
the Sake of Society ; but thefe Men have made 
one Man's Power and Will tl*e Caufe of all 
Mens Mifery. They gave him as far as they 
could the Power of God, without obliging 
him to praH(e the Mercy and Goodnefs o 

Thofe that think themfelves furtheft above 
the reft, are generally by their Education be- 
low them all, They are debafed by a Conceit 
of their Grearnefs : They truft- to their Blood, 
which fpeaking naturally gives them no Ad- 
vantage; and negle6l their Mind, which alone, 
by proper Improvements, fets one Man above 
another. It is not Blood or Nature, but Art 
or Accident, which makes one Man excel o- 
thers. Arifiotls, therefore, mud either have 
been in Jefl, when he faid, that he, who na- 
turally excelled all others, ought to govern all; 
or he faid it to flatter his Pupil and Prince, 
Alexander the Great, It is certain that luch a 



Man never yet was found in the World, and 
never will be found rill the End of it. Alex- 
dnder himfelf, notwirhftanding the GreatmTs of 
his Spirit, and his Conquefh, had in his own 
Army, and perhaps among the common Sol- 
diers, Men naturally as great and brave as him- 
felf, and many more wife. 

Whoever pretends to be naturally fuperior 
to other Men, claims from Mature what (he 
never gave to any Man. He frts'up for being 
more than a Man : a Characler with which 
Nature has nothing to do. She has thrown' 
her Gifts in common amongft us ; and as the 
higheft Offices of Nature foil to the Share of 
the Mean as well as of the Great, her vileft 
Offices are performed by the Great as well as- 
by the Mean : Death and Difcafes are the 
Portion of King? as well as of Clowns ; and 
the Corps of a Monarch is no more exempted 
from Stench and Putrefaction, than the CorpSr 
of a Slave. 

Mors (cquo fulfot fede. 

All the Arts and Endeavours of Men to a<> 
quire Prehetnlnenfce and Advantages over one 
another, are fb many Proofs and Confeflions- 
that they have nor fuch Preherninence and Ad- 
vantages from Nature ; and all their Pomp r 
Titles, and Wealth, are Means and Devices to- 
make the World think that they who poffMS 
them are fuperior in Merit to thole that want 
them. But it is not much to the Glory of the 
upper Part of Mankind, that their boafted :nd 
fuperior Merit is often the Work of Heralds, 




Artificers, and Money ; and thit many derive 
their whole Stock of Fame from Anceftors, 
who lived an Age or many Ages ago 

The firft Founders of great Families were 
not always Men of Virtue or Parts ; and 
where they were fb, thofe that came after them, 
did frequently, and almoft generally, by truft- 
ing to their Blood, difgrace their Name. Such 
is the Folly of the World, and the Inconve- 
nience to Society, to allow Men to be great by 
Proxy ! An Evil that can fcarce ever be cured. 
The Race of French Kings, called by their 
Hiftorians in Contempt, Les t{oies faineants, 
and the SuccelTion of the Rgman Cafars, (in both 
which, for one good Prince, they had ten that 
were intolerable, either for Folly or Cruelty, 
and often for both) might be mentionecf as 
known Proofs of the above Truth ; and every 
Reader will find in his own Memory many 

I have been told of a Prince, who, while yet 
under Age, being reproved by his Governor 
for doing Things ill or indecent, ufed to an- 
fwer, 3* juis Roy, I dm King ; as if his Quality 
had altered the Nature of Things, and he him- 
felf had been better than other Men, while he 
afted worfe But he (poke from that Spirit 
which had been infti lied into him from hisCradle. 
J am Kjnv ! And what then, Sir ? The Office 
of a King is not to do Evil, but to prevent it. 
You have Royal Blood in your Veins ; but the 
Blood of your Page is, without being Royal, 
as good as yours ; or s if you doubt, try the 
Difference in a Couple of Porringers, next time 
you are ill j and learn from this Confide rail on 



and Experiment, that by Nature you are ns 
better than your People, tho' fuhjecl: from your 
Fortune to be worfe, as many of your Ancef- 
rors have been. 

If my Father- got ar.<Eftate and Title by Law 
or the Sword ; I may by Virtue of his Will or 
his Patent enjoy his Acquifition ; but if 1 under- 
iland neither Law nor the Sword, 1 can derive 
Honour from neither : My Honour therefore 
is, in the Reafbn of Things, purely Nominal ; 
and I am ftill by Nature a Plebeian 3 .zs all Men 

There is nothing moral in Blood, or in. 
Title, or in Place : Actions only, and the 
Caufes that produce them, are moral. He 
therefore is beft that does beflr. Noble Blood 
prevents neither Folly, nor Lunacy, norCrimes; 
but frequently begets or promotes them-: And 
Noblemen, who acl infamously, derive no Ho- 
nour from virtuous Anceflors, whom they di 
honour. A Man who does bafe Things, i? not 
noble; nor great, if he does little Things: 
A fbber Villager, is a better Man than a de- 
bauched Lord ; and an honeft .Mechanick, thaa 
a knavifh Courtier. 

Nobilitri* fold eft atqtif unlcn Virtus. 

mibi deles finhni lonn ; Sfivclus babsri 
eque ten AX faciis^ diciipjuc merer is ? 

Juvenal, Sat. 8". 

We cannot bring more natural Advantages 
into the World, than other Men do ; but v e 
can acquire more Virtue in it than we generally 



acquire. To be great, is not in every Man's 
Power ; but to be good, is in the Power of all : 
And thus far every Man may be upon a Level 
with another, the lowed with the higheft ; 
and Men might thus corne to be morally as 
well as naturally equal. 

I am 

S 1 /I, - 

E N are often capable of doing as much, 
whether it be Good or Evil, by the 
Appearance of Parts as by poffeiling them, and 
become really confiderable by being thought To. 
Some by pretending to great Intereft with the 
Gods, have gained great Intereft amongft Men, 
and plagued the Earth to prove themfelves Fa- 
vourites of Heaven : Others grow great at 
Court, by being thought great in a Party ; and 
grow at the fame Time great in a Party, by 
being thought great at Court : Twice Liars, 
they meet with the double Wages of Lying. 

Thus is the World deceived a Thing fb 
eafily done, that rarely any Man lets about it 
but he fucceeds in it, let his Parts be ever ib 
fcanty or ftarved. Munherers have pafied for 
Saints, Buffoons for Wits, and folemn Dunces 
for wife Men. 

I have been often provoked to fee a whole 
Aflembly, fometimes neither contemptible for 
Number, nor Figure, nor Senfe, give them- 
feives up to the Guidance and Management <?f 


z8z CAfO's LETTERS. 

a filly ignorant Fellow, important only in Gri- 
mace and Affurance : Nay, Parties, potent 
Parties, do generally throw them/elves into the 
Hands and Direction of Men, who, tho' they 
chop them and fell them, yet want every Ta- 
lent for this fort of Negotiation, but the Cre- 
duKty of rhofe that truft them. This is their 
bed Qualification, and 'tis fufficient. Thefe 
are the Sidropbils, the cunning Men in Parties, 
and as ignorant as rhofe m Moorfields they only 
know more than thole they deceive, by pre- 
tending to more. 

The Affectation of Wifdom is a prevailing 
Folly in the World ; Men fall naturally into 
the Practice of it; nnd it would be pardonable, 
as 'tis common, if it went no further than the 
aiming at a little Notice and Reverence, which 
every Body may be innocently fond of. Bur 
when Men feek Credit this Way, in order to 
betray, and make U.v >f their Grimaces as a 
Trap to deceive : when they turn their Ad- 
min rs into Followers,, and their Followers into 
Money then appearing Wifdom becomes real 
Villainy, and thefe Pretenders grow dangerous 

And this is what Men frequently get by tru fir- 
ing more to the Underiranding of others than 
to their own, though often the better of the 
two ; and there-fore we find in many Inftances, 
that Fools miflc'ad and govern Men of Senfe. 
In Things where Men know nothing, they are 
apt to think that others know more than they, 
and fb blindly truft to bold Pretenfions ; and 
here is the great Caufe and firft Rife of 
Sharpers and Bubbles of all Denominations, 


's LETTERS. 2 

from Demagogues and their Followers down to 
Mountebanks and their Mobbs. 

I think there is not a more foolifh Figure in, 
the World than a Man affe&edly wife, but it 
is not every Body that ftes it ; and fuch a one 
is often the Admiration of one fort of People, 
and the Jeft of another, at the fame Time. 
Where we fee much of the Outfide of Wif- 
dom, it Is a fhrewd Sign that there is but little 
within ; tecaufe they who have the leair. often 
make the greateft Show : As the greateft Hy- 
pocrites are the greateft, at lead the loudeft 

The Tnfide of fuch a Man is not worth 
knowing ; and every Man muft have obferved 
his Outfide : His Words fall from him with an 
uncommon Weight and Solemnity ; his Gate 
is (lately and flow, and his Garb has a Turn. 
in it of Prudence and Gravity, of which he 
that made it is the Author, and by that Means 
becomes a confiderable Inftrument and Artificer 
of Wifdom. 

This will be better illuftrated in the Cha- 
racter of Lord Plaiifible, who having long fet 
up for a wife Man, arid taking Eloquence to 
be the mod effectual Sign of Wifdom ? is an 
Orator and a wife Man in every Cicumftance 
of his Life, and to every Body; he is eloquent 
to his Footman, to his Children, and at his 
Table. Lord Plfiufille does never converfe ; 
no, talking carelefly as other People do, would 
not be wife enough ; he therefore does not con- 
verfe in Company, but make Speeches ; he 
meditates Speeches in his Clofet, and^ pro- 
nounces them where he vifits, Even^ while he- 


drinks Tea, or plays at Cards, his Language 
is lofty and founding ; and in his Gate you fee 
the fame Sublime as in his Words. Add to 
all this, an unrelenting Gravity in his Looks, 
only now and then fbftened by a ftudied Smile. 
He never laughs without checking his Mufcles : 
IVarth would be a Blot upon his Wifdom ; the 
good Man only creates Mirth in others. 

Thus he grows important, without differing 
a Bit in his Character for his natural Shallow- 
nefs and acquired Folly, unfeen by the Bulk 
of his Party, who being for Undemanding and 
Bjeeding pretty much in the lower Clafs, think 
him an Oracle, and believe him deep in the 
Counfels and Reverence of Great Men, who 
ufe him civilly and laugh at him, 

As a Man can hardly be feverely jail and 
conftant to the Ways which he approves, 
without fume Degree of Aufterenefs, or what 
the World calls fb ; it is no Wonder if this 
Character, always efteemed and often beloved, 
becomes mimicked by thofe who have no Pre- 
tence to it. But I am at a Lofs whether it ij, 
more provoking or merry to fee Creatures let- 
ting up for Severity of Behaviour, without one 
Grain of Juftice and Honour about them ; pre- 
tending to Wiftiom with great Conceit and Stu- 
pidity ; complaifant to the Height in every 
Degree of Corruption, and yet preferving 3 
Stiffnefs in their Behaviour as if they were fb 
many rigid Stoic !#. 

0//zW ? SI vultu torvo & feds nude, 
Exiguaque tog<ejimulet textore Catcnem \ 
e reprefentet morefque -Catonis. 



There are Mimicks of Wifclom and Virtue 
in all Ages, as well as in that of Horace. 

