(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Celtic magazine"

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



jb,Goo(^lc 



I 



L 




.Google 



b.Goojj^lc 



[ 



jb,Goo(^lc 



jb,Googlc 



jb,Googlc 



CELTIC MAGAZINE: 



DBVOTBD TO THB 



LITERATURE, HISTORY, ANTIQUITIES, 
FOLK LORE, TRADITIONS, 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL INTBEESTS OF THE CELT 
AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



OONDTTOTBD BT 

ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, F.S.A Scot., 

' "T%« BitiDTS and HentalBgiei nf the Clan Maelxtalt": "TJu SUtoryi^ Hit M 
ionatdt txni Lordt e/ Oie IiUi"; "Ttt Prophtdei nf the Bralian Set'; 
" TAe Biitoriaal Talit and Liemdi q/ the Higiaande," itc 



VOL. V, 



INTEENESS ; A. ft W. MACKENZIB, 2 Nwb Bank. 



o,i,,-,-,ih,.Goo(^lc 



PBINTSD AT THB AOVHITISEB Omol, 11 BANK BTBKKT, INTIRNBS. 



jb,Googlc 



'i-sr-so 

sju} CONTENTS. 



HiatoiT o( the Hsodonalda ai 

199, 309, 2*9, 289, 329. aoa, 4Hf, ma 

Darmond— A Tala. Br Hagh Maogngor OampbelL 11, 60, 90, 129, ITS, 231, 

280, 319, MO, and 

Hw Editor ia Canada— 

'. New York, BoBlon, New Bramwiok, ani F1eh)a ... 



IL Pioton, New QlMgow, Spriagrille, Bud ADtigeelil 
m. Oape Breton, and the Cit> of Hslifai 
XV, Quebec, Mantreal, and OleDgarr: 



Y. Cornwall, Ott&wa, and Kingiten— The Uarqali ot Lorua, Sir John 

4. M.odQnald.K.C.R. andEvanMioCoU 183 

TI. Toronto, Beaverton, and Woodville~The Hon, Oeorge Brown, Hon. 
Aleiauder Maokenzle, and the Hod, Elonald A. Blaedonald, 

LieateaaDt-QoTemor of Ontario ... ... ... ... 231 

Vn, Gnolph, Laoknow, and Kiniardine ... ... ... ... BM 

VUI. 'Wooditook, London, Hamilton, and the Fall* of NUgan ... ... SSI 

IX. New York and Philadelpbli-IiidepeDdeaoe Hall ind Dr Shaltoa 

UacksDilB ... ... ... ... ... ... 893 

The Qnigrloh, or Pattoial 3taS nt Bt FiUan. Br the Be'. Ulan Slnolair ... 33 

A ^ntbaiiand Hlghlander'a WeUome to tlie UaTqnU ot Lome to OaDoda ... 39 
The Earl; aoanei of Flora Maodonald'e LUe, &o. By the Bev. Alnondw Hao- 

giegor. M.A 02, 138, and I7B 

Otnealogioal Notei aad Qoeiiei — 

Coitbnew CampbeOi ... ... ... ... ... 78 and 1S9 

Colonel Bead 79 

TheUacrsea ... ... ... ... ... ... .,. 20S 

Maobeau of EJoohrle, the Creran, and Bmm* ot I&verahartln 279, 29r, and 363 

Maodonaldi of Balranald 399 ud 412 

The Shawi of the Blaek Iile 462 

Ian Loin— John Maodooald— and bli I^mei. Bj the B«t, AUan SiaoUt ... 97 

Hiitory of the Olan Uaokeciie — Opiaioai of (he Pmi ... ... ... 118 

Allan nsn Oreaoh — A L^eod. B; Torqoil ... ... ... ... ... 130 

BaUrameat of Provoet Bimpion ,.. ... ... ... ... ... 187 

ProtaaKw Bhya' Welih Philologr— Beriaw ... ... ... ... ... lU 

The Highland Olearaaosi and the Highland Oroften ... ... ... 148 

Annoal Dianai ot the Qaello 9o«ie^ ot loTeniMa— toll Beport ... ... 140 

Lilt of Canadian Agent* ... ... ... ... ... „. ... US 

A HaokiDtoah Raid into Aberdeen \a. 1382. Bj the Ute Alex. FnMT 1S3 

The Wiie Luiid of OuUoden. Br H. A. Bou ... ... ... ... IBO 

Haw Oeltio Work— Leabbar nani Fler Qhoidhaal ... ... ... ... SOO 

Highland Hmiaal laatmmenti ... ... ... ... ... ... 204 

Flower Lore— BeviBW ... ... ... ... ... ... .,. 206 

A Hiltor; of the Honie and Olin of Maokintuh ... ... 208 

TnniaotiDni of the Oaelio Sooietr of Invemeu— BeTiaw ... ... ... 242 

Bide a Vee, and Other Poenu. By Mar; J. HaoOoll.- Bevlew ... ... 246 

A Lcfisnd of St £Uda. By H. A. Brae 258 and 298 

The (Hrli of Canada ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 264 

John Uaokenrie'e Uannment— Balonoe Sheet ... ... ... ... 264 

The Monta of lona. By Oolin Chiiholm ... ... ... ... ... 268 

Notei on Oaithneai Hiitoiy. By Geo. U SBtherland ... 271, 361, and 44S 

The Battle of InTemahaTOD, By Patrick Haegr<«or, U.A. ... ... ... 284 

Old Oeltio Bomanoei—BdView ... ... ... ... ... ... 286 

The Lswiatnan'i Orooe 303 

Ibe Aathentiaity ot Oirian. By the Be*. Allan Slaololr ... ... ... 311 

Highland Booki ... ,.. ... ... ... ... ... /o>. >U 

^ r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.GoO^C 



ir. Conteata. 

K»iy Haokellu'i 8oii|i and Poem— Beriev .,, ... ... ... SZT 

The IlM»aU}i ot L«wii ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 337 

Tlia Emigrant. By M. E. W. ... ... ... ... ... ... 33B 

The Ocltig Side of BiuDi. Bf tha 1at« Jamei Oiinninghun ... ... ... 345 

DonaU the Fiddler— A Legend, By H. A. Bote 347 

iDTcnieu Highland Rifle VoluQteen ... ... ... ... ... 3S0 

OMlioBoolufortheHElbDnrueExhibition ... ... ... ... ... 3C>9 

Thal&taAleiuderFruer.BeEiitrar— A Memoir ... ... ' ... ... 360 

HlghUod Legendi. By 3ir Thnmai Dlolc Lindei— B«Tiair ... ... ... 364 

The Oaelio Bong* ot Dr MoaluihUa, R*boy—Bevlew ... ... ... 364 

Hi(^Uad HtDdbcnk, ud MubTftyos'i Qaide to the UigbUadi— ReTiewi 367 and 36S 

The Be*. Alei. Stewart, F.S. A. Scot.— "Nether-Loohaber"— A Sketch ... 379 

TheUteD. C. Hsophanon- A Uemofr 391 

The Aged Piper tuid bli Bagplpei. By the Be'. Alex. Hugragor, H.A. ... 404 
The Annual Aiaembly of the Gaello Sooiaty— Addreaiea by tbe Bev. Tbomai 

Maalanablan, LL.D., Oulin Ohiiholm, and the Be*. Alex. Maagregor, M.A. 406 

The late Angiu Uaodonald- the Olen-Urqahtit Bard ... ... ... 416 

Farm* Indeed t and Sonla to Uetoh ... ... ... ... ... 417 

The Qovetnmant Factor and the Widow'a Caw. ByBev. Alai. Haegregot, U.A. 426 

The Oho Haokaniie In ShdI*, Canada 434 

The Hlghlana Bifle (Boaa-ihiie) Militia. By the Editor 43S 

The Invtrnatian—i. New Moathly Periodloal— Proapeotna ... ... ... 451 

Teaching Ooelio in Highland School!. Bj Wm. Jolly, H.M,I.S. ... ... 4S3 

The Bev. Alei. Maagregor, M.A.— ■ Ohlettain ... ... ... ... 466 

The Maodonalda and the Meoleodi in Huria. By Haolain ... ... ... 457 

Hatoh-Making among th» Fraaaia. ByU. A.Boae^. ... ... ... 470 

Saperatidon EitraoTdiniry ... ... ... ... ... ... 472 

OaliDtaireluihi ; or Artionjate Unaic By A. M. ... ,,. ... ... 483 

Hiatory of Ireland by Standiab O'GrHdy—BeTiew ... ... ... ... 490 

TotbeBeadec ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 494 

CORBESPOyDElfCS. " 
The Bev. Aiobibald Clerk, LL.D., and the Eer. Donald Uouob, H.A., H.D., on 

the Qaelio aoriptnma 26, 82, 112, aad 116 

Tbe Qnlgiioh. By Colin Cbiaholm 117 

„ ByH. A.Boae ... ... ... ... ... ... 149 

„ By the BsT, Allan Sinclair 199 

Prinoipal Sbairp ob OaaiaB. By the Kev. P. Hately Waddell, LL.D, ,,. 274 

The Hacdonalda of Keppooh. A HoTa-Scotian Maodonald ... ... ... 276 

TheOlan Itsf— A Son of Ivei ... ... ... ... ... ... 278 

The Itaid of Killichriat By mitlam Uackay and A. Maokencie ... ... S23 

POEMS AND SONGS. 

To Btmi MaoOoll. By Dnncan MaogregT Orerar ... ... .., ... ng 

To my Father. By Mary J. MacColl ... ... ... ... ... igg 

Call Pbaraia— A Cheud Doan. Tranalated by Bbt. AUatl Binolair ... ... 201 

Hdghdvan Loohman-Eala, By John CamplMll, Ledaig ... ... ... 219 

In SathailaBdahire. By W. A. Sim ... „. ... ... ,.. j^g 

Tbe Belief of Ekowe. By Alexander Logan ... ... ... ,„ 257 

Horinn ha oha bhi aino tnnaah. By Alexander Campbell ... ... 413 

Tigh Dige nam Fear EachuiQach. By Alexander Campbell ... ... .„ jso 

Moneaila- A Song by Jerome Stone, -with Notea by " Nathar-Lnchaber " ... 468 

Ocan a Ohio, By Alexander Campbell ... ... ... ... .., 473 

GAELIC SOSQS, WITH MUSIO. 

Oran Leannanaohd ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3q 

Uu'm a alan a chi mi ... ,., ... ... ,.. ... ... UQ 

Ho HhaiU Bbcag Og ^ „. ^ googtc ^^ 



Celtic Magazine. 



NOVEMBER, 1879. 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS, 

THE LOEDS OF THE ISLES. 
£t thd Editob. 



To write a fiill, authentic, and, at the aams time, a popular hiatoiy of this 
ancient and illustrious family is no easy task. Its earlier annala are 
much obacuxed, and it is difficult t-c decide between the Tarioos contra 
dictoiy accounts given of it by the earlier chionicleis. The leseaichea of 
Skene, Gregory, and others have, however, made the task much easier, 
and the msult more tmatworthy than it coold otherwise have been, 
Gr^orya " History of the Western Islands and Isles of Scotland," now 
scarce, is an invaluable guide, and will he hugely taken advantage of in 
the following pages, down to 162B. The object of that work, to quote 
the author lumsdf, " is to trace the history of the territories once owned 
by the great Lords of the Isles, firom the time of the downfall of that 
princely race, in the reign of James IV. of Scotland, until the accession 
of Charles I. to the throne of Great Britain." 

It is not our intention to speculate at length on the different isces 
which are variously stated to have originally occupied the Highlands and 
Islands of Scotland. Those who desire to enter upon that snbject will 
find various and dive^ent authorities to consult, which need not here be 
referred to. In this work we shall get on solid and authentic historical 
ground as soon as possible, and leave speculation as to the origin and pre- 
historic annals of the Clan to those who delight in such attractive but 
generally useless inquiry. Mi Skene holds that the Macdonalds are of 
Celtic, or at all events of niised Celtic origin, that is, descKLded from the 
Gallgall, or Gaelic pirates, or rovers, who are said to be so described to 
distinguish them from the Korwegian and Banish Firigall and Dabh-ghall, 
or white and black strainers or rovers. He maintains that they are of a 
purely Pictish descent, not even mixed with the Dalriadic Scots. Gr^ory 
says that " the earliest inhabitants of the Western Isles or Ebudes (cor- 
ruptly Hebrides) were probably a portion of the Albanich, Caledonians^ 
or Ficts. In some of the Southern Islands, particularly in Isla, this race 
must have been displaced or overrun by the Dalriada on their fiiKt aattle- 



CoO'lk 



2 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

meut ; bo that, at the date of the Scottish coni^uest the Isles, like tiie 
adjacent mainliind, were divided between the Picts and the Scots. The 
change produced in the original poptdation of the lales, hy the influx of 
the Scots — a cognate Celtic race — was, however, trifling compared with 
that which followed the first settlemeut of the Scandinavians in the Isles 
towards the end of the ninth centniy." From 830 to about 1100 the 
Weetem Isles were under and governed by Norwegian and Danish kings. 
In. 1103 the Islanders took for tbeii kmg Lagman, the eldest son of 
Godred Crovan, King of Man. This Prince, after a reign of seven years, 
abdicated, when the nobility of the Isles applied to Murchad O'Brien, then 
King of Ireland, to send them over a Prince of bis blood to act as R^ent 
during the minority of Olave, surviving son of Godred Crovan who died 
at Jemsalem, where he went on a pilgnmage, shortly after his abdication 
of the throne. The Irish King sent them Donald MacTade, who ruled 
over the Islandera for two yeaia ; but he became so obnoxious, by his 
tyranny and oppression, that the Island Chiefs rose against him, and ex- 
pelled bim ; whereapon he fled to Ireland, and never again returned to 
the Isles. Olave succeeded and reigned for forty years, preserving his 
kingdom &om aggression, and securing a long period of peace within his 
dominions. This king was known among the Highlanders as Olave the 
£ed. He was succeeded by his son, Godred the Black, whose dai^ter, 
Bagnbildis, married Somerled, Prince or Lord of Argyle, from whom 
Bprung the dynasty so well knovra in Scottish history, and of whom we 
^tall have much to aay in the following p^es, as the Lords of the Isles. 

It is impossible to decide what the elements were of which the in- 
habitants of the Western Isles were at this period composed ; but there 
appears to be Httle doubt that a mixture of Scandinavian and Celtic blood 
was effected in very early times ; and the same holds good of the con- 
tiguous mainland districts, whidi, being intersected by various arms of 
the sea, were also, like the Islee, ovemm more or less by the Norwegian 
and Danish sea rovers ; but, in spite of this, history and topography prove 
beyond question that the Celtic langu^e ultimately prevailed, and that it 
vras very much the same as is spoken in the present day. WhUe there 
is no doubt at all as to the mixture of races, it is much more dif&cult to 
decide to what extent the mixture prevailed ; but all the best authorities 
hold that the Celtic element predominated. It is, however, of much 
more importance to discover which of the Scandinavian tribes infused the 
largest portion of northern blood into the population of the Isles. Gregory 
says that the Irish annalists divided the pira^cal bands, "which in the ninth 
and following centuries infested Ireland, into twogreat tribes, styled by these 
writers, Fiongall, or white foreigners, and Duhhghall, or black foreigneia. 
These are believed to represent, the former, the Norw^ians, the latter, 
the Danes ; and the distinction in the names given to them is supposed to 
have arisen from a diversity either in their clothing or in the sails of their 
vessels. These tribes had generally separate leaders, but they were 
occasionally united under one king ; and, ^though both were bent, first on 
ravaging the Irish shores, and afterwards on seizing portions of the Irish 
territories, they frequently turned their arms against each other. The 
Gaelic title of High Fiongall, or King of the Fiongall, so frequently applied 
to the Lords of the Isles, seems to prove that Olave the Bed, from whom 
they were descended in the female line, was bo styled, and th&l> conse- 



jb,GoO(^lc 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDOyAIDS. 3 

qnently, hia subjects in the Isles, in so far m they were not Celtic, were 
Fiongail or Norwegians. It has been remarked by one writer," whose 
opinion is entitled to weight, that the names of places in the exterior He- 
brides, or the long island, derived from the Scandinavian tongue, resemble 
the names of places in Orkney, Shetland, and Caithness. On the other 
hand, the corresponding names in the interior Hebrides are in a different 
dialect, resembling that of which the traces are to bo found in the topo- 
graphy of Sutherland, and appear to have been imposed at a later period 
than the first mentioned names. The probability is, however, that the 
difference alluded to is not greater than might be expected in the language 
oftvo branches ofthe same race after a certain interval; and that the Scan- 
dinavian of the Hebrides was, therefore, derived &om two successive Nor- 
w^ian colonies. This view is further confirmed by the fact, that the 
Hebrides, although long subject to Norway, do not appew ever to have 
formed part of the possessions of the Danes.t 

We now come to consider more especially the origin of the Mac- 
donalds, at one time, by far the most important most numerous, and most 
powerful of the Western Clans. This noble race is undoubtedly de- 
scended from Somerled of Argyle, but his origin is involved in obscurity 
and Burronnded with considerable difQculty. Of his father, Gillehride, 
and of his grandfather, Oilledomnan, little is known but the names. 
Accordii^ to both the Highland and Irish genealogists, Gilledomnau was 
sixth in descent from Godfrey MacFergus, who in an Irish chronicle is 
called Toshacb of the Isles, and who lived in the reign of Kenneth Mac- 
Alpin. Tradition asserts that Godfrey or one of his race was expelled 
from the Isles by the Danes.J which assertion if correct, may apply to the 
conquest of Harald Harfager, who in all probability dispossessed many of 
the native Island chiefs, But the Celtic Seanacbaidhs are not satisfied 
with a descent even so remote as Fergus. They trace, through a long line 
of ancestors, the descent of that chief from the celebrated Irish King, 
Conn nan Ceud Cath, or Conn of the Hundred Battles. So far the account 
of Somerled's origin according to those who maintain his Scoto-Irish des- 
cent. Others have maintained that he was undoubtedly a Scandinavian 
by male descent "His name," saysGregory," is certainly a Jrorseone§; 
bat then on the other hand, the names of hie father and grandfather are 
purely Celtic ', whUst the inter-marriages that must have taken place be- 
tween the two races in the Isles and adjacent coasts, make it impossible 
to found any argument on the Christian name alone. Someiled is men- 
tioned more than once in the Norse S^as, but never in such a way as to 
enable us to afOrmwith certainty what the opiaion of the Scandinavian 
writers was as to his origin. He appears to have been known to them as 
Sumarlidi Haullds, and the impression produced by the passages in which 
he is mentioned is rather against his being considered a, Norseman. It is 
possible, however, as he was certainly descended from a noted individual 
of the name of Godfrey, that his ancestor may have been that Gofra Mac- 
Arail^ King of the Isles, who died in 989. But, on the whole, the uni- 



y jugjuoDcu »au iHiefl, pp. o-tr, 

t Hugh Maodanald'i HS. Hiattny of the MsodoDslde, initteii ftbont tha i 
(eVeutaenth oeDtory. 

§ The Hone Somerkd, uid the Qaelia Somkairk, »e bolli rendusd Into tt 



C^ooglc 



4 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

fonnitiy of the Highland and Irish traditions, -which can be traced back «t 
least font hundred jreais, l»d to the couduaion that the account £ist 
given of the origin of Somerkd is correct" 

We ue informed by the Macdonald geneal<^ta that Oillebride vas 
expelled fivm his possessions, and that he and his son Somerled were 
obliged for a long time to conceal themselves in a cave in Morvean, &om 
which circnmstance the taihor is known in tradition as Gilhbride na K 
Uamh, or of the Cave.* From certain cireumBtancea, obscurely hinted 
at, continues Gregory, it would seem that Gillebride, after the death of 
Kalcolm Ceannmor, had, with the other Celtic inhabitants of Scotland, 
8uppori«d Donald Bane, the brother of Malcolm, in his claim to the 
Scottish throne, to the exclusion of Edgar, Malcolm's son, and that, con- 
sequently, on the final triiunph of the Anglo-Saxon pari;y, Glllebnde 
would naturally be exposed to their vengeance in exact proportion to his 
power, and to the assistance he had given to the other party. His pos- 
sessions aie believed to have been on the mainland of Argyle, but this has 
not been conclusively asceri»ined. Someded when young was drawn 
&om his obscurity, and placed at the head of the men of Morvem, to de- 
fend the district from a band of Norse pirates who threatened to ravage 
it. By his courc^e and skill Somerled completely defeated themj and, 
following up his success, be soon after recovered bis paternal inheritance 

I MacdaDKlda," written in the reli 

, ., ^ . , n the Grogsry cMllmitioQ in the " . . 

lectanen de Bebni Albuiis," pages 3S2-321. It is often lefaried to by Oregon in hii 
"Hilhlasda and Idea." It begins as follows :— "Sommerlsd, thesonof Oilbert, began to 
m«M on the low ooodition and miifottnne to whiah he and his father nera reduced, and 
k«pt at &nt Tery retirgd. In the meantime, Allin Mao Yich Allin eoising with some 
fotoa to the land of Morrcrin for pillsgo and berships, intending to retire tecthwltb to 
Iioohaber, from wbenoe be came. From this Allan descended the Eamil; of Lochiel. 
Bommarled thongbt now it was high time to make himself knoirn for the detenos of his 
eonntiy, if he conld, or at least see the same, having no oompanr for the tiote. Ibers 
■waa a yonng sproat of a tree near the oave whioh grew in bis age ci infaney. Heplnolcod 
It up by the root, and pntting it on hii shonlder, came near the people of Uorverin, d»- 
uied them to be of good courage and do u he did, and so by this persnasion, all of tbem 
having polled a branch, and putting tba same on their shoulder, went on enoonraging 
eai^ other, Godfrey Dn bad possession of the Isles of the north side of Ardnamnrchm 
from the King of Denmark, Olay aompelled the inhabitantB of some of these Iiles to 
infest Morverin by landing some fmees there, Ttia principal anmames in tbe ooantry 
were HaciBnessa and Maogillivrsjs, who are the same as the Maeinnesea. They, being 
in ^ht of the enemy, ooold act nothing without one to command thum. At length 
they agreed to make the first peTson that should appear te them their general, ''ftiui 
oame iu the meantJBie but Sommerled, with his bow, quiver, and sword T Upan his ap- 
paarHiioe thej raised a great shout of laughter, Sommerled enquiring the reason, thej 
anawered tliej were rejoiced at bis appearance. They told hin, that they had agreed (a 
make the first that would appear their general. Sommerled ssid he would undertake to 
lead them, or serve as a man otherwise. But if they pitched Qpon him as their coin- 
mander, tbey should awcar to be obedient to his commands ; so, withoat any delay, they 
gave him so oath of obedience. There was a great hill betwixt them and the enemy, 
and Sommerled ordered bis men to put off their coats, and put their shirts and full armour 
above thidr ooat^ So making them go three times in a disguised manner about the hilt 
that they might seem more in number than they really were, at last he ordered tbeca to 
«ngBge the Danes, saying that some of them were on aboie and the rest in their ships ; 
that thvM on shore would Sght bot faintly so near their ships. Withal be exorted nil 
Mildien to be of good coniace, and to do aa they would see him do. The first whom 
Snanerled slew he ript np and took out hii heart, desiring the rest to do the aame, be- 
oaotethat the Danet were no ChristiaDs. So the Danes were put te the flight; laanT 
of tbem were loet In the sea endearouring to gain their ships ; the lands of Hnll imd 
Horveiin b^ng Creed at that time from tbsli Toke and slavery. Alter this dsteat nven 
to the Danes, Sommerlsd thought to reoover Artcyle (rem thoe* who, oontraiy to nght 
Liulpiwnnsndlt.hiiinrrTrnnirnTit if thnhsnfliifhiifithnrTinjiintTTlrTMiinlwiiiin. Prniilil 
Pain, and Mm Danw.^ 

Google 



mSI'OEY OF THE MACDONALDS. & 

aifd made himself master of a great portion of Argyle, and thenceforth 
assumed the title of Lord, Thane, or Eegulus of Aigyle, and became one 
of the most powerfd ehieis in Scotland. 

Smibert agrees generally with the hettei known writers already 
quoted, and considers it probable, from many concurrent circumstances, 
that while the Macdonalds were wholly Celtic fundamentally, they had 
the blood of the Irish Celts commingled in their veins with that of the 
Pictiah Celts. The term Uall-gael appUed to them by early writers, sig- 
nifying strainers or Piratical Gaels, seents to him to prove that from the 
first they dwelt in the Isles or sea coasts of the west, and severed them 
broadly from the Norse pirates, who at the same time visited our western 
shores. "The Gall-gaelappeaitobeclearlydistinguishable from theprimitive 
or Dalriadic Scots " who issued from Ireland, and originally peopled a con- 
siderable portion of Aigyle, then termed Dalriada. " The siies of the 
Macdonalds arrived, iu all livelihood, at a somewhat later epoch, fixing • 
themselves more peculiariy in the Isles of the western coasts ; though, 
when, the Scots overturned the kii^dom of the sonthern and eastern 
Picts in the ninth century, and shifted more or less extensively to the 
richer territories then acquired, the Gall-gael seem to have also become the 
:xmn. occupants of Argyle and the surrounding mainland. From that 
period they are closely identified with the proper northern and north- 
western Gaelic Picta, with whom they, beyond doubt, formed connections 
freely. The interests of both were henceforth nearly the same ; and for 
many saccessive centuries they straggled conjointly against the growing 
and adverse power of the Scottish monarchy of the Lowlands." 

Of this view of "the descent of the Siol Cuinn (the special name 
given fi^m an early chief, named Conn of the Hundred Battles, to the 
anoastoiB of the Macdonalds) it may at all events be said that there would 
he some difficulty in oft'ering a more rational and intelligible one, and it 
may be justified by various and strong arguments. The early and long- 
continued hostility which they displayed towards the Scots will not admit 
of their being considered as a pure Scoto-Dalriadic tribe. On the other 
hand, their constant community of interests with the Gaelic Picts of the 
north and north-west goes far to prove a close connection with these, and 
a liberal intermixture of blood, though it does not altogether justify us in 
ascribing their descent wholly and primarily to that native and purely 
Celtic source. " Other &cts indeed point strongly to an Irish originaL 
Among such facte may he reckoned the repeated references of the Mac- 
donald race, to Ireland for aid, in all times of peril and difficulty, for many 
consecutive centuries. From the Somerleds of the eleventh, down to 
Donald (called the Bastard) in the sixteenth century, the kings and chiefs 
of the bouse are ^ain and again recorded as having visited that island 
and sought assistance as from undoubted relatives, Kor did they do so 
vainly, the Macquarries, for example, being almost certainly among such 
introduced auxiliaries. Moreover the line and range of their early poa- 
aeasiona lead us directly towards Ireland. The Isle of Man was long one 
of their chief holdings, while Bute, Airan, and May, with Cantire, were 
among thdr first Scottish seats, all being iu the track of Irish rovers or 
emigrants. Again the heads of the Macdonalds themselves seem to liave 
entertuned opinions as to their descent only explicable on the same sup- 
pootion. Sir James Macdonald, writmg in 1615, speaks of his fonuly a8 



6 THE CELTIC MAGAZIKE. 

hATiug been 'ten hundred yeais kindl; Scotsmen nnder tiie EingB of 
Scotluid.' . . . . ' On the whole, the conclusion teaaonably to be 
drawn irom tbeee and similar circumstancea is, that the direct founders of 
the Macdonold race came primarily &oni Ireland at some very early period 
of the annals of the DaMad-Scota ; and that they were left (or made 
themselves) the successors of that people in place and power in the west 
of Scotland, at the precise time when the overthrow of the southern Ficte 
drew theb Dalriadic conqueioia further inland. That the Siol Cuinn, or 
Bace of Conn, then became deeply and injseparably blended in regard of 
blood, as well as of interests with the native northern Gael, is a farther 
conclusion equally consistent with facts and probability." 

" The almost natural division between the H^hlands and the Low- 
lands, conjoined with the remembrances which must long have existed of 
Fictisb greatness, ever uiged the inhabitants of the former region of all 
sections and descriptions to unite for the maintenance of its independence 
against the encraacbing Lowlanders. Befides, the ties betwixt ihe Scots 
and the Gaelic Hcta were broken up at a very early period. The former 
entirely lost their Fictisb dialect, spoken in Bede's time, and became 
otherwise thoroughly saxonUed. On the contrary, the Highlanders, 
whether natives or immigmnts, Gaelic or Erse, were fiom first to last, of 
the same primary Celtic stock ; Mid, accordingly, it was but natural that 
all of them shonld have combined against the Lo inlanders as against a 
common foe, and should, in short, have been blended in the course of 
time into one people, and that people the Gael of Scotland." The same 
writer proceeds to say that various other clans of leas note are implicated 
in the question of the origin of the Macdonalds as well as themselves j and 
he candidly admits, though personally disposed in lavour of the Irish 
origin, that it is certainly enveloped in considerable difficulties. He then 
goes on to point out in reply to those who consider an Irish origin " de- 
grading," that such parties appear to foi^t that whatever Ireland may 
have been since, that to the ancient western world it was the very cradle 
of religion and the nursery of civilisation. He asserts that Undoubted 
evidences exist of the advanced state of the Irish people at a time when 
the Celts of Britain were comparatively in a state of barbarism. To 
belong to a race " which sent tbrth Golumba, and through him originated 
an lona, with all its concomitant blessings, migbt satisfy the pride of birth 
of even the haughtiest families," The settlement of the Saint in lona 
wonld appear, he thinks, to confirm the supposition that the immigrants 
of the sixth century, which he thinks were accompanied by Saint Col- 
nmba, and with which the ancestors of the Macdonalds came over &om 
Ireland, only obtained possession at first of some of the smaller islands, and 
that they held little of the mainland until the tenth, eleventh, or twelfth 
centuries, after the removal further south of the DaLriadic-Scota. 

Summing up the views of other writere on this Buhjeot, particularly of 
those above quoted, the editor of f ullarton's " History of the Highland 
Clans " assumes that the clan governed by Somerled formed part of the 
Gall-gael, that their independent kings must in all probabihty have been 
his ancestors j and, therefore, that the names of these kings should be 
found in the old genealogies of Somerled's famUy. " But this appears 
scarcely to be the case. The Iwt king of the Gall^ael was Snibne, the 
BOD of !&enneth, who died in the year 1034 ; and, a(Wding to the maaa- 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONAIDS. 1 

script of 1460, an anoeBtor of Somerled, contemporary with this potty 
monarch, boie the same name, from nhich it may be preesmed that the 
person referred to in the genealogy and manuscript is one and the same 
IndividuaL The ktter, however, calls Suibne'a father Nialgasa; and in 
the genealogy there is no mention whatever of a Kenneth. Bnt from tha 
old Scottish writers we learn that at this time there was such a Kenneth, 
whom they call Thane of the Isles, and that one of the northern maormors 
also bore Uie same name, although it is not very easy to say what precise 
claim either had to be considered as the &tbeT of Suibne. There is also 
a farther discrepancy observeahlo in the earhei part of the Macdonald 
genealogies, as com^mred with the manoscript; and besides, the latter, 
withont making any mention of these supposed kings, deviates into the 
uuKty region of Irish heroic fable and romance. At this point, indeed, 
there is a complete divei^ence, if not contianety, between the history as 
contained in the Irish annalB and the genealogy developed in the manu- 
script ; for, whilst the latter mentions the GeJl-gael under theii leaders as 
far back as the year 856, the former connect Suibne by a different gene- 
alogy with the Kings of Ireland. The fables of the Highland and Irish 
Sennachies now become connected with genuine history. The real descent 
of the chiefs was obscured or perplexed by the Irish genealogies, and 
previously to the eleventh century neither these genealogies nor even that 
of the manuscript of 1450 can beconsideredasof any authority whatever. 
It seems somewhat rash, however, to conclude, as Mr Skene has done, 
that the Siol Cninn, or descendents of Conn, were of native origin. This 
exceeds the warrant of the premises, which merely cany the difficulty a 
few removes backward into the obscurity of time, and there leave the 
question in greater darkness than ever." 

Skene, in his " HigUanders of Scotland," writing of the " Siol Cuinn," 
says : — " This tribe was one far too distinguished to escape the grasping 
claims of the Irish Sennachies, and accordingly it appears to have been 
among the very first to whom an Irish origin was imputed ; but later 
antiquaries, misled by the close connection which at all times existed be- 
tween the Macdonalds and the N'orwegians of the Isles, have been inclined 
rather to consider them as of Norwegian origin. Neither of these theories, 
however, admit of being borne out either by argument or authority. The 
foUowere of the Irish system can only produce a vsgue tradition in its 
support against the manifest improbability of the supposition that a tribe 
possessing such extensive territories in Scotland should have been of 
foreign origin, while history is altogether silent as to the arrival of any 
snch people in the countiy." The writer then points out that it has 
been proved that the Irish tmditions in Scotland were of a comparatively 
modem origin, and that the Norwegian origin of the race has been assumed 
without solid reasons, mainly from the fact that the Danish and Norwegian 
pirates ravaged the western shores of Scotland, and brought its inhabi- 
tants under subjection, when the conquered Gaels, to some extent, adopted 
the piratical and predatory habits of their conquerora The traditions of 
the Macdonalds themselves, he says, tend to show that they coidd not 
have been of foreign origin. The whole of the Highlands, and especially 
the districts possmsed by the Gallgael, were inhabited by the Northern 
Ficts, at least as late as the eleven^ century. In the middle of the 
twelfth the Orkneyinga Saga terms Someiled and his sons, who were the 



8 The CELTIC lAAOAZntE. 

chie& of the tribe, the Dalreria Aett, or DalTerian &inily — a tens, ac- 
cording to Skene, " derired from Dala, the Noise dbidb foT the district of 
Argyle, and which impliee that the; hare been for some time indigeuoua 
in the district ; and this is confirmed in still stronger terms by the flatey- 
book, consequently the MacdontJda were either l£e descendants of these 
Piotish inhabitants of Argyle, or else thoy must have entered the county 
Bnbseqnently to that period. But the earliest traditions of the femily 
nnifomily bear that they had been indigenous in Scotland £rom a much 
earlier period than that. Thus, James Macdonell, of Dunluce, in a letter 
vritten to King James YT., in 1696, has this passage — ' Most migbtie and 
potent prince recomend us unto your bieness with our service for ever, your 
grace shall understand that our forbears batb been from time to time* 
your servants unto your own kingdome of Scotland.' Although many 
Other jnasages of a similar nature might be produced, these instances may 
suffice to show that there existed a tradition in this family of their havii^; 
been natives of Scotland from time immemorial ; and it is therefore 
Bcarcely possible to suppose that they could have entered the country 
subsequently to the ninlli century. But besides the strong presumption 
that the Macdonalda are of Pictiah descent, and formed a part of the great 
tribe of the Gall-gael, we fortunately possess distinct authority for both of 
these facts. For the former, John Elder includes the Macdonalda among 
the ' ancient stoke,' who stiU retained the tradition of a Kctish descent, 
in opposition to the later tradition insisted on by the Scottish clergy, and 
this is sufficient evidence for the fact that the oldest tradition among the 
Macdonalds mnat have been one of a Fictish origin. The latter appears 
equally clear from the last mention of the Gall-gael in which they are de- 
scribed as the inhabitants of Aigyle, Kintyre, Anan, and Man ; and aa 
ttiese were at this period the exact territories which Someried possessed, 
■ it follows of necessity that the Macdonalds were the same peopla" 

In another part of his valuable and rare work, Skene says that " we 
are irreeistibly driven to the conclusion, that the Highland Clans are not 
of a different or foreign origin, but they are a part of the original nation 
who have inhabited tiie mountains of Scotland as fai back as the memory 
of man or the records of history can reach — that they were divided into 
several great tribes possessing their hereditary chiefs ; and that it was only 
when the line of these chiefs became extinct, and Saxon nobles came in 
theii place, that the Highland Clans appeared in the peculiar situation 
and character in which tiiey were afterwards found." And he then pro- 
ceeds : — " This ccmclusion to which we have arrived at by these general 
arguments is strongly corroborated by a very remarkable circumstance ; 
for, notwithstanding that the system of an Irish or Dabiadio origin of the 
Highland Clans had been introduced as early as the beginning of the 
fifteenth century, we can still trace the existence in the Highlands, even 
as late aa the sixteenth century, of a still older tradition than that con- 
tained in the MS. of 1450 ; a tradition altogether distinct and different 
frojA that one, and one which not only agrees in a flingnlnr manner with 
the system developed in this work, but which also stamps the Dalriadic 
tradition as the invention of the Scottish Monks, and accounts for its in- 
troduction. The £tst proof of the existence of this tradition, which I 

* na cxpreaioii of "from time to tbne," vlitn It oomui In aneUnt doooMMati, 



Cookie 



HiSTOHT OF THE itACDOK'AIJ)S. 9 

Bhftll bring forward, is contained in a letter dated 1642, and addreeeed to 
Eing Henry YIIL of England by a person dsaigaating himself ' John 
Elder, Clerk, a £edd8b&nks.' It will be necessary to premise that tbe 
author uses the word ' Yritcha' in the same sense ia which the word Etk 
was applied to the Highlanders, his word tor Irish being differently spelL 
In that letter he mentiona the ' Yrische lords of Scotland commonly callit 
Beds Sohans&s, and by higtoriagrapkourU PiOTia.' He then proceeds to 
give an accoont of the Highlanders; he describes them as inhabiting 
Scotland ' befor the incummynge of AlbanactOB Brutus second sonne,' and 
as having been ' gyanntes and wylde people withont ordour, civilitie, or 
muLers, and epake none other language but Yrische;' that they were ciril- 
ized by Albanactus, from whom they were * callit Albonyghe.' And after 
this account of their origin he adds, 'which deriTacion the papistical 
curaide epiritualitie of Scotland mil not heir in no maner of wyse nor 
coniesae that ever mich a kynge, namede Albanactui reagned ther, the 
which derivacion all the Trische men of Scotland, which be the auneient 
gtoke, cannot, nor will not denye. But our said bussheps diywithe Scot- 
laud and theme selfes from a certain lady namede Scota (as they alledge) 
came out of £gipte, a maiaculous hote cuntretti, to socreate hiiself emongea 
theame in the cold ayre of Scotland, ichich they can not afferme by no 
prob)Me auneient author.' From the extracts which have been made from 
tfiis curious author, continues Skene, it will at once be seen that there 
was at that time iu Scotland two conflicting traditions regarding the origin 
of the Beddschankes or Highlanders, the one supported by the Highlanders 
of the maie auneient stoke, the other by the ' curside spiritualitie of Scot- 
land;' and &om the indignation and irritation which he displays t^ainst 
the ' bussheps,' it is plain that the latter tradition was gaining ground, end 
must indeed have genoially prevailed. The last traditiun is easily identified 
with that contained in the MS. of 1460 and conseciaently there must 
have existed among the purer Highlanders a still older tradition by which 
their origin was derived &om &e 'Pictis,' The existence of such a 
tradition in Scotland at the time is still further proved by Stapleton'a 
translation of the venerable Bede, which was written in 1650. In that 
translation he renders the following passage of Bede, ' Cugus monasterium 
in cunctis pene sept entrionalium Scottorom et onmiiim PictoTwn man.- 
asteriis non parvo tempore areem teuebat,' as follows : — ' The house of his 
religion was no small time the head house of all the monasteries of the 
northern Scottea, and of the Abbyes of all the KuDneoBAKKES.' It would 
be needless to multiply quotations to show that the Highlanders w^ at 
that time universally known by the term Eeddshankes." 

Our author says that in regard to this, the oldest tradition which can be 
traced in the country, that it accords with the conclusions at which be 
had arrived otherwise by a strict and critical examination of all the ancient 
authoritiea on the subject, and forms a body of evidence regarding the 
true origin of the HighWdera of Scotland to which the history of no 
Other nation can ei^bit a paiidlel; and he points out that whUe 
the authority of John Elder proves that the tradition of the descent 
of the Highlanders existed before the Irish or Dalriadic system was in- 
troduced, we can at the same time learn from him the origin of the later 
system and the cause of its obtaining such universal belidl The first 
tiac& of Uie Daliiadic system is to be found in the &raous lettfii oddmsaed 



10 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

to the Pope in 1320 by the party -who stood out for the independence of 
Scotland agaiDst the claims of Edward L To this party the clergy be- 
longed, wlule those who supported Edward L beheved in the more 
ancient tradition on which he founded hie claim, and which included a 
belief in their descent from the Piete. The question of the independence 
of Scotland was thns to a considerable extent, most unfortunately, placed 
by the two parties, on the truth of their respective traditions, and " it is 
plain that as the one party fell, so would the tradition which they as- 
serted; and the final supremacy of the independent party in the High- 
lands, as well as in the rest of Scotland, and the total ruin of their ad- 
Tersaries, must have established the absolute belief in the descent of the 
Highlanders, as well as the kii^ and clergy of Scotland, from the Scots 
of Salriada." But in spite of all this, John Elder's letter proves that, 
notwithstanding the succession of false traditions which prevailed in the 
Highlands at different periods, traces of the ancient and probably correct 
one were to be found as late as the middle of the sixteenth century. 

What is true of the Highlanders generally must be more or less true 
of individual clans, and of none more so than ot the Macdonalds, to whom 
we must now return. Erom all these authorities, though a little conflict- 
ing in some of their opinions, there seems to be no difficulty in coming to 
the eoncluBJon, that whether Somerled, at a remote period, descended &om 
some of the Scoto-Irish immigrants to the Western Isles, or not, the date 
of each descent is so far back, and his ancestors, if not of them, were so 
mixed up with the oiiginal Celtic Ficts who, in those remote ages, inhabited 
the Isles and North-west Highlands that the Macdonalds and their im- 
mediate progenitor, Somerled of the Isles, may be fairly described aa of 
native Highland or^in ; and that with at least as much accuracy aa Her 
Mfgesty of the United Kingdom when she is, notwithstanding her con- 
tinentaJ coimections, jnatly described as of native British descent. 
(lobe Continued.) 



Ths Hon. Mrs Muiiay Aust, in her " Guide to the Beauties of Scot- 
land," written in 1799, relatea the following : — " A lady of feahiou, having 
ascended Ben Nevis, purposely left a bottle of whi^y on the summit. 
When she returned to Fort-William, she laughingly mentioned that cir- 
cumstance before some Highlanders, as a piece of carelesanesa, one of 
whom slipped away, and mounted to the pinnacle of 4370 feet above the 
level of the fort, to gain the prize of the bottle of whisky, and brought it 
down in triumph." 

QuBBT. — Can you, or any of your correspondents versed in Highland 
palronymics and aliases, kindly iidorm me what is the origin of the name 
"MacKeddie," which has been used as an alias by some families of 
Camerona, and to what branch of the main stock those belong who have 
used it ! J- Magoonaxd Camzbos. 



D E E M N D. 
A Tals of Kkiohtly Seeds Done in Old Date. 



BOOK I.— "AMONG THE I3LBS OF THE WBaTEBN SEA." 



Chapter L 

There ii a oliS whnie high ind bendisg hud 
Look* fearf all; on the nonflaed dwp. 

—Eiiv Liar, 
The Trild and picturesque featurea of our "WeBtem Coast are ■well known. 
For ages the Atlantic has surged along the sea shores, washing away the 
Bofter soil, ploughing up the bntiod locks, and splintering them into a 
thousand shapes, hoUowing out great cavema, and separatiLg numerous 
tracks of rook and mountain from the mainland. Everywhere the coast 
line is torn and shattered, with myriads of little islands (Mustering around 
it, and a strong current sweeps rapidly through the narrow channela, 
rendering navigation dangerous to the unwary mariner or even to the ex- 
peiienced rovers who, in ancient times, infested the N'orthem Seas. 

Most of the little islands harely maintain a few sheep on their mountain 
slopes, and the only fertile part is invariably found on the lee side, 
Sometimes, however, a small strip of weU-cnltivated pasture land, nestling 
under the shelter oC a mountainous headland, blooms gem-like amidst the 
snrrounding desolatioa Difieient &om many islands similarly situated 
that of Kerrera, with all its elevated surroundings, is not allowed to 
hftsk in sunny splendours on the southern shores of MulL The far- 
Bounding Atlantic forces its way through the passage of Colonsay, after 
skirting the triple barrier lalay, Jura, and Oronsay, on the one side^ 
and the h^h clifis of Mull on the other, and rushes impetuously in the 
fall swell of its tide against the jutting rocks of Dunkerlyne. The whole 
island is but one mass of rude confusion. It slopes upwards fiom nortih 
to south in broken, indented outlines, till the h^h clifa skirting a little 
hay, one mighty arm of black, unequal masaes rushes far out into the sea 
as if to clutch the waves as they rear in sheets of fleecy foam and thondei 
along the beach. 

. CrowniDg the ontwd rock the lines of a tower and ruinons heaps are 
distinctly dark against the leaden sky, and as the sea-mews dash, whirl, 
and shriek around them, the whole is rendered more savage and solitary. 
Such is the opeolng scene of our story — the keep of Bunkerlyne— as 
it appeared on an April morning in the early put of the fourteenth 
century- 
Yet, desolate as it might appear, the tower was not without its inha- 
bitants, and to-day there was a stir about the castle. 
A galley was kbouring among the breakers. 

The hoaise shouts of the men were borne by the winds above the 
Boise of the waters. They sounded faint, then deep. 



.Google 



12 THE CELTIC MACA^INE. 

" What t shall the yeasel AtikB V some one was heard to ciy. 

" Ha 1 ha !" laughed the men. 

They weathered with confidence — yea, with the asaurance of gods. 
Blood in their thoughts ; curaes on. their lips ; ,ale in their flagons ; they 
lived under the very darkness of death's shadow. 

A sail, half'hoisted, etraggled with the warring winds. : i. 

The men leaped to and fro with the dexterity of demons— their eyes 
flashing, their massy locks shaggy to the breeze, and their scaly armour 
glittering and reflecting the crested breakers. ' 

The galley sunk from sight — above her the waters broke in snowy 
foam — yet she rose and leapt among the seething and hissing billows. 

The oars struggled and splashed — some struck, others broka 

At length the eail became swollen and the mast creakingly bent to the 
breeze. 

" Hdd, ye useless jackanapes I Taut with these hallyards 1 Aid that 
fliig€(rless.loon ! Leap Gylen I— carefully now, or the mast may go !" 

Thns the weather-worn warrior commauded at the helm. Firmly he 
held against the tide as it made the rudder creak, and threatened in its 
strengQi to pitch him ovetboatd. 

As the vessel caught the wind and bore out to sea ploughiiig and 
pltmgiiig, the song of the, bravoes burst forth ; — 

Til duth to ear totm 
Who meet with onr blovi. 
On the itoTinT »ea> 
Wboie bornabj tha breeze 
fiulei the YiltiiiK. 

Til a ivelluig uil, 
A brimmer of ale 
And a gnaty nie 

For Uie ViklDB. 

Soon the galley became a speck in the distance— nov hidden, now 
viaible— till lost in the mazy mists beyond. 

From the old tower there were two who gazed anxiously across the 
waters watching the disappearance of the vessel 

JarlofF the minstrel was sad,. and spoke of the evil that would result 
from such a voyaga 

Dermond, the son of the pirate, was also sad at heart, but from the 
natural exuberance of his spirits, and his strong belief in Uie prowess of 
his father, who had just carried his ship so successfully through the 
breakers, he replied with laughter. 

The old harper merely shook his head in answer. 

Soon both relapsed into silence, 

Dermond paced to and fro apparently absorbed with his own tiioughts, 
while the harper still sat lookiiig out upon the sea watchii^ the progress 
of the storm. 

At length the old man lifted his harp, ran along the wires to teat 
their fEuthfolness, and then burst forth into a rhapsody of song, the only 
intelligible lines which appeared to Dermond being the Scandinavian 
chorus: — 



i,Googlc 



Ftrftto with thr broir lo filr. 
And thr looki (^ lOBiiy haii, 
Mftke tbr Toic* of p«Me to bsu 
And Ml haud. 



Ab the dp-j lei^^ened the storm increased, there was no sign of the 
Tover's retnm, and tbe vind drove with a fiercer fiir^ round the solitary 
keep of Dunkerlyne. 

Darkness set in early, adding a superstitioaB gloom to the warring of 
the elements. 

Pacing the platform in &ont of the castle was the gaunt figure of 
Olave, the son of JarlofT, with his feir locks Sowidg &om heneath his 
headpiece, and his m^rjr Mue eyes sparkling with health and good 
hnmouc His plaid was firmly drawn around him, and visible in its 
folds was a long dirk that knocked against his groin and fianks as the 
cold blast made him pace with redoubled vigour the length of tha rocky 
platform. His mind was stored with snatches of Scaldic eagos, which he 
chanted, -wild and rugged as the scenes around him. 

" Merry as usoal, Olave 1" said Donald, who'iept watoh on the battle- 
ments above. 

" What should make me sad) When I'm like to be melancholy I 
Bing myself into good-humour, and when the storm beats on tbe rook, my 
Norse blood boils and leaps in my veins : not like yoo, good Donald, to 
quiver at the blast ; 'tis my life and etrength." 

" Well enough for you, but I'd sooner try my sword against twenty 
Sasaenachs than strive with this night's wind." 

" Ha 1 ha I" laughed Olave, " Let the wind rage, and the twenty 
Saaaenachs come if they will, I care for none of them." 

" But what of our chid, Brian the £over, to be at sea on such a 
ni^tl" 

" Our chiei^ Brian I Why, he's as wary an old fox as ever was in the 
toils. Tve seen him weather a worse gale with a worse crew. Be- 
sides he knows every fiord and headlMid on the coast, and every tide and 
wind that runs and blows." 

" But what could make hJm set sail on such a morning as this vbbV 

" No doubt he has his reasons, as he always has, and it's no pMl^ of 
our duty to wonder at what he does. But rely on it, Donald, there's 
something strange in the wind, as we shall soon learn ; so strengthen your 
ixmiage and brighten your arms for the encounter. As for me I'm ready 
for the woiat, so— 

Tis death to oor tatt 
Who raset with our bl«m, 



Leaving the sentinols, however, to pursue their conversation, let us 
look to the town where Dermond and his ancient Jarloff kept a much 
dreaner look'oat 



ii,GoO(^lc 



14 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

The old man's long white locks floated on the \rinds aa he sat leaning 
on hb haip and gazing across the 8o\ind. 

The haip strings throbhed with .^Eolian muimurs, and Jarloffr^aided 
the omen with superstitious melancholy. 

As for Dermond, with all his reneration for the old seer, he now be- 
gan to share his anxiety. He paced testlessly to and fro, and wished 
that he had gone to sea in spite ci his lather's opposition, so that he might 
have been assured of what had caused the de1«ntlon. 

" Know you, good Jarloff," said Dermond, " if this expedition of my 
£atheT has anght to do with the rebellion of Bnjce )" 

" Of a certy it has. Every sign in the heavens and every movement 
on the earth have to do with that valiant rebel just now," 

" And why should my father distrust me in all these expeditions of 
his, seeing I am old enough and bold enough to be his stay and guardian 
in every danger that might assail him!" 

" ^Neither your discretion nor your bravery are doubted in these afiaiis, 
but I fear me, Brian, your father, is much changed of late. He is borne 
down by the weight of his burdens." 

" Why then does he not give me a part to heart He is getting old 
and I am youi^ and ready to shed my blood in his canae, whatever it 
may be." 

"Yon shall tnow anon. Meanwhile jou must be patient. Trust 
me, your day will come, and only a stout heart and a strong arm will 
avail you in the struggle." 

" Humph 1" said Dermond half-contemptuonsly. 

" What fools these old men are," he muttered to himaftlf " They 
never can know again what it is to be youi^. What strange misgivings 
they have regarding us. I know how much they fear me, in telling me 
nothing. But I've learned more than they can understand." 

" John of Lorn holds another mysterious council to-night, does he 
not!" he continued, addressing the minstrel 

"As you say, he does." 

" My lathers attendance is required, I believe." 

" It hath been so commanded." 

" And why should he not obey )" 

" He would if he conld, but hia will must bend to the ^tes." 

"I don't care about having another break with John of Lorn— 
the old wolf. But if it is to be — well then — it must be. But why 
should my father rush upon an enterprise so fraught with peril)" 

The old man merely shook bis head. 

" Tour blood is young, and you are restless, my eon," said the minstrel 
at length. " I was the same myself at your time, hut what a merry time 
that was of a surety. My songs gained the &vour of the fair, and when 
good old Aco ruled the Isles, my prowess was the envy and admiration of his 
knights. There was nothing on the board but good old Gascony,and moiled 
shirts and headpieces were as plentiful as Highland plaids. What a' time 
that was to be sure 1 — and your brave old graudfather went by sea and land 
with a royal retinne clad in the best of burnished steeL WeU and heavily 
he could ling his battle-axe about the pates of his enemies, but now 

Here he stopped and sighed, and the youth was greatly relieved, for he 



DEEMOND. IB 

had haaid a gieat deal too much about these old days from this whining old 
man. The dreama of Deimond were all in the future, and although he Uked 
to hear of the past, he had heard quite enough of thia vendon of the old 
timea to weaiy hjm . Above all thii^ however, he liked to hear JailofiTs 
atones of the knights of England and theii chivalry. The piedatory habits 
of hia lather had done much to diagost him with the searlife, which, aince 
the days of the Noise kings, had lost much of its fascination, and his 
secret ambition waa to spur a heavy charger with lance in rest, and to win 
hoDOur and renown in the battlefield and at the toumay. Of courae he 
vas thoroughly iuitiated in the chivaliic accomplishments of his compan- 
hna. He had studied the use of the diik, aword, and battle-axe, and 
could wield them with either strength, skill, or dexterity, but beyond the 
contests and exercigea of Duuolly and some fugitive espeditions, he had 
had few opportunitiea of distinguishing himself in mortal combat. 

" What ails you, good Jarloff]" said Dermond, more impressed than 
ever with the old man's melancholy. " Why, Tve never found you as bad 
as this in what seemed to me the worst of times. Can't you cheer up and 
give UB a song or a saga of the daya of old ] Something stirring, fiill of 
fire, of love, and doughty deeds t" 

The nuDBtrel, rousing himself firom hia reverie, began to channt 
plaintively : — 

WUIe nwj bird hai longht iU home. 
Old Briaa wtiM sod will not oome — 

I fear, I fiar thii mght ehall prore 
Too atrong in arme lor life or love, 
Dnokeilyiie htilM ue dnk and drMr, 

Old Bium lingen itill ten long — 
WIlj oomes he not, oiu heart* to oheer 

With joTikl mirth uid good old (ong, 

" A murrain on auch minstreky," said Dermond, with some warmth. 
"Give us something merry." 

Ke had scarcely spoken, however, when a wild shriek rang through 
the castle, and for a moment the darkness opened up, and a fiery meteor, 
known as the dread-ehradagcuA, lit up the heavens with a surging wave 
of pale, fj^reen light, and the moon and stars became momentarily visible 
like pallid and shivering ghosts in the Nocturnal brilliancy. Darting 
horn the left shoulder of Onon the Aerolite chariot shot obliquely weat- 
warda, and, bursting into a thousand brilliant frt^meote, seemed to ex- 
plode with a sound as of distant, rumbling thunder among the mountains 
of Mull* 

There was tfien a fearful silence. For a moment the storm seemed to 
have passed away, but only to renew with more awful violence. 

Then the darkness was something intensa 

Soon the ruddy glare of the watchfire illuminated the gloom, and the 
sonorona voice of Dermond was heard commanding the duties of the little 



Th«cmen irere properly equipped for lending aid should the pirate's 
1 veasel be driven on the rocks while attempting to reach the mouth of the 
I creek, where a huge fire waa lighted to show the place. 

\l * It mftf be tanembered tbat the oelebr&ted " Nebher-Loohaber," Id the Courier, 

ij jireoted attention to a aimiliiT phenomenoB u thii which oceomd in the bsginnliis of 
f '. fte fovrtMiuUi oantouy, m oart^ed hj the undent obtvnlolen. 



ii,G00(^lc 



18 THE CELTIC UAQAZINE, 

Eztia &^ota were added to the fire in the hall, and the smoke found 
itB way out by an apeitiire in the loof, oi strayed through the apartment 
' blackening the oaken lafteta. A great spit was turned by a shE^gy-headed 
boy, while around there eat the privileged few. The glare lighted up 
the bare walls and the anxious featuiee of the watchers, who sat tracing 
figures in the curling flames. Silently they sat as the storm, swept 
fiercely round the rock, and the tower seemed to shake on its basement 

Dermond was still on the watch-tower attempting to descry his father's 
baik in the darkness. The roar of the waters rose dismally in the gloom, 
and the scornful laugh of the tough-old Yikii^; rang mockuigly in his ear. 

The beacon hanging over the wall of the tower swung backwards and 
forwards, and the flames played with the blast as they hissed hideously 
in tile rain. 

Free and distinct, he seemed to hear the pieroing cry of the sea-wraith 
tend the tempest of the night, and the syrens of the deep sang their dirge 
of murmurs. At times they would rise above the noise of every wave 
and gust of wind, and then die away with the renewed roar of the stonn. 

Towards midnight a great amount of wrock^e was driven in by the 
tide and dashed against the rocks. 

Descending to the mouth of the creek, Dermond endeavoured to bring 
part of it ashore, in order to ascertain wheth^ any of it belonged to bis 
Cither's galley, 

A small raft, made from logs and barrels bound together with ropes, 
witli some one clinging to it, was seen driving past in the darkness. At 
first it seemed like to be dashed on the rocks from the violence with 
which it was washed in by the tide, but caught in the whirl of a contrary 
current it bore past and was driven seawaids again. 

In spite of every remonstrance Dermond got his galley under weigh, 
resolved upon rescuing the v/ait 

A thousand emotions were quivering in his breast, and skilftilly he 
carried the vessel out past the mouth of the crock into the midst of the 
storm and the darkness. 

The raft was again driven ashore, but Dermond found that having 
launched his vessel it was a very different thing to take it back again 
through the surf, and he soon found he was being driven by the tide 
farther and ferijier from Dunkeriyne. 

Alarm and consternation prevailed in the castle, but there was no 
other vessel available which could live in such a sea. 

As for Jarloff, amidst all the commotion, he was unmoved. 

The raft was driven ashore, and the half-dead stranger wbo clung to 
it, notwithstanding tbe superstition of the times which predicted evil 
frbm such an act, was carefully taken care of for Dermoud's sake, olthoi^h 
there was little hope of his recovery from the state of stupor in which he 
was rescued. From his dress and appearance he seemed to he a youth of 
noble lineage, and everything was done that could be done in his behal£ 
He was placed before ttie great fire in the hall, and the efl'orts for his r&- 
sus(^tation were carried out under the directions of the minstceL 

Olave and Donald were relieved from the watch, and in order to dis- 
pel the gloom that settled down on the little company, they told their 
tales of love and adventure. 

As for Jadoff, he did not &il to expatiate on the glorious leign of 
King Aoo, and how he was outwitted off the coast of X^;gs. 



DEHMOND. IT 

The incident of the descent of Lorn on Bathlin was retold, and how 
Fiancis, the first chief of Dunterlyne and iather of Brian, had been alaia 
by the hand of his brother, Cyril, in the encounter. 

" That night," said the old man, " while the beacon blazed from the 
tftU tower of which only the ruins lemain, the stonn raged more furiously 
than the oldest man living ever knew. The searwiaith was distinctly 
visible shrieking on the battlements, and the aoldiera fled into the hall. 
Besides the Dreag was more aivful than that of to-night, the gates were 
burst, and the tall tower of the beacon was precipitated over the rocks, 
and never since rebuilt." 

" Just thirty years since this very night," said old Alastair, who re- 
membered the tragic afiair vividly. 

Soon the gray dawn began to appear and the stormy winds to abate 
into their usuJal murmurs, but neither Brian the Bover nor his son Deiv 
mond had returned tsom the sea. 



Chapter II, 

And flnl on* vnivsrul shriek tbtre nub'd 
Loader than the land ocean, like a OTMh 

Of eataoing thaodoc ; and then iiU wu huah'd, 
S&Te tbe wild wind and the remoraelOBi duh 

Of biUowe ; bnt at Intarvsla theie gaih'd, 
Aooomp&nied vith & canTulaiTe spUib, 

A. lolitary ihriek, th« bubbling orjr 

Of Mme itrong swimmer in bis Bganf. 

— DoiaJvan, 
Beian, the Chief of Dunkerlyne, though generally known as " Old Brian 
the Bover," from the premature whiteness of Ms locks and hif> piratical 
pursuits, had hardly passed the meridian of his manhood. Like his minoue 
habitation, age had not caused his declension. The stem, inflexible ex- 
preasion on his countenance spoke not of happy and peaceful days ; tbe 
wrinkles on his spacious forehead, his searching, restless glance, and the- 
scars on hie rv^ed features were a striking chronicle in themselves of the 
HtiTring life he had led among the Western Isles. 

He had been early banished from his native land, but not from Mi 
paternal home. Prancis, his father, was the son and heir of Rathlin, but 
unhappily dispossessed by that irritable Lord owing to a family feud. 
Francis was strongly of opinion that the mereenary mode of warfare then 
carried on by some of the Irish chiefs, could neiUier throw off the yoke 
of England nor remove the grievances of bis country, and he secretly enter- 
tained hopes that Ireland would one day rise to take her place beside 
England, and share the glory of her arms amoi^ the nations of the world. 
Bathlin, becoming aware of the sentiments of his son, swore eternal enmity 
to the wretch of his blood who would submit to the crown of Ei^land, 
and consequently planted the younger brother, Cyril, in 'his inheritance. 
Stung with the reproach of his dishonoured position, Francis gathered to- 
gether a number of his attached followers with other adventurers, and 
roamed the sea, a plundering pirate. Finally, for the sake of his wife and 
his boy, Brian, he settled nt Dunkerlyne and built that almost impreg- 
nable keep Eoyally he lived for a time till the Is'orseman overran the 
Isles and subjected them to his sway, but on tbe defeat of Aco at I^rgs, 
Lom entered into a compact with Francis and the other chieftains to, ^ 



18 THE CELTIC MAGAZTNE. 

coiupire agoinfit tbe Hamper, and to ackno'wle^ the Chief of the 
Milcdoagala as theii Loid. In tlie confiisioa which took place on the 
IfOTsemen being dnven from the land towards theit ships, the men 
of the isles, accordingly, seized upon the imperfectly armed galleys, 
attaoked those re^ii^ to bring down the bla<ji raven from their mast- 
heads, left the mnnontB of Aco's force to perish on the shores, and sailed 
for their island fastnesses exalting in their success. But the joy was 
temporary, and gall was added to bitterness, for the Chief of Dm^erlyne 
now groaned under the supremacy of Lorn. After a long interval of 
peace, Loin, in order to gratify his lust for revenge, resolved upon a de- 
scent on the shores of Eathlin, and Francis and the other fiefe of the 
island king were compelled to accompany the expedition. Persuasion 
with threats bad to be applied in order to induce Francis to go, as an 
attack on his brother's castle was far &om recommending itself to him. 
But there was no reBistit^; the mil of hie liege lord, who promised Mm 
on return that the wish of his son, Brian, for the hand of Margery of 
Lorn would be patified, and the house of Dunkralyne and Dunolly 
would be more closely allied. Unhappily, Francis never returned. In, 
the darkness of the night he fell by the hand of hie own brother, and 
mourning had hardly ceased when the marriage of Brian was celebrated. 

This tie, however, did little to subdue the aspiring spirit of Brian, for 
his whole ambition was for independenca 

Lorn did not fail to discover the sentiments of his audacious relative, 
who was little skilled in the art of dissimulation, and a strict watch was 
kept over him. 

A plot for the masaacie of Lom's household was soon matured The 
aentin^ of Dunolly were bribed, and the attack was to take place at 
midnight. Lorn anticipated the storm — how, it could not be discovered 
— but that night with a force of arms he entered Bunkerlyne and accused 
the chief of his meditated treachery. 

Brian was instantly thrown into his own dungeon, and a more faithful 
dependant instaUed in his place. 

At length, through the entreaties of the beautiful Mai^ery, her hus- 
band was set free, on the condition that his garrison should be diminished 
and the defences reduced. 

This to some extent accounted for the extensive ruins. The castle 
now consisted of a single tower perched on the utmost verge of the crag, 
the other tower having been thrown down as related by old Jatloff in 
the previous chapter. Most of the other ddenoes were destroyed at the 
command of John of Lorn, and little huts erected in their stead for the 
accommodation of a few followers. 

Outwardly, however, the defences were still considerable. The land- 
ing place was approached by a hidden creek only known to those ac- 
quainted with that paTticular part of the island. Even if a footing conld 
have been obtained by a stranger, rocks high and inaccessible, bleached by 
the wind and whitened by the salt of the sea, flanked the opening which 
led up a dark and intricate passage to a platform in front of a rude entrance 
in the masonry of the outward battlemente. At the extremity, the plat- 
form was defended by a parapet bristling with barbicans, while the rock 
descended perpendicularly for about fifty feet 

Brian returned &om the dungeon to role in the hall, but his d 



Cookie 



DERMOND. 19 

was greatly altered. He liecatne desperate, and the victim of oxiiraoTdi- 
nary hallucinations. The ambition of hiB life vraa cruahed, and instead of 
contenting himadf with fighting the enemies of Lorn, he took to the eea, 
like his father of old, broken in the true pride of his spirit He became 
irascible and violent— provoked to lage at the veriest trifles — and even 
abased the noble Margery. 

She did not bear her husband's change of temper long. Her joy at 
his release wta soon mei^d in a brooding melancholy, and after many 
miserable days and long night watches, hei mind yielded to the strain, 
and she died a raving maniac. 

The only pledge of affection was her son, Deimond, who was the idol 
of his father's heart. The death of Mai^ery proved a great trial to Brian, 
whb became once mote something of his former self, and the love, which 
was denied in the latter days to the mother, was profusely lavished on the 
son. Many a time the tear would trickle down the old man's weather- 
beaten features as he kissed the rosy boy when tskii^ leave for some in- 
cnision, but he was too proud to forsake his roving life on the sea. 

Dermond, as he approached manhood, inherited much of his mother's 
Bomeliness and gentleness, allied to the youthful spirit of his father, and 
weaded with the forced confinement at Dunkerlyne he yearned to go forth 
and distinguish himseli 

Under the direction of his liege lord, Brian had equipped the galley, 
which had borne him safely through many a fearful storm and bloody 
battle, for the purpose of preventing two ships bound from Ireland with 
men and stores for the Bruce, £rom accomplishing their mission. All day 
long, however, he scoured the intricacies of the Western Isles in vain, 
and no small amount of skill was required in managii^ the vessel among 
the cont«nding winds and strong tides. To the lee, she inclined so much 
that the waters broke through the oar ports, disablii^ the rowers, not- 
withstanding that the sheet was under double ree£ At length the sea 
ran too high, the wind drove along with a blinding sleet, and the sky be- 
came black overhead. After being driven to and fro for a while, Brian 
descried the breakers that lashed the shores of Sella. With some di£B- 
cnlty the vessel was run into one of the numerous fiords on the coast, and 
the pirates made for the cavern of Ardnavarish — a common resource in 
such em^gencies. A fire was speedily lighted, the feast was prepared, 
and Brian resolved upon spending the night on the island. 

Sentinels were posted on the cold badlands, to observe should any 
vessel be driven on the rocks, and as the n^ht wore on a storm-bound 
hulk, with a few dark objects clinging to her, was seen drifting helplessly 
through the surf. An alarm was raised, but to no purpose, as the wreck 
went crashing past and disappeared like a phantom in the murky gloom. . 

(To be Continued.) 



jb,Googlc 



THE CELTIC MAGAZDJE. 



THE EDITOB IN CANADA 



Fbou what I could leara at home of the poBition of my countrymeD who 
had OTOssed the Atlantic of their own free will, as well as of those who 
had heen driven away &om their native land by the cruelty of, a few of 
the Highland lairds of a past generatioB, I was led to believe that they 
occupied a much better position, in the New World, than those who re- 
mained at home. I could nefver, however, believe that the difference was 
80 great ae it really is, until I have now been able to judge for myself, 
feom actual contact with them, and peraonal experience oi their com- 
parative comforts and freedom from petty tyranny which they enjoy. I 
have now passed through the greater part of Nova Scotia, and have met, 
in the counties of Pietou and Antigonish, in the Island of Cape Breton, 
and elsewhere, specimens of Highland men and women — many of whose 
ancestors have been evicted and hounded in a semi-naked and starving 
state from the Highlands of Scotland— who will bear more than a favour- 
able comparison with the very best specimens of the race at home. In 
physique, taking them all over, they are superior to those of any district 
that I am acquainted with in what all here still take a pride in calling 
" The Old Country." In general inteUigence they at least equal, while in 
genuine warm-heartedness, manly sentiment, and open, free, Highland 
hospitality, they are far in advance of the general run of those of their 
countrymen who occupy the same position as they themselves did before 
they left home. True, they are in more favourable circumstances, and 
therefore in a far better position, and better able to exhibit these 
characteristics of the fine race from which they sprung. But I cannot for 
the life of me see why, nor can I conscientiously advocate that my brother 
Highlanders should continue to remain at home in a servile and, often, in 
a starving position, on grounds of mere sentiment and love of their native 
soil, when such a country as this is open to receive them. This part of 
Canada is not the best part to come to, however, unless people have friends 
here ready to receive them, though tome it appears a Paradise in many re- 
spects in comparison with the wretched patches on which the crofter has 
to eke out an existence, in most cases, in the Highlands. 

It is quite true that most of those who came out here first, before the 
country was broken up, endured the most severe and cruel hardships, but 
these have long ^o become things of the past. For specimens of these 
early difficulties I must at present refer the reader to the Aberdeen Dailif 
Free Press, where I am able to give a more complete account of the his- 
tory of early emmigration and the present position of these provinces than 
the exigencies of space permits of in the Celtic Magazine. As I work my 
way to Upper Canada, I shall give an account of the richer districts in 
that quarter, and I trust to be of some service in directing poor and 
neglected Highlanders at home to places whore they can become proprietors 
of the soil, and find an ample opportunity for laying a solid foundation 
for the future prosperity of themselves and their descendants. The reader 
is already aware tluit I have taken a view of this question of emigration, 



I Gooj^lc 



THE EDITOR IN CAHADA. 2l 

ttbd of the Highland crofter's position, at home, which is not .shared by a 
good few. who have his real interest at heart quite as mach as I hava 
These I expect will still continue to hold their own opinions, but, for me, 
having now seen with my own eyes, apd having had an opportunity of 
forming, or rather strengthening, my previous opinions by observation on 
the spot, I have no hesitation in recommending the Highland crofter to 
keep his eye on this side, failing better treatment at home ; and finally to 
come to this country in spite of such mistaken and erroneous teachers as 
would advocate semi-starvation in Scotland to comfort and afftuence ia a 
country which ia, in every respect, except in poverty and wretchedness, as 
Highland as his native land. 

I have taken considerable pains to find out the feeling here, regarding 
the mother country, among those who came out themselves, as well as 
among their descendants, and I cannot recall a sii^^le instance in which 
any of those who have settled down here on their own lands, would wish 
to go back and live in the Highlands. Most, not only of the original 
emigrants, but of their descendants, to whom I have put the question, 
expressed a desire to see the country of their ancestors, but the idea of 
going hack to remain in it never crossed their minds. I have met them 
throughout the Province of Nova Scotia and in the Island of Cape Breton, 
who, at home, lived as our poorest crofters do, who can now turn ont in 
their carriage and pair. 'WTiile this is the case with not a few, hardly a 
single farmer can be met with who does not keep what ia here called a 
" wa^on," but what is in reahty a nice, hght, four-wheeled machine, 
made to carry two or four persons. The farmers as a class, however, are 
not wealthy, but they have as much bread, potatoes, meat, butter, cheese, 
and such substantial fare as any one needs to have, while they not only 
grow their own wool, but in nearly all cases keep their own looms and 
weave it in their respective homes into excellent doth. Add to all these 
home comforts a beautiful climate, and the independence enjoyed by a 
fine race of men naturally of a cheerful and hopeful disposition, living 
nnmoleated by laird or factor, on theii freehold possessions, and what 
more can be wished for. 

At the same time there is great room for improvement. Fanning is 
not carried on on scientific principles; but the very reverse. Were a 
system of rotation of crops introduced, double the amount of com and 
cereals could be produced with half the labour. At present, in some 
cases the land is left for several years under grass, as long, in not a few 
instances, as eight or nine years, while, again it is under crop for an equal 
length of time, thus run to seed, and all the sap taken out of it for either 
purpose. This is to be accounted for mainly firom the fact that the class 
of people who oiiginally emigrated from the old country to these provinces 
did not belong to the fermii^ class at home — were only the poorest of the 
crofting population, who had not then the slightest idea of farming their 
lota on any improved plan. When they arrived here, and obtained their 
grants ot 100 and 200 acres, they set to work in rough and ready 
foshion, reclaiming enough to grow all their requirements, and soon found 
themselves in a position of comparative afftuence. Their ambition was 
not high, and findii^ themselves in easy and comfortable circumstances, 
and in a much better position than they ever before occupied, they natur- 
ally settled down and eiijoyed themaelvee, quite happy; (md tiieiid«i[^ 



S2 THE CELTIC MAGA^IlfE. 

scendants have, to some extent I fear, folloired in their wake. The con- 
sequence is bad fEknning geiierall; throughout the moat Highland sections 
of the provinca The local GovBrnment of Nova Scotia might, by offering 
prizes tliroughout the provinces for the best cnltivated fanos, in a few 
years brii^ about a revolution among the fermera "What can be done 
by such encouragement is illustrated this very veek, as I write, by the 
magnificent Eibibition of the produce of the Province held in the 
city of Halifax, and of which I shall have something to eay on a fatnre 



Meanvhile I shall ask the reader to accompany me in my trip throttgh 
]!f ova Scotia to make the acquaintance of a few of our conntrymen, whose 
names deserve mention, not only on account of their warm-hearted, en- 
thusiastic welcome, and friendly feeUngs to, and in &vonr of, " a High- 
lander from home;" but on account of the excellent positions many of 
them have made for themselves on this continent. 

After experiencing a pretty rough passage across the Attantio in the 
steamship State of Nevada, a splendid sea-going boat belonging to the 
State Line Company, navigated by Captain Braes, an experienced, care- 
fol, and conrteons sailor, I arrived in 

Nbw Yobk on the 4th of September, just in time to see the H'ew York 
Cfiedonian Games, which were held on that day. Here was an immense 
assemblage of aboat ten thousand people thoroughly enjoying themselves, 
and behaving in a manner highly creditable to the Scottish character. 
There was a capital sprinkling of the most prominent Scots— fine stal- 
wart fellows — dressed in Hightod costume, presided over by their Chief 
— a handsome Highlander, Kicholson by name. I was soon introduced 
to several of the leading men, among whom were the Honourable Thomas 
Waddell, a wealthy coal-owner from Penndyvania, and the newly-elected 
President of the United Ctdedonian Association of America, the highest 
honour at the disposal of his fellow countrymen on this side of the At- 
lantic ; Mr L. Lawrie, Secretary of the same Association, and nmm^er of 
the Auburn Cloth Manufactory, the lai^est thing of the kind in the 
United States ; Mr Stewart, editor and proprietor of the Scottish American 
Journal; Messrs Eobertaon of the New Fork Scotsman; Mr D. Mao- 
gregor Crerar, Secretary of St Andrew's Society of New York, a highly 
respected and popular Highlander among the better class of Scots in 
America ; Mr Paterson, an Invernessian, and no mean poet ; Mr Gilully, 
a Merkinch boy ; Mr Haroomhe, son of the late proprietor of the Waverly 
Hotel, InTemess ; M^or Manson, a prominent Caithness man, and one 
of the most popular and hberal, open-handed men in the American capital 
From these and hundreds of others I experienced the utmost kindness 
and attention. In fact their enthusiastic demonstrations in the shape of 
liberal supplies of the good things of this life were calculated to place one 
in a somewhat trying position ; and to t^e care of one's self required no 
small amount of self-denial and force of charactar. Fortunately, however, 
I possess no small modicum of these, and I survive the liberal and warm 
hospitality of my Highland friends. 

The games were h^hly creditable in all respects, but the pipe-music 
and dancii^ left room for improvement The fevonrite piper woald have 
no chance in any of oui best competitionB in Scotland. There was an- 
otiher, however, vho played vuy correctly and sweetly, and was, out of 



THE EDrCOE Uf CANADA. 23 

dght, B better performer than the winner of the first piiz& Having spent 
a few days in New York, I went on to 

BoBTOX, a magnificent city, admitted to be tbe moat cnltivated and 
intellectual town in the United States. I visited Harvard University, 
Loi^ellow'a residence — which was also Washington's head-quarteta at 
the outbreak of the American War of Independence, also the spot where 
first blood was drawn, and the place where the historical tea was thrown 
overboard rather than that the detested and stroi^ly resented duty should 
have been paid on it These and many other points of interest were exa- 
mined with mixed feelings; but one place in particular, an old church, 
had an inscription cut upon it at which my blood boiled, and at the same 
lime made me wonder that tbe inhabitants of the American Athens could 
he found capable of such a narrow-minded, contemptible thii^ The 
inscription r^d, " Desecrated by British troops" &c; and that in such a 
thoroughly British city as that of Boston. I felt relieved on finding that 
this wretched Kttleneaa was perpetrated, not by any official body, but by 
a contemptible set of three or four Trustees of this church, much to the 
disgusit of, and in opposition to, the inhabitants. My excellent guide, 
Mi Magee, the agent for the State Line Co., informed me that the gene- 
ral feelmg among the greater part of the citizens of Boston found vent in 
expieasions of regret that the church had not been burnt down in tbe 
tenihle oonfl^^tion which, a few years ago, destroyed a great portion of 
the city, and, havii^ escaped that,a desire prevailed that some such calamity 
should soon overtake it. In the late Civil War, the Americans " de- 
secrated," in the same way, hundreds of churches in the Southern States, 
but, of course, these were only " occupied." It is only occupation by 
British troops that can desecrate, in the estimation of these patriotic 
Yankee trustees, who, one is glad to find, do not represent the finer feel- 
ings of their own countrymen and fellow citizens. Leaving Boston, after 
a magnificent sail of 340 miles, I arrived in 

St John, New Brunswick, and spent the evening with the Eev. D. 
Macrae, M, A., at his own house, and afterwards in the house of a hospit- 
able Mend of his, Mr Murdoch, a southern Scot, holding a leadii^ posi- 
tion in 8t John. B6re I met several gentlemen distinguished in litera- 
ture and in the church— fine, afiable, open-hearted fellows, with the ec- 
clesiaatical starch, if it ever existed, thoroughly rubbed out of them. Mr 
Macrae is the son of the late Rev. John Macrae, parish minister of Stor- 
noway, and presides here over a large, intelligent, and most influential 



I here found that I could get on to Halifax by either of two routes — 
the Intercolonial Railway on the one hand, or on the other, steamboat to 
Digby and Annapolis, thence rail through the Annapolis Valley, the most 
beautiful and fertile in all Nova Scotia. I made choice of the latter, and 
certainly had no cause to regret it. All aloi^ the railway route, thnn^h 
this munificent valley, teems with orchards and foliage of the finest de- 
scription. It was originally reclaimed and long held by the French, un- 
til tiiey were driven out of it by the British, who, though the place is a 
very agricultural paradise, do not seem to have followed up the enterprise 
of their predecessors, who reclaimed not only &om the forest, but from 
the sea, thousands'of acres known as the Annapolis Marshes, and immor- 
talised by Longfellow in his famous poem " Evangeline." This was mj 



Google 



^ tHE CELTK) MAGAgmk 

first trip of any coneequence in the famous and Inxtuious American cai-s, 
Thich foi comfort and elegance cannot be named in the same bieatli with 
our very best carriages at home, if we exclude the Pullman cars. They 
we particularly agreeable for a stranger to travel long distances in ; for all 
necessary conveniences are provided in them, as well as an el^antly fur- 
fumished smoking saloon, to which the passengers can walk along &om 
one end of the long train to the other. Arriving in 

Halifax late on Friday evening, I remained there until the Monday 
morning following, and met some fine specimens of the H^hlauder, all 
of whom exhibited the best characteristics of the race — characteristics, I 
regret to say, now only met with in full play from home. Of these gentle- 
men, of their excellent Society — the North British, and of their doings and 
position generally, I shall have eomethii^ to say hereafter. Meanwhile I 
proceed through a magnificent country by rail, a distance of 106 miles to 



l^e beauty on all sides on this route is simply indescribable. The 
pretty, clean-looking, white-painted, wooden houses, surrounded by fine 
arable land, in its turn enclosed within a thick and beautifully variegated 
forest, each appearing in miniature like one of our lordly mansions at 
home. Every man of these are proprietors of the soil, and thoroughly 
independent of mortal man, when he has paid a very small tax to the 
Government He has his children educated free by the State, and alto- 
gether his position is much to be envied. In the morning I discovered 
that the Pictounians were celebrating the anniversary of the arrival of the 
ship Hector, which, in 1773, landed the first Highland colony in Pictou, 
and I was naturally anxious to see my Highland countrymen on such an 
occasion ; and there they were, when I arrived, exhibiting the prowess of 
their ancestors, commemorating the arrival of their fat^rs and grand- 
others, in good Highland fitshion. Though they have no Scottish, High- 
land, or Caledonian Society, they are full of the proper spirit ; and here 
they were hotly engaged in their annual Highland games, under the 
superintendence of the officers of the artillery, to whom great credit is due 
for the manner in which the sports are conducted. Here I found myself 
right in the centre of a country and people more truly Highland in their 
ways and in their speech than almost any part of the North of Scotland. 
Gaelic was more commonly spoken at this gathering of Highlanders than 
you can find it now in any [Art of Sutherland or Boss shires ; and indeed 
it is there only I^Mit you can now meet with the Sutherland, Boas, and 
InvemesB-shire people in perfection. Fraaers, Mackeuries, and Mac- 
donalds meet yon in hundreds, and address you in the purest Gaelic 
Many of them are almost giants — fine, bonestrfaced, powerful, healthy- 
lookuig fellows, glad to see one from what they still call "home," each 
vying with the other as to who can give him the moat attention and make 
his visit most agreeable. The first I meet on landing is a M^ Donald 
Eraser, whose parents came originally from the Lovat country, near 
Inverness. He had his carri^e to drive me to the games. Before I am 
barely seated in it, Captain William Crerar and his nephew — the latter a 
son of a fine HigUandor, John Crerar, and a young gentleman whom I 
have seen in kilts repeatedly during the summer in Inverness — come up 
vitU another caniage for the same purpose. We are soon on the field, 



jb,GoO(^lc 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 26 

wliete I find myself among liimdreds from all parts of the Highlands — 
any niuaber of Mackenziee &om Lochcairon and Gairloch, Frasers from. 
IiiTemesa, Bosses, Maedonaliie, and Sutherlands, from other counties — 
many of tbem wealthy men, and most of them, in fact, nearly all, in good, 
comfortable circumstances, posaeeaing their own lands in free heritage, and 
producing everything neceasary for human comfort and happiness. Mr 
Donald Fraser owns sereial farms, is wealthy, and a director of a thriving 
local bank. The Cretais, oi^inally from Bieadalbane, I found have 
many Mends in Inverness and Badenoch. Their father came out here as 
an engineer, where he huilt some of the first roads in the district. He 
afterwards engineered and built the first railway. His sons became ship- 
owners and doctors, and are now in easy and affluent circumstances living 
on theii means — and well do they deserve it, amore hospitable, agreeable, 
noble, spirited femily of true Celte it is impossible to meet. There is also 
a very wealthy family of Mackenzies from Boss, one of whom has designated 
his farm " Soaforth." Another Highlander — a fine specimen, physically 
and mentally — John D. Macleod, is mayor of the town of Pictou. D. 
Macdonald is collector of customs. In short, the place and people are 
thoroughly Celtic, and such as to make you prond of the race to which 
you and tiese fine fellows belong. One genuine enthusiast, Hector Mac- 
nullan, I met at the games. His characteristic Highland face, his keen 
interest in all the proceedings of the day, wrapped in a Macneil tartan 
plaid, was to me an object of study. He had a hand in everything, and 
was a judge in almost all the competitions He was almost too much 
engrossed to remember his own existence, and aU he wanted was a full 
Highland costume to make him in appearance, what I have found him to 
be in country, sold, and sentimen't— a genuine specimen of a Lochaber 
Highlander. The jumping, tossing the caber, the stone-thiowiug, and 
various others of the competitions, would do credit to some of our best 
competitors at the NortBiem Meeting, but the pipe music was nowhere. 
I was sorry to see so few dressed in Highland costume, for there is no- 
thiug looks so ridiculous as to see people dancing Gille-Callum and the 
Highland Flii^ in Sassenach trousers. Only three good kilt suits were 
on the field. And one of these, worn by a Mr Yawson, of Orcadian ex- 
traction, deaervedly won hit " the first prize for the best dressed High- 
lander, a Mr Mackenzie, originally from Brora, Sutherlandshire, but 
now of Hali&z, taking the second prize with a suit made by Messrs 
Kobert Eraser & Sons, Inverness. This gentleman was, also a good 
dancer, and secured some of the principal prizes. 

Pictou Town and County are sufficiently important to demand a whole 
article devoted to themselves, but it is my intention in these letters to 
deal more particularly with the people. The native resources, and ap- 
pearance of the connliy will be more particularly treated in my letters to 
the Aberdeen Daily Free Prese. I may, however, state that the whole 
populationof the county, in 1817, was only 6,737 ; in 1871 it was 33,114 
In 1870 the county produced 76,426 bushels of wheat, 469,868 of oats, 
64,937 of other grain, 415,624 of potatoes, 32,334 tons of hay, and 
804,661 lbs. of butter. The farm stock owned was 6,787 horses, 14,958 
milch cows, 12,560 other homed cattle, 43,416 sheep, and 4,343 swine. 
This county manufactures nearly as much leather as all the test of the 
Province of 1Soy& Scotia put together, and woollen factories an making 

.Google 



26 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

lapid piogiess. The enriace of the county ia nearly Level, and the soil is 
exceeduigly fertile. The harbcui of Pictou is one of tiie bedt in the 
norld, but it is frozen over all vinter. Underlying the Enuface is De- 
Tonian lime stone. The country contains rich mines of aoal and iron ore. 
It h&s one coal hed 33 feet in thickness, with 24 feet of excellent coaL 
Besides, there are ten other strata. Next to the County of Halifax, it ia 
the most populous in Nova Scotia. Its area is 720,496 acres, and, aa 
abeady indicated, it is mainly settled by Scotch Highlanders. The capital 
of the county is situated on the harbonr of the same name, in a fertile and 
fairly cultivated district. It is well built, has an academy, a library, 
sevOTal banks, telegraph offices, a newspaper, maaonio hall, several fine 
churches, hotels, two steam carding mills, two tobacco manu&ctories, an - 
iron-foundry, several saw and grist mills, and tanneries. The shipping 
owned in the port ia very extensive, and the imports and exports — 
especially in coal and timber — are very considerable. The population of 
the town at last census was 3,200 — altogether a prettily situated, prosperous, 
and growing seaport. A. M. 



TxAELIC SCRIPTITEE8— EDITIONS OF 1826 AND 1860. 

TO THE EDItOB OF THE CELTIC MAOAZINB. 

Sia, — In any historical notice of the Gaelic Scriptures it should be remem- 
bered that the Sev. Bobert Kirke, minister of Balquhidder, was the first who 
endeavoured lo make them accessible to Highlanders. In 1690 he pub- 
lished Bishop Bedell's Irish Bible in Roman letters, conferring a rery 
great boon on his countrymen. But the circulation of the work does not 
appear to have been extensive, nor does it seem to have met with any 
great favour. Yet for a period of nearly a hundred years it was the 
Highlanders' only Bible. At length in 1801 the Chnstian Knowledge 
Society completed a Oaelic translation of the Bible, and in 1807 published 
a second edition, considerably improved. In 1816 the General Assembly, 
at the Society's request, agreed to revise the whole work, and entrusted 
the task 1(^ the Eov. Dr Stewart of Lnss, and the Eev. Dr Stewart, of 
Dingwall. Both these excellent men, however, died before making any 
considerable progress in the work. No successors were appointed, and, 
after lengthened ffnd acrimonious controversy, the Assembly, in 1826, 
agreed to authorise the edition of 1807, which, however, when it actually 
appeared, was found to have undergone various alterationa. 

The discontent with this editiAi (known as that of '26) was such tiiat 



GAEUC SGEIPTmtES. 27 

in 1840 — juBb 14 years after its issue — the Asseuibly, letnming to its 
former opinion, appointed a Committee for " revising " it, and a revidon 
Committee is still continued by the Established Church, Trith whom the 
General Assembly of the Free Chuich co-operoted for several years by 
means of a " Revision Committee " of its own appointment 

These are facts of great importance to he remembered. The defenders 
of this edition speak as if there were something illiterate, aadacions, or 
positively profane in altering a word or a point to be found in it, whereas 
it is the pulJlicly recorded opinion of both the Established and Free 
Churches that it stands in urgent need of revision j and thus it appears 
that the authorisation conceded to it in '26 is a very quaMed one, if it 
be not absolntely withdrawn. 

And now allow me to state some of the reasons which appear to me 
not merely to justify, but to demand such a revision. 

i. It deals very loosely with the " Received Text," of which the 
English authorised £ihle is a translation — sometimes transferring pas- 
sages fiom one hook to another, sometimes adding passages the source of 
which is not declared, and sometimes omitting passages without any 
SBsigued reason. And let me say that while some of the transferred or 
interpolated passages are marked with bnckets, this is not uniformly 
done. Xh^re atf several of these without any such mark ; and there are 
many passages both in Old and Kew Testaments which are bracketed al- 
though found in the originaL There is no index to additions or omis- 
sions ; consequently nothing but a laborious comparison of the translation 
with the originals will give right knowledge of the strange and daring 
work done by the editors of '26. 

I subjoin a few proofs in support of my very serious charges. — 

Three names are added in L Chron., viii, 29-31, transferred from the 
9tbchap. InL Chion., xL, 13,twolongverBes, which are transferred from 
n. Sam., xziii., 9, 10, 11, are inserted in the middle of the verse, and in 
n. Chron. v., 3, a short clause is inserted from II. Kings, viii, 2. Ex- 
tensive changes are made on the genealogical tables in Chronicles and 
Ezra. Thus, in IL Chron., xiii., 2, we have a name taken in from I. 
Kings, XV., 1 J in n. Chron., xv., 8, another is inserted without the 
source being mentioned ; in Ezra, vii-, 3, six names are transferred from 
L CJiron, vi, 7, 8, 9 : in Ezra, viii, 5, one name is added, and another 
in v., 10, while in v., 16, two are excluded. 

The Psalms also are very ireely handled. In Ps, xviii., 13, the last 
clause is omitted in accordance witii the text of the Septuagint. Ps. xx., 
9, is considerably altered likewise after the Septuagint, thoi^h not a 
liteid translation even of it is given. In Fs. Ixviii., 8, a clause is inserted 
not found either in the Hebrew or the Septuagint. In Ps. Ixxii., 3, the 
word fireaniachd is dropped ; Ps. cxiii, and csiv., are very singularly . 
dealt with. The last dause of the former is omitted in its proper place, 
but placed at the beginning of the latter without any esplanation, while 
in Pa.^cxlv., a whole verse is added, likewise without explanation. 

In Prov. v.. 3, there is a clause inserted not to he found either in the 
Hebrew or the Septu^int In Lament. L, 13, a clause is omitted accordii^ 
to the Septuagint. - Lam. ii., 18, there is a translation differing alike from 
both these authorities, and omitting the word "wall," which is to be 
fbund in both. In Micah iL, i; there is a long clause inserted not to be 



.Google 



28 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

found in either Hebrew or Greek In lea. xvL, 1, the word "Enler" is 
omitted; in laa. xxzviii, 7, a clause is transferred from II. Kinga, xx., 
9, and in Luke i, 79, the quotation from the prophet is mutilated by the 
omission of the words " in darkness." 

IL This edition, founded very much on Bishop Bedell's Bible, retains 
many words and phrases which are purely Irish, and never had a place 
in the H^hlands— e.^., Fuigh for Faigh, Droing for Dream, Troiag for 
Trcug, Fuidh for Fo, Coigleadh for Caomhnadh, Lati-deimkin for LAn- 
chimtl, or dearbhadh, Codal for eatlal, cos for cas, and many more such. 

III. The desire to bring Gaelic to conform to the rules of more learned 
languages induced the writers to manufacture forms of inflection totally 
opposed to genuine Gaelic. Apparently to have the Dat. Plur. somewhat 
like the Latin ilms, we have such absolute monsters as cnaimhibh, 
craobhaihh, limhaibh, laogludbh, naomhaihh, &c., &c., while with sin- 
gular disregard of this favourite form, and of the true Gaelic termination, 
we have, as in Dan. iv., 12, atg beathaicke, xii., 8, aig na nitke ao. 

Again to make substantives, referring to the same object, agree in case, 
an agreement not sanctioned by Gaelic usage, we have hundreds of times 
over such expressions as "do Dhia 'athar Isaaic," "mac rig/i S/wlaimh, do 
Bhara mnaoi Abraim, do Egla a mftnaoi," expressions which it is quite 
enough to name to a Highlander. We have also a slavish conformity to 
the letter of the original in tmnBlUerating plural nouns into Gaelic plurals 
though such are utterly unknown to the language. Both in the Old and Hew 
Testaments we have urati-" breads"; toraibhiot "fruits," eunlaiihibh 
for " birds," and many similar instances; yet, as if to show that careless- 
ness, more than ignorance, led to such oflensive soleciamfl, we have, GaL 
v., 20, 21, in the dark catalogue of " the works of the flesh," no fewer 
than nine of these works described in Greek by nouns plural, rationally 
and correctly rendered into Gaelic by nouns singular. 

The number of what, for want of more distinctive terms, I must call 
bad or unidiomatie Gaelic phrases, is likewise very great Take the fol- 
lowing few as specimens ; — Mata., xvi., 9, 10, "Nach 'eil sibh a' cuimh- 
neacbadhnawcuigaran«ancuigmlle . . no nan aeaohd aran jian ceithii 
mile' " ; Judges xix., 17, " C ait a tha thn dol' " ; Acts xxii.. 27, " An 
Kombanach thut .... la mi," paralleled by a similar construction 
in Geu, xlii., 9, 10 ; Bom. iv., 12, " ann an oeumaibh a' chreidimh ar n- 
athar Abrahaim," and in the preceding verse we have " chum gu mea- 
eadh fireantachd dhoibhsan " — an active for a passive form. Passing by 
many similar instances, let me refer to the 27th chapter of Acts, which is 
as well known for bad Gaelic as for bad seamanship, verses 16, 17 — "is 
ann le '^igin a rainig sinn air a' bh^ta, agus air dhoibh a thogail snas . . 
b' criosadh na luinge fuipe, leig iad an seoil aios." Bata is generally 
called is6, not esan, but as for ^ipe and geoU, I will say nothing. 

rv. Passing by scores of anomalies, I must point out a few of the 
typographical errors which abound from Genesis to Revelations, e.g., Gen. 
xviiL 21, mar do rinn, for mur, a frequently recuning one, vide Ezekiel 
xxxiii. 9, Zechar. xL 12. Gen. xxviiL 13, "am fearann ait am bheil tku 
do luidhe,"' an error to be met with many times. Gen, xxxL 28, 
"nach do ledg thu loom mo nhio a phogadh," for leig. Gen. xL 8, 
" chunnaic sin aislii^," for Htm. £xod. xz, 20, air dunr, for air chor. 
X Sam, 11. 3, leieean for leia^tm. L Sun. ix. 2, o' ghvaitAh, for ghuail- 



&XEUC SCBIPTTTEES. . 29 

UHh, L Ckron. tr. 22, whdrcmaehd ten na^drantuhd. Pa. ix. 19, na 

iiiadhaicTiear iuhie, for na buadhaicheadk, Isa. xxvii 11, " sln^^ gu'n 
tuigse," for gim (game eiror 57, 1). Isa. m. 12, "a Zau^ bhur taice," 
for htgaU. Isa, IL 23, gu'a teid n» thaiiie," for mm. laa. liii 1, "co a 
chidd air teachdaiiaachd," for or. Jerem. xxz. 14, "Binn do leanitan 
gn lair," for leamnain. Jerem. xlvi. 28, " TaroJb m' dglaich," for m' 
dglaeh (anlesB it may be aaid to be according to foreign rule). Dan. 17. 
23, "fiuich" for Jliuch. Hosea xii 1, " ga giulaiTi," for giidan. Jonah 
ii. 9, " Is an do 'n Tigheama," for ie ann. Luke xii. 7, and liv. 35, " an 
talmhainn," for na taLmhainn. Luke xxiii. 41, "a thoU ar gniomliara 
fein," foi a thoill. Acts viiL 34, Guidheam thuiat ort. Actsxii. 21, 
"air a sgeudackadh," for ggeadackadh. But I must pass on, leaving an- 
lecorded many which I have marked, and certain that there are very 
many which I have not marked 

V, A very unacholajly system prevails thronghont of running ehort 
words together, and writing them as if they formed one word only, tiius, 
awTM an is almost always written son, anns a 'na, orna, an vair 'nuair, 
&e., &c 

TL The irregularity of the orthography from beginning to end is snch 
B8 to defy description. Take any word, inflection, or construction, and 
you ficd all possible variations of it Comhar, comhara, comharra, and 
comharadh, are all instances of the Nom. We have Fair and (Hr, 
Feabhaa and Feodhag, Solanih and Solomon, Siriaieh and Sirianaich. So 
of other caaea Often we have in Ifom, Plur. the Irish aithriche, and 
often the Gaelic aithrichean. The dative plural probably presents the 
most remarkable variations — cmttich and cinneackaibh ; diafhailh, diibh, 
and diathan; eeumaibh and eeumannaibh ; peacaibh, peacannaibh, and 
peacanna. The irregularity of the syntax is just as complete as that of 
separate words, but I must confine myself to one example : Eom. vii, 15, 
20, in these few verses we have tha tnS a' deanamk four times over, and 
Via mi deanamh, without any sign of the preposition, five times, while 
tha mi 'deaiiamh is in other places a very common form. Wb have here 
also gabhail and a' gabhail, while we have a (a six times, and fha just 
as often. An examination of other pass^es will present similar results ; 
and whilesome portions arewrittenmuch more carefully than others, I main- 
tain it aa a fact that there lb not even a remote approach to grammatical 
accuracy or uniformity throi^hout the edition of '26, a fact undeniable 
by any one who will admit the evidence of his eyes. Those who extol 
it as a " standard," and praise it aa the work of " thorough grammarians," 
merely prove thereby that " they know not what they say, nor whereof 
they affirm." 

At the same time I have to say in all earnestness that I do not wish 
to caat any reproach on the editors for their loose method of writing. 
Every one wrote Gaelic very loosely in theit day. It ia only since Grer- 
man scholars began to analyze and explain our language that much regard 
has been paid to system and uniformity in writing it, and, as I said in 
my last letter, I have not seen uniformity attained by any one, even np 
to the present day, while I am glad to see considerable advances towards 
it. So of typographical errors. It is said that no book is absolutely free 
of them, and after about forty years fteqaent dealing with Gaelic printing 
iSuiB, I say that, unless an editor can himself be present at the final 



so THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

thiowiug off of his slkeete, <St an intelQgent reader be provi^ in Gaelic 
offices, as is the case ia good English offices, errors, catefully collected 
even in the third proo^ will aometimes reappear, and, worse still, mys- 
terious " pies" — an utter jumble of letters — may be occasionally looked 
for; but the errors of '26 are very numerous, and onght, as &r as possible, 
to be removed. 

Yery many editions have appeared since '26, and all that I have 
noticed (except that of '60) profess to be reproductions of it, but I have 
never examined any that was strictly so in reality, nor any two that abso- 
lutely agreed one with another. They were undergoing constant changes. 
I have before me one bythe Edinburgh Bible Society, 1831, which corrects 
several of the typographical errors of '26, but it introduces worse eiroiB of 
its own. To mention only two, Pa. cxi. 2, we have for an Tigkeama, an i 
Tgheama. In Acts xix. 9, we have, speaking of the School of TyrannuB, 
the word sg&il repeated twice over, and there s.'x scores of other offensive 
blunders. It is decidedly worse than that of '26. I have before me a Ifew 
Testament by the Eritieh and Foreign Bible Society showing the grossest • 
carelessness. In John iiL 3, we have " Thubhairt e nis" instead of ris. In 
Acts xvi, 4, we have "Troimh na hailtibh" repeated twice, and the 
heading of the pages shows utter recklessness. Thus what ought to bo 
Marc iv. ia Mata xxiii. The Epistle to the Ephesians ia in one place 
made Ephensianach ; and I have also a Bible by the same great Society 
(IgST), bearing on its hack the mysterious title Bibotd Ntnmbh, and at 
p. 512 wo have forty-three rsalms in /foiMKi inserted instead of the latter 
part of Job, and the first eighteen Psalms in Gaelic ! I have seen, worse 
blunders, if possible, than any that I have mentioned. "Meallaidh na 
flreanan an tir," "The righteona shall deceive the earth," instead of 
mealaidh. The Psalmist in the 119th Psalm speaks of "mo Inhd-teag- 
aisg uile," " my teachers of eml," instead of uile or " all" 

Such work went on for many years — edition after edition, with gross 
and glaring blunders; but as &r as I am aware the editors were unknown ; 
and, this being so, no offence was taken. No one manifested the least 
zeal either for the purity of the Gaelic lat^u^, or for the int^rity of the 
sacred text, when at length in 1860 there appeared an edition openly 
professing to be b "revised" one, and the names of the unfortunate 
editors were not concealed. Immediately a storm of ind^nation, which 
raged from Eenton to the extreme comers of Eoss-shire, was raised against 
them for corrupting Gaelic, and altering the meaning of the Scriptuiea 
The very mention of a new edition by the same editors is rousii^ the storm 
anew, althoi^h I hope that its area will not be so extensive, that it will 
prove to be a "tempest in a tea-cnp" after alL I sincerely r^ret that 
Mr Cameron, who knows Gaelic, should devote his knowledge to the pur- 
pose of hindering a reform which ia so imperatively demanded, and I also 
regret that Dr Masson should so causele^y come forward to condemn 
what be does not seem to know. Mr Cameron contradicts one assertion 
of hie, Dr Maolauchlan proves his statement as to numbers to be very ■ -' 
glaringly wrong, and I am obhged to remind him that the edition of '60 
was never, as far as I saw, or heard, discussed by the "joint-committee " 
— certainly never referred to their oondderation. It was the edition of '26 
which was really discnaaed by them. Mr Cameron's tremendous chaige^ 
followed by such ludicrously trifling instances, in your Angost niuaber 



GAELIC SCEIFrUEEB. 31 

remiiids one of the old sajiDg, ParhtriwU motdea, naieitur ridieultu mug ; 

bat of Dr Masson'a it mnBt be said that bis Jabour leBultB in nothing 
SB Bolid as even a moose — that it in only empty Bound. 

Kow, one void aa to irhat Di MaclancbUn and I actnally did in this 
tenible edition; We had no conuniaaion to meddle with the graver 
mstteie of interpolation, &c, bat we baniehed Heveral of tbe Irish inter- 
lopers. We anbetituted homegrown articles for such monstroaitieB of 
foT^gn manofactore as laogkaibh, eraohhaibk, &a. We wrote tan and 
such, contracted words in a fbrm which, withont altering the pronuncia- 
tion, will show the ert^ndent that they are compoBite words. In thousands 
of instances we changed the very &nlty foim of tha mi deanamh, and 
cognate expressions to tha ntt 'deanamh, or a' deanamh — writing them in 
grammatical shape. Bnt dreading the effects of prejadice, wo proceeded 
with a very cantioos and timid hand, leaving untouched hundreds of 
phiaaes which we knew ought to be changed. The result shows that we 
had grounds foi canticoi, that reform in Gaelic writing must proceed by 
steps very short and alow. Our wort is very imperfect in ita conforming 
BO mnch, as it does, to '26 ; yet it is a step in the r^ht direction, pointing 
the way towards improvements which must come some day. The emallness 
of the improvements we have made is in one view a matter of regret, but in 
another a subject of congratulation. Seeing the alarming effects which our 
slight mendii^ has produced on our opponents no humane man would 
wish to be responsible for the effects of a really good translation into 
genuine vernacular Gaelic on Mr Cameron and Dr MasBon. 

If it is asked why the " Revision Committee," so loi^ in existence, 
have dona so little waHi, I cui readily answer that, aa br as I have seen, 
obetmciaon, mnch more do^^ and peisiBtent thsA that shown by the 
Irish obstniddonists in theHonse of Commons, has hitherto blocked the way. 
Bat to conclude, let us for a moment set aside editors, editions, and 
coutroveisiea, and look calmly at the Gaelic Bible which alone is in any 
degree " authorised " among us, I have proved that the '26 edition 
tampers with its original in a manner which, ftom a literary point of view, 
is altogether unscbolarly, and which, to those who hold even the most 
meagre convictions op tbe inspiration of Scripture, must appear irreverent, 
if not profane. Years ago I called attention to this very grave matter ; 
and I venture still to repeat the caJl, for it is a very serious matter under 
many aspects. I have shown that this edition, written after the fashion 
of the period to which it belongs (1807 rather than 1826), is written 
with remarkable disr^ard of uniformity, or grammatical system. I have 
proved that it contains very many enois of an important nature ; and I 
hold that there are tbe strongest reasons for improving it according to 
the oft declared wishes of the Assemblies alike of ^Established and Free 
Churches. The approaching completion of the new En^iah translation 
will afford an unexceptionable foundation whereon to build ; and although 
I may not live to see it, X am certain the day is not far distant whan 
■ • Gaelic aeholars and theologians, putting away all wrath and clamour, all 
envy and malice, will unite heart and hand to produce a Gaelic translation 
of l5ie Scriptures in some degree worthy of ite sacred theme, and of the 
devout minded people whom it is intended to guide on tiie way of 
righteoQBseBS and of peace. — £ am, &o., 

ABOHD. OLBBE, LUD. 

"^- Google 



82 . THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Edinburgh, Irt Octoljei 1879. 

TO THB HDITOB OP THE OBLTIO HAGjIZINB. 

Dbab Sib, — I will not attempt to reason with a man who, against 
reason and all reasonable evidence, only cites out angrily " it is not trae." 
Kor will I repeat her« what I have already written in disproof of Ttt 
Madauchlan's wild and reckless assertions. Such of yoor readers as have 
read my letters once will not need to read them again, in order to be 
satisfied tiiat hie " not true" applies not to me but to himself. 

One of his chaiges, however, is so extraordinary that I must bo ex- 
cused for commenting on it. " I chaTged him," says Dr Maclauchlan, 
" witli etatii^ what was not true regarding the corrections made on it," 
that is, on the *60 Bible. Well, after that! Has Dr Maclauchlan really 
shaken hands with Mr Cameron, and joined that gentleman in the com- 
plaint, not at all that my criticism was too severe, but that I did not 
state a hundredth part of the truth about these corrections ) I stated, 
undoubtedly, that there were many mistakes and misprints in the '60 
Bible. I even specified some of these mistakes, which were very remark- 
able, and in any other book than the Bible would be very laughable. 
Your readers will remember, as an example, the deplorable mistake where- 
by an ex-moderator of the Free Assembly, so honoured on account of his 
reputed GaeHc scholarship, raised the murderer to the bench, and com- 
missioued bim, by -warrant of Holy Writ, to sit on the throne of the judffe I 
But then I added that these misprints were " carefully corrected" in '63, 
'68. Is this the " statement regarding the corrections" which Dr Mac- 
lauchlan is not ashamed to brand as untruel I stand by it as fair, mo- 
derate, and even lenient criticism. If untrue at all, it is only in the sense 
that I do not tell all the unpleasant truth that might be laid to the 
charge of my assailant. And if that is Dr Madauchlan's charge against 
mo, he is at one with Mr Cameron, who protests that my criticism was 
unduly lenient ; and, to prove his protest, comes down upon us with a 
perfect avalanche of his reverend brother's blunders, not only in '60 but 
also in '63. 

It is just the old story. In your columns, as of old in the joint 
committee of the Churches, I tried to hold an even balance between " my 
neighbour" and his old antagonist. ^Naturally enot^h I have pleased 
neither. But in the fact that it is ao, reasonable people will find a strong 
presumption at once of the accuracy and the moderation of the few lines of 
criticism which have occasioned all this terrible ado. That the issue be- 
tween Dr Madauchlan and me should have taken a turn so personal I of 
course regret. But the blame of it U not with me. I sought not this 
fight ; neither do I shun it. 

One word, in conclusion, to Dr Maclauchlan. It is to me a matter of 
indifierence whether or not be takes " notice of the other parts" of my 
letter. But till he has something else to say than " it is not true," most 
people who care for his reputation will, I think, advise hJTn to hold his 
— pem-^YouTB faithfully, 

DOHALD HA8S0N. 



jb,G00(^lc 



THE QTTIGRICH, OK PASTOEAL STAFF OF ST FILLAN. 

lf«lT to " the stone of dsBtiny," on which the ancient Scottish kings ireM 
erowned tit DnnstaflTiBge, and afterwards at Seone, the Quigrich of St 
Fillan is the most intetesting of Scotch relics. Sare the stone cbsir, we 
hare no relic whose podigree can at all compare with that of the Qnigrioh. 
It carries us .back to a period as early as the e^th century — so that 
ajfort firom its intrinsic Tidne — those association of centuries — a thousand 
of them — that cluster round it, cannot fail to give it interest in the eyes 
of Scotchmen ; ©specially Highlandew, in whose country it has had its 
loi^ ahode, and by whose trusty hands it has been transmitted from gene- 
ratdon to generation down to the present time. This cnrioua relic, now 
deposited in the museum of the Society of Antiquaries in Edinhurgh, is 
*dl worth a passing inspection. In shape it resembles the crook of a 
shepheid's staff The material of it is bright silver — the lei^th about 
lune inches. The lower end of tha crook, into which the staff was in- 
serted, expands into a large bulbous socket, beautifully ornamented with 
a kind of interlaced knot-work. From this socket there rises a ridge or 
orest which extends all along the back of the crook, until it tenninatae 
at the extreme end of it, in the bust of a man in the dress of an ecaleai- 
aatic ; meant, we suppose, to represent the original owner. The front of 
the crook is ornamented by a large oval-shaped cairngorm, terminating m 
a plate, which bears an engraved representation 'of tha crucifixion. On 
closer inspection, it was found that ttie silver crook enclosed within it an- 
other crook of bronze, of a similar shape, inlaid with niello, and about 
seven inches long. This is supposed to be the old original Quigrich, sub- 
sequently encased in the sUver which now encloses it — but of which 
more afterwards. 

Of St Fillan himself — the eminent individual with whose name the 
Quigrich is associated, little is known save a few simple facts. But from 
the veneration in which his memory has been held through so many ages, 
we may safely ijifer he must have been a man of mark in bis day. St 
Fillan, like St Columba, was of royal descent Kentigema, his mother, 
was the daughter of the King of Leinster, in Ireland ; and both she and 
her brother, Congan, have been enumerated among the swnts of Alha — 
a connection that may possibly have influenced ijieir nephew to devote 
himseK to the work of a missionary of the Cross. He passed hla earlier 
years in the monastery of 8t Mund, on the Holy Loch, of which he sub- 
eequemtly become Abbot. Thereafter he removed to Kttenweem, in 
Fifeehire, where he founded a monastery ; and where, as recorded of him, 
he employed much of his time in tranbcribing the Holy Scriptures, This 
was a work to which the early Culdeos greatly devoted thenisclves, for 
giving as large a circulation as possible to the word of God ; to which we 
may ascribe much of the success that attended their evangelistic labours. 
From Pittenweem St Fillan transferred his labours to Glendochart, in the 
Western Highlands of Perthshire, It appears Kentigema, his mother, was 
latterly on inmate of the monastery of Inchchallaoh, an island in Loch- 



S4 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

lomond, not far from StrathfiUan ; which may have partly inflnenced him 
in making choice of Strathfillan and the Buirounding regions as the per- 
manent field of his labonra. Here he passed the remaindeF of his days. 
Here he prosecuted his evangelistic labours, Quigrich in hand ; and heie 
his dust lepoaes with that of his fellow labourers in the church of which, 
he was the founder. 

In ancient, and even in mod^n times, the staff holds an important 
place as psit of a man's travelling gear. Jacoh .tells us he carried a staff 
on his joumey to his uncle in Padanaiam. Moses carried a shepherd'a 
staff, ss we see from his interview with the angel that was in the bush— 
which probshl; was the self-same rod that peifoimed so distinguished a 
part in the subsequent history of the great legislator. Bdaam carried a 
staff on his unhappy mission to the Court of Balac. Elisha sent his sei- 
vant, Gehazi, in advance with his staff, to lay it on the remfuns of the 
child of the Shunamite lady, to restore him to lifa So the early mis- 
sionaries of the Cluistian £ilth in our own land made use of a sba^ 
Quigrich, or BachoU, in their weary peregrinations, discharging the duties 
of their offic& By-and-bye, because of veneration for the ori^nal owner 
his followers and successors attached a peculiar value to his staff. And 
as the shadows of darker times gradually obscured moral vision, men came 
to ascribe miraculous power thereto. The staff of St Fei^us was long 
preserved in the parish which bears his name ; and the Aberdeen Breviaiy 
informs us of belief in its power to allay storms and tempests ; and of its 
actually having done this on a certain occasion on the coast of Bnchan. 
In like manner the staff of St Kinian, and the staff of St Serf^ are spoken 
of in the lives of these men as possessed of similar miraculous power. la 
the fourteenth century Earls of Boss went to battle in the shirt of St 
Duthac to ensure victory over their foes ; and Queens of Scotland, during 
accouchement, wore the shirt of St Margaret, the wife of "Kin g Malcolm 
Ceanmore, to secure them a favourable deUveiy. This last lelic waa 
carefully preserved for this purpose, near her shrine, in the Abbey of 
Dunfermline. A copy of the Psalms of David, said to have been tran- 
scribed by St Columba, and enclosed in a silver case, was loi^ held in 
veneration by an Irish tribe, beheving that it possessed virtues similar to 
those of the green banner of Mahomet Accordingly it got the name 
" Oathach," the fighter. The owners of this " Cathaoh" bdieved that if 
sent thrice rightwaye round the army of the tribe whose it was when on 
the eve of battle, victory was sure to them. Similar virtue is ascribed 
to the Quigridi of St Fillan. There was a well authenticated tradition in 
the Dewar fanuly, hereditary keepers of it, and handed down liom father 
to eon, tliat it accompanied the army of King Bobert Bruce to the Battle 
of Bannockbum, and was supposed to contribute to the famous victoiy 
achieved by him on that memorable owasion, Dr Jamieson, who edited 
an edition of Barbour's Bruce, knew this tradition, and speaks of it, as 
afBrming, that before the battle, " E.ing Robert and his army received the 
sacrament under the relic of the Quigrich " — which means, we suppose, 
that it was elevated in their sight, bo aa to be visible to them. We have 
it on the authority of the historian Btece, that relics of St Fillan were 
present at the Battle of Bannockbum. This makes it pretty certain that 
a relic so important and sacred in the eyes of the people as the Quigrich, 
would not have been omitted. " AH the night before the batUOf" aays 



THE QUIGEIClt 35 

Bcece, "King Eobert was tight weary, having great solicitade for the 
weal of his aimj, and could take no rest, but levolved all jeapoidies and 
chaixcee of fortune in his mind ; and sometimea he went to hia devout 
Gontemplationa, making his prayer to God and St Fillan, whose aim, aa 
he believed, was incloaed in a case within hie tent ; troating the better 
fortune to follow by the same. In the meantime, the case cracked sud- 
denly without any motion or work of mortal creature The prieat, as- 
toni^ed at this wonder, went to where the case lay, and when ha found 
the arm in the case, he cried ' Here is a great miracle ; ' and confessed 
ho^r lie brought the case empty to the field, dreading that the relic should 
be lost where so great d^^er was." The King, rejoicing in this so 
called mii-acle, "pasaed the reat of the night in good hope of victory." 
Morice, Abbot of Inchal£ry, was the leading eoolesiaftic in Bruce's army, 
and the King's own confeaaor. He was alao Superior of the Church of 
Strathflllan, and only acted in accordance with the belief and cuatoma of 
those times, in so using such rehcs. - In Adaninan'e life of Columba, we 
aie told of the military powers ascribed to a certain pastoral staff; and 
which accordingly got tiie significant cognomen of " Cath-bhuaidh " — 
victory. In a battle foi^ht between the men of Alban and the Korwe- 
gianain 918, the victory obtained by t)ie former was attributed to the 
virtues o£ the "Cath-bhuaidh." For a similar purpose David IT., K i n g 
Ifoberfs son and successor, carried with him the cross of St Margaret^ 
when he invaded England in 1346. When Edward L invaded Scotland, 
he marched with the banner of St Cathbert unfurled in the van of his 
army aa they thought the sure pledge of victory. There ia, therefore, no- 
thing improbable in the tradition of the Dewars, that the Qnignch was at 
the Battle of Bannockbum, Superior of the church to which it belonged, 
and believing as he did in the virtue of such relica, Morice, the Abbot. 
would not fail to avail himself of it on so critical an occasion. It is not, 
therefore, the least interesting of the asaociationa that gather ronnd this 
Qnigricb, that it was present at the great and crowning struggle of our 
Warrior king for securing the independence of Scotland. 

As we have said, the bronze crook enclosed within the silver one, is 
considered by antiquarians to be the older of the two — the original Quig- 
rich. This is also the Bewar tradition ; and, that the silver case is the 
gift of Brace in acknowledgment and remembrance of the services sup- 
posed to be rendered by it Macpheraon, in his " Geographical llluatra- 
tions," says that King Eobert founded a priory at StrathfiUan, in gratitude 
to the Stunt^ on account of the victory of Bannockbum. But there ia 
another incident that made StrathfiUan and its patron Saint memorable 
in the life of Bruce ; the narrow escape he made from his pursuera after 
the battle of Dairy, almost opposite the old Clachan. It will bo remem- 
bered how William L of England built a church on the ground on which 
he won the victory of Hastings, The lands of Glendochart, of which 
StrathfiUan is a part, belonged in the Biuce'a days to the Macgr^rs. 
" Aidchoill in Glendochart " was their ancient warcry. They were Lom's 
allies (gainst Bruce, and therefore their lands were forfeited to the 
Crown, and distributed among his Mends and supporters. It waa in 
coni«e of this division of the forfeited lands of Glendochart, that the 
landfi of Auchtertyre and other lands were granted to the Priory of Strath- 
fiUan ; and in which the Dewais shared, aa the keepers of the Quigricha 



t6 TfiE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

To them fell tlie knda of Ewich aad certain other landa, in tdCognjtiQn 
of tbeii office, aa veil as in acknowledgment of the Teneiation of the EJug 
for St Pillan and his Quigrich. The charter which confirms these grants 
in perpetuity dates from the year 1318, tour years after the victory of 
Baunockbum. 

In former times ve find that offices of various Unds were invested 
and perpetuated from generatiou to generation in certain families. To the 
Earls of Buchan beloBged the honour of officiating at coronations, and 
placing the crown on the head of the king elect. The Keiths were tha 
hereditary Marshals of Scotland. We had also our hereditary Stewards, 
oar hereditary hards — musicians, and standard-hearers. In 1466 the 
Abbot of Arbroath granted to Thomas of Loohan the office of Derethy ; 
and in 1527 a lease of the same with a croft was granted to William Gray 
and his wife — the duties of which were " the keeping of the cows and 
the oxen of the Abbey." The Dempsters of Edzell were the hereditary 
ringera of St Lawrence's belL For this they had a &rm, rent &ee. £y 
virtue of an ancient grant from an Earl of Argyll, land in the island of 
Lismore was held, rent free, on condition that the holder " do keep and 
take care of the Baculus or pastoral staff of St Maluaig," the patron saint 
of the church of that island. The holder of the relic was called " Barau 
a bhachuill" — the land-holder of the Baculus of St Maluaig. Similarly 
the Dewars of Glendochatt, the keepers of the Quigrich, were also land- 
owners in virtue of their office, and known as Deoirich na Quigrioh — 
Dewais of the Qu^rich, and sometimes as Deoirich na h-Aiaichd, Dewaia' 
of the treasure — the Quigrich being the treasure. Very probably there- 
fore the name Dewar is significant of their office- — Dia-fhear — contracted 
Deoir. We find individuals bearing the same name elsewhere inTest«d 
with offices in connection with religious houses, as hell-ringing, and 
monastic dairy keeping, and it is not improbable that their name may be 
traced to the same origion. The keeper of St Mun'a staf^ and the 
keeper of St Maluaig's bell were Dewais, because of their semi-ecdesiastl- 
cal offices. 

