Skip to main content

Full text of "Cato's letters"

See other formats

Lemuel Adams. 


C A T O's 





Printed for W. WILKINS, T. WOOD- 




L E T T E 


S HALL bellow this P4-" 
per in confidering what 
Dr. Prideanx fays of Bren- 
nus the Gnu!, his Expedi- 
tion, Death, and Crime. 
This Man, at the Head 
of a great Number of his 
Countrymen, fent Abroad 
to feek new Habitations, 
patting through nungary, lllyrlum, and Macedo- 
nia, plundering, ravaging, and deHroying as 
they went, at lalt invaded Greece, and " marched 
1 on towards Ds'phos, to plunder the Temple 
in that City of the vaft Riches which were 
VOL. ill A a, there 

4 Giro's LETTERS. 

** there laid up. But he there met a wonder- 
** ful Defeat : For on his approaching the 
** Place, there happened a terrible Storm of 
** Thunder, Lightning, and Hail, which de- 
*' ftroyed great Numbers of his iMen ; and at 
* 6 the fame Time there was as terrible an 
*' Earthquake, which rending the Mountains 
66 in Pieces, threw down whole Rocks upon 
*' them, which overwhelmed them by Hun- 
* c dreds at a Time ; by which the whole Army 
46 being much difinayed, they were the folio w- 
" ing Night feized with fiich a pannick Fear, 
44 that every Man fuppofing him that was nexc 
** to him to be a Grecian Enemy, they fell upon 
** each other, (b that before there was DayLight 
* c enough to make them fee the Miftake, one 
** half of the Army had deftroyed the other, By 
** all this the Greeks, who were now come to- 
*' gether from all Parts to defend their Temple, 
*' being much animated, fell furiouily on them; 
*' and altho' now Acichorus was come up with 
<c Brennus, yet both their Forces together could 
*' not ftand the Affault ; but great Numbers of 
** them were ilain, and great Numbers were 
*' wounded ; and amongft theie laft was Brer?- 
" mis himfelf, Vv'ho had received feveral 
*' Wounds ; snd altho' none of them were 

mortal, yet feeing all now loft, and the 
16 whole Expedition, which he had been the 

Author of, thus ended in a difmal Ruin, he 

was fb confounded at the Mifcarriage, that 
" he refblved not to out-live it : And therefore 
" calling to him as many of the chief Leaders as 

he-could get together amidit that calamitous 
" Hurry ,he advifed them to Hay all theWound- 






ed, and with the Remainder make as good a 
Retreat backward as they could ; and then 
having guzzled down as much Wine as he 
could drink, he run himfelf through and 
died - The reft being to march thro' Ene- 
my's Countries, they were as they pafled fc> 

Cc diitrefTed for Want of Provifions, which 
they were everywhere to fight for, foincom- 
moded at Night by lodging moftly upon the 
Ground in a Winter Seafbn, and in fuch a 
Manner harraffed and fallen upon wherc- 
ever they came by the People of thole- 
Countries through which they pafled, that 
what with Famine, Cold, and Sicknefs, and 
what with the Sword of their Enemies, they 
were all cut off and deilroyed : So that of 
the numerous Company which did firft fes 
out on this Expedition, net lb much as one 

" Man efcaped the calamitous Fate of miferably 

(I r> 

perilhing in ir. 

This is the Story of Ercnnuf, which I have 
told in the Doctor's own Words : Now follows 
his Reflection upon it : " Thus God was pleaied 
in a very extraordinaryManner toexecutehis 
Vengeance upon thofe facrilegious Wretches, 
for the Sake of Religion in general, hov/' 
falfe and idolatrous foever that particular 
Religion was, for which that Temple at 
Delphos was erected. For, to believe a Re- 
ligion true, and offer facrilegious Violences 
to the Places confecrated to the Devotions of 
that Religion, is abfblute Impiety, and aSia 
againft all Religion ; and there are many 
In (lances of very fignal Judgments with which 
" God hath punifhed it even amongfl the won't 

A of 


1 of Heathens and Infidels; and much more may 
they expect it, who having the Truth of 
God eftablidied among them, (hall become 
** guilty hereof. 

If this unhappy End of Brennus and his Fol- 
lowers was a Judgment, as doubtlefs this reve- 
rend and worthy Author thinks, I cannot fee 
why an Intention to pillage a ftupid Idol cf his 
ufelefs Wealth and devout Bawbles, given and 
tiled for the Ends of Idolatry and "Delufion, 
foould be reckoned the Caufe of it. I would 
be glad to know how any Part of Mankind 
would have differed in their Religion or For- 
tune, tho' the Shrine and Temple of Apdh had 
been ftript of all their fiiperftjtious and ill-got 
Finery j> or, How God Almighty came to fhew- 
him (elf thus miraculouily the Guardian of art 
Idol^ let up to^ rival him, and to deceive the 
World by uttering oraculous Lies? or, How 
the taking away of thofe Riches that were ac- 
quired by belying God and deceiving Man, 
and employed for the Ornament and Support of 
a blafphemous Impofture, could be called Sa- 
crilege or robbing of God, who was really 
robbed by an Idol of that only which he can be 
robbed of, divine Worfhip and Homage? 

But becaufe People are apt to be mifguided 
and terrified by Words, efpecially by fuch as 
are applied to Devotion and holy Things, I 
(hall here bettow Tome Reflections upon the 
awful Word Sacrilege, and (hew that it is but 
ill underftood. 

Sacrilege, we are told by fome, fignifies the 
robbing^or dealing from God any Thing which 
is peculiarly his. Now nothing can be ftolen 



from God, nor can any Thing be concealed 
from him. Every Thing being his, ft is as 
much his in the Hands of one Man as in the 
Hands of another ; for, let who will have the 
life of it, the Property cannot be altered : God 
who has all Things, can never be put out of 
the PofTeflion of any Thing ; and as nothing 
can be taken from him, fb neither can any 
Thing be given to him, becaufe all the Worlci 
and every Thing in it is already his ; and it is 
abfurd to imagine that any Form of Words, or 
Change of Place or Pofition, can enlarge or 
leflen his Property in any Thing. All that we 
have, we have from him ; and to return him 
his own Gifts back again, which we want and 
he does not, is no Compliment, nor any Part of 
Religion or of Renfbn : It is (hewing our felves 
wifer than him, in letting apart for his life 
thole Things which he has gracioufly created 
and fet apart for ours. Can we feed him ? or 
can we cloth, adorn or enrich him? Can we 
build him a City to dwell in, or furnifh him with 
Guards for the Security of his Perfon ? 

Sacrliegp therefore is either the robbing oF 
Men, or no Robbery at all. A*. a xi-^^-:^ 
is greater or lefs, according to the Meafure of 
Mifchief done. To ^rcb a poor Man of his 
Loaf, is- a greater Crime, in foro Confcienti** 
than to rob a rich Man of an Ox : To rob a 
Man of a final! Part of a Thing that is neceflary" 
to him, is a greater Crime, than robbing him 
of a great Superfluity ; and if I rob a Man of 
a Thing that will do him Hurt, I hope I do 
him lefs an Injury, than if 1 rob'd him of a 
Thing which does him Good. But if, I take a 

* ' 



Thmg which no Man has a Right to, I my felf 
have a Right to it, by pofletflng it. 

To apply all this to the Bufmefs of Sacrilege; 

a Man takes away any of the Books, Veft- 
ments, or Utenfils, made ufe of in Devotion, 
he only robs the Congregation, who muft buy 
more ; and many being more able than one to 
bear this Lofs, the Offence, as to its Effects, 
is lefs than if he robbed but one Man. But if 
he takes away from a Heathen Temple, Plate, 
or hidden^ Treafure, laid up there, but not 
ufed ; he indeed does an A&ion that he has no 
Right to do, but an A-5Hon that however does 
good to the World, by running into life, that 
-which was of none, or of bad Ufe. 

>ad Treafure, firft drawn from the People 
in fuperflitious Offerings, and then laid up in a 
Heathen Temple, and kept and ufed for im* 
pious and idolatrous Ends, but never to return? 
again into the World, for the neceifary Purposes 
of Life and Commerce, is the Plunder of Man- 
kind ; and the worft of all Plunders, becaufe it 
never circulates ; and People are greatly the 
\vorfe for it, in Refpeft both of Spnl *nd BoJ/, 
K..I. -- - -" ^c ine better. It is firft taking 
trotri them, and afterwards denying them, the 
great and chief Means of Life and Conveni- 
ence. He therefore, whoever he be, that takes 

from thence, let him take it in what manner 
he will, does a better and more publick Thine, 
tnan he who keeps it there. 

No Man can be robbed of a Thing in which 
he has no Property. Of this fort was A*M* 
Wealth ; and no body was robbed in taking it 
away. So that whoever takes away golden 


Images, or other dead Wealth, the Means and' 
Objects of falfe Adoraiion, is guilty of no other 
Crime, than that of difturbing erroneous Con- 
fciences : Nor need fuch Conferences be much 
difhirbed, fince the Crime being committed 
without their Confent, they have no (hare in it, 
And therefore if fuch idolatrous Images, and 
fuchfuperftitious,u(elefs, and pernicious Riches^ 
be taken away by a lawful Authority, or in a 
lawful War, it is no Crime at all. So that in 
every Senfe Ersnnus committed a greater Crime 
in plundering one Village, than he could haver 
committed had he plundered, as he intended* 
the Temple of De/phos. 

If Brennus had believed in dpollo, he finned' 
againfe his Confcience, in defigning to rob him, 
But we do not know that Erennus, or thofer 
that followed him, believed thus. I do not 
remember that/^c/Vo was the God of the Gaufs 9 . 
or that the Druids owned him : All Nations a- 
greed not in worfhtpping the fame Gods, but 
often difputed about the Quality, Birth, and 
Precedence of their Gods. And if Brennnf-- 
defpifed or difregarded Apollc^ he committed no- 
Sacrilege; at leait with refpecl: to hirnlelf, Jtr 
was no Sacrilege, but only Rapine ; but if 9 , 
believing in him, tho' an Idol, he would have 
finned in pillaging him, as doubrlefs he would^ 
here is an Argument, that a good Confcience 
may be an erroneous Confcience', and that if no* 
M an muft a6r. againft his own' Ccnfcience, 
tho' it be erroneous, as doubtlefs he mail not,, 
then much iefs has any other Man v/hatfoever 
a R'ght to puniil-i or diftrefs him for it. If 
k>d approves^ who is it that condemns ?' 

5;. Andl 


And none but God knows the He&rt of 

If Brennus had worfhiped Aplh+ he Vas 
guilty of Idolatry, in the Opinion of all Chri- 
ftians : And if he had robbed him, he was 
guilty of Sacrilege in the Opinion of moft. 
Now we hear of no Judgment falling upon 
thofe that worfhiped Apollo, and fupported that 
Idol with fuperftifious Donations; all which 
was Idolatry. And is Idolatry, which God has 
declared abominable in his Eyes, a lefsSin than 
robbing an idolatrous Temple ; which Action 
God has no where declared a Sin ? The good 
Kings of the Jews dedroyed all Idols and idola- 
trcusTemples, wherever they had Power ; and. 
the Wrath of God was kindled againft all that 
did not. If it was therefore a Sin againft the 
true God, not to deftroy them ; How came it 
to be Sin only to rob them ? 

I think all this is enongh to fliew, that an 
Intention to plunder Apollo of his idle and un- 
hallowed Wealth, was not the probable Caufe 
of any Judgment upon Erennus and his Follow- 
ers : But if there rnufl be a Judgment in the 
Cafe, there were Reafons for it, much more 
powerful, and much more likely to provoke 
God to fend it. He was a wild and barbarous 
Robber, at the Head of an Army of Savages, 
Who cruelly ravaged many Nations, made Spoil 
of all Mens Property, and inhumanely mafla- 
cred thofe that defended their own. They 
were Invaders, Plunderers, and Murderers, 
who by Nu.nbers, Barbarity, Rapine, 2nd 
Slaughter, laid wafte whole Countries, and 
deitroyed, unprovoked. Men and Property. In 



this general Pillage, they had already 
through and defolated Htmgnry, Illyrium* Mace- 
donia, and were now got into Greece. Was not 
here Guilt enough to call down a Thoufand 
Judgments ? And after all this bloody and 
brurifli Violence done to the World, and to the 
Laws of God and Man ; Can we imagine thatr 
thefe Gnuh fuffcred that terrible Doom for bare- 
ly intending a Thing, in which neither God 
would have been difhonourd, nor Man injured? 
At leaf! in an} 1 Degree of Cornparifbn, with the^ 
leafr of the other great and terrible Calamities,,, 
which they differed from thefe deftroying Bxr- 

I [hall now add fbmething more particularly 
concerning the wretched End of thefe G/rz//jy 
.and enquire how far it can be reckoned a Judg- 
ment And here I am of Opinion that either 
every Calamity, Publlck or Private, muft be- 
accounted a Judgment; which Doclrine, 1 be- 
lieve no Man holds; or elfe we mufr determine,, 
,by what Marks we can know a Judgment from* 
.a Calamity : Nor do I know of any luffideiv;- 
Marks- to direct us- in this Matter, but an im- 
mediate Miracle, and Declaration from Al 
.mighty God, that he means it fb : And in fuchi 
a miraculous Declaration, the Crime muPr be- 
expredy fpecified, for which fiich Judgment is- 
.inm'cl-ed ; berau(e for every Crims Judgments 
are not inflicted, nor always for the lateft: 
Crimes ; but fometimes overtake the Sinner,, 
long after the Sin is committed. All this I take- 
to be (elf-evident. We muft remember that. 
Men, biaiTed by Paliions and Prejudices, do- 
often - confound Good and Evil, and mifhke.- 

ii CA ro's LETTERS. 

the greateft Wicked nefs for the greateft Merity 
and the higheft Merit for the higheft Wicked^- 
nefs : Publick Maffacfes have been applauded, 
publick Incendiaries have been fainted, and 
publick Tyrants deified. While on the other 
Side, publick Virtue has pafTed For a publick 
Crime, Truth for Rlafphemy, and Chriftianity 
lias been rewarded with Fire and Sword. So 
that Men thus Blind and Perverfe, do frequently 
entitle Vice to the Bleffing and Favour of God, 
and Virtue and Merit to his fevereft Judg- 

Wherever therefore, there is a great Compli- 
cation of Crimes, and fomerimes of great Crimes, 
How can we diftinguifh for which of them the 
Judgment is fent, unlefs he that fends it de* 
clares the fame ? If he fends it for more Crimes 
than one, How (hall we diftinguifh where he, 
who only can, does not ? And if the Judgment 
is fent for one Sin only, by what certain Token 
can We difcover it ? If one Man hurts or di 
obliges Twenty, in Twenty different Ways; 
^obs one, fteals from another, deceives a Third 1 , 
calumniates a Fourth, wounds a Fifth, bears 
fa He Witnefs againft a Sixth, and fb on till he- 
has as many Enemies as Crimes, and afterwards 
dies by a Dlfafter or the Law ; every one of the 
Twenty will be apt to call it a Judgment, and 
a particular Judgment, for the particular OR 
fence done to himfelf. Now where is the Rule, 
by which certainly to know either that this 
Man's Death was a Judgment, or to find out 
the certain Crime that brought it upon him ? 
Or is ever fuch a Rule like to be found, as 
kmg as all. Sorts of Evils befal all. Sorts of Men ? 


As to the Thunder, Lightning, Hail, and 
Earthquakes, that deftroyed fo many of the 
Gauls ; were they not the ufual Operations and 
Effects of Nature ? And have they not been 
from the Beginning ? Have not whole Cities 
and Countries been deftroyed by them ? And 
has not their impartial Fury been felt by the 
Good and the Bad, without Diftin6tion ? In 
deftroying Storms by Land and Sea, are the 
Wicked only overtaken ? And do not the Vir- 
tuous jDerifh undiflinguifhed with them? And 
are not juft Men, going upon juft Expeditions, 
frequently overwhelmed by them ? And do not 
wicked Men> in wicked Enterprises, often 
efcape them ? When an impetuous Shock of an 
Earthquake overturns a City, or opens a de- 
vouring Chafm to fwallow it up ; Do the Dwel- 
lings of the Righteous remain unmoved, and 
their Perfons unhurt ? 

Nor is it at all wonderful or uncommon, that 
this ignorant Multitude, difmayed by fo many 
and fb alarming Misfortunes, thus fuddenly 
checked in their Progrefs, at a great Diftance 
from Home, befet with Enemies in" an Ene- 
my's Country, unskilled in the Phcenomena of 
Nature, futfering many Calamities, and dread- 
ing more, fell into a Pannick ; and having loll 
their Senfes, attacked one another, by a Miftake, 
in the Dark. Whole Armies have fallen into 
the like Terror upon the Sight of an Eclipfe : 
And the fame unaccountable Fear, but without 
the fame Effect, feized the victorious Macedo- 
nian Army of Alexander the (Jrent^ the very 
Night before they fought- one of the greateft 
and moft fuccelsfui Battles, And we have ftill 

euro's LETTERS: 

a much later Tnftance at Home: At the Bat- 
tle of Naisby, King Charles the Firft, who was 
in if, being pre iTed by fome of his own People 
that were behind him, bid them keep back; 
which Words being repeated by others to thofe 
next them, and by thele to others, the Word 
bficl^ was catched up, and run from Man to 
Man through all the Ranks, and underftood as 
a Sign to fly ; and accordingly the Royal Army 
fled, and the Field was loft. And thus a, 
Chance- word threw a whole Army into a Pan- 
nick. None of the Royal Party have yet told 
us, that this was a Judgment upon that King 
and his Caufe ; nor, i d^re fay, would they 
have believed the other Party, had the other 
Party alledged that it was. 

Confidering all thefe Calamities and Lbfles- 
fuffered by the Gauls, and the Confternation they 
were in, I fuppofe there was no great Miracle 
-in their being vanquiihed by the Greekj, who* 
were now come together frcm all Parrs, to fall 
furiouily on a defeated Enemy. And as fmall' 
Ire the YVonder of Brennus's killing himself: He 
was a refolute Man, and took that Method to 
cure himfelf of that Grief and Diiappointment 
.which he could not bear, and to preferve him- 
it If from falling alive into the Hands of his 
Enemies, to whom he had given a Right of 
uiing him very ill. 

Neither is it any thing furprizing that the 
.red:, being to march through Enemies Ccuntrl-s^ 
we^e, (is they p tiffed, fo diftreffed for want of Pro- 
vifions^ which thzy were cve v y vchere to fight' for fo 
incommoded, at Xighf by Lodging m r lily en the 
Ground in a Winter Sceifon, find in fuch a manner 


liar raffed and fallen upon whenever they came 
the People of thofe Countries through which they 
fajjed, that what with Famine, Cold, and Sicl^ 
nefs, and what with the Sword of their Enemies^ 
they were all cut off and deftroyed. All this 
Misfortune is thus fairly accounted for, and 
the Thing is not uncommon. The whole 
Nation of the Cimbri were deftroyed in much 
greater Numbers, when they left their old Ha- 
bitations in queft of new ; though it does not 
appear that they intended to rob Temples. 
And yet Xerxes deil'royed and plundered all the_ 
idolatrous Temples in the E/i/?, except that of 
Diana at Ephefus,. without thriving the worfe 
for it. 

They were all cut off and deftroyed I for 
which plain, natural, and neceflary Caufes are 
afiigned ; and yet it was a Judgment ! Surely 
this is ftrapge and unaccountable. Doubtlels 
there were Degrees and great Difference of. 
Guilt and Innocence amongft Brennus's Follow- 
ers ; and why fiiould they who were not all 
equally guilty all equally fuffer ? Why fflould 
Subjects and Soldiers be punifhed for the Sins of - 
a Prince or a General ? Soldiers are often prefs'd ! 
into the Service, and rarely or never know the 
Reaibns of the Commander's Orders ; and it/ 
is Mutiny and Death to difobey him. And 
Princes often run into wild Wars, without the. 
Confent of their Subjects, and againil their ln- 
tereO: ; and yet if their Subjects oppofe them 
in it, they are guilty of Refiftance, which is 
reckoned Rebellion, a very terrible and crying 
Crime, to which the Judument of God h s-- 
been pronounced due : And yet the Judgments 



of God, which fbmetimes fall upon Princes 
for an unjuft War, fall alfo upon their Sub- 
jects, who were utterly guiltlefs of it. What 
ftrange Do&rine is this ? that every Man- 
in a Nation fhall fuffer for the Sins of oner 
Man, whom they could not reftrain ; or that 
any Man (hall fuffer for the Crimes of ano- 
ther ? And that the beft Men in an Army or 
a Nation (hall bear the Calamities infilled 
upon them for the Sins of the worft ; as if it 
were a Crime in a good Man to live where his 5 
Lot has cad him, without his own Content, 
next Door to a wicked Man, or within Ten- 
Miles of him ! 

This Paper, which I could make much lon- 
ger, grows already too long. I iliall conclude 
with obferving, that we either ^apply God's 
Judgment at random, without his Authority; 
always in Oppofition to his Commands, and, 
for ought we know, as often contrary to his- 
Ends and Intention ; or we do it out of ^ Pre- 
judices to Men and Opinions : And by this we 
give Advantage to Infidels and Men of no Re- 
ligion, to reproach us with Prefumption upon 
our own Principles, in meddling with the fecrer 
Councils of God, in confounding his < Mtrcy 
and Juftice, and making hinr a6l capricioufly, 
and in confounding one Religion with another, 
the Good with the Bad, as if we thought them 
all alike. Let us give no more ground for this 
Reproach ; and as a Specimen of our Candour- 
and equitable Judgment, let us own, in the In- 
ftance before us, that the Liberty, Profperity, 
and Peace of the World, and ambngft the rdt, 
the Liberty of Greece* wet-s Things 


more facred and inviolable than Apollo's eonfe- 
crated Bawbles. 

I am, See. 

P. S. The Story about King Charles, I relate 
upon Memory, and may miftake in Names or 


I Have more than once complained in thefe 
Letters, that the beft Things being moft 
abufed are capable of doing the greateft Harm : 
Nor is it a new Obfervation, whatever new 
Occafion there may be, at all Times to re- 
peat it. Men have been ever deceived by good 
Names into an Approbation of ill Things, 
fanc~tified by thefe Names. Impofture and Dc- 
luficn have been called Religion, and thought: 
fo 3 Opprcffion and Rapine have been called 
Government , and elteemed Governmenr. 
Teachers have degenerated into Deceivers, Sub- 
million into Slavery, Taxation into Plundering, 
Protection into Deftru^lion, and Magiftrates 
into Murderers ; without changing their Names : 
Power and Right have been ever confounded ; 
and Succcfs, or the want of Succefs, has turned 
Villainy into Virtue, and Virtue into Villainy. 
Hence it is that little Crimes and imall Cri- 
minals have been detefled and punifned, while 
great Malefactors have been generally reve- 
renced and obeyed. ; and that little Rogues have 



been called Thieves, and hanged ; and great 
Thieves have been filled Conquerors and Prin- 
ces, and fbmetimes have been deified. Your 
Alexanders and C&fars were only Felons above 
the Gallow?, and fo have been many others of 
much lefs Figure than they. Great Crimes 
protect themfelves, and one another - fo that, 
in effect, Crimes are not always purriflied be- 
caufe they are Crime?, but becaufe they are not 
mighty Crimes ; nor in the inflicting of Pu- 
nifhments, has the Offence or the Offender 
been considered, but only the Figure of the 
Offender who if he was poor and neceilltous, 
has been put to Death ; if great and ambr- 
tious, he has been protected or preferred. And 
thus it is, that Halrers and Garters, Axes- and 
White Staves, Palaces and Dungeons, have 
been often miferably confounded and mifplaced. 

Thus are -the Boundaries and Diflinclioti 
between Good and Evii al mod loft in the 
World. To ill u (Irate this in every Inftance 
that deferves llluftranon, would be to write a 
Folio inftead of a Letter; at prelent I (hall con- 
fine my feif to the Coniideration of fclfe Ho- 
nour, which has done much more Mifchief to 
Mankind than ever real Honour did Good, as- 
k is more conducing to the little perfbnal Gra- 
tifications and the crooked Self Ends of parti- 
cular Men. 

True Honour is ait Attachment to honefl and 
beneficent Principles, and a good Reputation; 
and prompt's a Man to do Good to others, and 
indeed ro all Men, at his own Coil:, Pains, or 
Peril. Falie Honour is a Pretence to this Cha- 
racter, but does Things that deftroy it : And 


the Abufe of Honour is called Honour, by 
thofe who from that good Word borrow Credit 
to act bafely, rafhly, or foolifhly. 

A Man cannot a6r, honourably in a bad 
Caufe. That he thinks it a good Caufe, is 
not a good Excufe ; for Folly and Miftake is 
not Honour : Nor is it a better Excufe that he 
is engaged in it, and has pledged his Faith to^ 
fupport it, and a& for it ; for this is to engage 
his Honour againft Honour, and to lift his 
Faith in a War againft Truth. To fay that 
he is afhamcd to defert it, is to fay that he is 
afhamcd to do an honeit Thing ; and that he 
prefers falfe Shame to true Honoui^ which en- 
gages the Man that pofFeffcs it to hate and 
break all criminal Engagements. If a Man. 
enters into a Party or Society, becaufe he thinks 
it an honed: Society, is he obliged to continue 
in it, when he rinds it a Society of Knaves ? 
And does his Honour oblige him to be a Knave 
too, or to defert thofe that are Knaves ? Or,. 
does a Robber who leaves the Gang, violate 
his Honour, which was only an Obligation to^ 

A good Confcience, an honed Kenrt, and 
clean Hands, are infeparable from true Honour ; 
nor does true Honour teach any Man to act 
againft his Judgment. It muft be convinced 
before it ach, and meer Authority has no 
Weight with it. In humane Matters, it does 
not confider what is commanded, but what 
ought to be commanded ; and before it executes 
an Injunction, it enquires whether the fame be 
rational and juft. When fuperior Orders are 
unjuft, the Honour of Obedience is taken a- 

way s 

o C^rO's LETTERS. 

way ; for Honour is nor the Inftrument of Evil 
ir is therefore falfe and pretended Honour to 
execute and vindicate a bad AcTrion by an un- 
juft Command. Indeed no Command of any 
Confequence ought to be obeyed, but what is 
or ought to be Law, and is not forbidden by 
any Law. 

But this is only Reafoning, which has but 
little Force with Men when it combats their 
Intereft and worft Paiuons. To them there^ 
fore who follow the Guides of Gain and Am- 
bition, what I have here faid is not addrefled ; 
but to thofe who, contrary to their Intereflr, 
follow and approve others whole only Prin- 
ciple is Inter eft. 

Falfe Honour has more Power over Men 
than Laws have ; and thofe who defpife all 
the Ties of Laws, and of Religion and Hu- 
manity, are often very exa& in observing all 
the fantaftical and wicked Rules of falfe Ho- 
nour. There are no Debts fo pun&ually paid 
as thofe contra &ed at PJay ; though there are 
exprefs Laws againfl Play, and againft paying 
ot Money won at Play ; nay, 'tis penal to pay 
fuch Debts. And yet thofe that are thus exa& in 
paying to their own Ruin, and in Defiance of 
Law, whatever Debts they contract to avowed 
Sharpers, who live by cheating and picking 
Pockets, and are^ the Deftru&on of Families, 
and a publick Nuifance ; I fay, thofe Men thus 
exa& in Unrighteoufnefs and their own Wrong-, 
fhall run in Debt to honeir. Tradefmen, with- 
out any Purpofe of paying them, and uncon- 
cerned fee them broke, imprifoned, and undone 
fef want of fuch Payment, So lawlefly juft 


5 LETTERS. 2i 

&re they to Rogues that ruin them, and fb 
barbaroufly .unjuft to induftrious and credulous 
Men, who feed and cloath them. 

Is this Honour ! V\ hat Dupes are we to 
Words and to our own Vice and Folly ! It is 
but (mall Comfort to us that this voluntary 
Madnefs prevailed of eld amongft our barba- 
rous German Anceftors, of whofe diftra&ed 
Propenfity to Gaming Tacitus gives us this afto- 
nifhing Account : Aleam fobrii inter feria exer- 
cent, tfinta lucrandi perdendive temeritate^ ut cum 
omnia defecerunt^ extreme ac novijjimo Jttftit, de 
libertAte & de corpore contendant. Vl&us volun- 
tariam fervitutem tidit^ quiimvis junior^ quawuis 
robuflior^ adlignrl fe ac venire patitur* En eft i 
re pravtl pervicncia : ipfi fidem vocant. 

4t Gaming is one of their moft ferious Em- 
ployments, and even fbber they are Game- 
fters ! To this ram Vice they are fb violently 
addicted, that when they have wantonly loll 
all, they have not done, but defperately 
flake their Liberty and their Perfons upon 
" the laft Throw. The Lofer goes calmly in- 
** to Bondage ; and, tho' the younger and the 
" ftronger, fuffers himfelf tamely to be bound 
and fold by him that wins. Such is their 
vicious Perfeverance in Folly ! they them- 
" (elves call it Honour. 

Our modern Gamefters do not indeed go 
quite this Length ; they only fell themfelves, 
with their Families and Posterity to Beggary : 
For as to their Bodies, No-body v/ill (take any 
thing againft them. But in Point of Honour, 
in Gaming, we ftill retain the Stricl:nefs of 
thefe our polite Anceftors at Play, and gene- 





roufly pay to the laft Morfel of Bread, and 
venture Famine rather than a Dun from one 
that has foil'd us at the Art of picking Pock- 
ets As to other Duns, honed and nece- 

fitous Duns, we matter them not ; and Debts 
of real Honour and Confcience, do not at all 
touch our H >nour. 

Thus is Honour fet up againft Virtue and 
Law. Good Laws not executed are worfe 
than none, and only teach Men to defpife Law ; 
wheieas Reverence and Obedience go together. 
No Law will or can ever be executed by infe- 
rior Magiftrates, while the Breach or it is 
openly encouraged by the Example of fuperior. 
Dees any Man think that the beft Laws, even 
infptred Laws againft Duelling, would have 
any E-fFccl:, if there was at the fame Time a 
Duelling-Office kept open at St. James's? The 
Exnmple of thofe that fhculd execute Laws, 
or lie them executed, is ftronger than the Au- 
thority of thofe that make them. The Ex- 
ample of Vefpafia* did more towards the Re- 
ftraint of Luxury, than all the fumptuary 
Laws of Home could do till his Time. Pr^c/- 
puus atftritli m<<'s auftor Vefpafianus fuit. Ob- 
fequhim Inde in Principetn, & xmulandi firnor^ 
vaiidior quam p.-c-na ex legibus & mctus. Vef- 
" ' fafian was himfeli a fpecial Inftance and Au- 
" thor of Temperance and Frugality. From 
" hence grew in the People a Reverence for 
" the Example of the Prince, and an Emula- 

66 tion to conform their Manners to his 

" a Tie much ftronger than the Dread of 
^ Laws and all their Penalties. 



It is moreover become a mighty Piece of 
Honour to repair one Crime by another, a^nd a 
worfe ; and when one has done you an Injury, 
he muft, by the Rules of Honour, fight to de- 
fend it. Having affronted or harmed you con- 
trary to Juftice and Honour, he makes you 
Satisfaction by taking away your Life, accord- 
ing to the ImpuKes of true Honour ; fb here is 
a War of Honour againft Honour and Juftice 9 
and common Senfe. 

Another Piece of Honour is an Adherence 
to Error, after Conviction, and not to change 
a bad Religion for a better. To have been 
born in a certain Faith, is ]uft as ood Senfe 
as to have been born a Lawyer or Mathema- 
tician j and yet that fame is often the belt 
and trued Reafbn againft Change ! And there- 
Fore we often adhere againft all our Reafbn, 
to what others faid or did for us without 
our Confent, and when we had no Reafbn, 
Becaufe perhaps fbme People promifed for us 
'when we were a Day old, that we fhould Forty 
Years afterwards and all our Life, count Beads, 
worfhip unfavoury Bones, be governed by De- 
ceivers, and believe Contradictions : Are we 
therefore obliged to do all this, though we 
find 'tis againft all Religion ? Muft we be 
Hypocrites, becaufe our Anceftors were Fools ? 
Are old Falfhoods and Fooleries the Standard 
of our Honour ? Are we never to mend a 
wretched Condition, and never to make ufe of 
our Confcience ? If fb, then here is a War of 
Honour againft Confcience, a War of Faith 
againft Belief, and a War of Religion againft 
Perfwafion J 



Another Piece of falfe Honour has fometimes 
been that of ferving a Prince at the Expence 
of one's Country, though the ferving of that 
Country was the only Duty and only Bufinefs 
of the Prince, and of every Man in Office un- 
der him, But this, though a Truth as felf- 
evident as any in the Bible, has been fo little 
underftood or pra&ifed, that the wicked Exe- 
cution of impious Engagements made to a 
Tyrant, againft thofe made to Society, has 
been called Honour. And it has frequently 
been the Honour of a Courtier, to execute all 
the ill Purpofes of a Court againft his Coun- 
try. And here was the War of Honour againft 

The Honour of a Party is to adhere to one 
another right or wrong \ and though their 
Chief be a Knave and aTraytor, their Honour 
Is engaged to be honeft to him in all his Rogue- 
ries and Treafon. And this is a War of Ho- 
nour againft Honefly. 

The Honour and Sana fide of fome Princes,' 
have been of that odd and unprincely Contex- 
ture, that they were never once reftrained^ by 
the fame, from deceiving, plaguing, mvading, 
robbing, and ufiirping upon their Neighbours ; 
and doing Things which would have entitled 
a plain Subject to the Gibbet. Their Honour 
feems to have been deeply concerned to have 
no Honour: And though/ their Faith was en- 
gaged to protecl their Subjects ; yet their Ho- 
nour, on the other fide, was engaged to pillage 
and endave them. And here grew the^ Royal 
War of Honour againft Faith and Equity ! 



How many peaceable Nations have been rob- 
Led, how many Millions of Innocents butcher- 
ed, out of mere Honour, princely Honour ! 
This Honour is indeed fb wild, mifchievous 
and -extravagant, that Words, the moil warm 
and fignificant Words, fail in defcribing it. I 
fhall therefore fubjoin a few Inftances of its 
Spirit, and conclude. 

His Grace, ^7//m, firfl Duke of Buckjrg/Mnj^ 
engaged his Country in Two mad Wars at 
once with the Two greateft Powers in Europe^ 
hecaufe his Honour had differed a Rebuff in 
his Attempts to debauch Two great foreign 
Ladies. Europe was to be embroiled ; Lives, 
Treafure, and the Safety of Kingdoms to be 
rifqtied and thrown away, to vindicate, for- 
fboth, his Grace's debauched Honour ! 

Cambyjes, to revenge an Affront put upon 
his Father many Years before by an &*ypfian 
King, in the Bufmefs of fending him a Wife, 
involved the World in a Flame of War; and 
at the Expence of perhaps a Million oF Lives,- 
and the DellruiKon of Kingdoms, did at lad 
heroically vindicate his Father's Honour and 
his o\vn, upon the Bones of a dead King, 
whom he caufcd to be dug up, and after ma- 
ny Indignities caft into the Fire, 

White Elephants are rare in Nature, 2nd fc> 
greatly valued in the Indies, that the King of 
Pegu hearing that the King of Siam had got 
Two, fent an Embaffy in Form, to defire one 
of them of his Royal Brother, at any Price : 
But being refilled, he thought his Honour con- 
cerned to wage War for fb great an Affront. 
So he enter'd Siam with a vaft Army, and 
VOL, III. B with 

a (5 CATtfs LETTERS. 

^with the Lofs of Five Hundred Thoufand of 
iiis own Men, and the Deftru&Jon of as many 
of the SiamefiS) he made him (elf Matter of 
the Elephant, and retrieved his Honour 

Darius (I think it was Darius the ^ Mede) 
found his Honour concerned t<> chaftlfe the- 
Scythians for having invaded Afia, a Hundred . 
and Thirty Years before; and loft a great Ar- 
my to vindicate his Honour, which yet was 
not vindicated \ that is, he milled the white 
Elephant. For, 

In fhort, Honour and Victory are generally 
no more than white Elephants ; and for whits 
Elephants the moft deftru&ive Wars have 
been often made. What Man free, either by 
Birth or Spirit, could, without Pity and Con- 
tempt, behold, as in a late French Reign he 
frequently might behold, a Swarrn of ilavifh 
Frenchmen, in Wooden Shoes, with hungry 
Bellies, and no Clothes, dancing round a May- 
pole, becaufe their Grand Monarque, at the Ex- 
pence of a Million of their Money, and Thir- 
ty or Forty Thoufand Lives, had acquired a. 
white Elephant, or in other Word?, gained a 
Town or Victory ? 

Inftances are endlefs, or elfe I could name 
other People,, who have employed themfelves 
feveral Years in catching white Elephants by 
Sea and Land ; but I am in hade to conclude. 

I am. 6tc. 


To CAT O. 

TH O' Love, abflra&ed from Marriage, is 
a Subject too low for a Statefman, a Po- 
litician, and I might add a Philofbpher ; yet 
as it relates to that Holy State (as our Church 
is pleafed to call it) it is worthy the greaieft 
Notice ; for though many take upon them to 
ridicule all lawful and honourable Love, and 
Marriage, which crowns and proves it, yet I 
will venture to affirm there is hardly any Per- 
fbn lives a long Life without at fome Part of 
it deiiring to enter into that State : It is like 
Religion implanted in cur Natures, and all 
Men have a Notion 'tis the Way to Happinefs, 
though all don't pra6life it : The Reafbns of 
this Want of Practice are many ; befides the 
Degeneracy of humane Nature, the Imperfec- 
tions of both Sexes make them afraid of fo 
clofe an Affinity : the Want of Conftancy in 
the Male Sex, and above all, the Love of 
Money in both, is the greateft Scandal and 
Hindrance to this moil Honourable State in 

I cannot excufe either Sex (though by this 
Time, both from my Subject and handling of 
it, you will guefs me to be of the weakefl?) 
from this lad Vice, the Love of Money , and 
I might add Ambition for it feems to 
me grown the Rule of VJarriage, there b< ing 

B z fe\v 

Giro's .LETTERS. 

few Alliances contra&ed of late Years, but 
where this is rhe chief Motive on the Man's 
Side, and almoft fo on the Woman's : No 
V\ onder the Ladies fhould have catch 'd the 
Vice , for when a Woman finds herfelf flighted 
for no oiher Want but that of a large Fortune, 
(he muft needs think it worth purchafmg at 
any Rate, and neglect all other Merit as ufe- 


1 don't pretend to fay that Virtue and Merit, 
an our Sex, is to be met with in every Corner 
of the Streets, as 1 am too fenfible the contrary 
is but fure I am it is to be found, and Judg- 
irK-n r was given to the Men in order to diftin- 
guifh it But, fay your Sex, is Money then 
to be defpifed ? Muft the contrary be fought? 
And has a Lady lefs Merit for having a large 
Fortune ? Not always, but indeed too often ; 
nay, nothing can hinder it but natural good 
Senfe and Temper, joined to great Care taken 
in the Education; without that a fuperior For- 
tune makes a worfe Woman, consequently a 
\vorfe Wife. 

I was led into this Thought, and which oc- 
cafioncd this Letter, by a Difappointment a 
young Lady I had a Fnendfhijp for met with 
lately, with relation to this Subject, which colt 
her her Life. 

She was addrefs'd to by a Gentleman, wnote 
good Senfe and Agreeablenefs would, {he 
thought, attone for forae natural Defects and 
Infirmities, which (he had Penetration enough 
to find out in his Temper and Difpofition ; 
among which, his Love of Money was not the 
leaft ; he was fuperior to her in Fortune, but 


's LETTERS. z9 

fte was a Gentlewoman born, and bred fa, 
and in every Refpeft, bur Mmey, his Equal r 
She refojved to fuit herfelf to hrs Humour, 
and fancied herfelf cut out to pleafe and make 
him happy, not out of Vanity, but Inclination 
to do fo. ' She had Pride, and did not greatly 
care to be obliged, even by the Man (he lov'd ; 
but fancied fhe could fave up a Fortune to him 
in a few Years, and with the refuting of Pre- 
fents and refrgning of Settlements, attone in 
great Meafure for the want of it. He thought 
it worth while to deceive her for a considerable 
Length of Time, for v/hat Reafbn I cannoc 
guefs, fhe being a Woman of undoubted Cha- 
racter, which he had known for fbme Years 
before, and all her Actions anfwered it : But 
in fhort he lefc her, and that in (b abrupt and 
rude a Manner as made- her bear it worie, not 
fhewing the leaft Abatement of his Palilon the 
lad Time he faw her, more than at the firft. 
I vvifh he had trufted her with the Secret of 
forf along her, for 1 dare fav (he would have 
taken it handfcmely, and (for his Advantage) 
given him up. 

The Difappointment met her under an In- 
cfifpofition of Body, elfe I believe (he had good' 
Senfe, Reafon, and Refentment enough to have 
got the better on it. But fhe died, and with- 
out reproaching of him, or behaving herfelF 
unhandfbmely, (he faid (he v/as inclined to be- 
lieve there was a Fate in Things of that Na- 
ture, and wifhed him happier than ((he doubt- 
ed) he deferved. 

He is now upon the Brink of Marriage to 
a Lady, that I dare fay he does not like half 

B fi> 


fo well as this Lady he left her for ; but die 
has more Money abundantly, which he does 
not want ; and then, though as I laid before, 
Money is no Objection, nor need a Woman be 
fought out that wants it, yet I would not have 
a Man venture to leave a Woman for no other 
Reafbn, left he (as too probably he may) 
chance to repent^it. 

Sir, if you think this Subject, or our Sex, 
worthy your Notice, we (hall be obliged to 
you ; you are an Author, I might fay it ta 
your Face, capable of ferving any Caufe you 
undertake, ours is a charitable one : 1 am put 
of the Qyeftion myfelf, with relation to making 
my Fortune, or it might not have been fo pro- 
per for me to have darted this Subject, though 
obfcure ,'but I have a general Love for Man- 
kind, and particularly for my own Sex, whofe 
Caufe I commit to you, as into the Hands of 
a mod powerful Advocate, and (I hope) a 
willing Patron. My Sincerity on this Subject 
cannot be doubred, when I moft humbly tub* 
fcribe myfelf of that Sex, whofe Caufe I re- 
commend, vi%, 



To the Lady who wrote the Foregoing. 

YO U will eafily believe me, when I ac- 
quaint you, that I am not a llttl'ie proud 
of the Honour you have done me, in thinking 
me worthy of the Correfpondence of a Lady,. 
to whom Nature has fhewn herfelf fo indulgent,. 
She feldom leaves her own Work imperfect \ 
and therefore, 1 doubt not but (he has been 
propitious to you more Ways than one : And 
I am perfwaded, that if you had been the fTrft 
Object of the iiiconftant Strepbon's Adoration,, 
he had never worfhipped any falfe Goddcfs, 

I can aflTure yon, Madam, you could never 
have recommended yourfelf fb much to me, 
or have obliged me more, than in engaging me 
in this agreeable Manner in the Caufe of help- 
lefs Innocence, and diftreifed Virtue ; and in 
giving me an Cpportunty to confider the 
greater and better Half of the World in tru-ir 
nearefl and mofl engaging Relation. I am by 
Profefilon, a Knight- Errant : It is my Bufiriefts 
to right Wrongs and redrefs Injuries, and none 
more than thofe done to- your tender Sex. 

It is a Subject which employs my fofted: 
and moft delicate Thoughts and Inclinations ; 
which I can in nothing gratify fo much, as by 
contributing to the Eafe and Happinefs of that- 
Sex, to whom we owe moft of our. own. 

B 4 Tto 


That Cordial Drop Heaven in our Cup has thrown. 
To make the nanfeout Draught of Life go down t 

And to attone for the Thoufands, Ten Thou- 
lands oF Evils, to which humane Condition is 

Hercules himfelf laid down his Club, and 
took up a Diftaff : And, 

'furious Mars, 

The cn'y Cover nour and God of 

When tired with Heat and T<?i/, does eft refort^ 

To tafie the Pleafures. of the Paphian Coutf. 

I do not therefore depart from my Charac-, 
ter, $ or defert my Duty, in confidering this 
SubjecT:, and attending upon the Concerns of 
the Fair : With their Caufe, the Caufe of Li- 
berty is blended ; and (carce any Man will be 
much concerned for publick Happinefs, unlcfs 
he enjoys domeftick : Publick Happinefs be- 
jng nothing elfe but theMagtftrate's protecting 
of private Men in their Property, and their 
Enjoyments It is certain, that a Man's In- 
tereft, in Point of Happinefs and Pleafiires, is 
in no Infbance (b much concerned as in that of 
Marriage, which being the happieft or unhap- 
pieft State in the World, mufl moftly con^i- 
tute his Happinefs or Mifery. 

The Beauty, the Vigour, the Wit, and eon- 
iequently the Preferment of his Pofterity, do 
much depend upon the Choice of his Wife, 
and poilibly upon his Inclinations to her, and 
hers to him. We are very careful of the Breed 
of our Horfcs, our Cocks, and our Dogs, and 


CATffs LETTERS. 351 

as remarkably negle&ful of the Education of 
our Children ; and yet we dedicate Two- 
Thirds of our Subftance to our Pofteriry: For 
fo much is the Difference between the Purchafe 
of Eftates of Inheritance, and of Eftates only 
for our own Lives. 

Our Wealth does alfb depend fn a great 
Meafure upon domeftick Sympathy and Con- 
cord ; and ir is a true Proverb, that a Man 
mufl: ask Leave of his Wife to be rich : So 
great a Share of his Subftance and Prcfperity 
mufl: remain in her Power, and at her Difcre- 
tion, and under her Management, that if he 
would thrive and be happy himfelf, he muftr 
make her fo. 

In order to (his, he ought to chtife one whofer 
Temper, good Senfe, and Agreeablenefs, fhall' 
make him find his Pleafure in obliging her;; 
and by Conftancy and endearing Actions make 
her wholly his own. and to do all in her Power 
to oblige him. No Man can live in a conftant 
State of Hypocrify in his own Family ; but if 
he has Diftatres they will certainly break out ; 
or at leaf! be found out by one who is always 
about him, and whofe conflanr Bufineffc it is to 
obierve him, and his Humours and Affections,. 
And therefore, ? tis his belt and only Way to 
find out fuch a one, as he need not counterfeic 
a Kind fiefs to. 

In ail my Oblervatton, a good Husband 3 
rarely mifles to mak a g-ooii Wffe. The 
Hearts of Women are naruralJy (rj tender,, 
their Pailions towards their Husbands fbftrong, 
and their Happinefs and the Refpeft they meec 
with in the World, are fo much owing to their 

B >, Husbands^ 

34 C^ro's LETTERS. 

Husbands, that we feldom find a married Wo- 
man who will not with a little real, and often 
with but a Teeming Kindnefs, do whatever a 
prudent Husband will defire of her ; and often 
to oblige him, more than he defires. And 
what can be more barbarous than to ufe one 
ill, who throws herfelf into his Power, and 
depends upon his Protection ; who gives up 
all (lie has to his Mercy, and receives it after- 
wards at his Pleafure ? 

It is miferable Folly, to put yourfelf in a 
Circum (lance of being uneafy in your own 
Houfe, which ought to be a Retreat from all 
the Ruffles and Disappointments you meet with 
elfewhere : In Confequence of this, you muft 
leek your Pleafiires Abroad at great Expence, 
and the Hazard of your Health, and to the 
Neglect of your Affairs. Your Wife too, 
when fhe finds^ herfelf neglected by one in 
whom (he had fixed her whole Happinefs, will 
not bear the Place and Manfion of her Mifery, 
but will fall into a Defpondency, and an In- 
difference to your Intereft, and will be apt to 
look out in her Turn for Pleasures Abroad, 
\vhen fhe can have none at Home. Women 
for the moft part place their Felicity in their 
Husbands, and in their Families, and generally 
purfue thole Views, till the Unkind nefs, Ne- 
glect, ^and Folly, of their Husbands, render 
them impracticable. 

Whatever Excufe there may be for Men 
over-run with Debts, or otherwife very necef- 
iirous, to aim only at Money in Marriage, and 
thereby to throw themfMves into a miferable 
and nauieous Imprifonment for Life, to prevent 



falling into one but little worfe ; I cannot find 
one tolerable Reafbn in Nature, why any One 
in eafy Circumflances, and who does not want 
the common Neceffaries of Life, fhould pur- 
chafe the Superfluities at fb dear a Price. But 
it is flupendious that Men of Figure and For- 
tune, who have in their Power the Means oF 
enjoying not only the Conveniencies, but the 
Luxury and Vices of Life (if fuch can be cal- 
led ^ Enjoyments) fhould yet barter away all 
their Happinefs for a little Teeming additional 
Wealth, which for the moil part produces reaL 

It is. certain, that ten Men of Birth and 
Eftates have been undone by marrying greae 
Fortunes, for one who has been enrich'd by it, 
Moft Men pay Twenty per Cent, for fuch Por- 
tions, 'as long as they have any thing to pay, 
Ten Thoufand Pounds additional Fortune,, 
when laid cut in Land, will not produce Three- 
Hundred Pounds a Year clear, which Sum will 
icarce maintain the Tea-Table, and keep the 
fupernumerary Bawbles in Repair j and it will 
coil as much more to {hew them. Befides, 
when the ufual Prefents are made, and an Ex- 
peniive Marriage is fblemnized, gaudy Clothes 
and Equipage are bought, and perhaps a Lon- 
don Houfe furnifhed ; a conGderable Part of" 
this Portion will be disburfed, and the forlorn : 
Hero of this fhewy, noiiy Farce, will difcover,, 
too late, how much more cjlgible it had been 
to have married a Lady well born, of a dif. 
creet, modcft, and frugal Education, and r^n- 
agreeable Perfon, with left Money, than a, 
haughty Dame with all her Quality Airs abou:: 

lifer, . 

Giro's LETTERS. 

her, or Mr.Tbimbleman's Daughter, tho' bedecked 
with as many Trinkets as Tallboy or Jerry- Black? 
Acre upon the Stage. 

But before we can compleat this Account, 
we muft ballance what mud be given in Lieu- 
f this Lady's Wealth, betides the entire Lofs 
of conjugal and domcdick Happinefs. It is 
ruly (aid,, that Goid may be bought too dear ; 
and 1 may fafely fay, that the deared Purchafe 
now in England, is aWife with a great Fortune, 
not excepting that of South- Sea Stock lad Year. 

For every Thoufand Pounds the Lady brings, 
fhe mud have a Hundred Pounds a Year, at 
lea ft during her own Life, and often a Rent 
Charge, which alone is worth the Purchafe 
Money which fhe brings, if (he outlives her 
Husband ; and then The brings nothing to- 
wards the Iffue, which, modeftly fpeaking, are 
as much hers as her Husband's ; and it is cer- 
tain, that during her living with him, ihe 
fpends more than the Intered of it : For, (be- 
fides her private Expence) the Gay Furniture, 
the Rich Beds, the China Ware, the Tea Ta- 
ble, the Vifiting Rooms, Rich Coaches, &c.. 
muft be chiefly placed to her Account ; and 
{he fhares equally hi the Table Expence, and 
in that of the Children and Gardens : And yet 
over and above all this, a Man mud fettle the 
Remainder of his Eitate and Subftance out of 
his own Power, and intail it upon whatever 
Heir Chance and his Wife bring him ; per- 
haps, upon an ungrateful and diibbedient One, 
made fb by his independency upon his Fa- 
ther j often upon a fooliili and unimprovable 
One, and ibmetiaies, perhaps^ upon a ipurious. 
One. I 


I do not complain of this ufual Method of 
Settlement, as thinking it reafonable that any 
Man fhould give a large Sum ot Money In 
Dowry with his Daughter, without taking pro- 
per Precautions to provide for her atvci his own 
Pofterity. But I cenfure the prelent great A- 
bufe of giving and demanding fuch^ Fortunes, 
which have inverted rhe very Ends of Marriage, 
and made Wives Independent on their Hu 
bands, and Sons on their Fathers ; Fortunes, 
which make Men Bargain for their Wives, as 
they would for Cattle ; and inftead of creating 
conjugal Friendfhip and Affe6tion, and all forts 
ofdomeftick Happinefs, have produced nothing 
but Strife, Averfion, and Contention, where 
there ought to be perfect Sympathy and Una- 
nimity, and have brought into the World a 
Race of Monkeys and Baboons, inftead of 
Creatures with humane Shape and Souls. 

\Vhy fhould Men of Fortune and Under- 
ftanding bring themfelves, without any Motive 
from Reafbn or Intereft, into thele unhappy 
Circumllances ? Why (hould any Man, with- 
out any Confideration, at leafr any valu- 
able Confcderation, divert himfelf of the 
greateft Part of the Property of his own 
Eilate? Why make himfelf only Tenant for 
Life, when he is in PofTeilion of an Inheritance; 
and render himfelf by that Means unable to 
provide againft the many Emergencies of Life? 
Why fubjecl: himfelf to trie Infolence of an un- 
grateful Heir, or be forced to leave it to an 
unworthy one ? Why be obliged to bear the 
Caprices and Diihonourofa wanton and peeviiri 
Wife, perhaps made (6 by his Neglect, arifing 


3 8" Giro's LETTERS. ' 

from his Averfion, the ordinary Effect of Mar- 
riage againft Inclination ? when he might have 
chofen onejevery Way fui'ted ro the fame; and, 
by contenting himfelf with lefs Fortune, have 
kept the greateft part of his Efbte in his own 
Power, and with it the further Means of oblig- 
ing her, and of making her future Fortune and 
Expectations to depend upon her own Condu6r. 5 
Complaifance, and affectionate Behaviour. 

You have given me, Madam, a very preg- 
nant and affe&ing Inftance of a Gentleman, 
who, made falfe" by Avarice, has loft, and 
wickedly Joft, a virtuous, prudent, and fond 
Wife, while he fought Money more than Merit, 
and cruelly broke his Faith, and with it a tender 
Heart, for the infamous Sake of Lucre; which 
may defervedly prove a Canker in his Soul and 
his Subftance, and bring him a Lady with 
Qualities proper to revenue the other's juft 
Quarrel and barbarous Wrongs. And I,' on 
my part, can give you an Inftance of a Gentle- 
man of great Fortune and Figure, who, by 
a&ing according to the former wifer Rules, 
has made himfelf happy in an amiable, difcreet 
and pbfervant Lady, and enjoys with her all the 
Bleflings of mutual Confidence and tender Af- 
feUon. He is complaifant without Art, and 
ffie without Fear. 

I am with pgrfeft %>-'#, Madam, 

four mofl humble and mofl obedient Servant. 



s i H, 

| Have, in feveral of my late Letters, ob- 
ferved (ome Slips that have efcaped from 
the Pen of the great and learned Dr. Pridenux^ 
but as I have done this with noDefignof ble- 
mifhing a Character which cannot be blemifh'd, 
I think my felf obliged to own once more, his 
great Merit, the Service done by him to Man- 
kind, the Honour to his Country, and the 
Pleafure and Information which I in particular 
have received from his worthy Labours. 

It is poflible, that out of Deteftation to 
Principles which fubvert and tear up by the 
Roots all Liberty and civil Happinefs, I may 
have ufed fome warm Expreflions agiinft thofe 
that maintain them. Such Expreflions there- 
fore can be applied only to thofe who have been 
ever the avowed and active Enemies of every 
thing lovely, valuable, or praife- worthy a- 
mongft Men, But as to Dr. Prideaux, however 
he is fallen into Prejudices, perhaps early im- 
bibed, and not fmce examined by him with his 
nfual Accuracy ; or however he might intend to 
ferve a pious Caufe with adventitious Helps and 
precarious Supports, which it wanted not : 
Certain it is, from the whole Courfe of his ex- 
cellent Performance, that he had iincerely at 
Heart the Intereft of true Religion and Liberty. 
A Spirit of Virtue, Piety, goo3 Senle and In- 
tegrity, and an Averfion to U; pre/fion. Cruelty 
and Tyranny, fhine through his whole Hiftory, 
and animate the fame ; and neither he nor his 
Hiftory can be too much commended. 

But the Doclor is an eminent In (lance, how 
little any Man ought to be guided by the mere 



Authority of another ; fince one of the greater! 
and worthiefl^Men living, is capable of falling 
imo^fuch obvious Errors. From rhe Greatnefs 
of his Name and Credit alone I was led to thefe 
Animadveriions, and with Reluctance I 
them. Faulcons donor prey upon Flies. Other 
Writers, whofe Characters add no Weight to 
their Miftakes, are fafe from any Cenfure of 
mine. For this Reafon I (hall not trouble my 
felf with the Party-Falftioods and pious Ribal- 
dry, and Blunders of a modern voluminous 
Writer of Englijk Hiftory. His Central and 
Dialogue between Oliver Crcmwell and the De- 
vil, is a harmlefs Piece of HiPcory, and as en- 
tertaining as the reft. J nm &c; 

AS my Defign in thefe Letters is to entfea- 
vour to free and manumit Mankind from 
the^many Impofitions, Frauds, and Delufions, 
which interrupt their Happinefs- fo I (hall, in 
this, and fome of the fucceeding ones, atrempt 
to remove the popular ImprefTions and Fears of 
Spirits, Apparitions, and Witches ; which more 
or lefs afflict and terrify the greateftParr of the 
\Vorld; and confequently it will conduce much ro 
fheirEafeand Felicity, if I can lay thefePhantoms. 
There is a ftrange Propensity in Humane 
Nature to Prodigy, and whatever elfe caufes 
Surprize and Ailonifhment, and to admire what 
they do not unclerfrand ; we have immediate 
Recourfe to Miracle, which folves all our 



t)oubts, and gratifies our Pride, by accounting 
for our Ignorance, We are not affected by 
Things we frequently fee ; or if \ve can trace 
but one Link of the infinite Chain of Caufes, 
our Admiration ceafes ; tho' we are then as far 
from our Journey's End, as when we fet out; 
for all the Works of Providence are miracu- 
lous to us, who cannot do them our felves, or 
know how he, who is the Author of them, 
does them. And in this Senfe, every Thing is 
a Miracle to us ; tho' we ought to be no more 
furprized at feeing a Blaming Star, which makes 
its Revolution but once in five hundred Years, 
than in feeing the Sun every Day. 

For many Ages, the Phenomena of Meteors, 
Edipfes, and Comets, feemed unaccountable ; 
and the Caufes of Thunder and Ligh-ning were 
unknown to the World ; as they are to moft 
People in it at this Day. Great Guns were 
efteemed, by the Amcncan^ to be angry Deities; 
Ships, floating Monflers ; the Sun to be God 
of the World ; Watches to be living Animals; 
Paper and Ink to be Spirits, which conveyed 
Mens Thoughts from one to another : And a 
dancing Mare was lately burned for a Witch in 
the Inquifition of Portugal. 

All Nature is in perpetual Rotation ; and in 
the great Variety of Actions which it produces, 
fbme muft appear very extraordinany and un- 
accountable to us, by all the Powers of Matter 
ad Morion which fall within our narrow Ob- 
fervations ; and yet may, and undoubtedly have 
as certain and regular Caufts and Effects, as the 
moft obvious MechanickOperations.We fee into 
the Bottom and internal Frame and Conciliation- 


Giro's LETTERS. 

of no one Thing in the World, and probably ne- 
ver can do fb, whilft we continue in thefe frail 
Bodies. We fee not into thfe Principles and 
Contexture of Animal or Vegetable Beings ; 
and confequently cannot know what Nature can 
fpontaneouily produce, or how {he works. We 
fee only the Outfide and Film of Things ; and 
no more of them than what is neceflary to the 
Prefervation or Convenience of our felves, and 
not the thoufandth Part of what is fb. Almigh- 
ty God hath hid all the reft from our Eyes, to 
baffle our fool 5 (h Curioiity, toraifeour Admira- 
tion of his Power, and to excite ourHomage and 
Adoration to him the great Authorof all Things. 
Nature (as is faid in Print elfewhere) works 
by infinite Ways \ which are impenetrable to our 
vain and fruitlefs Inquiries- The Loadfl one draws 
Iron to it ; Gold, Quicl^filvsr. The fenfttive Plant 
Jkrinkj from the Touch. ' Some forts of Vegetables at- 
eracl one another, and twins together j others avoid 
cne ancthcr, and grow farther apart. The Treading 
upon the Turpedo, affccls, and gives raging Pains 
to cur whole Bodies. The Bite of a mad Dog catifes 
kladnefs. Turkey-Cocks and Pheafants fly at Red. 
A Battle Snake, by fort of magical Power in his 
Eyes, will force a Squirrel to run into his "Mouth. 
Jdujjcl^ will cure the Bite of a Tarantula. The 
Frights and Longings of Women with Child, will 
flamp Imp c{fi:<ns upon the Bales within them. Peo- 
ple, in their Sleep, will wa'\fscurely over Precipices 
and Ridges of H ufes, where they durft not venture 
whilft awake. Lightning will melt a Sword with- 
out hurting ths Scabbard. And there are very 
many other furprizing Inftances of the Powers 

of Matter and Motion, which we every Day 



fee and feel ; and, without Doubt, there are 
infinite others which we know nothing of. 

If lome Men could follow Scents, like Dogs, 
or fee in the dark, like Cats, or have the fame 
Prcfages and Prognofticks of fair Weather or 
Tempefts, which other Animals feem to have, 
How many Things would they know and do, 
unaccountable to the reft of Mankind ? If Al- 
mighty God had thought fit to have bellowed 
upon any Man, one or more Senfes above the 
reft of the Species, many of his Actions muft 
have appeared miraculous to them. 

