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Full text of "The Celtic magazine; a monthly periodical devoted to the literature, history, antiquities, folk lore, traditions, and the social and material interests of the Celt at home and abroad"

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THE 



CELTIC MAGAZINE: 

l l 

JV JBflttthlB fkriobkal 



DEVOTED TO THE 



LITERATURE, HISTORY, ANTIQUITIES, 
FOLK LORE, TRADITIONS, 



AND THE 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL INTERESTS OF THE CELT 
AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



CONDUCTED BY 



ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, 

Author of the "History of the Clan Mackenzie" "The Prophecies of the Brahan Seer,' 
" Historical Tales and Legends of the Highlands" Ac, 



o 



INVERNESS : A. & W. MACKENZIE, 10 BRIDGE STBEET. 

EDINBURGH : MACLAUCHLAN & STEWART. 

GLASGOW : WILLIAM LOVE. 

1879. 
All Rights Reserved. 



PRINTED AT THE ADVERTISER OFFICE, 11 BANK STREET. INVERNESS 



DA 

7 SO 



LIBRARY 

728811 
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



CONTENTS, 



PAGE. 

History of the Clan Mackenzie ... 1, 41, 81, 121, 161, 201, 249, 291, 337, 409 and 448 

Federation of Celtic Societies. By Machaon 10 

Fairies in the Highlands. By Torquil 13 

Gaelic and Cornish. By the Rev. Donald Masson, M.A., M.D 19 

Haco, the Dane. By J. E. Muddock 23, 49, and 105 

William, Lord Crechtoun. By General A. Stewart-Allan 30 

Directory of Celtic Societies 35 

Teaching Gaelic in Schools. By Wm. Jolly, H.M.I. S. 39 

Mary Morrison A Tale. By Loda 56 and 91 

Gaelic Names and Uses of Trees, Shrubs, and Plants. By C. Fergusson 68, 134, and 173 

Prince Charles at Culloden. By the Very Rev. Jerome Vaughan, O.S.B 75 

Transactions of the Gaelic Society Review 77 

Our Gaelic Bible. By the Rev. Donald Masson, M.A., M.D. 

99, 141, 190, 210, 259, 302, and 347 

First Highland Parliament Meeting in Glasgow ... 115 

A Legend of Argyll By M. A. Rose 129 

Remnants of Gaelic Poetry, III. By Seanachaidh 146 

The Caledonian Bank Disaster. By the Editor 148 

The Gaelic Society of Inverness 153 

The Glenalmond Highlanders in the Kilt 154 

Dr Charles Mackay's Gaelic Etymology A Review. By the Rev. A. D. Mackenzie 155 
Captain Fraser of Knockie's Melodies Unpublished Letters by Sir Walter Scott 

and John Thomson 181 

Ewen Morrison's Raid on Harris. By Maclain ..: 183 

Genealogical Tables of the Mackenzies. By Major Mackenzie, Findon A Review 197 

Genealogical Notes and Queries Cuthberts of Castlehill, &c 187 and 227 

Rev. Mr Fraser, Kilmorack 270 

Rosses of Invercharron ' 271 and 386 

Chiefs of the Mathesons 272 

Cuthberts of Drakies 273 

Captain Humberston-Mackenzie, Highland Ancestry of the Right Honour- 
able W. E. Gladstone, M. P., &c., &c 307 

Macbean of Kinchyle, Macdonald of Aberarder, &c., &c 359 

Mackenzies of Applecross and Chisholras of Teawig 389 

Caithness Campbells, Forbeses of Craigivar, &c 467 

" Educational News ' ? on Teaching Gaelic in Highland Schools 188 

Buried Gaelic Songs. By the Rev. A. Maclean Sinclair 195 

Ian Mactavish A Legend. By M. A. Rose 217 

Dun vegan Castle- A Gaelic Poem with Notes. By Rev. A. Macgregor, M.A. ... 232 

Rose and Thistle A Review 237 

Highland and Island Scenery. By the Rev. A. Macgregor, M.A 241 and 281 

Donald Macdougall Presentation of Bust 270 

Duntulm Castle A Terrible Revenge. By M. A. Rose 274 

Literary Review ... 278 

The Disarming Act and the Kilt 289 

John Mackay A Tale. By the late Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, Bart. ... 311 and 328 

Proposed Visit to our Transatlantic Cousins 316 

RemnantsofGaelicPoetry.IV. By Seanachaidh 317 

Memoir of a Highland Officer The late Major-General Mackenzie of Gruinard. 

By the Editor 321 



iv. Contents. 

PAGE. 

Jamie Gow, the Piper A Legend. By Maolain 355 

Prince Charles Edward after Culloden. By the Rev. Allan Sinclair 361 

* The Marquis of Lome and Glencoe ... 367 

A Philological Ramble through a Highland Glen. By the Rev. A. Macgregor Rose 37C 

The Clandonald of Keppoch. By D. C. Macpherson 368 and 424 

Professor Blackie on the Social Economy of the Highlands 391 

Mary Mackellar at Sea 399 

Morning in the Highlands. By the Rev. Donald Masson, M.A., M.D 401 

The Editor's Tour to Canada 416 

Ancient Possessors and Writs of Culloden. By Charles Fraser-Mackintosh, M.P. 426 

William Grant of Glen-Urquhart A Legend. By M. A. Rose 431 and 453 

Inverness New Town Hall and the Highland Clans 437 

Early Scenes of Flora Macdonald's Life, &c. By the Rev. A. Macgregor, M.A. 441 

Colin Chisholm in the Forests ... ... ... 468 

Literary Review ... ... ... ... 474 

Folk-Lore on Wells. By Mac Iain 475 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

Dunvegan Castle. By N. Micleod ... ... 277 

Mackenzies of Hilton. By Colin Chisholm 306 

Stewart's Sketches of the Highlanders. By John Mackay 358 

The Scottish Bible Society's 8vo. Edition of the Gaelic Bible Letters by Thomas 
Maclauchlan, LL.D. ; The Rev. Alexander Cameron ; The Rev. Donald 
Masson, M.A., M.D.; The Rev. Archibald Clerk, LL.D., &c. 381, 417, and 461 
POETRY. 

The Heather of Scotia. By Alex. Logan ... ... ... ... 9 

Lochaber's Lone Star. By William AUaa 22 

A Highland Exile's Death. By the Rev. A. Macgregor Rose 54 

An Seillean agus a Chuileag. By N. Macleod 65 

Et Ego in Arcadia Fui. Wm. A. Sim 90 

Brahan of Steeds, translated. By Finlay Macrae ... 103 

Tullochard. By William Allan ... 119 

War Speech of a Highland Chief. By Alex. Logan 133 

Rest in the Fight. By William Allan 159 

The Highland Bride. By William Allan 172 

The Crofter's Lament. By William Allan 226 

The Kilt and Bonnet Blue. By Alex. Logan 236 

My Hielan' Hame. By Alex. Logan 269 

The Death of Norman Macleed. By Mary Mackellar 290 

Returned. By Mary J. Maccoll 327 

Ronald Macgregor. By William Allan 346 

The Highland Sportsman's Song. By William Allan 380 

Prince Charlie's Farewell to Scotland. By William Allan 436 

GAELIC SONGS, WITH MUSIC. 

Ho-ro mo Nigh'n Donn Bhoidheach 40 

Fear an Leadain Thlaith 80 

Mo Nighean Dubh tha Boidheach Dubh 120 

OranGaoil 160 

Oran do Shir Coinneach Ghearrloch 200 

Mo Nighueag gheal Og ... 239 

Main Chreag-a'-Gharaidh 320 

Tuireadh nan Eilthirach 360 

Horo cha bhi mi ga d' chaoidh ni's mo ... 400 

Soraidh Slan le Fiunaraidh 440 

Seinn och ho ro Seinn 476 



THE 




CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



No. XXXVII. NOVEMBER 1878. VOL. IV. 



HISTORY OF THE CLAN MACKENZIE, 

WITH GENEALOGIES OF THE PRINCIPAL FAMILIES. 

BY THE EDITOR. 



[CONTINUED.] 

XV. KENNETH, third EARL OF SEAFORTH, was born at Brahan Castle 
in 1635, and when he arrived at five or six years of age, his father placed 
him under the care of the Rev. Earquhar MacRa, then minister of Kintail 
and constable of Islandonan Castle, who kept a seminary in his house 
attended by the sons of the neighbouring gentlemen who kept young Sea- 
forth company.* He followed the example of his father in his latter days, 
became entirely identified with the fate of Charles II., and devoted him- 
self unremittingly to the services of that monarch during his exile. Earl 
Kenneth, from his great stature, was known among the Highlanders as 
Coinneach MOT. On the King's arrival at Garmouth in June 1650 his 
reception throughout the whole of Scotland was of a most cheering 
character, but the Highlanders, who had always favoured the Stuarts, 
were particularly joyous on the return of their exiled king. After 
the defeat of the Scotch army by Cromwell at Dunbar a defeat 
brought about entirely by the interference of the Committee of Estates 
and Kirk with the duties of those who had charge of the forces, and whose 
plans, were they allowed to carry them out, would have saved our country 
from the first real defeat Scotland ever received at the hands of an 
enemy the King determined to find his way north and throw himself 
on the patriotism and loyalty of his Highland subjects. He was, how- 
ever, captured and taken back to Perth, and afterwards to Edinburgh, by 
tiie Committee of Estates, on whom his attempted escape to the High- 
lands " produced a salutary effect," when they began to treat him with 
more respect, admitting him to their deliberations. A considerable num- 

* The author of the Ardiatoul MS. writing on this subject, says : "This might be 
thought a preposterous and wrong way to educate a nobleman, but they who would con- 
sider where the most of his interests lay, and how he was among his people, followers, 
and dependants, on which the family was still valued, perhaps will not think so, for by 
this the young lord had several advantages ; first, by the wholesome, though not delicate 
or too palatable diet he prescribed to him. and used him with, he began to have a 
wholesome complexion, so nimble and strong, that he was able to endure stress and 
fatigue, labour and travel, which proved very useful to him in his after life ; secondly, 

A 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



"her of the Highlanders were now up in arms to support the King ; but 
the Committee having Charles in their power, induced him to write letters 
to the Highland duet's desiring them to lay down their arms. This they 
refused to do, and to enforce the King's orders a regiment, under Sir John 
Brown, was despatched to the North, but they were surprised and de- 
feated on the night of the 21st October by Sir David Ogilvy of Airley. 
On learning this intelligence, General Leslie hastened north with a force 
of 3000 cavalry. General Middleton, who had joined the King's friends 
in the North, and who was then at Forfar, hearing of Leslie's advaixv, 
sent him a letter enclosing a copy of "a bond and oath of engagement, 
which had been entered into by Huntly, Athole, the Earl of Seaforth, and 
other leading Highland chiefs, by which they had pledged themsehvs 
on oath, to join firmly and faithfully together, and ' neither for 1'eur, 
threatening, allurement, nor advantage, to relinquish the cause of religion, 
of the king, and of the kingdom, nor to lay down their arms Avithout a 
general consent ; and as the best undertakings did not escape censure and 
malice, they promised and swore, for the satisfaction of all reasonable 
persons, that they would maintain the true religion, as then established 
in Scotland, the National Covenant and the Solemn League and Covenant, 
and defend the person of the King, his prerogative, greatness, and autho- 
rity, and the privileges of parliament, and the freedom of the subject'" 
Middleton pointed out that the only object of himself and his friends was 
to unite Scotsmen in defence of their common rights, and that, as would 
be seen from this bond, the grounds on which they entered into asso- 
ciation were exactly the same as those professed by Leslie himself. Con- 
sidering all these circumstances, and seeing that the independence of Scot- 
land was at stake, all Scotsmen should join for the preservation of their 
liberties. Middleton proposed to join Leslie, to place himself under his 
command, and expressed a hope that he would not shed the blood of his 
countrymen or force them to shed the blood of their brethren in. self-de- 
fence. These communications ended in a treaty between Leslie and the 
leading Royalists on the 4th November at Strathbogie, by which Middle- 
ton and his followers received an indemnity, and laid down their arms.* 

he did not only learn the language but became thoroughly acquainted with, and learned 
the genius of, his seveial tribes or clans of hia Highlanders, so that after wauls he was 
reputed to be the fittest chief or chieftain of all superiors in the Highlands and Isles of 
Scotland ; and thirdly, the early impressions of being among them, and acquaint with 
the bounds, made him delight and take pleasure to be often among them and to know 
their circumstances, which indeed was his interest and part of their happiness, so that it 
was better to give him that fiiat step of education than that which would make him a 
stranger at home, both as to his people, estate, and condition ; but when he was taken 
from Mr Farquhar to a public school, he gave great evidence of his abilities and inclina- 
tion for learning, and being sent in the year 1051 to the King's College at Aberdeen, 
under the discipline of Mr Patrick Sandylands, before he was well settled or made any 
progress in bis studies, King Charles II., after his army had been defeated at Dunbar 
the year before, beingtheu at Stirling recruiting and making up his army, with which he 
was resolvid to march into England, the young laird was called home in his father's 
absence, who was left in Holland (as already described), to raise his men for the King's 
service, and so went straight to Kiutail with the particular persons of his name, viz., the 
Lairds of Pluscardy and Lochsline, his uncles ; young Tarbat, Rory of Davochmaluak, 
Kenneth of Coul, Hector of Fairburn, and several others, but the Kintail men, when, 
called upon, made a demur and declined to rise with him, because he was but a child, 
and that his father, their master, was in life, without whom they would not move, since 
the King, if he had use for him and for his followers, Blight easily bring him home." 
* Balfour, vol. iv., p. 129. Highland Clans, p. 285. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 3 

In 1651, after the disastrous battle of Worcester, in which Charles 
was completely defeated by Cromwell, and at which we find Thomas Mac- 
kenzie of Pluscardine, as one of the Colonels of foot for Inverness and 
Ross, as also Alexander Cam Mackenzie, fourth son of Alexander, fifth of 
Gairloch, James fled to the Continent, and, after many severe hardships 
and narrow escapes, he ultimately found refuge in France, where, and in 
Flanders, lie continued to reside, often in great distress and want, until 
the Restoration, in May 16GO, when he returned to England, we are told, 
" indolent, selfish, unfeeling, faithless, ungrateful, and insensible to shame 
or reproach." The Earl of Cromarty informs us that subsequent to the 
treaty agreed to between Middleton and Leslie at Strathbogie, " Seaforth 
joined the King at Stirling. After the fatal battle of "Worcester he con- 
tinued a close prisoner till the Restoration of Charles." He was excepted 
from Oliver Cromwell's Act of Grace and Pardon in 1664, and his estate 
was forfeited without any provision being allowed out of it for his lady 
and family. He supported the cause of the King as long as there Avas an 
opportunity of fighting for it in the field, and when forced to submit to 
the opposing powers of Cromwell and the Commonwealth, he was com- 
mitted to prison, where, with " much firmness of mind and nobility of 
soul," he endured a tedious captivity for many years, until Charles II. was 
recalled, when his old and faithful friend Seaforth was released, and became 
a favourite at his licentious and profligate Court. During the remainder of 
his life little or nothing of any importance is known regarding him, except 
that he lived in the favour and merited smiles of his sovereign, in undis- 
puted possession and enjoyment of the extensive estates and honours of 
his ancestors, which, through his faithful adherence to the House of 
Stuart, had been nearly overwhelmed and lost during the exile of the 
second Charles and his own captivity. Regarding the state of matters 
then, the Laird of Applecross, a contemporary writer, says that the 
" rebels, possessing the authority, oppressed all the loyal subjects, and 
him with the first, his estate was overburthened to its destruction, but 
nothing could deter him so as to bring him to forsake his King or his 
duty. Whenever any was in the field for him, he was one, seconding 
that falling cause with all his power, and when he was not in the field 
against the enemy, he was in the prison by him until the restoration of 
the King." 

Seaforth, after he was restored to liberty, received a commission of the 
Sheriffship of Ross on the 23d of April 1662, afterwards renewed to 
himself and his eldest son, Kenneth, jointly, on 31st July 1675, and 
when he had set matters right at Brahan, he visited Paris, leaving his 
Countess, Isabella Mackenzie, daughter of Sir John Mackenzie of Tarbat, 
and sister to the first Earl of Cromarty, in charge of his domestic affairs 
in the North. During his absence occurred that incident, already so 
well-known to the reader that it is unnecessary to reproduce it here, which, 
it is said, ended in the Brahan Seer uttering the famous and remarkable 
prediction regarding the fate of the family of Seaforth, which has been so 
literally fulfilled.* 

It appears from the following that a coolness existed between 

* For this Prophecy and its wonderful fulfilment, see " The Prophecies of the 
Brahaa Seer," by Alex. Mackenzie. A. & W. Mackenzie, Inverness, 1878. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



the Mackenzies and the Munros : " At Edinburgh, the 23d day of 
January, 1<>'>1 years, it is condescended and agreed as follows, that 
is to say, We, Kenneth, Earl of Seaforth, and John Munro, younger 
of Fowlis, taking to our consideration how prejudicial it hath been 
to both our families that there hath not been of a long time, so 
good a correspondence betwixt us as was befitting men of that con- 
junction and neighbourhood, and of what advantage it will be to us, 
to live in good correspondence and confederacy one with another, and to 
maintain and concur for the weal of either. For the which causes, We, the 
said noble Lord and John Munro, younger of Fowlis, taking burthen on us 
for our friends, kinsmen, and all others whom we may stop or let, do, by 
these presents, bind and oblige us and our heirs faithfully upon our 
honours to maintain and concur with each other, for the good of botli and 
our foresaids, and to prevent as much as in us lies, what may be to the 
prejudice of either of us, or of any in whom either of us maybe concerned 
in all time coming, as witness these presents subscribed by us the place, 
day, month, and year, above written and mentioned, before these witn 
Thomas Mackenzie of Pluscardine, Colin Mackenzie of Redcastle, Lieut- 
Colonel Alex. Munro, and Major Alex. Munro, Commissar of Stirling, 
Sic Siil'<:ril>itt(r, Seafort, John Munro." 

His Lordship's heir and successor, Kenneth, Lord Kintail, was " un- 
doubted Patron of the Paraich Kirk and Parochin of Inverness," for in 
consideration of Robert Robertson, Burgess of Inverness, paying a certain 
sum for the teind sheaves and parsonage teinds of all and sundrie these 50 
acres and a-half of land of the territerie and burgage lands of the burgh of In- 
verness, "therefore will ye us, the said Kenneth, Lord Kintail, with consent 
foresaid, as having right in manner above-written and as the said Ken- 
neth, Marl "I' Seaforth, as taking the full burden in and upon us for the 
said Kenneth, Lord Kintail, our son, to the effect after-rehearsed, to have 
sold, annailzed, and dispoued, A;c., &c., and we, the said Kenneth, Lord 
Kintail, as principale, and the said Kenneth, Earl of Seaforth, our father, 
as cautioneer, iKrc., &c.* 

Kenneth was married early in life, as already stated, to Isabel, daughter 
of Sir John Mackenzie of Tarbat, father of the first Earl of Cromarty, 
by whom he had issue, first, Kenneth Og, who succeeded him ; second, 
John Mackenzie of Assynt, -who had a son, Alexander, by Sibella, 
daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, third of Applecross, by whom he had 
one son, Kenneth, who, in 1723, died without issue ; and third, Colonel 
Alexander Mackenzie, also designed of Assynt, and of whom the line of 
the last Lord Seaforth, Francis Humberstone Mackenzie ; another son, 
1 1 ugh, died young. Of four daughters, Margaret married James, second Lord 
Duil'us ; Ann died unmarried ; Isabel, first married Roderick Macleod of 
Macleod, and secondly, Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochnell ; and Mary 
married Alexander Macdonald of Glengarry. This, the third Earl died in 
December 16 78, and was succeeded by his eldestson. 

XVI. KENNETH, fourth EARL OF SEAFORTH and fifth LORD MACKENZIE 
OF KIXTAIL, who was by the Highlanders called Coinneach Og, to distin- 

* Disposition recorded in the Commissary Court Books of In vernens, dated at 
Fortrose, 17th Jane 1C98. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



guish him from his father, and he at an early age discovered the benefits of 
the faithful adherence of his father to the fortunes of Charles II. In 1678 
we find his name among those chiefs who, by a proclamation issued on the 
10th October of that year, were called upon to give bond and caution for 
the security of the peace and quiet of the Highlands, which the leaders of 
the clans were bound to give, not only for themselves but for all of their 
name descended from their house. Notwithstanding all the laws and 
orders hitherto passed, the inhabitants and broken men in the Highlands 
were " inured and accustomed to liberty and licentiousness " during the 
late troubles and " still presumed to sorn, steal, oppress, and comit other 
violences and disorders." The great chiefs were commanded to appear in 
Edinburgh on the last Tuesday of February 1G79, and yearly thereafter on 
the second Thursday of July, to give security, and to receive instructions 
as to the peace of the Highlands. . To prevent any excuse for non-attend- 
ance, they were declared free from caption for debt or otherwise while 
journeying to and from Edinburgh, and other means were to be taken which 
should be thought necessary or expedient until the Highlands would be 
finally quieted, and " all these wicked, broken, and disorderly men utterly 
rooted out and extirpated." A second proclamation was issued, in which 
the lesser barons heads of the several branches of clans whose names 
are given, were to go to Inverlochy by the 20th of November following, 
as they are, by reason of their mean condition, not able to come in to 
Edinburgh and find caution, and there to give in bonds and caution for 
themselves, their men tenants, servants, and indwellers upon their lands, 
and all of their name descended of their family, to the Earl of Caithness, 
Sir James Campbell of Lawers, James Menzies of Culdares, or any two of 
them. These lists are most interesting, showing, as they do, the chiefs who 
were considered the great and lesser chiefs in those days. There are four 
Mackenzies in the former but none in the latter.* 

Kenneth was served heir male to his great-grandfather, Lord Mackenzie 
of Kintail, in the lands in the Lordship of Ardmeanach and Earldom of 
Eoss, on the 1st March 1681; was made a member of the Privy Council 
by James II. on his accession to the throne in 1685 ; and chosen a Com- 
panion of the most noble Order of the Thistle, on the revival of that 
ancient order in 1687. The year after the Revolution, which finally and 
for ever lost the British throne to the House of Stuart, Seaforth accom- 
panied his royal master to France, but when that unfortunate Prince re- 
turned to Ireland in the following year to make a final effort for the re- 
covery of his kingdom, he was accompanied by Earl Kenneth. Here he 
took part in the siege of Londonderry and other engagements, and as an 
expression of gratitude, James created him Marquis of Seaforth, under 
which dignity he repeatedly appears in different legal documents. This 
well-meant and well-deserved honour canie too late in the falling fortunes 
and declining powers of the ex-sovereign, and does little more than mark, the 
sinkingmonarch's testimonial and confirmation of the steady adherence of the 
chiefs of Clan Kenneth to the cause of the Stuarts. In Dundee's letter to 
" the Laird of Macleod," dated "Moy, June 23, 1689,"t in. which he details 

* For full lists, see Antiquarian Notes, pp. 184 and 187. 

t About this time Viscount Tarbat boasted to General Mackenzie of his great in- 
fluence with his countrymen, especially the Clan Mackenzie, and assured him "that 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



his pn>spi'i-is, and gives a list of those who arc to join him, he says, " My 
Lord Seaibrth will be in a few dayes from Ireland to raise his men for the 
King's service," but the fatal shot which closed the career of that brilliant 
star and champion of the Stuart dynasty at Killiecrankie, arrested the 
pro-Tess of the family of Seaforth in the fair track to all the honours 
which a grateftd dynasty could bestow; nor was this powerful family 
singular in this respect seeing its flattering prospects withered at, per- 
haps, a fortunate moment for the prosperity of the British Empire. 
Jealousies have now passed away on that subject, and it is not our busi- 
ness here to discuss, or confound the principles of contending loyalties. 
To check the proceedings of the Clan. Mackay placed a garrison of a 
hundred Mackays in Brahan Castle, the principal seat of the Earl of Sea- 
forth, and an equal number of Bosses in Castle Leod, the mansion of Vis- 
count Tarbat, both places of strength, and advantageously situated for 
watching the movements of the Jacobite Mackenzies.* 

Earl Kenneth seems to have left Ireland immediately after the Battle 
of the Boyne was fought and lost, and to have returned to the Highlands. 
The greater part of the North was hostile to the Government at the time, 
and General Mackay found himself obliged to march north, with all pos- 
sible haste, before a general rising could take place under Buchan, who now 
commanded the Highlanders who stood out for King James. Mackay ar- 
rived within four hours' march of Inverness before Buchan knew of his 
approach, who was then at that place " waiting for the Earl of Seaforth's and 
other Highlanders whom he expected to join him in attacking the town." 
Hearing of the enemies proximity he at once retreated, crossed the river 
Ness, and retired along the north side of the Beauly Firth, through the 
Black Isle. In this predicament, Seaforth, fearing the consequences likely 
to result to himself personally from the part he had acted throughout, sent 
two of his friends to Mackay with offers of submission and of whatever 
securities might be required for his good behaviour in future, informing 
him that although he was bound to appear on the side of King James, 
he never entertained any design of molesting the Government forces or 
of joining Buchan in his attack on Inverness. The General replied that 
he could accept no other security than the surrender of his person, and 
conjured him to comply, as he valued his own safety and the preservation 
of his family and people, assuring him that in the case of 'surrender he 
should be detained in civil custody in Inverness, and treated with the 
respect due to his rank, until the will of the Government should be made 
known. Next day his mother, the Countess Dowager of Seaforth, and 
Sir Alexander Mackenzie of Coul, went and pleaded with Mackay for a miti- 
gation of the terms proposed, but finding the General inflexible, they 
then informed him that Seaforth would accede to any conditions 
agreed upon between them and Mackay. It was stipulated at this in- 
terview, that Seaforth should deliver himself up to be kept a prisoner 

though Seaforth should come to his own country and among bis friends, he (Tarbat) 
would overturn in eight days more than the Earl could advance in six weeks ; yet he 
proved as backward as Seaforth or any other of the Clan. And though liedcastle, Coul, 
and others of the name of Mackenzie came, they fell not on final methods, but protested 
a great deal of affection for the cause." Malay's Memoirs, pp. 25 and 237. 
* Life of General Mackay, by John Mackay of Kockfield, pp. 36-37. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



in Inverness, until the Privy Council decided as to his ultimate disposal. 
"With the view to conceal this step on the part of the Earl from the Clan 
and his other Jacobite friends, it was agreed that he should allow himself 
to be seized at one of his seats as if he were taken by surprise, by a party of 
horse under Major Mackay. He, however, disappointed the party sent out 
to seize him, in excuse of which, he and his mother, in letters to Mackay, 
pleaded the delicate state of his health, which, they urged, would suffer 
from imprisonment. The Earl can hardly be blamed for declining to 
place himself absolutely at the disposal of such a body as the Privy 
Council of Scotland then was many of whom would not hesitate to have 
sacrificed him, if by so doing they saw a chance of obtaining a share of 
his extensive estates. 

Mackay became so irritated at the deception practised upon him 
that he resolved to treat the Earl's vassals " with all the rigour of military 
execution," and sent him word that if he did not surrender forthwith 
according to promise, he should carry out his instructions from the 
Privy Council, enter his country with fire and sword, and seize all pro- 
perty belonging to himself or to his vassals as lawful prize ; and, lest 
Seaforth should suspect that he had no intention of executing his terrible 
threat, he immediately ordered three Dutch Regiments from Aberdeen to 
Inverness, and decided upon leading a competent body of horse and foot 
in person from the garrison at Inverness, to take possession of Brahan 
Castle. He, at the same time, wrote instructing the Earl of Sutherland, 
Lord Reay, and the Laird of Balnagown, to send 1000 of their men, under 
Major Wishart, an experienced officer acquainted with the country, to 
quarter in the more remote districts of the Seaforth estates, should that 
extreme step become necessary. Having, however, a friendly disposition 
towards the followers of Seaforth, on account of their being " all Protes- 
tants and none of the most dangerous enemies," and being more anxious 
to get hold of the EarFs person than to ruin his friends, he caused in- 
formation of his intentions to be sent to Seaforth's camp by some of his 
own party, as if from a feeling of friendship for him, the result being that, 
contrary to Mackay 's expectations, Seaforth surrendered himself thus 
relieving him from a disagreeable duty,* and he was committed 
prisoner to the Castle of Inverness. Writing to the Privy Council about 
the state of the disaffected chiefs at the time, Mackay says, "I believe it 
shall fare so with the Earl of Seaforth, that is, that he shall haply submit 
when his country is ruined and spoyled, which is the character of a true 
Scotsman, wyse behinde the liand.\ By warrant, dated 7th October 1690, 
the Privy Council directed Mackay " to transport the person of Kenneth, 
Earl of Seaforth, with safety from Inverness to Edinburgh, in such way 
and manner as he should think fit." This was done, and on the 6th 
of November following, he was confined a prisoner within the Castle of 
Edinburgh, but, little more than a year afterwards, was liberated on the 

* Though the General " was not immediately connected with the Seaforth family 
himself, some of his near relatives were, both by the ties of kindred and of ancient 
friendship. For these, and other reasons, it may be conceived what joy and thankful- 
ness to Providence he felt for the result of this affair, which at once relieved him from 
a distressing dilemma, and promised to put a speedy period to his labours in Scotland." 
Mackay's Life of General Mackay. 

t Letters to the Privy Council, dated 1st September 1690. 



8 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

7tli January 1692, on finding caution to appear when called upon, and on 
condition that he would not go ten miles beyond Kdinburgh. J le appears IK it 
to have kept within these conditions, for he is shortly afterwards again in 
prison, but almost immediately makes his escape ; is again apprehended 
on the 7th of May, the same year, at 1'encaitland, and again kept coniined 
in the Castle of Inverness, from which he is ultimately finally liberated on 
giving satisfactory security for his peaceable behaviour.* 

The following is the order for his release : " William R., Right trusty 
and right-well-beloved Councillors, &c., we greet you well. "Whereas we 
are informed that Kenneth, Earl of Seaforth, did surrender himself 
prisoner to the commander of our garrison at Inverness, and has thrown 
himself on our Royal mercy ; it is our will and pleasure, and we hereby 
authorise and require you to set the said Earl of Seaforth at liberty, upon 
his finding bail and security to live peaceably under our Government and 
to compear before you when called. And that you order our Advocate 
not to insist in the process of treason waged against him, until our further 
pleasure be know therein. For doing whereof this shall be your warrant, 
so we bid you heartily farewell. Given at our Court at Kensington, the 
first day of March 1696-7, and of our reign the eighth year. By his 
Majesty's command. (Signed), "TCLLIBARDIXE." 

During the remaining years of his life Seaforth appears to have lived 
mainly in France. His necessary absence from his country during the 
protraction of political irritation and, indeed, the exhausted state of his 
paternal revenues, would have rendered his residence abroad highly ex- 
pedient, and we find accordingly discharges for feu-duties granted, viz. : 
" I, Maister Alexander Mackenzie, lawful brother to the Marquis of Sea- 
forth, grants me to have received from John Mathesone, all and hail the 
somme of seaven hundred and twentie merks Scots money, and that in 
complete payment of his duties and of the lands of both the Fernacks and 
Achnakerich, payable Martimass ninety (1690), dated 22d November 
1694;" and another by "Isabel, Countess Dowager of Seaforth, in 1696, 
tested by ' Rorie Mackenzie, servitor to the Marquis of Seaforth.'" There 
is another original discharge by ' ' me, Isabel, Countess Dowager of Sea- 
forth, Lady Superior of the grounds, lands, and oyes under-written," to 
Kenneth Mackenzie of Achterdonell, dated at Fortrose, 15th November 
1697. Signed, "Isobell Seaforth. "t All this time it may be presumed 
Earl Kenneth was in retirement, and taking no personal part in the man- 
agement of his estates for the remainder of his life. 

His clansmen, however, seem to have been determined to protect his 
interest as much as lay in their power. A certain Sir John Dempster of 
Pitliver had advanced a large sum of money to Seaforth and his mother, 
the Countess Dowager, and obtained a decrcet of Parliament to have 
the money refunded to him. The cash was not forthcoming, and Sir 
John obtained letters of horning and arrestment against the Earl and his 
mother, and employed several officers to execute them, but they returned the 
letters unexecuted, not finding notum accessum in the Earl's country, and 
they refused altogether to undertake the due execution of them, unless 

* History of the Highland Clans, Records of the Priyy Council, and Mackay's 
Memoirs. 

t Allangrange Service, on which occasion the originals were produced. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



they were assisted by some of the King's forces in the district. Sir John 
petitioned for this, and humbly craved their Lordships to allow him 
" a competent assistance of his Majesty's forces at Fort- William, Inverness, 
or where they are lying adjacent to the places where the said diligence is 
to be put in execution to siipport and protect the messengers " in the due 
execution of the legal diligence against the Earl and his mother, " by horn- 
ing, poinding, arrestment, orotherways/'aiid to recommend to the Governor 
at Fort- William or the commander of the forces at Inverness, to grant a 
suitable force for the purpose. The Lords of the Privy Council, having 
considered the petition, recommended Sir Thomas Livingstone, commander- 
in-chief of his Majesty's forces, to order some of these officers already men- 
tioned, to furnish the petition "with competent parties of his Majesty's 
forces" to support and protect the messengers in the due execution of the 
"legal diligence upon the said decreet of Parliament."* We have not 
learned the result, but it is not likely to have proved very profitable to 
Sir John Dempster. 

Kenneth married Lady Frances Herbert, daughter of William, Marquis 
of Powis, an English nobleman, by whom he had issue, one son, William, 
and a daughter, Mary, who married John Careyl, Esq. He died at Paris 
in 1701, and was succeeded by his only son. 
(To be Continued.) 



THE HEATHER OF SCOTIA. 



A song for the heather, the glory -crown'd heather, 

The pride of old Scotia, the land of the brave ! 
To its praise let us blend our glad voices together, 

It smiles on the free but it knows not the slave ! 

In beauty it blooms upon liberty's track, 

Where valour and virtue hath chosen a home, 
And where our forefathers triumphant rolled back 

The tide of invasion, the legions of Rome ! 

A song for the heather, the glory-crown'd heather, &c. 

Among it our light-hearted maidens so sweet, 
With lovers whose bosoms are faithful and bold, 

To soul-stirring numbers shake nimbly the feet, 
Pour'd forth by the blythe sounding warpipe of old ! 

A song for the heather, the glory-crown'd heather, &c. 

High o'er it the bright star of peace, fraught with fame, 
A rich, golden light sheds on mountain and glen ; 

But sound the proud slogan in freedom's lov'd name, 
And teem will the heather with noble-soul'd men ! 

A song for the heather, the glory-crown'd heather, &c. 

The Scot though he roams on earth's loveliest shore, 
This wish, ever-cherished, his manly breast fills, 

Oh ! when will kind Fate to its birth-place restore, 
A heart throbbing wild for its dear heather hills ? 

A song for the heather, the glory-crown'd heather, &c. 

EDINBURGH. ALEX. LOGAN. 



* For this document see "Antiquarian Notes," pp. 118-119. 



10 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



FEDEKATIOX OF CELTIC SOCIETIES. 



THE recent movement in favour of the union of all Highland Societies 
owes its origin to two powerful desires that have arisen in the minds of 
Highland patriots. First there is an anxiety to ameliorate the condition 
of the people, secondly, there is a wish for better political organisation. 
Are these aims laudable ? Are the objects sought of pressing importance? 
Are the means fixed upon adequate to the ends in view ? "What is the 
ultimate meaning and what would be the probable issue of the national 
federation desiderated ? These are the questions which offer themselves 
to many at this juncture. To some this new patriotic cry is vanity and 
vexation of spirit. Things, we are told, are pretty well as they are, or 
they are so bad that there is no means of mending them ; and there 
is no alternative but to let events take their swing, or to move off, bag 
and baggage, to some Utopia rendered charming by the kindly but decep- 
tive haze that softens into beauty the rough places far away. So speak 
our oracles, and so they answer each other. When our authorities are 
contradictory the only resource left for us, if we would not walk over the 
cliffs, is to trust to the light of our own reason. Well, then, what are the 
facts of the case ? The industrial facts are these, that strong families are 
barely able to supply themselves with the necessaries of life, that labour 
is a drug in the Highland market, unremunerative whether applied to the 
croft or exchanged for capital, inert and unskilled, because there is nothing 
either to quicken or to develop it. The social facts are even more 
distressing. Independence cowers in the chill of want. Commercial 
honesty disintegrates in the long struggle with despair. ]S T eighbourliness 
darkens into feud under the shadow of self interest. A piece of common 
in the middle of a township forms a bone of contention for half the com- 
munity. Men of the same kith and kin, members of the same clan, 
fellows whose fathers would have died for each other, are here at war and 
discord. Alliance, good-feeling, trust, are here supplanted by disunion, 
envy, and jealousy. Misery there is indeed, but there is that which is 
worse than misery evil We ask as the sons of those who held these 
mountains for two thousand years how these things are so. We ask it as 
the representatives of the clan system, as the offspring of those who never 
betrayed a friend or cringed before a foe, as the descendents of warriors 
who won for their allies their proudest honours, yet fought not for honours 
or for reward, but for loyalty and for duty. Dire agencies must have 
been at work to produce such terrible social deterioration, such utter com- 
mercial bankruptcy. The fault is not that of the people. There is good 
feeling among Highlanders from home, and there is comfort among 
many of them too. Nor is nature to blame. There are fat sheep and 
straight-backed cattle, and lich red trout and plenty of salmon north 
of the Tay. There are as smiling corn-fields too as ever waved 
between the mountains and Marathon or between Marathon and the 
sea. The passes of the Grampians are not steeper than the passes of 
Athos ; and Skye and Mull and Tyree are not more rocky than the 
" foaming Cyclades." Freedom and reason have more to do with the 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. ll 

social weal than the contour of mountains. Freedom forsook the Greeks 
and straightway " all except their sun was set." Eoman policy disin- 
tregated the political coherence of the East. What is destroying High- 
land union? Who is Pontius Pilate here? What are the decrees of 
Ccesar Augustus ? Let him who will look around hitn and see. English 
law owes much to the Roman forum ; has the lesson of provincial govern- 
ment been learned so faithfully too ? When Pilate wants to do the Celts 
a favour does his clemency extend only to Tonal MacTavish, and does the 
favour consist in a slice of common which Pilate has no more right to 
than Tonal himself] And if this act of kindness foments social strife, is 
it not really a very cunning and effective piece of policy 1 If Tugal too is 
ready to doff his jacket when Tonal comes, is he not equally ready to 
doff his bonnet when Pilate appears 1 Here then is an important task to 
perform to make Tugal keep on his jacket and his bonnet too. Inde- 
pendence and co-operation are the ends. Freedom and reasoning are the 
means. Here are planks for the platform of the Highland Sanhedrim. 

But more important than Pilate is Csesar Augustus. The wattle 
sword of the clown is comparatively harmless in the hands of a giant ; 
but the gleaming brand of ^Damocles is dangerous in the grasp of an 
infant. Thus he who makes laws has more influence over the destinies of 
a people than he who enforces them. But there are times when Heiod 
himself takes up the steel ; then indeed may Israel tremble. Has such a 
time appeared in our history ? Our fathers may have been stubborn and 
perhaps blind in their policy a hundred years ago. We are willing to 
grant they were ; yet we are not ashamed of the part they acted. Hearts 
so true, devotion so absolute merited kindness, not persecution, the 
favour of kings, not their ban. If the policy of the Highlanders lacked 
intelligence, the policy that crushed them lacked not only intelligence but 
humanity. Well, what followed the '46 ? Proscription people dared 
not use their own garb, confiscation the clans' right in the soil was lost, 
treachery the chiefs turned their backs on the clans, tyranny action, 
thought, and feeling were suppressed, extirpation the sword proceeded 
to hold what it had conqured, misery every condition of reasonable com- 
fort was reft away in a word political chaos, social discord, and material 
ruin. Honour to whom hououi is due. These, 0, Caesar ! are thine. 

Some of the causes which then arose have since resulted in gigantic 
issues. Their magnitude encompasses us on every side. They fetter and 
chain us with institutions rendered awful by time, sacred by the name of law, 
and terrible by the fasces of authority. What are we to do ? Our political 
chains are so heavy that we cannot even shake them. Our friends from 
home cannot hear their clang. Some of us are asleep, drugged with the 
slave's virtue, contentment. Bankruptcy, contumely, misery, staring us in 
the face, the cruel goads of Herod at our backs, the jealousy and distrust 
of our race on either side what is to be done ? Shall we fling away the 
claymore, and fly every man as he is able? Never ! We have shown 
our patience, now is the time to show our courage. There are no fetters 
so hard but steel will cut them, and reason is sharper than steel, and more 
cunning in overthrowing tyranny. Time was when the voice of reason was 
lost among the clangour of arms. It was so at Culloden ; we suffer the 
consequences now. Let it be so no more. For a century the Highlanders 



12 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

have groaned under a policy iniquitous in its principle, cruel in its ad- 
ministration, and disastrous in its issues. But that policy is one which 
would not have been inaugurated now although it is tolerated and even 
defended with all its blunders and shortcomings. The system of Govern- 
ment with which AVC have to deal is the most liberal and enlightened in 
the world, and what we need is patience so as to reason out and determine 
the remedies fitted to heal our infirmities, and courage so as to proclaim 
fearlessly what we believe and know to be true. 

Urgent then is the need for a Highland Council What we want is 
something like the Comitia Plebata of the Romans a council to deliberate 
in great social and political questions, to recommend reforms to the 
Government, and to deal executively with Highland industry in general, 
a council to devise means fitted to effect the political, social, and indus- 
trial amelioration of the people. 

An institution such as is here desiderated would not enly meet the 
present exigencies of Highland necessity, but it would supply a practical 
answer to one of the most contested questions of the day. The strife be- 
tween centralization and local government is only deepening. Does not 
the golden mean lie here 1 ? A council that is deliberative but not legisla- 
tive reflects local needs without disintegrating national coherence. 

Courage then ! The dawn of a new epoch in Highland history is 
already brightening in the East. On the 20th day of this month delegates 
from all the Highland Societies in the United Kingdom will meet in 
Glasgow to deal with the question of Federation. Perhaps that day 
will witness the establishment of the new Highland Parliament. And if 
this glorious end should be accomplished Britain will be stronger, as a 
giant is stronger when the fetters are struck off fiom a confined limb, the 
Highlander will be happier, as every man is happier the more liberty he 
has to act according to the law of his being, magnificent possibilities will 
be created, momentous issues will be precipitated, and the conscience of 
Highland History and the demands of universal justice will, in a measure, 
be satisfied. 

Courage then ! The battle we fight is the battle not of the High- 
lands only ; it is the battle of Great Britain, it is the battle of freedom, 
of truth, of reason, of humanity. 

MACHAON. 



"NETHER-LOCHABER," OF THE " INVERNESS COURIER," ON THE 
HISTORY OF THE CLAN MACKENZIE. The Rev. Alexander 
Stewaat, F.S.A.S., the Nether-Lochaber correspondent of the Inverness 
Courier, writes in the following very flattering terms : " Allow me to 
congratulate you on your History of the Mackenzies, which, when com- 
pleted, will be one of the most interesting things of the kind in the lan- 
guage. Your last chapter is particularly good, interesting, and well 
written ; and I am glad to see you speak out like a man and a Highlander 
of the right stamp in praise of the great Marquis of Montrose, certainly 
one of the very noblest characters in Scottish history." 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 13 



FAIKIES IN THE HIGHLANDS. 



A BELIEF in fairies prevailed very much in the Highlands of old, nor at 
this day is it quite obliterated. The gently rising conical hills were as- 
signed them as dwellings, and these were namd sometimes Sin-shill, the 
habitation of a multitude, or Sitheanan Sith, peace and dunan, a 
mound. This name was derived from the practice of the Druids, who 
were wont occasionally to retire to green eminences to administer justice, 
establish peace, and compose differences between parties. As that vener- 
able order taught a Saoghal, or world beyond the present, their followers, 
when they were no more, fondly imagined that the seats where they exercised 
a virtue so beneficial to mankind were still inhabited by them in their 
disembodied state and though inclined still to peace (hence named Daoine- 
Sithe, or men of peace), they have become not absolutely malevolent but 
peevish and repining, envying mankind their more complete and substan- 
tial enjoyment. They are supposed to enjoy in their subterraneous 
recesses a sort of shadowy happiness a tinsel grandeur which, however, 
they would willingly exchange for the more solid joys of mortality. 
Those grassy eminences where they celebrate their nocturnal festivities 
" by the light of the moon," are mostly by the sides of lakes and rivers, 
and by the skirts of th u ,se many are still afraid to pass after sunset. 

About a mile beyond the source of the Forth above Loch Con there 
is a place called Coire Shithean, orthe cove of the men of peace, which is still 
supposed to be a favourite place of their residence, and on the banks of 
the river Beauly there are many favourite spots for fairy homes. It is 
believed that if on Halloween any person alone goes round one of these 
little hillocks nine times towards the left a door will open by which he 
will be admitted into their subterraneous abodes. Many, it is said, 
mortal men have been entertained in their secret recesses. These have 
been received into the most splendid apartments and regaled with the 
most sumptuous banquets and delicious wines, and associated with their 
females, who surpass the daughters of men in beauty. 

The seemingly happy inhabitants pass their time in festivity and in 
dancing to the softest music. But unhappy is the mortal who joins in 
their joys or partakes of their dainties. By this indulgence he forfeits for 
ever the society of men, and is bound down irrevocably to the condition 
of a Sithich, or man of peace, unless released by one possessed of the 
countervailing spell. They are supposed to be peculiarly anxious to 
strengthen their ranks by the acquisition of beautiful children, maidens, 
and wives, and to lose no opportunity of doing so by fair or foul means, 
as tradition abundantly has established, a year and a day being, however, 
allowed for a return to human society. The wife of a Lothian farmer had 
been snatched away by the fairies. During the year which followed she 
had repeatedly appeared on Sundays in the midst of her children combing 
their hair. On one of these occasions she was accosted by her husband, 
when she instructed him how to rescue her at the next Hallow-eve pro- 
ces ion. The farmer coned his lesson carefully, and on the appointed 
d-i v proceeded to a plot of furze to await the arrival of the procession. It 
ciiuie, but the ringing of the fairy bridles so confused them that the train 



14 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

passed before he could recover himself sufficiently to use the intended 
spell. The unearthly laughter of the abductors and the passionate lamen- 
tations of his wife informed him that she was lost to him for ever. An- 
other woman, as reported in Highland tradition, was conveyed in days 
of yore into the secret recesses of one of these Sithe Dunan. There she 
was recognised by one who had formerly been an ordinary mortal, but 
who had by some fatality become associated with the Shithichean. This ac- 
quaintance, still retaining some portion of human benevolence, warned 
her of her danger, and counselled her, as she valued her liberty, to abstain 
from eating and drinking with them for a certain space of time. She 
complied with the counsel of her friend, and when the period was over 
she found herself again upon earth restored to the society of mortals, 
It is also said that when she examined the food which had been presented 
to her, and the ornaments with which she had been decorated, all of 
which had appeared so enticing to the eyo, they were found, now that the 
enchantment had been removed, the most worthless rubbish. 

The following legendary tale is told in Strathglass, and is tinged 
with the colours of Celtic poetry and imagination. The story is of 
the same class with "Washington Irving's "Kip Van "Winkle," and it 
shows how universal talus of this description once were, peopling 
alike the forests of Germany, the wildernesses of the New "World, and 
the glens of Scotland. " Among the Braes of Strathglass is a small 
round knoll, overgrown with birch, and watered by the romantic river 
Glass. The spot goes under the name of Beatha Og, or young birch, 
and has long been celebrated as a chosen abode of the fairies. One 
New- Year's eve or Hogmanay (vide Burns or Jamieson's Dictionary), 
when the people of the vale were making merry with pipe and dance, two 
trusty swains went for some whisky, to assist in prolonging the festivities. 
On their way home, while they carried an anker, or ten gallons, in a cask 
slung over their shoulders in a woodie (a twisted bundle of birch twigs), 
they had occasion to pass through the Beatha Og, when suddenly they 
heard music proceeding as if from under the ground. They looked round, 
and observing an opening on the side of the hill, they boldly entered. 
In a twinkling our adventurous Highlanders found themselves among a 
set of happy looking beings male and female all dancing, many of the 
group being old acquaintances whom they had, years before, assisted to 
carry to the grave. Drink was ottered them, and the foremost of the two 
partook of the unblest cheer. His companion, suspecting all was not right, 
refused to participat , and endeavoured to prevail on his friend to return 
home. Donald, however, seemed obstinately wedded to the dance, and 
the good things before him, and refused to stir. The other departed 
alone, and gave a narrative of the whole adventure to his neighbours at 
the wedding. They searched for him everywhere, listening at every point 
and tree ; but instead of unearthly ministrelsy they heard only the waving 
of the silvery birches and the gentle rippling of the stream. Daylight 
came, and the search was renewed, but in vain. 

"Years slipped away without bringing any tidings of the lost man, and 
the whole Strath mourned for him. At length, exactly seven years al'tiT- 
wards, on New- Year's eve, the people were again met to welcome in the 
coming year. The companion of the lost man walked forth in the direc- 
tion of the Beatha Og, to grieve for the fate of his friend. As he strolled 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 15 

pensively along, he started at hearing the sound of fairy music the same 
that had before led him astray and he made up to the spot. There was 
the same opening in the brae, and, entering it, he found the same merry 
party with his long lost friend dancing like a true Highlander. The mirth 
and hilarity of the party seemed ominous, and the man, therefore, pulled 
out his skeen-dhu, and, fastening it in Donald's coat, began to pull him 
away. 'Now, it is a well-known fact in fairy lore, that, amongst their 
other good qualities, steel and iron have the power of depriving fairies of 
all potency over the human person. Donald was, accordingly, extricated 
from the hands of the good folk, but IK/, before he had expressed his sur- 
prise at the hastiness of his friend in wishing to leave so merry a party. 
Upon his arrival at home, the joy of his family may be easily conceived ; 
nor was Donald's astonishment less at finding the stir that had been made 
about his absence. His girls had grown to be almost women ; the roses 
on his wife's cheek had been nipt by time and grief, 'and several of his 
neighbours had died. Upon feeling the shoulder on which he carried the 
whisky he found that the woodie, by the weight of the cask pressing it 
for so long a period, had sunk down to the bone, and that some bread and 
cheese, which he took with him, had crumbled into dust. Yet the seven 
years of fairy bliss appeared short as a dream !"* 

There is scarcely in all Scotland a tract of scenery so gorgeously and 
wildly so magnificently grand, and, at the same time, savage as the sur- 
roundings of Loch-Maree so suited to be the home of fairy tribes. The 
ranges of mountains abound in the elements of the picturesque and awful 
beginning in abrupt precipices or bluffs, and swells beside the clear, 
dark waters of the loch or at its bank, rising from the bed of the lake 
clothed to the very edge with the young birch and the long grasses from 
which peep the lily sedges and the meadow queen. Until of late years, 
and more particularly until last year, the wild territory embraced within 
its circuit was comparatively an unknown land to the tourist. Yet here 
nature can be contemplated in all its grandeur, and the traveller who 
ventures to explore these scenes will rarely fail to express his delight. 
Each islet and bay has a name suggestive of its character. Over these 
the mighty crags rise in ridges to the height of hundreds of yards, 
and throw their dark shadows over the still, dark waters below. Nothing 
can be grander than to stand upon the silent shore strewn with big masses 
of boulder stones, and gaze up to the pinnacles high overhead, where the 
hawk whistles shrilly as he poises himself for an instant ere he swoops 
down upon his prey, and the grey eagle floats majestically on his pinions 
through the clear blue of the still summer sky. 

The wanderer who wishes to obtain a true idea of solitude has only to 
ascend one of those giants and look around him. There nature seems en- 
tirely dead. No sound will break upon his ears upon a calm day save 
the drowsy hum of the mountain bee rising like the tone of a distant fairy 
trumpet, and dying away o'er the golden moss-clad stones or purple 
heather, only to render the solitude more silent than before. But a calm 
day is not an every-day occurrence in those elevated spots. When the 
wind is strong wild feelings of vastness and loneliness fill the tourist's 
"brai;! as he sits on some fragment gazing on the black cloud forms driving 

* Carruthers' " Highland Note Beok." 



16 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

before the gathering storm, or listens to the booming and rushings of the 
weird tempest spirit amid the fissured crags, or as it leaps over the sharp 
ridged edges into the ravines below. 

In addition to the attractions of nature the district is rife with histo- 
rical reminiscences and the legendary and romantic tales and traditions of 
the long ago. 

" What is the name of that rock?" said I to a young country girl on 
the lake shore, pointing to a projecting mass on the hill side, over which 
dashed a mountain stream fringed with the hazel and the birch where it 
fell, and rushing down a narrow valley like a rift in the side of Ben Slioch. 

" I thought, sir, every one knew the king's fairy palace." 

" Is he ever seen now-a-days?" 

" Indeed, he's not, but the old people often saw him, and Mary Ban's 
grandmother and my own knew a young married woman who was carried 
away to bo head nurse to the young prince." 

"Do you xemember the circumstances?" 

" I'll tell you how it happened, sir." 

" Many years ago there lived over at Erradale a rich farmer called Ewen 
Mackenzie, who had one daughter, Mary, a most beautiful girl, and 
just as good as she was handsome, and as old Ewen was known to be 
well off. she was courted by many of the young men in the country side, 
rich and poor. But it was hard to please her father, and harder still to 
please Mary Laghach. At last came a wooer who pleased both, and the 
match was soon made and Charlie Maclean was the happiest man far or 
near, and when the bride was taken to her husband's home there was so 
great rejoicing that old Eory I)all,who remembered the battle of Bel Rinnes, 
said lie never saw or heard the like. Three days after going to her own 
house Mary disappeared. None knew whither she had gone or what had 
befallen her. She was searched for high and low by the neighbours, and 
poor Charlie, her husband, never ceased searching and mourning till he 
was almost out of his reason. At last, poor fellow, in his despair, he 
thought of taking counsel of an old wise man who had great skill of the 
Duine Sithe, and who lived at Gairloch. To him he went and asked him 
for tidings of his missing bride. ' If you came to me before,' said he, 
' you'd have little trouble in finding her, but now I fear it's too late.' 

" ' Why is it too late ? Only tell me where she is and who has her in 
keeping. You shall be well paid for it for if I once knew I would like 
to see the mortal man who would keep her from me.' 

"'Ochon,' said the fairy man, ' she is in no mortal hands. Your wife,' 
added he solemnly, ' was stolen to be the head nurse of the young prince 
of the fairies, who was born last month. It is now March and it will be 
May eve before you can have the chance of seeing her, and it all depends 
on yourself if you can bring her back. Meantime take this purse. It is 
but little, yet you must keep it secretly and carefully like the apple of 
your eye. It is full of the dust of a certain plant of great power. If 
you can throw that dust on your wife you will be able to get her back, 
but you must hold her fast in your arms whatever will be done to fear 
you so as to let her go. You may even see her before May eve, so you had 
better watch the cats chreay and the A-///// iiix<j<\ many a time and often, 
and always alone.' 

" Charlie Maclean, I need not tell you, watched long and sore through 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 17 

all weathers day and night like a very caraiseach madadli. At last, though 
May eve had not come, he began to despair of ever seeing her and to have 
but little faith in the fairy man's purse and powder but lo, and behold, 
he was soon convinced of their value and the truth of the old man's story. 
At sunrise, one morning as he was sitting on a crag opposite the Fairy 
Palace, he saw a beautiful rainbow spanning the glen and shining down 
on the palacp and on the loch in front of it. Underneath this appeared 
something which, at first indistinct, gradually became more clear and sub- 
stantial, until it assumed the appearance of a woman of surpassing beauty 
clothed in robes of heavenly blue, spotted all over with silver stars. The 
long golden hair fell over her shoulders till the ringlets twined round her 
feet, and her face and eyes were such that Charlie had never seen, even 
in a dream, any person so beautiful. Bewildered, he sat spell-bound, only 
half conscious he had seen her before but the glamour of fairy wile was 
over him, and he could not recognise her person. The figure stood 
lightly on the water, as if to afford him a full view, gazing earnestly on 
him all the time. At length she advanced a few steps holding out her 
hands entreatingly, as if imploring his aid, and having remained stationary 
for a few moments, began to recede and gradually vanished amid the 
melting rays of the rainbow along with the morning vapours, but ere she 
finally disappeared beside the rock at the palace, casting a fond and 
sorrowful look to her husband. In an instant Charlie's recollection re- 
turned, and he cried in agony ' My wife, my wife, my darling Mary ! ' 
stretching out his arms unavailingly but his beloved was gone, and he 
was doomed to watch and wearily wait for her return many a long night 
and day. But his confidence in the wise man had returned more strongly 
than ever, and he visited the Gairloch fiosaiche, carrying with him a good 
sum, and telling him if he succeeded by his aid in recovering his wife he 
would double the amount. ' "Watch well and you will surely bring her 
back,' said the wise man. Charlie did watch well, and the day before 
May eve caught another glimpse of his wife as she stood below another 
rainbow over the lake, and looking far more beautiful than ever. This 
sight gave him more determination, and he set off in haste on another 
visit to his wise adviser. ' Now,' said his counsellor, ' to-morrow it will be 
impossible for you to see the fairy home without my help, but you shall 
have it. When you return take the path that leads to the mountains, and 
whatever you see or whatever occurs never show faint heart. All will 
come right.' As the sun went down Charlie took the path leading to the 
mountains. As he neared the western end of the lake he reached a 
boundary ditch where two lairds' lands met. He climbed the fence and 
jumped to reach the opposite land, but instead of alighting on the green 
turf he jumped on the back of an enormous black horse that seemed to 
rise out of the earth to meet him. He at once knew by the glaring eyes 
and snorting nostrils that the horse was none other than the Kelpie,. and 
remembering the wise man's parting advice, he banished fear, aud stooping 
forward fixed his hands in a firm grip of the flowing mane of his phantom 
steed, and thus holding prepared for the terrible ride he knew was before 
him. Away went the water-horse with a mighty rush like an arrow wind, 
now leaping and rearing and screaming and neighing wild yells flounder- 
ing and splashing through bogs and quagmires rushing over fences, and 

B 



18 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

like lightning up the mountains, over crags, through burns and torrents, 
through ravine and glen, till after what appeared hours to Charlie, he 
suddenly stopped in a dark wet hollow, and rearing shook his rider to the 
ground, disappearing with a triumphant yell 

" Charlie sprung to his feet, and finding he was unhurt, looked around 
him. Over him were the giant mountains with their savage crests and 
wild ravines and yawning valleys. Up one of these, which he knew too 
well, for long had he watched it, he saw a noble road leading through the 
sloping wood and down it, and walking in it in a most stately and demure 
manner, a withered atomy of a man beautifully dressed, with a cocked 
hat on his head and a niagnificant stand of pipes under his arm. 

"'A happy May eve to you Charlie Maclean,' said the little man as he 
came up with a polite and dignified bow. 

"'The same to you, sir, and many,' returned Charlie, 'may I ask 
where this road leads.' 

"'Why, you goose, ought you not to know it leads to the Fairy 
Palace, seeing you have watched it long enough 1 Don't you be trying 
your tricks on travellers, my fine fellow. However, come on, I'll lead the 
way, no matter who pays the piper.' 

" With that he tunes up his pipes and marched along the road, Charlie 
following. ' What tune do you like,' said he, turning round suddenly. 

" ' Oh ! Cailleach Liath Rarsair,' answered Charlie, scarcely knowing 
what he said. 

"'It's a capital tune,' said the atomy, and immediately striking it up 
played with such life and spirit that Charlie was so delighted as to feel 
able to fight the whole fairy court to rescue his wife. 

"'Now,' said the little piper, as he finished the tune, ' I haven't time to 
play more, else I'd give you the prettiest pibroch ever was battered through 
a chanter, for I must be going. Look up ; there is the palace afore your 
eyes. One you know bade me tell you to stand in the porch till the 
company conies out to the green. Your wife will be among them. A 
word to a sensible man is enough. You have the purse of dust in your 
pocket. Use it, [ say, use it whenever you see your wife.' With that he 
struck up ' Charlie is my Darling,' and marched straight back down the 
road. 

" The Fairy Palace was now showing bright in all its grandeur, and 
Charlie ran across the porch, and placing himself behind one of the large 
pillars, prepared to wait for the appearance of the company. He had not 
long to wait, for in a few minutes a troop of lords and ladies came forth 
to have a dance upon the green. Charlie's heart gave a great 
leap as he discovered his wife in their midst with the baby prince in her 
arms. He had emptied the purse into his hand, and now waited anxiously 
till she came opposite to him. . Then, in an instant, he cast the dust on 
her head. The moment he did so a wild, angry, and terrible yell broke 
from the multitude and echoed through the passages and vaults of the 
palace. The child was snatched away, the bright throng disappeared, and 
Charlie Maclean and his wife, Mary, found themselves clasped in each 
other's arms at the foot of that rock that guards the entrance to the Fairy 
King's Palace. There was great joy when Mary was first taken home, 
but it was little to her second home-coming." 

TORQUIL. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 19 



GAELIC AND CORNISH. 



IN a short comparative study of the philological affinities of the Irish, 
Manx, Breton and Welsh languages, contributed to the Gael of November 
last, I spoke as follows : " The careful consideration of such word-growths 
might enable us to determine some general laws, as to the special linguistic 
conditions under which, in these later ages, the several members of the 
great Celtic family have been marching on their several diverging ways ; 
and any general linguistic laws, evolved on sure ground, in this one field 
of the great Aiyan inquiry, -could not fail to be also eminently useful in 
the wide domain" of general Aryan philology. In the same paper I 
ventured also to express the hope that some of our more prominent Celtic 
scholars would turn their attention to a field so full of the promise of rich 
results. I regret that none of my learned friends seems disposed to take 
the hint ; and, therefore, by way of a beginning, and, as it were, to show 
the way to the da, majores on our little Scotch Olympus, I propose giving 
here the first results of a short holiday excursion into the by-ways of 
what remains to us of the Celtic literature of Cornwall. How much 
remains to us of that old literature, in what condition, and of what quality, 
needs not here be described. For, since the translation of Hovelacque into 
English, we have had a good many popular re-productions of that author's 
comprehensive summary on the subject. Neither, for the present, shall 
I touch on the pregnant topics of word-growth and comparative inflectional 
change. What I propose doing here is simply to inquire what words are 
still common to the surviving remains of the Cornish and to our own 
Scotch Gaelic. That question, narrow and simple as it seems to be, opens 
up a very wide inquiry. For what they still possess in common, putting 
aside all they could have borrowed from later neighbours, they must have 
got in common, and got only at the old fireside of the old Aryan mother. 
Our seemingly simple question thus broadens out into an inquiry which 
may thus be formulated : What is there still common to Gael and Kerne* 
of all that was their common patrimony, when in the dim primeval past 
the family first divided, and each member took his several way, to make 
new history, to encounter new and diverging fortunes, from new wants 
and experiences to evolve new thoughts and contrivance, and in strange 
lands, under foreign skies, to attune tongue aud ear to new name-sounds 
for the same ? He who would successfully enter on this inquiry must 
carefully remember the warning just hinted at. He must put clearly to 
one side all such loan words as both members of the family could have 
borrowed from others, either on the westward march, or after settling in 
their new homes. If a Gaelic speaker, he must, before trimming his sails 
to the freshening breeze of his natural enthusiasm, not only look out lor 
the false lights of Cornish wreckers, but, even before leaving what he 

* The Bretons in France, who claim a connection with Cornwall within the historic 
period, speak of the Cornish as Kernes : and many of the oldest Breton ballads are set 
down by De la Villemarque as les Kerne : Dialecte de CornouaiUe. On this suggestion I 
venture to call the Cornish men Kernes, in the same way as we call ourselves Gaels, Of 
course I am aware of the wider and contemptuous sense in which the word is used by 
English authors, 



20 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

fancies the terra finna of his mother-tongue, he must remember the 
strange pranks of that Will o' the Wisp who has so often led our would- 
be philologers a weary dance, not to solid supper, but to the duck-pond or 
the quagmire. 

All words, therefore, of ecclesiastical origin, in which the Cornish 
remains are necessarily rich, it will be wise thus to put aside. For the 
medieval cleric was cosmopolite, and to him Latin was everywhere the 
technical speech of his order. And it must also be remembered that when 
the Cornish manuscripts were written, the language, as living speech, was 
already well nigh moribund. At the least, it is evident that English had 
then made the same inroads into Cornwall that it is making to-day into 
the Perthshire Highlands, where the spoken Gaelic of the people has a 
large admixture* of English. It is not, indeed, to be forgotten that 
English is itself of Aryan origin, as well as Gaelic, and that, therefore, 
independently of this later process of mutual Anglo-Gaelic admixture or 
assimilation, the two languages have always, of linguistic right and by 
inheritance, had much in common. But neither, in this inquiry, can we 
safely forget that the two languages have long been in such relations to 
each other as are most favourable to mutual accommodation by the inflated 
currency of loan words. Our English in Scotland has long been borrow- 
ing from Gaelic not only idioms but words ; witness the songs of Burns, 
who himself spoke no Gaelic. And if the stronger borrows from the 
weaker, need we wonder that very largely and for a long time Gaelic has 
been borrowing from English. 

Keeping, then, as clear as can be of these two sources of error, let us 
see what still survives in common to Gael and Kerne of the old family 
inheritance. As they looked up to the blue sky, they both saw there, like 
the old Aryan father, and in common with the whole Aryan brotherhood, 
that great being whom they call respectively DIA and Du or DUY the 
Tu of our Saxon Tu-esday, the DEUS of the Roman, and the THEOS of the 
Greek. But when, in after times, Gael and Kerne came, in their several 
ways, to read in between the lines of that grand impression of the Unseen, 
the small print of more concrete and anthropomorphic ideas, suggested by 
the mastery and authority of one man over another, elaborating more or 
less consciously otir notion of the LORD-ship of God, the Gael called him 
Tighearn and the Kerne, Arluit. The former name, we thus conclude, 
they both carried with them from the old Aryan home, the latter names 
they had learned, each for himself and in his own way, since parting with 
that home and with each other. The heaven of both is ntf, their earth 
tir and doer ; but the Cornisli stars are steren, the sun heuul, and the 
moon luir. Both are practically at one in biou life, enef soul, taran 
thunder, tan fire, tea heat, reu frost, iey ice, golou light, duv black, l//'ji/ti>/i 
year, guaintoin (green time) spring, haf summer, and goyf winter. The 
common heritage of the family is also more or less obvious in den and gur 
man, benenrid and grueg woman, moroin girl, floli lad, bugel herd, ruy 
king, and ///////'//,//,* ruif edict ; nor will the Highland crofter have much 
difficulty in recognising a very special object of his affection in mair a 
petty officer. 

And what a picture opens up to us of the old Aryan family, living to- 
gether in patriarchal simplicity, when we find that, after untold ages, two 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 21 

wanders from the old hearth, whose children's children have been strangers 
for countless generations, still to speak to us, through these old Cornish 
legends and our Gaelic Bibles, of all that concerns the family life, in a 
voice tha.t is all unchanged. For if the Cornish father is a little disguised 
as tat and the mother as warn, yet what help of Grimm's laws does any 
of us need to hear a brother's tongue in such words as teilu family, brand 
brother, fhuir sister, mob son, car friend, and altruan foster-mother? Or 
does the voice turn strange, or suggest a feeling anywise foreign to our 
accustomed ideas, when it speaks of the head of the family as pen-teilu, 
and of the mother as mam-teilu ? Similarly old Dlly Pendraeth, with 
whom died, a hundred years ago, the living Cornish tongue, would tell us 
Gaels how near we both keep to the old forms of speech which her 
ancestors and ours learned from the same father, when she called her head 
pen, her nose trein or iron, her chest cluit, her skin croin, her shoulder- 
blade scuid, her elbow elin, and her hand lau. Indeed, I think, I can 
even now form to myself a good picture of the worthy old crone, as 
chattering strange words which none around her understood, and with the 
nail (euuin) at the end of her long weird forefinger she touched and 
mournfully counted each staring rib (asen) in the side of her old nag 
(marc), which had come to such sad plight through lack of fat or blonec ! 
What says the Cornish language as to the social condition of the 
primitive patriarchal Celt ? That he was a helh-fhur (sealgair) or hunter 
goes without saying. But, it is to be expected, his game was in large 
measure different from that of Ossian's heroes. The goat and the horse 
were known to him, for it is only from him that Gael and Kerne alike 
could learn to call these animals gaur and mare. He must have known 
something of agriculture, else how could these his descendants, more entirely 
sundered than are to-day the Antipodeans, agree to arm their plough with 
a soc ? And there are other reasons for placing him in an age long posterior 
to that of stone ; for though the Cornish gof seems to have been a Jack- 
of-all-trades, working indifferently in metal and wood, and sometimes even 
in clay, yet was there a Cornish eure, or gold-worker, and an heirnior, or 
iron-worker. When this iron-worker handled his furnace or his red hot 
metal clumsily, the result was a lose or burn, whose pain he eased with an 
ointment, called by him, as we still call it in the Highlands, urat. He 
had haloin, or salt, to his steak of goat's flesh ; when age, sickness, or 
folly brought him to poverty he was bochodoc ; when good he was, not 
ma, but da ; when a quarreller he was a strifor ; when a sinner he was 
drocli-oberor or drocger ; and when fairly mad he had sack diaul. If a 
spark from the anvil deprived him of sight, like his brother Gael, this 
Cornish craftsman was dall ; if deaf he was bothar ; if dumb, qf-lauar ; 
squinting, he was cam ; and aweary, guan or ainaich. Rest and refresh- 
ment brought nerth, or strength, to his arm ; when he spoke truth it was 
guirion ; and when, as skilful mechanics sometimes will, he blew, not his 
bellows, but the horn of his own praise, his pride was goth. And finally, 
though even he could never dream of the crown, or curun-ruy, and scarce 
dared aspire to be a pen-can(t)-gur, or head of a hundred men, yet may it 
be suggested, as a curious question in philology, whether he did not sit 
among his fellows crowned with the first rude model of that universal 
symbol of modern Saxon respectability, which, whenever he got it, he 
wore and called a hot ! 



22 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

That the flora, as well as the fauna, of tribes wandering from a home 
so distant by ways so far apart, should be differently named, is only what 
is naturally to be expected, yet with both the plant is les and the bark 
ruse. And not less suggestive, in view of a similarly sharp contrast well 
known in Gaelic, as the result of the simplest literal change, is a class of 
words in which the change of one letter in Cornish makes a word mean 
something not merely different, but entirely the reverse, in Gaelic. Thus 
in Cornish euske is sleep, in Gaelic duisg is awake. 

Just two words in conclusion. Though the comparison in this paper 
is nominally between Gaelic and Cornish, yet to most readers it is un- 
necessary to explain that whatever is said of the former language may be 
understood as said also of Manx and Irish ; Avhile what is said of the latter 
may also be taken as more or less true of Welsh and Breton. And, for 
the sake of brevity and simplicity, as well as from a desire to avoid the 
appearance of what might seem akin to the yoth of our friend the heirnicr, 
I have not allowed myself to indulge in references, however appropriately 
these might sometimes be made, to the classical tongues and the Sanskrit. 
The learned reader, as he proceeds, will mark such references and apply 
them for himself. To the general reader they would be only confusing. 

DONALD MASSON, M.A., M.D. 



LOCHABER'S LONE STAR. 
To Fassifern Cameron Stewart, NetLer-Locbaber. 



In bonnie Lochaber 'mong brown heather hills, 

In bonnie Lochaber by clear flowing rills, 

When Leven's dark waters glide on in their glee, 

I know a wee cot that is dear, dear to me ; 

There sweet Fassifern in her. loveliness dwells, 

And bright is the home 'neath the grace of her spells, 

Than flowerets or rills she is bonnier far, 

I joy when I sing of Lochaber's lone star. 

As tender and pure as the eye of the dawn, 
As fair and as blythe as the light-leaping fawn ; 
O 1 surely her heart is the home of that love 
Which springs in its beauty from fountains above. 
Ye soft winds that blow o'er Lochaber's green braes, 
. O ! let yeur sweet music be ever her praise ; 
Ye wild sweeping tempests when rolling in war, 
Be ever your song of Lochaber's lone star. 

Her merry voice sounds as the whispers of streams, 
Its echo still haunts me, I hear it in dreams ; 
Her smile from my memory will never depart, 
Its sunshine still clings with delight to my heart. 
Ye angels of goodness ! O 1 hear ye my prayer, 
Guard ever your sister from sadness or care ; 
Let no blighting sorrows the happiness mar, 
Of sweet Fassifern, my Lochaber's lone star. 

SUNDEBLAND. WM. ALLAN. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 23 



HACO, THE DANE, OB THE PEINCE'S WOOING. 

A TRUE ROMANCE OF LOCH-MAKEB, IN THREE PARTS. 

By J. E. MDDDOCK, author of " A Wingless Angel" " As the Shadows 

Fall" "Lovat, or Out in the '45," $c., $c. 



PART I. THE DR^AM. 

THE date is 1500, time the close of an August day, the scene Loch-Maree. 
The sun is sinking in the west, and shafts of golden fire lie athwart the 
bare and rugged mountains, lighting up their age worn sides, which seem 
to glow and burn, and so contrast well with the deep fissures and gorges 
which are steeped in purple shadow. The great mass of Ben Slioch rises 
up boldly, a very king of mountains. His splintered outlines are sharply 
defined in the pure, clear atmosphere, and his precipitous walls of rock 
shimmer in the yellow light. The lake is very calm, for not even a zephyr 
moves its bosom. The whole scene is one of peace and marvellous 
beauty. Beautiful it always is, but often its peace is broken by the 
barbarism of rival clans, who, sweeping down from the mountains like 
the lordly eagles, rend and tear each other with remorseless ferocity. 
Many a terrible deed of bloodshed and cruelty have those silent rocks 
witnessed, and often have their rifts and hollows echoed back the dis- 
pairing cry of some dying wretch, the victim of jealousy and feud. 
There is not a pass but has been a witness to acts of heroism and 
tieachery, not a mountain but has resounded with the battle cry of 
warring clans. And if the loch could tell its tale many a ghastly secret 
it might disclose. Of midnight surprises, of fights to the death, of hacked 
and bleeding bodies that have slowly sunk into its dark depths, there to 
lie until that great day when the heavens shall roll up as a scroll, and the 
mountains dissolve away. But on this hot August afternoon the hand of 
tranquility seems to have touched all things. The eagles poised them- 
selves on motionless wings in the stagnant air, an idle bee or two hums 
drowsily in the purple heather, and gaudy dragon flies, like winged jewels, 
hang on the nodding blue bells as if they too felt the dreamy influence 
of the dying day, and could give themselves up to delicious indolence. 

Stretched on a soft carpet of green moss, on the south side of the 
loch, and near where the Loch-Maree hotel now stands, was a young man 
who also seemed to have caught something of the oscitant nature of the 
evening. In age he was about five-and-twenty. He was possessed of a 
singularly handsome face. His nostrils were straight and delicately 
chiselled, and his forehead high. His eyes were a clear blue, and a light 
moustache shaded his lip, while long golden curls hung in clusters over 
his shoulders. From his dress, and the refinement which seemed stamped 
on every feature, it was evident he was not a native of the district. The 
Highlanders of that wild region were rugged and stern like unto their 
own rocky mountains, but this man, though compact and well-formed, had 
none of these characteristics. His hands were white and soft, and the 
skin of his face and neck fair almost as a woman's. On his fingers were 



24 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

two or three rings, r and at his "belt a long, thin dagger, in an elegantly 
embossed sheath, hung. The handle was studded with jewels that 
scintillated with every movement of his body. 

This young man was Haco, a Danish prince, who had been sent from 
the Court of Denmark to Scotland on a special mission in connection with 
the Shetland Islands. Noble of birth, wealthy, and much beloved in his 
own country, his future seemed to promise unalloyed happiness. If 
there was a blemish in Haco's character it was a certain waywardness 
which often led him to do things in opposition to the wishes of his 
friends. He had come from his native country attended by only two or 
three faithful followers, and his mission being completed, they had urged 
him to return home. But he had turned a deaf ear to all their entreaties, 
for reasons that will be presently disclosed. He was a keen sports- 
man, and passionately fond of the chase. He had heard that Eoss- 
shire, and especially the neighbourhood of Loch Maree, abounded with 
wild deer, as well as wolves, and the temptation to hunt these animals 
was too strong to be resisted. And many a noble stag, and many a savage 
wolf had fallen before the unerring shot of his cross-bow. 

One day while out hunting he lost his followers, and wandering down 
to the margin of the Loch to quench his thirst with a draught of the 
clear, pure water, he fell asleep amongst the heather. Suddenly he was 
awakened by the sound of voices, and looking up, he beheld two monks 
and a young lady. They were coming down to a boat which was lying 
on the strand, and in which they had no doubt crossed the Loch. 

As Prince Haco gazed upon the young woman he rubbed his eyes to 
make sure that he was not dreaming, for it seemed as if the being who 
stood before him was too radiant and beautiful to belong to the earth. 

She was dressed in a pure white garment, that was girded with a 
golden zone at the waist. Her face was marvellous in its perfect beauty. 
Her skin, delicately tinged with pink on the checks, was clear and white 
as snow. A great wealth of blue black, glossy hair hung loosely about 
her shoulders and down her back, while her eyes were large, liquid, and 
dark as night. In age she was little more than eighteen. Her figure 
was perfect in its shape, and every curve and flowing outline displayed 
by her graceful and classical costume. 

Struck with astonisnment no less than admiration Prince Haco stared 
at the beautiful girl who had so unexpectedly appeared before him, until 
she blushed scarlet and turned her face from his burning glances. The 
monks, in whose charge the young girl was, seemed annoyed at the 
manner in which the Prince gazed at her, and they were passing on to 
the boat without deigning to bestow further notice on him than a reprov- 
ing and scornful scowl, when he rose suddenly, and, placing himself in 
their way, he removed his bonnet, and kneeling on one knee he addressed 
the elder and superior of the two monks. " Forgive me, holy father," he 
said, "forgive me if I have displeased you by my apparent rudeness, but 
a mortal may surely be pardoned for gazing on an angel." 

" Thou speakst irreverently, my son," answered the monk, " our 
daughter here is but of mortal mould. She is only a woman who intends 
to devote her life to the church, and it is to be regretted if she has 
aroused thine admiration." " Should I not be less than man if I had 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 25 

not been struck by such marvellous beauty as that which I now behold," 
cried the Prince, and then turning to the young woman said "Fair lady, 
pardon and pity me, I am even as a wild deer in whose side the arrow 
quivers, for thy glances have deprived me of power and made me thy 
slave. Grant that thy slave then may have the honour of pressing his 
lips to that fair hand, and then let him learn thy name and who thou 
art." 

The monk who had first spoken drew the girl towards him, and plac- 
ing himself between her and the still kneeling Prince, he exclaimed 
angrily "Thou art guilty of presumption and impertinence, churl, in 
daring to speak thus. Know that this lady dwelleth in the sanctity of the 
Church and that she is the bride of heaven. Stand aside and let us pass." 
Prince Haco rose suddenly to his feet, and drawing his tall handsome 
figure up to its full height, as a look of anger came into his face, he placed 
his hand upon the jewelled handle of his dagger, and exclamed, " An it 
were not for the presence of that lady, saucy monk, that word churl should 
cost thee thy life." 

With a little cry of alarm the lady threw herself between the monk 
and the Prince, and putting up her little white hands in a pleading 
manner to the latter, she said in a sweetly musical voice 

" My fair sir, I pray that you will not quarrel. The good father 
meant no harm. He is my protector, and if he has said aught that has 
wounded your feelings, I pray you, for my sake, forgive him." The 
Prince caught one of the outstretched hands in his, and pressing his lips 
to it he said 

" For thy sake, fair lady, I would give my life. For a smile of those 
sweet lips and a look of those bright eyes I would do such deeds as man 
never did before. I am no churl, but in my veins runs pure and un- 
sullied the royal blood of Denmark. I am Haco, the Danish Prince, and 
now in the name of the Holy Mother, I pray you, sweet lady, tell me your 
name." 

The young girl drew back as though abashed, and clung to the arm of 
the monk, who answered and said 

Prince, I have heard of thee, and I am sorry that my hastiness led 
me to wound thy sensitiveness, but know that in this lady's veins runs 
blood as noble as thine own, for in her thou beholdst the Princess Thyra, 
a Princess of the Eoyal House of Ulster in Ireland. " 

" Haco, the Prince of Denmark greets Thyra, the Princess of Ulster," 
cried Haco as he once more bent his knee and pressed his lips to the fair 
hand of the girl. Then rising and turning to the monk, he asked " But 
tell me father what brings the noble lady here ?" 

" She was sent by her father so that in the sanctity and peace of our 
island monastery she might, while being far removed from the turmoil and 
the strife which are shaking her own poor country, be taught humility and 
Christian meekness, and devote herself to the service of God." 

" She is too young and too beautiful to withdraw from the world," 
Haco murmured as if to himself, although his words reached the ears of 
the monk and Princess. The latter blushed deeply, and she gave a quick 
burning glance at the manly face of the Prince, which did not escape hia 
notice. But the monk reproved him, and said 



26 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

"Thy words are light and frivolous, my son. But we do but waste 
time in argument, for the day wanes and we must return." 

"Where have you been to and whither are you going?" asked the 
Prince as if be had not noticed the reproof. 

" We have been to one of our holy houses which is situated amongst 
yonder hills," and the monk pointed to the south. "We have some sick 
there, and the Princess makes a weekly visit so that she may comfort the 
feeble. But we are returning now to the monastery on the Isle Maree and 
must bid thee adieu." 

" And may we not meet again, fair lady," pleaded the Prince as he 
respectfully drew on one side, and sighed heavily. 

" Alas ! it must not be," she returned softly, and for a moment their 
eyes met. Then, as she turned hers away, she blushed with confusion 
and passed down to the boat. Haco stood on the shore until the boat 
had disappeared amongst the islands, then, as he turned to go, he mur- 
mured " she has taken my heart with her." 

He had for some time been residing at the house of a Chief of the 
Clan Mackenzie, who dwelt at the head of the loch, and as he turned his 
footsteps towards his dwelling he was unusually thoughtful. He was 
received by his followers with every manifestation of delight, for they had 
become uneasy at his absence. He mentioned nothing to them of his 
adventure, but for days he remained silent and reserved, which was such an 
unusual thing for him that it caused no little astonishment. Day after day 
he stole away alone, and went down to the spot where he had first beheld 
the Princess, in the hope that he might again see her, but he was always 
disappointed, until, unable to control himself longer, he one day procured 
a b'oat and rowed to the Isle Maree. 

So sacred was the island considered that it was looked upon as almost 
sacrilege for a layman and a stranger to visit it. Even the warring 
clans respected the sanctity of the place, and while the din and shock 
of battle shook the surrounding country, this tiny island remained 
undisturbed. 

It was a veritable garden of beauty. It was clothed with a luxuriant 
growth of trees and shrubs. The monastery was a small, plainly built 
structure. And one portion was set aside for the use ol about ten ladies 
who devoted their lives to religion and charity. There were about thirty 
monks in all, who were presided over by an aged Abbot a man of singu- 
lar simplicity and purity of life. A small garden, filled with fruit and 
flower trees, surrounded the building, and outside of this again a plot of 
ground Avas set aside for a burial place. In addition there was a sacred 
well whose waters possessed the most miraculous curative properties for 
all sorts of disease, but more particularly for insanity. In fact the remedy 
was so simple that the wonder was that any one should have been mad in 
those days, or being so that they should have remained in that condition 
longer than was necessary to go to the well, drink copiously of the potent 
spring, then be dragged three times round the island at the stern of a 
boat, whith a hair rope fastened under their armpits, and after undergoing 
this mild treatment they invariably recovered or died, especially died. 
Close to this very wonderful well was a money tree, into which a coin 
was driven by the hand of every pilgrim to the island, and any one who 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 27 

failed to make this monetary offering to the Tutelary Saint met with some 
terrible reverse or died before the year was out. 

Haco marched boldly up to the monastery gate, and requested the porter 
to conduct him to the presence of the Father Superior. The Prince had 
little difficulty in obtaining an interview, for there was something com- 
manding in his tone and presence. Nor did the Abbot seem greatly sur- 
prised when Haco told him that he had come to beg permission to woo 
the Princess Thyra. 

"Thou art bold and impetuous," the Abbot answered, after listening 
patiently to the Prince, " and thou shouldst remember that it is not usual 
for a man, even though he be of royal blood, to seek a bride in the very 
shadow of the Church. It is true our daughter has not entered the 
Church nor broken all ties with the world, for she is only placed under 
our care until the political storms which now shake her father's throne 
have passed away. At the same time it must not be forgotten that the 
sanctity of the Church is around her, and it is our duty to protect her 
honour and her virtue." 

" I come here in the character of one who desires to woo her for my 
wife," the Prince answered proudly. " I am of royal birth, and unstained 
honour, and would die to shield hers." 

" That is nobly spoken," the Abbot returned, " and if I were quite 
sure that thou wert not mistaking passion for love I might be tempted to 
encourage thy wooing." 

" Nay, why should you doubt me," Haco exclaimed, " my name and 
birth are a sufficient gurrantee that I am sincere, and to give you even 
better assurance I vow by the name of the Blessed Virgin Mary that if 
the Princess Thyra will wed nie she shall be my wife." 

As he spoke he raised his hand and placed it reverently on a small 
crucifix that stood upon the table. The Abbot was silent for a few 
minutes and then he said " My son, I give thee my blessing." 

Haco knelt, and the Holy Father placed his hand upon the Prince's 
head and murmured a short prayer. 

" I thank you, father," the Prince answered as he rose, " and I beg, in 
acknowledgment of my gratitude, to bestow a thousand rnerks towards the 
support of this monastery." 

In a few minutes from this Prince Haco had the pleasure of once 
more beholding the lady who had made so great an impression upon him. 
Nor was she less impressed with him. That interview led to others un- 
til they became plighted lovers. 

At the moment that this story commences Prince Haco was waiting 
for a boat to arrive from the island to convey him back, so that he might 
spend an hour with his beloved Thyra, this being the time granted 
him by the Abbot at each interview. He had fallen into a half dream 
state in which his only thought was Princess Thyra. For some time the 
drowsy hum of a drowsy bee as it buzzed round his head was the only 
sound he heard, but presently he started up, for the plash of oars had 
broken the stillness. A boat, rowed by a stalwart monk, was nearing the 
shore, and when it touched the strand Prince Haco jumped in, and the 
monk pulled back to Isle Maree. 

The golden light had given place to a deep, scarlet blush so to speak, 



28 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

that dyed the mountains and the bosoni of the loch. Gradually the blush 
deepened, purple shadows mingled with the glowing red, and the great 
masses of mountains seemed to blend and grow one into the other, as they 
became indistinct and dark in the fading light of the dying day. Not a 
cloud was round the head of Ben Slioch which shimmered in the lingering 
glow that yet reddened the west. 

As the Prince and the monk stepped from the boat on to the island 
there suddenly rose on the still air the sound of the sweet angelus the 
evensong of the monks. It was strangely, and solemnly impressive amid 
the wild surroundings, and the grand old mountains seemed to echo back 
the psalm of praise as if they too were worshipping the great Creator. 

Prince Haco removed his bonnet, and he and the monk knelt and 
reverently crossed themselves, until the voices died away and there was 
stillness again. The Prince continued to kneel for some time, but the monk 
rose and hurried towards the monastery. In a little while Haco started, 
for his quick ear had caught the sound of a light footstep, and in another 
moment he was pressing the Princess Thyra to his breast. She -had come 
down to meet him, as she knew the hour he would arrive. 

" My own beloved," he exclaimed, as he pressed his burning lips to 
hers, " what happiness it is for me to hold ycu this, and know that you 
are mine !" 

" No less for me than you," she murmured sweetly low, " but Ah, 
Haco, will you always love me thus 1" 

" Always ? yes as surely as yonder star now shines over Ben Slioch's 
peak. Aye, and I will be as faithful and as true to you as yon star is to 
its orbit. But why, my darling, should you doubt me ?" 

" I do not doubt, but the happiness seems so great that I have a sort 
of undefined fear that it cannot last." 

" Nonsense, heart of mine, what can come to destroy our happiness ? 
The future lies before us an unshaded vista. It is all light and beauty, 
and you and I, my sweet one, will walk together in perfect peace and per- 
fect trust and perfect love." 

" Oh, what a delicious dream !" she murmured. 

" And why should our lives not be a dream, my Princess ? Born to 
high estate, with riches and good friends and unclouded prospects, we 
can sup our full of happiness until it pleases God to take us." A shudder 
seemed to suddenly seize the Princess, and she clung closer to her lover. 
A slight breeze had passed over the loch and shook the trees on the island 
into a weird whisper as it were. " What is it that frightens you, my 
treasure 1" he asked. 

" Nothing," she answered with a little laugh, " it was but a nervous 
feeling that seized me, and we thought that these ghostly trees, as they 
were stirred by the night wind, said when you spoke ' It shall not be.'" 

Haco pressed his strong arm closer round the slender waist of the 
Princess, and answered 

" You are morbidly inclined, my darling. The night wind, and the 
murmuring waters, and the rustling trees speak to me only of love and 
peace. Yon star shines not not more brightly than shall our lives." 

" Amen to that," the Princess returned, then leaning her little head 
upon his breast, she said, " I pray to the Blessed Virgin that nothing 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 29 

may ever destroy our pleasant dream, and yet there are times when I 
have a half-nervous dread that Red Hector of the Hills will bring us 
trouble." 

" Cease these fears, my darling," Haco cried with a forced merry laugh 
that belied the true state of his feelings, for at the mention of Red Hector's 
name the Prince's brow darkened, and he clenched his hands as if in 
passion. 

" But you know how Red Hector has pressed me to become his bride," 
she answered, " and he is so wild and stern that I fear me he would resort 
to anything to gain his purpose." 

"I fear him not," Haco returned with great firmness, "and if he 
should persecute you more I will slay him." 

" Nay, Haco my own, I would not have you take his life," the Princess 
murmured as she threw her arms round her lover's neck and pressed her 
warm cheek to his. " Should he annoy me further I will tell the Abbot 
and seek his protection." 

Whatever Haco's thoughts were he kept them to himself, and made 
no further remark on the subject, and when a happy and too short hour 
had passed the lovers separated, and the Prince blew a small silver whistle 
which hung round his neck. This was a signal for the monk to appear 
and row him across the loch. 

When Haco reached the mainland, and close to the spot from whence 
he had started, he sprung lightly out, and wishing the boatman good -night, 
he bent his steps in the direction of his lodgings. 

The moon was shining brilliantly, and the night was very still, save 
for a soft breeze that had risen within the last hour, and was just moving 
the heather and the trees into a weird rustle, that only served to heighten 
the effects of the stillness. 

As the Prince trudged on he was suddenly startled by a sound that was 
not that of the wind, but which he knew to be an arrow that had whizzed 
past his ear, and was within a hair'sbreadth of striking him in the face. 
He was a bold and courageous youth, but he stopped and drew his long 
rapier that flashed ominously in the moonlight, and while he stood irreso- 
lutely, and undecided how to act, another arrow sped on its course and 
went through his bonnet. No longer hesitating, he grasped his rapier 
with a grip of iron and rushed towards a huge boulder that stood in his 
path, and from which direction the arrows had been shot. As he reached 
the rock, there suddenly rose up before him, like a spectre in the moon- 
light, a tall, powerful man, with coarse red hair that hung about his 
shoulders like a mat, and a beard that descended below his waist. His 
arms were bare, and were brawny and powerful, and covered with coarse 
fibrous hair that spoke of immense strength. In one hand he carried a 
bow that was still strung, and raising this above his head, he stood like a 
Hercules in the Prince's path, and in a stentorian voice exclaimed 

" Hold, Prince. You and I have an account to settle, and one of us 
must die to-night. 

(To be Continued.) 



30 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

WILLIAM, LOED CKECHTOUN, AT TAIN AND INVEKNESS, 

A.D., 1483-1489. 
BY GENERAL A. STEWART- ALLAN, F.S.A. SCOT., ETC. 

THE residence of William, Lord Crechtoun, in the north of Scotland, 
during the latter years of the reign of King James the Third, is an his- 
torical episode, which has been hardly noticed by any of our historians, 
and very cursorily glanced at by the few writers who have alluded to the 
facts. It is, however, connected with an obscure, and indeed somewhat 
mysterious piece of family history, in which a Princess of the blood-royal 
of Scotland a sister of the reigning sovereign is closely mixed \\p in a 
discreditable manner; and the whole story may be considered one of in- 
cidents belonging to the chroniques scandalewes of the time. It has also 
been hitherto treated with unaccountable brevity, as well as almost signi- 
ficant paucity of the circumstantial evidence relating to it. It is not pre- 
tended here to give a complete explanation of all the events which then 
occurred, and which now may be considered to have escaped from the 
range of full inquiry at least to any satisfactory extent for this essay 
can only be offered as a slight contribution to history, and a compilation 
from the best available authorities ; with mention of the sources from 
which it is derived, and extracts, generally in the words of the writers 
referred to, as the grounds on which the statements and inferences are based. 
Sir Wiliam Crechtoun of Frendraught, and of that Ilk, was eldest son 
and successor of James, second Lord Crechtoun, by his wife, Lady Janet 
de Dunbar, the Lady of Frendraught, and eldest daughter an co-heir of 
James, " Domiuus de Frendrath," who appears as " Janeta de Dunbar, 
comitissa Moravie, et domina de Freudraught, &c.," on November 8, 1454. 
[Erroll Charter Chest]; and which lady the heir-of-line of the Dunbars, 
Earls of Moray survived her son the subject of this paper for several 
years, as she was living November 22, 1493, when she resigned the barony 
of Frendraught to her eldest grandson, James, and his heirs. [" Eeg. 
Mag. Sigil.," lib. xiii., No. 71.] On the death of his father, James, be- 
fore November 20, 1469, William succeeded him, as third Lord Crechtoun, 
and must have been married shortly afterwards to Marion of Livingston, 
a daughter (unnoticed by the Peerage writers) of Sir James Livingstone 
of Calendar, first Lord Livingstone so created before August 30, 1458 
["Keg. Mag. Sigil.," lib. v., No. 52] by Marion, his wife, who was still 
alive on June 4, 1478, but had deceased before October J 9 following, 
when a decree was granted, by the Lords of Council, to " Marion, Lady 
of Crechtoun," as one of the executors of " vmquhile Marion, Lady Levin- 
stoun." [" Acta Anditorum," p. 59; " Acta Domiuorum Concilii," p. 15, 
fol. Edinburgh, 1839 ; edit. T. Thomson.] " Marioun, Lady Crechtoun, 
as executrix to hir rnodir," again appears on March 6, 1479, when declared 
entitled to payments from lands pertaining to her late mother. [" Acta, 
Auditorum," p. 68, ut supru], and she may have lived several years subse- 
quently, perhaps until about 1481, or even later. There is an action and 
cause, however, before the same Lords Auditors, on March 18, 1479, 
against " James of tuedy and Marion of Crechton, his spouse," which is 
puzzling to explain. [" Acta Audit.," p. 79.] These references appear to 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 31 

have escaped the critical notice of Riddell, in his remarks upon the 
marriage under notice, and to which I have to acknowledge my obligations ; 
though it is strange that he has given the dates of " 20th October 1478," 
for October 22, and " 8th of March, and 4th of July in the same year," 
for June 4, 1478, and March 18, 1479, which was the following year 
citing Acta Dominorum Concilii, and Acta Auditor urn.* The date of 
Marion, Lady Crechtoun's, death is not recorded, but she was certainly 
the first, if not only, wife of William, Lord Crechtoun, and mother of his 
son and heir, James, above-mentioned ; who must have been of full age 
in the year 1492 and 1493, when he is found receiving grants of lands, 
as proved by the Records of the Great Seal, already referred to. It also 
appears from a process of October 23, 1493, that " James Crechtoun, the 
son and are of vmquhile William, sumtyme lord Crechtoun," without the 
concurrence of any tutor or curator, had previously assigned twenty-seven 
ounces of gold to a certain Sir Thomas Tod, Knight for the " wranguis 
detentioun," of which he now sought a remedy from the Lords of Council 
in Civil Causes, who postponed consideration of his complaint until 
February 12 following. ["Acta Dow. Cone.," ut supra, p. 311], which 
conclusively proves that James could not have been a son of the Princess 
Margaret, as hitherto asserted. An interesting fact also transpires from 
this marriage (as Eiddell observes), which is, that Marion Livingstone 
had obviously been a peace-ottering to reconcile the feuds and animosities 
of the great families of Crechtoun and Livingstone, previously, as is well- 
known, keen rivals for political power, during the troublous times in the 
reigns of Kings James II. and III. The notices of William, in the first 
years after his succession to the family title, are scanty, but the name of 
" dominus Crechtoun " appears as attending the following Parliaments of 
Scotland under James III., November 20, 1469 May 6, 1471 Novem- 
ber 20, 1475 July 1, and October 4, 1476 April 6, 1478 March 
1, and October 4, 1479, at Edinburgh, which is the last occasion on 
which his name is found in the Parliamentary rolls. ["Acta Parl. 
Scot.," vol. ii. pp. 93, 98, 108, 111, 115, 121, 122, 124.] There are 
also five references to "ye lord Crechtoune," from October 15, 1478, 
to June 13, ]480, amongst the Acts of the Lords of Council in Civil 
Causes, consisting chiefly of claims made against him for the repayment 
of sums of money, &c., which had been lent to him, by various persons, 
at different times. ["ActaDom. Concil." ut supra, pp. 12, 14, 19, 44, 
50.] Before the Lords Auditors of Causes and Complaints "ye lord 
Crechtoune" is found at various periods, between August 5, 1473, and 
October 1 483, to answer charges of " skathis and danpnage " preferred 
against him, and other matters, in some of which, however, he was com- 
plainant. ["Acta Auditorum," ut supra, pp. 29 et seq., to 122.] 

There is no positive reason for alleging that, up to October 1479, 
Lord Crechtoun had engaged in treasonable proceedings against his 
sovereign, nor does he appear to have been directly implicated in the first 
rebellion of Alexander, Duke of Albany ; which took place in the above 
year, and was quickly suppressed by the decision and energy of the King, 
when Albany escaped to France. There is no doubt, however, that he 
was uu active adherent of the Duke in his second rebellion and treasonable 



'Remarks on Scottish Peerage Law," &c., " By John Riddell, Esq., advocate. 
Edinburgh : T. Clark," 8vo., 1833, p. 194 note. 



32 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

invasion of the kingdom, assisted by an English army, in July 1482; 
though the King was constrained, by a Parliament, assembled at Edin- 
burgh, December 2 following, to pardon his brother, and even to create him 
Lieut.-General of the kingdom, this arrangement soon terminated. Albany 
was forced to resign his usurped office before March 1483, when James 
was restored to his free and full power, and the turbulent nobles resumed 
their loyalty for a time, though the most powerful of his late supporters 
were deprived of the offices and dignities which they abused to the pur- 
poses of conspiracy and rebellion. The Earl of Euchau, with Lord Crech- 
toun and Sir James Liddale of Halkerstoune, who appear to have been 
considered the most dangerous of the conspirators with England, were 
ordered to be banished fromthe realm for the space of three years. The 
disloyal Duke then retired into England, leaving an English garrison 
in his castle of Dunbar ; and in the Parliament of June 27, he was finally 
forfeited, along with Sir James Liddale, for repeated acts of treason, and 
designs to dethrone King James III. By a solemn decree of the three 
estates of the realm, after he had failed to appear before them, though duly 
summoned by Eothesay herald, "Alexander, Duke of Albany, Earl of 
March, of Mar, and of Gariach, Lord of Annandale and of Man," was 
found guilty of the crimes laid to his charge, and his life, lands, offices, 
and all other possessions, declared to be forfeited to the crown.* His 
dishonoured career was prolonged, in exile, till 1 485, when he died, at 
Paris, from the effects of a wound received in a tournament there. After 
his last escape to England, in April 1483, Albany had still remained busy 
concerting measures with his adherents, for a more formidable expedition 
against his native land ; and his friend, Lord Crechtoun, " one of the 
most powerful and warlike of the Scottish barons " according to Tytler 
" engaged with the utmost ardour in concentrating his party in Scotland, 
and fortifying their castles for a determined resistance against their 
Sovereign." ["Hist, of Scotland," ii., 245, et passim.] 

Lord Crechtoun, with a long list of his adherents, experienced a 
similar fate within a few months afterwards, while the treason of Angus 
Gray and other rebel lords remained unknown. The whole process of 
" forisfacture" of "Will. dom. Crechtoun," is recorded in the Acts of 
Parliament of Scotland, where it occupies several pages (ii., 154-161 
inch, 164), and lasted from February 19 to 24 ; on which latter date he 
was sentenced by the Court of Parliament of Edinburgh, in the presence 
of the Sovereign, personally presiding there, to forfeit his life, lands, and 
all other possessions whatsoever he had of the Crown, in punishment of 
" dome," for the treasons and crimes committed by him "against the peace 
of the realm, and our lord, the King." It appeared in evidence that the 
Eoyal messenger-at-arms, Alexander Hepburn of Qhitsum, Sheriff of Edin- 
burgh, because he could not apprehend William, Lord Crechtoun person- 
ally, passed with the letters of summons to the Castle of Crechtoun, on 
November 20, 1483, citing him to " comper" in person in the Parliament 
to be held at Edinburgh, on February 1 9 following, there to answer for 
his treasonable art, part, counsel, and assistance to Alexander, some time 
Duke of Albany, in his treasonable sending of Sir James of Liddale, 
formerly of Halkerstoun, into England, with treasonable writings and in- 
structions ; for receiving a pursuivant of the King of England, " call it blew- 

* "Act ParL Scot.," vol. ii., pp. 146-152, "Pinkwton," &c., passim. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 33 

mantle;"* and finally after enumerating other treasonable acts for "ye 
tressonablc stuffing with men and wittale of ye Castell of Crechtoun, and 
for the treasonable consale and assistence gevin to the personis being in 
the said castell of Crechtoun in the treasonable halding of the said castell 
aganis our said lords writings and Acts of Parliament, efter our soveran 
lords grace to the said lord Crechtoun gevin and grantit efter the mony 
and divers crimes Rebellionis and trespasses contrar our soueran lord 
and his Eealme be him comytit and done." ["Act Parl. Scot." ii., 260.] 
This was a most formidable indictment, and deserving all the penalties 
of the crime of high-treason, aggravated also by his previously having been 
pardoned for former numerous crimes of rebellion. It is therefore not 
surprising that he should have dreaded appearing for trial before his peers, 
and sought refuge in the remote parts of the north of Scotland, where he 
found sanctuary within the inviolable " girth of S. Duthach, at Tayn in 
Ross." Lord Crechtoun must have fled to Tain about the middle of the 
year 1483, probably immediately after hearing of the forfeiture of the 
Duke of Albany, in whose treasons he was so deeply implicated ; and 
more especially after stuffing, that is garrisoning, his ancestral Castle of 
Crechtoun, near Edinburgh, and putting it in a state of defence against 
the royal troops, in behalf of his friend the Duke of Albany. From the 
Acts of Parliament, above referred to, it appears that the Sheriff of Edin- 
burgh, being unable to apprehend Lord Crechtoun personally at his own 
castle, published the summons for treason at the Market Cross of Edin- 
burgh, on December 7, 1483; and next endeavoured to serve it with the 
necessary legal formalities, according to the following account of the pro- 
ceedings. "The 11 day of December 1483, I, William Cumyn, macer 
and Sheriff in that part, by our Sovereign lord specially constituted, by his 
letters directed to me, passed with the same, and the witness Symon 
Sperdor, messsenger, Thomas Scot, Johne Cowy, with others diverse, 
to the Market Cross of Aberdene ; and in likewise the 1 8 day of the 
same month and year forsaid, I passed with the said letters and these 
witnesses, Thomas Scot, Johne Fresar, and Johne Cowy, Patric Prat, one 
of the Bailies of Banf, Patric Blith, and Patric Duncansoun, burgess of 
the same, to the market cross of Banff; and the 20 day of the same 
month and year I passed with the said letters and these witnesses, Symon 
Sperdor, Thomas Scot, Johne Fresar, John of Cowy, with others diverse, 
to the market cross of Elgin ; the 22 day of the said month and year, I 
passed with the said letters and these witnesses, Thomas Scot, Johne 
Fresar, John Cowy, Archbald Broun, and John Terres, with others 
diverse, to the market cross of Forres ; the 23 day of the moneth and 
year foresaid, I passed with the said letters and these witnesses, Thomas 
Scot, Johne Fresar, Johne Cowy, William Caldor, and Alane Thomsoun, 
burgess of Name, with others diverse, to the market cross of Name ; and 
the same 23 day I passed with the said letters and these witnesses, 
Thomas Scot, Johne Fresar, Johne Cowy, Alexander Fleming, Alexander 
Eede, and Johnne Patersoun, burgess of Inverness, to the market cross 
of the same ; and beoause I cowth not get certain verification nor know- 

* The earliest Pursuivant-at-arms Bluemantle recorded, is John Brice, gent, who 
was in office, under Richard VII., and " probably dispossessed," according to Noble, in 
"History of College of Arms," [4to, London, 1804 ; p. 93] probably the same. 

C 



34 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

ledge where to find nor apprehend personally William, Lord Crechtoun, 
I passed to all the boroughs forenamed, and at the market cross of the 
same, at days and before witnesses above expremit, I summoned peremtourly 
by open proclamation!! the same William, Lord Crechtoun, and moreover, 
the penult day of the mouth and year foresaid, I passed with the said 
letters and these witnesses, Thomas Scot, Johne Fresar, Johne Cowy, 
William Johnsoun, one of the Bailies of Thane, Thomas Rede, a Bailie of 
Cromarty, Mawnis Vans, burges of Invernes, and Alexander Sutherland, 
bruther and famuliar servitor to the said Lord Crechtoun, to the town of 
Thane in Ross, within the sheriffdom of Inverness foresaid, where the 
same Lord Crechtoun had his dwelling, as I was informed, in the Vicar's 
house of Thane ; and at all the market crosses of the borowis before 
named, and vicar's house in Thane also foresaid, I summoned lawfully 
and peremptorily, in the name and authority of our Sovereign lord, the 
King, the said William, Lord Crechtoun, to compear personally before our 
forenamed Sovereign lord in his next Parliament, to be haldin at Edin- 
burgh, on Thuisday, the xix. day of the month of February next to 
come," &c. The foregoing notarial statement, though rather prolix, is in- 
teresting, both as showing the difficulties the "masar," or mace-bearer, 
acting as Sheriff-Substitute, and employed by the Sheriff of Edinburgh, 
had in serving the summons on Lord Crechtoun, in his distant place of 
concealment ; and also the time he occupied in travelling northwards, 
through the different burghs of Aberdeen, Banff, Elgin, Forres, Nairn, 
and Inverness, until he finally succeeded in discovering the fugitive lord 
"in the town of Thane in Ross." All which arose from his inability to 
" get certane verificacioun nor knaulage quhar to fynd nor apprehend 
personaly William, lord Crechtoun;" although when he had at last traced 
him to his residence at Tain, he was only able to serve the summons at 
the vicar's house there, without doing so personally, or apprehending him. 
He concludes the report of his proceedings at Tain, by stating that " in 
all the above within executioun I made Intimacioun that whether the said 
lord Crechtoun compearit or nocht at day and place to him lymyt with 
continuacioun ol'dais, Our Soveran lord nevertheless Justice passand before 
wald precede ; and also of our soverane lord's lettres to me direct in this 
inattej as said Is. I gaif the copy to the foresaid Alexander Sutherland, 
quhilk Requirit me proof on the behalf of the said lord Crechtoun, at 
Thane, the penult day of december above written." [" Act. Parl. Scot" 
ii., 159-1 CO.] The expressions used are slightly modernised, but other- 
wise these extracts are literally copied, without alteration the contrac- 
tions being merely completed to render the meaning plainer. From the 
different names of the witnesses given, we learn those oi' several burgesses 
of our northern towns, nearly four centimes ago "Jonne Patersoun" 
and "Mawnis Vans" (Magnus Vans?), of Inverness, "Thomas Rede, a 
bail/e of Cromaty," and " William Johnsoun, one of the baillies of Thaiu-." 
" William Caldor, at Name," seems to have been the venerable Thane of 
Cawdor, or Calder, who flourished between the years 1467 and 1503, and 
was the last of the old race of Thanes, as well as of those who bore that 
ancient title in Scotland.* 

(To be Continued.) 

* Cosmo Innes. " The Book of the Thanes of Cawdor, 1236-1742." Spalding Club 
Edition. Ediuburgh, 4to, 1859 ; passim. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



DIRECTORY OF HIGHLAND AND CELTIC SOCIETIES. 



THE GAELIC SOCIETY OF INVEENESS. 

OFFICE-BEARERS FOR 1878-9. 

Chief John Mackay, C.E., Swansea 

Honorary Chieftains Sir Kenneth S. Mackenzie of Gairloch, Baronet ; Professor John 

Stuart Blackie ; Charles Eraser-Mackintosh, M.P. ; Duncan Davidson of Tulloch. 
Chieftains Alexander Simpson, Provost of Inverness ; Colin Chisholm, Broadstone Park, and 

Duncan A. Macrae, Englishton 
Honorary Secretary William Mackay, solicitor, Church Street 

Secretary William Mackenzie, Free Press Office, Inverness 
Treasurer George J. Campbell, solicitor, Church Street, Inverness 

Council 

Charles Mackay, Culduthel Road Charles Ferguson, Raigmore 

John Macdonald, The Exchange John Whyte, Highlander Office 

John Murdoch, Highlander Office 

Librarian Charles Ferguson, Raigmore 
Sard Mrs Mary Mackellar Piper Pipe- Major Alexander Maclennan 

Bankers The Caledonian Banking Company 

This Society publishes a volume of " Transactions " annually, a copy of which every Member 
of the Association receives gratis. 



THE GAELIC SOCIETY OF LONDON FOUNDED 1777. 

Chief The Marquis of Huntly 



President John Cameron Macphee 
Vice-P resident Walter H. Burton 
Gaelic Secretary Donald Campbell 



Librarian James Fraser 
Treasurer Alex. Mackenzie Mackay 
Secretary John Forbes, 66 Charing Cross 



The meetings are held at the Society's Rooms, No. 1 Adam Street, Adelphi Terrace, at 8 P.M., 
on the Second Wednesday of every month, excepting July, August, and September. Highlanders 
are invited to attend. 

THE EDINBUEGH SUTHEELAND ASSOCIATION. 

Patrons. 
His Grace the Duke of Sutherland, K.G. | The Right Honourable Lord Reay 

OFFICE-BEARERS. 

President John Macdonald, 7 Albany Street, Edinburgh 
Vice-President A. Mackay Robson, 121 Constitution Street, Leith 

Treasurer Alexander Mackay, 20 St Andrew Square 

Secretary James Macdonald, W.S., 21 Thistle Street, Edinburgh 

Assistant Secretary Hugh M. Matheson, 4 Roseneath Terrace 

Piper James Kerr 

Committee. 



John Macdonald, 30 Haddington Place 
Donald Mackay, 73 Cockburn Street 
HughJMackay, 22 Prince Regent St., Leith 



William Macpherson, 4 East Adam Street 
James Mackay, 20 St Andrew Square 
George Matheson, 15 Clerk Street 



PROGRAMME FOR 1878-9. Annual Meeting, 6th December 1878, at 8 P.M., in No. 5 St Andrew 
Square. After business, Essay by Mr Macmichael. Annual Social Meeting, 10th January 1879, 
in Masonic Hall the Marquis of Stafford in the chair. Quarterly Meeting, 7th March 1879, at 
8 P.M., in No. 5 St Andrew Square. After business, Essay. 

The Association has opened Gaelic Music and Reading Classes in the Free Tron Church, 
Chambers Street, open to all Highlanders, every Tuesday, from 8 to 10 P.M. Mr D. 
Robertson conducts the singing, and Mr Alex. Mackay the Gaelic reading class. 



THE HEBBUEN CELTIC ASSOCIATION. 

Chief J. Macfadyen Chieftains J. Matheson and W. Matheson 

Secretary Alex. J. Macleod Treasurer D. Macgregor 

Committee. 



J. Macleod Campbell. 
D. Colquhoun 
J. Macleod 



S. Little 

H. Sutherland 

F. Junor 



D. Corbett. 
L. Grant 
J. Munro 



J. Dunn 

First Friday of each month set apart for reading MS. Magazine made up of original contribu- 
tions supplied by the members during the month. This Periodical is afterwards circulated 
among the members. Second Friday General business. Third Friday Debates on Celtic 
subjects. Fourth Friday Amusements ; Gaelic and English songs, recitations, &c., varied by 
Highland dances, pipe music, and cognate subjects. 



3G THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

COMUNN GA1DHEALACH GHLASCHU. 

GLASGOW HIGHLAND ASSOCIATION. 

OFFICE-BEARERS, 1878-9. 
Chief Clvmy Macpherson of Cluny //.<,/>./># Chieftain Duncan Sharp, Keppoch Hill 



fauna- Messrs Duncan White anclJames Fraser 
Secretary J. G. Mackay, 1.">S Plantation Street Treasurer John Munro 

CUSPAIK. September 3, 1878 " Eaclulraidh nan Seanna Ghaidheal," by Mr Duncan White. 
October 1 " Innis Ghall," by Mr Norman Morrison. November 5" Slainte," by Mr M. Mac- 
donald. Decembers " An Gaidheal 's a' bhaile-mhor," by Mr Henry Whyte. January 7, 1878 
'ih-chrahhadh am wcas;; nan Gaidheal," by Mr J. G. Mackay. l-'eliniary 4" Land Ten- 
ure in the Highlands," by Mr W. L. Bogle. March 4 " Tuathanachas am mea-sg nan Gaidheal.' 1 
by Mr C. A. Walker. 

The ordinary meetings are held on the first Tuesday of each month. Gaelic Concerts in the 
Assembly Rooms, 138 Bath Street, every Saturday evening from October to March inclusive, at 
8P.M. ' _ _ __ _ 

GLASGOW SUTHERLAND ASSOCIATION. 

OFFICE-BEARERS. 
Patron His Grace the Duke of Sutherland, K.G. 

President John Mackay, C.E., Swansea 
Vice-President William Sutherland, F.E.I. S., Crossbill 

Secretary Angus Sutherland, 230 Argyle St. Treagurer Angus Mackay, Garscube Road 
Directors Messrs James Matheson, Gilbert Mackintosh, Charles Fraser, John G. 

Mackay, and George Macleod 

The ordinary meetings are held on the first Thursday of the months of January, February, 
March, April, October, November, and December. 

GLASGOW COWAL SOCIETY. 

OFFICE-BEARERS, 1878-9. 

Honorary President The Most Noble the Marquis of Lome 
President Colin Brown Vice-P resident John Macfie 

Directors 



D. Macgregor 
Duncan Black 
John Maclean 



J. Mackellar 
Peter Maclean 
M. Hunter, jun. 



Duncan Currie 
D. C. Maclean 
Captain Alex. Maclean 



Treasurer Duncan Whyte, 326 Duke Street 
Secretary James Mackellar, 433 New City Road 



SYLLABUS, 1878-9. September 27, 1878 Address, by the President. October 25 Mackinlay's 
Explorations in Australia, by Mr 1). Whyte. November 29 Ossianic Poetry, and its allusions 
to Cowal Scenery, by Mr Archibald Brown. December 20 Railway Clearing House, by Mr D. 
Campbell. January 31, 1879 Druidism, by Mr Archibale Whyte. February 28 Poetry, by Mr 
D. D. Maclean. March 28 Depopulation of the Natives of Cowal during the present century, 
with a sketch of its Topography and Family Names, by Mr D. C. Maclean. April 25 General 
business meeting. 