Regarding the history of the Quigrich, before the Dewars became the 
official keepers of it, we are left very much in the dark. And but for 
the emoluments and endowments with which Bruce enriched their office, 
we would very probably know less of its history sinca But these were 
BO valuable, and moreover as the office involved other responsihilitiaa be- 
sides the keeping of the Quigrich, contentions arose hom time to time 
that afford glimpses of its history which in other circumstances would 
have remained unknown. In an inventory of old documents in, the Tay- 
mouth chart«r-room we have the following : — " Ewich in Glendochart,"- 
" Ane letter made hy Alexander Lord of Glendochart to Donald MeSor 
hrell Dewar Cogerach, of date 1336 years." This Alexander, Lord of 
Qleudochart, was of the Menzies family, and related by marriage to King 
Robert. The letter, of which the above is an inventory, is in all probal^. 
lity confirmatory of Tting Bobert's grant to the Dewars. Alexander, Lord of 
Gundochart, was one of those on whom were conferred the lands of the 
forfeited Macgr^ors. The next authentic notice we have of the Quigrioh 
is in the year 1128. In that year an inquest was held by John Spens, 
of Perth, Bailie of Glendochart, " regarding the authority and privU^es 
of :a ceitaia relic of St Fillan, commonly called the Coygoaob." Tlw. 



h, Google 



The QtiGEica. st 

iwy decided the case in h,Yora of the Deware ; and further, " that the 
keepei of it should have yeady ftom every one in Glendochait having, or 
labouring, a meik laud, either ficee or in laim, a half holl of meal, and of 
every one havicg in like waonm a half metk of land, a fiilot of meal ; 
and of Bveiy one having a forty penny land, a half fiilot of meat That 
the ofiice of carrying the lelic had been conferred in heritage on a certain 
anceab)! of Knlay Jore (Dewar) the present bearer, by the aucceaaor of 
St fiUan, and that the said Finlay was the lawful heii in said office." 
E»ey further decided " that these privil^es were enjoyed and in use, in 
the time of King Bohert Bruce, and in the times of the hinge who reigned 
after him." But besides the antiquity of the office, aa appears from this 
decision of the jury, as well as from the confirmation of it by King 
Bobert, we have the following decision also, though apparently it ill 
asaorte with the calling of men holding an ofUce such as these Dewara 
held. This further decision is, " that if it happened that any goods or 
cattle were etolen or carried away from any one dwelling in Glendocbart, 
and he from whom they were stolen, whetiier in doubt of the culprit or 
from the feud of his enemies, did not dare to follow after his property ; 
then he should send a messenger to the said Dewar of the Coigreach, with 
four, pence or a pair of shoes; with food for the first night, and then the 
said Jore or Dewar, on his own chaigea ought to follow the said cattle 
wherever they were to be found within the Kingdom of Scotland." His 
emolumente notwithstanding, the keeper of the Qu^ch in tbo&e days of 
abounding thievery had not a very easy task to perform. We find in the 
year 1468, another action raised to invalidate the rights of these Dewara 
— on this occasion by "the Lady of Glenurchy" — the spouse of Sir 
Colin Campbell of that ilk, the progenitor of the family of Breadalbane. 
Uer husbuid was then in life ; and why this onus lay upon her does not 
appear. Her object was to recover rents from a certain man of the name 
of Macgregor, for lands which she claimed as those of her husband. Mac- 
gr^or, however, declined her daim, on the plea " that he had paid the 
rente demanded to Dewar of the Quigrich," from which it appears their 
possessions were such, that th^ could even afford to suble!: lands to 
othei& But the Dewars were not attei all allowed to retain peaceable 
possession of their Quigrich privileges. In 1487 an appeal was 
made by them to the reigning monarch, James III., on account of a 
local decision limiting their rights. The King decided the case in 
fBToni of the Dewars. The decision was " that Malise Dewar and his 
forefathers have had a relic of St FiDan called the Quigrich, in keeping 
for the King, and his pix^nitors, since the time of King Kobeit 
Bmce, and before ; and made no obedience or answer to any person 
spiritual or temporal in anything concerning said holy relic, otherwise 
than was contained in the old inieftment made by the King's said royal 
progenitors — and that none should make impediment to said Malise in 
passing with said rehc through the country as he and his said forbears 
were wont to do." Other occasional notices of the Quigrich are found now 
and again, down to the reign of Queen Mary. Till then the Dewars suc- 
ceeded in holding their own, notwithstanding the persistent efforts of 
jealoas neighbours to deprive them of both office and emolumente. But 
the Befotmstion, when it came, wrought a change in the previous eccleu- 
astdcal anangenieuta of Sootlsiid. Ihe Boman Catholic Ghoioh, vhkik 



38 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

owned at least oue-fotirth of the lands of the kingdom, was despoiled of 
her poaaeasions, and tbey reverted to the Crown. The Crown gave loases 
of all or most of them on easy couditioiis to the Scotch lairds, whoee 
own they eventually become. The lands belonging to the Dewaro, as 
keepera of the Quigrlch, shared the fate of other church ponsessions, and 
by-and-bye nothing remained to them bnt the mere symbol of their former 
privileges and poasesaions. Yet they were faithful to their hereditary 
charge ; and the relic continued to be handed down &om father to son, 
aa when the transmission of it was accompanied by aohd heritages Sub- 
sequent to thia reverse and consequent impoveriahment of the Deware, the 
rehc lapsed into obscurity, and we have no subsequent notice of it, till in- 
cidentally discovered by a tourist, whose name is not mentioned. This waa 
in 1782. It was then in the possession of a Malise Dewar, the lineal re- 
presentative of its hereditary keepers ; and a day labourer in the village of 
Killin. Thereafter the relic passed into the hands of a younger brother 
of this Malise I>ewar ; and then into his son's possession, who removed 
to Glenartney, where the Qnigrich was seen by Dr Jamleaon, who gives 
a description of it in his edition of Barbour's Bruce. This Archibald 
Dewar went &om Glenartney to Balquhidder, and thereafter emigrated 
to Canada, carrying the Quigrich vrith him to the land of his adoption. 
Alexander Bewar, the son of this man and the representative of the family, 
is, we believe, still in life. From him the Society of Antiquaries, partly 
by purchaae and partly by Sewar's donation, obtained the reUc now de- 
posited in their museum. 

There has been a good deal of speculation as to the meaning of 
" Quigrich." It has been spelt in aeveral difEerent ways — Quigrich, Coy- 
gerich, Coigrich, and Cuaigrioh. In the account now given of it, we 
have followed the spelling generally in use. Some think it is derived 
from "Cr6g" a hand, and should be written "Crograeh." Others 
identify it with " Ouigmheurach," in reference to the five fingers of the 
hand, which laid hold of it ; while others maintain that it means Coigreach, 
a stranger, on the supposition that the original rohc was iiaported from 
abroad. It seems to ns that the simple and natural meaning of the word 
is a crook; the shape of the relic itself; and derived trom the root 
" Cuag," a curve or bending. So the old aong : — 

Le aoalgnitoh k btukta 

Na h-oain riim e ({UlloiKlh 

'8 b's 'ihoaiohBULtu breiiiui 

'3 e gBt'a aniilUah a, iteuh than k ohro. 

This agrees with the meaning of the other names of the Culdee pastoral 
staff — aa Bachull and Camabhata. Bachnll is in Gaelic a crook, or curl, 
&om which cornea bachullach, curly. So Boss — 

A nlghran bholdhewk ul oi-fhuilt bhsabulkiolu « 
And Macintyre — 

Do ohOMih.fluat bubnllMh, ou^oidh dlo. 

From the crook of it therefoK, the pastoral staff waa called BacbuU ; which 
by the way is a Gaelic and not a Latin word. For a sintilu reason it was 
also called " Camabhata," from the root c4ai, crooked, bent, curved — bo 



THE QTHGEICa 39 

that Uie three names Qnigtich, BachaU, and Camabhata, are all Gaelic, 
and lefei to the same thing, and have the same meaning. The Quigrich 
' has been sometimes styled the Gtozier of 8t FUlan, as if the two words 
wete the aama This is not the case. The one, as we have shown, was 
a crook, the other a cross or " Crasc" Besides they differ, in that they 
respectively represent two churches and ci«eds, as widely different, as 
are the symbols themselves by which they are respectively represented. 
Bnt whatever differencea may exist as to the meaning of the name, theia 
can be no difference as to the lelic itself being a highly interesting one. 
It was five centuries in existence before the light of authentic record 
reveals it in 1336, in possession of the Dewais. As we have seen its 
connection with the Scottish monarchy, is older than the Begalia so car&- 
fully guarded in the Castle of Edinbui^h ; while its ecclesiastical associa- 
tions cany us back to an era of which we have scarcely any other remains 
— when tiie son of Kentigema of the Royal race of Leinstei, prosecuted 
his work in the valley of the Docbait, and with men like minded, sowed, 
as did others elsewhere, and since, that precious seed of gospel truth, 
which has eventaally won for us the honourable designation of being the 
Israel of the Gentiles. 

ExnoUE. ALLAN SmOLAXB. 



A SUTHEELAITD HIGHLANDER'S WELCOME TO THE 
GOVERN0iM3EIfERAL OF CANADA. 



Ma Donald Boss, a native of Sutherlandshire, now resident in Nova 
Scotna, and a well-known Celt, sent the following characteristic letter, 
hitherto unpublished, to the Marquis of Lorn on his arrival at Ottow^ 
I have picked it ap in Hali&x, ami it gives a fair indication of the en- 
thusiastio manner in which the Highlanders of the Dominion welcomed 
the Marqnis and his Boyal Consort — [Ed. G. IT] 

Ttt the BIgbl HononnbU Sir Jomn Douqlu Suthkbund Oahpbiu., E.T,, 
a.CllQ., AUbquib o( Lobn, QoTBinor-OciiaMl of Ouutda, ko., fed., iM, 
Has it Plkasi Yoob Exosllisot— 

Fleaie p«rmit me, ■ BighUndet from tbe oonntr of Satheriind, but now nsidBUt In 
ITovk EkiotU, to addisH ;oii, and to oflar to your EiosllaDor and to Her Bojml Highoen 
tha Piinoeu Laniie, the uinnaoe of Toj right fawij woloome, and the ofier of mj 
UDoere ooairatnlatioaa on foar talt amTU *t the lapltal of the Dominion of ConiidB. 

BoTD, and long renidenC, in the romantia ooantr of Snthertond, I oonld not fail tg 
obaerre and to admire, the many nobis qnslitieB by whioh tbe ijlaatnont family of 
Sutherland was ever and eminentjy distiogaished ; and I feel proad that a granduin ot 
tbe '*OiM>dDiike"of Sntberland, in the penon of your Eioellenoy, hu been cboaen by 
Her Haj«aty to Ul the iinpoitant offlM ot Owunoi-Generol of tliii eitemiTe portion 
of Hn Majea^'s Domimiona. 

For generwlaolu pMt, the name of tbe nolile and illnitrioiu family of Argyll woa 
alwaya lynonym with fiiiedom, loyol^, patriotiim, and erery other CbriatiaD virtne ; 
not odIj in their own oaontiT, bnt in diitaot landi ; and tbeir mardal ipirit and fasroio 
deeda, M well a> other eieellent quolitlea, oommanded the eMoem and adminCioii of 
tuionndiiig nationa. 



i,Googlc 



40 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Bmbs ot joar SiDellsDer^ lUnitrioni pnitetmen look & leaalng part in i»M<°B^b>8 
the TTDlon bstweta (As Eiugdomi vi Bagluid and Bootlaud ; a nnlon whlob haa prorcd 

blghly bensBeial to botb oonutriei ; for it mlored peaot, iind lettled for erer, ■> be- 
twHii thim, the Btrita ot iwordi and tbe caniags ol battles. Bat, mnoh aa your prede- 
iwuari did to aocompliib tbst Unloii, it vas In NatitT onlj FdIIt oompleted when the 
BolemDitiei of macriage of yonr ExoolleDoy and the FrinooM Loniae wore aompleted at 
Windior Caatle in Mareh 1871. Then tho Union waa oompleted with all the neoeaaary 
aauntiftli on sarth and ntified in Hearea t 

Yonr Eioellenaj'a oonDtrynien, the Soi>ttilh HIghUnden, uattcred thnmKhoat till* 
great Domiaion, one aod all, hail with feellnga of anmlnglBd joy yonr Kxoellenoy*a 
amral among tbem, aod in the tme ainoerity of warm EighUnd neartt freet yonr Ei- 
oellenoy and your beloved CoDsoit tbe Frinoeia Loolae, with many thonaand Hlgblmid 
weloomei, and in event of Ibeir lerTioea being erer reqaiied, their fldelitf and martial 
&rdonr ii the same a« of old ; and right loyally they would atand aa a wall of fire aronnil 
their GoTernor-OeDeTal and bia Royal partner. 

I loDb upon your EKoelleocy'i appointneBt ot OeTarnor.QeneraI of the Dominion of 
Canada aa a token of great good. It will unite more fiiEoly than ever the anion ot thoae 

ooean, in loyalty and devoted attachment to Her Majesty the Qnaan, to yonr Bzoellanoy, 
■Bd to tbe Frinoeaa, aa wall aa to the British throne and to Britiah inititntlone^ 

I liDonrel; traat that yonr Eicellency'a atay in Canada will not he limited to anT 
■et terra of yeata, hnt that it will be a very prolonged atay ; and that when yoa do riait 
the " old country " it will be only tor a viait ; Juat to loolc onoe more on Soot-tiah aeenea, 
to admire again the magnifiaent aoenery of A.rgyle and the lalaa. to have a qniet look at 
the majeatic Benaraaohan and other heath-otad menntaina, to wander by the beaatifol 
end plaoid Looh Awe, to aee the billi of Morveo, Oowal, and Mnll, made immortal by 
Oaaian and the baTde ; and generally like i'oottaud'i renowned bard, make Isianrely pll- 
giimagBS through dear old Oaledonia— gate on her beantifal monutaini, ait on the field* 
of her many battlea, wander en the banha of her many lakea and meandering rlvera, and 
muae by ber old oaatlaa, itately towers, and venerable roini; onoe the abode of her 
honoured atateamen, heroes, and bards. 

yonnelves, ii the sinoare with of yonr Ei- 

, . _ _„ . _.. , Jaa, who baa the honour to bo yoor Kioal- 

leooy's very obedient humble aervaot. Ad Ii ohl 'a naah fbaio, 

(Signed) DOKALD Xosa. 

OelUo Cottage, Dartmontb, S.S., Deoember 1878. 

His Excellency replied as followB: — 

Government Houae, Ottowo, DeoenberlS, 1878. 
SlB,— I am dedred by hii Eieollenoy, tbe Governor-General, to aoknowledge O* . 

reoelpt of your letter ot weloome, dated Partmouth, December l!78,-and to oonfey ij | 

you hia hearty thanks tor the warm weloome and the many kind eipramions whioh It 
contains. — I have tbe honour to bn. Sir, yonr obedient asrrant, 

(Signed) F. DB WmTOM, BIa]ar, I 

Goveitior-Qma'aPi Stentarj, i 

Donald Boaa, Eaq., Celtic Oottase, Dartmonth, U.S. \ 



NEW GAELIC PFBLICATIONS.^We have receivod the fifth and 
last part of "An t-Oranaiche," by ArchiWd Sinclair, Glasgow. We 
haye only time at present to say that the work is well printed, carefuHy 
got up, and exceedingly cheap. Thanks are due to Mr Sinclair for 
supplying such a good collection of Gaelic songs. 

Wb are glad to understand that Mrs Mary Mackellar has a volume <^ 
her poems in the press, to be published soon by Messro MaclaneUan & 
Stewart, Edinbui^h. Mrs Mackellar's voluma will be hailed with pleasure 
by all lovers of genuine Gaelic poetry. 

r,3n--.MI>;GOOglC 



Celtic Magazine. 

No. L. DECEMBER, 1879. Vol. "V 

HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALDS, 

THE LOEDS OF THE ISLES. 
Bi THB Editor 



n. 

Frou the death of Snibne to the acceeaioo of Gillebride, &ther of Someis 
]ed, little or nothing is kaown of the ancestors of the Macdonalds. OiUe- 
hnde was expelled &om his posaeasions in the Scottish Highlands by the 
Danes and the FioDgalls, whereupon he took refuge in Ireland, and after- 
wards prevailed upon the descendants of CoUa, to assist him in an attempt 
to obtain poBsession of his ancient inheritance in Scotland. Four or five 
hundred of these joined him and accompanied him to Alban, but he was 
UDsnccessful and failed to secure his object It was only after this, that 
Somerled for the hrst time, cornea into notice He appears to have been 
of a very different temper to his father. At iiret he lived in retirement, 
mosing in ailent aolitude, over the ruined fortunes of his femily. He, 
when a favourable opportunity presented itself as already stated, placed 
himself at the head of the people of Morven ; attacked tbe Iforwc^ians, 
whom, after a long and desperate atru^e, he expelled from the district ; 
and ultimately made himself master, in addition to Morven, of Lochaber 
and. Argyle. When David the First, in 1135, expelled the Norwegians 
from Man, Arran, and Bute, Somerled obtained a grant of those islands 
from the king. "But finding himeolf unable to contend with the Nor- 
wegians of the Isles, whosp. power remained unbroken, he reaolved to re- 
cover by policy what he despaired of acquiring by force of arms ; " and, 
with this view, he succeeded in obtaining, about 1140, the hand of 
Eagiihildis, daughter of Olave, sumamed the Eed, then the Norwegian 
King of the Isles. The following curious account relating how Somerled 
aecured the daughter of Olave the Ked, is recorded in the Macdonald MS. : 
— " Olay encamped at Loch Stoma, Sommerled came to the other side of 
the loch, and cried out if Olay was there, and how he fared} Olay re- 
plied that he was welL Then said ■ Sommerled, I come from Sommerled, 
Thane of Argyle, who promises to assist you conditionally, in your expedi- 
tion provided you bestow your daughter on him. Olay answered that he 
would not give him his daughter, and that he knew he himself was the 
miD ; but that he sad. tm men should follow hitn in hia expedition. So 

Cookie 



i% The CELTIC magazutE. 

Sommerled refiolved to follow Olay. Then was at that time a foater- 
brotlier of Oky's, one Maurice MacNeill, in Clay's compauy, who was a 
near friend of Sommerled ; aad when Sommerled brought hla two galleya 
near the place where Olay's ship lay, this Maurice aforesaid came where 
he was, and said that he would find means by which ho might come to 
get Olay'a daughter. So, in the night time, he bored Olay's ship under 
water with many boles, and made a pin for each hole, overlaying them 
with tallow and butter. When they were up in the morning and set to 
sea, after passing the point of Ardnamurchan, Olay'a ship sprung a leak, 
casting the taUow and butter out of the holes by the ehip tossing on the 
waves, and beginning to sink, Olay and his men cried for help to Som* 
merled. Maorice replied that Sommerled would not save him unless he 
bestowed his daughter upon him. At last, Olay being in danger of bis 
life, confirmed by an oadi that he would give his daughter to Sommerled, 
who leceived him immediately into his galley. Maurice went into Olay's 
galley and fixed the pins in the holes which he had formerly prepared for 
them, and by these means they lauded in safety. From that time the 
posterity of Maurice are caUod Maclntyres (or wight's sons) to tbia day. 
On this expedition Olay and Sommerled killed MacLier, who possessed 
Strath within the Isle of Skye. They killed Godfrey Du, or the Black, 
by putting out his eyes, which was done by the hermit MacPoke, because 
Godfrey Du had killed his father formerly. Olay, sumamed the Eed, 
killed Mac!NiGoll in Horth Uist likewise. Now Sommeried marrying 
Olay's daughter, and becoming great after Olay's death, which death, with 
the relation and circumstances thereof, if you be curious to know, you 
may get a long account of it in Camden." 

On this point Gregory says, " It appears by no means improbable, too, 
that Sommerled, aware of his own power and resources, contemplated the 
conquest of a portion, at least, of the Isles, to which he may have laid 
claim throi^h his remote ancestor, Godfrey, On these or similar grounds, 
Olave the Ked, King of Man and the Isles, was naturally desirous to dis- 
arm the enmity, and to secure the support of the powerfid Lord of Argyle, 
whose marriage with Eagnhildis, the daughter of Olave, about 1 1 40 — the 
first authentic event in the life of Somerled — seems to have answered this 
purpose. Of this marri^e, which is lamented by the author of the 
' Chronicle of Man,' as the cause of the ruin of the whole kingdom of the 
Isles, the issue was three sons — Dugall, Reginald, and Angus." In a foot- 
note Gregory informs us that in i«g^ to Someilei's sons, he follows " the 
Orkneyinga Saga, p. 383, which is very explicit, and is a better authority 
than the Chronicle of Man," which latter, adds a fourth son, Olave. Iii 
Skene and in the " History of the Highland Clans," he ia said to have had 
another son, Glllecalluni, by a previous marriage, while in Findou's sup- 
plementary sheet he is said to have a son, Somerled, from whom the 
Maclana of Ardnamurchan, and another Gillies, the latter obviously the 
Gilleeallum of Skene and of Kethe's " Highland Clans," who, it is said, 
obtained Kintyre, 

Olave the Ked, Somerled's father-in-law, was, in 1154, assaaonated by 
his nephews, the so'ns of Haiald, who made a claim to the half of the king* 
dom of the Isles, His son, Godred the Black, was at the time in N'o^ 
way, but hearing of his father's death, he immediately returned to the 
Isles, when be was received with acclamation and great rq'oiciugs by th« 



HISTORY OF THE MACl)ONALDS. 43 

inbAbitants as their king. He appreliended and executed the mnrderera 
of his father. He had gone to Ireland to take part in the Itish waie, 
eaily in his reign; but afterwards returned to Man, and hecame so 
tyramiical, thinking no one could resist his power, that he soon alie&ated 
the insular nobihty — one of whom, Thorflnn, the most powerful of the 
Norw^pan nobles, sent word to Somerled requesting him to send his aon, 
l>tigall, then a child, who, being Godred's nephew, he proposed to 
make King of the lales. The ambitious Somerled readUy entered into 
the Tiews of Xhoifinn, who, having obtained possession of Dugall, carried 
him through aU the Isles, except the Isle of Man, and compdled the in- 
habitants to acknowledge him as their king, at the same time taking host- 
^B8 &om them for their fidelity and allegiance. One of the Island Chiefs, 
Paul Balkason by name, and by some called the Lord of Skye, refiised to 
comply with Thorfinn's demand, and, escaping secretly, he fled to the Court 
of Godred in the Isle of Man, and informed him of what had jnst token 
place in the Isles, and of the intended revolution. Hearing this, Ocdred 
roused himself and coDeeted a laige fleet, with which he proceeded against 
the rebels, who, under the command of Somerled, with a fleet of eighty 
galleys, met him, and a bloody but indecisive battle ensued. This en- 
gagement was fought on the night of the Epiphany, and though neither 
conld claim the victory, nest morning a treaty was entered into, by wiiich 
Godred ceded to the sons of Somerled, what were afterwards called the 
Soathem Isles, thus dividing the sovereignty of the Isles and establishing 
them into two principalities. By this convention be retained for himself 
the North Isles aud the Isle of Man, those south of Ardnamurchan be- 
coming nominally the possessions of the sons of Somerled, but in reality 
of that waihke Chief himself, as his sons were all minors, he being 
natorally their guardian and protector. In spite of all these insular pro- 
ceedings, and the changes of their possessions between themselves and 
among the immediate and resident chiefs, or native kings, the allegiance 
of all the Isles to Norway BtiU continued intact It is somewhat peculiar 
that Kintyie, a part of the maiidand, should always have been included 
with what was called the South Isles; but it is explained as follows in a 
footnote by Gregory : — "The origin of this was a stratagem of Magnus 
Barefoot After that Prince had invaded and conquered the Isles, he 
made an agreement with Malcolm Canmor, by which the latter was to 
leave Magnus and his successors in peaceable possession of all the Isles 
which could be circumnavigated. The King of Norway had himself 
drawn across the narrow isthmus between Eintyre and Knapdale, in a 
galley, by which he added the former district to the Isles." This anec- 
dote has been doubted by some, but it appears in Magnus Berfaet's Saga, 
a contemporary work ; and it is certain that, as late as the commencement 
of the seventeenth century, Kintyre was classed by the Scottish Govern- 
ment as one of the South Isles." 

About two years after the above-named treaty was entered into, for 
some cause not clearly ascertained, Somerled invaded the Isle of Man 
with a fleet of fifty-three galleys, and after routing Godred, laid the island 
waste. Whether the invasion was in consequence of some infringement 
of the convention of two years previously, or in consequence of the in- 
satiable ambition of Somerled, it is impossible to say, but the power of 
the King of Man was shattered eo much, that he waa obliged to p^ a 



44 THE CELTIC MAGAZIITE. 

Tisit to hie rival is Norway, aud to seek liis aeaiataoce. He, howerer, did 
not tetam until after the death of Someiled in 1 164, from which Gr^oiy 
thinks it may be inferred that the latter bad succeeded in extending hu 
Bway over the whole of the Isloa. 

Meanwhile Someried was not idle. Malcolm IT. was now King of 
Scotland, and to him Someried had early made himself obnoxious, by 
espousing the cause of his nephews, the eons of Wymund, or Malcolm Mac- 
Heth, to whom, on his first appearance, Someried gave his sister in mar- 
riage, which unmistakably shows the opinion be held of tha justice of 
Malcolm's claim to the Earldom of Moray, while it suited the Govern- 
ment to detain him for a time in prison, as an alleged imposter, though his 
claim seems now, on minute and careful inquiry by the best authoritias, 
to be considered well founded. Ibe enormous power and h^h position 
ultimately attained by this Island Chief may be inferred from the fact 
that be was enabled on one occasion to briug his contest with the King 
to a termination by a solemn treaty, afterwards considered so important 
as to form an epoch Irom which Koyal Charters were regularly dated. Ha 
is ^ain very soon in arms against the King, having joined the powerful 
party who determined to depose him and place the Boy of ^remont 
on the throne. He first infested various parts of the coast, and after- 
wards, for some time, carried on a vesatious predatory war. The attempt 
to depose Malcolm soon failed ; but the Kii^, convinced that the existence 
of an independent Chief like Someried, was incompatible with the interests 
of the central Government and the maintenance of public order, requested 
the Island Chief to lesi^ his possessions into the King's hands, and to 
hold them in future as a vassal &om the Crown. This, Someried declined 
to do, and boldly declared war against Malcolm himself, who prepared to 
carry out his intention against the Island King, by invading his territories 
with a powerful army called together for the purpose. ^Kmboldened by 
his previous successes, Someried determined to meet the Scottish King 
with a numerous army from Aigyle, Ireland, and the Isles ; and haviug 
collected them together, he sailed up the Clyde with one hundred and 
aisty galleys, and landed bis followers near Kenfrew, threatening, as the 
Chroniclers inform us, to subdue the whole of Scotland. He there met 
the Koyal army under the command of the High Steward of Scotland, by 
whom his army was defeated, and he himself and one of his sons, " GiUe- 
colane"* (Gillecallum or Malcolm) were slain. The remaining portion of 
his followers dispersed. " Sommerled being envied by the rest of the 
nobility of Scotland for his fortune and valour, King Malcolm being 
young, thought by all means his kingdom would suiter by the fiictios, 
ambition, and envy of his leading men, if Sommerled's increasing power 
would not be crushed. Therefore, they convened and sent an army to 
Argyle, under the command of Gilchrist, Thane of Angus, who, harrassing 
and ravaging the country wherever he came, desired Sommerled to give 
up his right of Argyle or abandon the Isles. But Sommerled, making 
all the speed he could in raising his vaesels and followers, went after 
them ; and, joining battle, they fought fiercely on both sides with great 
slan^^tei, till n^ht parted them. Two thousand on Sonunerled's side, 
and seven thousand on Gilchrist's side, were slain in the field. Being 
weariAd, they ported, and marched off at the dawn of day, taining theii 

* Btilw Aniuli, *A AnBun 1161 ^ , 

.Google 



mSTOEY OF THE MACD0NA1D8. iS 

backs to one another. After this vhen the Eing came to manhood, the 
nobles were still in his ears, desiring him to Buppress the pride of Som- 
merled, hoping, if he shoold be crushed, they should or might get his 
estate to be divided among themBelves, and at least get him expelled the 
country. Sommerled being informed hereof, resolved to lose all, or 
possess all, he had in the Sighlands ; therefore, gathering together aU his 
forces &om the Isles and the Continent, and shipping them for Clyde, 
he landed in Greenock. The King came with his army to Glasgow in 
order to give battle to Sommerled, who marched up the south aide of the 
Clyde, leaving his galleys at Greenock. The King's party quartered at 
£ai&ew. Those about him thought proper to send a message to Som- 
merled, the costents of which were, tl^t the King would not molest Soro- 
meilod for the leles, which were properly his wife's right ; but as for the 
lands of Argyle and Kintyie, he would have them restored to himeel£ 
Sommerled replied that he had as good a right to the lands upon the 
Continent as he had to the Isles ; yet those lands were unjustly possessed 
by the King, MacBeath, and Donald Bain, and that be thought it did 
not become His Majesty to hinder him from the recovery of his own 
^hts, of which his predecessors were deprived by MacBeath, out of re- 
vel^ for standing in opposition to him after the murder of King Duncan. 
Aa to the Isles, he had on undoubted right to them, his predecessors 
being possessed of them by the goodwill and consent of Eugenius the 
first, for obligations conferred upon him ; that when his forefathers were 
dispossessed of them by the invasion of the Danes, they had no assistance 
to defend or recover them from the Scottish Kiug, and that he had his 
right of them from the Danes ; hut, however, he would be assisting to 
the King in any other afbiis, and would prove as loyal as any of his 
nearest friends, but as long as he breathed, he would not condescend to 
resign any 'of his righta which he possessed to any ; that he was resolved 
to lose all or keep sJl, and that he thought himself as worthy of his own, 
as any about the King's Court The messenger returned wi^ this answer 
to the King, whose party was not altogether bent npon joining battle with 
Sommerled. Neither did the King look much after his rain, but, as the 
most; of kii^ are commonly led by their councillors, the "Kin g himself 
being young, they contrived Sommerled's death hi another manner. 
There was a nephew of Sommerled's, Maurice MacNeiU, his sister's son, 
■who was bribed to destroy him, Sommerled lay encamped at the con- 
fluence of the river Pasley into Clyde. His nephew taking a little boat, 
went over the river, and having got private audience of him, being sus- 
pected by none, stabbed him, and made his escape. The rest of Sommer- 
led's men, hearing the death and tr^edy of their leader and master, be- 
took themselves to their galleys. The King coming to view the corpse, 
one of his followers, with his foot, did hit it. Maurice being present, 
said, that though he had done the first thing moat villanously and against 
his conscience, that he was unworthy and base so to do ; and withal drew 
his long Xiam, stabbed him, and escaped by swimming over to the other 
dde of the river, receiving his remission horn the £ing thereafter, with 
ihe lands which were formerly promised liira. The King sent a boat with 
the corpse of Sommerled to Icolltimkill at his own chai^. This is the ' 
report of twenty writers in Icollumkill, before Hector Boetius and Bueh- 
sQon were bom. . . . Sommerled was a well tempered man, in body 



C^ioglc 



46 THE OELTIO MAGAZINE. 

Bhapely, of a fei* piepoing eye, of middle atatnre, and qniok disoenunent."* 
Gregory, feom tlie well-known charaoter of the celebrated Chief, ia 
disposed to believe in the account which says "that ho waa aaaaseinated 
in his tent by an individual in whom he pkced confidence, and that hia 
troops, thus deprived of theii leader, returned in haste to the Isles." He 
does not, however, adopt that part of it which states that Sommorled vraa 
biuied in Icolmkill. "Modem enquiries," he says, "rather lead to tha 
conclusion that he was interred at the Churob of Sadale, in Kintyre, 
where Reginald, his son, afterwards founded a monastery." 

A recent writer, who claims descent for the Maodonalds &om Fei^s 
Mot, son of Eire, " who, about the year 506, permanently laid the founda- 
tion of the Dalriadic Kingdom of Scotland," sums up the character of 
Somerled thus — The family of Fergus Mor continued to nwintaiii a lead- 
ing poflitioa in Scotland, supplying with few exceptions, the line of Dal- 
riadic kings, and many of the more powerful of its thanea, or territorial 
lords. Of the latter, the most historical, and, it may be truly added, the 
most patriotic, was a great thane of Argyle, who appeared in the twelfth 
century, called Somhairle among his Celtic kinsmen, but better known 
as Somerled, which was the Norwegian form of his name. Daring the 
tenth and eleventh centuries, frequent settlements were made by Nor- 
wegian colonists among the Celtic population of the Highlands and Isles 
of Scotland. Although, however, the evils of Northern rapacity and 
oppression were keenly felt, the Celtic element continued to predominate 
even during the most disastrous periods. At length a deliverer arose in 
Somerled, who was the son of a Celtic father, and a fair-haired, blue-eyed 
Norwegian mother. Few, if any, military leaders have left their marks 
more faroadly or distinctly in Scottish history than he. This fact stands 
dearly ont not only from the records of his career, preserved in authentic 
chronicles, but perhaps even more strikingly in the citcumatactial tradi- 
tions respecting him, which still exist in Ai^yleshire and the Isles. 
These traditions when compared with the well-authenticated records of 
his life, appear like the fragments of some histoiy that had been written 
of him, but is now lost, and hence they serve to supplement attractively 
the cuit and diy details of the old chronicles. Many of these traditions 
refer to the youthful days of Somerled, who appears to have grown np an 
indolent and handsome giant His father, Gillebride, regarded with con- 
tempt the seemingly unwarl^e nature of his youngest son, who occupied 
himself in hunting and fishing, whilst his brothers tr&ined themselves to 
engage, as opportunities offered, in deadly conflict with their Norwegian 
oppressors. Somerled'a indolent and pleasant time, however, was soon 
destined to end. Hia father, being driven from the hillH and glens of 
Aigyle, was compelled t^ conceal himself in a cave in Moi-ven, and from 
that moment Somerled began to take serious counsel regarding the posi- 
tton of affairs with his youthful companions of the chase. Ho found 
them ready, and equally prepared to hunt the wild boar, or assault the 
dreaded Norsemen. Somerled's very nature thenceforward was entirely 
changed ; he became a new man ; the indolent dreamer was suddenly 
absorbed in the dehghts of stratagem and battle. He spoiled like the 
eagle, and had no joy so great as when in the act of rending the prey. 
His little band gathered strei^h as he went, and under his eye dealt 



* I^Mdoqald us, I ^riaUd iq tb? " Cullcotauttt de Rtlw 



C.oo^lc 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDONAIDS. 4T 

blow after bloir on tbu bewildered enemy, until the KoTsemen, vhathei 
BoldieiB or settlers, quickly abandoned garrisons and settlements in 
Aigyle. They crowded into the Hebridean' Islands, whither Somerled 
pursued them, capturing the Islands in detail, kiUing or expelling the in- 
Tadeis, and hrmly establishing once more the old Celtic authority. Thus, 
on the min of the Norwegian power, Somerled built up his Island throne, 
and became not only the greatest thane of his family, but the fonnder of 
that second line of Island rulers, who, for nearly a period of four centuries, 
vere occasional and formidable rivals of the Scotti^ kings.* 

We have seen that Somerled, by Elfrioa or Rachel, dai^hter of Olave 
the Bed, King of Man, had three sons, first, Di^all, ancestor of the Mac- 
dongalls of Lorn and BunoUy; second, B^inald, Irom whom all the 
branches of the Clan Donald with whom we have specially to deal iu tha 
following history ; and third, Angus, who succeeded to Bute, and was 
killed in Skye with his three sons in 1210. One of the sons of the latter, 
James, had a daughter, Jane, who married Alexander, son of Walter, 
High Steward of Scotland, in right of whom he claimed Bute and Arran. 

Besides the three sons of his marriage with Bachel, dai^hter of Olave 
the Bed, Somerled had other sons, who seemed to have shared with their 
brothers, according to the then prevalent custom of gavel kind, the main- 
land posseseions held by the Lord of Aigyle ; whilst the sons descended 
of the house of Man divided amongst them, in addition, the South Isles, 
as ceded by Godred in 11G6, He is said by some authorities to have 
been twice married, and that GUlecolane, or Malcolm, and other bohb, 
were by the first marriage. 

It has never been disputed that this Somerled was the immediate 
ancestor of the family of Macdonald. The period immediately succeeding 
bia death is historically very obscure. "A second Somerled is found 
apparently holding hia place, and many of his poBsessions, during the first 
twenty years of the succeeding, or thirteenth century. This must either 
have been a son or a grandson of the other — most probably the latter, 
since Gillecolam, apparently the son of the elder Somerled by a first 
marri^e, fell with hun at Itenfrew, and in all likelihood left the offipring, 
which bore the grandsire's name. This is the most feasible way in which 
the existence and the rule of the second Somerled can well be explained,"t 
The author of the Macdonald MS., in the Transactions of the lona Club, 
who, however, cannot always be depended upon for accuracy, says that 
" after Sommerled, his son Sommerled succeeded him as Thane of Argyle ; 
B^inald his brother, the Isles ; Dugal!, Lorn ; and Gillies, had Kintyre, 
by the disposition of their father. Sommerled pretended that the people 
of Cowal and Lennox harrayed hia lands of their store and cattle, and 
therefore made incmsiouB on them, of which they complained to the ICing. 
Furthermore, he would have the lands which -Vere left by his father to 
his brethren at his own disposal. The King sent the Earl of March 
with a considerable body of men against him, who was so favourable that 
he advised, at a private conference, that since he lost his affection for his 
brethren, by seizing on those lands which their father left them, he could 
not stand out against the King and them, and therefere that it was best 

* " Ad Hutorioal Aooount of the Maodanelk of ADtrlm," bj th« BaT. Q«otg« HIU, 
tditor of the "UoDtgomery Mkmuoripta. " 
f Sniberl'i HlghloDden, 



jb,G00(^lc 



46 THE CIXTIC MAQAZOTE. 

he ilumld go along Trith him, and he would pTocxue fbt him the King's 
paidon and favout ; so he did, and vaa patdoned by the King. Shordjr 
thereafter he died, leaving two bohh, John and Maolmory, who were both 
yonn^ Of this John are descended the MacEans of Ardnamiirchan. He 
was bniied at IcoUunikilL Keginald, hie brother, became Tutor to John." 
Gregory Bays nothing about this aeoond Somerled, but, at pags 67, he 
correctly traces the Maclana of Aidnamurchan from John Skrangach, 
yonnger son of Angus Mor of Ma. The editor of Tullarton's " Highland 
Clans " considers l£e esdetence of this second Somerled " very donbtful," 
Skene, however, believes in his existence. At this time of day it is im- 
poaaihle to settle the point ; but it is really of very little importance 
whether he existed or not, for even if he did there is no question as to 
hia saccessoTs having become extinct soon after his own death. 

Dougal, admitted by all the best authorities to have been Somerled's 
eldest son by the second marriage, succeeded to the Southern Isles and 
part of A^yle, if the Horse Sagas and native writers are to be credited, but 
his exact position has never been clearly defined The records of the time 
are most conftising and obscure, but all are agreed that two or three of bis 
line succeeded him, and there is no doubt whatever that his main line 
terminated in two heiresses — the daughters of " King Ewin," who, accord- 
ing to Skene, married, the eldest, the Norwegian King of Man ; and the 
other, Alexander of the Isles, a descendant of Reginald. Gregory doea 
not go at any length into this part of the history of the Island Chiefs — 
that of the immediate descendants of Somerled prior to the great expedi- 
tion of Haco, King of Norway — beyond saying that " from King Dugall 
sprung the great House of Argyle and Lorn, patronymically Macdt^all,* 
which, at the time of Haco'a expedition, was represented by Dugall's 
grandson, Ewin, commonly called King Ewin, and sometimes erroneously 
King John," but Skene informs us, that the failure of the male descend- 
ants of Dugall in the person of Ewin, had the effect of dividing this great 
clan into three, the heads of each of which held their lands of the Crown. 
These were the Clan Kory, Clan Donald, and Clan Dugall, "severally 
descended from throe sons of these names, of E^nald, the second son of 
Somerled by his second marriag&" The Clan Dugall is generally, and, we 
believe, more correctly held to be descended from Dugall, the eldest son of 
Somerled himself, but our present object does not require to go into the 
discussion of that question, as we have only to do with the descendants of 
Donald, who was undoubtedly a sou of Begiuald, son of Somerled, Thane 
of Aigyle. 

Som^led was succeeded in his territories of Isla, Kintyre, and part 
of Lorn, by his son. 

XL Bboimald, who asBuned the title of Lord of the Isles, or received 
it &om his followers ; for at that time, whatever chief supported either 
party, when the possessions of Somerled were subdivided among his sons, 
was (^ed by hie supporters. King of the Isles. And we find that both 
Dogall and Beginald were styled Kings of the Isles at the same time that 
Be^nald, the son of Godred the Black, was called King of Man and the 
Isles ; and in the next generation mention is made in a Norse chronicle of 
thrm Kings of the Isles, all of the race of Somerled existing at one and 
the tsauie time. From this Gc^ory infers " that the word king as used 

* Thli funil; tued genaniU; the tenitoiUl BUTDaoiG of " de Ergulift," or " of hxfjW 



EI8T0EY OF THE MACDONALDS, i9 

by ihB KoTwe^anB and theii vassals is the Isles, -was not confined, as in 
Scottand, to one sapreme rolet, bnt that it had vith them an additional 
meaning, corresponding either to prince of the blood-niyal or to magnate. 
Many Seannachiea or genealogists in later times, being ignorant of, or 
having overlooked this distinction, have, by means of the expression 
Xing of the Isles, been led to represent those whom they style the direct 
heirs or successors of Somerled, tbroagh his son Eegisald, and who alone, 
according to them, bore the royal tiUe, as holding a rank very different 
from what they actually did." 

A most important change came over the fortunes of this family in 
IS20, when King Alexander the Second led an army into the district of 
Argjle, and for ttie first time annexed it decisively to the Crown ; and, ac- 
cording to Smibert, expelled the second Somerled, who died soon after. 
Alexander, determined upon breaking up the kingdom of the Western 
Isles, and so reduce the power of its ineular chiefs, confirmed in their 
poBsesaion on the Western shores all those who agreed to submit to 
bis authority and consented to hold their lands direot from the Crown of 
Scotland. In place of those who atill held oat, he invited families Irom 
the adjoining tribes, and planted and confirmed them in the lands of the 
ancient possessois. It is abont this period that Highland families first 
commenced to assume surnames, and about the time of this division of the 
territories of A^yle, that we find mentioned for the first time such names 
as the Ma4^regorB, Macnaughtons, Macneile, Clan Chattan, and Lamonta 
At the same time, Aigyle, which extended much further inland than the 
present county does, was formed into a Sherifiship — the hereditary ap- 
pointment being in favour of the ancestors of the present House of Argyle. 
The whole of Ergadia Borealis, or Iforth Argyle, was at the same time 
granted to the Earl of Eoss for services rendered to the King. 

From E^inald, King of the Isles, sprang two great families, that of 
lala descended from his son Donald, and therefore patronymically styled 
Macdonald ; and that of Bute d«acended ftom his son Euari, and therefore 
patronymically styled Macruari.* It appears that most of the descendants 
of Somerled had for a century aft«r his death a divided allegiance, hold- 
ii^ part of their lands, those in the Isles, from the King of Norway ; their 
mainland domains, at the same time being held of the King of Soot- 
land. The latter, whose power was now gradually increasing, could not 
be expected long to allow the Isles to remain dependent on Korway with- 
out mt^ing an effort to conquer them. The first footing obtained by the 
Scots in ttke Isles was, apparently, soon after the death of Somerled, 
when the Steward of Scotland seized the lele of But«. That island seems 
after this to have changed masters several times, and, along with Kintyre, 
to have been a subject of dispute between the Scots and Norwegians, whilst 
in the course of these quairels the family oi the Steward strengthened 
their claim by marriage in the following manner : — We have seen that 
Angos MacSomerled (who is supposed to have been Lord of Bute) and 
his three sons, were Inlled in 1210 ; nor does it appear that Angus had 
any other male issue. James, one of these sons, left a daughter and 
heiress, Jane, married to Alexander, the son and heir of Walter the High 
Steward of Scotland, who, in her right, claimed the Isle of Bute, and, 



.Google 



Bft THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

perhaps, Aitan also.* Thia claim woa natural]; leaiBted by Ibuii, thfi 
son of Heginald, till the dispute was settled for a time by his expulaioo, 
and the seizure of Bute and Atran by the Scots. It has been maintained 
by Home writere, among them the editor of FiJlarton'a Clans, that Eijari 
Tas the eldest son of £«gina1d. Others hold that Donald was the eldest ; 
and it is impossible now to say which is the correct view ; but this ia of 
less consequence, as it has been conclusively established that Knaii'B 
descendants terminated in the third generation in a female, Annie, who 
married John of Isla, great-grandson of Donald of Isla, Kuari's brother, 
and direct ancestor of all the existing branches of the Macdonalds. 
Thns, the succession of the ancient House of Somerled fell indisputably 
to the descendants of DoneJd, son of Reginald, dnd grandson to the illus- 
trious Somerled, Lord of Argyle, who became the most powerful, and 
whose territories were the most extensive, of aU the Highland Clans, in- 
deed at one time they were equal to all the others put together. 

Roderick followed the instincts of his Hotw^jan ancestors and be- 
came a desperate pirate, whose daring incursions and predatory expedi- 
tione fin the annals of the period. He had two sons, Allan and Dugall, 
who settled down among their relatives of the west, Dugall joined Haco 
in his expedition against the Isles, and, in return for his services, obtained 
a considerable addition to his previous possessions, including tlie posses- 
sions of his biothei Allan, called "Bex Hebudem," and died in 126S 
without issue. Allan . succeeded his father, but left no legitimate male 
issue, when his possessions went to his only dai^tei Chrisrina, who 
resigned her lands to the king, and had tJiem re^onveyed to her to 
strengthen her position against the claim of hei natural,biother, Roderick, 
who, however, appears to have come into possession probably on the 
death of his sister, as his lands are forfeited in the leign of Robert Bruce, * 
in consequence of the share he took in the Soulis conspiracy of 1 320. 
His lands were, however, restored to his son Kanald, who also had lands 
from William, Earl of Ross, in Kintail,t in connection with which he 
became embroiled with that poweifiil Chief; a feud ensued, which re- 
sulted in Ranald'a death. In 1316 David IL summoned the Scottish 
Barons to meet him at Perth, when Ranald MacRuari made his appearance 
with a considerable retinue and took up his quarters in the monastery of 
Elcho, a few miles &om the city ; whereupon the Earl of Ross, who also 
attended in obedience to the King's orders, determined to be revenged on 
his vassal, and, entering the convent about the middle of the night, he 
killed Ranald and seven of his principal followers. Leaving no snccession, 
his lands fell to his sister Annie, who, as already stated, married, and 
carried her lands along with her to John of Isla, of whom hereafter. 
According to Gi^ory, these lands comprised also the Isles of Uiat, Barra, 
E^, Rum, and the Lordship of Garmoran (also called Garblichrioch), 

■ " In ths trsdittoDi at tha Stevatti, thU kdj'i gnndhthei li sailed AMgu HU- 
Sorie, whiob, u I aonfletve, li aa errot far Asgiii Uaoa>r(t«— lj)ia Utter bdog tbe war 

in which MaoSomeTlsd (ipelt MacSemhairle) li proDoanoed In Ouilia. That there wu 
aboat this time a tnatrimouial aiUftDoe betveen the honu of Stewart and that of laU, 
im piobable from a diapensBtion (n 131^ for the mairiaae of two iBdiTidnili of tlicae 
familiei, ■* beinit nilhia the forbidden degrew— Andrew Btawart'i Hilt of ilM Stunrtl 
— p. 433,"— Foolnott in Srtgory. 

f Charter of EIhb; DsTld, Ith Jul; IMS ; Mid Bobartwt'i Indti, p. iS DavU IL ; 
alio OrigincB FaroohiaLa ScoHie. 

Do,i,,-c,ib,. Google 



EISTOBT OF THE MACDONAIDS. 81 

which " oomprelieiidB the distriots of Moydert, Aiagaig, Monr, and Eooy- 

dart," heing the origiiml poBBeeaionB <^ the family in the NortL* A 
charter waa granted to the Bishop of Liemoie, let January 1607 [M^. 
Sig. L. xiy. ^0. 406 J, confirming two evidenta made hy Keginald in his 
lifetime, in -which he is described as the son of Somerled, qui m Regem 
InBDlaxnm nominavit Lord of Eigyle and of Kintyie, founder of the 
monastery of S^adoll (Sadale), of the lands of GlensagaduU, and twelve 
marks of the luids of . Eallebeain, in the Lordship of Kintyre, and of 
twenty marks of the lands oi Coaken in Arron, to the said abbey. He 
made very ample donations to the monastery of Paisley, that he, and 
Fonia his wife, m^t be entitled to all the priviledges of brotherhood in 
the convent.f Of the principal events in the life of Begiuald very little 
is known, and what can be ascertained is not &ee &om uncertainty, for 
he was contempomry with B^nald, the Norwegian King of Man and 
the lelea, which makes it imposinble to distinguish between the recorded 
acts of the two. Beginald was, however, without doubt designated 
" dominns insnlarom," and sometimes " Kex ineolanun," or King of the 
Isles, as well as " doroinus de Ergile and Kintyre," under which title he 
grants certain lands as above to the Abbey of Saddell which he hod 
founded in Kintyre. The author of "The Historical Account of the 
Mscdonalde of Antrim," says at page 10, that Banald, "although a 
younger son, became in reality the representative of the family, being not 
only popular in Scotland, but respected on tiie coasts of Ulster, wh^ he 
appe&red sometimes as peace-maker among the Northern Irish chieftains. 
If, however, he bore his character on the Irish coast, his sons occasionally 
came on a very different mission. At the year 1211, the Annals of the 
Four Maetere and the Annals of Loch Ce, inform us that Thomas Mao- 
Uchtry (of Galloway) and the sons of Baghnall, son of Somhairle, came 
to Doire ChoUum-Chille (Deny) with seventy ships, and the town was 
greatly injored by them. O'DomhnaiU and they went to Inie Eoghain, 
and they completely destroyed the country. 

He married a sister of Thomas EandoU, Eail of Moray, and by her 
had— 

1. Donald of lalay, his heir, &om whom the Macdonalds took their 
name, and 

2. Roderick, or Buari, of Bote, whose succession and possessions we 
have already described, and whose issue terminated in Annie, who married 
John of Isla. According to the Macdonold MS. he had two other sons, 
Angus,* who had a son, Duncan, of whom the Robeitaons, or Clann 
Dounachaidh of Athol, " and MacLuUiche, who are now called in the low 
coimtry Pittullichs." He had another son, John Maol, or Bald, who, ac- 
cording to the same authority, went to Ireland, and " of whom descended 
the Macdonalds of Tlreoin" (Land of John or Tyrone (1).) 

Beginald died in the 64th year of his age, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son. 

(lobe Gmtinued.) 



■ Highlandi utd Iilu, p. ST. 

t Donglaa'i Waod'i Fecng*, Highlandj and Iilti, p. 6. 

t HHJor Muksul« In bii HMkemis GenMloslei, mpplsnlNituT ihaet, olla tliU 



jb,Googlc 



THE CELTLG MAGAZINS. 



THE EAULY SCENES OF ELORA MACDONALD'S LIFE, 

With Sbteral Incidental ALLoeiOKS to thb 

Eeuabkablb Adybnthbes asd Esoapbs of the Unfobtdijatb 

Pbinoe Charleh Edward Stuabt. 

By the Bfiv. Alex. MAOonEooEt, M.A., Inverness. 

Pabt IL 
The Prince 'becaine now really sensible Hiat lie was in & pontdon of great 
jeopardy, and that something must he immediately resorted to for his 
safety. Time was rapidly passing away, and the encroachments of the 
vigilant enemy were becoming honi after hour more inuuinenk It was 
therefore requisite that a prompt determination ahoold be come to as to 
the Eoyal Aigitive's future movements. There the Prince stood, along 
with his friends, in deep meditation, in close vicinity to the place where 
be had first landed on the mainland. Lockhatt, youi^er of Camwath, 
young Clanranold, Mawa Macdonell, a banker in Paris, and seveial other 
devoted adherents were present, and a council was held aa to what oi^ht 
to be done. It was the Prince's own desire to betake himself to the Outer 
Hebrides, but his friends sternly objected, giving it as a reason that 
Government cniisen had been Steady ordered to acoui all the lochs, 
bays, and channeb of those regions, and that, is consequence, the chance 
of his being seized was much greater than if he remained on the mainland. 
The meeting pondered in deep suspense, and their almost unanimous 
decision nearly prevailed on the Prince to remain where he was, under 
the protection of his kind and faithfiil adherents. O'SuIlivaiL alone ob- 
jected, and eloquently insisted on the propriety of resorting to the Isles. 
He strenuously maintained that such was the only course that afforded 
any chance whatever of obtaining a vessel to convey his Boyal Highness to 
France. The meeting became somewhat excited and warm on the sub- 
ject J whereupon one of them addressed O'SuBivan, and openly accused 
him of gross misman^ement already in the Prince's cause. This was 
confirmed by a letter from Lord George Murray to Charles, dated at 
Ruthven on 17th April 1 746, of which the following is an extract ; — " 1 
must also acquaint your Royal Highness that we are all fully con- 
vinced that Mr O'Sullivan, whom your Eoyal Highness trusted with the 
most essential things with regard to your operations, was esceedingly un- 
fit for it, and committed gross blunders on every occasion of moment 
He whose business it was, did not so much as visit the ground where we 
were to be drawn up in line of battle, and it was a fatal error to aUow the 
enemy these walls upon their left, which made it impossible for us to break 
them; and they, with their front fire, and flankii^; us when we went 
upon the attack, destroyed- us, without any possibility of oui breaking 
them, and oui Athole men have lost a full half of their officers and men. 
I wish Mr O'Sullivan had never got any other charge in the aimy than 
the care of the haggago, whiuh, I am told, he iiad bui:ii bioii);JiL up to, 
and uudeietoud. I never saw him in time uf action uuithur at Gladsmuir, 
Falkiik, uor in the last, und his oideia wure vastly confused." 



Google 



FLORA MACDONALD. 53 

In this letter Lord Geoige Murray made no eecTet of the estimate 
vMch. he had formed of the Prince's advisers, and particularly of O'Sul- 
llvan. His lordship iraa greatly chagrined at the unhappy cooise which 
events liad taken, but attributed the vhole miafortune to the gross mis- 
management of parties who had usurped an authority which they were 
unable to exercise with . prudence. Lord Murray, diegusted with the 
whole proceedings, was determined to incur no more responsibility in a 
matter of such vast importance. He accordingly sent the Prince a tes^- 
nation of his command, remarking that he hoped the great cause might 
etill be attended with better success. He had no idea that the war would 
then be abandoned, seeing that nearly two thousand Highlanders and 
others had assembled at Buthven, expressing a determination to stand 
steadfast to the cause of their Prince and country, and cordially to unite 
with chieftaiiis and clansmen who m^t come forward to commence the 
campaign anew. 

The Prince, as if dif&dent or ashamed to give prompt orders to the 
Buthven friends to disperse at once, commenced to palliate matters, by 
stating that he was too powerless and weak to ensure success in the mean- 
time, but that if he got safely to France, he would, no doubt, receive 
effectoal aid in men and in money to enable bim to maintain the struggle, 
until happily he might obtain the victoiy. His communication, though 
couched in pleasii^; and plausible terms, yet breathed an air of despond- 
ency ; and his Mends at once construed it^ in the words of Ghauibere, " as 
the death-note of the war. Accordingly, taking a melancholy leave of 
each other, they dispersed — the gentlemen to seek concealment in, or 
escape from, the country, and the common people to return to their 
homes." 

The Prince received Lord George Murray's letter by a messenger when 
in the midst of his deliberations with his friends at Bonodale as to his 
fdture movements. It is very probable that he would have shown it Ut 
those devoted adherents around him, if not to O'Sulliyan himself, whose 
reputation as an officer was so sharply commented on by Lord Murray. 
Be this as it may, the Prince yidded to O'SuUivan's suggestion, and ex- 
pressed ft determination to seek refuge in the Western Islia. When the 
Prince entered the tewn of Inverness he met in private with several 
friends who were warmly attached to his person, and sincerely zealous in 
his cause. The Prince happened to stato that he expected some French 
Tessels to arrive on the West Coast with money and requisite munitions 
of war, but was at a loss how to procure a trustworthy person to fall in 
vrith these foreign ships and get some of these requisites privately con- 
veyed to him. His Eoyal Highness was informed by Banker Macdonell 
that he had just seen a faithful, worthy Skyeman in town whom he con- 
sidered a most suitable person tor the purpose required, if he would engage 
to do it. The Prince expressed a desire to see him, whereupon, in a 
short space of time, Macdonell brought Donald Macleod of Galtrigal into 
the presence of his Itoyal Highness, who shq}>k liands with the humble 
Hebridean, and spent nearly an hour in conversation with him in a clow 
in Church Street, near the Gaelic Church, wherein, shortly afterwards, a 
number of poor rebels were imprisoned by the cruel Cumberland, and 
thence token to the adjoining churchyard, where they were made to kneel 
down in rows, and were shot to death by a party of Cumberland's aoldiets, 



6t THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

With the view of making a snre aim, the unfortunate Highlanders were 
firod at hy the soldiers placing their muskets on erect stonea, which are 
still left standing as monuments of this most heart-rending cruelty. 
Donald Macleod, who was an inteUigent, entetpriaiug man, was at the 
time in Invemesa, loading a vessel with meal for Skye, and for other 
places on the West Coaat. Owing to Donald's knowledge of the Western 
Isles, he so far yielded to the Prince's wishes, as to promise that he would 
accompany Banker .lEneas Macdonell to Baira, to bring to his Eoyal 
Highness whatever money or despatches might have been left fbr him in 
that island.* 

These proposals of the Prince with Galtrigal were not, however, pnt 
into execution, as soon thereafter the bloody engagement at Culloden took 
place, and nothing more was heard of Donald Macleod until the meeting 
of the Prince with his adherents at BorrodaJe, when his Royal Highness, 
as already stated, expressed his determination to resort to the Western 
lales. In the midst of their deliberations Macdoneli informed the Prince 
that Donald Macleod, whom he had seen at Inverness, had fortunately 
arrived with his vess^ at Kinlochmoidart, and that of all men he knew, 
he would be the moat suitable for conducting the intended cruise to the 
Hebrides. Chamhera states that " a message was sent to Kinlochmoidart, 
where Donald now was, pressingly desiring him to come to meet the Prince 
at Borrodale. Donald immediately set out, and, in passing through the 
forest of Glenbiasdale, he encountered a stranger walking by himself, who, 
making ap to him. asked if he was Donald Macleod of Galtrigal] Don- 
ald, instantly recognising him notwithstanding his mean attire, said, ' I 
am the same man, please your H^hnesa, at your service.' ' Then,' said 
the Prince, 'yon see, Donald, I am in distress; I therefore throw myself 
into your bosom, and let you do with me what yon lika I hear you are 
an honest man, and fit to be trusted.' When the old man, a year after, 
related these paridculars to the individual who has reported them, the 
tears were streaming along his cheeks like rain." 

The Prince then proposed that Donald should go with lettera from 
him to Sir Alexander Macdonold at Monkstadt, and to Macleod of Dun- 
vegan, soliciting their protection. Donald stared his Koyal Highness in 
the face, and said, " Is your Boyal Highness really in earnest in making 
such a mod request ) The parties mentioned, you must be aware, are 
your enemies, and ate at this moment employed in searching for you in 
the Isles and elsewhere." " Well, well, Donald," said the Prince, " all 
things seem to be adverse to me, hut my good friend, yon must at all 
events pilot me, and that immediately, to the Long Island." Donald at 
once replied that he was ready to be of any service to him in his power, 
and risk his very life in his behalf— but that he peremptorily declined to 
be the bearer of any message to " the two apostate Chieis of Skye," 

In order to put the Wince's plan into execution with all possible 
speed, the most expert seamen, and the moat substantial boat in the 
{dace, were procured and equipped at Borrodale, in the bay of Loch- 
nonuagh, near where the Prince first landed in Scotland. The office 
of Captain, or head-man, was delegated by all to Donald of Galtrigal, 



Google 



M,OEA MACDONALb. 65 

who was to steer and pilot the frail barque on their perilons voy- 
age. On the evening of the 26th April the Prince, O'Neal, O'Sulli- 
vau, and others, seated themselves in tte boat, but Donald Macleod, 
leaning on the gunwale before entering the boat, and casting his eyes on 
the murky clouds all around, addressed the IMnce, and said, that the 
evening looked gloomy, that he did not like tbe bright, but black-edged 
openings in the clouds, that he was certain that a storm would arise, and 
that it waa more prudent by far to remain for the night where they wera 
Charles absolutely refused to do so, and said, "No, no, Donald, we will 
push on, and dread no evil, while you sit at the helm." On hearing this, 
Donald, very much against his will, ordered the sails to be set, wMle he 
himself took his place at the helm. In a few minutes the boat glided 
swiftly along under a breeze which was portentously besh. In less than 
an hour after starting from Lochuauuagh, a terrible storm arose, wiih 
thunder and lightning, and the ciew of seven men besides tbe pilot, had 
more than enough to do to keep tbe boat from swamping. The crested 
waves rose around them like dark rolling mountains, and breaking into 
the bail vessel in gushing streams, gave very hard wotk to tbe crew to 
bale them out. Eain fell in torrents, and the brooding darkness, like a 
gloomy curtain of death, was momentarily illuminated by the bright 
flashes of lightning that darted from cloud to cloud around I Sorely did 
the Prince repent of his rashness and ohstinancy in not yielding to the 
prudent advice of his sage and esperienced pilot, but it was too late ; 
and all that now remained was to try to make the beet of it. They had 
no compass, no chart, and almost no hope of safety. They could avoid 
neither rock, nor island, nor shore, nor quicksand ; but were compelled to 
dash on before a sweeping eafiterly hurricane, and to trust to Providence. 
The Prince, greatly impressed with the danger, frequently addressed the 
pilot, and said, " Oh J Donald, Donald, I fear that all is over with us, for 
this is worse than Culloden by far," Donald replied, that while they 
were afloat there was hope, and that He who had the winds and the 
waves under His command, was able to preserve them if they placed con- 
fidence in Him. Such was the case, for at day-break, much to theii sur- 
prise, but at the same time to their great joy, they observed ihe hills of the 
Loi^ Island straight ahead, and in leas than an hour thereafter, they 
landed in a creek at Kossiniab, on the east side of Benbecula, where they 
had great difficulty in securing their boat, and their lives. The natives 
observed their approach, and they immediately assembled, and heartily 
assisted the weary mariners by conducting them to a place of safety. 

It is almost unnecessary to state that the departure of the Prince from 
Lochnanuagh, when it became known to the Duke of Cumberland, caused 
great consternation among the Eoyaliste, They became mightily alarmed, 
not knowing what the consequences might be, should the Prince find 
access to the Highland chie& and other adherents ; for Cumberland was 
well aware, that although he was so far successful at Cullodep, yet that 
there existed a desire among the Prince's friends to rally, and to com- 
mence the campaign anew. Cumberland therefore gave immediate orders 
to provide cruisers, sloops of war, and all available sailing crafts, to scour 
the Westem seas, and to convey troops to the Isles, to search every creek 
and comer, to find the BoyaL fugitive dead or alive. On the mainland 
tbe moit cruel and heart-rending atrocities were committed on the helplew 



S6 THE CELTIC KAGA2INE. 

rebels ! Men, women, and children were mnrdered In cold blood, and 
meicy waa extended to none. High and low became the victima of these 
ministers of vengeance and bloodshed 1 Like fiends of darkneea they 
traversed the country from end to end, while silence, ruin, and death 
followed in theii train. Mothers and matrons, sons and sires, infants and 
aged, were promiscuously massacred, oi banished irom the smoking ashes 
of their burning dwellings. Thus cruelly pursued, they had no Sterna- 
tire but either to die of cold and hunger on the moors, or to perish in 
mountain recesses, and in the caves of the rocks. The rebel chieftains 
were doomed, as far as passible, to the same fate. The castles and strong- 
holds of Cluny, Keppoch, Glengyle, Glei^arry, Lochiel, and many be- 
sides, were plundered and consumed by fire. In short, the devastations 
committed by the English army were a atain on humanity, and were so 
notoriously cruel that even the record of them will prove revoltii^ m 
eveiy age, and painful to every generous mind. 

Meanwhile Prince Charl^ had commenced his wanderings in the 
Western Isles, where be ran many hair-bieadth escapes for his life. It 
is unnecessary here to attempt a narrative of his various movements and 
shiftings duriog his hazardous pilgrimage in the Long Island.* He had 
been but a short time on shore, when many steadfast friends came to know 
that his Eoyal Highness was on their isluid in close concealment His 
whereabouts was always known to some one or other of his faithful 
adherents. His wellwishers in the place were somewhat numerous, and 
of considerable influence, such as Glani'anold and his brother Boisdale — 
Banker Macdonell, Mi O'Sullivan, Mr O'Neal, the Macdonalds of Baile- 
shear, and his own " hdus Actiates," Donald Macleod of GaltrigaL Olan- 
ranold and his excellent lady had selected twelve trusty men, whom they 
had sworn to fidelity, to act as messengers and guides to the Prince on 
every eniei^ency when their services were required. 

I>ay after i^y increased the danger, and rendered the situation of the 
Poyal fugitive more and more critical. Of all thid he wa^ fully aware 
himself, yet he appeared cbeerl'ul and apparently unconcerned in the pre- 
sence of his friends. By sea and land every imaginable precaution was 
taken, by conmiands from headquarters, to prevent the possibility of hia 
escape. Every ferry was guarded, and every pass and highway had sentinels 
planted in them. About two thousand regular troops and nulitiamen were 
posted in suitable localities. In abort, the whole range of country was so 
thoroughly watched, that the least movement on the part of the natives 
could hardly escape immediate observation. The various lochs and bays 
by which the Long Island is indented, as well as the open Atlantic sur- 
rounding it, were so thickly studded with cutters and cruisers, frigates and 
sloops of war, that no craft, however small, could come to, or leave the 
island unobserved. At last the danger became so imminent that the 
Prince's Mends held a consultation at Ormiclade, the residence of Clan- 
ranold, as to the adoption of some immediate steps for his preservation, if 
such could at all be effected. After weighing the matter in all its bear- 
ings, it was ultimately agreed upon that an attempt should be made to 

* 8noh u deaire full lnformattoii on ibeie polnti aaj tooiaU ObamtMn'* Hlitoix 
of the BebeUloD, Brown') Hlitmj of tb* HlgbliiBdi, QuUNo'i BMwftaA XmliMoal 
«[ 8k7i, JiMbita Manohi, Oullod«D Papwv, tu. 



ii,GoO(^lc 



FLORA MACDONALD. 87 

efiect his lescuB through the instrumentftlity of a jronng lady in the neigh- 
boQihood, yiz., Miss Flora Macdonald of Milton. 

Let us now leave his Boyal Higtmess in hie cave in the rocky teoesaea 
of Corrodale,* while we wUl attempt to delineate the early history and 
future movements of this interesting young lady. 

Hoia was daughter of Banold MacdonaJd younger of Milton, in South 
Uist; She was horn in the year 1732, thus b«ing two yeats younger than 
the Prince. She was pationimically designated "Fionn^al n^heoa 
SaonniU 'ic AonghaiB Oig, un' Airidh Mhuilinn;" that is, "Flora the 
dAQghter of Banold, the sou of Angas the yonnget of Miltoa" Kanold 
was a cadet of the Clanranold femily, and not very distant in relation. 
Flora's mother was Marion, daughterof the Rev. Angus Macdonald, who 
had been for some years Parish minister of the Island of Oighu, but was 
afterwards translated to the Parish of South Uiat. He was designated as 
" Aonghas Mac TJisdein Ghriminish," that ia, " Angus the son of Hugh 
of Griminish," in the Island of IJ"orth Uist. This clergyman was noted 
in the country as a man of extraordinary muscular strength. He had no 
equal in the place for lifting ponderous weights, or for any of those 
aQiletic exercises that required groat bodily power. He was a mild, 
generous, and much respected gentleman. The natives of the Hebrides, 
or Western Isles, have always been noted for their attention and kindness 
to strangers, but the Bev. Angus Macdonald was proverbial in the place 
for his genuine B^hland hospitality. He was known in the Island as the 
" Minifltear l^idir," that is, " The Strong Minister," and the name was by 
no means misapplied. This clergyman's wife was a talented and accom- 
plished lady, and was a daughter of Macdonald of Largie, in the.peninsula 
of Cantire, Flora was the only daughter of the family, but she had two 
brothers. The elder, named Eanold, was a very promising youth, who 
appeared to inherit no small portion of bis reverend grandfather's activity 
and strength. He went to pay a visit to his relatives at Largie in Aigyle- 
shire, where the gallant youth lost his life by the bursting of a blood 
vessel. It is said that he strained himself by rowing a boat against an 
adverse wind, and this caused his own death, to the deep r^ret of a 
nnmerous circle of relatives and friends. 

Flora's younger brother, Angus, succeeded his father in the tenement 
of Milton, while her mother, in the year 1728, married, as her second 
husband, Hugh Macdonald of Armadale in Skye, who was Captain of 
Militia in the Long Island during the Prince's wanderings ther&t Had 
it not been for the friendly disposition of Hugh Macdonald towards the 
Prince, in all probability his Eoyal Highness could never have effected 
his escape &om the Long Island, Through Hugh's instrumentality, 
vhich will be spoken of afterwards, the Prince was rescued, and it is 
thought that his friends, vrith all their ingenuity would utterly fail to 
devise any other plan or scheme whereby his life could be saved. 

When Flora's mother, after her marriage, was to remove to her new 

■ The reoeM or oaye where the Princa wbb oonoealeii was ahont ten miles frem 
Ormioltvie, at a place oalled Corrodale, on the east aide of B^inn Mbcir, near the point 
of Uisioisb, and aituated between Loch Boisdalo and Looh Skipport. The apot^ia ragged, 
*ild, and aequHtered. and almost inaccoaaibJe to strangers. 

t Bea UMwnnt of Hugh Maudooald of Armadale in No. ix, page 306 of the O^ie 
Sfagaeine, Armadale ia aituated in the Puiah of SLeat iu the aonth end of Skjt, ud 
ii the roddenoe of "theUaodob^di of the Iilea." 



Oliogic 



68 THE CELTIC MAGAZI3TE. 

residence in Sfcye, she most naturally desired to take hei little only 
daughter along with her, but her son, Milton, who waa then a full grown 
yoatb, and an active manager of the place, felt extremely reluctant to 
part with his sister. She waa only two years of ^e when she lost her 
father, and six years at the date of hei mother's eecond marri^e. The 
mother and son could not at all ^ree as to the little girl After much 
talking ind reasoning with each other aa to the removal of Flora to Skye 
with her mother, they utterly failed to settle the point between them. 
Seeing this they came to the determination to leave the issue to the 
decision of young nora herself Being therefore asked whether she pre- 
ferred to accompany her mother to Skye or to remain with her brother at 
Milton 1 she smartly replied and said, " I will atay at Milton because I 
love it I do not know Skye, and therefore do not care for it I will 
therefore remain with Angus until my dear mamma come back for 
me." 

Flora was a very interesting child, wise above her years, and more 
a^^ in her remarks than the generality of children. No doubt this arose 
from the circumstance of there being no children in the family at Milton 
to associate with, and of her growing up accustomed only to the con- 
veraation, ideas, and society of pei-sons of maturer years. But notvrith- 
standing all tbia, she was undoubtedly a very precocious little girl, who 
showed an early taste for what was beautiful, i^eat, and grand in nature. 
She had been known to stand for hours admiring the battling of the ele- 
ments, when the bold Atlantic rose in mountains of foam. It waa a mag- 
nificent eight to behold the storm in its fury dashing on the western 
shores of Uie Island, and flhoworing its briny spray over the length and 
the breadth of the land. The whole scenery of the place, together with 
the grandeur of the surrounding isles, could never fail to arouse feelii^ 
of admiration in the minds of either young or old, who poasesaed the 
seDsibility of discerning the variegated beauties of nature. It is therefore 
a matter of fact that whoever is a worshipper at the shrine of Nature, will 
find ample materials wheron to indulge his fancy in the solitude 
of this interesting iale. On the west is the frowning Atlantic, with its 
chilling bieezB and stern aspect, even in the heat and calm of summer; 
but alas ! in winter the scene becomes mightily changed. Then the 
sleeping deep arises in fuiy, and dashes forward in monster waves, aa if 
to ongulf in ruin the intervening rocks and plains of the adjacent land. 
At times the lonely St Kilda is visible in the dim horizon like a huge 
beacon in the midst of the created waves, or rather like an unearthly 
spectre rearing its hideous head amid the green billows, to foster the 
superatitiona of a race of honest, simple natives, naturally impressible with 
such objects. Then turning towards the east, the Minsh, in its somewhat 
wide expanse, appears dott«d with ships and crafts of all calibre and sizes, 
moving northwMd and southward in calm weather at the mercy of the 
tidea Further onward in the same direction, but at the distance of thirty 
to forty miles, Skye rears its misty chffs ; and high above the surround- 
ing mountaina, the ringed, serrated outlines of the Cuchullin hills may be 
Been darting into the clouds. On either side and all around the scenery 
is variegated, beautiful, and in some parts really magnificent 

In a beautiful poem, by "Fear Gheaato," entitled " Farewell to Skye," 
the chief mountain scenery of that fai'-£miod Me is exceedingly well de- 



FLORA MACDONALD. 69 

setibed; and ae it is the scenary which our heroine must hare admiied 
fiotn her earlier years, a atanza or two of the poem may be given; — 

FABEWBLL TO 8KYE. 
FkTBwcU, lovaly Sbje. iweet lale of mj ohildhood. 

Thy Hoe monntiuin, I'U clamh»r no more ; 
Tb7 beath-Bkirted cniries, graen vMejt and wildvood, 

I DOW leave behiod tor a far distant Bhore. 
Adica, ye iteTn cliffs, oJad in old hoar; gmndaar, 

Adien, ye atiU dinglfts, road haDnta of the roe, 
Wbere oft with my gan, and my hoaods I did winder. 

And eaho lend BonLdBd to my " tally-ho." 

Hov p^Dfnl to part from the miity-robed OooUia, 

The Alps of Great BFitain, with aetlenid peaks high ; 
Bald Qluoaifi, Oorniak. and gnblioie Saoiraagillia, 

Make maialand graod mountains, look doll, tame and shy. 
Uajestie Qalralng, faijT palace of IJatarc, 

Stonny Idrigili, Haillearal, and cload -piercing 3toer, 
And the ahiuing SpKr-cavo like some beacoo to teaTeo, 

AU, I deeply lament, and may nevei' aee more ! 

Onee more, deareit Iide. let me eiER nn thr moantup*. 

Once more, let the i iilage ohurcli ilEam on my view ; 
And my ear drink the mnsic of murmuring fountaing, 

WhilB I Ind to my old, and my young friends adieu, 
farewell, loreW Skye, take, moaatain, and ooriie ; 

Brown Isle of the Taliant, the braie, and the free ; 
Ever green to thy sod, resting place of my Flore, 

My s^tu are tor Skye, my tears are for thea. 

Such then ia khe locality where the interesting Flora first come into 
the world, and such the scenes on which she daily cast her eyes, She 
waa, when a mere girl, not only a fevourite with all the associates of her 
age, bnt likewise with every respectable family in the placa Being an 
only daughter, and left fatherless at so early an age, created no doubt a 
general feeling of sympathy in her favour. All this, together with her 
own agreeable conduct, althoi^h a mere child, rendered her proverbial in 
the place, and caused her name to be generally brought forward by parents 
in correcting their children, by asking thom, " C'uin a bhios sibh cosmhuU 
li Fionnghal Nighean EaonuiD, 'n-Airidh-Mhuilinn ?" "When will you 
resemble Flora of Milton !" She was naturally smart and active, clever, 
but cautions in her movements. She was invariably the principal or 
leader in every bracing game, or juvenile fisilic in which she might have 
been engaged. In fact, as will be afterwards seen, this distinction was 
justly conferred upon her in more important matters during the years of 
her eventful life. 

(To be Continued.) 



jb,GoO(^lc 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE, 



D E E M N D. 
A Iaia or Kkightly Dbedb Done is Old Datb. 

—Tfnayten. 
BOOK I.-"AHOHO THE I3LES OF THE WEBTBBN BEA." 

Chaptbib IL — (Continued. J 

Two galleys rode at anchor in the Bay of Batblin two nights before the 
storm. The moon shed a pale Instre over the scene, caatisg long dark 
shadows from the vessels and glancing on the burnished shields that hang 
alongside. Skiffs and transports with muffled rowlocks were busily em- 
ployed conveying men, provisions, and other necassaries on board the 
Tsssels. The unusual hour and the mysterions precautions betrayed an 
important and secret expedition. The last boat had left the shore, and 
after dischai^g her httle freight was drawn up on one of the decks. 
The oare were dipped, the sails hung loosely in the calm, and the gaUeys 
held their way northwards. Forwaid and forward they held, shaking the 
spray horn their golden prows, and rising and falling on the long deep 
undulating swell, till no distinct conception of them could be had from 
the shores of Ireland. 

A venerable old man paced the quarter-deck of the more loyal galley, 
with his sQvery locks streaming over the scarlet cloak that covered lua 
glistening cuirasa He was a man about the middle height, but of stnidy 
bnild, and his strong arms folded across his swelling hreast, gave a pro- 
minence to his manly shoulders and a leonine cast of stren^h to his whole 
frame. The healthy flush of youth still lingered on his aged cheek The 
nose was aquiline, the mouth large but firm, and the dark-brown eyes, 
steady and searching, flashed beneath a broad, commanding brow. 

His son — a tall, handsome stripling of about twenty summers — was in 
charge of the helm, and obeying the instructions of his father as to the 
course of the vessel He had the aquiline features of the parent with 
the brown flowing locks of youth, and an arch expression of levity in his 
largo laughing eyea. 

Cyril — for that was the name of the hoary warrior — had now grown 
tired of the life led in the secluded castle of Eathlin, and had resolved 
upon striking an honourable blow with his old sword in a noble cause. 
Wearied with occasional raids across the English pale, and piratical attacks 
on Ei^lish vessels, he had equipped these two galleys for the purpose of 
aiding Bruce in the struggle for Scottish Indeponflence. Having finished 
this service, which was not by any means dictated thiou^ purely disin- 
terested motives, he expected an equal return from Bruce in helping him to 
ezpal the invader from the shores of Ireland. 

Scotland and Ireland had for some time been knit tt^ether with an 
aSectionate sympathy, owing to the inroads and oppressions of their mora 
powerful rival, and it was during the Scottish wars of independence that 
this sisterly sympathy became manifest in action. Biuce, in ordei to 
perfect his patoiotic plans, was driven to the necessity of stipulating for 



DEEMOND. 61 

Boldieis Mrith the diaaffected chiefs of Hibernia, and 'We afterwards find, 
when he had driven the EngUsh ftom Scotland, a conspiracj wae set afoot 
for placing his brother on the throne of the Emerald Isle. 'Hub conspiracy, 
as we all know, cnhninated in an unsuccessful invasion. 

Onward the galleys speed, sailing in the pale moonlight of the early 
morn, and still the sails hung bose, the wind was hushed, the sea tolled 
in its long deep undulations, the rowers pulled in their strength, and the 
song of the warriors rose loud and sonorous in the stillness. The shores 
of Kintyre were sighted ss the day dawned, with a ruddy glow on sea and 
sty. And with the day there came a sudden change — the wind sprang in 
sweeping guats, and the sea heaved with formidable breakers. The vessels 
rolled before the blasts, and the voice of Cyril was heard commanding his 
son in these words — "Steady, Clement ! steady, good lad — not so near the 
wind — keep her up— now, that'll do — heave away," and forward with a 
Bwelling mainsheet the vessel swept, while the song of the warriors waxed 
wilder. Both vessels had to be kept well to sea, as the greater danger was 
nearing the coast, and no landing was attempted that day. At n^bt 
they lay to, until the morning, and then made for the Kintyre coasL As 
they approached the shore a round hearty shout of exultation buist from 
the men-at-arms, and " Cyril " was the cry. Emeiging from a creak, with 
the gdden leopards gorgeously painted on their mainsails, were several 
laige war-shipM, and they bore down on the galleys of CyriL The wily 
old warrior perceived the dangers of an unequal battle, and putting np 
the helm he sailed seawards. Cyril's galley being much faster than the 
auxiliary, he oould easUy have avoided an encounter, but not wishing to 
see hie other galley borne down singly by the whole fleet of the enemy, 
he kept close by ready to lend assistance. For two full hoars the chase 
iraa kept up with spirit on both sides, but as they sighted the shores 
of Jnia, the superiority of the English vessels was becoming apjiarent. 
As all sailed with full sheets before a sweeping blast on a rugged sea 
it wae a noUe sight A shower of arrows swept the deck of the galley 
behind, falling short of that commanded by CyriL Soon both vessels 
were within bowshot, as the rowers had ceased from sheer exhaustion. 
Escape being impossible, Cyril resolved npon giving his enemy some 
trouble. The h^n was put up, the sails were braced, and the two galleys 
bore down on their pursuers through thickening showers of arrows. 

The two largest vessels of the English having outstripped their com- 
panions, the tight for some time did not promise to be so very unequal. 
As the ships approached each other a contention of war-cries rent the 
air. "A Soulis! a Soulial" was answered by "A Cyril 1 a Cyril!" 
while " St George and Merrie England 1" was received with " The Bruce 
and Independence!" "Down with the 'Xytantfl!" As the vessels met 
there was a fioorish of weapons, a din of threats, a breaking of oars, a 
■mashing of timbers, a loping of watery spray, and a reeling from the shock. 
Again they dosed with a crash, and this time the grappllngs were applied. 
With a rush the warriors closed in bloody strife, and yells and shouts re- 
Bonnded louder and louder as the conflict thickened. Soon the groans of 
the wounded and dying swelled the hideous discord. Spears ck^ed with 
■hielda and corslets, and great swords and mighty battle-axes went ciash- 
iog through helmets and harness. 

A sudden darkness threw a gloom over the battle. The wa mi Md 



Google 



6i THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

with blood and strewn witb pieces of timber, and heavily aimed ^ 
were sinking under their weight and clutching despairingly at the loi^ 
oars. Exultation was now succeeded by despair. The decks were 
slippery with blood, and the men struggled in each other's clutches — 
some &lling OTerboard in the arms of their antagonists, othere being 
pitchforked into the sea with war-hooks and lances. 

"Soulis to the Eescue!" resounded from the other vessels as they 
neared the battle. 

" Clear away !" ehouted Cyril, " Off with the grappling irons I" 

He seized the helm with one hand — Ms long sword drippit^ &om the 
fllaughter in the other — and ordered the slsTes to pull if they would 
escape drowning. The vessel shore away, and the tattered mainsail 
swelled with the gusty winds. A galley with torn sheet and broken 
oars made a feeble ellort to pursue. Cyril's auxiliary was too much dis- 
abled to join in the flight, and the trusty commander, eager to facilitate 
his chieftain's escape, continued to resist the ILnglishmen, and fell a 
victim to his faithfulness, fighting for his lord and country. 

After bafB-ing hia enemies, Cyril's troubles had not ceased. TTia vessel 
was sorely disabled, and there was a wild sea sweeping over her. The 
mast had gone by the board, and only a few oars remained. He was 
totally ignorant of the coast towards which he was sailing, and the night 
was wearing on. The storm increased and the darkness became thicker. 
Gleanmig Ughts shot through the gloom, and the sea sparkled with 
phosphoresceut l^ht. Oawiu:d the galley drifted, while the waves were 
heard to dash in the distance. The storm redoubled, sweeping barrels, 
gear, and forecastle overboard, but fortunately some timber had been 
bound together to form a raft, and in spite of his remonstrances, Clement 
was bound to it by his father and cast into the sea. As the hulk svrung 
ever and anon to the leo with a crash, the sea streamed in on the poor 
howling slaves at the rowers benches, who felt chill and hungry and 
utterly wretched. The men-at-arms, who had survived the battle, having 
thrown their arms and armour overboard, clung despairingly to the vessel 
with nothing to protect them from the cold but their leathern under- 
diesses. Still the storm became louder, the waves were wilder, and the 
eombreness of the night grew more and more fearful, while the gaUey 
ahook, groaned, rolled, and leaped. Onward she drifted unguided, for 
no one knew bow or w]iere to guide her. These brave men, so lately 
triumphant in battle, with, hollow cheeks and sunken eyes clung more 
desperately to the hulk, and cried in their agony, while every groan and 
threat that rose from the slave benches, sent thrills of horror through their 
breasts. The slaves clanked their chains, insanely dashed their heads 
against the timbers, and tore their fiesh with their teeth and nails. Nona 
dared approach these wretches with their burning vengeance nursed 
through long years of agony and wrong, lest in their r^e ^ war of men 
should succeed the war of elements. Still the galley drifted onwards, 
the hi^e waves straining and making her every timber creak. 

Enveloped in the gloom, she stove upon a rock. It was then the 
terrific yells of the rowers rent the roaring sea and winds. Per a moment 
all seemed calm and bushed, till the voice of vengeance should ascend 
and re-echo against the vaults of heavenly mercy; but it was no mora 
tiuu tb« despunng ahriek of drowning men that rent and alencdd the 



DEEMOHI). 63 

midn^ht storm, and borne away it died among the 'waves and locka. The 
timbers yielded to the shock, and were strewn on the face of the waters. 
The roar and dash and hias of the sui^g breakers made the hearts of 
those who climg to the scattered pieces of the wreck shiver in theb 
bosoms. Some were home away in the trongh of some hilge waye, while 
others were dashed to death on the rocks, and the silTery ctosts of the 
■a grew red and bloody. 



Chapter III. 

You b*ie ipoilcd the f eut. bioke the goad meatiog 
WiCb moit admired diBorder. 

—Lady Madbdh (Shall. J 
Jutting from the mainland, and comii^ in close proximity to the northeni 
Bhoires of Kerrera, is the promontory of Dimolly, terminating in a beetling 
crag of considerable height. At the period to which our narrative refers 
this great rock was crowned with a formidable pile of defended dweUings, 
having a tall, sqnare keep frowning on the western veige, and command- 
ing a feir prospect of woodland, mountain, and sea. 

The day preceding the stoim an Ei^lish knight attended by a squire 
and a few jackmen arrived from the interior, made for the castle of 
Donolly, and demanded an aadience of John of Lorn. Being commis- 
sioned by Edward of England, Sir Guilbert de Yalancymer had little 
difScolty in accomplishing the object of his mission. The same day an 
envoy was sent to Dunkerlyne, and the split arrow was circulated through- 
out tiie Western Isles commanding the immediate attendance of Lom's 
vassals at a council of war. The violence of the tempest, however, which 
broke out immediately after the despateh of the messengers, seemed to 
prevent the gathering of the chieftains. The omen was bad, aud predicted 
disaster to the projected expedition; and as the day darkened witti the 
increafling violence of the storm, Lorn became exceedingly uneasy. At 
length the arrival of Macnab with a large following from the interior 
served in some measure to abate hie concern for the safety of his enterprise. 
Elated at the triumph of this chieftain in attending to his sunmions, not- 
withstanding the fearful nature of the night. Lorn resolved upon giving 
him a reception equaUing in splendour the gallantry of his conduct, The 
board was furnished with the most costly dainties of the time, and all the 
preparation for a mighty feast were made. 

The blaze of Ic^-liie and flambeaux lit up the gloomy recesses of the 
hall where the guests were assembled. Brought out in strong Eembrandt- 
esque relief were the dark, almost Jewish, features of the Loid of Lorn 
as he sat clothed in all his melancholy magnificence at the head of his 
table. On his right was Macnab, a pert'ect specimen of the chieftain 
of his time — ^tall and powerful in frame, exalted and proud in beaming, 
Beside him sat !Nora the daughter of Lorn, celebrated throughout the Isles 
for her distinguished beauty. On the other side of the board sat the 
envoy from the Earl of Pembroke, Sir Guilbert de Yalancymer, paying his 
utmost court to a somewhat shy and shrinking damsel, who did not seem 
to take the high-flown compliments of the English gallant with a very 
good grace. This was Bertha, the cousin of !N^ora and daughter of Sir 
David MacneilL Her appearance was not so prepoaseesing u that of bin 



C>H)glc 



U THE CELtIC MAGAZINE. 

noble coosiu, but the extreme gentleness and modesty of bar dispoaiidon 
fescinated and won the esteem, if not the love, of aU who came in contact 
'^th her. In height she did not reach her cousin, yet fiom the exquisite 
eymmetry of her form, which was gradimlly assuming the graces of 
womanhood, ^e did not look so slight and diminutive as she r^lly was. 
Her cast of countenance had some claim to be called handaome, although 
wanting in the healthy lustre that suffused the cheek of Nora. In repose 
her eye, fringed with a beautiful black eyelash, was a fine, dreamy blue, 
but under the least excitement gleamed dark and luatroua Her whole 
appearance indicated an extremely sensitive, but at the same time proud 
and noble nature full of delicate sympathies. Nora had a bright olive 
complexion, a slightly acquilino nose, a mouth like the bow of Cupid, and 
a pair of large Spanish eyes which shone brilliantly under her silken 
lashes and splendidly pencilled eyebrows. Swept carelessly back &om a 
very imintellectual but charming forehead was a profusion of glossy black 
tresses having a slight inclination to curL Her voice was p,erhap3 rather 
masculine in tone, and hei manner, betimes coquettishJy insinuating, was 
generally haughty and overhearing, but the Celtic brusqueness of her be- 
haviour merely served as a cloak to hide the tandemees of her feelings 
and the natural warmth of her heart, which she was frequently ashamed 
to express or show. She was strongly attached to her cousin, who 
heartUy reciprocated the affection. A domestic bei;eavement had early 
thrown the cousins together, and nothing now seemed to be able to part 
them. Bertha's mother had died early, and since then her homo on the 
solitary confines of Iioch Awe had grown dull and uncomfortable. Est 
fether, Sir David, was a stem, morose man, little fitted for a father or a 
companion. Ambition was a strong and irresistible passion with him, 
and during the unsettled state of the Kii^dom of Scotland before the 
great War of Independence he was always from home and left hia daughter 
pretty much to the care of a disagreeable and narrow-minded old nurse. 
A visit from Nora served to give Bertha a strong liking for her cousin, 
which she could not overcome, and having gone to see her in torn at 
DunoUy, where the round of festivities greatly pleased her, she had no 
desire to go back to Loch Awe. 

The rest of the company was composed of the principal retainers of 
the Lord of Lorn, the followeia of the chieftain Macnab, and the jackmen 
of the En^isb knight 

Tor a time the banquet proceeded with much formality and silence. 
Macnab was tired and worn with his journey, the stu-iied fnvolity of the 
knight was indifferently relished, and the Lord of Lorn was still grumbling 
at the resultof his summons; while the violence of the storm served to create 
a peculiarly depressing ieeling in the breasts of all present. The personal 
qualities of aU the absent chieftains were eagerly thscuesed, and of course 
Brian of Dunkerlyne cams in for a more than ordinary share of the 
criticism. Macnab, who had no good feeling towards the inhabitants of 
the strong castle of Kenera, persisted in wishing to know what could 
have hindered the most daring sailor in the Highlands from attending to 
the order of the split arrow, notwithstanding the repeated assurances of 
Lorn to the effect that the old sea-rover hiid other work of a difGcult 
kind on hand. 

"Ifay, but," contended Macnab, "methinks, forsooth, if 'twere au^ 



D£RMOItD. «S 

elee but the command of his liege loTd, a ten-tdmeB Btronger storm would 
never have kept him back." 

"True, true in a sense," said Lorn, annoyed at the obstinacy of the 
chieilain, " but Cyril of Eathland first, the Bmce afterwards. Brian can 
attend to both of them, and trust me he irill, and that faithfully." 

"Assure youradf less strongly," said Sir Guilbort, 

"For what reason, Sir Knight)" enquired Lorn rather sharply. 

" Nay ; I merely warn you. Far be it firom my intention to do more." 

" Come, Sir," said Lorn with evident irritation, " I will hear the 
reasons for your distrust Brian of Dunkerlyne is a good and brave man, 
and one "whom I greatly Talae. If you have angbt of evil to say against 
him lot me hear it." 

" Fly not up in this fashion, my lord," returned the kn^ht with a 
calmness of demeanour which contrasted strongly with the turbulence of 
the Islesman. " Had I known you should have resented my waming I 
wonld willingly have withheld it My ignorance of the customs in the 
West here, coupled with my nationality, can be the only excuse for my 
indiscretion in referring to a matter which I considered it my duty to 
mention." 

" You misunderetand me, good sir," said Lorn suppressing Ms passion. 
merely annoyed at the thought of having so futhM a servant 



" So Mthful a servant !" exclaimed Macnab. " Have you fcngotten 
everything, my lord) If this be so, we that have served yon bo well 
have little thanks or enconragement for our devotedness," 

" I am misinterpreted on all hands," said Lorn knitting his hiow at 
the recollection of Brian's former escapades. " The viking has been so 
very faithfal of late I bad almost forgotten his former treachery. Tia 
better, however, it should be forgotten. Besides, methinks he is ranch 
more settled uow, and there is less fear of his bursting the bonds of f^ty 
that bind him." 

" You have said well, my good father," said Nora. " It is uignst to 
be raking up memories whidi should have perished long ago. Brian 
of Dunkerlyne, viking and robber though he be, is a faithful vassal and a 
noble chief. We have heard enow of his treachery which was no more 
than the in&tuation of a stubborn and fiery youth. You mnst also re- 
member tiiat he has a son whom I have no doubt will some day succeed in 
testorii^ the honour and fortunes of his family." 

" Ay, sweet Nora, he has a son," returned the islesman. " That may 
have somethii^ to do with the sentiments you have just given expres- 
sion to." 

" You wrong me," said Nora leaping from her seat, her fam suffused 
with blushes. " I will not bear to bo ttms opraily insulted even by my 
father." 

" 80 saying she left the hsU followed by Bertha who ezcltumed as she 
rose to go, " Cowardly insinuatoi, yon shall yet be called to make good 
yoni words." 

At the same time a vivid flash of lightning lit up the angry faces of 
l^e guests, a peal of thunder went rumbling over head, and a wild gust 
of wind made the towers and battlements of DnnoJIy quiver to their founda- 
tions. A grim aqieot was now given to the fiHtivitiea, and it was some time 



66 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

before the giiestfl could lecorei from the shock. Lorn vildly attempted to 
kugh the incident out of countenance, but the fearful silence which took 
possession of the hall made the fniy of the storm, more awful to be 
listened to. 

"Is not this Cyril the uncle of old Brian t" enquired Sir Guilb^ 
anxious to hieak the oppressive monotony. 

" Assuredly," said Lom. 

" Is not that something to fear ) " 

" May ; he knoTS it not Cyril of Eathland is merely known to him 
ae the alayer of his father Francis." 

"Cynl the slayer of his own brother!" exclaimed De Valancymer. 
"The curse of Cain be on him, and on the jackanapes of a sou who 
should wince at the thought of revenge." 

" Afl you say," said Lom. 

" Amen I" said Maon&b. 

"Come, my gallant guests," said Lom, "an end of this subject. 
Fill me a bumper to the health of King Edwaid, and let's drink confc^on 
to the rebels. Death to the heretic I " 

The wine, which had almost rem^ed untouched during the early 
part of the evening, now circulated more freely and the guests grew 
merry. The night wore on. The morning stole quickly on the revdiers. 
The harpers were called in to sustain the mirth, and the wild ocstacies of 
song and wine served to dissipate the former gloouL 

In the midst of revelry it was announced that a storm-tossed galley 
had found its way into the bay beneath the rock, having apparently been 
driven there for shelter by the violence of the storm. 

" Go," said Lom, " bring them hither whoe'er they he. They'll share 
the hospitality of a Highh^der's hearth. Fill high the goldea cup of 
Somerled and hang another haunch of beef upon the spit. Come, make 
merry all. Fill your flagons to the brim and pledge me the weel of the 
wanderers." 

Just as the cups were emptied Dermond of Dunkerlyne was ushered 
Into the hall to the disappointment and chargin of Macuab who scowled 
and exclaimed — " Was it wind or will that broi^ht you so late to our 
gathering ) " 

" Both of them," returned Dermond. " Who save a land prowler 
would be frightened for a storm when duty forbade him to fearl" 

" Do yon insult me!" exclaimed Macnab, biting his lip. 

" Just as you take it," returned the youth, 

" None of this in my presence," said Lorn, " if yon regard your safety. 
This is my hail, and neither insolence nor violence can pass current here. 
Have at least respect if you have no fear." 

" My duty to your lordship," said Dermond, " but even here, I may 
say, honour is liee from impeachment/ and insult cannot be allowed to 
pass unchallenged." 

Macnab scowled. 

" Come, sir youth," said Lom, " the laithful Macnab did but jest." 

" K so, I forgive him." 

" Here, then, yon shall have a seat at our board next to the noble 
Macnab," said Lom. " Fill a bumpst to the health of the young chief 
of DunkeiljnQ." 



jb,GoO(^lc 



DEEMOND. 67 

" FaTdon mo," eaid Dermoncl, " bnt if cay father is not here I mnet 
go. I foai the violence of the storm, and auBt inBtantly take measorea to 
BecTire his safety." 

" A noble youth ]" exclaimed Sir G-uilbert " Happy the father with 
BO brave a son. Come, six chieftain, yoa vill pledg* me this bumper to 
the safety of your noble fether, Brian of Dunkerlyne." 

" Nay," eaid Lorn, " we assure you of his safety. Moreover, let no 
man aay that so gallant a youth went on ao hazaTdona an expedition, or 
visited his liege lord on ao atormy a night without partaking of his hospi- 
tality. Come, sir, be seated until we pledge you right royally. Here, by 
the brave Macnab, you have a aeat" 

" Excuse my want of ceremony," said Dermond, " bnt my vow forbids 
it Above all, my lord, remember the fend that exists between the house 
of Dunkerlyne aad the chieftain on your right." 

" Tush ! " said Lorn. " Hero is your place ; be seated." 

" What !" exclaimed Denuond, " Sit at your board with a skulking 
Macnah ! God save me from a dishonour so great. And to sit beneath 
the chief of that clan, I should resent the proposal as an insult were it 
not that my liege lord is incapable of malice towards one of his faith&J, 
vassals. No, my lord, I must go. Meanwhile, farewell!" 

Having said this Dermond made towards the door of the hall, but 
Lotn and Macnab started up at the same time and signed to the attendants 
to detain him. 

" Off with your menial hands," said the youth, drawing his weapon 
and making the attendants stand aghast. 

"What!" he continued, turning to John of Lorn, "Am I to be thus 
insulted by your very servants ) Does my liege lord call for so mean a 
measure, and that at the instigation of a Macnab 1 Violence and insult 
to a eon of Dunkerlyne in the hall of Macdoi^all t Let no man be so 
tash 1 If anyone desires to stop me it must be Macnab. Let him not 
foolishly imagine that the menials of Lorn will form a cloak to his 
treachery. Villain as he is, he shall yet answer for his conduct." 

Here Dermond liited the hilt of his sword in his left hand, and shook 
hia fist in the face of Macnab, who again alarted np, clutched Ms clay- 
more, and glared at the angry youth. 

"Diawi" said Dermond, his gleaming sword still quivering in his 
passion- stricken hand. " I have hitherto refrained &om striking, bnt X 
can bear it no longer. I will instantly be revenged for a thousand insults. 
Draw, you trembluig, cowardly jackanapes. Big and strong though you 
be, my blood is young and my heart is steeled with the sense of right. 
Have at you, sir chiel!," 

At the same time Dermond advanced to where Macnab atood, and 
struck desperately at him. By this time, however, Macnab had bared his 
weapon, in time to guard the blow aimed by Dermond at hia head. Ke- 
torning the blow with as much strength and dexterity as he could, Mao- 
nab made a thrust which started the guard of Dermond and drew fire 
from hie steel breaatplate. The hot blood tingled in the cheek of the 
youth at the thought, but as yet no harm had been done, and striking 
down the sword of Macnab, he make a frantic attempt to disarm him. 

Consternation prevailed in l^e hall, and Lorn caUed for the termino- 
tiou of the fight by the interference of the attendants ; but to no puipOM. 



Google 



68 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Moet Treie 1)6111 on seeing thwonSict fably fought oat. The comhatonte 
ireie almost equally wiang ii# their behaviour, and although the youth 
foagbt at a cUsadvantage so far as years and experience were concerned, 
his audacity and skill evoked general admiration j and everyone stood 
back while the fight went on. Two or three times a bench or a table 
came to grief in &e contest or interfered with the free play of the 
weapons, but the daring of the youth and the coolness of the veteran 
were not mnch afiJBOted by the circumstanca Some cried for an adjourn- 
raent to the court-yard, and others wished for a postponement until the 
contest could he carried out under the proper rules of their barbaric 
chivalry. But alt such advice was unheeded, and the chieftains etill kept 
at it in the dim light of the feasting chamber. The clang of the swordB 
echoed against the loof, and the sparks flew from every thrust, cut and 
guard like fire-fliea in the gloom. Macnab hissed in hia angei, and 
Dermond glared aA his bearded and powerful opponent. 

For a time the two combatants rested on the upper guard, and eyed 
each othra like wild cats. Feint and stamp were brought into requisition. 
in vain. The strength of the youth was still good, and Mocnah, ^though 
slightly rufQed at the sustained ardour of Dermond, kept well on guard 
without attempting to steal a cut lest he should suffer by the smartness of 
his adversary. This could not continue long, however, and Mucnab was 
determined to end the fight. Heguoided carelessly and struck desperately. 
Dermond parried every stroke and gave a few well-timed thi-usts in return. 
The blood had now burat &om a vein in Mocnab's neck, and a shout of 
almost univeraaL exultation rang against the oaken rafters. Macnab grew 
pole and mustered up more course. Dermond grew more confident and 
less careful, and twice or thrice Macuab's claymore had splintered the 
links of his mail shirt. An intense silence now prevailed as Macnab was 
gaining ground, while Dermond's stien^^ flagged. The red-beaided 
chieftain advanced rapidly on Dermond, and after a few dexterous move- 
ments sent the swonl of the yonth inte splinters, and wounded him 
slightly on the light shoulder. Dermond dre# his tok and thrust madly 
at Macnab, who received a fearful wound in the throat Macnab feU 
back into the arms of an attendant, while Dermond was seized and borne 
off to the dungeons. 

During the uproar Nora and Bertha had rushed into the hall and were 
Bilent hut anxious spectators of the combat. Ko man was more celebrated 
throughout the Western Highlands for his swordsmanahip than the chief 
of the Macnabs, and consequently great fears were entertained for the 
safety of Dermond, whose courage and prowess were greatly admired. 
Koro, however, was rather indignant at his violence, and darted a fiery 
look of reproach at him as the attendants dragged him away. Dermond 
did not notice this glance from the famous bwiuty of the Western Islee, 
bnt a shriek from Bertha went thrilling through his heart like a cold and 
gleaming knife, and that pole &oe and wildered aspect haunted him like 
a weird and dismal dieom. 

(lobe CoKtiwud.) 



jb,GoO(^lc 



THE EDITOR DT CASADA. 



Atthb Bending off mv last letter, I mat several Xoith conntiy gentlemea 
in Pioton, who hold nigh poaitions in the DominioQ, " One of theae is a 
gentlemaii &om Caatle Street, Invemeae, now Senator Giant. I enjoyed 
his hospitality, and obtained from him what I enjoyed even more than 
bis very fine Scotch whisky, viz., two lecunt nnmben of the Invemea 
Courier, in one of which, I read a well-written and sensible article, show* 
ing up the anti-Highland membeia of the Town Council who oppose 
the decoration of the 14'ew Town Hall Windows with the Arms of the 
Highland Clans. 

Another Highlander I met in Pictou was Colin Mackenzie, a gentle* 
man possessed of consideiable property, indnding the principal Hotel in 
. the tovn — the St Lawrence, — kept by another Highlander, Malcolm 
Monison, originally &om the Island of Lewis. Mackenzie's grandfather 
emigrated soon after the arrival of the ship Hector, in 1773, and came 
from a place then pretty thickly populated, but now without a house in 
it, tiie district of Andrary, in Gairloch. Another Mackenzie, in good cir- 
cumstances, whom I met here was a Murdo Mackenzie, also from Oair- 
loch, and a first cousin of the late Captain John Mackenzie, Telfoid Road, 
Inverness. He is over 80 years of age, and his father only died a few 
yeais ago, d9 years of age. Among this coterie, who came a long distance 
to see me, was a Captain Carmichsel MaA:ay, Mhoee giand&ther, Bode- 
rick Mackay, a native of ^^uly, was imprisoned in the old Tolbooth of 
Inverness many years i^ msmu^ling. 

I received the following account of Roderick, who, with his &mily, 
came out in the ship Hector to Pictou, where many of his descendants 
are now in prosperous ciicumstauces. He was a blacksmith by trade, and 
some time after he came to Kova Scotia, secured the important position 
of chief of the blacksmith works In Halifax dockyard. In going to 
Halifax, he and his wife had to travel on foot, through the forest, the 
journey being made more difficult of accomplishment owing to the 
fact that they had to carry two young children with them. 
Under his direction, while holdii^ this position, was made the 
great chain, which, during the war, was stretched across the harbour of 
Halifax to keep hostile ships &om entering. Boderick was a thick-set, 
strongly-built Celt, distinguished for activity, determination, and fertility 
of invention. An interesting story is related of his quondam sojourn in 
Inverness prison on the occasion above referred to. The gangers seized 
some of Eory's illicit whisky, upon which he "gave a good account of them," 
and liberated his " bailey biee." Eoi this be was captured, and lo(^d 
in the old piison of Inverness. His fiee-bom spirit, naturally cb^ed 
under such ind^nitiea and restraints, especially in such a good cause as 
the hero considered himself engaged in, protecting his own pro- 
perty, and he soon set about concocting means of exit. He soon ingia- 



70 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

(dated himaelf with hia gaoler, and one day he managed to Bend him oot 
fbr a snpjJy of ale and whisky, sach things being freely admitted into 
Budi plaoea in the good old daya — and the gaoler could take his glass too 
from all acconnte. Betuming with the ale in one hand and the whisky 
in the other, Kory discovered bis opportunity, slipped oat smartly behind 
him, closing the door after him, locking it outside, at the same time 
carrying o£f the key, which is still preserved by hia descendants in Pictou. 
These feats secured for Eory an honourable place in the hearts of bis 
countrymen here, and made bim a perfect-idol amongst them, tiiough 
probably the Inverness gaoler and his friends looked upon the affair in a 
very different light. Several other feats of great prowess, which he per- 
formed in his adopted country, are still told of the famous Bory Mackay ; 
but my space doee not at present admit of further record. 

Some of these fine old fellowe come nine miles to see a H^hlander 
&om tiie old country. The place is fall of men whose ancestors left thdr 
homes in Kintail, Lochbroom, Gaiiloch, Poolewe, and Lochcarron, in im- 
porerished circumstances, but who themselves are now in comfort and even 
affluence, possessing lands and means of their own. 

Having parted with these warm-hearted fellows, I was driven out se- 
veral miles into the country, by Captain David Creror, to see the largest 
Tannery in Nova Scotia, owned and carried on by John Logan, a 
Highlander from Sutherlondshire. His grandfather was a stone mason 
at Bonar Bridge, end came out here in 1806. , His father, when very 
yonng, worked at the Cotton Mills, the ruins of which are still to be seen 
at the roadside as yon go &om Bonar Bridge to Dornoch. He became a 
plasterer and small farmer in this country, and had four sons, all of whom 
are in good positions. One of these, John, started thePictou Tannery in 
1849, with only two pita It has since grown to one hundred and twenty, 
and is a s^ht well worth going a long way to see. He tnrns out an ave- 
rse of 3,200 hides of sole leather per annum, representing over X40,000 
in value. One pile of bark which I saw, alone cost over £2,600, while 
an equal quantity lay in smaller piles about the building; and this 
quantity, value over £5,000, is consumed annually in the works. All 
the leather manufactured is sold in the Dominion at from lOd to Is per 
Ik The engine, 25 hoise power, is kept going by the spent bark, which 
is carried to the fiimace &om distant parts of the building by a most in- 
genious, self-acting contrivance. The whole place is a perfect model of 
convenience and neatness, and the urangements do great credit to the in- 
genuity and enterprise of this self-made, well-to-do Celt, whose place of 
business has become the centre of a great industry. I have seen, during 
the short time I was there, dozens of farmers coming in from all ports of 
the country, with cart-loada of bark, for which they get the cash in return 
from Mr Logan, to take home with them ; and, although he has no com- 
petition worth mentioning, he pays them a snffiGient sum to make it worth 
their while to work at it, else he would have to go without what is, of 
course, an absolute necessity for bis successful enterprise. A brotjier, 
DougaU, keeps a large shop close to the tannery, and is in a good posi- 
tion, worth a considerable sum of money. 

Farting with my good friends in Pictou, who, even in the shod; time 
I was there, become numerous, I took train to New Gla^ow, with one of 
the leading hamsters of that town, a Gaelic-speakii^ H^hhuider, named 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 71 

Dnncftti C. FraBsr, whose aBcestors came from the county of TnTerneas. 
Having spent a few daya with him, Lb introduced me to Bevertd good 
Celts, and drove me through Rome fine Highland settlements in the conn- 
try. My friend had heen in Parliament, and was a Memher of the Legis- 
latlTO Conncil of Nova Sootia, and is, altogether, a worthy tepreaentativB 
of his clan and country. Here I also met an Invemesaian, Daniel M. Fra- 
eer, son of Hugh Fraser, farmer, Clnnee, Strathdearn, who, I was glad to 
find, occupied the responsible position of ^ent in New Glasgow, for the 
Ploton Bank, a prosperous and thriving inatitution. Mr Fraaer had 
also chaq^ of the e^ncy at Stellarton, an important branch, among the 
great coal mines, a few miles away. Indeed, the Fnisers are at the same 
time, numerous and prosperous in New Glasgow, and any Highlander 
coming among them will meet with a hearty and very warm reception. 

But more interesting to me than all my other diacovBriea as yet on this 
Continent, was finding a representative of the famous pipers and poets of 
Gaiiloch,in the person of John Mackay,who occupies the most honourable 
wid prominent position in this thriving town — that of Stipendiary Mapi- 
Btrate. His great-grandfather was the celebrated blind piper of Gairlocb, 
a sketch of whose life, with specimens of his poetry, is given hy the late 
John Mackenzie in the "Beauties of Gaelic Poetry." About four years ago a 
paragraph appeared in the Celtic Magazine making enquiries as to whe- 
ther any members of thia distinguished family of pipera were yet alive, but 
no answer was received. The only thing known about them was that one 
of them, the grandaon of the famous Piohaire Dall, and the last male re- 
presentative of the race in Gairloch, emigrated to some part of America, 
in 1806, and carried with him more Ceol vwr or Phhaireaehd, than he 
left behind him among all the pipers of Scotland. At this time, John, who 
is now in bis 86th year, was 12 years of age, and even now he remembers 
almost every prominent stone and tree in the parish, to say nothing of the 
lakes,, rivers, mountains, and vaUeys. Hie father continued to play 
the national instrument all his life, and died a very old man. Hia 
elder brother, Angus, also played marches, reels, and strathspeys, bnt 
piohaireachd not being appreciated in the land of his adoption, he prac- 
tised that higher class music but little, and was not, therefore, up to the 
family standard of excellence in that department. He died a few years 
ago, when nearly one hundred yeaia of age. John himself also learned 
to play ; bnt at the age of eighteen he finally gave it up, so that 
now not one of this celebrated family keeps up the name and 
reputation of the family, though aever^ of the descendants of this 
fine race still exist — many of them in good cireumatances — on this 
Continent. I spent a whole evening with this fine old Highlander, who 
still speaks the purest Gaelic, while hia English strongly smacks of the 
peat and the heather. Hi a inteilect is quite unimpaired, and 
he is admitted on all hands to he the ablest and most independent 
judge in the whole Province of Nova Scotia. He was in a perfect 
ecstasy of joy when talking over his lecoilections of his native parish and 
of the people he remembered, but of whom hardly a soul now survives. 
The whole thing seemed as if a ghost bad risen from the grave. He talked 
of things long ago as if they were but of yesterday ; and I parted with 
him with very mixed emotions. 

I most now oarry you with me on a visit to a HighkndeT,«f b tbit 

.Coogrc 



78 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

diffenat but eqoally (^ulne Btamp, and bettor known to the tead«r, the 
Her. A Maclean Sinclair, who lives at Spnngville, ten loilea &om Nev 
Ok^w. Having heaid that I was there, he sent up his machine on Satar- 
Aaj to take me down to his place. I was onlj too glad to have the op- 
portnuity of visiting this excellent Celt and Gaelic scholar, though it hap- 
pened to be his communion week, which made it more inconvenient foz 
fdm, and, in all the circumstances, lees attractive for ma On my airival, 
I found him well hoasad, in a moat beantifol locality, in the centre of a 
wide district, all settled by Highlanders, most of whom, I found, came 
fiom the parish of Urqnhart, in the county of InvomesB, while a few 
f^jniliea of Macleans, Mackinnons, and Macquanies, X found to be 
descendontB of emigrants &om the Island of Eum — in all about 200 well- 
to-do families. I attended divine service on Sabbath, and found at the 
En^ish service about 700 of a congregation, in a neat, comfortable church 
listening to a wdl-reasoned, neatly-delivered sermon. Of these, about 300 
were communicante ; but, after the sermon was over, I left and went to a 
contiguous hall, where a neighbouring minister, the £ev, Alex. Maclean, 
was preachii^ to a lai^ Gaelic congr^ation, in the purest and most uno- 
tnous vernacular. I felt how great a pity it was that we could not have 
Huch a fine preacher, gettii^ a good stipend at home, in place of some of 
those mongrel, so called Gaelic preachers we have in many places in the 
H^hlonds of Scotland. Mr Maclean is nially a first-class Gaelic 
preacher, and uses the language with great fluency and power. He was 
Dom where he is now settled, but was for several years in chai^ of a 
Highland congregation in Prince Edward Island. His father emigrated 
from Glen Stiathfarrar, in Strathglsss — now as celebrated for its deer as It 
was of yore for the fins fellows it sent to the Chnrch, and to the defence 
of kiugand country. Havingseenthesemeetingsofmycountrymen,! would 
not have missed them for a great deal Imagine nearly 200 carnages, four> 
wheeled, scattered all about outside the church. Itwas such a sight as I never 
saw, and never could have seen in the Highlands ; yet here there is hardly a 
fknuly which does not drive to church, and market, ina nice light "waggon" 
or carriage ; but, in spite of all this, nustaken people at home, will advise the 
poor crofter not to emigrate to a country where such things are possible to 
those who came out here a few years ago in a state of penu^ and wont. 

The Kev. A. Maclean Sinclair is r^lly most happy and comfortable 
in his surroundings, and all he seems to want to make him as completely 
happy as ^lis world can, is to have at the head of his household gods, a 
better half, congenial to his cultivated tastes ; though at present his mo- 
ther, a fine old lady, the daughter of the Bard of Coll, and a walking 
Celtic Encydopiedia, keeps house for him, and presides at his hospitable 
table. But while I envied him the beautiful situation of his manse, the 
happy concord of the large Highland congregation over which he presides, 
and tiie reepect paid to him by every one in the district, I envied hitn his 
magnificent and valuable library ten times more. It is almost impossible to 
conceive that such a rare collection of valuable books could be met with in 
such an out-of-the-way place. I believe his collection of Celtic works is 
the best private one on the American Continent, and very few indeed can 
surpass it even at homa Amoi^ the works of the Gaelic Foete on his 
shdves, I found the first edition of Alexander Macdonald's Poems, which 
coutftins several pieces not suited for modem ear^ and not included in the 



TEZ EDUOE IN CANADA. 15 

later fidWone; Botiald Macdonald's Collection, pabliahed in 1776, the flist 
oollectioa of Gaelic poemH ever publiahed; Gilliea's CoUeotioa — now very 
rare — published in 1786 ; Smith's Sean Dana, 1787 ; John MacGtegor's 
Foema, 1801 ; Robert Stewart's, 1802 ; a rare collection, published at In- 
veraray, without date, and containin(; "An Duanag Ulkmh"; Stewart'a 
Collection, 1804; the first Invemeas Collection, 1806 ; Donald Macleod'a, 
1811; Turner's, 1813; P. Macfarlane's, in the same jeai ; Ossias; 
Leabhat na Feinne ; Skr Obair nam Baid ; aod all the mote modem ool- 
lections down to the " Or^aiche," aa well aa the modem bards from Dun- 
can BJm down to the present day. In the Gaelic prose department, I no- 
ticed "An Teachdaiie"; an "Cuairtear"; an "Gaidheal"; "Bmtachna 
Firinn"; "Adhamh agus Eubh"j " Bliadbna Thearlaich" ; Campbell's 
Tales of the West Highlands ; all the Gaelic Dictionaries ; and several Gaelic 
Grammars ; while among English works on Celtic subjects there were Dr 
■Tolm Macpherson's Critical Dissertation, published in 1768, a tare and 
valuable work ; the American Edition of Logan's Scottish Gael, published 
kk Boeton in 1833, and with which I was not previously acquainted; 
General Stewart's Sketches of the Highlanders ; Fattison's Gaelic Bards ; 
Campbell's Language, Poetry, and Music of the Highlands; Dr Mao- 
lanchkn's Celtic Gleanings ; Laing's Dissertation on Ossian ; Eobertson's 
Historical Proofs ; Fullarton's Highland Clans and Bogiments ; Professor 
Blaciie's Lai^age and Literature of the Highlands ; and numberless 
others, down to the " Prophecies of the Brahan Seer" j the " Historical 
Tales and Legends of the Highlands" ; and tho Celtic Magazine. Many 
people, possessing good libraries, know veiy little of their contents, but 
Mr Sinclair knows every word, and is a thorough master of every idea in 
his splendid collection. The only pity is that he does not give the bene- 
fit of his vast stores of Celtic learning to his fellow-countrymen. 

But I have not, as yet, exhausted the reverend gentleman's treasures, 
the best of which still fall to be noticed. He showed me a rare collection 
of Gaelic poems made by a Dr Maclean, in the Island of Mull, as early as 
the year 1768, eight years before Konald Macdonald's, the first collection 
ever published. John Maclean, the Bard of CoU (Mr Sinclair's grand- 
&ther), obtained this rare MS. Collection about 1816, from the collector's 
daughter, Mairi Nighean an Doctair. The majority of the poems in it are 
nowhere else to be found, and those in it which have appeared in printed 
collections are, Mr Sinclait informs me, &r superior and more correct in 
the MS. This is natural enough ; for the earlier a poem or song is taken 
down, the more likely it is to be correct, and as ^e original composer 
finally left it. The MS. contains about forty-eight pieces of considerable 
lei^tb, and several shorter pieces. Many of the songs are by Iain Lorn, 
Eadiainn Bacaeh, Iain MacAilein, and other well-known Gaelic bards. 
Another valuable Collection in MS. is one made by the bard, John Mac- 
lean, who travelled extensively over the Highlands and Islands of Scot- 
land, between the years 1812 and 1816. Durii^ this tour he took down 
one hundred and ten Gaelic songs, forming the extensive MB. under no- 
tice. It contains pieces by Iain Lorn, Eachainn Bacaeh, Mairearad 
nif^'n Lachainn, and some by Mairi nigh'n Alastair Kuaidh, while there 
aze several songs by Alexander Mackinnon, the warrior bard. Only a 
small porticm of the valuable pieces preserved in this MS. have ever been 
pnblisbed. My faead has yet a thiid MS. of Gaelic poeme and son^p 



T4 THE CELTIC MAGAJEIKE. 

which he has prepared for the press ; and, I r^oioe to find, vUl very soon 
he sent to the printer, I have heard aereral of John Maclean's soi^ 
8nng throughout Nova Scotia, where they are very popular, while I had 
the pleasure of reading, or hearing read, many others ; and I have no 
hesitation in saying that the " Bard of CoU " deeerres, and is sure to oe- 
oupy, a high plaoe among the Oaelic bards : and Mr Sinclair will be con* 
ferring a great boon on Celtic students, and on the admirers of Gaelio 
poetry, by placii^ his grandfather's Gaelic poems within theii reach. Ii 
it not marvellous to meet with such a Celtic Eden in suoh a plaoe, and 
all aocumulated by Hr Sinclair from pure personal love for the languE^ 
andliterattireofhisancestors, of which he is himself such a perfect master t 
It is a pity that our friend had not a wider field, and a greater oppottonity 
for sharing his knowledge with others ; and I am selfish enough to wish 
that he would get, and accept, a call to a charge at home, where we would 
have a better opportunity of getting him occasionally to aid us, in resciung 
from oblivion IJie history and traditions of the Celts, and of popularising 
the langu^e and literature of the Gael Having said so mnoh about Mr 
Siudair and his surroundings, it may interest the reader to learn tliat hia 
father was a native of the parish of Reay, and a brother of the late Alex- 
ander Sinclair of Thurso, so h^hly spoken of in " The Ministers and Men 
of the far N^orth." TTia mother, presiding so gracefully over his house- 
hold, is a daughter of the Bard MaoGilleain, as already stated. He was 
bom in Glenbard (so called after his grandfather), 14'ova Scotia in 1840, 
and was ordained a minister of the IVesbyterian Chureh, in 1866. The 
Bard al Coll was bom at Caolas, in the Island of Tiree, on the 8th of 
January 1787. He belonged to the Treisnish branch of the Macleans 
of Ardgour, and emigrated to Pictou in 1819, where he lived at a place 
called Barney's Kiver for twelve years. He afterwards removed to the 
county of Antigonish, where he lived and died, at the place now known 
after him as Glenbard. Here he breathed hia last, on the 25th of 
January 1848. His wife, Isabell Black, a native of Lismore, died two 
years ago, aged 91, and both now lie buried on the &rm on which they 
lived A handsome stone, seen from the train going from Ifew Glasgow 
to Antigonish, with the following Gaelic inscription, marks theii resting 
place: — 

Am BiBD HAo-OnLuoi. 

1787—1848. 
EUi '■ k' ghtedh •' tha 'dol ma'n endrt, 
Stad b d*d rf nith bhoi'n ludfh *',— 
Oom a.' Ghtidbllg 'niu ri d' bb«a 
'S > oald bardaobd '■ liide glolr ; 
Do saiih si 'th> maitb tholr gndh, 
"S bi 'tigh'iin bae do Dhia guh U, 
Blui A Bhaisd, 

1786-1877. 
Bub M >& Sgheanut le d' mle ohrldhe. 