But if thefe minute and petty Works of Na- 
ture caufe fa much our Surpize and Aftonifh- 
ment, How ought we to admire and adore the 
Author of all Nature, in rhe greater W 7 orks o 
his Creation ? The Earth it felf is but as a 
Muftard Seed to the vifible World ; and doubt- 
lefs that is infinitely lefs in Comparlfon cf the 
invifible one. It is very likely, that irs many 
Fellow-Planets, which move "aboiy; the Sun as 
we do, are filled with Inhabitants, and fome of 
them probably with more valuable ones than 
our (elves: And 'tis next to certain, that the 
numerous fixed Stars, nightly feen by us, and 
the more numerous ones frequently difcovered 
by new and better Glaffes, are fo many 
different Suns, and poilibly with each a different 
Chorus or Syftem of Worlds moving about 
them, and receiving vital Warmth and Nourifn- 
ment from their Beams ; for 'tis impoflible to 
believe, that the All- wife Difpofer of all Thmgs 
fhould place fo many Orbs, many thoufand 
times greater than this Earth, in the vaft Abyfs 
of Space, far out of our Sight, and of no life 


44 CAT tfs LETTERS. 

to us, unlefs to ferve fuitable Purpofes of his 

We are not, nor can we be fure, that there 
are not other Beings who are Inhabitants of the 
Air or ^Either, with Bodies fubtle enough to 
be fiiited to, and nourifhed by thefe thin Ele- 
ments, and perhaps virh Senfrs and Faculties 
fuperior to us ; for the Works of Almighty God 
are as infinite as is his Power to do them ; and 
'tis paying greater Deference ro him, and ha- 
ving higher Conceptions of IT'S Omnipotence, 
to fuppofe that he -aw all Tlv > which have 
been, are, or ever (hall be, a f e View, and 
formed the whole SyrVm of Nii^re with fuch 
exquiiite Contrivance and infinite Wifdom, as 
by its own Energy ancf Intrinfick Powers, to 
produce all the Effe6b and Operations which 
we daily fee, feel, and admire ; than to believe 
him to be often interpofing to alter and amend 
his own Work, \vh : ch was undoubtedly perfect 
at firft, tho' in the Purluit of his eternal De- 
crees, and in theCourfe, Progrefsand unbroken 
Chain of his original Syflem, he Teems to us, 
fometimes to a& occafionally ; when in Com- 
pliance to our weak Comprehenfions, and in 
Condefcenfion to our low Capacities, he (peaks 
and appears to a<5t after the Manner of Men. 
We have not Faculties to fee or know Things 
as they are in themfelves, but only in fuch 
Lights as our Creator pleafes to reprefent them 
in to us : He has given us Talents fuited to our 
Wants, and to underftand his Will, and obey 
it ; and here is our ne p!us ultra. We may be 
very fure that we are not obliged to know what 
is^ beyond our Power to know , but all fuch 
Things are as Non-emities to us. When- 

C A TO's LETTERS. 45- 

Whenfbever therefore we hear of, or fee any 
fin-prizing Appearances or Events in Nature, 
which we cannot trace and connect to their 
immediate Caufes, we are not to call in fuper- 
natural powers, and interefl Heaven or Hell in 
the Solution, to fave our Credit, and cover olir 
own Folly, when there are fb very few Things 
in the World we know any Thing of, and of 
thofe few we know but very little. We are not 
to meafure the Works of God by our fcanty 
Capacities ; and believe that he miracuioufly 
interpofes in the Courfe of humane Affairs, but 
when he pleafes to intimate to us, that he does 
or intends to do fo ; much lefs ought we to 
introduce Daemons into his Syftem of the Uni- 
vcrfe, unlefs as Objects or Inftruments, and 
Executioners of his Vengeance ; but not to in- 
trude into his Government of the World, to 
trepan and miflead his Creatures, and to thwart 
and oppofe himfelf ; and every now and anon, 
to cut the Chain, flop the Wheels, and inter- 
rupt the Courfe of his Providence. 

We are very fure God can do and impower 
any other Beings to do every Thing which he 
would have done ; but we are not obliged by 
any Precept, Moral, or Divine, to believe e- 
very Thing which weak, crazed, or defigning 
Men tell us in his Name ; and the disbelieving 
their foolifh and fantaftical Stories, is not 
queflioning the Power of God, but the Vera- 
city or Judgment of the Perfbns who tell them; 
for fare there can be no OccaGon of recurring 
to fiipernaturalCaules, to account for what may 
be very eafily accounted for by our Ignorance 
of natural Ones, by the Fraud or Folly of 



others, or by the Deception of our (elves. There 
can be no Wonder in a Man's telling a Lye, or 
in his being deceived. 

Which of our Senfes does not often deceive 
us ? Strangling, or ftrong Preffure of the Eyes, 
taufes all Things to appear on Fire; of the 
Ears, makes us hear Noifes ; ftraight Things, 
in the Water, appear crooked : Bodies, by 
Refled ion or Refraction, appear otherwife, and 
in other Places, than they are in Nature. All 
Things appear Yellow to Men in the Jaundice; 
and to thofe in Calentures, the Sea appears like 
a green Meadow, and, if not reftrained, they 
will leap into it ; Melancholly and enthufiailick 
Perfbns fancy themfelves to be Glafs Bottles, 
Knives, and Tankards ; Madmen often believe 
themfelves Gods or Princes, and almoft always 
fee Spirits; and a Reverend Divine, Ibme Time 
fmce, thought himlelf big with Child, and 
could not be perfwaded to the contrary, till a 
Man Midwife pretended to deliver him of a 
Falfe Conception. 

In Fevers, and malignant Diftempers, People 
fee Vifions r.nd Apparitions of Angels, Devils, 
dead Men, or whatever eJfe their Imaginations 
render moll agreeable or terrible to them : and 

* * * 

in Dreams, all Men fee, or fancy they fee, fuch 
falfe Appearances. Their imaginations, in 
Sleep, are ofren fb lively and vigorous, that 
they can fcarcely be perfwaded of their Mif- 
take when they awake cut of k, and would not 
be fo, ! c they did HOC find themfelves in Bed ; 
and therefore, if a credulous, fearful, and me- 
lanch'.'i'y Man, flbould cavelefl;/ nod himfelf to 
Sleep in his Ciol'jt or his Garden, and receive 



a vigorous Reprefentation of an Angel, Dae- 
mon, or dead Man, (peaking to him, or de- 
livering a MefTage, and afrer -ffake en n fudden, 
\virnMp i ' ;.rving his own deeping (as often 
happens) I cannot fee how he fbould diftinguifc 
this appearing Ph or m from a real Vifioi- or 
Revelation, and 1 (hould be glad to have a Rule 
to do u by. 

The Frame and Conrexmre of our Bodies 
betrays us to thefe Delufions. For as all Ob- 
ject? and Images from without, are let in upon 
the Mind by the Windows or Conduits of the 
outward Senles, and the Mind afterwards 
ranges, methodizes, operates, and reafons upon 
them j fo it can only work upon fuch Mate- 
rials as it receive?, and cohfeguenfly when the 
Organs of Senfation are wrong framed in their 
Original Contexture, or depraved afterwards by 
Sicknefs or Accidents, the Mind mtiftbe mifled 
too, and often mlflake Appearances for real 
Beings : When the Spies, Scouts, and Out- 
guards, are feized, corrupted, or deceived, the 
Intelligence will be fallacious, or none at all. 

It is evident in a thoufand Inftances, that the 
Mind and Body mutually a6t and operate upon 
one another; both grow and encreafe by Age 
and Exercife, both are impaired and enervated 
by Diftempers and Accidents, and all the noble 
Faculties of the former are often deftroyed and 
extinguifhed by accidental Injures done to the 
latter, and by other fortuitous Events and oc- 
cahonal Strokes of Fortune. Common Expe- 
rience mews us, that if Men aR born without 
one or more of their Senfes, fo many Conduits 
of Knowledge are ftopt; If a Child comes 



into the World without the Faculties of Seeing 
or Hearing, he can have no Underftanding at 
all, uniefs he afterwards acquires them ^ and if 
he loofes them again, all further Progrefs is at 
an End : The Vigour and Capacity of our 
IVlinds depend very much, if not altogether, 
upon ihe Organization of our Bodies, and are 
altered, improved, and encreafed by proper 
Diet. Action, or Education ; and opprefied, 
leflened, and fbmetimes quite loft by Drunken- 
nefs, Gluttony, Lazinefs, or Misfortunes. I 
have often alrmft fancied, that Men may be 
dieted into Opinions, as Experience (hews us 
they may be educated into the mod abfurd ones 
byCuftom, Converfation, and Habit. 

Every Pailion or Affeclion of the Mind pro-' 
duces vifibly a fuirable and correfpondent DJG 
pofition of the Mufcles and Lineaments of the 
Face, and confequently muft affect and alter 
the whole MechaniGn of the Body ; and by like 
Reafon every Thought or Motion of the Mind 
muft do the fame in a leffer Degree (tho' net 
equally fubjecl to common Oblervaticn) by 
forcing or directing the Blood, Juices, or Ani- 
mal Spirits, into peculiar Tubes, Conduits, or 
VefTels -j and when by frequent Uie thojfe 
Channels and Paffages become habitual to them, 
they will often flow thither of their own accord, 
or are eafily driven thither, and fo by working 
backwards, will caufe thofe Paiiions and Per- 
ceptions, which at firft caufed ihem, and in 
Consequence the fame Impreiuons ana Difpo- 
fitions of the Organs of Senfe. 

If this Obfervatton is true, it will account for 
our Delulions in Dreams, when exteriour^Ob- 


"je&s are flint our, which mull orherwife con- 
troul and over-power the weaker and more faint 
Operations of the internal Machine ; and this 
too will account for the many pannick and un- 
reafbnable Fears and Prejudices we are fubjecfc 
to from Education, Cuftom, and Conftitution, 
as well as for the Difficulty, if not Impoffibility, 
of our fliaking off and conquering any other 
Habits of Mind or Body acquired by early and 
continued Practice. 

1 1 (hall in my next apply thefe general Prin- 
ciples to the Syftem of Spirits, and (hew that 
Philofophy and Religion both contradict the 
commonly received Opinions of them. 

AS I have (hewn at large, in my lad Let- 
ter, that ^ in very many Inftances, our 
Senfes are fubje<5t and liable to be deceiv'd in 
Objecls evidently material ; fb in this I fhall 
endeavour as fully to fhew, that we can have 
no poilible Ideas of any other. When we 
call God a Spirit, we do not pretend ro de- 
fine his Nature, or the Modus of his Exigence, 
but to exprefs the high Conceptions we have 
of his Omnipotence, ~by fuppofing him moft 
unlike^to ^our felves, and infinitely fuperior to 
every 1 hing we fee and know, and then we 
are loft and buried in the Abyfs of our own 
VOL, III, C Ignorance j 

5 o Giro's LETTERS. 

Ignorance ; but we can have no other pofiible 
Conception of what we mean by the Word 
Spirit, when applied to him. 

' We cannot have even the moil abstracted 
Images of Things, without the Ideas of Exten- 
lion and Solidity, which are the Mediums : 
conceiving all Things that we can conceive at 
all. As the Organs of our Senfes are all ma- 
terial, To they are formed only to receive ma- 
terial Objets j and but a fmall Part pi thole 
which are fo. The Ear cannot hear, the 
Hands feel, the Palate tafte, the Note Imcl], 
or the Eye fee Bodies, but of certain Magni- 
tudes, Dimenfiqns and Solidity ; and thefe 
vary too in different Men, and m the- 
Men at different Times, and at different Ages. 
There are Millions of Infers that cannot be 
feen without Glafles ; and probably infinite 
others, whicrf cannot be feen with them, The 
jubtle Effluvia, or other minute Caules 
of peftilential Diftempers, are not within the 
Reach and Obfervation of any of our Senles/ 
We cannot fee Wind and common Air, much 
Irfs pure ./Ether, which are too thin and too 
fubtle Bodies for the Fabrick of the Eye ; and 
how ihould we fee Spirits, which we are told 
h-v?e no Bodies at all, and in the Dark too, 
when the Contexture oF the Eye will not at- 
ford us the life of that Organ ? 

I cannot conceive why the Dreams oi 
old Heathen Philofophers (hould be adopted 
into the Chriftian Syftem ; or from what Prirr 
cip'esof Reafin or Religion we 'ihould be told 
that the Soul is totum In tcto ^dtotttmin^ 
libet Parrs', that is, that ail of it is dirtufc 


Giro's LETTER.S. 

through the whole Body, and yet all of it Is 
in every part of the Body : That Spirits take 
up no Place, and that ten Thoufand of them 
may (land upon the Point of a Needle, and yec 
leave Room for a Million Times as many 
more ; that they may move from Place to 
Place, and not pafs through the intermediate 
iSpace; and that they are impenetrable them- 
felves, and yet can penetrate every Thing clfe. 
Is not this fine Gibberifb, and pretty Divinity ? 
And yet it is efteem'd by fbme a fort of Atheilbi, 
to disbelieve it ; but neither Philofophy nor 
Scripture tell us iny fnch Matter. It is true 
indeed, we are told, that Spirits have neither 
Fle(h nor Bones ; no more have Wind, Air, 
or ^Ether, and Thoufands of oiher Things, 
which yet are Bodies ; but we are no where 
told, as 1 remember, that Spirits have no Ex- 
tenfion or Solidity: And if we were told fo, 
we could underfiand no more by it than than 
they were Beings of which we neither had, nor 
could have any other than negative Ideas. 

I think therefore, that I n:ay venture to af- 
fert, that either God hath created no Beings 
independent of Matter, or that they cannot be 
Objects of our Fenfes ; but if there are any fuch, 
they are of a Nature fo different from us, 
and fo incomprehenfible by the Faculties he 
has given us, that we can form no Proportions 
about diem; and confequenrly are not oblig'd 
to believe or disbelieve any Thing concerning 
them, till he pleafcs farther to irfUm us. 

But there are an humble Sort of Philofb- 
phers, who want the Sagacity to conceive hew 
any Subftance can exift without Extension and 



lity ; and coniequently are modeft enough 
' '. they do not underitand theJDi- 
. s ,veen n^ierial and immaterial Sub- 
es and that they cannot, with their moft 
refin'd Imaginations, have any Notion or a 
5ta c of Things, between extended Be- 
1 no Beings at all 3 between real Eiien- 
,ces ... >had&ws, Phantoms or Images of di 
orders drains ; or that any Thij>g can^ exile 
in the Univerfe, and at the fame time m no 
part of it. And yet thefe Gentlemen will not 
give up the general Syftem of '^pir ts, but flip* 
pcfe them to be Beings of fubtle aerial Con- 
texture, that in their own Nature are not Ob- 
je6h of our Senfes, but have Powers, by af- 
iuming more denfe Bodies, to make themfelves 
fo, and have Capacities to do many Things 
unaccountable to us, and beyond the Limks 
and Reach of our Apprehenfions. All which 
I think no Man will affirm to be impoffible ; 
but I think any Man may fafely affirm, that 
fuch Agents are not permitted to moleft human 
Affairs, and feduce or miilead Men by doing 
fupernatural Actions, or what muft appear to 
us to be ib. 

A contrary Suppofition muft deftroy the very 
life of Miracles ; for if other Beings, either by 
the Energy of their own Nature, or the Will 
and Permlilion of God, can do Miracles, ^or 
thofe Actions which we cannot diftinguiOi 
from Miracles \ then nothing can be proved 
by them, and we (hail lofe the be ft Evidence 
of the Truth of our Holy Religion: Forjf 
Signs and Wonders may be promifcuoufiy 
Shewn and performed by the beft of all Beings 



and by the word, they may be done and us'd 
to promote Error, Irrspofture and Wickednefs, 
as weil as Virtue and true Religion ; nor can 
I find out any Criurion, or fuffkient Mark, 
\vh:-rcb/ we can diftingtiifh whirh arc done by 
the Preferver, .-.nd v'hich by th. ^rofefs'd E- 
nemy of Mankind. To fay that the Truth of 
the Miracle (hall be tried by the Do&nne ir 
is brought to propagate, or the Precepts it 
commands, is to invert the very life and End 
of Miracles, which is to give Credit and Au- 
thority to the Doer, who is always fupposM 
to a& by God's Power, in order to declare his 
Vv'ill; and confequentty, if the Wonders he 
does are to be tried by the Doctrine he teaches, 
there would be no Life of any Wonders at all, 
to prove not only what proves its felf, but 
what Is to prove the Truth of the Miracle, 
which is to prove the Truth of the Dodtrine. 

We are very fure, that the great Creator of 
Heaven and Earth, and the fole Author of all 
our Happinefs, does not leave us in thefe Un- 
certainties, and to be toiled and tumbled in 
the thick Mill and dark Chaos of Ignorance 
and Deceit. How can we know the Truth of 
any Revelation, without knowing the Revea- 
ler himfelf to be true ? We muft be firft certain, 
that a good and beneficent Being (peaks to us, 
before we can believe any Thing he tells us. 
Whenever therefore Almighty God, by Means 
becoming his infinite Wifdom, and from Cau- 
fes impenetrable to us, communicates his Inten- 
tions by Appearances and Reprefentations to 
our Senfes, or by any other Ways out of the 
ordinary Courfe of his Providence, he always 


5-4 C^/0's LETTERS. ' 

gives us fare Marks whereby we can didinguilli 
his Works from Delufion and Impofture, 
which often ape Truth it felf, and miflead igno- 
rant and unwary, Men. We are told in Holy 
Writ, Ami young Menjbafl fee l r ifions, and eld 
Jtfen dream Dreams^ which frequently hap- 

. ns ; and that fa'fe Prophets foal I a-ifs and do 
Woxdsrs, which (hall deceive nhnoft the Eleft, but 
we are bid to disbelieve them *, which, if they 
workM true Miracles, we could not do, 
without rejecting all Miracles. For how can 
we believe any Thing to be miraculous, and 
at the fame time disbelieve another Thing to 
be fb, without being able to {hew any DirTe- 
* -nee between them ? And therefore we may 
accijuiefce in an Affurance that fuch Pretenders 
mi:ft be Cheats, and their Actions Impoftures 
and Deceits upon our Senles. 

Whenever God works \\ 7 onders, or produ~ 
ces thole Events^which {hall appear as fuch to 
us, he always does them for wife Reafons, ei- 
ther to warn and inform Men, to make them 
Examples of his Juftice, or to communicate 
his Will, and teach us fome Doctrine ; and he 
rakes the molt proper and effectual Means to 
attain his Ends, and coerce our Belief, by ma- 
king fuch Applications to our outward Senfes> 
and fuch Irepreffions upon our ilnderPiandinrs, 
as we muft fubmit to, and acquielce in, unlt-fs 
we refblve to give up all Certainty -, or elle 
by Predictions which are judined by the E. 
vent, which are undoubtedly Miracles. He 
does them in the moft open Manner before 
Crowds at once ; but our modern Miracle- 
mongers do them all in Secret, in Corners, and 


s LETTERS. 5*5 

m the Dark ; and their Spirits and Apparitions 
are feen only by melancholy, enthufiaftick and 
dreaming old Men and Women, or by crazy 
young ones, whofe Heads are intoxicated and 
prepared for thefe Stories long before , and 
they are generally feen but by one at once, 
who is always in a Fright when he does lee 
them ; or elie they are the Tricks and Ju.n- 
gles of Headien and Popifh Prielts, or pretend- 
ed Conjurers, to pick Men's Pockets, and pro- 
mote fbme knavifh and fein'h Defign. They 
are never done e a Houfe of Lords or 

Common?, or in a Prince's Court, or in the 
Streets before Multitudes of People, or in the 
Sight of feveral Men at the fame time,- of 
clear and unprejudiced Underfeeding^ oroF 
unquefticni.ble Integrity. 

When our Saviour apper:r'd to all his Difc 
t ciples together, he' appeai'cl to their Senfes* 
bid them not be afraid, bin to put their Hands 
into his Side, a<.d believe thernfelves r He 
made his Afccnfion before live Hundred Peo- 
ple at once: His Miracle of the Loaves and 
Fifties was before five Thoufand ; His turning 
Water into Wine was at a Publick Wedding ; 
and the reft were of the fame kind : He went 
through Judcfi from Place lo Place publickly 
doing Miracles, confirming and convincing iM^ 
who were not wilfully blind, of the Truth j:)ir 
his Mi-lion: and teaching a Doctrine of infinite 
Advantage to Mankind ; whereas our prefent 
Workers or Seers of Miracles never tell us 
any Thing worth knowing ; and we have no 
other Evidence that they are feen or done, 
but the Veracity of thole who tell them, who 

C 4 may 

Giro's LETTERS. 

may be deceived themfelves, or invent Lies to 
deceive others. The Proof ought always to 
be equal to the Importance of the Thing to 
be believ'd ; for when it is more likely that 
a Man fhould tell a Lye, or be deceiv'd, than 
That a ftrange Phenomenon fhould be true, 
inethinks there fhould be no Difficulty to de-. 
rermine on which Side of the Queilion we 
fhould give our Aifent ; tho' in Fa6t moft Men 
are fo prepared by Education to believe thefe 
Stories, that they will believe the Relation of 
them in thefe Cafes, when they will believe 
them in nothing elfe. 

If one or two Men affirm they taw another 
leap twenty Yards at one Leap, no one will 
doubr but they are Lyars ; but if they teftify 
chat they faw a Goblin with Saucer Eyes and 
cloven Feet, in a Church yard, leap over the 
Tower ; ail the Town is in a Fright, and few 
of them will venture to walk abroad in a dark 
Night. Sometimes thefe Phantoms appear to 
one who is in Company with others, and no 
one can fee them but htmfelf , and yet all the 
reft ^ are terrify'd at his Relation, without 
reafbning that they have the fame or better 
Faculties of feeing than he has ; and therefore 
that his Organs muft either be indifpofed, or 
that he deiigns to impofe upon them ; but it 
paiTes for a Miracle, and then all doubts are 
iolved, and all Enquiries at an End : All Men 
believe moft of thofe Stories to be falfe, and 
yet almoftall believe fomeof them to be true, 
upon no better Evidence than they reject the 
reil : The next Story of an old Woman inha- 
biting a Cat, or flying in the Air upon a Broorn- 



(Hole, fets them a daring, and puts their Incredu- 
1 ity to a Non-plus. We often hear of a Spirit ap- 
pearing to difcover a Silver Spoon, a Purfe of 
hidden Money, or perhaps a private Murder; 
but are never told of a Tyrant, who by private 
Murders has flaughter'd Thoufands,and by pub- 
lick Butcheries deftrcy'd Millions, ever drag'cl 
out of his Court by good or evil Spirits, as a 
Terror to fuch Monfters: Such an Infhr.ce 
would convince all Mankind ; and if Almighty 
God thought fit to work by fuch Engines, and 
intended that we fhould believe in them or any 
of them, it is impoilible to believe but he would 
take theprbpereft Method? to gain our Aflent. 

From what 1 have hvd, and much more 
Which flight be faid, I think I may with great 
Aflurance conclude, that thefe capricious and 
fantaftical Beinps are not fuffered to interfere 
and mingle with human AfK.irs, only to miflcad 
Men, ar.d interrupt them in the Purfuit of 
their Duty : nor can I fee any Fcundaticn ire 
Nature, Realon, or Scripture, to believe there 
are any fuch as they are tiRially reprefented to 
us, v/hich neither agree and k^cp up to the- 
Chara'Sters, D, .ity and Excellence of '^ocd 
Angel?, or the Sagacity, OfHce and life of 
bad ones. VA here are we commanded to believe, 
that the Devi! plays hide and leek here on 
Earth: thar he is permitted to run i;p and: 
do\vn ard divert himfeilK by fcducing ignorant 
Men and Women j killing Pigs, or -nalurig 
them mi (carry j entering into C:its. and mak- 
ing N^ifcs, and playing Monkey-Tricks m 
Church-yards and empty Houfes, or any where 
here ou Earth, bur in empty Heads ? 

c \\ t 



know that he was caft headlong from 
Heaven, is chain'd fad in the Regions of the 
Damned, and kept by the Power of the Al- 
mighty from doing Mifchief to his Creatures; 
and to fay the contrary, feems to rne the high- 
eft Blafphemy againft Heaven it felf : For 
when we every Day fee and feel the many De-. 
lufions to which human Condition is fubje6f 9 
how we are the Properties of Impoftors, the 
Slaves to Tyrants, and perpetual Dupes of 
one another, and indeed are fubjeft to daily 
and endlefs Frauds and Impofitions ; how 
fhall we be a Match for the moft fubtle and 
moft fagaciqus Being out of Heaven? And is 
h poilible to believe, that the good, merciful 
providential God mould defert, leave and 
betray us to fo unequal a Combat, without 
giving to us fuitaWe Precautions, Capacities 
and Powers to defend our felves ? 

I fhall conclude by obferving, that the 
Heathen Poets fir ft invented thefe Stories, and 
the Heathen Prieils Hole them from them ; 
us Badgers dip Holes for themfelvcs, and af- 
terwards are ftunk out of them by Foxes. 

I am, &c. 

I Have endeavoured, in my lad, to fiiew, 
that no iiich Beings as Spirits and Daemons 
are permitted by the good God to mingle wi;h, 



and perplex human Affairs ; and if my Reafon- 
ing is good, the whole Syftem of Conjurers 
and Witches falls to the Ground : For I think 
it is agreed by all, if they have any Powers 
Supernatura.1, they receive them from Evil Spi- 
rits ; and if tbefe have no fuch Powers them- 
felves, they can tranfrnit them to none elfe. 

But, methinks, the Advocates for Satan's 
Empire here on Earth, are not very confident 
with themfeives ; and in the Works they attri-. 
bure to him, do not Credit enough to his A- 
biiities and Power. 

Tf-ey mt$e this Prince a mighty 

But his Demands dojpeal^hfm Proud and Poor* 

They give him a^Power to do Miracles ; 
make him Prince of the Air, Lord of the 
hidden Minerals, Wife, Rich and Powerful,. 
as well as Falfe, Treacherous and Wicked ; 
and are foolifh and prcfumptuous enough to 
bring him upon the Stage as a Rival for Em- 
pire with the Almighty, but at the fame time 
p'jt a Fool's Coat and Cap upon him. H!:> 
Skill has hitherto went no farther then to cran* 
Pins clown Children's Throats, and throw them 
fnto Fits ; to turn Wort, kill Pigs, to -eljj 
Winds,, (Dog-cheap too) to put cut Candles,, 
or to make half blind People lee two at once ^ 
to help Hares to run away from the Dogs : to 
make N tiles, or to difcourage his faithful Vo- 
taries at_?.>^/2^, by interloping upon their 
Trade of d if covering Prole a Goods ; and fuck- 
like important Fears of Knight Errantry. And 
what is yet v;or.fc, L cannor fiuu in cheie I 


eighteen hundred Years, that with all his 
Jiing he has invented one new Trick, but 
goes on in the fame dull Road ; for there is 
icarce a Story told of a Spirit, or a Witch 
who has play'd Pranks in the next Parifli, but 
we have the fame Story, or one very like it, in 
Ucero s Tradt de Divin fit lone. 

He always plays at fmall Games, and lives 
inpftly upon Neck-Beef. His Intrigues are all 
with old Women, whofe Teats he fucks ; 
(which by the Way, flbews but a fcurvy Tafte) 
and when he has gain'd his Ends of them, 
teeds them only with Bread and Water, and 
gives them but a Groat in their Pockets to buy 
1 obacco ; which, ia my Mind, is very ungal- 
lant, not to fay niggardly and ungenerous in- 
to great a Potentate, who has all the Riches 
of the hidden World within his Dominions. 
I cannot find, in all my Reading, that he has 
expended as much in h've hundred Years lad 
pair, as would have carried one Eleclion 

. Mcthinfcs, he might have learnt a little more 
Wit rrom his faithful Emiffaries here on Earth 
who throw and fcatter about Money, asif there 
was never to be an End of it ; and get him 
more Votaries in a V\ eek, than he can purchafe 
rorhimlelHn a Century, and put him to not 
a 1 enny of Charge neither ; for they buy Peo- 
ple with their own Money : But to keep fuch a. 
Coil and Clutter about an old Woman, and 
then leave her to be hang'd, that he may gee 
her into hj^ Clutches a Month fooncr, is very 
ungrateful ; and, as 1 conceive, whoilv un- 
iuitaDle to a Pcrlbn of his Rank and Figure, 

I fhould 

's LETTERS. 61 

I fhould have imagin'd, that it would have 
been more agreeable to the Wifdom and Cun- 
ning always attributed to him, in Imitation of 
his Betters, to have open'd his Purfe-Strings, 
and have purc.hafed People of more Importance, 
and who could do him more real Service. I fancy 
that I know fbmeof them, who would be rea- 
dy to take his Money, if they knew where he 
was to befpoken with ; and who are Men of 
nice Honour, and would not betray or break 
their Word with him, whatever they may do 
with their Countrymen. 

BeGdes; I conceive, it is very Impoliticly in 
one of his Sagacity, and in one who has fb 
many able Minifters in hts own Dominions, 
and elfewhere, to a<5r. fb incautious a Part. 
It is very well known, a Plot difcover'd, or a 
Rebellion quelled, gives new Credit and Re- 
putation to the Conquerors, who always make 
ufe of them to fettle their own Empire, ef- 
fectually to fubdue their Enemies, to leiTen 
their Powers, and to force them for the moft 
part to change Sides ; and in Fa6t,, one Witch, 
hang'd or burnt, makes old "Beelzebub a great 
many Adverfaries, and frightens Thoufancls 
from having any more to do with him, 

Forthefe Reafbns, I doubt, he is fiirewdly 
belyM by thofe from whom he might expe<5l 
better llfage ; and that all the Stories com- 
monly told about, and believ'd concerning him, 
are invented and credited by fuch only as 
have much lefs Wit, or not much more Ho- 
rielry, than himfelf. To enter into a Detail of 
them, is endlefs, ss well as uaneceflar-y to my 
Purpoie j it having been unq.ueftionably fhewn. 



already by the worthy Dr. Hufcbinfon, a Bifhop^ 
in Ireland, from very many Indances, that thefe 
Stories are FIcHons, Cheat*? or Delufions, and 
that the Belief of them is neither confident with 
Reafon or Religion: But I (hali add fbrne more 
Obfervations of my own, to what he hath 
with great Piety and Judgment publifii'd upon 
this Subject, ^and (hall begin with tracing the 
Genealogy of thefe Phantoms. 

The firft Inventors of them, as far as we 
know any thing of the Matter, were the Egyp- 
tians, who belie v'd, that the Spirits of the De- 
ceas'd always attended their Bodies wherever 
they were depofited ; and therefore embalm'd 
them with rich Gums and Spices, to prefer ve 
their Figure^ entire, and entombed them in- 
(lately Maqfploeiimsi with coftly Appartmenrs 
for their Souls to fblace in ; which Opinion 
gave Occafion to their building the expenfive 
and ufelefs Pyramids, to receive Souls of a 
higher Degree. From &gypf, thefe ,alery Be- 
ings were tranfported into Greece, and thence to 
Home, and the Greek and tyman Poets embelifhed 
their Fictions with them, and their Priefts made 
their Advantages of them ; and bothPricfts and 
Poets added many more Inventions of their 
own : They filled thcirWoods, Groves, Rivers, 
Rocks, Houfes, and the Air it ft- if, with Ro- 
matitick Deities: They had tiv.'r Demi -gods, 
Satyrs, Dryads, Hemi- Dryads, Penates, Lares, 
Fauns, Nymphs, &c. And when the general 
Belief of the Exigence of fuch Beings was well 
eftabliOied, '-.vithout Doubt they were often fcen* 
and talked with. 

C A ro's LETTERS. 

Tor Fear does Things fo like a lVitcb 9 
'Tis hard to find cut which is which. 

They animated aim oft every Thing in Na- 
ture; and attributed even thePailions and Qua- 
lities of the Mind to peculiar Deities, who 
prefided over them, or directed and caufed 
them : Mars infpired Courage and Magnani- 
mity ; Venus, Love ; Mercury, Cunning ; and 
Apollo and his Mutes, Wifdom, and poetick 
Raptures, &c. A Good and Evil Genius at- 
tended every Man, and his Virtues and Vices 
were efeemed to be Spirits : A wicked Man 
had anrvil Spirit; a vjrtuous Man a good one; 
a Wrangler had a Spirit of Contradiction ; Peo- 
ple who could not (peak, had a dumb Spirit ; 
a malicious Man, a Spirit of Envy ; and one 
who wanted Veracity, a Spirit of Lying ; and 
fo on. DiPrempers too which were uncommon, 
and could not eafily be accounted for, as Apo- 
plexies, Epilepfies, and other Fits and Trances, 
were imputed to Spirits and Daemons ; and at 
laft thefe Deiufions, which were only the Sal- 
lies of Poets, or the Inventions of Priefts, be- 
came the real Opinions and Religion of the 
common People, who are always ready to lick 
up the Froth of their Betters. 

When the Heathens came into ChnfKanity, 
they brought in thefe Phantoms with them, 
and accounted for oracular Predictions, and the 
other Chears and Juggles of their former Prlefh, 
by the Powers of thefe Daemons; and thePopifh 
Pridts have fincc improved upon their Pagan 
Predeceflbrs, and made their Fi&icns turn ro 
much better Account than puuinu tlrm in 



Verfc, The Heathen Dryads and NympL< 
were charged into Fairies, good and evil Geni} 
into Conjurers and black and white Witches, 
and Sairrr?. are made to fupply the Offices of 
Demi-gods.; and by this lucky Turn they made 
a very good Penny of their Charms, Exorcifms, 
Beads, Relicks, and Holy Water; and were 
paid for many Mafles, to invoke their Saints, 
in whom it feems they had a very good Intereft. 
There was fcarce a Church-yard, an old or 
empty Houfe, which was not peftered with 
thefe airy Inhabitants, nor a Man who had 
murdered hirnfelf, or who was murcWd by 
another, or had forgot fomething in his Life- 
time, who did not appear to tell his own Story; 
nor could be perfwaded to quit his new Abode 
till the Holy Man had laid him in the Red-Sea, 
who without doubt was very well paid for Irs 
Skill and Pains. We may be fare fa gainful a 
Trade was duly cherifhed and cultivated by 
conftant Juggles and Impoihires, and all Ad- 
vantages were taken of furprifmg and umifuaf 
Phenomena's of Nature. By the Help of 
Glades, unufual Voices and Noifes, Phofpho- 
rus, Magick-Lamhorns, Feats of Legerdemain 
and Coliufion and Confederacy, thefe" Prejudi- 
ces were artfully kept up, and weak and enthu- 
fiaftick People were made to believe, fometimes 
to fee, and afterwards to publifh to others their 
Vifions, or whatever elfe their Deceivers had 
Occafion for : whofs Power at the fame time 
was fb great, that the few intelligent Men who 
faw and detefted rhefe Impieties, durfl not con- 
tend with the Prejudices of the People, abetted 
by the Rage of the Popifli Priefts. ' 


Many of OUT firft Reformers were but weak 
Men, and I doubt fbme of them were not very 
honeft ones, and therefore generally fell into 
thefe Stories : However, they loft a great deal 
of Ground in Queen Elizabeth's Reign ; but 
were returned upon us with a full Swing by 
her Succeffor, who brought from Scotland with 
him Legions of thefe fubterranean Inhabitants, 
who methinks fhould more properly have come 
from a warmer Climate. That bright fagacious 
and Royal Author, wrote and publifhed a very 
learned Book of Dxmonology, which effe&ual- 
ly confuted all Disbelievers for (lire no Man, 
who hoped for any Preferment, Ecclefiaflical or 
Civil, would have the ill Manners to difpute his 
Majefly's great Judgment and Royal Authority. 
V\ hen Nero proclaimed himfelf the be ft Poet in 
his Dominions by Sound of Trumpet, no Man 
durft contend for the Laurel with one who had 
Fifty Legions at his Command : So an A 61: of 
Parliament was pafled for hanging of Witches; 
and his Majefty himfelf was gfacioufly pleafed 
to inform his Judges by what Marks they might 
be known, and many of them were hanged ac- 
cordingly ; but as ill Luck would have it, they 
multiplied like the Blood of the Martyrs, and 
the more they hanged, the more were left be- 
hind, during his whole Reign. 

In Charles the FiriFs Time, they began to 
decreafe again, by letting them alone, till at the 
End of the Civil War, a new Sett of Saints got 
into the .Saddle, and then again a frefh Perfecu- 
tion began againft old Women, who were 
hanged plentifully at every Aiiizes. 



Some only for not being drown '</, 

Others for fitting above Ground 

Whole Dfiys find Kights -upon their Ereeches^ 

And feeling P/z/w, were htnd for Witches. 

There were profeHed Witch-Finders, who 
knew them at firf!: Sight ; fo that there was 
fcarce a poor, withered old- Wretch, with a 
Mole or a Wart in any Part of her Body, but 
was in Danger of her Life. 

When King Charles the Second returned, and 
the Nobility, Clergy, and Gentry refiimed their 
proper ! ^ats, old Women began again to live 
and die in quiet ; and during that Prince's long 
Reign, there were but few Inftances of Witches 
hanged , and considering the PrepofieiL'ons of the 
People, occafioned by fb many late Murders, 
under the Pretences of Zeal, 'tis not to be 
wondered at if there were a few ; but fince the 
Revoliificn there has not, as I remember, been 
one Witch hanged, nor do 1 think that one 
Lawyer in England' would condemn one, or any 
fpecial Jury of Gentlemen find her guilty ; tho' 
we are often told, and if we may judge by 
other Effects, have Reafbn to believe, that 
Satan is as buiy now as he has been in the Me- 
mory of Man, 

But in a Neighbouring Country, Witches j 
are alraoit as plentiful as ever ; for as foon as 
the SucceiTors to the aforefaid holy Men came 
into play again, and ruled the Earth; they 
turned as they ufualiy do upon their old Bene- 
factor, and hanged immediately a Dozen or 
two of his Accomplices and did the fame fbon 
after in New England^ of which fbzne were poor 


QIM&-S (whom they could ' not be permittee! 
to hang meerly for want of Orthodoxy) and 
'tis thought there was not an Ola Woman in 
Yairylnnd (who was unfit for life) but would 
have undergone the fame Fate if the Govern- 
ment had not inrerpofed. 

Notwithftanding this, I do not find that the 
Devil has in the lead changed his Meafures, 
or is more afraid of the Saints than he ufed 
to be, but is conftantly working under their 
Nofes, and every now and anon kidnapping 
fbme of their Flocks, but 'tis always of fuch 
PS can pay no Tithes; for "t is agreed by ail, 
that a little Money in their Pockets will keep 
him out : But what feems very remarkable is, 
that at the fame Time that he makes fb bold 
with rhefe Holy Men, who have the Power 
to cad him out, he keeps a refpe&fu) 
from Men of carnal Senfe, and plain natural 
Underftandings ; and rnofl of aii, from thofe 
incredulous Perfbns, who cannot be perfwaded 
to believe that the merciful. God will permit 
him to outwit and deftroy ignorant and un- 
wary Ghriftiaris, whom the Saviour of the 
World died to redeem trom his Power. 

This is fb true, that thofe Stories are believM 
through the World, in cxacl: Proportion to the 
Ignorance of the People, and the Integrity oF 
their Clergy, and the Influence they have over 
their Flocks. In Popifh Countries, there is a 
I Spirit or Witch in every Parifh, in Defiance of 
I Holy Water, and of conftant Pater Xofters ; and 
there are more of them in ignorant Popifh 
Countries, than in knowing ones, in poor than 
in rich ones ; and they appear ofcner in Arbi- 


trary Governments than in Free States. The 
King of SjtwVs and Pope's Dominions have 
more of them than France and the German Prin- 
cipalities, where Priefkraft does not ride fo 
triumphant ; and rhefe have much more than 
Venice Genoa, and the Popifli Hans Towns. 

t The fame is equally true of Proteftant Coun- 
tries ; Mtfiovy, Sweden, Denmark^ and Lapland, 
have more of them than Scotland and l-eland, 
and Scotland and Ireland more than England, 
where no Clergymen of any Credit abet thefe 
Frauds ; and confequently the Devil's Empire 
here is^ aim oft at an End, how confiderable 
fbever it has been formerly ; and in Holland he 
has nothing at all to do, though that Country 
lies To near his other Territories, that I wonder 
he fliould not fometimes (horten his Journey, 
or at lead now and then rake it in his Way, 
though only to try what may be done among!! 
the Hcgan Mogans. 

From all which has been faid, I think I may 
reafanably conclude, that he is kept at Home 
by the Will of the Almighty, differing the Pu- 
mfhmcnt due to his Rebellion, and has no 
Power over others, till for their Difobedience 
to the^ Commands of Heaven, they are deli- 
vered into his Cuftody to be tormented, and 
made juft Objects of Divine Vengeance : And 
I (hall take the Liberty further to add, that 
true Religion is fb well fupported by Reafon 
and 1 ^ iadon, that there is no Neceiiity of 
tfl! ..Jes in its Defence, and putting it up- 
on fame Bottom with the Heathen Super- 
"ns, and the Popifh Forgeries and Impof- 
tUijs ; which, when discovered, will make 



i for One true Believer that is 
made by fuch Methods. 

1 am, 


AFTER all that has been faid of Arbi- 
trary Power, and of its hideous Nature 
and Effects, it will fail properly in, to fay 
fomething here of the Reftraints which all wife 
and fortunate Nations ought to put, and have 
ever pur, upon their Magiftrates. This is 
what I promifed Nine Months ago to do ; and 
this is what I propofe to do in this Letter and 
the following. 

No wife Nation in the World ever trufted to 
the fble Management, meer Mercy, and ab- 
folute Difcretion of its own Magiftrates, when 
it could help doing it ; and no Series of Ma* 
giftrates ever had abfblute Power over any 
Nation, but they turned the fame to its Ruin, 
and their own wild Gratifications and ili-judg'd 
Profit. As long as the Paffions of Men govern 
them, they will always govern by their Paf- 
fions, and their Paffions will always increafe 
with their Power. And therefore, whenever a 
whole People, or any Part of them, crofs the 
PaiHons of ^ any Man that governs them, he 
will turn his Pafiions againft a whole People, 
or any Number of them that offend him, and 
will deftroy a whole People rather than thwart 
kis Pailions, This is evident in Ten Thou- 


70 C A T O's L E T T E R S. 

land Inflances ; and the Publick will ever,, and 
certainly, be facrlficed to private Lud, when 
private Lud governs the Publick. Nothing 
but Fear and felfifli Confederations cati keep 
Men within any reafbnable Bounds ; and no- 
thing but the Abience of Fear can fet Men at 
Defiance with Society, and prompt them to 
opprefs it. It was therefore well judged of 
the Sp fir tan Epbori, when they erected an Al- 
tar to Fear, as the mod proper Divinity to re- 
ftrain the wild Ambition of Men, and to. 
keep their Kings within the Confines of their 

A Nation has but two Sorts of llfurpation 
to fear, one from their Neighbours, and ano- 
ther from their own Magiftrates ; nor is a fo- 
reign llfurpation more formidable than a do- 
medick, which is the mod dangerous of the 
Two, by being hardeft to remove ; and gene- 
rally dealing upon the People by Degrees, is' 
fix'd before it is fcarce felt or apprehended : 
Like wild Beads in a Wood, befet with Toils 
as yet unfeen by them, they think themfelves 
free ; but driving to efcape, find themfelves 
caught in the Chains, which had long been ] 
preparing for them, and dealing upon them. 
Befides, for One People undone by Foreign 
Invaders, Ten have been undone by their owns 
Native Rogues, who were intruded to defend .] 
them ; but indead of it, either betrayed them ! 
to theie Invaders, or felled traiteroufly lor 
themfelves thofe Rights which they were Iworn 
to preferve for others ; and then by Opprellion 
and Cruelty, and the other Confluences of 
their Treachery, reduced them to an utter Dlf- 


C^rO's LETTERS. 71 

ability of defending themfelves againft any In- 
vafion whatlbever. 

What has made Italy and Aft* Defarts, and 
their remaining Inhabitants flaring and con- 
temptible Cowards ? Not the Inundation of 
barbarous Nations ; though that Inundation 
was owing to the Weaknefs of the Inhabitants, 
Weakened and undone by their bafe and tyran- 
r : cal Governours : But they have been made 
Defarts by the continued Depredations of their 
execrable Princes, who have acted as if they 
had been Scythes in the Hand of Satan to mow 
down the Race of Men. There is a certain 
old Italian Tyrant, now living, who though 
he has by ftudied Rapine converted into a 
Wildernefs a Country which Nature has made 
aJParadife, yet is not weary nor afhamed of 
his Rapine,^ but goes on to fuck and fqueeze 
the remaining Blood of his Ghoftly Subjects ; 
and next to his vifiting Seven Altars a-Day, 
(a Way he has of compounding with God for 
being a peftilent Tyrant to his Ci e-; tures) I 
fay, his only Employment, befides this his de- 
vout ^and impudent Mockery of God, 'is to fit 
contriving with his faithful Miniftry, which of 
: .. ls may probably be worth, a Hundred 
Pounds, and how to cheat him or rob him cf 
that Hundred Pounds. 

This fame grand Prince has now fcarce any 
ether Bufinefs for his Soldiers, but that of 
employing them dnxclly againft his own Peo- 
ple : Nor are they fit for any other Employ. 
me/;t, for One Eng/ifh R^'rnent would beat 
Seven of his. So that his paltry Forces, many 
of them, are placed upon his Frontiers, not to 



defend him from an Invafion^ a Task they are 
not equal to, but to keep his wretched Sub- 
je&s from running away from Famine and his 

Government a Relief which is however ' 

barbaroufly denied them by this old polite Ty- 
rant ! They muft iky and perifh under him ; 
nor will he fuffer them to feek elfe where that 
Support of Life, of which his diabolical Go- 
vernment deprives them at Home ; as if when 
he had robbed them of their Labour and their 
Life, he alfo wanted their Skins. 

There is not upon Earth a Nation, which 
having had unaccountable Magiftrates, has 
not felt them to have been crying and con- 
fuming Mifchiefs, In truth, where they are 
moft limited, it has been often as much as a 
whole People could do to reftrain them to their 
Truft, and to keep them from Violence ; and 
fuch frequently has been their Propenfity to be 
lawlefs, that nothing but Violence, and fome- 
times nothing but_ a violent Death, could cure 
them of their Violence. This Evil has its 
Root in humane Nature ; Men will never 
think they have enough, whilft they can take 
more, nor be content with a Part, when they 
can feize the Whole. We are,. indeed, told of 
fome Abfolure Princes, who have been very 
good Men and no Oppreffors. But the Ma- 
ture of their Power rendered their good Qua- 
lities almoft ufelefs, and gave to others an. 
Opportunity of doing in their Name, and by 
their Authority, M ^chiefs which perhaps^they 
themfelves abhorred. Befides, in any Series of' 
Arbitrary Princes upon Earth, fcarce out of 
Ten can One be named who was tolerable, 



and who either did nor himfelf prove an in- 
humane Tyrant, or differed his Minifters to 
be To : And when an Abfolute Prince has had 
great Parts, they generally went to his Grave 
with him, and fcarce ever proved hereditary, 
In truth, the Children of great Princes have al- 
moft always proved very unlike them. 

I own, the firft of the Line has fbmerimes 
acled plaufibly, and gained by doing fb dan- 
gerous Credit and Popularity. But if he were 
an Angel he is never to be forgiven, hecaufe it: 
is out of his Power what his Succeffor fliall 
prove. The Crocodile's Egg does no Mifchief 
whilfl it continues an Egg , but out of it is 
hatched a Crocodile, and by it the curfed Race: 
of Deftroyers is continued. D. Heinfws fays 
very juftly, Nee unquam fervittts, m fpeciofa 
juidem, legit quibus ferviat, fed accipit. . rt The 
' moft plaufible Slavery is attended with this 
eternal Misfortune, that it has no Choice of 
a Matter, but muft accept of a Mafter, fuch 
as Chance fends." Vejpajian left to the tymar.s 
for their Prince the beneficent Titus, but he al- 
Ib left them the raging and bloody Domitian* 

If Julius Ctffar and Augnflus had been really 
Gods, as their Flatterers made them, yet their 
leaving behind them fuch a Race of SuccefTors, 
(who proved a Race of Daemons) entitles them 
to the Characters of deteftable Tyrants to all 
Eternity. Tiberius^ Caligula, Claudius, and Ne- 
ro, were the precious and bloody Bleflmgs 
thefe beneficent Princes left - Names uni- 
verfally abhorred, whilft rhofe of Csfar gnd 
Autuftus are generally adored : And yet to CtJ^r 
and Auguftus were Mankind indebted for thefe 
VOL, III, D Peih 

Giro's LETTERS. 

Pefls of Mankind : Nor were they fo great 
Ptfts as were Ctfor and Augujius, who did much 
more Mifchief, and deftroyed the World more 
tVun either Nero or Caligula, hefides leaving 
them to deftroy it ftili further. 

People rarely think of this, but it is literally 
true. "What ! will fome fay, the generous Co 
far and the mild Augvfins do more Mifchief 
than the wild Caligula and the favage Nm> / 
Yes, fifty to one : Nero deftroyed his Twenties, 
dcfar and Auguftus their Twenty Thoufands , 
and for Nero, we may thank Julius and ^- 
/?*. Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and N*r0, 
took f(ome chiefly for the Scene of their Cru- 
elty, and deftroyed many great and good Men, 
fome out of Watitonnefs, and more out of Jea- 
loufy : But Cccfar and Auguftus made Rptne and 
the World their Slaughter- houfe, and deftroyed 
more great and good Men by far than the 
other Four, as butchering Monfters as they 
were : And as to publick Rapine and general 
Depopulation, they exceeded them (till further. 
Indeed, as to heroick and diffufive Mifchief 
and Villainy, the Difference between them was 
as great as between Jack. Straw and a late Grand 
Monarqu-3. The Truth is, Ctfar and Auguflns I 
had Art and great Qyalitie?, which are far 
from excufing the Evils they did ; and their 
Succeffors having all their Ambition, but want- 
ing their great Qualities and Difcretion, took I 
the direft Road to Hatred, 

An unreilrained Power of one Man, or^ a 
few, over all, is fuch an extravagant Devia- 
tion from Reafon and Nature, that neither B>7- 
areus with his many Hands, nor the Hydra with 



its numerous Heads, nor the Centaurs* half Man 
and half Beaft, were Things more unfhapen, 
monftrous, and frightful : Nor would thefe 
Fi&ions appear more fabulous and improbable, 
than fuch Power would to a free People, who 
never had heard of it before. What could 
feem to common Senfe a wilder Chimera, than 
that one Man, not created with Features and 
Endowments different from other Men, fhould 
have a lafting Right from his Blood, or his 
Pride, or his Madnefs, to domineer overfall 
Men, and to rule, kill, ftarve, famifh, banifh, 
and imprifon, as many as he pleaftd ? 

This Power is indeed fo monftrous, that it 
turns Men that have it into Motifters ; and 
therefore the moft amiable and unexception- 
able Man upon Earth, is not to be truftcd 
with it. Men change with their Stations, and 
Power of any Sort rarely alters them for the 
better ; but, on the contrary, has often turned 
a very good Man into a very bad, This (hews 
that Men forbear Evil, chiefly to avoid the ill 
Confluences of it to themfelves, and for want 
of Opportunity and Protection ; and finding 
both in Power, they prove, by making ufe of 
them, that their Virtue was only Self-love, 
and Fear of Punifhment. Thus Men of the 
beft and brighteft Characters have often done 
mod Mifchief, and by well ferving their Coun- 
try, have been enabled to deftroy it : And 
they were good and evil from one and the 
fame Motive, a Paillon for themfelves, and 
their own Security or Glory. 

Thus the Houfe of the Medicis, by being 
very good Commonwealths Men, and by fer- 

D 2, ving 


ving and obliging almofl every Family in 
florence, gained Credit enough by this their 
generous Behaviour, -to enflave that great and 
powerful City. Idque apud imperitos, hum.inltas I 
vocabatur, qu^d pars fervitutjs erat. Pericles ad- 1 
miniftered the Government of Athens with 
great Sufficiency ; but he broke down the I 
Fences of its Liberty, and ruled arbitrarily all I 
his Days, AgAtbocles fought fuccefsfully for the I 
City of Syrticufe^ and as furcefsfully aguinft it ;J 
and having defended the Citizens againft their 
Enemies, he afterwards (hewed himfelf their 
greateft, by killing in one great M a flac recall 
the chief and belt of them, and by crowning 
himfelf Tyrant over all the reft. Mnrius and 
Sylla, Pompey and C<efar 9 were great and excel- 1 
lent Commanders, and conquered many great 
Kings and Nations : But they made all the 
Fruits of their Victories their own ; and 
from being very good Soldiers, made them- 
felves moft pernicious and arbitrary Magi- 

Now all thefe Great Men derived, from the 
Good they did, a Capacity to do much morei 
Evil : So 'that as a Power to do great Good, 
does naturally include in it an Opportunity o 
doins much Evil , fo thofe who are in the 
Poffeffion of Power, as all Magiftrates are,, 
ought above all other Men to be narrowly 
watched, and checked with Reftraints ftronger 
than their Temptations to break them; and 
every Crime of theirs ought to be more penal, 
as it is evidently more pernicious, than the 
fame Crime in any other fort of Men. For, 
befides that qiuilcs in R^publicA Principss cffent^ 



tales reltquos folere effe Gives ; that is, that Peo- 
pie are generally virtuous or corrupt as their 
Magiltrates are ; rhere is (bmetbing exceeding 
folemn and important in the Nature of this 
great Truft ; and accordingly as it is obferved 
or betrayed, a Country is happy or referable: 
And when any one Breach- of it pafle's once off 
with Impunity, another will Toon follow it ; 
and in Time it will be considered no longer 
as a Truft, but an 1] irate. 

So dangerous a Thing is an ill Precedent,- 
which is often an Inlet to an endlefs Train of 
Mi/chiefs - y and fo depraved is the Nature of 
Man, that we juftify our felves in Wickednefs 
by Examples that cannot be Juftified. Ah 
Action at firft reckoned dlihoneft, by being 
practiied once or twice, becomes unblameable; 
and that which was at firft accounted an Ex- 
tortion, grows by Ufe to be thought but a 
Perquiiite, Thus Evil is mitigated, nay, can- 
celled, by Repetition, which is a real Aggra- 
vation of Evil ; and there are certain Rogueries 
m Office, which being long pra&ifed, and by 
many, are at laft reckoned as (acred as the 

Truft againft which they are committed ; 

a fufficient Reafon for providing by great and 
certain Peaalties that none be committed. 

I am, &c, 




TTOW cautioufly and partially Men m 
"1 Power are to be trufted, and how much 
to be retrained, appears from hence, that al- 
moft every civil Evil begins from Courts, and 
the Redrefs of every civil Evil from an Oppo- 
iirion to the Pretenfions and Excefles of Courts. 
This is fo univerfally true, that no Nation 
ever continued happy, whole chief Magiftrate 
\vas its abfblute Mailer ; and no Nation mife- 
rable, whofe fupreme Power was properly 
checked and divided. Nations are then free, 
when their Magiftrates are their Servants ; 
and then Slaves, when' their Magiilrates are 
their M afters : The Commonwealth does not 
belong to them, but they belong to the Com- 
monwealth. Tacitus fays with great^ Truth, 
Kec unquam fats fida fotentia ubl nlmls eft : 
*' Power v/ithout Controul, is never to be 
*' trufted." Every Nation has moft to fear 
from its own Magiftrates ; becaufe almoft all 
Nations have fuffered moft from their own 
Magiftrates. . 

Cicero^ mentioning the Condition of dUcia, ofc 
which he was Proconfiil, in a Letter to Appius 
Pulcher, fays, that he " was moved by Piry ^as 
4C well as JulHce, to relieve from their Miienes 
" th^ undone Provincial Cities, undone chiefly 
14 by their own Magiftrates." It Teems Cicero 
was that fort of whimfical Man, that he had 



really at Heart to do Good to the People whom 

he governed an odd arid impr aHcable 

Character ; which, had he lived fince, would 
have rendered him utterly unfit for any man- 
ner of Preferment. He did not fo much as 
knu\v that he was to make the moft of his 
Place and his Power, let what would become 

of the People A Leffon which other 

Governors have amply learned. 

A-iftotk makes it the great Argument and 
Proof of Liberty, that they who command do 
alfo obey, And indeed all legal and juft Pow- 
er being but a Truft, whoever executes the 
fame, does an A<fc of Obedience, as well as 
Command : And every Truft is bed execate_d, 
where thofe who have it are anfwerable for 
it ; elfe it never will be executed ; but, where 
it is great and publick, is much more likely to 
be abuled, violated, and turned to the De- 
ftrucHon of thcfe, who, for their own Prder- 
vation, gave it. Nor is a People to be told, 
that fuch as want to be irufted with extraor- 
dinary Power of any Kind, have always been 
Enemies to Arbitrary Power ; for fo are all 
Men when they have it not, and expect no 
Advantage from it. Who was a greater Pa- 
triot than Sir Thomas iVsntworth ~ And who 
was a more arbitrary Mmifter than Tkomts 
Wentmnh, Earl of Strtiffi.rd ? All Men are for 
confining Power when it is over them, and for 
extending it when they are in it. Oliver Crom- 
rvcil was once heartily in the Principles of Li- 
berty, and afterwards more heartily in thofe of 
Tyranny : And i could name two great Par- 
ties in England, who, when they were out of 

D 4 Power* 

fro CA rO's LETTERS. 

Power, Deemed to place the Sum of Publlck 
Spirit, in entrenching upon the Royal Autho- 
rity ; and when they were in Power, to know- 
no other Law but the Prerogative Royal. So 
unlike is the fame Man to himfelf in different 
Situations, and yet ftiil very confident with 
the Genius of humane Nature r 

Men fometirnes do actually Good in order 
to do Evil. Sejanus, incipiente adbuc foteflatc, 
bonis contiliis nctefcere volebat : " SeJAniis, in 
the Beginning of his Adminiftration, would 
found the Reputation of a good Minifter in 
" laudable Meafures." But there never prov'd 
a worfe Minifter than Sejanus. Solywan, the 
Twkjfu Emperor, ufed to fay, that a Prince, to 
be well ferved by any Minifter, mud never 
ufe any Minifter above once : And this Saying 
Is thus far true generally, that Men the longer 
they grow in Power, the worfe they grow. I 
think it is Tacitus who fays, Suferlire homines 
etiam annua dsJignntiGnc ;, quid fi boncrem per 
quinquennium agitent ? If an annual Election 
to Power, makes Men infblent ; what mud 
" be their Pitch of Infolence, if they hold it 
five or (even Years ? ' Ariflotle finds great 
fault with the Senate of Sparta, for being per- 
petual ; and i think he fays, that an unchanged 
or an hereditary Senate falls into Dotage. 

Many of the Ecclefiafticks have been for 
trufting their Favourite Princes (and no other) 
wirh unlimited Power over others : But in eve- 
ry Thing that regarded themfelves and their 
Interefr., they have never failed to ftipulate for 
the dricleft Limitations upon all Princes, even 
upon thofe whom over the reft of the World 



they widied Arbitrary, and endeavoured by 
every Means to make fo. Nor did ever any 
Man give up the Freedom of his Country, but 
he meant to preferve his own ; and hoped to 
continue a Freeman, as a Reward of his help- 
ing to make other People Slaves ; and no Maa 
ever fet up a Tyrant, but in hopes of going 
Shares in his Tyranny ; and upon thefe Terms 
and Expectations alone it is, that any Body of 
Men, or indeed any Army, is brought rp. 
aid and eftablifh any Ufurpsr. Paffive Obedr- 
ence was always intended for other People 
than thofe who preached it. Intereft cannot 
lie ; tho' he does, who fays that he will fubmk 
to Servitude when he can avoid, it. 

Who would eftabiifh a Bank in an arbitrary 
Country, or truft his Money conftantly there ? 
In Denwarh the Minifters urrd Minions of the- 
Prince think their Money fafeft out of his- Do- 
minions, and generally tranimit the fame to 
tlamburgb, and other free Cities-, where the 
Magiil rates have no divine Right to lay violent- 
Hands upon what is none of theirs. Even what 
we gain by Rapine in a Land of Oppre/Eon,, 
we are willing to fave by the juft Laws of 
Liberty, in a Country of Liberty. In England' 
kfelf, and in our own free Conftirution : if the 
Bank of England was put under the ubfolute 
^Diredlioa and Power of the Court, I doubt 
Stock would foon grow very cheap, and Sellers 
multiply very fail:. Or if the Government of 
the Bank, which is purely Republican, were 
Improved into Monarchical ; 1 fancy our higheft 
Monarchy-Men would rail at the Change, and 
faaften to fell our, notwiihftanding their i 

D 5. 

euro's LETTERS. ' 

lable Attachment to the divine Right of M(> 
narchy Unlefs perhaps they thinly that ab- 
iblute Monarchy does -beft protect their Power, 
but a Free State their Money. I am indeed of 
Opinion, that upon fuch a Change, the Bank 
would be broke, and (hut up in three Days. 

All this (hews, that even Men who are a- 
gainft Liberty in General, do contend for it in 
Particulars, and in all Particulars which aftecl 
themfelves. Even Lauderdde, a Tyrconml^ or a 
Jeffirtes, who were all for making the Crown 
abfolure, as long as they could be, as they were, 
the abfolute Minifters of Oppreflion under it, 
would none of them, I dare fay, have encoura- 
ged the Maxim of the Prince's rewarding his 
Minifters and faithful Oppreffors with the Bbw- 
String, as well as they themfelves were entitled 
to that Reward ! and as much as the Turkjjh 
Genius of Government did in other Inftances 

fuit their own ! 

When we hear any fort of Men complain, 
as feme fort of Men do frequently complain, 
That the Crown wants Power ; we fhould ask 
them, Whether they mean over themfelves ? 
And if .they anfwer, No; as certainly they will 
if they fpeak Truth ; we may further ask them, 
Why fhould they iudge for themfelves any more 
than others, or claim to themfelves a Liberty 
and an Exemption which they will not allow to 
others? The Truth is, they who complain 
thus, do only want to encreafe the Power of the 
Crown, becaufe by it their own would be en* 
creafed, and other Advantages acquired. 

The Fox in rhe Fable, wanting to rob a 
-rooi! 3 or do foaie fuch Frank, humbly DC- 



fought Admittance and Houfe-Room only for 
his Head; but when he got in his Head, his 
whole Body prefently followed : And Courts, 
more crafty as well as more craving, than than 
Aligning Animal, have fcarce ever got an Inch 
of Power, but they have ftretched it to an Ell ; 
and when they have got in but a Finger, their 
whole Train has followed. Plfiftratus having 
procured from the City of Athens^ fifcy Fellows; 
armed only with Cudgels, for the Security o 
his Perfbn from falfe and lying Dangers, im- 
proved them into an Army, and by it endaved 
that Free State. And I have read fbmewhere, 
of the States of a Country, who having wild- 
ly granted to their Prince a Power of raifmg 
Money by his own Authority, in Cafes of great 
Neceiilty ; every Cafe, ever afterwards^ was a 
Cafe of great Neceility ; and his Neceiliiies 
multiplied fo fall, that the whale Wealth of the 
Country was fwallowed up to iupply them r. 
As it always will be in every Country, where 
thofe who ask are differed to Judge what ought 
to be given. "A Practice contrary to com- 
mon Senfe, and which renders Liberty and Pro- 
perty perfectly precarious ; and where it is 
continued, will end in taking without asking. 

I have heard of a Court fomewhere Abroad,, 
which having asked upon a particular Gccauors 
four Hundred theufand Pounds of the States,, 
found Ways, and Means of ftretchmg that Sum 
to two Millions. It \vas obferved of the fame 
Court, that it had the Art of railing Mole hills 
mco Mountains, and cf linking Mountains in- 
to Mole-hilts ; of disbanding Armies without 
breaking them, of encre^frng Debts by chs. 


84 C A T O's L E T T E R S. 

Means of paying them ; of being engaged in 
an expenfive War during a profound Peace ; 
of gaining for the Country at a vaft Charge, 
Advantages which the Country never reaped, 
nor faw ; of employing Money obvioufly a- 
gainft the Intereft of that Nation, and yet- 
getting the Nation to pay k ; of purchafing 
other Countries at the Expence of their own, 
and againft its Intereft , of procuring from the 
Country at one Time a great Sum, without 
telling why it was wanted, but promifing to 
rell, and yet never telling; and in fine, after 
many other the like Feats, of obtaining ^by an 
Arret of Security, Remiilion for all their paft 
Faults, without owning any, and yet going orv 
co commit more : For as Tidly well obierves, 
Qni (emel verecundL-e fines tranfarit^ fimi bene & 
naviter oportet effe hnpudenttm. Cicer. Epifl, ad 
Lucceium Quinti Fil. 