The ordinary meetings of the Society are held on the above dates, at 7.45 P.M., within the 
Religious Institution Rooms, 112 Buchanan Street, Glasgow. 

THE GLASGOW SHINTY ASSOCIATION. 

OFFICE-BEARERS, 1878-9. 

President Capt. James Menzies, 105th L.R.V. 

Vioe-PregidentJ. G. Mackay, 158 Plantation Street (Ossian). 

Secretary Malcolm Leitch, 74 Parson Street (Inveraray) 
Treasurer Alexander Miickellar, 31 Raeberry Street (Cowal) 

THE GREENOCK HIGHLAND SOCIETY. 

Chief The Most Noble the Marquis of Lome. 

Patrons. 

The Most Noble the Marquis of Bute | Sir Michael R. Shaw Stewart, Baronet. 

President James Johnson Grieve. Vice-PresidentJohn Fleming. 

OFFICE-BEARERS. 

John Erskine Walter Grieve Hugh Mackay 

John Cameron Dr Macraild | 

Directors. 



3. G. Ross 
A. Sinclair 
D. .Mackintosh 
John Campbell 
John Thomson 



S. Nicolson 
Graham Bremner 
Archibald Cook 
R. Brown 
Harry Buchanan 



John M. Campbell 
D. Campbell 
Kenneth Mackaskill 
J. Kerr 



R. Duncan 
James Mackenzie 
William Cook 
Neil Brown 



Treasurer James Brown. 
Joint Secretaries- {% %%$**' <* Nicolson street . and 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 37 

THE LONDON" HIGHLAND CAMANACHD CLUB. 

Patron The Right Hon. Lord Lovat 
President Right Hon. Lord Colin Campbell, M.P. 

Chief J. W. Malcolm of Poltalloch 
Honorary Captain Charles Fraser-Mackintosh, M.P. 

Chieftain Donald Grant, Great St Helen's, B.C. 

Captain J. Maedonald-Cameron, F.C.S., South Kensington, W. 

Vice-Captain Archibald Mactavish, Albany Street, Regent's Park, W. 

Club-Bearer A. Macrae-Chisholni, Old Broad Street, E.C. 

Treasurer Archibald Mackintosh, Orris Villa, Hammersmith, W. 

Secretary Alister Maclennan, Woburn Place, Russell Square, W.C. 

Members meet for practice and play every alternate Saturday during the season at Wimbledon. 
The annual Club dinner takes place in December. 

BIRMINGHAM CELTIC SOCIETY. 

OFFICE-BEARERS. 

Chief Jonathan Nicolson 

Chieftains A. R. Munro and A. Maclure 

Treasurer Angus Macgregor Secretary D. Skinner, 127 Cattell Road 

Members of Council 

D. Campbell D. Macinnes A. Macintyre 

D. Macarthur A. Macdonald 



M. Macinnes 



ARGYLLSHIRE GATHERING, OBAN. 

COMMITTEE. 
The Marquis of Lome, K.T., President. 

Stewards. 

Lieutenant-Colonel C. A. Macdougall of Macdougall, Convener 
Lieutenant-Colonel C. Greenhill Gardyne of Glenforsa 
J. Campbell of Kilberry. 
N. M. Macdonald of Dunach. 
Colin C. Finlay, yr. of Castle Toward. 

Secretary and Treasurer J. Fraser Sim, Oban 
Bankers National Bank of Scotland, Oban 

fittiWiujfS^-Breadalbans Street, Oban 
The Society hold one Social Meeting annually. 

GLASGOW ISLAY ASSOCIATION. 

OFFICE-BEARERS SESSION, 1878-9. 

Patrons. 

John F. Campbell of Islay Colin Hay, Ardbeg, Islay 

Kirkman Finlay. Dunlossit, Islay 

Honorary Presidents. 

Crawford Graham, Lagavulin, Islay Duncan MacCalluin, Glasgow 

Rev. Robt. Blair, M.A., St Columba, Glasgow | L. Maclean, Islay House, Islay 

Honorary Secretary Duncan Macgregor, Glasgow 

Directors. 
Mai. Smith, Chairman Joseph Hill, Vice-Chairman 



Arch. Sinclair 
Neil Macarthur 
Angus Macallister 



Duncan Macniven 
Duncan Macleod 
John Ogilvie 



N. Gilchrist 
Jn. Cameron 
Don. Macdougall 



John Love 

Treasurer Samuel Macfadyen, Glasgow 

Secretary Donald Martin, 239 New City Road, Glasgow 

Assistant Secretary Arch. Maccalluin, Glasgow 

GLASGOW CELTIC SOCIETY INSTITUTED 1857. 

OFFICE-BEARERS FOR 1878. 

Chief The Earl of Dunmore 

President John Orr Ewing of liallikinrain, M.P. 

Vice-President Duncan Smith, 115 St Vincent Street, Glasgow 

Hon. Treasurer John Elder, 151 Hope Street, Glasgow 

Hon. Srcretary George Rennie, 38 West George Street, Glasgow 

Directors 



Arch. Macdougall 
Jas. Macmillan 
Donald Brown 



John Macmillan, 70 Mitchell Street, Glasgow 
John Elder, 151 Hope Street, Glasgow 
James Dewar, Renfrew Court, Glasgow 
Alex. Macneill, 20 Union Street, Glasgow 
Captain Menzies, 66 Bath Street, Glasgow 
James Fleming, 83 Jamaica Street, Glasgow 



Dr Buchanan, 24 Westminster Terrace, Glasgow 
Neil Sinclair, 42 Miller Street, Glasgow 
George Rennie, 38 West George Street, Glasgow 
Colin Campbell, 8 Bothwell Street, Glasgow 
Duncan Macdougall, 302 Buchanan Street, 
Glasgow 



38 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

GLASGOW PERTHSHIRE ASSOCIATION. 

OFFICE-BEARERS FOR 1878. 

Patron Charles Stirling Home Drummond Moray of Blairdrummoml and Abercairney 
President Peter Gardner, \V.S. Late President Charles Maclean 

Directors 



John Hutchison 
It. M. Buchanan 
William Macculloch 
A. M. Robertson 
Secretury and Tre 


James Menzies 
Professor Ramsay 
George Ogilvie 
Laurence Robertson 
asurer George Gray, 72 Hutches 


James Cleland Burns 
James Blair 
John Muir 
William MacOnie 
3n Street, Glasgow 



GLASGOW NOETHEEN HIGHLAND BENEVOLENT SOCIETY. 

Patron Vice-Patron George Sutherland of Forse 

President George Munro, Elmbauk Crescent Ex-President John Matheson, yr. of Cordale. 

Ordinary Directors 



George Macleod, 69 Ingrain Street 
George Munro, 25 Elmbank Crescent 
Cluny Macpherson, 135 St Vincent Street 
James Fraser, 41 North Albion Street 
Robert Murray, 41 North Albion Street 
George Sinclair, 199 St Vincent Street 



Alexander Mackay, 20 Union Street 

George Macbeth, 29 Clyde Place 

J ohn Bannerman, British Linen Bank,QueenSt. 

William Sinclair, 199 St Vincent Street 

Kenneth Macleod, Ingram Street 

John Macmillan, 70 Mitchell Street 



Treasurer George Sinclair, 199 St Vincent Street 
Secretary Martin Mackay, 89 West Regent Street 

The Directors meet quarterly on the second Wednesday of January, April, July, and October 
in each year. The objects of the Society are entirely of a Benevolent character. 



FINGAL LODGE OF GOOD TEMPLARS (FAEDACH FHINN). 

OFFICE-BEARERS. 

D. Macpherson, D.G.W.C.T. D. Nicolson, W.S. 

D. Machines, W.C.T. J. Macphail, W.T. 

Meets every Friday in the St Clair Hall, 25 Robertson Street, at 8 P.M. All business con- 
ducted in Gaelic. 



COMUNN TIE NAM BEANN, GLASGOW. 

D. Macpherson, President 3. Nicholson, Secretary 

D. Machines, V ice-President J. Macphail, Treasurer 

Directors A. Campbell, J. Macfadyen, J. Macphail, J. Campbell, and A. Macfadyen. 

Gaelic Concerts held every Saturday in the Hall, 56 Carrick Street, from September to March 
inclusive, at 8 P.M. D. Macpherson, Chairman. 



GLASGOW AEGYLLSHIEE SOCIETY INSTITUTED IN 1851. 

OFFICE-BEARERS. 

President James Alexander Campbell of Strcathro 

Treasurer Colin Campbell, 8 Bothwell Street, Glasgow 

Ordinary Directors 



Lachlan Cowan 
Samuel Dow, junr. 
Rev. Robert Blair 



Alexander C. Hunter John Macinillan 

Donald Ross Neil Sinclair 

John B. Wright And. Galbraith 
The above are also Trustees. 



Seeretary Duncan Macdougall, Solicitor, 302 Buchanan Street, Glasgow 

The obj 
Fan 
wise 

be considered proper i . 

nected with Argyllshire, whether resident there or in Glasgow. Annual Contribution by Ordi- 
nary Members Three Guineas. 



[We propose publishing the Directory of Celtic Societies annually in future, and we shall 
esteem it a favour if the above Societies, and others who have not this your supplied us with the 
necessary information, will kindly aid us in making the next one more perfect and complete.] 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 39 



WILLIAM JOLLY, H.M.I.S., ON TEACHING GAELIC IN SCHOOLS. 



-o 



IN his official report to the Education Department, Mr Jolly writes as 
follows : 

Gaelic has gained large attention of late, and is a subject of great importance, in- 
volving as it does the question of the right use in schools of the daily language of 300,000 
of our people. Having given it some study, I would briefly state the conclusions at 
which I have arrived regarding it : 

1. In Highland schools, we ought to read English first, as the language of trade, 
comm'eree, current literature, and general intercourse, necessary for success in life, and 
desired universally by Highlanders themselves. There are some theoretic grounds for 
learning to read the native tongue before a foreign one, but the question in this case is 
one of what is most expedient, and in the end most successful, in regard to both lan- 
guages, in the short school-life of Highland children ; and the idea of reading Gaelic 
first is 'only entertained by a few enthusiasts. English being foreign and more difficult, 
it could not be acquired to any purpose if one or two years of the five or six of school 
life were first devoted to another language. If school time is short enough for English- 
speaking children, with all their advantages, to gain even a meagre power over it, why 
allow less time to a Gaelic child to learn it, to whom it is a foreign tongue ? But by 
beginning with English, Gaelic may be read with ease in a short time, when a child is 
able to read English, for he has merely to apply the power of reading which he has 
acquired to the language he knows and uses. So that the end of the enthusiasts would 
itself be gained by the more rational method, while increased power over English would 
also be obtained. 

2. Gaelic should be used orally in the teaching of English from the first, in order to 
get at and train the intelligence of Gaelic children, and to make the teaching of English 
more thorough. Of the wisdom of this course in all possible cases, there cannot be one 
moment's doubt, for it is an application of the universal educational axiom of teaching 
the unknown through and by the known, and it is especially necessary in the present 
case. This should be done, not only in regard to words, but in regard to the matter of 
the lessons. In the case of infant-school lessons to purely Gaelic speaking children, 
Gaelic would require to be used exclusively at first, if the work is to be in any way 
intelligent. But in all cases care should be taken to use English more and more, so as to 
give the children increasing power over it, the amount of English used being, of course, 
determined by the extent of their knowledge of it. There is a tendency with many 
Highland teachers to use Gaelic too much, on account, no doubt, of the greater ease and 
pleasure of using it. This retards progress, however, and should be guarded against. 
Even those who wish Gaelic "stamped out" (and there are not a few Highlanders who 
have strong views on this point), could best effect their object by a judicious cultivation 
of Gaelic in teaching English, so as to train the intelligence through it ; because the 
more English is intelligently understood and used by Gaelic children, the sooner will it 
become the general speech of the people, and the sooner, therefore, will Gaelic die. So 
that both the friends and enemies of Gaelic have an interest in using it for training 
intelligence. 

3. The importance of Gaelic literature as an instrument of education and culture to 
the Gaelic people should be recognised in the teaching of Gaelic children. It is in and 
by the mother tongue of a people alone, with its thousand memories ef home and youth, 
play and friendship, nature and religion, and with its countless avenues to the deeper 
feelings, that the education of the heart and the higher nature can be truly carried on ; 
it is by it alone that sentiment, feeling, devotion, and even the higher intellect can be 
really trained. And the mother tongue becomes a stronger instrument of culture when 
it contains a good and generous literature. Our school education should look beyond 
the little time spent within school walls to the after education of the man, and give him 
the power of pursuing this, by the use of the literature that appeals to and is best able 
to penetrate and mould his nature and touch its deeper springs. No foreign literature, 
however splendid, can do this. It must be done through the language of home, youth, 
love, and daily lite, if there is a literature in that tongue. And such a literature exists 
in Gaelic, able to perform this higher function to the Highlander, abundant, varied, aad 
powerful, full of fine sentiment, pleasant humour, lyrical beauty, deep feeling, practical 
wisduni, and natural life. 

In a closing paragraph, Mr Jolly says that this question in no way touches 



40 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE, 



the other question of the desirability or otherwise of Gaelic dying out as a 
spoken tongue, which in many ways would be an advantage to the people : - 

The teaching of it intelligently would not retard that certain issue of national life 
one single hour it would undoubtedly hasten it. But while Gaelic is spoken, while it 
is the hourly language of nearly half -a-million of our people, and while it is used by many 
more, it would seem to be but simple justice, if not higher wisdom, to recognise this 
fact, and to act upon it in our schools. 



HO-RO MO NIGH'N DONN BHOIDHEACH. 

In moderate time. 




cTW- 



^=* 



A nighean donn nam blath - shuil, Gur og a thug mi gradh dhut 
Chorus Ho - ro mo nigh'n donn bhoidheach, Hi ri nao nigh'u donn bhoidheach, 

D.C. for Chorus. 




m 



3 



I r 

Tha d'iamhaidh ghaoil a's d'ailleachd, A ghuath tigh'nn fo m' uiilh. 
Mo chaileag laghach bhoidheach, Co phosainn ach thu ? 

KEY A. 

: s, I d :-. t, 1 1, : s, I d : | B, : s, 1 d :-. r ! f : m I r :- I m 



:f s : s | m :s s, : | d :r 



D.C. for Chorus. 



m :- 



Cha cheil mi air an t-saoghal, 
Gu bheil mo mhiann 's mo ghaol ort ; 
'S ged chaidh mi uait air faondradh, 
Cha chaochail mo run. 

Ho-ro, &c. 

'N uair bha mi ann ad lathair, 
Bu shona bha mo laithean ; 
A' sealbhachadh do mhanrain, 
A's aille do ghnuis. 

Ho-ro, &c. 

Gnuis aoidheil, bhanail, mhalda 
Na h-oigh a's caoimhe nadur ; 
I suairce, ceanail, baigheil, 
Lan grais agns muirn. 

Ho-ro, &c. 



Ach riamh o 'n dh' fhag mi t' fhiauuis, 
Gu bheil mi dubhach, cianail ; 
Mo chridhe trom ga phianadh 
Le iarguin do ruin. 

Ho-ro, &c. 

Ge lurach air a' chabhsair 
Na mnathan oga Gallda, 
A righ ! gur beag mo gheall-s' 
Air bhi' sealltainn 'n an gnuis. 
Ho-ro, &c. 

'S ann tha mo run 's na beanntaibh, 
Far bheil mo ribhinn ghreannar, 
Mar ros am fasach Shamhraidh, 
An gleann fad' o shuil. 

Ho-ro, &c. 



Ach 'n uair a thig an Samhradh, 
Bheir mine sgriob do 'n ghleann ud, 
'S gu 'n tog mi leam do 'n Ghalldachd, 
Gu h-annsail, am flur. 

Ho-ro, &c. 

NOTE. " Ho-ro mo nighean donn bhoidheach "i s so well known throughout the High- 
lands that it is unnecessary to say anything in its praise in now presenting it to the 
readers of the Celtic Magazine. "W. M'K. 



THE 



CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

No. XXXVIII. DECEMBER 1878. VOL. IV. 

HISTORY OF THE CLAN MACKENZIE, 

WITH GENEALOGIES OF THE PKINC1PAL FAMILIES. 

BY THE EDITOR. 



[CONTINUED.] 

XVII. WILLIAM, Fifth EARL OF SEAFORTH and Sixth LORD MAC- 
KENZIE OF KINTAIL, known among the Highlanders as " William 
Dubh." He does not appear at any time to have assumed the title of 
Marquis. He succeeded at a most important era in the history of Scot- 
land, just when the country was divided on the great question of 
union with England, which, in spite of the fears of most of the 
Highland chiefs and nobles of Scotland, turned out in the end so 
beneficial to both. He would, no doubt, during his residence with his 
exiled parents in France, have imbibed strong Jacobite feelings. We have 
been able to obtain but little information of William's proceedings during 
the first few years of his rule. He appears to have continued abroad, for 
on the 23d of May 1709 an order appears addressed to the forester at 
Letterewe signed by the Earl's mother, the Dowager " Frances Seaforth." 
On the 22d of June 1713 she addresses a letter to Colin Mackenzie of Kin- 
craig, in which she says " I find my son William is fully inclined to do 
justice to all. Within fifteen days he will be at Brahan."* It also is 
signed "Frances Seaforth." 

At this time a great majority of the southern nobles were ready to 
break out into open rebellion, while the Highland chiefs were almost to 
a man prepared for a rising. This soon became apparent to the Government. 
Bodies of armed Highlanders were seen moving about in several districts in 
the North. A party appeared in the neighbourhood of Inverness which 
was, however, soon dispersed by the garrison. The Government became 
alarmed, and the lords justices sent a large number of half-pay officers, 
chiefly from the Scottish regiments, to officer the militia, under command 
of Major-General Whitham, commander-in-chief at the time in Scotland. 
These proceedings alarmed the Jacobites, most of whom returned to their 
homes. The Duke of Gordon was confined in Edinburgh Castle, and the 
Marquis of Huntly and Lord Drummond in their respective residences. 
The latter fled to the Highlands and offered bail for his good behaviour. 

* Original produced at Allangrange Service in 1829. 



42 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Captain Campbell of Glcndaruel, who had obtained a commission from 
the late Administration to raise an independent company of Highlanders, 
was apprehended at Inverlochy and sent prisoner to Edinburgh. Sir 
Donald Macdonald of Sleat was also seized and committed to the same 
place, and a proclamation was issued offering a reward of ,100,000 
sterling for the apprehension of the Chevalier should he land or attempt 
to land in great Britain. King George, on his arrival, threw himself 
entirely into the arms of the Whigs, who alone shared his favours. A 
spirit of the most violent discontent was excited throughout the whole 
kingdom, and the populace, led on by the Jacobite leaders, raised tumults 
in different parts of the King's dominions. The Chevalier, taking ad- 
vantage of this excitement, issued his manifesto to the chief nobility, espe- 
cially to the Dukes of Shrewsbury, Marlborough, and Argyll, who handed 
them to the Secretaries of State. 

The King dissolved Parliament in the month of January 1715, and 
issued an extraordinary proclamation calling together a new Parliament. 
The "Whigs were successful both in England and Scotland, but particularly 
so in the latter, where a majority of the peers, and forty out of the forty-five 
members then returned to the Commons, were in favour of the King's 
Government. The principal struggle was in the county of Inverness, 
between Mackenzie of Prestonhall strongly supported by Glen- 
garry and the other Jacobite chiefs, and Forbes of Culloden, brother of 
the celebrated President, who carried the election through the influence 
of Brigadier-General Grant and the friends of Lord Lovat. 

The Earl of Mar, who had rendered himself extremely unpopular among 
the Jacobite chiefs, afterwards rewarded some of his former favourites by 
advocating the repeal of the Union. He was again made Secretary of 
State for Scotland in 1713, but was unceremoniously dismissed from 
office by George I., and vowed revenge. He afterwards found his way 
north to Fife, and subsequently to the Braes of Mar. On the 19th of 
August 1715, he despatched letters to the principal Jacobites, among 
whom was Lord Seaforth, inviting them to attend a grand hunting 
match at Braeinar on the 27th of the same month. This was a ruse 
meant to cover his intention to raise the standard of rebellion, and that 
the Jacobites were let into the secret is evident from the fact that as 
early as the 6th of August those in Edinburgh and the neighbourhood 
were aware of his intentions to come to Scotland. Under pretence of 
attending this grand match a considerable number of noblemen and 
gentlemen arrived at Aboyne about the appointed time, among whom 
were the Marquis of Huntly, eldest son of the Duke of Gordon; the 
Marquis of Tullibardine, eldest son of the Duke of Athole ; the Earls of 
Nithsdale, Marischal, Traquair, Errol, Southesk, Carnwarth, Seaforth, 
Linlithgow, and others ; the Viscounts Kilsyth, Kenmure, Kingston, and 
Stormont; Lords Eollo, Duffus, Drammond, Strathallan, Ogilvie, and 
Nairne ; and about twenty -six gentlemen of influence in the Highlands, 
among whom were Generals Hamilton and Gordon, Glengarry, Campbell 
of Glendaruel, and the lairds of Auchterhouse and Auldbar.* Mar made 
a stirring address, expressing regret for his past conduct in favouring the 

* History of the Highland Clans ; Kae, p. 189 ; Annals of King George, pp. 15-16, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 43 

Union, and, now that his eyes were opened, promising to do all in his 
power to retrieve the past and make his countrymen again a free people. 
He produced a commission from James appointing him Lieutenant- 
Geueral and Commander of all the Jacobite forces in Scotland, informed 
the meeting that he was supplied with money, and that an arrangement 
had been made by which he would be enabled to pay regularly any forces 
that might be raised, so that no gentleman who should join his standard 
with his followers would be put to any expense, and the country would 
be entirely relieved of the expenses of conducting the war; after which 
the meeting unanimously resolved to take up arms to establish the 
Chevalier on the Scottish throne. They then took the oath of fidelity to 
the Earl as representative of James VIII. and to each other, and 
separated, each going home promising to raise his vassals and be in readi- 
ness to join Mar whenever they were summoned to do so. They had 
scarcely arrived at their respective destinations when they were called 
upon to meet the Earl at Aboyne on the 3d of September following, 
where, with only sixty followers, Mar proclaimed the Chevalier at Castle- 
town in Braemar, after which he proceeded to Kirkmichael, where, on the 
6th of September, he raised his standard in presence of a force of 2000 
men, mostly consisting of horse. When in course of erection the ball on 
the top of the pole fell off. This, which was regarded by the Highlanders 
as a bad omen, cast a gloom over the proceedings of the day. 

Meanwhile Colonel Sir Hector Munro, who had served as Captain of 
the Earl of Orkney's Regiment with reputation in the wars of Queen 
Anne, raised his followers, who, with a body of Rosses, amounted to 
about 600 men. With these, in November 1715, he encamped at Alness, 
and on the 6th of October following he was joined by the Earl of Suther- 
land, accompanied by his son, Lord Strathnaver, and by Lord Reay, with 
an additional force of 600, in the interest of the Whig Government, and 
to cover their own districts and check the movements of the Western 
clans in effecting a junction with the Earl- of Mar, whom Earl William 
and Sir Donald Macdonald had publicly espoused, as already stated, at 
the pretended hunting match in Braemar. This meeting at Alness had 
the effect of keeping Seaforth in the North. If the Earl and his mother's 
clans had advanced a month earlier the Duke of Argyll could not have 
dared to make head against Mar's united forces, who might have pushed 
an army across the Forth sufficient to have paralyzed any exertion that 
might have been made to have preserved a shadow of the existing Govern- 
ment in Scotland. It may be said that if Dundee had lived to have held 
the commission of Mar, such a junction would not have been necessary to 
effect, which amounts to no more than that the life of Dundee would 
have been tantamount to a restoration of the Stewarts. Mar was not 
trained in the camp, nor did he possess the military genius of a Dundee. 
Had Montrose a moiety of his force things would have been otherwise. 
Mar, trusting to Seaforth's reinforcement, was inactive, and Seaforth was 
for a time kept in by the collocation of Sutherland's levies, till he was 
also joined by 700 Macdonalds and detachments from other names, 
amounting, with his own followers, to 3000 men, with which he instantly 
attacked the Earl of Sutherland, who fled with his mixed army precipit- 
ately to Bonar-Bridge, where they dispersed. A party of Grants on, their 



44 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

way to join them, on "being informed of Sutherland's retreat, thought it 
prudent to retrace their steps. Seaforth, thus relieved, levied considerable 
fines on Munro's territories, which were fully retaliated in his absence 
with the Jacobite army, to join which he now set out ; and Sir John 
Mackenzie of Coul, whom lie had ordered to occupy Inverness, was, after 
a gallant resistance, forced by Lord Lovat, at the head of a mixed body 
of Erasers and Grants, to retreat with his garrison to Koss-shire. " Whether 
he followed his chief to Perth does not appear; but on Seaforth's 
arrival that Mar seems for the first time to have resolved on the passage 
of the Firth a movement which led to the Battle of Sheriffuiuir is 
evident and conclusive as to the different features given to the whole 
campaign by the Whig camp at Alness, however creditable to the noble 
Earl and his mother's confederates. But it is not our present province to 
enter on a military review of the conduct of either army preceding this 
consequential conflict, or to decide to which party the victory, claimed 
"by both parties, properly belonged; suffice it to say that above 3000 of 
Seaforth's men formed a considerable part of the second line, and seem 
from the general account on that subject to have done their duty."* A 
great many of Seaforth's followers were slain, among whom were four 
gentlemen who appear to have signally distinguished themselves. These 
were John Mackenzie of Hilton, who commanded a company of the Mac- 
kenzies, John Mackenzie of Applecross, John of Conchra, and John of 
Achtertyre. Their prowess on the field has been commemorated by one 
of their followers, John MacRae, who escaped and returned home, in an 
excellent Gaelic poem, known as " Latha Blar an t-Siorra," or the " Day 
of Sheriffniuir," and which we shall preserve elsewhere. The fate of 
these renowned warriors was keenly regretted by their Highland country- 
men, and they are still remembered and distinguished among them as 
" Ceithear lanan na h-Alba," or the " Four Johns of Scotland." 

During the previous troubles Islandonain Castle got into the hands of 
the King's troops, but some time before Sheriffniuir it was again secured 
by the following stratagem : A neighbouring tenant applied to the 
Governor for some of the garrison to cut his corn, as he feared from the 
appearance of the sky and the croaking of ravens that a heavy storm was 
impending, and that nothing but a sudden separation of his crop from 
the ground could save his family from starvation. The Governor readily 
yielded to his solicitations and sent the garrison of Government soldiers 
then in the castle to his aid, who, on their return, discovered the ruse 
too late ; for the Kintail men were by this time reaping the spoils, and 
had possession of the castle. " The oldest inhabitant of the parish re- 
members to have seen the Kintail men under arms, dancing on the leaden 
roof, just as they were setting out for the Battle of Sheriffmuir, where 
this resolute band was cut to pieces, "t 

Inverness continued meanwhile in possession of the Mackenzies, under 
command of the Governor, Sir John Mackenzie of Coul, and George Mac- 
kenzie of Gruinard. Macdonald of Keppoch was on his march to support 
Sir John at Inverness, and Lord Lovat, learning this, gathered his men 
together, and on the 7th of November decided to throw himself 

* Bennetsfield MS. t Old Statistical Account of Kintail, 1792. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 45 

across the river Ness and place his forces directly between Keppoch and 
the Governor. Sir John, on discovering the movement of Lovat, resolved 
to make a sally out of the garrison and place the enemy between him and 
the advancing Keppoch, where he could attack him with advantage, but 
Keppoch became alarmed and returned home through Glen-Urquhart, 
whereupon Lord Lovat marched straight upon Inverness, and took up a 
position about a mile to the west of the town. The authorities were 
summoned to send out the garrison and the Governor, or the town would 
be burned and the inhabitants put to the sword. Preparations were 
made for the attack, but Sir John Mackenzie, considering any further 
defence hopeless, on the 10th of November collected together all the 
boats he could find, and at high water safely effected his escape from the 
town, when Lovat marched in without opposition. His Lordship 
advised the Earl of Sutherland of his possession of Inverness, and on the 
15th November the latter, leaving Colonel Eobert Munro of Fowlis as 
Governor of Inverness, went with his followers, accompanied by Lord 
Lovat with some of his men, to Brahan Castle, and compelled the respon- 
sible men of the Clan Mackenzie who were not in the South with the 
Earl of Seaforth, to come under an obligation for their peaceable be- 
haviour, and to return the arms previously taken from the Munroes by 
Lord Seaforth at Alness ; to release the prisoners in their possession, and 
promise not to assist Lord Seaforth directly or indirectly in his efforts 
against the Government ; that they would grant to the Earl of Suther- 
land any sum of money he might require from them upon due notice for 
the use of the Government ; and, finally, that Brahan Castle, the principal 
residence of the Earl of Seaforth, should be turned into a garrison for his 
Majesty King George. 

Seaforth returned home from Sheriffmuir, and again collected his 
men near Brahan, but the Earl of Sutherland, with a large number of his 
own men, Lord Reay's, the Munroee, Rosses, Culloden's men, and the 
Erasers, marched to meet him and encamped at Beauly, within a few 
miles of Seaforth's camp, and prepared to give him battle, " which, when 
my Lord Seaforth saw, he thought it convenient to capitulate, own the 
King's authority, disperse his men, and propose the mediation of these 
Government friends for his pardon. Upon his submission the King was 
graciously pleased to send down orders that upon giving up his arms and 
coming into Inverness, he might expect his pardon ; yet upon the 
Pretender's Anvil at Perth and my Lord Huntly's suggestions to him 
that now was the time for them to appear for their King and country, 
and that what honour they lost at Dunblane might yet be regained ; but 
while he thus insinuated to my Lord Seaforth, he privately found that 
my Lord Seaforth had by being an early suitor for the King's pardon, by 
promising to lay down his arms, and owning the King's authority, claimed 
in a great measure to an assurance of his life and fortune, which he 
thought proper for himself to purchase at the rate of disappointing Sea- 
forth, with hopes of standing by the good old cause, till Seaforth, with 
that vain hopes, lost the King's favour that was promised him ; which 
Huntly embraced by taking the very first opportunity of deserting the 
Pretender's cause, and surrendering himself upon terms made with him 
of safety to his life and fortune. This sounded so sweet to him that he 



46 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

sleeped so secure as never to dream of any preservation for a great many 
good gentlemen that made choice to stand by him and serve under him, 
than many other worthy nobles who would die or banish rather than not 
show their personal bravery, and all other friendly offices to their ad- 
herents."* 

In February 1716, hopeless of attaining his object, the unfortunate 
son of James II. left Scotland, the land of his forefathers, never to visit 
it again, and Earl William followed him to the common resort of the 
exiled Jacobites of the time. On the 7th of the following May an act of 
attainder was passed against the Earl and other chiefs of the Jacobite 
party. Their estates were forfeited, though practically in many cases, and 
especially in that of the Earl of Seaforth, it was found extremely difficult 
to carry the forfeiture into effect, as we shall presently see. The Master 
of Sinclair is responsible for the base and unfounded allegation that the 
Earl of Seaforth, the Marquis of Huntly, and other Jacobites, were in 
treaty with the Government to deliver up the Chevalier to the Duke of 
Argyll, that they might procure better terms for themselves than they 
could otherwise expect. " This odious charge, which is not corroborated 
by any other writer, must be looked upon as highly improbable. "t If 
any proof of the untruthfulness of this charge is necessary it will be 
found in the fact that Earl "William returned afterwards to the Island of 
Lews, and re-embodied his vassals there under an experienced officer, 
Campbell of Orinundel, who had served with distinction in the Russian 
army, and it was not until a large Government force was sent over against 
him, which he found it impossible successfully to oppose, that he recrossed 
to the mainland and escaped to France. 

Among the " gentlemen prisoners " taken to the Castle of Stirling on 
the day after the Battle of Sheriifmuir we find the following in a list 
published in " Patten's Rebellion " Kenneth Mackenzie, nephew to Sir 
Alexander Mackenzie of Coul ; John Maclean, adjutant to Colonel Mac- 
kenzie's Regiment ; Colin Mackenzie of Kildin, captain of Fairburn's 
Regiment ; Hugh MacRaw, Donald MacRaw, and Christopher MacRae. 

The war declared against Spain in December 1718 again revived the 
hopes of the Jacobites, who, in accordance with a stipulation between 
the British Government and the Duke of Orleans, then Regent of France, 
had previously, with the Chevalier and the Duke of Oruiond at their 
head, been ordered out of France. They repaired to Madrid where they 
held conferences with Cardinal Alberoni, and concerted an invasion of 
Great Britain. On the 10th of March 1719 a fleet, consisting of ten 
men-of-war and twenty-one transports, having on board five thousand 
men, a large quantity of ammunition, and thirty thousand muskets, sailed 
from Cadiz under the command of the Duke of Ormond, with instructions 
to join the rest of the expedition at Corunna, and to make a descent at 
once upon England, Scotland, and Ireland. The sorry fate of this expe- 
dition is well-known. Only two frigates reached its destination, the rest 
having been dispersed and disabled off Cape Finisterre by a violent storm 
.which lasted about twelve days. The two ships which survived the 
storm and reached Scotland had on board the Earl of Seaforth and Earl 

* Lord Lovat's Account of the Taking of Inverness, ration's Rebellion, 
t Fullarton's Highland Clans, p. 471. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 47 

Marischal, the Marquis of Tullibardine, some field officers, three hundred 
Spaniards, and arms and ammunition for two thousand men. They 
entered Lochalsh about the middle of May. They effected a landing in 
Kintail and were joined by a body of Seaforth's vassals, and a party of 
Macgregors under command of the famous Rob Roy ; but the other 
Jacobite chiefs, remembering their previous disappointments and misfor- 
tunes, stood aloof until the whole of Ormond's forces should arrive. 
General Wightman, who was stationed at Inverness, hearing of their 
arrival, marched to meet them with 2000 Dutch troops and a detachment 
of the garrison at Inverness. Seaforth's forces and their allies took pos- 
session of the pass of Glenshiel, but on the approach of the Government 
forces they retired to the pass of Strachell, which they decided to defend 
at all hazards. They were here engaged by General Wightman, who, 
after a smart skirmish of about three hours' duration, and after inflicting 
some loss upon the Highlanders, drove them from one eminence to another 
till night came on, when the Highlanders, their chief having been seriously 
wounded, and giving up all hopes of a successful resistance, retired 
during the night to the mountains, carrying Seaforth along with them ; 
and the Spaniards, next morning, surrendered themselves prisoners of 
war.* Seaforth, Marischal, and Tullibardine, with the other principal 
officers, managed to effect their escape to the Western Isles, from which 
they afterwards found their way to the continent. Rob Roy was placed 
in ambush with the view of attacking the Royal troops in the rear, and 
it is recorded that having more zeal than prudence, he attacked the rear 
of the enemy's column before they had become engaged in front ; his 
small party was routed, and the intention of placing the King's troops 
between two fires was thus defeated. t General Wightman sent a detach- 
ment to Islandonain Castle, which he ordered to be blown up and de- 
molished. 

Wightman advanced from the Highland Capital by Loch-Ness, and 
a modern writer pertinently asks " Why he was allowed to pass by such 
a route without opposition ? It is alleged that Marischal and Tullibardine 
had interrupted the movements of the invaders by ill-timed altercations 
about command, but we are provoked to observe that some extraordinary 
interposition seems evident to frustrate every scheme towards forwarding 
the cause of the ill-fated house of Stuart. Had the Chevalier St George 
arrived earlier, as he might have done ; had William Earl of Seaforth 
joined the Earl of Mar some time before, as he ought to have done ; and 
strengthened as Mar would then have been, had he boldly advanced on 
Stirling, as it appears he would have done, Argyll's force would have 
been annihilated and James VIII. proclaimed at the Cross of Edinburgh. 
Well did the brave Highlanders indignantly demand, 'What did you 

* The Spaniards kept their powder magazine and balls behind the manse, but after 
the Battle of Glenshiel they set fire to it lest it should fall into the hands of the King's 
troops. These balls are still gathered up by sportsmen, and are found in great abund- 
ance upon the glebe. Old Statistical Account of Kintail. 

t New Statistical Account of Glenshiel, by the Rev. John Macrae, who gives a 
minute description of the scenes of the battle, and informs us that in constructing the 
parliamentary road which runs through the Glen a few years ago, several bullets and 
pieces of musket barrels were found ; and the green mounds which corer the graves of 
the slain, and the ruins of a rude breast-work, which the Highlanders constructed on 
the crest of the bill to cover their position, still mark the scene of the coullict, 



48 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

call us to arms for ? Was it to run away ? What did our own King 
come for ? Was it to see . us butchered by hangmen ? ' There was a 
fatuity that accompanied all their undertakings which neutralised intre- 
pidity, devotedness, and bravery ; which the annals of no other people 
can exhibit, and paltry jealousies which stultified exertions, which, inde- 
pendently of political results, astonished Europe at large."* 

An Act of Parliament for disarming the Highlanders was passed in 
1716, but in some cases to very little purpose, for some of the most dis- 
affected clans were better armed than ever, though by the Act the collectors 
of taxes were allowed to pay for the arms given in, none were delivered 
except those which were broken, old, and unfit for use, and these were 
valued at prices far above what they were really worth. Not only so, 
but a lively trade in old arms was carried on with Holland and other 
continental countries, and these arms were sold to the commissioners as 
Highland weapons, at exorbitant prices. Geneial Wade also found in the 
possession of the "Highlanders a large quantity of arms which they ob- 
tained from the Spaniards who took part in the Rattle of Glenshiel, and 
he computed that those Highlanders opposed to the Government possessed 
at this time DO less than five or six thousand arms of various kinds. 

Wade arrived in Inverness on the 10th of August 1725, and in virtue 
of another Act passed in the same year, he was empowered to 
proceed to the Highlands and to summon the clans to deliver up their 
arms, and carry beveral other recommendations of his own into etfect. 
On his arrival he immediately proceeded to business, went to Brahan 
Castle, and called on the Mackenzies to deliver up their weapons. He 
took those presented to him on the word of Murchison, factor on the 
estate, and by the representation of Tarbat, Sir Kenneth Mackenzie of 
Cromarty, and Sir Colin Mackenzie of Coul, at the head of 'a large depu- 
tation of the clan, he compromised his more rigid instructions and 
accepted a selection of worn-out and worthless arms, and at the same time 
promised that if the clan exhibited a willing disposition to comply with 
the orders of the Government he would use his influence in the following 
Parliament to procure a remission for their chief and his followers ; 
and we find, to quote our last-named authority, that " through his 
means, and the action of other minions of Court (Tarbat was then in 
power), Seaforth received a simple pardon by letters patent in 1726, for 
himself and clan, whose submission was recognised in the sham form of 
delivering their arms, a matter of the less consequence as few of that 
generation were to have an opportunity of wielding them again in the 
same cause." 

(To be Continued.) 



THE fourth part of Sinclair's " Oranaiche," recently issued, is in every 
way quite up to its predecessors. The next part will complete the work 
in accordance with the original intention of the Publishers. 

* Bennetsfield MS. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 49 



HACO, THE DANE, OE THE PBINCE'S WOOING. 

A TRUE ROMANCE OF LOCH-MAREE, IN THREE PARTS. 

By J. E. MUDDOCK, author of " A Wingless Angel" " As the Shadoics 

Fall," " Lovat, or Out in the '45," $c., $c. 



PART II. THE DUEL TO THE DEATH. 

IN the strange and wild looking man who had so suddenly appeared before 
him, as if he had risen out of the very bowels of the earth, Haco recog- 
nised "Bed Hector of the Hills." 

This man was giant-like in his proportions, and his powerful physique, 
massive chest, and broad shoulders presented a marked contrast to the 
slim, graceful figure of the Prince. 

Hector was as wild in nature as he was in appearance. He was chief 
of. a small yet savage clan, which, disdaining allegiance to the more 
powerful clans, was constantly at war. Hector's whole life had been 
passed amidst scenes of rapine and bloodshed. He was a* bloodthirsty as 
the wolf, as cunning as the fox, as subtle as the serpent. He carried his 
life in his hands, for all men, save those of his own clan, were against 
him. He warred for what he was pleased to term his " rights." From 
his earliest age he had been taught that power, wealth, and influence were 
his birthright, but that this birthright had been stolen from him. By 
whom it was not very clear, but at all events it was his special mission to 
acquire these things either by fair means or foul. His name had come to 
be a name of terror throughout Boss-shire, and even at the present day, 
many an auld wife stills the crying of a fractious bairn by telling it that 
if it does not cease she will call in Bed Hector. Ferocious, merciless, and 
bloodthirsty, no wonder that he had come to be feared, for there was 
something wolfish in his nature, and the wolves that prowled about the 
mountains, and sneaked through the glens and valleys in search of prey 
were not more hated than he. There was one singular trait, however, in 
his character, and which in a large measure compensated for his otherwise 
fierce and cruel instincts. This was nothing less than an unswerving 
gentleness and kindness to women and children. 

" I wage war with men," he was fond of saying, " and not with bairns 
and women." 

The result of this was that not a few women of the district had given 
him shelter and food when he had been sorely pressed by his enemies, 
and oftentimes those enemies were the husbands of the very women who 
were protecting him. 

Soon after the Princess Thyra had come to dwell on Isle Maree, 
Hector had met her one day in company with some of the monks as they 
were returning from one of the religious houses which stood in Glen 
Docherty. Hector gazed upon the fair face of the Princess until he be- 
came, as it were, entranced. She and the monks saw him, as he stood 
beneath the shadow of an overhanging rock, and his coarse and wild' 
appearance alarmed her so that they quickened their pace and hurried 



50 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

away. Hector did not offer to follow them, but he continued to gaze 
after the beautiful girl until she disappeared. Then he wandered away 
slowly to the hills. He was thoughtful and silent, and from that moment 
a change came over him. The face of the Princess haunted him. He 
could never shut it out, and he began to dream that it was within the 
region of possibility she might yet be his,. and at no distant date. Day 
after day he waited in the same spot in the hope that he might again 
meet her, but he waited in vain. Then a strange restlessness stole over 
him, and unable longer to control his feelings he determined, in spite of 
the superstitious awe with which he, in common with all the Highlanders, 
regarded Isle Maree, to visit the island and endeavour to obtain an inter- 
view with the woman who so to speak had enchanted him. 

He went down to the edge of the loch opposite the island, and with 
that unflinching boldness which was part of his nature, he plunged into 
the dark waters and swam to the island. Dripping and exhausted after 
his hazardous feat for it was a long distance, and the season being winter 
the water was terribly cold he landed, much to the astonishment and 
alarm of some of the monks who were busy in the garden of the monastery. 
But to assure them of his peaceful intentions, Red Hector devoutly bowed 
his knee and crossed himself. Then he drank of the water of the holy 
well, and as a still more convincing proof of the peacefulness of his 
mission, he drew a coin from his pouch and drove it into the money-tree. 
This done, he approached one of the monks, who, from certain indications 
in his dress, was superior to the rest, and removing his bonnet from his 
massive head, which was covered with coarse, red hair, he bowed low, 
and said 

" Holy father, the unusual manner which I have taken to visit you 
need cause you no alarm. I was unable to obtain a boat, and moved by 
burning impatience I trusted myself to the waters. I come alone, there- 
fore is my mission peace." 

" Thou art welcome, my son," the monk replied, as he folded his arms 
upon his breast, " as are all those who come to our sanctuary with good 
intent. But what brings thee here in so unusual a manner?" 

" What should bring me, father, save bright eyes and ruddy lips ! 
What should induce me to risk my life in the treacherous waters of the 
loch save love !" 

" Love !" the monk echoed in surprise, while his brow darkened with 
a frown. 

"Aye, even love. Dost think that my heart is stone? Rugged 
and wild I am in appearance ; that I know, but I am not without feeling, 
not yet dead to the influence of beauty and gentleness." 

The monk seemed annoyed and confused, but after a pause he an- 
swered, " But why comest thou here to tell me this?" 

" Art thou so dull that thou canst not guess that I come to woo one 
whose home is here even the Princess Thyra." 

The monk started and looked at his colleagues, then turning to the 
bold Hector, who stood shivering in the cold wind, he said, " Surely thou 
art mad, my son, to dream of one who is so far above thee." 

" Far above me !" Hector cried in a wrathful tone. "Love recognises 
no degrees of rank or station, it levels all." 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 51 

" Grant you that that is true," answered the monk. " Thou shouldst 
not forget that the Princess is wedded to the Church, or at least until 
such times as her father chooses to appoint her a husband." 

" "What care I for her father," Hector exclaimed, as the passion glow 
mounted into his swarthy face, for he could not bear to be thwarted, 
and his self-possession was leaving him. " I have looked into her face, 
and henceforth she and she only can be my light. Give me an oppor- 
tunity to woo her, but even though you should oppose me I tell you this, 
and the vow of Eed Hector was never yet broken I will possess her." 

" Thou art saucy and insolent," the monk answered, " and let me tell 
thee that the Princess Thyra is not for the likes of thee." 

At this moment the Princess crossed the garden as she was on her 
way to the little chapel. As he caught sight of her form, Hector was 
moving towards her without noticing the monk's words, but the monk 
caught him by the arm and held him back. Almost foaming with rage, 
the Highlander raised his ponderous fist to strike the holy man, but quick 
as thought the monk drew a small crucifix from his bosom, and holding 
it above Hector's head, he exclaimed 

" Away, thou man of crime and sin, or, by this symbol of holiness 
and truth, thou shalt be cursed." 

Hector recoiled in horror. Like all the Highlanders, he was very 
superstitious, and the thought of being placed under a ban filled him with 
a dreadful fear. In a few moments, however, he partly recovered himself. 
The wolf had come back into his nature again, and all the gentleness had 
died out. He drew his gaunt, powerful figure up, and while his keen 
eyes flashed fire, he exclaimed 

" The sanctity of this holy isle protects thee from my wrath, but thy 
insolence and churlishness shall not go unpunished j and I swear at every 
hazard to possess the Princess Thyra." 

"Without another word he turned on his heel, and stalking down to 
the water, he plunged in without a moment's hesitation, and swam away. 

From the moment that Eed Hector left the island he was a changed 
man, and his whole thought was of the Princess Thyra. Twice after that 
he met her on the mainland in company with the monks as they re- 
turned from their weekly visits to the religious houses which had been 
established in the neighbouring glens. On each occasion he took the 
opportunity to declare his love in the most impassioned language. But 
the Princess turned a deaf ear to him, and told him that it would be 
perfectly useless for him to hope that he could ever gain her hand. In 
time he learned that she was betrothed to Prince Haco, and then the 
man's nature seemed to become more savage, and he swore the most 
terrible oath that he would be revenged on his rival. 

The Prince was warned against Eed Hector, but he paid little heed to 
the warnings, for he did not think it likely that this man would dare to 
lift his hand against a scion of the Eoyal House of Denmark. As time 
passed and nothing was heard or seen of Hector, Haco had almost for- 
gotten him, until at last they stood face to face on that night when the 
Prince returned from his interview with the Princess. 

As the Prince looked upon the powerful savage before him, a momentary 
fc.vr c.msed a snudder to pass over his frame, for he saw that a combat 



52 THE CELTIC MAGAZISTE. 

with such a foe would be all to his disadvantage. But Haco was 
naturally a brave man, and the fear gave place to contempt and scorn. 

" Say, i'ello\v," he cried, "what do you mean by this outrage, and why 
do you try to make a target of my body for your arrows ?" 

A withering smile wreathed itself around Hector's cruel mouth as he 
made answer 

" Canst thou ask such a question as that, seeing that thou hast just 
left the Avomau who is dearer to me than my own life," he retorted 
fiercely. 

" And thinke.st thou that she would deign to notice such a savage 
wolf as thou art ?" Haco asked scornfully. " Move from my path and let 
me pass. Her very name is polluted by being uttered by thy foul lips." 

" By the moon that shines in yonder heavens, these words shall cost 
thee thy life," Hector cried, as like a tiger springing on its prey he sprang 
at llaco's throat. 

In point of physique no two men could have been more in opposition 
than Haco and Hector, but what the Prince lacked in stature and build, 
he made up by litheness and agility. His rapier was knocked from his 
hand by the ugly rush of his auta-onist who had drawn his dirk and was 
trying to lunge it into Haco's heart. The Prince saw the weapon gleam 
in the moonlight. He kne\v that th\s half savage man was pitiless, and 
that only the dumb stones and rocks and the whispering trees were there 
to witness the death struggle. Help there was none. It was man to 
man, and the right would only end when one or both were lying stark and 
dead. Suddenly there came before the mental vision of the Prince the 
fair and pitiful face of her who was far dearer to him than life. And as 
he thought of her and the desolation into which she would be plunged if 
he were slain, he seemed to be tilled with almost superhuman strength a 
strength that was begotten by the energy of desperation, if not of despair. 
He had seized the wrist of his foe, and held him with a tenacious grip 
that the other could not shake off. With all his mighty strength Hector 
was unwieldy and clumsy, whereas the Prince had been taught the art of 
fence, and he felt that could he but possess himself of his fallen weapon 
he could without difficulty place his foe h-ors da combat. 

Locked in a deadly embrace the two men struggled like savage animals, 
and in trying to get a better hold of his agile foe, Hector dropped his 
dirk. 

They were on equal terms now each man was unarmed and there is 
little doubt that in the end Hector would have succeeded, by mere brute 
force, in crushing the life out of his antagonist. But suddenly as they 
reeled to and fro they both fell, Hector being uppermost. His strong 
hands were round the Prince's throat, when the Prince cried 

" Coward ! dastardly coward ! Would you destroy a defenceless and 
unarmed man?" 

For a moment Eed Hector paused as if weighing the words in his 
brain. Then he rose, much to the other's surprise, and while his eyes 
flashed and his lip quivered with passion, he answered 

" Coward to your teeth. I am no coward, and I scorn to take advan- 
tage of you. Hector of the Hills never yet struck an unarmed man. 
Rise and take up your sword." As he spoke he picked up his dirk, and 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 53 

grasping it savagely, lie stood on his guard and waited for the Prince to 
regain his feet. 

Struck by this manly and almost noble trait in Hector's character, 
Haco as he rose said 

" I gladly withdraw the epithet. You are no coward, but indeed 
a brave man ; and instead of being enemies, we should be friends. I fear 
thee not, and yet I say that we should not fight but part in peace." 

Hector's face was scarlet with passion, and his eyes gleamed like a 
wild cat's. 

" Fool ! " he exclaimed, " why do you waste words ? I hate you," he 
hissed between his clenched teeth " hate you," he repeated, with strong 
vehemence, " for you are my rival. Take up your sword, or by the God 
who made us, I will strike you-down where you stand." 

" Can we not settle this matter any other way but by fighting ?" Haco 
asked, still anxious to avoid bloodshed. 

" No," growled Hector, " only one of us shall ever leave this spot 
again alive." 

"Without another word the Prince stooped and picked up bis rapier. 
Not the shadow of a fear agitated him now. He felt on terms of equality 
with his powerful foe, for he was a master in the use of the sword. He 
cast one look up to the heavens. Perhaps a hasty prayer was passing 
through his brain. The stars and moon were shining brilliantly. The 
water of the loch was lapping the shore with a musical plash, and the 
night wind stirred the trees into a strange and weird melody. Turning 
his eyes from above, the Prince gave one hurried look across the dark 
waters to where the holy isle lay steeped in purple shadow, and in whose 
peaceful sanctuary his beloved perhaps slept and dreamed of him. In- 
audibly he breathed her name, and the thought of her gave him a lion's 
heart. 

" On thy guard," he cried, as he grasped the handle of his rapier 
with a grip of steel. 

" Victory to him who draws first blood," growled Hector, as warily he 
crept towards his antagonist, and watching his opportunity to spring. 
For some moments the two men moved round and round each other like 
watchful tigers. Then, with the quickness of thought, the Prince made 
a sudden lunge, but the other sprang aside, and in an instant he got under 
the Prince's guard, and aimed a terrific blow at his heart. He missed 
his aim, however, but the dirk went through the fleshy part of the Prince's 
arm, and first blood was drawn. 

" Victory to him who draws, first blood," Hector had said, and now as 
the Prince remembered the ominous words they seemed to have a fatal 
significance. But he lost none of his courage. He knew too well now 
that it was a fight to the death. He staggered for a moment, but quickly 
recovering himself, and though the warm blood was spurting from the 
wound, he darted forward and gashed the Highlander in the neck. 

" Blood for blood," he cried exultingly. 

Both men were now thoroughly aroused, and for some minutes it was 
thrust and parry, parry and thrust. Twice did the Prince succeed in 
wounding his foe, and once again the Highlander's dirk drank the royal 
blood of Haco. But neither man was mortally wounded, and the sight 



54 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE, 

of the blood which covered them both only served to arouse them to 
more desperate efforts. The fight became furious. The ground beneath 
their feet was soaked with gore, and trampled into a pool. Each of the 
combatants was desperately wounded and bleeding profusely ; and at last, 
seizing an opportunity, when for a moment the Prince was off his guard, 
Hector flew at him and both went down together. For a brief second 
the Highlander's dirk flashed and gleamed in the moon's rays, and then 
it descended and was sheathed in Haco's body. 

The unfortunate Prince gave vent to a gurgling gasp, his body 
quivered ; then all was still. Hector drew his weapon from the woxmd, 
and wiped it on his plaid. Then he rose to his feet and listened. Not a 
sound was to be heard save the wash of the waters, and the sighing of the 
wind in the trees. The Prince was motionless, as motionless as the rocky 
boulders that were strewn around. The Highlander spurned the body 
with his foot, and then with a grunt of satisfaction he walked hastily 
away, and was lost in the darkness of the night. 
(To be Continued.) 



A HIGHLAND EXILE'S DEATH. 



'Twas in the far Canadian wilds, where Frazer's waters flow, 

And foot of man the solitude can scarce be said to know 

(Save when, like shadow through the glades, the wary Indian strays 

With stealthy step, which snapping twig nor rustling leaf betrays) : 

That, as the glow of day began in gloom of eve to melt, 

Two hunter forms beside a third in heartfelt sorrow knelt. 

All three were clad in backwood guise, in trophies of the chase ; 
Each was of rugged, well-knit frame, and weather-beaten face ; 
Each showed the spare but sinewy strength begot of woodland toil, 
While features hard and piercing eye spoke sons of Scotland's soil 
Who long had left the glens o'erhung by proud Ben Aven's crest 
To seek a freeman's dwelling 'mid the forests of the West. 

Lithsome-limbed and supple-sinewed, shoulder-broad and brisket deep, 
Such they were as tyrants banish, but true statesmen love to keep ; 
Such as glen and strath and corrie in the glorious mountain land 
Hear (or reared, the while I knew it 'neath the gallant Gordon's hand) ; 
Such as changed in hue their tartans, as they stemmed the battle's flood, 
With the life-stream of the foeman, and their own blue Highland blood 1 
Such they were as women worship, not for features' sake alone, 
Not for stalwart form and stately, muscle hard, and bendless bone 
(Though for these they stood unequalled), but for fearless heart and true, 
Kindly glance, and dauntless bearing, worn beneath the bonnet blue : 
Such as ever made the staunchest serried ranks of France to reel, 
Nodding plume and waving tartan charging with the Highland steel. 

Oh ! ye gallant sons of Albyn ! Oh ! ye clansmen of the North ! 

Cursed the memory of the traitors who sent you from Scotland forth; 

Thrice accursed short sighted statesmen who could give to alien men 

Power to drive you from your dwellings in each hero-nursing glen ! 

Had you stayed the foe might threaten, diplomats succeed or fail 

Britain still could count on Scotland's " Clann nan Gaidheal 'nguaillibh cheil\" 

Now, alas ! where look we for them ? Almest vainly in the land 
Where they mustered at the beckon of Jane Maxwell's lily hand 1* 

* The Duchess of Gordon, who raised the 92d Regiment, 






THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 55 

If we ask for Highland soldiers, nought but memories give reply ! 
Why should this be ? Ah ! let every mountain echo answer " Why ? " 

Memories only ! God we thank thee that such memories yet remain 
Treasured in our Nation's annals, should they never live again ! 
Better heritage I deem it than a Howard's titled blood, 

To be kindred to those heroes slumb'ring 'neath the foreign sod ! 
Better te be named Macgregor than Plantagenet or Guelph ! 
Nobler patriarchal Cluny, than the tawdry Prince of Pelf 1 

Leveson-Gower ! shout thy slogan ! scatter golden bribes abroad 
Through the straths where gallant clansmen once in many a band abode ! 
Whence at slightest note of danger to our Highland land and thee 
Claymores would have flashed in thousands 'gainst the common enemy ! 
Leveson-Gower, read the lesson largely writ in many a glen 
Desert straths with deer for tenants, and a lack of Highland men ! 
Slouching keepers found in plenty somewhat skilled indeed in killing, 
But the Cockney's tip is relished better than Victoria's shilling ! 

Live a father to thy people ! love them better than thyself ! 
Surely thou of all men living may'st make sacrifice of pelf. 
What to thee a banker's balance if it cost thee love of men ! 
Fill thy straths with Highland manhood, people thickly every glen ! 
So thy name shall live immortal, writ in Love's unfading lines 
On the page of Scotland's story ever green as Scotland's pines. 

Fading as the sunlight faded, Donald's life-light waned apace : 

Death's grey shadow fell (yet softly) on his ruddy manhood's face ! 

Thus he spoke (the words O read them, as he spoke, with bated breath 

For a hardly-broken silence best befits thy presence, Death 1 

Only ear of love can gather murmured words from panting breast 

Soon to hush in that long silence which God calls his promised rest !) 

" Hector 1 thou wert ever strongest of us three that left our home, 

Far from bonnie Scotland's heather, in a foreign land to roam ; 

Therefore, carry home my message nay, now weep not, be a man ! 

Loving hearts await its hearing in our home in fair Stratha'an ! 

Tell my mother that she tarries for my coming home again, 

In yon dear ben-sheltered clachan where we parted, all in vain : 

Hector's smile will greet her welcome, Evan's coming make her glad, 

But, though Donald be not with them, she must not be therefore sad. 

Tell her that no open foeman made her boy disgrace his name ; 

Tell her lurking treason's weapon may bring death but never shame ! 

Tell her that I died in honour, and in peace with God and man 

(Here he lisped his childhood's prayer : sunset oft resembles dawn !) 

Tell her to be kind to Maggie Maggie Gordon of the Dee, 

Whose fair face (God so has willed it) I shall never live to see 1 

Bear my blessing to the maiden, had I lived, I would have wed, 

But a plighted troth must never bind the living to the dead ! 

Tell dear Maggie that her tokens lie with me where I repose, 

Death's strong hand that reft my life, could not dissever ma from those ! 

Tell the minister I parted, strong in faith on Him I love, 

Christ, whose mercy he encouraged my young heart to seek and prove. 

He'll be pleased, I know : his ceunsels often guided me in youth. 

Now I look to meet him yonder, where abides the God of Truth : 

Now the Master will receive me dying, for He died for me. 

Kiss me, brothers 1 Now 'tis daybreak, daybreak of Eternity. 

Lay me 'neath the oak-trees' shadow, though they grow here in the West, 

They recal the birk-trees" murmur in Stratnaven:" then came rest. 

A. MACGREGOB, EOSE. 

NOTE. Every one who loves the Highlands and Highlanrlers will rejoice to know 
that His Grace the Duke of Sutherland is adopting the course indicated as the true and 
worthy one in the above Hues (which were written some time ago), and that he is show- 
ing a noble example to all Highland chiefs, la a few years there will be no lack of 
ready aoldiers in Sutherland. A. M. B, 



56 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



MAEY MORRISON. 



MANY years since, there lived on a small farm at the foot of the famous 
Coolin Hills, a middle-aged man, Donald Morrison. His land not 
being well adapted for growing corn, he devoted his attention to the rear- 
ing and breeding of cattle. Being exceedingly prudent, careful, and 
of inexpensive habits, he was looked upon by his poorer neighbours as 
a rich man. He married somewhat late in life, a middle-aged woman, 
who, like himself, had saved some little money. They had only one 
child, a daughter, Mary, who grew up a beautiful, sweet-tempered 
girl, the very reverse to her parents in disposition. She was as frank and 
open-handed as they were reserved and pemirious. Donald, though 
totally uneducated himself, was shrewd enough to see the benefits of 
having his daughter well taught in fact the old man's one ambition was 
to see his child well married, and " living like a lady," as he expressed 
it. Accordingly, he spared no expense in giving her the best education 
the district afforded. At the time of our story tea was only lately intro- 
duced into the Highlands, and was only taken as a luxury even by 
the higher classes. The art of making and serving out tea to company 
was therefore looked upon as an essential part of a young lady's education, 
and a sure sign of culture and good breeding. Donald, anxious that his 
daughter should possess this new accomplishment, went to Broadford and 
waited upon the factor's wife, who was an English lady, and, of course, well 
versed in this as well as other ladylike qualities, and begged her, as a great 
favour, to take Mary under her charge for a few weeks, and initiate her 
into the mystery of tea-making, he to supply tea and sugar for the pur- 
pose. The lady kindly consented, and after a short stay in the factor's 
house Mary returned home, much improved by her intercourse with the 
English lady. Donald was so pleased that he laid in a stock of the then 
expensive article, and invited his friends at stated intervals to partake of 
the new beverage, and the old man felt well repaid while watching the 
grace and ladylike ease with which his daughter did the honours of the 
tea table. To give the finishing polish Donald determined upon sending 
Mary to a boarding school at Oban, kept by a maiden lady of the name 
of Curry. Here Mary soon became a favourite with teachers and pupils, 
and grew into a most beautiful and accomplished young woman. She 
had been in Oban about eighteen months when the following occurrence 
which influenced her whole after life took place : 

One fine afternoon she and a few of the other eldest pupils were 
allowed to go for a walk to the sea side, near the ruins of Dunolly 
Castle. While amusing themselves about the old walls they came upon 
a quiet secluded little creek, with a clean pebbly beach, quite the place to 
invite a plunge in the clear sea below. No sooner did one suggest 
this than all agreed. The bottom a few feet out was full of treacherous 
deep holes. Two of the girls were soon in. One of them more daring 
than her companion went too far, at once lost her footing, and sank. The 
other screamed, and drew Mary's attention to them. Half-dressed as she 
was she jumped in to save the drowning girl, who grasped her so tightly 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 57 

that she was unable to help her or save her own life. They both sank 
apparently to rise no more. At that moment a shout was heard from 
the top of the bank above them. The next moment a young man rushed 
and dived into the spot where he saw the girls sink, and in a few mo- 
ments had them on shore, where he used every means to restore animation. 
He soon had the satisfaction of seeing his efforts crowned with success, 
and immediately sent some of the girls to Oban for aid, while he, with 
the help of the others, continued to attend to the sufferers. Eubbing and 
drying Mary's head and face, she slowly opened her eyes, surveyed him 
from head to foot, and, observing that he was wet all over, she compre- 
hended the situation. She gazed into his face with such a look of heart- 
felt thanks a look into which her whole soul seemed to be concentrated. 
It reached and penetrated into the young man's heart, and left an im- 
pression there that years could not efface. Miss Curry was soon on the 
scene with a conveyance. She acknowledged the bravery of the young 
man, and invited him to call at her house next day, that she might in a 
more formal manner thank him for saving the lives of her pupils. He 
did so, and found Mary recovered sufficiently to meet him, while the other 
girl was not so well, although out of danger. In course of conversation he 
informed them that his name was Robert Grahame, and that he was mate of 
a schooner belonging to Greenock, which had put into the bay the day 
before to repair some slight damage she received on a sunken rock 
coming through the sound of Mull, and he fortunately happened to be 
strolling near the ruins at the time the accident took place. While taking 
leave of them he asked permission to call again to enquire for the young 
ladies he had been the means of saving, should he happen to be that way. 
Miss Curry, as he thought rather dryly, gave her consent. Looking into 
Mary's face at parting, her piercing glance sent another thrill to his heart. 
If he had known and understood the lines written by a young Skyeman 
in a Gaelic song to his Lowland sweetheart, who had no Gaelic, while he 
had but a scanty knowledge of English, the words might well express hia 
feelings: 

Gu ro raise an toiseach narach, 

3' gun a Ghailig aic ach gann 
Ach bha canain aig a suilean 

A thnbhairt riuui gu'n dull a chall. 

Young Grahame had served his time on board one of the ships belong- 
ing to Pollock & Gilmour, a firm which had a number of ships employed 
in the timber trade between Greenock and North America. From the 
first day he went to sea he was noted for his attention to duty and 
obedience to authority. He always carried with him a few useful and 
practical books, in the study of which he generally spent his leisure hours 
when most of his shipmates wasted their health and money in folly on 
shore. By his steady habits and intelligence he was early promoted to 
the post of first mate of the vessel he still sailed in. Grahame was now 
about twenty-three years of age the only child and sole support of a 
widowed mother. After his visit to Oban Mary was never out of his mind. 
He was fully convinced that she was the daughter of some powerful High- 
land chief far above his position in life. He knew and felt that he sincerely 
loved her, and, like a plucky tar as he was, he thus reasoned with him- 



58 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

self " She is too pure aiid noble ever to be brought down to iny level, I 
must then raise myself up to hers. She is too young to marry for a few 
years yet, aiid for her sake I will forthwith set about the elevating process, 
even should I never see her again. I shall be proud of any effort I may 
attempt worthy of her exalted mind and position." The impression left 
on his heart by her last look was doubtless a powerful incentive to his 
noble resolution. He at once so arranged, with his mother's consent, 
that instead of going to sea that winter he should place himself under a 
master who kept classes to teach navigation to young seamen, and prepare 
them to take charge of foreign-going ships. Such was Grahame's diligence 
that at the end of the session he was considered superior to many who 
already had command. In the spring of the year his late owner, Coun- 
cillor Maccallum, of Greenock, gave him command of a handy barque, 
which was then loading for New York. On his return, in due course, 
his owner was so well pleased with his conduct, both as a seaman and his 
aptness for transacting business, that he presented him with a valuable 
gold watch and appendages, and promoted him to the command of a larger 
vessel, a new full -rigged ship, called the Glencairn, as fine a ship as the 
port could boast of, and one which many older and more experienced 
captains would be proud to command. Grahame had now made up his 
mind to visit Oban and see Mary privately, for he longed to inform her 
of his new and improved prospects. For this purpose he asked and 
obtained leave for a few days, while the ship was being got ready for sea. 
Arriving at Oban, to his great disappointment, he found that Mary had 
gone home a few weeks before. Miss Curry was cold and distant, and 
refused him Mary's address. He returned and began his prepara- 
tions to sail, and getting the Glencairn out to the Tail-of-the-Bank. In 
a couple of days he weighed anchor, a fresh breeze blew, but in a few 
hours a dead calm succeeded. The tide set in strongly from the south. 
At night-fall a hazy darkness settled upon the sea. Captain Grahame 
became apprehensive. They were not far enough south to clear the 
Island of lona and the back of Mull. His fears proved only too well 
founded, the noble ship grazed on a sunken rock, but, fortunately, the 
sea being calm, she sustained but little damage. The men living on the 
coast, seeing the ship in danger, came out in their boats to aid him, and 
they succeeded in getting her off. Grahame, wishing to ascertain the 
extent of damage done before proceeding further on his voyage, with the 
aid of the natives, got her round to Tobermory harbour. Here he found, 
on examination, that the damage consisted of the tearing and stripping 
off some sheathing which his own carpenters could repair in a day or 
two. In the evening Grahame walked to the north of the village to 
obtain a view of the surrounding scene. Eetuming to the village, Avhen 
about half way back, he observed a figure walking on slowly and pensively 
before him. lie instantly stood still and looked intently at the object. 
What was it that should have set his heart abeating so fast ? There, 
undoubtedly, was the never-to-be-forgotten form of Mary so deeply en- 
graved upon his heart. He walked quicker, half doubting the instincts 
of his anxious heart. The figure before him, hearing the sounds of foot- 
steps behind, half turned round as if for the purpose of stepping aside. 
Seeing him. she involuntary stood still where she was, grasping at the side 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 59 

of the bank to keep her from falling. Poor girl, she had been thinking 
of him and wondering where he might be at that very moment. Grahame 
rushed forward, clasped his fainting Mary in his strong arms, and carried 
her to a green grassy spot, a little off the path they had been walking on, 
laid her gently down against a heather-covered bank, his arm supporting 
her shoulders. She soon recovered, and Grahame had now the joyful 
assurance that every throb of that dear heart of hers beat only for him- 
self. He gently lifted her head to enquire as to what fortunate circum- 
stance he owed the happiness of so unexpectedly meeting her there. Her 
only answer was to cling to him closer, as if afraid some evil destiny 
would again separate them. He pressed her the closer to him, and 
whispered his great love in her ear, to which she responded by nestling 
the more confidingly in his bosom. He again asked what had brought 
her to Tobermory. Pure, young, and inexperienced now that the first 
breach was made in the natural barrier of her maidenly reserve she told 
him the simple truth, substantially as follows : " A young gentleman 
farmer belonging to Lorn, a distant relative of Miss Curry's, paid them a 
visit at Oban. He was seemingly smitten by her charms, took Miss Curry 
into his confidence, and besought her influence in his favour with her 
young pupil. When her teacher spoke to Mary about this young gentle- 
man, she was astonished to find that she felt no interest whatever in his 
professions of love for her. Miss Curry enlarged on his position and 
means, urging the wisdom and prudence of accepting him as her husband 
should he make the offer. Mary would not give her hand without her 
heart, and her heart was already given to her sailor lad. Her teacher had 
suspected as much, but never dreamed that a sentimental and romantic 
notion of that kind could weigh a feather's weight in the scale, when a 
well-known wealthy young man was put in the other. Mary's persistence 
in refusing the young farmer as her lover turned her teacher's usual kind- 
ness into something akin to contempt for her stupidity. The girl's posi- 
tion became anything but comfortable. She at last told Miss Curry that 
she meant to go home. Miss Curry wrote to Mary's father, giving the 
history of her refusal of a match, which many young women of the best 
families would be proud to accept. She also hinted the apparent reason 
of the refusal. On Mary's arrival at home both father and mother made 
her more miserable than before. Still, she stood firm in her resolve. It 
was, however, very hard on such a mind as her's, who, from infancy, had 
been noted for her deference to the wishes of her parents. To stand 
proof against their judgment now grieved her much. She dreaded the 
idea of the possibility of giving way to them on a matter so important to 
her future happiness. She regretted coming home, and wished for a 
situation of some kind suited to her acquirements, and be set free from 
the reproaches continually dinned into her ears. As if in response to her 
wishes word came from the factor's wife at Broadford that a lady in 
Tobermory wanted a young person as governess for her two daughters. 
Mary applied for the situation, and in due course received an answer offer- 
ing the place, and wishing her to enter on her duties as soon as possible." 
Grahame, on learning this, became alarmed lest in his absence she 
might be prevailed upon to obey her parents and friends. If he could 
only get her to consent to their being married now and keep her situation 



60 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

till his return, he would then see that no one would have it in his power 
to annoy her as his wife. So he urged her to become his wife before he 
left, and thus put it out of the power of any one to compel her to marry 
another. 

Mary did not know what to say. She felt she had an eloquent advo- 
cate within her own bosom to plead her lover's cause, yet she was not 
totally blind to the questionable prudence of the step urged upon her. 
She would willingly entrust herself to his keeping, and bear any hardship 
for his sake, but she knew her parents would not consent, even if there 
was time to consult them. Besides, if they got married where they were 
it could not be long kept a secret, and would only result in more trouble. 
This suggested the idea of Gretna Green to Grahame. He told her that 
he expected to be home in four or five months at the longest, and if they 
went to a distance no one would know anything about it. So well did 
he plead his cause that before they reached the town she had given her 
consent. She knew nothing of Gretna Green or of its famous marriages. 
All she knew about marriage was, that it was usually done in the parents' 
house in Skye or at the manse, by the parish minister. It was arranged 
that she was to meet him next forenoon, at a point a few miles south of the 
town, where he would have a boat ready to take her to the mainland. 
True to her promise, she was at the place appointed in good time, where 
she was received by her lover. They immediately set off, and so favour- 
able was the wind, that early next morning they landed at Troon in 
Ayrshire, from which town they started in a hired chaise for Gretna 
Green. The boatmen were to await their return. Arriving at Spring- 
field, near Gretna, they were soon married, and re-entering their convey- 
ance made all haste back. To their great annoyance a violent gale, ac- 
companied by heavy rain, sprung up during the night. It was well on 
in the morning before they arrived at Troon, and the boatmen 
refused to venture out to sea with an open boat in such weather. There 
was nothing for the young couple but to make themselves as comfortable 
as possible during their forced stay in the place. They decided upon 
going to the best inn, and the boatmen made themselves happy 
with the aid of refreshments provided by Grahame. Towards evening of 
the next day the wind lowered sufficiently to induce the men to try it. 
Though still rather high it was favourable, and they sailed, 
running at great speed. Arriving at Mull, Captain Grahame found the 
Glencairn ready for sea, his chief mate having pushed on the repairs in 
his absence. The young husband at the next interview with his wife, 
noticing that she took particular interest in an antique seal attached to 
his watch, undid and gave it to her, as a keepsake until his return, 
along with a sum of money, which she was very unwilling to take, but 
he insisted, saying, that if she did not need it he would take it back 
when he returned. He promised to write to her at her present address 
when he arrived out, she, at the same time, promising to keep their 
marriage strictly secret until he returned and took her home as his 
wedded wife. The ship sailed next morning with a favourable fresh 
breeze, which soon carried her out to the open sea. 

The young wife had to smother her feelings in the presence 
of others as best she could; thoughts of the step she had taken 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 61 

preyed on her mind, not that she regretted connecting her destiny 
with the man of her choice, but the dread of it oozing out before 
the return of her husband. Thus a couple of months wore away \ 
every blast of wind she heard made her so nervous that the people of the 
house noticed it. Her health had given way so much that the 
lady advised her to go home for a few weeks, and to return when she got 
stronger. Much against her inclination she went. When her parents 
saw her emaciated and altered condition, so much did disappointed am- 
bition rankle in their breasts that it killed much of the natural smypathy 
and tenderness usually existing in the bosoms of most mothers for their 
ailing and suffering offspring. If her mother had shown that sympathy 
and motherly tenderness which the poor child so earnestly desired and so 
much needed, it is more than probable she would have taken her into her 
confidence at once, but when she found that every effort she made to enlist 
the maternal feelings in her favour, she was repelled by the too common 
and senseless expression of " You'r well served for your folly," her grief 
and trouble fell back with double force upon her already over burdened 
heart. Let the worldly and strong-minded mother beware she does not drive 
a sensitive and virtuous child to ruin by such unnatural conduct, and 
although the rigidly prudent may not approve of Mary's actions, she 
was blessed with a strong and abiding principle that carried her, pure and 
unspotted, through all her difficulties to the end. She occasionally went 
out in the gloaming for fresh air ; her only companion in these walks being 
the seal her husband had given her, and often, when too dark to see it, 
she would kiss it for him. At length her mother began to suspect some- 
thing particular was the matter, and Mary, when taxed about it, did not 
deny that she was soon to become a mother. When questioned as to the 
paternity of the child she invariably replied that he was her husband, but 
who or what he was she would not upon any account disclose. In strict 
faithfulness to her promise she, perhaps foolishly, withheld all further 
information. Her old and now distracted father upbraided her for 
the disgrace brought upon him by bringing a nameless child into the 
world. He had the mortification of seeing all his fine castles in the 
air tumbling down about his ears. If Mary's position was uncomfortable 
before it now became unbearable. That she was insensible to the awk- 
wardness of her situation herself no one who knew her could suppose. She 
could not help it now. She had to bear it as best she could. I have no 
intention, nor indeed can I describe the tortures her sensitive heart suffered. 
The only gleam of sunshine which now and again illumed the darkness of 
her despair was the estimation in which she held the worth and merits of 
her husband ; her soul would lise at times above her sufferings with the con- 
soling assurance that he was worth all that trouble and more, and that he 
would dispel all the darkness when he came home. Time came and went 
that a letter should reach her. Neighbouring gossips began to whisper 
suspicious hints about old Donald's grand lady of a daughter, which, 
when they reached his ears, made him forget any remnant of paternal 
feeling he yet felt for her. She now avoided meeting him whenever she 
could, and only wished she was away among strangers rather than bear 
the looks and cruel taunts of her parents. 

At this time a boat came from Fort- William with timber for a 



62 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

house that was "being huilt in the place. Mary watched the men from 
her window as they unloaded the cargo. One evening after the craft 
was taken out to anchor right opposite the house, she observed two of 
the men coming ashore in their small boat for water, and while filling 
their casks at the well she slipped down to where they were. She found 
out that they were to start for home about two in the morning. She 
offered them a pound note for her passage. They agreed to send the small 
boat for her before they sailed. Mary quietly employed the intervening 
hours in packing up her clothing, with which, and all her money, she 
went down to meet the men at the appointed hour. They soon had her 
on board and away, hours before any one was astir in her father's house. 
On the morning of the second day they passed through the Sound of 
Mull, and rounding the Island of Lismore Mary overheard some of the 
crew mentioning old Dunolly Castle. She asked if they were near it, 
and one of them pointing in its direction, the sight of it, ever so dim, 
awakened thoughts and memories in her mind deeply interesting to 
her. She soon, however, lost sight of its outlines as the little vessel 
stretched along in the direction of Ballachulish and the historic Glencoe. 
Towards evening they landed at Fort- William. Mary went to one of the 
inns for the night, intending in the morning to seek out some quiet 
retreated village where she might rest for a week or two, and think over 
what she was to do. Before retiring to rest she understood there was a 
man at the inn who had driven with a party that day from Fort- Augustus 
and was going back the next day empty. Mary sought him out, and 
arranged for a sum of money to be carried in the conveyance to that 
place. In early morning they started. Arriving near the little village 
the chaise stopped. Mary had to alight and carry her luggage, 
the driver knowing that if he drove her to the inn he would 
have to give up to his employer the fare she paid him. Stiff and 
fatigued with the long drive, Mary walked along to the scattered 
houses. Passing some she observed standing at the door of a neat 
cottage, a kindly-faced, elderly, lady-like woman ; she went up to her 
and asked if she could direct her to a respectable quiet family where she 
could have a room for a few weeks, the rent for which she was prepared 
to pay in advance if the place suited. The good lady looked earnestly 
and feelingly in Mary's face, observing she was weak and wearied, 
scarcely able with her burden to stand where she was. She kindly asked 
the stranger to step in and rest herself. The lady was a Mrs Cameron, 
the widow of an officer of the 93d Highlanders who had been killed in 
battle, and, though a native of the North of England, she made choice of 
the country of her late husband to live in with her family, all of whom 
were now, except two daughters, grown up to womanhood, who kept 
their mother in comparative comfort by their industry as dressmakers, 
aided by a small allowance from Government on account of her husband's 
services. Mary's heart warmed to the kind and motherly woman ; her 
looks of sympathy and pity had such an effect upon her that she told her 
some of her history, and the cause of her being a wanderer from her own 
home as she saw her, while her artless candour and pleading looks 
at once won the heart of the noble-minded woman. She felt it would be 
a crime to send the young creature away unprotected and inexperienced, as 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 63 

she evidently was, to more misery among strangers who might not understand 
her case, nor care what became of her. The lady then went in where 
her daughters were at work, told them of the stranger and her position, 
and that, if they agreed, she meant to give her a room for a few 
weeks. They at once consented, and when Mrs Cameron told Mary she 
might stay with them her heart filled, she rose from her seat, and flinging 
her arms round the neck of the compassionate lady, as if she were her 
mother, she sobbed out her almost silent thanks. She was introduced to 
the daughters, and, after getting some refreshment, was chatting away 
with them as if they were old friends. She was not long there when the 
kindness and attention she received from this loving family in a great 
measure renewed her strength of mind and body, and, being a good and 
ready hand at the needle, she very soon made herself useful and aided 
them with their work. In about three months after her coming there 
she was delivered of a fine healthy boy, who was called Robert, after his 
father. Naturally her anxiety about her husband was increased by the 
birth of her child. She got one of the sisters to write to Greenock 
enquiring if any word had been received of the Glencairn, to which a 
reply came that all hope of the vessel's safety had been given up. 
This was hard on the young mother, but she made every effort to bear 
the distress calmly for the sake of her infant. Her kind friend, 
Mrs Cameron, proved a judicious adviser in this crisis, having had ex- 
perienced the same heavy bereavement herself. 

All this time Mary had not heard from Skye, or how her parents had 
acted on her flight becoming known. If ever the consequences of un- 
natural harshness and unfeeling conduct recoiled back upon its authors it 
was in the case of old Donald Morrison and his wife. After every search 
and enquiry were made in vain for their daughter, it was concluded she 
had made away with herself. No one imagined that the Fort- William 
boat had anything to do with her departure. All the neighbours had 
called the old couple murderers to their faces. The now lonely pair 
felt so disgusted with themselves and all around them, that in their old 
age they resolved to turn all their eifects into cash and emigrate to 
America. In three months time they were on their way to the new 
world. They had plenty of means to keep them in comfort there or at 
home more indeed than hundreds who left Skye before and since, would 
consider a fortune to start the world afresh with. But in their case, sincere 
worshipers of Mammon as they were, their gold gave them no happiness. 
There was a worm gnawing at their hearts that would not die while life 
and memory lasted. Their daughter knew nothing of these movements, 
she needed no addition to her grief. When Mary got strong she devoted 
all the time she could spare from the cares of her infant to helping her 
young friends in their labours when pressed for time. Both mother and 
daughters became so fond of her and her child that they would not 
willingly part with her. The eldest sister had occasion to visit Inverness. 
She there met a lady from Skye who told her the melancholy fate of a 
young woman she knew, who was supposed to have committed suicide, 
and that her parents had gone to Canada. Miss Cameron, although she 
suspected who the young person was, did not say she knew anything of 
her whereabouts. On her return home she told Mary what she heard, 



64 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

which made her cling the more earnestly to her boy as the only one now 
left of her kin, and so far as the health of her child and the kind- 
ness of her friends could make her happy, she was so. But the void in 
her affectionate heart, caused by the loss of her husband, nothing 
on earth could fill. At times, when tracing the lineaments of the 
father's face in that of his child, she would burst out into tears about the 
cruelty of the fate that sundered them ; then she would check herself for 
murmuring against the over-ruling of a wise though hidden Providence. 

She remained at Fort- Augustus for three years, when Mrs Cameron told 
her that her eldest daughter was going to get married, and that her hus- 
band was going to stay with them in the house, and would require the 
room she occupied. This was a fresh blow to poor Mary, who looked up 
to and loved her friend more than a mother. It was grievous to them 
all to part ; the daughters learned to love her as a sister. Mrs Cameron, 
with her usual motherly forethought, had previously written to a lady of 
her acquaintance residing in Badenoch, an officer's widow like herself, 
knowing she wanted an educated person as attendant and companion, 
recommending a young friend of her's. The lady agreed to engage Mary 
on Mrs Cameron's testimonials of fitness and character. At the same 
time her friend found a person to take charge of the boy, where his mother 
could see him at stated times. Mary parted with her child and her 
friends with a heavy heart, and entered upon her new duties, which she 
found on a few weeks experience to be all she could wish for. She soon 
became a favourite with the lady, having found her not only attentive 
and faithful, but much superior in culture and acquirements to most 
persons aspiring to such a position as Mary now held in the family. She 
was there about seven months, when the lady's son, an officer in the 
Guards, came home on leave of absence. Mary could not avoid coming 
in contact with him at times. She was grieved to notice that he paid her 
rather too free and particular attention. She took no notice of it at first, 
but seeing her coldness had no deterring effect upon him, she complained 
to his mother about it, which occasioned a stormy quarrel between mother 
and son. The result was that Mary at once gave up her place, went for her 
boy, and with him made her way to Inverness, from there took pas- 
sage in a sloop to Leith, and from there made her way to Glasgow, where 
she took lodgings, meantime looking out for a situation. For three 
months she could not hear of a place to suit her. This enforced 
idleness drained away most of the money she brought with her. 
She had heard of a place as upper nurse in a family in Ayrshire. She 
went there and was engaged. The wages were but small, but she took 
it in the hopes that something better would soon turn up. She had to 
put her boy out to board again with a woman in Saltcoats, a little 
town on the sea side. She was but a month or so in the place when her 
boy took the measles, which turned out to be a severe case. She saw 
him as often as she could, and spent nearly all the little means she had 
left on medical attendance and medicine. The lady had been informed of 
the motive of her frequent visits to Saltcoats, and the nature of the child's 
disease, and discharged poor Mary from her situation for fear she might 
carry the infection to her own children. 

(To be Continued.} 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 65 

AN SEILLEAN AGUS A' CHUILEAG. 
o 

Air maduinn chiuin 's a' cheiteau thlath, 
Gach doir' us crann us gleann fo bhlath, 
Bha 'n smeorach agus eoin nan speur, 
Le 'n luinneig bhinn ac' air gach ge"ig, 
Na laoigh 's na h-uain a' leuui le f6nn, 
A' ruagail mu gach preas us torn, 
Us braon de'n driuchd air bharr gacli fuoirn', 
A' dealradh air an cinn mar 5r. 

Bha cuileag sgiathach fnaoin gun cheill, 
'Ga cluiche fein ri blaths na grein', 
I 'null 'sa nail, i sios us suas, 
Gun dragh, gun churain, no gun ghruaim. 
Bha' seillean stiallach, ciallach, c6ir, 
A' falbh a chomhachadh a 16 in, 
Ghlaodh a' chuileag " ciod e 'n sgeula?" 
'S labhair iad mar so ri 'ch&le. 

A' CHUILEAG. 

" Nach ann ort 'tha 'n drip an comhnuidh? 
Fuirich tiota learn ag comhradh, 
Ciod an toirbh' 'tha dhuit 's an t-saoghal, 
'Ga do mharbbedh fein le saothair? 
Bho mhoch gu dubh, bho bheinn gu traigh, 
Cha 'n fhag thu cluaran, dris, no r6s, 
Nach toir thu greiseag air an deoth'l." 

" Seall thu mis' an so cho e^bhinn, 
'Danns' an gathan caoin na gr^ine ; 
'S cha 'n 'eil mi uair no trath gun 16n, 
Ged nach 'eil mil agam an st6r ; 
Ma thig am fuachd, 's an geamhradh gann, 
Cha dean mi ullachadh roimh 'n am, 
Thigeadh uair us am na h-eiginn, 
Cha ghabh mi dragh dheth gus an fheudar." 

AN SEILLEAN. 

" A chreutair amaidich gun gh6, 
Gur beag' tha' ghliocas 'n a do ghlolr ; 
Ged' tha thu 'n diugh 's do chupan Ian, 
Cha mhair an saibhreas sin ach gearr : 
Thig doinionn shearbh us geamhradh garbh, 
A bheir do sholasan air falbh, 
Cha 'n fhaigh thu blaths air feadh nan gleann, 
Cha tog a' ghrian ach farm a ceann." 



66 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

" Gach r6s' tlia' sgeadaclmdh nam bruach, 
Rheir reodhtachd fhu;ii ;iii- falbh an gruag ; 
Cha chluinn thu smcoi.uui air gach geig, 
Cha 'n fhaic thu uain a' ruith 's a' leu in ; 
Bidh mis' an sin gu seasgair blath, 
'S a' bhothan bheag a dhealbli mo lamh ; 
Cha bhi mi 'n taing aon neach fo'n ghrcin 
A' sealbhachadh mo shaoithreach fein." 

" Bidh tns an sin 'n a d' dheoiridh truagh, 
A' dol mu'n cuairt gun dreach gun tuar, 
'S tu leis a ghort a' faotainn bhais, 
An tuill 's an uinneagan an sas, 
Thu air an dearie anns gach ait', 
Gun mhath dhuit fein, gun tlachd do chach, 
Sin an doigh a chleachd do shinnsir, 
'S doigh nach dean an sliochd a dhiobradh." 

A' CHUILEAG. 

" Bu trie do shaothair fe"in gun bhuaidh, 
Ged' tha thu '11 diugh a' deanamh uaill, 
A'm bothan beag a dhealbh do lamh, 
'S e air a leagadh sios gu lar ; 
A' mhil, a choisinn thu gu cruaidh 
A' falbh a' dranndan mu gach bruaich, 
Aig each a' stigh gu h-ait 'g a h-ol, 
Is tusa' muigh gun tigh, gun Ion." 

" Ach 's lionmhor iad 'tha dheth do sheers', 
'Tha 'deanamh uaill a meud an stoir, 
Bho 'n saothair ghoirt cha ghabh iad tamh, 
A' carnadh suas gun f hios co dha ; 
Bu trie do shinnsir fein ri fuaim, 
An cuid 's an ionnihas 'g a thoirt uath ; 
Ei rusgadh ghath 's a tarruinn lann, 
'S an tigh 'g a leagadh sios mu'n ceann." 

" Ach mheas mi f^in 's e sin mo ghnaths 
Na 'm faighinn idir cosg an traith, 
Gu 'm b' fhearr dhomh subhachas us ceol, 
An uine^bheag a bhios mi beo, 
No ged a gheibhinn saibhlean Ian, 
Gun f hois gun slochaint air an sgath, 
Oir 's e mo dhochas us mo chreud, 
Gu'm faigh gach latha Ion da fein." 

AN SEILLEAN. 

" Ah ! 's duillich learn nach tusa h-aon 
'Tha 'beathachadh air plaosgan faoin, 
'Tha 'gabhail fasgaidh fo gach sgleo, 
Le beatha dhiomhanaich mar cheo, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZIKE. 67 

An uin' a' ruitli gun niluith gun fheum, 
Cha 'n fhag iad cliu no ainm 'n an deign, 
'S cha d' thug iad geill do'n duine ghlic 
A dhearbh nach deanair gniomh fo 'n lie." 

" Tha mise mar a bha thu 'g radh, 
Bho mhocli gu dubh, bho bheinn gu traigh, 
Ach 's iomadh ros a ni mi 'dheoth'l 
Bho 'm bheil a' mhil an deigh a h-ol ; 
Gidheadh cha 'n fhas mo mhisneach fann, 
A' saothrachaclh bho am gu am, 
Oir chreid mi riamh 's i sin an f hirinn 
Gu 'n tig toradh math a dlchioll." 

" Cha robh mi riamh 'n am' throm air each 
Cha mho a bhraid 110 ghoid mo lamh, 
'S cha bhi mo Ion ri m' bheo an e"is, 
Ma dh' f hagar agam mo chuid f6in, 
Ach ma thig namhaid orm gu teann, 
Ma spuiuneas e mi fein 's'mo chlann, 
Cha d' chuir e comhdach riamh ruu cheann, 
Am fear nach tamiuinn ris mo lann." 

" Is beag no mor g'am bi ar neart, 
Ma ni sinn leis an ni 'tha ceart, 
Ar buadhan biodh iad lag no treun, 
Ma chuireas sinn iad sin gu feum, 
Cha tuig thu mar a dh' f hasas earn, 
Le clach a thilgeadh ann a ghnath, 
'S e braonaibh faoin' a lion an cuan, 
Is duslach min gach beinn mu 'n cuairt." 

" Diiisg suas ma ta us tog ort greann, 
Bi saothreach f had 's a gheibh thu 'n t-am ; 
Tha samhradh caomh a' falbh 'n a dheann, 
Tha 'n geamhradh gnu a' tarruinn teann, 
Ma mheallar thu an so le breig, 
Bi cinnteach 'n uair a thig an t-eug, 
Gu 'm bi do chliu 's do dhuais da re*ir 
Bho 'n Ti 'thug beatha do gach ere." 

Thug iad greis mar sin air comhradh, 
Ged nach robh iad trie a' cordadh, 
'S mar a thachair dhuinn gu leir, 
Bha iad car dion 'n am barail fe'in ; 
Ach le durachd geanail spe"iseil, 
Ghabh iad latha math de cheile, 
Dh' f halbh an seillean coir us srann aig', 
'S theann a' chuileag fhaoin ri dannsa. 

N. MACLEOID, 



68 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

THE GAELIC NAMES OF TEEES, SHEUBS, PLANTS, &c.* 
BY CHARLES FERGUSSON. 



THE subject of the Gaelic names of the trees and plants that grow around 
us is a very important and interesting one, but unfortunately, I must say, 
a very much neglected one by the present race of Highlanders. Our 
ancestors had a Gaelic name, not only for all the trees and plants that 
grew in their own country, but also for many foreign plants. Yet there 
are very few of the present generation who know anything at all about 
those Gaelic names, except perhaps a few of the very common ones, such 
as Darach, Beithe, Giuthas, Galltuinn. 

The principal reason for this is, that the Highlanders of the present 
day have not to pay so much attention to, or depend so much upon, the 
plants of their own country as their ancestors did who depended almost 
entirely on their own vegetable substances for their medicinal, manufactur- 
ing, and other purposes. A great many of those Gaelic names are already 
lost, and many more will be so in a few years if some steps are not taken 
to preserve them, for though, certainly, we have many of them already in 
print, scattered through such works as Alex. Macdonald's (Mac Mhaighstir 
Alastair) Vocabulary, Lightfoot's Flora Scotica, the Gaelic Bible, and the 
Dictionaries, yet the great majority of the Gaelic names are not in print, 
but only preserved amongst the old people, and will soon be forgotten 
unless speedily collected. So far as I am aware there is not yet a single 
work on this important subject; therefore I have chosen it as the subject 
of the following paper, in which I will give the Gaelic name, and a short 
account of the various uses to which our ancestors put each, beginning 
with a few of our common trees and going down to the smaller plants, 
trusting it will awaken an interest in the subject, and be the beginning of 
an effort to collect all the Gaelic names possible ere it be too late. In 
studying the Gaelic names of plants, even the most careless observer can- 
not fail being struck with the fine taste and intimate acquaintance with 
the various peculiarities and different properties of plants, displayed by 
our ancestors in giving the Gaelic names to plants. This I think is one 
of the strongest proofs we have that our ancestors were keen observers of 
nature an advanced and cultivated race and not the rude savages which 
some people delight to represent them. In reading the works of our best 
Gaelic bards, from Ossian downwards, we cannot help also being struck 
with their acquaintance with the names and various peculiarities of plants. 

Without further remarks in the way of introduction, I will proceed 
to give an account of some of our Highland trees, shrubs, and plants. 

ALDER. Latin, Alnus Glutinosa ; Gaelic, Fearna. This well-known 
tree is a native of the Highlands, where it grows to perfection all over the 
country by the side of streams, and in wet marshy places. It seems in 
former times to have grown even more abundantly, and that in places 
where now not a tree of this or any other kind is to be found. This is 
proved by the many names of places derived from this tree, such as Glen 

* Read befere Gaelic Society of Inverness, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 69 

Fernate Gltann Fearn-aite in A thole; Fearnan in Breadalbane; Fearn 
iu Boss-shire ; Fernaig in Lochalsh, &c. In a suitable situation the alder 
will grow to a great size. There is mention made in the account of the 
parish of Kenmore, in the " New Statistical Account of Scotland," of an 
alder tree growing in the park of Taymouth Castle, the circumference of 
which, in 1844, was 12 feet 8 inches. The wood of this tree resembles 
mahogany so much that it is generally known as " Scotch Mahogany." 
It is very red and rather brittle, but very durable, especially under water. 
Lightfoot, the learned author of the " Flora Scotica," mentions that, when 
he accompanied Pennant on his famous Tour in 1772, the Highlanders 
then used alder very much for making chairs and other articles of furni- 
ture, which were very handsome and of the colour of mahogany. He 
mentions that it was much used by them for carving into bowls, spoons, 
&c,, and also for the very curious use of making heels for women's shoes. 
It was once very much used, and in seme parts of the Highlands it is 
still commonly used, for dyeing a beautiful black colour. By boiling the bark 
or young twigs with copperas it gives a very durable colour, and supplies 
the black stripes in home-made tartan. A decoction of the leaves was 
counted an excellent remedy for burnings and inflammations, and the fresh 
leaves laid upon swellings are said to dissolve them and stay the inflamma- 
tion. The old Highlanders used to put fresh alder leaves to the soles of 
their feet when they were much fatigued with long journeys or in hot 
weather, as they allayed the heat and refreshed them very much. Our 
ancestors were sharp enough to discover the curious fact that the alder 
wood splits best from the root, whereas all other trees split best from the 
top, which gave rise to the old Gaelic saying, " Gach fiodh o na bharr, 's 
an fhearna o' na bhun." 

APPLE AND CRAB APPLE. Latin, Pyrus Mains; Gaelic, Ubhal, 
Ubhal-fiadhaicli. The crab apple is a native of the Highlands, where it 
grows in woods and by river sides, to a height of about twenty feet. Of 
course the cultivated apple of gardens and orchards is just an improved 
variety of the same, which by ages of care and cultivation has been 
brought to its present perfection. The fruit of the crab is small and 
very bitter, but its juice is much used for rubbing to sprains, cramps, &c., 
and the bark is used by the Highlanders for dying wool of a light yel- 
lowish colour. The apple was cultivated at a very early date in Britain, 
as it is often mentioned by our earliest writers. Logan says that from a 
passage in Ossian it is .clear that the ancient Highlanders were well 
acquainted with the apple. Pliny says that the apple trees of Britain 
bore excellent fruit, and Solinus writes that Moray and the north-eastern 
part of Scotland abounded with apples in the third century. Buchanan 
says that Moray, which, of course, in his day included Inverness-shire, 
surpassed all the other parts of Scotland for excellent fruittrees. The monks 
paid great attention to the cultivation of the apple, and they always had 
gardens and orchards attached to their monasteries, near the ruins of 
which some very old apple trees are still found growing and bearing 
good crops of fruit, for instance, the old apple tree a few yards north from 
Beauly Priory. We read that the monks of lona had very fine orchards 
i" the ninth century, but they were destroyed and the trees cut down by 
th- 1 Norwegian invaders. King David L, about 1140, spent much of his 



70 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

spare time in training and grafting fruit trees. It is a very great mistake 
indeed that the apple is not cultivated more now in the Highlands, for 
from the suitable soil in many places, and also from the great shelter 
afforded by the hills and woods, in many of the glens and straths, it would 
grow to perfection where at present there is not a single tree. Indeed it 
is entirely neglected except in gentlemen's gardens. The present High- 
landers have not such a high opinion of the apple as Solomon had " Mar 
chrann-ubhall am measg chrann na coille, is amhuill mo runsa am measg 
nan bgauach ; fo sgaile mhainnaich mi, agus shuidh mi sios agus bha a 
thoradh milis do m' bhlas" (Song of Solomon ii. 3). Almost all the 
Gaelic bards, in singing the praises of their lady-loves, compare them to the 
sweet-smelling apple: 

" Bu tu m' ubhall, a's m' ubhlan, 
'S bu tu m'ur ros an garadh." 

" Iseabail 6g 

An 6r-f'huilt bhuidhe 
Do ghruaidh mar rbs 
'S do phbg mar ubhal." 

" Tha do phog mar ubhlan garaidh, 
'S tha do bhraighe mar an nebnan." 

The well-known fact that the largest and finest apples always grow on 
the young wood at the top of the tree gave rise to the old Gaelic proverb 
" Bithidh 'n t-ubhal is fearr, air a mheangan is airde." The crab apple 
is the badge of the Clan Lamond. 

APRICOTE. Latin, Armeniaca Vulgaris ; Gaelic, Apricoc. The apri- 
cote is a native of the Levant, but was introduced into Britain in 1548. 
This excellent fruit, which was once much grown by the monks, is very 
seldom to be found now in the Highlands, though common enough in 
gardens in the Lowlands of Scotland. Alexander Macdonald ( Mac 
Mhaiglistir Alastair) mentions it in his Gaelic list of fruit trees, and 
Logan, in his " Scottish Gael," says that it thrives very well as far north 
as Dunrobin. By giving it the shelter of a wall facing the south, it will 
thrive and ripen its fruit in most of the low straths of the Highlands. 

ASH. Latin, Fraxinus Excelsior ; Gaelic, Uinnseann. The ash is a 
native of the Highlands, where, in a suitable situation, it will grow to a 
height of nearly 100 feet. This useful tree, so well-known to everybody, 
is noted for its smooth silvery bark when young, and for its graceful fern- 
like leaves, which come out late in spring, and are the first to fall in 
autumn, and of which horses and sheep are very fond. The ash will 
adapt itself to any situation, and will flourish according to the richness of 
the soil, and the amount of shelter it receives, wherever it happens to 
spring up, from a seed carried by the wind or by birds. "We have it in 
the Highlands in every stage from the stunted bush of a few feet high, 
which grows in the cleft of some high rock, or by the side of some bum 
high up amongst the hills, to the noble tree of a hundred feet high, which 
grows in our straths, and of which I may give the following example from 
my native district of Athole. It is described by the Eev. Thomas 
Buchanan in his account of the parish of Logierait, in " tho New Statis- 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 71 

tical Account of Scotland" (1844). He says "There is a remarkable 
ash tree in the innkeeper's garden, near the village of Logierait. It 
measures at the ground 53 feet in circumference ; at three feet from the 
ground, 40 feet ; and at eleven feet from the ground, 22 feet. The height 
is 60 feet ; but the upper part of the stem appears to have been carried 
away. The height is said to have been at one time nearly 90 feet. The 
trunk is hollow from the base, and can contain a large party. This 
venerable stem is surmounted by a profusion of foliage, which, even at 
the advanced age of the tree, attracts the eye at a distance to its uncom- 
mon proportions. An old man at the age of 100 is at present in the 
habit of taking his seat daily within the hollow formed by its three 
surviving sides no unsuitable companion to the venerable relic." In 
the same work, in the accounts of the parishes of Kenmore and Weem, 
mention is made of an ash in the park of Taymouth Castle, 18 feet in 
circumference, and other two on the lawn at Castle Menzies, 16 feet. 
The wood of the ash, which is hard and very tough, was much used by 
the old Highlanders for making agricultural implements, handles for axes, 
&c. Besides those peaceful uses to which they put the ash, they also 
used it for warlike purposes, by making bows of it when yew could not 
be had, and also for making handles for their spears and long Lochaber 
axes. The Highlanders have many curious old superstitions about the ash, 
one of which is also common in some parts or the Lowlands, viz. : That 
the oak and the ash fortell whether it is to be a wet or a dry season, by 
whichever of them comes first into leaf if the ash comes first into leaf, 
it is to be a very wet summer ; but very dry if the oak comes first. An- 
other curious old superstition is still lingering in some parts of the High- 
lands about the virtue of the sap for newly-born ^children, and as Light- 
foot mentions it as common in the Highlands and Islands when he 
travelled there with Pennant, in 1772, I may give it in his words. He 
says : " In many parts of the Highlands, at the birth of a child, the 
nurse or midwife, from what motive I know not, puts the end of a green 
stick of ash into the fire, and, while it is burning, receives into a spoon 
the sap or juice which oozes out at the other end, and administers this as 
the first spoonful of liquors to the new-born babe." Another old High- 
land belief is that a decoction of the tender tops or leaves of the ash taken 
inwardly, and rubbed outwardly to the wound, is a certain cure for the 
bite of an adder or serpent, and that an adder has such an antipathy to 
the ash that if it is encompassed with ash leaves and twigs, it will rather 
go through fire than through the ash. 

" Theid an nathair troimh an teine dhearg, 
Mu'n teid i troimh dhuilleach an uinnsinn." 

In fact, the adders were supposed to regard the ash amongst the forest 
trees as they did the M'lvors among the Highland clans ! Every High- 
lander knows the old saying about the M'lvors and the adders 

Latha na Feill'-Bride 
Their an nathair anns an torn 
" Cha bhi mise ri Nic-Iomhair 
'S cha bhi Nic-Iomhair riurn! 



72 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Mhionnaich mise do Chlann lombair 
'S mhionnaich Clann lonihair dhomhsa ; 
Nach bean mise do Chlann lomhair, 
'S nach bean Clann lombair dbombsa ! " 

As a proof of the many uses to which the wood of the ash may be put, I 
may quote Isaiah, xliv. 14 " Suidhichidh e crann-uinsinn, agus altruimidh 
an t' uisge e. An sinn bithidh e aig duine chum a losgadh ; agus gabhaidh 
e dheth, agus garaidh se e fein : seadh cuiridh e teine ris, agus deasaichidh 
e aran. Cuid dheth loisgidh e 'san teine, le cuid eile dheth deasaichidh 
agus ithidh e feoil ; rostaidh e biadh agus sasuichear e : an sin garaidh 
se a fe"in agus their e Aha rinn mi mo gharadh, dh' aithnich mi an teine. 
Agus do 'n chuid eile dheth ni e dia, eadhon dealbh snaidhte dha fein ; 
cromaidh e sios dha agus bheir e aoradh dha ; agus ni e urnuigh ris agus 
their e Teasairg mi oir is tu mo dhia." The ash is the badge of the 
Clan Menzies. 

ASPEN. Latin, Populus Tremula; Gaelic, Critheann. The aspen, 
which grows to a height of about fifty feet, is a native of the Highlands, 
where it grows in great abundance all over the country, in most places on 
the banks of streams. It is very rapid in the growth, consequently its 
wood is not of much value, being very soft, but white and smooth. This 
wood was much used by the Highlanders for making pack-saddles, wood 
cans, milk pails, &c. The great peculiarity about the aspen, and which 
has made it the object of many curious old superstitions, is the ever 
trembling motion of its leaves, which gave rise to its Gaelic name, 
" Critheann," or " trembling." The cause of this is that leaves which are 
round or slightly heart-shaped, have very long slender stalks, so thai they 
quiver and shake with every breath of wind, and the leaves being hard 
and dry, give a peculiar rustling sound. There is a common belief 
among the Highlanders that the Saviour's cross was made of the wood of 
the aspen, and that ever since then the leaves of this tree cannot rest, but 
are for ever trembling ! In the Bible, wherever we find the poplar men- 
tioned in the English, it is always translated Critheann or Crithich in 
Gaelic, as in Genesis xxx. 27, and Hosea iv. 13. As the aspen is a 
variety of the poplar, it may be correct enough to translate poplar 
" critheann," but Alex. Macdonald (Mac Mhaighstir Alastair), gives us 
another name for the poplar, Crann Pobhuill. 

BAY, OB LAUREL BAY. Latin, Laxrus noblis ; Gaelic, Laibhreas. 
This beautiful evergreen tree, the emblem of victory among the ancients, 
is a native of Itiily, but was introduced into Britain in 1561. It would 
likely be some time after that, however, before it was much planted in the 
Highlands, where it grows and thrives very well now in all the low straths 
and glens. Laibhreas is the Gaelic name I have found for it in over a 
dozen different books, but in the Bible, where it is only once mentioned 
(Psalms xxxvii. 35), it is translated Ur-chraobh-uaine. There are a great 
many old superstitions connected with the bay, only one of which I will 
give in the words of an old writer " that neither witch nor devil, thunder 
nor lightning, will hurt a man where a bay tree is !" If such be the case 
it is truly a valuable tree. The laurel bay is the badge of the Clan Mac- 
laren, and from it they take the motto which they bear above their crest 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 73 

"Si se Mac an t' slaurie," meaning that they are the sons of victory, 
of which the laurel is the emblem. 

BEECH. Latin, Fagus Sylvatica ; Gaelic, Faidh-Wiile. This tall and 
graceful tree needs no description, as it is well-known to everybody. It 
is a native of the Highlands, and grows to a height of about eighty feet. 
It is a very hardy tree, and grows in the glens all over the Highlands, 
where, in favourable situations, it attains an immenee size. Very large 
beech trees are found at Dunkeld and in the pass of Killiecrankie, where, 
to judge from their size, some of those beeches probably afforded shelter 
to many a wounded soldier on the 17th July, 1689, when "Bonnie 
Dundee" fought and fell on the field of Eaonruarie. Mention is also 
made in the NQW Statistical Account of two beech trees at Castle Menzies, 
one 17 and the other 19 feet in circumference, also one at Taymouth 
Castle, 22 feet. Of the beech an old writer says : " The mast or seeds 
of this tree will yield a good oil for lamps ; they are a food for mice and 
squirrels, and swine are very fond of them, but the fat of those which 
feed on them is soft and boils away, unless hardened before they are 
killed by other food. The wood is brittle, very fissile, durable under 
water, but not in the open air. It is the best of all woods for fuel, and 
it is sometimes used for making axes, bowls, sword scabbards," &c. As the 
leaves of the beech are very cooling, they were used by the Highlanders as 
a poultice, to be applied to any swellings to lessen and allay the heat. 
They were also used in some parts when dry for stuffing mattresses instead 
of straw, to which they are much superior for that purpose, as they will 
continue fresh for many years, and not get musty and hard as straw does. 

BLACK BEECH. Latin, Fagus sylvatica atro-rubens ; Gaelic, Faidh- 
Wiile dubh. This sombre and mournful-looking tree is just a variety of 
the common beech, and has mostly the same nature, only that it does not 
grow quite so tall The black beech is to be found with foliage of every 
shade, from a brownish-green to a blood-red, and almost even to jet black 
the two latter forming a very fine contrast to the light green of the 
common beech, or the white flowers of the hawthorn or the mountain 
ash, and is therefore a very striking object in a landscape. There are 
some very large trees of this kind in the Highlands, such as at Guisachan, 
in Strathglass, where they have a very rich dark colour. 

BIRCH. Latin, Betula alba; Gaelic, Beithe. I need not say that 
the birch is a native of the Highlands, where it is the most common of 
all our forest trees, and its graceful habit adds to the beauty of almost 
every glen and strath in the land of the Gael. It is still much used in 
many ways, but was much more so by the old Highlanders, who turned 
it into almost endless uses. The wood was once much used by them for 
making arrows for the men and spinning wheels for the women both 
being articles once indispensable in the Highlands, although now things 
of the past. The wood is still much used in the Highlands by turners, 
as it is the best possible wood for their work, and it is also much used for 
making bobbins. As Lightfoot mentions many of the uses to which the 
Highlanders put birch, I may give them in his words : " Various are 
the economical uses," he says, " of this tree. The Highlanders xise the bark 
to tan their leather and to make ropes. The outer rind, which they call 
they sometimes burn instead of candles. The inner bark, 



74 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

before the invention of paper, was used to write upon. The wood was 
formerly used by the Highlanders for making their arrows, but is now 
converted to better purposes, being used by the wheelwrights for ploughs, 
carts, and most of the rustic implements ; by the turners for trenchers, 
ladles, &c., the knotty excrescences affording a beautiful veined wood ; 
and by the cooper for hoops. The leaves are a fodder for sheep and goats, 
and are used by the Highlanders for dyeing a yellow colour. The catkins 
are a favourite food of small birds, especially the sisken, and the pliant 
twigs are well-known to answer the purposes of cleanliness and conectiont 
There is yet another use to which this tree is applicable, and which I 
will beg leave strongly to recommend to my Highland friends. The 
vernal sap is well known to have a saccharine quality capable of making 
sugar, and a wholesome diuretic wine. This tree is always at hand, and 
the method of making the wine is simple and easy. I shall subjoin the 
receipt ' In the beginning of March when the sap is rising, and before 
the leaves shoot out, bore holes in the bodies of the larger trees and put 
fossets therein, made of elder sticks with the pith taken out, and then 
put any vessels under to receive the liquor. If the tree be large you may 
tap it in four or five places at a time without hurting it, and thus from 
several trees you may gain several gallons of juice in a day. If you have 
not enough in one day bottle up close what you have till you get a suffi- 
cient quantity for your purpose, but the sooner it is used the better. 
Boil the sap as long as any scum rises, skimming it all the time. To 
every gallon of liquor put four pounds of sugar, and boil it afterwards 
half-an-hour, skimming it well ; then put it into an open tub to cool, and 
when cold run it into your cask; when it has done working bung it up 
close, and keep it three months. Then either bottle it off or draw it out 
of the cask after it is a year old. This is a generous and agreeable liquor, 
and would be a happy substitute in the room of the poisonous whisky.'" 
So says Lightfoot. Another writer says " In those parts of the High- 
lands of Scotland where pine is not to be had, the birch is a timber for 
all uses. The stronger stems are the rafters of the cabin, wattles of the 
boughs are the walls and the doors, even the chests and boxes are of this 
rude basket work. To the Highlander it forms his spade, his plough, and if 
ne have one, his cart, and his harness ; and when other materials are 
used the cordage is still withies of twisted birch. These ropes are far 
more durable than ropes of hemp, and the only preparation is to bark the 
twig and twist it while green." 

WARTY OR KNOTTY BIRCH. Latin, Betula VeiTucosa ; Gaelic, Beithe 
Carraigeach, Beithe Dubh-chasach. This tree, though very much resemb- 
ling the common birch, is quite a distinct variety, and was always treated 
as such by the old Highlanders, which is another strong proof of how keenly 
our ancestors studied nature, and how quick they were to discover even the 
slightest peculiarity or difference in the habit or nature of any tree or plant, 
and the nicety and taste with which they gave the Gaelic name descriptive 
of any such peculiarity. It is a native of the Highlands, where it generally 
grows larger and stronger than the common birch. It was always used by the 
old Highlanders for any particular work where extra strength or durability 
was required. Owing to its dark bark and its gnarled and knotty stem it is 
not such a graceful tree as the common birch, but the wood is of a better 
quality. (To be Continued.) 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 75 



PRINCE CHARLES AT CULLODEN 



THE following letter appeared in a recent issue of the Inverness Courier, 
It is curious and worthy of preservation : 

The statements which I made on the occasion of the opening of our College, 
that Abhot Leith was a faithful adherent of Prince Charles, and was with 
him at the battle of Culloden, were, I think, not altogether without fair his- 
torical foundation. They were based in the first place upon two ancient 
manuscripts, as yet inedited, formerly belonging to our old Scottish Abbey 
of St James's at Ratisbon in Bavaria, and now safely lodged in the 
Archives of this Monastery ; and, secondly, upon the testimony of the old 
tradition of the Abbey of Ratisbon, over which Abbot Leith presided 
after the battle of Culloden. This tradition has been handed down to us 
by Dom. Anselom Robertson, the last Scottish Monk of St James's, who 
is now a Professor in this College. He received his information from 
Prior Deasson, who in his turn had it from Dom. Ildefonsus Kennedy, 
the annalist of the Abbey, a contemporary of Abbot Leith, and the writer 
of one of the two manuscripts which lie before me. 

That Prince Charles should have had his chaplain with him in the 
momentous battle of Culloden, in which he was about to stake his fortunes 
is natural enough, whilst the circumstance that this incident has not been 
more fully recorded, may be accounted for by the fact that Dom. Gall 
Leith disguised himself as a soldier, and might thus have easily escaped 
special observation. A brief sketch of the life of this soldier monk may 
interest some of your readers. 