There is still another excellent Gaelic scholar in this district — the Rev. 
D. R Blab, bom in the county of Argyle, but when he was only twelve 
years of age his father removed to Badenoch. He came to this country a 
few years after the Disruption, where he is held in the highest estimation. 
He has chaise of the congregation of Barney's River and Blue Mountain 
— ie a true Highlander and Gaelic echolarj a fact well known to tl 



yik 



IHE EtjitOE Hi CAitADA. ?5 

of the Oaet, to vhich, during its existence, he contributed eeveral articles. 
He is the author of seTeial Gaelic poems, and of a new metrical transla- 
tion of the P&ahns of David, both of considerable merit ; and is altoge- 
tikei a man and a Higblondei, of whom, with many others here, we may 
irell feel pioud. I had only a very short stay with my reverend Mend, and 
parted with him with many regrets. I had other engagements, however, 
-which conld not be postponed, bo I was driven back to N^eff Glasgow, from 
Vhence I fonnd my vray by rail — an extension of forty miles through a 
magnihcmt country, only opened a few days previously — to the town of An- 
tigonish, where I had arranged to deliver a Lecture on " Flora Macdonald 
and Prince Charles," under the auBpicea of the " Highland Society of An- 
tigonish." I had previously lectured in the city of Halifax, nnder the 
' disdngnished patronage of His Excellency General Sir Patrick MacdoU' 
gall, Commander-in-chief of Her M^eaty's Canadian Forces ; of His Hon- 
OQS Uie LiQutenant-Govemor of Nova Scotia ; and of the Korth British So- 
ciety of TTftllfnT, where I bad a fine, select audience, including in addition, 
the Premier and Provincial Secretary of Nova Scotia, the Archbishop, and 
most of the leading inbabitsnta, I had also lectured in Picton and in 
Hew Glasgow, under high patronage, the Mayor of each place presiding ; 
lint Qie B^hland Society of Antigoniah paid me the compliment of turn- 
ing out in their tartans and " Bonnets of Blue" ; and, at a special meet- 
ing of the Society, held in the hall immediately after the lecture, I was 
elected, by acclamation, an Honorary Member of their patriotic Society— * 
the highest compliment they had in their power to confer on a Highlander 
from home. Among those present, and in their H^hland array, were the 
President, Vice-President, and Secretary of the Society ; Angus Macisaac, 
M.P. for the Dominion c^ Canada; Angus Macgillivray, M.P. for KoVa 
Scotia ; J. J. Mackinnon, ex-M.P. ; Dr William A. Macdonald, a cadet of 
tiie family of the Isles ; Archibald A. Macgillivray, a prominent High' 
lander; the £ev. Alex. Chisholm, D.D., D.P., Professor in St Francis 
Xavier'a College ; Professor Macdonald ; the Bev. Father Gillies ; and 
many others not only of the best Gaelic-speaking Highlanders here, hut 
the most piominent of&cials and the most influential citizens. There was 
<mB, however, who deserves more than a mere passing notice. Norman 
Macdonald, a native of Arisaig, came eight miles to see me. I found 
that he issued in 1863 an edition of Mackenzie's " Beauties of Gaehc 
Poetry," which was largely sold throughout Nova Scotia ; but I was sorry 
to learn that, like most other ventures in the Celtic held, it barely paid the 
patriotic Celt, who ran the risk of placing this classical Celtic work within 
the reach of his countrymen on this side of the Atlantic. In this edition, 
Mackemde's Preface and Logan's learned and able Introduction are left 
ont, M also the Ossianic Poems at the b^inning, Oran na Briogsa, and 
tiia whole of tiie Appendix and Glossary, while a sketch of John Mac- 
lean, the Bard of Coll, and a few specimens of his poems, as well as a few 
poems composed by othera, are introduced. With the exception of a few 
tjjpographicol errors, inevitablo in a work set np by compositors ignorant 
<^ the language, the work is very well got up. It was sold at 10s — and 
joa meet with a copy in the houses of most ot the hest-to-do Highlanders 
in Nora Scotia, and especially & Cape Breton. 

The people of the County of Antigoniah came mostly &om the West 
G(MBt ^ghlaada — Arisaig, Knoydort, Moidut, Monr, and Stn" ' 



Google 



»« THE CELTIC MAGAZIKfe. 

The prevailing names are, consequently, Macdonalda, Chisholma, and Mac- 
giUivrays, The population of the county in 1871 was about 15,000, of 
which about 2,000 live in the town of Autigonish, which ia the seat of the 
Eoman Catholic Bishop of ArichaL It eotbuns a college, cathedral, two 
telegraph offices, a printing office — issuing a weekly newspaper — a bank, 
aeveral fine shops and hotela Veaaela not drawing more than ten feet 
can come up the bay, which is a fine inlet of the Gulf of St Lawrence, 
extending up to the town. At leaiit nine-tenths of the whole population 
of the county, belong to the Eoman Catholic Church, but they live on the 
most friendly teima with theii Presbyterian neighbours. The people are 
very comfortable, possessing fine farms of their own, specially suited for 
grazing purposes. Over 1,500 head of cattle, in addition to a large num- 
ber of horses, are annually exported from the country to Newfoundland ; 
also, large quantities of butter and cheese, and other agricultural produce. 
The County of Antigonish is now the most Highland in Canada, and hun- 
dreds of its inhabitants cannot speak any but the Gaelic language. In 
the town of Antigonish I met a fine Highlander, James Chisholm, from 
St Andrews, who insisted upon driving me out seven miles to see another 
JBne old Highlander, a native of Glengaixy, the Kev. J. V. Maodonell, pa- 
rish priest of St Andrews, and an old subscriber to the Celtic Magazine. 
I hesitated at fiist, but my friend would not be put o^ and, as an addi- 
tional inducement, he offered to drive me in his carrif^e from 8t 
Andrews to Port Mu^iave, a distance of forty miles, on my way to Cape 
Breton. I could not resist his importunity, audi at last consented. I 
was naturally curious to know the antecedents of my benefactor, and he 
informed me on onr way, that his grandfather, Thomas Chisholm, resided 
at Croobh Leabhainn, in Strathglase, and that hia own father, Hugh Chio- 
holm, came out here in 1801. We soon arrived at Father Maodonell's 
house, and found th'« fine old Highlander preparing to retire for the night, 
but he soon changed his mind on our arrival ; gave me a moat hearty 
welcome ; after which we talked for hours about matters Highland. The 
Eev. FaUier, though past sixty, never preached an English sermon in Ms 
life. I remained two days with him, and there met several truly Celtic 
fivthera, among whom waa Father William Chisholm, a genuine Celt, full 
of Highland history and tradition, and brimful of Gaelic and Irish songs 
and melodies. My friend, Colin Chisholm,. will probably recognise him 
as lar-Ogha do DhotithniiU Qobka, in Strathglase. Here also I met the 
Bev. D. J. Mackintosh, P.P., North Sydney, and the Pev. Boderick 
Grant, P.P., Boisdale, both of Cape Breton ; and fine, warm-hearted good 
looking Highlanders, all of whom treated me with such extreme kindness 
that I was melted down, and could almost exclaim with Agrippa of old, 
slightly varied, that " I was almost persuaded to become a Catholic" On 
SatnicUy morning, my original friend, James Chisholm, took me in charge 
to drive me forty miles on to Port Mulgrave, on my way to Cape Brettm, 
and I had to part with my Catholic friends of St Andrews with no small 
regret I soon, however, found that I was not yet done with the good 
fettiers. About seven miles farther on, at Heatherton, I was accosted by 
a tall handsome young man, of six feet four inches and a-half, habilitated 
like the iatheni I had just left behind me. He, Father John Chisholm, 
learned that I was coming Ms way that morning, and he prepared a jjeast 
He eren vent the length of procuring a bottle of Scotch wfaiel^, tlungh 



ISE EDrroU tU CANADA, 11 

he Was an abstainer himself, and had not anch a tlung in his honse foi 
many years before, I moat again leave my mellow Highland and Catho- 
lic friend, Colin Chisholm, to take charge of the Genealogioal department 
and make out the ancestors of my kind entertainer. The late GUleaspuig 
MscCailean was his maternal grandiather ; the late Mi Alex. Macdonell, 
Jndique, Cape Breton, was his maternal grandnncle, and hia p&teinal 
grandfather was Ian Donn MacAlistair Bhric, an Coire nan Cnilean, 
Stiathglass. His &tber, latt Mac Ian Duiun, lived during the laat ax 
yeaxB, be&re he left his native Strathglaas, at Knockfin. The old gentl» 
man waa then living, in hia 82d year, and called at hia son's house while 
I was there. Before I saw him, I heard a voice in the lobby, pcoclain- 
ing in good, sonorooe Gaelic, tiie following inti\>duataon :-:- 

Bbft mi utlr an Inbhlrni^ 
'8 mi gaa atsm, m'l ^un mbetM, 
Fliii&ir rai guima, sUidhe, '■ grioa, 
'B thug iDd mimeaohd mkot dhomh. 

E:cactly a week after, this fine old Highlander died enddenly, withont any 
Boffenng or pain whatever. 

All aloi^ this long drive of forty miles, the scenery waa veiy fine, 
through hills, dales, and mighty forests — the Island of Cape Breton in &iljl 
view, a few miles on the right, with the Straits of C^o interveniog 
About half-way on, I called on a Chnroh of England clergyman, the Bev. 
Angns Macdonald, Bayfield, bnt did not find him at home. He bad writ- 
ten me to Halifax, on seeing my arrival in the papers, to spend a few d^yp 
with him ; bat this I found impossible ftom the limited time at my di»; 
posal I met him, however, accidentally at Antigonish, and found hun.a 
very (genuine Celt, Late on Saturday night we arrived at the J^'erry of 
Port Mnlgmve, and put ap with another Highlander, Boderiek Macleod, 
who keeps the best hostelry in the place. Here I met several of my 
eonntrymen ; and, on Monday, I passed into the Island of Cape Breton, 
acKMa a I&ttj about a mile and a-qnarter wide, A description of this glo- 
rious region must be left for next iasua 

The whole of this article may probably ^pear tediona and, altogeth^ 
pifftaking too much of a personal cbaiaoter ; but I found it quite inqna- 
mble to shew my appreciation o^ and illustrate in any other way, the 
great kindness of my fellow-countrymen in this cquntay — kindness and 
attention not extended to me merely on personal grounds, but as a High* 
lander Smm. the old country. The same good feeUng would be extended 
to any other good ^woimen of the raoe from the other side, by Hi^ai 
«arm-bearted, hoqntable Celts. A^ M. 



jb,GoO(^lc 



THE CEtKC MAGA^rSiL 



(gfttealajjicai £ioU^ ^ ^xutks. 



ANSWERS. 
OLtTBSlBS OAHFBBI1I& 
Ih teply to the qneiy of " Mag." in the October numbei of the CetHe 
Magmim, I have pleaaure in supplying the following informatioQ : — 
WilHam Campbell, Heritable Sheriff Clerk of Caithneaa, was of the Afac- 
Iver branch (rf the clan, and was the eldest son of Donald Campbell or 
l^Ivoi, merchant in Thnrso. William was baptised 26tb October 1617. 
He had two aistere and two brothers, the younger of the latter being John, 
baptised 10th April 1672, who received the appointment of Commissary 
of Caithnesa, and became proprietor of CastlehilL William was twice 
married, first to Elizabeth, daughter of James Mnrray of Fennyland, who 
bore him one son, Donald, writer in Thniso, who left no issue ; and se- 
cond, to Helen Mowatt, by whom he had six eons, the eldest being James, 
baptised 6th November 1685, who succeeded his father as Heritable 
SherifT-Clerk of Caithness, and who acquired the estate of Lochend, in 
Dnnnett. He was twice married, first to Mary Sinclair of ForsB, without 
iasne, and next to Isabella, daughter of the Sev. James Oswald, minister 
of Watten, of the Auchincruive and Scotstown family. James' son, Wil- 
liam of Lochend, was served hair to his father 16th June 1768, but died 
without issue, and was succeeded by his brother Oswald, served heir ICth 
l/iiToh 1770, but who died without issue in 1776, and was succeeded by 
Aliixander Campbell, son of Alexander, whose father was William, second 
son of William, first Sheriff-Clerk. He sold Lochend in 1 778 to Sinclair 
of Fr'cawick, and as he left no issue it is believed the male line of the 
6unily of Donald, ftither of the Sheriff-Clerk, became extinct. The family 
are coD'flidered to have been cadets of the Quoycrook and Ducheman Uao- 
Ivers, of whom the Chief was the late Principal Campbell of Aberdeen. 
Thiefy we're known sometimes, patronymioaUy as the Maclven &ay. Othei 
&milieB I'd Caithness were those of Dorary, Brubster, Thurso (younger 
fiunily), L^taalbyne, Shurary, Braehonr, Linrary, all connected with the 
Quoycrook family. Some other fiunilies are believed to descend from the 
Maclver Campbells of Leckmelme in Lochbroom, a lamily which was long 
at the head of the Maciveis in Bose-ehire, and which ceased to be a landed 
family towards the close of the 17th century. The lost of the family in 
possession vaa Murdoch Maclver, served heir to Donald Boy, his Mher, 
on 22d December 1663. This Murdoch is alleged to have had a son, 
Evander, who went to Thurso about 1680, and settled there in trad& 
Other members of the fcmily are understood to have preceded him, but 
there are descaoidante of the family in the Aird, Eilmoiack, and Contin. 
The writer is a descendant of Donald Hoy, by his son Alexander (Atiadair 
Mae OoTtuU Boy), who fought at Worcester, and who subsequently set- 
tled in the Aird, where he has still descendanta, and who wUl be heads 
of t^e &mily (^ L«(^mQhne failing direct descendants of Evandet of 
Thnna 



ih,Goog[c 



GENEAIOOIGAL KOTES AND QTTEBIES, 19 

OOLOKBL BBiS. 

GnraaAL Sm WnLuir Eed, E.E., KC.R, F.E.S., F.H,0.8., Ac, died 
alwnt 1860-5. He entered the Boyal Engineers, and served with Sir J, 
Moore, and through the Peninsular War. He afterwaidB joined the 
Spanish Contingent under Sir de Lacy Erans, where he serred with di*- 
tinotion, and was wounded in the nedt by a mnsket ball The hall waa 
stopped by a silk neckerchief which he was wearing instead of the 
military stock, and thus his life was saved. In 1839 or '40 he was ap. 
pointed Governor of the Bermudas, which he governed so successfully 
that lie was honoured with an extraided term of offic& Hia memory ia 
still lerered there as "the good Governor;" and after he left, the L^is- 
latnre voted a sum of money for a meniunent to commemorate hia 
govemership, mid this memorial stands in the gardens of the pnblie 
buildings, in the shape of a granite obelisk, with a bronze medallion like- 
ness, and inscription. Flom Bermnda he was advanced to be Governor 
of Barbadoes and its dependencies. Abont 1860 he returned to England, 
and was mads Commandant of Engineers at Woolwich, and in 1661 was 
one of the Commissioners for the Great Exhibition, and Chairman of the 
Executive Committee. His laborious and useful service obtained for him 
the warm approval and fiiendship of the Prince Consort, and laiffcly con< 
tributed to the success of the Exhibition. He had previonsly been nomi- 
' noted to a CB. (military), and was now made K.C.B. (civU). Shortly 
afterwards he was Governor of Malta — ^his last service, I believe. He 
was author of a, now famous, work on " The Law of Storms," to the com- 
pletion of which his experience in Bermuda and the West Indies was of 
material ^d. In connection with the theories propounded in this woik 
he acquired the humorous sobriquet of "a Eeid shaken by the wind." 
General Eeid married early a daughter of General Fyere, B.A. (an old 
Waterloo soldier). He 1^ no son, but several daughters, oil of whom 

married — viz., the eldest, to Colonel Halliwell, C.B., 20th Begiment^ 

who served with distinctioD in the Crimea ; Maria married Captain Hore, 
B-K., some time ICfaval Atta^d at ^ria ; ElimbeUi, Chadotte, and Graoa^ 
allmamed. 



THE ETTEICK STTTCP ffPETl IS MULL— Thisis how the Ettriok 
Shepherd expressed himself after setUing^with his Moll boatman — 

I bftv* Mdl«d round th« aneki lud tha hndlajid alMnll; 

Har nJw u« niuniltarad, nnli&Uawed, and maif ; 
Har nannUliui are buran — hai haveo ii doll : 

Har wuu aiaj be bnn^ bnt thay^ oonad^ gittij. 

niese lines were written in an album kept in one of the local inns, 
native, on aedng them, promptly wrote the following undemaath " 

Ah I Shaphard of StMak I why aotaly flonpUln 

Thos^ the boatman wna Enad; tor trail 
Tba baaaliaa ol Biafla, by tlili yon praekin, 

Tare peails out vwtj w ■ Mof, 



ii,GoO(^lc 



9fy 



THE OSLHO UAGAZillE. 
ORAUt LBAlTKAlTAOHD. 




Hni lelg thn dhamb Umh, 

Ga'n gliodh mi abo Hrd 

'8 ga'a tig oaid dc m' ob^ida 'uolJu thn. 

SmU'I tUniomh tha ma dhozD, 

It oh>ill mi mo bfart^, 

I> ihrubd tbu mo ohota^'i naiMh dhtki 

K*ob Huir tho, "i bl filbb,- 

Onr bMdbeMh, fa dwrbh. 

La d' oUb, u dMlUi ft dk' Ib« tkn skm I 



Sin t bhrb tba mo obir I 

Do KboQBdb 'ad ohridh' I 

Leig u Bi, BO abl mo bfarttbairdon, . 

Smll, lid Eovhu Hot 

On b-ard kir tn torr I [«. 

Dou agar dbiom. no nnuidh a ' <--»-- ^- 

Laig'oead doinb, '■ tKirfr art 



OdSi 
Onbh^l 



toipfWMi 



o'a dh' Aug Uw L 



Celtic Mag-azine. 



JAUUAEY, 1880. 



HISTORY or THE MACDONALDS, 

THE I^OEDS OF THE ISLES. 
Bt thb Editob. 



m. 

m. DoHALD "SBlsLA,"or,oftlieIeleB,&oinvlioititlieMa(MloiiaIdaderiTe 
their name. The share of his father's posaeesions ^hich appears to have 
fallen to him comprised South Kintyre and Islay ; but it ia certain that he 
also came into possession, as head of the house, of his hiother Koderick's 
lands, by themselves a very extensive patrimony. A period of great import- 
ance in ^e history of this distinguished family has now been reached, and it 
is disappointing to find how little is recorded of the career of this famous 
chief who had no small share in the most important events in the early 
part of the thirteenth century. Indeed it is quite impossible that he 
coiild have done otherwise, for though the ancient autocratic authority of 
the Clan over others was never recovered hy the race of Somerled after 
the partition hy Alexander II. of the great district of Argyle, the ultimate 
anion of aU the claims and rights of this ancient and potent house in the 
line of Donald raised the family and its chief anew, to a pitch of power 
and eminence in Scotland almost unequalled by any other family in 
the kingdom, certainly unequalled in the Western Isles. Donald, 
like all the Western chiefs, after the treaty of succession agi'eed to 
as the result of the hattle of Largs, held his possessions directly from 
the Scottish King, and ever since his successors remained subjects of the 
Scottish crown, in spite of many successive rebellions on their part, in- 
variably instigated by the English Government, to establish their inde- 
pendence in the Isles, and embarrass the .Scots, Hugh JIacdonald in- 
fonns us that Donald succeeded his father " in the Lordship of the Isles 
and Thaneship of Aigyle ;" that he went to Denmark, and took with him 
many of the ancient Danes of the Isles, such, as " the Macduffies, and 
Macnagills;" that his uncle Dugall accompanied him; and that his 
own rights, and the peculiar rights he had to the Isles through his grand- 
mother, daughter of Olave the Red, were then renewed to him by Magnus, 
King of Denmark. "After this, he and his uncle Dugall became enemies, 
so that at last he was forced to kill Dugall. After this King Alexander 
(Eiog of ScoUaod) sent Sii WUliam RoUock aa messenger to him to Sin- 



JhyGOOglC 



S3 THE CELTIC KAQAZINB. 

tyre, dssiring to hold the Isles of him, -whitsh he had nov &am the Einjj 
of Demuatk. Donald replied that hia piedecesBOis had their rights to the 
lalea from the Crown of Denmark, which were renewed by tde present 
King thereof, and that he held the Isles of hia Majesty of Denmark, be- 
fore he renounced hia claim to his Majesty. Sir William said that the 
King might grant the superiority of the Isles to whom he pleased. Don- 
ald answered to this that Olay the Bed, and Godirey the Black's father, 
from whom he had the most of the Isles, had the IbIbb by theii conquest, 
and not from the King of Denmark or Scotland, so that he and Sir 
William could not end the debate in law or reasoning. Donald being 
advised by wicked councillors, in the dawning of the day aurprised Sir 
W'illiam and his men. Sir William, with some of his men, were killed. 
He banished Gillies {his wife's fother) oat of the Isles to the glens of 
Ireland, where some of his offspring remain until this day. Be killed 
Gillies' yoiing son, called Galium Alin. Ue brought the Mac^eills from 
Lennox to expel Gillies oat of Kintyre. After tiiis he went to Borne, 
bringing seven priests in bis company, to be reconciled to the Pope and 
Church. These priests declaring hia remorse of conscience for the evil 
deeds of his former life, the Pope asked if he was willing to endure any 
torment that the Church was pleased to inflict upon bim ] Donald re- 
plied that he was willing, should they please to hum him in a caldron of 
lead. The Church, seeing him so penitent, dispenaed with him. Some 
writers assert &&t he had his rights from the Pope of all the landa he 
possessed in Aigyle, Kintyre, and the rest of the continent After he re- 
turned home, he built (rebuilt or enlarged) the monastery of SaddeU in 
Kintyre, dedicating (it) to the honour of the Virgin Mary. He mortified 
48 merks lands to that monastery, and the Island of Heisker to the Svna 
of lona. He died at Shippinage in the year 1289, and was buried at 
IcolumkilL"* 

He imitated the liberality of hia father to the Church, particularly to 
the monks of Paisley, to whom he gave ample testimony of his chmty 
and goodwill, on the condition that " ille uxor sua, heredes sui, et homines 
sui, participes sint in perpetaum, omnium bonorum quce in domo de 
Paslet, et in toto ordine Cluniascensi fient, tam in orationibus, quam in 
ceteris divinis servitiis." In the document he is designated " Dovenaldus, 
Alius Beginaldi, filius SomBrIedL"f He left two sous. — 

1. Ang^ Mor MacDonald, his heir. 

3. Alexander, according to Douglas, ancestor of the MacAliaters of 
Loup, and of the Alexanders of Menstrie, Earls of Stirling. This is cor- 
roborated hy an old genealogical tree of the Macdonalda in our possession. 
He was also progenitor of Clann Alaatair of Kintyre, and was married to 
a daughter of Lorn. 

Donald of the Isles died, as already stated, in 1289, and vros succeeded 
by his eldeat son, 

IT. Angus Mob M&cdonald, who was Chief at the time of Haco's 
expedition to the Western Islea in 1266, and who immediately joined 
him on hia arrival with his fleet, and assisted him throughout the war, 
though it appeals, in consequence of the treaty which was afterwaids ai- 



jb,Goo(^lc 



mSTOET OF THE MACDONALDS. 83 

langed l>etweeii the Kings of Scotland and "NoTwaj, that he did not 
ntffet for hia conduct, either in person oi property. In 1284 he appeared 
at the convention at which the Maiden of Norway was declared heiress to 
the Crown of Scotland, on which occasion his support seems to have been 
purcha»id by a giant of Ardnamnrchan. He confirmed his father's and 
giandiather's giants to the Abbey of Saddell, and granted further lauds 
himself by four se]>arate charters.* He also made a donation to the con- 
vent of Paisley of half a mark of silver " de domo sao pioprio, et de 
singulis domibus per onines tenas subs de qnibos fiimam exit nnum 
denari, singtdiB annis in perpetuum in puram elemosynam." He also 
gavB the monaet«iy of the same place the patronage of the Church of 
Kilterran, in Kintjre, " pro salute animte, Sontini sui Alexandri Begis 
ScoticEB illustris, et Alezandii, filii ejus, etiam pro salute sua propria, et 
heredum snorum."t A letter is addressed, in 1292, "to Anegous, the 
Bon of Dovenald of the Islee, and Aleximder, his eldest son, respecting 
their comporting themselves well and faithfiilly to the King of Eng- 
land."}: 

Writing of the descendauts of Somerled about this period, Gregoiy 
says that of these "there were, in 1285, three great noblemen, aU 
holding extensive possessions in the Isles as whU as on the main- 
land, who attended in that Scottish Parliament by which the 
crown waf settled on the Maiden of Norway. Their names were 
Alexander de Ei^adia of Lorn (son of Ewio of Lorn), Angus, the 
son of Donald, and Allan, the son of Jluaria From iiie nature of 
the trea^, in 1266, it is obvions that these individaals were vassals 
of the King of Scotland for all their possessions, and not qierely for 
what they held on the mainland, as some have supposed. It is fiurther 
cleax that, at this time, none of the three bore the title of Lord of the 
Isles, or oonld have been properly so considered ; and it is equally certain 
that the first individual whom we find assuming the style of Lord of the 
Isles, in its modem signification, poasesaed all those lalea, and very nearly 
all tiose mainland estates, whiiit, in 1286, were divided apiong three 
powerful noblemen of the same blood. But of this hereafter. From the 
preceding remarks, it will readily be perceived that the boasted indepen- 
dence of the modem Lords of the Isles is without historical foundation. 
Prior to 1266, the Isles were subject to Norway ; at that date the treaty 
of cession transferred them to Scotland. "§ 

Angus Mor, who, according to Hugh Macdonald, "was of a very 
amiable and cheerful disposition, and more witty than any could take 
him &om his coQnt«nance," resided for a portion of his life-time at the 
Castle of Ardthomish. He married a daughter of Sit Colin Campbell of 
Glennrchy, with issue— 

1. Alexander, hia heir. 

2. Angue Og, who succeeded his brother Alexander. 
He died in 1300, and was sncccoded by hia oldest son, 

V. Alezakdbe Maodonald of the Isles, who married one of the 
daughters and co-heireea of £wen do Ergadia, the last of the male de- 
scendents of Dngall of Lom, and by her he received a considerable ao- 



' Skans'a Hvhluiden. 



.Google 



. 8i THE CELTIC MAGAZINE, 

quisiMoik to his already eztensiTe torritoriee; but havmg joined John 
Stewart, Lord of Lorn, in his opposition to Robert the Bruce, be naturally 
becamo a partner in tbe consequent collapse and rain of that great family 
and chief After the defeat of the Lord of Lorn at Lochow, Bruce pro- 
ceeded againat Alexander of the lales ; crossed oyer the isthmua of Tarbet, 
and laid siege to Castle Sweyn, where Alexander UHually resided. The 
Island Chief pioved as little able to resist the power of Bruce as the Loide 
of Lorn had previously beep, and he was compelled to surreador to the 
K JT.g , who immediately imprisoned bim in Dundonald Castle, where be 
ultimately died. His poseeasions were forfeited to the Crown, and aftei- 
wards given to his brother Angus Og. 

He is designated "Alexander de Insulls Scotice, filins Angusii, filins 
Dovenaldi," in a letter addressed to him during the life of his father, 
wherein he is directed to keep the peace within his bounds of the Isles, 
till the meeting of the Parliament of Scotland, on the day of St Thomas 
the Martyr 1292. He ie also designed in the same style in a confirma- 
tion of a donation of the Church of Eilkensn to the monastery of Paisley, 
to which Bobert, Earl of Carrich, and Robert Bruce, liis son and heir, are 
witnesses. 

He died in 1303, and was succeeded by his brother, 

YX Angdb Og Maodonaid, who, fortunately for himself and his 
dan, sided with the Bruce from the outset of his bold attempt to &ee his 
native land from the English Edwards, After the disastrous defeat at 
Methven, and the subsequent skirmish with the Lord of Lorn at Tyn- 
dnun, the valiant Bruce was obliged to fly with his life, whereupon 
Angus of the Isles received and sheltered bim in his castle of Saddell, 
Cantiie, and, in August 1306, in his more secure Castle of Dunaverty, 
ontil, with Macdondd's aid, he retired some time after for safer refuge to 
the Island of Rathlin, on the north coast of Ireland, then possessed by 
the family of the Isles. From this period Angus Og attached himself to 
. the party of Bruce, and took an important share in all the subsequent 
enterprises, which terminated in the final defeat of the English at Ban- 
nockbum, and established for ever the independence of Scotland. Here 
Angus commanded the reserve, composed of 6000 Highlanders, led, under 
Angus of the Isles, by sixteen of their own immediate chiefs. On this 
memorable occasion Angus and hk Highlanders did such good service 
that, as a permanent mark of distinction for the gallantry and effect with 
which they plied their battle-axes, Bruce aasii^ed to Angus and his de- 
scendants the honoorable position of the right flank of the Eoyal army on 
rUl future occasions. He fiiet joined him in 1 266, and his loyalty never 
faltered, even when the fortunes of the King appeared most hopeless. He 
had previously assisted him in his attack on Carrick, when " the Bruce 
wan his father's hale," and continued to support him. in all his toils and 
dangers, until these were crowned and rewwded by tbe great victory at 
Bannockbum. It was thus natural that the Chief of the Isles, having 
glared in the misfortunes of the great Deliverer of his country, should, 
when success crowned their efforts, also share in the advantages secured 
by the victors. The extensive possessions of the Comyns and their allies, 
l£e Lords of Lorn, having been forfeited, were now at the disposal of the 
King, and he bestowed upon Angus the Loidahip of Lochaber, which had 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDOKALDS. 85 

fonnerly belonged to the ComyoB, as also the lands of Doror and Glencoe, 
and the Islands of Mull, Jnia, Coll, Tiree, which had formed part of the 
poeaessions of the family of Lorn. Bruce was quite alive to the daugei 
of nusing up such a powerful vassal as Angus Og of the Isles to a position 
, of aneli power and iuflaence by adding so much to his already exten- 
sive territories, and thus raising up to a higher pinnacle of power an op- 
ponent and a dangeroos rival even to the Crown itself; hut the servicea 
rendered by the Island Chief in Bruee's greatest need could not be over- 
looked, and so, believing himself quite secure in his attachment during his 
life, he made him these extensive grants, the only condition made by him 
to neutralize in any way their effects, being the erection of the Castle of 
Tarbet in Kintyre, which was to be occupied by the King's troops as a 
Boyal stronghold, within the territories of the Island Chief. He had a 
charter from David 11. " of the Isle of lala, Kintyre, the Isle of Gythy 
(! Gigha), Dewre (Jura), the Isle of Coluynsay, and the twenty-four mark 
land of MoroT, near the lands of Mule." Ue had a daughter named 
Fyngole, as appears from a papal dispensation, dated 19th KaL Februarii 
1342, permitting John Stewart and Fyngole, "fiUa nobilis viri Angosii 
de Insulis," to marry, notwithstanding their being within the fourth de- 
gree of consanguinity. 

According to Hugh Macdonald's MS., Bohert Brace was entei-tained 
hy Angus for a whole half-year at Saddell, and he repeatedly sent his 
galleys with men to Ireland, and sent Edward Bruce across on various 
occasions, and furnished him with necessaries for his eipedition. He 
brought 1500 men from Ireland, who fought with him at a place called 
Brarich, near Lcchow. He was a minor when his father died. When he 
anived at the age of 22 years " he was proclaimed Lord of the Isles and 
Thane of Argylo and Lochaber," but was much opposed on his first entry 
into hie possessions " by Macdougall of Lorn, on account of the Island of 
Mull, to which he pretended right." Gregory, referring to this period, 
sums up the changes which took place and the results which followed 
thus : — In the aeries of struggles for Scottish independence, which marked 
the close of the thirteenth and the opening of the fourteenth centuries, 
the Lords of Lorn, who were closely connected by marriage with the 
Comyn and Balliol party, naturally arrayed themselves in opposition to 
the chums of Bruce. On the other hand, the hooses of Isla and of the 
Korth Isles supported with all their power the apparently desperate for> 
tnnee of King Robert I., and thus, when he came to be firmly seated on 
the throne, had earned the gratitude of that Prince, in the same propor- 
tion aa the &mily of Lorn, by the inveteracy of their hostility, had pro- 
voked bis resentment. On the forfeiture of Alexander, Lord of Lorn, and 
his son and heir, John, their extensive ■territories were granted by Bruce 
to various of his supporters ; and, amongst others, to Angus Oig, i.e.. 
Junior, of Isla, and to Roderick, or Huari MacAIan, the bastard brother 
and leader of the vassals of Christina, the daughter and heiress of Alan 
MacBoari of the North Isles. The Isles of MiSl (the possession of which 
hod, for some time past, been disputed betwixt the Lords of Isla and 
Lorn), Jnra, CoU, and Tiree, with the districts of Doior and Gleocoe, 
fell, in this way, tu the share of Angus Oig. Lorn proper, or the greatest 
part of it, was bestowed on Roderick MacAlan, to whom his sister, 
ChiiBtina gave, at the same time, a large poitioa of hes inheiitaDM ia 



86 The CELTIC MAGAZIIirE. 

Gatmomii and the Korth lales. Tho Lordship of Locha1>er, forfeited hj 
one of the powerful tJEimily of Comyn, seems to have been divided between 
Angus Oig and Boderick. The formei likewise obtained, in this teigu, 
the lands of Morvem and Ardnamurchan, which seem previously to have 
been in the hands of the crown. But while Bruce thus rewarded his 
faithful adherents, be was too sensible of the weakness of Scotland on the 
side of the Isles, not to take precautionary measures against the possible 
defection of any of the great femiliea on that coast, who might with ease 
admit an English force into the heart of the kingdom. He procured from. 
Angus Oig, who was now apparently the principal crown vassal in Kin- 
tyre, the resignation of bis lands in that district, which were immediately 
bestowed upon Robert, the son and heir of Walter the High Steward, 
and the Princess Marjory Bruce. At the same time, the fortifications of 
the Castle of Tarbert, between Kintyre and Knapdale, the most important 
position on the coast of Aigyleahire, were greatly enlarged and strengthened, 
and the custody of this commanding post was committed to a Boyal gar- 
rison. Following out the same policy in other places, the keeping of the 
Caatle of DunstafEnage, the principal messuage of Lorn, was given by 
Bruce, not to Eoderick MacAlan, the " High Chief of Lom," but to an 
individual of the name of Campbell, who was placed there as a loyal con- 
stable. Towards the end of Bruce's reign, Itoilenck MacAlan of Lom 
and the ^oi'th Isles, was forfeited of all his possessions for eng^ing in 
some of the plots which, at that period, occupied the attention and ctUlad 
forth the enei^es of that celebrated king. On this occasion, it is pro- 
bable that Angus Oig, whose loyalty never wavered, received further 
additions to his already extensive possessions ; and before Kii^ Bobert'a 
death the house of lalay was already the most powerfnl in Argyle and the 
Isles.* 

Angus Og married Margaret, daughter of Guy O'Cathan of Ulster, the 
"tocher" being, according to the Seannachaidh already quoted, "seven 
score men out of every surname under O'Kaiue." Among these, it is 
said, came tw^ty-four chiefs, who became the heads of clans or septs. 
Of ihat number, Hugh Macdonald mentions " the Munroes, so called be- 
cause they came &om the Innermost £oe-water in the county of Derry, 
tbeir names being formerly O'Millans ; the Rosea of Kilraack, the Eairns, 
Dingwalls, Glasses, Beatous, so now called, but improperly, that being a 
French name, whereas they are Irish, of the tribe of O'JNeala, and took 
the name (of Beaton) from following the name of Beda. Our Highland 
Shenakiea say that Balfour Elebo, and these Beatons that came from 
France, went formerly from Ireland, but for this they have no ground to 
go upon. The MacPheraons, who are not the same with the MacPher- 
sons of Badenoch, but are of the O'Docharties in Ireland ; the Bnlikes in 
Caithness, of whom is the laird of Tolingail ; and many other surnames, 
which, for brevity, we pass over, many of whom had no succession." It 
is impossible to vouch for the accuracy of a great part of Macdonald's 
MS., for the author of it was such an out-and-out patriot, that he scrupled 
not to write anything calculated to glorify his chief and name, apparently 
not caring much whether it was true or not. Some of his stories, how* 
«vet ore far too interesting to be passed by ; bat when not otherwise bujh 



• Wtri S^U&di ud Uh, p^ H4I. 



Google 



HISTORY OF THE MACDOJf ALDS. 8? 

ported the readei must juat take them for vliat they are worth.* The 
fallowing IB one which ia altogether too good, giving, as it does, a Tenion 
of the origin of the Madeans, the ceremony of proclaimiiig the Lords 
of the Isles ; and the manner in which juetice was adminiBtered in those 
days in the Western Isles : — " Kow Angus Ogg being at Ardhorinish in 
Morvein, in the time of Lent, Macdougall sent the two sons of Gillian in 
meaa^ to him. To know of these, viz., the sons of Gillian, I will tell 
you from, whence they came, viz., John of Loin, commonly called John 
Baocach, went off to harry Carrick in Galloway, the property of Bobert 
Bruce, afterwards King Bobert, and there meeting with one Gillian by 
name, son of GiUeuaa, son of John, eon of Gillousa-More, he came to John 
Saccach of Lorn in quest of better fortune. Macdougall gave him a spot 
of land in the Isle of Sael, called BealachuaiiL He had three boos, 
Hector, of whom descended ihe family of Lochbuy, and waa the oldest ; 
Lachlin (of) whom descended thelfamily of Duairt, and the rest of the 
name ; and a natural aon, John, of whom others of the name descended. 
Now in the Scots lango^e they were called Maclean, from that Gillian 
that made the first fortune there ; but the ancient Scots called them 
MacGilliau. The two sons of Gillian, as related above, were sent ambas- 
sadors to Macdonald at Ardhoijniah, where, at the time, he held his Lent, 
as the custom of the time then was. They, after landing, had some con- 
ference with Macdonald about the Isle of Mull. Macdonald, denying 
any of hia proper right of lands to Mac, desired MacFinnon, who was 
master of his household, to use the gentlemen kindly, and to cause them 
dine alona MacFinnon caused set before them bread and gruthim, con- 
sisting of hotter and curds mixed together, which is made in harvest, and 
preserved until time of Lent. The gruthim was so brittle, that it was not 
easily taken up with theii long knives. Macdonald, coming up at ^e 
same time, and perceiving the men at meat in that posture, desired to 
give them some other sort of meat. MacFinnon replied that if they could 
not eat that meat aa it wae, they should put on tlie naba of hens, vrith 
which they mi^t gath^ it up easily ; wluch reproachful answer touched 
the sons of Gillian nearly. Macdonald being that same day to oroas the 
Sound of Mull to Aios, to solemnise the festival of Fasch Uiere, he took 

* Tlisedltoraf theColleatanekdeBebtu A]baTiid>*dili the followlDg note kt tbaend 
of tbe US.— Tbii HS. Historj of tba Lordi of (ha Iilw, now for the fliit time rrinted, 
ii ft very faToorhbla ftpeoimfla of the prodaotionv of the uioient Stniiftohlei, FoU of tra- 
ditioDBrjr aaMdotes, in general waDderfull; aooBrsts, they Euruiih ■ ontioBB additioD to 
tbe biitocT of tbe Seottith Highlands. The Genealogical aoooDDta of the varioai fami- 
liei ooDtdned in theie M8S. is, bewenr, ficqueatl; faU of eiron, pHneipallT jnten- 
tionil, Uld ariring frem the ptejuriirwi and aotive putiianihip of the Senniiib;, nh* 
boiig »l«aji dsTDted to one partieular f^milr, ahiired hii patran'a utimoiitj Bgalnit the 
Clam vitb whom be wae at food, and hitieuoniy of the other funiliei at hii own Clan, 
betwean whom there eiiited a rivalij. ^a Semiaehj leldom aompled to eubvarve hii 
patron'* jxalaDilea, hj peivirtiii^ tbe hiitoij of theli familie^ and thi^ be, in genenl, 
■ooompliued either hj latnallf peirertlag tbe Oenealogr, or b; an eztanrive baatardie- 
big irf the bead! of the family, piobablf prooeodinjc npon a prindplg not nnknowutothe 

Cmit AVi *^^ ' '^ bovam natoTioaaljr falia, if peneT^iiiilr Murted far a oei> 
length of time, will at length b« iWMired aa true. The wilt«r of thia US. wu a 
itaoDoh adherer of the Slata tamHy, and therefore hii itatenenta, «ith regard to the 
Olaui with whom the Olan Donald were at tend, and to the riTal branehea of that great 
Olan molt be leoelved with peat caatlon. The battardliing of Dogalt, tepated to b« 
the pzogeolton of the MaeltangalLi, ii a gaod illnitratioD of the atwva renaika, (or 
thers li no doabt whateTOT that hewai the eldeat legitlBiata ion gf SoDtrlad, by Idi 
Dtaniact irith the daoghtn gt Olave tba Bk!. , . 



88 • THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

a email boat for himaelf, leaving MacFiimon behind with his great galley 
and carriage, and the rest oi hia men. When MacFinnon went to the 
abore to follow Macdonald, the aona of Gillian, taking the opportonity of 
revenge, and calling MacFinnon aside, stabbed him, and straight witti his 
galley and their own men followed Macdonald acrose the Sound, who 
was not aware of them, thkiking it was MacFinnon with his own galley 
that followed him, till they leaped into the boat wherein he was, and 
after apprehending him, made him prisoner, and brought him to Dun- 
staih^e in Lorn. They remained without Macdougall being, in the 
meantime, at dinner, who, hearing of their arrival, and that Macdonald 
was prisoner with them, said ha was glad Macdonald was safe, and was 
very well pleased to have him hia prisoner ; but that Gillian's children 
were very bold in their attempt, and that he would, through time, bridle 
their forwardness and insolence. There was a young son of Macdoogall's 
hearing what his father had aaid. This boy, fostered by Gilliau and his 
son, coming out to meet them, told what bis father said of them. They 
being perplexed, and musing what to do in this ao precarious an afiair, 
thought best to have their recourse to Macdonald, and told him that all 
men knew that they were of no power or capacity to apprehend him, but 
by accident ; as it fell out ; and seeing it was so, that he knew if he 
pleased to do them any good, and forgive them their former crime, be 
was more in power than their former master ; that they would join with 
bim, go along with him, and deliver him irom the present danger. So 
taking Macdonald to hia own galley again, Macdoag^ neither seeii^ him 
or them, they went for Mull, taking the Lord of the Isles upon hia word, 
as they might 

" For he gave four score merks lauds to Hector the oldest brother, and 
to Lachlin the yonugat he gave the chamberlainship of his house, and 
made MacFinnon thereafter marahall of his army. Now, these made up 
the surname of Maclean, for they never had a rigg of land bat what they 
received &om Macdonald ; to the contrary of which I defy them, or any 
other, to produce any argument; yet they were very thankful for 'the 
good done them afterwards. When the Macdonalda were in adveisit^, 
which happened by their own folly, they became their mortal enemies, as 
may be seen in the sequel of this history. Angna 0^ of the Islea was a 
personable, modest man, afEable, and not disaffected either to king oi state. 
He created Macguire, or Macquarry, a thaue. He had a natnral son, 
John, by Dougall MacHenry's dat^ter, she being her father's only child. 
This John, by his mother, enjoyed the lands of Gleucoe, of whom de- 
scended the race of the Macdonalds. He had his legitimate son, John, 
who Bucceeded him, by O'Sain's daughter. He had not many children 
(hat came to age. He had a daughter married to Maclean, and that by 
her inclination of yielding. Angus died at Isla, and was interred at 
IcolumbkilL I thought &t to annex the ceremony of proclaiming the 
Lord of the Isles. At this the Bishop of Aigyle, the Bishop of the Isles, 
and aevpn priests, were sometimes present, but a bishop was always pre- 
•eut, with the chieftains of all the principal families, and a Suler qf the 
lelet. There was a square stone, seven or eight feet long, and the tract 
of a man's foot cut thereon, upon which he stood, denoting that he should 
walk in the footatepe and uprightness of his predecessors, and that he waa 
iiutaUed b; right in his pwaeeeions. He was clothed in a white habi^ 



HI8T0ET OF THE MACDONALDS. 89 

to BhoTV his innocence and integrity of heart, that he would be a. light to his 
people, and maintain the true religion. The white apparel did afterwards 
belong to the poet by right. Then he was to receiTe a white rod in his 
hand, intimating that he had power to rule, not with tyranny and partiality, 
but with discretion and sincerity. Then he received hia forefather's sword, 
or some other sword, signifying that his duty was to protect and defend 
them from the incursions of their enemies in peace or war, as the obhga- 
tions and customs of his predecessors were. The ceremony being oyer, maae 
was said after the blessing of the bishop and seven priests, the people 
pooling their prayer for the success and prosperity of their new created 
lord. When they were dismissed, the Lord of the Isles feasted them for 
a week thereafter ; gave liberally to the monks, poets, bards, and musi- 
cians. You may judge that they spent liberally without any exception 
of persons. The constitution or government of the Isles was thus : — 
Maodonald had his council at Island Finlaggan, in Isla, to the number of 
sixteen, viz., four Thanes, foui Armins, that is to say, lords or sub-thanes, 
four bastards (ie.), squires, or men of competent estates, who could not 
come up with Armins or Thanes, that is, freeholders, or men that had 
their lands in factory, as Macgee of the Rinds of Isla, MacNiooll in Por- 
tree in Sky, and MacEachem, Mackay, and MacGillevray, in Mull, Mac- 
illemhaoel or MacMillan, &c There was a table of stone where this 
council sat in the Isle of Finla^^n. • the which table, with the stone on 
which Macdonald sat, were carried away by Argyie with the bells that 
were at loolumkilL Moreover, there was a judge in every Isle for the 
discussion of all controversies, who had ianda from Macdonald for their 
trouble, and likewise the eleventh part of every action decided. But 
there m%ht still be an appeal to the Council of the Isles. MacFinnon 
was obliged to see weights and measures adjusted ; and UacDuffie, oi 
MacPhie of Colonsay, kept the recoids of the Isles." 

Angus Og died at Islay about 1329, and was buried at IcoIumkiU, 
By his wife, Margaret, daughter of Guy O'Cathan, he had an only 
son and successor. He had also a natural son, John Fraoch, by a daugh- 
ter of Dougall MacHenrj, the leading man in Olencoe, progenitor of the 
Uacdonalds of Glencoe. 

He 'was sacceeded by his only lawful son. 
(lobe Continued.) 



Tho Editor is again at his post, having returned firom a most 
agreeable tour amoi^ his countrymen in Canada. He has much pleasure 
in presenting his compliments to all the readers and Mends of the Cdtio 
Magazine, and in wishing them all— now so largely increased in number, 
at home and abroad — A very Happy and Prosperous Sew Tear. Many 
thanks to all those who have so materially and so successfully aided in 
increasing the circulation and influence of the Magatnne in every part of 
world, and especially in Canada and Australia, Kew Zealand aod tint 
United States of America, 

r,3n--.MI>;GOOglC 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



D E E M N D. 



A T4LB OP Kkightlt Dekds Done in Old Datb. 
BOOK I.— "AMONa THB I3LE3 OF THE WBBTEEN SEA." 



Chapter IIL — (Continued. J 

luaulted and dieanned he was roughly carried dowB the spiral stair- 
oase in the seaward tower, till reaching a point &r down beneath the 
foundations of the keep in the very heart of the rock, he was borne along 
a low; damp corridor, one of the walls of which ran parallel with the 
moat on the landward side of the castle. Here a series of small, arched 
doorways gave admittance to a number of gloomy dungeons, A fearful 
stench impregnated the atmosphere, and stifled groans rose painfully to 
his ears. Only one of the dungeons appeared to be unoccupied, and into 
this Dermond was thrust with a shower of abuse and imprecations. The 
glare of the torch lighted up the oozy walls with their patches of white 
and green mould, and the arched roof with its clustering stalactites and 
rows of masEdve iron chains and rings for securing and torturing prisoners. 
In the centre of the apartment he nearly stumbled over a pile of whitened 
bones, and a mad bat as it fled with its zig-zag, jerky motion and blood- 
curdling squeak dashed against the flame of the torch and disappeared in 
the darkness of the corridor. 

" H — 'b curse he upon you," said the irritated torch-bearer. 

As Deimond sank down on the stone bench where he was firmly 
bound with lock and chain, the iron-studded door was drawn to with a 
clang. For a while a glimmer of light stole in through the crevices of 
the doorway as the men were engaged listening the bars and chains, but 
that soon died away and then all was darkness. The night was fearfully 
black outside, and not a single streak of light could pierce the narrow slit 
in the wall which looked out on the tossing sea. The breakers thundered 
on the rocks beneath, and the wind roared and whistled in frenzied fitful- 
ness. Dermond buried his head in his hands, and could have wept in 
the extremity of his passion, but for the strong and manly hope that 
mingled with his despair and sustained his burning heart The deeds 
that had been done in this horrible hole were Tividly pictured in his 
mind — unspeakable tortures and awful deaths. The stench told of the 
countless numbers who had been left to rot and die of starvation. Some 
of the bones crunched beneath hia feet as he moved, and the shackles rung 
on the bars of an iron bed vhere fire and oil had often done their 
roasting work. Strange lights gleamed and flickered along the too^ and 
shot sparklii^ from his inflamed eyes. Cries and strange shrieks were 
beard piercing the darkness, and ^e whole air seemed thick with the 
ghosts of the dead. 

" Oh heaven 1 " he cried, " preserve me from the fangs of this Monster 
of Diinolly. Se near me, holy Mother of Ood. Spieod yoni guarding 
vinga uound me, jre angsli of blatudneai." 



DERMOND. 91 

He knelt on his kneee, and taking the little losory of cliaste and 
^ttering gems, which had once belonged to his mother, firom his bosom, 
he fervently kissed it, and invoked the protection of his tutelar 
saint. 

Another burst of crackling thunder, accompanied by a blinding Sash 
of li^tning, lecaUed to his mind the dmigers ot the night at sea ; and as 
£iF as he kiiew his father was still abroad with his galley ol desperadoes. 
He cursed the rashness of offence which had sent him to writhe in a 
dungeon when he might have been scouring the waters in searching for 
his &ther. He would rather have died in such an effort than lie a help- 
less prisoner in the hands of John of Lorn. In the midst of oil lus 
miBeiy, however, he could not forget that sweet, sad face of Bertha, and 
that piercing shriek. She had great influence with ^ora, and Kora could 
peihaps move her father. If ever he should regain his freedom he would 
devote the rest of his life to her service, and go like the knight-errants of 
lowland Scotland and England in search of adventures for the purpose of 
isainlaining tlie beauty of her face and fame. He would give up this 
dt^dful life at Bimkerlyne, forswear his allegiance to Txini, and go and 
unite his fortunes with the gallant Bmce. He would lay his hands 
between his, and thenceforward fight with him for the relief of his country 
^m the yoke of the tyrant. A hundred other thoDghts rose in his mind 
as to the impracticability of such a scheme, but Ms heart was strong and 
hie laith was great. He was at least resolved that he should no longer 
lire the inactive life which he had hitherto led. He would go forth and 
distinguish himself, or die nobly in the efi'oit. Again, however, the 
thought of his captivity weighed heavily on his mind. The length of his 
confinement ^vas uncertain, and he might be led out to execution on the 
monow. He might be left to starve, and his foUowers were too few to 
attempt to storm the castle and rescue him. The prospect was too fear- 
M. He beat his head and groaned in his agony, lite momentary 
Bympathy which he had wasted on that poor waif clinging to the raft as 
it was dashed about by the waves at Dunkerlyne rose like a hideoas 
phantom in his mind. He would not take the advice tendered him at the 
time, and now he was sufi'ering the conaaquences. No good could come 
&om running his head against the traditions of his race, and the rescue of a 
drowning man was peculiady associated with eviL He had been very mad. 
His belief in the power of Jarlofi liad not yet been unshaken, heathen 
and maniac as the Norseman was, and he had strong hopes that relief 
wonld yet come. He attempted to sleep for the purpose of taking shelter 
&oni the fearful fancies in his mind, hut all in vain. His nerves were 
too liiglily strung. He had only thought of his own pride, his own 
schemes, and his own personal safety at first ; hut now, in the lone 
watches of this sleepless night — in the midst of all the darkness, and 
lirtening to the noise of the winds and the sea — every cord which bound 
him to his reckless but lovable old father clung tighter and stronger, 
^n when his passion became too great for inaction or silence he would 
gwticnlate and break out into cursing Lorn and Macnab ; and attempting 
to D86 and pace np and down the floor, he only found that the big clonk- 
m chauis bound him too well to the iioa tortiue-bed and atone benoh of 
lua gloomy dungeon. 



jb,Goo(^lc 



THE CELTIC MAQAZIKE. 



In the morDing, when the storm had passed away, a solitary figure 
stood on the brow of a. cliff that overlooked the sea. Thiowing back the 
wet, dishevelled halt from his pale brow, wistfully be stood gazing afar 
down the rocks towards the shore, and away across the glittering expanse 
of watet to the mountains of Morren and Mull, as they flashed fcom their 
peaks the beams of the rising siin. A great cbud swept midway across 
the heavens like a phantasm^ chariot oil wheels of burnished gold, and 
drawn by steeds of scorching flame. The sun glared like a red disk on a 
fiery background. Away to the south and west a few tangled masses of 
curling, vaponry clond lay steeped in the rose and saffron tints of the 
horizon ; while far above the burning hues of the eastern heavens the 
sky deepened into a brilliant blue, and stretched away to the north in 
shimmering grandeur behind the great, solemn mountains of the main- 
land. 

For a while Cyril, who stood basking in the splendours of this glori- 
ons scene, was wrapt and speechless with emotion. Bay after day 
he had gone to the top of the highest rock in Bathland to see the same 
sun lift his head above the sea and mountains of his native land, bnt 
never before had he felt the same thrilling sensations tingle in every vein 
as he watched the sun rise over the land of the stranger, from this solitary 
cliff among the isles of the Western Highlands. 

The sea was still very turbulent, and the groat waves breaking in 
sparkling, silvery crests sung out loudly on the beach; bnt stiU and 
harmlesa they looked when the last night's storm and all its hideous ao- 
companimente were brought to memory — the dreadful daiknees, the 
frightful, gleaming lights, the mountainous waves, the plunging, groaning 
hulk, the despair of strong and warlike men, the howlit^ of the slaves, 
and that wild crash on the rocks when the cries of drowning men rose in 
shrieks above the noise of wind and waves. 

Every soul had apparently perished but himself. How he had man- 
aged to escape was altogether a mystery. Clinging to a log of wood he 
drifted about for a while, until a great wave carried him gently ashore, 
and left him high and dry on the beach. He could scarcely believe, how- 
ever, that everyone had perished, and carefully he scanned the length of 
rocky shore to see if no one still lii^ered in life about the scene of the 
wreck. His son had been lashed to a raft by his own hands, but not a 
sail or speck was to be seen 'on the heaving bosom of the ocean. A few 
flocks of wadlii^; sea-birds were the only signs of life. 

Bousing himself from his painful reverie, and turning his eyes land- 
ward, Cyril perceived that be was cast upon an island which appeared to 
bo about five miles lot^ and three broad. Towards the north the hills 
ran down in grassy and heathery slopes to the sea. A narrow streak of 
water ran between the island and the mainland, and a number of dark 
spots at the mouth of a glen in the distant landscape had the appearance 
(^ inhabited huts. 

CjtX teaolred upon strikii^ inland fbi the purpow of obtaiaiiig net 



Coo'ik 



CERUOKI). »8 

and refTeBhment, but he found himself ezoeedisgl^ veak toi tmroUing. 
IHis dress vas thia and damp, and his aged limle were bennmlied 'wjUl 
cold, Hia spirit waa still the apirit of hia youth, howBToi, and not even 
age, bodily infirmity, or affliction could sabdue it Turning aside he di*- 
appeared down a daik gnlley. Clinging to clumpa of bniahwood and 
fixing hia feet ia the safest places, he swung himself down the back of 
the rock with much more a^ity thou be had mounted it. Expert ea he 
waa in the craft of the mountaineer, it took him some time before 
he could reach the bottom, owing to the difficnltiea he had to encounter. 
But the exercise seemed to do him good, and when he reached the ahelf 
of rock running along the side of the ^eu he felt the warm blood pulaing 
through his veins and the colour returning to his cheek. He had little 
difficulty in fixing upon the direction he ought to take, but the road waa 
ateep and rugged, and after goii^ some distance a reaction set in, and he 
felt himself growing more feeble from exhaustion and hunger. Besides 
hie eyes wei« wearied with the continual strain of observing every new 
beauty of the wild scenery which hurst on hia view aa he traced a precari- 
ous footing along the hillside. The sun also became hotter and hotter, 
and there waa a certain sultriness in the atmoaphere which made it ex- 
ceedingly oppressive. On reaching the head of the glen he found he 
conld go no further, and after eating some of the wild berries which grew 
in plenty along the hillside, he lay down under the shelter of some hazel 
boshes and fell iast asleep. 

The day waa far advanced, with the sun going down in the west, 
when a sound of harsh voices and the wild barking of dogs disturbed the 
slumbers of the wearied survivor from the wreck. A cross-bow bolt went 
tearing through the bnshea, and whizzing past his ear it sunk deep into 
the soil close to where he lay. Springing to hia feet he grasped the ash 
sapling which lay by his side, as his only weapon of defence, and placing 
himself in an attitude of battle, with hia back against a rock, he stood 
prepared to meet the party of Highlanders who were advancing upon him. 
The shot seemed to have been directad more in jest or mistake, however, 
as the leader of the party, who carried his sword in his sheath, came up 
to the front and desired the startled stranger to he at peace, and take 
down hia weapon, aa no harm was intended. 

" Methinks, good sir," he said, " yon are a stranger on our ahores, and 
judging from your style and bearing, I should say some evil fate hath 
cast yon loose on this desolate island." 

" You say well, Sir Chief," said Cyril, " a most untoward mishap 
hath thrown me a helpless atianger on your mercy." 

" Say not untoward, for if it lieth in my power to do you aught that 
is good and hospitable, you shall not have been thrown on thia wild shore 
in vain. The hearth of the Highlander is at all times open to the wan- 
dering or benighted stranger. His board ia at his pleasure ; and he shall 
not forget the courtesy of his race so far as to enquire whom and whence 
he is." 

"Thanks, generous chieftain. I hope I may yet live to repay thy 
kindness. I'm in want of food and shelter for the n^ht. On the mor- 
row I shall be well enough to travel, and you may be able to escort me to 
a place of safety, whence I may return by sea to my native land. I am 



94 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

bnt a poor castaway. Laat night my aHp was driTea on tlie locka in a 
frightful Btorm, and every aoul but myself periahed in the waves." 

Something in these words seemed to give offence. A cloud passed 
over the brow of the chieftain. He stopped and bit his lip in the act of 
auppresaing what he did not deaiie to speak Cyril also saw him play 
with the hilt of his dirk, and he grasped his weapon more fitmly prepared 
to fight for life if that were necessary. Brian the Viking, for it wae no 
other than he, bent his eyes for some time on the noble feattues of tlie 
Irishman, and the firown gradually softened into an expression of great 
t^tdemees — a tenderness which no one could have thoi^ht him capable 
0^ from the habitual sternness of his countenance. There was something 
altogether embartas^ng to Brian in the look of this stranger — sometbing 
he oould neither explain nor undeiatand. It awakened kiiidly and joyons 
memories. It carried hi-m back to his buoyant boyhood. It wafted h-ia 
thonghte away beyond those miserable yeai« of intrigue and subjection to 
the sunny associations of the castle hearth when he was a gay, young 
stripling like bis son Dennond, overflowing with love and exuberance of 
Spirits. It reminded him of the glorious days of his father. All this 
was momentary, however, and his brow became darker with displeasure. 
He glared wildly at the stranger, and "What sought youx galley on our 
shores I" burst savagely from his lips. 

Cyril trembled at this change of tone, and he felt himself growing 

{lale with a rising passion. From no man had he been accuetomed in hia 
ong life to receive such questions without resenting them. The sudden 
chcmge in the muiner of the Highlander was altogether startling and in- 
explicable. He was too well aware that hospit^ty on these shores was 
surrounded with no end of superstition, and one of its unbreakable laws 
waa that no stranger who asked for food or shelter should be required to 
unfold his name or habitation, if he had either, until a certain period of 
time had elapsed, when the host was at liberty to demand an explanation 
from his guest. The question of the chieftain was, on that account, all 
the more strange and unreasonabla The thought struck him that perhaps 
this man was mad and required humouring. He did not look unuke one 
suffering from the afOiction of evil spirits, and there was something alto- 
gether eccentric about hie words and bearing — the peculiar variations of 
his hollow voice, his perpetual restlessness, and the staring brilliancy of 
luB dark eyes. Cyril could not, however, forget that look of speechless 
tenderness when the hard lines about his mouth gave way, the fiirrows 
on his brow relaxed, and the eyes softened with a glistening tear. What 
could all this mean i He reflected for some time, and a flood of harrow- 
ing memories burst madly on his thot^hts. His eye had caught the 
name " Dunterlyne " on the crests of the followers who now began to 
crowd curiously round about him, anticipating that something exciting 
was about to happen. It occurred to him that Dunkerlyne was surely 
the name of the castle built by his brother Francis after he had f,iUen 
under the displeasure of his father. Alas! what sad associations surrounded 
the memory from the bursting of the bonds of family affection to the 
blood-curdling tragedy which cast a hideous halo around the death of a 
brother whom, with eJI hia faults, he loved so welL Cyril's life had been 
a chequered one, and Ihe latest calamity — the loss of his two galleys, hia 
fiuthfnl followers, and his only son — was muck easier to bear thao the 



jb,GoO(^lc 



DEKMOiND. 96 

florrible memory tiiat Mb 'brothet Franoia had acoidently died by hia hand. 

" Dost thoxiL heal I" eaid Brian, quiTStmg vith nge. " What sought 
your galley on our ahoree 1 " 

" Pardon me, Sir Chief," said Cyril, with some hesitation. 

" Nay," said Brian, " answer roe. I will know, and that instantly, 
what was the nature of your expedition t" 

" My country claimed my services, and I went- boldly forth in her 
canae." 

" What cause and what country )" 

" Hear me then, if you will have me speak. My cause was freedom ; 
and, I own it without fear or shame, my country the down-trodden Ik- 
land. To relieye hei &om an unjust oppression I pledged my home, my 
fbllowere, and my lands. While cruising off the coast of Kintyra my tiro 
galleys were attacked by an English squadron. One of my galleys fell a 
victiin to the enemy, but not without bloodshed, and her commander, my 
futhfol Laurence de Gaston, died fighting nobly. The other gaUey, vhich 
I commanded, escaped, but sailing on a sea imperfectly known to us, she 
waa overtaken by a storm, and last night she struck on a lock and found- 
ered with every soul but myselt My son, I fear, is dead, and as for my 
castle it must, by this time, be under siege by the enemy, who appears to 
have learned the plot by some foul tr^chery. To succoui the fiiuco, 
Carrick's noble knoght, I came. In reality to save my country, for Sir 
Boberi), once having established a footing as king of these feur realms, 
agreed to aseist me in a rising for the overthrow of the tyrant Edward in 
Ireland. Bnt now, alas 1 I am undone. My hopes are scattered to the 
four winds of heaven, and here I am a shipwrecked, ruined, and homeless 
old man," 

This speech, spoken with a ^eam of patriotic fiie in his manly eye, 
vifdhly touched the tough old Viking, and Cyril saw the same tender ex- 
pression, which had formerly excited his attrition bo much, play about 
his n^ed features. His mind, however, seemed to be disturbed with 
conflicting 'passions, and the wild repulsive look soon returned. Absorbed 
in thought, he walked silently forward, and signed to the party to follow. 
The same sign was addressed to Cyril, and he marched forwud with the 
rest, but without exchanging a single word. 

On leaching the north end of the island, which was about two miles 
distant from the head of the glen where CyriJ was awakened &om his 
almubeis, the whole party embarked on board some ttansports, which 
carried them to Dnnkerlyne, where they were received with great glee, 
bnt alarm was expressed at the absence of the young chie£ Brian's galley 
vas already anchored in the creek as he had despatched it before him, 
irhile he had gone on a hunting expedition into the island of Seil, where 
he came in contact with the atiangec 

The feast was laid in the great halL The ale was broached and the 
board was laden with the spoils of the chase. Beneath a rude, oaken 
<'anopy, and exalted above the rest of the rovers, sat the Yiking himself. 
His brow was cloudy, and although he drank frequently, there was a 
freezii^; coldness about his manner, and he did not care to mir in the 
mirtb of his meny men. Jailoff the minstrel had not shown himself that 
<lay, aa be was engaged in nursing the youth whom Dermond had 
»ved from the sea. Bdan had not yet learned the fate of his son. So- 



jb,Goo(^lc 



«6 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

thing waa moie firml; fixed in his mind than the idea that Bome nnknovn 

SDWeF watched and guarded this precious youth, and that he vonld yet 
76 to throw off the grinding yoke of John of Lom. With this charmed 
life he was certain no harm could come to Dermond, and that he would 
soon return. Besides he had no fear for the sea, and he was certain of the 
stripling's proweas. With nothing to trouble him regarding Dermond, 
however, there was much in the event of the day. Ho could not refdat 
the conclusion that this survivor from the wreck, who sat as his guest on 
his right hand, was no other than Cyril, the slayer of his gallant fiither, 
and upon whom he had gone forth that morning to wreak the vengeance 
of his liege lord and himself. The rights of hospitality were sacred and 
inviolable, and there was something peculiarly touching about the story 
of this desolate old man. And then tikose featnrea ! He could not help 
oontinually gazing on them. They struck a chord in his heart which had 
lot^; been silent, and the vibrations thrilled his whole soui A madness 
oame npon h im as he looked into that face, which reminded him so much 
of what his father was. He could not explain the likeness, and he was 
not aware of any relationship. He should like to know more about his 
guest before he thought of delivering him into the hands of John of Lom. 
The Bccounte of the fight in which his father fell at Eathland by the 
hand of Cyril, were altogether hazy and in some measure untrustworthy. 
He should like to know more about this dreadful tragedy before he put 
forth a finger to mar a face which shone so much like that' of him who 
was long since dead. 

Brian had time for these reflections so long as the rest of the company 
continued to eat with the gravity of tired and hungry men, but as the 
ale began to circulate more freely, the mirth broke forth amidst a baxbai' 
ous jargon of Norse and Gaelic and peala of echoing laughter, 

" rill a hom to the health of our chief," eaid one who was pretty fill 
gone in liquor, " and soon may a strong arm reatore the ancient glory of 
Dmikerlyne." 

" Skoal to the Chieftain," resounded through the hah as everyone felt 
a penetrating glance from heneath the canopy fixed sternly upon him, 
clraving every soul and analysing every secret thought. 

Scarce had the shouting ceased when a courier from Duuolly was 
ushered into the hall, bringing intelligence of the outrage committed by 
young Dermond and the punishment inflicted by his liege lord. It was 
also announced that the gathering of the chieftains, which was prevented 
owing to the storm of the previous night, would take place on the evening 
of the next day, when further despatches were expected from the Earl of 
Pembroke regarding the strength and whereabouts of the rebel Bruce. 
Meanwhile the faithful men of the Isles were strongly exharted to keep a 
vigilant watch along the shores and among the mountains, as it was ex- 
pected that although Eruco was gallantly supported by a number of ad- 
herents, he would be beaten from the fields into the Highland fastnesses, 
and in aU likelihood compelled to take to the sea, Brian the Viking was 
also particularly warned against allowing the Irish ChieftMu, Cyril of 
£athland, to land succours for the troops of the rebel knight 
(To be Contirvaed.) 



jb,Goo(^lc 



JOHN MACDONAID, THE LOCHABER BAED, AND HIS TntE8, 

JoHH Maodon&ld — Lorn, or Manndacb, as he vaa called — waa a eoioQ of 
the House of Keppoch ; of the branch known aa " 9lioehd a bhrithair bn 
Bhine." His father, Domhall Mao Iain mhic Dhomhaill mbtc Ailcan, was 
a distii^tiiBhed memb«i of the clan, and one of theii leaders when they 
took the field. 

The year of bis birth is not known ; but judging from bis poema, 
wEich give us a good deal of accurate chronological data, it must have 
been very early in the seventeenth century. He seems to have possessed, 
as the following anecdote shows, a precocious mind, and to have given 
early indications of future celebrity. He accompanied his father Domhall 
'M.aa Iain and a party of his men to Inverness. After stabling their 
steeds, in which the boy took an active part, he joined the company where 
they were quartered for the night round a blazing fire. A stranger who 
happened for the nonce to be one of them, observing something peculiar 
abont the appearance of our embiyo bard, made a remark probably not 
very complimentary ; whereupon the boy replied imprompta ; — 
Brettb laatk locbdsob 

Brelth air loth pheallagBoh 
Ifa giolan broao-lnirgiieMb. 

" He Judges rashly who judges an untrained colt, or a bare-legged youth " 
— a saying that since has passed into a proverb among Highlanders. His 
&ther, who listened with evident satisfaction to the ready retort, remarked 
— " '8 math thn fhein, Iain, ni thu gleus fhathast." (Well done, John, 
you'll be a man yet.) Possibly hif ready wit, or some peculiarity in hia 
fecial appearance, gained for him the soubriquet of "Lorn;" as the High- 
landers were rather addicted to giving names, because of oddities or ex- 
cellencies, as the case might be, " Manndach " means stuttering or stam- 
mering ; and aa we find from a passage of arms between him and an 
Assynt bard, the appellation originated in some defect or peculiarity of 
utterance, which was probably born with bim. On some occasion he had 
to be present at one of the Inverness annual markets, where O'Bryan the 
Aasynt bard was also in attendance, and who evidently bore no good 
will to John. Seeing him dressed in Lochaber tartan, and so guessing 
that he hailed from thence, he inquired if he knew Iain Manndach, Our 
bard replying that he did, he enquired if he would be the bearer from 
him of a " soraidh " to that well known individual. " Soraidh " means 
compliments or farewell, as the case may he ; though on this occasion it 
happens to be something else than complimentary. John of course re- 
plied he would he the willing bearer of the " soraidh," and so O'Bryan 
begins aa follows : — 

Thoir loraidh ga T&Ir Hanndanh asm, 

Bog mhearlaoh nan t&ch bhreanndalaali, 

"S trio a tbng am mfsrlacb ud am mcftna a taMh 'e 'a abnt. 

B'e fann fir a Bhraighe ad. 

Da thaobh Loohia'l 'ua Anpitig ; 

^ipdh fiUii lan dqn bcathaii <U>ni', mu wrrad ua dh' Ihai 



google 



99 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

The last line has leference to a qoatiel la vhioh oar bard nnititeiiUonall; 

and unfortunately wonnded his brother; allusion to which atung him 
sorely, in addition to the personal reflections upon his character, and that 
of hifl kin. Waiting not for more of the " aoraidh," John replied in- 
Htanter — 

A tbMDEi^iJh liodaek mhlerbbnilleaeh, 

Naoh ttiig tba bbi » d' dhionAUadb. 

'S mithlnh teuinulh ga club ■bnlotklilb Uti, 

'5b faigbeadh Brian a Uor. 

Ob* b' obnboir a, ghoid gbsamn ml, 

Oba d' ohmr ml m'nljpi aan esUldh iln, 

Ch* mbo oban e oIuitIj arm, 'toirt mbolt ■ cart ahro. 

Aa the next stanza shows, they are also far from agreed anent the politi- 
cal aspects of those times. This may account somewhat for theii baidio 
antagonism : — 

Oe d' '■ oun ■ itlgb fo d' ghlnlDean tba, 

Our calms atdgb fa d' abnilein tba, 

'S ta troiCoar naa leaobd dntbobaDna a raio an orua aic BTot. 

The remaining Terses are so abosiTe, we elect not to quote them. Allow 
ing, however, he traverses rules of ^>od taste and courtesy, we mu^t admit 
that as an instance of bardie ready wit and " spur of the moment " reply, 
John shows uncommon cleverness and power of repartee. 

In 1639 the Campbells of Breadall»ne made a raid upon the Braea of 
Lochaber, and drove away large herds of cattle. In resentment of this 
ioj'iry, a hundred and twenty Lochaber men with their chief, Angus 
Odh^ of Keppoch, at their head, made a similar raid upon Bread&lbuie 
— raised a large " ereach," and had driven the cattle homewards as fkr as 
Killin, where a battle was fought, long and sadly memorable in the his- 
tory of the Ereadalbane family. The day on which the Lochaber men 
were wending their way homewards with their ill-gotten booty, happened 
to be the wedding day of one of the daughters of Sir Kobert Campbell of 
that Ilk — ancestor of the Breadalbane fwnily then residing at his seat of 
I'inlaraig, west end of Loch Tay, News of the outrage came speedily to 
the ears of the weddii^ party — who by-and-bye, &om the windows of the 
castle, saw the stolen kine aa they were driven along the brow of Strone- 
achlachain — right opposite. Flushed with wine, and indignant at the 
boldness of the freebooters, the gentlemen of the party armed themselves, 
and with the bridegroom at their bead, sallied forth to chastise the mar- 
auders — a foolhardy deed and a sad ending to the marriage festivitie& 
There was a deadly ^ht. The Lochaber men had the advantage of 
ground, and did great execution among the Campbells before they came 
to close quarters. In this skirmish there were slain eighteen cadets of 
the House of Breadalbane — " ochd odhachan deug Thigh Bheallaich " — 
besides the brid^room, whose name tradition has not handed down. 
The loss of the Lochaber men was not so large, but included their chief, 
Angus Odhar, and Donald Mac Iain, the bard's father, The bard himself 
was preset on this occasion, and commemorates the action in the lament 



Knag lin obeann Loob-a-labha, 

Si abnir miie bho aighear, 

PL' fbag mi Aonghaa iia liiidb« lan aiaioh. 



Google 



THE lOOHABEE E4ED. 99 

Oa d' (bag ml iTiQ m' athdr, 

Auh Ka lot 'riDD an oludbuiinli niu d' iiirae>D. 

Thia was the beginning of & loag and deadly feud between the men of 
Breadalhane and those of Brae-Lochaber. 

As late as 1681, we find from the Breadalhane papers in the Black- 
boot of Taymoath that a bond of manrent was given by GUleasba, chief 
of Keppoch, to John Glks, first Earl of Breadalbano ; " Hiich as Ceppoch's 
predecessors gave to the Earl's predeceasora." Such hoEds were common 
in those turbulent times, and show the loose condition of society sinue 
that binding obligations of this natuie became necessary, to allay mutual 
animosities, as well as for mutual defence, la the present instance the 
bond is significant as binding Keppoch " to restrain all the inhabitanta of 
Brae-Lochabei, and all of the name of Macdonell, from committing lob- 
beries within the Earl's bounds." 

In appreciation of eervices rendered by our bard to the Stuart cause j 
and which also shows the estimation in which his abiUties were held by 
pohticians, he was chosen to fill the ofiice of Gaelic Poet Laureate to Charles 
IL, of whom he was an enthusiastic euppoiter. It was owing to timely 
iofonDation given by him that Montrose, Charles's Lieutenant, gained his 
decisiTe victory at Liverlochy, in the winter of 1646. Montrose, formerly 
a Covenanter, but alienated by the preference shown to the Duke of 
A^ll, mortally hated the Campbells ; and never lost an opportunity of 
inflicting injury upon them." He burnt down every farm steading 
iiom the fords of Lyon to the Braes of Glenurchy ; and then passed 
on to Aigyle, a great portion of which he wasted with fire and eword. 
TheTeailer be pursued his course northwards by the great Caledonian 
Valley, and got as iar as the camping ground of Leitir-nan-lub, near Fort- 
AugostuB, when he was overtaken by a man in hot haste, informing him 
that Argyll was in pursuit of him ; and resting his army by the old Castle 
of Inverlochy. Ihis was none else than our bard ; who assured the 
Marquis that if he retraced his steps by a route he described — the bard 
himself being guide — he would have an easy victoiy. Montrose hesitated, 
but his Lieutenant, Sir Alexander Macdonald, who knew the poet, fell in 
at once with his suggestions, and urged the Marquis to act upon them. 
This was eventually agreed to, with results such as are well known. Ac- 
cording to tradition Montrose himself was not personally present at the 
battle of Inverlochy ; the troops being commanded by his Lieutenant, 
" Alastair MacCoUa." This seems to gain confirmation from the fact that 
our poet, who was present a spectator of the fight, makes no mention of 
Montrose, while he extols to the aktes the skill and prowess of his Lien- 
t«nant, MacColla. John Lorn proved himself a skilful guide on thia 
occasion. He knew the district well, and leading tlie troops by unfre- 
quented routes over the hills to the south of the Great Glen, they found 
themselves on a Sabbath morning in November 1645, right in front of 
Aigjle's forces, in a position in which the latter could neither decline 
batde nor yet fight to advantage. Sir Alexander — so goes the tale — 
would have our bard accompany him to the fight sword in hand. The 
latter, however, declined the proposal, on the plea that it was his office 
to celebrate the coming victory in song, which of course he could not do 
iq tlie eyent of hie falling in battle. The plea was accejited, and the -' 



100 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

poet vas a spectatoi of the action, vHch, as he tells tis in one of his beet 

poems, he witoessed from the top of Inverlochy Castla Hia refusal to 
take an active part in the fray has been ascribed to cowardice. We see 
no good grounds for this charge considering the part he acted on other 
similar occasiona Besides, he was probably right in thinking he would 
do more service to the cause by bis songs than by his awoid. 

Angus Odhar Maedonald of Keppoch, slain at the skirmish of Strone- 
achlachain, was succeeded in the chieftainship by his uncle, Alastaii 
Buidhe Maedonald. His elder brother, Ponald, was the rightful chief ; 
but on account of the prominent part he acted in the wars of Montroae, 
he fell under the ban of the authorities and was obliged to go into exile. 
Hi" sons, Alexander and Konald, who were minors, wore sent abroad to 
be educf^ied, and the man^ement of the estate and clan devolved upon 
their cousins as nearest of kin. They proved unfaithful to their cha^ ; 
conspired with interested partizans to secure Uie chieftainship ; and as- 
sassinated their uncle Donald's sons at a feast given in honour of their 
arrival at their ancestral home. But for the action of our bard, almost 
single handed, they would have gained their object Deeply touched by 
the sad fate of the murdered youths, he exerted all his personal influence 
anfl the power of his muse, to bring the culprits to immediate juatice. 
" Murt na Ceapaich," " The Keppoch Murder," is a poem of great power 
and pathos, and describes in melting strains the melancholy fate of his 
young kanmen : — 

"S *Dt] dM»tbmni& gsorr n&Inn, bhndl an t-earaliftU om ffOi, 
S mi ouldb daq aoip geslla mil am faU fo'm hrot. 
Bhi no lamhui'ift araobbAsh 'a dei^h bht tiuMgadh bhnr lot, 
"Bbl gftV ouii ann tn oiite, tnlm ii miite ml "noobd. 

As might be expected, he was mercilessly persecuted by the perpetratois 
of the dark deed, and to save himself, had to flee his native country and 
find shelter in £intail under the wii^ of the Earl of Seafoith. To this 
expatriation he alludes in the poem, of which the following are the two 
fiist stanzas : — 

HI ga n'fboiTBdfa a Olsohug, 
'9 ml enn mbanas kbh altreabb, 
13 auik a nutl * tba faltniahulb ono. 



'S lad am borail gm 'n niaJoh lad ooIf, 

From this retreat be poured forth a torrent of mingled invective and ap- 
peals, such aa very soon created a powerful public opinion in favour of the 
cause he espoused. Taking prompt advantage of this, he visited Inver- 
garry Castle, the seat of the Macdonell chieftain, raised to the Peerage 
by Charles IL, by the title of Lord Macdonell and Aros. His represen- 
tations failed, however, in prevailing upon this chief to take the initiative 
in his favour ; but he advised him to appeal to Sir Alexander Maedonald 
of Sleat, as Captain of Clanranald. To make way to the good graces 
of Sir Alexander, he composed the song beginning — 

A bhaan Inuatoh ut wtop dboinn 'a lion an onpa le tolai. 

Ma 'i a branndal na beoir i. 

'N d«ofli "» air Oaptain OUoinn Doiuhnail, '■ ur Sir Alaatair Og tbif '« "n gfaftol. 



TflE LOCHABER BARD. lOt 

This appeal waa followed by a personal visit from our bard ; which, hack<;d 
as he was hy the infltience of Jjord Maodouell, had the desired result. 
Sir Alexander lost no time in representing the case to Goverumont, who 
authorised him to bring the perpetrators of the murder to immediate jus- 
tice. The carrying out of the enterprise, which needed both secrecy and 
afcill, was entrusted hy Sir Alexander to his son, Archibald — An Ciaran 
Halmch — a soldier and a poet ; and in whose abilities and courage his ia- 
ther reposed great confidence. In concert witn the poet, they laidtheir plana 
so well tliat the assassins were surprised in their beds, and had summary 
justice inflicted upon them — seven in aU. Ey dawn next day their heads 
were laid at the feet of Lord Macdonell at Invergarry Uastle. On their 
way to Invergarry, the heads were washed at a foan^in, a few miles west 
from the castJe, which to this day, in remembrance of the event, bears the 
name of " Tobairnan-ceann" — the fountain of the heads ; and over which 
a chieftain representative of Lord Macdonell erected a monument, with 
the following Gaelic inscription by thq late eminent poet and scholar, Mr 
Ewen MaclauchJan of Aberdeen, It is in Ossianic verse, and will, we are 
BUK, be appreciated by readers of the Celtic Magazine, who nnderataud 
G»diG : — 

Fblr Mtnir thig faUf Hgat leobb, 

8«ul uc oeardis an D6 Dhoain. 

EUd ri diul na oeilij a dli'f liag 

A, Ohrapach da Uraicb f haxir. 

Snoioii ua railltlab lion an Eig 

Hu bbord eibbinn mm fleadh fial, 

S nbeaiigaich iad na sean 's aa b hig 

SaD aoB lor Da'm fuil gua Khiomh. 

Hhosgail oonnieb an i-ard TUriath, 

UrBSinn dhian nan comhlaa ccuaidb, 

Moi-Fbear cblomu Domhouill an fhraoioh, 

LeambaDD nan eaobd, Oraobb nam boadh, 

Db'ian e 'i obaidb Dioghalt ca I^ia 

Mar bbeithlr bbenmnaob nan ndul. 

Oblao i dieam a dhealbb an fboill 

'8 UiQg Ian dnaia mar tbolll Ba Rniomb. 

Ltmb riutsa 'gborm-fbuaran gbrinn, 

Db'JDiiBlaideaidb leaobd oitiu can IJlb, 

"S aig oaauD a Ubaiaiiisb Hub, 

Ihilgeadh iad ait lai a dbOia. 

Oir^ cnig fiobead bUadbna deog 

Ihriall nio^n apeni 'o dbeaa go taath, 

Bbo 'n gb^naeadh Tobalr-Ban-iWBDn 

Da 'n t-ahrnthan lo an oainat au t-ahlaatgb, 

Hlae "n aeaobdamh tb'air dbeiob glAm 

Do tbreamb uaiasil an laoiob tbriin, 

Uaa-mliio-AUatair m'aiam gbailitba 

Flath (dilann Dombnuil can lar £achd, 

Thog mi 'n Uaobd'a air I6111 an laoiu 

Faiig air DasobBn a ohlii) bbaaia, 

Mar mbaa* do obeftnD Btnis ana Triatb, 

'3 gun cuimhnicbb an guiomb ri luattaa. 

From Invergarry, John and his men wended their way to Inverness, 
by the direction of Lord Macdonell, who would have theli action indorsed 
1^ magisterial approval. A local tradition records an anecdote of this 
journey, illustrative of the stem satirical character of our poet. The man 
who carried the creel with the heads, on arrival at the Inn of Cluanmore 
in Glen-Urquhart, threw it carelessly off, whereupon there was a rattling 
of the h^s. Jotm exclaimed, on hearing it, " Ud I ud I nach cord sibh I 
nach coid sibh 1 's gur oloinn ohaiidean sibh !" (What ! wont you agt«e 



jb,GoO(^lc 



l02 tHE CELTIC MAGA^imE. 

—wont you agree, you being ao neat akin)— a sayii^ that passed into a 
proverb among Hi^ilandera. " Mar a thuirt Iain Manndach ria na cmn, 
nacb cord sibh, 'a gur cloinn chairdean sibh !" 

The restoration of tbe Stuart dynasty in the person of Charles 11., 
was the realization of the bard'a dearest wishes. He schemed for it He 
fought for it He sang for it; and now that it is an accomplished fact, 
he is jubilant over it : — 

Bbo 'n bba ihCMiDB oim a ohlolnntuiD, 

Oed bu t«uiB a bba ohnbig oim, _ 

Oq'd do (bioDDdaidh a obuibble mar b'aill leiiin. 

The event aflaored to him his small, but to him, valuable Laureate emolu- 
ments which, during his eubawiuent expatriation by the murderers of 

his chieftain kinsmen, were his sole reliable support. It also relieved 
him from the toil, dangers, and anxieties of the campaignii^; life which he 
constantly hved during the unsettled years that preceded the Eeatoration. 
On various grounds the event was a bright spot in the life of our bard. Ac- 
cordingly, the Eevolution of 1688, bo fatal to his favourite dynasty, 
brought into play afresh, aU the old energy, both in action and song, lu 
his poem on William and Mary, wo have aU. the former fire — the old bit- 
ter biting, indignant saUj and aatire in fuU play, William he compwea 
to the recreant Absolom, and anticipates for him a similar fate — the wish 
no doubt being fetiier to the thought : — 

Bba mao aig Hlgb Dubbidb 

'S ba deaa Kill air oesDn ilaaigh e. 

Ohaidh e 'd aghaidb on atbaii 

Am fear ia ineuia ga bbaaireadh, 

'Nnaii a agoaileadb am blar ud. 

Thog Dia paigbeadb a dbuaia dba. 

>8 on' bn dhroob dbnlQe oloitiD' e, 

Cbroob a. oboill' ut a gbraaig e. 

Accordingly, when in 1689, Visoount Dundee took the field in behoof of 
the fellen dynasty, he found in Jolrn Lom one of his most active and en- 
thufliafitie coadjutors. All his powers of persuasion, and his talent for 
song, were now as ever exerted in the cause ; and advanced in years as he 
must have been, he accompanied the Ldchaber men to the field of KiUie- 
crunkie— Einrory, as the Highlanders say. Theii march, their successive 
encampments, and their prowess in the field, are given by him in his best 
style in his " Latha Eaonniaridh." The fall of Dundee he laments in ten- 
der tearful strains, foreseeing, as by a sort of inspiration, the disastrous 
ooiwequenoea to the cause he had so much at heart : — 

OwJmard an dgb, kh'b <I° tbait tbn aa bhUi, 

'6 ba agatbaob do leimb Boa an d' tbaiaig an Q&!c. 

<8 e do bb&i a Dbnndee, dh'tbag mia' fo tbrom ligbe, 

Oboir toll aa mo ohridbe, 'b db'fbag loigb'air mo ghraaidh, 



In another song, commemorative of the same action, he describes both 
the manner and the time of Dundee's death. The common account is 
that Claverhouse fell at the close of the battle ; that the fatal bullet struck 
him under the arm as he waved it to xage forward a division of cavaky, 
to complete the rout. John Macdonald's account reverses all this j and 



THE LOCSABER BAllt). 103 

present as he peraonally was, anJ therefore conversant with thu sveuta to 

the day, we muat give great weight to hia testimony. AccorcJing to liiiii, 

Claverhouse fell at the commeiiceuaeQt of the actioE, not at the close of it; 

A ihAr GhUbhArB nan each, 

Ba eheann-Ceodha' tba air i«aohd, 

Un ohreaoh leir an tin gUachd mar ilh' ^rioh dhalt. 

And as we see fivDm the next stanza he was struck oot under the arm but 
in the pelvis ; when, as tradition says — to use the modest language of 
Scripture, — he was like Saul in the cave, "coverii^ his feet." In this 
posture, which the ex^nciea of the moment compelled him to assume: 
the lower part of his body was necessarUy divested of his proof armour, 
and the &tal bullet did ite work So says our poet : — 

Bn lauir thelne dhoibh d'fhearg, 

Gui an d'Siriob mi-ihealbb. 

Bhnail am peileir fo tarball t-Hdidh thu. 

The tradition that his body was stripped, and left naked on the battle- 
field, is also corroborated by the following stanza of the same song : — 

Ba mhor aoi^adb do IjLmb 

Fo BOO oUoKoide b&r. 

<S do ohoip rtochduidh geal bdn gun tideadh air. 

If we then accept the testimony of our bard, the story that he was buried 
in the Atbole vault in full armour is a supposition, or an invention of 
partizanship, to hide the truth as to the fate of his remains. We are not 
to suppose that all the soldiers and camp followers even of his own army 
knew him so as to recognise him among the dead. There is, therefore, great 
probability in the averment, that Claverhouse was stripped of his raiment 
and armour by the hovering harpies of this well-fought field, and that hia 
remains were consigned to the dust with those of the common soldiers of 
both armies. 

The fote of his wife, who survived him, is somewhat singular, and is as 
follows: — She was the daughter of William, son and heir of WiUiam, Earl 
of DondonelL After the death of Claverhouse, she married Viscount 
Kilsyth, like her first husband, a strong paitizan of the House of Stuart 
Subsequent to the defeat of Sherif&nuir they fled to Holland, where two 
years after (1717) she and her infant son were smothered by the falling 
of a roof. Their remains were embalmed, sent to Scotland, and buried in 
the family vault at Kilsyth where, strange enough, they were accidentally 
discovered within recent years, in a state of prarfeot preservation. Stu- 
dents from the University of Glasgow, actuated by curiosity, opened the 
vault, long out of use for burying purposes. One of them, seeing a coffin 
with I^y Kilsyth's name and the date of her death, removed the decayed 
wood^i lid ; and on lifting the leaden covering undomeath, found her body 
and that of her child as entire as the day they were entombed " Every 
feature," says Di fiennie, "nay, the very shroud is as clean and fresh, and 
the ribbons as bright as the day they were laid in their coffin. It wonld 
not be easy for a stranger to distinguish with his eye, whether Lady Kil- 
syth was dead or alive." 

Of the history of our poet subsequent to the KUliecranMe campaign 
we know but very little, either from tradition or from«the productions of 
liii moM \ though we may rest assured he moved on the old luwa, and 



h, Google 



104 The CELTIC MAGAZllfE. 

was energetic and loyal a« ever, in behoof of hia favourite dynasty. Hia 
elegy on the death of the chiof, Alastaii Dabh Macdondl of Glengairy, 
ehewB that be survived the batUe of Killiecrankie twenty-five yeais. Ala- 
staii Dubh of Glengarry fought at Sheriifinuir, and lived foi some time 
thereafter ; so that John Lom must have died at a very advanced time of 
life ; in all probability when he was over a hundred yeara of ^e. ' When 
be began life, James eat upon the throne of England ; and when he de- 
parted this life, G«oTge I. reigned ; bo, besides Cromwell, he lived long 
enough to eee seven monarchs swaying the English sceptre— and the last 
of the seven, the representative of the dynasty, destined permanently to 
supplant that, which it was bis life-long effort and wish to consolidate- 

Although, as we see from several of his productions, John Lom was 
capable of powerful emotion, yet his poetry is not the poetry either of feeling 
or pathos. Ilis muse was exerted almost exclusively for political and warrior 
ends ; which accounts for, if it does not excuse, a certain element of sa- 
vagery which pervades some of hie productions, as " An Ciaran Mabach" 
and "Latha Iimerlochaidh." Kor doesheappeartohavestudied'euphony; 
nor are his measures always exact, unless we are to suppose them affected 
in course of oral transmission, which is quite possible. But for command of 
language, vivid, graphic description, power of satire or praise as suited his 
purpose, few of our Highland poets have equalled him. Hia poetry also 
shews extensive knowledge of history, poHtics, and Scripture; and as is 
seen from bis song against " the Union," be was not only conversant with 
politics in general, but even with the individual opinions and proclivities of 
ihe actors in the dramas of his time. How he acquired such iuformatioi), 
living as he did, in a remote locality, is a marvel. It shows, however, 
what can be done by a master mind, under even unfavourable ciicum- 
etsuces. 

He was married and had a &mily. One of his sons inherited a con- 
siderable measure of his father's poetical talent. The Kepixwh family, oi 
which he was a cadet, were notable for their bardic gifts. " Gilleasba na 
Ceapaicb," and "Colla na Ceapaich," were bajds as well aa chiefs, Julia of 
Keppoch~-Sile Ni-mhic-Eaonuill, was a poetess not much inferior to John 
Lom himself. He is buried in Tom-aingil in firae-Lochaber, where, until 
lately, the people showed his grave to tlie curious. 

Na ShicMdh an nid fo na dIdJo. 
Iba gaol an LeoutMitui '■ 



THE ANTIQXIART, — Just as we were going to press, we received 
the first number of this New Monthly. A hurried glance through its 
pages at once convince us that its contents are varied and interesting 
Its Editor, Edward Walford, M.A., author of the " County Families," ia 
well ibnown in the antiqOaiiati and genealogical world, and we have no 
doubt that he will make the "Antiquary " a success, surrounded as he ia 
by such a galaxy of eminent antiquarian contributors. There is a field 
to be taken up, and the " Antiquary," so far as can be judged from a first 
number, promises.to occupy it well We, however, desiderate any Scotch 
or HighlftTi ij contnbutions oi contributors. 

Do,l,.cdbyGoO(^lc 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 

ni. 

Cafb Breton. 
If I remember correctly I parted company with the reader in my last at 
Fort Molgiave, ou the Straits of Canso, on my way to Cape Bretoa, where 
I arrived, after having crossed the Straits by a ferry only a little mote 
than a mile wide, on the 22d of September, thus satisfying a life-lung 
ambition ; for ever since I began to think, I looked forward to the day 
when I should see this island, made interesting to me ^m child- 
.hood days in consequence of several relatives having emigrated there 
when I waa but a child. I felt as if I were a new man in a new world, 
and a most beautiful and delightful world it was. I crossed pretty eailj 
in the day, and a family of Grants from Glenmoiiiston having diaooveied 
that I was there, instated upon payii^ me every attention, and upon my 
delivering a lecture on my return, which, in the end, I agreed to do. 
After a pleasant day spent in the village of Hawkesbury, I hired al con- 
veyance to cany me over a neck of land 13 miles across from the Straits 
of Canso to West Bay, on the Big Bras D'or Lake, from which I got to 
my destination on Boulardrie laiand, by the steamer Neptune, a handy 
little boat, commanded by Captain Howard Beatty, a most agreeable 
fellow, and a genuine Scot. Our countrymen are in this country at the 
top of eveiythiDg, and I was not surprised to find that the purser was 
also a Scot and a H^hlander, Archibald Macdonald, a native of Arisajg. 
The sail on these magnificent lakes was most delightful, the scenery re- 
minding one very much of Loch-Ness and its surroundings, with the 
difference that the Bras D'or Lake would not miss Loch-Ness oat of it, 
and that the Invemess-shiie mountains are on a much grander scale than 
those of Cape Breton. I never enjoyed anything bo much as this sail, 
though possibly that may be attributed in some degree to the fact that I 
was jnst realising, and, as it were, drinking in the ambition and object of 
forty years. On the right we leave the little Bras D'or and Chnstmaa 
Me, while on the left we call at and pass Baddeck, a pretty village, the 
capital of Victoria county, which carries on a considerable trade with 
ITewfoundland in cattle and dairy produce. In a few hours I land at 
Fraser's Wharf, so called after the son of the late Eev. Mr Fraser, a 
native of Dingwall, for many years minister ou the Island of Boulardrie. 
John A, Fraser, a first cousin of the Bev. Mr BaiUie, ministei of 
Gairloch, was the first man I met on landing, and he at once volun- 
teered to drive me to where my friends lived, about two and a-haU' 
miles distant I was soon among my friends, whom I found in much 
better oircomatancea tlian I anticipated, and as their position is a fair 
illustration of that of many others in Cape Breton, I may just as well 
describe it. Their father, Alexmider Grrant, amigiated &om Gairloch in 
1841, having only a very few pounds in his possession. He had been in 
the British navy for five years, in viri^ue of which he obtained a free giant 
<d 200 aciefl on bis uriTtd in Cape Breton, He, at the same time, to<^ up 



jb,Goo(^lc 



106 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

another lot of equal extent, both, then completely covered with a dense 
forest Some of hia family were grown up, and he at once set to work to 
clear a pat«h to plant a few potatoes in. The first thing he did was to 
erect a hut in the forest. The snow lay thick on the ground. A suffi- 
cient space was cleared to enable the fiumily to sit round a fire placed in 
the centre of the hat, and sleep around it at night, while the bank of 
enow was left at one end for the poiposes of a pillow, with the buBhes of 
trees as the only ooTering to screen them from the wintry elements. 
Nev6T mind, they passed t£e winter without suffering any injury to their 
hardy constitutions ; next year tbey built a l<^-hoaae, and they set to 
work in right earnest to clear the forest. The old man and the family 
prospeied. His two sons now possess 200 acres each of excalletit land, 
contiguoos to one another, with about twenty head of cattle, thirty sheep, 
and two pair of horses each. They live in good, substantially built houses 
of nine or ten rooms each, furnished and carpeted equal to any fannOT'e 
house in the county of Inverness. I was shown deposit receipts for oon- 
•idenble sums in bank, and notes for various amounts lent out at interest 
to tradesmen in Uie district. Here I met several from my native parish 
of Gairloch, and other parts of Wester Boss, iu easy oircnmstanceB, pos- 
sessing their own farms in free heritage, and as happy as they can wish, 
l^eir religioaa wants are well snpphed, since the death of the Rev. Mr 
Fraser, by a fine Highlander, and a good, solid, common-sense preacher, 
the Bev. Mr Drammond, a native of Aigyleshire. I heard him preach 
two sermons, one in GaeUc and the other in English. In the former he 
WBB really eloquent, and, unlike many of the Gaelic sermons often preached 
at home, his effort »:hjbited evidence of having been carefully prepared j 
while it was fluently, and earnestly delivered. Mi Drummond I found 
to be a great favourite with his people, and, though a genuine, true-blue 
Presbyteri^ by no means a narrow-minded bigot. 

From Boulwdrie my relatives were able to dnve me to North Sydney, a 
distance of fourteen m^, in a carriage and pair, while, had tbey remained 
at home in Melvaig, they would probably lw.ve never got beyond a pair 
of cieeU, In North Sydney I delivered my lecture on " Flora Macdonald 
and Prince Charles." I was well received. Next momii^ I found my- 
•eli famous in the local papers, and in tiio evenii^ I delivered anothw in 
South Sydney, the ancient capital of Cape Breton — the Hon. Sheriff 
FerguBSon, a native of Uist, and a perfect Celtic encyclopasdia, doing me 
the honour of presiding, while the Hon. K F. Moseley, Speaker of the 
Nova Scotia House of Commons, proposed a vote of thanks in a tasteful, 
appreciative speech, and kindly invited me to spend a few days at his 
house. My time, however, was limited, and I was obliged, with some 
regret, to decline his preferred hospitahty. Here I also met some 
warm-hearted and well-to-do Celt& Among them, James Mackenile, a 
native of Lochcarron, owning the &ieet drapery establishment in Sydney, 
having larger aooommodation than any shop in Inverness. His bettra- 
half I found to be a daughter of t^ better-known James Mackenae, 
merchant and banker, Stomoway. Another prominent and prosperons 
Gael was Duncan Mackenzie, descended on the one side from the Sand 
(Udrigle) Mackeniiee, and on the other from the family of Gruinard ; as 
also Kenneth R. Mackenzie, a leading grocer in North Sydney, &om 
Loehouron, descended from the Mackenziea of Fsifboin and DavDoluiu- 



i^Googlc 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 107 

Nine-tenths of the population of Cape Breton are Scottish EighlEindeis, 
nearly all of whom still speak the Gaelic language. There are only two 
Presbyterian congregationB in the whole Island in which Gaelic is not 
pTeached at least once a day. There are a great many Highland Catholics 
in the Island, who live on the niosi friendly terms with their Pree- 
byterian neighbours. It Ib divided into four counties, ntuned respectively, 
Invemess, ^chmond, Victoria, and Cape £reton. Farming is generally 
backward, except in the county of InvemeBs, which ia farmed equal to 
any county in Nova Scotia, but in spite of that, Cape Breton took the 
first prize for the best oats exhibited at the Provincial Exhibition of all 
the product of Nova Scotia, held during my visit to that place. 

The Island is 100 milea long by, in one part, 85 wide, having an area 
of 3120 sqnare miles. The fi^t settlement was made in 1712 by tbs 
French. It had, however, been discovered by the Frencli navigator 
Cabot ae early as 1497, but previous to 1700 it waa only visited by fiir 
traders and fishermen. After they lost Kova Scotia proper, or that part 
of it known as Acadia, the French began to colonise Cape Breton, and to 
build the great fortifications at Looislturg, which, while in the possession 
of the French, continued for many years to be the capital of the Island. 
The fortress was long considered impregnable, but war having been de- 
clared between France and Great Britain, Governor Shirley of Massachus' 
setts formed the design of taking the stronghold ; and sailing from Boston 
with a powerful expedition for that purpose, he arrived at the Straits of 
Canso on the 6th of April 1745. The reinforcements sent by the French 
■were captured by the British admiral, and the great fortress was ultimately 
forced to capitulate. The Acadians sent to France for aid ; an expedition 
-was got np to reconquer Acadia and Cape Breton, but the hostile fleet met 
with severe and terrible disasters. It vaa vrxecbed and dispersed by 
violent storms, the crews wore thinned to an alarming extent by epide- 
mics, the expedition accomplished nothing, and only a smalt remnant re- 
turned to Fiance. By the treaty of Aix-IarChapelle, in 1748, the Inland 
was restored to its original owners, but it was soon after finally and for 
ever attached to the British crown. 

It is very much indented with bays, and every part of its interior is 
accessible by water. The part to the north of the Big Bras D'or Lake, 
which divides the Island into two, ia high, bold, and steep, while the 
■oathem h»lF is low, intersected by numerous inlets, diversified by moder- 
ate elevations, and rising gradually from its interior shore on little Bras 
D'or Lake until it terminates in abrupt clifb toward the Atlantic Ocean. 
The highest elevation in the southern half is only 800 feet above the 
level of the sea, while towards North Cape, in the northern section, the 
mountains rise to an altitude of 1800 feet Big Bras D'or Lake is fiO 
miles long by 20 wide, and varies in depth from 12 to 60 fathoma It 
ia one of the safest harbours in the world, and thousands of British ships 
have, in the past, obtained in it their cargoes of timber. Salt springs are 
found on the coast. The climate Taries, but ia not so cold as on the ad- 
joining continent of Nova Scotia. Yegetation is rapid. Maize and com 
are produced in considerable quantities, hut not to % sufficient extent for 
home consumption. Quarries of loarble, granite, limefkine, and nlates, 
ue plentiful throughout the Island. Gypsum and salt arb ^Iso to be 
fonnd, and coal is abundant and of a very superior quality. ^9 Ism 



108 "tHE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

than 120 square milea are occupied with coal of the very best description, 
while there aie rich deposits of superior iion ore and gold. The leland 
has always been celebrated for its fiitheries. In 1871 its products were as 
followB :— Dried cod, 126,275 cwt; scale fish, 64,026 do.j pickled mac- 
kerel in barrels, 19,226 do.; pickled herrings, 39,266 do.; pickled salmon, 
944 do.; other pickled fish, 3363 do.; oil of aU kinds in gaUona, 74,625, the 
total estimate at considerable over a quarter of a million sterling, and the 
Island employing no leas than 5780 men in this industry alone. The coal 
trade has lor many years been exceedingly prosperous, but since Confedera- 
tion with the upper provinces of Ca^da it has been almost ruined in 
consequence of a tax of 75 cents per ton placed by the Americans on all 
Canadian coal, making it impossible for the ^Nova Scotiana to compete in 
their natural market with the home product in the United States of 
America. The population of Cape Breton in 1861 was 63,083, in 1871 
it was 76,483. It sends eight members to the Provincial Legislature of 
Nova Scotia, and five to the Dominion House of Commona. It has turned 
out some very good men, among them the Hon. William Rosa, late M.P. 
in the Dominion Parliament, and Minister of Militia in the late Govern- 
ment. He is now Collector of Customs at the port of Hali&x, where I 
had the pleasure of making his acquaintance. His people emigrated fix>m 
Sutherlandshire without a penny, and though he only obtained such edu- 
cation BB the common schools of Cape Breton could afford him thirty to 
forty yeara ago, his natural ability secured for him the honourable position 
of a Minister of the Dominion of Canada. His brother, John Boss, was 
also a member of Farlioment, but was defeated at the last genoral election. 
Charles Campbell, Baddeck, was for twenty years M P. in the local House, 
afterwards^ member of the Legislative Council, and subsequently M.P. 
in the Dominion Parliament. He possesses extensive coal mines in Cape 
Breton, and a wharf and buildings at Halifax, for which a few years ago 
he paid nearly £10,000. He is a native of Skye, and wa^ originally in 
poor enough circumatancea. Another Skyeman, Alexander Campbell, is 
M.F. for the county of Inverness, and is, commercially, in good circum- 
stances. William Macdouald, MP. for Uie county of Cape Breton, is a 
euccessfol merchant at Glass Bay, whose iathei emigrated from the 
Western Isles. H. F. Macdov^all, M.P., returned to the local Hoose 
last year, has a capital business on Christmas Isle. His father came out 
&om Barra quite poor and uneducated, in spite of which he succeeded in 
business here, educated hia family, and his son is now in Parliament. 
Mr Macinnea, now M.P. for British Columbia, came from Skye to Cape 
Breton penniless, and made a fortune. And last, but not least — among tlie 
members of Parliament, Cape Breton has turned out John Morrison, M^ P. , 
who has been returned last year to the local House, and who distinguished 
himself by deliverii^ the finrt Gaelic speech ever delivered in the Nova 
Scotian Legislatuia His father, who was closely related to Morrison 
" Gohha," ttiB Harris bard, em^p:ated from that place without a cent, and 
became a prosperous farmer. The son now possesses the farm, along with 
one of his own, and is a prosperous merchant, at St Anne's, in addition. 
I had the good fortune to meet him on the steamer on my way back bota 
Cape Breton, and ei^oyed his company all the way to Halifax, and for a 
considerable time thero ; and a finer Highlander — plain and unpretentious, 
but moet intelligent, it hu not been my lot to m«et. A Mr MaoUui, 



ii,Goo(^lc 



THE EDITOH IN CANADA, 109 

who came out from the lale of Stye without a aizpenoe, is now the 
wealthiest farmer oa the Island. He was quite illiterate, but a good 
fumei. He made monej, wLicIi he hae advanced at high rates of interest 
oa mortgagee and other such safe inveatmeate, and is now leputed to be 
poaeessed of great wealtL 

Having spent five most agreeable days in Cape Bietou, I letumed, by 
the Bias D'or lonte, to Port Hawkesbury, where I delivered my promiaed 
lecture, to au appreciative audience, on the night of my anival, and started 
immeiUately after, by boat, to Piotou, through the Straits of Caneo and 
across part of the Oulf of St Lawience. From there I took train foi 1 06 
milee to 

Thb Citt 07 Halifax, 
to see the B.nnn t tl Provincial Exhibition of the Agricultural, Mechanical, 
and Manufacturing Products of the whole Province. Here I had the 
pleasure of making the acquaintance of some very fine Highlanders, among 
them the Hon. WiUiam Holmes, Premier of Nova Scotia, and a Gaelic-speak- 
ing Celt. HtR ancestors came out quite poor. His,fathoi became a success- 
ful farmer, whose house I visited near the Church of the Eev. A. Maclean 
Sinclair, at Springvilla He afterwards became a Senator of the Dominion, 
and his son now holds the leading position in Nova Scotian politics. 
The HoiL James Macdonald, Canadian Minister of Justice, who resides 
in Halifax, came originally &om Bedcastle. The Hon. James 8. 
S. Macdonald, a banker and a member of the Legislative Coonoilj hia 
brother, Charles Macdonald, recently represented the county of Hali- 
fax in Parliament, but was appointed to the chief Post-Office Inspector- 
ship of Nova Scotia ; the Hon. WilUam Boas, Collector of Customs, 
already mentioned ; Angus Macleod, Collector of Inland Revenue; Gooige 
Maclean, cashier in the Merchants' Bank ; Hugh Murray, of Bums and 
Mniiay ; WUIiam Mackenzie, of MacIIreith & Co.; Alexander Stephens, 
a native of Morayshire, and Robert Stewart, a native of Castle Street, 
Inverness, a large farmer and successful merchant in Truro ; these 
and many others, I had the pleasure of meeting in the City of Hali- 
iax, all well-to-do, and holding positions of influence or trust And 
in sJmost every instance their ancestors, and, in some cases, them- 
selves, came to this country without a farthing. AD honour to them, 
and to the country in which they were able to do for themselves or their 
descendants what they could never have done in their native land. 

But there is yet another good Highlander in Halifax who has made for 
himself, by hard work and industry, wealth and position ; John Maclachlan, 
a native of Ardgour, in Locbaber, where be was skipper of a small sloop, 
and a boat-builder. He emigrated on the 8th of April 1839, settled first 
in New Brunswick, afterwards went to Prince Edward Island, and sub- 
sequently to Pictou, in all of which places he worked at his business of 
boat or ship-building. This was not considered good enough, however, 
by the old Lochaber skipper, and (I heard it whispered) poacher iu a 
small way. Indeed it was partly in consequence of his diversions in the 
latter tempting sport that he determined upon em^ration ; for it was too 
attractive a pastime to be let alone, and it might lead to bad and dis^ree- 
able consequencea Having made a little money at his trade in Pictou, 
Maclachlan decided upon visiting Virginia in l^e United States, to dis- 
cover the secret of tobacco manulacturing, but the manner in which be 



110 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

managed it, though amnstng and mteieBtlng, vonld occupy too much of 
my epaoe. He leturned, and oommenced buainess in I860 in a BmaJl 
way as a tobacco mannfacturer in the City of Halifax. The buainess 
contiQaed to increase until it has become, many years ago, the most ex- 
teosire in the Lowet Provinces, The moat approved machinery haa been 
introduced, and before Confederation over a hundred hands were r^olarly 
employed, manufacturing as much as 50,000 lbs. of tobacco per month, 
the net value of which, in bond, without the duty, was tenpeace a pound, 
or a total per month of considerably over £2000. Since Confederation 
he haa not been doing so much in consequence of Upper^Canada compe- 
tition, but he atill turns out an average of 36,000 Iba. a month, and is the 
only manufacturer who has hitherto made cake tobacco in Nova Scotia, 
though I have met with a Mr Thomas Grant, a native of Strathspey, who 
was just about starting another factory when I wae in Halifax. The 
capital eng^ed in Maclachlan's busineaa ia about X12,000. The home 
duty on the manufactured article ia tenpence a pound, exactly the same 
aa ttie net coat cf tobacco itself. The Sim ia known as A. A., and W. 
Smith & Co., the Smiths attending to the commercial part of the busi- 
ness, while Mi Maclachlan haa the aole management of the fectoiy. He 
has amaased great wealth, and is, among his own countrymen, very 
liberal with it, though much of hia good deeds are done on the principle 
that bia right hand knoweth not what hia left hand doeth. 

When the 78th Highlandera were in Halifax, aever^ years ago, Mr 
Maclachlan becaine acquainted with Pipe-Major Eonold Mackenzie, of 
that distinguished Begiment, and hie son, John, exhibiting a taste for 
muaic, the old Highlander determined that he should be taught to play 
the bagpipes ; and Pipe- Major Mackenzie waa employed to teach him. 
Having met Bonald at the last Annual Assembly of the Gaelic Society of 
Inverness, I told him that I was going to Hali&z. " Well, if you are," 
said he, " you must call and see my old pupil, John Maclachlan, son of 
Maclachlan, the tobacco manufacturer there, one of the best Highlandera I 
ever met from home. Before I left Halifax the pupil could almost play as 
well as hia master, and if he continued to practice and progress as he did 
when I was there, I expect he will be quite equal to, if not better, than 
myself." I colled as requested, and had an evening of the pipes, played 
in perfect style. I never heard a cleaner finger on a chfuiter, and for 
time, spirit, and accurate playing, I honestly believe that the teacher's 
prediction has been verified, and that the pupil is now really aa good a 
player as his master. I strongly recommended him to go to Scotland and 
compete at the K'orthem Meeting, where I feel sure he would carry away 
some of the principal prizes, and possibly the medal. He is, however, 
only a gentleman amateur, and he is loth to compete in public ; but as he 
haa ample means, I trust his old mastor will ere long have the aatisfaction 
of seeing hiqi in the Highland capital competing for and possibly carrying 
off the gold medal. He has no competitor within sight on the American 
continent, and I am aatisfied that he has few, if any, auperiors at home. 

There are a great many Gaelic-speaking HighJandcrs in the City of 
Hali&x, and it wiU gratily Professor Blackie, and those who reverence 
and still stand up for the Gaelic language, to know that public worship 
haa been carried on in that city for tJie last seven years in the vemaculu 
they love. These meetings were originated by the Bev, George Lawsoa 



THE EDHOR IN CANADA, Ut 

GoidoQ, irhile yet a student at Dalhon^e College, about vhich time hs 
also published a Qaelic grammar, &Toarabljr noticed in these pages. I 
regret that I miased seeing him, for at the reiy time when I was in one 
part of Cape Breton, he vas being introduced, in another part, to a Qaehc- 
speaking congregation, who had just girrax bim a call. The meetings in 
Halifax are conducted doting the winter by the atudenta from the two 
colleges in turn, and in summer the work is carried on by Alexander 
Mackenzie, a native of Lochcaicon, and a brother of Kenneth £. Mac- 
kenzie, B'orth Sydney, already mentioned. An excellent colleague is 
Neil Brodie, a aonthem Scot, who not only learnt to apeak Qaelic flnently, 
but many other languages ; and he is a most enthusiaatic aapporter of the 
Celtic canae in Hal^az. The Society is called " Comunn Crioadaidh nan 
GaeL" The attendance is generally about 200 Oaelic-apeaking people, 
principally from Cape Breton, Frinoe Edward Island, Fictou, and AJiti- 
gonisb ; and those best acquainted with the Celts of Uie City assert that 
there is an ample field in Halifax for a Qaelic evai^elist who would 
devote his whole time to the spiritual wants of the Qadio-apeaking popu- 
lation. 

The North British Society is one of the oldest and most usefiil ou the 
American continent, and I trust on some future occasion to find room to 
write more fully of its history and work than I can possibly find 
in these papers. I may, however, say that it ia conducted on prin- 
ciples which must leoommend themselves to all right thii^lriTig people. 
No Soot in distress is permitted to go unaided ; but all help is given on 
the understanding that those lec^ving it will afterwards repay any money 
advanced to them or otherwise expended on their behalf if ever they find 
themselves able to do so ; and I am glad to say that, in many cases, this 
has been done by parties — widows and orphans and others in distress, whose 
passages had been paid home, or to the homes of relatives in distant parts 
of Canada. The Society attend also to the wants of poor, respectable 
Scots, who are in reduced circumstanttB in the City, in a manner the least 
calculated to wound the feelings of the recipients of their bounty. Alto- 
gether they are doing a patriotic and a noble work, and it is gratijylng to 
find that they possess very^considerable funds — sufficient to deal liberally 
with all the deserving, necessitous cases brought under their notice. 

TTftlifRx boasts, with justice, of the prettiest and best pubho gardens 
in the Dominion of Ctmada ; and here and at the Frovinoial Exhibition, 
I saw, taking them altogether, the best-looking women I ever saw any- 
where. I have seen a few greater beauties, especially among English 
ladies, but here one can hardly meet with a eonunon-place face, They 
have the robust, healthy characteristics of the Scotch, while the mixing of 
the races, and th^ fine bracing climate and sea air seem to have softened 
down the features and painted their lips and cheeks with the most beau- 
tiful tints of the lily and the rose. It is, however, possible that my 
judgment may be at fault aa regards real beauty ; for I must confess that 
at the Northern Meeting Games, held at Inverness in 1878, havii^ been 
told that the Ikmous beauty, Mrs liu^^, was among the crowd of ladies 
assembled there, I and a few others were trying to discover her, and we 
failed. We saw her,, but we did not recc^jniee her aa at aU a beauty. 
We thought Bome of our own Highland girls were very pretty ; and that 
one out of a few whom- we saw moat have been Mrs Langtiy, but when Uie 



Google 



113 THK EDITOR IN CANADA 

ol^ect of oni ouiiosit7 was pointed ont to us, though at fliet wo conid not 
dificorer the lady's beanty, we b^&n to look for what must of contse be 
there. Oar imaginations ^ided us, and the lady at onc« became beautiful 
in OUT eyes. At first sight I couJd pick out those whom I would con- 
aider far prettier women in Halifaz, but the reader will probably con- 
clude ttoia the almve that I am no judge, 

Nova Scotia, its climate and people, have made an impression upon 
me which I shall never forget, and I have good reason to know that th« 
good feeling is not altogether on one aide. After spending five weeks — 
about the l^ppiest in my life — in this fine Province — amongst its mag- 
nificent people — I found my way, on the 17th of October, to the City of 
Quebec, after travelling a distance of about 600 miles on the Intercolonial 
Bailway, through, on the whole, some very fine scenery, going right across 
the Province of New Brunswick, and alongside the noble St Lawrence. 
In the next number I shall ask the reader to accompany me to Upper 
Canada, and visit Montreal, Glengarry, and the Capital of the Dominion. 

A. M. 



Cortc0ponb«na. 



THE GAELIC SCBIPTTTRES— FTJETHEE ANSWER TO 
MR CAMERON'S CHARGES. 



TO THE BDTTOB OF THE OBLTIO HASiZINE. 

Sir, — In a former letter I endeavoured to anawer Mr Cameron's charges 

made in his August article against the edition of '60, and I wish now to do 
the same regarding his Oct. one. But I must for a moment yet return to 
the earlier one. Therein he expends much learning to show how illiterate 
a thing it is to write auch forms as air a bhi, air 'bhi, &c. ; yet, in his 
fevourite '26, he will find Mark xiv., 19, 33, air a hhi dubkaek', 'air a 
hhifuidh uamhrehrUk, Luke iL, 3, Chum a hhi air am meas, &c. Again, 
he is quite indignant at the pronoun do being written (f before a vowel 
instead of f as in '36, and goes even to Sanscrit to find proof against it ; 
but, in the table of abbreviations, &c,, prefixed to '26, he may read " D " 
for do, thy, thine, as (T athair, &c. ; and in the opposite column of the 
same page "T" for do, thy, as (' anail. Before a vowel the initial con- 
sonant of the pronoun ia changed into t, but i, the initial (sic) consonant, 
&c., &c. But what in '60 ia a " corruption of the language," is in '26 the 
work of thorough Qrammariana ; and people are expected to believe that 
they are " thorough Grammariana " who wrote the above contradictory ' 
explanations j 

In his last, he says Chum craobhsgaoilidh a Bhiohuill is wroi^. 
According to the law r^arding the Infinitive, as laid down by himself, 
it is right. According to '26 it is right, vide I, Cor. xvi., IB, Chum 
frithealaidh do na jiaomhaibh ; Coloa, ii., 23, Chum saeuchaidh na feola ; 
Heb. ix., 13, Chum glatiaidh na feola, Ssc, Sic Accoiding to &e^u^t 



GAELIC SCRIPTUEES. US 

tisage in other writings and in conversation it is right ; and therefore I 
must meet Mr Cameron's a.s8eri.tOE with a direct negative. 

He objects to Fear-toimhid, telling the editors that they do not 
understand the matter. Perhaps not ; but when we have such compounds 
as fear-saotaidft, fear-gleidhii/i, fear stiuniwiA, and hundreds of similar 
ones, his condemnation will not be much heeded by any one who tielieves 
that rules were made for language, not, as his remarlia imply, that lan- 
guage was made for rules, 

A' m' ionnguidh is condemned, and with the customary compliment 
to the editors that they know not one preposition from another. All I 
will here say ia that do is not the only preposition which enters into this 
oxpreaaion, 'JV am ionnfuidh is provalont in the North, In '26 we have 
a m' ionjisuidh, and am ioymsaidh without any sign of elision ; and these 
things being so, I look on it as a pitiful ^vaste of time and of paper to 
write on such a triviality. 

He lays down the law about adjectives when appellatives being in the 
singular, though the noun which they refer to ho plural — a good law f 
admit If, however, he looks at the table of eiplanationa prefixed to '26, 
already mentioned, ho wid find it stated that a few Gaelic words admit 
of a final vowel or not, as the euphony requires it. , . , aa naonili, 
or naomJui, "holy;" f ad ot fada, "long." This may show him that 
several of the adjectives which he complains of as plural, were regarded 
by the writers as singular ; and he will find here, as is generally thooaee, 
that euphony carries the day gainst mere rule. 

A' leithid, or a leithid. The difference between the two forma is ex- 
actly that between " the like," and " its lite," in Ei^liah, Both are in 
frequent use, and the discussion about them is just as rational as that of 
old between "Fiddle-dee-dam, and Fiddle-dum-dee." 

Le 'ii toil do sklainte, "whose delight is thy salvation" Mr Camenm 
translates " whose vnll is thy salvation," If he look at a Gaelic Diction- 
ary he wiD find that toil signifies "desire," "love," "pleasure," "de- 
light," as well as "will" He, for reasons no doubt satisfactory to himselt 
chooses to pick out the one translation which is unmeaning, when there 
are four before him, any of which would give an appropriate meaning to 
the expiesaion. In the metrical Pealms the word is often used as in '60, 
Ps. xxxvii,, 23 ; xl„ 4 ; cxix,, 48, Ac, &o. And while le 'n toigh do 
ghlairde is quite accoi-ding to rule, " le 'n toil do ahlainte " is according to 
nsage, I never heard toigk used by a Highlander, except before a word 
beginning with I. 

Aa to eadar fear, agus bean, I would say that, as the words in the 
original are in the singular number, it has at least the merit of being a 
literal translation, and is much better than that of '26, where there is a 
strange mixture of both numbers. 

A more serious jflisstatement than any hitherto noticed is madd by 
.Mr Cameron when ne says that in Eev. iv., 7, the editors assert that 
there were a hundred living creatures around the throne — an ceud beo- 
chretitair. Without dwelling on his partiality for the most improper, 
and ofiensive translation of this passage, given alike in English and in 
'26, " beast " = btathach, I would point out the following passages in '26 ; 
— I, Cor, IV., 47, an ceud duine o 'n talamh talmhaidk ; Heb, viii., 13, 
an ceud coi-cheangal ; Bev, xxL, 1, 19, an ceud talamh, an ceud bmasU. 



lU THE CELTIC UAGAZIKE. 

I do not 1»lleTe that Mr CameHin'B hardihood of assertion Wl oany him 
BO far aa to maintain that in these passages ceud means "a hundred;" 
bat if not, he is bound to retract what he says about Rev. iv., 7, for they 
must, in common honesty, all stand or Ml together. Every Qaelic scbolu 
knows that both aspiration and accentoation in that language are as yet 
in great measure free from fixed rules, and to single out one passage in 
the manner of Mr Cameron does not show much knowledge of Gaelic, or 
practice of critical impartiality. 