But thefe Things concern not us ; and I 
only bring them for Examples, like other old 
Stones of Greece and Upme. I hope we (hall . 
never fall into the like Misfortunes and 
managements our felves. 

I am, 


MAchiavel tells us, that it is rare to find out 
a Man perfectly Good or perfectly Bad ; 
Men generally fwim between the two Extremes 
3>id fcarce any Mau is as good as he hiirJclf, 



his Friends, or his Party make him ; or as bad 
as he is reprefented by his perfonal or party 
Enemies. Ask a Whig the Chara&er of a 
neighbouring Tory, and he represents him as a 
Jacobite, an Enemy to publick Liberty, and a 
Perfecutor ; and on the other Side, if you 
enquire the Other's Character from his Tory 
Godfather out of Baptifm, he (hall pafs for a 
Commonwealth's-Man, an Enemy to all forts 
of Monarchy, and an Encourager of all Kinds 
of Licentioufhefs and Fa6Hon ; whereas an in- 
different Man, converfing with each of them, 
fhall find both aim at the fame Thing, and 
their Oppofition to proceed only from not con- 
verfing together, from an Intention to thwart 
one another, or from the Intrigues of thofe 
who reap Advantage by letting them together 
by the Ears, 'Tis too great a Compliment to 
pay to our Adverfaries, to fiippofe them to acl: 
upon a miftaken Principle againft their real 
Intereft , and 'tis certainly the Intereit of every 
Man to be free from Oppreflion, and he will 
joyn in Meafures to be fb, if he is not terrified 5 
by the Fear of greater Oppreilion: It is un- 
doubtedly true, that there are many Jacobites irr 
England ; but 'tis thinking better of them than 
they deferve, if we believe they will be fo a- 
gainft their ownlnterefts; and therefore, except- 
ing the very Few, who can hope to receive the 
Advantages of fuch a Revolution, therefl may 
be converted by (hewing them that they can 
find better Protection and Security from the 
prefent EftabliChment, than by hazarding their 
Lives and Eftates, and their Country's Happi- 
nefs, in. bringing their Defigns to- pafs. The 



only dangerous Jacobites I ever feared, were 
thofe who took the fame Methods to keep cue 
the Son, as turned out the Father. 

Whilit Men enjoy Protection, Plenty, and 
Happinefs, they will always defire to continue 
them, and never look after Revolutions ; but 
when they lofe, or fancy they lofe, thofe 
Advantages, which they ever will think they 
have a Right to enjoy, they will endeavour to 
change their Condition, tho' in the Attempt 
they often change it for the worfe ; therefore, 
whoever would endeavour to preferve a prefent 
Eftablifhmenr, miift make the People eafy and- 
contented under it, and to find their own Ac- 
count in the Continuance of it : The Inflru- 
inents of Tyranny (of which I hope we (hall 
never have any amongft us) are never to be 
depended upon in any Exigency ; they will al- 
ways be able to fhift for themfelves, arid know- 
how to make an Intereft with a new Govern- 
ment, by betraying the old ; which was the 
Cafe of the late King James, and will ever be 
the Cafe of others in the like Circumftances. 

Every Man therefore, who is fincerely and 
heartily attached to the Interefl: of his prelent 
Majefty, will endeavour to cheriih, cultivate, 
and make a proper life of his excellent Difpo- 
fitions to protecl and make his People happy, 
and to preferve our Conftitution in Church and 
State upon its true and fblid Balis, Old Land- 
Marks are never to be removed, without produ- 
cing Contefts and Law-Suits, which for the mod: 
part ruin both Parties. We have an excellent 
Conduction at prefent ; and if not the beft which 
can be formed in a Vt^lnn Commonwealth, 


yet I doubt the beft we' are capable of receiv- 
ing. The prefent Diftribution^ of ^ Property 
renders us incapable of changing it for the 
better ; and probably any Attempt to change it 
for the better, would conclude in an Abfolute 
Monarchy. There are fo many Jntereils en- 
gaged to fupport if, that whoever gets Power 
enough to deftroy thefe Interefts, will have 
Power enough to fet uphimfelf, as Oliver Crom- 
well did, and every one elfe will do in the fame 
Circumftances, or at leaft no wife Man will 
truft to his Moderation. 

No Man of Senfe and Fortune will venture 
the Happinefs he is in full Pofleifion of for 
imaginary Vilions, and throw the Dice for his 
own Eftare : Such defperate Gamefters carry 
their Whole about them, and their future Ex- 
pe&ations depend upon Confuiion, and the 
Mifery of others ; but fuch as have much to 
fear, and little to hope for, will acquiefce in 
their prefent Condition. This being the true 
Circumftance of the Nobility, Clergy, Gentry, 
rich Merchants, and the Body of the People, 
hope they will concur in fuch Meafures as will' 
moll: effectually preferve our prefent Eftablifh- 
ment, and fupport the juft Rights of the 
Crown, and the Liberties of the People, op- 
pofe all Ufurpations on either Side, and endea- 
vour, in the moil exemplary Manner, topuniih 
all who fhall dare to interpofe between the 
Throne and the Subject, and fpoil the Harmo- 
ny which alone can make them both happy. 

This is the Intereft of all Parries, and of 
every Man in them, (very few excepted in re- 
ipe& of the reft, who make their Market of 



the others Differences ) I could never yet fee a? 
juft Bone of Contention between them. It can 
be of no Confluence to either Party, if they 
are governed well, whether a Man of one De- 
nomination or another governs them ; and if 
they are oppreffed, it is no Confolation, that 
it is done by one whom they formerly called a 
Friend ; whereas if they would rgree together, 
no one durft opprefs ?hem. Thofe who are 
called Whig*) have no Intention to injure the 
Legal Eftablifbment of the Church ; and Seven 
Years Experience, when they have had the 
whole Power in their Hands, may convince 
any orre they did not intend it; and the Tories 
tell us, they defire no more than that Eftsbiifh- 
ment, and have no Thoughts of breaking in 
upon the Acl: of Toleration, which is the Right 
of all Mankind. The Whigs can have no 
Motive to do the One, nor the Tories the Other, 
when Party Oppofinon is laid afrde ; for how 
is a Wing injured by another'^ receiving Ad- 
vantages which he has no Right to, and receives 
no Prejudice by, but may receive Benefit from, 
by providing for his- Children, Relations, or 
Friends ? And how is a Tory- injured in a quiet 
Neighbour's worfhippiag God his own Way, 
any more than if he did not worfhip him at all, 
which is the Cafe of Thoufands who are un- 
molefted ? The DiftindHons about Govern- 
ment are at an end : Mod of the Tories are 
afhamed of their old Arbitrary Principles- ; and 
many of the Modern Whigs ought to be afha- 
med of taking them up and indeed they have 
no Right to reproach one another with either 
Practices or Principles, for both have (hewn 



their wrong Ends in their Turns ; and they 
have brought Matters at laft to that pafs, that 
whilft they have been throwing the Dice for 
Vi&ory, Sharpers have been drawing the 

Indeed, I can't fee what we differ about : 
We fight at BlindmanVBuff, and fall upon our 
Friends as well as Enemies : All the Grounds- 
of DI{lin6Mon are now at an end, and the 
honeft and wife Men of all Parties mean the 
fame Thing, and ought to lay afide and for- 
get the old Names, and become one Party for 
Liberty, before that Name is forgotten too ; 
it is yet in our Power to fave our felves. We 
are fure we have a Prince, who has every Di 
portion to help us, if we lend our own AfLfl:- 
ance, and fhew him the Means of doing it; 
and we are anfwerable to God, our Country, 
and our felves, if we do not ufe our own En- 
deavours. The Means are eafy, obvious, and 
legal ; and the Motives as ftrong as ever did, 
or ever can, happen in any Circumftance of 
humane Affairs. It is no lefs than the Safety 
and Prefervation of the bed King, and thebeft 
I Conflitution upon Earth, and indeed of almoft 
the only People among!! whom there are any 
Remains of Liberty, Knowledge, or true Re- 
ligion ; all which depends upon the fteady, 
loyal and uniform Proceedings of the next 

For my own Part, I have no Quarrel^ to 
Names or Perfons, and would join in any ]uft 
Meafures, or with any Party, to fave the King- 
dom ; and will oppofe, to the utmoft of my 
Power, all who will not ; and I believe there 



are Thoufands of the fame Sentiments ; and 
methinks Great Men fhould accept fo favour- 
able a Difpofition to forger the Mifchiefs which 
Ambition, Covetoufnefs, or Inadvertency have 
brought upon us. We will not look with 
Eagles Eyes into pad Faults, provided a proper 
Atonement is made by future Services; nor 
envy particular Mens_growing rich, if they will 
let the Publick thrive with them ; and 'tis cer- 
tainly iafer, and more creditable, to do fb by 
the Confent of their Countrymen, than by 
confront Struggles, Broils, and Contention to 
overcome popular Opposition which muft get 
the better at laft, or their Country, and proba- 
bly they themfelves. mull be buried in it. 

England is yet in a Condition to make the 
Fortunes of a few Men, if they are not in too 
much hafle to rna!-; hem ; and will content, 
or connive at t doing fo, if they deferve 
well in other Refp^cis. There are many ufe- 
lefs, and yet provable Employments in Eng- 
land, and few Men are concerned how they are 
difpofed of; whether to Lords Valets, or whe- 
ther ihf-y are the Perquisites of foreign or do- 
mefHck Favourites^ provided the Offices which 
regard the Admmiftraticn of Juflice, of the 
State, Ch'irch, or Revenue, are properly be- 
flowed. Thole who have the Fortune to get 
into the higheft Stations, will expect to raiie 
fuirable Eftates, efpecially when they have in a 
great meafure the Means in their Hands of 
making them, and the Power of carving for 
therafelves ; and all but Rivals will compound 
for their doing it by fuch Ways as are confident 
with the publick Benefit, or fuch as the Publick 



does not fuffer much by ; and I doubt the legal 
Advantages belonging to few Offices in Eng- 
UnJ, will anfwer the Expectations of Men in 
the firft Station. 

It is often urged, That Princes mull be lerved 
upon their own Terms, and their Servants muft 
fometimes comply againft their Inclinations, to 
prevent greater Miichiefs; which I believe is 
rarely the Cafe. I confefs, Princes ought and 
muft be always treated with Tendernefs and 
Delicacy, and Regard muft be had to their 
Opinions or Prejudices ; but it is fo much their 
Intereft to be honoured and beloved by their 
People, (who from a thoufand Motives will be 
always ready to make them perfbnally eafy, 
and to gratify even their wanton Defires, when 
they are not deftru&ive to them- 
felvcs) that there is much lefs Addrefs and Ma- 
nagement necctfary to fliew them their real In- 
tereft, and bring them into it, than to engage 
them in Defigns which will ever produce Dif- 
affeftion and Danger; and 'tis certainly the 
Intereft of their Minifters and Servants, rather 
to let themfelves at the Head of publick Bene- 
volences, and receive the Thanks and Applaufe 
due to fuch Benefits, than to have them ex- 
torted from them always with general Curies 
and Deteftation, and often with perfonal 


j am, etc. 


s r 

IHave, In my laft Letter, /aid, that no wife 
Man will remove ancient Land-Merles ;. 
and for the imaginary Profper. of enjoying 
fbmething he does not enjoy, and has a Mind 
to enjoy, run the^ Hazard of lofing what he is 
already in Poffeilion of. Thofe who have no- 
thing to lofe, can lofe nothing by thefe Feats 
of Knight- Errantry :, but thofe that have, are 
leldpm Gainers by them. I confidered this 
Subject in that Paper, as it regarded the State ; 
and I (hall do inhere with relation to our Church 
Differences The Conilitution of our Church 
is excellently well adapted to our Civil Govern- 
ment. The Rifliops anftver to the Lords, and 
the inferior Clergy to the Commons in the State, 
and ^all are iiibje& to the leg'flative Power 
mediately, and immed : atedly to the Crown. 
The King h?s the Power of creating the chief 
Eccleliaftical Officers, as he has of creating the 
Civil ; and they both receive their Beings and 
Exigence fr..-n him ; and confequently they 
mini: ever be in the Inrereft of Monarchy, and 
the Monarch mull: ever be in the Intereft of 
an Eftablifhment, from which he derives fb 
much Power. The Nobility and Gentry too, 
whoie Birth, Character and Fortunes always 
give them the Means of eafy Accef? to the 
Throne, mufl be eqnaily in the fame Intereft; 
for as no Man can fuffer by another's enjoying 



Pofle/Hons which he has no Right or Pretence 
to, fo they will (hare largely in thefe Pofle 
fions, by having more frequent and better Op- 
portunities than their Fellow-Subjects, oF pre- 
ferring their Children, Relations, Friends, and 
Dependents ; not to mention what Prefenta- 
tions they have in rheir own Power. Indeed, 
every Man, of any Condition, has an Intereft 
in them, as he has a Chance of (hanng Pre- 
ferments himfelf, or getting them for his Fa- 
mily ; and therefore it is wild to fear that any 
Intereft in England can (hake an Ettablifhment 
which fo many Interefts muft concur to fup- 
port, unlefs thofe who are in Poflelfion of its 
Advantages fhould, by endeavouring to take 
away from^others their Rights, force them to 
make Reprisals, and to do what, I dare fay, 
no Man in England now intends, and but few 

I have wondered, therefore, to hear fome 
Men of good Underftanding and unqueftion* 
able Integrity, apprehend any Danger to the 
legal Conftirution of the Church, and cannot 
guefs from what Quarter they can fear it. The 
mdepcndentSi AnatMptifts, and Quakers, are no 
Candidates for Ecclefiaftical Power, but are 
by Principle againfi all Church Eftahlifhments 
amongft themfelves. The Quakers have no 
Clergy at all ; and the Two former allow their 
Minifters no Superiority above the reft of their 
Congregations , and tis certain, all of them 
have much more favourable Opinions of the 
National Clergy, than of the Presbyterians, (the 
only Rivals for Church- Power) from whom 
they apprehend, and have always found, much 


94 Giro's LETTERS. 

worfe Ufage than from the Church. They 
defire nothing but Liberty of Conference, and 
do not envy others Preferments, which they 
cannot enjoy therofelves. 'Tis true, the Pref- 
fyteriant are Candidates for Church-Dominion ; 
and withour doubt their Priefts have Hawk s 
Eyes at the Church Preferments, and with ot- 
ten for them, if Wiflies would get them ; but 
what Facility, or, indeed, Poffibilhy have they 
of obtaining them ? They are an inconfider- 
able Body as to their Number ; and as to their 
Figure, lefs ; and as they grow rich, and leave 
-Eftates behind them, their Sons (for the moil 
part) defert their Congregations and Intereit : 
Befides, they are divided now into Two Par- 
ties, vi%. the Subfcribers, and Nonfubfcribers} 
the 'latter of which, much the moft confider- 
able for Fortune and Undemanding, are come, 
for the mod part, into the Principles of general 
Liberty and Independency, nor will ever trull 
their Clergy with the Power they pretend to, 
and which they claim from Scripture and by 
Degrees, many of thefe, in all probability, will 
come into the Church. 

No Prince can ever be in the Intereit pt 
Presbytery ; and I believe there never was one 
in the World, who was a true Presbyterian ; 
for as that Government is purely Democratleatf 
lb it is calculated only for a popular State ; 
and in Fad, fublifts no where elfe in the 
World, unlefs in Scotland, where there have 
been frequent Struggles between the Crown 
and them. King James the Firft was fo plagu'd 
with them, that he was vifibly partial to the 
?*?ift* agairift them : Charles the Firft, by Vi- 


olence, deftroyed their Eftablifhment ; and 
King Charles the Second, though called in by 
them, and fupported by them againft his Par- 
liament, yet immediately turned upon them : 
For though they would have been glad to have 
had a King ^ modelled to ferve their Purpofes, 
yet that King had more Wit than to have 
them. For the fame Renfbns, the Nobility 
and Gentry, of few Countries, who by their 
Births, Fortunes, and near Accefs to the 
Throne, ^claim and enjoy a Diftin6Hon above 
the inferior Rank of Mankind, can never be 
heartily in the Intereft of that Sort of Govern- 
ment ; and 'tis certain, that many of the No- 
bility and Gentry in Scotland, have never been 
favourable to it. And this is true, and per- 
haps the chief Reafon why fo many of them 
now are Jaccbitss. 

The Presbyterian Clergy claim a Right from 
Scripture, to be independent of the Civil Pow- 
er in all Things which relate to Spirituals, of 
which they pretend to be Judges ; and in Facr, 
their Synods in Scotland, whatever they do now, 
formerly did not allow the Crown Power to 
adjourn or difiblve them, though they were 
forced to fubmit to it and I am told, at pre- 
fent, they always adjourn by their own Au- 
thority, though they take efpecial Care it [hall 
be to the fame Time the Crown appoints -, 
which (till keeps up their Claim againft a pro- 
per Occafion. I do not avouch the Truth of 
this, and hope it is not .true Now Vis certain, 
the Nobility and Gentry of England, who have 
actually the Power of governing their Clergy, 
will never be governed by them, whatever V<- 



fions weak Men of any Denomination may 

flatter themfelves with, nor will ever fubmit to 
the Preshyten'an Difcipline, and to let Monks 
and Cy nicks govern their Families, turn the 
Heads of their Wives, Children, and Servants, 
and control their own Actions. Nor will the 
other Se&anes, as has been faid, who are al- 
ready potfefled of a free Liberty of Confcience, 
endeavour to pur Power in the Hands of thofe 
who will be fure to take it away, as they did 
in New England, though they went there to get 
h for themfelves. So that toe Danger of fet- 
tling Presbytery in England, is a mere Chimera ; 
and when by the Chance of a long Civil War, 
they were actually got in Poffeiiion of a Power, 
wh f h during the Continuance of it they dif- 
cl limed, they could not hold it even for a few 


^he only Ball of Contention which leems 
to be now amongft Churchmen, is the Sacra- 
m.-mal Telt, which excludes Dlffenters from 
Offices ; which they think they have a Right 
to in common with their Fellow Subjects, ha- 
ving don- r.othing forfeit it , but this feems 
to me, tu be a Diipute only dc Ian* Caprina : 
For 'tis cfram, thn not one Diflenter in Eng- 
land wouid be in any Office of Value, if that 
Law was rrpeal^d, more than there^are now ; 
for they always qualify themfelves, if they can 
get good Placc^ and take Advantage of the 
Law to keep themfelves our of chargeable 
ones -, fo that the Churchmen alone fuffer by 
that Statute. The King, by A& of Parlia- 
ment, as well as Lntereft arid Education, will 
be of the Eibbliihed Church ; ^nd the Nobi- 


bility are all, or almoft all, fb too, and no 
Doubt but they will give the Preference in all 
Preferments to thofe of their own Opinions , 
nor can it ever happen but that Men, who can 
have Qualifications to fill any considerable 
Employments, will have Wit enough to find 
out that there is no religious Difference between 
the Church and Presbyterian Eftabliftiments, ex- 
cept in the Interefts of their Clergy, which no 
wife Man will think confiderable enough to 
differ about, and to feparate upon that Score 
from the National Difcipline, very few except- 
ed, who will find their Account in fettling 
themfelves at the Head of a Faction, and fel- 
ling it. So that this Queftion appears to me, 
only to be a Party Pun&o, and Scarce v/orrh 
asking on the one Side, or denying on the 
other. Thofe amongft the Whigs ^ who moil: 
defire it, would not have the Appearance of 
Perfecution ftand in a Law, when in Effecl: 
there is no real Perfecution \ and 'tis certainly 
tibe Intereft of the Clergy to gratify and oblige 
their diffeming Brethren in what cofts them 
nothing; for one Act of Kindnefs will make 
more Converts in a Year, than they can make by 
Preaching at them in Twenty ; however, till 
they fee the Advantage in doing it themfelves, 
[ think no prudent Man will give them any 
Caufe of Jealoufy, by doing it againft their 
Con fen t. 

This being, as I conceive, the true State of 
Church Differences, I [hail conclude this 

Letter, ^by Application to our National Cler- 

gy. 'Tis not to be wondered at, that fb ma- 

ny of their Predeceflbrs regretted the Dimi- 

VOL. III. E nution 

o8 Giro's LETTERS. 

nution which they differed of their former Re- 
venue* :.r.d Grandeur at the P(eformAthn ; and 
that rh-.-v often lonk'd back with willing Eyes, 
a:--.d could r,oi cafily lofe Sight of fo agreeable 
a }V-!pvch without weighing enough the Im- 
poiLbility of recovering the Power they loft 
m the Crown, and their Lands from jhe 
Nobility and Gentry, who had got PoiMion 
of them : Indeed it would have been a Won- 
der if they had don<* ctherwife. But now al- 
niuft Two Hundred Years Experience may 
convince them of the Impollibility of fucceed- 
ing in fuch a Defign. They have once loft 
All, by endeavouring to recover a Part ; and 
lately had like to have loft their PoffeiFions 
and 'Religion too, by attempting to give the 
Crown a Power, which they intended (hould 
be employed for their own Benefit, but was 
a&ually ufed againft them ; and I hope they 
are now pretty generally of Opinion, that ^'tis 
their Intereft to ftand to their prefent Eftablifh- 
menr, and be contented with the fame Security 
for their own Pofleffions, as the reft of their 
Fellow-Siib]ecl:s have, and to join with them in 
the Defence of Liberty, and the Laws of the 

1 fee with a great deal of Pleafure, many of 
them falling into thefe Opinions, and hope it 
will Toon be the Opinion of the greateft Part 
of them ; and then I. dare boldly affirm, that 
all religious DiiVmdHons will foon be at an 
End, which are now kept up more by Party 
Anjir.oliiies, than any effemial Difference of 
Opinion ; for Men will always fly from the 
Sentinunts of thofe whofe Perfons they hate, 



and whofe Oppreilion they fear ; and flich as 
are iitrle concerned about Metaphyfical, and 
as they think ufelefs Notions in Divinity, will 
lupport any Party againft thole who would 
opprefs all ; and therefore the moft laudable, 
and indeed only Way of the Clergy's being 
fafe themfelves, is to make other People fafe, 
and then they will have the good Wiflies, the 
Refpe6t, and Protection of every hmeft Man 
in England ; and Multitudes of the Difleiiterfj 
who will not be frighted or bullied out of 
their Opinions, willjnfenfibly quit them of 
their own Accord, if it be only to fave the 
Charge of paying feparate Minifters, and to 
be in the Fafhion, when they can once give 
themfelves Leave to confider coolly, that they 
differ about nothing, or nothing that is effen- 
tial to Religion, or their own Interefts. The 
Heat of the Sun made the Traveller immedi- 
ately quit his Cloak, when the Bluftering of 
the North Wind made him wrap it clofer about: 


I am 9 <Scc. 

T T gives equal Occafion of Mirth and Con- 
JL cern to wife Men, to fee fb many of the 
other ibrt, Pcrfbns of feeming Reverence, and 
with grave Faces, exerting themfelves with 
Warmth ar.d Zeal n;r Opinions and Parties, 
with each a feparate Train or Choruo of leffct 

E x and. 

ioo Giro's LETTERS. 

and fubordinafe Planets attending their Mo- 
tions, and dancing after them. Whoever views 
thefe folemn Spectres at a Diftance, will fee 
nothing but Confcience, oi' worldly 
Honours and Preferments, and Minds uperior 
to all Temptations ; whereas all this Grimace 
to a nice Obferver, will appear only to be a 
Project for picking Pockets, and getting away 
other Peoples Money ; which, in reality, at 
prefent makes, and ever did make, moft of the 
Squabbles which at any Time have difturbed 
the World. This I may poflibly hereafter (hew 
to be true, in moft of the confpicuous Infuances 
of publick and private Life ; but at prefent 1 
[hall Confine myfelf to thofe Gentlemen who 
deal in Revolutions. 

There are a confiderable Number of Poli- 
ticians in all Governments, who are always 
Enemies^ to the prefent Eftablifhment , not be- 
caufe it h an ill one, or becaufe thofe who ad- 
mini Rer it betray their Truft, (which is a jufl 
and reafbnable Ground of Complaint) but be- 
caufe they themfelves are not in it : If they are 
fb, all is^vell ; but if they cannot be accepted 
upon their own Terms, or are afterwards tunvd 
out for Misbehaviour, then upon a fudden, 
there is no Faith in Man, Fundamentals are ( 
(truck at, ^no honed Man can ferve, and keep 
his integrity, arid there is no Remedy but a 
total Change ; and if that happens, and they 
can get into Power, nothing is mended but 
their own Faces and their Fortunes. Without 
doubt, every Man has a Right to Liberty, and 
to come at it by all Ways, which do not bring 
a greater Inconvenience wiih it than the Bene- 

* fit , 



fit propofed does prr.mife Advantage, and ail 
juft Attempts of that kind -<;re commendable; 
but I fpeak now of r- fort of Carrie, who think 
of nothing but their Fodder, who don't care 
who feeds them, or who is their Matter, pro- 
vided they have a Belly-full, nor whether it is 
lawful Failure, or Encroachment upon the 
neighbouring SniL 

1 am io unfortunate as always to think, ^tliar 
a Man who is a Knave in his private Dealings, 
will never be a Saint in Politicks ; and who- 
ever "does not do rea (enable and juft Things 
in R.fpecl: to his Neighbours, Relations, and 
Acquaintance, which he does know, \vili have 
little real Concern for the Titles of Princes, 
\vhom he does not know. Indeed it ieems to 
roe, that there cannot be a greater Ridicule in 
Nature, than for any Man to pretend to be 
concerned for the perfonal Intereit of another, 
whom he is not acquainted with, has no Means 
of bc'ing acquainted wirh, and probably would 
not be acquainted with upon eaual Terms, 
unlefs he can hope to find a farther Account 
in it, in going Snacks wirh him. 

It is certain, that every Man's Intereft is 
involved in the Security and Happinefs of a 
good Prince, from whom he receives Protec- 
tion and Liberty ; but for one v, ho has no 
Concern for publick or private Jullice, who 
does not care what becomes of his Neighbour's 
Rights and Pofleilions, would make no Diffi- 
culty of cheating any Prince he ferved, or op- 
prefing thofe in his Power ; 1 lay, for fuch a 
one to fet up for Loyalty, #nd the Right Line, 
and to hazard his Life and Family for Con- 

E i icb/,. j 

i CXL Giro's LETTERS. 

Iciecce Sake, is luch a Farce, that if Men? 
Thoughts were not 16 wholly taken up with 
their own Cheating, that they minded not 
other People's, no one could be deceived by 
fuch fa lie Appearances. 

I muft beg Leave, therefore, of thefe Gen- 
tlemen to take it for granted, that all this 
Zeal is for themlelves, and only a Struggle for 
Money and Employments, and to get that by 
a Revolution, which they want Merit or 
Means to get without it ; and I v/ill here en- 
deavour to (hew them, that they are taking 
abundance of Pains, and running as much Ha- 
zard, to attain what they will never catch. 
But I would not be underftood here to apply 
naylelf to thole Men who are in delperate Cir- 
eum fiances, and whole Condition may be bet- 
tered, and cannot be made worle by Confu- 
lion ; nor to the poor Vifionaries and Enthu- | 
fiafts, who are the Cats- Feet to the former, 
and are by Nature prepared to be the Dupes 
^nd Tools of Ambition and Deiign ; but to I 
the very few amongft them, who are tolerably 
eafy in their own Affairs, and do not want 
common Underftanding ; and to thcle I may 
fafely fay, that their Paffions and Prejudices 
hurry them away from their real InterVfts, to 
purfue Shadows and Imaginations, and to make 
thofe whole Greatnefs they envy, yet much 

A Prince long kept out of what he calls his 
Dominions, will, upon a Reftoration, always 
bring back with him a Juntlo of upftart Ma- 
mamouchi, with a huge Train of half-ftarv'd 
Beggars dangling after them, who through 


; LETTERS. 103' 

Necefllty have folio 'orfunes, flattered 

his Vices, and will e*pe& to have his Ear, 
and the Difpofal of his Favours. This ragged 
Crew, who have been Ions the Outcafts of 
Fortune, know, for the mo ft. part, nothing of 
Government, or the Maxims neceffary to pre- 
ferve it, uni:Ts to talk about the Divine Right 
of their Mafter, and the Injury done to fo good 
a Prince ; but with Arbitrary Principles picked 
up in their Travels, Minds lowered vith 
Wants and Difappointments, hungry Bellies, 
and ravenous and polluted Claws, finding thern- 
ll-lves at once, metamorphofed from mock Mi- 
nifters and Magiftrates to re-a! ones, glutted 
v. ith fuv'den Plenty, and rioting in Frofuhon, 
which they before enjoyed only in Imagination* 
will become of courfe proud, infblent, and ra- 
pacious, and think of nothing but to redeem 
the Time they have loft, to raife hafty For- 
tunes, and will endeavour to get them as they 
can \ and confequently will fell thcir^ Mafte 
to thofe who can or will give molt for him, 
which will be ever thofe who have got mod 
by keeping him out. 

The Court Language will be immediately 
changed : It will be faid, the Pnnce muft tub- 
mit to the Neceiiity of his Affairs ; that his 
Enemies muft be brought into his Intereft, who 
may be otherwife able to perplex his new Go- 
vernment ; and befides, having by long Expe- 
rience been ufed to Employments, and the 
, Management of the publick Revenue, muft be 
"continued till others are equally qualified to 
fupply their Offices ; that his Majefty has a 
grateful Memory of the faithful Services of his 

E 4 true 

io* euro's LETTERS. 

trite Friends ; that he will provide for them all 
by Degrees, as fad as the others can be turned 
our, but they muft have a little Patience, and 
not be too importunate , and fo after two or 
three Years daily Attendance, with old Coats 
new furbifhed, fbme good Words, now and 
then a good Dinner, and the Honour of whif- 
poring and joking with his Lord (hip, they will 
find themfelves juft where they fet out, only 
wiih lefs Money in their Pockets ; will fee 
their Enemies in PofTeJlion of all the Employ- 
ments ; find out at lad, that Courts and Cour- 
tiers are alike, become new Malecontents, and 
form themfelves Into a Faction againft the 
Government they ventured their Lives to bring 

This was the Cafe upon the Redoraiion of 
King Cbnrlcs the Second, when the f(pynd~bea3$ 
had all the Offices* having got Money enough, 
whilft they were in Power, to buy them ; and 
the poor darved Cavaliers, who had nothing 
but a good Conference and pad Services to 
plead, were laugh'd at, and could hardly gel: 
Admittance into the Anti-chamber. The De- 
fcendants of thefe are the modern Whigs ^ and 
of the other, for the molt part, the prefent 
Tines. Nor can it happen otherwife in the 
Nature of Things ; for thofe who have no 
Merit to offer but their Money, will- always 
offer enough of it ; and thofe who want it, 
will always take it. Befides, fuch as are eon- 
fcious of their own Demerit to their Prince, 
will ufe double Diligence to pleafe him, and 
to wipe off pad Scores ; whereas thofe who 
pretend they have facrificed All for him, will 


LETTERS, icjr 

efteem his Favours received only as Payments 
of juft Debts; and their Expectations are feldorn 
to be fatisfied, or they to be perfuaded that their 
Services are enough considered. And it fnuft 
proceed from a confummate Ignorance in hu- 
mane Nature, not to know, that almoft all 
Men, and efpecially Princes and Great Men, 
Would rather engage new Debtors to themfelves,. 
than pay off old Debts to other People : would 
fooner create frefh Dependems, by conferring 
Favours which will be efteemed Obligations, 
than fatisfy the Clamours and Importunities of 
fuch pretended Creditors and Duns, who will 
never be fansfied. 

Befides, Princes, for the moft Part, think all 
that can be done for them, is no more than 
Duty ; and will throw off old Servants, who 
can do them no more good, as eafily as old 
Shoes; grow weary of their long winded Tales 
about pail Services, and will think thcmfelves 
at Liberty to purfue their prcfent hiterefts, 
and employ fuch who are moft capable of fer- 
ving them for theprefcnt, as thofe undoubtedly 
are who have eihblifhed Intertft?, moft Expe- 
rience in Affairs, and Money always at hand to- 
back their Preter.fions. 

Beftdes, when Matters in any Country are 
prepared for a R^oi-.-non, the poor ftnrved 
Followers, or difcontented Well-wifhers to an 
abdicated Pr'nce, will never have the Merit 
and Honour of making it, -and can never, nr 
very rarely, have Power enough to do fo ; for 
thole who enjoy the Advantages of the Govern- 
rp^it in PoHe?1;on. v/ho are deep in its Cour^ 
cils, command its Fleets and Armies, and per- 

E 5 

106 CATffs LETTERS. 

haps have rnade^ it odious by their wicked 
Councils and Actions, are always the firft to> 
veer about, and make their Intereft with the 
new Government, by being inftrumc-ntal to- 
bring ft in : They have it often in their Power 
to do it, and great Sums of Money always at 
command to buy their Peace, and very fre- 
quently to keep their Employments, and fb to 
go^on where they left off; for a poor wandering 
Prince, eager to get a Crown (which he will 
conceit to^be his own) will fall into any Mea- 
fures, or join with any Perfons, to obtain it ; 
and for the moil part be ready to drop his ne- 
ceffitous Followers, as eaiily as they would drop* 
him, if they found it equally their Intereft. 

Of this Sort we have pregnant Inftances in, 
the Triumviri of fyme, of General Mow^, and 
others formerly amongft our felves, and of a 
very great Lord in the latter End of King 
y/fwiw's Time 5 but why ftiould I parti- 
cular Inftances, when every Revolution, which 
aimoft ever happened in the World, furnifhes: 
us with numerous ones, and will ever do fb to> 
the % End of the World ; unlefs the Power by. 
which the^Revolution is made, is fo great, and- 
fb much in the Prince's Difpcfal, that he is- 
under no Neceillty of keeping Meafures with 
any Perfbn or Party, but is wholly at Liberty 
to follow his Inclinations, and gratify his Re- 
venge and Paiiions ; or is fo intirely an Inftru- 
ment of the Power he makes ufe of, or rather 
which makes ufe of him, that he mud do- 
whatever they would have him do, as was the 
Cafe in a good meafure of Maritis and S>///7, 
but I think cannot be ihe Circumftance of any 


CATffs LETTERS. 107 

Perfon now living; and I hope few of thole 9- 
who wifti for a Revolution, would accept ii 
upon thofe Terms. 

The ftarved Crew, who deal in ^ Revolu- 
tions, are feldom Conjurers in Politicks ; for 
no Man of Fortune, or a Grain of llnder- 
ftanding, would venture a Hair of his; 
Head for the Intereil of another, educated in 
Pride and Ingratitude, and very probably one 
too of whom he knows nothing, and who- 
knows nothing of him, nor will^ have the lead: 
Regard to his. Hazards and Services ; and then 
js not fuch an one a v/orthy Hero, and his par~ 
ticular Intercft a worthy Caufe for a Man o 
common Senfe, and tolerable Fortune, to ven- 
ture his Life and Eftate for, by involving hb 
Country too in a Civil War? 

But there is another Reafon ft ill behind,', 
which I fear thefe doughty Politicians never 
think of; namely, that they are doing the- 
Work they prttend to oppofe ; which has 
fbmetimes inclined me to believe, that they 
have been employed and hired to aft as they 
do. It is certain, that their ill digefted Libels, 
without the lead Notions of the Principles ^ ol j 
Government, or {hewing the leaft Difpoiiticm 
to mend if, their ftupid Cant of a Right in 
Princes independent of the Happinefs of the- 
Society ; their ill-mannered Refleclions upcn_ 
the Perfbn of the Sovereign, whom moit oF 
them have (worn to, and their ocnlrunt In- 
ve5lives and Reproaches upon all Men, \vh-> 
are honejler and wifer than themiclves, do* 
more Miichicf to this . Country 3 , than their 

io8 Giro's LETTERS. 

red Force, ^Counfels and Underftandings could 
do Good, if they were inclinable to do it. 

Weak Men, who know or fufpecT: their De- 
figtts, will take no Meafures with them for a 
common Good ; and thole who laugh at their 
Follies, and are not afraid of being over- reached 
and outwitted by them, are ever reproached 
with their filly Defigns. In fine, they are the 
only Support of thole they pretend moft to 
abhor ; and I believe I may venture to fay, are 
the only Friends in the Kingdom which fume 
Perfbns of Figure lately had, without intending 
to be Ib. 

In my next Letter, I will endeavour to (hew, 
that it is irnpoflible to bring their wild Pro- 
jects to bear, not with any Hopes of making 
many of them wifer ; but to convince better 
People, that they ought not to be bullied by 
the Sound of Jacobitifin, and Ib diverted from 
concurring in the neceflary Meafures to lerve 
their King, their Country, and themlelvcs, by 
Bugbears and Phantoms ; for I dare venture to 
aflert, that there is no Pofiibility of reftoring 
the Pretender to England, but by taking fuch 
Meafures to keep him cut, as will be more ter- 
rible to the People than letting him in, if fuch 
can polTibly be ; and I am (ure every honeft 
Man ought to do ail in his Power, to prevent 
any Attempts of that Kind, which we are cer- 
tain will receive no Countenance from his Ma- 
jelly, and, 1 hope, from none of his prelent 

I /TW, &c. 


s i 

I Have promifed in my laft, to fliew, that 
the Pretender's Game is altogether defperate 
in England^ unlefs tho(e,whole Duty and Intereft 
in the highefl: manner oblige them to keep him 
out, pave the Way for his Return : And this I 
(hall do, by (hewing, that there is no Intereft 
within the Kingdom, or out of it, capable of 
bringing about fuch a Revolution, and willing 
to do it. Indeed, fuch a Convulfion would 
(hake the very Foundations of the Earth, and 
turn all Nature topfy-turvy. God knows, one 
Revolution is enough for one Age. I do not: 
deny, but fuch an Event might have been 
brought about, if favoured by the Crown, by 
the Minifters and Officers in Power under it, 
and abetted by a great neighbouring Potentate, 
which many People (I hope falfly) think was 
our Cafe in a late Reign ; and even then the 
Sticcefs would not have been certain ; and if 
it had fucceeded, I dare venture to be pofitive, 
that thofe who had been moft forward to have 
brought him in, would have been amongft the 
firft to have turned him out again. 

I think no Man is now to learn, that Con- 
fcience, and the Opinion of Right, have little 
or nothing to do in Revolutions, but the Re- 
ftntments of Men, and the gratifying the Views 
r-nd Expectations of private Perfons, or a^gre- 
g.uc Bodies ; and no formidable Sat of Men. 



could have found their Account amongft us, 
in continuing him upon r-he Thrcne, upon the 
Terms he muft have fat there. He is certainly 
a very weak Man, a great Bigor, and of a (a- 
turnine and morofe Temper ; and the near 
ProfpecT: of the PpfTeilion of Three Crowns 
could not make him temporize with his then 
Intereft, nor difguife his Religion to thofe who 
were contented to be deceived, that they might: 
deceive others ; and therefore it is impoflible to 
believe, that a Prince fo qualified, provoked by 
his Expulfion, acquainted perfonally with few 
or none amongjc us, and educated in the Re- 
ligion and Maxims of France and Rome, reilored 
by their Means, and fup ported by them, would 
acl afterwards ^upon other Maxims than what 
he had before imbibed, and would be conftant- 
ly inculcated into him by his foreign Tutors 
abroad, and his Priefts at home. 

Such Conduct would quickly have made 
thofe, who moil: efpoufed his Intereft at firfr, 
foon turn upon him, as they did before upon 
his Father , and fb many Interefts in Europe 
were concerned to feparate England from a De- 
pendence upon France, that they would never 
have wanted a ftrenuous Affiftanoe, as his Fa- 
ther found to his Coil, when all the Popilh 
Princes, except Francs^ preferred the Interefts of 
their States before the Interefts of their Reli- 
gion, as France it felf would have done upon 
the like Motives. 1 hope I {hall be forgiven hy 
the Gentlemen of this Caft of Loyalty, if I 
fay, that they have diffidently (hewn to the 
World, that they will. ejpbufe the Interefts of 

no Prince any longer than he ferves theirs ; and 


's LETTERS, m 

I conceive it is impoflible to fuppofe a Circum- 
Itance that Prince could be in, to anfwer both 
their Views, confidering his Prejudices and 

But whatever might have been practicable 
then, the Cafe is far otherwife now : We have 
a King upon the Throne, who will not be fiing 
out of his Dominions as the late King James 
was : He will have fbme Troops at home, who 
wifl certainly ttand by him : He has great Do- 
minions of his own abroad, and is fure of the 
Support of powerful Neighbours : His Strength, 
and that of his Allies, at Sea is fb great, that 
no Invafion can be made upon him, but by 
Srealth ; and that muft be always a very incon- 
fiderable one, and cannot be fupported but by 
Accidents, Very many, and I hope by far the 
greateft part of the Nobility, Gentry, and 
People are devoted to his Perfbn and Title, and 
would be glad to ferve him upon the Bottom of 
Liberfy and his true Intereft : The dignified 
Clergy fhew their Loyalty in the manner which 
is moft acceptable to him, and every Month 
adds to their Number by new Creations : and 
we may reafonably hope, that the reft will not; 
be long left behind. 

All who are concerned in the publick Funds,, 
wh'ch contain a fourth or fifth Part of the- 
Wealth of the Kingdom, muft fupport an 
Efbblifhment which (upports them, aVd which 
if loft, they are undone and loft with it ; and 
every Man who has Property, or the Means of 
acquiring Property, and has any common lln- 
derftanding, and a Love for himfdf and Liber- 
ty, muft know that fo many Intereils, and to 



fupported, cannot be fhaken but by a long 
Civil War, and by making England the Stage 
and Field for all the Nations in Europe to fight 
out their Quarrels in ; and that fuch a War 
rauft end in making us the Prize of the Vi6tor, 
and fubje& us either to a foreign Power or a 
domeftick Tyrant, if we have not the Happi- 
nefs to be reilored to our prefent EftafeUfhment 
again ; and then we Ihall have had a Civil War 
for nothing. 

If we did not lee by daily Experience, that 
there is not an Opinion in Philofophy, Religion, 
or Politicks, fb abfurd, but it finds out Heads 
wrong enough rurn'd to embrace it ; I fhould 
not think irpoflible, that any Perfon, who is 
not a profefled or concealed Papift, could wife 
for fuch a Revolution, or any one elfe fear it, 
and much lefs that they fhould fear it from 

It is certain, the Emperor has fb many per- 
fonal as well as political Ties and Motives to 
engage him in the King's Interefcs, arifing from 
Obligations received, from more expected, and 
as it is fa id contracted for in regard to his Ita- 
lian Dominions, from their mutual Dependen- 
ces upon one another in Germany and above 
all, from the Interelis of their feveral Domi- 
nions, that it is politically impofiible but that 
he muft do all In his Power to fupport him in 
his Throne; for when two Nations are fo firu- 
ated, that they have nothing to fear from one 
another, and have a common Intereft to watch 
and oppofe a third Power formidable to both, 
they mutt be natural Allies without the Help 
of Treaties ; and whatever little occasional or 



jprerfbnal Differences may happen between the 
Princes who govern them, yet whilft the In- 
tereft of their Dominions are Friendly, they will 
never long continue Enemies, and though they 
do fo, yet will always help one another upon 
any Emergency. 

I think I may fafely fay, that the King has 
much to hope, and nothing to fear, from the 
Leffcr Princes of Germany, in refpect to his 
Engllfh Dominions , for many of them can, 
and will help him, and none of them can do 
him any harm. 

The Safety and Prefervation of Holland is To 
entirely dependent, and wrapt up in our pre- 
lenc Eftablifhment, that they muft venture all 
to defend it. We are oblig'd by Inrereft, as 
well as Treaties, to fupport them againfl eve- 
ry Power that is capable much to offend them ; 
find their Jntereft is to keep us in a Situation 
and Condition to do fb ; and tho' without 
doubt they emulate and fear the great Naval 
Power of England, and our PofTeiiion o Gibral- 
tar, and would pleafe themfelves, and laugh in 
their Sleeves to fee us encreafe our Burthens, 
and enervate our State by airy and romanticfc 
Expeditions to do their Bufinefs, whilH: they 
lie ftill, eafe their -Subjects, and pay off their 
Debts, yet they will never fuffer England to 
fall under the Dependence of France, Spain, or 
J^J/M?, tho' they very well know how to make 
mercantile Advantages of the Weaknefs of 
thofe they have to do with. 

The Crowns of Sweden and Denmark^ can ne- 
ver have a joint Intereft to infult us, and at pre- 
nt neither of them have fo , for it is faid we 


ii4 C^rO's LETTERS. 

are engaged by Alliances, to fupport them a- 
gainft one another, and every one elfe who has 
Power enough much to annoy them ; nor 
csn they be fure that ever England again 
will find its Glory and Advantage in 
the Heroick Gallantry of engaging in the 
Squabbles of the North, when France and 
HnUnnd fvaftly more concerned in the Event) 
find theirs in lying dill, and letting them agree 
as they fall cut 

The C:>w can have no Motives from the In-* 
terefts of his Dominions, to quarrel with a 
People from whom his Subiech enjoy an ad- 
vantageous Trade, and with a Power too 
Vv'hich he can't hurt, and which can hurt him : 
"We are no Rivals for adjacent Territories, 
and he can't rival us in Maritime Power and 
Trade; and both of us can find our Account 
in Friendfliip, and neither 'n Enmirv. His 
Encroachments in the EfJricl^ have hitherto 
clone us no Mifchief, hut on the contrary has 
open"-' a new larket^for Naval Stores, and 
rendered our Supplies from Sweden and Denma>\ 
lefs precarious : Indeed his conquering either 
of thofe Crowns would be very rnifchievous, 
but much more fb to other Nations than to 
us, who may be eafily fupply'd with Naval 
Stores from our qwn Plantations ; and there- 
fore if his neighbouring or diftant trading Na- 
tions apprehend fuch an Event, they will cer- 
tainly join together to oppofe it, and implore 
our Ail) fiance upon our own Terms, tho' un- 
doubtedly they will be much better pleased, if 
we do it for them without asking theirs. 



Therefore if any Subje&s of ours have given 
him juft Caufe of Offence, and made him 
a perional Enemy to our Country, we ought 
to deliver them up, or punifh them a* home ; 
and if any Nation in Alliance with us, and 
in Enmity with him, can find their Inter, ft in 
quarrelling with him, let them quarrel by 
Inemfelves, and make up their Squabbles as 
they can. or get the Afiiftance of thofe 
who have Political Motives to oppofe his Pro- 
grefs, and put a ftop to his growing Power: 
1 doubt we (hall have enough to do to defend 
oir.'felves ; and therefore I hope we fhall not 
undo our fHves yet farther to conquer for o- 
thers, and in Inftances too which in Times to 
come may prove fatal to cur (elves, 

The Srates of Italy are Interefted to preserve 
the Naval Power and Greafnefs of Er^Iand^ if 
we purfue ?he Meafiires which are molt advan- 
tageous to our {elves, namely, to irrrddle no 
farther with their Affairs, than to carry on an 
advantageous Trade with them, and by friend- 
ly Offices, proper Negotiations, and perhaps 
fometimes by the Shew of Force, to protect 
them again!! the greater Powers which threa- 
ten them. It is certainly their Intereft., that 
we fhould keep PoffdTion of Gibraltar and Port 
JM/j/wz, if we make a right and boned life of 
them j for we have nothing to defire from 
them, but what 'tis their Interell to give, nor 
they to fear from us, whilft we act as Englijh- 
men but if we fhould ever facrifice our own 
Interefls to fuch as are not our own, we muft 
thank ourfelves if we make Enemies of thofe 
who would be glad to be our Friends. 



It is certainly the Intereft of the Kingdom of 
nce to have an impotent Adminifiration,. 
and a diftra&ed State of Affairs in England, 
and a Prince at the Head of them, that either 
from Weaknefs cannot, or from other Motives 
and Dependences will not obftrucl: the Union 
oftheS/ww/fc Monarchy to their own, which 
would foon give them the Poffeflion of it ef- 
fectually as if they had conquer'd it; but the 
Intereft of the Regent, who governs France, is 
far otherwife: The appearing Prof peel, and 
probable Chance of that Crown's defending 
to him, or his Pofterity, will en.qage him to 
fopporra Power which can alone fupport him, 
and ^ which has every Motive to do fo : In fuch 
a Circumftance of Affairs, no Intereft in France, 
except his immediate Dependents, can abet his 
Perform! Prerendons againfl: the Interns of all 
France., and therefore he mull depend upon fo- 
reign Alliances; and England alone can be fafe- 
iy rely'd upon, who have no Cloirn to any Pare 
or his Do;ninions, or Intereft and Defire to feize 
them; which cannot be faid of the Emperor, 
or any other Potentate, who has Power and 
Motives enough to uU.u him. 

I have wonder'd therefore at the Weak- 
nefs of many among cur (elves, who can be fo 
often dated or terrified with the Defigns of 
the Regent, who can never confpire again ft us> 
without confpiring againft himfelf ; and no 
Provocation even on our Part could make him 
undermine and betray, in fo tender an Inftance, 
his own Intereft. I doubt not but he withes 
Gibraltar out of ourHands ; and if Negotiations 
or big Words can prevail upon us to part with 


it, I prefume they ^ are eafily to be obtain'd, 
but he will never join with Spain to force it : 
this Danger therefore is a meer Bugbear, made 
ufe of to delude the Jacobite^ and intimidate 
honefter Men, and by making the firft plot, 
or prare and bounce, to govern the others. 

So that the Pope excepted, who can do us no 
harm by his own Force, the King of Spain a- 
lone is the Power in Europe that can be con- 
cern'd to favour the Pretender's Intereft ; nor 
could he find his Account in it, unlefs to open 
his Way to the Crown of France, in Cafe of 
the young King's Death. 

The Divine Kight of Monarchy in the Right 
Line is fo well eftabliflh'd in Arbitrary Coun- 
tries, that I dare fay that Prince would be 
fbrry to depend upon a forced Renunciation 
-and the Power of Spain, to defend himfelf a- 
gainft his Neghew, if other Powers were not 
at hand to afiift him , and no Power in Europe 
can do it effectually but England ; and whilit 
there is a King at the Head of it, who will pur- 
fue his own and his Peoples true Inrereft in 
protesting him, and preferving the Fricndfhip 
\vhich for more than an Age has been propiti- 
ous to both Kingdoms, and has the Means by 
the Poileillon or Gibraltar and Port M<ihon, of 
refenting any Injury done on his Part ; it is 
\vild to think that at great Hazard and Expence 
he would attempt to bring about a Revolution 
which may engage us in a long Civil War, 
,and disenable us to give him the Protection he 
can receive no where elfe. 

Therefore, if he is favourable to the Pre- 
tender's Jntereft, it mud be owing to perfonal 



Refcntments, or his Views towards the Crown 
of France. I hope we fhall give him no more 
Caufe for the firft ; and as to the latter, he 
has the Interefts of the Regent, of all Germany, 
Italy, the States of Holland, and indeed of all 
Europe againft him, as well as the united Inte- 
reft of his own Subjects, who will not be con- 
tented to be a Province to France ; and 1 may 
venture to aflert, that whilft we keep the Pof- 
feilion of Gibraltar, and make a proper life of 
it, he can neither effect the one nor the other ; 
namely he can never make himftlf King of 
France, nor the Pretender King of England. 

I am, 

Subjects which Men underiland lead, 
are generally what they talk of 
moft, and none Jo much as of Government, 
which alrnoft every Man thinks he has Ta- 
lents to direct, and like Sancha Pancba, believes 
he can make a very good Viceroy : He thinks 
nothing is neceiiary, but to get at the Helm, 
where his Bufinefs is to Command, and that 
of others to Obey ; and then, as the aforefaid 
Sancha (Viceroy-like) (ays, Who but I_? But 
to govern a State well, is the moft difficult 
Science in the World ; and few Men, who 
have ever been in the Poffellion of Power, 
have known what to do with it, or ever un- 


C^rO'sLETTERS. 119 

derdood the Principles upon which all Power 
is founded ; and their Miftakes have made 
endleis Havock amongft Mankind. 

Government is Political, as a humane Body 
is Natural Mechanifm ; both have proper 
Springs, Wheels, and a peculiar Organization 
to qualify them for fuitable Motions, and can 
have no other than that Organisation enables 
them to perform ; and when thofe Springs or 
Principles are deftroyed by Accident or Vio- 
lence, or are worn out by Time, they muft 
fuffer a natural or political Demife, and be bu- 
ried, or elfe fmell above Ground ; and though 
neither of them ought to be murdered, yet 
when they are dead, they ought to be interred. 
Now it is moft certain, that the firft Prin- 
ciple of all Power is Property ; and every Man 
wijl have his Share of it in Proportion as he 
enjoys Property, and makes life of that Pro- 
perty, where Violence does not interpofe. 
Men will ever govern or influence thofe whom 
they employ, feed, and clothe, and who can- 
not get the fame neceffary Means of Subfiftence 
upon as advantageous Terms tlfewhere. This 
is natural Power, and will govern and confti- 
tute the political, and will certainly draw the 
latter after it, if Force is abfent ; and Force 
cannot fubfift long without altering Property ; 
fo that both mufr unite together, firft or laft, 
and Property v/ill either get the Power, or 
Power will feize the Property in its own De- 
fence j for it is fooliO'i to think, that Men of 
Fortunes will be governed by tru,le who have 
none, and be plundered to make fuch whom 
they defpife, and have every Day new Reafons 



to hate, rich and infblent : And on the other 
hand, Men will contentedly fubmit to be go- 
verned by thole who have large Pofieilions 4 
and from whom they receive Protection and 
Support, whilft they will always emulate their 
Equals. Tho' the People of Ifynu extorted a 
Law from the Senate, that Commoners might 
be admitted into the chief Offices of the State 
jointly with the Nobles ; yer all the Addrefs 
and Power of the Tribunes could not for a 
long Time make them chute one of their own 
Body into thofe Offices, till Commoners had 
got Eftates equal to the obility ; s:d then 
the Ballance of Proper 1 ti ing to the People, 
they carried all befort t 

The only true defp. , : Governments now 
in the World, are thofc v 4ie whole Pro- 
perty is in the Prince ; as ir- e Eaftern Mo- 
narchies, that of Moroccr, Z . vhere every 
Man enjoying what he ha. J?.e Bounty of 
his Sovereign, has nc Motive or Means to con- 
tend with him, but looks upon him as his 
Benefaclor: and fuch ' : have no Property, do 
not think themfelves to be ii jured : But when 
Men are in PofLllien of any Thing which 
they call their own, and think they have a 
Right to enjoy it, the] will ever contend for 
it, when thay have tK V.e:: :s to do fb, and 
will always take Advantage of every Exigence 
in their Prince's AfrVrs to attain that Right. 
Other Princes, \vho hu'.'e a Mind to be as Ar- 
bitrary us the forr/Ler, and wanting either the 
Capacity or the Power tc acquire this natural 
Dominion, feize by Violence the Productions 
of their Subjeds Eftates and Induftry, which 


's LETTERS, izt 

is a conftant State of Force on one Side, and 
Oppre/fton on the other ; it perpetually pro- 
vokes the People, and yet leaves them often 
the Means of revenging the Injuftice done them, 
and mult end in the former Government, or 
in the letting up fome new Form by the Ex- 
tin6tion of die Tyranny : whereas in the other, 
; rho' the Monarchs are often deftroy'd yet the 
Monarchy is preferved jntire, there being no In- 
tercft in the Srate capable of fhaking it. ^ 

But bot h thefe Sovereignties have one Mifchief 
in common, and infeparable from them, v/r. 
as they ever fubfiiT, by (landing Armies, fb 
they muft ever be fubjecT: to the Caprices and 
Difgufts of the Military Men, who often de- 
pofs and murther their Sovereigns ; but in the 
latter much oftner than in the former ; for 
whilft the People have the Name, and as they 
think a Right to Property, they will always 
have fome Power, and will expect to be con- 
; fider'd by their Princes, and the Soldiers wilt 
, expect to have Leave to opprefs them, which 
will make continual Struggles ; and the Prince 
finding himfelf oblig'd to take Part with one of 
them, often falls in the Struggle, which was 
the Cafe of the t(oman Emperors, moft of 
! whom were flaughter'd either by the People, 
i or their own Soldiers ; whereas in a natural 
abfolute Guverment, there is no Danger, buc 
from the latter alone ; and if he can pleafe 
them, all is well, and he is fafe. 

But neither of thefe ought to be called by 

the Name of Government, but both indeed ars 

only Violence and Rapine, and the Subjection 

of many Millions of miferable Wretches to the 

VOL. III. F wide 

Giro's LETTERS. 

wide and wanton Will of often the worft Man 
among them : They deface humane Nature, 
and render the bountiful Gifts of indulgent 
Providence ufelefs to the World ; and the tell 
which can be (aid of them is, that they make 
the grand Tyrant and his inferior Opprefiors 
as miserable and unfafe as the poor Wretches 
they opprefs; nor fhould I have mentioned 
them as Governments, but to make what I have 
farther to lav the betier underflood. 

Another Dominions are either limited Mo- 
narchies, fimple Ariftocracies, Democracies, or 
Mixtures of them ; and the Actions and Ope- 
rations in thofe Governments, or the Continu- 
ance of thofe Governments, depend upon the Di- 
ftribution and Alteration of the Ballance of Rro- 
perty and the not obferving the Variation and 
the frequent Change? of this Primum Mobile^ 
caufes all the Combuftions we fee and feel in 
States : Men who fancy themfelves in the 
lame Situation, as to outward Appearance, flare 
about them, and wonder what is become of 
the Power their Predeceffors" enjoyed, without 
being able to judge how they loft it by the float- 
ing of Property, think they have a Right to 
enjoy the fame ftill, and io in fpite of Nature, 
ufe Fraud and Violence to attain what they 
cannot hold, if it was attain'd ; however, they 
will ftruggle for it, and this Struggle produces 
Contentions and Civil Wars, which moft com- 
monly end in the Deftrudion of one of trie 
Parties, and ibinetimes of both. 

Now in feems to me that the great Secret in 
Politick^ is nicely to watch and obferve this 
l-iu6tuation and Change of Natural Power, 



and to adjiift the Political to it by prudent Pre- 
cautions and timely Remedies, and not put: 
l\au/\e to the Expence cf Throws and Con- 
v'ulfions to do her own Work ; I do not mean 
b}' - ing the Form of the Government, 
wbi'-h is rarely to be done without Violence 
and Danger, and therefore ought not to be at- 
tempted v. hen any Thing elfe can be done, hue 
by genrle and infenuble Methods. Suppofe, 
for Example, a limited Monarchy which cafi- 
not fill fift without a Nobility : It the Nobles 
have not Power enough to ballance the great 
Weight of the People, and fupport the Crown 
and themfelves, it is n^ceffary to take fbme of 
the rkheft of the Commoners into that Order ; 
if they have more Power than, is contiHent 
v, *rh their Dependence upon their Monarch, 
it is right to create no more, but to let thole 
already created expire and wafee by degrees till 
they become a proper Bailance : If the People 
by Trade and Induftry grow To , thac nei- 
ther the Crown nor Nobles, or ! ^together, 
can keep pace with them, then there is no way 
left but by ufirig Violence to haz.ird what tl.c 
two latter are already in Pofidiion of by an un- 
equal Conteft ; or by ufing Moderation ^and a 
beneficent Conduct, to let the former enjoy all 
they can hope to get by a Struggle, and vo- 
luntarily to give up all odious Powers of doing 
Miichief, tho' milcaiicd Prerogative, which 
muft ever be a Power of doing good, when or- 
dinary Prcvifions fail, and are iniurhcient. 

Harry the Vllth, dreading the Strength of 
the Nobles, who had plagued and 
Sometimes deftroy'd hu rredcceifors, found 

F x 

Core's LETTERS. 

Means to make them alienate a great part of 
their Eftates, which threw a proportionable 
Power into the Commons j and his Son by feiz* 
ing the Revenues of the Ecclefiafticks, (who u- 
fuaily cabaii'd with them) and difperfing thole 
Eila^es amongft the People, made that Ballance 
much heavier ; which Queen Elizabeth wifely 
obferving, (tho' (he lov'd Power as well as any 
who went before her) yet carefTed them with 
ib much Dexterity, that (he preferv'd not only 
the Crown upon her Head, but wore it in its 
full Luftre, and by encouraging Trade, and 
jeittng Nature take its Courfe, ftill encreas'd 
the Peoples Wealth and Power, which her Sue- 
ceffor early faw and often lamented ; but want- 
ing her Moderation, Abilities and Experience, 
did not know how to temporife with an Evil 
which he could not help, but took a prepofte- 
rous Way to cure it, and endeavour'd by the 
Affiftance of the governing Clergy (who hop'd 
by his Means to recover what they loft at the 
Reformation,) to regain a Power by Pulpit- 
haranguing and Diftin&iotis which hedurft not 
contend for with the Sword, and fb his Reign 
was a perpetual Strugle between himfelf and 
his Parliaments : When they were qu'et he 
bounc'd, and when they had thoroughly pro- 
vok'd them, he drew back and gave good Words 
again ; but by fuch Conduft he (owed the 
Seeds of that fatal and bloody Civil War which 
fprang up in the Reign of his Son, and ended 
in the DtffoJution of the Monarchy, and fbon. 
after of all Liberty ; for the General of the 
conquering Army let up himfelf, (as all others 
will ever do in the fame Circutuftance ; ) but 



the Property remaining where it was, 

new Tyranny was violent and again ft Nature,, 

i; and could not hold long, and all Parties uni~ 

[ ted againft it, and fo the Nation was reftor'd 

; to its ancient Form of Government. 

King Charles the lid. came in with all the exte* 
| riour Advantages requifite to enflave a People - 

The Nation was become weary of the Sound 

'of Liberty, having fuffer'd fb much in their 
I Struggle for it, and loft all they ftruggled for: 

The Clergy were provok'd by the Lofs of 
I their Dignities and Revenues; the Nobility 
I and Gentry were imiverfally dilTafted and a- 

lier/ared by Sequeftrations, and being fb long 

deprived of the OrTices and Deflinclions they 

Haim'd by their Birth ; and the Body of the- 
I People had been harrafs'd and exhaufted by a 

long Civil War, and were weary of being 
J tofs'd and tumbled once in a Month out of one. 
:, Government into another : and all were pre- 

pared to accept and fall into any Meafares; 
i which might fat] ate their Revenge upon thole- 

who had opprefs'd them, and to root: out the- 
\ very Principles of Liberty, the Abufe of which 
> had brought fuch Mifchiefs upon them. 