Robert Leith, in religion known as Dom. Gall Leith, the son of Alex- 
ander Leith, was born in December 26> 1706, at Collithy, and when 
twelve years old was sent with eight other youths from Scotland to the 
ancient and famous Scotch Benedictine Abbey at Ratisbon. In 1726 he 
became a monk of the Order of St Benedict, in 1728 completed his 
philosophical studies, entered upon divinity 1731, and was sent to Salz- 
burg to prosecute the study of Canon Law. He then paid a visit to Rome, 
returning to St James's 1737, where he remained director of the College 
till September of 1740, when he crossed the seas as a missionary, and once 
more set foot on his native land : " in mense Septembris perrexit mission- 
arius in Scotiam." The old monastic chronicle says " He was a man of 
singular cast, and was endowed with exceeding good natural parts ; he had 
an unrelenting application. As master in speculative sciences he teached 
philosophy and theology with honour, and was an able orator. He had a 
penetrating head, an honest heart." Such a man was not likely to stand 
listlessly with his hands hanging at his sides in times of peril and excite- 
ment. From 1740 till 1747 he shared in the religious and political suffer- 
ings which afflicted Scotland. He became chaplain and private confessor 
to Prince Charles. The annalist tells us " In the troubles of 1745 he 
served Prince Charles as priest and soldier, by which last (he dryly adds) 
he received a wound in his foot for his pains." The Edinburgh Review 
(January 1864) in an article, entitled " Scottish Religious Houses Abroad," 
remarks in speaking of the Abbots of Ratisbon " The next Abbot was 



76 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

F. Leith, who accompanied Charles Edward in the affair of '45 into 
England, being associated with three other priests as chaplains to the ex- 
pedition" (p. 183). After the battle of Culloden it was no longer safe 
for him to remain in the country. "Anno 1747 coactus est relinquere 
Patriam ob tumultos bellicosos." Moreover, worn out both in mind and 
"body by the incredible fatigues he had been through, he needed rest, and 
betook himself to the Benedictine country house of Erfurt, in Germany. 
No sooner had he recovered a little from his fatigues than he returned 
again to the mission in Scotland. But such a man, guilty of the double 
crime of being a priest and a Royalist, could not elude the vigilant eye of 
the " Butcher Duke." On arriving in port he was apprehended on board 
ship by orders of the Duke of Cumberland, and transferred to a man-of- 
war, and thus carried to London. There, with two other priests, he was 
thrown into prison for four months, and then set at liberty by the Minister 
of the day. The rest of his life was spent in comparative tranquillity. 
Three years he lived in Wales at Battington Hall, acting as chaplain to 
the Duke of Powis. Whilst there he received news of his election to the 
Abbacy of St James's, which he governed till his death in 1775. 

By way of confirming what I said at our festal board, I may here add 
that after Prince Charles escaped to France the Abbots of St James's were 
continually in correspondence with the Eoyal House of Stuart up to the 
death of Cardinal York. Unfortunately, nearly the whole of this inter- 
esting correspondence was burnt in 1804 in the country house of Stralfeld, 
in Bavaria. One precious letter, written by Cardinal York to the Abbot 
of St James's, alone escaped the flames, and may now be seen at Blair's 
College, Aberdeenshire. 

In conclusion, allow me to add that I shall be happy to allow those 
who wish it free access to any documents we may possess of interest, and 
that it will always be our aim and pleasure to promote as widely as 
possible the cause of literature and learning, even in however slender a 
degree that may be. I am, yours truly, 

JEROME VAUGHAN, O.S.B. 

ST BENEDICT'S MONASTERY AND COLLEGE, FOBT-ADGUSTTO. 



TO CONTRIBUTORS. The first article by the Rev. Donald Masson, 
M.D., M.A., on " Our Gaelic Bible," will appear in our next. 

THE HIGHLANDER NEWSPAPER. Next month we shaU dis- 
cuss the causes which led to the present unfortunate position of the 
Highlander. We are in a position to state that it certainly was not the 
want of proper support by Highlanders. The circulation was large, and 
with good management the paper might have been made one of the best 
weekly newspaper properties in Scotland. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 77 



literature. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE GAELIC SOCIETY OF INVERNESS : VOLUME 
VII. , 1877-78. Printed for the Society. 

WE always peruse the Transactions of the Gaelic Society with pleasure 
and profit. The volume now under notice is in every respect highly 
creditable. All the papers are good some of them really excellent, and 
most of the speeches re-produced are well worth recording in this form. 
The first paper is by the Eev. A. C. Sutherland, B.A., Strath braan, and 
is entitled "George Buchanan on the Customs and Languages of the 
Celts." It is very interesting and will well repay perusal. The session 
of 1877-8 is commenced by an introductory address in Gaelic, by the 
Eev. Alexander Macgregor, and is reproduced in full. It is a 
" Comhradh " between Murchadh Ban and Coinneach Ciobair. Coinneach 
found his way to Inverness and describes what he there saw. He, of 
course, met the Ard-Albannach and the Geilteach, and gives the follow- 
ing description of them : 

C. " Chunnaic mi an dithis, agus ochan ! Is iad bha daimheil 
suairce, coir. Bha 'n t-Ard-Albannach direach anns an riochd sin a 
smuainich mi a bhiodh e, laidir, calma, treun, le bhreacan-an-f heile, agus 
'bhonait leathainn. Ach bha mi gu tur air mo mhealladh, a' thaobh a' 
bheachd a ghabh mi, mu'm fac mi e, air a' Cheilteach. 'Bha duil agam 
gu'n robh e 'na spealpair caol, ard, dubh, le ite geoidh a'n cul a chluais 
cas, peasanach 'na labhairt, agus rud-eigin cosmhuil ris na sgonn-bhalaich 
sin a chithear na'n cleirich ann an tamh-ionadaibh nan slighean-iaruinn ! 
Ach ! Ochan ! is mi a bha air mo mhealladh, seadh, gu tur air mo 
mhealladh, a Mhurachaidh." 

M. " Bha thu air do mhealladh 'n ad 'bharail d'a rireadh, a Choin- 
nich." 

C. " Cha robh mac mathar riamh ni's mo air a mhealladh ! Chaidh 
mi 'ga fhaicinn, agus ma chaidh, chomhluich mi duine ro ghrinn agus 
aoidheil, duine garbh, tiugh, sultmhor, ruighteach, geanail, agus ceart co 
eu-cosmhuil ris a' chle'ireach, chaol, ghobach, dhubh sin, a bha 'san amharc 
agam, 'sa tha Creag-Phadruig eu-cosmhuil ri Beinn Neabhais. Chuir sinn 
uine mhor seachad cuideachd, agus bu lionmhor na nithe Gaidhealach air 
an d'thug sinn lamh. Cha bheag an sochair d'an Chomunn so gu'm bheil 
an t-Ard-Albannach agus an Ceilteach aig an uilinn aca, agus cha bheag 
a bhuannachd do'n Ghaidhealtachd gu'm bheil iad a' dol a mach air an 
cuairtibh air feadh gach gleann, eilean, agus garbh-chrioch 'nar tir." 
" Leaves from my Celtic Portfolio " two papers contributed by William 
Mackenzie, secretary of the Society are really valuable contributions, 
and such as the Transactions of the Society ought generally to be devoted 
to. In these papers Mr Mackenzie presents us with what he calls " Frag- 
ments from his Celtic Repositories." They are certainly fragments such 
a 5 * ought not to be lost, and Mr Mackenzie has done good service in plac- 
i ;_; them at the disposal of the Society, and, so securing a permanent place 
iw Uiom in the Transactions. The fragments are curious, and would, 



78 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

by themselves, be worth, the whole annual subscription to the Society. 
The next paper, by Charles Fergusson, on " The Gaelic names of Trees, 
Shrubs, and Plants," is a most valuable one, and deserves to be more 
widely known. It has been our intention to reproduce most, if not the 
whole, of it in the Celtic Magazine, and the first part of it will be found 
in this issue. The essay on " The Highland Garb," by J. G. Mackay, 
contains interesting information about the Highland dress, and some 
valuable notes on Clan Tartans, but we think Mr Mackay has devoted 
more time and space to those who assert that the Highland dress is a 
modern invention, than they really deserve ; for no one with any pretence 
to the most artificial knowledge of Celtic matters, will for a moment 
believe in the modern theory. Mr Mackay's paper, however, will be useful 
in placing facts, already well-known to Celtic students, at the disposal of 
members of the Society not .so well posted up, and so enable them to 
answer the ignorant and dogmatic assertions of the sneering Southron, as 
well as of the more contemptible creature the degenerate Highlander. 
The paper on the " Celtic Poetry of Scotland," by Angus Macphail, is fairly 
well written, though the style is samewhat tall, and exhibits an amount 
of ability or rather what may, perhaps, with more exactness, be des- 
cribed as a kind of precocious genius which, with care and a little more 
economical use of the first personal pronoun and less self-assertiveness, is 
sure to do good service in the Celtic field. Some very good translations 
are given, as also specimens of Gaelic vowel rhymes and alliterations, the 
most peculiar perhaps being that appropriated from Logan's introduction 
to Mackenzie's "Beauties of Gaelic Poetry." Mr Macphail says that 
" the ruling feet in Gaelic metres are the anapaest, trochee, and iambus, 
and, as a general rule, hypercatelectic," and after giving a specimen of a 
certain peculiar style of versification, he informs us that the metre is " the 
anapaestic monometer hypercatalectic, alternating with the pure anapaestic 
mouometer." This is, no doubt, learned and perhaps, to some, interesting, 
but we really think it might be put in such a way as to enable persons 
like ourselves, whose education has been to some extent neglected, to 
spell and pronounce, to say nothing about understanding it. On the 
whole the paper is worthy of careful perusal. It will be seen that the 
author is most anxious to introduce harmony among Celtic students, and 
this is how he does it : 

Gaelic poetry, whose richest treasure is its wealth of lyrics, many of whose authors 
ate nameless, has seen its best days. It is not likely that a Celtic genius will ever more 
use the ancient Celtic speech as the vehicle of his thoughts. Highlanders have not re- 
spected themselves ; a: id the world, literary as well as social, has not respected them. 
No periodical written entirely in Gaelic can live, even in these days when Celticism is 
in the air. Its literature is in the hands of literary parvenus, who make capital out of 
the enthusiasm which the revival of Celtic feeling has created, so long as it lasts. 
Celtic scholarship is at a discount ; and the best educated Celts live in bitter hostility 
and jealousy to one another. If Celtic genius has not contributed much to our national 
literature, Celtic industry may yet advance materially the science of philology. 

Dr Maclauchlan supplies a paper on " Celtic Literature " of a very 
different character to the one last referred to. It was published in our 
pages at the time, and the reader has already judged for himself of its 
great interest and value. The contribution on the " Election of Chiefs 
and the Land Laws," by John Mackay of Benreay, is capitally written, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 79 

and is conclusive against the modern claim of the right to elect chiefs of 
clans. Mr Mackay says, and says correctly : 

It is generally allowed by those who have studied the subject, that under Celtic 
sway, the law of succession in the Highlands, if not all over Scotland, was according to 
what is known as the law of Tanistry. This system implied descent from a common 
ancestor ; but when a vacancy occurred in the leadership, selected a man arrived at an 
age tit for war and council, in preference to the infant son (or heir-male if a minor) of 
the preceding chief. The succession was thus to a certain extent regulated by the law 
of expediency, and not strictly confined to the nearest male blood, the object being to 
have a chief of full age, able to advise in. council and lead the clansmen in time of war. 
The chief, therefore, never being a minor, the quarrels, intrigues, and bloodshed for his 
guardianship, as it was called, which became so marked under the feudal system, were 
avoided ; but there was no election of chiefs in the modern sense of that word, for the 
succession was confined to members of the chief's family. Thus, if a chief died, leaving 
his eldest son under age, one of the deceased chief's brothers would succeed as leader 
of the clan, and, failing a brother, the nearest male relative who had the confidence of 
the majority. It was a question in the first place of consanguinity, and not an election 
in the democratic or republican sense, as some people would have us believe, nowadays. 

Again 

Great stress has been laid by advocates of the elective system on the fact that two 
of the Chiefs of the Macdonalds were deposed, and other chiefs appointed in their place. 
These were the cases of Clanranald and Keppoch. Clanranald's case was IB 1544. He 
was arbitrary and harsh ; and what I may call a revolt of his Clan took place. To pre- 
serve his estate and authority, he got the assistance of his friend Lord Lovat and the 
Clan Fraser to help him to subdue his refractory clansmen, and bring them back to 
obedience. A battle took place. He was killed with a great many of the followers on 
both sides. The hereditary chief being thus slain, the next in succession became head 
of the Clan. In Keppoch's case, the revolution was effected more easily. He was con- 
sidered to have become unworthy of the allegiance of the Clan, was deposed, and the 
next in succession, as a matter of course, became chief. These, however, were excep- 
tional cases ; and it would be just as correct to say that the succession to the throne of 
Great Britain is elective because a revolution took place in 1689, by which one king was 
deposed and another chosen in his place, as it would be to say that such was the mode 
of electing a Highland chief from the instances I have given, or anj similar instance. 

Mr Mackay puts very clearly his views on the Land Laws. He main- 
tains that the people have no rights whatever in the soil. In this we 
entirely differ from him, "but such a case as he puts and puts well 
demands a very different answer to mere assertion or abuse. A full 
account of the great Celtic demonstration in favour of Mr Fraser-Mack- 
intosh, M.P., at Inverness in April last is given. It was at the time 
more fully reported in a supplement to the Celtic Magazine than any- 
where else, and further reference to it here is therefore unnecessary. The 
paper by William Mackenzie, secretary, on " Bliadhna nan Caorach," 
is a remarkable and valuable contribution to the history of the 
Highland Clearances. No mere quotation from this paper would give an 
idea of its interest and value, and we can only recommend those who take 
an interest in such questions to peruse the paper in the Transactions, a 
copy of which each member of the Society receives gratis. This is the 
largest and most valuable volume hitherto published by the Society. It 
is highly creditable to the Secretary, not only on account of his own 
valuable contributions to its pages, but also for the unusual promptitude 
with which he managed, as convener of the publishing committee, to get 
it through the press ; for the general excellence of the papers obtained by 
him from the other contributors, and for the printing and general get-up 
of the volume. The typography is everything that could be desired, and 
the public owe the Gaelic Society a debt of gratitude for such a publica- 
tion. 



80 



THE CELTIC MAGAZIKE. 



FEAR AN LEADAIN THLAITH. 



O&oru*. 




-V 






Fhir an leadain thlaith, Dh'fhag thu mi fo bhron, Tha mi trom an drasd, 

Fine. 






'Se sin fa mo dheoir, Fhir an leadain thlaith, dh'fhag thu mi fo bhron. 









\F-4- 



'Fhir 'chuil dualaich chleachdaich, 'S bidhche fiamh ri 'fliaicinn, 

D.C. 



m m 



A- 



^ 



Tha do ghaol an tasgaidh, 



'N seomar glaist na m' fheoiL 



KEY G. 

Chorus. 

I m . d :r.m I 1 : s ., d I m ., 'r : d | f . f : s ., s 



I I . f :m.,d | r : m . d |r . m : 1 | s ., d : m ., r d 

m . m : r ., r : d . d m . in :r.,r : d . d 

D.C. 
f ,f : s ., s : 1 . 1 s., f :m.d :r 



Tha do ghruaigh mar shuthain, 
An garaidh nan ubhall, 
'8 binne learn na chuthag, 
Uirighill do bheoil. 

Jrhir an leadain, ttc. 

An toiseach a' Gheamhraidh, 
'S ann a ghabh mi geall ort, 
Shaoil learn gu'm bu leam-thu, 
'S cha do theann tbu'm choir. 
Ihir an leadain, <fcc. 



Fhir an leadainn laghaiob, 

'S tu mo ruin 's mo raghain, 

Na'n sguireadh tu thaghal 

'S an taigh am bi 'H t-ol. 

Fhir an leadain, &c. 

Fhir an leadain chraobhaich, 

'S og a rinn thu m' aomadh, 

Thug thu mi bho 'm dhaoine 

Fhuair mo shaathair og. 

Fhir an leadain, cfcc. 



An gair' a rinn mi 'n uiridh, 
Chuir mo cheum an truimead, 
'S mis a tba gu duilich, 
'S muladach mo cheol. 
Fhir an leadain, <kt. 

NOTE. " Fear an leadain thlaith " is a highly popular song in the West Highlands 
and ia well worthy of publication here. I am not aware that the air has appeared else- 
where in print. W. M'K. 



THE 



CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

No. XXXIX. JANUARY 1879. VOL. IV. 

HISTOEY OF THE CLAN MACKENZIE, 
WITH GENEALOGIES OF THE PRINCIPAL FAMILIES. 

BY THE EDITOR. 



[CONTINUED. | 

GENERAL Wade made a report to the Government, from which we extract 
the part which refers to Seaforth's followers : " The Laird of the Mac- 
kenzies, and other chiefs of the clans and tribes, tenants to the late Earl 
of Seaforth, came to me in a body, to the number of about fifty, and 
assured me that both they and their followers were ready to pay a dutiful 
obedience to your MajestyVcommands, by a peaceable surrender of their 
arms ; and if your Majesty would be graciously pleased to procure them 
an indemnity for the rents that had been misplaced for the time past, 
they would for the future become faithful subjects to your Majesty, and 
pay them to your Majesty's receiver for the use of the public. I assured 
them of your Majesty's gracious intentions towards them, and that they 
might rely on your Majesty's bounty and clemency, provided they would 
merit it by their future good conduct and peaceable behaviour ; that I 
had your Majesty's commands to send the first summons to the country 
they inhabited ; which would soon give them an opportunity of showing 
the sincerity of their promises, and of having the merit to set the example 
to the rest of the Highlands, who in their turns were to be summoned to 
deliver up their arms, pursuant to the Disarming Act ; that they might 
choose the place they themselves thought most convenient to sur- 
render their arms ; and that I would answer, that neither their persons 
nor their property should be molested by your Majesty's troops. They 
desired they might be permitted to deliver up their arms at the Castle of 
Brahan, the principal seat of their late superior, who, they said, had pro- 
moted and encouraged them to this their submission ; but begged that 
none of the Highland companies might be present; for, as they had 
always been reputed the bravest, as well as the most numerous of the 
northern clans, they thought it more consistent with their honour to 
resign their arms to your Majesty's veteran troops ; to which I readily 
consented. 

" Summonses were accordingly sent to the several clans and tribes, 
the inhabitants of 18 parishes, who were vassals or tenants of the late 

G 



82 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Earl of Seaforth, to bring or scud in all their arms and warlike weapons to 
tlie Castle of Brahan, on or before the 28th of August. 

" On the 25th of August I went to the Castle of Brahan with a de- 
tachment of 200 of the regular troops, and was met there by the chiefs of 
the several clans and tribes, who assured me they had used their utmost 
diligence in collecting all the arms they were possessed of, which should 
be brought thither on the Saturday following, pursuant to the summons 
they had received ; and telling me they were apprehensive of insults or 
depredations from the neighbouring clans of the Camerons and others, 
who still continued in possession of their arms. Parties of the Highland 
companies were ordered to guard the passes leading to their country; 
which parties continued there for their protection, till the clans in that 
neighbourhood were summoned, and had surrendered their arms. 

" On the day appointed the several clans and tribes assembled in the 
adjacent villages, and marched in good order through the great avenue 
that leads to the Castle ; and one after the other laid down their arms in 
the court-yard in great quiet and decency, amounting to 784 of the several 
species mentioned in the Act of Parliament. 

" The solemnity with which this was performed had undoubtedly a 
great influence over the rest of the Highland clans ; and disposed them 
to pay that obedience to your Majesty's commands, by a peaceable sur- 
render of their arms, which they had never done to any of your royal 
predecessors, or in compliance with any law either before or since the 
Union." 

We extract the following account of Donald Murchison's proceedings 
and that of Seaforth's vassals during his exile in France, from a most 
interesting and valuable work. * It will bring out in a prominent light 
the state of the Highlands and the futility of the power of the Govern- 
ment at that period in the North. With regard to several of the forfeited 
estates which lay in inaccessible situations in the Highlands, the com- 
missioners had been up to this time entirely baffled, having never been 
able even to get surveys of them effected. In this predicament in a special 
manner lay the immense territory of the Earl of Seaforth, extending from 
Brahan Castle in Easter Eoss across the island to Kintail, and including 
the large though unfertile island of Lewis. The districts of Lochalsh and 
Kintail, on the west coast, the scene of the Spanish invasion of 1719, 
were peculiarly difficult of access, their being no approach from the 
south, east, or north, except by narrow and difficult paths, while the 
western access was only assailable to a naval force. To afl appearance, this 
tract of ground, the seat of many comparatively opulent " tacksmen " and 
cattle farmers, was as much beyond tne control of the six commissioners 
assembled at their office in Edinburgh, as if it had been amongst the 
mountains of Tibet or upon the shores of Madagascar. 

During several years after the insurrection, the rents of this district 
were collected, without the slightest difficulty, for the benefit of the 
exiled Earl, and regularly transmitted to him. At one time a consider- 
able sum was sent to him in Spain, and the descendants of the man who 
carried it continued for generations to bear " the Spanyard " as an addi- 

* Chambers's Domestic Aniials of Scotland, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 83 

tion to their name. The chief agent in the business was Donald Murchi- 
son, descendant of a line of faithful adherents of the " high chief of Kin- 
tail." Some of the later generations of the family had been intrusted 
with the keeping of Islandonain Castle, a stronghold dear to the modern 
artist as a picturesque ruin, but formerly of serious importance as com- 
manding a central point from which radiate Loch Alsli and Loch Duich, 
in the midst of the best part of the Mackenzie country. Donald was a 
man worthy of a more prominent place in his country's annals than he 
has yet attained; he acted under a sense of right which, though unfor- 
tunately defiant of Acts of Parliament, was still a very pure sense of right ; 
and in the remarkable actions which he performed, he looked solely to the 
good of those towards whom he had a feeling of duty. A more disin- 
terested hero and he was one never lived. 

When Lord Seaforth brought his clan to fight for King James in 
1715, Donald Murchison and a senior brother, John, went as field officers 
of the regiment Donald as lieutenant-colonel, and John as major. The 
late Sir Roderick J. Murchison, the distinguished geologist, great-grand- 
son of John, possessed a large ivory and silver " mill," which once con- 
tained the commission sent from France to Donald, as colonel, bearing 
the inscription : " James Rex : forward and spare not." John fell at 
Sheriffmuir, in the prime of life ; Donald returning with the remains of 
the clan, was entrusted by the banished Earl with the management of 
estates no longer legally his, but still virtually so, though the eifect of 
Highland feelings in connection with very peculiar local circumstances. 
And for this task Donald was in various respects well qualified, for, 
strange to say, the son of the castellan of Islandonain the Sheritfmuir 
Colonel had been " bred a writer " in Edinburgh, and was as expert at 
the business of a factor or estate-agent as in wielding the claymore.* 

In bold and avowed insubordination to the government of George the 
First, the Mackenzie's tenants continued for ten years to pay their rents 
to Donald Murchison, on account of their forfeited and exiled lord, set- 
ting at nought all fear of ever being compelled to repeat the payment to 
the commissioners. 

In 1720 these gentlemen made a movement for asserting their claims 
upon the property. In William Eoss of Easterfearn and Robert Ross, a 
bailie of Tain, they found two men bold enough to undertake the duty 
of stewardship in their behalf over the Seaforth property, and also the 
estates of Grant of Glenmoriston, and Chisholni of Strathglass. Little, 
however, was done that year beyond sending out notices to the tenants, 
and preparing for strenuous measures to be entered upon next year. The 
stir they made only produced exitement, not dismay. Some of the duine- 
uasals from about Lochcarron, coming down with their cattle to the 
south-country fairs, were heard to declare that the two factors would 
never get anything but leaden coin from the Seaforth tenantry. Donald 
was going over the whole country showing a letter he had got from the 
Earl, encouraging his people to stand 'out; at the same time telling them 
that the old Countess was about to come north with a factory for the 
estate, when she would allow as paid any rents which they might now 

* For a shoit time before the insurrection, he had acted as factor to Sir John Pres- 
ton of Preston Hall, in Mid-Lothian, now also a forfeited estate, but of minor value. 



84 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

hand to him. The very first use to be made of this money was, indeed, 
to bring both the old and . the young Countesses home immediately to 
Brahan Castle, where they would live as they used to do. Part of the 
funds thus acquired, he used in keeping on foot a party of about sixty 
armed Highlanders, whom, in virtue of his commission as colonel, he pro- 
posed to employ in resisting any troops of George the First which might 
be sent to Kintail. Nor did he wait to be attacked, but in June 1720, 
hearing of a party of excisemen passing near Dingwall with a large 
quantity of aqua-vitcn, he fell upon them and rescued their prize. The 
Collector of the district reported this transaction to the Board of Excise, 
but no notice was taken of it. 

In February 1721, the two factors sent officers of their own into the 
western districts, to assure the tenants of good usage, if they would make 
a peaceable submission ; but the men were seized, robbed of their papers, 
money, and arms, and quietly remanded over the Firth of Attadale, 
though only after giving solemn assurance that they would never attempt 
to renew their mission. Resenting this procedure, the two factors caused 
a constable to take a military party from Bernera Barracks into Lochalsh, 
and, if possible, capture those who had been guilty. They made a 
stealthy night-march, and took two men ; but the alarm was given, the 
two men escaped, and began to fire down upon their captors from a hill- 
side ; then they set fire to the bothy as a signal, and such a coronach 
went over all Kintail and Lochalsh as made the soldiers glad to beat a 
quick retreat. 

After some further proceedings, all of them ineffectual, the two factors 
were enabled, on the 13th day of September, to set forth from Inverness 
with a party of thirty soldiers and some armed servants of their own, 
with the design of enforcing submission to their legal claims. Let it be 
remembered there were then no roads in the Highlands, nothing but a 
few horse-tracks along the principle lines in the country, where not the 
slightest effort had ever been made to smooth away the natural difficulties 
of the ground. In two days the factors had got to Invermoriston ; but 
here they were stopped for three days, waiting for their heavy luggage, 
which was storm-stayed in Castle Urquhart, and there nearly taken in a 
night attack by a partisan warrior bearing the name of Evan Eoy Mac- 
giUivray. The tenantry of Glenmoriston at first fled with their bestial ; 
but afterwards a number of them came iu and made at least the appear- 
ance of submission. The party then moved on towards Strathglass, 
while Evan Eoy respectfully followed, to pick xip any man or piece of 
baggage that might be left behind. At Erchless Castle, and at Inver- 
cannich, seats of the Chisholm, they held courts, and received the sub- 
mission of a number of the tenants, whom, however, they subsequently 
found to be " very deceitful." 

There were now forty or fifty miles of the wildest Highland country 
before them, where they had reason to believe they should meet groups 
of murderous Camerons and Glengarry Macdonalds, and also encounter 
the redoubtable Donald Murcliison, with his guard of Mackenzies, unless 
then 1 military force should be of an amount to render all such opposition 
hopeless. An appointment having been made that they should receive 
ail addition of fifty soldiers from Bernera, with whom to pass through 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 85 

the most difficult part of their journey, it seemed likely that they would 
appear too strong for resistance ; and, indeed, intelligence was already 
coming to them, that "the people of Kintail, being a judicious opulent 
people, would not expose themselves to the punishments of law," and 
that the Camerons were absolutely determined to give no further provo- 
cation to the Governmeat. This assured, they set out in cheerful mood 
along the valley of Strathglass, and, soon after passing a place called 
Knockfin, were reinforced by Lieutenant Brymer with the expected fifty 
men from Bernera. There must now have been about a hundred well 
armed men in the invasive body. They spent the next day (Sunday) 
together in rest, to gather strength for the ensuing day's inarch of about 
thirty arduous miles, by which they hoped to reach Kintail. 

At four in the morning of Monday, the 2d of October, the party set 
forward, the Bernera men first, and the factors in the rear. They were 
as yet far from the height of the country, and from its more difficult 
passes ; but they soon found that all the flattering tales of non-resistance 
were groundless, and that the Kintail men had come a good way out 
from their country in order to defend it. The truth was, that Donald 
Murchison had assembled not only his stated band of Mackenzies, but a 
levy of the Lewis men under Seaforth's cousin, Mackenzie of Kildun ; 
also an auxiliary corps of Camerons, Glengarry and Glenmoriston men, 
and some of those very Strathglass men who had been making appearances 
of submission. Altogether, he had, if the factors were rightly informed, 
three hundred and fifty men with long Spanish firelocks, under his com- 
mand, and all posted in the way most likely to give them an advantage 
over the invading force. 

The rear-guard, with the factors, had scarcely gone a mile, when they 
received a platoon of seven shots from a rising ground near them to the 
right, with, however, only the effect of piercing a soldier's hat. The 
Bernera company, as we are informed, left the party at eight o'clock, as 
they were passing Lochanachlee, and from this time is heard of no more ; 
how it made its way out of the country does not appear. The remainder 
still advancing, Easterfearn, as he rode a little before his men, had eight 
shots levelled at him from a rude breast-work near by, and was wounded 
in two places, but was able to appear as if he had not been touched. 
Then calling out some Highlander in his service, he desired them to go 
before the soldiers and do their best, according to their own mode of war- 
fare to clear the ground of such lurking parties, so that the troops might 
advance in safety. They performed this service pretty effectually, skir- 
mishing as they went on, and the main body advanced safely about six 
miles. They were here arrived at a place called Ath-na-Mullach (Ford 
of the Mull People), where the waters, descending from the Cralich and 
the lofty mountains of Kintail, issue eastwards through a narrow gorge 
into Loch Auric. It was a place remarkably well adapted for the pur- 
poses of a resisting party. A rocky boss, called Tor-an-Beathaich, then 
densly covered with birch, closes up the glen as with a gate. The black 
mountain stream, " spear-deep," sweeps round it. A narrow path wound 
up the rock, admitting only of passengers in single file. Here lay Donald 
with the best of his people, while inferior adherents were ready to make 
demonstrations at a little distance. As the invasive party approached, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



they received a platoon from a wood on the left, but nevertheless went 
on. When, however, they, were all engaged in toiling up the pass, forty 
men concealed in the heather close by fired with deadly effect, inflicting 
a mortal wound on Walter Ross, Easterfearn's son, while Bailie Ross's 
son was also hurt by a bullet which swept across his breast. The Bailie 
called to his son to retire, and the order was obeyed ; but the two wounded 
youths and Bailie Ross's servant were taken prisoners, and carried up the 
hill, where they were quickly divested of clothes, arms, money and 
papers. Young Easteri'earn died next morning. The troops faced the 
ambuscade manfully, and are said to have given their fire thrice, and to 
have beat the Highlanders from the bushes near them ; but, observing at 
this juncture several parties of the enemy on the neighbouring heights, 
and being informed of a party of sixty in their rear, Easterfearn deemed 
it best to temporise. 

He sent forward a messenger to ask who they were that opposed the 
King's troops, and what they wanted. The answer was that, in the first 
place, they required to have Ross of Easterfearn delivered up to them. 
This was pointedly refused ; but it was at length arranged that Easter- 
fearn should go forward and converse with the leader of the opposing party. 
The meeting took place at Baile-ath-na-Mullach (The Town of the Mull 
Men's Ford), and Easterfearn found himself confronted with Donald 
Murchison. It ended with Easterfearn giving up his papers, and coven- 
anting, under a penalty of five hundred pounds, not to officiate in his 
factory any more ; after which he gladly departed homewards with his 
associates, under favour of a guard of Donald's men, to conduct them 
safely past the sixty men lurking in the rear. It Avas alleged afterwards 
that the commander was much blamed by his own people for letting the 
factors off with their lives and baggage, particularly by the Camerons, 
who had been five days at their post with hardly anything to eat ; and 
Murchison only pacified them by sending them a good supply of meat 
and drink. He had in reality given a very effective check to the two 
gentlemen-factors, to one of whom he imparted in conversation that any 
scheme of a Government stewardship in Kintail was hopeless, for he and 
sixteen others had sworn that, if any person calling himself a factor came 
there, they would take his life, whether at kirk or at market, and deem 
it a meritorious action, though they should be cut to pieces for it the 
next minute. 

A bloody grave for young Easterfearn in Beauly Cathedral concluded 
this abortive attempt to take the Seaforth estates within the scope of a 
law sanctioned by statesmen, but against which the natural feelings of 
nearly a whole people revolted. 

A second attempt was now made to obtain possession of the forfeited 
Seaforth estates for the Government. It was calculated that what the 
two factors, and their attendants, with a small military force, had failed 
to accomplish in the preceding October, when they were beat back with 
a fatal loss at Ath-na-Mullach, might now be effected by means of a good 
military party alone, if they should make their approach through a less 
critical passage. A hundred and sixty of Colonel Kirk's regiment- left 
Inverness under Captain M'Xeill, who had at one time been Commander 
of the Highland Watch. They proceeded by Dingwall, Strathgarve, and 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 87 

Loch Carron, a route to the north of that adopted by the factors, and an 
easier, though a longer way. Donald Murchison, nothing daunted, got 
together his followers, and advanced to the top of Mam Attadale, by a high 
pass from Loch Carron to the head of Loch Long, separating LochaLsh 
from Kintail. Here a gallant relative, named Kenneth Murchison, and 
a few others, volunteered to go forward and plant themselves in ambush 
in the defiles of the Coille Bhan (White Wood), while the bulk of the 
party should remain where they were. It would appear that this ambush 
party consisted of thirteen men, all peculiarly well armed. 

On approaching this dangerous place, the captain went forward with 
a sergeant and eighteen men to clear the wood, while the main body came 
on slowly in the rear. At a place called Attanbadubh, in the Coille 
Bhan ; he encountered Kenneth and his associates, whose fire wounded 
himself severely, killed one of his grenadiers, and wounded several others 
of the party. He persisted in advancing, and attacking the handful of 
natives with sufficient resolution, they slowly withdrew, as unable to 
resist ; but the captain now obtained intelligence that a large body of 
Mackenzies was posted in the mountain-pass of Attadale. It seemed as 
if there was a design to draw him into a fatal ambuscade. His own 
wounded condition probably warned him that a better opportunity might 
occur afterwards. He turned his forces about, and made the best of his 
way back to Inverness. Kenneth Murchison quickly rejoined Colonel 
Donald on Mam Attadale, with the cheering intelligence that one salvo 
of thirteen guns had repelled the hundred and sixty red-coats. . After 
this we hear of no renewed attempt to comprise the Seaforth property. 

Strange as it may seem, Donald Murchison, two years after this a 
second time resisting the Government troops, came down to Edinburgh 
with eight hundred pounds of the Earl's rents, that he might get the 
money sent abroad for his lordship's use. He remained a fortnight in 
the city unmolested. He would on this occasion appear in the garb of a 
Lowland gentleman ; he would mingle with old acquaintances, " doers " 
and writers ; and appear at the Cross amongst the crowd of gentlemen 
who assembled there every day at noon. Scores would know all about 
his doings at Ath-na-Mullach and the Coille Bhan ; but thousands might 
have known, without the chance of one of them, betraying him to the 
Government. 

General Wade, in his report to the King in 1725, states that the 
Seaforth tenants, formerly reputed the richest of any in the Highlands, 
are now become poor, by neglecting their business, and applying them- 
selves to the use of arms. " The rents," he says, " continue to be col- 
lected by one Donald Murchison, a servant of the late Earl's, who 
annually remits or carries the same to his master in France. The tenants, 
when in a condition, are said to have sent him free gifts in proportion to 
their several circumstances, but are now a year and a-half in arrear of 
rent. The receipts he gives to the tenants are as deputy-factor to the 
Commissioners of the Forfeited Estates, which pretended power he ex- 
torted from the factor (appointed by the said Commissioners to collect 
those rents for the use of the public), whom he attacked with above four 
hundred armed men, as he was going to enter upon the said estate, having 
with him a party of thirty of your Majesty's troops. The last year this 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



Murchison marched in a public manner to Edinburgh, to remit eight 
hundred pounds to France for his master's use, and remained fourteen 
days there unmolested. I cannot omit observing to your Majesty, that this 
national tenderness the subjects of North Britain have one for the other, 
is a great encouragement for rebels and attainted persons to return home 
from their banishment." 

Donald was again in Edinburgh about the end of August 1725. On 
the 2d of September, George Lockhart of Carnwath, writing from Edin- 
burgh to the Chevalier St George, states, amongst other matters of in- 
formation regarding his party in Scotland, that Daniel Mnrchison (as he 
calls him) " is come to Edinburgh, on his way to France " doubtless 
charged with a sum of rents for Seaforth. " He's been in quest of me, 
and I of him," says Lockhart, " these two days, and missed each other ; 
but in a day or two he's to be at my country house, where I'll get time 
to talk fully with him. In the meantime, I know from one that saw him, 
that he has taken up and secured all the arms of value in Seaforth's 
estate, which he thought better than to trust them to the care and pru- 
dence of the several owners ; and the other chieftains, I hear, have done 
the same. 

The Commissioners on the Forfeited Estates concluded their final 
report in 1725, by stating that they had not sold the estate of William, 
Earl of Seaforth, " not having been able to obtain possession, and conse- 
quently to give the same to a purchaser." 

In a Whig poem on the Highland Eoads, written in 1737, Donald is 
characteristically spoken of as a sort of cateran, while, in reality, as every 
generous person can now well understand, he was a high-minded gentle- 
man. The verses, nevertheless, as well as the appended note, are 
curious : 

Keppoch, Rob Roy, and Daniel Murcliison, 
Cadets or servants to some chief of clan, 
From theft and robberies scarce did ever cease, 
Yet 'scaped the halter each, and died in peace. 
This last his exiled master's rents collected, 
Nor unto king or law would be subjected. 
Though veteran troops upon the confines lay, 
Sufficient to make lord and tribe a prey, 
Yet passes strong through which no roads were cut, 
Safe guarded Seaforth's clan, each in his hut. 
Thus in strongholds the rogue securely lay, 
Neither could they by force be driven away, 
Till his attainted lord and chief of late 
By ways and means repurchased his estate. 

" Donald Murchison, a kinsman and servant to the Earl of Seaforth, bred 
a writer, a man of small stature, but full of spirit and resolution, 
fought at Dunblane against the Government, anno 1715. but continued 
thereafter to collect Seaforth's rents for his lord's use, and had some 
pickerings with the King's forces on that account, till, about five years 
ago, the Government was so tender as to allow Seaforth to re-pxirchase his 
estate, when the said Murchison had a principal hand in striking the 
bargain for his master. How he fell under Seaforth's displeasure, and 
died thereafter, is not to the purpose here to mention." 

The end of Donald's career can scarcely now be passed over in this 
slighting manner. The story is most painfid. The Seaforth of that day 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 89 

very unlike some of his successors was unworthy of the devotion 
which this heroic man had shown to him. When his lordship took pos- 
session of the estates which Donald had in a manner preserved for him, 
he discountenanced and neglected him. Murchison's noble spirit pined 
away under this treatment, and he died in the very prime of his days of 
a "broken heart. He lies in a remote little church-yard on Cononside, in 
the parish of Urray, where, we are happy to say, his worthy relative, the 
late Sir Eoderick J. Murchison, raised a suitable monument over his grave. 

The traditional account of Donald Murchison, communicated to Cham- 
bers by F. Macdonald, Druidaig, states that the heroic commissioner had 
been promised a handsome reward for his services ; but Seaforth proved un- 
grateful. " He was offered only a small farm called Bun-Da-Loch, which 
pays at this day to Mr Matheson, the proprietor, no more than 60 a year ; 
or another place opposite to Inverinate House, of about the same value. It 
is no wonder he refused these paltry offers. He shortly afterwards left this 
country, and died in the prime of life near Conon. On his death-bed, 
Seaforth went to see him, and asked how he was. He said, ' Just as 
you will be in a short time,' and then turned his back. They never met 
again." 

The death of George I., in 1726, suggested to the Chevalier a favour- 
able opportunity again to attempt a rising and of stirring up his adherents 
in Scotland, whither he was actually on his way until strongly remonstrated 
with on the folly and hopelessness of such an undertaking at that time. 
It was also pointed out to him that it could only end in the final ruin of 
his family's pretensions, and of many of his friends who might be tempted 
to enter on such a rash scheme more through personal attachment to his 
own person than from any reasonable prospect they could see of success. 
He, in consequence, retraced his steps to Boulogne, and the Earl of Sea- 
forth, having been pardoned in the same year,* felt himself at liberty once 
more to return to his native land, where, according to Mr Matheson, ho 
spent the remainder of his life in retirement, and with few objects to 
occupy him or to interest us beyond the due regard of his personal friends 
and the uninterrrupted loyalty of his old vassals. He must, however, have- 
been very hard up, for on the 27th of June 1728, he writes a letter to 
the Lord Advocate, in which he refers to a request he made to Sir Robert 
Walpole, who advised him to put his claim in writing that it might bo sub- 
mitted to the King. This was done, but "the King would neither 
allow anything of the kind or give orders to be granted what his royal 
father had granted before. On hearing this I could not forbear making 
appear how ill I was used. The Government in possession of the estate, 
and I in the interim allowed to starve, though they were conscious of my 
complying with whatever I promised to see put in execution." He makes 
a strong appeal to his friend to contribute to an arrangement that would 

* By letters dated 12fch July 1726, King George I. was pleased to discharge him 
from imprisonment or the execution of his person on his attainder, and King George II. 
made him a grant of the arrears of feu-duties due to the Crown out of his forfeited 
estate. An Act of Parliament was passed in 1733, to enable William Mackenzie, late 
Earl of Seaforth, to sue or maintain any action or suit notwithstanding his attainder, 
and to remove any disability in him, by reason of his said attainder, to take or inherit 
any real or personal estate that may or shall hereafter descend to him. Wood's Douglas* 
Peerage. 



90 



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tend to the mutual satisfaction of all concerned, " for the way I am now 
in is most disagreeable, consequently, if not rectified, will choose rather 
to seek my bread elsewhere than continue longer in so unworthy a situa- 
tion.* 

Notwithstanding the personal remission granted in his favour for the 
part he had taken in the rising of 1715, the title of Earl of Seaforth, 
under which alone he was proscribed, passed under attainder, while the 
older and original dignity of Kintail, which only became subordinate by 
a future elevation, remained unnoticed, and, consequently, unvitiated in 
the male descent of Kenneth, first Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, granted by 
patent on the 19th November 1609, and has accordingly been claimed, as 
we shall afterwards see.t 

Earl William married in early life Mary, the only daughter and heiress 
of Nicholas Kennet of Coxhow, Northumberland, and by her had issue 
three sons, Kenneth, Lord Fortrose, who succeeded him ; Eonald, died 
unmarried ; and Nicholas, killed at Douay without issue. He had also 
a daughter, Frances, who married the Honourable John Gordon of Ken- 
mure, whose father was beheaded in 1715. He died in 1740 in the 
Island of Lews, was buried there in the Chapel of Ui, and was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest son. 

(To be Continued.} 



" ET EGO IN ARCADIA FUI." 



From morn to eve the sunshine fills 
A circle 'mid the summer hills, 
Where rose-red hills of heather round 
Fence in a curve of quiet ground, 
And broken walls of gorse knee-high 
Seem molten gold against the sky. 
A swirl of tawny eddies sweeps 
Between grey boulders, breaks and leaps 
More swiftly to the lower ground, 
As if it dreaded to be found, 
A a if it spurned some dreamy spell. 
Yet over this green cloister-cell 
It loiters, pauses, coils, till clear 
Its rippling grows within the ear, 



Like slumber in a wearied brain. 
Is there place here for grief or paiu 
More than in some Illyrian bay ? 
Is light there fairer or the play 
Of shadows in the forest lawns? 
Are the nights deeper or the dawns 
More pearly ? This alone I know, 
Warm in the crimson after-glow, 
Hearing the cuckoo's last good-night 
Float from the foam, seeing the light 
Die on the rocks, or fade between 
On the sharp blades of breathing green, 
That I have lost Arcadia found 
Within this spot of Highland ground. 

S. 



* Culloden Papers, pp. 103 4. 

f This Act (of Attainder) omits all mention of the subordinate though older title of 
"Lord Kintail," which he and all the collateral branches descended of George, the 
second Earl, had taken up and assumed in all their deeds and transactions, though there 
was no occasion to use it in Parliament as they appeared there as Earls of Seaforth It 
is questionable therefore if the Act of Attainder of William, Earl of Seaforth, by that 
designation only could affect the barony of Kintail; and as the designation to the 
patentee of it, " Suisque heredibus maxulis," seeuis to render the grant an entailed fee 
agreeable to the 7th of Queen Ai ne, o. 21, anfl the protecting clause of 26th Henry 
VIII., c. 13, the claimant, George Falconer Mackenzie, is entitled to the benefit of such 
remainder, and in fact such remainder was given effect to by the succession of Earl 
George, to his brother Colin's titles as his heir male collateral. AUanyrange Service. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZltfE. 91 



M A E Y M E E I S R 

o 

[CONTINUED.] 

POOR Mary was once again sent adrift friendless among strangers. She 
took up her abode in the same house as her child ; and, under her own 
* care, he began to improve slowly. What with keeping herself and pro- 
viding some little extras for her boy, she too soon found herself almost 
penniless. The landlady, on seeing her resources exhausted, requested 
her to leave and seek other lodgings. She had to part with some of her 
clothing to make up the few shillings she owed this woman, and left with 
only a shilling in her pocket, and, carrying her sickly child, she made 
her way along the coast towards Greenock. There has been always a 
lingering feeling present with her attracting her to the original home of 
her departed husband, though she knew no one there not even her 
mother-in-law. The first night she paid the last money she had for their 
bed and a little milk for the child. It was far on in the afternoon of the 
second day when she came to the outskirts of Greenock. She sat down 
on the road-side to think 011 what she was to do. She felt weak, hungry, 
and exhausted, carrying her sick boy during so long a journey. Her poor 
child felt sore with the carrying and even cried for bread. She had now 
little of any value to dispose of to procure what would appease their 
hunger, and thought on the seal her husband had given her. She took 
it out of her bosom, where she always kept it, looked first at it, and then 
at her fretful child, but oh ! could she part with it. She wept bitterly 
till the child, poorly and hungry as he was, climbed up to her breast, 
took her head between his white and wasted little hands, and kissed her 
the only way in which he could express his sympathy with his suffer- 
ing mother. This roused her to a sense of their condition. She rose up, 
took the boy in her arms, and walked towards the town, determined to 
sell the trinket for what it would bring, and so save the life of her child. 
So intense were her feelings that she held up the seal in her hand toward 
the heavens, and appealed to the spirit of her lost husband to witness the 
necessity that compelled her to part with his gift. After getting into 
the town she looked about for a shop likely to purchase such an article, 
and soon noticed a large jeweller's shop, to which she went and asked an 
elderly gentleman behind the counter if he would be so kind as to tell 
her the value of the seal, at the same time handing it to him. He looked at 
it, and then at her and at the child, and asked her where she got it. She, 
in a hesitating manner, said she could not very well tell him where or how 
she got it, but if he did not choose to let her know its value she would 
thank him to hand it back to her. Instead of doing that he sent one of 
his assistants for a police-officer, to whom he gave her in charge. Poor 
Mary, led away by the man dumb as a sheep to the slaughter, was 
put into one of the cells till morning. The jeweller wrote a note to the 
Provost, who happened to be no other than Councillor Maccallum, owner 
of the missing ship, Glencairn, stating that a strange young woman 
with a child had called at his shop to dispose of a gold seal, 



92 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

the same lie had some years before bought from him, and which he 
had presented to the late Captain Graharae with a gold watch, and 
that he thought it proper to detain her for examination in the morning, 
as her statement might throw some light on the mysterious fate of their 
late friend. Poor Mary could not imagine why she was so dealt with. 
To the credit of the officer in charge at the station she was not put 
among the diunken, disreputable characters usually found in such places 
waiting for trial in the morning. He put her into a place more cleanly 
and comfortable than the common cells. Seeing the weak and feeble 
condition both of them were in, he procured some refreshments for 
them. His long experience of the criminal classes enabled him at a 
glance to judge she was none of that stamp. Next morning she was 
brought before the Magistrates, and questioned as to how she came into 
possession of the seal. All she would say was that she got it honestly 
and was a gift to her by its owner. She did not steal it nor did she 
deserve being put in prison for it, she persisted in saying, and that she 
had it in her possession for several years. When pressed and threatened 
to be separated from her child, she looked up in the face of the Provost, 
who presided, and said that if that gentleman would take her statement 
in private she would tell him how and when she got it. After some con- 
sultation it was agreed that he should retire with her to a private room, 
where she told him the simple story of her first meeting with Grahame 
and their subsequent marriage. She also stated facts connected with 
Grahame and the ship while at Tobermory that quite satisfied him that 
her tale was true. He led her back to the court-room with as much 
kindness and respect as if she were his own equal in social position, and 
explained to his brother magistrates that she got the seal from the hands 
of Grahame himself under circumstances which reflected no disgrace upon 
her character, when she was discharged and the seal given back to her. 
The Provost desired her to wait a little till the Court was over, as he 
wished to speak to her again. She did so, and when he came to her he 
handed her a pound note, at the same time giving instructions to one of 
the officers of the Court to go along with her to procure comfortable 
lodgings. He desired her to call at his house next day and see Mrs Mac- 
callum. A few hours after leaving the Court she fortunately procured 
lodgings in the house of a respectable working man not long married. 
Everything about the house was in such good order and so clean that the 
sight of it in a manner eased her mind of the effects of her late trials. 
The blythe and happy-looking young wife very soon put her mind at 
greater ease than she had felt for weeks rays of the dawn of better 
days began to shine into her wounded heart. Her natural good spirits 
responded to the cheerfulness of her more fortunate landlady, and when 
the husband came home in the evening Mary found him, in course of 
conversation, to be much better instructed than the generality of his 
class. He was foreman over the joiners in one of the shipbuilding yards 
in the town. Mary felt impressed with the evident care of an all wise 
Piovidential guidance in directing her wandering steps to the abode of 
this truly homely and happy pair. She very properly considered that the 
disposer of every action of her life meant these trials for her good to draw 
her closer to Himself by means of an intelligent perception of His character 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 93 

as a God of love. When time came for retiring to rest, Mary knelt 
down at the side of the bed on which her boy was already sound asleep, 
and poured out her heart-felt gratitude for her recent deliverance. Next 
day she made her way to the Provost's house. He was in when she 
called, and both he and his lady received her very kindly. She gave 
them some details of her husband's stay at Tobermory, their marriage, 
and as much of her own private history as she thought prudent. Dis- 
covering that the young widow was a good white seamstress, Mrs Mac- 
callum promised to use her influence among her acquaintances to procure 
work for her. In a few weeks Mary had as much as she could well 
manage, besides employing her landlady's spare time. Her child daily 
gained health and strength. She made enquiries about her late husband's 
mother, and was told she was staying with some friends in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hamilton. Hearing some time afterwards that her mother- 
in-law had retured to Greenock, she lost no time in calling upon her. 
The Provost's lady very thoughtfully asked Mary to allow her to accom- 
pany her when she went to see her, as her testimony would be a confir- 
mation to Grahame's mother of her daughter-in-law's statements. They 
found her in a small room by herself. For support she did a little by 
knitting stockings ; a few friends gave her a trifle now and then, which, 
with a small pittance from the parish, managed to keep her in life. When 
the aged widow was told of Mary's relationship with her lost son, she 
could scarcely believe it, as she never heard him say anything about his 
being married, and he never did anything, even of much less importance 
than getting a wife, without asking her advice in the matter ; but after the 
boy was presented to her, she had no more doubt of the truth of the 
story. She at once declared that he was the very picture of his father 
when about that age. 

Mary was now in very comfortable circumstances, being able to lay 
a little money past her from time to time. Her business increased so 
much that she had to get an assistant from Glasgow, and by this time 
she had some thoughts of taking a house for herself ; but after seeing her 
mother-in-law she made up her mind to bring the aged widow home with 
her. She told her kind friend and patroness, Mrs Maccallum, who highly 
approved of her intentions. When the Provost came to know of it he 
insisted on his being allowed to assist her in furnishing the house, and 
when the house was taken, he not only provided the plenishing, as it was 
there called, but sent men at his own expense to put everything in its 
place, and Mary had little more to do in the matter than to come in and 
take possession. She took her aged mother-in-law with her, and resolved 
to give her all the comfort in her power, for the sake of him she loved so 
well, now that she was 'deprived of the help he never failed to give his 
mother while he was in life. 

Mary, as we still like to call her, was about eighteen months in 
Greenock, doing well and truly respected by all who had occasion to know 
her. She was much improved in appearance, and really had a fine 
cultivated lady-like deportment, which, no doubt, her constant contact 
with the most accomplished ladies of the town helped to produce. 

One morning, as one of the Liverpool traders came up to the quay, a 
man stepped ashore and was on the point of walking towards the town, 



94 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

when one of the brokers, who generally frequented the quay on the arrival 
of ships, recognised him, and touched him on the shoulder. The stranger 
turned round, and he held out his hand as if to a friend. Both walked 
on in the direction of the buildings where most business men then had 
their offices, and called at the Provost's office. It was too early in the 
day for him to be there, but his chief-clerk, who had just come in, at once 
recognised his fast and long-lost friend, Captain Grahame. After mutuul 
congratulations, a cab was immediately sent for, in which they drove to 
the residence of Mr Maccallum. His old owner at once recognised him 
though he was much changed, being darker in complexion and much 
thinner in comparison to his former robust and ruddy countenance. The 
good man was as much affected at seeing him alive again as if he had 
found a long lost son. While the two were closetted together Mrs Mac- 
callum sent a boy with a note to Mary, desiring her to call immediately 
at her house and to bring the boy along with her. When Mary read the 
note she wondered Avhat was wanted at that time of the day. She, how- 
ever prepared to go at once; for the lady had been too good a friend not 
to attend to her wishes. When she and her boy arrived at the house 
she was surprised to find the door-bell answered by the lady herself. 
There was a something so tender and yet so hopeful in Mrs Maccallum's 
looks and manner as she now and again gazed earnestly in Mary's face. 
Entering a sitting-room Mary was puzzled by the unusual manner of her 
friend, who felt at a loss how to break the news to the supposed widow. 
She was still more surprised to find the lady beginning the conversation 
by alluding to the loss of tho ship her husband had command of, instead 
of, as she expected, some business transaction. Mrs Maccallum com- 
menced by saying it was very strange no word was ever heard of the fate 
of the Glencairu. Still, she had heard of vessels supposed to have been 
lost with all hands, and yet some of the crews had cast up after a longer 
time than their ship had been missing. Her manner of saying this, and 
the fact that she seldom spoke to her on the subject for some time pre- 
viously, awakened a suspicion in Mary's mind that she had heard some 
news of the ship, which made her tremble. She implored her friend if 
she knew anything not to conceal it any longer, at the same time assuring 
her that she was prepared to hear the worst. The lady saw that to 
keep her longer in suspense would hurt her more than the sudden 
reality, and she rose up, saying she would call Mr Maccallum, as he knew 
more than she could tell. She then went where the gentlemen were and 
whispered in her husband's ear to come and bring Grahame witli him. No 
sooner did husband and wife see each other then they were locked in each 
other's embrace ; and, following the example of the Provost and his wife, 
we shall in tho meantime leave them by themselves. When the latter 
returned to the room they found Mary very calm but bearing evident 
traces of the severe mental ordeal she had gone through. She had her boy 
clasped to her breast, \vlio, whenever his father offered to sit near his 
mother, frowned \\ ith his fine open brow. No coaxing or bribing could 
induce Bobby to relax his hold of his mother. 

As an additional proof of the kindness of Mrs Maccallum, she went 
to Mary's house to prepare the elder Mrs Grahame for the joyful tidings. 
To attempt a description of the meeting between mother arid son would only 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 95 

marr the pleasure of all interested in the happiness of all concerned. True 
and faithful friend as the Provost's lady was to Mary, she was the 
means of raising the rather awkward question in the circumstances 
Whether there was not some impropriety in Mary living with Grahame as 
his wife merely on the binding of a Gretna Green marriage ? It was only on 
the solemn promise of both that they would be joined over again by the 
minister of the Gaelic Church that she would allow Grahame to live in 
the same house with his wife. 

After the first excitement of the restoration of the dead into life, as it 
were, was over, and Grahame, his wife, and mother were left by them- 
selves, it was most affecting to witness the old mother sitting beside her 
son with her arm through his, holding him as if some one was ready again 
to snatch him away, her disengaged hand resting on the top of his head, 
her eyes fixed on his face, tears of joy streaming down her cheeks, saying 
to her son, as well as her sobs and failing breath would permit her. 
" Oh Robert, my son, never forget to your wife the kindness and tender- 
ness shown by her to your poor lonely mother, since the day a kind 
Providence directed her steps to where I was, when all other aids nearly 
failed me." Then, taking hold of Mary's hand, and putting it into that of 
her son, grasping them in her own trembling fingers, she said with solemn 
impressiveness, her eyes looking upwards, " Let my end be soon or late, 
may the Father of all mercies bless and prosper you both, now that you 
are united," and " love her, Eobert, as I know she loves you." Then 
taking hold of his arm again she continued " And.oh ! my son, where 
have you been, and what has kept you away so long. Well do I know 
that it was not with your will you stayed away from us." 

He then told them that when they were two-thirds of the voyage out 
they were attacked and boarded by an armed pirate, who had killed most 
of the crew. None survived the fight but himself and other two all 
severely wounded. They were taken on board the pirate, carried to the 
stronghold of the robbers, and kept in strict confinement. What became 
of the Glencairn they never knew. One of his wounded companions died 
shortly after landing. He and the other slowly recovered, after which they 
were obliged to work at whatever they could do in their prison house. 
They never were let out without being well guarded, and then only when, 
some piece of work was to be done outside. 

About five months before the time he arrived home, in early morning 
one day they were awakened out of their sleep by a great noise of 
shouting and tumult among the colony of pirates. In a short time after 
the booming of cannon was heard in the distance. The sound gradually 
neared them, and then a heavy shot came crashing through a building 
close to where they were confined. They started to their feet, expecting 
the next shot would hit their cell, and hurriedly put on what clothes they 
had. Shot after shot came tearing through the buildings. They could 
distinctly hear the crashing of falling portions of the rude fortress. Soon 
musket firing was heard close to them. By this they judged some armed 
ship had attacked the place and landed men to take it. They felt mad 
with excitement to be free and out to aid the evident enemies of their 
captors whoever they might be. The fact of the heavy shots striking 
everywhere but in the place they were in seemed to them a cruel mockery 



96 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

of their misery. After an evident struggle on shore the noise and fighting 
ceased, and an almost insufferable silence succeeded, and yet no way of 
escape from their dungeon appeared to them. They imagined they heard 
some groaning as if some one was in pain not i'ar from them. They 
searched earnestly at every crevice in the walls, till they found one spot 
where the cement which joined the stones Avas softer than the rest. At 
this they picked with any piece of hard substance within their reach. 
After hours of anxious toil they succeeded in removing a large stone, 
through which they were able to get out of the dungeon. Their only 
guide in groping their way in the darkness was the groans they pre- 
viously heard. At length they came upon a wounded man one of their 
captors who evidently was on the point of death. They raised him to an 
easier position, and left him to die. They soon found their way out of 
the ruins. Outside not a living creature could they see ; not a ship or 
boat was on the water before the place, bearing the water-side they 
observed iinmistakeable traces of the deadly struggle which must have 
taken place there a few dead bodies lay in pools of blood all who were 
able muot have escaped to the other side of the island. They then fell 
in with a stout boat much riddled with musket shots. They patched the 
holes as well as they could, went back to the ruins, and fortunately came 
on some cooked victuals, which they carried to the boat, and set out to 
sea. By this time it was dark. Towards morning they found themselves 
entering on the open sea, and made all haste to get further out for fear 
they might be seen from the land and chased. On the eighth day 
they saw a sail ahead, which, after some hours, noticed them, and, 
to their great joy, hove down upon them and took them on board. The 
ship proved to be a French vessel bound for Jamaica. They were kindly 
treated by the Frenchman, who landed them safe and sound when he 
arrived at his destination. The man saved along with him shipped on 
board an American for the East Indias, while he himself wrought his 
passage to Liverpool as a sailor before the mast. 

About three weeks after Grahame's return, a little old man called at 
the office of Mr Maccallum asking to see him. Ho sooner was he 
ushered into his presence and Ijeard him speak than he knew him to be a 
Highlander. The Provost, himself a Celt, kindly told him to tell his 
story in his native tongue. The stranger began by saying that he 
was a cow-feeder in the Townhead of Glasgow, and some time ago he 
bought some hay from a farmer near Largs, and paid some of the price in 
advance. When the hay was sent to him he found it much damaged by 
salt water through the leaking of the boat conveying it. He refused to 
take it in that condition, and demanded back his money. This the 
farmer would not do. Some of his friends in Glasgow advised him to see 
Mr Maccallum, who would be sure to tell him the right way to go about 
the matter. Mr Maccallum asked his name and address, as well as that 
of the farmer. He said that his name was Donald Morrison, and though 
he now lived in Glasgow he originally belonged to Skye. The Provost 
asked how long since he left Skye and if he had any family. These 
questions seemed to upset the poor old man, who appeared as if he had 
been suddenly taken ill. A glass of spirits was procured, which soon 
brought him round, when ho continued, saying, that he left his home in 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 97 

Skye several years ago, but that he did not then come to Glasgow, but 
went to Canada. That country did not agree with his wife, who never 
was strong since they lost their only child, a daughter, a little before 
they left. This satisfied the merchant that he was speaking to young 
Mary's father, and when Mr Maccalluin went home, he sent a note to 
Grahame desiring him to call with Mrs Grahame that evening. When 
they came he told them of his visitor from Glasgow, which so excited 
Mary that she would be off to Glasgow that evening to see her parents, 
and was only persuaded from doing so by her husband promising he 
would accompany her next morning. On arriving in Glasgow next day 
they took a conveyance to the address in the Townhead, and on their 
approaching the house they observed a young woman standing in the 
door. Enquiring if Mr Morrison lived there, the girl, without saying a 
word, ran into the house and left them. In a short time the old man 
came out, and, looking earnestly at Mary, hurried to meet her without 
noticing Grahame, and, taking her in his arms, exclaimed in a faltering 
voice in his native language " Taing do Dhia gu bheil thu beo " (Thank 
God that you are alive). The daughter hung upon his neck unable to 
speak. Grahame himself, though he used to have more command over 
his feelings, was obliged to turn aside to hide his emotion. All this time 
the girl they had first seen stood with open mouth and staring eyes in the 
passage. She then bolted through to the byre, where Mary's mother was, 
shouting in Gaelic, " Oh, mistress, there is a grand lady and gentleman at 
the door with a fine coach, and the master is kissing the lady." Mrs 
Morrison hurriedly left off what she was doing, and came into the house. 
By this time the strangers were in the room. When the mother saw 
Mary she stood still, lifted her hands above her head, fainted away, and 
would have fallen if Grahame had not taken hold of her and led her to 
a seat. 

While Mary attended to her mother in another apartment, old Donald, 
in the best English he had, got into conversation with Grahame. He 
soon understood that he was the sailor man for whom his daughter had 
refused so many good matches, and that she was now his wife. He saw 
Mary might have got a worse bargain, as he afterwards said that " the 
honest man was stamped in his face." Donald went to a press in the 
corner of the room, came back with a big bellied black bottle and dram 
glass, told the girl to set some bread and cheese on the table, drew the 
cork, filled up the glass, and, in accordance with the custom of his 
country, took his son-in-law by the hand, drank off a glass to the health 
and happiness of his son and daughter, re-filled the glass, handed it to 
Grahame, who drank health and length of days to the old couple. The 
mother, after getting over the effects of seeing her lost child restored to 
her in life and health, joined the men. The aged pair seemed to feel as 
if time had gone back many years. Donald especially spoke and acted 
as if he had no other object in what remained to him of life than to atone 
for what sorrow and misery his love of gear had occasioned to himself and 
others. The conversation naturally turned upon how their daughter and 
her husband had fared during " the dark years of their separation," as 
Donald termed it, and what their views were now that they were re- 
united. Mary, wife-like, was the first to speak, saying that if she could 

H 



98 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

help it her husband should never again take such long out-of-the-way 
voyages. Grahamo said that although the pay in a coasting vessel was 
not equal to that paid to captains in command of over-sea-going ships, he 
would not go against his wife's inclination in the latter, and that perhaps 
"by industry and carefulness, in a few years, they might save a little 
money to buy a small vessel of their own. Here Donald again got up 
and went to what he called his " kist," came back with a piece of paper 
and handed it to Grahaine, who, after looking at it, gave it to his Avife. 
She found it was. a bank deposit receipt for .300, and held it back to 
her father again saying, that they could not think of taking it, as they 
might need it themselves, when not able to do anything for a living. 
The old man answered, " Tuts, tuts, lassy, take it, I have more left. I 
got more than that with your mother." When Mary told her mother 
she had a little boy at home with its other grandma, nothing would restrain 
the old lady from going down to Greenock that evening to see her grand- 
child. Old Donald declared that if she went so would he, and both 
went back to Greenock with the young couple. 

The Provost and his lady took such an interest in the extraordinary 
episodes in the career of his friends, that they invited them all to meet 
him one evening, before the old couple went back to their cows in Glas- 
gow. Mary, with pardonable pride, told Mrs Maccallum about her 
father giving her husband the amount of money already stated for the 
purpose of purchasing a vessel. The Provost generously offered to 
advance a certain sum towards the same object, and to give ample time 
for repayment. Old Donald, elevated a little with an extra glass of the 
Provost's whisky, gave the table such a thump as made everything upon it 
dance before their eyes, saying that he would himself give another 
hundred, so that they might buy a " wise-like vessel " when they were 
about it. The selection and purchase of the craft was left to the judg- 
ment of Mr Maccallum. Amidst all Mary's happiness her mother's 
failing health caused her uneasiness. She prevailed upon her father to 
give up their toilsome establishment in Glasgow, and to take a house near 
herself in Greenock that she might the better see to her mother's comfort. 
Her parents near her, her husband master of a handy vessel of his own, 
Mary was indeed bappy. Still there was a source of some anxiety for 
such a mind as hers the fear of her parents spoiling little Bobby, who 
was scarcely ever away from them. He was so idolised by them that 
his slightest wish or whim was attended to and gratified. Heavier 
troubles were soon, however, to come to her. Mother .paid the debt of 
nature, and in a few weeks after her mother-in-law was taken away. The 
death of the latter she mourned as much as that of her own mother, for 
she came to love her as much. After his wife's death old Donald went 
to live with liis daughter. Grahame was well employed with his vessel 
and making money ; his wife gave up her business ; her family increasing 
she could not so well attend to it. Her father in a few years followed 
his wife and was laid beside her. Grahame and Mary founded a family 
in Greenock, who were well known for generations after them, and who 
took their place among the most respectable of its citizens. 

LODA. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 99 



OUE GAELIC BIBLE. 

o 

MANY readers of the Celtic Magazine have doubtless a vivid remembrance 
of the controversy which not more than a dozen years ago was waged full 
warmly as to the propriety of revising the authorised English version of 
the Holy Scriptures. On the one hand, it was argued that, in common 
honesty, we were bound to put in the hands of the unlearned the best 
possible translation of the sacred volume a translation which, embodying 
the latest results of modern criticism, and making our English Bible as 
nearly as possible a living transcript to our common people of the original 
sacred documents, would come home to them with full authority, and be 
received without misgiving, as setting forth the mind of the Spirit and 
the very truth of God. On the other hand, there were many men, un- 
doubtedly learned as confessedly they were pious, who shrank from the 
difficulties which, at this time of day, obviously stood in the way of a 
new authorised version of the Bible. These difficulties were manifold, but, 
above all other considerations, it was argued that the Christian world was 
so divided, and the various sects were so bitterly opposed the one to the 
other, that no new version, however excellent and honest, could ever be 
received with the same confidence which all were willing, by a sort of 
tacit understanding, to extend to the present version. 

In such a controversy it belongs not to the Celtic Magazine to mingle. 
As a matter of history we merely chronicle the fact, that the controversy 
is now, and has been for some years, in the way of quietly settling itself. 
For good or evil, the work of revising our English Bible is now about 
half completed. 

With the English Bible thus thrown into the crucible of revision, it 
is natural that we should ask, how fares it with our own Gaelic Bible ? 
What is its present condition, and how has it come to be what it is 1 

Now it must not be forgotten that our Gaelic Bible c'ould at no time 
be said to be " authorised " in the sense in which our present English 
version is authorised. It never received any national or Parliamentary 
sanction ; and there is no National Bible Board, to which is solemnly 
committed the responsibility of securing the perfect purity of its text. 
It is true that the Gaelic Bibles in circulation among Scottish Highlanders 
for many years previous to I860 were issued with the authority and sanc- 
tion of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. But the version 
almost exclusively in circulation since 1860 has no sanction, either of the 
Established or Free Church. In fact, that version rests entirely on the 
authority of two names the names of Dr Clerk, of Kilmalie, and Dr 
Maclauchlan, of Edinburgh. Several years ago an attempt was, no doubt, 
made, by means of a joint committee of the two churches, to place this 
weighty matter on a broader and firmer basis ; but the committee has gone 
into abeyance without any practical result ; and so the broad shoulders of 
the two learned gentlemen just named still bear the burden which, in 
I860, they took upon themselves, or, to speak more correctly, which they 
accepted at the hands of the National Bible Society of Scotland, Of the 



100 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

merits or demerits of the version of these two gentlemen this is not the 
place to speak. On such ground we are not critics but simple historians. 

How did the Gaelic Bible come to be what it was previous to 1860? 
On the threshold of this inquiry we are met by this curious fact, that the 
Gaelic Bible first printed in Scotland, for the use of the Scottish Gael, 
was not at all a Scotch Gaelic version. It did not, indeed, profess to be. 
It was simply a transliteration of the Irish Bible : athruighte go haireach 
as an litir Eireandha gu min-litir shol-leighidh Romhante: carefully 
transposed from Irish to Roman type. The first issue of this Irish Bible 
for the use of Scotch readers was in 1690. There is now before us a 
copy of the rarer edition printed in Glasgow by loin On- in 1754. The 
title page of the New Testament is as follows : " Tiomna Nuadh ar 
DTighearna agus ar Slanuigheora losa Criosd, ar na tharruiug go 
firinneach as Gregis go Gaoidheilg, re Uilliam Domhnuill. Noch ata 
anois, ar inhaithe choitchinu Ghaoidhealtacht Albann, athruighte go 
haireach as an litir Eireaudha go min-litre shol-leighidh Romhanta. 
Maille ri suini agus brigh na Ccaibidleach os a ccionn an Tiodaluibh 
aithghear ; le R. KIRKE, M.A." At the end of the volume a vocabulary 
of eight pages is introduced with an address to a leaghoir chairdeil, in 
which the author explains that he was moved to prepare this help to the 
intelligent reading of the book, by reason of there being in it iomad focal 
cmaidh do-thuigse, especially to such as were not familiar with snas 
chanamhain na Heirinn. The Bibliotheca Scoto-Celtica of Reid gives no 
place to either edition of this work in the List of Gaelic Bibles, though 
both are mentioned at page 47 of the introduction. There is some con 
fusion also in Reid's description of the Irish original. The Irish New 
Testament, begun by Walsh and Kearny, he alleges to have been com- 
pleted by a certain Nehemiah Donellan, and on the next page he speaks 
of the Irish Prayer-book as the work of William O'Donnell, afterwards 
Archbishop of Tuam. But the Irish Testament always, so far as Ave have 
observed, bears the imprint, ris an tathair is onoruighthe a Ndia, UILLIAM 
O'DoMHNUiLL, aird easing Ihuaim. We rather think that this William 
was the real Nehemiah who completed the work of Walsh and Kearny. 

But what is the significance of the fact that nearly 200 years ago Kirke, 
a Scotch Highlander, the minister of a parish so entirely Highland as Bal- 
quhidder must then have been, should provide Irish Bibles for general use 
among his countrymen ? One conclusion seems to us irresistible -that the 
Gaelic spoken in Ireland and Scotland at that time was much more nearly 
one language than is the ease to-day. And aunt he i- conclusion may be set 
down as self-evident, that the natural tendency of ' the 'twin forms of 
speech to diverge yet more and more apart, each on its' several way, must 
have been very materially checked by the use, so far as it was used, of 
Kirke's Bible in the Scottish Highlands. That is to say, but for the 
Bible of Kirke our living Scotch Gaelic would have been, in a large 
measure, less Irish than it is to-day. Nor will our estimate of the actual 
effect of this potential element, in our more recent linguistic history, be 
at all lessened, when we consider how marked an effect it had on the 
earlier versions of the Bible, which were given to our people in Gaelic, 
professedly Scotch. The earliest of these is the New Testament of 1767, 
prepared for the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Know- 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



101 



ledge, by the Eev. James Stewart, minister of Killin. It breathes through- 
out an unmistakeable aroma of its Irish predecessor. Space avails not for 
long or many extracts ; let these suffice : an Soisgeul do reir Mhata ; 
agus an uair do chunnairc losa an sluagli; an sin a dubhairt Peadar; 
ach ni mar a cJioire, mar sin ata 'n saor-thiodklac. The Killin version 
was doubtless, in many respects a great improvement on the Irish version 
of the Archbishop of Tuam, but equally evident is it, as Dr Moulton * 
says, of the early English versions of Tyndale and Miles Coverdale, in 
their relation to the later authorised text, that " a multitude of passages, 
remarkable for beauty and tenderness, and often for strength and vigour, 
are common " to the earlier Irish and our later Gaelic version of the Holy 
Scriptures. Indeed a careful comparison of these two versions will reveal 
the fact, that for some of the chiefest beauties of our Gaelic Bible we are 
largely indebted to Bedel and O'Donnell. To ignore this, or to slur it 
over, would be not only ungenerous but unfair. Take, for example, as 
test passages, these two sublime chapters, the 55th of Isaiah and 
the 8th of Komans, which, perhaps, of the whole Bible are the best 
known among our people. If our space would admit of the Irish and 
Gaelic of both chapters being all set up in parallel columns, there are few 
of our readers who would not be surprised to observe how little change 
the latter has made on the former. A verse or two, taken at random, is 
all we can give : 



IRISH. 

H tigeadh gach uilc dhuine tartmbor 
chum na. nuisgeadh agus an te ag nach 
bhfuil airgiod ; tighidh se, ccannchuidh 
agus ithidh ; tigidh, fos, ceannchaidh fion 
agus bainne gan argiod agus gan luach. 

Creud fa ccaithighe argiod ar uidli nach 
aran ? agus bhur saothur re nidh nach 
sasuigheann ? eistigh go duthrachtach 
riomsa, agus ithidh an nidh is maith, agus 
biodh dull ag bhur nan am a meuthus. 
Claonuidh bhur ccluas, agus tighidh 
chugamsa : cluinidh agus marfidh bhur 
nanain, &c, Isai 55, 1-3. 

Agus ata a fhios aguiim go gcomhoib- 
righeann gach uile nidh chum maitheasa 
do na daoinibh ghradhuigheas Dia, iioch a 
ta ar na ngairm do reir a orduighesion. 
Horn. 8, 28. 

Uime sin creud a dearam fa na neithi- 
bhsi ? Ma ata Dia linn, cia fheadus bheith 
ar naghuidh ? 31. 

Oir ata dheirbhfhios agam nach budh 
heidir le bas, na le beatha, na le hainglibh, 
na le huachdaranachduibh, na le cutnha- 
chtuibh, na leis na neithibh ata do lathair, 
na leis na neithibh ata chum teachda, na 
le hairde, na le doimhne, na le creatur ar 
bith eile. sinne dhealughadh o ghradh De, 
ata a Niosa Criosd ar Dtighearna. 38, 39. 

An improved edition of James Stewart's New Testament appeared in 
1796, under the care of his son, Dr John Stewart of Luss, who, in 



GAELIC. 

Ho gach neach air am bheil tart thigibhse 
chum nan uisgeachan ; agus easan aig 
nach 'eil airgiod, thigibh, ccannaichibh 
agus ithibh ; seadh, thigibh, ceannaichibh, 
gun airgiod agus gun luach, tioii agus 
bainna. 

Car son a ta sibh a' caitheatnh airgid air 
ni nach aran? agus bhur saothair air ni 
nach sasuich ? Eisdibh le deadh aire 
riutnsa, agus ithibh an ni ata maith, aa;us 
gabhadh 'ur n-anam toilinntinn ann an 
cuilm shogh-mhoir. Aoniaibh 'ur cluas, 
agus thigibh a' m' ionnsuidh-sa ; eisdibh, 
agus mail-kill 'ur n' anam beo, &c. 

Agus a ta fhios agaiun gu'n comhoibrich 
na h-uile nithe chum maith do'n dream 
aig am bheil gradh do Dhia, eadhon 
dhoibhsan a ghairmeadh a reir a ruin. 

Ciod uime sin a their sinn ris na nithibh 
sin? Ma tha Dia leiun, co dh'fheudas bhi 
'nar n-aghaidh ? 

Oir ata dearbh-bheachd agam nach bi 
bas, no beath, no aingil, no uachdaran- 
achda, no cumhachda, no nithe a ta lathair, 
no nithe a ta ri teachd, no airde, no 
doimhne, no creutair sam bith eile, com- 
asach air sinne a sgaradh o ghradh Dhe a 
ta ann an losa Criosd ar Tighearn. 



* The History of the English Bible. By the Kev. W, F. Moulton, M.A., D.D. 

Cassell & Co. 



102 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

a prefatory " advertisement," thus speaks of his lather's version: "In 
the opinion of good judges, the work was executed in the most faithful 
manner, and it has been well reqeived in every part of the Highlands. 
The author, however, was himself sensible that it was susceptible of im- 
provement, and in an interleaved copy [he] marked with his own hand several 
corrections, which, in the present edition, have been carefully made. 
With a view to its further improvement, the translation has lately, in 
whole or in part, been revised by gentlemen in different parts of the 
Highlands, who were every way qualified for that important task, and 
who freely communicated their remarks to the editor. He has ventured, 
however, to make no alterations, but such as, on critical examination, 
appeared necessary and important, and such as the author himself, had 
he been in life, would have probably approved." 

How carefully, and yet with what filial tenderness, the younger 
Stewart revised the work of his father, will best be seen by comparing a 
verse from their several translations (John iii. 3), to which, for the readers' 
convenience, the corresponding verse in the Irish Testament is added : 



IRISH. 

Do fhreaguir losa agus a 
dubhairt se ris, Go dcimhin 
deimbin, a deirim riot, nnuna 
gheintear duine a ris nach 
eidir leis rieghachd De 
dfaicsin. 



KILLIN. 

Fhreagair losa agus a 
dubhairt se ris, Gu deimhin 
deimhin a deirim riut, mur 
beirthear duine a-ris, nach 
flieudar leis rioghachd Dhe 
fhaicsin. 



LUSS. 

Fhreagair losa agua a 
dubhairt e ris, Gu deimhin 
deimhin a deirim riut, mur 
beirear duine a ris, nach 
feud e rioghachd Dhe 
fhaicinn. 



The change of se to e, Icirthcar to beirear, a-ris to a ris, nach feudar leis 
to nach feud e, fhaicsin to fhaicinn, shows how minutely, and with how 
critical an eye, the younger Stewart examined the work of the elder. Lut 
why did he spare a dubhairt e, and a deirim riut? Was it because in 
his day these expressions were counted good Gaelic ? Or was it only the 
natural tendency of a pious man tenderly to spare every twig that could 
possibly stand unpruned, in what to him was sacred and venerable as the 
tree of life ? One thing is certain : no man who knows anything of the 
life and character of Dr John Stewart will suppose for a moment that 
these expressions, now branded as foreign to our Scottish Gaelic, were 
allowed to stand either through want of care or through defective know- 
ledge of what was then esteemed pure idiomatic Gaelic. 

While, as Highlanders, we are? grateful to the Stewarts for their pious 
labour, which was indeed to them a labour of love, as to our people it has 
been a gift of peerless price, we must never forget our vast obligations 
for this and many other munificent gifts, to the oldest, and still one of 
the richest and most enterprising, of the religious associations of our land/ 
For it was at the request, and entirely at the expense, of the Society in 
Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, that the blessed work of 
these two good and gifted men was executed. 

Some account of the first version in Scotch Gaelic of the Old Testa- 
ment, with the interesting episode of the connexion therewith of the Rev. 
Dr John Smith, of Campbelton, and the completion of the Society's 
labours in their noble edition of 1826, will furnish materials for another 
paper on this subject. 

DONALD MASSON, M.A., M.D. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 103 



B R A H A N OF STEEDS. 

Song on the Earl of Seaforth. 

(Translated from the Gaelic. ) 



Steed-famed Brahan Well-known, of my footsteps the throne ! 

Well-known haunt of the slender-limbed herd ! 

There thy bannered stag's-head, in thy need is broad spread, 

Thou chief of the rich chequered shields ! 

May thy fame still increase, to thy footsteps be peace, 

Seaforth thy late sounding title 

Let the halls of thy Court re-echo the sport, 

And the song of thy clansmen and revel. 

From thy silver-cupped board in abundance still poured 

Drink of various kinds might be named 

There was rum, porter, and beer, wine, brandy, good cheer 

With courage to fire thy young men. 

Thy hall of a night e'en a duke would delight ; 

When are met there the cunning musicians, 

And the sun out of sight, with its strings stretched tight 

The harp pours its music delicious. 

Fran.k and pleasant wast thou to high and to low ; 

Strong-limbed, stout, manly and gentle ; 

Their support in thy might, free from backbiting spite ; 

To thee was deceit ever hateful. 

With our chief loved so well, rise we sons of Kintail, 

From the foe oft for him won AVC honour ; 

Maclennans the glorious, in battle victorious, 

Courageous, commanding in valour. 

With thee rise to the work sons of " Murchadh-nan-Corc," 

Whom terror could never restrain ; 

Youths in beauty's bloom blush, in their green strength they rush 

Unchecked by appeal in their fury. 

When the pikes are drawn rife, ready, keen for the strife, 

Lopped limbs and heads gashed wide they scatter, 

Source of deepest delight at thy back standing tight, 

Sons of Roderick of Farabairn Tower. 

To their arms swiftly take the Macraes for thy sake, 

Who to battle rage roused never tremble ; 

Mark them ! generous and deft, of their calmness not reft, 

Rushing on red-hot in their thunder. 

When fiercely they stride, huddled close side by side, 

Heads are seen carved with wounds gaping ghastly, 

And their heel's on the foe, tumbled breatnless below 

By the play of the men of the back- stroke. 



104 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

To thy side flock together Clan Donald of the heather ; 
Macleods to a man in their anger ; 
And from Assynt-the-North pour but gentlemen forth ; 
With thee stirs no tattered Catlander. 
Macintoshes right brave, well-equipped armies gave, 
Their bannered tailed cat streaming broadly ; 
Clan-Chatan pike-bearing in battle-strife shearing, 
To their knees bring submissive the red-coats. 

In his pomp comes so proud, Earl of " Cromba " from Leod, 

From his ancient and surge-beaten tower ; 

With his handsome array, ordered well for the fray, 

Raging stags with their antlers bare-chafing. 

When thy back-sword with speed is unsheathed in thy need, 

Swift, manly and free they'd encounter, 

Till, in tumult and rout, wheels the foe right-about, 

Hot pursued by the victors swift-stepping. 

In thy retinue came the Macleans of great fame, 

Stout-limbed with the hue of the hunter ; 

Their muskets bright beaming, and burnished swords gleaming, 

And lances the back-stroke to parry. 

On the grassy sward green, where they tread, May be seen 

Corses gory in death grim distorted ; 

Swiftly dashing in strife where the danger is rife, 

The heroes in Scotch garb undaunted. 

In the Court of thy peers, one more honoured none hears, 

Nor useless concealed is thy wisdom ; 

Calmly bold and with grace, keen discussing each case, 

Standing true on the side of the Scotsman. 

To thy kinsmen a crown, great chief of renown ! 

Encamp with thee striplings deft-handed ; 

And brave youths with a will to the conflict rush still, 

When aloft streams the stag's-head thy standard. 

In the grasp of thy might was thy clan-land held tight, 

In despite of the champions red coated ; 

Ammunition in plenty, trim muskets, swords dainty, 

Over kilts thickly plaited these hadst thou. 

To thy skill in the field, is the foe forced to yield, 

Thy might and thy valour erincing r . , 

Bear my fond regards flashing, over Conon swift dasl^ing, 

To Brahan, fair silver-cupped Brahan. 

GLASGOW. FINLAY MACRAE, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 105 



HACO, THE DANE, OR THE PRINCE'S WOOING. 

A TRUE ROMANCE OF LOCH-MAREE, IN THREE PARTS. 

By J. E. MUDDOCK, author of "A Wingless Angel," " As the Shadows 

Fall" " Lovat, or Out in 'the '45," fa, fa 



PART III. (AND CONCLUSION) REVENGE. 

ALTHOUGH terribly wounded, and utterly prostrated through loss of blood, 
Prince Haco still lived, and in about an hour's time he recovered con- 
sciousness. The moon was sinking below the horizon, but the stars still 
looked down coldly and silently on the wild and savage region. A gentle 
breeze blew across the loch and broke its surface into wavelets that 
skipped and danced in the weird gleame of the pale light, and beat the 
shore in a strange melody of sadness. For a considerable time Haco was 
at a loss to understand or realise his position. His brain was dazed and 
muddled. He was lying upon his back, and his left arm was swollen 
and stiff, while a gaping wound showed itself in the fleshy part of the 
neck on the right side. All around him was a gory pool, and his pallid 
and death-like features were splashed with clots of blood. His hair was 
matted and hung in wild disorder about his face, and his dress was so 
gashed and torn that it hung in shreds from his body. 

Bad as the wounds of the young prince were, however, they had not 
penetrated to any vital part. And the life that had been so nearly going 
out slowly returned, and very gradually the incidents of the night dawned 
upon him, and he remembered how he had met and fought the terrible 
Red Hector of the Hills. The Prince groaned. Despair, rage, and pain 
were mingled, and to add to his misery he was consumed by a burning 
thirst. His tongue seemed too large for his mouth, and his lips were 
puffed and cracked. That horrible thirst was unendurable. He heard 
the wash of the water on the stone at the edge of the loch, and it seemed 
to mock him. With the desperate energy of despair he partly raised him- 
self, and through the blood-like mists that had gathered before his 
dimmed eyes, he gazed across the rippling waters to where in the purple 
shadows the Isle Maree lay. 

" Ah, my beloved ! " he murmured in his agony, " is it to be that we 
are never to meet again 1 Is there no good spirit will whisper to you 
now, and tell you that your lover lies wounded unto death? Oh, for 
your gentle hand to bind up my wounds, and to moisten my parched and 
burning throat. Tnyra, Thyra, my beloved !" he cried. 

His words were echoed by the mountains as if in mockery, and then 
there was silence again. Then the wounded man made another desperate 
effort to rise, and to drag himself down to the edge of the water. The 
exertion caused the blood to gush forth from his wounds again, but better 
to bleed to death, he thought, than suffer the unutterable agony of thirst. 
Despair and suffering lent him strength, and he was enabled to crawl 
along the ground half a yard or so at a time. He persevered and slowly 
and painfully worked his way down until the water was reached. Then 



106 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

he almost fainted from the joy of having succeeded. He got his face close 
to the water and he dashed the cold and refreshing fluid into his mouth 
and throat. It was nectar it was more, it was life ! At that moment 
the draught of water was worth a king's ransom. Prince Haco laved 
himself in the precious fluid and drank of it until he seemed to grow 
strong and whole again. The senses were deluded, however, for when he 
attempted to stand up he found himself as helpless as a babe but newly 
born. Dragging himself beneath the shelter of a boulder, he sank down 
prone upon the earth, and there stole upon him a horrible and unutterable 
sense of loneliness. He knew that not far off there were those who 
would have sacrificed their own lives to save his ; but no hand was near 
to minister to his dire needs, and he must perforce die for want of 
assistance. 

Insensibility came upon him again, and there was a long^blank. The 
night grew old. Down sank the moon, leaving the loch wrapped in one 
great impenetrable shadow, out of which came the voice of the waters, and 
occasionally the mournful cry of some sea bird. Gradually the darkness 
commenced to break in the east. A cold grey succeeded the blackness, 
and this in turn gave place to warm flush, rosy at first until it deepened 
to crimson, and soon the mighty sun came in a glory of gold and red, and 
with his shafts of fire he smote old Slioch and the surrounding hills 
until they were burnished into a resplendent brightness. 

The freshness of the morning air, and the warm rays of the rising sun 
had a stimulating effect on Prince Haco, who had lain all night under the 
starlit canopy of heaven while Death and Life wrestled for him. He 
opened his heavy eyes, and though weakness and loss of blood had 
brought on delirium, there was one name that rang in his dazed brain, 
and that name shaped itself on his lips it was the name of Thyra. 

It so happened that on this particular morning and by one of these 
strange chances which often induce one to think that Fate is something 
more than a name two monks were despatched from Isle Maree on a 
special mission to one of the religious houses on the mainland. They 
landed at the usual landing-place, which was close to where the Prince 
was lying. Then their attention was attracted by a deep groan of pain, 
and but for this they might have passed on without observing him, but 
now as they saw the wounded man they uttered a cry of alarm and hurried 
forward to instantly recognise Haco, the Dane, in the death-pale and 
blood-stained man who Avas stretched amongst the ferns. The two monks 
held a hurried consultation, and then decided to convey the Prince to the 
island as speedily as possible, where he would have the advantage of the 
wonderful skill of the Father Superior, whose fame aft a leach had spread 
throughout the country ; and in addition to this tlic gentle Princess could 
nurse him, and the holy men were there to shrive him if his end ap- 
proached. 

Actuated by these considerations the men raised the Prince between 
them, and carried him to their boat. Then they rowed quickly back to 
the island. The news, of course, soon spread, and as soon as the Princess 
Thyra heard it she flew at once to the presence of her lover unrestrained 
by the remonstrances of the Father Superior. She forgot every thing else 
in the one all absorbing thought that he who was dearer to her than life 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 107 

was lying stricken well nigh unto death, and that it was her duty to tend 
and watch him, and win him back to health and strength again, if that 
were possible. 

Ah ! how very gentle she was. At first she wept until her little eyes 
grew red ; but this was a very natural and pardonable womanly weakness. 
She grew calmer in a little while, for she recognised her duty, and nobly 
and bravely did she do it. For weeks the Prince tossed and raved in the 
delirium of a dreadful fever, the result of his wounds, and the exposure 
he had endured. But watching over him like a ministering angel was the 
gentle girl who tried to anticipate his every want. 

At length her care and attention Avas rewarded, for the fire of the 
fever died out, and Haco's wounds commenced to heal. For weeks he 
had lain all unconscious of her presence, but now as he learned all, and 
recognised who his gentle nurse had been, he could only fold her in his 
arms and weep for very joy. 

From that moment he made rapid progress towards recovery. The 
favourable turn having once set in, it was not long ere he was enabled to 
get about. 

The news of the duel had, of course, spread throughout the country, 
and the Prince's followers had made a vow to take Eed Hector of the 
Hills and put him to the torture. But they reckoned without their host. 
Hector was too old a fox to be caught napping, and he was too well 
acquainted with his native mountains not to be able to find shelter from 
his pursuers. At any rate none of those who sought him were able to 
find any trace of him. He had disappeared as effectually as if he had 
sunk into the dark depths of the loch. What had become of him was a 
mystery to all, save, perhaps, his own immediate followers. And as time 
wore on, and not the slightest clue to his whereabouts could be got, a 
belief gained ground that he was dead. 

Day by day Prince Haco grew stronger. His wounds had quite healed, 
and little or no trace of the terrible illness through which he had passed 
remained. He still lingered on the island, although he was repeatedly 
urged, nay commanded, to return home to his own country. But love 
was a stronger power than any other that could be brought to bear ; and 
no man could have loved more truly, more honourably, or more devotedly 
than he. Perhaps it was a foolish love, but when was love ever wise ? 
When did it ever run smoothly ? In the case of this young couple it was 
destined to lead them into destruction. 

One morning as the lovers walked in the little garden attached to the 
monastery, the Princess said, " Yesterday a special messenger brought me 
bad news." 

" Indeed !" the Prince exclaimed, as a flush of excitement came into 
his pale face. "'Bad news ! nay, I hope, my beloved that you have been 
misinformed. But tell me what is this news?" 

" I am summoned to proceed to Ireland without a moment's loss of 
time, as my father lies at death's door." 

" That is bad, indeed," was the sorrowful rejoinder. " And when do 
you purpose leaving 1 ?" he asked after a pause. 

" To-morrow, an' the wind hold fair." 

" To-morrow!" the Prince echoed, then sank into a gloomy silence 



108 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

but suddenly he stopped in his walk, and looking the Princess full in the 
face, he said, " And how long do you intend to be absent?" 

" Alas ! I cannot tell that." 

" But you will return?" he asked anxiously and excitedly. 

" Yes." 

" You will promise me this?" 

" Yes." 

" As you hope that your immortal soul may be saved ?" 

" As I hope that my immortal soul may be saved," she answered a 
little sadly, as though the implied doubt had stung her. 

When the hour of parting came, Prince Haco did not exhibit any 
great outward sorrow, but it needed no very keen observer to see that he 
was moved deeply. He accompanied his betrothed on board the galley 
that was to convey her down the loch, and when he took leave of her at 
the mouth of the river he caught both her hands in his, and peering into 
the wondrous depths of her blue eyes, he said with passionate earnestness 

" Princess, you take my heart with you. By the God we both 
worship, I conjure you, use it well; and if you would have me live, 
come back soon." 

" Lose not faith in me," she answered, as the tears blinded her, and 
her bosom throbbed with the wild emotion she tried so hard to suppress. 
" Only one thing shall ever prevent my returning." 

" And that is " Haco interrupted impatiently. " Death." 

Their farewell was a long and sad one, and then they parted. A fair 
wind was blowing, and soon the galley sailed out of sight ; and then, with 
a heavy heart, Prince Haco ordered his men to row him back to the 
island, where he intended to reside until the Princess came back. In the 
course of a week or two the poignancy of his grief had worn itself out, 
and being now perfectly restored to health, he once more indulged in the 
sport and excitement of the chase, although he never went out now with- 
out being accompanied by a strong and well-armed retinue. 

One day as he and his followers were returning from the White 
Mountains, where they had been hunting, an old man suddenly placed 
himself in their path. Peremptorily and rudely he was ordered to move 
out of their way, but the Prince's good nature prompted him at once to 
ride forward and address the man. 

" Who are you, and whence came you my good fellow?" 

" Alas, your highness, I am a homeless wanderer. A warrior has 
carried off my cattle. My only son was killed the other day while climb- 
ing yon broken crag in search of a lost sheep, and the sight of the boy's 
mangled body drove my poor old wife raving mad, and she drowned her- 
self in the loch. 

" A sad story, truly," sighed the Prince ; then turning to one of his 
followers, he ordered him to give the old man substantial alms. 

Drawing himself up, however, with pride and dignity, the man re- 
plied with great scorn, " Prince, I am no beggar." 

" What dost thou seek, then ?" 

" To be allowed to enter your highness's service." 

" Well, thou art modest, at least," cried the Prince, as he laughed heartily ; 
" but what canst thou do? Thou art old and weak, and all but useless." 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 109 

The man's face grew red, and it almost seemed as if fire came out of 
his eyes as he clutched a staif he was carrying with a vice-like grip, and 
the muscles of his arms stood out like cords. 

" Useless," he echoed, then softening his tone, and changing his man- 
ner, he continued, " Pray, mock me not, your highness ; there is life and 
vigour yet in these limbs, as your highness shall discover an' you will but 
engage me." 

" An' I do this, wilt thou prove faithful ?" 

" Aye." 

" And never forget the kindness I do thee ? " 

Something like a sneer of bitterness came into the man's face as he 
made answer and said 

" Eonald Macleod never yet forgot a kindness, as he never yet forgave 
an injury." 

" Come, thou art engaged, then," cried the Prince, laughingly, " I see 
there is fire in thee yet." 

" Fire," the man hissed with strange energy, " fire ! aye, if thou didst 
but know how I burn for revenge." 

" Eevenge !" echoed the Prince and several of his followers in astonish- 
ment. 

" Is it so strange that an old man should be desirous of revenging a 
great wrong 1 " 

" "Wrong, and against whom?" asked the Prince. 

" No matter," was the almost sullen answer. " A sleeping memory 
has been aroused, and for a moment I forgot myself. When shall I 
enter your highness's service 1 ?" 

" To-morrow, and it please thee." 

" To-morrow it shall be," the man returned, as he bowed and moved 
on one side, and the Prince and his suit moved on. 

" There is something in that fellow that does not please me, Prince," 
one of the suite remarked, as they got out of the man's hearing. 

"Tut, man, thou art full of strange whims and fancies. I will 
warrant me the rascal is honest enough," the Prince answered. 

" I pray heaven that it is so," the speaker remarked as if to himself. 

At noon on the following day Eonald made his appearance on the 
island, and the Prince at once appointed him to a position of some trust, 
and so much desire did the man display to please his new master that the 
Prince was drawn towards him, and in a very short time had become at- 
tached to him. 

Three months passed, and then the Prince commenced to weary for 
the return of his affianced. He had had no word from her since she went 
away, and he became a little anxious and troubled. He had stationed 
some of his servants at Poolewe, with instructions that when they espied 
the vessels of the Princess they were to despatch a mounted courier to 
him instantly with the news. Day after day went by until suspense had 
become almost unbearable ; but at length the courier arrived, with the 
joyful intelligence that three vessels were in sight, and the leader of them 
bore the royal flag of Ireland. 

The Prince was elated and excited in a more than ordinary degree, 
and he was about to issue orders that a reception should be organised 



110 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

that would do honour to his noble bride. But at this moment Ronald 
crept up to him, and whispered 

" Master, I am strangely troubled, and I pray you give me a few 
minutes that I may get speech with you." 

" Not now, Ronald ; not now. Thou shouldst not speak oi trouble 
at such a time as this, but joy, and only joy." 

" Nay, master of mine, I must speak. It is to your highness's interest 
that I should do so." 

There was something so earnest, so impressing in the man's tone that 
the Prince looked at him in astonishment, and then said 

" If what thou hast to say is so serious, I will give thee two minutes ; 
two minutes, remember, and not a second longer." 

He turned aside with Ronald, and when they were alone, Ronald 
said " I have had a dream " 

" Tut, man," interrupted the Prince petulantly, " is it for this only 
that thou wouldst waste my time." 

" Be not so fast, master. I have dreamed my dream three nights 
running, and by the heavens above us there is truth in dreams. Nay, 
turn not away, but listen. What wouldst thou do an' thy lady-love 
were dead?" 

The Prince started and turned ghastly pale, and his lip quivered as 
though a current of electricity was passing through it, he stammered 

" Dead ! What do you mean?" 

" I ask what wouldst thou do an' she were dead ?" 

" Rascal, why dost thou torture me by even daring to ask such a 
question?" 

" Nay, be not angry ; I cannot help my dream." 

" Help thy dream," the Prince cried, while his face was pale even to 
a shyness. 

" Aye, thrice have I dreamed that she was dead, and I fear me that 
my dream is prophetic." 

For some minutes the Prince was silent ; he seemed to be struggling 
with some terrible emotion that almost overpowered him, but at last, in a 
hollow voice, he said 

" Why hast thou told me this? Why hast thou dared to cloud the 
sunshine of my joy ?" 

" Dared !" Ronald echoed, while his whole manner seemed to change, 
and a look of fierce pleasure came into his face, although it escaped the 
notice of the Prince, who was deeply absorbed in his own reflections. 
" There is nothing under heaven I would not dare " Then he checked 
himself suddenly, and said, " An' this dream should be true " 

" An' it should be true," the Prince cried, " an' it should be true, I 
would plunge this dagger into my own heart." He drew a jewelled 
poignard from its sheath at his girdle as he spoke ; but thrusting it back 
again with impatience and anger, he said, " Ronald, thou art a fool and a 
knave." He was striding away, but suddenly turned, and as if ashamed 
of having spoken so sharply, he remarked, " I forgot myself. I should 
not allow the babble of an old man to disturb me. Pardon me, Ronald ; 
I have been hasty." 

" But if it should be true ?" Ronald asked with strange emphasis. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. Ill 

" 'But?' Why dost tliou torture me with ' But?' It cannot be." 

" Cannot it ? Nay, who can tell ? " 

" Eonald, dost thou wish to drive me mad ? I feel almost as if I 
could strike thee to the earth for having dared to torture me by telling 
me thy idiotic dream. By the holy Virgin thou hast made me unhappy, 
and I shall need the priestly consolations of the good Father Superior to 
enable me to endure the dreadful suspense until I am assured that my 
beloved Princess is well." 

" I have a plan, an' your highness approves of it." 

"What is it? Speak." 

" I will go out and meet the vessels." 

" Well, well ; and what then ?" 

" As soon as we enter the loch, I will, if the Princess is well, hoist a 
red flag, which thou wilt be able to see if thou wilt mount to the tower 
of the monastery." 

" That is a good idea ; but if she should not be well, what then?" 

" If she should be dead," Ronald replied in a strange tone, while he 
seemed to glare on the unfortunate Prince, " If she should be dead, a black 
flag shall float from the peak." 

" Go then," answered the Prince, trying hard to restrain the feeling of 
nervous trepidation that had, in spite of himself, seized him, " but re- 
member that the black flag would be the signal for my death. I could 
not live without her." He turned away and went into the monastery; 
and then, with a step that had in it the lightness and fleetness of a young 
man rather than that of an old one, Eonald hurried down to the boat 
that was moored to a rock. With lusty and vigorous strokes of the oars 
he pulled himself clear of the island, and in a few minutes more was lost 
to sight. 

Hours passed away. The night closed in. A restless, weary night it 
was to the Prince. Hope and fear alternated in his breast, and suspense 
almost drove him mad. When the sun rose he mounted to the top of the 
tower, but he found that the range of vision was very circumscribed, 
owing to the other islands ; and so he ordered two of the monks to row 
him to the opposite shore, where he scaled a high peak, and waited 
in breathless anxiety. Presently a speck was visible in the far off blue 
distance looking towards the sea. The speck gradually grew larger, until 
it assumed the shape of a vessel. A flag was flying at the peak, but as 
yet it was impossible to make out its colour. The Prince's head throbbed 
wildly with the fever of excitement, and he strained his eyes until they 
ached. The vessel drew nearer, and then the blood rushed back frozen 
upon the Prince's heart as he saw that the flag was black. 

When Eonald had gat out of sight of the island he pulled a powerful 
and long stroke that was 'not at all compatible with his aged appearance. 
His little boat flew over the water, and he was enabled to meet the vessel 
of the Princess soon after she and her suite had embarked on board at the 
mouth of the loch. Making his way to where the Princess stood radiant 
with health and happiness, and anticipating the pleasure of the meeting 
with her lover, he bowed low and said 

" Madam, I come as a messenger from Prince Haco." 

" Ah ! welcome, doubly welcome ; and how fares my lord ? tell me 
quickly." 



112 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

" He is well, lady." 

" Bless thee for that news," cried the delighted girl ; " thou shalt 
have gold for it. " And tell me and be not niggard of thy speech, man 
tell me is he impatient for my coming." 

" Aye, indeed, lady ; and so anxious was he to be assured of your 
highness's health that he bade me hoist a red flag an' thou wast well, but 
if thou wert not well a black flag was to fly at the peak." 

" Dear, dear Haco," the happy girl murmured to herself. 

" I have a plan, your highness, whereby we may have some sport," 
Ronald observed artfully, " as well as test the devotion of thy lover." 

" Indeed, and what is that, good friend ?" 

" Hoist up the black flag." 

" Nay, that would be cruel," exclaimed the Princess with a little laugh. 

" Not cruel, your highness, since it would prove to you how strong is 
the Prince's love." 

The Princess considered for some moments, and a smile lighted up her 
beautiful features. Her woman's vanity was tickled, and she was tempted 
to put her lover's affection to the test. Ronald, who had watched her as 
a hawk that watches its prey, saw that she hesitated, and urged her so 
strongly that at last she gave orders that the red flag which was then 
flying should be hauled down and a black one run up. The captain was 
puzzled by this, but he had no alternative but to obey, although he 
thought the whim a strange one. As the sombre folds of the flag floated 
out on the breeze a smile of intense satisfaction came into Ronald's face. 

As the vessel neared the island the Princess felt great difficulty in re- 
straining her impatience, and her heart bounded with joy as she heard the 
wooden anchor splash into the waters as the galley was brought up under 
the lea of Isle Maree. But, alas ! that joy was soon to be turned to 
sorrow. She ordered the boat to be manned, and then stepping in she 
bade the rowers row quickly. As soon as ever the boat touched the 
strand she sprang out and was met by the Father Superior. 

" And where is the Prince?" she cried, all surprised to find that he 
Avas not there. 

" Thou shalt know, my child, directly," was the answer. 

" But why comes he not to meet me ? Is he well ?" 

" We trust, daughter, that he is well." 

There was something in the man's tone that alarmed her, so that the 
colour fled from her face ; and turning upon him quickly, she demanded 

" What has happened ? For the love of heaven if anything is Avrong 
keep it not from me ; and that something is Avrong I gather by thy tone." 

" Alas, daughter, that it should be my duty to tell thee the bad neAvs." 

" Bad neAvs," she gasped in a holloAV Avhisper. " Lives he, or is he 
dead?" 

" Have courage, my child, and may the Mother of Jesus guard thee. 
Thy lover has slain himself. God rest his soul" The holy father told 
his beads, and Avith a wild cry of heartbreaking despair Princess Thyra 
threAV up her arms and fell prone upon the earth. 

Ronald and some of the men from the boat raised her, and by the in- 
structions of the holy father bore her to the monastery. All day long she 
lay as one in a trance, but toAvards the night she recovered her senses. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 113 

Then she demanded to know how the Prince had died, and very reluctantly 
she was informed that seeing a black flag flying, he, under the belief that 
she was dead, plunged a dagger into his heart. For a little time the 
reason of the Princess seemed shattered, but at length an unnatural calm- 
ness came upon her, and she asked to see the body. At first this request 
was refused, as it was feared that the sight would really affect her to 
madness ; but she vowed that she would see it come what may, and so 
the Father Superior offered to go to the room where the Prince's bodyjlay. 

" I pray thee, in the name of the Virgin, leave me," she said when 
the room was reached. " I would be alone for a few minutes with my 
dead lover." 

The father hesitated for some little time, for he was afraid to leave 
her ; but she at last commanded him to go, and he said 

" Wilt thou promise solemnly thou wilt not harm thyself?" 

" Yes." 

" Then I will give thee fifteen minutes." 

When the Princess was alone she turned towards where the Prince's 
body lay on a low truckle bed. Lights were burning at the head and 
foot of the bed, and the body was covered with a sheet. The wretched 
girl tottered across the room, and with trembling hand drew the sheet 
from the ghastly face. Then with a sob that told how terrible 
was her agony, she bent down and placed her lips to the forehead of this 
too faithful lover, and so great was her grief that even tears refused to 
flow. Presently she was startled by these words, which were hissed into 
her ear 

"Kevenge is sweet." 

She raised herself up, and turned quickly round, and before her stood 
Ronald, but no longer bent with seeming age. He was straight and 
powerful looking now, and his face was horrible in its expression of un- 
utterable hatred. 

" Ronald Villain, this is thy doing," she faltered, as she put 

her hand to her throat, for a sensation of choking had come there. The 
room swam before her eyes, and she leaned heavily against the bed. 

A hard, cruel, almost demoniacal smile played about the man's mouth 
as he answered 

" My name is not Ronald." 

" Who art thou, then?" she gasped, like one in a dream. 

" Red Hector ^of the^Hills," he hissed. " I told him that I never yet 
forgave aiynjtiry. I amjfally revenged IIOAV." 

Tho Princess Thyra wttered a gurgling cry, and reeling round as 
though a bullet had suddenly gone through her heart, she fell across the 
body of her lover. 

When the holy father returned Hector had fled, and the Princess was 
motionless. In wild alarm the good man raised her up but only to find 
that her pain had ended, and she had joined her lover in the world 
that lies beyond the grave. 

Two graves were dug adjoining each other, and the ill-starred Prince 
and Princess were laid head to head. On the slab that covered his grave 
the monks carved a runic cross, and on her's a crucifix. 

From that night Hector of the Hills disappeared, and no one knew 

i 



114. THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

where he had gone to, but some months afterwards a body was found 
floating in Loch Rosque, at the other end of the gloomy Glen Docherty, 
and that body was recognised as Hector of the Hills, Retribution had 
overtaken him, but how he came to be drowned was never known. 

Eeader, if ever it is your good fortune to be in the sternly grand, and 
wildly magnificent region of Loch Maree fail not to visit the little gem- 
like island known as Isle Maree. Tread reverently, and muse awhile 
amidst those solemn memorials of the past age (when this wonderful dis- 
trict was peopled only by warring clans), the time-worn stones that mark 
the graves of the sleepers long long forgotten. In the very centre of the 
island two slabs are placed flat and end together. On the one is a beauti- 
ful runic cross, and on the other an exquisitely carved crucifix. Uncover 
your head and keep silent while the summer breeze, as it whispers amongst 
the branches overhead, tells you the story of the faithful lovers the un- 
fortunate Danish Prince and Irish Princess who sleep so peacefully now 
in that little island solitude, and who loved each other so well in life that 
death could not divide them. 



THE HIGHLANDER NEWSPAPER In our last issue we pro- 
mised to discuss in this number the causes which led to the then unfor- 
tunate position of the Highlander. Our principal object was to indicate 
that the upholding of the Highlander newspaper was not the hopeless 
enterprise the apparent fate of the special organ of Highlanders seemed to 
point, to. The management was most undoubtedly at fault, otherwise 
the extensive circulation which, to our certain knowledge, the paper had 
acquired would have secured for it financial success. Now that it has 
got into the hands of one man, who, with almost superhuman efforts, is 
heroically carrying it on, apparently, against the combined efforts of the 
Fates, we hope to see the concern succeeding in Mr Murdoch's hands 
to the extent which his indomitable perseverance and faith in the cause 
of his Highland countrymen deserve. This result will be accepted by us 
as the best possible proof of the correctness of the opinion we had formed. 
In these circumstances it is unnecessary that we should at present go 
into details. 

THE SCOTTISH CELTIC EEVIEW.Xbis is the title of ;i new 
Celtic periodical which the Uev. Alexander ("ann-roti, Brodick, is arrang- 
ing to bring out quarterly as soon as a sufficient number of subscribers is 
secured to justify him in doing so. Mr Cameron is one of our very best 
Celtic scholars, and we wish himself and his new quarterly every possible 
success. We are by no means afraid of him. On the contrary we 
welcome him with genuine pleasure. While we shall pay every possible 
deference and respect to our big brother, our older though smaller selves 
are now so well acquainted with the nooks and crannies of existence that 
we have no fear whatever that this heavier, and probably more dignified 
member of the Celtic family will ever overtake us or do us any harm. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 115 



FIRST HIGHLAND PARLIAMENT-MEETING IN GLASGOW. 

' ' ' 

A MEETING of delegates from the various Celtic Societies favourable to the formation 
of a Federal union was held in the Bath Street Assembly Booms, Glasgow, on the even- 
ing of Wednesday, the 28th November. There was a good attendance of the general 
public, all of whom seemed to take a deep interest in the proceedings. 

Councillor MACKENZIE, Inverness, moved that Bailie MACDONALD, Aberdeen, 
take the chair, which he did, and thanked them for the great honour they had conferred 
upon him in asking him to preside at the inauguration of the Federation of Celtic 
Societies. (Applause.) He hoped this Federation would be worthy of their country, of 
themselves, and for the future good of Highlanders generally. (Applause.) They were 
often accused of being divided among themselves, but he hoped that henceforward they 
would be able to show to the world that they had the old spirit still remaining and 
would still stand " shoulder to shoulder," and act as one man for the good of the High- 
lands and Highlanders. (Applause.) He trusted that they would not fall out by the 
way, but that the proceedings would be marked by a uaanimity and goodwill worthy of 
themselves and the cause which had brought them together. (Applause.) 

Mr ALEX. MACKENZIE, of the Celtic Magazine, provisional secretary, reported the 
various steps he had taken to bring the various Celtic Associations together, and 
and other matters regarding the Federation. He read a list of the various Asso- 
ciations who had agreed to join the Federation, when it was found that the following 
Associations had sent delegates to the meeting: Gaelic Society of London, Mr Colin 
Chisholm ; Gaelic Society of Inverness, Mr Alex. Mackenzie ; Aberdeen Highland Asso- 
ciation, Bailie Macdonald ; Hebburn Celtic Society, Mr W. Matheson ; Edinburgh Uni- 
versity Celtic Society, Mr D. Munro Fraser ; Greenock Highland Society, Messrs Neil 
Brown, S. Nicholson, and Hugh Mackay ; Greenock Ossianic Club, Mr Orr ; Tobermory 
Gaelic Society, Mr H. Mackinnon. The following Glasgow Associations were repre- 
sented : Comunn Cfaidhealach, Messrs J. G. Mackay and H. Whyte ; Skye, Messrs C. 
M. Ramsay, secretary, and A. W. Macleod ; Islay, Messrs M. Smith and Nigel Macneill ; 
Sutherland, Messrs W. M. Sutherland, president, andJA. Sutherland, secretary ; Cowal, 
Messrs Macgregor and Mackellar ; Lewis, Messrs Angus Nicholson and M. Macdonald ; 
Lewis (Literary), Messrs A. Macdougall and D. Macleod ; Tir nam Beann, Mr D. Mac- 
pherson ; Mull, Messrs Mackinnon and Macdonald ; Ardnamurchan, Messrs H. C. 
Gillies and J. Macdonald ; Gael Lodge of Free Masons, (609), Brothers A. Nicholson and 
Duncan Sharp; Fardach Fhinn, I.O.G.T., Brothers D. Maepherson and Nicholson; 
Comunn Gaidhlig Eaglais Chaluim Chille, Messrs A. MacEachnie and P. C. Macfarlane. 
The Birmingham Celtic Society were unable to send delegates to the meeting, but ex- 
pressed their adhesion to the Federation. 

Letters of apology for unavoidable absence were read frosa Mr John Mackay, C.E., 
Swansea, and Mr John Murdoch, Inverness. 

Bailie MACDONALD then moved the first resolution as follows : " That the High- 
land Societies which have delegated specially accredited representatives to this meeting 
resolve to form themselves into a Federation to be called ' The Federation of Celtic 
Societies.'" He said the resolution was so plainjthat it required nothing to be said re 
garding it, and he simply moved its adoption. 

Mr NEIL BROWN, Greenock, in seconding the motion, said he was not one of those 
who would like to go to extremes on this Highland question. While he considered that 
every effort should be used to elevate and improve the condition of the Highlanders he 
would not like to gee the Highlands covered over again with poor crofters. It would 
have been a wise and a prudent poliey to have preserved the Highland peasantry when 
they had them. Had that been done the country would not have witnessed the humi- 
liating spectacle that Britain presented when she was under the necessity of drafting 
Hindoos to show the world that she was in possession of soldiers (loud applause) thus 
testifying to the significant fact that by carelessness not t use a stronger term she 
had allowed the best nursery of soldiers nay, he should say of men that ever existed 
to be destroysd. (Renewed applause.) She had permitted those who had carried the 



116 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

British flag over many a hard and bloody field, to be evicted or expatriated from their 
native land, in order that their beautiful glens and adamantine snow-clad mountains, 
might be converted into game preserves, to afford sport to strangers, ignorant alike of 
the habits, language, and nature of the Gael. (Loud applause.) He held that this dis- 
astrous policy having been acted upon, he would not like to see his countrymen induced 
to remain in the Highlands as poor crofters, unless some industries were opened up to 
give scope to their ambition, and prove worthy of their intelligence and race. (Hear, 
hear.) It was all very well at one time, when all their associations for many generations 
were connected with certain localities. (Applause.) A sacrifice was then often made to 
perpetuate the unbraken line. But those patriarchal links were severed, and the High- 
lander of to-day took his place in the race of business, or trade, or anything else where 
he was as able to compete from his mental capacity as any other. (Applause.) Perhaps 
the history of the world did not furnish an analogous case to that of the Highlanders 
while they were tyrannised over, ill-used, rack-rented, and finally expatriated, not a 
single powerful voice was raised in their behalf not a single combination was formed 
for their protection. (Applause.) They found their natural protectors, the descendants 
of their chieftains, their greatest foes, and with shame and humiliation let the state- 
ment he made that the ministers of religion, with the exception of a few cases, did not 
show themselves the faithful shepherds who would die fr their Socks. In one word 
the Gaels were left friendless, and the descendants of those who had fought and con- 
quered for Britain in every quarter of the world were often obliged to erect miserable 
tents on she sea-shore and in the churchyard. (Applause.) A paternal government 
should not have permitted this, but if the vengence of the Almighty was slow it was 
likewise certain. For this reason he would not like to see tha Highlands repeopled un- 
less for the benefit of the Highlanders and not for the benefit of a Government that had 
used them carelessly if not cruelly. He had great pleasure in seconding the motion, 
and hoped the Federation would meet with every encouragement from the various 
Societies. (Loud applause.) The resolution was carried unanimously. 