A Man may be a Lord, or a Minifter, or a 
confiderable Man, without declaring War a- 
gainft Gaiety and Eafinefs. But grave Fellows, 
who become grave to gain Importance, are by 
all Men of Senfc difappointed. A wile Man 
may be a merry Fellow and a very (illy Fel- 
low may be a very grave Man. The wifeft 
Men of my Acquaintance are the merrieft Men 
1 know ; nor could 1 ever find what Wifclom 
had to do with an unpleafing and rebuking 
Statelinefs that contradicts it. Mirth, and 
what thefe folemn Drones call Folly, is a Piece 
of Wifclom which they want Senfe to know 
and pra<5Hfe, Befides, there is a wife Way of 
playing the Fool, which wife Men know how 
to pra&ife without lofmg their Characl-er. But 
your grave Fellows are perhaps afraid of play- 
ing the Fool, becaufe they would do it too 
naturally ; and yet even that would be better 
than being thus ridiculouily wife again ft 

Some Mens natural Heavinefs pafles for 
Wifdom, and they are admired for being 
Blockheads. Sometimes forced Gravity does 
the fame Thing. Nor is it any Thing new to 
place Wifdom in Grimace ; many of the old 
Philofophers did the fame, and made their long 
Beards, in particular, an eminent Type of it. 

'Juffitfafientem ftifcere barbam. 

Doubtlefs, like others who have lived fince, 
.they often poffcfied the Sign fingly. The 



Schoolmen were reckoned deep and wife Men, 
for talking unintelligibly, and tneir WifHom was 
Jargon and Obfcuriry< 

They rh..t are really wife, need not take 
much Pains to Se thought fb; and they that do, 
are not really wife We cannot live always 
upon the Stretch' either of Silence, or of Elo- 
quence, or of Gaiety and whoever endeavours 
it, (hews his Folly while he feeks Renown. 

A Man of great Quality and Age, and of 
great Reputation for W ifdom, being once fur- 
prized by a foreign Minifter, while he was at 
play with his little Children, was fb far from 
confelimg any Shame for being thus caught in- 
dulging the Fancy and Fondnefs of a Father, 
that he told the Ambaffador, who feemed to 
have found what he did not expect : " Sir, be 
' in no Pain for me ; he who is accounted a 

wife Man in the Morning, will never be 
" reckoned a Fool at Night." This is, no 
doubt, true of a Man truly wife. But it is as 
true, that many Men have pafied for wife Men 
in the Morning, who have been found Fools 
before Noon. 

Men affectedly wife, need only be examined 
to be defpifed ; and we find 'by Experience, 
that ftarched Gravity creates more Jed and 
Laughter amongft Men of Senfe, who are ge- 
nerally frank and pleafatit Men, than the moil 
remarkable Levity and Giddinefs can do. The 
Reverence therefore paid tofuch Men, if it be 
real, is conftantly the Effect of Ignorance; we 
admire them at a diilauce, but when we fee 
them a little nearer, we begin to admire at our 
own Admiration. 


LETTERS. a8 7 

But fuch Examination is never like to be very 
popular, and confequently fuch Difcoveries are 
not like to be very formidable ; the Multitude 
will never make them. There will be always 
a great deal in refblving to be great and wife, 
and great Succefs will be ever attending it; Si 
fcpulus vult dscipl decipiatur, is at all Times a 
fare Way of Reafbning. And hence Drones 
and Coxcombs will, by a falfe Shew of Wif- 
dom, be always bidding fair for the Reputation 
of Wifdom, and often for its Rewards. This 
is more eafily {hewn than mended. 

I eim^ &x. 

"Umane Judgment is the bed and fiireit 
. Guide we have to follow in Affairs that 
are humane, and even in Spirituals, where the 
immediate Word of God interpofes not. But 
it is fo liable to be corrupted and weigh'd 
down by the Biafs's that Paifion, Delufion, 
and Intereft hang upon it, that we ought never 
to truft without Caution and Examination, ei- 
ther to our own or that of others. 

Men are hardly ever brought to think them- 
felves deceived in contending for Points of In- 
tereil or Pleafure. But as ic is rare that one 
Man's Purfiiits do not crofs and interfere with 
the Purfuirs of others, and as every Man con- 
tends for the Reafonablenefs of his own ; tho' 


it mud be in the Nature of Things that they 
may be both in the Wrong, and only one can 
be in the Right ; hence it proceeds that Men, 
who are fb naturally alike, become morally 
fb unlike, that fometimes there is more Refem- 
blance between a Man and a Wolf, than be- 
tween one Man and another, and that one and 
the fame Man is not one and the fame Man 
in two different Stations. 

The Difference therefore between one Man's 
Judgment and another's, arifes not fo much 
from the natural Difference between them ; tho' 
that too, the Structure of their Organs being 
different, may beget different Sentiments; as 
from the Difference of iheir Education, their 
Situation and Views, and other external Caufes. 

Men, v/ho in private Life were Juft, Mo- 
deft and Good, have been obferv'd, upon their 
Elevation into high Places, to have left all 
their virtuous and beneficent Qualities behind 
them, and to have acted afterwards upon a 
new Spirit, of Arrogance, Iniuftice and On- 
preilion." And yet, perhaps, their latter Acti- 
ons had as much the x Sanction of their own 
Judgment as their r(l. 

England could not hoaft of a greater Patri- 
ot than the great Earl of Straff or d^ while he 
was yet a private Commoner. No Man ex- 
pos'd better, or more zealouily, the Encroach- 
ments and Oppreilions praclis'd by the Court 
upon the Kingdom, or contended more loudly 
for a Redrefs of Grievances : But he was no 
fboner jnt into the Court, but he began open- 
ly to counteract tb^ whole Courfe of his pa ft 
Life: He devis'd new Ways of Terror and 



pppreflion, and heightened all rhofe Grievances 
oF which he had complain'd ; and as the ex- 
cellent Lord Fafkjnnd faid of him in the Houfe 
of Commons, The Oppreiiions he committed 
we fo Vnrious^ fo Many^ and Jo Mighty^ as were 
never committed by fitly Governor in any Govern- 
ment fmce Verres left Sicily. But tho 1 the two 
great Parts of his Life were thus prodigioufly 
Inconfiftent, 1 do not remember that he evef 
condemned the Worft, tho' he FuflFer'd for ir, 
or recanted the Bell. It is probable his Judg- 
ment in both Cafes approved his Conduct. 

Nor is the Judgment of Men varied by great: 
and confiderable Caufes only ; to the Difgrace 
of our Reafbn we mud own, that little ones 
do it as effectually. A wife Man ruffled by 
an Accident, or heated by Liquor, fhall talk 
and at like a Madman or a Fool ; as a Mad- 
man, with a little Soothing and Management, 
fhall talk like a wife Man : And there are In- 
flances of very able Men, who, having done 
great Service to their Prince and Country, 
have undone it all from Motives that are fhame- 

ful to mention Perhaps they mifs'd a 

Smile from him when they expelled one, or 
met with a fatyrical Jeft when they expecled 
none ; and thus piqu'd by a little real Mirth 
or fancy "d Neglect, they have run into all the 
ExcelFes of Difloyalty and Rebellion, and ei- 
ther ruin'd their Country, or themfelves and 
their Families, in attempting it: Others, mlfled 
by a gracious Nod, or a Squeeze by the Hand, 
or a few fair Promifes no better than either, 
have, by running all the contrary Lengths of 
Complaifance and Subferviency, done as much 

VOL. II. N Mifchirf 

Giro's LETTERS. 

Mifchtef to their Country, without intending 
it any, and perhaps thinking they did it none. 
There r re Examples or the fume Men pracYi- 
iing both rh.O Extremes. 

So mechanical a Thing is humane Judg- 
ment ! r,nd fo e<'ftly is the humane Machine 
d i {concerted ard put cut of its Tone ! And the 
Mind fa'jfiiring in it, and ailing by it^ is calm 
or ruffled as its Vehicle is fo. But rho' the 
various Occidents and Diforders happening to 
the Pody, are the certain Caufes of Diforders 
and Irregular Operations in the Mind ; yet 
Caufes that are internal affect it Hill more; I 
mean the Stimulations of Ambition, Revenge, 
Luft and Avarice. Thefe are the great Caufes 
of the feveral irregular and vicious Purfuits of 

Neither is it to be expected that Men difa- 
greeing in Intered, will ever agree in Judg- 
ment. Wrung, with Advantages attending it, 
'will be turned into Right, and Falfhood into 
'Truth 5 and, /is often as t^eafon is again ft a Man, 
.# Man will be againf} Rcsfcn : And both Truth 
and Right, when they thwart the Interefts and 
pailions of Men, will be ufed like Enemies, and 
calTd Names. 

It is remarkable that Men, when they differ 
in any Thing confiderable, or which they 
think confiderable,will be apt to differ in alniofi: 
every Thing elfe. Their Differences beget 
Contradiction, Contradiction begets Heat, and 
"Meat quickly riies into Refentment, Rage and 
III will. Thus they differ in Affections as they 
filler in Judgment : and the Contention which 
l?eean in. Pride, ends in Anger. 



The acquiefcing finterely in the Judgment 
of another, without the Concurrence of cut 
own, and without any Advantage real cr fan- 
tried, moving us to fuch Acquiefcence, is a 
Compliment which I do not know that one 
Man ever paid to another : An unanfwerable 
Argument, why no Man (hould be provok'd at 
thofe whom he cannot convince, fince they, 
having Reafbns, or thinking they have Reafbns, 
on the contrary lide, as ftrong as his, orftronger, 
have as much Caufe to be provok'd with him. 
for not acquiefcing in theirs. And yet there 
are but few Debates of Confequence in this 
World, where the Arguments are not feconded 
by Wrath, and often fupplied by it. 

But this is not the Way of dealing with Men; 
nor is there any other Way of perfwading them 
into your Judgment, but by (hewing it their 
Intereft. Their Minds are fo corrupted by 
rheir Appetites, that, generally fpeaking, their 
Judgment is nothing but their Intereft in Theo- 
ry ; and their Intereft is their Judgment redu- 
ced into Practice, This will account for the 
contradictory Parts Men play, and the contra- 
ry Parties they occafionally chule. This ferves 
them with Reafons for the unreafonable Things 
they do, and turns Roguery into Honefty, and 
Madnefs into Merit. 

In Truth, when ever Men leave their own 
Judgment for the Judgment of others, as they 
fbmetimes do ; they either do it for Gain, or 
Glory, or Pleafiire, or for the avoiding of 
Shame, or fbrne fuch Caufe ; all which Motives 
are Intereft, as is every Thing elfe that they 
do for their own fakes. Thus Honefty is often 

N a, oa-lf 

- Core's LETTERS. 

only the Fear of Infamy, and Honour the Ap- 
petite of Applaufe: Thus Men ru(h into Dan* 
ger and Death, to gratify Love or Anger, or 
to acquire Fame : And thus they are faithful 
to their Word and Engagement, to avoid the 
Reproach of Treachery 

Men are fb apt to link their Approbation 
to their Profit and Pleafure, that their Intereft, 
tho' ever fb vile, abfurd, and unju (lib able, 
becomes really their Judgment. I do not think 
that humane Art and Imagination could have 
invented Tenets more falfe and abominable, 
more chimerical or mifchievou-, than are thofe 
-of the Infallibility of the Pope 4 and the Irrefifti- 
blenefs of Tyrants', that is, That one Man, 
living in the hourly Practice of Error, or Vice, 
or Folly, and often of them all, fhall judge for 
the whole Earth, and do what God has not 
done ; that is, fafhion the Minds of all humane 
Race like his own, and make them his Sacrifices 
where he cannot make them his Slaves : And 
that another Man fiiall have a divine Right to 
reprefent God and govern Man, by acting a- 
gainlT: God and deftroying Man. 