That Prince got a Parliament to his Mind 

(as all Princes will do upon a Revolution,, 
: whenParties run high, and will do any Thing to. 
, mortify their Opponents) and kept it in conftant: 

Fenfion but 1'roperty remaining in the Peo- 
pie, it infenfibly gain'd Ground, and prevail'd 

at laft : The People grew univerfally difaf- 

feded, and- look'd upon the Parliament a? a,. 

Cabal of perjur'd Hirelings, and no longer 

their Reprefentatlves, and the Nation was 

F wo 

Giro's LETTERS. 

workM up into fuch a Ferment, that their 
Betrayers would not or durft not ferve the 
Court, nor the Court keep them any longer. 
That Prince had Wit enounh to drive Things 
no farther than they would go, and knew 
when it was Time to give back ; but his Bro- 
ther, wk-h lefs "Understanding and a much worfe 
'g'cn than his PredeceiTor openly profefs'dw 
hop'd to accomplifh what he had attempted, 
or'deipair'd of bringing about; and how he 
iacceec'ed we nil know. I gladly throw a Veil 
over what has happened fince, and hope 1 {hall 
hereafter have no Reafon to repent it. 

I fhall only obferve before I conclude this 
Lcrrer, that there is no need of the caballing 
of different Interefts, the uniting joint Court- 
ciJr, and concerting regular Meafures, to bring 
about fbrne of the greateft Events in humane 
. airs; and confequently in great publick 
Exigencies, Oppreflors will find no Security in 
tl -'ing Oppofition of Parties, ^ who like 
- Sheers will cut only what is between 
ihern when they ieem moft to threaten one 
another. When Nature has prepared the Way,, 
all Things will tend to their proper Center ; 
and tho' Men for fome Time will dally and- 
play with their lefler Interefts, yet at laft they 
will mechanically fall into their great ones, and 
often without intending or knowing it ; Men 
will aways feel their Strength when they can't 
reafon upon it, or are afraid to do fo. J could 
name a Party that for above thirty Years toge- 
ther have aded in the Intereds of Liberty, and 
for the greateft Part of the Time could not bear 
the Sound of Liberty, till at laft great Numbers 



of them are caught by the Principles they mod 
detected; which I intend as a feafonable Cau- 
tion to all thofe who have the Honour to lit at 
the Helm of States, or to advife Princes, who 
may at any Time hereafter want fiich a Me- 

I fhall, in my next Letter, endeavour to 
fhe\v, upon the Principles here laid down, that 
England at prefent is not capable of any other 
Form of Government than what it enjoys, and 
has a Right to enjoy ; and that another neigh- 
bouring State wilt with very great Difficulty 
preferve the Conftitution they now are in Po 
feliion of. 

I %, 

^ c ' tas obferved of the RCMMS, in hisTime, 
Qucd nee tctam liberttitem ncc tot am fervi- 
tutem fati poffunt ; That they could neither 
bear full Liberty, or perfect Slavery. This is 
certainly the Cafe of England at prefent, if 
Jjiberty is unclerftood what I prefume he meant 
by it, a Republican Form of Government. But 
I conceive Liberty may be better preferved by 
a well poifed Monarchy, than by any popular 
Government I know now in the World, what- 
ever Forms may ex'ft in Imagination ; but 
whether this be true or not, it is certainb 
that no Man in his Wits will !cfe the Benefit 
of a very good prefent Eftablifnment, and run 
infinite Hazards to try to get one a little better, 

F 4 


it he could have any Profpe<5l of attaining it : 
But I fhall endeavour to {"hew, that the effect- 
ing fuch a Project, is ijnpoffible 5 and that du- 
ring the prefent Diftribution of Property, we 
can preferve Liberty by no other than what we 
have ; and in the Attempt to alter it, muft run 
great Hazard of lofing what we are in PofTeilion 
of, or perhaps failing into an abfolute Monar- 
chy, or at belt muft return to the fame again, 
as we have done once already by fuch Feats. of 

It proceeds from a con&mmate Ignorance Ji> 
Politicks, to think that a Number of Men a- 
greeing together, can make and hold a Com- 
monwealth, before Nature lias prepared the 
Way for fne alone muft do it. An Equality 
of Eftare will give an Equality of Power; and 
an Equality of Power ^is a Commonwealth, or 
Democracy : An Agr nr lan Law, or foraething 
equivalent to it, muft make or fend a fuitable 
Diipoiition of Property ; and when that comes 
to be the Cafe, there is no hindering a popular 
Form of Government, unlefs fadden Violence 
rakes away all Liberty, and to preferve it (elf, 
alters the Diftribution of Property again. L 
hope no one ^amongft us has a Head fo wrong 
turned, as to imagine that any Man or Number 
of Men, in the prefent Situation of Affairs^ ! 
can ever get Power enough to turn all the Pof- 
feilions of England topfy-turvy, and throw them. 
in Average, especially any who can have la Will 
and Intereft in doing it ; and without all this it 
is impolFible to fettle a Commonwealth here; 
and I dare fay, fewdefire it, but fuch as having 
no Eilates of their own y or Means and Merit 



to acquire them, would be glad to (hare, ir 
other People's. 

Now 'tis certain, that the Diftribution ofc 
Property in England, is adapted to our prefent: 
Eftablifhment.'The Nobility and Gentry have 
great PofFeilions, and the former have great 
Privileges and Diftinclions by the Constitution, 
and the latter have them in Fa&, tho'pofitive 
Laws give but few of them, for their^ Birth 
and Fortunes procure diem eafy Admittance 
into the Legislature ; and their near Approach 
to the Throne gives them Pretences to honour- 
able and profitable Employments, which create : 
a Dependence from the inferior Part of Man- 
kind; and the Nature of many of their Eitates,,, 
and particularly of their Manners, add to than 
Dependence. Now all th'efe muft ever be in 
the Interelt of Monarchy, whillr. they are in 
their own ; for Monarchy fuppprts and keeps 
up this Diftinftion, and fub fills by it ; for it is- 
fenfelefs to imagine, that Men, who have great 
Poffeilions, will ever put themlelves upon the 
level with thofe who have none, or with fLch 
as depend upon them far Subfiftance or Pro- 
teclion, whom tl^ey will always think they 
have a Right to govern or influence, and will 
be ever able to govern whild they keep their 
PoiTeilions, and a monarchical Form of Go- 
vernment, and therefore will always endeavour 
to keep it! 

All the Bifhops, Dignitaries, or goreming 
Giergy, all who have good Preferments in rhe 
Church, or hope to get them, are in the In- 
terefts of Monarchy, for the Reafbns I gave ';i 
SL-former, and (brne bthen which I chufe r^ : 

F l 

i 3 o Giro's LETTERS. 

to give now : They know very well too, that 
a popular Government would take away all 
Puffeifions which it fhould think fit to call fu 
perfiuous, would level all the reft, and be apt 
to reafon, that Chrifttatiity would fare never 
the worfe if its Profefiors were lefs Politicians, 
of which they fee before their Eyes a pregnant 
and very affecting Inftance in Holland. All 
great and excluiive Companies are in the In- 
tereft of Monarchy, (whatever weak People 
have alledged to the contrary) for they can 
much eafier preJerVe their feparate and unwar- 
rantable Privileges by Applications to the Vices 
and Patlions of a Court, than by convincing a 
popular Aflembly : and for the fame Reafbrz, 
all Officers who have great Salaries and exor- 
bitant Fees, mud ever be fure Friends to Mo- 
narchy. Rich Merchants, and indeed ail rich 
Men, wiil be equally in the fame Intereft, ana 
be willing to ertjoy themielves, and leave to 
their Pofreriry all the Advantages and Diilincti- 
ons which always attend large Fortunes in 

Afrer thefe (many of whom are Men of 
Virtue and Probity, and defire only to enjoy 
the Rights they were born to, or have ac- 
quired) follow and bring up the Rear all the 
xvhple Poffe of Debauchees, and riotous Livers, 
leud Women, Gamellers, and Sharpers ; all 
who get by OpprefSpn and unequal Laws, or 
the Non execution of good ones; who are 
t-vcT for Monarchy and the' right Line, as ex- 
peih'ng much fairer Quarter from the Corrup- 
tions ;' Courtiers, than they can ever hope to 
meet with in popular States, who always de- 



ftroy and exterminate fuch Vermin, of which 
fort (I thank God) we have none amongft us 
at prefent ; but who knows how foon we 

may. A . 

Now, without entering into tne Quelhon, 
Which is the beft Government in Theory, a 
limited Monarchy, or a democratical Form oir 
Government ? I think I may fafeiy affirm, .that 
it is impoflibleto contend againfl all thefe In- 
terefts, and the Crown too, which is almoft a 
Match for them all together ; and the Phan- 
torn'e of a Commonwealth rnuft vanifii, and 
never appear again but in difordered Brains,. 
If this is the true Circumftance of England at 
prefenr, as I conceive it indSfpurably is, we have 
nothing left to do, or indeed which we ran^do,, 
bitf to make the bed of our own Conftitution^ 
which if duly adminiftred, provides excellently 
\vcli for general Liberty \ and to fecure the 
Pofieilion of Property, and to ufe our beil 
En<3?nvours to make it anfwer the other Pur- 
poles of private Virtue, as far as the Nature 01: 
it is capable oF producing that End. 

I have purpofely declined the fpeaking ot 
Arif'rc-cracies, becaufe there can be no imagi- 
nary Danger cf eftabllimng fuch a Govern- 
ment here ; for the Nobility have neither Pro- 
perty nor Credit enough to fucceed in an Ab 
of Knight-Errantry, or Will to attempt it - 
and the Gentry will ever oppofe them, uirleis 
their Intecefts are taken into the Prcje-fl ; and 
both together are not able to contend with the 
Crown and the Body cf the People, the latter 
*>f which will ever be in the Inrerefts of 

quality. _ 

i u 

Giro's LETTERS. 

And now having mentioned Ariftocracies, I 
fiiall make fbme Obfervations upon a neigh- 
bouring State, which is vulgarly miftaken fora 
Commonwealth, and is & in Nature according 
to the Ballance of Property there, but is poli- 
tically an Union of feveral little Anftocracies, 
in many reipecls like fome States of Italy in the 
firfl: Time of the Romans, but contrived with, 
irtuch worfe Policy : As it was jumbled together 
in Confufion, fb it feerris to me to fubfift by, 
Chance, or rather by the conftant Dread of the 
two great fucceifive Powers of Europe, viz. 
that of Spain formerly, and France fince ; for. 
the Natural Power being in the People, and the^ 
Political in the Magiftrates, it has all the Caufes. 
of DifTolution in its Contexture. Every Town: 
is governed and fubjeft to a little Ariftocracy 
within it felf, who have no Foundation o 
itii table Property to intitle them to their Do- 
minion ; and each of thofe is independent of its- 
Provincial State, and indeed of the States- Ge- 
neral, nor have any Cheque upon their own 
Actions, but the Tumult and infurre&ions of 
the People, who have the real and natural 
Power; and indeed, to do the Magiftratei 
Right, they judge ib well of their own Weak- 
nefs and the Power of the People,, that they 
feidom or never give them juft Caufe of Pro- 
vocation ; but by Frugality, pubiick Oeccno- 
mv, wife and timely Compliances., impartial. 
Juftice, and not railing great Eilates to theni- 
ielves at the others Expence, they make their- 

eafy, and find their own Account in. 
their Submiillon, wham they want Power ta x 
govern by the Force of Authority and proba- 



will continue to make them fb, whilft they 
keep to the fame Maxims and their prefeni: 
Conduct : But this is no fteady and durable 
Dominion ; nor unlefs Mankind^are formed 
there with other Appetites and Paiiions than ia 
all other Parts of the World, can the fame 
Prudence be always obferved, which (eems to 
me to be owing only to their NecefTities, and 
thatVirtue, Moderation, andJFrugality, which is 
confpicuous in the firft Rife of States, and is= 
not yet quite fpent but cannot laft much longer; 
for when they ceafe to be kept together by the 
conftant Dread of over-grown Neighbours, 
they will certainly think themfelves at Liberty 
to play their own Games at home : Thofe who 
are in PofTeilion of Power will know what it is 
good for ; and thofe who have great Riches 
will fall into Luxury, then into Extravagance,-, 
and at laft into Neceflity ; and others will vye 
with them, and follow their Example. When 
their Magiftrates have impaired their Eftates, or> 
fancy they want greater, they will plunder the. 
Publick; and others of equal Condition will 
emulate them, and begin to ask what right they 
have to the fble Enjoyment of Privileges and 
Employments, which they think themfeives In- 
all refpects equally mtitled. to, and will not be 
content to be always* Subjects to thofe who are 
no better than they are ; and the People will be- 
'impatient in continuing to pay large Taxes to. 
fuch who pocket them, but will endeavour to 
right them/elves, and have Power enough to do.- 
fo. Thefe oppofite Interefts muft raife Con- 
vulfions in the Body Politick, and produce all 
Mifchiefs which have happened in other - 



States upon the like Occafions. Thofe who 
have Power, will endeavour to keep it, and 
thofe who fuffer under it, \viil endeavour to 
take it away, and the Event will be In the Will 
oF Heaven alone ; but in all Likelihood will 
be fome other Form of Government. 

I take my Account of the Conftitution of 
this State from others, who poiTibly may not 
be well informed of ir, and-" I hope they are 
not fo> for I ihould be very forry to fee the 
moft virtuous and iiourifiiing State which ever 
yet appeared in the World, perifli of an inter- 
nal Diilemper ; which everfince its Inftitutlon 
has been the Champion of publick Liberty, 
and has defended it felf, and in a great Mea- 
fure its Neighbours, from the two greateft Ty- 
rannies which ever threatned Europe, and th? 
Chrifuan Religion. 

I am, &c 

IPropofe in this Letter to fhew r and I Hope 
to do it unanswerably, that nothing can be 
a greater DifTervice to his Majefty's 'Intered, 
mere fatal to his Min!(}ry, or more deflruclr/e 
to his People, than to engage them in a new 
War, if there is but a bare Poilibility of pre- 
venting ir, let the Pretences be what they will. 
A new Fire feems to be now kindling in Jr/r>, 
which in all Likelihood will blaze out far and 
wide j and without Doubt, many Princes will 


LETTERS. 155? 

\varm their Hands at it, whilft their Subjects 
will be burnt to Death : But I hope we (hall 
have Wit enough tojceep out of its Reach, 
and not be fcorched with its Flames ; but like 
fbme of our wifer Neighbours, (hall lie ftill, 
and know how to make our Markets of the 
Follies and Misfortunes of others. We have 
been Heroes long enough, and paid the Price 
of our Gallantry and Credulity. We are got 
near fixty Millions in Debt, and have nothing 
for it but Gibraltar and Port-Mabon ; and it is 
faid, that fbme of our Allies have had the Pre- 
fumpuon to expect thefe from us too ; and I 
am fure, if They (liould be loft, or given a- 
way, we have nothing left wherewith to com- 
penfate any Power which we {hall vanquifli 

I hope no Man will be wild enough to make 
any Proprofition for a new War to us ; nor 
can I guefs at any one Argument for it, but 
what I hope will be called Treafon to his Sove- 
reign and his Country. Old threadbare Rcafbns 
will hold no longer: People will not always 
deceive themfelves, nor be deceived by others. 
We (hall not bear being told again, Tbaf Eng- 
land need but fend a Mejfitge, or A IftuckeffuU offfia- 
ter 9 sind the Fire will be &xtinguijked. That Argu- 
ment has already coil us the Terror and Ex- 
pence of providing againfl two Invaiions, or 
intended Invafions; has loll or (polled feveral 
f rcat Fleets, deftroycd Numbers of our Mer- 
chant Ships, encrealed our National Debts 
many Millions, end perhaps brought upon us 
that nobleProjecl; to pay them off, and created 
the< general Want of Trade, and, I coubt, 



that great Difaffe&ion. which is fo often com- 
plained of ; and ail the Reward we have met 
with, has been a Struggle to keep what we 
were in PofTeilion of before, what was yielded 
to us by ' Treaties, and what there was no Pre- 
tence for Demanding, if we had thought it our 
Intereft to have lain ftill 

I hope we (hall never engage in a new War, 
before we have conlidered all the Confequences 
which will neceffarily or probably happen from 
fuch an Engagement, and have thought how 
we (hall get out of it, as well as how to get 
into it. The firft Step draws in all the reft ; 
and when we are in, we mull go through. 
We may begin with Thoufands, but muft go 
on with Millions. A MefTage will produce a 
Quarrel, but Fleets and Armies muft end it. 

We. well know and have Jong felt the Mo-2. 
deration of our AllieSo We can no fboner en- 
gage in their Squabbles, but they become our 
own ; and then we muft pay them for doing, 
their own Biifmefs, and largely too, or elie 
they threaten to leave the War upon us ; and 
when it is ended through our Means, always 
divide the Spoil amongft themfelves, and en- 
deavour to make us pay likewife for the Peace. 
I would be glad to know what any of them, 
have ever done for u? 5 or would iuffer us to 
do for our felves, in return for all that we 
have done for them ; or what Courtefy they 
have ever fhewn to us EngUjhmen^ as EngUJh- 
men ^ I hope therefore, that we too fliall at 
laft, in our Turn, confider only our own In- 
terefts, and what is beft for our felves , nnd 
not ruin our feives yet further, and let others 



have the whole Advantage. But if we had no 
Occafion given us for thefe Complaints, we 
have another and a fhorter Anfwer to give to 
our good Allies ; namely 3 that by helping them 
(b long, we are rendered incapable of ^ helping 
them any longer ; and that all Treaties niuft 
ceafe and become void, when it is impoilible 
to perform them without utter Ruin to one of 
the Parties, and without deftroying all the Ends 
for which thefe Treaties were made. 

Let us take a fhort Profpe& of the Journey 
we are to go, and confider what will be the 
Refult of fuch an Undertaking. All Naval Ar- 
maments muft be made at our Charge, and 
employed at a great diftance from Home, to 
the Ruin of our Ships and our Seamen, and 
the Obftru&ion of our Commerce : Armies 
mud be fent Abroad, or Money in the Name 
of Subsidies found out to pay thofe which are 
there already : More Armies muft be kept at 
Home to oppofe Invafions, and keep the Peo- 
ple quiet: Great Land-Taxes muft be raifed, 
our Publick Funds be every Year increas'd,. 
the People frighten'd with perpetual Alarms, 
which will fink the Price of the old Stocks, and 
consequently (et an exorbitant Price upon the 
raifing of new ones : We (hall lofe a beneficial 
Trade to Spain and the Mediterranean ; and pro- 
bably Portugal will take that Opportunity to 
execute what they lately attempted. The Czar 
too may think it a favourable one to acknow- 
ledge fome paft Obligations, and ether Nations 
may judge it a proper Time to bite the 
Stone that was thrown at them ; and then 
we {hall have little or no Trade at all, all out- 


138 C^TO's LETTERS. 

Commodities and Manufactures will lie upon 
our Hands, and the People be ftarv'd, or fub- 
lift by Ways which no honeft Man can wifli, 
and all Men ought to dread. 

IE Fr wee engages on the different Side we 
imift- have her too for our Enemy ; if on the 
fame Side, there can be no need of ourAfflftance, 
But if (he thinks it her Intereft to lie (1111 ; (he, 
who is the next Neighbour to both the Com- 
batants, and is vaftly mere concern'd in the, 
Event; what Vnve we to do with them at this 
Dillance, we who are no wife concerned whe- 
ther the Emperor or Sptin ufes the Italians 
word, or who has the Provinces contended 
for ? When Spain had them, we differed no- 
thing by it ; nor do I hear what we have got 
by the Emperor's being in PofTeflion of them. 
I purpofely avoid faying any thing of the States- 
General, becaufe they will certainly have Wit 
enough to hug themlelves in the Folly cf others, 
and profit by it:. 

vhat fii all \ve get by fuel* Feats of 
Knight- Errantry, but the difinterefteid Glory of 
ferving others to our o*,vn Difadvantage, and 
the Character of pious Chriftians, in treating 
thofe kindly who defpitefully tife us ? Oh, but 
Jbme tell us,, that we are bound by Treaties to 
preferve the Neutrality of Ifafy : Whether this 
is true, or the contrary is true, 1 know not; 
but if it is true, I doubt not but we (hall be 
told how England came to be a Party to fuch a 
Treaty; what were the Motives for making it ; 
what Equivalent we had for it ; what Intereft 
of ours was ferved by it ; or what other Coun- 
try, which v/e were concerned to preferve, was 



to reap the Advantage of it. And we 
to enquire too how Treaties-, made for our 
Beneft, have been kept by our Allies :, becauie 
we are told ( I hope, falllv) that: one of them 
had once in'his Cuftcdy the Pretender to the 
Ring's Throne, wiih feveral other Traitor^ to 
his Government, and yet inftead of delivering 
them up, fet them Jit Liberty ; and lately one 
of them'refi'fed, or declined to deliver up a 
much create- Traitor, when eatneftrjr requelt- 
cd bv the Parliament, and, without doubt, liii- 
po'-tiinarelv prefled by the King^? Minifters. 

I do not find that we bsve any Thing /o 
fear -from the King of $*ww, if v;e do not give* 
Ivm Provocation ; for the Secretary of 
affired the Lord Mayor in his Letter fince 
printed, that no foreign Potentate cbc-rted^ or 
gave any Countenance to the laft Intended In- 
furreftion : and if he v/ould not ailift a. Ccn- 
fpiracy adrually, and, as v/e are told, deeply 
laid, there can be no Reafoti to believe that he 
will form a new one agarnft a State that in- 
tends him no Harm, and can do him a great 
deal of Good : and furely it is not our Jnterej 
at thr Time of Day to provoke him to do it 
in his own Defence. If he and the Emperor 
have a mind to make a Feafl in Italy 9 let them 
bid whom they pleafe to the Banquet, 
which without doubt will be a long one, 
and many neighbouring Princes will be gorgec 
at it but for us we have no Bufmefs there, un- 
lefs to be Caterers, to fupply the greateft Part 
of the Provifion, and to pay the Reckoning tor 
the reft. I once knew a Wager of Forty ta 
One flaked down to be fpent. But mftead or 


140 Giro's LETTERS. 

engaging our Country in fuch expenfive and 
wild Whims, I hope we (hall catch at fo fa- 
vourable an Opportunity, when thofe who cart 
moft moled us are together by the Ears, to do 
our own Bufinefs, pay off our Debts, fettle our 
Trade, and reform all the Abufes of which we 
Ib juftly complain. 

But if fuch a War was ever fb neceflary, 
how (hall it be fupported ? We find by woful 
Experience, that Three Shillings in the Pound 
has not maintained the current Expence of the 
Government, but we have run Sill in Debt. 
The Money given for the Civil Lift has not 
defrayed that Charge, but new and large Sums, 
have been given to pay off the Arrears ; which,. 
it is faid, are not yet paid off. New Salaries, 
and new Penlions have been found neceflary,, 
to farisfy the Clamours of thofe who will ne- 
ver be fatisfied , and the greater Occafions the 
Courtiers have, and the greater Necefiities they 
are in, more will ftill be found neceffary ; for 
it is no News for artful Men to engage their 
Superiors in Difficulties, and then to be paid. 
largely for helping them out of them again v 
The Cufloms and Excife are anticipated and 
mortgaged almoft beyond Redemption : The 
Salt, Leather, Windows, and almoft ever/ 
Thing elfe that can be taxed, is already 
taxed, and fbme of them fb high, as to leiTea 
the Produce, and they are appropriated to pay. 
off Debts due to private Men. 

What new Sources will be found out to 
maintain a foreign War, and a much larger Ex- 
pence in our own Country, which will be ne-. 
eeflary to defend us againft Enemies Abroad,., 



whom we fhall provoke, and againft difcon- 
rented People at Home, who, it is to be feared, 
may fay that they are opprefled and ftarved ? 
One additional Shilling in the Pound upon 
Land, if the Parliament can be perfwaded to 
give, and the People be eafy in paying it, will 
be but as a Drop of Water thrown into the 
Ocean, whatever may be pretended at firft , 
and then for all the Remainder we mud run 
in Debt, if we can get any one to truft us ; 
and, where (hall we raife new Funds ? Here I 
doubt our Publicans, and Inventors of new 
Grievances, will be at their Wit's End : It is 
certain that the greater the Difficulty is in rai- 
fing them, the greater, mud be the Price for 
railing them ; and the prefent Stocks will be 
lefs valuable in Proportion, as new Demands 
make more neceffary. 

But fuppofe, to the infinite Di{Tatjsfac"Kon of 
the People, and the utter Ruin and Deftru6h'on 
of all Trade, the little which is not already 
taxed, could be taxed, and turned into Funds 
to create new Markets for Stock -Jobbers, and 
enough could be railed to maintain a War for 
two or three Years ; what fhail we do next ? 
It is mofr fure that the Difficulty of obtaining 
-a Peace, will grow in exadt Proportion, as we 
become lefs capable to carry on the War ; and 
what Afliftance, think ye, my Countrymen, 
(hall we have from our good Allies to obtain a 
Peace ? Without doubt, we fhall pay the Piper 
-at laft, and they will parcel out the contended 
Dominions amongft themfelves, and attempt-to 
make us give up Gibraltar and Port-Mnhn to 
bind the Bargain j and to pay befides a Ir-^e 



Sum of Money for the Ships we {hall i have 
deftroyed, and the other Mifchjrfs which we 
ftiall have done, and which wt need not do. 
1 hope it will never be our Lot to atTift fonis 
of our Neighbours at a vail i^ pence, and 
then reward them at a further ?:.xpence for ac- 
cepting our Afuftance ; and to beat others of 
our Neighbours, to our own Lois as ^vell as 
theirs, and pay them afterwards for having beat 
them : What would the World think of us in 
this Cafe, but that as. France had got the Plague* 
England had got the Phrenzy ; and that we 
were weakening ourfelves as faft with out own 
Hands, as the Divine Hand had weakened 
them ? 

But if after all, we cannot get a Peace, or 
{hall think fit not to fiibmit to the honourable 
Conditions which our honeft and faithful Con- 
federates (hall judge good enough for Hereticks, 
what (hall we do then ? They will have no- 
Motives to ierve us when they have done their 
own Bufmefs, or rather when we have done it 
for them ; and they have fufficiently (hewn al- 
ready what Inclination- they have to ferve us ; 
and if ever they have done it, they have .been* 
well paid for their Pains: What Condition Oral! 
\ve then be in to oppofe one or more powerful 
Neighbours, and perhaps victorious ones too, 
when we are enervated and exhaufted, when 
our People are difcontented at Home, and we 
have no regular Means to maintain Fleets and 
Armies, who mud be forced ro nvairruin them- 
felves if we cannot maintain them ? Thefe; 
IVliichiefe (and terr- U ones they are) may be, 
eafily forefeen 3 and ought to be prevented,, if 



we would prevent absolute and conclusive Ruin ? 
What, think you ? mud in fuch a Circum- 
flance of Affairs, become of the Funds ? If 
we lie dill, they are loft ot Courfe ; and if we 
apply them to our necefiary Defence, Tnou- 
fands and Thousands c f innocent People mud 
be undone and become deiperate, and infinitely 
inflame die popular LJ-k its, and fti ke 
more Taxes, more, ricre Cpprei : ons necePiary : 
And yet who will be found fd hard- hear ?:ed^ as 
nor to facriiic" the liu^efb of' The .ids to 
the Safety of Millions, when no ether : \~iburce 
is left ? 

.Beware, my Friem* . of the firftSiep, and 
know your whole Journey, before you move 
one Foot ; when you are up to the Ears in 
Mire, it will be too late to look back, .At firft 
we may be told by our Confederates a^d their 
Creatures, that we ive 1 only l-ov.nce a little, 
and make a Shew of Force, and every Thing 
will 30 to our Mind ; but a burnt Child will 

-' -j f 

dread the Fire : When we are engaged, we 
cannot retreat j one Step will draw another ; 
it will not depend upon our felves, whether 
we (hall go on or not ; fhe-Gatne will be then 
in other Hands, who will play it to their own 
Advantage, without regarding ours j and what 
we begin in Wantonne(s ? will probably end in 
our Confufion. 

What then rnuO: we think of any Men a- 
rnongft us, who would dra I thefe Miichiefs, 
theie inevitable i\] ion their Country ? 

, They muft certainly be egreglouily fooiifh or 
confummately wicked. I, and believe, 
there are no fuch , but If there are, without 




doubt they h-we taken their Meafiires, and 
have thought how to fave themfelves* what- 
ever becomes of their Country ; but in that 
too they may chance to be mi (taken. 

If it is neceffary to the publick Safety to 
keep eight or ten Carnps in Readinefs for Ac- 
tion in Times of full Peace, and when there 
is no outward Appearance of publick Diftur- 
bances, and no foreign Power promotes or abets 
any fuch ; How many Camps will be neceffary 
when we have Enemies affaulting us from A- 
broad, and combining and intriguing with our 
own Native Tray tors at Home, efpecially if 
the People ftiould be made ftill more uneafy by 
kying Burdens upon them which they cannot 
bear nor ftand under ? For my own Parr, I can 
lee no fteady Source or continuing Caufe for 
the Difaffe6Hon fo much complained of, but 
the great and heavy Variety ^ of Taxes, ^ of 
which our Anceftors knew nothing, and which 
k is a Sort of a Science now to know ; and 
I doubt that Difaffection will not be cured by 
adding to the Number. 

We can never, therefore, behave ourfelyes 
with more true Duty to his Majefty, give 
better Advice and AfUftance to ^his^Miniftry, 
or acquit ourfelves with more Fidelity to our 
Country, than by oppofing, in the moft vigo- 
rous Manner, fuch Meafures as threaten them 
all with Ruin ; and by fhewing the utmoft Re- 
fentment againlt any ill-defigning Perfons, who 
would wickedly and traiterouily facrifice a 
great, fi'ee, and opulent Kingdom, to mad 
Whimfiesj or the pitiful mean Interests of little 


f tni 

Giro's LETTERS. 


CDOCCALINI tells us, that Archimedes was 
beat by the Bravoes in Parnaffus^ for find- 
ing^ out a Mathematical Demonftration, by 
which it was plainly proved, that all the De- 
figns of great, as well as private Men, was 
dexteroufly to get Money out of other People's 
Pockets, and put it in their own. And 'tis 

! certain this is the grand Defign and Bufinefs of 
all Mankind, the chief if not the only Spring 
of all their Adions, and animates and infpires 
their beft as well as word Performances. And 
how commendable foever this may be in pri- 
vate Men, who already enjoy all the Conve- 

, niencies of Life, it is certainly the Intereft and 
Duty of States, by all prudent and juft Me- 
thod.^, to cncreafe their ^ Wealth and Power, 
and ^ in Confequence their Security and Pro- 

' te&ion. As Government is only the Union of 
many Individuals for their common Defence ; 
fo they cannot attain that defirable End, un- 
lefs by Accident of Situation, fuperior Policy, 
or by diffident Number, they can render them- 
felves ftrong enough to repel the Injuries, and 
oppofe the Infults, of ambitious and unruly 
Neighbours ; otherwife they murt: fubmit to 
be undone, or throw themfelves under the Pro- 
teftion of fome greater Potentate, and accept 
fuch Conditions as he pleafes to give, and for 
no longer Duration than he pleafes, 
VOL. Ill G As 


As this is the greateft Mifchief which hu- 
mane Nature can fuffer, fo every honed and 
wife Man will endeavour to free hirnfelf, his 
Family, and his Country, from this abjeft, la- 
mentable and forlorn Condition ; and contri- 
bute all in their Power to make the State they 
live under, great, rich, and formidable. I have 
already at large (hewn, that no State in a 
fmall Tra6r. of Ground can be fo, but by Li- 
berty, which always produces Riches, and 
every Quality which can grace and adorn the 
Mind, and render Mankind preferable to the 
Brute Creation. 

Now nothing can be called Riches, but as it 
is applicable, or rather as it is applied to the 
ilfe of Men. The vaft Trafts of North-Ame- 
rica feed only a few fcattered and half-ftarved 
Inhabitants, whilft the barren Rocks of Swit- 
sprland maintain in Plenty great Numbers ot 
wealthy and happy People. All Greece, Mace- 
don, and Epirus, together, have not fo much 
Power now, as Tingle Cities in them had for- 
merly : Countries without Inhabitants will not 
defend themfelves, nor are worth defending ; 
nor will they maintain Inhabitants without 
their own Induftry and Application. Every 
Nation is rich and powerful, in exact Propor- 
tion to the Numbers, the Employment, or the 
Idlenefs of its People, and the Power of the 
State is the accumulative Wealth of the Whole; 
that is, what every Man can fpare for the 
common Defence, over and above what is ne- 
ceflary for his own Subfiftence ; fo that to 
make a State great, the People mutt be made 
rich and happy : Their private Happinefs will 



make them willing to defend their Country, 
and their Wealth will enable them to do it. 

The Riches of private Men are fuch Things 
as are necedary or conducive to their perfonal 
Support, Convenience, or Pleafure ; but many 
other Things are neceffary for the Defence and 
Augmentation of States. There mud be For- 
treffes, Artillery, armed Ships, and Magazines 
of War, and proper Encouragements given to 
skilful Perfbns to make ufe of them. There 
mull be often great Armies at Land, and Fleets 
at Sea, maintained and paid at the publick Ex- 
pence, for the publick Security ; all which 
inuft be maintained out of the Superfluities of 
thofe who ftay at Home ; and if they have not 
all thofe Materials neceffary to their Preferva- 
tion, or conducive to their private Bappinefs 
in their ov/n Country, (as few Countries have) 
they muft purchafe them Abroad with the Pro- 
duce of their own Country, or by Silver and 
Gold, which purchafes all Commodities. In- 
deed, by the univerfal Confent of Mankind, 
Silver and Gold is become the Medium of all 
Commerce ; and every State, as well as pri- 
vate Man, is rich and powerful in Proportion, 
as he poffeffes or can command more or lefs of 
this univerfal Commodity, which procures all 
the reft j all other Things are Riches only kic 
& nunc^ but thefe will command every Thing, 
and almoft every Perfon in the World 

Gold and Silver are the Natives but of few 

Countries, and the Propriety of but few Per- 

i fons in thofe Countries, and can be obtained 

by others only by their Confent, or by Force 

and Rapine } and consequently, no Stare can 

G 1 

148 euro's LETTERS. I 

grow more conftderable than their native Soil | 
will make them, but by robbing their Neigh- 
bours of what they themfelves want or defire, 
or by perfwadi'ng them to part with it willing- 1 
ly^that is, either by Arms or Trade; and 
which of thefe two will conduce mod to the 
Happinefs, Security and Augmentation of Em- 
pires, (hall be the Subject of this Letter. 

If we confider this Queftion under the Head 
of Jiiftice and Humanity, what can be more 
deteftable, than to murder and dedroy Man- 
kind, in order to rob and pillage them ? War 
is comprehenfive of moft, if not all the Mif- 
chiefs which do or ever can afflict Men : It 
depopulates Nations, lays wade the fined 
Countries, dedroys Arts, Sciences, and Learn- 
ing, butchers Innocents, ruins the bed Men, 
and advances the woril ; effaces every Trace 
of Virtue, Piety and Companion, and intro- 
duces Cbnfufion, Anarchy, and all Kinds of 
Corruption in publick Aftairs ; and indeed is 
pregnant with fo many Evils, that it ought 
ever^ to be avoided, when it can be avoided ; 
and it may be avoided when a State can be fafe 
without it, and much more fo when all the 
Advantages propofed by it can be procured by 
prudent and juft Methods. 

All the Advantages procured by Ccnquefr., 
are Security of what we poffefs our (elves, or 
to gain the Pofleffioris of others, that is, the 
Produce of their Country, and the Acquifi- 
tions of their Labour and Indudry ; and if 
thefe can be obtained by fair Means, and by 
their own Confent, (lire it mud be more eli- 
gible than to extort them by Force. 


's LETTERS. 1 

This is certainly more eafily and effectually 
done by a well regulated Commerce, than by 
Arms : The Baliance of Trade will return 
more clear Money from neighbouring Coun- 
tries, than can be forced from them by Fleers 
or Armies, and mere adyantageoufiy than un- 
der the odious Name of Tribute : It enervates 
rival States by their own Content, and obliges 
them, whilft it impovenihes and ruins them : 
It keeps our own People at Home employed 
in Arts, Manufactures, and Husbandry, inftead 
of murdering them in wild, expensive, ar ! 
hazardous Expeditions, to the weakening their 
own Country, and the pillaging and deR roving 
their Neighbour?, and only For the fruirlefs 
end imaginary Glory of Conqueft : It faves 
the Trouble, Expence, and z,ard of fur- 
porting numerous Standing Armies Abroad to 
keep the conquer'd People in Subjeclion ; Ar- 
mies, wha for the in oft part too, if net always, 
entlave their own Country, and ever 1 t r<v 
up all the Advantages cf the Ccnquefts. [ 
have often wondered at the Folly ard Weak- 
nefs of thofe Princes, who will facrifice Hun- 
dreds of Thoufands of their own faithful Sub- 
jects to gain a precarious and flavifh Submif- 
(ion from bordering Provinces, who will feek 
all Opportunities to revolt ; which cannot be 
prevented but by keeping them poor, wretched, 
and miferable, and confequently unable to pay 
the Charges of their own Vaflaiage ; when if 
the fame Number of Men and the fame Sums 
of Money were ufefully employed at Home, 
which are neceiTary to make and fupport the 

G ^ Cohqueft* 

i jo Giro's LETTERS. 

Conquefl:, they would add vaftly more to their 
Power and Empire. 

It is not the Extent of Territory and vail 
Trah of barren and uncultivated .Land, which 
make Stares great and powerful, but Numbers 
of induftrious People under a proper Oeco- 
fiomy, and advantageoufly and ufefully em- 
ployed ; and the fame Number will be always 
more powerful in a fmall Tra6t of Ground 
than a great one : They here are always at 
hr.nd to aflat one another, to carry on Manu- 
factures, and to promote and execute any great 
Defigns : All the Materials of Trade and In- 
duftry are in place, and by that Means the 
Charges of Carriage prevented, which {wal- 
lows the Advantages of Commerce, and^ ren- 
ders it unprofitable. The impoiiibility of Tub- 
fifting by Idlenefs, renders them induftrious, 
Emulation roufes their Ambition, and the Ex- 
amples of others animate them to defire to 
live in Splendor and Plenty ; and all thefe 
Paillons concur to fit their Hands and Wits 
to work, and to promote Arts, Sciences, and 
Manufactures, to ftrike out new Trades, form 
new Projects, and venture upon Deiigns A- 
broad to enrich their own Country at Home. 

Great Numbers of People crowded together, 
are forced by their Neceiiities to turn every 
Stone, and try every Method to fupport them- 
felves and Families, and by doing fo will trace 
and difcover by Degrees all the Sources of 
Wealth. All Ways will be found out to make 
Trade commodious and profitable, numerous 
Contrivances be thought on to come at the 
Materials of Manufactures eafily and at cheap 



Rates, and to work them again ar the lowed 
Prices. Rivers will be- made navigable, En- 
gines invented, which whh the Aiiiflance of 
few Hands, (hall fupply the Labour of Multi- 
tudes ; Store-h 'iifes \vili be built to depofite 
Goods in, \vhiift they wait for Markets ; 
pifheries wi-1 be ere<51ed, Colonies planted to 
furnifh new Commodities and new Materials 
of Commerce, and will vent too and carry off 
thofe turbulent and unruly Spirits, who are 
unfit to live in a peaceable State, and muft rob, 
hang, or flarve there. By all thefe laudable 
Method?, and many mrro, Riches \v!ll be a- 
rnafTed, Money become cheap, and the Inrereft 
of it leflened : ; and the lowering the In terete 
of Money will open new Trades, and frill bring 
in more Money, as wtll as improve the Native 
Territory, encreafe vaftiy the Purchafe of 
Land, and encourage the building of Cities 
and Towns : for the lei's Men expect for the 
Inrereft or Profit of their Principal, the more 
they can afford to lay out in Trade, Building, 
or Husbandry, to return but the lame Income, 
and confequently can grow rich by the Com- 
merce and the fame Improvements, which 
would undo Nations where the Intereft of the 
Money is higher. 

There are few Countries in the World, but 
by a due Culture would maintain many Times 
the Inhabitants which poflefs it, better than 
they are at prefent maintained. Our indulgent 
Mother will readily yield up her hidden Stores 
to fuch of her Children, as make a proper 
CourtPnip and Application to her : The Trea- 
fures of the Earih and Seas are inexhauftible ; 

G 4 one 

Giro's LETTERS. 

one Acre of Ground well manured, cultivated, 
and (owed with Corn, will produce Ten-times 
as much for the Suftenance of Man, as ten 
Acres not ^ cultivated, or ill cultivated: And 
one Acre in Gardens will produce Ten times 
as much as in Corn ; and it is much eafier^ 
cheaper, and profitable, to improve our own 
Country, and fb encreafe its Productions, than 
to fetch the like Productions by Force from 
others. It is more fafe, as v/ell as virtuous, to 
accept the willing and chaite'Embraces of con- 
jugal Affect.ion, than by Violence to extort for- 
bidden and dangerous Pleafiires, and which, for 
ihe mofi part, if not always, fail our Expecta- 

But fuppofing the Soil belonging to any Na- 
tion fhculd not be fufncieiif to fupport all its 
Inhabitants^ which I believe is the Cafe of Hc/- 
/VW, yet it is certain they may purchafe from 
their Neighbours what they want for very much 
h-f* thr.n they can earn at Home in Arts and 
Manufactures. Labour in Husbandry is the 
lealt profitable Employment in the World, and 
ten Men fb employed will not earn the Wages 
of one good Artift, and the meaneft Mecha- 
nicks and Artificers earn more than Husband- 
men, and consequently have a Surplus from 
their own Labour after they have bought the 
Production of the other's Induftry. This is 
the Circumftance of Cities and trading Towns, 
who have no Growth of their own, and yet 
grow rich by retailing and manufacturing the 
Growth of the neighbouring Countries, over 
and above what they confume for their own 
Subfillence and U(e ; and the fame is true of 



trading States. As Tyre, and other free Stares- 
did formerly, fo Holland at prefent grows vaftly 
Rich and Formidable, by keeping its Neigh- 
bours employed in the poor and menial Trade 
of Husbandry, whflft they employ their own 
People in Arts and Manufactures ; a final! Part 
of which fupplies them with the Productions 
of the other's Labour, and with the reft they 
purchafe a great Part of the Riches of the 
World ; and by thofe Means they have made 
themfelves more confiderable in that little Spot 
of Land, than great Empires have done by 
Conqueft, which always corrupts and often 
efiihves the Conquerours as well as the Con- 

I am, &c.. 

Aving in my la ft Letter cdnfidered Silyr - 

and Gold as the only certain, dura- 
and univerfal Riches, and that the attaining 
them is the chief View and Defign of all Man- 
kind ; I flrall in this confider a Queftion which, 
puzzles the greareil: Part of the World, and 
which, as 1 think, they for the mnft Part^deter- 
mine wrongly ; namely, when a Nation Is once 
poUHTfd of them, whether it is their Intereft to 
let them be exported again : In this 1 have tKg 
Opinion of moft States againfl nie, who pro- 
h :! it the carrying them o'.it undtT the (evcrcfl:. 
Penakies, (Irattimjs before, and IbriletTmc* 

G 5- after 

Giro's LETTERS. ' 

after they are converted into their current Coin ; 
and to me nothing feems more injurious, im- 
pertinent, and impotent, than to make fuch 

No Soil or Climate produces all Commodi- 
ties, and no Nation works all Sorts of Manu- 
factures which are of common and neceflary 
life ; nor can any Man, by his own Skill and 
Labour, make or acquire any confiderable Part 
of fuch Things as he wants or defires ; and 
confequently he can have no Means of attain- 
ing them, but by exchanging what he does not 
want, for what he does. But (ince it does and 
will moft commonly happen, that the Perfor* 
who is poffeflcd of the Commodity which one 
Man defires, does not want what he has to give 
in Lieu of it, or not enough of it to anfwer the 
Value of what he parts with ; therefore fbme- 
thing elfe muft be found out to make the Ac- 
count even. 

From hence Mankind have Found rhemfelves 
under a Neceillty to agree upon fbme univerfal 
Commodity, which (ball meafure the Value of 
all the rell, and balhnce all Accounts at laftr. 
Hitherto nothing has been discovered, which 
will snfwc-r thatPurpofe fo effectually as Silver 
and Gold : Their Contexture hinders them 
from being perifhable, their Diviiibility qua- 
lities them to anfwer all Occafions, their Scar- 
city enhances their Price, fo as to make a great 
Value lie in a narrow Compafs, and eafily port- 
able ; and the more regular and equal Supplies 
of them than of other Commodities, render 
them proper Standards for the Valuation of other 
Things. Thefe. therefore being by general 


and almoft univerfal Agreement, the Mediums 
of Commerce, the Ballance of all Traffick, 
and the ultimate View and chief Advantage 
propofed by it, we are to confider how far thofe 
Ends and Advantages can be anfwered by ex- 
port'ng them again. 

Now it is certain, that many Commodities 
of abfolute and indifpenfible life, are in the 
PoiTeilion of Nations who do not want thofe 
which we have to give in Exchange for them ; 
or knowing our Neeeilities, will not part with 
them but for Silver and Gold ; and therefore 
we mull have them upon their Terms, or not 
have them at all. Some of them are the Ma- 
terials of our Manufactures, which will return 
to us again many times the Money we advance 
in procuring them ; and very often they are 
neceflary to carry on Trade in general, as en- 
abling the Merchants to make AfTortments of 
Goods proper for particular Markets, or are 
the Materials of Navigation, or Magazines for 
War and common Defence. 

No Country wants always the fame Supplies*' 
or has the fame Growth and Quantity or Ma- 
nufactures to purchafe them ; nor can any 
Merchant have a clear View of the whole 
Commerce of the Country he deals with; nor 
do the Commodities always bear the fame 
Price ; fo that the Ballance will often vary, and 
muft be paid at laft in thofe univerfal Commo- 
dities. No Nation or private Man will deal 
with another, who will not pay his Debts ; and 
if he has not ether Commodities to pay them 
with, or if thofe he has are not wanted, or will 
not be accepted In Payment, he mull pay therrt 


Giro's LETTERS. 

in fuch as will ; and whatever it cofts him; 
mult deliver them into the Cuftody, or to the 
Order and Satisfaction of his Creditor. 

It is foolifh to imagine, that any Precautions, 
or the greateft Penalties, will keep Money in 
any Country where 'tis the Intereft of Num- 
bers to carry it out: The Experience of every 
Nation may convince us of this Truth ; Gold 
and Silver lie in fb little Compafs, are fo eafily 
concealed, and there are fb many Convenien- 
ces and Opportunities to carry them off, that 
imall Encouragements will always find Adven- 
turers, and thofe Adventurers wftfalmbft alv/ays 
fucceed. There is no Way in Nature to hinder 
Money from being exported, but by hindering 
the Occafions of it, that is, by hindering the 
life and Confumption of thofe Things which it 
is fent out to buy ; for when they are bought, 
they mutt be paid for, or all Traffick is at an 

Thefe Propofitions being, as I conceive, 
Iclr-evident ; it is next to be difcufled, whe- 
ther it is the Intereft of a State to permit their 
Money to go out freely,or by annexingPenalties- 
tcrthe exporting ir, enhance the Difficulty, and 
raife the Price of carrying it out, by obliging 
the Exporter to pay himfelf largely for his own 
Hazard, as well as the Hazard of the Seas , 
and I think nothing is more demonstrable, than 
that the greater Obftacfe is laid in his Way, 
and the greater Hazard he runs, the more he 
will be obliged to export ; fcr whatever he has 
agreed to pay beyond Sea, rnulr be difcharged, 
v/hatever it coils him to gee it thicher, and he 



is to be paid befides all the Charges of getting 
it thither. 

Bills of Exchange only ferve the Purpofe, 
and fave the Expence of Paying the Carrier ; 
for if one Man has Money due to him Abroad, 
and the other wants the fame Sum here, they 
will both fave the Charges of Carnage, by 
one's paying it where he does not want it, and 
the other's receiving it where he does ; but if 
there be more Demands by the Merchants of 
one Country upon their Correfpcndents in an- 
other, than the others can pay by the Produce 
of their Effects, or from Debts due to them 
elfewhere, (which will be accepted as Pay- 
mentj the Surplus muft be returned in Silver 
and Gold, ^and they muft pay tco the Peribns 
who carry it; and other Merchants feeing their 
Neceliity, will take Advantage of it, and re- 
ceive Premiums for as much as they can return 
in Bills, in Proportion to the Charge it will 
coft to fend it in Specie, and the Hafte their 
Creditors are in to receive it : But herein they 
will not have Regard only to the Commerce 
between thofe particular Nations, but to the 
Coiirfe and Ballance of general Trade ; for 
Bills often travel from Country to Country, and 
take a large Circuit before they center, and 
the Account is finally made up at home. And 
this take to be the whole Myftery o^ Ex- 
change, which is either Paying, or fa v ing the 
Charge of Paying the Carrier; and if you 
don t do tt your lelf, others, who do k for you, 
wiiUeap Advantage from Jc. 

Since then Money or Bullion muft be ex- 
porced, when Debts are contracted abroad, I 



think it is eligible to fend out the firft rather 
than the latter, or at lealt to leave People at 
Liberty to export which they pleafe. Indeed, 
they are the fame Thing ; for all Money is 
Bullion, and all Bullion is eafily convertible 
into Money, and all which is not otherwife 
manufactured, would be converted into it, if 
there was no Difadvantage in doing fo. The 
Advantages are obvious, and the Charge to 
the Proprietors nothing for the Stamp of Au- 
thority ascertains the Weight and the Finenefs; 
and the dividing it into fmall Parcels, makes it 
more ufeful for Commerce, which renders it 
more valuable Abroad as well as at Home, and 
' confequently Foreigners will be contented to 
pay Part, if net the Whole of the Charge of 
Coining it. It could in no Circumftance be of 
lefs Value, if it was not denied a Privilege and 
Advantage it had before it was coined, which 
is the Liberty of Exportation, and being ufed 
in foreign as well as domeftick Trade ; for 
\vhilft free Liberty of Exportation is allowed 
to one, and denied to the other, and yet there 
are frequent and neceflary Occaiions of export- 
ing one or the other, ir mull happen that either 
Money will be melted into Bullion, and fo the 
Manufacture be loft, or Bullion mull: be 
bought by Monev at a Price anfwerable to the 
Neceility or the Hazard of carrying it in Specie 
abroad, or of melting it down at home, and 
the Expence of Conference afterwards in fwear- 
ing it^to be foreign Bullion ; which fomeiimes 
has raifl-d the Price 8 or 10 per Cent. 

Now itjnuft be obvious to any one, who the 
leaft confiders this QuefHon, how much fuch 



Prohibition muft affect our general Trade, 
they being equivalent to the putting an equal 
Duty upon the Exportation of our own Com- 
modities, which all wife Nations encourage by 
all Ways they can, and often by^giving Pre- 
miums to the Exporter. They give to other 
Nations the Means and Opportunity to trade 
Ib much -per Cent, cheaper than we can, which 
muft certainly carry away from us many valu- 
able Trades : They enhance the Value of all 
foreign Materials which we ufe in our Manu- 
factures, that are bought with Bullion or Mc- 
ney as many of them are, which muft in Con- 
fequence raife the Price of thefe Manufactures, 
and hinder their Sale ; and above all, make the 
Materials of Navigation dear to us, upon which 
all Trade in a great Meafure depends, and the 
Carriage-Trade wholly. 

But not only thofe Trades, which are altoge- 
ther or partly carried on by Bullion or Money, 
will be affected by them, but all Trade what- 
fbever ; for as T have before (hewn that Bullion, 
being the Medium of the Value of all Com- 
modities between Nation and Nation, as Mo- 
ney is between People of the fame Nation, if the 
latter being of equal Weight and Finenels with 
the former, and yet lefs valuable ; then of ne- 
ceffary Confequence home Commodities muft 
be fold cheaper in foreign Countries, and theirs 
muft fell dearer here, which muft alter the 
Ballance proportionably to our Difadvantage ; 
for we fell at home for our own Money, and 
buy abroad with Bullion, which are equally 
valuable in themfelves, the Coinage excepted, 



and will be equally bought in foreign Markets 
for the fame Quantity of Commodities. 

Suppofe, for Example, Corn bore the fame 
Price in refpeft of Silver and Gold here, as in 
Holland, and yet we muft give more for it when 
that Silver and Gold is converted into Money 
than they do, who get the Difference by im- 
porting their Silver ; then it is evident that 
they can afford to buy it of us, and fell it a- 
gain to foreign Markets cheaper than we can, 
and fometimes to our felves, and confequently 
muft carry away that Trade from us. Thefe 
Events are inevitable, unlefs we let our Money 
be exported, or turn all our Coin info Bullion, 
and make that the Medium of domeftiek as 
well as foreign Commerce, which muft ioon be 
our Cafe, and every Day grows more and more 
fo ; for who will give himfelf the Trouble of 
carrying his Bullion to the Mint to have it made 
lefs valuable than before ; whereas if Money- 
had the fame Liberty of Exportation as Bullion 
has, all the Silver nor otherwife manufactured,, 
would immediately be carried thither and coin- 
ed, and iefs of it be carry 'd out afterwards for 
the Reafbns before given. 

But whilft it remains upon the prefent Foot, 
whatever Contracts are made for En? lift Goods- 
in Engnfi Money, will be paid for with lefs- 
Bullion, than will coin into the fame Quantity 
of Money- and whatever are bought abroai 
will colt us more Money thnn the fame is 
worth in Bullion ; fo that Foreigners will chufe 
tp carry off our Money, rather than cur Bul- 
lion or Goods, and will afterwards melt k 
down, and find their Account in returning it 


> LETTERS. 161 

upon us again for more Money ; and fb on till 
they have got all we have,which can be prevent 
ed alone by putting coined and uncoined Silver 
upon the fame Foot, and giving them equal 
Advantages, the Coinage excepred. 

.Till this is done, we muft fuffer in our Ex- 
change with rr.oft, if not all the Countries in 
the World ; for whilft our Coin in Quantity is 
lefs valuable than Bullion, and theirs equal or 
more valuable, every Thing we buy or fell 
muft be affecl'ed by it ; and we rruft pay cur 
Debts with more Silver, and receive them in 
lefs than they do, which muft make a vafl Diffe- 
rence in the Return of our whole Trade. 

This is fo much the Interelt of 7 every Par- 
ty, and almoft every Man in every Party, that 
1 have often wdnderM how fb many able Patri- 
ots that have fat at the Helm fhnuld nev*er once 
think of doing their Country this great Service. 
I cannot doubt but Men of their great Abilities 
mn ft underftand this plain Propofition ; and 
methinks they mould fometimes find it their In- 
tereft and Duty to fave a little Money for their 
Countrymen, and not always to be taking from 
them, efpecially when they lofe themfelves no- 
thing by doing fo much good to others ; and 
tho' fbme People who do not underftand the 
Benefit of fuch a Lav/, may be at firft diftafted 
by it, yet I could wifli to fee that thofe who 
have had no Regard to their Opinions when 
they were doing Mifchiefto them, would not 
be fo overscrupulous of offending them in once 
doing them and their Country this great and ge- 
neral Benefit. 

I eim^ 

i6z C^TO's LETTERS. 


Men fee the Advantages of Trade 
to a Country, and to every Man in it ; 
but very few know how to improve thofe Ad- 
vantages, and much fewer endeavour to do fo. 
As foon as any Law is], or proposed for 
Publick Benefit, particular Men fet their Wits 
to work how ^to draw feparate Advantages 
from thofe Provisions, whatever becomes of the 
Publick ; and indeed it is not to be hoped, 
much lefs expected, they iho.uld ever do other- 
But what is moft to be lamented is, that 
the Publick very often fuffers by their not con- 
fulting their real Jntercft?, and in purfuing lit- 
tle Views, whilft they lofe great and fubftantial 
Advantages. A very fmall Part of Mankind 
have Capacities large enough to iudge of the 
Whole of Things, but catch at every Appear- 
ance which promifes prefent Benefit, without 
confidering how it will affect their general In- 
tereft ; and fo bring Misfortunes and lading 
Mifery upon them/ekes, to gratify a prefent 
Appetite, Pafiion or Deiire. 

This is certainly true in almoft every Cir- 
cumftance of Publick and Private Life: The 
latter falls within all Mens Obfervation, and 
the other happens as often, rho' not as often 
taken Notice of. Kow many are there, who 
do not prefer a fervile Office or Penfion before 
the general Intereft of their Country, in which 



their own is involved, and fb facrifice their, 
Liberty and the Prote6Hon they receive from 
equal Laws, for momentary and precarious 
Advantages; and by fuch Means lofe or hazard 
a large Inheritance, or make it much lefs valu- 
able, for trifling Benefits, which will not pay 
half the Difference ? 

Nothing is fo much the Intereft ot private 
Men as toTee the Publick flourifli; for without 
mentioning the Pleafure and internal^ Satisfacti- 
on which a generous Mind muft receive, in fee- 
ing all People about him contented and happy, 
inftead of meagre and ftarv'd Loots, Naked- 
nefs and Rags, and dejected and melancholly 
Faces ; to fee all Objects gay and pleafmg ; to 
fee fruitful and well manur'd Fields ; rich, fplen- 
did and populous Cities, inftead of barren 
Rocks, uncultivated Defarts, and difpeopied 
and empty Towns : I fay, befides avoiding all 
thisHorraur, every Man's private Advantage 
is fo much wrapt up in the Jehcity, 
that every Sep he takes to depreciate his Coun- 
try's Happinefs, he thereby undermines and 
deftroys his own : When the Publick is fecure, 
and Trade and Commerce flourish, every Man 
who has Property, or the Means of acquiring 
Property, will find and feel the bleffed Eftecb 
of fuch a Circumiiance of Affairs ; all the Com- 
modities he has to clifpofe of will find already 
Vent, and at a good Price ; his Inheritance 
will encreafe every Day in value ; he is encou- 
raged, and finds it his Intereft to build, and 
improve his Lands, cultivate new Trades, and 
promote new Manufactures ; and by thefe 
Means the People will be employed, and en- 

i $4 euro's LETTERS. 

abled to live in Plenty, to marry, encreafe, 
and pay for the Productions of the Land, 
which otherwife will have little or no Producti- 
on : Foreigners will be invited to partake of 
our Happinefs, and add to the Publick Stock, 
and even the Poor and Helplefs will have their 
Share in the general Felicity, arifing from the 
Superfluities and Charity of the Rich ; but the- 
Reverfe of this glorious and happy Scene (hews 
itfelf in enllaved and corrupted Nations. 

But as this is abundantly the Intereft of pri- 
vate Men, 'tis much more fo of Princes: The 
Riches of a Prince are the Riches of his Peo- 
ple, and his Security and chief Happinefs are 
their Affections : They do not confift in pom- 
pous Guards, fplendid Courts, heaped up and 
extorted Wealth, fer/lle and flattering Para- 
iites, numerous, expenfive, and glittering At- 
tendants, Profufipn and Extravagance, but in 
the Heady and faithful Dury and Devotions of 
a grateful and contented ^eoplr, who derive 
arid own their Happinefs to flow from his 
Care and Beneficent . Flatterers and Parafites 
often will find it their Intereft to betray him, 
(and what elfe can be exper>ed from thofe who 
betrayed their Country fir/1 ?J His Guards often 
revolt from him, and fometimes murder him, 
and neither can be depended upon in any Exi- 
gency of his Affairs ; his amafled Wealth (hall 
be often their Plunder, and his Deftrudion the 
Price of their new Engagements. But a whole 
People can never have an Intereft feparate from 
the Inrerefts of a good Prince : Their diffufive 
Wealth will be always at his Call, becaufe it 
is to be expended for their own Benefit: Their 



.Perfons will ever be at his Command, to de- 
fend themfeives and him ; This is a Source of 
Wealth and Power, which can Icarce ever be 
exhaufted. When Men fight for themfelves 
and their All, they are not to be conquered till 
they are extinguiftied ; and there are few In- 
ftances where they have been ever conquered, 
at lead till they were not worth conquering. 

Befides, the Superfluities and wanton Gifts 
of a free and happy People, will bring more 
Money into his Coffers, than Racks and Ar- 
mies can extort from enflaved Countries : The 
States of "Brabant alone gave more Money for- 
merly to the Dukes of Bur -gundy and Charles the 
Fifth, than in all Probability the whole Seven- 
teen Provinces would have yielded to Spain 
fince, if they had been all fubdued : and I dare 
fay, if England ever lofes its Liberties, its 
Princes, in a little Time, would not be able, 
with Whips and Chains, to force as much 
Money out of it in feven Years as we have 
feen it pay in one : They might fetch Blood 
and Tears from their Subjects, but little elfe. 
It is undeniably therefore true, that the Pub-lick 
Intereft is the Intereft of both Prince and Peo- 
ple, which almoft every one owns in Words ; 
and yet how few do io in their Actions ? 

Every Man fees the Advantage of being 
formidable Abroad, and fafc at Home, and 
knows we cannot attain either but bv being at 
the Charge of it ; and that the more equally 
and impartially Taxes are laid, the Fewer will 
be neceffary, and more Money raifed : and yet 
how few Men will come into equal a id impar- 
tial Taxes ? And what have any got: by con- 


trary Methods ? 'Tis certain lefs Taxes than 
are now paid to one another, if fairly levied 
at firft, would have ended all our Wars, and 
not left us one Penny in Debt ; whereas every 
Landed Man in England now owes the fourth 
or fifth Part of his Eftate to the Publick En- 
gagements, by declining^ the Payment of per- 
haps the Tenth Part of it when it was due, or 
ought to have been due ; and befides, has ren- 
dered all the reft infecure, by difenabling the 
Publick to defend it. 

Who, interefted in the National Funds, does 
not fee, that if fome Method is not foon taken 
to pay them off, they can never be paid at all ; 
that^no Nation will deliver themfelves up to a 
foreign Enemy, or be contented to ianguifli, 
expire, and perifh at home, to make good 
juggling and extorting Bargains, cooked up 
between Courtiers and Brokers ; that publick 
Neceffities will happen in the Courfe of hu- 
mane Affairs, and thofe Neceilities will juftify 
or colour uncommon Meafures ; and that cor- 
rupt Minifters, in Times to come, may advife 
their Mailers to extraordinary Courfes, and 
defperate A6h of Power ? And yet, how ma- 
ny are there amongft thefe Gentlemen (the 
greateft Part of whofe Fortunes depend upon 
thefe Events) who will fall into any effectual 
Meafures to make the Payment of thefe Debts 
due to ihe-rnfelves practicable, or that are not 
ready to catch at and promote the raifing a new 
Fund ; tho' they rauft fee that every Step they 
take towards it, renders the Payment of the old 
Ones defperate ? 