Mr ALEXANDER MACKENZIE of the Cdtic Magazine, representing the Gaelic Society 
of Inverness, moved the next resolution, as follows : " That the object of the Federa- 
tion be the preservation of the Gaelic language and literature ; the encouragement of 
Celtic education in schools and colleges ; and generally the promotion of the interests 
of Highlanders in accordance with the spirit and constitution of the affiliated societies." 
Mr Mackenzie thought this a very judicious and wise resolution, and he had much plea- 
sure in moving its adoption. (Cheers.) Highlanders worthy of the name would never 
differ as to the necessity of preserving the language and literature of their ancestors. 
(Applause.) Nor, he hoped, the desirability of encouraging Celtic education in our 
schools and colleges. (Cheers.) Such a resolution was also most opportune, for an elec- 
tion of School Boards would soon take place in March or April next throughout all 
Scotland, and he trusted this Federation would consider it their first duty to bring in- 
fluence to bear upon every candidate for a School Board in .the Highlands, in favour of 
teaching Gaelic in the schools, and so take advantage of the concession made by the 
Educatin Department last year to have Gaelic teaching conducted during ordinary school 
hours, if the respective School Boards so desired, and have the same paid for out of th 
ordinary school rates. (Cheers.) Some people said this was no real concession at all, and 
lie agreed with them so far, that it was not very material unless the School Boards did 
their duty, but the School Boards were elective bodies, and would have to do what their 
constituencies demanded of them, and he hoped, indeed he had no doubt at all on the 
subject, that every candidate would be asked the question, Would he support the Teack- 
ing of Gaelic in the Schools under his board? and an answer obtained in the affirmative 
before any Highlander consented to extend him his support. (Applause.) To see that 
this was done throughout the Highlands at the forthcoming election would be one of the 
most important duties of the Celtic Parliament during tuo first your of its existence, 
and a most important duty it was. (Cheers.) He waAfl^^^lpcd to do his duty in the 
Highland Capital (cheers) and he trusted they would extend him all their influence 
to get a teacher of Gaelic reinstated in the Royal Academy of i i accordance 

with its original constitution. (Applause.) For sever. ., had a Gaelic teacher in 

that Institution one of the most brilliant ornament; id tlion in the room, 

representing the Edinburgh University Celtic Society 1>..vid Munro Fraser, 
(loud cheers) who not only carried everything before him at Inverness, but also iu the 
University of Edinburgh, and of whom all Highlanders had occasion to be proud (loud 
applause) as one who would yet shed lustre on his native Highlands, and its principal 
Seminary. (Cheers.) They should also, in every possible manner, aid those who were 
engaged in preserving the literary gems still to be found with our old men and women 
in the valleys and straths of the Highlands. (Hear, hear.) Most of those engaged in 
that work were perhaps carrying one characteristic of the case too far too proud to 
ask for assistance, but that was one reason why such a federation as they had now 
formed should extend their support all the more ; and they could do it by their recom- 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 117 

mendations and influence without taking any financial risk whatever. See how they 
could recommend and otherwise support that splendid work now being performed, at 
great risk and expense, by Mr Archibald Sinclair. (Loud applause.) His "Oranaiche" 
was, out sight, the best value in every respect which ever issued from the Gaelic press. 
(Cheers.) They should and must support such men and such work. (Cheers.) They 
should also encourage struggling bards who had the genuine spark in them, and some 
such still existed amongst us. (Hear, hear.) He would say nothing about his own work 
he never could beg (applause), but he was nevertheless always grateful for such sup- 
port as could fairly be expected, and for which he always tried to give value. (Cheers.) If 
he did not do so he felt he had no right to expect their aid. (Hear, hear.) He would say 
nothing about the last clause of the resolution, except that it seemed to him to have been, 
very wisely drawn up. It was very comprehensive. The most rabid politician amongst 
them could under it introduce any subject for their consideration, without going out- 
side the Constitution, and could carry it if it were founded on reason and common sense. 
He would, however, require to convince the majority that it was so, and he (Mr M.) had 
any amount of faith in the majority of such men as were appointed representatives on 
this occasion. This clause in the resolution was quite satisfactory to moderate men like 
himself (laughter) who did not believe in this Federation taking up extreme questions 
ef party politics or ecclesiastical questions of any kind. (Cheers, and hear, hear.) They 
hoped to carry the majority along with them by fair argument and sound common sense ; 
and, if they did not, he felt sure the Federation would split up into fragments as soon as 
they departed from the paths of prudence and moderation. (Cheers.) He had much 
pleasure in moving the resolution placed in his hands, which, as he already said, he con- 
sidered in the circumstances, a most judicious and wise one. (Loud cheers.) 

Mr COLIN CHISHOLM, ex-President of the Gaelic Society of London, seconded, 
in an eloquent Gaelic speech of which the following is the substance. He was proud 
to attend as the representative that night of his old and worthy associates, the warm- 
hearted and enthusiastic members f the Gaelic Society of London (cheers), which was 
the premier Gaelic Society of Great Britain, and which celebrated its centenary about 
two years ago. (Loud applause.) It was with credentials from such a society that he 
crossed Druimuachdar to appear at the meeting there that night. (Cheers.) In their 
name, and with his own hearty concurrence, he begged to second the resolution pro- 
posed, and advocated so forcibly, by Mr Mackenzie. He (Mr M.) said a great deal, 
and that so much.tojthe point (cheers) that there was scarcely anything left for him to 
say. But he would give them his opinion of the meeting. It was now over forty years 
since he attended the first Gaelic meeting in England, and, according to his view, he 
never saw a meeting before South or North so well calculated to prove beneficial to the 
Highlands as the one held that evening. (Applause.) Unity, goodwill, and brotherly 
feeling were animating the whole assembly, and if he were not mistaken these excellent 
sentiments were being fixed in the mind, and engraved on the hearts of every man in 
that assembly. (Cheers.) He would be much surprised if success and happiness were 
not the outcome of such a meeting. They now had twenty-one well organized Celtic 
Societies enrolled under the banner of Federation. (Loud cheers.) They were firmly 
bound together into one powerful organisation, while each Society would still continue 
to act independently and solely under its own specific constitution ;md bye-laws. (Hear, 
hear.) He stated his opinion, that the meeting was the most unanimous meeting of 
Highlanders that ever took place in the City of Glasgow- (cheers) and he sincerely 
hoped that time would prove his assertion correct. United, and shoulder to shoulder, 
their well regulated and temperate but firmly expressed demands would command the 
respect of the Legislature, frem the Queen downwards. (Applause.) He would not 
take upon himself any longer to tender advice to gentlemen much wiser than himself. 
No doubt they would excuse him for all he said whea they remembered that he was an 
old, bald headed man, bordering on the Psalmist's limit of threescore and ten, and one 
who has -done some little service in the Celtic field. (Loud and continued cheers.) Whe- 
ther David was right or not (laughter) he (Mr C.) could assuredly tell them that he was 
iu no hurry at present to go and make his acquaintance. (Great laughter.) He evi- 
dently did not know what metal the Highlanders were made of, or he would never have 
said any such thing. (Loud laughter.) He would say a few words regarding what fell 
from Mr Brown, Gveenock, who said that for his part he would be sorry to see the High- 
landers goiug back to tke Highlands if they were only to be wretched crofters like those 
who now remained there. God forgive those who sent the Highlanders away, and who 
were responsible for the position of those left behind. (Cheers.) But would Mr Brown 
rather see his countrymen as we saw hundreds of other people on the streets of Glasgow 
that very day? perambulating the streets in sheer poverty j deprived almost of clothing 
to cover their emaciated bodies ; hunger gnawing the very soul out of them ; cold 
piercing them, the colour of health gone, and their cheekbones almost projecting through 
their skin, scarcely able to stand erect, while receiving a miserable pittance from 
the charitable to keep soul and body together. He would leave Mr Brown to cogitate 



118 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

these matters, but before parting he entreated him to use all his influence to keep and 
maintain his Highland countrymen on the land of th< ir birth. (Cheers.) If Mr Brown 
went to the Highlands he would there see hundreds of square miles converted into fe- 
rests for wild beasts, while Christian men and women, burn and reared on these lands 
were swept away and heaped together in the large towns, generally there placed in layers 
almost as thick us herrings in a barrel. It was really painful to see so much of the best 
grazing and arable land throughout the Highlands cut off from the use of man, while 
the forest lands annually extended, and the space allotted for human beings were'yearly 
curtailed. (Cheers.) It would not do to be faint-hearted. Let them remember what 
Ian Loin said on the eve of the battle of Auldearn 

" 'N ainm Dhia deanamaid turn, 
Le aobhar misnich chum cliu, 
Ach bha mise uair 
Anns bu mho mo -cheutaidh." 

Let them work amicably together, shoulder to shoulder, and they would immensely 
benefit their native land. (Immense cheering again and again renewed.) 

Mr WILLIAM SUTHERLAND, President of the Sutherland Association, moved "That 
each society joining the Federation be entitled to send two representatives to the meet- 
ing of the Federal Council, and pay an equal amount towards the necessary expenses of 
the Federation." The larger societies, such as the Gaelic Society of Inverness, he ex- 
plained, desired the representation and the contributions to the central fund to be in 
proportion to the numbers on the roll of each society, but the smaller societies, in the 
most spirited manner, declared in favour of equal representation and equal payment to 
the expenses of the Federation. -(Cheers.) It was the desire of the smaller societies 
themselves to contribute as much as the more wealthy associations ; and at the preli- 
minary meetings held, and at which all the resolutions were fully discussed, this was 
unanimously recommended. (Applause.) 

The motion was seconded by Mr SAMUEL NICHOLSON, Greenock, who pointed out 
that Mr Chisholm misunderstood Mr Neil Brown's remarks about Highlanders going 
back to the Highlands to become impoverished and wretched crofters like most of those 
who now lived there. (Cheers.) Mr Brown would be delighted to see them back again, 
like every other patriotic Highlander, if they were valued and treated there as they 
ought to be. (Applause.) The resolution was carried unanimously. 

Mr GILLIES moved " That the office bearers consist of a president, three vice-presi- 
dents, two secretaries, and a treasurer, that they be elected annually, and that the 
office-bearers be for the current year : President, John Mackay, Esq,, C.E., Swansea ; 
Vice-Presidents, Bailie Macdonald, Aberdeen ; Messrs Duncan White, and Nigel Mac- 
neil, Glasgow ; Secretaries, Councillor Alex. Mackenzie, Inverness, and Mr William 
Sutherland, Principal of Albert Educational Institution, Queen's Park, Glasgow ; Treas- 
urer, Mr Macdonald, of the Ardnamurchan Society, Glasgow." These gentlemen, he 
said, possessed the necessary qualifications of courage combined with prudence. The 
motion was seconded by Mr A. W. MACLEOD, of the Skye Association, andjcarried unani- 
imously. 

Mr ANGUS NICHOLSON, of the Gael Lodge of Free Masons (609), moved, and Mr 
ORR, Secretary of the Greenock Ossian Club, seconded the following : " That the fore- 
going resolutions be the constitution of the Federation till next annual meeting, and 
that said constitution can only be altered then or at any future annual meeting by three- 
feurths of the delegates assembled in council, who have been duly summoned to such 
annual meeting by circular addressed to the respective secretaries of t lie affiliated societies 
by either of the secretaries of the Federation ; and that meanwhile a committee, con- 
sisting of the Glasgow delegates, be appointed to draw up bye-laws aud regulations. 

Mr CHARLES M. RAMSAY, Secretary of the Skye Association, then called for a 
hearty vote of thanks to the Chairman and the other gentlemen who had come from a 
distance to take pnrt in the proceedings, particularly Councillor Mackenzie and Mr 
Colin Chisholm. It was principally owing to the untiring efforts of the editor of the 
Celtic Magazine, who had hitherto acted as Provisional : Secretary, and who, he was 
glad to find, had, after considerable pressure, consented to continue as one of the secre- 
taries, that the Federation of Celtic Societies had now been so successfully consummated. 
(Loud applause.) 

The CHAIRMAN said, in reply, that he was proud to have had the honour of presid- 
ing at the first meeting of our first Celtic Parliament. Mr Mackenzie also replied, and 
explained that he left home determined not to continue in the secretaryship, but he 
found that none of the Glasgow gentlemen would accept the responsibilities of the 
office, which, he admitted, would not be light. He, however, consented to continue for 
another year on condition that Mr William Sutherland, whose business capacity as 



TliE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 119 

chairman at the preliminary meetings he much admired, would become joint secretary. 
This Mr Sutherland finally consented to do, and he was now doing the duties, and no 
doubt would continue to do them well (cheers) and da them all, while they insisted 
upon Mm (Mr Mackenzie) sharing the honours with him. (Laughter.) He had no 
hesitation, however, in predicting that the work would be done well between them, if 
Mr Sutherland found it necessary to seek for aid from the Highland metropolis. (Loud 
cheers.) The meeting was in every respect a most complete success, far more so than 
the most sanguine of its promoters ever anticipated. (Cheers.) 

The members for Glasgow met since the meeting, and, as instructed, framed rules 
and bye-laws. We can only spare space to give the substance of them. The sum to be 
subscribed by each society was fixed with power to the Council to make a further levy if 
necessary. The financial year of the Federation is to terminate each year on the 15th 
September. The annual meeting will be held early in October. Societies wishing to 
join the Federation must intimate their desire to either of the Secretaries, not later 
than 15th September. In addition to the annual meeting, three stated meetings are to 
be held during the year, and any special meetings may be called on the written requisi- 
tion of any five of the affiliated societies. It is also provided that absent representatives 
may vote by mandate. We regret this, and trust that, after full consideration, this rule 
will not be confirmed by the Council. To vote now-a-days upon any important question, 
without hearing the discussion thereon, is out of all keeping with our ideas of what the 
intelligent age in which we live demands, and quite unworthy of the enlightened and 
influential position which Highlanders desire to see the Federal Council of Celtic 
Societies taking up for itself. 



TULLOCHARD. 

- -- 0- - 

The Mackenzies are out on the heather to-night, 

Clan Donuil ! Clan Donuil, beware ! 
With revenge in their bosoms they rush to the fight, 

Like wolves when aroused from their lair. 
O'er the heath ! o'er the heath, see them swift bounding, 

Claymores are glancing and bright is each shield, 
Pealing far ! pealing far, wildly is sounding, 

The slogan of moutaineer lords of the field ; 
Loud in Glengarry its echo is heard 
Tullochard ! Tullochard ! Tullochard ! 

Awaken Glengarry ! come muster your braves, 

Clan Donuil ! Clan Donuil, be men, 
Sweeping on like a tempest that darkens the waves, 

The Cabarfeidh comes to your glen. 
Up and do ! up and do, linger nor tarry, 

Where is your valour when danger is nigh ? 
Stand as one I stand as one, men of Glengarry, 

And give to their challenge a welcome reply. 
Nearer and nearer the slogan is heard 
Tullochard ! Tullochard ! Tullochard 

, 

The might of Glengarry is broken for ever, 

Clan Donuil ! Clan Donuil, may mourn, 
The blood of the bravest runs red in the river, 

The valiant will never return. 
Fire and sword ! fire and sword, flashing and leaping, 

Proudly Mackenzie leads on in the fight, 
Clan Donuii ! Clan Donuil, thy children are weeping, 

And Cilliechriost's flames are avenged with delight. 
Dire was the day when the slogan was heard 
Tullochard! Tullochard! Tullochard! 



ALLAN. 



120 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



MO NIGHEAN DUBH THA BOIDHEACH DUBH. 

In moderate tin"-. 







:*=2 



Chonm Mo nighdean dubh, tha boidheadh dubh, Mo nighean dubb na treig mi. 



^ 






& P> H 



1r-j~tr 



Oed theireadh each gu'ni bheil thu dubh, Cho geal 'san gruth leam fein thu. 



J:fc 



fat 



S 



Do shuilean mur na dearcagan, Do ghruaidh air dhath na ceire, 

D.C. 



:*=* 



1 



ut 



^ r \f h/ 



_ATT^ 



Tha cnl do chinn air dhreach an fhithich, 'S gradh mo chridhe fein dut. 
Kay F. 

1, | d ., r : m . r I m ., s : d' . 1 | s ., m : m . r I m : 1, . 



1, | d ., r : m . r 



Fine. 



. s : d 1 . 1 | s ., m : m . r | d : d . 



.m | 1 ., d 1 : t .s 



.t :1 .s | 1 ., d 1 : t . s | 1 :1 . 



D.C. 



. t | d 1 ., 1 : s . s | 1 . t : d 1 , 1 i s ., m : m . r | d : d . II 

Suil chorracb, ghorm fo chaol mhala, 

Bho'n tig an sealladh eibhinn, 
Mar dhealt camhannaich 's an Earrach, 
'S mar dhruchd meala Cheiteiu. 

Mo uighean, &c. 
Tha fait dubh, dualach, trom neo-luaidhte, 

'N ceangal sguaib air m' euchdag ; 
Gur boiilheach e mu d' cbluasaibli 
'S cha mheas' an cuaileiu breid c. 

Mo nighean, &c. 
Is olc a rinn do chnirdean orrn, 

Is rinn ind pairt ort fein deth, 
Nuair chuair iad as an duthaich thu 
'S mi 'n duil gu'n deanainn feurn duit. 

No nigbean, &c. 

NOTE. The above are a few verses of the popular song "Mo Nighean Dubh tba 
Boidbeach Dubb." Tbe song has been attributed to several authors generally clergy- 
men and perhaps some of the readers of the Celtic Magazine will establish wb really 
was the author. The air more commonly sung in some parts of the country to 
tha woids, is "A man's a man for a' that," but there ia another old Gaelic air to which 
it ia Bung that which is given here. W. M'K. 



THE 



No. XL. FEBRUARY 1879. VOL. IV. 

HISTORY OF THE CLAN MACKENZIE, 

WITH GENEALOGIES OF THE PRINCIPAL FAMILIES. 

BY THE EDITOR. 



[CONTINUED. | 

XVIII. KENNETH, LORD FORTROSE, which courtesy title he bore as the 
subordinate title of his father, and under this designation we find him 
named as a freeholder of Ross in 1741. In the same year he was re- 
turned Member of Parliament for the Burgh of Inverness ; for the County 
of Ross in 1747, and again in 1754. In 1741, the year after Earl 
William's death, the Crown sold the Seaforth estates, including the lands 
of Kintail and the barony of Islandonain, and others, for the sum of 
25,909 8s 3^(1, under burden of an annuity of 1000 to Frances, Countess 
Dowager of Seaforth. The purchase was for the benefit of Kenneth, Lord 
Fortrose, our present subject.* He does not appear to have passed much 
of his time at home, but in the last-named year he seems to have been 
in the North from the following warrant issued by his authority, signed 
by "Colin Mackenzie, Baillie," and addressed to Roderick Mackenzie, 
officer of Locks, commanding him to summon and warn Donald Mac- 
kenzie, tacksman of Lainbest, and others, to compear before "Kenneth, 
Lord Fortrose, heritable proprietor of the Estate of Seaforth, at Braan 
Castle, or before his Lordship's Baron Baillies, or other judges appointed 
by him there, upon the 10th day of October next, to come to answer 
several unwarrantable and illegal things to be laid to their charge." 
Dated "at Stornoway, 29th September 1741." There appears to be no 
doubt that in early life Lord Fortrose had communications with the re- 
presentative of the Stewart family during his father's (Earl William) 
exile. It is the general tradition to this day in Kintail that Kenneth 






Fraser's History of the Earls of Cromartie. 



122 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

and Sir Alexander Macdonald of Slcat, were school companions of Prince 
Charles in France, and were among those who first imbued into his mind 
the idea of attempting to regain possession of his Kingdom of Scotland, 
promising him that they would use their influence with the other northern 
chiefs to rise in his favour, although, Avhen the time for action came, neither 
of them arose themselves. The position in which Lord Kenneth found 
himself left, in consequence of the Jacobite proclivites of his ancestors, 
and especially of his father, appears to have made a deep impression upon 
him, and to have induced him to be more cautious in again supporting a 
cause which was almost sure to land him in final and utter ruin. Though 
he held aloof himself several of the clan joined the Prince, most of them 
under the unfortunate Earl of Croinartie. Several young and powerful 
Macraes, who strongly sympathised with Prince Charlie, though without 
any of their natural leaders, left Kintail never again to return to it, 
while, it is said, several others were actually bound with ropes by their 
friends to keep them at home. The influence of the famous President 
Forbes weighed very materially with Lord Fortrose in taking the side of 
the Government, and, in return for his loyalty, the honours of his house 
were, in part, afterwards restored. 

In 1744 an incident occurred in Inverness in which his Lordship played 
a conspicuous part, and which cannot well be passed over, exemplifying as 
it does the impetuous character of the Highland Chiefs of the day. A 
Court of the Freeholders of the county was held there at Michaelmas to 
elect a collector of the land tax, at which were present, among others, Lord 
President Forbes, the Laird of Macleod, Lord Fortrose, Lord Lovat, and 
n>any other leading members of the Clan Fraser. A Avarni debate took 
place between Lord Lovat and Lord Fortrose upon some burning business, 
Avhen the Chief of the Frasers gave the Chief of the Mackenzies the lie 
direct,. and the latter replied by striking his Lordship of Lovat a smart 
WOAV in the face. Mutual friends at once intervened between the distin- 
guished antagonists. The Fraser blood Avas up, hoAvevcr, and Fraser of 
Foyers, Avho Avas also present, interfered in the interest of the Chief of 
his Clan, but it is said, more in that capacity than from any personal esteem 
he had for him. In his chief's person he felt that the Avhole Clan Avas in- 
sulted as if it had actually been a personal blow to every one of the 
name. He at once sprung doAvn from the gallery and presented ;i loaded 
and cocked pistol at Lord Fortrose, to Avhoin it Avould undoubtedly have 
proved fatal had not a gentleman present, Avitli great presence of mind, 
throAvn his plaid over the muzzle, and thus arrested its deadly contents. 
In another instant SAvords and dirks Avere draAvn on either side ; but the 
Lord President and Macleod took hold of Fortrose and hurried him out 
of the Court. Yet he no sooner gained the outside than one of the 
Frasers levelled him to the ground Avith a bloAv from a heavy bludgeon, 
notAvithstanding the efforts of his supporters to protect him. The matter 
was afterwards, Avith great difficulty, arranged by mutual friends, be- 
tween the great clan and their respective chiefs, othenvise the social jeal- 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 123 



ousies and other personal irritations winch then prevailed throughout the 
whole Highlands, fanned by this incident, would be sure to have produced 
a bloody feud between the Erasers and the Mackenzies. 

Shortly after the President had arrived at Culloden he wrote a letter to 
Lord Eortrose, under date of llth October 1745, in which he informed his 
correspondent that the Earl of London came the day before to Cromarty, 
and brought some "credit" with him, which "will enable us to put the 
independent companies together for the service of the Government and 
for our mutual protection." He desired his Lordship to give immediate 
orders to pick those which are first to form one of the companies, in order 
that they might receive commissions and arms. Mackenzie of Fairbum 
was to command. There was, he said, a report that Earrisdale had gone 
to Assynt to raise the men of that country, to be joined to those of Coig- 
each, who were said to have orders to be in readiness to join him, and 
with instructions to march through Mackenzie's territories to try how 
many of his Lordship's vassals could be persuaded, by fair means or foul, 
to.join the standard of the Prince. The President continued, " I hope 
this is not true; if it is, it is of the greatest consequence to prevent it. I 
wish Fairburn were at home ; your Lordship will let me know when he 
arrives, as the Lord Cromartie has refused the company I intended for 
his son. Your Lordship will deliberate to whom you would have it 
given."* 

Exasperated by the exertions made by President Forbes to obstruct the 
designs of the disaffected a plan was formed to seize him by some of the 
Frasers, a party of whom, amounting to about 200, attacked Culloden 
House during the night of the 15th of October, but the President being 
on his guard they were repulsed. t 

On the 1 3th of October Lord Fortrose writes that he surmised some 
young fellows of his name attempted to raise men for the Prince ; that he 
sent expresses to the suspected parts, with orders to the tenants not to 
stir under pain of death without his leave, though their respective masters 
should be imprudent enough to desire them to do so. The messengers 
returned with the people's blessings for his protection, and with assurances 
that they would do nothing without his orders, " so that henceforward 
your Lordship need not be concerned about any idle report from benorth 
Kessock." 

Lord Fortrose in a letter dated " Brahan Castle, 19th October 1745," 
refers to the attempt on the President's house, which surprised him ex- 
tremely, and " is as dirty an action as I ever heard of," and he did not 
think any gentleman would be capable of doing such a thing. "As I 
understand your cattle are taken away, I beg yon will order your steward 
to write to Colin, or anybody else here, for provisions, as I can be supplied 
from the Highlands. I am preparing to act upon the defensive, and I 
suppose will soon be provoked to act on the offensive. I have sent for a 
strong party to protect my house and overawe the country. None of my 
Kintail men will be down till Tuesday ; but as the river is high, and I 
have parties at all the boats, nothing can be attempted. Besides, I shall 

* Culloden papers, pp. 421-2. 
t Culloden papers, p. 246. 



124 THE CELTIC MAGAZINK. 

have reinforcements every day. I have ordered my servants to get, at 
Inverness, twelve or twenty pounds of powder, with a proportionable 
quantity of shot. If that cannot be bought at Inverness, I must beg you 
will write a line to Governor Grant to give my servant the powder, as I 

can do without the shot Barrisdale has come down from 

Assynt, and was collared by one of the Maclauchlans there for oifering to 
force the people to rise, and he has met with no success there. I had a 
message from the Mackenzies in Argyllshire to know what they should 
do. Thirty are gone from Lochiel ; the rest, being about sixty, are at 
home. I advised them to stay at home and mind their own busine.s^" 

On the 28th of the same month he writes to inform the President 
that Cromartie, his son, Macculloch of Glastullich, and Ardloch's brother, 
came to Brahan Castle on the previous Friday ; that it was the most un- 
expected visit he had received for sometime, that he did not like to turn 
them out, that Cromartie was pensive and dull ; but that if lie knew 
what he knew at the date of writing he would have made them prisoners, 
for Lord Macleod had since gone to Lochbroom and Assynt to raise men. 
He enclosed to the President the names of the officers belonging to the 
two Mackenzie companies, and said that he offered the commission to 
Coul and Redcastle ; but that both refused them. It was from Coul's 
house that Lord Macleod started for the north, and that vexed him. On 
the same date the President acknowledges receipt of this letter, and says 
that the officers in the two companies should be filled up according to his 
recommendations, "without any further consideration than that you judge 
it right," and he desires to see Sir Alexander of Fairburn for an hour 
next day to carry a proposal to his Lordship for future operations. " I 
think," he writes, " it would be right to assemble still more men about 
Brahan. than you now have ; the expense shah 1 be made good ; and it will 
tend to make Caberfey respectable, and to discourage folly among your 
neighbours." In a letter of 6th November the Lord President writes, " I 
supposed that your Lordship was to have marched Hilton's company into 
town (Inverness) on Monday or Tuesday ; but I dare say there is a good 
reason why it has not been done." 

On the 8th November his Lordship informs the President that the 
Earl of Cromartie crossed the river at Contin, with about a hundred men, 
on his way to Beauly, " owing to the neglect of my spies, as there's 
rogues of all professions." Lord Macleod, Cromartie's son, came from 
Assyut and Lochbroom the same day, and followed his father to the ren- 
dezvous, but after traversing the whole of that country he did not get a 
single man. "Not a man started from Ross-shire, except AVilliam, Kil- 
coy's brother, with seven men, and a tenant of Redc.istle with a few 
more, and if Lentran and Terradon did go off last night, they did not 
carry between them a score of men. I took a ride yesterday to the west- 
ward with two hundred men, but find the bounds so rugged that it's im- 
possible to keep a single man from going by if he has a mind. However, 
I threatened to burn their cornyards if any body was from home this 
day, and I turned one house into the river for not finding its master at 
home. It's hard the Government gives nobody in the north power to 
keep people in order. I don't choose to send a company to Inverness 
until I hear what they are determined to do at Lord Lovat's." The Earl 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 125 

of London writes to Marshal Wade, Commander-in-Chief in the North, 
under date of 16th November, that 150 or 160 Mackenzies, seduced by 
the Earl of Cromartie, marched in the beginning of that week up the 
north side of Loch-Ness, expecting to be followed by 500 or 600 Erasers, 
under command of the Master of Lovat, but the Mackenzies had not on 
that date passed the mountains. On the 16th of December Lord Fort- 
rose writes asking for 400 expended during two months 011 his men 
going to and coming from the Highlands, for which he would not trouble 
him only that he had a very " melancholy appearance " of getting his 
Martinmas rent, as the people would be glad of any excuse for non-pay- 
ment, and the last severe winter, and their having to leave home, would 
afford them a very good one. He was told, in reply, that his letter was 
submitted to Lord Loudon, that both agreed that his Lordship's expenses 
must have been greater than what he claimed, " but as cash is very low 
with us at present, all we can possibly do is to let your Lordship have 
the pay of the two companies from the date of the letter signifying that 
they were ordered to remain at Brahan for the service of the Government. 
The further expense, which we are both satisfied it must have cost your 
Lordship, shall be made good as soon as any money, to be applied to con- 
tingencies which we expect, shall come to hand, and if it should not come 
so soon as we wish, the account shall be made up and solicited, in the 
same manner with what we lay out of our own purses, which is no incon- 
siderable sums." 

This correspondence, which it was thought right to quote at such 
length, will show the confidence which existed between the Government 
and Lord Fortrose. Ou the 9th of December the two companies were 
marched into Inverness. Next day, accompanied by a detachment from 
Fort -Augustus, they proceeded to Castle Downie to bring Lord Lovat to 
account. The crafty old chief agreed to come to Inverness and deliver 
up his arms on the 14th of the month, but instead of keeping his pro- 
mise he effected his escape. 

After the battle of Prestonpans, on the recommendation of the Earl 
of Stair, the Government forwarded 20 blank commissions to President 
Forbes, with the view of raising as many companies, of 100 men each 
among the Highlanders. Eighteen of these documents were sent to the 
Earls of Sutherland and Cromartie, Lords Fortrose and Reay, the Lairds 
of Grant and Macleod, and Sir Alexander Macdonald of Sleat, with in- 
structions to raise companies in their respective districts. The Earl 
of Cromarty, while pretending to comply with the President's instructions, 
offered the command of one of the companies to a neighbouring gentle- 
man, whom he well knew to be a strong Jacobite, and at the same time 
made some plausible excuse for his son's refusal of one of the com- 
missions. 

When Lord John Drummond landed with a body of Irish and Scotch 
troops, which were in the service of the French, to support Prince Charles, 
he wrote Lord Fortrose announcing his arrival, and earnestly requesting 
his Lordship at once to declare for the Stewart cause, as the only means 
by which he could "now expect to retrieve his character." All the 
means at Drummond's disposal proved futile, and the Clan Mackenzie 
was kept out of the unfortunate affair of the Forty-five. The commissions 



126 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



were finally entrusted to those on whom the President and his advisers 
thought prudent to depend as supporters of the King's Government.* 

Prince Charles fully appreciated the importance of having the Clan 
Mackenzie, led by their natural chief, for or against him ; in proof of 
which we quote the following from Lord Macleod's " Narrative of the 
Rebellion. "t "~\Ve sot oat from Dunblain on the 12th of January, and 
arrived the same evening at Glasgow. I immediately went to pay my 
respects to the Prince, and found that he was already set down to supper. 
Dr Cameron told Lord George Murray, who sat by the Prince, who I was, 
on which the Lord Murray introduced me to the Prince, whose hand I 
had the honour to kiss, after which the Prince ordered me to take my 
place at the table. After supper I followed the Prince to his apartment 
to give him an account of his a Hairs in the North, and of what had passed 
in these parts during the time "of his expedition to England. I found 
that nothing surprised the Prince so much as to hear that the Earl of 
Seaforth had declared against him, for he heard without emotion the 
names of the other people who had joined the Earl of London at Inver- 
ness; but when I told him that Seaforth had likewise sent two hundred 
men to Inverness for the service of the Government, and that he had 
likewise hindered many gentlemen of his Clan from joining my father 
(Earl of Cromartie) for the service of the Stewarts, he turned to the 
French Minister and said to him, with some warmth, He ! nwn Dieu ! et 
Seaforth est aussi contre moi /" 

In this connection it may not be out of place to mention two indivi- 
duals of the name of Mackenzie who had done good service to the Prince 
in his wanderings through the Highlands after the battle of Culloden. 

* We give the following list of the officers of eighteen of the Independent Companies, 
being all that was raised, with the dates of their commissions on the completion of their 
companies, and of their arrival in Inverness : 



CLAN-. 


CAPTAINS. 


LIEUTENANTS. 


ENSIGNS. 


DATES. 


Monros 


George Monro 


Adam Gordon 


Hush Monro 
Ken. Sutherland.. 
James Grant 
James Mackay .... 

John Mackay. 
John Macea-skill. . . 
John Macleod 

John Macleod 

I">nii!ild Ma< 
William 13aillie... . 
Roderick Macleod. 

Simon Murcliison.. 
John Macrae 
James Macdonald. 

Donald Macdonald 
Ancrus Mackay .... 


1745. Oct. 23 
,, 25 
Nov. 3 
,. ., * 

15 

,. 15 

15 

15 
18 

,, ,, 28 

Dec. 20 
i. ,, 20 
,, ,, 31 

1T46. Jan. 6 
>> .. 
,. 8 
Feb. 2 


Sutherlands . . 
(Grants 


Alexander Gun. 


John Gordon 


Patrick Grant 


William Grant 
John Mackay 
William Mackay .... 
Alex. Maclend 
Donald Macleod 

John Campbell 

William Macleod.... 
Kenneth Mathison .. 
( Icorge Monro 


Mackays 
Sutherlands . . 
Macleods 
Do 


George Mackay 
Peter Sutherland 
J ohn Macleod 
Norman Macleod of 
Waters tein 
Norman Macleod of 
Bernera 
Donald Macdonald 
William Mackintosh... 
Huuh Macleod 


Do 


Do 
Inverness 
Macleods of 
Assynt 
Maekenzies of 
Kintail 
Do 


Alex. Mackenzie 

Colin Mackenzie of 
Hilton 
James Macdonald 

John Maedonald 
Hugh Mackay 
William Ross 


John Mathison 
Alex. Campbell 
Allan Macdonald 

Allan Macdonald. . . . 
.1 1 ihn Mackay 


Macdonalds 
of Skye 
Do 
Mackays 

i/.'es of 
Lewis 


Colin Mackenzie 


Donald Macaulay 


Ken. Mackenzie. . . 



-Culloden Papers. 

t Prkited in full ia Fraser's " History of the Earls of Cromartie." 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 127 

He was saved from certain capture in the Lewis by the kindness of Mrs 
Mackenzie of Kildin, in her house at Arynish, half-a-mile from Stornoway. 
where his Royal Highness obtained a bed for the night of the 5th of May. 
A tribute must also be paid to the gallant Roderick Mackenzie, whose 
intrepidity and presence of mind in the last agonies of death, saved his 
Prince from pursuit at the time, and who was consequently the means of his 
ultimate escape to France in safety. He had hitherto been pursued with 
the most parse vering assiduity, but Roderick's trick proved so successful 
that further search was at the time considered unnecessary. Roderick 
Mackenzie, a young man of very respectable family, joined the Prince at 
Edinburgh, and served as one of his life-guards. Being about the same 
age as his Royal Highness, tall, and somewhat slender like the Prince, 
and with features in some degree resembling his, he might, by ordinary 
observers not accustomed to see the t\ro together, have passed for the 
Prince. As Roderick could not venture with safety to return to Edin- 
burgh, where lived his two maiden sisters, after the battle of Culloden, 
he fled to the Highlands, and lurked among the hills of Glenmoriston, 
where, abcm't the middle of July, he was surprised by a party of Govern- 
ment soldiers. Mackenzie endeavoured to escape, but, being overtaken, 
he turned round on his pursuers, and, drawing his sword, bravely de- 
fended himself. He was ultimately shot by one of the red-coats, and as 
he fell, mortally wounded, he exclaimed, "You have killed your Prince! 
You have killed your Prince ! " after which he immediately expired. The 
soldiers, overjoyed at their supposed good -fortune, cut oft' Roderick's 
head, and hurried off to Fort-Augustus with their prize. The Duke of 
Cumberland, fully convinced that he had now obtained the head of his 
Royal relative, packed it up carefully, ordered a post-chaise, and at once 
went off to London, carrying the head along with him. After his arrival 
there the deception was discovered, but meanwhile it proved of essential 
benefit to Prince Charles in his ultimately successful efforts to escape.* 

Soon after the battle of Culloden a fleet appeared off the coast of 
Lochbroom, under the command of Captain Fergusson. It dropped 
anchor in Loch-Ceannard, when a large party went ashore and proceeded 
up the Strath to the residence of Mr Mackenzie of Lajgwell, closely con- 
nected by marriage with the Earl of Cromartie. LajStvell having sided 
with the Stewart Prince, fled out of the way of the hated Fergusson ; but 
his lady was obliged to remain to attend her children, Avho were at the 
time confined with smallpox. The house was ransacked. A large chest 
containing the family and other valuable papers, including a wadset of 
Langwell and Inchvennie from her relative, George, Earl of Cromartie, 
was burnt before her eyes ; and about fifty head of fine Highland cattle 
were mangled by their swords and driven to the ships of the spoilers. 
Nov did this satisfy them. They continued to commit similar depreda- 
tions without discriminating between friend or foe during the eight days 
which they remained in the neighbourhood. t 

It is very generally supposed that Lord Fortrose had strong Jacobite 
feelings, though his own prudence and the influence of President Forbes 

* Highland Clans. Chambers's Rebellion. Stewart's Sketches, 
t New Statistical Account of Lochbiooni, by the late Dr Ross, minister of the Parish. 



128 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

secured his support to the Government. This is the opinion at any rate 
of the writer of a modern MS. History of the Clan, already quoted by us, 
and who concludes his sketch of his Lordship thus : Though many re- 
spectable individuals of the Clan Mackenzie had warmly espoused the 
cause of Charles, Lord Fort-rose seems at no time to have proclaimed 
openly for him, whatever hopes he might have countenanced, when in 
personal communication with the expatriated sovereign, as indeed there 
is" cause to infer something of the kind from a letter which, towards the 
end of November 1745, was addressed by Lord John Drummond to Ken- 
neth, pressing him instantly to join the Prince, then successfully pene- 
trating the West of England, and qualifying the invitation by observing 
that it was the only mode for his Lordship to retrieve his character. Yet 
so little did Fortrose or his immediate followers affect the cause, that 
when Lord Lovat blockaded Fort- Augustus, two companies of Mackeii/.ies, 
which had been stationed at Brahan, were withdrawn, and posted by 
Lord London, the Commander-in-chief of the Government forces, at Castle 
Downie, the stronghold of Fraser, and, with the exception of these, the 
Koyal party received no other support from the family of Seaforth, 
though many gentlemen of the Clan served in the King's army. Yet it 
appears that a still greater number, with others whose ancestors identified 
themselves with the fortunes of the House of Kintail, were inclined to 
espouse the more venturous steps of the last of the Stewarts. George, 
the last Earl of Cromarty, being then paramount in power, and, probably 
so, in influence, even to the Chief himself, having been, for certain 
reasons, liable to suspicions as to their disinterested nature, declared for 
Charles, and under his standaid his own levy, with all the Jacobite ad- 
herents of the Clan ranged themselves, and were mainly instrumental in 
neutralizing Lord London's and the Laird of Macleod's forces in the sub- 
sequent operations of 1746, driving them, with the Lord President 
Forbes, to take shelter in the Isle of Skye.* 

Kenneth, Lord Fortrose, married on the llth of September 1741, 
Lady Mary Stewart, eldest daughter of Alexander, sixth Earl of Galloway, 
and by her had issue, one son and six daughters. She died in London on 
the 18th of April 1751, and was buried at Kensington, where a monu- 
ment was raised 'if> her memory. The daughters married respectively ; 
Margaret, on the 4th June 1785, a Mr William Webb; Mary, Henry 
Howard of Eflingham ; Agnes, J. Douglas; Catherine, 1st March 1773, 
Thomas Griffin Tarplcy ; Frances, General Joseph Wald ; and Euphe- 
mia, 2d of April 1771, William Stewart of Castle Stewart, M.P. for the 
County of Wigton. His Lordship died in London, on the 1 9th of October 
17G1 ; was buried in Westminster Abbey, and was succeeded by his only 
son. (To be Continued.) 



THE HISTORY OP THE CLAN MACKENZIE, Ave may say, in answer to 
various enquiries, is in the press in a separate form. A good part of it is 
already printed, and it is expected to be in the hands of subscribers in 
April or May next. About twenty extra copies are being printed to avoid 
disappointment to parties ordering while the work is in the press. 



* Bennetsfceld MS. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 129 



A LEGEND OF ARGYLL. 



ON a dark tempestuous night, about the middle of last century, an anxious 
group of people gathered on the seashore of a small village on the 
west coast of Argyllshire. In spite of the howling wind, and pelting 
rain, they stood, straining their eyes seaward, to watch through the gloom 
the struggles of a gallant ship, which, with her devoted crew seemed 
doomed to destruction. The vessel was evidently disabled, and totally 
unmanageable, and the villagers listened with deep emotion and ejacula- 
tions of horror and distress to the deep booming of the minute gun, and 
the hoarse cries of the sailors imploring the assistance of those on shore, 
who were powerless to assist them. Nearer, and nearer, the ill-fated ship 
was driven to the deadly rocks, until at length the end came ; with a fear- 
ful crash she struck, one moment she was lifted high by the cruel waves, 
the next saw her dashed to pieces like a toy in the hands of a giant, and 
her crew battling for life in the raging sea. Now the brave landsmen do 
their utmost to help. With encouraging shouts they rush through the 
boiling surf, and throw ropes to the drowning men, but alas ! few indeed 
can they save. The women are not idle ; they have blankets to throw 
around the senseless forms, and restoratives to hold to the pallid lips of 
the half-drowned men. Among the most active was a widow, who, with 
her tAvo daughters, was busily engaged in assisting a fine stalwart young 
sailor, who had just been rescued from the waves whether dead or 
alive, could hardly be at first seen. The widow's cottage being near, they 
conveyed him there, and by their united and sustained efforts, had at 
length the pleasure of seeing him revive, and able to thank them for their 
kindness. 

When recovered sufficiently to give an account of his ship and her 
disastrous voyage, it came out that he belonged to the next village, al- 
though he had been absent at sea for several years. They knew his mo- 
ther well, and great was the joy of all, when, on the morrow, they accom- 
panied him to her house, and related the story of the wreck and his de- 
liverance. 

Donald Ban (for such was his name) finding his father was dead, and 
his mother getting frail and requiring help on her small croft, decided to 
give up a seafaring life and to settle at home. Naturally enough he often 
paid a visit to the widow's cottage, where he had met with such kindness, 
but it would be difficult to prove that his visits would have been quite so 
frequent or prolonged, had it not been for the attraction of the widow's 
daughters, Mary and Barbara. Mary, the eldest, was a quiet, kind-hearted, 
sensible girl, with a homely face, only rendered attractive by good-nature 
and robust health. Her one point of beauty lay, in her magnificent fair 
hah', which, when released from its fastenings, fell in luxuriant masses 
down to her feet. Her sister, five years her junior, was a great contrast, 
both in appearance and disposition. Very beautiful in person, lively in 
manner, she captivated all who came within her power. All the young 
men for miles round were her devoted admirers, but Barbara was a co- 
quette, and no one knew whom she favoured most. An acute observer 



130 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

might notice that her eyes, bright anil heautiful as they were, yet hail a 
cohl hard look, and that her cherry lips, at times, would grow thin and 
white, and wreath into a cruel smile, anything but pleasant to see. 

Donald Ban, like the rest, was dazzled by her beauty and attrac- 
tive manner ; at the same time, the best part of his nature made him feel 
that Mary was superior in every true womanly quality, to her more fasci- 
nating sister. Still he wavered, fluttering like a moth round the light that 
would destroy him at last. His mother, who was now growing very infirm, 
wished him to marry ; and having known Mary from childhood, was most 
anxious that Donald should choose her for his wife. Donald returning 
home one evening, after a more than usually prolonged visit to the widow's 
cottage, was alarmed to find his mother l} r ing back in her chair, in a 
swoon. Blaming himself severely for his neglect in leaving her so long 
alone, he did his utmost to restore her to consciousness. After a little 
while, she somewhat revived, but was evidently very much shaken and 
ill. Feeling near her end, she spoke very seriously to Donald about 
his choice of a wife, and assured him that while lying apparently uncon- 
scious, she had a vision, and saw, through the medium of the second-sight, 
a forecast of the future of the two sisters. "I saw," she continued, "Mary 
a happy wife and mother, a blessing and a comfort to her husband ; but 
Barbara's future Avas dark and sinful. Her lover will be driven by her 
into the commission of a terrible crime, and both will perish in a sudden 
and terrible manner. The form of Mary's husband, as also that of Barbara's 
lover, was hidden from me. But remember this warning. Shun Barbara 
as you would a beautiful but deadly serpent. Promise me that as soon as 
I am dead, and the days of your mourning are past, you will marry Mary, 
and be a true and faithful husband to her." Donald, much affected by 
his mother's earnest appeal, promised faithfully to carry out her last 
wishes. 

The old woman shortly after died, and in course of time Donald pre- 
pared to fulfil his promise. He proposed to Mary, and was accepted, her 
mother being well pleased to have Donald for a son-in-law. Whatever 
Barbara's feelings were on the subject, she kept them to herself, merely 
excusing herself, for the extraordinary proceeding of a sister in those dis- 
tricts, from being present at the wedding, as she was going to pay a long 
visit to a relative in a neighbouring town. 

Donald and Mary were in due time married, and lived quietly and 
happily for nearly three years. They had two children, a boy and a girl. 
Mary's mother dying about this time, and Barbara being still unmarried, 
she came to live with them. She was if possible more beautiful than ever 
still in the first bloom of her womanhood ; and soon Donald found him- 
self as much under her influence as ever. Manfully he struggled for a 
time to subdue his fatal passion, but in a short time he was as help- 
- a fly iii a spider's web. His infatuation was complete, and it made 
him oblivious to the sacred claims of a husband and a lather. It is doubt- 
ful whether Barbara really felt any affection for him, but she took a de- 
in exercising her power of bewitching him, though withal she used 
such tact that her truc-heartod sister, or the unfaithful Donald, never 
suspected her. 

It was a lovely summer day. Donald was working on his croft, in 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 131 

sight of his cottage, the door of which stood open, exposing a scene of 
homely comfort. The room Avas scrupulously clean. Mary, with a happy 
contented look lighting up and beautifying her homely face, was busily 
employed making oatcake, the appetising smell of Avhich seemed to tickle 
the olfactory nerves of a fine collie, basking in the sun outside the door, 
who, lifting his head occasionally, would give a satisfied sniff, but was too 
well bred to shew any impatience. The eldest child, a sturdy boy of two 
years, was 011 the floor, playing with a kitten, as frolicsome as himself 
the baby girl was sleeping in her cradle. Barbara was sitting quietly, 
knitting. The humming of the bees, as they flitted from flower to flower, 
the twitting of the birds, and the soothing sound of the sea waves, break- 
ing gently against the neighbouring rocks, completed this picture of peace- 
ful happiness, from which discord and trouble seemed far removed. After 
finishing her culinary operations, Mary proposed to go to the rocks to 
gather dulse, of which Donald was very fond ; the boy clamoured to 
go along with her, but his mother quieted him by promising to take him, 
out on her return. 

Anxious to obtain the best dulse, Mary scrambled on to a rock jutting 
out in the sea, always covered at high water. Having filled her basket, 
she sat down to rest, and the day being hot, soon fell asleep. 

The duties and simple pleasure of domestic life had no attraction for 
Barbara. She soon tired of being alone, and giving the sagacious dog 
charge of the children, went to look for her sister. She soon discovered her, 
still peacefully sleeping on the fatal rock. The tide was just turning, but 
instead of awakening her sister, Barbara stood and stared, and as she looked, 
an evil flash came in her eye, a cruel smile was on her lips, and from 
a beautiful woman, she seemed suddenly as if transformed into a she- 
demon. At length she turned, and going to Donald, prevailed upon him 
to accompany her to the beach, saying she wished to show him something 
remarkable. Arriving at the rock, she pointed out the still slumbering 
Mar}*, and, without a word, fixed her flashing eyes on Donald. Spell- 
bound, he gazed at her, until the same dreadful idea also possessed him. 
The water was now within a yard of the peaceful and sleeping woman ; 
in a few minutes she would be totally surrounded by the tide, and if not 
awakened instantly, her life would be lost ; yet still they stood silent and 
inactive. At last Barbara muttered, or rather hissed through her close- 
set teeth, " We must not let this chance escape, we must make sure work 
of it. Come, Donald, help me to plait her hair with the sea weeds." So 
saying, she drew the infatuated man in the direction of his devoted wife. 
"With eager fingers, they quickly unwound poor Mary's long tresses, and 
plaited and knotted them with the weeds growing on the rock. Then 
retiring to a point of safety, they waited the inevitable result. The 
tide had now completely surrounded their victim, who, as it touched her, 
awoke with a start. Donald's heart now failed him. Although he 
wished her dead, he could not bear to see her murdered. With a 
groan, he turned and fled, stopping his ears for fear of hearing the death 
agonies of his wife. Barbara looked at him, with a scornful smile on her 
lips, and muttering a curse on his cowardice. She did not intend to lose 
sight of her victim. When Mary awoke she strove to rise and escape, 
but to her horror, found herself bound to the rock. Startled and confused 



132 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

by her sudden awakening, she imagined for a moment that she was dream- 
ing, or under the influence of a dreadful nightmare ; but the cold waves 
now breaking over her, soon convinced her of her true position. AVith 
frantic hands, she tore at her hair, crying loudly for help ; then catching 
sight of her sister, a gleam of hope came, but to her indescribable horror 
and despair, her cries for assistance were met only with a low mocking 
laugh. Then was the fearful conviction forced upon her that she was be- 
ing murdered, and that at the hands of her own sister. AVith heart-rending 
cries, she called. on her husband to succour her, but the only answer came 
from Barbara, telling her how he also had even helped to bind her to the 
rock. Surprise and horror closed poor Mary's lips for a moment ; she 
then thought of her children her handsome boy, her firstborn and her 
sweet babe, who was even then requiring its natural food. The thought 
was distraction. Again she tried to move the stony heart of her unnatural 
sister, by pitiable appeals for dear life, imploring her by every tie, 
human and divine, to save her ; by the memory of their dead mother, by 
their sisterhood, for the sake of the children, for the sake of her own soul, 
not to commit this foul deed. But as well might she attempt to stay the 
tide now washing over her, as move the heartless she-fiend who sat gloat- 
ing over the sight of her victim's sufferings, like a tiger over the struggles 
of his prey. Inch by inch the water rises, now it reaches her neck, the 
next wave drowns her voice, there is a gasp and a gurgle. Another wave 
the fair head is covered, and poor Mary is in eternal rest. 

By Mary's death, an obstacle was removed from the path of the guilty 
pair, but yet they were not happy. Nothing prospered with Donald 
his harvest was bad, his potatoes diseased, his sheep died, his cows sick- 
ened ; however hard he might work, everything went wrong he got no 
sympathy nor help from his neighbours, who all shunned him since his 
wife's death ; he grew gloomy and morose ; tortured with remorse, he 
dragged out a miserable existence. Barbara Avas also changed she was 
never fitted for home duties, and having now no object in trying to cap- 
tivate Donald, she grew careless and neglectful, and the guilty pair passed 
most of their time in mutual accusations and recriminations. 

The first anniversary of Mary's death arrived. It was a heavy oppres- 
sive day, and Donald felt more than usually depressed and miserable; his 
crime weighed heavily upon his conscience, and his mother's prophetic 
warning continually rang in his ears. His day's work over, he entered 
his cottage for the night, but how changed it had become no com- 
fort, no happiness. Instead of a true-hearted loving wife to welcome him, 
there was this woman, beautiful indeed, but she seemed possessed with a 
mocking devil. Totally heartless herself, she laughed him to scorn when- 
ever he ventured to express regret lor the past, or hint at amendment in 
the future. As night drew near, the air became still more oppressive, 
the clouds, heavy with electricity, hung low down ; the distant mutter- 
ings of thunder were heard, and the forked lightning flashed over the 
dark and troubled sea. 

Donald and Barbara retired to rest, but he at least could not sleep 
he felt a presentiment of coming evil. As the storm drew nearer and 
inn-eased in intensity, he literally quaked with fear. Just at midnight, a 
terrific thunder clap burst over the house, and as the lurid flash lighted 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



up the room, he saw Avilh unspeakable horror, the figure of his murdered 
wife standing by the bedside. With a severe yet sorrowful look and voice, 
she seemed to say, " Your hour is come, retribution has overtaken you at 
last, and your partner in guilt. I go to protect my beloved offspring." 
The iigure then slowly glided into the next room, in which slept the in- 
nocent children. Again the thunder pealed long and loud again the 
lightning Hashed a blinding sheet of flame appeared to envelope the cot- 
tage for a moment ; the storm ceased almost suddenly, dying away in dis- 
tant rumblings of thunder echoed from the surrounding rocks. 

Next morning was calm and clear. The people of the neighbourhood 
were astir by break of day to see what mischief the unusually severe storm 
had done. Arrived at Donald's cottage, they stood struck with 
astonishment which, on further investigation, was turned into a feeling of 
terror. One end of the cottage had been struck by lightning, and 
was a total ruin. Under the scorched rafters lay two blackened and repul- 
sive bodies, which on investigation, they recognised as the "disfigured .re- 
mains of Donald and his guilty paramour. The other half of the cottage 
was unscathed, and entering it, they found the two lovely children, locked 
in each other's arms, breathing the breath of innocence, calmly sleeping, 
with the angelic smile and beautiful expression, always observed on the 
face of slumbering infancy. Thus was Mary avenged. 

M. A. EOSE. 



WAR SPEECH OF A HIGHLAND CHIEF. 



The foe is advancing : make ready, brave men ! 
Arise every sou of the mountain and glen ! 
Rush on to the combat, and let the knaves ken 
We're stems of the soul-rousing Thistle ! 

Rush on like ths foam crested billows that roar, 
When lashing with fury our wild rocky shore ! 
The dear ones defending ye love and adore 
Heap fame on the soul-rousing Thistle ! 

Rush on like the light'uing and thunder of Heaven, 
When mountains majestic asunder are riven ! 
And give them the welcome your fathers have given 
A' foes of the soul-rousing Thistle ! 

To tyrants bend never : our banner's unfurl'd, 
A streamer of glory it waves o er the world ; 
Though army on army against us be hurl'd, 

Stand fast for the soul-rousing Thistle ! 

Now clansmen, for freedom, your claymores unsheath, 
Wave, wave them on high o'er tire dark purple heath, 
Add laurels unrivall'd to honour's bright wreath, 
Staunch sons of the soul-rousing Thistle ! 

Then on, my blue bonnets, to death's gory stage ; 
And carve this proud motto on liberty's page 
" We'll hand down, unblemished, to each tolling age, 
The glorious soul-rousing Thistle ! " 

EDINBURGH. ALEXANDER LOGAN. 



134 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

THE GAELIC NAMES OF TREES, SHRUBS, PLANTS, &c. 

BY CHARLES FERGUSSON. 



[CONTINUED.] 

WKKPING BIRCH. Latin, Betula Pendula ; Gaelic, Beitke Dtibkach. The 
weeping birch is the most graceful and beautiful of all our native High- 
land trees, and where it grows to perfection, as it does in Strathglass, 
Lochness-sicle, and in many other parts of the Highlands, there is nothing 
that can add more to the beauty of the landscape than its tall silvery stem, 
with its graceful drooping branches which, though 'twenty or thirty feet 
long, are no thicker than a common pack thread. Well might Coleridge 
call the weeping birch " The Lady of the Woods." 

DWARF BIRCH. Latin, Betula Nana ; Gaelic, Bcithe Bearj. The 
dwarf birch, the hardiest of all tree? or shrubs, grows abundantly on some 
of the higher ranges in the Highlands, though unknown south of the 
Highland border, or even in our own low straths. It grows in Corry- 
challin, in Glenlyon, in Strathardle, on Ben Lawers, Ben-y-gloe, and on 
several of the other Perthshire Grampians, also in the wilds of Strathglass, 
and on the moors near Loch Glass, in Ross-shire. It is of an erect habit, 
but seldom reaches a height of over three feet. The bark is of a shining 
red or dark purple colour, and the fertile catkins which grow at the 
extremity of the branches are a favourite food of grouse and ptarmigan. 
As the leaves and twigs of this variety yield a much brighter yellow dye 
than any of the other varieties of birch, it used to be much sought after 
by the Highland housewives, and through their cutting it all when found 
growing near their houses, it is now unknown in many places where it was 
once common. Another, and perhaps a stronger reason for its disappear- 
ance is that it never grows high enough to be beyond the reach of sheep, 
which are now all over the country, and as they are very fond of the 
young twigs and leaves, they constantly nip off the young wood, and so 
never allow it to seed, and very soon kill the parent shrub itself. In the 
Arctic regions the dwarf birch is found growing on the borders of the 
eternal snow, where it is the only vai'iety of tree known, and its catkins 
and seeds afford the only food for the large flocks of ptarmigan and other 
birds found in those high northern latitudes. 

BIRDS' CHERRY. Latin, Cerasus padus ; Gaelic, Fi<><Um<j. This tree 
is a native of the Highlands, where it grows on the banks of streams, and 
produces large crops of its black berries. These berries are very sour, but 
birds are very fond of them, Avhich, of course, gave rise to its name. 
Lightfoot informs us that the berries were used by way of infusion in 
brandy in the Highlands when he was there. 

BLACK THORN. Latin, Pnum* .-^///n^ ; Gaelic, Syilhcacli duWi ; 
Precis nan ainieafj. This is a well-known native shrub, and grows very 
common all over the country. The bark was much used by our ancestors 
for dyeing a bright red colour. Lightfoot mentions that the fruit will 
make a very fragrant and grateful wine, a fact which the great botanist 
never forgets to mention of any fruit or plant out of which it is possible 
to extract anything drinkable ! 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 135 

Box. Latin, Buxus sempervircns ; Gaelic, Bucsa. The box is a native 
England, but seems to have been introduced very early into the High- 
lands, where it thrives very Avell in the low glens. The wood, which is 
very hard and close-grained, was used by the old Highlanders for carving 
ornamental dirk and scjian dulih handles, cuaclis, &c. Erom the great 
resemblance of the box to the red whortleberry, or Liis nam Braoilcag, 
the real badge of the Clan Chattan, the box was often used by that Clan 
instead of the whortleberry, as it was generally easier procured, which 
gave rise to the mistaken idea that the box is the badge of the Clan 
Chattan. 

BRIER EOSB. Latin, Rosa canina ; Gaelic, Dris; An fliearrdhris ; 
Precis nam mucag. 'This prickly shrub grows all over the Highlands, 
where its fruit mucagan is often eaten by children, and also sometimes 
used for preserves. The strong prickles with which it is armed gave rise 
to the old Gaelic proverb, " Cho crosda ris an dris." The Highlanders 
used the bark of the brier, with copperas, for dyeing a beautiful black 
black colour. 

BROOM. Latin, Sparlium Scopariimi ; Gaelic, Bealaidli. The 
" bonny, bonny broom " needs no description, as it is known to every- 
body, and its bright green branches and golden blossoms add to the beauty 
of most Highland landscapes. The old Highlanders used the broom for 
almost endless purposes, some of Avhich I may mention here. The twigs 
and branches wore used to thatch houses and stacks, to make brooms, and 
to Aveave in their fences to exclude sheep and hares from their gardens, and 
also to tan leather, for which purpose it is equal to oak bark. A decoc- 
tion of this shrub was much recommended for the dropsy, and half an 
ounce of the flowers or seeds was considered a strong emetic by the old 
Highland housewives. During snow, sheep and deer are very fond of 
browsing on it, but if sheep not accustomed to it are allowed too much of 
it at first it makes them giddy, or as the shepherds say drunk. The 
broom is the badge of the Clans Eorbes and Mackay. 

CHERRY. Latin, Primus Cerasus Gaelic, Siris or Sirist. Of course 
this tree is just the wild cherry or gean, brought to its present perfection 
by long cultivation. It seems to have been well known to the old High- 
landers, as the bards often in singing the praises of their sweethearts, 
compare the colour of their cheeks to the cherry- -" Do ghruaidh mar an 
t-siris." 

CHESTNUT. Latin, Fugus castanea ; Gaelic, Geanm-chno. This tree 
is said to be a native of England, but not of Scotland. This, however, is 
doubtful, for if it is not a native, it must have been introduced into this 
country very early, from the immense size of some of the chestnut trees 
found growing in many paits of the Highlands. One growing in the 
garden of Castle Leod, in Eoss-shire, in 1820, measured 15 feet in cir- 
cumference ; and mention is made, in the oS r ew Statistical Account, of 
three chestnuts measured at Castle Menzies in 1844, whose respective 
girths were 16, 18|, and 21 feet. The wood is very hard and durable, 
and that its value was known to our ancestors is proved by the fact that 
it is found along with oak in the roofs and woodwork of some of our old- 
est Highland castles and mansion houses. 

ELDER. Latin, Sambucus niger ; Gaelic, Dromun ; Craobh an dro- 



136 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

main. This is a native of the Highlands, and was used by the High- 
landers in many ways. They used its berries for dyeing a brown colour, 
and of course everybody who has heard of the " Lair.l o' Cockpen " knows 
that a wine is made of the flowers 

" Mistress Jean she was makin' the elder flower wine, 
Says, ' What talcs the Laird here at sic an ill time?" 1 

The berries also were fermented into a wine, which was usually drank 
warm. The medicinal virtues of the elder were well known to our 
ancestors, for indeed it was one of their principal remedies for many 
diseases ; and as a proof that they were correct in this, and also that its 
virtues were known in other countries, I may mention that the great 
physician Boerhave regarded the elder with such reverence for its medicinal 
virtues, that he al \vays took off his hat when passing an elder tree ! 

FIR (SCOTCH). Latin, Pinussylvestris ; Gaelic, Giutlias. The Scotch 
Fir is the " most Highland " of all our trees, and there is no tree that looks 
nobler than it does towering amongst our bens and glens. In our earliest 
records we find mention of our great Caledonian fir forest, which extended 
from Glenlyon and Rannoch, to Strathspey and Strathglass, and from 
Glencoe eastward to the Braes of Mar. This great forest has mostly dis- 
appeared ages ago, caused principally by being cut, or set fire to wilfully, 
or accidentally, by the different clans, during their continual wars, or by 
foreign invaders. A large portion of the ground which once formed part 
of this great forest is now converted into peat bogs, in which are found 
embedded huge trunks of fir, some of which still show traces of fire, or 
lying close to their roots or stocks, which arc firmly fixed by the roots in 
the underlying firm soil. The largest portions of the ancient Caledonian 
forest left are in Rannoch, Perthshire ; in Braemar, Aberdeenshire ; in 
Badenoch, Strathspey, Glenmore, Rothiemurchus, Glenmoriston, and 
Strathglass, in Inverness-shire ; near Loch Maree, in Ross-shire ; and at 
Coigeach, Strathnaver, and Dirry-Monach, in Sutherland. The wood of 
this tree is very valuable, being easily wrought, resinous, and very dur- 
able, a proof of which is mentioned by Smith, in his "View of the Agri- 
culture of Argyle." He says " The roof of Kilchurn Castle, Argyleshire, 
was made of natural fir, and when taken down, after having stood over 
300 years, was found as fresh and full of sap as newly imported Memel." 
Besides using it for roofs, the old Highlanders also used this wood for 
floors, and for making chests, beds, tables, and endless other domestic 
purposes. The resinous roots dug out of the earth not only supplied the 
best of fuel, but was used for light, being split up into small splinters, 
which, from the quantity of rosin contained in them, burnt with the 
brightness of gas. They were burnt cither on a flat stone or an iron 
brander placed near the tire, under the large open chimneys in old High- 
land cottages ; and it was the nightly duty either of the old grandfather 
or the young hen I boy, to sit by the light and replenish it by fresh 
splinters as they burned down, whilst the other members of the family 
attended to their domestic duties, or sat and listened to the songs or tra- 
ditions of bye-gone days. Lightfoot mentions that Pennant and himself 
observed the fishermen of Lochbroom, in Ross-shire, make ropes of the 
inner bark of the fir. He also mentions another curious fact about the 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 137 

fir. He says "The farina, or yellow powder, of the male flowers, is 
sometimes in spring carried away by the winds, in such quantities where 
the trees abound, as to alarm the ignorant with the notion of its raining 
brimstone." The fir is very often mentioned by Ossian, and no doubt in 
his day many of the large tracts, which are flow barren peat mosses, were 
covered with luxuriant pine forests. To explain how this great change 
came about I may give the following extract from an able work, " A 
Description and History of Vegetable Substances used in the Arts and 
Domestic Economy." In the article on the Scotch fir, it says, page 26 
" One of the most singular changes to which any country can be subjected, 
is that which arises from the formation of extensive masses of peat-earth. 
They are common in most of the colder parts of the world, and are known 
in Scotland by the name of peat mosses. These accumulations of a 
peculiar vegetable matter are a sort of natural chronicle of the countries 
in which they are found. In the northern parts of Britain they point out 
that the soil and climate were once far superior to what the country now, 
in those situations, enjoys. The era of the first commencement of these 
bogs is not known ; but as in many of them, both in Ireland and Scot- 
land, are found the horns and skulls of animals of which no living speci- 
mens now exist in the country, and have not been since the commence- 
ment of recorded history, their history must be referred to very remote 
periods. Notwithstanding this, the formation of a peat bog under favour- 
able circumstances does not appear to be a very lengthened process, lor 
George, Earl of Cromarty, mentions (Philosophical Transactions, No. 330) 
that near Loch Braon (Loch Broom), on the west of Eoss-shire, a consider- 
able portion of ground had, between the years of 1651 and 1699, been 
changed from a forest of barked and leafless pines to a peat moss or bog, 
in which the people were cutting' turf for fuel. The process, according to 
the Earl's description, which has been verified by the observations of 
others, is this The pines, after having stood for some time deprived of 
their bark and bleaching in the rains, which in that country are both 
heavy and frequent, are gradually rotted near their roots, and fall. After 
they have been soaked by the rains, they are soon covered with various 
species of fungi. When these begin to decay the rain washes the adhesive 
matter into which they are reduced between the tree and the ground, and 
a dam is thus formed, which collects and retains the water. Whenever 
this takes place, the surface of the stagnant pool, or moist earth, becomes 
covered with mosses, and these mosses further retain the water. It is a 
property of those species of moss which grow most readily in cold or moist 
districts, to keep decomposing at the roots while they continue to grow 
vigorously at the tops. Cold and humidity, as has been said, are the cir- 
cumstances in which the mosses that rot and consolidate into peat are 
formed ; and when the mosses begin to grow they have the power of 
augmenting those causes of their production. The mossy surface, from its 
spongy nature, and from the moisture with which it is covered, is one of 
the very worst conductors of heat ; and thus, even in the warmest sum- 
mers, the surface of moss is always comparatively cold. Besides the 
spongy part of the moss, which retains its fibrous texture for many years, 
there is a portion of it, especially of the small fungi and lichens with 
which it is mixed, that is every year reduced to the consistency of a very 

L 



138 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

tough and retentive mould. That subsides, closes up the openings of the 
spongy roots of the moss, and renders the whole water tight. The reten- 
tion of the water is further favourable to the growth of the moss, both in 
itself and by means of the additional cold which it produces in the sum- 
mer." A very good story is told in Strathardle of a boy's opinion of a 
group of noble firs, when he saw them for the first time. His father was 
many years keeper to the Duke of Athole, at Falar Lodge, which is many 
miles away from any other habitation, and surrounded by huge mountains, 
and at which not a tree is to be seen, though it was once the very centre 
of the great Caledonian forest. The boy had been born and brought up in 
that secluded place, and had never been from home, till one day when he 
was well on in his teens he was allowed to accompany his father to 
Strathardle. Having never seen a tree of any description, no doubt the 
stunted birch and alder trees he saw when going down Glenfernate 
astonished him not a little, but when they reached Strathloch, and com- 
ing round the corner of the hill, the group of fine firs behind the farm 
houses there burst on the wondering youth's view, within a few hundred 
yards of him. He stood still with astonishment, wondering what those 
huge stems with the tuft of green on the top could be, till at last a happy 
idea struck him, and turning to his father, he exclaimed " Ubh, ubh, 
nach e am blaths gu iosal an seo, a ni am muth, seallaibh cho mor 'sa dh' 
fhas an cal." " Ubh, ubh, does not the warmth down here make a 
wonderful difference ; see how big the kale has grown." The poor boy 
nad never seen anything resembling those trees except the curly kale or 
German greens in his father's garden, and so came to the conclusion that 
owing to the warmth of the valley the kale had grown to the size of the 
fir trees. 

FIR, SILVER. Latin, Finns Picea ; Gaelic, Giuthas Geal. This tree 
is a native of Germany, and was introduced into England in 1603 ; and 
into Scotland in 1G82, where it was first planted at Inveraray Castle. 
One specimen of this tree measured 15 feet in circumference at Castle 
Menzies, in 1844. 

FIR, SPRUCE. Latin, Pinus Abies ; Gaelic, Giuthas Loclilanach. The 
spruce is a native ot Norway, but was introduced in 1548. It thrives to 
perfection in the moist boggy parts of the Highlands, where immense trees 
of it are found in many parts of the country, many of them over 100 feet 
high. 

GEAN, or WILD CHERRY. Latin, Cerasus Sylvestrix ; Gaelic, Geanais. 
This is one of our native wild fruit trees, where it thrives very well in the 
low straths, many trees of it being 15 to 18 feet in circumference. The 
wood is very hard and beautifully veined, and was much used for making 
articles of furniture. Lightfoot says that the fruit of the gean, by fer- 
mentation, makes a very agreeable wine, and by distillation, bruised 
together with the stones, a strong spirit. 

HAZEL. Latin, Corylus Avellana ; Gaelic, Calltuinn. This native 
tree is very common in most parts of the Highlands yet, though, within 
the memory of the present generation it has disappeared from many a 
glen, where it once grew in thickets. This is caused to some extent by 
the increase of sheep and rabbits in the Highlands, especially the latter, 
who in time of snow peel the bark off as high as they can reach, killing 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 139 

it, of course, very soon. From the great quantity of hazel trees and nuts 
dug up from great depths in peat bogs, it is evident that the hazel was 
very common all over the country before the destruction of the great 
Caledonian forest. It was always a favourite wood for making walking 
sticks, and was also used for making baskets and hoops for barrels. Our 
ancestors had many curious old superstitions regarding the hazel, and 
always considered it a very unlucky tree, though they were fond enough 
of the nuts. Of the nuts they made bread sometimes, which they con- 
sidered excellent for keeping away hunger on long and fatiguing journeys. 
They had also many superstitions regarding the nuts, such as burning 
them on Hallowe'en night to see if certain couples would get married ; 
and they counted nothing so lucky as to get two nuts naturally joined 
together, which they called "Cn6-ch6rnhlaich," and which they considered 
a certain charm against all witchcraft. 

HORSE-CHESTNUT. Latin, ^Eesculus hippocastanum ; Gaelic, 'Gheanm- 
chno fhiadhaicli. This tree is a native of Asia, and was introduced into 
England in 1629, but not into Scotland till 1709. Very large trees 
of it are quite common in the Highlands now. The wood is worthless, 
but its handsome foliage and sweet-smelling flowers render it very useful 
for ornamental purposes. 

JUNIPER. Latin, Juniperis communis ; Gaelic, Aiteann. Next to the 
broom and the whin, the juniper is the most common of all our native 
shrubs, and it has the advantage over those of producing berries. Those 
berries, which have the peculiarity of taking two years to ripen, once 
formed no small part of the foreign commerce of the Gael, as we read that 
shiploads of juniper berries used to be annually sent from the port of In- 
verness to Holland, where they were used for making the famous Geneva 
or gin. That trade in the juniper berries continued long, and might have 
done so still if the modern art of the chemist had not discovered a cheaper, 
but, as is generally the case, an inferior substitute for the juniper berries 
in the distillation of Geneva. This will be seen by the following extract 
from an old work : " The true Geneva or gin is a malt spirit distilled a 
second time with the addition of juniper berries. Originally the berries 
were added to the malt in the grinding, so that the spirit thus obtained 
was flavoured with the berries from the first, and exceeded all that could 
be made by any other method. But now they leave out the berries 
entirely, and give their spirits a flavour by distilling them with a proper 
quantity of oil of turpentine, which, though it nearly resembles the flavour 
of juniper berries, has none of their valuable virtues." The old High- 
landers had very great faith in juniper berries as a medicine for almost 
every disease known amongst them, and also as a cure for the bite of any 
serpent or venomous beast. In cases of the pestilence, fever, or any in- 
fectious disease, fires of juniper bushes were always lighted in or near 
their houses, as they believed that the smoke and smell of burning juniper 
purified the air, and carried off all infection. The juniper is the badge of 
the Athole Highlanders, and also of the Gunns, Rosses, and Macleods. 

LABURNUM. Latin, Gytisus Alpinus; Gaelic, Bealaidh Sasunach. 
This tree is a native of Switzerland, and was introduced in 1596. Some 
of the largest trees of it in Britain are in Athole, by the roadside be- 
tween Blair- Athole and Dunkeld. The old Highlanders used this wood 



HO THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

for making bagpipes, for which use it is very suitable, being very hard, 
fine grained, and capable of taking a very fine polish. Many very old 
bagpipes are made of this wood. 

LARCH. Latin, Pinus Lanx ; Gaelic, Laireag. Though not a native 
of the Highlands, the larch is now one of our commonest trees, and it 
thrives as well here as any of our native trees, as both the soil and the 
climate are admirably suited to it. Linnaeus says that its botanical name 
" Larix " conies from the Celtic word " Lar," fat ; producing abundance of 
resin. Of course the Gaelie name comes from the same. In the Statistical 
Account of the Parish of Dunkeld we read: "Within the pleasure- 
grounds to the north-east of the cathedral, are the two noted larches, the 
first that were introduced into Britain. They were brought from the 
Tyrol, by Menzies of Culdares, in 1738, and were at first treated as green- 
house plants. They were planted only one day later than the larches in 
the Monzie gardens, near Crieff. The two Dunkeld larches are still (1844) 
in perfect vigour, and far from maturity. The height of the highest is 
nearly 90 feet, with girth in proportion." Again, in the Account of the 
Parish of Monzie we have " In the garden of Monzie are five larches re- 
markable for their age, growth, and symmetry. They are coeval with the 
celebrated larches of Dunkeld, having been brought along with them from 
the same place, and are now superior to them in beauty and size. The 
tallest measures 102 feet in perpendicular height; another is 22 feet in 
circumference, and at a distance of 2 feet from the ground 16 feet, and 
throws out branches to the extraordinary distance of 48 and 55 feet from 
the trunk. The late Duke of Athole, it would appear, evinced a more 
than ordinary interest in the progress of these five trees, sending his 
gardener annually thither to observe their growth. When this functionary 
returned and made his wonted report, that the larches of Monzie were 
leaving those of Dunkeld behind in the race, his Grace would jocularly 
allege that his servant had permitted General Campbell's good cheer to 
impair his powers of observation." The larch is now very commonly 
planted in the Highlands, and there are many extensive plantations of it 
which have already attained a great size and value, especially in the dis- 
trict of Athole, where, about the beginning of the present century, Duke 
John planted some millions of it on the hills north of Dunkeld and 
Logierait. 

LIME. Latin, Tilia communes ; Gaelic, Teile. This beautiful tree is 
a native of Asia, and was introduced into Scotland in 1664, where it was 
first planted at Taymouth Castle, where there are now trees of it nearly 
20 feet in circumference. The wood, which though very soft, is close- 
grained and very white, was much used by the old Highlanders for carved 
work. They also believed the sweet-smelling flowers of this tree to be 
the best cure for palpitation of the heart. 

MAPLE. Latin, Acer campestre ; Gaelic, Malpais. This tree is a 
native of the southern Highlands of Perthshire and Argyle. It very much 
resembles the plane, but does not grow to such a size. The Highlanders 
made a wine of the sap of this tree as they did of the birch. 

(To be Continued.) 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 141 



OUR GAELIC BIBLE. 



II. 

THE people who use our Gaelic Bible are certainly not the least devout in 
"Bible-loving Scotland." They have long borne a high character for 
piety. By nature reverent, almost to the verge of superstition, they are 
more than most men disposed to bow with awe to the dread sanctions of 
the supernatural and the unseen. And as the result on -such a tempera- 
ment of a long course of strict religious teaching, not less in the school 
than under the parental roof, followed very generally all through life by 
the fostering influence of fervid, rousing, evangelical preaching, they have 
been famous in a nation proverbially bible-loving for the profound vene- 
ration habitually accorded by them to the Divine Authority of the Book. 
To it was always their last appeal. Tha e anns an Leabhair was to them 
an end of all controversy. Now it is evident that among such a people the 
linguistic influence of their Book of Books, which was also practically 
their one book, must have been very great. Its every blot or blemish, 
by long association with all they held most sacred, was not unlikely to 
become, not only faultless, but an actual beauty -spot. And when we re- 
member, as was shown in last paper, that their first version of that book 
was but a crude transliteration of the Irish Bible, even though the pro- 
fessed aim of all subsequent editors has been the removal of Irish idioms, 
we feel that a factor was thus introduced nearly two hundred years ago 
into the linguistic history of our people, whose force and significance it 
were difficult to over estimate.* It is worth remembering also that thus 
a question that had to be carefully weighed in regard to the Manx trans- 
lation of the Sctiptures, did not at all practically emerge in regard to our 
Scotch Gaelic Bible. The Manx translators had the question before 
them, " whether they would adopt the principles of the Irish orthography, 
or write the language as it was pronounced " in the Isle of Man. And 
after full consideration they adopted the latter mode, on the ground that 
to have followed the former mode would have made their bible " to the 
multitude an unknown tongue." They did so, seemingly, with regret, for 
they believed that " by due attention to the orthography and structure of 
the language, the connection between roots and compounds might have 
been preserved, and its original energy and purity restored." But " the 
translators adopted the wise alternative. They regarded the utility of 
their work rather than the elucidation of the language, and accordingly took 

* Were I disposed to press this point to the utmost, it could well he put more 
strongly. For. before Kirke's transliteration, the Irish Bible of Bedel was itself used 
presumably to some considerable extent, in the Scottish Highlands. The Hon. Robert 
Boyle, not less memorable as physicist, theologian, and founder of the " Boyle Lec- 
tures," than as promoter of Christian Missions to India and of translations of the Bible 
into many tongues, sent to Scotland far use in the Highlands about a hundred copies of 
Bedel's Bible, which had first been printed through his influence, and almost entirely at 
his expense. One of these Bibles, now exceedingly rare, is in the library of the Univer- 
sity of Queen's Cellege, Kingston, Canada. It was long in possession of the ancient 
family ot Colquhoun of Caastraddon. From them it passed to the late Very Rev. Prin- 
cipal Macf arlane of Glasgow, at the sale of whose library I purchased it ; and it is placed 
in the safe keeping of Queen's College, for the benefit of coming generations of the Gael 
in the Far "West, as the best acknowledgment I could make for the hospitality extended 
t me by their fathers iu the Highla&d Settlements of the New World. 



142 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

the spoken sound as their rule of orthography " (Kelly's Manx Grammar, 
1870, Editor's introduction, p. xiii.). But is it any loss to the language 
that they did so ? From the philologist's point of view it is anything but 
a loss. To the student of language nothing can he more valuable than 
such plwnotypes of the living speech whether of different members of our 
great Celtic family in different stages of their divergence, or of the same 
branch of the family in successive stages of its history. If the philological 
comparison of our abundance of such phonotypes in English has yielded 
results so fruitful, even in the case of a language into which has been 
thrown the leaven of foreign elements so numerous and seemingly so dis- 
cordant, that the " whole lump " seems at first sight monstrous and all 
but amorphous, what might we not expect if we had a similar abundance 
of materials for linguistic comparison in a family of languages which has ever 
kept itself so proudly aloof from foreign taint as the Celtic has done ! 
And the pity is that in the Scottish Highlands we might indeed have 
much more of that precious material than the meagre remnant that 
survives. If, for example, Macpherson had remembered that in common 
honesty he was under obligation to account for his precious borrowed 
manuscripts, at least as much as if they were coupons or bills of exchange, 
or if editors and transcribers of old Gaelic manuscripts were ever careful 
piously to copy every jot and tittle of originals so precious, because, alas ! 
so rare, we should have materials at disposal from which the skilled 
philologist might evolve on safe ground laws and principles of the utmost 
value. But it is vain to mourn a loss which no regrets can remedy. Let us 
be thankful that while the good minister of Balquhidder, in the haste of his 
holy zeal to give his countrymen the Word of Life, shackled their tongues 
with " the principles of Irish orthography," the authors of the Manx Bible 
unwittingly brought us a linguistic blessing in disguise, even while 
lamenting that in duty to the religion of the Manxman they were con- 
strained, as they fancied, to do sore disservice to his language. 

But it is time to return- to the Gaelic Bible. Encouraged by the great 
demand for their translation of the New Testament, published in 1769, 
and trusting to the generosity of the public, the Society for Propagating 
Christian Knowledge undertook the expense of translating and printing 
the Old Testament " with all the expedition of which the nature of such 
an undertaking can admit." It was arranged that the work should appear 
in four parts, the first of which was published in 1783. This first portion, 
containing the five books of Moses, is usually regarded as the work of the 
second Stuart (Dr John, of Luss). It is, indeed, so described more than 
once in the Society's minutes, which, through the kindness of Mr John 
Wardrobe Tawse, W.S., the writer has had the privilege of consulting. 
"But there are in the same minutes undoubted indications of the fact that 
Dr Stuart was not the translator of this first part in the sense in which he 
was of the third. For example, in a minute dated in November 1 802, a 
payment to Dr Stuart of one hundred and fifty guineas is said to have been 
made " for his and John and James Macnaughton's trouble in translating, 
copying, and supervising the printing of the second and third volumes of 
the Gaelic Old Testament, and the second edition of the Gaelic New 
Testament." And, still more to perplex the matter, in a brief historical 
statement of the work which the Society, beginning in 1769, completed 
in 1826, it is stated that by Dr Stuart "the third part had been translated 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. U3 

and the two preceding carefully revised" The truth seems to be that from 
the first, both by rare fitness for the work and as the son of the first trans- 
lator of the New Testament, the younger Stuart took a leading part among 
others, his coadjutors, in the translation of the Old Testament ; but as 
time and the work proceeded, his connection with it became gradually so 
prominent as at last to be paramount. The next part to appear, the 
second in time, was the fourth in order. It was beyond question the 
independent work of one man a man of rare ability, and a perfect master 
of pure, idiomatic, powerful Gaelic. This was Dr John Smith of Camp- 
beltown. "We do not know any Gaelic work, or any piece, short or long, 
of Gaelic prose composition, which can at all be compared with it. It is 
the only Gaelic translation of any portion of the Scriptures which does 
not bear on the face of it conclusive evidence that the Irish Bible was 
either very much in the translator's heart or very near his elbow. But 
Dr Smith was not to be unduly trammelled by the English Bible any more 
than the Irish. Going with competent knowledge to the original Scrip- 
tures, and availing himself conscientiously according to his light of all the 
results of the Biblical science of the day, his one aim was to enable his 
countrymen to see in his translation as he saw in the original, what the 
spirit said unto the churches. It is no wonder, then, that in some points 
his rendering differed materially from the English. Further on this will 
fall to be again considered, when we come to explain how another trans- 
lation came to be substituted for Dr Smith's, and we shall give some 
extracts which the reader can for himself compare with the version to 
which it had to give place. Dr Smith's translation began with Isaiah, 
and includes the rest of the prophets. It was published in 1785. 

Next came the second part, described in previous minutes as " now 
carrying on by Mr Stuart," and reported as printed in 1787. It extends 
from Joshua to I. Chronicles. In announcing its publication the directors 
of the Society state that " the third part will require considerable time to 
finish." They also add, " In a work of this kind it is vain to expect uni- 
versal approbation. Some have found fault with the orthography used by 
the translators, but the directors have the pleasure to be informed by a 
number of gentlemen, who are believed to be amongst the best judges of 
the Gaelic language, that the manner in which the translation is executed 
meets with their fullest approbation." Seen in the light of subsequent 
events there Avould seem to be something prophetic in the directors' 
warning that the third part would require " a considerable time " to finish 
it. In 1789 they "are sorry to find that from the avocations of the 
gentleman who conducts it, as well as from the difficult nature of the work 
itself, it is not yet in complete readiness for the press." In the autumn 
of 1790 the Secretary, being instructed to write Mr Stuart, was informed 
that the work was expected to be "ready for the press in course of 
the ensuing winter." April 1791, "Gaelic Bible in the press." Decem- 
ber, same year, Mr Stuart is requested to " come to Edinburgh to carry 
on the work and finish it if possible in course of the winter." January 
1792, Mr Stewart " regrets that he cannot come directly, but is advancing 
with the translation, and will come to Edinburgh as speedily as circum- 
stances will allow." February, same year, Mr Stuart is again urged to 
come to Edinburgh, and his services are bespoken, in addition to the work 
already in hand, for a revised edition of his father's Gaelic New Testa- 



144 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

ment, which was described in our last paper. On 5th April, same year, 
the Secretary, doubtless with a sigh of relief, informs the directors that 
" Mr Stuart has come." But still that gentleman's "part third" was far 
from the birth. Never did fond deluded parent wait and pray for the 
event which was to crown his bliss, as the directors of the Society all 
these years waited on Mr Stuart of Luss for the long-looked-for " part 
third." Now with wistful desire rising at times to joyful hope, now with 
doubt and sore misgiving, anon with fretful impatience and rising anger, 
they waited on. At one time they pleaded with him, at another, in a 
very dignified way of course, they scolded him, and at another they 
stirred up his pure mind by way of remembrance. They angled for him 
with the silver hook, and, careful as they have ever been of the purse- 
strings, they even tried the golden. At last, on 1st June 1797, their 
wrath could be pent up no longer. It burst forth in the thunder of the 
following minute : "A report having gone abroad, owing to the long delay 
which has taken place in publishing the Old Testament Scriptures in 
Gaelic, that the Society did not wish to publish the whole Scriptures into 
that language ; and the committee considering that the delay of publish- 
ing the translation is of material disservice to the interest of religion, they, 
for that reason, have caused Dr Stuart of Luss to be written to, signifying 
that they can admit of no further procrastination, and requesting him 
either to proceed instantly with the printing of his translation, or to 
favour them with his manuscript for being sent to the press under the 
care of a person qualified to take the superintendence of it. And what 
remains untranslated to be committed to the care of some other persons 
in the Highlands who will readily undertake the office." 

This seems to have had the desired effect. For on 2d January 1800 
the directors report to a general meeting of the Society that " Dr Stuart 
of Luss's translation of the books of Job and the Psalms into Gaelic, is 
now printed," and on 5th June 1801 they report that "the third and last 
volume of the Gaelic Bible, translated by Dr John Stuart, is some time 
ago printed." The date on the title-page is 1801. 

The whole Bible being now happily translated into Gaelic, the Society 
set themselves eagerly to consider how it could best be brought within 
the reach of the Highland people. Published in four different portions, 
which appeared at various and distant intervals, from 1783 to 1801, it 
was found that only five hundred complete copies of the Old Testament, and 
these in an expensive and inconvenient form, were available for distribu- 
tion. In order therefore to fulfil their mission, and to enable them to 
keep " the engagement of the Society with those parishes in the High- 
lands which contributed towards the expense of the translation," it was 
resolved to arrange for publishing a cheap edition of the Old Testament 
corresponding to the type and size of the New Testament published in 
1796. This edition will be noticed in a subsequent paper. 

The expense of producing the Old Testament in Gaelic is stated by 
Reid at 2,300, to which fall to be added, according to the same autho- 
rity, 700 for the Gaelic Testament of 1767, and 882 for that of 1796. 
This makes in all the goodly sum of 3,882 spent by the Society from 
1767 to 1801 in giving the Word of Life to our people. At this distance 
of time, and without an exhaustive search of the voluminous minutes and 
the accounts of the Society, it would be impossible with confidence to 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 145 

check the accuracy of these figures. But our search, so far as it has gone, 
satisfies us that Reid had free access to the books of the Society when 
preparing his BIBLIOTHECA SCOTO-CELTICA, and that he made his extracts 
with care and great fullness. We could, indeed, trace his " trail " every- 
where in turning over the ponderous records of this the oldest religious 
association in Scotland. And it is certain that Reid did not overstate 
the expenditure of the Society in this noble work when he put it down 
at 3882. Where did the Society get all this money a very large sum 
at that early period? And be it remembered that at the same time they 
had many other expensive agencies in operation. They had already their 
schools in all parts of the Highlands and islands, and they conducted ex- 
pensive missionary operations, chiefly among the Indians of America, but 
also among the Tartars of Western Asia. Part of the money, estimated 
by Reid at 1400, came from church collections ordered by the General 
Assembly in 1782, 1783, and 1784. Large sums came from London, 
where a branch of the Society, patronised not only by such Scottish 
noblemen as the Duke of Athole and the Earl of Kinnoul, but by Royalty 
itself, and warmly encouraged by the bishops and high dignitaries of the 
Church of England, did excellent service to the cause. But can there any 
good thing come out of Burton-on-Trent ? Famous as are to-day all over 
the Highlands the names of Allsop and Bass, not less famous as mighty 
hunters than for the beverage which bears their names, who amongst us 
would ever dream of associating in any way the Gaelic Bible with that 
curious little town in Staffordshire, whose name they have made, 
the wide world's synonym for bitter beer? And yet the two are 
in fact very closely connected. For Mr Isaac Hawkins, a solicitor 
of Burton, was one of the earliest and most liberal benefactors of 
the Society. In the time of the Society's greatest need, after careful 
inquiry into its work, he gave a donation of 10,000. He gave that mag- 
nificent donation in his life-time, and with such admirable precautions for 
the preservation of secrecy that it was not till four years after his death, 
in 1800, at the great age of 91, that even the directors learned the name 
of their benefactor. 

With another extract from the Society's minutes we close this paper. 
On 4th March 1802 they unanimously resolved "that a complete copy of 
the Gaelic Bible be given to each company of the forty-second or Royal 
Highland Regiment, with a suitable inscription on each copy to mark the 
Society's esteem of the good behaviour of that Regiment on all occasions 
and of the services they have done to the country." A copy of the 
Gaelic New Testament and Psalms, similarly inscribed, was also ordered 
to be given " to such of the non-commissioned officers and privates in the 
Regiment who understood Gaelic as the Secretary may think proper." 
Truth demands that we should add the fact mournfully set forth a few 
pages onwards, that the directors " having learned that few comparatively 
of the men of the Forty-second can read or even understand Gaelic, there- 
fore ordered the Secretary to give each of them a copy of the English 
Bible." 

The edition of 1807, and especially a comparison of Dr Smith's trans- 
lation of the Prophets with that which then superseded it, must be re- 
served for another paper. 

DONALD MASSON, M.A., M,D. 



146 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



REMNANTS OF GAELIC POETRY. 



III. 

MACPHERSON of Strathmashie, like most of the bards, was an admirer of 
the fair sex. In the following poem he gives a description of the object 
of his admiration. He imagines that the condition of the man who could 
call her his own would be truly enviable. If he were to be that happy 
individual he would be careful to behave in every way in such a manner 
as would be worthy of her. After enumerating her various good qualities, 
he concludes by confessing that any description he can give of one so 
much to be admired, and so excellent, is altogether inadequate. 

BOIRIONNACH OG. 

Tha boirionnach 6g, 's thug mi toigh dhi thar chach 
Ei f haicinn an ait air chor-eigin, 

Na 'm bu loams' o 'n st61-phosd' i dheanainn 16n di gu brath 
Fhad 's a mhaireadh mo shlaint' a' s m' f hallaineachd, 
Ged bhithinn a stbras air seana ch6ta tana, 
Gun tuilleadh gu m' ordugh fhad 's bu bheo mi bhiodh arad aic, 
Shiubhlainn gu deonach an Eoinn-Eorp agus barr 
Mu 'm faigheadh i fath air aithreachas. 

A reir mar a shonruichinn dh' orduichinn trath, 
An deigh mo bhais gu 'm biodh gearradh aic, 
Na 'n tarladh e somhail bhiodh a coirichean-s' ann, 
Ged chuireadh e 'chlann gu gearan orm, 
Dheauainn tigh 'in biodh i stigh reir mo staid innealta, 
Learn bu toigh i bhi 's a' chladh mar bhiodh gach leth-bhreac dhi, 
B' fhearr learn na ainnis i bhi barracht' thar chach 
Ged chosdainn cluas mail li ceannaichean. 

Cha bhiodh o gu dilinn ri inns' aig mac mna 
Gu 'm faigheadh i dranndan-teallaich uam, 
Cha chuirinn beul siod' orm gun an fhirinn 'n a shail, 
A' togar an drasda bhi mealladh oirr', 
Dh' innsiim lein m' inntinn di, bhithinn fior thairis rith', 
Chleachdainn ni, chaisginn stri, ghlacainn i ceanalta, 
Ghabhainn an fhiodhull, 's mar bhitheadh e ann, 
Bheirinn am port-danns' bu toigh leath' dhi, 

'S cha bhiodh e gu dilinn ri inns' aig mac mna 
Gu 'n cluinntoadh droch canain eadarainn, 
Bheireadh feabhas a naduir, a cairdeas, 's a blathais 
'n duine 's neo-ghrasail am Breatann sin, 
'N uair bhiodh es' ann am brais 's a chiall-ceart beag aige, 
Bhiodh a tlachd 'n a thoirt as, 's bu ro phailt beadradh dha, 
Labhradh i, " 'N" sgreatachd cha fhreagair mi 'n tras 
Mu 'n toir sin do chach droch theisteas oirnn." 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 147 

'N uair dh' f hasadh e soitheamh 's a shumhlaicheadh 'f hearg 
Chuireadh ise le 'seanachas fallus air, 
'G a rusgadh an stoldach 's an ordugh neo-shearbh, 
Mu '11 tugadh mi-shealbh dha thighinn thairis air, 
Mur dean sud, aic- tha fios, duine glic ro mhaith dheth, 
Bu ro mhios casadh ris 'n uair bhiodh friodh conuis air, 
na b' e 'n t-ordugh ged bu choinnt' e na 'n tarbh 
Gu 'n biodh i le 'crannchur toilichte. 

Tha i anabarrach cruadalach 's truas aic an daimh, 
Fior ghleusd' anns gach am, geur-bharalach, 

Ged shiubhailt' shios agus shuas, deas 'us tuath 's na 'm blieil ann, 
Cha 'n f haight' iad ach gann a thug barrachd oirr', 
B' e mo mhiann gu 'm b' e 'n rian gu 'm biodh biadh 'n gairios di, 
'S i bhi triallmhor g' a dheanamh, 's ro f hial uime i, 
Ged shiubhail thu 'n cruinne cha choinnich thu te 
'S lugha ardain no speis do thaghanachd. 

Gruaidh dhearg a 's glan rughadh mar tibhal air crann, 
Cul buidhe, corp seang, gnuis shoilleir aic, 
Troidh chvuinn am broig chumhainn a ni siubhal gun spairn, 
B' i an t-iongantas anns gach cruinneachadh, 
Mar an diugh air a chur sneachdadh tiugh broilleachail, 
'S geal mo lur, 's caoin a guth, 's grinn a cruth, 's loinneil i, 
Fo f habhradaibh goirid suilean meara neo-mhall, 
'S da chich chorraish aird mar lili oirr'. 

Gach mir dhi r' a f haicinn bu mhaiseach a dh' f hag 
An Ti a rinn sgathan cuimir dhith, 
mhullach a baistidh gus an seachnar an t-sail 
A' toirt barrachd air each na h-uile ball, 
Cia mar dh' inntrig mi fein air an ni dhuilich so, 
Innseadh tirinn na riomhainn 's nach ti cumant i ? 
'S e bheir gach aon duin' an am sgur dhomh droch thaing, 
nach b' urrainn mi ann mar bhuineadh dhi, 

A stanza which has been forgotten concludes with the words : 

'S truagh nach bard ro mhaith a tha barraicht" an cainnt 
Bhiodh a' gabhail os laimh a bhi tarruing rith'. 

SEANACHAIDH. 



BOOKS EECEIVED. " Eose and Thistle," a handsome illustrated vol- 
ume of Poems, by William Allan, who has become so deservedly such a 
favourite with our readers ; also, " Genealogical Tables of the Clan Mac- 
kenzie," by Major Mackenzie of Findon, a most painstaking and valuable 
work. We shall again return to these. Another very readable and neatly 
got up book received is " A Shining Waif and other Stories," by Wm. 
Canton. 



148 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



THE CALEDOOTAK BAKK DISASTER 



THE fall of the Caledonian Banking Company is, not excepting the High- 
land Clearances, the greatest calamity that ever befel the Korth of Scot- 
land. Here was, to all appearance, a thriving, powerful, and well-managed 
institution, with its head office and directorate in the Highland Capital, 
pre-eminently a Highland institution in every respect but one ; but that one 
exception has landed it, and with it the north of Scotland, in ruin. Men 
who, advanced in years, thought they had enough in their latter days to 
live comfortably on, and afterwards make comfortable provision for their 
families, are now penniless. Widows and orphans, who had their all 
invested in the bank, are now in absolute poverty and despair. Trade is 
ruined, agriculture paralized, and enterprise crushed. And how was this 
brought about ? By a piece of the most careless, reckless, and infatuated 
(we had almost said culpable) mismanagement that any one could 
conceive possible. It is well known that there were three other ways of 
holding the City of Glasgow Bank shares, either of which would have 
been equally secure for the Caledonian Bank, and enable it to keep clear 
of any liability as a contributory. But this blunder was not an isolated 
case of reckless speculation by the management. It appears that almost 
since the very beginning they have been constantly trafficking, or 
rather speculating in the stocks of other banks, and so increasing the 
liability of the shareholders more than twenty-fold by holding the shares 
of institutions, like their own, with a liability absolutely unlimited. It is 
stated on reliable authority that when the City of Glasgow Bank closed its 
doors, the Caledonian Banking Company held shares in other banks, which 
made the shareholders of the Company personally liable for about fifty 
millions of money each. They were shareholders in the Clydesdale 
Bank, in the Bank of Scotland, in the Union Bank of Scotland, as well 
as in that stupendous swindle which has desolated the land, the City of 
Glasgow Bank, and five others ; thus making the shareholders of the Cale- 
donian Banking Company liable for the total liabilities of these nine banks, 
amounting in all to fifty or sixty millions, in addition to their own. This may 
be good management from a banker's point of view ; but certainly, although 
it has been so described, probably in ignorance of the above facts, by the 
whole press of the country almost without exception, we have no hesitation 
in expressing a different opinion, and holding it to be mismanagement of 
the very worst description. To call it anything else can serve no good 
purpose, and would not be in accordance with the facts. 

In the face of this it was surely bordering on the criminal to send out 
"authorised" statements in the newspapers that the four unfortunate 
shares in the City of Glasgow Bank were held on behoof of, or in trust 
for, a customer or client of the bank, who, it was said, was quite able to 
meet any calls which might be made on the Compan^ in connection with 
them. This cannot, in candour, be described as a mere suppression of 
the facts, but must, by all honest men, be characterised as a deliberate 
attempt and, to a large extent, successful attempt to mislead the 
public ; and we know several cases in which shares were bought on the 
faith of this " authorised " untruth. "We, and many others in Inverness, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZIKE. 149 

knew perfectly well who the owner of the shares was, and that he \vas 
not good for any such thing, but when any one dared to say so, he was 
at once pounced upon and charged with saying what was not true, and 
acting unpatriotically to the bank. 

In spite of, and knowing all this, the officials of the bank coolly come 
forward publicly to screen their own misconduct and recklessness, and 
charge depositors and shareholders with having been the cause of the 
present lamentable state of the bank. We quote the following from a 
circular issued by the directors and signed on their behalf by the 
manager : " It (liquidation) has been caused by the uneasy feeling 
which the indefiniteness of the claims of the City of Glasgow Bank upon 
this Bank created among the depositors, and principally and immediately 
to the panic among the shareholders having led to action on the part of 
the liquidators of the City of Glasgow Bank. Had all the shareholders 
stood loyally to this bank, the business might have been continued until 
the liquidation of the City of Glasgow Bank had so far proceeded as that 
the claim against this bank might have been estimated and compromised. 
The timid shareholders who, impelled by panic, have endeavoured to save 
themselves at the expense of others, are thus, in a great measure respon- 
sible for the result." Could anything be more out of place ? more incon- 
sistent with the known facts? And there is a cool audacity about the charge 
and the manner in which it is made which is quite unique. The bank was in 
everybody's mouth about the shuffling and pensioning of prominent officials, 
which led outsiders to fear that it was fast becoming a family affair. 
The mismanagement already referred to, and the enormous liabilities incurred, 
were becoming generally known. It was also becoming extensively cir- 
culated that members of the directorate had heavy overdrafts with no 
immediate available securities to cover them. It became known that the 
statements issued or " authorised " by the management about the City 
Bank shares were not true. It also became known that the personal 
friends and immediate relatives of some of the directors were disposing of 
their shares in the Caledonian Bank and lifting their deposits, and in the 
face of all this the other shareholders and depositors, who naturally be- 
came alarmed, were publicly charged with having brought about the 
failure of the bank. In such circumstances a shareholder, who found 
any one foolish enough to relieve him, ought to have considered it 
his first duty to protect his own interests and that of his immediate 
connexions, by getting rid of such huge responsibilities at once, and at 
any immediate sacrifice. And the same holds equally true of the de- 
positors. Many of them would in a short time require the money for 
their business or other purposes ; and were they not acting and very 
properly so according to the first law of nature that of self-preserva- 
tion and the dictates of common prudence in withdrawing their money, 
and placing it where it would be available when circumstances re- 
quired its use in their business transactions, or to meet other looming 
claims? To do otherwise, in the knowledge of the facts, would have been 
folly of the worst kind a culpable disregard of the ordinary precautions 
of life ; and a disregard which a banker, in different circumstances, and 
when his own institution was not involved, would consider unpardon- 
able, and of such a character as to justify him in refusing advances to any 
customer guilty of such conduct. 



150 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

It is affirmed that the Caledonian Bank has proved of immense 
service to the Highlands by its liberal encouragement of trade, agriculture, 
and other commercial enterprises. This is admitted on all hands, and 
there is naturally a strong and unanimous desire that the company should 
be resuscitated, the note issue saved, and the business of the bank 
resumed as early as possible. We strongly sympathise with this 
feeling ; but the difficulty or practicability of carrying it out cannot be 
overlooked, arid if success is possible at all, it can only be attained by 
looking all the difficulties in the face, and getting them out of the way if 
possible. The first and greatest difficulty of all is that raised by the 
directors themselves when they signed away the business of the bank and 
the rights and interests of the shareholders by that suicidal agreement 
with the liquidators of the City of Glasgow Bank and the managers of 
the other Scotch Banks ; and it appears to us that if that agreement is 
confirmed by the shareholders, resuscitation becomes at once an absolute 
impossibility. And why 1 Once the company goes into liquidation the 
note issue is lost. This itself the loss of 53,000 of a circula- 
tion against which no coin requires to be kept, is almost insurmountable 
for what will then be only the wreck of a small institution competing 
with the existing powerful Scotch Banks still entitled to trade on 
a large inflated note circulation, for which they hold no security 
or any description of assets. But apart from this by Sir Robert 
Peel's Act of 1844 when a quarter of the capital is lost, the note 
issue is gone, while here we have, by the action of the directors, if the 
agreement is confirmed, already practically paid over the whole paid-up 
capital. The next difficulty is almost as great, if not quite as great an 
obstacle as the first; the difficulty indeed, the absolute certainty of 
getting no prudent person after the present disclosures to take shares in 
any unlimited company. And if the Bank be started or resuscitated on 
the limited principle, no one will be found to entrust the new company 
with deposits, while other banks offer him an unlimited security. 

The only chance of starting a new Highland Bank, under prudent 
management, is to have it founded on a gold issue alone, with an 
arrangement, like some of the English Banks, to issue Bank of 
England notes with the name of the local bank upon them. This arrange- 
ment would induce the Northern public to receive the notes of the 
Bank of England with greater favour than they now do. No doubt 
the loss of the present note issue of 53,000 would be strongly 
felt ; but, after all, it would not be so serious as to prove insurmount- 
able. The loss in round numbers would only be, calculating it at 
5 per cent, on the whole note issue, about 2500 per annum, or 
under 10 per cent, of the total profits made by the Bank last year, 
which was over 26,000. That is, it would reduce the dividend from 
14 to 12 10s per cent, or thereabout, leaving a very handsome profit 
to the shareholders. Further, a note issue, without a corresponding 
amount of coin, is founded on a rotten and fast-exploding principle, and 
comparatively weakens the position of the Bank having it, as 
against one without ; for there is nothing but the share Capital of the 
Company to meet the notes when they are presented for payment. On 
the other hand, as soon as it became known and understood that the new 
Bank had no such inflated unsecured liabilities in this respect as the other 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 151 

Banks, confidence in the institution would be at once increased ; Deposits 
would naturally come in to a much greater amount, and thus enable the 
management to earn a sufficient profit on these to make up, and probably 
far exceed, any deficiency arising from the loss of the note issue. 

For the reasons already given, it would be unwise to establish the Bank 
on the limited liability principle, while the other Banks continued to be un- 
limited ; but in whatever way the question of the liability of Joint Stock 
Banks and other Companies may finally settle itself, the right to issue 
notes, without a corresponding amount of coin, now held by the Scotch 
Banks, cannot long be continued on its present footing. Let us then start 
our new Highland Bank on such a sound and solid basis as will at once 
secure to it the confidence of our Northern proprietors, of the general pub- 
lic, and, at the same time, the approval of all the enlightened financiers of 
our time. Thus, we shall have a Highland Bank which shall become an 
example to the whole country. In addition to the special difficulties pe- 
culiar to itself such as having to begin almost at the bottom of the lad- 
der, and the fact that many of those who would most willingly support a 
local institution are already practically ruined the new Bank will have 
to contend against the general disinclination of capitalists to invest 
in future in any Joint Stock Company with unlimited liability. 
This feeling, however, will weaken present institutions to a material 
degree, and comparatively reduce the difficulties of a new Bank 
established on a solid commercial basis, with a gold issue, and without 
the inflated liability of an unsecured note circulation. No one possessed 
of ordinary prudence will continue to invest his money in Scotch Bank 
shares as these institutions are at present constituted. As soon as people 
will be found sufficiently imprudent to buy, present holders will sell out 
at anything short of ruination prices ; but at present they are bound to 
hold on, for the simple reason that they will get no one almost at any 
price to buy. The value of Bank shares will inevitably fall, and with it 
the position and stability of the existing Banks in public estimation, as 
safe investments. 

That these Banks have behaved in the most ungenerous manner to the 
Caledonian Bank is the opinion of every unbiassed person capable of form- 
ing one from the materials hitherto published. And it is hardly to be 
expected that they will lend any material aid to a Highland Bank esta- 
blished on a different and more solid foundation than their own, but this 
may in the end prove rather an advantage. Had the Caledonian Banking 
Company kept clear of the southern Banks and other speculative invest- 
ments, and depended more on its own resources, carefully investing its 
money in small amounts nearer home, it would have been to-day in a 
flourishing position, quite independent of those who seem to have taken 
a delight in swallowing it up as the whirlpool does the noble ship which 
a careless or incompetent captain and crew allow to drift out of her proper 
and safe course and appropriating, with unabashed voracity, its entire 
business. 

Where was the legal adviser of the Bank when it was allowed to get 
involved in this ruinous manner ? It is commonly reported that he was 
never even consulted about the transfer of Mr Connacher's shares ; and 
this we can easily believe when, as we now find, it was the common prac- 
tice of the Directors to deal in other Bank Stock. It would be well to 



152 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

have this matter cleared up, as, in the absence of an explanation, the 
rumours abroad and the apparent contradictions in the public statements 
of the Law Adviser, the Manager, and one of the most prominent of the 
Directors, who has already feathered his own nest, is not calculated to tell 
in favour of the legal adviser of the Bank. 

The proposed appointment of the Manager, assistant Manager, and one 
of the Directors as Liquidators of the Bank, has been freely commented 
on, and by some construed as an attempt on their part, and on the part 
of the other Banks, to avoid any unpleasant disclosures, especially as the 
successful efforts of the shareholders to procure an independent statement 
of the Bank's affairs from a qualified accountant has produced such oppo- 
sition from, and apparent consternation in, official quarters. 

The indecent haste with which some of the officials of the 
bank ran away, like rats from a sinking ship, to take up their post in the 
ranks of the destroyer, needs no comment here. Their conduct will 
assuredly consign them to their proper position amongst us, and, we have 
no doubt, for ever settle their claims on their countrymen and fellow 
townsmen. 

Like all other great calamities, this has one redeeming feature. 
In small communities like ours, men who acquire position and power 
very often by no merits of their own assume an importance and an air 
of superiority which by degrees become oppressive and injurious to the best 
interests of the community. These men become the gods of society. A 
serious look or a compressed wrinkle of the brow soon comes to be ac- 
cepted as the sign of a great intellect concocting or maturing 
schemes which will some day surprise their fellows by great and 
brilliant results. A knowing nod of the head or a shrug of the shoulder 
indicates the profound superiority of the god above ordinary men. A 
successful stroke of business or a fortunate speculation with other people's 
money is at once voted as the result of a splendid genius. Any one who 
does not bow and scrape to these great ones of our small community, and 
who exhibits any ability or independence, at once becomes a special target 
for their shafts, and must be immediately put down and crushed, 
else he may by-and-bye show that the superiority of those holier- 
than-thou nabobs is a mere assumption after all, and nothing 
more. And this would be ruinous would never do. One of the ad- 
vantages and they are few in all conscience of the failure of the Cale- 
donian Bank will be to bring many of these local potentates to their natural 
level among their kind, and let the world see that they are only ordinary 
men like the rest of us. Brains, ability, and independence of mind will 
then have a fair chance ; and he that best deserves it will generally 
secure the greatest success in the race of life. This huge local oppres- 
siveness will make way for a healthier atmosphere, and that itself will be 
no small boon. 

Since the above was in type, the plucky conduct of the shareholders 
has prevailed so far as to induce the City of Glasgow Bank Liquidators to 
reconsider their determination to force the Caledonian Banking Company 
into liquidation, and at the meeting of shareholders held in Inverness on 
the 1 7th of January the Directors of our local institution consented, with- 
out the threatened opposition, and with the best grace possible in the 
altered circumstances, to an adjournment for one month. A. M, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



THE GAELIC SOCIETY OF INVERNESS. 

o 

THE annual dinner of tbis Society came off on the evening of the 14fch January, and, 
thanks mainly to the excellent Chairman, Sir Kenneth S. Mackenzie, Bart., of Gairloch, 
and the complete arrangements made by the Secretary, it was, censidering the present 
depression amongst us, an unexpected success. The Chairman made a thoughtful, 
sensible, and thoroughly practical speech on the West Coast crofter, and on the work of 
the Gaelic Society during the last four years. We regret that for want of sp.xce we can 
only give his introductory remarks, which were as follows : Four years ago, when 
I had the honour of occupying this chair, I availed myself of the opportunity to 
recount what this Society had done to fulfil the object of its institution, and to-night, in 
proposing the toast of the evening, allow me first of all to refer shoitly to something of 
what has taken place in the four years that have since elapsed, for which the Society 
may take a share of credit. The Celtic Chair has become an accomplished fact (cheers) 
thanks to the energy of our friend, Professor Blackie, but thanks also to the feeling on 
which the Professor was able to work. To our Society also, backed by the efforts of the 
Member for this town, it is due principally, if not entirely, that the Scotch Education 
Department has recognised the Gaelic language as a fit medium of instruction. Then a 
new magazine devoted to Highland literature and Highland interests has been established 
by your former excellent Secretary, and though it is in no way under our control, it very 
efficiently promotes some of the objects we have set before us, and it is not, I think, too 
much to say that the idea of providing such a periodical would never have taken shape 
but for our Society's existence. Again, only the other day, our Society took a prominent 
part in promoting a federal union of Celtic Societies. Many papers have been published 
in the Society's Transactions of permanent interest and value. I may fairly congratulate 
you, the Gaelic Society of Inverness, on having maintained an active and useful life. 
(Applause.) The Celtic Magazine, to which I hare alluded, is now in its fourth year, 
and is, I believe, an assured success. It concluded its second volume with an essay on the 
" Poetry and Prose of a Highland Croft," which attracted so much observation that our 
leading Scottish journal thought it worth sending a special commissioner to the West 
Highlands to report on the West Coast crofter. The Commissioner's letters were of 
course widely read. The Scotsman itself could see in the croft system only an unmiti- 
gated evil ; others (like the Highlander in this town) could see in it nothing but good ; 
while athirdpaity, admitting the misery spoken of by the Celtic Magazine and the Scotsman^ 
Commissioner, thought that by legislation the crofter's position might be brought back 
to that of an ideal past. Differing as I do from the views of all those, I should like to 
give you my own opinion upon it. (Applause.) I am only going to speak of the crofter 
population, as we now find it in the West, living by manual labour, and whose condition 
to be rightly judged of, must be compared with that of unskilled labourers elsewhere in 
Britain. Now there may be very little poetry in rising at five and being at work to six, 
in labouring ten hours a-day in summer, and from daylight to dark in winter, but the 
ordinary agricultural labourer finds no hardship in it, neither should the crofter. The 
hardship of his lot lies not in any toil or slavery to be endured at home, but in the fact 
that his croft under present conditions does not produce enough to maintain himself and 
his family, and that day's wages are not to be earned in the neighbourhood. So he has 
to leave his home to eke out a livelihood, and being naturally tempted to return when- 
ever he has gathered what he hopes will pull him through the year, he seldom has to 
spare ; while, if work is scarce, or the fishing bad, or the harvest a failure, there may be 
absolute want. There is then no question that the West Coast crofter seldom finds 
himself able to indulge in luxury. But despite the hardships, not one crofter in ten de- 
sires to remove with his family to some other part of the country for regular employ- 
ment. He has miseries undoubtedly. Who has not ? But, however invisible they may 
be to others, he has advantages which make him prefer his present fate to any that lies 
open to him elsewhere. If I may so put it, the bad prose of his life is tempered by a 
poetry which to him makes life more enjoyable than where it is all prose, even of a 
better kind. It is a fact, that for no increase of material plenty will he give up his pre- 
sent surroundings, and surely he knows better than his critics what tends most to his 
own happiness. But I not only maintain that his actual condition now is better than 
that of his predecessors of the same class, and that his circumstances have improved, and 
are improving. At what period were the crofters better off in the Highlands than now ? 
Before the Union the Highlands were a scene of anarchy. The records, such as they 
are, tell chiefly of feuds, harrying, revenges, battles, murders, and sudden deaths. The 
prose in those days had no doubt a good deal of poetry, but even the West Highland 
crofter el to day would not think the compensation sufficient. 