Thefe are fuch mondrous Abfurdities, fiich 
terrible, ridiculous, and inhumane Inventions, 
as could arife from nothing but Pride and Ava- 
rice on one Side, and Fear and Flattery on the 
other , and could be defended by nothing but 
the mod brutifh. Force, or the mod abandoned 
Impudence. And yet we have feen them de- 
fended, and God Almighty declared their De- 
fender ; even him, who is the God of Mercy and^ 
Truth, made, blafphemouily, the Author of 
Cruelty and Lies. 



In this Light do thefe Things appear to ; 
who confiders them without embarking in t! , 
and receiving any Advantage from n rn, i-'ufc 
thofe who gain or fubfift by them, Ue them in 
a different Lig ! t: I doubt not but th<-ir judg- 
rnent, as they c^ it, does actually bknd with- 
their Inrcrefl:, or or the molt parr dee"? : and 
therefore they are ' in earneft in maintain- 

ing it. Folly, Fa, )d, ami Villainy, are no 
longer called b.y their Q-- Names, nor thought 
to dcferve them, by tl it reap Advantages- 

from them. Even thole, v/ho have pracHfed 
the greateft of all Evils> even that of deftroy- 
ing GodV People, have t. :-i;ht that in doing it 
they did God good Servi. - Our Rlefled Sa- 
viour foretold k, and his Words have been ful- 
filling ever iiace, and perhaps will, be till he- 

Oliver Cromwell fought God ih all his Oppref- 
Pions ; and tho' I am fure that he was an Ulur- 
per, I am not fure that he was a Hypocrite, at 
leaft all along ; tho' it is moft probable he was 
one at firft. But he had fb long perfonated a, 
Sainr, that he feems at laft to have thought 
himfelf one ; and when he faw his latter End- 
approaching, he was fo far from fiiewing any 
Compunction for the Part he had acl'ed, that: 
he, on the contrary, bpafted he had been the- 
Caufe of much Good to this Nation : and add- 
ed fuch Ejaculations and Prayjers, as (hewed 
that he poflefled his Mind in Peace, and was 
not without Confidence in God. 

The Emperor of Morocco, than whom a more: 
inhumane Butcher never lived, makes God the 
Author of all hisBarbarities; and when he murder 

N & 

2,94 CA rO's LETTERS. 

a Slave (as he does every Day fbme) out of 
Wantonnefs or Wrath, he lifts up his Eyes and 
fays, 'Tis God that does it : No Man talks more 
of God and Religion, and he certainly thinks 
himfelf a moft religious Man. 

Let all this ferve to fhew, how little Mens 
judgment is to be trufced when 1 me re ft^ fol- 
lows ir, and is probably both the Caufe and the 
Effect. Let it abate our Confidence in parti- 
cular Men, who may make our T^uft in Them 
the Means of their mifleading Us : Let us learn 
to believe no Man the more, becaufe he believes 
Itimfelf; fince Men are as obftinate in Error, 
especially in gainful Error, as they are in Truth; 
and more fo, where Truth is not gainful : And, 
Jaflly, let us f wallow no Man's Judgment, 
without judging of it and him ; and yield up 
our Reafon to no Man's Authority, nor our 
Jntereft to any Man's Direction, any farther 
than Prudence or Necefiity obliges us. Let us 
remember what the World has ever got by im- 
plicit Faith of any kind wharfoever. 

lam, &c. 


E N boaft of their Reafon, find might 
judly, if they ufed it freely and applied 
it properly j but confidering that generally in 
their moral Conduct, they are guided by fuch 
Rcafons as are a Shame and a Contradiction 


LETTERS. 195: 

to Reafon, it feerns to be thrown away upon: 
them : Indeed, fo little, or'fi) wrong, is the 
Ufe the 7 in. ike of ir, that it would be real!/, 
for their Reputation, if they had none. 

But tW the Many fcarce ufe it at all, and 
none fo much as they ought; yet every Man 
thinks he does, and never wants iometning 
which he calls Reafon, for the Juffiification ot 
his Folly or Wickednefs; Prejudice or Pallion 
fteps into its Room, takes its Name ; and under 
the Appearance of Reafon, does Filings which 
Regfn abhors: And thus Reafon, as well _ as 
RHU'un, is forced to furnifh its Enemies with 
Arm? againft it felf, and the Abufe of it is 
w >rfe and more dangerous than the ablolule 
Want of it : as an Idiot is lets ternbie and 
odious than a Knave, and as a harmlefs Pxgnn 
is a much more amiable ChaVafter tnan an 
ri'gcous perfecuring Bigot. So thst as no Re. 
Kgioa at all is better than a mifchievous 
g'ion; that is to lay, any Religion that prompts 
Men to hurt one another ; fo the At 
Inactivity of the Faculties, is better than uie 
Quicknefs of Faculties wickedly applied. 

Of all the many falfe Lights that mil 
Men from their Reafon, Prejudice is cne ot 
the foremoft and moft fuccefsful ; and tho no 
two Things upon Earth are more oppoiite iri 
their Natures, or more definitive of eacii 
other, than Reafon and Prejudice are- : yet 
they are often made to pafs for each other ; 
And as fame Men will give you very good 
Reafons for their being in the wrong 
felves ; there are thofetoo, who will give ] 
as good, why others (hould nor be in the right ; 

N 4, 


that is, the Prejudices of fome would be thought 
Wifdom, and the Wifdom of others is mif- 
called Prejudice. The worft Things that Men 
do, called by a good Name, pafs for the beft; 
rnd the bell, blackened by an ill Kame, pafs 
for the word. Such is the Force of Prejudice 
in the World and fb fuccefsfully does this Foe 
to Reafbn ape Reafbn ! 

Prejudice is an obftinate and unreafonable 
Attachment to an Opinion, fupported only by 
a WiLfulnefs to maintain it, whether regarding 
Men or Things ; it links the good with the 
bad, and the bad with the good, and hates or 
loves by the Lump. Thus if a Man Is called a 
Saint, his word Actions are fainted with him ; 
and his very ignorance and Cruelty, and even 
his Dirtlnefs and his Dreams, are made facrcd 
..nd mcricoricuj j as may be fcen at large in the 
l{.m : Jh Legends, where the principal Qualifica- 
tion fur Sainrfhip feems to have confifted in 
lurk raving Madnefs, and in an implacable 
and bloody Fury towards all Senfe and Sobriety. 
And thus, even with us, if a Man paffes fora 
good Man, his bad Deeds are often thought 
good ones, by thofe that think him fo, and only 
becaufe they think him fS. 

On the other Side, if a Man is called an 
Atheifti the Odium of that Name, where it is 
believed true, is made a Blot upon his beft 
Actions and greatefl Virtue, and to defeat them 
as well as foil them. That there are fuch Men 
as Atbeifts, can only be imagined by thofe, who 
doubting of a Deity themfelves, may naturally 
enough fuppofe that there are others who quite 
disbelieve One : For my own particular, I can- 


'not think there are any fuch Men ; but if there- 
were, I cannot think that Truth and Sobriety 
in an Atheift, are worfe than in another Man, 
That Black is not White, and that i wo and 
Two make Four, is as true out of the Mouth 
ofanAtheift, as out of the Mouth of an ApoMe: 
A Penny given by an Atheift to a Beggar, is 
better Alms th an a Halfpenny given by a Be- 
liever ; and 1 the good Senfe of an Aifotfl. is pre- 
ferable to the Miftakes of a good f hriflian : In.' 
fhort, 'whatever reputed Athefjis do well, or 
(peak truly, is more to be imitated and 'credited,., 
than what the greateft Believers do wickedly,, 
or fay faMly ; and even in the Bufinefs of bear- 
ing Tefiimony, or making a P.eport, in- which 
Cafes the Credit and Reputation of the Wit- 
nefs gives fbme Weight, or none, to what he 
fays ; more Regard is to be h: d to the Word of 
an Unbeliever who has nc Intereft on either 
Side, than to the Word of a Believer who- 

So that as no Man is to be believed an Atheilt, 
unlefs he be evidently proved one : vhich, 
where he himfeif denies it, can be done by GocF 
only \ fo neither-are the good or bad A<^iotisafi 
an Afheift worfe, with refpe<5t to the World, ^ at 
leaft for his being one : tho' the Sin of a Saint: 
is more finful than that c r a Pagan. As it \s 
therefore the blacked and molt barbarous ViU~ 
lainy to charge any Man with Albeifm, ^yho is 
no Athift ; it is the greateft Folly to think th^E: 
any Man's Crimes are the lefs, for the Kame- 
of him that cc mrnits them ; or that Trnrn is 
lefs or more Truth, for the ill or good Name 
of him that fpeaks it 

N ^ea 

298 euro's LETTERS. 

Prejudice has long taught Men, contrary to 
all Reafon, to think otherwife ; and tocontider, 
not what was done or faid ; but who where the 

Men that faid or did it. A happy Expedient, 

I mull own, to acquire Dominion, and toexer- 
cife it ; and to keep, for that End, Mankind 
ignorant and bale, as their Teachers and Go- 
vernors do generally keep them ! And there- 
fore, in moil: Parts of the World, Truth is a 
capital Crime ; and the Pope and Mahomet ^ the 
Alcoran and the Mafs-Eoo^ and the like Sounds, 
with a competent Ailiftance of Fire and Sword, 
are fufficient to convince and govern all true 
C/ifholic^ and Mitffelmen. 

But we live in a Land of Liberty; and have, 
I hope, well-nigh wiped off the Scandal of be- 
ing led or animated by Noife and Names, as 
were many of our Forefathers ; whofe Reafbn 
being in other Mens keeping, v/as generally 
turned upon them, and co-operated with other 
Caufes,' towards keeping them in Bondage. 
They were decoy'd or frightened into Folly and 
Chains; fome few not their Condition, and 
others wanted Courage or Power to mend it. 
But with Liberty Light has fprung in, and we 
have got rid of the Terrors and Delufion oc- 
eafioned by folemn and ill-founding Names ; a 
fort of Bugbears that frighten only in the 
dark : We have learned that we are as fit to 
life our own Underitandings, as they are whofe- 
llnderftandings are no better than ours ; and 
that there is no Merit in Sounds, nor in thole 
Actions which a wicked Man may practice as 
well as a good Man, without departing frcni 
his Character* 




s~ edants, un-iw >~.i.~ *~ -- -- 
Bitternefs, Ignorance, and 111 breeding; I 
amazed to hear, that Sn Societies i ot Gentl 
men, formed for the promoting ot Knowledge,. 
and Liberty of Enquiry, a Province utterly n= 
confident with the narrow Spirit of Prejud :e, 
there are yet found Inilances of the greateiir. 
hope, however, it is not true, what 

, , 

told, That the /to*/ S?c^ refufed adm 
Mr. Whifkm and another ingenious Gentleman- 

that natural Compi.,.. . 

could any way afect rhe Difcovery of Foflds 

and Cocklefhek or the 1 mprovemcnt of Multarc^ 
and Pickles ? But I dare fiy, this is only a .tory 
rasfed, to bring that learned Body into Ridi- 
cule and Contempt : If it were true, it would, 
Uiftif the ell made upon them, by aGent^.n, 

he jell , 

who being asked by fome of them, Whethe? 
he had a mind to be a Member ? foidUem r 
No, Gentlemen, 'tis Imfoffble \ yen ffofw * 
Mole on my Vffer Lip ', and lamfubjctt to ta 
my Sleep. .. . 