How many Courtiers have we feen in our 
Days, that have not clone every Thing they 
condemned in their Predeceffors ; tho' by do- 
ing fb they undermine the Ground upon which 
they flood, and play'd the Game into their 
Enemies Hands again, who did the fame be- 
fore into theirs ? How often have we feen 
them decline any Means of raifmg Money, 
tho' ever Ib fatal to Trade or their Country ? 
Or when have we feen them expend it after- 
wards with Frugality and Prudence, to pre- 
vent the Neceility of raifing it over again ? 
And yet by acting thus, they leflened their own 
Intereft with the People, and in confequence 
too with their Prince, who generally will find 
it neceflary to difcard them when they become 
odious or contemptible ; and fbmetimes will 
think it prudent to recommend himfelf to his 
People, by delivering them up as Sacrifices to 
publick Vengeance ; whereas if they acted 
a faithful and juft Part, the}; might grow old in 
Power, and be double Blemngs to their Prince 
and to their Fellow Subjects. 

Who does not fee the Benefit of Navigable 
Rivers, which makes the carrying our our own 
Commodities, and the bringing to us what we 
want cheap and eafy ; and confequently en- 
creafes the Price of the former, and leflens the 
Price of the latter ? And yet a Project of that 
kind always meets Oppofition from many Pec- 
pie upon trifling Motives, without ever cor-' 
udering the Advantages on the other Side, 
which moft commonly mud over-ballance their 
imaginary Lofles, by computing their whole 
Income and Expence. 



All private Men fee the Benefit that would 
accrue to England, and to almoft every Man in 
it, by bringing all the Materials of Naviga- 
tion, and particularly Iron, from our own 
Plantations, which are for the moil part bought 
for Money from rival States, who ma/ be, 
and are often our 'Enemies. Tho' this would 
fettle our Naval Power upon a fixed and fblid 
Foundation, and no longer let it depend upon 
accidental and precarious Supplies, liable to 
the Impofitions and Caprices of thofe Nations, 
and fubjeft to be intercepted by others who 
may be in War with us ; yet we have feen 
oftner than once, that Gentlemen of great 
Eftates have denied their Country this general 
Good, and preferred the little Advantage of 
Selling a particular Wood at an advanced 
Price, or the Encouragement of a private Iron- 
work, to fb great a Benefit to themfelves and 
their Country ; without ever giving themfelves 
leave to ballance the much greater Augmen- 
tation of Wealth and Security which would 
accrue perfbnally to them, by keeping fb much 
Money in their Country ; and bringing in a 
great deal more from foreign States, by making 
Navigation eafy and cheap, by fupplying them- 
felves and their Tenants with the Internments 
and Uteri fils of Husbandry, Building, and 
Houfe-keeping at lower Rates, and fb enabling 
themfelves to make greater Profit of their Lands', 
and their Tenants to pay them greater Rents ; 
and above all, the publick Safety and Power, 
of which every Member 'will icon find the 
fenfible Effects in his own private Affairs. 

I con- 


Iconfefs it is generally true, that the Inrereft 
of any Country is to make all Sorts of Manu* 
failures themfelves, rather than fetch therti 
from neighbouring Countries, or even from 
their own Plantations ; but it is always an Ex- 
ception to that Truth, when thofe Manufac- 
tures are neceflary to carry on other Trades 
which will return much greater Benefit: ; and 
more fb when they are neceflary to carry on 
all Trade in general, as Iron and Shipping 
undoubtedly are, upon the Cheapnefs of which 
all the Trade in the World in a great Meafure 

I am, &c. 

5 III, 

I Have in my laft Letter given feme In fiances 
of Men, who, to feparate themfelves from 
the Publick, afc againft their own Inrerefh, 
by being too partial to it ; but I confefs it 
Ibrnetimes happens that private Perfbns may 
receive perfbnal Advantages from publick Lo 
les ; and then confidering the Depravity of 
humane Nature, we are not to hope, and lefs 
to prefume upon their a6ling againft them- 
felves for others Advantage. The chief In- 
ducement which Men have to a6t for the In- 
tefreft of one State before another is, becaufe 
they are Members of it, and that their own 
Interefr is involved in the general Intereft ; and 
the fame Motives, which for the moft part 
VOL. III. H xrcgage 

170 Giro's LETTERS. 

engage them to promote the Advantages of that 
peculiar Society, of which they are a Part, be- 
fore all others, will alib engage them to prefer 
themfelves and their own Family before the 
Interefts of every Member, or all the Members 
together of the fame Society, whatever be- 
comes of Confcience, Honour, and Generofity. 
Men will be Men, in fpight of all the Lectures 
of Philofbphy, Virtue, and Religion. 

This will be often the Intereft of particular 
Men, but can never be the Intereft of the 
whole Society, or the major Part of them, 
whofe Intereft muft ever be the general In- 
tereft, that is, the diffufive Advantage of the 
Whole, which muft fiiffer in proportion to 
what any Man gets irregularly ; and therefore 
it is their common Duty to prevent the unfair 
Gains and Depredations of one another: which 
indeed is the Bufmefs of Government, vi^. to 
lecure to every Man his own, and to prevent 
the Crafty, Strong, and Rapacious, from 
preflmg upon or circumventing the Weak, In- 
duftrious, and Unwary. 

I have often wondered how whole Societies 
(of which every one intends moft religioufly 
himfelf and his own Benefit) yet can altoge- 
ther fb eafily be made the Dupes of one ano- 
ther, or of lefler Societies amongft themfelves, 
Dot only in fuch Matters as do not fall within 
vulgar Obfervation, but in Infrances which are 
obvious to the meaneft Capacities. All the 
Gentlemen through England have their Eftates 
ranfacked, and are deprived of whatever makes 
their Tables elegant and curious, to put Fifh- 
mongers and Poulterers Wives, at London^ in 



Laces and Jewels, without adding to the Plen- 
ty there, much of it being deftroyed or fuffered 
to rot or (link by thofe Mifcreants, to keep 
up the Price : Their Cattle fell for little in 
the Country, and will not pay the Graxier who 
muft pay them their Rents ; and yet by the 
Juglings and Combination of Butchers and 
Salefmen, the Markets are not cheaper top- 
plied ; but thofe Infects fwallow up the Renrs 
of the Landlord, and the Labour of the Huf- 
bandman, as fome of the Factors do of the 
Manufacturer : The old ufeful Laws againft 
Kegrators, Foreftallers, &c. all lie faft aileep, 
and no new ones are thought on to enforce 
them ; and yet the Nobility and Gentry of 
England fpend many Months every Year in 
Parliament, fee all this, buy their own Produc- 
tions at many times the Price they fell them ; 
but are fo wholly taken up with other much 
lefs Views, that they fuffer this great Mifchief 
to go on, and every Day to encreafe, upon no 
other Pretence than the Privileges of particular 
Societies of Tradefmen, who pretend a Right 
to Oppreilion ; as if any Man could have a 
Right or Privilege inconfiftent with the pub- 
lick Good, and was not ever to be fubfervient 
to it. It is true, that no Government ought 
to take away Mens natural Rights, the Bufmefs 
and Defign of Government itfelf being to de- 
fend them \ but tore fuch partial and adven- 
titious Advantages as they receive to the De- 
triment of others by ill Laws, may be taken 
away by good ones : But no (boner any At- 
tempt is made to remedy theie univerfal Grie- 
vances, but the Clamour and Sollicitation of 

H x thefe 


'thefe humble and inferior Oppreflbrs puts an 
End to the Remedy. 

I dojiot wonder that thofe who fubfift by 
Oppreilion themfelves, fiiculd countenance all 
other S0rts ( of it ; 'tis their common hatred to 
protect one another ; bat that the Country 
Gentlemen, who fiiffer by all Kinds of ir, 
and who have the Means in their Hands to 
prevent them, fhould fuffer themlelves to be 
plundered and impoverished, to enrich Harpies 
and Pickpockets, and enable them to live in 
Pride and Luxury, is fo ftupendiotis, that it 
could not be believed, if we did not conftantly 
fee it. 

But thefe are pettjrAbufes, when -compared 
to the much greater Grievances of uniting 
great Numbers of artful and wealthy Mer- 
chants into Confpiracies and Combinations a- 
gainft general Trade, and by that Means gi- 
ving or felling the Induftry and Acquirements 
of a whole Nation to fatiate and glut a few 
over- grown Plunderers, and in the End to de- 
ftroy the Trade itfelf ; which muft ever be the 
Cale, when committed to the Management of 
cxclufive Companies. The Succefs and Im- 
provements of Trade depend wholly upon 
fupplyi'ng the Commodities cheap at Market \ 
and whoever can afford thofe of equal Good- 
ncfs at but half per Cent-, cheaper than his 
Neighbours, will command the Sale. Now 
'tis impoiiible any Company can do this upon 
equal Terms with a private Merchant, nor 
would they if they could : Private Men will 
think of every Way to come at their Goods 
cheap, will make k their whole Buiinefs to 



work up the Manufk&uries rhemfelves, or 
buy them at the belt Hand, will fearch nar- 
rowly into their Excellencies or Defers, will 
procure Carriage at the lowell Prices, fee them 
ftiipped themfelves, and fometimes fell them- 
in Perfon, and as they find proper and advan* 
tageous Opportunities ; and the mutual Emu- 
lation and Contention with one another for the 
Preference of Markets, obliges ^ them to fell" 
often for little Profit, and fometimes to Lois.,, 
in Expectation of better Fortune at other 
Times , hut nothing of this is ever done by- 

Thofe who have the Direction of their AU 
fairs, have often but fmall Parr of their For- 
tunes embarked in their Stock, and always 1 
have an Intereft: feparate from that of the Com- 
pany, and commonly, if not always, raif 
valt Estates at their Ex-pence-; the Materials 
of their Ships, and the Commodities they car- 
ry, are generally fold by themfelves, or bought- 
of their Friends and Relations by Confederacy* 
at exorbitant Prices ; Favourite Shipwrights 
are employed for Preterits , their Relations or 
Creatures are made Captains or Matters of* 
their Veffels, to carry on private Commerce., 
to the Detriment of the Company ; Gover- 
nours of Forts, Fa-6lors, and Agents-, are fent- 
Abroad to get great Efhtes upon the Publicly 
and perhaps (hare them with their Patrons aL 
Home ; their Goods fhall be fet in-fuch Lots, 
and fold at fuch Times as fhall be moil for tha- 
private Intereft of the governing Directors, 
who will have them often bought up in Truiir 
for themfelves or Friends; and by thefe. Means 

174 (M70's LETTERS. 

as the Company oppreffes the reft of the Na- 
tion, the Governours and Directors cheat the 
Company : But if thefe Truftees are ever fb 
honeft, they will nor take the fame Pains for 
others as for themfelves ; nor can it be expert- 
eij that Men ^of their Fortunes will employ 
their whole Time for fuch Allowances as are 
or can be afforded by the Society who employs 
i hem. 

Befides, k is the Intereft of the Nation to 
fvll their Commodities at as good a Price as 
the Markets Abroad can afford to buy them, 
and to bring in foreign Commodities as cheap 
as they can afford to fell them, efpecially fuch 
as do not interfere with our own, (which ought 
to be prohibited, when it can be done without 
a greater Inconvenience ;) and the Intereft of 
Companies is directly contrary to all this ; for 
orher People being prohibited to deal in the 
fame Commodities, they can put what Price 
they pleafe upon both, and ever will put what 
js molt for their Advantage, and fb ftarve the 
Manufacturer at Home, at the fame Time as 
their Agents charge great Prices to the Com- 
pany, and fell the Commodities they bring in 
Return of them at extravagant Advantages, 
ofren to the Difcouragement of our own Ma- 
nufa6tures, which depend upon their Cheap? 
neis ; their Buhnefs being always to encreafe 
the Price of Stock, without encreafing Trade. 

Belides all this, they keep Forts Abroad at 
a great Expence, to colour the Neceility of 
fuch Monopolies, and to opprefs arid rob the 
Natives there with Security ; for 'tis a Jeft to 
imagine they can any ways conduce to fair 

Trade ; 


Trade : Every Nation in the World that has 
any Thing to buy or fell, will fee their Account 
in doing fo, and will find it thei^ Intereft to 
encourage a fair Commerce, which will be 
ever for their own Advantage ; and if ^ they dp 
not, there is no trading with them againft their 
own Confents, though their Country is encom- 
pafled with Forts, which will only provoke 
and make them Enemies ; and in Fadl, the 
private Traders to Jfnck. pay the Company 
Ten fer Cent, towards their Forts, and feldom 
or never come near them, or receive any Bene- 
fit by them, and yet have broke the Company 
whilft they thrive themfelves : The fame was 
true of the Interlopers to India, formerly, who 
neither defired nor were fuffcred to take any 
Advantage of the Company's Forts, and al- 
wavs were oppreffed by their Governours, or 
Agents, and Captains of Ships, and yet would 
fbon have undone them if they had been fuftered 
to go on. 

The Dutch make other Advantages of thei 
Forrs and Garrifons, which is to keep great 
conquered Realms and powerful Kings in Sub- 
jection, and fecure to themfelves the whole 
Commerce of their Countries, by which Means 
they have almoft the Monopoly of the Spices 
in the World ; of which ic is faid, they every 
Year burn Mountains to keep up the Price, as 
all exclufive Companies will ever do ; but we 
have fcarce any Trade to fome of thofe Places, 
where we are at the Charge of keeping Forts, 
which (land there no Mortal can tell why. 
But fuppofmg Forts were neceffary to carry on 
any particular Trade, what Colour is there to 

H 4 deny 


deny that they ought to be kept at the pub- 
LX pence, or by the Contributions of all 
the Merchants, who are to receive Advantage 
jrom them, in Proportion to the Trade they 
carry on ; or what Pretence is there to confine 
an advantageous Trade to one Town alone, 
! to but few Men in that Town. 
So that upon the Whole, if we confider 
?fe Companies only as they regard Trade, 
vhich is the only Pretence " for eftablifhing 
rheny they are the Bane of all fair Commerce, 
the^ Discouragement of our Manufactures, the 
Ruin of private and induftrious Traders, and 
rpufl end In the Ruin of themfelves, and all 
[rade whatever ; and no one receives Advan- 
' from them, but their Governours, Direc- 
tors, Commanders, or Agents at Home and 
oad, who have ever raifed immenfe Edates, 
:he Kingdom has been impoverimcd, 
:he Company undone : But there are other 
iifchiefs ftill behind, which ftrike yet much 
deeper, namely, the Influence and Violence 
bring upon our Conftitution ; which fhall 
be the Subject of my next Letter. 

I /?/, 6cc. 

S 1 

C A TID -s L E TT 


IN my lafl Letter I have confidered exclufive 
Companies, as they affect the Trade and 
Commerce of the Kingdom ; and in this I (hall I 
view them in relation to our Conftitution, nd 
ihew that they alter the Ballance of our Go- 
vernment, too much influence our Legislature, 
and are ever the Confederates or Tools of 
ambitious and defigning Statefmen. 

Very great Riches in private Men are al- 
ways dangerous to States, becaufe they create f> 
greater Dependence than can be -confident with'* 
the Security of any fort of Government what- 
fbever; they place Subjects upon too near a . 
Level with their Sovereigns ; make the Nobi- 
lity Hand upon too great an Inequality in re- 
fpe6t of one another ; deftroy amongft the 
Commons, that Ballance of Property and- 
Power, v-'h' ; is neccffary to a Democracy,, 
or the democratical Part of any Government, , 
overthrow the - Poife of ir, and indeed alter >ts- : 
Nature, tho' not its Name : F&r rhis Rea;fqn, 
States who have not an \ \- t \n,m Law, have 
Uied other Means of V-i icr.ce or- Policy to 
anfwer the fame Ends -: P/inces/often, eir.herby 
extra- ordinary Acls of P^'ver, by feigned Pi ois 
and Conspiracies, and fbmeri^mes by the Hdp 
cf r-,:l ones, hive cut off 'hcfe ex<!fe(qesiC 
Members and Riv.;.-. :" their - AuthorifVj,. or 
rnuil have run theH-.-'. <ci c-i being cut oh by 

H 5" them. 

J7 8 Giro's LETTERS. 

them. Ariitocracies put them upon expenfive. 
EmbafHes, or load them with honorary and 
chargeable Employments at home, to drain 
and exhauft their fuperfluous and dangerous 
Wealth ; and Democracies provide againft 
this Evil, by making their Eftates divide after 
their Deaths, amongft their Children or Rela- 
tions in equal Degree. 

We have Inftances of the firft in all Arbi- 
trary Monarchies, as well as in all the Gothic^. 
Governments formerly, and in Poland at pre- 
fent, which are conftant States of War or 
Confpiracy between their Kings and Nobles ; 
and which Side foever gets the better, the 
others are for the mod part undone : By doing 
the fecond, the Nobles of Venice keep up their 
Equality ; and Holland, Switzerland, and the 
free States of Germany make the Proviiion laft 
named, which, as I have (aid, anfwers in 
fome Meafiire the Purpofes of an Agrarian 
Law ; but by waiting for the Divifion of the 
Subftance, other States have been undone, and 
particularly Florence was enflaved by the over- 
grown Power of the Houfe of Medici. 

And as great Riches in private Men is dan- 
gerous to all States, fo great and ludden Po- 
verty produces equal Mifchiefs in free Govern- 
ments, becaufe it makes thofe who by their 
Birth and Station muft be concerned in rhe 
Aclmihiitration neceiHtous and defperate; whi'ch 
will leave them the Means, and give them the 
Will to deflroy their Country ; for the Politi- 
cal Power will remain fome Time in their 
Hands after their Natural Po\ver and Riches 
are gone, and they will ever make ufe of it to 



acquire that Wealth by Violence and Fraud, 
which they have loft by Folly and Extravagance, 
and as both of thefe Extremes are certainly 
true of fmgle Men, fo thefe are more dange- 
rous in Numbers of Men "joined together in a 
Political Union; who, as they have more 
Wealth than any particular Man ever had or 
can have, fo they will have the feparate Interdt 
of every Individual to ailift them, anting horn 
the Dependence of Friendfhip, Relation, Ac- 
quaintance, or Creatures, without that Emu- 
lation and Envy which will always be railed 
by the fudden and exorbitant Riches of private 
Men. 'Tis certain, that they both make to<> 
violent an Alteration in Property, and almoft 
always produce violent Con vuifioas in Govern- 
ment. *n r 
Now Companies bring all thefe Milchiete 
upon us ; they give great and fudden Eftates 
to the Managers and Directors, upon the Rum 
of Trade in general, and for the mod part it 
not always upon Thoufands of Families, who 
are embarked in the Society itfelf : Thofe who 
are in the Direaion and the Secret of the J 4a- 
nagement, befides all their other Advantages* 
draw out and divide all their Principal, and 
what they can borrow upon their Credit ; per- 
fwade innocent and unwary People; to believe 
they divide only the Profits of their Trade, and 
by a thoufand other Artifices heightning their 
Advantages, draw them in to (hare in them ; 
and when they have wound up the Cheat tc* 
the higheft Pitch it can go, then like Rats leave 
a falling Houfe, and Multitudes of People to 
be cradied by it, This was the Cafe of the 

i8o Giro's LETTERS. 

and African Companies formerly^ 
whole Stock fold for three hundred. per Cent. 
"when it was not worth a Groat ; and how far 
j is the Cafe of the prefent Eaft-India Com- 
pany, their Members are concerned to en- 

What Ruin, t)eva{lation and Slaughter of 
Eftates! WhatPublick Mifery, and Deftru<i- 
on of Thoufands, I may fay Millions ! have 
we feen by the Eftablifhment and wicked In- 
trigues of the prefent South-Sea Company, 
only to make a few unfhapely and monftrous 
Members in the Body Politick? What has that 
Company done for the Benefit of Trade,which 
they were eftablifhed, forfoothj to promote ? 
They have Buffered Numbers of our Manu- 
factures to rot in their Ships, hindered private 
Traders from carrying on an advantageous 
Commerce to the lower Parts of America and 
the South-Sea^ and, like the Dog in the Manger, 
will neither eat themfelves, nor let any one 
elfe eat ; and, 'tis faid, by their wile Conduct 
have loft a Million or Two of the Company's 

The Benefits arifing by theie Companies, 
generally, and aim oft always, fall to the Share 
of the Stock Jobbers, Brokers, and thofe who 
cabal with them, or elfe are the Rewards of 
Clerks, Thimble- men, and Men cf nothing ; 
who neglect' their hdneft Induftry to embark in 
thofe Cheats, and fo either undo themfelves and 
Familes, cr acquire Hidden and great Riches; 
then turn awkward Scare (men, corrupt Bo- 
roughs, where they have not, nor can have, any 
natural Interelh , bring themielves into the Le- 


's LETTERS. 181 

giflature with their pedling and jobbing Talents 
about them, and fo become Brokers in Poli- 
ticks as well as Stock, they wanting ever/ 
Qualification which ought to give them a Place 


It is a ftrange and unnarural Lrandtion from 
a Fifhmonger or Pedlar to a Legiflator : How- 
ever, as fuch doughty Statefmen, by their (ingle 
Abilities, can do no Good, fo they can do but 
little Harm ; but when united in a Body under 
the Direction of artful Managers combining 
with great Men, they can turn all Things into 
Confufion, and generally do fo. When Men 
have great Sums of Money to give, and will 
give ir, they will ever find People to take ; and 
there can be no (landing againft them in a Body, 
how contemptible foever they are in Particu- 
lars. How often have the Cries of the whole 
Kingdom of England been able to. prevail a- 
gainft the Intereft of the Eafl-Jndia Company ? 
What by proper Applications in former Reigns 
made to our Courts, to Minifters and; Fa- 
vourites, and to the Members of each Houfe 
of Parliament, they have been able to contend 
and get the better of the Tears and Complaints 
of the whole Kingdom befides, and to lay 
afteep the true and real Intereft of thofe who 
ailifted them ; and if ever hereafter our Three 
great Companies (hould unite together (as 'tis 
to be feared they will always do when their 
Intereils do not cla(h) what Power is there in 
Being to oppofe them, that will be able and 
willing to do it ? In Holland* which is a more 
jealous Government than ours, the Eafl-India 
Company governs the State, and is in E&ct 


i8z CA T0>s LETTERS. 

the State it (elf; and I pray God we may never 
fee the like eifewhere ! 

What have we been able to do to redrefs the 
Ravages brought upon us by the South-Sea Pro- 
ject ? Which yet muft have produced much 
greater, if we had not fuffered the(e. When 
it was in its Meridian, I have heard Tome Per- 
fbns argue the Reafbnablenefs of their having a 
Monopoly of the Trade of England, fince they 
were poflefled of moft of the Property of En- 
gland ; and I do not fee by what Means it could 
have been prevented. They would have filled 
the Legjflature with their own Members, all 
our great Men niuft have been their Penfioners t 
and the Crown it (elf been obliged to have kept 
Meafures with them ; they would have been* 
the only Shop to have went to for Money, and 
would not have parted with it but upon their 
own Terms, and would have been ever lying 
upon the Catch to purchafe more Privileges 
and Advantages ; fo that the Nobility and 
Gentry of England muft either have embarked 
their Fortunes and Expectations in this Mono- 
poly, or have been humbly contented to have 
been governed by a Faction, compofed for the 
moft part of Pedlars, Grocers, and Brokers, 
or fuch as lately were fb ; and the Conftitutior* 
itfclf had been gone, and changed into a Stock- 
jobbing Cabal. 

We have teen but few Inftances where the 
private Traders of England^ and the Interefts 
of General Trade, have been able to difpme- 
with the IntereiTs of little Companies or parti- 
cular Societies of Tradefmen, or the peculiar 
Privileges of Corporations 3 tbo' they are Bur- 


thens, and a dead Weight on the Eftates^ of e- 
very Perfon in Both Houfes, leffen their In- 
come, and increafe their Expences ;^ fuch is the 
Fafcination and Witchcraft of political Con- 
federacy ! What will be the Event of thefe 
Combinations, no Man can forefee, and every 
wife Man muft dread. Indeed, I don't fee how 
we can prevent their difmal Confequences, but 
by paying off our Debts ; and, by diilipating 
thofe factious Combinations, diflblve the En- 

After all I have faid, I muftconfefs, that the 
Eaft-India Company is liable to lefs Objections, 
than any other trading Monopoly, but not for 
the Reafons they give, but for a Realbn which 
is worth an hundred of theirs ; for as all bene- 
ficial Trades are moft fiiccefsfully carried on by 
free and open Commerce, fb all lofing ones do 
lefs Mifchief when monopolized ; and as the 
firft ought to receive all poflible Encourage- 
ment, fo the other ought to be put under fuit- 
able Difcouragements^; and fmce we can have 
no Profpect at prefent of that Trade's being 
put upon an advantageous Foot, the next bell 
Thing we can defire, is to let it go on upon 
the prefent Eftabli (foment, which in all Proba- 
bility will foon deftroy it, and perhaps put it 
upon a good one, if that^can be; for 'tis cer- 
tain, if it could be carried on with its full 
Swing, it would eafe us of every Penny of our 
Money, and deftroy every Manufacture in the 
Kingdom, as well ~as every Man in it, whicb 
in a proper Time may pofubly be fhown at 



fine. Monopolies are equally dangerous in 
Trade, in Politicks, and Religion : A free 
Trade, a free Government, and a free Liberty 
of Conference, are the Rights and the Bletllngs 
of Mankind. J am f Sec. 


IT has been juftly obferved of Corporations, 
or Political Combinations of Men, than 
they have Bodies but no Souls, nor confequent- 
ly Conferences. What calls this Obfervation 
to my Mind is an Addrefs to his Majefty from 
the South-Sea Company, .which I have lately 
feen in Print, molt modeftly requeuing, that in 
this great Profulion of Money, general Afflu- 
ence and Overflowing of Trade, rhe Nation 
will give them two Millions ; and the Reafbns 
they give for it are, i#, That they want the 
Money; the next, that they have agreed with 
the*4,; and qjtfy, That they v/ill do what 
without doubt is the Intereft of all their Mem- 
bers, except Directors and Brokers to do ; that 
is-, they will content that a confiderable Part of 
their Stock (hall be turned into Annuities, (and 
they had been the wHer if they had faid all, 
for then no more of it could have been loft 
by Management :) and -to wind up their whole 
Oratory, they add a fourth Reaion, which is, 
the Benefit, the publick has received already by 
their lutereft being reduceable in a few Years 
to four per Cent, which. Reduction was Part cf 



their original Bargain that was purchafed for 
the Seven Millions, of which five has been re- 
mitted already, and now it is to be a Confide- 
ration for remitting the other two. 

I can never give my feif Leave to believe 
(whatever may be furmiled by others) that any 
Pcrfon (employed by his Ma'iefty) in the prefent 
great Exigencies of the Kingdom, the almoit 
univerfal Poverty in the Country, the want ofc 
Trading, Stocks and Credit in Cities, and in 
great as well as little Towns, the prodigious 
Load of Debt under which the Nation groan-?, 
and the general Uneafinefs confpicuous in the 
Faces, and too obfervable in the Difcourfes ot 
People of all Se&s and Denominations ; I fay, 
I cannot think that under fuch Circumftances 
of Publick Affairs, any Minifter can counte- 
nance ib wild a Proportion, as wantonly K> 
defire us to give away two Millions of the. Na- 
tions Money, only to bind a Bargain between 
two Stock-Jobbing Societies ; which could not 
be obtained from a late Aflembly, whom I pre- 
fume will not be difoblig'd if I fay no more of 


I rnuft therefore believe, if^any Perfon in 
Power has been concerned in this Negociation, 
that he has effectually taken Care of rhe Pub- 
lick, and has comprehended its Intereft in the 
Agreement; and I am the rather jnduced to 
believe this, becaufe of an Expreilion in the 
Addrefs it- (elf, to wit, that the Company will be 
ready to do any Thing for the Publicl^Service, &C. 
with a Caution notwithftanding. that it be con- 
Jiftent with the Security of their prefsnt Fund : I 

hope this Sentence has an Alluiion to fome Pro 


jecl: intended to be propofed to buy off the two 
Millions, and that they defign to offer to fink 
One hundred thoufand Pounds per Ann. of their 
Annuities, which is the Intereft of two Millions 
and this will anfwer all honeft Purpofes, will 
indemnify the Publick, eafe them of the Diffi- 
culty of railing fo great a Sum, and leffen the 
Income of particular Members not above fix 
or {even Shillings p:r Cent, yearly. 

It is impoffible to fufpeft that thofe Gentle- 
men, who for fbme Years together oppos'd 
wild Schemes and wilder Expences in carrying 
them on, and who (if they are to be believ'd 
themfelves) rather chofe to throw up their then 
Advantages and Expectations, than comply 
with fuch Gallantries, fhould at laft lofe the 
Merit of fb much Virtue, by wantonly and 
unneceiTarily difcharging one Company from 
their Contract., only to prevent another from 
performing theirs, and this at two Millions 
Lofs to their Country : Sure England is not in a 
Condition to difcharge all Reckonings at home 
and amonglr. foreign Stares too, if fo, every 
Man ought to bring in his Bill, and then we 
{hall all be upon the Square. 

On the contrary, 1 perfwade myfelf that the 
Gentlemen, whofe Deferts have now let them 
at the Helm, have during their Retirement 
from Bufinefs obferv'd the Mifcarriages of their 
Predeceflors, defign to avoid the Rocks upon 
which the others have fplit, and confequently 
have put on fleady Refolutions to extricate the 
Kingdom out of its prefent Calamities; and 
poffefs'd with this Opinion, I am determined 
(as I believe many others are) to give them my 



hearty Affiftance to attain thofe good Ends, and 
to forget pad Errors, if new ones do not rub 
up our Memories : I neither envy their Prefer- 
ments, nor I believe (hall court them ; but lhall 
ever efteem my Services to be overpaid, ir 1 
can contribute to fave my Country. 

We all know what a noble Project has been 
lately authorised, what Ends were defign'd to 
be, and have been ferv'd by it ; how many 
Thoufands were diredly ruin'd by it, and vattly 
how many more by the fatal Confequences 
which have enfued ; but all the Arts of the 
Projectors could never have fucceeded, it many 
well meaning People had not been drawn in to 
confent to this Iniquity by the Profpel of fee- 
ing the Publick Debts put in a Method of be- 
ing paid off, which they thought would attone 
for many Evils that were forefeen by wife Men, 
who yet did not forefee the hundredth Part ot 
the Mifchief which has fince happen'd ; and ai> 
ter we had fuffer'd more than Words can ex- 
prefs, the greateft Part of the Confideration 
which drew us into thcfe Sufferings has been re- 
mitted, I will not fay by any of thofe, but, to 
thofe, who brought all our Misfortunes upon 
us and now the poor Remainder is modeftly 
call'd for, and if obtain'd, the wretched Peo- 
ple, and amongft the reft all who vigorouily 
oppos'd this vile Project, mud bear the Lois, 
and the Contrivers of the Wickednefs mult car- 
ry off the Plunder. 

Sure fuch a Proceeding founds very odd, and 
ought to be fupported^by obvious Reafons ! 
'Tis a very fmgular fort of Generofity, to punifh 
the Innocent, in order to reward the Guilty ; 


to fine or tax thofe who did their utmoft to op* 
pofe the Prngrefs of Pablick Mifchief, to re* I 
pair the LoflTes of thoie, who, thro' Guiir, Co* 
vetoufhefs or Folly, contributed to it. In great 
Publick Calamities there mud be many Suffe- 1 
rers, and fbme who do not defence to be (b, [ 
yet I richer heard that they call'd for Reprifals 
upon their Countrymen* Provinces are laid 
wade, Cities and Towns burnt in War, and 
Ships taken by Pyrates, and yet no Bills brought I 
in or Demands made upon the Publick : In Pe- 
flilential Didernpcrs, Families are Hvjt up in 
their Houfes, and whole Cities within their I 
Walls, where Thoufands die for want of Food ! 
or proper Neceffaries, and thofe who are left 
alive are modly undone ; and yet no Nations 
think themfelves oblig'd to make good their 
LofFes ; in fuch Ca(es:everv one 1 mud bear his 
own Misfortunes, even uh n they come from | 
the Hand of God. and he h'mfelf does not con- 
tribute ro them ; ;;nd all 'hat wife States can do^ 
is to take Care of the Whole, relieve Particu* 
lars as far as is confident with the Publick 
Safety, and lea^e the red to Providence. 

But befides the fhrewd Reafbns which are in | 
Print., and are above repeated, let us hear what \ 
others are offer'd to load the Publick with this 
Lofs. Firft, we are told that the Peoples Re* i 
prtfenratlves have drawn the Subfcribers into it, | 
and therefore the People are bound in Con-fcU 
ence to repair them : A very notable Way of I 
.arguing indeed ! and whkh, if carried to its 
Extent, would provide admirably well for the 
Security of Nations. Suppofe the States of any 
Country (hould make a foolifh Law, or engage 


's LETTERS, i 

k in a foolifh War, by which a third- Part of 
the People are undone, muft the reft make 
them amends, who perhaps are half -undone 
themfelves ? The Petitioner- Parliament in King 
Charles the Second's Time, were chokn by the 
People to acl: for the common Benefit of the 
Kingdom, and they betrayed their Principals, 
and took Money from the Court to a& againft 
it; and was that a good Reafbn for the next 
Parliament to give a V an6tion to all the Mif- 
chief -their PredeceiTors did, or to pay for it ? 
Sure the laft Parliament were as much the 
Representatives of the South-Sen Company as 
of the reft of the Kingdom, and aclecl as 
agreeably to their Inclinations and their De- 
fires, or elfe their Acknowledgments were much 
mi (placed. 

They tell us, that the Publick is better able 
to bear the Lofs than private Men ; which 
certainly is not true at pre(ent ; for the Publick 
ig much poorer than moil private Men in Eng- 
land, if Regard is had to their Occafions and 
their Debts : But if it was fo, are they there- 
fore to take the ill Bargains of all private Men 
to themfelves, and protect them in their good 
ones ? Muft every Man who has fuffered by 
playing the Fool, or playing the Knave, call 
upon the Nation for Rcprifals ? But fuppofmg 
only innocent and unwary People (as all the 
Members of the prefent South-Sen Company 
undoubtedly are) ought to be Objects of pub- 
lick Companion ;^who (hall make Recompenfe 
to the Millions of others who have fuflered in 
their Elbates, by the univerfal Confufion occa- 
fioned by this worthy Project ? Who Hiall re- 


190 Giro's LETTERS. 

pair the many Bankrupts, the many Creditors 
who^ have loft their Debts, the many young 
Ladies who have loft their Fortunes, the Me- 
chanicks and Shop-keepers who have loft Bu- 
finefs, fpent their Stocks, and yet have run in 
Debt to fubfilt their Families; and the Gen- 
tlemen, Merchants, and Farmers, who can get 
little for their Commodities and Produds of 
their Eftates, Farms, and Trades ? And muft 
all ^thefe contribute at laft out of what re- 
mains, to repair the Misfortunes of thofe who 
brought all thefe Evils upon them ? 

But becaufe I would avoid giving Offence 
to tender Ears, by feeming to take too much 
Part with the inconfiderable Interefts of Men 
who are vulgarly called the Mob, I (hall re- 
prefent the Cafe of Perfons who much better 
deferve fome People's ConGderation ; I mean 
Brokers, Stock-jobbers, Dealers in Funds, and 
fuch who, for many Years together, have lup- 
ported the Government, by making twice or 
thrice the Advantage of their Money that they 
could do any where elfe : Who (hall repair the 
LofTes of the Contractors for Stock or Sub- 
fcriptions, or of thofe who lent them Money 
at Five, Ten, and Twenty per Cent, per Men- 
fem, and cannot be paid again ? The many 
Sum? loft in the Hands of Goldfmiths, and 
by their pretended Subfcriptions of Effects 
without the Owner's Confent ? Who the Lo 
fes of thole who bought in the Eaft> India Com- 
pany and the Bank at Two or Three Hundred 
per Cent, ail occafioned by this worthy Project, 
or of thofe who bought in this Company at 
Eight or Nine Hundred, and fold at One or 


C^ro'sLETTERS. 191 

Two ? Who thofe who bought, or were hin- 
dered from felling out of the Stocks of all Com- 
panies, by that honeft and ferviceable Bargain 
to the Publick made between the Bttn^and the 
South- Sea ? Who (hall pay the Loffes in the 
Bubbles, fbme of which were eftabiifhed or 
countenanced by Parliament, and others by 
Patents, all which have equal Right to put in 
their Claims ? And laftly, who fhall make Sa- 
tisfaction to the whole Kingdom, who muft be 
reduced by fuch Means to an Incapacity of 
paying its Debts, and confequently of defend- 
ing itfelf ? I have heard of no Project yet for 
ieffening the publick Expence?, or of the Cour- 
tiers leuening their own dated Incomes, or oc- 
cafional Gains. 

^ And what, after all, are the particular Me- 
rits of thefe Gentlemen to whom fo much 
Favour is to be fhewn ; and who will receive 
the Benefit of it ? Thofe who remain of the 
Original Company have no Pretence to it ; 
and at prefent their Capital, with the Addition 
they have received by the Divifion of the fic- 
titious Stock, is more valuable than at fir ft ; 
and I believe much more (b : Thofe who have 
bought in (ince the Fall, have as little Prerence 
to be confidered, becaufe they knew the Terms 
upon which they bought : Such as have railed 
Fortunes by dabbling in the Publick, ought 
not to complain it they have loft by one Pro- 
jefl what they got by another ; and tbofe who 
have great or plentiful Fortunes in other Re- 
fpects, mull be very immodeft if they ex peel: 
to repair their Follies out of the Eftates of 
thofe who are more neceflitou* than themielves. 


Giro's LETTERS, 

that the few that can hope for Relief, are 
the Poor and Hclplefs, who were traparTd b^ 
the reft to buy in at a guvat Price, and could 
not fell out again before tV Fall; and 1 dare 
appeal to all Mankind, ) -.ether fuch could 
get Relief, if their Intereits were feparated 
from their OppreiTors : If it is fo, we have 
Rea-fon to fing re beum, for the World is finely 
mended but !ill 1 can fi-id fome other In- 
ftances of this tender l^.ard to Mercy and 
Innocence, I muft beg leave to fuppofe that 
there is already^ or is to be, (pipe other Con- 
federation for the remitting theie Two Millions, 

if ever they are remitted. ...... . 

There is another Reaion left behind, and a 
flirewd one it is ; namely, that we muft fupport 
publick Credit, by enabling rhe Bank to ftp- 
port the South.Se<t 9 and in Confluence ens Jang 
them both to fell their Stocks for twice as much 
as they are worth, (and To leave a new Lofs 
upon other People, who with equal Reafon 
mud be again repaired ;) for it is certain, that 
all or moil of the Company- Stocks fell at pre- 
fent above their real Value. Now with all 
due Submiiiion to the Gentlemen of the Alley, 
it feems to me to be a very odd Way of fup- 
porting Credit, to render the Publick incapable 
of paying its Drbis : But it is no new Fhing 
amongft fome Sores of People, to endeavour 
to fupport Credit by the Means which deltroy 
all Credit. My Head has been ever ft ill 
turned, as to think that Nations mult preierve 
the Opinion of their Integrity, by the fame 
Rules and M'.ixlms as private Men fand necel- 
&ry i that is, always by felling good Mer^ 



chandlfes, and not (luffing their Bales and Casks 
with counterfeit Wares, and covering them 
at Top with thole which look well : But we 
have heard of thofe Times when Moonfhine 
and Shadows have Ibid for Silver and Gold, 
for Lands and Tenements ; and the Wifdom 
of States has been employed to keep up the 
imaginary, fraudulent Value of this Sort of 
airy Merchandife ; and when Thoufands and 
Thoufands of unwary People have been un- 
done by fuch Purchafes, new Projects have 
been formed and countenanced by Authority 
to undo as many more : I mean, this has been 
lately done in France, whole Example fhould 
not be followed by any who defign not to In- 
troduce the Government of France. 

All wile and honeft Governments ought to 
protect their innocent, induftrious, and un- 
guarded Subjects, againft the Snares of Cheats, 
and Frauds of Pickpockets, and not combine 
with fuch Wretches, and be perpetually form- 
ing ^Schemes to ruin Multitudes for the en- 
riching a few, and to proftitute their Power, 
and the publick Honour, to patronize and efta- 
biifh Combinations of Oppreilion ; and when 
one Sort of it can be lupported no longer, to 
let their Wits to work to find out another. 
It puts me in mind of a Story told of Dr. Bare- 
bone, who had once drawn an eminent Mer- 
chant into a Building Project at Mile- End, 
whereby he loft many Thouland Pounds ; and 
when he complained of it, the Do&or pro- 
miied ^to make him Preparation by letting him 
(hare in another which he had juft begun at 
the farther End of. Weftminfter. whereby he loll 

VOL, ill, I as 

194 CMTO's LETTERS. _ 

a-3 much more; and when his Bubble, juftiy 
provoked, drew his Sword upon the Doctor, 
and bid him draw too, he, like a true Stoick, 
v/ith great Calmnefs, and wholly unconcerned, 
asked, Whither be would be drwn, for that he 
b:id drawn him from one End of the Town to the 
other already ? Whatever has been done in 
neighbouring Countries, I am perfwaded we 
:are"in no Danger of any fuch Attempts here. 

And now having, as I conceive, fully an- 
Cwerecl the Pretences of the South-Sen Company 
to get the Two Millions remitted to them, 
which they are pleafed to call Reafons I fhall 
offer to them one of my own why they (hould 
not defire it, and that they will be Lofers 
upon the Whole by it. As I remember, the 
Price of their Stock rather decreased than en- 
creafed upon the remitting the Five Millions, 
snd it has fallen now upon the Expe&ation of 
having the reft remitted ; and the Reafon is 
obvious, for nothing can keep up the Credit of 
publick or private Men, but an Opinion that 
they are able to pay their Debts, and are wil- 
ling to do fo ; and no Man in his Wits will 
believe either, if he does not fee them endea- 
vour to pay off their old Debts, and avoid all 
OccaSons of contracting new ones. When a 
Man owes more than he can pa^, he rnufl 
compound with his Creditors, lie in Goal, or 
run away,'unlefs he has Privilege ; and then 
they have nothing left to do for the mod part, 
but to (hake their Ears, rail, and run away 
too : People muft be very weak not to know, 
if ever a Queftion fhould arife, whether a Na- 
tion will be undone, or undo a (mall Part of ir, 


'CATO's LETTERS. 195- 

which it will chufe ; and therefore every wife 
Man, whofe Fortune lies in publick Securities-, 
will think himfelf concern'd to make the Pay- 
ment of them practicable, and therefore will 
'confider whether it is not his Interefl: to lofe a 
fmall Part of his Income, to fecure the Whole ; 
and every Man would confider this over and 
over, if he did not defign at all Adventures to 
lave one, and leave the Storm to fall upon 
others : And how well all hitherto have Suc- 
ceeded in this honed Intention, we have had 
as many Inftances as we have had publick Ca- 
lamities, and lately a very pregnant one, when 
every Man defigned to fell, and no one could 
do (b but Managers and Brokers, 


IDefign this Letter for a DifTertation upon 
Heroes, who were at firft a fort of brave 
difinterefted Men, that having more Courage 
and Prowefs ihan others, went about doing 
Good to others, and to all, at their own Ex- 
pence and Danger They eftabliihed and re- 
formed Communities, and taught them Laws, 
and punifhed thofe who violated Juftice and 
-Law : They deftroyed publick Robbers and 
Monfters, and the greateft of all publick Rob- 
bers and Monfters, Tyrants ; and lived the 
Patterns of Virtue and ufeful Valour. Hence 
they were called Heroes, a fcrt of middle Be- 

I a ings 


ings, fuperior to other Men, and a-kin to the 

But fo wild is the Nature of Man, and fo 
impudent the Nature of Ambition, that where- 
as the primitive Heroes were the Bulwarks of 
Society, and the Prefervers of Men, rhofe 
who pretended to fucceed them, were the Di- 
fturbers of Society, and the Deftroyers of 
JMen , and flich Tyrants and Monfters'as the 
old Heroes had deftroyed, did themfeives (im- 
pudently) fee up for Heroes. V. Jth the fame 
Modeily, Superftition, which deftroys Reli- 
gion, has in the greateft Part of the World, 
tifurped the Place of Religion ; Tyranny, 
Ttfhtch is the Extirpation of Government, calls 
itfelf Government : And thus arofe perfecut'ing 
Priefts and lawlefi Kings. But fo are Words 
and the World abufed ; and with fo much 
Safety and even Applaufe, is iVJifchief commit- 
ted, when it has got but a good Name. 

Alexander deified himfelf, and CAJAY was dei- 
fied by others, for being univerfal Murderers ; 
and Coke of Bury was hanged for attempting 
one Murder. Had he been at the Head of a 
Hundred Thoufand Cut-throats, and murdered 
a Million, he might have been recorded for a 
Hefoe, and his Name been handed down to 
After- Ages with Elogiums, and publick Decla- 
mations made in the Schools upon his Conducl 
and Virtues. 

Child, the Highwayman, robbed the Mail, 
and was put to Death ; but inftead of the Mail, 
had he robbed a Nation ( I mean any Nation 
but this) he might probably have governed 
it j and inftead of hanging in Chains, led a 


5 LETTERS. 197 

whole People in Chains, and been dubb'd an 
able Statefman and a faithful MiniftVr. 

Mifchief is infeparable from the Profeilion 
of a^prefent Hero, whofe Bufmefs and Ambi- 
tion is to multiply Conquefts, and confequently 
Miferies, upon thofe whom they conquer. 
What a wild and inhumane Spirit ! to plague 
the World, to make a Figure in it ; to com- 
mit great Villainies, for a good Name ; to 
deftroy the Peace and Profperity of Mankind, 
to gain their Efteem : and to (Tied their Blood, 
to fhew themfelves fit to govern them ! For 
none gain by fuch Accomplifhments of their?, 
but their Soldiers, whofe Lives too they throw 
away as wantonly as thefe take away the Lives 
of others. The chief Gainers therefore are 
only a few Officers, Servants; and Strumpets, 
who are about their Perfbns, and execute their 
Luft and Rage for their own Ends : And fb 
to glut a reftlefs Tyrant and his Indrtiments, 
Men and Nations mini be fLiughtered or en- 
flaved. This is the Heroifm, and the Glory 
of Conquering ! 

( Such is the Diflgrence between the old Ori- 
ginal Heroes and thefe their Ap:-s, who by 
Fraud, Violence, Perjury, and reltlefs Cruelty, 
make War upon their Subjects and Neigh- 
bours ; and by facriiicing the Virtuous and 
the Brave, or making them their Inflruments 
to facrifice others, and by diftrefling, exhauft- 
ing, plundering, and chaining All, puili hu- 
mane Mifery as far as it can go. Thefe are 
the Wolves and Tygers of humane Race ; 
Imperial Beads of Prey, who, if the World 
would preferve itfelf, ought to be driven our 


of the World, or hung up in it mTerrorem- 
or, like thefe their more innocent Brethren, 
who only kill for Food, be locked up in Den?,, 
and (hewn, as they are, for Monftersj Or* 
perhaps it would be {till a more equitable 
Pimifhment, if they could be caught, to (hut 
up a Number of them in a Madhoufe with- 
i heir beloved Arms about them, there to fight 
11 nd tear one another's Flefli, and fpill their- 
own dcteftabie Blood, till they had no more to 
fpill ; and this would be giving a fort of Satif- 
iadtion to Mankind for (b much human Blood; 
cUtrageoufly and wantonly fpilt. 

But this is not the only Mock-Heroifm in 
f.he World ; there is yet another fort as mif- 
thievous but ftill more ridiculous ; and that 
i?, a violent Appetite for War, and Victory,, 
rnd Conqudt, without engaging perfonally in 
the Danger, pr coming near, it ; but being very, 

lorous by Proxy, and fond of Fighting with- 
out drawing a Sword. This was the prudent 
Bravery of a late great Conqueror, who was 
r.ever tired of War, and yet never tired him- 
telf in it: In the Heat of a Battle fought for. 
his Glory, he run no Rifque, but fate fecurely 
at a great Diftance with the wife old Woman 
his Mifirefs, v/aiting for Laurels of other Peo- 
ple's winning. When his Agents had bought a 
Town for him treacheroufly, or his Generals 
ftolen a Province as treacheroufly, ftill it was 
Victory, ftill fair Conqueft ; and the Glory 
was his at three hundred Leagues diftance ; for 
every Thins he did was glorious, the meaneft 
and i he baled Things; and by thefe Means he 


LETTERS; 199, 

became Immortal, immortal in Conquefc with- 
out a Scar. ,. . 

The primitive Heroes ventured their Lives- 
for the Good of others ; but thefe Mock- 
Heroes expofe others to Danger and Death for 
the Good of themfelves, and their own perional 
Renown ; and all the Time (lay at home, and 
wait for Fame in a whole Skin. They ilaughte',' 
Thoufands who obey them, and undo Millions 
who- ought not to obey them ; and all to- 
ti.fkve others, who neither wiili nr>r do them 
any Harm, and with whom they have nothing; 
at all to do. Even molt of the Infrrurnems 
they make ufe of, are made as referable as 
they make thofe whom they opprefs , and few 
or none (hare the Ben elk of the Plunder, bat 
fiich as wanting Merit of their own to gain an 
honeft Subfiftence, prey upon the Iinjuftrjrof 
thofe that do. So ftrongly does^ Miiery thrive 
under their Influence, and nothing elfe ! 

They keep themfelves poor, fufptcious^ and 
in a State of War with their own Subjects., 
whom they jiiftly fufpe6t for their worft Ene- 
mies, becaufe they fupply them with conitant 
Reafbns to be fo ; and therefore they live in ?,. 
perpetual State of Rapine and Enmity towards 
them, and in a continued Dread of Violence 
and Revolts from them ; inilead of giving them 
fatherly Protection on one Side, and receiving . 
from them dutiful and fincere Allegiance on. 
the' other ; and all for the fruitlefs and imagi- 
nary Glory of Gonqueil, and of Dominion, 
over their Fellow-Creatures againft their Will ; 
or, in other Words, of being skilful Pillagers 
and Oppreffors, and fuccefsful Murderers. 

aoo C^rO's LETTERS. 

It is, however, not to be wondered at, that 
uvhilft fo many Princes are befet with Syco- 
phants always ready to applaud at a Venture 
their wildeft Sallies and Defigns , or with 
Traitors, who finding their own vile Ad- 
vantages in them, arc ever determined to abet 
and execute them : I fay, it is not ilrange that 
Princes in thefe Ctrcumftances fhould run fre- 
quently into wild Freaks and pernicious Enter- 
prizes, to the Ruin of themfelves and their 
Subjects. But it isftupendious, that thefe their 
baneful Inftrumenrs and worft Foes fhould be 
able in any Inftance to perfwade Nations to 
dance after their deftruUve Maggots, and be 
contented to be undone, to make fbme of the 
worft Men among!! themfelves Rich and 

What have the People in any Monarchical 
(Government ever gained by the Conquefts 
Jnade by their Prince, but to be made Slaves; 
Or if they were Slaves before, worfe Slaves, 
fend to have their Chains rivetted yet failer ? 
For, befides that thefe Conquefts give him a 
Pretence and an Ability to keep more Troops, 
and confequently encreafe his Power over them; 
the conquered Nation will find a fort of a Re- 
venge in joining to reduce their new Matters to 
the fame wretched Condition with themfelves, 
and perhaps find an Opportunity of conquering 
the Conquerors. One Nation will be plaid 
upon another, and neither will be trufted to 
the Guard of their own Countrymen; but the 
Soldiers of one Country will be quartered upon 
the other, and kept at a great Diilance from 
home, left by conftant Converfation with their 


LETTERS, 20-1 

Relations, Friends and Neighbours, they (Wld : , 
contrary to their Duty, warp towards the Love 
and Intereft of their Country ; and indeed in 
moil Countries where Troops are kept, they 
are always removed from Place to Place, to 
prevent their Friendship and Correfpondence 
with the Natives. 

What did England gain formerly by their 
Conquefts upon the Continent, but Wars* 
Slaughter, and Poverty to themfelves, and to 
their Princes precarious foreign Provinces at aa 
Englijh Expence; and had (landing Armies 
"been- then the Fafhion of the World, England 
would dou-btleis have conquered it (elf into 
Slavery, The Romans, \vhen they had extend- 
ed their Conquefts fb far and wide, that they 
were forced to keep Provincial Armies to awe 
and preferve the conquered Countries, became 
a Prey to thofe Armies ; and their Ernperors 
afterwards durft no longer truft to Roman 
Troops, bufencreafed their Slavery by the- 
Help of thofe Nations whom they had con- 
quered, and v/ho became, in their Turns*, 
Mailers of thofe who had mattered them. 

When Alexanderhzd ventured his own Arm7 
f Macedonians, and the bell Men in Greece, to 
ruin Perfii, and a great Part of the Worldv 
which had given him no Provocation ; what 
Advantages did Greece and Maced'on reap frotii 
his mighty Vi6r.ories and Conquefts, but to be- 
come a little Province of a great barbarous- 
Empire, which by their Arms and Prowefs he 
conquered, and exhaufted them of all their 
braved Men to preferve ? Their Condition- 
would dill have been worfe, if he had left a. 

1 Sue- 


Sueceflbr behind him to have preferved his 
whole Empire entire, who would have made 
Perfia, or fbme other Province the Seat of it, 
and governed Greece at a diftance by Bafhaws; 
and as it was, he left it in a State of conftant- 
War and Depredation, and they were toft and 
tumbled from one Oppreffion to another, till 
they found a fort of Relief in being conquered 
by the fymans. 

What did the French gain by the long Wars 
and ^many Conquefts of their late Great Mo- 
narch, but extreme Poverty, freighter Servi- 
tude, great Depopulation, and general Bank- 
rupcy ? So much did they fuffer by his Acqui-. 
lidpns, and fo dear did they pay for his per- 
nicious Glory ! 

What did the Swedes gain by the Conquefts 
of the late King, but to lofe them again, as 
they got them, at a vaft Expence of Blood 
and Treafure ; and to be reduced to fuch 
Weaknefs, as to want the Affiftance of their 
Neighbours to preferve them from falling un-, 
der the Power of a Prince, whom, by con- 
<JUf ring him, they taught ro conquer them ? 

And tf the conquering Countries are ftich 
miferable Lofers by Conqueft 5 what mud be., 
the doleful Condition of the Conquered, which , 
are conhdered only as the Sources of Plunder, 
and the profeffed Objecls of Oppreilion ? Al-^ 
mod all Eunps are Witness of the brutidv 
HaVQcJc the Conquerors make, and of the dif- 
njai Scenes of Ruin they leave behind them. 
jf the late French King could have conquered, 
c;r bought, or furpnzed the Vmted Prcvixccs, 
(.which by all thde generous Mean?: re endea- 


voured) from the richeft and moil populous 
Republlck upon Earth, they would have been 
ROW a Neft' of beggarly Fiihermenj and in a 
lower Condition, if poiTible, than ^any of the 
fine French Provinces, which had the Honour 
of being governed- by that paternal^ Prince. 
Never was fuch Mockery as for a Prince to 
publifh Reafons to a People, with whom he 
had nothing to do, why they ffcould be con- 
quered by him ; when, let their Condition bs 
a's ill at it will, it is an Hundred to One, naj 
? tis aimoft certain, that he will make it ten 
times worfe. 

Alfis for that Natir.ri wfafe prince h a Ueroe ! 
fays an excellent and an amiable French Writer^ 
who faw with Sorrow, the woeful Condition of" 
his own Marion, from the mercilefs and un- 
natural Affectation of Heroifm in the. then 

The fame admirable fV'uthdr^ in another 
place gives us a lively J Heroes and 

Conquefts in thef? V uch he makes 

/"* **'-\ ; ( 

Telemachtts fpeak, as 1. '.ne 'leu ov 

Battle tilled with Carcal" and drenched in 
Bio ri : " Such are fbe ! " Evils thai fol- 
" low Wars ! Whar, ; ;-.; I'ury urges u^ir- jpy 
" Mortals ! So few aji he Days they have to 
a live upon this E^rrb. and fb mtferable do 
"they make thefe fe\v Days i Why wilt they 
" run thus headlong -into :he Jaws of Death,. 
" \vlrich is of it p-if making hai:y .^proaches ; 
" to devour them ? Vv'h/ add IQ many fright- 
i4 ful Deiblarions to a iaort an.l bitter i_ife, 
^ rrade fo by Heaven already ? ivhii are all 
" Brethren, 'and they tear and butcher c: 

- -;- 


io 4 euro's LETTERS. 

another, more unnaturally fierce and cruel 
<6 than the wild Beafts of the Defart ! Ly- 
<c ons make not War upon Lyons, nor Ty- 
S tT * upon Tygers : They attack only Ani- 
<c mals of a different Species : Man ! Man 
<c alone, in fpight of his Reafon, does Things 

mat Creatures without Reafon would never 
.. do. 

cc " But why thefe confuming Wars ? Is there 
4t not Land enough in the Univerfe to fatisfy 
all Men with more than they can cultivate? 
Are there not vaft Trails of defart Lands, 
fo vaft that Mankind is not fufficient to fill 
them ? How then ! a falfe Glory, a vain 

r^ e . ^ Conf l ueYor > which a Prince is fond 
C4 of, kindles a War far and wide ; and one 
<{ nngle Man, thrown by Heaven into the 

World, in Wrath, facriftces brutallv fo many 
c ' others to his Vanity I His Glory requires It, 
f and all muft perifh before him : Countries 
c [ fwim in Blood, Towns and Cities fuffer de- 
^ vouring Flames, and what efcapes from the 
^ Sword and the Fire, Famine, more cruel 
it than both, muft confume ; and all that this 
^ Man, who thus fports himfelf with throwing 
<t all humane Nature into Pangs, may find in 
^ this general DeftrucKon his Pleafure and his 
4< Glory. What monllrous Glory ! Can we 
^ too much defpife, too much abhor thefe 

monftrous Men, who have thus forgot Hu- 

manity ; without being Men, they fet up 
w tor Demigods, and earn the Curfes, in (lead 

of what they aim ar, the Admiration of 
w ! Ages to come, 

" Oh ; 


" Oh I with whatTendernefs fhould Princes 
undertake Wars ! That they ought to be 
ftri&ly Juft, is not enough ; they mufl: be 
ftri&ly neceflary, neceffary for the Publick 
Good. The Blood of the People ought 
never to be fhed but to fave the People, and 
the Occaiion ought to be extream. But flat- 
tering Counfels, falfe Ideas of Glory, vain 
; Jealoufies, boundlefs Rapacioufnefs under 
fpecious Difguifes, and rafh Engagements, 
draw almoft all Princes precipitately or in- 
fenfibly into Wars which prove fatal to them. 
In them they hazard all without Necellity, 
and do as much Mifchief to their Subjects as 
" to their Enemies." 

Thus the divine late Arehbifhop of C amir ay % 
from whom I have tranflated this affecting Paf- 
lage. It is a Book that has Ten Thoufand 
Excellencies, and ought to be read by all 

I will conclude with wifliing, that all Na- 
tions would learn the Wifdom of the prudent 
Sancho, who, when the Hero his Matter mad- 
ly attacked the Wind- Mills and the Lyons, 
flood at a fafe Diftance and in a whole Skin. 
If their governing Don Ouixots will right right 
or wrong, let them fight by themfelves, and' 
not fit at Home and wantonly facrifice their 
People againit Wind-Mills and Fullrng-Mills. 

lam, &. 

C A ro's LETTER S: 

H E Englljk Climate, famous for variable 
Weather, is not lefs famous for variable 
Parties, which fall infenlibly into an Exchange 
of Principles, and yet go on to hate and curfe 
one another for thefe Principles. A Tory under 
OpprefTion, or out of a Place, is a Whig-, and 
'SiWhig with Power to opprefs, is a Tory. The. 
Tory damns the Whig f or maintaining a Refift- 
ance, which he himfelf never fails to prah'fe ; 
and the Whig reproaches the Tc y with flavifh 
Principles, and yet calls him Rebel if he does 
not praH(e them. JThe Truth is, all Men 
dread the Power of Oppreffion out of their 
own Hands, ^and almoft all Men wi{h it irre- 
fiftible when it is there. 

We change Sides every Day, and yet keep 
the fame Names for ever. I have known a . 
Man a (launch ^hlg for a Year together, and 
yet thought and called a Tory by all the Whigs ^ 
and by the Tories themfelves. I have known 
him afterwards fall in with the Whigs, and a6b < 
another Year like a Tory, that is, do blindly 
what he ^ was bid, and ierve the Intereft of- 
P-ower, right or wrong: And then all the Tories 
have agreed to call him a Whig-, whereas all 
the while he was called a Tory, . he was a Whig ; 
and afterwards by joining with the Whigs, he 
became an Appftate from Whiggifw, and turned 



So wildly do Men run on to confound 
Names and Things : We call Men opprobioufly 
Tories, for pra&ifing the beft Part oh Whiggifm', 
and honourably chriften our felves Wings, when 
we are openly acting the vileft Parts otToryifm, 
fuch Parts as the Tories never attempted to a6t. 

To know fully the Signification of Words, 
we muft go to their Source. The Original 
Principle of a Tory, was to let the Crown do 
what ic pleated ; and yet no People oppofed 
and reftrained the Crown more, when they 
themfelves did not ferve and direct the Crown. 
The Original Principle of a Whig, was to be no 
further for the Intereft of the Crown, than the 
Crown was for the Intereft of the People. 
A Principle founded upon everlafting Reafbn, 
and which the Tories have come into as often as 
Temptations were taken out of theirWay ; and 
a Principle which the Whigs, whenever they 
have had Temptations, have as vilely renounc- 
ed in Practice, No Men upon Earth have 
been more tervile, crouching, and abandoned 
Creatures of Power, than the Whigs fometimes 
have been ; I mean fbme former Whigs. 

The Tories therefore are often Whigs without 
knowing it ; and the Whigs are Tories Without: - 
owning ic. To prove this, it is enough to 
reflect upon Times and Jnftances, when the 
afferting of Liberty, the legal and undoubted 
Liberties of -England, has been called Libelling 
by thofe profefled Patrons of Liberty the 
Whigs , and they have taken extravagant, ar- 
bitrary, and violent Methods, to fupprefs The 
very Sout?d of it ; whilft the Tories have main- 
tained and defended, it, and put Checks upon 


aoS Giro's LETTERS, 


thofe, who, tho' they had rifen by its Name, 
were eager to fupprefs its Spirit, and had ap- 
pointed for that worthy End an Inquifition, 
new to the ConfHtution. and threatning its 
Overthrow: An Inquifitiott, where Men were 
ufed as Criminals without a Crime, and charged 
with Crimes without a Name, and treated in feme 
Refpes, as if they had been guilty of the higheft. 

Parties like and diflike our ConiHturKm., juft 
as they are out of Power, or in it : Thofe who 
are out of Power like it, becaufe it gives them 
the beft Protection againft thofe who are in 
Power ; and thofe who have been in Power, 
have blamed it, for not giving them Power 
enough to opprefsall whom they would opprefs,. 
No Power cares to be retrained, or to have its 
Hands tied up, tho 1 it would tie up all Hands 

but its own. Like Sects in Religion, who all 

abhor Perfecution, and difclaim its Spirit while 
it's over them, but fall almoft all into it when 
they are tippermoft. The Papifts among us 
make a great Outcry againft Perfecution and 
Oppreffon; becaufe, tho' they are protected in 
their Lives and Eftates, their Mafs-Hcufes are 
taken from them, and they are taxed double, 
tho 5 they do not pay double : And yet it is moft 
certain, that their Religion makes it a Sin to 
tolerate any other Religion, and obliges its 
Votaries, on Pain of Damnation, to burn and 
deltroy all who will not blindly, and againft 
Confcience, fubmit to its abfurd and contra- 
di&ory Opinions, and to its impious and in- 
humane Spirit. 