M 



154 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

THE GLENALMOND Hit iJlLANDEKS IX THE KILT. 
AWAY sonic live miles from one of those many spots where Ossian is said 
to lie buried, in the pass of Almond, and eleven miles across the moun- 
tains from Dail-chillin, at Loch Fraoch, where, according to some, is 
Fingal's last resting place, is a stately pile of buildings, reminding the 
traveller of the more ancient colleges by the Isis and the Cam, and situ- 
ated in the midst of a most romantic and mountainous country. This 
pile is well and widely known as Trinity College, Glenalmond, opened as 
a public school in 1847. In 1875 a great fire took place which destroyed 
part of the buildings, in consequence of which the theological department, 
originally affiliated to the school, was removed to Edinburgh in perpetuity, 
so that it is now a public school pure and simple, on the same lines as the 
great English schools of Eton, Harrow, and Winchester, and is intended 
to save the aristocracy and the lairds the trouble and great expense of 
sending their sons to England. This is just the kind of Home Rule we 
believe in. Why should not Scotland be able to educate her own sons ? 
To show the non-sectarian character of the school, it may be mentioned 
that about half the boys are members of the Established and Free Churches 
of Scotland. While it is pleasant to be able to note this, our object on 
the present occasion is to congratulate the College, its staff, and the com- 
mander of its Eifle Volunteer Corps, founded four years ago, on the 
national spirit which induced them the other day to adopt the Highland 
garb as the uniform of the corps. The tartan, selected after consultation 
with the Duke of .Athole who is also Viscount Glenalmond, and whose 
ancestors owned the district is the Hunting Murray, and when the men 
are in full uniform they wear the Athole badge a sprig of juniper, in 
their Glengarry bonnets. Well done Young Glenalmond ! They have 
already established their reputation at Wimbledon. Last year Private 
Montgomery, a member of the corps, after a tie with the Cheltenham and 
Charterhouse teams, won the Spencer Cup, open to the best individual 
shots from the great public schools. The appropriate motto of the corps 
" Soirbheachadh le Gleann Amuinn " will, we are sure, be echoed by 
every old Gleualmond boy who reads this short notice of the junior com- 
pany of Highlanders in Athole, so efficiently commanded by Captain 
W. E. Frost. 

GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES. It has been suggested 
that we should open a Genealogical Note and Query Column in the 
Celtic Magazine, and so aid those interested and engaged in tracing the 
genealogies of Highland families. The idea is a good one, and we shall 
be glad to set apart a certain amount of space monthly for the purpose. 
The Magazine now finds its way into almost all the principal families in 
the North of Scotland ; and it will afford us great pleasure to insert any 
queries to throw light on any difficult or disputed case of genealogy or 
succession which any one may send us, the only condition being that 
parties shall send their full names and addresses in confidence. Many of 
our subscribers will be found able and willing to answer them. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 155 



ptentture. 






THE GAELIC ETYMOLOGY OF THE LANGUAGES OF WESTERN EUROPE, 
and more especially of the English and Lowland Scotch, and of their Slang, Cant, 
and Colloquial Dialects. By CHARLES MACKAY, LL.D., Fellow of the Koyal 
Society of Antiquaries, Denmark. 

FIRST NOTICE. 

IT is true of every word, as surely as of every person, that it has its 
history, and sometimes a very instructive history it may prove ; and it is 
the province of the etymologist to furnish the true account of it (etymos= 
true, and logos=vfovd) and not the fabulous. It is equally true that every 
word has a double history that of its form, and that of its meaning. 
The etymologist who would fulfil his task in a trustworthy manner must, 
therefore, make himself acquainted first of all with the oldest forms of 
that language which he is using as a key, and that not merely in the 
narrow groove of one of its dialects, but on the broad basis of all, together 
with as many as possible of its cognate languages. A word-detective as 
the etymologist is, he must be able, moreover, to discover the disguises, 
not only of his own country, but of those countries into which he may 
enter in pursuit of runaways. Should an enterprising Celt take a fancy 
to a Chateau-en-Espagne, as a detective he should be able to show that 
he is a stranger there, and that in this country are to be found his father, 
mother, brothers, and sisters. It is essential also to return to the lang- 
uage with which he professes to unlock the anomalies of other languages, 
that he be endowed with a keen perception of the peculiarities of its 
idiom, so as to discover at a glance what is admissible and what is not. 
On the other hand, as regards the element of meaning, none can be an 
adept in etymology who is not gifted with special insight into the natural 
sequence and harmony of ideas the laws by which the mind advances 
from the literal to the metaphorical, from the concrete to the abstract. 

We are compelled to say that these elementary qualifications seem to 
be sadly awanting in the author of this book. Instead of a critic, the 
book calls loudly for an apologist, and he who would defend it 
wisely and truthfully must set out by disclaiming as untenable by far the 
larger portion of its Gaelic etymologies ; and after he has done so, there 
remains for him no light work in sifting and rectifying the remainder, and 
placing it on such a footing as would command the attention of Gaelic 
scholars. We could assure Dr Mackay, should he care for such assurance, 
that being specially interested in kindred pursuits, we had every inclina- 
tion to give his book a cordial welcome. We could join hands with 
him in his warm Celtic sympathies, his love of Gaelic etymology, 
and even in the point of view which must have suggested the title of his 
book ; but no sooner had we glanced over its pages than we found our- 
selves confronted with the problem given an author of acknowledged 
merit, on whose well-won laurels on other fields all could cordially con- 
gratulate him to account for this truly defective production. Surely, we 
thought, this author must have a strong strand of waggery in his mental 
texture, and he is practising upon the risible faculties of his countrymen. 
When he gives us, as the etymology of Europe, europach = not ropy, not 



156 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

tawdry ; for the "French, careme, lent, = Cath-reim, order of battle, be- 
cause lent is "the order of 'battle against the lusts of the flesh," we could 
aver that the author must have bad a merry twinkle in his eye. This, 
however, and other theories failed us at last, but when we found Dr 
M. couching his Gaelic lance at such Hebrew expressions as hallelujah, 
amen, not to mention the mene, mene, &c., we bethought us of an old book 
which has lain on our shelves for several years, and as we believe that 
it is mainly accountable for the peculiar style of etymology which per- 
vades this book, we must refer to it somewhat more particularly. In 1 799 
there was confined in Fort-George an Irish notability of the name of 
O'Connor, who styles himself Gear- Rige= hoary or high chief of his 
people. He was imprisoned by the British Government on a charge of 
treason, but on his own. showing, and he may have been right, for his 
incorruptible patriotism. Be this as it may, he published, or there was 
published for him, a book in two volumes the first containing what he 
calls his Demonstration, and the second his Chronicles of Eri. The 
demonstration consists in applying a so-called Irish key to Greek, 
Latin, and other Aryan vocables, and while within this area the 
etymology is sometimes not amiss, but then he goes full tilt at any thing 
in any language. In the scripture name, Chedorlaomar, King of Elam, 
0'ConnordiscoversthefourelementsCe'=earth dorisdu'ur= water laom 
= fire and ar or athar=air. The Phenician town, Sidon,is Sgadan= herring, 
for does not Pliny leave it on record that the coast of Sidon was a favourite 
resort of fish ! On such etymologies he elaborates a Chronicle of Ireland 
equally reliable with the foundation on which it rests. Now we confess 
for ourselves that we owe this book a grudge, for at a time when we were 
sufficiently credulous in such matters, it set us oif on a wild-goose chase, 
rummaging in every old Irish book within our reach, trying to authen- 
ticate the vocables with which this worthy divined, till at length we 
were driven to the conclusion that several of them had no existence but in 
his own brain, in which sense and nonsense had become so hopelessly 
intertwined as to defy any prospect of disentanglement. The most feasible 
theory on which a considerable portion of Dr M.'s etymologies can be 
explained is, we are persuaded, the O'Connor mania. Some of his 
wildest, or next to the Avildest, etymologies we have found in O'Connor's 
" Demonstration." The Gaelic Hallejujah is found there, and somewhat 
more candidly than Dr Mackay he renders it alloil-laaidh = dismal praise, 
and to be consistent stoutly maintains that the Jews mode of praise was 
very dismal ! This might pass for etymology in 1 799 and yet Edward 
Lhuyd published his noble Archaeologioi in 1707, nearly a century 
earlier; but how so intelligent a writer as Dr Mackay undoubtedly is, 
could expose himself and his language to the mockery of Sabbath school 
children by this grotesque rendering of hallelujah (if we must gravely 
parse it) halel-u = praise 'ye halelu Jah-= praise ye Jah, passes compre- 
hension on any other ground than the O'Connor mania. Doubtless, 
Dr Mackay has sat at the feet of O'Connor and has outrivalled his 
teacher. As for amen, a glance at any Hebrew Lexicon might have taught 
him that the Gaelic aw=timo or season, has not the remotest connexion 
with it; the fundamental idea of omen, in common Avith a considerable number 
of its derivative vocables in Hebrew and kindred languages being trttlh. 
Hence the agreement with which it is rendered in most Aryan tongues; e.g., 



.THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 157 

our own Gaelic gu deimhingii firinneach, Manx dy firinnagli, "Welsh yn 
loir, Italian in verita, Spanish en verdant, French en verity, German 
vahrlich, English verily. Who can doubt the connection of these expres- 
sions with each other, and no more do ice doubt that they are derived 
not from the Latin verus but from a much older source our own Gaelic 
fior (fir) = true. And what is it but to err still more egregiously when 
this same am= season is made to represent mo in parHamo, as the index 
of time. Had the writer given beurlamaid as the equivalent of parliamo, 
and of the French parlous, and made our mid or med (an old plural of 
mi) the equivalent of mo, of Latin mus and Greek men and metha, he 
would have been walking in the right direction. Our Gaelic beurla, 
though now restricted to the sense of English formerly meant language in 
general, for Edward Lhuyd, in his introduction to his Irish Grammar 
says of that language " ged nach i mo bheurla mhatharail " though it be 
not my mother tongue. And now to dismiss the Semitic affinities, we are 
very far from saying that such do not exist. We have a strong opinion that 
though comparatively few, there are affinities which are unmistakable 
between the great divisions of the Aryan and Semitic, and of which the 
Celtic family contains the most striking on the Ayran side ; but we do 
say, in all good feeling, that Dr M. is not the man to deal with what is 
confessedly one of the most difficult problems within the range of linguistic 
science. 

As for such expressions as " Kick the bucket," " Davy Jones' locker," 
" Cut your stick," &c., we feel confident that persons of less fertile fancy 
than our author's are not in the least disposed to question their maternity, 
nor are they unable to comprehend the idea which they convey. Let 
them, therefore, in all reason, be restored to the language of their birth. 

We come now to a field on which, if anywhere, we are entitled to 
look for judicious and discriminative treatment that of Gaelic unlock- 
ing the difficulties of English ; and yet on this his own chosen field our 
author betrays strange incapacity. Let us give an example or two. 

1. Amaze amazement. We hold with Dr Mackay that these words 
are of Celtic origin, but to offer as their Gaelic representatives masan and 
masanacli is absurd. The root is the first syllable am. 

Uamh=SLwe, fear, hence uamlias (old form, uamad or uamas)= amaze- 
ment ; another noun is uamhunn=feaY (old form, uamunn). Welsh ofn 
ofnid ofnol, e.g., ofn y pobyll=uamhunn a phobuill, the fear of the people ; 
also the Latin omen and English omen and ominous. Adjective uamhasach 
=awful or amazing. Then from the same root you have uamh-fhear= 
awe-man or giant, and a modern form famhar. May not thus the Greek 
/o6os=fear, and fobeo = I fear, be from this root also ? At the least it may 
be accepted that the Greek thauma (old form, thaumad or thaumat), 
wonder, and thaumazo, I wonder, am amazed, are cognate, if not deriva- 
tive. 

2. It was indicated in the outset that, to the etymologist, acquaintance 
with the oldest forms of any language with which he is dealing is of the 
utmost importance. Had the old spelling of can) we = lent, been known to 
our. author, it would have saved him from one at least of his mistakes. 
In the French version of Calvin's works the spelling, if we remember 
aright, is always caresme, and in this old spelling, as pretty often is the 
case in other instances, you have the clue to the true derivation. Lent 



158 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

in the Catholic Church, as most people know, has reference to our 
Saviour's forty days' fast in the wilderness, and is styled quadragcsima, 
or fortiethday, and thence Italian quaresima or digiuno di 40 giorni ; 
Spanish, cuadragesima or cuarcsima. So the French caresme modern 
careme is simply a modification of quarantiemo. Turning again to the Celtic 
terms for lent, in none of them do we find a trace of the crtM/vuw= order 
of battle etymology, e.g., Gaelic cairbJtcas, Irish carghas, Manx 
cJiargijs, Welsh y graioys, Armoric coaras and yet when cairlh-eas= 
flesh -destitution, or want, offers itself as at least a plausible etymology, 
we are reminded of two things; (1) the suspicious resemblance of most of 
these words to qnadragesima, alias caresima ; and (2) that the Celts must 
have received their lent with the introduction of the Catholic form of 
Christianity. 

3. Besides all this, the reader is too often treated to etymologies 
which do not afford even a plausible resemblance to the words for which 
they are offered for substitutes. Too often have the weapons of sarcasm 
been flung, and flung to some purpose, against what is styled phonetic 
etymology ; but here the reader every now and then encounters in sound 
and in sense alike the most unaccountable violations of probability. Who 
but our author could gravely offer for canopy, ceann-bhrat, or ceann-bheart 
=head covering or head-dress ? How could the latter be transferred into 
the former? whereas you have but to assume that cainpe^liemp, was 
the material of which canopies, draperies, couches, &c., were originally 
made, and you have an etymology which is thoroughly satisfactory in 
every way. 

Canape or eajw/?=hemp. Irish canaib and cnaib, Arm. canaib, Latin 
cannabis, Greek cannabis, Sanscrit sana, Italian canapa and canape, 
Spanish canamo, Fr. chanvre, Lithuarean kanape, Dutch Jcennip, Prussian 
konopea, Islandic hanp, Anglo-Saxon haenep, Old German hanaf, English 
hemp. The immense area over which this word is known would of itself go 
far to indicate that of textile fabrics it may have been the earliest material. 
The most obvious derivatives are the following : In Gaelic, canat'pe 
fhliucli = the wet sheet in which delinquents not many ages ago professed 
penitence in Scotland ; Spanish, canape = a couch, canapo and canapalo = 
cable, cordage ; Sp. canomas, Gaelic canaibcas, English canvas and, Query, 
English cable. 

4. Once more in the line of strictures, it must be obvious, on the 
slightest reflection, that a word cannot have but one origin the origin 
cannot be this or that, and more especially when the this and that are 
wide as the poles asunder. Where a definite conclusion cannot be reached, 
better were it to leave the word alone, and that on the plain principle 
that better far is no beacon than a false one and no guide than a blind one. 
Every now and again you come upon an alternative etymology in this 
book ; while a single glance can satisfy you that the alternatives have not 
the remotest connection with each other. Take one instance, and only 
one for this line of remark is quite as distasteful to the writer as it 
can be to the author. On page 417, for soar=to mount in the air, you 
have the etymology submitted in the optional style first, sor=free and 
verb set free (though we should prefer so-ar= easily mounting, easily 
rising aloft, as the more likely) ; but if either the one or other, how could 
it be sdv, the radical idea of which is oppression- Compare the following 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



affinities : Sdr is used adverbially to qualifiy nouns and adjectives and 
verbs exactly as the Scotch and Germans use it sair and sehr, and 
English sore, e.g., sar-laockn thorough hero, sar-mhaith thoroughly 
good, &c. Yerb saraich = to distress, oppress. Hence, sharaich (harich), 
Greek liarasso, and English harass. 

While in the interests of Gaelic scholarship we have felt bound to 
show the defects of this book, it were more than ungracious to pass 
silently over its merits. The author's intimate acquaintance with the nooks 
and crannies of our national literature has enabled him to bring into 
prominence several hitches in the etymologies of others, which cannot fail 
to tend to further investigation. Besides all this, there are words of 
doubtful meaning, and of no meaning, on which he has put his finger, and 
if he has failed in some instances to light upon the true etymology others 
who look at them from a wider point of view may be able to furnish 
the true interpretation. Let it also be cheerfully conceded that a con- 
siderable portion of Dr Mackay's etymologies are very solid and very sug- 
gestive. These, if separated from those which are but vague and hap- 
hazard guesses, and more fully fortified and illustrated by the results of 
comparative philology, would form a contribution to the whole subject 
of the relation of the Celtic and Teutonic dialects which should merit the 
warm gratitude of scholars. When circumstances permit we hope to 
return to the subject, and to dwell more on these instances in which our 
author has hit the mark, 

KILMOBACK. AND. D. MACKENZIE. 



BEST IN THE FIGHT. 



From the life- wearing battle for bread, 

From the weary trammels of toil, 
Where Autumn's enchantments iu glory are spread, 

I hie with delight fwr awhile : 

The slave may worship his wealth, 

And ne'er from his idol shrine range ; 
But richer is he who enriches his health, 

By tasting the pleasures of change. 

I'll away to the blue Highland hills, 

'Mid Nature's sweet virginal dreams, 
"Where the dark pines sigh to the song of the rills, 

Or croon to the music of streams ; 

Where flowers their beauty reveal, 

Where winds soft melodies blow, 
Where the careworn heart of the toiler can feel 

The peace of a heaven below. 

There the fire of the soul is renewed 

By the l.'iuch of a magic hand ; 
There the eye with a song gleam flash is imbued 

'Neath the spells of the mountain land 

Away-unfettered and free, 

Away from the pallor of toil, 
The mountains and glens of the Highlands give me 

To roam in, to roain in awhile. 

WM. ALLAN. 



160 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



Slow, withfcdiii;/. 




R A N GAOIL. 



1 



^t= 



4-U> 



Much 's mi 'g eiridh gu reidhlean feoir, Air maduinn cheitein mun d' eirich ceo, 





Chunnacas eucag, inar shoillsean greine, Chuir saigheacl chreuchdach, gu geurn'am fheoil. 



Key D. 

r . m i s : 1 . s : m ., d I r : : d 1 . 1 I r 1 : m 1 . r 1 : d' ., 1 | s : 

i 
d 1 . 1 | r' : m' . r : d' ., 1 | s : 1 : r , m | s : 1 . s : m ., d I r : -II 



Is boi'che sheallas ri latha fliuch, 




Do shlios mar chanach, air feadh nan torn, 
No mar eala, 's i snamh nan tonn ? 
Do bheul, deargtana, o'n cubhraidh anail, 
'S tu 's binne, banail, a sheinneas fonn. 

'S beag an t-ioghnadh ged tha thu mor, 
'S gach sruthan uaibhreach tha suas n d' phor, 
'S tu 'n fhior bhean uasal, do 'n nadur uallach, 
'S tu 's grinne dh' fhuaitneas, 's as gile meoir. 

Thug raise gaol dut, a gheug nam buadh, 
'S tu 'n ainnir fhinealt, dha 'n geill an sluagh, 
Corp fallain direach, mar chraobhan ginis, 
Le meoir a cinntinn, fo bhlath a suas. 

'S truagh nach ro mi mar an driuchd. 
'S tus' ad' fhlur ann am bun na'n stuchd, 
Chumain urachd ri bun gach flur dhiot. 
'S cha leiginn lub orr ri teas no fuachd. 

Cait an teid mi no co an taobh { 

'H gu'm faigh mi t-eugais a chuir air chul 

Ged theid mi dh' Eirinn, no fhad s is leur dhomh, 

Cha'n fhaic mi te bhios co maiseach gnuis. 

Se bhi air faondraidh an eilean fais, 

An riochd na h-eala gun dim-am bais 

Gun sgaoilinn sgiathan a ghaoil ri d' chliathaich 

'S cha bhithinn flata ri chuir an sas. 

NOTE. Mrs Mary Mackellar, the well-known poetess, sending us the above song, wrote re- 
garding it as follows : " The abore song was composed by a Lochaber gentleman in praise of the 
late Mrs Macdonald, Inch, Brae-Lochaber, a lady who was so surpassingly lovely that she was 
considered the very queen of beauty in her day in the Highlands. This unfortunate gentleman, 
who loved so well in v.'iin, taught the song to a servant lie had, who had a flne voice, and he used 
to make her sins it whilst he lay near her with his face buried in the grass listening to his own 
sad verses. Even years after he was married to another and his beloved the wife of a more 
successful suitor he used to go to her to sing it to him whilst he the while lay suffering over 
again the same old pain. I got the song when recently in Fort-William, from a young lady, 
and to hear her play and sing it made it in very deed seem to me the pathetic wail of a sorrow- 
ful heart." W. M'K. 






THE 



CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

No. XLI. MAECH, 1879. VOL. IV. 

HISTOEY OF THE CLAN MACKENZIE, 

WITH GENEALOGIES OF THE P11INC1PAL FAMILIES. 

BY THE EDITOR. 



[CONTINUED. | 

XIX. KENNETH, afterwards created Earl of Seaforth, Viscount Fort- 
rose, and Baron Ardelve, in the peerage of Ireland. From his small stature, 
he was more commonly known among the Highlanders as the " Little 
Lord." He was born in Edinburgh on the 15th of January 1744, and at 
an early age entered the army. As a reward for his father's loyalty to 
the House of Hanover during the troubles of 1745, and his own steady 
support of the reigning family, he was, by George III., in 1766, raised 
to the peerage by the title of Viscount Fortrose, and Baron Ardelve, in 
the Kingdom of Ireland, and in 1771 he was created Earl of Seaforth in 
the peerage of the same kingdom. To evince his gratitude for this mag- 
nanimous act, in 1778 he offered to raise a regiment for general 
service. The offer was accepted by his Majesty, and a fine body 
of 1130 men were in a very short time raised by the Earl, principally 
on his own estates in the north, and by gentlemen of his own 
name. Of these five hundred were raised among his immediate 
vassals, and about four hundred from the estates of the Mackenzies of 
Scatwell, Kilcoy, Eedcastle, and Applecross. The officers from the 
south to whom he granted commissions in the Eegiment brought about 
two hundred men, of whom forty-three were English and Irish. The 
Macraes of Kin tail, who had always proved such faithful followers and able 
supporters of the House of Seaforth, were so numerous in the regiment 
that it was known more by the name of the Macraes than by that of 
Seaforth's own kinsmen, and so much was this the case that the well- 
known mutiny which took place in Edinburgh, on the arrival of the 
regiment there, is still called " the affair of the Macraes"* The regiment 

* The Seaforth Highlanders were marched to Leith, where they were quartered for 
a short interval, though long enough to produce complaints about the infringement of 
their engagements, and some pay and bounty which they said were due them. Their 
disaffection was greatly increased by the activity of emissaries from Edinburgh, like 
those just mentioned as having gone down from London to Portsmouth. The regiment 
refused to embark, and marching out of Leith, with pipes playing and two plaids fixed 
on poles instead of colours, took a position on Arthur's seat, of which they kept posses- 

N 



162 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

was embodied at Elgin in May 1778, aud was inspected by General 
Skene, when it was found so effective that not a single man was rejected. 
Seaforth, who was on the 29th of December 1777 appointed Colonel, was 
now promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel-Commandant, and the 
regiment was called the 78th, or Eoss-shire Eegiment of Highlanders. 

The grievances complained of at Leith having been removed, the regi- 
ment embarked at that port, accompanied by their Colonel, the noble 
Earl, and the intention of sending them to India then having been aban- 
doned, one half of the regiment was sent to Guernsey and the other half 
to Jersey. Towards the end of April 1781 the two divisions assembled 
at Portsmouth, whence they embarked for India on the 1 2th of June fol- 
lowing, being then 973 strong, rank and file. Though in excellent 
health, the men suffered so much from scurvy, in consequence of the 
change of food, that before their arrival at Madras, on the 2d of April 1782, 
247 of them died, and out of those who landed alive only 369 were in a 
fit state for service. Their Chief and Colonel died before they arrived at 
St Helena, to the great grief and dismay of his faithful followers, who 
looked up to him as their principal support. His loss was naturally asso- 
ciated in their minds with the recollections of home, Avith melancholy re- 
membrances of their absent kindred, and with forebodings of their own 
future destiny, and so strong was this feeling impressed upon them that 
it materially contributed to that prostration of mind which made them 
the more readily become the victims of disease. They well knew that it 
was on their account alone that he had determined to forego the comforts 
of a splendid fortune and high rank to encounter the privations and in- 
conveniences of a long voyage, and the dangers and other fatigues of 
military service in a tropical climate.* 

His Lordship, on the 7th of October 1765, married Lady Caroline 
Stanhope, eldest daughter of William, second Earl of Harrington, and by 
her who died in London from a consumption under which she laboured 
for nearly two years, on the 9th of February 1767, at the early age of 
twenty, t and was buried at Kensington he had issue, an only daughter, 
Caroline, born in London on the 7th of July 1766. She married Count 
Melfort, a nobleman of the Kingdom of France, but originally of Scottish 
extraction, and died without issue in 1847. 

Thus the line of George, second Earl of Seaforth, who died in 1633, 
became extinct ; and it now becomes necessary to carry the reader back 
to Kenneth Mor, third Earl of Seaforth, to pick up the chain of legitimate 
succession. It has been already shown how the lineal descent of the old 
line of Kintail has been directed from heirs male in the person of Ann, 
Countess of Balcarres, daughter of Colin, first Earl of Seaforth. 

sion for several days, during which time the inhabitants ef Edinburgh amply supplied 
them with provisions and ammunition. After much negotiation, a proper understand- 
ing respecting the causes of their complaint was brought about, and they marched down 
the hill in the same manner in which they had gone up, with pipes playing ; and, "with 
the Earls of Seaforth and Dunmore, and General Skene, at their head. They entered 
Leitb, and went on board the transports with the greatest readiness and cheerfulness." 
In this case, as in that of the Athole Highlanders, none ot the men were brought to 
trial, or even put into confinement, for these acts of open resistance. Stewart's Sketches 
Appendix p. Irjcsit: 

* Stewart's Sketches, and Fullarton's History of the Highland Clans and Highland 
Regiments. 

t Scots Magazine for 1767, p, 538. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 163 

Kenneth M6r had three sons, Kenneth Og, his heir and successor, 
whose line terminated in Lady Caroline, Countess Melfort ; John of 
Assynt, whose only son, Kenneth, died without issue ; Hugh, who died 
young; and Colonel Alexander, afterwards designated of Assynt and 
Conansbeg, and who married Elizabeth, daughter of John Paterson, 
Bishop of Eoss, and sister of John Paterson, Archbishop of Glasgow. 
He had an only son and six daughters. The daughters were Isa- 
bella, who married Basil Hamilton of Baldoon, became mother of 
Dunbar, fourth Earl of Selkirk, and died in 1725 ; Frances, 
who married her cousin, Kenneth Mackenzie of Assynt, without 
issue ; Jane, married Dr Mackenzie, a cadet of the family of Coul, and 
died at New Tarbet, 18th September 1776 [Scots Magazine, vol. 38, 
p. 510] ; Mary, married Captain Dougal Stewart of Blairhall, M.P., a 
Lord of Session and Justiciary, and brother of the first Earl of Bute, with 
issue ; Elizabeth, died unmarried at Kirkcudbright, on the 1 2th of March 
1796, aged 81 [Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 66, p. 357] ; and Maria, who 
married Nicholas Price of Saintfield, County Down, Ireland, and had issue. 
She was maid of honour to Queen Caroline, and died in 1732 [Burke's 
Landed Gentry]. The son was Major "William Mackenzie, who married Mary, 
the daughter and co-heiress of Mathew Humberstone, Lincoln, by whom he 
had issue, two sons, first, Thomas Frederick Mackenzie, who assumed the 
name of Humberston on succeeding to his mother's property, and who was 
Colonel of the 100th .Regiment of foot; and second, Francis Humberston 
Mackenzie. Major William had also four daughters ; Frances Cerjat, who 
married Sir Vicary Gibbs,M.P.,his Majesty's Attorney-General, with issue ; 
Maria Rebecca, married Alexander Mackenzie of Breda, younger son of John 
Mackenzie of Applecross, with issue ; and Helen, who married Major- 
General Alexander Mackenzie Eraser of Inverallachie, fourth son of Colin 
Mackenzie of Kilcoy, Colonel of the 78th Regiment, and M.P. for the 
County of Ross, with issue. William died on the 12th of March 1770, at 
Stafford, Lincolnshire [Scots Magazine, vol. 32, p. 167]. His wife died 
on the 19th of February 1813, at Hartley, Herts [Scots Magazine, vol. 
75, p. 240]. Colonel Thomas F. Mackenzie Humberston, it will be seen, 
thus became male heir to his consin, Earl Kenneth, who died, without male 
issue, in 1781, and who, finding his property heavily encumbered with 
debts from which he could not extricate himself, conveyed the estates 
to his cousin and heir male, Colonel Thomas, in the year 1779, on pay- 
ment to him of 100,000. He died, as already stated, in 1781, and was 
succeeded by his cousin, 

XX. COLONEL THOMAS FREDERICK MACKENZIE HUMBERSTON, in all 
his extensive estates, and in the command of the 78th Ross-shire High- 
land Regiment, but not in the titles and dignities, which ended 
with his predecessor. When, in 1778, the 78th was raised, Thomas T. F. 
Mackenzie Humberston was a captain in the 1st Regiment of Dragoon 
Guards, but notwithstanding this he accepted a captaincy in Seaforth's regi- 
ment of Ross-shire Highlanders. He was afterwards quartered with the 
latter regiment in Jersey,and took a prominent share in repelling the attack 
made on that island by the French. Soon after, in 1781, he embarked 
with the regiment to the East Indies, with the rank of Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and was at Port Preya when the outward bound East Indian 



164 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

fleet under Commodore Johnston was attacked by the French. He hap- 
pened at the time to be ashore, but such was his ardour to share in the 
action that he swam to one of the ships engaged with the enemy. 
As soon as he arrived in India he obtained a separate command 
on the Malabar Coast, but in its exercise he met with every dis- 
couragement from the Council of Bombay. This gave him a greater op- 
portunity of distinguishing himself, for under all the disadvantages of 
having money, stores, and reinforcements withheld from him, he under- 
took, with 1000 Exiropeans and 2500 Sepoys to wage an offensive war 
against Calicut. He was conscious of great resources in his own mind, 
and harmony, confidence, and attachment on the part of his officers and 
men. He drove the enemy out of the country, defeated them in three 
different engagements, took the city of Calicut, and every other place of 
strength in the kingdom. He concluded a treaty with the King of Tra- 
vancore, who was reinforced with a force of 1200 men. Tipoo now pro- 
ceeding against him with 30,000 men, more than one-third of whom were 
cavalry, Colonel Mackenzie Humberston repelled their attack, and by 
a rapid march regained the Fort of Panami, which the enemy attempted to 
carry, but he defeated them with great loss. He served under General 
Mathews against Hyder Ali in 1782- but during the operations of that 
campaign, Mathews gave such proofs of misconduct, incapacity, and in- 
justice, that Colonels Macleod and Humberston carried their complaints 
to the Council of Bombay, where they arrived on the 26th of February 
1783. The Council ordered General Mathews to be superseded, appointed 
Colonel Macleod to succeed him in command of the army, and desired 
Colonel Humberston to join him. They both sailed from Bombay on 
the 5th of April 1783, in the Ranger sloop of war ; but, notwithstanding 
that peace had been concliided with the Mahrattas, that vessel was attacked 
on the 8th of that month by the Mahratta fleet, and after a desperate 
resistance of four hours, was taken possession of. All the officers on 
board were either killed or wounded, among them the young and gallant 
Colonel Mackenzie Humberston, who was shot through the body with a 
four pound ball, and died of the wound at Geriah on the 30th of April 
1783, in the 28th year of his age. He had thus only been Chief of the 
Clan for the short space of two years, and, dying unmarried, he was 
succeeded by his only brother,* 

XXI. FRANCIS HUMBERSTON MACKENZIE, afterwards raised to the 
peerage by*the title of his ancestors, Earl of Seaforth. This nobleman, 
in many respects a very able and remarkable man, was born in 
1754, in full possession of all his faculties; but a severe attack of 
scarlet fever from which he suffered when about twelve years of age, 
deprived him of hearing and almost of speech. As he advanced in 
life he again almost entirely recovered the faculty of speech, but during 
the latter two years of his life, grieving over the loss of his four promising 
sons, all of whom predeceased him, he became quite unable, or rather 
never made any attempt to articulate. He was in his youth intended 
by his parents to follow the naval profession, but his physical misfor- 
tunes made such a career impossible. 

Little or nothing is known of the history of his early life. In 1784, 
and again in 1790, he was elected M.P. for the County of Eoss. In 1787, 

* Douglas' Peerage. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 165 

in the thirty-third year of his age, he offered to raise a regiment on his own 
estates for the King's service, to be commanded by himself. In the same 
year the 74th, 75th, 76th, and 77th Regiments were raised, and the Go- 
vernment declined Mr Mackenzie's offer; but agreed to accept his services in 
the matter of procuring recruits for the 74th and 75th. This did not please 
him, and he did not then come prominently to the front. On the 19th 
of May 1790, he renewed his oiler, but the Government informed him 
that the strength of the army had been finally fixed at seventy-seven 
regiments, and his services were again declined. He was still anxious to 
be of service to his sovereign, and when the war broke out, in 1793, he 
again renewed his offer, and placed his great influence at the service of 
the Crown ; and we find a letter of service granted in his favour dated 
the 7th of March 1793, empowering him, as Lieutenant-Colonel-Com- 
mandant, to raise a Highland battalion, which, being the first embodied 
during the war, was to be numbered the 78th, the original Mackenzie 
regiment having had its number previously reduced to the 72d. The bat- 
talion was to consist of 1 company of Grenadiers, 1 of light infantry, and 
8 battalion companies. The Chief at once appointed as his Major his 
own brother-in-law, Alexander Mackenzie of Belmaduthy, a son of Kilcoy, 
then a captain in the 73d Eegiment, and a man who proved himself on all 
future occasions well fitted for the post. The following notice, headed 
by the Eoyal arms, was immediately posted throughout the Counties of 
Boss and Cromarty, on the mainland, and in the Island of Lews : 

" Seaforth's Highlanders to be forthwith raised for the defence of his 
Glorious Majesty, King George the Third, and the preservation of our 
happy constitution in Church and State. 

" All lads of true Highland blood willing to show their loyalty and 
spirit, may repair to Seaforth, or the Major, Alexander Mackenzie of Bel- 
maduthy ; or the other commanding officers at headquarters, at .... 
where they will receive high bounties and soldier-like entertainment. 

" The lads of this regiment will live and die together, as they cannot 
be draughted into other regiments, and must be reduced in a body, in 
their own country. 

" Now for a stroke at the Monsieurs, my boys ! King George for 
ever ! Huzza ! " 

The machinery once set agoing, applications poured in upon Seaforth 
for commissions in the corps from among his own more immediate rela- 
tives, and from others who were but slightly acquainted with him.* 

The martial spirit of the people soon became thoroughly roused, and 
recruits came in so rapidly that on the 10th of July 1793, only four 
months after the granting of the Letter of Service in favour of Seaforth, 

* Besides Seaforth himself, and his Major mentioned in the text, the following, 
of the name of Mackenzie, appear among the first list of officers : 

Major. Alexander Mackenzie of Fairburn, General in 1809. 

Captains. John Mackenzie of Gairloch, " Fighting Jack," Major 1794, Lieutenant- 
Colonel the same year, and Lieutenant-General in 1814. Died the father of 
the British Army in 1860 ; J. Randoll Mackenzie of Suddie, Major-General 
in 1804, killed at Talavera 1809. 

Lieutenant, Colin Mackenzie, Lieutenant-Colonel 91st Regiment. 

Ensigns. Charles Mackenzie, Kilcoy j and J, Mackenzie Scott, Captain 57th Regi- 
ment. Killed at Albuera. 



16G THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

the regiment was marched to Fort-George, inspected and passed by Lieut. - 
General Sir Hector Munro, after which five companies were immediately 
embarked for Guernsey, and the other five companies landed in Jersey in 
September 1793, after which they were sent to Holland. 

On the 13th of October in the same year, Seaforth offered to raise a 
second battalion for the 78th, and on the 30th of the same month the 
King granted him permission to raise five hundred additional men on 
the original letters of service. This was not, however, what he 
wanted, and on the 28th of December following he submitted three 
alternative proposals, for raising a second battalion, to the Government. 
On the 7th of February 1794, one of these was agreed to. The battalion 
was to consist of eight battalion and two flank companies, each to consist 
of 100 men, with the usual number of officers and non-commissioned 
officers. Seaforth was, however, disappointed by the Government ; for 
while he intended to have raised a second battalion to his own regiment, 
an order was issued, signed by Lord Amherst, that it was to be considered 
as a separate corps, whereupon the Lieutenant-Colonel-Commandant ad- 
dressed the following protest to Mr Dundas, one of the Secretaries of 
State: " St Alban Street, 8th February 1794. Sir, I had sincerely 
hoped I should not be obliged to trouble you again ; but on my going to- 
day to the War Office about my letter of service (having yesterday, as I 
thought, finally agreed with Lord Amherst), I was, to my amazement, 
told that Lord Amherst had ordered that the 1000 men I am to raise 
were not to be a second battalion of the 78th, but a separate corps. It 
will, I am sure, occur to you that should I undertake such a thing, it 
would destroy my influence among the people of my country entirely ; 
and instead of appearing as a loyal honest chieftain calling out his friends 
to support their King and country, I should be gibbeted as a jobber of 
the attachment my neighbours bear to me. Recollecting what passed be- 
tween you and me, I barely state this circumstance ; and I am, with 
great respect and attachment, sir, your most obliged and obedient servant. 
(Signed), F. H. MACKENZIE." This had the desired effect, the order for 
a separate corps was rescinded, and a letter of service was granted to 
Seaforth on the 10th of February 1794, authorising him, as Lieutenant- 
Colonel-Commandant, to add the new battalion, of which the strength 
was to be one company of Grenadiers, one of light infantry, and eight 
battalion companies to his own regiment. The regiment was soon raised; 
and inspected and passed at Fort-George in June of the same year by Sir 
Hector Munro, and in July following the King granted permission to 
have it named, as a distinctive title, " The Koss-shire Buffs." The two 
battalions were amalgamated in June 1796. Another battalion was raised 
in 1804 Letter of Service, date 17th April. These were again amalga- 
mated in July 1817.* Though the regiment was not accompanied abroad 
by its Lieutenant-Colonel-Commandant, he was always most solicitous for 
its reputation and welfare, as we find from the various communications 
addressed to him regarding the regiment and the conduct of the men by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Mackenzie of Fairburn, who was appointed 

* For these particulars we are mainly indebted to Fullarton's Highland Clans and 
Regiments, and to Stewart's Sketches. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



Lieutenant-Colonel from the first battalion,* and now in actual command, 
but as the history of the 78th Highlanders is not our present object, we 
must meanwhile part company with it and follow the future career of 
Francis Humberston Mackenzie. As a reward for his eminent services to 
the Government he was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of the County of Ross, 
and, 26th October 1797, raised to the dignity of a peer of the United 
Kingdom as Lord Seaforth and Baron Mackenzie of Kintail, the ancient 
dignities of his house, with limitation to heirs male of his body. His 
Lordship, having resigned the command of the 78th, was, in 1798, ap- 
pointed Colonel of the Ross-shire Regiment of Militia. In 1800 he was 
appointed Governor of Barbadoes, an office which he held for six years, 
after which he held high office in Demerara and Berbice. While Governor 
of Barbadoes he was at first extremely popular, and was distinguished for 
his firmness and even-handed justice, and he succeeded in putting an end 
to slavery, and to the practice of slave-killing in the island, which at that 
time was a pretty common occurrence, and deemed by the planters a 
venial offence punishable only by a small fine of 15. In consequence 
of this humane proceeding he became obnoxious to many of the colonists, 
and he finally left the place in 1806. In 1808 he was made a Lieutenant- 
General. These were singular incidents in the life of one who may be 
said to have been deaf and dumb from his youth ; but who, in spite of 
these physical defects sufficient to crush any ordinary man, had, by the 
force of his natural abilities and the favour of fortune, been able to over- 
come them sufficiently to raise himself to such a high and important posi- 
tion in the world. He also took a lively interest in all questions of art 
and science, especially in natural history, and displayed at once his 
liberality and his love of art by his munificence to Sir Thomas Lawrence, 
in the youth and struggles of that great artist and famous painter, and 
by his patronage of others. On this point a recent writer says 
" The last Baron of Kintail, Francis, Lord Seaforth, was, as Sir Walter 
has said, ' a nobleman of extraordinary talents, who must have made for 
himself a lasting reputation, had not his political exertions been checked 
by painful natural infirmities.' Though deaf from his sixteenth year and 
though labouring under a partial impediment of speech, he held high and 
important appointments, and was distinguished for his intellectual acti- 
vities and attainments His case seems to contradict the 

opinion held by Kitto and others, that in all that relates to the culture of 
the mind, and the cheerful exercise of the mental faculties, the blind have 
the advantage of the deaf. The loss of the ear, that ' vestibule of the 
soul,' was to him compensated by gifts and endowments rarely united in 
the same individual. Ono instance of the Chief's liberality and love of 
art may be mentioned. In 1796 he advanced a sum of 1000 to Sir 
Thomas Lawremce to relieve him from pecuniary difficulties. Lawrence 
was then a young man of twenty-seven. His career from a boy upwards 
was one of brilliant success, but he was careless and generous as to money 
matters, and some speculations by his father embarrassed and distressed 
the young artist. In his trouble he applied to the Chief of Kintail. 
' Will you,' he said in that theatrical style common to Lawrence, ' will 

* J. Randoll Mackenzie, also from the first battalion, was appointed senior major. 



168 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

you be the Antonio to a Bassanio V He promised to pay the 1000 in 
four years, but the money Avas given on terms the most agreeable to the 
feelings, and complimentary to the talents of the artist. He was to repay 
it with his pencil, and the Chief sat to him for his portrait. Lord Sea- 
forth also commissioned from West one of those immense sheets of canvas 
on which the old Academician delighted to work in his latter years. The 
subject of the picture was the traditionary story of the Royal hunt, in 
which Alexander the Third was saved from the assault of a fierce stag 
by Colin Fitzgerald, a wandering knight unknown to authentic history. 
West considered it one of his best productions, charged 800 for it, and 
was willing some years afterwards, with a view to the exhibition of his 
works, to purchase back the picture at its original cost. In one instance 
Lord Seaforth did not evince artistic taste. He dismantled Brahan 
Castle, removing its castellated features, and completely modernising its 
general appearance. The house, with its large modern additions, is a 
tall, massive pile of building, the older portion covered to the roof with 
ivy. It occupies a commanding site on a bank midway between the river 
Conon and a range of picturesque rocks. This bank extends for miles, 
sloping in successive terraces, all richly wooded or cultivated, and com- 
manding a magnificent view that terminates with the Moray Firth.* 

The remarkable prediction of the extinction of this highly distinguished 
and ancient family is already well known to the reader, and its literal 
fulfilment is one of the most curious instances of the kind on record. 
There is no doubt that the "prophecy" was well known throughout 
the Highlands generations before it was fulfilled. Lockhart, in his " Life 
of Sir Walter Scott," says that " it connected the fall of the house of Sea- 
forth not only with the appearance of a deaf ' Cabarfeidh,' but with the 
contemporaneous appearance of various different physical misfortunes in 
several of the other Highland Chiefs, all of which are said to have actually 
occurred within the memory of the generation that has not yet passed 
away. Mr Morrit can testify thus, for that he heard the prophecy quoted 
in the Highlands at a time when Lord Seaforth had two sons alive, and 
in good health, and that it certainly was not made after the event," and 
then he proceeds to say that Scott and Sir Humphrey Davy were 
most certainly convinced of its truth, as also many others who had 
watched the latter days of Seaforth in the light of those wonderful prc- 
dictions.t 

* Review of "The Seaforth Papers" in the North British Review, 1863, by the 
late Robert Carruthers, LL.D. 

t "Every Highland family has its store of traditionary and romantic beliefs. Cen- 
turies ago a seer of the Clan Mackenzie, known as Kenneth Oag (Odhar), predicted that 
when there should be a deaf Caberfae the gift-land of the estate would be sold, and the 
male line become extinct. The prophecy was well known in the Noith, and it was not, 
like many similar vaticinations, made after the event. At least three unimpeachable 
Sassenach writers, Sir Humphrey Davy, Sir Walter Scott, and Mr Morritt of Rokeby, 
had all heard the prediction when Lord Seaforth had two sons alive, both in good health. 
The tenantry were, ot course, strongly impressed with the truth of the prophecy, and 
when their Chief proposed to sell part of Kintail, they offered to buy in the land for 
him, that it might not pass from the family, One son was then living, and there was 
no immediate prospect of the succession expiring ; but, in deference to the clannish 
prejudice or affection, the sale of any portion of the estate was deferred for about two 
years. The blow came at last. Lord Seaforth was involved in West India plantations, 
which were mismanaged, and he was forced to dispose of part of the " gift land." About 
the same time the last of his four sons, a young man of talent and eloquence, and then 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 169 

His Lordship outlived all his four sons as predicted by the Brahan 
Seer. His name became extinct, and his vast possessions were inherited by a 
stranger, Mr Stewart, who married the eldest daughter, Lady Hood. She 
afterwards, by accident, killed her own sister ; and the sign by which it was 
to be known that these events were about to happen was also foretold in a 
remarkable manner, namely, that there would be in the days of 
the last Seaforth four great contemporary lairds, distinguished by 
physical defects predicted by the Seer. Sir Hector Mackenzie, Bart, of 
Gairloch, was buck-toothed, and is to this day spoken of among the Gair- 
loch tenantry as " An-tighearna Storach," or the buck-toothed laird. 
Chisholm of Chisholm was hair-lipped. Grant of Grant half-witted, and 
Macleod of Raasay a stammerer.* 

In addition to the testimony of those whose names we have already 
stated, we shall give that of a living witness. Duncan Davidson of Tul- 
loch, in a letter addressed to the writer, dated May 21, 1878, says 
" Many of these prophecies I heard of upwards of 70 years ago, and when 
many of them were not fulfilled, such as the late Lord Seaforth sur- 
viving his sons, and Mrs Stewart Mackenzie's accident, near Brahan, by 
which Miss Caroline Mackenzie was killed." 

One cannot help sympathising with the magnificent old Chief as he 
mourned over the premature death of his four fine sons, and saw the 
honours of his house for ever extinguished in his own person. Many 
stories are related of his munificent extravagance at home, sailing round 
the West Coast while on his visits to the great principality of the Lews, 
and calling on his way hither and thither on the other great chieftains of 
the West and Western Islands. Of him Sir Walter Scott says in his 
" Lament for ' the last of the Seaforths'" 

In vain the bright course of thy talents to wrong, 

Fate deadened thine ear and imprisoned thy tongue, 

For brighter o'er all her obstructions arose 

The glow of thy genius they could not oppose ; 

And who, in the land of the Saxon or Gael 

Could match with Mackenzie, High Chief of Kiutail ? 

Thy sons rose around thee in light and in love, 

All a father could hope, all a friend could approve ; 

What 'vails it the tale of thy sorrows to tell ? 

In the spring time of youth and of promise they fell ! 

Of the line of MacKenneth remains not a male, 

To bear the proud name of the Chief of Kintail. 

We shall here close our sketch of him in the language of one whom we 
have had occasion already to quote with considerable approbation : "It was 
said of him by an acute observer and a leading wit of the age, the late 
Honourable Henry Erskine, the Scotch Dean of Faculty, that ' Lord Sea- 
forth's deafness was a merciful interposition to lower him to the ordinary 
rate of capacity in society,' insinuating that otherwise his perception and 

representing his native County in Parliament, died suddenly, and thus the prophecy of 

Kenneth Oag was fulfilled. 

Of the line of Fitzgerald remained not a male 
To bear the proud name of the Chief of Kintail." 

The late Robert Carruthers, LL.D., in the North British Ecview. 

* For full details of this remarkable instance of family fate, see "The Prophecies 

of the Brahau Seer." 



170 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

intelligence would have been oppressive. And the aptness of the remark 
was duly appreciated by all those who had the good fortune to be able to 
form an estimate from personal observation, while, as a man of the world, 
none was more capable of generalizing. Yet, as a countryman, he never 
affected to disregard those local predilections which identified him with 
the County of Ross, as the genuine representative of Kintail, possessing 
an influence which, being freely ceded and supported, became paramount 
and permanent in the County which he represented in the Commons 
House of Parliament, till he was called to the peerage on the 26th October 
1797, by the title of Lord Seaforth and Baron of Kintail, with limitation 
to heirs male of his body, and which he presided over as his Majesty's 
Lord-Lieutenant. He was commissioned, in 1793, to reorganise the 78th 
or Ross-shire Regiment of Highlanders, which, for so many years, continued 
to be almost exclusively composed of his countrymen. Nor did his ex- 
traordinary qualifications and varied exertions escape the wide ranging eye 
of the master genius of the age, who has also contributed, by a tributary 
effusion, to transmit the unqualified veneration of our age to many that 
are to follow. He has been duly recognised by Sir Walter Scott, nor 
was he passed over in the earlier buddings of Mr Colin Mackenzie ; but 
while the annalist is indebted to their just encomiums, he may be allowed 
to respond to praise worthy of enthusiasm by a splendid fact which at 
once exhibits a specimen of reckless imprudence joined to those qualities 
which, by their popularity, attest their genuineness. Lord Seaforth for a 
time became emulous of the society of the most accomplished Prince of 
his age. The recreation of the Court was play ; the springs of this in- 
dulgence then were not of the most delicate texture ; his faculties, pene- 
trating as they were, had not the facility of detection which qualified him 
for cautious circumspection ; he heedlessly ventured and lost. It was 
then to cover his delinquencies elsewhere, he exposed to sale the estate of 
Lochalsh ; and it was then he was bitterly taught to feel, when his people, 
without an exception, addressed his Lordship this pithy remonstrance 
'Reside amongst us and we shall pay your debts.' A variety of feelings 
and facts, unconnected with a difference, might have interposed to counter- 
act this display of devotedness besides ingratitude, but these habits, or 
his Lordship's reluctance, rendered this expedient so hopeless that certain 
of the descendants of the original proprietors of that valuable locality 
were combining their respective finances to buy it in, when a sudden 
announcement that it was sold under value, smothered their amiable en- 
deavours. Kintail followed, with the fairest portion of Glenshiel, and 
the Barony of Callan Fitzgerald ceased to exist to the mortification, 
though not to the unpopularity of this still patriarchal nobleman among 
his faithful tenantry and the old friends of his family."* 

His Lordship married, on the 22d of April 1782, Mary Proby, 
daughter of Baptist Proby, D.D., Dean of Lichfield, and brother of John, 
first Lord Carysfort, by whom he had issue, a fine family of four sons and 
six daughters, first, William Frederick, who died young, at Killearnan ; 
second, George Leveson Boucherat, who died young at Urquhart ; third, 
William Frederick, who represented the County of Ross in Parliament, 
1812, and died at Warriston, near Edinburgh, in 1814 ; and fourth, 
Francis John, a midshipman in the Royal Navy, died at Brahan, in 1813. 

* Bennetsfield MS. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 171 

They all died unmarried. The daughters were, Mary Frederica Elizabeth, 
who succeeded him ; second, Frances Catherine, died without issue ; 
third, Caroline, accidentally killed at Brahan, unmarried ; fourth, 
Charlotte Elizabeth, died unmarried ; fifth, Augusta Anne, died un- 
married ; and sixth, Helen Ann, married the Eight Honourable Joshua 
Henry Mackenzie of the Inverlael family, and anciently descended from 
the Barons of Kintail, a Lord of Session and Justiciary, by the title of 
Lord Mackenzie, with issue. 

Lord Seaforth, Raving survived all his male issue, died on the llth 
of January 1815, at Warriston, near Edinburgh, the last male represen- 
tative of his race. His Lady outlived him, and died at Edinburgh on 
the 27th February 1829. The estates, in virtue of an entail executed by 
Lord Seaforth, with all their honours, duties, and embarrassments, de- 
volved upon his eldest daughter, then a young widowed lady, 

XXII. MARY ELIZABETH FREDERICA MACKENZIE, LADY HOOD, whom 
Scott commemorated in the well-known lines. 

And tkou, gentle dame, who must bear to thy grief, 
For thy clan and thy country the cares of a Ckief, 
Whom brief rolling moons, in six changes have left 
Of thy husband, and father, and brethren bereft ; 
To thine ear of affection how sad is the hail 
That salutes thee the heir of the line of Kiiitail. 

She was born at Tarradale, Ross-shire, on the 27th of March 1783, and 
married at Barbadoes on the 6th of November 1804, Sir Samuel Hood, 
afterwards KB., Vice-Admiral of the White, and, in 1806, M.P, for West- 
minster. Sir Samuel died at Madras on the 24th December 1814, without 
issue. Lady Hood then returned to Great Britain, and, in 1815, took pos- 
session of the family estates, which had devolved upon her by the death of 
her father without male issue, when, as we have seen, the titles became 
extinct. She married, secondly, on the 21st of May 1817, The Right 
Honourable James Alexander Stewart of Glasserton, a cadet of the 
house of Galloway, who assumed the name of Mackenzie, was 
returned M.P. for the County of Ross, held office under Earl Grey, 
and was successively Governor of Ceylon, and Lord High Com- 
missioner to the Ionian Islands. He died on the 24th of September 
1843. Mrs Stewart-Mackenzie died at Brahan Castle, on the 28th of 
November 1862, and was buried in the family vault in the Chanonry or 
Cathedral of Fortrose. Her funeral was one of the largest ever witnessed 
in the Highlands of Scotland, several thousands of persons being present 
on foot, while the vehicles numbered over 150. By the second marri- 
age she left issue Keith William Stewart-Mackenzie, now of Seaforth ; 
Francis P. Proby, died without issue; George A. F. W., married a 
daughter of General T. Marriott, and died in 1852 without issue; Mary 
F., married The Honourable Philip Anstruther, with issue ; Caroline S., 
married J. B. Petre, and died in 1867; and Louisa C., who married William, 
second Lord Ashburton, with issue one daughter. Mrs Stewart-Mac- 
kenzie and her husband were succeeded by their eldest son, 

XXIII. KEITH WILLIAM STEWART-MACKENZIE, now of Seaforth, late 
Captain in the 90th Regiment of foot, and Colonel Commandant of the 
Ross-shire Rifie Volunteers. He married first, Hannah, daughter of James 
Joseph Hope-Vere of Craigiehall, with issue James Alexander Francis 



172 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Humberston Mackenzie, younger of Seaforth, a Captain, 9th Lancers; 
Susan Mary, married the late Colonel John Constantino Stanley, second 
son of Edward, Lord Stanley of Alderley, with issue, two daughters ; 
Julia Charlotte S., married the late Arthur, 9th Marquis of Tweeddale ; 
and Georgina H., who died young. 

He married secondly, Alicia Almeira Bell, with issue, one daughter. 

Having brought the history and genealogy of the ancient house of Kintail 
and Seaforth down to the present time, we shall next consider the 
question of the present CHIEFSHIP of the Clan, and give the genealogy 
of Allangrange to date. We shall afterwards, as specimens, give that of 
the House of Hilton the representative of which is senior cadet of the 
Clan ; and a history and genealogy of the next in seniority, the family of 
Gairloch, and its branches of Letterewe, Mountgerald, Belmaduthy, Port- 
more, Lochend, Muirtou, Davochcairn, and Flowerbum. 



THE HIGHLAND BKIDE. 

To-iiight my boat shall leave the shore, 

To night I'll bear my love away, 
A chieftain's daughter I adore, 

And feeble he who love would stay. 
Tho' faint the moon, though dark the sky, 

Tho' sullen sounds the rushing tide, 
Yet bravely on my boat shall fly 

To bear away my Highland bride. 

We pledged our troth by Heav'ii above, 

Then who shall scorn our mutual vow ? 
A father's anger ripens love, 

Yea, prompts my deed of daring now. 
Not Duart's massive walls can keep 

The prisoned maiden from my side ; 
I'll o'er the wave-encircled deep, 

And bear away my Highland bride. 

Away ! away ! the boat fast sped, 

Sunk far behind dark Morven's shore, 
Love's eyes repelled the darkness dread, 

Love's might impelled the yielding oar. 
Lone Duart loomed ! far rose a flare 

A maiden's eyes the signal spied, 
A lover's heart and arms were there, 

To bear away his Highland bride. 

'Twas love's bright flash ! 'twas freedom's hope 

Joy lit despair's sad solitude ; 
Thro' tender hands swift flew the rope, 

On sea- washed rocks a maiden stood. 
My own ! rejoice ! I'm here ! I'm here ! 

No more we'll parted be, he cried. 
To Morven, love, my boat I'll steer, 

And bear away my Highland bride. 

One kiss of love dispelled dismay, 

His boat a willing maiden bore ; 
Wild rushed the blast, high leapt the spray, 

And dashed the waves with joyous roar. 
Away, ye tempests, rudely blown I 

Her sacred charm our course will guide ; 
Blow on your glee ! she is my own ! 

I've dared ! and won my Highland bride. 
HUNDEBLAND* WM. ALLAN, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 173 



THE GAELIC NAMES OF TREES, SHRUBS, PLANTS, &c. 

By CHARLES FERGUSSON. 



-o 



| CONCLUDED. | 

OAK. -Latin, Quercus robar ; Gaelic, Darach, This monarch of the 
forest is certainly a native of the Highlands, though some writers, of the 
class who grudge to see anything good either in the Highlands or in the 
Highlanders, try to maintain that it was not anciently found north of 
Perthshire. This, however, is clearly settled by the great quantity of 
huge oak trees found embedded at great depths below the surface in peat 
mosses all over the Highlands and Islands. All our earliest bards and 
writers mention the oak, and Ossian, who is believed to have flour- 
ished in the third century, sings of hoary oak trees dying of old age in his 
day: 

" Samhach 'us mor a bha 'n triath 

Mar dharaig 's i liath air Lubar, 

A chaill a dlu-gheug o shean 

Le dealan glan nan speur ; 

Tha 'h-aomadh thar sruth o shliabh, 

A coinneach mar chiabh a fuaim." 

" Silent and great was the prince, 
Like an oak tree hoary, on Lubar, 
Stripped of its thick and aged boughs 
By the keen lightning of the skies ; 
It bends across the stream from the hill ; 
Its moss sounds in the wind like hair." 

There are many huge oak trees in diiferent parts of the Highlands, which 
are certainly several hundred years old, such as at Castle Menzies, where 
there are oaks about 20 feet in circumference. Those trees must be very 
old, as it is proved that the oak on an average grows only to about from 
14 to 20 inches in diameter in 80 years. The wood of the oak, being 
hard, strong, and durable, was used by the Highlanders for almost every 
purpose possible from building their biiiinns and roofing their castles, 
down to making a cudgel for the herdsman or shepherd, who believed the 
old superstition that his flock would not thrive unless his .staff was of oak. 
And after the Highlanders had laid aside their claymores, many an old 
clan feud was kept up, and many a quarrel between the men of different 
glens or clans was settled, by the end of a " cuileir math daraich." The 
bark was of course much used for tanning leather, and also for dyeing a 
brown colour, or, by adding copperas, a black colour. The veneration 
which the Druids had for the oak is too well known to need mentioning 
here ; and it seems also to have been the custom in early times to bury 
the great heroes under aged oak trees, for the bard Ullin, who was some- 
what prior to Ossian, says in " Dan an Deirg," singing of Cornhal, 
Ossian's grandfather : 



174 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

" Tha leaba fo chos nan clacli 
Am fasgadh an daraig aosda." 

" His bed is below the stones 
Under the shade of the aged oak." 

The Highlanders used a decoction of oak bark for stopping vomiting, and 
they also believed that a decoction of the bark and acorns was the best 
possible antidote for all kinds of poison or the bite of serpents. They also 
believed that it was -the only tree for which a wedge of itself was the best 
to split it, which gave rise to the old Gaelic proverb " Geinu dheth fein 
a sgoilteas an darach " (" A wedge made of the self-same oak cleaves it.") 
The Gaelic bard, Donnachadh Ban, refers to this belief in one of his 
beautiful songs 

" 'S chuala mi mar shean-fhacal 
Mu'n darach, gur fiodh corr e, 
'S gur geinn' dheth f hein 'ga theannachadh 
A spealtadh e 'na ordaibh." 

PINE (WEYMOUTH). Latin, Pi IMS Strobus ; Gaelic, Giutlias Sasunach. 
This beautiful tree Avas first introduced from England to Dunkeld, where 
the first trees of it were planted in 1725. 

PLANE. Latin, Acer Pscudo-plantanus ; Gaelic, Pleintri. or Pluniirhm. 
The first of these Gaelic names, which sounds so very like the English, is 
given by Alex. Macdonald (Mac Mhaighstir Alastair) in his Gaelic 
list of trees already referred to. The second is given by Lightfoot, 
as the Gaelic name in use for this tree Avhen he travelled in the High- 
lands in 1772. The plane is a native of the Highlands, where it grows 
to an immense size, as may be seen by the following extract from the New 
Statistical Account of the dimensions of plane trees growing at Castle 
Menzies, parish of Weem " solid contents of a plane, 1132^ feet; ex- 
treme height, 77 : girth at ground, 23; at four feet, 16. Of a second 
plane, giith at four feet from ground, 18| feet ; and of a third at four 
feet, 20J feet." The wood of this tree, which is white and soft, was 
much used by the Highlanders for turning ; and Lightfoot mentions that 
they made a very agreeable wino of the sap of the plane, as they did of 
the birch and maple. 

EASPBERRY, Latin, Rubus Idcaus ; Gaelic, Sulhag, or Saidheag. The 
wild raspberry is one of our native wild fruits, and grows very commonly 
all over the Highlands, where it also grows very well in a cultivated state 
in gardens. The distilled juice of this fruit was once very much used by 
the old Highlander in cases of fever, as it is veiy cooling. Lightfoot says 
that the juice of this fruit was used in the Isle of Skye, when he was 
there, as an agreeable acid for making punch instead of lemons. 

KOWAN, or MOUNTAIN ASH. Latin, Pyrus Aucuparia; Gaelic, Cao- 
runn. This beautiful and hardy tree is a native of the Highlands, where 
the wood of it was once much used by wheelwrights and coopers; 
but the great use the Highlanders made of the rowan tree, since the days 
of the Druids, was for their superstitious charms against witchcraft. I 
may give Lightfoot's account of what the Highlanders did with the rowan 
in 1772 " The rowan-berries have an astringent quality, but in no hurt- 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 175 

ful degree. In the island of Jura they use the juice of them as an acid 
for punch ; and the Highlanders often eat them when thoroughly ripe, 
and in some places distil a very good spirit from them. It is probable 
that this tree was in high favour with the Druids, for it may to this day 
be observed to grow, more frequently than any other tree, in the neigh- 
bourhood of those Druidical circles of stones so often seen in North Bri- 
tain ; and the superstitious still continue to retain a great veneration for 
it, which was undoubtedly handed down to them from early antiquity. 
They believe that any small part of this tree, carried about with them, 
will prove a sovereign charm against all the dire effects of enchantment 
or witchcraft. Their cattle also, as well as themselves, are supposed to 
be preserved by it from evil, for the dairymaid will not forget to drive 
them to the shealings or summer pastures with a rod of this tree, which 
she carefully lays up over the door of the " sheal bothy," and drives them 
home again with the same. In Strathspey they make, for the same pur- 
pose, on the first day of May, a hoop of rowan wood, and in the morning 
and evening cause all the sheep and lambs to pass through it." 

WILLOW. Latin, Salix ; Gaelic, Seileach. Lightfoot mentions six- 
teen, and Linnaeus twenty varieties of the willow, natives of the High- 
lands, and many more have been discovered since their day. The willow 
was a very valuable tree indeed for the old Highlanders, and they con- 
verted it into almost endless purposes. The wood, which is soft and pli- 
able, they used in many ways, and the young twigs, of course, for basket 
work, and even ropes. The bark was used for tanning leather, and the 
bark of most of the varieties was also used to dye a black colour, while 
that of the white willow gave a dye of a cinnamon colour. The following 
extract from " Walker's Hebrides " describes the uses made of the willow 
in the Isles : " The willows in the Highlands even supply the place of 
ropes. A traveller there has rode during the day with a bridle made of 
them, and been at anchor in a vessel at night, whose tackle and cable 
were made of twisted willows, and these, indeed, not of the best kind for 
the purpose ; yet, in both cases, they were formed with a great deal of art 
and industry, considering the materials. In the islands of Colonsay, Coll, 
and Tyree, the people tan the hides of their black cattle with the bark of 
the grey willow, and the barks of all the willows are capable of dyeing 
black. The foliage of the willow is a most acceptable food for cattle, and 
is accordingly browsed on with avidity both by black cattle and horses, 
especially in autumn. In the Hebrides, where there is so great a scarcity 
of everything of the tree kind, there is not a twig, even of the meanest 
willow, but what is turned by the inhabitants to some useful purpose." 

YEW. Latin, Taxus Baccata ; Gaelic, luthar. This valuable tree is 
a native of the Highlands, where the remains of some very old woods of 
it are to be found, as at Glenure, in Lorn, which takes its name 
from the yew. There are also single trees of it of immense size, and of 
unknown antiquity in the Highlands, such as the famous old yew in the 
churchyard of Fortingall, in Perthshire, described by Pennant, as he saw 
it in 1772. He gives the circumference of it as 56^ feet, and it was then 
wasted away to the outside shell. Some writers calculate that this tree 
must have taken 4000 years to grow that size ; it is impossible now to tell 
its age with any certainty. But when we consider its immense size, and 



176 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

the slow growing nature of the yew, it is certainly one of the oldest 
vegetable relics in the world. When writing out this paper, I wrote to 
the minister of Fortingall to enquire what state the old yew was in now, 
and was glad to hear from that gentleman that part of it is still fresh, and 
sprouting out anew, and likely to live a long time yet. We read of an- 
other very large yew tree, which grew on a cliff by the sea side in the 
island of Bernera, near the Sound of Mull, and which, when cut, loaded a 
six-oared boat, and afforded timber enough, when cut up, to form a very fine 
staircase in the house of Lochnell. The wood of the yew is very hard. 
elastic, and beautifully veined, and was much prized by the old High- 
landers for many purposes, but the great use to which they put it was to 
make bows. So highly was the yew esteemed for this purpose that it 
was reckoned a consecrated tree, and was planted in every churchyard so 
as to afford a ready supply of bows at all times. And in fact, so com- 
monly were the bows made of yew, that we find in Ossian and in the 
early bards the bow always alluded to as " the yew," or " my yew," as in 
" Dan an" Deirg," we have, 

" Mar shaighead o ghlacaibh an iughair, 
Bha chasan a' siubhal nam barra-thonn." 

And also in Diarmaid, when that hero heard the sound of his comrades 
hunting on Beinn Ghuilbeinn he could remain quiet no longer, but ex- 
claimed 

" A chraosnach dhearg ca bheil tliu 1 
'S ca bheil m' iughar 's mo dhorlach ? " 

Smith, in his " Sean Dana," in a note to " Dan an Deirg," says : Every- 
body knows the bow to have been made of yew. Among the Highlanders 
of later times, that which grew in the wood of Easragan, in Lorn, was 
esteemed the best. The feathers most in vogue for the arrows were 
furnished by the eagles of Loch Treig ; the wax for the string by Baile- 
na-gailbhinn ; and the arrow-heads by the smiths of the race of Mac 
Pheidearain. This piece of instruction, like all the other knowledge of 
the Highlanders, was couched in verse 

" Bogha dh' iughar Easragain, 
Is ite firein Loch-a-Treig ; 
Ceir bhuidhe Bhaile-iia-gailbhinn, 
'S ceann o 'n cheard Mac Pheidearain." 

That the Highlanders in the early days of Ossian used the yew for other 
uses than making bows is proved by the passage in Fingal, describing 
Cuchullin's war chariot 

" 'Dh' iuthar faileasach an crann, 
Suidhear arm air cnamhan caoin." 

" Of shining yew is its pole ; 
Of well-smothed bone the seat." 

And that our ancestors, in the third century, overshaded their graves with 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 177 

yew trees, as we do still, is proved by the passage in Fingal, where, after 
Criinor and Cairbar fought for the white bull, when Crimor fell, and 
Brasolis, Cair bar's sister, being in love with him, on hearing of his death, 
rushed to the hill and died beside him, and yew trees shaded their graves 

" Ehuail cridhe 'bu tla ri 'taobh, 
Dh' f halbh a snuagti 'us bhris i tro' 'n fhraoch, 
Fhuair i e marbh ; 'us dh' eug i 's an t-sliabh ; 
'N so fein, a Chuchullin, tha 'n uir, 
'S caoin iuthar 'tha 'fas o'n uaigh." 

" Throbbed a tender heart against her side, 
Her colour went ; and through the heath she rushed j 
She found him dead ; she died upon the hill. 
In this same spot, Cuchullin, is their dust, 
And fresh the yew-tree grows upon their grave." 

ARSSMART (SPOTTED). Latin, Polygonum persicaria ; Gaelic, Am 
Boinne-fola. This is a very common plant in the glens and low grounds 
of the Highlands. It is easily known by the red spot on the centre of 
every leaf, about which the Highlanders have a curious old superstition, 
viz. : That this plant grew at the foot of our Saviour's cross, and that a 
drop of blood fell on each leaf, the stain of which it bears ever since. A 
decoction of it was used with alum to dye a bright yellow colour. 

BEAR-BERRY. Latin, Arlmlus uva-ursi ; Gaelic, Braoileagan-nan-con. 
The berries of this plant are not eaten, but the old Highlanders used the 
plant for tanning leather, and its leaves were used as a cure for the stone 
or gravel. It is the badge of the Colquhouns. 

BILBERRY, or BLAEBERRY. Latin, Vaccinium uliginosum ; Gaelic, 
Lus-nan-dearcag, or Dearcag Monaidh. I need give no description of 
this well-known plant, but may mention that its berries were used in 
olden times for dyeing a violet or purple colour. Of this plant Lightfoot 
says " The berries, when ripe, arc of a bluish black colour, but a singu- 
lar variety, with white berries, was discovered by His Grace the Duke of 
Athole, growing in the woods midway between his two seats of Blair 
Athole and Dunkeld. [I may add that this is now known to be a dis- 
tinct species the Vaccinium myrtillus fructu-albo of botanists.] The 
berries have an astringent quality. In Arran and the Western Isles they 
are given in cases of diarrhoea and dysentery with good effect. The High- 
landers frequently eat them in milk, which is a cooling, agreeable food, 
and sometimes they make them into tarts and jellies, which they mix 
with whisky, to give it a relish to strangers." The blaeberry is the badge 
of the Buchanans. 

BIRD'S-FOOT TREFOIL. Latin, ' Lotus corniculatus ; Gaelic, Bar-a'- 
mliilsein. This beautiful bright yellow ilower grows all over the High- 
lands. It is very much relished by sheep and cattle as food, and was 
used by our ancestors for dyeing yellow. 

COLT'S-FOOT (COMMON). Latin, Tassilago farfara ; Gaelic, A n r/allan 
gainmlnch ; 1 Ohlitas-Liath. This plant, with its broad greyish leaves, 
gi-ows very common in the Highlands, by the side of streams, and in 
boggy places. A decoction of it was used for bad coughs or sore breasts. 

o 



178 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

CROTAL, or LICHEN (PURPLE DYERS). Latin, Lichen emplialodes ; 
Gaelic, Crotal. This small plant, which grows all over stones and old 
dykes in the Highlands, is still very much used by Highlanders for dyeing 
a reddish brown colour. It was formerly much more used, particularly 
for dyeing yarn for making hose, and so much did the Highlanders be- 
lieve in the virtues of the crotal that, Avhen they were to start on a long 
journey, they sprinkled some of the crotal, reduced to a powder, on the 
soles of their hose, as it saved their feet from getting inflamed with the 
heat when travelling far. 

ELECAMPANE. Latin, Inula helemum ; Gaelic, Aillcann. This is one 
of the largest of our herbaceous plants, as it grows to the height of several 
feet. It gives a very bright blue colour, and it was much used for such 
by the Highlanders, who added some whortle berries to it to improve the 
colour. 

HEATHER. Latin, Erica cinerea ; Gaelic, Fraocli. The heather, the 
badge of the Clan Donald, needs no description, but I may give Light- 
foot's account of what the Highlander made of it in his day : " The 
heather is applied to many economical uses by the Highlanders. They 
frequently cover their houses with it instead of thatch, or else twist it 
into ropes and bind down the thatch with them in a kind of lattice work ; 
in most of the Western Isles they dye their yarn of a yellow colour, by 
boiling it in water with the green tops and flowers of this plant. In Hum, 
Skye, and the Long Island, they frequently tan their leather with a 
strong decoction of it. Formerly the young tops of it are said to have 
been used alone to brew a kind of ale, and even now, I was informed 
(1772), that the inhabitants of Isla and Jura still continue to brew a very 
potable liquor by mixing two-thirds of the tops with one-third of malt. 
This is not the only refreshment that the heather affords. The hardy 
Highlanders frequently make their beds with it, laying the roots down- 
wards and the tops upwards, which, though not quite so soft and luxuri- 
ous as beds of down, are altogether as refreshing to those who sleep on 
them, and perhaps much more healthy." 

HONEYSUCKLE (DWARF). Latin, Cornus succica ; Gaelic, Lus-a'- 
chraois. This elegant little plant grows very common in Athole, and, I 
believe, in many parts of the Northern Highlands, especially Lochbroorn. 
It has a white flower, followed by red berries, which have a sweet taste. 
The old Highlanders believed that if those berries were eaten they gave 
an extraordinary appetite, from which it took its Gaelic name, which. I 
find in an old work translated " Plant of Gluttony." 

LADIES' MANTLE. Latin, Alcliemilla vulgaris ; Gaelic, Copan-an- 
driuchd, or Cota-preasacli nigluan an High. This pretty little plant grows 
in dry pastures and on hill-sides all over the country, and there are end- 
less superstitions connected with it, and virtues ascribed to it by the 
Highlanders, which, if the half only were true, would make it one of the 
most valuable plants growing. Both its Gaelic names are very descriptive 
of the leaf of the plant, the first " Cup of the dew," refers to the cup- 
shaped leaf in which the dew lies in large drops every morning ; and the 
second "The king's daughter's plaited petticoat," refers to the well- 
known likeness of the leaf, when turned upside down, to a plaited petti- 
coat, which might indeed be a pattern for a king' daughter. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 179 

MOTHER OF THYME. Latin, Thynws serpyllum ; Gaelic, Lus Mac- 
Righ-Bhreatuinn. This sweet-scented little plant was believed by the 
Highlanders to be a preventive or cure for people troubled with disagree- 
able dreams or the nightmare, by using an infusion of it like tea. 

MUGWORT. Latin, Artemisia vulgar is ; Gaelic, An Liath-lus. Till 
very lately, or perhaps yet, in some of the out-of-the-way glens, this plant 
was very much used by the Highlanders as a pot herb, as also was the 
young shoots of the nettle, just as they use kale or cabbage now. 

SHEPHERD'S PURSE. Latin, Ihlaspi Bursa-pastoris ; Gaelic, Sporan- 
buachaill. This plant is still very much used in the Highlands for 
applying to cuts or wounds to stop the bleeding, and it was much more 
so in olden times, when such were more common. 

SEA WARE. Latin, Fucus Vesiculosus ; Gaelic, Feamuinn. This 
plant is very much used still in the maritime parts of the Highlands in 
many ways. It makes an excellent manure for the land, and in some of 
the isles it forms part of the winter fodder of cattle, and even deer in hard 
winters sometimes feed on it, at the recess of the tide. Lightfoot says that 
in Jura, and some of the other isles, the inhabitants used to salt their 
cheeses by covering them with the ashes of this plant, which abounds 
with salt. But the great use of the sea ware was for making kelp, which 
used to be very much made in the Isles, and in fact gave employment to 
the most of the inhabitants there. The way in which it was made was : 
The sea ware was collected and dried, then a pit about six feet wide 
and three deep was dug, and lined with stones, in which a small fire was 
lighted with sticks, arid the dried plant laid on by degrees and burnt, 
when it was nearly reduced to ashes the workman stirred it with an iron 
rake till it began to congeal, when it was left to cool, after which it Avas 
broken up and sent to the market. The average price of kelp in the Isles 
was about 3 10s per ton, but when extra care was taken, and skill 
shown in the preparation of it, it was worth more. 

SILVER WEED, or WILD TANSY. Latin, Potentilla Anserina ; Gaelic, 
Bar-a'-bhrisgein. Of this plant Lightfoot says: "The roots taste like 
parsnips, and are frequently eaten by the common people either boiled or 
roasted. In the islands of Tyree and Coll they are much esteemed as 
answering the purposes of bread in some measure, they having been known 
to have supported the inhabitants for months together during scarcity of 
other provisions. They put a yoke on their ploughs and often tear up 
their pasture grounds with a view to eradicate the roots for their use, and 
as they abound most in barren and impoverished soils, and in seasons that 
succeed the worst for other crops, so they never fail to afford the most 
seasonable relief to the inhabitants in times of the greatest scarcity. A 
singular instance this of the bounty of Providence to those islands." 

TORMENTIL. Latin, Torment ilia Erecta; Gaelic, Bar-lhraonan-nan-con. 
This little plant may be said to grow almost everywhere in the Highlands, 
where it was once much used for tanning leather, for which purpose it is 
far superior even to oak bark. We read that in Coll the inhabitants 
turned over so much of the pasture to procure the roots of this plant that 
they were forbidden to use it at all by the laird. 

ST JOHN'S WORT. Latin, Hypericum Perforatum ; Gaelic, Achlasan 
Challum-Chitte. The old Highlanders ascribed many virtues to this well- 



180 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

known plant, and used it in many ways. Boiled with alum in water it 
was used to dye yarn yellow, and the flowers put in whisky gave it a 
dark purple tinge, almost like port wine. Superstitious Highlanders 
always carried about a part of this plant with them to protect them from 
the evil effects of witchcraft. They also believed that it improved the 
quality and increased the quantity of their cows' milk, especially if the 
cows were under the evil effects of witchcraft, by putting this plant into 
the pail with some milk, and then milking afresh on it. Another Gaelic 
term for this herb is an galbhuidhe, and is thus alluded to in " Miami a' 
Bhaird Aosda" : 

" Biodh sobhrach bhan a's aillidh snuadh 

Mu'n cuairt do m' tlmlaich 's uain' fo dhriuchd, 
'S an neoinean beag 's mo lamb, air cluain 
'S an ealbhuidh' aig mo chluais gu h-ur." 

VIOLET (SWEET). Latin, Viola Oder at a ; Gaelic, &ail-chuaich. This 
fragrant little flower grows all over the Highlands, and it was much used- 
by the Highland ladies formerly, according to the following directions : 

" Sail-chuach 's bainno ghabhar, 
Suadh ri t' aghaidh ; 
'S cha'n eil mac Righ ar an domhain 
K"ach bi air do dheidh." 

(" The violet and milk of goat 
Rub to thy face, 

And not a king's son throughout the globe 
But will thee race.") 

WHORTLE-BERRY. Latin, Vaccinium vitis-idcea ; Gaelic, Lasnain- 
braoileag. This plant, known to every Highlander, grows on the hills all 
over the Highlands. The berries were much used by our ancestors as a 
fruit, and in cases of fever they made a cooling drink of them to quench 
the thirst. This is the true badge of the Clan Chattan. 

WOOD PEASE. Latin, Orobus t tiler osus ; Gaelic, Cor, Cor-mctlle, or 
Peasar-nan-Lucli. The roots of this plant was very much prized by the 
old Highlanders, as they are yet by most Highland herds or school boys. 
They used to dig them up and dry them and chew them like tobacco, and 
sometimes added them to their liquor to give it a strong flavour. They 
also use it on long journeys, as it keeps both hunger and thirst away for 
a long time ; and in times of scarcity it has been used as a substitute for 
bread. 

YARROW, or MILFOIL. Latin, AcliiUea niillifolium ; Gaelic, A' chait- 
hir-thalmhain. This plant, so well-known to every old Highland house- 
wife, was reckoned the best of all known herbs for stopping the bleeding 
of cuts or wounds, and for healing them, and it is even yet made into an 
ointment in some out of the way glens in summer, that it may be at hand 
in winter, when the plant cannot be procured. They also believed that 
it was the best cure for a headache to thrust a leaf of this plant up the 
nostrils till the nose bled. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 181 



CAPTAIN ERASER OF KNOCKIE'S AIRS AND MELODIES 
OF THE HIGHLANDS. 



THE following letters one from Sir Walter Scott, addressed to Captain 
Eraser, and hitherto unpublished, and the other from Mr Thomson, Edin- 
burgh, will, we doubt not, be read with some curiosity. For these 
interesting documents we are indebted to Mr John Noble, bookseller, 
Inverness, who found them among some of Captain Eraser's papers which 
came into his possession : 

(Letter from Sir Walter Scott.) 

" DEAR SIR, The pressure of business attending my office at the end 
of the Session, rendered harder by the indisposition of three of my col- 
leagues, has prevented my acknowledging your various communications 
until I should have time to write at full length. 

" The plan you propose of having your work presented to the King 
by the Duke of Buccleuch is totally impossible, because the Duke is a 
minor, a student at Cambridge, and does not attend Court, or take upon 
him the exercise of his rank and privileges. f His uncle would not 
approve of his assuming any premature step of this kind, nor would it be 
consistent with etiquette. The customary way is to make such request 
through the Secretary of State, or King's Private Secretary. But there 
can be no doubt that if Lord Huntly inclined to take the trouble it could 
not be in better or more appropriate hands. 

" Respecting the prospectus itself, I am obliged in candour to state 
that it contains too many subjects of a nature totally unconnected and 
even discrepant to entertain any hope that it will be popular in its present 
shape. The mingling of statistics with antiquities may be natural enough, 
but do let us have the music, with the musical anecdotes and historical 
circumstances allied, separated from and independent of other matter. 

" Respecting general points, you may rely upon it that by mixing 
many subjects together you will greatly injure the popularity of the work, 
whereas if you give us the music and its history alone, you can at your 
leisure prepare and publish your tracts upon the other subjects announced 
in your prospectus. I am under the necessity of adding that controversial 
matters, and such as relate to men's private history and private affairs, 
do not enter with propriety into books which, are to be addressed to the 
Sovereign. It is also matter of etiquette that the dedication should only 
be an inscription, it not being held respectful to deliver to the King, 
either in speech or in print, a long discourse. Mention, therefore, of 
private misfortunes and injuries would be improper in such a work, and 
the omission of these would be of the less consequence ; although they are 
what is necessarily most interesting to the writer, it is very difficult to put 
them into such a shape as can anywise interest the public. 

" I am afraid you will consider this advice of mine very intrusive, but 
you asked to have my opinion, and I must give it with sincerity. I have 
never known a book well received which involved too many subjects uncon- 
nected with each other, and with your skill, taste, and musical know- 
ledge, you should certainly make the music your first object, laying aside 



182 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



everything that is not naturally connected with it. Besides, the swelling 
out your work with miscellaneous matter unconnected with the principal 
subject, will be attended with much expense, and, in proportion, diminish 
the author's profits. 

" I have received safely the two Gaelic manuscripts, which are to me, 
however, a fountain sealed and a book shut, notwithstanding the ancient 
Gaelic. I should like to see some of the contents literally translated, but 
being of such recent date, I am afraid you will hardly be able to bring 
the contents to bear on the Ossianic controversy. I will keep the manu- 
script with great care at your disposal. I have endeavoured to express 
my opinion respecting the work to Lady Huntly, with whom I had the 
honour of corresponding about something else. I have the honour to be, 
Dear Sir, your obedient servant, 

(Signed) " WALTER SCOTT. 
"Edinburgh, 12th March 1825. 
" My address for some time hence will be Abbotsford, Melrose." 



(Letter from John Thomson, Esq., Edinburgh.) 

" MY DEAR SIR, I presume you have received a letter which I wrote 
about ten days since, and entrusted to Mr Paul's care to be conveyed to 
you. I have since received your parcel, but the gentleman who handed 
it in having left no address, I must trust to his calling for this answer 
before he leaves town. 

" Having carefully examined the airs you have sent me, I must frankly 
confess that they have disappointed me, with one or two exceptions. 
They are almost all too florid for national melodies, and in many cases 
they are not at all characteristic, i.e., they have not the peculiar Highland 
accent which would stamp them as real national Highland airs. It is 
one thing to have melodies composed by a Highlander, and quite another 
to have Highland melodies, for in the former case the airs may have no 
distinctive features at all, while in the other the distinctive feature is 
absolutely necessary. My own compositions are not necessarily Scotch, 
because I am a Scotchman, and so of the Highland melodies you have 



sent me, the following bar 




in the ' Fall of 



Foyers ' is common to every species of melody except national, and the 



conclusion 



93 



is even more objectionable. 



Observe what a contrast is ' He is gone to the mountain,' and the ' Cow- 
boy.' The three last bars of the dirge are inadmissable in a national 
melody, nay, the character of the air is violated by such florid passages. 



In 'Ye lovely blossoms,' 
such passages as 

are not Highland, 




and 




THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 183 

" Thus, then, I would class them : 

" 1st, Good and genuine ' The Fiery Cross ' ; '0 ! Mourn the Chief' ; 
' The crazed and captive'; 'The lonely Isle'; 'The Cowboy'; 'He is 
gone to the mountain ' ; ' Come, let us to Killin ' ; ' Dear Albyn.' 

" 2d, Requiring to be simplified, but good also ' Dear Maid ' ; 
' Dirge ' ; ' Ye lovely blossoms ' ; ' can you love me ? ' 

"3d, Not characteristic 'When Abercrombie ' too Irish, and like 
the ' Eose Tree ' ; ' The Fall of Foyers 'too English ; ' The heath this 
night ' ; ' The Maid of Killing too Irish. 

" 4th, Indifferent ' The Poet's Grave ' ; ' Bird of the Wilderness.' 

" But in calling the two first classes good, I do not mean to imply that 
they are by any means what I expected in Highland melodies. 

" Those which I have heard Mrs Macleod of Macleod, senior, sing 
were wild and plaintive in a remai-kable degree, totally unlike other music. 
They were sung with Gaelic words, and the effect was striking. 

" Such are the kind of Highland melodies I had in my mind when I 
expressed myself to you so warmly in admiration of them. The accom- 
paniments, I am sorry to say, will not do besides being too incorrect for 
publication, they want character, and are greatly overloaded with notes. 
Should this, however, not appear to you and your friends a sufficiently 
strong objection to their retention, I must be relieved from all responsi- 
bility of superintendence which could for a moment imply my sanction. 

" Would it not be better at once to apply to Mr FinLiy Dun to arrange 
the whole, which I daresay he would undertake, commencing immediately, 
for, as I have already told you, it is impossible for me until after this 
time next winter and I cannot think of sanctioning the appearance of 
any number of the work unless the arrangements are entirely remodelled. 

"It is better to tell you the real truth now, that there may be no 
future misapprehension on the subject. Yours truly, 

(Signed) " JOHN THOMSON. 
"Edin., 5th November 1839." 



EWEN MORRISON'S RAID ON HARRIS. 

THE traditional account of the origin of the Morrisons is as follows : 
They are, according to some, descended from one Mary, but who this 
Mary was they do not say ; by others that they sprung from Morus, son 
of Kinaunus, natural son of one of the Kings of Norway. The Seanachies 
of the Western Isles emphatically assert that they are descended from 
Muire, Aulay Macaulay's sister ; that she and her brother being invited 
by Liot, or Macleod, she either accompanied or followed the latter to 
Lews, where she married, ultimately settled at Ness, and became 
the mother of one son and several daughters. Whether Muire, Moire, 
Marion, or Muriel, whichever is the correct name, was married to a native 
of the Long Island, of Skye, of the Mainland, or to a Norwegian, it is im- 
possible to say, but it is evident that the son's designation was from the 
mother for he was called "Gille Mhuire," a designation which, 
in course of usage, assumed its present form, " na Moireasonich," or Mor- 
risons, though they are sometimes called " Clann Mac Gille Mhaithrail," 



184 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

One early summer morning in the fourteenth century, a large band 
of tlio Morrisons of Ness, under the command of their Chief, " Eoghamn 
Mac Gillc Maithrail," attacked the Macaulays of Uig, killing many of 
them, and carrying away much spoil, and then proceeded southward 
to ravage the Island of Harris. They arrived at the township of Husli- 
inish, a little after daybreak. The hamlet was still and quiet, none of 
its inhabitants being yet astir, with the exception of a boat-builder and 
his two sons, who were busily engaged on a boat they were building, and 
which had to be ready by a certain day. 

They were thus up betimes on the morning in question, busily pro- 
secuting their calling at the north end of the hamlet, when, unfortunately 
for them, they were observed by the Morrisons advancing in their direc- 
tion, though yet some distance away. They approached the boat-builders 
cautiously ; and the first notice the elder received of their approach was 
the appalling sight of his murdered sons lying dead at his side, the 
Morrisons having shot them down with a volley of barbed arrows. The 
unhappy man was so suddenly, and in such a terrible manner, made aware 
of his situation that he scarcely knew what to do. To defend himself 
against such preponderating odds he knew to be impossible. Acting on 
the impulse of the moment, he took to flight, ran for his life in the direc- 
tion of the sea-shore, hotly pursued by the Morrisons, shooting their 
arrows after him in such rapid succession, that they fell around him thick 
as hail. He, however, managed to escape scatheless ; by almost super- 
natural strength and swiftness, he reached the sea, at a spot near which 
was the entrance to the cave known as Geo Mor Fladail, and of the ex- 
istence of which the Morrisons were ignorant. He leaped at once into 
the foaming sea, and swam into the cave. Though there is a beach of 
considerable size within the cave, nearly a quarter of a mile in length, its 
entrance, from which the sea never recedes, is so small that it cannot be 
seen from the top of the perpendicular rock which towers above it No 
sooner therefore, did the carpenter disappear in the sea than the 
Morrisons thought him drowned, and that their arrival in Harris would 
be still unknown to the inhabitants, Avhom they intended to spoil, and 
slaughter in cold blood. Under this impression they returned to Hush- 
inish, and massacred its inhabitants to a man, after which they attacked 
the adjacent townships, and annihilated the people in the same remorse- 
less manner. 

The boat-builder, meantime, left the cave, and finding a boat, keel 
upwards, about high-water mark, he launched it, and placing the dead 
bodies of his sons on board, proceeded to the Island of Berneray, in the 
sound of Harris, a distance of some thirty miles. Arriving there he in- 
formed Macleod, the Chief of that island, of what had taken place at 
Hushiuish, at the same time showing him the dead bodies of his sons. 
Macleod lost no time in raising the war-cry, to which a hearty response 
was given ; and in 'a short time Macleod and his hardy followers were 
sailing for the mainland of Harris to oppose the murderous progress of 
their enemies. The plunderers had, meantime, attacked Bunamhaiueder, 
Ardhasaig, Leachdin, Tarbert, Diraclite, and Luskintyre. They then 
crossed to the island of Tarusay, plundering and slaughtering indiscri- 
minately, male and female, as they went. 

It was only on his arrival at Tarbert that Macleod and his followers 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 185 

learned that the Morrisons had crossed over to Tarnsay, but no sooner 
did they make this discovery than they directed their course to that 
island. Berneray, as we shall continue to call Macleod, landed at a place 
on the island then nameless, but which, since, has been called 
Rudha Chinnigir, or Victor's Point. Arriving at the village of Tarnsay, 
Berneray found the Morrisons regaling themselves after having massacred 
every soul on the island, and listening for a moment at the window of 
the house in which they were feasting, he heard one of them remark that 
something very wonderful was wrong with him, "For," said he, " although 
I can chew my food as well as ever, I cannot swallow anything." " And 
that is a great pity," said Berneray load enough to be heard by the 
revellers, " for soon you will neither be able to chew or swallow." In 
a second 'the speaker inside was a corpse by Berneray's well-directed 
arrow, shot in through the window. This was the common signal for a 
general attack, but though the Harrismen urged their leader to allow them 
enter the building, and extinguish the Morrisons before they could defend 
themselves, Berneray would give no such permission. " Allow the 
savages," he said, " to come outside ; give them a chance to fight for their 
lives." The Harrismen had not long to wait, for they had scarcely taken 
up their position when they were furiously attacked by the Morrisons. 
Berneray led, and was the first to strike a terrible blow, "which fell 
with both skill and might, at the enemy, for two Morrisons fell lifeless 
as soon as they appeared outside. A dreadful hand-to-hand fight com- 
menced, and the carnage was truly horrible. Heads were lopped off, and 
cloven in dozens. The Morrisons for a short time fought bravely enough, 
but they were at length compelled to give way before the terrible on- 
slaught of Berneray and his followers, whose every blow told with mortal 
effect, and finding that their case was desperate, the Morrisons retreated, 
shouting at the top of their voices, " Gu sgeir, gu sgeir, a bhallachaibh 
Leodhais " (To the rock, to the rock, ye lads of Lews). The rock was a 
small one in the vicinity of the place where the fight took place, and al- 
though it can be reached dry-shod at low water, the sea surrounded it at 
full flood. To this rock the Morrisons fled for safety ; but being closely 
followed by Berneray and his men, it soon proved a place of poor refuge 
for the now miserable wretches, for on it Berneray made terrible havoc, 
having, with one solitary exception, slain the whole gang. The rock 
received that day the name of the Sgeir bhuailte, or Smitten rock, which 
it bears to the present time, and when any great disturbance of the sands 
takes place by the storm, large numbers of men's bones may yet be seen 
around the Smitten rock. 

The solitary Morrison Avho escaped with his life was " Eoghainn Mac 
Gille Mhaithrail" himself which he did by jumping into the sea, 
and swimming across the sound to the mainland of Harris. He landed 
at a rock on Traigli 2'horgobosd, or the shore of Torgobost, which rock 
has been called " Sgeir Eoghainn," or Ewen's Rock, ever since. Though 
Eoghainn managed to escape with his life, he carried with him fearful 
marks of the terrible combat, having no less than nine arrows deeply 
embedded in his back and thighs, the wounds of which he bore during the 
remainder of his life. 

Eoghairm Mac Gille Mhaithrail must have been possessed of prodigious 



186 THE CELTIC MAGAZI^ I :. 

strcngth,otherwise lie could neverhave accomplished the feat above described 
fight so bravely for his . life at Tarnsay, and afterwards swim across a 
sound fully two miles in breadth, while his flesh was literally torn by 
arrows and swords, and nine of the former sticking in his body. 

A lew years after these events occurred, a Harrisman, called Iain Mac 
Dhomhnuill Mhic Aonghais, or John, son of Donald son of Angus, a 
native of Berneray, went to the Lews to buy horses. He arrived at the 
parish of Ness about sunset ; and, approaching a township, he met a man 
pulling heather, who had just finished his day's work, and was putting on 
his long woollen vest before starting home, when Iain came up to him. 
After the usual salutations and questionings, the stranger was invited to 
share the usual hospitality and shelter for the night ; an invitation which 
was readily accepted. After the other members of the family had retired 
for the night, the host and the stranger sat beside the fire for some time, 
relating stories of the olden times to one another. The host at length 
remarked that it was a custom in the Lews, before retiring for the night, 
to make a " Garradh cul has," or warm their loins before the fire. 
Suiting the action to the words, he turned his back to the fire, and raising 
his feille a loose sort of garment shaped more like a female's petticoat than 
the modern kilt began to warm himself. Neither kilts of the present 
style nor trousers were in use in Lews in those clays. Iain noticed that 
the man's loins had been at one time subjected to a dreadful laceration, 
and remarked 

"It was not at the fireside that you got these marks, my friend." 

"Bu dhian do dha laimh ga 'n cur ann," or diligent were both thy 
hands inflicting them, answered the host gravely. 

" This is not a time to remember bad deeds," rejoined the other. 

" Nor am I going to do so ; if you had not treated me so I would 
assuredly have served you as you did me." 

The reader would have already corrrectly surmised that Iain's host 
was none other than Eoghainn Mac Gille Mhaithrail, the hero of Sgeir 
Eoghainn, and on discovering who his entertainer was, Iain became 
doubtful as to his personal safety ; but Eoghainn, noticing his agitated 
state, assured him that he had heartily forgiven him for the past, and that 
he was not only free from danger in his house, but that he would have 
full protection from himself while in the Lews. 

With this assurance Iain retired to bed, and slept as sound as ever 
he did in his life. In the morning he was served with the best breakfast 
that Eoghainn's press could afford. Before leaving, the latter requested 
John to accompany him to the stable to see a pair of beautiful black 
horses which he had just put in. lain went, and admiring the horses, 
said, " They are a splendid pair, indeed. It is not in every man's stable 
the like of them could be seen." " I hope then," said Eoghainn, " that 
you will be pleased to accept them as an acknowledgment from me, in 
return for the chastisement you gave me at Tarnsay, for ever since that 
day I have not followed the life of a raider." Iain, it need hardly be 
said, accepted the horses with many acknowledgments and thanks. 

The island of Tarnsay, and the other portions of Harris plundered by 
the Morrisons, were pleasant and fertile places; were soon again peopled ; 
and were in a few years as nourishing and populous as ever. 

MAO IAIN, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 187 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES. 



THE following queries indicate how this new feature of the Celtic Magazine is likely to 
be appreciated. We respectfully request our friends, learned in such matters, to aid us 
and those requiring information by answering such queries as may fiom time to time be 
put in this department. To secure insertion, contributions must reach us in every case 
not later than the 15th of each month before publication. Parties will please to be as 
concise and exact in both queries and answers as possible. In all cases the full name 
and address must be sent us in confidence, where contributors do not wish their names 
to appear. 

DUNBAR. Sir, Finding by a note in your last issue that you propose opening a 
Note and Query column in your Magazine, I ask permission through that medium about 
some Dunbars whoso genealogies I am anxious to ascertain. James Dunbar, merchant, 
burgess of Inverness, was dead ante 1655, and was when in the flesh immediate elder 
brother to Alexander Dunbar of Balmuckitie, merchant, burgess, and Provost of Inver- 
ness. James left two daughters, Christian m. Kobert Barlow of Mulderge, and Janet m. 
another James Duubar. Janet and James had a son. Alexander, who in later years was 
styled ot Balmuckitie, owning it by disposition from Alexander the said Provost. 
Were Alexander, the Provost, and James his brother descended from Mr Thomas Dun- 
bar, Dean of Moray, and Mr Alexander, also Dean of Moray, his eldest son, who had 
charters of Balmuckitie in 1607, and if so, how did the younger brother own it? Who 
also was the elder James's spouse, and of what family was the younger James? -I am, 
yours, &c., F. MEDENHAM. 

THE CHIEF OP THE MACKENZIES. I am glad to see that you are going to open the 
pages of your Magazine for the purpose of obtaining information regarding the genea- 
logies of our Highland families. Can you, who are so well informed on all questions 
affecting the Clan Mackenzie, inform me if Allangrange is really the undoubted Chief of 
the ClaB ? Who composed the jury tkat voted him Chief at Tain in 1829? The Chief- 
ship was claimed at the same time by the late Captain William Mackenzie of Gruinard, 
and some years before by a Captain Murdo Mackenzie, of London. What relationship 
to Seaforth were these claims founded upon, and how were they disposed of ? If Allan- 
grange is really Chief, failing his succession, who would, in that case, be Chief of the 
Clan ? These are important questions to 

London. A CABAB. 

GRIZELL URQUHART AND ISABELLA MACLEOD. Sought ; the further history of two 
ladies named G-rizell Urquhart and Isabella Macleod. The former was sole surviving 
child of Colonel James Urquhart, the last direct representative of the Urquharts of 
Cromarty. He died in 1741 so said and was buried on 2d of January of that year. 
She is said by the Baronage to have died unmarried. The latter. Isabella, was the 
eldest daughter of Korie Macleod of Cambuscurrie, in Ross-shire. He married in 1686, 
and she is said by the Baronage to have been "honorably married." Elsewhere they 
are both said to have been married to husbands, named Ros, Rose, Ross, or Rosse. Any 
light into this Scotch mist will oblige, K.RUKS. 

THE CHIEF OF THE MATHESONS. Who is the present Chief of the Mathesons.of 
Lochalsh? It is understood that Alexander Matheson of Ardross and Lochalsh, M.P., 
does net claim that distinction. Is this the case ? Was the late Sir James Matheson of 
the Lews, as said by some, Chief of the Mathesons of Sutherland ? Who is the present 
Chief ? MATHON. 

THE CUTHBERTS OF INVERNESS. Can any of your readers tell me if any representa- 
tives of this old family are still in existence, and, if so, what position they occupy ? I 
find members of the family were married into nearly all the leading families in the 
Highlands, and in this way, about two hundred years ago, Cuthbert blood came into my 
own family. I am thus anxious to learn all I can about the Cuthberts of Castlehill, 
Inverness. 

Leeds. ANGLO CELT. 

HISTORY OF THE CAMERONS. Can you or any of your readers inform me if there is 
any unpublished MS. History of this Clan or any other documents which would throw 
light on its origin and early annals. ANTIQUARIAN. 

THE ORIGINAL MACKENZIES OF SAND. Who was spoken of as " Sand " (Gairloch) 
about the year 1743 ? In an old business book, goods are frequently invoiced to " Sand," 
or to be placed to " Sand's account." The enquirer would be glad to learn by whom he 
was represented at his death. M.M.C. 

HOSSACK. To whom was Katharine, daughter of ProTost John Hossack, of Inver- 
ness, married in 1745 ? and who was the father of her husband ? 

Moorside, Chester. 



188 THE CELTIC MAGAZINK. 



THE "EDUCATIONAL NEWS" ON TEACHING GAELIC 
IN HIGHLAND SCHOOLS. 



NOTHING could better show the great progress which common sense is making 
on this question than a leading article which appeared in a recent issue of 
the Educational News on Mr Jolly's report to the Education Department. 
Though it is uncommonly like what we have ourselves repeatedly said on 
the same subject, it is such a sign of the times, coming from such a 
quarter as the organ of the Educational Institute of Scotland, that, with 
no little pleasure, we reproduce it in these pages. For the great change 
of opinion in educational circles on this all-important question to High- 
landers, we are greatly indebted to Mr Jolly, H.M.I.S., who, though not 
a Highlander himself, seems to be getting, the more he becomes acquainted 
with the country and its requirements, more Celtic in spirit than the 
Highlanders themselves ; and his last and best report was so thoroughly 
practical and sensible as apparently to revolutionize educational opinion in 
favour of the Highlands. The News says : 

In a large number of Highland parishes, Gaelic is the vernacular tongue of the 
people. The younger children are acquainted with Gaelic, and with Gaelic alone. 
English is, in their own phrase, "the other language," of which they profess no know- 
ledge. We are not to discuss here the merits of the Gaelic language, nor the question 
whether its continuance as a living, spoken language should be fostered and encouraged. 
These questions lie outside the scope of our present purpose. That Gaelic has a litera- 
ture of its own, a literature "varied, abundant, and powerful, full of fine sentiment, 
pleasant humour, lyrical beauty, deep feeling, practical wisdom, and natural life," no 
one will deny. How far the continuance of Gaelic as a spoken language hinders the de- 
velopment of the Celt, and operates as a barrier to success in life, is an open question, 
the discussion of which may be safely left in the hands of such champions as Professor 
Blackie. What we have to deal with is a practical question of pressing importance the 
question, as Mr Jolly well says, " of the right use in schools of the daily language of 
300,000 of our people." We cannot give this question the go-by. It must be faced and 
solved ; and the sooner it is manfully faced, the sooner shall we arrive at a solutUn. 

It is to betray the grossest ignorance of all true education to say that wo ought to 
ignore Gaelic, and teach every child English from the very beginning. We cannot do this 
even if we would, and we should not do it even if we could. The child thinks in Gaelic, 
speaks in Gaelic all its associations are suggested by Gaelic, and English is as much a 
foreign tongue as Greek or Hebrew. It is utterly impossible to teach there Highland 
children except through the medium of their own tongue. We fancy this is HOW gene- 
rally admitted ; and certain homeopathic concessions in the Code would seem to indicate 
that the fact has penetrated into the recesses of the Department. We would refer our 
readers to Mr Jolly's remarks on this point, all of which are sensible and judicious. 

But it is equally patent that, if the scholars are to be taught through the medium 
of Gaelic, the teacher must be acquainted with that language ; and here we are brought 
face to face with a difficulty which, at this moment, is engaging the anxious considera- 
tion of all who are interested in the education of the Highlands aud Islands. How are 
Gaelic speaking teachers to be obtained? The supply already falls far short of the de- 
mand ; and our own advertising columns bear striking testimony to this, containing, as 
Ihey have done for some mouths past, continuous advertisements for teachers in some of 
the Islands, the repetition of which shows the difficulty of securing, we shall not say 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 189 

high-class men, but men of any sort. And, in this respect, we are not sure whether tha 
state of matters that existed previous to the passing of the Act of 1872 was not better 
than that which now exists. Previous to that time, a Certificated Teacher was not 
essential in every Public School. No school could obtain grants, unless the teacher were 
certificated ; but, in many cases, school managers were content to secure the services of 
a fair Gaelic speaking teacher, and forego the grants, rather than be compelled to shut 
their school altogether. Now, however, the requirement of a certificate is obligatory ; 
and the number of Gaelic speaking certificated teachers is growing rapidly and ominously 
less. From pretty accurate information, which we have been enabled to collect, we 
have come to the conclusion that, unless some remedy be speedily applied, Gaelic-speak- 
ing teachers will become extinct. This does not arise, in any degree, from any unwilling- 
ness on the part of the Highland youth to adopt the profession of teaching. Naturally 
they are fond of it. They see in it a means of raising themselves in the social scale ; 
and numbers, we are convinced, would annually offer themselves for admission to our 
ranks, were not the door, through no fault of their own, shut in their face. And this 
comes to pass in this way. 

A large proportion of our teachers now come annually from our Training Colleges. 
Admission to these 'Colleges is guarded by a stringent admission examination. We do 
not mean to say that this examination is too stringent. We do not think it is. But, in 
the meantime, it practically acts as an effectual bar against the admission of all who 
have not enjoyed a good preliminary training. And it is just at this point that the 
Highland difficulty comes in. Candidates from the Highlands have not within their 
reach the means of obtaining this preliminary training. We have it on the authority of 
the Principal of one of our Training Colleges that, at the last examination for admission, 
more than twenty-six Gaelic speaking young men all of them purpose like, sterling 
young fellows presented themselves, net ene of whom came up to the Government require- 
ment. We are not far wide of the mark when we say that not more than two per cent. 
of those who passed the last examination were Gaelic speaking. The natural effect of 
this is obvious. Young men, who would form excellent teachers, and do incalculable 
service in our Highland straths and glens, will seek some other avenue into public life, 
and will not run the risk of being rejected when they come seeking admission into the 
ranks of the teaching profession. 

What remedy can be proposed for this state of matters ? Some would at once 
answer that the standard for admission should be lowered. We believe no one who has 
the best interests of the Highlands at heart would make any such suggestion. The 
Highlands require high-class teachers as much as any part of Scotland. The true 
remedy lies in devising some means whereby these lads shall obtain the necessary pre- 
liminary training. This they cannot obtain in many parts of the Highlands. "To 
come out." in order to obtain it, involves expense, and money is not over plentiful in t!ie 
Highlands. We fear it would be idle to ask the Department to do anything in the way 
of instituting preliminary bursaries. There are practical difficulties in the wy of a 
very serious kind. But surely there are enough spirit and patriotism in the Highlands 
to induce the people to take this matter into their own hands. They have raised up- 
wards of 10,000 to found and endow a Gaelic Chair in the University of Edinburgh. 
The half of this sum would institute a numher of bursaries, to enable young men to 
start on equal terms with the more favoured Southerner. The bursaries need not be of 
large amount. A Highland lad can make a little go a long way. His wants are few ; 
and we are satisfied that a sum of 10 or 15 would enable him to attend some public 
institution where the defects of his early training could be made up, and where he would 
have the opportunity of proving that, on equal terms, he can hold his own against all 
comers. 

The Highland glens mpy be dotted with elegant school buildings. These buildings 
may gladden the eye and adorn the country. They may be equipped with all the most 
recent educational appliances ; but they will not become. centres of light and culture, 
until they are manned by intelligent, well trained teachers, who, from their knowledge 
of the native tongue, shall be able to reach the heart, as well as the intelligence, of their 
scholars, and so to call forth those latent energies which will enable them successfully 
to commence the battle of life. How to procure such teachers is a problem the solution 
of which deseives the most serious consideration, and to which we shall be glad to lend 
any assistance in our power. 



190 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



OUR GAELIC BIBLE. 



III. 

THE year 1801 will long be memorable in the Highlands of Scotland as 
that which first gave us in our mother-tongue a complete translation of 
the entire Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. But the comple- 
tion of that noble work, imperishable monument though it be to the piety 
and the patriotic . enterprise of the Society for Propagating Christian 
Knowledge, cannot be said to have to any great extent put the "Word of 
God in the hands of the Highland people. Of these, the minutes of the 
Society bear that, so far as could be ascertained, there were at the time 
" 300,000 who understood no other language but Gaelic, or at least were 
incapable of receiving religious instruction through any other." The same 
estimate is repeated in 1811 by the first promoters of the Gaelic School 
Society. It may therefore be accepted as substantially correct. In a 
subsequent chapter we shall inquire how far it could be said that these 
300,000 Gaelic-speaking people were able to read the Gaelic Bible if they 
possessed it. What most concerns us at present is to remember that not 
more than five hundred complete copies, all told, of the Old Testament 
were now available for distribution ; and what were they among so many 
as 300,000 souls 1 By the time Dr Stuart was ready with the third 
volume of the translation, the first, second, and fourth volumes had 
already to a great extent been disposed of ; so that in our far Highland 
glens many an aged saint of those days, hungering for the "Word, must 
have felt himself in a predicament not unlike that of the school-boy who, 
after an early and frugal breakfast, found that before completing the four 
or five miles walk to school the barley bannock intended for his mid-day 
meal had already been forestalled ! Moreover, the few remaining com- 
plete copies of the work were in a form both expensive and exceedingly 
inconvenient for use ; there being four volumes of the Old Testament, 
and the New Testament, which made a fifth volume, being of an 
entirely different size. A new issue of the work, in more portable form, 
and at a moderate price, Avas thus imperatively called for ; and to this 
task the directors of the Society now vigorously applied themselves, as a 
matter which they felt to be essential to the success of their great and 
benevolent enterprise. But the new labour brought them a rich crop of 
new anxieties, the main interest of which, to the present generation, 
centres in the objections urged against the re-publication of Dr Smith's 
translation of the Prophets. On the merits of that old controversy we 
have long ago formed our own conclusions. But we cannot discuss them 
h ere all discussion on points of sacred criticism and Biblical interpreta- 
tion being properly excluded from the Celic Magazine. It may, however, 
be freely admitted, even in these pages, that grave inconveniences could 
scarcely fail to attend the common use in our land of a Gaelic Bible which 
uttered a sound to any serious extent discordant with the utterances of 
the authorized English version. The writer once had himself an ex- 
perience of what may be called a minor inconvenience of this sort, which 
was yet for the moment sufficiently disconcerting. And it was occasioned, 



THE CELTIC HA.GAZINE. 191 

not by Smith's Prophets, but by one of the few discrepancies between the 
English Bible and the Gaelic quarto of 1826. Happening to spend a few 
days in a country place where a Gaelic Bible was not at hand, he prepared 
his Gaelic sermon on a text taken from the English Bible. A long walk on 
a fine summer morning brought him to church just in time to go straight into 
the pulpit, where, on opening the Gaelic Bible let the candid reader judge 
of his dismay he found that the text as therein translated, though not 
materially differing from the English, yet missed entirely the point on which 
was meant to hinge the whole burden of " the following remarks !" That 
the public use of Dr Smith's Prophets side by side with the English 
Bible would certainly have led to inconveniences of graver import than 
this, is sufficiently evident, for the divergence of the former from the latter 
is in many passages marked and significant. Whether on critical grounds 
the divergence was a virtue or a blemish we do not here inquire. What 
most concerns us here is to know that in yielding to the objections urged 
against Dr Smith's work, the directois were careful to leave on their re- 
cords a lasting testimony of their high opinion of his learning and ability 
as a Biblical scholar. " Dr Smith in translating his portion had been at 
very considerable pains to make himself acquainted with the Eastern style 
of writing, with the views of the prophets and the particular events to 
which their predictions referred. In doing this he found it necessary to 
consult a great number of the most learned authors on the subject, and from 
observations of his own he compared a summary view of the Old Testa- 
ment prophets, explaining their figurative style of writing and making 
out the objects they had in view in each particular chapter." The 
directors so much approved of the work that they agreed to be at the ex- 
pense of printing one thousand copies of it " in a frugal manner" for use 
in their schools.* 

With this handsome compliment to Dr Smith, those Avho revere his 
memory can afford to be content, satisfied as well they may be that the 
directors of the Society, in throwing overboard his portion of their great 
work, were constrained to do so by the force of circumstances which, 
apart altogether from the merits of the work or the competency of the 
translator, it was impossible for them to disregard. Eor alike the temper 
of the times and the views of inspiration then universally held in Scotland 
were such that the question to be disposed of was really whether King 
James' English should give place to Dr Smith's Gaelic, or vice versa. 
That the two could not stand together was a foregone conclusion. So 
put, and in all the circumstances, the matter could at the time admit of 
no other verdict than that which was given. When, however, the 
revisers now sitting from time to time in the Jerusalem chamber have 
completed their difficult and most delicate task, it is not unlikely that 
some one may be bold enough to raise the question whether that verdict 
ought not then to be reconsidered. 

Thus it became necessary to find a new translator for the Prophets. 
Dr Smith could, of course, have no hand in undoing his own work, and 

* This work is not in my possession, but through the kindness of Mr Donald Mac- 
kinnon, I am favoured with the following note regarding it : " Dr Smith was a, 
voluminous writer. His prophetical book is ' A Summary View and Explanation of the 
Writings of the Prophets, 12mo : Edinburgh 1787." There was a " New Edition revised 
by the Kev. Peter Hall, M.A., 12mo : London 1835." 



192 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Dr Stewart, of Luss, who readily undertook the rest of the work, felt 
himself restrained, as a point of honour, from touching the work of his 
friend and fellow-labourer in the original version of 1783-1801. The task 
of bringing the obnoxious " Prophets " into harmony with the English 
version fell thus to the pen of Dr Alexander Stewart, the distinguished 
author of our best existing Gaelic grammar, and the minister successively 
of Moulin, Dingwall, and Canongate. His fee was one hundred guineas. 