It is fcarce credible, but that we lee it, how 
violently and {hameF^lly Prejudice flies m^the 
Face of 'Reafon, anti ;>hen get? the better 01 it y 
rn Indances too where leafbn 
frrongeil and mod obvious. Lftall 
remarkable one. 

Alexander and Ctfar are never mentioned buC 
with AppUulc, or thought of but as amiable 
Characlers 3 and the true Paiurns d Prince^ 



and Heroes, tho' it is certain there never lived 
more wicked Men ; they turned the World up- 
fide down, and ulurped its Power; they paved 
their Way to Dominion with dead Bodies, and 
were the Oppreflbrs and Butchers of humane 
Race. Here is Faclr, plain undeniable Fa6r, 
againft Prejudice and Opinion. 

Oliver Crcmwe!^ on the contrary, is fcarce ever 
mentioned but with Deteflation, or thought of 
but as a Monfter ; tho 5 it is certain ihat he 
never did the hundredth Part of the Mifchief 
that was done by either of the other Two. He 
had at leaft as good a Right to Great Britain as 
they had to the Globe, and ruled It with more 
Equity and lefs Blood. He was, doubtlefs, an 
llfurper, but a little one ; and tho' wicked 
enough, really an innocent Man compared to 
them. Nor was he at all below them in Parts 
and Courage. What therefore is the Caufe of 
this mighty and unjuffc Difference, where the 
leffer Wickedneft is moft magnified, and leaft. 
excuied, and where the blacked Criminals 
and the highefl Ufurpers are admired and 
extolled ? 

There is yet one Effect of Prejudice more 
impious than all the reft ; I mean, the daring 
Preemption of thofe Men who wantonly ap- 
ply the Judgments of God to others, and of 
calling thofe Things judgments, which are not 
fo. Probably nothing ever yet happened to one 
Man, but has happened to another, and a 
different : The Wicked live in as much Pro- 
fperity, and die with as few Agonifs as do the 
Righteous, who, I think, are allowed to be 
here much the more unhappy of the Two. 



Who has told us, what God can only tell, that 
Misfortunes are Judgments, or that Death is 
one j That Death which is common to all 
Men ? And as to the different and difaftrous 
Manners of dying ; have not Fire and Sword, 
Famine and Peftilence, Poifon and Torture, 
wild Beafts and Accidents, deftroyed as many 
good Men as evil Men ? 

How foolifh and infolent are we! When we 
are angry, unreafbnably angry with one ano- 
ther, we prefumptuoufly think that Gcd, the 
good and all wife God, is fo too ; by which we 
profanely fuggeft, that he is a Being as weak, 
ridiculous, and paflionate as our (elves, Where- 
as that often pleafes God, which is hated by 
Man, and that which is really a Bleffing is 
often thought a Curfe ; arid therefore (bme 
wickedly think the Judgment of God due to 
others for Things that entitle them rather to 
God's Favour. So wickedly do Men differ in 
their Sentiments and Affections .' 

They who call the Misfortunes of others 
Judgments upon them, do plainly enough own, 
tho' not in Words, that they wifh for Judg- 
ments upon others, or are glad when they 
happen. What can we fay of fuch an Anti- 
chrifHan Spirit as this ? 

When the Heathens were uppermost,, they 
charged the Chriftians with being the Caufe of 
all the Evils and Misfortunes that befel the 
Romc.n Empire, fuch as Inundations, Plagues a 
Earthquakes, and the like ; and one of the 
Fathers writ a Book to prove, that all thofe 
Things had been from the Beginning ; and 
whoever makes the like Charge nowagainft 


302, C A ro's LETTERS. 

any Man, or Body of Men, may be filenced, 
If he has Modefty, Senfe, or Shame in him, by 
the fame Anfwer. 

SIR Paid Pgcaufs State of the Ottoman Empire? 
is what I have quoted more than once in 
thefe Letters : It is written with Fidelity and 
Judgment, and gives us a good Idea of that 
horrible and deflroying Government ; a Go- 
vernment tierce and inhumane, founded in 
Blood, and fupported by Barbarity; and a 
Government, that has a declared Enmity to all 
that is good and lovely in the Eyes of Man- 

I have therefore tranfcribed the following 
from htm, to fhew my Countrymen the abjed^ 
the deplorable Condition of that People, and 
the brutifh and deirrudlive Genius of their Go- 
vernment; and I do it with a benevolent View, 
to make them more and more in love with 
their own, and paillonate for its Prefervation. 

No Man's Authority is, or ought to be of 
any Weight for or againil Truth, when every 
Man fees it, or may fee it : But fince weak 
Men, and they that are vvorie, make a Diffi* 
eulty of crediting the Reafonings and Re'ations 
or any Men about any Thing, unlefs they 
know and approve his Opinions in every thing ; 
J think it not amifs to acquaint my Readers 
that Sir Paul was a ilncere Monarchy-man, and 


an unquestionable Friend to our civil and reli- 
gious Eftablifhment ; but having long feen the 
difmal Terrors and Deflations of Abfblute 
Monarchy, he could not help observing the 
infinite Diftance between that and a li- 
mited one , as may be feen in the following 

For my own particular, I think it contrary 
to common Senfe to concern my felf with the 
Character of a Writer, in thofe Writings 
which do not concern his Character : And 
therefore in Matters of Reafbn or Facl:, Cicero 
is as much regarded by me as Dr. Tillotfon 9 
and I credit Livy as much as I do Dr. Prfdeaux. 
For this Reafbn, in reading Authors, Chriftian 
or Heathen, Monarchical or Republican, I do 
not confider their Syftem but their Senfe ; 
which I (hall therefore, as often as I lee necefc 
fary, give in their own Words, where I can- 
not mend them : And as often as they fpeak 
my Thoughts as well, or better than I could 
fpeak them my felf, 1 fhall not fcruple being 
beholden to them. 

I am, 

i . 

E that is an Eye-witnefs and flricl: Ob- 
44 ferver of the various Changes and 
Chances in the Greatnefs, Honours, and 
Riches of the TV/y, hath a lively Emblem 
<c before him of the Unconftancy and Muta- 
6i bility of humane Aftairs. Fortune lo ftrange- 
" ly (ports with this People, that a Comedy 
" or a Tragedy on the Stage, with all its 
44 Scenes, is fcarce fooner opened or ended, 
" than the Fate of divers great Men, who in 

" the 


" the Day-time being exhaled into high Sub- 
44 limity by the powerful Rays of the Sultans 
44 Favour, fall or vanifh in the Night, like a 
44 Meteor. The Reafbn hereof, if duly confi- 
44 dered, may be of great life as Things ftand r 
" here ; that is, the Power of the Grand Seig- 
44 nior ; for in this ConfHrution the Benefit of 
44 the Emperor is confulted before the Welfare 
" of the People. * 

" And this Courfe does not only evidence 
" the Power of the Grand Seignior, but like- 
44 wife encreafes it ; for none are advanced in 
44 thefe Times to Office, but pay the Grand' 
" Seignior vaft Sums of Money for it, accord- 
44 ing to the Riches and Expectations of Profit' 
44 from the Charge : Some pay, as the 3/Jhaws : 
44 of Grand Cairo and Babylon, Three or Four 
44 Hundred Thoufand Dollars upon palling the 
44 Commiilion ; others One, others Two Hun- 
44 dred Thoufand , fbine Fifty Thoufand, as- 
44 their Places are more cr lefs confiderable ; 
44 and the Money is moft commonly taken up- 
4i at Intereft at 40 or 50 per Cent, for the Year^ 
44 and fometimes at double, when they are 
44 conftrained to become Debtors to the cove- 
4i tous Eunuchs of the Seragli?. So that every 
44 one, at his firfc Entrance into Office, looks 
44 upon himfelf (as- indeed he is) greatly in- 
" debted and obliged by Juftice or Injuftice, 
44 right or wrong, fpeedily to disburden him- 
44 felf of the Debts, and improve his own 
4t Principal in the World ; and this Defign 
44 muft not be long in Performance, left the 

* c - hafty Editt overtake him before the Work 

* - J ii 


44 is done, and call him to an Account for the 
46 Improvement of his Talent. 

44 Taking then airCrcumftances together, 
44 the covetous Difpofition of a TV/L, the Cru- 
" elry and Narrownefs of Soul in thofe Men 
44 commonly that are born and educated in 
" Want ; think what OppreiTion, what Ra- 
" pine and Violence mu(V be exercifed, to fa- 
ct tisfy the Appetite of thefe Men, who come 
" famifhed with immenfe Defires and ftrange 
" Considerations to fatisfy ! Diu for did us, re- 
" pente dives mtttationem fortune male regit, ac- 
" cenfis egcftate longa ctipidinibus immoderatus. 
" Tacit. ^So that Judice in its common Courfe, 
46 is fet to Sale ; and it is very rare, when any 
44 Law-Suit is in Hand, but Bargains are made 
" for the Sentence, and he hath mod Right, 
" who hath mod Money to make \\imrefins in 
" curia and advance his Caufe , and it is^the 
" common Ccurfe for both Parties a^ Difte- 
46 rence. before they appear together in Pre- 
44 fence of the Judge, to apply rhemfelves fingly 
44 to him, and try whofe Donative and Prefent 
hath the moil: in it of Temptation ^ and it 
is no Wonder if corrupt Men exercife this 
kind of Trafficking wirh Juftice, for haying 
46 before bought the Office, of Confequence 
44 they mud fell the Fruit. 

" Add hereunto a ilrange kind of Facility 
44 in the Turfa for a Trifle or fmall Hire, to 
44 give falfe Witnefs in any Cafe, efpecially 
" (and that with a Word) when^the Contro- 
44 verfy happens between a Chridian and a 
" Turk,! and then the Pretence is forthe^Mw/- 
44 felmanlee^ as they call it ; the Caufe is re- 

J* ligious. 



Giro's LETTERS. 

ligious, and hallows all Falfenefs and For- 

gery in the Teftimony 


* " 

This Confederation and Practice made an 
Englifo Ambaffador, upon ren.-\vir,g the Ca- 
pirulations, to infert an Article of Caution 
againfl the Teftimony of TV/y, as never to 
be admitted or pleaded in anv Court of 
Turkjflo Juftice, againil the Englljk Intereft * 

*t* 7?- ?S- /f */t v( Vr ^^~ 


In the Times of the bed Emperors, when 
Virtue and Deferts were confidered, and the 
Empire flouriflied and encreafed, Men had 
Offices conferred upon th -in for their Merits, 
and good Services were rewarded f.eely and 
with Bounty, without Sums of Money and 
Payments But no-v it is quite contra- 
ry, and all Vlatters run out of Courfe ; a 
' rnamfeft Token, in my Opinion, of the De- 

clenfion and Decay of the Empire ! 
However, this lerves in part the great End 
of the Empire ; for "Bdjhaw and great Men, 
having a kind of a Neceilky upon them to 
oporefs their Subjects, the People thereby 
lofe their Courage ; and by continual Taxes 
and Seizures upon what they gain, Poverty 
fubdues their Spirits, and makes them more 
patiently fuffer all kind of Injuftice and Vi- 
olence that can be offered them, without 
Thoughts or Motion to Rebellion : And fb 
' the Lord Verulam fays in his Effays, That it 
is impoffible for a People overladen with 
Taxes, ever to become martial or valiant ; 
for no Nation can be the Lion's Whelp, and 
" the Afs between two Burthens. 