The Golden Rule prevails' little in the 
World ; and no Man fcarce will bear, if he 

's LETTERS, ^o9 

can avoid it, what almoft all Men will make 
others bear, if they can. Men who have the 
Government on their Side, or are in the Go- 
vernment, will never fee its Excefles while 
they do not feel them ; nay, they will be very 
apt to complain, that the Government wants 
more Power; and fome, in thofeCircumftances, 
have faid, and called in God Almighty for a 
Witnefs and a Voucher, that it ought to be 
irrefiftible : But when they diflike the Govern- 
ment, and the Government is jealous of them, 
their Tone is quickly and entirely changed, and 
they are loud 'with the firft againft the long 
Hands of Power, and its Encroachments and 
Oppreilions, and often make Faults as well as 
find them. 

In King Charles the Second's Reign, ^ at the 
Tryal of Mead and Penn, for preaching, (a 
great Crime in thofe Days out of a Church \) 
one of the King's Council declared, That 'he 
now faw the Wifdom, NeceiTity, and Equira- 
blenefs of the Spamjh Inquifition, and thought 
that it would never be well with the Church 
and Monarchy, till one was eftablifhed here ; 
or Words to that Effect. Now, can any one 
think that this wicked and impudent Man, with 
all this Malice againft his Country, would not 
have hated and dreaded the Inquifition as much 
as any other Man, but that he was determined 
to be of the fame Side. 

I never yet met with one honeft and reafcn- 
able Man out of Power, who was not heartily 
againft all Standing Armies, as threatning and 
pernicious, and the ready Inftrumenrs of cer- 
tain Ruin : And 1 fcarce ever met with a Man 


2io C^rO's LETTERS. 

in Power, or even the meaneft Creature of 
Power, who was not for defending and keep- 
ing them up: So much are the Opinions of 
Men. guided by their Circum (lances ! Men, 
when they are angry with one another, will 
come into any Meafures for Revenge, without 
confidering that the fame Power which deftroys 
an Enemy, may defcroy themfeives ; and he to 

whom I lend my Sword to kill my Foe, may 
i i 1 1 * j 

with it kill me. 

Men are catched, and ruled, and ruined, by 
a prefent Appetite; and for prefent Gratifica- 
tion, give up even Self Prefervation. So weak 
is Reafbn when Pailion is fr.rong ! Moft of the 
Ihflruments of Arbitrary Power have been Sa- 
crificed to teas wantonly as they had facrifictd 
others; and were juftly cruihed under a barba- 
rous 'Balel of their own raifing. But that has 
been no LefTon to others, who have been for 
complimenting their Prince, with a. Power 
which made- all Men, and themfeives_among{t 
the Mi, d< pend far tlieir Life and Property 
uponj-iis Bre-i'h , for no other Reafon, than 
that it ma<L j many others depend at the fame 
Ti.^e upon theirs. 

Nothing is more wild, fickle, and giddy,, 
than the Nature of Man ; not the Clouds, 
nor the Wind? : We fwallow greedily to Day 
what we loathed Yefterday, and will loath again 
to Morrow ; and would hang at Night thofe 
whom we hugged in the Morning. We love 
Men for being of our Opinion,' when We are 
in the wrong ; and hate them afterwards, if 
they are in the Right. We are enraged at 
thofe who will not renounce their Senfe, to . 


's LETTERS. ai* 

follow us in our Anger ; and are angry at them 
For being angry, when we have made them lo. 
We boaft of being guided by our own Senti- 
ments ; but will allow no body to be dlreCtec 
by theirs, if theirs thwart ours. We are go- 
verned by our own Intereft, and rail at thole 
that are. We oppofe thofe who will not pur- 
chafe our Friendfhip ; and when they do, we 
oppofe all that cppofe them. Thofe who are 
for us, with Reafon on their Side, provoke us, 
if they are not fo without Reafon. We com- 
mend human Reafon, and mean only our own 
Folly. And our Religion, however ridiculous, 
is always the beft for all Men, who are in a. 
dangerous Way, if they are not in our aMurd 
one. If we adhere to our Opinions, and wU 
not- alter our Conduct, we cannot forget thofc 
v:ho will not join with us j and if they do, we 
do not forgive them when we change, if they 
do not change too, 

Thus inconiifrent, foolifti, and fhsmeleis, is 
the Nature of Men, felfifh and prone to 
ror. Methinks thofe who were once in our 
Circumftances and Sentiments, might, at leait, 
forgive us, if when they leave us and their own 
Principles for a very bad Reafon, we ftill Ad- 
here to ours for a very good one : But this Piece 
of plain Equity is not to be expected. Men 
are fo partial to themfelves, that altnoft every 
Man, if he could, would fet up the Arbitrary 
Standard of his own Will, and oblige all Men 
blindly to follow it. The Story of Prtfcrttfles is 
full of excellent Inftru&ion, and a lively Em- 
blem of human Nature : That Tyrant had 
an Iron Bed, which he feemed to intend for the 


ia Giro's LETTERS. 

Standard of humane Srature ; thofe who were 
too long for it, had their Legs chopped off; 
and thofe who were too fhorr, had their Bodies 
extended by a Rack ; and both the Long and 

HSSKott were m:lde to nt the Tyrant's Bed. 
Whans the Inquifitton, what is Tyranny, and 
what is any extravagant Power, but Procrufteis 
Bed And who would not be a Procruftes, 'if he 
had his Will, in fome Refpect or other ? 

The very Name of France, ufed to be art 
Abomination to the Whigs -. They hated the 
Country for the Sake of it's Government ; and 
were eternally upbraiding the Tories, with a 
Fondnefs for that Government. Who would 
have expe&ed, after all this, that ever the 
tfj'jp. or any of them, could have fpoken 
with Patience, much lefs with Approbation, of 
the Fre?;;'} Government ? Any the lea ft Hint 
of this kind was fhameful and unpardonable 
in a 14 ng, But there are Wl>l^ who, not 
content to (new their Diil'ke and Refentment 
of every thing faid or done in Behalf of Li- 
berty, and the Engltjh Conftitution, have boldly 
told People how fuch Things would be re- 
warded in France : That is to fay, The Go- 
vernmcnt of France is defended by Galleys, 
Wheels, Racks, and Dragoons, and we want 
the fame Methods here'; for, if they diflike- 
fuch Methods, how come they to mention 
them ? If :n commit Crimes againft the 
Englijh Government, there are Englifh Laws to 
punifh them ; but if they are guilty of no Crime 
againft the Laws of E-ngiavd^ why are they 
thought worthy of the Arbitrary Punifhments 
of France, unlefs thofe, who think they are, 



thirft after the Arbitrary Power of France ? 
Or if they mean not thus, why do they talk 
thus, and {"hewing Rage without Provocation, 
fcatter Words without a Meaning ? I know 
no Sort of Englijkmen worthy of French Chain?, 
and French Cruelty, but fuch apoftate Englifo- 
msn as wifli for the Power and Opportunity of 
inflicting them upon their Countrymen, and 
of governing thole by Terrors and Tortures, 
who defpife weak Capacities, and deteil vile 

And have Wings at lad the Face to tell us 
how they rule in France ? Here is an In fiance 
of Toyifm, which every modern Tory, of any 
Senfe, difclaims and abhors, and which fome 
modern Whigs have modeftly avowed, and are 
therefore become old Tories. Thus do Parties 
chop and change. One Party, by railing wirh 
great Juftice at another, gets into its Place ; and 
lofes it as juflly, by doing the very Things 
againft which it railed. 

By thefe Means, and by thus acting every 
one of them contrary to their Profeilions, all 
Parties play the Game into one another's 
Hands, though far from intending it ; and no 
Party has ever yet found their Account in it, 
whatever their Leaders may have done : For 
the^moit part, a Revolution of five or fix Years 
fubjeh them to Oppreinons of their own in- 
venting. Others get into their Seat, and turn 
their own hard Meafures upon them ; nor can 
they complain, with a good Grace, that they 
fuffer thole Evils which they had made others 
to fuffer, and their own Conducr. having been 
as bad as that of which they complain, they 


114 C^fO's LETTERS. 

not fufficient Reputation to oppofe the 
Progrefs of puhlick Mifchief and Milcarriages, 
which perhaps rhey began. 

It is therefore high Time for all Parties to 
consider what is bell for the Whole ; and to 
eftablifh flich Rules of commutative Juftice 
and Indulgence, as may prevent Oppreflion 
'from any Party. And this can only be done 
'by retraining the Hands of Power, and fixing 
it within certain Bounds as to its Limits and 
Expence. Under every Power that is exorbi- 
tant, Millions mud fuffer to aggrandize a few, 
and Men mu' 1 be ftrangely partial to them- 
felves and ti- rlr 'own Expectations, if, in the 
almoft eternal Changes and Revolutions of Mi- 
niftries, they -^n hope to continue long to be 
any Part of thole Few. 


7 O Man, or fmall Number of Men, can 
fupport them/elves in Power upon their 
own proper Strength, without taking in the 
Arliiiance of a great many others, and they 
can never have that Afliftance, unlefs they take 
in their Intereits too, and the latter can find 
their own Account in giving it ; for Men will 
laugh at bare Arguments brought to prove that 
they muft labour, be robbed of that Labour, 
and want, that others may be idle, riot, and 
.plunder -them. Thoie Governments therefore, 



which are founded upon Oppreflicn, always 
End it neceffary to engage Interefts enough in 
'their Tyranny to overcome all Oppoiltion from 
thofe who are tyrannized over, by giving ie- 
parate and unequal Privileges to the Inilru- 
ments and Accomplices of their Oppreilion, 
by letting them (hare the Advantages of it, by 
putting Arms in their Hands, and by taking 
away all the Means of Self Defence from thofe 
who have more Right to ufe them. 

But when a Government is founded upon 
Liberty, and equal Laws, it is ridiculous for 
thofe in the Adminiftration to 'have any Hopes 
of preserving themfelves long there, but by 
juft Actions, or the Appearance of juft Actions ; 
and by letting the People find, or fancy they 
find their ^own Happinefs in their Submifllon.. 
It is^ certain, People have fo juft a Dread of 
publick Diflurbances, that they will bear a 
great deal, before they will involve themlelves 
in Tumults and Wars ; and Mankind are fo 
prone to Emulation and Ambition, and to pur- 
iue their feparate Interefts, that 'tis eafy to 
form them into Parties, and to play thofe Pat- 
ties in their Tarns upon one another ; but all 
Parties will at laft confer Notes, and find out, 
that they are made life cf only as Cudgels in 
the Hands of wicked Men, to aiTault each 
other by Turns, till they are both undone. It 
is downright Madnefs, to hope long to govern 
All^ againil the Interefls of All ; and fuch 
Knight-Errants have Qiialifications only 
-fent to Bedlam, or to be (but up in (bine other 


216 Giro's LETTERS. 

People will for fbme Time be dallied with, 
and amufed with falfe Reafbnings, Mifrepre- 
fenrations, and Prcmifes, wild Expectations, 
vain Terrors, and imaginary Fears ; bur all 
thefe Hopes and Apprehenfions will vanifti by 
Degrees, and will produce a quite contrary Ef- 
fect and no wife .Vlan will think it prudent 
to provoke a whole People. What could the 
late King do againft his whole People ? 
tfis IVlinifters betrayed him, h^s Family defert- 
ed him, and hia Soldiers revolted from him : 
And 'twas foolifh to expect any thing elfe ; for 
how could he hope that thofe who could have 
no Motive to (land by him, befides their own 
perfonal Intereft, and every Motive to oppofe 
him arifmg from Confcience and Honour, 
would not leave him when that Intereft chan- 
ged, and they could ferve themfelves better by 
ferving their Country. 

I laugh at the ftuptrl Notions of thofe who 
think that more is due frcm them to their Pa- 
trons, who are truded to dlfpofe of Employ- 
ments for the publick Benofit, than to their 
Country, for whofe Sake, and by whofe Direc- 
tion, thofe Employments were firft inftituted, 
out of whofe Pockets the Profits of them arife, 
and from whofe Confidence or Credulity their 
precended Benefactors derive all their Power 
to give them, Thofe who receive them, ac- 
cept the Gift upon the Terms of the Confti- 
tution i that is, to execute them faithfully for 
the publlck Good, and not to take the People's 
Mo f icy ro destroy the People. 

Vv'h u did the whole Power of Spain do a- 
gaiait a few revolted Provinces, when all the 


's LETTERS. ^ 

People were enraged by OpprefHon ? How- 
many Armies were loft ? How many Millions 
Fooliflily fquandered, to recover by Force, what 
a few ]uft Conceilions would have done ac 
once? Her Generals no fboner took one Town, 
but two revolted ; and they fbmetimes loft ten, 
without ftriking a Stroke, for one they gained 
by the Sword: What by the Mutinies of her 
own Soldiers, and other common Events, which 
ufually happen in fuch Cafes, they twice loft 
all together, and were forced to begin their 
Game a-new ; and fo deftroyed a mighty Em- 
pire, to opprefs a little Part of it, whole Af- 
Fe&ions might have been regained by doing 
them but common Juftice. 

'Tis fenfelefs, to hope to overcome fome 
Sorts of convulfive Diftempers, by holding 
the Patient's Hands, and tying him with 
Ropes, which will only encreafe the Malady ; 
whereas the fbfteft Remedies ought to be ufed : 
Vjolent Methods may ftop the Diftemper for 
a little Time, but the Caufe of the Grief re- 
mains behind, and will break out again the 
more furioufly. What did King Jnmes get by 
all his bloody Executions in the Weft, and 1iis 
manacling us with Chains, and keeping up a 
Militar/ Force to lock them on, but to frighten 
his Friends, itil'l more provoke his Enemies, 
and at la ft unite them all againft himfelf ? 
And yet, I believe, I may venture to aiiert,. 
that if, inftead of throwing his Broad-Seal into 
the T-ames, and deferring his People, he had 
fuffered his Parliament to^ fir, had given up 
f^me of the Inftruments of s Tyranny, snd 
had permitted them to have taken a few proper 

V O L. Ill K Pre- 

ai8 Giro's LETTERS. 

Precautions to have hindered it for the future^ 
Ke need not have been a Fugitive through the 

It is certain, that if King Charles -had made 
at firft, and with a good Grace, but half of 
thole Conceilions which were extorted from 
him afterwards, that bloody War, fo fatal to 
himfelf and his Family, had been prevented, 
and the Ambition or Malice of his perional 
Enemies had been fuppreffed, or turned to their 
own Confufion, and he himfelf might have 
reigned a happy Prince, with as much Power 
-as he had Right to by the Conftitution : Where- 
as, if my Lord Clarendon is to be believed, the 
\vhole Kingdom, (very few excepted) took 
part again!! the Court at firft, and continued 
to do fb, till forne leading Men in the Houfe 
of Commons difcovered Intentions to overturn 
the Monarchy itfelf. And I will add farther, 
that if fome Men, I could name, had fet them- 
lelves at the Head of the Profecutions againft 
the South-Set Directors, and their Directors, A- 
gents, and Accomplices, and had propofed, or 
ihewn an inclination to have come into eflec- 
tual Methods to have paid off the publick 
Debts, and to have leifened the publick Ex- 
pences, the Name of a Jacobite had been as 
-contemptible as it is now dreadful > and a few 
Conftables might poiiibly have faved the 
Charge of a great many Camps. 

It is foclifh therefore to be frightened with 
Apprehenfions which may be removed at plea- 
lure : The Way to cure People of their Fears, 
is not to frighten them farther, but to remove 
the O.ufes of their Fears. If the Kingdom is 



t!ifaffered, (as its Enemies of all Sorts would 
make us believe) let enquiry be made into the 
Motives of that Difaffe&ion : It cannot be 
personally to his Majefty, who is a moft excel- 
lent Prince ; and his greateft Opponents neither 
do nor can object to him thofe Vices, which 
too often accompany and are allied to Crowns : 
Nor is there the leaft Pretence to accufe him 
of any Defigns of enlarging his Prerogative 
beyond its due Bounds ; but on the contrary 
it is faid, that he was content by the Peerage- 
Bill to have parted with a confiderable Branch 
of it. in Favour of his People, whatever life 
others intended to make of that Cpnceffion. 
It is certain, that when he came to the Crown, 
he had a large Share in the Affe&ions of his 
People, and he himfelf has done nothing to 
make it lels. 

It cannot be to his Title, which is the bed 
upon Earth, vi%. The pofitive Confent of a 
Great and Free Nation, and not j;he prefump- 
tive Confent of Succeilion : Befides, all his 
Subjects of any Degree have fworn and f.ib- 
fcribed to his Title, and the Ink is yet wet 
upon their Fingers ^ nor can any formidable 
Number of them (whilft they are governed 
juftly and prudently) have any Motives to 
call in a Pepifo Pretender, educated in Princi- 
ples diametrically oppofite to their civil and 
religious Interefts. 

Whence therefore fhould fuch Dlfaffe&ion 
srife, if there is any fuch, as I hope there is 
not ? And it appears plainly, that there is not, 
or that it is not -general, by the dutiful Recep- 
tion his Majefty met with in all Places through- 

K i> oat 


cut his late Prcgrefs in the Weft. And the 
fame loyal Difpolition would appear more and 
more every Day, if thofe who have the Ho- 
nour to be admitted to his more immediate 
Confidence, would reprefent hone-ftly to him, 
how acceptable his Prefence would always be 
to his People. 

'Tis childiih to fay, that a few Flies and 
Jnfe&s can raife a great Dud ; or that as ma- 
ny cjifapppihte<l and unpreferr "d Men can fhske 
a great Kingdom, with a wife Prince at the 
Heaa of it, fupported v/ith fuch Power and 
Dependencies. A great Fire cannot be railed 
withuuc Fewel, and the Materials which make 
it mult have been combuftible before. And 
if this is our Cafe, we ought to ask, How they 
earns to be fo ? And, Who made them in- 
flamable ? Who laid the Gunpowder ? as well 
as, Who fired, or intended to fire it ? W 7 hen 
we have dune this, we ought to remove the 
Caufes of the Diftemper, allay the Heat of the 
Fever by gentle Lenitives, throw in no more 
iiery Spirits to enflame the Conilitution, but 
do all we can to (often and cool it. 

Every Country in the World will have ma- 
ny Malecontents , fome through Want and 
Neceility ; others through Ambition and Reft- 
lefhefs of Temper ; many from Difappoint- 
ments and personal Refentment ; and more 
from the Fear of jult ^unifhment for Crimes : 
But all thefe together can never be dangerous 
to any Stare, who knows how to feparate the 
People's Refentrnents from theirs. Make the 
former eafy, arid the others are difarmed at 
once.. When the Caufes of general Difcontent 



are removed, particular Difcontents will fig- 
nify nothing. 

The firft Care which wife Governours will 
always rake is to prevent their Subjecls from 
wanting, and to (ecure to them the Pofleflion 
of their Property, upon which every thing elfe 
depends. They will raife no Taxes but whan 
the People (hall fee a NecelTky for railing ; and 
no longer than that Necdiity continues : And 
fuch Taxes ought to be levied cautiouGy, and 
laid cut frugally. No Projects oughr to be 
formed to enrich a few, and to ruin Thou- 
fands ; for when Men of Fortunes come to lofe 
tho r e Fortunes, they will try by all Means to 
get new ones ; and when they cannot do it 
Fairly, they will do it as they are able: p.?v.l if 
they cannot do k at all, will throw all Thhics 
into Con fufion, to ma!;.- . Vi-c-rs -as miferable as 
ibemfelves. If People are poor, they \vill be 
defperate, and catch at every pccafipn, and 
join with every Friction, to make publick Di- 
KUrbances, to fliuffle the Cards a-n^w, and to- 
make their own Condition better, when they 
find it cannot be worfe. 

Wile Statefmen will fee all this at a DiHance; 
will life the be ft Precautions, and mcib prudent 
Measures, to procure general Plenty, encreafe 
Trade and Manufactures, and keep the People 
ufefully employed at Home, inftead of ftar 
ving, and prating Sedition in the Streets. The/ 
will not be perpetually provoking them wi:h 
conftant Injuries, giving them eternal Occa- 
fions and Reafbns for DiiTuti>fac"^5on, and then 
quarrel with them for (hewing it, and be [till 
encreaimg their Difcontenrs, by prtpoileroufly 


i^^ CM/O's LETTERS. 

endeavouring to put a Stop to them by new 
Shackles, armed Bands,Bribery,and Corruption, 
and by laying on them frefh Burthens and Im- 
pofitions to maintain fuch Oppreffions ; and 
fb when they have raifed Reientment to ths 
higheft Pitch, vainly hope to Hop the Tjde 
with their Thumbs. This is what the King 
of Spain did formerly in his Auftriaji Provinces, 
and King Juries II. lately in England ; but 
Yv'hat I hope will never be ieen here again. 

But it will be faid, that People will be fome- 
times diflatisfied without any juft Provocations 
given to them by their Governours : The Ne- 
ceiilties of all States will fbmetimes fubiecl: 
them to greater Taxes, and other feeming Op- 
preillons, than they can well bear ; and then, 
like fick Men, they v/ili quarrel with their 
Phyhcians, their belt Friend?, and their Reme- 
dies, and reproach all who have the Direction 
of their Affairs, as a Countryman once curfed 
Cardinal Mazarine, when his Afs (tumbled, and 
perhaps jiiftly, for the Oppreilions of that Mi- 
niiler might have rendered him unable to feed' 
his Afs, and to keep him in good Heart. 

When this happens to be the Cafe, there 
ought to be double Diligence ufed to prevent 
any ill Confluences from fuch Difaffection^: 
No War ought to be continued longer than is 
abfolutely neceffary to the publick Security, 
nor any new one to be entered into out or 
W 7 antonnefs, Ambition, or, indeed, any other 
Motive than Self Defence : No more Money 
ought to be railed than is ftri6Wy neceflary for 
the People's Protection ; and they are to be 
fhewn that Neceiiity, and are to fee, from 

* 9- t^ 



Time to Time, the Accounts of what they 
give, that it is disburfed frugally and honeftiy, 
and not engroffed by private Men^ lavifhecl 
upon Minions, or fquandered away in ufelefe 
Penfions to Undefervers; and that the Product 
of the whole People's Labour and Subftance, 
is not fuffered ro be devoured by a few of the 
word of the People. For, as it is (aid elfe- 


Vtfjat can Is more invidious^ than for a N/*- 
ticn* flagging under the Weight and Opprejfion 
cf its Debts, eaten up with Vfitry, nn,l exbttofted 
with Payment Si to h.tve the additional Mortified- 
t Ion, -to fee private and worthies Men riot in their 
Calamities, and grew rich whi'ft they grew poor ; 
to fee the Town every Day glittering with new and 
pwMus Equipages, wbilfl they are mortgaging and 
felling their Eft files, without having fpcnt tbjsm \ 
to fee blaming Meteors fuddenly exhaled out cf their 
Jakes, and their Uud> a> in Egypt 5 warmed in?* 

Uonjlers ? * 

1 airs, &c. 

* Cw/Meratiwr vfon the State of the Nation, and 
Civil Lift. 


214 CA ro ' s LETTERS. 

5 I P^ 

JHave hitherto direkd my Letters to your 
(elf; but I defireyou will direct rhe inclos'd 
to the illuftrious Deputies of the whole People 
of England. Not that I prefume to think my 
(elf capable to inform them of their Duty, or 
f hat they want fuch Information, or would ac- 
cept it from me ; but I intend to (hew my good 
Vv'ifhes to my Countrymen, and to prepare 
them to expedl: the blef&d Effe&s of their dif- 
creeu Choice ; not in the lea ft doubting but 
tKIr ".Yorihy Reprefenratives will (peak aloud 
: almoft unanimous Sentiments of the \vhole 
Ivarion, and by fo doing, preferve the Digni- 
ty of the Crown, and the Liberty of the Peo- 
ple they reprefenr. 

T* tbs Honcur fills the Members of tie prefent Hoi/Ji 

cf Commons. 


OU have now the Political Power of all 
the Commons of Great-'Britain delegated to 
you ; and as 1 doubt not but you will make an 
honefl life of it, fo will you have their Natural 
Power too, at your Command ; that is, you 
will have their Thanks, their Wiihes, their 
Prayers, and their Perfbns as well as their Pur- 
fes, to (erve your King and Country. This 
is the grcateft Truft thai' can be committed by 



Men to one another; and contains in it all that 
is valuable here on Earth, the Lives* the Pro- 
perties, the Liberties ofyour Countrymen, and 
in a great Meafure of all Europe, and your own 
prefentand eternal Happinefs too. This great 
Truft, Gentlemen, is not committed to you 
for youf own fakes, but for the Prote6Uon, Se- 
curity, and Happinefs of thofe you represent. 
And you are accountable to your own Corvfci- 
cnces, and to the high Tribunal of Heaven, 
for the jail Execution of this great Authority : 
Not to mention the Applaufes and Bleilmgs ot 
Millions of People, which will attend the faith- 
ful Difcharge of your Duty ; and the Detefta- 
tion, Reproaches and Curies, with their other 
worfe Confequences, which ought to purfue 
Corruption and Bribery, and which I am fore 
you will never deferve. 

You have, Gentlemen, the pureft Religion 
in the World, to cherifh and fupport ; the In-^ 
tereib, Reputation, and Security of the bed or 
Princes, to guard and defend : You have a grea 
and populous Nation, abounding with Men of 
Undemanding, Integrity and Courage, implo- 
ring your Aiiutance ; \vhom you are obliged by 
all the Ties of Gratitude, Juftice and Genero- 
fitv, by ail the Laws of God and Man, to pro- 
teCt and preferve : A People loaded with Debt?,; 
enervated by War, and in firmer Reigns plun- 
der'dby Mifcreants, and ]u(l ready to fink un- 
der thofe Burthens, unlefs they caci receive fud- 
den Help from your healing Hands. Here \s 
a Scene of Glo^y, an Opportunity pur by gra- 
cious Heaven into ycur Hands, to exerclie your 
Virtues, andto obtain aRe^utatloafar above 

K the 


the tinfei Triumphs of fabulous and imaginary 
Heroes. Virtuous Men could not ask more of 
Providence ; nor could Providence beftow more 
upon mortal Men, than to fet them at the Head 
of a corrupted and alrnoft undone People, and 
to give them the Honour of reftoring theirPow- 
er, and reforming their Manners. I cannot 
doubt but thefe ftrong and forcible Motives, 
will call up all your Virtue, Generofiry and 
Publick Spine; and infpire you with Refbluti- 
ons to auift our gracious Sovereign in redrefling 
all our Grievances, and making us once more a 
great and happy People . 5 Tis in your Power 
to do fo, and from your Endeavours we hope 
and expect it. 

Every Man you reprefent, has a Right to 
apply to, and petition you for Protection and 
Redrefs, and with Modelly and Humility tQ 
complain of his own or his Country's Sufferings; 
and by virtue of this undoubted Right, I addrt-te 
to you in my own Behalf, and in the Behalf of 
Millions of my Fellow Subjects, who, next to 
God and our gracious Sovereign, are to receive 
their Prefervaticn and whole Happinefs from 
your Breath. Your own perfbnat Security too, 
is nearly link'd and blended with theirs; for 
you can make no Laws, countenance no Cor- 
ruptions, or bring or fuffer any MJfchiefs upon 
your Country, but what mufl fall upon your 
felves and your Pcftericy ; and for thefe Rea- 
ons, as well as from your known Principles of 
Honour and Virtue, I afluremyfelfyou will ae> 
for your own and the publick Inrereft. 

The mo ft notorious Confpiritors, and chief 
Inftruments of power, who headed that dete- 



liable Parliament that gave up the Liberties 
of a neighbouring Nation, involVd themfelyes 
in the general Ruin, and were amongft thefirft 
who loft their Eftates. Even the Penfionary 
Parliament, in King Charles the lid's Time, 
ftopp'd (hort, and turn'd upon that corrupt 
Miniftry, when the laft Stroke was levell'd 
againft our Liberties : They well few, that 
when they fhouid become no longer nece0ary g 
they would be no more regarded, but be treat- 
ed as Traytors always are, by thofe who take 
Advantage of theirTreafon; for 'tis a fteadyMax- 
im always with Oppreiibrs,ro court and gratify 
the People they enfiave, byfacrrficing the Inftru* 
merits they make ufe of when they can be no 
longer ferviceable ; a Maxim which difcharges 
all Obligations to them, and gives fome Recom- 
pence to their unhappy and undone Subjects, 
by (hewing them the graceful Sight of their 
wor.'t and mod implacable Enemies caught in 
their own Snare. 

View, Gentlemen, the di final and rnelanchoK 
ly Scene before your Eyes : Behold, not above- 
Thirty Years fince, a powerful Nation engag'd 
rn^an expenfivebut fuccefsful War, for Defence 
of their own Liberties, and of all Europe ; which 
might have been equally carried on with lefs 
Money than is now paid for Intereft, withouc 
leaving us one Penny in Debt ; but a Nations 
in late Reigns almoft undone by the vile and 
deipicable Arts of Stockjobbers, combining 
with others, from whom we expected Prefer- 
vatkyi, and rrow loaded with numerous Taxes* 
Their Fipmces diicompos'd ; their Trade 
loaded Vv'kh various and burchenfome Duties,,. 


or manacled with excluGve Companies ; and i 
3ebt almoft fixty Millions, and by that means 
(as we have lately experienced) unable to con- 
tend wjrh fmall Powers, without every Year 
encreafmg our Debts and Burthens, and no ef- 
fectual Method ever yet taken to pay them off, 
or leffen them ; but always new Methods found 
out to enhaunce the Account. 

Sure, Gentlemen, none of you can hope that 
neighbouring Nations will fit (till, and not take 
Advantage of our Weaknefs, and even thofe 
Nations for whofe Sakes we are brought into 
this forlorn Condition. The Viciflitude of hu- 
raaneAffairsmud bring new Wars upon us, the' 
none among ourfelves could find their Account 
in courting them ; and how think you, in fuch 
a Circumftance, we (hall defend our Country ? 
For my own part, I can fee but one Remedy 
at hand, and that is a dreadful one, unlefs we 
take fpeedy and effectual Methods to leffen the 
Publick Expences, to cut off all exorbitant: 
Fees, Pcnfions and unneceffary Salaries, encou- 
rage Trade, regulate our Finances, and all De- 
feels in the^Adminiftratson ; and by fuch Means 
fa ye all which can be faved, and apply it to the 
Difchargeof the publick Burdens. 

I wifa our Dabblers in Corruption would 
count ^ their Gains, and ballance their Loffes: 
xvith their wicked Advantages. Let them fee 
down in one Column their mercenary Gifts, 
and precarious Dependencies ; (braetimes half 
purchased with Money, fometimes by dividing 
the Profits with Paraiites, and always witblhe 
Lofs of their Integrity and Reputation : and on 
the other bide, let them write down expenfive 



Contentions, and conftant Attendance in Town 
to the negledfc of their Families and Affairs, 
and a Manner of Living often unfuitable to 
their Fortunes, and deflru&ive to their Health, 
and at leaft one fourth Part of their Eftates 
mortgaged, and liable to the difcharge of the 
publick Debts ; and above all the reft-, the In- 
fecurity of what remains, which mufi be in- 
volv'd in every Species of publick Mi fery : And 
then let them cad up the Account, and fee 
where the Ballance lies. This is not a fi61:itiou 
and imaginary Computation, like South-Sea 
Stock, but a real and true State of the unhappy 
Cafe of twenty Dealers in Corruption, for one 
who has been a Gainer by it; without mention- 
ing the juft Loffes which many of them have 
fuffer'd by the laft detedable Proieh 

Confider too, what a Figure they make 

in their feveral Countries amongft their 

Neighbours, their Acquaintance, their former 

Friends, and often, even amongft: their own 

Relations. See how they have been hunted and 

purfued from Place to Place, with Reproaches 

and Curies from every honeft Man in England, 

how they have been rejected in Counties, and 

populous and rich Boroughs, and indeed, only 

hoped for Succefs any where by the meer Force 

of Exorbitant Corruption, which has fwallow'd 

up a great Part of their unjiift Extortions. 

Then let them fet againft all thele Evils a good 

Confcicnce, a clear Reputation, a difcngag'd 

Eftate, and being the happy Members of a 

free, powerful, and fafe Kingdom \ all which 

was once their Cafe, and might have continued 

fa, if they had a6led with Integrity. Sure k 


Is worth no Man's Time to exchange an Eftate 
of Inheritance, fecur'd to him by fteady and 
impartial Laws, for a precarious Title to the 
greateft Advantages at the Will of any Man 

But even thefe corrupt Advantages are no 
longer to be had upon the fame Terms : The 
Bow is ftretch'd fb far, that it muft break if it 
goes farther: Corruption, like all other Things 
has its Bounds ; and muft at lad deftroy it (elf, 
or deftroy every Thing elfe. We are already 
almoft mortgaged from Head to Foot : There 
js fcarce any Thing which can be tax'd, that is 
not rax'd : Our Veins have been open'd and 
draln'd fb long, that there is nothing left but our 
Heart's Blood ; and yet every Day new Occa- 
fions arife upon us, which muft be fupply'd oue 
of exhaufted Channels, or cannot be fupply'd 
at all. How think you, Gentlemen, this can 
be done ? What has been rais'd within the Year 
has not been found fufficient to defray the Ex- 
pences of the Year : And will any one amongft 
you, in Times of full Peace, confent to new 
mortgage the Kingdom to fupply the current 
Service? And if you could be prevaiTd upon 
to confent to it, how long do you believe it can 
laft, or that you can find Creditors ? And whafc 
can be the Confluence of f'uch Credit ? Sure 
it muft make the Payment defperate ; and if 
ever that grows to be the Cafe, what think 
you will be the Event ? Who do you imagine 
will have rhefweeping of the Stakes ? Do you 
believe thpfe^who brought your Misfortunes 
upon you. will pay the Reckoning at kft, or 
ikve thcmlclves by endeavouring to compleat 



their Wickednefs ? There is no Way, Gentle- 
men, to prevent all thefe Evils which lour over 
and threaten you and us, but by preventing or 
removing the Caufes of them ; and ] hope you 
will think it worthy your bed Confiderations, 
and moft vigorous Endeavours to do fb, rather 
than to fuffer under, and be undone by them. 
By doing this great Service to your Country, 
you will not only confult your Reputation, 
your own Interefts, and the Interefts of thofe 
you reprefent ; but in the moft effectual Man- 
ner will ferve your Prince, by making him a 
glorious King over an happy, fatisfy'd, duti- 
ful and grateful People. A great and rich 
People can alone make a great King; their dif- 
fufive and accumulative Wealth, is his Wealth, 
and always at his Command, when employ'd 
for his true Glory, which is ever their Happi- 
nefs and Security ; and the Figure he does or 
can make among foreign States, bears exacl; 
Proportion to the Afte&ions he has amongft his 
own People : If his People are difaffe&ed, his 
Neighbours and his Enemies will defplfe him j 
and the latter will Jnfult him, if they think his 
Subjects will riot defend him ; and therefore, 
fince nothing is wanting en his Majefty's Pare 
to make him belov'd, honour'd, I had almoft 
faid, ador'd by his People ; it lies upon you, 
Gentlemen, to remove all thofe Caufes, which 
at any Time hereafter, by the Fault of other?, 
may fully and blemifh his hi^h Character. It 
is your Duty and your Interefi too, to acquaint 
him with ail Mifcarriages in the inferiour Ad- 
miniflrarion, which you have frequent Oppor- 
tunities of knowing, and which 'tis next to 



impofiible he fhould otherwise know. Princes- 
are feared aloft in the upper Regions, and can 
only view the Whole of Things, but muft leave 
the Detail and Execution of them to inferior 

I ftm, 6cc. 


I Know not a more laudable Ambition in any 
Man, than that of procuring by his Credit 
with the People, a Place in the "Legiflature > 
and when it is procured this Way, it is a Teftl- 
mony given by his Country to his Uprightnefs, 
and to his Capacity to ferve it. This is as high 
an Honour as an Engltfhman can arrive at, and 
few but Englishmen can arrive at it ; and the 
Truft is ftiii as high as the Honour, and increa- 
fes it. The Liberty 7 , the Property, nay the 
Virtue, Credit, and Religion of his Country, 
are in his Hands. Can Heaven or Earth afford 
ftronger Motives for Diligence, Probity, and 
Attendance ? When the Happlnefs or Mifery, 
the Security or Bankruptcy, the Freedom or 
Servitude of a Nation, and all the Good or 
Evil which this Life anords, depends upon his 
Behaviour, he will find fufficienr Caufe from 
Virtue, Tendernefs, and Duty, to Call up all 
.his Care, Induftry, and Zeal 

But fo it has often happf-red in the World, 
that all the Activity and Attendance, or rnoft 
of ir 3 have been on the wrong Side , and as 



the Evil that is in the World, does infinitely 
over-ballance the Good, they who pull down, 
are vaflly more numerous, as well as more 
bufy, than they who build up. Vice reigns 
amongft Men, while Virtue fcarce fubfifts ; and 
in many Countries the Publick has been as vi- 
gnroi'fiy aflaulted, as it has been (lowly and 
faintly defended. Thus it is, that Liberty is 
al mo ft every where loft : Her Foes are artful, 
united, and diligent: Her Defenders are few, 
difunited, and unaclive. And therefore we 
have feen great Nations, free, happy, and in 
love with their own Condition, fir ft made 
Slaves by a handful of Traytors, and then kept 
fb by a handful of Soldiers : I mean a hand- 
ful in Comparifbn of the People, but ftili e- 
nough to keep them in Chains 

So that in mod Nation?, for want of this 
particular Zeal in every Man for his Country, 
in which all Men are comprized, the Publick, 
which is every Man's Bufmels, becomes aimoflb 
any Man's Prey. It was thus under the firft 
Triumvirate, when Pornpcy, Crsjfus, and C*far 9 
three Citizens of Rcme, were, by the Affift- 
ance of fywsin Armies, fharing out the %cman 
World among themfelves : Nay, they pro- 
cured the Authority of the Senate and the 
Sanction of the People, for this mcnftrous 
Three-headed Tyranny over Senate and Peo- 
ple ; and procured it by Means that will al- 
ways procure it : Some they bought, others 
they terrified, and all they deceived, corrupted, 
and opprefled, The Tribunes of the People, 
who were the People's Reprefentatives, and 
fhould have been their Protestors, they bribed ; 



and the People were betray'd and fold by their 

Such is the Misfortune of Mankind, and fb 
uncertain is the Condition of humane Affairs, 
that the very Power given for Protection, con- 
tains in it a fufficient Power to deftroy, and fb 
readily does Government flide, and often ftart 
into Oppreilion ! And only by watching and 
retraining Power, is this monftrous and dread- 
ful Tranfition prevented. For this good Pur- 
pofe, we have Parliaments, to whom our Mi- 
niters are accountable, and by whom the Ad- 
miniftration is fiipported, and irs Limits and 
Power fixed. And to our having Parliaments, 
it is owing that we are not groaning under the 
fame vile Vaffalage with the Nations round 
about us : They had once rheir Parliaments 
as well as we* but in the Room of Parliaments, 
their Goveraours have fubftituted Armies, and 
confequently formed a Military Government, 
without calling it fb ; but whatever it is called, 
that Government is certainly and neceffarily a 
Military Government, where the Army is the 
ftrongeft Power in the Country : And it is 
eternally true, that a Free Parliament and a 
Standing Army, are abfblutely incompatible 3 
and can never fubiift together. 

By Parliaments therefore Liberty is preferved, 
and whoever has the Honour to lit in thole 
Affemblies, accepts of a raoft facred and im- 
portant Truft ; to the Difcharge of which, all 
his Vigilance, all his Application, all his Vir- 
tue, and all his Faculties, are neceflary ; and 
he is bound by all the Confederations that can 
affect a worthy Mind, and by all the Tics that 



can bind a humane Soul, to attend faithfully 
and carefully upon this great and comprehensive 
Duty: A Duty, which, as it is honeftly or 
faithlefly executed, determines the Fate of 
Millions, and brings Profperity or Mifery upon 

Whatever has happened in former Reigns, 
we have Reafbn to hope, that no Men come 
now into Parliament with an execrable Inten- 
tion to carry ro Market a Country which has 
truiled them with its All ; and it would be ri- 
diculous to throw away Reafon upon fuch 
Banditti, and publick Enemies to humane So- 
ciety. Such Men would be worfe than Canni- 
ba/s 9 who only eat their Enemies to fatisfy their 
Hunger, and do not fell and betray into Servi- 
tude their own Countrymen, who truft them 
with the Protection of their Property and Per- 
fbns : But as I have heard that fome Men 
formerly, to whom this important Truft has 
been committed, have been treacherous enough, 
through Negligence, to facrifice their Duty to 
Lazinefs or Pleafure, I fhall endeavour to (hew 
the Deformity of fuch Conduit.. 

The Name of a Member of Parliament, nas 
a great and refpeclful Sound, and his Situation 
is attended with many Privileges, and an 
eminent Figure ! All which make Men ambi- 
tious of acquiring a Seat there, tho' I am told, 
fome of them have fcarce ever appear'd there. 
The Glory and Terror of the Name was 
enough for them ; which Glory they tar- 
nifhed, and converted into their Crime and 
their SJiame, by neglefting the Duty which 


Giro's LETTERS. 

was annexed to it, and alone produced i?. 
Small and ridiculous muft be the Glory of that 
General, who never attends the Duties of War, 
and is always abfent upon the Day of Battle ; 
or of a Minifler, who, while he fnould he 
making Difpatches, or concerting Schemes for 
the Publick, is wailing his Time ail Ombre, at 
C h efs , or w 5 th a M i ft re fs , 

It would fcarcc be believed, if it had not 
been felt, that the Infenfibiiitv of Men as to 
all that is Good and Honourable, fhould go fa 
far as to carry the Directors and Guardians of 
the Publick to a Cock March, a Race, or a 
drunken Bout, when a Queftion has been upon 
the Stage, which h- C ncerned the very Being 
of ihe Publ'ck. 1 hi , Paii.on for Pleafure, is 
Ihvnndy prepofterous upon fuch Orca 'ons, 
and to follow it is cruel; cruel and difloyal 
to our Country, and even to our ielves : All 
our Happim-fs, .and C- fluently all our rea- 
fonable *, arc .rained in the General 

Happmefs ; and when "hat is gone, or leilened 
through r,ur Neglecl:, ve need not be (urprixed, 
but may thank our fdves, if in the publick 
Misfortunes and Cu r Jc v/e find our own. 

When a pernicious Queftion has been car- 
ried, it is a poor Apology, to alledge, and 
had better be left unalledged, that I was not: 
there. Why were you not there ? Was it not 
your Duty to be there ? And were you not 
bound by the folemn and awful Trull you 
undertook, to have been there ? Had you been 
there, perhaps it would not have been carried, 
perhaps not attempted or if both, you would 
have acquired your own Soul, and had the ho- 


liourable Teftimony of your Country, and of 
a grnd Conicience. 

Every Body knows, that in the Penfionary 
Parliaments, in Chiles the Second's Time, the 
Senion was almoil always drawn- out into a te- 
dious Length, on purpofe to tire the Members, 
and drive them all out of Town, except the 
trufty Creatures of the Court, who were in 
Parliament with no other View than to make a 
Penny of their betrayed Principles, and to pick 
the Publick Purfe, for the Promife of going 
Shares with thofe who fet them on. Were not 
the abfent Members anlVerable, in a great De- 
gree, for the Treachery of thele ftaunch and 
patient Parricides, by leaving them an Oppor- 
tunity to commie it, when they knew they 
would commit it ? When a Man leaves his 
Wife with a known Ravifher, and his Money 
in the Hands of a noted Thief, he may blame 
himfelf if he fuffers Lofs and Dishonour. 

Members of Parliament are fet in a high 
Place, as Publick Stewards and Guards (the 
belt and only fure Guards that a free Country 
can to watch for the Publick Welfare, 
to fettle the Public!-: Expences, and to defend 
Publick and Private Property From the unclean 
and ravenous Hands of Harpies ; and they are 
obliged by every Motive that can oblige, to 
adhere to their Station and Truft: When the 
major Part neglect or defert ir, who knows but 
in Times to come, there may be always enough 
remaining to give ir up, and be remaining for 
that very End? He who does not prevent Evil 
when he may, does in effect commit it, by 
leaving others to do fo, who he cannot be fure 
will not do it. J 

238 CMfO's LETTERS. 

I have heard that feme of thefe Truants from 
Parliament have boafted that they never voted 
wrong: But how often have they been out of 
the way, when they fhould have voted right, 
and oppofed voting wrong? And is not this 
Omiflion of voting well, the next Crime to 
voting ill ? And where it is habitual, is it not 
worfe than even now and then voting ill ? He 
who commits but two Murders, is left guilty, 
as to the Community, than he who permits 
twenty which he might have hinder'd ; and he 
who robs ten thoufand Pounds from the Pub- 
lick, is a more innocent Man, than he who 
fuffers it to be robbed of an hundred thoufand : 
Or if he who does not prevent a great Evil, is 
lefs guilty in his own Eyes than he who actual- 
ly commits a lefs ; the Publick, which feels the 
Difference between Ten and Twenty, muft 
judge far otherwife, and confider him as the 
more pernicious Criminal of the two, as they 
who are Traytors within the Law are the moft 
dangerous Traytors of all. 

How ridiculous is it to take a great deal of 
Pains, and to fpend a great deal of Money to 
come into Parliament, and afterwards come 
ieldom or never there, but keep others out, who 
would perhaps give conftant Attendance? It is 
foolifh to alledge, that the Adverfary is fo 
flrong, that your Attendance will be ufelefs; 
for it has rarely happened, that any dreadful 
Mifchief has been carried in a full Houfe, or 
indeed attempted , but Opportunities have al- 
ways been taken from the Abfence of the 
Country-Members : Betides, how often has it 
happened, that one extravagant Attempt ^has 



given a fteady Majority to the other Side ? 
The Penfionary-Parliament it felf, in Charles 
the Second's Time, turned upon that corrupt 
Court : King James's firft Loyal and Pailive 
Obedience Parliament did the fame, when he 
declared for Governing by Armies ; and in 
King ttflltam's Time, the Anti Court Party, 
who for many Years together could fcarce ever 
divide above Eighty or Ninety, yet grew fo 
very confiderable, upon the Attempt for a 
Standing Army, that the Court, for feveral 
Years after, could not boaft of a much greater 
Number of Followers; and tho' I ccnfefs this 
produced many real Mifchiefs to the Publick, 
yet the Courtiers had no one to blame but 
themfeives for it. How abfiird is it for Men 
to bring themfeives into fuch a Dilemma, as 
either to fubmit to certain Ruin, or, in fbme 
Inftances, to hazard their Lives and Eftates to 
get rid of it, by an unequal Struggle; when 
both may be eafily prevented, by doing what 
they have promifed to do, and what is their 
Duty, and ought to be their Pleafure to do, 
and what may be done without further Ex- 
pence, than making an honed life of two 
Monofyllables ? 

The Notions of Honour generally enter- 
tained, are ftrangely wild, unjuft, and abfurd. 
A Man that would die rather than pick a pri- 
vate Pocket, will, without bludung, pick the 
Pockets of a Million : And he who would 
venture his Life to defend a Friend, or the Re- 
putation of an Harlot wh > has none, will 
not lofe a Dinner, or a merry Meeting, to 
maintain the Wealth and Honour . his 


2 4 o Giro's LETTERS. 

Country. There have been Gentlemen of this 
Sort of Honour, who really wifhed well to 
the Publick ; bur yet, rather than attend to a 
Debate of the utmoflConfequence to the Pub- 
lick, would with infinite!nefs meet a 
Company of Sharpers, to throw away their 
Elates at Seven or Eleven. So much ftronger 
is pernicious Cuftotn than publick Virtue and 
eternal Reafoo, which alone ought to create 
and govern Cuiiom and (b much to the pub- 
lick Sham and Mister-tune are fjch wicked 
Cuftoms, from the Influence of which, even 
wife Men are nor entirely exempted ! So weak 
and wild a Thing is the Nature of Man ! 

It is obferv'd of Cuto the younger, that he al- 
ways cttmfi ft ft ; the Scntit* find left it la ft. Pom- 
fey and his Faction, finding that he would ne- 
ver be perfwaded, nor frighten'd into their ^ex- 
ecrable Defigns ;uinir. their Country, contriv'd 
a tboufand treacherous Devices to keep him out 
of the Wuy : But he f/i 1 /' rheir ill Arts, and dif- 
appo5p. fr .' j n them. He laid he entered upon the 
Bufmefs of the State, as the Ruiinefs of every 
honelt Man that he confiderd the Publick as 
the proper Obv?# of his Care, Zeal and Attend- 
ance, and n r as a Bank for his own private 
Wealth, era Source of perfbffal Honours ; that 
it was a hideous Reproach for Men who are 
guided by Rc-aton, and by it fuperior to^ all 
other Cre;.:fi'.n-s to .; -.elefs Care of the Society 
to which belong, than fuch Infects as Bees 

and A : .. i'ives and common 

Stvtvs would never prefer piiyate In- 

tereft or P that of the publick. and 

that lioiiu of thofe Confiderations (hould ever 

with- hold 


with-hold him from attending faithfully the 

Here is a virtuous and and illuftrlous Exam- 
ple, which I would leave upon the Minds of 
my Readers, and particularly recommend to 
thofe who may moft want it. When defer had 
by all manner of wicked Ways, by Violence, 
by Fraud, and by Bribery, procured the Go- 
vernment of Ganl and lllyricum for five Years, 
wjth an Army of four Legions, with which he 
afterwards enflav'd Rome itfelf; Cato could not 
reproach his own Heart, that he had been ab- 
fent^when that fatal Law pafs'd : He opposed 
it with all his Zeal and Eloquence, and with 
the Hazard of his Life, and told thofe who 
made it, what they afterwards fadly felt, that 
Ikey were -placing an anrfd Tyrant in their Citadel. 
Confider for God's Sake, Gentlemen, the Ex- 
tent and Sacredneii of your Truft ; Ycur Coun- 
try and Conilitution are in your Hands : One 
unjuft, one ra(h Law, may overturn both at 
once, and you with them, and cancel all Law 
and all Property for ever and one good and 
wife Law may fecure them to your late Pofte- 
rity. Can it be indifferent to you, whether the 
-one or the other of thefe Laws paffes ? And if 
it is not indifferent, will you avoid attending ? 
Be but as ailiduous againft Evil as others have 
often been for it, and you have a fair Chance to 
prevent it for Ages. Why (hould not Honour, 
Virtue and good Conference, be as aftive 
and zealous as Falfhcod, Corruption and guilty 
Minds? Confider the Ir.juftice, the Barbarity, 
the Treachery, and the terrible Coniequcnces 
of Sloath and Abfcnce. Liberty, when once 
VOL. III. L I ft 

Ci r* s\9 T IP 'T* *T"* T? T* O 
^4 / 5 LETTERS. 

loll, is fcarce ever recovered, almod as rarely as 
humane Life, when it is oncecxtinguifh'd. - 

I am, 6cc. 

S I 

{Intend in this, and my next Letter, to write 
a Diflertationupon Libels, which are Liber- 
ties a {Turned by private Men, to judge of and 
cenfure the A6iions of their Superiors, or fuch 
as have Poffeflicn of Power and Dignities. 
When Perfons, formerly of no Superior Merit 
to the reft of their Fellow-Subje&s, came to be 
poflefs'd of Advantages, by Means which, for 
the moil part, they condemned in another Si- 
tuation or Fortune, they often have grown, up-, 
on a fudden, to think themfelves a different Spe- 
cies of Mankind ; they took it into their Heads 
to call themfelves the Government, and thought 
others had nothing to do but to lit ftill, aCr. a 
they bid them, and follow their Motions 
were unwilling to be interrupted in the Progrei 
of their Ambition, and of making their privat 
Fortunes by fuch Ways as they could btit and! 
fooneft make them ; and confequently hav<| 
cali'd every Oppofition to their wild and ra- 
venous Schemes, and every Attempt to prcferve 
the People's Right, by the odious Names of 
Sedition and Faction, and charged them whh 
Principles and Practices inconfiftenr with the 
Safety of all Government, 



This Liberty has been approved or condemn- 
ed by all Men, and all Panies, in proportion 
, as^ they were advantaged, or annoy'd by it : 
When they were in Power, they were unwil- 
ling to have their Aftions (canned and cenfur^d, 
and cry a out, that fuch Licence ought not to 
be borne and tolerated in any well-conilituted 
Commonwealth ; and when they fuffer'd under 
the Weight of Power, they thought it very 
hard not^to have been allowed the Liberty to 
utter their Groans, and to alleviate (heir Pain, 
by venting fome part of it in Complaints ; and 
it is certain, there are Benefits and Mifchiefs on 
both Sides the QuelKon. 

What are ufuaily cali'd Libels, undoubtedly 
keep great Men in Awe, and are fome Check 
upon their Behaviour, by (hewing them the 
Deformity of their Actions, as well as warning 
other People to be upon their Guard againft 
OppreJUon ; and if there was -no further Harm 
in them, than in perfonally attacking thofe 
who too often deterge it, 1 think the Ad an- 
tages fuch Perfons receive, wiil fully atton^ 
For the Mifchiefs they fuffer. But I ccnfefs~ 
:hat Libels may fometimes, though very rarely 
foment popular and perhaps caufclefs "Difcon- 
tents, blaft and obftru& the bell Meafures, and 
now and then promote InfurredVions and Re- 
bellions ; but thcfe latter Mifchiefs are much 
leldorner produced than the f?>rmer Benefits 
ior Pjwer has fb many Ad antages, fo many 
Gifts and Allurements to bribe rhofe \vho bow 
to it, and fb many Terrors to frighten thofe 
who oppofe it befides the conffont Reverence 
and Supenliticn ever paid to Grcatnefs, S.pkn- 

L ^ 

2,44 Giro's LETTERS. 

dor, Equipage, and the Shew ofWifdom, as 
well as the natural Defire all or mod Men have 
to live in Quiet, and the Dread they have of 
publick Dlfturbances, that I rhink I may fafely 
affirm, much more is to be fearM from flatter- 
ing Great Men, than detracted from them. 

However, 'tis to be wifhed, that both could 
be prevented ; but fince that is not in the Na- 
ture of Things, whilft Men have Defires or Re- 
fentments, we are next to confider how to pre- 
vent the great Abufe of it, and, as far as humane 
Prudence can direct, preferve the Advantages 
of Liberty of Speech, and Liberty of Writing, 
(which fecures all other Liberties,) without 
giving more Indulgence to Detraction than is 
rieceffary to fecure the other ; for 'tis certainly 
of much lefs Confequence to Mankind, that an 
Innocent Man fnould be now and then afperfed 
than that all Men fhould beenilaved. 

Many Methods have been tried to remedy 
this Evil : In Turky, and the Eaftern Monar- 
chies, all Printing is forbid \ which does it with 
aWitnefs; for if there can be no Printing at 
all, there can be no Libels printed ; and by the 
fame Reafon there ought to be no Talking, left 
People (hould talk Treafon, Blafphemy or 
Nonfenfe and for a ftronger Reafon yet, no 
Preaching ought to be allowed, becaufe the O- 
rator has an Opportunity of haranguing often 
to a larger Auditory than he can perfwade to 
read his Lucubrations ; but I defire it may be 
remembred, that there is neither Liberty, Pro- 
perty, true Religion, 'Arts, Sciences., Learning 
or Knowledge in thefe Countries. 



But another Method has been thought orr, 
in !:h-:f? Wefttrn Parts of the World, much 
lefs effectual, and yet more mifchievous than 
the former, namely, to put the Prefs under the 
Direction af the prevailing Party, and autho- 
rize Libels on one Side only, and deny the e- 
ther Side the Opportunity of defending them- 
felves. Whilft all Opinions are equally indul- 
ged, and all Parties equally allow" d to fpeak 
their Minds, the Truth will corne out ; and 
even, if they are all reitrain'd, common Senfe 
will often get the better; but to give one Side 
Liberty to fay what they will, and not differ 
the other to fay any Thing, even in their -own 
Defence, is comprehenfive of all the Evils than 
any Nation can groan under ; and mull loon, 
extinguifii every Seed of Religion, Liberty, 
Vertue or Knowledge. 

It is rediculous to argue from the Abafe of & 
Thing, to the Definition of it. Great Mif- 
chlefs have happened to Nations from their 
Kings, and their Magiilrates ; ought therefore 
all Kings and Magiftrates to be extinguiflVd ? 
A thoufand EnthufialVick Seels have pretended 
to deduce themfelves from the Scripture ; ought: 
therefore the Holy Writings to be deftray'd ? 
AreMen T s Hands to be cut ofF.becaufe they may 
and fbmetimes do, Heal and Murder with them ?' 
Or their Tongues to be puifd out, becaufe- 
they may tell Lyes, Swear, or talk Sedition ? 

There is fcarce a Virtue but borders upon, 
a Vice, and, carried beyond a certain Degree,., 
becomes one. Corruption is the next State to. 
Perfection : Courage fbon grows into Rafhneis ^ 
Generofity into Extravagancy ^ Frugality into 

L Avarice ; 

5146 CATffs LETTERS. 

Avarice ; Juftice into Severity; Religion into 
Superstition ; Zeal into Bigotrry and Cenfbri- 
oufhefs ; and the Defire of Efteem, into Vain- 
glory. Nor is there a Convenience or Advan- 
tage to be propos'd in humane Affairs, but has 
ibrne Inconvenience attending it. The moft 
flaming State of Health isneareft to a Plethory : 
There can be no Protelion, without hazard- 
i ig Oppreilion ; no going to Sea, without fome 
13anger of being drown cl ; no engaging in the 
rnoH: neceffary Battle, without venturing the 
Lo(s of it, or being killed; nor purchafing an 
Eilate, going to Law, or taking Phyfick, with- 
out hazarding ill Titles, (pending your Money, 
and perhaps lofing your Suit, or being poifnn'd. 
Sin:'e therefore every Good is, for the moil part, 
if not- always accompany'd by fome Evil, and 
cannot be feparated from it, we are to confider 
\vhich does predominate, and accordingly de- 
termine our Choice by taking both or leaving 

To apply this to Libels: If Men are fuffer'd 
to preach or reafon publickly and freely upon 
certain Suh"]e6h, as for Inftance, upon Philo- 
iophy. Religion or Government, they may 
reafon wrongly, irreligiouily, or feditioufly, 
-and fomerlnies will dofo ; and by fuch Means 
may poiliblynow and then pervert and Miflead 
an ignorant and unwary Perfon; and if they 
are (iiffer'd to write their Thoughts, the Mi 
chief may be full more diffufive ; but if they 
are not permitted by any, or all thefe Ways, to 
communicate their Opinions and Improvements 
to one another, the World muft (bon be over- 
run with Barbarifm, Superftition, Injuftice, 



Tyran- r , and the moftftupid Ignorance. They 
\v v know nothing of the Nature of Govern- 
men: beyond a fervile Submiifion to Power, 
nor of Religion, more than a blind Adherence 
to unintelligible Speculations, and a furious 
and implacable Animofity to all whofe Mouths 
are not form'd to the fame Sounds ; nor will 
they have the Liberty or Means to frarch Na- 
ture, and inveftjgate her Works ; which Em- 
ployment may break in upon reeeiVd and 
Tiful Opinions, and difcover hidden and 
.darling Secrets. Particular Societies fiiall be 
eftablifhM and endowM to teach them back- 
wards, and to (hare in their Plunder : which 
Societies by Degrees, from the want of Op- 
pofiti n, (hall grow as ignorant as themfelves r 
./V'-n d Pands (half rivet their Chains,, and their 
haughty Governors affume to be Gods, and be 
treutf-d as fuch in Proportion, as they ceafe to- 
have humane Cornpailion, Knowledge and 
Virtue,. In iliort, their Capacities will not be 
beyond the Beads of the Field, and their Con- 
dition worfe; which is univerfally true in thofe 
Governments where they lie under thofe Re- 


On the other Side, what Mifchief is done- 
by Libels to ballance all thefe Evils ? They 
ftldom or never annoy an innocent Man, or 
promote any confiderable Error. ^Wife and 
honeft Men laugh at them, and defpife them,, 
and fuch Arrows always fly over their Heads 
or fall at their Feet. If King js.mes had a&ed 
according to his Coronatioiv Oath, and kept to 
the Law, Lilly-'Bttrlero might have been turi'd' 
long enough before he had been fung out ot 

L- 4 his 


his Kingdoms. And if there had been no South- 
Sea Scheme, or if it had been jullly executed, 
there had been no Libels upon that Head, or 
very harrnlefs ones. Mod of the World take 
Part with a virtuous Man, and punifh Calum- 
ny by their Deteitation of it. The beft Way 
to prevent Libels, is not to deferve them, and 
to defpiie them, and then they always lofe their 
Force; for certain Experience fhews us that the 
more Notice is taken of them, the more they 
are publiftYd: Guilty Men alone fear them, 
or are hurt by them, whofe Actions will not 
bear Examination, and therefore muft not be 
examin'd, 'Tis Fa<5): alone which annoys them; 
for if you will tell no Truth, I dare fay you 
may have their Leave to tell as many L>es as 
vou pie ale. 

The facie is true in Speculative Opinions. 
You mav write Nonfenfe and Folly as long as 
you think fit, and no one complains of it but 
the Bookfeller : But if a bold, hone ft, and wife 
Book (allies forth, and attacks thofe who think 
themfelves fecure in their Trenches, then their 
Camp is in Danger, and they call out all Hands 
to Arms, and their Enemy is to be deftroy'd 
by Fire, Sword, or Fraud. But 'tis fenfelefs 
'to think that any Truth can (lifter by being 
thoroughly fearch'd, or examin'd into ; or than 
the Diicovery of it can prejudice right Religion, 
equal Government, or the Happine(s of Society 
in anv Refpeft : She has fb many Advantages 
above Error, that (he wants only to be fhewn 
to gain Admiration and Efteem ; and we fee e- 
very Day that (he breaks the Bonds of TVannv 
and Fraud, and fiiines through the Mifts of 



Superftition and Ignorance : and what then? 
would we do, if thefe Barriers were rciaov'd, 
and her Fetters taken off? 