Much worse than even the above ia, I regret t-o say, his extraordinary 
perversion of Gen, xiv„ 24, where he says that letk-aoin a^nifiea " the 
half of one child," while leth-aona signifies twins. Here he goes openly 
in the teeth of both rule and usage. It is notorious that words like aon, 
which insert i to form the Geu, Sing., have their Nom. Plnr. often like 
the Gen. Sing.— e.jr., raon, nunn, G«n. Sing., raoin Nom. Plur., bo, nan 
uain, wain; loni loin, loin; hord, huird, buird; halt, buill, buiU, and 
hundreds of others ; while they may also form the Nom, Plur. by adding 
a to the Koru. Sing Leih-aain, as a Nom. Plur., is as much according 
to rale as the other form, and entirely according to usage as far as I have 
heard Highlanders speaking it In all inflected languages there are 
bCcaaionally various parts of the same word identical in form, but different 
in meaning. Three of the Latin declensions have the Gen. Sing., and 
Nom. Plur. alike, as happens to be the case in Gaelic. Tet what would 
be said of the man who, reading psnnae, or domini, or frvctue sunt, &C., 
would say that these nouns were in the Gen. Sing., or legi tibrum, that 
the verb was in the Infin. Pass.; and thereupon denounce the writers as 
entirely ignorant of the principles of the Latin language^ According to 
Mr Cameron's conduot this would be all right, and would show disinterested 
zeal for the purity of the language. I must say further that if he trans- 
lates leth-aoin as the "half of one," he is undeniably bound to translate 
leth-aowi as " the half of ones," which he does not do. And I may be 
permitted a word about this very strange idiom of Gaelic which makes 
leth "half," signify a whole; hut it is very common. Thus, tha e air 
leth-thuil, "bo is on half an eye," signifies that he has one, hut 
only one, whole eye; so of tha e air leth-chois, hth-laimk, &c., 
&a., phrases perfectly intelligible to every Highlander ; and I may 
mention an instance which I have heard, like Mr Cameron's literal trans- 
lation, which strikingly shows the absurdity of its rendering into English — 
• the phrase cAa-» 'eil ann aeh lethrbkurraidk, my frieud made — " He is 
only the half of a fooL" 

He tries to cast ridicule also on the translation of I. Kings xzii,, 48. 
The passage is confessedly an obscure one, and I have met with no com- 
mentator who throws much light on it ; but, whatever be its true mean- 
ing, it is the same in the English version, in '26, and in '60 — " Ships of 
Tharsish " in all three. He condemns '60, saying not a word about the 
others. 

It is difficult to believe that a man in the respectable position 
occupied by Mr Cameron would try to convey the impression ttiat the 
editors of '60 sought to deceive the public, and palm off their edition as 
an exact reprint of '26, by printing on the title-page the words " Eevised 
edition In smaller type." He implicates the National Bible Society also 
in this cont«mptible plot, and reiterates the vile insinuation time afta 



jb,GoO(^lc 



GAELIC SCEIPTTJRES. 115 

tima The title-p^^, like all others which I hare seen, is made up of 
lines, some in larger, some in smaller type ; and " Eeviaed Edition " is 
in smaller type than some nthei lines — not smaller - than all. It is what 
printers call Brevier size, and to make it more conspicuous it is in italic 
capitals, while the other lines are in Boman, To say then that it is 
actually in " small type," or in any way obscure or difficult to observe, is, as 
tiie feo-simile below will show, the very reverse of the facts; and the 
base charge implied in his assertion I utterly repudiate with deaeived con- 
tempt* 

Mr Cameron, besides doii^ all that he himself can to damage this 
edition,' tries to crush it under the authority of the late Dr M. Mackay, 
who is not now in court, and ought tobe let alone, but who, Mr Cameron 
Bays, "as is well known, was the most eminent Gaelic scholar of his time." 
I never before heard this claim advanced in behalf of Dr Mackay ; but 
hearing it now led me to the very disagreeable task of examining his edi- 
tion of the extremely filthy poems of Eob Donn — Inverness, 1829, The 
result confirms what I have so often said about the irregular writing of 
Gaelic Inconsistencies, errors, and misprints occur fi^quently there as 
elsewhere ; nor will any authority rightfully belonging to its editor 
injure the '60 Edition in the estimation of any judicious person. I must 
add that, in marked opposition to Mr Cameron's denunciation of substi- 
tuting de for do, " of," we have here repeatedly the Horth-country form 
of it in dhe. 

I have thus gone over Mr Cameron's two very extraordinary letters, 
uid ha've shown that bis objections are very easUy answered. Had he 
brought forward one genuine Gaelic expression, or even one word which 
wotiid be an improvement on the old rendering, I would thankfully acknow- 
ledge it ; but I see notjiing of the kind even attempted. Except that there 
ore typographical errors in '60 (and I repeat that as far as I have examined 
these are fewer than in any other edition), there ia not one statement 
made by him which stands the test, as of any importance whatever. Be- 
sides, there is an extreme smallness of detail which is surprising in a 
scholar, there is a bitterness of spirit, a rudeness in denouncing the editors 
as " ignorant," &a., &&, a gross and glaring unfairness in his criticiams 
which fortunately are very rarely, if ever met vrith, in mere literary con- 
troversy now-a-days. I must reluctantly dwell for a moment on this last 
point. I have conclusively shown that considerably more than one-half 
of the forms of expression which he condemns in '60 are to be found re- 
peatedly in '26. Yet he and his supporters extol the one and condemn 
the other in uimieasuied terms I am bound in charity to suppose that 
they can reconcile such conduct with truth and justice, though I confess 
it is &r beyond my power to do it ; but most men will agree with me in 
thinking that they are bound to abuidon either their extravagant lauda- 
tion of the one, or their rancorous reviling of the other ; and assuredly to 
abandon both would be beat 

I would fain hope that this wretched oontroveiay may now cease. I 
can tmly say that defence, not offence, is my sole objec^ and that it la 
with much pain I point oat the trnfoonded nature of Mi Cftmeron's 



ii,GoO(^lc 



il6 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

chai^ei'. I trust;, however, that the discuasion loay help to hasten the 
much needed refoim of the Gaelic translation of the Bible ; and to ehow 
fortber the need of such reform I conclude by quoting the words of a 
fill better Gaelic scholar than I am — perhaps better than even Mr Cam- 
eron — the late James Munro, author of a Gaelic Grammar, and of several 
other worts, who, after pointing out numerous instances of what he calls 
"syntactical monstrosity," says " many other improprieties and inconsia- 
teocies of this kind occur in the eacred volume, besides errors of the press 
of enormous disgrace to the Church." — Gaelic Grammar, 2d Ed., p. 229. 
I am, sir, &c., 

Eilmalll* Maue, 7Ui Not. IST9. ABOH. OLEBK, LL.D, 

ANSWER TO DR CLERK. 



EDiNBDBaH, November 11, 1879. 

TO THE GDITOB OP TEB OELTIO MAGAZINE. 

giB, — In this month's Celtic Magazine I observe that the Rev. Dr 
Clert, of Kilmallie, pays me one or two loft-handed compliments. If 
this amusement gives any satisfaction to his wounded feelings, I am 
BUie I do not grudge him the pastime. 

So far as any matter of fact or scholarship is at issue between us, I 
need only refer him to my former letters in this controversy. Take just 
one example. Dr Clerk, like another Poionius, still harps away on the 
old mare's nest, whoso contents, in deference only to himself, I have al- 
ready dealt witii at too great length. He says, "Dr Maclauchlan proves 
his statement as to numbers to be very glaringly wrong." Now I am 
really ashamed again to disturb the patient pertinacity which thus devotes 
itself to the incubation of an addled egg. But lest it should be thought 
that I treat your correspondent with disrespect, I shall refer him and tha 
reader to what I already said in answer to this charge in the last paragraph 
on page 466 of the Celtic Magazine for October. I ask if that was not 
a complete and conclusive answer to this reiterated chaise i^ainst my 
" statement as to numbers 1 " And I will now add that the ^pires ob- 
jected to were taken by me from an anthoritative document in the ofQoe 
of the Bible Society. I repeat then that as regards any matter of fact or 
scholarship at issue between us, I need only refer Dr Clerk to my farmer 
letters. Why should I ask you to reprint Uiem in detail I So one surely 
expects me to set up as rival to him in olden times of whom it is written 
that " thrice he slew the slain ! " 

And as to matters of mere passing temper, I really am not in the 
mood to break a lance with the learned and worthy minister of Kilmallie. 
If it were the case of a pompous rana iratar tauri mffiata, whose over- 
ettetched pneumatic cist one might feel the common satis&cUon of himan 
nature in puncturing, I might not perhaps turn aside from the fair oppor- 
tunity of doing so, especially when, as some times happens, the opportu- 
nity is rudely obtruded on one's path. But this is not the case of Dr 
Clerk. His iair fame as a Gaelic scholar rests on a higher and wortbiet 
pedestal than his share in the misadventure of '60. And so for as I 
know I have never had as much as a crow to pluck with him. Why 

Do,l,.cdbyGoO(^lc 



GAELIC SCEIPTUREa UT 

tiheD ehoiild Tre go down into the sawdust for a peisonal enooonter 1 I 
frankly confess that such an encounter, purely gratuitous, and for the 
mere love of fighting, with a brother minieter of my own Church, how 
much soever it might amuse the spectators, would be to me a tame and 
zestless performance.' 

And BO, at least till the emergence of some new development, I ahall 
bid adieu to this controversy, and turn to more profitable, if not more 
congenial work, — I am, dear Sir, youis faithfully, 

DOHALD UASSON. 



PASTORAL STAIT OE CEOZIEE OF 8T T TT.T.Ay . 

TO THE EDITOB OF THD OBLTIO HAaA2IBH. 

SiB, — The above expressions are undoubtedly synonymous terms, and 
have ever been considered as such. The words, " pastoral staff," are 
simply an explanation, a putting into plain English, of what is, and 
has siwayH been meant hy Crozier — a staff belonging to the pastor or 
shepherd. To speak of these two words as representing "respectively 
two churches and creeds widely different," is a matter of great surprise 
coming from such an authority as the Rev. Allan Sinclair. • 

As the sceptre in the hands of kings is the symbol and declaration of 
temporal sovereignity over an earthly kingdom, bo the crozier has always 
been looked upon as symbolizing the spiritual power vested by the 
Founder of the Church in those appointed by Him to be His overseers — 
Bpigeopi — bishops, head pastors of His Church which is, and can be, but 
(me — " One Lord, one Faith, one Baptism, one Shepherd of the one Fold" 

In the early history of the Church this Crozier, symbol of spiritual 
authority, had the form of the letter f, as it still has in some of the 
Catholic Churches of the East — reminding us of our English word crutch 
— or ^xS. And to explain more fully the meaning of this symbol of 
spiritual authority, in course of time the shepherd's crook was superadded, 
(lowing that it was not a common crutch, or staff, but one in the hands 
of the Shepherd or Pastor — hence came the name of Pastoral Staff. 

By privilege, not by right, the use of the Crozier or Pastoral Staff was 
granted to some abbots — always with the same meaning — symbolising 
their limited authority over those entrusted to their chacge. 

Ambitious men in their pride may have tried sometimes to usurp an 
authority to which they had no righ^ and attempted to grasp the ^mbol 
which declared such authority. But all these usurpers belonged to the 
Catholic Church. The authority symbolised by the Crozier or Pastoral 
Staff was the same — the only dispute was about the person who should 
wield it It was not Crozier, vereae Pastoral Staff, or vice versa, but 
whose it should be to grasp the emblem. It was no dispute about faith, 
but about a simple fact- -Who was, or was not the ri^tful, lawful, pos- 
(essor. 

Nwnvr OottBg*. Ihtwimu. COLIK OHISHOLU. 

* Sm Otitic Magannt ol NoTimbar 1879, ptgs 39, Huh 6 uid T> 



Google 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 
TO EVAN MACCOLL. 



My greeting to thee, Bard TeTsred, 

Sweet miuetTBl of Locli Fjne I 
HesTen blesa, and shield, and ptoa- 
per aye. 

Mo <Aaraid I thee and thine. 
May time deal ever tenderly, 

Macooll 1 with thine and thee ; 
Longmaythytunefol Highlandhaip 

Thiob affeetest minstxelsy. 
The sterlli^ virtne of the Qael, 

Theii deeds of brarery, 
Their gdlelesa hearts so warm and 

Wlio can portiay like thee t 
And Bweetly dost thou aing the 
chamiB, 
The giacefiilness divine 
Of Hi^dand maids, in speech en- 
deared — 
Thy mothei tongue and mine. 

"lona," "Staffa," and "Loch Awe," 
" Loch Lomond" & " Loch Fyne," 
The " Biandei Pasa " and " Urqn- 
hart's Glen," 
Thou grandly doflt ontline. 
Thy " Child of Promise," beanteoos 
gem, 
A pluntlve, soothing psalm. 
Thy " Falling Snow," bnnga to the 
heart, 
A Bweet, a holy calm. 
Thina own "Qlenshiia," by thy 
muse. 
Is now a dasaic land j 
Ne<r York, Oitobei 1879. 



Its scenes of grandeur have been 
limned 

"VTith skill by Eoyal hand. 
Oh bless hei, Princess of out race 1 

That BoB6 without a thorn. 
So dearly cherished in our hearts, 

The loved Louise of Lorn. 

Thine odes, thy sonnets, and thy 

BOngB, 

All rich in melody, 
Shall with delight be read and song 

While Awe flows to the sea. 
Oh Bard beloved I in boyhood's mom 

I sang thy mountain lays ; 
With joy perused thy poesie 

'Mong &med Bieodalbane's braes. 

I dreamed not then the rich delight 

My future had in store— 
ThynobleMendahip, treasured dear, 

Within affection's core. 
The happy ceilidki to thy home. 

The charming converse there ; 
Thy TTighland hospitality. 

How cordial, and how rare I 

Though fair Caoadia, now thy home. 

Be full of ohanna to thee. 
Thy heart oft yeams to see Argyll, 

And thine own " Bowan Tree." 
My wishes warm to thee I waft. 

Charmed songster of Loch Fyne ; 
And oh, may Heaven's blessing rest, 

My friend, on thee and thine 1 

VUSOiS HAOaBBOOS OBEBAB. 



BISTORT or TBB CLAB MAOKSSZIS; tcitk OMoiagiu of M« FNntifxiI 
Fam^iiti. Bj Alexahdik Uaokimiu, Bditoi o[ (he CtaU Magcamt, ka. In- 
rtTBtm : A. & W. Uwkanme, 1S7S. 

17a ouuMt. of ooanB, rarisw (hii work in our own Wft t"^* ^" foUoaing^ ektraoti 

w&l ibow Us twdM how It fau baoa nt^Ted br Ui* Htanrj sritba. A Isw ooplM ara 

MUl tor Ml* U 2Si. It makea » bui4aMD* NawYMi^ (1ft :— 
" It «wu with th« lit«i mtj fend u to (bs orlgJD of the HiaksniiM, tht uithor 

Ti|Dion>u Mpportinfi tha Uisorr of Ubiiix dMceut fron tbo uiolant Biirli of Son 

in oraotmui to tbo pMilu j— '^■^ — -■ ■■ -n-i .— — 

nnld, kn Iriih oblu, who. 



who, fl*dii( from bii oonntr;, fonod * 



jb,G00(^lc 



ud tha thMTj night now b*Ta bMn paned niiHotlMd, htd II col noratl; fomid 
ugntionj adrooBj Id Fnter'i ' Earla of (^omKrtic' . . . Th« Hlitoif of tbs Hft»- 
i^miei of SiQtwl, U ft HliM of tngs41ai,.here uid than reliaTad b; toodtMof nda 
humeur. . . . . Hr Hickaode li diipoaad ta b« mora aiacl than umB of bii 
predeceuon, sad li not goiltT of raoh blnodenu thoae of Ur W. Fruar, who preflMd 
io hi* book oa tha Earli of Oromarti* a padlgraa of the Saaforth Una whleh wm itmplr 
■ aUTiih oop;, oTan to tha eooastrio ipalting of DongUa'a ' Ttungt,' and rapaatad tha 
wran of that booh, althooj^ ha had Mtnall; inootpontad in hii work the htitorf hr 
Oaoiga, Bart of Oroinartla, where a more oorraot pedigree waa glvan. . , . The work 
faai an inteDM lnt«ra>t of a oertalo Uad, and thara It ■ ■oggaitlTe plotaraaqneoau about 
the appellatfona of the ohlafa. Tbe Tariona bianahu «f the olan an b«o«d geneakiBi- 
oallr to thaprennt da;, a itiff pieoa of Iibooi (or whioh Mi Maakaiula oaitainlj d>- 
■arraa the thaiiki of hii kiBimon,"— JftoKewil. 

" It wai oartainlr bo ordlnat; taik that tha enthnilaitio editor of the Odtie Moffiulm 
Inpoaed DpoD hlmiclf. In writmg ap tbe blitorr of hii otao ; but the maanar In whfoh 
V- I .>..>.> ... ™. . ^rtoradit, npi only on hiideToBoBtohialaBHiy 

taking labour. By niaiijr, heweTer, n< 

tha author thrown awa; great laboar ^^ - . - ^j ,_- ,„, , 

BhsTDied dmle of hU oUo T Who In theie hoar tfmei baa teunce, erea if ba had tha 
wHI, to read ths genealogioal tree of a BlghUnd faniUy In whlcsh he ha* not tbs remotait 
powible Interest? The sniwar vhieh the author would make, and jnably, li that hii 
booh la in eflent i shapter of nitional aa wall ai of faiailr hUtory, and aa auah Syr* olatm 
to ba read by all who woald make a itody of Soottiih hiitory. LaaTing ont the genaa- 
k^ei, of aonne, the boobl*, In faat, adaaply iuteraatlng and laitraotiTe one, dealing aa 
it doea with men Uke the Sarla of Seaforth, who played looh Important parte In tbe 
ttmaa of the OoTenaot, and the reTalntion whloh followed. There ii aot noab to admire 
'- '\a aharaeten wbieh figure In thi) hiitory— treaoherr, rapine, mnrder followed too 

' .... ]i-i,t_ not 

._, _, . ^aa the 

oondnot of Genanla Hnny and Seaterth at tbe Battle of Aaldeam, In a word, he «h* 
would maetai tha attltade of the HJblhlaDden toward! the Oovsnant and Jaoobltiam oao- 
not afford to paaa by thia hlitory of tha dan hbokeniie. DiSerenoe of opfnien there 
■UfbeAboattheaathoi'B traeinsof theelanbaokto the anoleat Bula of Boa Inatead 
of tiielriiholilaf, CoHnnngeiald, hot there oan be noneute thepndieworthy Tuannar 
in whloh be haa dlaoharged a moat dUBoalt task ; and hia boek, at any rate, mertta tba 
botiae of all the lofal menbera of Ua olan."— Zondon LOerarp World. 

" It fnraiabaa an hlatorioal narratlTe of the family, Ita tend), ita Wrtoriaa, Iti aoqnl- 
■Itlone ef property, Iti lab-ditiilDni, and their •everal remifloatlonB down to tbepreaent 
day. Inalndlng alllanoea hy marriage io reeect aa tbe prsaent generation. It la an eitia- 
erdiDaiy Tolnme. . . . Ur Maokenil* firat pabliihed wluit be knew of the hlatorj 
of hia (dan In the CeltK Sfofftuine, an exoellent eipedienl for aaqalring idditiDnal Infor- 
mation ; for aorreipondenoe flawod is npon him oopioasly, oorreoting Inacearauea, and 
pointing ont freih aonroea of an pply. The preaent hlitory haa by thia meana been greatly 
enhaneed in ralne. . . . The History ot the Haokenilea nay be taken aa typloal of 
the Higblanda generally, more ao, perhapi. tban any other alan In tbli napeot — that 
their poaieaaiona extended nniitarrnptedly from tha Oater Habridaa to the Point ot 
Taibst Naai, trem the waitern to tha eaatam extremity of the Hlghlanda proper, and 
the people ihared the tmbnlent life ot tha Iilanda and weat ooaat of tha mrinland, 
aa well aa that of tbe peaoatnl agrlonltial dlitrioti ot Eaiter Roai. . . . The kbonr 
that moat have been baitowed npon the work 1« amaiing.''— 7ni«mcM Couritr. 

" Hr Haokeniie traoei with laborioni minnteneii the hlatary of the diffeient ehlefi, 
and tbe laoda in whleh they were engaged with ndgbhoiuing olani, aa well aa the part 
they played in the itnigglea whloh lo frequently oenvnlied the Soottith nation. . . . 
Hi H. girei aihinative genealogiei af the dlfferant hranoheaof the olan, and an abitraat 
of the evldenoe bearing on tbe mnoh-dispnted qneatlon of tha Ohiefihip, In the oonnaof 
which hereaaidihli opinion that the Haokenneaof Allaogiange appaaito hohein male 
ot the family of Seafortb."— fcJin&urcA Ourairf. 

" Hr ILuAeniie bringa ni down throngh aentnrlea of rapine and bloodihad, tn whloh 
the fanda between the Haokenclea, tha Maodonalda, and tbe Haalaoda, are amply le- 
lated. . . . The action taken hy the olan dating the Jaoohite nhelliona forma aa 
intareatiBB ohapter in the hiitory, and tbe aTscta of reoent yean are ikilfnlly told. . . 
The aneition of the obiefihip ii ^bly dliaoned, Hr UaBkende bai anooeaded In 
oompletiiig a toit diffieolt and laborioni tuk, and we have no donht hii raaaaiohee In 
the intereatt ot OelUo hlatoiy will be favonrahly ceoeivad."— fftiMpow JVawi^ 

" Not only the memben of tha olan, but alio all who take an interait In the aanala ot 
Boetland and the HighUudi, owe a debt at gratitude to the aothor for tbe leaearoh and 
aUli^ whioh he baa derotad to thii iuteieating Tolama, whiob ia Tery handaomely got 
np in Bozhnrgh blndiag, and tba printing: and general get-np an lugU]r weditable to 
HacUMcn «it«riwiM.''—JioH-iAir< Journal, 



Do,i,,-c,ib,. Google 



THE CELTIC MAGAZrUE. 
aVU A SLAir A OHI HI. 




d :d |r 


-JB 


1 :- [8 :f 


m.d :- 1 1, 


-t, 


d 1- I-: 


d :d |r 


-.m 


d' :- It :d' 


1 :-.8|iii 


-.B 


1 :- I-: 


s '.-.m 1 B 


-J,t 


d' :- It :-.d' 


1 :-.a|in 


-.B 


1 :- I-: 


s ^-J |B 


-.m 


1 :- Is i-J 


m :d 11, 


-.t, 


d :- I-: 




•8 mi noabd sir aird a' ohoatn, 

•Sdoohaidreamhfadimun; 

Ai t'knaus thii mi ttnagb ; 

•S m» a desn mi d'f haot»inn 

Oh> bhi mo ■haagbsl buan. 










¥•> ro>K > db' iadl 

Graddh»«n mar an 

Fo 'n aodunn tha 

Gun d; tbog ml f 


u din; 

OBoraB, 
learn aialn ; 

indnitran; 







'n Dair a dh'f hag ml thu. 

Tbeireadb lad ma 'n d' fhalbh ml luv 

Oa 'm ba iheBrbh le*m dol ad she 
On 'n da ahulr mi onl riot, 

'S gun dhialt ml dboit mo phog. 
Na cuireadh lid oct imruo, 

A nin na oieid an igleo ; 
Tba d'acail learn oi'a imraldh^ 

Na'n drlaohd air bhur ai 






KOTK— The abore melody is a faTonrite In everj pari of tbe Highland!, ^le » 
aoording ts Hackenus (in the " Beaatiei of Oaalio Puetrr"), weia fompoMd by H 
Uckanid*, UIlap«ol.-W. H'K. 

Do,l,.cdbyGoO(^lc 



Celtic MAaAziNS. 



FEBBUAKT, 1880. 



HI6X0RT OF THE MACDONALDS, 

mo 

THE LORDS OF THE ISLES. 

Bt thb Editob. 



rv. 

Yn. JoEH Maodonald of Isla, firet Lord of the lales, who played s 
most important part in the turbulent age in which he lived. He is ad- 
mitted by all authorities to have been one of the most able and sagaciooB 
chie& of hia time, and, by hu diplomacy and alliances^ moie than by 
the Bword, he taised the clan to a poaitioa of splendour and power which 
they have not attained to since the days of Someiled. In hia time Scot- 
land was divided and hairaased by varioua claimants to the crown, the 
principal of whom were the Becond Brace and Edward Baliol, John of 
the Isles Bided with the latter, more probably with the object of lecover- 
ing, and maintaining intact, the ancient possessions of his house, than for 
any preference he entertained for Baliol and his English aupporteis. The 
Island chiefs had always, more or leas, claimed to be independent of the 
Scottish kings, and naturally enough it appeared to John of the Isles 
that to aid Baliol against Brace would be the most effective means of 
strengthening hia family pretensions. He was perfectly satiflfied that the 
Scottish king would not admit the claim to independence of any compe- 
titor within his realm ; whereas Baliol, not only entertained bis preten> 
sions, but actnally eonflrmed him "as far as in him lay," not only to tha 
vast torritories already possessed by him, but to an extensive addition, 
granting him by charter, in 1355, the lands of Mull, Skye, Islay, Gigh^ 
Eintyre, !Knapdale, and other large possessions. For these favours John 
bound himself and his heirs to become lieges to the Baliola ; for he well 
knew that even if they succeeded to establish their claim to the crown he 
would be practically independent in the Westfim Islea, and could at any 
tims re-assert his old pretensions. He, however, visited England In 1338, 
and was well received by Edward III., to whom, it is said, he acknow- 
ledged vasaalage. John and the Begent had sonje disputes aboat the 
lands granted by Kobert the Sruce to Angus Og of the Isles, which wu 
the main cause of the Island chief hein^ thrown into the anna of Boliol's 
party, who, in addition to the lands above-mentioned, also granted him 



123 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

the 'Wardahip of Locbabei, until the heir of Athol, at the time only 
three years of age, attained his minority. These territories had been pra- 
vionaly forfeited by his ancestors on the accession of Robert Bruce ; and 
the grant to John of the Isles was confirmed by Edward UL on the 5t^ 
of October 1336. In spite of all this, however, and the great advantages 
to Baliol of securing Uie support of a powerful chief like John of the 
Isles, the Kegent was ultimately successful in freeing Scotland from the 
dominion and pretensions of the English and theii unpatriotic tool, Ed- 
ward Baliol ; and established the independence of his own country. 

In 1311 the Steward sent to Fiance for David IL, to commence his 
personal re^ in Scotland; bat the Island chief was too powerful to sufFer 
materially in person or property for his disloyalty. Indeed, King David on 
his return deemed it the wisest policy to attach as many of the Scottish 
barons to his party as possible ; and with this view he concluded a treaty 
with John of Ihe Isles, by which a temporary peace was secured between 
them, and in consequence of which the Insular Chief whs, for the first 
time during his whole rule, not in active opposition to the Scottish king. 
Gregory, referring to these transactions, says that " on the return of David 
II. from France, after the final discomfiture of Baliol and his aapporteia, 
John of the Isles was naturally exposed to the hostility of the Steward 
and the other nobles of the Scottish party, by whose advice be soems to 
have been forfeited, when many of his lands were granted to one of his 
relations, Angos Maclan, pT<^enitor of the house of Ardnamucchan. 
This grant, however, did not take effect ; and such was the resistance 
oflered by John and his kinsman, H^inald or Sanald, son of lioderick 
MaoAlan (who had been restored, in all probability, by Baliol, to the 
lands forfeited by his father), and so anxious was David at the time to 
bring the whole force of his kingdom together in bis intended wars with 
England, that he at length pardoned both these powerful chiefs, and con- 
firmed to them the following possessions : — To John he gave the Isles of 
Ma, Gigha, Jura, Searba, Colonsay, Mull, Coll, Tiree, and Lewis, and the 
disteiots of Morvem, Lochaber, Duror, and Glenco j to Eanald the Isles 
of Uist, Barra, I^g, and Rum, and the Lordsliip of Garmoran, being the 
original possessions of his family in the !North. By this arrangement, 
Kintyre, Knapdale, and Skye, reverted to their former owners, and Ijom 
remained in the hands of the crown, whilst it is probable that Ardna- 
mnichan was given as a compensation to Angus Maclan," The Lordship 
of Garmoran comprehended the districts of Moidart, Ariaaig, Morar, and 
Knoydart, on the mainland. S ot long after this Ranald, son of Roiy of 
the Isles, and last male representative of Roderick of Bute, grandson of 
Somorled of the Isles, was, in 1346, murdered, as already stated, at Perth 
by the Earl of Ross, from whom he held lands in Kintail } and, learing 
no isme, his suter Amy, who married John of the Isles, in terms of the 
grant in- his &voiir by David IL, became her brother's heir, when her 
husband, uniting hei possessions to his own, assumed henceforth the style 
ofDominut Tnetdantm, or Lord of the Isles, The first recorded instance 
of the assumption of this title by John of Isla, is in an indenture with 
the Lord of Lorn, in 1354. " Thus was formed," continues Gregory, " the 
modfflm Lordship of the Isles, comprehending the territories of the Mac- 
donedds of Isla, and the Macroaries of the florth Isles, and a great part 
of those of the Macdougalls of Lorn ; and altiiough the lepresentative of 



jb,GoO(^lc 



mSTOBY OF THE MACDONAIDS. 128 

the latter fitmily was nominBlly lestoied to the estates of his Emoeston on 
the occasion of his marriage lyith a niece of the king, ^t he 'was obliged 
to leave the Lord of the Isles in possession of such portion of the Lom 
estates as had been granted to the latter by David in 1344. The daugh- 
ter and heiress of John de Ergadia, oc Macdugall, the restored Lord of 
Lorn, carried Lom proper to her husband, Eobrat Stewart, founder of the 
Eosyth family, by whom the Lordship was sold to his brother, John 
Stewart of Innemeath, ancestor of the Stewarts, Lord of Lom." 

This acquisition of territory added immensely to the power and in- 
fluence of the Lord of the Isles, and though he was at the time on friendly 
terms with King David, the Government became conoeo-ned as to the con- 
sequences of permitting the ancient territories of Somerled to beoome 
again united in the person of such an able and already powerfid chief as 
the Lord of the Mes. They therefore determined to place every obstacle 
in his way, and refused to acknowledge him as the rightful heir to Banalcl 
MacBuaii of the Isles, and his wife Amy dying soon after, advantt^ wm 
taken of her death to refuse him a title to her lands, while the Govern- 
ment even went the length of asserting that the marriage with the Lord 
of the Isles, on which his claim was founded, had been irregular, and 
therefore could not be rect^nised. This naturally aroused the ire of t)io 
great chief; he was again in opposition, and in the ranks of the Balifd 
party ; hut the English king having had to direct his attention to the 
war with France, a treaty was entered into between the Scottish king and 
the former before his opposition could produce any consequences detri- 
mental to the Government of Scotland. 

Shortly after this a very extraordinary change took place in the 
charactor and position of the different factions in Scotland which had tho 
efiect once more of detaching the Lord of the Isles &om the English in- 
terest, and of induci]^ him to take his natural position among the barons 
who stood out for the independence of Scotland. Skene puts the state of 
parties at this period and the ultimate result in a remarkably dear and 
concise form, and says — Previously to the return of David IL from cap- 
tivity in England in 1357, tho established Government and the principal 
barons of the kingdom had, with the exception of those periods when 
Edward Baliol had gained a temporary success, been invariably hostile 
to the English claims, while it was merely a taction of the nobility, who 
were in opposition to the Court, that supported the cause of Baliol and of 
En^ish supremacy. John, fcom the natin»l causes arising from his situa- 
tion, and urged by the continued policy of the Government being directed 
towards the reduction of his power and influence, was always forced into 
opposition to the administration, for the time, by which this policy waa 
followed, and when the opposing faction consisted of the adherents of the 
English interest, the Island lord was naturally found amoi^ them, and 
was thus induced to enter into treaty with the King of England. On the 
return of David, however, the situation of parties became matorially 
altered; the King of Scotland now ranked as Edward of England's 
staunchest adherent, and secretly seconded all bis endeavours to overturn 
the independence of Scotland, while the party which had throoghotit sui>- 
ported the throne of Scotland and the cause of independence woto in 
consequence thrown into active opposition to the crown. The natnisl 
consequence of this change was that the Lord of the lalee left the paity 



Google 



124 TEE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

to which he had bo long adhered as soon aa it became id^itified with the 
royal iactton, and was time forced into connection wit^ those with whom 
he hod been for bo many yeaiB at enmity. 

The Steward of Scotland, who was at the head of this party, was of 
coniee deeirous of Btrengthening himself by means of alliances with the 
most powerful barons of the country, and he therefore received the accea- 
eion of bo important a person with avidity, and cemented their union 
by procuring tiie marriage of the Lord of the Isles with his own daughter. 
Johk now adhered steadfastly to the party of the Steward, and took an 
active share in all its procee&ogs, along with the other barons by whom 
they were joined, but without any open manifestation of force, imtii the 
year 1366, when the country was in a state of irritation from the heavy 
burdens imposed upon the peo]de in order to raise the ransom of their 
king, and when the jealousy of David towaids the Steward had at length 
broken out so far as to cause the former to throw his own nephew and 
the acknowledged successor to his throne into prison. The northern 
barons, who belonged to his party, broke out into open rebelHon, and re- 
fused to pay their proportion of the general taxation, or attend the parlia- 
ment, to which they were frequently summoned. Matters appear to have 
remained in this state, and the northern chiefs to have actually assumed 
independence for upwards of two years, until David had at last brought 
himself to apply to the Steward as the only person capable of restoring 
peace to the country, and charged him to put down the rebellion. 

In consequence of this appeal, the Steward, who was unwilling to be 
considered as the disturber of the peace of the kingdom, and whose ends 
were better forwarded by steady oppoeition to the Court party than by 
open rebellion, took every moans in his power to reduce the insuigent 
noblemen to obedience ; but although he succeeded in obtaining the sub- 
mission of John of Lorn and Gillespie Campbell, and although the Earls 
of Mar and Eoss, with other northern barons, whose object was gained 
by the restoration of the Steward to freedom, voluntarily joined Tiiin in 
his endeavours,! ^^^ ^""^ °^ ^^ ^^^ refused to submit, and, secure in 
the distance, and in the inaccessible nature of his territories, set the royal 
power at defiance. But the state of aflairs in France soon after requiring 
the undivided attention of the English king, he was obliged to come to 
tenna with the Scots, and a peace having been concluded between the 
two countries on the moat &vourabIe terms for the latter, the Scottish 
Government was left at liberty to turn its attention wholly towards re- 
ducing the Isles to obedience. In order to accomplish this, David II„ 
well aware of the cause of the rebellion of the Isles, and of the danger of 
permitting matters to remain in their present position, at length deter- 
mined, and that with a degree of energy which hie character had given 
little reason to expect, in person to proceed ag&inst the rebels, and for 
this purpose commanded the attendance of the Steward with the barons 
of the realm. But the Steward, now perceiving that the continuance of 
the rebellion of the Isles would prove fatal to his party, by the great in- 
flnence which he possessed over his son-in-law, succeeded in persuading 
him to meet the king at Inverness, and to submit himself to his authority, 
and the result of this meeting was a treaty entered into between " Johannes 
de Tla, dominus insularum " on the one hand, and " David, Dei gratia 
tex Scototom " ou the other, in which John not only engaged to submit 



i,Googlc 



HISTOET OF THE MACDONiLDS, UV' 

to the roTEil aathority and to take his ahare of all public bnideiiB, Imt alao 
to put down all others who dared to raise themselves in oppoaition to the 
T^al authority. Foi the fulfilment of this obligation the Lord of the 
Isles not only gave his own oath, but offered the Bigh Steward, his 
father-in-law, as security, and delivered his lawful son, Donald, by the 
Steward's daughter, bis grandson, Angus, by his eldest lawful son, John, 
and a natural son, also named Donald, into the hands of the King aa 
hostages.* 

£y the accession of Bobert Steward to the throne of Scotland, which 
took place shortly after this event, the Lord of the Isles was once more 
bron^t into close connection with the crown, and as John remained dur- 
ing the whole of this reign in a state of as grett tranquillity as his father 
Ai^gos had been during that of Robert Bruce, the poUcy of thus connect- 

nment whidb iriti tia fannd ftt pp. 6^70 
. . !i.F.S.A.,Si!ot,M.P.-'To»llwhoai»T 

■89 the ptaeent lettsn : — John ds Y\e, Lord of the I>]ei, iriiiiu ulvatlen in the Stiionr 
of all. Since my moat serene prinoa nad muter, the revered lard Daiid, by Iha Oraoa 
of Qod, illnitrioue King of Scots, hu been itlrred ap against my penoD beoaiiia oF oei- 
tain fsnlts nummitCed by me, for whioli re&ion, eotninu humblf to the preaanoe of 017 
uidlord, at the Town of In*erueu, an the 16th day of the month 'of November, in the 
yeu of gnoe 1369, in the preaenoe of the piekteB, and of very m&ny of the noblM af hli 
kingdom, 1 oSerad and anbmitted myaelf to the plewuie ajid faTour of ray lud matter, 
by luppliantly entreating for farour and for the renuBiion ol my late faulla, and ainoa 
my aaid lord, at the instanoa of hia oonnoll, faaa graaianalT admitted me to bit goodwill 
uid faTour, granting beddea that I may ramain in (all) mj poaaetiioiia vhataoarer and 
Bot be removed, except aocording to Iba pioeeaa aod demand of law ; Let it be olaarljr 
patent to yon all, by the tenor of these preaenta, tfaat I, John da Yle, foreaald, promlca 
and DoTsnaot, in Eood faith, that I (ball give and mahe reparation to all good men af 
thia kingdon whatsoever, far (ueh iojuriea, loaae% and tronblea aa have been wrought 
by me, my aona; or otbera whose names are more fully set forth In the royal letters of 
remisaion granted to me, and to whomioever of the kingdom ai are faitbful 1 aball thsi 
fat make the satiafaotion oaDcladed for, and I aball justly note purchased lands aod 
auperiotitiea, and I aball govern them acoording to my ability ; I shall promptly cauas 
my song and my aubjeota, and others my adherents, to be in peaoenble aubjuDtioD, aod 
that dne juatioe ahall be done to our loiil tha King, asd to the lawa and ooatama of hii 
kingdom, and that they shall be obedient to, and ahall appear before the juatieiara, 
■heriffs, eoronera. and other royal servanU in each aheri^dom. even better and more 
obodiintly tlwn in the time af Robert ot good memory, the predeoeBsur of my lord tho 
King, and aa the inhabitants of tha said landa and superioritiea have hwa acoiutomad 
to do. They sbsll answer, both promptly and dutifully, to tha royal asrvanta what is 
imposed regarding oontributiona and other bnrdeua and aervioes due, and alao far tha 
time paat, and in the evaut that within the taid landa or superiorities any penon or 
panona shall offend against the King, at one or mora of his ftdthful aervanta, sad it ha 
ot they shall despise to obey the law, or if he or tbay ahalt be unwilling to obey in the 
ptemuea, and in any one of the pramisaa, 1 ahall immediately, entirely laying aalde 
attatagem and deaeit, pursue that parson or those person* aa anemles, and as rebels of 
the King and kingdom, with all my ability, until he or tbey aball be expelled from the 
limita of tha landa and snperloritiBs, ot I shall make him or tham obey the common 
law : And for performing, implementing, and faithfully obaerring these thinga, all and 
eaeh, I peraonally bays tak«n tha oath in preaeafle of the foresaid prelatea and nobtea, 
and beaidea I have gives and surtandared the nnder-writtan hostages, via., Dooald, my 
son, begotten of the daughter of the Lord Sanesahat of Scotland, Angus, aon of my late 
aon John, and one Donald, another and natural aon of mine, whom, baaaale at the tiibe 
of the completion of thia preaentdaed, 1 have not at present ready and prepared. I shall 
eauaa them to go into, or to he given up at the Castle of Dumbarton, at the feast of our 
Lord's birth now neit to oome, if I ahall he able otherwiae oh this side, or at the feast of 
the Fnrifioatian of the Bleaaed Virgin (or Candlemaa, 2d February) next following there- 
after, under pain of the breach ot the oath given, and ander pain of the loaa of all things 
wbleh, with regard to the lord our King, I shall he liable to lose, iik whatever manner. 
And for securing the entrance of these hostages as promised, Ihavefonad my Lord Benaa- 
ohal of Sootland, Earl of Strathem, aeonrity, whose aeal for the purpoae of the preaent 
seoarity, and also fur tbe greater evidence of tbe matter ia appended, along with my own 
proper aeal, ta tbeae presents in testinony of tbe premiaea, Acted and given, fear, daf, 
and plaoe foreaaid," 



ii,Googlc 



IM THE CELTIC MAGAZmC. 

1^ these torbtilent chiefo with the Gorenmieiit hy the tiea of fiiendship 
and aUia&oe, lathei than that of attempting to reduoe them to obedience 
by fon» and foititade, became very manifesL King Bobert, no donbt, 
mw clearly enough the advantage of following the advice left by Robert 
Brace for the guidance of bia BuccesBoie, not to allow the great temtoriea 
and extensive inflaence of these Island loids ever again to be concentrated 
in the person of one individual ; bnt the claims of John were too great 
to be overlooked, and, accordingly, Bobert had been but one yeax on the 
throne, when John obtained &om him a feudal title to all those lands 
which had formerly belonged to Ranald, the son of Boderick, and which 
had been ao long refused to him. 

In order, however, to neutralise in some degree the effect of thus in- 
veeting one individual with a feudal title to each extensive territoriee, and 
believing himself secure of the attachment of John during his lifetime, 
King Bobert determined, since he could not prevent the accumulation of 
80 much property in one family, at least, by briuging abont its division 
among its different branches, to sow the seed of future discord, and even- 
tually perhaps of the ruin of the race. He found little difGculty in per> 
Buading John, in addition to the usual practice in that family of gavelling 
the lands among the numerous offspring, to render the children of th e two 
marriages ftudally independent of each other, a fatal measure, the conse- 
quencea of which John did not apparently foresee ; and, accordingly, in the 
third year of hie reign. King Bobert confirmed a charter by Joho to Eegi- 
nald, the second eon of the fLret marriage, of the lands of Qarmoran, which 
John had acquired by his marriage with Beginald's mother, to be held of 
John's heirs, that is to say, of the descendants of the ^dest son of the 
fiiflt marriage, of whom one had been given as an hostage in 1 369, and 
who would of course succeed to every one of John's possessions which 
were not feudally destined to other qnarteia. Some years afterwards 
John resigned a great part of the Western portion of his territories, con- 
sisting principally of the lands of Lochaber, Kintyre, and Knapdale, with 
the Island of Colonaay, into the King's hands, and received trom him 
charteiB of these lands in &vour of himself and his heirs by the marriage 
with the King's daughter; thus rendering the children of the second 
marriage feud^y independent of those of the first, and furnishing a sub- 
ject for contention between theae families which could not fidl to lead to 
their ruin.* The regularity of the first marriage has been questioned, 
hut its perfect legitimacy is now placed beyond question by the discovery 
of a dispensation permitting the marriage by the Fope, dated 1337, as 
the parties were within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity allowed 
by the Church. On this point Gregory, Skene, Smibert, and indeed all 
the best authorities are at on& And the first wife was divorced, &om 
anything that can be ascertained, without any just reasons or any cause 
of complaint against her good and feithful conduct Gregory considers it 
highly probable that a secret understanding was arrived at between the 
Steward and the Lord of the Isles before the latter divorced his first wiie 
and married the daughter of the Steward, that at the death of K'n g David 
the Steward would ascend the throne under the title of Bobert U. ; and 
certain it Is, he says, that after that event the destinatiou of the Lordship 



■ HlgbUndm of Sootluid, by W. F. Bkui, pp. 64-7a 



Google 



HI8T0ET OF THE UA.CDONALDB. 127 

of the TsleB was altered so as to cause it to descend to the grandchildien of 
the King. Avrare tliat his riglits to Gaimoran tmd the Koith lales WSB 
annulled by the divorce of his first wife, the Lord of the Isles, dieiegaid- 
ing her claima, and trusting to the infiuence of the Kiog, his &thei-iii- 
law, procured a royal eharter of the lauds in question, in which her name 
was not even mentioned. Godfrey, the eldest son of the Lord of the lalea, 
by his fiist wife, resisted these unjust pioceedinga, maintaining hJB 
mother's prior claims, and his own as her heir ; but Kanald, hia younger 
brother, being more pliant, was rewaided by a grant of the Iforth Isles, 
Garmoran, and many other lauds to hold of John, Lord of the Isles, tatd 
his heirs* 

When the Steward ascended the throne as King Bobert n. of 
Scotlaud, one of his first Acts of Parliament was to confirm his " beloved 
Bon John of the Isles " in the possession of the greater portion of the 
Scottish heritage of the house of Someiled, except a portion of Argyle, 
Moidart, Arisaig, Morar, and Knoydart, on the mainland ; and Uiflt^ 
Barra, Eum, Egg, and Harris, in the Western Isles, were confirmed or 
assigned to him and his heirs by royal charter, dated at Scone, on the 9th 
March 1371-2. By the charter granted in his favour by David II. on 
the 12th Jane 1344, he, in addition to secnriDg the lands already named, 
was. made keeper of the " King's Castles of Kornoburgh, Iselborogh, and 
Dunchonnal, with the lands and small Islands thereto belonging to he 
held by the said John, and his heirs, in fee and heritage." In 1354 be 
entered into an indenture with John of Lorn, Lord of Argyle, by which 
the latter gave up his ancient claims to these castles and lands, in &voui 
of John of the Isles, as also his rights to the Islands of Mull, Jura, 
and Tiree. In the same year he was one of the fpor great barons of Spot- 
land named as securities for the observance of the Treaty of Ifewcastle, 
and as the other three barona named were the Steward of Scotland, after- 
wards Robert U., the Lord of Douglas, and Thomas of Moray, it is clear 
that he was selected as one of the most powerful chiefs at the time in all 
Scotland On 31st March 1356 Edward III. of England issued a cpm- 
misaion to treat directly with the Island Chief, and in the treaty for the 
Uberation of David II., entered into on the 3d October in the following 
year, by which also an " inviolable truce " for ten years between England 
and Scotland, was agreed upon, the Lord of the Isles was specially men- 
tioned. In 1362 he obtained a confirmation of all donations and conces- 
sions by whosoever made to him, and of whatsoever lands, tenomentB, 
annual rents, and other possessions held by him. 

The haughty temper of the Western chief is well illustrated by an 
anecdote preserved in Hugh Macdonald's MS. — " When John of the 
lales was to be married, some of his followers and famiUara advised bin^ 
to behave courteously before the King, and to uncover himself as others 
did. He said (that) he did not well know how the King should be 
reverenced, for aH the men he ever saw should reverence himself j" and, 
to get over the difficulty, the haughty lord " threw away his cap, saying 
he would wear none," and thus there would be no necessity to humiliate 
himself by taking it off before the King, 

There is no doubt whatever that John, first Lord of the Isles, married 



' Wsiteiii Hifhlandi ud Um, pp. 30-31, 



ii,Goo(^lc 



138 THE CELTIC HAOAZINE. 

fint, u Us lavM wife, Amy, sole npnsentotive and hdnas of ^ Hm- 
Bnui bnsch of the Siol Cnmn, and that among his descendants by thia 
mairi^^ we mnit look for the reptosentatiTe of the ddei branch, and 
theiefora for the chiefe of the line of Somerled of the Islee, while it Li 
egoallj trae that the bmily of Sleat rapresent John, last Earl of Boaa 
and Lord of the Ltles. The controversy which has taken place on this 
important question between the &milie8 of Glengany and Moydart ifl 
well known to many of onr readers, and we are fortunate enough to poe- 
•eta copies of it ; bnt although the queGtion ansee chronologicallj here, 
we prefer to discuss the whole subject at a fatuie Btage in a special 
chapter. There is, however, no doubt that Donald, the eldest son of the 
second marriage, althoughnotthechiefcJthefamiljbyiight of blood, bo- 
eame the actual feudal superior of his brothers. On ttiis point Gregory is 
emphatic, and says "Donald, the eldest son of the second marriage, bd- 
eame, on his father's death, second Lord of the Isles, and iu that capacity 
was most undoubtedly, feudal superior and actual chief of his brothers, 
whether of the foil or half blood." We shall therefore follow and treat 
the Lords of the Isles as the main, and, unquestionably, the most import- 
ant line In this work. 

By his marriage with Amy, heiress of the MaoBoaries, "the good John 
of Isla''had issue — 

1. John, who died before bis &ther, leaving one son, Angus, who died 
without issue. 

2. Godfrey, Oi TTist and Garmoran, of whom hereafter; 

3. Ranald, or Reginald, progenitor of Glengarry, and of all the Mao- 
donalds claiming to be Clan Banalds. These shall afterwards be dealt 
with in their order. 

i. Mary, said to have maniei^ first, one of the Macleans (^ Doart, 
and, secondly, Maclean of ColL 

He married, secondly, Lady Margaret, daughter of Robert, TTigb Stew- 
ud of Scotland, afterwards King £obert IL, and first of the Stewart 
dynasty. By this lady he had — 

5. Donald, who succeeded as second Lord of the Islea 

6. John Mot Tanieter of Islay and Kintyre, and of whom hereafter. 

7. Alaeander, Lord of Loohaber, known as " Al"^" Catrach," pro- 
genitor of the &mily of Eeppoch. 

Gregory says that he died in 1380, while Skene has it that he died 
about 1386. His death took place at his Castle of Ardtomish in Morven, 
and he was buried in the sacred precincts of lona, " with great splendour," 
by the ecclesiastics of the Isles, whose attachment he secured by liberal 
donations to the Church, and who evinced their gratitude by calling him 
" the good John of Isia," a designation handed down by tradition to 
modem times. 

He was succeeded in all his possessions, and in the Lordship of the 
lake, by his eldest son by the second marriage. 
(lohe OonHnued.) 



jb,GoO(^lc 



D E E M N D. 
A Talh op Eniqbtlt Dbeds Bonb in Old Bats. 

BOOK L— "AlfONa THE ISLES OF THE WESTEBN SEA." 

Chapthb T. 

Wbtt ma7 tbli naui. 
That tb<n, dlad eoni, ^i^n, in complete rtwl, 
BeTiiit'it tblu the glimpiH of the mood, 
H*kug night hideona ; uid we fools of lutDr*, 
So horribly to ihake rna diipoaitlon. 
With thoaghta bejoml the leMhee of oar mhII 

—Bamla. 
It is quite mmeccaeary to dwell on the way in whidi the night was 
passed at Dunkerlyne. The nevs of Dermond's escapade fell lite a 
thunderclap among the assembled levelleis, and silenced the mirth for a 
vhil& An soon as the messengei had gone, a stetn vow of vengeance on 
the Iiead of John of Lom and hia minion, Macnab, burst irom the lips of 
the men-at-arms. Brian was greatly alarmed and confused at fiist, but 
reflection made him calm and decided. The reception of Cyiil as bis 
gnest did not now disturb him so much ; Dermond's captivity weighed 
too Heavily on his mind. But it stung him into resolution. He knew 
he bad a dual part to play, and hesitation might be ruin. The night was 
principally spent in sounding the men, all of whom appeared to be above 
suspicion, although the heart of a traitor beat in the breast of Cormac 
DoiL Brian held counsel with Jarloff as to what he should do on the 
morrow. To attempt a rescue or openly defy the power of John of Lom 
would he madness, and might precipitate the fote of the youth. Submis- 
sion xad diasimnlation were resolved upon, but meanwhile every effort 
was to be made to resume secret communication with Eobert the Bruce, 
so that Ibe power of the tyrant of Dunolly might be overwhelmed in the 
general rising of the country against the yoke of Edward. Confidences 
were exchanged between the pirate and his guest. • Brian was informed 
of his relationship to CyriL The story of the descent on Bathland was 
related, and the Chief of Dunkerlyne thanked God that he had not been 
too tneh to revenge a deed for which Lom was more to blame than the 
unfortunate Cyril 

With every semblance of feality, Brian and a large body of his fol- 
lowers attended at DunoUy on the succeeding day. 

The gathering was a fonuidahle one, and night had almost set in be- 
fore all the petty chieftains from the interior of the mainland and the 
most remote island fastneeaes of the Western sea had gathered under the 
walls of the great stronghold of the Loms. 

In the principal hall of the castle the heads of the various clans were 
assembled, and John of Lom made known his fell purpose. 

" My gallant chieftains," he said, as bis eagle eye scanned the expect- 
ant faces ^ the war-^irt Highlanders, " &om your hearths and from the 
bosoms of youi fimiihes have I called you to accompany me on an exped|- 



.Google 



130 THE CELTIC MAGAZINK 

tton of great and ntightf import Two daya ago the violence of the Trind 
and wavee ptevonted our assembling in such force as V6 do now, but 
nnce one of youi number at least — the brave and faithful Macnab—had 
the course to set the stionn at defiance, take not this as an evil omen 
attainting the jnstice of oni canse or the enccess -which slutll attend tliera- 
unto. The delay, mayhap, hath rather been for good than otherwise A 
courier from the English court hath arrived in the interval, bringing in- 
telligence of the whereabouts and strength of the rebellious Bruce of 
Carrick. His sacrilegious deed in the Church of Dumfries now meets a 
just punishment. AH the faithful sons of the Church have forsaken his 
standard, and the hand of an indignant God is lifted high to smite hia 
canse. All of you must know of the insult perpetrated in contempt of 
the holiness of the Sanctuary and the dignity of our house. My gallant 
kinsman, the Red Comyn, rightful heir to the throne of Scotland, and 
joint regent nnder the power of Edward of England, after having been 
unfaithfully treated with, and divers forgeries and calumnies invented for 
his traduction in the eyes of his most gracious Majesty as a scheming 
traitor, hath been treacherously and vilely stabbed before the altar of God 
in the Church of Greyfriara. Since the perpetration of a deed so repul- 
sive to the principles of faith and loyalty — so infamous in the eyes of the 
whole world, since the blood of royalty itself spattered the steps of the 
holy alter, the regicide hath presumptoualy assumed the crown of Scot- 
land, the ceremony being publicly performed by the Countess of Buchan 
in the precincts of the palace of Scone. But thanks to the noble Pem- 
broke, he hath not long enjoyed his blood-bought honours. Driven from 
the woods of Methven as a pestUence defiling whithersoever Ms feot may 
tread, he hath with unprincipled audacity overrun the territority of Lorn, 
living royally on the produce thereof witi fishing hook and hunting spear. 
Start not when I say that this reckless adventurer is now within a few 
days march of our seat of Dundly. Desperate and mighty aa he ie, ho 
can yet be crushed. Defeated as he is, he is still powerful and all the 
effbrts of our noble allies have been unable to oust him from his retreat. 
One who can so shamelessly violate all that is sacred in chivalry is neither 
open to the protection of God nor man. Think you, my gaUant chief- 
tains — the strength of our noble house — in justice to the blood which 
bears testimony on the' altar we shall stand carelessly by and allow this 
flaming hell-fiend to take refuge in our woods and mountains. Let us 
exert the utmost of our power to crush the bloody and unholy nauiper. 
Tot this cause therefore — the cause of Heaven, the cause of Ei^land, the 
cause of Lorn, yea, the cause of each and every son of the Mthful — I 
have called you forth, and before another day dawns upon our indolence 
let us go and seek the rebellious regicide, and expel him from our teiri- 
tory." 

As soon as the bursts of applause, the shouts of assent and vows of 
Tengeance had died down, he resumed — 

" This is not alL The same courier bringeth intelligence of the total 
defeat of two galleys commanded by Cyril of Rathland, our sworn enemy, 
while attempting to land succours for ihe Bruce on the shores of Kintyre, 
Cyril escaped, but is supposed to have suffered wreck on these shores. 
The storm was the weapon with which the God of the faithful smote the 
helper of the hetetic. Cyril, however, hath not yet pemhed. By the 



DERMOND. IM 

fool tieaclieiy of some of onr roBsala he liath gained a refiige in these 
islos. (The eye of Lom waa sternly fixed on Brian the Viking as he 
epoko these vords.) "Sha vengeance of HeavoQ and the hlood of Comyn 
(dao demand that instant search be made for the Lord of Bathland, and 
the ehelterai of his unholy head ehaU be hung with Cyril's caicase by 
the heela &om the h^hest tower of his castle." 

" Death to the traitor !" shouted the chieftains. 

Brian vaa silent and looked somewhat startled as er^ eye was 
directed against him. 

"Ha! yon startandlookpale, good Brian of Dunkerlyne!" exclaimed 
Lom with a maliciona chuckle, " Why do you not shout ' Death to the 
traitor I' like the rest of my noble vassals 1" 

"Tour pardon, my lord," said the Viking, recovering himself, "I 
feel abashed at your Woids. I am tmly alarmed at what you say regarf- 
ing some traitor, God knows I am innocent. Day and night I hard 
not slept in trying to find the whereabouts of this bloody man, Cyril of 
Sathland, Aa yet my work has been in vain." 

" Methinks, Sir Chief, you have cause enough to perform the mission 
surely and ^ithfolly. The slayer of your gallant father, Francis, and the 
abettor of a sacrilegious regicide make a fit subject for your vengeance." 

" They do, my lord," assented the chieftain, suppressing the passion 
which boiled within him. 

" Revenge for the. death of yonr noble father, the blessing of the 
Church, and the liberty of yoor son," exclaimed Lorn, " make a fitting 
reward." 

Brian remained speechless. 

"What," said Lorn, "you hesitate. Have I said too little for ao 
small a deed. Would you have me give you money to bribe your cour- 
age i Or shall I add to the liberty of your jackanapes of a eon the hand 
of a noble lady he covets i" 

" Shame upon the mercenary knave," re-echoed through the chamber, 

" To revenge the death of a father," said the swarthy Chief from Col- 
onsay, " would methinks be guerdon enow for the death of a thousand 
men." 

" l^e blessing of the Church," said the holy abbot of lona, " ought, 
above all things, to spur you to revenge." 

" Give me the task, my lord," said the fiery Macnab, " and even I 
wiU undertake to find and slay the accursed abettor of this murdering 
heretic" 

"You misunderstand me on all hands," said Brian of Dunkerlyne, ex- 
asperated witii the insults of Lorn, the goading of the Abbot, and the ex- 
clamations of the chieftains. " Hear me, good sirs, and you shall know 
what makes me shrink from answering aa I should wish your unseemly 
taunts. If there be a sire among you with love or sympathy in his heart 
who knows what it is to have a son, he will not be so ready to fling such 
cowardly reproaches. I have a son, an only son, whom I love as I love 
my own life. My gallant Dermond lies writhing in chains lar down be- 
neath this floor in the depths of the dungeons of Dunolly. Grief for his 
fate unnerves me and makes me dumb. Set him at liberty. Let him 
accompany you in this expedition, and I shall return to the execution of 
my dntf. Let Heaven and this assembly be my witnesses, while I sweftr 

Google 



182 THE CELTIC MAGAZDTE. 

by this sword witli its lioly cross — while I swear by the sacred shrine of 
Colomba — that another day shall not dawn before the death of my father 
is avenged, the Church satisfied, and the state aasured, Eest so much 
fiuth in me my liege for this once. Set Dennond at liberty, take Mm 
with you to fight agtunat the Brace, and leave me to deal with Cyril of 
Rathland." 

" Nobly spoken," burst from almost every lip as this speech was con- 
cluded. 

" Go then, brave Brian of the sea-wave," said Lorn, " I believe yoo 
are worthy of the trust. Dermond nhtl l go frea His oSence, with the 
assent of Macoab, will no doubt be phoned. The good Abbot will 
shrive him of his sin, and he will accompany me against the Biuce. 
But, remember, my suspicions have not been without ground— my charges 
have not been without cause. See that Cyril has not gained your co^- 
dence and hospitality already. Tremble at my words, and barken ye 
noble bulwarks of our house, while I threaten the wavering vassaL If 
the roof of your castle shelters Cyril of Eathland another night the life 
of your eon shall answer for youi treachery. Avenge me on this Irish 
chieftain, and the guerdon shall exceed your expectations." 

Brian frowned at this speech, and thundered forth a denial of the 
charges it contained. 

" I trust yon do not bolie yourself," said Lorn. " I may have been 
deceived by my informant. At least remember my words." 

Bowing to MacdougaU Brian retired in sore dismay from the presence 
of the chieftains. 

Before starting for Dunkerlyne he had an interview with his son in 
his dungeon. The youth, who was ghastly pale with thought and confine- 
ment, clasped his iather to his breast, and thanked Heaven that be had 
not perished in the stoim. A gleam of fiie lighted up his weary eye, and 
the Golooi returned to his cheek as he fondled in his parent's arms. The 
blood forsook his cheek again, however, when he had time to observe the 
cloud which rested on the Viking's brow. All was not well, and the 
offer of liberty did not bring that gladness to his heart which it ought to 
have done. The manner of his father was altogether suspicious, and he 
ui^ed him to reveal what could oppress him bo much. 

" If you have done aught that is wrong or bound yourself to any un- 
holy task for the sake of my liberty," said Dermond, " let me rather rot 
in tills foul dungeon. I will not be free on any such terms." 

"May, my good Dermond," said the Viking, "rest assured there ia 
nought I have undertaken but what can be executed with honour. It 
merely troubles me to know that you start on your first errand of peril 
without the protection of a lather's arm. Be wary, my son, ia your deal- 
ings with the enemy. Ho is cunning and courageous. Be bold and fear- 
less, but neither rash nor careless. Be always well on your defence, and 
use the tricks of the sword and battleaxe, which have made your fathers 
BO illustrious on land and sea. The Sassenach is well armed with linked 
shirt and glittering cuirass, but watch the chinks and joints of his harnesa. 
Tour sword was the sword of my father, Francis, in Ms youth. It is well 
tempered and handy. Tour battle-axe was given to Jarloff by the great 
"King Haco. Treasure it, for it ia your strength. It is the trust of yonx 
life, and no Sassenach helmet can resist ite clang. Above all things place 



DEEMOND. 133 

yonr hope in the Saints, for though I be not a very godly man, for the 
eake of your heavenly mother I adjure yon to be faithful and chivalrous." 

" Never fear, my fether," said Dermond vrith assumed laughter, " I 
have strength and skill to hold my own agaioat the strongest Sassenach. 
Meanwhile, farewell I When I retnm my shield shall be brighter with 
the deeds of the battle." 

Brian kissed his son and parted. As he turned away he muttered 
something like a curse, and wiped a trickling teai> &om his cheek with 
his iron hand. 

He returned to Dunkeilyne, and mixed deeply in the n^htly rev^ 
He drank much, and startled the men-at-arms nith £te of what appeared 
to be madueas. He had always been subject to these fits aince the de- 
scent of Francis on the shores of Eathland, but that n^ht there was 
something wild and savage abont his apeech and bearing anch as no one 
had previously witnessed. 

The hall was at length emptied of the men-at-arms. Brian lingered 
behind. He cursed those who came to ofiei him assistance to his bed- 
chamber, and sternly ordered all to go and sleep. 

He sat gazii^ into the smonldenng fiie which cast a dim and lurid 
light over the bare walls and blackened rafters. The boisterous laugh ' 
and meiry song of the retreating revellers jarred fearfully on his ear. His 
eyes were red and swollen, and his head, with its nnkempt grey hairs, lay 
bnried in his hands. He looked dazed and troubled, and when he spoke 
to himself or the visionary beings who floated round him, his voice was 
deep and unusually harsh. 

Most of the other occupants of the keep were soon wrapt in a alumber 
Buch as succeeds to late hours and a boisterous revel 

Ko Bound broke the stillness of the ball save the tread of the sentinels 
echoing &onL the platforms without, the loai of the waves dashii^ on the 
cHffB beneath, the rustle among the expiring embers, or the occasional 
lestlessnetis of Brian himself. 

At length he lifted his head, glared wildly into the fire, rested one 
arm on his knee, and thrust the other into his breast. 

" I am a cniol and hardened man," he muttered to himsel£ 

Again he buried his face in hJ£ bauds, and then sat speechlesaly 
watching the flickering flame in the deadening fire. 

The crying of a little child, piercing the pitiless darkness of the night, 
made him start up and glance fearfully around. 

He went to the window, and after looking some time towards Dunolly 
where the watchfires oast a ruddy glamour on the mountains and the sky, 
he returned to his seat with " Bloody, faithless villain I" hissing through 
his teeth. The life of his only son Bermond lay in the balance against 
the life of his uncle. There was some traitor at Duukerlyno who had 
been revealing all regarding bis reception of Cyril. How he yearned to 
tear the eyes and tongue &om his treacherous bead 1 

" Stain my hands with an old man's blood I" thought Brian in his 
agony. " Spatter the steps of God's altai forsooth ! What if the blood 
of my guest should spatter the hearth ofpioepitalityl Murder my uncle 
— shameless, treacherous Lorn. Heaven support me in this struggle, 
Holy mother of God be my guide and adviser. Ye burning sattelites 
above, and all the Bacted bones of St Golomba's shrine, aid me in this the 



.Google 



134 THE CELTIG MAGAZINE. 

houi of my need. I hare lieeii laah and ungodly in my life, let me not 

add this sin to the rest." 

He wept and prayed in vain. 

" Bah !" lie exclaimed, " I have played tlie woman, lint no more. I 
mnBt revenge my father. Denaoud must be made happy. A murrain 
on my fears." 

He tose ftom hia seat, clutched his diik, aud made to leave the hall. 
Something eeemed to stand between him and the door, barring the way, 
and when he moved forward a strong band seemed to clutch him by the 
throat and thrust him back. 

" Avaunt, ye hell-Eonda 1 " he attempted to shout, but his voice foiled 
him and his dagger clung tenaciously to the sbeath. 

Hailing with a cold sweat and breathing abruptly, he diew back and 
sank belplesaly on the b^ich by the fiie, 

for some time he sat in a state of quivering feai, and then mnetering 
up courage and muttering something about " &ncy," he rushed out. 

Strange sounds re-echoed through the castle. An earthquake rumbled 
among the mountains and shook the sea, while the towers of Dunkeilyne 
rocked to and bo. 

Brian returned pale as a ghost, aud sank into his seat. He had been 
to the chamber high up on the northern side of the keep — the same 
chamber where the great Alexander IL of Scotland was smitten by the 
hand of death in his expedition for the subjection of the Lord of Aigyle 
and the Isles in 1249. There Cyril and his son slept in each other's 
arms. A strange feeling came over him as he stood there with his dagger 
drawn ready to do murder. " Oh God I" he cried, " whence this terrible 
delusion?' He remembered tlie meeting on the hillside when the iace of 
hie uncle, who was then a stranger to him, so vividly recalled the features 
of hb fatJier, and then the youth so like^his Dermond in the lineaments 
of every limb and feature. He could not stab. He turned away his 
eyes, and attempted to do so in vain. 

" Hellish bewilderment !" be shouted fiercely on returning to the hall. 
" So like the image of m; father ! Something withheld my hand." 

He thought of of the circumstauces under which his father had met 
his death. Cyril had slain his brother Francis while defending his own 
castle. The deed bad been done in error and in the heat of combaL 
The night had been very dark, and Bathland had been attacked by John 
of Lorn. He thought of the tyrannies exercised by the great Macdoagallj 
and meditating on the weakness of his castle of Dunkerlyne, when traitors 
Inrked within its walls, he struck his brow and beat his feet on the floor 
with raga 

" Haughty, bloody miscieantl!" he exclaimed, " youi threats and 
orders I defy. Tee, my castle haUi walls and gates of strength, and the 
tiaitots shall be thrown into the saa from the highest cliff in Kerrera, 
My Dennond, my gallant son, shall yet escape your viJlany. Now to my 
couch in peaoe, and to-morrow shall dawn npon a &ee mid independent 
Chief of Dunkerlyne." 

He rose to leave the hall, but dimly discranable in the pale moonlight 
that stTE^^led through the bars of the iron casement the stately figui« of 
his father stood. 

Brian paiised> and as he gazed tremulously, the Uood in his veiiu na 



ii,GoO(^lc 



DERMOND. 136 

oold. He drew his hand across hia eyes to lemove the film that seemed 
to gather on them. But there his f&ther stood with an unearthly glare 
lighting up his pallid featores. The eyes gleamed with fire. The richly 
embossed armour shone with inherent brUliancy. One pale hand gra«ped 
the glittering mantle, while the other held aloft the hattle-aze as of yoie. 
As Brian continued to gaze in dumb fear, the vision grew more Tivid 
and alarming until it seemed to fade away in a sea of blood. With a 
feeling of sinking into the ruddy gulf be fell cold and senseless on the 
hard stone floor. 

(To be Conttnued.) 



ALLAS NAW CKEACH. 



Thb trayeller throngh the Pass of Dmmonchter to Ifewtonmore tX the 
base of Craigdha, the ancient gathering place of the MacphereonES wonld 
be apt to imagine that the district along ^hich he is skirting Is one of 
dreary wOdness — of mountains, barren or only coTSred by heather — the 
sole homes of the deer and the grouse, and would scout as a ridiculous 
idea the possibility of finding level fields capable of being farmed as highly 
and aEFording as fertile returns as many districts in the Lowlands. 

And yet it is so. Amid bills and mountains crowded, and as it were 
crowding together, climbing over each other to see and be seen of the 
world, to share the sweeping storm or bathe in the beaming sunshine — 
there are valleys as sweet and picturesque as they are unexpected. 
Stretching westward, twenty miles in length by about two in breadth, 
there is the Strath of the Spey. Planking the valley, runs the Uonadh- 
lia (gray mountains) range, extending from the confines of Lochaber 
nearly eighty miles towards Kairn, in some places three thousand feet 
high and thirty miles wide, and separatiug the vale of the Spey &om the 
(^en of the Findhom — while the Ben Alder range, lofty and precipitous 
to the west, once the favourite haunt of red deer, before sheep invaded the 
territory, overhanging Loch Ericht, one of the wildest lakes in Scotland, 
divides it from Loch Laggan, one of the most beantiful. 

To the traveller on approaching it the view is very pleasii^ ; its bays 
80 much indented look l^e a series of small lakes. The lands around it 
rise gradoaUy from base to summit, are clothed on their skirts with na- 
tural wood, and aboond in ravines and corries, which the fugitives from 
Colloden — Prince Charlie, Lochiel, Gluny MacphersoD, and others, made 
their hiding homes, until they could leave the land of theii love with the 
breaking hearts of exiles, for sunnier yet sadder climea. 

Around Loch L^an the scenery is most magnificent. The hills seem 
thiown into theii present positloii by some mighty convulsion of nature, 



.Google 



1S6 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

and to the traTaller, aa he proceeds, present, as it vere in a moving pano- 
rama, a eeiies of grand yet iudescii'bable views. 

The whole district is interestlt^. In the foreground is Clnny Castle, 
theTesidence of the Chief of the Macphersons ; Laggan Manse, once the 
home of Mrs Grant, the famous authoress ; tiie neighbourhood of the 
Loch, once the favourite hunting grounds ; and laatl; , the hurial places 
of the Kings Fergus. One of the islands bears the name of Eilean an 
High (King's Island) j another, Eilean nan Con (Dogs' Island), while a 
height is called Ardverige or the ard or height of Fergus. At the east 
end of this Loch are the ruina of the Church of St KUlen, round which 
hangs the following tradition : — * 

It is said that this Church was huilt'by " Allan nan Creach" or Allan 
of the Spoils, a soubriquet given to one of the family of Cameron of 
Lochiel. The following anecdote has been gravely told, and gravely be- 
lieved by the good psuple of Lochaber and Badenooh, as giving an ac- 
count of the circam stances that led to the building of this and of six other 
ohnrches. It is said that Allan was very active, and at first rather suc- 
cessful in levying contiibutions irom hia ueighbonrs, and in driving off 
their cattle without ceremony, for his own speoial use. But the tide of 
plunder does not always run smooth, any more than that of love. Allan 
having met with some disasters in his predatory expeditions, was resolved 
upon having some communication with the inhabitants of the invisible 
world, in order to find out the cause. There was a celebrated witch in 
his neighbourhood, called Gorm Sbuil or hlue-eyed. She was such an 
adept in her profession that she could transform herself and others into 
hares and cows, raise hurricanes from any quarter of the compass she 
pleased, and perform other wonderful exploits, too tedious to mentioiL 
Under the diiwitlon of this and other similar advisers, Allan, to attain the 
project he had in view, took a living cat, and with his servant, went at 
night to a com-tiln, near Torcastle in Strathlochy. The cat was put liv- 
ing on a spit ; and the servant commenced the process of roasting it before 
a slow fire, while Allan stood at the entrance leading to the fire, with a 
drawn ewoid to keep off all intruders. The cat set up doleful lamenta- 
tions, when a crowd of cats immediately gathered, as it were to its tescue ; 
but they were kept at a respectable distance by the redoubtable Allan. 
Every cat as it came, exclaimed in Gaelic, " '8 olc an canibh cait sin," 
" that is bail treatment of a oat." " It will not be better just now " was 
Allan's response ; and every moment he would address the man at the fire, 
saying, "Whatever yon may hear or see, keep turning the cat." At last 
a black cat with one eye came and calmly remonstrated with the guardian 
of the passage on his cruelty, and told hini that his late reverses were a 
punishment for his wickedness in plundering his neighbours, and that in 
order to atone for hia guilt, and obtain forgiveness for his sins, he must 
build seven churchea— a church for every creach which he raised. The 
cut Cam Dubh (the one-eyed cat), added, that if Allan would persevere 
in hia present amuxement, until the cat with the long banging ears, hia 
brother (Cluasan leabhra mo bhrathair) should arrive, he would take such 
summary vengeance, that Allan would never see his Maker's iace in mercy. 
This lecture having struck terror into Allan's soul, he released the cat at 
the fire, and did not wait the arrival of the dreadful duastm leabhia, but 
ntired immediately from the scene, and lost no time in commenoing hii 



AIXAN NAN CEKACH. 18T 

chmch building echeme, according to the diiecttoiu of his monitor. H* 
erected ere he died, the aeven chinches which are still pointed oat, and it 
is said that the old church of I^iggau was one of the seTen. 

In St Mungo's Island, at the entrance of Loch Leven, near Qlenoo in 
Aigyleehiie, there is a burial-place ; and there we find another of Allan 
nan Creach's churches. The following story is reported, and firmly h^ 
liered at this day in that part of the country : — About the middle of the 
last century a man was buried in the island, for sevetel nighta after, 
the dead man disturbed the whole ne^hhourhood in tilenco, calling in « 
moat dolorous strain on a certain individual to come and relieve him. 
The man at last set off for the island in the dead hour of night, and hav- 
ing arrived at the grave, found the dead man with his head and neck 
fauly above the ground. " What is your business with me," says ths 
filenco man, " and why are you disturbing the neighbourhood with your 
untimely lamentations after this feshloni" " I have not," says the dead 
man, "rest night or day since I lay here, nor shall I, as long as thia head 
is on my body, I shall give you the reason. In my younger days I 
swore most solemnly that I would marry a certain woman, and that I 
never would forsake her as long as this head remained on my body. At 
this time I had a hold of a button, and the moment we parted, I sepa- 
rated the head of the button from the neck, thinking that then all waa 
right. I now find my mistake. Ton must, therefore, cut off my head." 
The other, fetching a stroke, cat off the head cbse to the surface of the 
ground, and then the dead man dragged the reet of the body back to the 
grave, leaving the head to shift for itself. This story ia as firmly believed 
in Glenco this day, by some people, as any truth of Holy Writ. 

TOBQUIL. 



EETrREMENT OF PEOVOST ALEXAITDER SIMPSOIT.— 
Apart altogether from Municipal politics, a change in the Chief Magis- 
tracy of the Highland Capital must possess more or less interest for High- 
lani^rs wherever located ; and especially so in the case of one who, I^e 
Provost Simpson, has devoted about a quarter of a century to public afiaira. 
During his reign, schemes of great importance to Inverness have been 
completed, such as the introduction of Water fkim Lochashie, the pur- 
chase by the Town of the Old Gras and Water Company's business and 
plant, and the building of a ICew Town Hall ; and while a considerable 
di&erence of opinion exists as to the manner in which these schemes were 
carried out, there ia none as to the honesty of purpose of the chief actoi, 
and the ultimate amelioration and benefit of the town. Provost Simpson 
had his failings, but they generally leant to virtue's side. He tried to 
please all, and of course foiled, like others who attempted the Impossible. 
Hie knowledge of town affairs was unequalled by any member of the 
Town Council, and he was noted for his discharge of the public duties 
pertaining to the office on all occasions where his presence as chief magis- 
trate was considered of advantage to any good cause. He especially enoou- 
raged all matters Celtic, and invariably attended officially all the public 
meetings of the Gaelic Society, of which he is a chiefttun. He carries 
with biin into private life the best wishes of all who know him. 



(Google 



ISa THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

THE EABiT SCENES OF FLOEA MACDONALD'S UTE, 

With Sdvbbai. Inoitental Allij810»8 to thb 

Kehubeablb Adventdres and Escapes of the UNFORxuirATa 

Phinoh Charles Edward Stuabt. 

By tiie Ber. Alex. Maooreoor, M.A., InTemesB. 

Part IIL 
Flora Traa, in every respect, a very intereating gjd. She became a paiti-. 
cular favourite with fill Ute respectable families ia the Island, such ae Claa- 
Knold ajid his lady, his brother Boisdede, and family — her own relatiTea 
at BaUeshear, and many others. Lady Clanranold acted towards her more 
like a mother than a distant relative. She was seldom left at home with 
her brother at Milton, but paid long visits to her respected friends around, 
and these visits were welcomed by alL When Flora was about thirteen 
yeaiB of age, Lady Clanranold insisted on her remaining continuously at hn 
residence at Ormiclade, that she might get the benefit of instruction from 
a governess who had been provided by Clanranold for his own children. 
Soch was the kindness of the family at Ormiclade to her, that she conld 
not express her gratitude For about thioo years Flora's home was in the 
hospitable mansion of Clanranold, with the exception of short trips oooa- 
edonally to Stye, to visit her mother at Armadale, She by iar excelled 
in her lessons the daughters of the famdy, and although Clanranold and 
lady had too much, sense not to appreciate her expertness and aptitude, 
for the acquisition of useful instruction, yet the daughters became to 
some degree jealous of poor Flora, and hinted that the governess was 
more attentive to her than she was to themselves. There was, in short, 
every appearance, that in their hearts, the youngsters at Ormiclade 
ohenshed a certfun d^ree of envy or jealousy towards their onoffend- 
ii^ proteg^. Flora was by far too dear-sightod not to see all thie^ 
and likewise too prudent not to be able to effect a remedy. She 
eudnred everything patiently for about half-a-year, as in reality the 
youngstera only had taken private offence at hei success, while the 
parents very probably had never heard nor thought any thing about 
it. She had given intimation in her own pleasing and grateful way, to 
Lady Clanranold, that by such or such a time, she would require to visit 
her mother, and spend some time with her, as she had, again and again, 
heard it alleged that she was an unnatural daughter, and a very unduid- 
fol one, who had deserted her only parent, and lost all sense of her filial 
duties. "Eh ! me. Flora dear," said Lady Clanranold, " what will be- 
came of ' ce61ag,' if you go off and leave us, and what will become of us 
all ) If you do go, you must return soon, and bear that in mind," The 
" ceil^ " to which the lady hero alludes, was the name given in the 
family to a spinet, or small piano at Ormiclade, on which Flora became 
an astonishing performer. She acquired a knowledge of the notes from 
the govemeas, but her own correct ear for muisc, was the real source of 
hex aoccasa. She could play not only the reels, and the dance music of 
the Aaj with no ordinary efficiency, but likewise the ancient "piobair- 
eaehds," in which ahe gave due prominence to all the pogiatuias, nod 



7L0BA MAGDONALD. 18» 

(pvBfr-notes of the quick variations. In the sftme manner, even at this 
yonthiul age, she could sii^ Qaelio aongs exceedingly w(jl, and repeat 
lengthy ateains of anoient poetry in that language. All these she com- 
mitted to memory from the relieaisalH of the bardd and eeanachiee that ex- 
isted then in the Islea. 

In the year 1739 Lady Clanianold had a communication from Hha 
Honourable Lady Margaret Macdonald (wife of Sir Alexander Macdonald 
of the lalee, residing at MonkBtadt, in Skye), expreseing a \Fiah to bave a 
Tidt from Flora, whom her ladyship had not seen for two yeMS. She 
vishad this visit to take place for a certam praiaeworthy purpoae, which 
die stated to Lady Clanranold, and which was to the effect, that she and 
hei hosbimd, Sir Alexander, were deairous that Flora should be well 
educated, and that they had certain plans in view for this purpose, which 
they hoped to he able soon to execute. 

Fbra appeared to be much gratified at thia act of attention paid to her 
hy Sir Alexander's lady, although as yet she was entirely ignorant of the 
special pniposea, which her ladyship had in view in regard to her. She 
had been frequently at Monkstadt before, where she met with as much 
Idndneas from her noble chief uid his lady, as should she have been their 
own child. She had formed the idea that her presence was thus wanted 
in Sfcye, in order perhaps to place her under the tuition of some notable 
teacher who may have come to the place. It may he remarked that in 
Stfe at that period, all kinds of useful education flouriahed in reapectable 
fefflilies beyond most other quartera of the Highlands. The causa waa 
simply this : — Public echoole were few in number, but the gentlemen 
formeiH procured for themselves a remedy for this inconvenienca They 
resorted to a very suoceasful expedient for counteracting the existing defici- 
ency in the means of education. It so happened that a century or a century 
and a half tLgo, farmers of the middle clasa, or such as rented lands to an 
extent that enabled them to be ranked as gentlemoE, were very numerous 
in Skye, though now, alas ! the very reverse. These snug, comfortable, 
moderately-rented tenements of land, have been since then conjoined into 
extensive deer foreata or into large sheep walka. The consequence ia, tbat 
now one sheep farmer occupies a tract of pasture, which in past agoa 
afforded meana of support to twenty, thirty, or fifty reapectable, and well- 
todo middle-claas tenants. These tenante being prudent, sagacious men, 
ia order to educate their families, clubbed together to engage a common 
tutor, perhaps a well recommended student of Divinity, or some learned 
young gentleman from the aonth country, and sometimes even from Eng- 
land, By this arrangement every group of contiguously aituated femiliea 
had their centrical achoolroom, nicely fitted up, their qualified teacher, 
anil their children thus efficiently educated in the common, and even in 
the higher branches of useful knowledge. Hence the vaat number, within 
the last century and a-half, from that Island, who had distinguiabed 
themselvee so greatly in the civil and military services of their Sovereign 
and country. No other territory perhaps of the extent of Skye, in the 
whole kingdom or elsewhere, can boast of even the one-half of diatin- 
gniahed men, in all the departments of the pubUc service, as Skye can do.* 

* A good inttnr jeam ago, b. uoireot uid eluborats oomputttion was made on oain- 
pttuit iiiithoritT, tbat during tha wan with Amcrioa Bjid Framiw, from the mlddl* of 
Uw rail to ^ beginning; of liie prMeut oenlurir, ih* Iila of 8^* f nmistiMl tit* folleiAi^ 



t^ooglc 



140 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

In more than one of these excellent schools Flora receired tlie solid 
gioimd-woik of h^ edncational lequiiemeute. ta short, owii^ to this, 
and to the excellent training of which she had the benefit under the hos- 
pitable roof of Lady Clanranold, her mind was, at a comparatively early 
age, well stored with rudimental knowledge, as well as deeply imboed 
with ft veneration for the system of clanship, and with loyalty to the ex- 
iled house of Stuftrt 

According to the request of Lady Maigaret, preporationa were being 
made for Flora's departure to Stye, by the fiist favourable opportunity 
that offered itself, of a safe pass^ acrose the Minah.* It happened at 
this very time that a sort of pirate ship frequented the creeks and bays 
of the Long Island, by means of which many persons of both sexes were 
cooled on board, made prisoners, and thereby were refused their liberty. 

At this wicked and nnexpected proceeding, the natives of the Lews, 
Harris, Uist, Beubecula, and Skye, became exceedingly alarmed, and it 
created much anxiety and confusion among all ranks and classes of the 
natives. The anthorities in these quarters resorted to every meaauie 
within their power to counteract such base and unlooked-for cruelty. 
Unfortunately, however, the leader of this kidnapping party managed to 
Bet sail for the Southern States of America, with a ship-load of his own 
conntij-people of all ages, with the iutended purpose of selling them aa 
slaves. While the united efforts of all the authorities in these quarters, 
lay and clerical, seemed to be of no avail to check it, the overruling Pro- 
vidence of the Almighty immediately intervened to put a speedy termina- 
tion to this cruel and unchristian procedure. Soon after the pirate ship 
had sailed from the shores of the Long Island with its moumfiil cargo of 
innocent natives, a terrific gale sprung up, which dashed the unhallowed 
ship into a rocky creek on the coast of Ireland, nhere it was totally 
wrecked, and splintered into fragments. It is, however, marvellous, that 
all the prisoners escaped, without the loss of a single life; and through 
the kindness of Irish philanthropists they were humanely cared for, and 
eventually conveyed to their native Isles. It was soon afterwards di&- 
covered that the chief leader in this diabolical plot was a young man, 
Norman Macleod, son of Donald Macleod, tacksman of the Island of £er- 
neiay. The stem-hearted youth escaped the punishment which his 
dastardly deeds so richly merited, by crossing "incognito" to Ireland, 
where he concealed himself for about two years. He subsequently joined 
himself to the Government forces, and vas soon raised to the rank of 
Captain, In the course of some years he became a changed, and much 
respected gentleman, succeeded his father at Bemeray, and died there at 
nearly a hundred years of age. Along with all others. Lady Margaret 
Macdonald deeply shared in the general alarm created by this wicked 
piratical plot. Her ladyship did so the more, no doubt, from a private 
report that got into circulation, that her husband. Sir Alexander, had 

Tuutkahls Uit of ven far tbs nrrlce ef thstr aovereiEii uid oonnttTi *)■• ■ — 10,000 
toot K>ldten. GOO pipers. 600 aomiautloaad pfflean, ander thi nnk of OoioDel,4S Lieat- 
Oolonflli, 21 LlentaDHiit-QcBeraliuiil Major-Ginecali, four Onieinon of Britiali Colonioa, 
one QoTdnor-Osiieial, one Adjutant- QuDtuul, one Chief Baroa of Bogland, and one 
Jadg* of tbe Bnptems OourC of SootUod. Bealdei thl* ■ grekt nnmbet flUsd oSdm ia 
tba nnlvarBltj, la tha Ohuroh, and ia legtl dspartmsiiti. 

* The "Uinih'* ii ths name of Che ehanntl whioh InterrtiiM batwMD the Lous 
Iiltmd md Skye, whioh ii from 20 to 30 miloa in bteadth, and i> fnquantlr vary rough 
lAdrtomr, 



FLORA MACDONALi). Ul 

some sectet hand is this crael tmdertaking, in otder to get the people 
ftway, and to baniisb them &om his exteoaive estates. Knowing well Sir 
Alexander's innocence in thia painful matter, hei ladyship became quite 
indignant, and greatiy diaturhftd in her peace of mind. In her husbwid'a 
absaiice, she addreeeed a long letter, dated lat January 1740, to Lord 
Justice Clerk Milton, in which she gave a loi^ and minute detail of the 
whole affair. She assured his Lordship that Sir Alexander " was both 
angry and deeply concerned to hear that some of bis own people were taken 
away in this manner, but could not at the time learn who were the actors 
in this wicked scrape until the ship was gon&" Her ladyship's letter was 
bng and interesting, and may he seen in the Culloden papers. 

When the iiict of the existence of this piratical vessel was noised 
abroad, sloops and craft of all descriptions were sent by the authoritieB 
In Bkye to the Long Island, but they were too late to seize the expected 
prize. Being in the dead of winter, the weather was boisterous and wild, 
and the different craft had to lie at anchor in the lochs and bays of the 
Island, It was, however, arranged that in one of these vessels Flora was 
to be accommodated with a pass^e across the Minsh to Skye, to the hos- 
pitable residence of Lady Mai^aret at Monkstadt. One evening she set 
Bail in the largest of these vessels, and the night being stormy the vessel 
was driven into Loch Snizort and anchored about sunrise at the " Cran- 
nag," near the mansion-house of Kii^sbw^h. Flora was glad to be put 
ashore, but finding that the Kingsburgh famUy were absent at Flodigarry, 
she walked a few miles to the house of Peinduin, the residence of Captain 
Norman Macleod, the very house wherein, after an eventful life, she died 
about fifty years thereafter. . Next day she made the best of her way to 
the residence of Sir Alexander Macdonald at Monkstadt, distant about 
fourteen miles. She was warmly received by Lady Margaret, with whom 
she remained for about eight months on that visit, with the exception of 
a stay of a few weeks with her mother at Axmadala 

Lady Mai^aret felt a deep interest in Flora's welfare, being much 
pleased with her prudence, general conduct, and amiable disposition. 
She fully revealed her plana to the young lady, and explained to her that 
she and Sir Alexander had arranged to pass the winter in Edinbui^h, and 
that they had resolved that she should accompany them and finish her 
education in the metropolis. Flora gratefully acknowledged her ladyship's 
friendship, and modestly signified her williagness to comply. She then 
visited her mother, to reveal to her the kind intentions of Lady Margaret, 
and to obtain her consent, which the old lady readily granted. She bade 
&reweU to her mother, returned to Monkstadt, and matters being 
settleil for the removal to Edinbui^, she seized the first opportnoity of 
crossing the channel to Ormiclade, and to her brother at Milton. 

It was proposed by Lady Mai^aret that Flora should visit the metro- 
polis during the autumn of that season, but circumstances ooonired to 
prevent it. Lady Clanranold became an invalid at the time, and so did 
her brother Angus, at Milton, apparently in both oases &om a negleoted 
cold. Such being the case, flora's kind, generous heart would not permit 
her to leave her dear Mends in a state of inconvalescence ; and 
there waa a remarkable providence in her remaining, aa the sloop 
by which she proposed to sail to Glasgow, on her pass^e to Edinbui^^ 
was wrecked on the Mull of Cantyre, and not a single life was sav«d. 



.Google 



142 THE CELTIC MAGAZISTl 

Fortimately, in coaise of eome time, the invalids recovered of their ail- 
ments, and Flora resided at Oimiclade and Milton during that winter and 
spring. Early in the following Bumuier (1740) she embraced an opportunity 
of viaiting her friends in Skye. In all quarters of tliat Island she wa« 
welcomed by every family of respectability she met with, and more paiv 
ticularly so by those at the houses of Scorribreck, Kingeburgh, Cuiderach, 
and MonkstaJt. Arrangements were made anew for her departure to 
Edinbutgh during the ensuing months of Septemher or October, according 
to the state of the weather, as by that time Lady Margaret and Sir Alex- 
ander expected to reach the metropolis themselves. About the beginning 
of August, Flora bade farewell to her friends in Skye, and revisited her 
native Isle, which, of aU localities, was the most dear to her Highland 
heart. Towards the end of September she took her passage from IJiet to 
Gla^ow in a small schooner belonging to the place, which was laden with 
cured cod and ling for the southern markets. The captain's name was 
Eoderick Macdonald, but he was usually called J"Euairidh Muidoartacb," 
being a native of Moidart, on the mainland. Rory was a very jolly, 
middle-aged tar, who materially diminished the tediousness of the passage 
by his singing of Gaelic songs, in which he could not easily be excelled, 
In this respect he met with a very congenial spirit in his only cabin pas- 
senger. Flora beii^ one who greatly admired the Celtic muse of her skipper. 
At length after an ordinary passage the schooner arrived safely at what is 
now called the Eroomielaw of Gla^ow, Two days thereafter Flora found 
her way by some pnhhc conveyance to EdinhurgL On her arrival at that 
city, where she was an entire stranger, she resorted with as little delay as 
possible to a hoarding-school provided for her through the kind services of 
Lady Margaret This female seminary, which was attended by about 
half-a-dozen of other young ladies, was taught by a Miss Henderson, in 
the Old Stamp-Office Close, High Street, aud was near the town residenoe 
of the Earl of Eglinton. The Coimtess of Eglinton and daughters 
usually resided there during the winter months, and Flora nad been only 
a few days in her new seminary when some of these noble ladies did her 
the honour of visitii^ her at Miss Henderson's. Flora was agreeably sur- 
prised, but soon came to understand that they had done so by the instruc- 
tions of Lady Margaret, who had not then arrived in town herself &om 
Skye. The Eglinton ladies were as much noted for their affability and 
kindness as they were celebrated for their personal beauty and charms. 
All the daughters were exceedingly handsome, and no doubt they had 
inherited these qualities from their mother, the Countess Susan Kennedy, 
who is said to have been one of the handsomest women of her day. It is 
recorded in the "Traditions of Edinburgh," that "Countess Susan's 
daughters were all equally remarkable with herself for a good mien ; and 
the ' E^intonne air ' was a common phrase at the time. It was a goodly 
eight a century ago to see the long procession of sedans, oontaiiung Lady 
I^lintonne and her daughters, devolve from the Close, and proceed to tlw 
Assembly Eooms in the West Bow, when there was usually a considerable 
crowd of plebeian admirers congregated to behold their lofty and graoefol 
figures step from the chairs on the pavement. It could not fail to he a 
remarkable sight — eight beautiiiil women, conspicuous for their stature 
and carriage, all dressed in the splendid, though formal &shion of that 
period, and inspired at once with dignity of birth, and c 
bsau^." 



FLORA MACDONALD. 143 

Daring Floia's stay in Edinburgh, wluch lasted over tlirea years con- 
tinuously, she had the good fortune to he introduced to many families of 
high rank and distinction, such as Bishop Forbes of Leith, the Maokenzios 
of Delvin, and many others. The iiiendship that subsisted between the 
Delvin &inily and herself lasted during her lifetima It must be stated 
to Flora's credit and great good sense, that notwithstanding the elevated 
rank of many parties into whose society and residence she had often been 
invited, and from whom she received much hospitality and attention, yet 
she invariably conducted heiaelt with such a degree of una^uming mo- 
desty as no doubt added materially to her appreciation in the eyes of 
others. Both in prosperity and in adversity she ever retained the same 
equable temperament of mind — the same gentle, submissive deportment, 
and the same calm spirit of resignation and contentment. Whatever 
might have fallen to her lot, and many distressing things did, yet her 
iiame of mind remained constantly unruffled and unchained. WMle pos- 
sessed of a keen, lively, sensitive nature, yot she was largely gifted with 
the power of exercising a complete control over her feelings, and of ap- 
pearing on all occasions cheerful, pleasant, and entertaining. 

Flora attended closely to her education in the seminary or boarding- 
Bchool wherein she was placed during the first two seasons of hor stay in 
the metropohs. She considerably excelled her fellow pupils in the com- 
paratively few branches of education in which instruction was communi- 
cated to females at that remote period. In the musical department a sort 
of small harp was the instrument which was generally made use of for 
inculcating a knowledge of that interesting science. Rora, however, pre- 
ferred to cultivate hor taste in that respect by practising on a spinet, or 
small pianoforte, at which she was out of sight the moat proficient in the 
seminary. From the correctness of hor oar sho had acquired a facihty in 
the use of this instrument, her own favourite " ceWag " at Ormiclade, 
which enabled her to play, aa already stated, a great variety of Highland 
wrs and " piobaireaohds," with a degree of gracefulness and ease that de- 
lighted all around her. She was likewise gifted with a sweet, mellow 
voice, which rendered her capable of singing Gaelic aonga exceedingly 
well, and much to the gratification and amusement of the company pre- 
sent. In consequence of this she was frequently asked the &vaur of 
singing those songs in the drawing-rooms of the noble and great, where no 
one present understood a single vocable of the stanzas so sweetly sang. 

After having passed nearly three seasons with the ladies in the Old 
Stamp-Office Close, under whose charge she was at first settled, she re- 
sided chiefiy in the house of Lady Margaret and Six Alexander, where 
her ladysliip treated her as a member of the family, and showed her aa 
much maternal kindness as should she have been her own daughter. She 
became so thoroughly domesticated and useful to her ladyslnp that she 
pressed upon her to prolong her stay in Edinburgh for more than a year 
after she had intended to return to her mother, and to her Mends in the 
Long Island. Sir Alexander had not been at that time in very 
robust health ; and, by the advice of his medical attendants, he remained 
for about two years |continuously in Edinburgh without returning to his 
residence in Skye. On two occasions Flora accompanied Lady Margaret 
to lyinton Castle, where weeks wew pleasantly spent under the noble 
roof of the ancient domicile wherein her ladyship first saw the Ij^^t of 
day. (To be CoiUimed.j 



i,Googlc 



THE CELTIC MAGAZlira. 



PB0FES80E EHYS'S "WELSH PHILOLOGY.* 

All lovers of tha eoiance of language must rejoice at the present incipient 
cnltivation of Celtic studies. Scottish students especially will welcome 
the growing interest now taken in philology which has been altogether 
neglected in our country. With the exception of the brilliant Professor 
of Greek in Edinburgh, to whom the Celtic world b so much indebted, 
the teachers of languages in Scottish Univeisities scarcely ever touched on 
the subject. We are therefore glad to observe that this state of matters 
ie disappearing ; and that an earnest living interest is manifeated in con- 
nection with philological studies. 

The interest taken at present in Celtic etadies ia not a transient one. 
It is the outcome of patient study and labours of many eminent scholai^ 
who during the last half century turned their attention to the science of 
langut^e. Their efforts have ultimately resulted in aaaigning their proper 
position in the phllol<^ical world to the Celtic languages. Till t^e be- 
ginnii^ of this century, and indeed hy many long after, the dialects of 
&e Gael in the west were spoken of as belonging to the Shemitic family 
of tongaes. But it is only the incurably unscientific that contend for any 
euch theory at the present day. 

Before proceeding to indicate the contents of the excellent volume 
before us, it may he interesting to mention the names of those who have 
contributed to Celtic philology. Dr Pritchard'a Eastern Origin of the 
Celtic Nations, applying the philological principles of Bopp and Grimm 
to the Celtic languages to determine their philological position, mu'ks an 
era in the history of those tongues. Pritchard endeavoured to prove that 
its tme affinities were with Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, and Gothic, and not 
with the Shemitic langnages. Lhywd and Jones, earlier, had glimmerings 
of euch possible affinities. Pritchard's work. appeared in 1832. In 1837 
another Frenchman, Adolphe Pictet, published his De VAfflnitie dea 
Langiies Oettiguet avee h Sanskrit. After these two French works we 
have t^ose of two Germans on the Celtic langu^es. In 1839 Bopp pub- 
lished at Berlin his IHe CdtUIien Spradien. In 1839-40 Diefenbaoh 
{lahlished at Stuttgart his Celtica. But the great classic of Celtic philo- 
ogy appeared in 1863 — the Qraminatiea Oeltica of J. Elaepor Zeuss. 
After thirteen earnest conscientious years of labour, this Bavarian, who 
had some Celtic blood in his veins, gave the world his work in a Latin 
dress — since in German — a work which constitutes a monument to his 
memory more enduring than brass. Celtic studies have been continued 
in Germany since by IJts Euhn, Schleicher, Gorree, Holtzman, &c. The 
works of Di Ebel of Berlin, and those of Ehrard of Earlangen have re- 
ceived much attention in this country. What Ebrard has published on 
Ossian would have greater philologit^ value had he a better text as the 
basis of his work. As it is, we cannot help wondering at receiving such 
an admirable contribution to Celtic studies &om a foreigner so distin- 
guished also in theology, while so many at home, whose motheivtongue is 

* Laotom SB W«l«h Pbiloloiij. By ProfNMr Shy, Steond •dition. Trahur, 
LobAob, 

Do,l,.cdbyGoO(^lc 



■WELSH PHILOLOGT. 145 

Gaelic, and from whom we wonld naturally expect Bomething, are unable 
to epeak even intelligentlf about their native language. Becently in 
Germany and France, by Edwards, Fictet, &c., the study of the Celtio 
tongues has been carried on hy regular publications. The Celtic Review, 
pn^iahed iu Paris, is well known in this country. Italy has also taken 
up the study ; from the Chevalier Di Nigra we have very interesting 
works — " The Turin Glosses," and " The Milan Gloeaea." Working with 
these continental writers, a learned Irishman, Dr Whitley Stokes, has 
made contributions of great value to Celtic philology. Most Celtio 
students know his "Irish Glosees" and his "Goidilica." Men of cnltnro 
and scholarship in Britain could not ignore this revival of Celtio 
learning. Since then we have had in our own country Fiofeasors Blackie, 
Arnold, Oeddes, Morley, and Principal Shairp influencing and quickening 
learned and historic thought in a Celtic direction, and breaking down the 
bulwark of much unreasonable pr^udice. Canon Boarke of Ireland, and 
now more recently Professor Rhys at Oxford, have also helped to invest 
Celtic studies with scientific interest. The movement for the establiah- 
msnt of a Celtic Chair in Edinburgh has heightened the importance of 
such studies at home. It is now an accompli^ed fact, mainly under the 
stirring influence of the golden tougue of Professor Blackie, who has so 
grandly succeeded in bringing down showers of gold Irom the cold heights 
of Saxon divinities. Looking b^ets liking ; and our whole nation look- 
ing at and hearing the Professor of Greek, in his own learned, popular, 
and naturally winning ways, advocating the cause of the Celt and his 
language, is beginning to regard both in a more kindly and scientifiG 
manner. Men now learn to see how much the Hindoo, the Englishman, 
and the Celt have in common in the matter of language. It is seen and 
recognised that English and Celtic have many family resemblances, that 
many words of a radical character existing in the one have their cognates 
in the other. It is now discovered that by a philological law of letter- 
change, words beginning in Gaelic with c b^n in English with h, and 
the kinship between the two races is instantly recognised. Now the Colt 
and the Saxon embrace each other in the bonds of linguistic friendship, 
foi^etting their earlier philological and racial differences and feuds. This 
law has opened up a field of fresh and interesting knowledga By it we 
ascertain that the Gaelic eeann, een, ken, has its English cognate in /lead; 
eridhe, earlier cride, its cognate iu heart ; crodh, cattle, its cognate in herd ; 
cruaidh, its cognate in hard; aruif, its cognate in harp; ciod, its cognate 
in vihai ( = hnat) ; c6, its cognate in who ( = hoo), &c All this has re- 
sulted in a renaissance of Celtic sentiment on every side except iu con- 
servative quarters which seem to be absolutely impervious to the quicken- 
ing influence of fresh thought and feeling. It is now felt and believed 
that several milhons of people still speak the tongue of the Celt ; and 
that the Celtic languages deserve attention as the living speech of many. 
Scholars now believe that the study of these languages is not altogether 
80 contemptible ; and that the spirit of the Celt has vitalized, enlivened, 
and enriched the mighty stream of English letters. 

Professor Rhys'a book is, perhaps, the only work that we have as yet 
in this country takii^ up Celtic philology, pure and simple. We in the 
Highlands r^oioed at his appointment as Celtic professor at Oxford ; but 
we rejoice more at the instant fruit of his Celtic studies, with which we 



h, Google 



116 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

are now fayonied in his liigMj attractive " Lectures on Wdsh Fhiloli^.'' 
The volume is dedicated to Max Miullei and Whitley Stokes, and no 
names could Iw mentioned more deeeryiiig of esteem on the part of the 
Celtic student of languages. These lectures were fitst delivered at the 
Collie at Aberystwyth in 1874. Since then they have been aubatantially 
lepeated by the auUior as Professor of Celtic at Oxford. This is the 
second edition, quickly following the first, with a valuable appendix. 
When the Gaelic stndent is furnished with the contents of each lecture — 
there are seven altogether with the appendix — he will instantly recognise 
the importance of the work. The conclusions of the writer in gen^^ 
may be taken as applying to other Celtic dialects as well as to the Welsh, 
and it is this that makes his book bo valuable to all Gaelic students of 
the science of langn^e. 

The first lectnre takes up introductorily the science of language : 
Grimm's law of the interchange of mutes in the Indo-Germanic tongues, 
and the Olamfieatitm of the OelHc Laitffuagei. The second lecture deala 
with the Welsh CoruonanU; the third with the WeisA Voa^. In the 
fourth lecture we have a most interesting historical sketch of the Welsh 
Itmguege, and in the fifth of the Weldi alphabet. In the sixth lecture 
we have Ogaina and Ogmic Imeriptifme treated of; and in the seventh 
and last an attempt to reconstruct the history of the Ogmic alphabet. It 
would be well that our Gaelic savants would take to heart, before we pro- 
ceed to remark in detail on those lectores, the instructive paragraphs with 
which Professor Khys closes his second lecture : — 

" Now that we have fairly come to the end of our task — at least in 
ontline — as regards the oonsonants, than which we have no reason to sus- 
pect the vowds of being less interesting, though it be that the laws they 
obey are more subtle, we may be allowed to indulge in a few remarks of 
a more general nature. Enough has probably been said to convince you 
that, in spite of oar having preserved to the last the fitg-ends of the 
snbject, Welsh phonology is far from devoid of interest The regularity 
which pervades it leaves but little to be desired, and it falls, compara- 
tively speaking, not bo very far short of the requirements of an exact 
science." In this respect what is true of Welsh ia just equally true of 
Gaelic or Eise-Glaelic. Notwithstanding the complaints of soi-disant 
Gaelic scholars, that we have no standard of Gaelic scholarship, which 
they have not grammatically taken up, the phonology of Gaelic does not 
indeed iall ^ sliort "of the lequiiements of an exact science." Hnch 
needed lessons the Welsh Professor su^ests and incolcatea, "But some 
there are, however, who have no patience with a discussion which turns on 
consonants and vowels, and nothing short of etymologies bearing directly 
on ethnological questions or the origin of language can hope to meet with 
their approval This need not sorprise any one, for few people, as a rule, 
feel interested in the details of a scientific inquiry, and duly realise the 
£Kt, that what they r^ard as food only fit for the shrunken mind of a 
specialist must necessarily precede those gushing results they thirst after." 
The complaint underlying Professor Bhys's remarks, we are all familiar 
within Scotland. Some cultivated men like Dr Charles Mackay, &c, 
have rushed to the study of Gaelic, finding that in the Celtic Chair in 
Edinburgh it might pay ; some nearer home, and having pret«nsions to 
knowledge of theii native tongue, dedum against the variableness of its 



jb,GoO(^lc 



■WELSH PHUOLOGY. 147 

orthography, &c. But the trno student of Gaelic knowa the value of 
their complaints. The further remarks of Professor Rhys deserve quo- 
tation : — " III the case Ixifore os wo are only too familiar with the worth- 
lessnese of the fruits of a method which ignores the phonological laws of 
the language with which it pretends to deal, or fails to do justice to theii 
historii^ import; and it is by his aUitude Kith respect la these lama that 
one can generally tell a dilettante from a bona fide student of the Celtic Ian- 
gu^ee. The former you hardly need to he told, never discerns a difficulty, 
for to him a letter more or less makes no diffei«nce, as his nation of 
euphony is so Protean as to be equal to any emergency; but the latter 
frequently stamhles or goes astray, and has to retrace Ms steps ; and 
altogether his progress can be hut slow; so much so, in fact, that 
eome of our loading glottologista of our day think it, on the whole, 
impossible to attain to the same state of knowledge respecting the 
history and etymology of Celtic words as that arrived at in the 
case of the other Aryan tongues. That it is harder is certain, 
hnt that it impossible I am inclined to doubt" It consoles db in 
Scotland to find our Welsh cousins in troubles similar to our own. But 
so fer " progress is being made " in Scotland as in Wales. The all-per- 
vading influence of Professor Blackie, of Skene's Celtic Scotland, &c, of 
Dr Maclanchlan's many works, and of the Rev. A. Cameron's most 
scientific teaching in Glasgow, are signs of real progress in the right 
direction. " Hor is there anything which may be regarded as an indica- 
tion that we have nearly come to the end of onr tether. For example, 
one of the tasks — and only one out of several — which the stodent of an 
Aryan langu^e proposes to himself is to discover, as far as that is 
practicable, the origin of every word in its vocabulary, and to show to 
what group of vocables it belongs, or in other words, from what it is de- 
rived and how." We regret that in connection with the Celtic tongues 
this work has been carried on with most reprehensible extravagance in 
some quarters, especially in the sphere of topography, to this very day ; 
but we hope that henceforth Professor Rhys's lectures and the labours of 
others throDghout the British Isles wiU help to diminish the number of 
Celtic vocables whose origin is obscure, notwithstanding the special diffi- 
culties in the way. There are good s^^s of the times, not only in the 
German Kuhn's Beitraege and in the French Glaidoz's Semie Celtiqiie, but 
also at home among the Irish and the Welsh ; in Scotland in the Celtic 
Magazine, and in the newly-proposed quarterly by Mr Cameron, the 
Scottish Celtic Reimw, In these publications, as Professor Rhys neatly 
remarks in regard to the foreign ones, " stubborn worda of our vemacultt 
are forced, one after another, to surrender the secrets of their pedigree." 
Nothing could be more admirable than the following general remarks. 
The conclusion of the last two sentences of the paragraph to be quoted 
suggest a much needed lesson. " But whence, it will be asked, does this 
greater difficulty attending the study of the Celtic languages, and of the 
Welsh in particolar, proceed) Maudyfrom two causes — the great dearth 
of specimens of them in their earlier stages, and the lai^ scale on which 
phonetic decay has taken place in them. For, to pass by the former 
for the present, it is to he remembered that the phonetic changes 
which have been engaging our attention are but the footprints of 
phonetic decay, and that the phonological laws which have just been di»- 



.Google 



us THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

coBsed form but a map of its encroachments, and a plan, aa It wen, of ita 
line of attack. With these before our eyes, we are, to a certain extent, 
enabled to infer and picture to ourselves the posittona, so to say, and the 
array in which the forces of our lai^uage were at one time drawn up." 
Perhaps some of our Celtic aoholars who undertake the solution of all 
top<^fraphical names by means of Celtic dialects — from Lewis to Japan — 
wUl benefit by the following sentences : — " So when yoa hear it said, aa 
yon frequently may, that Webh or Irish [or Gaelic] is the key to I know 
not how many other languages, do not Wieve a word of it : the reverse 
would he nearer the truth. We want concentrated upon the Celtic 
languages all the light that can possibly be derived from the other Aryan 
tongnee, that is if we are to continue to decipher their weather-worn 
history." 

Professor Rhys has spoken a needed word to Celtomaniaee, For that 
he ia to be thanked, as well ae, apart from the intrinsic value of hia 
lectures, for his following a strictly scientific method. Celts have never 
shown too much devotion to method or system except in one particular 
sphere. In some quarters we have Iwd the most rigidly scientific 
systematic theology — a severity of method at which many stout though 
elastic spirits have quailed. Emotion is a predominating element in the 
Celtic nature — is the source of much of the lyrical productiveness of the 
Celt ; and is probably an explanation of his dislike to intricate scientific 
research. The German, on the other hand, is nearly all bound up in an 
iron method which occasionally chokes to death the warmer currents of 
the soul. Professor Rhys is scientific ; and higher praise can scarcely be 
accorded to the productions of a Celtic writer. He has given us nearly 
all ascertained pbilologic truth bearing on the Celtic languages, ^though 
he only calls his book "Welsh Philol*^." The philological student of 
these languages can not do without his lectures, which, as coming from a 
Celtic Professor at Oxford, aa well aa on account of theii permanent 
value, mark an era in the hisbny of Celtic tongues. 



THE HIGHLABD OLBARAMOES A.m the HIGHLAND OBOFTER 
— Mr Alexander Uaokenzie, editor of the Celtic Magaaine, has just completed 
a series of liiteen letters, aa Oanadian "Special Oommiuioner," in the 
Aberdeen DaSy Free Prea, on "The Highlanders of Canada." In an ap- 
predatiTO "leader," on the completion of the series, the editor says truly, 
"that Mr. Mackenzie vent to Canada perfectly free and unfettered by any 
ofliraal engageoient, and with no other iDStruotiont than to saeLhis informa- 
tion at the best available souroea, and to use hia own powers of shrewd 
obaervation freely and independently." He is pleased to add; "That he 
haa acted out hia programme intelligentlj and impartially, and with aa 
amount of momentum, vigour, and bonhovne that do credit to the character 
of the Morthem Oelt, haa been amply testified by the prau of Canada, aad 
must be well known to tbose of our readers who have followed the strain of 
hia communications." The lettera above referred to will shortly be followed 
by another seriea from the lame pen, on "The Highlanders at Home," 
specially devotpd to the Highlaad clearances in their relation to the orofter 
and present state of the Highlands. Those of our frienda deairing to peruse 
them, and who do not wiah to take the paper daily, may net the aeriea in 
whioh the lettera appear by ordering thrm direct from the Pne Preat Office, 
Aberdeen. 



jb,GoO(^lc 



€otttsiporijbtnu. 



THE QTIIGEICH, OE PASTORAL STAFF OF ST FELLAlf. 

TO TBB EDIIOlt OF THH OBLTIO KAaAZINB. 

Sib, — Beading the very interesting article on the Quigrich, or Pastoral 
Staff of St Fillan, by the Rev. Allan Sinclair, which appeared in the Oeltio 
Magaxine for November, it occurred to me -that I had somewhere read a 
different account of the relic to that given by Mr Sinclair. In an old 
book entitled " A Companion and Useful Guide to the Beauties of iScot- 
land and the Hebrides," by the Hon. Mra Hurray Aust^ 3d edition, toL 
ii, pp. 116-119, is the following : — 

At WB ware b&ltiiig oar hoTM* at tbe imtll inn of Bal« >t the foot of BeamoM, a 
oario«itj of BDHsidetRbre Bntiqaitj wu prsianted to □■. I« ii ■ urook, wbioh It ballavcd 
to hure b«eD it tha bead of St Fillin's itaff. It li hallaw. large, baavy, uid of wtoiubt 
■ilTar. It had been gilt, bnt tbe gilding is moatly worn oS. At the im&lleit vai at tha 
nook Is a rad atoDe lat in tbs lilvet ; it li in eolour like a ruby, on wbioh ii eagnTea 
the head of the aaiat. 

It ij taid that ■ man named Doire wai in the lerTlaa of tha hely biihop (prabablj 
fail eroiier bearer), and that tbii wondar- working ralio had beea oarafnll; pretecTod from 
father io aon [n the Doira family, from tha tlma of Saiat f ilUn to tbii da; ; and that It 
haj been a oontiaual lonrca of amolameuttothem, wMsh, probably, they ware In danger 
erf iDcing when tha; bad the royal grant of their lole rlgbt to (hii reliok rsgiitetad in 
Sdinbnrgh. 

The following 1b a literal copy of that tranaaotlon, tztraeted from tha regiatai bj a 
geDtleman wbo faToured me with it. 

"At Edinbargh the lit day of Noramber 1734 yttn. In pratenae of tbe Lordi of 
OoDBDil and SMtien compared, Mr John lookup Advooata ai Fiooaratar, for Malice 
Doire after deaigned, and gave in the letter of gift under wiitten, deairiag the lama to 
be rwatered in tbeir Lordship'i booki aa a prebatiTe writt ; whiob deeire tne laid Lords 
fonnd Teaionable, and therefore tbey ordain tbe lanie to be dune aocordinK to aot of 
ParlLamant made atieat the regiatration of prabaliva writti in all peinta. whereof tha 
tenor followa. Jamea be tha giasa of Qod King of Soottia, to all and aandri oure liegU 
Bod anbditii ap'riaie and temporale to q'baa knontage tbti oure I'rea aal onm greting : tor 
aa mikle aa we have nndentood that onre 8er*itonre Ualioe Doire and hit Forebearlj 
bat had an relisk of Saint Filane callit the qaegrioh in keeping, of oa and of oare pro- 
genetaQrii of mutt nobill mynde, qahtm Oud aaioleie, aen the time of Sing Hubert the 
Knyi and of before, and made nana obedienoe nor aoaara to na persoiio ap'riaie Dor 
temprale in ony thing oonoerBing tha aaid holy raliok, utbirnaya than la q'tsiot in the 
aold infeftmeat thareot made and grsntit be uare aald progenetoaria. We oharga yov 
hertCom atrateiy and oommandia that in tyme to onm ye and ilk ant of yow cedily 
anniara, iotend and obey to tbe aaid Malioe Doire in tha peoiable broikiog and joitiug of 
tbe aaid reliok, and that ya nane of yow tak apon hand to eooipell nor deatriuEe bim to 
nak obedienoe nor anaaeia to yow nor till ony atbir, hot allanarly to na and oare laooet- 
lonrit, aaoording to tha aaid infeftment and toandatioD of tbe said reliok, and aiok like, 
a* was naa and woant ic the tyme of oure taid progenetourja, of maiat nobill mynda at 
before, and that ye mak him aaite impediment letting nor diatroablasaa in tbe patting 
with the said reliek throw the ooDtie aa be and bis Forabearis oat vaunt t« do, and that 
;a and ilk ane of yow in aura name and antorite kepe him nathrallit, bat to ramana in 
tick like freedom and liberte of the aaid reliek aa it q'teint in tbe aald Infeftman 



11 the hieat pain and obarge ye and ilk ane of yow may oommitt and inrin, anaat ni 
that part. OiTen under onre p've sale at Bdinborgb the li. day of Jaiy. The yen 
Ood jmiii] a LiilSij yeret, and of onre regana tbe i: 



" Bio tQbMuihitnr, 

"JAMBS K. 
" L'ra pro Ualioe Dtdre in StnAh Filana. XI Jnlj HOOOOIiSXZTn. xxnt ywM of 



jb,G00(^lc 



150 THE CELTIC MAflAZmE. 

Ths aba*! nllo !■ Mid to oars nttle of Bmy dljeue by ipilnkling tham w]th wfttor 
b whish It haa been imntaned. The iDhkbituti at Sola FaeUo, tba lekt of Salot FiUui, 
believe th^t ha nied to pnuh on *■ hilloo at tb*t pUoe. 

When I «u at Snie in 1802, I inqoired for Uoire'i relio, and foand the owner ot it 
hod removed it with himielt to a yilti^s nailed New NineTeh in Stnth Ire. Kinavih ii 
a alnguUr name for a Highluid rillaKa, bat It aeemi the drnnlienneia and iireEularitj 
of ita iubsbitanta bare procured it thia name. Mr Doira, whs kaepa the inn at Sole, 
(wbiob ii now a tolerably ttood one,) faTonred me with aa aueodota of hi* lUBle'a relio, 
vhiob I had not heard before. 

Wben king Bobert Brase waa Boing to the battle of Bannook Bnm, ha aent a mea- 
aagt to DoIra to carry the rslio thither. Doire waa apprebenaive the king might cetaia 
the ralie when in hia power ; be therefore left it at borne, and osrried only the box in 
whiob it waa naoally ^apt. Thia box, on the mgroiDK Ol the battle, wu, by the order of 
Bobert Bmee, placed in the midat of the army, and the aaerameat waa adHiiniitared 
around it. In the middle of the aervlae, the liil of the box opened of itaelf. anlj pro- 
aented the relEo to new, and then inatantly re-oloaed, to tbe aatoniahment of the irtiDlo 
ftrmy, but atill more to the amaiement of Doire, who knew he bad left the relio behind 

Thifl description waa written about 1 800, at which time there waa no 
bronze crook inaide the silver one, as described by Mr Sinclair, for, it 
will be seen, that it is distinctly stated to have been " hollow." The re- 
mains of gilding visible in 1800 may very possibly have been totally 
obliterated by time and iiequent rubbings, so as to present the appearance 
of bright silver it now bears, but there ia a marked difference in the two 
acconnta as to the atone at the end of the ciook. According to Mra 
Murray Anst there was at the smallest end of the crook " a red stone set 
In the silver," " in colour like a ruby, on which is engraved the head of the 
saint." Mr Sinclair makes no mention of this engraved stone, but says, 
" The feont of the crook is ornamented by a large oval-shaped cairngorm, 
terminating in a plate, which bears an engraved representation of the 
eruoifixion," Is it possible that the original stone has been lost or removed 
and another substituted) Again, Mr. Sinclair saya that &om the time of 
the Eeformation, " w« have no subsequent notice of it, till incidentally dis- 
covered by a tourist," in 1782, evidentiy unaware of the &ct of the Eo- 
gistration at Edinburgh in 1734, 48 years earlier than the date he named. 
In giving an account of the miraculous occunence at the Battle of Ban- 
nockburn Mr Sinclair quotes Bceee, who saye that the wonder-working 
relic waa aw arm of St Fillan, but according to the Dewar tradition, aa 
related to Mrs Murray Aust, by one of the family, it was the Quigrich 
itself, which was so mysteriously conveyed irom one plnco to another, and 
this version appears the mast probable, for Mr Sindair says, the fact of 
its beii^ present at Bannockbum was " a well authenticated tradition ia 
the Dewar family." — Yours, &c.. 



SHERIFF KICOLSON'S EDITIOJ^" OF MACKINTOSH'S 
GAELIC PROVEEBS are at last in the press. We have no doubt that 
when the bookappears it will atill further enhance the already distinguiahed 
reputation of the learned Sheriff in the (.'eltic world of letters, and fully 
justify the labour and time which, for bo many years, he must have ex- 
pended upon it 



jb,GoO(^lc 



THE EDITOE IN CANADA. 