5 LETTERS. 307 

" By this Means the Turk, preserve? fo many 
" different forts of People, as he hath con- 
quered, in due Obedience, ufmg no other 
Help than a fevere Hand, joined to all kind 
of Oppreilion : But fuch as are Turkj, and 
bear any Name of Office or Degree in the 
" Service of the Empire, feel but part of this 
" Oppreilion, and live with all Freedom, ha- 
" ving their Spirits railed by a Licence they 
" attain to infult over others that dare not 
" refift them. 

But the Hue and Conclufion of the Spoils 
that thefe great Men make on Subjects, is 
very remarkable ; For as if God were pleafed 
" to evidence his juft Punifhment mere evi- 
" dently and plainly here than in other Sins, 
" fcarce any of all thefe E/ifh/ws tht have 
" made hafte to be rich, have efcaped the 
<c Grtivd Seignior's Hands, but he eijhtT wholly 
" divefts them of All, or will (hare the beft 
Part of the Prey with them. Amongft whom 
I have obferved none paffes fo hardly as the 
Btijkaws of G^and Cairo, becaufe it is the 
richeft and moft powerful of all the Gp- 
" vernments of this Empire ; and fb, either in 
" his Journey Home, or after his Return, he 
" lofes his Life by publick Command, or at 
" lead is rifled of his Goods as ill got, which 
" are condemned to the Grand Seignior's Trea- 
46 fury : And it is ftrange yet to fee with what 
" Heat thefe Men labour to amafs Riches, 
which they know by often Experiences have 
" proved but Collodions for their Mailer ; 
" and only the Odium and Curfes which the 
!! oppreEed Wretches have vented againit their 

" Rapine, 






3o8 CAfO's LETTERS. 

Rapine, remain to themfelves. I(ebus fecun- 
dis nvidl\ adverfa autem incauti. Tac. * 

The Twr underftands well how profitable 
it is for the Conftitution f his Eftate, to 

ufe evil Inilruments, who may opprefs and 
" poll his People, intending afterwards for 
" himfelf the whole Harveft of their La- 
bours ; they remaining with their Hatred, 
while the Prince, under Colour of perform* 
ing Juflice, procures both Riches and Fame 
" together. 

" If it be fafpe&ed that any Great Man in- 
tends to make Combuftion or Mutiny in his 
Government, or that his Wealth or natural 
Abilities render him Formidable, without 
further Inquifinon or Scrutiny, all Difcon- 
tent of the Grand Seignior is diff.-mbled, and 
perhaps a Horfe, or Sword, or Sable Veftv 
is reported to be prefented, and all fair 
Treatment is counterfeited, till the Execu- 
ti 'Her gets the Bow-firing about his Neck, 
and then they, care not how rudely they deal, 
with him J'.ift like the Birds in Plutarch,, 
that beat the Cuckow, for fear that in Time 
he fhould become a Hawk. 

And to make more Room for the Multi- 
tude of Officers that crowd for Preferments, 
and to acl: the cruel Edicls of the Empire 
with the lean: Noife ; often times when a 
great Perfbnage is removed from his Place of 
Truft, and (ent with a new Commi/IIon to 
the Charge, perhaps, of a greater Govern- 
ment ; and though he depart from the Regal 
'' Seat with all fair Demonftrations of Favour, 








5 L E T T E R S. 309 

K yet before he hath advanced Three Days in 
" his Journey, triumphing in the Multitude of 
" his Servants and his -late Hopes, the fatal 
" Command overtakes him, and, without any 
Accufation or Caufe, oiher than rhe W 7 J11 of 
the Sultan, he is barbarously put to Death, 
and his Body thrown into the Dirt of a foreign 
" and unknown Country, without Solemnity 
of Funeral or Monument ; and he is no 
fooner in his Grave, than his Memory is for- 
" gotten. 

" Hence are apparent the Caufe of the De- 
cay of Arts amongft the Turkj ; and of the 
Neglect and Want of Care in manuring and 
cultivating their Lands ; why their Houfes 
and private Buildings are made flight, and 
not durable for more than Ten or Twenty 
u Years ; why you find there no delightful 
cs Orchards, and pleafant Gardens and Planta- 
1 tions ; and why, in thole Countries where 
*' Nature hath contributed fb much on her 
Part, there are no additional Labours of 
Art to compleat all, and turn it into a Pa- 
radife : For Men, knowing no certain Heir, 
nor who (hall fucceed them in their Labours, 
" contrive only for a few Years Enjoyment. 
And moreover, Men are afraid of mewing 
too much Oilentation or Magnificence in 
" their Palaces, or Ingenuity in the Pleafures 
of their Gardens, left they fhould bring on 
them the fame Fate that Nabottfs Vineyard 
occaGoned to its Mailer. And therefore 
Men neglect all Applications to the Studies 
of Arts and Sciences, but only fuch as are 
necefiary to the meer Courfe of Living ; 

" For 



3io CATffs LETTERS. 

For the Fear and Crime of being known to 
be rich, makes them appear outwardly poor, 
and fb become naturally Stcicks and Philofb- 
phers in all the Points of a referved and 
" cautious Life. 

" And here I am at a Rand, and cannot con- 
' elude, without contemplating a while, and 
pleafing myfelf with the Thoughts of the 
Bleffednefs, the Happinefs 9 the Liberty of 
my own Country ; where Men, under the 
Protection and fafe Influence of a gracious 
and the bed Prince in the World (He might 
with more Propriety have faid, the beft Con- 
(litution in the World) enjoy and eat of the 
Fruit of their own Labour; and purchafe to 
themfelvesj with Security, Fields and Ma- 
nors, and dare acknowledge and glory in 
iheir Wealrh and Pomp, and yet leave the 
Inheritance to their Pofterity. 





popularity is the Fondnefs and Applaufe of 
many, following the Perfbn of one, who 
does, in their Opinion, deforce well of them ; 
and it muCc doubtlefs be a fenfible Pleafure to 
him who enjoys it, if he enjoys it upon good 
Terms,, and from reputable Caufes : But where 
it is only to be acquired by deceiving iVlen with 
Words, or int -\ letting them with Liquors, or 
purchaiing their Hf:.rts with Bribes, a virtuous 
Man would rather, be without it , and therefore 



virtuous Men have been rarely popular, except 
in the Beginning, or near the firll: Rife of States, 
while they yet preferved their Innocence. 

Where Parties prevail, a principal Way to 
gain Popularity, is to acl foolifhly for one Side, 
and wickedly againd: the other.- And therefore 
Ibme publick Talkers have grown popular, by 
calling thoie whom they difiiked by bitter and 
ill-bred Names ; or by rioting and making a 
Noile for jfbme Sounds, which they had taken 
a liking to ; or by inlulting and abufing thole 
that affronted them, by being more fbber and 
ienfible than themlelves : And (bme to be re- 
venged on thole that never hurt them, have 
given themfelves up a blind Prey to certain 
Leaders, who deluded them, and Ibid them, 
and yet earned popular Applaule of them for 
fo ferving them. 

So that Popularity is often but the Price 
which the People pay to their Chiefs, for de- 
ceiving and felling them : And this Price is fb 
Implicitly paid, that the very Vices and Foole- 
ries of a popular Chief become popular too, 
and were perhaps amongft the firft Caules that 
made him Ib. Some Gentlemen of this Cafr, 
o\ve their Figure to the Weaknefs of their 
Heads, or the Strength of their Barrels ; and 
.grow confiderable by their having fmall Parts, 
or by drinking away thofe that they have. 

Thefe are the Inftruments that cunning Men 
work with , and therefore fometimes a Knave, 
\vho is not popular, fhali get a weak Man, 
who is fb, to do thofe Things with Applaufe, 
for which he himlelf would be hated and con- 
d. ained : And the Hand that executes fhall be 



blefled, when the Head that contrives would 
be curled, For one and the fame Thing. 

This {hews that Names are principal Rea- 
fons to determine the Multitude to popular 
Love and Hatred ; and it proceeds not (b much 
from their being untaught as ill taught ; when 
they are infiruclrd not to reafon but to rage, 
and not to judge but to miftake, a better Di 
cernment and wifer Behaviour are not to be 
hoped from them 

Demetrius^ and the other Craftfmen, Shrine- 
makers to Dian/i, were, at Ephefus, more po- 
pular Men than St. P/z/, and railed a Mob to 
confute his Arguments forChrifHanity : For it 
had not yet entered in the Heads of the Peo- 
ple, that Religion and Rage were contradictory 
Things, and that Ant ; quity and Reverence 
could not fanciify Impiety, Faldiood, and 

In like Manner, BarM<ts 9 a Rioter and a 
Murderer, had more Votes to fave him, than 
our BleiFed Saviour had ; who was thought, by 
that zealous, deluded, and outragious People, 
to be the greater Criminal of the Two, for 
having told them fober and favlng Truth ; 
which was new to them, tho' everlafling in 
itfelf, and therefore condemned becaufe it v/as 

Nov7, in neither of thefe Inftances were the 
People, though they a6led thus impioufiy and 
madly, originally in the Fault ; but thofe who 
taught them ; and who, having for Religion 
taught rhem Trifles, Folly, and Fury, were 
alarmed by the rational and prevailing Doc- 
trines of Mercy, Wifdom, and Trnth. They 



therefore blafpheme agaijnft the Author of 
Truth, and yet charge him with Blafphemy. 
As to the Populace, they did as they were 
taught, and uttered the Cry which was put 
into their Mouths. 

The People, when they are left to themfelves, 
and their own Underft and ings and Obfervation, 
will judge of Men by their good or bad Ac- 
tions, and are capable of feparating Vice from 
Virtue, and the Juft from the Unjuft : And 
therefore, when their Government is not cor- 
rupted, the beft and moft virtuous Men will 
always be the moft popular; and he who does 
beft will be efteemed bed : But when ftrong 
Liquor, or Money 5> or falfe Terrors intervene ; 
when Government is turned into Fa6Kon ; the 
Judgment of the People is vitiated, and worfe 
than none: They then prefer the word Men 
to the beft, if they have ftronger Drink, or 
more Money, or are covered with any other 
falfe Merit, by thofe whofe Word they take, 
and whofe Authority they fubmit to ; and the 
moft popular Man is he who bribes higheft, or 
impofes upon them beft. 

That thefe Things are common and alrnoft 
univerfal, is not ftrange : Generally (peaking, 
wherever there is Power, there will be Faction ; 
and wherever there is Money, there will be 
Corruption ; fb that the Heads of Faction, and 
the Promoters of Corruption, have from their 
very Characters, which ought to render them 
deteftable, the Means of Popularity. 