Notwithftanding, I would not be underftoccl 
by what 1 have few, to argue that Men (hcmld 
have an uncontrolled Liberty to calumniate 
their Superiors, or one another; Decency,, 
good Manners, and the Peace of Society, for- 
bid it : But I would not deftroy this Liberty by" 
Methods which will inevitably deftroy all Li- 
berty. We have very good Laws to punifh- 
any Abufes of this Kind already, and I will ap- 
prove them, whilft they are prudently and ho- 
neftlv executed, which I really believe they 
have for the mo ft part beenfmcetheRevolution ; 
Bur as it cannot b^deny'd, that they have been 
formerly made the Scales of Ambition and Ty- 
ranny, to opprefs any Man who durft aftert the- 
Laws of his Country, or the trueChriitian Re- 
ligion ; fb I hope che Gentlemen skill'd in the- 
Profeiiion of the Law will forgive me, if I en* 
trench a little upon their Province, and endea^ 
vourtofix ftated Bounds for the Interpretation; 
and Execution of them , which (hall be the Sub- 
ject of my next Letter. 

4 5- J 


I Have been told, Thar in fome former Reigns, 
when the Attorney. General took it in his 
Head to make innocent or doubtful Expreifions 
criminal by the Help of forced Innuendo's, the 
Method of proceeding was as follows : If the 
Counfel of the Prifoner infifted, that the Words 
carried no feditious Meaning, but might and 
ought to be underftood in reafonable Senfe 
he was aniwered, That his Exception would 
be laved to him upon Arreft of Judgment ; in 
the mean time, the Information was try'd, and 
the mahgn Intention of the Words was aggra- 
vated and left to a willing Jury ; and then, 
upon a Motion in Behalf of the Prifoner to 
arrdt Judgment, becaufe the Words were not 
criminal in Law, he was told, the Jury were 
Judges of the Intention ; and having found it 
an ill one, it was too late to take the Excep- 
tion. Whether this was ever the Truth I 
have not lived long enough to affirm from my 
own Knowledge ; or whether this Method of 
proceeding is Law now, I have not Skill enough 
in that. Science to determine : Bur I think I 
may juftly /ay, if it is Law, it } s worth the 
Gonfjderation of cur Legislature whether it 
ought to continue fo. 

It is certain that there is no Middle in Na- 
ture, between judging by lived and fteady Rules, 
and judging according to/ Difcretion, which. is 



another Word for Fancy, Avarice, Refent^ 
ment, or Ambition, when fupported by Power^ 
or freed from Fear. And i have faid in my tor- 
mer Letter, that as there can be no Convenience 
but has an Inconvenience attending it, io bpttte 
thefe Methods of judging are liable to Objec- 
tions. There is a conftant War between the- 
Legiflature arid the Pleader, and no Law -was; 
ever enacted with fo much Circumspection, 
but Flaws were found out afterwards in it, and 
it did not anfwer all the Purpofes intended 1 
the Law makers ; nor can any pofitive Laws- 
be framed with fo much Contrivance, but art- 
ful-Men will flip out of it, and particularly in*. 
relation to Libels. There are fo many Equi- 
voques in Language, fo m&ny Sneers in Kx, 
prei-.on, which narura 7 one Meaning! 

and yet mav int< r, that it is im- 

P'j ble b" an d and d Rul< , to de~ 
tc< J the Intention, and punifti all who de- 
\ bepunifn But to get rk this 

liv- --nee at tl;^. Expence of giv 

Man orl-:-mber of Men a < ifcretionary PCJWCBT 
to iud-^ ther's Intent? ns to be criminal,, 
when 'his ords do not pi; : nly denot( them 
to be fo, is lubverting ah rty, and ^pieci- 
ins every Man to the Caprices and arbitrary 
nnd wih .11 of thole in "er. A Texnn 
-Scnr.ture cannot be quoted without being i?ia- 
to -c> upon thofe who break it ; nor 
Ten Commandments read, without abuhng all. 
Princes and Great Men, who cttcn a agayiib 

' ' Ti '"' ' i 

"Therefore I mud beg Leave to think, that? 
llrange Aikrdon, which, as I have heard,, 


has been advanced by ; Lawyers in W>Jhbfi* 

I ' ( & l ha , r ' T c 1S an Abfurdiry to affirm, 
that a Judge and Jury are the only-Perfons in 
England who are not to undcriland an Author's 
Meaning; which, I think, may be true in ma- 
ny Inftances when they aft judicially, and the 
Words he ufes, candidly conftrued, do not im- 
port that Meaning. Tiberius put many Sena- 

* F 9 eath for lookin S nielancholly and 
diflatished, or envioufly at his Power ; and 
Kero many others, for not laughing at his' Play, 
or laughing in the wrong Place, or fneering in- 
ttead of ^ laughing, and very probably both 
judged rightly of their Intentions; but fure 
No body will think amongft us, that fuch Ex- 
amples ought to be copied. A Man by not 
pulimg oft his Flat, or not low enough ; by a 
1 urn upon his Heel ; by a frowning Counte- 
nance, or an over-pleafant one, may induce his 
Spectators to believe that he intends a Difre- 
Ipect to one to whom it is criminal to own it 
and yet it would be a ilrange Aft of Power 
to pumih him for this Unobfervance. So Words 
rnay be certainly chofen with fuch Art, or 
Want or it, that they may naturally carry a 
Compliment, and perhaps m?.y mean it ; and 
yet other People, by knowing that the Perfon 
intended does not deferve one. may think him 
abufed- And ir this Way O f j udging may be 
indulged m mflminftpr.H^ the Lo^d have 
Mercy upon Poets, and the Writers of Ded'" 
cations, and or^ the Epitaphs too upon Great 
Men. - purely it is of ids Confluence to 
Mankind, that a wirty Author ihould now 
ana then eicape unpunJftcd, than that all Mr n 



fhould hold their Tongues, or not learn to 
write, or ceafe writing. 

I do agree, when the natural and genuine 
Meaning and Purport of Words and Expref- 
fions in libellous Writings do carry a criminal 
Intention, that the Writer ought not to efcape 
Punifhment by a Subterfuge and Evafion, or 
by a fly Interpretation hid in a Corner, and . 
intended only for a Court of Juftice, nor by 
annexing new Names to known Things, or by 
ufing Circumlocutions inftead of {ingle Sounds 
or ExpreiHons ; for Words are only arbitrary 
Signs of Ideas ; and if any Man will coin new 
Words to old Ideas, or annex new Ideas to old 
Words, and let his Meaning be fully under- 
ftood, without doubt he is anfwerable for it. 
But when Words ufed in their true and pro- 
per Senfe, and underftocd in their literal and 
natural Meaning, import nothing that is cri- 
minal ; then to (train their genuine Signification 
to make them intend Sedition, (which pofTibly 
the Author might intend too) is fuch a Stretch 
of Difcretionary Power, as mull fubvert all the 
Principles of free Government, and overturn 
every Species of Liberty. I do own, that 
without fuch a Power fbnie Men may efcape 
Cenfure who deferve Cenfure, but with it no 
M-an can be fafe , and it is certain, few Men 
or States will be aggrieved by this Indulgence, 
but fuch as deferve much worfe Ufage. 

It is a Maxim of Politicks in defbotick Go- 
vernments, That Twenty innocent Men ought 
to be punifned, rather than One guilty Man 
efcape ; but the Reverie of this is true in free 
htates, in the ordinary Courfe of Juftice : For 


euro's LETTERS: 

fince no Law can be invented which can give 
Power enough to ^their Magiftrates to reach 
every Criminal, without giving them, by the 
Abufe of the fame Law, a Power to punifii 
Innocence and Virtue, the greater Evil ought 
to be avoided : And therefore, when an inno^- 
cent or criminal Senfe can be put upon Words- 
or A&ions, the Meaning of which is not fully 
determined by other Words or Actions, the 
rnoft beneficent Confr. ruction ought to he made 
in Favour of the Perfon accufed ; and the 
Caufe of Liberty, and the Good of the Whole, 
ought to prevail, and to get the better of the 
juft Refentrnent otherwife dire tc the Imperti- 
nence of a factious Scribbler, or the impotent 
Malice of a turbulent Babbler, 

This Truth every Man acknowledges when-- 
it Becomes his own Cafe, or the Cafe of his 
Friends or Parry ; and aimed every Man com- 
plains of it when he differs by it : So great iV 
the Difference of Mens having Power tn their- 
Hands or upon their Shoulders, But at pre- 
lent, I think, no Party amongft us can find 
their Account either in fupprelfing, or in the 
Reftraint of the Prefs, or in being very fcvere 
in their Animadverfion upon the Liberties taken 
by it. The Independent Wxigs think ail Li- 
berty depends upon Freedom of Speech, and 
Freedom of Writing, within the Bounds of 
Manners and Discretion, as conceiving that 
there is often no other Way left to be heard by. 
their Superiors, nor to apprize their Ounrry- 
fnen of Ddigns and Confpirticies againfl their- 
Safety i which ^thty think ought to be done 
boldly, though in refpecr to Authority, as mo- 

LETTERS. 2,55- 

deftly as can be confident with the making 
themfelves underftood ; and fiich amongft them 
as have lately quitted their Independence, think 
themfelves obliged to handle a Subject tenderly, 
upon which they have exerted thernfelves very 
ftrenuoufly in another Circumftance of For- 

Very many of the Tories, who may be at 
prefent ranked amongft the former fort of Men, 
and who every Day fee more and more the 
Advantages of 'Liberty, and forget their former 
Prejudices, will not be contented hereafter to 
receive their Religion and Politicks from an 
ignorant Licenfer, under the Direction of thofe 
who have often neither Religion nor Politicks : 
And even the Jacobites themfelves are fb charnrd 
with their own doughty Performances, that 
they would not lofe the Pleafure of fcolding 
at, or abufing thofe whom they cannot hurt, 
Many of our fbiritual Guides will not be de- 
prived of doing Honour to thernfelves, and 
Advantage to their Flocks, from informing the 
World what they ought to believe by their 
particular Syflems ; and the DiiTenring Preach- 
ers are willing to keep their own Flocks, and 
would not have the Reafonablencfs of their 
Separation judged of alone by thofe who differ 
from them, and have an Intereft in fuppreiling 
them. And I believe ail our World would be 
willing to have fome other News befides what 
they find in the Gazette ; and I hope that I 
may venture ro fay, that there is no Number 
ot Men among!} us fb very popular, as by their 
(ingle Credit and Authority to get the better of 
aii thefe Inrerefts. 



But befides-the Reafbns I have already given* 
there is another left behind, which is worth 
them all, vl%. That all the Methods hitherto 
taken to prevent real Libels have proved in- 
effectual ; and probably any Method which 
can betaken, will only prevent the World from 
being informed of what they ought to know, 
and will increafe the others. The fubie&ing 
the Prefs to the Regulation and Infpe6tion of 
any Men whatfbever, can only hinder the Pub- 
lication of fuch Books as Authors are willing 
to own, and are ready to defend ; but can ne- 
ver reftrain fuch as they apprehend to be cri- 
minal, which always come out by ileaUh. 
There is no hindring Printers from having 
Preffe?, unlefs all Printing is forbid, and fcarce 
then : And dangerous and forbidden Libels are 
more eff.crually difprfd, enquired after, and 
do more Mifchief, than Libels openly publifh- 
ed ; which generally raife Indignation again li- 
the Author and his Party. 5 Tis certain, that 
there were more pubiifhed in King Charles II. 
and King James's Times, when they were le- 
verely punifhed, and the Prefs was retrained, 
than have ever been fince. The Beginning of 
Auguflu^s Reign {warmed with Libels, and 
continued to do fo, whilft Informers were en- 
couraged ; but when that Prince defpifed them, 
they loft their Force, and foon after died. And 
I dare fay, when the Governours of any Coun- 
try give no Occafion to juft Reflections upon 
their ill Conduct, they have nothing to fear 
from Calumny and Falfhoed. 

Whilft Tiberius^ in the Beginning of his 
Reign, would preicrve the Appearance of go- 


verning the Romans worthily, he anfwered a 
Parafue, who informed him in the Senate of 
Libels publifhed againft his Perfbn and Au- 
thority, in thefe Words, Si quidem Iccutus alttcr 
fucrit, dflbo operstm ut rationem fciftorum meorum 
diElorumque reddam^ fi perfevewverity invicem eum 
cdero : '' If any Man reflects upon my Words 
" or A&ions, I will let him know my Motives 
* 4 and Reafons for them ; but if he ftill goes 
on to alperfe and hate me, I will hate him 
" again." But afterwards, when that Empe- 
ror became a bloody Tyrant, Words, Silence, 
and even Looks were capital. 

lam, 6cc. 

S I R, 

TH E firfr reafonable Defire which Men 
have, is to be in eafy Circumftances, 
and as free from Pain and Dangers as humane 
Condition will permit ; and then all their 
Views and Actions are directed to acquire Ho- 
mage and Re(pe6r from others : and, indeed, 
in a larger Senfc, the latter are included in the 
former. Different Ways are taken to attain 
this End ; Arts, Arms, Learning, Power, but 
nioft of all, Riches are fought after ; and when 
luft and proper Means are ufed to acquire 
them, the Purfuit is reafbnable, and always 
to be commended. But when they are gained 
by Injuftice, the End is frufbrated for which 
alone they are valuable \ that is, the Refpe6i: 



is loft which they are intended to procure 
For who does nor value an honed Man in 
moderate Circumftances, before another grown 
rich by OppreiTion ? Who does not efteem a 
fleady Patriot, who defpifes Threats, Bribes, 
and Dignities, when they (land between him 
and his Duty to his Country, before an over- 
grown Plunderer, who has facri freed a Nation* 
to his Ambition ? Men will indeed bow down 
in the Houfe of ^imnon, but they deteffc the 
Idol in their Heart. It is all falfe Homage. 
Such Men are adored publlckly, and curfed 
privately ; and moil of thole who (eem to 
adore them, would with much more Pieafure 
follow them to the Scaffold. 

How many have we feen in our Days, who 
are thought to have died Martyrs to their Pride 
and Covetoufhefs, hooted with the Reproaches 
and Deteftation of every hcneft Man ia - 
land, and, I doubt not, with, the private 
Curfrs of many of their own Followers ? And 
how many are there in all Countries, who are 
never feen or froken of but with Contempt 
and Indignation, even in the midft of Gi eat- 

\Vhat is there in this World worth being a 
Knave for, efpectally a Man's being fb, who 
already enjoys all the Conveniences of Life ?* 
Who would lofe the juft Applaufe of honed 
Men, wife Men, and free Men, for the fervile 
Incenfe of Flatterers ? How much more pre- 
ferable is it, to make Millions of People happy,. 
and receive the grateful Acknowledgments of- 
a thankful Nation, than to purchafe their- 
Hatred and Rcfencments. by making them ab- 


]e&, poor, and miserable, and themfelves and 
their Families fb too in confequence ? And 
what is all this for ? To create falfe Depen- 
dents, who flatter them, in order to cheat them, 
or otherwife make their Advantages of them, 
ir.ftead of fteady and true Friends : For a cer- 
tain Degree of Familiarity is neceffary to Friend- 
fhip, or free Converfation ; without which no 
Converfation is agreeable, or worth having. 
Few Men take Pleafiire in the Company of 
thofc who are much their Superiors, who al- 
ways ftrike them with Awe, and moft com- 
monly with Emulation : and what is got a- 
mongft them is generally fpent amongft E- 
quals. t 

I have feen many fupple and bowing Guefts 
at the Table of a Great Man, whom, for his 
Vanity, he treated magnificently, and at a 
great E'xpence ; none of which he would have 
kept Company with in any other Place, nor 
perhaps they with him. ^ Men of Virtue and 
Underftanding are ccnfcious of their own 
Worth: They will be fought after, and can be 
brought rarely to contribute to the Pride, 
Grandeur, and Oftentation of thofe they pri- 
vately hate, fear, or contemn : And therefore, 
the latter, in their own Defence, are obliged to 
aflbciate with the moil worthlefs Part of Man- 
kind, with Flatterers and Parafites, Hunters 
of good Tables, Sharpers, and Pickpockets ; 
which are the ufiial Attendents and Ornaments 
of their Greatnefs. Their domeftick Followers 
are generally made up of infolent and de- 
bauched Beggars, who fancy ihemfelves to be 
Gentlemen ; and as they cheat their Matters to 


atfo C^7"0's LETTERS. 

be fo, fo depending upon their Prote&ionJ 
they tnfuk his Neighbours, ride over the 'Coun- 
try People, and are perpetually annoying the 
peaceable and induftrious Farmers and La- 
bourers, and giving Examples of Prodigality 
and Lewdnefs ; infomuch that an Eftate is 
fome Years Purchafe lefs valuable that lies 
within the Influence of fuch malignant Con- 

Their Sons are educated in Idlenefs, De- 
bauchery, and Ignorance ; taught to believe, 
that Greatnefs confifts in Pride, Infblence, and 
Extravagance ; and fo, for the moil part, want 
every Qualification proper to adorn their Cha- 
raclers, ferve fheir Prince or Country, or to 
diret their own Conduct, govern their Fami- 
lies, or manage their own Eftates ; which ge- 
nerally become the Property of. their Stewards, 
Bailiffs, or debauched Followers, whilil they 
themfelves often pay large Intereft to them for 
their^ own Money, run in Debt to TYadeCmen 
and Mechanicks for the common Conveniences 
of Life, whom they either pay not at all, or 
pay treble Values to ; till at Jaft their Necef- 
firies make them flibmit to a paltry Penfion ; 
^nd, in (lead of being the generous Alfertors of 
publick Liberty, they become the mean and 
humble Instruments of Power. 

Their Daughters partake of this happy 
Education ; they are bred up to be above 
looking to their own Families, or ro know any 
Thing of their own Affairs; and, indeed, it is 
become a Qualification now, to be good for 
no one Thing in the World, but to dance, drefs,. 
play upon the Guitar, to prate in a Vifiting- 



Room, or to play amongft Sharpers at Cards 
and Dice : And when they can't be exercifing 
thefe laudable Accomplishments, they are al- 
^vvays in Vapours and the Spleen : And fb they 
can get no Husbands, or ruin thofe who are 
indifcreet enough to marry them. The Ne- 
ceflities of their Parents anting from their Pro- 
fufion in all other Refpe6ls, will not afford 
Fortunes great enough to marry them to their 
own Quality, who run into the City for Gro- 
cers and Mercers Daughters, to repair their 
fhatter'd Affairs, and generally ufe them as 
fuch. For all private Gentlemen (whofe Al- 
liance is worth courting) are ever afraid of her 
Ladyfhip, and think themfelves ivr worthy of 
fo much Honour, very few Inflar s excepted 
of vain and inconfiderate young (' iants, who 
are caught with outfide Shew a Pageantry, 
and drawn in to make great Settlements, and 
repent it all their Lives after 

I do not fay this is alway? :he Cafe : For 
Virtue and good Senfe is no: confined to any 
Order of Men or Women ; and without doubt 
there are excellent Men and Ladies amongft 
the Quality. But I appeal to general Expe- 
rience, whether what 1 have {aid is not moft 
commonly the real Truth. And who dares to 
be fo fanguine, as to hope it will hot be the 
Cafe of his own Poflerity, if fomething is not 
done to mend the prefent Education of Youth ; 
which never can be done, without mending 
that which muft mend every thing elfe. For 
thofe who have an Intereft in keeping the No- 
biiity and Gentry ignorant, debauched, and 
extravagant, and confequently neceilitous and 


2,<5z CATO's LETTERS. 

dependent, will never vol :nr^rJ]y endeavour to 
leffen their own Power and Influence, 

This is indeed a melancholy, but true Scene 
of modern Greatnefs. And is this a Condition 
to be envy'd or courted by any who have 
plentiful (tno' not great and exorbitant) For- 
tunes ? who have all the Means of enjoying 
private Happinefs, and cf educating their 
Children in Virtue, Knowledge, and publick 
Principles, and can make a rnodeft Proviiion 
.for them afier their Deaths, and, by leaving 
them Examples of Frugality, and prudent 
Oeconomy, enable them to abound in the true 
NecefTaries and, Conveniences of Life; which 
the others (like Tantalus) want in the midft of 
Profufion ? 

Nature is eafily contented, and with few 
Things. The mod luxurious Palate may be 
gratified by what a moderate Circumitance can 
afford. Thofe who have the mod magnificent 
Palaces, chufe to live in the lead and meaned 
.Apartments -of them ; and fuch as have the 
riched and mod expenfive Cloaths, and other 
perfbnal Ornaments, wear the word when by 
themfelves ; fb that all the red are only Pride 
and Odentation, and often procure Emulation 
and Ill-will from Neighbours and Acquaint- 
ance, butfeldom true and real Refpecl. How-, 
ever, fince the Mind of Man, like every thing 
elfe in Nature, is in cpndant Progreiiion, and 
in perpetual Purfi.:it of one Thing or other, fl 
do not condemn t'. moderate Purfult of We j 1th, 
if we do not buy k too dear, and at the Price; 
of our Health or integrity ; for Riches in atf 
\vife Man's Hands are certainly conducive to 



Happinefs, tho' they are more often the Caufes 
of Mifery to others. 

Men, for the mod part, are not fb felicitous 
to acquire them for the real Pleafure they give, 
and to fatiate perfonal Appetites, as* in Com- 
pliance with the Cuftom of the World. We 
feldom .examine our felves, but enquire of 
others, whether we are happy or not ; and 
provided we can make thole whom we don't 
value, and who do not value us, envy and ad- 
mire our Felicity, are contented to know we 
have none. Such is the Force of iVejiidice, 
flowing from foolifli Vanity, pride, or Cuflom. 
True Happinefs refides alone in the Mind, and 
whoever hunts after it elfcwhere will never 
find it. All the Hurry and Tumults of FacHon, 
moft of the eager Purfuits after Vice under the 
Name of Pleafure, and the vain and nolfy 
Chafes of Ambition, are but fo many Dif 
guifes to cover internal Uneahnefs, and St-'-ita- 
gems to fly from our felves ; but hwet I. uteri 
lefb^lis Arii-ado : The Deer is flruck, -.nd 
wherever he fiys, he mafc carry his Griefs ui.out 

Nothing can fill the Mind cf a truly Great 
Man, but the Love of God, of Virtue, and 
of his Country. All other Pleafures ought to 
be but Arnufernents, and lubiervient to thefe, 
and very often turn to Misfortunes ; but here 
is an inexhauftible Source of inward Satisfacti- 
on, which is the only true Happinefs, and 
which wicked Men never feel ; and confe- 
quently they are the moil unhappy of ail 

I am, 6cc, 

164 C^fO's LETTERS. 


IN Free States, where publick Affairs are 
tranfaclred in popular Aflemblies, Eloquence 
is always of great life and Efteem ; and, next 
to Money and an armed Force, is the only Way 
of being considerable in thefe Affemblies. This 
Talent therefore has been ever cultivated and 
admired in Commonwealths, where Men were 
dealt with by Reafbn and Perfuafion, and at 
Liberty to ratify or reject Propofitions offered, 
and Meafures taken by their Magiftrates, and 
to^ examine their Conduct, and to reward them 
with Honours or Pumfhments, as they deferved. 
But in ^fingle Monarchies, where Reafbn is 
turned into Command, and Remonflrances 
and Debating, into fertile Submiifion, Elo- 
quence is ^either loft, or perverted to fan&ify 
publick Violence, and to deify the Authors of 

In the free States of Greece and Rome, this 
popular Eloquence was of fuch Force and 
Confequence, that the beft Speakers generally 
governed them : and their greateft Orators 
were often not only their chief Magistrates, 
but their principal Commanders. Rhetor ick 
was the firft and great Study, becaufe the firft 
and great Offices of the State were the fure 
Price of Rhetorick. By it Cicero came to be 
the fijrfl: Man in fyme, and Pericles the firft 
Man in Athens. Themiftocles, Tbucjdides, Xcno- 



n, and Alcibifldes, could fpeak as well 2S 
they could tight; and fo could Sylla, Pomps? ^ 
Cte/ar, Cato, Brutus, M. Anthony, and many more, 
who were not only great Orators, as well as 
great Soldiers, but for the mo'ft part, owed 
their Military Power to their powerful Speak- 
ing : Not that Eloquence is necefTary to a 
Soldier, no more than Skill in War to a civil 
Officer: But both were neceflary Parts, and in- 
deed the principal Parts of the tyman Educa- 
tion ; and the Candidates for Preferments were 
either good Speakers, or ftp-ported by fuch. 
Pompey, tho' he principally derived his Fame 
and- Credit from Military Glory, had "been far 
from negle&ing the other Accomplishments of 
the Gown and the Bar. We have the Tefti- 
mony of Cicero, that he was a graceful and 
engaging Speaker: His great Employments, 
and many Wars, had with- held hi-rn long from 
the Exercife of Declaiming, and his eminent 
Authority in the State had made it for fbme 
Time unneceiTary: But he refumed it with 
great Application in the latter Years of his 
Life^; when Curio, a young Tribune of vaft 
Spirit and Eloquence, being gained by an im- 
menfe Sum of Money to the Interef! of Cf/*r t 
was by publick and perpetual Haranges mif- 
ieading the People into his Party. Cicero con- 
tinued this Exercife till near his Death, an-d 
Mnrc Anthony and Augufus in the mid ft of their 

The chief Power of that State being in the 
People, and all the great Offices in their Gift, 
made Eloquence a neceffary Qualification in 
every one who courted their Favour, and 

VOL. III. M fought 

3.66 Giro's LETTERS. 1 

fought their Suffrages. And a Candidate thus 
qualify'd, rarely miffed gaining them, till Mo- 
ney, more prevailing than Eloquence, and 
every other Accomplifhment, corrupted their 
Hearts, abolifhed their Integrity, and, finding 
their Souls and their Voices ialeable, made 
them firft the Marker, and then the Slaves^ of 
Ambition. But in the Times of their Purity, 
and before their Virtue was vanquifhed by ir- 
refiftible Gold, which has been ever an Over- 
match for the Probity of the Sons of Men, it 
snuft be owned to their Honour, that in almoft 
all the Queftions and Debates in the Ionian 
State, the jufteft Side was the ftrongeft ; and 
'he who fpoke beft, that is, with moft Reafbn 
and Truth, had the moft Voices. Such was 
th'e Equity and good Senfe of the J^vnan Peo- 
ple ! Even in the Days of their Degeneracy, 
they gave many Proofs, that it was with Shame 
and Pain they had departed from their ancient 
Integrity and publick Spirit : They continued 
to prefer many worthy Citizens merely for their 
Worth : They carried Cicero particularly thro' 
all the confiderable OfEces of the State., only 
becaufe he deferred them. Cato they created 
their Tribune, in fpirc of Violence and Oppo 
fiticn, and would have chofer. him Pr^cr 5 when 
lie fifft ftood for it, ftotwithftancjing the Influ- 
ence and Bribery of the Faction of the firft 
Triumvirate, had they not been cheated and 
terrified by a religious Lye of Pcmpej's, who by 
it broke up the A {Terribly. Cnto was however 
chofen next Year; and by the ufual Power of 
his Eloquence and Credit v/ith the People, 
frufirated many of the pernicious Deilgns of the 

nr 1 

I rium- 


Triumvirate againft his Country, and confe- 
quently prevented, for a Time, many publick 
Mifchiefs, as he foretold them all. 

The Credit of Eloquence amongft the Greeks 
was at leaft equally high, and its Force as vifi- 
ble. However, in Greece it (elf it was different- 
ly efteemed and pra&ifed according to the 
Difference of the Forms of Government in the 
(everal Greel^ Cities. In Spartst, where little 
Riches were to be acquired, and the acling 
Power of the State was chiefly in the Senate, 
the Faculty of Haranguing was lefs ftudied, 
in proportion to the (mailer Power of the Peo- 
pkj who had only a negative Vote, and the 
bare Right of confirming or refuting the Laws 
prcpofed to them, and none to debate about 
them, nor to explain them, much lefs to offer 
new Laws. Their Laws therefore, and their 
publick Deliberations, being carried, as far as 
regarded the People, without popular Speeches 
and Cabals, that City was no proper Scene for 
popular Speakers; and, doubtlefs, it was the 
mofr perfect and beft eftablifhed State then in 
the World ; but not being formed for Conquelf, 
nor indeed for Trade, or Increafe of People, 
it was undone by an Endeavour to enlarge it. ^ 

At Athens it was far otherwife : The Multi- 
tude, the unreprefented Multitude, being the 
Legiflature, governed all Things, and were 
themfelves governed by their Orators ; who 
therefore fwarmed in that City, and filled all 
the great Offices in ir, as they always will do 
in fuch a State. They would never fiiffer any 
Thing to remain fixed and quiet ; but, to make 
themfeives confiderable, were for ever ftarting 

M x new 

2.-6S Giro's LETTERS. 

new Projects, new Treaties, and new Wars ; 
-which, at laft, ruined theSrate, as I (hall (hew 
in another Letter. Ariftoth finds juft Fault with 
their Demagogues, who were making. them 
continually drunk with Torrents of Inflamma- 
tory Eloquence. There wanted a proper Power 
to check and ballance that of the People ; the 
Court of Areopagus being only a Court of Ju- 
ftice, and its Credit and Authority broken by 
Epbialtis and Pericles, two of the chief Orators, 
who hated to fee any Authority in Athens but 
their own. 

As^Eloquence it (elf isneceflary, or checked, 
or -quite difcouraged in different Forms of Go- 
vernment ; fb the Manner of Eloquence muft 
vary, even where it is ufeful, according to the 
various Claims of Men to whom it is addreffed. 
There is a confiderable Difference between the 
Speeches^ fpoken by Cicero in the Senate, and 
thofe which he (poke to the People. In an Ai- 
fembly of Gentlemen, he who fpeaks with 
Brevity and Clearnefs, and ftrong Senfe, fpeaks 
beft. The chief Court is to be paid to the 
Under fian ding , and Silence is better than a 
Rote of good Words, that carry with them no 
Convi-flion. I do not deny, but in the mcft 
polite Affembly, the Manner of Speaking, the 
Vo'ce, and the Choice of Words, will confi- 
dirably recommend the Speech and the Speak- 
er : But it is equally true, that a' Theatrical 
A'-lion, and an OR-entation of Language, pre- 
uidiceboth, as they break in upon Propriety; 
and^ inftead of adorning good Senfe ; dilguife 
it with Shew and Sound. 

But - 

5 LETTERS. 2 69- 

But in Speeches to AfTemblies of the People^ 
tnuch greater Latitude is, allowed ; and Vehe- 
mence of Tone and Action, a Hurry and 
Pomp of Words, ftrong Figures, Tours of" 
Fancy, ardent Expreffion, and throwing Fire 
into their Imaginations, have always been- 
reckoned proper Ways to gain their A Sent and 
Affections, I think Valerius Maximus fays of 
Pericles^ that whenever he (poke to the People^, 
he always left a Sting in^ their Souls : And: 
hence, fine ay mis Tyrannidsm gfjfit 9 he was a- 
Tyrant without an Army. Dtmoftkenes ggve 
many proofs of the fame dictatorial Force cc 
Speaking, not only at Athens^ but all over 
Greece ; which, in fpite of ail King P/V/../S Art?,, 
2nd Power, and Ambafladors, and Bribes, he. 
worked up into a general InfurrecHon and Cor, - 
fcderacy againft him. The Tbebans, particu- 
larly, tho' terrified by Philjp\ Name and Con- 
quejls, and dreading to rifque again the Cala- 
mities of War which they had lately felt, no 
iboner heard Demofthenes^ but they were fub- 
dued by the Dint of his Words , and lofing all. 
Terror of the Macedonians) run headlong irr- 
the War. " He inflamed their Minds, fays the 
' Hiftorian, with a PaiHon for Glory and Li- 
berty^ and covered all their wary Confidera-- 
tions in the magical Mid cf his Eloquence . 
fo that infpired by it, like Men ppfle'fled, 
they ^took fudden, bold, and honourable Re- 
* iblutibns.* 

The Subflance and reafoning Part of this - 
potent Speech might have been comprized in a. 
fev/ plain and (hort Propofitions, more proper 
than a copious Harangue for a cool Council oh 

M ^ wile. 

270 Giro's LETTERS. 

wife Men, taught by Experience to weigh e- 
very Step they took, and to examine the Sound- 
nefs of the Senfe diverted of deceitful Words : 
But fuch a fummary dry Reprefentation of the 
Orator's Meaning, would probably not have 
moved a fifth Part of his Auditory ; or had the 
Oration it felf been read by a Clerk, or uttered 
by one of our Pleaders in Weftminfter-Hall, in 
an unafTe&ing Tone, and with an unanimated 
Gefture, I doubt, it would have had the fame 
or no erTecl. But it was an Oration, and an 
Oration pronounced by an Orator, with all the 
Lightning of Figures, and Thunder of Ex- 
preifion : He poured forth Perfuafion like a 
Torrent ; and in his Voice, when he cried to 
War, they heari the Sound of a Trumpet. 

By what 1 have faid of our own Pleaders, I 
mejn no fort of Reflection upon the Gentlemen- 
of the Long Robe, or upon their Manner of 
Speaking, which I think is the only proper 
Manner for our Bar; where the Rules of pro- 
ceeding being Uriel, and afcertained, ^ there is 
BO room for haranguing. The Judge is tied to 
rhe rigid Letter of the Law, and not to be 
moved from it by Pity or Refentment ; and 
therefore an Addrefs to his PaiTions would be 
ridiculous and offenfive. In a Speech to an 
AiTembly that a6h by Discretion, or to an ab- 
foiute Prince who has Life and Death in his 
Hands, it is the Bufmefs of the Speaker, by 
flattering Infinuations, to fteal into the Affecti- 
ons of his Judges, and by a Hurricane of Tropes 
and impetuous Words, to animate their Paf- 
fions in his Behalf: But a Speech of this fort 
\vould be wade Language in Weffiminftcr-Haily 



and the Author of it would be thought fit for 
Moorfields, where the Imagination has more 
Scope. At our Bar many excellent Pleaders 
have been very bad Orators ; and fbme good 
Speakers, very bad Pleaders. To know Law, 
and to (peak to the Point, is the only Rhetc- 
rick approved, or indeed allowed there ; and 
therefore the Jokes which witty Men have made 
upon the cold and plain Manner of Speaking 
there, return upon the Makers. 

In the Pulpit there is much more Latitude for 
Oratory, and the Preacher has the Affections 
and Imaginations of his Hearers much more in 
his Power ; and by cuftra&inft them with Ter- 
rors, or elevating rhem with jovs, n?ay awaken 
and enkindle their Paillons al^noft as much as 
he will. He has a vail Field, ad full Scope 
for Decorations, fine Phrafes, lively Delcripn- 
ons, and all the pompous Array of Language , 
and if he has a fine tuneable Voice, and his 
Audience a good Ear, I know no Wonders 
which he may not work. But as the plained 
Sermons have generally thebeft Senfe and molt 
Piety in them, I arn almoft amazed that the 
very fine figurative ones do no more harm. 

If we enquire into the life and Purpofes of 
Eloquence, and into the Good and Evil which 
it has done, we muft diftinguifh between Elo- 
quence and Eloquence : That which confifts 
of good Senfe, put into good Words, is every 
where ufeful and commendable: But as to that 
which confifts of fine Figures and beautiful 
Sounds, artfully and warmly applied to the 
Paiiions, and may difguife and banifh Senfe, 
embellish Falflicod as well, as, Truth, and re- 

M 4 com- 

*~z C A rQ's LETTERS. 

commend Vice as well as Virtue ; it has done 
fame Good, and infinite 1VJ if chief. It is the 
Art of fluttering and deceiving, as one of the 
Ancients calls it : |It fills the Mind with falfe 
Ideas ; and by railing a Temped: in the Heart, 
miileads the Judgment : It confounds Good 
and Evil, by throwing falfe Colours over them, 
*nd deceive* Men with their own Approba- 
tion : And it has in many Inftanccs uniettlcd all 
good Order, and thrown flowridiing States in- 
to Pangs and Defolation. 

But tho' Rhetorick, in this Scnfe, be but a 
tad Art, yet I do not think it pofTible to de- 
flroy it, without deftroy ing with it mod other 
ood Arts ; f'jr it aimed always flourifhes and 
decays with them : And wherever Politeneis, 
Liberty, and Learning fubfift, Rhctonck will 
be cultivated as part of them. It is an Evil 
growing out of much Good ; and nothing but 
the abolifning of all Liberty aad Learning can 
abfoiutely cure it. In this Cure the Turks have 
Succeeded beft ; and they who would be like 
them in this, muft be like them in all Things. 
Bendes, as the feveral States of Europe are now 
condituted, they do not feem to have much,, 
or any thing, to apprehend from the Power of 
Rhetorick, except that which comes from the 
Popifh Ecclefiafticks, who in the midft of Mo- 
narchies form a Democracy every where; and 
every Village has one or many popular Ora- 
tors, who have but too fuccefsful a Talent at 
turning the Heads of the Multitude, and in- 
flaming their Hearts ; a Misfortune, which has 
colt many Countries very dear: Infomuch that 
Preaching Monks have been reckoned Publick 

Plagues y 



Plagues \ as it would be, no doubt, a fort of 
a publick Bleillng, if they were all alike idle 
and dumb. Even the Lutheran Monks at H<im 
burgh are every Day preaching that free City 
into Strife and Confufion ; and will at lafr, If 
they are not better controuled, preach it out 
of its Liberty, as more than once they have 
already well-nigh done. 

IF we now enquire how Eloquence operates 
upon the Minds of Men, we mud confider - 
-Three Things or ^Caufes : The Senfe, the 
Sound, and the Action. The firft is addrefs'd 
to the Underflanding ; and the other two to-- 
the PaillonSj and have confequently the greateft ; 

Nothing is too hard for Sound, which -fob- '- 
dues every thing, and raifes the higheit and 
.mo ft oppofite Perturbations. Orre Sound lulls 
Men to flcep ; another routes them from ir : 
One Sort iets them a Fighting, another to 
Embracing; and a third fets them a Weeping.: 
It makes them groan or rage ; it melrs them 
into Companion, or animates them ro Refcnt--- 
ment. And as to A6tion, in which I alfo com- 
prehend the Ivlotions. of the Countenance, and . 
of the Eyes, it is oi: fuch Force, tiat Detnoft~ - 
lc:r,s being asked, which was the Hrft Excel- 
lency of an Orator t anfwered, Action ; th . : 

M 5*- tL- 


the (econd was AElion ; and the third was 
Here is the Teftimony of a great and expe- 
rienced Judge. 

Now the Power of AHon Teems to arife 
chiefly from hence : As it is a Sign that the 
Speaker is in earneft, and vehemently means 
what he fpeaks, it begets an Opinion, that 
what he fays is juft, and reafbnable, and im- 
portant : And fo his Hearers adopt his Paflions 
and Opinions, and are equally animated with 
him who animates them, and often more. 
Hence it is poilible for a Man, who thus car- 
ties his Spirit in his Geftures, and his Meaning 
in his Face, to look another into his Senti- 
ments and our of his Senfes, only by (hewing, 
in the Energy of his Countenance, that he 
himfel'f is ftrongly affe&ed with that Paillon 
which he would convey to another, and that 
his external Motions are but the Refult of his 
internal. Men have been converted into Qua- 
kerifm at the Silent-Meetings of Quakers , and 
fblemn Looks, dumb Shew, and ghoftly Groans,, 
have had all the moft prevailing Effects of Elo- 

Nothing is fb catching and communicative 
as the Paiiions. The Gail of an angry or a 
pleafant Eye, will beget Anger, or Pleafure :. 
One Man's Anger, or Sorrow, or Joy, can* 
make a whole AfTembly outrageous, or deje&ed,. 
or merry ; and the fame Men are provoked or 
pleated by the fame Words fpoken in different 
Tones ; becaufe they who hear them, take them 
juft as he who fpeaks them feems to mean them, 
i have ieen a Preacher of mean Senfe and Lan- 
guage fa a whole Congregation a howling, 



merely becaufe he himfelf howJed. By re- 
peating the Words Heaven and He//, with Di- 
ftortion and Clamour, he poiTelled their Imagi- 
nations with all the Joys of the Blefled, and 
all the Torments and Terrors of the Damned ; 
and by making them feel both by Turns, raifed 
their Patfions higher than the reading of our 
Bleffed Saviours Crucifixion, or his Sermon, 
upon the Mount, could have raifed them. 

The Fancy, when once it is heated, quickly 
Improves the firft Spark into a Flame ; which 
being an AfTemblage of ftrong and glowing 
Images, is, while it lafts, the ftrongeft Motion* 
and consequently the gresteft Power in a Man; 
for all animal Power is Motion. And When a 
Man has thus got a Fire in his Head, his* 
Reafbn, which is the gradual and deliberate 
weighing of Things, and the cool comparing 
of one inward Impulfe with another, mud 
fhift its Quarters till his Brains grow cool a- 
gain. I dare fay, that many Men, and ftili 
more Women, who have without Emotion 
heard the great Dr. Tillotfon talk excellent Senfe^ 
and Morality for half an Hour, would have- 
been powerfully edified, that is, violently tran- 
fported, with the tuneful and humble Reveries- 
of John Bunyan, of Bifhop fteveridgs, or Daniel 

This Aptnefs to be moved by Sounds is na- 
tural, but improveable by Education and the 
life of Words. There are in the Brain certain 
Fibres, or Strings, which naturally {Vretch and 
exert themfelves as fbon as certain Sounds ilrike 
upon them, but without being sCble to annex 
to them any determinate Idea, only in genera],, 


that ^ they feel Pleafure or Pain. It is like 
rubbing the Hand of a Man born deaf and 
blind with a File, or a Flefh-Brufh : He feels 
the Skin irritated, or Toothed, but knows not 
with what. When thefe Fibres are touched, 
they difperfe the Motion to the whole animal 
Spirits, and create in them Motions and Agi- 
tations agreeable to the Force and Quality of 
that Sound, which was the firft Mover. Hence 
People are cured of the Bite of the Tarantula 
by Mufick ; which, by quickning the Motion 
of the animal Spirits, raifes in the Blood fuch 
a Ferment, as drives out the Poifon. 

But when De(cr>ption is added to thole 
Sounds, and they convey particular and diftin6t 
Images ; and when Scenes of Horror or of Joy 
are prefented in Sounds proper to convey them ; 
then the Senfe and the Sound heightening vaft- 
ly each other, their united Power over the Soul 
is infinite, and uncontroulable. The Word 
He//, for Example, is "without doubt capable, 
of being pronounced in fuch a hideous Tone 
and A6lion, as to aftecl; and affright even a 
Hottentot^ who knows nothing. of He/I ; But if 
with the Sound of Hel! 9 the Description of Hell 
13 likewile conveyed : that it is a dark, im- 
menie, and baleful Dungeon, guarded by fright- 
ful and implacable Furies, armed with \A hips, 
and Torches ; that it is tilled with (ufTocating 
and burning Sulphur, and unintermimng Fire; 
that it is inhabited by the Damned, whole Jn- 
cefiant Shrieks, hideous Roarings, and ciifmai 
Yells, are the chief. Entertainments there ; and 
bv Devils, who by their endicis Infuhs add, if 

* ** i** '* i i 



poilible, to their intenfe Tortures and horrible 
Burning, which are never, never to end * 

Sights of H?oe 9 . 

Regions of Sorrow, doleful Shades, where Peace 
And Reft can never dwell, Hope never comes, 
That comes to all ; but Torture without End 
Still urges, find a fiery Deluge, fed 
With ever burning Sulphur unconfurnd 

I fay, this Idea of Hell,, added to the Sound of 
Hell, would dreadfully aggravate the Horror 
even in a Hottentot. He might likewife be 
charmed with a foft and melodious Sound of 
Heaven well pronounced, without having any 
Conception^ of Heaven ; but ftill much more 
charmed, if the Idea of it accompanied the 
Sound, and all the celefliai Scenery of Delight, 
a blefled Immortality, God, and Glory, were 
fer, as it were, before his Eyes. 

Such Force has Sound over the humane Soul, 
to animate and calm its Paiiions ; and when 
proper Action i? added to proper Sound, which 
two Parts conftitute the mechanical Power of 
Eloquence, the Effects of it are as certain as the 
Effects of Wine, and its Strength as irrefiftible. 
In this Refpecfc Men refemble mufical Inftru- 
xnents, and may be wound up, or let down to 
any Pitch, by touching skilfully the Stops and 
Cords of the animal Spirits. An expert Hand 
can make a Violin rage as violently, weep as- 
bitterly, _ beg as heartily, and complain as 
mourn fully, as Words can exprefs thofe feve- 
rai Paiiions; and more than Word?, without' 
proper Modulation, can exprefs them. Thno- 



tbeus the Muiician played before Alexander 
the Great an Aire fb martial and animating, 
that he ftarted from the Table in a warlike 
Fury, and called for his Horle and his Arms ; 
and by another fpft Aire fb quelled the hoftile 
Tumult in his Mind, that he fat down quietly 
to Meat again. Thus was the Conqueror of 
the World himfelf conquered by Sound. Drums 
and Trumpets make Men bold : And the Mar- 
quis de Biron, one of the braveft Men that 
ever lived, died like a Coward for want of 

In a Day of Battle, when the Onfet is ani- 
mated by all the awakening military Sounds of 
a Camp, the eager Neighing of the Horfes, 
and even the bufy and hollow Treading of 
their Feet ; a general and warlike Murmur of 
every Man preparing to fight ; the Clattering 
of Arms, calling into the Imagination the fud- 
d en life that is to be made of them ; the haity 
Thunder and vehement Rattling of Drums, 
infpiring an Impatience for Battle ; the dead 
and fallen Dubbing of the Kettle- Drums, cre- 
ating a fteady and obfHnate Bravery ; and,, 
above all, the loud and (hrill Clangour of the 
Trumpet, roufing a chearful and lively Bold- 
nefs : All thele hoftile Sounds, each of them. 
deftru6Hve of Coldnefs and Fear, muft occupy 
and incenfe every Spirit that a Man has in 
him, fet his Soul in a Flame, and make even 
Cowards refblute and brave. 

I have feen a Btggar gain an Alms by a 
heavy and affecting Groan, when a Speech of 
CzVero'scompofing, fpoken without Cicero" 1 * Art, 
would not have gained it. That Groan ftruck 



the animal Spirits fympathetically : and being 
continued to the Imagination, raifed up there 
a Thoufand fudden Conjectures and Preoccu- 
pations in his Favour, and a Thoufand Cir- 
cumftances of Difrrefs, which he who uttered 
it perhaps never felt, nor thought of. Looks 
and Appearances have the like Efficacy : Ano- 
ther Beggar, fhivering and naked in a cold wet 
Day, with humble, pale, and hungry Looks,, 
or defpairing ones, (hall be as eloquent, with- 
out uttering a Word, as the other by uttering 
a Groan. The humane Sympathy in our Souls 
raifes a Party for him within us, and our Fancy 
immediately reprefents us to our felves in the 
fame doleful Circumftances ; and, for that 
Time, we feel all that the Beggar feels, and 
probably much more ; for he is ufed to it, and 
can bear it better. If to the above melancholy 
Sound and miferable Sight, we add the grie- 
vous Symptoms of Pain, Sickneis, and Anguifh, 
(as one often meets with Objects under all 
thefe terrible Gaffes of MiferyJ there is no 
Pitch of humane Pity and Horror, that fuch a 
Groups of humane Woes cannot raife. 

Now, if fmgle Sound is thus bewitching, 
and Gefture alone is thus perfwafive, and ftill 
greatly more when united ; how vaftly pre- 
vailing mull be their Force, when it comes 
arrayed and heightened by a fwelling and irre- 
fiftible Tide of Words, enlivened by the moil: 
forcible and rapid Ideas, and bears down all 
before it ? When the Orator attracts your 
Eyes, charms your Ears, and forces your Atten- 
tion ; brings Heaven and Earth into his Caufe, 
and feems but to reprefent them, to fpeak thuV 

Giro's LETTERS. 

Senfe, and to contend for their Intereft ? When 
he carries your Pailions in his Hands, and fu 
pends or controuls all your Faculties, and yet 
perfwades you that your own Faculties guide 
you ? When he leffens great Things, magnifies 
little Things, and difguifes all ; his every Ge- 
ilure is animated, and every Mufcle perfwades; 
his Words lighten, and his Breath is on fire ; 
every Word glows, and every Image flames ; 
he fills, delights, kindles, and aftonifhes your 
Imagination , raifes a Storm in your Heart, 
and governs you in that Storm ; rouzes all that 
is humane in you, and makes your own Heart 

confpire againft you ! In this magical 

and outrageous Temped, you are at the entire 
Mercy of him who raifed it. 

Cdfar was refolved to punifli (V. Ligariits ; 
but Cicero had a Mind to fave him, and under- 
took his Defence, defar admitted him to 
fpeak, only out of the Gaiety of his Heart, 
and for the mere Pleafure of hearing him ; 
for he was determined not to be (haken from 
his Purpole. But he was deceived : Cicero in 
the very Beginning of his Speech wonderfully 
moved him, and proceeded in it with fuch a 
Variety of P/itbos, and fuch an amazing Grace, 
that Ctcfar often changed Countenance ; and it 
was plain that his Soul was in a Hurricane, 
and that all his Pailions were agitated. But 
the Orator touching artfully upon the Battle of 
P bar fali a, fb tranfported him, that he trembled 
all over, and the Papers which he held dropped 
out of his Hands ; and being quite overcome, 
he acquitted Ligarius. 



What an amazing Tnftance of the Power of 
Speaking ! Behold the great and conquering 
O/^r, the abfolute Matter of Rcme^ and of all 
the World, provoked at a Man who 
had born Arms againil him, fixed upon his 
Doom, and Life and Death in his Hands ! 
Behold this great and arbitrary Man, this an- 
gry, awful, and prepoflefled Judge, overpow- 
ered by the Force of Eloquence, difarrned of 
his Wrath, his Defigns wrefted from him, his 
Inclinations, when he thought himfelf bed. 
fortified in them, entirely changed, and him- 
felf, from being terrible, brought to tremble ! 
dtffar too was a great Orator, and had often 
tried upon others, with Succefs, the Power o 
his own Rhetoriclc ; but was not then aware 
how much it could do upon himfelf. It was 
Cicero, it was the Orator, and not the Caufe, 
that triumphed here. The bare Senfe of thac 
fine Speech, would not have fufpended C#fir?s 
Difpleafure for a Moment : But the Speaker 
was not to be refilled : All Oppofition fled, 
and every Spark of Refentment vanished be- 
fore him. The Emperor was enchanted by the 
Orator ; and Ctfnr was, as it were, poflefTed 
\vith Cicero. 

^ 6cc. 

P. 5. I have in thefe two Letters comprised 
all that I propofed to fay upon Eloquence : 
In my laft I have confidered it politically, 
and in this philofbphically ; and in both I have 
fhewn its Force. I have likewife examined 
the feveral Kinds of it, as far as concerns my 
prefeat Purpofe, and (hewn how it affects Go-. 


Giro's LETTERS. 

vernment and humane Nature, and from what 
Sources in both it proceeds. Thofe who 
would ftudy it as an Art, and know the many 
Accomplifhments neceiTary to excel in it, muft 
read Cicero de Orators^ and Quintilltan. 

I Intend, in this and fbme future Letters, to 
give my Opinion about Plantations ; which 
feems to me to be a SuhjecT: underftood but by 
few, and that there is but little life made of 
that Underftanding. It is mod certain, that 
the Riches of a Nation confift in the Number 
of its Inhabitants, when thofe Inhabitants are 
ufeiully employed, and no more of them live 
upon the Induftry of others (like Drones in a 
Hive) than are neceffary to preserve the Oeco- 
nomy of the Whole : For the reft, fuch as 
Garneflers, Cheats, Thieves, Sharpers, and 
Abby- Lubbers, and fbme of their Betters, wade 
and deltroy the publick Wealth, without ad- 
ding any thing to it. Therefore, if any Na- 
tion drives or diflrefTes any of its Subjecls out 
of their Country, or fends any of them out in 
foolifli W 7 ars, or ufelefs Expeditions, or for 
any other Caufes, which do not return more 
Advantage than bring Lofs, they fb far ener- 
vate their State, and let out Pare of their beft 
Hearts Blood. 

Now, in many Inftances, Men add more to 
the publick Stock by being out of their Coun- 


try than in it ; as Ambafladors, Publick Mini- 
flers, and their Retinues, who tranfaft the Af- 
fairs of a Nation ; Merchants and Tradefinen, 
who carry on its Traffick ; Soldiers in necef- 
fary Wars ; and fometimes Travellers, who 
teach us the Cuiloms, Manners, and Policies 
of diftant Countries, whereby we may regulate 
and improve our own : And all, or moft of 
thefe, return to us again with Advantage. But, 
in other Inftances, a Man leaves his Country, 
never, or very rarely, to return again ; and 
then the State will fuffer Lofs, if the^Perlbn 
ib leaving it is not employed Abroad in fuch 
Jndnftry, in railing fuch Commodities, or in 
performing fuch Services, as will return more 
Benefit to his native Country, than they fuffer 
Prejudice by lofing an ufeful Member. 

This is often done by planting Colonies, 
which are of two Sorts : One to keep con- 
quered Countries in Subje&ion, and to prevent 
the Neceffity of conftant Standing- Armies ; 2. 
Policy which the Romans praclifed, till their 
Conquefts grew too numerous, the conquered 
Countries too diftant, and their Empire too 
unweildy to be managed by their native Force ; 
and then they became the Slaves of thole they 
conquered. This Policy, for many Ages, we 
our felves ufed in Ireland, till the Fafhion of 
our Neighbours, and the Wifdom of modern 
Ages, have taught us the Ufe of Armies : And 
1 wifti thofe who come after us may never 
learn all their Ufes. I muft confefs, that I am 
not wife enough to enter into all the Policy 
made ufe of formerly in governing that Coun- 
try, and fhali in proper Time communicate 


a8 4 C A T O's L E T T E R 3. 

my Doubts, in hopes to receive better Infor- 
mation, In the mean Time, I cannot but per- 
fwade rnyfelf, that when our Superiors are at' 
leifure from greater Affairs, it may be poiiible- 
to offer them a Proportion more honourable to 
the Crown, more advantageous to each King- 
dom, and to the particular Members- of them,, 
and vaftly more conducive to the Power of 
the whole Empire, than the doubtful State they 
are now in. But as this is not the Purpofe of 
my prefent Letter, I (hall proceed to confider 
the Nature of the other Sort of Colonies. 

The other Sort of Colonies are for Trade,', 
and intended to increafe the Wealth and Power 
of the native Kingdom ; which they will a- 
bundantly do, if managed prudently, and put 
and kept under a proper Regulation. No Na- 
tion has, or ever had, all the Materials of 
Commerce within itfelf : No Climate produces- 
all Commodities ; and yet it i& the Intereft, Plea-, 
fure, or Convenience of every People, to ufe 
or^ trade in mofr. or all of them ; arid rather to 
raife them themfelves, than to purchafe them 
from others, unlefs in fome Inftances, when, 
they change their own Commodities for them, 
and employ as many or more People at Home 
in that Exchange, as lofe their Employment, 
by purchadng them from Abroad. Now Co- 
lonies planted in proper Climates, and kept tOv 
their proper Bulinefs, undoubtedly do this ; 
and particularly many of our own Colonies in 
the Well-Indies employ ten Times their own 
Number in Old England, by fending them from 
hence Provifions, Manufactures, Utenfils for 
tkemfelves and their Slaves, by Navigation,, 



Tvorking^ up the Commodities they fend us; 
and retaining and exporting them afterwards, 
and in returning ag-iin to us Silver and Gold, 
and Materials for new Manufa&ures ; and our 
Northern Colonies do, or may if- encouraged, 
'iupply us with Timber, Hemp, Iron and other 
Metals, and indeed may fupply us with moll 
or all the Materials of Navigation, and our 
Neighbours too, through our Hands; and by 
that Means fettle a fblid Naval Power in Great 
Britain, not precarious and fabjecfc to Difap- 
pointments, and the Caprices of our Neigh- 
bours ; which Management: would make us 
foon Matters of moit of the Trade of the 

I would not fugged fo diftant a Thought, 
as that any of our Colonies, when they grow 
ftronger, (hould ever attempt to wean them- 
felves from us ; however, 1 think too much 
Care cannot be taken to prevent ir, and to 
preferve their Dependencies upon their Mother- 
Country. It is not to be hoped in the corrupt 
State of humane Nature, that any Nation will 
be fubjecl: to another any longer than it finds its 
own Account in it, and cannot help itfelf. 
Every Man's firft Thought will be for himfelf 
and his own Intereft, and he will not be long 
to feek for Arguments to jullify his being fo, 
when he knows how to attain what he pro' 
poles. Men will think it -hard to work, toil, 
and run Hazards, for the Advantage of others 
any longer than they find their own. Intereft in 
it, and efpecially for thole who ufe them ill: 
All Nature points out that Courfe : No Creature 
fucks the Teats of their Darns longer than 



they can draw Milk from thence, or can provide 
themselves with better Food : Nor will any 
Country continue their Subjection to another, 
only becaufe their Great- Grand mothers were 

This is the Courfe of Humane Affairs; and 
all wife States will nlways have it before their 
Eyes ; and will well confider there-fore how to 
preferve the Advantages arifing from Colonies, 
and avoid the Evils. And I conceive there can 
be but two Ways in Nature to hinder them 
from throwing off their Dependence: The 
one to keep it out of their Power, and the other 
out of their Will. The firft muft be by Force ; 
and the latter by ufing them well, and keeping 
thememploy'd infuch Prod uc~Hons, and making 
fuch Manufactures, as will fapport themlelves 
and Families comfortably, and get Wealth 
too, or at leaft not prejudice their Mother- 

Force can never be ufed effect ally to anfwer 
this End, without deftroying he Colonies 
themfelves. Liberty and Encouragement are 
neceflary to carry People thither, and to keep 
them together when they are there ; and Vio- 
lence will hinder both. Any B^ay of Troops 
confiderable ^ enough to awe : iem, and keep 
them in Subjection, and ur ~r the Direction 
too of a needy Governor, -i-ten fent thither to 
make his Fortune, and at liich a Di (lance from 
any Application for Rearefs, will fbon put an 
End to all Planting, and leave the Country ro 
the Soldiers alone and if it did not, would 
eat up all the Pr ut of the Colony. For this 
Reafon, Arbitrary Countries have not bed > 



qually fuccefsful in planting Colonies with free 
ones;^ and what they have done in that kind, 
has either been by Force, at a vail Expence, 
by departing from the Nature of their Go- 
vernment, and giving Privileges to Planters 
which were denied to their other Subjeds. 
And I dare fay, that a few prudent Laws, 
and a little prudent Condu6r, would foon give 
us rar the greateft Share of the Riches of all 
Amenca, and perhaps drive many of other 
Nations out of it, or into our Colonies for 

If Violence, or Methods tending to Violence, 
are^not ufed to prevent it, our Northern Co- 

V?? le ? , muft conftant ly increafe in People, 
Wealth, and Power. Men living in healthy 

Climates, paying eafy or no Taxes, not mo- 
lefted with Wars, mutt vaftly increafe by na- 
tural Generation, befides vaft Numbers every 

Jay flow thither from our own Dominions, 
and from other Parts of Europe, becaufe they 
have there ready Employment, and Lands 
given to them for Tilling ; infomuch. that I 
am told they have doubled their Inhabitants 

mce the Revolution, and in lefs than a Cen- 
tury mufl become powerful States : and the 

n i re P,^ erful ^ S row > ftiil the more Peo- 
ple will flock rhither : And there are fo many 

Agencies in all States, fo many foreign Wars 
ind domefhck Difturbances, that they can never 
want Opportunities, if they watch for them, to 
do what they (hall find their Intereft to do ; 
and therefore we ought to take all the Pre- 
cautions in our Power, that it fliali never be 
their Intereft to act againft that of their native 


o8'8 Giro's LETTERS. 

-Country ; and fhat can only he done by keep 
ing them fully employ 'd in fuch Trades as will 
increafe their own, as well as our Wealth; for 
'tis much to be feared, if we do not find Em- 
ployment for them, they may find it for 


No two Nations, no two Bodies of Men, 
or fcarce two Men, can long continue in. 
Friendfhip, without having fome Cement of 
their Unions , and where Relation, Acquain- 
tance, or mutual Pleafures, are wanting, mu- 
tual Interells alone can bind it: But when thole 
Interests feparate, each Side rouft affuredly 
purfue their own. The Intereft of Colonies is 
often to wean themfelves ; and is always fo 
when they no longer want Protection, and 
when they can employ themfelves more ad* 
yantageoufly, than in fupplying Materials of 
Traffick to others : And the Intereft of the 
Mother-Country is always to keep them de- 
pendent, and fo employed ; and it requires all 
their Addrefs to do it ; and 'tis certainly more 
eafily and effectually done by gentle and infen- 
fible Methods, than by Power alone. 

Men will always think they have a Right to 
Air, Earth, and Water, 10 employ themfelves 
for their own Support, to live by their own 
Labours, and to apply the Gifts of God to 
their own Benefit; and in order to it, to make 
the beft of their Soil, and to work up their 
own Product ; and when this cannot be done 
without Detriment to their Mother- Country, 
there can be but one fair, honeir, and indeed 
effed-ual Way to prevent it, which is, to di- 
vert them upon other Employments as advan- 


tageous to themfelves, and more fb to their 
Employers ; that is, in railing fuch Growth, 
and making fuch Manufactures as will not 
prejudice their own, or at lead in no Degree 
equal to the Advantage they bring; and when 
fuch Commodities are raifed or made, they 
ought to be taken off their Hands, and they 
ought not to be forced to find out other 
Markets by ftealth, or upon throwing them- 
felves upon new Protections : Whilft People 
have a full Employment, and can maintain 
themfelves comfortably in a Way they have 
been ufed to, they never will feek after a new 
one, efpecially when they meet Encourage- 
ment in one, and are difcountenanced in the 

^As without this Conduct, Colonies mud be 
mi&hievous to their Mother-Country for the 
Reafons before given, fb with it the greated 
Part of the Wealth they acquire centers there ; 
for all their Productions are fb many Augmen- 
tations of our Power and Riches, as they are 
Returns of the People's Labour, the Rewards 
of Merchants, or Increafe of Navigation ; 
without which, all who are fent Abroad are a 
dead Lofs to their Country, and as ufelefs as if 
dead \ and more fo, if they become Enemies ; 
for we can fend no Commodities to them, tin- 
lefs they have others to exchange for them, and 
fuch as we find our {mereltin taking. 

As to our Southern Plantations, we are in 
this refpecl: upon a tolerable Foot already ; for 
the Produ6Hcns there, are of fo different a Na- 
ture from our own, that they esn never inter- 
fere with us, and the Climates are fo unhealthy, 

V O L. ill. N that 


290 Giro's LETTERS. 

that no more People will go or continue trier . 
than are neceffary to raife the Commodities we 
want, and consequently they can never be 
dangerous to us ; but our Northern Colonies 
are healthy Climates, and can raife all or moil 
of the Commodities which our own Country 
produces. They conftantly increafe in People, 
and will conftantly increafe : And without the 
former Precautions, tnuft, by the natural Courfe 
of humane Affairs, interfere with moft Branches 
of our Trade, work up our beft Manufactures, 
and at laft grow too powerful and unruly to be 
governed for our Intereft only : And therefore, 
lince the Way lies open to us, to prevent fo 
much Mifchief, to do much Good, and add 
fo much Wealth and Power to Great Britain, 
by making thofe Countries the Magazines of 
our Naval Stores, 1 hope we fnall not lofe all 
ihefe Advantages, in Compliment to the Tn- 
terefts of a few private Gentlemen, or even to 
a few Counties. 