IV. 
Hayinq ariiTed at Point Levi, opposite Quebec, on the ITtli of October, 
I ciossed the river 8t La^rrence next day, and visited tbe famous forti- 
fications of tbis ancient and remarkable city. Oa tbe nigbt of my arrlTal 
at Point Levi one of the Atlantic lineia amved with about 500 passengers, 
several of whom took up their quarters at my hot^ Among them I le- 
cognised an old Invemessian, who was accompanied by four south-country 
Scots ; and we decided upon visiting Quebec together, and upon going 
the length of the Heights of Abraham, where the immortal Wolfe fell in 
the moment of victory over the French, who, the same day, surrendered 
Quebec to the British army. We examined the spot on which the 
fiunous commander fell, mortally wounded, and on which a neat, unpte- 
tentioua monument is erected to commemorate tbe fact. As he there lay 
his eyes closed, it was thought, in death, some one cried out "They fly." 
He instantly opened his eyes and asked, " Who are flying f and on bebig 
tcdd that it was the enemy, be said, " Then I die happy," and immediately 
oxpiied. In this memorable engagement Fiaser'a Highlander took a pro- 
minent and dietii^uished part, losing in killed, Captain Thomas Ross of 
Culrossie ; Lieutenants Bodeiick MacNeill of Baira and Alexander Hao- 
donald of Barrisdale; one sei^eant, and fourteen rank and filej while 
among the wounded were Captain John Macdonald of Lochgarry, and 
Captain Simon Fiaeei of Inverallochy : Lieutenants Macdonell of Eep- 
poch, Archibald Campbell, Alexander Campbell, John Douglas, Alexander 
Fraser; Ensigns James Mackenzie, Malcolm Eraser, Alexander Gregoi- 
Bon ; 7 sergeants, tmd 131 rank and file. It is well known that tbe High- 
landers distinguished themselves as usual on this occasion when, accord- 
ing to the " General account^" Brigadier Murray briskly advanced witti 
those under his command, among whom were out conntrymen, and soon 
bioke the centre of the enemy, " when the Highluideis, taking to their 
broadswords, fell in among ttiem with iiieBistible impetuosity, and drove 
them back willi great slaughter." The Highlanders had other oppor- 
tonitiee of distinguishing themselves here. In another engagement they 
lost in killed Captain Donald Macdonald of Claniasald, Lieutenant Cosmo 
Gordon, and 55 non-commissioned of&cers and men, while among the 
wounded were Colonel Fraser, Captains John Campbell of Dunoon, Alex- 
ander Fraser, Alexander Macleod, and Charles Macdonell ; Lieutenants 
Archibald Campbell of Glenlyoa, Charles Stewart, who fought at Culloden 
under Stewart of Appin ; Hector Macdonald, John Macbean, Alexander 
Fraser, senior, Simon Fraser, senior, Archibald Mae A lister, Alexander 
Fraser, John Chisholm, Simon Fraser, junior, Malcolm Fraser, and Don- 
ald Macneil ; Ensigns Henij Mnnio, Bobeit Menziea, Duncan Cameron 
of Faseiefem, William Bobertson, Alexander Gregorson, and Malcolm 
Fraser, in addition to 129 non-commissioned of&cers and men, represent- 
ing amc»)gBt them most of the families of note in the Scottish Highlands, 
as well, as many of those in humMer oircomstanoea who followed tha 



Google 



163 THE CELTIC SCAGAZnTE. 

gentlemen of thek tespeotiTe dans, as of yore, to fight the battles of tiieiz 
ooontiy. My interest in Quebec and ita atuiouudinga was intense j bat 
it centred more in the histoiy of the dead and the aesociationa of the past 
than in those of the living and the present The surrounding scenery is 
magnificent— by fkt the fiiteat in Cwiada, Having spent three days about 
the place, on Monday evening I left by the Grand Trunk Eulway of 
Canada for 

MONTBBAL, 

havii^; ciOBBed over the fomoua Victoria Bridge which spans the St Iaw- 
lence a short distance before you enter the city, 172 miles from Quebec. 
I have already given a full description of this famous structure in the 
Aberdeen Daily Free Pres», which, as well as many other details given 
in my series of sixteen long letters to that paper, on " The Highlanders 
of Canada," I do not intend to reproduce iu these pages. Those letters 
were devoted more to a general description of the country, and its advan- 
tages as a field for emigration, while the series in the Celtic Magazine are 
confined almost entirely to the more Celtic parts of the Dominion, and 
personal instances of Highland success. Tlus moat be held to account 
for their incomplete and fragmentary nature. 

Montreal has a population of between 130,000 and 140,000, about 
five-eighths of whom are French, and three-fourths Boman Catholics. It 
contains some very fine churches, and other public buildings, and is, in 
short, the finest city in the SominioD. The Scotch here are at the head 
of the commereial and political woild, and though the Highlandttrs 
are not numerous, there ore a few amongst them distinguished for 
philanthropy, integrity, and wealth. The Mactays of Montreal are known 
all over the world. The family originally belonged to Kildonan, in the 
oounty of Sutherland, which they left in humble circumstances. Joseph, 
one of the sons, who has since become famous in the commercial world as 
A millionaire and philanthropist, commenced life quite poor. Ha 
worked his way steadily onwards and upwards. In 1837, when the 
French Canadian rebellion broke out, we find him doing a prosperous re- 
tail ready-made clothing and tailoring businees. A Laige quantity of 
clothing was required that year for the militia, and the Mackays (for Ed- 
ward had ere this become a partner) were successful in gettii^ a large 
oontoact, which turned out well By this they made enough money 
to enable them to go into the wholesale trade. The- business steadily 
increased, and in a few yeara they added the woollen or, as it is called ia 
Canada, the dry goods business. They soon acquired a name for int^rity 
and for the excellent quality of their goods; trade increased day by day 
in the woollen department of the business, and the firm rose steadily in 
the estimation of the public. Ultimately the ready-made department was 
given up, that the firm might be able to devote their undivided atten- 
tion to the more profitable part of their rapidly increasing business. 
In a comparatively few years, they amassed a large fortune, and four or 
five years ago Joseph and Edward retired in favour of three nephews, 
who, for many years previously, practically managed the business, and 
who now condact the largest dry goods, or wholesale woollen buainesa in 
Canada. Joseph and Edward are both unmarried, and live together in a 
noble mansion, presided over by an amiable niece &om the Scottish Hi{^ 



ii,GoO(^lc 



THE EDITOR tS CANADA. lB3 

lands. I liad tlie plea'mre of partaking of their hospitality, aftei whicU 
Edward drove me rcmnd the suburbs, and to Mount Royal, overlooking the 
city, from which I obtaised a most munificent view of it and of the country 
for hundreds of miles in all directions. Edward is one of the directors 
of the Bank tit Montreal; and he has occupied many other important 
positions of trust in the city. Joseph built, two years ago, the Mackay 
Institution for Protestant Deaf Mates at a cost of over 16,000 dollars, 
and then presented it absolutely to the Association for teaching the deaf 
and dumb. The building will accommodate about 100 inmates, and the 
pupils are taught printing and other uselul trades, in addition to reading, 
writing, and arithmetic. This is only a specimen of hia munihcence, for 
he has given lai^ely to other causes, both religious and charitable. An- 
other brother is a partner in an old and moat respectable wholesale dry 
goods firm — Gordon, Maekay, & Ca — in Toronto, who are also cotton 
manufactuiera, possessing extensive mills at Merriton, on the WeUand 
Canal. Mackay Brothers, when they retired, were reputed worth over 
two million dollars. 

The firm of James G. Mackeo^e is the oldest dry goods house in the 
Dominion, having been established more than forty years ago. Mac- 
kenzie arrived in Canada with nothing but perseverance and steady habits 
for his capitoL He baa long since reached the summit of the commercial 
ladder. The firm is now reputed to be worth from one and a-half to two 
million dollars— the wealthiest in Canada since the retirement of Joseph 
and Edward Mackay. One of his sons represented the Electoral Division 
of Montreal West in the Dominion House of Commons. Two of them 
were Captains in the 5th Koyal Scots Eosilieis, the crack volunteer corpa 
of Montxeal, indeed of Canada, and served with their regiment on active 
service during the Fenian raids of 1866 and 1870. Another wholesale 
dry goods man, who retired from business about two years ago with a 
fortune of about 200,000 dollars, deserves notice. James Roy was a 
native of I^unfermline, and he landed in Canada with a pack of fine linen 
on his back. He continued to perambulate in and about Montreal for a 
few years ; afteiwanls went into the retail dry goods business, and lapidly 
rose to be one of the leading merchants of the city. Ultimately he went 
into the wholesale trade, and, although his business never approached 
the magnitude of the firms already named, it was prosperous and lucrative ; 
and Mi Roy was considered one of the most upright and straightforward 
business men in the city. Another self-made Scot is Andrew Robertson, 
of the firm of Robertson, Linton, & Co., who was for several years Presi- 
dent of the Dominion Board of Trade, and occupied many other most im- 
portant and influential positions, James Johnston came to Montreal 
about forty years ago without a penny. About five years after he founded 
the firm of James Johnston & Co., now reputed worth over a million. 
He commenced as a cleik, and, saving a few hundred dollars, began busi- 
nese on his own account in a very small way, but gradually and snrely 
established a reputation for the very best goods, at paying prices — a repu- 
tation which he has carried through his whole business career ; and to-day 
the firm of James Johnston & Co. stands unrivalled in the Dominion for 
high class goods, for choice and varied assortment, and for the systematic 
conduct of their business. Mr Johnston owns the fine cut stone ware- 
house in which he conducts his business, as well as his princely it 



.C.oogic 



154 THE CELTIC MAQAZTtrE. 

on Moiint Koyal, which perhaps equals in m)Lgnifi.cenGe that of the great 
Joseph Maekay himself. Mr Johnston also became famous in connec- 
tion with the celebrated Pew Case — Johnston v. Gavin Lang and the 
Ti-usteee of St Andrew's Church. In the other trades, especially in the 
grocery husihess, quite as many successful self-made men can be found. 
Among other prosperous Highlanders whom I had the pleasure of meetii^ 
in this city waa John Macdonald, a most enterprising and risii^ account- 
ant, and a native of Tain, Eo&s-shire. He belongs to the aristocracy of 
intellect, and I was proud to hear a native of my own county so highly 
ipoken of among the elite of Montreal Ewen Maclennan, whose father 
went out from Kintail, spoke Gaelic purer than some of his West^oast 
relations of the present day. He takes a leading part among the patriotic 
Scots of the city, and has long ago occupied all the posts of honour which 
the St Andrew's Society could confer upon him — a Society which does 
more real good than any other on the American continent ; hut having 
already described at lerii^ its operations and that of the St Andrew's 
Hom^ in the Free Press, I must here pass it over. Among other genuine 
Highlandets and most usefiil citizens whom I had the pleasure of meeting 
were Alexander MacGihbon, a native of Perthshire ; Alexander Mackenzie, 
merchant, a native of Beauly; and Alex. Murray, bookseller, a Perthshire 
Celt* Last, but not least, I had a moat pleasant chat with D. Macmaster, 
a young but distinguished and rising barrister, and a member of the local 
Parliament for his native county of GlengEirry, who a week afterwards 
paid me the compliment of travelling fifty-four miles to Lancaster to hear 
my lecture on " Flora Macdonald and Prince Charles." 

The last night I was in the city I had the great gratification of attend- 
ing in the drill haU of the 5th Boyal Scots Fusiliers, already refwred to, 
where I have seen them put through the usual exercises by Colonel Craw- 
ford, their commandant This crack regiment is composed entirely of 
Scotsmen and Scottish Canadians, who wear the undress Highland uni- 
form — Campbell tartan trews and plaid, with scarlet scalloped tunic, and 
Glengarry bonnet. No. 1 company has among its members 40 men who 
liad served with the 78th Highlandera under Sir Hemy Havelock at 
Lucknow and Cawnpore ; and whose manly breasts are well decorated 
with medals and clasps for distinguished service ; while No. 6 company 
is composed entirely of old 42d or " Black Watch " veterans. The others 
are laigely made up of men who fought for their Queen in some part or 
other ^ the great and glorious Empire of which the Canadian is so proud 
to form a part. The pipers wore the kilt, one of them being Duncan 
Maoneil, an old pupil of Pipe-Major Alexander Maclennan, £ivemess ; 
the other, whose name I forget, an old veteran of the 78th, and for many 
years a cftmpanion of Pipe-M^'or Ronald Mackenzie, late of the Buffl, 
lot now of the Highland Bifle Militia. Another 78th man — Sergeant- 
Mtgor Eraser, and who holds the same position, while he is at the same 
time Sergeant-Instructor, in the Scots Fusiliers — I found to be a native of 
Castle Street, InvemesB. The period of service of thesp men expired 
when their respective regiments were last in Montreal, and they settled 
down in the place, where almost all of them are doing remarkably well 
This fine regiment recently held a meeting for the purpose of considering 
the desirability of procuring kilts in time for a proposed visit to Toronto 
and Niagara in the spring; and &)m the spirit shown there is little 



jb,GoO(^lc 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 155 

doabt that they will decide upon completing theii Highland coatmne 
in time to enable them to visit their friends in Ontario, and paiade 
its capital in the "Garb of old GauL" I could have spent seveial 
more days in Montreal with pioht and pleasure, but time was on 
the wing, and I had yet barely entered Canada proper, The cele- 
brated Highland settlement of Glengarry, fifty-four miles further west, 
on the Grand Trunk Sailway, was to be my next place of calL I was 
informed by Mr Macmaster, M.P., that his colleague Mr Maclennan, M.P. 
for Glengarry in the Dominion Parliament, was in the city, and would 
be going on that evening to Glengarry. I was fortunate enou^ to meet 
and to secure an introduction to him on the platform before the train 
Btacted. At first I found him somewhat reserved, but he soon melted 
down ; when I found his father was a native of Kintail ; and I after- 
wards learned that the son was very wealthy and highly respected 
throughout the county, irrespective of party politics. We had a most 
agreeable chat during the greater part of the journey, and he gave ine the 
names of several of the most prominent Highlanders in the county, in 
addition to those whose names I already had. In a few hours I found 
myself in Lancaster, a thriving village on the eastern border of 

THE OOCNTT OF OLENOASBT, 

and I at once made for the principal hotel, kept, as I was Informed in 
Montreal, by an excellent Gaelic-speaking Highlander, and a Macrae, 
whose father, in 1806, emigrated from KintaU. I saluted my host in my 
native Gaelic, to which he responded in pure Eintail vernacular ; for one 
of the peculiarities you meet with throughout the whole Dominion, is to 
find the children and even the grandchildren of the original settfleiB 
speaking the dialect of their respective districts in Scotland ; so th&t' you 
meet with half-a-dozen or more different dialects in the same vill^e or 
township. Any one acquainted with the various districts in the Scottish 
Higfalands ean therefore almost at once tell what part of the county the 
ancestors of the parties he is addressing originally came fcom. I ;wa8 
at once made quite at home, after my host had insisted upon carrying 
out the good old practice of his Scottish ancestors, by reminding me " gur 
luaithe deoch na sgiala," and at once, suiting the action to the word, 
offering me a " druthf^' out of his private bottla That evening and next 
morning I was introduced to scores of fine Highlanders in the village, 
Macphetsons, whose ancestors came from Badenoch, predominating ; one 
of them being no less than a grand-nephew of the famous " Black Officer " 
of black ait and Gaick celebrity. Here I had a visit from a Mi Allan 
Grant, whose grandfather was Donald Giant of Crasky, Glenmoriston, 
and one of those heroes of the " Forty*five " who sheltered Prince Charles 
Edward in the cave of Colombian, when wandering about, life in hand, 
after the Battle of Oulloden, before he succeeded in effecting his escape to 
the Outer Hebrides. He emigrated to the States, and ivaa one of the 
patriotic band known as the United Empire Loyalists, who Would not 
temain in the States after they were lost to the British crown, and who 
went to various parts of Canada where they leceived grants pf 'l^d from 
the British Government. Donald Grant, with several othera, went to 
Glengarry, whore 1000 acres were allotted to him, 200 of which ffell jnto 
the possession of my visitor— his grandson, AlLil'Graiit, ' ■ ■ 



ii,Goo(^lc 



IM THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

It is commonly repotted that Donald could spin a good 7am, one of 
which, in connection with the pilgrimage of the U.£. Loyalists from the 
States to Canada, will bear tellinj^ On one occasion the Catholic fiiehop 
was in Donald's neighbourhood, and knowing that lie was rather fond 
of relating the hardBhipe endured by the LoWists on their way to Glen- 
garry, nnder his leadership, the good Bishop called upon him and intro- 
duced the subject. Donald was proud of his exploits, and the great suc- 
cess which had attended himself and his devoted followers ; and he always 
ralated the hardshipB and baiibieadth escapee which they experienced 
with unfeigned pleasure. As he advanced in years they aeemed to have 
grown upon him, until at last they appeared to others almost bordering on the 
miracnlouB. When he had finished the description of the journey tiirough 
the trackless forest in glowing colours, the Bishop in blank amazement, said 
— " Why, dear me, Donald, yooi exploits seem almost to have eqoalled 
even those of Moses himself when leading the children of Israel through 
tl 16 Wilderness from Egypt to the land of Promise." "Moaes," exclaimed 
the Highlander, adding two emphatic short words, to which the ears of 
his reverence were not much accustomed ; "Why," said Grant, with an 
unmistakeable air of contempt, " Moses took forty years in his vain at- 
tempts to lead his men over a much shorter distance, and through a mere 
trifling wilderness in comparison with mine, and he never did reach his 
destination. I brought my people here without the loss of a single man." 
The answer made by the Bi^op is not recorded ; but he afterwtuds used 
to t«ll the story wiUi evident gusto, and to the great amusement of his 
hearers. 

Having arranged for a lecture here and at Alexandria, I went on to 
Ottawa, where I spent a few days. On my return, my host kindly offered 
to drive me himself through the county, and to introduce me to the leading 
Highlanders. On Wednesday, the 29tii of October, we started for Alex- 
andria, 14 miles inland, behind a splendid pair of hoiees, calling upon 
some genuine Celts on oui vay. A few miles out we passed a very fine 
fitim of 400 acres owned, occupied, and capitally farmed by Donald Mac- 
lennan, whose &ther endgiated from Eintail without a cent. Shortly 
after tliis we called on Christopher Macrae, Glenroy, who has a fine iana 
and keeps the district shop or store. We were hospitably entertained by 
his better-half, and I had a most interesting chat with his father, a fine 
old gentleman, 93 years of age, who left Glenelchaig in Kintail in 1821. 
The venerable sire, I had been told, was fuU of old lore and Highland 
tradition ; but my time was too limited to enable me to get him into the 
proper groove, which I very much regret. Another of h^ sons, Duncan, 
owns the fine farm of Qlen-Ifevis, the whole Itunily being exceedingly com- 
fortehle and well-to-do. Another worthy specimen of the good old stock of 
!Kintail Macraes, and with whom I had the pleasure of travelling from 
Lancaster to Kii^^n, was D. A. Averse, a fine young fellow, whose fa- 
ther left Morvich, Kintail, about 60 years ago, and who now owns a fine 
farm of 400 acres, nearly the whole of which is cultivated By the time 
we left Glenroy, it was getting dark, and we drove right on to Alexandria, 
where we took up our quarters at the St Lawrence Hotel, a comfortable 
hostelry kept hy another Gaehc-speaking Highlander, Angus MacdondL 
Having seen several of the leading citizens of Alexandria next morning, 
I itaited Sat ft diire some twaut; milet into the back settlements of 



Do,i,,-c,ib,. Google 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 15T 

the ootmty, when I hod the pleaenre of meeting some gennine old 
Celts. Among them I would notice Ifonnan Macleod, Lagg&D, s 
native of Glenelg ; and Captain Iifackenzie, a. fine oM veteran 93 yetn 
of age. I found Mackenzie to bo a naUve of Contin, Ross-shire ; but 
brought up in Lochbroom. He subaequently became a soldier, and vaa 
in the British army when Kapoleon I. was a piisoner in Elba, a period of 
his life of which my venerable namesake was so full that I oould hardly 
induce him to talk about anything else. He was the second who tamed 
a sod in the back part of Glengarry county, to which he found his way 
by pure accident, having lost bis way in tiie forest foi three days and 
nights trying to find his way to a place more than a hundred miles in the 
opposite direction. When he left this country he was so poor that he 
could not pay for his passage across ; but the Captain of a sailing ship in 
Greenock gave him credit until he was afterwards able to pay him. He 
is now in afQaent circumstances, possessing an excellent {axm of Ms own, 
and has been able to start several sons in forma of their own equally good. 
After a most pleasant drive to Lochiel and the surrounding country, I 
returned to Alexandria, where I delivered my lecture to an appreciative 
audience of as genuine a type of Highlanders as ever drew breath. 

In the morning before starting for Lochiel, a deputation waited npon 
me to know if I bad any engagements in the evening, after my lecture ; 
and, answering in the negative, I was told that they would be glad then 
to spend an hour with me. 'What was my surprise to find a really good 
piper, and a Macdonald, at the door of the hall ready to play ua to th6 
hotel immediately after my lecture, and there to find supper laid tor about 
forty-five gentlemen who were good enough to entertain me thai 
as the guest of the Highlanders of Alexandria. The chair was taken by 
Mr Angus Macdonald, a fine Highlander and a prominent oC&cial in the 
place, supported by John Macdougald, whose grandfather left the Island 
of Eigg, in 1788, for Sydney, Nova Scotia, and in 1793 went to Glengarry 
and settled there. His mother I found was one of the United Empiie 
Loyalists already referred to, descended from the Camerona of Fassieferu. 
Mr Macdougald possesses his grandfather's original property in Glengarry, 
Donald Macmilkn, M.D., who presided at the lecture, was croupier at 
the sapper, and added much to oar entertainment by his singing in fine 
voice and spirit some excellent Gaelic songs. Among the company mm 
also the grandson, A. B. Macdonald, of the first wldte man bom in Glen- 
garry. His great-grandfather emigrated from Moiar without means of 
uiy kind, but having been in the army he had free land allotted to him 
and he died worth property valued at ^£2000. The great-grandson became 
partner, and is now the successor, in the extensive and lucrative bufiineai 
long carried on by the Hon. Donald Macdonald, the present Lieutenant- 
Governor of Ontario ; and ia rapidly amassing a fortune. Among others 
present were Colin D. Chisholm, clerk to the District Coort — a cousin of 
our own Colin Chisholm, and almost as enthusiastic and as well informed 
a Celt as the ex-President of the Gaelic Society of London himself; Di 
Alexander R. Macdonell, and several other warm-hearted fellows whoee 
nomea I did not manage to carry along with me. There were, however, 
two EiouthOTTL Scots present, who had settled down among the Highlandera 
of Alexandria, and who appeared to be in spirit as genuine Celts ai the 
rest, viz., Charles H. Connon, M.A, and £dward H, Tiffony, both bw- 



C>H)glc 



168 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

ristera practdMng in the coTinty. The oratorical ability diaplayed was 
retiUy maivfillonB in sacli an out-of-the-way place ae Alexandria, cou- 
tainiog only about 1000 inhabitants, and such as would put many who- 
'wonld-be-considered-otators in more pretentious places at home to shame. 
I gays expression here for the first time to my views and feelings repecting 
the niMmer in which successive governments of Canada diaoouraged and 
otherwise treated Highland imndgrants, while they had acted in a manner 
entirely different to the Kussian Memnonites and IcelanderB ; and the 
enthusiastic sympathy displayed by my fellow countrymen of Aleiandiia 
at once convinced me tliat the Highlander of Canada only wants to have 
this dereliction on the part of the Government pointed out to him to 
have the present system of giving his countrymen the cold shoulder con- 
demned and reversed. It was proposed and seconded, there and then, 
that those present should form Uiemselves into a Society for educating 
publk opinion on the point, and I learned after I left tlmt they met on 
the following evening and formed themselves into the nucleus of a 
Caledonian Society. My driver, who knew all present, informed me 
that the company amongst them represented accumulated property worth 
about a quarter of a million sterling. I parted with them nest morning 
witn very genuine regret, and not without hope of again seeing them in 
the hospitable capital of Glengarry county. 

I learned that John Murdoch of the Highlander had passed through 
the village that morning in the nuul-^, while I was away in the district 
of Lochiel, and that he had gone on. some miles, to visit Mi Cattanach, an 
old Badenoch Celt, who lived at Laggan, so called by him in commemo- 
ration of hia native place in the old country. I was naturally anxious ia 
Bee the Ard-Albannach, and made my driver go several miles out of his 
way to overtake him at La^an or meet liim on hia way back ; and meet 
him we did, Mr Cattanach driving bim back to Alexandria. I requested 
my driver to go into Cattaoach's machine, while Fear-cm-j7ieilidk came 
in with m& I then turned round my team in the direction in which the 
Highlander was going, and thus had about half-an-hour of bim. I had 
about 30 miles to go in another direction, and, as he was going direct to 
Lancaster, where I was engaged to lecture that evening, we ^reed to meet 
there and compare notes, after such a long absence from home and 6om 
each other, and to t^ over our new and varied experiences. After a 
long drive through the county to the west, and making several calls on 
the w^i I arrived in the afternoon at WilliamstoD, a village only 4 miles 
from Ijincaster, where we obtained refreshmeuts for man and beast at the 
hostelry of anotlier good Hie'lanman — John J. Maodonald, Gleneoe House, 
who, like most of my friends, had succeeded in featherii^ his nest pretty 
well Having made a few other calls, Mr Macrae soon rattled into Lan- 
caster. The Ard-Albannack arrived a few minutes after us. In the even- 
ing, I delivered my promised lecture, for which I was by no means in good 
form ; but the Highlander and D. Macmaster, M.P. for the County, who 
came, all the w^ from Montreal to meet me, addressed the audience, and 
thus enabled me to drop easy. My old travelling companion, Mr Mac- 
lennan, M.P. for Glengarry in the Domioion Parliament, came several 
miles to .preside at our meeting ; and my only regret in connection with my 
visit io this Highland settlement is my inability to call upon him at his 
own bouse> agreeably to his repeated requests that I should do sa The 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA, 159 

nine evenmg and next morning I met a feir more fine apecimens of tliA 
good old stock, amoDg them A. S. Macdonald, from the West Cout of In- 
Temets-ahire, praprietor of the Commercial Hotel ; Dnncan Mitoarthur, 
merchant, Alexandria, whom I missed when theie ; A. B. Ikfaclennan of 
Glen-Gordon, originally from Eintoil ; and no end of Macpheisoiu, whose 
' forbears came firom fiadanoch, all in excellent ciicnmstances. 

QlengaiTf has piodnced another fine Gaelic-apeahing fiunil; — the 
Sansfield Macdonalda — ^who rose &om the ranks to the very highest 
positionB in the Dominion. One of them lived close to Lancaster ; hut 
I was unfortunate enough to miss him. Another died Piemier a few 
years ^o ; while a third is the Hon. Donald Macdooald, the present 
IJeutenant-GoTernor of Ontario, one of the most popular, genial, and 
wum-hearted Highlandeis in the whole Dominion. Their ancestoia came 
originally &om Knoydart, in the county of Inverness ; and their father 
commenced life in very humble circumstances, and became a farmer at 
Sansfield's Comer, Glengarry, from which place the family took the addi- 
tion to their original and simple name of Macdonald, to distlngaish tfiem 
from the legion of the same name in Canada — many of whom are in high 
poutjons like themselves. 

The f^ms throughout this Highland county is laid out in 1 50 acre 
lots, and the people are very comfortable throughout Not only ia 
politics but in most ojther walks of life it has tnmed out many who have 
distingoished themselves in other parts of .Canada. A mistaken idea has 
got abroad, no doubt in consequence of the name, that most of the people 
came originally from Glengarry in the Old Country j but this is not the 
case, the great majority of them being from Lochaber, Morar, Moidart, 
Enoydart, Glenelg, Eintail, and Badenoch. I could say a great deal more 
whidi would redound to their credit, but I must at present pass on, and 
introduce yon, in my next, to some of the HigiJandeis of Ottawa, King- 
ston, and Toronto. A. M. 



Genealogical ,^4rte0 mb (SJturies. 

OAITHNI»S OAlIPBBTiLS. 
I am much obliged to " Leckmelm " for his kind communication. There 
IB some mistake, however, about the family of William Campbell, Sheriff- 
Clerk of Caithness, aboilt 1690, as he was not a native of the county. I 
fiiimd out within the last few days that John Campbell, Commissary of 
Caithness, was not William's brother, nor a son of Donald Campbell, 
merchant in Thuiso. On the Ist of March 1692 the office of Commissary 
of Caithnees was conferred on Mr John Campbell, "sone to ye laird 
of Barbreck." Will " Leckmelm " kindly allow me to communicate with 
him privately on this subject f Mas. 

QUEEIES. 
Wocui tnj of joar ooimpondenti, Uorned in As biitory of tlie ^^ift^'^^r, ba kind 
niradi to iniwer the followmg qnerici :— 

1. An the Hucraea * ol&n, ind, if ao, vbo it tbeir obief T 
i Wirt »rB tbeir ftrma, oi«»t, and badgel 

>- Hne tbe; a t&rtim of thrlr Own, uiJ, If lO, what are Iti oolounT 
Colou, Soith Aartnlii. UABSHAO AX t SimSK i 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



GAELIC SOCIEry OF EirraRNESS— ABiniAL DINNER. 



Tina mouth we give eight p^es additional, in small type, to enable us to 
place a report of the prooeedlnge at the eighth annual dinner of the G^aelic 
Society before onr readers — especially those abroad, now ao greatly in- 
creased, and who are not liknly to see the local newspapera The meetii^ 
was one of the most enjoyable of all the suoceeaful meetings hitherto held 
by the Society ; and for this great credit is due to the excellent secretary, 
Mr William Mackenzie, of the Aberdeen Free Press, whose arrangements 
were complete, and all that conld be desired. The Chief also halped to 
make all pleased with themselves, and the Society will not fail to appre- 
ciate the trouble he has taken in coming all the way from Skye to perform ' 
his duties as Chief — not only on this occasion, but also to the annual 
assembly in July of last year. He waa supported right and left by Sir 
Kenneth S. Mackenzie of Gairloch, Bart., Captain MacRa Chisholm of 
Glasabum, Captain Scobie, The Hev. Mr Bissot, &c The attendance 
waa large and influential William JoUy, Esq., H.M.I.S., and Alexander 
Boss, Esq., F.S.A.S., architect, acted as croupiers. 

After giTina the loyal toMti — tb>t of "Her Hijwtj" haTlng bean prapoaad In a 
neat, eomiotly delireTed Oullo ■paeoh— the ChiiV prspoaad the "Army, Navj, and 
Tolnntesn," end rafirrlog to the Afghin var, laid, nmltl load ohsen, that " io tbmt var 
oar brars Blghluideii aere at the frost ai ninil, doing their datj and maiatalniiig the 
pieitige at the Biitiah artuy." 

Captain OHiaHOLM reapouded, Bonoladiag a, neat apeeob — We, of the Oaalio Soeietr, 
may huartilj rejoioe th»t tbe gallaDt Highland ragimenti oontlDae to uphold tbeir 
anitient lanoxn for ooange and heroio bravery, in &II the reaeat wan of tbe Empire — in 
AtiioB and Alia— and the martial itraini of the war-pipe are alwajf aanndlng ware te 
enoonrage onr brother Highlinden in the din of battle. A gnat deal might be aaid re- 
garding our preeeat toilitury orgaaiBattOD, bat. nntortanatelj, I am no ipeakar, and 
mnob prefer the attitude of listiiaar, peitioolatly ohen 1 *ee aronnd ma ao manj oiaton 
otreaomi. Ton will therefore, I am anre, eaeily pardon lae if I "oeaae firing" and 
eoDie to a "halt." (Qraat applaoie.) 

Cutain SoOBia, far the Hilitia, laid that the militiirT ardoat had not yet died oat 
of the Highlanda, ai ihowti by the fact that tbe two Highland regiment) of militia— the 
* — ^ "— — " ' "^ held their high plaoe among the militia reginenti of 

had In no way interfered with the Highland legimesta ; and at tbia moraaot Uia Bob- 
Mn (HigUand Kfle) Hilitia waa over ita atreiigth by mora than 100 men. (Cheen.) 
TIm Naime of that re^ment, xben called out in 1878, turned oat aplendidly — three, 
fonr, or at moil no more than five men abaeccing themaelvea. (Applaaaa.) 

Uenttnant O. J. Oahvbbu., for the VolnDteera, aaid that i» tbe town of lD<:eme*h 
between Tifiei and artillery, there were nearly 900 men nnder armi aa Tolnnteen, and 
ware all Ban who were both able and willing to do their duty ibould they ever hi 

.i npoB. (AppUme.) 

The 8iOB>rTABT at thik atage intimated a targe number of apologlBa; after wbiob he 



they* 
oaUed 



the annual report, wUcb exhibited for laat year an ioDoae of £167 Sa 7id, and «i 
_aimnn of £1S3 T« lOid, ibowing a balanoe of £32 Oa Bd in faroDr of tbe hooiety. 
TheOmir, irfter BoBgratulatinn tha Sooiety on their eiabtbrolunr- * "^- . . .l. ._ 



isireigbtbro . 

prooeeded— The Society had arrogated to themielrea the riftbt of viewing the Hlghluder 
U hli Tirioni aipeoM— tbey bad aeen him aa a orofter and ia hla vaiioui other aocial 
oeonpationi — to-night he thought it would not he out of plaoe to have a glanoe at bin 
ai he might aopear aa a loldiar. (Applaoae.) Some tbougbt that a little military drill 
nlghtimprova nitn, and tbnt as a loldier hi* would he a much more interaating anhjeot 
than gaing aboit louoging ai at preaent with bia banda in his poobeta. (Liagbter.) 
Oonaidering what tbe Higblindeta were, what the^ are, and what they might be, and 
bearing in mind tha diitiootion acquired by our Higblaad anoeatori for military prowva, 
tha pteMnt HemlDglf low ebb of tniUtiu^ ardour In the north WH a ^neition ol totM 



i>,Googlc 



GAELIC SOCTETY OE DTTEEITESS. 161 

littTH^ (AnluiM.) To aifttnlne it thty nmit Uke Into iiaiiildenitiaB tkna paiiodf. 
The flirt period «u one of BO je&n, eitecdipg from 17S7 lo IS16, wben Mcn were in 
(nat demuiii The leoond peried, tron 181G to the time of the Crimeui Wer >•■ one 
of peaoe. Dnrinc it men wece, >o to apfltk, & drag in the muk«t, aod the MiihUnder 
vu klloved to *Iip oat of ooiiidentioa ftud be lupplanted br ibeep. Thsj mijiht let 
th>t period for the preient ilip out of soDiidsriktuni, uid treat it m it trMled 
the men. (Tdnghter.) Tha third period «u that rrom the Orimen Wer, or nther 
bom 1SG9, after tha threat of the Freaoh oolooela which hid put oar preaent Tolnotew 
■jitem in motion. Doriag that period, which waa our owh period, the vain* of men 
tgtin began to he reoognieed. Tariooi Uighlaod aodetiea had atarted into exiitraoa, 
Md wherever Highlaodera had songregated in the town* of the loath tbej ware detM- 
nined not to ioie eight of the troditioiu of theii anoeiton, and throngh thair agener, to 
a oonalderable aitent, paopis begun to put hit trno ralae on tha Highlander, (l-pplinia.) 
Immediatelj after the " rising" of 1745-6, whao ag a people the BighJanden oera eon- 
qnered, diaarmed, and, he might la;, undieued— (la aghter)— every bod; thougbt the 
tnUitarj aptiithad been entirelT oraahed oat of the reaidae ef the people^ (Hear, hear.) 
Botwbat were the facta T Only adoicnreara after that, wben Pitt aalled on theoonntn, 
bow did the Highlanda nwpond:? The; all knew how the Higblanda raapoudad. Jo 
the Highland! regiment after Tagimant wia raiaed till, in a period of fortjr yaara, the 
Highlander had oontribated betnean forty and fifty regimenti, which had greatly 
aeoited tbe oeniitry in mnintaioiag her own among the European nationa, and enabled 
tlie Empire to extend her boundariea in erery quarter of the globe— (obeera) — which 
nally meant tha eiteneion of oiviUiation, the eitenaion of ChriatienitT, tha aitenaioo 
of good gecemment, and numeioui other bleuiaga betidea. (Applaoie.) There vai a 
Tery martial aong oonipaaed by hia friend, that wrll-knuwn Highlander, Alex, Nicvleon. 
"'""'"'"■'' " ■ *"' ' -■ - ■ ■ • e cborua of which heiian " 4piM fto if Aomft 

I varioni actiona and battles taken part in b]r 
oar Highland era from the davaot Bannoekbam, when Sootland gained herindapendenoe, 
to the trinnphai entry of the 12d into Ooomaaala. (Cheera.) No one gloried in the 
gaUant deedi of out anoeitara more than he did. No one waa more willing to aoknow- 
ledge that by theae gallant deeda a laatre waa ruied aroand them whieh waa even 
ahitd on ne their deioendanta at tbe preaent day, but in oontraating the past with tbe 
preaent he muataay that he thought, with all deference to tboae gallant aotioua and deeda, 
that they had now among thero in the Hiffhlonda man who had got tbe hearti to will 
•nd tbe arma to perform aimiltr deeda of valour, if placed in a poaitlon where they wonld 
be OBilled npon to do ao. {Loud cheera.) Seeing that regiment alter regiment waa 
niied in thoaa daya, how did it come to paaa that we cannot raiie ueD in the Highland! 
in a limilai way at the preaent day T If what he heard wii trae. the greatnt difficulty 
waa eiperieooed in obtainiag recruit! for tbe Highland regimenta. Oan oar nature be 
ebanged T or matt we aeoounC for it by auppoaing that former clearaocea of D-eo, for the 
Mke of abaep, had anything to do with it ! Ha ahonld aay moat deoidedly not, b«aauae he 
found that U the popnlaticn of the Highlanda waa not so large aa in thoie days, Inveraea*- 
ahire at any rate had aetoally a much larger populHtiun no« than io tbe daya when tha 
tremendoUB drain npoa their reaoutcea to whieh he had alluded had gone on for aiity 
yeara. If it waa thought that tbe Highlxnd nature had ohanged, and that the Biglilandei 
wae not ao fond of military ooonpatlon aa formerly, he thought that would aot bear 
eiaminatlon ; for he found that wheraTer tha ToiuEteer lyetem had been eetabliahed 
HighlandeTm cordially adopted it. (Cheera.) Thea let aoy of them go to the lailwity 
itation at Inrerneaa in the month of June and they would find handreda — be mioht 
Bay tboaaands— of Weat Coajt flthermen going to the iiast Coiat fishing, a oalUag wblob 
be might term one of the perilous accupatiooa. (Hear, hear.) Again, If they leoked 
at the EiRhlander aa they found him in the large towoa and oitiaa of the aouth, there 
they would find him engaf^ed in the peaoefal oooupaticn of polioeman. (Laughter.) 
They bod thaa exemplified in the Highland obaraoter a combination of order and ad- 
Tentnre— the eaaetitiai qualitiea of a good aoldier. (Obeera.) Looking at figarea, be 
tonnd that in the rural and insaLar parte of the oountiy there waa a great break-down. 
hear.) They did not contribute many men in compariaon to what they 

.-1y did. InTemeaa-ahire had at present an insular population of 40,000, and the 

ocntribatloDi it made to the military atrengtb of the Empire were very amall, eapeeially 
wben tbey leoolleeted what theae distriota did in former daya, and tbe large nnmbeia 
tJ men tbey oontrtbuted to fight onr battles. (Bear, hear.) He had beard tbe namben 
aompnted at large figarea, which it was unneoetaary for bim to repeat ; bat one thing he 
might mention whiob they did not perhaps know, and it waa thia— that tha lale of Skye 
alone had 1600 men engaged in the battle of Waterloo. (Applaoae.) It wai all (ery 
wall to state what we did. Tbe queation waa— What are we doinr now T On lauhin|[ 
at the hiatory of the raiaing of the Highland regimenta, be found that in each inatanoe 
the entire credit waa due to the peiaonsl infiuenoe of the noblea. ohiefa, aid gentry who 
toiA an intereat in the matter. (Hear, hear.) The moment theae took the initiative 
tbey had no difflcDlty in getting men to follow tham. Did they think that if either of 
the Pitta Di tbe Qcvemnent gf the day bad limply eipreiaed a wiah that there ahonld 



ffi; 



Cookie 



162 ■ THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

be Ml aagoientatton of the foroei by the Hljihluidsn, ot that tbe HIgblMiilen Aoold 
Join the trmj, or » the; leot » Giello ipeikins recruiting lerKeaat to the mshUnds— 
Would th&t b« ■nDDeiBfol in getting men I He had no beillation in ■Kving, No. Tho 
meo did then wh>t tfaej vonld do now if oallad apoa-lhe; folloxed thut ohieti And 
leadan. Ther followed thou the} knew and in whom tliey hnd oonfidenoe. The mea 
were ubeduafnToarlo Jolnthe regimenti, and they did it. Let them look. forinitaDoe, 
>t the hiBtoiy of tha 92d, where the bigtorioKl and benutifal Duoheet of OordoD iDdooed 
- the mtB to enlitt with the b«unty of a <oTereigD and a kix. (Laughter.) Why, it our 
Udiea of the present day emoUtsd that oelebrattd duoheii— (laughter) — they would 
haia the eonntry briitling with bpyonetn. (Applause.) It moit not ba inppoaed, that 
beoaaie the mral poputatiooi did not join the Vnluoteer forae, thay had loat all military 
apirit. If the time came when the iervicea of the people ware required ai thay were in 
farmer daye. the HighUEdara could be found to retain tbelr aaoietit nilitiiry rcDOWD, 
(Cheen.) Thii Society had done good work in keeping up the reeollection of tha paat, 
and atimulatlng uh of the praaect day to imitate the deeds of our fathers, and he would 
aak them aU to drink cordially to ita anoceaa. (Loud eheera.) 

Dr P. M. Mackbnzib proposed the memhara of Parliament for the Highland ooantiei 
ard borgha. and expreaaed the hope that "the day may aoon come when aome of na now 
around thia table will grace the Honae of Oommoni." (Cheera.) 

Hr JoLLi, In propoaing " Celtic literature." thought that he miut have been again 
aeleoted to spexk to thii toatt aa a aort of couuteraotive to tha aerioua indictment ina>da 
on the literHtnre of the Gael by two of hia Highland colteaguea in laat year's Educational 
Blue Book. It was a subject of the greatest intaraat and widest range, and one deeply 
affecting the intereata of the Gaalio people more than many people thought. He could 
obIt touch on a few points. One point on which miBapprehenaiona existed both among 
Its irlenda and foe> waa ita real character and importance. It aboold be <alned for these 
idane, which were of high merit, and not for extrinsic sad foreign elemeDts which some 
of ita too isal on • friends arrogated to it. (Applause.) It was not Talnahleas containing 
hialorj, pblloiDphy, or acienca, or)the like, the introduction of which into the discussion 
bad complicated it with false issues. These sLoiitd not be looked for there any mora 
than grapea in loelnnd or gooaeherriea ia India. (Laughter.) Ita highaat merit lay in 
its being a vehicle for the utterance nf Che deepest elementary feelings of human nature, 
which formed nins-teiiths of tha daily eipeiienDCi of the race, which tha Highland 
people uttered eccurdlDB to the genius of their eipressire and picturesque tongue, amidat 
tha special colnuring of their mountain home, and as icflLteuced by tbeir raoe and pecdliar 
history, and which bad produoed a body of lyrical poetry ot great intrinsic merit, viewed 
absolutely, and v( still higher value aaa cultural element to the people that bad produced 
it. (Applause.) Ho would refer only to two dbtinguishing elements of this poetrj.J First, 
tbete was its relation to nature — its character as a branch of the natural istio poetry of oar 
eoantry. In that it stood high. The Highlander had been always surrounded by 
natural inflaanoei of the greatest power from the country in which be lived, that hsd 
brought bim into apecisl relations with nature, and had early produced a poetry of 
nature of a striking kind ; and thia at a dale long anterior to the rise of natnraliitio 
poetry in Britain. (Applauaa.) HereMr Jollydascribadseveraloftheoharaoteristiotof this 
poetry 'Its animate desoiiptions of ita various pbaies from sunshine to storm, its loving 
appreeiation of its beauties both of animal and plant life, its glory in the varied aoanery 
that filled their land, the constant interplay between nature and human feelings that 
pervadad it, the artiitie use of its imagery in all its utterances and the like. Such 
poetry whetever It existed was of high value, and an Important agent in culture. (Hear, 
near.) When itarose in British liteiatureitmsrbed\uimportantepoab,butitbada1wayi 
more or lass existed in Gaelic literature. He then referred to its use in early ednoatioD 
in generating a taste for natural beanty and grandeur, and the feelings it generated is 
youBg minds. The second element of value in tliis literature ha would refer to was ita 
value aa giving varied, beautiful, and powerful utterance to the fundameutal feflings of 
the human heart — those of hDme, daily life, social interoontse, war, and devotion. Here 
its lyrical poetry hsd eminent merit. (Applause.) He mentioned aome of its ebaracter- 
Istlos, from the fiercest ba'tle ode to sprightly humour and deep pathos and geuaine 
passion. Such poetrj abould furm a powerful eleraaut in the culture of any paople poB- 
tesung it, and it ahoal 1 be more employed than it had been. If Hgbtly used it would 
dispel as a black mist before the sun much of the over-sombreness of the life of the 
Bigblandsr and the over-sternness' of his religion. (Applause.) Mr Jolly would not 
enter into, was in no way fitted to express an opinion, on the character and contents of 
the literature as a branch of general literature in itself and aa related to others. The 
indictment against It by his cellesgues he would leave to others to answer, and it r»- 
qnired an answer. The accusers were men of ability who did nut niter themselves rashly, 
espeoially In a question bearing so strongly on their relations to their own people. 
Their statemtnta on the subject were important in many ways, and should ba sarioualy 
net by aompetent Gaelic scholars, otherwise they wonld remain an unanswered ohalleDg* 
•erioiuly affecting their literature, ojad the snooasa of their owa aSorts In regard to it and 
related qaestions. In regard to this aUo, he bad heard it said that the tranilatMlw of 

..ooglc 



GAKTTC SOCIETY OF INVERNESS. 163 

thetr [io«trj wen no nol Mpnuloii of the orifjatil teit, thaCtbar *ere finer tfa an thaw, 
aad Mpaoiallr m dons by their friend ProteMor BUelde, were ao outonred bj tba peraoa- 
alitj of the vriten that an ontiider aneh M the ipeaker could neTer koov what Oaello 
poetrr really wai. Waa thii traat It wu for tbem to nnawer that. The H<|[hland 
people theoiaeWea bad in general an inadeqaaCa Idea of their own litsiatara, both ai to 
iti extent and natare ; tiiat waa, ha (eared, too true, from tariona aauiea. That gaT> 
tbs teaohiDR of it to Oaelio children, If adequately done, a apeoial value in Dpenlng their 
eyea, and making it the onltnial agent it might beoome, (Applanie.) The ohief thioff 
that ihoald he aimed sE waa lua a meie grammatinaL itudy of the wordi than a real 
insight into the literatare, aa poetiT and beauty. For that pnrpoie a laleot anthology 
of OaeUo poetry and prose ahoold be made by a oompeteat Oaelio aDholar tor th* nae A 
Qaetio ehUdrea in the higher olaaaei, and ai a apeeiBo aabjeot. which ha hoped it waald 
■OOQ beoome. {Chetra.) He waa glad ta tell them that an eminent publjiher wu 
prepared te iaaae lanh a hoolc, oTen at a loia, from hia interest Id the Highland!, and 
that a dladngniahed Oaelio scholar had determined to take it in hand. (Applauie.) If 
that were done, it woold give practioal eipreaston to what they pcopoaed to do when ap 
proaching OoTeramant oti the matter. They did not recommand eicluiiTc Oielic literary 
aultnrii, bnt the natire literature alongaida of the higher and rieher English field ; but 
they olaimed justice to the nalire tocgne. with Ita apeolal aveanai to the natire mind. 
In that oonneotiaD Mr Jolly hoped that the Northern Heoting would do ■omathing far 
higher than they had been doing la "playing at Highlandsra,"— (load applaaie)— and 
miking a public exhibition nf a few profeiBioQalt,— (oheart) — and would imitate the 
Welsh in cuUirating the Highlanders ia a broader and higher way, makiog their Ktera- 

the Highlands, ^nd oheen.} Hr Jolly concluded by wishing allsuooeso l.o th»ir effort* 
in the DultivBtion of their literature in all departments, and proposed the toaat amidst 
great enthuaiaiia, ooupling it with the tiamei of Mr Alei. Haokenda of the Cdlie 
Magazine — whom he congratalated en his labours generally in that field, ei^peoinlly on the 
•olid piece of good work performed in big " History of the Chm UackcDEie" recently 
pnbliahed— and Hr John Wbyte of the BigUander. 

Mr Uaokinzie, in reply, congratulated Mr Jolly upon hia apeeoh in propoalikji 
the toast, and en tba position he baa taken up in oouuesiion with teaching Gaalic in 
Highland Sohoole, and prooeaded to compare his views and dlsinCerested advoosoy of th* 
Tighta of Highlanders on this queation, with the crude, Qippant, and mialtading views 
expressed by others of Her Majesty's Inspeofora In their offlcisl oapaoity in their latest 
reports to the Bduostion Department. (AppUnae.) In the capacity in which they there 
appear, we ate perfectly justified in criticising tbem anj in asking if they are even com- 
petent judges. (Hear, hear.) Their remarks on Oaelio Id the last Educational Blue 
Book li a public challenge to this Sociaty, and to all who take an interest in 
teaching Qaelic in nchoola, and who assert that we have any literature. (Applause.) 
And it appears to methat the Federation of Celtic Societies wuuld be mucb better eiignged 
in getting up an effective answer, in the form of a pamphlet or otherwise, to be sent to 
"their Lordihipi" and distributed among those interested, tban in discussing anob burniD| 

tnut they, and thia Society, will at once take the matter up. (Hear, hear.) For me to 
■tand up at a meating like this, and occupy the time of the members of the Gaelic 
. Society of lavamess, at this time of day. to prove that a Oaelic literature exists would 
be quite superfiuous. Those who oasert the contrary are either igBorant, dishonest, 
or prejudiced. (Hear, bear.) I am dealing with Her Majesty's Inspectors aa publie 
offloiala and mean to make no personal rsflections. I have no great quarrel with Mr 
Boss for what appears in hia report to the Education Department, for he has been 
driven in apite of himself to recommend "to place Qaelic in the acbedute of Spedal 
Subjects, and thua put it, as regarila the country and the nniveraicias, preoisaly 
CD the lime level as Latin and Oreek." (Applanae.) Personally, I never advocated 
more than is here conoeded, eieept that the language of Qaelic- speaking children should 
be Bsed a* a medium to teach them >':nglish. But I know that Hr Ross long opposed 
this, especially in an article whioh appeared in the second number of the RoH-ihin 
Joarnai, and in a letter which he afterwards wrote to the OUagovi fiemt, and to 
both of which I replied St the time. The "negative attitude" and other choice stock 
phrases of the report will also be found in his earlier lucubrations. Ware it not pitiable 
to lee a really clever Highlander diapoaing as he doea of a great literary problem which 
hiB baffled even more dittingaisbed scholars than he-(hear, hear)-it would bi 



m giving forth dogmatically, without the slightest doubt, as if he were the Pope 
ounseu acting tx Cathedra, his inspired conclusions on the poems of Ossian, which be 
•ayi, " if ancient, would ha a noble literary heritage ; but unfortunately these poema are 
■ modem fabrication." (Oh Ij Oat oTer that if yon can, gentlemen of the Oaelio 
Society. It shawa how eaady an Inspector of Schools (and thnnk Goodness I am not 
Bne)H[losd laughtei}— can settle a controversy about which other great Hobolara have, 
•van yet, soma little difficulty. Hia elaborate paragraph on Oaelio Statiatioi etumblei 
like a pe«k of oaidi by Uw meie withdrawal of the word " only." I nevei beard tiutt 



U4 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

apwudi of 300,000 HighUiulm ntaka Qadla onl]/, bat tha infaada«Uou of tbt vord 
"oBlj''bj HrBouwu, otoBont, aniDtaitlouHl, though it aoniM in well u a prop to 
hti otharwiie OBak-kaeed parRgniph. Otfaar parogixptli ara eqaallf asitable, and ovuld 
]iut ai eadlj be tumbled orer If tima psrniitted. (Applaoas.) The mui who compoicd 
tbftt pftragrapb i> too Dlerer bjr half. (CheerB.) lam Dot, ho ware r, done with Ur Bom. 
Ibli Sodetj ha* pvtn him 21 pigea of tbeit lart Tolnma of TramnotioDi for an abun of 
tbemwlTea, which, in my opininn. for Chii reHon alone, the; thoroagbly deurieL I 
omnot ondentond wh; we at all eiiat aa a Sooiety if all Hr Ko»» taya regarding n* ia 
ttne ; and aTon If tine, to pnbliah hii ofaargei in oar TrBnaaotioaa and at onr own 
•ipeoM ia a thing for whicb I can lee no legitimate reaaon, and h thing agiinit whieh 
I atrongly protaat. At the rate I pay for printing, hia two papen ooit the itooiety about 
£10, and oiranlatiDn for natbing. (Laughter.) Thii ia a gnat deal more than in my opi- 
nitm they ara worth. (Applanae.) Be then, at page 79, goea on to oumiilate aU the bad 
tbinn nid of the Celt b; the enemlea of the raoe for the laat century and a half, pretty 
mau aa followa:— That the Oelt ia an impediment TaulabiDg liefore eifiliiatian like 
tha Bed tDdian j that from the dawn of hiatory he haa been oenturiw behind, bagging 
enaa oreada whioh mora enlightened paopls bad abandoned } the heat artiolaa of hia 
thaology ate diajointed fragmenU [Where are tha Ber. Dr Mackay and other orthodox 
olergymen of the north I— (ohaeri and Unghter)] ; thej are giien to traniparent pra- 
teooe ; they poaaeaaed Incoherent eloqaecce [sBrha^ like my own— (ob I and Uugbtar)]; 
a Tolcanic teudency to tCTolt ; they have been Tiaionarici dead to the lawi ot faoU ; 
pretentiona bardi j and when not dreamen, tbey hare been aoonrgaa in landa which 
they failed to conquer or till. Tbe beat, the moat law-ahidiog of them, have aeldom 
got beyond a melancholy wail, except when paaaion, the attribute of animal nature, 
baa driTeu them into fita of revenge ; antil tbej ohnnge they can bare no kindred with 
tjie friandt of progreaa or aooiil reform. Their langunge la a titting article for aavaga 
Imagery, and crude, oonglamerate thinking ; their philosopbiea are andacioui niytha 
M ahnda of aavage ancriTala ; and their mach lauuted poetry la atolen or appropTiated 
from more fertile flelda whanaTer it riiea above the dignity of aourrilona twaddle, oi 
extenda beyond tbe borderaaf rode elemental lyric (Oh I) Ididnotthinkthatthera ware 
aiob a terrible lot of adJeotiTea ia Ogilvie'a dictionary. (lAUgbter.) He admita that 
thia ia a fierce indictment, bat he haa no doubt that a otrtain egotiiiticel doaa of Oelta 
(like the membeia of thia Society) merit tbia charge. (Oh I oh t) Ha then goea 
DD to aay in tha aama atrain Chat that ignorant type of Highlander, who aeet no 
manly tirtae except beneath the kilt, whicfa, in hia ignoranoe, he oalla tbe national 
garb ; who heara □□ awaet lound exoept that of tbe bagpipea, vhiob with equal ignar- 
ance be calls the national inatrument ; and whu finda no poetry except in Gaella, 
whioh he regarda aa the national language. Qentlemen, what an ignoramnj the Higb- 
Lmdarhai al«ayiheen before wa had inapeotoriof ichoola— (loudlaaghter) — to think tbat 
Oaelicwaa hia nstioDBi language. (Laughter.) What waaitT Thia typical Celt ia alto- 
gather Ignorant of the mereat elementa of hii anceatral hiatory ; be preaohea manhneaa 
and toadiaa to the neareat lord— (Where are you John Murdoch f (applauae))— hia fnno 
tion ia Co ignore Taota and to OTei-rale tbe lawa of aooial pelity and national aeqaenoe. 
(Oh I oh I) He call* bimaelf a reformer, and he advucatea a letorn to the kilt, 
to the bagplpea, ta Oielio, all of which he loadly aaaerta to poaaeaa high national 
antiquity aa well aa high national Tirtuea ; bnt tbe Oeltio aatunt in Barapa— Ur Itoaf 
of eonne ; and what a blaaaing it la we ha*B one modeat Oelt— (great laughter)— know* 
that the kilt ta neither auoltnt nor Oaelio ; that the bagpipe ia SulaTonio, and not 
the national inatrniaeDt of tbe Gaelic people ; and that Qaelic itaelt ia a very modem 
aud rary oompoaile didlect ; and ao on through tbia remarkable article, which yoa have 
published In your anonal volume. (Hear, hrar.) It ia not for me to aay whether tbia i* 
all true ornot. Indeed I dare not «hen such a diatinguithed oracle- (lasghtar)— pm- 
claimi it in our own TransactiDQa. But whether it be true or not, our aannal Tolume 
la not the plaoe to puhltah ancb charge* against oaraelvea and the raoe in whoae interaat 
we have come into aiiatenoe aa a Society. (Load Applauae.) A* on* of the origiaaton 
of tbia Socioty I strongty proteat againat ita funda and ita Tolum* of Tranaaotion* batng 
naed tor ancb an uupatriotic purpoae. (Cheera.) 1 have left myaelf bat litUe tine 
to lay anything about Mr Stme'a coucluaicna and the manner in which he expreaaaa them 
to "Uy Iiarda." He "abould regard the teachingof Gaelic in aoboola, in any obapa 
or form, aa a moat aerioo* mlafoitune. " (Oh I oh 1) He than baa a dig at the "patriota," 
[tbe word ia in inverted comma* of ouune— (laugh tisr)] and inform* n* that Gaelio "t* 
not and never will be of the alightaat value in oandUEting tbe hnainea* of thl* world," 
forgetting, if common report ha true, tbat he bimaelf owe* hia poaition a* one of Her 
Uajsaty'a Inapeotora of aoboela to what I know to ha, hia vary limited knowledge of it. 
Il4uighter and applauae.) It mnit have been of aoaae commeroiel value to him. 
(Loud laughter.) He aay* that there I* the atrongeat reaaona for not teaohing 
it ; whioh i> perfrotly true from hia aCaad point, for the doable raaaon, that ha baa not 
a lufficiunt knowledge of it to examine tha aohaSan in it,— (hear, hear)— and that moat 
of the teacher* are ao ignorant of it that they cannot teach it. (Applauae.) The ant* 
for thia la too obvloaa le need pointing out. (Hmi.) I agTM with him that " anrf 



C>H)glc 



OAELic sociErr or isteeness. les 

tMDher •■> aitnated would rejoioe were O&slin, ai « tpukeo tongoe, aboliahed loot and 
brtHoli," I hDu* Mr Sioie too wall cot to know (bat be U iucapabls of murepre- 
Mnting the [act* wilfully. It it, huwever, equally oaiiuia tbat ha dow DOt uiidBi- 
■luid tham, Hii referenda*— for they are not woithy tha name of argnmanta — 
ihont the "bread and butter poiit uf view" and tbe comparative adiantate* af 
nadinK tbe Engliih of Oaelio Bible, and Gaelio at a meaca of colture, are beaeath 
IWbiiM. Ht Sitas would lead "My Lordi" to tbink that wa advocated tbe teacbiug of 
Gaelio to the exoluiioa of EDgliih. Tbia ii wona than noniaaie. (H«ar, bear.) No 
■ane Higblandar ever went that leoirtb. (&pplanie,) Wbal I want, and what you 
wmnt, la that Oaelio ataonld be naed as a mean) to teacb Engliab, aud alio made a apeoial 
nUeot, ai even Mr Boaa and the Bduoatiunal loititute now reoommeud. (Obeera.) 
HrSime moat certainly doei not undontand tbe poakioa— (hearj— tor ba entirely oariea- 
twe* the olaima of all lotell^nt adTooatei of Qaelie. (Appl&uae.) The laaiooB wbioh 
hsgivMfortaia advice to their Lordahipa, are miileading and illogioal on tbe rery fae« of 
tbem, and they will moat undoubtedly ba valued aooordinRly. (Applauia.) In oon- 
duioii he thiud:a the teaehara wbu have go readily and ao lolly raiponded to bia nqnait 
for infoTmation to ba ntad in preparing bia report ; bnt I know thoaa whoa* opiDiona, 

ft'BD at bia requeat, ia oiraulara sent out by him to teachen, and moat of wbom already 
aw biiown viawi, are quite ignored in tba report, ju at becBuae they advocated that 
Oaelio abould be made a special aubjeot. Tbs aiiatsuce of aaob should have been at 
laut acknowledged. (Ohoera.) 1 am aorry that I ahauld have been abliged to have 
apokentbua, but Che challenge waa a public one made by publio officiala inapoblio repoit. 
It la then fore fair garoe for oriCiciam ; aud I have no heaitation in aaying that if fnrtbai 
shallenged I aball take in hand to prove that aone of tbeae gentlemen, at leait, ata fu 
too igDorant of Oaalio, and any ILtarature it coDtaini, Co jnatity tham in eipraaaiag aur 
Oplnun Dpon it. (Load applanaa. ) I have oaeuplad your time far too long, and I will 
now leave my friend, Ut Whyte, to do the amiable pari of the boainaaa. [Loud and OOD- 
ttnned applaoae.) 

Mr Whitb aaid — After the eloquent, pointed, powerfal, and I had almoat aud, 
pugnaoioaa apeeob of Mr Mackaniie- (laughter) — it eeema to me almoat neeeaaary to 
rewiind tbe mteting that my friend wu not roplyiag foe the Army and Navy— (langhtai) 
—but for Cha maeh mare paaoeful toaat of Celtic LiCeratare. lam anre after tbe e&ectiTe 
addreaa to which we have juat listened, you will command my good aenae when I tell 

{on that I have no intention of inflicting an;r lengtbeaed apeuh of mine opon yoo, 
adeed it la not required, and tnoreever, yon will admit that a very aeriana diaadvutagt 
attaohea to a mere amntterer in Ueltie liCaracuce, like me, if called npon to follow aiuh 
a Demoattatnea aa the editor of the Ctliic MaQtaint. Yoa muat alao lemmnber that I 
have not, like some of our friends, had tbe benetic of a voyage to Cbe Weiteru land of 
eloquence to lubiioate tha eagle plnioDB of my oratory. (Laughter.) I do not know 
very well bow to aoconnt for the fact that my name waa aeleat«d from among the large 
dial* round tbia table, of men much motaDapable than I am to do juatice to thia aubjact 
Ferhapa I may aooouat for it aemewhat aa a DewapapEr rrportsr once defended the oar' 
ractBCHof hia account of ■ meeting which he had daacribed a> "large and appreciative," 
while the fact waa that there waa no one preaent but bimaelf and another gentleman. 
(LaagbteT.) Tbe report, he aaid, waa abaolutcty correct, for tbe other gentlemaa waa 
large" and ha himaalf waa " eppieoiativs." Now, air, I think 1 may point to my friend 
tbe edilor of tha CdUcMagazint aa poaeeaaing theneceuarydimenaioDa — (loud laughter) 
— both phyiically and figuratively, for a SE and proper repreaentative of Celtic litara- 
tnre; and I can asaore the uae^ng that no one can be more "appreciative" of the 
beaaCiei and merite of onr Celtic literature than I am. (Applanaa.) It ii quite un- 
neoeasary to oooiipy jour time in preying the falaity of the itatementao often made that 
we have no literature— a atatement that baa been ao of tan oontradiated, and even now lo 
eSsctuaUy rebntted by Mr Jolly and Mr Maokenaie. It ware an impertinent refleotion 
on the mombara of tbe Qaalie Society of Inveroeia for ma to aaanme that they were ig- 
norant ef the axiatence of not only a reapectsbia aud net iniigaiflcant literature even in 
the vernacnlar Gaelic of the Higblandi of Sootlajid, but also of tbe vaat itoree that exiat 
in tbe langaaga of tbe ancient Celta of Ireland and Wales, and the wide and frnittnl 
fields of onr unwritten literature, if I may uae the phrase, (Obeera.) But, Mr Chair- 
man, even if we admit— which we don't — that onr liteiatnie, atrictly speaking, is small 
ud onimpoitaot, I bold that we have in other raapaota no amall title to claim rather a 
large oiop of literature. FalataCf aaya — "I have not oaly wit in omelF, but I am (he 
oaoae tbat wit is in other mas." So even if we bad no dteratare of ear own, are wa not 
tha oaeie tbat (here ia literature in other men I (Hear, bear, and applanae.) Who 
doea not aee the large aad all previdling iafluence of tbe Caltio element in the character 
and volume of tbe literature, not only of our own country, but in tbat of almoet aU 
civUiaed nations, (Uheera.) But, sir, we have a living and growing litaratura. We do 
not Teqolre to go bayend our own little burgh, or outaide of thia Society to Sad abandant 
proof of this. Besidea our local nentpapera wbioh trcm week to week give forth their 
quota, and the Gaelic Society with ita annual volama of vilnable Tranaaotions, have ws 
not the Otltii Magatmt, witb my puitly fnand tt tM head— (cbeaM)- fiom nontb to 



Cookie 



166 IHE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

tnoDth adding to the rnnd of oqt lileratare ? And I«t ma aim ip6oiSeally msntton oue 

B«t Tnlusble Item of Mr Uukeniie'a work in tfaa ftDgmeatatian of the iton ; I mean 
bii reaentlf pnblithed Hiatar; of the Clan Maokaniie— the mpat important and the 
bandiomeat work eTCT iaiued fcon:i onr Nortbaia prau. (Applanae.) In soEolmion, Mr 
Chaiman, I dsn't think I am oat of plane in refining to an honoured member of our 
Societj who, though bf nativity and anaeitry perbapa, a Saxon, or at leait a Lotriander, 
bfli eierted an immrnae inflaenoe in (he formation af opinion on thii lahjeot — gnidinK 
tho minda of yonng and old among oa, and inviting into sieniae thoaa powen whiob aia 
known to be latent in the Cellio ohwactar— and who ii, I am aon-jr to any, abont to laaTe 
oar Daighbourbood. Indeed but (oi thii Diieamatanos. I ffoold not in hia awn preaenos 
haTB TflHtomd to make thii refeianoe. I isean our eieellent fdend Hr J0U7. (Oheen.) 
Wbv, lir, the *erj meDtton of hia name at a galbering of the Qaolia Sooietj of limneaB 
reodsra an; enlogiuma on my p^rt peifeotly aniiarfluoaa. (Applaaae.) Air Jolly, air, 
ia a genuine Celt— (bear, beat)— and though asithar apaaking our tongue, nor waariog 
onr Highland garb, yet in heart, and life, and work, he ii the " nobleit Bomaa of ai 
all." (Qreatapplanae.) 

Hi Bosa, amhiteot. piopoaed " Kindred Sodetien," the objaot of whioh, aa well aa 
of thii aociety, ia the prnarvation of reeorda, the elusidatioa of our early hittory, and 
the perpataation of all that ia good and worthy in tha nation. (Applanaa.) TTnfortna- 
atalj, muoh of the early hiatory of Sootland, aapaoially before the tenth aentnry, ii en- 
Taloped in darkneaa and obMiarity, and wa haTe bnt faint ray* of light in tha ineidental 
Kferenoes of Koman and othar writara. We are tbna left to grope about aa we beat can, 
Theac oooaiionat ligbta 01 heaoona, faint and diatant though thay ha, aerre aa a ntart- 
Ing point, and daily throngh tbe inatrumentality of lealoui indlnduali and tha en- 
oonragemant of thia aod kindred aooiatiaa, obioun poiBta are baing oUared np, and oni 
knowledge of tbe early hiitory of our native land extended. (Applaaae.) Whan we 
look at our TraaiBotiDua, Dow extending to eight goodly volamei, one feela th«t tbe time 
of tbia Sodaty haa not been miaapect, and that ia tha departmanta of folk-lore, philohogy, 
and long, good work baa been done. (Applanaa.) I am not one of thoie people that 
beheTC that Qaelio ia deitinad loog to anrdva aa a oommeroial ianguega ; hut it 
ii not dead yat, and will not die out in oar time, and it ia neoeaaary to tbe very anda 
of hiatory, to which I referred, that ita bonea abould be preaerved, aod for thi* reaaon I 
hail with pleaaure the aueeeaaCul RDeompliatiment of Blaokia'a taak— the gathering of 
fundi for tbe endowmiDt of tbe Celtio Chair, (Ohaera.) So far back aa 1836 tbii 
■obeme wu taken up by tbe Gaalio Sooiaty of London and <ithen. Hr Hon here pointed 
oat what other aooiatiea had done in eollectinK the aoattered (ragmenU of arohiKolORical 
remaini and folkdora of tha people, and coutioued^l am gUd to aee that the aooga and 
folk-lore are reoeiving apeoial attention fro» Che membera of tbe Invemaaa Society, aod 
from thair aitnation in the heart of the Highlaoda they can, or ought, to do more than 
idoioit any other. There are, I am glad to ohaeiTe, many othar atationa wbeni aooietiei 
have been eatabliihed, notably at Edinbargh, Qlaagow, Oreenook, Oban, Perth, aud I 
donfeaa I abould like to hear more of ilmilar aaoietiei in tbe eolonlea. ( Vpplaoaa.) I 
am not aware of what baa been done, or that anytbiog deSnite baa been done in thia 
direstiDn— though aooial oluba are no doubt pleaCifkil. I have yet to learn that thay have 
undertaken any deSnite work. Mr Maokenaia, in hia lata ramblai through Canada, re- 
. farred to fine Ubrariea of Celtio litaratare and eothualattio aoholara. Surely they may 
do aometbing to forward the work. I am glad to aay we hare mora than one aooiaty in 
iDTernaaa dafotiug ita enei^ei to the invottigatioD of the early reoordi and hiatory, 
aod ilao to the coUeoting and atoiing of every traoe of arcbiouIoijiMi remaina that oan 
ba found, and I hope wban wa have the bnnafit of our new Hoaenai aod Library, to aee 
Ihem both endDbed by a full eomplenient of Oaltio relioa and literature. They ought to 
be a oiDwainK featurs of onr pidlaction, and I truat they will be ao. (Applanaa.) 
When we loak around, and flod that even within tbe memory of many here, aoeietiai 
baTing theae apodal objeota in view which wa now poaaeia, hate groxn and paaaed away, 
and what ia atill more aad, their aotleetiona pariabed, wa ought to make every aSart to 
preaerve what ii laft to ua, and I do hope that with tha adoption of the Free Libraries Aet, 
and tbe eababliihmeDt of a permanent muaaum, wa ahall ba able not only to reoover, bat 
to preaerra every atom and objaot of intareit in Highland hiitory. (Applanie.) When 
I oald that many loaietiBi and memben thereof bale paaiad away, I am glad to be able 
to point to one exoeptioo, and he ia a notable one — I mean Hr Oolir Ohiabolm, for many 
yean Frealdent o[ too Oaelia Society of Loadon, aid wboae kindly face and nTerand 
appearanoe, at our annual feaat here, adda muoh t« tha obaraoter and plaaaura of tha 
Bvaning. (Loud oheen ) 

Ur OOLUr Ohuhoui aaid — Having bean attached for the greater part of mr lila to 
kindred aoelatiea in the loutb, I may be permitted, at the entiet, to eipraai atj opiaion 
— aa the reiult of otMeiTation and Ling eiperienoe— that it would ba both daalraMe and 
baneBeial fora yoang men from the Highland* to join a aoaiet^of hiaoouBtryman in any 
town in which hia lot may ba cait in the lontb. The one I joined, the Oaelio Sooiaty ot 
London, l^a oldest cf all Scottiah aociatiaa in Landoo, naa a aouree of muoh pleaaure and 
Uf onnadoB to ma. It i« now T«nwaUai baling oalebrated ita oentenwy tbna yaan ago. 



jb,G00(^lc 



GAELIC SOCIETY OF IlfVEENESS. 167 

(AppUnH.) Tbo oordislitj with wfaioh nil present banoured "Eindrei! Scoistaei" i> an 
earnaat oF the undyipg uttiiahmuat wbioh all Ccltio aocietiei hiiv« to Biiah other. 
With na other ie tbat welfiire more at heart, better uDdentoiid, or mors cffioientlj pro- 
moted than hj the Qa»lio Society of Inverneis. 

Hr AndbBw MA0D0N4LD propoied the ProTOBt, UogiBtraton, and Town Ooondl 
of Inremesi, to whiah 

Connoillor JOHK NOBLB tepUsd, ba; ing that b; the Tetiremeiit of in eiaellent dU. 
Ftovoat SimpaoD, a gentleman abo had done good work for a gient uihbj jears — (sheari) 
— the Ooaooil wu in a itate of ioterregauni ; but he truited the oSoe wonid loon be 
fill»d lip, and that the next Provogt would be s nun besting tbe name a[ a oLao that hid 
nlwafi been intimately oonBeoted with, and faronrable to, the town of luTerneH. (Ap- 
planae. ) 

Mr Jambs Babron proposed "The AgrioultDrel and Commsroiol Intereat* of the 
North of Sootlend"~a toaiC which it might be said embraaed tbe entire matsiial intereite 
of the district, for It was either on commeroe or agrlcnltura that the papulation de- 
pended. Unring the poet year we had eiperieneed a crisia of eioeptional se'^eritf. Se 
•itieme wae It in Bammeroe that he hoped we might never look upon the like ogun. 
(Hear, bear.) No one oonld remember without a chjl! tlie gloom that sat upon men's 
faces ur the depression that clogged their energiea and fiUtd their hearti with dlamaj. 
Thanbi, however, to the tact, forbearance, and patience of a few skilful men, tbe worrt 
apprehensiona were never realised, and we had now shaken e& tbe iuoubua, and were 
Cejoioing in retutning prosperitj. (Applause.) In agrieultare, be thought, we bod not 
been so ill off as people were in some parti of the oountry. In the oountr;, as a whole, 
tbe wheat crop, which should have returned oier 11,000,000 qnarten, had failed to yield 
•Ten 7,000,000 quarters ; snd be bad observed that a farmer stated reoently that he hod 
lost £20,000 in live jears. In the North their losses were not so large, but they ware 
large enoogb. Arable and pastoral farmers hod both suffered, Wool bad fallen so low 
that it soluallv heoam* imsaluable, and he seed nut remind them of tbe fears that wera 
eipcrienoed regarding foreign oompatition in meat and gtaiu. Happily, if tbej now got 
favourable seasons, agriaullure promised to share in the revival that had set in. (Hear, 
hear.) We were alive herein spite of tbe Americans, and, indeed, it wasBurions that re- 
tun^ing vitality was in a great measure owLue to this very people. The demand from 
the United States gave the Grst impulse to aotivity, and be had been Informed that we 
were actually iodebted to Amerioan mauufacturera for the sudden and wonderful rise in 
the price of wool. (AppUuss.) In eonolusion, he observed that if any agrioBltnrista ds- 
aerved to auooeed, they were the induattious and intelligeat agriculturigta of thu North 
of Scotland— (sppLiuae) — snd if any aummeroial Bommuuity deserved to prosper, it waa 
that oommunity which stood manfnllr together in the darkest hour, and saved an 
inatitation which so many powerful element) bad oorabined to destroy. (Cheera.) 

Itr &OBBM1 Gr^sI (of Messrs Macdougall k Co., Boyal Tartan Warehouse) replied 
In a neat speech, aftsr whiob 

Hi WiL B. FoBsrra of tho AdveniieT proposed the " Nan resident Uembers," and 
■ud it was most gratifying to know that these gentlemen formed a oousiderable proportion 
of the Sooiety— more than cue hslf in fact — while they oontributed Urgely to the fanda, 
»jid diaplujed great interest in the objects and proceedings of the Society. Indeed, they 
oomposed perhaps the moat entbasioatic class of members. (Applause.) He coupled the 
toast with the name of a gentleman who had been a member from the beginning, and had 
■bowD a lively interest in their affairs. Mr A. 0. Uaokenzie. Harybuigii. (Applanae.) 

Mr Maokenzib, in responding, said that as one of the oldest membeia of the Society, 
he bad much plaaaure in replying for tbe non-resident members, who, as Hr Forsyth 
remarked, formed tbe majority of the Society. The country members were inolined to 
look on tbe town members as a sort of generMl standing committee to carry out tbe 
Iwbestitof tbe noD-reiidentB, and that duty was well and satisfactorily performed, (Cheers.) 
The action of the Society which interested him most, as a teacher, was ths efforts made 
to seoore tbe teaching of their native language in their aoboola. (Applauae.) On this 
subject aome atron^ opinions had bean expressed on beth sides, but these viewa were 
now being modified so much that there was a better prospect of an agreement on the 
aabjeot. He was sorry to see their Highland Inspectors going so fsr out of their way to 
decry ourQaelio literature, which, though not extensive, was interesting, and well woithy 
of preservation, (Applause.) Of the &ve insneotora at work in tbe Highlands, two were 
Saxons, and be was not aure hat one of them, their frieod the Croupier, wasjn sentiment 
tbe most Highland of them all. iCheers.) Tbe other three were native Highlanders ; 
bat be was sorry to see that they did not sympathise muoh with OAiflic He was, how- 
ever, well satisfied with Mr Kou's eonslnaien, thongh how he arrived at it from bis 
premises he (the speaker) coitid not well nnderaCand. (Laughter,) It, was reuurked 
that Hr tiime had consulted tbe teachers, which he knew to be the case; but he alio 
knew that the great majority of them held their inspector's views. He might state that 
ha (Mr M.) woa one of tbe amaller number. (Cheers.) 

Mr Wu. Maokay, solioitor, proposed "The Clergy of all Denominationi" in an 
wiiB^"g aittiqiuii*a spaeoh, whiob, ws ie|ret, the space at one dispecsl will not at pre- 



ii,Goo(^lc 



188 IHE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

■sot ftdmlt of pabliiutiDti, bal we hoin Mr Uaokay irill add to it, ukd give It to ai In 
another fDrm. The Uei. Mr Bman, Stratbarriok, replied ia id exsMdintl; hippr 
nuDDer. "The Preu" «u propoaad by Mr D. (JamfbELl, BridgB Street, aod raplied to 
t* MrW. B. FuBSTTB uF tQe Inveraai AdvenUer. Csptdia 300BIB propoied "Tba 
Oroupien," »nd Mr Jou^T repliad, Mr WiL IlAOKlT proposed tha Seoreturj, Mr Wm. 
Mackaniix, who, he lud, eoudmotfld ths ooik of the Suoietj U ■ manner lo effioiaaC and 
admirable u to make it impouible to OTei>eilimite hii isrvioea. 

9ir KiMffiTH HaoksmxU of Oairluoh, Bart., who woa ruoslred *ith load applaiua, 
•nlii and tstaa rmewod, prapOMd tbe heoltti o[ Ihe Ohairmaa. (Obeeri.) Oaa of tha 
■drantagan cblob he (Sit KiBiialli) had eiparienced hj bving preaeat at this laaeUDK 
wu Ihat he had baea enablsd to farm tha aoquaiDCaDoa oE He Uudoaald of Skaaboit, 
wbom, it wu, indeed, a Tsr; Kraat pleuure to know, and lo have a* Obief of thii Sooiatf . 
(l.i>pUuaa.) Ua had been luag knOHa aaaciazoaLleDt Higblaad gantlamaa, &ad a moat 
lnduUvnt landlord ; and in an age when the neeaiHitiei uf tba manj ara aomatimaa 
aaarlSoed to the pleaiarea of tba tew — in an age whan game oo Highland propertiea 
freqnantlf aainmad a greater importanoe, oonaidering the popolatioa, than it ought to 
aiaauie — there waa nothing of nia kind (« be fonnd on Hr Uaodonald'i property in 
Skja, (Oheera.) 

Tba CbaibicaK liriefly replied, gare "Good tfigbt," and tbe meeting separated. 
Uaello and Bnglub louga were inng in the oonna of the evening by Heun Frai 



BOOES, &a, KKOBITED.— " TrHOBaDtioaa of tha OaelJo Sodety of Inrerneea," 
ToL TiU. ; Iniah Fraa Hebrew intU Soottii," by the Bsv. P. Hstely Waddell, LL.D. ; 
" Haokay'i Begiineilt," lir John Maokay of Benreay ; ani " Bonaie Prinoe Oharlie," m 



OTTK AGENTS IN CANADA.— The Oettie Uaffatine may be ordemt troa any of 
la foBowing agenta (or dirtot from thia Offioa)— Fbbb bt Post, tl.TG par annnni :— 
IH ONTASIO. 
ToHOaiO — The Toronto Newi Oompany— aappliu the trade, 

Janaa Bain k Son, bookaellera, 10 King Street, Eart. 
QniLFH— Mr Day, bookaeller. 
WoODBIOOK'-Mr Ollbari AnderMD, bookaaller, 
LoHDOM-rMr John Milli, bookaeller. 
LuaXHOW— Bi UaoOriBtnan, 
WOODTILLB— Ur Dnnoan Cavptiell, Foit OOoe. 
KnOABDinm— Hr Jo^n Horriaon. 

m NOVA SOOTIA. 
BaUTAZ— Mr Wm. Uaokeniie at Maura H'llrdith h Co., EoUii Stnak. 
Niw Olasoow— Mt Jamea Logan, Saiteni Okrmiclt OfflM. 
PtOTOU^Ur Jamaa Haelean, bookaaller, 
AiniQOHiBH— Mr Bo/d, editor of the Ocuitt. 
8t Amsbxws (Antlgoniih)— Mr Jamea Ohiabolm, Olenroy. 
Hawkbedby [Oapa Bralon)— Cogawall Brothan, Bmeon OBm. 
BniintT (Ditto)— Hr John A. Uaokenai*, bookitllar. 
NoKH SrDKBT (Ditto)— Hr Kenneth R, Uackenaie, grooer, ^ 
IN NEW YORK. 
Heaan ilubertaan, fiMCtoMn OJUo*, 12 Baruliy StMab 



jb,G00(^lc 



Celtic Magazine. 



MARCH, 1880. 



HISTOBT OF THE MACD0NALD8, 

THE L0BD8 OF THE ISLES. 
Bt the Editor. 



Yin. Donald, sboond Lord of thd Iblbb, better known in history as 
"Donald of Harkw," was, as stated in our last, tlie eldest son by 
his father's second marriage; but he became feudal superior of the 
children by the £ist marriage, in the manner already described, This 
chief possessed no small share of his father's spirit He was a man of 
distinguished abUity, and, though bo closely coonected with the throne, he 
teBolved to gain, if possible, complete independence, like his ancestors, for 
the Island kingdom ; and the more easily to gain his purpose he entered 
into an alliance with the English against bis own countiy and Mng, a 
proceeding which can only be justified on the plea that he considered 
himself an independent Priiice, owing no allegiance to the Scottish king for 
the lands hitherto held by the race of Somerled in the north-west H^hlands 
and Isles. This position is, however, clearly untenable, for in point of fact 
he only possessed his lands, as the eldest son of the second mamage, by 
a charter from the crown, in the absence of which they would have gone 
to the children of the first marriage, who only could, on that plaa, claim to 
be independent sovereigns. Be that as it may, it is an nndispoted fact 
that the second Lord of the Isles is found, in the year 1388, shortly after 
the death of his father, negotiating with Kichard II. of Ei^land on the 
footing of an independent Prince. Twelve years later we find him visit- 
ing England under a safe-conduct granted in his favour by Henry IV., 
dated 2d June 1400 ; and treaties exist entered into between them, 
dflted respectively 1405 and 1408. By the first, dated Jane 2d, 
Donald de Inaulis, and John, his brother, are allowed to come into Eng- 
land with 100 horse; while on the 16th September 1400, Henry IV. 
issued a commission for treating with Donald de Insulis, Chevalier, and 
John, his brother, concerning final peace, alUance, and friendship bo- 
tween his M^esty and them. The same thing is repeated under date of 
8thofMayl40d. 

A few years later Dontdd of the Isles raised the flag of rebellion, and 



yik 



ITO THE CELnC MAGAZETE. 

conducted Imtuelf in a manner, and exhibited a power and capacity, which 
shook the throne and the government ahnoat to their very foundations. 
He had married Lady Ifcry Leslie, only daughter of the Countess of 
Boss. Alexander, Earl of Boss, . het only brother, married Isabella 
Stewart, daughter of the Begent, Robert Duke of Albany, by which 
union he had an only child. Lady Euphemia, who became a nun, and 
resigned all her estates and dignities in favour of her grandlather and her 
uncle, John, Earl of Buchau, second sou of the Duke of Albany, and his 
heirs male, and whom failing, to return to the Crown, thus cutting off 
Lady Margaret, wife of Donald, second Lord of the lelee, who was the 
heir general Skene informs us that Euphemia, on taking the veil, com- 
mitted the government of her earldom to the Governor, when Donald 
saw that if Albany was permitted in this manner to retain actual poesea- 
sion of the Earldom, he would 1)e unaUe to recover his vast inkeritance 
in right of his wife irom so crafty a nobleman. He accordingly proceeded 
to obtain possession of the Earldom, contending that Euphemia, by taking 
the veil, had become, in a legal point of view, dead'; and that the Earl- 
dom helcuged to him in right of his wife. His demand that he should 
on these grounds he put in possession of it was opposed by the Governor, 
whose principal object appears to have been to prevent the accession of so 
vast a district as the Earldom of Boas to the extensive territories of the 
Lord of the Isles, already too powerful to be kept in check by the Oo- 
vemment. His conduct was actuated more by the principlea of expe- 
diency than by those of simple justice — ^by what would most conduce to 
the security of Government than whether the claims of the Lord of the 
Isles were in themselves just or not Donald was not the man, however, 
who would patiently brook such an unjust denial of his rights ; and no 
sooner did he receive an unfavourable denid of his demands than he col- 
lected all the forces he could command, amounting to about ten thonsuid 
men, and with them he invaded the Earldom, He appears to have met 
with DO resistance from the people of Boss; and he very soon obtained 
possession of the district ; but on his arrival at Dingwall he was met by 
Angus Dubh Mackay, in command of a large body of men from Suther- 
land, who, after a fi^e attack, were completely routed by the Lord of 
&elsles;andtheirleader, Angus Dubh, was taken prisoner. "Donald was 
now in complete possession of the Earldom, but hia Bubsequent proceed- 
ings showed that the nominal object of his expedition was but a cover to 
ulterior designs; for, leaving the district of Boss, he awept through 
M-ony, and penetrated into Aberdeenahire, at the head of his whole army. 
Here he was met at the vill^e of Harhiw by the Earl of Mar, at the head 
of BA inferior army in point of nnmbera, but composed of Lowland gentle- 
men, who were better armed and better disciplined than the Highland 
followers of Donald, It was on the 24th ot July 1411 that the cele- 
brated battle of Harlaw was fought, upon the issue of which seemed to 
depend the question of whether the Gaelic or Teutonic part of the popa- 
latioQ of Scothmd were in foture to have the supremacy. Of the battle 
the result was doubtful, as both parties claimed the victory ; but in the 
OBSB of the Highlanders, the absence of decided victory was equivalent 
to defeat in its effects, and Donald was in consequence obliged to retreat. 
The check which had been given to the Highland army was immediately 
foOwnd by the Duke of Albany ot^aoti&g additional forces tnd mai^* 

,. :, Cookie ■ 



HISTORY OF THE MAODONALDS. 171 

ing in peison to DingwalL Bat Donald aTolded Iiazaidmg another en* 
counter, and returned with hia forces to the Islea, where he lemained all 
winter, wiule Albany rapidly made himself master of the Earldom of 
Etwa."* 

Giegoif says that the whole anaj of the Lordship of the Isles fol- 
lowed Donald of Harlaw on that occasion, and that conseqaently he was 
nut weakened by any opposition such as might be expected on the part 
of his elder bcotheis oi his descendants, though Banald, " the youngest 
hat most farouied son of the first marriage of the good John, was, as the 
seanuacMea tell us, ' oldiu the goTemment of the Isles, at his Other's death;' " 
and though he aJso acted as tutor or guardian to his younger brother 
Donald, Lord of the Isles, to whom, on attaining his majority, he de- 
livered over the Lordship, in the presence of the vassals, " contrary to the 
opinion of the men of the Isles," who doubtless considered Godfrey, the 
eldest son of the first maniage, as their proper lord. If the opinion of 
the Islanders was at first in favour of God&ey, the liberality and other ' 
distinguished characteristics of Donald seem in a very short time to hare 
reconciled them to hia rule, for " there is no trace after this time of any 
oppoaition among them to Donald or his descendants." And " as the 
dmm of ' Donald of Harlaw ' to the Earldom of Koss, in right of his wife, 
was after his death virtually admitted by King James L, and as Donald 
himself was actually in possession of that Earldom and acknowledged by 
the vassals in 1411, he may, vrithout impropriety, be called the first Earl 
of Boss of hia family, "t 

Eor a full and graphic account of ttie famous battle of Harlaw, and fbi 
the names of the leading men who fell in it, we refer the reader to pp. 1 22- 
125 Cdiie Magazine, YOL a\. "In the fight," Buchanan says, "there fell 
so many eminent and noble peisonages as acarce ever perished in one 
battle, against a fore^n enemy for many years befora" We extract - 
the following from Hugh Macdonold's MS.: — "This Alexander (Earl 
of Eoss), who was married to the Duke of Albany's daughter, left no 
issue but one daughter, name Eupheme. She being very young, the 
Governor, her grandfather, took her to his own family, and having 
brought her up, they persuaded her by flattery and threats to resign het 
rights of the Earldom of Boss to John, his second son, Earl of Buchan, 
as it waa given ont, and that much against her will. But others were of 
opinion she did not resign her rights ; but thereafter she was bereaved of 
her life, as most men thought, by the contrivance of the Governor. 
Donald, Lord of the Isles, claimed right to the Earldom of Eoss, but 
could get no other hearing from the Governor but lofty menacing answers, 
neither could he get a eight of the rights which Lady Eapheme gave to 
his son John. jQie Governor thought that his own atrength and away 
conid carry everything according to bis pleasure in the kingdom, still hoping 
for the crown, the true heir thereof (James I., nephew to the Duke of 
Albany) being prisoner in England. He likewise was at enmity with the 
Lord of the Isles, because Sir Adam Moor's daughter { was his grandmother, 

* The HI(Uud«n at BtMiai, nl. 11., pp. 71-3. 

t 'Wwtan Hl]th]»nd» and Iilw, pp. 31-3& 
. $,EFha mtbiiE of the " HawSonnaUa ot Antrim" uji, la > fxMDatB, pp. 17-18, r^trd' 
int tfais Imdy, «lw ma (h* nmudnottiBr cf batb tba diimuti tliftt i— Eltubcth Hor* or 
M^, wai a Udy of tbe <n>U-knD«a BomtlUn tuoilf, in ih» puriib ofi Silatuiiaok, het 



i?a THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

knowing full well that he would own the true heir's cause against him. 
The Lord of the Isles told the Governor he would either lose all he had 
01 gun the Earldom of Boss, to which he had such a good title. The Doke 
Kplied — he wished Donald would be so forward as to stick to what he said. 
Donald immediately raised the hest of his men, to the number of 10,000, 
and chose out of them 6600, turning the rest of them to their homes. 
They thought first they would fight near to Inverness ; hut, because the 
Duke and his army came not, Donald's army marched through Murray, 
and over the Spey. The Governor, Alexander Stewart, Earl of Murray, 
and John Stewart, -Earl of Bucban, the Governor's son, havii^ gathered 
an army of 9700 men, desired the Lord of the Isles to stay, and that they 
would meet b'm near Inverness and give him battle ; but he would not 
leave his own men foraging in bis own county of Eoss. Therefore he 
marched forward, resolving to take his hazard near their doors, assuring 
himself of victory. Huntly, who was Macdonald's Mend, sent bim a 
private message, desiring him to commit no hostilities in his country, by 
the way of assuring him, be would not own the Governor's quarrels, and 
wishing Macdonald good success, and desiring him to be of good courage. 
The Lord of the Isles went forward till both armies met at Harlaw, a place 
in Garioch, in the Braes of Bachtm. There came several in the Grovemoi's 
army out of curiosity to see Macdonald and his Highlanders routed, as 
they imagined ; others came to he rewarded by the Governor, as they did 
not expect to see any other king, in all appearance, but be and his offspring ; 
others came through fear of the Duke's great authority. Macdonald set 
his men in order of battle aa follows. He commanded himself the main 
battle, where he kept moat of the Islanders, and with the Macleods, John 
of Harris and Eoderick of the Lewis. He ordered the rest to the wings, 
^e right commanded by Hector Boy Maclean, and the left by Galium 
B^ Mackintosh, who Ihat day received £com Macdonald a right of the 
lands of Glengarry in Lochaber, by way of pleasing him for yielding 

ftA«r, Sir Adaw Hnir, bting the fifth id deaoanl from Darid da Maoie, tha fonndn at 
that homw Mtl; in tlie tbirte«iith cuDtory. Theie had foimerly eiiitad ooailderabl* 
doubt u to tlM reklily of ths marriage bstwMn Robert II. and Eliiabeth Moir, and all 
th* •arliar Souttuh hutoriaai doKii area to Buohanan, auppoged that Mialr naioD had 
aot baui legaliMd bymaitiag*. Ibe author of ths Bitlorii of Jama the Sexth, howatar, 
■f tar quoting from a padigrea at tha Main of Bowallaa, lays that " Bobert, grsat 
Btewaid oE SootUnd, baviag takan away the said Elizabatb, drav to Sir Adams, hor 
lathet, ana initnimeat that he ihoald take her to bii UwfiU wyte, which myttlfkath 
fwne, laid tha ooUeotor [of tha Padigrea, Mr John LarmoBth). ai alio aae teitimouia, 
writtan in Latina by Bogar H'Adame, priait of oar Ladie Harie'a ChagptlL" A charter 
mntad by Bobait II., in 1361, proies that Elizabeth Hair wai tha .^if wife of tbaC 
King, and rafen to a dupaniatiaa graatad by ths Popa for the marriage. Thia charter 
<ru publiahsd in 16M, by one Mr l^wis iDtisi, Prinoipal of the Scoti' Oollsge at Padl. 
Tba diipeoaatiOB fioni Borne referred to in the charter of 1364. wai long aonght for 
after tha ladv'i death, and was not fonnd nntil tha year 1TS9, wh»n it, and a diapenai- 
tloD for iha EiDg'i luarrlaga with Unphemia Kosa, bia Isat wife, were diaoovered ta- 
nther. There aziata alan anotbar obarter, by David II., " to Bobert. graat 3teiirard of 
Oootland, of the land* of Kintyra ; and to John Stavart hli son, gotten bvtviit him and 
Blitabeth Hoora, daoghtar of Adam Mora, knight, and faiLuing of faim, to Walter, hia 
■eeand brother." Bliiabeth Mnir ia aaid to have been a very beaatifnl woman, and to 
ka*e aaptiTated tba Hi^ Steward danng the nnqniet timea of Edward Baliol, wbas the 
fonsar wa« often obliged to aeek safety in canoealraent. It ii aupputed that Dnndonald 
Caitle wta the " aoaue of King Uobert'a early altaotamect and ntptiala with the fair 



Uaitle wta the aoaue of King Bobert a early altaotameut and ntptiala with the fair 
Bliiabeth." From thi* union are deaoendad, through their daughter, Margaret Stewart, 
tba Maodoonella of Antrim ; and throngb their sona, not only the raoa of our Britiah 
■oreteifna, but alio of aareral orownad heada in Europe. For an aaoonnt of the Mii'~~ 
ii BomUaa, ••• Pstenon'i J'oruAai (md FamHia of Aj/rtliin, toI. U., ppi 1S2-1M. 

I. :,,-.h, Google 



HISTOET OF THE MACD0NALD8. ITS 

the right wing to Maclean, and to prevent any qoarrel between him 
and Maclean. Mackintosh said he would take the lands, and maks 
the left behave as well as the right. John More, Donald's brother, 
was placed with a detaclunent of the lightest and nimblest men as a re- 
serve, either to assist the wings or main battle, as occasion required. To 
him was joined Mackenzie and Donald Cameron of Locheill. Alistei 
Carrick was young, and therefore was much against his will set apart, lest 
the whole of the brothers should be hazarded at once. The Eaik of Mai 
and Bucban ordered their men in a main battle and two small fronts ; ths 
right front was commanded by Lords Marishall and Enroll, the left by Sit 
Alexander Ogilvie, Sheriff of Angus. They encounterod one another ; 
their left wing was forced by Maclean, and the party on Macdonald's right 
was forced to give way. There was a great fold for keeping cattle behmd 
them, into which they went, The Earl of Mar was forced to give ground, 
and that wing was quite defeated. Mar and ErroU posted to Aberdera, the 
rest of Macdonald's men followed the chase. There wero killed on ths 
Governor's side 2550. The Lord Marishall was apprehended safe, and 
died in his confinement of mere grief and despair. Sir Alexander C^vy, 
Sheriff of Ai^s, was killed, with seven kn^hts, and several other gentle- 
men. On Macdonald's side Maclean fell ; he and Irvin of Drum fought 
together till the one killed the other. Drum's two brothers, with the 
principal men of that surname, were killed, so that a boy of that name, 
who herded the cattle, succeeded to the estate of Dmm. Two or three 
gentlemen of the name of Munioe wero slain, together with the son of 
Macqaarry of Ulva, and two gentlemen of the name of Cameron, On 
Maadonald's side were lost in dl 180' This battle was fought anno 141 1, 
Macdonald had burnt Aberdeen had not Hnntly dissuaded him from it, 
saying that by his victory, in all appearance, he gained his own, yet it 
was ridiculous in him to destroy the town, and that citizens would always 
join with him who had the upper hand. Kow, to prove these fabnlous 
and partial writers, particularly Buchanan, it is well known to several men 
of judgment and knowledge that Macdonald had the victory there, and 
gained the Earldom of Boss, for four or hve generations thereafter, and 
that Mackintosh, whom they say was killed, lived twenty years thereafl«i, 
and was with the Earl of Mai when Alexander Macdonald, Lord of the 
Isles was captive at Tantallon, in the battle fought at Inverlochy against 
Donald Balloch, Alexander's cousin-german. 'This Donald Ballooh was 
son to John More, brother to Donald of the Isles and Earl of Eoss. Now, 
it happened that this same Callum Begg Mackintosh was with King James 
1. after his releasemeut &om his captivity in England, in the same place 
where the battle was fought. The King asked him how far they followed 
the chase 1 Mackintosh replied that they followed it farther than his 
Majesty thought So the King riding on a pretty pace, asked Mackintoeh 
if they came that length 1 He answering, said, that, in his opinion, there 
was a heap of stones before them, and that he left there a mark to show 
that he followed the chase that length ; and with that he broi^ht a man's 
ann with its gauntlet out of the heap. The King, beholding it, desired 
>iirn to be with him that night at Aberdeen. The Kii^, npon his arrival 
there, going to his lodgings, Mackintosh said, in presence of the bystanders, 
that he had performed his word to the King, and now he would betake 
hiipimlf to bis own lodgings ; whereupon he immediatdy left the town. 



174 THE CELTIC MAGAZmE. 

fbt he dreaded that the King would apprehend him. Ffttiick, Ead of 
TnllibaidiD, eaid, as the othet noblemen, wete talking of ih& battle of 
Harlaw, we know that Macdonald had tiie victaiy, but t?ta Oovemor had 
the printer."* 

Summing up hia description and the consequences of this fiooous engage- 
ment, Burton, who with his ohaiaoterutic hatred of the Highlander, must of 
oonree call the result of this hattle a " defeat " for the Islandeis, says 
— " So ended one of Scotland's most memorable battles. The contest be- 
tween the Lowlandeis and Donald's host was a contest between foes, of 
whom their contemporaries would hava said that their ever being in 
hannouf with each olher, or haTing a feeling of common inteieats and 
common nationality, was not within the range of rational expectations. . . 
It will be difQcuIt to make those not familiar with the tone of feeling in 
Lowland Scotland at that time believe that the defeat of Donald of the 
Isles was felt aa a more memorable delirerance than eren that of Bannock- 
bum." t 

According to the MS. History of the Mackintoshes quoted by Charles 
Fraser-Mackintosh in his " InTemessiaoa": — In this. war Malcolm, or Gal- 
ium B^, Chief of Mackintosh, "lost many of his &iends, particularly James 
Mackintosh (Shaw) of Bothiemurchns," who must have been confused 
with the Chief himself, though, in point of fact, he lived until abont 1467. 
In 1112 the same author finds from "the accounts of the great chamber- 
lain of Scotland" that " payment is made to Lord Alexander, Eorhof Mar, 
for various labours and expenses incurred in the war against the Lord of 
the. Isles for the utility of the wholo kii^dom of £122 7a4d; and also to 
him for the construction of a fortolice at Inverness, for the utility of the 
kingdom, against said Lord of the Isles, £100 ; and for lime to Invemees 
for the construction of said fortalice, and for food and the carriage erf 
wood, £32 10s 3d. In 1414 payment is made to Lord Alexander, Esrl 
of Mar, in consideration of his . divers lahonis and expenses about the 
castle of Inverness, of £52 Us 3d." About the year 1368 Chai^ Mac- 
giUeane, of the ancient house of Maclean of Mull, settled in && neigh- 
bourhood of Lochness, under the protection of Donald, Lord of the la^, 
whose followers the Macleans were. 

Xt haa been generallj supposed that the resignation of the Eaddom of 
Boss by Enphemia the nun in &voui of her grandfather, Bobert, Duke of 
Albany,' was the sole and immediate cause of the battle of Harlaw ; but 
the actual date of the Instrument of resignation is 1415 — four years after 
the famous battle ; and Skene thinks that the securing of the resignation 
of the earldom in his favour at that date was rather on attempt on the part 
of Albany to give a colour of justice to his retention of what he was, by 
the result of the battle of Harlaw, enabled to keep in his posseecion. 
There is no doubt whatever that a cMm on the earldom was the ostensihle 
cause of the invasion by the Lord of the Isles, bat the readiness with 
which, in the followii^ summer, that claim was given up by a treaty oon- 
oluded with the Governor at Fort-Gilp, in Argyleshire — when Donald not 
only gave up the earldom, but agreed to become a vassal of the Crown, and to 
deliver hostages for his ^tore good behaviour, while he might eonly iam 



jb,Googlc 



HI8TC»T OF THE MACDOITAUJS. W5 

kept possession of Boss — clearly indicate that the invasion was but a part 
of a mach more extensiTe scheme for which the claim to the earldom 
served as a very good pretext, and that upon the &ilnre of the more im- 
portant scheme, the claim for the, earldom was, ivith little ado, given np. 
This beoonles the more apparent if we keep in mind the treaty between 
Donald and Henry IV. of Engluid, dated H08, . and above referred to ; 
and that no sooner was the civil war in Scotland concluded than a tmee 
was entered into between England and Scotland for a period of eiz years. 
Gregory is of the same opinion, and says (p. 32) — " After the death of 
John, Lord of the Isles, we discover varions indications of the intrigaee of 
the English Conrt with the Scottish Islandera had been aasamed ; and it is 
not altogether improbable that it was a aosincion of these treasonaUe 
practices which caused the Begent, Bohert of Albany, to oppose the pre- 
tensions of Donald, Lord of the Isles, to the Earldom of Boss. But 
although English emissaries were on varions occasions dispatched, not only 
to the Lord of the Islea himself, but to his brothers Godfi^y and John— ■ 
and two of the brothers even appear to have visited the English Court — 
we cannot, at this distance of time, ascertain how &r these intrigues were 
carried." The fatal policy of taking part with England instead of Scot- 
land in the quarrels of those kingdoms was continued by Donald's sucees- 
Bois until the power of the Lord of the Islee was finally broken up ; and, 
as will be seen in tb& sequel, his grandson, by this unpatriotic means, 
broi^ht on the down&ll of Ms house sooner than it would otherwise have 
come to pass. 

Donfdd of Harlaw, second Lord of the Isles, married Lady Mary 
Leslie (daughter of Sir Walter Leslie, by Euphemia, Countess of Boss, in 
&vour of whose marrlE^ there is a di^ensation dat«d 1967), who became 
Countess of Boss when her neice rested the earldom and became a nun. 
By this marriage the Lord of the Islea had issue — 

1. ^^exaTi^er, who succeeded him asLordof the.IslesandEarlof Bosfc 

2. Angus, Biahop of the Isles. 

3. Mariot, who married Alexander Sutherland, and to whom "her 
brother Alexander, in 1429, gave the knda of Duchall to her ^d ha 
husband, Alexander Sutherland, as appears from the grant of 'theaamain 
the possession of Sinclair of Boslin."* 

He died, according to Findon'sgeneali^y, iu 1433; to Gregory, "oiioa 
1420" ; while Hugh Maodonald, the SeannsAhaidh, though not mentioning 
the year of his death, informs us that he "diedat Aidhorinish, inMorvum, 
in the forty-fifth year of his age, and was buried at Icolmkill, after the 
rites and ceremonies of his predecessors." He was succeeded in the Lord- 
ship of the Isles, and a few years later in the Earldom of Boss, by his 
eldest son. 

(To be Contimied.) 



* D*B^'i Wood's F««nga. 



ii,Goo(^lc 



THE CELTIC If AQAZmE. 



D E R M N D. 
A Tali of Ekiohtlt Deedb Dotrn itr Old Dats. 

BOOK I.— "AHONO THE ISLES OF THB 'WEBTEBN SEA." 

Chaptkb VI. 
OopU li ft kuTiih lid. -Pvdt. 
Soke nine leagued from DtmoUy, between two langos of bairea monn- 
buns, lies the Yale of Hassendean, deriving its name &om a tawny 
ooloured lirook, which, aft» descending rapidly fioia the aomhre and 
lofty heights of Ben Aidoch, puiaues its babliling coune amidst a pro- 
fosion of hazel bushea, patches of green pasture land, and groves of thickly 
foliaged trees. In the basin, formed hy the circuit of hills at the mouth 
of this romantic vale, the gurgling rividet empties ita waters into a small 
but almost bottomless lo^ which at noonday bnlliantly reflects the 
radiance of the sun, and at midnight is black with the shadows of the 
auirounding mountains. 

Looking out &>m the clnstei' of beech and pine trees on the hill-slopa 
running fdong the southern bank of the stream, the crumbling ruins of a 
solitary dwelling, with chapel adjoining, might attract the attention of a 
curious traveller. History informs as that this rustic habitation belonged 
to a rollicking friar generally known in the diatrict as "Grood Father 
Dominick." He was originally a devotee of St Francis, but latterly be- 
came an adherent of one of the more privileged sects which sprung from 
the Franciscan order and became so numerous in the early part of the 
foarteenth century. Far from being a specimen of the ascetic hermit 
with sallow cheeks, sunken eyes, lank hair, and emaciated body, he had 
a jolly, red face, laughing eyes, a shapely nose, and strongly developed 
limba, as well as a good round belly. His physical oharacteriaticB were 
probably the result of confinement in youth when possessed of a sanguine 
temperament and lusty constltntion, and better fitted for a soldier than a 
moi^ ; yet some irreverently hinted that he was rather fond of a hannoh 
t^ veniaon, a flowing goblet, and a buzom wench. I^wqnently a visitor 
to the strongholds of the Isles, rumour would assert that John of Lorn, 
who was continually receiving his ghostly att^ntiona, was a bigger sinner 
than the rest of the cMeftaina. Others persist in maintaining that the 
secret of Father Dominick's devotbn to the service of Lorn consisted in 
the fact that the penitents were the fairest and most libeiuL in their con- 
tributions, the wine the strongest, and the good cheer the most plentiful. 
Without attaching any importance to vulgar gossip and popular scandal, 
however, our opinion is Ibat Father Dominick was a jolly, pious, and 
kind-hearted mortal, whose easy conscience and abundance of good humour 
accounted for his fidl lace and round belly. The sterna adliarents to the 
order of St Francis, residii^ in the island solitude of the monastery of 
lona, finding their revenues carefully collected, and the penitents within 
their jurisdiction duly shriven by a Umdlmiping adventurer, exerted the 
influence of their cburchly power for Father Dominick's excommunication 
and expulsion &om the Wastem Isles. In tfaia they failed, however, vod 



jb,GoO(^lc 



DEEMOND. ■ 177 

tbe ministxatioiiB of the merry fiiar were welcomed more heartily than 
those of his more ascetic biethreo. The chapel waa of aa ordinary, lade 
coDstmction, being totally deficient in omamerLt of any hind, but the 
letica vrhicli Treie sheltered within its hallowed welUs, and the virtuea of 
the holy fountain which trickled &om the rooks rising immediately be- 
hind the building, attracted pilgrims from all qnartera. The shrine was 
deroted to the celebrated St FiTlan, who had died in the vicinity about 
the middle of the e^th century, and the luminous ana which, by the 
splendour of its beams, enabled the holy man to tranacribe the Scriptures 
without the aid of candle-light, was carefully preserved by Tather Domi- 
nick in a ailvei casket, and formed part of the decorations of the alt^. 

On no occasion had the eerrices of the jolly friar been so much in 
request as when Lorn was about to set out on his expedition against 
Robert the Bruce, He arrived at Dunolly on the previous day, for the 
purpose of pronouncing a benediction and praying for the success of the 
enterprise. There was one, however, who seemed more in need of his 
holy services than all the bands of Highlanders combined, and Cominiok was 
no time within the precincts of the castle walls when he received a summons 
from His fair Bertha, calling upon him for consultation and advice on a 
matter of immediate interest. Ascending to the small turret-chamber in 
the western wing of the building, he found her impatiently awaiting his 
arrival. Eate, her bower-maiden, a pretty, gossiping wench, had just 
completed the dressing of her mistress's long^ silken locks, and taken her 
needlework in hand when Father Dominick entered. He had the shaven 
crown of his order, but his feet were enclosed in leathern sandals, being 
a grade more luxurious than the strict Franciscans who went bare-foot 
He was dressed in the usual woollen frock with scoui^a and band attached, 
and as he crossed the threshold of the damsel's chamber, a smile of latent 
homonr could not help mingling with the serious lines of his features, 

" Fox Yobiscum !" he said, with his customary salutation. 

" Amen !" said Bertlia. 

" Ton are well, I hope," said Dominick, 

" Wellt — yes," with some hesitation. 

" Nay, I swear you are ill Jesu Maria, how pale and lack-lustre you 
look. My fair dame. 111 warrant the gallant baa jilted you, and in yonr 
grief you wish to become a daughter of the Church." 

" Way," interposed Bertha. 

But the good friar was not to be outdone when an idea struck him. 

" The objects of our earthly desires," he continued, " are as evanescent 
as the mirage of the barren desert, the offspring of a heated fancy, or the 
delusions of the doviL Happy are they whose thoughts turn Heaven- 
ward — feom the corruptible to the incorruptible, from the temporal to the 
eternal 

" £fay, good father," said Bertha, intermpting him, " you misconstrue 
me entirely." 

" Heaven forbid that I should be so uncharitable." 

" Ton know my father. Sir David." 

" My blessing on him. I do, sweet maid." 

" I am anxious for his safety. He has got entangled in this rebellion, 
and Sir Quilbert informs me he has joined the ranks of the sacrilegious 
lientic." 



jb,GoO(^lc 



178 THE CnpLUC MAGAZmE. 

" Jesa Maria I" mi the friar, looking npTrftrds and cigBKUOg himaeK 
*' An abettor of the lehel Brace T 

" He is. To-moiraw my uncle goes against him. There will be a 
great battle, and my fether may be slain, I know he will be in the front 
Tanka, for he is brave and fearless. Bruce is a gallant knight, bnt his 
lova of adTCnture and a hopelasB cause, will imperil the lives of many 
dauntless men. Moreover, if my uncle learna of my father's escapade, Iw 
may'retain me as a hostage. For the matter of that, I am a prisons 
already, and all my moTementa are religiously observed and reported on. 
Ton will have learned all about the scene in the feasting hall where 
yonng Dermond of Dunkerlyne wounded the great Macnab in a sword to 
Bword encounter. My conduct on that occasion has called forth the ut- 
most displeasure, and even cousin Kora is threatened by .her father with 
Confinement if she does not leave off thinking about the son of the brave 
old viking. Dermond, as yon know, was thrown into prison. Tliank 
God, he has since been liberated. My uncle ia growing, most crael and 
tyrannical He ordered me to he thrown into a dui^eon as well, but 
^ora would not let him. I determined on going to my father's castle 
where I might be happier, but uncle refuses to give me a sufficient retinue 
for the journey. I want to tell my father of Lom's tjTanny, to warn 
him against risking his life in a mad enterprise, to exhort him to forsake 
the standard of the rebels, and to entreat faim to come and save me from 
the clutches of Joim of Lorn," 

" Ay," said the friar thoughtfully. " Ton have really aet for yourself 
an extraordinary task. What if your uncle discover the plot ) K he 
intercepts the letter, what become of the fair Bertha, her docile emissuy, 
and her treasonable amanuensis 1" 

" Trust me," said Bertha eagerly, " the letter cannot miscarry. Writs 
it, and aU vriJl be weU." 

" Ha 1 ha I A gallant in the case 1" exclaimed the friar. " "Hb e'en 
as I thought. This is the key to all your rashness," 

" Why, good father, you jest now. Do you wish me to swear for the 
faithfulness of the intended bearer f 

" WeU, well, be it so ; but burden not yoni soul with vows for the 
conduct of a gay young chieftain," 

"Keither, good father, be so uncharitable aa tow to the contrary, or 
raise doubts regarding the honour of a man you know naught oi," said 
Bertha pouting. 

" Now, by St Frauds," replied the friar, " if I were young and a 
soldier, as I ought to have been, I'd go break the noddle of my audacioua 
rival But Heaven forgive the thon^L Lend ma the pen and paich- 
ment." ' 

The merry friar soon wrote to the dictation of his fair confident, not, 
however, without a sigh, as he had a soft heart and could not help admir- 
ing her course. Having finished the letter, he gave it to her with his 
blessing, resolving to pray for ite safety, and urging the maiden not to 
be too precipitate in her confidences. 

" St Francis speed the bearer," be said, " or I would not give a goose- 
qnill for the security of hia neck, or the living of the poor friar." 

Ae he made to leave with a halting step. Bertha called him back, and 
a tear glistened in her dark blue ey& She then signed to h^ attendant 



jb,GoO(^lc 



DERMOND. ,179 

to approtich, and as Eate threw aside bei ceedlevotk and oame tripping 
np,' die said,' "'See that Olave ia faithful" "Fear him hot^ dear- ma- 
dame," waa Kate's leply, and here ahe would have launched forth a 
YOlomB of aaBOTancBB, but Bertha interrupted — " Few words and &itbfnl 
deeds are all we want, sweet Kate. We can speak ^terwarda ; mean- 
while be waiy ; hat how can you pass tho small 'courtyard and the 
southern porch r 

"Duncan keeps watch at the porch," said Kate, "and I have served 
him with BS much ale as will keep him sleeping for an hour yet. Aa for 
the oourtyahl I can manage it with ease." 

And off she went witli the letter carefully secured in her bosom. As 
soon as she had gone. Bertha called Dominick to take a seat beside her, 
and, during the interval of Kate's absence, she requested him to tell her 
bU about the life of the old pirate And Cyril of Bathhind. The friar 
eagerly complied, and gave her a foil history of the origin of the keep of 
Dunkeilyne, and the vioissitudes of the singular race who had made it 
their abode. 

Meanwhile Kate was accompliahing the behest of her mistress. At 
the foot of the spiral staircase she easily passed an adherent of the house 
of MAcneill, who had come &om Loch Awe in the retinue of Sir Bavid's 
daughter. Traversing tho long, gloomy corridor leading to the Boothem 
wing, she had almost gained the porch overlooking the back courtyard, 
when a half-dronken porter sprung &om his retreat, and clasping her in 
his arms said; " Hold, my pretty wench. No passage this way. You 
must have heard the nightbell tolL" " Peace with you, Duncan," she 
rejdied, aeisang him firmly by the beard. " Let me go, or 111 pull the 
b^ud off your faca I carry a message from my lady Bertha to the 
southern battlements." " !Not till the< nigbt-bell toll again," he replied, 
ViaHing her as she escaped blushing from hia arms, and adjusting, Jier 
head-gear, As the sentinel who watched in the courtyard ^t4i2«rSd his 
hack, she tripped nimbly across, and gained admittance to £& unoccupied 
guard-house communicating with the southern battlements, hut as she ap- 
proCiched the fer-end of the corridor she found the door securely fastened 
with lock and chain. Kot tobe outdone she untied her neckerchief and 
let It 3ntter through the 'elongated shot-hole that flanked the door-way. 
For a lime the euperstitioua Norseman who paced the platform outeide, 
avtHded the mysterious apparition which disturbed his nightrwatch. 
Tuining his eyes away he tried hard to convince liimself that it was no- 
thing. He luui prol»ib1y taken too much ale. As the strange object 
continued to fiuttec in the sea-breeze he involuntarily crossed himael^ and 
repeated a pafer^ostcTi Seeing it linger he gathered up courage, and 
drawing hia sword, shouted, " By the soul of Odin and all the saints in 
Talhalla, I conjure you what would ye wilJi me f Kate seeing his 
embarrasament enjoyed the situation, and udscbievously kept him in sus- 
pense. - 

" Come here, Olave," she at length ventured to say, " I have a mes- 
sage for your mastdr," 

■" Not for me, fi^ Katet" he replied, recogniaing the voice and burst- 
ing into ft fit of kughter. 

"For you too if you can be secret, but you must be silent and not 
al^aa Uie garrison." 



jb,GoO(^lc 



180 THE GELTIO MAGAZINE. 

" Of a, sniety. Tm no rain cozcomb to Wist of a night-inteiTiev 
with a fail maid." 

" Well, I trust you," she whispered. " Tour master, Dormoad, has 



^Thank God for that" 

" But he is almost a prisoner, so far as free intercomse with the rest 
of the chieftaioB ia concerned, and John of Lorn has forbidden bim firom 
speaking with my lady Bertha, She has a letter for him, which ia to he 
delivered safely and secretly to Sir David Macneill, who belongs to the 
ranks of the rebel. She did not know how to get it given to young 
Dermond without being observed, but of course I knew you could do it" 

" I will, sweet Kate, and if Dermond fails to carry it to its destina- 
tion, for your sake 111 undertake the task." 

" The saints will reward you for your devotion to a damsel in distress. 
She, at least, wont forget yon." 

"And will you not remember me likewise T 

" Well, well, both of you be good and faithful knights. Tis a feat 
of chivalry worthy of two such gallants." 

" Kow, let's seal the contract," said he, grasping the little hand that 
thrust the letter through, "May the foul hond brain the knave who 
locked this gate and built this wall between us." 

He raised the little hand passionately to his lips, and bade farewell. 

" Be hrave and faithful in the battle to-morrow, and keep yonr head 
with a strong hand," said Kate, as she drew her hand away, and, taming 
on hei heel, soon reached hei lady's chamber to tell her of her success. 

Chapteb TU. 
All d&y long the notmtidii) tbrilled with loaEili of wai.~Anoa. 
At gie7 dawn the men-at-arma were marshalled along the beach. In 
regular order each chieftain took possession of his galley, and a hnndred 
and seventy vessels spread canvas to the wind. About forty years had 
elapsed since the Norsemen had been driven firom the Western Highlands, 
but traces of their domination could be seen in the arms and annour of 
the Talesmen, whose well-appointed accoutrements contrasted strongly 
with the primitive dress and weapons of the men of the int^or. The 
deck of Lom's leading galley shone brilliantly with steel-clad warriors, 
the flower of Western cMvalr^. Bright in his ghtterii^ hauberk, among 
the chieftains more closely allied to Dunolly, was the noble Dermond. 
He stood leaning on his battle-axo, while his long sword hung from his 
chastely embroidered girdle. His plaid was bound across his breast, and 
secured with a finely ornamented silver clasp, while his broad and burn- 
ished shield hang on his well-formed shoulders. Though tall and manly 
in figuie, his countenance was feminine and youthful, with the down of 
approaching manhood shading his ruddy cheek. His glossy raven locks 
curled on a shapely head, and escaped Irom beneath bis shining helmet in 
graceful wavelets. The towers of Dunolly were crowded with spectators, 
and few commanded more attention among the fair ones of the West than 
the gallant young chief of Dunkerlyn& Bertha looked anxiously from 
the seaward window of her turret-chamber, and although no one else could 
have distinguished her, Dermond did not fkil to nuu'k her out &>m 



DEBMOM). 181 

atnongat tte bevy of TjeantiBB who crowded oveiy co^ of Tantage, and he 
otdeied his penaon to be lowered in token of hia fealty to hei behest, 
Olave had that morning safely delivered the packet for Sir David Mac- 
neill into Dermond's keeping, and the youth had sworn a knightly oath 
upon his swotd to carry out ttie wish of hia nuatreaa or die in the endeavour. 

The course was northwards for a time and then eastwards, the head 
of Loch Etive being reached before midday. Here a disembarkation 
took place, and scouts were sent oat to ascertain the nnmbers, position, 
and whereabouts of the enemy. The afternoon was not far gone when 
the whole line was set in motion. The dark wilds of Glenorchy were 
penetrated, and the host of Ijom made for the ru^ed Grampians. On 
the vanguard reaching the tops of the lower ridges the little army of 
Bruce was descried, compactly arrayed in the plain beneath. The num- 
bers appeared to be about five hundred, consisting, for the most part, of 
light-armed cavalry, but commanded by several of the sternest and most 
desperate characters of the time. The large number of ladies who bad 
taken refuge in the Bruce's camp occupied a position with the baggage in 
the rear, protected by a very inadequate guard of squiies and jackmen. 
Brace himself, notwithstanding his resolution to fight in the front, had 
been prevailed upon to take up a position in the centre for the purpose 
of securing his person from the vengeance of the Highlanders. 

As both parties came in sight ot each other savage and clamorous 
ahouts resounded gainst the rocks and clifis. The Islesmen, heaving 
aloft their ponderous battle-axes, and raising their fearful " slogan," rushed 
down the mountain slopes, some of them in their martial determination 
tumbling over the stones and brushwood which blocked their passage, and 
sending lai^ pieces of loch bounding into the plain beneath. As they 
gained the valley the gallant knights of Bruce charged " the undiaeiplined 
rabble," as a historian caUs them, driving the Highlanders back into the 
glens and recesses of the Grampians. Dermond following on the van- 
guard with his small body of followers in fine order, advanced cautiously 
on the enemy as they were engaged in punning the first portion of the 
host of Lorn, and, hy a series of skilful manceuvies, succeeded in breaking 
the line of cavalry and unseating a number of the horsemen. At this 
time an incident occurred which gave rise to a considerable amount of 
remark on both sides. The horse of the Sing, either by accident or at 
the instigation of the rider, rushed frantically into the midst of the melee, 
and Bruce, who had singled out Dermond as the object of his attack, was 
on the point of engaging in single combat, when he was surrounded by a 
nomher of his followers and driven back into a place of safety. The 
Scottish knights continued to fight with great valour, and reinforcements 
of Islesioen kept cha:^g down the hillsides, but were as often repulsed 
and compelled to take lefuge in their mountain retreats. Hopes of a 
complete victory now filled the minds of the Sassenach forces, but the 
appearance of the main body of Loin's army on the heights discouraged 
the foUowera of Bruce, who had already been sorely pressed, and gave 
renewed confidence to the defeated masses who, dislodging themselves 
from their mountain retreats, raised a triumphant shout, and closed again 
in terrible and bloody conflict. Again they were driven back, and Der- 
mond, who was in the &ont of the battle, had already sustained a slight 
flesh wound, which, however, did not interfere with ms fighting powos. 