Who was better beloved at Home than Spu- 
rius Me!ius, while he was meditating the Slavery 
of the tymnn People ? Who could ever boait 

VOL. IL f uc h 

314 Giro's LETTERS, 

Hich potent Parties, fuch numerous Followers, 
fuch high Applauleand Regard, fuch Trophies 
.and Statues, as Marius and S>///?, Pcwpey and 
Ciefar, Augvflvs and Anthony could boaff. ; while 
they -were overturning the State, oppreffing 
Mankind, and butchering one Half of the 
World, and putting Shackles upon the other ? 
And, in fine, who was ever a greater Importer, 
and a more admir'd Prophet, than Mahomet 
was ? All thefe Men were Enemies to Liberty, 
Truth, and Peace, the Plagues and Scourges 
-of the Earth ; hut they deceived and deRroyed 
their People with their own Confent, and by 
the higheft Wickednefs gained the higheft Po- 

The two Dukes of Gmfe, Francis and Uenry'^ 
Father and Son, were the two molt popular 
Men that ever France faw, and grew fb by do- 
ing it more Mifchief than ever two Men till 
then had done. They were perpetually, du- 
ring a Courfe of many Years, deftroying its 
peace, violating its Laws, usurping its Autho- 
rity, pufting at the Crown, railing and car- 
rying on Rebellions, committing MaflaCres, 
and failing it with Blood and Defolation : They 
had no one publick End, and did no one pub- 
lick Thing but what was pernicious to France, 
and yet France adored them. 

Whoever is the Author of a Civil War, is 
'Author of all. its cruel Confluences, Plunders, 
Devailations, Burnings, Rapes, Slaughters, 
Oppreiiion ? and Famine a frightful Ca- 
talogue of Crimes ro lie at one Man's Door S 
$nd yet both thefe Dukes had them all to anfwer 
for oyer and over, and yet were vaftly belov'd; 



even when they were dead, they continued 
the Authors of long publick Miferies, by lea- 
ving their deftru&ive Schemes and their Party 
behind them ; a fierce, lawlefs, and powerful 
Party, that maintained the Civil War long af- 
ter them, and having deflroyed Henry the Third, 
was like to prove too hard even for the great 
Henry the Fourth ; nor did he overcome it but 
by infinite Courage, Induftry, and Patience, 
and the renouncing of his Religion : Nay, at 
lair., his Murder was owing to the Spirit of thf 
League, firft concerted, and afterwards coi> 
ilantly headed and animated, by thele two 
Dukes fucceilively. 

Had ever any Country two greater Foes,' 
and yet were ever two Men greater Darlings 
of any Country ? For Henry Duke of Gulfs 
particularly, he had fb much the Hearts of the 
People, that their Paflion for him ran not on- 
ly to Dotage, but Idolatry ; and they bla'C 
phemed God to do the Duke Honour : They 
worfhipped his Image they invoked him in 
their Prayers ; they touched reiigioufly the 
Hem of his Garment, and with the fame Spi- 
rit and Defigri rubbed their Beads upon his 
Clothes ; and following him in Multitudes as 
he pafled their Streets, faluted him with Ho- 
fannas to the Son of David. 

Thus they treated and adored this Idol ; a 
lewd Man s a publick Incendiary and Deftroy- 
er, but reprefented to them as their Saviour - 
He had for the Ends of Ambition put himfelf 
at the Head of die Cntholick. Caufe, the fureft 
Warrant in the World for Mifchief and tto- 

O & Our 

jr6 Card's LETTERS. 

Our good Fortune, or our better Conftitu- 
*1on, has hitherto reftrained us againft our Will 
from running into all thefe Exceifes of Diflrac- 
tlon and Folly. But we have had our popu- 
lar Idols too ; wretched Idols, who could not 
furniih us from their Parts or Reputation with 
one Reafbn for our Stupidity in admiring them. 
Sometimes paltry and turbulent Prieits, de- 
Ititute of all Virtue and Good-breeding, weak 
and immoral Patricians, or loud and ignorant 
Plebeians have run away with our Reverence, 
without being able to merit our Efleem ; with- 
out Religion they have beeen popular in the 
Caufe of Religion, and contended popularly 
for Loyalty by Faction and Rebellion. 

To every Reader, Inftances of this Nature 
will occur within his own Memory and Ob- 
fervation. To name them with the other great 
Names abovementioned, would be an Honour 
too mighty for them, who were but frnall 
wicked Men, tho' greatly popular. 

I have often remembered with Companion, 
an unfortunate Great Man dill living, but ut- 
terly ruined by his Popularity and falfe Friends. 
His Good-nature has been often mentioned, 
and is grown almoll proverbial : Nor do I 
deny it , though by it he never ferved himfelf, 
his Family, or the Publick On the contrary, 
it has proved his Failing and his Crime If 
one was to enquire for the Caufes of his Popu- 
larity in the Probity of his Life, the Piety of his 
Mind, his publick Abilities, private Oecono- 
my, or conjugal and domeftick Virtues, they 
are Topic ks upon which his Friends do not 
extol him ; And for his Loyalty, take Loyalty 


CATffs LETTERS. 3x7 

in what Senfe you will, he will be found to 
have given prepofterous Proofs of it, and to 
have been engaged in all the Depths of Re- 
bellion and Perjury, and is ftill engaged. 

From what has been faid, it will not feern 
ftrange that Tome of the moil popular Men ip 
the World have been moil mifchievous in their 
Behaviour and Opinions. What fighting ^ancl 
burning has there been for Tranfubftantiation I 
what declaiming, damning, and rebelling. ^ Fc* 
Pailive Obedience ! what fierce Contention, 
and how many foolifh Arguments for Perfect!- 
tion ! All which Opinions are a Contradiction 
to Religion and Scripture, an Affront to^ com- 
mon Senfe, and utterly deffiru<5Kve of all civj 
and religious Liberty, and all humane Happi- 
nefs : Ncr would any of them, or any like- 
them, have ever entred into the Heart c! any 
Man, unlefs he were iirlt deceived, or found' 
his Account in deceiving. But even Crimes,. 
Contradictions, and Folly \vili be popular in 
a State, when they bring Gain or felfifh Gra- 
tifications to thofe, who are in Fofleffion of P, 
Power to render Folly, Contradiction, and 
Crimes, advantageous to the pernrcious Pur- 
fuits they are engaged in, 

I /ini) cc> 

O 3 SI 



I Have in a former Letter to you, not long 
fmce, fhewn theRafhnefs of Men in applying 
to one another the judgments of God. I fhall 
in this confider that Subject further, and endea- 
vour to cure that prevailing and uncharitable 

Almoft all forts of Men pretend, in (bme 
Jnftances, to be in the Secrets of the Almighty, 
iind will be finding out the unfearchable Pur- 
pofes of his Providence ; they* will be prying 
into the hidden Things of God, and aligning 
fiich Ends and Motives for his all-wife Difpen- 
fations, as are only fuitable to their own Weak- 
nefs, or Prejudices, or Malice : They give him 
i he famePailions that they themfelves poffefs, 
nnd then make him love and hate what and 
"whom they themfelves love and hate: They 
are pleafed with Flattery and Sounds, and 
provoked by Trifles and Names, and fo they 
think is he. And as they thus fanHfy all their 
own Doings, Affections, and Fancies with a 
Fiat and Approbation from Heaven, and belye 
and provoke God to make him their Friend ; 
fo they take it for granted that he is an Enemy 
to all their Enemies, and that therefore every 
Evil, or Teeming Evil, that befalls their Ene- 
mies, .or thofe they diflike, is a manifefl Judg- 
ment from God, and a Ju unification of what- 
ever they can do againft them : So that God is. 


CATffs LETTERS, 319 

often made the Author of every Mifchief which 
they themfelvts commit; but they that /eel it* 
think more : .<nfC-i\ -;nt they are animated 
by a contrary Spirit 

God made Man after 1 ins own Likenefs, per- 
Fe, amiable, mere pnght ; and Men 

are bold and fool:: ;fi to make God 

theirs; and aim ;ft ery one has his own 9 
faftitoned accord!' ,is own Temper, Ima- 

ginations and Prejudi ies; In this Senfe they 
worfnip as many Gods, as tney have 

wrong Notions of the true one ; and fo in lome 
fort folitheifm does yet remain even m me 
Chriftian World. They only agree ^n calling 
what they worfhip by she fame Name ; but 
they conceive him in fuch a different Manner, 
they differ fo widely about his Nature andWi I, 
and either give him fuch contradidory Attri- 
butes, or do fo contradicl: one another in ex- 
plaining thefe Attributes, that it is plain they do- 
not mean one and the fame Being. Some mak 
God hate what he certainly loves, and others 
make him love what he certainly hates; and al: 
take it amifs if you think they own and adore 
any God but the true God. But let them think 
what they will, many of them ftill v/orihip the 
old Gods of the Heathens, Gods that were de~ 
liehred with Baubles, Shew, and Grimaces,., 
and with Cruelty, Revenge, and humane 

Sacrifices. _ . . . 

From this miftaken and impious Spirit 
proceeds, that when Calamities ana' Di!?,ttsr 
befal others, efpecially thofe that differ from 
us, we call them Judgments, and fay that the 
Hand of God is againft them : But when th 

O 4. 

Giro's LETTERS. 


fame Evils or worfe befal our (elves, the Stile is 
changed, and then whom God Icveth he cbaftneth; 
or if we own them to be Judgments, yet ftill 
they are Judgments upon us for other Peoples 

Thus all the Misfortunes that happened to 
Sfaln for many hundred Years, whether they 
came from the Enemy or the Elements, were 
divine Judgments upon them for fuffering the 
idolatrous Moors to inhabit that good Catholick 
Country ; and therefore, like true Catholicks, 
they brought the greateft Judgment of all upon 
it, by deftroying and banifhing that numerous 
and induftrious People : And thus the bigorted 
Pagans i when /tf//ir/c/t King of the Huns lacked 
'Rcine, charged the Chriftians with being the 
Caufe of that and of every other Calamity that 
befel the Empire: The Chriftians defpifed their 
Gods, and therefore their God?, out of a par- 
ticular (pi re to the Chriftians, affii&ed the whole 
"World with Miferies ; and (b Plagues, Wars, 
Hurricanes, and Earthquakes, which were 
Evils that had been in the World from the Be- 
ginning of it, and will be till the End, were, 
.notwithftanding, all (b many Judgments, occa- 
fioned by the poor Chriftians Hence the 
Beginning of Penalties, Severities, and Perfe- 
cutions againft them ; and thus the Chriftians 
came in Time to return the Charge upon the 
Heathens, to ufe the (ame Way of Reafoning, 
and make the like Reprifals, and with as little 
Equity, Truth, or Clemency : And thus, laft- 
ly, all Parties in Religion have ever dealt with 
one another. 



We are commanded net to judge, 
fudged ; and we are told that Vengeance- is tkf 
Lord's^ and that Judgments are in his Htnd; all- 
which are to convince us, that we have no 
certain or probable Rule to apply God's Judg- 
ments by ; and that the fiireft Rule is the Rule- 
of Chariirv, which wifketb all things^ bepeth all 
things. The Good and Evil that happen to- 
Men in this World, are no fare Marks of the 
Approbation and Difpleaftire of Almighty God, 
who makes his Sun to (lime, and his Rain to 
fall upon the Juft and the Unjuft: ^Good For- 
tune and Calamities are the Portion of the 
Good and of the Bad ; and if there is any In- 
equality, the Wicked feem to have the Ad- 
vantage. The World had more People and 7 
Temporal Profperity in the Times of Hea- 
thenifm, than fince its Abolifhment; Irtabome- 
tanifm poflefles much more of the Globe than 
Christianity pofielTes : and thePapiftsare more- 
numerous than the Proteftants- are, and have- 
greater and better Countries. The Apoftles- 
and Saints were the pooreft Men in the World, 
and debauch'd Men are often uppermoft, and 
thrive belt; and as the Righteous are at leaft. 
as fubjecl: to Diflempers and AfHi6lion while 
they live ns the Wicked are, (b the Wicked die- 
with as little Pain and as few Pangs as- the' 
Righteous die. 