We have had a Specimen of this wife Con- 
duel: in prohibiting the Irfo Cattle, ^which 
were formerly brought to England lean, in Ex- 
change for our Commodities, and fatted here, 
but are now killed and fent Abroad directly 
from Ireland : And fo we lofe the whole Car- 
riage and Merchants Advantage, and the Vent 
of "the Commodities fent to purchafe them. 
And lately we have made fuch another prudent 
Law, to prevent the importing their Woollen 
Manufacture, which has put them upon wear- 
ing none of ours, making all or moft of their 
own Cloth themfelves ; exporting great Quan- 
tities of all forts by Stealth, and the greater 



Part of their Wool] to rival Nations; and by 
fiich Means it is that we are beholden to the 
Plague in France, to their Mifpffpi Company, 
and their total Lofs of Credit, that we have 
not loft a great Part of that Manufacture. It 
is true, we have made feme notable Provifion 
to hedge in the Cuckoo, and to make all the 
People of that Kingdom execute a Law, which 
it is every Man's Intereft there not to execute ; 
and it is executed accordingly. 

I (hall fbme time hereafter ccnfider that 
Kingdom in relation to the Interdt of Great 
Britain \ and (hall fay at prefent on I} 7 , that it is 
too powerful to be treated only as a Colony j 
and that if we defign to continue them Friends, 
the beft Way to do it, is to imitate the Example 
of Merchants and Shopkeepers ; that is, when 
their Apprentices are acquainted with their 
Trade and their Cuftorners, are out of their 
Time, to take them into Partnership, rather 
than to fet them up for themfelves in their 

f am 9 <5cc. 


I Have in a former Letter obferved, That 
Men ever have been, and, I doubt, ever 
will be cheated by Sounds, without having 
any ]uft Ideas annexed to them. When Words 
have obtained an Efteem and fort of Venera- 
tion, their Meanings will be varied as often as 

N i thole 

*9* Giro's LETTERS. 

thofe in Poffeflion of Reverence and popular 
Applaufe have Occafion to make different 
Ufes of them. It feems to me, that no Word 
has differed more from this Abufe than the 
Word Credit ;- nor in any Inftance has the 
Publick differed more Mifchief than by the 
Abu-fe of it. 

A Merchant, or Tradesman, is (aid to be in 
good Credit, when his vifible Gains appear to 
be greater than his Expences ; when he is in- 
duftrious, and takes care of his Affairs ; when 
he makes punctual Payments, and the Wares 
he fells may be depended upon as to their 
Goodnefs and Value ; and when thofe who 
deal with him can have a reafonable Affurance 
that he will make a Profit by his Care from the 
Commodities they entruft him with ; and if it 
fhould happen otherwife, that he has a remain- 
ing Subftance fuffioient at lad to anfwer all 
Demands. A private Gentleman is faid to have 
great Credit, who lives within his Income, has 
Regard to his Character and his Honour, is 
"juft to his Word and Promiies, and is known 
to have an untncumbered Eftate, or onefuperior 
to all his fuppofed Engagements: from whence 
bis Creditors form a reafbnable Expectation 
that they (hall be paid again without a Law- 
Suit, and. a Certainty that they can be paid 
with one : And therefore all thefe will be 
traded for as much as they are worth, and 
fometimes more, at the lowed Price" for the 
Goods they buy, and at the low-eft Intereft for 
the Money they borrow. 

But if a Merchant is obicrved to live in Riot 
>.nd Profufion, to leave his Eilate to the Di- 



recllon of Servants, who cheat him, or neglect 
his Bufmefs ; if he turns Projector, does noc 
pay his Bills, and fliuffles in his Bargains, and 
fells faulty Goods which are bought upon his 
Word : Or, if a Gentleman is known to fpend 
more than his Income, to mortgage his Lands, 
to take no Care of his Efbte, or how his 
Stewards or Bailiffs manage it ; if he runs in 
Debt to Tradesmen and Mechanicks, and is 
perpetually borrowing Money, without any 
Thoughts how to pay it ; I fay, under lucli 
Management, no fair Dealer will have any 
Thing to do wirh them j and of courfe they 
fall into the Hands of Scriveners, knavifh At- 
tornys, and griping ilfurers ; will be fed from 
Hand to Mouth, pay double and treble Intereit 
for what they receive, till their Creditors watch 
their Opportunity, and fweep all. 

Credit is faid to run high in a Nation, when- 
the-e ar? great Numbers of wealthy Subjects in 
the former Circumftances, which will always 
be produced by an affluent Trade ; and when the 
Commodities of a Country, and the Production 
of the People's Labour, find a ready Vent, and 
at a good Price ; for then they will fee their 
Account in Punctuality of Payment and fair 
Dealing, and will not run the Hazard of lofing 
a regular Suftenance for their Families, or a 
conftant Profit arifing from an open Trade, for 
the prefent and occafional Advantage which 
they may hope to receive from a knavifli Bar- 
gain, or a fraudulent Circumvention : And 
thofe who do otherwife are generally undone, 
and fell a conftant and a yearly Income to 
taemfelves, and poilibly to their Families after 

N 3 them* 

94 C^ro's LETTERS. 

for an Year or two's Purchafe, and often for 
much lefs. 

But if any of thefe are above, or without the 
Reach of the Laws, or, by reafon of their 
Sratlon and Figure, it is difficult to get the 
Benefit of the Laws, their Credit will propor- 
rionably abate, becaufe a great Part of the 
Security they can give fails, and they muft con- 
sequently pay greater Intereft and Procuration 
for the Money they borrow, and a greater Price 
for the Goods they buy; for thofe who deal 
with them will always propofe to be Gainers 
by the Whole, upon computing their Delays 
and Hazards. 

The Credit of a State, or what we call Pub- 
]ick Credit, mud be prefer ved by the fame 
Means as private Men preferve theirs, namely, 
by doing itrict. Juftice to Particulars, by being 
exacl: in their Payments, not chicaning in their 
Bargains, nor frightning and tricking People 
into them, or out of them; by letting them 
know what they buy, and not altering the Na- 
ture or Property of it, to ferve After-purpofcs, 
and without the free Confent of the Perfons 
interefled : And they are always to take efpecial 
Care to fell nothing but what is valuable ; to 
coin Silver and Gold, and not put the Stamp 
of Publick Authority upon bafe and counterfeit 

Indeed, States are much more concerned to 
keep up the Opinion of their Integrity than 
private Men ; becaufe thoie that truft them, 
have, in effect, only their Honour and their 
Interefts to depend upon for Payment, and 
therefore will well confider whether it is their 



Intereft to maintain their Honour. I doubt 
private Men would have little Credit, and up- 
on very ill Terms too, if they could not be 
fued, or could vacate their own Securities ; for 
when it becomes more a Man's Intereft not to 
pay, than to pay his Debts, and he can chufe 
which he pleafes, no one would care to have 
any Part of his Fortune depend upon thofe 
Resolutions. 'Tis certainly the Intereft of all 
Men to keep up the Reputation of their Ho- 
nePiy as long as it can be kept, in order to be 
trufted for the future ; but when they can be 
trufted no longer, nor are able to pay what 
they are already trufted with, and can decline 
paying it when they fee apparent Ruin in being 
honeft, it is eafy to guefs what Courfe will be 

What Nation befides our own, has explained 
publick Honour by any other Maxims than 
publick Intereft ? Or have kept their Treaties 
or Agreements with Foreign States, or one 
another, any longer than it was their Intereflr 
upon the Whole to keep them ? And indeed 
very few have kept them fo long. I am fure no 
wile State will depend upon the Obfervancc of 
Leagues and National Contracts, any longer. 
What Country has not made frequent Acls of 
Refump:ion, when the Folly and Knavery of 
their Predeceffors has embezzled the publick 
Revenues, and rendered the Srate unable to 
defend itfelf ? Whereby private Men have been 
deprived of Efrates to which they had un- 
doubted Titles by the Laws of their Country, 
which perhaps had palled many Descents and 
many purchales , and yet the Lofers fornetJmes 


rave no other Reafbn to complain, than that 
they want the Confolation of feeing their Coun- 
try undone with them ; which muft have been 
the Cafe_ if they had not been undone alone. 
SxzJsn did this in the la ft Age ; Spain lately ; 
and another Country in our Time, has not only 
in effect cancelled all its Engagements, but by 
various Stratagems drawn the Wealth of the 
Whole into its Cofters, and feized it when it 
was there. Which puts me in mind of a Story 
of a Butcher, who thought himfelf happy m 
the Poiiel?;on of a fagacious, diligent, and 
Seemingly faithful Dog, to whom, by long Ex- 
perience of his Service, he thought he might 
lately trull the Cuftody of his Shambles in his 
Abfence : But Heftor one Day obferving, a- 
psir,:: ?. f 7 -r Ffft'va), the Shop to be much 
fuller of Meat than ufual, thought it was high 
1 ime to fet up for himfelf, and fb very reio- 
lutely denied his Mailer Entrance ; who had 
then no Remedy left but to (hoot him. 

I have above endeavoured to fiiew what, and! 
v'hat alone, ought to be called Credit, But 
there has lately rifrn up, in our Age, a new- 
fangled and fantaftical Credulity, which has 
tifurp'd the fame Name, and came in with the 
Word Bite 9 which has been made free of a 
Neighbouring Court ; whereby the poor, inno- 
cent, induftrious, and unwary People, have 
been delivered into the ravenous and polluted 
Jaws of Vultures and Tygers ; and Thoufands, 
i had alttibft fa'id Millions, have been facrificed, 
tofatiare the Gluttony of a few. This has in- 
verted the Oeconomy and Policy of Nations; 
made a great Kingdom turn all Gamefters ; and 


C4TO's LETTERS. 297 

Men have acquired the Reputation ofWifdom, 
from their Skill in picking Pockets : It has 
entered into the Cabinets of Courts ; has guid- 
ed the Counfels of Senates, and their whole 
Wifdom ; and mod of their Time has been 
employ'd in keeping up this vile and airy Traf- 
fick, as if theBufinefs of Government was non 
to protect People in their Property, but to cheat 
them out of it. 

This is eminently true in a Neighbouring 
Country ; and I wifh I could fay, that nothing 
like it had ever happened ampngft us. But as 
no Men no\v in Power are anfwerable for this 
great Mifchief, fo I hope and believe v/e (hall 
have their hearty Atliflance to extricate us out 
of all thefe Evils, And as 1 pleafe my (elf with 
believing that 1 fpeak the Senfe of my Superiors, 
fo I fhall take the Liberty to fay, that neither 
publfck nor private Credit can confift in felling 
any thing for more than it is worth, or for any 
thing but what it is. It is certainly the Intereft 
of a Country, that its Commodities (hould fell 
at a good Price, and find a ready Vent : that 
private Men fnould be able fafely to truft one 
another that Lands fhould find ready Purcha- 
fers, good Securities, Money at low Interefc ; 
and that Mortgages fhould be eafily transfer- 
able. And the Way to bring thefe good Pur- 
poles to pnfs, is to afcertain Titles ; give ready 
Remedies to the injured ; to procure general* 
Plenty by prudent Laws, and by giving all En- 
couragement to Inciuftry and Honeily. Bur in 
will never be effected, by authorizing or 
countenancing Frauds ; by enabling artful Men' 
to circumvent the Unwary, ftamping the pub- 

N 5 lick. 



lick Seal upon counterfeit Wares ; and by con- 
ftantly coining a new Sort of Property, of a 
precarious, uncertain, and tranfitory Value ; 
and by conftant Juggles and Combinations 
conlpiring to make it more fb : Which Con- 
duel:, whenever pradifed, muft fbon put an 
End to all publick and private Credit. 

In what Country foever thefe Practices meet 
with Encouragement, all fair and honeft Deal- 
ing will be turned into Juggling. There ^will 
quickly grow a fort of Cabaliftical Learning : 
And there will be a fecret and a vulgar Know- 
ledge ; one to be trufled only to the verc adepti 
and Managers j and the other to be divulged 
to the People, who v/iil be told nothing but 
what is for the Intereft of their Betters to com- 
municate ; and pretty Advantages may be 
made by being in the Secret. As for Exam- 
ple ; Juil before any publick Misfortune is to 
make its Appearance, thofe who know of h 
may fell out ; and in the Height of the Danger 
buy again ; and when 'tis over, by taking ano- 
ther Opportunity, they may fell a fecond Time, 
And when thefe Evils are averted, they may 
go to Market once more ; and fb, tones guoties, 
till the greateft Part of the Property of a King- 
dom is got into the Hands of but a few Per- 
fons, who will then undoubtedly govern all the 
re(l. Nor can thefe Mifchiefs be pclfibly pre- 
vented, but by wholly detlroying this fort of 
Traffick, or by appointing skilful Pilots to fee 
up occasional Buoys and Sea-Marks, according 
to the fhifting of the Winds and die I ides ; 
tint is, by alcertaining and publilLIng the real 
Value of all publick Securities, as often as there 


LETTR-RS. 199 

is an Alteration made in them by new Provi- 
(ions, or by wholly preventing the Abufes oo 
cafioned by the vile Trade of Stockjobbing ;. 
which I conceive is not difficult to do, when 
Stock Jobbers have no Hand in directing the 

Remedy. . 

Till fomething of this kind is done, it is 
foolifh to think, and worfe to pretend to think, 
that any effectual Methods can be taken to dif- 
charge and pay off the National Engagements : 
For in whatever Country it happens, that the- 
publick Funds become the Markers and iland- 
ing Revenues of thofe who can belt cure the 1 
Evil : where great and fudden Eftatcs may bs 
more' eafily railed by Knavery and Juggling,, 
than fmall ones by Virtue and Merit, where 
Plumbs may be got at once, and vaPr Societies 
may be made the Accomplices of Power, in 
order to be indulged with (eparate Advantages; 
it is not to be hoped that effectual Methods 
will be taken to dam and choak up fuch in- 
exhauftible Sources of Wealth and Dominion : 
On the contrary, it is to be feared, that new 
Projects will be yearly invented, new Schemes 
coloured with popular Pretences, to tofs and 
tumble the publick Securities, and to change 
them into as many Shapes as Proteus knew. 
One Year (hall metamorphofe the Schemes of 
another; and the next {hall undo both. The- 
Leaders of one Faction fhall unravel the Pro- 
jects of their Predeceffors ; fhall charge their 
Defigns with Corruption and Rapiflfc and be 
more rapacious rhemielves ; and a-H in their 
Turns (hail raife vaft Eftates upon the publick 
Ruins : and the laft Spirits -ihall be always the 


30Q C A ro's LETTERS. 

worft. Artful and confpiring Men (Tiall buy 
up defperate Debts, and then ufe Intrigues and 
Corruption to load their Country with them ; 
and the Bufinefs of Nations (hall ftand ftill, or 
rather it (hall become their Bufinefs to fifti in 
thefe troubled Streams, till by long Experience 
of the Lofs of their Fellows the Fifh will bite 
no longer ; and then 'tis eafy to guefs what 
as next to be done. There is but one Method 
which can be taken ; and that will be taken. 

I would gladly know what Advantage ever 
has, or ever can, accrue to the Publick, by 
railing Stocks to an imaginary Value, beyond 
what they are really worth to an honeft Man, 
\vho jpurchafes them for a regular Support 
to bimfelf and Family, and defigns not to 
fell them again, till he has Occafion for the 
Money they will produce. It can moft af- 
furedly ferve no honeft Purpofe, and will pro- 
mote a Thoufand knavifh ones. Beiides thofe 
before mentioned, it turns moft of the current 
Coin of Enghwd out of the Channels of Trade, 
and the Heads of all its Merchants and Tra- 
ders off their proper Bufinefs : It enriches the 
worft Men, and ruins the Innocent : It taints 
Men's Morals, and defaces all the Principles 
of Virtue^ and fair Dealing, and introduces 
Combination and Fraud in all forts of Traf- 
fkk. h has changed honeft Commerce in to- 
Bubbling ; cur Traders into Projectors ; In- 
duftry into Tricking; and Applaufe is earned^ 
when the^Pillory is defer ved : It has created 
all the DHfatlsfacHon fo much complained of, 
and all the Mi f chiefs -attend ing it, which daily 
threaten us, and which give Reafbns of {land- 


ing or occasional Troops : It has caufed all the 
Confufion in our publick Finances : It has fee 
up monftrous Members and Societies in the 
Body Politick, which are grown, I had almoft 
faid, too big for the whole Kingdom : It has 
multiplied Offices and Dependencies in the 
Power 'of the Court, whicfi in Time may fill 
the Legiflature, and alter the Ballance of Go- 
vernment : It has overwhelmed the Nation 
with Debts and Burdens, under which it is 
almoft ready to fink ; and it has hindred thofe 
Debts from being paid off: For if Stocks fell 
for more, or much more upon the Exchange^ 
than the Prices at which they are redeemable ; 
or more can be got by jobbing them, than by 
difcharging them, then all Arts will be ufed to 
prevent a Redemption. But as this is not at 
prefent our Cafe, fo it is every Man's Interelf, 
concerned in our Funds, to fecure their Prin 
cipal, and to promote every Means which will 
enable their Country to pay them. 

I doubt not but I (hall incur the Cenfiire of 
many, by thus laying open our Nakednefs, and 
probing our Wounds ; and I cannot deny but I 
found feme Reluctance In doing it : But it mufb 
be done before they can be cured The Patienr 
cannot _ now bear Quacking ; and if effectual 
Remedies are not fpeedily taken, the Cafe is 
defperate. The Security and Intereft of the 
Crown,- the Power and Reputation of the- 
Kingdom, the Credit and Honour of the Mi- 
niirry, depend upon doing this great Work : 
And 1 really believe the latter have Inclinations 
and RefMutions to do it. It can never be done 
effe&ually without their Aliiftance j and if 


Giro's LETTERS. 

they give it, and fet themfelves at the Head of 
fo publick a Good, they will juftly obtain a 
Reputation far beyond any who have ever ap- 
peared before them, and will enjoy unenvied 
all the Wealth and Advantages which attend 
Greatnefs and Power. 'Tis Folly in any one, 
who is the leaft acquainted with the Affairs of 
Nations, to pretend not to fee, that if we do 
not fbon put our publick Debts in a Method of 
being paid, they can never be paid ; and all 
will certainly do their utmoft to prevent fb 
fatal a Mifchief to their Country who do not 
intend it. But if there are any fuch, which I 
hope and believe there are not, they will then 
undoubtedly take early Care to fave themfelve& 
out of the general Wreck, which very few 
will be able to do, though all will intend it. 
Thofe in the Secret will have the Advantage ; 
for when Selling becomes the Word, DQ one 
can fell, unlefs he fells for little or nothing. 
All are waiting for a Rife ; and if that hap- 
pens, all or moil will endeavour to fell, and 
then all Selling is at an End : The Managers 
and Brokers will engrofs the Books as they did 
lately, and command the fir ft Sale , and by 
the Time they are got out, no one elfe will 
be able to get out. 

There is nothing therefore left to be done, 
but for all honed Men to join Heads, Hearts, 
and Hands, to find all Means to difcharge the 
publick Burdens, and to add no more to them ; 
to fearch every Meafure whereby we can le fieri', 
the National Expenccs ; to avoid all Occafions 
of engaging in new ones ; and to do all in our 
Power to increale Trade and the publick 



Wealth, without facrificing it to any Jobbs or 
private Views. Which Conduct alone will 
enable us honeftly to pay off what we owe, 
and to become once more a free, rich, happy, 

and flouriftiing People. 

I am, &.C. 

THE Condition of an Abfblute Prince is 
thought the higheft Lot of humane Life, 
in point of Splendor, Plenty, and Power ; and 
perhaps the loweft in point of Happinefs. 
The greateft Appearances of Pleafure are no 
certain Proofs of Pleafure ; and he who can 
enjoy all Things, has often the lead Enjoy- 
ment ; having little or nothing to expe<5t, he 
is at a Stand in Life ; than which there cannot 
be a greater Unhappinefs. It is an agreeable 
Fallacy which Men keep themfelves under, 
that while they find themfelves daily difap- 
pointed in the Enjoyments from which they 
expected moil Pleafure, they (till prefs forward 
to more Enjoyments, without expecting to be 
difappointed, tho' they certainly will. Their 
Happinefs confifts in being deceived without 
knowing it ; and when they find that they are, 
they do not grow wifer, but go^on to promife 
themfelves Satisfaction from Things, which, 
upon a Thoufand Trials, they have found, 
gave them none. 



Our only lafting Pleafure therefore is Ex- 
pehation : And v/hat have Abfolute Princes 
to expe6l ; they who are in PofTeilion of all 
Things ? And yet they cannot live without 
Expe&ation : They grow weary of Pleafures 
within^ their Power, and are therefore for 
ftretching their Power to procure more, or 
better; which yet it will not procure : DUE 
their Hopes beguile them. 

Hence great and famous Conquerors, never 
content with their prefent Condition, come to 
be the inceflant Troublers of the World : And 
they who fliould have protected it, and pre- 
ferved^ its Peace, have .often fought their Plea- 
fures in the Tears,- Mifery, and Sorrows of 
Millions ; and often found their own Grief,/ 
Ruin, and ill Fate in doing (b. That this has 
been their Character, is too univerlally true ; 
and I believe it will be hard to (hew one fuch 
Prince in an hundred, who never laid Snares 
either againft his own People, or his Neigh- 
bours ; and tho' he never did, yet it was their 
Duty and near Concern to be upon their Guard 
againft him : They might have depended upon 
it, as a Propofition that had infinite Odds of 
its Side, that he was not fatisfied with his pre- 
fent Condition, and that: he would alter it, if" 
he could, at their Expence : Either his Power- 
was not abfblute enough, or his Dominions not 
wide enough ; nor would they ever have been,, 
whatever AcceiHons of both accrued to him. 
There was flill fbme darling Point to gain, 
dearer than any before gained, tho" they were 

fo before they were gained, 

LETTERS. 505- 

Tt is the hard Fate of Conquerors, that their 
only, or chiefeft remaining Pleafure, is that of 
doing Mifchief ; but the Fate of their Subje&s 
and Neighbours is harder. They are ^often 
undone tofurnifh out Employment for their Go- 
vernours, who find their Pleafure in deftroying 
their People, or in doing that which deilroys 
them. To increafe Pov/er is, no doubt, ^the 
Maxim of thefe Princes ; but their Practice 
generally contradicts it, while they leffen their 
People and their Wealth to enlarge their Ter- 
ritory ; every Addition of this kind being an 
Addition to their Weaknefs ; and therefore 
great Empires, from the Moment they are at 
their Heighth, are in a continual Decay ; the 
Decay and Difcouragement of the People be- 
ing the unnatural Means of their firft Growth ; 
and their Increafe contained in it, and carried 
along with it, certain Seeds of Decreafe and 

It may feem a Contradiction, to fay, That 
the Whole can be built upon the Deftru&ion 
of the Parts : And yet it is true of ablplute 
Monarchy, which does ever fubfift by ruining 
and deftroying thole by whom it fubiifts ; and 
the People, without whom it is nothing, mull 
be undone to make it what it is. It is a Power 
erected upon the Ruin of its own Strength, 
which is the People ; and when they are gone, 
the Power muft go, growing firft impotent in 
proportion to their Mifery and Thinnefs ; and 
that it does make them miferable and thin, 
and muft at laft extinguifh them, I have at 
large fhewn in former Letters ; I think, de- 

monftrated. It may bounce and terrify for a 

i i 


306 Giro's LETTERS. 

while, and extend its Bounds ; but even at the 
Time when It looks biggefl: and flrongeft, it 
is wearing out, and by its Conqueft does but 
dig its own Grave the deeper, by confuming 
its old People to acquire new, whom it alia 
confumes, and with whom it mud alfb con- 
fume ; like a Debauchee in private Life, the 
fader he lives, the lefs he has to live. 

The Conquefts of the Spaniards made a great 
Noife in the World, and them very terrible 
for a Time. But their Gold and Silver Moun- 
tains of Mexico and Peru, tho' they are fuch glo- 
rious Prizes as never before fell to the Lot of 
any Conqueror, have not made that Nation A- 
mends for the Lofs and Fewnefs of their Peo- 
ple at Home. Thofe that remain there cannot 
be faid to be enrich'd by thefe vaft AcquHitions* 
whatever fome Particulars may be, who by 
their Inequality and Infblence opprefs the 
Whole. And for the Twkjfh Empire, which 
frightened Europe and the World, and fubdued 
great Part of it, it is fo wretchedly funk in its 
Discipline and Force?, and its Provinces are fb 
defolate and poor, that, in all humane Proba- 
bility, this Generation will fee it broken into 
an Hundred Pieces. It has fpun itfelf out, as 
the Saracen Empire did before it, into a Thread 
too long and too fin a 11 to bear its own great 
Burden without breaking. 

People are like Wire : The more they are 
extended, the Weaker they become ; and the 
ciofer they are together, the richer they grow, 
and more potent. This is the Language of 
common Senfe and Experience : But Ambition 
{peaks another and a different 8 for extenfive 



Empire and uncontrouled Dominion ; and be- 
ing too well heard, purs them upon facrifacmg 
their real Strength to that which is only ima- 
ginary Hence they become really impotent 
in queft of falfe Power, and deftroy Men m 
grofs for the venal Breath of a few Flatterers, 
which they call Glory. But horrid and de- 
teftable are the Ways tc\fuch Glory, which 
incites them to ravage and plague, to fetter 
and kill humane Race for the Sake ot a plea- 
fant Dream, to which too they facnfice all -heir 
waking Quiet, and make themfeives and ail 
others miferable for this delufive Dream ot 
their own feparate Happinefs, which, like 
Phantom, mocks their Sight, and flies trom 
them the more they purfue it. 

Befides, whofoever coniiders the many L>im- 
culties and Dangers, the endlefs Uncertainties 
2nd Anxieties, and the general Horror and 
Hatred infeparable from fuch Purfuits, will 
lee how poorly they reward him who makes 
them ; having long ftretched out his Arms to 
embrace Happinefs, he is at laft forced to draw 
them back empty, or full of Sorrows, 
who who feeks Felicity this Way, hunts a 
Shadow, which he will never overtake : And, 
in truth, what can fuch a Troubler or. the 
Earth expe6V, but the bitter Averfion of his own 
People, whom he oppreffes and exhaufts, and 
the Curfes of Mankind, whom he perfecutes 
and lays wafte ? Conqueft gives him no new 
Security; but, far from it, multiplies thole who 
have a Mind to dcftroy him, and arms more 
Hands againft him. They who poflefs^moit, 
have more to fear; efpecially when coming to 


308 euro's LETTERS. 

their PoiTeinons by Injufttce, they rnuft main- 
tain them by Violence. Hence the end Ids 
Fears, and Infecurity of Conquerors arid Op- 
prefTors, and the many Conspiracies againil 

Sine Ctfde & Sanguine fauci 

^ therefore is the bitter Fruit, and fuch 

often is the terrible and bloody End of fucli 
'wild and pernicious Purfuits. No wife Man- 
would, for the Empire of the Earth, live in 
perpetual or ftrong Apprehenfions of any kind, 
much lefs under a tormenting Opinion, that 
whole Nations detefted mm, and fought his 
Life for making them rr.ifcrable, as Conquer- 
ors always do, and muft corifequeritly be con- 
fidered by tliem as their worft Enemies, 

But the ftrange Madnefs of Conqueft appears 
from- another Confideration, namely," that 
there^ is not a Prince in the World, let his 
Territory be ever fb final 1, but mutt find full 
Employment to govern it, if he governs it as 
he fliould do : and therefore there never was- 
a j*reat Empire fb well governed as private 
Cities; and no City fo well as private Farni- 
lies.^ Where the Governed are but few, or live 
in little Compafs, the Eye of the Magiftrate 
is^ over them, and the Eye of the Law over 
him, where he is not above it : Complaints 
can^ be eafily examined, and Violence and In- 
juftice be quickly overtaken, or readily pre- 
vented. But in wide and over-grown Empires, 
e/pecially where All depends upon the Will 
and Care of One, let his Heart be ever fb up- 


C^rO'sLETTERS. 309 

Tight, a Thoufarsd Evils and Injuries will be 
done, which he can never hear of, nor they 
who fufler them have the Means of reprefent- 
ing to him ; and which probably are done or 
connived at by his own Deputies, whom, he 
employs to prevent or puniOi them. 

All Princes have indeed more Bufinefs than 
they can well do ; and when they look out for 
new Bufmefs, they mufb neglect the old, and 
throw off necefTary Cares, to afliime wanton 
ones, inconfiftent with the other. Harmlefs 
Amufements they ought to have ; and what- 
ever Amufements thole are, is all one to their 
People, provided the general Security be con- 
fulted, and Property and Peace be preferved. 
But to embark in Wars, and make Conquefts 
at the Expence of the People, and not for the 
People, is a prepoftereus Way of protecting 
them ; and of fulfilling the Duties of Reigning. 
Such a War was that of Troy 3 where all the 
Princes of Greece, leaving their feveral States 
in a State of Anarchy, and draining off their 
braved Men, beat their Heads againil Stone 
Walls for Ten Years together, becaufe thefe 
Walls contained, as they were told, a Greek 
Beauty who was a great Strumpet. And ha- 
ving facrihced their Time, their Navy, and 
the Forces of their Country, to this wile Re- 
fentment, at lad, by a Stratagem, they got 
their chafte and important Prize, and for Joy 
and Anger, burnt the City, putting the King 
and all the Inhabitants, who had done them 
no Wrong, to the Sword. 

Moft of the Wars in the Word have been 
Trojan Wars j but mod particularly thcfe in 



the Holy Land, whither mod of the Princes m 
Chriflendom made Innatick and ruinous Expe- 
ditions, to refcue from the Saracens a Grave 
which could not be known from other Graves. 
Great Preparations were lately made for a Trojan 
War at Aftracan ; and in Italy a T*cjan War is 
apprehended We too, fince the Reigns of the 
Plantagenets, have had our Trojan Wars ; and 
our Englijh A/axes and Achilles' s have fought 
many bloody Battles, in which England had no 
other Intereii, but the inward Satisfa&ion and 
Glory of lofing its Men and Money. 

Conqueft, or Fighting for Territory, is, for 
the moft part, the moft (liamelefs Thing in the 
World. Government is either defigned for the 
People's Good, or elfe I know not what Bufi- 
nefs it has in the World : And therefore in all 
Contefts among Conquerors about Territory, 
if natural Juftice and common Senfe were to 
decide it, that Prince ought to carry it, who 
can fatisfy the People that he will ufe them 
bed. And fornetimes they all vouchsafe to 
promife this, tho'very few of them perform it. 
But this Confideration, which ought to be the 
only one, and is perhaps ufed by them in their 
Manifefto's, has not the lead Weight with molt 
of them. On the contrary, their chief Argu- 
ment to move People, is often the molt ridi- 
culous, (lupid, and abfurd, of all others, and 
really concerns the People the leaft of any 
other. As to the great Point of uling the Peo- 
ple well, and promoting their Pofterity, theie 
are Conliderations ib much below theThoughts 
of your Conquerors, and fo oppofite to their 
Pradice, that if the People were to throw 



Dice for one of them, they would do as wifely 
as if they chofe him by deliberate Voices, if 
they were at Liberty to chufe him, (ince there is 
rarely a better or a worfe amongft them. And 
therefore the Per (inn Nobles did nor amifs, 
when they delegated the Choice of fucri a So- 
vereign to the Horfes they rode. If FiriUp II. 
of Spain had in the leair. aimed at governing the 
Seven Provinces for their Good, he would never 
have disturbed their Revolt, fince he might fee 
that they profpered a thoufand times rafter 
without him than ever they could with him. 
But as this reafbrlable and beneficent Thought 
had no Authority with him ? he- exhauited in 
vain the Forces of that great Monarchy, to re- 
duce thofe new States under his Tyranny, and 
to make them as wretched and defolate as he 
made his other Dominions. 

I am, &c. 


E N co, for the Sake of their Poilerity^ 
many Things, which, they tell us, they 
would not do for their own Sake. The Wealth 
which they do not fpend, they lay up for Po- 
flerity ; and their Care for Pofterity is made a 
Pretence, to juftify all the Acquiiitions they 
make of Fortune and Dominion. But this is 
falfe Reafoning, tho' by it they often deceive 
rhemfelves and others : They find that they 
have greater Appetites to acquire Wealth than 


x C^fO's LETTERS. 

they hav<? to enjoy it ; and not being able to 
deny, that V eai'h is only fb far ufeful as it is 
env>yM, and no farther, they cannot juftify 
their Condu&> but by furnifhing themlelve* 
w'r n a falff Excufc from their Regard for Po- 
ftenty : As if the Affe&ions of Men could be 
flronger for others, and for a future Race, of 
whom they know noshing, or for fiich as per- 
haps may never exift, than for themfelves. 
Doubtlefs Men are in no Circumftances to be 
leparated from fhernfelves : They are ever the 
chief Objects of their own Tendernefs and 
good Willies ; and the Love of Poflerity is 
only Self-love, continued beyond the Grave. 
We fee thofe who have no Poileriry, nor the 
Prcfpecl: of any, engaged in the fame paffionate 
and greedy Furfuits as thofe who have ; and 
they often leave their Eftates, when they die, 
to .thofe for whom, while they lived, they 
(hewed no Concern. 

This Ambition therefore amongft Men of 
leaving an ilJuftrious Pofterity, is meer Self- 
love j a Pailion to furvive themfelves, 'and ^to 
make a Figure after they are dead. To gratify 
this Palfion, Men in all Stations often take 
wild and unaccountable Courfes : They em- 
ploy great Pains for that which they can never 
enpy, and run many Dangers for what^ they 
will never reap : They drudge, and laborioully 
contrive Ways to wear themfeives out, and deny 
themfelves Reft and Eafe, and the Comforts of 
Life, that fome future Men, whom they know- 
not, may live In Idleness and Abundance, and 
perhaps defpife tbcic their careful and penurious 



Anceftors, who painfully provided for them 
the Means of Luxury, and enabled them to bfe 
infblent, or debauched, or infignificant to So- 
ciety. They are indeed generally but even 
With one another. The Dependent receives, 
without Gratitude, an Eftate which his An- 
ceftor left him without Affe&ion, People would 
take it greatly amifs, if you fuppofed that they 
wanted Honour for their Anceftors, or Regard 
to their Pofterity, and that they themfelves are 
the only real Obje6b of all this Regard, and 
of that Honour. But let them ask themfelves, 
Whether they would reftore to their Grandfa- 
ther again the Eftate which he left them, were 
lie to rife from the Dead, and demand it ? or, 
Whether they are willing to part with it to their 
Children before their own Death ? or, if they 
fbmetimes do, Whether they have not other 
^lotives befides paternal AtfecHon? and, Whe- 
ther their own Credit and Vanity be not th& 
flrongeft ? 

Thus Men gratify their own Tempers, and 
Invent fine falfe Reafbns and fpecious Names 
for what they do. A PafHon for Pofterity, is a 
Pailjon for Fame; and he who raifes a Family, 
confiders his Race as hereditary Truftees for his 
.Name and Grandeur, and as the proper Means 
and Channel for perpetuating himfelf. Nor 
does he carry about him an Appetite more fel- 
iifh and perfonal than this. So that all the 
wicked Things which a Man does to raife ^ 
Poilerity, are but fb many infamous Steps to 
acquire perfonal Fame, which he will never 
arrive at ; and does therefore but labour againft 
the very End which he labours for, If his Po- 

VOL, 1IL Q fterit? 

314 Giro's LETTERS. 

fterity prove good, it will be remembred to 
their Praife, and his Shame, what a vile An- 
ceftor they had : If they prove bad, it will not 
be forgot how much they referable him ; and 
he will become ftiil more odious in his odious 
Dependents. Even the wifeft Men do a foolifh 
Thing, when they employ great Ailiduity and 
Care to leave a great Eftate to a Random-Heir, 
whom Nature, or Chance, or the Law gives 
them. How many immenfe Eflates, gathered 
in a long Courfe of Years and Application, 
have we jeen thrown away fuddenly upon Har- 
lots and Sharpers I The Acqu Unions of half a 
Century have difappeared, as it were, in a, 
Moment ; and the chief remaining Monu- ? 
ments of the Founder's Name were Jefts made 
upon his Memory. 

But of all the foolifh and wicked Ways of 
railing Families, none equals that of raifing 
them upon the Ruins of publick Liberty. The 
general Security is the only certain Security of 
Particulars ; and tho' defperate Men often find 
Safety in publick Deftru&ion, yet they cannot 
enfiire the fame Safety to their Children, who 
inufi: fuffer with the reft in the Mifery of all. 
If Great wicked Men would confider this, 
the World would not be plagued with their 
Ambition. Their Pofterity fcarce ever mifs to 
reap the bitter Fruits of their Actions; and the 
Curfe of their Iniquities rarely fails to follow 
them to the third and fourth Generation. 

The Inftruments of publick Ruin have ge- 
nerally at once entailed Mifery upon their 
Country, and upon their own Race. Thofe 
who were the Inftruments and MJnifters of C<efar 


LETTERS. 3 15- 

and An* ufl us, and put the Commonwealth un- 
der their Feet, and them above the Laws, did 
not ^confider, that they were not only forging 
Chains for their Country, but whetting Swords 
againft their own Families, who were all cut off 
under fucceeding Tyrants : Nay, moftoftheu- 
Children fell early and bloody Sacrifices to the 
cruel and fulpicious Spirit of Tiberius. He be- 
gan his Reign with the Murder of young 
dgrippa, whofe Father had, by his Courage 
and Conduft in War, eftablifhed the Tyranny 
in that Houfe. \Vhat availed to Agrippa all his 
great Riches, his fumptuous Buildings, and 
even his near Alliance with the Prince, whofe 
Daughter he married, but to haften and mag- 
nify the Fall and Deftruaion of his Houfe ? 
There was not one t(oman Family wickedly 
enriched by their bale Subferviency iQdiignftus 9 
but was flaughtered and confifcated under -his 
Succeflbrs, and moft of them under his irome- 
-diate Succeffor : Nay, their Riches and Splen- 
dor were Reafbns for deftroying them. The 
freed Slaves of the Emperors grew afterwards 
the firft Men m f(cme, and had at their Mercy 
the Heads and -Eftates of the Patricians ; nor 
could any of the -great Roman Lords come into 
any Pod or Office in their own Empire, but 
by the Pleafure and PermifHon of thofe Slaves, 
and by fervile Court paid to them. 

Would their illuftrious Anceftors, who were 
the Friends and Abettors of C^r, have done 
as they did, had they forefeen this vile Sub- 
lervjency of their Pofterity to Slaves and Pa^ 
thicks, and the daily and wanton Sacrifices 
made of their boafted Blood ? And yet was 

P 2, net 


not all this eafily to be forefeen ? While they 
were arming him with a Power over their 
Country, they difarm'd themfelves of all Title 
to their Lives and Eftates. By laying up Riches 
for their Families, they did but lay Snares for 
the Ruin of their Families. It grew a Crime 
under thefe Tyrants, to be confpicuous for any 
thing ; and Riches, Virtue, Eloquence, Cou- 
rage, Reputation, nay, Names and Accidents, 
became Crimes. Men, and even Women, 
were put to Death for having had illu ftrious 
Anceftors ; and ibme for bearing the fortuitous 
Sirnames of Great Men dead an hundred Years 

So that thefe Men, who, from the Bait of 
prefent Wealth and Place, helped to overthrow 
the Conftitution of that great State, were not 
only the Parricides of their Country, but the 
Murderers of their own Children and Families, 
by putting a lawlefs Dagger into the Hands of 
thefe Tyrants to execute thefe Murders. They 
fold their own Blood and Pofterity to thefe 
imperial Butchers, whofe chief Employment it 
was to flied it. Thefe miftaken Men might 
flatter and blind themfelves with a Conceit, that 
they were laying up Riches for Ages, and en- 
tailing Honours upon their lateft Race ; for 
what is fb blind as Ambition and Avarice ? 
But to their unhappy Dependents it proved a 
terrible Inheritance of Servitude, Exile, Tor- 
tures and Maffacre. What they meant to per- 
petuate their Fortune and Race, were the firft 
Things feized and extirpated. They had been 
real Traytors, to make their Children great; 
and their Children were put to Death for falfe 



Treafon, meerly for being great. So nearly are 
Punifhments allied to Crimes, and fo naturally 
do they rife from them 

Thus ra(h and unadvifed, even as to them- 
felvesand their own Families, are thefe wicked 
Men, who raife up an enormous Power in their 
Country, becaufe they wear its Livery, and are 
for fome Time indulged by it in their own 
Pride and Oppreilions ! And fo ungrateful is 
that Power when it is raifed, even to the Props 
and Inftruments that raifed it ! They themfelves 
are often crufhed to Death by it, and their Po- 
flerity certainly are. 

This mayferve, among other Arguments, to 
prove, that Men ought to be virtuous, juft, 
and good, for their own Sake, and that of their 
Families ; and efpecially great Men, whofe 
lading Security is beft found in the general Se- 
curity. Pericles had long and arbitrarily lavifhed 
away the publick Money, to buy Creatures 
and perpetuate his Power ; and dreading to 
give up his Accounts, which the Athenians be- 
gan to call for, thought he had no other Way 
to avoid doing this Juilice to his Country, but 
by adding another great Crime to his pafb 
CrimeSi He would venture the Ruin of the 
Commonwealth, rather than be accountable to 
it : He therefore throwed all Things into Con- 
fuiion, raifed Armies, and entered precipitately 
into a War with Lticed.tmon ; which after much 
Blood, Mifery, and Defblation, ended in the 
Captivity of his Country. During that War 
he died of the Plague, which the War was 
thought to occaiion , and to his Pride and 
Guilt alone were owing the Plague, W 7 ar, and 

O the 


taking of Athens^ with the Defblation of 
the City and Territory. Before he died, he 
felt the Lofs of his whole Family, and of all 
his Friends and Relations, and doubtlefs fore- 
fa w the Downfall of his Country. What huge 
and complicated Ruin ! He would lee the State 
fink, rather than lole his Authority in it : But 
in the Deftrudion of his Country, his own was 
juftly and naturally involved. Where was now 
the great, the politick, the eloquent Pericles ? 
Where was the proud State which he had long 
and haughtily fway'd ? Where was his Family 
and Race ? Where were all his mighty future 
Views ? Why, the Sword, the Peftilence, and 
foreign Conqueft, had by his own Manage- 
ment put a doleful End to them all ; and his 
Wifdom and profound Forefight proved mifera- 
ble and ruinous Folly, 

5- 1 R r . 

S I do not pretend to bs infpired my (elf, nor 
_, am fenfible that I have received any perfonal 
Revelation concerning the Whore of ^Babylon, nor 
to have Skill enough in the Apocalypfe to dif- 
cover the exact Time of the Fall of Antichrift; 
fo I ftall leave that Search to the profound Per- 
ibnswho are learned in prophetick Knowledge ; 
but would humbly advife them to ufe a little of 
their own Endeavours to demolifh the Harlot, 
and not to expert the whole from Providence. 



And to encourage them in this Undertaking, I 
(hall attempt to fhew in this Paper, what is told 
us in the Homilies, That foe is old and withered, 
and would have long fince fallen to pieces, if 
(he had not been patched with Searcloths, and 
kept alive by Cordials, adminiilered by the 
Charity of thofe who were, or ought to have 
been, her Enemies ; and that as fbcn as they 
leave off their Complaifance, give her no more 
Phyfick, nor adopt her Trumpery, her End 
will be certain : And this I ftiall attempt to 
prove from natural Caufes, leaving the iuper- 
natural ones to thofe. who underftand them 

It has been more than once faid in thefe 
Letters, that Population, Labour, Riches, and 
Power, mutually procure one another, and al- 
ways -go together : that where there are but few 
People, and thofe few are not employed, there 
will be litrle Wealth, and as little Power ; and 
confidently, thofe Governments, which pro- 
vide leaft for the Increafe of their People, and 
for the Employment of thole they have, are 
lefs capable of annoying their Enemies, or of 
preferving themfelves. Now, if we try the 
Power of Protefrant and Popiili States by this 
Teft, ir will appear abfolutely impoffible that 
the latter can long fubfift, if the former do not 
Icfe their natural Advantages by political 

In the Popifii States of Europe^ there are a 
Million or more of Male Ecclefiafticks, and 
almoft as many of the other Sex, ^vho by their 
Religion are hindered from Marriage, and con- 
fequently from Procreation, unlefs by Stealth, 

O 4 and 


and fpurlous Births, which rarely produce living 
Children ; and all, or moil of thefe, fubfifl up- 
on the Plunder of the People, without contri- 
buting any thing to the Publick Wealth, either 
by their Labour, or out of their immenfe Re- 
venues,, which are ufually exempted from 
Taxes, as are their Perfons from Wars; but, 
on the contrary, they have no other Bufmefs, 
but to fafcinate and turn the Brains of weak 
and enthufkftick People, and to make them 
loiter after MaflTes and ufelels Harangues, and 
to fill ^ their Heads with fenfelefs Speculations 
and wild Chimera's, which make them either 
ufelefs or dangerous to their Governors, and the 
ready Tools and Inftruments of turbulent and 
feditious Pedants ; which Evil is, or fliould 
be, better provided againft in all Proteftant 

In Popifh Countries, one third Part of the 
Tear, or more, is (pent in moil religioufly wor- 
fhipping dead Men and Women under the 
Name of Saints; in all which Time the Peo- 
pie dare not work to fupport their Families, 
bar mufl contribute, out of the little which 
remains, to pay their Oppreffors for preaching 
them out of their Wits ; and, by confluence, 
the Publick lofes all that the People would earn 
in thofe Days ; whereas, in Proteftant States, 
all, or mo ft of this Trumpery, Fs laid afide, 
and they, moft reafbnably judge, that Almighty 
God is not worfhipped by his Creatures ftarving 
themfelves, and weakening their Country. 

In Popifh Countries the Power of the Eccle- 
(iailicks is fo great, and their Revenues fb large, 
that the Civil Authority is often not able to 


CATffs LETTERS. 31* 

protect its Subje&s : The Priefts, by the In- 
cuifition and various Cruelties, feize their E- 
ftates, drive away their Merchants and Peo-- 
pie, or ftarve them at home, and frighten 
others from coming in their Room; fo tha? 
their Princes are forced to keep Meafures with, 
them, connive at, fubmit to, and fupport their 
Tyranny, to be protected in their own Power ; 
and, by fb doing, their unhappy and undone 
Subjects are reduced to the Condition of their 
great Mailer, to be crucified between two 
Thieves; On the contrary, in Proteftant States-- 
the Ecclefiafticks are equally fubjel with the 
reft of People to the Civil Power , are not fb 
numerous, nor have fb large Revenues, and 
thofe Revenues are taxable; nor have they fo 
much Power and Influence to miilead their 
Hearers, and confequently cannot do fb much 
Mifchief, and if kept to their proper Buftnefe, 
may do much Good by their pious Examples,, 
snd by their godly Precepts. 

In Popifh Countries a great Part of the Year 
is fpent in keeping -Lent, and in Failing- Days, 
when the People, by their Poverty, are reduced 
to live- upon drinking or unwholefbme Food, 
whereby many of them perift, and the reft are 
weakened and enervated, and rendered unfit 
either for Labour or Procreation-- and then 
fucceeds a riotous Carnival, during which they 
are idle and debauched ; and both rhefe Ex- 
t reams, in their Turns, produce Difeafes,- Po- 
verty, and' Mjfery : j whereas in Proteftar.v 
Countries the People, live in regular Plenty, 
according to their Condition, keep them-elves 
.. conftant Labour and Exercife > and by fucK 

O 5' Mean- 

i C A 7*0's L E T T E 

Means preferve their Bodies in Health, and 
their Minds within their Bodies, without fend- 
ing them abroad a Viiion-hunting. 

In Poplfh Countries great Quantities of Gold 9 
Silver, and Jewels, which ought to circulate, 
and be uied in Commerce, are buried as ufelefly 
as when in the Mine; are applied to adorn 
Images and Churches, or are locked up in Ca- 
verns, and rendered unserviceable to Mankind. 
This, foriboth, is called Devotion, and giving 
to God what he before gave to Men^for their 
life ; and their Way of obeying him, is to 
make no life of it, and to lodge it only where 
;here can be an ill life made of it. But I thank 
. ; od this Superftition is pretty well over in Pro- 
teflant Countries, where the People (a few^old 
Women and Dotards excepted) think their 
Riches are better employ'd to maintain their 
Families, Relations, and Friends, thantofup~ 
port Idlers and Cynicks. 

In, Popifa- Countries^ their Ecelefiafticks, 
liv ing in Idlenefs and Riot, muft be more lafci- 
vious than if otherwife employed, and by the 
Means of ConfeiTions^ and other fee ret Com- 
munications with Women, have better and 
frequenter Opportunities to debauch them 
themfelra, and. to carry ^ on Intrigues for 
ethers, whereby fhey break in upon the Peace 
of Families, and interrupt the Harmony which 
ought to accompany a. married Eftate. ^To 
prevent in a good mealure. which Miiehiefs, 
(tince they are forbid to marry,) theie States 
are neceffitated to tolerate eftabliilied Courte- 
sans under -a Regulation, which hinders many 
other s.lrom, marry ing , debauches their Minds ? 




ruins their Eftates. and enervates their Bodies* 
and yet gives few Children to the Common- 
wealth : Which Mifchief is well provided 
againit in Proteftant Countries ; for there^ no 
Man is obliged to truft his Wife with a Prieft 3 
and, for the moil part, they find it conve- 
nient to marry themfelves ; and a^BleiTing vi- 
fibiy attends their Endeavours, no Rank of 
People being more oblerved to multiply their 


In Popifli Countries many foreign Wars arc 
raifed and ftirred up by the Pride and Ambi- 
tion of the Ecclefiafticks to increafe their Pow- 
er ; and many domeftick ones fomented for the 
"fame Reafon, about the Power of the Pope,^ 
the Inveftiture of Princes, the Immunities ^oi* 
the Clergy ; and endlefs Contentions arlfe with 
the States they live under, about their pecu- 
liar Privileges, as well as conftant Perfections 
againPc all who oppofe their Pretences: All 
which Wars and Quarrels exhauft the People 9 
perplex the publick Affairs, and either divide 
them into Factions, or, which is much worfe, 
make them all of their own. But in Proteftanj 
Countries thefe Evils are lefs enormous : The 
People begin to- fee with their own Eyes, and 
will not undo one another to gratify the Am- 
bition of any who would opprefs them all ; 
nor force or drive cut of their Country ufefu! 
Inhabitants, for dry Chimera's and ufelcfs No- 
;;ons, and for the Shape of their i houghts, 
and Imaginations ; and many, of their < Jie-rg)' 
do not -defire it. 

In Popifib Countries, great Numbers ot idle 
ufelefs Members of Society are employee! 

* *- 

euro's LETTERS. 

fo fupport the Luxury of the Ecclefiafticfcsi or 
to contribute to their Superdirion; as Orga^ 
nifts, Fidlers, Singers, Scholars as they are called,' 
numerous Officers of various Kinds, and many 
lazy Beggars, who feed upon their Scraps, or 
are fupported by their Means out of the Cha* 
rity of others, who are perfwaded that they 
ferve God in keeping them idle and neceiHtous, 
and' without labouring for a Stibfiftance : All 
thefe are a dead Weight upon Society, live 
like Drones in a Hive, and eat Honey without 
making any. This Grievance is not fo great 
in Proteftan-t Countries, the Clergy among ft 
them not being ufed to throw away their Mo^ 
ney without having fomething for it. 

Iti Popidi Countries there is an Afvlurrr and 
San&uary in every Parifti, where "Robbers, 
Murderers, and all forts of -Criminals, are de- 
fended againft their Sovereigns and their Laws; 
by which- Means Banditti and Aflaflins are 
Become a fort of Eft abli (foment, and are the 
Swifs and Guards of -the Papacy, depend up. 
on the PrieR-s for Protection, and are always 
at hatd to execute their bloody Defigns, and 
ro partake of the Spoil, as well as to be hired 
by others; by which Means there are numerous 
and nightly Murders- in thofe Countries, and 
the People there dare. not go- about their -necef- 
fery Affairs ; and therefore cannot have the 
fame Security and Encouragement as in Pro- 
Eeftant -^Countries, where this enormous- Wide- 
cdneJ3 !s net allowed and pratifed, and where 
ie Priefls cannot proteft AiTajfins ; 'and the 
\vortfc that can be faid of any of them is, that 
ih.i/ \v-or/t ad fai:4c with" theai alterward3 ? 



but are ready to abfblve them at the Gallows- 
if they have been doing" their Work : And in 
one Inftance, in a certain Junfdi&iorj, where 
a certain High-Priefr, or thofe who afc under 
him, compound with Delinquents by the Great 
for Crimes they have committed, or are to 
commit for the Year enfuing ; alamode of his 
Holinef5 ; at tyme 

Thefe, and infinite other Evils, are pro* 
duced by the Popifh Religion, which depo- 
pulates Nations, deftroys InduRry, overturns 
Law and Juftice, the Cements of Society, di 
courages Trade, drives out Merchants, ener- 
. vates States, and renders the Race of Mankind 
feeble, lazy, and miferable : .Nor can- I fee a 
barePoffibility how thefe wretched People can 
extricate themiei'ves out of their doleful Con- 
dition, which muft ftill go on from bad to 
worfe, till they become fo weak as to be the 
Prey of foreign Enemies, or to expire by an 
internal Confumprion ; for the Power of the 
Eccleirafticks is (b great, and depends fo much 
upon keeping the Layety poor, ignorant, idle, 
and helplefs, that they cannot have the Will 
or Power to recover themfeives. 

This wicked Policy Iras turned the Campania 
of Romci and all the populous and fertile Pro- 
vinces of Italy, into Boggs, MoraiTes, and. De- 
farts, and would have long (ince extinguished 
Popery, if fome of the Proteiiant States had 
not forgot the Principles upon which they had 
reformed, and others had not fubmitted to do- 
meftick Slavery, but little worfe than Eccleft- 
aftical, as both flowing from the fame Root, 
and producing the fame Evils, tho' not in the 



lame Degree ; however, I think the Cata- 
ftrophe of Popery is but a little farther removed, 
for the few States amongit theProteftants, with 
prudent Laws, and a wife Conduct alone, may- 
be in a Condition, if they can keep their Li- 
berty, without (Inking a Stroke but in their 
own Defence, to demolifli and overturn this 
monilrous Babel, or make or fuger it to de- 
ftroy itfelf. 

I 'am, 6cc. 

NLY the Checks put upon Magiftrates 
make Nations free ; and only the Want 
of fuch Checks makes them Slaves. They are 
free,where their Magiftrates are confined with- 
in certain Bounds fet them by the People, and 
a& by Rules prefcribed them by the People ; 
And they are Slaves, where their Magiftrates 
chufe their own Rules, and follow their Luft: 
and Humours'; than which, a more dreadful 
Curfe can befai no People ; nor did ever any 
Magiftrate do what he pleated, but the People 
were undone by his Pleafure ; and therefore 
mod Nations in^ the World are undone, and 
thote Nations only who bridle their Governours 
do not wear Chains. 

Unlimited Power is fo wild and monftrous 
a Thing, that however natural ir be fo define 
it, it i? as natural to oppofe k ; nor ought in 
to be fruited with any mortal Man, be his In- 

CATffs LETTERS. 3-17 

tentions ever To upright : For, befides that he 
will never care to part with it, he will rareiy 
dare. In fpight of himfelf he will make many 
Enemies, againft whom he will be protected 
only by his Power, or at leaft think himfelt 
bell protected by it. The frequent and un- 
forefeen Neceffities of his Affairs, and frequent 
Difficulties and Oppofition, will force him, 
for his own Prefervation, or for the Preferva- 
tion of his Power, to try Expedients, to tempt 
Dangers, and to do Things which he did not 
forefee, nor intend, and perhaps, in the 
ginning, abhorred. 

We know, by infinite Examples and Expe- 
rience, that Men poffeffed of Power, rather 
than part with it, will do any thing, even the 
worft and the blackeft, to keep it ; and Icarce 
ever any Man upon Earth went out of it as 
long as he could carry every thing his own Way 
m it ; and when he could not, he refigned. I 
doubt there is -not one Exception in the Work 
to this Rule ; and that Dioclefian, Charles the 
Fifth, and even Sylla, laid down their Power 
out of Pique and Difcontent, and from I 
pofition and Difappointmenr. This feems cer- 
tain, That the Good of the World, or of their 
People, was not one of their Motives either 
for continuing in Power, or for quitting it. 

It is the Nature of Power to be ever en- 
croaching . and converting every extraordinary 
Power, granted at particular Times, and upc 
particular Occafions, into an ordinary Power, 
to be ufed at all Times, and when there is no 
Occafion : nor does it ever part willingly witi 
any Advantage. From this Spirit ic is, tnac 



occafiona'l Commi (lions have grown fometimes 
perpetual ; that Three Years have been im- 
proved into Seven, and One into Twenty ; 
and that when the People have done with their 
Magiftrates, their Mag id rates will not have 
done with the People. 

The Romans, who knew this Evil, having 
fuffered by it, provided wife Remedies againft 
it ; and when ordinary Power grew too-great, 
checked it with another. Thus the Oflice and 
Power- of the Tribunes was fet up to ballance 
that of the Confuls, and to protect the Po- 
pulace againft the Tnfolence, Pride, and In- 
trenchments oF the Nobility : And when the 
Authority of the Tribunes grew too formida- 
ble, a good Expedient was found out to reftrain 
it ; for in any turbulent or factious Defign of 
the Tribunes, the Proteft or Diffent of any 
one of them made void the Purposes and Pro- 
ceedings of all f the red. And both the Con- 
fuls and the Tribunes were chofen only for a 

Thus the Romans prcferved their Liberty by 
limiting the Time and Power of their JViagi- 
ftrates, and by making them anfwerable after- 
wards for their Behaviour in it : And beildes 
all this, there lay from the Magiilrates an- Ap- 
peal to the People ; a Power which, however 
great, they generally ufed with eminer.r-Mo- 
d-e(ly and Mercy ; and, like the People of othsr 
Nations, finned much feldomer than their Go- 
vernours. Indeed, in- any publick Diforder, 
or Misrortime, the People are (cares ever in 
the Fau-lt ; but, ^ far on the other Side, fu%r 
often 5 with a criminal .Patience 5 the fore Evils 



brought wantonly or fooliflily upon them by 
others, whom they pay dear to prevent them. 

This facred Right of appealing to the Peo- 
pie, was fecured to them by a very good and 
very fevere Law, which is to be found m.Lify 
in thefe Words : Aliam delnde confularem legem 
de provocatione, unlcum prccfidium Libertatis de- 
cemvirali poteftate everfam, ncn reftituunt modo 9 
fed etiam muniunt, fanciendo novam legem, ne 
quis ullum Magiftratum fine provocatione ere- 
aret : Qui creaffet, eum Jus Fafque eflet occi- 
di : Neve Cxdes capitalis noxse haberetur. 
" The former confular Law for appealing to 
" the People, (the firft and only great Support 
" of Liberty) having been overturned by the 
" Ufurpation of the Decemviri, was now not 
" only reftored, but fortified by a new Law,; 
" which forbad the creating of any Mfigiftrnte with- 
" out Appeal, and made it lawful to kill any Man 
" that did fo, without fubjetting the Kjller to a 
" capital Penalty" The Romans had but too 
good Reafori for thefe Laws ; for the Decemviri, 
from whom there was no Appeal, had enflav'd 


And becaufe the being frequently choien into 
Power, might have Effefts as bad as the long. 
Continuance in it, Cicero, in his Book De Legi- 
bus, tells us,, that there was an expfefs Law, 
Eundem Magiftratura, ni interfuerint decem Anni, 
ne quis Capita ; " That no Man (hould bear 
" the fame Magiftracy which he had born be- 
" fore, but after an Interval of ten Years." 
This Law was afterwards ftrengthened 
fevere Penalties. Hence %utilius Cenforius 
blamed the People in a publick Speech for 


3 jo C^rO's LETTERS. 

creating him twice Cenfor : And Fabius *Maxi- 
mus would have hindered them from chufing 
his Son Conful, tho' poiTeiTed of every Virtue 
proper for one, becaufe the chief Magiftracies 
had been too long and too often in the Fabian 
Family. And there are many Inftances in the 
Roman Hiflory, of Magiftrates, Chief Magi- 
ftrates, being degraded for their Pride, Ava- 
rice, and Male- Adrniniftration ; and thofe who 
were thus degraded, were by Law difabled, like 
our late Directors, from ever enjoying again 
any Pod or Power. Nor were the Romans lefs 
careful to oblige their Magiftrates, as Toon as 
they came out of their Offices and Govern- 
ments, to make up their Accounts, and to give 
a ftricl; Account of their good Behaviour ; and 
for an ill one they were often condemned, 
and their Eftates confifcated. Befides all which, 
to be a Senator, or a Magiflrate, a certain 
Qualification in Point of Fortune was required ;. 
and thofe who had run through their Fortunes,, 
were degraded from the Dignity of Senators 
A reafonable Precaution, that they who were 

* w 

entrufted with the Intereft of their Country, 
fhould have fbrne Interell of their own in it ! 

In this Manner did the fyman People check 
Pov/er, and thofe who had it ; and when any 
Power was grown quite ungovernable, th^y 
aholifhed it. Thus they expelled Tarquin, and 
the Kingly Government, having firft fuffered 
much by it ; and they profpered as eminently 
without if. That Government too had been.> 
extremely 'limited : The firil tymtin Kings 
were little more than Generals for Life : They 
had no negative Vote in the Senate, and could 


's LETTERS. 331 

neither make War nor Peace ; and even in 
the Execution of Juftice, an Appeal lay from 
them to the People, as is manifeft in the Cafe 
of the furviving Horatius-, who flew his Sifter. 
Servtus Tullus made Laws, fays -Tacitus, which 
even the Kings were to obey. By confining the 
Power of the Crown within proper Bounds, 
he gained Power without Bounds in the Affec- 
tions of the People. But the infolent Tarquin 
broke through all Bounds, and a<5led fo openly 
againft Law, and the People of Home, that- 
they had no Remedy left but to expel him 
and his Race ; which they did with glorious 


The Dictatorial Power was afterwards given 

occafionally, and found of great life; but ftill 
h was limited to fo many Months ; and there 
are Inftances where even the Dictator could 
not do what he pleafed, but was over-ruled 
by the Judgment of the People. Befides, 
when the Romans came to have great and dJ- 
ftant Territories, and great Armies, they 
thought the Dictatorial Power too great ^and 
too dangerous to be crafted with any Subject, 
and laid it quite afide ; nor was it ever after- 
wards ufed, till it was violently ufurped, hfHH 
by Sjlla, afterwards by C<efar 9 and then tymc 

loft its Liberty. 

Lam, 6cc. 

Jlhe End of the Third Volume.