C^ooglc 



182 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

The main host ponring through the gorgee and moimtdn slopes atdentlr 
assailed the Eing'a army in front and dank, aod even threatened to cany 
the rear. The sJai^tei now hecame most feaifuL The shoute of the 
victors, and the groans of the vanquished, re-echoed among the mountains., . 
Kn^hts vere seen mth startled hotses, mad with wounds, careering 
wilcUy across the phdn. The Isleamen were rushing boldly into the 
thickest of the fight, hewing about with their long Lochaber axes, and 
brii^ing down hotsee and men. Dermond'a axe had heun cat from hia 
grasp as he attempted to engage Sir James Douglas, who was instantly 
unseated by Olave, who never left the side of his young chief. Douglas 
sprang to his feet, and crossed swords with Dermond, but weak with 
wounds and stunned with his fall, he immediately succumbed, and was 
borne senseless to the rear. The battle now raged fiercely and disorderly 
along the whole line, the Lord of Colonsay, and the Chieftaios of Dun- 
T^an, Duart, and 8kye, fighting bravely in spite of their numerous 
wounds. Lom had already engaged the redoubtable Eliikpatrick in a 
hand to hand contest, fcom which neither of the combatants seemed to 
suffer much. Sir Gnilbert de la Hay, who had been pulled from his 
horse by the crook of a Lochaber axe characteristically wielded by a stal- 
wart Highlander, kept fighting bravely on foot with sword in hmid until 
he was strack down by the hand of Macnab, Bruce, who had been kept 
&onL mingling too much in the battle, now discarded every remonstrance, 
and collecting the remnant of his bravest followers in a body, he resolved 
upon a final and desperate charge.. Heading the attack he rushed into 
the midst of the Islesmen, de^ng destruction to all who came within 
the sweep of Ms weapon. His huge aword was seen flashing constantly 
in the sunlight, and sending forth gleams of fire, while bis sttdwart figure 
rose in stately strength above all surrounding him. Several of the chief- 
tains essayed to engage the King, but they were borne back by the 
knights who protected him in his deadly course. Dermond, et^er to die- 
tii^uish himself by a deed of chivalrous daring, rushed forward, but 
failed to pierce the mass of devoted knights who defended the King, and 
he waa almost borne down by a shower of blows which only a keenly 
tempered hanberk and helmet could have resisted. The whole host 6£ 
■ Lore yielded and swayed in face of the ohaige, and had the King been 
possessed of another force to follow it up, the Mesmen might have been 
put to total rout, but recovering &om the shock they surrounded the 
handful of warriors, and after considerable slaughter oompeUed the Bruce 
and his followers to retreat The scene now assumed an aspect of the 
utmoat disorder, and the sun sinking behind the distant mountains gave 
a deeper tinge of red to the brooklets. The turf was torn, and gutted 
with crimson pools where wounded and dying men lay weltering in their 
blood. There was something like panic in the rear, where a strong body 
of Highlanders, led by the English envoy. Sir Guilbert de Yalancymer, 
were advancing. For a moment it seemed aa if the Bruce and lus fol- 
lowers were about to be encompassed and slain, if not captured by the 
eager and numerous host of Lorn. Eealizing his peril the King oat ioB 
way through a body of men who intervened between him and the rear, 
and arrived in time to repulse Sir Gnilbert de Yalancymer, who oast iaa 
glove in the teeth of the fiantio King, and promised at a fiitnre time to 
retrieve his honour. 

(lo be Oostimud.) ^ . 

r,o,i„-,-,ih,.CoO(^lc 



THE EDITOB IN CANADA. 



Whilb la the diatrict of Glengarry I paid a Tiait to ComTraU, fourteen 
miles dietaitt, a YiUage of between 3000 and 4000 inhabitants, and the 
Capital of the three cotmties of Glengarry, Dundas, and Stonuont, It is 
situated at the mouth of the Comv^ Canal — juat where it enters the St 
Lawrence, and contains several lai^e milla and factories, including one of 
the lai^ieat woollen factories in Canada, and extensive cotton mill a , Tliere 
are also two newspapers representing the two political parties; one, the 
Jfcporfor, on the ConserratiTe aide, edited by an exceedingly genial and 
courteous Highlander named Macfarlane, while the Freeholder, on the 
Liberal side, is owned and conducted by H. Sansfleld Macdonald, son of 
the late PiomieT of Canada, and one of the firm of Macdonald & Mac- 
lennan, barristers, the other member being a brother of A. B. Maclennan, 
Glen-Gordon, Glengarry, originally from Kintail. Macdonald I found at 
first somewhat distant and leserred, looking at me exactly as if he thought 
I was going to ask him to lend me a thousand dollars ; bat having told him 
that I wanted a Uttle printing done, for which I suggested payment in 
advance, he became quite pleasant, referred me to his foreman in the 
printing-office, and was condesoending enough to inform me that he took very 
little interest in the paper, and that he only kept it on for his own amuse- 
ment, as lie was perfectly independent of anything it might bring him in 
the way of income, I naturaUy envied his position, and congratulated 
him mentally on his good fortune in having had a father who was able to 
leave him in such happy afduence. I paid his foreman 10s Gd for a small 
printing job that I coidd have got at home, at most, for 4s ; but my 
editorial confrere, originally so unbending, having discovered who I was, 
became in a very few minutea most ^reeably gracious ; and in his paper 
next morning he gave me a most flattering paragraph, so that the printing 
was cheap after aU, Mr Maciarlane, on the other hand, at first refused to 
take anything for an advertisement which I requested him to insert ; hut 
having declined snch favonrs from one whom I never had seen before, he 
finally accepted a dollar for space which in the r^ular way would have cost 
me three times that amount. I was informed that there were some real good 
Celts in Cornwall, and I had introductions to the Eev, Dr Macnish, and 
to Sheriff Macintyre, to the former from the Kev. Donald Masson, M.A., 
M.D.,EdinbuTgh, and to the latter &om another mutual ftiend; but I missed 
them both. I intended to have gone back, but the place haA such a de- 
pressing inflnence upon me that, though I passed it twice a few dayc after, 
I could not muster course enough to pay a second visit to the only part of 
the whole Dominion where I thonght Uie place and people — so far as I 
had seen them, except Mr Mac&rlane — equally flat. For this I am 
most likely to blame, unless it be to some extent attributable to the fact 
that a brutal murderer, who had killed his father and an innocent little 
sister, was lodged in prison in the town, where he was executed a few 
dayd after; and this uataially, perhapE^ induced a ^oomy mental atmo»- 



184 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

ptiore in a tovn when no ozocatioii had taken place for fartiy years bsfoie. 
I also, aa stated in m^ last^ to<^ a mn from Glengaiijr to 

Ottawa, 
the Capital of the Dominion, taking the Grand Tnmk to Prescott^ a 
distance of 68 milee, and from thence by the St Lawrence and Ottawa 
Eailway, aome 54 milee, to the Capital, where I arrired on 25tti of 
October, at 4 f.h., after a run of five hams through a flat and oninter- 
esting country. This short railway of 54 miles actually cnts all that is 
habitable of the vast Dominion of Canada, at this point, right across &om 
south to north, the portion beyond being an endless mountainous and nn- 
reclumable i^on, valuable, however, for ita great forests, the proceeds of 
which find their way to Ottawa by the river of that name and the 
Gatineao. The chaiacter of the conntry here impressed me with the idea 
that Nature never intended North British America to be one vast country 
under one Government ; and that ultimately, as the population increased, 
all below Ottawa and to the east would become one, if not sevaral power- 
ful nations ; while that part of the Dominion to the west and north-west 
would fbim several great nations, each province becoming independent^ 
possessing a Government of its own. 

On my arrival in the Capital I found a gentleman with whom I had 
previous correspondence awaitii^ me at the station. Indeed w«re it not 
for him I would not have gone there at all ; and I am under a debt of 
gratitude to him, which I shall never forget, for inducing me to visit a 
city whicli, if I could only know what I would have lost, I would not 
have passed upon any account. All I knew of h'"i was his name, A. M. 
Burgess, and the position which he held in the Capital of Canada as the 
Official Secretary of the Ministry of the Interior. I soon discovered that 
he was a native of Strathspey, who hod gone out to seek his fortune, like 
most of our' countrymen, his capital consisting solely of perseverance, 
steady habits, and average natural ability. He at once insisted upon lay 
becoming his guest, I soon fovmd myself quite at home, and well enter- 
tained by hie moat intelligent and kindly better-half, whom I discovered 
to be the daughter of a newspaper proprietor ia Portsoy, Baoffihire ; while 
his mother, who only some six or seven years ago left Strathspey to end her 
days with her dutiful son in the Far West, positively delighted me with 
her Invemess-shire Gaelic. Mr Burgess was originfJly on the staff of the 
Olobe as its leading Parliamentary reporter in the Capital, after which be 
started and continued to publish ihe Canadiau Hansard, and eubseqnently 
became the proprietor of tiie Ottawa .fVee Preaa. Ihe latter did not prove 
Buccessfiil ; but being a strenuous supporter of the late Mackenzie Admini- 
stration, Mr Burgess secured the appointment of Private Secretary to the 
Minister of the Interior, and was soon after promoted to the more respon- 
sible and permanent position of Official Secretary to the Department 

In the evening I met Mr Kinloch, Private Secietaiy to Sir John A. 
Macdonald, K.C.B., Premier of Canada, and several other gentlemen con- 
nected with the various Government departments, and with the press j as 
also Mr Eogers, of Eogere & Maclean, Government printers (originally 
itom Dundee), who invited a few friends to meet us at dinner next even- 
ing. I afterwards met his partner Maclean, a native of KulL Th^ fiiLe 
printing establishment is quite abreast of the times, all tho uuMihiiieiy tad 



C>H)glc 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 185 

plant being of the most modern description, yrith the latest impioTements 
introduced into all the departments. Among otheT Highlanders which it 
was my agreeable lot to meet here was Mr Macleod Stewart, a wealthy 
barrister, and a wami-heari«d Celt, descended from the Stewarts of 
Appin ; and Mi Macdougall, Anditoi-Geneial for the Dominion. The 
Mayoi of the city, who is also editor and proprietor of the leading 
Oonsetvative paper, was a Borlnm, oi Holme Mackintosh (I forget 
which), and a near relative of our own popular M,P., Charles Fraaer- 
Mackiiitosh of Dmmmond. Another leading Celt, holding a good position 
in local politics, with whom I had a chat, is Alderman Masson, a native 
of the Black Isle, Eoaa-ahire, and a cousin of the Rev. Dr Maason, of the 
Gaehc Church, Edinburgh. But really the Celt meets you everywhere in 
the Dominion, and the reader who has followed me in these sketchee will 
not be surprised to find him at the very top of the political world of 
Canada. 

The Marqdis op Lornb, heir to the Dukedom of Ai^yll, is Govemor- 
Geneial, while Sir John A. Macdonald, KO.K, anothei; distinguiihed 
Highlander, is Premier of the great Dominion. His Excellency having 
seen by the morning papers that I was the guest of Mr Burgess of the 
Interior Department, on Monday morning, sent several messages to the 
office befoiewearrived there,utimatinghis desire to see meat hia residence, 
Eideau Hall rtwo miles out), and that he would be glad to receive mo from 
twelve o'cloci to two p.m. Juat as wo entered the office his official secre- 
tary, Mr Kidd, came in to make further enquiry, and I at once started, 
aniving there exactly at noon. In a few minutes I was uslieied into the 
presence of vice-Eoyalty. A genuine hearty shake of the hand and a grace- 
ful, easy, unpretentious manner on the part of his Excellency at once 
placed me at perfect ease. All ceremony was set aside, and the Queen's 
son-in-law, the Governor-General of this vast territory, acted and spoke as 
if he were the humblest of her Majesty's subjects. Here was one who 
traces his descent through forty-eight generations to Gonstantine (who 
died early in the fifth century), and in whose veins circulates the blood 
of William the Conqueror and of the Bruce; whose, consort is her 
Majesty's favourite daughter ; and who governs the greatest of our British 
Colonies ; sitting beside you — talking in the simplest manner — in the moat 
gentle tone — ^ without the slightest air of superiority, about his brother High- 
landers athome — those who settled in the Dominion; but especially those 
who left hia own property in Tiri^ i and other parts of Argyleshire, and 
who emigrated and settled down in Canada, aa if he were a mere ordinary 
subject of the Queen. I was never so much struck with the impassable 
gulf that exists, and must continue to exist, between the real gentleman, 
bom and bred, and the snob who prides himself on his mere possession of 
filthy lucre. He talked freely about Canada and its magnificent prospects ; 
the warm reception which the people accorded to bimaelf and to his toyal 
consort on their arrival; and at every place which they had since visited ; 
the advantages of the Dominion as a field for emigration, especially for 
Highlanders, who, he said, he would be glad to welcome there aa Govemoiv 
General of Canada, though as a Highlander he would be very sorry to part 
with them at home. I asked if it was not possible to extend any special 
encouragement to the Highlanders of Scotland such as the Government 
had alrwidy given to the Meimonites and Icelanders t I teceived pretty 

o , 

Cookie 



186 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

nmoh the answer which I expected : That that was entirely a qneation of 
Oovernment policy cairied on by lesponsible ^linisters, and in which he, 
9Ven were he disposed, as the repiesentatiTe of a constitutional Sovereign, 
conM not interfere. He was good enough not only to give me all the in- 
foimation that I asked for, bnt offered me while in Ottawa the use of raluable 
papers and memoranda in connection with emigration which were prepared 
for his own special use, and of which I gladly availed myself. He also offered 
me letters of introduction to the leading men in Canada on either aide 
of politics whom I might wish to see. I took advantage of this kind ofTei 
to some extent ; but I felt that it would not suit me to go about with 
many introductions from his Excellency, or I might be considered a much 
more important personage than I re&lly was, and my object in securing the 
class of information which I wanted might be defeated. I afterwards 
discovered that the honour conferred upon me was a very special one j for 
hundreds, I was told, attempted to secure an interview with his Lordship 
without the slightest chance, in most cases, of obtaining theb object ; 
while I, no doubt more as an humble repiesentative of the teadeis of the 
Oeltio Magaxine than on any personal grounds, had such a high, unex- 
pected, and unsolicited honour forced upon me. I felt that I was occupying 
his valuable time too long, but was toll repeatedly that bo had arranged 
to place himself at my disposal from twelve to two o'clock, during most 
(HT which time our conversation never fl^ged, and I left with a very tiigh 
opinion of our distinguished and exalted countryman. He expressed hjs 
great interest in some of his father's tenants who left Tiiee several years 
ago, and settled down in the districts of Huron and Bruce, where tbey 
are very comfortable, and desired me to pay them a visit if I possibly 
oould. And I r^ret much thai, though I was afterwards very near them, 
tX Kincardine, on Lake Huron, the time at my disposal did not admit of 
my paying the Tiiee Settlement a visit Though myself a Campbell on 
tiie mother side, I never was a great admirer of some of the leading mem- 
bers of the clan, but I must honestly admit that my interview with the 
fiiture MacCailean Mor has very much raised his and my own mother's 
^Ob-h in my estimation. But, as I have already indicated, the Qovemor- 
Qenosl ia not the only Highlander high up the political ladder in Canada 
Hext to bim iu position, and possessing infinitely more power and politi- 
cal inffuence, as in all limited monarchies, comes 

Sib John A. MAODONiLn, K.C.B., Prime Minister of the whcde 
Dominion, a thorough Highlander, bom in the county of Sutherland, on 
the 11th January 1815, shortly after which his father, Hi^ Macdonald, 
emigiated to Canada and settled in Sangston, Ontario, where the son was 
educated at the Boyal Grammar School He studied for the law, was 
called to the bar of TTpper Canada in 1836, and became a Q.C. in 1646, 
by which time he had entered on the political career in which he has 
since w> much distinguished himself. Betuming from my interview with 
Uie Govemor-Oener^ I found a note awaiting me from the Private Secre- 
tary of the Premier, intimating that Sii John wished to see me at ten 
o'clock next morning, at his private residence. I called at the appointed 
time, and was received in the most gracious manner by our distinguished 
countryman, already busy among his despatches, and giving instructions 
to a couple of secretaries. We had a most agreeable couveisation about 
Guutds, emigtation, the Highlandera at home, and his own eztraoidiiiaiy 



DHE EDITOE IN CANADA, 187 

' cuew — the details and prmcipal mcidenta of whicli he at my teqaeat 
agreed to anppl; me with, ao as to enable me to piepaie a sketch of him 
foi my foithcomii^ " Eistoiy of the Mocdonalds. " I at once discovered 
the seciet of his xaarrellous success as a politician — his peculiaily agreeable 
and afiable manner. Six John is a man made to rnle, and he does It, 
compelling even his most bitter opponents to admit that in twisting them 
loond his fingeis, he mystifies them in the most agreeable manner. As a 

' Eighlandei I felt ptond of the position occupied by my brother conntiy- 
itlBa — a position attained without any aiistocratic oi influential con- 
sections, and entirely due to his own native ability. But Sir John Mao- 
donald is not the only humble Highlander who worked himself up -to be 
Premier of Canada. The Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, a native of Logie- 
lait, Perthshire, and oi^insUy a stone mason, only retired &om the 
Premiership less than two years ago ; and apparently it matters not what 
^rty here is In power, a Highlander must occupy the highest place. The 
Itemier mnat in either case be a Macdonald or a Mackenzie, representing 
here on a small scale the strifes and feuds of their respective clfms in the 
past ; with this difTerence, however, that in their ancient contentions the 
Mackenzies managed to get the better of their opponents by political 
shrewdness and far-seeing policy, while these qualities, so necessary to the 
successful politician in Canada as elsewhere, seem to be better understood 
and practised more in modem Canadian pontics by the Macdonalds. 

While in the Capital eight of us had a most agreeable drive for ten 
miles alongside the Biver Oatineau, nntU we almoat touched the &inge of 
the endless wilderness which begins here and ends only at the Worth Pole. I 
extract the following description of the city and of the Houses of Parliament 
fiom one of my own letters to the Aberdeen Fre« Frees, bdieving it will 
prove interesting to the reader : — " Ottawa is a small city, with, in 1S71, a 
population of about 30,000, and that number, during the last few years, 
has been rapidly decreasing — as many, it is said, as 6000 in five years. 
To this niuiber may be added, however, the population of Hull, a town 
on the opposite side of the river, connected by a suspension bridge and 
steam ferry-boat, containing about 10,000, and one or two suburban 
villages, with about a thousand souls each. The only business of import- 
ance carried on in the city and neghbourhood is lumbering, which is a 
great and important industry. There an several large firms, possessing 
very extensive saw-milla It has been computed that for a few years prior 
to 1B71, whan the timber trade was in a prosperous state, over 80,000,000 
eabio feet of timber have been cut down in the forests of Canada ; that 
16,000 men wero employed cutting it in the lotesta; 10,000 men in the 
•aw and planing mills ; and 17,000 sailors employed in 1200 ships, 
Oinying aoross the Atlantic a portion of this huge quantity to the United 
Kingdom; the productions of the forest thus affording employment to 
60,000 men annually. A very laige proportion of this production was in 
the neighbourhood and in the city of Ottawa ; and, even now, when the 
trads is very depressed, you can see thousands upon thousands of piles in 
and about the city waiting for a market which it is dif&:ult for the unin- 
itiated to believe can ever be found for such an enormous quantity. There 
i^ too, a pail fitctory, which turns out over 2000 pails, and 160 waahing 
taba per day ; a match manufactory, the largest in Canada, turning oat 
OTtt 2000 boxes per day, and a few other minor factories. ...(.-• 



188 THE CELTIC MAGAZIKE. 

The snrroaDdmga are on the whole, excepting C.ipe Breton and the Braa - 
D'or Lakes, the finest, and those which leminil one of some of the most 
beaatiful scenes in Scotland, which I have seen as yet on this Continent, 
There are some very respectable hills — ^here called mouutains— an undu- 
lating, partly wooded country; and tlie rivers, though small for Canadian 
rivera, are in comparison to ours magnificent. The Ottawa is navigable 
by lai^e steamers for about 150 miles above Montreal (where it joins the 
St Lawrence) to the city, except for a few miles where they have to pass 
throi^^ a canal to escape the rapids. At Ottawa there is a fine lall 
and some lapids ; hut after you pass these for a few miles by rail, the 
river is again navigable for over 200 miles, rigbt into the centre of the 
country. The Parliamentary buildings, three laige and fine looking blocks 
some distance apart, occupy a most prominent and commanding position 
on an elevated plateau overlooking the river on one side and the city on 
the other. They are seen for many miles before you reach the city, and 
are built on a s(ile of munificence which to the visitor appears most ex- 
travE^ant, except on the assumption that this is, in the future, to be one 
of the greatest countries in the world. The style is Gothic ; but though 
it looks very fine from without, it has the drawback of making the corridors 
and ofhces inside appear dull and badly lighted. Though on a smaller 
scale the buildings look, in consequence of the locality and surroundings, 
even more imposing than those at Westminster. I much prefer, however, 
the arrangements in our own Houses of Parliament — so much more sub- 
stantial and comfortable, and at the same time more sumptuously and 
elegantly furnished, especially in our Upper House, The Supreme Court 
here, however, which is in the building, is a perfect gem of a place, and 
superior for comfort, elegance, and good taste to anything we can show at 
home ; while the Library in quite unique, unhke anything of the kind in 
existence. The latter must be seen ; no description can do it justice. 
The main building, in which the Houses of Parliament, the Supreme 
Court, and the Library are situated, covers an area of 82,666 superficial 
feet, is 472 feet in length, and 582 feet in depth from the front of the 
main tower to the rear of the Library. It is 40 feet high, with an im- 
posing tower over the entrance, 180 feet high. The lobby is supported 
by massive pillars of native marble, beautifully polished, while the corridors 
around both Houses are ornamented with a complete set of fine paintings 
of the Speakers of both Houses, from the first Speaker of the Dominion 
Parliament, down to the present holder of that distii^uished office. The 
buildings form three sides of a square, the one already described forming 
the centre. The eastern block contains the Governor's offices and those 
the Privy Council, Interior, Justice, Secretary of State, Finance, and 
Inland Revenue ; while the western building contains the offices of Public 
Works, Railways and Canals, Post-Office, Customs, Military and Defence, 
and Agriculture and Emigration, forming a pile of buildings which seems 
altogether out of proportion to the present requirements of Canada, and 
erected in an out-of-the-way and inconvenient locahty, in a city making no 
progress in population or in any other respect, and which &om its position, 
depending dmost entirely on the timber trade — which must ere long be- 
come exhausted — cannot be expected to make any great progress in the 
future. It seems a pity that such a magnificent pile of buildings was not 
erected in a central place, where it could be seen and admired by the 



THE EDITOE IN CANADA. 189 

masa of the Canadian people, whoae patriotism would necesaaiily be 
strengthened by such noble buildings, and by visitois who could not but 
admire tbe enterprise and trust in tbe future which raised auch a splendid 
edifice." I met with the greatest civility in all the Government depart- 
ments ; but I am especially indebted to Colonel Dennis, Deputy-Minister 
of the Interior, and to Mr Lowe of the Emigration Department, for 
placing at my disposal all the information in their possession on the sub- 
jects in which I was more particularly interested. Having had lunch 
■with his Worship the Mayor, on Tuesday, the 28th of October, I left on 
my way bact to Glengarry, where I met the Highlander, as described in 
my previous letter. On Saturday following we left together for Kingston, 
the ancient capital of Upper Canada, 105 miles further west, to pay our 
respects to a Highlander who has distinguished himself in a very •Cerent 
field — the well-known Gaelic bard, 

Evan Maccoll. Since I began to read, " Eoghainn MacColla" and 
his " Clarsach nam Eeann " were names as familiar to me as " UiUiam 
Eos" and " Feasgar Luain," and to see the sweet bard of Lochfyne in the 
flesh, and in his own house, was the most central object in my Canadian 
tour. About five o'clock in the afternoon the train pulled up at Kingston 
station ; and there he was waiting for us, a smartly habilitated, lively, 
nervous-looking Highlander of middle stature, in Glengarry bonnet. We 
could not mistake him, thoi^b we had never seen him. We involuntarily 
stepped forward to meet one another; and what a meeting and warm 
greeting. Knowing his age, sixty-seven, and his occupation, I expected 
to bave met a portly, stiffish, and formal old man ; but there he was, 
trim and spr^htiy as a mavis, and looking at least fifteen years younger 
than he really is. We are soon in bis cosy habitation, wannly welcomed 
by his better-half — a superior woman, whose sole object in lUe seems to 
be the happiness and gratification of her husband ; and her natural 
shrewdness has evidently taught her that the surest way of doing so was 
by giving full scope to hex own inclinations in extending a hearty 
reception and genuine hospitality to his friends. Nothing was too good 
for us. The whole family had apparently but one object in view — to 
make us feel at home from home. Here I remained lor three days — 
three of the happiest in my life — in the society of one who possessed the 
genuine poetic spark, and in a home where childhood's days were vividly 
brought back to my recollection, seeing the fine old Highland custom 
of family worship conducted and shared in by certain members of the 
family in a manner which I had not elsewhere seen and enjoyed since I 
had left the home of my parents many years ago in my native vala in 
Wester Boss. 

I was grieved to find the bard almost struggling with existence, 
■ After a long period of service in the Customs, he was still working hard 
and constant for the small pittance of £150 a year. The Muse is appar- 
ently not appreciated in the Dominion so highly as one could wish, 
otherwise Evan MacColl would not have been n^lected as he has hitherto 
been by those — his brother Celts — who have occupied place and power 
in Canada, and who, you would have thought, might be expected to ap- 
preciate literary and poetic talent in tbe person of a bard who, though 
hitherto neglected, wUl undoubtedly live in the memory and affection of 
future ^;anerations of his countrymen, when Preniiei's, and even Govemor- 

Do,l,.cdbyGoO(^lc 



190 TSZ CEUnC MAGAZINE. 

geneialg, ahall have been foj^gotten. The neglect of eaah a nua !■ a 
positive disgrace, especidl; to his own political Menda, whom he aened 
to a much gieatei exteat than, in his esse, they deaerred. A few weeks 
after I left Kingston I learned that, to make hia case even worse than 
erer, he had been superannuated, and his income veiy mncb xednoed. I 
had meanwhile written to Sir John Macdonald, the prosent Fiemie^ in 
his behalf, asking him to lise above mere politics and do oomething fot the 
Celtic bard, who had been bo shamefully neglected by his own political 
friends, I was, however, too late. The deed had been already done, 
MacCoU was no loiter in the Civil Service. But Sir John kindly offered 
his aid in getting up a public teBtimonial " to the Celtic Bard," if started 
by his Mends. I feel sure the mere suggestion is sufGcient The ex- 
I^mier, I know, will do hia share, and so in part at least make up for 
having overlooked the claims of the bard when he was in a position to 
make some public acknowledgment of MacGoll'a claims as a warm, honest, 
and admiring supporter of the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, the represanta- 
tive and able exponent of Canadian Liberalism. And what a gracious 
and appropriate act it would now be for the GovemoT-General-^ 
himself no mean votary of the Muse — to raise his own countryman, an 
Argyleshire man, a brother and more distinguished bard than himself, 
to be Poet Laureate of Canada. This would, I know, be greatly appre- 
ciated by MacCoIl, and at the same time some Uttle compensation for past 
neglect of his claims. 

I was glad to find that he was preparing a new edition of hia poems, 
which is to include at least eighty pieces hitherto unpublished, and much 
superior in many respects to any^iing in his previous well-known and 
popular " ClarsacL" I could devote a whole article to the Bard of Loch- 
fyne, his family, and surroundings, with great pleasure to mjsdf ; and, I 
feel sure, no little gratification to many of my readers ; but I hope to re- 
turn to the subject in another form at no veiy distant day. Meanwhile 
I would direct attention to the noble and true description given of him — 
page 198 of this issue — by his talented daughter, Maiy J. MacColl, in 
the dedicatory poem to her volume of sweet poemlets recently published, 
and which do credit even to the daughter of such a father Since the 
above was written, a letter firom the dear old bard reached me, which be- 
gins as follows, and the introduction to which I have no little pleasure to 
insert here : — 

" Kingston, 12th Jannary 1880. 

"(New Tear's Day, O.S.). 
" Mhic Coinnich, Mhic Coinnich, mo bheannachd gu brach ort I 
'8 tn fein le d' pheann deaa dh-f hag mo thaigh-sa gle atiaiceil ; 
Cha 'n ioghnadh gach neach a tha'n dingh ann fo m' churam 
Bhi marrium a dian-ghuidhe 'Bliadhna mhath nr dhnitl' 

"Seadh, Bliadhna mhath ur, le mor-ohlin, mar is dligheach, 
Dhuit fein 'us do d' cheile, mo laochan bkth-chridheach I 
Ma gheibh sibh mu 'n criochnaioh i tiian de na b'aill leam 
Cha'n eil iad ach gann d' am buin roinn leth cho luT^nil . 

" Air d' ais ort gun dail I Fdlte Thearlaich o d' shinnsir 
'S leat cinnteaoh an ath-nair a thig thn do 'u tir so ; 



jb,GoO(^lc 



THE EDirOE IN CAITADA. 19J 

Nam foicinn tim d' shuidhe naii eOo 'n am chairtrea 
Gum bithinn cho afcorail ri coileach ait dunan," 

The bard oontinuee — " My dear Mackenzie, I took up my pea with a 
Tiew of inditing you a plain prose letter, when lo ! will you— nil yoa— 
the mnse woold imdat on my making a commencement in rhyme, hinting 
that at least the Nsw Year's aalutation, with which I intended to b^pn, 
ought to take a rhythmical shape," &c., &c. 

While under the bard's roof I was hononted by a visit from another 
distinijuiahed Highlander, Principal Grant, of Queen's College tTniversity, 
Kingston, whose parents emigrated from Balnellan, parish of Invemaven, 
Strathspey, where many of his relatives still reside. His mother was a 
Munro fiom Inverness. They went out to Pietou, in Nova Scotia, whera 
the future Principal was bom, on the Eaat River, in 1837. He first 
attended the Pietou Academy, and afterwards the University of Glasgow, 
where he graduated in Arts, in 1857, with the highest honours in Lo^o 
and Ment^ Philosophy. Having been ordained hy the Presbytery of t&it 
city, in 1860, he retnmod to Nova Scotia, where, after two years of auo- 
cesetul raisaionary work in Prince Edward's Island, he was called to St 
Matthew's Church, Halifax, the oldest Presbyterian congregation in the 
city. Here he remained until 1877, when he was unanimously elected 
Principid of Kingston University and Primarius Professor of Divinity. 
In 1878 the University of Glasgow conferred upon him the honorary 
degree of D.D. He was not long in his new position when he discovered 
that new buildings and addition^ endowments were needed for the Uni- 
versity, and in the summer of 1878 ho appealed to the friends of the 
institution throughout the coimtry, with the gratifying result that the 
lai^e sum of ^30,000 poured in upon him, more th^ nine-tentha of 
which, he informed me, with pardonable pride, was from his own feUow- 
eonntrymen and brother Scots. He was unfortunate enough to have lost 
his right arm, close to the shoulder, in early life ; but this serious draw- 
back seems only to have made him the more determined to push on and 
distinguish himsel£ He is a graceful writer, and he has written several 
contributions for Good Worde. In 1872 he made a tour from Halifax to 
Yanoouvei Island — from the Atlantic to the Pacific — and wrote an account 
of the Great Canadian Noriih-West, entitled "Erom Ocean to Ocean," 
which has gone through several editions. 

One of the most distinguished members of the University staff, indeed 
one of the most distinguished Highlanders in Canada, with whom I spent 
a most enjoyable hour, was Professor Mackerras, a native of Nairn, where 
he was bom June 16th, 1833, and who, I grieve to say, has since I saw 
him passed over to the mEgority. His &ther became a schoolmaster in 
Cornwall, Ontario, where tiie son commenced bis education, and the career 
which has been so brilliant throughout. He has been in failii^ health 
for some time back. A few years ago he visited his native land, for which 
he expressed the warmest affection. His conversation mainly turned 
upon it ; aiid he talked of his early recoUectiona of Scotland and the vivid 
impressions made upon his mind during his recent visit to his native land 
— where he has still many relatives — with genuine pleasure. I was par- 
ticularly struck with his quiet gentleness, and extremely delicate appear- 
uice, BO much ao the latter that I expressed my fear on parting with him 



ii,GoO(^lc 



192 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

to the bard that he would aot lire oat the winter, a prediction which, 
alaa I proved only too true. The Press of Canada is loud and unanimoiu 
in his praises. The Kingston Whig says that he was " a literary genius. 
He had a highly cultirated intellect, a pollsli of manner, and a winning 
disposition which made him a favourite in his chosen wdt of life. He 
was poBseBsed of tastes of rare refinement, and voice and pen were both 
advantageously employed by him in labours of a most important character. 
Hia mind was always active, and no one was more cheerfully disposed 
than he to contribute to the entertainment and elevation of his fellow 
men. He was a speaker whose thoughts were always delightfully ex- 
pressed, and whose diction was rendered interesting and fascinating by 
the elocution of which he was such a master." 

The Eev. Dr Jenkins, of St Paul's Church, Montreal, preaching the 
Sunday after his death, paid him the following tribute : — 

" I cannot close these services without a passing reference to the loss 
vhich the Presbyterian Church in Canada has lately sustained in the 
death of the late Eev. John Hugh Macterras, one of the Clerks of the 
General Assembly, and Professor of Classics in the University of Qoeen's 
College. To some of you ho was personally known ; to most of yon he 
was known by reputation. A man of rare natiural endowments, he was 
also a man of large cnltnra Learned was he and eloquent, an accom- 
plished scholar, an able and persuasive preacher ; while his legal acumen 
and attainments in the ecclesiastical sphere has perhaps nevra been sor- 
passed. Certainly they have never been equalled. These ore endow- 
ments that have loomed before the public eye, but they were insignificant 
compared with his qualities as a man and his excellence as a Christian. 
Singularly gentle by nature, he became by Divine grace the bumble, 
simple-hearted Christian sitting at the feet of Jesus ; and while learning 
fiom his words, drinking laigely into his spirit. To those who knew him 
in private life, his gtaee and gentleness, hia transparent honesty and 
truthfulness, his reverent spirit, hia godly walk, were felt to give a charm 
and a brilljancy to his character which even his more puhUc qualities 
failed to impart. His was indeed the path of the just. His religious 
character grew in Christian principle as he passed on in life and deepened 
within his great nature. On and on he went, walking in the light of 
Heaven while yet with us on earth. Such men rarely appear in the 
' firmament of the Church. "When they pass beyond to another sphere, a 
blank is left, which it takes generations to fill up. We' shall never again 
hear his eloquent voice, never again shall we have the privilege of being 
guided by his wise counsels." 

Such are a few specimens of the Celt which one meets in Canada. 

The member for the city in the Dominion Parliament I found to be 
a successful Caitlmess Highlander, Alexander Gunn, who defeated even 
the great Sir John A. Macdonald himself, at the last general election, 
though the latter represented the city uninterruptedly for thir^-five 
years. Learning that we were in the city, he was good enough to invite 
MacColl, myself, and the ffigJUander to meet a few of the leading Celts 
of the place, around his hospitable table ; among whom were a succeasful 
Macrae, from Strathpeffer, who served lus apprenticeship to the grocery 
business with John Chisholm, Inverness ; a Mr Fraeer, from Dingwall, 
and several others whose names I did not carry away with me. The 



ii,Googlc 



THE EDITOR IN CAITADA. 193 

Sigklander was in hh kilt ; bnt Mn Gunn, to my great gratifioation, 
placed I him completely in the shade, by uneipectedly introducing har two 
handsome boys, both diessed in superb Highland costumes, with strap- 
pii^, ormout, and omaments complete. I feel more indebted to her foi 
this compliment than for the substantial fare which she was good enough 
to provide foi onr entertainment. While in Kingston snow fell to tbe 
depth of three or four inches, and I there saw sleighing for the first time 
in my life. I could say much more about this city and its kind and 
hospitable people ; but this article has already reached such an inordinate 
length that I must pull up. In the next I shall introduce the reader to 
Hie Highlanders of Toronto, Woodville, and Beaverton. A. M. 



A MACKINTOSH EAID DnCO ABEEDEENSHIEE IN 1382. 



Tea unearthing of old documents and the publication thereof by such 
bodies as the Spalding Club, have from tune to time brought many 
curious facts within our reach, shed light on obecure and little understood 
points, and also enabled us occasionaUy to settle many difficult questions. 
We trust we shall soon see more of this good work, and that such as de- 
vote themselTes to it may receive more encouragement 

In perusing lately the Begistei of the Bishoprick of Aberdeen, we were 
astonished to find that the Mackintoehos all the way from the wilds of 
Badenoch and the Monalia, or perhaps from the low-lying lands of 
Petty, or not at all unlikely from the Braes of Lochaber, did about the 
year 1382, make more than one descent into the parish of Birse in Aber- 
deen, under the leadership of a certain Farquhar Mackintosh. What 
brought them so far, and into so totally different a district, it is now im- 
possible to say. Snrely not the mere love of the foray, and certainly they 
do not appear to have had any claims upon the lands they seem to have 
so grievously and persistently vexed. The &mily historians are (dlent 
on ^e point, and all the information we can gather regarding the subject 
is contained in two documenta, entitled, first — a precept of King Bobert 
regarding Earquhar Mackintosh, dated under the secret seal at Methven, 
on the 7lh day of June 1382, and second, though incorrectly so styled, a 
charter of the Earl of Carrick regarding the lands of Birse, dated at Perth, 
the 8th of Jnne 1382, and both preserved for us in the Eegister above 
referred ta From the first of these we learn that Bobert, by the grace 
of God, King of Scots, greets his beloved son, Alexander the Senescal, 
lord of Badenoch, and informs him that Adam, by the grace of Ood, 
Bishop of Aberdeen, came lately into the Boyal presence, eaznestly en- 



194 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

tteatbg tliat hinudf and his Unda of Birse, with ths ishabitiuits therw^ 
wonld be protected and secured from Faiqnhai Mackintosh and his foI< 
Icwers. It is Authei stated that the Bishop offered to appear and abide 
the lair whenever it might please the said Farquhar to proceed in a legal 
form with any claim he might hare upon the lands, if any. The King 
therefore commands tiiat so soon as his precept has been seen, Farqnhac 
shall be called to the presence of the Senescal, and compelled by loyal 
authority to give security that the Bishop, hia lands tmd people, tikall re- 
main uninjured by him and hia followers, nnleas he may perchance think 
fit to take the leg^ process saggested by the Bishop, and abide by the 
consequences. 

From the second document we learn that John, Earl of Camck, eld- 
est son of the illustrioue King of Scotland, and Senesoal of Scotland, 
sends Jove and greeting to hia dearest brother, Alexander the Senescal, 
lord of Badenoch, and to the Sheriff of Invemesa, who may for the time 
be, and informs them that in a Council held at Perth on the 7th day of 
this present month of June, the venerable father in Christ, Adam, by tha 
glace of Qod, Bishop of Aberdeen, had shown to the King and Council, 
with grave complaint, that Farqahar Mackintosh by himself and hia fol- 
loweiB had inflicted heavy loaaes on the church landa and inhabitants of 
Birse in time past, and that still he daily strikes these lands and people 
with such threats and terrors that the inhabitants cannot and dare not re- 
main in their bouses, cultivate the land, nor otherwise, as faithful sub- 
jects live in peace, nor through fear enjoy their possessions. And, fvi- 
ther, that the Bishop offered himself in sight of the Council as ready, at 
a fit time and place to abide the law regarding any claim the said Farqu- 
har might have upon said landa, if he would only prosecute it legiti- 
mately, and to find security so to do ^ therefore, he humbly entreated the 
King and Council, that himself and hia lands of Birse would be protected 
and kept secure from Farquhar Mackintosh and hia followera John, 
Earl of Carriuk, therefore entreats his dearest brother and the Sherifl of 
Inverness, who may for the time be, and enjoina and commands them that 
when and as often aa they shall be required, so to do, by the Bishop of 
Aberdeen, they shall compel the said Farquhar to give snfficient secnritj 
to them that the Bishop and hia landa, with the inhabitants and their 
goods, shall be uninjured by him and bia followers, and that he ah&D. 
neither himself inflict loss upon them, or molest them, nor cause, against 
law, any others to do so, under the pain of loss of life, limbs, and all else; 
intimating however to the said Farquhar, that if he wish he may Icf^y 
proceed gainst the Bishop, and that justice will be done. 

Whatever Farquhar'a claims might be, we hear no more of them or of 
him, but &om the wail of the Bishop, we can gather easily that he endea- 
Touied to assert bis snppoaed rights in a severe and high-handed manner, 
as was the cuetom in old times, and especially so in the lawless days d 
the easy and peace-loving kii^, Kobert Second and Third. John, Eail 
of Carrick, above referred to, when he came to the throne, aseumed the 
title of Bobert HI., because of the ill odour of the name John, both in 
England and Scotland. 

JLLIZ. IBABBB. 



jb,GoO(^lc 



THE WISE T.ATRT) OF CULLODEN. 

o 

Osoa upon a time (as tlie story booka aay) there lived a Itdid of Cnllodui) 
vIlo, on account of hu p^gacity and pradence, was called " An tigheama 
£lic," 01 the wise laird. Beiiig a peacefully disposed man, he never en- 
gaged in any of the freqaent feuds of the diSFetent dans, hut lived quietly 
with his &mily, and devoted his time to the breeding and rearing of ui 
extensive atooi of superior cattle. Many a time and oft had covetous 
looks beeu cast on the fine herd by difieient reivers, but Culloden was so 
iuoffeosive that he never gave any one an excuse to molest him, and he 
vas careful to take every precaution to prevent his cattle &om being 
"lifted," so that he hsd as yet escaped Bcathless. It happened on a cer- 
tain occasion that on acquaintance of the laiid, a LocMel &om Lochaber, 
and some of his people were retailing &om Falkirk market, and spent a 
night at Culloden house. In the course of conversation the laird ex- 
posed a fear ^t he should not be able to keep all his cattle for want 
' of sufficient pasturage, and that he thought be should he obliged to sell 
Bome of them, though he was sorry to do so. This remark set the wily 
Camenm a-thinking, and he rapidly evolved a scheme for getting poeeea- 
^ion of B portion of the much-to-be-coveted herd, hnt was carefiil not to 
exhibit any sign of his feelings, merely saying that he was sorry the pre- 
sent state of lus finances wonld not permit of his purchasing the cattle, as 
lie should .very much like to do, but suggested that as he had plenty of 
good pasture in Lochaber, Culloden should send part of his stock there, 
and ha would take care of them and provide them provender for a &ii 
conaderatian, adding that as he and his men were now on their way 
' home, they could drive the cattle along and so save the loird the trouble 
of sending any of his own peopla To this Culloden agreed, and arrange- 
ments were soon concluded! 

Next morning saw Lochiel aud his party depart, driving before them 
about a score of fine young heifers 

Having got possession of such a prize, Cameron hod no intention of 
giving it up again, so after a few months hod passed, he sent his cousin 
Bory, a. fine, handsome young man who acted as his lieutenant, to Cul- 
loden with a specious story to the effect that a party of wild Macraes had 
come in the night and " lifted " all Lochiel's cattle, including those be- 
longing to CuUoden ; that they had given chose to the reivers but had 
&iled to overtake them ; that Lochiel was deeply grieved at his friend's 
loss, but still more for his own, with various other excuses At first the 
luid listened in blank dismay at this most unwelcome news, but not 
feeling quite sure of Lochiel's ingenuousness he questioned Boiy &rther 
as to the details, and no^cing a ^ght hesitation in some of his answers, 
and also that Bory, though a &ank open-faced looking man, seemed to 
avoid the direct glimce of his eye, he began to think that all was not 
right and above board. Culloden was, however, too prudent to hint of his 
suspicions to Bory, but after expressing his regret at the mutual misfor- 
tone of himself and Lochiel, invited the young man to partake of his 
hospitahty, and introduced him to his family, who, having received & 
hint from Culloden, vied with each other who would pay the most atten- 
tion to their gueat. The next day proving stormy, the laird insisted on 
Sory staying with them for another day.oi two, /Diis was no hAidahip 



, Google 



198 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. . 

to tlie Lochabet man, who waa del^hted with bis new fnends, parti- 
cularly with the eldest daughter, Jessie, a blooming lasa o£ eighteen, 
whose merry amile and bright blue eyes had already captivated the suk- 
oeptible heart of the stalwart Highlander. 

The Btonn continued and raged for two or three days, during which 
time Eory remained, nothing loth, a guest of Culloden. During the day 
time he lent his aid to the laiid, and assisted him in the manifold 
duties which Culloden took upon himself knowing, wise man that he 
was, " that if you want a thing done well yon must do it yourself." The 
Highlander was much struck with the shrewd commonsense, foresight, 
and kindliness of disposition of his host, and listened with pleasure to hia 
homely yet wise and thoughtful conversation. When ttie day's work 
was over, the whole family met, and spent the evening right merrily. 
Culloden produced hia fiddle, on which he played reels and strathspeys, 
while the young folks danced and capered. Eory was a capital dancer, - 
and always choosing Jessie for his partner, he had an opportunity of 
giving many a loving glance, and many a squeeze of the hand, which he 
would not otherwise have had. With all this Eory was ill at ease ; he 
could not foiget the injury done to this worthy family, to which he was 
being accessory, and it was with very mixed feelings that he hid them all 
adieu. Culloden accompanied him for a mile or two on his homeward 
journey, and charged him with the most friondly messages to Lochiel, 
expressing a hope that Eory would soon pay them another visit, and 
adding in a sort of half solilociuy, " I am vexed about the loss of the 
heasties too, especially as I had meant them for a tochei for Jessie, but 
now I shall not be able to give her anythii^ and I expect she will have 
to marry Bailie Cuthbert, the rich merchant in Inverness, who has long , 
been seeking her for his wife. I aye thought him too old, but I ex- 
pect now no suitable youi^ gentleman will take her without a tocher." 

After taking leave of the laird, Eory pursued hia way very thought- 
fully, pondering over what he had heard, his unspoken thoughts running 
in this strain — " What a fine fellow Culloden is, and so wise too. How 
bonnie Jessie is 1 I wonder what she thought of me ) It would be a 
shame to let hei marry an old man, a merchant, and hving in a town ! 
Faugh 1 hut then the chief is my kinsman ; I must do his bidding. 
They are fine beaatiea to be sore, but Jessie is a real handsome lass." 
SuddenJy he appeared to have made up his mind to some definite object, 
and exclaiming aloud, " Tee, I'U do it," he cleared his brow and walked 
briskly forward. 

Lochiel was waiting with some impatience the return of his messenger, , 
whose first words ou his arrival did not a little astonish the chieftain, 
"Lochiel, those cattle must be sent hack to Culloden." " Sent back I 
must be 1 this to my face 1" exclaimed the irate chief, " what do you 
mean?' Eory related the hospitable manner in which he had been re- 
ceived and treated by Culloden and his famUy, and vowed he would he 
no party to injure such an excellent man. Lochiel would not hear of 
such a thing, and was indignant at the piesumption of the other in proposing 
it. But Eory was firm, the cattle should be sent back, or he would expose 
the whole transaction ; on the other hand, if Lochiel would give up the 
cattle he would undertake to return them to Culloden without any reflec- 
tion on the character of his chieil To these ailments Lochiel at last 
gave way, though not with the best grace. 



ii,Goo(^lc 



THE WISE lAIBD OF CULLODElir. 197 

In a few weeks £017 again appeared at Culloden house, diiving be- 
fore him aU the cattle in eplendid condition, and related a long story of 
how Lochiel had traced them, how he and his men had attacked and 
defeated the Macraes, and rescued the whole of the cieach. To aU which 
Culloden listened with commendable gravity, though his eyes twinkled 
with suppieased amusement. 

Once more Eory was a welcome guest at the hospitable house of Cul- 
loden, and his mind being now free from self-reproach, he gave way to 
his natural vivacity of temperament, and became a greater favourite than 

He was not long in impressing upon Jessie how much more desirable 
it would be to many a young man, and a Highland gentleman — like 
himself for instance — than an old man, a common trader I and a Saxon 
too, forsooth. 

The blushing Jessie listened and smiled while her e^er lover urged 
his suit, and at last coyly whispered that " he might speak to father." 

Culloden was not a httle surprised at being ^ed for his daughter's 
band by one of whom he knew so little, and asked the young man what 
were lua prospects, and how he was to keep a wife. Eory answered 
frankly enough that it was true he was poor, but he was a gentleman, a 
ne&r kin am an of Lochiel. He had some little land and a few cows, but 
tmth to say, he had never seen much after his property, having been prin- 
cipally engaged in fighting the battles of his chiei 

The lurd gravely replied that he should require something besides 
good birth and a ready sword in his daughter's husband ; but noticing 
the gloom on Kory's face, he continued in a kinder tone, " Tou are both 
young and can afford to wait a little. Go you hack to Lochaber, leave 
off %htii^ and quarrelling, settle down on your bit land, see after your 
herd, and if at the end of two years you can show me a score of prime 
cattle, I will give you another score as Jessie's tochei^" 

Eory could not but admit the prudence of this arrangement, and pro- 
mised to do his best to fulfil his part. Two years would soon pass, and 
Jessie would then only be twenty, he reflected, so after pledging vows of 
undying attachment, he bade adieu to his beloved Jessie ; returned 
home, and set manfully to work to render himself worthy of her. 

Fortune favoured him, for before the two years had expired, a wealthy 
relative died, and leaving no son, Eory succeeded to the property as next 
heir. 

It was a proud day for Jessie when her lover — no poor gentleman 
now, but the wealthy laird of a fine estate — came to lay his new honours 
at her feet. There was now no reason for delay, and the marriage took 
place at once, on a scale of profusion, and attended by such numbers of 
friends that the like was never before seen in the district, showii^ the 
iugh respect in which the "tigheama" was deservedly held. The 
most of the articles required for the wedding were purchased from Bailie 
Cnthbert, and the worthy trader solaced himself for the lose of his wished- 
for bride by the contemplation of the long bill of chargns it gained to him. 

Eory never forgot the experience he had gained by following the 
advice of Culloden, and exerted himself to improve the breed of cattle on 
bia estates, and encouraged his tenants and dependants to pay more 
nttention to the subject than they had done before. The beneficial effect* 



Google 



igg THE CELTIC MAGAZIITE. 

of this pdic; eoon become apparent, and the whde conatiT side had 
teason to bleaa the b^uga iaflaeatie exerted by the wise laird of Culloden. 

H. A. ROBS. 



[We qnote the following Dedication to her father from "Bide a Woe 
and other Poema," leeently published by Mary J, MacCoU, daughter of 
the well-known " Bard of Lodifyne "] ; — 

TO MY FATHER 
Oett, hoBOitd F*ther, irho iu ohlldhaod'i jam 
DUU fill to ID« ths pUM of pannta both 
So f kliUnl tbftt Mirae I Mt (h«t low 



A noblw, fitter tbams. Ar boBe.i. iu>d, 

Qod'i noUeit work, tboa ut. For TmUi uid BJfbt 

A ohamiiiaB nndiimBf ad, who oe'er at wrong 

Or tutht nnjuat hath winked, bsoaaie, f onM>t& 

Th* dotn lat eBthroDsd in plaoea bif b. 

One who dUtUliwd to orioite to an; man 

Altboiigh thwcbj he misbt Iibts gotten B;a&i 

Aad woD poiitiaii, mm, and lil ths good 

That buav mindi would pri» aa tar kboTs 

A conaolenoe olwin and Toid of all offeaos. 

E'en Id the TileaC th; broad ohuitj 

Could olear diaoera the good— the apirk dirina — 

Though l&tant, waiting but tbe qaiokeniog bmtth 

Of Dobla inSaepoe, einmple pnie, 

To fan it into naver-diing flams, 

Ths lowelt OQtoait waa thy brother bxm) : 

No iMfite tbon, to tali* tha othn aide : 

A kindly, helplDg hand waa arer airet^ad 

Tit all in need, and from th; hard-wen atiM 

Than gareat bonntiloll]'. Nene onohwrad, 

Unaided, left thy averopen door. 

Ko teit M woithlnaa dld'at tbon reqnli*— 

That mlatmbla aieiua for haartlaaaneu ; 



ID thon art ol limBle, ohild-Uke latth, 

ring patianae, and ODdyiiic hm. 

In ane grind word, thon art a ^iriat-uka a 



I tliink wlA lad rifnt of all tha jaaii 
Paiaed tu tram thea, tor Prorideuoe desread 



Bot eret by my aide thy apltlt aeenad 
To it«ad and oonnnl ma to ahooia the 



Ihat my lUa-Mtb, whaa thy piotaatini Iot* 
I Deeded noai, ahoold far dlTerge from thine j 
And I bare miieed tha* iok a tnoueand Umaa, 
nad 

thegaod) 

BTSiaiieonma waane'eibaatoired 

Than thii, " Ihan'it Tery like thy fathar, Ohild. 
Had I not lacked ee oft thy aynpathy, 
Thy tendsT gnidanee, ctbi wias reproof, 
Hy moae had taken loltier flighta and Utoa 
Had'at aaan tby youth again renewed in ma J 
Bat hafing to tongo eo mnoh, taj atralnt, 
Van whMk I dng id the*, are faltariu ; 



In rain I itriva to gire it onrflor 

In TcdaelMi mnii^ aad within my hHcl 

H anil nmala a aweet, Imptlionad leui, 



Google 



MESSES CmSHOLM ASD ROSE Olf THE QUIGRICH. 

TO THB ZDITOR OF THE CEI/TIO UAGAZINE. 

Dejb Sib, — The part of my article on the Qiiigrieh, to which Mr 
ChiBholm refere in the January uumhei af your magazine ia as follows : — 
" The Quigrich has been sometimes styled the Crozier of St F ill an as if 
the two words were the same. This is not the case. The one, as we 
have shown, is a crook, the other a cross, or ' erase' Besides they ditfer 
in that they respectively represent two chuichea and creeds, as widely 
diffet«nt, as ate Uie symbols by which they are lespectiTely represented." 
Mr Chidiolm heads his letter, " Pastoral Staff or Crozier of St Fillan j " 
and represents me as saying that these two expressions are not synoni- 
mou& I am not aware that I said so. On the contrary I agree with Mr 
Chishohn, that they may he synonimous. What I say is, that Quigiich 
and Crozier are not synonimous terms. Quigrich is a crook, Crozier a 
cross or " erase." Either therefore may be a pastoral staff as the case may 
be. But as we find from the meaning of Quigrich, Bachull, Camabhata ; 
Hie names given to the pastoral etafF of the early Celtic Church, it was a 
crook, and not a cross or cioziei. The difference between its creed, and 
that of churches whose pastoral staff is a cross, is a point, the discussion 
of which I shall not ventue upon in the pages of the Celtic Magazine — 
althoi^h I may be allowed the opinion, that they are not the same. My 
remarks went, or were meant to go, exclusively on antiquarian lines ; 
apart altogether ftxim ecclesiastical controversy. 

Mrs Murray Aust'a book, fxotn which Mr Bose quotes, is to be found 
in some of our libraries, and occasionally at a book stalL It is interesting 
as the production of one of the earliest of our Highland tourists — but not 
always reliable, as we may see, if we compare her description of the relic, 
with the relic itself, deposited in the Museum of the Society of Anti- 
quaries in Edinburgh, where it may bo at any time inspected by the 
curious. If 80, it will be found that the silver case and the bronze which 
it encloses are quite distinct from each other ; and separable. Possibly, 
thraefore, the silver case only may have been shown to Mis Murray Anst, 
or it may be she refeis to it apart altogether from the bronze, as in her 
opinion the real Quigrich. In either case it may acconnt for her descrip- 
tion of it, as " hollow " — which, of courae, is quite true of the silver case 
apart from the bronze. It is, I should think, scareely probable that the 
bronze ia an addition made to the rcHc since the beginning of this century. 
Mrs Murray Aust also eays, it is of ■* wrought silver." So it is. But 
how are we to reconcile this with its being " gilt," as she affirms — " and 
the gilding mostly worn off." The relic as now on sight in the Antiqna- 
rian Museum, has no appearance of gilding so far as I could see ; nor is 
it apparent what object could he served by gilding solid silver. There is 
therefore nothing improbable in the supposition, that the relic may have 
contmcted some kind of rust in a damp climate, which Dswai took pains 



200 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

to poliah off 'before exhibiting it ; and the ramains of which Mrs Murray 
AuBt may have supposed to he the remains of gilding. The stone at the 
end of the crook ^e describes, " as in colotu like a mby." Antiquarians 
are pretty much agreed that it is a Caimgonn. Caimgoims are of Tarioos 
colouis. The colonr of the Quigrich Cairngorm is that of an o[^ue 
oiystal, with seams of a purplish hue — a colour combining red and blue, 
ami which Mrs Mniray Aust may hare supposed to be that of a ruby. 
There is no engraving on the stone as she says. But the plate beneatii 
it, at the end of the crook, has an engraving ; a figure on a cross with a 
gW on each mde of it — meant no doubt to be a representation of the 
cmcifixioiL The figure which she says is engraved on the stone — sup- 
posed to represent the original owner, is on the silver immediately above 
it. It is not at all likely, coosiderii^ the veneration in which the Quig- 
rich has been held by the keepers of it, that they have in any way tam- 
pered with it I am willing therefore to believe that Mra Murray Aust 
may have unintentionally artii slightly in her description of it, rather 
theji suppose that so inteiresting a reUc diifeis in any respect, as now ex- 
hibited, iiom what it has always been durir^ the ages of the past, along 
which it has been so carefully and even sacredly handed down to us. 
ALLAN SINOLAIB. 



NEW CBLTIO WORK.— In our iMt issue a circular wu isaaed eiTiuir 
a fnUdeseriptioa of the InportanC trork, " Lkabhik hau Fiok Ghaidhbaii, 
or the " Book of the Club of True Bighlanden." in coune of preparation for 
tb* press, by Mr C. H. MaaiatyTs Nartb, architaet, London, and Ohief of 
the aboTS-named Club. The work ii to ba pnbtished by snbBcriptioi) ai Boon 
M a auffioieiit Dnmber of namei have been reoeWed to lecDre the author 
•gainst loH. We are glad to find this will ^ ory Koon ba asanred ; for namea 
are fast coming in. Hardly any one, we are told, who has seen the specimen 
plates, and who can atfbid the price -namely, £3 3i to lubsoribeni — but 
have Bubicribed. The circular iisued show* that of thsM fine platea ((3i by 
17 inobes), deeoribed ai " admirable" by sach a high authority as SirNo^ 
Fatoa, there ihall be no leu that fifty-nine in the work, as follows : —Club 
of True EligblanderB — title p^^ — portraits : Spalding, Menzies, Logan, 4 ; 
Stone and bronze implements —aootent Keltic town— £}ruid temples— battia 
and storming the forts, t; Oghams— futhoie — alphabets— agricalturalioapte- 
ments — domestic duties, 3; Ancient iiory casket, 2; Highland and Lowland 
dress compared, 8 ; sporrans, ornaments, and brooohas, 6 ; celebrated 
bioochei, 4 ; Keltic swords, targets, and other weapons, 2 ; Two-handed 
swords, and targets- claymores, pistols^ targets, &o. — mode of attack— Ciil- 
lodan, 9 ; Lochaber ai«B, dirks, chariots, and horse.trappings, 3 ; harpa 
and harpers — bagpipes and pipers, 6 ; pipe musio, danoing, dance musio, 
■ongs, and mode of singing, 6 ; Camsnaohd, and other games and eustoms, 
4, The Duke of Hamdton, Olnny, iiord Blantyre, Lord W. F. Lennox, as 
well as Sir Noel Fatoa, and Fiofessor Stephen, the great Runic scholar, and 
a great many others, have spoken most flatteringly of the plates. So many 
notices of relics connected with Frinoe Charlie have bean ceoeived by the 
author, that he intends to add another chapter and sat of plates In addition 
to what is promised in the circular alreiidy issued. From the specimens, 
plates, and latter-press before us, we are satis&ed that few it any such sump- 
toons works as that on which Ur Uaointyra North is engaged have ever 
been published in connection with the Highlands. Names of intending snb- 
•crlbers will be received at this otiiae, where spedmene of the plates and of 
the letterpress may b« seen ; or we shall be glad to forward them by post to 
any intending sablnribtr who may desire to sae them, 



Google 



GALL FABAIS. 

Pan ANN AN DA-DHUAN-DHBUa 

LBIS AH ABD FHILIDH IAIN UILTOH, 

Air a &,iomtdadh gu Ga^ie le Ailban Sinouib, M^ 

A OHBUD DVAN. 



Mu pheacadli an duin' air tfis, 

'S meaa na ciaoibli' bu chioitteioli' bias, 

Thug do'n t-ahaoghal ao am biu, 

Qacli cr&dh 'na d&las aii fod 

Cia tnai chaill eiim aonas aigh 

£deiii ghiaidh nan iomadh. buadh ; 

Qua an d'aiaigeadh as hx 

Triomh ar n' Toil an Slan'fhear m6i 

Aria air ais dhimm anu an aeilbh, 

looad aoiibh nan cliai ghl6ii. 

Can a Gheoliaidh bbinn nan Aiid', 
Boimbe bo bha th&mh air stuaidh 
Shinai 'e Horeb — 'nochd gaob ckil 
Do iodhair' ^gbiohor an t^ahlnaigh ; 
A theagaisg do'n tagtiadb aii t^ 
Cia mar dlitiisgeadh a mi-rian 
An BfirOgbal 'a na neamhan ahaaa 
Le neart buadhaob X>ti^ nan gniomh. 

Ka raa'a annsa Sion leat, 
N'ft Siloa aig Teach Dh^ ; 
' TJatha-aan o guidbeam ort 
Ga'n abiam ceart mo dh&a f^in. 
'O diridh ail ^athan an kird 
Iliaiiia aii gach dan a bh'jtim 
Fada osceann Aonaia nam hkrd 
'S na labhiadh an rildh na'n rknn. 
Thiia' thair chach a Spioiaid Bh^ 
A thug Bpeis do chridbe glan, 
Thaiiia air gach teach a ^' inn 
Deonaich ceart mo Ttlon gu'n can. 
Bha Thn ann bho chian nan cian, 
Le d'agiathau diombair sint' mach, 
'Gur air doimhneachd na mi-iian, 
Uai chal'man toitt Uaich a mach. 
Ha nitho dhomhaa nach e61 
Foillaich, 'us se61 le d' chleas ; 



3n,-.Mi>,Gt1I:-)glc 



THE CELTIC MAOAZQTE. 

Afa m' BomluiiiuLeaohd mhbr dBsii fbir^ 
Le d' naait cAtt, caait nun's leaa. 
Clmm le tuigBe ghdii 'o atiusM, 
Ga'ii onnasaioh mi m' dhkn air cliiii 
8 gu'n nixdid mi finmdal 'k Di blmun 
Ccartu ft ihligh' 'a. aiide' ghUii. 

AitluiH dhomh Etii (^ go fikil^ 
Cha cheil K^amb bho d' eolaft tgirt, 
Ba dorchftdas i&ina sMos , — 
Cha dieil senaadh aiz bitL ort 
A'bair ciod q 'b t-aabW f<&in 
GhlaaiB Adlutmli' tis Enbh ui tin, 
Clio Bona an gaol on Di 
"Xkoil gi leii a clmii air chuL 
I)o 'n d' thiig S*!! eaoghal 'sa Ulq 
Ach amhaiu a'meaB bha oiairt'. 
Co tbog napa an ceart duaU 
Dhol an acuiaidli Dbia nan dni I 

At^ TMiiAi«ir.iftimh bllO ifainn ahiot, 

T'M-T' gamhlais 's dit^baltais claoln, 
'S inn troimb f baiiaad a TPhwall 
M'-^i^'P-''' aigb a chinno-daom'. 
Troimb 'aidan thil gaodbe sioa, 
Bbo fbkras ehior "n D^ is iiiA', 
Mar il obeannainaeb gn lair, 
A cbaidb leis an crti^ap a bblali^ 
Tiie 'n gaiflge ceoimainieaob doiilsh 
6baoil leis seilbb fbaotaina aii gUk 
Fada thaiiifl air Bia ftin 
'B flathaibk trian na lucbalrt ba, 
81uK>il leis gn 'm V choimaas a 'n tMti, 
Do Sbia nam feart; a tba abiiaa, 
'S thaiiU uison le euchd fheacbi^ 
Ga'n coianeodb le' gbleacbd a bbuftlcth. 
Mar so troimb aidan 's gUIr-mbi&lUl. 
Einn e oogadb fiai air neamh. 
An agbaidb tigbeamas Dbd, 
Acb b* diambain an ni dba k, 
Troimb ^ obombacbd X)h6 n 
Tbilgeadb sios e gn to gbrad. 
Car air cbar do 'n doimbne cbiar, 
£ f^ 'ta dhubb cbliar air fad, 
B' namhoT ri fkicinn a bbinn 
Kn ooioneamb a chuin dol sId«, 
Mar shaTchair ronnaig t"*" spdnr 
A ^abhlaa bbo i^uPsan iar. 
MUlte tbnit aan dnibbrQ tbingh 
An t-aigoan dnbb diol a mhiuuL 
Sud an gamntii e ga btAth 



ii,GoO(^lc 



CAIX FAHAIS. 

Fo ^eunhlo b&ie is tmntich dath, 
Chioim dabhlan gu'n d' tliog do Dhia, 
Ga bhiOBnach' gnu fhuiiiih cliiiin catb, 
Ifaoi laithoail 'tih naoi oidhoh' 
Oa h-an-aoilidmeacli le saoi fheachd, 
X^dh 'boh aibheis theinnticli bMo^ 
Xon imcheist 's fo tlin^ia bheachd. 
Claoidhte le nuochdachadli g^ii. 
An D4 SMorroid]! is m6i neaxt 
Gidhoadh neo-bhafimlioi tha e, 
Go tuilleadli ciaidli 'dhol ma agaiit, 

Fo unAeal ro nihiJi bha e, 

A mmsin' lui an neamh a Vbh, 

An sonas a clmitl e 'm feaad, 

An t-ambgtrar na^ teasd ga bi&th. 

A ahnilean bibnach do thog, 

ITa theall gun sag air gach taobli, 

Cha "n fliaicte aoh i6]aa searbb, 

Fiamh 'iu iia'bbar "us dabh chaoidh ; 

Fnath oQtail onns gach aon, 

So 'n !n 's Stiide 'sa Teacbd naomh, . 

Cho iada 8B chi a slitil 

Aontilinid dlti, na ibda naltb, 

Cha 'n f hadceai Ids act 'f^sacb ^ot 

Gunntji dhubh dManaH nan uamli' 

A Uasdli mar amhimm ghSii, 

GidhMtiEh nbcfa d' thoii leirsiiiQ lead), 

Acli doroliadas ttngh gn 14ir 

A ftilllMselutdb p^io gach neach. 

lonad an atahgtrair 'sa dhiiidh 

Frogan giiineil nam plaigb dubh. 

Far naob comhnnjch Ath gu bt&th ; 

Faidach an-eaibea gan agar. 

An BTid tba piantan gun chriocb 

'G iathadh mar thonnan ma 'n oinn, 

l^iiltean teinnteach nam feai^ slot 

Fionn»g host *ga dan nan Imn. 

So gnkth ionad nan dian f bearg, 

Db' nlltuch ceartaa deaibbt 'gu britth, 

Do oheannaiioicb. — dnais an gniomh 

Fiioaan dorclLa nan dnbb obikdh. 

fiho Dbia'abho sboills' tri ebnalrt f hsd, 

"8 tba aiaeal a climinne-ch^, 

Bbo mheadhoin gu iomal a nacb, 

'B tha mngha an staid d' a MKr. 

A cboiQpanaicli cbunncas leis, 

Uit' an teas "a an tuiltean pein, 

lom* gba6tban doinneanacli laiat', 

"Fadudb ga goirt teas an deibb, 

Dltttli ffliti 'do chunncaa leis aon,' 



ii,GoO(^lc 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE 

'Ga aoirDMgaicli f&in 'eon teas, 

Ti Td' fhaiag" air an neart 'nan giomh 

Beelsebab nam tiar chlaae. 

Biean thubfaairt an t kci n&mb, 

Do'n goiieir Satan air neamb, 

'8e labbairt a'm bdathian diUi 

Bho bbalbh thosdacbd na eeatbh sheaiob. 

An' toe' e, an' ^aan, 'n tu ? 

am mugb' th'oit seocb mar b}d 

'Ifnaii dh! Mticb tbu teach na soiUs', 

Fu -D do bhoillsg' tbaii mbdran abb, 

Le diillfeacbd bu-mbaiseacb glan, 

Bgendaicbt' thair mbilltean do cbach. 

Ma 'e tu e 'rinn nasgadh leuni, 

An iomuniidh, an bum, 'a an gleachd 

An cunnart, an ertiftb nan lann 

Sa chogadb a cblaoidb ai neart 1 

A niae maiaon tha einn. 

An leii-agrioB mi li t' 'sai feachd 1 

Faic an doimhneachd cbianaU mhbi 

'Sa bbeil sinn 'sai eobii to phtamb ; 

An ^iide bbo 'n thuit sinn sios, 

On cian ghainntir nan dubb duadh. 

Oirn« 'sar feacbd tbugadb bnaidh, 

Le tonrnn uambor a mhii neart, 

Cba d' tbnig ainn 'san am a cbaidh, 

Colg eug^ombloidb Db6 nam feart^ 

Gi&eadh aiTson ao gu l^ii 

'B na 'a unainn a ghSor f heaig bborb 

A dbioladh oim do sheaibt ph^ 

Gha 'n aithreaclt lenm Bti6ap nan o<^ 



mOHLAin) MUSICAL nrsTRUMEirra 

At a recent meeting of the Antiquarian Society, a notice of the Andent 
Mosioal InBtroments of Scotlani^ hj Mi Bobeit Glen, musical inatra- 
ment maker, was communicated by Mr George G. Cunniogbame, advocate, 
F.S.A., Scot. The author began by nuticing the muaical inetroments 
mmtioned in the poem of " Tbe Houlate," dating fi»m the 16th oeotoiT. 
Of ill the infltrumsnts of music used by Tnan^ {^ hom oi tnunpet mw 



ii,GoO(^lc 



probably the most primitiTe. The diacoTery of a trumpet of bronze at 
Capiiugton, in A^'ishire, nhowed tliat metallic initruments of tliia kind 
had been in use in Scotland before the dawn of histoTj. He next noticed 
the bagpipe, Ahicfa had been styled the national instrument, but wm not 
peculiar to Scotland, having been at one time popular in all parte of 
Europe. There waa no evidence to ahow when the instrnment was intco^ 
duced into Scotland. The Exchequer Rolls record a payment to the 
King's pipers in 1362. Pipers formed part of the municipal institutions 
of every large town, and in some burghs, as Jedbnrgh for instance, the 
ofBce was hereditary, But it iros in the Highland^ among the Celtic 
population, that the pipes were most popular. The a'jthor possessed a 
set of Highland bagpipes (which were arfiibitfld) bearing the exceedingly 
early date of 1409. This instrument possessed only two small drones 
fmd chanter, and previous to the beginning of last century bagpipes in 
this country had no large or bass drone. But if the Gael could not claim 
the merit of inventing the bagpipes, he could at least boast l^t he had 
made the instrument his own by inventing a style of execution which had 
tamed its imperfections into beauties, and composed a rich and varied 
stock of music so speciaUy adapted for it that it could not be properly 
rendered by any other instrument The old name of the harp was the 
olaraacli, and it appears &equently in Scottish documents. The last 
native harper in Scotland was Murdoch Maodonald, a retainer of Maclean 
of CoU, who died about 1739. The lute is Suuiliar to all readers of Soot- 
tisb poetry, from Davy Lindsay's mention of it, and other allusions c£ 
constant occurrence. It appean in the accounts of the Lord High 
lYeasnrer 1474. Originally it had eight thin catgut strings arranged in 
font pairs, tuned in unison. In course of time more strings were added, 
and during the seventeenth century it had twenty-foui strings. In oon- 
olosion, the author remarked that Uiere had been great improvements in 
the construction of musical instruments in modern times, but it was ques- 
tionable whether what had been gained in one respect had not been lost 
in another by lessening the individuality of the separate instruments. 
The paper was Illustrated by a series of beautiful water-colour drawings 
(J nearly 100 musical instruments by Mi Glen. 

In reference to the Highland bagpipes the following latter appeared 
in a recent Issue of the Seottman : — 

" Kinlochmoidart, Fort-William, February 13, 1880. 

" Sib, — In yont issue of the 10th inst, in reporting proceedings of 
the Society of Antiquaries, mention is made of a bagpipe bearing the date 
1409. I have the clianter and blow pipe of one which I beUeve to he 
older. Its history is this ■ — It was given in the end of last century to 
my maternal uncle, Donald Maodonald of Kinlodimoidart, Colonel of the 
Bo^als (who I now represent), by the M'latyies, who were the hereditary 
pipen to the Clanranald branch of the Macdonalds, as they were on the 
point of ensigrating to America. They told him the Macdonalds had 
followed its inspiring strains into the battle of fiannockbum, and that it 
had never been played at any lost battle ; that believing him to be the 
diief of the Macdonalds, they left it with him as the proper person to 
bave it. The chanter is perfect, and the worn state of the holes shows it 
to .have beea much used. — I am, &c., 

"WK. B0S»t3S0H lUODOKAIiD.'' 



jb,Googlc 






liktPss £ORki tail r^txastms <» rLovsaa. aistoucAL. ti- 

ttSODABT, eolffKAL, AlTD tftitSO/LIOAL. BiUirt: H'Oiw, SnnR- 
Mf, ft Okk. 

"W^ cumdt coticeiTe tiny feai£bl« iDann vby this Ixxdt Abonld lnT« 
bfien poldMed ui<»tyiiioaBlr, fdr bejrond ijuwtiini H ifa in Its 6VU7 
as^tAit k piem cf WcA that «H concemad hare fho irttnort traaon to ro 
ptDtldtJt To'apealc of it even ak it appsais to the efe of aenae, tbe wotk 
u ttte t^ jfei^«ian df tbe ccntapdancfr, tbe en^-ror, and th« binder^ 
aft ^«tnK^j>1^4Aa&tiqtte,antlonuitetoahigli degne. Then an 
i^ ttdd \AaA. letter 'ntlaa alturnatel; at tha liead of the pages, and kige 
rtd tetters elt iJie comtnffncdiaffllt of eaoli dWnon, each new chapter bdng 
auntiotUltdd b; admua'bl; exectttod, 'i^^t. ^-Eiuhioiled-lDokiiig ^aiden, 
rtUkt, B(tt^ SUtl ihb^ E(ceb«i, aU evidcfntly preporad specify for fitiiB 
wtt:^ The iOtttitAtlona propar of t^e voik, on tha otikeT hand, conaitrt o!f 
Y«ts luperior mpteseittatioiu iX a lai^ ntunlMr at the principtd 'fiowos, 
ehmba, and treea, irMch coma In for tender and ttuiteM doui^ -tt ttie 
baudioftheantbtfr. 

TnWfettinf totbestttiiol^himdi^oi^, Ve Iiave to continue '^ aime 
atyte (tf ttnqnaMcid ^taitie an in dealing with tbe bthei depaitmettte «i!f 13ie 
wittk. Iwiapnthe rtadOTWHsaTerathBtrouhlaof detiMcrificlflBikby ■ 
adUMpalJbg -what the merita of the woi^ s^uU be, vhan ve inHiftibn 
whatoiigbt tobenoawoet, that'theatithoi: is Ifn Patetaon, dkn^htet of 
On late hmented Di Csmlthen, edltOF 6f the Timtfnteta Ooarier, tad 
vliett #efaf1dieT oh«mre thctt'theboolEh^oiQnBfuraidies ample evidence 
that the tmccaaiBOn to tlte accdmpliahed father'^ rich and eztensirb 'be/rit- 
age of cnltnie, tsfite, and inftinnatioti, baa not conformed to the Eoiic ^Mr 
by BaitfiidngttMtf to "'hBiM male of the body." 

The -work cOnairts ttf niJie dififliona or chaptets, each troltbift of 
floimti, trees, And phmts, -whethet as ol^ectB of nae, omtnnant, ^p}n8 
emblem, or hetaldio badge ;-fhe ndttudind 'habits df plants, dn^ ih ftxt, 
alintrit *f eij c<taoeivaMB pnrpote to vhieb they hare 'been deroted "by 
tha uecesrities 01 the fancies of man. MonUdh legend, the ttoK-liDnBea 
of stoi^, ahdlih&-tidi tteAUriei t^'pctetryiik OTWjr'tbtipB and dime, hare 
btei put wtdat taibota to 40Biiil«t* ttte vMt MSCtmnlMian of "fld^rer 
loM''<vltt[dL'tin'giftpdmihor hda Inought tO((«tlMi^ mud all effeoted with 
th» tOMt -adaiiible dncritniBation and taata Not ia Uie tendbi mA 
tevtng vdnontiai df theaal^ftot which ia neoMsan in a'work tA t^ kteA 
to be mM With Aiete^ in the 'nomennis eKtiaota ftom all the M<iM« 
placed andaiomtributitB, .bat tlie author heiMtf, if 'not in pomtof ^*«ti 
apott/iapOMeiRdof aTevflaige^Mffe of tiae OonMttiRitttk 'fiKtti irlriah 
pdirtaan mfede,'<tne'of them being a large «ud Icnring adndntlon rf the 
wwkf i>f iMttin, wltii « •pi)^)iUMtte i^jniMistlim of all that is bMntffbland 
elnttti&g and 'good in tbe wttld aioUnd. 

This w«tk is certainly -cMupoud in the " htq^iiage of Soveis," not m 
tha oidinaiy and aibiknoy acfi^tjon of that ^ffaaej It ia^fUthfdl in- 
terpreter of the speech of the " tongues ia 1x«es " ^>ok!enof l^ttie'pmt, ' 
aa wdl'aa (tf.tiu utteiaaeasof Uu '^faeart," which the &ncf gf the anoiento 
pat " in W^ atudng leat" 



i,Googlc 



MpatAWR?. 



^f 



of saored pUnU and fioirewi, find ODnt*iB wd^s ca^tpbHttqwi, 4nU«<l 
&ii;ix aU coop^vable WOTceA iUnrtntix^ of the emblqnwtiq mm tp, irliieli 

j^juvto huT* bow wpU(4 iI^ 8,11 tiww^ wwW^ liy tt« fifffOci. Rww- 

frJu^ Akin ill mH^vA k c]}t^tar III., woh 4*alA Tith "qspivi^ont 
Donnected with tnea, plants, and floWQi^'* aod ^ ^«pl(4« W^tb jntipit. 
pQihapB the chapter to whiolk the Celt vould be expected to attach moit 
importance u the one on the om ot jAmtt as heTaldio symboli, and in 
pamcular the part of H lefemng to the Celts and their variotu badgea of 
distinction. S^ ]?4wbqTi. fan^elMf % coivjil9tf> l^ of Qw Tuiona clana 
and &milieB of uie Highlands, and undei the name of each, pvea the 
bodge vMch diatinguiahsd it flram ita neighbonr. Etoit nlM»m»T), how- 
evsT, worth; of the nune, knowa not eii$ las own dectotttionB, bat also 
■omethiB^of thoaeof theotiiei elani; it is tIiM«foM annaoasM^ to gnote 
tii^anttior'a very narfttl table. Chapters V. and VI, aie pf^moiflai^iWtiiflo 
chHa«t«l& W4( devcdied to the hahits of pbnb). Thay erioas a aunnte 
acquaintance m& the nature of plants and flowen ; tne TUlsai Inaeets 
that fiieqnent them ; the order in which thej come l^to bloom ; and '^ 
tbooaaoA oHuar ninftil and entertaining &cta oanseeted with tits isbject. 
^ fc^pwtng fa ftom pa(^ 104 on the " Be&«|biB^ of Hants ^-r^The 
jjE^taUUty of the ron^dew and of Veins' fly -tfi^ i^^des in the haijs whi<^ 
epnng from the diaoa of their labea. Ko sooner doea a fly or other In- 
aeot touch the hairs than the two Ipbe^ of which the 1^ oonsiatjB collapse 
and entnp the hapless intruder, retaining it there until its body beconua 
decomposed and absorbed, when the le^ reopens to peifom; a pkoilar 
^I^ctipni" 

Apropos of this canuTOrona propensity of tiie class of planto rafamd 
to, the jratbn- glTeii the {oUowiqg bit <rf l^ntnoroas rhyme ftom " flctiV 



And watU and IUmT 
TbolttUiirin, 

Ht*Danrk^Imk 
Dior that v«md payr» 

Tbsr ikoiiM ndt nt 
Of Jft inght io dtfwdla^ 
Ahi <t vooU W 




AwtTet,to«* 
Wtmi fall a Seotn 



l^nw^lf 



Kill kit ht> woe* 
k fun tallad aranutla, 

All I KlMitehioin 

mA »owwt that UnM, 
^4ii>l|ltiw!«kt(|k«Ut(, 

Tb net foi ni 



F{9B. dln^t qfaf^eUh lahfcUi, 

A wor^ 1^ fioTw; kre wpnW be, lp?on;^letfi witJmnt « «h«iptNr m 
this '*I*n(pi»g6of Flpwers." It need not be said that ift the iforS beftH« 
OS there is a whole VfAatm deypt^ tQ fbftS^li^^ 7%ft % iMiPNlkff 



•268 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

flowen is, of oooim, taken dowa &om their own lips ! The book cloaes 

Rppiopiutel; with a chapter on "fimeral trees." 

We conclade by ^in leiterating our unqualified testiniony to the 
Uence of the gifted author's labouia, and the gnat beauty of the book 
. work of art. We haTe never aeon a more sucoesaful fttt«mpt at 
" "" g the miiTot up to Katnw." 



Genealogical £iaUs zvHi ifl^tuties. 

■ 

ANSWER TO QUERY. 
iHi HUcHAU.— In Nplyto " Oarbhic ui t* Sixths,*' who write* from South AnfteaUk;— 

1, Tha Hmtm* u* om of tha moit uidant oltiu In tbt North. Thar war* (or- 
auilj Tarj nwaarou la EiDttll, whar* nanr itiU reinmlB. A Ur(« nnmbar have, bow- 
•nr, aulBmtoiL ^la eld TSth Baglmant of Hlghknilora was var; brtialf oomraaad o( 
HaonM, and Mm a^tnidld rtatnra and phrdqafl of tba men from Ihli olnn an atill >•■ 
mambated. ^Rta naisdiei sompanr wm at lint aompoaed af Uaarnaa, sTorr oim dx 
(Ml m mora in h^ht. 

nalr ohlsfa wan the Uwraai of ToTariuata, on Looh Dnkh, Thia (amlly !a nn- 
donbtadlr "t *erT andant orjgta. Tha tradition ef the oonntrr nji tkej ware daaoandad 
from Ftagftl, and that thia la the orl«<B of tha name Hao tU— ion* of Ba Hdr. It U 
oaruln tlwt man)' of tha anuiton of tha praaant fanilf wen bsried at loaa. The 
Ifacraei of Invarinata poaaeaaad the** land*, with manjr othara, on bob aide* sf Loob 
Doiah for about 400 Taan, bat the evtataa ware aold Wf tha grand nnale of tlie pmaant 
ohief, who li Ur Oolln Macrae el Wellhank, Forfanihire, praaantly naiding In Bdin- 



2, The arma of tha olan ara — Argant, a Faaae Aanre, between two Hnlleti in ohiaf, 
id a lion Banpant In baia-gnlta, Th« ahief alao hu two Highlander* a* anmortazK 
le oiaat ia a buid holding a award. Uotto, Fortaudiae. The badge ii the FIi Olnb 



& The Haacaaa have a diitlpot and Terr beantUol tarUn, not onllke that of tbe 
Olan Fraaar, ftlthongh dittinntlj different. The late Hr Eeueth Haolaar, who jialntad 
a aalaotioD of aama at the aig hiand oUb*. alwaji regretted that he waa not aathoiiiad 
to paint a Haorae, aa be said their tartan wai, In hia opinion, tha moat beanUfnl of all 
tha Clini. It ia to be found in the beat warlca on Olan Tartani, although not alwaja 
osneoUj sl"n> ud ia well Icnewn. MioRal, 



A BISTORT OF THE HOUSE AND CLAN OF MACKDT- 
TOSH, b; Alexander Mackintosh Shaw, author of " The Clan Battle of 
Perth," and of " The Highland Family of Shaw," we are glad to find, is to 
be published this year by subscription. Separate accounts will be given 
of the other famUiee- of Clan Chattaa, su<^ aa the Macphetaons, Mac- 
gilliTiayB, Macbeans, Macqueens, Macphails, Shaws, Farqnharsona, and 
others. The readers of tbe Qdtic 'Magaxins will remember Mr Mackin- 
tosh Shaw as the author of the excellently written and valuable articles 
published by us a few years ago on "Bri^kdier Mackintosh of Borlum," 
His claima to do justice to thia work may he judged by the sketch of 
the Clan Ghattan in Fullarton's " Highland Chmi ;" for we are informed 
by the editor in his preface that the narrative of the Clan in that wo^ 
" owes ite value almoat entirely to hia (MaokintoBh Shaw'a) kindnest," 
"who," we are told at p. 197, "haa reviaed the whole." Mr Mackintosh 
Shaw ia engaged in excellent work, and we heartily wish him the aucceu 
he BO well deserves. "We are apparently on the way for having a com- 
plete Mriei of Clan Hiatoriea worthy of our anceators. 



.Google 



Celtic Magazine. 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALBS, 
THE LOSBS OF THE ISLES. 

BZ THE EdITOB. 



IX. Albzandbr, third Lord of the Mes, and after the death of his 
inothur, Countess of Eoes in her own right, he became Earl of 
Boas, which title was in 1429 or 1430 acknowledged by the Crown, not- 
withstanding that his father had given up all claims to it by the treaty of 
Port-Gilp noticed in the previous number. It may be questioned, how- 
ever, whether Donald of Harlaw was entitled to style himself Earl of 
Koes, though he undoubtedly possessed, in right of his wife, the territory 
comprisii^ the Earldom, and notwithstanding that Skene is of opinion 
that Don^d may fairly be considered the first Earl of Koss of the race of 
Somerled ; but be that ae it may, there is no doubt whatever that Alex- 
ander was not only styled Earl of Ross, but was acknowledged as such by 
the Government and the Crown, by right of descent through his mother. 
This IjOrd of the Isles was a man of great spirit and distinguished 
ability, and, like his father and grandfather, was ambitious to found a 
Celtic kingdom of the Isles, the sovereignty of which should bo in his 
own family. At this period, however, Scotland was ruled by James I., 
a man who was exhibiting kingly talents of a high order, and a resolution 
to bring his rebellious vassals, however powerful, to submission. In this 
he was ultimately succeasful, even in the case of the great Lord of the 
Isles, though, at first, more by strategy than by actual force of anna. 
The King, who possessed a remarkable energy, great decision of character, 
and personal bravery unsurpassed, determined to break down the inde- 
pendence and power of the turbulent Island Lords, and, collecting a large 
force, in 1427 he marched, accompanied by bis principal nobles, to the 
town of Inverness with an army which made any resistance on the part 
of the Highlanders quite unavuling. Here he summoned his barons, in- 
cluding the Highland chiefe, to attend a parliament. Even the Lord of 
the Isles, seeing the power and splendour of the King, thought it prudent 
to obey ; and, with most of the Northern barons, he proceeded to meet 
Tting James at Inverness. As they entered the hall in which the parlia- 



h, Google 



210 THIE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

ment was assembled, each of these haughty nobles was immediatiely 
arrested, and placed in irons in different parts of the building, not one of 
them being permitted to communiuiite with any of the others. Among 
the prisoners were Alexander of the Isles ; his mother, the Countess of 
EoBS J Alexander of Gatmoran, and several of the most powerful chiefs in 
the Highlands. It is said that the King exhibited marks of great joy as 
he saw those powerful Highland Lords marching into the toils which he 
had 80 treacherously prepared for them. Alexander of Garmoran, as well 
as several others, was tried, couTicted, and adjudged to be decapitated oa 
tJie spot, and his whole possessions forfeited to the crown, while moat of 
the others were sent to different castles and strongholds throughout the king- 
dom, until the majority of them were afterwards condemned to various 
kinda of death ; while a few were set at liberty after various terms of 
imprisonment. Among Uie latter was Alexander of the Isles. No 
one can defend this mean act of treachery by the King, however biave or 
otherwise distinguished, though Hill Burton ti'ies to excuse him ; but 
while telling us that " It is useless to denounce such acts," he makes the 
admission, which is not altogether inapplicable even to the present day, 
namely ; — That at that time " there was no more notion of keeping faith 
with tiie ' Irishry,' whether of Ireland or Scotland, than with the beast of 
piey luied to his trap ;" after which he proceeds to say that those whom 
it was deemed fitting to get rid of were put to death, and that nothing 
Temuns to show that there was even the ceremonial of a trial* 

The Earldom of Eoss, which had been procured by Eobert, Duke of 
Albany, for his sen, John Stewart, Earl of Buchan, on its resignation at 
Port-Gilp by Donald of Harlaw, fell to the Crown by the death, in 1424, 
of the Earl of Buchan, who was killed in that year at the battle of 
Vemeuil in Franco ; whereupon the King at once restored it to the 
heiress of line, the mother of Alexander of the Isles. In 1425 Alexander 
of the Isles and " Master of the Earldom of Eoss," sat upon the jury 
which condemned to death the enemy of his family, Murdoch, Duke of 
Albany, his two sons, and the Earl of Lennox, for the murder of young 
Kothesay. Ho does not, however, seem from the above to have loitg 
continued in favour at Court, and it may be interesting to have Gregory's 
views of the reasons and influences which led Alexander at that time into 
opposition to the King. It has been mentioned, he says, that Godfrey, 
Lord of Uist, on the death of his younger brother, Banald, asserted suo- 
cessAzUy his claim to the If orth Isles and Garmoran, &om which he had 
been unjustly excluded by his &ther. Both Godfrey and Banald left 
male issue who must naturally have been opposed to each other, like their 
fathers ; but the meagre notices we possess of the domestic feuds in the 
Highlands and Isles at this period, do not enable us to trace the prepress 
of these dissensions. It may be readily conceived, however, that where 
such a prize was in dispute, much bloo>l would be shed and many atrocities 
committed. The issue of Godfrey, or the Siol Gorrie, as they i^ere called, 
must for a time have acquired a superiority over the Clanranald or the 
descendants of Banald ; for in the year 1427 we find mention made by a 
contemporary writer of an Alexander MacGorrie of Garmoran, then de- 
scribed as a leader of two thousand men. In addition to the disturbances 

* Hi»t0T7 ol SwtUud, vol ii,, j02 ; Blaokwood & Sou, 1876. 



Google 



SISTOET OF THE MACD0NALD8. 211 

sure to arise out of the rival claims of two Bach powerful fivmilies, closely 
connected with the Lord of the leles, there were other eircumstanoea, in 
addition to these, which tended to inTolvo his Lonlahip in feuds which 
Ma natural disposition inclined him to settle more with the aword than 
by an appeal to the laws. There waa a certain John MacAxthnr, of the 
&mily of Camphell, and a leader of some note in the Highlands, who 
appears to have revived about this period a claim which one of hia 
anceatora had acquired over a portion of Garmoran and the Korth Isles, 
and it can easily be conjectured what reception the aasertions of auch pre- 
teusious would receive from Alexander of the Isles and hia warlike rela- 
tives. There is a charter of the lands of Moydort, &c, by Chriatina, 
daughter of Allan MacRuari, in favour of Arthur, son of Sir Arthur 
Campbell, knight, early in the fourteenth century, which is found, quoted 
for the names of the witneases, in a MS. history of the Macnaughtana, in 
the Advocates' Library, The event, however, which appears to have had 
most effect in throwing the Highlands aud Islands into confusion at this 
time waa the murder of John, Lord of Isla and Kintjre, uncle to the 
Lord of the Isles, by a man, James Campbell, who is said to have received 
a commission from the King to apprehend John of Isla, but who ex- 
ceeded hia instructions by putting him to death. When it is considered 
in what lawless state even the more acceasible portiona of the kingdom 
were found on hia accession by James L, owing to the incapacity and the 
weakness of the regent, Murdoch, Duke of Albany, it can easily be con- 
ceived how the murder of the uncle of Alexander of the Isles, and the 
leader of a powerful branch of the Macdonalds, should have raised dis- 
turbances in the Western Highlands and lales which required all the 
energy and personal bravery of the King to auppresa.* Among the most 
prominent of thoae executed at Inverness in 1427 was the above-named 
John MacArthur, and Jamea Campbell, hanged for the murder of John 
of Isla, as if to show the aupposed impartiality of the treacherous proceed- 
ings of the King and his parliament on that occasion. Hugh Macdonald 
informs us that while the Lord of the Isles waa confined in Tantallon 
Castle, the King aent tbia John Campbell to know " if John More of 
Kintyre, Macdonald's uncle, would take all hia nephew's land ; but it was 
a trap laid to weaken them that they might be the more easily conquered. 
James Campbell aent a man with a message to John of Kintyre, desiring 
him to meet him at a point colled Ard-Do, with soiiie prudent gentlemen, 
and that he had matters of conaequence from the King to bo imparted to 
him. John came to the place appointed with a small retinue, but Jamea 
Campbell with a very great train, and told (him) of the King's intention 
of granting him all the lands possessed by Macdonald, conditioDally he 
would hold of him and serve him. John said he did not know wherein 
hia nephew wronged the King, and that his nephew waa aa deserving of 
his rights as he could be, and that he would not accept of thoae lands, 
nor serve for them, till his nephew would be aet at liberty ; and that hia 
nephew himaelf was as nearly related to the King as he could be. James 
Campbell, hearing the answer, said that he (John of Isla) was the King's 
prisoner. John made all the resistance he could, till, overpowered by 
numbers, be waa killed. His death made a great noise thioi^h the king- 



* Oregorj'i Weitem HlghlaDda and Ib1«s, pp. 31-35. 



Google 



212 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

dom, parHculaily among the faction in opposition to the King, viz., the 
Hamiltona. Douglaasee, and Lindsaya. The King at last being ashamed 
of what had happened, he pursued James Campbell as the murderer ; and 
although Campbell prateated be had the Eing'a authority for so doing, 
yet the King denied haTing given any other orders than that of appre- 
hending him, if he would not come into the tarma proposed to him ; and 
because Campbell had no written order from the King to produce in his 
defence, he was taken and beheaded, which shows the dangerous conse- 
quences of undertaking such a service without due circumspection."* 

The young Lord of the Ides was sent south, some aay to Edinburgh, 
and others to Perth, where he was kept in captivity for a short time, and 
then liberated. His conduct immediately after his release shows that he 
felt the indignity of his capture and imprisonment very deeply. Accord- 
ing to Gregory, hia mother, the Countess of Eoaa, had meanwhile died, 
though Bower states that in 1429 she was charged with encouraging her 
BOn in hia violent proceedings, and was arrested and confined at Inchcolm, 
in the Firth of Forth, where she is said to have remained fourteen montha 
after, a prisoner. But Gr^ory points out that this is hardly reconcilable 
with a charter, dated 24th October 1429, in which her son styles himself 
Earl instead of Maeter of Eoss. We do not think the simple change 
from the title of^iMfer to that of ^arJ at all unlikely during her life, when 
all the circumstances are taken into account — his mother, who quite possibly 
may have even resigned in his favour, being a state priBoner ; and the 
necessity that he should use every influence, which the assumption of the 
title was calculated to strengthen, to raise the vassals of the Earldom for 
Ma projected raid on the Lowlands. 

He raised a force of about ten thousand men in Boss and the Isles, 
with whom he marched to Inverness, where he wasted the Crown lands 
and burnt the town to ashes, in revenge for the treacherous treatment 
there extended to him two years before by the King. His followers, ac- 
cording to the MS. History of the Mackintoshes, quoted in " Invemessi- 
ana," " were a band of men accustomed to live by rapine, who fell upon 
Inverness, pillaged and burnt the houses, and then besieged the fort 
itseli But in vain, for it was gallantly defended by the bravery and 
Tigoni of the Governor, and Alexander, understanding that an assault 
was meditated upon him, retired precipitately towards Lochaber." The 
King, hearing of the burning of Inverness, prepared at once to vindicate 
his insulted authority, and with great promptitude collected a large force, 
which he commanded in person, and inarched them into Lochaber, where 
he came upon the Island Chief quite unexpectedly. On the appearance 
of the Eoyal forces the Clan Chattan and the Camerons, who had hitherto 
followed the banner of the Lord of the Isles, deserted him and went over 
to the King, who immediately attacked the Islanders, routed them, and 
pursued them so closely that their chief was obliged to sue for peace. 
This the King sternly refused on any other terms ttuin an absolute and 
unconditional surrender, which the haughty Lord of the Isles declined to 
make, whereupon the King returned home, leaving strict orders with hia 
commandeis to make every effort to capture the Earl, who found it neces- 
sary to flee for shelter, leaving his army to take care oi itself as best it 

" Coll«ataD*a De Btbm Albaniab, p, 308. 

Do,l,.cdbyGoO(^lc 



HI8T0ET OF THE MACDONALDS. 313 

could. He was ultimately driven to despair by the energy and Tigilanoo 

of his pursuers, and determined to throw himself on the mercy of the 
King, Trhioh he did by presenting himself hefore him, his Queen, and 
Court, while assembled, on Easter Sunday, at a solemn festival in the 
Church of Holyrood, engaged in their devotions before the High Altar. 
The haughty chief, with bonnet in hand, his legs and anna quite bare, 
his body covered only with a plaid, in hia shirt and drawers, with a 
naked sword in hishMidheldhythepoint, which, in token of submission, 
he offered to the Kii^ on bended knees, imploring his forgiveness. " Hia 
appearance, with the solicitations of the affected Queen and all the nobles, 
made such on inipression on bis majesty that he completely submitted to 
the promptings of his heart, against the wiser and more prudent dictates 
of his better judgment He accepted the sword offered to him, and 
spared the life of his captive, but immediately committed him to Tantallon 
Caatle, under the chaise of William Douglas, Earl of Ai^na. The spirit 
of hia followers, however, could not brook this mortal offence, and the 
whole strength of the Clan was mustered under Donald Balloch, a coneio 
of the Lord of the lalea. They were led to Loohaber, where they met the 
King's forces, under the Earls of Mar and Caithness, killed the latter, 
gained a complete victory over the Boyal forces, and retnmed to the IsleB 
in triumph with a great quantity of spoil. James i^ain came north in 
person as far as Dunstaffnage ; Donald Balloch fled to Ireland ; and after 
several encounters with the Highlanders, the King received the submi*- 
sion of most of the chiefs who were engaged in the rebellion ; others were 
apprehended and executed, to the number of about three hundred, after 
which he released the Earl from Tantallon Caatle. and granted him a free 
pardon for all bis rebellioos acts, confirmed him in all hia titlea and pos> 
seeaionfl, and conferred upon him the Lordship of Lochaber, which had 
previously, on its forfeiture, been granted to the Earl of Mar.'* 

Skene has been led into the error of saying that Donald Ballooh was 
the son of E^inald, and the Chief of Clanranald ; whereas he was the 
son of John Mor Tannister, elder brother of Donald of Hatlaw, and 
ancestor of the Macdonnells and Earls of Antrim. He also fell into the 
mistake of beheving in the ruse played upon the King, when a head, said 
to be that of Donald Balloch, was sent to him by Conn O'Neil, an Imh 
chief; for he informs us that King Jamea, seeing that the absence of 
their chief, so far from rendering the Clan more disposed to become 
amenable to his will, rather roused them to acts of rebellion and revenge, 
and that it was better to have at their head a chief who had become bound 
to him from acts of clemency, than to expose them to the influences of 
the other branches of the family, who were now irritated by the indignity 
ofiered to their legitimate chief; he therefore proceeded in person to the 
north, for the purpose of quelling the remains of the rebellion. His ex- 
pedition was attended with hia usual success by the submission of all the 
chiefs who had been engaged in it " Donald Balloch was soon after this 
betrayed, and his head sent to the King, upon which ho at once restored 
the Lord of the Isles to liberty, granted him a free pardon for all the 
various acts of rebelhon he had been guilty of, and also confirmed him 
not only all bis titles and possessions, but even granted him the Ixirdship 

■ Hutorj and Qtnulo^eg at tb« Oltn Madkonzie, bv tbe same aalhoT, 1S7%.W. 19^ 



314 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

of Locha1:>er, vhich had besD forfeited from his consm Alexander, and 
given to the Eail of Mar."* The prudence of this policy on the piart of 
the King wu aoon apparent, foi al^ough the Island Chief was natuTeJly 
more disposed to take np an antagonistic position to the Crown, and 
vent the length of even entering into a treaaonahle league with the Earia 
of Crawford and Douglas, who at the time led the opposition to the King, 
he did not again disturb the peace of the nation aa long as he lived. 
Donald Balloch inherited through his mother, Margery Biaaet, the dis- 
trict of the Glens in Ireland, whither he had betaken himself after the 
dispeieion of his army, and after he had ravaged and spoiled the territories 
of the Clan Chattan and the Camerons, who had left him and gone over 
to the King. Most of the subordinate insurgent leaders submitted to the 
dreaded James, and tried to avoid punishment by throwing the whole 
blame of the insurrection on Donald Balloch, whose power, they 
declared, they daied not leaist. B^afdlng Donald and his reputed deca- 
pitation, Gregory says that " on the letum of James to Edinburgh, a 
head, said to he that of Donald Balloch, was sent to him by Hugh Bay 
O'lfeill, an Irish chief of Ulster ; and it was generally believed at the Scot- 
tish Court that the ringleader of the late insanection was now no mora 
Bnt as Donald Balloch certainly snrvived King James many years, it is 
obvious that the sending of the head to Edinburgh was a stratagem 
devised by the crafty Inlander in order to check further pursuit, "t 

The date of this battle, according to HiU Burton and Gr^oiy, was 
143). The former tells that an extraordinary tax was granted on the 
occasion of it " for the resistance of the King's lebeUers of the north," 
which was to be such that " in all in lands of the realm where the yield 
of twa pennies was ndset, there be now ten pennies raiset." [Vol iL, p. 
403]. Afta describing the battle of Inveriochy, the author of " The 
Macdonnells of Antrim " informs ua that the Lowland tnights, who were 
very numerous in the Boyal army, plumed themselves on the superior 
armour and discipline of their men, bnt soon found that even this was of 
no avail against the furious onset of their Highland foes, who wielded 
their broadswords and Lochaber-axes with all the ferocity of Northern 
warfara According to him, at least one thousand of the King's army 
were slain, among whom were the Earl of Caithness, and sixteen of hu 
peisonal retinue, together with several knights and barons from the 
southern counties of Scotland, after which the Highltmd host dispersed 
itself into marauding parties, spoiled the county, and then returned to 
their native fastnesses, having only lost some fifty of their comrades in. 
arms on the battlefield. "Dont^d Balloch, and several other leaders, 
having had their revei^, steered their galleys across the channel, and 
sought rest and security, which they veiy much needed, in the woody 
glens of Antrim. They were soon followed by a despatch from the Scot- 
ti^ £ing to O'Neill, requesting the latter to seize and send back D<niald 
Balloch alive or dead. O'Neill, who had previously entered into a treaty 
with James I. of mutual assistance against England, sent the latter a 
human head, which was joyously accepted as tiiat of Donald Balloch 
by the Scottish Court then at Perth. Bat Donald Balloch retained pos- 
session of his own head, and at tJie time of this other head's transmission 



jb,GoO(^lc 



HISTOET OF THE MACDO^TALDS. 318 

to Scotland ha waa actually paying his addrasaes to O'Keill'a daughter, 
whom he aoon afterwards married, and through whose powerful connec- 
tions ho was restored without much delay to his estates in Isla and Can- 
tire." This lady was the daughter of Conn O'Neill (son of Hugh Buy 
O'Neill), who resided at a place called EdendofTcairick, and now known 
as Shane's Castle, in Ireland, where he died in the year 1482. 

Following up his account of the execution of James Camphell at 
Invemeaa in 1427 for the murder of John Mor Tanniater, father of 
Donald EaUoch, Hugh Macdonnld proceeda to describe the incidents 
which led up to the battle of Inveilochy, the battle itself, and the events 
which followed upon it, in a manner so detailed and interesting that, even 
&t the risk of some htUe repetition, we shall place it before the reader, 
slightly modernising the phraseology. He says : — All those about the King 
wished to impair Macdonald's estate and diminish his grandeur, to which 
the King himself was not very aToise. They now thought it a convenient 
time for their puipoae, the Lord of the Isles being in prison (In Tantallon 
Castle) and his uncle, John Mor, dead, to seize on the lands of Lochaber, 
whereupon, Alexander, Earl of Mar, who had received a grant of these 
lands from the King, levied a groat army by his Majesty'a directions, 
namely, the followers of Huntly ; Allan, Lord of Caithness ; Fraser of 
Lovat, Mackintosh, Mackay of Strathnaver, Giant, and the Chief of the 
Cametons, who enticed some of Macdonald's vassals, by making them 
great promises, to join with them, and that the rights they formerly held 
of Macdonald woi^d be confirmed to them by the King. The vass^ 
and the freeholders, considering that Macdonald's power was entirely 
gone and rained, and believing they would never again see him installed 
in his possessions, through greed and covetousness they joined the King's 
party, So, coming to Lochaber, they pitched their tents near the Castle 
of Invarlodiy, Fraser of Lovat • was sent to harass Sunart and Ardna- 
murchan with 3000 men, to secure provisions for the army and the camp, 
Macdonald obtaining information of these proceedings, and finding an 
opportunity, sent a message from his prison of Tantallon to the Highltuida 
desiring those whom he trusted most to face the enemy, though they 
might never t^in get a sight of him. So Donald Balloch, his conain- 
german (John Mot's son, at the time only 18 years of age, and who was 
fostered by Maclean), gathered all those who faithfully adhered to }£b^ 
donald's interest, and oame to Caraa, an island in Loch Sunait, where, 
meeting with the Laird of Ardnamurchan ; Allan, son of Allan of Moy- 
dart ; and his brother, Eanald B^n (for these were the principal men of 
the name who were with him). He picked out the best of theii men to 
the number of 600, most of whom were gentlemen and fi^eeboldere, and 
all of whom came in their galleys to Inverakippinish, two miles aouth oi 
tiverlochy. Now Alaatair Carrach, Macdonald's younger uncle, who 
held the lands of Lochaber east of Lochy, and whose posterity are yet 
there, took possession of the hiU above the enemy with 220 archers, b«ng 
imable by the smallness of their number to face the enemy, and expecting 
that some of his Mends would at last come to his relief. Upon seeing 
his nephew, I>onaId Balloch, he was, however, much animated. As 
Donald Balloch drew near the Eoyal forces, Huntly stepped into the Earl 

» jeu, 1131. 



Google 



316 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

of Mar's tent, wbere ho and Mackintosh were playing at cards. HnnUy 
suggested to them to give np their play as the enemy were close at hand. 
They (the card-players) asked if the enemy were in great force, when 
Huntty replied that they were not very numerous, but he could see that 
they were determined to ^ht " Well," said Mackintosh, " we'll play 
this game, and dispute with these fellows afterwaida," Huntly E^;aiu 
looked out, when he saw the enemy driving on furiously towards them ; 
he goes a second time to the tent, saying, " Gentlemen, fight stoutly, or 
render yourselves to your enemies." Mackintosh replied that they 
" would play that game, and would do with the enemy what they pleased 
afterwards, and tluit he knew very well the doings of the big-bellied 
carles of the Isles." " Whatever they he," replied Huntly, " they will 
fight like men this day," when Mackintosh retorted that "though he bim- 
sdf (Huntly) should assist tbem, their (Mackintosh's) party would defeat 
them both." Whereupon Huntly went out of the tent in a r^e, saying 
that he would fight none against the Highlanders that day. He then, 
drew his men aside, and " was more of a spectator than of either party." 
" Then joining battle, Donald Balloch made a main battle, and a front of 
his men." The front was commanded by Maclan of Ardnamurchan, Hid 
John Maclean of Coll ; the main battle by Eanald Bin, son of John M6r, 
murdered by James Campbell (and a natural brother of Donald Balloch, 
who became progenitor of the family of Lairgy), and Allan, son of Allan, 
Laird of Moidart (of whom descended the family of Knoydart), and Mao- 
Duffie of Colonsay, MacQuanie of TJlva, and MacGee of the Rinds of 
lela. As the combatants faced one another. Alastair Carroch and his 220 
archers poured down the brae of the hill on which they had planted them- 
selves, and shot their arrows ho thick, on the flank of the Eoyal army, as 
to compel them to give way. Allan, Lord of Caithness ; a son of Lovat ; 
and 990 were killed. Hugh Mackay of Strathnaver was taken prisoner, 
and he married a daughter of Alexander Macdonald of Keppoch, " of 
whom descended the race of Mackays called Slioc Ean Abrich." Donald 
Balloch lost only 27 men. The Earl of Mar was wounded in the thigh 
by an arrow, and was in the hills for two nights accompanied only by his 
servant, in a starving condition, for they had no provisions. At last he 
fell in with some women tending their cattle, who happened to have a 
little barley meal for their own use, and with which they relieved the 
Earl and his servant, mixing it with a little water in the heel of the Earl's 
own shoe. The Earl, after he and bis servant hod satisfied their hunger, 
composed the following lines in Gaelic : — 

'S mftth u oooaira tn t teitM, 

'S mairg 'd1 UiUau tic biwlli, 

Fiung Born' % inil mo bhrulge 

BUdh u fhsMT a fhnur ml iLimb. 

The Earl left his clothes with the woman that he might disguise himself, 
and he travelled all night until he came to a small house, on a spot of 
land called Bej^ch, bdonging to an Irishman named O'Birrin, He told 
this man that he was one of the Earl of Mar's followeis, and that necessity 
obliged him to disguise himself for fear of being discovered. The man 
was going to slaughter a cow as the Earl came to his place, and he 
desiied the stranger to hold her. " The Earl was more willing to obey 
his landlord's orders than skillful to act as biftcheL" The Ihehman. dis' 



i>,Goog[c 



mSTORT OF THE MACDOKALDS. 217 

satisfied with the awkward manner in which he waa assisted by the Earl, 
" cnrsed those who took such a blockhead abroad to be a soldier. At 
last he cuta some collops which he gave to the Earl to diess foi himself, 
which he could not very well do, until his landlord did it for bim, by 
roasting them upon the coals. At going to bed he washed the Earl's feet 
in warm water, cleaned and washed Ms wound. When the Earl laid 
himself down, he could not sleep with cold, being rery scarce of bed' 
clothes, O'Birrin got up, took the cow's hide, and warming it to the 
fire, wrapped it about the Earl, which wanned him so much that he per- 
spired during the whole night In the morning, after such refreshments 
as they had, the Earl said he would go to Badenoch." He informed his 
host that he did not know the way Uiitber, but would do his best to find 
it, whereupon the Irishman made him fill his pockets with the flesh of 
the cow, and then convoyed him three or four miles on his way. When 
they parted company the stranger told him if he should ever find hims^ 
in tightened circumstances, to go to Kildrummie, the seat of the Eail of 
Mar, and ask there for Alexander Stewart, who would cause the Earl to 
reward him for his present kindness to himsel£ Some time after the 
Irishman did as he was told, and amving at Kildrummie, asked for Alex- 
ander Stewart, when the porter told him that " he was a fool, for there 
was no such man there," but the Irishman continued to knock until the 
Eail himself at last heard him, and, calling for the porter, he asked him 
who was knocking at the gate. The latter replied that " he was some 
fool enquiring for Alexander Stewart" The Earl soon recognised the 
" fool " as his old fiiend the Irishman, ordered the gate be opened to him, 
and kindly embraced him. The Earl Uien addressed him in the following 



His Lordship sent for a twlor, and ordered him at once to make a suit of 
clothes for O'Birrin, whom he requested to bring his wife and son to Ell- 
drummie, but this the Irishman declined, saying that his wife was old, 
and would not leave her native country. After entertaining him for some 
time, the Earl sent O'Birrin home with sixty milch cows, enjoining him 
to send bis son to Eildrummie. The son came " some time thereafter, 
and was made a laird of a small estate, which has since fallen to a gentle- 
man of the name of Eorhes, whereby it may be seen, that a good turn to 
a generous or noble peiaon is not always lost"* 

In the minority of James 11. the Earl of Boss and Lord of the Isles 
held the important ofBce of " Justiciar of Scotland north of the Forth," a 
position which Gregory thinks he probably obtained from Archibald, Earl 
of Douglas and Duke of Touraine, then Lieutenant-General of Scotland. 
There is no account extant &om which it can he ascertained in what 
manner the Eail exercised the duties of his high office ; hat it is supposed 
that it was under colour of it that he inflicted his vengeance on the Chief 
of the Cameions about this time for deserting him and going over to the 
Boyal standard, in Lochaber, and in consequence of wMch Lochiel 
was forced to fly to Ireland, where he remained for several years j 



* InDUQUoni of Um low Olnb, pp, 3(I8-S1& 



i,Googlc 



ai8 THE CELTIC UAOAZINE. 

and in his atsence Ub lands veie 'bestowed by the Sail of Rosa upon 
Johne Qaire Maclean, ancecitor and founder of the family of CoIL 

He married Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Seton, Lord of Gordon 
and Huntly, and by her had iaeue — 

1. John, his successor. 

2. Oelestine, variously styled AroMbald, and its Gaelic equivalent, 
Gillespie, Lord of Locbalsh and Lochcatron. He married Finvola, 
daughter of Lachlau Maclean of Duart, with issue — Sir Alexander Mac- 
donald of Locbalsh (Alastoir MacGillespic) who afterwaide, in 1488 
fought the &mouB battle of Park with the Mackenzies, and of whom 
h6ieaft«T. 

3. Hugh, often called "Austin" and " Au^[ustino," being a corruption 
of the Gaelic equivalent of Hugh, i.e., Huidean or Uistean, He was 
styled Lord of Sleat, and married, first, Finvola, daughter of Maclan of 
Ardnamurchan, by whom he had John, his heir, who died without issue. 
He married, secondly, a lady of the Clan Gunn in Caithness, by whom 
he had issue, who carried on the succession, and whose descendants are 
now held, by general concuirence, to represent, as heirs male, John, last Earl 
ofRoss andLord of the Ia[e8,forfeitedinthesehonours, respectively, in 1475 
and 1494. A question has been raised about the legitimacy of Cdestine 
and Hugh, as well as of Hugh's descendants, especially Donald Gallach, 
firom whom is descended the present Lord Macdonald of the Isles. Be- 
specting Hugh, after describing the results of a successful raid under 
Imn to Orkney, Hugh Macdonald says, that "Havii^ routed tho 
enemy, Austin (Hugh) and his party began to ravage the country, that 
being the only reward they had for their pains and fatigue, with 
which, having loaded their galleys, they returned home. Austins 
havii^ halted at Caitliness, he got a son by the Crowner of Caithness's 
daughter, of tJie name of Gun, which at that time was a very fiourishing 
name there, descended of the Banes. This son was called Donald Gal- 
lich, being hrou^t up in that county in his younger yeai* ; for the 
ancient Scots, until this day, call the county of Caithness Gallibh." So- 
ferring to the two ^mUies of John, first Lord of the Isles, Skene says 
[vol ii, p. 96] that the representation of his children by his second 
marrisge, with the daughter of Robert IL " clearly devolv^ed upon the 
Macdonalds of Sleat, who were descended of Hugh, brother of John, the 
last Lord of the Isles," and at page 96 he says that " it is fully admitted 
that the family of Sleat are the undoubted representatives of the last Lord 
of the Isles." Smibert calls Hugh of Sleat a " full brother " of John, 
Lord of the Ides, and says that " he left a line which indubitably had the 
cleu^t direct claims, as legitimate descendants, to the &mily hononra 
and inheritance." Gregory, who says that it is uncertain whetiier they 
are by the same mother as John or not, is more learned, and in a foot- 
note, p. 41, writes : — " I call these sons legitimate notwiUistanding that 
Celestine is called 'filiua naturcdW by Earl Alexander (charter in ehutu 
chest of Mackintosh 1447), and 'frater camaiia' by £^1 John (B^. of 
Great Seal, vL, 116, 1463), and that Hugh is likewise called 'frater 
carnalie ' by Earl John (charter in Westfield Writs, in the possession of 
Alex. Dunbar, Esq. of Scrabster, 1470). They are, however, both called 
' frater,' without any qualification, by Earl John (Eeg. of Great Seal, vi., 
116, xiiL, 186). The history of Celestine and Hi^h and their descend- 



HI8T0SY OF THE MACDONALDS. Sid 

ants, B8 pren in the present vork (Highlands and lalee), BniBcientl; 
showa that they were considered lef^itimate, and that, cosBeqnently, the 
words 'natoralia' and 'carnalis,' taken hj themselves, and without the 
adjunct ' hastardue,' do not necessarily imply haatardy. It is probable 
that they were used to designate the issue of those handiaat, or left-handed 
marriages, which appear to have been bo common in the Highlands and 
Isles. Both naturalis and eamalis are occasionally applied to individuals 
known to be Intimate in the strictest sense of the twm." This import- 
ant question will bo more fully diacnsswl when wo come to consider the 
Tospective claims to the Chie&hip of the race of Uacdonald, and of its 
Tarions branches, 

Alexander of the Isles had also several danghteis, one of whom 
4. Margaret, married the Earl of Sutherland, and another 
6. Florence, who married Duncan Mackintosh, IX. of Mackintosh, 
with issue. 

He died, at his Castle of Dingwall, on the 8th of May U48, and was 
eacceeded 1^ hia eldest son. 

(lo le CorUimed.) 



MAIGHDEAN LOCH-N AN-EALA. 

'S AM tiom a dh' fhalbb, bha aon do Thigheaman Lo(^-nan-Kala aig an 
rohh nighean mhaiseach, eiieachdaU, a thug gaol do Thigheam bg a 
chloinn Dhomtmnill. '8 an am sin bha an dit f bins thar a cheile — na 
Caimbeulaicb 's na Domhnnllaieh ; is dia leigeadh a h'athair leatha a 
phosadh. Bha e na chleachdadh aice bhi dol gu r6inn na Gtarbhaird, is a 
bhi coir litrichean ann an aoitheach £igin a bha an aruth aig am soniaicht 
a giulan a dh' ionnsaidh an taohh eile far an robh esan g 'am faighiun. 
Ma dheireadh, ann an oidhiipeacfaadh teicheadh, chaidh a bathadh aii a 
Chonthoil. 

Tha Loch-nan-Eala br6nach 

Tha 'n Domhnullach fo ghruaim, 

Tha a Chonathuil ri cronan 

'8 tha h' eoin ri guileadh tbruagh ; 

Tha Maighdeaa an f hnilt or-bhuidhe 

An seiimai nan tonn uain', 

*8 tha 'n f heamuiun roadh a eomhdach 

An oigh is ftilU'^t' snnadh. 

Oir thug i gaol a h oige 
Do Dhomhiiull og nan Gleann, — 
Fleaegaoh, maiseach, ordhaoic, 
A^choimeas clu rohh ann ; 



ii,Googlc 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

'S mnr bitheodh a V sthair iai^t, 

A fiaraeh grtidh a cri', 

Cha Tobh i 'n diugh la h'ianaidh 

Measg iasg ha faii^a 11'. 

'8 ana thug e dhi teann ordugh 
A eul chnii ria gu bmib ; 
No fear do fhtiil chloinn Dhomlmmll 
Niusb glacadb i air laimh ; 
Aoh IfL air fatbh dha sealgach 
'S a Ghaibhaird aii son fhiadh, 
Ghreaa iae thar na Chonathuil, 
A cboinneachadli fear a miaim, 

Knaii leum i anus a bhkta 
'S a ghlac i 'n i^jtih na doin, 
A sealladh bha gun ardan — 
A gruaidhean bk' le deoii — 
A bioilleach geal a' g" eiiidh 
Le mheud b a bha do Btri 
Sa chridhe bha ga leireadh 
Le nibble na h-as-sitb. 

Bb'on chladacb nuair a gblnais i 

'S a tbeann i Buas do'n Phleoid,* 

An BTutb le b4uc an uambau 

Fo bhuaireaa air a toir, 

Mo chioach I mo leir I mo tbinaigbe I 

Tha chnartag ud fo sroin 

8 mar chuibhle sneachd Ba cbuairt-ghaoith 

'8 an oair tha i gun treoir. 

Mo neart tha nis ga'm threigsiim 
'8 mo leirsiim a &b dall : 
Tha Boread a glaodb am 4isdeachd 
'8 gun aon thoiit fuasgladb ami ; 
Tha Lochrna-n-Eala deurach 
Tha eigheach feadb na'n gleann, 
Ach 0! cha till an reult ud 
'8 na creagan geui fo coann. 

8a Qis air roinn na Gaibhaird 

'S an anmocb cha bbi i, 

Is litricheau am balgan 

Cha 'n f haieear falbh le egriob ; 

Ia tbusa mbac Mhic BhomhnuUl^ 

Ail muir cha bbi do abuil 

'8 i nochd na luidhe iuaal 

'S an robh do chri' ■ do dhuiL 

JOHN OAHPBEIX. 

* A amiU otmIc *t the optuing of tha ttXlt. 



Google 



D E E M lif D. 
A Tale op KtrioETLY Dbhds Donb dt Old Datb. 

—Term^xm, 
BOOK I.— "AMOHQ TEE ISLSS OF THE WBSTEBN SEA." 



Chapter VII. — (Continued. J 

"My noble lords and gallant knights," said Brace, perceiving the 
critical nature of the situation, " it were vain to cha^e again. We 
can only reap destruction from oui wasted efforts. Bally round the ladies, 
and let us force a passage through yonder glen. Get ye first and charge 
bravely as ye have already done. Scotland will yet he proud of your 
services, and while ye chaj^e avenge the wounds of Sir James Douglas 
and Sir Guilbert de la Hay. Drive the enemy fearlessly before you, I 
myself will guard the rear, and let no man on pain of death come within 
the reach of my battle-axe." 