The Society's appeal for the funds required to produce this new work 
met with a response so liberal that it was resolved to contract for an issue 
of 20,000 copies instead of 10,000, as was at first intended. The estimate 
for paper and printing was 2284 10s, "a sum greatly beyond what they 
have as yet collected ; notwithstanding which, the directors, confiding in 
Providence and in public generosity, ordered the Avork to the above extent 
to be put to the press, and it is now carrying on (1804) under the im- 
mediate superintendance of a clergyman eminently well qualified for the 
office, but advancing more slowly than could be wished." Among many 
" impediments " to the progress of the work the directors mention "the 
workmen's total ignorance of the language in which they print and the 
singular difficulty of the Gaeljc orthography." " Errors, consequently, 
are frequent, and many proofs of the same portion are requisite." The 
report of 1806 " regrets that the new edition of the Gaelic Bible has not 
been carried on with that expedition which would accord witli their own 
wishes and the expectations of the public. But the revised copy extend- 
ing to the book of Hosea is now prepared for the press." The work was 
completed in 1807. It is in two volumes 12mo, containing only the Old 
Testament, but uniform with the Luss !S T ew Testament (1796), of which 
a large supply was still on hand. 

Among collectors of Gaelic books there is more or less prevalent a sort 
of vague impression that the British and Foreign Bible Society's first 
edition of the Gaelic Bible was printed from the types set up for this 
edition of 1807 by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge a 
misconception probably suggested by lieid's statement in loco that "the 
Society ottered the British and Foreign Bible Society half the impression, 
on condition that they paid their share of the expense, which ^ca^ n<'e<>i>h'il" 
In the minutes of the Society we can trace no evidence of such a transaction. 
On the contrary it seems to us that by implication at least there is evi- 
dence that, though it may have been contemplated, the transaction in 
question was never really entered into. For the minutes contain an ex- 
pression of the Scotch Society's gratification that besides the 20,000 copies 
of its own edition, an additional issue of 20,000 copies was also to be 
printed in London at the expense of the English Society. Be that matter, 
however, as it may, it is clear that the two editions were printed from 
types manifestly different. Both editions were published in 1807, but 
the Scotch edition has a somewhat larger page and type than the English. 
The former uses throughout the long old-fashioned s, like /, in the text 
and notes, whereas the latter has the modern form of that letter. The 
sheets, moreover, are differently numbered for the binder, and the num- 
ber of sheets in the two editions is not the same. But there is a more 
material difference between them. " In many places," as Keid observes, 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society's edition, Dr Daniel Dewar, 
afterwards the learned Principal of Marischal College in Aberdeen, on 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



193 



whom devolved the labour of putting it through the press, " follows the 
original translation of Smith in preference to the altered one of Stewart." 
These deviations from the Scotch Society's revised version are not so many 
or of so great moment as Eeid's words would seem to imply. JFor the 
most part they are not more serious than the change by Principal Dewar 
in Isaiah i. 25, of shalchar and staoin in Stewart's version to sliloit and 
shalchar respectively. The only changes of note that we have marked 
are in Isaiah ix., where it may be well to compare the three versions of 
Smith, Alexander Stewart, and Principal Dewar : 



Stewart. 

Gidheadh clia bhi an 
doillearachd mar a bha il 
linn a hamhghstir, an uair a 
bhuail e gu h-eutrom an 
toiseach talamh Shabuloiu 
agus talnmh Naphtali, agus 
na dheigh sin bhuail e ni 
bu truirae e air slighe na 
fairge, taobh thall lurdain, 
Galile nan cinneacb. 



Dewar. 

Acb cba bbi dorchadas 
innte-san a bba ann an tains : 
oir anns an aimsir caidh 
seachad, dh'islicb e talamh 
Sbubuloin agus talamh 
Naphthali, ach anns an aim- 
sir dbeireanaicb rinn e 
glormbor e, air slighe na 
fairge, taobh thall lurdain, 
Galile nan cinneach. 



Smith. 

1. Ach cha bhi 'na dheigh 
so dorchadas aims an fhear- 
ann a bha 'na theinn : anns 
an aimsir a chaidh seachad 
dh' isliuli e fearann Shebu- 
loin, agus fearaun Naphthali; 
ach anns an aimsir dheirean- 
aich riiin e glormhor e : 
eadhon slighe na fairge, taobh 
thall lordain, Galile nan 
cinneach. 

Similar changes may be seen in verses 2, 3, and 5 of the same chapter. 

After all, however, Principal Dewar's changes 011 Dr Alexander 
Stewart are small game indeed compared with the latter's changes on the 
original version of Dr Smith. We hope ere long to bring out a reprint 
of that most interesting work. Meanwhile such readers of the Celtic 
Magazine as cannot turn to the book itself may compare the rival versions 
in the following extracts, which are taken at random : 

Alex, Stewart. 

Is truagh dhoibhsan a ta 'g orduchadh 
reachdan eucorach, na scriobhuichean a 
ta 'g aithneadh fomeirt. 



Smith. 

Isaiah x. 1. Mo thruaighe iadsan a ta 
breithneachadh brt-itheanais eucoraich ; 
na scriobhuichean a ta 'g orduchadh 
foirueirt. 

5. Ho! do'n Asirianach,slatmochorruich, 
an lorg aig am bheil 'na laimh acfuinn 'm 
fheirge ! 

Isaiah ix. 5. Oir luireach-luirgnean a' 
ghaisgeich armaichte fa chomhrag, agus 
an trusgan air a thumadh ann am moran 
fala, bithidh air son losgaidh, eadhon nan 
connadh air son an teine. 

Isaiah i. 1. Faisneachd Isaiah rnhic 
Amois, a dh' fhoillsicheadh dha, &c. 

Isaiah i. 5. Ciod am ball air am buail 
sibh a ris, air an leag sibh tuille smach- 
dachaidh ? tha'n ceann uile tinn, &c. 

Isaiah i. 13 (last clause). ... an trasg 
agus la an toirmeisg. 

Isaiah i. 17. Leasaichibh an ni a ta air 
a thruailleadh. 

Isaiah i. 27. A braighdean. 

Isaiah i. 30. Mar chiaoibh chuilinn. 



Ho Asirianaich, slat mo chorruich agus 
am bata nan laimh 's e sin m'fhearg. 

Oir tha gach uile chath an fhir chogaidh 
le cruaidh iomairt, agus eudach air a 
thumadh ann am fuil ; ach bithidh so le 
losgadh, agus connadh air son an teine. 

Taisbeanadh Isaiah mhic Amois, a chun- 
naic e, &c. 

G'ar son a bhuailear sibh mi 's mo? theid 
sibh ni 's faide agus nis faide air seacharan. 
Tha' ceann uile tinn, &c. 

... is eu ceart eadhon an co-ghairm 
naomha. 

Deanaibh fuasgladh air an fhear tha 
saruichte. 

A muinntir iompaichte. 

Mar dharaig. 



The changes in Isaiah ii. are even more numerous ; but let us open the 
book elsewhere 



Isaiah xli. 1. Do 'm' ionnsuidhsa thig- 
eadh ua cinnich iomallaoh le ur-ueart inn- 
tiuu ; is atk nuadhaicheadh na sloigh an 
neart. Thigeadh iad am fugus ; labhradh 
iad ; tionnsgnamid ar tagradh cudromack 
le cheile. 



Bithibh 'n' ur tosd a' m' lathair, O 
eileana, a;us ath-nuadhaicheadh na sloigh 
an neart ; thigeadh iad am fagus, an sin 
labhradh iad ; dluthaickeamid r'a cheile 
chum tagraidh, 



194 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Those who compare Isaiah xxxviii. as rendered by Smith, Stewart, and 
Dewar, respectively, and all the more if they are at home in the literature 
of that remarkable " and very difficult chapter, will find therein much 
food for reflection. In verses 12, 13, 14, and 16, Smith's translation 
differs materially from the other two ; and he gets rid of the topical diffi- 
culties of verses 21 and 22 by bodily transplanting them so as to stand, 
the former between verses 8 and 9, and the latter between verses 6 and 
7. Dewar deals with the same difficulty, practically to the same effect, 
but by the simpler contrivance of treating as one long parenthesis the 
whole passage from verse 7 to verse 20 inclusive, which, accordingly, he 
encloses within brackets. Stewart's version stands in our Gaelic Bible 
unchanged to this day. Even Clerk and Maclachlan let it alone. 

If now the reader who has access to an Irish Bible will compare it 
with even the meagre extracts here given, he cannot fail to observe 
that, though Stewart had Smith's version before him, he yet goes back in 
his choice of words and phrases to lean on the staff of Bedel rather than 
take the arm of his countryman. How is this ? It comes not, we believe, 
of chance. Nor is it all due to the instinctive sensibility with which a 
man like Stewart, deeply imbued with the high evangelical views of 
Simeon, would shrink from anything that to his mind savoured of 
heterodoxj-, powerful as in his case such an influence must certainly have 
been. We believe that all through the Eastern Highlands Kirke's Bible 
had by this time rooted itself deeply in the religion of the people. Not, 
as will be seen further on, that it was largely read by the people, but it 
was read to them largely by catechists and exhorters read to them especi- 
ally in the regular ministrations of the " reader " on the Lord's-Day, Nay, 
it was read often at firesides, sick-beds, and late- wakes, by readers, if one 
may so speak, who could not themselves read, but who as listeners, 
entranced by the reading of others, and often as they trod life's weary 
way meditating what they heard read, had learned to recite from memory 
large portions of the Scriptures. The peculiar phrases of Kirke's Bible, 
all the more perhaps that their very peculiarity separated them by deeper 
lines from the secular phrases of this mundane moil and from " the wicked 
songs of their half-heathen sires," became thus embalmed in their memory 
as the cherished symbols of the things of God and the soul and heaven 
the lingua sacra of their seasons of sweet communion, holy meditation, 
and high angelic ecstasy. Well do we remember a remarkable instance 
of this in the person of an aged relative who died forty years ago on the 
banks of the Nairn, at the great age of 87. He could not read the Gaelic 
Bible, or like the famous minister of Coll in Samuel Johnson's day, he 
did not like it.* But he ever held family worship in Gaelic, with the 
English Bible open before him ; and it seems now to us as if the strange, 
old-world Gaelic he thus used to read were none other than Kirke's, 
which he had learned in the way just described from the reading of 
Alasdar Vaus or other like worthies of Strathnairn in the olden time. 

* "Mention was made of the Erse translation of the New Testament, which has 
lately been published, and of which the learned Mr Macqueen of Skye spoke with com- 
mendation, but Mr Maclean said he did not use it because he could make the text more 
intelligible to his auditors by an extemporaneous version." Johnson's Journey in the 
Highlands, by Macnicol, p, 187, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 195 

Not many Sabbaths ago a similar instance flashed back upon us in the 
pulpit like the light of other days. The text was 1 Kings xvii. 14, 
" Cha chaithear an soitheach mine agus cha teirig an corn olaidh." But 
in the swell and swing of rising thought this strange phrase ever more 
rang out, "Ni 'n caithear barille na mine 's ni 'n teirig do chruisgin na 
h-ola." Whence came the phrase ? Bedel being dead yet speaketh. 
Those who in his words first found light and life unto their souls, spake 
them to my relative, and the old man, dead these forty years, was now 
speaking them again back to me. And here is something written in the 
Society's minutes which looks not unlike a corroboration of the theory : 
The General Assembly had ordained some years in advance that, as soon 
as the Gaelic Bible of 1 807 was ready, none other should be used in the 
public worship of God. But from the north-eastern -Synod there came to 
the Assembly a strongly -Avorded overture praying the Assembly to rescind 
this order. Why 1 What other Bible could they use but Kirke's 1 And 
when they could not take the book to the pulpit they just rehearsed it 
without the book, or their favourite portions of it, by the help of the 
English Bible. This was, we believe the popular feeling in Stewart's 
day all through the Eastern Highlands from Perth to Strathnaver. 
Stewart himself, if he drank not of that feeling with his mother's milk, 
yet spent his life in the focus of its influence. What wonder, then, if, 
being human, though a prince among Gaelic scholars, he should on this 
sacred ground lean back from the living, clear-cut, idiomatic, every-day 
Gaelic of Dr Smith to the lingua sacra of the people among whom he did 
his life-work ? 

DONALD MASSON, M.A., M.D. 



BUSIED GAELIC SONGS. 
o 

IT is too commonly supposed that all the Gaelic poems which have been 
printed are accessible to the reading public. Such is far from being the 
case. The old collections of Gaelic poems are very scarce. It was with 
great difficulty that I procured a copy of Ronald Macdonald's work. I 
had to pay fifteen shillings for it. Gillies' work cannot be purchased at 
all. I got my copy of the work, not for money, but by good luck. I 
have the copy which belonged to the Rev. Dr Macgregor. I know of 
only two copies of this collection on this side of the Atlantic ; Mr Camp- 
bell, in his Leabhar na Feinne, says he knows of only thirteen copies in 
the old country. Even Stewart's collection, Turner's collection, the 
Inverness collections, and Macfarlane's collection, are scarce works. 

Our late collections, such as Leabhar na Feinne, Sar-obair nam Bard, 
and the Oranaiche, contain the greater number of the best poems in the 
old collections, but they do not contain all the good poems in those works, 



196 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Why should good poems lie buried in books which, cannot be obtained ? 
Any person -who would collect and publish those poems in the old col- 
lections which do not appear in the new collections, would be doing good 
service in the cause of Gaelic literature, and also conferring a great favour 
upon all readers of Gaelic, by giving them access to new fields of pleasure. 

Eonald Macdonald's collection was published in the year 1776. It 
contains 106 poem?. Of these 53 appear in Sar-obair nam Burd, 3 in 
Menzies's collection, 2 in Munro's Adleagan, 1 in Leabhar na Feinne, 1 
in. the Melodist, and 1 in Mac Mhaighstir Alastair's work. Of the re- 
maining 45 poems- 1 cannot find any in our present collections. Four of 
them are by Iain Dubh Mac Iain Mine Ailein, 2 by Iain Lorn, 2 by Iain 
Mac Aileiu, 1 by Euairidh Mac Mhuirich, and 1 by Mairearad Nighean 
Lachainn. Iain Dubh Mac Iain Mhic Ailein was a Macdonald ; Iain 
Mac Ailein was /a Maclean. 

Gillies' collection was published in 1786. It contains 117 poems. 
Of these 22 are in Leabhar na Feinne, 20 in Sar-obair nam Bard, 3 in 
Sinclair's Oranaiche, 1 in Menzies' collection, and 1 in Mackenzie's Jaco- 
bite Songs. There are 61 poems in this collection which are not to be 
found elsewhere. Three of these are by Iain Lorn. 

A. & D. Stewart's collection was published in 1804. It contains 128 
poems. Of these there are 34 in Sar-obair nam Bard, 9 in Leabhar na 
Feinne, 9 in Menzies' collection, and 2 in Mackenzie's Jacobite Songs. Of 
the remaining poems, 22 are by Rob Donn, and 13 by William Ross. 
These, of course, are in the works of those poets. There are 39 poems 
in this collection which do not appear elsewhere. 

The first Inverness collection was published in tlie year 1806. It 
contains 64 poems, all of which, except eleven, are in our present collec- 
tions. 

Turner's collection was published in 1813. It contains 122 poems. 
Of these only 51 are to be found in our late collections. Of the 71 which 
have not been reprinted, 3 are by Mairearad Nighean Lachainn, 8 by 
Iain Lorn, 5 by Ailean Buidhe, 3 by Shaw, and 1 by Mairi Nighean 
Alastair Ruaidh. 

Patrick Macfarlane's collection was published in the year 1813. It 
contains 45 poems. They are all, except six, in our present collections. 
Two of the poems which have not been reprinted are by the Rev. Mr 
Maclagan, and possess much merit. 

The six collections I have examined contain 238 poems which are not 
in the works which can be now purchased. A few of these poems are 
doubtless Avorthless, and do not deserve to be reprinted. I do not think, 
however, that there is even one utterly worthless poem either in Ronald 
Macdonald's, Gillies', or Macfarlane's collection. I would like to see 
everything in these very excellent works reprinted. 

But could a collection containing those poems in the old collections 
which do not appear in the new collections, be sold 1 I should think so. 
Would not every person who reads Sar-obair nam Bard like to have it 1 
For my own part I would gladly take ten copies of the work It could 
be sold, I suppose, for about ten shillings a copy. 

A. MACLEAN SINCLAIR. 
PlCIOU, NOVA SCOIIA, January 22, 1879. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 19? 



/iterate*. 



0- 



GENEALOGICAL TABLES OF THE CLAN MACKENZIE. By Major JAMES 
D. MACKENZIE of Findon ; from the Author, or JOHN NOBLE, Inverness. 

WE sometimes feel that the good old saying, that one can have too much 
of a good thing, may, with no little force, be applied to the quantity of 
matter appearing in the Celtic Magazine for the last seventeen months 
about the Clan Mackenzie. While we sometimes felt this, we found our- 
selves very much relieved by the fact that only one solitary voice reached 
us daring the whole of that period with a complaint of the nature here 
indicated. This may possibly be due more to the characteristic long- 
suffering of our countrymen than to any merit or attractiveness which our 
continued lucubrations possessed. At the same time we felt that the 
reader would soon find out for himself that though those articles were 
only designated a " History of the Clan Mackenzie," they were, in point 
of fact, a great deal more were, to a great extent, a history of the North 
West Highlands of Scotland ; for it Avould be impossible, even were it 
desirable, to write a history of any important clan without relating a 
great deal concerning the others, and about many of the feuds and con- 
tentions so long chronic north of the Grampians. If, even after these 
preliminary remarks, any one be left who can yet find an excuse 
for objecting to so much Mackenzie literature, we vouchsafe the informa- 
tion, that it is our intention to give such an opportunity of retaliation. 
We intend to continue the history of the various clans ; and, when we 
have finished the Mackenzies, we shall present them, in their turn, with 
a strong dose of Cameron or Macdonald, and so on, until we have given a 
separate history of all the principal clans in the North. With this ex- 
planation we proceed to notice briefly the valuable and laborious work 
before us ; and we do so with the greater pleasure from its being the work 
of two gentlemen of a class who generally prefer dignified ease or wild sport 
to labour of this description. A gentleman in Findon's position would 
never be induced to enter such a difficult field, unless he felt that he owed 
a duty to his clan, and, especially, to the memory of his late brother, who 
worked so hard for many years collecting materials among old MSS., 
sasines, deeds, in the Register House, and elsewhere, which, in conse- 
quence of his sudden death, it was feared, would, never see the light. 
Persons like ourselves have often to work in such fields from a double 
motive the necessity of securing a return for our labour perhaps being 
sometimes as great an inducement as mere love for the work itself; and 
this is why we feel specially grateful to Major Mackenzie for placing be- 
fore the public, from purely patriotic motives, the valuable and extensive 
materials collected by his late brother, with what additions he was him- 
self able to make to them. 

The work consists of thirteen large sheets of Tables, showing the 
origin and descent of all the principal families of Mackenzie, and their 
matrimonial connections with the other powerful houses throughout the 
Highlands, such as the Earls of Boss, Macdougalls of Lorn, and other 



198 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

distinguished families. The descent of the clan from the early Kings of 
England, Scotland, and Man, is carefully traced. The traditional progenitor 
of the clan, Colin Fitzgerald, of Ireland, is placed at the top of the tree, and 
his ancestry traced back to the year 800, over many impossible heights, 
and across wide and unbridgeable valleys of history and tradition first to 
Ireland, and then to the famous Gherardini of Florence. Onr own views, 
supported by the best modern authorities, of this fabulous and misty 
origin of the clan is already well known to the reader, and the only re- 
ference to it with -which we shall burden this notice, is to remark that 
we have, in our Introduction to the History of the Clan Mackenzie in 
numbers xxv. and xxvi. of the Celtic Magazine, devoted more space to 
the discussion of the origin of the clan and its founder than Major Mac- 
kenzie has devoted in all his letter-press to the whole clan; and while we 
think he said all that could be said for the Fitzgerald origin, and said it 
well, we cannot avoid pointing out the error, or oversight, into which he 
has fallen when he wrote the footnote on page 8 on the face of it an 
after-thought and where he describes the writer of the History in the 
Celtic Magazine as " begging the whole question," of the origin of the 
clan, in the face of the fact, well known to the reader, that we devoted 
about twenty pages of closely printed letter-press to the discussion of it. 
Without this explanation, readers of Findon's pamphlet would naturally 
assume that the question was never discussed by us at all. That assump- 
tion would be incorrect; we discussed it fully, and to that discussion 
we refer the reader. Poor Colin Fitzgerald is fast disappearing, for even 
Findon has now reduced him to " the Colin of tradition." But we can- 
not resist the temptation to quote the late editor of the Inverness Courier, 
Robert Carruthers, LL.D., as a set-off against the views adopted by the 
reviewer of the Tables in a recent issue of that paper. The Doctor says 
" This chivalrous and romantic (Fitzgerald) origin of the Clan Mac- 
kenzie, though vouched for by certain charters and local histories, is now 
believed to be fabulous. It seems to be first advanced in the seventeenth 
century, when there was an absurd desire and ambition in Scotland to 
fabricate and magnify all ancient and lordly pedigrees. Sir George Mac- 
kenzie, the Lord Advocate, and Sir George Mackenzie of Tarbat, the first 
Earl of Cromarty, were ready to swear to the descent of the Scots nation 
from Gathelus, son of Cecrops, King of Athens, and Scota, his wife, 
daughter of Pharoah, King of Egypt ; and, of course, they were no less 
eager to claim a lofty and illustrious lineage for their own clan. But 
authentic history is silent as to the two wandering Irish knights, and the 
reported charters (the elder one being, palpably, erroneous) can nowhere 
be found. For two centuries after the reigns of the Alexanders the district 
of Kintail formed part of the lordship of the Isles, and was held ly the 
Earls of Ross." 

Major Mackenzie informs us that the materials from which the Tables 
were made up were collected by his late brother, LeAvis Mark Mackenzie 
of Findon, whose intention of connecting the whole in a history of the 
clan was frustrated by his early death, and in order to save from the 
wreck of time such details as remained, Findon drew out the tables as they 
are now presented, and published them for the benefit of his clan and 
countrymen, and by doing this he has earned, and we tmst is receiving, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 199 

their gratitude in the only appropriate manner purchasing the work. 
To put the tables in their present shape Avas itself no light task, 
and it would be found almost impossible to do even that, were the ma- 
terials otherwise perfect, without committing errors. No doubt a few 
such will be discovered, but they are trifling in comparison with the vast 
mass of correct information given. Findon himself is sensible of not a 
few faults, and modestly thinks that the arrangement could also be 
improved. This is likely enough, but it is much easier to suggest im- 
provements on a completed work than to prepare and finish it as this 
one is finished, if the great difficulty is considered of tracing the rami- 
fications of a hundred families for six hundred years, and of placing them 
clearly in view. Possibly few people can appreciate these difficulties 
more than we do, and, knowing them, it would be most ungenerous to 
cavil at trifling errors that were, in the circumstances, unavoidable. The 
amount of authentic information and detail given is simply marvellous, 
and it is quite impossible that any one who takes an interest in Highland 
family genealogies ca i be without a copy of Major Mackenzie's Tables. 

The " History of the Clan Mackenzie," now passing through the press, 
by the writer of this article, is, in its scope and aims, quite a different 
work to Findon's, while it also will contain complete genealogies of all 
the principal families of Mackenzie. Its general character may be seen 
from the following reference to it by Major Mackenzie : " It was the 
intention of my brother also to write a complete history of the clan and 
its branches, but as this portion of his design is actually being executed 
in a highly interesting work now publishing at Inverness, I have not 
deemed it necessary myself to add much letter-press to the tables, believ- 
ing that authentic and full information will be given in that work re- 
garding the origin and the possessions of the various families." This 
paragraph illustrates, by no means too favourably, the kindly spirit 
which Major Mackenzie exhibited towards our labours from the beginning; 
and it is only right to say that he never hesitated to give us any informa- 
tion in his power on any obscure point on which we had occasion to con- 
sult him, while he, in the most courteous manner, sent us for perusal all 
the Mackenzie MSS. histories in his possession. 



EEAL HIGHLAND HONOUES. Cluny Macpherson of Clnny 
ought to be, if he is not, the proudest man in the Highlands. We do not 
know any other at this moment who occupies such a proud and honourable 
position. While he is himself Colonel of the Inverness-shire Rifle 
Volunteers, his eldest son and heir, Lieutenant-Colonel Duncan Macpher- 
son, is in command of the 42d Eoyal Highlanders, or Black Watch, and 
his second son, Lieutenant-Colonel Ewen Macpherson, commands the 93d 
Sutherland Highlanders two of the finest regiments in the world. Long 
live Cluny and his gallant sons I 

Another Highland Chief, one of the good old sort of whom we often 
read, but now seldom see, Duncan Davidson of Tulloch, has been appointed 
by Her Majesty Lord-Lieutenant of the County of Eoss, a real and well- 
merited honour. Gu ma fada beo an Sar Ghaidliecd. 



200 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



ORAN DO SHIR COINNEACH GHEARRLOCH. 

With Spirit. 







Gn'm bu slan do dheadh Shir Coinneach, Sheas e 'choinneamh mar a b' abhaist, 
Long life and health to good Sir Kenneth, Who graced our festival as usual, 




N-frT 7 ? 



z*=i 



Cridheil, uasal, eolach, cliuteach, Mar cheann-iuil do Chlann nan Gaidheal. 

Cheerful, noble, learned, honoured, Worthy guide to Claim na Gaidheal. 

KEY D. 

|m.s : 1 ., r | t ., s : 1 . r | m . s :l.rjt,s : m ., d 

I r . r : m . m I s ., s : r 1 ., r 1 | 1 . d 1 : s ., d 1 1 s ., m : r ., r II 



Ochd ceucl deug, naoi deug 's tri Behead, 
Sin a bhliadhua 's math leinn aireamh, 
Fhuair sinn urram bho Shir Coinneach. 
'N gaisgeaeh tapaidh 's Triath air < ! earrloch. 
Gu'm bu slan, &c. 

luchair-ghliocais an taobh tuatha, 
Gu'm a buan an t-urram dhasa, 
Ceann na ceille, steidh nam buadhan 
Deadh Shir Coinneach uasal Ghearrloch. 
Gu'm liu slan, &c. 

Cha'n eil goill aige dha 'n arach, 
'S iad na Gaidheil fliein bu chinntich, 
Sheas iad cruadalach ro dhileas 
Le craobh-shinnsridh Oighre Ghearrloch. 
(Ju'in bu slan, &c. 

Tha gach tighearn' is duin' uasal, 
'S an taobh tuath gu leir ag ratainn, 
Nach eil uachdaran cho buadhach 
Ri Sir Coinneach uasal Ghearrloch. 
Gu'm bu slan, &c. 

Tha gach oganach 's gach buachaill, 
Tha gach tuathanach 's gach armunn, 
Deas gu eiridh, ealamh, uallach, 
Mar bu dual do mhuinntir Ghearrloch. 
Gu'm bu slan, &c. 

"S mairg a dhuisgeadh aim 's an uair sin 
Aobhar gruaim no culaidh thaire ; 
'S grad a chlosaichte gach fuathas 
Le "Clann Karhaiim Ruaidh a Gearrloch. 
Gu'm bu slan, &c. 

Fhad sa ruitheas uisg a fuaran, 
Fhad sa ghluaiseas tonn air saije, 
Gus an tfaigh na h-eoin na cuaintean, 
Gu'n robh buaidh air teaghlach Ghearrloch. 
Gu'm bu slan, &c. 



The year we love to mind and cherish 
Is eighteen hundred and seventy -nine, 
When we were honoured by the presence 
of Sir Kenneth, Chief of Gairloch. 
Long life and health, &c. 

In the North he's Wisdom's key, 
Long that honour be his portion, 
Sauarious head and source of virtue. 
Good Sir Kenneth, pride of Gairloch. 
Long life and health, &c. 

He keeps no Lowlanders to foster, 
Native Celts he finds more faithful, 
Always standing brave and trusty 
Round th" ancestral-tree of Gairloch. 
Long life and health, &c. 

It's maintained by all the gentry, 
And the chiefs throughout the Highlands, 
There's not a laird with all the virtues 
Of Sir Kenneth, laird of Gairloch. 
Long life and health, <fec. 

From the farmer to the shepherd, 
From the stripling to the hem, 
All are willing, swift, and ready, 
As of yore, to rise with Gairloch. 
Long life and health, &c. 

Woe to him who roused at that time 
Ghost of shamefulness or anger, 
Quick subdued would be the spectre 
By Clann Eachainn Ruaidh of Gairloch. 
Long life and health, &c. 

Long as water flows from fountain, 
Long as billows roll on ocean, 
Till the birds the sea drink empty, 
Let virtue grace the House of Gairloch. 
Long life and health, Ac. 



NOTE. The above song, in praise of Sir Kenneth S. Mackenzie of Gairloch, Bart., was com- 
posed by Mr Colin Chisholm, Inverness, and sung by him at the late dinner of the Gaelic Society, 
amidst unbounded enthusiasm. The air is a spirited one, and is well known in the West Hi,i;ii- 
|inds. For the benefit of the Knglish reader a literal translation, by the Editor, is given. 

W. M'K. 



THE 

CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



No. XLIF. APRIL, 1879. VOL. IV. 

HISTORY OF THE CLAN MACKENZIE. 
BY THE EDITOR. 



[CONTINUED. | 
THE CHIEFSHIP. 

IT would have been seen that the male line of Colonel Alexander Mac- 
kenzie of Assynt became extinct on the death of Francis Huinberston 
Mackenzie, the last Lord Seaforth, who died in 1815, surviving all his 
male issue. It will also be remembered that the male line of George, 
second Earl of Seaforth, who died in 1G51, terminated in Kenneth, nine- 
teenth Baron of Kintail, whose only issue was Caroline, married to Count 
Melfort. It was previously shown that the lineal descent of the original 
line of Kintail was directed from heirs male in the person of Anna, 
Countess of Balcarres, daughter of Colin, first Earl of Seaforth ; and the 
male line of Colonel Alexander Mackenzie of Assynt having terminated 
in " the Last of the Seaforths," we must again carry the reader back to a 
collateral branch to pick up the legitimate succession, and, as far as 
possible, settle the question of the present Chiefship of the Clan. 

Various gentlemen have been and are claiming this highly honourable 
position, and this is not to be wondered at, when it is kept in mind that 
whoever establishes his right thereto, establishes at the same time his 
right to the ancient honours of the House of Kintail. It has been already 
pointed out elsewhere that the original title of Lord Mackenzie of Kintail 
did not come under the attainder which followed on the part which Earl 
William took in the Rising of 1715, and it follows that the present Chief 
of the Maekenzies in virtue of that position, as heir male of the first Lord 
Mackenzie of Kintail, is entitled to assume that title ; and it therefore 
becomes a very important duty in a work like this, to make the ques- 
tion as clear as possible and finally dispose of it once and for all. 

We have before tis the claim and pedigree of a Captain Murdoch 
Mackenzie, " of London," who claimed " the titles, honours, and dignities 
of Earl of Seaforth and Baron Mackenzie of Kintail," in virtue of the 
claimant's pretended descent from the Honourable John Mackenzie of 
Assynt, second son of Kenneth, third Earl of Seaforth. According to 
this pedigree the Honourable John Mackenzie had a son, "Murdoch 
Mackenzie of Lochbroom, who, having shown a disposition of enterpris3 

R 



202 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

like his kinsman Earl "William, left his native parish in 1729 or 1730, 
first for Aberdeen and afterwards for Northumberland, where, in conse- 
quence of the unsettled state of Scotland, he resided with his family." 
Murdoch had a son, John Mackenzie, " born, in Beadnall, Parish of Barn- 
borough, County Northumberland in 1738, married Miss Isabella David- 
son in 1762, and died in 1780, in his forty-second year." This John 
had a son, " Captain Murdoch Mackenzie, the claimant, born at Beadnall, 
County of Northumberland, 1763, married 1781, Miss Eleanor Brown, 
of the same place, and has issue. He commanded the ship, Essex, trans- 
port, 81, of London, during the late war (1815). Being desirous to see 
his clan in the North, in 1790 he visited the late Francis Lord Seaforth, 
who, in the true spirit of Scotch sincerity, hospitality, and nobility, re- 
ceived him with demonstrations of pleasure. After talking over family 
matters, his Lordship candidly said that Captain Murdoch ought to have 
been the peer in point of primogeniture." A short account of the family 
accompanies the pedigree, which concludes thus : " In consequence of 
the death of the last peer it has been discovered in Scotland that the 
titles and family estates have devolved upon Captain Murdoch Mackenzie, 
of London. This gentleman is naturally anxious to establish his rights, 
but being unable to prosecute so important a claim without the aid of 
sufficient funds, he has been advised to solicit the aid of some individuals 
whoso public spirit and liberal feelings may prompt them to assist him on 
the principle that such timely assistance and support will be gratefully 
and liberally rewarded. Captain Mackenzie hereby offers to give his 
bond for 300 (or more if required) for every 100 that may be lent 
him to prosecute his claim the same to become due and payable within 
three months after he shall have recovered his title and estates." It will 
appear from the last clause that Captain Murdoch was a most cautious 
man. We have not learnt the result of this appeal, but Captain Mur- 
doch Mackenzie certainly did not establish his claim either to the titles 
or to the estates of the last Lord Seaforth. 

It is, however, placed beyond doubt by the evidence produced at the 
Allangrange Service in 1829, that Kenneth, not Murdoch, was the name 
of the eldest son of the Honourable John Mackenzie of Assynt, and there 
is no trace of his having had any other sons. By an original Precept 
issued by the Provost and Magistrates of Fortrose, dated 30th October 
1716, the son of the late John Mackenzie of Assynt is described as 
" Kenneth Mackenzie, now of Assynt, grandchild and apparent heir to 
the deceased Isobell, Countess Dowager of Seaforth, his grandmother on 
the father's side." In the same document he is described as her " nearest 
and lawful heir." It will thus appear that Captain Murdoch Mackenzie's 
genealogy is incorrect at the very outset, and if further proof be wanted 
that the descendants of John Mackenzie of Assynt are extinct, it will be 
found in the fact that the succession to the representation and honours of 
the family of Seaforth devolved on the male issue of Colonel Alexander 
of Assynt and Conansbay a younger sou, and in the parole evidence 
given by very old people at the Allangrange Service. 

The claim of Captain Murdoch Mackenzie having failed, we must go 
back another step in the chain to pick up the legitimate succession to the 
honours of Kintail, and here we are met by another claim, put forward 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 203 

by the late Captain "William Mackenzie of Gruinard, in the folio Aving 
letter : 

"11 Margaret Street, Cavendish Square, 
" London, 24th October 1 829. 

" My dear Allangrange, Having observed in the Courier of the 21st 
inst., at a meeting at Tain, that you were proceeding with the Seaforth 
Claims, I take the earliest opportunity of communicating to you a cir- 
cumstance which I am sure my agent, Mr Eoy, would have informed you 
of sooner, did he know that you were proceeding in this affair; and 
which, I think probable, he has done ere this ; but lest it might have 
escaped his notice, I deem it proper to acquaint you that on Mr Eoy 
having discovered, by authenticated documents, that I was the lineal 
descendant of George, Earl of Seaforth, he authorised an English counsellor 
to make application to the Secretary of State to that effect, who made a 
reference to the Court of Exchequer in Scotland to examine the evidence 
Mr Roy having satisfied them with having all which he required to 
establish my claim. I therefore am inclined to address you in order that 
you may be saved the trouble and expense attending this affair. Indeed, 
had I known you were taking any steps in this business, be assured I 
would have written to you sooner. 

" I had not the pleasure of communicating with you since your mar- 
riage, upon which event I beg leave to congratulate you, and hope I shall 
soon have the pleasure of learning of your adding a member to the Clan 
Kenneth. Believe me, my dear Mac, yours most sincerely, 

"(Signed) WM. MACKENZIE. 
" George F. Mackenzie of Allangrange, 

by Munlochy, Eoss-shire." 

The Gruinard claim is founded on a Genealogical Tree in possession of 
the representatives of the Family, by which John, first of Gruinard, is 
made out to be the son of George of Kildun, second son of George, second 
Earl of Seaforth. It is generally believed among the clan that the de- 
scendants of this George, who was the second George of Kildun, are long 
ago extinct ; but whether this be so or not, it can be conclusively shown, 
by reference to dates, that John, first of Gruinard, could not possibly have 
been his son. And to the conclusive evidence of dates may fairly be 
added the testimony of all the Mackenzie MSS. which we have perused, 
and which make any reference to John of Gruinard. In every single 
instance where he is mentioned, he is described as a natural son of 
George second Earl of Seaforth. Before he succeeded Earl George was 
known as (first) George of Kildun, hence the confusion and the error in 
the Gruinard^Genealogical Tree. The "Ancient" MS. so often referred to in 
this work, and the author of which must have been a contemporary of 
John, first of Gruinard, says, that Earl George " had also am naturall son, 
called John Mackenzy, Avho married Loggie's daughter." The author of 
the Ardintoul MS., who was the grandson, as mentioned by himself, of 
Farquhar Macrae, Constable of Islandonain Castle in Earl Colin's time, 
and consequently almost, if not contemporary with John of Gruinard, de- 
scribing the effects of the disastrous battle of Worcester, informs us that 
Earl George, who was then in Holland, was informed of the result of the 
battle " by John of Gruinard, his natural son, and Captain Hector Mac- 



204 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

kenzie, who made their escape from the battle," and that the tidings 
" unraised his melancholy, and so died in the latter end of September 
1651." The Letterfearn MS. is also contemporary, as the author of 
it speaks of Earl Kenneth as "now Earl of Seaforth," and of Kiklun, in 
the present tense, while he speaks of his father in the past, and says, " He 
(Earl George) left ane natural son, who is called John, who is married 
with Loggie's daughter." 

It may be objected, however probable it may appear that these MSS. 
are correct, that they are not authentic. We have before us, how- 
ever, a certified copy of a sasine, dated 6th day of February 1658, from 
the Part. Eeg. Sasines of Inverness, vol. 7, fol. 316, from which we quote 
as follows : " Compearit personally John M'Kenzie naturall broyr to 
ane noble Erie Kenneth Erie of Seaforth Lord of Kintail, &c., as bailzie in 
that part," on behalf of " the noble Lady Dame Isabell M'Kenzie Countess 
of Seaforth, sister german to Sir George Mackenzie of Tarbet, Knight, 
future ladie to the said noble Erie." There is still another document 
having a most important bearing on this question, recently discovered 
in the office of the Sheriff Clerk of Tain. It is a discharge by 
Patrick Smith of Bracco to Lord Seafort and his Cautioner, John 
Mackenzie of Gruinard, dated and registered in the Commissar Books 
at Fortrose, on the 4th December 1668. In this document Patrick 
Smith states that " Kenneth, Earl of Seafort, Lord Kintail, as principal, 
and John Mackenzie of Gruinyard, designit in the obligatione vnder- 
wrytten his naturall brother as cautioner " by their band of 22 January 
1656, band them to pay to him (the said Patrick), 6000 merks Scots, 
which band is registered in the Books of Council and Session, and ane 
decreet of -the Lords thereof interponit thereto upon the 25 July 1665 
by virtue of which he raisit letters of horning against them, and had the 
said John denuncit a rebel and at the home, and thereupon obtained the 
gift of his escheit and life-rent ; and that the said noble Earl, for relief of 
himself and his Cautioner, had made payment of the said 6000 merks, 
&c., for which said Patrick discharges them of the band, and resigns to 
the said John the gift of the escheit," the discharge being subscribed and 
registered, as already stated, at Fortrose, on the 4th December 1668, 
witnessed by Alex. Mackenzie " of Adross " (? Ardross), and written by 
Alexander Davidson, " writer in Fortrose." Further, George of Kildun 
married, first, Mary Skene, daughter of Skene of Skene, in 1661, as will 
be seen by a charter to her of her jointure lands of Kincardine, &c. (see 
Part. Keg. Sas. Invss.. vol. ix., fol. 9). He married, secondly, Margaret, 
daughter of Urquhart of Craighouse. It will at once occur to the reader 
how absolutely impossible it was that George of Kildun, who only married 
his first wife in 1661, could have had a son, John of Gruinard, who 
obtained a charter in his favour of the lands of Little Gruinard, &c., in 
1669, and who is, in that charter, designated " of Meikle Gruinard," while 
John of Gruinard's wife has lands disponed to her in 1655, i.e., six years 
before the marriage of his reputed father George of Kildun ? Further, 
how could John of Gruinard's second son, Kenneth, have married, as he 
did, the widow of Kenneth " Og," fourth Earl, who died in 1701, if John, 
his father, had been the son by a second marriage of " George of Kildin," 
who married his first wife in 1661 ? This is absolutely conclusive. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 205 

Kenneth, third Earl of Seaforth, according to the Gruinard gene- 
alogy John of Gruinard's uncle, Avas Lorn at Brahau Castle in 1635. 
He is described as "a child" in 1651 by a contemporary writer, who 
informs us that the Kintail people declined to rise with him in that year 
during his father's absence on the Continent, "because he was but a 
child, and his father, their master, was in life." Colin, first Earl of Sea- 
forth, died in 1G33, and, the author of the Ancient MS. informs us that 
" Earl George, being then the Laird of Kildun, married before his 
brother's death, the Lord Forbcs's daughter." Thus, George of Kildun 
could not have been born before 1636 or 1637 and the date of his 
first marriage, twenty-four years later, tends to corroborate this. How then 
could he have a married son, John of Gruinard, whose wife obtained lands 
in 1655, i.e., when Kilduu himself was only about 18 years of age, and 
when John, then designated of Gruinard, was, in 1656, old enough to be 
cautioner for Earl Kenneth? Proof of the same conclusive character could 
be adduced, to any extent, but, in the face of the authentic documents 
already quoted, it appears qiiite superfluous to do so. 

John first of Gruinard could not possibly have been a son of the second 
George Mackenzie of Kildun. He was undoubtedly the natural son of 
the first George who succeeded his brother Colin, as second Earl of 
Seaforth, and it necessarily follows that the representatives of John 
of Gruinard have no claim whatever to the Chiefship of the Clan 
or to the ancient honours of the family of Kintail. But the claim 
having been made it was impossible, in a work like this, to pass it over, 
though we would have much preferred that the question had never "been 
raised. 

ALLANGRANGE LINE. 

HAVING thus disposed of the Gruinard claim, and the legitimate represen- 
tation of the later Peers in the male line having become extinct, to pick 
up the chain of the ancient House of Kintail, we must revert to Kenneth 
first Lord Mackenzie of Kiutail. It will be remembered that Kenneth 
had seven sons, three by the first and four by his second marriage, namely, 
by Anne Ecss of Balnagowan, (1), Colin, his successor; (2), John of Loch- 
linn, who left an only daughter Margaret ; and (3), Kenneth, who died 
unmarried. By his second wife, Isabel, daughter of Gilbert Ogilvie of 
Powrie, he had (4), Alexander, who died young; (5), George, who succeeded 
his brother Colin as second Earl of Seaforth, and whose line terminated 
in Lady Caroline ; (6), Thomas of Pluscardine, whose male line is 
also extinct, and represented in the female line by Arthur Robertson now 
of Inshes, Inverness ; and (7), Simon, after the death of his brother 
designated of Lochslinn, and whose representative has become and now 
is the male heir of the ancient family of Kintail, and Chief of the Clan 
Mackenzie. 

SIMON MACKENZIE OF LOCHSLINN married, first, Elizabeth, daughter of 
the Rev. Peter Bruce, D.D., Principal of St Leonard's College, St Andrews, 
son of Bruce of Fingask, by Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Wedder- 
burn of Blackness. By her he had five sons and one daughter. The 
first son was the famous Sir George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, Lord Advo- 
cate. His history is well known, and it would serve no good purpose to 
give a meagre account of him such as could be done in the space at our 



206 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE, 

disposal. He wrote various works of acknowledged literary merit, and 
his " Institutes" is yet considered a standard work by lawyers, lie left 
an autobiography in MS., published in Edinburgh by his widow in 1716. 
The small estate of Eosehaugh, where his residence lay, was in his time 
profusely covered over with the shrub known as the Dog Rose, which 
suggested to the famous lawyer the idea of designating that property by 
the name of " Vallis Eosaruni," hence Eosehaugh. 

Sir George married, first, Elizabeth, daughter of John Dickson of 
Hartree, and by her had three sons John, Simon, and George, all of 
whom died young, and two daughters Agnes, who married James Stuart 
Mackenzie, first Earl of Bute,* and Elizabeth, who married, first, Sir 
Archibald Cockburn of Langton, with issue, and, secondly, the Honour- 
able Sir James Mackenzie of Eoyston, Bart., with issue George, who 
died without succession, and two daughters, married, with issue. Sir 
George married, secondly, Margaret, daxighter of Halliburton of Pitcur, 
by whom he had two sons and two daughters, all of whom died without 
issue except George, who succeeded his father as second of Eosehaugh, 
married, and had an only daughter who died without issue. It will 
thus be seen that the male line of Sir George Mackenzie of Eosehaugh 
also became extinct. 

SIMON MACKENZIE, second son of the Honourable Simon of Loch- 
slinn, married Jane, daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, first of Ballone, 
brother to Sir John Mackenzie of Tarbat, and uncle to George, first Earl 
of Cromarty. The marriage contract is dated 1663. Simon died at 
Lochbroom in the following year, and left an only and posthumous son, 

I. SIMON MACKENZIE, first of Allangrange, an advocate at the 
Scottish Bar. The property of Allangrange was acquired in the follow- 
ing way: Alexander Mackenzie, first of Kilcoy, who was third son of 
Colin Cam, eleventh Baron of Kintail, had four sons, of whom the young- 
est, Eoderick, obtained the lands of Kilmuir, in the Black Isle, and be- 
coming a successful lawyer, Sheriff Depute Uhd Member of Parliament, 
and was knighted by Charles II. Sir Eoderick Mackenzie, then of Fin- 
don, acquired by the purchase of several properties, a very considerable 
estate, which, at his death in 1692, and on that of his only son the fol- 
lowing year, were divided among his daughters, as heirs-portioners. The 
third of these daughters, Isobel, married (August 22, 1693) Simon Mac- 
kenzie, the Advocate, and brought him as her portion the Estate of 
ALLAN, formerly the property and residence of Seaforth, and which was 
thenceforth called by the name of Allangrange. By her he had issue (1), 
Eoderick, who died before his father, unmarried ; (2), George, who suc- 
ceeded ; (3), Kenneth ; (4), "William, a captain in the Dutch army, mar- 
ried, issue extinct ; and (5), Simon, died in the West Indies, without 
issue. 

Simon of Allangrange had also four daughters Lilias, died unmarried ; 
Elizabeth, married, in 1745, John Matheson of Fernaig ; Eliza, married 
Ludovic, son of Eoderick Mackenzie, fifth of Eedcastle ; and Isobel, 
married Murdo Cameron at Allangrange, with issue. 



* For the (iucceision, see Eetours of Jamei, Marquis of But*, 1721, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 207 

He married, secondly, on the 28th August 1718, Susanna Eraser, 
daughter of Colonel Alexander Eraser of Kinneries, known as the 
"Coroner"; male issue extinct. He was drowned in the river Orrin, 
returning from a visit to Fairburn, in February 1730, and was succeeded 
by his eldest surviving son, 

II. GEORGE MACKENZIE, who, in May 1731, married Margaret, grand- 
daughter* of Sir Donald Bayne of Tulloch. The male representation of 
the Baynes terminated in John, and his daughter, Margaret, carried 
the lineal descent of that old and respectable family into the house of 
Allangrange. The Baynes were not originally a Eoss-shire family, but a 
branch of the Clan Mackay which settled in the vicinity of Dingwall in 
the sixteenth century. By Margaret Bayne George had issue, five sons, 
(1), Simon, who died young in 1731 ; (2), William, who became a Captain 
in the 25th Eegiment, died unmarried, in 1764; (3), George, died young ; 
(4), Alexander, died unmarried, in 1765 ; and (5), John, who succeeded his 
father. He also had several daughters, (1), Margaret, who married, as his 
second wife, Alexander Chisholm of Chisholm, and by him had issue, his 
successor, William Chisholm of Chisholm, who, in 1795, married Eliza, 
daughter of D. Macdonell of Glengarry, and by her had Alexander 
William Chisholm of Chisholm, M.P,, who died, unmarried, in 1838; 
and Duncan Macdonell Chisholm, who succeeded his brother as Chisholm. 
of Chisholm, and, in 1859, died unmarried ; also Jemima Chisholm, who 
married Edmund Batten, with issue; (2), Isobel, who married, in 1767, 
Simon Mackenzie of Langwell, a Captain in the 4th Eegiment, with issue. 
George had six other (laughters, all of whom died young or unmarried. 
He died in J 733, and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, 

III. JOHN MACKENZIE, at an early age appointed Examiner of Cus- 
toms in Edinburgh. He married, first, in 1781, Catherine Falconer, 
eldest daughter and co-heiress of James Falconer of Monkton, and grand- 
daughter of the Eight Honourable Lord Halkerton and the Honourable 
Jane Falconer. By the acquisition of this lady's fortune Allangrange was 
able to devote himself to agricultural pursuits, for which he had a strong 
prediliction, and in which he was eminently successful. His wife died in 
1790. By her he had issue, (1), George Falconer, who succeeded him ; (2), 
Jane Falconer, who married John Gillanders of Highfield, with issue; 
and two other daughters, both named Margaret Bayne, who died young. 

He married, secondly, Barbara, daughter of George Gillanders first of 
Highfield, relict of John Bowman, an East India merchant in London, 
without issue. He died in 1812, and was succeeded by his only son, 

IV. GEORGE FALCONER MACKENZIE, who was, in 1829, served male 
heir to his ancestor, the Honourable Simon Mackenzie of Lochslinn, and 
heir male in general to Simon's father, Kenneth, first Lord Mackenzie of 
Kintail, as also to Lord Kenneth's brother, Colin, first Earl of Seaforth.t 

* See Marriage Contract, Allangrange Charter Chest. 

t The following gentlemen composed the jury in the Allangrange Service: Sir 
James Wemyss Mackenzie of Scatvrell, Bart., M.P. ; Sir Francis Alexander Mackenzie 
of Gairloch, Bart. ; Coli* Mackenzie of Kilcoy, advocate ; William Mackenzie of Muir- 
ton, W.S. ; Alexander Mackenzie of Millbank ; Hugh Ross f Glastullich ; Aleiauder 
Mackenzie of Woodside ; Simon Mackenzie-Kosg, younger of Aldie ; Hugh James 
Cameron, banker, Dingwall ; Alexander Gair, banker, Tain ; John Mackenzie, David 
ROM, Hugh Leslie, William Fraser, and Donald Stewart, the last five, writers in Tain. 



208 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

He matriculated his arms accordingly in the Public Register of the Lyon 
Office of Scotland, and on the 9th of January 1828, married Isabella Reid 
Fowler, daughter of James Fowler of Eaddery and Fail-burn, in the 
County of Ross, and Grange in Jamaica, and by her had issue, (1), John 
Falconer, who succeeded him; (2), James Fowler, now of Allangrange ; (3), 
George Thomas, married Ethel Newman in London ; (4), Sophia Catharine, 
died young ; and (5), Anna Watson. He died in 1841, and was succeeded 
by his eldest son, 

V. JOHN FALCONER MACKENZIE, Avho died, unmarried, in 1849, and 
was succeeded by his next brother, 

VI. JAMES FOWLER MACKENZIE, now of Allangrange, Chief of the 
Mackenzies, and heir male to the dormant honours of the ancient family 
of Kintail and Seaforth. He is yet, 1879, unmarried. 

The Honourable Simon Mackenzie of Lochslinn had three other 
sons by the first marriage Thomas, first of Logic ; John, first of Inch- 
coulter, or Balcony ; and Colin, Clerk to the Privy Council and Com- 
missioner in Edinburgh. Issue of all three extinct.* 

THE OLD MACKENZIES OF DUNDONNELL. 

THE Honourable Simon Mackenzie of Lochslinn, fourth son of Kenneth, 
first Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, married, secondly, in 1650, Agnes, 
daughter of William Fraser of Culbokie, relict of Alexander Mackenzie 
of Ballone, brother of Sir John Mackenzie of Tarbat. Failing the line 
of Allangrange, all the male issue of the Honourable Simon Mackenzie 
by his first marriage will have become extinct, when the Chiefship must 
be looked for among the descendants of his second marriage with Agnes 
Fraser, as above. 

By this marriage the Honourable Simon Mackenzie had issue, Ken- 
neth Mor, who became first of Glenmarksie and Dundonnell, and two 
daughters. The eldest daughter, Isobel, married Murdoch Mackenzie, 
sixth of Fail-burn, with issue ; and the other, Elizabeth, married the Rev. 
Roderick Mackenzie, laird and minister of Avoch, grandson of Sir 
Roderick Mackenzie, Tutor of Kintail, with issue John, second of Avoch, 
forfeited for having taken part in the Rising of 1715 ; several other 
sons, all of whom, except Roderick, predeceased their father, and four 
daughters; (1), Christian, married Sir Kenneth Mackenzie of Scatwell; 
(2), Isobel, married Alexander Matheson of Bennetsfield ; (3), Margaret, 
married John Macrae of Dornie ; and (4), Anne who married the Rev. 
Lewis Grant. 

I. KENNETH MOR MACKENZIE had the lands of Glenmarksie, and, in 
1690, acquired the lands of Dundonnell from the Mackenzies of Redcastle. 
He afterwards acquired the lands of Meikle Scatwell, of which he had a 
Sasine, in 1693. He married Annabella, daughter of John Mackenzie first 
of Gruinard, by whom he had issue (1), Kenneth, his heir ; (2), Alexander, 
of whom nothing can be traced ; (3), Colin Riabhach of Ardinglash, who 
married Annabella, daughter of Simon Mackenzie of Logie, issue extinct; 
(4), Simon, of whom nothing is known ; (5), Barbara, who married Alex- 
ander second of Ballone, with issue; (6), Sibella, who married John 

* See FiucUm's Genealogical Tables and the Allangraage Service, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 209 

Mackenzie second of Ardloch, with issue; and (7), Annabella, who married 
James Mackenzie of Keppoch, in Lochbroom, brother of Ardloch, with 
issue. Kenneth Mor was succeeded by his eldest son, 

II. KENNETH MACKENZIE, second of Dundonnell, Avho married Jean, 
daughter of the Chisholm of Chisholm, by whom he had (1), Kenneth, his 
heir ; (2), Alexander, a Captain in the 73d Eegiment, who died in 1783 ; 
and (3), John, who married Barbara, daughter of Mackenzie of Ardloch, 
with issue, several sons, who died young, and two daughters, one of 
whom married Alexander Mackenzie of Eiabhachan, Kishorn, with issue. 
He was succeeded by his eldest son, 

III. KENNETH MACKENZIE, who married, in 1737, Jean, daughter of 
Sir Kenneth Mackenzie, first Baronet of Scatwell, by whom he had (1), 
George, his successor; (2), Kenneth, a W.S.,died in 1790 ; (3), William, an 
Episcopalian Minister, with issue; (4), Eoderick, with issue; (5), Alex- 
ander, a Captain in the army, who died in India, without issue ; (6), Simon, 
a Captain, who married, and died in Nairn in 1812 ; and (7), Lewis, also 
a Captain, who died in India. A daughter, Janet, married, in Jamaica, 
Colin Mackenzie, brother to George Mackenzie of Kildonan, Lochbroom. 
She died in 1783. Another daughter, Isabe.Ua, died unmarried. Ken- 
neth's wife died in 178G. He died in 1789, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son, 

IV. GEORGE MACKENZIE, who married Abigail, daughter of Thomas 
Mackenzie, fifth of Ord, by whom he had (1), Alexander, who died young ; 
(2), Kenneth, who succeeded his father ; (3), Thomas, who succeeded his 
brother Kenneth ; and (4), Jane, who married the Rev. Dr Eoss, min- 
ister of Lochbroom, with issue. George was succeeded by his eldest 
surviving son, 

V. KENNETH MACKENZIE, who, in 1817, married Isabella, daughter 
of Donald Roy of Preeton, without issue. He left the estates to his 
brother-in-law, Robert Roy, W.S., who lost it after a long and costly 
litigation with 

VI. THOMAS MACKENZIE, second surviving son of George, fourth of 
Dundonnell, and next brother of Kenneth. The estate was ruined 
by law expenses, and had to be sold. It was purchased by Murdo 
Munro-Mackenzie of Ardross, grandfather to the present proprietor, 
Murdo Mackenzie of Dundonnell. (See Mackenzies of Ardross.) 

Thomas Mackenzie, sixth and last of the old Mackenzies of Dun- 
donnell, married Anne, eldest daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, sixth of 
Ord, and by her had issue (1), George Alexander, born in Ceylon, 10th 
July 1818, and married Louisa, daughter of Captain Stewart, Ceylon Rifles, 
without issue ; (2), Thomas, who went to California, and of whom no 
trace ; (3), John Hope, now residing at Tarradale, Ross-shire, married, in 
Ceylon, Louisa, daughter of Captain Stewart, and relict of his deceased 
brother, George Alexander, without issue ; (4), a daughter, Helen, married 
the Honourable Justice Charles Stewart, in Ceylon, without issue j and 
(5), Isabella, who resides in Elgin, unmarried. 



210 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



OUE GAELIC BIBLE. 



IV. 

COULD THE HIGHLANDERS OF 1807 READ IT? 

" THE late publication of the Bible, in Gaelic, in a portable form, and at a 
very moderate price, and which those who cannot afford to purchase, may 
procure for nothing, has led many to inquire if the natives of the High- 
lands and Islands are very generally capable of making use of it." Such was 
the opening sentence of the first circular letter issued, on 27th December 
1810, by the committee of the promoters of the Gaelic School Society. 
Before proceeding further with our history of the Gaelic Bible, and of the 
process of change and growth, so to speak, by which it reached its present 
form, it will be well to turn aside for a moment, and repeat the same in- 
quiry. As we saw last month, no fewer than 40,000 copies of the Gaelic 
Scriptures were printed in 1807 for the use of the Scottish Gael ; 20,000 
by the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, who, 
with much labour and expense, had prepared the translation ; and 20,000 
by the British and Foreign Bible Society in London, who, as regards the 
cares and expense of translation, may almost be said to have entered into 
the labours of the sister Society. 

But to what extent could it be said that the people for whose use this 
good work had been executed were sufficiently educated, especially in the 
reading of Gaelic, to profit by the inestimable boon ? 

Our search for the materials of an accurate reply to that question has 
been productive of more than the needful information. It has brought to 
our knowledge a vast mass of material, illustrative of the educational con- 
dition of the Highlands from 1600 down to the early years of the present 
century, on which we offer no apology for making much larger drafts 
than a bare answer to the question just asked would either require or 
permit. Indeed it may be well to state at once that this paper deals but 
remotely with the " Gaelic Bible," and mainly concerns itself with the 
general subject of 

EARLY EDUCATION IN THE HIGHLANDS. 

Before the Eeformation it does not appear that in Scotland the educa- 
tion of the common people was ever, in any sense, a matter of State con" 
cern. But from early times the importance to the nation of an educated 
ruling class did not escape recognition. Thus it happened that as early as 
1496 it was enacted that all barons and freeholders, under a penalty of 
20, should put their eldest sons to school till they were competently 
grounded in Latin, after which they were obliged to study law for three 
years. 

The General Assembly of 1597 gave to the state of the Highlands 
and Islands an amount of enlightened consideration from which great 
results might have been expected, were it not for the miserable embroglio 
of folly and wrongdoing with which James VI. compensated his native 
land for his corporeal absence in England. The condition of Scotland 
during the reign of this priggish, pig-headed monarch was truly deplor- 
able. The hereditary feuds to which he found it a prey at the commence- 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 211 

mont of his reign were unspeakably aggravated and embittered by his 
absurdly pedantic and truculent rnisgovernment. Unblushing greed, un- 
tamed ferocity, fiendish revenge, all licensed and protected at the cheap 
expense of unlimited flattery, tilled the land with misrule and oppression ; 
while ever and anon the people were ' startled with some new caprice, 
some wild fantastic antic, of the King's paradoxical vanity and wrong- 
headedness the personal rule run mad at whose grotesqueness we 
might well laugh, were not its meanness, or its cool remorseless cruelty, 
more likely to make us blush for shame or burn with indignation. The 
flood of ecclesiastical pitch, emptied on the bosom of his mother-land, 
from " the fountain of honour" by this " defender of the Faith," we for- 
bear to touch. For at its best it was very unsavoury, and it is still hot 
enough to burn unwary fingers. That burn over Scotland's heart is not 
yet sufficiently healed to admit of the crust being removed, and the red 
scar mollified with ointment. 

In times more recent than the seventeenth century, ecclesiastical con- 
fusion necessarily implied educational disorganisation. But the civil and 
social state of the Highlands in the reign of James VI., even if there ex- 
isted no ecclesiastical hindrances, made the education of the people practi- 
cally impossible. The merest glance at the history of the times yields 
ample proof that it was so. Think, for example, of the king's wild 
scheme for civilising the Western Isles by an invasion of Fifeshire 
farmers and fishermen, who, not so much by arms as by fomenting the 
basest treachery in families, and instigating to fratricide and murder, were 
to drive out the islanders and their chiefs as they would, to use his own 
words, " so many wolves and wild boares." Think of the later expedition 
in his name by Lumsden of Airdrie and Hay of JSTethercliff, by means of 
the like treachery and bloodshed, to "colonise" the Lews. Or look at 
that edifying spectacle : the Catholic Earl of Huntly higgling with the 
king, whether for ten thousand pounds Scots, the price demanded by the 
royal and saintly bloodseller, or for four hundred, he could buy the 
privilege of letting loose the claymores of Badenoch to convert to the 
true Protestant faith " the barbarians" of Uist, Harris, Barra, and Benbe- 
cula. Or turn to the cruel feuds of the Colc[uhouns and the Campbells 
with the Macgregors, and the treacherous murder of the Macgregor Chief 
in cold blood, and by prostituted forms of law, with seven of his lieuten- 
ants, soon to be followed by the wholesale slaughter of his clan. Or take 
that outrageous episode in the Synod of Perth, when the infuriated Lord 
of Scone, as the King's Commissioner to the Synod, " roaring, gesticulat- 
ing, protesting, and blaspheming" over the praying moderator, upset 
in his rage the table around which the worshippers were kneeling, and 
covered their persons and stifled their devotions with the green cloth 
from the overturned table. Or, in fine, weigh the significance of such 
daily occurrences as the banishment of the godly Eobert Bruce to Inver- 
ness, and the public-spirited bailie, "William Rigg, to some outlandish 
place in Caithness, just as the pious head of the Holy Eastern Church, 
who is also Emperor of Russia, would bundle off a brace of obnoxious 
subjects to Siberia. What conceivable scheme of popular education 
could be originated or carried out in such a state of national confusion ? 

And yet to that period we owe the formal enactment of the scheme of. 



212 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

national education which has been well called the crown of Scotland's 
glory. A school in every parish was the cherished idea of John Knox. 
But it remained for the Privy Council of James VI. to embody that 
grand idea in an Act. This was done in 1616. For more than a hundred 
years, however, the Act was in the Highlands at least a dead letter. It 
proceeds on the following narrative: "For samikle as the King's Ma- 
jestie, having a special care and regard, that the true religion be advanced 
and established in all partis of this Kingdom, and that all his Majestie's 
subjects, especially the youth, be exercised and trayned in civilitie, godli- 
ness, knowledge, and learning ; and that the vulgar Ingleshe toung be 
universallie planted, and the Irishe language, which is one of the chieii 
and principall causes of the continuance of barbaritie and incivilitie, 
among the inhabitants of the Isles and Heylandis, may be abolished and 
removit. And whereas there is no means more powerful to further this 
his Majestie's princelie regard and purpose, than the establishing of 
schools in the particular paroches of this Kingdom, whair the youth may 
be taught at the least to write and reid, and he catechised and instructed 
in the grounds of religion. Therefore the King's Majestie, with advise 
of the Lords of his Secret Council, has thought it necessar and expedient 
that, in every paroch of this Kingdom, quhair convenient means may be 
had for intertayning a scoole, a scoole sail be established." Afterwards 
confirmed and modified by Parliament in 1633, 1646, and 1696, this 
enactment, after the clays of James, was attended with most beneficial 
effects in many parts of the Kingdom. But in the Highlands and Islands, 
as we have seen, it long remained a dead letter. The clause last quoted 
of the Act, it will be observed, is so expressed as practically to anticipate 
our modern invention of a " permissive bill." The Act was to come into 
force only "quhair convenient means may be had for intertayning a scoole." 
And its avowed intention to supplant at once the language of the High- 
land people and their ancient religion, must have arrayed against it their 
strongest prejudices, even where the excuse of their poverty could not be 
pleaded. In point of fact, the poverty of the Highlands in these times is 
undoubted. Not only was money scarce, but famines and actual starva- 
tion were of common occurrence. And thus the number of parishes, 
"quhair convenient means" could not be found " for intertayning a scoole" 
must have been great. To obviate this undoubted difficulty some weak 
attempts Avere made to nibble timidly at the fringe of the rich embroidered 
pall which the barons and landowners had snatched from the coffin of the 
ancient Eoman Church, and, rending it roughly asunder, had parted be- 
tween them for their own adornment. Thus, in 1690, one year after 
the Eevolution, vacant stipends within the Synod of Argyle were 
ordained to be applied, " with the consent of the heritors, for training 
young men at schools and colleges, as a necessary means for planting 
and propagating the gospel, and for introducing civility and good 
order into that country." In furtherance of the same end William 
III. gave to the same Synod, in 1696, a grant of the rents of the 
Bishopric of Argyle. In the same year the king gave also a grant 
of 150 a year out of the rents of the Bishoprick of Dunkeld, for 
erecting schools and schoolmasters' houses, and for the better endowment 
of schoolmasters " in the Highlands of the shires of Perth, Stirling, and 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 213 

Dumbarton." But in the three cases the proverbial " slips 'twixt cup and 
lip " intervened as usual between the schoolmaster and the king's bene- 
ficent purpose, which somehow " was in great measure defeated."* In 
the same year the king erected a school in Maryburgh, now Fort-William, 
with a salary of 30 sterling ; but in a few years the salary was with- 
drawn and the school was given up. 

Such was the unhappy state of education in the Highlands when, in 
1701, a few private gentlemen in Edinburgh, " who usually met as an 
association for the reformation of manners," agreed to use their endeavours 
to remedy these evils, and in the endeavour formed the first modest begin- 
ning of that great Society whose name occurs so often in these papers. The 
first experience of these gentlemen showed how great were the difficulties 
and how powerful the prejudices, which they essayed to combat. The 
requisite funds were readily provided by voluntary subscription. But 
they soon found that a force more powerful than poverty was at work to 
keep the School Act of 1616 a dead letter in the Highlands. This is the 
short history of the Society's first school : " Part of the money was 
applied towards the erection of a school in the parish of Abertarph, in 
Inverness-shire, being the centre of a country where ignorance and Popery 
did greatly abound ; but the schoolmaster met with such discouragements 
from the inhabitants that, after a trial of a year and a-half, it was found 
necessary to suppress the school. "t " Not disheartened," however, " by 
so inauspicious an event, the original contrivers of this design extended 
their views to the plantation of schools in other parts of the Highlands." 
" They published a memorial (1703) setting forth the disorders in those 
countries, and proposing various methods for redressing them, chiefiy 
by promoting religion and virtue ; they likewise pointed out how funds 
might be raised for those ends from vacant stipends, a general collection, 
and private subscriptions and mortifications. Copies of this memorial 
were dispersed among the members of the Scottish Parliament, and the 
draught of a bill for rendering effectual the scheme therein suggested, was 
prepared, but never passed into an Act."J 

"While thus it was evident that the Scottish Parliament would hear 
of nothing that implied the disgorging of ever so small a portion of the 
ill-gotten spoils of its members, it is gratifying to observe that the Gene- 
ral Assembly very heartily took up the matter. In 1704 an Act of 
Assembly was passed, " recommending a contribution " for the purposes 
above-mentioned. In 1706 the Commission of Assembly was instructed 
to " inquire how the Highlands and Islands were provided with schools, 
what places did most need them, and what encouragement might be ex- 
pected by those who were inclined to form a Society for maintaining 
charity schools in those countries;" and, in 1707, the Assembly "ap- 
pointed a select committee to consider this matter, who, after several 
conferences " with the promoters of the scheme, " published proposals for 
propagating Christian knowledge in the Highlands and Islands of Scot- 
land, and in foreign parts of the world." The result was eminently 

* An Account of the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, p. 3. Edin- 
burgh 1774. 

t An Account. &c.. p. 4. 
Ibid. 



214 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

satisfactory. From the old endowments of the Church, now firmly 
clutched by the nobles and landowners, not a shilling could, of course, be 
obtained. But " Her Majesty Queen Anne was graciously pleased to 
encourage the design by her royal proclamation" (1708); and, in 1709, 
on the funds from church collections and voluntary subscriptions exceeding 
the goodly amount, for the times, of 1000 sterling, she granted letters- 
patent, under the great seal of Scotland, for erecting certain of the sub- 
scribers into a corporation. 

Thus was founded the great religious and educational charity, the first 
of all our countless similar societies in Scotland, whose name, in addition 
to many other inestimable blessings to the Highlands, will ever be 
honourably associated with the translation of the Holy Scriptures into 
the tongue of the Scottish Gael. In 1711, their capital now amounting 
to 3700, the directors of the Society settled a school in the lone isle of 
St Kilda, with a salary of 300 merks (16 13s 4d). In the same year 
they resolved to erect "eleven itinerant schools, which, in order to be 
more extensively useful, should be stationed by turns in the places fol- 
lowing : One in Abertarph ; two in the Highlands of Aberdeenshire, in 
and about the Braes of Mar, on the heads of the rivers Don and Dee ; a 
fourth in the boundsof the Presbyteryof Sutherland; a fifth in the parishes 
of Duirness and Farr, in the Presbytery of Caithness ; a sixth in the Pres- 
bytery of Skye ; a seventh in some part of the Duke of Athole's High- 
lands, which should be specified by his Grace ; the eighth in the parish 
of Glenelg ; the ninth in the south isles and continent of Orkney ; the 
tenth in the north isles thereof; and the eleventh in the isles and conti- 
nent of Zetland."* The schoolmasters of the eight schools first named 
were to have each a salary of 300 merks and the other three of only 150 
nierks " until the Society's stock should be increased." The teachers 
were to remain for at least two years in the same station, and their circu- 
lation in their several districts was to be determined, "on proper infor- 
mation," by a committee of the Society. This committee was also em- 
powered to provide school buildings, to appoint teachers, and furnish " a 
sufficient number of Bibles, New Testaments, Proverbs, Catechisms, &c.," 
for the schools. In 1712, five of these eleven schools were already in 
operation ; next year there were twelve schools ; and two years later 
twenty-five. 

In 1717 the Society represented to the General Assembly that "in 
many places where the Society's schools are settled, there are no parochial 
schools, as provided by law, by which means it so happens, that the 
Society's schools serve only to ease the heritors and parishioners of the 
burden imposed on them by statute." The General Assembly of the 
same year " remitted the said matter to a committee," on whose report, in 
1719, the Assembly passed an act " recommending to the several Presby- 
teries and Synods to carry into execution the powers vested in them by 
the Acts of Parliament in that case made and provided." In the same 
year the Assembly gave the Society 742 9s 7d, and also renewed 
former recommendations in favour of its benevolent and patriotic objects. 
At this time the Society's capital had grown to 8168, and the number 

* Society's minutes. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZIKE. 215 

of schools, from 25 three years before to 48. The year 1825 witnessed 
the beginning of what has ever since been known as the Royal Bonnty, 
in a donation to the General Assembly by King George I. of 1000, to 
be employed for the " reformation of the Highlands and Islands and other 
places where Popery and ignorance abound," 

Balked in their design to procure an endowment for schools out of the 
secularised wealth of the disendowed and disestablished Roman Church, 
the friends of education in Scotland were now looking for money in 
another direction. They claimed a share of the forfeited estates of de- 
capitated or fugitive Jacobites. In this movement the Society took an 
eager interest. Its minutes teem with resolutions, reports, and volumi- 
nous memorials on the subject. When the Act 1, George L, cap. 54, was 
passed " for the more effectual securing of the peace in the Highlands of 
Scotland," the Society was at great pains in furnishing His Majesty's 
Commissioners with all needful information for their report, That report 
stated that 151 schools, exclusive of those already established, were 
absolutely necessary in the Highlands. Through information furnished 
by the Society the Commissioners were enabled to embody in their re- 
port a minute specification of the circumstances, and a " geographical 
description" of each of these 151 stations, where schools were most 
urgently needed. The amount required for the support of these schools 
was stated at 3000 per annum. Following on this report came the Act 
4, Geo. I., cap. 8, which provides that out of the monies arising from 
the sale or rents of the forfeited estates, a capital stock of 20,000 be 
appropriated " towards erecting and maintaining schools in the Highlands 
of Scotland." 

To secure the proper application of the money thus appropriated by 
Parliament, the Society used its utmost efforts and influence. It made 
repeated applications to the members of both Houses of Parliament for an. 
Act directing the manner in which the 20,000 should be applied to the 
purposes to which it had been appropriated, and they even approached 
His Majesty by petition on the subject. But the result was only another 
experience of the difficulty of securing the application of " forfeited" funds 
to any useful public purpose. This was to the Society a great disappoint- 
ment and sore discouragement, which was shown by withdrawing all its 
schools on or near the forfeited estates. But in stead of despairing, it only 
set itself more earnestly than ever to its pious and patriotic work. From 
48 schools and a capital of 8168 in 1719, its progress in 1728 had 
reached 78 schools, with 2757 scholars, though its capital was still not 
more than 9131 15s 9d. In 1733 the Society had 111 schools, and a 
capital of 14,694. In 1738, with the view of "curing that habit of 
idleness too prevalent in the Highlands," the Society obtained its "second 
patent," whereby it was empowered to instruct poor children " in hus- 
bandry, trades, and manufactures." This new enterprise resulted in a few 
salaried smiths, carpenters, millers, shoemakers, and other mechanics, 
being sent down to different parts of the Highlands ;* but the scheme 

* There were schools for (1), agiiculture in Callander ; (2), flax-dressing, weaving, 
spinning, &c., at Portsoy ; (3), for linen manufacture at Logierait ; (4), agriculture 
and gardening at Craig, near Montrose ; (5), a blacksmith, shoemaker, cartwright, 
and ploughman at Lechcarron, in conjunction with the Board of Fisheries and 



216 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

speedily fell through, and survives only in the form of schools for sewing 
and knitting. March 8, 1739, is memorable for a minute to the effect 
that Alexander Macdonald, one of the Society's schoolmasters (Mac 
Mhaighstir Alasdair), by recommendation of the Presbytery of Lorn, had 
composed a Gaelic and English vocabulary, printed for the use of the 
schools ; the first schoolbook, so far as we can learn, that ever was printed 
in Scotch Gaelic. In 1748, the schools were 140, and the capital, by 
careful management, had grown to 22,237. In the same year it is re- 
corded that Joseph Darner, Esq., an Irish gentleman, besides a donation 
to the funds of the Society, was at the expense of translating and printing 
1000 copies of Baxter's Call in Gaelic. In 1753 the schools were 152, 
and the stock 24,308. In 1758 the Mother's Catechism was translated 
into Gaelic, and published by the Society for use in its schools. In the 
same year it is recorded that the Society, " finding that all endeavours 
used by them for having parochial schools settled in every parish, had 
hitherto proved ineffectual, and that no fewer than 175 parishes, within 
the bounds of 39 Presbyteries, where the Society's schools were erected, 
have no parochial schools, represented this matter to the General Assembly; 
who, having taken the same into consideration, made an act, appointing 
the several Presbyteries to inquire, whether or not a parochial school is 
established in every parish in their bounds, and where such schools are 
wanting, to make application to the Commissioners of Supply, in terms 
of law ; and also appointing the Procurator and Agent of the Church, at 
the public charge, to carry on all processes necessary for that purpose." 
The peremptory character of this act is in marked contrast to the mere 
" recommendation" of that of 1719. 

Thus, by the labour of the schoolmaster, who in most cases was also 
the Christian missionary, was the Society for Propagating Christian 
Knowledge preparing the untutored Highland people of these rude, un- 
settled times to enter with intelligence on the heritage of God's Word in 
their native tongue, the history of whose preparation has occupied us in 
the three previous papers of this series. How far the education thus im- 
parted was really effectual in fitting the Highlander to read the Gaelic 
Bible, which, in 1807, was placed freely at his disposal, is an inquiry 
which must still be postponed to a future paper. 

While correcting the proof of this paper I cannot help being struck 
with the great extent of quoted matter which it contains. And yet this 
quoted matter has cost me much more labour than that which is original. 
But where the page is most speckled with the inverted commas of quota- 
tion it is hoped that the thoughtful reader will not find the least of real 
historic interest. At all events the quotations are the fruit of a search 
whose labour has to the searcher not been devoid of pleasure. For not a 
little of this pleasure he desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr 
James Grant of the Historical Department of the General Register House, 
the learned author of the History of the Burgh Schools, and Mr Donald 
Macpherson of the Advocates' Libraiy. 

Manufactures ; aad (6), a smith and a gardener at Glenmoriston. A legacy for the 
purposes named in this second patent was applied partly in " buying wheels and reels, 
to be distributed in different places, and partly iu putting out promising lads " from the 
Society's schools as apprentices to tradesmen and manufacturers. In this way " many 
young women have been taught to spin, and many young men have been initructed in 
various branches of trade and manufacture." 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 217 

Will the readers of the Celtic Magazine allow me to submit to them 
a practical suggestion, which I think of some importance ? Why should 
not the work of which this episode in our history of the Gaelic Bible is 
but a hasty and accidental specimen be gone about in a deliberate and 
systematic way ? My somewhat promiscuous search for the materials of 
this paper has led me into vast quarries of precious historical matter, 
which a fire, such as raged the other day among the oldest records of the 
student life of our University, may any day put for ever beyond our 
reach 1 

Let us then have some sort of new SPALDING CLUB to look after these 
records of the past, which are fast mouldering to decay. They are not 
dead though buried : they are dumb only because the dust and rubbish 
of years sit heavily on their lips : clear this away and their mouth will 
discourse wonderful things of the bygone days and ways of our people. 

DONALD MASSON, M.A., M.D. 



IAN" MACTAYISH. 

NESTLING in a beautiful and secluded glen, sheltered by the surrounding 
hills, near the picturesque Loch Riven in Strathnairn, might be seen, dur- 
ing the latter part of the seventeenth century, a small, yet comfortable 
homestead. The exceptional tidiness of the outhouses, the cleanliness of 
the cottage, and the evident attention bestowed upon the garden, plainly 
indicated that its occupant was a man of very different habits and tem- 
perament to the great majority of his fellow countrymen of that period. 
In fact, Ian Roy Mactavish was a man far in advance of his age in his ideas 
of political economy, though doubtless he was innocent of the meaning 
of the term. While the rest of the clan were thinking of nothing but 
fighting and destroying, preferring to raid into other territories for their 
supplies of cattle and forage, leaving their own land untilled and unpro- 
ductive, Ian chose this, the most secluded and fertile spot he could find, 
built his cottage, planted his garden, sowed his crops, and brought home his 
young wife, Jessie, desiring to live at peace with all men. Little more than 
a year had elapsed in the most perfect happiness and security, when the 
summit of lau's felicity was reached by becoming the proud father of a 
fine healthy boy. His wife was attended to on the auspicious occasion, 
by an elderly woman, Janet Macdougall, a noted character in the district, 
her fame having spread far and wide, as a successful midwife, or "howdie." 
Having also an extensive knowledge of the medicinal properties of herbs, 
combined with great experience and shrewdness, she was universally applied 
to in cases of accident or illness such a personage as a doctor being 
then unknown in the Highlands. Janet was a remarkable-looking woman, 
a tall spare figure, slightly bowed with advancing years, a pale, grave 
face, in which care and sorrow had drawn many a wrinkle, expressive 

a 



218 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

black eyes, fearless and bright when work was to be done, but which, in 
moments of repose, wore a sad, far-away, and eerie look. No one knew 
her age, and few her history, which, though humble, had been tragic. 
She was once a happy wife and mother, but her husband had fallen, 
claymore in hand, and face to the foe ; her dwelling was burnt over her 
head, and herself and children were turned adrift helpless and alone on 
an iinsympathetic world. By the time when she came to Strathnairn she 
was childless as well as widowed, and she ever after remained the same 
lonely woman, devoting her time and attention to the physical wants of 
those around her, in the capacity of midwife and general physician for the 
district. She was treated with considerable respect, combined with no 
little amount of awe, for she was popularly believed to be a Saibhscar, or 
gifted with second-sight, and many were the wonderful tales related of 
her visions and their strange fulfilment. 

It was the afternoon of a fine autumn day, the parting rays of the 
declining sun illumined and beautified the scene, and played on the 
wavelets of the loch, till the water looked like molten gold, shining on 
the heather-clad hills, till they appeared crowned with a halo of many- 
coloured glory. Ian was engaged tending his cows, quietly grazing by 
the side of the loch, and chewing the cud with that air of placid content- 
ment so characteristic of these docile animals when well cared for. Mac- 
tavish being an industrious man was enjoying himself and utilising his 
time fishing, as well as tending his cattle, which he could easily do with 
the valuable assistance of his faithful and well trained collie. As he 
angled in the loch or glanced at his herd, he felt supremely happy, free 
from any anxiety about his beloved \vife, now so far convalescent, that 
Janet was leaving them that same day. He mused with pleasure on the 
thought of his infant son, IIOAV he would train him up with the same ideas 
as his own, that he might prove a blessing to him in his old age. These 
agreeable meditations were suddenly interrupted by old Janet, who had 
left the cottage and came to bid him farewell. While thanking her for 
her kind attention to his wife, he was struck with astonishment at the 
change that came suddenly over her countenance. She stood and looked 
earnestly in his face, her grey head bent forward, with a pair of staring 
eyes, which appeared to look through and beyond him, as it were, while 
her face became deadly white and drawn up as if with pain. For a moment 
or two she stood thus ; then, with a low moan, she removed her fixed 
gaze, and trembling violently, sat down on the grass, moaning and 
lamenting, " Ochan ! ochan ! sad and sorry am I to see such a sight, and 
the poor young creature with the dear babe, what will she do, alas, alas." 
Ian was quite unable to comprehend what ailed her, and begged her to 
explain what was the matter. This Janet appeared most unwilling at 
first to do, continuing to lament to herself in half-broken sentences of 
which Mactavish could make no sense. When she became more com- 
posed she asked him if he had an enemy, from whom he had any reason 
to dread violence. He assured her that, to the best of his knowledge, he 
had no personal enemy, at the same time asking an explanation of her 
strange behaviour. Being so urgently pressed, she told him that she 
feared his life would not be a long one, for that she had a vision concerning 
him, and " Oh," she continued, while her voice trembled, "Oh, Mactavish, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 219 

it will not be long before you are called, for I saw tlie death shroud 
covering you up to your head, and ochan ! ochan ! there was a big rent in 
it tco, which showed that it will be a violent death you will come to. 
Indeed, I am extremely sorry for you and your poor young wife, but it's 
too true, too true." 

Mactavish was naturally startled and somewhat unnerved at this 
dreadful communication, but being by no means so superstitious as most 
of his countrymen, he soon rallied, and attempted to treat the matter 
lightly. Janet, however, was not to be shaken in her belief, and, getting 
annoyed at his incredulity, took leave of him and went on her way. 

Mactavish resumed his sport, and tried hard to drive the ill-omened 
prediction from his mind. The day waned, and the shades of evening 
began to gather, throwing the valley into shadow, and making the hills, 
now dark and dull, stand out in bold relief against the grey sky. Ian 
had just succeeded in hooking a fine large fish, when a low growl from 
his faithful collie caused him to look hastily around to discover the cause 
of the dog's uneasiness. To his surprise and annoyance he observed a 
large party of armed Highlanders approaching, driving before them a great 
number of bl*ck cattle, whom he rightly conjectured were some of the 
aliens, who then neld possession of the upper part of Stratherrick, return- 
ing from a successiul foray. He felt vexed that they should have dis- 
covered his retreat, but he apprehended no danger until he saw two or 
three of the men detaching themselves from the rest, and beginning to 
drive his own small herd away to swell their creach from the Southron. 
In vain he ran and shouted, asking them to desist. It was by their 
captain's orders, they said, so with hurried footsteps, his heart beating 
with dread and burning with indignation, Ian approached the leader, and 
demanded the restoration of his cattle. " Why," he exclaimed, " why 
should you harry me ; I am no enemy of yours, and have never injured 
any of you?" 

" You are no friend of ours, and consequently good and fair game," 
answered the alien chief, a tall fierce-looking man, whose daring and 
adroitness in planning and executing raids, had made his name well-known 
and detested. 

" But," pleaded Mactavish, " my few cows can make but little dif- 
ference to you. You have already such a large booty, and these are all I 
have, restore them and leave me in peace ; perhaps I may be able to do 
you as good a turn another day." 

" Stop your talking and stand out of my way, fellow, or it will be 
worse for you," roughly answered the leader, at the same time pushing 
Mactavish aside. 

" Well then," persisted Ian in despairing tones, " at least leave me 
one cow for the sake of my family, only one." 

" No," roared the alien in a terrible voice, " not one, and if you hinder 
me any longer I'll burn your house over your head, and scatter the ashes 
to the four winds of heaven, and you and your family can dwell with the 
wild fox, where you'll have no need of a cow ; take that, and hold your 
tongue," and, suiting the action to the word, he finished this brutal speech 
by giving Ian a back-handed blow in the face as he moved forward to pasa 
him. 



220 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Such an insult was not to be tamely submitted to, and with an' inar- 
ticulate cry of rage Mactavish darted forward, and, forgetting all prudence, 
struck madly at the chief with his fishing hook, which he still held in his 
hand. Before the blow could fall, however, one of the party interposed, 
and with the ever ready dirk, stabbed Mactavish in the side. 

"With a deep groan poor Ian sank on the purple heather, and without 
halting to see if the wound was fatal, or even to draw the dirk out of it, 
the aliens hurried on, grudging the time they had already spent over 
what they considered but a very small affair. 

" Alas !" moaned, poor Ian, as he lay helplessly on the ground, his life- 
blood crimsoning the fragrant heather, till it seemed to blush for the foul 
deed, and call aloud for vengeance against the cruel murderer, " alas, old 
Janet spoke the truth, though little did I think her vision would so soon 
come to pass. Woe is me, must I die here like a wild beast, with no 
friendly hand to close my eyes or to wipe the dews of death from my brow. 
My forefathers fought against the Keppochs, and fell gloriously on the 
fields of Mavil Roy and Inverlair, but I shall die like the goat on the hill 
top, and my flesh shall become the prey of the wild cats and the eagles. 
My poor wife, my beloved Jessie, who will tell you of your husband's 
death, who will speak words of comfort to the widow 1 ? Must I never see 
you more ! never more see my darling boy ! My treasures of love and 
hope, how can I die without seeing you once more ! Oh, mo ghaoil, 
mo ghaoil, what have I done that I should be torn from your side, and 
crushed like an adder under the foot of the stranger? Cursed be the hand 

that struck me, may his arm wither and no, I will not curse, I leave 

vengeance to a Higher Power, it may be that my son will yet avenge the 
murder of his father," 

Here the attention of Mactavish was claimed by his faithful collie, 
who had followed the cows for some distance, in the vain hope of turning 
them back, and now exhibited the utmost distress at seeing his master in 
such a sad condition, licking his hands and face, and whining and howl- 
ing in the most dismal manner. 

The sight of the dog roused in the dying man's breast such a longing 
once more to reach his home and see its beloved inmates, that with an 
energy born of despair, he rose to his knees, and with one arm resting 
round the dog's neck, attempted to crawl towards his cottage. 

His young wife was waiting and watching for his return, the usual 
time of his coming arrived, but no Ian ; an hour passed ; Jessie wondered 
what was keeping him, perhaps she thought one of the cows had strayed, 
he would sure to be home soon now ; so she mended the fire and sat nursing 
her baby, looking at him and discovering new charms, with the absorbed 
attention and concentrated love of a young mother for her first born ; an- 
other hour passed ; she began to get more anxious ; and laying the child 
down, she went to the door and looked in every direction, but no sign 
could she see of husband, cows, or dog. Perplexed and alarmed she knew 
not what to do, or what to dread from this strange occurrence. There 
was no one to advise her or to console with her. 

In fear and anxiety she wandered aimlessly through the house, or 
stood at the door watching in vain for the beloved form that would never 
more hasten to me^ her. With troubled voice broken with sobs, she 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 221 

called aloud again and again her husband's name. In vain ; in vain ! 
The night wind carried the sound away, and the cold pale moon looked 
calmly down, as if in mockery of her passionate grief. The feeble cries 
of her infant recalled her to the fireside, where she continued her weary 
vigil until midnight, when, hark ! what was that 1 a scratching at the 
door ! the pitiful whine of a dog ! Quickly she opens the door, and calls 
the dog by name ; he bounds in, barks furiously, and catching hold of 
her dress, attempts to draw her back again towards the door. She stoops 
to pat him, his shaggy coat is covered with dew, but it is not dew that 
leaves those dark footprints on the floor ; and what mark is this that he 
leaves on her hand as he licks it 1 Ah ! horror ! it is blood ! gracious 
heavens ! what has happened ? Overpowered with emotion she sinks 
into a chair, but the honor of the night is not yet passed, her cup of 
misery is not yet filled. The dog runs again to the door ; with the dull, 
stony look of despair, she sees him re-enter, but who or what is it that 
accompanies him ? A ghastly object, crawling slowly and painfully on 
hands and knees, bedabbled with blood, with dishevelled hair hanging 
over the deathly face; can this be her Ian 1 the stalwart, cheery man she 
parted with a few hours back. Spell-bound with terror she stands 
motionless, while slowly, painfully, the figure draws nearer her, with sad, 
sorrowful eyes, over which the film of death is rapidly drawing, it gazes 
on her, and essays to speak, but no sound comes from the parched lips. 
With a great effort it seizes her hand in its cold clammy palm, and at the 
touch the spell is broken. Jessie realizes that this is indeed her husband, 
and with a terrible cry falls senseless to the ground. 

Day was dawning before Jessie recovered from her swoon, and oh ! 
what a terrible awakening it was. As she slowly opened her eyes the 
first object that met her gaze was the staring eyes of a corpse, and as con- 
sciousness returned, she found her hand clasped by the cold stiff fingers 
of her murdered husband. 

When she collected her scattered senses, so rudely shaken by this aw- 
ful event, and began to realize her great loss, she gave way to the most 
extravagant grief, wringing her hands, tearing her hair, and beating her 
breast, while uttering the most piercing cries, at one time apostrophising her 
beloved one with every endearing term, while she bathed his cold face 
with torrents of tears. Anon, with dry eyes and outstretched hand, she 
would call down curses on the head of the perpetrator of the cruel deed, 
and cry aloud for vengeance ; then again she would melt into lamentations. 
" Oh Ian ! my love ! my love ! will you never speak to me more, shall I 
never again see the love-light in your eye, or feel the warm pressure of 
your lips, never, never, your eyes are fixed and your lips are cold in 
death, and I am alive to see it ; oh ! would that I were dead, how shall 
I live without you ? my husband, my first and only love." 

The Availing cries of the neglected infant now recalled her attention 
to it. " Cry on, poor babe," she exclaimed, " you little know the loss 
you have sustained, never will you feel the watchful love and care of a 
father. Ochan ! ochan ! I will cherish you that you may live to revenge 
his untimely death ; see this dirk I draw from the gaping wound, see it 
covered with the life-blood of your father, may you live my child, and 
one day sheath it in the black heart of his murderer," 



222 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

As she became calmer she began to think what was best for her to do. 
There was no dwelling within several miles, and besides, being in perfect 
ignorance from whom, or for what cause, her husband had met his death, 
she was afraid to go to strangers for help ; at last she concluded to go to 
her father's house, where she would be sure of assistance. 

Having, with many tears and choking sobs, performed the last sad 
duties to the dead, she left the faithful dog in charge of his beloved 
master, and taking her infant in her arms, set out on her long and lonely 
journey. 

"Wearily she plodded on, weak from her recent illness, and, borne 
down with grief, she felt at times as though she must give up the attempt, 
and lie down and die, but then the thought of her dead husband lying in 
the desolate cottage would nerve her to make still another effort to obtain 
assistance, and have his remains, properly interred. At length she 
reached her father's house, and told her sad tale, which was listened 
to with the greatest horror of the deed, and sympathy for herself. Her 
father and some friends at once started to fetch the body of poor Mac- 
tavish, and a sad, sad, sight it was for the young widow to see the funeral 
cortege return. First came, with solemn tread, the piper, the mournful 
wailing notes of the lament announcing the approach of the iuncral 
party long before they came in sight; then came four strong young men 
bearing on their broad shoulders the mortal remains of their murdered 
friend. Behind followed Jessie's father and a large party of friends and 
relatives, all armed with dirk and broadsword, for in those wild, unsettled 
times they were never sure but they might be interrupted, even on such 
a melancholy and peaceful errand as they were now engaged in. 

The broken-hearted Jessie could not bear the ida of returning to her 
cottage, where every object would constantly remind her of her bereave- 
ment She therefore decided to remain with her father, and after the 
furniture and plenishing had been removed, the cottage, which had been 
built and furnished with such loving care, and bright hopes of happy 
years to be spent in it, was left to ruin and decay, a striking monument 
of the uncertainty of man's life and enjoyment. 

Jessie called her boy Ian, after his father, and when he grew old 
enough to understand her, she would talk to him by the hour together, of 
his dead father, praising his virtues and deploring his untimely end. This 
sort of conversation made a great impression upon the child's mind, end- 
ing, as it usually did, by the dirk being shown to him encrusted with the 
blood of his father. 

Thus, his mother fired his imagination, and incited his young mind 
to thoughts of revenge and retaliation. The dirk being the only clue 
they had to the murderer, she gave it to young Ian when he was old 
enough to wear it, and told him to always have it ready until he should 
find the man, and sheath it in his heart. As he grew up, and his disposi- 
tion and temper became more developed, it was seen that he was in tem- 
perament the very opposite to his father. Bold and courageous, he 
rather courted than shrunk from danger, Eestless and daring, he looked 
with disdain upon the simple life of a husbandman. His ardent nature 
made him burn to distinguish himself in deeds of warlike skill and daunt- 
less courage. These qualities, combined with a hardy robust frame, and 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE, 223 

very handsome features, made him conspicuous among his companions, 
and attracted the attention of the Laird of Gorthlick, who was so taken, 
with his appearance and manner, that he determined to save him from the 
drudgery of a farmer's life, and give him a chance of pushing his fortunes 
in a more congenial sphere. Ian was, accordingly, much to his own de- 
light and to the satisfaction of his mother, admitted an inmate of the 
castle, as a sort of confidential attendant or page to its master. 

Here several years passed swiftly and happily ; young Mactavish daily 
growing in the favour of his patron, who, having no son of his own, gra- 
dually came to treat Ian as one, and took a great pride in seeing his 
protege acquit himself so bravely in the frequent skirmishes they had 
with the aliens, a large number of whom still held possession of the upper 
part of Stratherrick, and were continually making raids on the neighbour- 
ing territories. Evan Dubh, their captain, was a bold unscrupulous man, 
somewhat advanced in years, but still full of energy and enterprise. 

When our hero was about eighteen, his patron was called away with 
the best part of his followers, to attend a grand meeting of the Clans, held 
at some distance, and before leaving home, called young Mactavish, and 
told him that he should leave him in charge at home, during his absence. 
And young as he was, yet he had every confidence in his courage and 
prudence, and not only left him in command of the men who remained 
behind, but also entrusted to him the safe keeping of the castle; and, 
most precious of all, the charge and safety of his only daughter, the lovely 
Catharine, then just blooming into womanhood. lan's heart beat high at 
the great honour paid to him by this signal proof of his Chief's confid- 
ence, but especially at being considered worthy of being constituted the 
guardian and protector of the beautiful and fascinating Catharine, whom 
he had long worshipped at a distance, as if she were a superior being of 
another world ; and now he was actually her guardian, and on him de- 
pended her safety and well-being, until the return of her father. His brain 
was in a whirl with ecstasy, and his heart thrilled with emotion, as a vision 
of possible future bliss rose in his agitated breast. " If her father deems 
me worthy of being her protector for a time, is it not just possible, if I do 
my duty and deserve her, that I may be yet considered worthy of her for 
life. Little need had he to urge me to watch over her carefully. I would 
lay down my life at any moment to do her service." 

Eor a few days after the Chief had left everything was quiet and se- 
cure, and Ian began secretly to wish that some danger might arise to af- 
ford him an opportunity of showing his devotion to the fair Catharine. 
On the evening of the fifth day, however, the alarm was given at the 
castle that a large party of the aliens, headed by the renowned captain, 
Evan Dubh himself, was driving the cattle from their pasture, molesting 
the men in charge of them, and threatening to attack the castle. Hastily 
summoning his men, and bidding Catharine to keep close indoors and 
have no fear, Mactavish, with his trusty band, rushed out to meet and 
chastise the intruders. Evan Dubh, fully acquainted with the Chief's 
absence from the castle, had expected an easy victory, and was consider- 
ably taken aback by the sudden and impetuous onslaught of Ian, but, 
noting the smallness of the defending body, he determined to give fight, 
and recalling the men engaged in driving off the cattle, a regular pitched 



224 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

battle ensued. The aliens largely outnumbered the defending party, and 
for a time Ian seemed to be getting the worst of it, when Mactavish 
signalling out the alien leader, worked his way to where he stood, hew- 
ing doAvn every one who came in his way, A fearful hand-to-hand com- 
bat took place between them. Evan Dubh was a strong built man, some- 
what under the middle height, whose life had been spent in warfare. 
With iron sinews, eagle eye, and a ready hand, which constant practice 
had rendered perfect in the use of his weapon, he was a formidable oppo- 
nent to the youthful Ian, who, however, never yet flinched. What he lacked 
in weight, he made up by extra agility, and his want of experience was 
compensated by his impetuosity and daring. His eye was quick, and his 
courage as high as that of his enemy. Evan Dubh first looked with disdain 
at the youthful appearance of Mactavish, and contemptuously exclaimed, 
"Fall back, thou presumptuous stripling, ere I kill thee at one blow. 
Wait till thy beard has grown before thou cross swords with me." lan's 
only answer to this was a furious blow at Evan's head, which he parried 
with difficulty, and he soon found that he had a foeman worthy of his 
steel, boy though he was. The strife was severe, and the ultimate result 
seemed doubtful, but the fiery energy and quick movements of Ian began 
to tell on the older warrior, who, with labouring breath, gathered himself 
together for a final blow, which he hurled with all his remaining strength 
at the devoted Ian. The stroke descended with lightning-like rapidity, 
but our hero quickly parried it, and, with a sudden thrust, wounded Evan, 
who dropped on his knees, his broadsword falling from his nerveless 
grasp. Dropping his own sword, young Ian drew his dirk, and springing 
upon his opponent, bore him to the earth, and, holding his dirk before 
the eyes of the prostrate man, demanded if he would now submit himself 
as a prisoner, and save his life. Instead of replying, the wounded alien 
glared with glazed eyes and horror-stricken look upon the blood-stained 
dirk which Ian held before him. 

" Do you yield ]" shouted Ian. 

Still Evan Dubh answered not, but keeping his eyes fixed on the dirk, 
muttered incoherently, " It is, it is, the same, my own. Many a year has 
passed since last I used it ! N ' 

Mactavish losing patience, and fearing he should lose his advantage, 
in the excitement of the moment, buried his dirk in the breast of his 
antagonist. The blow did not prove immediately fatal, and, as Ian drew 
it back from the dying man's breast, Evan seized his arm, and in faltering 
tones, exclaimed "Where got ye that dirk? Well do I know it, long 
have I carried it, and many a brave enemy has felt its point, and now it 
has done for myself at last ! Ah, poor Mactavish, I left it embedded in 
thy side, by the bank of bonnie Loch Eiven, which I am now doomed to 
see no more." "What," cried Ian, in terrible excitement and rage, "what 
did you say 1 Was it your hand that shed the innocent blood of my fa- 
ther ? Speak ! speak ! you shall not die until you tell me :" and, in his 
eagerness and passion, he violently shook the expiring alien, who faintly 
replied, " Your father ! was that your father ? Ah, I see him. I remem- 
ber him. Look ! he is pleading with our captain. Ah, ha ! he might as 
well have asked mercy from the woll ! I see him now raise his arm to 
strike fool, your father, he soon got his answer. And yet I wish I had 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 225 

not killed him in that way. It was not a fair fight raise me up, I am 
choking ; keep off Mactavish ! Why do you glare on me so 1 Give me 
back my dirk ! I did not mean to kill you keep off ! away ! away ! 

Oh ! I did ." The feeble voice was choked, and with a deep groan, 

Evan Dubh, who had hitherto never yielded to mortal man, succumbed to 
the king of terrors, and, with one last convulsive struggle, his guilty spirit 
took its flight. 

It would be difficult to analyze lan's feelings as he saw the murderer 
of his father expire by his own hand. Deteftation of the man became 
mingled with gratified revenge, and awe at the presence of death in such 
a fearful form, was mixed with a grim satisfaction that he had been able, 
though unwittingly, to avenge the fate of his father. 

The aliens., seeing their leader fall, became disheartened, and were soon 
put to flight, followed by Mactavish and his men, who made most of 
them kiss the sod with Evan Dubh. 

Catharine met her youthful and brave champion at the door of the 
castle with a veritable April face, smiles and tears struggling for the mas- 
tery. She tried hard to command her feelings, and welcome him with a 
proper dignity of demeanour, but her emotion on seeing him wounded 
overcame all ceremony, and, seizing his hand, she exclaimed with fervour 
" Thank heaven ! you have returned. I feared you would have been 
killed, and then what would have become of me." Then, as if fearing 
she had said too much, she turned and flew to her own apartment, send- 
ing a parting glance from under her fringed eyelashes that thrilled through 
and through the susceptible heart of Mactavish, and raised him to the 
seventh heaven of enchantment. 

When Ian related to his mother the strange manner in which he had 
discovered the man for whom he had been looking all his life, and showed 
her the dirk, now stained with the blood of the slayer of his father, as 
well as that of the slain, the widow was satisfied that at long last her be- 
loved husband was avenged, and that by the hand of her son ; and both 
were still more pleased that Evan Dubh had met his death in fair fight, 
and that lan's conscience was clear from bloodguiltiness. 

On Eraser's return home, he was extremely pleased at the bold man- 
ner in which Mactavish had met and defeated the raiders ; and when his 
daughter, in glowing and eloquent terms, dwelt on the devotion and 
heroism of young Ian, the old man soon guessed the secret which she 
thought was yet safely locked in her own breast' ; and being well pleased 
that her choice should be such a worthy one, he cheerfully agreed to 
his daughter's proposed alliance, and left Ian to plead his own cause with 
the maiden, which he, rendered eloquent by love, did to such good pur- 
pose, that the marriage-day was soon fixed ; and, amid the congratula- 
tions of friends, and the blessing of lan's widowed mother, the lovely 
Catharine was led to the altar, a blushing bride, by the young and gal- 
lant Ian Ban Mactavish. 

M. A. ROSE. 



226 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



THE CROFTER'S LAMENT. 



Oh ! weep not, my Mary, thy tears give me anguish, 

And break the proud spirit that dwells in my heart ; 
Tho' doomed in the land of our fathers to languish, 

Thy sorrow wounds more than our Fate can impart : 
Ochon ! from our shieling we're ruthlessly driven, 

And reft of our little with pitiless scorn, 
The God of the homeless in merciful Heaven, 

Shall surely give bread to his children forlorn; 
Banished we'll weary roam, 
Seeking another home, 

And strangers shall wander where happiness dwelt, 
Ruins shall mark the spot, 
Where stood our lowly cot, 
And silence shall tell of the wrongs we have felt. 

Yon lordly oppressor may smile at our grieving, 

And laugh at the tears which the helpless have shed ; 
The wealth that he craves from injustice, is leaving 

The withering curse of the poor on his head ; 
No more shall the love of the humble give glory, 

The hall of his sires is o'ershadowed with shame, 
The winds from the mountains shall whisper the story, 
That clings with dishonour around the old name : 
Loveless for ever then, 
Hateful to Highlandmen, 
No beauty remains where cold avarice sways, 
Heedless of love's reward, 
Honoured with no regard, 
All joyless the life where no tongue can give praise, 

Ah ! weep not, my Mary, tho' now we are going 

From all that we cherished for many long years ; 
The grasp of the proud, tho' our sorrows bestowing, 

Can crush not the love which is told in thy tears ; 
Farewell, ye blue mountains ! ye mourners forsaken, 

How oft have ye echoed the wails of the sad ; 
Farewell, ye green valleys ! no more shall ye waken 
The songs of the happy or shouts of the glad : 
Ever in glow and gloom, 
Telling of dool and doom, 

Wild breathing the tale of your children opprest, 
Crushed 'neath the Saxon's thrall, 
Silent and sadly all, 

We leave ye, but love ye for ever the best. 
STJNDEBLAND. WM. ALLAN. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 227 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES. 

o 

ANSWERS. 

THE CUTHBERTS OF CASTLEHILL. 

THE enquiry concerning the Cuthbert Family, which occurs among the 
Genealogical Notes and Queries in the last Celtic Magazine, opens up a 
somewhat lengthy subject, for this family seems to have occupied a promi- 
nent position in this district for 300 years from the close of the 15th cen- 
tury. The Great Seal Index contains a quantity of charters, and there are 
Eegisters of Sasines and innumerable deeds in their favour during that long 
period. There is frequent mention of the Cuthberts also in the Lovat 
Charters ; while they appear to have intermarried with most of the neigh- 
bouring families ; and Cuthberts were oftentimes Provosts of Inverness. 
Their genealogy is given by an Act of Parliament of Scotland, vol. viii., 
James VII., A.D. 1686, entitled, "Warrant of Bore Brieve to Charles 
Colbert of Seignelay." They had their rise in the South whither they 
ultimately retired and their names are written both as Colbert and 
Cuthbert ; the latter invariably in the North. 

The following Memoir is extracted from a MS. volume in the Advo- 
cates' Library, Edinburgh, entitled " Materials from a Baronage of Scot- 
land": 

" The family has held the Barony of Castlehill from the Crown of Scot- 
land as a Royal feu, for services rendered, and for services to be rendered, 
to the King. Other lands they held in vassalage from particular supe- 
riors, such as the Town of Inverness, the Barons of Dacus, &c., as appears 
from Charters granted by these. Also the lands of Drakies, Stonifield, 
Mucovie, and other tenures. 

" The representatives of the Castlehill family have always been called 
by the Highlanders, " Maclrish " or MacGeorge. The armorial bearing 
of the principal family is a Serpent erect, azure the former motto was 
Perite et Rede ; but in 1411, a Cuthbert led the forces of the Town of 
Inverness with the King's troops against Macdonald of the Isles, and for . 
his behaviour at Harlaw there was added to his shield, a Fess Gules on a 
field Or, and for a crest, a Hand in a gauntlet, holding a weapon like an 
arrow, and the former words was added for motto, Nee minus Fortiter. 
Two bay-coloured horses were granted him for supporters. 

" The oldest Charter known of the family was by King James III. in 
1478, of the lands of Auld Castlehill, to William Cuthbert, son to John, 
and grandson of George, who had distinguished himself at Harlaw. The 
next, by Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1548 to George, nephew and apparent 
heifi of John Cuthbert of Castlehill, and to his heirs male. The family 
has subsequently obtained other Charters, of which the most explicit is 
that granted by King James VI in 1592, which was confirmed by King 
Charles I. in 1625. 

" The Bailiff of the family administered justice in the name of the 



228 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

owner of the estate to his dependents, and representatives of the family 
filled the offices of High Sheriff of Inverness and Eoss, Knights of the 
Shire, &c. They were founders of a Chapel at Inverness, under the In- 
vocation of St Cuthbert, which was afterwards destroyed by the Cal- 
vinists. The family of Castlehill, however, has always preserved its right 
of sepulture in the site of the old chapel. 

"Cuthbert of Drakies, new Inverness, possessed also Loch Line (ILinnhe) 
and Auchintua in Eoss. The branch was extinct by the death of George 
Cuthbert of Drakies, who, having no issue, disposed of his property in 
favour of Jams Cuthbert, second son of George of Castlehill, whose des- 
cendants are in Georgia and South Carolina. Another branch is supposed 
to have settled in Angus-shire, there being on record a Charter of the 
lands of Eoscoby, near Forfar, to N. Coubert, A.D. 1588, 

"The lands of Mains and Ochterton, in Aberdeenshire, were granted by 
Charter to N. Cudbert, in 1610 ; those of Nether Cloquart in Perthshire, 
to N. Cuthbert of Cloquart in 1634. 

" The most considerable branch, however, of the family is in Cham- 
pagne, in France, established there since the 13th century, when Nicolas 
Cuthbert of COLBERT went from Scotland to France, and fixed his residence 
near Eheims, where his tomb is to be seen in the Church of the Monks 
of St Eemi ; with the inscription " Ci gist le preux chevalier Nicolas 
Colbert, dit ly Ecossois : priez pour 1'ame de Ly." From this Nicolas 
descended the great Jean Baptiste Colbert, ' le grand Colbert,' minister of 
State to Louis XIV. He, and after him, his son, the Marquis of Seig- 
nelay, sent to Scotland a request for their pedigree. The Bore-brief was 
drawn up by George Cuthbert, Provost of Inverness, and presented to 
the States of Scotland, in 1687. 

I. JOHN CUTHBERT of Castlehill, when a youth, served in the Wars of 
Sweden, under Gustavus Adolphus, 1630 ; and, on the death of 
his General at Lutzen, returned to his estate, when he married N. 
Cuthbert, a daughter of Cuthbert of Drakies, by whom he had a 
son and nine daughters, who were mostly married to neighbouring 
gentlemen. 

II. GEORGE CUTHBERT, son of John, succeeded his father, and married 
Magdalen, daughter of Sir James Fraser of Brae, niece to Lord 
Lovat, by whom he had three sons and a daughter, Magdalen, 
married to Hugh, fifteenth Baron of Kilravock, as third wiffe. 

III. JOHN, the eldest, succeeded his father, and married Jean Hay, only 

daughter of the Eight Eev. N. Hay of Dalgetty, last Bishop of 
Moray ; by her he had four sons. (This lady appears as a claimant 
on the Estate of Simon, Lord Lovat, in 1757, in the Frazerdale 
case.) 

IV. GEORGE, the eldest, succeeded his father, and married Mary Mac- 

kintosh of Blairvie, a cadet of Holme. By her he had a great 
many children, of whom eight were living at their father's death. 
" John, the eldest, in the army. He served first as an officer in Hol- 
land, in one of the Scotch-Dutch Regiments ; next, in the British army, 
and was killed at the siege of Louisberg, where he fought under General 
Wolff. He left no issue. 

" James, the second son, went to South Carolina, where he died, leav- 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 229 

ing an estate, a widow, and several children, who are now the representa- 
tives of the family. 

" Seignelay, the third son, after his father's death, went into France, 
where he embraced the ecclesiastic state, and became Grand- Vicar of Tou- 
louse, and afterwards Bishop of Rodez, and was appointed President of 
the Provincial Assembly of the Haute Guyenne. In 1787 he was called to 
the ' Assembly of Notables ' by the King ; after which he was deputed by 
the Clergy of Rovergne to the States General at Versailles in 1789. Re- 
fusing to take the Revolutionary oath, he was proscribed by the Party, 
and took refuge in England. 

" Lewis, the fourth son, went to Jamaica, where he became a Member 
of the Legislative Assembly. The last Proprietor of the Cuthbert lands. 

" LacJilan, the fifth son, was an officer of Artillery at Belle Isle, where 
he received the thanks of the General Commanding. He died a few 
years after (without issue) in France, whither he had gone on account of 
his health. 

" George, the youngest, went to Jamaica, where he became High Pro- 
vost-Marshal. He died without issue. 

" Madalen, eldest daughter of George, married Major James Johnstone, 
65th Regiment. Issue, two sons and one daughter, viz. Robert, Cap- 
tain 39th Foot ; died at Guadaloupe. George, Major 4th or King's Own 
Infantry. Mary Ann, married Hon. Francis Grey, brother to Lord Grey, 
a Major of the 1st battalion of Breadalbane Fencibles. 

" Rachel, 2d daughter of George of Castlehill, married Simon Fraser of 
Daltullich. Issue ; John, Alexander, and Seignelay ; Mary ; Catharine 
married to Lieut. Robertson of the Hopetown Fencibles ; Helena married 
Hannah, officer of Excise at Inverness ; Magdalen and Jean. 

" Sons of John III., supra. 

11 George, his heir ; Lauchlan, second son, went to France, where he en- 
tered the army, and became Marechale de Camp, or Major-General. He 
married in France, Hereford, by whom he had a son, Roger, Baron de 
Colbert; and a daughter, who died unmarried. 

" Alexander, third son, went to France, and became L'Abb6 Colbert. 

"James, fourth son, went to America, to South Carolina, where he twice 
married, and had a numerous family. 

" Jean, the eldest daughter, married Thomas Alves of Shipland, Inver- 
ness. Her issue 1st, John Alves, Physician at Inverness, married first, 
Campbell of the Calder family. Issue 1, Thomas, in Jamaica; 2, 
Archibald, of Springfield, Edinburgh ; 3, Alexander, in Jamaica, d.s.p. ; 
4, Jean, married an Irish Presbyterian minister. John Alves, married 
2d, Baillie of Dunain. Issue 1, William, in Demerara, distinguished 
in the defence of St Vincent against the French, when he was wounded ; 
2, Ann ; 3, Helen, married Inglis, brother to William Inglis, Provost 
of Inverness. 

" Jean, 2d son Thomas, and 3d James. 

" After the death of George IV. supra, the Estate, burdened with heavy 
debt, was left by his children to the creditors, and came to a judicial sale 
in 1 780, when it was purchased by Alexander Cuthbert, third son of John 
and brother to George. He died in 1782, and from his heirs-at-law the 
estate was again purchased by George, youngest son of the late George 



230 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Cutlibert of Castlchill. He was hardly in possession of the estate, when 
he died in Jamaica, without issue, having married Ann Pinnock. His 
lauded property devolved on his brother, Lewis, who married Jean Pin- 
nock, sister to his brother's wife, of an honourable family in Jamaica, by 
whom he had two sons and three daughters. 1st, George, Provost-Mar- 
shal and Admiralty Judge at Jamaica ; 2d, Seignelay. Daughters, Eliza- 
beth and two others. 

" The above is from Deeds, vouchers of which are lodged in the Lyon 
office." 

Lewis Cuthberfr of Castlehill sold his estate at Inverness, and after- 
wards failed in business as a West Indian merchant, and died in a lunatic 
asylum. Other branches of the family survive. One member of it was, 
in 18GO, living in London, a retired Bengal Civilian. The late General 
John Mackenzie of Gahioch (born 1763, died 1860) remembered enter- 
taining the then Cuthbert of Castlehill, and the Bishop of Rodez, when 
with the left wing of the 78th Regiment at Putney in 1795. 

I am not in possession of any information regarding members of the 
family still existing ; but in a number of the Courier, published perhaps 
a year ago, there was a notice of a sale of some land in Inverness, the 
last remnant of the old Cuthbert property. 

JAMES D. MACKENZIE. 
Meuntgerald, Dingwall, March 1879. 