That there is a Providence, and a gracious; 
Providence- prefiding over the World, is mani- 
feft and urrdeniable ; but how jt works, j-ind' 
from what particular Motive?, in a thoufmd 
Infhnces, none but the Author of it can tell,, 
tho' almoft all pretend to tell, and are for ever 

O 5, 

312, euro's LETTERS: 

diving into the fecret Councils of the mofl 
High with as much Temerity as ill Succefs. 

To the Difcredit of this Practice, it is ob- 
fervable, that none but the fierce and uncha- 
ritable, the ignorant and narrow-fpirited Bigots 
and Barbarians come into it or encourage it. 
Men of charitable and benevolent Minds, 
enlarged by Reafon and Obfervation, condemn 
it as irreligious ; they know 'tis often malicious 
and dimoneft, and always ridiculous and dange- 
rous ; they know the Ways of God are paft 
finding out ; they fee humane Affairs fb per- 
plexed and unaccountable ; Men fbmetimes 
rifing and fometimes falling, both by Virtue 
and Vice ; fuch Viciifitudes and Revolutions 
in the Fortunes of Men and of Nations, often 
without any Change in thefe Men and Nations 
from Virtue to Vice, or from Vice to Virtue ; 
People growing greater without becoming bet- 
ter, and poorer without growing worfe : They 
behold Good and Evil fo promiicuoufly di 
penfed ; fbmetimes Thou fends of Men, Wo- 
men, and Children of different Spirits, Merit, 
and Morals, fuffering equally under the fame 
publick Calamity, or deriving equally the like 
Advantages from publick Profperity ; they be- 
hold the Adverfity of fbme, the vifible Caufe 
of the Profperity of others, who are no better 
than them ; and the Profperity of fbme the 
viiible Caufe of the Adveriity of others, who 
are no worfe than rhem : and one and the fame 
Thing producing Good and Evil to thofe who 
aljke deferve or do not deferve Good and Evil : 
They fee fo little Equity or Confiftency in the 
Proceedings of Men j fbmetimes good Men 



exalted, without any Regard had to their Vir- 
tue ; ibmetimes wicked Men caft down, with- 
out any Refentment of their Crimes ; feme- 
rimes good Men punifted for being good, and 
wicked Men raifed and rewarded for being 
wicked ; and (bmetimes both Good and Bad 
fuffering or profpering alike ; fbmetimes good 
Fortune following the Good, and ill Fortune 
the Bad, and often taking a contrary Freak 

Jfay, wife and honed: Men, feeing all thefe 

Things in this great Confufion and Uncertainty^ 
find fufficient Reaibn to be afraid of making 
bold with Heaven, and of chriftning by the 
Name of its judgments any of thefe Events and 
Evils that affiidl: any part of Mankindv 

But Bigots, and they, who, toferve ill Ends, 
ihtereft Heaven in all they do, deal more freelj 
and profanely with their great Maker- and 
Judge, whofe Councels and judgments being:; 
incomprehenfible, if is Impiety and a Contra- 
di&icn to go about to explain and apply .tnesi.. 
The T^/make God the Author of 
Thing they do, and of every Evil that others - 
fuffer from them, They meafure his Will by 
the Event ; and, with them, whatever is kio- 
cefsful, is lawful and juft: The Murder or 
Prince, or his murdering of others, is- never 
finfulifitfucceeds: God, they fay, blel 
approves the Event, die he v/ould prevent jr.. 
So that, upon this Principle, there can be no* 
fuch Thing as-Wickednefs and Villainy among! 
them . for who knows but it may fucceed, and 
then it is good ? or if it dots not fucceed,Who 
could fo'-elee but it wouid ? This impious 
Tenet or. that brutiih People, arms them ; :h 

3x4 C^ro's LETTERS. 

Fiercenefs and Outrage againft one another^ 
and all the World ; ir animates them to con> 
mir Rapine and Butcheries, and then fears 
their Conferences, and prevents all Remorfe. 
Nay, they glory in executing Cruelty, becaufe 
it is the Judgment of God, and they are his 

I wifh I could keep this dreadful Principle 
out of Chriftendom ; but I am forry to fay, it is 
common amongft us. Whoever applies the 
Judgment of God to others, has this Turkjfo 
Spirit in him : And all Men that make fuch 
Applications, reafon fo foolifhly, fb falfly, and 
often fo malicioufiy in their Defence, that every 
Triftance that I have ever yet met with in all my 
Reading and Obfervation (except the declared 
Inftances in facred Writ) does expofe them. 

Upon the Murder of Henry the Third of 
Trance, by Jacques Clement , a Dominican FrJar ; 
die Deputy of the famous French League, then 
at /^cw7?, 'tells the Pope, in an Audience given 
up?,n that Occafion, That the A (Tallin was 
chofen by God, and divinely infpired to mur- 
der his Prince; ad calls it a glorious Exploit : 
And tho' that execrable and bloody Monk ufed 
all the Methods of Falfhood, Lies, and For- 
geries, to get Accefs to the King, in order to 
deftroy him ; yet the Deputy folemnly tells his 
Holinefs, that it was notorious that the Thing: 
came not from Men. The League diftrefied, 
refitted, and at lad rrrurdered their Prince: And- 
all thefe their own wicked Doings, were for fbouh 
the Judgments of God upon him, for foffering 
Hercfy in the. Land, 



The Hugonots, on the other hand, made a 
Judgment of that Murder too ; but a Judgment 
on their Side, for his frequent Breach of Faith 
and Edicts with them, and for his Barbarities 
towards them. They faid, it was a remark- 
able Providence of God, that he was affaflina- 
ted in the fame Chamber, where he had con^ 
certed the furious Maflacre of St. Bartholomew 
- in the Chamber, nay, on the fame Day, 
the fame Hour, and on the fame Spot ! Here 
are Judgments encountring Judgments ! let who 
will reconcile them. I think ^both Sides were 
fiifficiently rafhand ridiculous in making them, 
as are all thole that do, whatever Side they are 


The Conqueft of the Greeks by 'Mahomet the 
Second, and their flavifh Subjection to theT/r^;, 
is afcribed by the Jefuit Maimlourg to the 
Schifin, which he fays they were guilty of in 
withdrawing their Obedience from the See of 
Rome. Here, according to him, was the Judg-* 
ment and the Caufe of the Judgment. Bttyle 
observes upon this Occasion, that Upme being 
taken by Charles the Fifth, in 15^7, was as 
barbaroufly pillaged by his Troops, as was 
Conftantin&ple by the'T//rJ^, when they took it : 
And he asks, Whether Jttaimbotirg would take 
it well to be told by the Greeks* that that De- 
fblation of Rjme was a Judgment upon her for 
her Pride and Ambition, in demanding, impe- 
rioufly, of the- G>ee\ Church,- an abfolute Uni- 
formity and Obedience to her Difcipline and' 
Dictates ? He fays, that Maimbourg^ fmce he 
was dealing in Judgments, might have as -well 
given this-another Turn, with which Chnlccndylis 


$z6 CATtfs LETTERS. 

would have furnifhed him. That Hillomn 
relates, that when Mahomet invaded and fub- 
dued Greece, the then Inhabitants of f(cme^ who 
thought themfelves the Defendants of the old 
Romans, who came from ALneas, who came from 
Troy, aflerted pofitively, that all the Deftrucl:i- 
on brought upon the Greeks by the Barbarians,.. 
was but a Judgment upon them for all the Ra 
vages which their Gree^ Anceftors had com* 
mitted againit the Subjects of -Priamus, and in 
the Deftru&ion of Troy fome Thoufand Years 

The Death of Oliver Cromwell was, it feems, 
attended or followed by a very high Wind, 
which was nothing ftrange : But as Oliver had 
been a Ufurper, and a great Deceiver, and was 
greatly hated; moft of the Vulgar, and many 
that would be thought much wifer, took it in 
their Heads, that that lame Storm was a loud 
Judgment and Declaration of the Wrath of 
Heaven againft him, and that Satan was fetch- 
ing away his Soul in a Whirlwind. But his- 
Friends turned it quite another way ; and par- 
ticularly Mr. Waller; who made all that Tu- 
mult and Bellowing in the Elements, to be 
partly the Call of Heaven, fummoning away 
fb great a Man, and partly the Sighs and Sym- 
pathy of Nature for his lafl Agonies and De- 
parture. The Copy of Verles that Waller made 
on that Occafion, is one of the nobleft in our 
Language ; I (hall conclude with a few Lines- 
out of it - - 

We mufl refign ; Heaven his great Soul does cldlrr^ 
In Storms <ti loud as his immortal Fame. 



'His dying Groans, bis lafl Breath foakes our 
AndTrees uncut, fall for his Funeral Pile. 
Nfw Rome infuch a Tempeft loft her Kjng 9 
And from obeying, fell to wor (hipping. 
Nature herfelf took. Notice of bis Death+ 
Andfjghing, faetfdthe Sea with fuch a Breath} 
That to remotefl Shores her Billows rolfd, 
T/>' approaching Fate of their great f(uler told, 

I am, 


TH E Talent of writing Hiflory is fb rare 
on this Side the Alps, and more on this 
Side the Channel, that I think moft of our 
Southern Neighhours have far exceeded us in 
it ; as much, perhaps, as forne of the Ancients 
haVe exceeded them. By far the rnoft part of 
our Englijh Hiftories are pitiful Performances, 
unworthy of a free polite and learned Nation. 
But tho' many of our Neighbours excel us in the 
Hiftories of their own Countries, we canboaft- 
of two univerfal Hiftories, which do Honour 
to the Authors, and their Country. The firfl 
is Sir Walter fywleigb, one of the worthieft and. 
ableft Men, that this or any other Country ever 
produced. He had a Soul as vaft as the Work 
he undertook, and his Work refembles him ; 
or tho' it has much in it that is foreign to Hifto-- 
ry, it is noble, nervous, and inftru&ive ; it's 
Spirit, Clearnei^ and Stile, are admirable j and 
r for 


for Narration, Penetration, Knowledge, Sen- 
tences, and Obfervation, he has few Competi- 
tors in Antiquity. 

The other is the very reverend, learned, and 
aged Dr. Prideaux, Dean of Norwich, who has 
given us a Body of univerfal Hillory, written 
with fuch Capacity, Accuracy, Induftry, and 
Honefty, as make it one of the beft Books that 
ever came into the World, and fhew him to be 
one of the greateft Men in it. No Book was 
ever more univerfally read and approved. It is 
indeed a great publick Service done to Man- 
kind, and entitles the Author to the higheft 
publick Gratitude and Honour. 