The words of the King were received with a general mnrmui of ap' 
probation, and the remnants of his noble, little army were marshalled in 
proper order for forcing a passage through the glen, A thrilling shout 
rose from the men of Lom on perceiving that the Bruce intended to for- 
sake the field ; and a strong body of Highlanders, under the banner of 
Sir Guilbert de Yalancymer, moved down on the sdvanciog column. 
Macnab, supported by a number of the more subordinate chieftains, was 
prepared to follow up the attack of the English Envoy by an assault on 
rear and fiank. Dennond, whose gallantly durii^ the progress of the 
battle had evoked the admiration of his liege lord and the envy of many 
a youth and veteran, was detailed off to defend the pass at all hazaids, . 
The shouting on both sides died away before the commencement of the 
deadly struggle, and the portentous clmk of glittering steel, the rattle of 
bridles, and the thud of the horses hoofs, mingling with the tramp of 
armed men, echoed among the mountains. Squadron after squadron 
assailed the retreating column, but in vaio. It broke right through the 
mass of Islesmen, and carried the mouth of the glen where Dermond was 
beaten back from his post, to the chagrin of the Lord of Lom, who swore 
that the crest of Macneill, who led the van of the enemy, had softened 
the heart of the young chieftain. Bruce kept fighting in the rear, and as 
man after man fdl before the sweep of his powerful arm and deadly wea- 
pon, Lom grew more enraged, and cursed his followers as weaklings and 
cowards. Dennond, eager to free the house of Dunkerlyne from the imputa- 
tion of cowardice, resolved upon engc^ing the King in single combat, but 
Olave and several of his most devoted followers held him back, whUe the 
two sons of Gylen Durwarth, who were reckoned among the strongest and 
braveet men of the Isles, sprung from the ranks determined on bringing 
down the Bruce, The rwid was very narrow and difficult to traverse, 
being blocked up with stones, and bushes, and fallen trees, and the King 
was managing bis horse at considerable disadvantage. The finst Dur- 
wwth, leaping forward, cai^;ht the reins before the King could use bii 



jb,GoO(^lc 



222 THE CELTIC MAGAZIHE. 

Bwoid. The Kcond Dnrwarth caught hold of Brace's leg, and attempted 
to pull him &om his hotse. Brace strack the ana iiom tha body of the 
Porwaith who held the reins, and spurring his horse forward at the same 
time, the hand of the other Duraaith slid down between the foot and 
the stirrip, and he was draped along the groond. Gylen perceiTing the 
position of his sons, uttered a cry, roshed from the lines and gained the 
hillside, &om which he made a spring on to the King's horse, and seized 
the rojal mantle. Brace looaend his silver broach, letting the mantle go ; 
and ae Gylen rolled fcom the horse his head was cloven in two by a blow 
which broke the King's sword. The Durwaith who held on by the 
stirrup rose as the horse etopped, and Bruce, having thrown away hia 
shattwed weapon, seized the axe which hung at his saddle how, and 
Btnick the rising Durwarth to the earth, After performing this extraot- 
dioKcj feat, the King rode on flourishing his battle-axe in triumph. The 
d«atii of the three IJurwarths smote the Ideamen with terror, and Der- 
mond, who stood an anxious spectator of the fight, held back &om joining 
in the eacotrnter by saveial of his most attached followers, could not help 
giving expteesion to his admiration for the prowess of the Bruce. 

"By my&ith," he exclaimed, "but yonder is the strongest wight I've 
ever seen or heard ol Keither saga nor romance can t^ us of devds so 
WDndeifal. Within the space of a few moments he has stricken down 
three men of muckle strength and pride, and in the face of a conquerii^ 
anny he manE^es his noHe horse with the most singular grace and cool- 
ness; yet no man dare assault him." 

" It seems to give thee pleasure, &ir sir," said Lorn, glaring angrily 
at the youth, " that yonder he slaya our men." 

" With due deterence, my lord," retorted Dermond, " I know ond 
T^ret that he is our enemy, hat, whether he be friend or foe who bears 
hims^ with strength and grace in battle or toumay, it becometh us to 
speak thereof with truth and gentleness ; and, of a certy, Fve never heard 
of nTui in song or story show such doughty deeds of chivalry." 

"A murrain on such babbling foolishness," shouted the enraged Mac- 
dougalL "Canst thou perceive, shuffling coward T Yonder is the rebel 
and heretic Lead off, fiilse chief, or your head shall answer for your per- 
fidy. To the onslaught, and down with the regicide and usurper I" 

At these words several of the chieftains, after collecting their forces, 
dashed down the pass in pursuit of the disappearing enenty. 

" Farewell, my liege," said Dermond, " you have called roe coward. 
I have been bold enough to provoke you so far. Tou shall never, I hop^ 
be justified in repeating the imputation. Come, my gallants of Dunker- 
lyne, follow me !" 

Dermond and his followera left the ranks and ardently joined in the 
chase, but Bruce, favoured by the gathering darkness of the night, was 
soon beyond the reach or ken of his pursuers. After beating the brosh- 
wood and exploring every glen and crevice, most of the Highlanders 
abandoned the search as hopeleos ; but Dermond pushed on with all his 
youthful ardour. His commission £tom the fair Bertha to deliver the 
packet to her father, Bir David, had not escaped his memory, and he had 
secretly resolved to make an effort to convey the message to its destina- 
tion, even at the risk of provoking the dreaded enmity of John of Lorn. 
All day long in the midst of the battle he had brooded over the import- 



jb,GoO(^lc 



DEEMONU 223 

kQC« of Bertha's baheet and the obataclea which lay in the way of accom- 
plishing it. He had almost resolved upon forsakiiig the standard of his 
liege lord and joining the Bruee ; indeed Jus tow in the dungeon had 
bound him to such a course. Reconsideration, however, piovailcd against 
the audacity of such a move ; there was first of all the dangers to which 
he would expose Brian, his father, as the ewom vassal of a cruel and un- 
Bcrupulous tyrant, there was his oath of allegiance, and ahove all what 
good could arise to a faithful son of the Church in uniting his fortunes 
with, the excommunicated Bmce, who was both accursed by God and 
man, and a fugitive among the mountains. He had flourished his im- 
pious battle-axe ia the face of true soldieia and Christians after laying 
low three of the most powerful men in the Highlands. What would 
Brian, the bold vikii^, say to the son who failed to revei^e the death of 
the three Duiwarths 1 Hattaseed willi these refleotions Dermond dashed 
on determined at least on finding where the Bruce had fixed on spending 
the night. He thrust his hand into his bosom and found the packet 
aafbly nestling near his heart. Some ten of his men-at-anus kept up the 
chase with much difliculty. Clave following close at the heels of the 
young chieftain, and attemptii^ to persuade him against going any 
further. All the others had letumed to represent to John of Loin the 
hopeless nature of the puTsuit, and that irritable chieftain grew more en- 
raged than ever, and deaoimced his vassals with great vehemence. 

" What of tliat young varlet, Dermond," he incfuired. " Has he not 
come back with the same tale T 

" I fear me," said Macnab, " that Dermond of Dunfeerlyne will not 
come back to teU any tale." 

" D d be youi cowardly fears," esolaimed the infiiriated Lorn. 

" Dermond of Dunierlyne is braver than all of you." 

" Ha ! ha ! my lord," laughed Macnab, " What ! have yon foi^otten 
that he was your prisoner and host^e retained until the capture of Cyril 
of Eathland 1 He is free now, and vrill of a certainty continue to be so." 

" Villain and coward, is it now you tell me this ) H you suspected he 
would (ail to return, why did you not secure him )" 

" Secure him I What ! When you commanded him to lead off or 
forfeit his headf Kay : but since you know not whom to trust, this is 
the last time a Macnab shall bow at the beck of a MacdougalL Good 
e'en, my lord ; we shall meet again." 

Calling his followers together, Macnab gave orders to abandoq the 
standard of John of Loin. 

"What mean you)" exclaimed Lorn. "Ia it traitor you hare be- 
come 1" 

" Thou shalt soon aumgh learn," retorted Macnab, shaking his wea- 
pon defiantly. 

" Bind me the treacheroios scullion 1 Seize him, ye cowards 1 Chaise 
me the traitors 1" 

He looked around, but none moved at his command. 



Meanwhile Dermond kept on the track of the retreating Bruce, who 
descried disappearing down the glen of Balquhidder, accompanied by 



jb,GoO(^lc 



Sd4 THE cixtic iiAOAzmt. 

"Follow me, mv gallantB," exclAuned tho youth, "and yoa shall 
aharo the ^017 and me gaerdon," 

As he uttwed tihese wotde a band of ibovA sixty men sprang fiom the 
copse. 

" Yield lebels, or die," shoated the leader. 

" Kot to the followeis of a heretic," said Deimond. " So Heaven and 
tiia right" 

The resistance ofeied, howeTei, was aaeleBs, aa in the space of a few 
momeats the followers of the young chieftain were either slain or com- 
pelled to sairender. Deimond, who placed his back against a rock, re- 
mained on hie defence, and kept the whole party at bay nntil he waa 
stricken down by a blow &om a jackman's axe, which severed hie helmet 
and rendered ^™ insensible. When he recovered consciousness he 
fonnd himself suffering severely from the lose of blood, and shackled to 
the &ithful Olave. Both were mounted on horsebatjc with their feet 
secured under the animal's belly, and were following in the rear of 
Bmce's little army under a strong guard. 



Cbaptsb Yin. 

I'n liv'd k Ufa of start uid sirifa ; 
I die b7 ttMahnie. 

Macpherion'M Artudt—Sitma. 
X)ti the day alter the battle of Dairy Lorn had not recovered from 
his irritable humour. He kept his chamber and meditated on the dis- 
asters that had overtaken him. Bruce had been driven from the battle- 
field, but the victoiy was equivalent to, if not worse than defeat. More- 
over, the men of the Isles bad returned discontented ; and Macnab, in 
concord with aevetal of the inland chieftains, had broken his oath of 
allegiance, and was no longer an obedient vassal to the House of Mac- 
dougalL 

The morning had dawned fair and pleasant, with the rays of the rising 
Bun dancii^ brilliantly over the broad expanse of blue waters, and light- 
ing up the dark recesses of the mountains. All, however, was dull and 
disagreeable to the baf&ed chieftain. Even the splendours of the advanc- 
ii^ day had no visible effect upon his spirits. He sat blankly staring 
out of the window, with his aim resting on the mdely carved oaken table, 
which formed one of the principal parts of ornamental furniture in his 
sulking room. His big hand crossed his brow, or played at intervals 
with his curling front locks. His features were naturally dark and 
gloomy, but now they seemed more sombre and oppressed with disappoint- 
ment and melancholy. 

Strict orders had been issued against the admittance of visitors, and 
he had resolved to see no one for that day, but the arrival of a mysterious 
messenger in a strange di^piise, imperioiuly demanding an interview, had 
awakened Macdougall's curiosity, and the request for a private audience 



" Who can this be, or what, in Heaven's name, can he want 1" was 
the internal exclamation of his Iiordship, as a singular-looking individual, 
•nvdoped in a Spanish cloak, was ush^ed into his preaence. The keen 



jb,GoO(^lc 



DERitOirD. 225 

eye of Lorn, however, quickly discerned the crest of Dunkerlyne on Ms 
Norwegian cap. 

" By your crest yea corns from Dunkerlyne," said Lorn. 
" As you aay," returned the strainer. 
" And in name of Brian the Yiking." 
" Nay, my lord, I come not in the name of a traitor.'' 
" By the aoul of Comyn, I could have swom't," exclaimed the chief- 
tain as the full force of the answer flashed across his mind. " Tis well 
you have fteod yourself from a nest of rebels, for, look you, he and Ma 
hireliugB shall taste of my authority. What may be your name, fair 
airr 

" Cormac Doil." 

" Ha, then I have heard of you." 
" Methinks you should remember me." 

" I do now, when I think. Yon told me of CyrU of Rathland having 
found shelter in the castle of his nephew," 

" Of a ceity, and you would not belieye my words. Clement, his son, 
was washed ashore &om the wreck, and is now well and safely lodged 
witJi his fether under the roof of the Viking" 

"Two of the varletsi Now, may the foul fiend devour the knave, 
I'll make a dunghill of his castle tor hia bones to bleaah on. What, ho ! 
without there ! Equip my two galleys, and send up my armourer." 

" Patience, my lord," said Cormac Doil, " I have something more to 
tell." 

" Out with it, knave." 
" He has already determined to resist" 
" A murrain on his resistance." 

" He even garrisons with hia galley daves," continued the informer, 
" and is busy strengthening the dd'ences. I'U be on the watch to night, 
aa it darkens, at the outer porch, jost before the keys are carried up. 
I've the confidence of the galley-slaves, who will rebel and aid you in 
gaining possession of the narrow passage. After that there is no fear ; 
the gate and tower can easily he stormed. I shall farther the design be- 
fore night, and Dunkerlyne will be captured and subdued with little 
difficulty." 

" As you say then. 'Tifl well. See that you be tme to yonr promise. 
If this be a scheme to betray me, I'll hang you by the heels 6om the 
highest battlement after roasting yon on a gridiron," returned "the chief- 
tain with a scowl that made Cormac Doil slujce in his boots. " (Jet you 
to your duty, and remember my words." 

Let ua now return to Dunkerlyne. The noise of Brian's fall attracted 
several attendants to the place, who carried the chieftain to his bedcham- 
ber, where he lay in trance-like silence till next day. Everyone was 
anxious to know what had happened, but Brian refused to say. In the 
morning he manned hia galley as usual, and set oat to scour the seas. In 
the evening he returned, after a very successful expedition, in a fit of 
boisterous merriment, and held a great feast at Dunkerlyne. The ale 
was sent round the board ^ain and again ; the hall fire blazed cheerily ; 
the song rose mirthfully; and laughter resounded against the oaken 
rafters. 



jb,GoO(^lc 



226 XHE CELTIC MAGAZIKE. 

In the midet of the lovehy, however, a somewhat different tone was 
given to the pToceedings by tfae airiTal iiom Dairy of one of Dumond'a 
followen Who related the incidents of the fight — the defeat and escape of 
Bruce, the wrath of Loiii, Uie diiaffection of Macnab and the other chief- 
tains, the death of the three Durwaiths, and the conduct of the ;oang 
chief, who had gone in pursuit of the King's annf. and never letarued. 

"He must nndonbtedlf have fallen into the hands of Bruce," sug- 
gested CyriL 

" He has at least escaped from the hands of Loin," stud Brian, " and 
will, of a certy, continue at liberty." 

" What if he has been slain in the battle V enquired yonng Clement, 

" Ay, but that's what troubles me," said Brian. " I fear he may hare 
Mien by the hand of the great Biuce." 

" If he has," eaid Jarloff, " he has fallen by the band of a worthy 
knight Tis no craven feat to venture within the reach of Brace's sword 
or battle-axe. But, have no fear ; my son, Olave, was with him, and s 
more faithful and gallant follower he could not hava" 

" As you say, good Jarlo^" said Brian, evidently somewhat relieved, 
" Olave is vidiant and devoted, and Dermond ia skilled and daiing in the 
use of every weapon. Both may now be with the Brace as prisooeis. 
What think yon if we send to ascertain J If they should perctumce 
escape, let them not walk with open eyes into the dungeons of Dunolly. 
Let's send some one in search bidding them fight for the noble king." 

" What, good nephew, if we leave this accnrsed place and join the 
Brace in a body P' a^ed CyriL 

This was received with shouts of assent, in which Clement heartily 
joined, 

" Wait yet a little, my noble kinsman," said Brian, " till the good 
father Dominick comes. He'll be here to-n^ht, and his advice is worth 
the waiting for. Besides he may have news of Dermond." 

" A health to the merry friar," rose tiom almost every lip at the men- 
tion of his name. 

" Come, send the goblet round," said Brian. 

This was aiiswered with acclamation, the health of Dominiok being 
pledged with round after round. 

" Confound the Lord of Loin and all his tyrannies," said Brian when 
the ale began to take efTect. " He is a coward — a miserable, prating, skulk- ' 
ing coward. Let him come to Dunkerlyne, and woe betide bis haughty 
h^d." • 

" He come to Dunkerlyne I" s^d Donald. " He dare not." 

'•'Tis as well," chuckled the treacherous. Connac Doil, half-audlbly 
as he shouldered his pick, and hastened from the hall to the outer portal, 
his appointed pjoce of watch, 

" A muinun on the knave, but I like not his chuckling," exclaimed 
the Tiking. " Call him back." 

As JarloA and several others made to hail him, Brian, on second 
thoughts, said " Nay ; let him go. 'Tis his way." 

" A singular way, indeed," said one. 

" Shame, on you for a sluideious knave. He is most excellent, cun- 
ning, wis^ and worthy of aU honour," Mid another. 



jb,GoO(^lc 



DEEMOHD. 227 

" Indeed, good firiend," was the answer. " Then evil mitst, of a surety,- 
be in the clouds when such as you take to piating of honour." 

"Silence, brawling knaves !" shouted the chieftain. "Ifo bandying 
of quanelaome words in my pieseuca Let youi companion posa until 
some base deed attests his villany. Hitherto he has been faithful. Me- 
thints that should aatiafy yon. Come, let's be merry. What, ho ! Jar- 
loff I get youi harp in tune ; and sing us a saga of the days of old. Drink' 
to the death of Lorn. Bound with the goblet Let each son of Dun* 
kerlyne drink down to his peg." 

The ale circulated, and Jarloff had just attuned Ms harp to a timlling 
fragment of ^Norw^ian minstrelsyj when friar Dominicb was nshered in. 

" Jeeu Maria /" was his first exclamation as he piously crossed him- 
Bel£ " Save ns from the lures of Satan. By the soul of St Francis the 
ann of the Church must bear on the receivers of heretics. Hear me, sir 
Chief; silence this singing Pagan or tremble at my words." 

" Be patient, good father," said Brian. " Something must ail yon to- 
night. Are your revenues unprosperous I If so I'll supply the deficiency. 
If it be merely melancholy that oppresses you, I have ale enow to ex- 
orcise a hundred sable devils. Come, ait you down'and be merry. The 
saga is interesting, and Jailoff is well skilled in the gentle ari; of the 
minstrel" 

The harper, \rbo had stopped the tale at the fitet interruption,- re- 
Bumod the song, when the friar indignantly exolwmed, " Silence, paynim 
wretch, or hell. shall yawn for yoo. Put up your instrument of Lucifer, 
or beahrew me bat I'll break every string it poaseBaea." - 

"Peace with you, canting monk, or by the soul of Odin I'll'Wann 
youi hide with a cudgelling/' shouted the old man in a fit of rage, as he 
approached the friai in a threatening attitude. 

Clement, overcome with pious horror, started from bis seat, and held 
back the Koraeman. The friar, with uplifted hands, stood aghast in as- 
tonishment. Some of the men were shocked, but the most of th^n, ex- 
hilarated with repeated draughts of ale, looked on 'and laughed. 

" Hest of unholy heretics " began Dominick, but Brian interposed, ' 

" Peace with you, good father J You are in a most execrable humour. 
Take your seat and be merry," 

" Farewell, ye renegades. I would not—" continued Dominick. 

Here Brian sprung' from his seat and tbrost himself betwixt the friar - 
and the door. " Hold, good father Dominick," be said, " you shall not 
budge until you have shriven and absolved each one of us." 

Dominick halted, swithering whether he should submit or enforce his 
exit with the terror of the Church. He knew too well, however, how ■ 
thoughtless and violent the pirate might become, half intoxicated as he 

" I have much reason," said Dominick, "to bring down the curse of 
Eome upon you, but I forbear. Send this paynim dog away and all will 
yet be well ; otherwise, I must depart and leave you to reap the whirl- 
wind which ye have sown." 

Brian s^ed to JarlofT, who retired with a look of rage and disap- 
pointment stamped on his aged features. The friar, somewhat despoiled 
of the ease and dignity which characterised his first entry, and eonscious 
that he had been vilely insulted, took his seat amOng the deepeiate crew. 



jb,Goo(^lc 



228 THE CELUC kAGAZDTE. 

After a while, however, his eiAbarraBBinent foMook Mm, and he joined 
moat heaitilj in the tereL The ale coutinued to circulate, and all ^^rew 
louder and meniet. 

"To-night let ub foiget," said Brian; "to-morrow riee to action and 
repentance. Father Dominick will remain until the morning for the exe- 
cution of his holy office. Bound with the goblet What say yon if we 
join the Bruce to-morrow t" 

The laat sentence waa addressed to the friar, who said, " Nothing 
could be better; for though the curse of Rome has been pronounced 
against the noble knight of Carrick, he ie brave in conduct, and of goodly 
presence, and many in the Church pray fervently for the success of his 
enterprise against the tyranny of Edward. Dermond has not returned 
from the pursuit, and I could almost venture to predict that he will be 
foond following the King's stendaid." 

"Tia well," said CyriL' "To-morrow we ahall leave this place. 
Alas, what noise ie thatt 'Tis most unseemly." 

The alarm of Cyiil was well founded, for a dreadful scream rose from 
without, and there was a strange rumbling as of distant muttering 
thunder. 

"A goblet for Bobert the Bruce," said Brian. "Death to King 
Edward and ail his adherents." 

Another ominous sound almost silenced the shouting of the revellers. 

" What means that noise V enquired Dominick. 

" Some of these quarrelsome knaves afighting," said Brian. " Let 
them brawL We'll see them to-morrow. Eound with the goblet. Death 
to Edward the usurper." 

The tumult increased withont, and a startled expression overspread 
the &Ges of all present. The bell was violently tolled, and Jarloff rushed 
in exclaiming, " Treachery I treachery [ you are all undone 1" 

Donald rushed in afterwards, excitedly shouting, " Two galleys be- 
longing to John of Lorn have entered the creek unchallei^d. No alarm 
has been given. A landing has been obtained, The outer portal has 
be^ passed, and the narrow passage ia being carried by ctorm." 

Tie chieftain listened in agony for a moment, as a crowd of incidents 
in connection with the suspected Cormac Doil rushed across his memory. 
But arousing himself, his corrugated features assumed an expression of 
great fierceness, his nostrils becune dilated, he gnawed his lip, and hia 
eyes flashed fiie. He burst into a paroxysm of lage. Seizing his battle- 
axe, he exclaimed, " To anus I to aims ! my gallant men 1 Quick, to the 
battlements. Make good the gates with bolts and barricades. Defend 
Dunkerlyne for your lives. Ueat hot the lead ; scald the pate of haughty 
Lorn. Spare the traitor, Cormac Doil ; his fate shall be reserved Ven- 
geance, ye sons of the Yiking ! Bouse the whole garrison ! Fight like 
demons 1 Hurl the stones from the battlements 1" 

" Hold, my good son," said Dominick entreatingly. " Beware of 
what ye do." 

" Peace, prattling knave I Tis soldien and not monks we want in 
the hour of ^ttle. Obey all or perish," shouted the chieftain in his fiiry. 

The noise of assault and defence now shook the air in reality. Torches 
glared and arms gleamed. The hoarse shouts of the men rose louder and 
more desperate as the aseailanta forced the narrow passage. Weapon! 



n,GoO(^lc 



DERUOmX 229 

clasbed witlt shield and oonlet. Heary feet ntUed on the paTementa. 
Masses of rock irere hurled from the heights and vails. The ruins of the 
castle supplied an ahuodanoe of missiles, and stone succeeded stone, and 
tock followed rock down -the passage. 

" Forward to the gate I Down with the rebels !" became loader as 
the storming party neered the iront. 

On tbey came. . The defenders retreated, diiren back hj the stream 
of "Mftiiirig soldiery. A dreadful encounter took place in &ont of the 
gate. The platform was crowded with fierce pirates and Islesmen fight- 
ing to desperation. Shouts, shrieks, and curses tent the air as the de- 
fenders on the platform fought on the very edge of the precipice, for the 
parapet had be^ cleared away when hurling stones down the narrow 
passage, li^iuy of the defenders were thrown over, and many a groan 
rose from beneath. The axes fell heavily on the gate. Lead, stones, and 
inflammables were poured on the heads of the assailants, but crowds of 
fresh jackmen swarmed to the assanlt. The blows followed in qoick 
succession, and rang throughoat the whole oastla. 

" Down with Lorn and his hirelings ! " resounded irom the battle- 
ments, aa shower succeeded shower of missiles and burning lead. 

" Down with the gate I" and "Down with Brian and his plunderii^ 
crew 1" rose from the assailants as they continued to thunder on the gate. 
The shouting grew louder as the bolt-studded doorway swung on its 
binges. A few additional blo^ra and it gave way with a crash. Over it 
rushed the men of Lorn. Met by the small garrison In the courtyard, a 
desperate stm^e ensued, but the superior numbers and equipments of 
IjOin's soldiery placed the defenders at a disadvantage, and they were 
soon driven to death or submission. 

Brian and his friends took refuge in the tower, which was the only 
strengthened place remaining. The axes soon thundered on the strong 
door, which did not long resist. The soldiers rushed tumultuously over 
it, hnt the worst part of the storming had still to be accomplished. Only 
one man could ascend the narrow turret stair at a time, and the followers 
of the Yiking had resolved upon an obstinate defence. 

" Fire the tower !" shouted some. " Eoast the pirate in his lair. 
Bring forward a flambeau." 

" Silence !" shouted Lorn. " The rebel must be taken alive. We 
shall roast him at leisure. Fiist let me see him. Storm the stair I The 
man who flinches dies." 

The assailants fell one by one before the defenders, till the stair was 
almost choked with dead. The assault continued. Man after man at- 
tempted to force the passage in vain. The defenders held out stoutly, 
bat their number gradually decreased, nntil only one or two remained. 
A few more sacrifices and the tower would be in the hands of Lorn. The 
voice of Brian was heard urging his followers in the defence. In hie 
frenzy he shouted down curses on the head of . Lorn, and at times he 
wished to descend and annihilate the assailants, but he was home back 
by Cyril and Clement. 

The stair was at length mounted, and stoving in the ball door, the 
soldiers filled the apartment, where a few hours before the revel was in- 
terrupted at its height. A scene of the direst confusion met their eyes. 
The benches were overturned, and the ale drenched the table and floor. 



390 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

AU terietance waa eoon quelled, and tlie torobes whicli hod been flung 
down by the afMgbted attendante, left tbe hall in almost total darkness. 

" Bring forward a flambeau," shouted Loin. 

When the glare lighted' up the apartment, Brian waa Been standing at 
the fortliea; end of the hall clutching his battle-axe with both hands, and 
an expression of wild desperation on his features. Cyril and Clement 
were holding him back, and Dominick, clutching his girdle, pleaded that 
NBfstanee waa in vain, 

" Yield, ishel, and your chaige I" said Lorn. " Surrender Donkerlyne 
or die." 

" Let Lom and his slaTO horde be d d," was the answer of the 

chieftEUn, as he straggled to be free. " Off with your hands. Approach 
me not, foul tyrant, if you would live to exult o'er your conquest," 

" Clamour no more, drunken fool," said Lorn. " Submit, ot die the 
death. - Seize upon the villains. Bind me each one of them." 

'' Not to easily done, my lord," exclaimed Brian, breaking away, and 
heaving hia aze aio&. " My weapon must first drink blood. Tyrant be 
yraiy." 

So saying, he daliTered a desperate blow, but Lom parried it swiftly. 
Swinging hie axe round again, Lom struck fearfully at the chieftui). 
Brian was equal Id dexterity, however, and putting the return blow aside, ~ 
he whided Ms ponderona weapon with &tBl desperation to all who came 
within its compass. One or two of the jackmen who had rushed to the 
assistance of Lom we«« felled to the floor. 

"Stand back!" shouted Lorn. "Leave the old wolf to me,"—"' 

Obeying the command, all stood by watching the fight with the in- 
tensest interest. Fire flashed from the steel, and pieoes at armour were 
Bf^tered by the hacking blows. 

The combat tras continued with great fierceness. Blinded witii the 
blood that ran into his eyes, Brian received a fearful cut. The axe of 
Loin went crashing through the hdmet, Brian swung on his feet and 
staggered bock with a vain attempt to throw aside hia clotted locks. 
Another blow laid the old man prostrate. As he fell he was heard to mut- 
ter something &intly about Dermond and revenga The good friar ion 
forrraid and unhehned him. He pressed the emblem of salvation to his 
lifeless Iqis. The features gave some nervous twitches, and the blood 
flowed from a horrid gash ; the eyes became fixed and glazed ; and the 
countenance became calm and composed, as the muscles and wrinkles re- 
laxed, giving an air of peace and innocence in death to a man who in life 
was t^hle and violent. 

[End of Book L] 



BOOKS BBUmVUU.— " Old Ciltio Bohaboss," truuiUM frani tba Oullo br 
P. W. Jom, LL.D., T.O.D., M.li.I.A. ; 0, Kegaii Panl & Oo., London. "HiSTOSTOF 
Irkubd, toL U., I^ Standiah O'Grody ; Sunson Lov k Co., London. " Poms tSD 
SoNas," QmUo and EniUib, by Hn Usry Mftokelkr ; HackcUHn ft Stewurt, Bdinbai^k. 
"Tes iMiAi or THsOBOsa," Huater, Boac, k Co., loranto; uid "Thb Dowtnos 
AtnuiL Bhistib, 1879," Dkwaon BriChera, Hontrul. We nndaratand the Tolome fm 
1879 » in ihaprau, and will looabsUined. Ifoatof thew wntlawdttllhBieattetiiotios 
in tha unal mj. 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 

Vl 
Mb MmtDOCH having left Kingston early on Tuesday, I hud the bard aU 
to myself that day until i f.il, vhen we started tog^er for the station 
on my vay to Toionto. The train being late, I here got into oonveisatiou 
with the Hon. Sir Bichaid 3. Cartwright, Finance Minister in the lata 
Mai^enide administration. He was also waiting the trsun, and I was in- 
troduced to him by Maccoll. I at once turned the convereation to my 
grievance about the Canadian treatment of Highland emigrante, bo shabby 
as compared with the facihties and encouragement which have been ex- 
tended to the Menuonitas and Icelanders, and what I c^nsideied the 
suicidal policy of only encouraging men with money to the Dominion. 
8ii Bichaid was against m& I stated my opinion firmly and in such a 
ni&mier as probably justified this able but self-opinionative Canadian 
knight to part from me with the idea that I did not pay that deference 
to his opinions and policy which they deserved The train, however, 
rushed along the platform before I had an opportunity of doii^ the 
amiable ; and probably both of us went our respective ways fully con- 
vinced that the other was more dogmatical in his aaaertions and opinions 
than either out knowledge or experience justified. For that, howevnr, the 
arzival of the Grand Trunk train in the middle of our inteieoting disonsdon 
most be held responsible. 

I soon found myself rushing along through a very fine counti^, with 
Lake Ontario a considerable distance on the left, until, after passing 
BelleijiUe, Coboui^ and Fort Hope, we skirt almost along its banks, 
through some of the best and most productive land in Canada, l^is 
district is celebrated as the greatest barley producing country in the 
Dominion. About 11.30 ph. we arrived at 

Toronto, 
a distance of over 160 miles, and I made fot the "Walker House," a 
capitally conducted hotel, kept by a native of Glasgow, who arrived in 
the Dominion with only a capital of £3, hut who is now proprietor of 
this fine establishment and other jooperty in Toronto. His hoose, in 
which you are only charged 8s a day for everything, is the common ren- 
dezvous of Scotsmen, not only in Toronto and noghbouihood, but of 
those who visit the city team. aU paita of Canada, the United States and 
Scotland. 

Kext morning I hod a walk through the principal parts of the city, 
the streets of which, in oonsequeuce of tbe recent fall of snow, were very 
slushy. There are . some very fine buildings in the commeiioial part of the 
town, but I saw the place for ihe first time under snch serious disadvant- 
ages that I was not So favourably impressed with it as I would no doubt 
otherwise havei bem. Toronto is tbe capital of Ontario, the most import- 
ant province of the Canadian Dominion. It is situated on a beautiful 
circular bay on the north-west shore of Lake Ontario, 333 miles west 



383 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

tiom Montreal, hsving a fine haibonr foimed by a peninsula called Gib- 
raltar Point which aejurates it from the Lake, shelters the inner bay, 
which is six milee long by one and a-half wide, and makes it a very safe 
harbour for shipping. The city lies low, bat rises gentiy &om the water's 
edge, until, at the Observatory buildings, it reaches a point 108 feet above 
the level of tiie sea. It is mainly boilt of stone and brick, and has a 
number of vary fine atreeta crossing each other at right anglee, and con- 
toning several very fine public buildings, warehouses, and private resi- 
dences. The city is the seat of the Provincial Government of Ontario 
and of the Law Courts. The Government buildings make a very poor 
appeantnce in comparison with others in the city, but they are about to 
be pulled down, and new buildings, in keeping with the impoTtance and 
requirements of the Government, are to be erected in their placa Osgoode 
B^I, where all the Law Courts are held under one roof, is a fine classic 
structure, and the official residence of the Lieutenant-Governor and the 
Uniyereity are noble buildings — the latter considered to be one of the 
finest on the American continent. The public park is a very fine one, and 
the wide avenue leadii^ to it, ornamented with stately trees, must be a 
magnificent sight in summer. The city contains no end of thriving 
factories and foundries, breweries and diatUleries, and the largest cabinet 
fiiotory in Canada, while between forty and fifty newspapers and periodi- 
cals are published in it, including the Olotw, admitted on all hands to be 
the most influential paper in the whole Dominion. Its founder and prin- 
cipal proprietor is 

Thb Hoit. Geobgi Bbown, Senator of the Dominion, quite a self-made 
man, and whose mother was a Mackenzie from the Island of L^ws. His 
influence among Liberal politicians, derived no doubt lai^y &om that of 
the Globe, is unequalled, and indeed more potent than some of the 
ostensible leaders of the party are willing to admit No Liberal Government 
can ignore his opinions, and usually declining to accept ofBce, it is most diffi- 
cult— -indeed, sometimes impossible to keep bim under party controL 
In Nova Scotia I was told that " the people of Ontario believed more in 
the gospel of Geoi^e Brown than in that of the New Testament," and in 
Toronto I found the Qlobe described among its opponents as the " Scots- 
man's Bible." While this is no doubt a Hbel on the orthodoxy of our 
countrymen, it gives no bad idea of their faith in the leading Canadian 
joum J. The Toronto Mail has been started a few years ago in the interest 
of the Conservative party. It is capitally written, and conducted with 
great vigour, and, I was told, no small amount of success. I found the 
Hon. George a most ^reeable and chatty fellow, but his herculean &ame 
and firm, determined-looking via^e at once convinced me that, apart al- 
together fiom the power of the Ghbe, it would be the better part of valour 
to keep on Mendly terms with him. I had been told that 

The Hon. Alxxandxb Macssbzis, ex-Fremier of the Dominion, re- 
sided in Toronto, w)iere he held the post of Chairman of the Isolated 
Eisk Insurance Company. I called and sent in my card, whereupon he 
walked out of his sanctum, invited me in, and introduced me to one of his 
brothers, who was at the time with him in the office, and, after a most 
pleasant chat, invited me to dine with him that evening. I did so, and 
enjoyed a moat E^reeable evening listening to the pleasant and unpreten- 
tious chat of the diatinguifibed statesman, and tlmt of his amiable and 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 233 

much eeteemed lady, like himself a native of the coanty of Perth. As 
already stated in a previous article, Mr Mackenzie is a native of Logie- 
rait, where he was bom on the 22d of January 1822, so that he la now in 
the 58th year of his E^e. I have not been able to find out what parti- 
cular family of the clan the ei-Premier is descended feom, but hia ances- 
tors Uved in Strathtununel foe several generations. . The whole family 
emigrated to Canada, where the sons, seven in number, were all sucd^ssfol 
men, and remarkable for their natural ability and great force of character. 
One of them, the late Hope F. Mackenzie, wan successively and for several 
years M.F. foi Lambton and for S'orth Oxford, and was well known aa a 
man of marked ability, of earnestness, and honesty of purpose. 

The Hon. Alexander was educated at the public schools of Mo'ilin, 
Dunkeld, and Perth, and his father having died when the future Premier 
was very young, he had at the ^e of fourteen to push his own way in the 
world. Ho was apprenticed to a stone mason, and becamo a thorough 
master of hia trade. He had early evinced a taste for literature, and con- 
tinued a persevering student through life. He now possesses not only a 
very extensive acquaintance with general literature, but has few equals in 
his accurate and wide knowledge of political, constitutional, and social 
history, as well as the present condition and general history of the leading 
nations of the earth. He has thus a great advantage over most of the 
pohtioians of Canada, his ready command of the facts thus acquired 
enabling him to illustrate hia eloquent public orations with telHi^ effect. 
In 1842, when only 20 years of ^e, he emigrated and settled down in 
Samia, then a thriving and rising village, where he commenoed business 
as a contractor. He took a keen interest in all public questions, and be- 
Eame a contributor to the press. He was soon acknowlet^ed as a very 
useful, and ultimately as a most prominent member, of the liberal party. 
In all the most exciting political events of the period, from 1850 to 1864, 
he waa a most active and earnest participator. Hia excellent and power- 
ful speeches, as well as his able contributions to the press during that 
eventful period of Canadian history, strongly aided in bringing about the 
great results achieved by the party of which he was now &at becoming 
the natural leader. He continued earnestly to advocate with great power, 
firmness, and fearlessness, the introduction of popular reform. He be- 
came the editor of a Liberal newspaper, which, by the force and ability 
of hii contributions, and the sound common sense and patriotism which 
pervaded its columns, soon became a power in the State, and commanded 
general attention. He naturally bec^ne associated with the leading con- 
stitutional and administrative reformers in Parliament. In 1S61 he was 
returned to the L^ialature for the county of I.ambton, in which Samia is 
situated, and of which it ie now the capital town, and from that day to 
this he held one of the most prominent and influential positions, both as 
a speaker and as a legislator, in the Dominion Parliament When the 
Hon. George Brown left the Coalition Cabinet of 1864-5, Mr Mackenide 
was offered the Presidency of the Council, but declined it on the ground 
that the concessional offered to the United fitat«i for a renewal of the Be- 
ciprocity Treaty were unwise ; and that he could not become a member 
of a Government who would be held responsible for such concessions. 
In 1871 he was preVailed upon to contest West Middlesex for the local 
Parliament of Ontario, In this he succeeded against a strong opponent. 



234 THE CELTIC HAQAZTSSK 

Oq the meetiBg of the Legulatuie shortly aft«f, he reodeied great sarvioe 
in the debate -which resulted in what ia described as " the memorahla and 
Tictorious attack " upon the then exiatinj; GoTernment In the new Go- 
venunent he was made Pioviucial Secretary, and afterwards he accepted 
the office of Treasurer or Finance Minister, the datiea of which hia great 
and intimate knowledge of the resoorcea of the Province enabled him to 
conduct with Tigour and SQCceas, hia budget speech in 1872 being de- 
scribed as " a masterly exposition ol Provincial finance," Hitherto repre- 
sentativea could sit as members of the Dominion and of the local L^ula- 
tures at the same time, but in 1873 an act was passed whidi disqualified 
membera from aittii^ in both, whereupon Mr Mackenzie reeigued his seat 
and office in the looal L^islature, to devote himself exclusively to the 
more important sphere of Federal politics at Ottawa, in the Dominion 
Parliament. His great ability aud industry soon made thenuelves felt 
here. He was soon, by common consent, fijst, leader of the Ontario 
section of the Liberals in the House of Commons; then tacitly, 
and afberwarda by formal election, he became the leader of the whole 
Liberal party of the Dominion. When, in 1873, the downfell of Sir John 
A. Macdonald and his Giovemment ooemred, " there was no one," accord- 
ing to the Globe, " justly to deny Mi Mackenzie's title to the Premiership 
of British Korth America, by virtne of the position he already held in 
the House of Commons, his capacity as a statesman, his ahiHty as a 
speaker, hia wide and accurate knowledge of public afTaiis, his ardent 
devotion to the interests of his adopted country, his genial love of the 
Old Sod and all its belongings, his unspotted personal character, his in- 
tense love of right and hatred of wrong, and (ie enviable place he has 
won for himself in the confidence and respect of his fellow countrymen." 
The Mackenzie Administration has left its impress on the political 
history and the statute book of Canada, and Mr Miickenae, ita cldef and 
most distingnished member may be fairly credited with most of the re- 
forms — administrative and departmental — which his Governmont were 
able to carry out. In 1875 he paid a visit to his native country with a 
view of securing some repose from his arduous, duties, and at the same 
time to see his native land, which he continues to love with gemuine 
affection. The reception accorded to him on that occasion is in the recol- 
lection of the reader, and need not here be enlarged upon. He wss 
received by her Majesty at Windsor Castle, Every rank of his country- 
men welcomed him with marks of distinction and genuine cordiality, 
Dundee and Perth conferred upon him the freedom of their respective 
buighs, while his reception at Dunkeld, Logiorait, Greenock, and other 
places throughout the north, were honours of which any statesman, how- 
ever eminent, might feel proud. AH throughout his political career, and 
during his agreeable tour in his native land, he bore himself with a 
characteristic modesty and dignity, while all his utteianjoes were univers- 
ally held to partake of great common sense and refined taste. Those who 
know him say that he is of the most kindly dispontion, without the 
slightest ostentation or assumption, a thoroughly upright man, a firm 
friend, a pleasant companion, and full of fun, anecdote, and pleasant 
banter, when he unbends at his own fireside or at that of a friend. In 
religion he is a Baptist, and while he holds te his. own religious opinions 
conscientiously and fiiinly, he has never shown the slightest tinge of 
bigotiy or uncharitahleness towards those who differ from him. 



THE EDITOE IN CANADA. 288 

Such is (t brief sketch of the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, vith whom 
I had the hononr of spending a moat agreeable evening, At first 
he does not impress yon aa being posseesed ofany extraordioary gifts, but 
as the c6nveisation proceeds a conlitenance, by no means indicative of 
great power and force of oharactet, gradually brightens up, the purest 
Engirt with an unmistakeable Perthshire accent, flows easily and 
fluently &om his tongue. Yon are impressed with his genuine honesty 
and WBJit of reserve, and yon cannot help thinking that these qualities 
most be a great obstacle to his success aa a Canadiaii politiclau, when 
pitted gainst such an able tactician and Disraelian imitator as Sir John 
A. Macdonald. I was, in short, in the company of a man of great 
natilial ability and culture, who talked A'eely and fluently on the various 
questions introduced by me ; and I was particularly pleased to find him 
admitting that the policy of giving the -cold-shoulder to Highland immi- 
grants Was a great niistake ; and promising that if he ever again got into 
power, the policy of the present Government on that particular question 
. would be entirely reversed. In the momii^ of the same day I called, at 
Government House, upon 

The Hon. Donald AjjEzander Macdomald, Lieutenant^ovemor of 
Ontario, with a letter of introduction &om his £^ceUency the Marquis of 
Lorn. I found bin) exceedingly pleasant and affable, and quite able and 
willing to converse with me In Gaelic as well as in English. He was 
having a party of the leading politicians of the Province to dine with him 
the same evening, and kindly invited me to join them. Having, how- 
ever, already eng^ed to dine with the ex-Premier, I was most lelnotantly 
obliged to decline his preferred hospitality, but had to promise him that 
I should accept of it on my return to Toronto from Beaverton about the 
middle of the following week. The grandfather of the Lieuteuant-Oover- 
noT emigrated 6om Knoydart, on the west coast of Invemase-shire, in 
1786, and settled in Glengarry, Canada. One of the sons, Alexander, 
sncceeded his father in the fEirm at Sandfleld Gomel, close to St Raphael's 
Church, in Glengarry, and bad a family of sons brought up there which 
turned out to be one of. the most influential and distinguished in the 
great Dominion. One of these, the late John Sandfleld Macdonald, was 
for many years one of the leading politicians of Canada, and ultimately 
became Premier. Another son, A. F. Macdonald, represented Cornwall for 
many years in the House of Commons, and this distinguished Highland 
family represented almost without iny interruption the coimty of Glen- 
garry in Parliament since the Union of Upper and Lower Canada in 1841, 
in which year John Sandfleld was first elected for the county. The pie- 
sent Lieutenant^^vemor of Ontario was bom on the farm, at Sandfleld, 
in 1817, so that he is now in hia 63d year. He was educated at a neigh- 
bourii^ institution, presided over by the Bight Bev. Alexander Mac- 
donnell, D.D., afterwards Bishop of Kingston, He devoted himseK 
to mercantile pnisuits, and became a successful contractor, in which capa- 
city he eonatructed several railways and cuuals. In course of time he be- 
came President of the Montreal and Ottawa City Junction Eailway, 
and one of the Directors of the Bank of Ontario. In 1870 he retired 
&om boeinesB, and since that time devoted himself almost exclusively to 
public aflairs. He was returned to Parliament in 18G7, In 1871 he 
declined the TieaBureiship of Ontario. Dn the defeat of the Govemmenti ^ 



336 THE CELUC UAGAZINE. 

of Sii John A. Macdonald in 1873, he W^ame Fotrtmastei-OeneTal ia tlia 
Mackenzie Administratioii, and in the space of two yeaia carri»d out 
great refoTms in his department, among wliich irere the establishment of 
direct mail communication between Csnada and Europe, the reduction 
of postal rates across the Atlantic, and the establishment of a system of 
uniformity, free postal dehveiy in the principal cities of the Dominioii, 
prepayioent of the postage on letters and newspapers, and a Postal 
Convention with the United States, which resulted in the reduc- 
tion of post^ige each way by about fifty per cent, and the exten- 
Hon of reciprocity to the money order system of the country. His 
public speeches were always short, but at the same time distinguished 
by pleasant and gracefal thought and utterance. N'aturally of a con- 
ciliatory disposition, he was able to overcome difficulties that his prede- 
cessors in office were unable to surmount. He had always taken a keen 
interest in the military affairs of the country, and for many years held the 
honourable position of Lieutenant-Colonel of the Glengarry Raaerve 
Militia, a body of men posseasing the military ardour and heroic spirit 
which in all ages distinguished their Highland ancestors, and which still 
animates the inhabitants of Glengarry County. It was only natural that 
when Mr Macienzie found himself in a position to fill up tie vacancy in 
the high office of the Lieutenant-Governorship of Ontario, he should have 
conferred it upon his able Lieutenant, the Foatmaster-Qeneral ; and it was 
oniversBlly admitted by politicians on both sides that no more fitting ap- 
pointment could be made, and that no member of the Liberal party 
deserved the honourable distinction more than Mr Macdonald, who had 
continued throughout all his public career to retain the esteem and 
respect of friends and foes alike. A general chorus of approval &am 
all parties foUowed upon the appointment, and it is admitted on all 
hands that "nothing occurred since his elevation to mar this feeling 
of satisfaction. Punctual and earnest in the discharge of his public 
duties, Mi Macdonald, in his no less important social capacity, retains 
and continues to display the same valuable qualities which have long 
made him a favourite with all who knew him, dispensing the hospi- 
talities of Government House with as little ostentation as possible, but 
with as much kindness and liberality as could he desired." He is a taU, 
good-looking man, with a fioe open conntenance, most unassuming, and 
agreeable in manner ; a Catholic in faith, hut full of charity and good 
feeling towards those who differ from him in religion. He is highly 
popular with all the members of the Liberal party, and devotedly fond of his 
native Glengarry and its people, while he still has a warm comer in his 
heart for "Tir nam beann, nan gleann, 'b nan gaiageach." While in the 
city I had a most agreeable interview with the Hon. S. C. Wood, 
Treasurer and Minister of Agriculture for the Province of Ontario, who 
supplied me with information bearing upon emigration, and expressed his 
views freely on that and such other questions as I introduced and discussed 
with him. His deputy, Mr Spence, Secretary of the Emigration Depart- 
ment, I found equally pleasant and obliging, and most anxious to place 
any information in his possession at my disposal. And now that I am 
taking leave, for the present at least, of Canadian officials, it is only right 
to say that whether they agreed or differed with me, I found them, with- 
out exception, feom the highest to the lowest, perfect gentlemen, most 



THE EDITOE IN CANADA, 237 

agreoaMs, ciTil, and otliging, witb no offensive aire of superiority, and 
most anxiotiB to supply any informatioa in ihoii power, whether it was 
connected with their own specifil departmentB oi not 

The reader is no doubt aware that in Toronto resides Patrick Mac- 
gregor, ULA., bamiter, better known team his connection viih Celtic 
literature, more particnhirlj as the author of " The Genuine Bemains of 
Ossian, literally translated, with a preliminary Dissertation," published by 
him in 1841, under the patronuge of the Highland Society of London. 
Mr Uiacgregoi waa educated in the University of Edinburgh, and has 
several idationa in this conntry, in Badenoch and Paisley, the well-known 
P. Comyn Macgregor of the latter place being his couain-geiman. In the 
course of a moat interesting chat, I learned with pleasure that Mr Moc- 
gr^r had a new edition, improved, with extensive notes, of his now rare 
voik, ready for the press. One of the judges is £enneth Mackenzie, but 
though I called twice I found bim on the bench, and 1 was unable to 
procure an interview or find out what branch of the Macketjzies he 
originally sprang from. "But perhaps the best known (to quote from 
my lettors in lie Free Frees) and moat genuinely warm-hearted High- 
lander in Toronto is Hugh Miller, a wholesale chemist, who learned his 
bosinesa in Church Street, Inverness. He came to Toronto in 1842, 
when it had only a population of between thirteen and fourteen thousand, 
the inhabitants of the city having thus increased six times in 37 years, 
during which period Mr Miller has been one of its most prominent and 
upright citizens. Finding him so pop'olar among his fellow countrymen, 
I jocularly remarked that it was a pity our ftiend had so nearly outlived 
the Clan Millsr, or he would no doubt have been appointed Chief by accla- 
mation. ' Ah,' answered one, ' he holds a far more important position here ; 
he is Chief of all the Clans in Toronta ' " Indeed I found that he was known 
and spoken of over the whole of Upper Canada as one of the very beat in 
all respects of his race in the wide Dominion. He has long ago occupied 
all tbe positions of honour at the disposal of the tjt Andrew and Cale- 
donian Societies. He is a Justice of the Peace, and a leading reformer, 
and his eldest son and partner in business holds the honourable position 
among his countrymen of Secretary to the St Andrew Society. No de- 
serving Scot in distress is turned away from Hugh Miller's ; but in spite 
_ of aU his liberality and kindness, which are proverbial, he possesses, in 
addition to a lucrative and extensive btiainess, some valuable land and 
house property in and around the City of Toronto. There were number- 
leas g(x>d Highlanders in the city whom I desired to see ; but the limited 
time at my disposal did not admit of my staying long enough in the 
place. Among others I met Mr Neil BaiUj a very fine fellow, a native 
of Dingwall, and a partner in a large safe manufacturing concern in the 
<3ty. James Bain & Son is a moat respectable firm of booksellers of long 
standing, doing a very prosperous business, and also originally from Ding- 
wall One of the sons is a partner in iho London publishing firm ot 
Itimmo & Bain. The leading pubhahers in the city are Campbell & Son 
and Kaclear & Co., and genuine H^hlanders to boot. I was also pleased 
lo meet with two young Inveruessians — one, a sou of the late respected 
Bailie Alexander Macbean, who holds a respectable position in the Goods 
Department of the Grand Trunk Railway ; and Angus Macbean, a son of 
Wis Uaobean, also occnpying a lespectable position Titich I was in- 



jb,GoO(^lc 



238 THE CELTIC MAGAZIKE. 

formed hs is steadfastly improTing in a mannei which Ms gxxl condtict 
and steady habits faHj deserve. The meicautile houaes exhibit Gordons, 
Mackays, Campbells, Uacdonalds, Mackenzies, Mathesona, and other ench 
Highland names without nuntbei on their Bigaboards, making yon feel 
quite at home as you pass along the principal streets of the city. While 
here I took a nm oat to 

BbaVKBTON and WOOpviLLB 

by the Toronto and Nippising nairoTr gauge railway, the manager of 
which was good enough to send me a return pass over his line to and from 
Woodville where I had to change and travel some eight miles oa another 
line te Beaverten. At the Midland junction, a^out 100 milea due north 
from Toronto, I bad to wait for more th^n an hour the arrival of the train, 
which was just an hour behind time. The oiGci^ls showed the most 
delightful unconcern as to its appearance ; and, making inquiry, 1 wae told 
by one of them that ,the trains were almost invariably equally late and 
was "not once in a fortnight up to time," the delay jjeneiallytakiEig place 
at Lindsay. 

My principal object in going to tl|is disjjjct was to see the Eev. David 
Watson, M.A., one of the earliest subscribers to the CeUie Magazine in 
that quarter — a genuine Bjghlaudei, whose father at one time occupied 
the farm of Knocknageal, near Inverness. He was in the village to meet 
and drive me to the manse, about a mile further on, where, on arriving, I 
received a warm Highland greeting &om his wife and family. I soon dis- 
covered that Beaverton, situated on Lake Sim; oe, a magniiicent sheet of 
water, was almost entirely populated by Gaelic-speaking KighlandeTs, 
those from lalay and Eintail forming the great m^ority. X much desired 
to see them, but my kiad host stuck te me so closely and attentively that 
I could not leave him to go among the people, without a seeming rudenese 
and ingratitude which 1 naturally felt moat anxious to avoid. However, 
on Sunday morning, finding that I could not have my deaiies satisfied as 
to the living, I went to the churchyard, and wandered antj, mused among 
the tombs of the dead, until it was time to enter the church to hear my 
eloquent friend preaching to his devoted Highland flock. Here, among 
the tombs, I enjoyed a sermon in stones which surpassed in interest te 
me any that I had ever heaid preached from living lips. There I found 
from the inscriptions and sculpture which abounded that vast numbers of 
my expatriated countrymen lay under a strange sod thousands of miles 
away from their native land, waiting for the great day when the earth 
and sea shall give forth their dead. Hardly a monument or head-stone 
but proclaimed that he or she over whom it was placed was "a native of 
Scotland " — Campbells and Mackays " from Islay," Camerons " from 
Lochaber," Macraes "from EoflS-ahire" or "from Kinteil," Gordons and 
Muirays "from Sutherlandshire," Macewens "from Perthsire," and so on 
firom all the Highland counties. The whole surroundings and the thoughts 
to which they gave rise were touching beyond description, and made an 
impression upon my mind which I shall never forget. The harsh cruelty 
or callous indifference on the part of the Highland Chiefs, who must be 
held principally responsible for the expatriation of their noble count];y- 
men, was recalled and presented in vivid colours before the mind's eye. 
The ties of affection fat fathers, brothers, sisters, and friwds, for country 



jb,Goo(^lc 



THE EMXOB IN CANADA, 239 

and im, so wmoiaelessly torn astmdet by the natural piotectors of their 
people and depeadanta were recalled, and the feeling piodaced was one of 
subdued Borrow mixed with no small amount of hatred and contempt for 
the memorj of the autJiors Of Highland evictions and other less glaring 
and oflensiye, hut equally cruel forms of expatriation and transportation 
of a past generation. One could not help feeling the great value and in- 
teiest which would have attached to such a record, as was here given, of 
the early migration westward fnm Europe to the British Isles of the early 
Celtic races. Though thousands have i'uund a last resting-place in this 
city of the dead, the first burial took place in it so recently as 183i, a few 
years after the first tree was cut in the then trackless and endless forest. 
The inscription, which shows a poor acquaintance on the part of the com- 
poser with Highland geography — for he places Inverness-shire in the Isle 
of Skye — is as follows : — " Sacred to the memory of Ann M'Ginnis, wife 
of Bonald Cameron, a native of the Parish of Strath, Invemass-shiie, Isle 
of Skye, Scotland, died May Hth, 1834, aged 48 years. Deceased was 
the firat intered (lic) in this yard." Another inscription, on a very fine 
monument, is " Li memory of Colonel Kenneth Cameron, formerly in Her 
M^est/s 7gth or Cameron Highlanders, who died June 20th 1872, aged 
84 years," Colonel Cameron joined the famous 79th, X was told, as ens^n 
aboatlSOS. In the same encloeure is another monument to Bobt. Bethune, 
youngest son of the late Ite v. John Bethune, D.D., of the parish of Dornoch, 
Sutherlandshire, who died in 1864, aged 67 yeaiB, and whose widow, a 
sister of Colonel Cameron, survives him, and is perhaps the most respected 
lady now living in the Township of Thorah. On a £ne marble colnma 
we are told that, " Here moulders the aehea of Eobert Mactaggart, . . . 
He was born in lelay, served under Admiral Nelson, fought in the 
memorable battle of the Nile, departed this life on the 6th of September 
1868, at the good old age of 88." 

Bat perhaps the most peculiar, and those which best illustrate the love 
of home and the pride of ancestry, are the following ; — " In memory of 
Donald Macrae, bom 29 June 1786, died 30 Nov. 1870. Emigrated to 
Canada 1831, Was one of the firat pioneers of the Township of Thorah. 
He was son of Donald ilacrae, who was (son) of Christopher Koy, (son) 
of John Donald, (son) of Alexander, (son) of Christopher. His fiist wife, 
Maiy Macrae, was dai^hter of John [Brec], (son) of Donald, (son) of Donald, 
■ (son) of Alexander (son) of Christopher." From this it appears that this 
couple were cousins six times removed &am Christopher, their common an- 
cestor; Two of their sons, John and Donald, are in excellent circumstances, 
worth about £4000 each, and I was determined to see them. I found them 
snch genuine Highlanders as I expected the commemorators of their an- 
cestors in such an inscription would be ; and it is quite unneocessary to say 
that they still take a warm and most lively interest in the Scottish High- 
lands. John was bom in KintaQ, hut left with his father quite young j 
but Donald was bom in Canads^ Their great-grandmother was a daughter 
of the Macrae of Ardintoul of the day. 

Alongside thd above unique inscription wai one " In memory of 
Isabella Macrae, TOlict Of Donald Macrae. Bom at Eintail, Boss-shire, 
Scotland, in 1783 ; died at Thorah, Ju^y 17, 1873. Daughter of John 
and Margaret Macrae, who were descendants of the Beverende Parquhar 
Macrae and Donald Macrae, ministers of the Church of Scotland, a.d. 
1741, in KintaiL" 



jb,GoO(^lc 



240 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

These inscriptionH, as I have Edready indicated, gave rise to feelingB 
and emotionB not eanily euppreased, and some of ^111011 I oommimicated 
to my reverend friend before he entered the pulpit ; and doting the most 
elcN^aeut and impreBsive discourse which ha afterwards delivered, he made 
such telling lefeiences thereto as visibly affected many of his heareis. Mi 
Watson is deservedly highly popular with the people, among whom he 
has laboured far so many yeata He is one of the small number of 
miniatets who -opposed the Union, recently entered into by all the Pres- 
byterian Churches of Canada, and his congregation to a man adhered to 
him, though every one of them were quite wiUing to join if their pastor 
did BO. Some of them, however, asked themselves the question, Whether 
it was best to go over and part with their minister, oi adhere to a pastor 
whom they almost adored, as a godly, earnest, and hard-working man, to 
whom they looked op as their natur^ father and protector when any 
troubles or trials overtook them 1 The question of Union or not was put 
to them from the pulpit, their minister asking all those who were in 
favour of Union with the other churches to stand up. Not one responded 
He then asked those who desired to continue as they were to show their 
wishes in the same manner, when every soul in the building sprang to 
their feet. Ihe church in which they had been hitherto worshipping 
was antiquated and too small for the growing requirements of an increasing 
congregation ; and to show theii confidence in their minister, and to en- 
courage him still further, the time was considered appropriate to set on 
foot a subscription for the building of a new chuich. In a very short 
time a sum of £3500 was subscribed solely among his Highland Mends, 
and all vrithin the township. A handsome building, large enough to seat 
900 pernouB, was contracted for, and was ready to receive the congregation 
the Sunday after my visit, on which day it was to be formally opened 
It is a pretty, neat structure, and every farthing of its coat was subscribed 
before the building contract was entered into, a fact which I am afraid 
cannot be recorded of many, if any, churches in our Highland districts at 
home. It win thus be seen that Mr Wataon is happy in his people and 
surroundings, and he is equally so in his own family. Hia sons and 
daughters are educated under the domestic roof by their father, who in the 
most systematic manner devotes so many hours a-day to these paternal 
duties. The ladies' performances ou the piano were really remarkable, 
when the difficulties of the situation are taken into account; and they 
sang Scotch and Highland airs with the natural simplicity and sweetness 
of the mavis, one of them especially possessing a compass and command 
of voice which, under professional tcaining, would soon enable her to 
make her mark among the most accomplished vocalists of our time. 

Mr Watson is, in many respects, quite a character. He is entirely 
devoid of any ecclesiastical starch, but wholly devoted to benefiting physic- 
ally as well as morally and religiously, his fellow creatures; and notwith- 
sttmding his genuine respect and love for the Old Church, he is thoroughly 
catholic in hie views, and on the most friendly terms with his neighbours 
— Catholic as well as Presbyterian. His popularity among his neighbours 
was strongly evidenced by an intimation in iJie other Presbyterian churches 
of the district that there would be no services held in them on the oc- 
casion of the opening, on the following Sunday, of Mr Watson's new 
church, eo that all the neighbouring ministera and people might be able 



jb,GoO(^lc 



THE EDITOE XS CANADA, Ml 

to join in the qwning celebration Herricea. T wm particnlarly Btraok with 
his nervous lesUessnesa, and with the pecnliai natuialnesa and simplicity 
of hia eloquence and action in and out of the pulpit. He posseeees a 
magnificent library, and is a great student and master of botany, omitbo> 
logy, astronomy, geology, and many of the other Bciencos — a very prodigy 
of learning, in an ontof-the-way legion, where only bis natural love of 
knowledge could ever have induced him to devote himself so much to 
stody as he does. And he is not a mere bookworm, but makes good use 
of his leeearchee by occasionally delivering free lectures to the people on 
the elements of the various sciences. Mr Murdoch, with whom I parted 
in Kingston a fortnight previously, was to lecture in Woodville on " The 
Heroes of Osaian," on Monday evening, and I decided upon being present 
on the occasion. My reverend friend would insist upon driving me in 
hia own machine, though the train was leaving Beaverton at the same 
time ; and I parted with his family, and later on with himself at Wood- 
ville, much regretting that I had so little time at my disposal to spend 
among such a fine, warm-hearted people as the Highlanders of Thorah. 

"Woodville is a thoroughly Highland adttlement of about 600 inhabit- 
ants, most of whom ate from the Island of Islay, and nearly all Gaelic- 
speaking people. They turned out well to hear Mr Murdoch's lecture, 
after which I had the pleasure of addressing them briefly in Gaelic. The 
Eev. Mr Mactavish, now of Inverness, has been there for several years, 
and he is still remembered and spoken of with the highest respect by 
every one with whom I came in contact during my short stay in the 
place. Among those whom I had the pleasure of meeting there was Dr 
Mackay, who is married to a daughter of Mr Mactavish ; Duncan Camp- 
bell, of the Post OfQce ; and the Kev. Mr Boss, the present settled Gaelic 
minister in the vill^e, and a native of Easter Boss. I intended to have 
visited the churchyard there as I had done at Beaverton, but next day 
tnming out very wet, I started on my way, and had the pleasure of the 
Eev, Mr Ross's company all the way back to Toronto. In my next I 
shall introduce the reader to tho HiglJanderd of Guelph, Lucknow, and 
Kincardine, A,M. 



TO 00BBE3F0NDENTS.— L«tt«r and encIoiuTs receired from Vr JAn HMdiniald, 
■McetMy, GmUo Booiat;, Sydney, N',S,W, FUue arrange with Ueun Qordon & Ostoh 
of your city, m yoa propon. Hig. oui be inpplied throogli their Helbonme bnnoh, our 

AnatralUn agsnta. Ukloolm BobertlDD, SeftoD, Nev Zastind. — Letter and «Delanu« 

noal*ed. Kelthar the Oulig nor Engliali worda are giied with Ceptain FraHr of 

Knoekie'i Highland mniio. Aleiandar CameroD, Cobnrg, Melbonrne.— Many thaafai 

(or latter and enolMaie ; bnt eepeoiall; for yoar Talnable lervioe in making knowa the 

C^it Magaiinc in the colony. Dr MacCrimnion, Lucknow, Ootario. — Order csoeiTad, 

and book* forwarded to joni addreii. We ahall be glad to hiar from yon after yonr re- 
turn from Daootah and Manitoba. Willinm Frmer, Elgin, lllinoia,— Tbanka. Wo 

haie conTcyed your meaBagp.B to Maokohina k Stewart ani to the Higklaitdtr. 

lljUa Campbell, White Konk. N.Z.— Many thuuks. Your kind order booked, bnt tha 
work will not appear tor aonie time. 



jb,Goo(^lc 



THE OEtTIC ItAGAZINE. 



%ittf([bXtt. 



TRAjfSAorioira of tsx oablic sooixtt or iirvxajntas, vol vin^ 

lSTS-9i Pn»tedfi>r»eSo<^p. 

LooEiNO over this goodly Tolume, the first contribution that meets one is 
tlie addieas of the Chief^ John Mackay, Swanaea, deliyered at the SevenUi 
A"""»l Afiseinbly of the Society on the Ilth of July 1878. In it he 
deals earnestly and eloquently vrith some of the good work vrhich had 
hitherto been performed by the Society, To the influence created and 
&uned by it he gives credit for the bringing into existence of the High- 
lander, of the Cdlie Magazine, and of the Celtic Chair, and no doubt 
this is to lome extent true. It is, however, equally true that the 
proprietors and editors of these publications were respectiyely the 
mover and seconder of the motion that the Gaelic Society itself be 
foimed. Conffldering the interest which has been taken in the case of the 
ffighluid ciofter for the last few years, we are pleased to qnote what 
sncn an authority was good enough to say of out own share in, and re- 
sponsibUity for, directing attention to his unfortunate lot After referring 
to the Highlander, the Chief continued : — "We were not long exulting 
in the conduct of this champion when another made his appearance upon 
the scene, visiting our houses every month, with ever new and varied re- 
fireshments of the daintiest kind — History, Folklore, Legends, Poetry, and 
Music. He, too, has a strong cudgel in his hand, which he wielda like a 
master, and surprised many by boldly asjeiting, without fear of contra- 
diction, that the ' Highland Crofter ' was the most depressed, oppressed, 
and repressed member of the great British nation ; that there was neither 
' Poetry nor Prose ' in his lot, that the time had come either to ameliorate 
his condition or banish him for ever to the backwoods of America, to add 
to the strength and power of Brother Jonathan, or to assist Miss Columbia 
in her onwud progress, and wipe away the stigma ever exposed to view 
on the bonnie braes and hill-sides of Qaeldom. The re&ain of this ' ditty* 
has been taken np and echoed from Jjand's End to John O'G-roats, &)m 
the Seotema?t in Edinburgh to the Echo in London town, with a bewilds^ 
ing, though diversifying, unanimity. The grievances complained of were 
admitted to he of long standing, known to dl, patent to all, acknowledged 
to be undeserved — mildly, uid sometimes unmurmuringly, borne, and 
above all, however much might may have overborne right, powder and 
shot were never thought of as a means of redress, nor as instruments of 
revenge. All honour to the brave population who know bow to endure 
without disgracing their bright escutcheon ! The time is at hand when 
their case wiU have consideration. ' The darkness of to-day will issue in 
a brighter to-moirow.'" At the annual dinner, held in the following 
January, Sii Kenneth Mackenrie of Qairloch, Baronet, who presided, 
devoted an excellent speech to the same subject, and among the results of 
the Society's influence was, he said, " that a new magazine devoted to High- 
land Uten^tore and Highland interests has been established b^ ^onr former 



jb,Googlc 



LITERATURE. 243 

excellent Secretary, and though it is in no way under out cuntiol, itveiy 
efficiently promotes Bome of the objects we have Get before na." He then 
congratulates the Society on the prominent part which it bad taken in 
promoting the Federation of Celtic Societies, and on the many Taluahle 
papers which were pnnted in the " Transactions," and continues : — " The 
Celtic Magazine, to which I have alluded, is now in its fourth year, and 
ii, I hope and believe, an assured success. It concluded its second volume 
with aa essay on 'The Poetry and Prose of a Highland Cioft,' which 
attracted so much observation that our leading Scottish journal thought 
the public sufficiently interested to make it worth sending a special com- 
missioner to the West Highlands, to report on this abnormal element of 
society — the West Coast crofter. The Commissioner's letters were of 
course widely read, and intended to extend the area of discussion. The 
Scotsman itself could see in the croft system only an unmitigated evil; 
othen (like the Highlander in this town), could see in it nothing hut 
good ; while a third party, admitting the misery spoken to by the Celtic 
Magazine and the Scottman'g commissioner, thought that by legislation 
(of a character which I fear they did not clearly define to themselves), the 
crofter's position might be brought back to that of an ideal past, in which 
I have no doubt they firmly believed." Sir Kenneth then goes on to 
give his own opinion, and states that it is absolutely certain that, despite 
the hardships with which the crofter has to contend, " not one crofter in 
ten desires to change his condition by removing with his family to soma 
other part of the country where he could have regular employment." 
The reason why the poor crofter is apparently so thoroughly satisfied with 
his lot is then given, and Sir Kenneth holds that " this must be accepted 
as a foct, that for no increase of material plenty, which is within his 
reach, will he give up his present surroundings, and surely he knows 
better than his critics what tends most to his own happiness." This hy 
no means follows. We have seen with our own eyes some twenty-five 
years ago, parents on the Giairloch property weeping and crying loudly 
because they were obliged to send their children to school by the estate 
regulations, the reasons given being that if they were taught to read and 
write, they would leave tiie country, as the writer of this notice and other 
members of the same family did, and were in the hahit of doing. Will 
it he maintained that these parents were the best judges of what tended 
most to their welfare and happiness I We think not ; and the same is 
equally true of the great majority of the Highland crofters. They are 
ignorant of how easily they could benefit themselves and their families in 
Canada and other British colonies. They do not know how thickly popu- 
lated these places are, especially the Dominion, with their own country- 
men, and the comparative comfort and affluence enjoyed by them, or they 
would not stop a single day longer than they were obliged to do in their 
present positions. The remainder of the Baronet's speech is devoted to 
showing that the Highlanders of to-day are in many repects better off 
than those of the last century j and in this he is quite successful. 

The Rev. Alexander Macgregor has two interesting Gaelic speeches in 
the volume, one of which be concludes, amidst great applause, by desiring 
that Sir Kenneth should soon occupy a seat in the British Parliam^t, 
where he could attend efiectually to tiie interests of the Gaelic race : — ■ 
" Aoh doimuhh mi," he says, " ann an oon fhocal eile m'an co'-dhnin 



244 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

mi; agus 'se sin, gu'm bheil mi'u doclias gu'n d' thig an Is anils am bi an 
caiaid uasol, ionmhninD, cinneadoil fuin, aa Eidli Coiitiieach Ghearrloch, 
(a tha aig oeatrn a' bliuird an nochd) 'na Bha.ll ann am Parlamaid na 
Eioghachd air son ceamaidh air cbor-eigiu 'nar tir ! Ocban 'se dhaanadh 
an gaiie-moi ri sin an Ceilleach, seadb, agos an t-Ard-Albannach mai an 
cendna, ged nach ann dn ahliochd 'nan cabar e : — ach dbeanamaid uile e, 
oir o'ait am bhoil uasal ni's airidh na esan air urram, agua ni'a freagarraicbe 
na e, chum dleaa'-naia na drouchda sin a cho"-lionadh 1" Is it posaible 
that our Eeverend friend may after all, and in apite of modern sccpticiam 
as regards all prophecy, possess tliat ancient gift ! 

There is a most interesting paper by Mr Jamaa Barron, of the Inver- 
ness Courier, on " The Celtic Province of Moray," in ■which he treats 
learnedly of its ancient Maormorahips, and informs ua that the town of 
Inverness had a fortified place on the Cti>stle 9iU in the reign of Kf alcolm 
Ceannmore, and that soon after his day the Castle was the most important 
stronghold in the northern part of the kii^dom. The town became a 
Koyal burgh in the twelfth century, but it was previously mentioned by 
David I. as one of the local capitals of the realm. After describing the 
fiarce battles which were fought between King Duncan, Macbeth, and the 
powerful Noise Earl, Thorfinn, Mr Barron goes on to propoond the 
theory that Macbeth, who first took the side of the King, deserted 
Duncan and joined his enemy, Thorfinn. Macbeth wanted to make 
peace with the powerful Norseman, and " what more acceptable 

gift could he bring (him) than the head of King Duncan 1 

Macbeth had no wish to be subordinate to the King of Scotia. He held 
that he was himself an independent prince ; and here was a good oppor- 
tunity once for all to destroy Scottish pretensions, or perhaps, if Thoi^n 
was favourable, to seize upon the Scottish throne. His wife, desirous to 
avenge bei kinsman, doubtless encouraged such projects. Thus influenced, 
it is reasonable to suppose that Macbeth slew Duncan after the battle, and 
threw in hia lot with Thorfinn. Their combined forces rav^ed the country 
east and south, and a partition of the kingdom appears to have followed. 
The rule of Thorfinn was acknowledged throughout the district north of 
the Grampians, while Macbeth ruled over the central territory. . . . 
The reign of Macbeth extended to seventeen years, and was comparatively 
peaoeful and prosperona The power of Thorfinn helped to render hu 
throne secure; but something must also have been due to the Conserva- 
tive elements still existing in the Scottish kingdom. The innovations 
which had been previously introduced could not have failed to create a 
certain measure of discontent. The old Fictish law of succession through 
the female line had been abandoned; the law of Tanistry had next been 
undermined by Teutonic influences ; and to the southern Celts it may 
have been satisfactory to obtain a Gaelic king like Macbeth, especially as 
he was connected by hia wife with their own royal family. Macbeth was 
in reality the last truly Celtic king of Scotland. By ^e oldest writera 
he is represented as a liberal and popular sovereign. He and his queen 
twice gave grants of land 1« the Culdees of Loch-Leven, and Macbeth and 
Thorfinn appear to have visited Borne in 1050, where the Scottish king 
&eely distributed silver to the poor. Several attempts were made to de- 
tiirone him, but until 1057 without success, In that year Malcolm Gan- 
nOie, advancing from Northambetlaud, attacked him with a poiraial 



LITEEATUItE. 245 

force. Macbeth was drivea acrosa the Mounth, and alaia at Lumphaoau 
in Man, where there is still a large cairn known as Cairnbeth, 

The paper entitled " The Ooamos of the Ansient Gaels " has been re- 
ferred to in a different form in the Febniaiy number. Such a paper 
should nerer have been admitted into the Transactioiia of a Society whose 
objects are bo entirely at variance with those of the writer of that paper. 
The objects of the Society, as printed in the volume before us, " are the 
perfecting of the members in the use of the Gaelic langu^o ; the cultiva- 
tion of the language, poetry, and music of the Scottish Highlands," <&c. 
The object of Mr Donald Eobb, one of Her Majesty's Inspectors of 
Schools, is to crush, if he can, everything Celtic lie adopts, with 
evident satisfaction, the opinions ol' writers who have described our 
language as " a fitting article for savage imagery and crude conglomerate 
tbinlri Tig," and who say that our " poetry is stolen or appropriated from 
more fertile fields whenever it happens to rise above the dignity of 
scurrilous twaddle." Our music is sneered at and caricatured ; and the 
very men who brought the Society itself into existence, and whose active 
support has made it the power for good it now is, are, figuratively, spat 
npon and designated a nuisance by thie modest Celtic savant, while in the 
matter of " culture aud criticism," he modestly designates himself "the 
heir of all the ages," whatever that may mean. In our notice of the last 
volume issued by the Society, wo protested against non-members — in which 
category Mr Kosa was at that time — being allowed to abuse the race and 
all the inheritance we as Highlanders value most, in our own Transactions. 
He has since qualified to abuse ca with a vengeance at our own expense. 
But the piU has been found too strong, and his connection with the Society 
has been dissolved in a manner which it is not our intention to notice 
here beyond saying that it unmistakably marks the manner in which his 
eervioee to the Society have been appreciated by the members. 

There are two chapters of " Leaves from my Celtic Portfolio," by the 
Secretary, Mr "William Mackenzie, which by themselves are worth doubld 
the Buudl sum of five ah illing H paid for ordinary membership of the 
Society. Nearly one third of the volume is taken up with a full and 
most interesting history of " Mackay's Begiment," by Mr John Mackay of 
Ben £eay, which is an exceedingly valuable contribution to Highland 
military history, and for which not only the Mackays, but all who take 
an interest in such subjects, are placed under a debt of gratitude to tne 
aathot The paper on " lona," by Mr Colin Chisholm ia of so interesting 
a nature as to dispose ns to place it before the reader in an 
early issue ; and we trust at no distant date to he in a position to treat in 
like manner the very learned and valuable paper on " Celtic Etymologies," 
by Mr C. S. Jerram, M.A, (Oxon.), an English scholar who has paid 
great attention to the subject — extending . even to the length of having 
acquired the Gaelic language j and who is not unknown to the readers of 
the earlier volumes of the Celtic Magazine. 

The Gaelic Society continues to do real anbsfanti^l service, and the 
volume before us, exodlently printed by the proprietors uf the Free Presi, 
u worthy of its piedecesson and of the Society. 



Do,l,.cdbyGoO(^l(^ 



THE CELTIC MAGAZliTE. 



This unpretentions, beautifully printed little book ^rill find a <heaT^ 
welcome in many a household on both sides of the Athmtio. Mlas 
MacColl has evidently inherited no small share of the diTiae afflatus &om 
her father, the well known baid of Loch Fyne. From him she may 
have got the lively fancy, the graceful flow of langoage, the alight dash of 
satire at the passing follies of the day ; bat the true womanly feeling, the 
tender maternal instinct, tha essentially feminine sweetness, evinced in 
this book are all her own, 

"One Less To-Night" is a pathetic picture of a bereaved mother's 
chastened sorrow for t£e loved little one so early lost " Fallen Staia " is 
a sweet poem, full of laige-bearted charity and tender sympathy for the 
human " wandering stars," and baa the true ring in its piety. In " My 
Love," with its smoothly flowing measure, musical cadence, aiid glowing 
im't^eiy, we recognise the work of a true poet ; but in " Good-By " 
there is poetry and mOTC^there we have depicted human nature in one 
of its best aspects, a woman's love, trusting, dependant, clinging to the 
hero of her heart like the ivy round the sturdy oak. Strong-minded 
ladies full of " woman's rigbts " wiU sneer at Ute picture here given ; 
ambitious, cold-hearted beauties will Hot understand it; but all leal- 
hearted wom^n will both understand and admire it. We would &in give 
it in full, but the first and three last verses will give an idea of the whole : 

Qooi-hj I I DIQHot tpwk It, loTS, to thM, 
That aaddeiit of ill wordi ; ihr qnlok tiwn flow 

At thsnflit of partlsg : Ufa would aaalaube 
ITitboat tbM ; Dkj I oaoaot bid Ui«a ga. 

I mbIcI nal oTimb llfa'i taggsd mountuD alda 

Withoat tbj Mroag il|ht ■iin ta laan upon ; 
I oonld nat Btgm *b* «■« « ol (onow') tida 

Withont thy Toioa and iiuila to ahear ma an, 
O, what U gold, or rank, or povar to rns ! 

Ttaeji will not latiifran aobing baart: 
Aod wactiDg luTa bow boM tha woild would b«. 

Hew daaukca— with all itaahow- and art. 
I lora tbae,' darling, mora tbao I ron ttll, 

All alia 1 oonld jt^d np ; bat tbaa, ab, no. 
Not e'an whan djiag ihaU I uf farawall, 

Sweathaatt, gWeaUlMrt, I oannol bid tbiea go. 

There are six or seven i^hter pieces, written in quite a different key to 
the reBt;'eome of these strike at the foibles of the hosr, and are not 
destitute of humour. "Johnny's Letter" is charming in iti aimplieity and 
drollness. 

The book is very neatly got up, and we trust it vrill meet with the 
sucoees it so well deserves, so that Hiss MacColl may be encounged to 
the still greater efi'orte of which this volume, described even by Longfellow 
as " full of poetic beauty and deep feeling," can only be the harbii^cer. 



ii,GoO(^lc 



HP KHM!.! BSSAa 00. 



jBIow (Mct jvMntiM. 




Di-doBbnaldh uuu a* gt>lMOB dnino. 

Ho Khmli bhau m 
^BUi tboliich mi rioaiant riat ; 

Mo >hnid d* 'n t-akuif &1 mh*r. 
Ifadr dh YhoKiil ml no ahnilMui, 

"B X iliull mtiir mo ehnl-tkiobh ; 
Bhft msnaah an alah abratbftich, 

Tlgh'Du dia air mo loif. 
>S miw hh'air mo bhoiirudb, 

UoHhalibbMtoc 
■Naiir 'tiula' ui Unagh Ma's owdrt didim 

Ho tibhiBB ihlan or ; 
■StauC^nub BBB nn (ulr nd, 

A tfanlt mo lUBh o m' gbnilalnD, 
Hh'b dh' mti* ml do bhtwbMli 

UoHbkUbhMKoc 
0«r boiob* iMm k dbthu Uia. 

HoHbaUbbBkg^, 
N»'d mi un u« fhtiufa, 

Ho uboBd Khndh '■ ma min : 
Hu^tMlouinUcnin' 

Ana Km midniDn otunin u alrlgh, 
B* ind do dhnuh >'• t-oagA, 

HoMbKlibhugH- 
■8 mlM a thug an coal 

Dlia mo Uh*U bhig ot(. 
Hash dwlaloh riom aa'a t-iaashal. 



Tfia t-thalt air dhraaob naa tandan, 

Do gbraiJdbvku mar na ooanm ; 
Da ibnilaaD, flathall, aobbaob, 

'a de bbml-Ubbalrt ainiii. 
^iBbhlainn Uat an laaglul. 

Mo MbaU bhaag o( ; 
Obo fad a> ani na graiaa 

A fhiiv »'■ ailli (boIb 
Suithian agni laDBaian, 

Hat (bladb air bbarr nan alalbhtaan. 
Ail gbaol 'a gu'm blthlnn raidb 'a to. 

Ho HfaaU bhaag og. 
'8- troaih • ilnn do obalidaan. 



Nao togadh iad d^ Mob dbamk. 

Oka bbithinn-'a aan aan aM ae, 
Fo' bUnn air aoa aas gbialdb dbmt, 

HaHhaUUiaagog. 
Oa d' bbairta ml bha-n bbu ao, 

Ho Hb*U bhaag og. 
Oha 'n Urraian tnllla dalaah, 

Ha abaudibradh '• mo nfn : 
B'aunta "n uoghal-a' f}u|ail, 

*& gn'm faisliin t-aodasB gbradhaoh ; 
Ob'i obaimhn' bbi ait ut la lia, 

•8 na ditftaag mi tlwi oiniif . 



i,Googlc 



THE CELTIC MAOATIim, 



reoiprocal— bnt inoh WM tha diipkrity of tbair nfronTnittuicsi th^t tb« abatulet to their 
anion -wm Teg«rd«d eitn by thcmwiTw m Iniapanbl*. To meod mattan, tfa* falluit 
yonng Higblandar aollited, and bciog > bnva soldier kod i roQUg man of sioelleDt oon- 
danb and chamoter, be wai promoted to tha riiiik of an offloar. Af(«r'M*er>l yaara* 
»bienaa, and wb»n, at the end of a oampaiKD. the ftrmy had taken up thalr wiatwr 
quartan, he oama homa to aee har friendi— to try whether hi* newly aoqnired. atetni 
mizht not remoTe th* ohjactieni of her friend* to their nnian. She ou itill aDiiunisd, 
and If jwuible more baantifnl thui when he left bei^-eTery feature had aaaumed tha 
higlily flniibed character of wonanbood— her beauty wa« the anlTaraalthema of admira- 
tion. Othello like, the Rnllant youni offiaar told bet of ' haic-bretdth 'leapea by land 
and flood,' and lo •nrspturad the young lidr that iha readil; agreed to atop* with biou 
HeTiuK matured their airangemantii, Oitij fled on a Saturday night — probably aader the 
balist tiiat tha nou appaarauae of the young Udy at her fstber't table en Sabbath morn- 
ing, wonld exoite no earmisei in the harry of going to sburoh. Hht, indeed, had oom- 
cliinad to her fatber of eome tligbt beadaehe when the ratirad to nwt, and inetrncted 
her maid to lay next morning that she wu better, bat not dlepaaed to appear at the 
breakfait table. Not latiafied with tha aerrant's pieTBrioation, who wai eegniiant at the 
elopement, the father hurried to bia daughter'! beiiroom, and, not fiudiag bar thara, he 
forcibly eliaited tfae faota from the girL He imaiediately aaiembled hie men, and pnr- 
fued the fugitire loian with apeed and eagernsM. After many milea pncinit, tbeyovar- 
took them in a Bolltary glen where they bad lat down to rert. Tbalorer, tbonghbehad 
nobody to lopport him, yet waa determined not to yield up bia miatreii ; and being well 
armed, nnd an eioellent gladiator, be raiolved to rssanl any attack made upon him. 
When the ponuerB came up, and while ha waa defrnding himself and har with bia 
aword. whioh wtg a r«ry heavy one, and loaded with what i) otiled a aCeal appla {abhal 
a' Maidkeimh), ihe ran tor preteotion behind Mm. In preparing to giro a deadly atroka, 
tha poinb of the weapon aeoidectBlly itraek hia miatreia, then behind him, lo violant a 
blow, that aba inetantly fell and expired at hia feet I Upod leeing this, helmmedlately 
(urrrndered himieif, laying, ' Tbat he did not with to lira, hii earthly traaaure b^ng 
gone I ' He waa instantly carried to jail, where he oomposed this heart-melting song a 
few days before his eieoutirn. Our neighbours, the Irish, claim thii air as one of their 
own, but upnn what authority we bava been left in the dark. Sir Jobn Sinclair estab- 
lishes its natirity in Scotland, bat falls into a miatake io making an inn tha soeoe of the 
meliDchoiy catastrophe of Ihe lady's death. Tha scng itself subatantiatea our version of 
it. The aesond stanza waa narer printed till glien by ua— the whole is aow printed 
oorractly for the first time. It Is one of the most plaintive and mellow in the Gaelic 
lantuage-full of pathos and melancholy feeling. The distracted loiar addresees 1 ' 



still iiTing—a cirDumstance that puts the pathetic 

., beyond comparisnn, and anply illustrates the di«tractien of hi* owB 

mlud— a state of mental ocnfuaion, and wild malaniiholy, leiging on madness," 



IN SUTEERLANDSHIKE, 



If ow the last flake of amber is eabdued 

B7 twilight, and the fainting crimBons &j 

From the quiet Bpaces of the western sky ; 

The rook is winging homewards with his food ; 

Down in the cosy sedge the curlew's brood 

Have hushed themselves to silence suddenly, 

As if afraid to startle with their cry 

The stretch of listening moorland and still wood. 

Day is reluctant to resign this hour, 

And night scarce dares to take it till the shell 

Of the high moon casta forth her miracle 

Of perfect silver, and resumes her power 

Over the wind, the sea-wave, and the flower 

That folds against the night its weary bell, 

w. A. au. 



Celtic Magazine. 



HI3T0ET OF THE MACDONALDS, 

THE LOEDS OF THE ISLES. 
Bt the Editor. 



VIL 
X. JoHW, FocBTH AND Last Lord OF THB IsLES of the family of Mac- 
donald, who was as strenuous an opponent of the King's party as his fa- 
ther had been, b^an to rule at a critical period in the history of hia 
family. The treasonable league which hia father, Alexander, had 
entered into with William, 8th Earl Douglas, and the Earl of Crawford, 
has been already referred to, and though no action was taken upon it dup- 
it^ the life of the last Lord, after his death the parties to it broke out into 
open rebellion, and John of the Isles took an active part in the inaurreo- 
tion, collected a large force of the Islanders, seized the royal castles of In- 
Temess, TJrquhart, and Euthven, and declared his independence of the 
Scottish King, The Castle of Ruthven he at once demolished to the 
ground. Urquhart Castle was placed under the command of hia father 
in-law, Sir James Livingston, who on hearing of the insurrection of the la- 
land lord left the Court and escaped to the Highlands ; while the strong- 
hold at Inverness was carefully garrisoned and supplied with a large quan- 
tity of military stores. It is asserted that it was the King himself who 
caused the Lord of the Isles to marry the daughter of Sir James Living- 
ston, promising him a grant of land with het which he never granted. 
And in the Auchinleck Chronicle it is recorded that this was a private 
grievance which, among others, urged the Island Chief into this rebellion. 
On this subject Gregory says, that it may be supposed he was too much 
occupied in securing himself against the great power and ambition of the 
Douglas party in the southern counties, now rendered more confident by 
the return of their chief from abroad, to be able to take prompt measures 
against the Earl of Eoss ; at least, none such are recorded in the chroni- 
cles which have come down to us. But there can be no doubt that James 
contemplated proceeding to the north to ehastiBo the rebels there ; for it 
was upon the refusal of Douglas to renounce the league, offensive and de- 
fensive, into which he had entered with the Earls of Eoss and Crawford, 
that the king, in a sudden fit of passion, assassinated, with his own 



jb,Googlc 



850 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

hand, that nohleman, whose inordinate ambition was coneidered the chief 
cause of oil these commotions. William, Earl of Douglas, being thus cut 
off in the height of his power, was succeeded by James, 9th Earl, his bro- 
ther, vho, after repeated sebdlions, was finallj encountered and defeated 
by the Earl of Angus, leader of the King's troops, at Aikinholme in An- 
nandnle. In this battle, Archibald, Earl of Moray, and Hugh, Earl of 
Ormond, brothers to the Earl of Douglas, wem slain ; whilst the Earl him- 
self, with hifl only remaining brother. Sir John Douglas of Balvany, made 
his escape into the West Highlands. Here he was received by the Earl 
of Boss, who still remained faithful to his engagements, having, it would 
appear, hitherto escaped, by reason of the remoteness and inaccessibility 
of his territories, the vengeance which had fallen so heavily on hia confe- 
derates, Douglas and Crawford. Boss immediately collected a :fleet of one 
hundred galleys, with a force of five thousand men on board, and dis- 

Ktched tUs expedition, under the command of his kinsman, Donald Bal- 
sh of Isla, to attack the coast of Ayrshire, with the intention, probably, 
of encouraging the Douglas party again to draw together, should auch a 
course appear expedient. Owing to the able measures of defence adopted 
by the King, this enterprise met with little success. Donald commenced 
hostilities at Innetkjp in Ayrshire ; but being unable to effect any object 
of importance, he proceeded to ravage the Cumraya and the Isle of Arran. 
Not above twenty persons, men, women, and children, were slain by the 
Islanders, although plunder to a considerable amount — including five or 
BIX hundred horses, ten thousand oxen and kine, and more than a thou- 
Bond sheep and goata — was carried off. The Castle of Brodick in Arran 
was stormed and levelled with the ground ; whilst one hundred bolls of 
meal, one hundred marts (cows), and one hundred marks of silver, were 
axacted as tribute irotn the Isle of Bute.* The expedition was concluded 
by an attack upon Lauder, Bishop of Ajgjle or Lismore, a prelate who 
had made himself obnoxious by a^ing his seal to the instrument of for- 
feitnie of the Douglases ; and who was now attacked by the fierce Admi- 
ral of the Isles, and, after the slaughter of the greater part of his attend- 
ants, forced to take refuge in a sanctuary, which seema scarcely to have 
protected him from the fury of his enemies.t 

The Earl of Douglas returned to England after the failure of the expe- 
dition under Donald Balloch ; and Boss, finding himself alone in rebel- 
lion, became alarmed for the consequences, and, by a submissive message, 
entreated the forgiveness of the King; offering, as far aa it was still 
left to him, to repair the wrongs he had inflicted. James at first refused 
to listen to the application ; bat, after a time, consented to extend to 
the humbled chief a period of probation, within which, if he should 
evince the reality of his repentance by some notable exploit, he was to be 
absolved from all the consequences of his rebellion, and reinstated in the 
Boyal fevour.t The Earl of Boss was, in li67, one of the Wardens of the 
Maiches.g an ofGce of great trust and importance, but obviously intended 
to weaken his inflnence in the Highlands and Isles, by forcing bini froqu- 

■ It would MMn that th* Cutis of BstbMir wm alio bCBitgod. AeU of Pirli*- 
mant, II. 109. 

t Tjtler'i SMtliBd, lY. pp. 86 127. AnebiiklMk diroalol*. pp. U, 61, GS. Acta 
ol PirHinont. II. 190. 

J Tjtler'i Sootiand 0879 ed.), ToL IL p. 177. 

% Uimet'i FoBdcni, XL, p. 39^. 



jb,Googlc 



HISTOET OF THE MACDONALDS. 251 

ently to reside at a distance from tlie seat of his power ; and, as he was, 
at the same time, one of the nohles who guaranteed a tnioe with Eng- 
land,* it would seem that he had lost no time in effecting a reconciliation 
with the King. Previous to the siege of Roxhurgh, at which James II. 
was [1460] unfortunately killed, the Earl of Rosa joined the Eoyal army 
with a body of three thousand of his vassals, well armed in their peculiar 
faahion. In order to prove his fidelity and loyalty, he offered, in case of 
an invasion of England, to precede the rest of the army, whilst in the en- 
emy's country, by a thousand paces distance, so as to receive the first shock 
of the English, Eoss was well received, and ordered to remain near the 
Kii^e person ; but, aa there was at this time no invasion of England, the 
conrage and devotion of himself and his troops were not put to the test 
proposed, t 

Dr John Hill Burton [434-5 History of Scotland, vol. II.], quoting 
ftom Fitecottie, informs ns that the Earl of Eoss got such encour^ement 
as made him believe that it was sound policy to help the King in his pro- 
ject, and so he went to the siege with "ane great army of men, all armed 
in Highland feshion, with halbershownes, bows, and axes ; and promised to 
the King, if be pleased to pass any farther into the bounds of England, 
that he and his company should pass ane large mill before the host, and 
take upon them the press and dint of the battle " ; and that he was found 
very serviceable " to spoil and herrie the country," an occupation to which 
the Lowland forces were now less accustomed than they used to be. 

Soon after the siege of Eoxburgh, and the death of the King, a 
Parliament met in Edinburgh, which was attended by the Earl of Eoss 
and Lord of the Isles, and other Highland chiefs. The Earl soon dis- 
covered that the new Government was not strong enough to keep him in 
subjection, and he renewed his league with, the banished Douglases, with 
the view of pursuing his former schemes of personal aggrandisement The 
Douglases were naturally anxious to secure the great power and influence 
of the Earl of Eoss on their own side and against the Govenmient, and 
they soon succeeded in inducing the Island chief to enter into a treason- . 
able league with Edward IV. of England By the advice of his principal 
vassals and kinsmen, on the 19th of October 1461, Eoas aswmbled in 
council at his Castle of Ardtoniish, and granted a commission, aa an in- 
dependent prince, "to his trusty and well-beloved cousins," Eanald of 
the Isles, and Duncan, Archdean of the Isles, to confer with the deputies 
of the English King. These Commissioners met soon alter at Westminster, 
and on the 13th of February 1462, concluded a treaty for the conquest of 
Scotland by Edward IV., with the assistance of the Earls of Eoss and 
Douglas, who were to receive stipulated sums of money, and, in case of 
success, large grants of lands for their support in subjugating their native 
land to the English crown. 

Eeferring to these negotiations. Hill Burton [vol iil, p. 3] informs ua 
that on the 2d of August 1461, " a commission la appointed by Edward 
IV. for peace ' with our beloved kinsman the King of Scots,' yet just two 
months earlier another had been issued for treating with ' our beloved 
kinsman, the Earl of Eoss, and our choice and faithful Donald Balagh, or 
their ambassadors, commissioners, or messengers.' The refugee Eail of 



ii,Goo(^lc 



263 THE CELTIC MAGAZDfE. 

Douglas waa a parby to this negotiation. It was bionglit to a concliuion 
by an elaborate treaty bearing date in February 1462. By tbia aatoond- 
ing document it waa coTonanted tbat tbe Lord of the Isles should become 
for all his territory the liegeman of King Edwaid and his heirs ; and that 
if Scotland ahould be conquered through the aid of the Lord of the Isles, 
he shoidd be lord of the northern part of the land to the Scots Water, or 
Firth of Forth ; while Douglas, should he give proper aid, was to be lord 
of all the district south of tfie Forth — both districts to b« held in strict 
feudal dependence on King Edward and his heirs. Meanwhile, and until 
he ahould reap this brilliant reward, the Lord of the Isles waa to have 
' for fees and wages ' yearly, in time of peace, a hundred merks, and in 
time of war two hundred pounds ; while his assistant, Donald, waa to 
receive a retainer amounting to twenty per cent of these allowances." 
Ponald Balloch's son, John, was at the same time retained at half the 
sum stipulated for his father for his part in carrying out the treasonable 
and nnpatrotic programme. 

While the negotiations which ended in this treaty were proceeding, 
the Earl of Eoss raised the standard of rebellion in the North. Having 
assembled a groat force, he placed them under the command of hui bastard 
son, Angus Og of the Isles, who had the assistance of bis distinguished 
and experienced relative, the veteran Donald Balloch. The rebellion, 
according to Tytler,* " was accompanied by all thoae circumstances of 
atrocity and sacrilege that distinguish the hostilities of these island 
princes. Eoss proclaimed himaeK King of the Hebrides, whilst his son 
and Donald Balloch, having taken posseaaion of the Castle of Inverness, 
invaded the county of Athole, published a proclamation that no one should 
dare to obey the ofl3c«rs of King James, commanded all taxes to be hence- 
forth paid to Eoss, and after a cruel and wasteful progress, concluded the 
expedition by storming the Castle of Blair, dragging the Eaxl and Countess 
of Athole from the chapel and sanctuary of St Bridget to a diatant priaon in 
Isla. Thrice did Donald attempt, if we may believe the historian, to fire 
the holy pile which he had plundered — thrice the destructive element re- 
fused its office, and a storm of thunder and lightning, in which the greater 
part of his war-galleys were sunk, and the rich booty with which they 
were loaded consigned to the deep, was universally ascribed to the wrath 
of heaven, which had armed the elements gainst the abettor of sacrilege 
and murder. It is certain, at least, that this idea had fixed itself with all . 
the strength of remorse and superstition in the mind of the bold and sav- 
age leader himself ; and such was the effect of the feeling, that he became 
moody and almost distracted. Commanding his principal leaders and 
soldiers to strip themselves to their shirt and drawers, and assuming him- 
self the same ignominious garh, he collected the relics of his plunder, and 
proceeding with bare feet, and a dejected aspect, to the chapel which he 
had 80 lately stained with blood, he and his attendants performed penance 
before the altar. Tbe Earl and Conntees of Athole were immediately set 
&ee &om their prison." The relief of Donald Dubh from captivity aeoms 
to have been originally the chief object of this expedition, but Angus ap- 
pears to have libeiated his prisoners, as above, without attaining his object. 

Daring the recent turbulent proceedings Eosa assumed royal prerc^ 



'S edition) p. IS2. 



ii,Goo(^lc 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS. 253 

tivB3 over tha whole Sheriffdoma and Burghs of Inverness aad Naim, 
-which at that time included all the northern counties. There are now no 
means of ascertaining h.ow this civil hroil was auppreaaed ; but it ia known 
that the Earl of Eoss was summoned before Parliameut for treason in 
connection with it, that he failed to appear, and that the procesa of for- 
feiture against him was for a time suspended, though an army was 
actually in readiness to march against him. His submission, however, 
rendered this unnecessary, and although he did not receive an uncon- 
ditional pardon, he was permitted to remain in undisturbed poaaession 
of his estates for twelve or thirteen years afterwards, nntil at length, in 
1475, the treaty concluded between himself and Edward TV., in 1462, 
came to light, when it was at once determined to proceed against him as 
an avowed traitor to the crown. He was summoned at his Caatle of 
Dingwall to appear before the Parliament to be held in Edinburgh, in 
December 1475, to answer the various charges of ti-eason and rebellion 
brought against him, and at the same time a commission was granted in 
favour of Colin, Earl of Argyle, to prosecute a decree of forfeiture s^ainst 
the island lord. He failed to appear on the appointed day, and sentence 
was pronounced upon him. He was declared a traitor, and his estates 
irere Ibrfeited to the Crown. A formidable armament, under the com- 
mand of the Earls of Crawford and Atbole, comprehending both a fleet 
and a land force, was made ready to carry the sentence of Parliament into 
effect These preparations induced him to sue for pardon throt^h the 
medium of the Earl of Huntly. By means of a grant of lands in Knap- 
dale to the Earl of Ai^le he secured the powerful influence of that 
nobleman in his favour. The Queen and the States of Parliament were 
also prevailed upon to intercede in his behalf, and appearing aoon after- 
wards in person at Edinburgh, be, with much humility, and many ex- 
pressions of repentance, surrendered himself unconditionally to the Boyal 
clemency, when the £ing, "with wonderful moderation," consented to 
pardon him, and in a Parliament held on the 1st of July 1476, he was 
restored to the forfeited estates of the Earldom of Boss and the Lordship 
of the Isles. Immediately afterwards he made a voluntary and absolute 
surrender to the Crown of the Earldom of Boss, the lands of Eintyre and 
Knapdale, and aU the Castles thereto belonging, as well aa the Sheriff 
domsof Inverness and I4^airn; whereupon he was in return created a 
Baron Banreot, and Peer of Parliament by the title of Lord of the Isles. 
" The Earldom of Ross was now iualionably annexed to the Crown, and a 
great blow was struck at the power and grandeur of a fJEtmily which had 
80 repeatedly disturbed the tranquillity of Scotland." 

" By the favour of the King, the succession to the new tiUe and the 
estates connected with it, was secured in &vour of Angua and John, the 
bastard sons of the Lord of the Isles ; and Angus, the dder of them, was 
soon afterwards married to a daughter of the Earl of Argyle. Thia Angos 
was early accustomed to rebellioQ, having acted aa Lieutenant to hia 
&ther in the great insurrection of 1461. Keither the favour now ahown 
to him by the King, nor his alliance with the Earl of Argyll, were suffi- 
cient to keep the natural violence of his temper within bounds; and 
circamstancea soon enabled him to establish an ascendancy over his 
father. The sacrifices m^e by the latter in 1476, when he gava np the 
Earldom of Boss, and the lands of Kintyre and Knapdale, wen Tei; on- 



jb,GoO(^lc 



264 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

popular among the chiefs descended of the family of the lalea, who further 
alleged that he had impaired his estate by improvident grants of land to 
the Macleans, Macleoda, Macneills, and other tribes. Thus, the vassals 
of the Lordship of the Isles came to be divided into two factions — one 
comprehending the ciajia last mentioned, who adhered to the old lord, the 
other consisting of the various branches of the Clandonald who made 
common cause with the turbulent heir of the Lordship. In these oircum- 
stances Angus not only behaved with great violence to bia father, but he 
involved himself in various feuds, particularly with the Maekenzies.''* 

The Sleat Seannachaidh, Hugh Macdonald, gives the following version 
of the feuds and family quarrels which took place between John of the 
Isles and bis son Angus Og. He describes the father as " a meek, modest 
man, brought up at Court in hia younger years, and a scholar, more fit 
to be a churchman than to command ao many irregular tribes of people. 
He endeavonied, however, still to keep them in their allegiance by be- 
stowing gifts to some and promoting others with landa and possessions ; 
by this he became prodigal and very expensive. ... He gave the 
l^ds of Morvairn to Maclean, and many of his lands in the north to 
others, judging by these means to make them more faithful to him than 
they were to hia father. His son, Angus 0^, being a bold, forward man, 
and high minded, observing that his father very much diminished bis 
lente by hia prodigality, thought to deprive him of all management and 
authority. Many followers adhered to him. His father being at Isla, he 
went after him with a great party, forced him to change seven rooms to 
lodge in, and at last to take hia bed, during the whole of the night under 
an old boat. When he returned to his house in the morning he found 
his son sitting with a great crowd about him. MacFinnon rising up, 
desired Macdonald to sit down ; who answered that he would not sit tUl 
he would execute hia intention, which was to curse his son. So leaving 
Isla with only six men, be wont te the mainland and to Inveraray, and 
having waited without till one of the Argyll gentlemen came forth in the 
morning, who, obaorving Macdonald, went in immediately and told Argyll 
of the matter, who could scarcely believe him, saying, if he was 
there he would certainly send some person to inform him before 
hand. With that he started up, and going out, finds Macdonald, and 
having saluted him and brought him in, he said, I do not wonder at your 
coming here; but I am surprised you did not warn me before your 
arrival and that your retinue ia so small. That is little, said Macdonald, 
to the revolutions of the times, and thou ahall ba the better of my com- 
ing ; and so, after dinner, he bestowed on him the lands of Knapdale, 
Bilisleter, fh^m the river Add to the Fox-bum in Eintyre, 400 merka 
lands, and desired Argyll to convey him to Stirling, where the Kii^ was 
at that time, and for his sou's disobedience he would resign all his estates 
to the king, So they went to Stirling, and from thence to Air, in com- 
pany with the Sing, when John resigned all into his hands, excepting 
the barony of Kinloss in Murray, of Kinnaird in Bucban, and of Caim- 
douald in the West, which he retained to support his own grandeur 
during his lifetim& Angus Ogg Macdonald, his son, followed his former 
couises, came to lavemeee, and demolished the .castle. When hia brother 



* Oreiorr'i WMtara Highlaadi »nd Islu, pp. Bl S3. 



Google 



HI8T0ET 0^ THE MACDOKALDg. 256 

Aostin saw haw matters went on, and that John liad resigned all to the 
king, he goes to Edinburgh, and takes his charters from the ting for all 
his patrimony which his father ami mother bestowed on him formerly, in 
favour of his heirs-male, legitimate or illegitimate ; which patrimony con- 
sisted 01 North TJist, the pariah of Hough in South IJist, Canna, Benbi- 
cola, Slate, Trotteniah, and Lochhroom, But Angus Ogg, his nephew, 
continuing his former pretensions, resolved not to surrender any of his 
father's lands to the king or to his father himself. The Earl of Athole 
was ordered with a party against him. He joined others in the north, 
■who had the same injunctions from the idug, viz., the Mackaya, Mac- 
kenzie, the Brodiea, some of the Fiasera and Bosses. Angus Ogg came 
from Isla and Kintyro to the West, and raising some of his own name' 
viz., Alexander Macdonald of the Braes of Lochaber, John of Glangany, 
the Laird of Enoydart, and some of the Islanders, he goes to Eosa, where, 
meeting Athole and his party- near Lagebread, he gave them a defeat, 
killing 517 of their army. Maokay was made prisoner, Athole and Mac- 
kenzie made their escape. The Ew-I of Crawford afterwards was ordered 
by the king to go bv sea, and Huntly with a party to go by land, to 
harass and discourage Ai^ua egg's adherents ; hut neither of them exe- 
cuted their orders. Argyll and Athole were sent to the Islanders, desiring 
them to hold of the king, and abandon Angus Ogg, and that the king 
would grant them the same r^ts they had formerly from Macdonald This 
offer was accepted by several But when the MacdonaHs, and heads of 
their families, saw that their chief and family was to be sunk, they began 
to look up to Angus Ogg, the young lord. About this time Austin, bia 
nncle, died, and was buried in Sand, North Uist."* 

Skene informs us that after the resignation of the Earldom of Boss, 
and after the late Earl was created a Peer of Parliament by the title of 
Lord of the Isles, the Earl of Athole was despatched to the north to re- 
instate Ross in his former possessions, now re-granted to him by the 
King, where he was joined by the Mackenzies, Mackaya, Frasers, Rosses, 
and others ; but being met by Angus Og at a place called Lag-a-bhraid, 
the Earl of Athole was defeated with great slaughter, and it was with 
great difficulty that he managed to make his escape. Two expeditions 
wore afterwards sent north — the first under the Earl of Crawford by sea, 
with another body under the Earl of Huntly by land ; the other, under 
the Earls of Ai^le and Athole, accompanied by the Lord of the Isles in 
person. But these expeditions proved nnsuccessfol against An^as Og. 
Argyle, however, managed to purauade several families of the lales to join 
him; but failing in the object of their mission, the two Earls soon returned. 
TheLordof thelsleSj however, proceededaouth, through the Sonndof Mull, 
accompanied by the Macleans, Macleods, Macneils, and others, and again 
encountered his rebellious son in a bay on the south aide of A rdnamurohan, 
near Tobermory, where a naval engagement immediately took place between 
them, which resulted in the complete overthrow of the father and in the dis> 
peraion of his fleet. By this victory, at " the battle of the Bloody Bay," 
Angus was completely established in the full possession of the power mA 
extensive territories of his clan, " There was one called Edmond More 
Obrian along with Ranald Bain (Laird of Muidort'e eldest son), who thrust 



* ColUctanw de K«bni Alb&niDia, 315-316. 



Google 



256 THE CELTIC 1*1 AGAZINE. 

the blade of an oar in below tbe stern-post of Macleod's galley, between it 
and the rudder, which prevented the galley from being steered. The 
galley of the heir of Torquil of the Lewb, with all hie men, was taken 
and himself mortally wounded with two arrows, whereof he died soon 
after at Dunvegan. .... After this conflict, the Earl of Athole, 
being provided with boats by Argyle, crossed over privately to Isla, where 
Angus Ogg'e lady, daughter of Argyle, was, and apprehended Donald Dhu, 
or 'the Black,' a chUd of three years of age, and committed him a 
jreisoner to Inch Chonuil, so called from the builder, Conuil, son of the 
first Dongall of Lorn, where he remained in custody unto his hair got 
grey. Yet Angus 0^, Donald Du's father, waa still advised by the ^rl 
of Angus and Hamilton to hold out and maintain his rights. After this, 
John of the Isles gave up to tbe King all these lands which he formerly 
held back for the support of his grandeur. .... If we search 
antiquaries, we will find few names in Scotland that mortified more lands 
to the Church than the Macdonalds did. However, I cannot deny hut 
his father's curse aeems to have hghted on this man. He took a journey 
south, where he killed many of the Macalistera in Arrnn, and also of his 
own name, for seizing and intromitting with some of his lands without 
his consent. Hetuming through Argyle and Lochaber, he came to Inver- 
ness. Mackenzie waa like to be killed, or at least banished, by Macdonald, 
because he was always against him, contriving all the mischiefs he could, 
least, upon recovering his own, he would deprive Mackenzie of these lands 
\f'hich he held of the King. There was another circomstance which 
shortened Macdonald's days — viz., there waa a lady of the name of 
Macleod, daughter of Bory, sumamed the Black, who waa tutor to the 
lawful heir of the Lewis, married to the Laird of Muidort. The tutor, 
her father, being reaolved not to acknowledge, by any means, the true 
heir of the Lewis, and engross the whole to hiinself, was displaced by 
Macdonald, and the rightful heir put in possession. This lady having a 
spite at Macdonald for dispossessing her father, together with John Mac- 
kenzie, contrived his death in the following mannet. There was an Irish 
harper of the name of Art O'Carby, of the county of Monaghan in Ireland, 
who was often at Macdonald's, and falling in love with Mackenzie's 
daughter, became almost mad in his amours. Mackenzie seeing him in 
that mood, promised him his daughter, provided he would put Macdonald 
to death, and made him swear never to reveal the secret. This fellow 
being afterwards in his caps, and playing upon his harp, used to sing the 
following verse, composed by himself in the Irish language : — 



meanii^, that the rider of tbe dapple boise waa in danger of his life (for 
Macdonald always rode such a one), if there was poison in his long knife, 
which he called Gallfit As Macdonald went to bed one night, there was 
none in the room along with him but John Cameron, brother to Ewan, 
laird of LocheiU, and Macmiirrich, the poet. This John had some ri^ta 
from Macdonald of the lands of Mammore in Lochaber, written the day 
before, but not signed by Ibicdonald. The harper rose in the night- 
time, when he perceived Macdonald was asleep, and cut his throat, f(s 
whidi he waB apprehended, but never confessed that he was employed hj 



ii,GoO(^lc 



fltStOBt OF THE MACDOKALDS. 



25"? 



uiybody ao to lio, although there were eeveitil jewela found upon him, 
which were well known to have belor^ed formerly to Mackenzie and the 
lady of Muidort, The harper was drawn after horeee till his limbs were 
torn asunder. After the death of Angus, the Islanders and the rest of the 
Highlanders were let loose, and began to shed one another's blood. Al- 
though Angus kept them in obedience while he was sole lord over them, 
yet, upon his resignation of his rights to the King, all families, his own 
as well as others, gave themselves up to all sorts of cruelties, which con- 
tinued for a long time thereafter,"* 

Gregory substantially corroborates the famQy historian and informs us 
that the rage of Angus knew no bounds when he discovered by whom his 
child, Donald Dubh, had been carried away ; that this was the real cause 
of the expedition to Athole and the mainland, and of the sacril^Ious 
act of violating the Chapel of St Bridget. And after describing his assas- 
sination at iDvemess, he concludes : — Thus foil Angus, the son and heii 
of John, last Lord of the Isles. With all his violence, which appears to 
have verged upon insanity, he waa a favourite with those of his own name, 
who, perhaps, flattered themselves that he was destined to regain all that 
had l^en lost by his father. 

(lo be Continued.) 



SELIBF OF BEOWB. 



Sound the Tbukfkt of Rihowh. 

At the Kelltt at Ekowe, th* gallanC behiTiani of > handful of BritUh troopa ■.gaimt 
SIwhllmiiiB numberi hu won tb( idmimtioi] «f nil. 
Sound tbe trampct of re 



Let it 



d tbs >ki. 



Britun itriks thj to«mL _ .. 

Swill (bT wu DDta load and high ; 
See yoD biste xuA (ullaQt band, 
How nudiiuitadlf tbij itund 
Wiiting lor the prond aommHUd ; 

" Feiward, bero.-t, do oi dia 1 " 

SngUnd 1 alevatt th; B»b 1 

Sootlaad t n» thj Tbiitle grMH t 
EroTT Btittib boaom glom t 

Wb*D thoM emblMBi detr aiB n«n 
"Blid k aloud of fleuniDf itaal. 

Onward faarlMdr tht; dath ; 
Now oai labia fo« vill l»el 

Britjua'i ira whan weapoiu oluh ; 
Boldly Ssht tha Taliaot faw, 
Nobly hononT'i path pnniie, 
Bkowe borati upon tbair Tiaw, 

Paanon'i brililaat ilinuli flub. 
K^ndt alevat* thy ItoM, ka. 



Fan 



lid tbe < 



. ladly ringa ; 
Louder pan la the iCirring atrain. 
Note! that oeier aound in nia— 
Spurniog aiary galliag ohain. 

Fraedom flupa ber f;°lden winga 1 
England 1 alaiate thy roia, Jco., 
LofCr vklonr (trnok ths blow, 

SlainlaM honour was tbe ihlald ; 
Hnndredi now are lying Ipv, 

VHoquiabed boats haTeflad tha fiald : 
Glory *a«va « iireath of fame I 
In ii blead-eaoh noble name t 
BraTalf to the world proolaim 

Biitaia'a aoiiB ihall nanr yield I 
England I elsrat* tby Boae I 

Scotland! tear thy Thi^tlagrean I 
Erery Britiib bofom glowa I 

When thai* ambtams dear are ■«•■ I 
ALEXANDBB LOQAN. 



• Ooll«atMi«« d« Bebna AlbwiMi, ff. 317-3ie. 



Google 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



A LEGEND OF ST KJLDA. 



Among the maay "beautiful and high-born ladiea of the Court of Scotland, 
at the time of our story, few could vie, in point of beauty, with the youth- 
ful Alice Graham. Left an orphan at an early age, and before she was 
old enough to realise her loss, she was brought up by her grandmother, 
old Lady Graham. Petted and indulged by her fond relative, flattered 
and spoiled by the indisoriminato praises of her nurses and maids, fair 
Mistress Alice at seventeen, when she accompanied Lady Graham to 
Coui-t, was as giddy, vain, and empty-headed as she was lovely. The 
admiration she excited, and the attentions paid to her by the gallants of 
the Court, only made the haughty beauty more imperious and capricious. 
She had many eligible offers of marri^e, but none of her suitors 
pleased her iastidious taste, until she met with Sir Hugh Grange, when 
everyone was astonished to see her, not only smilo on his suit and en- 
courage his attentions, but after a little while actually promise to marry 
him, for Sir Hugh was not at all a likely man, one would suppose to at- 
tract a lively young lady like Alice Graham. He was a reserved haughty 
man, a widower, past tlie prime of life, an ambitious intriguing politician, 
with a son older than his intended brida Lady Graham highly disap- 
proved of tke proposed alliance, and sought in vain to persuade her grand- 
daughter from such an unsuitable marriage, rightly conjecturing that Sir 
Hugh thought more of her handsome dowry and the influence he would 
gain through his marriage with her, than he did of herself. But whether 
her pride was flattered at having such "a grave and reverend signior " at 
her feet, or whether through mere caprice, Sir Hugh she would have and 
no one else. And as the spoilt beauty had always hitherto had her own 
way, so she had it now, and the marriage was solemnised with all due 
pomp and ceremony, the King himself giving the beautiful bride away. 
■ Castle Grange, the residence of Sir Hugh, was not a cheerful place — 
a dark gloomy pile, evidently built more for strength and defence than with 
any regard for the picturesque or even for comfort— situated far from any 
other habitation, on a lonely rock jutting out in the sea, the wOd waves 
of the Atlantic ever dashir^ and foaming round its base, leaping and 
breaking in angry waves against the massive walls, as if eager to swallow 
in its huge billows, the frowning fortress and its inmates. The light 
heart of fair Alice grew sad and heavy, as she surveyed her new home for 
the first time, and, as she passed through its gloomy portals, she shudder- 
ingly compared it to a prison. Yet youth and beauty will enliven any 
place however dull, and the castle, under the direction of ite new mistress, 
soon assumed a different aspect, a constant stream of visitors, with their 
servants and followers, caused plenty of bustle and excitement ; each day 
brought some new pleasure. Hawking, hunting, riding, games of skill, 
and contests of strength and agility, occupied the day, while the evening 
was devoted to music, dancing, feasting, and flirting. All this revelry 
little suited Sir Hugh's sombre temperament. Long past tjie age of en- 
joying these gaities himself, he loosed with disfavour on what he con- 
eider^ the iiiTOloaB and extravagant amusementa of his vife and hn 



A LEGEND OF 8T KILDA. 259 

guesta, and aoon gave eipression to hia disapproval. Lady Grange, how- 
ever, was enjoying with all the zest of a cliild, her novel position as 
hostess, and had no idea of givinf; up the delightful, thongh somewhat 
dangerous position she held as the centre of admiration, at whose shrine 
was daily offered up the most extravagant flattery, of whose beauty min- 
strels sang, for whose smOe gallSnt youths and valiant men strove in the 
tilting-yard, or risked life and limh in the stately tournament 

;&ieh day saw Sir Hugh getting more and more annoyed at the con- 
tinued extravagance of his wife. In vain he showed coolness, amounting 
almost to inoivihty, to his numerous and unwelcome guests, who either 
did not or would not notice his hints and innuendos. Equally in vain 
were his frequent remonstrances to Lady Grange. At first she treated 
his complaints with her usual Ught-hearted levity, but as he got more de- 
cided and firm in insisting upon her keeping a quieter establishment, she 
got angry, pouted, and sulked, declaring he was a hard-hearted wretch to 
expect her to live in that horrible, dull, gloomy place, without company. 

Unfortunately for Lady Grange she had already succeeded in making 
a most bitter enemy in the person of her husband's son, Nigel, who was 
much annoyed at his father's marriage ; but when he saw the bride, he 
was so charmed with her brilliant wit and glowing beauty, that hia reaent- 
ment &ded away, and he was aa ready to be her servant as the rest of the 
gallanta in her train. His awkward, ungraceful figure, rugged features, 
and unpolished address were, however, fatal to his finding favour in the 
eyes of the fastidious lady, who took a malicious pleasure in making him 
the butt for the shafta of her wit, and amused her gueata at his expense, 
by making him appear ridiculous. 

Nigel soon withdrew with deep diaguai from the brilliant and thought- 
lesa circle, breathing curses " not loud but deep " gainst the fair author 
of hifl discomfiture. In the solitude of his own chamber, he meditated 
with knitted brow and close-set teeth how best to humble the pride and 
destroy the happiness of Tiia father's bride. His first move waa to increase 
by artfully concocted tales and half-expressed hints, his father's dissatis- 
faction with the conduct of Lady Grange. With the skill of an lago, he 
distilled drops of deadly poison into the ears of Sir Hugh, thus daily 
estranging his afiections from, and exciting his displeasure against, tlie 
thoughtlesa Alice, who, sooth to say, often played into her enemy's hands, 
for, while perfectly well aware of his hostUity, she despised and under- 
rated his power ; and strong in her conscious innocence, she took a foolish 
delight in giving him still greater hold over her, by her frivolous conduct 
and self-willed opposition to her husband's wishes. 

Gradually the guests, who could no longer affect ignorance of the un- 
happy domestic relations of their hostess, dropped off, until there only re- 
mained one. Allan Graham was a cousin of Lady Grange ■ they had been 
brought up together as children, and Alice regarded him in the light of a 
dear brother. Bir Hi^h had however taken a great dislike to this young 
man, and this feeling was worked npon by his son, who never failed by 
indirect means to caU his attention to the familiarity which Lndy Grange 
allowed her cousin, and the evident partiality with which she regarded 
him , On finding that Allan remained after the other guesta had gone, 
Sir Hugh threw off all self-control, and in a violent scene with his wife, 
coaieely expressed his suspicions, and 'commanded her with fierce threats 



260 THE CELTIC MAGAZIKE. 

to send her lover away and never hold the slightest communication with 
him again at her poriL Now, indeed, Lady Grange realised the foUy of 
playing with edfjed tools, for to her vehemently indignant refutations of 
the base accusations of her husband, she was confronted with instances in 
which her conduct, as exhibited in the light of Nigel's deadly animosity 
appeared, to say the least, suspicions. 

Outraged, bewildered, her pride wounded, her haughty spirit crushed 
under the humiliation. Lady Grange sat like one in a stupor, until hei 
oveichat^od feelings found relief in a passionate burst of tears. Thus 
Allan found her, and in answer to eager entreaties, she told him of her 
trouble, and begged him to leave her at once. Deeply resenting the in- 
dignity offered to hia cousin and himself, the hot-spirited youth drew his 
Bword, vowing that he would steep it in the life-blood of the caitiff, Nigel; 
but Lady Grange restrained him, shomng the utter futility of attempting 
auch a thing against Nigel in his father's house, and surrounded by his 
own people. Allan reluctantly gave way ; but b^ed of her to send 
word to him if at any time she found herself in want of a trusty friend to 
champion her cause, or redress her wrongs, 

" Alas !" said the broken-hearted lady, while her eyes streamed with 
hot and bitter tears, " alas, Allan, that may not be, I must never see you 
more, or hold any comniimication with you. Go, leave me to my miserable 
fate ; but do me the last kiodnees I shall ever ask of you, conceal from 
my dear granddame and my friends the wretched state in which you leave 
me. That would be humiUation indeed." 