THE Rev. George Seignelay Cuthbert, vicar of Market-Drayton, Salop, 
writes, " In answer to the query relative to the Cuthberts of Castlehill, I 
am the lineal representative of this ancient family at all events in Eu- 
rope. My father was Seignelay Thomas Cuthbert (H.E.I.C.S.), son of 
Lewis Cuthbert, the third son of George Cuthbert, the last of the Barons 
of Castlehill, who resided there and possessed the property. Whether 
there are any descendants of James Cuthbert, the eldest son of the said 
Baron, still living in America, I do not know ; but the second son, Seig- 
nelay, my great-uncle having been Bishop of Rodez in France, and so, of 
course, unmarried, I have the honour of being now the direct lineal de- 
scendant of the Cuthbert family in the United Kingdom." 

THE CHIEF OF THE CLAN MACKENZIE. We refer "Cabar" to the 
article on the CHIEFSHIP, which appears in this number, for an answer to 
the principal points in his query. He will find that, failing the family 
of Allangrange, the Chiefship reverts to the Old Mackenzies of Dundon- 
nell, the representative of which, in this country, is John Hope Macken- 
zie, now residing at Tarradale. An elder son went to California, of whom 
there is no trace. [Ed. C.M,] 

THE CAMERONS. In "Smibert's Clans" appears the following, on page 
101: "An ancient manuscript History of the Clan Cameron commences 
with these words 'The Camerons have a tradition among them that 
they are originally descended of a younger son of the Royal Family of 
Denmark, who assisted at the restoration of Fergus II. He was called 
Cameron from his crooked nose, as that word imports. But it is more 
probable that they are of the Aborigines of the ancient Scots or Caledo- 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 231 

nians that first planted the errantry.' Mr Skene quotes these words, and 
concurs in the latter conclusion, which indeed seems the most feasible in 
the case." I do not know where this manuscript History of the Came- 
rons is now to be found ; but, unless it was given, like many other 
Highland MS. histories, to the late Mr Donald Gregory, and, in consequ- 
ence of his death, never returned, it will probably be found in Lochiel's 
possession, or in that of Mr "W. F. Skene, who, it is understood, obtained 
possession of Gregory's papers and manuscripts. M. 

Q V E R I E S. 

(9) CHISHOLM OP TEAWIG. "Wanted, information respecting the Origin and Pedigree 
of the Family of Chisholm of Teawig, parish of Kilmorack, Inverness shire. The head 
of the family at the end of the seventeenth century was Alexander Chisholm, who was 
succeeded by his son of the same name. Hev. Thomas Chisholm and the Rev. David 
Chisholm, ministers of Kilmorack, were of this family, which was a landed one, holding 
the property of Teawig in fee or in wadset. C.D.A. 

(10) GILDONICH. A somewhat common surname in Kilmorack at the end of the 17th 
and beginning of the 18th centuries was that of " Gildonich," sometimes spelt "Mhaol- 
donich," sometimes " MacGildonich " and " MacOldonich." The name disappears alto- 
gether, so far as the Church Registers are concerned, before 1720. What surname did 
the family assume, and what are the members of it now known by? The name "Gildo- 
nich " appears to mean "servant of St Dominick." How did it originate in the Aird? 

A.C.D. 

(11) REV. WILLIAM PHASER OP KILMORACK. What family of Frasers was this minister 
derived from ? He was minister at the end of the 17th century. A.D.C. 

(12) CLAN GDNN. Would any reader of the Celtic Magazine inform me who the 
younger sons of Donald Gunn of Killernan (sixth MacHamisb) were and also who their 
descendants were for three generations ? MAClAN. 

(13) FERNE, in Ross-shire, at one time the seat of a Monastery was also a Regality, and 
as such was competent to Register Deeds as Commissary or Sheriff Courts. Deeds re- 
gistered in the "Regality Books of Feme " are frequently named in Highland records. 
Does anyone know what became of these books at the absorption or extinction of the 
Regality powers? LEX. 

(14) THE CCTHBERTS OF INVERNESS. Mr Fraser-Mackintosh tells us that " Alexander 
Cuthbert, predecessor to the Cuthberts of Drakies, was slain at Pinkie (1547)." Will 
any grubber amongst the ashes ef ancestors kindly give the predecessors of that gentle- 
man and his successors up to Alexander, who died soen after 1600 ; also, the wives and 
their families ? The last-named Alexander's spouse was a Christian Dunbar ; was she 
of an Inverness family ? F. MEDENHAM. 

(15) THE ROSSES OF INVERCHARRON. Can any Ross, Munro, or Mackenzie Seannachie 
fill up the following gaps : There was a younger branch of Balnagowan called Ross of 
Invercharron from the 15th or 16th century until about 1797 (when it was sold to ano- 
ther family of Rosses). A William thereof married a daughter of Mackenzie, first of 
Davochmaluak. Was this William the first owner or was he William, son of Alexander 
of Invercharron the latter two died from 1620 25 ? Alexander's relict was a Macken- 
zie ; of what family was she, and was she a second wife? His grandson, Walter, was = 
an Isobella [or Elizabeth] ilonro, telict of Innes of Calrossie, and daughter of Andrew 
Monro or George Monro of Miltown ; which is correct ? Any information about this 
family previous to 1620 is anxiously sought. QuiLl. 

(16) THE PEERAGE AND BARONETCIES OF CROMARTY AND TARBAT. Will you or any of 
the numerous Mackenzies or other antiquarian readers of the Celtic Magazine inform 
me who is the present representative of the Cromarty and Tarbat honours in the male 
line. The present Duchess of Sutherland, descended from the Earls of Cromarty in the 
female line was, in 1861, created Countess of Cromarty, but it is generally believed that 
a family of Mackenzies in Lochinvar represent the old family of Tarbat and Cromarty. 
I shall esteem it a favour if any one can give me correct information regarding this, and 
full particulars about the Lochinvar family and their families, heirs, &c., if any, in your 
query column ? TABBAT. 



232 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



DUNVEGAN CASTLE. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

The Manse, Narracoorte, 
South Australia, 1 4th December 1 878. 

DEAR SIR, I send you the following lines, which I heard recited by an 
old friend in my youth, but which I have never seen in print ; and I have 
much pleasure in making you a present of them, if you think them wor- 
thy of a place in the Magazine. Of their authorship I know nothing 
nor of the subject of his eulogy, but there must surely be some record 
in Skye of the magnificent mansion described by the bard : 

A dhaoine seallaibh air an aitreabh, 
'Tha raise faicinn le'm shuillibh ! 
Cismaol Mac Neill a Barra 
An deigh's teachd a steach do'n duthaich^ 
Teaghlach muirneach, rioghail, ceutach, 
Anns am biodh cinn-fheadhna 's diucan, 
Piob ga spreigeadh ann ad thrannsa 
Srannraich each is fathrum chruithean. 

S ann an Steinn a thog thu 'n aitreabh 
Far am faighte 'n gloine lionta, 
Ruma glas is fion na Frainge, 
Uisge beatha 's branndai riornhach 
'S ma dheoghainn gach seorsa bidhe 
Cha 'n urrainn mi dhuibh ga chunntas : 
Cruithneachd, 's briosgaidean nan Innsean, 
Muc ga Sgriobadh 's moilt ga'n rusgadh. 

A thalla nam buadhanna mora, 

S' eibhinn na sloigh 'tha mu'n cuairt duit, 

S mor a chi iad do gach ioghna, 

Cuir seachad an t' saoghail gun ghruaman ; 

Beannachd do'n laimh 'thog na clachan, 

Dh'f hag e iad gu daingeann laidir, 

'S uair a measa 'shaor a ghiuthais, 

Gur buidheach mi dh' obair a laimhe, 

'S nam b' urrainn mo bheul innse, 

Mar a ta m' inntinn ag raitinn 

Cha togar s' cha deanar aitreabh 

An taic ris a Chaisteal so lamh ruinn. 

[Hero my memory fails me a little.] 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 233 

. . . An Eaglais rnlior a tlm'n Glaschu, 

. . . S' air a chaisteal a tha'n Struila, 

An tur Uaine 'bha 'n Lunainn, 

Gum b' iongantach an gniomh dhaoin' e, 

Bha aitreabh ann an Hanover, 

Le ursnaibh oir s' le comlila airgid, 

Ach a leithid so do aitreabh 

Cha'n f hacas an taice ri fairge, 

Air dheanamh le aol 's le clachan 

Cho geal ri sneachda nan garbhlach. 

Nuair a chaidh mi stigh '11 'ad thrannsa, 
Sheall mi os mo cheann gu diblidh, 
Chunnaic mi gach ni bha aghmhor, 
'S cha nar dhomh teannadh-r' a innseadh, 
Coinnlean ceir a bhi gan lasadh, 
Air bord snaighte do'n f hiodli riomhach, 
Airgiod is or fad mo sheallaidh, 
Sgathanna glaine gu lionmhor. 

Thig loingeas nan gunnacha mora, 
Le 'n cuid sheol, a stigh fo'cl dhorus, 
Theid gach Caiptin sios ga gheolaidh 
'S eighidh e, gur mor an f annas, 
An aitreabh ucl a tha air tir, 
Sa slios cho li ri cli na h'eala, 
Teannamaid a steach da h' ionnsaidh, 
Sgu'm faiceamaid surd a balla. 

Theid iad a steach air a dorus 

S' cuiridh iad an ad fo'n cleoca 

Suathaidh iad am brogan mine, dubha, 

'N Carpat buidhe 's fiamh an oir air, 

Siubhlaidh iad gu ciallach, samhacb, modhail, narach, 

Feadh do sheomar, an ad s' am brogan fo'n achlais, 

'S cha bu lapach an ceann sgoid iad. 

Thig iad a mach air a dorus, 
Bheir gach fear a shoitheach fein air, 
Togaidh iad an siuil ri crannaibh, 
Siubhlaidh iad air tonnaibh bronnach uaine, 
'S cha stad iad gus an ruig iad Lunainn, 
Toirt urram do aitreabh Ruairidh. 

I hope the Bard will get into print, and I shall not regret that I have 
been the means of introducing him to your readers. I am, yours faith- 
fully, D. M'CALMAN, 

Presbyterian Minister. 



On receipt, we handed the above to our venerable friend, the Rev. 
Alexander Macgregor, M.A., that he might throw what light he could on 
the subject of this excellent composition, and he supplied the following 

T 



234 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

notes, which will no doubt prove interesting to others, as well as to our 
friend at the Antipodes : 

There is much interest attached to the ancient Duns or Forts, which 
are so numerous on the coasts of the "Western Isles. Some of these are of 
very remote antiquity, and may have been built in the pre-historic ages. 
Others very probably were erected during the Fingalian wars, while others 
were reared as places of defence, at less remote periods, and the Isles, 
were seized upon by their Scandinavian invaders. In Skye alone there 
are no fewer than about one hundred ruins of various descriptions of forts, 
and all of them are situated in suitable localities near the sea. Dun- 
Scaith, on the west coast of Sleat, is alluded to by Ossian, and was a very 
extensive building, connected with which the remains of a prison and 
draw-well are still visible. Of all these forts, that of Dunvegan, in the 
parish of Duirinish in Skye, is the only one still inhabited. No doubt it 
is the Dun alluded to by the bard in the beautiful Gaelic poem herewith 
given. A brief but minute description of this interesting monument of 
primeval ages cannot fail to edify the readers of the Celtic Magazine, and 
particularly so such as admire the descriptive effusions of Gaelic bards in 
praise of their heroic chieftains, and lordly residences. The period v, Lui 
the oldest part of this fort was built is buried in remote antiquity. A 
portion of it is said to have been erected in the eighth or ninth century. 
Subsequently, a lofty tower was raised over the fort by Alasdair Crotach, 
about the middle of the thirteenth century, to correspond with an ancient 
tower built on the opposite side of the square. For hundreds of years 
these two towers were separated from each other, except by a secret pas- 
sage excavated from the solid rock ; but, eventually, they were united by 
a row of less elevated edifices erected by Euairidh Mor, who received the 
honour of knighthood from James VI. It was, no doubt, during the life- 
time of Euairidh Mor that the Gaelic song hereto attached was composed, 
as that gallant chieftain is evidently the one alluded to in it. Probably it 
is the composition of the celebrated poetess, Mairi Nighean Alasdair Euaidh, 
who lived in the days of her distinguished relative and chief, Euairidh 
Mor, and sung his praises in poems of rousing energy and beauty. The 
Macleods of Dunvegan had likewise a race of pipers, from time immemorial 
the MacCrimmons, who officiated in that capacity all along from sire to 
son. They had for centuries their training college at Boreraig, near Dun- 
vegan, where they communicated their masterly knowledge of bagpipe- 
music to numerous pupils from all quarters of the kingdom. At the date 
under review, Patric Mor MacCrimmon was piper to Euairidh Mor, for 
whom he composed a salute, as celebrated for its melting pathos, as ever 
were the poetic strains of Mairi Nigheau Alasdair Euaidh. 

] Hmvegan Castle or fort is built upon an isolated, precipitous rock of 
about two hundred feet in height. In olden times, tradition says, that 
the sea surrounded it, by dashing through a dark narrow chasm that se- 
parated the castle-rock from the land. On the opposite side, the sea was 
deep, and capable of allowing boats or galleys of any size to sail to the 
very base of the perpendicular precipice. There was no entrance of old 
into tin' fiii-t but from the sea-side, and that was by a steep narrow stair 
cut in the rock, and both difficult and dangerous to climb. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 235 

In latter times this entrance ceased to be used, as it could not easily 
be approached by sea, and a massive draw-bridge was thrown across the 
chasm already alluded to. At a still more modern date, this chasm was 
filled up with stones and rubbish, and a substantial roadway now leads to 
the castle on the north side. "Within the quadrangle of this fortalice a 
well was excavated in the solid rock to the depth of about t\vo hundred 
feet, out of which an abundance of pure water could be drawn up to sup- 
ply the fort. This well resembles that in Edinburgh Castle, and is still 
open and frequently used. As already stated, Dunvegan Castle is to this 
day inhabited by Macleod of Macleod, and a very romantic, yet comfort- 
able residence it is. The walls of the great dining-hall in the old tower 
are fourteen feet thick, and large parties may dine in the angular recesses 
of the windows. 

As the Castle is situate near the terminus of Loch Foillart, the anchor- 
age close by it for large vessels is not at all times safe ; and the conse- 
quence was, that ships of considerable size resorted to the adjacent har- 
bour of Lochbay, where they might lie in safety in all weathers, under 
the shelter of Isay Isle, and opposite to the village of Stein. 

There are several relics of considerable interest in the ancient Castle 
of Dunvegan to which a bare allusion may now be made. The principal 
ones among these are Euairidh Mor's drinking-horn, .TSTiall Glundubh's 
chalice, and the Saracen Fairy flag. Euairidh Mor's horn is immensely 
large, and will contain five English pints of Mountain dew, or any less 
powerful liquid. It is beautifully carved and chased, and mounted with 
silver. The chalice or cup of Niall Glundubh is hollowed out of a block 
of solid ebony, sits upon four pedestals of silver, and is splendidly mounted 
with silver and precious stones. It bears the date of 991, and has an in- 
scription on it in Latin. It is said to have been taken by one of the 
Macleods from an Irish Chief, named Niall Glundubh. The Bratach- 
Shith, or Fairy flag, is still carefully preserved, although much decayed 
through age, and the pilfering of shreds of it by curious visitors. Tradi- 
tion has it, that the flag was taken during the Crusades, from a Saracen 
chief, and that it is possessed of various miraculous properties. The fate 
and fortune of the Macleods depend upon this mystical flag, and it is the 
palladium of their clan. These interesting relics have been alluded to by 
Sir Walter Scott in his diary, and also in his notes to the Lord of the 
Isles, and tourists and visitors may still inspect them, and many things 
besides, if they pay a visit to the elevated hoary Castle of Dunvegau. 

Mo Euairidh Mor, Mo Euairidh Mor ! 
Bithidh ceol is dain ann talladh 'n f hir f heill, 
Deochan o chein, sitheann beinne, 
Dreosach dhe'n cheir, is pioban 'gan gleus, 
'S ann aros mo ruin cha bhi gainne ! 

Mo Ruairidh Mor, Mo Euairidh Mor ! 



236 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



THE KILT AND BONNET BLUE. 



My harp I'll strike for Scotia brave, 

Fair Freedom's loved abode ; 
Proud are her sons, the foot of slave 

Their heather never trode ; 
Staunch loyalty, whate'er betide, 

Their manly breasts imbue ! 
They love the bonnie tartan plaid, 
The kilt, and bonnet blue. 

The kilt, and bonnet blue, hurrah ! 

The kilt, and bonnet blue, 
They love the Dannie tartan plaid, 
The kilt, and bonuet blue. 

There are across the stormy sea 

More genial climes what then ? 
Their inuids are not so fair and free, 

Nor jet as bold their men ; 
For Scotia's sons, both far and wide, 

High honour's path pursue, 
Robed in the bonnie tartan plaid, 
The kilt, and bonnet blue. 

The kilt, and bonnet blue, hurrah ! 

The kilt, and bonnet blue, 
Robed in the bonnie tartan plaid, 
The kilt, and bonnet blue. 

Our liberty was dearly bought 

Enthralling chains we spurn ! 

Remember how our fathers fought 

And bled on Bannockburn ! 
A fame-wreath, ever to abide, 

They bound the gallant few ! 

Round Freedom's brow, twined with the plaid, 
The kilt, and bonnet blue. 

The kilt, and bonnet blue, hurrah ! 

The kilt, and bonnet blue, 
Round Freedom's brow, twined with the plaid, 
The kilt, and bonnet blue. 

If foemen, then, cross o'er the main, 

And land upon our shore, 
They'll come to be forced back again, 

Or fall in battle's roar ; 
"We'll belt the claymores to our sides, 

That won famed Waterloo, 
And conquer in our tartan plaids, 
Oar kilts, and bonnets blue. 

Our kilts, and bonnets blue, hurrah ! 

Our kilts, and bonnets blue, 

And conquer in our tartan plaids, 

Our kilts, and bonnets blue. 

EDINBURGH. ALEXANDER LOGAN. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZIKE. 237 



literature. 






THE ROSE AND THISTLE. Poems and Songs by WILLIAM ALLAN. London : 
Siinpkin, Marshall, & Co. 

THIS is a handsomely got-up, illustrated volume of four hundred pages, by 
our friend and valued contributor, Mr William Allan, of Sunderland. It 
is as unnecessary, as it would be out of place, to discuss Mr Allan's merits 
as a poet in the Celtic Magazine. He has long ago established himself 
as a great favourite with those of our readers who care for poetry that has 
a sterling ring in it ; and a good many of his contributions to our pages 
are included in the beautiful and attractive volume before us "The Doom 
of Dunolly," and "The Death of Ossian," forming the first 57 pages of 
the book. An amount of domestic felicity is presented by the author in 
the praises of his own " Jean," which is most agreeable and refreshing. 
The following is only one of many genuine tributes of the same kind : 
LIGHTSOME JEAN. 

Tichtsome, lichtsome, winsome Jeanie, 

Smilin', wilin' ever ; 
Genty, tenty, canty Jeanie, 
Frownin', gloomin' never, 
Frownin', gloomin' never. 
Life's wee burdens a' are blessin's, 
Sae I lo'e them aye to tease me ; 
A' to pree the fond caressin's, 

O' the heart that aye can please me ; 
Frowns are foes unto her nature, 
Loveless looks she canna thole, 
Happiness wi' couthie feature 
Owre the house maun hae control. 

Tichtsome, lichtsome, winsome Jeanie, 

Smilin', wilin' ever ; 
Genty, tenty, canty Jeanie, 
Frownin', gloomin' never, 
Frownin', gloomin' never. 
Ilka morn is aye affordin' 

A' the joy that brings anither ; 
Ilka day maun dee recordin', 

A' our bliss unto its brither ; 
Life wi' us has nocht o' rancour, 

Hamely peace is a' we prize, 
Trustin' to ae mutual anchor, 
Earth to us is paradise. 

The " Wee Toom Shoon," is truly touching. The sorrowing young mother 
mourns for her departed child, draws a picture of "his bonnie curly 
head," and " dark love-lowiu' e'e, his chubby cheeks of glowin' red, an' lips 
sae sweet to me." She looks into the " wee toom shoon " worn by her 
lost one, and pathetically exclaims. 

I see him aft in gowden dreams 
Sweet cuddlin' doon to rest ; 
His ae wee han' fu' aften seems 
Still lyin' on my breast. 
Ah me ! whan dawns the brichtest morn 
Dark sorrow is my only boon j 
I wake to feel he's frae me torn, 
For death keeks oot frae the wee toom Bhoon 
His wee toom shooc. 



238 THE CELTIC MAGAZIXE. 

Though the reader is already so well acquainted with Mr Allan's poems, 
as to make it superfluous to discuss his merits here, we may be permitted 
to say that the late Dr Carruthcrs expressed his opinion to us when " The 
Doom of Dunolly" was parsing through these pages, that nothing of e<[iial 
merit of the same kind appeared since Sir Walter Scott wrote on kindred 
themes. He afterwards expressed the same opinion to " Xether-Loch- 
aber," and, if we correctly remember, did so also in the Inverness Courier. 
This is a far higher tribute than any commendations of ours could be. 
The illustrations are really good. The frontispiece is an excellent repre- 
sentation of Duuolly Castle and Fingal's Stone. " Here, Hector fell." 
While we are indisposed to say so much about the merits of the book as, 
in other circumstances, we might have done, the reader may not be un- 
willing to have a short review of the author himself. He recently paid 
us a visit in Inverness, in connection with which he composed that sweet 
little piece, " lie.st in the Fight," which appeared in the February number. 
He is certainly a remarkable looking man for a poet, a powerfully 
built, herculean frame such a one as we would imagine Vulcan himself to 
be considerably over six feet in height, with a fine open countenance 
full of good-natured humour. He is a very store-house of information 
on almost every subject, and the perfect impersonation of a true actor 
and mimic relating his endless laughter-producing tales and personal 
reminiscences. 

Mr Allan has teen a good deal of the world ; was bred an engineer, 
in which capacity he was employed during the late American War, in 
one of the Southern blockade runners. He was ultimately captured, and 
for a considerable time incarcerated in the old Capitol Prison of Washington. 
After various vicissitudes, he was employed as foreman engineer in the North 
Eastern Marine Engineering Company's Works at Sunderland, of which he 
is now, and has been for several years past, the managing partner, having 
over a thousand men under his charge, among whom are to be found 
the sons of the first gentlemen in England. While engaged in this iron- 
manner all day, he, as soon as the day's work is over, leaves the cares of 
the world behind him ; goes home to enjoy the comforts of his fine 
mansion, " Scotland House," which is nearly all carved into Scotch thistles 
inside and out. He is seldom or ever found out of his literary corner of 
an evening, surrounded by all the comforts a frugal, happy, Highland 
wife, a hopeful family, and plenty of this world's goods, can procure, and 
he knocks off a lyric every night almost with the same facility as he would 
write a letter to a friend. In this manner Mr Allan has thrown oil' enough 
for four volumes, already published, and much more besides which has 
not yet seen the light. The reader will not be sorry, we feel sure, to 
get this peep into the position and habits of their favourite bard, which 
are, in every respect, as unlike those of most poets as they can well be ; 
and we know that many of his friends only want to know that he has 
published the volume before us to induce them at once to secure a work so 
highly meritorious as a literary production, and which, at the same time, 
exhibits such a delightful picture of domestic happiness and home com- 
fort, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



239 



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Gur aoidheil, gur flathail, 's gvir maiseach do ghnuis 
Do mhin-ghruaidh cho boidheach ri ros 'a e fo dhriuchd, 
Gur daite na bileaa o 'm milis 'thig ceol, 
'S do dheud mar an ibhri mo nighneag gheal og. 

Gur mor 'tha ri leughadh 's an aodann a's ailt, 

Thu tuigseach 'n ad chomhradh, gun mhor-chuis gun straichd, 

Tha buaidhean ri innseadh le firinn gu leoir 

'Hinn reul a measg mhiltean de m' nighneag gheal og. 

'S i 'n ur-shlat 's a' choill thu, mo mhaighdean deas donn 
Gun choire ri luaidh ort o d' chuailean gu d' bhonn, 
Mar ubhal tha d'anail, bias meal' air do phoig 
'S do bhriathran Ian millseachd mo nighneag gheal og. 

Mar anail nan ainglean 's na speuran a' snamh 

Bi neoil gheal an t-samhraidh mu 'n ghrein anns an aird, 

'S e sud an t aon choimeas a bheir mi le deoin 

Do d' bhraighe caoin min-sa mo nighneag gheal og. 

'S tu 'n euchdag dheas, donn, thogadh fonn air mo chridh 
Le misneach do naduir, 's do mhannranaich bhinn, 
'S 'n uuir dhisgte piano, gu h-ard le d' chaol mheoir 
Bhiodh ra' acaiu air di-chuimhn' mo nighneag ghea og. 



240 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



Gur buidhe g' ad leannan O ainnir nara buadh ! 
Gur boidheach do mhala, seimh banail gun ghruaim, 
Gur iomadh duin' uasal gu d' bhuannachd tha 'n toir, 
'S gur lion tha 'cur pris air mo nigbneag gheal og. 

Gur buidhe g' ad leannan o ainnir an nigh 
'N uair gheibh e gu deonach uait coir air do laimb, 
Gur fearr dha le cinnt na ged sgriobhte dha or 
'Bhi 'g eisdeachd do bhriodail mo nighneag gheal og. 

Gur binne na coin learn an doire nan cuach 
Fonn oran o d' bhilean mar shirisd nan bruach, 
'S do ckeum tha cho eutrom air reidhlean an fheoir 
Hi eilid na fridhe mo nighneag gheal og. 

O ciamar a chuirinn do mhaise an ceill 

No buaidhean do naduir ged 's ard duit mo speis ? 

Cha ruig air do sgiamh mi le briathran mo bheoil 

'S cha 'n urrain mi 'n sgriobhadh mo nighneag gheal og. 

Mo shoraidh 's mo bheannachd dhuit ainnir nam beus, 
Am meangan a's cubhraidh tha 'n dlu choill' nan geug 
Ge b'e co ni do bhuain gheibh e duais a bhios mor 
'S tu 'm beartas 'a an iochd-shlaint mo nighneag gheal og. 

NOTE. The above verses Mo Nighneag Gheal Og are the composition of Mrs Mary 
Mackellar. To the Gaelic reader it is needless to speak of their great beauty ; and any 
endeavour to convey an idea of that beauty to one not conversant with Gaelic would 
ail. Suffice it to say that they fully sustain Mrs Mackellar's reputation as a 
Gaelic Banabhard. The air is well known to Highlanders and Lowlanders, and needs 
no comment here. "W. M'K. 



DE SMITH'S GAELIC PROPHETS. We have much pleasure 
in calling attention to an intimation on another page, that the Ecv. Dr 
John Smith's Gaelic Prophets are about to be reprinted by, and under 
the supervision of, the Eev. Donald Masson, M.A., M.D., of the Gaelic 
Church, Edinburgh, whose interesting and valuable articles on "Our 
Gaelic Bible," and now passing through this Magazine, are giving so much 
satisfaction to our readers. Dr Masson deserves to be supported and 
relieved of any risk in his plucky and patriotic venture, by an early and 
large subscription list. It will be seen that the edition is to bo strictly 
limited. 

THE CLAN GTJNN. A series of articles on this old Highland Clan, 
by a gentleman who has devoted years of research to the subject, will be 
commenced in an early number. 

HIGHLAND AND ISLAND SCENEEY. The first article on 
this subject, by the Eev. Alexander Macgregor, M.A., Avill appear in our 
next. 



THE 



CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

No. XLIIL MAY, 1879. VOL. IV. 

HIGHLAND AND ISLAND SCENEKY. 
BY THE KEY. ALEX. MACGREGOR, M.A. 



I. 

SCOTLAND has been called the land of mountain and flood, and no 
land more richly merits the name. It is the land of wild, blooming 
heather, and of the tangled wilderness of hill and dale, formed in all the 
prodigality of natural beauty. It is the region of " mountains, and of 
glens, and of heroes," which, if taken all in all, has no parallel perhaps in 
all the regions of the globe. In no other country does nature exhibit 
herself in more various forms of sublimity and grandeur than in the 
Highlands of Scotland. 

But here it is my intention merely to make rapid allusion to some of 
the most prominent features of our dearly beloved country, and to its 
scenery in general its mountains and lakes, its glens and dales, its 
rivers and waterfalls and then J shall ask the reader to follow me, to 
the remarkable formation of nature in the scenery of Skye, and others 
of the Hebride Isles. 

The county of Ayr, with its Celtic topography, constitutes a large 
part of the "Western coast of Scotland, and may appropriately be noticed 
in a paper like this. Forming one large inclined plain towards the sea, 
it is intersected in its breadth by several rivers, such as the Irvine, the 
Ayr, and the Boon, all of which are rich in poetical association. This 
county is rendered memorable by the defeat of the Norwegians at Largs 
in their last invasion of this country, made in the year 1263, with a fleet 
of 160 sail, and an army of 20,000 men, commanded by Haco, King of 
Norway. His ravages on the coasts of Ayr, Bute, and Arran, arrested 
the attention of the Scottish Court, when an army was immediately as- 
sembled by Alexander III., and a bloody engagement took place at the 
village of Largs, where 16,000 of the invaders were slain in battle. Haco 
escaped to the Orkneys, where ho soon after died of grief. The entrench- 
ments of the Norwegian camp may still be traced along the shore of this 
place, and the burial-place of the Scottish commanders who fell in battle 
is on a rising field near the village, still marked out by a few large stones. 
But this county is rendered nothing less memorable, as the birth-place of 
the immortal Burns. The poet was born in a clay-built, thatched cottage 

U 



242 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

on the high-way which leads from Ayr to tin; south, and about two miles 
and a-halt' from that town. There may still bo seen the small farm occu- 
pied by the pott's father, and near it are the ruins ot Alloway Kirk, 
formerly a parochial place of worship. The road, immediately after 
pas.-ing the cottage and the mined church, crosses the Doon by a modern 
bridge of one arch, and at the distance of a hundred yards further up the 
river, is the " Auld Brig," so noted in the tale of "Tarn O'Shanti-r." 
Alloway Kirk, with its little inclosed burial-ground, well merits the 
traveller's attention. It has long been roofless, but the walls are well 
preserved, and it still retains its bell at the east end. But, upon the 
whole, the spectator is struck with the idea, that the witches must have 
had a rather narrow stage for the performance of their revels, as described 
in the poem ! The " winnock bunker in the east," where sat the awful 
musician, is still a conspicuous feature, being a small window divided by 
a thick mullion. Upon a field about a quarter of a mile to the north- 
west of the kirk, is a single tree inclosed with a paling, the last remnant 
of a group which covered- 

The cairn, 
Whar hunters fand the murder'd bairn 

And immediately beyond that is 

The ford, 
Whar in the snaw the chapman smoored. 

These are two spots which Tarn O'Shanter is said to have passed on his 
solitary way. Close to this is the thorn on the wayside, at the place 
where " Mungo's mother " committed suicide. It is surprising with what 
interest these localities are visited by the admirers of Burns and of the 
poem of Tam O'Shanter. The Auld Brig o' Doon, which is approached 
by a steep way, forming Tarn's line of inarch when pursued by the 
witches, is a fine old arch, which is still kept in excellent order. About 
forty years ago the parapets had suffered considerable injury, when the 
Eev. Mr Paul of Broughton, author of a Life of Burns, wrote a poetical 
petition for the " Auld Brig " to the Eoad Trustees, to obtain means for 
repairing it. The petition ran as follows : 

Unto the Honourable the Trustees of the Koads, in the County of Ayr, the petition 
and complaint of the Auld Brig o' Doon. 

Must I, like modern fabrics of a day, 

Decline, unwept, the victim of decay ? 

Shall my bold arch, that proudly stretches o'er 

Doon's classic stream, from Kyles to Carrick's shore, 

Be suffer'd in oblivion's gulph to fall, 

And hurl to wreck my venerable wall ? 

Forbid it ! every tutelary power ! 

That guards my Keystane at the midnight hour. 

Forbid it ! ye who charna'd by Burns's lay, 

Amid these scenes can linger out the day ! 

Let Nannie's sark, and Maggie's mangled tail, 

Plead iu my cause, and in that cause prevail. 

The man of taste, who comes my form to see, 

And curious asks, but asks in vain, for me, 

With tears of sorrow will my fate deplore, 

When he is told" The Auld Brig is no more." 

Stop then, O stop the more than vandal rage, 

That marks this revolutionary age ; 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



And bid the structure of your father's last, 
The pride of this, the boast of ages past ; 
Nor ever let your children's children tell 
By your decree the ancient fabric fell. 

May it therefore please your honours to consider this petition, and grant such, sum 
as you may think proper for repairing, and keeping up the Auld Brig o' DOOD. 

But we must take leave of the pretty classic scenes of Ayr, and take 
a cursory glance at other parts of the country, We will make brief men- 
tion of a few of the most prominent objects that meet us on the way, such 
as the highest hills, the most beautiful lakes, the principal Avaterfalls, and 
such other localities as are worthy of the tourist's admiration. The Isles 
of Bute and Arran, Ailsa Craig, and the romantic Kyles of Bute, have 
all of them their features of beauty and interest. The ancient Castle of 
Dumbarton, a strong fortress, crowns a lofty and precipitous rock which 
rises from a plain at the conflux of the Clyde and Leven. On the top 
of this remarkable rock are several batteries, the Governor's residence, the 
barracks, and, store houses. In the days of the venerable Bede, it was 
considered impregnable, but was reduced by famine in 756. This 
fortress was long looked upon as the key to the West Highlands, It 
stood many sieges, but during a thick fog in April 1571, it was surprised 
and taken by escalade, when held by the adherents of Queen Mary. 

The Scottish lakes, of which many are very picturesque, are nearly one 
hundred in number. Of these, until of late, not a few were seldom or 
ever visited and little heard of, while others were quite a " terra incognita" 
to tourists. By the extension of railways, particularly our Highland system, 
as well as by D. Hutcheson's magnificent fleet of steamers, thousands have 
an opportunity of becoming better acquainted with a country posessing an 
inexhaustible variety of lake scenery, as well as hundreds of other objects 
of the most attractive and romantic interest. " A country thus consti- 
tuted," says an eminent writer (Wilson), " and with such an aspect, even 
if we could suppose it without lochs, would still be a glorious region ; 
but its lochs are indeed its greatest glory. By them its glens, its moun- 
tains, and its woods, are all illuminated, and its rivers made to sing aloud 
for joy. In the pure element, overflowing so many spacious vales, and 
glens profound, the great and stern objects of nature look even more sub- 
lime, or more beautiful in their reflected shadows, which appear in that 
stillness to belong rather to heaven than earth ! Such visions, when 
gazed on, in that wonderous depth and purity which they are sometimes 
seen to assume on a still summer day, always inspire some such faint feel- 
ing as this; and we sigh to think how transitory must be all things, 
when the setting sun is seen to sink beneath the mountains, and all its 
golden splendour at the same instant to vanish from the lake." 

The first that takes possession of the imagination, speaking of the 
Highlands as the region of lochs, is the Queen of them all, Loch Lomond. 
Among the many points from which a general view of the lake can 
be obtained, the best perhaps is from the top of " Mount Misery," 
a little hill near its southern extremity, and about three miles above 
Balloch, Here, lopking northward, towards the head of the lake, 
it is beheld in its greatest breadth, stretched out like a scroll beneath the 
feet. A variety of beautiful islands are interspersed over its surface, and 



244 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

on its eastern and western banks are seen different ranges of hills, which, 
seeming to meet towards the north, shut up the prospect, and mingle 
their hold and broken outlines with the sky. Nor can it be forgotten, 
that within a few miles of this locality, Smollet, the novelist, Buchanan, 
the historian, and Napier, the inventor of logarithms, first saw the light 
of day, each of whom has, in his own way, added a lustre to the litera- 
tuie and science of Scotland. Smollet was born on the banks of the 
Leven, Buchanan on the banks of the Blane, and Napier was born at 
Garlics, near the river Endrick. The lake is guarded by mountains 
around, and as they recede, they become more and more majestic, yet 
their beauty never deserts them, and her spirit continues to tame the 
wildness of the growing cliffs. Far off as they are, Ben-Lomond and 
Benvoirlich are seen to be giants, each magnificent in his own dominion, 
and clear as the day may be, both are diademed with clouds. 

The next, perhaps, in point of magnificence is Loch-Katrine. It is 
impossible for the imagination to conceive a succession of scenery more 
sublime and imposing than is displayed around this splendid lake. 
Nature seems to have assumed her wildest and most romantic aspect. 
Mountains, precipices, and lofty rocks appear as if thrown around in the 
rudest form, while trees and shrubs give variety and grace to the land- 
scape. It forms the receptacle for hundreds of rivulets and streams, that 
tumble down into it, " white as the snowy charger's tail." 

The scenery of Loch-Katrine was but comparatively little known 
until the publication of the "Lady of the Lake," by the great " Unknown," 
but the splendid descriptions of that exquisite poem soon spread its fame 
wherever the English language is understood. The Trossachs form the 
chief point of attraction Avith strangers visiting Loch-Katrine. " This 
portion of the scenery," says the Minister of Callander, " beggars all des- 
cription." Such an assemblage is there, of wildness, and of rude grandeur, 
as fills the mind with the most sublime conceptions. It seems as if a 
whole mountain had been torn in pieces, and frittered down by a convulsion 
of the earth ; and the huge fragments of rocks, and woods, and hills, lie 
scattered in confusion at the east end of the loch. Ben-Venue rises ma- 
jestically from the side of the lake to the height of 3000 feet, and is con- 
sidered to be one of the most picturesque mountains in the Kingdom. 
The celebrated and well-known "Cor-nan-Uriskin," or Cave of the Goblins, 
rendered venerable from Highland tradition and superstition, is situated 
at the base of Ben- Venue, where it overhangs the lake in solemn grandeur. 
It is a deep circular hollow in the mountain, about GOO yards in diameter 
at the top, but narrowing towards the bottom, surrounded on all sides by 
stupendous rocks, and overshadowed with birch trees, which render it 
impenetrable to the rays of the sun. It is a horrible spot, which affords 
ample shelter if not to fairies and hobgoblins assuredly so to foxes, 
wild cats, and badgers ! 

The " Urisks," from whom this cave derives its name, were supposed 
to be dispersed over the Highlands, each in his own wild recess, but the 
solemn stated meetings, or general assemblies of the order, were regularly 
held in this fearful den. These beings were, according to Dr Graham, a 
sort of Inbberly supernatural, who, like the Brownies, might be gained over 
by kind attention, to perform the drudgery of the farm. Sir Walter Scott 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 245 

says that " tradition has ascribed to the ' Urisks ' a figure between a goat 
and a man, in short, however much the classical reader may be startled, 
precisely that of the Grecian Satyr." Further up the mountain than 
Cor-nan-Uriskin is " Beallach nain b6," a magnificent pass across the 
northern shoulder of the mountain. The imagination, lost in astonish- 
ment, is apt to conceive it as an avenue leading from our lower world to 
another and a higher sphere ! 

When passing through the narrow defile of the Trossachs, the spot is 
seen where Fitz- James's horse exhausted fell, as also " the narrow and 
broken plain," at the eastern opening, where Sir Walter supposes the 
Scottish troops, under the Earls of Mar and Moray, to have paused ere 
they entered that dark and dangerous glen, nor will the vivid description 
of the scene which took place, when the archers entered the defile, be 
ever forgotten. JS~o trace of a foe could at first be seen, but all at once, 

There rose so wild a yell, 
Within that dark and narrow dell ; 
As all the fiends from heaven that fell, 
Had peal'd the banner-cry of h 11. 
Forth from the pass in tumult driven, 
Like chaff before the wind of heaven 

The archery appear ; 
For life ! for life ! their flight they ply, 
And shriek, and shout, and battle-cry, 
And plaids, and bonnets waving high, 
And broadswords flashing in the sky, 

Are maddening in the rear. 
Onward they drive in dreadful race, 

Pursuers and pursued. 

Although this is merely a description of an imaginary fight between the 
Scottish troops and the men of Clan Alpine, yet, by the Wizard's wand, 
it has become so familiar to every reading mind as almost to be considered 
the account of a real transaction. And we believe that few pass now 
through the Trossachs without thinking of Eoderick Dubh and his Mac- 
gregors. But there is little reason to doubt that many such encounters 
have in reality taken place. This formed one of the passes from the 
Lowlands to the Highlands, and it was in such places that the indomitable 
Highlanders usually made their stand against what they of all things 
abhorred, Saxon men, their laws, and their government. 

There are several other lakes and localities of interest in this quarter, 
upon which we cannot at present enlarge. On our way JS"orth we shall 
accompany the reader through the celebrated Pass of Killiecrankie, in 
Athole, near the junction of the Tumrnel with the Garry. It is formed 
by the lofty mountains overhanging the Garry, which rushes below in a 
dark, deep, rocky channel, forming a scene of exquisite grandeur. This 
was formerly a pass of great difficulty and danger, a path hanging over a 
tremendous precipice that threatened instant destruction to the least false 
step of the traveller. Eventually a good road was formed to give access 
to the Highlands, and the two sides of the defile wc.re joined !>v -\ s ib- 
stantial bridge. More recently the Highland K,iil\va\ Uomp n 
constructed a substantial railway through the pass. On a held ovo the 
pass, called " Raon-Kuairidh," was fought the celebrated battle of Killie- 
crankie in 1689, between the adherents of James II., under Viscount 
Dundee, and those of William III., under General Mack ay, wherein the 



246 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Viscount fell, and with him the hopes of the House of Stewart. It was 
a dreadful place for a battle. The slain on both sides lay in heaps in the 
swollen pools and eddies of the Garry. It is said that in the morning 
after the battle, a number of the native Highlanders went with pok-.s to 
push the dead bodies of the Southerns down the stream, and were en- 
couraged in their ghastly work by an aged female standing on the pinna- 
cle of a rock, and crying out with, all her might " Sios leis na coin, sios 
iad, sios iad, dh' ionnsuidh an cuideachd fein " " Down with the dogs, 
down with them, down with them, to their own people." 

As we pass along, the mountain of Lochnagar, which towers proudly 
pre-eminent over Her Majesty's Castle at Balmoral, may be noticed. It 
is certainly one of the most sublime and picturesque amongst our " Cale- 
donian Alps." Its appearance is of a dusky hue, and it overhangs a deep, 
dark lake, called " Loch Muick," at the east end of which Her Majesty 
has built a large, comfortable shiel, or summer-house, which she often 
frequents. Lord Byron spent some of the early part of his life near this 
romantic mountain, the recollection of which caused him to commemorate 
his visit by a beautiful song, in the following strains : 

Away, ye gay landscapes, ye gardens of roses ! 

In you let the mirions of luxury rove ; 
Restore me the rocks, where the snow-flake reposes, 

Though still they are sacred to freedom and love ; 
Yet, Caledonia, beloved are thy mountains, 

Bound their white summits tbough elements war ; 
Though cataracts foam 'stead of smooth-flowing fountains, 

I sigh for the valley of dark Lochnagar. 

Ah ! there my young footsteps in infancy wander'd ; 

My cap was the bonnet, my cloak was the plaid ; 
On chieftains long perish'd my memory ponder'd, 

As daily I strode through the pine-cover'd glade. 
I sought not my home till the day's dying glory 

Gave place to the rays of the bright polar star ; 
For fancy was cheer'd by traditional story, 

Disclosed by the natives of dark Lochnagar. 

Shades of the dead ! have I not heard your voices 

Rise on the night-rolling breath of the gale? 
Surely the soul of the hero rejoices, 

And rides on the wind o'er his own Highland vale. 
Round Lochnagar while the stormy mist gathers, 

Winter presides in his cold icy car ; 
Clouds there encircle the forms of my fathers ; 

They dwell in the tempests of dark Lochnagar. 

Ill-starr'd, though brave, did no visions forboding 

Tell you that fate had forsaken your cause ? 
Ah ! were you destined to die at Culloden, 

Victory crown'd not your fall with applause ; 
Still were you happy in death's earthly slumber. 

You rest with your clan in the caves of Braemar ; 
The pibroch resounds, to the piper's loud number, 

Your deeds on the echoes of dark Lochnagar. 

Years have roll'd on, Lochnagar, since I left you, 

Years must elapse ere I tread you again ; 
Nature of verdure and flowers has bereft you 

Yet still are you dearer than Albion's plain. 
England ! thy beauties are tame and domestic 

To one who has roved o'er the mountains afar ; 
Oh ! for the crags that are wild and majstic ! 

The steep frowning glories of dark Lochnagar. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



Of waterfalls there are hundreds of a larger and lesser degree over the 
length and breadth of our land, but it has been said that the Fall of 
Foyers, near Inverness, is the most magnificent cataract, out of sight in. 
Britain. The din of it is quite loud enough in ordinary weather to be 
heard for miles distant, and it is only in ordinary weather that any one 
can safely approach the place, from which a full view of its grandeur is 
obtained. When the fall is in flood, to say nothing of being drenched to 
the skin, you are so blinded by the sharp spray-smoke, and so deafened 
by the dashing and clashing, and tumbling and rumbling thunder, that 
your condition is far from enviable, as you cling, " lonely lover of nature," 
to a shelf by no means eminent for safety, above the horrid gulf. In 
short, it is worth walking 100 miles to behold the Fall of Foyers. 

But of all the places in Scotland, there is none perhaps, where the 
mind can be more impressed with a variety of feelings, than when visiting 
that dreadful glen " Glencoe ! " The memory reflects at once on the 
desperately bloody and diabolical plot that was transacted there, the 
greatest, the cruelest, and the most inhuman that ever stained the page of 
history. At five o'clock in the morning of 13th February 1692, the 
storm howled from cliff to cliff, the snow drifted furiously over the 
shelving slopes of these barren hills, and the wreaths settled deeply in 
the tractless valley below. The Cona flowed sluggishly on, impeded 
in its rugged course by the accumulating snow. The soldiers, like as 
many fiends of darkness, lay concealed, and under such shelter as they 
could procure. They were under the command of the perfidious Captain 
Robert Campbell of Glenlyon and others, and at the instigation of Dal- 
rymple of Stair, Breadalbane, King William, and their confederates, went 
unto the Glen some days before, and, with murderous intent, concealed 
and sheltered themselves that night in caves and crevices of the rocks, 
until the appointed hour. M'lan, the aged chief, was fast in his slumbers, 
after having treated the officers with Highland hospitality the evening 
before. At length the stipulated moment for destruction and murder had 
arrived, the command was given, and the deadly onset was made simul- 
taneously in the different hamlets of the glen. Captain Campbell, with 
a heart full of Satanic treachery, and with a barbarity which has few 
parallels in the annals of cruelty, undertook to murder his own hospitable 
landlord, the aged M'lan. Having obtained admission into the house, 
the venerable chieftain was, of course, still in bed at that dark and dismal 
hour, and while in the act of rising, to entertain, as he intended, his 
bloody visitors, he was basely fired at by two of the soldiers, and he fell 
lifeless into the arms of his wife. We cannot dwell on this scene. 
There was no house in the glen in which there were less than one or two 
murdered, and in some all. Women and children who had escaped the 
bayonets and lead of these inhuman monsters, fled to the rugged hills, 
where many of them died in the storm. It was a dreadful morning. 
Imagination still fancies that the gloomy atmosphere of that wild region is 
tainted with gunpowder smell, and that the moans of the innocent dying 
victims are still wafted upon the cold breezes of that dismal glen. 

General Stewart, in his sketches, states in regard to the late Colonel 
Campbell of Glenlyon, that he was an officer of the 42d Regiment, and 
grandson of the Captain Campbell who commanded the military at 



248 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Glencoe. In 1771 Colonel Campbell was ordered to execute the sentence 
of a court martial on a soldier condemned to he shot. A reprieve was 
procured, but the whole ceremony of the execution was to proceed until 
the criminal was upon his knees, with a cap over his eyes, prepared to 
receive the volley. It was then that he was to be informed of his pardon, 
and no one was to be told of it previously, not even the firing party, 
whose signal to fire was the waving of a white handkerchief by the com- 
manding officer. When all was ready, and the firing party were looking 
with eager eyes for the signal, Colonel Campbell put his hand into his 
pocket for the reprieve, and on pulling it out, the white handkerchief 
accompanied it, and catching the eyes of the party, they fired, when alas ! 
the unfortunate prisoner was shot dead. Colonel Campbell, in deep 
agony, clapped his hand on his forehead, and exclaimed, " The curse of 
God and of Glencoe is here, I am an unfortunate, ruined man !" He 
instantly quitted the parade, and in a few days retired from the service. 

"We will not enlarge upon the beautiful Loch-Ness, guarded as it is by 
its mountains on either side, forming the Great Glen, of which the rotund 
" Meall-fuar-mhonaidh " is not the least conspicuous. The hills of Mona- 
liath, Strathnairn, Stratherrick, Glen-Uiquhart, LTrquhart Castle, Duncan, 
and the vitrified Craig-Phadrig, are all objects of much interest and. 
historic research. And where can be found more picturesque scenery 
than in Strathglass, Glenaffric, Strathfarrar, Falls of Kilmorack, and all 
along to the mountains and lochs of Morar, Glennevis, Glenelg, Kintail, 
and Lochalsh ? The Skye railway has opened up landscapes in its course, 
that are a marvel to the tourist as ho speeds along from Dingwall to 
Strome. 

The most celebrated of all our Northern lakes is Loch-Maree, a noble 
sheet of water, about twenty miles long, and from three to four in breadth. 
The mountains around it are of great height, and of a beautifully charac- 
terised and irregular outline. It is ornamented by twenty-seven islands 
of varied size and appearance. In a calm summer evening at sunset the 
lake has an enchanting appearance. The lofty mountains, at their summit, 
are tinged with golden rays, while in the hollows, nearer their base, they 
are wreathed in mist, and light-floating clouds. It is a scene of enchant- 
ment never to be forgotten. The white piqued summits of the File 
mountain sparkle like the spires and turrets of an emerald palace, the 
work of an Eastern magician, or of the Genii of Arabian romance, all 
forming a splendid contrast to the dark and rugged " Sle"ugach,"* which 
towers aloft from the opposite side of the lake. 

Having thus taken a rapid glance at some of the most prominent 
sights and scenes in Scotland, from south to north, we now proceed to 
change the arena of our sketch. We bid farewell to the romantic land 
of heroes that land of mountain and of flood, of tradition and of song, 
of daring deeds and of warm-hearted hospitality, and ask the reader in our 
next to accompany us to the Isles, where we shall see before us many 
specimens of natural scenery in its wildest and most fantastic forms. In 
the far-famed Isle of Skye we shall find all but inexhaustible examples 
of all that is great and grand in the workmanship of nature. 
(To be Continued.) 

*Sliabhach=Slioch. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 249 

HISTORY OF THE CLAN MACKENZIE. 

BY THE EDITOR. 

[CONTINUED. | 



-o- 



THE MACKENZIES OF HILTON. 

I. DUNCAN MACKENZIE, first of Hilton, and second son of Alexander 
" lonraic," sixth Baron of Kin tail, by his first marriage with Anna Macdougal 
of Dunolly, was designated by the title of the barony of Hilton, in 
Strathbran, bounded on the north by Loch Fannich, on the south by 
the ridge of the northern hills of Strathconan, on the east by Ach-nan- 
Allt, and on the west by Ledgowan. A part of this barony lay in 
Redcastle. He married a daughter of Ewen Cameron, XII. Baron of 
Lochiel, and by her had one son, Allan, from whom the lineal suc- 
cession of the family of Hilton runs as follows : 

II. ALLAN MACKENZIE (after whom this branch of the Mackenzies was 
called the " Clann Allan ") married a daughter of Alexander Dunbar of 
Conzie and Kilbuiack, third son of the Sheriff of Moray. She afterwards, 
on his death, married Kenneth, first of the barony of Allan, second law- 
ful son of Hector Eoy, first Baron of Gairloch. By her Allan of Hilton 
had two sons 

1. Murdo, his heir. 

2. John, ancestor of the Mackenzies of Loggie. [See genealogy of 
this family.] 

He was succeeded by his eldest son, 

III. MURDOCH MACKENZIE, who married a daughter of Innes of Inver- 
breakie, and by her had one son, 

IV. JOHN MACKENZIE, who married Margaret, daughter of Dunbar of 
Inchbrock, and by her had two sons and two daughters 

1. Murdoch, his heir. 

2. Colin, who, being educated at the University of Aberdeen, where 
he received his degree of Master of Arts, applied himself to theology, and 
became minister of Killearnan, in which station he died. He married a 
lady of the name of Dundas, by whom he had several children, and of 
whom was descended Kenneth Mackenzie, well known as deacon of the 
goldsmiths in Edinburgh. 

3. His eldest daughter married John Sinclair, a Caithness gentleman. 

4. His second daughter married John Matheson, Lochalsh, father to 
Farquhar Matheson, Fernaig, whose son John Matheson, first of Attadale, 
was the progenitor of Alexander Matheson, now of Ardross and Lochalsh. 

John was succeeded by his eldest son, 

V. MURDOCH MACKENZIE, who married Mary, eldest daughter of 
Murdoch Murchison of Auchtertyre, minister of Kintail, and by her had 
five children 

1. Alexander, his heir. 

2. Roderick, married the eldest daughter of Alexander, thud son of 



250 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Mimlo Mackenzie, second of Redcastle, by whom lie had a son, Colin, 
who died unmarried in 1682. 

3. Colin, married Isobel, daughter of Donald Simson, Chamberlain of 
Ferintosh, and by her had two sons, Alexander and Roderick, whose 
lineal succession will be particularly detailed hereafter, when it has to be 
shown how the grandson of Roderick came to carry on the main line as 
XI. of Hilton. He also, had one natural son. 

4. Murdoch, married Agnes Helen, daughter of Donald Taylor, one of 
the Bailies of Inverness (1665), and by her had a son and daughter. 
His son Alexander entered young into the service of Kenneth, Earl of 
Seaforth, and in the year 1709 was made one of the chamberlains to 
AVilliam, Earl of Seaforth. He married, in 1709, Katherine, daughter of 
the Viscount of Stormont, by whom he had several children, whose 
succession is unknown. The daughter, Jean, married Hector Mackenzie, 
and by him had a son, Kenneth (a Jesuit in Spain, who died without 
issue), and several daughters. 

5. Isobel, married Donald Macrae, minister of Kintail. 
Murdoch was succeeded by his eldest son, 

VI. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, who was twice married : first, to 
Aunabella, second daughter of John Mackenzie, I. of Ord, without issue ; 
secondly, to Sibella, eldest daughter of Roderick Mackenzie, I. of Apple- 
cross. She was previously married to Alexander Macleod of Raasay, 
and also to Thomas Graham of Drynie. By her he had one son and 
successor, 

VII. EVAN MACKENZIE, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Colin 
Mackenzie, IV. of Redcastle, and by her had two sons and one daughter 

1. John, his heir. 

2. Colin, who after John carried on the line as IX. of Hilton. 

3. Florence, who married Alexander Macrae, son of Donald Macrae, 
minister of Kintail. 

He was succeeded by his eldest son, 

VIII. JOHN MACKENZIE, who married a daughter of Thomas Mackenzie, 
IV. of Ore], by Mary, fourth daughter of John Mackenzie, III. of Apple- 
cross. He joined the Earl of Mar in 1715, and was killed in the 
Chevalier's service at Sheritfmuir, where he commanded a company of the 
Mackenzies. Having no issue, he was succeeded by his next brother, 

IX. COLIN MACKENZIE, who married Catherine, daughter of Christo- 
pher Macrae of Arrinhugair. He matriculated himself in the Lyon 
Herald's office, and received for his armorial bearing, AZURE, a hart's head 
caboss'd, and attired OR, a Highland dirk, shafted gules between the atter- 
ings for difference. Above the shield a helmet befitting his degree, with 
a mantle gules doubling argent and a wreath of his colours is set. For 
his crest, two hands holding a two-handed sword in bend proper. He 
died in 1756, aged 65 years, leaving two sons and one daughter 

1. John, who married Helen, daughter of Roderick Mackenzie, VII. of 
Fairburn. He had no issue, and pre-deceased his father in 1751. 

2. Alexander, who succeeded his father. 

3. A daughter, married to John Macdonell, XIII. of Glengarry. 
He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 251 

X. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, who married Mary, daughter of George 
Mackenzie, II. of Gruinard. He died without legitimate issue, but left 
a natural sou, Alexander, well known and still kindly spoken of as 
" Alastair Mor Mac Fhir Bhaile Chnuc," or " Big Alexander, son of the 
Laird of Hilton." He was Seaforth's principal and most successful re- 
cruiting sergeant when raising the 78th Highlanders, and many curious 
stories are still related of Alastair Mor's generally successful efforts to 
procure willing, and sometimes hesitating, recruits for the regiment of his 
chief, Alexander married Annabella Mackenzie, who long outlived him, 
and was well known and highly respected for many years as " Banntrach 
an t-Shearsan," in Strath bran. Alastair was always a conspicuous figure 
at the Ross-shire markets, where his popularity and address secured many 
a recruit for the famous " Buffs." Many of his descendants, in the third 
generation, occupy responsible positions throughout the country. 

He was succeeded in the estates and barony by the heir of line (next 
of male kin), Alexander Mackenzie, great-grandson of Colin, third son of 
Murdoch Mackenzie, V. of Hilton. 

The male line of Alexander Mackenzie, the sixth baron, having be- 
come extinct, the heir and representative was sought for among the issue 
of his brothers. The next brother was Roderick, who, as already shown, 
left one son, Colin, who, in 1682, died without issue. The next was Colin, 
who, by Isobel Simson, his wife, left two sons 

1. Alexander (Sanders), who became chamberlain to Culloden. He 
married Helen, daughter of William Munro of Ardullie, and by her had 
two sons and two daughters (1) Colin, who died unmarried, but left a 
natural son, Alexander, from whom are several respectable families in 
Ferrintosh. (2) Donald, who married Jean, daughter of Thomas Forbes 
of Raddery, and of the Fortrose lands as far as Ethie, His burying- 
ground was within the Fortrose Cathedral, on the western gable of 
which is a tablet in his memory, erected by Helen Stewart his wife. By 
her he had one son, Alexander, drowned with his father in 1759 
when fording the Conon opposite Dingwall, and then the son being 
unmarried perished the legitimate male succession of his paternal 
grandfather, Alexander. Donald had also several daughters (1) Mary, 
married Colin Mackenzie, minister of Fodderty, and first of the family 
of Glack. She was with her father, but was saved Avhen he was drowned, 
proceeding to visit her mother who was at the time ill ; (2) Jean, married 
Colin Murchison ; (3) Isobel, married David Ross ; (4) another married 
Mr Mackenzie of Ussie, and had two sons, Donald and Frank ; (5) Anne, 
married Lewis Grant ; and (6) Helen, married Alexander Mackenzie of 
Ardnagrask, afterwards at Logic-side, from whose son, Bailie John. Mac- 
kenzie of Inverness, are numerous descendants. Alexander's (Sanders) 
eldest daughter, Mary, married Donald Murchison, son of John Murchison 
of Auchtertyre; the second, Elizabeth, married William Martin of Inch f lire, 
whose daughter, Annie, was celebrated for her beauty, and married Norman, 
XVIII. Baron of Macleod. 

,;.y!j 2. Roderick, who in wadset acquired Brea in Ferintosh, which remained 
in the family for two generations. By marriage he acquired the ruined 
castle of Dingwall (the ancient residence of the Earls of Ross) and its 
lands, as also the lands of Longcroft. He was called Mr Rory Mackenzie 



252 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

of Brea, and married Una (Winifred), daughter of John Cameron, town- 
clerk of Dingwall, by whom he had three sons (1) John Mackenzie of 
Brea, called, "John the Laird," who married in 1759, Beatrix, daughter 
of Alexander Mackenzie, eighth of Davochmaluak, by Magdalen, daughter 
of Hugh Rose, XIII. of Kilmvock, and by her had seven sons and four 
daughters. He resided at Tarradale. The sons were Eorie, died un- 
married ; Alexander, who succeeded as XL of Hilton, and of whom here- 
after ; Kenneth of Inverinate, who married Anne, daughter of Thomas 
Mackenzie, IV. of Highfield, and VII. of Applecross (by a daughter 
of Mackenzie, V. of Kilcoy) by whom he had two sons and six daugh- 
ters Thomas, who succeeded as X. OF APPLECROSS [see Geiicalo^y 
of that Family] ; Alexander, who married Harriet, daughter of Newton of 
Curriehill, by whom he had four children Kenneth, 'died unmarried ; 
Alexander, a lieutenant in the Eoyal Engineers, died unmarried ; Marion, 
married Charles Holmes, barrister, without issue ; Harriet, unmarried. 
Kenneth's six daughters were Jane, died unmarried ; Elizabeth, married 
her cousin, Colonel John Mackenzie, XII. of Hilton; Flora, married Rev. 
Charles Downie ; Catherine, Mary, and JoKanna, died unmarried. 

The other sons and the daughters of " John the Laird " were Colin, 
"the Baron," born at Tarradale, 3d December 1759, died unmarried; 
Peter, died unmarried ; Duncan, married Jessie Mackenzie, daughter of 
Mackenzie of Strathgarve, without issue ; Arthur died unmarried ; Mag- 
dalen, died unmarried ; Marcella (Medley), married the Rev. Dr Downie ; 
Anne, died unmarried; Mary, married, in 1790, the Rev. Donald Mac- 
kenzie, minister of Fodderty ; Elizabeth, died unmarried. 

Roderick's second son was (2) Colin Mackenzie, minister of Fodderty, 
first of the family of Glack [see Glack Genealogy] ; his third was (3) Peter 
Mackenzie, M.D., a surgeon-general of the Army, and a knight of Nova 
Scotia died unmarried. 

Alexander was succeeded by 

XL ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, second son of John Mackenzie of Brea, 
already shown to be the great-grandson of Colin, third son of the V. 
Baron of Hilton, and his heir of line, who succeeded as XL of Hilton. 
He was born at Tigh-a-Phris, Ferintosh, on the 3d July 1756 ; educated 
at the University of Aberdeen, and afterwards bred a millwright, to 
qualify him for the supervision of family estates in the West Indies. 
He became a Colonel of local militia in Jamaica. Subsequently, upon 
the death of his maternal grandfather, and of his cousin, Lieutenant 
Kenneth Mackenzie, at Saratoga, he succeeded to the estate of Davoch- 
maluag. The adjacent properties of Davochpollan and Davochcairn, hav- 
ing been already acquired by his father, were by him added to Davochmaluag, 
and to the combined properties he gave the name of Brea, after the former 
possession of his family in the Black Isle. He was a distinguished agricul- 
turist, and was, with Sir George Mackenzie of Coul, and Major Forbes Mac- 
kenzie, the first to introduce Cheviot sheep to the Highlands, for 
their waste lands. He greatly improved the estate of Brea, in Strathpeft'er, 
and laid it out in its present beautiful form. His land improvements, 
however, proved unremunerative ; and his Hilton estates were heavily en- 
cumbered in consequence of the part taken by the family in the Risings of 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 253 

1696, 1 715, and 1745, and great losses having been incurred in connection 
with the West Indian properties, this laird got into pecuniary difficulties, 
and the whole of his possessions, at home and abroad, were sold either by 
himself or by his trustees. He married Mary James in Jamaica, and by 
her had four children 

1. John, his heir. 

2. Alexander, who married his cousin Charlotte, daughter of the Rev, 
Dr Downie, and died in Australia, leaving issue eight children (1) Alex- 
ander, unmarried ; (2) Downie, died unmarried ; (3) John ; (4) Kenneth, 
who married Miss Macdonald, a grand-daughter of Macleod of Guesto ; (5) 
Charles, unmarried ; (6) William, unmarried ; (7) Mary James, married 
to her cousin, Kenneth Mackenzie, XIV. of Hilton; and (8) Jessie, 
unmarried. 

3. Kenneth, a W.S., who married Anne Urquhart, without issue. He 
married, secondly, Elizabeth Jones, with issue, and died in Canada, where 
his widow and children reside, in Toronto. 

4. Mary, unmarried, living in Australia, very aged, in 1878. 

He died at Lasswade, and was succeeded as representative of the 
family by his eldest son. 

XII. JOHN MACKENZIE, Colonel of the 7th Kegiruent of Bengal 
Cavalry, and for many years superintendent of the Government breeding 
stud at Buxar. He married, in 1813, Elizabeth, daughter of his uncle, 
Kenneth Mackenzie of Inverinate, and died at Simla in 1856, leaving two 
sons and three daughters 

1. Alexander, his successor. 

2. Kennetli, who became XIV. of Hilton. 

3. Mary, who married Dr James, late of the 30th Eegirnent of Foot. 

4. Anne, married General Arthur Hall, late 5th Bengal Cavalry, 

5. Elizabeth Jane, unmarried.' 

He was succeeded by his eldest son, 

XIII. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, who died in 1862, in New South 
Wales, unmarried. He was succeded by his brother, 

XIV. KENNETH MACKENZIE, the present representative of the ancient 
family of Hilton, residing at Tyrl-Tyrl, Taralga, near Sydney. He married 
Mary James, a daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, his uncle, and by her 
he has three sons and two daughters 

1, John; 2, Kenneth; 3, Downie; 4, Flora; and 5, Jessie. 

THE MACKENZIES OF GLACK. 

The second cadet of the House of Hilton, of whom any family of note 
is descended, was COLIN MACKENZIE, third son of Murdoch, the V. of 
Hilton. This gentleman had two sons. The eldest was Alexander, whose 
male issue as appears in the Hilton genealogy became extinct in 1759, 
when his grandson Alexander was drowned, but his succession in the 
female line was carried on by his grand-daughter, Mary, who married 
Colin Mackenzie, first of Glack. The second son was Roderick, desig- 
nated of Brea. He married Una (Winifred), daughter of John Cameron 
of Longcroft. -His grandson, Alexander, succeeded as XI. of Hilton. 
The second son of Roderick of Brea, born in 1707, became 



254 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

I. COLIN .MACKENZIE, first of Glack. Ho was educated at the University 
of Aberdeen, and afterwards, in I 734, settled as minister of Fodderty. He 
was on terms of intimacy with Duncan Forbes of Culloden, the celebrated 
Lord President, with whom he maintained a constant correspondence ; 
and this, with his clerical calling, kept him from taking any part in the 
Eising of 1745, although all his sympathies were with the Jacobites. 
He, in his district, received the earliest news of the landing of Prince 
Charles, which, reaching him at night, he at once crossed Knockfarrel 
to Brahan, where, finding Seafbrth* in bed, without awaking his lady, he 
told him what had. happened. Seaforth having only lately had his estate 
restored to him, Avas not disposed to show ingratitude to the Government, 
and was easily prevailed upon to disappear from Brahan at least for a timo. 
He therefore left for the West Coast during the night unknown to 
any one, accompanied by Colin Mackenzie, just as^the Prince's army 
was on its march eastward. Both were in retirement near Poolewe 
when two ships laden with Seaforth's retainers from the Lews sailed 
into the loch, who were at once directed to return to Stornoway, Sea- 
forth waving towards them with the jaw-bone of a sheep, which he was 
picking for his dinner. In this way, it is said, was fulfilled one of 
the predictions of the Brahan Seer " That next time the men of Lews 
should go forth to battle, they would be beaten back by a weapon 
smaller than the jaw-bone of an ass." 

Meantime, Seaforth's lady, not knowing the whereabouts or intentions 
of her husband, entertained the Prince at Brahan Castle, and urged upon the 
aged Earl of Cromarty and his son, Lord Macleod, to call out the clans- 
men. Subsequently, when the Earl of Cromarty and Lord Macleod Avere 
confined in the Tower of London, for taking part in this rebellion, and 
when the Countess with her ten children, and bearing a twelfth, Avere suffer- 
ing the severest hardships and penury, it Avas this Colin Mackenzie who, 
at great risk to himself, voluntarily collected the rents from the tenants 
(giving them his own receipt, in security against their being required to make 
second payment to the Government commissioners), and carried the 
money to her ladyship in London. In recognition of this, he Avas after- 
wards appointed, by Lord Macleod, chaplain to Macleod's Highlanders, 
raised by his lordship now the 71st Highland Light Infantry. This 
appointment proved more honorary than lucrative, as he had to furnish a 
substitute, at his own expense, to perform the duties pertaining to the 
office. It was also he who first recognised the health-giving properties of 
the Strathpeffer mineral spring, and Avho, by erecting a covered shed 
over it, placed it in a condition from that day to benefit the suffering. He 
inherited a. considerable fortune in gold from his father, and from his mother 
the ruined castle of Diugwall (the old seat of the Earls of Ross) and its 
lands, as also the lands of Longcroft. He gave the site of the castle of 
Dingwall, then valued at 300, to Henry Davidson of Tulloch, as a con- 
tribution towards the erection of a manufactory Avhich he proposed to 
establish for the employment of the surplus male and female labour in 
Dingwall and its neighbourhood, but Avhich Avas never commenced. He 
sold its other lands, and those of Longcroft, to his nepheAv, Alexander 

* We shall continue, as the must couveuitnt course, to call him Seafortb, though at 
this period the title bad been forfeited, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



Mackenzie, XI. of Hilton. Subsequently, he purchased the estate of 
Glack, in Aberdeenshire, by the name of which he was afterwards des- 
ignated. Shortly before his death in 1801, in his ninety-fifth year, 
he conducted the opening services of the Parish Church of Ferintosh 
(Urqubart), towards the erection of which he largely contributed, to 
commemorate the saving and washing ashore of his wife upon her horse 
near its site, when her father and only brother were drowned. He was 
twice married. First to Margaret (not Jean, as stated in the Spalding 
Club volume of the Kilravock papers), daughter of Hugh, IV. of Clava, 
by whom he had issue an only daughter, Margaret, who, on 22d Septem- 
ber 1746, died young. He married, secondly, his second cousin, Mary, 
eldest daughter of Donald Mackenzie, at Balnabeen, by his wife Jean, 
daughter of Thomas Forbes of Raddery, a Bailie of Fortrose, in whose 
memory a tablet is erected on the Cathedral there, bearing the following 
inscription : " Sub spe beatae resurectionis in Domino, hie conduntur 
ceneres Thomae Forbesii quondam ballivi Fortrossensis, mortui 21, 
Sepulti 25 Maii J699, qui in indicium grati erga Deum animi et 
charitates erga homines 1200 lib. Scot, ad sustentandam evangelii prsedica- 
tionem hac in urbe dicavit. Monumentum mariti unpeusis extmendum 
curavit Helena Stuart relicta conjux hie etiarn sexpeleindiam sperans." 
By her who, as already shown, carried on, in the female line, the suc- 
cession of Alexander (Sanders), eldest son of "Colin, third son of Murdo, 
fifth of Hilton he had three sons and eight daughters 

1. Roderick, his heir. 

2. Donald, educated in theology at the University of Edinburgh, 
appointed minister of Fodderty and chaplain to the 71st Regiment of 
Highlanders his father having resigned these offices in his favour. He was 
noted as a humourist, and said to be at heart more imbued with the spirit 
of a soldier than with that of a minister. He was twice married ; first, 
to Mary, daughter to his uncle, John Mackenzie of Brea (" The Laird "), 
and by her had two sons and two daughters Colin, a Colonel of Royal 
Engineers, married Anne Petgrave, daughter of John Pendril of Bath, 
without issue ; John, of whom afterwards as IV. of Glack ; Elizabeth, 
who married Lieutenant Stewart, R.N., with issue ; and Mary, died un- 
married. 

3. Forbes, a Captain in the North British (Ross-shire) Militia, after- 
wards Major in the East of Ross Militia, and for thirty-seven years a 
Deputy-Lieutenant of the county. He was a noted agriculturist. It 
was he who, at Muirton of Barra, in Aberdeenshire, first cleared land 
of large boulders, by blasting with powder, then building them 
into fences. He reclaimed and laid out the greater part of StrathpefTer, 
where, on Fodderty, he was the first to apply lime to land, and to grow 
wheat north of the Forth. He was the first to import Clydesdale horses 
and shorthorn cattle into the Northern Counties ; and was, as mentioned 
elsewhere with Sir George Mackenzie of Coul and his cousin Hilton 
the first to introduce Cheviot sheep into the Highlands. He married 
Catherine, daughter of Angus Nicolson, Stornoway, and grand-daughter 
of the gentleman who commanded and brought to Poolewe, for Prince 
Charles's standard, the 300 men sent back by Seaforth to the LBAVS, already 
mentioned. By her he had three sons and three daughters (1) Nicolson, 



256 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

a surgeon in the Army, unmarried, wrecked near Pictou, in 1853, 
and there drowned attempting to save the lives of others ; ('2) 
Roderick, heir of entail to Foveran, a Colonel in the Royal Artillery, 
married, in 1878, to Caroline Sophia, daughter of J. A. Beaumont of 
Wimbledon Park ; (3) Thomas, a Major in the 78th Highlanders ; (4) 
Mary, married the Rev. John Kennedy, D.D., Dingwall, by whom 
she has two daughters Jessie, unmarried ; and Mary, married John 
Matheson, Madras, son of the late Rev. Duncan Matheson, Gairloch ; 
Dorothy Blair, died unmarried. (5) Catherine Eunice, married to the 
late Adam Alexander Duncan of ^aughton, Fife, by whom she has one 
daughter ; and (6) Catherine Henrietta Adamina. 

4. Anne, married Hector Mackenzie, a Bailie of Dingwall, and son of 
Alexander Mackenzie of Tollie, by his second wife, Catherine, daughter 
of Bayne of Delny, and younger half-brother of Alexander Mackenzie, 
first of Portinore. 

5. Mary, married John Mackenzie of Kincraig, and IX. of Redcastle. 

6. Joanna, married Dr Millar, in the Lews. 

7. Una, died unmarried. 

8. Beatrix, married Peter Hay, a Bailie of Dingwall. 

9. Isabella, died unmarried. 

10, Jean, married the Rev. Colin Mackenzie, minister of Stornoway. 
He was succeeded by his eldest son, 

II. RODERICK MACKENZIE, who was twice married ; first to Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Bart., IX. of Gairloch, without 
issue ; and secondly, to Christina, daughter of John Niven, brother to 
Clava, by whom he had four sons and four daughters 

1. Harry, died unmarried, in 1828. 

2. John, of whom afterwards as III. of Glack. 

3. Roderick, of Thornton, died unmarried, in 1858. 

4. James, a Major in 72d Highlanders, died unmarried, in India, in 1 857. 

5. Mary, became Lady Leith of Westhall, Inveramsay and Thornton, 
in her own right, and is now the widow of the late General Sir Alexander 
Leith, K.C.B., of Freefield and Glenkindie without issue. 

6. Racliael, died unmarried. 

7. Christina., of Foveran, died unmarried. 

8. Jean Forbes Una, died unmarried. 

He was succeeded by his second and eldest surviving son, 

III. JOHN MACKENZIE, who inherited Thornton from his brother 
Roderick, Foveran from his sister Christina, and acquired Inveramsay by 
purchase. He died unmarried, in 1877, and was succeeded by his cousin, 
a son of his uncle Donald, 

IV. JOHN MACKENZIE, fourth and now of Glack, who was twice 
married ; first to Anne, daughter of Thomas Macgill, without issue ; and 
secondly, to Margaret Campbell, daughter of John Pendrill, Bath, by 
whom he has three sons and two daughters 

1. Duncan Campbell, Rector of Shephall, married to Louisa, daughter 
of Colonel 0. G. Nicolls, by whom he has three sons and four daughters 
Donald, a Lieutenant in the Royal Marines ; Alan, Lieutenant in the 
Highland Rifle Militia ; Malcolm, Helen, Edith, Lilian, and Amy, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 257 

2. John Pendrill, married to Adelaide, daughter of Colonel Henry 
Thornton, by who he has two daughter* -Lucy Eleanor, and Margaret 
Pendrill. 

3. Roderick B., married Josepha P., daughter of R. Ignatius Robert- 
son, without issue. 

4. Margaret Campbell Pendrill, unmarried, 

5. Mary, unmarried, 

THE MACKENZIES OF LOGGIE. 

ALLAN MACKENZIE, second of Hilton, had, by his wife, daughter 
of Alexander Dunbar of Conzie, third son of the Sheriff of Moray, two 
sons. The eldest, Murdoch, we have seen, succeeded him, The second, 
John, was served heir to and designated of Loggie, a barony situated in 
the parish of the same name, now forming the western portion of the 
more modern parish of Urquhart, in the Black Isle. 

I. JOHN MACKENZIE, first of Loggie, was the oldest cadet of the Housa 
of Hilton. From him descended several persons distinguished for their 
literary attainments and valour. He married a daughter of Mackenzie 
of Gairloch (supposed to be John, the second baron), by whom he had one 
son, who succeeded him, 

II. ALLAN MACKENZIE, who married a daughter of Alastair Roy 
Mackenzie of Achilty, by whom he had two sons 

1. Donald, his heir. 

2. Will lam (Murdoch ?) who left an only daughter married to Murdoch 
Mackenzie, first of Little Findon, third son of Alexander Mackenzie of 
Killichrist, II. of Suddie. 

He was succeeded by his eldest son, 

III. DONALD MACKENZIE, who was three times married ; first to 
Catherine, fourth daughter of Murdoch Mackenzie, II. of Redcastle, 
without issue. He married secondly, Annabella, eldest daughter, by his 
second marriage, of Alexander Mackenzie, IV. of Gairloch. By her he 
had four sons and three daughters 

1. Colin, educated in medicine at the University of Aberdeen, and, 
going abroad, studied at Lyden and Paris unde 1 ' the most famous pro- 
fessors. Having received his degree of Doctor of Medicine at Hie Uni- 
versity of Rheims, ]\Q returned to his own country. But his adoption of 
extravagant theological doctrines, and his immoral conduct in his youth, 
caused him to be 'disinherited by his father, whereon he again returned to 
his travels. Having stayed abroad for several years, he returned to Inver- 
ness, where he practised medicine with good success, and had a yearly 
pension settled on him until his death, which happened there, at a great 
age, in February 1708. Although a great admirer of the fair sex, 
and even made choice of one of them for his spiritual guide, the learned 
gentleman died unmarried. The lady was the famous Antonia Bourignon 
who pretended to show that Christianity was quite worn out in the world, 
and that she was sent by God to restore it upon the old footing, as it was 
established at first by Christ and his Apostles, She left behind her 



258 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

nineteen volumes upon spiritual u;utters, published iu several languages, 
of which there were in English, " The Light of the .World," " Solid 
Virtue," and " The Light risen in darkness." 

2. Alexander, his successor. 

3. John, educated in theology at the University of Aberdeen, and for 
several years chaplain to General Major Mackay's Regiment. After the 
Revolution he was appointed minister of Kirkliston, near Edinburgh, from 
which he soon retired to London, arid having died there unmarried, was 
buried in St Martin's Church, Westminster. 

4. Murdoch, who succeeded as V. of Loggie. 

5. Margaret, first married to Eorie Mackenzie, IV. of Fairburn ; 
secondly, to Hector Mackenzie of Bishop-Kinkell. 

6. Christian, married John Mackenzie, I. of Gruinard. 

7. Annabella, married Mackenzie of Loggie, in Lochbroom. 

He married thirdly, Anne, daughter of the Rev. Donald Morrison, 
minister in the Lews, by whom he had an only daughter, who married 
Angus Morrison, minister of Contin. He had also a natural son, Rory, a 
captain in the confederate army under King William, who dird m 
Holland unmarried, and is said to have been a gentleman of groat iuuuur 
and generosity. He was succeeded by his second son, 

IV. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, who was twice married; first, in 1667, to 
Jean, daughter of Alexander Mackenzie of Ballone ; and secondly, to 
Catherine, second daughter of William Mackenzie of Belmaduthy, without 
issue by either. He was succeeded by his brother, 

V. MURDOCH MACKENZIE, who was educated at the University of 
Aberdeen, but his inclination leading him to the Army, he entered 
the Earl of Dumbarton's Regiment, where, by his merit and valour, 
he soon raised himself to the rank of captain. In Moninouth's rebeDion, 
he and his company attacked the enemy with such bravery and resolution, 
that excepting the officers there were only nine of his men who were 
not either wounded or killed; and he himself had the honour of taking 
the Duke of Moninouth's standard, wresting it out of the standard-bearer's 
hand, and afterwards presenting it to King James VII. at Whitehall. 
For this service he Avas promoted to a colonelcy. He died in London, 
and was buried at St Martin's Church, Westminster. Ho married an 
English lady, by whom he had two sons and three daughters 

1. Murdoch, his heir. 

2. George, a youth of promising parts, killed in a duel. 

There is no record of the names or marriage of the daughters. He was 
succeeded by his son, 

VI. MURDOCH MACKENZIE, who continued to reside in London. If 
any representatives of his line still exist, they will confer a favour by 
forwarding a note of their descent, that the succession of this old family 
may be continued in the History of the Clan Mackenzie, r.ow passing 
through the press in book form. 

(To be Corttlnwd.) 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 259 



CUE GAELIC BIBLE. 



V. 

COULD THE HIGHLANDERS OF 1807 READ IT ? 

ON the 23d of March 1825 was held at Inverness the first General Meet- 
ing of the "Northern Institution for the Promotion of Science and Litera- 
ture." The Institution was ushered into the world with a good deal of 
eclat, and with the promise of a career which we fear has not been rea- 
lised. Its published list of honorary members contains the names of Sir 
James Mackintosh ; Sir Walter Scott ; Henry Mackenzie, the Man of 
Feeling ; General Stewart of Garth ; Sir John Sinclair ; Corrymony ; 
Glengarry ; and Professors Hooker, Buckland, Brewster, and Tulloch. 
The first name on its list of corresponding members Rev. Charles Clou- 
ston, Stromness, Orkney has well fulfilled the promise of its place. To 
an old Clach-na-cudain boy its list of ordinary members reads like a roll- 
call of the dead : Provost Robertson ; Dr Rose ; Mr Clark; Dean Fyvie; 
Roderick Reach, father yet the prince of the whole tribe of " Own. 
Correspondents;" Rector Scott; George and James Suter; DrNicol; 
Parson Duncan Mackenzie ; Rev. Hugh Urquhart, Montreal ; Shepherd, 
Belford, the Mactavishes, and John Macandrew, of the local bar ; Banker 
John Mackenzie, Banker Ross, and Robert Logan; Rev. Donald Mac- 
kenzie of Foddsrty ; Charles L. Robertson ; Lachlan Camming of the 
Customs ; Dr Mackintosh ; Dr Tolmie of Campbelltown ; and, perhaps 
the best beloved of them all, James Murray Grant of Glenmoriston. 
These have all gone over to the majority. A few, like Mr Joseph 
Mitchell and " Duncan Davidson, younger of Tulloch, M.P.," still serve 
the generations of their children, and could perhaps a tale unfold of the 
life and work of the all-but-torgotten Northern Institution. But we must 
not linger, whether in the shade of the cypress or with the light on the 
laurel. Nor can we stop as much as to glance at the other published lists, 
viz. communications read at the meetings of the Institution, and dona- 
tions made to its once flourishing Museum. We owe our introduction to 
the Institution to a little work with a long title, which we now introduce 
to the readers of the Celtic M<.itj<tzliM. It is entitled a " Prize Essay on 
the State of Society and Knowledge in the Highlands of Scotland, parti- 
cularly in the Northern Counties, at the period of the Rebellion in 1745, 
and of their progress up to the Establishment of the Northern Institution 
for the Promotion of Science and Literature in 18'25. By John Ander- 
son, AVriter to the Signet, Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries. Edin- 
burgh : William Tait, 1827." 

At page 108 of this book we have the following statement: "The 
instruction in the schools till the commencement of the present century 
was entirely in the English tongue" ; and again, " the efforts of the teacher 
were confined to training his pupils to read instead of leading them to 
comprehend the import of English composition." Then comes on 
the same page in a foot-note the following extract from the letter of 
a Highland clergyman, addressed to an intimate friend of the writer. 
" As to the Education of the Highlanders, it will never be accom.- 



260 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

plished until a different system from the present one bj adopted. Pray, 
what is the use of forcing children to read and repeat what they do not 
understand ? I could find thousands in the Highlands of Scotland who 
will read the English Bible tolerably well, but cannot understand more 
than 'yes or no.' Being thus obliged to continue reading a language 
completely unintelligible to them, it gives them no pleasure, but rather 
disgust ; and the moment they leave school, if they remain at home in 
those districts where nothing but their mother-tongue is spoken, they lay 
their books aside, and never look at them more. I know some men who 
were at Inverness at their education sixty years ago ; they could read and 
write when they left school, and to-day they cannot read any. How, in 
God's name, could the people be expected to read even in their own lan- 
guage, when their pastors could not read or write that language, although 
they preached it to the poor people ? The clergy read no more than the 
text, whereas if they would read every Lord's-day, a chapter or two out 
of the Holy Scriptures, the people in that case would be inclined to bring 
their Bibles to the Kirk, and they would follow the minister. Even in 
the present day, I venture to say that there are a few of the Presbyterian 
clergy in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, that cannot read a cliap- 
ter out of the Gaelic Bible." It is to be regretted that Mr Anderson does 
not give the name of the writer of this letter. As it stands it is not only 
anonymous, but it shows an evident tendency to exaggeration of state- 
ment, and does not altogether conceal the cloven foot of odium theologi- 
cum as regards the " Presln/terian clergy." But, on the other hand, it 
must be remembered that the letter is practically indorsed, not only by 
Mr Anderson, who uniformly expresses his views with moderation, but 
also by the Northern Institution, which adjudged him a prize for his 
essay. And it cannot be denied that the stories, always ludicrous and 
sometimes very indelicate, still circulating in the northern Highlands, 
whose point turns entirely on some outrageous blunder of the pigeon Gaelic 
once spoken from the pulpits of, say Gairloch or Petty or Kingussie, do 
undoubtedly lend some colour to the taunt that, at the beginning of the 
century, a few of the Highland clergy could not read a chapter of the 
Gaelic Bible from which they gave out their text. At the same time, it 
is only fair to say that, although the memory of men now living goes 
easily back to a period when the clergy of the north, at least in the rural 
parishes, never read a chapter of the Gaelic or the English Bible in the 
ordinary service of the sanctuary, there were yet the "readers" who, as to 
this day in the Protestant Church of France, regularly read large portions 
of Scripture to the people before the minister entered the pulpit. We, 
ourselves, remember well that this was the uniform practice in the parish 
Church of Knockbain, in times as recent as 1842. Mr Colin Mackenzie, 
afterwards minister successively of Petty and Contin, was then the paro- 
chial schoolmaster of Knockbain, and for about an hour every Sunday 
morning, before the arrival of the minister, he regularly read the Gaelic 
Bible to a large assembly of devout and deeply interested Highlanders. 
And in the Gaelic Church of Edinburgh, down to 1843, a part of the pre- 
centor's salary was regularly entered in the; cash book of the Church as 
paid to the "reader" of the congregation. 

But when, from such considerations, the largest possible allowance has 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 261 

been made, there still remains the fact that a great part of the indictment 
just quoted from Mr Anderson's essay against the early educationists of 
the Highlands stands unchallenged and uuchallengable. Our readers have 
not forgotten that as early as 1616 it was the belief of the Privy Council 
of Scotland, solemnly embodied in the Parochial School Act, that " the 
Irishe language was one of the chieff and principall causes of the continu- 
ance of barbaritie and incivilitie among the inhabitants of the Isles and 
Heylandis"; and that therefore it ought peremptorily to be "abolished 
and removit," and "the vulgar Inglishe toung universallie planted." And 
there can be no doubt that the founders of the Society for Propagating 
Christian Knowledge had not emancipated themselves from the bonds of 
the same unhappy error. The most conclusive evidence of this will be 
found in " An Account of the Eise, Constitution, and Management of the 
Society. Edinburgh: William Brown, 1720": a publication which was 
widely circulated by the Society as its official appeal for increased public 
support. For example, No. 8 of the Rules for Schoolmasters, as set forth 
in this publication, enjoins " that as soon as the scholars can read compg- 
tently well, the master shall teach them to write a fair legible hand, and 
also instruct them in the elements and most necessary rules of arithmetic, 
that they may thereby be rendered more useful in their several stations in 
the world, but not any Latin or Irish," p. 35. Again, rule 14 enjoins 
that " the Society's Schoolmasters are discharged to teach Latine or Irish," 
p. 37. There can be no mistake as to the real intention of this rule. The 
writer of the work was himself an office-bearer of the society. It was in 
fact the Society's Official Manifesto. And yet it points with pride, and 
as a brilliant proof to the efficiency of the schools, to a certain Presbyte- 
rial Report happily not named, which states that within the bounds of 
the Presbytery the Society's Schools had been so successful " that Barba- 
rity and the Irish Language in that place by their means are almost rooted 
out," p. 43.* The same work makes 110 secret of the Society's design 
on the old religion of the Highland people: for " the first proposal was 
that, as Popish parents would not send theii children to be taught the 
Bible and Catechism, therefore little hospitals should be erected where the 
children of Popish parents should be taken in, and provided for with all 
necessaries while at school. But this was found too great an expense," 
p. 38. 

Up to 1738, when Alexander Macdonald's Gaelic and English Voca- 
bulary was published, there was no Gaelic book of any kind used in the 

* Contrast with this the following extract from Dr John Gonlou's " Education 
Scherap of the Church of Scotland from its origin in 1825 to 1872. Black wood 1878." 
An inspection of the Assembly Schools in Argyleshire enabled the Convener and Secre- 
tary (1832) to report how far, and in what manner, the rule in regard to Gaelic reading 
was observed in the schools of that district : " One feature of these schools is not com- 
monly found elsewhere the pupils of all ages are for the most part instructed in two 
languages in Gaelic, because it is the spoken language of the place, and in obedience to 
the instructions of the directors. The English, again, is taught, and almost from the 
commencement, because the people desire it, and will nowhere be without it. Accord- 
ingly, there is in all these schools the interesting sight of children engagid in a conflict 
with two languages. The compound nature of the task exhilarates their spirits, begets 
a habit of activity and alertness, and develops their understandings e.g., when a pupil 
has become able to read, he translates alternately from the one tongue to the other, till 
the language he has learned from books becomes only not so familiar as that which lie ia 
accustomed to speak. He is taught to render not merely word for word, but, in some 
instances, to convert whole sentences involving differences of idiom," p. 40. 



262 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Society's schools. The Mother's Catechism was translated in 1758, but 
as late even as 1811 we find " that any who can read their own language 
have been taught orally, there being no Gaelic Spelling-Book hitherto in 
use, nor even in existence " (Gaelic School Society's Report.*, vol. i., page 
10). 

It is true that in 1774 the Society for Propagating Christian Know- 
ledge did slightly relax the stringency of its rule against teaching Gaelic. 
In a detailed statement then published (Edinburgh : A. Murray) of the 
most material regulations respecting schoolmasters, the Society brings it- 
eelf on this head so far as to say thai the schoolmasters are "to teach the 
scholars to read and speak the English tongue and to translate Gaelic into 
English." But that was the utmost relaxation that could be allowed. 
Stringent precautions were to be taken in regard to the schoolmasters' 
knowledge of the principles of religion, their skill in reading and writing, 
their known prudence, loyalty, and piety, and their taking the oaths pre- 
scribed by law. They were required also diligently to instruct their 
scholars in the principles of the true Protestant Reformed religion. But 
as regards the vital matter of the only language understood by the people, 
the utmost point that had been reached, and reached apparently by slow 
and reluctant steps, was "teach them to read and speak English and 
translate Gaelic into English." 

It is also true that forty years later this Society recognised very fully 
the importance of using the language of the hearth in th<^ work of the 
school. But by the time these more enlightened views came thus to be 
generally adopted by educators, the educated, or rather the parents who 
had the control of the children under education, had themselves firmly 
adopted the opposite prejudice, against which at first they had proudly 
rebelled. When, after a long transition period of neglect following upon 
the Reformation, the schoolmaster was first sent down to the Highland 
glens, his openly proclaimed mission was " English, Loyalty, the true 
Protestant Faith." There was no attempt to gild the pill or sugar it. 
The pill may be bitter, but you have just to take it : It's to do you good : 
It's to purge you of the atrobilious dregs of rebellion, Popery, and your 
wild Irishe tongue, that "chieff and principall cause of barbaritie and in- 
civilitie." Open your mouth then and swallow. No wonder that the 
Highlanders resisted, and in some cases resented with violence so drastic 
a system of education. But like the conquered Germans of Alsace and 
Lorraine, who soon became more French than their conquerors, the High- 
landers, unconquered and unconquerable on the battle-field, adopted as 
true Gospel the educational heresy which at first they spurned with in- 
dignation. The double change of front thus not unnaturally effected 
makes a pretty educational show in the following extract, which is taken 
from the report of " a sub-committee on the visitation of schools " em- 
bodied in the General Report of the Society for 1825 : " The sub-com- 
mittee regrets to find that the teaching of Gaelic has been very much 
neglected, even in districts where that language is almost exclusively 
used and understood by the inhabitants. The committee is satisfied that 
this arises from the feelings and prejudices of the people, in whose minds 
there is a strong prejudice against the use of Gaelic as a school language 
a prejudice which has been found in full strength even where the 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 263 

older people could themselves use no other language. The Society, how- 
ever, observe that so long as the children talk no other language but 
Gaelic, it is a mere waste of time and entirely vain to burden their 
memories with a vocabulary of dead and unmeaning English sounds. 
The Society therefore resolve that in Gaelic districts it is most essentially 
necessary that that language should be taught in the first instance, and 
that the English should not be taught to any till they, have made such 
proficiency in the -former as to enable them fully to comprehend the 
meaning of what they learn to read in the latter." [p. 26.] 

By this time the Gaelic School Society had been thirteen years 
in existence, and it is not unlikely that the experience of the daughter 
Society may have had some effect in modulating to this altered key the 
later music of the mother. 

Be that as it may, we do not know of any picture of the educational 
state of the Highlands at the commencement of the present century so 
complete and so expressive as that which is presented in the first volume 
of this younger Society's reports (1810-1816). The great aim of this 
new Society is thus expressed in the first public declaration of its 
founders : " The translation of the Sacred Scriptures into Gaelic, and their 
publication under the patronage of the Society for Propagating Christian 
Knowledge, the late erection of the British and Foreign Bible Society, 
and the publication by them of an edition of this Version of the Sacred 
Scriptures, constitute an era in the history of this country, big, we trust, 
with the most important and beneficial events. To produce these, how- 
ever, ability to read the Gaelic Scriptures must be diffused as extensively 
as copies of them" 

It is worth mentioning here that the new Society professed to be 
strictly unsectarian. But human nature seems to be incurably tinctured 
with the sectarian spirit. And so it comes that an MS. note, facing the 
title-page on the volume before us, must needs classify the membership 
of the Society as follows: Established 12, Baptist 4, Secession 5, Judges 
2, Lady G(lenorchy ?) 1, Epis(copal) 1. Rule VII. is expressed in these 
words : " that the teachers to be employed by this Society shall neither 
be preachers nor public exhorters, stated or occasional, of any denomina- 
tion whatever." The school books to be used were a spelling book in 
Gaelic, prepared by the Society, and the Gaelic Psalm Book to be suc- 
ceeded by the Sacred Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, in that 
language. The schools were to be " ambulatory," i.e., the school stations 
were to be changed at periods varying from six to eighteen months. 

The first report of the Gaelic Society contains an appendix of 30 
pages, about 10 pages of which are occupied with an account of the Welsh 
Circulating Schools, on which the new Gaelic schools were to be modelled. 
The remaining pages are occupied with twenty-two parochial returns, 
descriptive of the educational state of the Highlands, contributed 
by the parish ministers, in answer to the Society's first circular letter, 
issued on 27th December 1810. Let us endeavour to focus a bird's-eye 
view of these returns. From Glenshiel the Rev. John Macrae reports 
the population as 750 ; of these 209 could read English, and most of the 
209 could also read Gaelic ; none could read Gaelic alone, From Harris 
the Rev. Alexander Macleod reports the population as 3000 ; of these 



204 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

200 only could read English and Gaelic. " As to the query ' what num- 
bers understand and are capable of reading Gaelic alone V you will be 
surprised to hear that of this class I cannot find any in Harris, and few 
are to be met with in Scotland who read Gaelic alone." From Kintail 
the Rev. Roderick Morison reports the population as 1000 ; of these 192 
could read English, and of the 192 as many as 133 could also read Gaelic; 
" two men who could not read English were able to read the Gaelic Psalm 
Book, not by power of letters, but by observation of them and dint of 
memory." From Bracadale the Rev. Roderick Macleod reports that 373 
could read English ; that only one could read Gaelic alone ; " and that 
otic acquired it while in a regiment of fencibles in Ireland, which shows 
that people could in time be brought to read Gaelic if they had proper 
teachers." From Stornoway the Rev. Colin Mackenzie reports the popu- 
lation of (1) the town district as 2000, of whom 600 could read English, 
and " scarce twenty " Gaelic : (2) Uii (Uig 1) population 800, ticenty only 
of whom could read English and six Gaelic ; (3) Gress, population 700, 
of whom but six could read English, and two Gaelic. From Kilmuir, 
Skya, the Rev. Donald Ross reports 2728 souls who could read neither 
English nor Gaelic, 162 who read English and Gaelic, and 2 who read 
Gaelic alone. From Torosay, Mull, the Rev. Alexander Fraser reports a 
population of 2000 ; of these 386 could read English, and 298 English 
and Gaelic. From the lowland parish of Fearn, near Tain, the Rev. 
Hugh Ross reports that seven-eighths of a population of 1500 could 
read neither English nor Gaelic ; of the remaining eighth who read 
English only 20 could read Gaelic. From Applecross the Rev. John 
Maequeen reports that from a congregation of 2000 assembled on a com- 
munion occasion not more than 60 attended the English service. It is 
interesting to note that, contrary to the experience of others, he knew 
" several instances of persons without the least knowledge of English 
reading who learned to read Gaelic with facility and fluency." From 
Lochcarron the Rev. Lachlan Mackenzie reports that 232 read English, 
many of whom also read Gaelic ; 2 only read Gaelic alone ; and 645 
read neither English nor Gaelic. From Gairloch the Rev. James Russel 
reports 324 who read English, 72 who read Gaelic alone, and 2549 
who read neither. From Contin the Rev. James Dallas reports 1200 as 
being unable to read Gaelic or English ; in the low parts of the parish 1 
in 6 could read English ; in the heights 1 in 11. "All the natives under- 
stand Gaelic, but I know not twelve persons among them who can read 
Gaelic alone and are not able to read English." 

Thus briefly have we summarised the ample details which many cor- 
respondents, some of them at great length, had communicated to the new 
Society from all parts of the Highlands. And be it remembered that what 
we have here is the testimony of eye witnesses. Each minister describes 
the state of his own parish. One calculates, indeed, in round numbers, 
and another figures out his return with arithmetical exactitude to the last 
unit. But all speak of the things of which for years they had the fullest 
personal knowledge. What a picture 1 And that the picture was not an 
overdrawn appeal wl misericordiam, but a faithful transcript of the sad 
and pitiful reality, there is unhappily no lack of evidence. Then in the 
next report of the Gaelic School Society (1812) we find the following 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



extracts from letters written by gentlemen who enjoyed opportunities 
specially favourable foi acquainting tlieinselves with the state of the 
Highlands. The Eev. William Eraser of Kilchrenan writes: "The 
picture of Highland parishes so faithfully drawn by your correspondents 
in the north, I have had occasion often to contemplate with emotions of 
pity and regret." Mr Eraser thus testified from personal knowledge, 
acquired by him "as teacher, missionary, and clergyman," in the wide 
district extending from " Applecross, in Koss shire, to Kintyre, in Argyle- 
shire, including some of the largest, and several of the small adjacent, 
islands." And the Rev. Daniel Dewar, then labouring at Strontian, 
afterwards so well known as the successor of Dr Chalmers in Glasgow, 
and Principal of the Marischal College of Aberdeen, is quoted in the re- 
port to this effect: "I have made, in company with some English friends, 
an extensive tour through most of the Hebrides, as well as through 
Arisaig, Moidart, North and South Morar, Knoydart, &c., and I am now 
most deeply convinced of the utility and the necessity of your Society. 
I have made it my business to make enquiries as to the abilities of the 
people to read, and have seldom met with any one of the common people 
in the districts I have mentioned capable of reading either English or 
Gaelic. There is no school in Cana, containing \ipwards of four hundred 
souls no school in the extensive district of Moidart. The moral and 
religious state of this people must be truly pitiable, since between the 
parish church of Ardnamurchan and that of Glenelg there is but one 
missionary minister. Pray unfold the map and look at the immense 
regions which intervene. I mention this with no other view than to 
excite the pity of your Society towards the moral condition of a people 
who are labouring under great disadvantages." The learned and vener- 
able Principal, then but a stripling with the world before him, closes his 
letter with a sentence which may appropriately close this long digression: 
" It is in vain that the benevolence of Christians gives them the Bible, 
in their own language, unless you extend to them the power of reading 
it," 

The benevolence of the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge 
gave the Highlander, in 1807, a complete and cheap edition of the Gaelic 
Bible. Scarce was the ink dry on this first really available impression of 
the sacred volume, when the British and Foreign Bible Society took it 
up ; doubling, and ere long quadrupling the gift. In like manner the 
Gaelic School Societies of Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Inverness, though 
they never attained to any remarkable vigour, held out a helping hand 
in the mother society's parallel and preparatory work of education, till in 
1825 the grand scheme of the General Assembly's Education Committee 
crowned the edifice. Thousands of Highlanders, at home and all over the 
world, are to-day the living witnesses of the solid strength and graceful 
proportions of that noble edifice, with its 327 schools supported by 5881 of 
annual voluntary contributions, which the Church, in 1872, handed over 
gracefully and trustfully to the care of the Highland people, acting through 
their statutory school-boards. Let us trust that the day is now at hand 
when all our people will read the Bible with equal ease in Gaelic and 
English. And let us pray that then they may all so know and love it as 
to become themselves living epistles of its truth and power. 

DONALD MASSON, 



266 THE CELTIC MAGAZLXK. 



DONALD MACDOUGALL. 



WE Lave much pleasure in placing on permanent record an account of the well-deserved 
honours conferred upon our excellent and remarkable townsman, Mr Donald Macdougall, 
of "Royal Tartan Warehouse" celebrity, by bis fellow citizens, on the evening of the 
18th March, in the Hall of the Workmen's Club. He was presented with a marble bust 
of himself, subscribed for by friends at home and abroad, and prepared by a rising 
townsman, Mr Andrew Davidson, sculptor, to whom the work does the highest credit. 
The bust is an excellent and striking likeness, executed in the finest Carrara marble, and 
set on a small base of polished white marble. There is also a yellow pedestal 2 feet 9 
inches high, of Scagliola marble, highly polished and moulded. On the face of this 
pedestal is a brass plate, beautifully engraved by Messrs Ferguson Brothers, and bearing 
the following inscription : 

This bust of Donald Macdougall, Esq., Inverness, originator of the Tweed trade in 
Scotland, was freely subscribed for by all sections of the community, and presented to 
the Working Men's Club, of which he was the founder, at a public gathering of his 
fellow citizens on the 18th March 1879. It is designed to commemorate the good deeds 
of one whose active benevolence daring a long life, conferred lasting benefits on his 
native town, and whose energy, sacacity, and commercial ability, elevated an insignificant 
branch of trade into a national industry that continues to command a first place in the 
markets of the world. 

The chair was occupied by the Primus, with Mr Macdougall on his right hand, and 
supported by the Provost, Bailie Black, Bailie Macdonald, the Rev. Dr Black, Mr 
Dallas, Town-Clerk ; Councillor Burns, Mr Ross, architect ; Mr William Ferguson, 
Chairman of the Club ; and Mr George Wood of the Courier, Tea and fruit having 
been served, the choir of the Cathedral sang " God Save the Queen," Mr Money playing 
the piano accompaniments. 

The PRIMUS announced that letters of apology had been received from Mr Mackintosh 
of Raigmore ; Dr Brougham, Culduthel ; Mr James Brougham, Mr Robert Carruthers, 
Mr Galloway, and Colonel Cameron, Clifton Lodge, who all expressed their deep regret 
that they were unable to be present. 

The CHAIRMAN said Having done homage to our most gracious Majesty the Queen, 
the next work in which we are to be engaged is to offer a mark, a d .'e;> nj.trk, of respect 
and veneration to him who is the immediate cause of our gathering this i-veuing. (Ap- 
plause.) We are assembled to offer a token of real respect and regard to one and I 
speak with a deep affection for him, and I mean each word that I say to offer, I repeat, 
a token of respect and regard, not only to an honourable and a good man, but to a man who 
has spent mauy years of his life in endeavouring to promote the best and the highest 
interests among those whom he lived. (Applause.) While speaking iu the presence of 
Mr Macdougall, I feel that it is necessary to limit the expressions that I could otherwise 
make use of, lest they should be painful and offensive to him ; and yet I must speak of 
something connected with him, in order to remind you of his real merits. Mr Mac- 
dougall has again and again told me of his earliest life with gratitude for the gifts and 
blessings which he has received. He has told me that, when a boy, he ran about the 
streets of Inverness without shoes or stockings. Now, when we think of that, and then 
look upon this hall, we have some evidence in our mine's, not only of the manner in 
which God has blessed and prospered the career of this man, but of the use which he bfcs 
made of the blessings which Got! has bestowed upon him. (Loud applause.) There are 
many incidents iu Mr ALicduu^.tll's life to which reference might be made, but it would 
occupy too much of your time were I to mention any but the more salient points, 
aiid those connected witn tbe special object of our meeting. There is one incident in Mr 
Macdougall's life wliich, in the present day, ought to he prominently brought before the 
public mind. But that very incident is not the first incident of the kind which has oc- 
curred in Mr Macdougall's family. Mr Macdougall's father, like himself, began business 
a poor man. Like many a ^ood man before him, after a time he failed in business, and 
was obliged to enter into an arrangement with his ci editors. He paid them a composi- 
tion. He resumed business and went on and prospered though not to the extent in 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 267 

which his son has prospered and the result of his prosperity was this, that, though com- 
paratively a poor man, he cailed together his former creditors, and paid them with in- 
terest the remainder of his obligations to them. (Loud appl.ime ) And, if I am not 
misinformed, that good man in his dying hour, left a legacy to his son who is now our 
guest that legacy bein? a desire, that if his son should be ever placed in similar circum- 
stances, he was to" do the same thing. What use the son has made of that legacy you all 
know. (Applause.) He turned that legacy to good account; for he, too, like many 
another good man, failed in business, and was compelled to meet his creditors with a 
composition of 15s in the 1. He subsequently prospered. God blessed him, and as 
soon as it was in his power he called together his creditors, and paid to them the re- 
mainder of his obligations with interest. Many a man might have expressed readiness 
and willingness to act in this way towards his creditors many a man might have said 
that his creditors might come forward and avail themselves of his readiness to pay them. 
But Mr Macdougall sought out his creditors. (Applause.) He took the greatest pains 
and trouble to discover them he sought them out even in Australia and paid them 
every one. (Loud applause.) At the time Mr Macdougall did this, perhaps there was 
greater commercial honesty in the world than now. But his action was felt to be de- 
serving of note by hw commercial brethren, aad, in consequence, his commercial friends 
in Glasgow invited him to a special feast. They presented him also with a testimonial, 
indicating their high sense of his honourable conduct, and I will i ead to you the inscription 
which was put upon the service of plate which was at that time given him : " Presented, 
with a tea service and ether articles of silver plate, to Donald Macdougall, Esq., by a 
numerous circle of commercial friends, as a testimonial of their respect, and more par- 
ticularly as an expression of their sense of his honourable conduct in paying the balance 
of his obligations of the year 1837, from which he had been fully discharged. 30th 
Apiil 1857." (Loud applause.) In the present day such an example as that deserves to 
be held up before the public (applause) and I trust that there may be many ready and 
disposed to follow it. (Applause.) Time passed on, and Mr Macdougall retired from 
the business in which he had been so long engaged a business which really has brought 
honour and reputation on the capital of the Highlands. (Applause.) I believe that in 
the first great Exhibition of 1851, Mr Macdougall, though with very great difficulty, 
was enabled to bring specimens of our Sootck tartans before the public notice, by his 
obtaining permission to exhibit his Scotch tartans ; and from that time forward the 
Royal Tartan Warehouse in Inverness has been a place known, I may say, throughout 
the world known not only in England, but in the Colonies and in India. And what- 
ever advantage and credit we derive from that, it is entirely owing to the exertions of Mr 
Macdoufcall. (Applause.) Well, as I said, time passed on, and Mr Macdougall retired 
from business, but not from work. From that time forth and it has been my happy lot 
to have observed his carter for more than five-and-twenty years he appeared to me to 
devote himself, with singleness of purpose and with a noble heart, to good works. (Re- 
newed applause.) Whenever there was any good work to be done in Inverness I have 
ever found Mr Macdougall one of the first and heaitiest to take it up. Amongst other 
things I would point to the hall in which we are now assembled. From the fact that Mr 
Macdougall had climbed to the top of the tree through all its vaiious branches, he had 
known the many trials and difficulties of working men. He had known how of ten the work- 
man's heart yearned, after his hard day's toil, for some quiet rest for something of an 
evening such as might divert his thought from the day's toil, and help to improve the 
mind, which could not be improved during the drudgery of his daily woik. Mr Mac- 
dougall knew and felt that there was a want in this respect in Inverness, and he resolved 
to supply that want. (Applause.) He determined to establish this Woiking Men's 
Club. (Renewed applause.) And he succeeded in establishing it by the great labour 
which he bestowed upon obtaining subscriptions from Scotchmen and Englishmen all 
over the world. I don't like to s*y how many letters Mr Macdougall once told me he 
had written in his endeavours to establish this Club; and he began almost before the 
penny post was introduced. But not only by these great exertions, but by his own un- 
bounded liberality (applause) he was enabled to raise this building in which we are 
now met. (Renewed applause.) And many and many are the hard wrought workmen 
whe have found, I am sure, in this Workmen's Ciub many a moment's happy rest and 
quietness, and many an evening of personal and individual improvement from the books 
which are here provided, and which books came here from or through Mr Macdougall. 
He sought books everywhere. He is a loyal subject, but he did not mind going to the 
Queen and troubling her Majesty with the wants of those whom he was desirous to benefit. 
(Laughter and applause.) And he succeeded (applause) - as he has succeeded in every 
thing he has put his hand to. (Renewed applause.) feuch work, such active work, did 
really demand recognition, and, accordingly, some time ago friends of Mr Macdougall, 
who were attached and devoted to him, and who recognised his value, determined to 
raise the means to offer him some substantial token of their regard and affection ; and, 
with a view of making that an enduring token, they resolved that part of the means 
raised should be laid out in a marble bust of the founder of this Workmen's Club. (Ap- 



268 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

plause.) That bust has been executed, I am thankful to say, by an eminent sculptor, a 
sculptor in Inverness (applause) -one who has given many instances of his taste, power, 
and genius. (Renewed applause.) You will have an opportunity now of seeing a speci- 
men of his sail in his admirable representation of our well-known guest a representa- 
tion which in every respect will be a peimari'iit likeness of him, wanting only that by 
which we all know him namely, his hat. (Laughter and applause.) However, we are 
always glad to see him with or without the hat. (Renewed laughter.) lam sure, ladies 
and gentlemen, I am only expressing your feelings, as well as my own, when I s;iy that 
we all most heartily pray that his green old age may be a happy one, and that when we 
shall begin to see that well-known face no more in the streets of Inverness, we may feel 
that he has obtained a higher rest and reward than that which he sought in tkis world. 
I now ask the Provost to unveil the bust. And [turning to Mr Macdougall] on behalf of 
the public of Inverness, and of a much larger public than that of Inverness, I have the 
honour to present you, Mr Macdougall, with this marble bust as a token of the esteem, 
regard, and affection which is universally entertained towards you. (Loud applause.) 

The PROVOST, amid cheers, unveiled the bust, and read the inscription on the pede- 
stal. 

Mr MACDOUGALL, rising to reply, was received with loud applause. He said Your 
lordship's kind and flattering remarks have so overpowered me, that I fear I shall 
scarcely find words adequate to the expression of what aiy full Highland heart at present 
feels. I ought to give bumble and devout thanks to the Source whence all blessings 
flow, that He has so preserved my health and nerved my arm as to enable me, though 
with a severe struggle, to do a simple act of duty, in presenting this large and well- 
furnished Club to the working classes of my native town. (Applause.) I feel much in- 
debted to your lordship, the metnbsrs of committee, and the public generally, far and 
near, for this additional honour conferred on me in the shape of this life like bust, 
which I am happy to say has been executed by a townsman, Mr Davidson. (Applause.) 
After my long and busy career, the bust is an honourable acknowledgment of my endea- 
vour to provide for the requirements and recreations of the working classes after the 
day's toil is over. This Workmen's Club is one of the most successful of the kind in 
Scotland, possessing a large library of 4000 books, a spacious reading and lecture room, 
a room for innocent games, and a playground behind, also the principal daily and 
weekly newspapers and magazines, and some foreign newspapers. (Applause.) There 
are about 400 member?, and a vast number of penny daily visitors. (Applause.) 
I am sure that each member of the Town Council, and of the Club Committee, 
will exert himself to increase its usefulness. After the toil and business of the 
day are over, what a pleasant thing it is to have such a cheerful place to spend an 
evening in. The workman feels more keenly than any other man the need of social 
enjoyment after bis day of labour is at an end. (Hear, hear, and applause.) This 
Club has had the high honour of receiving a spiendid gift of books of the best kind from 
her Majesty, our royal mistress. (Applause.) The building being the property of the 
town, 1 would earnestly beseech the members of the Town Council to assist Messrs 
Ferguson, jewellers, who, for some time past, have taken an active part in the manage- 
ment of the Club. When I was in business, my motto was, There is nothing reasonable 
and honest impossible, if you bend all the powers of your mind and body to it (applause) 
energy, invincible determination and purpose, once fixed, then death or victory ! 
(Renewed applause.) It is pleasant to a man at the close of his life to receive a mark of 
appreciation from his fellow-townsmen, and the bust, which so many friends have com- 
bined to present, is most gratifying to my feelings. I receive it also as a proof that the 
Workmen's Club has not been without benefit to the classes for whom it was built. 
(Applause.) Many, very many, kind and heartfelt thanks to you, my Lord Bishop, for 
your many kind wishes and complimentary remarks. The recollection ot this evening 
will, while I live, be engraved on the tablets of my memory. (Applause.) Mr Mac- 
dougall, before concluding, presented the bust to the Club through the chairman, Mr 
William Ferguson. He trusted the Club would place it in some suitable position, for 
nothing would please him more than the thought that, after he had gone from amongst 
them, some memorial had been left to show those who came after him the kindness with 
which they had regarded his efforts to do some little good in his day (applause) and 
how those efforts were more than repaid by the proceedings of this night the proudest 
night of his life. (Renewed applause.) Referring to the assistance which the Club, 
through him, had received from the Queen, Mr Macdougall said the Queen was one of 
his very best customers for many vears (laughter and applause) and a more delightful 
lady he never had the honour of serving. (Laughter and applause.) He took the liberty 
some thirteen years ago of writing to the Dowager Duchess of Athole, asking her 
Grace to bring the Club under the notice of her Majesty, and the result, as had been 
said, was an excellent gift of books. (Applause.) He had also received much valuable 
assistance from the Primus and his friends. He mentioned that one day walking down 
a street in London he met a gentleman whom he knew. He stopped to speak with him, 
and the gentleman said, " Ah, books." (Laughter.) Nothing more passed, but he (Mr 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 269 

Macdougall) followed his acquaintance to his residence in Albeinaile Street, and they 
went up the stairs, and the gentleman opened his library door and said, "Take these 
four shelves." (Laughter and applause.) The Primus was then in London; Mr Mac- 
dougall mentioned the circumstance to him, and he said that the gentleman was to dine 
with him, and that Mr Macdougall could meet him next day at the same place and time. 
This he did followed the gentleman again and on reaching the top of the stair, the 
library was once more opened, and he was told to take " these three shelves." (Laugh- 
ter and applause.) These incidents he mentioned as an encouragement to be always on 
the alert and attentive. (Applause.) 