But tho' I never faw any great Work to 
which I found fewer Objections ; yet, as a 
memorable Proof how infeparably Miftakes 
and Prejudices cleave to the Mind of Man, 
the great and candid Dr. Pridcmtx is not with- 
out them ; I therefore do not upbraid him with 
them, but rather admire him for having fb few. 
There are however fbme of his Theological ; 
Obfervations, which feem to me not only Jll- 
grounded, but to have a Tendency to create in- 
his Readers wrong Notions of the Deiry, and' 
to encourage them to miftake the common Ac- 
cidents of Life, and the common Events of : 
Nature, for the Judgments of God ; and to 
apply them fuperftitioufly as fuch 

Of this Kind, is the Obfervation he makes - 
upon the Death of Camfafes, the Peyjian Em- 
peror, who had (lain the Egyptian Apis. For 
the better Undemanding of this, we mull know, 
that the chief God of the ^Egyptians was Ofiris ; 
y worfhip'd in the Shape vf a Bully and that- 



not only in Imagery, but alfo in Ideality ; for they 
kept a 'Bull in the Temple of Ofiris, which they 
worjhip'd in his Stead. The Do6r.or adds, That 
in Imitation of this Idolatry, was it that Aaron 
made the Golden Calf in the H 7 ildernefs, find 
Jeroboam thofe- in Dan and Bethel, and did fet 
them up there to be mrjhif'-d by the Children of 
Ifrael, <x the Gods that had brought them out of the 
Land of ./Egypt. 

When this the God and Bull of the Mgyftians 
died, they look'd out for another, with fuch 
proper Marks and Spots as were certain Indi- 
cations of his- Divinity ; and when they found 
one, they exprefied their Joy in great and pub- 
lick Feilivity. In fuch a Fit of rejoicing, Cam- 
byfes found the City of Memphis, when he re- 
turned to it, from his unprofperous Expedition 
into Ethiopia. The ^Egyptians had juft then 
found a new God amongft the Cattle, and had 
lodged him at his Crib in his Temple with 
great Solemnity. Cambyfes had a Mind to fee 
this Deity of theirs ; " And, fays Dr. Prideaux^ 
" this Apis being brought to him, he fell into a 
" Rage, as well he might, at the Sight of 
" fuch a God; and, drawing out his Dagger, 
" run it into the Thigh of the Beaft; and then 
" reproaching the Priefls for their Stupidity 
" and Wretchednefs in worfhipping a Brute 
" for a God, ordered them feverely to be 
' ; whip'd, and all the ^Egyptians in Memphis to 
" be (lain, v/ho fhould be found any more 
" rejoicing there on this Occaiion. The Apis 

being carried back to the Temple, languished 
" of his VVoundj and died. 


330 Giro's LETTERS. 

As to the Death of Camlyfcs, and the Man- 
ner of it, take it alfo in the Doctor's Wor'ds : 
*-' As he mounted his Horfe, his Sword falling 
out of the Scabbard, gave him a Wound 
in the Thigh, of which he died : The Egyp- 
' tians remarking, that it was in the fame Part 
of the Body, where he had afore wounded 
the Apis) reckoned it as an efpecial Judg- 
ment from Heaven upon him for that Far.; 
and. perchance they were not much out in 
it : For it feldom happening in an Affront 
given to any particular Mode of XVorfhip, 
how erroneous ibcver it may be, but that 
Religion in general is wounded hereby; there 
are many Inftances in Hiftory, wherein God 
hath very iignally puniihed the* Profanations 
of Religion in the word of Times, and urv- 
" der the worR Modes of Heath:n Idolatry." 

Without inquiring whether this be any Com- 
plement to Truth and Religion ; I Freely own, 
that the diftrefiing or difturbing of any fort of 
People in any fort of WorSTiip, however falfe and 
ridiculous, where the fame does not violate Pro- 
perty or humane Society, is an Invafion of the 
Rights of Nature and Conscience, and no Man 
can do it with a wife and honeft Defign : And 
what Men do of this Kind, out of Bitternefs 
of Spirit or Self-Ends, no one will juftiFy. If 
People will play the Fool in their Devotion,, 
they only expofe thernfelves, but hurt not 
others : and whoever does Hurt to them, does 
but warrant them to return it : And hence is 
the^fure Beginning of Tyranny, and of eternal 
civil and religious War. Every Man reckons 
every Religion falfe or foolifh, which he does 


C A ro's LETTERS. 331 

hot embrace ; and his own the bed, tho^It be 
the word. And if in this univerfal Obftinacy 
of every Man to every religious Opinion which 
he has imbibed, a Difpute by the Sword, and 
Arguments of Authority and Force, were en- 
couraged, or but permitted, Confuiion and 
Slaughter would be their chief Employment. 
Or if one Man's Will were to be a Law to 
other Men's Thoughts, the Effccls would be 
every where alike ; that is, the Stupidity and 
Slavery of Turly, would be the Portion and 
Character of Englishmen. 

But I cannot think that the wounding of a 
Bull, even of a confecrated Bull, and the whip- 
ping of his Priefrs, were fuch Crimes as, be- 
yond all the other Crimes of C<imbyfes 9 called 
for the avenging judgments of God upon him. 
He had others to anfwer for of a far more 
black, malignant, and deteftable Nature : He 
put his Brother to Death for his Merit, and 
for a Dream that he had concerning him. 
He killed, by a Kick in the Belly, his beloved 
Wife Mew, who was alfo his Sifter, and then 
with-child by him, for lamenting the Death 
of her muder'd Brother. He caufed feveral 
" of his principal Followers to be buried alive,. 
" without any Caufe deferving of it, and daily 
" facrificed Tome or other of them to his wild 
" Fury. And when Crafus (formerly King of 
" Lydia, the old and faithful Friend and Coun- 
" fellor of his Father Cyrus) advifed him againft 
" thofe Proceedings, and laid before him the 
" ill Confequences which they would lead to, 
" he ordered him to be put to Death ; and 
44 when thofe who received his Orders, know-. 



ing he would repent of it next Day, did 

therefore defer the Execution, he caufed them 

all to be executed for it, though at the fame 

Time he expreflTed great Joy that Crccfus 

was alive : And out of a meer Humour, 

only to (hew his Skill in Archery, he (hot 

to Death the Son of Prexafpes, who was the 

" Chief of his Favourites." He caufed the 

Magiflrates of Memphis to be put to Death, 

for anfwering truly to a Queftion he asked 

them. In his mad March over the Lybitin 

Sand?j to invade a People that had done him 

no Harm, he deftroyed mod of his vaft Army, 

Fifty Thoufand in one Place, and the reft were 

reduced by Famine to feed on each other. 

Which now is moft lik*ly, and moft becom- 
ing the divine Wifdom and Goodnefs, that 
the great God of Heaven and Earth fhould be 
more offended with this black Catalogue of 
Cruelties and Crimes, than with a hafty Blow 
given to a Brute \vorfhipped as God ; which, 
the Dodlor owns had juftly provoked the Rage 
of Cfimbyfes ? And is the Almighty more pro- 
voked at an Affront put upon an Idol, and upon 
the Attendants of an Idol, which falfly and 
impudently is made ro reprefent him, than at a 
terrible and raging Tyranny, that fpreads Blood 
and Defblation over the Face of the Earth ? 

Ctfmhfes, upon his invading Egypt, did ano- 
ther Thing as bad as the wounding of Apis ; 
I fhall relate it in the Doctor's own Words : 
Finding that the Garrifbn of Pelufium, a 
ftrong Frontier Town, were all Egyptians, 
in an Affault which he made upon the City r 
" he placed a great Number of Cats, Dogs, 



CMfO's LETTERS. 333 

" Sheep, and other of thofe Animals which 
a the Egyptians reckoned Tarred, in the FronC 
" of the Army ; and therefore the Soldiers not 
" daring to throw a Dart, or (hoot an Arrow 
*' that Way, for fear of killing Tome of thofe 
" Animals, Camhfes made himfelf ^Mailer of 
* 4 the Place without any Oppofition. For 
" thefe being the Gods which the Egyptians 
" then adored, it was reckoned the higheft 
" Impiety to kill any of them ; ^and when they 
" died of themfelves, they buried them with 
" great Solemnity. 

The Do&or makes no Reflexion upon this, 
though upon the fame Principle, it ^muft have 
been an Affront to Religion ; and if none or 
thefe facred Creatures were killed, it was owe- 
ing to no Tendernefs in Cambyfes, who expofed 
them to fo much Danger : But if true Religion 
is hurt by putting an Affront upon a falfe one, 
how came it to be a Merit in the primitive 
Chriftians to pull down the Heathen Temples, 
and deftroy the Idols of the Heathens, as they 
almoft every where did where they had Power, 
and often in Oppofition to Power ? And upon 
what Foot and Motive is it that Penalties and 
Incapacities are put upon any Seel: of Religion 
in any Country ? And how came the Jem to 
exercife fuch Fury upon the Gods and Worfhip 
of the Gentiles, as many of the Jewifh Leaders, 
and efpecially the Maccabees did, often out or 
their own Country, and often without Provo- 
r-qfjon ? 

U The Primitive Fathers are every where full 
of Sarcafms againft the Heathenim. Worlhip, 
which they treat conftantly with Ridicule and 


334 C^ro's LETTERS. 

Reproach, and Contempt and Bitternefs : Did 
Chriftianity fuffer by this Behaviour of theirs ; 
or did not rather Chriftiunity gain Advantage 
and new Beauties, by comparing it with the 
Abfurdities, the Fopperies, Nonfenfe, Corrup- 
tions, and Vanities of the Pagans ? Truth can- 
not fuffer by expofing Falfhoods, which can 
no more bear the Face of Truth, than Dark- 
nefs can the Face of the Sun. No- two Things 
are more unlike than true and falfe Religion; 
and the lame Treatment can never affect both 
In any RefpecT:, as the fame Arguments cannot 
defend Truth and Error. Indeed, true Reli- 
gion is defended and recommended by the very 
Means that expofe and deftroy a falfe one. I 
have therefore often wondered at a Saying of 
Mr. Col!ier\ tho' not that it was faid by him ; 
namely, That the Transition is eafy from ridi- 
culing a falfe Religion to the ridiculing a true 
one ; or Words to that Effect. Than which 
nothing could be more unjuftly faid : They are 
as oppolite as Law and the Violation of Law ; 
as unlike as Jiiftice and Oppreilion ; and as 
different as Cbrifl and Belial : How fhould the 
Worfhip of Demons referable the Worfhip of 
the true God ? And if they cannot be miftaken 
for each other, how can they be annoyed by 
the fame Weapons ? The Fathers were fb 
far from fuch an Imagination, that in their 
Railleries and Reafbriings upon the devout 
Fooleries of the Gentiles, they did not treat 
them with a-bit the more Reverence or Regard 
for their being eftabliflied by a Law. 

So much may ferve to fhew, that the true 
Religion can have no Sympathy with the Falfe, 



nor "fuffer in its Sufferings. As to the Death of 
Cnmbyfes, I do not fee any Sign of a Judgment 
in it, unlefs every Death occafioned by an Ac- 
cident or an Inftrument, is a Judgment. Indeed 
every Difafler, before it can be called a Judgment 
in thisSenfe of the Word, murr. be proved a Mi- 
racle j and common Effects from vifible and 
common Caufes, as they are no Miracles, fb nei- 
ther can they be called Judgments, unlefs God, 
the Author of Judgments, declares them fb, as 
he did not in the Cafe before us. Many a 
good Man has been killed in a more terrible 
Manner, as were all the Saints and Martyrs. 

Now where is the Miracle of a Sword fal- 
ling out of the Sheath, when a Man is mount- 
ing his Horle ? And where was it more likely 
to fall than on his Leg or his Thigh ? If in- 
deed it had got out of the Scabbard of its own 
accord, and mounted up to his Head and cut 
it oft, it might have looked like a Judgment ; 
but yet 1 (hould have looked out rather for 
any Caufe of it, than the killing of a deified 

I am^ &C, 

T-be End of the Second Politme* 

-"j-~ ' .f", " w 








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