" Is it so, iair Alice t la Sir Hugh indeed auch a tyrant) Well, at 
least I will leave you my glove ; see here, take it, and whenever you need 
my assistance, send it back to me. I shall need no other message. When I 
aee this glove, I will come at once wherever I may be. Will you pro- 
mise to send it when you need me)" 

Lady Grange gave a tearful assent, and with deep regret the cousins 
parted j and Allan, mounting his horse and calling hia attendants, rode 
sorrowfully away. 

Nigel, with stealthy footsteps retreated from his hiding-place, in 
which he had overheard the parting conversation between the cousins, and 
with a sinister smile on his ill-favoured countenance, he slipped out of the 
gate a little before Allan rode through it, thus it happened that they met 
a little way ttom the castl& On seeing Nigel on neutral ground, as it 
were, Allan could restrain himaelf no longer, Ftingii^ himself from his 
steed, and desiring his atten'lants not to interfere, he rushed forward and 
BtrikiJig Nigel with his sheathed sword, called upon him to draw and de- 
fend himselt Nothing loth, his opponent's steel flashed out instantly, 
and the conteat began. Both were good swordsmen, and for a few mo- 
ments the victory seemed uncertain; but Allan's passion made him reck- 
less, while Nigel stood immovable, the working of his face only showed 
the concentrated hate that consumed him. Soon the sword of Allan was 
sent spinning out of his hand, and he stood defenceless before his relent- 
less foe. For one moment Nigel seemed inclined to bury his blade in the 
breast of IJie brave Allan, who stood unmoved befoi-e him, disdaining to 
ask for quarter ; but remembering himself, he stayed his hand, excl^m- 
ing as he turned away, " To kill you now would be but a poor avenging 
of all the insults I have bcone at yout hands. No, youi jibes and anwn 



jb,GoO(^lc 



A LEGEND OF ST KILDA. 261 

shall have a better letum. I bide my time, and will take mj revenge in 
my own way. " 

Allan stood looking after his retreating foe with hitter feelings, shame 
for his defeat, mingled with a sense of diead at the inesorable hate and 
malignity depicted on the face of Nigel as he uttered hia pu^g words. 
Then moodily picking up his swoid, he slowly remounted, and pursued 
his way. 

Time passed heavily with the heautiful Alice now. Not a visitor ap- 
proached the caatle, and she was not alloi^ed to go out of the grounds im- 
mediately surrounding it. Even her own maid was dismissed and ano- 
ther belongii^ to the neighbourhood substituted. Sir Hugh and Nigel 
were often hoia home ; they had a small boat in which they came and 
went in a secret and imoatentatiouB manner. When at home, Sir Hugh 
treated his wife with cool civility, while the very presence of N^el was 
hateful to her. Havii^ no mental resources to fall back upon to wear 
away the tedious hoars. Lady G-rsnge became dispirited and unhappy — 
the only thing that had any interest for her now was to try to discover the 
reason of her husband's frequent absence. She was filled with an insati- 
able curiosity to find out his projects and the object he bad in maintain- 
ing so much secrecy about his actions. She had attempted once or twice 
to question him, but met with such a surly rebuff, that she found it use- 
less to attempt to gain any information from him. The more she thought 
over it, the more she became convinced that they were involved in state 
inti^es, probably even of treason. Brought up as she had been, under 
the very ^dow of the Court, and honoured by the notice of Boyalty, 
she regarded treason with peculiar horror, and the suspicion that she 
should be in any way mixed up with the enemies of the King, filled her 
with dismay. She determined to wstch them carefully, and, if possible, 
do something to frustrate their schemes. But she was no match for the 
subtle Nigel, who soon penetrated her motives, and, while laughing in his 
sleeve at her futile efforts, he did not fail to direct bis father's attention 
to this new and dangerous freak of his wife. Lady Grange was, in con- 
sequence, treated with greater harshness, and kept more like a prisoner 
than ever. The climax was reached, when one day Sir Hugh and his son 
arriving unexpectedly, found Lady Grange examining with breathless in- 
terest some papers to which she bad gained access, and which only too 
clearly demonstrated the treasonable plots in which tbey were engi^ed. 
So alffiorbed was she, that she did not hear the splash of theii oars under 
her window, nor the grating of the boat against the steps, green and slimy 
with sea-weeds, that led down to the water. The first thing she heard 
was the fierce oath that escaped from Sir Hugh as he saw how she was 
engaged. The first thing ^a felt was hia heavy hand bruising her deli- 
cate arm with its rude clasp. The first thing she saw, as she raised her 
startled eyes, was the sneerii^ look of triumph on the hateful face of 
Nigel, as he stood looking on with malicious pleasure at her confusion. 
That insolent look stung her into madness. Rising superior to her fear, 
she, with fiaahing eyes and scornful voice, denounced them for a couple 
of traitors, and, forgetting in her passion her hdlpless condition, vowed 
she would defeat their schemes and make known theii treachery, Nigel 
listened with the sinister smilo still on his cruel face. Ab a cat takes a 
dehght in the dying ponies of the poor mouse, so Nigel found pleasure 
in witnessing the unavailii^ paadonof his victim. ,-■ r 



263 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

But thete vraa an ominoas frown on the fcice of Sii Hi^li, as he 
growled rather than said, " Oh ! oh ! my pretty bird, do you sing so loud t 
we must find a cage for you, before you fly away altogether." Then ga- 
thering up the papers, he left the room, followed by NigeL 

Left to herself. Lady Grange underwent a revulsion, of feeling, the 
burning ind^nation which had hitherto supported her gave way under the 
reaction. Sbe felt a cold Binking at heart, as she thought of her utter 
helplessness, and overcome by fetfr, she threw herself weeping on a couch. 

The situation of the poor lady was indeed pitiable. She was kept a 
sbict prisoner to her apartments, the only person she saw being the wo- 
man who waited on her. Devoid of all means of communicating with her 
friends, she was perfectly at the mercy of Sir Hugh, whom she had never 
loved, and now looked upon with ahhorrenca 

Surely now Nigel has had hie revenge on the proud beauty who had 
made sport of his devotion ; but no, he must slake hia tiger-like thirst for 
blood. By the aasiatance of the woman who acted as attendant and jailer 
of Lady Grange, he got possession of the glove that Allan had given to 
his cousin at p^ing, and immediately sent it off to him by a trusty mes- 
senger, to whom he gave full instructions how to proceed. 

Says, weeks, wore away. Lady Grange still remained a close prisoner, 
pining in solitude without hope of lelease. Towards the close of a warm 
summer day she sat at the open window of her room, looking out on the 
sea, the cool evening breeze was grateful to her fevered brow, her face 
still beautiful in outline had lost the freshness of health — it was white and 
careworn — the iair forehead already wrinkled with lines of sorrow and 
Buflering. Sbe gazed at the sea, but she noted not how beautiful it looked 
with the raya of the setting sun reflected in every wave with ever-chang- 
ii^ hues. Her thoughts were far away, with her loving grandmother, 
the only parent she had ever known. Then she recalled her merry life as 
a girl, the troops of frienda, the ardent admirers, the brilliant Court, the 
Eoyal pair who had been so gracious and kind ; then her thoughts lin- 
gered on the memory of her cousin, the brave, the joyous, kind-hearted 
Allan — what would she not give to be able to call him to her aid ; when 
her thoughts were abruptly recalled to her present unhappy condition by 
hearing an unusual commotion in the castle, voices in loud expostulation, 
then a firm step on the stone staircase, the clank of a spurred heel, a halt 
at her chamber door, the voice of her attendant in controversy with ano- 
ther voice which caused the blood to rush to her heart with a sudden 
throb, and her pulse to beat with excitement ; a moment more and the 
door is dashed open, and Allan Graham enters with a hasty step ; ano- 
ther moment and sbe is clinging to him and sobbing on hia breast. Quick 
eager questions and answers succeed each other, till Lady Grange asked 
in a tone of wonder, " But Low was it Allan that you arrived so oppor- 
tunely. What brought you back to this hateful place)" 

" What brought me J" exclaimed Allan, " Why, your message, of 
course. Did I not tell you I would come at any time, if you sent me my 
glove r 

"Your glove," faltered his cousin. "I never sent it, because I could 
not, there must he some mistake," she continned, hastening across the 
room to a cabinet, where she had hidden the glove. When she saw that 
it was gone she turned with a Mght^ied look, " Oh, Allan ! what do«a it 



ii,GoO(^lc 



A. LEGEND OF ST KILDA, 263 

mean } I fear me much there is same plot against yon, to lore yon here * 
to your deetnictioD." " Fear not, dear Alice, vhat matteis it who sent 
me the token, sa long as I am come. Some unknown friend perchance hath 
done this good turn." " Alaa ! alas ! I have no friends heie ; hut hist t 
what ia that 1 do you not hear the sound of oais, and voices too t Hea- 
vens I it is Sir Hugh and NigeL Fly I fly ! Allan ; if they find you here, 
you are doomed." Her warning came too late ; Sir Hngh dashed into tha 
room with his sword drawn, demanding in a voice of thunder, what haJ 
brought Allan there ; then, without waiting for a leply, he made a Innge 
and attempted to run him through ; but Allan was on his guard, and 
quickly parried the stroke. Lady Grange, with a piercing shriek, threw 
herself between them and tried to shield her cousin from the fury of her 
husband. Ifigel, who had followed his father into the room, drew his 
dirk and passed round to the hack of Allan. Lady Grange caught sight 
of the cruel face of hei relentless enemy, lighted up with fiendish exultsr 
tion, saw the keen blade flash as it descended with unerring aim, and 
buried itself in the true heart of her cousin. She heard the harsh voice 
of Nigel exclaim, " Thus I take my revenge." She fait the warm blood 
of her kinsman gush over her neck and breast, then merciful oblivion 
seized on her overtaxed brain, and she fell insensible to the floor. The 
unfortunate Allan never spoke, the stroke was so sudden and deadly. 
His stiU warm body was dragged to the window, and ruthlessly thrown 
out to the hungry waves below. "What shall we do to her," said Sir 
Hugh, pointing to the insensible figure of his wife, " the traitress deserrea 
the same fate as her lover, but yet " 

"Nay, father," interposed Nigel, " I have a better phm than that, 
listen," and he eagerly whispered his scheme, which his father agreed to, 
and raising the poor lady in their arms, they made their way downstairs 
to their boat, leaving the castle as secretly as they came. 

When Lady Grange recovered consciousness, ahe found herself lying 
at the bottom of the boat, covered with a cloak, the keen night wind chil- 
led her through and through, the cold spray dashed over her as the boat 
cut throi^h the heaving billows ; hut her bodily discomfort was nothing 
compared to the agony of her mind. One look at the stem, unrelenting 
face of her husband and the malignant expression on Nigel's countenance, 
convinced her that any appeal for mercy would be useless. 

Hour after hour they kept on their way, the night wore away, the 
stars disappeared, and the clear moon paled before the advancing orb of 
day ; but the rising sun brought no comfort to the unhappy lady. Stupe- 
fied by grief, she seemed as though she was under the influence of a fright- 
ful nightmare. She saw what was going on without the slightest power of 
speech or resistance. She knew they were approaching land, for she 
could see the rugged outline of high rocks in the distance. Soon the boat 
was under the shadow of the same rocks, then the keel grated harshly on 
the shingle, as it was nm ashore, when she felt herself lifted out and 
placed on dry ground. She gazed around with wondering eyes. What 
dreary place was this 1 Had they brought her here to murder her where 
no eye could see them ! No, they re-enter the boat and seat themselves. 
Sir Hugh does not turn his head ; but Nigel cannot resist the promptings 
of gratifled revenge. He gloats over the despair of his victim with the 
malevolence of a demon, as the boat again pats oS. Lady Giutgft Bew 



h, Google 



364 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

the npidly needing boat, and th« fall hoiroi of hei dtnation bantg tipoa 
Iter appalled mind. Thiowing up tier anus with a gesture of despaii, she 
uttered screama mingled with Buppli cations, so long as they were in sight, 
then she again relapsed into ioaeuaibilit^. 

M. A. BOSK. 

(To be ConHnved.) 



THE GIRLS OF CAMADA.— The girls in the principal cities of 
Canada are noted as follows : — Montreal, tiie best dressed. Toronto, the 
tallest and moat stylish. Quebec, smallest feet ; sll dumplings and lambs. 
London, the most demure, Kingston, robust and blooming. Hamilton, 
the best musicians. St John, K.B., the prettiest Halifax, the best com- 
plexions. Port Hope, intellactual and Tivacioug. Coburg, fond of music, 
the wharf promenade and flirting, Brociville, lady-like and gracefol. 
Freecott, the most amiable. Brentford, the most indifferent. Samia, the 
moat anxious to be loved. Bowmanrille, the moat anxious to he married. 
St Catherines, the wittiest and most refined. Charlottetown, the most 
trathfuh St Johns, Nfld., the most liberal entertainers. Peterborough, 
the most unsophisticated, with a weakness for skating. Belleville, the 
most reckless. Ottawa, the most intellectual. — Canadian llluttrated Newt. 



It «1U be nmembered tbftt a SobccTipUaii wu orljiliiatcd In the CelUii Magaxina aoma two 

.. _. .1 -onnment, fnTii« nstlve Parijh of 0»ir1och, to oor dirtingnlibwl 

Celtic scholan and all who take ui InUrest tn Celtic K&retors 



MONUMENT TO THE LATE JOHN MACKENZIE, OF " THE 
BEAUTIES OP GAELIC POETRY." 

.ted In the Cel 
h or Oairloch, tc 

.., , , ._j takBMifntmert- _. 

riochadebtof gratHnde, bv hia t»moB9 eollectlon, "The Beantlsa of Gaelic Poebr'; 
DU i^Tse of the Gaelic Barda ; and other works In the aame field. The respoms madv wiabled 
ns to erect a mnch more aobstantial monument than wu at flnt thought of, and w* are eUd to 
Btato that miffldent tande were forthcoming to defray nearly alltheeipenwiincnrredhlUiarto, 
The work cannot, boweTei. be ooniidered oomplete wlChaat aolcc ralUnE round the monninent, 
which wlU eolt £G or £e additional ; and we iball be glad if any of our Celtic htonds who haTs not 
alreadr ciTen will aid ne with tbetr Snbacriptloiis to get this imalt nun toseUier, and ao en- 
able ns to BDlah the whole In a manual worthy of the man commemoratAd. nii feUowiu Is 
the balance sheet, from which It will be wen that the lunu received ptacUcsUy halanca the 
outlays, the earn of Zs Td only IwlnE dne b> the Treasurer :— 

To Buma reoelTed add acknowladgvd in detail in No. XXV. of the Caltis 

Magaiint »a ik n 

Do. do. In No. XXXII. 

Do, do. in No. XXXIIL 

Do. do. In No. XXXT. 

' ' nily acknowledged 



Total Rscelpta 

By Contract price to Mesers RobertaoD A law, aonlpton, 

In.erneM *^..' £S5 

By Adrertlsing, PrintlngClreulare, Poatagee.Ao. .. 8 : 

By IraTelllne and other Ilipeiisea, going to and returning 

^omOairloch, to erect monument .. .. 1: 

Paid for Cbrting Stonei, and l^bouren' WagM at O^kch : 

Balance dae to Treaiuier . , 

ALEXANDER FBASBE, 

A. UACKBNZIB, HmTst ,. 

Caltfo Mogatine OtBce, Iniamai*, 
Haich IBth, isao. 

Do,l,.cdbyG60glc 



TH.E MONKS OF lONA.* 
ByCoLur CHiSHOUf. 



HiBTOBT records that St Columbo, the pious fouoder of the Monks of 
lona, was bom at Gartlan, in Denial, in the year of our Lord 521. It 
is stated that he was of royal pedigree, both by paternal and maternal 
descent. His father was one of the eight sons of O'N eil of tho nine 
hostages, supreme monarch of all Ireland, and his mother was a daughter 
of the Eoyal House of Leinster. According to some Irish writers, his 
propel name was Corinthian, but was called by bis companions Colaman, 
or Dove. From his attachment to the church he was also called Colum- 
Cille, or Colnmb of the Church. At an early age he was placed under 
the care of a holy priest His biographer, Adamnan, the 6th Abbot of 
lona, tells us that he afterwards resided with the sainUy Bishop Finnian, 
at Moville, County Dowu. St Colomba went from the north to the 
south of Ireland, and took np his residence at Cluanard Coll^, in 
I^einster, which was resorted to by the moat eminent sages and divines of 
the day. In due time he was ordained priest, and began his labour with 
apostolic zeaL In his twenty-fifth year, he founded the monastery 
of Derry, and in the year B53 that of Dufrow. O'Cutry, the late eminent 
Celtic scholar, in his Lectures on the Manuscript-Materiaia of Ancient 
Irish History, says, that the eight great races of Ireland are O'Neill and 
O'Donnell in the north, O'Brian and M'Carthy in the south, O'Moore and 
0*Byrae in the east, and O'Connor and O'Eourke in the west 

This union of noble races, combined with piety and edi:iCBtion> gave 
St Colnmba extensive influence. Usher and O'Donnell state that he 
founded more that one hundred monaatries before his departure from Ire- 
land. We have it on the authority of Adamnan that St Coiumba was in 
the vigour of manhood, being i2 years of age, when he established IiimBeU 
in lona. All testimonies agree in celebrating his personal beanty. Hia 
height, his voice, and his cordiality were very remarkalde. Venerable 
Bede thus writes :^" Coiumba came into Britain in the ninth year of the 
reign of Bridius, who was the son of Meilochon, and the poweiful king of 
the Fictish nation, and he converted that nation to the faith' of Christ by 
hia preaching and example; whereupon, be also received the aforesaid 
island for a monastery. Sis successors hold the island to this day." 
Bitson, in his Annals of the Caledonians, says that " Conal MacCong<iil, 
Kii^ of the Scots, was the real benefactor of the holy man." 

The late Br Norman Macleod (the father of the late editor of Good 
Wordt) tells us, in his eloquent Gaelic life of 8t Coiumba, that Coiumba 
left Ireland in a little eurach in the year of our Lord 663, accompanied 
by twelve of his select and beloved disciples. He i«ached that lonely 
island behind Mull, which is called ik>m that time / Ghallum Chitle.f A 
writer in the London Examiner, January 7th, 1871, states that on the 



r,o,i,,-,-,ih,.C7oO(^lc 



see THE CELTIC KAGAZIKE. 

atriTal of St Colnmba at lona, " he set himself to establisli, on the douhle 
taeia of intellectoal and manual laboiir, the new community which waa 
henceforth to be the centra of hie activity." How far he succeeded in his 
gigantic undertaking will be seen by another extract I translated from the 
polished GaeUc of Dr Macleod. After dwelling with evident sympathy on 
the difficulties St Columba encountered among the Druids and their un- 
ciTiliaed Caledonian followers, the Dr says — " The country itself waa at 
that time like a vast wilderness, without way or safe roads through the 
thick dark woods, the hills extensiTe and full of wild beasts. But in 
spite of all this, he persevered, and that in a measure miraculous. During 
tiurty-fonr years he worked hard founding chuicbes, and spreading the 
Gospel of Christ. In his own time he saw the Dniidic religion cod- 
demned, and the kingdom of Scotland converted to the religion of the 
Gospel" The Doctor states that St Columba established three hundred 
choichea in his day, and that he founded one hundred monasteries. 

Wa are told that the small curack, or coracle, in which 8t Columba 
and his twelve companioDS came &)m Ireland, was built of wicker-work, 
covered with hide. It appears that the Celtic nations navigated tbeii 
storm; seas with such flotilla. In the frail skiffs of that period, St 
Columba and Ms Monks sailed from island to island through the Hebrides, 
and thus they discovered St Kilda, the Faroe Islands, and even reached. 
Iceland. Kot only did they spread Christianity through the islands, but 
through the inlands of Caledonia, carrying truth, light, and religion to 
the remotest glens and valleys of the Highl^ds and Lowlands also, We 
have the testimony of our earliest writers bearing us out in this belief 
We have also the strongef t collateral evidence in support of it ; and let 
me now direct your attention to a few places — south, north, east, and 
west — ^where the Monks of lona and their disciples planted religion, and 
dedicated their churches and chaples to Saints of unmistakable Celtic 
names. 

Coautj 01 Town. Nam* of Ohnreb. 

Berwickahiie Cill or Eaglais — founded by Gospatriok. 

Do CiUrLauran. 

Feeblesshire Cill-Bothoc, orEeathoc 

Do Cill or Gill Moriston (changed in 1189 to Eddleston). 

Ayrahh« CiU-Eride. 

Do. Cill-Ninian. 

DTimfidesehiie Cill-Michael, in the town of Dumfries. 

Do. Eccles-Fechan, 

Wigtonshmi Cill-Cholm. 

Linlithgowshire. Cill or Eaglais-Machan. 

Do. . , . Cill or Dailmanicb> or Delmenie. 

DumbartonshJie Cill-Patrick. 

£enfi;ewshlre Cill-Baichan. 

Do Cill-Fillan. 

Do Cill-Chalum. 

Stirlingshire Cill-Eam. 

Do Gill-Kinan (Baunockbum). 

Haddingtonshire Cill-Lady (now Glade'aMuir Church). 

Elrkcudbri^t ,..,., .Cill-EreD, 



jb,GoO(^lc 



THE MONKS OF lONA. 267 

Count; 01 Town, Kune »! Chntob. 

Feith^iie Cill-Chonim oi PortrngaL 

Do ...Cai-Fhiim. 

Do Cill-Madoa 

Fo^uehire. CiU-Caosnan. 

Edinboigh CiU-Ghilee, i.e., Qhilh Iota. 

Fife Cill-Choimchar. 

Do Cm-Eaymont. 

Do CUl-Eeuny. 

Aberdeen^iiie. Cill-Barthii. 

Da Cill-Adamnati. In the Ellon distiict, and. dedicated 

in the 7th century. 
Sutherland. Cill-Kam. 

Do. CiU-Donnan. 

Do. Cill-Pheadar, in Clyne. 

Do Cill-Chalum-ChiU, Clyne. 

Boaa-Bhiie. Cill-Martin. 

Do CiU-Donnan. 

..Cilll 



Do. Cill-FhiUan, 1 

Do. Cill-TTigtean, / 



both in EintoiL 



InvemeflB, , Cill-Colm, Petty. The Earl of Moray has also the 

title of Lord of St Colm, fhim a small island on 
the coast of Fife. 

Do. Cill-Beathan, Strathglass. 

Do. Cill-Uradan, do. 

Do Cill-Finnan, Gilengarry. 

Do. Cill-Donnan, also in Glengarry. 

Do Cill-Barr, oiBarra Isle. 

Do. cm-Michael, do. 

Aigyleshite Cill-Chalnm, in Lom. 

Do. Cill-Finan. 

Do. Cill-Choinnich, oi Kenneth. 

Do Cill-Chiaran (Campbeltown). 

Do Cill-Oian, in Colonsy Island. 

Kincardineshire Cill-Lanran. The birth-place of John De Foidnn, 

author of the Scoto-Glironicoit. This parish is also 
celebrated for having been the lesidence, and pro- 
bably the burial place of St Palladius, sent to 
Scotland by Pope Celestine, in 431. St Falladiua 
vas the first bishop sent to Scotland, 
Having taken you in imagination on a rapid pigrimage to view, if not 
to pray with me at, the shiines of Celtic Saints in every qiurter and por- 
tion of OUT native country, is it too much to expect you to endorse with 
me the honest statement of Dr Macleod "i 

"We have seen how the surface of Scotland has been studded with 
churches dedicated to saints of Celtic names ; but the sceptic 'vill exclaim, 
" You North Britaina are so very clannish, that nothing leas than national 
Bunts will satisfy you." My answer l£i any such chains is that there are 
more names of Roman saints on the Scottish Catholic Kalendar than on 
the Calendar of any country of its size in Europe. 



ii,Goo(^lc 



268 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

The Order of 9t Colnmba waa one of the most extensive, for it had a 
handled monasteriea and abbeys belon^^ing to it in the British islanda. 
The principal house oi head of the Order was at lona. It was in this 
lonely island that St Cidumba, who was a priest and monk only, recelTed 
the homage of mitred bishops and crowned monarchs. 

In the time of Venerable Bade, about the year 731, all the bishops of 
the Picts were subject to the jurisdiction of the prieet who was Abbot of 
lona. Kings sought advice, and received both counsel and consolation 
from St Columba. Fierce warriors, bitter enemies, proud and haughty 
chieftains, were reconciled, and absolved on bended knee before him. 
Fends and eontentiona were abandoned and obliterated before St Columba. 
In his presence mutual friendship and goodwill were entered on, and 
eealed by oath on three etonea. As these stones correspond in . number 
with the three Divine persons of the blessed Trinity, it is possible that 
St Columba might have pointed them out, or even used them in some 
religious sense, so as to loake a lasting impression on the minds of the 
newly reconciled parties, and incline them, for the rest of their lives, to 
recoil with horror from participating in the acts of belligerents. History 
and legend seem to he mutually ^ent on this point ; therefore, let this 
view of swearing on the " Three black stones of lona," be received for 
what it ia worth. 

Thna we find St Columba had the power of binding the handa and 
the hearts of the most determined enemies. He exercised his power in 
preventing wars, and in paciQdng all manner of human turbulence. We 
find the kings, the courts, and the people of the surrounding nations had re- 
posed unbounded confidence in him. Yet in the very midst of this, mnch 
more than regal power could bestow, we find that his palace was a hut, 
built of planks, and there up to an advanced age, he slept upon the hard 
floor, only with a stone for a pUlow. Thither he returned after perfonn- 
,ing his share of outdoor labour with the other monks, and there he 
patiently transcribed the sacred text of Scripture. When he had come 
to the thiriiy-third Psalm, he stopped and said, " Eaithean will write the 
rest," On the next morning he hastened before the other monks to the 
church, and knelt before the altar, and there he died, in the arms of 
Diarmad, blessing aU his disciples, on the 9th day of June, 597. 

" To us," says Montalembert, " looking back, he appears a person aa 
singular as he is loveable, in whom, through all the mists of the past, and 
all the cross hghts of legend, the man may be still recognised under the 
Saint" " For two centuries," says Dr S. M'Cony, " after his death, lona 
was the most venerated sanctuary of the Celts, the nursery of bishops, 
and the centre of learning and religious knowledge. Seventy kings or 
princes were brought to lona, to be buried at the feet of St Columba, 
faithful to a traditional custom, the remembrance of which has been pre- 
served by Shakespeare : — 

' Where is Bancan'e body V 

asks Boss, in Macbeth. Macduff repHes — 



And guardian of their bones.'" 



Google 



THE MONKS OF lONA. 2* 

A kindred eypreasion of tlioiight has been placed on record by the 
bi-lingaist poet, Evan MacColl, formerly of Lochfineeide, but latterly 
tuning his lyre to the rustling of the " Green Maple Tree" in Canada. 
In one of hie plaintive Odes to lona, MacColl eays : — 
" Sacred Isle of lona, 
Where saints and heroes 
Live in stone." 

It is admitted by ciitics that Dr Johnson vrote one of the finest 
pieces in the English language on lona, Wordsworth, and a host of 
master-minds, wrote on lona. 

"The distinguished archjeologist," says Dr Stewart M'Corry, "Dr 
Beeves, who, although not a catholic, has proved his honesty of purpose 
by editing so well ' Adamnan's Life of St Columba,' has given us in his 
' Chronicon Hyenese' the detailed chronology of the forty-nine successors 
of St Columba from 597 to 1219. We have it on the beat possible au- 
thority that the first eleven abbots of lona after St Columba proceeded, 
with the exception of one individual, from the same stock as himself — 
from the race of Tirconnel, and were all descended from the same son of 
Niall of the nine hostages, the famous king of all Ireland." 

I will now make a few remarks about St £aithean. He was steward 
of lona, and sncceeded St Columba as Abbot of lona. It is stated that 
Baitheau consecrated the burying-ground of my native valley, Strathglass. 
Be that as it may, it is qydte certain that the cill or clachan in Strath- 
glass is dedicated to St Baithean. There is a small green mound close to 
the cill or clachan called Cnoc Bhaithean, at the foot of which gushes out 
a spring of the clearest and coldest water, also called Fuaran Bhait/iean. 
The legend relateis of the district state that a clodhopper began to cut 
rinds for thatch on the brow of Cnoc Bhaithean. A well-meaning neigh- 
bour reminded him that the mound was consadered eanred, as hearing the 
name of Cnoc Bhaithean. The acomfol and contumelious reply the 
neighbour received from the insolent clodhopper was — " 0, BaiUiean maol 
carrach bhuaininn foid eadar a bhial 's a shroin." Ann am priobadh an 
Toisg, thuit an duine truagh, fuar marbb thairis air crat^ a ohaibe4air a 
bha na lamhan fhein. The English equivalent of the reply, and tha im- 
mediate result thereof, may be taken as the following: — " 0, Bald soald- 
headed Baitheui, I would cut a sod between hia mouth and his nose." 
In the twinkling of an eye, the miserable man fell lifeless over the cross- 
handles of the rind-spade he bad in hie own hands. The sceptic will ex- 
claim, who cares for misty legends I The Eev. Dr Stewart M'Cotry tells 
us that Mil man, in his Latin Christianity, vol. i., p. 416, writes, "His- 
tory, to be true, must condescend to speak the language of legend." 

Kicbolas Carlisle is answerable for the appearance of the following 
statement regarding lona in his " Topographical Dictionary of Scotland," 
London, 1813 — " The Chapel of the Nunnery is now used by the inha- 
bitante as a kind of general cow-bonse, and the bottom is consequently 
too miry foi examination. Some of the stones which covered the latfflT 
Abeases have inscriptions, which might yet be read if the Chapel were 
cleaned. The Cemetery of the Nunnery was, tiD very lately, regarded 
with such reverence that only women were buried in it. Besides the two 
prinoipsl chinches, there are, I think, five chapels yet standing, and thrae 



jb,GoO(^lc 



210 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

more lemembeied," Carlisle coutinuee the sickening narrative, and states 
that " the wood forming the loof of the chtuchee and chapelB in lona, was 
the first plunder of needy rapacity." For the honour of our country I 
wish we conld suppose that Mi Carlisle had been misinformed about the 
unroofing of the dtuicLee and chapels in lona. 

It is not my intention to lead you at present through the roofless but 
noble rains of the cathedral and churches of loua, the walls of which have 
been described in a leading journal as " riddled and cracked in a moat 
alarming manner." Neither shall we be seen along with tramping tourist 
and browsing cattle defacing the tombs, and disturbing the ashes of the 
saintly, princely, and heroic dead in the consecrated cemetery. 

In the Irish annala there is preserved a short account of events in 
lona, carried on bom year to year. Uudei date of a.d. 794, there is this 
entry — " Devastation of all the ialanda by the heathens." From thia time 
fonrard, during a period of no less than three hundred yeais, lona was 
frequently ravage^ its churches and monasteries burnt, and ite brethren 
murdered by the savage Northmen. It is stated that the bones of St 
Columba were carried to safer places — to Eells in Ireland, and to Bun- 
keld in Scotland. 

lona was the only place spared by Magnus, King of Iforway, in his 
predatory expedition of a.d. 1098. Tha fierce King Magnus is said to 
have recoiled with awe when he had attempted to enter the church built 
by the Saintly English Princess, Queen Maigaret, wife of Malcolm Cean- 
more. 

The recent improvements in and around St Mungo'a Cathedral in 
Glasgow are attributed to a happy remark, vouchsafed by Her M^esty 
Queen Victoria, on Hei Majesty's visit to that cathedral during the Buytd 
Tour through the West Highlands. Some of ns had fondly expected 
that Her Majesty would have been graciously pleased to extend her 
queenly journey, and steer lier royal boik to lona'a Isle. This we 
flattered ourselves to hear that Queen Yictoria, like Quean Mai^aiet, had 
landed on the hallowed Isle of lona. 

From that auspicious moment we expected to have heard that an edict 
hod gone forth warning the elements, saying in effect this is the oldest 
Christian temple in Great Britain. The work of destruction and dilapi- 
dation must cease inetanter, and henceforth give place to preservation aid 
restoration. 

Sin agaibh brigh mo egeoil. 



"POEMS AND SONGS, GAELIC AND ENGLISH."— A copy 
of the recently published volume of " Poems and Songs, Gaelic and "Blng- 
Ush," by Mrs Mary Mackellar, hard to the GacQic Society of Invemeoa, 
having been in due form presented to the Queen, Mis Mackellar has 
received the following reply : — " Windsor Castle, Eeb. 28th, 1880. — Lieu- 
tenant-General Sir Henry Fonsonby is commaoded by the Queen to thank 
Mrs Mackellar for the volume of poems and songs which she has had 
the kindness to send to Her M^eety." 



"TEE EDITOR IN CANADA," VU., croshed out. 



Google 



NOTES OS CAITHNESS HISTOEY. 

THE CHETKES. 



Mdoh caimot ha written witli aaj d^roe of accuracy tegarding the Histoiy 
of Caithnesa in tlie thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The district now 
embraced within the county was far removed fiom the Beat of Ckirem- 
ment, and it necessarily took a considerable time before communication 
could take place between the t^ north and the metropolis of Scotland. 
On this account important eventBjnight hare had happened affecting the 
welfare of the kingdom long ere the inteUigence thereof reached the 
northern extremity of the country. But notwithstanding this great draw- 
back, some eminent men connected with Caithness distinguished them- 
selvea from time ta time in the afbiirs of their country. And it may be 
well, in the fliat place, to refer to the Cheynes, who were Lords of Auhi. 
wick Castle, and especially to Sit Beginald Cheyne, the &thec and son of 
that name who were both men of ability and experience, and were liko^ 
wise considered tried serrants in questions hearing on the well-being of 
the nation. The Cheynes, or as they were styled in Jforman-French, Da 
Chesyne, were of Iforman extraction, and came over with the Sinclaiia 
and other families to Britain along with William the Conqueror. Not 
finding, perhaps, a congenial soil in England, a branch of the &inily 
arrived in the North of Scotland, establishing its head quarters at the 
Castle of Inverugie, parish of St Fergus, and county of AberdeeiL ■ One 
named Sir Eeynald Cheyne, belonging to the pariah of St Fergus, had 
two sons — namely, Kegiuald, who was Lord Chamberlain of Scotland in 
1267, and Henry, who was appointed Bishop of Aberdeen in 1281. 

Between 1320 and 1330 it is evident that the Earis of Caithness only 
possessed one-half of the county, while the other half appears to have 
belonged to the Do Moravia family. Treskyn de Moray, Lord of Dufl'ns, 
had by his wife Johanna two daughters — Mary and Christina — each of 
whom had one fourth of Caithness. Johanna died some time before the 
year 1269. Mary was married to Sir BegimUd Cheyne, while Christina 
married William De Fedrett It appears that this William De Fedrett 
gave his one-fourth of Caithness to Sir Keginald Cheyne — the latter of 
whom then became the owner of one-half of the county. This is con* 
firmed by the learned antiquary, Dr Skene, in his " Notes on the Eaddan 
of Caithness," reported in the proceedings of the Society of Antiqoanes of 
Scotland. -■■! 

The principal stront^hold of Sir Iteginald in Caithness was Aoldwick 
Castle, tie mina of which may still be seen. Centuries ere the town of 
Wick had received its Royal Charter from the hands of its Sovereign, the 
Casi^ of Auldwick was full of life, and its strong primitiveJike waUs 
afforded protection at a time when a man's life was accounted of very 
little value. Even at the present time the old Castle, stamling prominently 
on a vast precipice, forms a landmark to the lonely mariner and brawny 
fisherman, whUe tba eye of the traveller is attracted by its weitd anct 



S'?2 THE CELTIC MAQA^IlirE. 

olden appearance. The first that is known of the Castle is that it vraa 
the stronghold of Uie Cheynee. Cambden, in his Brittania states that 
" Oldwick Castle is a curious tower of great antiqvdty— has small chambers 
on its very thick walls, and narrow stairs opening into the hall or area 
belov. The outside of the biulding shows scarce anything like windows, 
only a few small square openings left for observation." The Kacfarlane 
MSS. describe the old castle in the following terms : — " The ruins are now 
known to sailors aa the Old Man of Wick — beii^ a tower of three stoieys, 
with remains of other buildings, bidit on a high peninsula rock at ^e 
aouth-head of the Bay of Wick, and defended on the land aide by a deep 
ditch." The sitnation and general surroundings of the castle are described 
by Mr James Traill Calder in his History of Caithness in the following 
words — " The whole aspect of the scene is peculiarly wild and repulsive, 
without a single redeeming feature of beauty. With a gale from the east 
or north-east the sea beach is horrible, reminding one of the poet's epithet 
of ' a Hell of waters.' The maddened breakers roar and foam, and dash 
in fiend-like fnry against the worn chfis, while the old keep, grey and 
weather-beaten, scowls amid tho storm like an angry demon." 

At the time the county was nothir^ save a mere wilderness, with an 
exceedingly small population, and the inhabitants of the "keep" had 
veiy little to do, except to protect themselves ib3m their enemies without, 
and to engage in the chase. But apart from such duties, the Lords of the 
Castle, both iather and son, had other functions to perform, and both 
were regarded as men of position and standing in the kingdom. It is im- 
possible to detail all the events of their lives, in respect that no record 
exists regarding them. In hia Heraldry, Nisbet mentions " that Reginald 
Cheyne, the father, and Be^nald, the son, were both present in 1 284 
among the Magnates Scotke who agreed to receive the Princess Margaret 
— the fair maid of Norway — as their Queen ; indeed the father and son 
were parties to the oblation. This f^t alone established tiieir position 
in the kingdom. Again, in 1296, Sir Beginald, with others of the same 
name, swore fealty to Edward L of England. All the principal men in 
the kingdom followed a similar course, with the exception of Sir William 
Wallace. 8b Reginald was present at the convention at Brigham in 
1289. In 1292 the " Eoll of the Accounts of Reginald, Sheriff of Inver- 
ness," was produced. The Kheriffdom of Inverness then comprehended 
all the Korthem Counties, but by an Act of the Scottish Parliament, 
passed in 1503, the Sheriffdom of Caithness (now the Counties of Caith- 
ness and Sutherland) was disjoined from that of Inverness. In 1305, 
when King Edward, I. of England, arranged the Government of Scotland, 
he appointed Bir R^^nald one of the Justiciaries " in the Korth parts 
beyond the mountains." 

After leading an eventful life, Sir R^inald died some time previous 
to 6th Kovemb^ 1313, leaving his possessions to his son Reginald The 
Bon, it may be remarked, was regarded as a kind of patriot and warrior, 
and, as a hunter, was looked upon as the Kimrod of the fi^orth. Dr Hill 
Burton, in his History of Scotland, describes the famous address to the 
Pope, passed in the Parliament assembled in the Abbey of Arbroath, on 
the 6th day of April 1320, as to the Independence of Scotland, and 
Reginald le Cheyne was one of the Barons who subscribed that celebrated 
docaffient. He next appears with the Scottish army at Hslidon Hill ia 



.Google 



KOTES ON- CAITHNESS H18T0ET. 273 

1333, In this battle the Scotch lust almost as much as they had gained 
at Bannockhum, and in it Sir Reginald tras taken prisoner by the English . 
He was shortly afterwards liberated from hia confinement, and returned 
to the north of Scotland, where his chief enjoyment was hunting. 

He wafi the last male issue of hia family, and on his return to Caith- 
ness he married a lady of Scandinavian descent, and it may be well to 
relate the following occurrence, written by the some pen elsewhere : — 
B^inald was rery anxious that his vast estates should continue in his 
own femily, and on his lady giving birth to a daughter, be was bo enraged 
that he gave orders to drown the infant. The mother, however, with 
maternal affection, sent the child to a nurse, unknown to the cruel parent. 
By and bye a second child was bom, and this child also happened to be 
a daughter. The father repeated his former orders, while the mother 
adopted her former tactics. As hia wife had no other child. Sir B^inald 
thought it was owing to a dispensation of Providence on account of hia 
cruelty to the two children whom he supposed were drowned. About 
twenty years after the birth of the eldest child, Lady Cheyne had a great 
entertainment at Sir Reginald's castle near Lochmore, and conspicuous 
among the guests were two young ladies whoso beauty and amiable man- 
ners made them the obeerved of all observers. Reginald enquired who 
they were, and on his lady informing him, he became deeply affected. 
The two daughters were educated at the Convent of Murkle, near Thurso, 
the only seminary for the instruction of young ladies in those days. The 
two daughters were named Marjory imd Marietta. The former was mar- 
ried in 1337 to Nicholas, second son of the Earl of Sutherland, while the 
latter married John de Eeith, second son of Edward, the Maiischal of 
Scotland. Sir Reginald divided his estetea previous to his death, and 
Maijory got Auldwick. 

He is referred te in the old statistical account of the parish of Halkirk. 
He is sometimes called "Morarna Shean," which means the Great Cheyne, 
It is stated in the Statistical Account that he had "a chest or some kind of a 
machine fixed in the mouth of the stream below the Castle for catehing 
salmon in their ingress inte the loch, or their ^ress out of it ; and that 
immediately on the fish being entangled in the machine, the capture was 
announced to the whole family by the ringing of a hell which the motions 
and struggles of the fish set agoing by means of a cord fixed at one end 
to the bell in the middle of an upper room, and at the other end to the 
machine in the stream below," Sir Robert Gordon, in his History of the 
House of Suthorland, mentiouB that, " In this William, Erie of Souther- 
land, his dayee, lived Renold Cheyn, a Cathynesa man, who dureing hia 
tyme was a great conmiander in that cuntrie ; of whom many fables are 
reported amongst the vulgar sort of people, and cheiflie concerning hunt- 
ing, wherein he much detighted. Doubtles the Cheins had sometymea 
many poeseBsions, and were ance of greatest command and power in that 
ountrey, yet they were never earlea thereof" 

Sir Reginald was the Sheriff of Invemaim, to which he was appointed 
in 1292, He died at a ripe old age, about the year 1350, Before his 
death, he wished that hia corpse would be covered over with sand from 
Lochmore. He was buried in the Abbey of Olgrinmore, or Olgrinbeg. 
Thus passed away the House of Cheyne, in the County jf Caitbnesa, and 
it may be well to note that they held the lands from King David IL 



ii,GoO(^lc 



274 f HE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

In BobertBon's Index to Charteis there are the following entriea — - 
" Chaxter bj "Kin g David IL to Bonald Cbeyne of the fourth part of 
Kathnes, given by William Pedrej (Freaken), in the County of Inverness, 
and Charter by King David 11. to Marjory Chene of the lands of Strath- 
brock, and half of Catnee. 

Auldwick Caatle baa been for many generations silent as the grave, 
trhile Wick has breathed an existence by Royal grant since 1589. Yet 
who can telL if the words of the old couplet will turn ont true, that 



(To be Confined.) 

Q. M. StJTH£RLlND. 



PRINCIPAL SHAIfiP ON 0S8IAN. 

TO THE EDITOR OP THB CELTIC MAQAZINK, 

SiB, — In this month's iasne of Good Words appears a lecture on 
Oeeianic Poetry, by Principal Shairp of St Andrews, adapted presumably 
for an English aucUence at Oxford, or at least delivered by hint there as 
Professor of Poetry at that distinguished Academical centre. In this 
lecture, as reproduced in Good Words, there are not a few points worthy 
of remark. It is no purpose of mine, however, to review the paper at 
large as it now stands, or to suggest how it might have been improved 
for an audience who knew anythu^ of the subject. The learned Princi- 
pal takes the comparative ignorance of his hearers on the theme of dis- 
course for granted, and talks to them accordingly with pleasant vagueness, 
self-contradiction, and superficiality. It ia difiicuit indeed to determine 
on whose authority he chiefly depends for any of his ideas — Arnold, 
Skene, J. F. Campbell, or the Dean of Lismore ; or whether he has any 
ideas worth verifying at aU, beyond the very guarded admission that 
there is a sort of sublime haze of passion here and there, about the poetry 
in question, which reminds him of the H^hlands, and seems to be partial 
proof of its originality — perhaps of its remote antiquity. But whether 
Ossian was a man or a myth j and if a man, whether a Scotchman or an 
Irishman or both; and whether his poetry belongs to Glencoe or the 
green vales of Erin, to the Moor of Eumoch or the county o? Meath, to 
himself oi to the Seannachies or to Macpherson — he, the Wmed lecturer 
and Principal declines to determine. Oi one thing only he seems to be 
sure, that something Ossianic is to be found somewhere, and that enough 
would still remain in the Book of Lismore although all that Macpherson 
ever published in the name of Ossian were obliterated to-morrow as for- 
gery — but whether what remains would be poetry or prese, he is not 
sure — not quite. 

Taking other people's ignorance in this matter foi' granted also, as equal 
to his own, be dispassionately inquires as he proceeds, as if in critical dea- 



COEEESPONDENCH 275 

pondency on the point — " Who was this Ossian, and when did he live ) 
His exact date or even century wa cannot name." So frank aa admlsaion 
aa thia of utter inoompetence to deal with his own subject by a public 
lecturer in one of the moat important seats of learnii^ in EuiopB, if it- 
had not been made in the lecture itself, if it had not been reproduced 
without qoalifyii^ note or comment in a magazine like Good Words, 
■would have been incredible ; but it stands there as indisputable proof of 
what men will sometimes say and do who undertake to say something, 
\}vX " who understand neitlier what they say nor whereof they affirm." 
Has the Principal, I may inquire, collated more than half-a-dozen passages 
in the entire collection of poems ascribed to Ossian ? Has he verified a 
single sentence, or guessed at a single scene or date, beyond accepting 
at random the mediteval Irish idea that Ossian was the son of Fin, or 
Finn, the king of the Feinne j and that much of his poetry — if it was 
anybody's at all — refers to a period speciiically unknown in that " very 
dim foretime," " when Christianity was yet young, and was struggling for 
existence against old Paganism in Erin and in Alba T It would appear 
not. He has not even consulted a single reliable authority on the sub- 
ject — else how could he put such an interrogation as the above, on the 
~ supposition that it never had been and never could he answered 1 He 
might as well have inquired with a desponding sigh — Who Moses was 1 
who Homer wasi who Isaiah was? or who John the Divine was? In 
point of fact, we know a great deal less genealogically about any of these 
than we do about Ossian. We know for example, on his own authority 
exclusively, that Moses was the son of Amram of the house of Levi, 
through whom of course he may be traced to Abraham, and that he was 
ako the adopted son of Pharaoh's daughter. We know that Homer was 
utterly unrecognisable as the citizen of any city, or as the son of any 
&niily — that his very birth-place, in fact, was disputed : that Isaiah was 
the son of Amos, and prophesied in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, 
and Heoekiah, kings of Judah: and that John was the son of one 
Zebedee, a fisherman of Galilee, in the year of our Lord 27 j that he was 
once a prisoner in Patmos, and died within the first contury — but whether 
he wrote either the Gospel or the Apocalypse there, we do not know. 
Ossian in like manner, on his own authority — but a hundred times more 
distinctly reiterated, uid by universal local tradition in Scotland afSrmed 
—was the son of f^gal, who was the son of Comhal, who vras the son 
of Trathal, who was the son of Trenmor — who in all probability was of 
eastern or north-eastern descent, but who was undoubtedly generalissimo 
king of the Western Caledonian Celts at the very commencement of the 
Christian era — at a date, in fact, when John the Divine had not yet le- 
ceived his own call to discipleship, 

Fingal's era, again, as defined in Ossian, and confirmed by the clearest 
evidence both geological and historical, was from a.d. 190 or thereby, to 
286, when he was assassinated on his return from Temora, at the age of 
92. Ossian himself, who survived, would then be about 70, and he lived 
for many years afterwards — how many we cannot affirm ; but in the in- 
terval, some of his most beautiful and important poems were composed 
or finished. Oscar, his son, as Principal Shairp seems to be aware, had 
already been treacherously slain in Ullin in the fiower of his youth ; and 
Malvina, the betrothed of Oscar, and Ossian's sole surviving friend, fell 



ST6 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

by-and-bye a victim at tbe chase — whose obsequies by CTemation were 
also celebrated by Oeeian in his owu Dying Hymn. The entire family, 
therefore, would be extinct before the end of the third century ; " and 
their sepulchres, are they not all with us," iu the laland of Arran, " nnto 
this day t" If Principal Shairp, on consulting Macpherson's notes, should 
object that Fingal's age is there stated to have been only 56 at his death, 
then I must explain to the Principal — for explanations of the kind are 
obviously required in the circumstances — that Macpberson is in error ; 
that he contradicts both himself in fact, and the test of his own transla- 
tion, in that es-timate — one of the clearest proois in the world that he waa 
not at least an impostor. 

In conclusion now, as r^ards the region of Fingal's administration, and 
of Scoto-Celtic occupation, on which Principal Shairp seems to be also in 
perplexity, the details are all equally clear aa recorded in Oseian. There 
was first, the original dynasty of Ttenmor at home — at Selma or among 
the Hebrides — represented by Trathal, Comhal, and Filial, in suecossion ; 
there was second, the contemporaneous dynasty of Trenmor at Temora in 
Ullin, represented by his eldest son Conor, and by the Cormacs, his de- 
scendants there — who were therefore cousins-german in their successive 
degrees to the dynasty at home ; and there was, besides these, the dynasty 
of Larthon, a Gallovidian Scot, who settled In the north-west of Ireland 
beyond Lough Neagh, about 600 b.o., and was represented there in 
Ossian's day by Cairbar, the usurper and assassia These western Irish, 
who were known to Ossian as the Sons of Erin, oi the Bolgae, were the 
natural enemies of the Scots in Ullin under Conor; and it was to protect 
his relatives and allies from their incursions, as much as from the raids 
of Norwegian pirates under Swaran, that Fingal more than once had 
occasion to visit Ireland All this may be made as plain &om the t«st 
of Ossian, as the details of the Norman Conquest or the occupation of the 
Danes can be, from the chronicles of Great Britain ; with all geographical, 
topographical, and historical cii-cumstanoes of peace and war, in connec- 
tion — including battles, expeditions, and adventures by sea and land, 
from the coast of Ireland and the Solway Frith, from the Frith of Clyde 
and the Boman Wall to the Orkney Isles and the coasts of Iceland and 
Norway ; but it is Principal Shairp's own business, and not mine, to in- 
vest^^te the matter further. It may perhaps stimulate his curiosity, 
however, to be informed that the whole subject, &om this very point of 
view, has been occupying for many months past the serious attention of 
BO eminent a Continental scholar as Dr Ebnud of Erlangen j and that in 
all probability a series of articles from his pen, embodying similar resulta, 
will ere long be issued in one of the most influential German magazines — 
the Carmrw^ve MonadUachrift — of the period, — I am, air, &c., 

P. HATBLT WADDBLL 

Olugmr, April 6,18801 

THE MACDONALDS OF KEPPOCH, 

TO THB RniTOB OF THE OEI/nO KAOABINK. 

Sib, — In reading the sketch of the Keppoch Family, by Mr D. C Mao- 
pherson, in tbe August nnmber of your m^aane, I find that some of it 
does not ootiespond with the traditionR of my foie&therB. However, if 



jb,GoO(^lc 



COREESPONDENCE. 277 

jaai ioformation U derived from a propet " Chroniole " kept of the Baid 
family from time to time, I readily giye in. But if your information ia 
only the lieaieay of the pteeent, I venture to aasert that my giand&ther 
conld trace the Eeppoch family better than any one , now living in Ihe 
Braes of Lochaber. * 

I do not pretend to give an extended history of this famous family — 
merely the succesaion, with a few lemarkB. 

Alastair Carraoh, the founder of tiie Keppoch family, was succeeded 
by hia sou Abgds, who was succeeded by his son Donald, who waa suc- 
ceeded by his son Iaiv Alainn. 

When Iain was deposed by hia clan, his uncle, Ai.astaib MaoAonqh- 
Ais, was diosen, who succeeded him. 

- Alabiair MaoAoxohaib was succeeded by his son AiianB, who waa 
succeeded by his son Albsandbb, who was succeeded by hia son Raonuli:. 
Mob," who was succeeded by his son Alastair Bhoth-Fhloinn, who 
was succeeded by hia son Alastair nak Cleas, who was succeeded by 
his son Raosdll Oa, who was succeeded by his son AoHQHAS.t 

A0NOBA8 MaoBaohuill Oo was succeeded by his uncle Dondu. 
Glas, who was succeeded by his son Alkxanqir. This Alastair and his 
brother Banold were cruelly muidered by " Siol Duiel Euaidh," who 
were not related to the Eeppoch &mily. " Siol Duiel Buaidh " were 
assisted by two coadas of the murdered persons in the above plot. They 
were sons of Alaatair Boidhe- Allan i and Donald. 

Alastair MaoDhonuill Ghlaib was succeeded by his uncle Alastaib 
Bdiuhb, who was succeeded by his son Gillbabba, who was succeeded by 
his son CoLLA, who waa succeeded by hia son Alastair, who was suo- 
ceeded by his son Baondll Oa, who was the last Mac Mhic Raonuill. 

In i^ing No. 57 (January 1880) of your Magazine, page 101, I 
aee it stated, by the Bev. Allan Sinclair, thitt the accomplishing of the 
punishment of the murderers of the children of Keppoch waa intrusted to 
Sir Alexander Macdonald of Sleat ; and that Archibald, the " Ciaran 
Mabach," was his son. For proof, I will refer you to an unpublished 
historical MS. of the Macdon^ds, and the same will inform you that the 
coiryii^ out of said deed was entrusted to Sir James, the father of Sir 
Dontdd, and the Ciaran Mabach was the brother of Sir James. 

In 1665 Sir James got a letter of thanks from the Earl of Bothee and 
others, thanking him for the service he had done in punishing the mur- 
derers, assuring him that it should not pass unrewarded, with many other 
clauses much to the honour of Sir James. Sir James died in the year 
1678. 

See Iain Lorn in his song " Mort na Ceapach," where he says : — 
Gur h-iom oganach ^oiteach, 
Lub bhlachlach, sgiath chrom, 

* Thli U met BmdiiII MuiDhonuUI Ohlali. U I md rlghtlf fnfcrmed ha not bU 
father, Dennll Olai, nsTcr wu chief at tha oliii. 

+ I BBTer baaid of thii A.aDRhu being oalled Aon|haa Odbu. Howerar, the lODf 
of whieh ha ie nid to be the antbor wu oompeaad by a aon at Oiliaaiba-na-Oiapalafa, 
who wa« aliraji oillad ^tmfrAoi (MAor. Echadabrotber called AlaitaiTOdhar, the two 
bwiu bra>a aoai of QUIauMi-iia Oaapalob, of whiob toot iBaii>nne made no mention. 

t Allan, BOB at Alaitali Bnldha, na*ar «ai a Hao IChia Baonnill, ai hii father mled 
when he waa mordared and for lome time attemrda. Ton magAaiae lofDrma na he left 
no liane. I knov DDmben of hia deaaendtuti from BadenMb, who ara now settled in 
UaboB, Caps Breton. 



ib,Googlc 



278 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Eadar diochaid Allt Eire 

'S mgha Shleibhto n»i toim 

A dheanadh leat eiridh 

ITam biodh do dueuchdan Ian UioU, 

'S a lachadh braa ann a t-eiiig 

Dheadh Shir Shenmaifi nan long. 

Also Boe the Piobaire Dall, in compoaing a rton to Sii Alexander Mac- 
donald of Slaat, where he said : — 

B'aithne dhomh Sir Seunifla Mor, 
'S b'eol dhomh Domhnnll a Mhac, 
B'eol dhomli DomhDoll eile lis 
ChDmadh fo chia no alo^ ceait ; 
B'eol dhomh DomhnuU na n' feci Don'uU 
'S ge b-<^ e btt mhor a chlin, 
Bhi'dh feaiaibh Alb' agns Eiiinn 
Ag eiridh leie anne gach cuia, 
B'eol dhomh Six Seumas mo nun 
T-athaii-Ba Mhic chliuitlch fein, 
'6 tuB a nis an dathamh glnn 
Ph'ordaich Righ nan dul nan deigh : 
N'an tuiteadh m' ooie oho fad a mach 
'S do mhac-Ba theachd air mo thim — 
Be ain dhomh-sa, an aeachdamh. glun 
Thainig air an I>iui ri' m' linn. 
Toms, &c,, 

A NOTA-SOOTIAN HAODOIUUX 



THE GLAtr rVES. 

TO THB EDITOR OF THE CILHO JUQAZIKB. 

SiH,^ — In the excdlent little book of notes isaoed by Mr Madienoe 
of Findon, introductory to the sheets of genealogies, I notice at page 15 
that he speaks of the Macivers, Macanlays, &a., as being ScandinaTiana. 
I do not think there is any evidence for tlm In the case of the Madvera 
I am satisfied that it is pure assumption. Principal Campbell, the historian 
of the MaciveiB, assumes them to be Scandinavian, beoause the name 
" Iver " or " lambiar " is, he thinks, not Celtic. But this is not reason- 
ing, and there have been too many groundless attempts mode to rob ns of 
our superior native deaceut While I write in disapprobation of the 
Scandinavian assumption, and while I trust Findon is wrong also with hia 
bastard Irish-Itslian origin for the Mackenzie clan, I cannot withhold from 
him my admiration for the public spirit he has shown in issuing the ex- 
cellent eeries of sheets of clan pedigrees. What a pity a dmilar monu- 
ment of research were not in existence respecting all onr Iforthem Clans. 
But, as Findon truly says, " The means which existed in years gone by 
of collecting details of &mily history in the HighlfiniU are now-a-days not 
80 attaiuab^ ; ^e old Highland gentiemen and ladiea whose memories 



jb,GoO(^lc 



COBEESPOIfDENCE. 279 

■were stored with genealogical treasure, and who rarely etrBjing ftom their 
own immediate settlemeot, made family history, as handed down by their 
forbears, the delight of their conversation, are now rapidly leaving the 
scene ; they have no successors." Findon has done a great work, and per- 
formed a filial and public duty, and he merits the gratitude of all High- 
landers interested in their past nationtd history, tuid who are proud of the 
race from which Uiey have spmng. — I am, &c 

A SON OF ITBB. 



<Sencal0QicaI .^es mib %uvus. 



Haobbaks or EmcatUV— An thare uif deaeetnUnti of thli funilr at thejir«Hnt 
UmflT A a; inch would grsatlv oblige bj eetDDidnioBtiiie vith A. lit Shaw, ODlDpiDK 
Barn«t, Herta, wbo i> deiiroui of aDmptetloK > pedigrM of the (amily Ina Aagaa Um. 
befto, oBptun in UaokiDtosb'B Beglmast in ITIS, to tha present tinia ; 4ad of knawiiiR 
wfaen the ten right to Einchjle mi giTec np, A. Bd. S, 

MuHDOOH MaCkknuk wm t. nktire of Poolewa, or Galrlooh, uid niMTied Hlr;, 
dtnebtar of Donald MBolennan, Croft, Pooleva (tftte Oarlio eahoDlmuter then), ud 
K*tti at thB praaeiit Gsorjo «nd KBimath Maolennan, mesi, uattle, to., dtalera, Oioft, 
PooUwo. Will yon, or any of the nnmeroiu Mackenzie or other antiqnajian rtadera of 
the Celtic Sfagazine, infotm me what branoh of the UaeksoElu thia Maidoob MaoksDzie 
i> deicended from T I ahall eateam it a great favour U any one oaa cive me oorreot In- 
formatlan aa to tha aborib DlAOOoiNiaoH 

Bimam. 



tolhaa t Mj aniMiten were aivaTi called MaokiDtoibea In Qaelio, and tny grandfather 
ia as deaignated, though a Orerar, an hia tambatone in the chDrBh-;ard of hia native glen 
In PelthAite. I Toald ailas like to kasir what plau Hr Haoktntoah Bhaw gina to the 
Orerarain hia forthooming Hiateir of the Olan Cbattan. advertised in ;oar Hagaziae, 
Before the Breadalbana GlearaBiwi many tamillBa of the name of Crerar resided at 
Glenqiiaioh. and at Liwh Tafalde, Who naed to moatar at the Eenmore marketa, orraTed 
in the gaauine Uaokhitoab tartan, and wearing spti^ of boivood in their Highland 
bonneti. I intend to anbaeiibe for Mr Shaw'a patriotic work, and poeaihlT I may indnee 
others to do the same, if I find that my bTumh of the elan oocapiea it> proper place ia 
the HiatoTT. There ai« many of them on thia aide of tbe Atlantic, now catling them- 
aeWea Haekintoihea, who were at hone known ai Orerara. Any information regarding 
thia branoh of the olan will be highly eateemed by A TBANB-ATIuUiTlO Obsbar. 

Teb Bobseb 09 InvEBOHABTun OB ABDoti,— I ahoold eateem It a great laTour if 
jonr learned oorraapoadent "Lei" (who baa girea anch ■ fall and interaating aoooBnt in 
your Angoat nnmber of tha Boasei of InTeioharron, to whotD tha aboTe named Hoaaei 
were cloaely related), or any of yonr other antlqaarian oentribntora, could aupply me 
with infermation regarding the family of Inrerohaatley, Bailis Donald Box of Tain, 
whs waa the greatfi^andfather of the preaent reprcaeDtatiTei of tbe family, married hia 
oonain Margaret, eldaat daughter of Andrew Koaa of Shondwiok. What I want par- 
tionlarly to know ia, who waa the father of thU Bailie Donald Koaa, asd the conueatiag 

link betwf— '■™ --J *v.«a »i- v— .i._» -n,. t.ii— r — n ».ji_ ...__ 

tnarried w 



jb,Goo(^lc 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



D E E M N D. 

A Taij: ot KKioHiLr Deeds Donb in Old Days. 

BOOK n.-"A STLVAJT OOUBT." 

Chaftbr IX. 

The bup tbat tbrilled in ths cartll hall 
I) hoDE OD the villow tree, 

—OldBaUad. 
Fob some days after the battle of Dairy Bruce and Ms followeta took 
shelter in Balquhidder glen, but as Boon as they had recovered from the 
fatigues of the encounter, and the wounds of the unfortunate comhatants 
had been sullicieutly healed, the wanderings among the woods and moun- 
tains were reeiimed. Pursued by the spiritual anathemas of the churcli 
as well as the more formidable emissaries of the English oppressor, the 
life of that little band of patriots was far from enviable. They were 
happy, however, in tlie possession of a wild sort of freedom, ajtd liberty 
of any kind was dearer than servitude. 

Bummer was now approaching, the bleak winds of March were giving 
way to the balmy breezes and refreshing showers of April, with inter- 
mittent outbursts of solar heat, and the fragrance of the hillside lowers 
lent a new charm to the itineiaat life of the fugitives. 

The day waa generally spent in wandering from place to place eluding 
the pursuit of the enemy, broken at more favourable intervds by the ex- 
citements of the chase, the diversions of the combat or toumay, or the 
milder pleasures of angling, for which Sir James Douglas had a particular 
passion. The presence of the ladies was in some respects a burden, more 
especially in times of danger, for their food and safety had to be secured ; 
but when all went well, when there waa no enemy in the vicinity, and 
when the venison fell readily to the hand of the hunters, the fair ones 
gave an additional interest to the life of the greenwood revellers. The 
evening was made merry around the log watchfire by the songs and tales 
of the minstrels, and the King shone as brilliantly in song and story as 
he did in doi^ty deeds of chivalry. His memory was stored with the 
riches of Eoman history, and his youth had been spent in reading the 
romances of the tima To his hstening admirers he poured forth an 
almost inexhaustible stream of anecdote and fiction. He dwelt on tbosa 
innumerable examples of heroism and fortitude, perseverance and patriot- 
ism to be found in the anuala of Kome, and inculcated on his knightly 
companions the virtues of the Eoman citizen. In referring to the story 
of ^^nnibal he dwelt especially on the disheartening reverses which assailed 
the outset of his career and that indomitable courage and inexorable foi^ 
titude which led to his ultimate triumph. 

Not even so joyous was the life of Dermond. The transports of the 
captor served but to increase the depression of the captive. He saw free- 
dom and happiness around hiin and contrasted them with bis own forlorn 
and fettered condition. Ardent and impulsive as be was he could not hut 
look with en77 on the merry faces of his guards and condemn tiiat aah- 



C>H)glc 



DERMOND. 281 

hesa which bound the ehaeklea on his limha Had it not been for the 
company of the hght-hearted ^oraeniao, who continued to lemind bitn that 
at least one of the truBty reUca of Duokerlyue remained, the tediouB and 
monotonouB nature of his life would have been intolerable, and no doubt 
he would have made eomo desperate eifort to eBcape^ which would only 
have imperilled the life of himself and fellow priaonera. Aa the days and 
weeks rolled on without aay prospect of relief, the life of the captives b&- 
came more unheaiable. It is not intended to dwell on the vaiioua inci- 
dentB which resulted from repeated endeavours to break away from the 
bondage of the Brace. Overborne by the increased vigilance of the guards 
which the impatience of Dermond and his foUoweis had contributed to 
Btrengthen, all hope had to be abandoned for a while, and a more favour- 
able turn of fortune had to be awaited. 

During all this time Dermond had not forgotten the missive which 
Bertha had entrusted to bis care, but his solicitations for an interview 
with Sir David M'Neill had a very different effect from that which he 
anticipated. Having gained the ear of Douglas's squire, he succeeded in 
iotereating him on his behalf; day after day he looked for the succesa of 
his suit, and scai'cely a week had elapsed before he received some notifi>- 
cation of the effect of his new friend's intercession. He was separated 
from Olave and his corapaniona, mounted on horseback between two 
squires and a strong body of Douglas's own followers, but he could gain 
no explanation regarding the meaning of these increased precautions. In 
the midst of the mirth of this goodly companion his louelinesB was like 
to crush his youthful spirit, and as time lengthened, however eager he 
was to enjoy the conversation of those around him, be was compelled to 
commune with his own thoughts until he became almost insensible to 
what was passing, and he rode on dreaming strange dreams, 

Summer now spread her splendours over the hiUs, the forests, and the 
valra, and the life that was led by the kingly Bruce and his kni^tly 
followers was a gay and festive ona Under the bright and smiling eyea 
of the ladies the tone and habits of the party were softened and refined. 
The Kin g was cheered by the ever welcome ministrations of his beautiful 
coDBort, and inspired with more than ordinary martial enthusiasm by that 
bravo and patriotic woman, the fearless Countess of Buchan, who had 
dared so much for the preservation of the ancient right of her funily in 
the coronation of the Sings of Scotland. There was alao young Stewart 
undivided in his attentions to the lovely and girlish Marjory, exciting the 
envy of many a more unfortunate gallant The harmony existing in this 
sylvan court was something remarkable compared with that of Edward in. 
Loudon. Common misfortune awakening the loving and benevolent 
sympathies, aweetened the intercourse with gentleness and courtesy, and 
in this sense, perhaps, the Scottish Court in its outlawry was happier tiian 
any in Europe. 

It was towards the end of September, and the little party held its way 
with some difficulty among the large stones and masses of rock that had 
tumbled from the heights, almost choking the passage through the moun- 
tain gorge where Bruce and his followera journeyed. Summer had rapidly 
passed away, and the cold, cheerless blasts of autumn had set in early, 
with unusual severity, giving a foretaste of the coming winter. Food 
woa getting scarcer, and even the unabated etloits of the Douglas as ft 



jb,Goo(^lc 



282 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

huntei and angler, were not leceived with the same favour and reward 
which had fonnerlf antprised his sportive competitor& The ladies were 
beginning to suffer from exposure to the chilling winds and lains which 
had followed somewhat suddenly in the wake of the splendid eummer. 
It was still early, and the morning was dull, the ground was soft with re- 
cent rains, and the vegetation of the woods was glistening with the heavy 
dewB. A few horses had been set apart for the convenience of the more 
distinguished ladies, and they were each led forward through the obstructed 
pathway by some attentive gallant. A number of horses had also been re- 
served for the purposes of the chase, and at the head of this foraging ra- 
ther than sporting party, rode the swarthy Douglas, ^ow and then a 
stag or some other wild inhabitant of these uniiequented forests was 
started, and away the hunting party scampered, the horses' hoofs flinging 
up the turf behind them amidst the general whoop and halloo, and the 
deep impressive bay of the King's bloodhounds, while it was with some 
difBcolty that the reet of the party could be restrained from joining in the 
general rout &om the incumbent state of disorder in wliich the party 
straggled forward, resulting from the iciegulai nature of the ground tra- 
versed. 

The day was drawing to a close, but the sun, which had scarcely been 
seen for some weeks, had, in the early part of the afternoon, dispersed the 
grey clouds of the morning, and now shone with unusual Iusb% on the 
rusty habihments and soiled trappings of the King's equipage. Fatigua 
and langour prevailed throughout the whole party-~a shght eminence of a 
long lamblii^ line of hills branching off Srom the Grampian range was be- 
ing mounted. The rood, on either side, was beset with high and lu^ed 
cMs, — but as the top of the lower ridge was reached, a descent was made 
towards a wide stretch of vale and forest, with a large sheet of water 
glistening in the distance. The sun was just sinking with a red and 
burning glow behind the mountaina, and the various coloure of the fiiding 
woodlands were lit up in vivid contrast to the stem grandeur of the sur- 
rounding country. 

S"o time was allowed to admire the prospect ere a wild halloo reverbe- 
rated amongst the mountains, and a whole herd of deer and wild cattle 
bounded right eeiass the path, amid the crackling of branches and shak- 
ing of bushes. This incident threw the whole party into disorder. Every 
horse, heedless of em;b and rein, dashed forward in pursuit, and the two 
sqaires who rode on either side of Dermond had much difficulty in rein- 
ing in their prancing steeds, and holding back the spirited horse of the 
young chieftain. 

Boon all hod become quiet save the dash of some men in the distance, 
the rostling of the leaves, or the solitary chiip of some stray or homeless 
bird; and oniherofoundbimself wending wearily torword with the small 
retinue of two squires and six jockmen. lHov and then some straggler 
came across them, enquired the direction of the hunters, and spurring for- 
ward in pursuit, disappearing speedily amongst the trees. At inter^ds a 
horn was heard sounduig in the distance, and the higgards quickened theii 
pace, making for the point whence the sound appeared to come, but t^e 
calls became fainter and fainter, and as the sun sunk and '^flrkni'w spread 
over the -labyrinth of forest, a deep sense of loneliness overtook the young 
ehisftftin and his guards. 



jb,GoO(^lc 



DEEMONB. 288 

Kov no horn leeounded iWiin the distant dingle, and the nutling that 
occurred among the biishea wna occasioned by Home wild animal burating 
from itfl lair where it had taken shelter for the night without the fear of 
Intmsion on its solitude. As the darkness increased it became more diffi- 
cult for the wanderers to trace their way through the thickness and black- 
ness of the trees, and the sounding of their homa awoke no response 
apart ftom mocking echoes. At length the troea became thinner and 
thinner, until a wild stretch of moor was reached, with no other trace of 
vegetation save clnmpe of furze, short, unwholesome grass, and here and 
there a patch of moss and heather. The soil was somewhat soft, and the 
horses sank fetlock deep with every step, so that progress was more re- 
tarded than ever. The riders had the greatest difficulty in keeping their 
saddles, and the jackmen who travelled on foot had to lead the horses 
forward so as to avoid the pools and quagmires which occurred at frequent 
intervals. There was the advantage of better h'ght, and the absence of 
obstructing trees and nnderwood, but the fear of being lost in a moving 
bog was worse than all the dangers of the forest combined, notwithstand- 
ing the wolves and other ravenous animals which infested the wilds of 
the Highlands at the time of our narrative. After goir^ about half a 
league further a more level and sounder portion of the country was 
emerged upon, and all held briskly onward in the hope of falling in with 
the main body under command of the King ; but as the advancing night 
oast its gloomy shadows over the open moor, as well as the thickly 
studded forest, a path more intricate and roi^, running throi^h a lonely 
glen was reached. A little brook rattled along this solitary vale, and the 
cooiso of the stream was followed in the hope of reaching some human 
habitation erected on its hanks. The search, however, was altogether 
unsuccessful, and although several imagined that they had descried a light 
glimmering in the distance, the more supeistitious of the jackmen set it 
down to the movements of some Will-o'-the-wisp or Jack-o'-Lanthom who 
was bent on leading them further out of the way. They were obliged to 
give up in despair, and notwithstanding the howl of the hni^ry wolf on 
the hills set a few shivering with fear, they were so weary and worn with 
the mtigues of the day that they turned aside resolved upon spending the 
night among the bracken on the slope. 

One of the jackmen was ordered to keep guard over the prisoner while 
the rest resigned themselves to slumber, but Dermond was too weary in mind 
as well as body to sleep soundly. Lying dozing away carefully wrapped in 
hia Highland plaid, he became douhly sensible of his captivity, and the 
■weakness of his guard inclined him to long more ardently for liheriiy. 
Opening his eyes he thought to find the sentinel asleep, probably overcome 
by the fatigues of the day, but his glance was instanUy returned, and half 
satisfied that the least effijrt without every assurance of success would he 
more destructive than ever to his purpose, and might imperil any future 
chance of escape, he shut his eyes and allowed himself to &11 asleep, 
dreaming the while of Bertha and his father's hall He dreamt of the 
mysterious behaviour of his father on parting, and longed to know what 
could have oppressed the old man's mind. Hia dreams were long and 
vivid, and happiest of all he thought his father had once more regained 
the favour of his liege lord Lorn— the torches burned brightly, the ale 
flowed in brimming Uagons, the guests were loud and merry — he danced 



384 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE, 

with the fair Bertha. He dreamt of bU wedding night, bat he awoke 
with a low moan juBt as he was conducting het to the bridal chamber. 
He started up, looked around amazed, and then lietened. ffothing broke 
the heavy stUlnesa of the night but the breathing of the aleepera and the 
restlessness of the horses; even the watchman had succumbed to the 
power of the somniferous god 

Afi«r listening for some time, Denuond resolved upon effecting his 
escape, but what was his disappointment to find that he had been carefully 
Becuied to one of the guards. Finding it impossible to dispose of this 
precautionary encumbrance without causing an alarm, he lay down again, 
but just as he was about to close his eyes a rustling in the bracken close 
at band attracted bis attention. Listening with greater care be heard the 
rustling repeated, and lookii^ round he caught the flash of a weapon. 
He sprang to his feet, but ere he had time to awaken the sleepers he 
found himself within the grasp of a powerful man. As he stru^led he 
met the eye of the assailant, and was astonished to find himself in t^ie 
arms of Olave, who quickly unbound Lis master, but not before the 
sentinel was awakened. Olave, however, bad been too carefnl in securing 
the jackman's sword, which he placed in Dermond's hand. A atru^e 
ensued, but three of the soldiers fell beneath the blows of the Isleamen ; 
and obeying the command of Olave, as well as following his example, 
Dermond dashed across the stream, and both suddenly disappeared in the 
thickets 

(lo be Continued.) 



THE BATTLE OF DTVEENAHAVON. 



Therb was a feud of long continuance between the Mackintoshes and 
the Camerons. The Mackintosh claimed, under an old grant from the 
Crown, to be owner of the lands in Lochaber occupied by the Camerons, 
who denied the validity of the grant, and refused to pay any rent. This 
Mackintosh attempted, on various occasions, to collect by poinding or dis- 
training. The Camerons opposed force by force ; and hence resulted 
various bloody &ays, of which the battle of Invernahavon was one. It is 
said lo have been fought in the year 1386, on the plain of Invernahavon, 
where the river Truim flows into the Spey, a little above where the rail- 
way now crosses this river. The following account was derived &om two 
tmachiee, the survivor of whom died upwards of forty years ago :— 

The Camerons, having had their cattle seized by Mackintosh and bis 
followers, mustered their force, and marched into Badenoch in order to 
make reprisals. Mackintosh having learned of their advance, hastened 
to give them battle, at the head of the clansmen of his own name and the 
Davidaona, or MacDhaidhs,* of Invernahavon. Mackintosh invited the 
Laird of Cluny, chief of the Macpheisons, to join him with his retainers ; 
but the latter declined, aa Mackintosh claimed to be the great captain of 
all the Clan Chattan, while Oluny claimed that of right such a title be- 

* ^m limiUrit? cf loiuid, tbsw baTe beea aonfoandsd •ometiilMl with Uif 
Maekif*, wbo wera a diffdent olu. 



, Google 



THE BATTLE OF IWEENAHAVON. 288 

onged to himaelf. The Clan Chattiaii comprised all the tribes just men- 
tioned, and several others who claimed a common descent from Gillie- 
Cattan More, a worthy of the olden time, from whom they derived their 
common name. It is said, however, that the Mackintoshes were his de- 
scendants only in the female line, and that their ancestor in the direct 
line was a Macduff, of the family of the Earl of Fife j and this waa one 
reason why the Camerona refused to do him service or pay him rent. 

The Camerons were led by their chief, Charles MacGilonay, and their 
opponents by the Laird of Mackintosh. Like most dan battles the cod- 
flict waa severe ; but the victory was won by the Camerons ; and so many 
of the Davidsons were slain that they have ever since, to this day, been 
few in number. 

The defeated clans fled along the low grounds south of the Spey, and 
the Camerons pursued them for a few miles till they halted and rested 
for the night on the height of Briagach, opposite Ballychioan. Towards 
morning the Chief of the Camerons dreamed that he lay on the ground, 
and that two hogs were turning him over and over with their snouts. 
As he was relating this ill-omened dream to his brother, they heard a loud 
eplashing noise ; and on looking in the direction whence it came they 
could see the Macphersona crossing the Spey by the ford at the upper 
end of the islet EiJean-nati'-uan. 

Immediately after his defeat, Mackintosh sent his bard to Cluny, 
oflering to acknowledge him as the chief of all the Clan Chattan, 
if he would at once hasten to his relief with his claa As Cluny resided 
only a few miles above InvemahaTon, he was able to march at once with 
a Btroi^ force against tho Camerons, for he was glad to have his title ac- 
knowledged on these terms. He moved with such rapidity that he crossed 
the river with his men shortly after daybreak. 

The Camerons had suffered so much in the battle of the preceding 
day, that they were in no condition to face a fresh enemy. They there- 
fore fled precipitately, without losing a moment. They crossed the Spey 
near Noidmore, and made for their own country by the shortest and 
safest route through Glen Benchar, hotly pursued by the Macphereons. 
These, however, did not make much execution among them, as they had 
got a good start, becauae the Macphersons had to advance foe some time 
along the low marshy ground. But the Camerons anfieied a good deal 
from the country people, who attacked them in their flight, and slew a 
number of them. Among others, their chief waa killed with an arrow, on 
the height thence termed to this day Torr Thearlaieh — hill of Charles, 
Such of them as succeeded in reachit^ the mountains escaped in safety, 
for any further pursuit waa then impracticable. 

In the course of time the Camerona recovered from the disastrous 
eflects of this incursion, and' again invaded the undisputed possessions of 
Mackintosh with a strong force. On this occasion they succeeded in 
carrying away all the cattle of their opponents that they could find ; and 
they were returning home with them tnumphantly through the braes of 
Lochaber, when their own folly caused them a sad reverse. The Camerons 
cherished hostile feelings towards Clan Eanald of Keppoch, whose family 
they deemed intruders in Lochaber. So they resolved to send him an 
insulting message. But there was some difficnilty in finding one who 
wonld 4;hus " beard the lion jn bia den." At length one knowg as U^q 

Cookie 



28S THE CELTIC MAQAZnTB. 

tailleir cool (elendei tailoi) oQered to convey the message, on condilaoii 
that he should receive a double abate of the piey. He waii very swift of 
foot, and hopp.d by that means to get hack with his head on hia shonldere. 
So he went off and delivered the message, which was that the prey of Ckn- 
ranald's master (meaning Mackintosh) was passing, let him lesone it if 
^e dare. 

Unfortunately for the Camerons, Clanranald happened to have his 
men assembled near hia residence at the time. He therefore sent them, 
withont delay, under the command of a brother, to chastise the Camerona 
for their insult. These were attacked in a very short time by the Mac- 
donalds with the fiery valour characteristic of their race ; and as they were 
quite unprepared for such an onset, they were completely defeated, and 
the whole of the prey was carried off in triumph by their enemies. When 
they returned, Keppoch enquired how far they had pursued the Camerons. 
"" Across the Lochy," was the answer. " Ye should have chas^ them to 
their doors," he replied. This, however, would have been dangerous 
under the circumstances, as they might have been attacked by a superior 
force and driven back into the river. 

Although Keppoch was highly enraged at the message, yet he dis- 
dained to cut down the impudent messenger without giving him a chance 
for his life. So he said to him, " If thou wert Clanranald of Keppoch, 
and I the slender tailor, what wonldst thou do to me!" The tailor con- 
ningly answered, " I would allow thee a certain distance ahead ; if thou 
shouldst escape, well ; and if not — thou shonldst fall" " So be it," re- 
plied Keppoch. He gave the tailor the distance in advance that he had 
mentioned ; but he thought to get up with him speedily by pursuing on 
horseback. The taOor, however, got off, by running throngh the lai^ 
peat-bog that lies north-west of Keppoch House, which soon checked 
Clanranald's pursuit. He reached hia home all safe, but of course he had 
labour and risk for hi6 pains, as there was now no prey to divide. 

I am aware that this account differs in some respects from that given 
in Shaw's "History of the Province of Moray," but I have written it 
down as I received it Shaw's account is based on tradition as well as 
this, which tallies better than his with some other well-known factsi 

ToBOBio. FATEIOE MACOAEOOB. 



fiteratttvt. 

OLD CELTIC R0MA1KB3, TitaAiAiA from tha OmUo by P. W. JOTO^ LL.D;, 

T.O.D., U.B.I,A. LoDdtni ; 0. Eegfto, Paul, k Oo., FatemortOT Sqmin. 
What will the unbelieving Saxon say to this goodly volume of tales 
translated from genuine Gaelic manuscripts, some of ijie latter actn&lly 
eight hundred years old. It is enough to make Dr Johnson's ghost break 
away firom ite ethereal abode, and, if it could, make mince meat of the 
tianalatoi of these beautiful romances. We are charitable enough to hopa 



LITEEATTIRE;, 287 

that the old man vho, so steeped in prejudice, did so much to damage 
the fail &me of the Celt, is kept in iguorance of what ia doing haio be- 
low, eke no heaven can aecuie comfort for him, while the Profeaaora — 
Blackie, Shairp, Joyce, and other Celtic warriors like Dr Hately Wadlell, are 
allowed to go at laige. We have read the hook with great pleasure. The 
stories are themselves moat interesting, and the manner in which the 
tnmslations have been rendered has made them dehghtful reading for 
those who enjoy that clase of literature. There are in all eleven tales, 
the Gaelic origmals of which are to be found iu the Libraries of Trinity 
Collie and of the Irish Academy, where fortunately there are piles of 
valuable Gaelic MSS., from the eleventh century down to the present 
time, on every conceivable subject, including aniials, history, biography, 
theology, romance, legend, science, and endless other subjects. And these, 
Professor Joyce informs us, " are nearly all copies from older booka" 

With the Celts of Ireland as with those of Scotland the recitation of 
stories — Tales and Legends — has always been a favourite pastime in the 
winter evenings ; and in early times we read of the professional story-' 
tellers, who were divided into various grades such as ollamhs, shean- 
nachies, filidhs, bards, and ao on, whose dnty it was to know by heart a * 
good stock of old tales, poems, and historic^ pieces for recitation at the 
festive gatherings of theii ohie&i, for the entertainment of themselves and 
their guests, Thus long poems and pieces were carried down from genera- 
tion to generation by these professionals and those who heard them, until 
modem contempt foe such things, clerical abuse, and the printing press, 
have almost sounded the death-knell of both story and story-tellur at the 
same time." By such works only as the one before ns can the tales of 
ancient times be preserved and placed within the reach ot those who come 
after us, and we warmly commend the translator for his present work and 
for his excellent manner of doing it. The latter cannot better be de- 
scribed than in his own words. He informs us that : — A translation may 
eitlier follow the very words, or reproduce the life and spirit, of the origi- 
nal; but no translation can do both. If you render word for word, you 
lose the spirit ; if yon wish to give the apirit and manner, you must de- 
part from the exact words, and frame your own phrases. 1 have chosen 
this latter course. My translation follows the original closely enough in 
narrative and incident ; but so £ir as mere phraseology is concerned, I 
have used the English language freely, not oUowing myself to be tram- 
melled by too close an adherence to the very words of the text. The 
originals are, in general, simple in style; and I have done my best 
to render them into simple, plain, homely £nghsL In short, I have 
tried to tell the stories as I conceive the old shanachies themselves would 
have told them, if they had used English instead of Gaelic" He suc- 
ceeded admirably. 

A&a informing us that this institution of story-telling held its ground 
in Ireland and in Scotland to a very recent period, he says that it is 
qu^ionable if it is yet extinct, and that withia his own memory that sort 
of entertainment was quite common among the farming classes of the 
north of Ireland. " The family and workmen, and any neighbours that 
ohose to drop in, would sit round the kitchen hre after the day's work — 
01 perhaps gather in a bam on a summer or autumn evening — to listen to 
some local gheaouaobie leciting one of his itmamerable Gadio tales. The 



jb,GoO(^lc 



298 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

storf-tell^ tiever chose his own irords — he always had the stoiy by hear^ 
and recited the wpria from memaiy, often gliding into a sort of recitative 
in poetical passages, or when he came to some favaorite grandiose descrip- 
tioa abounding in high-eonndiog alliteMtive adjectives. And very in- 
teieating it was tomark the rapt attention of the audience, and to hear 
their excited excUmationa when the speaker came to relate some mighty 
combat, some great exploit of the hero, or some other striking incident. 
Three years ago, I met a man in Kilkee, who had a great nnmbei of these 
stories by heart, and who actually repeated for me, without the slightest 
hitch or hesitation, more than half — and if I had not stopped him would 
have given me the whole — of ' Cilirt an Mheadhou-Oidhc^e ' (' The Mid- 
night Court'). * poem aboat six times as long as Gray's ' Elegy.' " 

It b not only " within otu memory " to see taking place, in the West 
H^Iands of Scotland, the tbing here described ; but we have within the 
last 30 years actually taken part in them in onr " Highland Ceilidhs," of 
which we have given some accounts and specimens in the earlier volames 
of the Celtic Magazine. They are, however, now fast becoming things of 
• the past even in the Highlands of Scotland; and it would not be difEcult 
to prove that the modern and mom £ishionable amusements which are 
taking their place is a long way short, in many respects, of being an im- 
provement. We cau, however, enjoy onr ceilidhs over again in such 
works as the one before us ; and all those who wish to possess specimens 
of our Celtic romances, recited on such occasions, should place themselves 
in possession of Professor Joyce's most interesting and amusii^ work. 

The stories given are two of "The Three Tt^c Stories of Erin," 
namely, "The &te of the Children of Lir," taken &om a copy of about 
1680-1700, but it is understood ^lat older copies exist in some of the 
public libiaries; and "The Fate of the ChQdren of Turenn," mainly 
taken from the Book of Lcccan, compiled about 1416 j but there are 
references to the principal characters in it in Cormac's Gbssary, writ- 
ten about the year 900 ; and in an old poem by Flann of Monasterboice, 
who died in 1056,_and a copy of which is in the Book of Leinster, written 
about 1 1 30. " The Overflowing of Loch H^eagh," " Connla of the (Jolden 
Hair," and " The Fairy Maiden," and " The Voyage of Maildun," are 
taken from the Book of the Dun. Cow, the oldest manuscript of Gaelic 
literature possessed by the Lish, and which was transcribed &om an older 
book by Maelmuire Mac Ceilechair, who died in 1106. These are capital 
stories — the second illustrating fairy pranks and superstition in the Green 
Isle, while figuring in it we find the famous Conn of the Hundred Battles, 
a well-known historical character of the second century. The third — 
" The Voyage of Maildun," "The Fairy Palace of the Quicken Trees," 
and " The Pursuit of the Gilla Dacker and his Horse," we have revelled 
in with peculiar and intense delight — the latter being especially beautiful, 
and a marvel of ci'eative fancy. " The Pursuit of Dermat and Grania " 
can hardly be surpapsed, in this class of literature, in some of its principal 
episodes for pathos and power ; while the last three in the book — " The 
Chase of Slieve CuUinn," " The Chase of Slieve Fuad," and " Oisin in 
Tiinanoge," are perfect gems of theii kind. 

The value of the bo^ is much enhanced by the addition at the end, 
as well as in the body, of learned " notes," and a list of the proper namefl 
•occurring in the text, with their Gaelic and English meauangs. 



jb,Googlc 



Celtic Maqazine. 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDOITALDS, 

THE LOKDS OF THE ISLES. 
Bt teb Editob. 

vin. • 

It has been raaintamed hy some that Angus Og was a legitimate son of 
John, Eari of Boss, but aHl authorities now considered worthy of the 
name hold a different opinion. It haa been abeady seen that Qiegory 
calls him a bastaid. Smibert, in bis "Clans of the Highlands of 
Scotland," lefettlng to the assertions of "ancient private annalists," and 
especially to Hngh Macdonald, the Sleat family historian, says that some 
of these assert that John, last Lord of the Isles, irho had no children by 
bis wife, Elizabeth Livingston, had yet, quoting from Hugh Macdonald, 
" a natural son begotten of MacduSe, Colonsay's daughter, and Angus 
Og, his legitimate son, by the Earl of Angus's daughter." In reference 
to the latter assertion, Smibert says — "No mention of this Angus mar- 
riage occurs in any one public document relating to the Lords of the Isles, 
or to the Douglasses, then Eads of Angus. On the other hand, the 
acknowledged wife of John of the Isles, Elizabetb Livingston, was 
certainly alive in 1475, at which date he, among other charges, is accused 
of making ' his bastard son ' a lieutemmt to him in insurrectionaiy con- 
Tocations of the li^es; and Ai^pis coald therefore come of no second 
marriage. He indubitably is the same party still more distinctly named 
in subsequent Parliamentary records as ' Angus of the Isles, bastard son 
to umquhile John of the Isles.' The attribution of noble and legitimate 
birth to Angus took its origin, without doubt, in the circumstance of 
John's want of children by marriage having raised his natural son to a 
h^h degree of power in the clan, which the active character of Angus well 
fitted him to nee as he willed. That power was still further established 
by his being named in 1476 as principal heir of entail to his father, when 
the latter submitted to the Crown and obtained a seat in Parliament; but 
in that very deed of entail his illegitimacy is stated once more with equal 
clearness, and he was only to succeed iailing other heira of the body of 
John. However, in the absence of any snck legal Issue, Angus wielded 
all the authority of an heir-apparent, and appears, by his violence, to have 
involved the tribe in perpetu^ disturbance." The father and son seem 
to have become quite reconciled to each other during the latter years of 



jb,Googlc 



290 THE CELTIC MAGAZINI!. 

tbe life of Angus, who died daring hia fatliei's lifetime, aboat 1485, at 

luverntss, in the manner alieady described. A few years after this tlie 
Lord of the Isles is again in antagonism to the Crown, and entera into a 
treaty with Edward IV. of Eoglaud, who was preparing another expedition 
against the Scots ; and for the remainder of the reign of James TTT. the 
vaasals of the Island Chief appear to hare boon in a state of open resistr 
ance to the Crown. Angus Og having, according to some authorities, 
died without legitimate issue, and John, Lord of the Isles, being now ad- 
vanced in years, his nephew, Alexander of Lochalsh, son of Celestiue, hia 
Lordship's brother, held, according to Gregory and other authorities, the 
rank of heir to the Lordship of the lalea, while others maintain that ho 
merely commanded the clan as guardian to Angus Og's youthful son,. 
Donald Dubh, who was still a prisoner at Inchconnell ; hut the latterTiew, 
it is held, is inconsistent with several known facts, one of which is, a charter, 
dated in 1 492, in favour of John Maclean of Lochbuy of tbe office of Bailliary 
of the south half of the Island of Titee, granted hy John, Lord of the Isles, 
and Alexander de /jwmZw, Lord o/iocAa/sA, an office which conld not have 
. been given by Alexander of Lochalsh in any other capacity than as hia 
father's heir to the Lordship of the Isles, for it formed no part of his own 
patrimony of Lochalsh. In 1488 Alexander invaded the mainland at the 
head of his vassals with the view of wresting the ancient possessions of 
his house in the Eatidom of Bosa from those who now held them by 
charters &om the Crown, especially the Mackenries, apparently with the ftill 
consent and approval of his t^d uncle of the Isles. A full account of hia 
proceedings and the causes which were the more immediate cause of them 
is given in "The History of the Mackenziea,"* pp. 59-74, and at pp. 161- 
170, No. xxix. (vol. iii.) of the Cdtie Magazirie. It is therefore un- 
necessary to reproduce it here, but we may give the following summary 
from Gregory: — "As the districts of Lochalsh, Lochoarron, and Loch- 
broom, which Alexander inlierited from his father, and which he now 
held as a Crown £.of, lay in the Earldom of Koss, lus influence there waa 
greater than that of Angus of the Isles had been. Tet the only Crown 
vassal of the Earldom who joined him was Hugh Kose, younger of 
Kilravock, whose father at this time was keeper, under the Earl of Huntly, 
of the castle of Ardmanach, in Ross. In the year 1491,+ a large body of 
Western Highlanders, composed of the Clanianald of Garmoran, the C^an- 
ranald of Lochaber, and the Clanchameron, under Alexander of Lochalsh, 
advanced from Lochaber into Badenoch, where they were joined by the 
Clanchattan. The latter tribe, which possessed lands both under the 
Lord of the Isles and the Earl of Huntly, waa led by Farquhar Mackin- 
tosh, the son and heir of the captain of the Clanchattan. From Badenoch 
the confederates marched to Inverness, where Farquhar Mackintosh 
stormed and took the royal castle, in which he established a garrison ; and 
where the forces of the Highlanders were probably increased by the 
arrival of the young Baron of Kilravock and his followers, Proceeding 
to the north-east, the fertUe lands belonging to Sir Alexander IJrquharii, 
the Sheriff of Cromarty, were plundered, and a vast booty carried off by 
the Islanders and their associates. It is probable that at this time Locb- 

* Br tha some aothoc. Pabliahed by A. & W. UookBiuie, IiiT*raeu : ]S79. 
t Tbera ii lame uoDfuiioa hers u ta (b« datM, for then ii bu doubt ai all that tk* 
UtO* of Fuk ira» fou^bt w early wi 1438, 



ii,Goo(^lc 



HISTOET OF THE MACDOifAIDS. 291 

alsh had divided his force into two parta, one being sent home with the 
booty already acquired, whilst with the other he proceeded to Strath- 
connan, for the purpose of raving the lands of the Mackenzies. The latter 
clan, under their chief, Kenneth, having assembled their forces, surprised 
and routed the invaders, who had encamped near the river Connan, at a 
place called Park, whence the conflict has received the name of Blaime- 
park, Alexander of Lochalsh was wounded, and, as some say, taken 
prisoner in this battle, and his followers were expelled from Eoas. The 
victoi^ then proceeded to ravage the lands of Ardmanach, and those be- 
longing to William Munro of Fowlis — the fonner because the young 
Baion of Kilravock, whose father was governor of that district, had assisted 
the other party ; the latter probably because Muaro, who joined neither 
party, was euspected of secretly favouring Lochalsh. So many excesses 
were committed at this time by the Mackenzies, that the Earl of Huntly, 
Lieutenant of the Korth, was compelled (notwithstanding their services 
in repelling the invasion of the Macdonalds) to act against them as rebels 
and oppressera of the lieges. Meanwhile, the origin of these commotions 
did not escape the investigation of the Government ; and the result was " 
the final forfeiture of the Lordship of the Isles, and its annexation to the 
Crown. , It does not appear, from the documents which we possess, how 
fer the Lord of the Isles was himself implicated in the rebellious proceed- 
ings of his nephew. It may be that his inability to keep the wild tribes 
of the West Highlands and Isles in proper subjection was his chief crime, 
and that the object of the Government in proceeding to his forfeiture was, 
by breaking up the confederacy of the Islanders, to strengthen indirectly 
the royal authority in these remote districts. The tenor of all the pro- 
ceedings of James IV., connected with the final forfeituie of the Lordship 
of the Isles, leads to this conclusion. These proceedings will be described 
at more length in their proper place. At present we have only to record 
the fact, that, in the Parliament which sat in the month of May 1493, 
John, fourth and last Lord of the Isles, was forfeited and deprived of his 
title and estates. In the month of January following, he appeared in 
presence of the King, and went throi^h the form of making a voluntary 
surrender of his Lordship, after which he appears to have remained for 
some time in the King's household m the receipt of a pension. Finally, 
this aged nobleman retiied to the Monastery of Paisley, a foundation 
which owed much to the pious liberality of himself and his ancestors. 
Here he died, about the year 1498 ; and was interred, at his own request, 
in the tomb of his royal ancestor. King Eobert 11,"" 

During this period — from the final forfeiture of the Lords of the lalea 
in 1493, to his death — the country was almost in a constant state of in- 
surrection, though many of the leading heads of famUies made their sub- 
mission to the Crown ; for Alexander of Lochalsh lost no opportunity of 
asserting his claim to the EarMom of Boss and the Lordship of the Isles. 
It was, however, determined by the Government that no single &mily 
should ever again be permitted to acquire the same preponderance in the 
west as the Lords of the Isles. At first the steps taken to secure the 
Hubmisaion of the Islanders were not characterised by any great severity, 
and in the year 1493 James lY. proceeded in person to receive the sub- 



* Highlands tmd lalee, pp, 65-6Q, 



ii,Goo(^lc 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

a and bomsf^ of the leading vassals of the ancient Lordship. In 
this he acted wisely, for even those haughty baions had some lespect foe 
Royalty, and proved themaelvea willing to grant to their king in person 
what it was fluite possible he could never have forced &om them by the 
Bwoid. Among the first who came to submit themselves to bis clemency 
were Alexander de Insulis of Lochalsh, John de InsuUs of Isla, John 
Madean of Lochbuy, and Duncan Mackintosh of that ilk, formerly vaeaals 
of the forfeited Lord of the Isles. They received in rotum for their aub- 
miflsion royal charters of all or nearly all the lands which they previously 
held nnder the Island Obief, and were thus made freeholders, quite inde- 
pendent of any superior but the Crown ; and Alexander of Lochalsh and 
John of Isla both received the honour of knighthood, while the former, 
as presumptive heir to the Lordship of the Isles, previous to the forfeiture 
of hie nncle, received a promise from the King to secure all the free tenants 
of the Isles in their then present holdings, an engagement which at first 
seems to hare been strictly adhered to. This promise is distinctly men- 
tioned in several charters of the year 1498.* In all the circumstances it 
■ must he conceded that the King acted with great leniency towards the 
Island Chie&, and eqiecially to Alexander of Lochalsh, who had 
been the leading spirit in all the recent tfoublea, particularly in the outbreak 
which ended in lie forfeiture of the Lordabip of the Isles. The Km% 
soon after returned to his lowland court ; but some of the more powerful 
vassals still holding out, it was decided that another expedition should be 
sent accompanied hy such a display of military force as should effectually 
secure their submission and command their obedience. So, in the month 
of April 1494, we find the King in the Isles making preparations for a 
third visit by preparing and garrisoning the castle of Tarbet, one of the 
most important strongholds in the West Highlands, In July following 
he is again there with a powerful force, when he proceeded to seize the 
castle of Dunaverty, in South Kintyre, where he pUced a strong garrison, 
supplied, like the one at Tarbet, with powerful axtOlery and experienced 
gunners. By far the best and most complete account of this period by 
any writer is that given by Gregory, and whether acknowledged or not, it 
has been made the groundwork by all our modem historians when treats 
ing of this dark period in the History of the Highlands and Isles. We 
shall therefore quote him in extenao. He says — It will be recollected 
that the districts of Kintyre and Knapdale were, in 1476, expressly re- 
signed by the Lord of the Isles, along with the Earldom of Boss, to the 
Crown, A great portion of Kintyre had been held, irndec the Lord of 
the Isles, by Sir Itonald de Insulis, aumamed Ealloch of Isla, prior to 
this resignation, which deprived Sir Donald and his family of a very 
valuable poaaoaaion. Whether Sir John of Isla, the grandson and re- 
presentative of Sir Donald, had, at the time he received knighthood, 
on the first visit of James IV. to the Isles, any hopes of the restoration of 
Kintyre, cannot now be ascertained. But it is certain that he was deeply 
offended at the step now taken, of placii^ a garrison in the castle of 
Dunaverty ; and he secretly collected his followers, determined to take 
the first opportunity of expelling the royal garrison, and taking pos- 
aession of tiie district of Kintyre. This opportonity was soon affonled 

*Iteg. ofOteotStitl, riii., 336, 337. Oragoiy, p. 8& 



, Google 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS, 293 

him. The King, not expecting opposition from this qnarter, was pre- 
paring to quit Kintyre by Bea, with his own personal attendants — the 
bulk of his followers having previously been sent away on some other 
expedition — when the Chief of Isla, finding everything fovouiable for his 
attempt, stormed the castle, and hung the governor from the wall, in the 
sight of the King and. his fleet.* 

James, unable at the time to punish this darii^ rebel, took, neverthe- 
less, such prompt measures for the vindication of his insulted authority, 
thai ere long Sir John of lala and four of his sons were apprehended in 
Isia, by Macian of Ardnamurchan, and brought to Edinburgh. There they 
were found guilty of high treason, and executed accordingly on the Bur- 
rowmuir ; their bodies being interred in the church of St Anthony. Two 
surviving sons, who afterwards restored the fortunes of this family, fled 
to their Irish territory of the Glens, to escape the pursuit of Macian.t In 
the course of this year, likewise, two powerful chiefs, Eoderick Maeleod 
of the Lewis, and John Macian of Ardnamurchan, made their submission, 
and the activity displayed by the latter against the rebellious lalesmen, 
eoon procured him a large share of the Eoyal favour. 

In the followiug year, 1495, after extensive preparation for another 
expedition to the Isles, the King assembled an army at Glasgow ; and, 
on the 18th of May, we find him at the Castle of Mbgarry, in Ardna- 
murchan, being the second time within two years that he had held his 
court in this remote castle. John Huchonson, or Hughson, of Sleat ; 
Bonald Angusson of Keppoch ; Allan MacKuari of Moydert, chief of the 
Clanranald j Hector Maclean of Dowart ; Ewin AHanson of Lochiel, cap- 
tain of the Clan Chameron, aiLd Gilleonan Macneill of Barra, seem to have 
made their submission in consequence of this expedition. In this year, 
too, Kenneth Gig Mackenzie of Kintail and Farquhar Macintosh, son and 
heir of the captain of the Clanchattan, were imprisoned by the King in 
the Castle of Edinburgh. This may have been partly owing to theii 
lawless conduct in li91, but was more probably caused by a dread of 
their influence among the Islanders — for the mothers of these power^ 
chiefs were each the daughters of an Earl of Boss, Lord of tJie Isles. 
The measures now taken by the King were soon after followed up by an 
important Act of the Lords of Council (li96), which merits particular 
notice. This Act provided, in reference to civil actions against the 
Islanders — of which a considerable number were then in preparation — 
that the chief of every clan should be answerable for the due execution 
of summonses and other writs against those of his own tribe, under the 
penalty of being made liable himself to the party bringing the action. 
This, although undoubtedly a strong measure, was in all probability 
rendered necessary by the disturbed state of the Isles after so many re- 
bellions, and could hardly fail to produce a beneflcial effect ; for in these 
wild and remote districts the officers of the law could not perform their 

* The Trsuarer'i Mwoanti, udei Aaiuit 1491. ahow OuA Sir Joha of the IiIm wh 
■nmmamidiBt tbftttime.touiiwerfortrMioii "in Kintjre." Tba ptsoiie «et af tnuoB 
U Ituned from ■ tndition wtll known ia tbe WMtarn Highlanda. 

t ThiiB partioolari regarding the pnnishmeivt inflicted on ths Chiof of lila and hti 
■oni are derived from the MS. of MujTurioh aail Hagh Moadotiild, cDrrobDrited from k 
obartet from the Kiog to UhcIud, dated 2jth Unrcb 14S9. and preierred Bmang the 
Ajfjle papeta, tawaiduig the latter for bit aeivicea in ai>iiie bending Sir John, hli mu, 



jb,Goo(^lc 



29* The CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

necessary duties in safety, without the assistance of a large military fotce. 
At the Bame time that this important regulation vas made, five chiefs of 
rank — viz., Hector Maclean of Dowart, John Macian of Ardnamurcban, 
Allan MacEuari of Moydert, Ewin Allanson of Lochiel, and Donald 
AngUBBon of Koppoch — appearing before the Lords of Council bound 
themselves, " by the extension of their hands," to the Earl of Aigyle, on 
behalf of the King, to abstain from mutual injuries aud molestation, each 
under a penalty of five hundred pounds. Such were the steps taken by 
the King and CouncU to introduce, at this time, law and order into ttie 
remote Highlands and Isles. 

The active ahare taken by Kii^ James in supporting the pretensions 
of Perkin Warbeek (1497) withdrew his attention for a time from the 
state of the Western lales, and seems to have given opportunity for a new 
insuTrection, which, however, was suppressed without the necessity for 
another £oyal expedition. Sir Alexander of Lochalsh — ^whether with 
the intention of claiming the Earldom of Boss, or of revenging himself on 
the Mackenzies, for his former defeat at Blaimepaik, is uncertain — invaded 
the more fertile districts of Eosa in a hostile manner. He was encountered 
by the Mackenzies and Munros at a place called Drumchatt, where, after 
a sharp skdrmish, be and his followers were again routed and driven out 
of Eoss. After this event the Knight of Lochalsb proceeded southward 
among the Isles, endeavouring to rouse the Islanders to arms in his beiialf, 
but without success, owing probably to the terror produced by the execu- 
tion of Sir John (Cathansch) of Isla and his eons. Meantime Macian 
of Aidnamurchan, judging this a proper opportunity of doii^ on acceptable 
service to the King, surprised Lochalsh in the Island of Oronsay, whither 
he had retreated, and put him to death. In this Macian was assistfld, 
according to tradition, by Alexander, the eldest surviving son of John (Cath- 
anach) of Isla, with whom he had contrived to effect a reconciliation, and 
to whom he had given his daughter in marriage. Sir Alexander of Loch- 
alsh left both sons and daughters, who afterwards fell into the King's 
hands ; and of whom we shall have occasion to speak in the eequeL 
About the same time as the unsuccessful insurrection of which we have 
just spoken, the Chiefs of Mackenzie and Mackintosh made their escape 
from Edinburgh Castle ; but on their way to the Highlands they were 
treacherously surprised at the Toiwood by the I.aird of Buchanan. Mac- 
kenzie having offered resistance, was ofain, and his head, along witii 
Maokintoeh, who was taken alive, was presented to the King by Buch- 
anan. The latter was rewarded, and Mackintosh returned to the dungeon, 
where he remained till after the battle of Flodden. 

In the summer of 1493 King James, still intent upon preserving and 
eitendirg his influence in the Isles, held his court at a new castle he had 
caused to he erected in South Kintyre, at the head of Loch Kilkerran, 
now called the Bay of Campbelltown. Alexander Macleod of Harris, or 
Dunvegan, and Torquil Macleod, now (by the death of his father Eoderick) 
Lord of the Lewis, paid their homage to the King on this occasion ; and 
some steps were taken to suppress the feud between the Clanhuistean of 
Sleat and the Clanranald of Moydert, regarding the lands of Garmoran 
and Uist, The King eoon afterwards returned to the Lowlfuids, leaving, 
as he imagined, the Isles and 'West Highlands in a state of tranquillity 
not likely soon to be disturbed. A few months, however, suf&ced 



HISTORY OF THE MACDOUALDS. 295 

to produce a wonderful cliai^e 'betweeii the King and hia subjects in the 
Islee. The cause of this change ramaioa involved in obscurity ; but it 
must have been powerful to induce so sudden and total a departure from 
the lenient measures hitherto pursued, and to cause the King to violate 
his solemn promise by revoking all the charters granted by him to the 
vasaala of the Isles during the last iive years.* The new line of policy 
was no sooner determined on than followed up with the wonted vigour of 
the Sovereign. We find bim at Tarhet in the month of April, when he 
gave to Archibald, Earl of Argyll, and others for letting on lease, for the 
term of three years, the entire Lordship of the Isles as possessed by the 
last lord, both in the Isles and on the mainland, excepting only the 
Island of lala and the lands of North and South Kintyre. Argyll 
received also a commission of Lieutenandry, with the fullest powers, over 
the Lordship of the Isles ; and, some months later, was appointed Keeper 
of the Castle ot Tarbet, and Bailie and Governor of the King's lands in 
Knapdale. Argyll was not, however, the only individual who benefited 
by this change of measures. Alexander, Lord of Gordon, eldest son of 
the £ail of Huntly, received a grant of numerous lands in Lochaher 
(1500) formerly belonging to the Lordship of the lales. Upon Duncan 
Stewart of Appin, who was much employed in the Eoyal service, were 
bestowed the lands of Duror and Glenco during the King's pleasure. The 
important services of Macian of Ardnamurchan (who alone of all the la- 
landers seems to have retained the favour of his Sovereign) were likewise 
suitably acknowledged. + 

Skene, though somewhat less clear in his details, substantially cono- 
borates this account,J and Tytler sums up the whole of the various expe- 
ditions of the King so neatly that we cannot resist quotii^; him. He 
says : — In 1493, although much occupied with other oarea and concerns, 
he found time to penetrate twice into the Highlands, proceeding as far as 
Bunataf&iage and Mingarry in Ardnamurchan, and in the succeeding 
year, such was the indefatigable activity with which he executed hia 
pablic duties, that he thrice visited the Isles. The first of these voyages, 
which took place in April and Alay, was conducted with great state. It 
afforded the youthful monarch an opportunity ot combining business and 
amusement, of gratifying hia passion for saUing and hunting, of investi- 
gating the state of the fisheries, of fitting out his barges for defence aa 
well aa pleasure, and of inducing his nobles to build and furnish, at their 
own expense, vesaels in which they might accompany their Sovere^n. 
It bad the effect also of impressing upon the inhabitants of the Mea a 
salutary idea or the wealth, grandeur, and military power of the King. 
The rapidity with which he travelled from place to place, the success and 
expedition with which he punished all who dared to oppose him, his 
generosity to hia frienda and attendants, and hia gay and condeacending 
familiarity with the lower classes of his aubjecta, dl combined to increase 
his popnlauty and to consolidate and unite, by the bonds of equal laws 
and affectionate allegiance, the remotest parts of the kingdom. 



+ Highlands aad I>1e>, 89-95. 

t Uiahliadeii at Scolleitd, vgL iL, pp. 86-901 TjUer's Hutorj of SmtUnd, vol, 
, yv7m-269, im Ed. 



h, Google 



Sd6 tHE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

At Taibet, in Cantire, lie repaiied the fort oiiginally built by Brace, 
and eetabliabed an emporium for his ebipprng, transporting thither his 
artillery, laying in a stock of gunpowder, and carrying along with him 
bis mastei-gunneis, in whose training and practice he appears, from the 
payments in the treasurer's books, to have busied himself with much per- 
seTeiance and enthusiasm. These warlike measures were generally 
attended with the best effects j most of the chieftains readily submitted 
to a Prince who could carry hoBtilities within a few days into the heart 
of their country, and attack them in their island fastnesses with a force 
which they found it vain to resist ; one only, Sir John of the Isles had 
the folly to defy the royal vengeance, ungrateful for that repeated lenity 
with which his treasons had been already pardoned. TTia great power in 
the Isles probably induced him to believe that the King would not ven- 
ture to drive him to extremities; but in this he was disappointed. 
James instantly summoned him to stand his trial for treason ; uid in a 
Parliament which assembled at Edinburgh soon after the King's return 
irom the north, Uiis formidable rebel was stripped of his power, and his 
lands and possessions forfeited to the crown.* 

The last Lord of the Isles died, as we have seen, in the Monastery of 
Paisley, about the year 1498, leaving no legitimate issue. He was 
married to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of James, Lord Livingston, great 
Chamberlain of ScotJand. His son, Angus Og, died, as already stated, 
about I486, leaving an only child, Donald Dubh, who was at the time of 
his father's death, and still (1498) continued to be, a prisoner in the Castle 
of InchconneU. Angus was married to Lady Mary Campbell, daughter of 
Colin, first Earl of Argyll ; and most authorities agree that Donald Dubh 
was the legitimate issue of this marri^e, thoi^, for state reasons, he was 
declared a bastard in various Acts of parliament, and known, in conse- 
quence, as " Donald the Bastard." John the second illegitimate son of the 
last lord, also died during his lather's lifetime — before the 1 6th of December 
1478, as is clearly proved by the Eegister of the Great Seal, viii., 120. 
Angus Og of the Mee had also two dai^hters — one of whom, Florence, 
married Duncan Mackintosh of Mackintosh, and the other, Margaret, who 
married Kenneth Mackenzie (a'Bhloir), Ylltb Baron of KinbiiL The 
sons of both — the heirs respectively of Mackintosh and Kintail, were 
taken prisoners to Edinbui^h Castle, in 1495, as already described. 
Celeetine of Lochalsh died in 1473 — fifteen years before the death of his 
brother. Earl John — while his son, Alexander of Lochalsh, the "heir 
presumptive " to the Lordship of the Isles, was assassinated in the Island 
of Oronsay in 1498 — the same year in which Earl John himself died. 
In the same year also died Hugh of Sleat, the only smriving eon of Earl 
John, leaving by his first wife, Finvola, daughter of Alexander, the son of 
John of Aidnamurchan, one son — John MacHuistean, or Hughson, who 
is above referred to as having, in 1495, mode his submission to James IV. 
with several others of the principal vaasals of the Isles. John Hughson 
died without issue in 1502, but he was succeeded in the property by his 
brother, Donald Gallach, previously referred as the issue of his father by 

* Tnunnr'i Accoauta, Angiut Sltti, 1494, "Kem, (oimamon Sir John of tha IilM, 
ot trcMon Id Klntrre, uid for tha sxpeDis of witns>i«, vi lb. liiL ih. M. d." Thil, 
■ooordlDK to Mr Grtgoiy, wM Sir Jotu, oftU«d " Oathuiaah," of Ilia aad Ountii*, aod 
Lord of tbe Olena in Ireland— «iMut*d af twwMd* at Edinbnqh about th« jear UOO; 



mSTOET OF THE MACDONALBS. 297 

Mary, daughter of Gunn, Crowner of Caithness, and from whom ia descended 
the &imily of the present Lord Macdonald of the Isles, who still pos- 
sesses the Sleat property in Skye, and of whom, and other members of 
the family, hereafter. 

8ir Alexander of Lochakh, nephew of the last Lord of the Isles, 
married a daughter of Lovat, by whom he left three sons and two daugh- 
ters, the eldest of whom, Sir Donald of Lochalah, known as "Donald 
Gallda," Lieutenant of the Isles, was afterwards elected by the Islanders 
to the Lordship of the Isles. He and his brothers took a prominent part 
in the succeeding insurrections in the lalea, in connection with which his 
proceedings will be noticed at length in the sequel. It may, however, be 
stated here that he and his brothers died without issue, his two siateis, 
Mai^aret and Janet, having succeeded to his property, carrying it to their 
reHpoctive husbands — Macdonald of Glengarry and Dingwall of Kildun. 

From these facts it will be seen that the vassals of the Lordship of 
the Isles, on the death of Earl John, were without any recognised head, 
while there were not less than three possible claimants to that high posi- 
tion ; namely, Donald Dubh, the son of Angus Og of the Isles, the latter 
of whom was undoubtedly heir of entail to John, last Lord of the Islea 
and Earl of Boss. Donald Dubh therefore, whether legitimate or not, 
bad powerful claims, and he was not long in asserting them. The next 
claimant was Sic Donald, whose father, Sir Alexander of Lochalah, bad 
been for many years acting as, and holding the rank of, heir to the Lord- 
ship ; and fir^y wo have the descendants of Hugh of Sleat, who also, in 
their turn, claimed the succession. To follow these in their various in- 
Borrections and make the various points in this most difBoult portion of 
the history of the M&cdonalds as clear as possihle, will be attempted in 
001 next 

(Jo be Continued.) 



(genealogical gaks ani ^mtks. 

ANSWER TO QUERY. 
TBS lUOBBANS OF EINOHTLE. 
In answer to the query by " A. M. S." in our last issue, regarding 
this family, Mr Charles Fraser- Mackintosh, F.S.A.S., MP., writes to ua 
as foUows : — "Upon the 16th October 1759 Lieutenant Donald Macbean 
was served heir male to his late uncle, iSneas Macbean, in the lands of 
Kinchyle; and on the 26th March 1760 the conveyance to Eraser of Ifees 
Castle was signed by Donald Macbean's commissioaers, he being then 
abroad." 



80CIETT OF AKTIQUAIOES OF SCOTLAND.— At the last 
monthly meeting of this Society, Mr Alexander Mackenzie of the G^tic 
Magaxine was among those elected f'.S.A.S. 



.Google 



298 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

A LEGEND OF ST KILDA. 

[CONTINCED.] 

Slowly and with effort did the miserable lady recoTer from lier death- 
like swooQ. Bat she was youDg, attd youth and a strong conatitation car- 
ried her through the severe trial When she wae able to look about, het 
heart sank as she saw the barren rocks, rising dark, gloomy, and seem- 
ingly inaccessible on every hand. Not a living creature could she see, 
except myriads of birds and wild fowls of the air flying high up among the 
rocks. The noise they made was extraordinary— the harsh cry of the gull 
alternated with the quack, quack of numberless ducks, the hissing sound 
made by the immense quantities of sokn geese and swans, and the Tari- 
ous notes of pigeons, kittiewakes, puffins, anks, guillemots, and smallei 
birds — the sea was covered with them, the ground was white with their 
feathers, while the sky was darkened by the swarms of winged creaturea 
She had been left on the Island of St Kilda — 



80 miles from the nearest land, far out on tlie wide bofiom of the stormy 
Atlantic. 

Turning her despairing looks on every side, Lady Grange's attention 
was directed to a particular rock by observing sometlung uuusoal movijig 
down the face of it She could not at first make out what it was ; but, 
after a while, she saw that it was a boy hailing on a rope, descending the 
almost perpendicular cliff. She guessed he was searching for eggs &om 
the commotion his presence caused among the feathered tribe, as flutter- 
ing theii wings and uttering their shrill cries they fl«w hither and thither, 
now swooping down and havering over their ravaged nests, anon rising 
and circling far overhead. 

The sight of the boy raised the desponding heart of Lady Grange. It 
cheered her by showing she was not, as she had supposed, on an uninha- 
bited shore. Whoever or whatever the people might be, they could not 
be more cruel than those who had condemned' her to such a fate. But 
how could she attract his attention t She called oat in her shriUest tones, 
but her voice was lost in the screaming of wild fowls. She waved her 
handkerchief wildly. Alas I he saw not the tiny signal Almost despair- 
ing, she tore off the silken scarf that covered her ahoulders, and clamber- 
ing on to a rock, stood holding it aloft, till her arms ached. The ruse 
was successful ; the rays of the sun glanced on the coloured silk as it Hoated 
on the breeze, and its glittering sheen caught the quick eye of the Ibwler; 
but his astonishment was so great at the apparition of a lady alone on the 
rocks, that he nearly lost the nerve so essential to his diingerous avoca- 
tion. He, however, managed to signal to his companions to haul hiin up, 
when he related with bated breath the vision he had seen. They at first 
laughed at him and bis story ; but, on his persisting upon the reality of 
what he hod seen, and deolarmg his intention of going down to the shore 
to get a nearer view of the figure, his companions did their best to dis- 
suade him from his purpose, saying, it must have beau ft (uij oi pwbapft - 



A LEGEND OF ST filLDA. 299 

a mermaid he had Been, and who knew what dire penalties he might have 
to pay if he had the temerity to venture within her reach, Curioaity, 
however, proved stronger than fear of the supernatural, and the bold lad 
left hia comrades and made hie way by circuitous paths to the place where 
be had seen the lady. As he again caught aight of her, he stopped in- 
voluntarily, abeorbed in admiration, for truly nevei' before had the half- 
civilised youth seen anything human so' beautiful as the graceful loveli- 
ness of the unhappy I^dy Grange, aa ahe stood helplessly on the bleak 
seashore. Her fair face, troubled and tear-stained, her long tresses blow- 
ing about in the cold breeze, and her rich dresa wet and soiled by^ the salt 
wat^r ; heri evident distreaa touched a tender chord in the chivalrous na- 
ture of the lad, and he advanced without a particle of fear. On perceiv- 
ing him, the miserable lady held out her delicate hands, and implored his 
■help to guide her to some place of refuge. Ihe dulcet tonea of her voice 
fell on hia ears lite a rippling strain of sweet music ; but, alas ! he could 
not understand a word, he gueaaed her meaning, however, and while speak- 
ing to her in Gaelic, he took her hand and pointed towards his home. 
His &ank sunburnt face, lighted up with a pair of bright truthful-looking 
eyea, won her confidence at once, and she surrendered heraelf to hia guid- 
ance without a scruple. It would be impossible to aderjoately describe 
the intense astonishment and curiosity caused by the appearance of Lady 
Grange and her young guide, among the primitive inhabitants of the Is- 
land, whose rough appearance, uncouth language, and wild gestures, 
alarmed the delicately-nurtured lady ; and she clung closer to her young 
protector, who, rebuking their ill manners, led the way to hie own cot- 
tage, in which he lived with his widowed mother. The old woman was 
as much surprised at the appearance of her son's companion as her neigh- 
boors, but she possessed lar more common senaa Seeing the exhausted 
condition of the poor lady, ahe hastened to provide nouriahment and dry 
clothes ; and not until her strange visitor was cared for and was lying 
down taking the repose which she was so aorely needing, did the kindly 
old dame induce her very natural curiosity, by questioning her son, and 
eliciting aU he kneV about the mysterious arrival of their guest. Such 
an nnheard-of circumatance had never happened before in the memory of 
the " oldest inHabitant " of the lonely islajid. Many and strange were the 
coi^ecturea and theoriea broached by the simple people aa they gathered 
together to discuss the