Mr WILLIAM FERGUSON, Chairman of the Club, formally accepted the bust, and 
thanked Mr Macdougall. The bust, he said, would henceforth become one of the 
principal attractions in the hall. As a work of art, it could not be surpassed, and while, 
to the present and future members of the Working Men's Club, it would always be a 
speaking likeness, reminding them ot the donor, to whose benevolence and energy the 
Club owed its existence, it would, at the same time be appreciated as the work of a 
sculptor, Mr Andrew Davidson, one of ourselves, of whom we are truly proud (applause) 
and whose talents were not only the admiration of his fellow-townsmeo, but un- 
doubtedly placed him in the highest rank_ of his profession. Mr Ferguson again ex- 
pressed gratitude for all that Mr Macdougall had done for them, as the original founder 
of the Club. (Applause.) 

The rest of the evening was occupied with a musical entertainment, in which Mrs 
Kenrick, Airs Wilson, Miss Lizzie Macbean, Canon Medley, Mr Money, and Mr Bulmer 
took ),art. All the songs were loudly applauded and some of them encored. The meet- 
ing was wound up with votes of thanks to the chairman and the choir, and with three 
cheers for the sculptor of the bust, Mr Davidson. 



MY II I E L A N' H A M E. 



I wandered in a foreign clime, where wild flowers blossomed fair, 
An' socht for Scotia's swees blue bell, but fand nae blue bell there ; 
Syne, as a tear frae love's pure fount warm trembled in mine e'e, 
My spirit to my hielan' hame was wafted owre the sea. 

My hielan' hame, my hielan' hame ! 
Oh ! hoo it fans affection's flame ! 
On earth there is nae spot the same 
To me, as my dear hielan' hame ! 

Where mountains towered, and foaming floods their channels deep had worn, 
Wi' throbbing breast I lang surveyed the cot where I was born, 
My kindly mither blest my view, wha nursed me on her knee, 
An' happy made oor hielan' hame far, far across the sea. 
My hielan' hame, my hielan' hame ! &c. 

Companions, loved langsyne, I saw around the hearth convene, 
The silver tresses o' my sire threw rev'rence owre the scene; 
Truth glowed in ilka honest face, like sunlicht on the lea, 
Thus rilled wi' joy my hielan' hame far, far across the sea. 
My hielan' hame, my hielan' hame ! &c. 

Upon that cherished spot, again, to dwell my bosom burned ; 
Drawn by love chains, time couldna break, I to my freends returned, 
Their gladsome souls the darkest day adorn wi' purest glee ; 
My hielau' hame I'll leave nae mair to cross the stormy sea. 

My hielan' hame, my hielan' hame 
Oh ! hoo it funs affection's flune ! 
On earth there is nae spot the same 
To me, as my dear hielan' hame ! 
EDINBURGH. ALEXANDER LOGAN. 



270 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES. 
o 

ANSWERS. 

THE RF,V. WM. FRASER OF KILMORA.CK. 

IN answer to "A.D.C.," Bishop Hay, maternal uncle to Agnes Lovat, 
carried away by Kenneth Mackenzie (a Bhlair), VII. Baron of Kintnil, when 
he sent away his first wife, Margaret, daughter of John, Earl of Ross, 
advised Kenneth 'and the lady's friends that a commission should be sent to 
the Pope in 1491, to procure the legitimation of their union. This was 
agreed to, and the foil wing account of the Commissioners sent is taken 
from the "Ancient" Allangrange MS. of the Mackenzies in my possession : 
"To that effect one called Donald Dhu M'Chreggir priest of Kirkhill was 
imployed, which accordingly he performed. This priest was a native in 
Kintail, descended of a clan there called Clan Chreggir, who being a 
hopeful boy in his younger days was educat in Mackenzie's house and 
afterwards at Beullie be. the fore-mentioned Dugall Mackenzie (natural 
son of Alexander "lonraie " VI. of Kintail) pryor yrof. In end (he) was 
made priest of Kirkhill. His successors to this Jay are called Erasers. Of 
this priest is descended Mr William and Mr Donald Eraser." The author 
of the Avdintoul MS. gives a slightly different version, and says : 'To 
which end they sent Mr Andrew Eraser, Priest of Kintail, a learned and 
eloquent man, who took in his company Dugal Mackenzie, natural son to 
Alexander Inrig, who was a scholar. The Pope entertained them kindly 
and very readily granted them what they desired, and were both made 
knights to the boot by Pope Clement VIII., but when my knights came 
home they neglected the decree of Pope Innocent III. against the mar- 
riage and consentricate of the clergy, or, otherwise, they got a dispensa- 
tion from the then Pope Clement VIII. for both of them married. Sir 
Dugal was made priest of Kintail and married nien (daughter) Dunchy 
Chaim in Glenmorriston. Sir Andrew likewise married, whose son was 
Donull Du Maelntagard (Black Donald son of the Priest) and was priest 
of Kirkhill and Chapter of Ross, llitt tacks of the Vicaraye of Kil- 
iiKinick to John ChisJiolm of Comar stands to this day. His son was .Mi- 
William Mac Ahoulding, alias Eraser, who died minister of Kiltarlady. 
His son was Mr Donald Eraser, who \\asniinistcr of Kilmorack. So that 
he is the fifth minister or ecclesiastical person in a lineal and uninter- 
rupted succession which falls out but seldom and than which, in my 
judgment can more entitle a man to be really a gentleman, for that blood 
which runs in the veins of four or five generations of men of piety and 
learning and breeding cannot but have influence, and it confirms my 
opinion that the piv.-ent Mr William Eraser (who is the fifth) ha-? the 
virtues and commendable properties <f his predecessors all united in him." 
This latter MS. was written by the Rev. John Mac.lia, minister of Dingwall, 
who died in 1704. I am informed that five others of this family succeeded 
the Rev. William Eraser, last named, in Kilmorack, in du 
the last of whom was the Rev. Simon Eraser of Kilmorack, who.-e widow 
and family now reside in ln\ . . It would be iiitcie.-fing to know 
whether the present Rev. Mr Eraser, Eree Church Minister of Kirkhill, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 271 

lias any connection with the old Erasers of Kirkhill and Kiimorack; 
for he is also fifth in descent of another line of Erasers as ministers of 
Kirkhill. The prefix " Mr " is in. all old MS. equivalent to the modern 
"Rev." A.M. 

BOSSES OF INVERCHARRON. 

THE following sketch of the family of Ross of Invercharron, in reply to 
Query (11) in last Celtic, is gathered from various Sasines, copied from 
the Registers of Sasines for Inverness, between the years 1G06 and 
1769 : 

The first mentioned is Alexander Ross of Invercharron, Bailie for the 
Lady Annabella Murray, daughter of John, Earl of Tullibardine. His 
wife's name is given as Isobell Ro*s. (Sas., Dec. 16, 1606, vol. i., fol. 
139.) He appears to have h.ul four sons; William, his heir; Thomas 
(Sas. 1606), and two sons, David and Nicholas, who are mentioned by 
Sir Robert Gordon as proceeding to the wars in Germany in 1627. 
(Hist. Earldom of Sutherland, pp. 402, 450.) 

The eldest son, William Ross of Invercharron, married a daughter of 
Alexander Mackenzie, first of Davojhmaluak (who died 1531), by Mar- 
garet, daughter of Sir William Munro of Eowlis. 

The next is Walter Ross of Invereharron, eldest son of the last, 
who appears to have sold ihe property in 1625 to " AndreAv Ross, burgess 
of Tayne," but to have recovered it the same year on payment of 5000 
mei-ks. (Sas. 1625, May 31, vol. iii., fuls. 103, 103, mentioning " Lsobeli 
Ross, relict of Alexander Ross of Invercharron, ' mei avi.' ") He married 
Isobel, daughter of Andrew Munro of Milton (mentioned in the Sasines 
quoted) ; but in a Sasine of 1663 (vol. ii., fol. 57), wherein his father, 
William, now a very old man apparently, alienates the lands to his son 
Walter, a second wife, evidently, is mentioned, Margaret Gray, relict of 
George Murray of Pulrossie. 

There is also a sister mentioned, Isobel, married to Andrew Ross of 
Sandvaik. (Sas. 1660, vol. vii., fol. 20.) 

The children of Walter Ross seem to have been William, his heir ; 
Walter ; Hugh (called Tutor of Invercharron, Sas. 1695, vol. vi., fol. 22); 
Janet, married fir-st to Thomas Ross of Priesthill (Sas. 1639), and se- 
condly, to Kenneth Mackenzie, first of Scatwell (Sas. 1664) ; and Chris- 
tian, mariied to Hugh Macleod of Cambuscarry (Douglas Baronage, page 
387). 

William Ross of Invercharron married Christian Ross, but does not 
seem to have left an heir, as, after the Tutory of Hugh (Sas. 1680, vol. v., 
fol. 61), the next laird mentioned is William Ross ot Invercharron, "sun 
of Walter Ross of Invercharron." (Sas. 1708, vol. xiv., fol. 476.) This 
William married Helen, daughter of Hugh Ross of Braelang \vell ; and, 
after him. there seems an hiatus, since the next Sasine is dated 1763 
(vol. xix., fol. 309), and mentions the names only of William Ross of In- 
vercharron, and his wife, Anne, daughter of David Ross of Inverchastley. 
The last Sasine (1769, Dec. 9, vol. xx., fol. 376) gives the name of las 
eldest son only, David Ross. 

The above are all the particulars I possess regarding the family in 
question, and among them are contained answers to some of the queries 
requested by your correspondent " Quill." J. D. M'K. 



272 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



THE CIIIE/ OF THE MATIIESOXS. 

I EXPECTED that you would yourself have answered in the April number 
the query which Appeared in the March issue of your Magazine, as, judg- 
ing by your communications to recent numbers of the Courier, you ap- 
pear to be well posted up in the History and Genealogy of this ancient 
family. You there indicated an opinion that the Chiefship was to be 
found among the representatives of the Bennetsfield Mathesons, and you 
are probably correct. In any case, it is gratifying to learn, as the result 
of the publication of your letters, that male representatives of that branch 
still exist in a good position ; the Chief assuming your deductions 
to be well-founded being Eric, son of the late Colonel James Brook 
Young Matheson, of the H.E.I.C.S., now residing on the Continent. 

Your correspondent, " Mathon," is quite correct in saying that the 
present Matheson of Ardross and Lochalsh does not claim the Chiefship, 
although he is undoubtedly descended from a younger son of the ancient 
family of Lochalsh. The late Sir James Matheson of the Lews was not 
chief of the Mathesons of Sutherland, but he belonged to the principal 
family in that county, one of whom was elected Chief of the Sutherland 
Mathesons in the beginning of the 17th century, on the recommendation 
of Sir Eobert Gordon, author of the " History of the Earldom of Suther- 
land." 

You are probably acquainted with the " Imaire " MS. History of the 
Mathesons, in which the author, Roderick Matheson, claims the honour 
of the Chiefship for himself; and it seems clear that his claim must be 
disposed of belbre even the Bennetsfield Mathesons can come in ; for he 
makes himself out as descended from an elder brother of John Matheson 
of Fernaig, from whom you have shown the Bennetsfields to be descended. 
There is considerable difficulty in giving a satisfactory answer to such 
queries as those asked by " Mathon," and from what I have seen and 
heard, you are yourself, perhaps, better able to deal with them than most 
people. Might I suggest that you give us a sketch of this Clan in the 
Celtic Magazine. It would be a most appropriate sequel to your exhaus- 
tive History of the Clan Mackenzie, with whom the Mathesons were in 
the past so closely connected. " CHIAN." 

[We intend, some day, to adopt the suggestion of our correspondent, 
and to give a pretty full sketch of his Clan in the C.M. Wo must, how- 
ever, finish the Mackenzies before we can feel in a position to inflict more 
of the same kind upon the reader. Meanwhile, we shall be obliged 
to " Chian " and others interested, to supply us with any informa- 
tion in their possession. We have two copies of the " Imaire " MS. and 
other valuable information about the Mathesons in our repositories, but 
no doubt much more is procurable. We shall have no great difficulty in 
disposing of the " Imaire " claim to the Chiefship when Ave take the mat- 
ter up.] 

CUTHBERTS OF DRAKIES. 

IN reply to " F. Medenham's " query (No. 14) in your last : In the His- 
tory of the Roses of Kilravock (Spalding Club), p. 68 is a mention of 

1. Alexander (or James) Cuthtort of East Drakics. who urn-rifil Mar- 
garet Vaus of Lochsliu, and died 1547, I find no earlier mention of lids 



THE CELTIC MAGAZIKE. 273 

family. The next of the name is found in one of the earliest Sasines (see 
Secy. Eeg. Sas., Inverness, vol. i., fol. 61, A.D. 1606, June 2), viz. 

2. To Alexander Cuthbert and Christen Dunbar, his spouse, by John 
Winchester do Alterlie. over the one part of the lands of Alterlie, called 
Brachinche, and mentioning Margaret Cuthbert, spouse of John Win- 
chester. Alexander is called " burgess of Inverness." A sister of his, 
Isobel, married John Mackenzie, first of Ord (Seaforth Charters, fol. 207, 
1607-39). 

3. James Cuthbert of Alterlies and Easter Drakies, son of Alexander 
Cuthbert and Christen Dunbar, was Provost of Inverness in 1621, sold the 
lands of Lochslin to John Mackenzie (Sas. 1625, fol. 144) ; his wife was 
Marie Abercrombie, and he appears as witness in charters or in deeds from 
1619 to J638. In 1634 he obtains the lands of Culloden. (Great Seal 
Index, 53-153, Sas. 1657.) His children were Alexander, his heir; 
Margaret, married to John Mackenzie of Davochkairne (Gairloch) ; 
Christine married David Eose of Earls-miln, who died 1669 (Roses of 
Kilravock, p. 530) ; and Mary married William Mackenzie, first of Bel- 
maduthy (Sas. to them 1657, fol. 304). 

4. Alexander Cuthbert of Easter Drakies has a Sasine, as eldest son 
of the last, dated 1650, June 24 ; and his children were, his eldest son, 

5. John Cuthbert of Alterlies (Sas, 1666, vol. iii., fol. 55), and Jean, 
married to Lachlan Mackinnon of Strorne (Sas. 1680, fol, 70). John is 
given as a witness in the Lovat Charters (395) in 1676. 

In 1706, among the Lovat Papers (MSS.) appears the sale by 

6. David Cuthbert of Drakies of a tenement to the Magistrates of Inver- 
ness. This must be the son and successor of John Cuthbert, and in the 
Douglas Baronage (p. 361-1) there is mentioned a daughter, Isobel, mar- 
ried to John Macpherson of Dalraddie. 

These are all the particulars I can find respecting the above family. 

J. D. M'K. 



a U E R I E 8. 

(17) CAPTAIN HUMBERSTONE MACKENZIE. The enclosed inscription was found on a 
tomb near Ahmednugger. I wish to know who the Capt. Humberstone Mackenzie men- 
tioned therein was, as he is not named in Findon's " Mackenzie Genealogies." It would 
seem from the iuscription that his father was Capt. Mackenzie Humberstoue, the elder 
brother of the last Lord Seaforth, but both in the Celtic Magazine and in the " Macken- 
zie Genealogies," that gentleman is said to have died unmarried. I have a photograph 
of the tomb, with the " Caber Feidh " carved on it : " On this spot fell at the Storm- 
ing of Ahmednugger, on the 8th August 1803, Captain Humberstone Mackenzie, Captain 
in H.M. 78th Regiment of Ross-shire Highlanders, son of Captain Mackenzie Humber- 
stone, who was killed at his gun in the Mahrattah War in 1783. 

"This tomb is also consecrated to the memory ef Captain Grant, Lieutenant Ander- 
son, and the non-commissioned officers and privates of the same Regiment, who fell on 
that occasion." 

7 St Ann's Park Terrace, Wandsworth, S.W. K. E. M'K. 



The usual Gaelic Song, with Music, is unavoidably left over. 

Y 



274 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



DUNTULM CASTLE A TERRIBLE REVENGE. 



IN tlie early history of the Highlands, the Clan Macdonald holds by far 
the most prominent position, both as regards numbers and extent of 
territory. 

At different periods during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries 
we find them holding possession of, or exercising authority over, the 
whole of the North West Islands, as well as the Sudereys the name by 
which the southern part of the Western Isles was then called besides many 
places on the mainland, particularly in Argyllshire, whence they got their 
secondary title of Thanes of Argyle. From the Island of Lewis southward 
to the Isle of Man, they ruled at one time or other. They did not own 
subjection to the king of Scotland, but, as Lords of the Isles, and repre- 
sentatives of the ancient Earls of Ross, actually entered into treaties and 
alliances with the English and other foreign Courts on the footing of 
independent princes. 

It can easily be understood that, owing to their great numbers and 
the scattered and detached character of their possessions, disputes and 
divisions were rife amongst them, the chieftains often quarrelling and 
engaging in petty wars on their own account, when not actively employed 
in fighting the battles of their superior, the Lord of the Isles. 

On the death of one of the chiefs, a dispute arose among his followers 
as to his successor there being two claimants to the honour one the 
son of the late chieftain, who was supported by the majority of the clans- 
men on that ground, but as his character and antecedents had made him 
very unpopular, being of an avaricious, cruel, and treacherous disposition, 
a good many of the olan espoused the claims of his cousin, a brave, out- 
spoken, gallant young man, who had already proved himself a good 
soldier and a wise politician. 

Finding themselves in a minority, the cousin and his adherents retired 
to Uist, whoso inhabitants were favourable to him, for the purpose of 
concerting with each other, and organising a scheme for obtaining pos- 
session of the Island of Skye and its Castle of Duntulm. 

There Was enmity, deep and deadly, between the two cousins, but 
their hatred had a longer and deeper root than the contest for supremacy 
now raging between them they were rivals in love as well as in power. 

The hoary Castle of Duntulm held a lovely prize, which both the 
young men coveted to call his own. Margaret was an orphan, and a 
ward of the late Chief. Beautiful, amiable, and accomplished, in addition 
to being an heiress, she was the admiration of all the eligible young 
gentlemen for miles round ; and often had her hand been sought by the 
neighbouring chiefs, but by the terms of her father's will she was to re- 
main a ward at Duntulm until she became of age, when two courses were 
open to her choice either to marry the young Lord of the Isles, or to 
take the veil Now, as the fair Margaret was a lively, merry girl, fond 
f gaiety and society, the thought of being immured in a convent was 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 275 

most distasteful to her ; at the same time she had conceived a great dislike 
to her destined husband. 

Cupid, that blind and fickle god, had indeed shot one of his random 
arrows, which had deeply pierced fair Margaret's breast ; but it was the 
cousin instead of the chief to whom her heart owned allegiance. 

The knowledge of being beloved by the object ef his adoration spurred 
this youth on in the slippery paths of ambition, for, as the fond pair of 
lovers would argue, if he could attain to the chiefship, then the letter of 
her father's will would be kept, though perhaps not the spirit. 

It was no easy task for her admirer to leave his betrothed behind him 
when he went to Uist, but there was no help for it. After a few weeks 
had passed he determined to risk paying a stolen visit to his beloved 
Margaret. He chose a favourable night, and, with only one attendant, 
set sail for Skye. On arriving, he left the boat in charge of his com- 
panion and carefully made his way to the Castle. Stealthily he moved 
forward ; warily he picked his footsteps, keeping well in the shadow of 
the Castle walls, for well he knew his life was not worth a moment's 
purchase were he discovered by its lord ; yet he dared risk all for one 
look, one word, of his dearest Margaret. His well-known signal was 
heard with delight ; and with the quickness of a woman's wit a plan was 
formed to enable her to meet her lover, whom she lovingly eluded for 
running such a danger for her sake. 

After the first few joyful moments at thus meeting once more was 
over, her lover began to speak seriously of their future movements, and 
confided to her a scheme he had been concocting to surprise the Castle 
and make himself master of the Island. It was arranged that Margaret 

should go to visit the Convent at , the lady superior of which was a 

relative of her own, and thus be out of danger during the intended attack 
on the Castle. " My plan is," continued he, speaking with earnestness 
and determination, " My plan is to cross the sea with all my men at 
night, land quietly, and immediately begin to build up with stones every 
means of exit from the Castle, and then dig under the foundation until it 
is so undermined that it will fak by itself, burying beneath its crumbling 
walls our enemy and his principal followers. This will strike such a 
panic into the rest of the clan that I have no doubt we shall easily sub- 
due them. But now, dearest, I must tear myself away, or I shall be dis- 
covered ; haste back to thy chamber, I will wait till I see the light at your 
window I shall then know you are safe." 

With loving words and lingering caresses, which seemed to say 

Parting is such sweet sorrow 
That I could say good night till it be morrow, 

the lovers at length separated, full of hopes of a speedy and happy re- 
union, which, alas ! was never to be realized. So absorbed were they in 
their conversation that neither of them observed the crouching figure of 
one of the chief's retainers dodging their footsteps, and listening with 
bated breath to all that was spoken at their secret tryst. , 

Nor did anything occur at the Castle to excite Margaret's suspicions 
of a discovery. She was allowed to pay her proposed visit to the con- 



276 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

vent unopposed, where she waited with ill-concealed impatience the 
looked-for news of the attack on the Castle. 

The night fixed upon arrived a stormy, gusty night, the thick drift- 
ing clouds obscuring the light of the moon, the dark lowering sky being 
fitfully illumined by livid streaks of lightning, Avhile the sound of the 
distant thunder re-echoed from the weather-beaten rocks. 

Her lover and his men were embarking in spite of the threatening 
state of the weather, for, he argued, the more tempestuous the night, the 
better chance he would have of taking the castle by surprise, so he and 
his willing comrades battled with the wind and waves, and at length 
reached the rocky coast of Skye. As their boats grated on the shingly 
beach, each man sprang out quietly, and without a word of command be- 
ing given, he took his place in the ranks ; freed his right arm from the 
folds of his plaid, drew his claymore, and stood waiting the signal to ad- 
vance. 

" ISTow, my friends, forward," said their leader, as the last man took 
his place, "follow me." 

They advanced swiftly and noiselessly for about five hur.dred yards, 
when the front rank paused in dismayed astonishment, for a flash of 
lightning had revealed a momentary glimpse of what appeared a long dark 
wall between them and the castle. " What is this, a dyke !" exclaimed 
the leader in accents of surprise, " why, there was never a dyke here." 
Again the electric fluid illumined the landscape with a vivid glare ; again 
the invaders saw the dyke, but they saw it mowng and advancing towards 
them ; then the truth burst like a thunderbolt upon the reckless youth 
and his party. " 'Tis the Macdonalds the Macdonalds are upon us !" 
were the cries from the bewildered men ; but above all rang out the clear 
loud voice of their commander. " Steady, forward, did we not come to 
meet the Macdonalds ; why do you hesitate then, forward, my friends ?" 
^Recovering from their temporary panic, the courageous clansmen rushed 
forward to meet the foe, and also, alas ! to meet their fate ; for the Mac- 
donalds came in overwhelming numbers, and after a short but determined 
fight, the would-be chief found himself a prisoner, with only three alive 
out of his brave band, who were prisoners along with him. 

The grey light of early dawn was struggling with the darkness of 
departing night as he and his companions in misery were marched under 
the frowning portals of gloomy Duntulm ; and before the first rosy gleams 
of the rising sun had appeared, ths bodies of his three friends were hang- 
ing on the traitors' gibbet in front of the castle, while he was ushered 
into the presence of his enraged cousin, who received him with mock 
courtesy, thanked him. with a sneer for the honour he had paid him by 
coming to visit the castle with such a large retinue ; and with sham apo- 
logies for such poor accommodation, conducted him to tho top of the high- 
est turret of the building, and, showing him into an apartment, said, 
pointing to the table on which was a piece of salt beef, a loaf of bread, 
and a large jug, " There is your dinner, which I trust you will enjoy, and 
I will now leave you to take a long repose after your late exertions." 

The youth bore all these gibes and sneers in silence, and, as the door 
closed behind his vindictive kinsman, he threw himself on the floor and gave 
way to the gloomy forebodings induced by his melancholy situation, 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 277 

After a while, he began to speculate on what his fate was to be, and why 
his life had been spared. Then, in spite of his despondency, he began to 
feel hungry, and going to the table made a hearty meal. " Well," he 
soliloquized, " they don't mean to starve me at ariyrate." The beef being 
very salt, he soon became thirsty, and he reached out his hand and took 
hold of the big stone jug. What means that sudden start 1 why does he 
gaze upon the jug with such despairing looks? why doe? he groan so 
heavily 1 the jug is empty ! not a drop of water to quench his raging 
thirst ! This, then, is the cruel fate reserved for him. Overpowered with 
the dreadful discovery, he sits stunned and motionless, but, hark ! some 
one is approaching ; he hears voices, perhaps, after all, it was an oversight. 
The hope, faint as it is, inspires him with fresh vigour, and springing up, 
he calls loudly to those he hears outside the door. No response is 
given to his repeated entreaties for a drink of water ; no response, yet he 
plainly hears mens' voices speaking to each other, and a strange inexplicable 
noise that he cannot at first comprehend, but as it goes on, he understands 
it too well. 'Tis the noise of masons building up the door oi his prison, 
evun as he had contemplated building up the doors of the castle, had he 
been the victor instead of the vanquished. 

Now, indeed, he feels there is no hope for him that he is doomed to 
die one of the most painful and agonising deaths that his enemy's re- 
lentless cruelty could suggest death from thirst made more intense by 
the salt beef which the cravings of hunger compelled him to devour. 

We draw a veil over his sufferings. No pen, however graphic, could 
describe his lingering agonies. Many years after, when the turret was 
again opened, there was found a skeleton grasping in its fleshless hands, 
part of a stone water jug, the other part of which had been ground to 
powder between the teeth of the poor thirst-maddened victim of Duntulm. 

Margaret waited at the convent for the news that came all too quickly. 
She heard of her lover's defeat, and that he was a prisoner of the cruel 
Lord of Dultulm it was enough. She sought refuge in the cloister, 
but her loving heart soon broke under its weight of sorrow ; and, in spite 
of the care and attention of the kind nuns, their tender sister pined away, 
and in a few short months Margaret was laid to rest in the peaceful 
cemetery of the convent. 

M. A. ROSE. 



DUNVEGAN CASTLE. 

TO THE EDITOR OP THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Sm, Be good enough to allow me to give a short explanation regard- 
ing the Gaelic poem, under the above heading, in your last issue. The 



278 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

poem was originally composed by my late father, Donald Macleod, the 
Skye bard, and has no reference whatever to Duuvegan Castle. 

It was published by him in his collection of 1811, and is to be found 
on page 173 of that book, under the title of " RANN MOLAIDH DO THIGH 
UK." There is also an engraving of the cottage on which it was com- 
posed. The circumstances of the case are these : Their lived in Stein, 
on the west coast of Skye, a prosperous country merchant, named Rode- 
rick M'Xeill, who was inclined to be a little conceited and vain. My fa- 
ther was quite a stripling at the time, and was looked upon as one able 
to " make a rhyme and sing a sang " on any worthy occasion. He hap- 
pened to go to Stein when Mr M'lfefll'a new house was in course of erec- 
tion. The merchant met him, and promised a handsome present 
if he would compose a complimentary duan on his new house ; but, 
behold, when the duan came to light, instead of my father being presented 
with a gift, Mr M'Xeill swore vengeance against him and against his 
poetry, for having ridiculed him and his new cottage, in such strong and 
extravagant language. I don't think, however, your readers will be dis- 
appointed at the result of your investigation about the origin of this poem, 
as it served to procure such an interesting note from the pen of one of the 
best Celts of the day, the Rev, Alexander Macgregor, M. A., of your good 
town of Inverness. The true and graphic account given by him of Dun- 
vegan Castle and its romantic surroundings, are valuable items of 
information regarding the strange traditions of the past, 

As your reverend contributor, Mr M'Calman, admits, there are several 
omissions and errors in the copy of the poem he so kindly sent you, but 
not sufficiently important to demand particular notice. But if Mr 
M'Calman or any of your friends wish for a correct copy of it, I shall be 
very glad to supply them. I am, &c., 

EDINBURGH. N. MACLEOD. 



literature. 



THE EP1STLK OF PAUL TO THE CHURCHES OF GALATIA, with Introduc- 
tion and Notes, by the Rev. JAMES MACGREGOR, D.D., Professor of Systematic 
Theology in the New College, Edinburgh. Edinburgh : T. & T. Clark. 

THIS is one of a series of Handbooks for Bible Classes, edited by the Rev. 
Marcus Dods, D.D., and the Rev. Alexander "Whyte, M.A., designed to 
assist "those whose business it is to teach Bible Classes, whether in the 
Church, the School, or the Family," and, if the one before us is a fair 
specimen of the rest of the series, they will be found eminently suited for 
this purpose. It is, howi-vrr, quite outsi.lt' the limits which we have laid 
d<>\vii lor ourselves to criticise the general character of such works as these. 
We leave Theology and cognate questions to those whose position and 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 279 

training qualify them in a proper nunner to deal with such important 
themes. The Celtic Magazine, is not inlendrd, nor is it suitable for such 
a purpose. Theology is not our forte. We are, however, particularly 
struck with Professor Macgregor's learned and most interesting " Intro- 
duction " to his Epistle to the Galatians, and being, as it is, purely criti- 
cal and historical, it is quite within the legitimate scope of our labours. 
The author holds that Galatia, or the Galatian land, is simply another 
name for Gaeldachd or Gaeldom that the Galatians were purely Celtic 
in blood as well as in name. They are, on this account, most interesting 
to us. They. have been claimed as a Teutonic race ; but in favour of this 
contention nothing can be alleged that is not obviously the fond inven- 
tion of the vanity of modern Teutons the Galatian race being the only 
one which has been addressed in any Epistle as a race. The Eomans 
were a mixed multitude of nationalities. But everything of real evidence, 
and of reasonable divination, attainable through language, institutions, 
manners, and temperament all so strangely marked in the Epistle to the 
Galatians ; and relative indications of ancient history " point to the con- 
clusion that Paul's Galatians were purely Celtic in blood as well as in 
name." 

The following quotation will give the reader a fair idea of the learned 
and interesting nature of this work : 

The name of Galatians (Galatae), of which Celts (Keltac) was a more ancient form 
applied to all of Gaulish blood, has somewhat puzzled critics ignorant of Celtic language. 
" Why," they perplexedly ask, "not say Gauls (ffalli), not Galatians?" Galatia (Gael- 
dachd) is the only name known by a Scotch Highlander for his own "land of the Gauls" 
(Gaels) ; while for Scotland at large he has no name but Albania (Albanachd), from 
Albion (which he calls Alba), the ancient name of Britain. Galatia (Gaeldachd, as if 
Gaeldom) is simply the Gaul country, domain or land of the Gaels ; and Galatae, or 
Celtae, the people of that land, is a secondary formation, by foreigners, from this name 
of the land. Observe that there never has been a king " of Scotland," nor emperor " of 
France." It is " of Scots," " of the French" the people giving their own name to the 
land. Jerome, who had dwelt among European Gauls in his youth, and afterwards 
visited Asiatic Galatia, says that the original word Gaul itself was understood to be des- 
criptive of fairness or blondness, characteristic of the Gauls in respect of skin and hair. 
This suggests geal (" white," whence yealach, " the white one," or " fair one," as proper 
name of the moon) ; and this geal, which is nearly the same in sound, is probably asso- 
ciated etymologically with the Teutonic gclb (pronounced "yelb," and anciently "yelv," 
whence our " yellow "). Jerome's etymological suggestion may tiius be well-foundtd. 
Gaul, or Gael, may originally have meant the "white" or "blond:" Albion (near in 
form to yelb) has long been understood to mean " the white land." 

The movement of Celts into Asia, about 280 B.C., was a sort of backward eddy of 
that great wave of Celtic migration which, after oveispreading Gaul proper, had over- 
flowed the Alps and the Pyrenees (witness Gallia Cisalpina and Spanish Cdtiberia), had 
travelled south and east along the course of the Danube, and ravaged Northern Greece 
in a raid made ever memorable by the pillaging of Delphi. Those Gauls who then crossed 
into Asia, at first mere roving invaders, soon became mercenary soldiers, and by and bye 
settled down into a district allotted to them, there are "soldiers' settlements " near 
Callander, which is described a "bounded by Faphlagonia, Cappadocia, Pontus, andBi- 
thynia, and having as its chief cities Ancyra, Pessinus, and Tavium." It will be seen on 
the map that this district is a high land, embracing the head waters of the great streams 
of Asia Minor. Secure in their mountain fastnesses, the new-comers were troublesome 
neighbours, occasionally making forays far into the surrounding lowlands. Though tri- 
butary to local monarchs, they retained a certain rude freedom under their own chief- 
tains, with a constitution not unlike that of Swiss Cantons under the Hapsburgs. When 
overcome by the Romans, 189 B.C., they had far degenerated from that valour, and soft- 
ened from that fierceness, which at one time had made them the terror of Upper Asia. 
But even after they became a .Roman province, 26 B.C., they retained their Celtic tongue, 
with features of character markedly Celtic. 

Though addressed by Paul in a Greek Epistle, they may have been preached to only 



280 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

in Celtic even by Paul. All over the civilized world knowledge of Greek was then, far 
more thai, knowledge of French is now in Europe, an accomplishment of a gentleman ; 
BO that the leading men in the Galatian churches would be able to understand a Greek 
letter, as leading men in the Outer Hebrides can understand an English letter, such as 
may be sent to the churches of Long Island by the General Assembly. But no minister 
who can speak Gaelic will think of preaching there in anything but Gaelic, the language 
of the people, which alone they can take in with ease and pleasure. Now we are in- 
formed by Jerome that the Galatians spake their own original tongue when he visited 
them, four hundred years after they had listened to Paul. (The second of his prefaces 
to his Commentary on Gal.) 

Ireuaeus, in the preface to his great work on Heresies, apologises for the rustiness of 
his Greek on the ground that he has long been in familiar use only of the language of the 
Celts. Greek must, have been well known to many inhabitants of his district, whose 
chief city, Marseilles, was reckoned almost a Greek city, and Latin to many more, wit- 
ness the very name of the district, Provincia (Provence). But Celtic was the common 
language of the people there. It is the plan of Providence for the diffusion of the gospel 
thtt the peoples should everywhere, so far as practicable, hear in "their own" respect- 
ive "tongues the great things of God." A people's " own tongue," the mother tongue, 
the language of home, fragrant with memories of home and of childhood with its won- 
dering delights, has for the purposes of popular instruction and impression an inimitable 
power ; especially when that tonue like Greek, Hebrew, Gorman, Celtic is one of 
those original or uncompounded tongues in which almost every word has a picture for 
the imagination and a song for the heart. Hence Irenaeus, learned Oriental though he 
was, in his pastoral labours would use only the language of the Celts. Hence our mis- 
sionaries labour to attain free use of the mother tongues of heathenism. Hence the 
Pentecostal effusion, of preparation for the grand campaign, was characterised by a 
miraculous gift of tongues. And there seems no good reason to regard as chimerical the 
suggestion that Paul for preaching purposes may hare used the gift in Galatia. 

Professor Macgrogor concludes this part of his Introduction thus : 

Unauthentic history, or vague unaccredited tradition, may suggest the not unplea- 
sing thought that the Galatian church, though disappearing from the records of the new 
kingdom, may have contributed to its progress. That progress was markedly rapid and 
great among Celts. Irenaeus, in a letter to the churches of Smyrna and Asia generally, 
about a persecution of the Celtic church of Lyons and Vienne, circa A.D. 171, describes 
a state of things implying that Christianity must then have been r&oted in that district 
for some time. Not long after, Teitullian boasts that in (then Celtic) Britain Christ 
has gone with His gospel farther than the Romans have been able to penetrate with tire 
and sword. This places a widespread Celtic Christianity within a lifetime of the apos- 
tles : Irenaeus was a pupil of Polycarp of Smyrna, who had sat at the feet of John the 
Divine. The Celtic churches (e.g. of the Scottish Culdees) long continued to retain some 
traces of Orientalism of oiigin, pointing towards Asia Minor as the source of Celtic 
evangelization. And the heart as well as the imagination is gratified by the suggestion 
thus arising, that the Galatian churches may have sent the gospel to the Celts of Europe. 
"We learn from Jerome that in his day their spoken language was in substance what was 
spoken by the Treviri European Celts of Trdves. There is a vague tradition about a 
mysterious visitor who came to Britain with the gospel, round by the Straits of Gibraltar 
from the Mediterranean Sea. May not this mysterious visitor have been a Christian of 
Galatia, perhaps a convert of Paul and a student of this Epistle, who, driven by perse- 
cution or constrained by love of Christ, bore the gospel from a Celtic land near the 
cradle of mankind, and preached it in the mother-tongue to that Britain which was the 
then recognised motherland of the Celts ? 

The book is neatly got up in every respect, and, as already said, emi- 
nently suited for the purpose for which it is intended. 



McCHEYNE IN GAELIC. We understand that the Eev. Allan 
Sinclair, Keumore, is preparing for the press the Sixth Thousand of his 
Gaelic Edition of M'Cheyne. 



THE 



No. XLIV. JUNE, 1879. - VOL. IV. 

HIGHLAND AND ISLAND SCENEEY. 
BY THE KEY. ALEX. MACGBEGOR, M.A. 



II. 

WHILE most of the parishes in Skye have natural curiosities peculiar to 
themselves, Kilmuir in the north end has its own. The island at large 
has deservedly attracted the attention, not only of those who diligently 
pry into the "arcana" of science, but also of such tourists as delight in 
the contemplation of nature's rudest and most romantic forms. Here are 
presented to the stranger's view a variety of most magnificent points of 
original beauty. Its lofty hills of rugged outline, covered in part with 
blooming heath, and in part denuded of all their verdure by the chilling 
blasts of winter, display in their formation a grandeur of figure and form, 
which seldom can find a parallel anywhere. In one place the foaming 
cataract precipitously rushes over the shelving rocks, and presents a grand 
and pleasing contrast to the gentle rivulet that quietly pursues its course 
in the valley below. In another, the lofty mountains rear their towering 
pinnacles into the clouds, and from their immense altitudes, are seen at 
great distances. Here and there valleys are found interspersed with sheets 
of water, or little lakes, which beautifully reflect the ragged images of the 
impending cliffs. This is truly the " land of mountain and lake ;" yea, it 
is, as the poet says : 

The land where the cloud loves to rest, 
Like the shroud of the dead, on the mountain's cold breast ; 
Where the wood girded rocks to the eagles reply, 
And the lake her lone bosom expands to the sky ! 

There are many scenes in the Isle of Skye which merit particular notice, 
but of all 

In the Hebride Isles, 
Placed far amid the melancholy main 

There are none that can exceed Quiraing in the north end of the Island, 
as to its particular features. My own humble description of it in the 
" New Statistical Account of Scotland," written about 40 years ago, was 
the first notice that called the attention of tourists to its romantic beauties. 
It is indeed a remarkable formation of nature, and evidently the result of 



282 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

some primaeval volcanic eruption. It consists of a secluded piece of level 
and fertile ground, concealed in the face of an almost inaccessible preci- 
pice. The hill in which it is situated is about 1000 feet in height, and 
slopes by a steep declivity towards the west ; but towards the north-east 
it presents a face of rugged precipices, much variegated, by being here 
and there composed of huge basaltic columns, or massy fragments of fluted 
rocks. In other parts larger spaces formed into concave sections, present 
themselves to the view, and have a majestic appearance from being ribbed 
transversely either by small fissures, or protuberant seams over which a 
little rividet drizzles in the moist seasons of the year. In the face of this 
huge precipice, Quiraing is enshrined and entirely hidden from the 
view of the visitor. He may be told that it is there, but without a guide 
he might fail to discover it. This interesting spot consists of a green plot 
of ground, as level as a bowling-green, formed into an oblong platform of 
sufficient extent to contain six or seven regiments of soldiers. It is 
studded all round with massive fragments of rock, jutting up into lofty 
peaks, by the intervention of deep chasms, which are, for the most part, 
inaccessible. Oil approaching the great inlet to the eagerly looked-for 
platform, the passage is much obstructed by heaps of stone and rubbish 
which have been washed down from the crevices by the gradual waste of 
successive ages. When these obstacles are overcome, the visitor finds 
himself at the entrance of a steep passage, which would seem to lead him 
to the top of a hill To the right of this entrance stands an isolated pyra- 
mid of rock, called the " Needle," which rises perpendicularly to some 
hundred feet in height. By considerable exertion the tourist gains 
the top of the pass, and beholds with indescribable wonder the scene 
which opens to his view. Instead of seeing, as he would expect, some 
narrow cave, he beholds, with pleasing disappointment, a spacious opening 
before him, in the centre of which stands the already-mentioned platform. 
By descending a short distance and threading his way by a small path, 
he is instantly led to the beautiful green plain, which was all along his 
object to attain. He now stands utterly bewildered, and quite at a loss 
what to examine first, or to admire most. He beholds the rocks frowning 
aloft, and the rugged cliffs ranging themselves in huge circles around him. 
Rocky pyramids like a bulwark encompass the fairy plain on which he 
stands. All is felt to be a dreary solitude, yet there is a pleasing beauty 
in the silent repose. The golden eagle is seen soaring aloft in the blue 
firmament. A panoramic view of the distant sea and district below, is 
visible only in detached fragments through the rugged clefts and chasms 
between the surrounding pyramids. The rocks which compose these huge 
columns are so streaked and variegated, that the visitor's imagination can- 
not fail to delineate hundreds of grotesque figures of the wildest description 
on their surface. The nature of the day on which this interesting place 
is visited has a great effect on its appearance. It is so studded and en- 
compassed with columns and pinnacles of all heights, sizes, and figures, 
that their flickering shadows on a sunshiny day have an enchanting 
effect on all who behold them. Light and shade are then so uncommonly 
divided, and so constantly changing positions, that the place in conse- 
quence is greatly enhanced in beauty ; but should a dense mist envelope 
the spot, as is frequently the case, the scene is greatly changed. Instead 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 283 

of being lovely and enchanting, a night-like gloom falls over it, like a 
shroud of darkness. The thick mist slowly floating through the pyramids, 
and intercepting their rugged pinnacles from the view, give a sombre ap- 
pearance to the whole. The visitor's imagination will lead him to think 
that the gloomy pyramids before him bind earth a^d heaven together. 
He cannot but admire, yet at the same time he is filled with a sort of awe 
which causes him to ascribe the marvellous Avorks which lie shrouded be- 
fore him to the wonderful doings of that Omnipotent Being Avho created 
all things. 

At the distance of a feAV miles from Quiraing is a small lake called 
" Loch Miaghailt," which discharges its Avaters into the sea by an unseen 
subterraneous passage through the rocks. Near where the stream from 
this lake spouts out from the precipice may be seen the form of a High- 
lander, in full costume, in the face of the rock. From the striking re- 
semblance of this cliff to a completely garbed Highlander, it received the 
name of " Creag-na-feile," or " the liock of the Kilt," and has been fre- 
quently admired by tourists. It can only be seen to advantage from a 
little di.sta.nce at sea. In this district of the island, as Avell as around the 
west coast of Skye in general, the land is hemmed in by tracts of lofty 
perpendicular precipices, mostly formed into huge, parallel, square, round, 
and triangular pillars of basalt. South-east of Quiraing is a large and 
lofty mountain ridge called the " Storr," Avhich is one of the most inter- 
esting formations of nature in the island. The isolated peak of Storr, 
projecting to an immense height from the bosom of the adjacent hill, is 
seen from afar, and its ragged, irregular outline cannot fail to attract the 
traveller's notice at the distance of many miles. To Avar; Is the east, the 
Storr presents a range of rugged cliffs, broken into irregular formations, 
and rising to an immense height. The various recesses and projections of 
this remarkable place render it a scene highly grand and picturesque. 
While a fog happens to SAveep the bosom of Storr, appearances like those 
of lofty spires, Avails, and turrets, are seen emerging in majestic forms 
from the driving mists. 

Skye is studded all round with ancient " Duns," or forts, and it is 
evident from the situation of these forts that they AA r ere intended to give 
each other an alarm at the approach of an enemy, as they are invariably 
found to be in sight of each other. The signal which Avas given, as may 
be gathered from ancient tradition and songs, consisted of something 
which Avas set on fire, and the burning light Avas held up on the turrets 
of the fort by Avhat Avas called the " Crois taraidh," or " Crann-taraidh," 
that is, a fiery-cross or gathering-beam. At times this beam, Avhich con- 
sisted of a piece of Avood, half burnt, and dipped in the blood of some 
animal, was circulated by emissaries, as a signal of distress. It is spoken 
of by Ossian and Ullin, as Avell as by several modern Celtic bards 

Ach ciod so'n solus ann Innisfail, 
O chrann taraidh an fhnathaia? 
Togaibh bhur siuil, tairnibh bhur raimh 
Grad-ruithibh gu traigh, is buaidh leibh ! 

But what light is this in Innis-fail, 

From the gathering- beam of terror? 

Unfurl your sails, ply your oars 

Make haste to- the beach, and may victory be yours ! 



284 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

The most entire ruin in the north of Skye is the splendid castle of Dun- 
tulm, the ancient residence of the illustrious descendants of " Somerled 
Rex Insularuin," the Lords of the Isles. Most of these renowned charac- 
ters were interred in a plot in the parish burying-ground, called " Eeileag 
Mhor Chloiun Donihnuill," or " the large cemetery of the Macdonalds," 
being the spot where a splendid lona cross was lately erected as a monu- 
ment to the celebrated Flora Macdonald. In this quarter also is the lake 
of St Columba, with its ruined monastery but the lake is now drained 
and converted into arable land. A few miles southward is the beautiful 
Bay of Uig, the Castle of Peinduin, Kingsburgh, the Prince's Well, and 
other localities of interest. Portree, or " the King's harbour," the capital of 
Skye, is a. neat little village, with its three or four banks, as many lawyers, 
as many ministers, as many churches and schools, as many hotels, thrice 
as many merchants, and one sheriff, one fiscal, one pdson, one mill, in 
short, it is a complete little place with its splendid harbour. It derived 
its name from James V., who anchored and remained for some time in 
the bay. The scenery all around is romantic and beautiful. Close to the 
village is Prince Charles' cave, and opposite to it is the Island of Eaasay. 
The south-western portion of Skye is possessed of various objects of 
interest. The promontory of Waternish, where a bloody battle took place 
between the Macleods of Dunvegan and the Macdonalds of Clanranald 
ftom Uist, is well worthy of a visit. At the time of this invasion many 
of the Macleods were assembled for worship in the church of Trumpan, 
which the enemy surrounded, set on fire, and destroyed the worshippers. 
The flames of the church and the fiery-cross soon gathered together a 
powerful band of the Macleods, who took full revenge of the Macdonalds 
for the cruel slaughtering of their friends. The battle was fought on the 
sea-beach at Ardmore. The Clanranalds were cut off to a man, and their 
slain received no burial, except a covering of stones from a wall or dyke 
that stood near. To this day quantities of their bones are to be seen 
among the loose stones on the shore. The Clanranalds received their 
reward for this, as we shall see afterwards. 

Dunvegan Castle, built on a rock at the head of Loch-Failloirt, and 
still the residence of the Macleods, is a very interesting monument of 
antiquity. A certain tower in this venerable fortress is said to have been 
built in the ninth century, and another tower still higher, was erected by 
"Alasdair Crotach " (hump-backed Alexander) in the twelfth century, 
but Eory Mor, who was knighted by James VI., united the two towers 
by a substantial building erected between them. The fortress was well 
guarded by a steep precipice towards the sea, and by a wide and deep 
moat behind. There are some ancient relics in this castle to which much 
interest is attached, and which are well worthy of inspection. These are 
" A Bhratach-Shith," or. the Fairy flag, made of strong yellow silk. Ac- 
cording to tradition it is the palladium of the Macleod family, and all their 
fortunes hinge upon it. It is said to have been taken as a prize by one 
of the Macleods from a Saracen Chief during the crusades, and to possess 
great miraculous properties. The second relic in the castle is a cup or 
chalice, called "Niall Ghin-Dubh," and it is said to have been taken by 
one of the Macleods from an Irish chief of that name. It stands on four 
legs, and is belted round Avith silver elegantly engraved, having sockets 






THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 285 

for precious stones, a few of which still remain. The next relic is Eory 
M6r's horn a drinking cup of great dimensions. It is mentioned by 
Burns in one of his songs, arid is minutely described by Sir Walter Scott, 
in his Lord of the Isles. It requires three ordinary quart bottles to fill 
it. The quaffing of its contents in claret, has been reckoned an indis- 
pensable ceremony at the inauguration of any of the chiefs of Macleod. 
Dunvegan is surrounded by hills. The Greater and Lesser " Helvel," or 
Macleod's Tables, are remarkable mountains, that are perfectly flat on the 
top, and slope regularly down to their bases. The points of Galtrigil, of 
Idrigil, and Waterstein, present huge cliffs towards the sea, and are very 
bold and romantic. Near the point of Idrigil, three very romantic basaltic 
pillars rise perpendicularly out of the sea, and the highest is upwards of 
200 feet in height. They are known as " Macleod's Maidens," and the 
natives designate them as the mother and her two daughters, and the old 
lady, the highest of the group, is known by the name of " Nic Cleosgeir 
Mhoir." The Maidens are seen at great distances, and many curious 
legends are connected with them. Sir AV Scott compares them to the 
Norwegian. Eiders, or chusers of the slain. The landscape altogether is 
one of exquisite grandeur. The scenery shifts at every step, and each 
successive view seems to excel the rest. The cloud-capped " Cullin " 
rises its inaccessible pinnacles far beyond the other mountains, and is 
visible in almost every part of the island. Next in order, Marsco, Beilig, 
Blath-Bheinn, Scor-nan-Gillean, Beinn-na-Caillich, Glamaig, and others, 
shoot themselves forth in every variety of figure and appearance. But 
the most astonishing perhaps of all the scenes is the far-famed " Loch- 
Coir- Uisge." On entering the bay of Sgabhaig, the spectator is struck 
with the rugged outline presented by the spiry and serrated peaks of the 
lofty Cullin. He finds himself surrounded by huge lead-coloured rocks 
denuded of all verdure. As he advances, a valley, enclosed by mountains 
of the most precepitous character opens to the view, thus encircling and 
forming the dark lake of Coir-Uisge. A wonderous place ! It reminds 
one of the black Stygian waters of the nether world. Here the poet's 
pen and the artist's pencil are at fault, and seem powerless to delineate 
the scene aright. The Great Wizard, with his magic pen, has said : 

Rarely human eye has known 
A scene so stern as that dread lake, 

With its dark ledge of barren stone. 
Seems that primeval earthquakes' sway, 
Had rent a strange and shatter'd way, 

Through the rude bosom of the hill. 
And that each naked precipice, 
Sable ravine, and dark abyss, 

Tell of the outrage still. 
The wildest glen, but this, can show 
Some touch of Nature's glow ; 
On high Benmore green mosses grow, 
And heath bells bud in deep Glencroe, 

And copse on Cruachan Ben ; 
But here, above, around, below, 

On mountain or in glen, 
Nor tree, nor shrub, nor plant, nor flower, 
Nor aught of vegetative power 

The weary eye may ken, 
For all is rocks at random thrown. 
Black waves, bare crags, and banks of stone, 



286 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

As if were here denied 
The summer sun, the spring's sweet dew, 
That clothe with many a varied hue 

The bleakest mountain side. 

At the base of the Cullins is what is called Loch-Sligachan, a lake 
that is much frequented by botanists, as a peculiar plant grows in it, 
which is technically called the " Eriocaulon septangulare " a plant said 
to be so rare that it is found in one other place only in all Europe. 

Not very distant from the fairy scene of Loch-coir-Uisge is the cele- 
brated Spar-cave of Strathaird, called " Slochd-Altraman " by the natives. 
It must be viewed by torch-light, and cannot fail to be admired by every 
visitor. Its lofty vault is really grand. It is resplendent, with pure white 
icicles of semi-transparent spar, and has its roof supported, and its sides 
decorated, with massy columns of the same sparkling material. At the 
inmost recess is a circular pond formed of shining spar, like a huge marble 
basin, several feet deep and wide, and surrounded by the most beautiful 
mouldings, as if of pure molten tallow solidified into stone. " This pool," 
says Sir W. Scott, " distinguished by the depth and purity of its waters, 
might have been the bathing grotto of a Naiad." 

Opposite to this cave, after crossing Loch Eisort to the Sleat district, 
is the ancient fortress of " Dunskaith," whose extensive ruins can still be 
traced. Ossian relates that Cuchullin, the son of Semo, had his palace at 
Dunskaith, and there is a large stone near the castle called " Clach-Luath," 
said to be the stone to which Cuchullin chained his favourite dog, 
" Luath," after the chase. The district of Sleat is more like Lowland 
than Highland scenery, yet Armadale Castle, the scat of Lord Macdonald, 
Isleornsay, the ivy -clad castle of Knock, the view of the opposite coast 
of Glenelg, Loch-Hourn, Loch-Nevis, Arisaig, and Morar, are all romantic 
and interesting. 

All this is but a mere glance at the scenery of this interesting " Isle 
of Mist," wherein the forms and colouring of nature are frequently mag- 
nificently grand, for even in Skye it does not always rain. Who can view 
without a pleasing elevation of mind the tempestuous Atlantic battling 
with the fury of the elements ! The Long Island, from the Butt of Lews 
to Barra-head more than a hundred miles stretches along to the west 
of Skye, guarding it, as it were, from the wild swellings of the Atlantic 
deep. What can be more beautiful than to witness the clouds of mist 
receding, in thickening folds from the mountains to the higher regions of 
the atmosphere, and leaving the landscape again to rejoice in the bright- 
ness of sunshine. At times they present phenomena-like celestial moun- 
tains, tinged with the riches and variety ol prismatic colouring. The 
splendour of the morning and evening drapery baffles all description. 
The Aurora Borealis, or Polar lights, are often exceedingly brilliant, as 
are likewise the solar rainbow, and the lunar halo. Such luminous 
meteors certainly surpass in magnificence any appearances of the kind 
in other parts of the Kingdom. 

The natives have frequently to encounter many storms in their boats 
and sailing crafts, and are at times exposed to great dangers. Mr Robert 
Buchanan beautifully describes a night on Loch Eribol, and translates 
the Gaelic melody sung by one of the boatmen. He says : " It is a 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 287 

summer night ; and we are lying in the stem of the fishing skiff, rowed 
by two stalwart boatmen. As we glide along under the black shadow of 
the hills, one of the men is crooning to himself, in a low sort of under- 
tone, a weird Highland melody, one of those exquisitely beautiful tunes, 
which are half a recitative, half a melody, oratory set to cadence, and 
sparkling into music, just as a fountain tops itself with spray. The ditty 
he is singing may be rendered into English words as follows, but no 
translation can convey the deep pathos arid subtle sweetness of the 
original : 

O mar a tha mi ! 'tis the wind that's blowing, 

O mar a tha mi ! 'tis the sea that's white, 
'Tis my own brave boatman was up and going 

From Uist to Barra at dead of uight. 
Body of black and wings of red, 

His boat went out on the stormy sea. 
O mar a tha mi ! can I sleep in my bed ? 

Mo ghille dubh ! come back to me ! 

O mar a tha mi ! is it weed out yonder ? 

O ! is it weed or a tangled sail ? 
On the shore I wait, and watch, and wonder, 

It's calm this day, but my heart is pale. 
O ! this is the skiff with wings so red, 

And it fl >ats upturned on the glassy sea. 
O ! mar a tha mi ! is my boatman dead ? 

O ! ghille dhuibh ! come back to me ! 

O ! mar a tha mi ! 'tis a corpse that's sleeping, 

Floating there on the weeds and sand ; 
His face is drawn, and his locks are dreeping, 

His aims are stiff, and he's clenched his hands. 
Turn him p on his sandy bed, 

Clean his face from the weed o' the sea. 
O ! mar a tha mi ! 'tis my boatman dead ! 

O ! ghille dhuibh ! won't you look at me ? 

O ! mar a tha mi ! 'tis my love that's taken ! 

O ! mar a tha mi ! I am left forlorn ! 
He'll never kiss, and he'll never waken, 

He'll never look on the babe unborn. 
His blood is water, his heart is lead, 

He's dead and slain by the cruel sea. 
O ! mar a tha mi ! I am lone in my bed, 

Mo ghille dxibh ! is away from me ! 

Many things of deep interest might be related of the other islands 
southward of Skye. Eigg, Eum, Soa, Muck, Canna, have all their fea- 
tures of beauty. Around the coast of Eigg there are numerous caves, and 
some of them are wide and spacious. Among these is " Uamh Fhraing," 
or the Cave of Erancis, which is so narrow in the mouth that a person 
must creep on hands and knees to obtain an entrance ; but within it is 
loity and wide, and extends in length to about 220 feet. Of old the 
island belonged to Clanranald, and it was peopled with about 500 souls. 
The natives one day observing a number of galleys approaching the isle, 
knew well that they were filled with their feudal enemies, the Mac- 
leods of Dunvegan. They knew well that they had left Skye, to be 
revenged of them for the massacre and burning at the church of Trumpan. 
Trembling with fear, the Eigg men retired in despair to this cave, their 
only refuge. The Macleods landed, traversed the whole island amid 
a densely falling snow, and as they could not discover a human being 



288 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

in all the place, they concluded that they had nvide their escape to the 
mainland. They ransacked and pillaged the whole isle every house 
and hamlet ! Disappointed and enraged they set sail at day-break next 
morning for Skye. Unfortunately the prisoners in the cave sent out a 
messenger that morning to spy the motions of the enemy. Not seeing 
their galleys in the bay of Laig, where they had anchored, he ascended to 
the top of Sguir, a lofty, precipitous hill in the island, to ascertain if the 
hostile lleet had sailed for home. He was observed by the Macleods on 
the pinnacle of Sguir, when immediately they turned back to the bay 
which they had left, and found the foot prints of the ill-fated spy in the 
snow. By this means they soon discovered the place where the wretched 
inhabitants lay in concealment. With the most savage barbarity the 
Macleods collected the furniture, straw, bedding, and all such combus- 
tibles from the hamlets around, set fire to the whole at the mouth of the 
cave, and suffocated to death every soul of th". miserable inhabitants. I 
visited the cave about forty-five years age, and then the skulls and scat- 
tered bones within it ghastly to look at would fill a large van. 

With Ardnamurchan, Mull, Oban, Inveraray, the whole coast of Argyle- 
shire, and the southern Hebrides, I shall not weary the reader. Islay, 
Colonsay, and Jura, and the dangerous whirlpool of Corriebhreacain, have 
individually their objects of interest, but none so much so as Staffa, with 
its thundering cave, and lona, with its many sacred relics. So much was 
the stern moralist, Johnson, himself affected by the scene, that he walked 
with uncovered head over the graves of kings, and through the ruins of 
the religious edifices, and was forced to exclain : " We are now treading 
that illustrious island which Avas once the luminary of the Caledonian 
regions, Avhence savage clans, and roving barbarians derived the benefits of 
knowledge and the blessings of religion." 

Tradition says that St Columba, a little before his death, uttered the 
following prediction to his dj.sciples : 

Ann I mo chridhe, I mo ghraidb, 

Ann aite guth Manaich, bithidh geum ba ; 
Acb mu'n tig an saogbal gu cricb, 

Bithidh I mar a bba ! 

In tbe Isle of my heart, the Isle of my love, 
Instead of a Monk's voice, there shall be the lowing of cattle, 

But ere the world comes to an end, 
lona shall flourish as before. 

We have noAv finished our notes on the scenery of the Highlands, and 
regret the hurried and imperfect manner in which this interesting subject 
had been treated. That scenery is IIOAV happily Avithin the reach of every 
lover of nature's works, Avho can afford the means and time to visit it. 
"Now," says Wilson, "the Avhole Highlands, Avestern and northern, may 
"be commanded in a month. Xot that any one Avho knows Avhat they 
are Avill imagine that they can be exhausted in a less time. Steam has 
now bridged the Great Glen, and connected the two seas." Railways 
have reached to the far north, and haAje brought John O'Groat's and the 
Land's End into close felloAvship. Salt and fresh Avater lochs, the most 
remote and Inaccessible, are brought Avithin the reach of a summer day's 
voyage. In a Aveek, or tAVo at the most, a joyous company can gather all 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 289 

the mainland shores, leaving not one magnificent bay uncircled, and hav- 
ing rounded St Kilda and the Hebride Isles, and heard the pealing anthem 
of waves in the cave-cathedral of Staffa, may bless the tolling of St 
Mungo's bells on the following Sabbath day. 

We would fain say a few words 011 the character and life of the High- 
landers, but are at present unable even to touch that interesting subject. 
It is impossible that the minds of travellers through those wonderful 
regions can be so occupied with the contemplation of mere inanimate 
nature, as not to give many a thought to their inhabitants, both now and 
in the olden times ! " We love the people too well," said Wilson, " to 
praise them. We have had too heartfelt experience of their virtues to 
forget them. In castle, hall, house, manse, hut, hovel, shieling, on moun- 
tain and moor, we have known, without having to study their character." 
They are now, as they ever were, affectionate, faithful, and fearless and 
severe as have been the hardships of their condition, they are contented 
and peaceful yet nothing short of dire necessity can dissever them from 
their dear mountains and glens ! While the fierceness and ferocity which 
characterised them in the turbulence of feudal times, have vanished away, 
long may they prosper as loyal subjects, retaining their places, their pro- 
fessions, their chiefs, their songs, their traditions, their peculiar customs, 
their dress, and above all, that noble language of theirs, which is the sub- 
ject of so much general interest and excitement in the present day ! 



THE HIGHLAND DRESS AND THE DISARMING ACT 
AFTER THE FORTY-FIVE. Some opinion may be formed of the 
importance Avhich Government attached to the garb by the following oath, 
administered in 1747 and 1748 in Fort-William and other places where 
the people were assembled for the purpose, those who refused to take it 
being treated as rebels : " I, A. B., do swear, as I shall answer to God 
at the great day of Judgment, I have not, nor shall have, in my possession 
any gun, sword, pistol, or arm whatsoever, and never use tartan, plaid, or 
any part of the Highland garb ; and if I do so, may I be cursed in my 
undertakings, family, and property, may I never see my wife and child- 
ren, father, mother, or relations ; may I be killed in battle as a coward, 
and lie without Christian burial in a strange land, far from the graves of 
my forefathers and kindred ; may all this come across me if I break my 
oath." The framers of this oath understood the character of the High- 
landers. The abolition of the feudal power of the chiefs, and the Dis- 
arming Act, had little influence on the character of the people in com- 
parison Avith the grief, indignation, and disaffection occasioned by the loss 
of their garb. Stewart's Sketches of the Highlanders. 



290 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



DEATH OF DR NORMAN MACLEOD. 



THE following lines on the death of the late l)r Norman Macleod, of the 
Barony Parish, Glasgow, were written by me in St Petersburg, in Sep- 
tember 1873, but they have never been in print ; and I send them in case 
you might like to give them a corner in the Celtic Magazine : 

Thy warfare's o'er, great chieftain, now's thy rest, 

" Beyond the voices " of tumultuous time, 
Quenched is the genial glow that warmed thy breast, 

And made the beauties of thy life sublime. 
Sleep soundly near the old beloved home, 

Where often thou life's golden dream did weave ; 
Sleep soundly by the hills o'er which did roam 

Thy youthful feet on many a joyous eve. 

We mourn the silence of thy noble voice, 

That charmed the ears, and swayed the hearts of men, 
That made their souls with purest joy rejoice, 

And brought life's hidden things within their ken. 
Ah ! thou, Avith sympathy's own magic touch, 

Could heal life's broken springs, and bring again 
Sweet music from the chords where over much 

Of care and sorrow had left only pain. 

And with thine eloquence thou couldst unlock 

The worldling's heart, and bring his hoarded gold 
Like streams of water from the flinty rock 

To bless life's poor ones hungry, faint, and cold. 
And 'midst thy greatness and thy power, thou 

With grace and tenderness did'st rich abound, 
Like a great rock whose high majestic brow 

With simple ivy and with heath is crowned. 

Thou, like thine own " Wee Davie," had become 

A glorious centre Avhere affections met, 
Where sweet good-will had found a gladsome home, 

From which to scatter drizzling clouds of jet. 
Monarch and peasant claimed thee as a friend, 

Their loves met, beauteously around thee twined ; 
And as in life, so in thy latter end, 

Sweetly Avas lowliness with state combined. 

They laid thee to thy rest beneath thy plaid, 

The Highland plaid that thou didst love so well, 
And o'er it proudly gentle hands had laid 

The Queen's sweet offerings of immortelles. 
Sleep soundly near thine old beloved home, 

Till the great morn in golden light Avill break, 
Sleep soundly till God's mighty voice Avill come 

In joy and gladness to bid thee awake. 

MARY MACKELLAB. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 291 

HISTORY OF THE CLAN MACKENZIE. 

BY THE EDITOR. 

[CONTINUED. | 

THE MACKENZIES OF GAIRLOCH. 

THE family of Gairlocli is descended from ALEXANDER, SIXTH BARON OP 
KINTAIL, known among the Highlanders as "Alastair lonraic," by his 
second Aviie, Margaret, daughter of Macdonald of Morar, called by the 
Highlanders " Mac Dh.ugb.ail," or Son of Dougal. There is a considerable 
difference of opinion among the genealogists and family historians respect- 
ing Alexander's wives. Edmonston, in his " Baronagium Genealogicum," 
and Douglas, in his " Peerage," says that Alexander's first wife was Agnes, 
sixth daughter of Colin, first Earl of Argyll. This, we think, can be 
shown to be absolutely impossible. Colin succeeded as a minor in 1453, 
his uncle, Sir Colin Campbell of Glenurchy, having been appointed his 
tutor. Colin of Argyll was created Earl in 1457, probably on his coming 
of age. He married Isabel Stewart of Lorn, and had two sons, and, ac^ 
cording to Crawford, five daughters. If he had a daughter Agnes she 
must have been his eighth child. Assuming that Argyll married when 
he became of age, about 1457, Agnes, as his eighth surviving child, could 
not, in all probability, have been born before 1470. Her reputed hus- 
band, Alexander of Kintail, was then close upon 70 years of age, having 
died in 1488, bordering upon 90, just at a time when his reputed wife 
would barely have arrived at a marriageable age, and Avhen her reputed 
son, Kenneth a Bhlair, pretty well advanced in years, had fought the 
famous Battle of Park. John of Killin, her reputed grandson, was born 
in 1480, when at most she could only have been 10 to 15 years of age, 
and at the age of 33 he fought at Flodden, where Archibald, second Earl 
of Argyll, this lady's brother, and at least ten years younger than her, 
was slain. How could these things be? Further comment would be 
superfluous. 

The same difficulty has arisen, from what appears to us to be a very 
simple cause, about his second marriage. The authors of all the family MS. 
histories are unanimous in stating that Alexander's first wife was Anna, 
daughter of Macdougall of Lorn, or Dtmollich. Though the direct line 
of the house of Lorn ended in two heiresses, who, in 1838, carried away 
the property to their husbands the Stewarts of Invermeath the Mac- 
dougalls of Dunollich became the male representatives of that ancient and 
illustrious house ; and this fully accounts for the discrepancy and con- 
fusion about the families of Lorn and Dunollich in some of the family 
histories. 

Regarding Alexander's second marriage the same authorities, who 
affirm that Agnes of Argyll was his first wife, assert that Anna Macdou- 
gall was his second. There is ample testimony that she was his first, 
though some confusion has again arisen in this case from a similarity of 
names and patronymics. Some of the family MSS. say that Alexander's 
second wife was Margaret, daughter of "M'Couil," "M'Chouile," or " Mac- 



292 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

dougal " of Morir, or Morar, while several others, among them the Allan- 
grange " Ancient " 31 S., say tliat she was " MacRanald's daugliter." The 
Ardintoul M.S. has it that she was "Muidort's daughter." One of the 
(Jail-loch M-SS. in our p-is-n-ssion say.s that she was "Margarite, the 
daughter of the Macdonald of Morar, of tlie Clan Ranald Race from the 
Stock of Donald, Lord of the .Klnuhe Islands," while in another, also in 
our possession, she is described as " Margaret Macdonald, daughter of 
Macdonald of Morar." There is here an apparent contradiction, but it 
can be shown, we think, Avith perfect accuracy, that the lady so variously 
described was one and the same person. Gregory, in his " Highlands 
and Isles of Scotland," p. 158, clearly shows that this Macdougalwas the 
patronymic of one of the Families of Clan Ranald of Moydart and Murar. 
Speaking of Dougal MacRanald, son and successor to Ranald L'an Ran- 
aldson of Moydart, he says, " Allan, the eldest son of Dougal, and the 
undoubted male heir of Clan Ranald, acquired the estate of Morar, which 
he transmitted to his descendants. He and his successors were always 
styled, in Gaelic, MacDhughaiJ Mhorair, i.e., MacDougal of Morar, from 
their ancestor, Dougal MacRanald." At p. G5 he informs ns that " the 
Clan Ranald of Garmoran comprehended the families of Moydart, Morar, 
Knoydart, and Glengarry," and that they were descended from Ranald, 
younger son of John of the Isles, by his marriage with the heiress of the 
MacRorys, or MacRuairies of Garmoran, whose ancestry, from Somerled 
of the Isles, is as illustrious as that of any family in Britain. A district 
north of Arisaig is still known among the Western Islanders as " Mor-thir 
Mhic Dhughail," or the mainland possession of the sou of Dougal. The 
MS. histories of the Mackenzies, having been all written after the pat- 
ronymic of " MacDhughail" was acquired by the Macdonalds of Moydart 
and Morar, naturally enough called Alexander of Kintail's second wife, a 
daughter of Macdougal of Morar, or Muidort, and of Clan Ranald indis- 
criminately, for all these designations applied to the same family. 

Alexander was twice married, first to Anna, daughter of Macdougall 
of Dunolly ; secondly to Margaret, daughter of Clan Ranald, by whom 
he had 

I. HECTOR ROY MACKENZIE, generally known as " Eachainn Ruadh," 
the first of the family of Mackenzie who obtained possession of Gairloch. 
Hector played such an important part in the history of his time that it 
will be necessary to describe somewhat in detail the various matters of 
moment in which he was concerned. This has been, to some extent, 
already done in his capacity of Tutor or Guardian to his nephew, John of 
Killin, IX. of Kintail. 

It has been conclusively established that Kenneth Mackenzie 
(a Bhlair), VII. of Kintail, died in 1491, and that his son, Kenneth Og, 
killed in the Torwood by the Laird of Buchanan in 1497, outlived him 
and became one of the Barons of Kintail, though there is no account of 
his ever having been served heir. It has been affirmed that Duncan, 
Kenneth a Bhlair's elder brother, predeceased him, and that, consequently 
Hector Roy succeeded in the usual way, he being the eldest surviving 
brother of the Chief, as legal guardian of Kenneth Og. We have not 
been able to establish this assertion ; but Duncan's name does not appear 
after his brother's death in 1491 in any of the MS. histories of the Clan 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 293 

nor in any official document that we have seen in connection with it. The 
writer of the Ardintoul MS. informs us distinctly that Duncan was dead, 
and that Hector, his (John's) younger uncle " meddled with the estate." 
The Earl of Cromarty says that " Hector Eoy, being a man of courage 
and prudence, was left Tutor by his brother to Sir Kenneth, his owin 
brother-vterin Duncan being of better hands than head. This Hector 
heiring of Sir Kenneth's death, and finding himself in possession of ane 
estait, to which those only now haid title whose birth-right wes debatable, 
viz., the children begot by Kenneth the 3d on the Lord Lovat's daughter, 
with whom he did at first so irregularly and unlawfully cohabit." This 
objection, however, could not have applied to Duncan, nor to his son 
Allan, and it is difficult to understand on what ground Hector could have 
attempted to obtain possession of the estates for himself, unless it be true, 
as established to some extent hereafter, that he was joint heir of Kintail ; 
for it is beyond question that Allan, Duncan's eldest son and heir, who 
was entitled to succeed before Hector, was then alive. There is no evidence 
whatever to show that Hector Eoy was at any time appointed Tutor to 
John of Killin until an arrangement was finally made between themselves, 
by which Hector was to act as such, and to keep the estates in his own 
hands, until John came of age. 

Hector was undoubtedly in possession of vast estates in his own right 
at this period. When the factious party of the nobility, known as the 
Lords of the Association, took up arms against King James III., Alex- 
ander of Kintail sent his sons, Kenneth and Hector, with a retinue of 500 
to join the royal standard ; but Kenneth, hearing of the death of his aged 
father on his arrival at Perth, returned home at the request of the Earl of 
Huntly; and the Clan were led by Hector Eoy to the battle of Sauchie- 
burn, near Stirling ; but after the defeat of the King's forces, and the 
death there, in 1488, of the King himself, Hector, who narrowly escaped, 
returned to Eoss-shire and took the stronghold of Eedcastle, then held by 
Eose of Kilravock for the rebels, and placed a garrison in it. He then 
joined the Earl of Huntly and the other clans in the North who were 
again rising, to avenge the death of the King ; but meanwhile orders 
came from the youthful James IV., who had been at the head of 
the conspirators, ordering the Northern chiefs to lay down their arms, 
and to submit to the existing state of things. Thereupon Hector, yielding 
to necessity, submitted with the rest, and he was "not only received into 
favour, but, to reward his past fidelity, and also to engage him for the 
future, the young King, who at last saw his error, and wanted to reconcile 
to him those who had been the friends of his father, made him a present 
of the Barony of Gairloch in the western circuit of Eoss-shire, by knight- 
service after the manner of that age. He likewise gave him Brahan in 
the low country, now a seat of the family of Seaforth, the lands of Moy, 
in that neighbourhood, and, afterwards, Glasletter (of Strathglass), a royal 
forest which was made a part of the Barony of Gairloch. Not far from 
the pleasant valley of Strathpeffer is the Castle Leod, part of Hector's 
paternal estate, afterwards a seat of the Earl of Cromarty ; Achterneed, 
near adjacent, also Kinellan, were likeAvise his, and so was the Barony of 
Allans, now Allangrange, a few miles southward. In the chops of the 
Highlands he had Ferburn the Wester, and both the Scat wells, the 



294 THE CELTIC MAGAZIXE. 

Greater and the Less. Westward in the height of that country he had 
Kenlorhew, a district adjoining to Gerloch on the east, and southward 
on the same tract lie had the half of K'ntinil, of which he was left joint-heir 
icith Ills brother Kenneth, Chief of the family"* 

The original charters are now lost, hut a "Protocol" from John de 
Vaux, Sheriff of Inverness, whose jurisdiction extended to the Northern 
counties, is conclusive as to their having existed : " To all ande 
syndri to quham it afferis to quhays knawledge thir present letres sail to 
cum Johnne the Vaux hurges off Dygvayll and Shireff in this pairt sendis 
gretyng in Gode cuerlastande to yhur vniuersite (you universally) I make 
it knawyne that lie the commando off our souerane lordis letres and 
precess under his quhyt wax direct(ed) to me as shireff in that part past, 
and grantis me to half gwyne to Hector McKennych herytabyll stayt and 
possessioune of all and syndri the landis off Gerloch with tliair pertinens 
after the forme and tenor off our souerane lordis charter nmide to the for- 
saide Hector tharvpone the quhylkis land with their pertinens extendis 
yherly to tuelff inerkis off aulde extent lyande betwix the watteris callyde 
Innerew and Torvedene within the Shireffdoinc of Inuerness ande I grant 
me to haffgyffyne to the for.sr.ide Hector Herytabyll state and possessioune 
of all and syndri the forsaide landis with thair pertynens sail'unde vtheris 
menis rychtis as owys (use) and custum is charge and in our souerane 
lordis nayme and myn as Shireff that nay man vex inquiet nor strubyll 
(trouble) the said Hector nor his ayris in the pecyabyll brukynge and 
joysinge (enjoyment) of the landis forsaide* vnder all payne and chargis 
that eftcr may folow in wytness off the quhylkis I haff append to thir 
myn letres off sesyng my seyll at Alydyll ('? Talladale) in Garloch the x 
day of the moneth off December the zher off Gode ane thousande four 
hundreth nynte and four zheris befor thir witnes Schir Doull Kurysone 
vicar of Urch.irde, Murthy beg, Mak murquho, Johnne Thomassone, 
Kenneth Mcynleyssoune ; Donalde Mcynleyssoune ; Doull Euresone, 
and Duncan Lachlansoune serieande with vtheris diuerse." 

The next authentic document in his favour is a Precept, by the King 
to the Chamberlain of Ross, commanding him to obey a former precept 
given to Hector Eoy Mackenzie of the males, &c., of Braane and Moy, as 
follows : " Chalmerlane of Eoss, we grete you weill fforsamekle as we 
direct(ed) oure speciale letres to you obefor (of before) making mentioun. 
that we had gevin to oure louit Hector Roy Makkenze the males and pro- 
ifites of oure landis of Braane and Moy with ariage cariage and vther 
pertinence tharof lyand within oure lordschipe of Rosse for his gude and 
thankfull service done and to be done to us induring oure will and that 
it was oure will that he had broukit and joisit (enjoyed) the saidis landis 
with all proffitis tharof induring our will and sa the tenandis now inha- 
bitaris tharof brouk thare takkis and nocht removit tharfra, the whilk 
letres as we are sekirlye (surely) informit ye disobeit in great contemp- 
tioun and lichtleiug of our autoritie riale (royal authority). Herfor we 
charge you zit as obefor that ye suffir the said Hector to brouk and jois 
the saidis landis and tak vp and haue all males fermez proffitis ariage 

* MS. History of th Family of Gairloch. Another MS. says that bis possessions 
in Kintail were " bounded by the rivers of Kilfilene an Croe." 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 295 

cariage and deu serui.ce of the saidis landis and that the tcnandis and in- 
habitaris tharof to answer and obey to him and to nane vthcris quhill 
(till) we gif command be our speciale letres in the contrar, and this on na 
wise ye leif vndone as ye will incur our indignatioun and displeasour. 
Thir our letrez sene and vnderstand deliuer thame agane to the berar to 
be kepit and schevin be the said Hector apoun compt for your warand 
befor our Comptrollar and auditoriouis of our chekkev at your nixt 
compt, and after the forme of our said vther letres past obefor gevin 
vnder our signet at Edinburgh the fift day of Marche (1508) and of Eegne 
the tuenty zere. (Signed) " JAMES E." 

It will thus be seen that Hector Roy had extensive possessions of his 
own, and the dispute between him and his nephew, John of Killin, fully 
described in previous numbers,* has probably arisen in respect of Hector's 
rights to the half of Kintail which his father had left him jointly with 
his eldest brother, Kenneth a Bhlair, VII. of Kintail. He kept posses- 
sion of Islandonain Castle until compelled by an order from the Privy 
Council to give it up to John Of Killin in 1511,t and it appears from 
proceedings before the Privy Council that, from 1501 to 1508, Hector 
continued to collect the rents of Kintail without accounting for them ; 
that he again accounted for them for one year, in 1 509 ; and for the two 
following years the second time retained them, while he seems to have 
kept undisturbed possession of the stronghold of Islandonain throughout. 
"VVe can find no record of his answer to the summons to appear before the 
Privy Council, if he ever did put in an appearance, but in all probability 
he kept possession to compel his nephew to come to terms with him 
as to his joint rights to Kintail, without any intention of ultimately 
keeping John of Killin out of possession. This view is strengthened by 
the fact that John obtained a new charter under the Great Seal granting 
him Kintail anew on the 25th of February 1 508-9 J the same year in 
which Hector Eoy received a grant of Jirahan and Moy probably fol- 
lowing on an arrangement of their respective rights in those districts ; 
also from the fact that Hector does not appear to have fallen into dis- 
favour with the Crown for his conduct towards John of Kintail ; for 
only two years after he brought the action against Hector before the 
Privy Council, he receives a rew charter, under the Great Seal, of 
Gairloch, Glasletter, and Coirre-nan-Cuilean, dated 8th of April 
1513, "in feu and heritage for ever," and he and his nephew appear 
ever after to have lived on the most friendly terms. Gairloch, originally 
the possession of the Earls of Eoss, and confirmed to them by Eobert 
Bruce in 1306 and 1329, was granted by Earl William to Paul M'Tyre 
and his heirs by Mary Grahame, for a yearly payment of a penny of silver 
in name of blench feme in lieu of every other service except the foreign 
service of the King when required. In 1372 King Eobert the II. con- 
firmed the grant. In 1 430 King James I. granted to Nele Nelesoun (Neil 
son of Neil Macleod) for his homage and service in the capture of his 
deceased brother, Thomas Nelesoun, a rebel, the lands of Gaiiioch.|| 

* Celtic Magazine, vol. hi., pp. 216-221 and 242-244. 

t Acts of the Privy Couucil xxii., fol. 142. For copy of Decree see Celtic Magazine, 
vol. iii., pp. 2423. 

J Reg. of the Great Seal, vol. xv., fol. 89. 

The original charter is in the Gairloch Charter Chest. 

|1 Origines Parochiales Scotiae, vol. ii. p. 406. 



296 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Though Hector Hoy Avas in possession of Crown Charters to Gairloch, 
he found it most difficult to obtain possession from the Madrods, and 
their chief, Allan MacRory Macleod, This Allan married, first, a daughter 
of Alexander lonraic, VI. of Kintail, and sister of Hector Roy, by whum 
he had issue two or three sons. He married, secondly, a daughter of Rode- 
rick Macleod of the Lews, by whom he had one son. Roderick deter- 
mined to murder all the male iss\ie of the Macleods of Raasay, and those 
of Gairloch by Mackenzie's daughter, that his own grandson, by Allan's 
second marriage, might succeed. With this view he invited all thejnem- 
bers of the two families Avith whom lie was connected by his marriage 
with the widow of Mackay of Reay, a daughter of Mackenzie of 
Kintail to the Island of Isay,* pretending that he had matters of great 
consequence to communicate to them; All the members of both families 
and their more immediate relatives and friends accepted the invitation. 
Roderick feasted them sumptously, on their arrival, at a great banquet. 
In the middle of the festivities he informed them of his desire to have 
each man's advice separately, and that he would afterwards make known 
to all of them the momentous business to be considered, and Avhich con- 
cerned each of them most closely. He then retired into a separate apart- 
ment, and called them one by one, when they were each, as they entered, 
stabbed with dirks through the body by a set of murderous villains whom 
he had appointed for the purpose. Not one of the family of Ruasay was 
left alive except a boy nine years of age, who was being fostered from 
home, and who had been sent privately, when the news of the massacre 
had gone abroad, to the Laird of Calder, who kept him in safety during 
his minority. He afterwards obtained possession of Rnasay, and became 
known as Gillechallum Garbh MacGhillechallum. Macleod of Gairloch's 
sons, by Hector Roy's sister, were all murdered. Roderick placed his 
own grandson in an inner room, where, walking with his brutal relative, 
he heard one of his brothers cry on being stabbed by the assassins 
dirk, and said " Yon's my brother's cry." " Hold your peace," old Rory 
replied, " yonder cry is to make you laird of Gairloch; he is the son of 
one of Mackenzie's daughters." The boy, dreading his own life might 
be sacrificed, held his tongue, " but afterwards he did what in him lay in 
revenging the cruel death of his brothers and kinsmen on the murtherers."t 
The same writer informs us that "this was the first step that Hector Roy 

Mackenzie goto to Garloch His brother-in-law, Allan Mac- 

leod, gave him the custody of their rights, but when he found his 
nephews were murdered, he took a new gift of it to himself, and going to 
Garloch with a number of Kintail men and others, he took a heirschip 
Avith him, but such as Avere alive of the Shiol 'ille Challum of Garloch, 
foiloAved him and fought him at a place called Glasleoid, but they being 
beat Hector carried away the heirschip. After this and several other 
skirmishes they Avere content to allow him the tworthirds of Garloch, 
providing he would let themselves possess the other third in peace, Avhich 
he did, and they kept possession till Hector's great-grandchild put them 
from it." 

The Earl of Cromarty, and the other MS. historians of the family, cor- 

* This island is near Dunvegan in Skye. t Ancient MS. History. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 297 

roborate this. Earl George says that Hector " incited to revenge " by the 
foul murder of his nephews, made some attempts to oust the Macleods 
from Gairloch during John of Killin's minority, but was not willing to 
engage in a war with such a powerful chief as Macleod of Lews, while he 
felt himself insecure in his other possessions, but after arranging matters 
amicably with his nephew of Kintail, and now being master of a fortune and 
possessions suitable to his mind and quality, he resolved to avenge the 
murder and to " make it pioductive of his own advantage." He sum- 
moned all those who were accessory to the assassination of his sister's 
children before the Chief Justice. Their well-grounded fears made them, 
absent themselves from Court. Hector, according to another authority, 
produced the bloody shirts of the murdered boys, whereupon the mur- 
derers were declared fugitives and outlaws, and a commission granted in 
his favour for their pursuit, " which he did so resolitly manadge that in 
a short tyme he kiled many, preserved some to justice, and forced the 
remainder to a compositione advantagious to himselt'e. . . His successors, 
who were both active and prudent men, did thereafter accquire the rest 
from their unthrifty neighbours." The greatest defeat that Hector evev 
gave to the Macleods " was at Bealach Glasleod, near Kintail, where most 
of them were taekin or killed." At this fight Duncan Mor na Tuaighe, 
who so signally distinguished himself at Blar-na-Pairc, was present with 
Hector, and on being told that four men were at once attacking his son 
Dugal, he answered, " Well, if he be my son there is no hazard for that," 
a remark which turned out quite true, for the hero killed the four Mac- 
leods, and came off himself without any serious wounds,* 

In acknowledgment of the King's favour, Hector gathered his imme- 
diate followers in the west, joined his nephew, John of Killin, with his 
vassals, and fought, in command of the Clan, at the disastrous battle of 
Flodden, from which both narrowly escaped ; but most of their followers 
were slain. Same time after his return he successfully fought the des- 
perate skirmish at Druim-a-chait, already referred to, Avith only 140 
men against 700 of the Munros, Dingwalls, Maccullochs, and other tribes, 
under the command of William Munro of Fowlis, on which occasion Sheriff 
Yass of Lochslin was killed at a bush near Dingwall, " called to this day 
Preas Sandy Vass," or Alex. Vass's bush, a name assigned to it for that 
very cause.t This battle has been already fully described.^ 

Hector, during his life, granted to his nephew, John of Killin, his 
own half of Kintail, Kinellan, Fairburn, Wester Brahan, and other pos- 
sessions situated in the Low Country, which, as will be seen hereafter, 
brought his son, John Glassich, into trouble. 

Hector Eoy was betrothed to a daughter of the Laird of Grant, but 
she died before the marriage was solemnised. He however had a son by 

" Duncaa in bis old days was very assisting to Hector, Oarlock's pi edecessor, 
against the Macleods of Garloeh, for he, with his son Dugal, whe was a strong, prudent, 
and courageous man, with ten or twelve other Kintuilrnen, were alwise, upon tk'e laast 
advertisement, ready to go and aseit Hector, whenever, wherever, and in whatever he 
had to do, for which cause th^re hns been a friendly correspondence bstwixt the family 
of Gerloch and the MacR is of Kintail, which still continues." Genealogy of the Mac- 
Ras. 

t Gairloch MS. History. 

J Celtic Magazine, vol. iii. pp. 217 18. 

Gairloch MS. 

A 2 



298 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

her called Hector Cam, he being blind of one eye, to whom he gave 
Achterneed and CulteLeod, now Castle Leod, as his patrimony. Hector 
Cam married a daughter of Mackay of Farr, by whom he had two sons, 
Alexander Koy and Murdo.* Alexander married a daughter of John Mor 
na Tuaighe MacGillechallum, a brother of Macleod of Raasay, by whom 
she had a son, Hector, who lived at Kinellan, was nicknamed the Bishop, 
married a daughter of Macleod of Eaasay, and left a large family, one of 
whom was afterwards married to Murdo Mackenzie of Achilty. Hector 
Cam's second son, Murdo, also left issue. 

Hector Eoy, after the death of Grant's daughter, married Anne Mac- 
donald, a daughter of Ronald MacRanald, generally called Ronald Ban, 
Laird of Moidart. She was widow of JWilliam Dubh Macleod of Harris, 
Dunvegan, and Glenelg, by whom she had a daughter, who, by Hector 
Roy's influence at Court, was married to Rorie Mor of Achaghluineachan, 
ancestor of the Mackenzies of Fairburn and Achilty, after she had a 
natural son, Murdoch, by him, who became progenitor of the family of 
Fairburn. By tliis marriage Hector had four sons and three daughters. 

1. John Glassich, his heir. 

2. Kenneth of Meikle Allan, now Allangrange, who married a daugh- 
ter of Alexander Dunbar of Kilbuyack, and widow of Allan Mackenzie, 
II. of Hilton. 

3. John Tuacli, who inherited Scatwell, and 

4. Dougal Roy. 

The daughters married respectively, Bayne of Tulloch, John Aberach 
Mackay, and James Bayne Fraser of Bunchrew, a natural son of Lord 
Lovat, killed at Blar-na-Leine, ancestor of the Frasers of Reelick. Hector 
had also a son, John Beg, who, according to some authorities, was illegi- 
timate, and from Avhom descended some Mackenzies who settled in Berwick 
and Alloa. 

Hector died in 1528. On the 8th of September of that year, a 
grant is recorded to Sir John Dingwall, "Provost of Trinity College, 
besyd Edinburgh, of the ward of the lands of Gaiiocht, quhilkis pertenit 
to umquhill Achinroy Mackenzie." He was succeeded by his eldest 
lawful son, 

II. JOHN GLASSICH MACKENZIE, who appears from the above quoted 
document to have been a minor at his father's death. His retour of 
service is not extant, but an instrument of sasine, dated 24th of June 
1536, in his favour, is in the Gairloch charter chest, in which he is 
designated "John Hector-son," and in which he is said to be heir, served 
and retoured to his father, Hector Roy Mackenzie, of the lands of Gair- 
loch, and the grazings of Glasletter and Coirre-nan-Cuilean. John is said 

* "These were both succeeded by the son of the former (Alexander), a slothful 
man who dotiugly bestowed his estates on liis foster child, Sir Roderick Mackenzie 
of Coigeaeh, in detriment to his own children, though very diserving of them, 
Captain Hector Mackenzie, lute of Dumbarton's Regiment, and also a tribe in the 
Eisteru circuit of Ross, surnamed, from one of their progenitors, Mac Eauiu, 
i.e., the descendants of John the Fair. Gairloch MS. Another MS. girts the aditional 
names of " Richard Mackenzie, vintner in Edinburgh, grandson of Alexander Mac- 
kenzie of Calder, Midlothian ; Duncan Mackenzie, an eminent gunsmith in London ; and 
James Mackenzie, gunsmith in Dundee." It also adds that of the successors of the 
Mac Eanius in Exster ROSP, were "Master Alexander Mackenzie, an Episcopal minister 
in Edinburgh ; and preceptor to the children of the present noble family ef Cromarty, 
whose son is Charles Mackenzie, clerk to Mr David Munio of Meikle Allan." 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 299 

to have objected to his father's liberality during his life in granting, 
at the expense of his own successors, to his nephew, John of Killin, 
so much of his patrimonial possessions. According to the Gairloch 
MS. already quoted he gave him his half of Kintail, Kinellan, Fair- 
buni, the Wester Brahan, and " other possessions in the Low Country 
besides." John thought these donations exorbitant, and therefore "sought 
to retrench them, by recovering in part what with so much profusion his 
father had given away, and for that, a feud having ensued betwixt him 
and his chief, he was surprised in his house by night, according to the 
barbarous manner of the times, and sent prisoner to Hand Downan, and 
there taken away by poison in A.D. 1550. His brother Dugal, who sided 
with him, and John (Beg), his natural brother, were both slain in the 
same quarrel."* 

A bond, dated about 1544, has been preserved by the Spalding Club, 
to which John Glassich's name, among others, is adhibited, undertaking 
to keep the peace, and promising obedience to Kenneth, younger of Kin- 
tail (Kenneth na Cuirc), as the Queen's Lieutsnant.t John's obedience 
does not appear, however, to have been very complete. Mackenzie of 
Kintail having, according to another authority, received information of 
John's intention to recover if possible part of the property given away by 
his father, sent for him to BraLan, where he came, accompanied by a single 
attendant, John Gearr. The Chief charged him with designs against 
him, and John's asseverations and vindication proving unsatisfactory, 
he caused him to be apprehended. His attendant, John Gearr, seeing 
this, drew his two-handed sword and made a fierce onslaught on the Chief 
who sat at the head of the table and smartly bowed his head under it, or 
he would have been cloven asunder. John Gearr was instantly seized 
by Mackenzie's guards, who threatened to tear him to pieces, but the 
Chief, admiring his fidelity, strictly charged them not to touch him. John 
Gearr was questioned as to why he had struck at Mackenzie himself and 
took no notice of those who apprehended his master, when he boldly replied 
that he " saw no one else present whose life was a worthy exchange for that 
of his own Chief." The sword made a deep gash in the table, and the 
mark, which was deep enough to admit of one's hand being placed edge- 
ways in it, remained in it until Colin, first Earl of Seaforth, caused the 
piece to be cut off, saying, that " he loved no such remembrance of the 
quarrels of his relations." 

John Glassich, by all accounts, was neither too circumspect in his 
conduct at home and among his neighbours, nor a dutiful and loyal sub- 
ject to his Sovereign. In 1547 his property was forfeited to the Crown, 
for refusing to join the Royal Standard, and the escheat thereof granted 
to the Earl of Sutherland, as will be seen by the following account : ''Ane 
lettre maid to Johnne Erie of Suthirland his airis assignais ane or ma of 
the gift of all gudis mouable and vnmouable dettis takkis stedingis cornis 
obligationis sowmes of money gold silver cunzeit and vncunzeit and vtheris 
gudis quhatsurneuir quhilkis perlenit to Johne Hectorsoune of Garloch 
and now perteining to our souerane lady be reson of eschete throu the 
said Johnis tresonable remaning and byding at hame fra the oist and 

* Gairloch MS. Another MS. says that John Tuach was assassinated the same 
night. 

t Spalding Miscellany, vol. iv., p. 213. 



300 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

army devisit to conuene at Peblis the x day of Julii instant for recotiering 
of the hous at Langhalme furth of oure auld Inymies handis of Ingland 
in contrare the tcnnour of the lettres and proclamationis maid thairupon 
Incurrand thairthrou the panis contenit thairuntill or ony vthcr wise sal 
happin to pertene to us our souerane be resoun foirsaid wyth power etc. 
At Sauct androis the xxiiij day Julii The year of God I m - V c - xlvij. 
(1547) yeris."* 

There is no trace in the Privy Council Records of the reversal of this 
forfeiture ; but it does not appear to have affected the succession. Indeed 
it is not likely that it even affected the actual possession, for 
it was difficult, even for the Earl of Sutherland, backed up by Royal 
authority, to wield any substantial power in such an out-of.the-way region 
as John Glassich's possessions iu the west. We have already stated 
that in 1551 the Queen granted to John Mackenzie of Kintail and 
his apparent heir, Kenneth na Cuirc, a remission for the violent taking of 
John Glassich, Dougal, and John Tuach, his brothers, and for keeping 
them in prison, thus usurping " thairthrou our Souerane Ladyis autorite." 
Neither of them is spoken of in this remission as being then deceased, 
though tradition and the family MS. history has it that John Glassich was 
poisoned or starved to death at Islandonain Castle in 1 550.t It is possible, 
however, that Kintail found it convenient to conceal John's death until the 
remission had been already secured. Only six weeks after the date of 
the <l respitt " we find John Glassich, referred to in the Council Records, 
under date of 25th July 1551, as the "omquhile (or late) Jolme McCanzo 
of Garlocht," his lands having then been given in ward to the Earl of 
Athol, " ay and quhill (till) the lauchful^entre of the rychtuis air or airis 
thairto being of lauchfull age."| 

Though Hector Roy Mackenzie obtained a charter of Gairloch in 1494, 
the Macleods continued for a time to hold possession of a considerable 
portion of it. According to the traditions of the district they had all to 
the east and south-east of the Crasg, a hill situated on the west side 
of the churchyard of Gairloch, between the present Free and Estab- 
lished Churches. At the east end of the Big Sand, on an elevated and 
easily defended rock, stood the last stronghold occupied by the Macleods 
of Gairloch to this day known as the " Dim " or Fort. The foundation is 
still easily traced. It must have been a place of considerable importance, 
its circumference being over 200 feet. Various places are still pointed out 
in Gairloch where desperate skirmishes were fought between the Macleods 
and the Mackenzies. Several of these spots where the slain were buried 
look quite green to- this day. The " Fraoch Eilean," opposite Leac-na- 
Saighid, where a naval engagement was fought, is a veritable cemetery 

* Reg. Sec. Sig., xxi. fol, 31&. 

t One of the family MSS. lias it that by his marriage " he got the lands of Kinkell, 
Kilhokie, Badinearb(?) Titlunuie, Davochcairn, Davochpollo, and Foynish, with others 
in the Low Country, for which the family has been iu the use to quarter the arms of 
Fraser with their OWH. This John, becoming considerably rich and powerful by these dif- 
ferent acquisitions, became too odious to and envied by John, Laiid of Mackenzie, and 
his son Kenneth then married to ytewart, Earl of Athole's daughter, that they Bet upon 
him, having previously invited him to a Christmas dinner, kaving got no other pretence 
than a fit of jealousy on account of the said Earl's daughter, bound him with ropes and 
carried him a prisoner to Iclandownan, where his death was occasioned by poison admin- 
istered to him in a mess of milk soup by one MacCalman, a clergyman and Deputy-Con- 
stable of the Fort." 

J Reg. Sec. Con., vol. xxiv., fol. 84. 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 301 

of Macleods, ample evidence of which is yet to be seen. Of this engage- 
ment, and of those at Glasleoid, Lochan Neigh, Leac-na-Saighid, Kirkton, 
and. many others, thrilling accounts are still recited by a few old men 
in the district ; especially of the prowess of Doinh'ull Odhar Mac Ian 
Leith, and the other Kintail heroes who were mainly instrumental in 
establishing the Mackenzies of Gairloch permanently and in undisputed 
possession of their beautiful and romantic inheritance. Hector Roy 
and John Glassich succeeded in driving the Macleods out of the country, 
but they often returned, accompanied occasionally by their relatives, the 
Macleods of Lews, whose Chief, until the death of Torquil Dubh Mac- 
leod of the Lews, the Macleods of Gairloch and Eaasay acknowledged 
as their superior. 

John Glassich married Agnes, daughter of James Eraser of Foyness, 
with issue 

1. Hector, 

2. Alexander, and 

3. John, who succeeded each other in succession. He had also two 
natural sons before his marriage, 

Alexander Roy and Hector Gaol. 

Alexander Roy had a son John, who lived at Coirre Mhic Dhomhnuill in 
Torridon, and who had a son, Mr Murdoch Mackenzie, Chaplain to Lord 
Reay's Regiment in the Bohemian and Swedish service, under Gustavus 
Adolphus. This clergyman was afterwards made Bishop of Moray and 
Orkney in succession. He had a son, Sir Alexander of Broomhill and 
Laird cf Pitarrow in Kincardine, father of Colonel Alexander Mackenzie 
of Hampton, Virginia, who left his English estates to his nephew, Mr 
Young of Castleyards, Kirkwall. He had also a daughter, Jacobina 
Mackenzie, who settled in Dundee. The Bishop had a brother, Alexander, 
who settled in Strathnaver, at that time the property of Lord Reay, of 
whom were descended Mr Hector Mackenzie, an Episcopal clergyman at 
Inverness, and father to James and Alexander, ministers in Edinburgh. 
The learned Dr James Mackenzie of Drumshiuch, a distinguished physi- 
cian, and author of "The History of Health," and Mr William Mackenzie, 
schoolmaster, afterwards lost on the coast of Guinea, were also grandsons 
of this Bishop Mackenzie. He had another son, Mackenzie of Ground- 
water, who left a son, Thomas Mackenzie, a merchant in Kirkwall, whose 
brothers were the learned Murdoch Mackenzie, navigator to his Majesty 
" known by his accurate surveys of the Western Coasts of Great Britain 
and Ireland, and whose abilities will render him famous to posterity," 
and James Mackenzie, a writer, once in the service of the Earl of Morton, 
in the Orkney Islands, and author of a treatise on Security. Another of 
the Bishop's descendants was James Mackenzie, author of one of the 
Gairloch MS. histories, to whose services we are not a little indebted, 
though he attempts to make his ancestor legitimate at the expense of 
correct genealogy. 

Hector Gaol left a numerous tribe in Gairloch, still known as Clann 
Eachainii Chaoil, and said to be distinguished by their long, slender legs. 

John Glassich died in 1550, as already stated, at Islandonain Castle 
was buried in the Priory of Beauly and succeeded by his eldest lawful son, 
(To be Continued.) 



302 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



OUR GAELIC BIBLE. 



VI. 

DIGRESSIONS, like delays, are dangerous. When in the third paper of 
this series we ventured to turn aside and ask whether the Highlanders of 
1807 were able in large numbers to read the Gaelic Bible then so freely 
open to them, we did not anticipate a longer digression than could easily 
be closed within the compass of a few short paragraphs. Instead of this 
we have been carried away from our main purpose through the long pages, 
all crowded with facts, figures, and references, of the two longest papers 
of the series. And with the writer at least the growing interest of this 
long digression had to some extent succeeded in thrusting aside the claims 
of the original inquiry. Warned by the pile of MS. accumulating at his 
left elbow that it was high time to bring the last paper to a close, he woke 
up rather suddenly to find himself face to face with this startling fact ; 
and he must now confess that, in pulling up precipitately, and all too 
hurriedly dismounting from the driving box, he was not so careful of the 
bystanders' corns as he ought to have been. Of course he knew that 
everywhere throughout the Highlands good work was done by the Parish 
school and its vis-a-vis of the Free Church, as well as by the old Gaelic 
schools, mainly administered in these latter times by the Free Church, by 
the new Gaelic schools of the Established Church, and by the ladies' 
schools of the former body. He was anxious only to bring his paper to 
a close, and had no thought of disparaging the work of these schools. 
He has indeed ample materials beside him for a history of these schools 
and their creditable share in the great work of Highland education, which 
may some day be turned to good account. But for the present the edu- 
cational digression must close. It has already overflowed all reasonable 
bounds. And we must return to the Gaelic Bible, 

Reid has the following paragraph at page Iviii. of the introduction to 
his Bibliotheca Scoto-Celtica : " During the present century various 
controversial pamphlets on the subject of the different Gaelic translations 
of the Scriptures and Psalter have been printed, and although for the 
most part they are conducted in a very acrimonious manner, yet much 
may be gleaned from them on that topic." Much of our leisure time has 
for the last month been spent in searching for these pamphlets ; but the 
labour has hitherto been in vain. The authorities of the Advocates' 
Library have kindly given us every facility for prosecuting the search 
among their miles of richly laden, well ordered book shelves. So have 
also the curators of other libraries. But the search has been bootless. 
The library of the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge has been 
broken up and dispersed ; their minutes only, and a set of their volumin- 
ous reports being retained. May we therefore appeal to the readers of the 
Celtic Magazine for help in this matter ? In the manses and old mansion 
houses of the North there must still remain many sets of these pamphlets. 
The family of the late Reverend Dr Thomas Ross of Lochbroom may be 
indicated as likely in pre-eminent measure to be the depositary of the 
interesting treasure ; for of the Gaelic Bible controversy which seventy 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 303 

years ago raged so fiercely, the issue being mainly between the factions of 
the JN"orth and the South- West Highlands, the learned, versatile, and 
pugnacious doctor could well say " pars magna fui." 

Driven from this field for want of materials, and pressed for time by 
reason of the precious hours wasted in vainly searching for them, we 
must make a virtue of necessity and present this month a paper whose 
brevity will compensate for the undue length of its immediate predecessor. 

It will be remembered that the first portion of the first translation 
into Scotch Gaelic of the Old Testament, extending from Genesis to 
Deuteronomy, was published in 1783, under the care of Dr Stuart of 
Luss. Before being published, however, Dr Stuart's proof sheets were 
submitted for revision to a committee, of which the Eev. Donald Mac- 
queen of Kilmuir, in Skye, the " learned friend " of Dr Johnson, was a 
prominent member. The other members of the committee will be found 
correctly named in Reid's Bibliotheca. The part of this first portion 
of the work entrusted for revision to Mr Macqueen appears to have 
embraced the books of Numbers and Deuteronomy. By good fortune 
three sheets of his proposed corrections have been preserved, and are now 
in the safe keeping of the Advocates' Library, They are dated respectively 
14th February, 25th February, and May, 1783. The proof as finally 
adjusted appears to have been presented to the General Assembly of 
the same year, which is also the date inscribed on the title page. 

The first of the three sheets of proposed corrections is entitled 
" Observations on the Gaulic (sic) Bible." The corrections run thus : 

1. " Numbers, chap. 22, v. 41. Er an La maricli rather, or Er an a 
Lali, the next day." This correction Dr Stuart adopted, correcting in his 
turn Mr Macqueen's primitive orthography. What was Dr Stuart's first 
rendering, in absence of his proof sheets, we cannot tell Probably it did 
not materially differ from the Irish, which reads ".Agus tarla ar na 
mharach." As finally adjusted, the verse stands thus: " Agus air an la 
maireach ghabh Balac Balaam, agus thug e suas e gu aitibh arda Bhaail, 
a chum as gu faiceadh e o sin a' chuid a b'iomallaiche do'n t shluagh." 

2. "Chap. 23, v. 28. Agaigh rather than aise." In absence of the 
proof the relevancy of this correction is not perceptible. 

3. " Chap. 24, v. 4. To your tuitam, the mode of adoration among 
the true prophets, I would add anna paislionagli, into an ecstasy, for I do 
not take Balaam to have been an upright prophet, tho' the Lord, who 
opened the mouth of his ass, was pleased to make use of him to reveal 
some truth much against his will," This correction is not adopted by 
Stuart. "v. 14. Sainfhios is a whisper. Taisbonigh me dhuit." In 
adjusting the text, Stuart, though not adopting this correction, yet gives 
effect to it indirectly. Sanas and jfos are put alternatively in a foot-note, 
and the text is altered to Iheir mi rabhadh dliuit. "v. 15. Instead of 
duinte say fosgoilte" Duinte is retained. 

4. "Chap, 25, v. 14 and 15. We know nothing of priomh, which 
seems to be derived from primus. I would say ard tealach." Priomh is 
retained in both verses, but ceud and ard are put as a foot-note. 

5. " Chap. 26, v. 10. I would say bal-cohiright." The word objected 
to appears to have been comhara, which is retained with ball-sampuill as 
a foot-note. 



304 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

6. "Chap. 27, v. 19. I would rather say no. fionoish." This 

as adjusted, reads : " Agus cuir e 'an lathair Eleasair an t-sagairt, agus 'an 
lathnir a' cho' chruinnich uile ; agus thoir aithnc dha 'iiam iianuis." 

7. "Chap. 28, v. 18. Shaoraclwil is very good: is not trailltu'd at 
least as good a word 1 " The suggestion is accepted, and the word 
excepted to is removed from the text and given as a foot-note. 

8. "Chap. 30, v. 2. Boinn is indeed used in the Gaulic version of 
the Psalms, yet cuibhreach is, I think, a better word." Boinn is rejected 
(the Irish is banna) in favour of ceanyal, and Mr Macqueen's cuibhreach 
is put at the foot of the page. 

9. "Chaj). 31, v. 10. An duin is to be taken into the text, for ba- 
dhuin is a fortified fold for cows, of which AVC have many under that 
designation, and [they] were necessary when Danes and natives were 
mixed together. It is the ciiballum (cow-wall) of the Galatians in Phrigia, 
where cows' dung, as in Huskar, an island in our neighbourhood, became 
a necessary article for fireing. See Livy, b. 38, 18. From that very 
word I am apt to believe these were Teutonic Ganls." This savory pellet, 
so learnedly interlarded, did not miss the mark. Badhuin was rejected 
in favour of an duin, caistealan and daighnichean being given as alterna- 
tive readings at the foot of the page. " v. 50. Usyair is our word for 
bracelets both in common language and in songs." The Irish is Iraisleid. 
Dr Stewart finally adopted Mr Macqueen's suggestion, putting the word 
in the text as usgraicliean. But it is evident that he was not satisfied 
that the word would be generally intelligible to his countrymen ; for, 
besides giving another word lamh-fhailean, at the foot of the page, he is 
fain to add the English (bracelets, Sasg.) 

10. " Chap. 32, v. 28. Muthadh we do not use. I heard it for 
changing money. We would say air an ahirachagh." This correction 
has puzzled us immensely. If it had been made on a proof-sheet of Dr 
John Smith's we should have hastened at once to the Hebrew Bible for 
some explanation of it. But in the case of a proof-sheet emanating from 
the worthy minister of Luss, it was best to go to the English, taking a look 
in passing at the Irish. And there, sure enough, stand invitingly obvious 
the ready-made elements of an ingenious, fine-spun theory. The Irish has 
"d' aithribh onoracha threabh chloine Israel," and the English "the chief 
fathers of the tribes of the children of Israel." Some careless transcriber 
of Dr Stuart's notes must have changed aithrichcan, or perhaps aithrichibh, 
to atharrachadh. This in turn would be corrected into mnihadh on the 
proof now passing through the hands of Mr Macqueen. What could be 
more natural or obvit>u ? But like many another fine spun theory it has 
no foundation in fact. By a slip of the pen Mr Macqueen has written 28 
for 38. And on turning to the latter verse, which records the change of 
the names of Nebo and Baal-meon, the reader will see that Dr Stuart en- 
riched his translation by adopting the judicious correction of his learned 
brother of Kilmitir. 

This closes, on one page, the first of the three sheets of Mr Macqueen's 
corrections, which are preserved in the Advocates' Library. 

The letter is subscribed by "your affectionate and humble servant, 
Don. Macqueen," and is dated from "Kilmuir, Feby. 14th, 1783, But, 
like the young lady's letter, Mr Macqueen's has a 2iost script, and such a 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 305 

postscript! It extends to five closely- written quarto pages, all on the 
theme, "Was Balaam a real prophet or not 1 ?" Besides a great many 
quotations from Greek and Latin authors in reference to oracles, augurs, 
and auspices, this learned essay in the form of a post-script contains 
not a little that is full of interest in regard to popular cursing and 
ecclesiastical excommunication as practiced of old among our Highland 
ancestors. We may return to it. 

The second sheet is dated February 25th, 1783. Like its predeces- 
sor it has a long and learned post-script, chiefly on the subject of Prayer, 
and is copiously illustrated with Greek and Latin quotations. In it 
occurs, also, the well known Gaelic charm for the toothache, which needs 
not here be reproduced. Of corrections on " the Gaulic version of the 
Pentatuch," it contains but the two following : 

1. " Chap, 35, v. 6. Didean, defence, is a good word, if there were 
no better. Comrigh is a sanctuary, and is the name of the principal farm 
on the estate of Applecross, because it was one. You have it also in the 
poems of Ossian Gabham do Chomrigh, fhir mhoir, I embrace your pro- 
tection, great man. The term in our old laws is girth hug e an girt er, 
we still say of a man who runs away fast from destruction. Any of the 
words will do. I prefer the second." Dr Stuart retains didean, but gives 
comruicli and girt at the foot of the page. 

2. " v. 20. A fuilmsah is more intelligible than plaide-luidlie. Le 
run mealtah would answer." The English is, " if lie thrust him of hatred, 
or hurl at him by lying of ivait, that he die." Plaid-luighe, in this sense 
of lying in ambush is certainly not a common expression in the living 
Gaelic of the day. Nor has it been borrowed from the Irish Bible. The 
Highland Society's "Dictionary gives it solely on the authority of the 
Gaelic Scriptures. While retaining the word in the text, Dr Stuart 
yields to Mr Macqueen so far as to give also le fath-fhcitheamh and le run 
mealltacli at the foot of the page. Plaid-luighe is also given as an alter- 
native reading in Proverbs i. 11, and Acts xiii. 16. In the latter passage 
the text reads feall-fholach. Is the word simply plaid-lying wrapping 
one's self up in his plaid, and, crouching under cover, thus to lie in wait 
for his victim 1 

The third sheet, dated May 1 783, has just six half lines of corrections 
to forty-six lines of a post-script. The corrections suggested are these : 

1. " Deut., chap. 16, v. 11. Here you have omitted the Levite." 

2. "Deut., chap. 17, v. 16. Dho fein is left out," 

3. " Deut., chap. 17, v. 17. The same words are left out." 
These three corrections are duly attended to. 

4. " Chap. 18., v. 19. Why not tayraiga me e rather than iaraidh ?" 
No notice is taken of this correction. 

5. " Chap. 21, v. 14. Antighearnas is tyranny. I would say creaidh 
orra." Not adopted. 

6. " Chap. 22, v. 10. Troiayh is the word here and in Koss-shire, 
I find ar is used in Broadalbin." Dr Stuart retains ar, but gives treabh- 
adh (ploughing) at the foot of the page. 

It is hoped that these specimens of the mode of working followed by 
the first translators of our Gaelic Bible will have some intrinsic interest 
for the readers of the Celtic Magazine. It is hoped also that they will 



306 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

minister some true comfort to the mind of the pious Highlander as show- 
ing that, not merely the meaning of his Bible, but indeed its every word 
and phrase have reached him after the careful review and scrutiny of 
many competent scholars. Nor will the student of philology scorn, 
from a comparison of the -widely-differing orthography of Stuart and 
Macqueen, to cull some scraps of linguistic significance, not unworthy of 
a place in his graduated pigeon-holes of accumulating well-ordered fact, 
from which, in time, important results may emerge. 

DONALD MASSON. 



THE MACKENZIES OF HILTON. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

SIR, In the May number of the Celtic Magazine you give a long 
account of the Mackenzies of Hilton. By some oversight you omitted to 
notice a most worthy member of the Hilton family. I allude to Mr 
Alexander Mackenzie, who was one of the leading foremen stone-masons 
at the building of the Caledonian Canal. Soon after the completion of 
that great national work, the Government of Sweden made preparations 
to commence a similar undertaking. When their plans were fully 
matured and ready to be carried into effect, they communicated with Mr 
Telford, the engineer who so successfully completed the Caledonian Canal, 
and requested him to recommend to them a superintendent for the various 
descriptions of work in connection with the Swedish Canal. Out of the 
hundreds of stone-masons employed on the Caledonian Canal, young 
Alexander Mackenzie, grandson of Alexander, X. of Hilton, and son of 
" Alastair Mor Mac Fhir Bhaile Chnuic," was selected to superintend the 
mason-work of the Swedish Canal, which took eight years to build ; 
during which time Mackenzie was sole superintendent of the mason-work. 
On the successful termination of the undertaking, Mackenzie not only 
received the thanks of the King and Government of Sweden, but in ad- 
dition had special presents from the King as well as pressing invitations 
to remain in the country. He, however, preferred his native country, to 
which he returned, and commenced business as a wine merchant and 
vintner in Liverpool, where I knew him personally for many years. 

After Mackenzie settled in Liverpool, a massive gold medal was struck 
in commemoration of the building of the canal. The Swedish Ambassador 
in London made special enquiries regarding him, and Lord Sandon, then 
M.P. for Liverpool, satisfied him as to the identity of Mackenzie, when the 
Ambassador handed the medal to Lord San